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THE 



NATURALIST: 

' ' " A 

MONTHLY JOURNAL OF "^^ 

NATURAL HISTORY POR THE NORTH OF ENGLAND 

EDITED BY 

THOMAS SHEPPARD, F.G.S., F.R.G.S., F.S.A.(Scot.). 

Curator ov the Municipal Muskums, Hull. 

Author of 'Geological Rambles in East Yorkshire'; 'The Evolution 
OK Kingston upon Hull'; 'Lost Towns of the Yorkshire Coast,' etc.. 
Editor of Mortimer's ' Forty Years' Researches,' 



THOMAS WILLIAM WOODHEAD, Ph.D., F. L.S. 

Lecturer in Biologv, Technical College, HuimHRsiiKLi) ; 
with the assistance as referees in special defaktments ok 

J. GILBERT BAKER, F.K.S., F.L.S. GEORGE T. PORRITT, F.L.S., F.E.S. 

Prof. PERCY F. KENDALL, M.Sc, F.G.S. JOHN W. TAYLOR. 

T. H. NELSON, M.B.O.U. WILLIAM WEST, F.L.S. 

RILEY FORTUNE, F.Z.S. 



1912 



LONDON : 

A. Brown & Sons, Ltd., 5, Farringdon Avemk, E.G. 

And AT Hii.i. and Yt)RK. 



PRINTED AT BROWNS' SAVILE PRESS 
■SAVILE STREET AND GEORGE STREET, HULL 



^^a^". ¥"2^ 



LIST OF PLATES. 



I. Helix pisana Miiller 
II. William Fowler 

III. Pithecanthropus 

IV. Red Deer 

V. The Beggar's Oak, Bagots Park "\ 
The Gun-barrel Oak, Bagots Park J 

VI. Head of Male and Female Rabbit 



VII. 

VIII. 

IX. 

X. 

XI. 

XII. 

XIII. 

XIV. 

XV. 

XVI. 

XVII. 

XVIII. 

XIX. 



Views of Coast Changes at Hornsea 



To face page 
98 

121 

lOI 

129 
130 

97 
114 



Great Auk and Eggs . . . . . . . . . . . . 133 

Inoceramus lobatus Goldf. .. .. .. .. .. ..137 

Museum of Fisheries and Shipping, Hull . . . . . . . . 146 

Parts of Spiders new to Science, Zora letifera sp. nov., and Neon 

valentulus, sp. nov., and one new to Britain, Maso gallica Sinj. 310 

Enemies of the Garden — Wireworms . . . . . . . . 303 

Small Ermine 'Sloth . . . . ■ ■ 303 

Sir Charles Lyell at the age of 73 . . . . . . . . . . 325 

Protosphyracna stebbingi from the Chalk of Lincolnshire . . . . 329 



JANUARY, 1912. 



No. 660 

(No. 438 »f turrtnt Mtries). 




A MONTHLY ILLUSTRATED JOURNAL OF 

NATURAL HISTORY FOR THE NORTH OF ENGLAND. 

EDITED BY 

T. SHEPPARD, F.Q.S., F.R.Q.S., F.S.A.Scot., 

Thb Museums, Hull ; 

AND 

T. W. WOODHEAD, Ph.D., F.L.S., 

Technical College, Huddersfield. 

with thb assistance as referees in special departments of 
J. aiLBBRT BAKER. F.R.S. F.L.S., QEO. T. PORRITF, F.L.S., F.E.S.. 

Prof. P. F. KENDALL, M.Sc. F.Q.S., JOHN W. TAYLOR, 

T. H. NELSON, M.B.O.U., WILLIAM WEST, F.L.S., 

RILEY FORTUNE, F.Z.S. 



Contents : — 

Notes and Comments: — British Mycologists; Silver Leaf; Polypores and Clavarias ; 
The Club-shaped Fungi ; The Study of Fungi ; The Yorkshire Mycological 
Committee; The British Mycological Society; East Riding Nature Study: 
Metallurgy and Engineering ; History of Fossil Botany ; The Structure of Fossil 
Plants; Leaves of Calamites ; A New British Polyzoon ; Nomenclature Again ; 
Glacial Geology of Norfolk and Suffolk ; Yorkshire Naturalists' Union ; Valuable 
Yorkshire Maps ; Urocyclus roebucki 

Water Voles making Nests above ground (Illustrated)— Sj'rfney H. Smith 

Notes on the Cretaceous Fossils in the East Yorkshire Drift—/. P.J.Ravn... 

Marine Biology at Scarborough— ^4 rno/rf T. H^fl/sOM, FX.S 

Field Notes: — Abundance of Wild Fruits in the Harrogate District ; Black Redstart in 
Yorkshire ; Uncommon Birds at Hebden Bridge ; A Rare Parasitic Hymenopteron 
at Pilling Moss, near Garstang, Lancashire 

The 'New' Botany— F. ^ . Z,ees 

Some New Books— History and Topography 

Yorkshire Naturalists' Union Report for 191 1 ... 

Illustrations 



1-6 
7 

8 
9 

10 

11 

12-16 

17-32 

7 



LONDON : 

A. Brown & Sons, Limited, 5, Farringdon Avenue, E.G. 

And at Hull and York. 

Printers and Publishers to the Y.N. U. 



PRICE 6d. NET. BY POST 7d. NET. 



Yorkshire Naturalists' Union. 



-♦♦- 



SUBSCRIPTIONS FOR 1912 

*re now due, and should be sent at once to the Hon. Treasurer, 

H. CULPIN, 

7 St. Mary's Road, 

Doncaster. 



The Hon. Secretaries of the Yorkshire Naturalists' Union 
^re now T. W. WOODHEAD, Ph.D., Technical College, 
Huddersfield, and W. E. L. WATTAM, Towngate, New- 
some, Huddersfield. Communications should be addressed to 
The Technical College, Huddersfield. 



THE NATURALIST. 

Communications for The Naturalist, the Transactions of the 
Yorkshire Naturalists' Union, Exchanges, etc., should be sent, as 
heretofore, to 

T. SHEPPARD, F.Q,S., 

The Museums, Hull. 

YORKSHIRE NATURALISTS' UNION. 



BRYOLOGICAL COMMITTEE. 



The members of the Yorkshire Bryological Committee will 

meet at Knaresborough Station at lo a.m., on Saturday, January 

27th. Members or Associates are invited. Will those intending to 

be present please communicate with the undersigned. Late arrivals 

<pan be met. 

C. A. CHEETHAM, 

Farnley, Leeds. 



THE NATURALIST 

FOR 1912. 



NOTES AND COMMENTS. 

BRITISH MYCOLOGISTS. 

Apparently as a result of the paper on ' The Study of 
Fungi by Local Natural History Societies,' by Mr. H. Wager, 
F.R.S., which appeared in The Naturalist for October, the 
British Mycological Society has issued a circular to the various 
provincial natural history societies, asking for information 
relating to 

SILVER LEAF. 

The very serious disease known as ' Silver-leaf ' (so called 
because the leaves become of a ' silvery ' colour), which affects 
fruit trees, particularly the ' Victoria ' plum, is now thought 
to be caused probably by Stereum purpttre-iim, the sporophores 
of which appear on the dead wood of the affected trees. Ob- 
servations on the following points would be valuable : — 

{a) The distribution of Stereum purpureum as a parasite 

or saprophyte in the district. 
(&) The habitat, with exact identification of the dead tree, 
shrub, or wood on which the sporophores are found. 
(c) Did ' silvery ' foliage occur on the tree or shrub pre- 
vious to the occurrence of the sporophores on the 
dead wood ? 

POLYPORES AND CLAVARIAS. 

Many British trees are greatly injured by the growth of 
fungi belonging to the Polyporaceae. Information is wanted as 
to:— 

{a) The name of the tree affected ; and 

(b) The name of the Polypore causing the injury. 

A revision of the British Clavariacese is being made by 
Mr. A. D. Cotton, F.L.S., of Kew, who would be much obliged 
if members of Local Natural History Societies would kindly 
forward to him specimens of this order for identification and 
examination. 

The local societies are also asked to furnish to the British 
Mycological Society particulars of any papers which have been 
pubHshed with regard to fungi. 

THE CLUB-SHAPED FUNGI. 

One of these circulars has been received by the Yorkshire 
Naturahsts' Union. The clause relating to the Clavariacese or 
club-shaped fungi will, perhaps, principally appeal to northern 
mycologists, and we trust that any workers will send specimens 
to Mr. Cotton as suggested. For some years past the Yorkshire 
Mycological Committee has regularly sent specimens of these 

1912 Jan. I. -^ 



2 Notes and Comments. 

forms to Mr. Cotton, with the result that Yorkshire has pro- 
duced at least three species new to science, the clearing up of 
doubtful points with regard to other species, and the widening 
of our knowledge as to the distribution of several more. 

THE STUDY OF FUNGI. 

Personally we should be glad if the appeal, issued by the 
British Mycological Society resulted in a greater interest being 
taken in the usually neglected study of the fungi, notwith- 
standing the fact that Yorkshire leads a long way ahead of any 
county in this respect, as was duly pointed out by Mr. Wager in 
his British Association address. There is plenty of scope for 
new work in this direction, both in the field and in the labora- 
tory. Only a little before going to press we hear of the dis- 
covery by Mr. J. Needham of Hebden Bridge, of a Lepiota 
(L. medioflava Bond.) new to Britain. And this in a district 
which has probably been as well worked as any in the British 
Isles. 

TKE YORKSHIRE MYCOLOGICAL COMMITTEE. 

Excepting in the case of the Clavariaceae, there is not, we 
are thankful to say, any need to ask Yorkshire societies to 
send specimens to London or anywhere else. For years now 
the Yorkshire Mycological Committee has held a premier 
position in the country, and on the six or seven excursions held 
each year by the Union, and also on the field meetings of the 
forty affiliated societies, Yorkshire workers have regularly 
collected the various forms of fungi, and forwarded them to the 
Committee's energetic secretary, Mr. C. Crossland, of 4 Coleridge 
Street, HaUfax, to Mr. A. Clarke, 16 St. Andrew's Road, Hud- 
dersfield, or to other members. In the seventies and eighties 
of last century. Dr. Franklin Parsons, The Rev. Canon W. 
Fowler, Messrs. G. Massee, W. N. Cheesman, W. West, T. 
Soppitt, and other members of the Union, were investigating 
the county fungi. The result of all this has been the publica- 
tion of numerous important memoirs in The Naturalist, and 
in the Transactions of the Yorkshire Naturalists' Union, as well 
as the well-known ' Yorkshire Fungus Flora,' by Messrs. Massee 
and Crossland, the first, and, so far, the only county fungus 
flora in existence. 

THE BRITISH MYCOLOGICAL SOCIETY. 

Yorkshire is also proud of the fact that the British Myco- 
logical Society was founded within its borders, and on the 
occasion of one of the field meetings of the Yorkshire 
Naturalists' Union. It was on the occasion of the Yorkshire 
Fungus Foray at Selby, in September i8g6, at which Mr. 
Carleton Rea and the late Dr. Plowright had been invited to 
attend, that the question of a British Society was brought to a 
head, and most, if not all, of those present became members. 

Naturalist, 



Notes and Comments. 3 

Though this is generally known amongst mycologists, we place 
the fact on record, as in two or three instances recently the 
point does not appear to have been quite clear, in one case even 
the place and origin of the society was stated to be in another 
county. 

EAST RIDING NATURE STUDY. 

The East Riding Nature Study Association held its ninth 
annual meeting and Conference at Beverley, on December 2nd, 
and there was a large attendance of teachers from all parts of 
the Riding, and others interested in the nature study movement. 
Prof. J. H. Priestley, B.Sc, F.L.S., of the Leeds University, 
gave an admirable lantern lecture on 'The Relation of Insects to 
Flowers,' which was precisely of the type that was required by the 
teachers. The Hon. Secretary, Mr. W. J. Algar, (Lockington), 
presented his annual report, which contained particulars of a 
good year's work. The Rev. Canon Nohoth, D.D., occupied 
the chair. There was an excellent exhibition of nature study 
books, including a fine show of the publications of the York- 
shire Naturalists' Union, by Messrs. A. Brown & Sons. 

METALLURGY AND ENGINEERING. 

In an address dehvered to the Durham Philosophical 
Society ' On the Mutual Development of Metallurgy and 
Engineering,'* Prof. Henry Louis refers to the progress made in 
smelting, etc., since the days of ancient Rome and Greece. 
He pointed out that probably before Roman times iron-smelt- 
ing was carried on by a built-up furnace five or six feet high, 
the front wall of which would be taken down to allow the lump 
of malleable iron produced to be taken out. Such furnaces 
are still in use in Africa, India, Brazil, etc. In Roman times, 
if not before, iron was smelted in this country as far south as 
the Weald, and north as far as the Tyne. Lead was also made 
by the Romans, both in Yorkshire, Derbyshire, etc., and pigs 
with the words ' Ex Arg ', i.e., de-silverised, are not uncommon. 
Many other interesting points bearing upon early metallurgy 
are given by Prof. Louis in his paper. 

HISTORY OF FOSSIL BOTANY. 

In his Presidential Address to the Linnean Society, Dr. 
D. H. Scott refers to ' A Chapter in the History of Fossil 
Botany.' He deals with that interesting period about the 
year 1830 ; the period of Witham and Cotta, and of the earlier 
work of Brongniart. As Dr. Scott points out, whilst some of 
the opinions then expressed may appear crude and fantastic, 
on the other hand, it is surprising what a great advance had 
been made at -that early time. It is shewn that the problems 
of the early investigators in Fossil Botany were essentially 

* Proc. Univ. Durham Phil. Soc, Vol. 4, pt. 2. 
1912 Jarii I. 



4 Notes and Comments. 

those of the workers of to-day ; and the spirit in which those 
early students approached them might well be emulated to-day. 
And even at that early period the spirit of evolution was in the 
air, and even to-day wor,kers find themselves in complete 
sympathy with the palaeontological studies that were being^ 
carried on at the time when the ' Beagle ' had scarcely started 
on her momentous voyage. The following translation of a 
passage from the Introduction to Brongniart's ' Histoire de 
Vegetaux Fossiles,' which was published in 1828, and is quoted 
by Dr. Scott, might almost have been written yesterday. 

THE STRUCTURE OF FOSSIL PLANTS. 

' Everyone will readily admit that anatomical characters,, 
those which relate to the intimate organisation of the plant, 
have more value than the external forms ; it is to these charac- 
ters, then, that we ought to attach the most importance when 
one is able to observe them, and when one cannot do so, one 
should seek to discover in the external form of organs, such 
modifications as may, so to speak, be the expression of the 
internal character, and may enable us to form an estimate 
of its modification. The nutritive vessels, forming the frame- 
work which determines the relations of position and often even 
the form of organs, are evidently more important than the 
parenchyma which surrounds them, and which may mark 
the most essential characters of an organ. The mode of dis- 
tribution of the vessels alone may put us on the track of the 
true affinities of plants. Their arrangement is consequently 
the principal thing to observe in each organ.' 

LEAVES OF CALAMITES. 

From Mr. H. Hamshaw Thomas we have received a paper 
' On the Leaves of Calamites ' (Calamocladus Section), reprinted 
from the ' Philosophical Transactions of the Royal Society of 
London,' a publication which has contained so many of the 
classical papers on Palaeo-botany. Mr. Thomas's memoir is 
largely based on the work he has done with the microscope on 
material discovered from the Halifax Hard Bed — a bed which 
from the fact that its contained fossils retain their structural 
details, has proved a veritable mine of material for the worker 
in Fossil Botany. In an elaborate and detailed manner Mr. 
Thomas throws some Hght upon the question of the primitive 
megaphylly or microphylly of the Equisetales, and on their 
relationship to the other members of the Pteridophyta. The 
relationship of the Calamites to the Sphenophyllums is further 
brought out in the structure of the young stems and twigs he 
describes. The steles of the latter were almost invariably 
triarch, and the author shews that this was also the case in 
some Calamites. This paper admirably shews that there is 

Naturalist, 



Notes and Comments. 5 

much palgeobotanical work still to be accomplished, even in so 
well-known a field as the Halifax Hard Bed. 

A NEW BRITISH POLYZOON. 

Another profitable field for work is amongst the Polyzoa, 
and we are glad to find that the steady work of Mr. J. Thomp- 
son, of Hull, is giving good results. In the ' Transactions of the 
Royal Society of Edinburgh ' (Vol. XLVH., part 4), Mr. James 
Ritchie describes and figures ' An Entoproctan Polyzoon 
{Barentsia henedeni), new to the British fauna.' This was 
found by Mr. Thompson, at the St. Andrew's Dock Extension, 
Hull, growing on the surface of Memhranipora which clothed 
the under sides of horizontal timbers supporting the piles, and 
on the timbers themselves. 

NOMENCLATURE AGAIN. 

As a sidelight upon the difficulties as regards Nomenclature, 
Mr. Ritchie's researches in connection with this polyzoon lead 
him to conclude that Arthropodaria Ehlers, is synonymous 
with Gonypodaria Ehlers, and both are included in Barentsia. 
Gonypodaria nodosa Lomas, is synonymous with Barentsia 
gracilis, and so is Pedicellina belgica ; whilst Barentsia henedeni 
and B. gracilis are distinct. Benedini gracilis at one time or 
another has rejoiced in the following names : — Pedicellina 
gracilis, Forbesia gracilis, Pedicellina belgica, Ascopodaria 
gracilis, Ascopodaria belgica, Gonypodaria nodosa, Barentsia 
gracilis, and Barentsia nodosa. Our sympathy is certainly 
with the specialist, when asked by the student, ' what is this ? ' ! 

GLACIAL GEOLOGY OF NORFOLK AND SUFFOLK.* 

Under the above title has been published an interesting 
account of the geology of one of the most interesting of the 
glaciated districts in Britain, by the veteran, Mr. F. W. Har- 
mer. Mr. Harmer is the author of many valuable memoirs on 
this area ; but they are usually of a technical nature, and can 
appeal only to the specialist. We therefore think he has been 
well advised in reprinting this chatty and clear account of the 
-district he knows so well, from the publications in which his 
notes first appeared, viz., the 'Transactions of the Norfolk and 
Norwich Naturalists' Society. An excellent map and several 
illustrations accompany the pamphlet, which has points of 
interest far out-reaching the district with which it deals. 

YORKSHIRE NATURALISTS' UNION. 

There were greater changes than usual at the Annual 
Meeting of the Yorkshire Naturahsts' Union held at Heck- 
mondwike, on December i6th. Mr. Sheppard resigned his 

* Jarrold & Sons, lo Warwick Lane, E.C. i/- net. 
2912 Jan. I. 



6 Notes and ComtJients. 

position after nine years as Hon. Secretary, though he retains 
his editorial duties in connection with ' The NaturaUst ' and 
the Union's Transactions. In future, the secretarial work 
will be carried on by Dr. T. W. Woodhead and Mr. W. E. L. 
Wattam of Huddersfield. Mr. J. W. Taylor, the well-known 
malacologist, occupies the presidential chair during igi2. 

VALUABLE YORKSHIRE MAPS. 

It is well known that the late J. R. Mortimer, the Driffield 
Antiquary, was an authority on the prehistoric and other 
earthworks of East Yorkshire, and during the past half century 
has made a careful survey of all that remains relating to the 
military and domestic life of these early people, a subject upon 
which he has written many important papers. Several of the 
structures which were, known to Mr. Mortimer forty or fifty years 
ago, or less, have since entirely disappeared, as a result of 
agricultural and other operations. Fortunately Mr. Mortimer 
carefully recorded his observations upon a large series of 
ordnance maps of the district, and also particulars of the 
barrows, the Roman remains, the pits from which he obtained 
his geological specimens (most of which are now closed), etc. 
This valuable collection of maps has been generously presented 
by Major Mortimer to the Municipal Museum, at Hull, where 
it can be referred to by students and others interested. In 
addition are large numbers of sketches, plans, photographs, 
negatives, etc., bearing upon East Yorkshire Antiquities. 

UROCYCLUS ROEBUCKL 

If proof were needed of the influence of the work of York- 
shire Naturalists far beyond our own shores, it is found in the 
quite spontaneous honour which Dr. H. Simroth, the greatest 
continental authority on slugs, has sought to confer upon 
Mr. W. Denison Roebuck, in h's ' Lissopode Nacktschnecken von 
Madgaskar den Comoren und Mauritius ' a reprint from ' Voeltz- 
kow's Reise in Ostafrika in den Jahren, 1903-1905, band 2,' 
published in 1910. During this expedition a large and con- 
spicuous slug was discovered in the island of Pemba, off the 
coast of British East Africa, which has been described in the 
above work by Dr. Simroth, on pp. 595-596, and is illustrated 
by a coloured plate and text figure. To this new species he 
has given the name of Urocyclits roehucki Simroth, and says, 
' I name this species in honour of Mr. Roebuck for the great 
services he has rendered to the study of slugs.' For thirty 
years Mr. Roebuck has been at work on this subject, and our 
knowledge of the occurrence and distribution of at least a 
third of the British species is due to him. No one knows the 
British slugs better, nor has a more intimate and practical 
knowledge of their distribution. 

Naturalist,. 



WATER VOLES MAKING NESTS ABOVE GROUND. 



SYDNEY H. SMITH, 
York. 



During a ramble on Skipwith Common in May last, I noticed 
a curious example of adaptation to environment in the case of 
the water vole. In the swampy neighbourhood of the black- 
headed gullery there are numerous water voles, and as it is 
impossible for them to excavate their usual underground runs 
without their being promptly waterlogged, the voles have 




Photo by] 



Nest of Water Vole, 



[Sydney H. Smith. 



adapted themselves to circumstances, and in place of their 
burrows have built comfortable nests in the tufts of sedges. 
These nests are skilfully woven from the white pith that fills 
the interior of the sedge, the outer green bark being deftly 
peeled away and discarded ; the complete nest is spherical 
in shape, and is entered through a hole in the side. Close 
search revealed a considerable number of the nests, and although 
I was not fortunate enough to find one containing young. 



my friend, Mr. E. W 
ones at a later date. 

1912 Jan. I. 



Taylor, discovered one with six young 



8 

NOTES ON THE CRETACEOUS FOSSILS IN THE 
EAST YORKSHIRE DRIFT. 

J. p. J.RAVN, 

Geological Museum, Copenhagen. 

For some years geologists in East Yorkshire have been famihar 
with fossils, in pink and black flint, which occur in large numbers 
in the glacial gravels and clays of East Yorkshire, and, to a 
smaller extent, in North Lincolnshire. These are usually flint 
casts of echinoderms of various species, but in addition are 
inocerami, sponges, and belemnites. There are likewise in the 
drift large numbers of a belemnite, of the mucronata or lanceolata 
type, with a very deep alveolus. Whilst a few of these occasion- 
ally occur embedded in black flint, they usually are found 
separated from the flint or chalk, and are generally in very 
good condition. Not only are these fossils totally different 
from anything that occurs in the chalk of the north of England, 
but the black and pink flint, which is so common in the drift, 
and in which the specimens are often embedded, does not 
occur in the Yorkshire or Lincolnshire chalk at all. 

In the museum at Hull, which is apparently the home for 
East Yorkshire geological specimens, there is a fine collection 
of these derived fossils, and the curator, Mr. Sheppard, has 
enabled me to examine a representative collection therefrom. 
In these the flint has a very great resemblance to that occurring 
in the Danish ' Skrivekridt,' i.e., chalk with Scaphites con- 
strictus, which is the same age as the Trimmingham Chalk of 
East Anglia. 

As regards most of the specimens, this resemblance is so very 
close, that it is possible to believe they were really derived from 
Denmark. On the other hand, the fossils, with the exception 
of a few examples, belong to species which neither occur in our 
Skrivekridt nor as erratics in our Quarternary deposits. They 
would therefore appear to be derived from strata older than the 
Danish Skrivekridt. 

Of the species submitted, only the Belemnitella mucronata 
and the Echinocorys ovatus are found in Denmark, where they 
are very common in the Skrivekridt ; in other countries they 
also occur in older beds. The specimens found as boulders 
in the Danish drift are precisely similar in character and in a 
similar state of preservation to the East Yorkshire specimens. 

Taking all into consideration, it seems more than probable 
that the flint casts, etc., in the East Yorkshire drifts are derived 
from deposits situated in the northern part of the North Sea, 
as if the beds in which the fossils occur were in the vicinity 
of the Skager Rack we should find the fossils as boulders in 
Jutland ; but this is not so. 

Of foreign boulders from Cretaceous deposits only Neocomian 
and Gault are found in the northern part of Jutland, and their 
homestead is considered to be the bottom of Skager Rack. 

Naturalist, 



9 

MARINE BIOLOGY AT SCARBOROUGH. 



ARNOLD T. WATSON, F.L.S., 

Sheffield. 

Owing to the necessity of going to press somewhat earher 
than usual, a number of specimens, mainly polychaste worms, 
which turned up and were identified after the Meeting, were 
unavoidably omitted from the hsts pubhshed in the December 
number of ' The Naturalist.' In order that the Scarborough 
record may be as complete as possible, it is desirable to give 
the following supplementary list : — Aittolytus pictus Ehlers (rec.) ; 
Syllis armillaris {loida) (rec.) ; Eulalia viridis Miiller (rec.) ; 
Phyllodoce lamelligera Gmelin (rec.) ; Polydora ccBca Oersted 
(rec.) ; Stylarioides {Trophonia) plumosa Miiller (rec.) ; Potam- 
illa torelli Malmgren (rec.) ; Fabricia sabella 'Ehx. = Amphicora 
fahricia (rec.) ; Polycirrns aurantiaciis Grube (rec). 

In addition to the above, an exceptionally interesting 
Phyllodocid worm, most closely allied to a Canadian species of 
Eteone, but possessing several special features of its own, was 
found by Dr. Irving. This specimen has been forwarded to 
Prof. Mcintosh, who has kindly undertaken to describe' it in 
his ' Notes from the St. Andrew's Marine Laboratory, 'which 
will in due time be published in the ' Annals and Magazine of 
Natural History.' 

An addition to the List of Polyzoa has also to be made, as 
I was fortunate in finding the interesting little eight-tentacled 
species, Valkeria tremula, amongst my captives. 

It may, perhaps, be of interest also to add a few words 
about the minute Gephyrean, Phascolosoma { = Petalo stoma) 
miniitum Keferstein, to which reference is made at the close 
of last month's report. 

This specimen was found embedded between the sand- 
tubes built by the polychsete worm, Sahellaria spimdosa. It 
is one of the smallest Gephyreans yet described, being only 
about three-eighths of an inch long, and, though it has previous- 
ly been recorded from the North Coast of France, Heligoland, 
the Swedish Coast, and from Plymouth, it does not appear to 
have been found elsewhere on the English or Scotch Coast. 

In 1908 a specimen of this worm came into the hands of 
Mr. Rowland Southern, B.Sc. of Dublin, who described it in 
the ' Irish Naturahst,' (Vol. XVIL, p. 171), as ' A New Irish 
Gephryean.' He informs me that he has since found it in 
considerable numbers at various parts of the Irish Coast, and 
down to 500-600 fathoms. 

Since the Scarborough Meeting, nine other specimens have 
been found there, probably, therefore, its escape from more 
frequent observation is due to its diminutive size.* 

* Attention has been called to some misprints in the original \'ermes 
List : Andonhiia should be Audoitinia, and Pomatoceras should read 
Pomatoceros ; and PletiTobranchus pumilus should be P. plumulus. 

1912 Jan. I. 



^° FIELD NOTES. 

BOTANY. 
Abundance of Wild Fruits in the Harrogate district. — 

There has been an extraordinary abundance of wild fruits in this 
district, during the autumn of 191 1. Acorns I never saw so 
plentiful, the ground under the trees has literally been carpeted 
by fallen acorns, many of unusually large size. Sweet chesnuts 
have ripened for the first time for many years, and in one wood 
I am familiar with the ground was covered with the fallen fruit. 
The wild rose trees have had an abundance of fruit, but the 
hawthorns have been deficient. Walnut trees have been laden 
with fruit, and holly trees are at the present time one mass of 
red berries. — R. Fortune, Harrogate, Nov. 1911. 

BIRDS. 

Black Redstart in Yorkshire.— On October i8th, 1911, 
a single specimen of the Black Redstart — a male — was seen 
near Knavemere in the upper part of the valley of the Hodder. 
The bird was tame, and allowed the observer to approach 
within a few yards. The black breast and white patches on the 
wings were vrry noticeable. — M. N. Peel, Newton-in-Bowland. 

Uncommon Birds at Hebden Bridge. — On November 
2ist a Little Auk, 9, was picked up aUve at Blackshawhead, near 
Hebden Bridge. It had been seen in the neighbourhood for three 
or four weeks, and was often ' put up ' from a small pond which 
had formed in a field. On November 23rd, a Rough-legged 
Buzzard, $, was shot in the act of killing a fowl at Shackleton 
Hill, near Hebden Bridge. The taxidermist informs me that the 
specimen weighed 2 lbs. loj ozs., was 23 inches long, and 4 feet 
7 inches across the wings. Its stomach contained the remains 
of a fowl and a weasel. My records show that some of both 
species have been obtained at Hebden Bridge before, but not 
during the life of the Literary and Scientific Society. I saw 
a party of half-a-dozen Bullfinches, ^ and $, in Spring Wood, 
on November 25th. This species is of very rare occurrence 
here now, and has not been known to nest for many years. — 
Walter Greaves, Hebden Bridge. 

ENTOMOLOGY. 

A^ Rare Parasitic Hymenopteron at Pilling- Moss, near 
Qarstang, Lancashire. — While collecting Coleoptera on Pil- 
ling Moss, near Garstang, in August, I came across several 
specimens of Chorda inepta Dalm., one of the Chalcididse, a 
family of parasitic Hymenoptera. I am indebted to the 
kindness of Mr. Claude Morley for the identification of the 
species. The specimens were found on shaking the old nests 
of sea-gulls, with which Pilling Moss abounds. Although first 
recorded as British as far back as 1833, by Westwood, the 
species is still comparatively rare. — J. Ray Hardy, Curator 
of Entomology, Manchester Museum. 

Naturalist, 



II 



THE 'NEW BOTANY. 



Types of British Vegetation, edited by A. G. Tansley, M.A., F.L.S. 

With 36 plates, 8vo, pp. xx., 416. Cambridge University Press, 19 11. 
Price 6/- net.. 

Ever since Richard Jefferies and other Papas of the plein air doctrine 
took us, with their enthusiasms, into the wild, there has been a growing 
vogue towards the beatification of country things. It has of late crept 
into our Fiction. On the other hand, since 1904, from the perhaps almost 
too strictly Academic side of Botany, following the late Robert Smith, 
Messrs. and Doctors of Love- Wisdom, F. J. Lewis, C. E. Moss, W. M. 
Rankin, W. G. Smith, and others, including our York men W. B. Crump, 
S. Margerison, Geo. West, and T. W. Woodhead — )iot all official members 
of the 'Central Committee,' the work of Systematic Vegetational Survey, 
with more or less expert eyes, has gone on : the well-digested and ably 
arranged result being this tome of ' Types ' ! The work of all those named 
above is not proclaimed aloud, but it is there, for those who know, never- 
theless. It makes a difficult book to review, since with neither desire 
to pick, nor possibility of picking holes in the fabric — the wonderful, living 
carpet of Nature, there is little but a sort of struck-dumb praise to be 
accorded ! 

The materialising of the work must have been as tiresome at times as 
at others most fascinating ; but for one angel of Light to aid : photography 
to the Rescue, as 'Every Picture tells a Story,' and really greatly enhances 
the value of the book, which no doubt will presently be in the hands of 
every Council School Teacher who takes his Nature-Class into the open. 
' Types,' I think, must ultimately become the availing classic of its subject, 
and is certainly much better adapted than any other IManual I know for 
enabling the rank-and-file field-naturalist to find the excelsior charm in 
understanding what he sees, all seasons alike, whenever he takes his walks 
abroad. 

Space will hardly allow of quotation, but there are two dainty data 
one must allude to as samples of interdependences marvellously inspiring 
to the mind. On pages 105-6, discussing the spread of the golden gorse 
on a lingmoor, attention is drawn to Weiss 's observation of the part insects 
may play in dispersal : the partiality Ants shew for the seeds of the Ulex, 
carrying them off for the bright orange oily caruncle ' which they bite 
and tear as they push the seed along.' Again on p. 151, the amity (as it 
were), which exists between the ' complementarj^ association ' (as Dr. 
T. W. \\'oodhead called it), of Dog's Mercury and Gloriless Moschatcl, often 
seen on dryish Dell-drained wood slopes. The Mercury roots strike down 
to a lower layer of soil than the Adoxa, its delicate superficial shoots re- 
ceiving the shade and protection it must have from the relatively Brob- 
dignagian proportions of Mercurialis. The roots of the two species are 
said to be ' edaphically complementary,' and the shoots seasonally com- 
plementary because by ]\Iidsummer, Adoxa has \vilted modestly away 
for its nine months' period of dormanc3^ 

Critical fault-finding must be conspicuous by its absence. Well proof- 
read, and fully indexed, there are only three unimportant errata ; and 
one omission — a neglect to acknowledge W. B. Crump as the contributor 
of the six beautiful photographs making up plates 9, 13, and 25. The 
work of Dr. T. W. Woodhead seems rather inadequately referred to on 
p. 151, in the curt phrase ' Wliat Woodhead terms'! But, indeed, the 
work is full of brand new terms as befits a brand new botany ; the suffix 
turn (?) Aryan root ta (place set apart for), on the plan of Arboretum, I 
suppose, is done to derision almost ; Callunetum, Fagetum, Nardetum, 
Quercetum to indicate the type or dominal factor in a natural or planted 
association over a tract, is a terminologic innovation, the wit of which 
lies in its brevity, one must suppose, since it is not beautiful. 

F. A. Lees. 
igi2 Jan. r. 



12 

SOME NEW BOOKS. 

HISTORY AND TOPOGRAPHY. 

Yorkshire Moors and Dales, by A. P. Wilson. London : A. Brown & 
Sons. 236 pp., price 10/6 net. 

Perhaps a better idea of this book can be gathered from its sub-title, 
' A Description of the Moors in North-East Yorkshire.' It goes without 
saying that the printing and general ' get-up ' of this volume is all that can 
be desired. It is in clear large type, on thick paper, and the plates are 
well produced. The book is of the better-class guide-book type, and is 
evidently the author's impressions after visiting the districts he describes, 
supplemented by information from the guide-books and local histories. It 
is in three parts ; the first deals with the north-west, central and eastern 
moors of north-east Yorkshire ; the second refers to the moors and the 
moorland roads, dalesfolk and their customs, farming, wild nature, grouse, 
dialect and place names, etc. ; the tliird section has four yarns, on ' A 
Bullock Deal,' ' One Prophet More,' ' A Family Feud,' and ' Rodger Dick.' 
We like the first two parts the best, though the chapter on ' Wild Nature ' 
is by no means the most satisfactory, and we feel sure the adder is made 
to be far more fearsome than really is the case. Amongst the illustrations 
are Falling Foss, Guisborough Priory, Arncliffe Woods, Rievaulx Abbey, 
Robin Hood's Bay, the Lastingham Crypt, Rosedale, etc. Readers of 
this journal (and there are many) who visit this charming country, will find 
Mr. Wilson's book a pleasant companion. We are glad to notice that the 
author has not yielded to the temptation to open some of the barrows in 
the district, believing that this work should only be done by experts. 

Nooks and Corners of Yorksliire, by J. S. Fletcher. London : Eveleigh 
Nash. 304 pp., 2/6 net. 

Tliis book is of a handy size, and with rounded corners ; evidently for 
use in t'ne pocket, and has a useful map. The fact that it is by Mr. Fletcher 
is a guarantee of its reliable and chatty nature. It deals with the Great 
North Road, the River Aire, Derwent, Wharfedale, Nidderdale, Wensley- 
dale, Swaledale, the Greta and Teesdale, North-East Yorkshire, the Calder 
and Colne, Sheffield, the Ribble, the Coast, and the East Riding. In fact 
the volume may be said to be a summary of the well-known ' Picturesque 
History of Yorkshire,' by the same author. He begins well by giving a 
list of ' Some Inns and Hotels in Yorkshire,' enumerating eight for Ilkley, 
two for Hull, and two for York. The work is carefully planned, and will 
be useful to the tourist visiting the broad-acred slure. 

Yorkshire Folk Talk, by the Rev. M. C. F. Morris, B.C.L., M.A. Second 
Edition. London : A. Brown & Sons. 438 pp., 4/6 net. 

W'e are glad to be able to call attention to a second and cheaper edition 
of Mr. Morris's scholarly work, a work which takes a prominent place 
amongst those dealing with the folk speech of our country. The author 
is by no means a mere compiler, but has got his information first-hand from 
the people he so charmingly describes and amongst whom he has spent the 
greater part of his life. And the book is illustrated by such a large series 
of stories and quaint sayings that it is bound to be even more popular than 
its predecessor, especially as the glossary contains no fewer than 600 
p'nrases and words more than were in the first edition. W^e are tempted 
to quote many examples of Mr. Morris's illustrations of stories and dialects, 
but the following, wliich explains how a countryman in Holderness account- 
ed for the butter being too salt, must suffice : — 

' Whya, t' wasp teng'd t' dog, an' t' dog handled at t' cat, an' t' cat 
ran owerquart t' staggarth an' flaay'd t' cockerill, an' t' cockerill fligg'd 
ower t' wall an' flaayed yan o' t' beeos, an' t' beeos beeal'd an' stack it 
heead thruff t' dairy windther an' flussthered t'lass] seea awhahl sha let t' 
sau'-kit tumm'l inti t' kennin' o' butther.' 

The glossary alone occupies nearly 200 pages, and is most valuable. 

Naturalist, 



Reviews and Book Notices. 13 

The History of the Castle of York, by T. P. Cooper. London : Elliot 
Stock. 379 pp., 12/6 net. 

Some time ago we had the pleasure of drawing attention to Mr. Cooper's 
excellent book on ' York, the Story of its Walls, etc' The present is a 
fitting companion thereto, and has been written in the same thorough and 
painstaking manner, and, like its predecessor, contains much valuable and 
new material as a result of the author's own researches. Only those who 
have attempted to get a reliable and connected account of the history of 
the Castle, from the various and nunaerous Histories of York already in 
existence, can appreciate to the full the amount of new matter that Mr. 
Cooper has been able to bring forward. It is evident from the Preface 
that the author is on good terms with the various York authorities, who 
have rare documents and records in their charge, otherwise the book could 
never have been so complete. The chapters deal with the Norman origin 
of the Castle ; the Plantagenet Period, a detailed description of the 
castle and its site ; Early Assise and Prison Records and Punishments 
(the latter being delightfully varied!); the Castle-guard; Mills; the 
Chapel of St. George ; the ruinous state of the Castle in the fifteenth and 
sixteenth centuries ; the Royal Mint in the Castle (an unusually interesting 
chapter) ; Clifford's Tower ; Scaffolds ; Great Elections, etc. (including an 
interesting account of the Wilberforce — Lascelles — Milton election, which 
cost the houses of Harewood and Wentworth alone over ;^20o,ooo), and so 
on. There are also numerous valuable appendices. We must con- 
gratulate Mr. Cooper and the publishers in producing so sound and so 
readable a record of Yorkshire's ' strong point.' 

The Ruins of Fountain's Abbey, by the Rev. A. W. Oxford, with illustra- 
tions by J. R. Truelove. Oxford : Henry Frowde. 245 pp., 3/6 net. 

The first 125 pages of this little book form ' an attempt to put in simple 
language for the unlearned the results of the investigations of the ruins 
made by Messrs. W. H. St. John Hope and J. Arthur Reeve. To make it 
easy to understand, architectural terms have been explained, Latin quota- 
tions translated, and a few facts given about the life and habits of the early 
monks.' The rest of the volume is occupied by translations of Serlo's 
' History of the Abbey and of the Chronicle of the Abbots.' As such 
it answers its purpose, though we are not aware that it contains more than 
is to be found in any of the many works dealing with this fine ruin. It 
is, however, particularly well illustrated by blocks from Photographs and 
sketches. It is printed on thin paper, on small pages, and will easily 
go into the pocket. The price is sufficient, and there is no index. 

A Bibliography of Sheffield and Vicinity, Section I. to the end of 1700, 
by W. P. Freemantle. London : Simpkin, Marshall, etc., 191 1. 285 pp.', 
price 10/6 net. 

We cannot too heartily commend the way in which scholars in our 
different cities and towns are carefully compiling lists of local works for 
the benefit of the future historian and antiquary. This is now being done 
in many places, but we do not remember having previously seen it done 
so well and so thoughtfully as is the case with this ' Section I ' of the Shef- 
field Bibliography ; albeit the ' vicinity ' is a wide one. Probably few 
were previously aware of the wealth of material bearing upon the history, 
etc., of Sheffield. Mr. Freemantle has unquestionably most assiduously 
searched for every scrap of information bearing upon the district he knows 
so well, which has resulted in a volume of over 280 large pages of closely 
printed matter; and this up to the end of 1700 only. The book also is 
not a mere list of titles, but is full of valuable biographical and historical 
details, and in addition is illustrated by a large number of reproductions of 
quaint title-pages and curious woodcuts; the view of Hell (?) page 171 ; 
and of ' the passage of Thomas, late Earle of Strafford, over the river of 
Styx, ' being particularly noticeable. Mr. Freemantle has certainly placed 
students under a deep debt of gratitude for his work. 

1912 Jan. I. 



jA Reviews and Book Notices. 

An Introduction to the Study of Local History and Antiquities, by J. E. 
Morris and H. Jordan. London : G. Routledge. 400 pp., 4/6. 

In this admirable Handbook the authors have prepared a volume 
•wliich gives a general idea of local history and antiquities. It is really the 
outcome of the Circular issued by the IBoard of Education in 1908. As 
the authors point out, it frequently happens that a teacher interested in ' 
any particular phase of liistory, is likely to give a wrong idea of proportion 
to his scholars. The present work is an admirable summary of Pre- 
Celtic and Celtic Britain; Roman, Anglo-Saxon, and Norman England; 
Mediseval England, Wales, and Scotland ; Mediaeval Ecclesiastical Eng- 
land ; Commercial, Industrial, and Domestic England ; and Tudor and 
Stuart and later England. The book is prepared in such a way that a 
teacher or scholar can get useful local illustrations, no matter in what part 
of the country he may be situated. The book also is anything but the 
' dry as dust ' variety, and is an exceedingly readable and instructive 
narrative of the many antiquities and historical features of Britain. There 
are also several fine illustrations of earthworks, Roman and Mediaeval 
remains, etc., carefullv selected from the more remarkable of their kind. 
The book is all that it professes to be, and is remarkably cheap. 

England before the Norman Conquest, by C. Oman. Methuen & Co. 
658 pp., 10/6 net. 

This is the first of a seven volume ' History of England,' and deals with 
the important period prior to the Norman Conquest. It is the most 
complete and circumstantial account of the early history of these islands 
that we have yet seen, and contains information which otherwise would 
require the perusal of a whole library of books and pamphlets. In his 
work the author has had the assistance of Prof. Haverfield and other ex- 
perts on the various periods to wixich he refers. At the outset he very 
clearly draws the line between geology and liistory. He then deals in a 
masterly manner with the Neolithic and Bronze Periods, and the Celts 
down to the Invasion of Julius Ca?sar. Of tliis usually neglected and 
little known period Mr. Oman is particularly clear and interesting. He 
then traces the course of events during the Roman occupation, and so on, 
throuo^h Saxon and Danish times. Each period is dealt with most thor- 
oughly. On the question of the liistoric Battle of Brunanburh the author 
is very definite that it cannot have taken place in the Humber district, 
but was probably fought on the north-eastern side of Solway Firth. Tiiis 
is a little embarrassing to the dozens of authors wiio have written on the 
subject, and practically all of whom have definitely ' located ' the site at 
one or other locality in Yorkshire or Lincolnshire! Mr. Oman gives a 
wealth of references to papers and other sources from which he derives 
his information, so that the student can follow up any particular point 
that he desires. There are excellent maps of Roman Britain, England 
about the year 730 a.d., England about 910 a.d., etc. 

Family Names and their Story, by S. Baring-Gould. London : Seely & 

Co. 43^ PP-. 7/6 net. 

There is always a great field for speculation as regards the origin of 
place-names and family-names, and whilst in the present handsome volume 
the versatile author has accomplished much in getting together a wonderful 
amount of information on the subject referred to in the title, certainly far 
more than has previously appeared within a single cover, we cannot yet 
say the matter is final, or that other theories or ideas will not be brought 
forward. Our surnames are at least 300 years old, and many are twice 
that age. As Mr. Baring-Gould points out, spelling was always tentative 
and capricious, and Smith, perhaps the commonest, was Smeeth, Smythe,' 
Smeyt, Smyth, etc. ; and Faber, the blacksmith, became Fever, Feures,' 
Fferron and Fieron. Because of the arbitrary way in which the names 
were recorded, so many are unintelligible to-day. Similarly the owners 
of some of the best of our family names treat them so strangely as regards 

Naturalist,'- 



Reviews and Book Notices. 15. 

pronunciation, that the result is many apparently vulgar and puzzling 
nicknames are found amongst us — some of wliich are quite meaningless. 
Maiiiwearing becomes Mannering ; Leveson-Gower is pronounced Lewson- 
Gore ; Marforibanks is Marchbanks ; and Cholmondeley, Chumley. These 
and many other interesting phases of the subject are dealt with in the 
volume, and then the subject is treated exhaustively under trade-names, 
place-names, Scandinavian names, French names, nick-names, etc. There 
is a valuable series of appendices giving the names in various old docu- 
ments, etc., and finally an elaborate index to the whole volume. On 
trying to ascertain the origin of the names of some of the editors and 
referees of The Naturalist, ' Family Names ' is partially silent ! Except that 
the fore-elders of one kept (black ?) sheep, and another was in the ' clothes ' 
line, we can gleam but little information! 

The Pronunciation of English by Foreigners, by G. J. Burch, M.A., D.Sc, 

F.R.S. Oxford : Alden & Co. no pp., 3/- net. 

Tliis is a series of lectures, on the Pyhsiology of Speech, delivered to 
the Students of Norham Hall, and is a remarkably clever book, and one 
that will appeal strongly to any interested in languages and their pro- 
nunciation. The author carefully points out the characteristics of the 
speech of the inhabitants of different countries and points out the way 
in wliich this can be remedied. For instance, in Denmark, ' there is a 
strong tendency, especially in Copenhagen, to omit consonants before 
fricatives; ' thus 'a damp warm day' becomes 'a dam' warm day,' and 
so on. There are numerous diagrams, and ' examples.' 

Black Tournai Fonts in England, by C. H. Eden. London ; EUiot 
Stock, 32 pp., 4to, cloth, 5/- net. 

In the latter part of the twelfth century a number of solid blue-black 
marble fonts were made in the province of Hainault in Belgium, the stone 
being quarried near Tournai. The rock, from samples sent to us, seems 
to be dark Carboniferous Limestone. These fouts, which had quaint 
designs, were sent to various churches in France, Belgium, and England. 
Examples occur at Winchester Cathedral and other places in Hampshire ; 
at Lincoln Minster and Thornton Curtis in Lincolnsliire ; and at St. 
Peter's, Ipswich. These have previously been described in various places ; 
but the author has now brought illustrations and descriptions together 
imder one cover. We draw attention to the matter as it is possible other 
monuments of this period may occur in some of our churches, which may 
be identified as emenating from the same source. The illustrations are 
remarkably good. 

The History of the Spur, by C. de Lacy Lacy. London : The Connois- 
seur, 95 Temple Chambers. 82 pp., 4to, price 10/6 net. 

In tliis volume the author gathers together much reliable information 
in reference to the growth and evolution of the spur, from the short nail- 
like spike of Roman times, to the ' prick ' spur of the eleventh and 
twelfth centuries, and the rowelled spur of more modern times. By a large 
series of illustrations he shews the different types in use in various periods, 
obtained from museum specimens, ancient tombs, etc. He also gives 
examples of foriegn spurs, and what may be termed ' freak ' spurs. The 
subject is dealt with in a thoroughly scientific manner, and in many cases 
the author shews that tliis important branch of antiquities has been 
neglected, and specimens wrongly described and labelled, even in our 
national collections. He has drawn information from many sources, and 
has ransacked the provincial archaeological pubUcations for examples. 
Tliis is apparently the first book entirely devoted to this subject. We can 
find no reference to the famous Ripon rowels, and there is no index. 

igi2 Jan. 1. 



i6 Reviews and Bonk Notices. 

The Flight of Birds, by Giovanni a Borelli, is No. 6 of the ' Aeronautical 
Classics ' published by The Aeronautical Society, by Messrs. King, Sell 
and Olding, Ltd., 27 Chancery Lane, W.C., at i/-. 

This is a report of Borelli's remarkable work on the flight of birds, 
■which was printed in the seventeenth century, and in addition there is a 
useful Biographical notice of this early writer. 

Bird Protection and the Feather Trade, by Dr. A. Menegaux, of the 

National Museum of Natural History, Paris (Sampson, Low, Marston &Co., 
32 pp., 6d.), is from the original article published in the Bulletin de la- 
Societc Philomathique de Paris, and is a careful account of the great harm 
to bird life as a result of the demands of fashion. As an appendix the 
writer gives a ' List of Species of Birds which have become extinct within 
the last 500 years, or are in danger of disappearance,' and the list is appal- 
lingly long. 

The Life of the Common Gull told in Photographs, by C. Rubow. Lon- 
don : Witherby & Co. 1/6 net. 

In this pamphlet are reproductions of 25 charming photographs illus- 
trating various phases in the life of the Common Gull, and there are also 
six pages of letterpress, translated from the Dutch. The illustrations will 
equally appeal to the photographer and the ornithologist. 

What will the Weather Be ? by H. G. Bush. Cambridge : W. Heffer & 
Sons. 6d. net. 

This is a simply worded and carefully written pamphlet, which has 
already been referred to in these pages. The present, the second edition, 
has been entirely re-written, and some illustrations have been added. It 
is a useful httle handbook. 

Introduction to the Study of Rocks, and Guide to the Rock Collections ia 
Kilvingrove Museum, by Peter Macnair. Glasgow. 80 pp., 3d. 

This pamphlet is well written, and quite apart from the fact that it is 
a Museum Guide, it will be found to be a useful introduction to the study 
of rocks. It is written in clear language, and is well illustrated by photo- 
graphs and diagrams. 

We have received a List of Herbaceous and Alpine Plants in Roundhay 
Park, Leeds, compiled by Mr. A. J. Allsop, and sold at one penny. 

It is a very useful compilation and will doubtless be glaaly purchased 
by visitors to Roundhay Park. Readers can also find out where to buy 
manure and dried blood, virgin cork, homely cups of tea, sham blinds, 
drugs, hair felt, harness, sanitary appliances, and boots! There are also 
blank spaces for notes. 

With commendable punctuality. Part 9. of Major Barrett-Hamilton's 
History of British Mammals (Gurney & Jackson, price 2/6 net) has made 
its appearance. It deals with the Lesser Shrew, the Water Shrew, Hares and 
Rabbits, and the extinct Pika or Mouse-hare. There are some excellent 
illustrations of the heads and skulls of the shrews, etc., and a fine coloured 
plate of Stoats. So far as we have been able to test them, the particulars 
as to distribution, etc., are remarkably full and accurate, and it is apparent 
that the author has consulted almost every item of literature relating to 
the subject, no matter how brief the note may have been. 

From Messrs. Hutclunson & Co. we have received some parts of their 
Marvels of the Universe, which is appearing in 24 fortnightly parts at yd. 
net each. They are astonishingly well illustrated and varied in scope. 
Amongst the items dealt with are sunflames, self-luminant fishes, plants 
that feed on insects, tree-climbing crabs, bees, the octopus, Japanese fowls, 
coal wonderful birds' nests, waterspouts, ant-lions, etc., etc. In addition 
to the numerous excellent reproductions from photographs, there are some 
beautiful coloured plates. The ' Marvels of the Universe ' will certainly 
do much to popularise Natural History. 

Naturalist, 



17 
A YEAR'S SCIENTIFIC WORK IN YORKSHIRE: 

BEING 

THE YORKSHIRE NATURALISTS' UNION'S 

FIFTIETH ANNUAL REPORT, FOR 1911. 

Presented at Heckniond'wike, Dec. i6th, igii. 

The Forty-ninth Annual Meeting was held at Middlesbrough 
on December 17th, 1910, under the Presidency of Prof. A. C. 
Seward, F.R.S. A report of this successful meeting appeared in 
" The Naturalist " for January, and our journal also has con- 
tained Prof. Seward's Presidential Address on " The Jurassic 
Flora of Yorkshire." 

Seven Field Meetings have also been held, viz., to Harewood 
(Yorks., Mid. W.) on May 13th ; Castleton (Yorks., N.E.), Whit 
week-end, June 3rd-5th ; Barton-on-Humber (N. Lines.) with 
the Lincolnshire Naturalists' Union, July ist ; Ingleton (Yorks., 
N.W), August Bank Holiday week-end, August 5th-7th ; Hudders- 
field, for Harden Moss (Yorks., S.W.) September 9th ; the Fungus 
Foray was held at Mulgrave Woods, September 23rd-28th ; and 
the Marine Biology Committee met at Scarborough, September 
22nd-26th. Detailed reports of all these excursions appeared 
in " The Naturalist " immediately after they were held. 

The Annual Meeting for 1912 will be held at Hull, on Dec. 
14th, on the invitation of the Hull Scientific Club and Hull Geo- 
logical Society. 

Excursions for 1912.— 

Yorks., S.E. — Riccall Common, May 4th. 

N.E. — Filey and Bridlington, Whit week-end. 
„ Mid. W.— Tanfield for Hack Fall, June 15th. 

S.W.^ — Askern for Shirley Pool, July nth (Thursday). 
N.W. — Low Gill, August Bank Holiday. 

Fungus Foray, Sandsend for Mulgrave, September 2ist-26th. 

The Affiliated Societies.— There are now forty affiliated 
societies. The South West Yorkshire Entomological Society and 
the Brighouse Naturalists' Society joined during the year, and the 
Barnoldswick and Earby Scientific Society and the Doncaster 
Grammar School Society have ceased to exist. 

The Statistics furnished by the affiliated societies shew that 
their total membership is now 3301 (an average of ^^ per society). 
This, added to the membership of the Union, makes our total 
numerical strength 3741. 

The membership of the Union (without counting the affiliated 
societies, each of which is virtually a member), is now 440. The 
following new members and societies have joined during the, 
year* : — 

* This includes the Members elected at Heckmondwike. 
igi2 Jan. i. 



i8 Yorkshire Naturalists' Union : Annual Report, 1911. 

Mr. T. E. Amyot, Bradford. 
Mr. Joseph Anderton, Bradford. 
Mr. Fred Allison, Guisborough. 
Mr. H. R. H. Broomhead, Beverley 
Mr. W. Bagshaw, Birkenshaw, nr. Bradford. 
Mr. J. Meikle Brown, B.Sc, F.L.S., Sheffield. 
Mr. Alfred Burgess, B.Sc, Sheffield. 
Miss Charlotte A. Cooper, Robin Hood's Bay. 
Mr. Wm. Cash, F.G.S., Halifax (Hon. Life Member). 
Miss Josephine E. Crawshaw, Ilkley. 
Mr. Thos. Elliott, Heckmondwike. 
Mr. A. A. Fordham, Nunthorpe. 

Major Gerald Barrett-Hamilton, J. P., etc., Waterford, Ireland. 
Mr. H. E. Johnson, Bradford. 
Rev. G. J. Lane, F.G.S., Saltburn. 
Mr. A. Alex. Matthews, Ilkley. 
Miss C. B. Mitchell, Leeds. 
Mr. A. Moore, Cleckheaton. 
Prof. J. H. Priestley, Leeds. 
Mr. G. E. Priestman, Ilkley. 
' Mr. A. Pickles, Keighley. 
Mr. T. B. Roe, Scarborough. 
Mr. J. Rowntree, J. P., Scarborough. 
Mr. T. B. Roe, Scarborough. 
Rev. H. H. Shaw, M.A., York. 
Mr. Henry Sisson, Sedbergh. 
Mr. Wm. Sargeant, Barrow-in-Furness. 
Mr. Walter Stiles, B.A., Leeds. 
Mr. J. E. Stead, F.R.S.. Redcar. 
Mr. J. R. Stubley, Batley. 
Mr. H. Hamshaw Thomas, Cambridge. 
Mr. E. W. Taylor, York. 
Mr. G. Waddington, Leeds. 
Mr. G. C. Ward, Baildon. 
Brighouse Naturahsts' Society. 
South-west Yorkshire Entomological Society. 

Obituary. — We regret to record the death of Rev. E. Maule 
Cole, Wetwang ; J. R. Mortimer, Drifheld ; John Carlton, Hull ; 
Lord Airedale, Leeds ; Sir John Brigg, Keighley ; and J. Ibbot- 
son, Sheffield. 

References to the deaths of Mr. Mortimer and Mr. Cole were 
made in " The Naturalist " at the time. 

Divisional Secretaries and Local Treasurers. — These have 
been again most useful in arranging the excursions, looking after 
subscriptions, etc., and have been re-elected. 

General Committee. — The following have been added to the 
permanent general Committee : — 

Naturalist, 



Yorkshire NaUtralists Union : Annual Report, 1911. 19 

Jasper Atkinson, 33 St. Michael's Road, Headingley. 

Prof. Patten, The University, Sheffield. 

Oxley Grabham, M.A., The Museum, York. 

W. Falconer,^ Slaithwaite. 

Prof. Garstang, The University, Leeds. 

R. H. Philip, 447 Beverley Road, Hull. 

Transactions. — The question of the Union's Transactions 
is where it was last year, excepting that part of the Geological 
Bibliography appeared in " The Naturalist " for July last. 

SECTIONS AND COMMITTEES. 
VERTEBRATE SECTION. 

West Riding. — Mr. R. Fortune writes : — Summer migrants 
generally were later than usual in arriving, some of them, as 
for instance Swifts and Spotted Flycatchers, especially so. Swifts 
were almost as late as last year, which was exceptional. Chiff- 
chaffs and Willow Wrens were much less plentiful than usual, 
yet Wood Wrens appear to have been in their normal numbers. 
It looks almost as if some disaster had overtaken the two first- 
named, which the last, being later in arrival, had escaped 

Land Rails have been more abundant than for many years 
past, but until there is a radical change in their nesting habits, 
I am afraid their numbers will not increase to any extent. 

Whinchats and Redstarts continue to decrease in numbers, 
although Mr. Parkin appears to think that in his district this 
is not the case with regard to Whinchats. This state of things 
must be exceptional, as correspondents in various parts of the 
county are unanimous that there is a very great decrease in the 
numbers of these birds. 

Despite their late arrival, summer birds departed somewhat 
earlier. This early departure is often noticeable in exceptionally 
fine summers, the reason being, no doubt, as Mr. Booth has 
pointed out, that food being plentiful, birds mature more rapidly, 
and are consequently ready for their flight southwards somewhat 
earlier than usual. 

Winter migrants arrived in the West Riding a few days 
earlier than their average time, Redwings being first noticed on 
October 8th, and Fieldfares and Hooded Crows on October 14th. 

The fine summer is no doubt responsible for a very good 
crop of Grouse. They have been very abundant. Pheasants, 
both wild and hand-reared, have also done exceptionally well, 
but Partridges have only been an average crop. In some 
districts they have done very well, and in others very badly. 
Hungarian Partridges have been imported into the county in 
large numbers of late years, in order to supplement the rapidly 
diminishing stock of native birds. 

The more important records during the year were duly 
notified in " The Naturalist." ' 

1912 Jan. I. 



20 Yorkshire Naturalists' Union : Annual Report, 1911. 

North Riding.— Mr. T. H. Nelson writes :— On Whit Monday, 
a Honey Buzzard, which had evidently died on migration, was 
found washed up on the shore between Redcar and Marske. The 
usual autumn flights of waders. Curlew, Godwits, Knots and 
small shore-birds, appeared at the estuary, but did not produce 
much of value, excepting a Ruff and a Black-tailed Godwit. 

On Saturday, 30th September, there occurred one of those 
interesting irruptions of Skuas which have been noticed at 
intervals. A gale from the north-east suddenly sprang up about 
6 o'clock, continuing to blow strongly all the morning and accom- 
panied by heavy ^squalls of rain. Between 9 a.m. and i p.m., 
numbers of Skuas, both Richardson's and Pomatorhine, estimated 
at about 200, in parties of from five to twelve, were observed flying 
north-westwardj low down, along the shore, and crossing over the 
breakwater into the Teesmouth. In the afternoon the wind 
veered to N.W., and, although the Skuas continued to pass, the 
migration was less pronounced than in the morning, and the birds 
kept out beyond the breakers. Those that were identified were 
all mature individuals. On Sunday, ist October, the gale 
moderated, and only some half dozen Skuas were noticed flying 
well out to sea. During the storm on Saturday, two immature 
Sabine's Gulls were seen sitting on the shore, and in the afternoon 
a Grey Phalarope and another Sabine's Gull were reported. 

An immature example of Button's Skua, much decomposed, 
which had been found on the Whitby coast on 4th October, was 
forwarded to me for identification. 

For other detailed records see the pages of " The Naturalist." 

East Riding. — Mr. E. W. Wade writes : — The special feature 
of the season has been the cold, wet, and backward Spring, followed 
in May by a sudden change to tropical warmth and sunshine, 
lasting till the end of the Summer, with but one break of wet 
during the last week in June. To find a parallel we must go back 
to 1883, when practically no rain fell in the East Riding of York- 
shire from April to December. 

The result has been that our early breeding birds have been 
later than usual; the Rooks, in many cases, having had their 
eggs destroyed by frost, and Peewits being driven off the first 
nests by snowstorms. 

Migrants arrived late, but when they came commenced the 
duties of nest-building and incubation immediately, e.g., the 
Common Whitethroat, which arrived on 6th May, had, in one case, 
nearly finished building on 13th May. The Willow Wren, whose 
average date of arrival was 17th April, in one case had six eggs on 
23rd April. 

The breeding season for the smaller birds was a short one,, 
and the return journey to winter quarters commenced sooner than 
usual, the. warmth producing conditions parallel to those found 
in the Arctic' regions, a most unusual state of things here. 

Naturalist,., . 



Yorkshire Naturalists' Union : Annual Report, 1911. 21 

Swallows and Martins did not commence laying till June, but 
two or three broods were reared during the season. 

Game birds have done well, and Partiidges have at last taken 
a turn for the better, rearing unusually large coveys ; but in 
Holderness generally the bird is still scarce. 

Hornsea Mere and Spurn are dealt with in the Protection 
Committee's report, and I have only one fact to note in reference 
to the former, viz., that the Great Crested Grebe, in spite of the 
protection afforded to it, does not increase, only three pairs of 
birds breeding, as in 1910. 

Bempton. — The birds commenced to lay at the usual average 
date, and climbing went on uninterruptedly, first, second, and 
third scale being all gathered by the climbers. The Peregrine 
Falcon again nested in the usual eyrie, two young being hatched, 
one of which died in the nest, and the other was successfully reared. 

On 3rd October a Little Owl was shot at Leconfield, and 
another on 5th October, male and female ; the latter evidently 
having performed the duties of incubation. There is thus reason 
to suppose that the bird has possibly extended its breeding range 
into the East Riding of Yorkshire. 

Two Black Guillemots were shot at Filey during the second 
week in November. 

Mr. J. F. Musham reports that a Leach's Petrel was picked 
up in a dying condition near Hemingbrough Church, on Saturday, 
i8th November. 

Wild Birds' and Eggs' Protection Committee's Report, 1911.— 

•Mr. R. Fortune writes : — The amo'unt received in subscriptions 

for 191 1 is £"24 2s. 6d., which, together with the balance in hand, 

made a total fund of £67 los. 4d. The expenditure amounts to 

£39 IS. od., leaving a balance in hand of £28 9s. 4d. 

The subscriptions received do not cover our expenses, but 
no special efforts have been made to obtain subscriptions this 
year. Our thanks are especially due to the Right Hon. Charles 
G. Milnes Gaskell and Mr. W. H. St. Ouintin, for their generous 
support. 

The outstanding feature of our work during the year has 
been (after several attempts) to induce the County Council of 
the North Riding to adopt our recommendation for a comprehen- 
sive protection order for that Riding. 

Our suggestions and recommendations to the County Council 
for the East Riding for additions to their protection order were 
adopted. 

The time limit for the entire protection of the birds in the 
sanctuaries of Spurn and Hornsea having expired, we recom- 
mended their extension for a further period, and are pleased to 
report that the protection was extended as suggested. 

Through the efforts of this Committee, Yorkshire now 
possesses thoroughly efficient orders in each Riding. 

jgi2 Jan i. 



22 



Yorkshire Naturalists' Union : Annual Report, 191 1. 



The experiment of establishing Bearded Tits at Hornsea has- 
every prospect of being successful, as at least one pair of birds 
have nested and reared their young. 

We have again to thank our President for his generosity and 
services in this matter. He undertook the whole cost and also 
the superintendence of liberating the birds. 

Our action brought upon the President a most ridiculous 
tirade from the Editors of " British Birds." The Committee 
can, however, well afford to ignore any remarks appearing in that 
obituary record of rare British birds. The fact of their comparing 
the introduction of Little Owls into this country with that of 
Bearded Tits, is, in itself, sufficient evidence that their remarks 
are unworthy of serious attention. * 

The birds at Spurn and Hornsea have done well, and the 
nesting season has been a good one. At Spurn a party of Red- 
shanks have nested for the first time. What is no doubt an 
offshoot of our colony of Lesser Terns, nested to the number of 
fifteen pairs at a more northern locality. 

The Peregrines at Bempton were well looked after. 

Stone Curlews have nested safely in the localities we have- 
under, special protection. At the beginning of the year, letters 
were sent to the owners of other estates where these birds nest, 
and in every case we were promised that the utmost would be 
done to give the birds efficient protection. 

We have had the co-operation of the police in several cases 
where the protection orders had been infringed, and convictions 
have been obtained in many cases, for capturing Goldfinches, etc. 

Receipts for 1911. 
Right Hon. Charles G. Milnes Gaskell . . 
W. H. St. Quintin, Esq. 
W. J. Beaumont, Esq. 
Dr. R. S. Bishop . . 
H. B. Booth, Esq. 
Oxley Grabham, Esq. 
Digby Legard, Esq. 
Claude Leatham, Esq. 
W. Denison Roebuck, Esq. 
E. W. Wade, Esq. 
Johnson Wilkinson, Esq. 
York Field Naturalists' Society 
Sidney H. Smith, Esq. . . 



£ 


s. 


d. 


10 








5 








I 


I 





I 








I 


I 





I 


I 





I 


I 





I 


I 





I 


I 








10 


6 





10 


6 





10 


6 





5 






Balance in hand from 1910 



£24 2 6 
43 7 10 

£6y 10 4 



* See the Naturalist, October, pp. 348-350. 



Naturalist, 



Yorkshire Naturalists' Union : Annual Report, 191 1. 23 



Payments for 1911. 

Wages, Spurn 

,, Hornsea . . 
Donation (Spurn) 

,, (Bempton) 

,, {re Stone Curlews) i , 

do. 2. 

Dawson & Loncaster's account 
Mr. Norman Lee's account 

Mr. Fattorini's account for Badges for Watchers 
Mr. Ackrill's account posters for Spurn and Hornsea o 9 
Protection Schedule Forms 
Secretaries' Expenses, Postages, etc. . 
Subscriptions entered in error for 1910 , 
Rent of Room 



Balance in hand 



£ 


s. 


d. 


14 








14 








I 


I 





I 





a 


I 








I 








2 


2 





I 


9 









19 

9 



6 





2 








7 


6 


I 


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10 





£39 
28 


I 
9 




4 


£67 


10 


4 



Yorkshire Mammals, Reptiles, and Fishes Investigation 
Committee.^ — The Committee have to report that the outstanding 
feature of the year's work has been the addition of a reptile to 
the Yorkshire list ; Mr. W. J. Clarke having detected a local 
example of the Logger-headed Turtle in the Scarborough Museum. 

The abnormal character of the season has had a two-fold 
effect. Owing to the drought, salmon and sea-trout have to a 
large extent been unable to get up the streams, and from the 
same cause there has been a marked increase in numbers of 
Field Voles, and other small mammals. Mr. Riley Fortune has 
furnished customary account of unusually large examples of 
Freshwater Fishes taken, and Mr. H. B. Booth draws attention 
to the partial character of the destruction caused to fish in the 
Wharfe by escape of ammoniacal liquor in October, Trout suffering 
enormously, and numerous other species not at all. Various 
records of the more uncommon species have been sent in. 

ENTOMOLOGICAL SECTION. 

Lepidoptera. — Messrs. Whitaker and Morley write : — In 
spite of the long hot summer, reports of the scarcity of insects have 
been received from all parts of the county. " Sugar " has been 
an almost continual failure, and other modes of collecting have 
been equally unsuccessful. A few usually common species, 
especially amongst the butterflies, have appeared in excessive 
numbers. The three Pierids have swarmed, and P. napi has 
appeared in three broods in the West Riding. 

1912 Jan. I 



24 Yorkshire Naturalists' Union : Annual Report, 191 1. 

Mr. J. Porter records what he regards as an immigration of 
„P. hrassiccB at Hull. About the end of July these insects appeared 
in thousands, but fortunately very few larvae resulted. 

Mr. Morley records three specimens of A^. aurago from Skel- 
manthorpe, and melanic H. defoliaria and aurantiaria (taken by 
himself), and black A. menyanthidis (taken by Mr. H. Dyson), 
are reported from the same district. 

A. atropos has occurred in the larval state at Barnsley 
'{Whitaker), and imagines have been captured at Shepley (Stephen- 
son), and Middlestown, a fine melanic specimen (Hooper). Mr. 
H. Lodge records the capture of a fine specimen of Deilephila 
livornica at Normanton. Mr. J. F. Musham comments on the un- 
usual abundance of P. rapce, C. phleas, V. tirticoe, and E. hyper- 
anthtis, in the Selby district. 

Neuroptera and Trichoptera. — Mr. G. T. Porritt writes : — 
From a Neuropterist's point of view, the most interesting county 
event was the finding of the fine and local dragon-fly Lihelhda 
fiilva by Mr. Corbett at Shirley Pool, near Askern, at the beginning 
of June. Some ten days later Mr. Corbett kindly took me to the 
place, when the species was still out in abundance, and the sight 
of so many on the wing, together with the natural beauty of the 
spot, was a delight long to be remembered. 

With it were Libellula quadriniacidata and Brachytron pra- 
tense (a good species), less commonly, but yet in fair numbers ; 
and of the smaller members of the order Pyrrhosoma nymphula, 
Ischnura elegans, and Agrion puella. 

Other noteworthy Neuroptera and Trichoptera during the 
year were Nemoura prcecox, which I again found in Harden 
Clough, Huddersfield, on April 15th ; and in the same locality 
Hemerobitis atrifrons, H. orotyp^ls, and Rhyacophila obliterata, the 
first mentioned being new to the Huddersfield district, occurred 
on the Union's excursion there on September gth. 

At the Union's excursion at Ingleton, on August 7th, I was 
glad to find Neureclipsis himaculata, thus making a second York- 
shire locality ; and there also Hemerohius orotypus occurred. 
Lastly, among some Trichoptera taken by the Rev. Cyril D. Ash, 
at Saxton, near Tadcaster, were three specimens of Limnophilus 
politus, making a second county locality for that insect also. 

Coleoptera Committee. — Mr. H. H. Corbett writes : — The 
season, from a collector's point of view, was very bad ; beetles 
being few in both species and numbers. Notwithstanding, many 
interesting additions to the county list have been made, of which 
the following is a list.: — Bemhidinm hipunctatum L., Hydroporus 
longiilns Muls., Helophortts arvernictisMuls., Hydrochtts angustatus 
,Germ., Stenus nitens Steph., Acntlia inflata Gyll., Siipha dispar 
Herbst., Lcemophlceus pusillus Sch., Psammcechus bipunctatus 
F., Monotonia spinicollis Aube., Ennearthron cormitum G3'll., 
Clytus arcuatus L., Saperda carcharias L., Bruchus sp. ? This 
last insect is still unnamed, and possibly may be new to science. 

Naturalist, 



Yorkshire Naturalists Union: Annual Report, igii. 25 

Yorkshire Hymenoptera, Diptera, and Hemiptera Com- 
mittee. — Considerable numbers of specimens of Hymenoptera 
have been sent to the Referees, with the result that about ten 
sawfiies, thirteen Ichneumonidae, and one species of the Oxyura 
group, twenty-four in all, have been added to the Yorkshire list. 

Notes on the season's collecting have been sent in by Mr. 
H. H. Corbett for Doncaster, Mr. Rosse Butterfield for 
Keighley, and Mr. John F. Musham for Selby, while Mr. 
Alfred Hodgson has done some collecting in and round Leeds. 
It appears from their observations that the fine dry summer of 

1911 has not been so favourable for Hymenoptera as might have 
been expected ; the ground having been too hard-baked for the 
burrowing species. The social species, wasps in particular, have 
been abundant. The Diptera sent for identification have not 
yet been returned by the Referee, nor have any observations 
been submitted by members, except by Mr. Musham. Only one 
species of Hemiptera has been submitted, Picromerus bidens from 
Skelmanthorpe. 

CONCHOLOGICAL SECTION. 

Mr. Musham writes : — The extraordinary drought of the last 
summer must be held responsible for the meagre report, all but 
the common species having been conspicuous by their absence. 

But note must be made of the occurrence at Bridlington of 
some lovely varieties of Helix nemoralis, collected by Master 
Stainforth, including that evanescent form var. violacea lahiata 
(Taylor) ; and a colony of Hyalinia liicida (Drap.) in a back- 
garden at Selby. 

Mr. A. J. Moore reports adding a few fresh localities for the 
East Riding for some of the scarcer forms. 

Marine Biology. — At the annual meeting of the Committee at 
Scarborough, the Scarborough Field Naturalists were able to add 
many new finds to their list of records. The whole of the finds in 
all branches have been printed in " The Naturalist " for December 
with the exception of six sea- worms, which will be added in the 
January number. The names were sent after the list was in print. 
This list will be useful as forming the basis for future records. 

We are pleased to notice that the recent revival in marine 
biological work has resulted in the local museums paying more 
attention to this branch of natural history. 

BOTANICAL SECTION. 

Mr. J. Fraser Robinson writes : — Perusal of the monthly 
parts of the present year's " Naturalist " will be quite sufficient 
lo show that there is no decrease of interest in botanical science. 
On the contrary there is an almost unexpected revival, especially 
in the so-called "' floristic " phase, for which we believe the York- 
shire Naturalists' Union is certainly to some extent happily 

1912 Jan. I. 



26 Yorkshire Naturalists' Union : Annual Rport, ^1911. 

' T-esponsible. At none of the appointed excursions has the subject 
been neglected, and good results have rewarded investigators ; 
whilst many of the affiliated societies can show a good year's 
work. We note that the veteran, Mr. J. G. Baker, is still adding new 
species and new stations to his North Yorkshire Flora ; whilst in 
the East Riding a new station for an almost or entirely extinct 
plant, Schcenus nigricans, has been discovered at Kellythorpe,. 
near Drifheld, where it grows plentifully, with abundance of 
Carex paniculata and Lastrcea thelypteris. Dr. Lee's recent 
supplemental list for the West Riding is further evidence of 
our initial statement. 

Botanical Survey Committee. — Interesting observations on 
vegetation problems have been made by members of the committee 
during the year, and on the excursions increasing interest is being 
taken in this line of work. It is hoped in the near future means 
may be found to publish the results obtained, and also to establish 
Yorkshire Survey work on a still more definite basis. 

Bryological Committee. — Mr. W. Ingham reports :— Mr. J. J. 
Marshall has added Tortilla vahliana, Bryum warneum, and Bryum 
torquescens to the Lincolnshire Flora. 

W, Ingham found Tetraplodon mnioides, Polytrichum commune 
var. perigoniale, and Hypnum fluitans var. J eanhernati at the 
Castleton meeting of the Yorkshire Naturalists' Union ; also 
Swartzia montana var. compacta on Ingleboro' at the Yorkshire 
Naturalists' Union meeting ; the only other Yorkshire record 
for this distinct variety being by the Clough River at Sedbergh, 
also by W. Ingham. 

Mr. C. A. Cheetham adds that he obtained Zygodon lapponicus 
B. and S., and Th. philibertii as additions to the Yorkshire Flora, 
from Ingleton ; and from the same locality, Grimmia torquata, 
previously found in the county, at White Force, Teesdale, only. 

Mycological Committee. — Mr. C. Crossland writes : — The 
fourth series of additions to the known Yorkshire fungi since 
1905 was published in the April issue of " The Naturalist.". 

The Rev. Canon W. Fowler, Mr. Cheesman, and the writer 
represented the Committee at the Yorkshire and Lincolnshire 
joint excursion to Barton-on-Humber (" Naturalist," August, pp. 
294-5) ; Messrs. M. Malone and J. W. H. Johnson at the Ingleton 
Excursion, where ten additions were made to the North-West 
Division (" Naturalist," September, p. 326) ; Messrs. C. H 
Broadhead, W. E. L. Wattam, and Mrs. Whiteley, reported on 
the fungi seen at the Huddersfield Excursion (" Naturalist," 
October, p. 366). 

An unofficial foray was held at Sandsend for Mulgrave in 
May, the results of which are added to the Annual Foray in the 
same district in September (" Naturalist," November, pp. 337- 
393). It will be seen that of the 488 species collected, 138 are addi- 
tions to the Sandsend and Mulgrave districts, of these 45 are new 

Naturalist, 



Yorkshire Naturalists' Union : Annual Report, 1911. 27 

to Yorkshire, including three new to the British Flora (and another 
to add later), and two new to Science. A full diagnosis of the 
two new species, and short description of those new to Britain will 
be published in " The Naturalist " in due course. The Committee 
recommend to the Union another foray, at the very least, in the 
same district, September 21st to 26th. 

Messrs. W. D. Roebuck, Leeds ; W. N. Cheesman, Selby ; 
James Needham, Hebden Bridge ; Thos. Hebden, Keighley ; 
A. E. Peck and T. B. Roe, Scarbro', have sent many interesting 
species from their respective districts ; Mr. Corbett, a remarkably 
fine specimen of Polyporus varius, and Mr. M. H. Stiles, Doncaster, 
a beautiful pinky-salmon coloured mould new to Britain. 

A very able and opportune paper on " The Study of Fungi by 
Local Natural History Societies " was read by Mr. H. Wager, F.R.S., 
before the Committee of Delegates at the meeting of the British 
Association in Portsmouth. The work of the Mycological Com- 
mittee of the Yorkshire Naturalists' Union was loyally held up as 
an example of what may be done by persistent investigation. 
60 water-colour drawings by the writer, 60 stereo-photos by 
Mr. A. Clarke, and a number of photos by Mr. A. E. Peck, all of 
Yorkshire fungi, was sent, by request, to help to ihustrate the 
address. The paper appeared in the October issue of " The Natura- 
list " (pp. 351-356). 

GEOLOGICAL SECTION. 
Geological Photographs Committee.— Mr. A. J. Stather 
writes : — This Committee has added the f oho wing photographs 
to its collection during the year : — 
By Mr. J. T. Dyson— 

Sections taken at the New Joint Dock, Hull. 
No. I. — Showing large trees taken from the peat bed. 
No. 2. — Section showing position of Shell Bed. 
No. 3 and 4.- — Detail sections of Shell Bed. 
By Mr. J. W. Stather— 

No. I. — Section in chalk at Flambro' Head, showing chalk 

crumpled by ice pressure. 
No. 2. — Boulder on beach, Silex Bay, Flambro'. Shap 
boulder in foreground. Mountain Limestone boulder 
in the background. 
No. 3.- — Large block of Estuarine Sandstone, having fallen 
about 50 feet on to the floor of Stoup Brow Quarry 
(alum shales), Robin Hood's Bay. 
Glacial Committee. — Mr. J. W. Stather writes : — The members 
of the Hull Geological Society Boulder Committee have done a 
fair amount of field work during the past year. 

Filey. — On the beach at Filey, a few yards north of Hun- 
manby Gap, a boulder of Bunter sandstone, 30 yards long, was 
noted, embedded in the glacial clays which form the beach in 

1912 Jan. I. 



■28 Yorkshire Naturalists' Union : Annual Report, 1911. 

this locality. Mr. R. M. Robson reports a boulder of garneti- 
ferous schist, between one and two tons in weight, at an elevation 
of 142 feet, three-quarters of a mile west of Filey. 

HoLDERNESS.— In June, Dr. V. Milthers, of the Danish 
Geological Survey, visited this country, and spent several days 
on the East coast of Yorkshire examining the boulders. He was 
much impressed by the great display of Scandinavian boulders 
chiefly from the Christiania district, in South Holderness. One 
result of his visit will probably be the identification of some further 
Scandinavian rocks in East Yorkshire. 

South Ferriby, Lincs. — Mr. T. Sheppard, F.G.S., records an 
exposure of the clays beneath the Red Chalk on the South Humber 
shore at South Ferriby. In these are embedded a number of 
Jarge cake-shaped nodules, all of which are glacially striated on 
their upper surfaces, the striae being from east to west, parallel 
with the old course of the Humber estuary. Close by, an exposure 
in the solid lower chalk has recently occurred as a result of the 
covering deposits having been removed by the changes in the 
course of the Humber waters. This exposure reveals the pre- 
glacial bed of the Humber estuary, and it is interesting to observe 
that this also is striated in the same direction as the striae on the 
cement-nodules already referred to. 

Thornholme, E. Yorks. — Reported by Mr. W. H. St. 
Quintin. Cheese-shaped Boulder of Augite syenite, nine inches 
in diameter, found on the drift gravel slope which runs back from 
the Bridlington road, just east of Thornholme Village, at 120 
feet above O.D. 

Coast Erosion. — Mr. J. J. Burton writes : — The amount of 
erosion of the Lias chffs on the Cleveland Coast has been in- 
considerable during the past year. Falls of small portions of 
chff have occurred, but the heaped-up hard rock debris at the base 
has acted generally as a breakwater against the inrush of stormy 
sea waves. 

Fossil Flora and Fauna of tlie Carboniferous Roclcs Committee. 

Mr. H. Culpin writes : — Further sinkings in the neighbourhood 
of Doncaster have given favourable opportunities during the 
year for the study of the coal measures above the Barnsley seam. 
The results, which it is hoped will soon be available for pubhcation, 
markedly confirm the utihty of the marine bands, and the An- 
thracomya phillipsi beds, as guides to position in the rocks gone 
through. 

Jurassic Flora Committee.— Mr. J. J. Burton writes :— The 
members of this committee live, in many cases, so far apart that 
meetings have not been convenient ; but individual members 
have been actively investigating newly found plant-beds as well 
as the more well-known beds. In consultation with Professor 
Seward, a definite line of procedure was adopted, viz. : — 

Naturalist, 



Yorkshire Naturalists' Union : Annual Report, igii. 29 

(i) Careful record of localities examined with lists of 
specimens and exact position of plant-beds. 

(2) Investigation of new localities, especially inland. 

(3) Detailed study of certain species in association w^ith 

others. 

(4) Search for specimens shewing structure. 

Professor Seward and Mr. Thomas have kindly undertaken 
to describe and determine specimens. 

The work done has been more or less preliminary up to the 
present, but several promising inland beds hitherto unknown or 
unworked have been discovered, and are being investigated. 

OTHER COMIVIITTEES. 

Yorkshire Arachnida Committee. — Mr. Falconer writes : — 
The exceptional weather in the past year has not been without its 
effect on spider life. In some districts, where the situation and 
geological formation tended to conditions of excessive dryness, 
individuals have been less plentiful than usual ; but in others, 
where, in spite of the long drought, some degree of moisture was 
retained, the reverse has been the case. 

Not only has the distributional range of many rare species 
been extended during the year, but 13 species new to the county 
have also been discovered, viz., in the N. Riding, 5, Entelecara 
thorellii Westr., Hypselistes jacksonii Camb., Troxochrus ignobilis 
Camb., Xysticus sabulosus Hahn, Ero camhridgii Kulcz ; in the 
E. Riding, 3, Theridion impressimi L. Koch, Bathyphantes 
setiger F. O. P., Camb., Pirata latitans Bl. ; and in the W. 
Riding, 5, Diplocephalus protnberans Camb. ($ new to Britain), 
D. castaneipes Sim., Arceoncus crassiceps Westr., Epeira sturmii 
Hahm, and Pisaura mirahilis Clerck. For particulars of these, 
with one exception,' reference should be made to " New and Rare 
Yorkshire Spiders " (" Naturalist," August 1911, pp. 283-8). 
The Hypselistes nov. sp. there noted, appears from information 
since received, to have been an error, and must therefore be 
deleted, so that the total for the county is 309. 

Further details of the Committee's work will appear elsewhere 
in 'The Naturalist.' 

Committee of Suggestions for Research. — It is gratifying to 
record that suggestions for special observations made by the 
Committee are bearing fruit, and much attention has been paid 
to definite distribution problems during the Union's Excursions. 

Appeals for advice for definite lines of work by local societies 
have .been received, and the suggestions given are being carried 
out. 

The Yorkshire Micro-Zoology and Micro-Botany Committee.— 
The interest in the work of this Committee is kept up by a few of 
its members, individually. Some of the work was recorded in 
'■ The Naturalist " ; more will shortly appear. Young recruit^s 
are desired. 

1912 Jan. I. 



30 Yorkshire Naturalist Union : Annual Report, 191 1. 

Soppitt Memorial Library. — A very valuable addition has been 
made to the library during the year in the shape of the MSS. of 
Massee and Crossland's " Fungus Flora of Yorkshire." These 
contain all the records on which the Flora is based ; also thousands 
of detailed records of which only a general and summarised state- 
ment was published. The volumes will therefore be invaluable 
for reference, and for purposes of future local floras. For such a 
purpose the MSS. were given to Mr. W. Denison Roebuck, and 
finding them so valuable in this respect, he and Mr. E. J. T. Ingle 
had them bound in six volumes. These are rendered still more 
valuable in that they have pasted the printed slip for each species 
to face the MS. on which it was founded. Our thanks are extended 
to Messrs. Massee and Crossland, and also to Messrs. Roebuck and 
Ingle, for the MSS., and their preservation in this convenient 
form. 

Correction : — In the Soppitt Library report for last year 
delete the comma between the words " Farnley Tyas," and the 
last two lines should read thus " — varieties ; " The Study of Fungi 
in Yorkshire " ; " Plants of Pecket Wood " ; and " An i8th 
Century Naturalist : (= James Bolton, Hahfax)." 

British Association. — Mr. Sheppard attended the meeting of 
the British Association, but on account of someone having blun- 
dered, no announcement was made of the first meeting of the 
Committee of Delegates from Corresponding Societies (which was 
held on the first day, the journals for which were " off "), and 
consequently it was badly attended. He left the meeting before 
the second Conference of Delegates, and consequently has nothing 
to report. 

" The Naturalist " has been regularly published, and by having 
more lines to a page, it has been possible this year to include all 
the suitable articles and notes submitted without having addi- 
tional pages. 

Secretariate.' — At the recent meeting of the Executive, the 
following letter was read: — "I beg to tender my resignation 
as Hon. Secretary. During the nine years I have held the 
office, the Union has continued its excellent work in the 
county, and besides the various meetings and excursions 
which have been held, steps have been taken to complete the 
numerous memoirs which had previously been in various stages 
of incompleteness. In this way Baker's " North Yorkshire," 
Massee and Crossland's " Fungus Flora," the second edition of 
Porritt's " Lepidoptera," and " The Birds of Yorkshire " have 
been completed and published. In addition, two parts of the 
Transactions (Miscellaneous Series) have been issued, containing 
the Annual Reports, Reports of Fungus Forays, Geological 
Bibliographies, and reprints of excursion programmes. The cost 
of the printing and publication of these monographs, etc., in the 

Naturalist, 



Yorkshire Naturalists' Union : Annual Report, 1911. 31 

ordinary way, would have more than accounted for the whole of 
the Union's income during that period, but by arrangement with 
the publishers, and by numerous subscriptions and private 
donations from the authors and their friends, the work has been 
possible. 

The Union's funds have also been substantially assisted by 
the arrangement made for the sale of its books to the Hull Public 
Library, and by royalties of £40 in one case, and £30 in another, 
received from the publishers. 

The nine volumes of " The Naturalist " issued during my 
term of office have also, I trust, given satisfaction, and they cer- 
tainly have contained many more pages and plates than was 
previously possible. 

Since 1903 the Union has published something like eight 
thousand pages of printed matter, every one of which has been 
edited by the Secretary, and a fair proportion has been written 
by him. 

Of the present membership of the Union, no fewer than three 
hundred have been elected since 1903, a large proportion being 
nominated by myself. 

In view of the preceding, I feel I have now done a fair share of the 
Union's work, and, without intending in any way to lose an interest 
in its aims and objects, I shall be glad if the executive would make 
arrangements for me to be relieved of the secretarial duties at the 
end of the year. 

Yours faithfully, 

T. SHEPPARD." 

It is with great regret that the Executive felt themselves 
compelled to accept this resignation, and they recommended that 
he be elected an Honorary Life Member of the Union, as a slight 
recognition of the services he has rendered to the Union as Hon. 
Secretary for the past nine years. This recommendation was 
unanimously adopted. 

The Presidency for 1912. — On the invitation of the Executive, 
the presidency for 1912 has been accepted by Mr. J. W. Taylor, 
of Leeds. 

Affiliated Societies.— A list of these, with the secretaries, 
appeared in " The Naturalist " for January last. 

Financial Statement.— 



J912 Jan. I. 



32 Yorkshire Naturalists' Union : Annual Report, 1911. 



iNCOME AND EXPENDITURE STATEMENT, 
12 months to November 30, 1911. 



INCOME. 



Members' Annual Subscriptions 
Levies from Associated Societies 
Arrears received during 

year £46 6 

Less : Amount taken to 
Account in Balance 
Sheet 1910 . . . . 32 3 



115 14 
11 10 



Special Appeal Fund [contra) . . 

Life Members' Subscriptions (cotitra) 

Sales of Publications — 

Transactions . . . . 9 1 
Lees Flora . . . . 10 6 
Porritt's Lepidoptera 5 



4 


2 11 


2 


4 G 


1 


1 C 



Sundries 



Naturalist " — 
Subscriptions 
Sales 
Recognition fee 



I s. d. 

95 

3 6 

5 0-0 



100 3 6 



£256 4 6 



EXPENDITURE. 

£ s. 

Expenses of Meetings 9 7 

Printing and Stationery (General A/c) 23 2 
Postages, Telegrams, etc. (Hon. Sec- 
retary's Account) 18 11 

Clerkage (Hon. Secretary's Account) 20 

Rent, etc., of Room, Hull . . , . 6 17 
Printing and Stationery (Hon. 

Treasurer's Account, 2 

Postages (Hon. Treasurer's Account) 1 15 
SpecialAppeal Fund: 1910 £0 8 
(Contra) 1911 2 4 6 

11 12 

Life Members' Subscriptions (contra) 7 1 
Cost of Publications : — 

Annual Report, 1910. . £15 3 

Less Provision in A/cs 

for 1910 13 

2 3 
Annual Report, 1911 (es- 
timate).. - S 

10 3 

" Naturalist " 

Subscribers .. ..£95 2 G 

Life Members' Copies 6 10 

Exchanges 2 15 

Reprints 1 18 

Odd numbers .. .. 18 9 

Binding and sundries 2 5 1 

Postages 4 4 4 

Balance, being excess of Income over 
Expenditure during 1911 



BALANCE SHEET, November 30, 1911. 



LIABILITIES. 

£ s. d. 
Amounts due from Union — 

"Naturalist" .. 108 15 1 
Annual Report, 1910 15 3 
Sundries . . . . 22 16 5 



Annual Report, 1911 (estimate) 
Subscriptions received in advance 
Life Members' Account 
" Hey " Legacy Account . . 



146 14 

8 

15 

29 2 

20 



£204 12 6 



ASSETS. 

£ s. 
Cash at Bank .. .. 32 11 
Cash with Hon. Sec- 
retary 12 4 



Subscriptions in Arrears 

Less : Amount written 

off as unrealisable . . 

Balance, being excess of 
Liabilities over Assets, 
Dec. 1st, 1910 .. .. 

Less : Income in excess 
of Expenditure during 
1911 



(L 



.113 13 

31 19 


8 
6 


£256 4 


6 





£ s. d. 



133 9 1 
L«s ; Special Appeal Fund 11 12 6 



121 16 7 
£204 12 6 



Note : — The Union has a stock of Publications, and there is also a liability on Life 

Members' A/c, not included above. 

9/12/11. H. CULPIN, Hon. Treasurtr. 



Natnralist, 



New and Cheap Edition, just out. 

YORKSHIRE FOLK-TALK 

with 

CHARACTERISTICS OF THOSE WHO SPEAK IT 
IN THE NORTH AND EAST RIDINGS 

BY THE 

Rev. M. C. F. MORRIS, B.C.L., M.A., 

Late Rector of Nunhiirnhohne, Yorkshire. 



45^ P'^S^^'t Crown 8vo, Strongly Bound in Cloth Beards, 
•with Gilt Top. 4/6 net. 



SECOND EDITION 

With an Addendum to the Glossary. 



EXTRACT FROM PREFACE. 

Although the first edition of Yorkshire Folk-Talk met 
with so favourable a reception from the public, and the 
issue was so soon exhausted, it is only now, after a lapse of 
nineteen years, that I have found it practicable to put forth 
a new and cheaper one. 

During the past twenty years we find that the broad 
Yorkshire talk of former days has, in most districts, suffered 
loss from contact with that of the world outside. The old 
folks pass away from us, and those of another, though not 
better tongue, take their place. But this fact should only 
make us cherish the more that which still is left to us. And 
assuredly, whether the language of the people of East York- 
shire be living or dead, it will well repay careful study. The 
more closely we examine it, the more interesting it becomes. 



London: A. Brown & Sons, Ltd., 5 Farruigdon Avenue, E.C. 
And at Hull and York. 



Student's Elements of Geology* 

By SIR CHARLES LYELL. 

Revised by Professor J. W. Judd, C.B., F.R.S. 

New and Revised Edition. With 600 Illustrations. Crown 8vo. 

7/6 net. 

"The Student's Lyell," edited by Professor J. W. Judd, is based on the 
well-known " Student's Elements of Geology " by Sir Charles Lyell. The object 
of this book is to illustrate the principles and methods of modern geological 
science as first clearly formulated in Lyell's writings. The new and revised 
edition of the work has not only been brought up to date by references to new 
facts and arguments, the outcome of the researches of the last fifteen years, but 
is prefaced by a historical introduction, describing the events which originally 
led up to the preparation of Lyell's epoch-making works. 

JOHN MURRAY, ALBEMARLE STREET, LONDON, W. 



WATKINS & DONCASTER, 

ISr^TTJR^LISTS, 
36, STRAND, LONDON, W.C. 

(Five Doors from Charing Cross), 

Keep in stock every description of 

APPARATUS, CABINETS, BOOKS, AND SPECIMENS 

for Collectors of 

BIRDS' EGGS, BUTTERFLIES, MOTHS, ETC. 

Catalogfue (96 pages) sent post free on application. 



LIFE HISTORIES OF BRITISH LEPIDOPTERA, mounted 
on food plant in neat g^iazed cases. 

British Lepidoptera - 1,400 species. British Coleoptera - 2,000 species. 
Tropical Butternies - 3,000 „ Tropical „ - 8,000 „ 

A large number of good second-hand Storeboxes, also Cabinets. 
Particulars from A. FORD, South View, Irving Road, 

Stourfield Park, Bournemouth. 



LANTERN SLIDES— Bird Studies, 
Varieties, and periodical Changes 
in Plumage — beautifully coloured. 
Sample slide, Is. 6d. 

G. PARKIN, York St., Wakefleld. 

LANTERN SLIDES 

Botany (including Plant 
Associations), Zoolog:y, 
Geologry, Palseontologry, 
& Prehistoric Anthropology. 

SALE or HIRE. 

Lists Free. State Subject. 

J. HOLMES, 43 \\ig\\ St., Rochester. 



To Subscribers, 7s. 6d., per annum, post free. 
THE ANNALS OF 

Scottish Natural History. 

A Quarterly Magazine. 

Edited by J. A. Harvie-Browne, F.R.S. E., 
F.Z.S., Prof. James W. H. Traill, M.A., M.D., 
F.R.S., F.L.S., Wm. Eagle Clarke, F.L.S., etc. 

This Magazine — a continuation of ' The Scot- 
tish Naturalist' founded in 1871 — was established 
under the present editorship in January 1892, for 
the purpose of extending the knowledge of and 
interest in the Zoology and Botany of Scotland. 
The Annals is entirely devoted to the publica- 
tion of Original Matter relating to the Natural 
History of Scotland. 

Edinburgh: David Douglas, 10, Castle Street. 



Printed at Browns' Savile Press, 40, George Street, Hull, and published by 

A. Brown & Sons, Limited, at 5, Farringdon Avenue in the City of London. 

January ist, 191 2. 



FEBRUARY, 1912. 



No. 661 

(N: 439 •/ turrtnt ttrif). 




A MONTHLY ILLUSTRATED JOURNAL OF 

NATURAL HISTORY FOR THE NORTH OF ENGLAND. 

EDITED BY 

T. SHEPPARD, F.G.S., F.R.G.S., F.S. A.Scot., 

Thb Museums, Hull ; /^VcOnian inS^ 

T. W. WOODHEAD, Ph.D., F.L.S.p" 



Tkchnical College, Huddersfield. 



MAR 1^ 



WITH TMB ASSISTANCE AS RBFBRBES IN SPECIAL DEPARTMEKTS OW 

J. aiLBERT BAKER. P.R.S. P.L.S.. GEO. T. PORRITF. P.U,S^^^|iS,. 

Prof. P. P. KENDALL. M.Sc. P.Q.S.. JOHN W. TAYLOR. ^---.~£L^ 

T. H. NELSON. M.B.O.U.. WILLIAM WEST. P.L.S.. 

RILEY FORTUNE, F.Z.S. 



Contents : — 

Nctea and Comments :-A Prehistoric Route ; Museum for Ripon ; The Scottish Naturalist ; 
MicroscopicStructureof Coal; New Species; A New (?) Ox 

Yorkshire Naturalists' Union at Heckmondwike 

Petrology In Yorkshire— ^//rerfHa»'fte»-,A/.^.,f.i?.S...F.G.S 

The Boring Habits of the PhoIas-Jo/in /rwng, Af.D 

Obituary Notice— Mary L. Armitt 

Bdella bexoptbalma Qeryals (mustT2ited)-C. F.George M.R.C.S 

The Beetles of the iScarborough Diistrfct-£. C/»fls, //om» . 

Notes on the Faeces of Young Birds— H^. Wilson 

Yorkshire Arachnlda In 191 i—T^^"i. Fa^coney 

Yorkshire Entomology in ipri-^^. »'/it7«ftera«ff£.B«>'/o»rf 

1:1.1.4 NAto.- Halvsites catenularia at Cragg Hill, Yorkshire (Illustrated)'; Black-belhed 
'^'•"* '^D*rpe7a?SingtonrTSe Feeding Habits of the Gulls in the Scarborough District 

Yorkshire Naturalists' Union— Vertebrate Section 

New Books on Geology, etc _ 

News from the Magazines 

Northern News 

Reviews and Book Notices 

Proceedings of Provincial Scientific Societies 

Illustrations 

LONDON : 
A. Brown & Sons, Limited, 5, Farringdon Avenue, E.G. 

And at Hull and York. 
Printers and Publishers to the Y.N.U. 



PAGE 

33-35 
36 
37-44 
46-46 
46- 
47-48 
49-50 
50-51 
52-54 
55-5(V 

57-5» 
59 
60-fil 
48,51 
54,58 
62-63 
64 
48,57 



PRICE 6d. NET. BY POST 7d. NET. 



NOW IN THE PRESS. 



The Lost Towns 
of the Yorkshire Coast 

AND OTHER CHAPTERS IN THE 
GEOGRAPHY oF EAST YORKSHIRE. 



BY 



THOMAS SHErrARD, F.os., r.RQS., f.s.a.Cscot.) 



The Volume is a companion to " The Lost Towns of the 
Humber," by the late J. R. Boyle, and is similarly bound and 
produced. 

The Lost Towns of the Yorkshire Coast contains 
niuch valuable information in reference to the various towns and 
villages which have disappeared by the encroaches of the sea 
It is also profusely illustrated by plans, engravings, etc. of the 
district, including many which are published for the first time. 
There are also chapters on the changes in the Humber ; new land ' 
Spurn; the geological structure of the district; natural history' 
«tc., etc. ' 



For particulars apply to — 

A. BROWN & SONS, Limited, Hull. 



YORKSHIRE NATURALISTS' UNION. 



VERTEBRATE SECTION. 

(President :— OXLEY QRABHAM, Esq., M.A., M.B.O.U.). 

Two Meeting-s will be held in Room C 8, at the Leeds Institute, Leeds, at 3-1 e 
p.m. and 6-30 p.m. respectively, on Saturday, February 17th, 1912. 

BUSINESS:— 

The appointment of Bird Watchers for 1912. and discussion upon other matters in 
connection with the Yorkshire Wild Birds' and Eggs Protection Acts Committee. 

Short papers (mostly illustrated by lantern slides or specimens) will be given as 
follows :—" Finds in the Lothersdale Cave," Mr. John Holmes; ♦'Additional Notes 
on the Birds of Spain," Dr. E. S. Steward ; " Notes on some Birds of the Scilly 
Islands," Mr. Jasper Atkinson ; " The Gamekeeper's Traps," Mr. S. H. Smith." 
Will Officials of Affiliated Societies kindly notify their Members. 

A. HAIGH-LUMBY, Hon, Sec, 

121 Horton Grange Road, Bradford. 



33 
NOTES AND COMiVlENTS. 

A PREHISTORIC ROUTE. 

In the Proceedings of the Society of Antiquaries, 2nd 
Ser., Vol. XXIII. , Part II.. recently "issued, Mr. E. Kitson 
Clark has an elaborate paper on ' A Prehistoric Route in York- 
shire.' He shews that in Denmark prehistoric roads are 
defined by the lines of pre-Roman tumuli ; and he endeavours 
to shew, by the aid of coloured contour maps, etc., that 
similar methods may be adopted in Yorkshire. Though the 
paper is interesting, it is by no means convincing. In East 
Yorkshire it would be difficult to find a route where there were 
no British barrows. 

MUSEUM FOR RIPON. 

Miss Darnbrough, of The Mount, Ripon, has offered to 
hand over to the Ripon Corporation the old Thorpe Prebends 
House. in St. Agnesgate for the purpose of a museum. The 
house was bequeathed by the late Mr. S. Darnbrough with the 
stipulation that it should be put into its original condition and 
given to the Corporation when the accumulated rents amounted 
to £600. At present only £150 has accumulated, but Miss 
Darnbrough offered £200 if the Corporation would give the 
remaining ;^250. The Mayor, who submitted the offer to the 
City Council, urged that it should be accepted, as the house 
would be a valuable asset to the antiquities of Ripon. The 
property is valued at £1000. Oddly enough, a long discussion 
followed. Successive amendments, first to decline the offer, 
and secondly to accept the house only as a show place of historic 
interest were defeated, the Mayor's resolution being adopted. 
Possibly the entomological, etc., collections, made by the 
late Lord Ripon, which we believe are stored at the Ripon 
Town Hall, pending the provision of a suitable building, will 
now be placed on exhibition. 

THE SCOTTISH NATURALIST. 

No. I of The Scottish Naturalist — a monthly magazine 
devoted to Zoology, dated January, 1912, takes the place 
of the well-known quarterly ' Annals of Scottish Natural 
History.' The editors are Messrs. W. Eagle Clarke, W. Evans 
and Percy H. Grimshaw. Botany is now excluded, and there 
are several notes not bearing upon Scotland at all — a feature 
we do not remember to have noticed in the ' Annals.' 
Mr. H. J. Elwes, F.R.S., writes some valuable notes on the 
Primitive Sheep in Scotland, and there are some new bird, etc., 
records. As some years ago ' The Scottish Naturalist ' was 
published and ran into several volumes, we certainly think 
the present part should have been styled ' New Series, No. I.', 
in order to prevent confusion to future workers. 

igi2 Feb. i. 



34 Notes and Comments. 

MICROSCOPIC STRUCTURE OF COAL, 

In this paper,* read before the Manchester Geological 
and Mining Society, Mr. James Lomax gives some valuable 
observations on the structure of Coal, which is often regarded 
as practically structureless. If sections are carefully prepared, 
coal is seen to contain, not only numerous well-defined struc- 
tures, but characters which the author considers to be peculiar 
to each seam. He finds that most coals consist of alternating 
bands of lamellae of bright and dull coal, the dull laminae are 
made up largely of megaspores in a ground mass of microspores ; 
while the bright laminae are composed of microspores, and the 
remains of highly compressed leaves and other tissues. He 
also describes and figures certain amber coloured bodies 
which he names provisionally Amber ites, and other oval, 
apparently highly resinous bodies Ovalites resinosiis. Several 
vesicular cavities were also found to occur commonly in 
coal, which, before being tapped, probably contained gas. The 
sections of coal described are from several seams at Atherton, 
Abram and Little Lever in Lancashire ; Altofts and Barnsley 
in Yorkshire and the Sneyd ColUery in North Staffordshire. 
The paper was described by Mr. W. E. Garforth as the most 
valuable and instructive ever presented to the society. Cer- 
tainly no cost has been spared in its publication. It is illus- 
trated by thirty-two figures on twelve folding plates, fifteen of 
the figures being beautifully reproduced in colour. 

NEW SPECIES. 

In The Entomologist's Record, Vol. XXIII., No. 12, Mr. 
Oscar John has some useful suggestions to make in reference 
to the admirable principle that it is suggested should be adopted 
by the next Entomological Congress, viz., that ' no description 
should be valid without a good figure.' One is that ' Types 
should not be kept in private collections, but given over to 
museums, where they are less subject to the possibility of being 
lost or destroyed.' We need hardly say we cordially agree with 
this, though whether the average ' private collector ' will, is 
another matter. He then makes very pertinent suggestions 
in regard to the steps to be taken to ensure that the so-called 
'new species' have not previously been described, and as to the 
best method of illustrating them. With his concluding remarks 
we heartily concur. He says : ' All this, of course, would 
make it much more difficult to put out lots of new names ; 
but I am sure, that if one or another species should remain 

* ' The Microscopical Examination of Coal, and its use in determining 
the inflammable constituents present therein,' by James Lomax. pp. 21 
and 12 plates. Transactions ot the Institution of Minine; Enc'incers, Vol. 
XLII., part I. 

N'aturalisi, 



News from the Magazines. 35 

un described for more or less time, no one but an ambitious 
author will be the loser, whereas entomology as a science will 
certainly be the gainer, relieved of so many confusing — and 
unnecessary — names of " new " lepidoptera. The more we 
complicate the laws for " valable " descriptions, and restrict 
the sport of namegiving, the more we shall simplify serious 
systematic work.' 

A NEW (?) ox. 
'In describing [Archaeologia Mliana, ser. 3, Vol. VII.), the 
animal remains obtained during the excavations on the site of 
the Roman city of Corstopitum, near Newcastle-on-Tyne, in 
1910, Messrs. A. Meek and R. A. H. Gray state that the bones 
and skulls of many of the oxen agree very closely with those of 
the white cattle of Chillingham and other British parks. A 
peculiarity said to characterise both is the absence of early 
shedding of the antepenultimate lower premolar. On this 
ground both the Chillingham and the Roman cattle are declared 
to represent a new wild species, for which the name Bos syl-. 
vestris is proposed ; but whether this is typified by the former 
or the latter the reader is left to decide for himself. They 
ignore the fact that park-cattle already possess a scientific 
name — Urus scoticns of Hamilton Smith — and likewise that 
the colour of these cattle is decisive as to their domesticated 
origin. Most naturalists would likewise regard the alleged 
absence of the anterior premolar as a feature due to domestica- 
tion.' — [Nature, No. 2198). 



Mr. W. H. Pearson records Lophozia bantrieHsis in South Lancashire 
{Lancashire Naturalist, No. 44). 

The fiitieth report of the Yorkshire Naturahsts' Union, reprinted from 
The Naturalist, ,can be obtained from the Editor, the Museum, Hull, 
price 6d. each. 

Mr. F. A. Day records the rare beetle Oxypoda soror, which he found 
amongst the short grass at the summit of Saddleback, Cumberland. — [The 
Entomologist's Monthly Magazine, January 1912). 

Part VII. of The Micrologist (Flatters, Melborne & McKecknie, Man- 
chester, 1/6) contains papers on Anthozoa, Echinoderma, etc. ; and 
' Water Plants ' by Abraham Flatters. They are illustrated by fi\e 
excellent figures on a plate. 

Dr. F. A. Bather has a paper on ' The Holotypes of the Fossil Scorpions 
Palesoniachus anglicus and PalcBophomis caledonicits,' in The Annals and 
Magazine of Natural History for November 191 1. The former is from 
the Coal Measures near Mansfield. 

The Journal of Conchology (Vol. XIII., No. 9) contains a paper by 
Mr. J. W. Taylor on ' Biology of the Mollusca, based chiefly upon a study 
of one of our cominonest species. Helix aspersa ' ; and also a record of a 
dextral form of Clausilia bidentata from Skipton. 

In The Records of the Past (Vol. X., Part VI.), Dr. George Grant 
MacCurdy has an illustrated article on ' Somatology and Man's Antiquity ' ; 
Dr. W. M. Flinders Petrie writes on Roman Portraits, and Mr. H. J. Cook 
gives illustrations of a human skull with an embedded flint arrow-head, 
from Vancouver. 
1912 Feb. I. 



36 
YORKSHIRE NATURALISTS' UNION AT HECKMONDWIKE. 

The fiftieth annual congress of the Yorkshire Naturahsts' 
Union was held at Heckmondwike on Saturday — the place 
where it had its birth just half a century ago. There were over 
300 members and associates present, including delegates from 
38 affiliated societies. 

At the meeting of the general committees held in the after- 
noon, Mr. G. T. Porritt was in the chair. Mr. T. Sheppard, 
F.G.S., the hon. secretary, submitted the annual report, which 
showed that there were 3731 members and associates. The 
excursions for igi2 were arranged as follow : — Riccall Common, 
on May 4th ; Filey and Bridlington, Whit week-end ; Tanfield, 
on June 15th ; Askern, on July nth ; Low Gill, on August 
Bank Holiday ; and Sandsend for Mulgrave (fungus foray), 
September 21st to 26th. The next annual meeting will be 
held at Hull, on Dec. 14th, 1912. The resignation of Mr. T. 
Sheppard as hon. secretary was accepted with regret, and in con- 
sideration of his many services during the past nine years he was 
elected an honorary life member of the union. Mr. W. Cash,. 
F.G.S., the eminent palseobotanist, was similarly honoured. 

The officers for 1912 were elected as follows : — President,. 
Mr. J. W. Taylor, of Leeds ; treasurer, Mr. H. Culpin, 
of Doncaster ; secretaries, Messrs. T. W. Woodhead, Ph.D., 
and W. E. L. Wattam, Huddersfield ; editor, Mr. T. Sheppard. 

For the List of new members of the Permanent General 
Committee, and other information, reference should be made 
to ' The Naturalist,' for January, pp. 17-32. 

The members of the Heckmondwike and Spen Valley 
Naturalists' Societies had arranged an excellent exhibition of 
local natural history, etc., specimens, and also held a conver- 
sazione in honour of the visit of the union to its birthplace. 
Refreshments were provided. 

In the morning Mr. John Niven kindly invited the members 
to visit his colliery at Mirfield. 

In the evening there was a crowded audience in the new- 
schools at Heckmondwike, when the members were welcomed 
by Councillor T. Elliott and Mr. H. T. Nottingham. In the 
regrettable absence through illness of the retiring president, 
Mr. Alfred Harker, M.A., F.R.S., of Cambridge, his address 
M'as read by Mr. E. Hawkesworth. He dealt with ' Petrology 
in Yorkshire,' and in a lucid and entertaining manner referred 
to the history of the microscopic study of the rocks of the 
county (see pp. 37-44). 

Subsequently there was an exhibition of nature photographs 
by the aid of the cinematograph, through the good offices of 
Messrs. W. Bagshaw and W. Goodall. The LTnion's thanks 
are certainly due to the Heckmondwike and the Spen Valley 
Societies for their hearty help, and particularly to Messrs. A. 
Moore and G. W. Parker, who made all the local arrangements, 
and made them well. 

Naturalist, 



37 
PETROLOGY IN YORKSHIRE.* 



ALFRED MARKER, M.A., F.R.S., F.G.S., 
Cambridge. 



The fiftieth Annual Meeting of the Yorkshire Naturahsts' 
Union might be deemed a fit occasion for reviewing the work 
accomphshed during its long career by the body to which we 
all ow^n allegiance. The record is an honourable one, and 
much interest — perhaps some wholesome lessons too — might 
be gathered from an adequate survey of it. Such a task, 
however, could be profitably attempted only by one who has 
been closely in touch with the activities of the Union ; and the 
circumstances which have made me for long an exile from my 
native county have denied me this necessary qualification. 

I relinquish the attempt not without some regret. It 
was in rambles about my Yorkshire home that I acquired 
early an interest in shells, in insects, in the minute life of our 
ponds and streams ; and my enthusiasm for geology was first 
kindled by John Phillips' writings, my guide on many an 
excursion along our coast. With these memories, I have 
always cherished a keen interest in the work of the Yorkshire 
Naturalists' Union ; but it has perforce been the intei'est of an 
onlooker rather than an actor, for, in thirty years of membership, 
I have seldom found opportunity to take part in the meetings. 
I must therefore crave your indulgence if I confine within 
somewhat narrow limits the remarks which I have to offer 
to this gathering. But, while a detailed retrospect lies outside 
my scope, I should certainly be lacking in a due regard for the 
occasion, were I to let it pass without giving some expression 
to the reflections prompted by this anniversarj^ 

At the respectable age which the Union has now attained, 
it does not, to the most anxious eyes, show any signs of senile 
decay. Our muster-roll to-day numbers over forty affifiated 
societies. An institution which, on its fiftieth birthday, can 
point to so numerous a progeny, assuredly need not be ashamed 
to speak with its enemies in the gate. The field-meetings, 
which visit in turn every district of Yorkshire, show no flagging 
of interest, but abundantly demonstrate that, after half a 
century of such exploration, there is still an ample field for the 
energies of our naturalists. The Union largely supports, and, 
under the guidance of a succession of able editors, has continued 
to maintain at a high standard, the oldest scientific periodical 
in the country. The more weighty contributions published 



* An Address delivered at the Fiftieth Annual Meeting of the York- 
shire Naturalists' Union, at Heckmondwike, December i6th, igii. 

iqi2 Feb. I. 



38 Harker : Petrology in Yorkshire. 

through the medium of the Transactions have taken a de- 
servedl}^ high place among permanent records ; and this 
important branch of the work could be considerably extended, 
were the list of members large enough to supply the requisite 
funds. Waiving this financial question, the past and present 
of the Union give, if we will, legitimate cause for complacency, 
or may afford us, in graver mood, strong ground of encourage- 
ment for the future. 

It is peculiarly appropriate that we meet to-day in the 
town where the Union first saw the light, and at the invitation 
of the Heckmondwike Naturalists' Society, the only one which 
has held a place on our list throughout the whole period of 
fifty years. It is an added source of interest and gratification 
that we have among us to-day surviving representatives of the 
enthusiastic band of naturalists who originated the Union half 
a century ago. Out-door tastes and healthy intellectual 
interests are no bad ingredients in a recipe for longevity, and 
we may hope that some who take part in this gathering to-day 
will be here to tell the tale in ig6i. 

If we ask the reason of the success which has attended the 
career of the Yorkshire Naturalists' Union, the answer, I 
think, is not far to seek. It is merely fidehty to two or three 
simple principles which wisely guided our founders and those 
who, fifteen years later, reorganised the Union upon its 
present footing. In the first place, the design common to all 
such bodies, that of bringing together those having like interests 
and aims, has assumed in our case a special form. We are 
not merely a large society, but a federation of numerous 
independent societies. These, in combining for common ends, 
do not lose their individuality, and to loyal co-operation there 
is added the stimulus of a wholesome rivalry. Secondly, the 
Union has never failed to recognise that the natural province 
of the amateur naturalist in his own county or district. Here 
is the field nearest to his hand, and here, too, may his efforts- 
most certainly win a return in the form of contributions of 
real value to the common stock of knowledge. The Yorkshire 
naturalist at least, with so wide and diversified a territory for 
his birthright, may well rest content with this sphere of action. 
Again, the Union, from the first, has taken its work seriously. 
In familiar phrase, it has always meant business, and the 
holiday element in the field excursions has been kept in due 
subordination. Lastly, there is the actual machinery of the 
work, in particular the division into various sections, each 
working within its own lines, sometimes working together on 
the border-lines, and constantly reminded that, despite this 
necessary partition of practical energies. Nature is still a 
whole, and the study of Nature is, in a real sense, not many 
sciences, but one. To these advantages — an elastic constitu- 

Naturalist, 



Harker : Petrology in Yorkshire. 39 

tion, a jealous localisation of operations, a becoming earnest- 
ness, and a good working organisation — we may, I think, 
attribute in great measure the continued vitality of the Union. 
None the less it behoves us to remember, with gratitude as 
regards the past and for admonition as regards the future, 
that the ultimate strength of any human institution resides 
not merely in the framework of the system, but in the energy 
and devotion of those to whom the trust is committed. 

While each of us must accept his share of this responsibility, 
the burden rests, in practice, mainly upon the officers of the 
Union, and of the Sections, and, above all, upon the Secretary, 
who is indeed the main-spring of the whole machine. In the 
early times, to which we look back with interest to-day, there 
was, we are told, no President but only a Secretary, and the 
Union seems to have prospered admirably under his sole 
ministrations. As regards the actual management of affairs, 
the situation has not been materially different during the present 
year, for an absentee President, I am afraid, rather aggravates 
than lightens the burden of the really responsible officer. 
The Union has been fortunate in a succession of active and 
able secretaries, and Mr. Sheppard, from whom we reluctantly 
part to-day, has worthily upheld that tradition. He carries 
with him on his retirement the assurance that, in every branch 
of its work, the Union stands to-day the stronger for his nine 
years of devoted service. 

Not the least flourishing of our sections is that devoted to 
geology, and it seems to have grown decidedly in popularity 
in recent years. In some respects it stands, I think, rather 
apart from the other sections. The entomologists or the 
botanists may always hope to bring home from a day's excur- 
sion some distinct contribution to the fauna or flora of the 
county ; and such records, brought together in the annual 
reports, constitute very definite additions to the sum of know- 
ledge. Field geology, on the other hand, if it is to result in 
discoveries of value, often involves ^detailed survey, protracted 
search, and repeated visits ; nor is its success always promoted 
by a large number of participants. True, a lucky ' find ' will 
sometimes remind us that twenty hammers may be better than 
one ; but, on the whole, the immediate results of geological 
excursions are of the nature of instruction and preparation 
rather than research. The geologist has here the incentive 
of comradeship, the advantage of comparing views and dis- 
cussing knotty points on the ground, the opportunity of 
collecting specimens for study at home. For actual research 
in this department we must look rather to individual contribu- 
tions in the pages of ' The Naturalist ' and elsewhere, often 
inspi'"ed by the excursions, and to the organised work of the 
committees. In confirmation of this view, I ma}^ point to 

1912 Feb. I. 



40 Harker : Petrology in Yorkshire. 

the fact that no fewer than five of our committees of research 
are appropriated to geology, while nine suffice for the needs 
of all the other sections together. 

Taking now the comprehensive view thus indicated of the 
geological activities of the Union, we find that these cover a 
wide range of interests. Almost every branch of pr?t.tical 
geology is embraced, though all branches have not received 
equal attention. That in which our record Ijas least to show 
is undoubted!}^ Petrology ; and this observation applies to 
Presidential Addresses no less than to more formal contribu- 
tions. Not a few distinguished geologists, connected by birth or 
by their labours with Yorkshire, have filled the place which 
to-day I have the honour to occupy, but to find a petrologist 
in the Chair of the Union we must go back more than thirty 
years. In 1878-9 the President was Henry Chfton Sorb3^ of 
Sheffield, justly regarded as the father of the modern school 
of microscopical petrology ; and I feel a peculiar pleasure in 
being thus even distantly associated with one to whom, though 
I never saw him in the flesh, I have always looked up as to a 
master. 

There is, it would appear, a very prevalent belief, though one 
resting, I venture to think, on shght foundation, that petrology 
is a study for specialists ; that it offers little opportunity 
to a man who is isolated from fellow-workers, and can bring 
to it perhaps only the scanty leisure of a professional or business 
life. It would be easy to show, on the contrary, that we owe 
to amateurs some of the most valuable pieces of research and 
some of the most fertile suggestions in this branch of geology. 
The disabilities glanced at may be more than outweighed by 
freedom from conventional and professional trammels, a 
fresher view-point, and, assuming a local subject to be chosen, 
the opportunity of exhaustive study, such as no alien can 
command. It is, I think, a mistake to assume that increasing 
specialisation in science has widened the difference between the 
professional and the amateur status. As new lines of research 
have multiplied, the points of contact between them have be- 
come more numerous. So, if the actual province of the specialist 
tends to become narrower, his collateral interests tend rather 
to widen ; and, in the course even of his special work, he is 
frequently led on to ground where his footing is strictly that 
of an amateur. In this very real sense, as well as in the etymo- 
logical sense, every votary of science must be an amateur, 
and it is on this common ground that I have the privilege of 
meeting my fellow-members of the Union. 

Again, I have sometimes heard it urged that Yorkshire 
does not afford an advantageous field for the petrologist, in 
view of the poverty of igneous rocks within our borders. Such 
a complaint savours almost of disrespect to the memory of 



Harker : Petrology in Yorkshire. 41 

Sorby ; for we must remember, not only that modern petrology 
had its birth in Yorkshire, but also that it was in the beginning 
the petrology chiefly of sedimentary rocks. It is true that 
interest has since been diverted more especially to igneous 
rocks and crystalline schists ; but this certainly does not imply 
that the earlier field of research is exhausted, nor that, in the 
problems which it still presents, it is inferior in interest to the 
more trodden paths. Indeed, its possibilities have been made 
sufficiently evident by other workers in recent years, although 
in his own country of Yorkshire the prophet is, I think, still 
without the honour which he would most have appreciated — 
that of imitation. 

It should be remarked that in the study of sedimentary 
deposits, the petrologist of to-day has at command simple and 
easily applied methods of working, which were unknown to the 
pioneer in this line of research. This will be best illustrated 
by one or two examples. Some of Dr. Sorby's earliest in- 
vestigations were concerned with sands and sandstones as 
throwing light on the physical geography and geology of 
former periods, especially as regards the direction from which 
the deti'itus was derived and the nature of the parent rock- 
masses which furnished it. He paid particular attention to 
peculiarities of bedding due to currents of different velocities 
in water of different depths, a subject on which the last word 
has not yet been said ; but he also obtained interesting results 
from a minute examination of the sand-grains themselves. 
This latter line of study has been shown to be capable of 
considerable development. Significance attaches not so much 
to the grains of quartz and felspar, which make up the chief 
bulk of most deposits of this kind, as to the rarer constituents. 
These existed originally as minor accessory elements in the 
igneous and crystalline rocks from which the material has 
been directly or indirectly derived, and different groups of 
crystalline rocks have their own characteristic accessory 
minerals. Thus, a certain type of granite will yield fragments 
of tourmaline ; many igneous rocks of more basic composition 
furnish abundant grains of magnetite and ilmenite ; crystalline 
schists representing old metamorphosed sediments will give, 
in different cases, andalusite or cyanite or staurolite or garnet ; 
and so for other types of rocks. These minerals are recog- 
nisable in small fragments, and afford a valuable clue in 
tracking the sediment to its source. They occur, however, 
in most cases only sparingly amidst a great preponderance of 
quartz-grains and other less significant constituents. From 
these the accessory minerals may be separated by taking 
advantage of the fact that they are all of comparatively high 
specific gravity. Most of the lighter minerals, such as quartz, 
can be washed away with water, the most convenient utensil 

1912 Feb. I. 



42 Marker : Petrology in Yorkshire. 

being the hatea or conical pan used by the BraziUan miners. 
After this, recourse may be had to one of the heavy solutions 
which have come into use in petrographical laboratories, such 
as those devised by Klein and Brauns.* These liquids can be 
prepared with high specific gravity, and diluted down as 
required. In this way the heavy minerals can be separated, 
not only from the liglit, but from one another. A further 
refinement, devised by Professor Sollas, is a> column of heavy 
liquid with density graduated from top to bottom. In this 
the grains arrange themselves according to their several 
specific gravities, and a complete separation is effected in one 
operation. This method of mechanical analysis may be 
applied to loose sands or friable sandstones, and equally to 
those having a calcareous or ferruginous cement, which can 
be removed by solution in weak acid. By determining the 
percentages of the several constituents it can be made a quan- 
titative analysis. It is scarcely necessary to remark that, 
in work of this kind, isolated observations have but little value : 
the study should be a comparative one. Thus, by samples from 
a particular formation taken in different localities, we can 
trace the change in its constitution as it is followed in a given 
direction. Such investigations as those of Mr. Thomas on the 
Trias of the West of England illustrate the results which may 
be obtained from such a comparative study. It may not 
unreasonably be expected that conclusions no less interesting 
would reward a like detailed examination of the Millstone Grit 
and Coal-Measures of the West Riding, the Trias of the Vale 
of York, or the Jurassic sandstones of our coast. 

It is not only the accessory constituents of sands that afford 
a clue to the source of the material. Information may be 
obtained also from the nature of the minute inclusions 
in the quartz-grains, and from the shape and surface- 
characters of the grains themselves. Again, the average size 
of the grains, the admixture of grains of different sizes, the 
degree of rounding produced by attrition, these and other 
characters will often warrant interesting conclusions relative 
to the conditions of transportation and accumulation of the 
sediments. Even the humidity or aridity of the climate at 
past epochs may sometimes be inferred from the state of 
preservation of the felspar-grains in sandstones. All these 
are contributions to what is perhaps the most fascinating 
branch of geology, viz., palaeogeography, the actual restoration 
of the physical conditions of our area at different remote 
epochs. 



* Klein's solution is cadmium boro-tungstate, dissolved in water ; 
Braun's is methyl iodide, diluted as required with benzol. 

Naturalist, 



Harkey : Petrology in Yorkshire. 43 

Questions of the same kind, and to be approached in the 
same way, arise with reference to the transportation, distribu- 
tion, and deposition of sediments under the conditions existing 
at the present time. The results of inquiry on these lines will 
not only be of interest in themselves, but may not improbably 
have important practical applications. Such a problem 
is the source of the ' mud ' (which, however, is largely sand) 
of the Humber estuary. How much of this is brought down 
by the river from the drainage-basins of Trent and Ouse, and 
how much is carried up by the tide from the waste of the 
Holderness cliffs ? This has an obvious bearing on questions 
of warping, of dredging, and of coast-protection. It is not 
too much to expect that light might be thrown on the matter 
by a comparative study of the sediments themselves from the 
petrographical side. 

The true argillaceous sediments — clays, shales, marls, and 
the like — offer, I think, a less promising field for those workers 
to whom time, technical skill, and rather costly instruments 
are considerations of weight. It is true that the most impor- 
tant British contributions in this line have come from an 
amateur petrologist, Mr. Hutchings of Newcastle ; but it is 
clear that the work presents difficulties not to be surmounted 
by all. The minute size of the elements in these fine-textured 
deposits demands the use of high magnifying powers and special 
modes of illumination, and chemical analysis is almost a 
necessary concomitant of the microscopical work. 

Nevertheless, apart from research of this order, there is 
room for simple and easy observations on argillaceous rocks, 
which, carried out systematically, have their value. The 
minute elements ,of a clay are not all of the same grade of 
magnitude, and a partial separation may be effected among 
them according to the time required for settlement in water. 
By this fractionating process we obtain a rough mechanical 
analysis, which is not without significance for purposes of 
comparison. Most easily isolated is the sandy element which 
is seldom wanting in ordinary argillaceous deposits ; and in 
clays, no less than in sands, we may find little crystals of 
those accessory minerals which I have mentioned as possessing 
a special importance in the indications which they furnish. 

Turn now to another class of sedimentary rocks, the lime- 
stones. These offer a specially inviting field to the amateur 
worker, in that the preparation of thin slices for the microscope 
is a much easier and more rapid process with limestones than 
with igneous rocks. I will cite one point of interest, where 
petrology comes into contact with conchology. It is well 
known that lime carbonate exists in nature in two distinct 
forms, calcite and aragonite, and that both may be secreted 
by living organisms. In his Presidential Address to the 

1912 Feb. I. 



44 Harker : Petrology in Yorkshire. 

Geological Society of London in 1879, Dr. Sorby showed that 
the two forms are to a great extent characteristic of the hard 
parts of different sub-kingdoms, classes, or genera, although 
certain organisms secrete both ; and further that in many 
limestones shells originally of aragonite have been converted 
to the more stable form, calcite. 

The question is evidently one which has a bearing on biology, 
and perhaps on climatology. It has recently been reopened, 
with the result of showing that there is still much to be learnt 
concerning both the mineral constitution of shells and the 
conditions of preservation of fossils. I mention the matter 
chiefly to point out how much research is facilitated by im- 
proved methods of working. Sorby discriminated calcite and 
aragonite by means of their different specific gravities. The 
use of a heavy liquid would now make this much easier ; but 
a simpler test is afforded by boiling in Meigen's solution,* 
which stains aragonite violet, but leaves calcite unchanged. 

It would be easy to cite other lines of inquiry in connection 
with sedimentary strata, which were opened out by Dr. Sorby, 
but still await final settlement. There is, for instance, the 
conversion of limestone to dolomite. We know that a cal- 
careous deposit may be dolomitized almost contemporaneously 
with its accumulation or, on the other hand, by an accession 
of magnesia in some form at a long posterior time ; but the 
relative importance of the latter factor, the conditions under 
which the process is effected, its possible relation to depth and 
pressure, are questions still agitated. Might not some light 
be thrown upon them by carefully conducted study of the 
Permian limestone of the South of Yorkshire or the Carboni- 
ferous of the West ? Here again we may note that the practical 
differentiation of' calcite and dolomite is now made easy by 
a coloration test : Lemberg's solutionf stains calcite, but not 
dolomite. Among cognate problems is that of the replacement 
of limestone and calcareous fossils by silica, a change which 
may be observed in various stages in some of our Corallian 
strata ; and again the conversion of limestone to ironstone, 
which has made possible the principal industry of the Cleve- 
land district. 



{To be continued). 



* A dilute solution of cobalt nitrate, free from iron. 
t A solution of aluminium chloride, heated with logwood. The 
solution is applied to the substance for 5 to 10 minutes. 



Naturalist, 



THE BORING HA BITS O F THE PHOLAS. 

JOHN IRVING, M.D., 
Scarborough 

Mr. W. Harrison Hutton's experiments with pholades, as 
related in the D^cembsr issue of ' The Naturahs / p. 423, are 
of interest as confirmatory evidence of observations made by 
other marine workers. 

Occasionally some naturalists slill obtiude an ancient 
untenable theory, that these molluscs secrete an acid to facilitate 
boring operations, regardless of the fact that any acid, capable of 
chemically acting on stone, would destroy the shells and tissues of 
borers. Othei theorists lay too much stress on the strength, con- 
formation, and structural peculiarities of shells, and pay too little 
attention to the erosive effect of sea-water continuously applied. 

Mr. Hutton indicates the process as a simple one, due to 
shell attrition under the influence of water, and rightly con- 
cludes that it begins at a very early stage, when the infant 
bivalves, fortuitously or otherwise, find their niches in depres- 
sions, or irregularities, or crevices in the rocks. These tiny 
pits, which temporarily accommodate the young pholades, are 
the softer parts of the rock already being excavated by the :-ea. 
They are often lined by a film of sticky mud to which the 
youngsters, almost microscopic in size, easily adhere, and by 
which they are practically glued into position as the mud 
increases through continued rock disintegration. Slowly but 
surely they gravitate, foot downwards, until they are half 
buried in semi-liquid material, when rotary movements com- 
mence to shape their destiny. Their shells, owing to their 
extreme fragility at this stage, are of minor importance com- 
pared with the aqueous element. All pholades bore perpen- 
dicularh^ All entrance apertures remain small, yet the bore 
gradually and regularly increases in calibre, from above down- 
wards, in exact correspondence with the growth of the animal. 

Those who have frequent opportunities of examining stone- 
borers and their excavations, know full well that, barring 
accidents, they are life tenants of their holes. There are no 
exits for them. The adult pholas, outside its retreat, is a 
helpless being. Without a point d'appui it cannot bore. 
Thrust into an artificial cavity which keeps it erect, foot down- 
wards, the difficulty is partly overcome, but this never occurs 
in the sea, and so the ill-fated mollusc that bores through a 
rock, too thin for its purpose, becomes food for the crabs. 
The sine qua non of a pholas hole is an aperture just sufficient 
to permit extrusion of siphuncles into water above, and prevent 
entrance of undesirable guests, and a base whose greatest 
diameter perfectly agrees with the greatest width of shells. 
Pholades, therefore, do not bore beyond their extended length, 
nor in calibre beyond the size of their shells ; to do so would, 
be to court disaster. 

1912 Feb. I. 



46 Irving: The Boring Habits of the PJiolas. 

Pholas dactylns does not occur at Scarborough. Probably 
Mr. Hutton refers to Pholas crispata, which is very common, and 
which, with Pholas Candida, may be found in hght slate-coloured 
clay both in North Bay, and in Carnelian Bay. Pholas crispata also 
occupies soft sandstone, and grey limestone, rocks in South Bay. 

Saxicavce bore into the harder limestone rocks, and possibly 
depend even more on the help of water 'than the pholades do. 
It is much easier to discover young saxicavce than the young 
of the pholas, as they are more plentiful, and may be seen at 
a higher tide level. Invariably they are anchored to stoned 
by a slight but sufficient byssus, which prevents their being 
washed out of their crannies. The rock being hard, yields 
much more slowly than that selected by the pholas, and, as 
saxicavce bore more or less horizontally, the process of entry 
from the rock face necessitates a cable to maintain the creature 
long enough in situ to effect its purpose. 



We regret to hear of the death, which occurred last year, of our con- 
tributor. Miss Mary L. Armitt, of Rydal Cottage, Amlileside. INIiss 
Armitt was a true naturalist, as the tone of her communications clearly 
indicated. One of her latest papers appears in ' The Parents' Rev^iew ' 
for December last, and is entitled ' Seed-time with the Birds.' At the 
foot of this paper, the editor, Miss C. M. Mason, gives the following interest- 
ing note : — ' The " lake country " has been made the poorer by the loss 
of two accomplished sisters, Sophia (died June 1908), and Mary L. Armitt 
(died July 191 1), Sophia Armitt, like Solomon, knew plants, from the 
hyssop that groweth upon the wall to the cedar of Lebanon, was familiar 
with almost every British plant in its own habitat and with its proper 
environment. Her sister knew birds, with what sweet intimacy, the above 
paper will show. 

' The " Parents' Review " has been from time to time enriched by many 
papers written by the sisters, of perennial \ alue, because they chronicled 
personal observations. These were published so long ago that they are 
probably unknown to the present generation of readers, and we pur- 
pose to reprint next year a series of observations, recorded month by 
month, by Sophia Armitt. We are glad to take this opportunity of 
expressing our gratitude to two sisters for whose sake distinguished 
botanists, birdmen, and archa-ologists sought out " Rydal Cottage" and 
its charming mistresses, whose stories of varied knowledge and their 
wide interests were at the disposal of their humblest neighbours. Miss 
Mary L. Armitt, who probably represents the mind of both sisters, has 
left a final evidence of the love of knowledge which characterized them, 
and of their strong sense that no greater benefit than the .spread of know- 
ledge can be conferred upon a neighbourhood, by a munificent legacy for 
the founding and endowment of a public library at Ambleside.' 

By her will Miss Armitt left over £5000, and her books, to found and 
maintain a public library in or near the parish of Ambleside. 

The following is an extract from the will in reference to the matter : — 
' The ainr of the bequest is not to furnish a Free Library for the town, but 
to create a collection of books of scientific, literary, or antiquarian \alue, 

which may be made available to the student and to the book-lover 

This collection might be housed, to start with, in tlie simplest manner .... 
With the books might be housed such objects of anticjuarian or personal 
interest as would be secured by gift or purchase, and e\entually a museum 
might be made that should illustrate the life of Ambleside, through the 
long past to the present.' 



47 



BDELLA HEXOPTHALMA QERVAIS. 



C. F. GEORGE, M.R.C.S., 

Kirton-in L indsev. 



This remarkable little mite has not, so far as is known, been 
previously recorded as British. It is described and figured by 
Gervais, in Walckenaer's ' Apteres,' where he states he found 
it near Gentill5% in the neighbourhood of Paris. It differs 
greatly in colour from all the other specimens of Bdella I have 
met with, being yellowy verging on orange ; whilst usually 
they are dark red. It has also six beautiful carmine-red spots, 
called eyes — two on each side of the cephalothorax, the lenses 





w 




\ 


ViiK^ 


/ 


'"^^--^ 


kI 


V 


^ 


hI^ ' '"^M 


r*^ 


^ 


W/ *'-l 


r. ^X^^ 


/ 




\ 



Bdella hexopthalma (x26). 

of which are easily made out, and two other smaller ones on the 
upper surface or dorsum of the cephalothorax, also described 
as eyes, each one of which has a tactile hair near to it on its 
outer side, as shewn in Mr. Soar's accompanying figure. In 
other respects its anatomy appears to be very similar to the 
ordinary Bdella, which is not uncommon in our gardens ; 
in moss and under pieces of wood where small insects have 
sheltered, etc. I have found it also in a deserted small bird's 
nest. It is, I believe, Bdella vulgaris {Scirits vulgaris of Her- 
mann). 

My specimen of B. hexopthalma was found in this neighbour- 
hood by Messrs. Roebuck and Musham, when investigating 
the Mollusca of the district in the last two days in August, 1911. 

K312 Feb. I. 



48 



News from the Magazines. 



They were only able to capture one specimen, but saw others 
which were too nimble for them. 

Mr. Soar gives an enlarged figure of the creature's proboscis — 
by which these mites are recognised, and hence called ' snout 
mites' (' Schnabel milben'). 

Many minute mites are best examined when alive, as colour 
is evanescent. A good plan to keep them alive for some time 
is to use a plug of cottonwool, instead of a cork, as a stopper for 
the tube in which they are confined, as this is not air-tight, 
and can be kept moist with a little water. Under these con- 



\l 




\ / 


\\ 




h 


4 1 




\ ^ 


\ 1 


v/l 


\ jr 


'^ 


t4 I 


Bnrtii. 



Proboscis of Bdella hexopthalma (x 60). 



ditions the mites will live a long time, whilst if allowed to 
become dry, they die and shrivel up and can only be examined 
with difiiculty. 

If they are not to be kept alive, they may be placed at once 
in some preservative solution, and may then be examined at 
leisure. Mounted specimens are desirable as records, but do not 
always shew clearly all the points necessary for identification. 



o :- 



' Jays in London ' (British Birds, December igii, p. 192). 

A Spoonbill was shot at the mouth of the Welland, Lincolnsliire, on 
November 13th — (Field). 

We learn from The Museums Journal that Dr. Tempest Anderson of 
York recently opened a new Museum at Batley, Yorksliire. 

A report of the annual meeting of the Entomological Section of the 
Yorkshire Naturalists' Union, by Mr. Porritt, appears in The Entomologist's 
Monthly Magazine for December. 

The slipper limpet or boot shell, an importation from America, which 
is now found on English Oyster beds, is describe 1 in The Zoologist, No. 845, 
l)y Dr. J. Aluric. This species was recorded as found in Lincolnshire, in 
the pages of The Naturalist, for 1888. In the same issue of The Zoologist 
Mr. A. W. Brown refers to the boring habits of Pholas crispata, and the 
editor draws attention to ' The Angler as a Factor in the Distribution of 
Earthworms. ' 

Naturalist, 



■*7- 



49 

THE BEETLES OF THE SCARBOROUGH DISTRICT. 



E. CHAS. HORRELL. 



For the purpose of the records of the Scarborough Field 
Naturahsts' Society the Scarborough district extends along 
the coast from Whitby on the north to Flamborough on the 
south, and inland from Flamborough through Weaverthorpe 
Village to Pickering, and thence follo\\dng the railway line 
to Whitby. The area thus circumscribed shows consider- 
able diversity of surface and affords an unusually rich 
district for the study of Natural History in all its branches. 
The beetles have been in the past well studied, especially by 
Messrs. R. Lawson and Wilkinson, and the Rev. W^ Hey, and 
from the list of Yorkshire Coleoptera by the last-named in the 
Transactions of the Yorkshire Naturalists' Union and from the 
List in the Victoria County History, I have been able to 
compile, with the aid of Mr. E. G. Bayford, a list of 937 species 
or varieties recorded from the District, and during the last 
season I have determined the following which have not been 
previously recorded. All these have been very kindly con- 
firmed for me by Mr. Bayford, and unless otherwise noted have 
been found by myself. 

The asterisk (*) denotes new to the Yorkshire Fauna, and 
the dagger (f) new to the North Riding. 



Notiophilus aqiiaticits L. Falling 

Foss. 
Leisttis spinibarbis F. Langdale 

End. 
Amara acuminata Payk. Rain- 

cliffe Woods, Scarborough. 
Bembidium andvets F. Filey. 
B. paludosiim Panz. Forge Valley. 
Tachypiis flavipes L. Forge Valley. 
*Rhantns pulverosus Steph. Scalby 

Beck. 
Astilbus canaliculatits F. Forge 

Valley. 
Tachvusa constrida Er. Forge 

Valley. 
Hypocyptus longicornis Payk. 

Raincliffe Woods. 
Tachvporus obtusiis'L. Forge Val- 

ley- 

T. obtitsus L. var. nitidicollis 
Steph. Cloughton. 
*T. pallidus Sh.ax^. Langdale End. 
Quediits cruentus Ol. Forge Val- 
ley. 
Xantholiniis longiventris Heer. 

Forge Valley. 
X. linearis Ol. 

Othius IcBviiisculus Steph. Rain- 
clitfe Woods. 

1912 Feb. I. 



Sienus biguttatus L. Scalby Beck. 

Omalium striatum Grav. Rain- 
cliffe Woods. 

Anthobiuni ophthalmicum Payk. 
Hey Brow, Scalby. 

Proteinus ovalis Steph. Forge 
Valley. 

Bryaxis impressa Panz. Forge 
Valley. 

Silpha nigrita Creutz. Scarboro'. 

Anatis ocellata L. (leg. A. E. 
Wallis). Raincliffe Woods. 

Attagenus pellio L. Scarborough. 

Adrastus limbatus F. Langdale 
End. 

Lampyris noctiluca L. Cloughton : 
Thornton Dale. 
]Melo(i violaceus Marsh (leg. A. E. 
Peck). Falling Moss. 

Otiorrhynchus atroapterus Deg. 
Langdale End. 

Exomias araneiformis Schr. Rain- 
cliffe Woods. 

Phyllobius viridicollis F. Thornton 
Dale. 

Philopedon geminatus F. Clough 
ton. 
f Atactogenus exaraius Marsh. 
Thornton Dale. 

D 



50 Wilson : Notes on the FcBces of Young Birds. 

' Barynotus elevatus. Marsh. Scar- I *H. murina F. Forge Valley. 



Grypidius eqitiseti F. Raincliffe 
Woods. 



borough. 
Alophiis triguttatus F. ForgeValley. 
Hyper avariabilis Herbs. Hackness. 

The addition therefore of these thirty-eight species or 
varieties raises the number of beetle records for the Scar- 
borough district to 975. ^ 



NOTES ON THE FAECES OF YOUNG BIRDS. 



W. WILSON. 



Whilst photographing birds at their nests from my tent, 
I have had a good opportunity of noting the mode adopted 
by various species of birds in the removal of the faeces from 
their nests. 

Missel Thrush. — I had three nests under observation, 
and in each case the male and female parents swallowed the 
faeces before leaving their nests, with a few exceptions, when 
they carried them away. In one case the female swallowed 
three separate faeces during a period of 15 minutes, whilst 
brooding her young. With another pair I visited every other 
day until the young left the nest, I noticed on the fourteenth 
day that the faeces had changed from a white colour to a black 
and white one. Up to this day the parent birds had swallowed 
all the faeces, but now they began to carry them away from 
the nest, and dropped them, whilst flying, when about 20 to 
30 yards from their nest. 

Song Thrush. — During the last few years I have noticed 
both male and female parents at different nests swallow the 
faeces on some visits to their young, and at other visits they 
have carried them away. In one case I noticed that one 
female parent swallowed two faeces and carried a third one 
away. 

Blackbird. — The remarks on the Song Thrush also apply 
to this species. 

Ring Ousel. — I had two pairs of this species under observa- 
tion in 1911. At every visit to the nest, they waited until the 
faeces were ejected, and then they immediately swallowed 
them, sometimes they swallowed three at one visit to their 
young. 

Chaffinch. — Both parents of this species carry away the 
faeces (with one exception, when the male parent swallowed 
one). A few days before the young leave the nest, the parents 
discontinue to remove the faeces, and the outer side of the nest 
becomes covered with them, which makes it very noticeable. 

Naturalist, 



Wilson : Notes on the FcBces of Young Birds. 51 

With Redstarts, Redbreasts, Willow Wrens, Dippers, 
Great Tits, Pied Wagtails, Yellow Wagtails, Grey 
Wagtails, Meadow Pipits, Spotted Flycatchers, House 
Sparrows, *Lesser Redpolls, and Starlings, I notice that 
the parents carry away the faeces ; but I cannot say definitely 
whether the Great Tits and Starlings carried all away, but they 
regularly left their nesting sites with the faeces in their beaks. 

Kingfishers. — I had two pairs of Kingfishers under observa- 
tion in 1911, and on no occasion did I see them carry away the 
faeces, although they occasionally removed pieces of fallen 
earth from their nesting holes. On examining their nests, only 
ejected fish-bones were to be found, so I assume this species 
also swallows the faeces of their young. 

From the preceding it will be seen that the larger species, 
such as the Thrushes, Blackbirds, and Ring Ousels, usually 
swallow or carry away the faeces, where as the smaller species 
generally carry them away. 

Why the faeces are carried away is evidently a habit of 
cleanliness, or to avoid attracting the notice of their enemies ; 
but why some species swallow them appears to be unknown. 

If the consumption of these faeces had any ill effect on the 
birds, presumably they would soon discontinue the practice. 
I therefore venture to suggest that one of the following reasons 
accounts for the swallowing of the faeces by the parent birds : — 

1. There is nourishment derived from the faeces by the 

parents. 

2. There is matter in the faeces which either helps to 

remove or counteract some disorder in the parents, 
which may be the result of close sitting during 
nidification. 

3. The ejected faeces contain some food which the young 

cannot digest, but which is acceptable and digestable 
by the parents. 



In The Entomologist (No. 583) are numerous records of Sphinx con- 
volvuli (the Convolvulus Hawk Moth), includmg notes from the Isle of 
Man, and Manchester. There are also some notes on Durham Lepidoptera. 

In The Journal of the Qiiekett Microscopical Club (No. 69), Mr. C. D. 
Soar has an interesting paper on ' The Work of the late Saville-Kent on 
British Hydrachnids ' (water mites) ; and there is a valuable but incomplete 
paper by Saville-Kent on ' Contributions to our Knowledge of the Hydrach- 
nidie. ' 

* Redpolls. — ^Mr. Arthur Duckworth informs me, that when he had 
the above-mentioned Redpolls under observation — (which was at a time 
when the young were about seven days older than the date at which I 
made my notes) — he noticed that the faeces were swallowed by both 
parents at some of their visits to the nest, and at others they were carried 
away ; occasionally, when they found one on the outerside of their nest, 
they picked it off and at times swallowed it, at others they carried it awa^' 

1912 Feb. I. 



52 

YORKSHIRE ARACHNIDA IN 1911. 



WM. FALCONER, 

Slaithumite, near Hiiddcrsfiehl. 



In addition to the thirteen species of spiders new to the 
county, found in 1911, (see 'The NaturaHst,' Jan. 1912, p. 29), 
the following notes have been made by the Committee : — 

The mountains in the West, and the neighbourhood of the 
sea, have proved as usual during the year the most profitable 
areas to work for additions to our list, and will probably continue 
to be so. Great tracts in various parts of the county, in which 
new spiders will probably occur, still await an investigator. 

Many interesting cases of abnormality, chiefly in the direction 
of eye suppression and the malformation of defective development 
of the palpal organs of the male, have come to hand. At Slaith- 
waite, in May, a male of Hilaira excisa Camb. in which the eleva- 
tion and the excisions of the caput were totally wanting, was 
taken, but the most extraordinary instance was that of an imma- 
ture male of Enidia hitnhercitlata Wid. (Mr. J. W. H. Harrison), 
from the Middlesbrough district. I am indebted to Rev. J. E. 
Hull, vicar of Ninebanks, Northumberland, for the particulars 
concerning it. It is furnished with two additional bona-fide eyes, 
which are the smallest of the 10, but perfectly distinct, quite 
symmetrical in form and position, and placed between the central 
and lateral eyes of the posterior row, but a little further back 
on the cephalothorax. There is apparently no previous record 
of such a reduplication of the eyes. 

On October 6th, the morning mild and sunny, with a gentle 
breeze from the south-west, an interesting series of aerial flights, 
a method by which many spiders are able to disseminate themselves, 
was witnessed. The threads of the flying spiders became en- 
tangled in some elevated iron railings fixed in a large asphalted 
enclosure, 48 yds. by 28 yds., whereby the progress of the little 
aeronauts was arrested. The great bulk consisted of adults of 
both sexes of Erigone promiscua Camb., with several Erigone atra 
Bl., and Dicymhiwn nigrum Bl., a pair of Savignia frontata BI., 
a male Bolyphantes kiteolus BL, two immature Leptyphantes, a 
pair of Centromeria concinna Thor., and one male C. hicolor Bl. 
This occurred at Slaithwaite. 

In the following list of rare Yorkshire species, none is in- 
cluded which has already received notice in any of the reports of 
the various meetings held during the year {Vide " Naturalist," 
June, pp. 233-5, 3-nd October, pp. 363-4), or in Mr. Winter's 
" Additions for the Airedale and Wharf edale Area," infra. 

Dysdera crocota C. L. Koch. Middlesbrough. $. J. W. Harrison. 
Prosthesinia petiverii Scop. Skipwith Common. One immature §. Second 
Yorkshire example. New to E. Riding. 

Naturalist, 



Falconer: Yorkshire Arachnida in igii. 53 

Agroeca brunnea Bl. Storthes Hall Wood, Huddersfield. $. Second Yorkshire 

locality. New to W. Riding. 
Scotina celans Bl. Carr Wood, Woodsome, Huddersfield. Second Yorkshire 

example. $. 
Chiracanthium carnifex Fabr. South Cave. $. T. S. Second Yorkshire 

record. 
Argyroneta aquatica Latr. Askham Bog, York, reported by ]\Ir. J. W. Harri- 
son. Ayton (boys of Middlesbro' High School). 
Ciciivina cinevea Panz. Seven Arches, Saltaire. $. J. A. Butterlield. 
Hahnia helveola Sim. Deffer Wood, Cawthorn. ^. 
H. jiava Bl. Basedale. §. Second Yorkshire example. J. W. H. New to 

N. Riding. 
Onesinda minutissima Camb. Wilton Wood, N. Riding. $. J. W, H. 
Robertas neglectus Camb. Grassington and Howden Ghyll, Keighlev. 2 rj. 

W. P. Winter. 
Floronia biicculenta Clerck. Skipwith Common. §. W. P. W. 
Ltnyphia pusilla Sund. Withernsea Carrs. 3 $. T. Stainforth. 
Lepythantes angiilatus Camb. Ingleborough. $. W. P. W. Second 

Yorkshire locality. 
Bathyphantes setiger F. O. P. Cb. Ouse Bank, Selby, and Riccall Common. 

2 §. W. P. W. and W. F. Second Yorkshire record. 
Povrhomma miseviim Camb. Wilton, N. Riding. Several examples. J. W. H. 
Hilaiva uncata Camb. Skipwith and Riccall Commons. $. New to E. 

Riding. 
Centromerus arc anus Camb. Basedale. Abundant. J. W. H. 
C. expertus Camb. Skipwith Common. 2 $. 

C. sylvaticus Bl. Deffer Wood, Cawthorn. Abundant. Both sexes. 
Halovates reprobits Camb. Marfleet Creek, i q and 7 $. T. S. 
Mengeawarburfo)iii Camh. Skipwith Common. Both sexes. W. F. Hornsea 

Mere. Both sexes. T. S. 
Mengea scopigera Grube. Lower Dungeon Wood, Shiple}-. 2 (J. W. P. W, 
Phaitlothrix hiithwaitii Camb. Sewerby Cliffs, Bridlington. Both sexes. 

T. S. New to E. Riding. Skipwith Common. Both sexes. W. P. W., 

W. F. 
Oveonetides firmus Camb. Royal Clough, Pole Moor, Huddersfield. i $. 

Deffer Wood, Cawthorn. First Yorkshire (^. 
Diplocentria rivalis Camb. Morton Moor, Bingley. ^. W. P. W. 
Tmeticus affinis Bl. - Hornsea Mere, 2 ^. T. S. 
Gongylidiellum vivtim Camb. Skipwith Common. ^. 

G. pagamim Sim. Ainley Place, Slaithwaite, and Deffer Wood, Cawthorn. 2 $. 
Notioscopus sarciuatits Camb. Basedale. Abundant. J. W. H. 
Diplocephalus beckii Camb. Storthes Hall Wood, Huddersfield. 3 $. 

D. protiibevans Camb. Ainley Place, Slaithwaite. 3 ^. 

Hypselistes jacksotiii Camb. i ,^ and 4 $. Eston. Oct. J. W. H. Fixes 

time of maturity previously unknown. 
Typhochrestus digitatus Camb. Eston. $. J. W. H. New to N. Riding. 
Styloctetor penicillatus Westr. Rudston, E. R. 9- T. S. Grassington. 

I $. W. P. W. Storthes Hall, Huddersfield. 2 $. 
Wideria fugax Camb. Deffer Wood, Cawthorn. $. 
Covnicularia Kochii Camb. Grangetown. q' and $. J. W. H. New to N. 

Riding. 
C. vigilax Bl. Eston. $. J. W. H. Second Yorkshire example. 
Pachygnatha listevi Sund. Elam Wood, Keighley. 2 ,^. 

Hurst Wood, Shipley, J.A.B., and Dungeon Wood, Shipley, W. P. W. 

Deffer Wood, Cawthorn. ^. 
Meta menavdi Latr. Kelcove and Little Kelcove Caves, Giggleswick, cave in 

Kingsdale, and old lead mine, Grassington. INIr. Cuthbert Hastings. 
Epeira patagiata C. L. Koch. Adults, both sexes. Skipwith Common. 
Pisaura mirabilis Clerck. Robin Hood's Bay. $. T. S. Second Yorkshire 

record. 

1912 Feb. I. 



54 Falconer: Yorkshire Arachnida in igii. 

Pirata hygrophilus Thor. Hurst Wood, Shipley. Both Sexes. W. P. W. 

Attits piibesceiis Fabr. (^. Hull. W. C. England. 

Evarcha falcata Bl. Storthes Hall Wood. Huddersfield. 2 ^. 

Harvestmen. 
Oligolophits palpinalis Herbst. Storthes Hall, Huddersfield. Deffer Wood, 

Cawthorn. 
Nemastoma chrysomelas Herm. Ainley Place, Slaithwaite. Deffer Wood, 

Cawthorn. 

Mr. W. P. Winter writes : — As far as the Airedale and Wharfe- 
dale area is concerned, the season has been fairly successful, 
and there are new records or new reports of old records since " The 
Naturalist " of last January, of 29 spiders and i pseudoscorpion, 
making now 201 spiders, 17 harvestmen, and 2 pseudoscorpions, 
or 220 arachnids altogether. 

Notices of some of these have already appeared in " The 
Naturalist " during the year. Others not previously recorded are 
the following. The finder's initials or names are attached, except 
in the case of my own collecting. 

For 19 10 or previous years. 
Argvroueta aquatica (Latr.). Imm. $. Sept. 1908. Austwick Moss. ]\Ir. C. 

Waterfall. 
Leptyphautes flavipes (Bl.). 3 ,^. Oct. 15th. Shipley Glen. 
Hilaira uncata (Cambr.) $. Dec. 6th. Flam Wood, Keighley. 
Centromerits expertus (Cambr.). ^, and Tm. rivalis (Cambr.), Sept. 21st, 1907. 

Ascent of Ingleboro' from Clapdale. Mr. W. Falconer. 
Microneta saxatilis (Bl.). ^J. Sept. 6th. Ingleboro'. 
Gongylidiitm riifipes (Sund.). $. Dec. 6th. Flam Wood, Keighley. Mr. 

Rosso Butterfield. 
Gongylidielhwi paganum {Sim..). '^,2i.n<l Evausiamerens [Carnb.). $. Under 

bracken. Aug. Rivock, Keighley. 
Ceratinella brevis (Wid.). 9- Oct. ist. Hurst Wood, Shipley. 
Pisaitra mirabilis (Clerck). June. Near Keighley. Mr. Rosse Butterfield. 

For 191 1. 
Prosthesima latreillei (C. L. K.). $ imm. and ^. June 6th. Under stones, 

(Jrass Woods. W. P. W. 
Zora maciilata (Bl.). 9- J^i^e 6th. Grass Woods. 
Theridion dcnticitlatum (Walck). $. April 22nd. Bolton Woods. Francis 

Perry. 
T. tepidarionim (C. L. K.). $. Feb. 17th and T. varians (Bl.). $. June. 

Gardens at Whetley Hill, Bradford. Mr. W. J. Forrest. 
Antistea elegaus (C. L. K.). $. June 19th. Hurst Wood, Shipley. 
Leptyphautes tenebvicola (Wid.). ^. May 23rd. Elam Wood, Keighley. 
Bathyphantes puUatus (Cambr.). ^. June 7th. Hurst Wood, Shipley. 
Microneta beata (Cambr.). ^. June 6th. Grassington. 
M. innotabaUs (Cambr.). ^. June 8th. Grass Woods and M. caiita {C2im.hv.). 

$. June 9th. Arncliffe. Both Mr. W. Falconer. 
Lophomnia punctattim (Bl.). 9. April 19th, and Walckeucgra niidipalpis 

(Westr.). 9. May 9th. In Hurst Wood, Shipley. 
Troxochrtts hiemalis (Bl.). ^, and Cnephalocotes elegaus (Cambr.). 9- June 

9th. Malham. Mr. W. Falconer. 
Trochosa picta {Hahn). Imm. 9. June. Whetley Hill, Bradford. Mr. W. J. 

Forrest. 



From Mr. S. S. Piatt we have received a reprint of an interesting paper on 
a stone celt found at Rochdale. 

Naturalist, 



55 
YORKSHIRE ENTOMOLOGY IN 1911. 



A. WHITAKER and E. G. BAYFORD. 



Abolt fort}- members and associates attended the successful Annual 
Meeting of the Entomological Section of the Yorkshire Naturalists' Union 
at the Leeds Institute on October 28th last. The president of the section, 
Mr. Arthur Whitaker, occupied the chair. 

Amongst the many interesting exhibits, mention might be made of 
four specimens of X. ocellaris from the Thames valley, fine varieties of 
L. gueneei and a beautiful B. repandata var. conversaria shown by 
Mr. Porritt ; vara, of A . betiilavia and P. chi, and also a very curious 
and striking aberration of M. fluctuata, all from the Skelmanthorpe 
district, exhibited by Mr. Morley. Varieties of P. chi from Bradford 
district were brought by Mr. J. W. Carter. Series of P. chi and A . betularia 
from several localities in Yorkshire, and a number of Z. lonicercs, showing 
considerable variation, were exhibited by Mr. Hewett. A case of insects 
mounted in their characteristic resting attitudes was shown by Professor 
Garstang. Varieties of P. chi and 0. filigrammaria from Huddersfield 
district wers contributed by Mr. Cocker A fine melanic form of A. 
menyanthidis from the Penistone Moors, along with an abnormal specimen 
of H. pennaria and several oth^r interesting moths were exhibited by Mr. 
Dyson. A number of fine selected forms of A grossulariata, including the 
varieties varleyata, semiviolacea , etc., bred by Mr. James Lee, and varieties 
of A . grossiilanata from Hull, were sho-wn by Mr. Boult ; and from Hudders- 
field neighbourhood by Mr Wright. Fine varieties of A. betularia and 
P. chi, were brought by Mr. Lofthouse. An interesting melanic specimen 
of A. atvopos, and a series of C. suffumata var. porritti were exhibited by 
Mr. Hooper ; and a pale yellowish v ariety of V. C-album, and varieties of 
A . betularia and P. chi by Mr. Whitaker. 

Mr. Morley read a paper on the ' Reversion of Po'i:.< chi from melanic 
to type form in the Skelmanthorpe district during the past summer.' 
This phenomenon was attributed to the hot season . All the metamorphoses 
of tlie species took place in one or other of the protracted droughts of the 
summer ; and as a conse<iuence imagines appeared fully a month 
earlier than in igog or igio. Mr. Morley suggested that the reversion 
was evidence that the melanism of this species was a result of damp and 
sunless weather, and was not produced by the elimination of light forms 
by enemies. Mr. Porritt said these observations were fully in accordance 
with his own experiences, extending over many years. Dr. Corbett 
suggested rearing the species under dry and damp conditions, and noting 
the results. A good discussion followed. 

^Ir. Denison Roebuck read an essay by Mr. E. A. Butler, on ' Hints 
on Collecting Hemiptera.' The varied habitats and times of appearance 
of the different species belonging to this neglected order were detailed. 

Mr. T. A. Lofthouse contributed a paper on ' ^. betularia.' The 
essayist had ascertained the dates when the variety doubledayaria first 
made its appearance in different districts. From the first record of the 
form at Manchester in i85g its gradual increase was traced, and the date 
of its first appearance in numerous localities, both in our own country 
and on the Continent, were enumerated. Results obtained by breeding 
from the black form crossed with the type were given, and well illustrated 
by actual specimens. It was suggested that the probable cause of melan- 
ism in this species was a smoky atmosphere, and that it was most likely a 
case of reversion to an earlier form of insect. A discussion followed. 

Mr. E. G. Bayford read a paper on ' Ichneumons,' wliich had been 
Avritten by Mr. Claude Morley. 

Several species of Coleoptera were exhibited by Messrs. E. G. Bayford, 

1912 Feb. I. 



56 



Yorkshire Entomology in 1911. 



H. H. Corbett, W. J, Fordham, W, Hewett, E. W. Morse, and M. L. 
Thompson. The most interesting of these were as follow : — 



Carabus nitens L. Rombald's Moor. 
* Blethisa miiltipunctata L. Bubwith. 

JMiscodeva avctica Payk. Kildale 
and ]\liddlesbrough. 

Pterostichus vitrens Dej. Grange- 
town. 

Pterostichits aitthracinits 111. Bub- 
with. 

Anchomenus micans Nic. 

Bembidium liinatiim Duft. 
t ,, bipuiictatum L. Eston.. 

Hydropovus longuliis Muls. Kil- 
dale. 

Agabits affiuis Payk. Aberlady. 

* ,, jemoralis Payk. Skip with. 

abbreviatiis F. Askham 
Bog. 
I Helophorus avveniiciis Muls. Kil- 
dale. 
I Hydrochus angustatiis Germ. Bub- 
with. 
Hypocyptits Icsviuscidus Man. Bub- 
with. 
*Ocypus fitscatus Grav. Bubwith. 

* Leptachius fovmicetormn ^lark. 

Doncaster. 
]Stenus nitens Steph. Thorne. 

* Coprophilus striatidus F. Bub- 

with. 
HoniaUiim piinctipenne Th. 
t Acrulia inflnta Gyll. Doncaster 
and Newnham. 
Silpha dispav Hbst. 
Colydiuni elongatiim F. New Forest. 
Gnathoncus nannetensis Mars. 
^Monotonia spinicollis Aube. Don- 
caster. 
\ L (Brno phi auts piisilhis Schon. 
Barnsle}'. 
Lcsmophla'iis ferrugineus Steph. 
Barnsley. 
^Psammcechiis bipuuctatus F. As- 
kern. 



Mycetophcigiis pice us F, 
Megatoma undata L. 
Cryptohypnus sabulicola Boh. Sy- 

mond's Yat. 
Corymbites ceneus L. Doncaster. 
Ancistronycha abdominalis F. 

Middleton-in-Teesdale. 
Hedobia imperialis L. Bubwith. 

* Rhizopevtha pusilla F. Barnsley. 
] Enneai'thron cornutiim Gyll. 

Wheatley. 

* Arotnia nioschata L. Skipwith. 
^ClytHS arciiatus L. Woodyard, 

Doncaster. 
*S(ipevda carchavias L. A iine ^, 
from a York woodyard. 

Saperda scalaris L. Chatsworth. 

Clythva quadvipunctata L. Went- 
bridge. 

Chrysomela goettiugensis L. Kel- 
lingley. 

Halloineniis httmevalis Panz. 
Roundhay. 

Salpingus cpvatus Muls. Grime- 
thorpe. 

Salpingus foveolatiis Ljungh. 
Roundhay. 

JMacrocephalus albinus L. Xewn- 
ham . 

Tropideves niveirostvis F. Sy- 
mond's Yat. 

Otiorhynchus rugifrons Gyll. 
Grangetown. 
* Exomias araneifovmis Schon. Bub- 
with. 

Barynotus schuiihevri Lett. Aber- 
lady. 

* Alophus triguttatus F. Bubwith. 
Limobius dissiinilis Herbst. Rich- 
mond. 

Myelophilus piniperda L. 
Platvpus cvlindrus F. Symond's 
Yat. 



* signifies the tirst record for the Riding. 
f signifies an addition to the County List. 



The Adventures of Jack Rabbit, by Richard Kearton, F.Z.S. Cassell & 
Co. 248 pp., 6/-. 

This is a delightful book for a young naturalist, being written in non- 
technical language, and printec m large type. In addition to an enormous 
number of excellent photographs of bird, insect, and plant life, etc., by Mr. 
Kearton, there are some of beautifully coloured plates taken direct from 
nature ; that of the Speedwell being particularly charming. The book is 
wiitten in the form of a narrative, and incidentally contains much useful 
information, which will be appreciated by boys and girls. 

Naturalist, 



57 



FIELD NOTES. 



GEOLOGY. 
r Halysites catenularia at Craggr Hill, Yorks. — On April 
15th, 1911, Mr. G. F. Townend of Earby, found the ' chain 
coral ' Halysites catenularia in the Coniston Limestone Series 
at Cragg Hill, near Horton-in-Ribblesdale. This coral is not 
included in the list of fossils from the Bala Beds given by Prof. 
McKenny Hughes in the ' Proceedings of the Yorkshire Geo- 



^:^'^ 


^*^^ 


^ i^^-^-^ 

^*.^^'----<-:^^ 


I^^^'I^^i 








' ^li^^^^^^B^ 



logical Society,' Vol. XIV., No. III., pages 249 and 351, and 
does not appear to have been previously recorded from this 
locality. Mr. J. Hartley, of Nelson, has kindly photographed 
the specimen. — J. Holmes, Crosshills, 13th December, 191 1. 

— : o : — 

BIRDS. 

Black^beliied Dipper at Bridlington. ^On 14th Decem- 
ber 191 1, a male Black-bellied Dipper was shot at Bridlington, 
and sent to R. Stuart of Beverley for preservation. He says 
that in thirty-one years' experience this is the only specimen 
he has handled, and his opinion of its rarity is borne out by 
' Birds of Yorkshire,' in which only four previous occurrences 
in the county are recorded. — E. W. Wade, Hull. 

The Feeding Habits of Gulls in the Scarborough 
District. — On several occasions during recent years I have 
found on the rocks where gulls congregate, pellets of woody 
fibre, the nature of which I could not determine. Subsequent 
observation led me to believe that this substance might be the 
more indigestable parts of turnip ; but tnis seemed to be such 
an unlikely thing for gulls to feed upon, that I hesitated to 
decide without proof positive. I noticed, however, that the 

igi2 Feb, i. 



58 Northern News. 

birds sit in turnip fields much more now-a-days than formerly ; 
and one day last week I saw a large flock, comprising several 
hundred individuals, in a field of turnips close to the cliff top. 
Observation with the glasses showed that the gulls were pecking 
at the turnips ; so the following afternoon I secured three 
birds — two Herring Gulls and one Great Black Backed Gull — 
as they were returning at dusk from the field to the sea. In 
each instance, the gullet was crammed with broken up turnip. 
On examining the roots in the field I found a very large pro- 
portion of them broken into by the birds ; and not a little 
damage must be done in this way as the injured roots quickly 
rot in wet weather. 

At sowing time in this district the gulls scratch up the 
seed-grain, and feed upon it ; and in places where they congre- 
gate on the shore numbers of pellets, composed of the husks of 
wheat, barley, and oats may be found, having been cast up 
by the birds. The same thing may be seen again at harvest 
time ; but the birds do not appear to take the growing grain, 
merely picking up that wnich they find upon, or scratch out 
of, the ground. 

I do not remember finding either grain or turnip in any of 
the many gulls wnicn I dissected say fifteen or twenty years 
ago, and am of opinion tnat tnis change in the feeding habits 
of these birds is to be attributed to the great increase in their 
numbers during recent years, rendering it difficult for all to 
pick up a living on the sea and shore. — W. J. Clarke, 51 Oak 
Road, Scarborough, January i6th, 1912. 



At the recent annual meeting of the Scarborough Field Naturalists' 
Society, Mr. H. C. Drake, F.G.S., was elected president for the forth- 
coming year. 

The death is announced of Sir Joseph Dalton Hooker, the illustrious 
botanist. Sir Joseph was born in 18 17, and was a personal friend and 
staunch supporter of Darwin. 

A purse was presented to Mr. Henry Keeping recently, on his retire- 
ment from the post of Curator of the Geological Museum, Cambridge. 
Mr. Keeping had held the post for 50 years. 

We regret to notice particulars of the death of Mr. L. B. Ross, of 
Driffield, formerly a prominent member of the Yorkshire Naturalists' 
Union, and an enthusiastic botanist and conchologist. He was sixty-five 
years of age. 

In a paper recently read to the Geological Society on ' The Evolution 
of Inoceramus in the Cretaceous period,' Mr. Henry Woods shews that the 
Inocerami found in the Gault, Upper Greensand and Chalk, are dc'^cended 
from two stocks which occur in the Lower Greensand, viz., /. salomom 
and /. neocomiensis. 

We have received a 'Price List for prepared Palrarkt Lepidoters,' 
from which we learn ' the mutual place of fulfilment is Zirlau. Selections 
of patterns are willingly to serious customers disposition. I accept at 
any time all offers about pali;arkt. and exotic lepitopters, and I purchase 
original-booties and perfect collections per cash.' 

Naturalist, 



59 
YORKSHIRE NATURALISTS' UNION 
VERTEBRATE SECTION. 

Two successful and well-attended meetings were held in the Leeds In- 
stitute on November i8th. 

Prior to the General Meeting of the Section, the Committees of the 
Wild Birds' and Eggs' Protection Act, and the Mammals, Reptiles, Am- 
phibians and Fishes, met. 

At 3-30 p.m. the chair was taken by Mr. Oxley Grabham, M. A., M.B.O.U., 
and the various sectional recorders' reports were read. 

In connection with the election of otficers for 1912, several recommend- 
ations were made for the annual meeting of the Union at Heckmondwike. 

The general and financial reports of the Yorkshire Wild Birds' and 
Eggs' Protection Acts Committee were presented ; the continued pro- 
gress and the financial position was satisfactory, thanks to several 
generous subscribers. 

The report of the Mammals, Reptiles, etc.. Committee was read, and a 
revised official list was passed for recommendation at the annual meeting 
of the Union. 

After an adjournment for tea, the evening meeting was commenced 
by an exhibition of specimens. Mr. W. Hewitt exhibited a case containing 
two weasels — one the normal type, and an albino variety, which occurs 
very infrequently with this species, in marked contrast to its near relative 
the Stoat. 

A communication from Mr. Musham was also read relative to the 
nesting of the Water Vole, several nests of which had been found in north 
Lincolnshire during the summer, in high and dry places, and built of reed 
and sedge pith. 

Mr. Sydney Smith confirmed the occurrence from his own observations 
on Skipwith Common, and surprise was expressed that such a course 
should have been necessary during the abnormally dry summer. A 
probable explanation is that the absence of water in many of the hitherto 
inaccessible swamps and ditches has led to the discovery of what may be 
after all, no unusual habit. 

Mr. F. Edmondson, of Keighley, exhibited a small specimen of the 
Smaller River Lampern taken in the river Aire. Mr. G. Parkin, of Wake- 
field, shewed beautifully mounted specimens of a variety of the Meadow 
Pipit, taken near Wakefield ; a variety or hybrid of the Black Rat, which 
suggested close relationship to the Brown Rat. Also specimens of the 
Short-tailed Field Vole and Red-backed Vole, and various nests of the 
Long-tailed Field Mouse, shewing the usual type in contrast to adaptations 
of Whitethroats' nest to which a dome had been added. 

JNIr. A. Haigh Lumby read a short paper on ' Distribution of Birds 
relative to Migration.' 

Mr. Riley Fortune, F.Z.S., read a paper entitled ' Notes on British 
Deer,' deahng in an interesting manner with the antecedents, life-history, 
structural peculiarities, habits, etc., of the Red, Fallow and Roe Deer, the 
lecture being illustrated by a fine set of slides. Mr. T. M. Fowler gave a 
paper, ' Glimpses into Bird Life,' illustrated with lantern slides, depicting 
his close acquaintance and photographic experiences with several very 
wary birds. 

Mr. Oxley Grabham, M.B.O.U., on ' Yorkshire Fresh-water Fishes,' 
also illustrated by the lantern, gave an instructive and racy address on 
our county's species most interesting to the angler. 

Mr. H. B. Booth, M.B.O.U., shewed a few sUdes of the recent fish 
victims in the River Wharfe, near Ilkley, destroyed by an accidental 
overflow from the gasworks on October 15th, 191 1.* 

Mr. A. Haigh-Lumby shewed about fifty slides of various natural 
history subjects, illustrating the possibilities and limitations of vest- 
pocket camera work in this direction. — A. H. L. 

* See 'Naturalist,' Nov. 1901, page 37. 

igi2 Feb i. 



6o 

NEW BOOKS ON GEOLOGY, ETC. 

The Geology of the Country around Nottingham, by G. W. Lamplugh 
and W. Gibson {72 pp., 2/-), is a distinct improvement upon many of the 
geological survey publications, inasmuch as it is quite readable and interest- 
ing from cover to cover. It is well illustrated, too, by a comparatively 
large number of reproductions of excellent photographs, which are ])rinted 
on quite decent plate paper, and the illustrations in the text arc not copied 
from rough sketches of fossils made bj' primitive man, such as adorn the 
pages of some of our Government Geological Survey publications. There is 
also a special chapter devoted to ' Supplementary Notes for Students ' ! E\i- 
dently, the ' powers that be,' whoever they are, seem at last to be realizing 
that it is not essential in a government publication of tliis sort to have 
merely dry statistics, and bare — very bare — facts, with pre-liistoric wood- 
cuts, badly printed on bad paper. The cover, too, can be handled without 
one's fingers .slipping through the paper, though in our copy it must be 
admitted the ' cover ' is smaller than the pages inside ; though tliis is 
probably owing to the fact that the co\'ers were cut before the tliickness 
of the plates was allowed for ! 

We have received three of the excellently printed and well-bound 
volumes issued by the Cambridge University Press at the extremelv low 
price of i /- each. They average 150 pages each, and are well illustrated. 
The first is by Prof. A. C. Seward, a past-president of the Yorkshire Nat- 
uralists' Union, and deals with ' Links with the Past in the Plant World,' a 
subject which he recently touched upon in the pages of The Xaturalist. 
He deals with the Longevity of Trees, Plant Distribution, the Geological 
Record, Fossil Plants, Ferns : their c istribution and antiquity, Californian 
trees, the Maiden Hair Tree; and in addition, he gives an extensive bililio- 
graphy. On somewhat similar lines, but dealing with the animal world, 
is Mr. Geoffrey Smith's ' Primitive Animals.' This has chapters on the 
Animal Phyla, Simple Animals and Plants, and the Origin of Life ; the 
Appcnciculate Phylum, Embryonic and Larval Histories ; the Ancestry 
of the Vertebrates ; the Origin of Land Vertebrates ; the Rise of the 
Mammalia ; and on the past and future of animal life. From this enumera- 
tion of the contents, it will be seen how exceedingly interesting is the 
nature of this work. A companion volume, Life in the Sea, by Mr. James 
Johnstone, refers to the Categories of Life, Rhythmical Change in the Sea, 
the Factors of Distribution, Modes of Nutrition, and the Sources of 
Food. There is also a useful list of authorities. These three volumes have 
the further advantage of being written in non-technical language. 

Waves of the Sea and other Water Waves, by Dr. Vaughan Cornish. 

London : T. Fisher l^nwin. 374 pp., 10/- net. 

Dr. Vaughan Cornish has long been known for his researches upon all 
kinds of waves with which geography is concerned. In this book he gives 
an account of his contributions to our knowledge of water wa\"es. The 
volume is divided into three parts. The first deals with the size and speed 
of ocean waves, and their relation to the strength of the wind which pro- 
duces them. In the second part an account is given of the action of the 
waves to form shingle beaches, and, in conjunction with the tides, to 
transport shingle and sand from place to place along the shore. This part 
of the book is important in connection with the subject of coast ero.sion. 
The third part is chiefly devoted to progressive waves in rivers. The 
origin and nature of the Severn Bore, on which the author has tlirown 
fresh light, is dealt with in detail ; and niany remarkable obser\ations 
are recorded of the progressive waves of the Niagara Rapids, of the ten- 
dency of shallow streams to flow in gushes, and of other curious phenomena 
of intermittence which can be detected in cataracts and waterfalls. The 
work is profusely illustrated by the author's photographs, obtained in many 
parts of the world. We are glad to be able to recommend the \olume 

Naturalist, 



New Books on Geology, etc. 6i 

to our readers, as being the first to be entirely devoted to tiiis fascinating 
subject — a subject which is of far more importance, both scientifically 
and economically, than is usually supposed. Some interesting observations 
on nortiiern ri\'ers arc given. 

Ancient Types of Man, by Arthur Keith, M.D., LL.D. London : Har- 
per & Bros. 151 pp., 2/6 net. 

Unfortunately we looked at this volume whilst we were busy with 
some work which was urgently required. Tiie result was the work had 
to wait. It is most fascinating ; each chapter deals with some well-known 
type of ancient man ; the Essex, Tilbury, Dartford, Galley Hill, Heidel- 
berg, Neanderthal, Java, etc., remains being graphically described ; and 
restorations are gi\'en. 

Characteristics of Existing Glaciers, by Prof. W. H. Hobbs. Macmillan 
& Co. 301 pp., 13/6 net. 

In this country, and particularly in the northern covinties, much 
geological work amongst glacial deposits has to be done by many who have 
had no opportunity of studying modern glacial phenomena in the large 
glaciated areas of our globe. Glacier-ice at any time is very peculiar in its 
methods, and cannot always be relied upon to do what it ' ought ' to do, or 
to go where it ' ought ' to go ; and in dealing with an area glaciated some 
thousands of years ago, it is not at all unlikely that difficult problems 
will arise. It is therefore essential that a student of glacial geology- should 
get a good grasp of the nature of the work existing glaciers are doing, and 
not merely the small ice-streams of the Alps, but the great ice-caps in the 
Arctic and Antarctic, as ' the present is the key to the past.' Prof. Hobbs 
has produced the very volume. By the aid of about 200 diagrams and 
photographs, with the descriptions thereof, he has placed the student of 
glacial geology in a far better position than he has ever been before. The 
erratic way in which ice behaves, whether in the form of small glaciers 
or large continental sheets, is described in detail, and illustrations are 
draAvn from all parts of the world — Scott and Shackleton supplying much 
material for the book. The following headings to one only, out of the 
ih chapters, will give an idea of the thoroughness of the work, and its 
usefulness to British geologists : Glacial features due mainly to Deposits, 
abandoned moraines of mountain glaciers, the tongue-like basin before the 
mountain front, border lakes, stream-action on the mountain foreland, 
the outwash apron, eskers and recessional moraines, stream action within 
the valleys during retirement of the glacier, landslides and rock streams 
within tlie vacated valley, rock-flows from abandoned cirques, references.' 

British and Foreign Building Stones, by John Watson. Cambridge : 
University Press. 483 pp., 3/- net. 

This volume is much more than what the author modestly describes as 
' A descriptive catalogue of the specimens in the Sedgwick Museum, 
Cambridge.' It is an excellent handbook and guide to building stones 
generally ; and besides being very useful to the geological student, will be 
invaluable to the builder and architect. The first 244 pages are devoted 
to descriptive notes on building stones of Britain, the colonies, and foreign 
coimtries, arranged under the heads of Igneous Rocks (Plutonic), Igneous 
Rocks (Volcanic), Metamorphic Rocks, and Sedimentary Rocks — the last 
being arranged in geological age. A perusal of this part of the w'ork shews 
to what an unexpected extent the \-arious beds in the different geological 
deposits are used for building purposes. Tlie catalogue proper enumerates 
over 1 100 examples, mostly 4^- inch cubes, with rough, dressed, and 
polished faces. In addition to the trade and geological names, geological 
horizons, localities, etc., particulars are given of the nature of the rock, 
the weight per cubic foot, crushing strain, chemical composition, etc. As 
every important stone appears to be represented in the Cambridge coUect- 
tion, it will be seen that the volume is one of unusual value. It is also 
remarkably cheap, and there is a capital index. 

iQi2 Feb. I. 



62 

REVIEWS AND BOOK NOTICES. 

The Young Ornithologist, by W. Percival Westell. Methuen & Co. 

xiv.+3o8 pp., 5/-. 

This is an excellent series of bird photographs by various photographers, 
made into book form by Mr. Westell's usual talk about the birds ; which, 
under various titles, we have seen over and over again. In the present 
work, however, he professes to classify the birds according to their environ- 
ment, though it is evident some have been put under the heads of country 
lane, meadows, woodland, and ' spacious air,' by the ' heads or tails ' 
principle. The first is the most interesting and most u.seful chapter ; and 
it is by someone else ; for another helper Mr. Westell condescendingly 
predicts a ' brilliant future.' Many Yorkshire photographs appear 
amongst the illustrations ; the photographers of some of which are 
thanked, and some are not. 

The Natural History and Antiquities of Selborne, by Gilbert White. 

London : MacMillan & Co. 476 pp., 10/6 net. 

It is not necessary to recommend this classic to readers of ' The Natura- 
list.' ' White's Selborne ' is the one book that every naturalist worthy 
of the name has read. Probably a hundred different editions have appeared 
during the past century. But we can safely say we have not seen one so 
well produced at so reasonable a cost as this one by MacMillan. It is not 
spoilt by too much ' editing.' It is printed in large type on good paper, 
and neatly bound. It is greatly increased in value by 24 plates of Selborne, 
etc., in colours, by George Edward Collins, R.B.A. W^e know of no better 
present for a young naturalist. 

The Home Life of the Osprey. Photographed and described by C. G. 
Abbott. London : Witherby & Co. 54 pp., and 32 plates, 6/- net. 

This is the third of the Bird Lo\er's ' Home Life ' series, and, if any- 
thing, is better than its predecessors. Tlie letterpress is an entertaining 
account of the habits of the Osprey (which, by the way, still nests within 
the city limits of New York), and of the photographer's experiences in 
' snapping ' it. The part of the volume which will appeal alike to natura- 
list and photographer is that wherein some 42 reproductions of remarkable 
photographs of the birds and their nesting sites are mounted on suitably 
tinted paper. Were it not for tlie fact that ' photography cannot lie ' 
we .should hardly have belie\'ed that a human being could possiblv have 
been .so near this wary bird. 

The Kingdom of Man, by (Sir) E. Ray Lankester, D.Sc, LL.D., etc. 

London : Watts & Co. 191 pp., 2/6 net. 

This volume was originally issued by Messrs. Constable, in 1907, and 
was noticed in the pages of ' The Naturalist ' at the time. It contains 
Dr. Lankester 's Oxford Romanes Lecture 1905, on ' Nature's Insurgent 
Son ' ; his British Association Address, 1906, and an article on ' Sleeping 
Sickness,' reprinted from the Quarterly Review. Our readers will probably 
be glad to hear of the volume in its present cheaper form. Though bearing 
the date 191 1, there is no indication of the author's knighthood, and he is 
still described as ' Director of the Natural History Departments of the 
British Museum,' a position he vacated some years ago. 

Science from an Easy Chair, by Sir Ray Lankester. :\Icthuen & Co. 
423 pp., 6/- net. 

This volume contains a series of popular articles, originally contributed 
to the Daily Telegraph, and now reprinted in handy form, with illustra- 
tions. The subjects dealt with are unusually varied, and include the 
most ancient men, cave-men's skulls, dragons, oysters, sleep, university 
training, Darwin's discoveries, camels, cholera, ee.ls, stars, tadpoles, spar- 
rows, green-fly, opium, clothes moths, etc. As a frontispiece is a beauti- 
fully coloured plate shewing the ' yellow ' or immature eel, and the ' silver ' 
or mature eel. 

Naturalist, 



Reviews and Book Notices. 63 

Physical Science in the Time of Nero, being a Translation of the Qiiaes- 
tiones Naturales of Seneca, by John Clarke, with notes on the Treatise, by 
Sir Archibald Geikie. MacMillan & Co. 368 pp. 12/- net. 

Early in the seventeenth century Thomas Lodge, the dramatist, pub- 
lished a translation of nearly the whole of Seneca's prose works. Hitherto, 
however, no English editor seems to have turned his attention to the 
Questiones Naturales. In the present work by Mr. John Clarke, a trans- 
lation is given, together with an explanatory introduction. Other in- 
formation is gi\en to enable the \olume to be self-interpreting. Sir Archi- 
bald Geikie has added a valuable and most readable commentary, in 
which questions treated by Seneca are considered from the point of view of 
modern science. 

A Garland of Shakespeare's Flowers, compiled by Rose E. Carr Smith. 
London : Eliot Stock. 104 pp. 3/- net. 

This little book contains an introduction by Herbert Carr Smith, in 
reference to the flowers of Shakespeare's days. Then follow sixty well- 
coloured plates of the plants referred to by Shakespeare, each of which is 
accompanied by quotations from the plays, etc. The illustrations are 
after the style of those in Cassell's 'Familiar Wild Flowers,' and for the 
most part are well done. Botanists, with a taste for Shakespeare, or 
Shakespearians with a taste for botany, will hnd this book welcome. 

Modern Microscopy, by M. I. Cross and M. J. Cole. 4th ed. London, 
1912. Balliere, Tindall & Cox. XVII. +325 pp. 6/- net. 

This well-known ' Handbook for beginners and students " needs no 
recommendation to our readers interested in microscopy, as they will 
probably all have got it. In case this should not be so, and in case any 
are about to take up microscopy, we take this opportunity of saying that 
a fourth revised and enlarged edition has just been published, with chapters 
on special subjects by various writers. There are over one hundred 
illustrations. 

A Journal from Japan : A Daily Record of Life as seen by a Scientist, 
by Marie C. Stopes, D.Sc, etc. London : Blackie & Son. 280 pp. 7/6 
net. 

Dr. Stopes went to Japan in search of coal-balls, and, as we have seen, 
has made many interesting additions to our knowledge of paLcobotany as a 
result. With introductions from the Royal Society, etc., she had every 
possible attention paid to her, by the most polite of Orientals. Whilst 
away she wrote long letters home, for her friends, though they took the 
form of a ' Journal.' They were not written for the purpose of publication, 
and therefore, womanlike. Dr. Stopes has published them. And we are 
glad she did. She seems to have had a happy time, and certainly has a 
happy way of telling what she saw. Early in the trip, whilst on a train 
ride, a smart Japanese, well-dressed in perfect English style, sat near her, 
' then, the heat becoming great, he took off his coat, then his waistcoat' 
and finally came to his shirt alone! Then he pulled over him a loose 
kimono, and removed every stitch but that .... all without removing his 
gold-rimmed glasses or turning a hair! ' As many others did the same 
Miss Stopes wondered if we weren't a little super-prudish in England. On 
the next night she was on board a steamer. ' The state-rooms have three 
berths, and I find my two companions are men. It was a shock at first, 
but they seemed so surprised at my being surprised, that I thought agairi 
that we ha\-e too much of the trail of the serpent about our customs. I 
slept in the train with men near me, why not in the steamer. It is only 
for one night! ' Then she took a policeman with her to the mountains. 
And so on. There is no doubt the editor of ' The Sportophyte ' had a 
delightful time in Japan. Personally, we feel sorry she has omitted the 
references to what was said and done at the numerous dinners and dances 
she attended. They might have been interesting! As it is the book is 
more generally readable than a technical description of the microscopic 
characters of the pateobotanical contents of a Japanese coal-ball. 

1912 Feb. I. 



64 

PROCEEDINGS OF PROVINCIAL SCIENTIFIC SOCIETIES. 

The Annual Report of the Hull Geographical Society shews that the 
Society has 49 members, a balance in hand of ;^8 i6s. yd., and has had three 
works given to form the nucleus of a library. 

The Thirty Ninth Annual Report of the Peterborough Natural History, 
Scientific and Archaeological Society contains a long list of objects added to 
the Peterborough Museum during the year. It is a pity the list is not 
arranged in same order. 

In the Proceedings of the Bristol Naturalists' Society (4th Ser., Vol. II., 
Part III.), Mr. W. H. Wickes has an illustrated paper on ' Beechite,' and 
in Vol. III., Part I., Professor J. H. Priestley writes on ' The Pelophilous 
Formation of the Left Bank of the Severn Estuary.' 

Part V. of Mr. S. S. Buckman's Yorkshire Type Ammonites has appeared 
(Wesley & Sons, 3s. 6d.) and contains a copy of the original description 
and photograph, as well as detailed particulars of Ammonites sulcatus, 
scovesbyi, acitticayinatus, compactilis, whitbiense, lectiis and miles. 

In the Proceedings of the Cambridge Philosophical Society (Vol. XVI., 
Part IV.), Mr. H. Hamshaw Thomas records the discovery of the spores 
and sporangia of two common Bathonian Ferns, Conioptevis hymenophyl- 
loides and Todites ivilliamsoni, in the Jurassic rocks of Yorkshire. 

Vol. III. of The Year Book of the Viking Club for 1910-11 (82 pp., 2/6. 
University of London), includes a detailed report on the Club's year's 
work, and of its district secretaries. It also includes many notes, reviews, 
etc. Altogether it is a good report of a good year's work of a good society. 

The Caradoc and Severn Valley Field Club issues an annual ' Record of 
Bare Facts,' No. 20 being before us. It includes ' a list of the more note- 
worthy observations ' made by the members of the club, under the heads 
of Botany, Zoology, [Vertebrates], Entomology, Geology, and Meteorology. 

The ' Annual Report of Proceedings under the Salmon and Freshwater 
Fisheries Acts, etc., etc., for the year 1910' has recently appeared (Board 
of Agriculture and Fisheries, 191 1. xx. +53, pp., 4I.), and contaims 
particulars of the various regulations in force with regard to fishing in the 
different districts, quantities caught, prices realized, etc. 

The Dumfriesshire and Galloway Natural History, etc.. Society, has 

published ' Addenda and Corrigenda to the Birds of Dumfriesshire,' being 
a paper read as his Presidential Address to the society by Hugh S. Glad- 
stone, M.A., F.R.S.E., etc. (31 pp.). Those who have Mr. Gladstone's 
excellent volume should make a point of securing this supplement. 

The Annual Report and Transactions of the Manchester Microscopical 
Society for 1910 (82 pp., 1/6) is an excellent recor I. In addition to the 
details of the Society's work, tiie publication contains papers on ' Colour in 
Animals,' by Prof. S. J. Hiclcson ; ' Spirogyra,' by C. Turner; 'Ants,' 
by H. G. Willis; ' British Social Wasps,' by A. Newton, etc. 

Part XVI. of the Transactions of the Leeds Geological Association for 

1910-11 (41 pp. and plates, 2/-), have been published, under the editorship 
of Mr. E. Hawkesworth. Besides the reports of meetings and excursions, 
these contain ' Notes on the Iron-ore Deposits of Lapland,' by ' Nettle 
ton ' ; ' Cavities in the Magnesian Limestone,' by ' Guy ' ; ' The Cleveland 
Dyke ' (plates), by ' King ' ; ' Alluvial Deposits at Woodlesford,' 
' Gilligan and Hummel ' ; ' The Lithology of the Millstone Grits,' ' Picker- 
ing ' ; ' Permian Boulders at Roth well Haigh,' ' Hawkesworth.' It 
will be seen that the papers are mostly local in character, and they certainly 
represent an excellent year's work. Amongst the fossils and other objects 
exhibited at the meeting on October 21st, 19 10, we notice ' The Staff of 
the Geological Department of the University.' Tiiis was evidently a 
special show, as it is mentioned in large type ! 

Naturalist, 



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THE ANNALS OF 

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Edited by J. A. Harvie-Browne, F.R.S.B., 
F.Z.S., Prof. James W. H. Traill, M.A.. M.D., 
F.R.S., F.L.S., Wm. Eagle Clarke, F.L.S., eto. 

This Magazine — a continuation of ' The Scot- 
tish Naturalist ' founded in 1871 — was established 
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Printed at Browns' Savile Press, 40, George Street, Hull, and published by 

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February ist, 1912. 



MARCH, 1912. 



No. 662 

(N». 440 »f »urrtnt **ri*i). 




A MONTHLY ILLUSTRATED JOURNAL OF 

NATURAL HISTORY FOR THE NORTH OF ENGLAND. 

EDITED BY 

T. SHEPPARD, F.Q.S., F.R.G.S., F.S.A.Scot., 

The Museums, Hull ; 

AND 

T. W. WOODHEAD, Ph.D., F.L.S., 

Technical College, Huddersfield. 

with the assistance as referees in special departments of 
J. OILBBRT BAKBR. F.R.S. F.L.S., QEO. T. PORRITF, F.L.S., P.B.S.. 

Prof. P. F. KENDALL, M.Sc, F.O.S., JOHN \V. TAYLOR, 
T. H. NELSON, M.B.O.U., WILLIAM WEST, F.L.S., 

RILEY FORTUNE, F.Z.S. 



Contents : — 

PAGE 

Notes and Comments : — The Lancashire Naturalist ; New Publications ; Local Publications; 
New Societies ; A Publication ; A Change of Name ; What should not be in a Journal ; 
The Contributions ; A Warning ; The Scottish Botanical Review ; The Littie Auk ... 65-68 

Pttrology in Yorkshire— Alfred Marker, M.A., F.R.S. . F.G.S 69-73 

Field Notes:— Early Fox Cubs in Yorkshire; Shag at Hebden Bridge; Bird Notes from Whitby 73 



Some British Earthmites (Illustrated)— C.F. Gcoyg'eJl/.R.C.S 

Olis:octiaets of Great Britain and Ireland— Rev. Hilderic Friend, F.L.S., F.R.M.S, 
A New British Beetle (Cbaetocaema coaducta) (Illustrated)— £. Chas. Horrcll ... 

Yorkshire Naturalists' Union: Vertebrate Section 

Recently Discovered Fungi in Yorkshire -C. Cioss/rtnrf 

In Memoriam— Samuel James Capper — G.T.P 

Yorkshire Bryologists at Knaresborough 

Correspondence 

News from the Magazines 

Northern News 

Reviews and Book Notices 

Proceedings of Provincial Scientific Societies 

Illustrations 



74-75 
.76-81 
82-83' 

84 
85-92 
93-94 

95 

84 

75 

81 

94 
^96_ 




LONDON 
A. Brown & Sons, Limited, 5, Farringdon AvEfiuE, M6.P "^ 
And at Hull and York. 
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The Lost Towns 
of the Yorkshire Coast 



AND OTHER CHAPTERS IN THE 
GEOGRAPHY of EAST YORKSHIRE. 



BY 

THOMAS SHEPFARD, f.o.s., f.r.q.s., r.5.A.(5C0L) 



The Volume is a companion to "The Lost Towns of the 
Humber," by the late J. R. Boyle, and is similarly bound and 
produced. 

The Lost Towns of the Yorkshire Coast contains 
much valuable information in reference to the various towns and 
villages which have disappeared by the encroaches of the sea. 
It is also profusely illustrated by plans, engravings, etc. of the 
district, including many which are published for the first time. 
There are also chapters on the changes in the Humber ; new land ; 
Spurn ; the geological structure of the district ; natural history ; 
etc., etc. 



For particulars apply to — 

A. BROWN & SONS, Limited, Hull. 



NOTES AND COMMENTS. 

THE ' LANCASHIRE ' NATURALIST. 

The Editor of the Lancashire Naturalist seems greatly 
■concerned that a note referring to his county should have been 
sent to our journal, but he has ' since received a full explanation 
of the circumstances, which is wholly satisfactory'! We do 
not know what the explanation was, nor how the editor dare 
have demanded one, but probably the author of the note wished 
his find to have wider publicity than it would have received 
in the Lancashire Naturalist. We would here take the oppor- 
tunity of pointing out that The Naturalist has printed notes 
bearing upon Lancashire, as well as other northern counties, 
more than half a century before the Lancashire journal saw 
the light, and the appearance of the latter journal has not 
caused us to alter our polic}^ Nor has the fact that our 
contemporary has included Cheshire, Derbyshire, Westmorland, 
the Lake District, the Isle of ]\Ian, etc., under ' Lancashire,' 
necessitated The Naturalist neglecting those districts. And 
if ' Yorkshire' were included under the ' Lancashire ' Naturalists' 
scope, our own journal would probably still live. 

NEW PUBLICATIONS. 

As a matter of fact, we welcome new publications — particu- 
larly local ones. During the past few years we have noted the 
birth of dozens, and as surely have we soon after recorded their 
decease. Unless our memory fails us, even the Lancashire 
Naturalist came to an untimely end, but was subsequently re- 
vived. But it will not achieve success by pillorying people who 
do not care to hide their notes in the pages of a small provincial 
bushel. An author has a perfect right to send his notes where 
he will. There have been two or three, possibly more, 
in the Lancashire Naturalist, which we might have considered 
sufficiently important and generally interesting for the pages 
of The Naturalist, but we have not demanded any ' explana- 
tion ' as to why the papers were not sent to a journal which 
has been serving the interests of northern naturalists for over 
three-quarters of a century. 

LOCAL PUBLICATIONS. 

The reference to local journals reminds us that from time 
to time, whilst welcoming new publications of strictly local 
interest, we have deprecated these unless there is a probability 
of their continuance. On our shelves, in a special ' By-gones ' 
corner, at the present moment there are man}' 'Vols. I.' or ' Parts 
L ' of scientific publications, which have not been followed up 
by others. In other cases, two or three parts have appearecl, 
and no more. As some of these have contained important con- 
tributions to science, it is unfortunate. Librarians do not care 
to stock incomplete publications, and, as we know from ex- 
perience, it is often very difficult to find a single copy of some of 

zgij Mar. i. '^ 



66 Notes and Comments. 

these Transactions or Journals. The matter is occasionally 
further complicated by changes in the title of the publication^ 
circumstances which are bound to lead to confusion in the 
future. A bad case has recently been brought to our notice, 
from no other place than Hull, and, as it has resulted in two 
different publications appearing and disappearing within an 
incredibly short period, we refer to the matter now as a warn- 
ing to other societies which may be contemplating printing. 

NEW SOCIETIES. 

Stars of the fifth or sixth magnitude are quite insignificant 
in an ordinary firmament, but in a firmanent of stars of the 
tenth and eleventh magnitude only, they appear quite brilliant. 
In this way a small and enthusiastic band of young men at 
Hull formed a society of their own, which started well, and 
was encouraged by the older people, and was helped in every 
way. We ourselves fell in with their many requests. Some 
other men, older in years, joined this ' Junior Naturalists' 
Society,' but, as far as we can make out, everything was carried 
on on the lines of the older scientific society in the city — 
saving that in the new society the various presidents, vice- 
presidents, committees and other positions enabled almost 
every member to hold an ' important ' office of some kind. A 
library was formed, ' rooms ' obtained, including a ' research 
laboratory,' etc., and great things were naturally expected. 
The local M.P.'s became patrons, and the Mayor and other 
important local people were invited to open ' Exhibitions,' 
etc., and. on paper, all seemed well. Meanwhile the older 
society worked on in its quiet way, and supplied most of the 
lectures to the junior society. 

A PUBLICATION. 

The Junior Society then published ' Vol. I., part i, of the 
Proceedings of the Hull Junior Field Naturalists' Society.'' 
which was noticed in our journal at the time.* This contained 
reprints of papers, already published elsewhere, by fairly well- 
known writers, and a few short notes by the junior naturalists 
themselves. As the Editor of the Selborne Magazine said at the 
time, the publication reminded him of a magazine issued from 
one of the Universities, which was written by the professors,, 
and ' edited ' by the students. 

A CHANGE OF NAME. 

Then the society, feeling, possibly, that the word ' Junior ' 
might limit its scope, became more ambitious, and altered 
its name to the ' Hull Society of Natural Science,' with the 
arms of the city as its crest, and ' Science is nothing but trained 
and organised common sense ' for its motto. Another M.P.. 

* 191 o, p. 161. 



Naturalist,. 



Notes and Comments. 67 

and a baronet were added to its list of patrons. But the 
'Society' proper, that is the working members, were still 
the ' junior ' naturalists, and still carried on its work in the 
same junior way. But it must begin to publish a quarterly 
magazine, quite regardless of the question of L. S. D., or of 
the question of the contributions being regularly forthcoming. 
So we find that somewhere about April last (possibly April ist) , 
appeared Vol. I., No. i of the Journal of Natural Science and 
Photographic and Philatelic News, published quarterly. 
The words ' Natural Science ' were in a very large type, and, 
being printed on Silurian paper was, at first, remindful of the 
' Natural Science ' of the good old days. But there the sem- 
blance ended. On the first page we again find reference to the 
Journal of Natural Science Photograpic (sic) and Philatelic 
Notes. The ' Photograpic ' notes were confined to one page, 
and did not refer to photography, and the ' Philatelic Notes ' 
were evidently crowded out, as they could not be found. 

WHAT SHOULD NOT BE IN A JOURNAL. 

The ' editorial staff ' was strengthened, and we turned to 
the magagine itself, naturally expecting it to be a model. But 
it is a long time since we saw anything worse. In the two parts 
before us (yes, there have been two I) about every style of type 
seems to have been used. On one page no fewer than nine 
different founts occur, and each paragraph is set up in a different 
faced type ! There are mis-prints and wrong letters galore, 
spacing is faulty ; the blocks are not printed on suitable paper, 
and advertisements are printed on the back of the ordinary 
matter, so that they cannot be removed in binding. In fact, 
if one wished to find within the pages of one small pamphlet 
all the things there should not be, this journal of ' Natural 
Science ' is ' it.' 

THE CONTRIBUTIONS. 

These are as varied in quality as in title. Unfortunately, 
there are one or two valuable items amongst them, for which 
it seems desirable to keep the rest. The notes refer to the 
Brent Valley Bird Sanctuary, Geology in East Lincolnshire, 
Opium, Esperanto, Aviation, Shetland, Yeast, Microbes, Elec- 
trical Notes, Birds' Eyes, and the Hull Museum! These are 
illustrated by borrowed blocks, badly produced. There are 
also reviews of books, which presumably must have been sent to 
this journal for review long before anybody knew there was 
going to be such a journal in existence. 

A WARNING. 

We have said thus much, and have given these details, in 
the hope that before any other societies commence publishing 
they will thoroughly consider whether they will be able to 

1912 Mar. I. 



68 Nofes ami Coimncnts. 

continue to do so. It has not been done to harm this new 
so-called ' Natural Science ' in any wa3^ as we believe it has 
early gone to the wall in the struggle for existence, on the 
principle of the survival of the fittest! Anyway, Vol. I., 
for April-June, 1911, was followed on November 4th by part 
2 for July-September, and part 3, which for a ' quarterly ' 
should be for October-December, has not made its appearance 
at the time of writing, towards the end of February! 

THE SCOTTISH BOTANICAL REVIE\^^ 

The recent changes which have taken place in connection 
with the ' Annals of Scottish Natural History " have resulted 
in the separation of botany and zoology, and the formation of 
two journals. Zoology is now represented by the ' Scottish 
Naturalist,' and botany by ' The Scottish Botanical Review,' 
the latter a quarterly published at 7s. 6d. per annum, the first 
part of which was issued in Januar3^ The editor is ^Ir. 
Mc.Taggart Cowan, Jr., assisted by an editorial staff consist- 
ing of Messrs. W. Barclay, A. Bennett, and R. H. Meldrum 
and Drs. A. W. Borthwick. W. G. Smith and J. Stirton. 

The ' Review ' includes the transactions of the Botanical 
Society of Edinburgh ; and the presidential address by Dr. 
Borthwick on ' Some Modern Aspects of Applied Botany ' 
forms one of the contributions. Mr. C. B. Crompton deals 
with ' The Geological Relations of Stable and Migratory Plant 
Formations,' and the shorter papers include ' Remarks on 
some Aquatic Forms and Aquatic Species of the British Flora,' 
by A. Bennett ; ' Alien Plants,' by Mr. J. Fraser, and ' Eco- 
logical Terminology as applied to Marine Algae,' by Mr. N. 
Miller Johnson. There are also several able reviews, book 
notices, and notes on current literature. 

THE LITTLE AUK. 

As we went to press with our last number, the count}" was 
visited by a short spell of real old-fashioned wintry weather,- 
which resulted in ' sportsmen ' having a good time. One 
effect was that the northern counties were visited by scores 
of examples of the Little Auk, to account for the presence of 
which a possible theory is given in the report of the Vertebrate 
Section of the Yorkshire Naturalists' Union, on another page. 
Mr. F. Williamson informs us that on February ist a specimen 
was caught alive at Rochdale, and lived three days. Others 
were obtained at Leyburn, Warter, Whitedale, Scarborough, 
Filey, Keighley, Hull, and even as far as Cumberland and 
Shropshire. We had a specimen brought to us alive, which was 
found on the road near Bridlington. It could not be induced 
to take food, however, and died. It was in excellent condition 
when found, and was by no means starving. 

Naturalist, 



6q 

PETROLOGY IN YORKSHIRE. 



ALFKICD HARKER, M.A., F.R.S., F.G.S., 
Camhi-idge. 

{^Continued from- page 44). 

I will not weary you by enlarging upon numerous other 
subjects in which work still remains to be done, such as the 
oolitic structure and its possible connection with organic agency, 
or the flints in the Chalk, especially in relation to disseminated 
silica in the rock. The minute constitution and microzoology 
of the Chalk itself afford a subject which is far from being 
exhausted. It may be remarked that, while the soft chalk of 
the South can often be studied only by rubbing down in water, 
much of our Yorkshire chalk is hard enough for the preparation 
of thin slices. The non-calcareous portion of our Jurassic 
limestones, obtained as a residue on dissolving the rock in 
dilute acid, would doubtless reward a systematic study. By 
' systematic ' I mean especially comparative, both as regards 
the different members of a formation and as regards the lateral 
extent of any one member. A large-scale map, on which to 
record results, is a useful adjunct to an investigation of this 
kind. 

There remain the igneous rocks. The red colours conse- 
crated by usage to these figure, it is true, very sparingly on 
the geological map of Yorkshire. The well-known Cleveland 
dyke and the Whin Sill have been exhaustivel}^ studied ; but 
the same cannot be said of the mica-lamprophyre and allied 
dykes which intersect the Lower Palaeozoic strata wherever 
these are exposed, in the Ingleton and Sedbergh districts, and 
in Upper Teesdale. The volcanic rocks intercalated in the 
Coniston Limestone group of the Sedbergh district have not 
yet received any detailed notice. Nevertheless, we must admit 
that, in this direction, the field appears a very restricted one. 

The prospect is ver}' difterent, however, if we take into 
account the glacial boulders which are found in such profusion 
and variety embedded in the boulder-clays, scattered as 
erratics over the surface, and accumulating on the sea- 
beaches from the gradual waste of the clay cliffs. Li East 
Yorkshire, if anywhere in the world, the student of igneous 
rocks need be at no loss for material ; while he has at the same 
time the opportunity of rendering valuable assistance to 
glacial geology. Nor has this opportunity been neglected. 
Here at least our county need fear no reproach ; rather may we 
justly claim for it the credit of leading the way in this particular 
line. The impetus has come perhaps rather from the glacial 
than from the petrological side ; but this only emphasizes the 
solidarity of geology throughout its different ramifications ; and 
we may hope that he who has been drawn to petrology for the 
sake of one of its applications will adhere to it for its own sake , 

igi2 Mar. i. 



/O Marker : Petrology in Yorkshire. 

and for the aid which it can be made to afford to many other 
problems of general geological interest. 

To discuss the specific results already obtained, relative 
to the dispersal of travelled boulders at different stages of the 
glaciation, would carry me beyond the limits which I have laid 
down for myself in this address. Enough that the results 
demonstrate conclusively the value of concerted and systematic 
research addressed to a definite end. Local in its inception and 
in its immediate interest, the investigation is one which neces- 
sarily oversteps the boundaries of the county and indeed of the 
British Isles. Briefly, the problem is to trace the various 
types of rocks met with among the boulders to their several 
homes in the North of England, the South of Scotland, and the 
Scandinavian peninsula. This necessitates, not only a study 
of the boulders themselves, but a sufiicient acquaintance with 
the rocks of all those districts which can possibly have con- 
tributed boulders to our drift deposits. Such areas must 
be visited for the purpose of procuring representative collec- 
tions to serve as standards of comparison. Our Yorkshire 
workers have not been daunted by this comprehensive pro- 
gramme, and to the thoroughness thus evinced is due the 
special value which belongs to the results obtained in recent 
years. It is therefore in no critical spirit, but in one of hearty 
appreciation, that I speak of this interesting application of 
petrology in the service of glacial geology. 

Among the great diversity which the travelled boulders 
of East Yorkshire present, special importance attaches to 
strongly marked types which are known to be unique, or at 
least of very restricted distribution in situ. There are many 
of these, mostly igneous rocks, but they usually make up only 
a fraction of the whole assemblage. The rest, belonging to 
less distinctive and sometimes widely distributed types, are 
of less significance, though they have their weight as cumulative 
evidence. There are, for instance, large numbers of gneissic 
and other crystalline rocks which may safely be referred to 
some Scandinavian source, merely because there is no other 
area of similar rocks which enters into the probabilities ; but 
it is clearly much more satisfactory when we can assert con- 
fidently that a certain boulder has once formed part of a 
particular hill in Norway. Among the well-defined types which 
furnish the most precise information, some are easily recognised 
at sight. Nobody can mistake a boulder of Shap Granite or 
of rhomb-porphyry ; but there are many other rocks, equall}^ 
useful in tracing the movement of the ice, which cannot be 
safely identified without microscopical examination. In every 
such case, I think, the record should state whether this means 
has been employed, and also who is responsible for the identi- 
fication given. If only five records in a hundred are doubtful, 



Harkcr : Petrology in Yorkshire. yi 

and we do not know which ti^•e, it is clear that the doubt must 
■extend to the whole list. 

Regarded merely as specimens gathered from many sources, 
without reference to the problems of glacial geology, our 
boulders provide a rich store of material for the student of 
igneous rocks. Not to mention such areas as the Lake District 
and the Cheviot Hills, there is the wonderful series of rocks 
of the Christiania district, without parallel in our own country. 
Not a few of the interesting types made known to petrologists 
chiefly by Professor Brogger have already been recognised 
among the boulders of Holderness and the coast, and it cannot 
be doubted that many others will reward a search aided by 
microscopical study. The preparation of thin sections is 
now greatly simplified and made easy, and there is no reason 
why everybody should not make his own sections, as Sorby 
did fifty years ago, but with much less expenditure of time and 
labour. A cutting-lathe is not requisite, nor indeed does it 
now afford any advantage ; for, thanks to the use of carborun- 
dum as an abrasive, it is less troublesome to grind down a chip 
than to cut and reduce a slice. The work of making and 
mounting thin sections of any kind of rocks is thus easily 
performed at home, and at a trifling cost for material and 
appliances. Moreover, this procedure has positive advantages. 
It is possible to ensure that the section shall include precisely 
the desired part of the specimen, and sometimes useful in- 
formation may be gained during .the operation of grinding. 
In some cases, too, it is convenient to be able to treat the section 
with some reagent before adding the cover-slip. Thus, such 
minerals as nepheline and analcime may be made much more 
apparent by attacking the surface with h5/drochloric acid and 
then (after washing) staining the gelatinous silica so produced 
with fuchsine or some other appropriate colouring medium. 

It is, I fear, impossible that an address on a special subject, 
offered to a general audience of naturalists, should succeed 
in interesting all. My immediate predecessor, my friend 
Professor Seward, could appeal to two sections at least, the 
botanists and the geologists, but in this versatility I am not 
qualified to emulate him. To my non-geological hearers I 
can only proffer the consolation that their turn will come iii due 
course another year. To the geologists I make no apology 
for confining the tenour of my remarks to a single branch, 
inasmuch as my chief object has been to urge the claims of 
Petrology to a fuller measure of consideration than it has yet 
received. I have shown it, not as an isolated study, but as an 
integral part of geological science, having intimate relations 
with historical geology, physiography, glacial geology, and 
numerous other lines of inqulr3^ 

I wish to insist upon this aspect of the matter, because I 
think it rests mainly with amateur workers to preserve that 

1912 Mar. I. 



72 Haykcr : Petrology in Yorkshire. 

solidarit}^ of geology, and indeed of natural science as a whole, 
which is in great danger of being lost in this age of specialisa- 
tion. Bacon, three hundred years ago, might take all know- 
ledge for his province : to-day he is a bold man who shall 
attempt to embrace all geology. Rapid development in every 
direction has forced the professed student of science to devote 
himself to some one or more comparatively limited lines of 
research ; and this condition of things, inevitable as it is, has 
some drawbacks, which are sufficiently apparent and have often 
been deplored. One consequence is that, while the main lines 
of investigation are thoroughly explored, the bye-ways and 
cross-cuts may often remain neglected. Herein lies the special 
opportunity of the amateur worker, who is bound by no restric- 
tions, but can bring his enterprise to bear at a point where it 
is likely to be effective. 

One other consideration I cannot omit, although I approach 
it not without some trepidation. Men who pass their lives 
in the cultivation of some branch of science, whether by 
practising or by teaching, are under an insidious temptation, 
which seems to be incident to professionalism of any kind : 
I mean the temptation to pay an undue respect to received 
doctrines, merely because they are generally received. To say 
so much is only to say that men of science are human, and 
history shows that the professional geologist has in this matter 
his full share of our common nature. It may be replied that 
there is little danger in the twentieth century of a scientific 
priesthood uniting to impose an orthodox creed upon the laity ; 
and it is of course true that on many questions there is a 
healthy difference of opinion among professed men of science 
themselves. None the less the tendency of authority to 
override independent judgment is a possibility which we can 
at no time afford to disregard, and it is especially to the amateur 
element among scientific workers that we must look for a 
corrective. There are few duties more important than that of' 
maintaining the fullest freedom of thought in all matters 
scientific. Better the wildest ' crank ' than the authority, 
however eminent, who refuses to reconsider his position. 

It is time to bring my rather rambling discourse to a close. 
If I have dwelt more on the opportunities which lie before us 
than on the achievements which lie behind, I trust that my 
remarks will not be thought inappropriate, for that reason, 
to the occasion on which we are met together. The end of one 
period is, we may hope, the beginning of another, which may 
be equally fruitful in results ; and it rests with us, each in his 
degree, to make good this aspiration, handing on unimpaired to 
those who follow the tradition of keen interest and conscientious 
v\^ork which we have received from our predecessors. Many 
have been the changes around us in the fifty years now past, 
and those who live will assuredly see many changes in the 

Natvirali?.!, 



Hiirkcv : Petrology in Yorksliire. 75 

fifty years to come, but the love of Nature and the love of 
Knowledge are among the things which Yorkshiremen will 
not willingly allow to perish. Opening in this spirit the new 
chapter in our corporate history, we may confidently hope that, 
in the time to come, when a worthier President shall be called 
upon to deliver a Centenary Address, he will find the Yorkshire 
Naturalists' Union as flourishing as it is to-day, and carr3dng 
out as faithfully the objects for which it was founded. 



FIELD NOTES. 

MAMMALS, 
Early Fox Cubs in Yorkshire. — On January 30th, Mr, 
F. Wilson Horsfall, Master of the Bilsdale H'ounds, found a 
litter of foxes, which were then about ten days old. The earth 
was in a hedge bottom on his Potts property. About the 
middle of March is the usual date for the birth of fox cubs in 
Yorkshire. — R. Fortune, Harrogate, February 15th, 1912. 

BIRDS. 

Shag- at liebden Bridge. — A shag was killed on the top 
dam in Nutclough Wood, Hebden Bridge, on the 24th January. 
Its facile diving made it a mark of attention. What it sub- 
sisted on during its stay is as puzzling as its occurrence, so 
far distant from its natural haunts, as there are now no fish 
in this water. The specimen was brought to me for inspection 
on the 26th. It was quite plump, and measured 29 inches 
from beak to tail. This is the first recorded occurrence of the 
species at Hebden Bridge. — Walter Greaves. 

Bird Notes from Whitby. — This district does not usually 
produce the number of interesting birds observed on other 
portions of the county seaboard, but the gales of January, 
followed by the terribly severe weather experienced during the 
early part of February, no doubt accounts for the recent 
occurrence of several birds seldom noticed here. An adult 
female example of the little gull — a rare visitant — was picked 
up dead on the beach on January 22nd. On the 23rd a Fulmar 
Petrel was found washed up on the coast. The same day a 
Great Crested Grebe was found dead on the sands ; on Februar}^ 
1 2th, one was shot about a mile up the river Esk, and another 
observed fishing in the outer harbour. Large numbers of 
Little Auks have also been seen dead on the shore ; many have 
been captured, and others observed in the harbour. A female 
Smew was shot on the river about a mile from the sea on 
February 5th, which, so far as I am aware, is the first recorded 
occurrence of this interesting bird at Whitby. During the 
winter a fine immature Glaucous Gull frequented the harbour 
for over two months, being last seen about the middle of 
January. — Thos. Stephenson, Whitby, February 13th, igi2. 

1912 M:ir. I. 



74 



SOME BRITISH EARTHMITES. 



C. F. GEORGE, M.R.C.S., 
Kirton-in Lindsey . 

Ottonia echinata. — I have not had the pleasure of seemg 
this pretty httle mite ahve. The first specimen was one sent 
to me by Mr. Evans, of Edinburgh, in December 1907 : it had 
been some time in preservative solution, and was very much 
bleached, giving little indication of colour, and otherwise was 
not in good enough condition for drawing, etc However, I 
made some rough figures and notes of the mite, and was there- 




Ottonia echinata ( I ) dorsal aspect x I'S ; (i') ventral aspect x :.'8 ; (3) genital opening 

(J) crista. 



fore able to recognise it, when fortunatfly sent to me by i\Ir. 
Musham of Selby, who found it with other mites in moss taken 
from Skellingthorpe Wood, South Lincolnshire, in November 
last. It had not been very long in preservative solution, so 
that its colour was not greatly altered. It was a beautiful 
scarlet, and must have been very handsome when alive. 

This mite would seem to be widely distributed, since Scot- 
land and Lincolnshire are so far apart. In shape, it appears 
to be a rather long oval, narrower in front, and wider posteriorly. 
The two front legs are longer and stronger than the others, and 
clubbed at the distal ends ; the penultimate internodes are 
also somewhat thickened. The fourth internode of the palpi 
is provided with a strong double claw ; the bod}^ is covered 

Naturalist, 



News from the Magazines. 75 

with short, and rather thick colourless spines, set not very near 
together. The description of the mite is very like that of 
•Ottonia cvansii, but the crista differs from the crista of that 
mite, in not possessing a capitulum ; and in the difficulty of 
making out its commencement and termination, as will be 
seen by examining Mr. Soar's enlarged figure. It is unlike 
any other crista I have yet met with. I was unable to dissect 
it for want of another specimen. The eyes are situated on the 
dorsum of the cephalothorax on either side ; each has two 
■ocelli. The genital aperture is not particularly remarkable, 
vand contains the usual three copulatory discs on each side. 



Xatiirc (Xo. 2202) contains an excellent portrait of Sir William Kamsay, 
K.C.B., and a biography. 

We learn from some ' Natnre Notes ' that a white rabbit at Redcar 
takes a morning dip in the sea. 

And The Animal's Friend gives an illustration of a tame goose that 
followed a man about at Bridlington. We now wait for Filey's record. 

An admirable article on ' Woodland Barbarities : the ways of the 
Trapper and Snarer," appears in The Animal World for February, and 
is well illustrated. 

In the Geological Magazine, No. 570, Mr. M. A. C. Hinton has an 
interesting paper on Fossil Shrews, and Dr. F. A. Bather w-ritcs on tapper 
Cretaceous Terebelloids from England. 

There is an interesting paper on ' The Prehistoric Origin of the Common 
Fowl,' by F. J. Stubbs and A. J. Rowe, in The Zoologist, No. 847 ; but we 
fear the theories put forward will not find general acceptance. 

We learn from The [Sunderland] Library Circular that a Sunderland 
Naturalists' Association has been formed, and already over 100 memliers 
have been enrolled. Miss N. March, B.Sc, is the Hon. Secretary. 

Mr. J. W. Jackson favours us with a copy of his ' Further Report on 
the Explorations at Dog Holes,' etc. (Trans. Lanes, and Cheshire Antiq. 
Soc, Vol. XXVin., 191 1, 25 pp.). .\mongst the illustrations are some 
Roman bronze scales, the beam being ver\' similar to an example found 
at South Ferriby. 

Another ' new British Bird ' is recorded in British Birds for January. 
It is the North Anierican Peregrine, which was shot at Humberstone on 
the Lincolnshire coast on September 28th, 1910. In the same journal the 
Editor protests against the introduction of Nuthatches and Marsh Tits 
into Ireland, but the protest is quite a mild one. 

There is a note of interest to bibliographers in The Entomologist, for 
January, 1912. Vol. I, No. i of that journal was issued on November ist, 
1840 ; and No. 26, concluding the volume, in December, 1842. In 1843, 
and for some 20 years afterwards, the journal was merged in The Zoologist ; 
but in May, 1864, it was revived, and has since appeared monthly. The 
lirst volumes each covered two years. 

The parts of The Micrologist before us are well illustrated, and besides 
containing articles on general microscopic Avork, include papers on 'The 
Polyzoa, ' by H. E. Hurrell ; ' Fresh W'ater Alga-,' by C. Turner ; ' Proto- 
zoa,' by Abraham Flatters; ' The Amoeba,' by G. A. McKechnie, etc. The 
n^agazine is issued quarterly (is. 6d.) by 5lessrs. Flatters, Milborne tV 
McKechnie, Ltd., Manchester, and will be found exceedingly u.seful to the 
practical microscopist. 

igi2 Mar. i. 



76 

OLIGOCHAETS OF GREAT BRITAIN AND IRELAND. 



Rev. HILDERIC FRIEND. F.L.S., F.R.M.S. 
Szi/adlincoie. 



Having made considerable additions to our knowledge of the 
British Oligochsets during the past year or two, it seems 
desirable to gather up the references which are scattered among 
the many Journals to which items have been contributed, and 
give a bird's eye view of the whole. No attempt had ever been 
made in this country to tabulate the native species of Annelids, 
except by myself, till 1909, when Southern published some 
useful notes entitled ' Contributions towards a Monograph of 
the British and Irish Oligochasta ' {Proc. Roy. Irish Acad., 
Vol. XXVII., p. 119, seq.j. This was a valuable beginning, 
though it did not by any means fairly represent the subject. 
That list may, however, be regarded as our starting-point. 
It enumerates, in the author's words, ' 135 British species and 
sub-species ' (I count 134), belonging (with two exceptions) to 
six well-known families : as follows : — 



1. .-Eolosomatidie 

2. Naididce 

3. Tubificidas 

4. Lumbriculidse 
> Enchytraiidffi 
0. Lumbricidfe 



6 species. 

16 ,, 
5 

29 ,, 



Our following records will be in the same oi'der, as far as 
possible, thereby enabling the student readily to note the 
additions made to our knowledge since that list was published. 
Southern's List stands in ordinary type, the additions being 
printed in italics, with such supplementary notes and references 
as mav be found desirable to complete our knowledge. 

I. iEOLOSOMATID^. 

This is the only family which has not, so far as the writer 
is aware, yielded any new species or locality to the 1909 list. 
Six Species. 

.Eolosoma (luaternarium Ehrb. 
,, heddardi Mich. 

,, hemprichi Ehrb. 



.Eolosoina headlyyi Hcddard. 
variegatum \'ejd. 
tcncbrarum Vcjd. 



II. Naidid.e. 

T\vo additions have been made to this family. The number 
has been raised thereby from 24 to 26. Man^^ new localities 
have been recorded. 

Paranais litoralis Miillcr. I Ch;ctogastcr diastrophus Ciruith. 

ParniiKis nnidina Bret. (' The Natu- I ,, crystalUniis Vcjd. 

raUst,' 11)11,]). 143). I ,, diaphanus Gniith. 

Naturalist, 



Friend : Oligocha'ts of Great Britain and Ireland. 



II 



■Cha;togaster limnai l^aer. 
Ophidonais serpentina iNIiiller. 

,, reckei Flocr. 

lirancliiodrilus semperi Bourne. 
Nais ol)tusa Gerv. 

,, elinguis Miiller. 

heterocha-ta Benham. 
Xaidiitm luteuni O. Schm. Harts- 
liorne, in Derbysiiire, October 
1911. 
Dero latissima Bousfield. 
,, perrieri Bousfield. 



Dero obtusa Hdck. 

,, miilleri Bouslield. 

,, limosa Leidy. 

,, furcata Oken. 
Vejdovskyella comata \'ejd. 
Ripestes macrocha^ta Bourne 
Slavina appendiculata LTdek. 
Stylaria lacustris Linn. 

,, lomondi Martin. 
Pristina equiseta Bourne, 
longi.seta Ehrb. 



III. TUBIFICID.'E. 

This large and interesting family has been the subject of 
much careful investigation. Tubifex has been the bugbear 
here, as Lumbricus terresiris was among earthworms. It has 
Ijeen very difficult to unravel the tangled skein, and much yet 
remains to be done. The following list is compiled from the 
author's paper on ' British Tubificidai,' presented December 
20th, 1911, to the Royal Microscopical Society. The descrip- 
tions of species new to science will be published in due course. 
Southern's List contains 16 species under five genera. It 
is to be regretted that much confusion has been introduced 
through the recently adopted method of reckoning Hetero- 
chseta, Spirosperma, and other genera as Tubifex. I revert 
to the old order, adopted by Beddard, not in opposition to 
changes wisely carried out, but because recent additions to 
the family convince me that the old genera will have to be 
retained, and possibly increased in number. In this section, 
therefore, I have to alter several of Southern's names ; but 
the type will shew which records are found in his list. The 
number of species has been exactly doubled since 1909. 



Branchiura sowerbyi Beddard. 
iMonopylepiiorus rubroniveus Lev. 
( = Vermiculus pilosus Goodrich). 
JMonopylephoriis parvus Dit., 1904 ; 
' Zeit. Wi.ss. Zool.', 77, 427. 
Kew. 
CUtellio avenaviits Miiller. 
Limnodrilus hoffmeisteri Clap. 
,, udekemianus Clap. 

,, parvus Southern, 

longus Bretscher. 



Limnodrilus aurostriatus Southern'. 
aurantiacus Friend 
(' The Naturalist,' iQii, No. 659, 
p. 414). 

Liinnodrilits claparedianus Ratz. 
Kew. 

Limnodrilus papillosus Friend. 

First described, with the three 
following, in the author's paper 
on British Tubificida-. — 



The main features are : — Length, 25-50 mm. Segments 
90 and upwards. Opaque, sluggish, orange-coloured. Seta; 
in front coarse, with upper tooth much longer than lower, 
pharynx in segments 2-3, chloragogen cells begin in 6, hearts 
in 8 and 9. Spermathecae striate, no duct, short penis sheath. 

Limnodrilus nervosus Friend. — Small pale worm, 10 mm. 
in length, about 40 segments. Chloragogen cells begin in 6, 
transparent and delicate. Pharynx in 2-3, hearts in 8 and q ; 

igi2 Mar. I. 



yS Friend : Oligocliats of Great Britain and Ireland. 



setae in segments 2-6, numbering 3 per bundle, only 2 per bundle 
from segment 7 backwards ; teeth equal, length of setae about 
one-third diameter of body. Nerve ganglia greatly enlarged 
in front. Near Smisby and Stretton-en-le-field, on the borders 
of Derbyshire and Leicestershire. 

Limnodrilus trisetosits Friend. — Similar to the last. Setae 
3 throughout ; in all other species the number is smaller in 
posterior bundles than in anterior. Lower tooth somewhat 
larger than upper. Chloragogen cells begin in 5. No penis 
sheath yet found. Mud of the Thames, Tottenham. 

Limnodrilus galeritus Friend. — Setae 4 in ventral, 5 in dorsal 
bundles in segments 2-7, then usually 3. Penis sheath about 
15 times longer than broad. Setae one-sixth the length of 
penis sheath. Characterised by the cap on the spermathecae 
near the external aperture, whence the specific name. With 
the last in mud at Tottenham. I must refer to the R.M.S. 
paper for notes on some further species, such as L. Wordsworth- 
ianus Friend, L. incequidens, etc. 

Rhyacodrilus falciformis Bret, (igoi ' Rev. Suisse de Zool.' 
IX., 205= Ilyodrilus filiformis Dit., 1904, ' Zeit. Wissen. 
Zool.,' Bd. yy, j^o?> =^ Meganympha pachydriloides Fr., see 
' Nature,' November i6th, 191 1, p. 78). Found in a little 
stream at (i) Netherhall, near Bretby ; and (2), Netherseal, 
near Ashby-de-la-Zouch. 



Spirosperma ferox Eisen. 
Heterocha^ta costata Clap. 

,, thompsoni Southern. 

Psammoryctcs barbatns Grube. 
Tubifcx tubifex Miiller. 

,, templetoni Southern. 

,, globulatus Friend. R.M.S. , 

December 20th, 191 1. 
Hemitubife.x benedeni (--=benedii) 

ITdek. 
Hemitubifex pustulatus Friend, 

1898 (' Zoologist,' Series IV., 

Vol. II., 119; regarded as a 



variety of H. benedeni, but now 
held to be a new species). 
Ilyodyilus {= Tubifex) campantda- 
ttis Eisen. 

(=Tnbife x) bo )i neti 
Clap. 

( = Mono pylephor lis) 
tvichochaetus Dit. 
Ilyodrilus coccineus Vejd. (=Bran- 
chiura coccinea Vejd. of South- 
ern's List). 
Ilyodrilus robustus Friend. 
,, pallescens Friend. 



Details respecting Tubifex and Ilyodrilus, two of the most 
difficult genera at present under review will be found in the 
paper read December 20th, 191 1, before the Royal Micros- 
copical Society. 

IV. LUMBRICULID/E. 



Lumbriculus variegatus Miiller. 
Trichodrilus (Phreatothrix) canta- 
brigiensis Bcddard. 



StylodriluH \ejdovskyi Benham. 
,, gabretae Vejd. 

,, hallissyi Southern. 



I leave this list untouched. A well-worm found at Milden- 
hall, a Trichodrilus at Shrewsbury, a Stylodrilus collected in 
Cumberland and Derbyshire, are as yet unrecorded. The 



Naturalist, 



Friend : Oligochcets of Great Britain and Ireland. 79 



details take time, and it is better to delay publication, than to 
increase the existing confusion. Five species. 



V. Enchytr^id^. 



Henlea dicksoni Eisen. 

,, nasuta Eisen. 

,, hibernica Southern. 

,, ventriculosa Udek. 

,, lampas Eisen (See 

Naturalist,' 191 1, p. 321). 
Henlea perpitsilla Friend (See 

Naturalist,' 191 1, p. 320). 
Henlea puteana Vejd. (See 

Naturalist,' 191 1, p. 319). 



The 



The 



The 



The 



Henlea rosai Bretscher (See 
Naturalist,' 191 1, p. 320). 
Henlea tenella Eisen (See ' The 

Zoologist,' December 191 1). 
Bryodrilus ehlersi L^de. 
Buchholzia appendiculata Buch. 

,, fallax Mich. ' 

Marionina sphagnetorum Vejd. 

,, crassa Clap. 

,, semifusca Clap. 

,, ebudensis Clap. 

Marionina appendiculata Friend. — A brief note on this'- 
species appeared some years ago. The worm was found in 
backwash at Askham, near Furness. During the years which 
have elapsed, nothing like it has again been found, and my 
notes and drawings shew it to be a distinct species. 

I have at least three other species under observation, which 
will be described in the new year. 



trfcus albidus Heule. 
globulatus Bret, 
buchholzii Vejd. 
argenteus Mich, 
turicensis Bret, 
pellucid us Friend, 
sabulosus Southern, 
lobatus Southern. 



Lumbricillus litoreus Hesse. Enchy 

,, subterranevis Vejd. 

,, verrucosus Clap. 

,, fossarum Tauber. 

,, pagenstecheri Ratz. 

,, niger Southern, 

evansi Southern. 
Mesenechytra?us fenestratus Eisen. 
,, beumeri Mich. 

,, setosus Mich. 

celticus Southern. 

Enchytrseus minimus Bret. (See ' The NaturaUst,' 1911, 
p. 412.^ — Since found abundantly in earth by a drain at Church 
Gresley, and elsewhere. 

EnchytrcBus exiguus Friend (' The NaturaUst,' 191 1, p.. 
415). — The genus Fridericia, of which 19 species were reported 
by Southern, now stands at 30 or more species. I give South- 
ern's list, for the sake of completeness, first ; adding the species 
which he omitted, and those since discovered, in italics. The 
subject was considered in a paper presented by me to the 
R.M.S., November 15th, 1911, in which keys will be found to- 
help the student in identifying the various species. L still 
have a few more species to determine. 



Fridericia bulbosa Rosa. 

,, bisetosa Lev. 

,, magna Friend. 

,, aurita Issel. 
leydigi Vejd. 

,, lobifera Vejd. 
1912 Mar. I. 



Fridericia michaelseni Bret, 
connata Bret, 
polychjeta Bret, 
bretscheri Southern, 
striata Lev. 
paroniana Issel. 



8o Friend : Oligochcets of Great Britain and Ireland. 



Fyideviciii aitrita Isscl. 
,, alba Moore. 

vaviata Bret. 
,, s^alba Hoffm. 

anglica Friend. 
,, idmicola Friend. 

,, niicrocara Friend. 

paiTa Moore. 
ratzeli Eisen. 
Achata ciseni Vejd. 

bohemica Vejd. 
,, minima Southern. 
camevanoi Cogn. 



Fridericia glandulosa Southern. 
agricola Moore. 
perrieri Vejd. 
beddardi Bret, 
hegemon Vied. 
valdensis Issel. 
minuta Bret. 
piilchra Friend (' The 
Naturalist/ 191 1, p. 415)- 
Fridericia peruviana Friend (See 
'The Naturahst,' lyii, p. 415). 
Fridericia helvetica Bret. 
,, humilis Friend. 

callnsa Eisen. 

I reported many years ago to the ' Essex Naturalist ' the 
existence of a well-worm {Dichceta ciirvisetosa Fr.). Southern, 
following Michaelsen, enters it in his list asHaplotaxis gordioides 
Hart. It is, however, quite a distinct species, and must, for 
the present, stand as Haplotaxis curvisetosus Friend. Another 
well- worm occurs in East Anglia. So far this is the only district 
in which they have been recorded for the British Isles. It 
is much to be desired that collectors should help in this depart- 
ment by sending any specimens they may discover to speciahsts 
for determination. 

Sparganophilus tamesis Benham has not been found again. 
I have specimens of a worm [Helodrilns eloiigatiis Friend) from 
Cornwall which ma}' prove to be a Sparganophilus, but I have 
hitherto been unable to assign it its true position. 

VI. LUMBRICID.E. 



Alhirus tetrirdrus Sav. 

macrurus Friend. 
,, tetragon ur us Friend. 
,, hercyuiiis Mich. 
Eisenia foetida Savigny. 
,. rosea Sav. 

macedouica Rosa. 
Eisenia veneta Rosa. 

,, hibernica Friend. 
. ,, zebra Mich. 

,, tepidaria Friend. 
,, dendroidea Friend. 
,, robitsta Friend. 
AUolobophora longa Ude. 

,, caUgnosa Sav., forma 

turgida Eisen. 
,, caUginosa Sav., 

forma trapezoides Duges. 
AUolobophora georgia Mich. 

,, cambrica Friend. 

Helodriius oculatus Hoffm. ( = 

A. hermanni Mich.). 
Helod'riUis (Alio.) relictus ? Southern 
Aporrectodea chlorotica Savigny. 
similis Friend. 



Dendroba'ua subrubicunda Eisen. 
arborea Eisen. 
mammalis Sa\'. (=D. 
celtica Rosa.). 
Dendroba>na octoedra Sa\'. ( = D. 

boeckii Eisen). 
Deiidrobceiia siibnioiitana \'ejd. 
,, alpina Rosa. 

,, merciensis Friend. 

Bimastus eiseni Lev. 

,, constricta Rosa. 
,, beddardi Mich. 
Octolasium cyaneum Saw (= A. 

studiosa Rosa). 
Octolasium lacteum Oerley (=A. 

yirofuga Rosa). 
Octolasium gracile Oerley. 

,, iuterniediuni Friend. 

Liunbricus castaneus Savigny. 
rubellus HolTm. 
,, festivus Sav. (=L. ru- 

bescens Friend). 
Lumbricus papillosus Friend. 
■ ,, terrestris Finn. 

Naturalist, 



Friend : OligochcBts of Great Britain and Ireland. 8i 

I have visited Cambridge, the River Thames, Chelsea, and 
elsewhere, but have so far failed to confirm the following : — 
Allolohophora platyura Fitz., reported by Oerley for Cambridge ; 
A. complanata Duges, said by the same writer to be found in 
England ; A. rubida Oeidey, recorded by Oeiiey for Woolwich. 
Oerley was a good obser^'er, and we may yet hope to re-cUscover 
the foregoing species. 

If we take the species Eisenia veneta Rosa, as represented 
by five forms (the type being at present doubtful in Britain), 
our list now stands thus : — 

6 Former List 6 
26 ,, 24 

32 ,, 15 

5 .' 5 

75 >, 52 

39 .. 29 

I ,, I 



1. xEolosomatidffi 

2. Naididai 
Tubificidge 



o 



4. Lumbriculidse 

5. Enchytr?eidse 

6. Lumbricidae 

7. Haplotaxidas 

8. Glossoscolicidas 



I 



Total 186 ,, 134 ; increase 52 

Out of the 52 new to Britain, no fewer than 22 have been 
discovered and described as new to science by myself. In 
all, my additions to science thus far amount to 30 species. 
Should all be well we shall have raised the number of British 
species to 200, when the material now under investigation has 
been fully described. 

Addendum. — Since the foregoing sunimary was written, I 
have determined one new species of Enchytraeid, viz., Marion- 
ina rivalis Bret., and a new Tubificid, Rhyacodrihis bisetosus 
Friend. I also observe that Dr. J. Stephenson has added 
Bothrioncitrnm iris, together with two new species of Lumbri- 
cillus and two new species of Enchytraeus to the British List 
(' Tr. Roy. Soc. Edin.', 1911, Vol. XLVHI. pp. 31-65). These 
bring the total up to 193. As I have not yet been able to con- 
sult Dr. Stephenson's paper, I cannot supply the names of his 
additions. 



Mr. ;\I. C. Dixon, a postman, and a keen entomologist, died at Spenny- 
moor, on December 2nd, aged 37 years. 

The Birstall Urban District Council is appealing for funds for the 
erection of a suitable memorial to Joseph Priestley, the discoverer of 
Oxygen. Priestley was born at Birstall. 

Noticing in the ' contents ' of a recent number of the Proceedings 
of the Cambridge Antiquarian Society that the Rev. Dr. Irving had a paper 
on ' A sub-fossil horse skeleton recently found near Bishop's Stortford,' 
we hastily turned to the page indicated. The full title of the paper, and 
the date it was read, are given, but, ' the rest is silence.' 

1912 Mar. I. "^ 



82 



A NEW BRITISH BEETLE 

(Chaetocnema conducta). 



E. CHAS. HORRELL. 



In May last I gathered by general sweeping of the herbage in 
Forge Valley, near Scarborough, two individuals of a yellow- 
backed flea-beetle, which on examination proved to be quite 
distinct from any British species, and on reference to Redten- 
bacher's ' Fauna Austriaca,' it was found to agree exactly 
with the description of the above species. Further reference 



F'9 A. 
A. — Dorsal view. 




Fig C 



B. — Head, front view. 
(Magnified) 



C. — Tibia. 



to Fauconnet's ' Faune Analytique fes Coleopteres de France ' 
and to the ' Naturgeschichte der Insecten Deutschlands,' 
Vol. VI., Chrysomelidae, by Weise, where there is a detailed 
account, confirmed me in this determination, and on sub- 
mitting a specimen to Mr. Bayford and to Canon Fowler, they 
both agreed with my opinion. 

The species at the first glance is seen to agree with the 
genera Chaetocnema and Plectroscelis of Fowler's ' British 
Coleoptera' in the emargination on the inner side of the inter- 
mediate and posterior tibiae, each edge of the emargination 
being raised into a tooth, and agrees with the former genus in 

Naturalist, 



Horrell ; .4 new British Beetle {Chaetocnema condueta). 83 

its large head without keel, and its large labrum, and with the 
latter in its regularly punctured elytra. It would appear that 
the introduction of this species into the British list will necessi- 
tate the dropping of the genus Plectroscelis and the including 
of our species P. concinna Marsh, under Chaetocnema, as is 
done in most modern continental woi^ks. 
Chaetocnema conducta Motsch : — 

Ovali-subcylindrica, sat convexa, subtus nigra, antennarum 
basi tibiis tarsisque testaceis, capite prothoraceque aeneo-vel 
aurichalceo-viridibus, illo carina faciali lata, deplanata, fronte 
punctata linea media laevi, hoc brevi, apicem versus parum 
angustato, subtilissime coriaceo, sat crebre et subtilius punctato, 
elytris stramineis, profunde punctato-striatis, callo humerali 
subprominulo limboque suturali et laterali nigris. — Long. 
1.5-2.5 mm. 

Motsch. Bull. Mosc. i838.i8o.t.3.f.d.D. (Haltica).— Foudr. 
Mon. 104. — All. Mon. 278. — Kutsch. Wien. Monat. 1864/ 320 
(326). — Redtb. Faun. A. 2. 511 (PlectrosceHs). — Weise, Fauna 
Austr. 6. 761. 

Oval-cylindric, moderate^ convex. 

Head and thorax dark metallic green, frequently with brassy 
reflection, elytra straw coloured, with a band at the suture, 
the lateral margins and the projecting shoulders black. The 
dark sutural band extends to the first row of punctures ; and 
the marginal band in front extends to the outermost row of 
punctures ; and is narrower behind the middle and is joined to 
the sutural band. 

Antennae reddish-brownish with the last four or five joints 
more or less brown. 

Underside black ; apex of anterior and intermediate femora, 
all the tibiae ind tarsi reddish-yellowish-brown. 

Head and thorax finely shagreened, shining, forehead 
between the antennae wide and not keeled, moderately thickly 
punctured with a longitudinal band above the middle im- 
punctate. 

Thorax about twice as wide as long, with slightly rounded 
sides, slightly narrowed towards front, somewhat thickly and 
finely punctured, with punctures stronger at sides, and with a 
row of strong punctures at the basal margin. 

Elytra somewhat wider than thorax, rounded behind, 
deeply punctured in rows with the interstices slightly raised, 
and very finely punctured ; shoulders somewhat prominent. 
Winged. 

Male with slightly widened first tarsal joint. 
In Alpine regions of Switzerland, South Tirol. Rare in 
Austria in damp places on the margin of ditches and streams. 
Commoner in Spain and South France to South Russia and the 
Caucasus. North Africa. Syria. 

igi2 Mar. i. 



84 

YORKSHIRE NATURALISTS' UNION : VERTEBRATE SECTION. 

I'ndcr the presidency of Mv. Oxley Grabham, two meetings of the 
verebrate section were held on Saturday, February 17th, at the Leeds 
Institute, and were attended by a large number of members. 

The afternoon meeting was devoted to discussions, and to the examina- 
tion of specimens. "Sir. H. B. Booth .shpwed, for comparison, skins of the 
marsh tit, and the newly claimed variety — the ' willow ' tit — obtained at 
Bolton Abbey. ^Ir. Hewitt exhibited a case containing moles, one of 
normal colour, the other a ligiit fa\vn. Mr. Butterworth showed the 
skins of two birds taken in the Keighley district during the recent storm, 
viz.. a Scla\^onic Grebe and a Little Auk. 

Discussions took place as to the appearance of so many Little Auks 
inland recently ; and an ingenious theory was advanced by Mr. Booth, 
who argued that on this occasion, at any rate, it was no question of the 
birds being wind-driven, but that, in all probability, they mistook the 
snow-clad land for their own Arctic regions, and flew in search of open 
water, but in the wrong direction. Discussion also took place on the 
possibility of inter-breeding between the real Wild Cat and the domestic 
variety gone wild. In a letter, Mv. Claude Leatham pointed to the 
serious increase of Magpies in his district, and many members furnished 
confirmatory evidence ; the infested areas being the fringes of large towns, 
where the holdings are small, and where the gamekeeper is not abroad. 
The general feeling was that it is time for the protection of Magpies to be 
withdrawn in the interests of other smaller birds, whose chances of rearing 
broods are much reduced where Magpies are present in any numbers. 

]\Ir. John Holmes read a paper on ' Finds of Bones of Mammals in the 
Lothersdale Cave,' and showed some interesting geological slices in order 
to demonstrate that these bones had been washed into the fissure. Mr. 
Sidney H. Smith described a very interesting set of slides illustrating many 
of the gamekeeper's traps for keeping down those interesting creatures 
known to the shooting fraternity as ' vermin ' (furred and feathered). 
Mr. Riley Fortune and Mr. Forrest showed some excellent .slides of animal 
and bird life ; and Mr. Jasper Atkinsoii had some slides of the birds of 
Scilly ; the meeting closing with a short account by Mr. Booth of the claim 
of Mr. J. M. Campbell, of the Bass Rock, to the discovery of barbs pointing 
backwards upon the tongue of the Pufiin, which probably assist (in con 
junction with the other barblets, noticed on the palette by Mr. C. J. King a 
year or two ago), in holding fish after fish, while the bird catches others. 

CORRESPONDENCE. 

To the Editors of 'The Xaturali.st.' 
In Mr. Lees' kindly review of ' Types of British Vegetation,' appearing 
in your January issue, there is an error which I ask your leave to correct. 
He refers to ' neglect to acknowledge W. B. Crump as the contributor 
of the six beautiful photographs making up plates 9, 13 and 25.' Mr. 
Crump is duly recorded as the author of these photographs both in the 
list of plates on p. xix. and also on the plates themselves. The reviewer 
has e\idently been misled by tlie absence of Mr. Crump's name from the 
list of gentlemen (Preface, p. ix.) to whom acknowledgment is made for 
the contiibution of photographs ; but he has omitted to notice that these 
are explicitly stated to be ' other than members of the committee.' All 
members of the Briti-sh Vegetation Committee, of which my friend Mr. 
Crump is a distinguished ornament, contributed all they could to the 
work — whether photographs or information — as a matter of course, quite 
apart from the actual authors of sections of the book. It would have been 
impossible for me, as editor, to carry through successfully a very difficult task 
if I had not been thus loj'ally and heartily supported by all my colleagues. 
But to gentlemen who were not members of the Committee, and who 
were good enough to allow their photographs to be used, special acknow- 
ledgment seemed due.— .\. G. Tansiev, Botany School, Cambridge. 

Naturalist, 



S5 

RECENTLY DISCOVERED FUNGI IN YORKSHIRE.— V. 

WITH NOTES ON NEW AND RARE SPECIES. 



C. CROSSLAND, 
Halifax. 



The following catalogue of Fungi newly discovered in York- 
shire demonstrates that mycological field work in our county 
is far from being played out, and that a continuation of this 
kind of work is called for. 

All the 64 species included were, with two or three excep- 
tions, found last year. Many have already been temporarily 
mentioned in ' The Naturalist,' but by bare name only. It 
will be seen that two are new to Science, and eleven new to 
Britain. A few others are in hand, concerning which some 
little doubt exists ; these are awaiting fresh and more abundant 
material for further consideration. 

This is the fifth series of additions since the publication of 
the ' Yorkshire Fungus Flora,' bringing the total of Yorkshire- 
fovmd species to 2895 or thereabouts ; in other words, 269 have 
been added during the intervening six years. 

The words ' To precede ' and ' To follow,' accompanied 
by a number, attached to each new record, denote the position 
they should occupy in the sequence of species followed in the 
Flora. 

It is thought necessary to add a few corrections at the 
close concerning other species previously recorded. 

NEW SPECIES. 

Pluteolus mulgravensis Mass. and Crossl. 

Pileus somewhat fleshy, convex then expanded and unibonate, 
flocculose, becoming broken up into squamiiles, striate, grey, 
5-6 cm. across ; gills free, crowded, white then cinnamon, broad ; 
stem stuffed, smooth, almost equal, base somewhat clavatc, ichitish. 
4 cm. long; spores elliptical, ochraceous-brown, 9-10x4-5 /'. 

N.E. — On wood, Mulgrave ^^'oods. (F.F.. Sep. 1911, ' Nat.', 
Nov., pp. 387-393)- [To follow 394]. 

Structurally Pluteolus agrees with Pluteus, differing in 
having brown instead of pink spores. P. mulgravensis differs 
from the two previously known European species, P. reticulatus 
and P. aleuriatus, in the umbonate, striate cap becoming 
squamulose, and in the larger spores. The last-named species 
was also collected during the Foray. 

Pileus carnosulus e convexo expanso uniboiiatus flocculosus, 
dein squamuloso-diffr actus, striatus, griseus, 5-6 cm. latus. 
LamellcB liberce, confertce, ex albo cinnamomcB latce. Stipes 
farctus, glaber, siibcequalis, basi subclavata, albidus, 4 cm. longus, 
3 mm. crassus. SporcB ellipsoida, ochraceo-brunnece , 9 10 X 

iqi2 Mar. i. 



86 Crossland : Recently Discovered Fungi in Yorkshire. 

Mr. A. D. Cotton, Kew, sends the following particulars of a 
new species for insertion in these notes : — 

Clavaria crosslandii Cotton, sp. nov. 
Plants small, iinhranched, isolated or fasciculate, greyish- 
white or grey, becoming darker with age ; smell and taste slight, 
pleasant. Cluhs very slender, brittle, 2-3 cm. high, 1-3 mm. thick, 
pruinose, cylindrical, apex usually pointed. Stem hardly dis- 
tinct. Flesh somewhat darker than hymeni-um. Internal structure 
pseudoparenchymatous in transverse section, cells 5-8 /x diam. 
Basidia 20-25x4-5 /a, contents granular, sterigmata 4, erect. 
Spores hyaline smooth, pip-shaped, 4-5x2.5-3 //. ' 

Hab. — In short grass. Mulgrave Woods. (F.F., Sep, 1910 
and 1911), ' Comm. C. Crossland and W. N. Cheesman.' [To 
precede 1238]. 

' The grey colour and small size, which cannot fail to strike 
the observer, are good field characters by which to recognise the 
present species. From the drab-coloured C. tenuipes, it is dis- 
tinguished by its slender, brittle clubs, and from C. fumosa by 
its fasciculate instead of densely tufted habit. C. acuta, which 
the new species resembles in size, habit, and texture, differs in 
the complete absence of the grey tinge. The microscopic 
characters confirm its title to specific distinction, the small 
basidia and spores marking it off from allied species.' 

' Amongst continental species C. crosslandii most nearly 
approaches C. affinis Pat. et Doas., but this plant differs, 
according to the published description (no type is preserved), 
(i) in the distinct stem ; (2) in becoming yellow on drying ; and 
{3) in the slightly larger, punctulate spores. Though, on both 
occasions, a few clubs only were met with, the specimens 
agreed precisely, and were sufficient to show the essential 
characters. It is a pleasure to name the plant after Mr. Charles 
Crossland, not only because of his keen interest in the genus 
Clavaria, but on account of his services to British Mycology 
in general.' 

' Plantce simplices, minntce, sparsce, v. fasciculate, pallidce 
V. cinerecB. Clavuli graciles, 2-3 cm. alt., 2-3 mm. eras., pruinosi, 
cylindracei, apice acute. Basidia minuta, 20-25x4-5/^.; sporis 
hyalinis, levibus minutis 4-5x2.5-3 /'.. Hab. ad terram gra- 
minosum.' 

NEW TO BRITAIN. 

Lepiota medioflava Bond. ' Bull. Soc. Myc. Fr.' Tome 
X., p. 59, pi. I (1894), fig. I. 

M. Boudier remarks : — ' This rather slender species re- 
sembles others of the genus, but may be distinguished by its 
white colour, pale yellow umbo, striate, finely tomentose pileus, 
ovate uniguttulate spores : smaller than those of L. cepcestipes, 
to which it comes near. This species has been found several 
times in France, both in greenhoiises and in the open.' 



Crossland : Recently Discovered Fungi in Yorkshire. Sy 

S.W. — On decaying cocoa-nut fibre and soil in greenhouse, 
Hebden Bridge. James Needham. Oct. 1911. [To follow 69]. 

' Pileus expanded, 2-3 cm. across, striate, snow-white, ex- 
cepting the prominent, yellowish nmbo. depressed around the 
umbo, mimitely silky-tomentose ; gills free, white ; stem 4-6 cm. 
long, fistulose, minutely scurfy above median, reflexed ring, finely 
iomentose below, base thickened and yellotvish ; spores 5-6x3 fj-.' 

COLLYBIA PHAEOPODIA Fr. 

N.E. — On bare soil in nettle-bed, garden corner, Sandsend. 
(F.F., 1911, ' Nat.', Nov., p. 392). [To follow 179]. 

Pileus expanded, even, glabrous, moist, umbo evanescent, 
flesh brocvnish ; gills white ; stem blackish-brown, thickened at 
both ends.' {' Mass. Eur. Agar.', p. 49). 

Pluteus sororiata Karst. 

N.E. — On rotting branch, Mulgrave Woods. (F.F., 191 1, 
' Nat..', Nov., p. 392). [To follow 322]. 

' Pileus campanulate, expanded, floccosely scaly, yellow ; 
gills flesh colour ; stem pallid, then yelloivish ; spores 7-8x6 //.' 

Flammula carnosa Mass. 

N.E. — Growing in small fascicles on wood, found by Mr. A. 
Clarke at the Castle Howard F.F., Sep. 1909. For description 
and remarks see Massee's recently published ' British Fungi,' 
p. 290. 

Hypholoma aelopodium Fr. 

N.E. — On rotting stump, Mulgrave Woods. (F.F., 191 1, 
' Nat.', Nov., p. 392). [To precede 658]. 

' Pileus fleshy, convex, then plane, obtuse, glabrous, sub- 
rufescent; gills adnate, yellowish, then brownish-olive; stem 
fistulose with a free tube inside, variegated with minute red squa- 
mules.' {' Mass. Eur. Agar.', p. 213). 

PoLYPORUS TEPHROLEUCUS Berk. 

S.W. — On decaying, prostrate trunk, High Greenwood, near 
Hebden Bridge. Aug. 1911. James Needham. 

Pileus dimidiate, white, slightly zoned, not distinctly velvety 
nor yet smooth, rigid, coriaceous, 9 cm. wide, 5 cm. back to front ; 
flesh white, 4-6 mm. thick ; pores greyish, oblique, 4-5 mm. long ; 
mouths slightly irregular in size and shape, 4-5 = i mm., disse- 
piments very thin ; spores allantoid, or nearly straight, 4-5 x 1.5 jj.' 

The above description was taken from the Hebden Bridge 
specimens while in a fresh condition by the writer. 

PoRiA RANCiDA Bresadola. ' Fungi Trident.' U., p. 96. 

N.E. — On the ground among decaying pine needles, Mul- 
grave Woods. (F.F., 1910). 

Effusa, alba, dein pallida alutacea, margine subfimbriata, 
denum secedente ; subiculum tenue, submembranaceum ; tubuli 
2-4 mm. longi, pori varii, rotundati, oblongi, subangulati, 
mediocres vel submajusenti, usque ad i mm. lati, ore integro vel 

191:! Mar. I. 



88 Crossland : Recently Discovered Fungi in Yorkshire. 

demum etiam lacerato, substantia coriacea, adore forti, farinaceo 
rancido praedita ; sporce hyalincB, cylindraceo, sithcurvulce 5-7 x 
2'5-3jU, ; hasida clavata 15-16 X4-6/X ; hyphce- tenues, 2'5-4// 
crasscE. 

Sent a specimen to C. G. Lloyd, Oct. 1910, who remarks :— 
Porta rancida Bres. I have collected this same species in 
France on pine needles, and it was confirmed by Bresadola.' 

Peniophora aurantiaca. 

N.E. — On decaying wood, Mulgrave Woods. (F.F., 191 1. 
Not included in 'Nat.', Nov. 1911 list, p. 393). [To follow 
1180]. 

' Very like P. incarnata in habit and colouring, but differs 
chiefly in ite larger, broadly illiptical spores and larger basida.' 
(Elsie M. Wakefield). 

Uromyces loti Blytt. 

N.E. — ^On Lotus corniculatus. Raincliffe, Scarborough. 
T. B. Roe, Aug. 1911. (Jour. Botany, Vol. XLIX. (iqii), 
P- 367)- 

NuMMULARiA DiscRETA (Schwein) Tul. 

N.E. — On apple, near Sandsend. (F.F., 1910). [To follow 
1484]. 

MoNiLiA siTOPHiLA (Mont.). ' Sacc. Syll,', IV., 35. 

S.W. — On steamed oatmeal, prepared for dog-food, Don- 
caster. Aug. 1911. (' Comm. Mr. M. H. Stiles '). [To come 
near 2302]. 

Tufts effused, of a pleasant rosy-orange colour ; mycelium 
creeping; conidiophores ascending, 120-130x12 /', sparingly 
constricto-septate , tn'ice dichotomous above ; branches and branch- 
lets thick, crowdedly septate and easily separating at the septa ; 
conidia apical, shortly concatenate, globose, 10-12 // diam.' 

Hab. on rotting bread-crumbs, and on wheat-spikes, 
Paris and Lyons, France.' 

Mr. W. B. Grove, to whom the specimen was submitted, 
kindly supplied me with the foregoing description and note. 

NEW TO YORKSHIRE. 

Ihe following 36 species were all found in Mulgrave \A"oods 
during the Spring and Autumn Fora\'s of last year, and are 
included in the bald list of Mulgrave additions printed on pp. 
392-3, ' Nat.', Nov. '11. All V.C., N.E. This general heading 
is intended to save needless repetition. After these, the \'ice- 
Counties are added as usual. 

Amanita puella. 

' This fungus is by some considered as a variety of Anuinita 
muscaria, from which it differs very materially in the behaA'iour 
of the rmiversal veil, which in A. muscaria adheres very closely 
to the cap and is carried up b}' it imder the form of white 

Naturalist, 



Crossland : Recently Discovered Fungi in Yorkshire. 89 

patches, and there is practically no free portion left as a volva ; 
whereas in A . ptiella the cap does not carr}/ up the universal 
veil, which consequently remains as a good volva. The fungus 
is also much smaller and more slender than A. miiscaria.' 
{' Mass. Brit. Fungi,' 1911, p. 83). [To follow 45]. 

Tricholoma hordum Fr. 

Under beech and other trees. [To follow 105]. 

Tricholoma patulum Fr. 

Among decaying pine needles. [To follow 121]. 

Tricholoma civile Fr. 

Among fallen pine needles. [To precede 127]. 

Tricholoma duracinum Cooke. 

On the ground. [To precede 127, after T. civile]. 

Tricholoma lixivium Fr. 

Among decaying leaves. [To follow 137]. 

Mycena paupercula Berk. 

On decaying log. [To follow 233]. 

Pleurotus porrigens (Pers.). 

On decaying piece of pine branch. [To follow 310]. 

Pluteolus aleuriatus Fr. 

On rotting sticks. [To follow 394]. 

Inocybe deglubens Fr. 

On the ground among pine leaves. [To precede 441]. 

Inocybe perlata Cooke. 

On bare ground under beech. [To precede 442]. 

Flammula liquiriti.^ (Pers.). 

On fallen fir-branch. [To follow 478]. 

CORTINARIUS (Phleg.) TURBINATUS Fr. 

On the ground under beech. [To precede 548]. 

CORTINARIUS (Phleg.) EMOLLITUS Fr. 

Among grass near beech tree. [To follow 552]. 

CORTINARIUS (Ino.) TURGIDUS Fr. 

On the ground. [To follow 560]. 

CORTINARIUS (Tela.) stemmatus Fr. 

On moist ground, stream side. [To follow 604]. 

Hygrophorus fuscoalbus Lasch. 

Among grass, woodland path side. [To follow 773]. 

RussuLA viRGiNEA Cke. and Mass. 

Among short grass. [To precede 855]. 

RussuLA pectinata Fr. 
Among decaying leaves. 

POLYPORUS ALBIDUS. 

On fir wood. [To be listed near 1038]. 

First found in Britain b}^ the writer, and Thos. Hey, Derby, 

1912 Mar. I. 



qo Grassland : Recently Discovered Fungi in Yorkshire. 

on tree trunk near Grindleford railway station, Derbyshire. 
' Trs. Brit. Myc. Soc' Vol., III., pt. 3, p. 230. 

PoRiA COLLABEFACTA B. and Br. 

On fallen decaying branch. [To come between 1075 and 
1076]. 

Hydnum sepultum B. and Br. 

On the sawn end of a branch laid on the ground, during the 
Spring Foray. [To precede 11 18]. 

Hydnum udum Fr. 

On decaying branch. (Not included in ' Nat.', Nov. '11, 
list, p. 393). [To precede 11 18, after sepiiUiim']. 

Grandinia mucida Fr. 

On rotting wood. [To follow 1137]. 

CoRTiciUM FOETiDUM B. and Br. 

On rotting wood during tne Spring Fora}'. [To follow 
1158]. 

Aldridgea caesia (Pers.) Mass. (= Thelephora caesia Pers., 
Soppittiella caesia Mass.). 

Spreading over moss, decaying twigs, etc. [To follow 1208]. 

Melampsora allii-salicis-alb.e. 

On Salix alba. [To precede 1285]. 

Uromyces dactylidis Otth. 

On Dactylis glomerata. [To precede 1306]. 

Synchytrium solani. 

On rotting potato stems. [To follow 2198]. 

ASCOCHYTA PISI. 

On living pea-pods in garden, Sandsend. [To follow 2253]. 

l^HINOTRICHUM DECOLORANS Cooke. 

On chips, during the Spring Foray. [To precede 2328]. 

Khinotrichum ramosissimum B. and C. 

On decaying paling, during the Spring Foray. [To precede 

2329]- 

Spicaria elegans Harz. 

On decaying paling. [To precede 2349]. 

Periconia alternata (Berk.) Sacc. 

On decaying herbaceous stem. [To follow 2383]. 

Cercospora apii Fresen. 

On living celery-leaves, garden, Sandsend. [To follow 
2417]. 

Arcyria pomiformis Rost. 

On rotting wood. [To follow 2523]. According to ' Lister's 
Synopsis,' 1907, p. 19, there is sufficient ground for separating 
this from A. alhida^^ A. cinerea. 



Lepiota nigromarginata, ' Mass. Eur. Fung. Flo.', p. 10. 
N.E. — Among grass, Scarborough, 1885. Then new to 

Xa,turalist, 



Crossland : Recently Discovered Ftingi in Yorkshire. gr 

Britain. ' Joiirn. Bot.', XLI. (1893), p. 385 ; ' Tr. Brit. Myc. 
Soc.', 1904, pp. 61-2 ; [To follow 66. Previously overlooked]. 

CoRTiNARius (Hygr.) privignus Fr. 

S.W. — On the ground, High Greenwood, Hebden Bridge. 
Sep. 191 1, J. Needham. [To follow 609]. 

CoPRiNUS TARDUS Karst. 

S.W. — Hewenden Wood, near CuHingworth. Thos. Heb- 
den, Oct. 1911. [To precede 736]. 

POLYPORUS TRABEUS Rostk. 

S.E. — On pine log, Osgodby Wood. Sep. 1907, W. N. 
Cheesman, certe, C. G. Lloyd, Feb. 1908. Accidentally over- 
looked when compiling previous additions. [To precede 1039]. 

Melampsora pyrol-E (Gmelin). 

N.E. — On leaves of Pyrola minor. Silpha Moor, near 
Scarborough. T. B. Roe, June 1911. [To follow 1293]. 

Uromyces scrophularle (DC). 

S.E. — Teleutospores on Scrophnlaria aquatica. Driffield. 
July 1911. R. H. Philip. [To follow 1312]. 

Uromyces ambiguus Lev. No iFcidium known. 

Mid.W. — On Allium Scorodoprasum. Ripon. July 1911, 
communicated by W. West to W. B. Grove, Birmingham Uni- 
versity. Only recently recorded for Britain, from Clare Island. 
There is a bit in the late Dr. Plowright's herbarium now at the 
above University, gathered b}/ Rev. J. E. Vize, without date or 
locality. [To come near the end of Uromyces]. 

PucciNiA FESTUC.E Plow., ' Gard. Chron.', 8, 1890, p. 42. 

N.E. — ^cidium stage on Lonicera Periclymennm= A. feri- 
clymeni Schum (Yorks. F. Flo., No. 1398). Staintondale, near 
Scarborough. May 1911, T. B. Roe. [To follow 1347]. 

The establishment of the connection between the Mcidiunl 
on honeysuckle, and the Puccinia on Festuca, by Dr. Plowright, 
in 1890, was accidently overlooked when the Y. F. Flo. was 
compiled. 

HUMARIA NICHOLSON! MaSS. 

S.W. — On stack of rotting leaves. Victoria Park, Keighley. 
Aug. 1911, Thos. Hebden. [To follow 1807]. Only previously 
recorded for Kew Gardens. 

Darluca filum Cast. 

N.E. — Parasitic on the sori of Puccinia calthce. Throxenby 
Mere, near Scarborough. T. B. Roe, July 1911. [To follow 
2266]. The Darluca was detected by W. B. Grove, to whom a 
bundle of diseased Caltha leaves were sent. 

Stachybotrys lobulata Berk. 

S.W.- — -In great abundance, on damp wallpaper. Mixenden 
Hall (unoccupied), near Halifax. July 1911. [To follow 2379]. 

1012 Mar. I. 



92 Cross/and : Rccenilv Discovered Fnn^i in Yorkshire. 

Mr. Grove thinks it \ery likely that Stachybotrys lohitlata 
is the conidial form of CJicstomiinn chartarum. 

HoRMODENDRON CHARTARUM {= Haplogfaphium cluirtaniin 
(Cooke) Sa.cc ~ Pe}iicillii(m chartarum Cooke). 

S.W. — On damp wallpaper. Birks Hall (partly occupied), 
near Halifax. May 1911. [To follow 2391]. 

Sporodesmium chartarum B. and C. 

S.W. — On damp wallpaper. Birks Hall, near Halifax. In 
company with Stemphyliuui alteniariae. [To follow 2422]. 
Some authors consider 5. chartarnni to be but a form of S. alter- 
nariae 

Graphium griseum (Berk.) Sacc. 

S.W. — On damp decaying herbaceous stem, in hedge bottom. 
Luddenden, nea.r Halifax. Oct. 191 1, H. Walsh. [To precede 
2455]- 

CORRECTIONS. 

Inocybe adeouata.' Nat.', Dec. 1892. No. 254, Y.F.Flo. 

This name must be substituted by Inocybe mimica Mass- 
' Mon. Genus Inocybe, Anns. Bot., July 1904, p. 492.' 

' This fungus was collected in two separate localities at 
Castle Howard during the Fungus Foray, Sep. 1892 ' (1902 in 
the above Monograph should be 1892). ' It was at the time 
referred to Inocybe adeqitata Britz., by Dr. Cooke ; it differs, 
however, very materially from that species. The pileus exactly 
mimics that of Lcpiota jriesii, as figured in Cookes' Illustrations, 
pi. 941, hence the specific name.' 

[To come between Nos. 433 and 435, Y.F.Flo. 

POLYPORUS UMBELLATUS. Y.F.Flo. No. IOI5. 

This name must be deleted, the species having since been 
proved to be P. frondosjis, No. 1016. ]\Ir. Thos. Hebden found 
fine specimens at the same place, and under similar conditions, 
Oct. 1911. 

For Puccinia dispora. No. 1332, Y.F.Flo., read Piiccinia 
dispersa. 

For Poria collcbofacta, ' Nat.', Nov. 'ii, p. 393, read Porta 
collabefacta. 

In the preliminary^ list of additions in ' Nat.', Nov. '11, pp. 
392-3, delete Mycena strobilina and var. coccinea ; also delete 
t in front of C. {Phleg.) infractiis, Hygrophorns ncmorcus, 
Poria vitrea, Clnvaria tennipes, misprinted tenuispora. These 
are not new to Yorkshire, though additions to the ^Mulgrave 
Flora. 

By unwarih' following the Excursion Programme for 191 1, 
I was led into the error of quoting Ingleton as being in \\ce 
County N.W. (' Nat.', p. 326), whereas Ingleton, Ingleborough, 
and Kingsdale lie in the north-west corner of \ .C. ^lid. \\'. 



93 

3u flDeniorianu 



SAMUEL JAMES CAPPER. 



For more than forty years probably no north of England 
entomologist has been better known or more highly esteemed 
than Mr. Samuel James Capper, of Huyton, Liverpool, whose 
death, at the patriarchal age of nearly eighty-seven years, took 
place on the 21st of January last. 

Born at Highbury Place, London, on April 28th, 1825, he 
was, when twelve years old, sent to a ' Friend's ' School at 
Epping, where, as is so often the case at schools of the Society 
of Friends, the boys were encouraged in the pursuit of natural 
history, and where young Capper made the acquaintance of 
the brothers Edwp.rd and Henry Doubleday, who helped him 
considerably in the study of the lej)idoptera, which he had 
commenced. After leaving school he had little time for Natural 
History work, until he removed to Liverpool, about the year 
184O ; but soon after this he made the acquaintance of the 
brothers Nicholas and Benjamin Cooke, C. S. Gregson, Noah 
Greening, and other well-known lepidopterists of the time, and 
with whom, in the intervals of a very busy life, he made fre- 
quent excursions in pursuit of lepidoptera to various noted 
localities, their favourite one in their own district being Delamere 
Forest. Later, Mr. Capper became very fond of the New 
i-^orest ; and still later, of North Wales. It was on one of his 
visits to the last-mentioned district, that he re-discovered the 
pretty Acidalia coniifitaria, for, although the species had been 
first recorded as British by Mr. Weaver in 1855, and a casual 
specimen had be;en taken later by Mr. G. H. Kenrick of Bir- 
mingham, little was known of it until Mr. Capper found it to be 
fairly common on the mountains at Penmaenmawr, which 
district still remains its only known British habitat. It was 
on one of his expeditions on these \\'elsh mountains that he 
unfortunately slipped and injured one of his legs, from which 
he was slightly lame for the rest of his life, and this probably 
stopped his outdoor collecting much earlier than would other- 
wise have been the case. 

He was always intensely interested in the Lancashire and 
Cheshire Entomological Society, of which, at the preliminary 
meeting which founded the Society, held at the residence 
of Mr. Nicholas Cooke, he was chosen the first President, an 
honour which was re-conferred upon him year by year from 
1877 until the present year, a period of forty-five years. 

He was never more happy than when he had a number of 
entomological friends at his house, looking over his line collec- 
tion, and ' talking entomology ' ; and those of us who were 
privileged to join in the delightful entomological garden parties 

igr2 Mar. i. 



^94 Reineivs and Book Notices. 

he vised to give at Huyton Park, thirty or more years ago, well 
remember what a charming host he made. 

For some years he was a Fellow of the Linnean Societ}-, and 
had been a Fellow of the Entomological Society of London since 
1890. 

In business he was for man}' years a partner in the well- 
known Liverpool firm of Homgeopathic Chemists, Messrs. 
Thompson and Capper, but he ceased to take an active part 
in it about fifteen years ago. He was indeed one of the first 
promoters of Homoeopathy in Liverpool, and it was greatly 
owing to his efforts that the Hahnemann Hospital was built, 
of which he was Honorary Secretary for fifty-seven j'ears. 

His remains were cremated at the Anfield Crematorium, and 
at the funeral service, the large company of relatives and friends 
assembled, included members of the Entomological Society of 
London, and of the Lancashire and Cheshire Entomological 
Society. 

He left four sons and four daughters. One of the latter, 
herself an ardent naturalist, married Dr. H. H. Corbett, of 
Doncaster, who has for many years been a prominent member 
■of the Yorkshire Naturalists' Lnion, and at the present time 
is President of its Entomological Section. — G. T. P. 



Mineralogy, by F. H. Hatch, Ph.D., F.G.S., etc. P'ouith Edition, 
pp. X. + 253, 1912. London: \\'hittaker & Co. 4/- net. 

The fact that this handy text-book has now reached its fourth edition 
speaks well for its popularity. Tlie present edition has been entirely re- 
written and enlarged, and is illustrated by 124 diagrams and blocks from 
photographs. Tlie lists of localities in wliich the various minerals occur 
seem to have been most carefully compiled. 

Photomicrographs of Botanical Studies. Published by Flatters, Mel- 
borne & McKechnic, Ltd., Alancliester. 62 pp., 2/- net., n.d. 

This is a little volume of 103 photomicrographs which the authors 
claim " covers practically the whole range of study requisite for the 
Botanical Student.' Tiiis may be a matter of opinion ; but certainly 
"the photographs on the whole are of a high order, and include many 
sections which will be both useful and interesting to the student. The 
subjects include Alga\ Fungi, Liverworts, Ferns, Horsetails, Club Mosses, 
Fine, and Flowering I^lants. It is a pity to hnd, however, that the label- 
ling of the parts has been done in a misleading and inaccurate waj*. To 
give a few examples of misapplied names, the sections of thistle leaf, 
wheat stem, and ' Berbery ' leaf, are said to be attacked by uredospores, 
teleutospores and ' jrcidiospoixs ' respectively, of Pitccinia graminis, 
which gives a fundamentally wrong idea of the life-cycle of this parasite. 
The steles of Selaginella are called ' vascular bundles.' Section 30 might 
])ass for that of a stem, but not a ' root of bean.' A pine seed is described 
as a ' mature ovule,' and wiiat is called a ' L. S. Emlaryo sac ' of wheat is 
misleading in almost every detail. Tiie fruit coat of Tviticum sativum is 
marked 'pericarp of seed,' while tiic fruit ot Alexanders is so labelled as to 
suggest that a mericarp is a seed. It is also disappointing to|hnd that in 
only two cases is t'ae mngnification gi\-en. 

Naturalist, 



95 
YORKSHIRE BRYOLOGISTS AT KNARESBOROUGH, 

The bryologists of the Yorkshire Xaturahsts' Union held their first 
•sectional meeting at Knaresbro' on January 27th. The grounds of the 
■castle were visited first to see Barbula gracilis, this being where the first 
Yorkshire specimens were obtained. The snow Spoilt the general facies 
of the plant, but it was found ; then the river was crossed and the rocks 
and cliffs examined. The moss flora of these cliffs is interesting, on the 
tufa which occurs wherever the rocks have water running over them, 
Weisia vei'ticillata is the dominant moss, with Weisia calcarea near at hand, 
but keeping to when the rock is more marly ; great patches of Coiicephalus 
conicits spread over both at times, the condition necessary appearing to 
be damp l^elow, but not such a run of calcareous water. Mr. R. Barnes 
mentioned how the mosses had changed during his observations, IF. cal- 
carea being supplanted in great measure by W. verticillata. This latter 
moss is stated in the text books to be a \ery rare fruiter, but the opinion 
of the Yorkshire experts here disproved this as far as our county is con- 
cerned. Where the rocks are more purely limestone Eitrhynchimn tenellum, 
the delicate little Fissideiis pusillns, and Jungermania pumila are found. 
On loose blocks of limestone at the base of these cliffs Eurhynchinm miirale, 
the curious Barbula siniiosa and Plagiothecium depressum occur. Further 
along on .the river side below the weir masses of Lunularia cruciata afforded 
a subject tor discussion in regard to its claims for inclusion as a native, 
the plant seems thoroughly established here as at a great many other 
localities, but older records are not sufficiently corroborative, and its 
constant appearance in greenhouses, together with the easj^ ^^ay it is 
distributed by means of gemmae, are evidence against its acceptance. 
Mr. W. Ingham pointed out the var. jiilaceiim of EurhynchiiiDi iniirale ; and 
Barbula revoluta and lurida were gathered. 

Passing along beyond the dropping well search was made for Ambly- 
stegium sprucei, but unsuccessfully, Mr. Barnes had previously gathered 
it on these rocks. The path was followed along the river side towards 
Grimbald's Crag, and on getting into the fields, Thuidium recognititm was 
seen, and further along, good patches of B. siuuosa and P. depressum 
claimed attention, and the little candle snuffer calj-ptras of Eucalypta 
vulgaris were seen emerging from the snow co\'ering. 

On Grimbald's Crag Potentilla veriia was in flower. This had been 
found a fortnight earlier, together with flowers of Potentilla fragariastrum 
and Geranium robertiantini by Miss M. Mellish. In the quarry beyond 
the crag, Thuidiuin hystricosiim was obtained, and Tortula rigida. 

The road was taken back to Knaresbro', and after tea Mr. Ingham 
showed a fine series of forms of Hypnuni cuspidatum, and gave a delightful 
discourse on the same, the variation of the plant in colour and form being 
pointed out in the various habitats, and some suggestions made to account 
for the changes. Next IMr. Barnes showed an excellent drawing of 
Phascum cuspidatum, and also a series of photographs of some other of his 
wonderful microscopic preparations of moss peristomes, etc. The party 
was most enthusiastic, the general feeling being that could the series of 
Mr. Barne's slides be photographed for minute detail, and drawings of the 
whole plants be made as the specimen shown, then indeed the Millennium 
would be reached for the bryologists whose pockets could stand the strain. 
The drawings and photomicros were done by friends of INIr. Barnes. 

Mr. A. Wilson then read a paper on the collection and preparation 
of specimens of mosses, and gave details of his methods. This paper will 
be of lasting help to those who have not worked long at the subject, and 
at the same time emphasize the need for care in labelling specimens at 
once to obviate future mistakes as to localities and other data. This 
concluded the business. A further meeting was decided on, to be held on 
March i6th, at Pateley Bridge, the train being due there at 9-50 a.m. The 
gills will be worked, and at Harrogate tea will be arranged, after which it is 
suggested that microscopes should be provided in order to examine Mr. 
Barnes' slides ; and, if possible, some papers will be read. — C. A. Cheeth.\m. 

agi2 Mar. i. 



96 

PROCEEDINGS OF PROVINCIAL SCIENTIFIC SOCIETIES. 

Early this year wc received a pamphlet — -the Transactions of th' 
Manchester Geological and Mining Society, Vol. XXXII., parts VIT., VIII., 
and IX., and dated M.D.C.C.C. C.X.I. As it contains some 40 pages only, 
and plates, we cannot see the necessity for the cumbersome ' parts VII., 
VIII. and IX.' ; besides being inaccurate. 

Part I of Vol. XXIII. of the Proceedings of the Geologists' Association 

is occupied by a paper on the geology of the Bergen district, by Dr. C. F. 
Koldirup and Mr. H. W. RIonckton. Some of the illustrations of modem 
glacial phenomena are interesting ; that of a section in the moi'aine at 
Mostrommcn might be e.xactly matched in the Holderness glacial gravels. 

The Annual Report of the Manchester Museum for 19 10- 11 (50 pp., 6d.) 
contains a reference to the fact that an extension has been commenced 
for the adequate housing of the Egyptian and Anthropological Collections, 
which will give much-needed relief to the over-crowded natural history 
collections. Judging by the Report the staff have been by no means idle 
during the past year, and much good work has been done. 

We have received Parts III., IV., and V. of Marvels of the Universe? 

which is appearing in fortnightly parts (yd. each : Messrs. Hutchinson & 
Co.). They contain a remarkably fine set of photographs and photo- 
micrographs, which are described by such well-known writers as Lord 
Avebury, R. Lydekker, W. P. Pycraft, Sir Harry Johnston, etc. Amongst 
the subjects dealt with in the parts before us are sacred beetles, luminous 
fungi, bower birds, coffer-fishes, flexible sandstone, Pelorus Jack, wasps, 
moles, moths, snow crystals, Saturn, sea-cucumbers, whales, flies, fossil 
weather, tortoises, etc. There are some excellent coloured plates in each 
part. 

Proceedings of the Liverpool Geological Society, 1910-11, Vol. .'^. 
part 2, pp. 59-152. Edited l)y J. H. Milton, F.G.S. This society and itb 
editor are to be congratulated upon the fact that its volume contains 
many valuable papers, and all of distinct local interest. Mr. W. Hewitt 
makes a good start in giving a list of the papers bearing on the district, 
published between 1890 and 1909. He then deals with the conditions under 
which the local Triassic Rocks were formed ; as his Presidential Address 
to the society. Mr. H. C. Beasley continues his useful work on the Storeton 
footprints, and Mr. F. T. Maidwell has also a contribution on Keuper 
footprints. Messrs. C. B. Travis and W. H. Greenwood give elaborate 
tables, etc., of the mineralogical and chemical constituents of the Triassic 
Rocks of the Wirral. There is also a list of the geological maps in the 
society's possession. There can be no doubt that the place to look for 
papers on the geology of the Liverpool district is in the Liverpool Geological 
Society's Transactions, which is as it should be. 

Vol. XXV. of The Proceedings and Transactions of the Liverpool Bio- 
logical Society for the Session 1910-1 1 (304 pp.) is, as usu?l, full ot \-aluable 
matter. After a brief abstract of Mr. R. Newstead's IVesidcntial Address 
on The Natural History of the Maltese Islands, is Dr. W. A. Herdman's 
ever-welcome Report on the work of the Liverpool ]\Iarinc Biological 
Committee and their Station at Port Erin ; Rlr. A\'. Riddell descril:)es the 
Polychaeta of the Port Erin District ; Mr. A. O. AN'alker has Notes on 
Jassa falcata ; and then follows the Report on the Investigations carried 
on during 19 10 in connection with the Lancashire Sea-fishes Lalioratory 
at the University of Liverpool, and the Sea-fish Hatchery at Picl, near 
Barrow. This occupies over 200 pages, and deals with internal parasites 
and the diseases of fishes, etc. ; the Sporozoan in the Whelk ; Hydrographic 
Observations ; Plankton ; Plaice Measurements and Plaice Marking Ex- 
periments. Tills excellent report is prepared by Prof. Herdnian, with the 
assistance of Messrs. Andrew Scott and James Johnstone. There are 
several plates and diagrams. 

Naturalist. 



BRITISH 
BIRDS 



NESTS 



The 
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How, Where and When . . 
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REPTILES, AMPHIBIANS, AND FISHES. 

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To Subscribers, 7s. 6d., per annum, post free. 
THE ANNALS OF 

Scottish Natural History. 

A Quarterly Ma£:azine. 

Edited by J. A. Hari-ie-Browne, F.R.S.E., 
F.Z.S., Prof. James W. H. Traill, M.A., M.D., 
F.R.S., F.L.S., Wm. Eagle Clarke, F.L.S., etc. 

This Magazine— a continuation of ' The Scot- 
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under the present editorship in January 1892, for 
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The Annals is entirely devoted to the publica- 
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Printed at Browns' Savile Press, 40, George Street, Hull, and published by 
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March ist, 1912. 



APRIL, 1912. 



No. 663 

(No, 441 »f turnnt teritt). 




A MONTHLY ILLUSTRATED JOURNAL OF 

NATURAL HISTORY FOR THE NORTH OF ENGLAND. 

EDITED BY 

T. SHEPPARD, F.Q.S., F.R.Q.S., F.S.A.Scot., 

The Museums, Hull ; 



T. W. WOODHEAD, Ph.D., F.L.S., 

Technical College, Huddersfield. 

WITH the assistance as referees in special departments op 
J. QILBBRT BAKER. P.R.S. P.L.S., GEO. T. PORRITF, F.L.S.. P.E.S. 

Prof. P. P. KENDALL, M.Sc, F.Q.S., JOHN W. TAYLOR, 

T. H. NELSON, M.B.O.U.. WILLIAM WEST, P.L.S., 

RILEY FORTUNE, F.Z.S. 



Contents : — 

Notes and Comments (Illustrated) : — Some Scientilic Serials ; The Nature Book ; British 
Birds' Nests ; British Mammals ; Land and Freshwater Mollusca; ' Scientific ' Names ; 
European Biological.Stations ; Prehistoric Anthropology ; Ancient Hunters, and their 
Modern Representatives ; Prehistoric Man ; Evolution in the Past ; Restoration of 
Ancient Life ; Lancashire Pigmy Implements ; An interesting Palasozoic Fern ; York- 
shire Type Ammonites ; Stratigraphical Names ; The Mineral Kingdom ; A Strange 
Animal 

Notes on the Qeolosry of the Vale of Eden (Illustrated)— Pro/. Kendall, M.Sc.,F.G.S 

Appendix on the Igneous Rocks— Alfred Marker, F.R.S 

Coast Changes at Hornsea (Illustrated)— T. Sheppard, F.G.S 

Field Notes: — Testacella scutidum at Brighouse, Yorkshire; Bohemian Waxwings at Grange 



97-104 
105-111 
111-113 
114-120 



over Sands ; The Common Sandpiper in March ; The Wood Scirpus (S. sylvaticus) in 
East Yorkshire ; Mosses and Hepatics at Knaresborough ; Roesleria pallida (Pers.) 
Sacc, in Yorkshire; Shags inland in January 113,120,126 



In Memoriam— William Fowler (Illustrated)— £..4. H^.-P. 

Phineas Fox Lee (Illustrated)— T. IF. l-F. ... 
Yorkshire Bryologists at Pateley Bridge— C. A. Cheetham 

Some New Books 

Proceedings of Provincial Scientific Societies 

News from the Magazines 

Northern News 

Illustrations 

Plates I.— XI. 



... 121-123 
... 128-125 
126 
... 127-129 
130 
131 
132 
98, 100, 101, 103, 107, 115, 124 



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PUBLICATIONS OF 

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BOTANICAL TRANSACTIONS OF THE YORKSHIRE NATURALISTS' UNION, Volume I. 

Svo, Cloth, 292 pp. (a few copies only left), price 5/- net. 
Contains various reports, papers, and addresses on the Flowering Plants, Mosses, and Fungi of the county 

Complete, Svo, Cloth, with Coloured Map, published at One Guinea. Only a few copies left, 10/6 net. 

THE FLORA OF WEST YORKSHIRE. By FREDERIC ARNOLD LEES, M.R.C.S., &c. 
This, which forms the 2nd Volume of the Botanical Series of the Transactions, is perhaps the most 
complete work of the kind ever issued for any district, including detailed and full records of 1044 Phanero- 

fams and Vascular Cryptogams, 11 Characeae, 348 Mosses, 108 Hepatics, 258 Lichens, 1009 Fungi, and 383 
reshwater Algae, making a total of 3160 species. 

READY SHORTLY: Supplement to The Flora of West Yorkshire, by F. Arnold Lees, MR C.S. 

680 pp.. Coloured Geological, Lithological, &c. Maps, suitably Bound in Cloth. Price 15/- net. 
NORTH YORKSHIRE: Studies of its Botany, Geology, Climate, and Physical Geography. 

By JOHN GILBERT BAKER, F.R.S., F.L.S., M.R.I. A., V.M.H. 
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396 pp.. Complete, 8vo., Cloth. Price 10/6 net. 

THE FUNGUS FLORA OF YORKSHIRE. By G. MASSEE, F.L.S., F.R.H.S., & C. CROSSLAND, F.L.S. 

This is the 4th Volume of the Botanical Series of the Transactions, and contains a complete annotated list 
of all the known Fungi of the county, comprising 2626 species. 

Complete, Svo, Cloth, Price 6/- post free. 

THE ALGA-FLORA OF YORKSHIRE. By W. WEST, F.L.S., & GEO. S. WEST, B.A., A.R.C.S., F.L.S. 

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LIST OF YORKSHIRE LEPIDOPTERA. By G. T. PORRITT, F.L.S., FES. 

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Macro- and Micro-Lepidoptera known to innabit the county of York. The Second Edition, with Supplement, 

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species, together with copious notes on variation (particularly melanism), &c. 

In progress, issued in Annual Parts, Svo. 

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THE YORKSHIRE CARBONIFEROUS FLORA. By ROBERT KIDSTON, F.R.S.E., F.G.S. Parts 14, 
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LIST OF YORKSHIRE COLEOPTERA. By Rev. W. C. HEY, A. 



THE NATURALIST. A Monthly .Illustrated Journal of Natural History for the North of England. Edited 
by T. SHEPPARD. F.G.S., Museum, Hull; and T. W. WOODHEAD, F.L.S., Technical College, 
Huddersfield; with the assistance as referees in Special Departments of J. GILBERT BAKER, F.R.S., 
F.L.S., Prof. PERCY F. KENDALL, M.Sc, F.G.S. , T. H. NELSON, M.B.O.U., GEO. T. PORRITT, 
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MEMBERSHIP in the Yorkshire Naturalists' Union, 10/6 per annum, includes subscription to The Naturalist, 
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97 
NOTES AND COMMENTS. 

SOME SCIENTIFIC SERIALS. 

The number of serial publications now being issued, bearing 
upon natural science in one form or another, is distinctly 
encouraging and, generally speaking, whether dealing with 
the subject from a popular or technical standpoint, they 
are nowadays of a very high standard. When, a few years 
ago, the i-evival of nature study took place, the market was 
flooded with so-called natural history publications. Many have 
' gone to the wall,' or elsewhere. The best have lived. 

THE NATURE BOOK. 

From Messrs. Cassell we have received part i of a re-issue 
of ' The Nature Book,' which we had the pleasure of referring 
to when originally published some little time ago. It will be 
completed in thirty-six fortnightly parts, at sevenpence each. 
It is attractively printed on good paper, and illusti^ated by 
a profusion of blocks from photographs representing flowers, 
trees, birds, mammals, clouds, etc., etc. Amongst the con- 
tributors we notice such well-known names as Kearton, English, 
Irving, Duncan, Ward and Bastin. There are also some 
charming monochrome and coloured plates, the latter being 
mounted on tinted paper. 

BRITISH birds' NESTS. 

From the same house is part i of ' British Birds' Nests : how, 
where and when to find and identify them,' which is also 
appearing in sevenpenny fortnightly parts, but will be com- 
pleted in seventeen parts. It is the work of the brothers 
Kearton, and usually each species is dealt with under the 
heads of ' Description of parent birds,' ' situation and locality,' 
' materials,' ' eggs,' ' time,' and ' remarks.' The word ' time ' 
does not refer to the punishment likely to fall to the lot of the 
over enthusiastic collector, and we hardly think the object 
of the work is to encourage collecting eggs or birds, though 
probably a statement on the point will be made as it proceeds. 
In addition to the reproductions of photographs in the text, 
the part before us has two excellent plates in colours, ' repro- 
duced direct from Nature,' one shewing a linnet's nest, and the 
other, eggs of crows, ravens, jays, etc. 

BRITISH MAMMALS. 

Messrs. Gurney and Jackson have issued part lo of Major 
Barrett-Hamilton's magnificent ' History of British Mammals,' 
a work which has long been wanted, and cannot be superceded. 
The part before us is devoted to the rabbit or cony, and in 
addition to the most complete of descriptions of the species, 
its anatomical and other peculiarities, has a number of excellent 
illustrations, not only of the animals themselves, but of their 

jr)i2 Apiil I. " 



98 



Notes and Comments. 



burrows, simple and complicated. One of these we are kindly 
permitted to reproduce (plate VI). In common with many of 
our readers, we are all impatient to see this fine work completed. 

LAND AND FRESHWATER MOLLUSCA. 

We are also pleased to announce the appearance of part 19 
of another substantial contribution to British natural history, 
viz., the ' Monograph of the Land and Freshwater Mollusca 
of the British Isles,' by the President of the Yorkshire 
Naturalists' Union, Mr. J. W. Taylor. The part is devoted 



-^^^«^^ 




i.'^ ^S^' 




■^ 




^p, 




*'w^^^*^ 


vAll»-:» /, 


m% 


n^ - ■ ■ 


BHHHI^l 



Helix pisana on its food plant, at Tenby. 

to a thorough description of the characters, varieties and 
distribution of Helix pisana (a species which is not recorded 
for the northern counties), and Helicigona lapicida. These 
are illustrated by distribution maps, photographs of habitats, 
monstrosities, and varieties, and also by some really wonderful 
coloured plates. We beheve we are correct in stating that 
these could only have been drawn and reproduced by Mr. 
Taylor. Through the kindness of the author we are able to 
reproduce one of them (plate I). 

' SCIENTIFIC ' NAMES. 

We have many times called attention to certain absurdities 
in nomenclature, but .we think the height of absurdity has 
been reached in a volume of the Transactions of the American 
Entomological Society, attention to which is drawn by Mr. 
Meyrick, in The Entomologist' s Monthly Magazine, No. 573. 
We quite agree that the names are ' based on a barbarous 
;and unmeaning gibberish,' and that ' if a name is without 

Naturalist, 



Notes and Comments 



99 



meaning, and only consists of a chance arrangement of letters, 
memory, deprived of the clue afforded by sense, is unable to 
recall the name with accuracy, . . . hence on every occasion 
reference would have to be made to the original authority 
for verification, an intolerable burden and a great hindrance to 
scientific work.' One series of insects was named tana, vana, 
wana, zana, etc. ; another fandana, gandana, kandana, landana, 
etc. ; another, Jwhana, kokana, lolana, momana, nonana, 
popana, etc. And so on. Mr. Meyrick adds, ' a line must be 
drawn somewhere, and for my part I draw it here and now. 
I refuse to accept these names, and shall quote them as synonyms 
with the syllable {van.) attached, signifying that they are 
void. I take the responsibility of re-naming the species accor- 
dingly, since someone must do it.' And Mr. Meyrick does. 

EUROPEAN BIOLOGICAL STATIONS. 

In the Transactions of the Wisconsin Academy of Sciences 
(Vol. XVI., part 2, No, 5) Mr. C. Juday gives an account of 
' Some European Biological Stations,' with illustrations. 
From his description, and from the pictures, it is apparent 
that England is hopelessly behind its continental friends in 
the matter of Biological Stations. The author gives a useful 
summary of the work done at the Plymouth, Port Erin, Culler- 
coats and Sutton Broad stations. Except for the invidious 
position we find ourselves in by its perusal, Mr. Juday's 
contribution is a welcome and useful one. We have long main- 
tained that Yorkshire should have its Marine Biological Station, 
the coast is_admirably adapted for it, and workers are not 
wanting. 

PREHISTORIC ANTHROPOLOGY. 

In many directions great strides have been made in recent 
times, and in most branches of science this is particularly so. 
It is now many, many years since the statement was made that 
we knew all that it was ever possible to be known about our 
early ancestors, and each year seems to shew that this state 
ment is the more inaccurate. The study of prehistoric an- 
thropology grows in interest as time goes on, and rarely a year 
passes but some important discovery is announced. These 
are being recorded in a series of books and monographs, which 
has recently grown to enormous proportions. 

ANCIENT HUNTERS * 

Prof. SoUas, who has given us such a number of important 
scientific treatises, has just issued a work which deals very 
fully and carefully with all the recent discoveries, and also 
ably compares the relics of early men with those found with 

* 'Ancient Hunters and their JNIodern Representatives/ by ^^'. J. 
SoIIas. Macmillan & Co. 416 pp., 12/- net. 

1912 April I. 



100 



Notes and Comments. 



their modern representatives. The vokime is based on a course 
of lectures dehvered at the Royal Institution in 1906, and 
subsequentl}/ published in Science Progress. Since then, 
however, so many important discoveries have been announced 
that Prof. Sollas has had to considerably augment his notes. 
He has very carefully considered these different finds, and with 
the aid of his own vast experience and acquaintance with 




1. Xeaiidertal. 



Front view of Neandertal Skulls. 
i. Spy. 3. Gibraltar. 4. La Chapelle aux Saints 



the localities from which the more important objects have been 
obtained, he has been able to produce a masterly volume. 

AND THEIR MODERN KEPRESENTATIVES. .; 

He deals with the various types of primitive man, illustrates 
his remarks by numerous blocks from drawings and photo- 
gra]ilis (one of wliich is reproduced herewith), and has drawn 

Naturalist, 



Xofcs mid Comments. 



lOI 



upon an enormous number of monographs, printed in various 
parts of the world. He has also compared the remains of the 
ancient hunters with those of the Tasmanians, Bushmen Eskimo 
and other tribes of to-day. But quite apart from the scientitic 
i iformation in the book, it will certainly find a permanent place 
in the annals of pre-historic anthropology, in view of the ex- 
traordinary lucid and fascinating character of the narratives. 
It is a long time since we read a book with such great pleasure. 

PREHISTORIC MAN. 

With this title Dr. \\'. L. H. Duckworth gives a lucid and 
concise summar}^ of what is known of the \-arious types of 
prehistoric man, paying particular attention to the earliest 
known remains. The volume is issued as one of the remarkably 
cheap shilling ' Cambridge Manuals of Science and Literature.' 
The six chapters are under the heads of ' The Precursors of 
Palaeolithic Man,' ' Palaeolithic Man,' ' Alluvial Deposits and 
Caves,' ' Associated Aiimals and Implements,' ' Human Fossils 




and Geological Chroaology,' ' and Human Evolution in the 
light of i"ecent research.' The illustrations also have been care- 
fully selected, and admirably answer their purpose We are 
permitted to reproduce one of them, which shews the differences 
between three types of haman jaw bones. Fig. a is the lower 
jaw bone of a typical ancient Briton ; b is a view of the Moustier 
jaw, found in Dordogne, France ; and c is the Mauer or Heidel- 
berg jaw. These views, together with the side views also giv^en 
in Dr. Duckworth's volume, clearly indicate the differences in 
these types of skulls. 

EVOLUTION' IN THE PAST.* 

It will be remembered that some time ago Mr. Knipe \\rote 
a remarkable book, ' Nebula to Man,' in verse. In the present 
work, which covers a somewhat similar field, he gives an account 
of ancient life as now understood. The principal geological 
ages are taken as the basis of the divisions into which the book 
is made, and under these, the various periods, Cambrian, 
Ordovician, Silurian, etc., occur in their order. The author's 



* By Henry R. Knipe. 
I2S. 6d. net. 

1912 April I. 



London : Herbert & Daniel. xvi. + 242 pp., 



102 Azotes and Comments. 

object, however, is to give in simple language an account of the 
numerous extraordinary forms of animal and vegetable life 
that existed in these periods, at the same time keeping before 
his readers the fact that the modern highly developed species 
have gradually evolved from old and simple forms. 

RESTORATIONS OF ANCIENT LIFE. 

We cannot find that the book contains any new or startling 
discoveries, nor is this the author's intention. But he does 
seem to have carefully and conscientiously reviewed the 
enormous amount of literature bearing upon the subject, and 
he has included particulars of the more recent discoveries. 
To us, however, the most interesting part of the book consists 
of the remarkable series of restorations of ancient animal and 
plant life, from drawings by Miss Woodward and Mr. Bucknall, 
and as these have been carried out under the supervision of the 
various specialists at the British Museum, they can be taken 
as being as reliable as possible. Some of them are really 
very instructive indeed. Others set one thinking. We are 
permitted to reproduce one of them (plate III.), though this 
is on a smaller scale than appears in the volume. It represents 
our ancestors, Pithecanthropus erectits and is based on the 
remains found by Dubois in Java. 

LANCASHIRE PIGMY IMPLEMENTS. 

Messrs. \\\ H. Sutcliffe and W. A. Parker favour us with a 
reprint of their paper on ' Pigmy Fhnt Implements : their 
provenance and use : the Rochdale Floor,' a report of the 
discussion upon which appears in the Lancashire Naturalist, 
No. 47. The authors drew attention to the fact that certain 
South African tribes, experts in skin dressing, use an instru- 
ment made of a number of iron spikes tied round a piece of 
wood so that the points only project bej/ond it. It was sug- 
gested that the pigmy flint implements were probably inserted 
into a wooden frame, and used for carding skins. W^ith this- 
view Prof. Boyd Dawkins agreed. The Rev. R. A. Gatty, the 
' one pigmj^ flint one pigmy man,' advocate, followed in the 
discussion, but apparently made no reference to his mythical 
pigmies, but ' expressed himself as more anxious . to fix the 
period or age to which ' the flints were i^elated. He referred 
to the ' Auriguacien (sic.) Monsterian (sic), Solutrean (sic.) and 
Magdalenian ' periods as apparently ' distinct in era from the 
India-Scunthorpe period.' The gods and Mr. Gatty only know 
what the ' India-Scunthorpe ' period is. 

AN INTERESTING PALAEOZOIC FERN. 

Dr. D. H. Scott kindly sends a reprint of his paper in 
the ' Annals of Botany,' Volume XXVI., ' On a Palaeozoic 
Fern, the Zygoptcris grayi of Williamson.' The name was 

Naturalist, 



Notes and Comments. 



103 



ftrst given by Williamson to some specimens from a coal-measure 
nodule found at Oldham. This was in 1888. Some time 
previously Williamson had recorded a stem of the same type, 
imder the name of Anachoropteris decaisnii. Williamson's 
specimens, however, were never properly figured and described. 
More recently a series of sections from a specimen at Shore, 
Littleborough, has enabled Dr. Scott to prepare the present 
detailed memoir. He concludes that Zygopteris grayi is a 
member of the genus Ankyropteris, as shewn especially by the 
presence of peripheral loops on the leaf-trace. 

YORKSHIRE TYPE AMMONITES.* 

We are glad to find that part 6 of this important work has 
made its appearance, and contains illustrations and descrip- 




tions of Ammonites macnlatiis, heterogenes, integricostatus , 
siphuncularis, cerens, perarmatus, and athleticiis. The illustra- 
tions are quite equal to those in previous parts. One of them, 
viz. Ammonites perarmatus, we are kindly permitted to repro- 
duce herewith. The original is in the Whitby Museum. The 
work is certainly worthy of every encouragement. 

STRATIGRAPHICAL NAMES. 

In the Geological Magazine for March, Dr. F. A. Bather 
rightly draws attention to the fact that it is time something 
was done in regard to the new names which are constantly 
being added to geological literature. His card index of names 
of geological formations, etc., has a thickness of two yards ! 
He suggests that a committee should be appointed, say by the 



* By S. S. ]>uckinan Part \'I. Wesley & Sons, 1912, price ^/j?. 



igi2 April i. 



104 Notes and Comments. 

Geological Survey and the Geological Society, to whicl> sug- 
gested new geological names should be submitted. H6' also 
opines that every geologist proposing a new name, whether in 
a memoir of the Geological Survey or in the Proceedings of the 
Little Muddleborough Field Club, should be invited to send the 
name, together with a definition, to some central source. He 
adds, ' It may, perhaps, be pointed out to me that, since the 
International Catalogue of Scientific Literature has a section 
for geology, that would be the pi'oper place for indexing such 
names. Agreed ! But all the same, the suggestion is not a 
practical one, so long as that partucular volume of the Inter- 
national Catalogue is thrown together (one cannot say ' edited ') 
on its present lines.' We quite agree with Dr. Bather. B\^ 
the way, we can't find ' Little Muddleborough ' on the map. 
It must be somewhere near London. 

THE MINERAL KINGDOM. 

Parts 17-20 of this remarkable work have receatly been 
published, and both as regards letterpress and plates, are well 
up to the standard of the previous parts, which is saying much. 
Each contains four large quarto plates, upon which the 
minerals are figured with surprising accuracy ; even the metallic 
tints and lustres being faithfully represented. The work is 
by Dr. R. Brauns, and has been translated into English, with 
additions, by Mr. L. J. Spencer, M.A., F.G.S., of the British 
Museum. It is publishecl by Messrs. Williams & Norgate, 
London, and will shortly be finished, part 25 being the last. 
When complete, the work will contain nearly a hundred plates, 
and 275 figures in the text. 

A STRANGE ANIMAL. 

In Nature (No. 2208) reference is made to Dr. Case's work 
upon the Permian vertebrata of North America, appearing 
in the publication of the Carnegie Institution of Washington. 
It is pointed out that ' the late Prof. Cope's hasty method of 
giving names to battered fragments of bones and teeth is 
proved to have hindered and complicated the study of the 
reptiles to which they belong. One specimen, indeed, which 
Cope described as a skull with the external nostrils situated 
beneath the end of the snout {Hypopnoiis squaliceps), is now 
known to be a normal skull with a second small skull, upside 
down, firmly adherent to the lower face of the snout and dis- 
playing its orbits, which were mistaken for the nostrils of the 
larger skull.' 



We quote the following sentence from The Zooloj^ist (No. 847, iniyc 35), 
but must leave our readers to make t'le best of it : — ' The cockerel that 
was let out was terribly lierce, and his sister (Mrs. Garratt) told mc that 
after it (the cock) had killed all the rats at the mill, it then killed the cats 
tliat used to help to catch them.' 

Naturalist 



NOTES ON THE GEOLOGY OF THE VALE OF EDEN. 



Prok. p. F. KENDALL, M.Sc, F.G.S., 
Leeds. 



The Yorkshire Geological Society will make its Easter excur- 
sion to the Appleby district, and, though no excuse is necessary 
for transgressing the artificial boundaries that limit our county, 
there are peculiar reasons why we should overrun them in 
this particular direction. Not only do the outcrops of many 
formations run across, but many important problems in the 
geology of Yorkshire depend for their full elucidation upon the 
study of this area, and to none is it more important than to 
those connected with the events of the Glacial Period, and 
the still larger tectonic questions relating to the origin and 
history of the Pennine faults. The following notes are penned 
in the hope that a general description of the geological features 
lavishly displayed there, and the often very controversial 
problems awaiting solution will whet the appetites of those 
who intend to participate. 

The broad, structural features of the Vale become at 
once apparent when the geological map is consulted. The 
Carboniferous i^ocks rising in a bold escarpment from the margin 
of the older rocks (Ordovician and Silurian) of the Lake District 
and the Howgill Fells, dip steeply aw'ay to the north-east, and 
descend beneath an unconformable cover of Permian and 
Triassic the largely drift-covered outcrops of which form the floor 
of the Vale. On the eastern side, the Vale is dominated by 
the abrupt, almost precipitous, wall of the Cross Fell range, 
another escarpment of Lower Carboniferous rocks upthrown 
by the gigantic system of the Pennine Faults. Between the 
Trias, however, and the Cross Fell escarpment, there is inter- 
posed a long narrow slip of Silurian and Ordovician rocks, 
thrust up between nearly parallel faults — this is the Cross Fell 
Inlier. A rough illustration of the disposition of the rocks 
may be obtained by taking a piece of cardboard, the size of 
this page, and cutting a horizontal slit from about an inch from 
the top left-hand corner to near the right-hand corner. Then 
cut obliquely from the left end well down the page. Lift the 
corner, and the flap will represent the northern end of the 
Pennines, while the portion on the right may represent the 
Carboniferous rocks underlying the Vale of Eden. 

To the west the older Palaeozoic rocks of the Lake District 
rise in what is topographically a dome with radial drainage, 
but a glance at the geological map shows that there is no 
obvious connection between this dome and the geological 
structure of the area ; indeed, the laccolitic, lens-shaped, 
intrusion of igneous rocks invoked by Dr. Marr to explain the 
• central uplift, remained unsuspected even by he officers of the 
Geological Survey, who mapped the country. 

1912 April I. 



io6 



Kendall : Geology of the Vale of Eden. 



The geological succession is shown in the following table, 
and, with the exception of the Upper Carboniferous, the whole 
of the rocks will be examined. 



Trias 



Permian 



Carboniferous . 



Mlurian 



Ordovician 



Cambrian 



Glacial Deposits. 

I St. Bees Sandstone. 
I Red Marls, 
j Magnesian Limestone. 
I Hilton Plant Beds. 
-i Upper Biockram. 
j Penrith Sandstone. 
\ Lower Brockram. 
/Coal Measures. 

Millstone Grit. 

Carboniferous Limestone and Yoredale 
j Rocks. 

' Basement Beds. 
( Brathay Flags. 
( Stockdale Shales. 
j'Ashgill Shales. 

Keisley Limestone. 

Dufton Shales. 

Corona Beds. 

Borrowdale Volcanic Rocks. 

Skiddaw Slate. 



Igneous rocks occur in great variety, and these will be 
studied in two principal areas — one near Dufton, and the other, 
Carrock Fell, made classic by the researches of Mr. Harker. 

The Whin Sill will be examined, but, unfortunately, the 
limits of time will not permit a visit to the Renwick-Arma- 
thwaite dyke, which is the continuation of the Cleveland dyke. 

The Skiddaw Slate is generally a dark lustrous slate, with 
strong cleavage. It is so broken up by faults and thrusts, 
and so rarely fossiliferous, that, despite its enormous thickness 
and many excellent exposures, a clear succession is very 
difficult to establish. Near Carrock it has undergone meta- 
morphism by contact with igneous intrusions, and beautiful 
examples of Spotted Slate and Chiastolite Slate will be seen. 

The Borrowdale rocks are entirely volcanic (Andesites, 
Basalts, etc.). They will be seen at Eycott Hill, near Carrock 
Fell, and Rhyolitic lavas of late (Coniston Limestone), date 
will be well seen at several places in the Cross Fell inlier. 

The Coniston Limestone Series to be studied in the Inlier, 
include black and grey shales, often charged with beautiful 
brachiopods, trilobites and graptolites, and a magnificent 
limestone — the Keisley or Staurocephalus Limestone, that, 
besides containing abundant corals, brachiopods, gasteropods. 

Naturalist, 



Kendall : Geology of the Vale of Eden. 



lO' 



and Orthoceras is, in some thick beds, so crowded with heads 
and tails of a great trilobite ( Illaenus howmanni) as to surfeit 




Geological Map of the Vale of Eden. 

one vvith the good things. Other trilobites, such as Sphs- 
lexochus and Cheu-urus, occur more sparingly, and are the 
more prized. r o j 

The Silurian flags and shales are not particularly interesting, 

igi2 April i. 



io8 .Kendall : Gcoloi^^y op the Vale of Eden. 

save ill Swiudale Beck, where tine graptolites, . two or three 
inches in length, are obtainable. : ■.■ 

The next formation, a longo intervallo, is the Basement Bed 
of the Carboniferous Series. Two aspects of this rock are 
presented in the district : one composed of rocks of local deri- 
vation, is by all observers referred, without reservation, to 
the Carboniferous S3'stem. The contained pebbles accord 
with the immediately subjacent or adjacent rocks, whatever 
they may happen to be. At Sliap Wells they include detritus 
of the Shap Granite, while a mile further south the^' consist 
wholly of Silurian rock. Near the source of Swindale Beck, 
and at other places along the foot of the Cross Fell range, 
vein-quartz from the Skiddaw Slates predominates, with a slight 
infusion of rhyolite. 

The other type of conglomerate termed ' polygenetic,' is 
constituted of pebbles of a great variety of rocks, many of 
which, e,g., Gneiss and Schist, are not recognisable in any part 
of the district. Dr. Marr is disposed to regard this conglomerate 
as a representative of the Old Red Sandstone, but it may be 
remarked that the submersion of the old land beneath the 
waters of the Carboniferous sea took place at so late a stage in 
some parts of the district that the conditions of the Old Red 
physical geographv may well liave persisted far into Carboni- 
ferous times. 

The Carboniferous Limestone is displayed in tine sections, 
two of which, in Smardale and about Roman Fell, will be 
visited, when further additions to our knowledge of the 'phy- 
lum of the 'phyllums' may be anticipated. The Smardale 
section will probably prove of great interest as the limestone 
is traversed by a gorge exposing it from its base to its contact 
with the Permian. The Upper Carboniferous will not be 
encountered on any of the excursions. 

The Permian Rocks of the Vale of Eden are of extraordinary 
interest. They commence with a basal conglomerate-— the 
Lower Brockram — that rests in strong unconformity upon 
various members of the Carboniferous Series, but the con- 
stituent pebbles are practically a ' pure culture ' of Carboni- 
ferous Limestone and chert. The succeeding Penrith Sand- 
stone, 1000 feet thick, a bright red sandstone composed of 
quartz and felspar u'ithoiit mica, is, if such a thing exists in 
Britain, a true desert sand. The nature of the materials 
suggests its derivation from the waste of the Millstone Grit — 
the large size of the perfectly rounded sand-grains and the 
abundance of felspar in the undecomposed rock pointing to 
this conclusion. 

The Upper Brockram consists of a series of betls of con- 
glomerate interbedded with the top of the Penrith Sandstone. 
The contrast in constitution to the Lower Brockram is V^ery 

Natural.ist. 



Kendall : Geology of the \'alc of Eden. ro'g-'' 

striking. While pebbles of Carboniferous Limestone stilt 
pre'pon derate, there is a very large admixture of vein quartz 
and ' quartzite derived from the Basement Carboniferous, and 
a few pebbles of the Ordovician rhyolites. These facts shew 
clearly that the great Pennine fault scarp must have been= 
formed before the deposition of the Upper Brockram, but the 
comparison of the two Brockrams makes it extremely probable 
that a large part, probably more than one thousand feet, of the 
movement of the Pennine faults, took place between the two ; 
for otherwise we should have to assume that the looo feet of 
fault scarp buried beneath the Penrith Sandstone, stood exposed 
to the weather while the Lower Brockram was being deposited, 
yet' contributed nothing to the gravels that were spread out 
at its foot. 

■ The Hilton Plant Bed is of great interest, as it has yielded 
to a careful senvch, one of the best suites of Permian plants 5'et 
found in Britain. 

The Magnesian Limestone will seem to the Yorkshire 
geologist Magnesian Limestone pour rirc. It is only about 
twenty feet thick, and unfossiliferous. 

The Triassic rocks present no special features of interest 
except that the basal marls appear to lie unconformable upon 
the Permian. 

Igneous rocks of at least three geological dates, will be 
seen, and the appended notes kindly contributed by Mr. 
x\lfred Harker, describe their mode and place of occurrence. 

Tectonic Structure. — It has been already remarked that 
the Vale of Eden is bounded on the east by faults. One major 
dislocation extends from Scotland down to Stainmoor Pass, 
where it breaks^ up into a number of branches, and dies out. 
This great line of fracture is, however, not a single fault, but, 
from about Melmerby down to Roman Fell, it splits into three 
principal roughly parallel faults — the Inner (or Eastern), 
Middle, and Outer Pennine Faults of the Geological Survey. 
The Inner throws the Skiddaw Slate and other older Palaeozoic 
rocks against the Lower Carboniferous of the Cross Fell range. 
The Outer throws down the Trias on the west against a long 
cross-fractured slip of Ordovician, Silurian, and Lower Car- 
b'oiliferous rocks that has been carved by the weather into 
the remarkable and picturesque line of Pikes. 

In a few places the position of the main faults can be fixed 
to within a yard or two, and broader views of the scenery in- 
diieate their position by the striking contrasts of vegetation 
and aspect. 

■ The geological date of the faidting movements can be 
ascertained with fair accuracy. Pre-Carboniferous movement 
of i the middle fault is clearly indicated by the fact that the 
Pike's arfe.v'coiihpo'sfed finainly of the Coniston Limestone Series. 

i9>2 Ajjhi I. ■ 



no Kendall : Geology of the Vale of Eden. 

and of Silurian rocks, whereas the Cross Fell escarpment con- 
sists of Carboniferous rocks resting on Skiddaw Slate, which 
also forms the belt between the Inner and Middle faults. This 
movement must have been a downthrow to the west. A move- 
ment of the Inner Fault at a later date, dropped the Carboni- 
ferous rocks on the east against the Skiddaw Slate. 

The Outer Fault, the line of principal movement, commenced 
its operations at least as early as Permian times, and probably 
was also pre-Carboniferous. Its latest movement took place 
at some time after the deposition of the Trias. The total 
amount of displacement effected by it must amount to at 
least the aggregate thickness of the Carboniferous Limestone, 
Permian and Trias, plus the height of the Pikes, and may well 
be more than the 7000 feet that this, very roughly, represents. 

Glacial Phenomena. — Goodchild's admirable account of 
the Glacial Deposits and the distribution of Erratics in the 
Vale of Eden furnishes a basis for further work that can hardly 
be over- valued. He showed that at the climax of the glacia- 
tion a great ice stream from the Solway was forced up the 
Vale from N.W. to S.E., and that, reinforced by other ice 
flowing from the southern slopes of the Howgill Fells, it passed 
over the Pass of Stainmoor into the Tees drainage, bringing 
with it boulders from the South of Scotland, as well as in- 
numerable blocks of Shap Granite, and such characteristic 
rocks of the Vale of Eden as the so-called ' granite ' of Dufton 
Pike, and the Brockram. 

Mr. Goodchild further showed that the blocks of Shap 
Granite were distributed so far down the Valley, as well as over 
against the Cross Fell inlier, as to indicate more than one 
phase and direction of dispersal. 

My own researches, extending over fifteen or eighteen 
years, are entirely corroborative of Goodchild's main conclu- 
sions. I find that along the eastern edge of the Vale a series 
of channels draining small lakes held up in the recesses of the 
Cross Fell range and among the pikes of the Inlier trench 
across practically every spur or col. The whole form parallel 
and aligned systems, all draining in a N.W. direction to the 
neighbourhood of Brampton, where cross-cuts connect them 
with the similar series of channels in the Valley of the South 
Tyne described by Dr. Dwerryhouse. 

A remarkable fact whose significance flashed upon me with 
startling suddenness, is that some of the spurs, e.g., Murton 
Pike, have large crescentic channels excavated in their Southern 
flanks in such a way as to show that at the time of their 
formation, the ice was moving contrariwise to the more general 
flow, i.e., down the Vale instead of up. Moreover, at the 
southern extremit}^ of the Vale during the closing stages of 
glaciation, the ice in Ravenstonedale from the Howgill Fells 

Naturalist, 



Kendall : (kology of the Vale of Eden. in 

pressed against the escarpment of Carboniferous Limestone, 
and water flowing along its edge, doubtless from small glacier 
lakes, cut on the slopes of the escarpment a pair of marginal 
channels, converging on Smardale which was, if not produced, 
at least deepened by the flow of water. This must have been 
after the retreat of the Solway ice. Dr. Marr at one time was 
inclined to attribute the Smardale Gorge to river capture, but 
the hypothesis here proposed was, I believe, independently 
suggested by Prof. W. M. Davis a year or two ago. 

Many other fascinating problems must engage the attention 
of the glacialist in Edenside, one of the most attractive and 
yet — or perhaps because — difficult is the question : — How did 
the Stainmoor glacier meet its fate ? Did it dwindle on the 
top of the Pass by failure of supplies from the west, or did its 
lower end become detached froni the Tees glacier, of which it 
was a feeder, and retreat back after the manner of a glacier 
fed from a mountainous snowtield ? In the former case, it 
would have a free upper end, as, though for a different reason, 
some of the glaciers of Spitsbergen have. 

A beautiful terminal moraine at High Cup Gill will be seen. 
It appears to have been formed, not by a glacier coming doivn 
the valley, but by an ice-lobe pressing across a col on the north 
side of the valley, and casting down its moraine on the opposing 
slope. 

The menu here exhibited promises a satisfactory geological 
repast to those who can afford time for the ' table d'hote,' 
but even a single item ' a la carte ' might appease the appetites 
of those who can spare but a single day. 



APPENDIX ON THE IGNEOUS ROCKS. 

ALFRED HARKEH, F.R.S. 

Edenside. 

The Diifton Rhyolites. — -Owing to repetition by faults, the 
old acid lavas associated with the Coniston Limestone group 
appear at three places in the Edenside inlier : Knock Pike, 
Dufton Pike, and Gregory Hill. They are pale compact rocks 
probably in part devitrified obsidians, and resemble generally 
the corresponding rhyolites on the southern border of the 
Lake District. As exposed in Swindale Beck, they show flow- 
structure, and often enclose little fragments of andesite, giving 
a deceptive appearance of a volcanic ash. 

Acid Intrusions. — There are several intrusive masses of 
quartz-porphyry, etc., which are also to be referred probably 
to a Lower Palaeozoic age. The most noteworthy is a small 
boss of granite-porphyry on the west side of Dufton Pike. 

igiz April 1; 



112 Marker : Appendix on the Igneous Rocks. 

It is a red, fine-grained rock, with conspicuous large crystals 
of white mica, besides quartz-grains and flakes of black mica. 

The Mica- Lamprophyres. — There are numerous small dykes 
and sheets of mica-lamprophyre in western Yorkshire and 
eastern Westmorland, and their approximate age is fixed by 
the fact that they traverse all the Lower Palaeozoic strata, but 
never enter younger formations. The best-preserved example 
makes an irregular intrusion in Swindale, and is easily recog- 
nized by its abundance of dark mica. Like other occurrences 
of this group of rocks, it encloses scattered grains of quartz, 
more or less corroded. 

The Whin Sill. — This is the most southerly example of a 
group of sills and dykes of late Carboniferous or Permo-Car- 
boniferous age, largely represented in the southern half of 
Scotland. The rocks are quartz-dolerites. What is seen in the 
Carboniferous escarpment at High Cup Nick is merely the 
western termination of a thick sill, which can be traced as far 
as the coast of Northumberland and the Fame Isles. The 
very coarse variety of the rock, as exposed in Teesdale, is not 
seen here. 

Carrock Fell District. 

Ordovician Volcanic Rocks. — The Volcanic Series, as it 
occurs on the north side of Carrock Fell, is represented chiefly 
by basic lavas of a type which makes a large spread in the 
Lake District. They are basalts, without olivine, but often 
containing little pseudomorphs after hypersthene. They are 
best seen in Eycott Hill, and the most striking variety there 
is one containing large porphyritic felspar crystals (labradorite- 
bytownite). In Drygill, associated with strata of the Coniston 
Limestone group, are some relics of rhyolife lavas, much altered 
and poorly exposed. 

The Carrock Fell Intrusions.— The higher ground here is 
made by two laccolitic intrusions, one of basic and the other 
of acid rock. On the south side, and extending westward for- 
some miles, is a coarse gabbro. It varies much in composition, 
with gradual passage from one variety to another. The central 
portion is a quartz-gabbro, and the rock becomes progressively 
more basic towards its margin, the actual edge being made by a 
remarkably dense and dark variety, rich in titaniferous iron- 
ore. Enclosed in the heart of the gabbro in numerous places 
are patches of basalt, like that of Eycott Hill, much meta- 
morphosed. North of the gabbro, and making the summit 
of the hill, comes a granophyre, intruded later than the gabbro, 
and partly overlying it at a steep inclination. It is a relatively 
pale and fine-textured rock, but becomes richer in the dark 
minerals towards the southern (or lower) edge. Where it 
comes into contact with the peculiar basic margin of the gabbro. 



Hafkcr: Appendix on the Igneous Rocks. 113 

some very rertarkable hybrid rocks have been produced by 
their mutual reactions. 

The Grainsgill Intrusion. — ^This breaks through the Skiddaw 
Slates a little above the confluence of Grainsgill Beck with the 
River Caldew, and is exposed in both streams. It is one of the 
outcrops of the Skiddaw granite, and is doubtless in subterra- 
nean connection with the others to the S.W. and S. As seen 
in the Caldew, the rock is a granite, with both dark and white 
mica. Farther north the white mica rapidly becomes more 
plentiful, while the dark disappears, and the felspar is in- 
creasingly replaced by wliite mica and quartz. The resulting 
quartz-mica-rock, which may be termed greisen, is in Grainsgill 
often of rather coarse texture, and it may be regarded as a 
pegmatitic modification of the Skiddaw granite, in which the 
felspar has been converted to mica and quartz. 

The Metamorphism of the Skiddaw Slates. — The Carrock 
Fell gabbro has not produced any high grade of metamorphism 
in the Skiddaw Slates on its southern side, and indeed the 
observed boundary is clearly a faulted one. As the slates are 
followed westward up the Caldew Valley, however, they are 
seen to become more and more metamorphosed and visibly 
crystalline, the change culminating in the vicinity of the 
greisen of Grainsgill. The most important new mineral formed 
is Cordierite,* and in the most highly altered rocks this mineral, 
with mica and minute garnets, makes up practically the whole 
mass. 



MOLLUSCA. 

Testacella scutulum at Brighouse, Yorks. — During 
November 191,1, I obtained seven specimens of Testacella 
scutidum from jMr. Lister Kershaw, Brighouse, and he informed 
me that during the summer they could be found in consider- 
able numbers. During the last week of February 1912, Mr. 
Kershaw was removing some rose trees, and in the first spit 
of ground turned over, the slug was found in large numbers, 
though there were none in the subsoil. It has only been 
recorded from two other places in this area, 63, S.W.Y. It 
has been noticed for about twelve years by the gardeners at 
Brighouse. I have a few specimens in formalin, which I shall 
be pleased to send to any conchologist interested. — J. H. Lumb, 
Halifax, March 15th, 1912. 

— : o : — 

The Selborne Magazine (Xo. 2O7) is largely occupied by an interesting 
Catalogue of the Gilbert White Exhibition. 

' Some Birds new to Ireland ' is the title of an illustrated article bv 
Prof. C. J. Patten, in The Irish Naturalist for March. 

* 'The Naturalist,' 1906, pp. 121-123. 
igi2 April i. H 



114 

COAST CHANGES AT HORNSEA. 



T. SHEPPARD, F.G.S. 



(plates vn. to XI.). 

For centuries the question of the erosion of the Holderness 
coast has been a serious one for those who own the land or 
are in other ways connected with the seaboard. The action 
of the sea in washing the soft clay cliffs away at an average rate 
of seven feet a year, has wrought many changes in the district. 
Lakes have been tapped and drained, towns and villages have 
been washed away, lands have been flooded and destroyed, 
islands have been formed, and have again disappeared ; impor- 
tant ports have sunk into insignificance, and small villages 
have sprung into importance. 

The story of all these vast changes is a fascinating one, 
though a long one. In the present notes, however, which form 
merely a single chapter in the history of the lost towns of East 
Yorkshire, it is proposed to refer to the changes that have 
occurred at Hornsea, a place which occupies a position about 
the middle of the coast, and is now a quiet watering place and 
holiday resort. 

In early times there were two meres at Hornsea. One was 
subsequently washed away, its site being where the beach now 
is. A section in the old mere bed was exposed a few years ago, 
and was described in this journal at the time. Later the 
place became important as a port. It had a substantial pier, 
and, apparently, a haven. Notwithstanding many costly 
repairs, the pier was washed away by the sea. So important 
was the port of Hornsea in the middle ages, that the dues paid 
there represented a sufficiently tempting amount to cause 
serious disputes between the different bodies who considered 
they were entitled to share them. 

In addition to Hornsea proper, there were townships at 
Hornsea Beck and Hornsea Burton, practically all of which 
have been swept away. 

According to Poulson, the Holderness historian, Hornsea 
Burton was ' dilapidated ' in 1840, though during the time of 
the Domesday Survey (1086) it was a place of some importance, 
and had two carucates of land under the plough. Even so 
early as 1200 a grant of fourteen oxgangs was made from 
Galfrid de Oyry's land, which was valued at 100 shillings 
yearly : a considerable amount in those days. From ' Kirby's 
Inquest ' in the thirteenth century, we learn that the heirs of 
Gilbert de Mapleton ' held in Hornsea Burton six carucates 
of land, equal to about 720 acres. As a result of the wearing 
away by the sea, there were in 1852, 409 acres only, and to-day 



Sheppard : Coast Changes at Hornsea. 



115 



there are considerably less. Whytehead, writing in 1786, 
recorded that ' there is nothing now worth notice in the place, 
consisting only of one or two farm houses.' 

Between 1845 and 1876 the loss of land at Hornsea Burton 
farm house was four feet a year, whilst between 1876 and 1882 
the loss was fifteen feet a year, the increase being probably due 
to the erection o^ groynes at Hornsea. Thus a strip of land 
71 yards wide was washed away between 1845 and 1882. The 
view of the cottage on the accompanying photograph (plate 
VIIL), shows that its future life will not be a long one. 








The Marine Hotel, Hornsea, in 1845. 

Much of the clift shown in this copy of an old print, has since been washeil away. 



About the year 1550 Holinshed published a ' list of such 
ports and creeks, as our seafaring men doo note for their benefit 
upon the coasts of England,' and in it he mentions ' Hornessie- 
becke.' A little later, just before the Armada scare, a gaudily- 
coloured ' Plotte made for the description of the Rivxr of 
Humber and of the sea and Seacoost from Hull to Skarburgh ' 
was prepared, an excellent reproduction of which was published 
by Messrs. Peck & Son, Hull, some years ago. Upon this a 
creek at Hornsea, for the anchorage of small vessels, is distinctly 
shewn, as well as a pier. To-day, of course, there is absolutely 
no creek or harbour whatever, the only water joining the sea 
being the Mere 'stream-dyke,' which can be easily jumped over, 
and is dried up in the summer. 

With regard to this pier, from an Inquest held in the reign 
of James I., it seems that the structure had cost /3000 (a Very 

J912 April 1. 



ii6 Sheppard : Coast Changes at Hornsea. 

large sum in those days), and that 2500 tons of timber had been 
necessary to repair it. 

In more recent years a pleasure pier was erected at Hornsea, 
but this, too, has gone. 

So long ago as 1228, Walter de Spiney gave to Meaux Abbey,; 
near Beverley, his ' whole profit of merchandise and of every 
ship applying at the port of Hornsea.' The power of making 
this grant was disputed, the profits collected on vessels lying 
north of Hornsea Beck apparently belonging to the domain of 
Hornsea, while south of the stream they belonged to the lord 
paramount of Holderness. As a consequence Meaux Abbey 
did not benefit from the tolls. 

In these early times, too, we get evidence of the effects of the 
loss of land. From an inquisition held at Hedon in the year 
1400, it is evident that in 1334 Meaux Abbey held at Hornsea 
Burton 2^ acres of arable land, for which they received 2s. 
per annum, but of which at the close of the century one acre 
alone remained. Thus, in the fourteenth century, 26 acres 
had been washed away during a period of seventy-six years. 

Similarly, in 1609, an oath was made to the following effect : 
' We find decayed, by the flowing of the sea in Hornsea Beck, 
since 1546, 38 houses, and as many closes adjoining. Also 
we find, since the same time, decayed in ground the breadth 
of 12 score yards throughout the field of Hornsey, being a mile 
long, and pai'cel of the aforesaid manor. We further find that 
there will be great hurt and damage to the king's demesnes, 
and pasture grounds near adjoining the said Hornsey Beck, 
within the manor of Hornsey, to the great hurt and impoverish- 
ing of the inhabitants of Hornsey, if that a present remedy be 
not made, either by re-edification of a peare or some other 
good defence for the same, for the safeguard of the said lands 
and country adjoining. And further, for the charge of the 
same, we find that the last peare built at Hornsey cost £3000 or 

thereabouts, and it will cost much more than it did then 

John Galloway, of Hornsey, pannierman, of the age of 80 years, 
says he had known 39 houses and 39 closes wasted away, of the 
yearly rent to the king of 58sh. 6|d., and that thei-e doth 
usually every year waste the breadth of 40 feet, which is more 
than heretofore ; and that there are divers meadows and pasture 
grounds, called the King's Demesnes, of the yearly value of 
£11 i8s. antient rent, which will in short time be wasted and 
consumed, with a great part of the town of Hornsey, without 
a peare, which he thinketh will amount to 2500 trees. Edward 
Harrison, of Seeton, husbandman, aged eighty years, says that 
he has known 300 yards washed away, and that there was a 
peere at Hornsey Beck, during the continuance whereof the 
decay was very little." 

On November ist, 1757, Mr. Joseph Harrison measured 

Naturalist,. 



, Sheppard : Coast Changes at Hornsea. 117 

^' the distance from the north-east corner of Robm Maudley's 
house, at the seaside, to the edge of the chff, along the balk, 
next the ditch, it was 61 yards 4 inches. April 2nd, 1759, . . . 
the distance was then 50 yards, so that in one year and five 
months the sea had gained 1 1 yards and 4 inches ; at the same 
time the distance from the beacon to the edge of the cliff was 
just 19 yards. The foundations of the house alluded to were 
washed away in 1785, and the beacon was removed about 14 
years before that." 

In the year 1786 the distance from the church to the sea- 
side was measured by Mr. John Tuke, surveyor, of York, when 
it was found to be due east 11 13 yards. Mr. Harrison took the 
distance from the cliff in 1759. The distance from the church 
*(east end) in December 1876, was only 1000 yards, making a 
deficit of 133 yards from the period of its admeasurement by 
Mr. Tuke." In 1895, according to the Ordnance Survey, the 
distance was 898 yards. 

In a letter written by the rector of Atwick, dated September 
19th, 1787, he states, " the place where the stream dyke empties 
itself into the sea for about eight months in the year, when 
there is a current from the Mere is . . . called the Beck ; near 
this beck the town was situated. Two or three years ago the 
Beck took another current to the sea 140 yards south, and from 
the place where Robt. Maudley's house stood by the sea, over- 
flowing its banks, and filling up with sand its antient course, 
so that Mr. Bethell's manor is increasing in the same propor- 
tion as Mr. Constable's is decreasing. . . . Hornsea Beck 
has now altogether disappeared." 

There was a bridge over Hornsey Beck in 1440. 
In 1390, Robert Ticlot of Hornsea Beck willed to his wife 
Johan a ship called " Fartoft," in order that she might make 
provision in the church of Hornsea for her own soul and the 
souls of her father and mother. He also left a small vessel, 
called " Maudlin," to his brother, and another to John Skelton 
for the same purpose. These early references indicate that 
vessels were safely harboured at Hornsea. It is also interesting 
to notice that the one private token issued in Hornsea by 
Benjamin Rhodes, and bearing the date 1670, has a repre- 
sentation of a full-rigged ship on the obverse. 

Even as early as 1257 Henry III, granted a charter to 
the abbots and monks of St. Mary's, York, for the holding of a 
market at Hornsea every Monday, which was continued until 
the end of the eighteenth century. Up to the time of the 
dissolution of the monasteries by Henry VIII., Hornsea, " with 
its tithes, trade, and fisheries was the most valuable possession 
of the abbey."* In addition to the ship's tolls, the land tithes, 

* Fretwell'.s Hornsea, 1894, p. 37. 
1^1 z April ; 



II 8 Sheppayd : Coast Changes at Hornsea. 

wrecks, assize of bread and beer, and tolls from the markets, 
the abbot claimed a toll from strangers passing through the 
town, known as chiminage. To assist the abbots in exercising 
their judicial functions there were gallows, tumbrils, pillory, 
and a prison, and writs were frequently issued against the 
abbots " by reason of their oppression and rapacious tyranny." 

The rate of erosion of the cliffs at Hornsea is very iiTegular, 
and varies considerably over different periods. At the northern 
end of Cliff Lane it averaged 2.5 yards for 67 years, or i67'5 
yards in that period, whereas near the Marine Hotel, where the 
cliffs are partly protected by groynes, the loss is only 1.9 yards 
a year, or 123 yards in the same period. 

The erection of strong sea-defence works at Hornsea has 
practically resulted in erosion here being stayed, otherwise 
in time the well-known Mere would have been tapped by the 
sea, with disastrous results to Hornsea. Mr. Matthews records 
that within the memory of comparatively young people at 
Hornsea, ' hotels, houses and cottages have had to be pulled 
down owing to the persistent advance of the sea, and many have 
been swept away by the waves.' 

It occasionally happens that the erosion of the coast is 
not altogether a disadvantage. For example, in 1770, the 
corpse of a murderer and smuggler named Pennel, was bound 
roimd with iron-hoops antl hung on a gibbet on the north cliff, 
until such time as the ' ornament ' was washed away. 

Southorpe, a township within Hornsea, contained 580 acres 
in 1786. Now everything has been washed away. It was 
situated immediately south of Hornsea — hence the name — 
being the South Thorp, or village, with respect to that place. 
In Domesday times it contained a carucate and a half of 
arable land. 

Northorpe was formerly situated north of Hornsea, bear- 
ing a similar position on the north side to that^of Southorpe 
of the south. But little appears to be known of it beyond the 
name. Poulson records that old people recollected seeing 
stones, etc., being dug up, evidently parts of buildings. 

Hornsea Mere. 

This sheet of water has been the cause of much trouble 
in the past, and it is evident that the fish and fowl it harboured 
were worthy of consideration. So long ago as 1260 Wilham, 
nth Abbot of ]\Ieaux, claimed the right of fishing in the south 
part of the Mere, and this right was opposed by the Abbot of 
St. Mary's. It was decided to settle the controversy by combat. 
Champions were found on either side, and after a fight which, 
it is stated, lasted all day, the fishing was relinquished by the 
Abbot of i\Ieaux. 

Naturalist, 



Sheppard : Coast Changes at Hornsea. 119 

Poulson quotes ' Burnsell on the East Riding,' presei-ved 
in the British Museum, as follows : — ' A water prettie deep, and 
always fresh, about a mile and a half long, and half a mile 
broad, well stored with fish ; it hath in it three little plots, 
two of them full of egs of Terns [? Terns] at the season, and 
birds as can be imagined ; it is fed with the water that ran 
into it of the adjoining higher grounde from the north, south, 
and west, eastwards it runs up into the sea b}^ a ditch, call'd 
the stream ditch, wdien the clew is open'd, there are mannie 
springs in it also ; the soyle is in some places gravel' d, in 
others a perfect weedy morass ; that this mere hath been 
through some earthquakes and settling of the ground, with an 
overflow of water thereupon, seems probable, speciallie if that 
be true which I was told that there hath been seen old trees 
floating uppon, and deca'd nutts found cast on the shore, 
but, however, that be this is certain, that in the sea cliffs 
against Hornsey, which is scarce a mile of, there is both wood 
and nuts to be found, and there is now or was lately there, at 
the downgate a win of wood which looks as black as if it had 
been burnt, which I think is occasion'd through the saltness 
of the sea water overflowing it, which both preserves wood 
better than fresh water, and also by its saltness, and conse- 
quently greater hotness, help to turn it black, all this intimates 
that there hath been an inundation there ; but when no his- 
torie, I believe, relates, unless it was in that earthquake, which 
was so generall through the world in the time when Valentinian 
and Valens were consuUs, anno Christ 368 ; unless we should 
think as the vulgar say, those things hath been there ever since 
Noah's flood ; this place bids as fare for anie other place I 
have heard of yet ; I scarce think either wood or nutts can 
continue so long, though kept never so close from the violent 
motion of the air, &c.' 

Bearing on this, it is interesting to note that a section of 
the old mere was exposed in the cliffs in 1906, and a description 
of this, with a list of the shells, seeds, etc., found, appeared 
in The Naturalist for that year (page 420). One fact brought 
out in connection with this paper was that the numerous remains 
of animals and plants preserved in what was once the bed of 
an easterly extension of the present Mere, or more probably 
another mere altogether, clearly indicate that the mere had 
not been encroached upon by the waters of the North Sea. 
The fauna and flora is such that certainly could not have lived 
in water containing any appreciable admixture of salt. 

On geological evidence, therefore, it seems clear that there 
has at no time been a connection between either of the meres 
at Hornsea and the sea. 

A few years ago on the site of the gasworks, which are 
on the edge of the present Mere, an excellent opportunity 
was afforded of examining the old deposits there formed, and 

1912 April I. 



120 Field Notes. 

these again clearly indicated that the salt water had not at 
any time reached the lake. 

I am indebted to Messrs. J. W. Stather, H. S. Marker, 
F. H. Wood, and Barr for the photographs accompanying 
these notes. 



FIELD NOTES. 

BIRDS. 
Bohemian Waxwings at Grans:e-over=Sards. — On the 

2nd of March, a small flock of about eight Bohemian Waxwings, 
comprising both sexes, paid a brief visit to my garden — 
Herbert Walker, Grange-over-Sands, March 13th, 1912. 

The Common Sandpiper in March — On March 12th I was 
surprised to see a Common Sandpiper in Derbyshire, a few 
miles to the north of Burton-on-Trent. I had a very good 
view of the bird, which, on being disturbed, flew across a small 
sheet of water, and alighted on the opposite side, further away. 
As this date is so early, in spite of the recent genial weather, 
it is possible that this may be one of the few birds of this species 
that are reported to spend the winter in the extreme south- 
west of England. — H. B. Booth, Ben Rhydding. 



BOTANY. 
The Wood Scirpus (S. sylvaticus) in East Yorkshire. — 

I noted Scirpus sylvaiicus in Firby Wood, Kirkham, on the 
13th June, 1908. The species is not included in Robinson's 
'Flora of the East Riding of Yorkshire.' — W. Ingham, York. 

Mosses and Hepatics at Knaresborough. — In addition 
to the species enumerated by Mr. Cheetham, in ' The Naturalist ' 
for March (page 95), I obtained two interesting hej^atics, 
viz., Lophozia turhinata, and the small Haplozia puniila, 
growing in thin dark green patches closely pressed to the rocks. 
Mr. Cheetham also obtained the vivid green moss, Barbula 
vinealis on the top of a grassy mound. — W. Ingham, York. 

Roesleria pallida (Pers.) Sacc, in Yorkshire. — On 

roots of dead apple tree. Collected by Miss F. Bentham in 
the garden of her residence, ' The Towers,' Castle Hill, Scar- 
borough, January 1912. Communicated by Mr. T. B. Roe, 
Scarborough. Miss Bentham says the apple tree — a young 
one — bloomed last year, but no fruit set, and the tree is now 
dead, and she is of the opinion that the tree was killed by the 
fungus. This species is parasitic on roots of apple, pear, and 
probably other fruit trees ; also on vine roots.— C. Crossland, 
Halifax. 

Naturalist, 



121 

3u (Betnoriam. 

WILLIAM FOWLER. 

Born 27th February, 1835; Died 7th ]\Iarch, 1912. 

(plate II.). 

On the 7th of !\Iarch, at his native village, Winterton, Lin- 
colnshire, the first President of the Yorkshire Naturalists' 
Union passed to his rest. He was buried beside his devoted 
wife at Liv^ersedge, on the 9th, amid signs of general mourning. 
Indeed, there could be no more convincing evidence of the 
affection in which he was held at Liversedge, than the immense 
concourse assembled at his funeral ; at which two Ex-presidents, 
Mr. Geo. T. Porritt, F.L.S., and Mr. W. Denison Roebuck, 
F.L.S., represented the Yorkshire Naturalists' Union, the 
latter also representing the Lincolnshire Naturalists' Union. 

Canon Fowler was one of the sons of the late Joseph Fowler, 
architect, and grandson of the well-known antiquary, William 
Fowler. In 1864 he married Miss Williamson, of Cleck- 
heaton. He was a scholar of Christ's College, Cambridge, 
taking his B.A., 1857, ^^^ his M.A. in i860. He was curate 
of St. John's, Cleckheaton, 1859-64 ; Vicar of Liversedge, 1864- 
1910 ; Honorary Canon of Wakefield from 1906. This, how- 
ever, gives but a dim idea of the work of this most kindly and 
sympathetic of men. The new church in his old parish is the 
most substantial memorial of his life's work ; but perhaps the 
most interesting is the beautiful chancel screen which his late 
parishioners erected after he left, as a token of their esteem, 
and as a trifling recognition of his devoted services, which two 
personal frien,ds, Bishops of Wakefield, equally recognised. 
It is not for us here to enter upon this side of his activity. 

Canon Fowler M'as a man of wide sympathies, interested in a 
whole range of subjects, and with a keen grasp on all alike. He 
was an evolutionist of the modern type. Botany, in its 
widest sense, was the stud}- of his life ; so far as we know he 
was the first oecological student of environment as regards soils, 
amongst British botanists. We possess notes of his going back 
to 1852, and his work in botany ended with critically naming in 
January last, the first Lincolnshire specimen of Carex axillaris, 
which showed by its barren fruit that it is nothing but the C. vul- 
pina X remota hybrid. The Phaenogams are considered by most 
men enough for their energies, but the larger fungi and fresh- 
water algae were not forgotten by the Canon. His diligence and 
example have not gone entirelv unrewarded in the hearts and 
lives of his contemporaries and pupils. 

Though the Canon was distinctly a worker and raconteur 
rather than a writer, he did a little literary work at times besides 
his sermons. Apparently his first contribution towards the 

1912 April I. 



122 In Memoriam : William Foicler. 

botany of his native county was on Salicornia herbacea and 
Common Plants in Lincolnshire, in The Phytologist, 1857*, p. 302. 
This was followed a year later in the same journal, by The 
Rarer Plants of the Neighbourhood of Winterton, Lincolnshire , 
enumerating some eighty species. After this for some years 
he was specially occupied in assisting the late H. C. Watson 
with additions towards a second edition of the Topographical 
Botany ; though this did not see the light till after its author's 
death, in 1883. From 1874 to 1887 he was busy collecting 
for his friend, Mr. F. A. Lees, for the Botanical Record Club. 
For the purpose of getting the specimens he required in North 
and South Lincolnshire, Canon Fowler practically wandered over 
every soil, most of the larger woods, and many an interesting 
nook and corner of the county. This led to a series of articles 
on plants in relation to soils, which appeared in The Naturalist, 
1878-90 : — Lincolnshire Coast Plants, 1878 ; Lincolnshire 
Marine Plants, 1879 '> Lincolnshire Bog and Moorland Plants, 
1887 ; Lincolnshire Marsh and Water Plants, 1888 : Lincoln- 
shire Sand and Clay Plants, 1889 ; Lincolnshire Limestone 
Plants, 1890. 

In the carefully worked out first records possessed by the 
botanical secretary of the Lincolnshire Union, the result of 
his work stands as follows in new species, or good varieties added 
to the county list : — one in 1855 ; seven in 1856 ; five in 1857 > 
four in 1858 ; one in 1868 ; one in 1870 ; one in 1872 ; one 
in 1875 ; twelve in 1876 ; eight in 1877 ; eleven in 1878 ; four 
in 1879 ; one in 1880 ; two in 1881 ; three in 1882 ; one in 
1884 ; one in 1889 ; one in 1891 ; one in 1892 ; one in 1893 ; 
one in 1894 ; one in 1896 ; one in 1898, in all, seventy species 
and good varieties. Considering the work of a long line of 
botanists from Gerarde in 1597 to Watson in 1851, the result 
of whose united labours has now come to light and robbed the 
Canon of half his records, his list is a splendid one, and demon- 
strates what a field worker he was. It contains Lycopodium 
aipinum, which is now believed to be extinct with us, and 
Selinum Carvifolia in 1881, a first record for Britain, and now 
demonstrated to be a true native ; as well as many other species 
of the greatest local interest. 

His connection with Natural History Societies was co- 
incident with his botanical career. He was President of the 
old West Riding Consolidated Naturalists' Society at the time 
(1876-77) when it enlarged its scope, and became the Yorkshire 
Naturalists' Union, of which in consequence he was the first 
President, and he was re-elected to the chair many years later. 
He was President and the moving spirit of the Liversedge 
Naturalists' Society so long as it lived. 

He was a leading and valued member of the Lincolnshire 
Naturalists' Union, and its fourth Presidents. 

Naturalist. 



In Memoriam : William Foivler. ■123 

If we ended here we should do scant justice to Canon Fowler ; 
the man himself was finer than all his activities and interests 
together. An individual may be a keen worker and faithful 
student, and win his honorary canonry almost as a matter of 
course ; he may be an enthusiastic lover of nature, and a fair 
observer, and yet ' a dull dog ' withal. We have met many 
such, without the touch of kindly human sympathy in their 
nature, or a sparkle of wit and humour in their composition. 
No one could be alongside Canon Fowler, either in his own 
home or elsewhere, without appreciating his deep sympath}' 
with the failings of common humanity, the truly kindly 
geniality of his nature, and its sweet ebullition of sparkling, 
playful fun. He had the eye, brain and sympathy which can 
see the humourous play of the underside of daily life, as Well 
as in its brightest moments, and respond at once, as naturally 
as to its disillusionments, weariness and sadness. He had a 
good memory for dialect, forms of expression, intonation of 
voice, and those personal peculiarities of manner which, to- 
gether, make up the sum of the individual character, which, 
when exerted in his own kindly mood, can only produce side- 
shaking laughter. He was one of those who think that to play 
in earnest is as essential as to work in earnest. 

An interesting poetical letter to Canon Fowler, from his 
friend the late Dr. Walsham How, Bishop of Wakefield, is 
given in The Naturalist for 1897, page 307. 

E. A. W.-P. 



PHINEAS FOX LEE. 



Fortunately, it seldom falls to our lot to have to record at 
so short an interval the deaths of two men who have worked 
so long and persistently in the interests of Yorkshire natural 
history as Canon W. Fowler, and ]\Ir. P. F. Lee. The north of 
England has long been fortunate in possessing a large number 
of amateurs in science, and the two who have just passed away 
were typical and worthy examples. They were two of the 
oldest members of the Yorkshire Naturalists' Union, and their 
inborn love of nature and their enthusiasm for the subject 
of their choice, influenced for good all with whom they came 
in contact, and they were ever ready to encourage and guide 
younger men along useful channels of enquiry. 

Mr. Lee was born at Dewsbury, and was the son of Mr. 
Isaac Lee, a musician, and, adopting his father's profession, 
became a successful teacher. His spare time was devoted to 
botany, and when quite a young man, he interested himself 
in the Dewsbur^^ Mechanics' Institute, one of many similar 

igiJlApril I. 



124 



/;; Mcnuiriam : Phineas Fox Lee. 



institutes in the West Riding, which had for their object the 
mental improvement of those whose lot it had been to receive 
little or no elementary education. In such evening schools 
many men now occupying prominent positions recei\'ed that 
added knowledge and desire for improvement which prov^ed 
a stimulus for further and successful effort. In those days the 
schools were mainly maintained by local subscriptions, and 
most of the teaching and official work was voluntary. A man 
of Mr. Lee's temperament found here an outlet for his enthu- 
siasm for education, and in 1873 and for many years after- 
wards he acted as Hon. Secretary, a post which involved much 
work, as he had to organise and direct the whole work of the 
Institute. It will ever stand to the credit of men like Mr. Lee 
that they should have given so much of their spare time and 

energies to such a cause. In 
comparing the work then with 
present-day conditions of well- 
equipped rooms and a goodty 




supply 
say it 
chalk ' 
behind 



Phineas Fox Lee. 



of apparatus, he used to 
was ' all blackboard and 
; nevertheless, there was 
the old amateur teaching 
the energy of the enthusiast 
which counted for much. Under 
his care the Institute developed 
rapidl}', and the work becoming 
too onerous, he was eventually 
invited to accept the salaried 
post of Secretary, for which his 
past experience so well fitted 
him. He was appointed and 
up to his death gave his whole time to the work. 

From small beginnings the Mechanics' Institute developed 
into the Technical School, and fine new buildings were erected 
to meet the increased demand for more and better accommoda- 
tion. Here he did excellent work, and the school was one of the 
best cared for in the North of England. He was a genial and 
helpful colleague, and companion, and was held in high esteem 
by all who knew him. Throughout this period he took a keen 
interest in botany, and had an extensive herbarium. For 
some years he wp^ Secretary of the Botanical Section of the 
Y.N.U., and afterwards president of the section. He ser\-ed 
on the Execut've of the Union, and there as on the excursions, 
was a welcome member. Formerly he was connected with 
the Botanical Exchange Club, and acted as distributor. Along 
with the late C. P. Hobkirk and others, he took an active part 
in founding the Dewsbury museum, and was much interested 
in adding to the collections. 

Naturalist, 



Revieu's and Book Notices. 125 

No one knew the local flora better than he, and his ' Flora 
of Dewsbury ' and the Supplements to it pubhshed by the 
Yorkshire Naturalists' Union attest to his painstakini( work 
in this direction. 

In his later years he paid much attention to the puzzling 
and erratic ' aliens,' which crop up in such large numbers on 
the waste heaps near the mills, and these he embodied, along 
with additions to the native flora, in a further supplement now 
ready for publication. 

He maintained his interest for his favourite study to the 
last, and seldom failed to pay a visit to the Botany Class in 
his school, which was fortimate in possessing a very well- 
equipped and convenient laboratory, thanks to the help and 
encouragement given by Mr. Lee during its construction. 
He visited the class, as usual, on Monday evening, just before 
leaving for the nifjht, and this was his last official act, for in the 
early hours of Tuesday morning, March 12th, he suddenly passed 
away. He was buried at the Dewsbury Cemetery. 

T. \\'. W. 



The Jonrual of the Boavd of Agriciiltiwe for Februarv contains papers 
on ' Varieties of Willows' ancl 'Tomato Leaf Rust.' 

In Knowledge for March Dr. R. F. Scharff has a well-illustrated paper 
' On the Resemblance of the Flora and Fauna of Ireland to that of the 
Spanish Peninsula.' 

The Little Avinials' Friend, a leaflet of eight pages, and sold at one 
halfpenny monthly by Messrs. Bell and Sons, Ltd., York. House, Portugal 
Street, Lincoln's Inn, contains illustrated animal stories for children. 

In The Entomologist's Record (Vol. XXI\'.. No. i) Mr. Doni.sthor]K' 
records a beetle new to Britain, viz.. Iivv.y tdinnairci Reiciic It is similar 
to E. titer, but is more shiny, and has shorter and thinner antennae anrl 
legs. 

We have received some numbers of a little magazine called Camping, 
the official organ of the Amateur Camping Club. It is issued gratis to 
members, and is devoted to various matters likely to interest those who 
delight in camping out. 

The Xatiire Reader Monthly, by F. H. Shoosmith, issued by Charles 
and Dible, London, is evidently for the use of teachers. The part before 
us deals with the snowdrop, the wild duck, snow, and the poets and Nature. 
It contains 32 pages, and is sold at one penny. 

We have received No. 28 of Vol. II. of that remarkable bibliograph}-. 
The Scientific Roll, conducted by Mr. Alexandra Ramsay. It deals with 
' Vital Chemistry: Lactic Acid.' It is published by Messrs. Dorrington 
Bros., Ill Farringdon Road, E.C. 

Mr. Henry Woods' paper on ' The E\'olution 'i'- Inoceramus in the 
Cretaceous Period,' appears in the Quarterly Journal of the Geological 
Society, No. 269. It is exceptionally well illustrated. >)'o references are 
made to the localities from which the specimens were obtained. 

In The Scottish Naturalist, No. 3, in an article on ' The Primitive 
Breeds of Sheep in Scotland,' Mr. H. J. Elwes, F.R.S.. describes the 
Manx sheep, which are nearly allied to the Shetland breed. The Manx 
sheep are said to be the smallest breed in Britain, and have an average 
dead weight of 20 lbs. 

912 A. ni I. 



126 

YORKSHIRE BRYOLOGISTS AT PATELEY BRIDGE. 

The geological change from the Magnesian Limestone at Knaresbro', to 
the millstone grits of Pateley Bridge is not more complete than the change 
in the moss and hepatic associations of the two districts ; none of the mosses 
noted in the report of the Knaresbro' meeting were seen here, and the 
dominant species were entirely different. , 

The romantic Raven's Gill was first investigated, and mosses such as 
Cyiiodontium brinitDJii and Tetraphis browniana were seen for the first 
time by many of the party, Tetraphis pelhicida was found fruiting, and 
the uncominon liepatics Cephalozia citrvifolia and Jiibiila hutchinsia 
obtained. On the rocks in the stream a distinct variety ot Enrhynchinm 
niyusoroides, called rivulave brought out di.scussion, and on the damp 
banks, masses of Pterogophyllum lucens were gathered. 

On the wa}' to Guj^'s Cliff a find was made of Schistostega osmundacea , 
the weird, golden green, apparent phosphorescence from the protonema of 
this moss in the dark crevices, has always been a ' will o' the wisp ' to 
the mossman, and at last it was to be .seen. The effect is a very curious 
one, almo.st as if light shone on it from the back of the crevice ; many of 
these places seemed to be used as burrows by the rabbits, which confirmed, 
in some measure, the idea that these animals are responsible for its dis- 
tribution. 

Next, Ditrichum homoinallum was found, and then Guy's Cliff reached. 
On the rocks and cliffs here some of the larger hepatics, as Mylia taylovi 
and Bazzania trilobata grow, and also the delicate Lepidozia pinnata. 
The moss association of these rocks is dominated by the Dicranacecs group, 
D. fuscescens and its variety Falcifolium. D. majus ,D. scoparium and 
Campylopiis flexuosiis with a little Dicvanodontium loiigirostre. The 
Plagiothecium elegans was frequent, and its variety colliuitm raised hopes 
of some rarer treasure. 

The party returned to Harrogate for tea, and afterwards the time 
allowed by the depleted train service was used in examining a series 'of 
microscopic mounts of the peristomes of mosses, made by Mr. R. Barnes. 
A very cordial vote of thanks was passed to Mr. Yorke, for the permission 
he accorded the Section to visit his estate. 

C. A. Cheeeham. 



BIRDS. 
Shags inland in January. — On January 25th, a large 
bird was noticed flying about over Manningham Mills, Bradford, 
and later, descended to try its luck on the goldfish in the mill 
darn. Two days later it was caught in a workshop by Mr. 
Knight, and was given to Mr. Garnett, in rather a weak state ; 
dying the following day. It was at first reported to be a 
Black Swan, and afterwards as a Cormorant. The bird has 
been preserved, and I have just had an opportunity of examin- 
ing it. It is an immature Shag, but is mounted in a rather 
un-shag-like attitude, and with very blue eyes! As Shags are 
of unusual occurrence inland (this one being an addition to our 
list of local birds) this January movement inland is note- 
worthy. Their appearance preceded, by a few days, an ex- 
ceedingly severe spell of almost Arctic weather. — H. B. Booth, 
Ben Rhydding. 

Naturatisti 



127 

SOME NEW BOOKS. 

Small Greenhouses, by T. W. Sanders, F.L.S., (29 Long Acre, W.C.) is 
number 35 of the useful penny publications issued by the London Agricul- 
tural and Horticultural Association. 

The Night-Skies of a Year, by Joseph H. Elgie, F.R.A.S. Leeds • 
Chorley & Pickersgill. 247 pp. 

This excellent book is written in non-technical language, and is illus- 
trated by over a hundred diagrams. The author, whose contributions to 
the Yorkshire Post are well known, has adopted the novel plan of describ- 
ing the constellations month by month, as he has observed them in the 
vicinity of a large Yorkshire city. With this book in hand even a beginner 
can get much useful information in reference to the stars, and doubtless 
will, at the same time, catch some of the author's enthusiasm. 

Who's Who in Science (International), Edited by H. H. Stephenson 
London : J. and A. Churchill. 323 pp., 6/- net. 

As might be judged from the title, this is a carefully compiled list of 
the principal scientific workers of the world, arranged in alphabetical 
•order, and under each name appears particulars of his or her work. It is 
based on the lines of the Who's Who, but contains much information not 
available in that work. In addition, there is an obituary list for the past 
year, a list of the world's universities, etc. Amongst the biographies there 
are some names we did not expect to see, and also, there are not some names 
we did expect. But apparently' this is inevitable in a work of this kind. 
It has certainl}- been carefull}' and conscientiously compiled, and the 
book is by no means dear at six shillings. 

A Naturalist on Desert Islands, by Percy R. Lowe. Witherby & Co. 
230 pp., 7s. 6d. net. 

From this firm we usually expect a book to be interesting, original, 
and well printed on good paper, and in each respect we are not disappointed . 
The author had an unrivalled opportunity of visiting many of the out-ol- 
the-way islands in the Caribbean Sea and Gulf of jNIexico, during six 
winters, whilst on board Sir Frederic Johnstone's yacht. Whilst man\- 
islands were visited which might well have done duty for a Robinson 
Crusoe, the author is able to give no account of shipwrecks, adventures, 
struggles with natives, or desperate straits. But the book is a charming 
narrative of the wild and natural aiiimal and plant life met with upon these 
islands, which have not as yet been ' improved ' by civilised man. The 
birds and fishes especially interested the author, who [gives particulars 
of many rare forms. The story is a fascinating one, and particularh- 
appeals to a naturalist. There are thirty two excellent plates. 

Byways in British Archaeology, by W. Johnson. Cambridge Universitx 
Press, 1912. 529 pp., 10/6 net. 

Mr. Johnson's work has always a delightful freshness. He traverses 
untrodden fields, and is remarkably up-to-date in his information. From 
the numerous references and footnotes it is apparent that he has drawn 
from an incredibly large number of books and periodicals for the facts 
upon which he bases his narrative. The present work is equally interesting 
to antiquary or naturalist, and has chapters on ' Churches on Pagan Sites ' : 
' The Secular Uses of the Church Fabric ' ; ' The Orientation of Churches 
and Graves ' ; 'Survivals in Burial Customs ' ; ' The Folk-lore of the Cardinal 
points ' ; ' The Churchyard Yew ' ; ' The Cult of the Horse ' ; ' The 
I^bour'd Ox,' and ' Retrospect.' Whilst each chapter is a complete 
essay in itself, the whole form a connected .story. Readers of this journal 
will find much that will particularly appeal to them, as Mortimer's ' Fort\- 
Years' Reaearches,' The Naturalist, and other similar sources have supplied 
information. The chapters dealing with the horse, ox, and yew, are 
especially valuable to naturalists ; though personally we find it difficult 
to say which arc the most interesting. 

1912 .\pril I. 



128 Some ?^ei>. ^nks. 

A Guide to the Fossil Invertebrate Animals in the Department of Geology 
and Palaeontology in the British Museum (Natural History). Second Edition, 
Svo, X. + 184 PP-. «>ven plates. London, 191 1. I'rice i/-. 

The first edition was published in 1907. In this revised edition the 
chief alterations and additions are the following : — ^The omission of an 
account of the Ivoenig and Gilbertson Collections (p. 9) owing to the 
dispersal of the s]iecimens among the systematic series. The addition 
of the Archa;ocyathina2 (p. 42). A revised account of the Cirripedia (p. 94). 
Several ?lterations due to the re-arrangement of the Brachiopoda (p. 114). 
An Appendix (p. 117) noting recent additions to the exhibited series of 
Mollusca. Fig. 41 is an original figure of the under surface of Eurypteviis 
fischeri. Fig. 49 is from a new drawing of Prntocaycinus longipes. Fig. 65A 
represents a Senonian species of Membvanipoya. In making some of these 
alterations the author. Dr. F. A. Bather, acknowledges the help of W. T. 
Caiman, R. B. Newton, \V. D. Lang, and T. H. Withers. There are many 
excellent illustrations in this remarkably cheap handbook, and a good index. 

A History of Withernsea, by G. T. J. Miles and William Richardson. 

Hull : A. Brown Oc Sons. zSii pp., price 5s. 

On the cover of this well-printed and well-bound volume are the words 
' A History of Withernsea ' ; on the first page inside, the word ' etc' in 
small type, is added ; and on the title this ' etc' is replaced by ' with notes 
of other parishes in South Holderness in the East Riding of the County 
of York ' ; and when we get to the book itself we find that of its 286 pages 
only 52 refer to Withernsea, and of these many are occupied by ' Lists of 
Incumbents,' admittedly copied from Poulson's ' Holderness ' ; extracts 
from Thompson's ' History of Welton,' etc., so that when we come to the 
History of Withernsea proper it is rather disappointing. Apparently no 
])rehistoric remains are recorded for Withernsea,* and the interesting old 
views of Withernsea Church in ruins (in Allen's ' Yorkshire '), and Owthorne 
Church (in Thompson's ' Ocellum Fromontorium ') would certainly ha\ e 
been more welcome than, say, the very modern ' Wesleyan Chapel ' 
facing page 34. The authors, however, appear to be most interested in 
giving ' Lists of Incumbents,' ' Inscriptions in Churchyards,' and extracts 
from Registers and Accounts ; these are well enougli in their way, but they 
are not what are nowadays expected as a ' History.' After Withernsea, we 
find notes on Owthorne, Hollj'm, Tunstall, Holmjiton, Easington, Kilnsea, 
and Spurn, and fourteen other places, with their Lists of Incumbents, 
(from Poulson), etc. The frontispiece ' • • '-'' ^^ ton Constable Hall, 

which is miles away, and, judging from tu^ x.. .lot even mentionecl 

in the History. On page 236, under Welwick, is an- illustration of some 
fragments of Roman Fots found at Withernsea, which should have appeared 
more than 200 pages earlier in the book ; the seal of Hedon comes under 'Sunk 
Island ' ; whilst here and there spaces have been filled in by the insertion 
of primitive blocks from poor drawings, most of which obviously have no 
connection with either Withernsea or any of the numerous other places 
mentioned in the volume, and some of which are not even described. The 
book, however, contains reproductions of one or two interesting maps 
shewing the effect of the ravages of the sea, that of part of ' old Kilnsea 
Township ' being particularly interesting. Personally we consider that 
the authors, presumably young men, have been too ambitious, and would 
have produced a much more valuable work if they had stuck to the place 
named on the cover.- — F.S.A. 

Metallurgy, !)>• W. Borchers. Translated from the German by W. T. 
Hall and C. R. Hayward. London : Chapman & Hall. v. -( 271 pp., 
12/6 net. 

In this excellently illustrated \olume the author gives an outline of the 

* A few 'ua\e beeii figured elsew'nere ; one, a fine axe, in this journal. — 
Ed. 

Naturalist, 



Some New Books. 129 

modern processes for extracting and refining the more important metals. 
Each chapter is clear and succinct, and no space is wasted in fine writing. 
It is just what the student requires. The value of the book is considerably 
increased by no fewer than 21S figures, which clearly indicate the various 
processes in the manufacture of gold, silver, mercury, lead, tin, iron, zinc, 
manganese, and many other metals. 

Wonders of Plant Life, by S. Leonard Bastin, with 40 plates and 8 
autochromes. Cassell & Co., Ltd., London, pp. x. and 136. 3/6 net. 

Tills book deals in a very readable and interesting manner with the 
more important phases of plant life, under such headings as : — ' The Asser- 
tive Plant,' ' The Plant and the Seasons,' ' The Plant as a Host,' ' The 
Plant and its Helpers and its Enemies,' ' The Feelings of Plants and the 
Evolution of Flowers.' There are a number of good illustrations froni 
photographs taken by the author ; two of these, one showing aquatic 
plants in summer, and another showing the same habitat in winter, are 
very striking. On the whole the book is carefully written ; but occasion- 
ally unwarranted statements are made, e.g., ' flowers with sepals and 
petals but lacking the reproductive process are of course unknown in 
Nature.' Neuter flowers seem to have been overlooked. Fruits are often 
called ' seeds,' and ' leaf ' is sometimes used in the sense of shoot and 
thallus. 

The World's Minerals, by Leonard J. Spencer, M.A., F.G.S. London : 
W. & R. Chambers, x. +212 pp. 

The greatest difficulty that beginners have experienced in the study 
of minerals by means of text-books is that it has been hitherto impossible 
to convey any proper idea of the actual appearance of the minerals by dia- 
grams and descriptions. In the present work this difficulty has been 
practically overcome. By means of 40 coloured plates, the character of 
our chief minerals is shewn in a way we do not remember to have seen in a 
text-book previously. Not only are the varied and beautiful colours 
faithfully represented, but even the lustres and metallic tints are repro- 
duced. Some of the reproductions are wonderfully well done — the 
Flourspar (plate 9), and Quartz (plate 11), particularly appeal to us. 
The name of Mr. L. J. Spencer, of the Mineralogical Department, British 
Museum, and editor of the Mineralogical Magazine, is a sufficient guarantee 
of the character of the descriptive letterpress, and he has not made the 
mistake of including too many. He principally confines the book to a 
description of 116 more common simple minerals, and these are illustrated, 
bjr 163 figures on the coloured plates. Particulars are given of the localities 
at which the minerals occur, etc. 

The Fur, Feather and Fin Series. This well-known series will certainly 
be familiar to most of our readers, but our present purpose is to draw 
attention to the fact that the publishers, Messrs. Longmans, Green & Co., 
have just issued a cheap impression at half-a-crown a volume. As the 
volumes are well bound and illustrated, anyone interested in the sporting 
side of natural history should certainly obtain them. The books are 
divided into sections to suit the tastes of different classes of readers. 
For instance, that devoted to The Pheasant has a natural history .section 
by the Rev. H. A. Macpherson ; ' shooting 'is by A. J. Stuart- Wortley, 
and 'cooking' by Alexander Innes Shand. 'The Grouse' and 'The 
Partridge ' volumes are similarly dealt with. In the case of that on 
The Hare, besides the Rev. Macpherson's notes on natural history, the 
Hon. Gerald Lascelles writes on 'shooting,' Mr. C. Richardson on ' cours- 
ing,' Messrs. Gibbons and Longman on ' hunting,' a,nd Col. Kenney 
Herbert on ' cookery.' Personally, we find the volume dealing with 
The Red Deer of the most general interest, though they are all well 
worthy of':areful study. The publishers kindly enable us to reproduce 
one of the illustrations from the last-named book (see plate I\'.), which 
will give a fair idea of the nature of the illustrations. 

1912 April I. 



130 

PROCEEDINGS OF PROVINCIAL SCIENTIFIC SOCIETIES. 

Part XIII., Vol. II. of the Transactions of the Yorkshire Dialect Society 
contains a paper by Dr. W. A. Cragie on ' The Revival of Languages and 
Dialects,' and one on ' Place Names and Dialect Study,' by Mr. H. Alexan- 
der. 

Transactions and Proceedings of the Perthshire Society of Natural 
Science, Vol. V., part 3. This part contains Mr. J. Menzies' paper on 
' Some Discomycetes of the Locality and their habits ' ; Dr. J. P. Sturrock's 
addre.ss on ' Modern Aspects of Eugenics ' ; Mr. G. F. Bates' ' Notes on 
Some Highland Rocks ' ; a full report of the society's meetings, and Mr. 
Rodger's carefully prepared meteorological observations. There are 
several plates. 

Vol. I., part 2 of the Yorkshire Numismatic Fellowship (Hull : A. Brown 
and Sons, i/-) contains a summary of the Society's proceedings, an account 
of the Spurn Lighthouse Token, the Calverley Token, Regal Coins struck 
at York, Unpublished Yorkshire XVII. century tokens, a new Halifax 
token, a new Hull medal, and York pennies of Edward the Confessor. 
The contributors are Messrs. Sykes, Pickersgill, Sheppard, Hamer and 
Wilkinson. There are several plates and other illustrations. 

The Burton-on-Trent Natural History and Archaeological Society has 
recently issued its Transactions, Vol. VI., for sessions 1906- 7-8-9-10 
(LIII. -I- 100 pp.). They contain reports of the society's meetings, list 
of members, photographs of past presidents, etc., the last-named being 
referred to in an article entitled ' Olim inter nos primi : nunc eheu ! Decessi ; 
nunquam obliti.' There are papers dealing with Herbert Spencer; New 
Zealand Plants ; Sen Mut, an Egyptian Crichton ; ' The Influence of the 
East on European History ' ; the English Novel, and Sinai Park. Some, 
however, are of more local interest, viz., 'Noted Oaks near Burton,' and 
t'ne ' "Breaking" of Barton Fishpond,' by J. E. Nowers; 'the Cannock 
Chase Coalfield,' by G. M. Cockin ; ' the Annals of Burton Abbey,' by R. 
T. Robinson ; ' Local Natural History Observations,' by C. G. Matthews ; 
' the Abbots of Burton Abbey,' by G. Appleby ; ' Dates of Arrival of 
Summer Migrants,' by C. Hanson ; and a meteorological summary for the 
hve years, supplied by Dr. J. M. Cowie. There are a number of illustra- 
tions, those of the large oaks being of particular interest (see plate V). 
We do not know what has been the editor's object in changing the colour 
of the cover ; and the omission of the lettering on the back is certainly a 
disadvantage. The ' black ' t^'pe used here and there in the text is much 
too large. 

The Proceedings of the Yorkshire Geological Society, Vol. XVII., part 3, 
for 191 1, wei^e issued on January 30th, as stated on the cover, and form 
quite a good number. It contains Prof. Kendall's Presidential Address, 
dealing with the progress in Yorkshire geology during the past half century ; 
Mr. L. Richardson describes the Lower Oolites of Yorkshire, and his paper 
has appendices by Messrs. Buckman and Paris ; Mr. G. W. Lamplugh 
has an admirably illustrated paper on Spitsbergen Glacial Phenomena, 
which is of particular value to British glacialists, and easily bursts Prof. 
Bonney's Sheffield bubble. Dr. A. Wilmore describes the zones of the 
Carboniferous Limestone south of the Craven Faults, and Mr. J. W. 
Stather demonstrates the way in which the belemnites of the Yorkshire 
Chalk vary in form as they occur in ascending order, a paper which shews 
that the question ' What is a Species ? ' is not easy to answer. Dr. A. 
Vaughan figures and describes a new coral from Ingleton, under the name 
of Clisiophyllum iyigletoueiise. There are also obituary notices of J. R. 
Mortimer and E. M. Cole, by Mr. Lamplugh and Mr. Sheppard respec- 
tively. There is the annual report, and the financial statement, both of 
which are satisfactory, but the printers have so frightfully guillotined this 
part, resulting in it being considerably .shorter than any of the parts that 
have been issued during the past seventy years, that the volume for 191 1 
will for ever be an eyesore on our shelves. 

Naturalist, . 



131 

NEWS FROM THE MAGAZINES. 

We learn from the Miiseiinis Journal that a prehistoric boat, i8 feet 
long, dug up near Nantwich, has been deposited in the Chester Museum. 
To the January number of this journal, Mr. E. Rimbault Dibden, of the 
Walker Art Gallery, Liverpool, \vrites a useful paper on ' The Functions 
of a Municipal Art Museum.' 

In British Birds for February, one article is headed ' Three New British 
Birds.' Surely this ' New British Bird ' business is becoming a farce. 
The other day an ornithological correspondent sent us an account of an 
escaped parrot, as a ' New British Bird ' ; but we treated the matter as 
a joke ; apparently we ought to have sent the record to our London con- 
temporary. 

The Nature Photographer, the official organ of the Nature Photographic 
Society, is issued quarterly, at twopence, and is edited by Mr. Carl Edwards. 
It contains illustrated notes on Marauding Gulls, Stereoscopic Photo- 
graphy with an ordinary camera, the Angry Coot, Some Confident Sitters, 
and Our Book Shelf. The little magazine is evidently intended for nature 
photographers . 

In The Entomologist, No. 586, Mr. W. Mansbridge describes two new 
varieties of lepidoptera, as a result of his crossing experiments, and as the 
varieties are ' permanent and recurrent and found in a wild state,' he 
proposes new names, and he christens them Boarmia repandata var. nov. 
Nigro-pallida, and Boarmia repandata var. nov. Ochro-nigra. Oddly 
enough, these new forms are in the author's own cabinet. 

In the Geological Magazine (No. 572) is an illustrated paper on the 
' Tachylite of the Cleveland Dyke,' by Miss M. K. Heslop and Mr. R. C. 
Burton, and a note on the Fo.ssil Flora of the Ingleton Coalfield, by Mr. 
E. A. Newell Arber. In the latter it is pointed out that the Ingleton 
coalfield contains a typical middle coal-measure assemblage, and as a 
whole, the Ingleton coal-measures seem to be closely related to the York- 
shire coalfield. 

British Birds for jNIarch does not contain a paper on a New British 
Bird. This is an improvement. We were going to suggest to Mr. Witherby 
that the name of his magazine should be changed to New British Birds. 
The INIarch number contains particulars of the various localities at which 
the Little Auk has been recorded recently ; and Mr. Mullens reprints his 
paper on Thomas ]Muffett or Muffet (one form of spelling being given in the 
paper, and the other in the ' contents '). 

The January number of the Bradford Scientific Journal includes a 
paper on ' Fish Poisoning in the Wharfe,' a subject we have referred to in 
our pages ; the House Martin, Vertebrate Zoology report, an avian para- 
dise, the Lesser Shrew, and ' Memories of the North,' by Messrs. Bolam, 
Butterheld, H. B. Booth, Harper, and Badland. Typographically, we 
would suggest an improvement would be made if instead of the frequent 
large AB's at the end of .some of the notes, the type used were similar to 
that for the authors of other notes in the journal, viz., ' F. Haxby,' on 
page 205. 

The Zoologist (No. 848) contains particulars of recent additions to the 
Lincolnshire avi-fauna, by the Rev. F. L. Blathwayt. They are the Fire- 
crested Wren, the Lanceolated Warbler, Bearded Titmouse, W^illow Tit, 
Red Breasted Flycatcher, Snowy Owl, Eagle Owl, Montagu's Harrier, 
Iceland Falcon, American Peregrine Falcon, Red-footed Falcon, Red- 
crested Pochard, Pratincole, Black-winged Stilt, Buff-breasted Sandpiper, 
Caspian Tern, and Great Shearwater. Some of these were described at the 
time in The Naturalist. In the same journal Mr. G. Dalgliesh has a paper 
on the Whirligig Beetle. 

1912 April I. 



NORTHERN NEWS. 

A fine long-tailed duck was ' obtained ' on Filey Brig on February i6tli, 

'Sir. Joshua Fountain, of Filey, who keeps tame gulls, is retiring from 
business. 

For the loan of the portrait of Canon Fowler (Plate II.) we are indebted 
to the Lincolnshire Naturalists' Union. 

The Geological Society has divided the Lyell Fund between Dr. A. R. 
Dwerryhouse and Mr. R. H. Rastall. 

]\Iessrs. H. B. Booth (Ben Rhydding) and G. A. Booth (Preston) have 
recently been admitted as Fellows of the Zoological Society. 

From a recent report of a Yorkshire museum we learn that ' the main 
collection of eggs is housed in the drawers under the bird cages ! ' 

At a recent meeting of the Yorkshire Numismatic Fellowship, a society 
devoted to the study and acquisition of money and medals, Mr. T. Sheppard 
was elected President. Oddly enough, the previous President was Mr. 
William Sj'kes! 

In a ' nature magazine ' a Middlesborough correspondent tells of a dog 
that ' died in the most horrible convulsions ' at the feet of a violin player 
who would play to the dog. What would have happened had it heard the 
Filey trumpet ? 

Another way of ' marking ' birds. We learn from the weekly press, 
under the head of ' Holme on Spalding Moor,' that ' a crow, with bell 
attached, has been seen and heard during the week flying over Holme 
Common. If he should happen to see it, this item of news will interest 
the person who fixed the bell.' 

The Filey launchers recently went on .strike, but the matter was 
amicably settled by an extra crab. For helping to launch the fishing 
boats each man has hitherto received one fish or two crabs. In future 
they will receive one fish or three crabs. Thus has a national strike of 
cobble launchers been averted by allowing one extra crab per man per 
launch ! 

The late G. H. Verrall has left his collection of British Diptera, and 
the cabinets in which it is contained, to his nephew, J. E. Collin, condition- 
all}^ upon his offering to the British IMuseum three pairs of each species 
of which he possessed a full series, i.e., six pairs. He has also left all his 
real and personal estate in the parish of ^^'icken, Cambridgeshire, to the 
National Trust for Places of Historic Interest or Natural Beauty. 

The following is a fair example of the news in our daily papers during 
the cold weather a little while ago : — ' Rare Birds Shot. — During the last 
few days some rare birds have been shot at Hull, including mallards and 
large and small grebe. While two sportsmen were shooting at Marfleet, Hull, 
a large bird appeared on the horizon. It fell to two shot of the sportsmen, 
and was found to be a splendid specimen of the cormorant.' Another "sports- 
man " shot a "pooker," and another got a " puttin." 

For the meeting of the British Association for the Advancement of 
Science, which is to take place at Dundee on September 4th and following 
days, under the presidency of Dr. E. A. Schafer, F.R.S., the following 
presidents have been appointed to the various sections : — Mathematical 
and Physical Science, Professor H. L. Callendar, F.R.S. ; Chemistry, 
Professor A. Senier ; Geology, B. N. Peach, F.R.S. ; Zoologj^ Dr. P. Chalmers 
Mitchell, F.R.S. ; Geography, Sir Charles M. Watson, K. CM. G. ; Economic 
Science and Statistics, Sir Henry H. Cunynghame, K.C.B. ; Engineering, 
Professor A. Barr ; Anthropology, Professor G. Elliot Smith, F.R.S. ; 
Physiology, Leonard Hill, F.R.S. ; Botany, Professor F. Keeble ; Educa- 
tional Science, Professor J. Adams ; Agriculture, T. H. Middleton. Agri- 
culture will form the subject of a full section for the first time. Professor 
W. H. Bragg, F.R.S., ana Professor A. Keith, M.D., have been appointed 
to deliver the evening discourses. 

Naturalist, 



THE 



CAMBRIDGE NATURAL HISTORY 

Edited by S. F. HARMER, Sc.D., F.R.S., and A. E. SHIPLEY, M.A., F.R.S. 
[Fully Illustrated. In Ten Volumes. Medium 8vo. ITS. net each. 

[Also Library Edition. In Ten Volumes. Half Morocco. Gilt tops. 
In sets only. 



:\Iedium 8vo. £8 8s. net. i 



VOLUME I. 
Protozoa. By Professor Marcus Har- 

TOG, M.A. (D.Sc. Lond.). Porifera 

(Sponges). By Igfrna B. J. Sol- 
las (B.Sc. Lond.). Coelenterata 

and Ctenophora. By Professor 

S. J. HicKsoN, M.A., F.R.S. Echin- 

odermata. By Professor E. W. 

MacBride, M.A., F.R.S. 
VOLUME 11. 
WORMS, LEECHES, Etc. 
Flatworms and Mesozoa. By F. W. 

Gamble, M.Sc. Nemertines. By 

Miss L. Sheldon. Threadworms and 

Sagitta. ' By A. E. Shipley, 

M.A., F.R.S. Rotifers. By Marcus 

Hartog, M.A., D.Sc. Polychaet 

Worms. By W.Blaxland Benham, 

M.A., D.Sc. Earthworms and 

Leeches. By F. E. Beddard, M.A., 

F.R.S. Gephyrea and Phoronis. By 

A. E. Shipley, M.A., F.R.S. Poly- 

zoa. ByS.F.HARMER, Sc.D., F.R.S. 
VOLUME III. 
SHELLS. 
Molluscs and Brachiopods. By the 

Rev. A. H. Cooke, M.A., A. E. Ship- 
ley, M.A., F.R.S., and F. R. C. 

Reed, M.A. 

VOLUME IV. 

CRUSTACEA AND ARACHNIDS. 

Crustacea. By Geoffrey Smith, M.A., 

and the late W. F. R. Weldon, M.A., 

Trilobites. By Henry Woods, M.A. 

Introduction to Arachnida and King- 

Crabs. By A. E. Shipley, M.A., 

F.R.S. Eurypterida. By Henry 

Woods, M.A. Scorpions, Spiders, 

Mites, Ticks, etc. By Cecil War- 
burton, M.A. Tardigrada (Water 

Bears). By A. E. Shipley, M.A., 

F.R.S. Pentastomida. By A. E. 

Shipley, M.A., F.R.S. Pycno- 

gonida. By D'Arcy W. Thompson, 

C.B., M.A. 

Knowledge. — " If succeeding volumes are like this one, the Cambridge Natural 
History will rank as one of the finest works on natural history ever published." 

Athencsum. — " The series certainly ought not to be restricted in its circulation to 
lecturers and students only ; and, if the forthcoming volumes reach the standard 
of the one here under notice, the success of the enterprise should be assured." 

MACMILLAN & CO., LTD., LOISiDON. 



VOLUME V. 
INSECTS AND CENTIPEDES. 
Peripatus. By Adam Sedgwick, M.A., 
F.R.S., Myriapods. By F. G. Sin 
CLAIR, M.A. Insects. Part I., 
Introduction, Aptera, Orthoptera, 
Neuroptea, and a portion of Hymen- 
optera (Sessiliventres and Parasitica). 
By David Sharp, M.A., F.R.S. 

VOLUME VI. 
INSECTS. PARTS II. 

Hymenoptera continued [Tubulifera 
and Aculeata), Coleoptera, Strepsip- 
tera, Lepidoptera, Diptera, Aphanip- 
tera. Thysanoptera, Hemiptera, 
Anoplura. By David Sharp, M.A,. 
M.B., F.R.S. 

VOLUME VII. 
FISHES, Etc. 
Fishes (exclusive of the Sj^stematic Ac- 
count of Teleostei). By T. W. 
Bridge, Sc.D., F.R.S. Fishes. (Sys- 
tematic Account of Teleostei). By 
G. A. Boulenger, F.R.S. Hemic- 
hordata. By S. F. Harmer, Sc.D., 
F.R.S. Ascidians and Amphioxus. 
By W. A. Herdman, D.Sc, F.R.S. 

VOLUME VIII. 
AMPHIBIA AND REPTILES. 

By Hans Gadow, M.A., F.R.S. 

VOLUME IX. 
BIRDS. 

By A. H. Evans, M.A. With numerous 
Illustrations by G. E. Lodge. 

VOLUME X. 
MAMMALIA. 

By Frank Evers Beddard, M.A., 
Oxon., F.R.S., Vice-Secretary and 
Prosector of the Zoological Society 
of London. 



REPTILES, AMPHIBIANS, AND FISHES. 

We beg to announce the publication of a new Price List (No. i6) 
of Reptiles, Batrachians, and Fishes, containing over 400 species 
from all parts of the world. This Catalogue is conveniently arranged 
for reference, with authors' names and indications of localities. It 
will be sent post free on application, as will the following Lists : — 

No. II Birds' Skins (5000 species) ; No. 12, Lepidoptera {5000 
species) ; No. 13, Coleoptera ; No. 14, Mammals ; No. 15, Birds' 
Eggs. Also list of Cabinets, Collecting Apparatus, etc. 

Largest Stock in the World of specimens in all branches of 
Zoology. Please state which lists are required. 

W. F. H. ROSENBERG, 57 Haverstock Hill, London, N.W., England. 



WATKINS & DONCASTER, 

ISr^TXJR-A.LISTS, 
36, STRAND, LONDON, W.C 

(Five Doors from Charing Cross), 

Keep in stock every description of 

APPARATUS, CABINETS, BOOKS, AND SPECIMENS 

for Collectors of 

BIRDS' EGGS, BUTTERFLIES, MOTHS, ETC. 

Catalogue (96 pages) sent post free on application. 



LIFE HISTORIES OF BRITISH LEPIDOPTERA, mounted 
on food plant in neat g^lazed cases. 

British Lepidoptera - 1,400 species. British Coleoptera - 2,000 species. 
Tropical Butterflies - 3,000 „ Tropical „ - 8,000 

A large number of good second-hand Storeboxes, also Cabinets. 
Particxdars from A. FORD, South View, Irving Road, 

Stourfleld Park, Bournemouth. 



LANTERN SLIDES 



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Geolog:y, Palseontoiog^y, 
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SALE or HIRE. 

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To Subscribers, 7s. 6d., per annum, post free. 
THE ANNALS OF 

Scottish Natural History. 

A Quarterly Magazine. 

Edited by J. A. Harvie-Browne, F.R.S.B., 
F.Z.S., Prof. James W. H. Traill, M.A., M.D., 
F.R.S., F.L.S., Wm. Eagle Clarke, F.L.S., etc. 

This Magazine — a continuation of ' The Scot- 
tish Naturalist ' founded in 1871 — was established 
under the present editorship in January 1892, for 
the purpose of extending the knowledge of and 
interest in the Zoology and Botany of Scotland. 
The Annals is entirely devoted to the publica- 
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Edinburgh: David Douglas id, Castle Street. 



Printed at Browns' Savile Press, 40, George Street, Hull, and published by 
A. Brown & Sons, Limited, at 5, Farringdon Avenue in the City of London. 

April ist, 1912. 



MAY, 1912. 



No. 664 



(Nt, 442 »f ourrtnt terlet). 




A MONTHLY ILLUSTRATED JOURNAL OF 

NATURAL HISTORY FOR THE NORTH OF ENGLAND. 

EDITED BY 

T. SHEPPARD, F.Q.S., F.R.G.S., F.S. A.Scot., 

The Museums, Hull ; 

AND 

T. W. WOODHEAD, Ph.D., F.L.S., 

Technical College, Huddersfield. 
with the assistance as referees in special departments of 
J. aiLBERT BAKER, F.R.S. F.L.S., QEO. T. PORRITF, F.L.S., F.E.S.. 

Prof. P. F. KENDALL, M.Sc, F.Q.S., JOHN W, TAYLOR, 

T. H. NELSON. M.B.O.U., WILLIAM WEST, F.L.S., 

RILEY FORTUNE, F.Z.S. 



Contents : — 

PAGE 

Notes and Comments (Illustrated) :— Foreign Birds in Britain ; The Great Auk ; The 
Ipswich Skeleton ; Glacial Age not proven ; A Cast of the Skull ; The Divining Rod ; 
The Post Office and Natural History Specimens ; The Law and Natural History 
Specimens ; The South Kensington Museum ; The Palaeontographical Society ; Fossil 
Mammals; Ganoid Fishes ; Fossil Fishes of the Chalk ; Fossil Chalk Inocerami ... 133-137 

138 

139-140 



Shelly Clay from the Dogger Bank—/. W. Stather,F.G.S 

A Method of Removing Tests from Fossils— S. S. Buckman, F.G.S. 

Carpophilus sexpustulatus F., its Congeners, and their Occurrence in the 

British Isles— £. G. Bayford, F.E.S 141-145 

146-149 

150-151 



A Museum of Fisheries and Shipping (Illustrated)— B. A. 

In Memoriam— Robert H. Philip (Illustrated)— r. S. 

Bibliography: Papers and Records published with respect to the Geology and Palaeontology 

of the North of England (Yorkshire excepted), during 1910— T. Sheppard, F.G.S. ... 152-160 

Field Notes: — Jackdaws occiipying Magpie's Nest ; Fame Islands Association ; Bird Notes 
from the Scarborough District 

Museum News 

Reviews and Book Notices 

Proceedings of Provincial Scientific Societies (lUustraj 

News from the Magazines 

Northern News 

Illustrations 

Plates XII., XIII,, XIV. 



140, 145 
138 



1)^ v<Tm 162 



^A)flS19l2-^'''''" 



9. 

145il64 
137, 14^, 150 



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THE NATURALIST. A Monthly Illustrated Journal of Natural History for the North of England. Edited 
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^33 
NOTES AND COMMENTS. 

FOREIGN BIRDS IN BRITAIN. 

Mr. Hugh Boyd Watt, in Knowledge for April, summarises 
the records which exist of the casual appearance of foreign 
birds in this country. Many supposed visitors have escaped 
from private grounds : a Penguin, which was found walking 
along in Baker Street, came from the Zoo ; other birds have been 
let out accidentally or turned loose from ship-wrecked vessels, 
while others again are the result of attempts at acclimatisation, 
which have been made from time to time by bird-lovers in 
this country. We quite agree with Mr. Watt that, of the two 
hundred and seven species of casuals, or occasional visitors, 
now on the ' British ' list, a large number have the most slender 
claims to be called British. 

THE GREAT AUK. 

With the above title Mr. Thomas Parkin, M.A., F.Z.S., has 
issued a very useful and well-illustrated account of the numerous 
sales of Great Auk skins and eggs during the past century. 
Naturalists will be grateful to the aathor for the care he has 
exercised in placing upon record the facts connected with the 
history of the various specimens, some of which are quite 
romantic. For instance, some years ago ten eggs of the Great 
Auk were found by Prof. Newton in the museum of the Royal 
College of Surgeons. There was no history attached to them, 
and no one knew how they had got there. Three were retained 
bj' the museum, three passed in to the possession of Mr. 
Robert Champney, of Scarborough, where they have been seen 
by many of our members, and the other four were sold. It 
is interesting to notice, too, that in the ' fifties,' Great Auk's 
eggs were bought from prices varying from £20 to £30. In 
recent years a number has been sold for over £300 each. We 
are kindly permitted to reproduce one of the illustrations 
(Plate XII.). The booklet can be obtained from the author 
at Fairseat, High Wickham, Hastings, for two shillings. 

THE IPSWICH SKELETON. 

Considerable discussion has taken place in the press and 
elsewhere in reference to a so-called pre-boulder-clay human 
skeleton, found a little while ago near Ipswich, and, oddl}/ 
enough, the name of a prominent naturalist appeared in the 
daily papers at the foot of an article supporting its age and 
authenticity. As a rule, however, we find it safer to await 
a carefully prepared description, written in cooler moments, 
in the pages of some journal of scientific standing. And we 
must say in these matters we are inclined to accept the opinion 
of a geologist rather than that of an antiquary, as the authen- 
ticity of a pre-boulder-clay man must necessarily be supported 
by geological evidence. 

1912 May I. '^ 



134 Notes and Comments. 

GLACIAL AGE NOT PROVEN. 

In the Geological Magazine Mr. G. Slater, F.G.S., carefully 
reviews the geological evidence, and concludes that the skeleton 
is ' of doubtful age.' The general section in the side of the 
pit where the remains were discovered ' is extremely un- 
satisfactory.' One report by the persons who excavated the 
skeleton says ' the section of decalcified boulder clay ' occurred 
underneath the bones, and in another part of the same report 
by the same gentlemen, it is stated that ' the bones were 
lying partly embedded in glacial sand and partly in decalcified 
clay.' The latter is confirmed by the bones themselves, and in 
view of the different origins of stratified sand and boulder clay, 
it is difficult to see how the skeleton should be partly embedded 
in each, if contemporaneous with either the one or the other. 

A CAST OF THE SKULL. 

Those in favour of the glacial age of the remains attach 
much importance to the fact that a complete cast of the inside 
of the skull was found, of the same material as the surrounding 
clay. It is even considered that ' the clay was in a semi-fluid 
state at or since the time the remains were embedded in it.' 
Those who have had any experience in digging in graveyards, 
whether they be comparatively modern, or of Saxon, Roman or 
Neolithic age, know quite well that it is by no means an un- 
common occurrence for a skull to be tightly packed with soil 
or other material, which has been drawn in by percolating 
water, worms, etc. And what more natural than it should be 
the same as the surrounding soil ? It would indeed be strange 
if this were not so. As regards the bones themselves, these 
bore no signs of great antiquity, either in their shape or sub- 
stance. They were not at all mineralised ; in fact were extremely 
light. In view of all the circumstances, therefore, it seems clear 
that a pre-boulder-clay man has still to be found in Britain. 

THE DIVINING ROD. 

The United States Geological Survey, which has issued so 
many valuable memoirs bearing upon different aspects of water, 
supply, has recently published a paper dealing with the question 
of the utility of the divining rod for finding water. It is stated 
that ' the uselessness of the divining rod is indicated by the 
fact that it may be worked at will by the operator, that he 
fails to detect strong water-current in tunnels and other 
channels that afford no surface indications of water, and that 
his locations in limestone regions where water flows in .well 
defined channels are no more successful than those dependent 
on mere guesses. In fact, its operators are successful only in 
i-egions in which ground water occurs in a definite sheet in 
porous material or in more or less clayey deposits . . . No appli- 
ance has yet been devised that will detect water in places where 
plain commonsense will not show its presence just as well.' 

Naturalist 



Notes and Comments. 135 

THE POST OFFICE AND NATURAL HISTORY SPECIMENS. 

Recentl}^ we received the torn half of a foolscap envelope 
from a contributor at Halifax, and it contained a letter to 
the effect that there were some natural history specimens 
enclosed. The Post Office authorities had written across 
the envelope that it was torn on arrival at Hull. We at once 
wrote to the Hull office, enclosing the portion delivered, and 
offering it in exchange for the part kept. Two days later we 
received a form (marked R.L.B. — -No. 29. G. & S., 4112. 
750/7/09 — [9358] 750 2/iov) from the Postmaster at Man- 
chester, enclosing the empty tin tobacco box that had contained 
the specimens, with the information that the contents had 
been destroyed the day they were received at Hull ' in accor- 
dance with the i-egulations of the Department [with a capital 
' D '] relating to the disposal of perishable, offensive or in- 
jurious articles.' 

THE LAW AND NATURAL HISTORY SPECIMENS. 

There was a further notification to the effect that ' it is 
contrary to law to forward by post anything likely to 
injure the contents of the mails, or the officers of the Post 
Office.' As the specimens had been preserved in formalin, 
were quite hard, dry, and without smell, it is difficult to see 
why they should so promptly have been taken from the tin 
box, together with the cotton wool in which they w^ere wrapped, 
and destroyed. Why the Postmaster at Hull sent the empty 
tin box to the Post master at Manchester, in order that it 
might be returned to us at Hull, is a problem we shall not 
attempt to solve, unless it is that there is a mutual understand- 
ing amongst the ' Officers of the Post Office ' that this sort 
of thing shall be done in order to prevent their ' injury,' as 
mentioned on the form R.L.B. — No. 29. G. & S., etc., etc. 
In justice to the Post Office, we ought to say that we were not 
asked to pay extra postage on the tobacco box which they had 
emptied. 

THE SOUTH KENSINGTON MUSEUM. 

In view of the interest taken in the question of the site 
of the South Kensington Museum by the members of the 
Yorkshire Naturalists' Union, we have pleasure in giving the 
following copy of a letter from the South Kensington Museum, 
dated March 19th, addressed to the Secretary of the Union : — 
^ A settlement of the question of the allocation of the South 
Kensington site on the north of the Natural History Museum 
buildings has now been arrived at with His Majesty's 
Government and the Public Departments concerned, and hav- 
ing regard to the friendly interest taken by the Yorkshire 
Naturalists' Union, in this matter, I am directed to acquaint 
you, for the information of the societies affiliated to the Union 

1913 May I. 



136 Notes and Comments. 

that by the terms of that settlement, the northern boundary 
of the Natural History Museum as fixed in 1899, will be main- 
tained, and the land to the south of it will be available for the 
extension of the Museum.' 

THE PAL/EONTOGRAPHICAL SOCIETY. 

The annual volume issued by this society came to hand on 
March 9th, a rather later date than usual. The Committee 
deplore the loss of a number of members by death, and an 
urgent appeal is made for new members. In view of the 
extraordinary work being done by this society, and in view 
of the fact that the contributors to its volumes give their 
services, we sincerely trust that all our readers who are able 
will send their names (and guinea cheques) to the Secretary, 
Dr. A. Smith Woodward, of the Natural History Department 
of the British Museum, South Kensington. In return each 
subscriber will receive a volume worth much more than the 
guinea, containing monographs dealing with various phases 
of palaeontology, by the greatest living authorities on the 
respective subjects. The Palaeontographical Society does not 
clash with the Geological Society in any way, but rather supple- 
ments it in its work. 

FOSSIL MAMMALS. 

The first monograph in the recently issued Volume LXV. 
deals with the ' Pleistocene Mammalia : Mustelidae,' and is 
by Prof. S. H. Reynolds, of Bristol. The present instalment 
deals with the fossil Pine Marten, Giant Polecat, Polecat, 
Stoat, Weasel, Glutton, Badger and Otter, Reference is made 
to the various locahties (including Yorkshire, Lancashire, etc.), 
from which remains of these animals have been obtained. But 
in our opinion the part of this work that will principally appeal 
to the naturalist is that which illustrates the skulls, teeth and 
bones of the various species referred to. There are scores of 
these illustrations, and each one is exceedingly well done. 

GANOID FISHES. 

Dr. Ramsay H. Traquair follows with a further instalment 
of his remarkable monograph on the ganoid (or armour clad), 
fishes. The present contribution deals with the Palaeoniscidae, 
and in this section Dr. Traquair illustrates some wonderfully 
preserved fossil forms, most of which are from Scotland. 
Additional value is added to his notes from the restorations 
of the various species, which he gives. For some reason or 
other the plates accompanying Dr. Traquair's monograph are 
printed on tinted paper, which does not seem to harmonise 
with the volume. There is doubtless some reason for this, 
though it is not apparent, unless it is to shew that the plates 
are paid for by the Carnegie Trust for the Universities of Scot- 
land, though this is clearly stated in each case, as well as in the 
introductory remarks. 

Natturalist, 



Notes and Comments, 



^37 



FOSSIL FISHES OF THE CHALK. 

The Secretary of the Society, Dr. A. Smith Woodward, gives 
a further section of his magnificent work on the Fossil 
Fishes of the Chalk. This is illustrated by a wonderful set of 
plates shewing the palate teeth and other remains of fishes, 
many of which are from Lincolnshire and other northern locali- 
ties. He also figures and describes a fine skull of possibly a 
new form of Pachyrhizodus, from the zone of Holaster suhglobo— 




Pachyrhizodus sp. ; lower portion of the head and opercular apparatus, left side view, 

nat. size Zone of Holaster subglobostts ; South Ferriby, Lines. Collected by Mr. H. C. 

Drake, F.G.S. Now in the Hull Museum. 

br = branchiostegal rays ; d = dentary ; iop = interoperculum ; mx = maxilla ; pnix = pre- 

inaxilla; /lo = post orbital plate ; /!0/'=preoperculum ; (7U = quadrate ; so/' = suboperculuni. 

sus at South Ferriby. This was obtained by Mr. H. C. Drake, 
and is now in the museum at Hull. By the kind permission of 
the Palaeontographical Society, we are able to give an illus- 
tration of this interesting specimen. Fish remains, of course, 
are not at all common in the northei'n chalk. Dr. Woodward 
also refers to the rostrum of a species recently described as Proto- 
sphyraena stebbingi, which Mr. T. Sheppard obtained from the 
same locality. This specimen is more complete than the type 
specimen, and Dr. Woodward kindly promises to describe 
it shortly in The Naturalist. 

FOSSIL CHALK INOCERAMI. 

Mr. Henry Woods has a further instalment of his work on the 
Cretaceous Lamellibranchiata, and in the present volume deals 
exhaustively with those exceedingly difficult fossils, the 
Inocerami. These oyster-like shells, from the enormous way 
in which individuals of each species vary, have always been one 
of the most difficult of the forms of fossils with which a student 
and collector has had to deal ; and hitherto the lack of a detailed 
monograph dealing with the genus has resulted in many workers 
throwing the subject up in despair. In future, by reference to 
this monograph, the study will be comparatively simple. Mr. 
Woods describes a number of new forms, and we are glad to 
see that Yorkshire has provided much material for his work. 
A figure of one specimen, from the Upper Chalk of Yorkshire, 
we are kindly permitted to reproduce (Plate XHI.). 

1912 May I. 



i3« 

SHELLY CLAY FROM THE DOGGER BANK. 



J. W. STATHER, F.G.S. 

In the Essex Naturalist for Apl., 1909, Mr. Clement Reid, F.R.S., 
had a paper on ' Moorlog,' a name given to a pecuhar tough, 
peat-hke deposit, which is occasionally dredged up from the 
Dogger Bank. Recently I arranged with the captain of a Hull 
trawler to bring me da\y samples that came into his net. The 
material occurs in huge cake-like masses, which are sometimes 
as much as a foot in thickness, and these contain remains of 
aquatic and marsh-loving plants, such as the Buckbean 
{Menyanthes trifoliata), etc. One mass, however, was found to 
contain a quantity of unquestionably marine shells. This 
piece was a compact clay, and dark in colour, being almost 
lead-black. In it were ci-ushed and partly decayed marine 
shells, in large quantities. Apparently the darker clay occurs 
beneath the peat. On sending some of it to Mr. Clement 
Reid, he kindly pointed out that the shells are typical of very 
shoal water, and must have flourished when the Dogger, at 
that point, was practically at present land-level. This being 
so, it is probable our ideas as to the former history of the 
North Sea basin will have to be considerably modified. The 
subject, however, is being followed up, and no doubt interest- 
ing results will be obtained. 



From Belfast we have received two publications. One is Publication 
No. 31 of the Belfast Municipal Museum, and the other is Publication No. 
31 of the Belfast Public Museum. As a matter of fact, they are both from 
the same institution, and, apparently, one should have been numbered 30. 
One is the illustrated Quarterly Record, and the other is a paper by 
Dr. Scharff, on ' The Aims and Scope of a Provincial Museum,' which is 
well worth reading. 

From the Norwich inuseum we have received the Report of the Castle 
Museum Committee for 1911, which contains a large list of acquisitions. 
\'isits of scholars and societies have been frequent. The museum has 
also published a Catalogue of the Loan Collection of Norwich Silver Plate, 
etc., which includes details of many objects of altogether exceptional 
interest ; and the Fourth Annual Report of Proceedings of the Norwich 
Museum Association. This association works with the museum, popu- 
larises the collections, and arranges lectures dealing with the economic 
aspect of various branches of natural history ; in this way considerably 
extending the museuin's sphei"e of usefulness. 

From the Kclvingrove JMuseum. Glasgow, we ha\e received an Intro- 
duction to the Study of Fossils and Guide to the Palseontological Collections, 
by Peter MacNair (89 pp., 3d.). As the guide naturally refers to the 
Glasgow collections, which are largely of local interest, the handbook 
may be said to form a good summary of the palaeontological remains 
of the Glasgow area. It is divided into sections, according to the geological 
systems, and is well illustrated from drawings and photographs, though 
some of the former, such as the Nautilus, page 38, and the phyllopod on 
page 53, are not quite satisfactory. 

Naturalist, 



139 

A METHOD OF REMOVING TESTS FROM FOSSILS. 



S. S. BUCKMAN, F.G.S. 



The following remarks apply especially to brachiopods ; but 
there is reason to believe that the method may be extended 
with advantage to other classes of fossils. Among brachiopods 
natural casts are not frequently met with, except in a few- 
favoured localities ; and the natural casts are often unsatis- 
factory. Therefore a method of making artificial casts by 
removal of the tests becomes of value when it is desired to 
study internal characters. The following is the method : 

Choose specimens which are not crystalline, and preferably 
those which are likely to have a close-grained,* hard internal 
core. Heat them to redness and then drop into water. Much 
of the test will then fall off ; what remains can sometimes be 
wholly removed by brushing. If not, the delicate use of a 
sharp penknife will separate the rest. Care must be employed 
in using the penknife to prevent scratching of details of muscle 
marks, ovarian area, or vascular markings. 

Heating may be done in the ordinary fire, but it is not alto- 
gether satisfactory ; the specimens may be burnt too much. 
Heating by means of a bunsen flame, or a spirit lamp, or for 
larger specimens a gas or spirit blow-lamp, is more satisfac- 
tory. As the test is more adherent over the muscle areas, they 
should be heated most ; that is, the specimens should be held 
beak downwards in the flame in the case of brachiopods. 

Experiments so far have been chiefly with Mesozoic brachio- 
pods, and of these the Rhynchonellids come out most satisfac- 
torily, presumably on account of their fibrous test : some of 
them make very beautiful casts, showing all details excellently, 
but, of course, much depends on the state of fossilization. The 
Dallininae have also yielded satisfactory results, but for some 
reason the Terebratulids do not come out so well, and the pro- 
portion of spoilt specimens is considerable. 

In the case of rare specimens, the method should only be 
enployed after careful consideration : there is, of course, a risk 
of destroying the specimen altogether ; and in any case details 

* When this note originally appeared, in the ' American Journal of 
Science,' XXXII. 163, Aug. 1911, the epithet ' close-grained ' was printed 
' coarse-grained ' by some accident, and I did not see any proof. How- 
ever, it is obvious that a coarse-grained core is the last thing that would be 
desirable. A hard core has a grain of close and fine texture, and that is 
what is required. A coarse-grained core is the sort of thing met with in 
some of the Lower Oolites, where the rocks are trulj^ oolitic ; and such a 
core, if it does not crumble away when heated, will yield no muscle-impres- 
sions of any value. A coarse-grained core is found in fossils from some 
of the siliceous sands, like the Greensand : it may be coarse-grained and 
incoherent, so that on the removal of test everything crumbles away. 
But calcareous sands, and also clays, often yield specimens (Brachiopods) 
with good cores of close texture. — Note by Author, March 1912. 

iqi2 May i. 



140 



Field Notes. 



of test, of beak, deltidial plates, etc., will be lost. The method 
was suggested by receiving, for description, from the Geologi- 
cal Survey of India, a series of brachiopods from Burma, which 
had been burnt by Mr. T. D. La Touche for the purpose of 
extracting them from a rather intractable matrix. Many 
showed as a consequence good internal details, and that fact 
suggested burning other species to compare with them. 



BIRDS. 

Jackdaws occupying Magpie's Nest.— A pair of Magpies 
built a nest this month in a Sycamore Tree, near Harrogate. 
The eggs were taken. A pair of Jackdaws have now occupied 
the nest. I have never known a similar case. Several pairs 
have built in some small square open chimney pots, about 
12 inches high, in Grosvenor Terrace. The nests are quite 
open. These pots have now been occupied for some years, 
and the birds never leave the locality, but are about in pairs 
throughout the winter. — R. Fortune, April, 1912. 

Fame Islands Association. — Mr. Paynter in his Annual 
Report states that 191 1 was a very good breeding season for 
the various species of birds nesting on the Fames. The 
weather was dry and warm, with the exception of the 24th 
and 25th of June, when is was exceedingly cold and wet ; this 
caused the death of a great many young Puffins and also a 
few young Arctic Terns by drowning. It is satisfactory to 
learn that the Sandwich Terns did not suffer. The Arctic and 
Sandwich Terns were breeding on the Knoxe's, and Inner 
Wideopens, in enormous numbers ; they have increased greatly 
during the last few years. 

Many attempts were made in the earl}^ part of the season, 
on foggy nights, to raid the breeding grounds of the Terns, 
without, we are glad to say, any success ; but the watchers 
had a very anxious time. 

Eider Ducks, Puffins, Guillemots, etc., were as numerous 
as ever, and a few Razorbills bred as usual on the outer Wide- 
opens. These birds do not increase, owing no doubt to the 
lack of suitable sites, as they do not care to deposit their eggs 
on the open ledges hke the Guillemot. It is interesting to note 
that a pair of Common Gulls were again constantly seen during 
the breeding season. The nest, however, was not located. 

The protection of these islands is not done without con- 
siderable expense, and over £100 is expended annually in 
watching them. This is all subscribed voluntarily. I notice the 
names of four members of the Yorkshire Naturalists' Union 
in the subscription list, and, no doubt, Mr. Paynter will be 
glad to have more. If any of our members care to send a sub- 
scription, his address is ' Freelands,' Alnwick. — R. Fortune. 

Naturalist, 



141 

CARPOPHILUS SEX PUSTU LAWS F., ITS CONGENERS, 
AND THEIR OCCURRENCE IN THE BRITISH ISLES. 



E. G. BAYFORD, F.E.S. 



Including a specimen of C. ohsoletus Er. recently taken in 
Edlington Wood by Mr. W. E. Sharp, F.E.S., six species of the 
genus have at various times been recorded as occurring in 
the British Isles. 

These are i. C. hemipteriis L. 

C. hiptistulatus Er. 

C. ohsoletus Er. 

C. mutilatus Er. 

C. dimidiatus Er. 

C. sexpustulatus F. 
In the various catalogues of Coleoptera and works on Coleop- 
tera which have attempted descriptions of the whole Beetle 
fauna of the British Isles, commencing with Marsham in 1802, 
sometimes one, sometimes two, and sometimes three species 
have been included with more or less of reservation. Of these, 
only one, C. hemipterus L., appears to have been consistently 
accepted without much reservation or qualification. The 
details tabulated on pp. 142-143 in parallel columns will enable 
these varying opinions to be compared. 

Leaving out every other consideration except that of dis- 
tribution, one would expect to find in sexpitstulatiis the one 
indigenous species in the six, with possibly hipnstulatus in 
the second place ; the other four being importations more 
or less numerous according to circumstances. Quite obviously 
Nos. I, 3, 4 and 5, whatever may have been their original home, 
have been distributed over the globe in consignments of food 
stuffs, of which brown sugar, dried fruits and corn appear to 
be the chief. These species, with the exception of hemiptertis, 
which has been taken at large on flowers, have never been 
found in any situation which would indicate their primitive 
food, while, on the other hand, the other two species, and more 
especially sexpusUilatus, have been taken at large under bark, 
and amongst carrion, both foods common to a number of 
closely allied species amongst the Undoubtedly indigenous 
NitidulidcB. Moreover, Fowler's two or three British examples 
of 6-pustulatns, have increased to quite a handsome figure, 
something like twenty-five specimens having been met with 
in the Doncaster district alone. In every case they have been 
found either under bark, or amongst carrion, and not in one 
restricted area, but spread over a wide radius. Of course it is 
not advisable to accept too readily a claimant to the British 
List ; it therefore becomes necessary to examine the various 
theories, which have been propounded to account for the occur- 

igi2 May i. 



142 Cavpophilus sexpustulatus F. in the British Isles. 



s 
s 




' Found through- 
out Europe under 
the bark of trees, 
but not common 
in Britain.' 






' Europe, Madeira, 
N. America, E. 
& W. Indies, Aus- 
traha, etc' 


X 

X 'Whether this 
genus be truly 
indigenous is 
very doubt- 
ful.' 

X (' Improperlj^ 
introduced in- 
to the Briti-sh 
list.') 

X ('A doubtful 
native.') 


w 

to 


'Central Europe, 
Madeira, E. 
& W. Indies, 
Australia,etc.' 




>/> 

to 

re 


' Siam, E.Indies, 
Ceylon, Philli- 
pines, etc' 




2. bipusiitlaitisEr. 

var. (of hemipterus 
L.) Crotch. 


6 

n 1 


1-1 

w 

-M 
C 

OJ 








H 
u 

'S 


X 

X 

X 'Whether this 
genus be truly 
indigenous is 
very doubt- 
ful.' 

X ('Improperly 
introduced in- 
to the British 
list.') 

X ('A doubtlul 
native.') 

X 


Specific name. 

Synonyms used by British 
authors. 


Recorded distribution, ex- 
tracted from Murray's 
' Monograph of the 
Family of Nitidulariae,' 

1864. ' 


British authors and cata- 
loguers who have in- 
cluded Carpophili in 
their works : — 
T. Marsham, 

Coleoptera Britannica, 
1802. 
J. F. Stephens, 

Systematic Catalogue, 

1829. 

Illustrations: Mandibu- 

lata. Vol, III., 1830. 

Manual, 1840. 

Spry and Shuckard, 

British Coleoptera de- 
lineated, 1840. 

G. R. Waterhouse, 
Catalogue, 1861. 



Naturalist, 



Carpophilus sexpustulatus F. in the British Isles. 143 



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igi2 May 



144 Carpophilus sexpustulatus F. in the British Isles. 

rence of the species where it has been found, in order to decide 
whether it is an indigenous or an introduced species. Two 
theories have been advanced, viz. : — 

1. That it has been introduced into the locahty with food 

intended for pheasant rearing. 

2. That it has been introduced into the locaUty in dried 

or decaying fruits, such as raisins or currants. 
Do these theories stand the test at every point ? If they 
do not explain equally well, the occurrence at each place then 
they are untenable. It is curious that the locality which 
furnishes the strongest proof of indigeneity, also throws the 
strongest doubt upon it. I refer to Edlington Wood where I 
took the first known specimen in 1894, and where Dr. Corbett 
and Mr. W. E. Sharp took specimens in 1911. It was on this 
last occasion that Mr. Sharp met with a specimen of C. ob- 
soletus, a species hitherto unrecorded from the British Isles, 
although Mr. Sharp possesses another specimen which was 
undoubtedly imported into this country in dried fruit. They 
certainly cannot have been imported into this particular locality 
in pheasant food, because, whatever may be the case with the 
other localities, Edlington Wood is not now, and never has 
been, so far as can be learned, a place where pheasants have 
been reared, or game preserved. It has always been a fox- 
hunting wood. My own acquaintance with it goes back for 
twenty-nine years ; and other members of the Barnsley 
Naturalists' Society who have worked it for Lepidoptera during 
the last fifty-five years, confirm this view. This is sufficient 
to dispose of the ' pheasant food ' theory. There still remains 
the ' decayed fruit ' theory to be considered. Anyone who 
knows the holt where the species has been found, will recognise 
how absurd it is to imagine decayed fruit or any other rubbish 
being taken there to be thrown out. It is too far away from 
any dwelling-place. Finally, the species must have existed 
there continuously for a period of at least nineteen years, 
unless it is postulated that there has been an equally con- 
tinuous introduction of foreign specimens during the same 
period. The same line of reasoning would cut out the raisin 
theory, in all but one of the localities, or, rather, it could only 
hold good in one for it is not reasonable to suppose that there 
have been as many different deposits of decaying fruit as there 
are localities in which the species has been found. These 
localities are some considerable distance from each other, 
the smallest plane figure which will contain them having an 
area of 24:| square miles. The unobtrusive nature of the 
insect, its small size, dark colour, and the habit of simulating 
death, which it possesses in common with many other species, 
combine to preserve it from most of its enemies, including, 
no doubt, coleopterists. Other species with this characteristic, 

Naturalist, 



Carpophilus sexpustulalus F. in the British Isles. 145 

e.g., Attagenns pellio and Trox scaher, are undoubtedly very 
much more numerous than the comparatively few and isolated 
records would lead us to suppose. From a careful study of 
the facts in all their bearings, and my knowledge of the dis- 
trict, I conclude that the species is indigenous, or alternatively, 
that if it has been introduced, that such introduction is 
sufficiently remote for it to have become well established. 

In closing this article, I think the Jollowing summary of the 
Yorkshire specimens may be useful : — 

One specimen, Edlington Wood, 1894 (E. G. B.). 

One specimen, Sandal Beat Wood, 1904 (H. H. C). 

Eight specimens, Wheatley Wood, 1907 (E. G. B., H. H. C.,. 
V. C). 

One specimen, Cusworth, 1907 (H. H. C). 

Four specimens, Edlington Wood, 191 1 (H. H. C). 

Eight or ten specimens, Edhngton Wood, 1911 (W. E. S.). 

Three specimens, Sandal Beat Wood, 1912 (H. H. C). 
The initials are those of Dr. Corbett, his son, Mr. Sharp and 
myself. 

Amongst themselves the specimens differ in the size of the 
spots, which are occasionally reduced to such a degree as to 
be seen with difficulty by unaided sight. 

The problem raised by the capture of C. obsoleius is an in- 
teresting one, but there is as yet not sufficient evidence to 
discuss it satisfactorily. 

Bird Notes from the Scarborough District. — I found 
the first full clutch of Lapwing's eggs on April 7th. Nests 
had been ready for a week or ten days, but laying had evidently 
been delayed, owing, perhaps, to the cold winds. Woodcock 
seem to be more numerous than usual in this district. I put 
up three on April loth and two on April 7th in different locali- 
ties. On April 14th I found a Snipe's nest with four eggs, an 
early date for this district. — Stanley Crook. 



At a recent meeting of the Lancashire and Cheshire Entomological 
Society, Mr. W. Mansbridge gave the results of his breeding experiments 
with the Black Race of Boarmia repandata (var. nigra), and summarised 
the results as follows : — In 1909 {a) a wild $ of the local type form gave 
all var. nigra ; [b) a wild § var. nigra gave all black moths ; (c) a pairing 
of nigra ^ and type $ gave all types. In 1910 (a) type x type gave 66-6 
per cent, type, and 33-3 per cent. var. nigra ; [b) nigra x nigra gave 92 per 
cent, nigra and 8 per cent, type ; and (c) nigra x nigra gave 96 per cent. 
nigra and 4 per cent, type ; while in 191 1 [a] type x type gave all type ; 
(b) nigra (J x type § gave all nigra] (c) nigra x nigra gave 95-7 per cent. 
nigra and 4-3 per cent, type, and {d) x second experiment of the same 
gave 70-5 per cent, nigra and 29-5 per cent. type. In 1910 moths from 
the broods a and c were used for the cross pairings of type and variety, 
the others being inbred, and in 191 1 all were inbred. 

1912 May I. 



146 

A MUSEUM OF FISHERIES AND SHIPPING. 

(plate XIV.). 

On Saturday, March 30th, was opened the Museum of Fisheries 
and Shipping in the Pickering Park, Hull. With this museum 
the city of Hull has reason to be proud of the forethought 
of her councillors and the munificence of one of her citizens. 
Few towns of the size of the third port can boast of so many, and 
such excellent treasure-houses for things of historic and scien- 
tific interest as the three institutions now Under the charge of 
Mr. T. Sheppard. It is not many years since we had the 
pleasure, in this journal, of complimenting the city of Hall 
upon its museum of natural histor}^ and antiquities in Albion 
Street. A few years later we lavished equal praise upon the 
enlightenment of her citizens in opening as a public museum 
the celebrated Elizabethan home of William Wilberforce, 
and filling it with the relics of slave emancipation and objects 
illustrative of Hull's history. It was largely through the 
personal exertion of the present Chairman of the Museums 
Committee, Alderman J. Brown, Sheriff of Hull, that Wilber- 
force House became municipal property, and we venture to 
think that he never rendered a greater service to his city than 
this. Now, under the same Chairman, and under the clirection 
of the same Curator, it falls upon us to announce the opening 
of a third museum, which is entirely devoted to the history of 
shipping and fishing. 

The site of the Museum and the building itself have been 
handed over to the Hull Museums Committee by Mr. Christopher 
Pickering, J. P., who recently presented the magnificent Picker- 
ing Park on the Hessle Road, Hull, adjoining which the 
Museum is situated. 

From many points of view the situation is excellent : 
the district in which it is located is essentially the home of the 
fishing industry, and is not far from the Fish Docks ; it is 
pleasantly surrounded by fields and shrubberies ; and it has 
round about it room for extension, a not unimportant asset. 

Mr. Pickering's interest in the institution has not ceased 
with the building of it. He has used his influence in inducing 
shipowners, shipbuilders, and others to present models of 
ships, etc., to the Museum, and in this way a very valuable 
series, and one that will year by year become increasingly 
valuable, illustrating the evolution of the steam trawler, liner, 
man of war and other types of ship, has been obtained. 

The Museum was formally opened by Mrs. Pickering, who, 
in a graceful speech, expressed the pleasure of herself and her 
husband at the way in which the exhibits had been arranged 
by the Hull Museums staff, and at the thought that the place 

Naturalist, 



A Museum of Fisheries and Shipping. 147 

would be a source of interest and instruction to many thousands 
of people annually. The idea had occurred to them, she said, 
that the park in which the Musuem was placed would be more 
complete if there were some building to which visitors might 
resort for rest and interest, and this idea had materialised in 
the form of a Fisheries and Shipping Museum. Other speeches 
were made by Mr. Christopher Pickering, the Sheriff of Hull 
(Alderman J. Brown), the Mayor (Councillor T. S. Taylor), 
Councillor J. H. Robins, the Right Hon. T. R. Ferens, M.P., and 
Alderman E. Hanger. 

The building itself is of red brick, faced with stonework, 
and with red granite pillai's at the entrance. Its interior 
fittings are of oak, and the arrangement of the lighting, chiefly 
from the top, is excellent. 

In a port like Hull there is much scope for a museiim of 
this nature. In the first place, it is proposed to illustrate as 
far as possible, by means of models, pictures, etc., the evolu- 
tion of the fishing industry in Hull, in reference to both the 
type of vessels engaged at various periods, and to the 
appliances used. In a similar way, Hull's importance in 
former times as a whaling port will be brought home to the 
visitor by means of suitable exhibits. Needless to say, 
shipping, mercantile and naval, will also receive a good deal 
of attention, and the changes in type of both sailing and 
steamships, will be exhibited -by means of models. 

But what is above all of interest to the naturalist, is the 
opportunity now opened, of which full advantage will be taken, 
for the exhibition of specimens of the various forms of life 
that inhabit the sea. Here is a branch of museum work which 
should be a great educational factor in a fishing centre. The 
different food fishes, their life histories, and their enemies, can 
be exhibited along with the lower forms of marine life. If 
the co-operation of the North Sea Fisheries Investigation 
Committee were obtained, what a valuable series of specimens 
could be got together. Such a collection, together with objects 
and photographs illustrating the methods of fishery investiga- 
tion in the North Sea, would also serve to give to the fishermen 
of Hull a clear and intelligent insight into this inquiry, and 
thus make it of even more practical value than it is. 

A word as to the exhibits already housed in the museum. 
The most complete series at the present time is perhaps that 
of the whaling relics. It includes the various types of har- 
poons, models and paintings of whaling ships, articles made 
of whalebone, etc., etc. The old museum at the Royal Institu- 
tion, Hull, contained a fine series of Esquimaux relics, brought 
to Hull by the old whalers, and these have now been accom- 
modated in the new building. On the grounds outside, a pair 
of large whale jaws have been fixed in the form of an arch, in a 

igi2 iviay i. 



148 A Museum of Fisheries and Shipping. 

similar way to those frequently seen in the environs of Hull, 
at the gateways to fields and gardens. Some fine skeletons 
of several smaller species of whales are also shown, together 
with a foetal whale, and a cast of the White-beaked Dolphin. 

The models of ships already on exhibition include types 
ranging from early wooden battleships to the latest type of 
cruiser built at Hull, and from primitive sailing-ship to the 
most up-to-date liner. The model of H.M. cruiser " Endy- 
mion," presented by Lord Nunburnholme, and that of the 
recently ill-fated liner " Bayardo," presented by Messrs. 
Thos. Wilson, Sons & Co., Ltd., are exquisite specimens of 
handicraft. As a contrast to the present-day " Endymion," 
and as an illustration of the enormous change in naval con- 
struction in the course of a century, is a contemporary model 
of H.M. frigate " Endymion," of fifty guns, built at Devonport 
in 1807, exhibited along with a model of H.M. battleship 
"Britannia " of one hundred and twenty guns, also built at 
Devonport in the same year. Interesting models of early 
types of Humber paddle-boats, steam trawlers, etc., serve to 
complete the series, which has been enhanced in value since 
the opening of the Museum, by the addition of the early Cunard 
paddle-boat, " The Persia." 

By the generosity of the various trawler-owners on the St. 
Andrew's Dock, the collection of models of trawlers and fishing 
appliances is very complete. Mr. A. Mudge has presented a 
case of models of nets braided to scale, including a form of 
trawl of which he was the inventor, and to which the rapid 
development of the fishing industry in Hull is largely due ; and 
a model of the ' otter ' trawl has been presented by Mr. John 
Walton. 

At the closing of the Japan-British Exhibition, the 
Japanese Government presented to the Hull Museums authori- 
ties a series of large scenic models illustrating different modes 
of fishing in Japan. Exhibits such as these should prove full 
of suggestion to local fishery authorities. 

The exhibits of natural history specimens are varied and 
numerous. Mounted specimens of the larger marine fishes 
and sharks are fixed where they are well seen. The greater 
proportion of these have been caught on the Yorkshire coast, 
or in the North Sea, and their value is thereby increased. An 
extensive series of fishes preserved in spirits has been presented 
by the British Museum, and the Japanese donations referred 
to above include series of preserved specimens, illastrating the 
development and life-history of the Japanese carp, oyster, 
prawn, turtle, eel, etc. 

A special case has been set apart for the beautiful collection 
of corals, presented by the late John Morgan, of Worthing. 
In addition to the above are skeletons of many species of 

• Naturalist, 



Proceedings of Provincial Scientific Societies. 



149 



fishes and cetaceans ; a series illustrating the arrangement of 
the internal organs, nervous, vascular and skeletonal system of 
the Pike ; and miscellaneous marine biological objects from 
the North Sea. It will thus be seen that the exhibits already- 
brought together are of great scientific interest, and it only 
remains for the curator, with the assistance of those engaged 
in the fishing and shipping industry in Hull, and with the 
co-operation of local naturalists, to perfect a work so well 
begun. — B.A. 



The Journal of the 
Northants Natural His- 
tory Society and Field 
Club for igii is well up 
to the usual standard. 
Among the papers we 
notice ' Northampton- 
shire Birds,' by Mr. J. 
D. Cotton ; 'Some 
Aquatic Plants, ' b}^ Mr. 
H.N. Dixon ; ' Water 
Divining and Radioac- 
tivity,' by Mr. Beeby 
Thompson, and a valu- 
able paper on ' Plot's 
Elm [Ulmus plotti),' 
by Mr. G. Claridge 
Druce. This species 
appears to have been 
first distinguished by 
Mr. Robert Plot in his 
'Natural History of Ox- 
fordshire, 1O77,' where 
he describes it as 'a 
narrow - leaved elm, 
which also being 
smooth, justly deserves 
the name Ulmus folio 
angusto glabra.' Mr. 
Di.xon gives an account 
of Northamptonshire 
Hepatics ; Mr. M. B. 
FuUerton describes the 
algs' found in the Mid- 
summer Meadow Bath- 
ing Place ; Mr. J. H. 
Fletcher has a paper on 
' The Gull ' ; Mr. Beeby 
Thompson describes 
' Peculiarities of Waters 
and Wells,' and Mr. 

T. J. George figures a remarkably fine Celtic bronze mirror found at 
Desborough. We are kindly permitted to reproduce one of the blocks. 

The Proceedings of the Geologists' Association, Vol. XXIH., pt. 2, 
issued March 21st, 1912, contain a report of the Association's excursion 
to the Dales of West Yorkshire and Harrogate, held in July 1910. 
:9i2 May i. L 




Plot's Elm (Ulmus plotti). 



150 

3n flDemoriam. 

ROBERT H. PHILIP 

(1852— 1912). 

Recently it has been our pain to record many great gaps in 
the ranks of northern naturahsts. Gaps that it will be difficult, 
if not impossible, to fill. And the most recent of these is 
caused by the death of Robert H. Philip, of Hull, which oc- 
curred on April 15th ; and it was a surprise to most to learn that 

he had passed his sixtieth birth- 
day. 

For many 3'^ears Mr. Philip 
has been a regular attendant 
at the meetings of the Yorkshire 
Naturalists' Union. He was ex- 
ceedingly well versed in many 
branches of science, was a great 
reader, and an able critic. On 
several occasions he has favoured 
us with papers, which ha\-e not 
only been valuable from the 
record of original work and re- 
search which they contained, but 
were remarkable from their ex- 
ceptionally fine literary style. 
Retiring in disposition, and of 
a quiet nature, Mr. Philip was 
nevertheless particularly brilliant 
in discussion or debate, and he 
had the quick eye and warm 
heart of a true humorist. Yet 
his wit was never known to be 
offensive, and to be hurtful or 
unkind was as opposite to his 
nature as are the poles. 
It is now a quarter of a century since the writer first made 
his acquaintance, and in that time he has seen practicallv no 
change in him. He always had the same pleasant smile, the 
same helping hand, the same sound advice, the same sincerity. 
Though possessing, a knowledge of natural science far 
ab.ove the average, he seemed particularly partial to botany, 
especially the lower forms of plant life, such as the micro- 
fungi, diatoms, etc. As a microscopist, also, he had an excel- 
lent reputation, and as a writer and lecturer on matters micros- 
copical, had few equals in the north of England. He was 
nearly always present at the annual Fungus Forays of the 
Yorkshire Naturalists' Union, and at the last meeting at Mul- 

Xaturalist, 




In Memoriam : Robert H. Philip. 151 

grave, read an admirable paper on the Uredineae, which was 
much appreciated, and was printed in the pages of this journal. 
At the Sedburgh meeting of the same Union he read an admir- 
able paper on the ' Diatoms of the Sedburgh District,' which 
was far more than a mere list of the species occurring in that 
area, and demonstrated that with such a well-known subject 
as that of the diatoms, there was much original work still to 
be done, and his remarks had much bearing upon the question 
of the evolution of these lowly forms of life. 

For many years the pages of The Naturalist have been 
enriched by his writings, and as Secretary of the Yorkshire 
Micro-Zoology and Micro-Botany Committee, he has long 
assisted Yorkshire naturalists in their work. In Hull par- 
ticularly, is his loss felt. The Hull Scientific and Field Natura- 
lists' Club, of which he was a past-president, revered and 
respected him. He rarely missed a meeting or excursion, and 
never came but the members derived some benefit from his 
knowledge. He was also exceedingly clever at writing poetry, 
particularly in the way of humorous parody. His poem on 
' Our Average Member,' prepared for a social gathering of the 
Hull Club, and printed in the Hull Club's Transactions, has 
especial merit. 

Perhaps the greatest single piece of work he accomplished 
was the examining and cataloguing of the enormous collection 
of East Yorkshire, etc., diatoms, formed by the late George 
Norman, and now in the museum at Hull. In this he had the 
co-operation of Mr. F. W. Mills, F.R.M.S., of Huddersfield. 
and, in addition to Norman's records, he included many addi- 
tional observations of his own. This work, which contained 
an illustration of each species, originally appeared in the 
Transactions of the Hull Club, and was subsequently published 
by Messrs. Wesley and Sons, London,* and each year the 
Transactions of the same society have included illustrated 
papers containing additional records to this list, as some evi- 
dence of his zeal. 

He was the true type of naturalist. As a writer he was 
splendid. As a critic, humorous and severe, but kindly. But 
only those who were favoured by his friendship can appreciate 
his sterling worth. 

But however great is our loss, that of the widow and children 
must be much more. And we feel sure that every reader of 
this journal will join us in our sympathy with them. — T. S. 



In The Entomologist's Record for March, Mr. H. C. DoUman describes 
a beetle (which usually has plain elytra, but in this particular case has 
' six ivory black spots ') under the delightful name Mysia obloiigogttttata L., 
ab. nigvogitttata n. ab. 

* The Diatomacca^ of the Hull District. 4/6. 
igi2 May i. 



152 

BIBLIOGRAPHY: 

Papers and Records published with respect to the Geology 
and Palaeontology of the North of England (Yorkshire 
excepted), during 1910. 



T. SHEPPARD, F.G.S. 



For an account of the previous instalments of this Biblio- 
graphy see The Naturalist for July, 191 1, page 257. The 
present list contains the entries for 1910, with the exception 
of the Yorkshire items, which will appear in the Memorial 
Volume to the late C. Fox Strangways, which is being edited 
by the present writer, and is now in the press. 

X910. 

Anon. Derbyshire, Notts., \vrks. 

Summary of Progress of the Geological Survey of Great Britain . . . 

for 1909 [refers to work in Derbyshire, Nottinglaamshire, and Yorkshire; 
with an appendix on Ingleton Borings by W.Gibson]. 1910, pp.^ 
iv.+92. 

Anon. Lanes., S. 

[Note recording young antler of Cennis megaceros, found at Martin Mere, 
near Southport, Lanes.]. ' Nature,' March 24th, 1910, p. 102. 

Anon. Yorks., Derbyshire, etc. 

[Obituary Notice of C. Fox-Strangways, containing reference to his work 
in Yorkshire, etc,]. ' Nature,' March 24th, 1910, pp. 104-5. 

.\non. Notts. 

The Geology of the Melton Mowbray District and South East Nottingham- 
shire, by G. W. Lamplugh, etc. [I^eview of]. ' Geol. Mag.', April 1910, 

pp. 1 8 1-2. 

.\non. Notts. 

Nottingham Fossils. [Notice of Mr. Moysey's paper]. ' The Naturalist,' 
June 1910, p. 219. 

.\non. Lanes., S. 

Cave Remains from Wharton Crag. [Notice of paper]. ' The Naturalist,' 
March 191 o, p. 105. 

Anon. Yorks., S.E., etc. 

Geography at the British Association. [Summary of papers read]. ' Na- 
ture,' October 27th, 1910, pp. 551-553. 

Anon. Northern Counties. 

The Presidential Address [at the Sheffield Meeting of the British Association] 
a criticism of I'rof . Bonney's address, with many references to northern 
glacial geology]. ' The Naturalist,' October 1910, pp. 353-357. 

Anon. Northern Counties. 

British Association for the Advancemant of Science . . . ShefTield^ 

September 1-7, 1910. List of Titles of papers read in section C. 

(Geology) and other sections bearing on Geology [66 items]. ' Geol. 

Mag.', October 1910, pp. 469-471. 

Naturalist, 



Bibliography : Geology and PalcBontology , 1910. 153 

Anon. Northern Counties. 

European Glacial Deposits : Limits of the Ice Sheet : Yorkshire Drifts : 

Aspect of the Drifts : Moraines : British Ice Sheets : Conclusion 

[Notice of Mr. Frank Leverett's paper]. ' The Naturalist,' December 
1910, pp. 416-418. 

Anon. Northumberland, Durham. 

An Account of the Strata of Northumberland and Durham, as proved by 
Borings and Sinkings. Supplementary Volume, pp. 1-572, Newcastle, 
1910. 

Anon [signed ' Flora '] Lanes. 

Teat, Forest, and Beaver. [Criticism of Mr. Stubbs' Notes]. ' Lanes. 
Nat.', June 1910, pp. 95-97. 

(Mrs.) E. A. Newell Arber. 
A Note on Cardiocarpon compressum Will. The result of a re-examination 
of a Coal Measure Seed originally figured and de.scribed by Williamson 
in 1877 under the name of Cardiocarpon compressum. ' Proc. Camb. 
Phil. Soc.', Vol. XV., 1910, pp. 393-4. 

H. H. Arnold Bemrose. Derbyshire. 

On Olivine Nodules in the Basalt of Carlton Hill, Derbyshire. ' Geol. Mag.', 
January 1910, pp. 1-4. 

H. H. Arnold Bemrose. Derbyshire. 

The Lower Carboniferous Rocks of Derbyshire. Geology in the Field. 
Part III. London, 1910, pp. 540-563. 

J. B. Atkinson. See William Morley Egglestone. 

John Barker. See Willi.\m AIorley Egglestone. 

H. C. Beasley [Secretary]. Lanes., S., Cheshire. 

Investigation of the Fauna and Flora of the Trias of the British Isles — 
Seventh Report of the Committee. [Includes Report on Footprints 
from the Trias, by H. C. Beasley ; On a Skull of Rhyuchosaitvns in the 
Manchester Museum, by D. AL S. Watson ; Bibliographical Notes upon 
the Flora and Fauna of the British Keuper, by A. R. Horwood, etc.]. 
' Rep. Brit. Assn.', Winnipeg, 1909 (publ. 1910), pp. 150-163. 

H. C. Beasley. Lanes., S., etc. 

President's Address [deals with local workers in geology"" ' Proc. Liverpool 
Geol. Soc.', Vol. XL, pt. i, 1909-10, pp. i-ii. 

A. Bell. See A. R. Dwerryhouse. 

Bemrose, H. H. Arnold-. See H. H. Arnold- Bemrose. 

Paul Biver. Notts., Yorks. 

Some Examples of English Alabaster Tables in France made from Material 
obtained from Nottinghamshire in the Middle Ages. Arch. Journ.', 
Vol. LXVII., No. 265, INIarch 1910, pp. 64-87. 

T. G. Bonney. Northern Counties. 

Address [to the British Association for the Advancement of Science ; dealing 
v?ith the Glacial Deposits of Western Europe]. ' Brit. Assn. Reprint,' 
32 pp., ; also ' Nature,' September ist, 1910, pp. 274-284 ; Abstract 
in ' Geol. IMag.', October 1910, pp. 463-469, November, pp. 513-519 ; 
' Scot. Geog Mag.', Vol. XXVL, pp. 505-532 ; and [with title ' The 
Glacial History of Western Europe '], ' Geog. Journ.', Vol. XXXVI., 

1912 May I. • 



154 Bibliography : Geology and Palceontology, 1910. 

No. 5, November 1910, pp. 596-599 ; see also criticism in ' Tlie 
Naturalist,' October 1910, pp. 351-357. 

C. R. Bower and J. R. Farmery. Lines., N. 

The Zones of the Lower Chalk of Lincolnshire. With a list of new records 
from the Red Chalk of the County. ' Proc. Geol. Assn.', Vol. XXI., 
pt. 6, 1910, pp. 333-359- 

Reinhard Brauns and L. J. Spencer. Northern Counties. 

The Mineral Kingdom. 440 pp. and plates [issued in parts, of which a 
portion appeared in 19 10]. 

A. J. Jukes-Browne. Lines., N. and S. 

Lincolnshire [the Geology of]. Geology in the Field. Part 3. London, 

1910, pp. 488-51 7- 

R. G. A. BuLLERWELL. Chcviotland. 

On the Superficial Deposits at the Foot of the Cheviot Hills between Wooler 
and Glanton, ' (leol. Mag.', October 1910, pp. 452-458. 

Arthur Burnet. Lines , N. 

The Zones of the Lower Chalk. [Criticising a paper on the Lower Chalk 
of Lincolnsliire, bv Messrs. Bower and Farmery]. ' The Naturalist,' 
July 1910, pp. 279 281. 

F. M. Burton. Lines., N. and S 

The Witham and The Ancaster ' Gap' a study in River Action. 31 pp. 

[1910]. (I^rivately printed). 

R. C. Burton. See A. R. Dwerryhouse. 

J. W. Carr. Notts. 

Nottinghamshire [the Geology of]. Geology in the Field. Part 3. London, 
1910, pp. 51S-539. 

Robert CtEgrge Carruthers. Westmorland, Derbyshire. 

On the Evolution of Zaphrentia delanouei in Lower Carboniferous Times 

[brief reference to \^^estmorland, etc.]. ' Quart. Journ. Geol. Soc.', 
No. 264, Vol. LXVL, pt. 4, November 1910, pp. 523-538. 

Vaughan Cornish. Yorks., Cumberland, etc. 

Waves of the Sea and other Water-waves [brief reference to Yorkshire, 

etc.]. iQio, pp. 374. 

T. A. Coward and C. Oldham. Cheshire. 

The Vertebrate Fauna of Cheshire and Liverpool [gives list of remains of 
mammoth, E. aiitiqims, etc.]. London, Vol. L, 1910, pp. 1-472. 

S. Herbert Cox. Northern Counties. 

The Elements of Mining and Quarrying, by Sir C. le Neve Foster. Second 
Edition. (Brief reference to northern geology). 1910, pp. xviii. -(-323. 

S. Herbert Cox. See Clement le Neve Foster. 

Frank Creswell. Lanes., N. 

The Conditions under which the Triassic Deposits of England were formed, 
with special reference to the Keuper Marls [brief reference to N. Lan- 
cashire]. ' Trans. Leicester Lit. and Phil. Soc.', Vol. XIV., pt. i, 
1910, pp. 21-27. 

Naturalist, 



Bihliography : Geology and Palceoniology, igio. 155 

G. C. Crick. Lines., N. 

Note on two Cephalopods [Pachydisciis farmery i, n. sp., and Heteroceras 

reiissianum (d'Orbigny)j from the Chalk of Lincolnshire [the former 

from Boswell near Louth, and the latter from North Ormsbj']. ' Geol. 

Mag.', August 1910, pp. 345-348. 

G. C. Crick. Lines., N. 

On Belemnocamax boweri, n.g. etsp. A new Cephalopod from the Lower 
Chalk of Lincolnshire [from Welton Vale near Louth]. ' Proe. Geol. 
Assn.', Vol. XXL, pt. 6, 1910, pp. 360-365. 

Archib.\ld C. D.\lton. Lines., X. 

Glacial Evidences near Scunthorpe. ' The Naturalist,' October 19 10, pp. 

377-3S0. 

A. C. Dalton. See A R. Dwerryhouse. 
A. C. D.\LTON. See T. Shepp.\rd. 

W. H. D.JiLTON. Lines., N^. and S. 

Subsidence of Eastern England and Adjacent Areas [with notes on Lincoln- 
shire by S. H. Warren]. ' Essex Naturalist,' Vol. XVL, pts. 3 and 4, 
published December 1910, pp. 96-101. 

Charles Davison. X^orthern Counties. 

The Characteristics of British Earthquakes. A Summary of Tweiity-one 
Years' Work. ' Geol. iNIag.', September 1910, pp. 410-419. 

Ch.\rles Davison. Durham. 

The British Earthquakes of the years 1908 and 1909 [describes the Earth- 
shake at Stanhope (Weardale) on December 2nd, 1909]. 'Geol. 
Mag ', July 1910, pp. 315-3^0- 

W. Boyd Dawkins. Yorks., Derbyshire, etc. 

The Arrival of Man in Britain in the Pleistocene Age. (The Huxley Lecture 
for 1910). ' Journ. Anthrop. Institute,' Vol. XL., July-December 
1910, pp. 233-263. 

Ernest E. L. Dixon, and Arthur V.\ughan. X^orthumberland. 

The Carboniferous Succession in Gower (Glamorganshire) [correlates with 
the Upper Bernician of Xorthumberland]. Abstract in ' Geol. Mag.', 
May 1910, pp. 231-2. 

G. Dunston. Lines. N. 

Black Diamonds from the new Eastern Coalfields [with geological notes]. 
London, 1910. 60 pp. 

Lines., N., Cumberland, Northumberland, Durham. 
A. R. Dwerryhouse (Secretary). 

Erratic Blocks of the British Isles — Report of the Committee [includes 
northern county records by A. C. Dalton, E. A. Woodruffe-Peaeoek, 
(Mrs.) E. Jones, J. A. Smythe, — Woolacott, E. Merrick, W. J. Wingate, 
A. Bell, R. C. Burton, and G Weyman]. 'Rep. Brit. Assn.', Winnipeg, 
1909 (publ. 1910), pp. 169-176. 

Arthur R. Dwerryhouse. X'orthern Counties. 

The Earth and its Story [many references to and illustrations of Geological 

Features in the north of England], London, 1910, 364 pp. 

igi2 May i. 



156 Bibliography : Geology and Palceontology , 1910. 

William Morley Egglestone. Durham. 

The Geology of the Little Whin Sill, Weardale, County Durham. ' Trans. 
Institute Mining Engineers,' Vol. XXXIX., pt. i, pp. 18-51 ; with 
' Discussion ' by Messrs. Stephen Watson, John Barker, T. L. Elwen, 
J. B. Atkinson, T. E. Forster, and the author, on pp. 37-46 (of reprint) ; 
also ' Trans. N. England Institute Mining and Mechanical Engineers,' 
Vol. LX., 1910, pp. 232-265. 

T. L. Elwen. See William Morley Egglestone. 

J. R. Farmery. See C. R. Bower. 

W. G. Fearnsides. See J. E. Marr. 

A. M. Finlayson. Lake District. 

The Ore-bearing Pegmatites of Carrock Fell, and the Genetic Significance of 
Tungsten-ores [describes the wolfram veins in the Grainsgill Greisen, 
near Carrock Fell]. ' Geol. Mag.', January 1910, pp. 19-28. 

.\lexander Moncrieff Finlayson. Lake District, Isle of Man, etc. 
The Metallogeny of the British Isles. Classifies the British Ore Deposits 
etc. ' Quart. Journ. Geol. Soc.', Vol. LXVL, pt. 2, No. 262, May 
1910, pp. 281-298. 

Alexander Moncrieff Finlayson. Lake District, Isle of Man, etc. 
Problems of Ore-Deposition in the Lead and Zinc Veins of Great Britain. 

' Quart. Journ. Geol. Soc.', Vol. LXVL, pt. 2, No. 262, May 1910, pp. 
299-328. 

Clement le Neve Foster and S. Herbert Cox. Northern Counties. 
A Treatise on Ore and Stone Mining. London 1910, pp. xxx.-fygg pp. 
T. E. Forster. See William Morley Egglestone 

W. Storks Fox. Derbyshire. 

Ravencliff Cave [records details of excavations, and gives the following 
remains : — man, cat, dog or wolf, fox, badger, bear, ox, sheep or goat, 
deer, boar, horse, rhinoceros, hare, rabbit vole, birds (including eagle), 
frog and toad]. ' Journ. Derbyshire Arch, and Nat. Hist. Soc.', Vol. 
XXX., 1910 pp. 141-146. 

E. J. Garwood. Northumberland, Durham. 

Northumberland and Durham [Geology of]. Geology in the Field. Part 4. 

London 1910. pp. 561-697. 

E. J. Garwood. ' Westmorland, 

On the Horizon of the Lower Carboniferous Beds, containing Archceo- 
sigHlaiia uanuxemi (Goppert) at Meathop Fell. ' Geol. Mag.', March, 
1910, pp. 117-119. 

[John Gerrard]. Lanes., S. 

Fossil Shells from Astley Sinking [Carboiiicola viuti and Av.thracomya 

phiUipsii]. 'Trans. Manchester Geol. and JNIin. Soc', Vol. XXXL, 
pts. 9 and 10, 1910, p. 171. 

W. Gibson. See G. W. Lamplugh. 

W.^LCOT Gibson. Yorks., S.W., Notts., Derbyshire. 

The Coal-measures of the Concealed Yorkshire, Nottinghamshire, and 
Derbyshire Coalfield [abstract]. 'Brit. Assn. Leaflet'; also 'Geol. 
Mag.', October 1910, pp. 471-473. 

Naturalist, 



Bibliography : Geology and PalcBontology, 1910. 157 

Herbert W. Greenwood. Cheshire. 

Exposure of old Beach Surface at Leasowe. ' Proc. Liverpool Geol. Assn.', 
N.S., No. 4, 1907-9 (publ. 1910), pp. 49-50. 

F. W. Harmer. Yorks., N.E , S.E., etc., Lines. 

The Glacial Geology of Norfolk and Suffolk, [refer to Yorkshire and Lincoln- 
shire glacial features]. 'Trans. Norfolk and Norwich Nat. Soc.', 
Vol. IX., pt. I, 1910, pp. 108-133 ; 2^^*^^ reprinted in pamphlet, London, 
1910, pp. 1-26. 

M. K. Heslop and J. A. Smythe. Northumberland. 

Notes on the Dyke at Crookdene (Northumberland) and its relation to the 
Collywell, Morpeth, and Tynemouth Dykes. Abstract in ' Geol. Mag.', 
January 1910, pp. 41-42. 

W. Hewitt. Lanes , S. 

Notes on an Excavation in the Keuper Marl in Hope Street, Liverpool. 

' Proc. Liverpool Geol. Soc.', Vol. XL, pt. i, pp. 12-14. 

W. Hewitt. Lanes., Cheshire, etc. 

' The Liverpool Geological Society ' (Established December 13th, 1859). 
A Retrospect of Fifty Years' Existence and Work. Liverpool, 191 o. 
117 pp. 

George Hickling. Lanes., S., Yorks., Mid.W. 

The Anatomy of Calamostachys binneyana Schimper [from specimens found 
in coal-balls]. Mem. and Proc. Mancliester Lit. and Phil. Soc.', 
Vol. LIV., pt. 3, 1909-1910 (publ. 1910), No. XVII., pp. 1-16. 

Martin, A. C. Hinton. Derbyshire. 

A Preliminary Account of the British Fossil Voles and Lemmings ; with 

some remarks on the Pleistocene Climate and Geography (brief reference 

to the Langwith Cave]. ' Proc. Geol. Assn.', Vol. XXL, pt. 10, igio, 

pp. 489-507- 

A. R. Horwood. Notts, Derbyshire, etc. 

Investigation of the Fossil Flora and Fauna of the Midland Coalfields. 

' Quart. Journ. Warwickshire Assn. of Mining Students,' Vol. II., pt. 

I, April 1910, pp. 11-17. 

A. R. Horwood. Lanes., S., Cheshire, etc. 

'The Origin of the British Trias [abstract], 'Brit. Assn. leaflet ' ; and 
' Geol. Mag.', October 1910, pp. 460-463. 

A. R. Horwood. Derbyshire, Notts. 

The Post-Pleistocene Flora and Fauna of Central England [with lists of 

species from various localities]. ' Geol. Mag.', December, 1910, pp. 

542-553- 

A. R. Horwood. Notts. 

The Origin of the British Trias [a reply to Mr. W. B. Wright's criticisms]. 

' Geol. Mag.', December 1910, pp. 574-575. 

J. Allen Howe. Northern Counties. 

The Geology of Building Stones. London, 1910, pp. viii.+455. 

Edward Hull. Northern Counties 

Reminiscences of a Strenuous Life [brief reference to the geology of northern 
counties]. London, 1910, 150 pp. 

1912 May J. 



158 Bibliography : Geology and PalcBontology, 1910. 

J. Wilfrid Jackson. Lanes., S. 

Note on the Discovery of a Fish-spine in the Carboniferous Limestone at 

Clitheroe [Cteiiacanthns brevis']. ' Laacs. Nat.', September 1910, pp. 
213-214. 

J. Wilfrid Jackson. Lanes., N. 

Preliminary Report on the Exploration of ' Dog Holes ' Cave, Warton Crag, 
near Carnforth, Lancashire [with plan], ' Trans. Lancashire and 
Cheshire Antiq. Soc.', Vol. XXVII. (pp. 1-32 of reprint). 

J. Wilfrid Jackson. Westmorland. 

On the Discovery of Archaeosigillaria vanuximi (Goppert) at Meathop Fell, 
Westmorland, with a Description of the Locality [from the Carboni- 
ferous limestone]. ' Geol. Mag.', January 1910, pp. 78-81. 

J. W. Jackson. Lanes., S. 

Exhibits [Gvyphcsa iiicurva from the Boulder clay near Blackpool]. ' Journ. 
of Conch.', July igio, p. 96. 

J. W. Jackson. Lanes., S 

On the Vertebrate Fauna found in the Cave-earth at Dog Holes, Wharton 

Crag. ' Lanes. X^at.', February 1910, pp. 323-332.; abstract in 

' Geol Mag,' March 1910, p. 137. See also notice in ' The Xaturalist,' 

April 1910, pp. 138-139. 

Cosmo, Johns. Xorthern Counties. 

Geology at the British Association. ' The Naturalist,' October 1910, pp. 
358-360. 

Cosmo, Johns. Derbyshire, Yorks., X".W., Lanes., S. 

On the Classification of the Lower Carboniferous Rocks. ' Geol. Mag.' 
December 1910, pp. 562-564. 

(Mrs.) E. Jones. See A. R. Dwerryhouse. 

T. A. Jones. Isle of Man- 

Note on the ' Augite Porphyrite ' of Scarlett Stack, Isle of Man, and Asso- 
ciated Rocks. ' Proc. Liverpool Geol. Assn.', N.S., No. 4, 1907-9 
(publ. 1910), pp. 22-26. 

P. F. Kendall. • Cheshire, X'otts., etc. 

' The Origin of the Trias Rocks of England.' ' Trans. Leeds Geol. Assn.', 
pt. 15, 1908-10, pp. 36-37. 

P. M. C. Kermode. See Ernest B. Savage. 

Philip Lake, and R. H. Rastall. Xorthern Counties. 

A Text-Book of Geology. London, 1910, pp. xvi. + 494. 

G. W. Lamplugh and W. Gibson. Notts. 

The Geology of the Country around Nottingham. (' Geol. Survey Mem.'), 
1910, pp. vi.-|-72. 

J. G. Learoyd. Lake District. 

Pressure in Relation to Thickness of Ice [brief reference to the former 
thickness of ice in the Lake District]. ' Proc. Liverpool Geol. Assn.', 
X.S., No. 4, 1907-9 (publ. 1910), pp. 22-26. 

Frank Leverett. Northern Counties. 

Comparison of North American and European Glacial Deposits. ' Berlin 
Zeitsehrift fiir Gletscherkunde,' Vol. IV., 1910, pp. 241-316. See 
' The Naturalist,' December 1910, pp. 416-418. 

Naturalist! 



Bibliography : Geology and PalcBontology, igio. 159 

Peter Macnair. Northern Counties. 

Introduction to the Study of Minerals and Guide to the Mineral Collections 
. in Kelvingrove Museum Lincludcs particulars of Lake District, etc., 
minerals]. Glasgow, 1910, 70 pp. 

Yorks., N.E., S.E., Lines., N. 

G. W. B. Macturk, W. H. Crofts, and J. W. Stather. 

Notes on the Field Excursions [of the Hull Geological Society] in the years 

1905-9 [with lists of fossils from various localities, details of section 

at Barton-on-Humber, etc.]. ' Trans. Hull Geol. Soc.', Vol. VL, pt. 2, 

1910, pp. 132-141. 

J. E. Marr. Lake District. 

The Lake District and Neighbourhood — Lower Palaeozoic Times.' Geolog}^ 
in the Field,' pt. 3, London, 1910, pp. 624-641. 

J. E. Marr. Lake District. 

The Lake District and Neighbourhood (continued) — Upper Palaeozoic and 
Neozoic Times. — ' Geology in the Field,' pt. 3, London, 1910, pp. 642- 
660. 

A. J. Maslen. See D. H. Scott. 

Meade- Waldo. See under Waldo. 

E. ^Ierrick. See A. R. Dwerryhouse. 

H. W. MoN'CKTON and R. S. Herries [edited by]. Northern Counties. 

Geology in the Field. The Jubilee Volume of the Geologists' Association 

(1858-1908), [contains papers bearing on the geology of the northern 

counties, referred to separately under the respective authors] . London, 

1910, 8g6 pp. Reviewed in ' Geol. Mag.', Aug 1910, pp. 370 i. 

L. MoYSEY. Derbyshire, Notts. 

On Some Rare Fossils from the Derbyshire and Nottinghamshire Coalfield. 

' Brit. Assn. Leaflet,' 10 pp., and ' Geol. Mag.', Oct. 1910, pp. 474-475. 

Lewis Moysey. Derbyshire, Notts. 

On Palseoxyris and other Allied Fossils from the Derbyshire and Nottingham- 
shire Coalfield [describes P. preudeli, P. carbuuaria, P. helictevoides , 
P. johnsoni, Vetacapsula cooperi, Fayolia dentata, and F. crei'.ulata]. 
' Quart. Journ. Geol. Soc.', Vol. LXVL, No. 263, Aug. 1910, pp. 
329-345 ; abstract in ' Nature,' April 7th, 1910, p. 179 ; ' Geol. Mag.', 
May, p. 232 ; and ' The Naturalist,' June 1910, p. 219. 

Marion I. Newbigin. Northumberland, etc. 

The Physical Environment — ^Meteorology, etc. [refers to the Northumber- 
land Sand-dunes, etc.]. ' The Book of Nature Study,' Vol. VI., 1910, 
pp. 1-91. 

A.. Newell. [See J. H. Gkeenwood]. 

Alfred Newstead. Cheshire. 

Curator and Librarian's Report [of the Grosvenor Museum, Chester, includes 

a mammoth tooth, the only authentic Cheshire example]. 'Chester 

Soc. of Nat. Sci., etc.. Thirty-ninth Annual Report.', 1910, pp 17-23. 

C. Oldham. See T. A. Coward. 
igiaMayi. 



i6o Bibliography: Geology and Palceontology, iqio. 

Charles Pilkington and Percy Lee Wood, Lanes., S. 

The Sinking of the Astley Green Shafts, at Astley, near Manchester, by 

means of the drop-shaft method and under-hanging tubbing [brief 

geological notes^. 'Trans. Manch. Geol. Soc.', Vol. 31, pts. XVI.- 

XVIII., 1910, pp. 300-324. 

E. A. Woodruffe-Peacock. See A. R. Dwerryhouse. 

H. Power. See E. H. Chapman. 

W. MuNN Rankin. Lanes., N. 

The Peat Moors of Lonsdale : an Introduction. ' The Naturalist,' March 
1910, pp. iig-122 ; April 1910, pp. 153-161. 

Robert Heron R.\stall. Lake District. 

The Skiddaw Granite and its Metamorphism [abstract of paper read to the 
Geological Society]. ' Nature,' January 13th, 1910, p. 328 ; ' Know- 
ledge,' July 1910, p. 280 ; ' Geol. Mag.', January 191O; pp. 92-93. 

R. H. Rastall. See Philip Lake. 

C. H. Read. Derbyshire. 
Ravenclitf Cave [gives details of discoveries made during excavations]. 

' Journ. Derbys. Arch, and Nat. Hist. Soc.', Vol. XXX., 1910, pp. 
147-151- 

F. R. Cowper Reed. Cumberland. 
New Fossils from the Dufton Shales [including Trimicleus nicholsoni sp. 

nov. ; Acidaspis seniievohitasp.noy. ; Honialoiiotus ascviptus up. nov. ; 
Beyyichia [Ceratnpsis) diiftonensis sp. nov. ; B. {Ctenobolliiia?) super- 
ciliata sp. nov., and B. (Tetrndella) turnbulli sp. nov.]. ' Geol. Mag.', 
May 1910, pp. 211-220 (plates). 

F. R. CowPER Reed. Lake District 

New Fossils from the Dufton Shales, Pt. 3 [describes Crisinella wimani, 
Ot'this diiftoiu'iisis, O. meliuevbiensis, and Ovthis [Scenidum ?) equivo- 
calis]. ' Geol. Mag.', July 1910, pp. 294-299. 

D. H. Scott and A. J. Maslen. Lanes., S. 
On Mesoxylon, a New Genus of Cordiatale (preliminary notice), ' Ann, 

of Botany,' 1910, p. 236, and 'Knowledge,' Nov., 1910, p. 448. 

Ernest B Savage [and] P. M. C. Kermode. Isle of Man. 

The Manx Museum and Ancient Monuments. Trustees' Fifth Annual 
Report . . . with list of Additions to the Museum [brief geolo- 
gical notes], Douglas, 16 pp. 

Edward Sandeman. Derbyshire. 

Excavation Discoveries in the Derwent Valley [figures a well-preserved 

' fossil lish ' ( Acrolepis hopkiiisi) and includes a description by Dr. 

Smith Woodward. ' Journ. Derbys. Arch, and Nat. Hist. Soc.', 

Vol. XXX., 1910, pp. 73-75. 

A. C. Seward. Northern Counties. 

Fossil Plants and Text-book for Students of Botany and Geology. Vol. II., 
Cambridge, 1910, pp. xxii.-f-624. 

(To be continued). 



Naturalist, 



i6i 

REVIEWS AND BOOK NOTICES. 

Poppies, by George Gordon, is the title of the latest of the useful penny 
handbooks issued by the Agricultural and Horticultural Association, 
London. It is well illustrated. 

Extinct Animals of East Yorkshire, etc. Illustrated Guide to the Hull 
Whaling Relics, etc.. Quarterly Records of Additions, September, December, 

1911 ; Hull Museums : Annual Report for 1910 ; being Hull Museums' 
Publications, No. 81-85. 

Here is a quintette of these useful little handbooks. Alike in size, 
shape, orderly arrangement, and in the value of their contents ; they 
differ widely in the specific nature of those contents. Each one will appeal 
specially to some, and all of them have something of interest to every 
reader. Tho.se who would watch the growth of the Hull museums will 
naturally turn to the quarterly records of additions, and to the excellent 
report for igio. Why this latter has been so late in appearing as the 
autumn of 191 1 is not apparent. It is really too bad to delay such a good 
report ; not that the delay has in any way detracted from its value, but 
becau.se the public have been deprived of the pleasure of reading it sooner. 
The last time we had the pleasure of noticing these publications, there 
were two museums in Mr. Sheppard's care, now there are three ; and we 
gather that the original museum has been increased in size by the addition 
of space formerly devoted to objects of art. These extensions have made 
it possible for the exhibits to be arranged in a more natural manner ; the 
removal of the fishing exhibits to the new museum in Pickering Park, 
opened March 30th, will give to Hull the unique possession of a permanent 
display of objects dealing soleh' with the fishing industry, using that term 
in its widest sense. To the original local collection has been added a 
number of valuable exhibits which have been presented by the Japanese 
Government. 

The natural history exhibits have received many necessary additions, 
making them more representative. From the abundance of good things, 
it is most difficult to make a selection without appearing to do an injustice 
to the remainder. We should like to draw attention to the addition 
in Birds, of the Riley-Fortune collection ; Conchology, the fine Schlesch 
collection in thirty drawers, a catalogue of which will .soon be accessible. 
Twenty Spiders,' most of them new to Yorkshire, and the brackish-water- 
beetle H . nndsanti. also new to the county, have been added by .Mr. 
Stainforth. Besides these there is a splendid list of geological finds which 
have been added to the already large display in this branch of science. 
Mr. Sheppard is to be congratulated on the results of the year's work 
as detailed in this report, which should be in the hands of everyone inter- 
ested in museum management. 

Perhaps the item which deserves special mention is a paper with the 
title ' Pastimes for Curators,' read at the Brighton Conference of Museum 
Curators. 191 1. Written in Mr. Sheppard's characteristic style, its reading 
will give pleasure to many besides professional museum curators. The 
pervading .satiric humour will be generally appreciated, and it is to be 
hoped that most of its readers will realise also the author's serious intent. 
The following quotation is quite to the purpose of this notice of the 
museum's publications : — ' Now as regards the value of these penny 
pamphlets. In the first place . . . they prevent a certain gentleman 
finding mischief for idle hands, by keeping the curator occupied. Secondh', 
they form a running descriptive catalogue of the exhibits, which will be 
a boon and a blessing to following curators and committees ; and we must 
remember that our museums are to last for all time. Thirdly, they enable 
those interested in any particular subject to have every information 
thereon at a minimum of cost. Fourthly, as " sprats." ' \\'e sincerely 
wish the curator may catch a shoal of mackerel. — E. G. B. 

1912 May I 



1 62 

PROCEEDINGS OF PROVINCIAL SCIENTIFIC SOCIETIES. 

Mr. William Hill's Pi-esidential Address to the Geologists' Association, 
entitled ' Rocks containing Radiolaria,' is printed in the Association's 
Proceedings, recently issued. 

The Proceedings of the Liverpool Naturalists' Field Club for the year 
lyii is principally occupied by a report of the Field Excursions (mainly 
botanical), and a useful ' Contribution towards a Fungus Flora of the 
Hundred of Wirral,' by John ^^'. Ellis. 

The Birmingham and Midland Institute has recently issued its 
valuable ' Records of Meteorological Observations, taken at the Observa- 
tory, Edgbaston, 191 1,' by the Curator, Mr. Alfred Crcsswell, The report 
is supplemented by the usual tables and diagrams. It is sold at 2/- 

The Warwickshire Naturalists' and Archaeologists' Field Club has 

recently issued its 54th and 33th annual reports. They contain summaries 
of the two years' work (1909-10) , a note on the Basement Bed of the Keuper, 
by F. T. Maidwell, and a History of Geological Discovery in Warwickshire, 
by the same author. The society's balance in hand yearly becomes greater. 

The Fifteenth Report of the Southport Society of Natural Science for 
1910-11 is rather disappomting. There are articles on Halley's Comet, 
Galileo, Photographic Optics, Aquatic Hemiptera, and Chemical Synthesis, 
all of which subjects, excellently treated, can be found in the leading 
reference books. There is not a single note bearing upon the natural 
history, archaeology or geology of the Southport district. In addition, 
the paper is very poor, and the typography is anything but pleasing. 
Apparently the Society has too much money, and does not know how to 
spend it. 

The Transactions and Journal of Proceedings of the Dumfriesshire 
Natural History and Antiquarian Society, N.S., Vol. XXIII. for 1910-11, 
again lills a substantial volume, there being over 350 pages, which for the 
most part are confined to the sphere of the Society's work. There is an 
interesting and well-illustrated paper on Communion Tokens, and many 
other notes of local antiquarian interest. Mr. S. Arnott has a paper on 
' Local Plant Names ' ; Mr. H. S. Gladstone writes on ' Cummin's Ash,' 
an ancient ash tree ; ^Ir. Rutherford writes on ' Weather and Natural 
Hi.story ' ; Dr. J. 'SI. Ross on ' Weather in relation to Health ' ; and Mr. 
A. Watt gives Rainfall Records ; Mr. W. J. Payne writes on bird life in 
the south of Scotland, and Mr. J. M' Andrew describes Hepatics and Mosses 
of the same district. There are many illustrations, and a good index. 

The Journal of the Derbyshire Archaeological and Natural History 
Society (Vol. XXXIII., 191 1, 254, xxviii pp.), is well illustrated, and the 
jiapers are all of local interest. Amongst those coming within the scope 
of this journal may be mentioned ' The Promontory Forts of Derbyshire,' 
by E. Trustram ; ' The " Harbour " and Barrows at Arbour-Lpws, ' by 
S. O. Addy ; ' Bradwell Lead Mining Customs,' by S. Evans ; ' The Lows 
in the High Peak,' by T. A. iMatthews ; ' Roman Roads ' ; and ' Roman 
Camp near Coneygrey House,' by W. Smithard ; ' Derbyshire Cave-Men 
of the Roman Period,' by W. S. Fox ; ' Chapel-en-le-Frith Churchwardens 
Accounts,' by H. Kirke (with entries of amounts paid for hedgehogs, 
ravens, badgers, foxes (11/- being paid ' for killing a fox ' in 1804) ; for 
' wiping Iwhippingl doggs,' etc.) ; Edward M. Wrench, M.V.O., F.R.C.S., 
writes nonsense on ' Glacial Stones ' ; the Rev. F. C. R. Jourdain gives a 
iLseful Zoological Record for igio ; and T. Gibbs gives ' Mycological Notes ' 
on the .seasons 1909-10, in which he records 220 new county records, and 
15 species and one \ariety recorded are either new to science or to Britain, 

Naturalist, 



i63 

NEWS FROM THE MAGAZINES 

Dr. R. S. INIacDougall has an illustrated article on ' Mustard Beetles,' 
in The Journal of the Board of Agricitlttire for March. 

Part 3 of Cassell's Nature Book contains a magnificent reproduction, 
in colours, of MacWhirter's ' June in the Austrian Tyrol.' 

A specimen of Rudolphi's Rorqual was washed up on the beach on the 
Northumberland coast early in February. — Zoologist, No. 849. 

The New Phytologist for March contains an able and well-illustrated 
paper on ' The Shingle Beach as a Plant Habitat,' by Prof. F. \V. Oliver. 

After describing in detail the ' observed fall of an aerolite ' near St. 
Albans, in Nature, the writer of the note submitted the specimen to the 
British Museum, and it turns out that the stone is not of meteoric origin. 

A Black-tailed Godwit was shot near Spurn on February 3rd (British 
Birds,. A-pri\). The same journal records that a nestling black-headed 
gull, ringed at Egton, Yorkshire, in July 191 1, was recovered on the island 
of Flores, in the Azores, in February 1912. 

Part II. of Cassell's Nature Book contains an article on ' The Delights 
of the Garden," by Mr. H. H. Thomas, which is illustrated by photographs 
of some Yorkshire gardens. There are excellent photographs of ' woolly 
bears,' and tiger moths, birds, daisies, field mice, etc. 

The deaths of two geologists, both of whom had handed their collec- 
tions over to the Manchester Museum, are recorded in the Geological 
Magazine for April. Two other geologists who have recently handed 
over their collections to a well-known Yorkshire Museum are still alive. 
Verb. sap. 

The Library Circular issued by the Sunderland Public Libraries, con- 
tains a plate illustrating local pre-historic remains recently' added to the 
Museum. We are surprised to find that this usually up-to-date library 
has not a copy of Mortimer's ' Forty Years' Researches ' amongst its books 
dealing with pre-historic man. 

Part VIII. of The Micrologist completes the first volume. It contains 
an admirable plate of photo-micrographs of larva^, etc. Mr. Abraham 
Flatters contributes an article on Vermes, etc. ; Mr. Herbert Womersley 
writes on Terpineol, a New Clearing Agent ; and ]\Ir. G. A. McKechnie 
has a note on Mounting Museum Specimens of Insects as Microscopical 
Slides. (Manchester, 1/6 net). 

In The Museums Journal for April, Messrs. Crouch, Butler and Savage, 
have an illustrated article on ' The New Library and Art Gallery, Man- 
chester,' from which we gather that 223 designs were submitted for the 
building. Oddly enough, we are informed that the successful competitors 
were Messrs. Crouch, Butler and Savage. In the same journal Dr. F. A. 
Bather has an article on the new London museum. 

We have received No. 6 of the Hastings and East Sussex Naturalist, 
which is an unusually good number. (Burfield & Pennells, Hastings, 2/-) 
Mr. W. E. Nicholson has an excellent memoir on the Hepatics of Sussex, 
which is well illustrated, the plate of Cephcdozia macrantha Kaal. and 
Nicholson, being particularly fine. Mr. T. Parkin writes on Beauport and 
its Rookery, and also gives an account of a Sussex Shooting-Decoy. The 
Rev. E. N. Bloomfield gives a list of ' Sussex Fungi, Part i. Supplement,' 
and also contributes notes on the local fauna and flora. There is a reprint 
of a note on a ' New British Bird,' from another paper, in the pages of 
which we think it might have been allowed to remain. 

1912 May I. 



164 

NORTHERN NEWS. 

A public museum has been opened at Newark. 

On July 15th next, the Royal Society will celebrate its 250th birthday. 

The Lapwing is now protected throughout the year in Cumberland, 
Northumberland and Lancashire. 

The interesting old church at Hickleton has been seriously damaged 
by subsidence, as a result of the mining operations in the vicinity. 

It is a significant fact that a certain northern librarian has ceased to 
advertise drinks on the cover of his monthly ' circulars,' and is advertising 
perambulators instead ! 

Mr. F. Barker has resigned the secretaryship of the Halifax Scientfic 
Society, after occupying the position for twenty- three years. Mr. J. H. 
Lumb is now the secretary. 

According to the History of Withevnsea, recently issued, the following 
birds ' yearly nest ' at Spurn : — ' Tern, Sheldrake, Oystercatcher, Golden 
Plover, Dunlin, Godwit, etc' 

.\ boy was brought before the magistrate at Penrith on the 9th April, 
for gathering eighteen eggs of the Plover, the bird being now protected 
throughout the year in Cumberland. 

We learn from the daily press that ' a red admiral butterfly was caught 
by a police sergeant in the old gaol yard, Scarborough, on Wednesday.' 
We hope that the attention of his chief will be drawn to the sergeant's 
smartness. 

A hint. The curator of a Yorkshire museum, who was lecturing in 
the Scarborough museum recently, cast envious eyes upon some o-' the 
specimens there. The council has since met, and is making enquiries as 
to the rate of insurance against burglary. 

The science of the popular magazine is only equalled in the extent and 
variety of its information by that of the bookseller's catalogue. We have 
just seen the following items under ' Marine Botany ' : — ' On Pourtalesia, a 
genus of Echinoidea,' by I^oven, and ' The Genera Vermium,' by Barbut. 

In the list of publications received by a well-known American museum, 
we notice that the Warrington and Norwich Museum reports are entered 
in the. ' C ' column ; The Field is under ' E,' the Liverpool Art Gallery 
under ' W,' while the London Museums and Galleries are under ' W,' ' V,' 
' H,' etc. Oddly enough, ' Hull ' is among the H's! 

A primeval Washing-day. We learn from the Yorkshire Post's account 
of the discovery of the South Pole that ' geologists have hopes that the 
pre-Cambrian rocks of the Polar regions may not have been subjected to 
that dipping into the internal lava of the earth which has melted them in 
other quarters of the globe, so that, on re-emerging, any fossils they may 
have contained have been destroyed.' 

Mr. C. G. Lloyd, of Cincinnati, Ohio, has just issued a well illustrated 
Synopsis of the Section Oviniis of Polyporus,' at the end of which are the 
following : — ' Index, distribution, and advertisements,' ' Index of the 
species considered valid in this publication, the countries from whence 
known, and the personal name to be added to the specific name by those 
who believe in this system of advertisement] ' 

We have just seen a newspaper report of an interview with a Lincoln- 
shire naturali.st named Webster. According to this, the best catch of 
snakes he ever had was when he obtained eighty-five in a bunch in a manure 
heap. U'hen he was at Cowbitt, he caught two hundred and twenty in 
two years. ' The largest I ever caught measured 8 feet 6 inches ; it was 
between Spalding and Crowland.' The article concludes : ' Mr. Webster's 
interest in natural history is not confined to living reptiles. His front 
room is crowded with stuffed animals, from a panther, a vulture, and a 
python, to a skinned and preserved flea ' ; all caught, we presume, between 
Spalding and Crowland. 

Naturalist 



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and the Danish colonisation of Jorvik — i.e., Yorwick — we are led on to the York of 
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Across its stage have passed Julius, Agricola, Hadrian, Severus and Constantine ; 
Edwin, Siward, Tostig, Harold ; William the Conqueror and Edward, Malleus Scotorum, 
Queen Phillipa and the fair Margaret, James I., and all the Stuart kings; Fairfax and 
Cromwell, and the gay, dashing Cavalier, Prince Rupert. And parallel with these there 
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THE ANNALS OF 

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A Quarterly Magazine. 

Edited by J. A. Harvie-Browne, F.R.S.E., 
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F.R.S., F.L.S., Wm. Eagle Clarke, F.L.S., etc. 

This Magazine — a continuation of ' The Scot- 
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Printed at Browns' Savile Press, 40, George Street, Hull, and published by 
A. Brown & Sons, Limited, at 5, Farringdon Avenue in the City of London. 

May ist, 1912. 



JUNE, 1912. No. 665 

(No. 443 »f turrtnt ttrlti). 




A MONTHLY ILLUSTRATED JOURNAL OF 

NATURAL HISTORY FOR THE NORTH OF ENGLAND. 

EDITED BY 

T. SHEPPARD, F.Q.S., F.R.Q.S., F.S.A.Scot., 

The Museums, Hull ; 

AND 

T. W. WOODHEAD, Ph.D., F.L.S., 

Technical College, Huddersfield. ^ 

with the assistance as referees in special departments >6>f 1; 
J. GILBERT BAKER, P.R.S. P.L.S., GEO. T. PORRITF, P.l!^, P>fe.S., 

Prof. P. F. KENDALL, M.Sc, P.Q.S., JOHN W. TAYLOR, 

T. H. NELSON, M.B.O.U., WILLIAM WEST, P.L.S., 

RILEY FORTUNE, F.Z.S. 



Contents : — 

PAGE 

Notes and Comments : — Relics of Early Man ; West Indian Rhizopodsat Whitby; Cleansing 
Greasy Insects ; The Portsmouth Report ; The Hornsea Experiment ; Yorkshire 
Universities' Marine Laboratory 165-167 

The Bearded Tit Experiment at Hornsea Mere (Illust.)— H. B. Booth, F.Z.S. , M.B.O.U. 168-170 

Yorkshire Naturalists at Riccall (Illustrated)— H^.JE.L.Ii' 171-178 

Freshwater Rhizopodaand Heliozoa from ^inAer Scout— J. Meikle Brown, B.Sc.F.L.S. 179-182 

Some British Earthmites (Illustrated)— C. F. George, M.R.C.S 183-184 

Planer's Lamprey near Scarborough — W.J. Clarke, F.Z.S 185 

In Memoriam— F. M. Burton, F.L.S., F.Q.S. (Illustrated)— T. S 186-187 

Bibliography : Papers and Records published with respect to the Geology and Palaeontology 

of the North of England (Yorkshire excepted), during 1910—7". Sheppard, F.G.S. ... 188-190 
Field Notes: — Early Flowering of the Hawthorn; Green Hairstreak Butterflies near Scar- 
borough ; Co/<i<s 6tt6a/ts at Scarborough ; Piscicola geometra At Scavborough 191 

New Natural History Books 192-194 

Reviews and Book Notices 170,184,187,194 

Northern News 178 

Proceedings of Provincial Scientific Societies 167,195 

News from the Magazines 196 

illustrations ... 168, 171, 176, 183, 186 

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i65 
NOTES AND COMMENTS. 

RELICS OF EARLY MAN. 

Now that the craze for rehcs of early man is at its height 
we must expect a good deal. In the Geological Magazine for 
l\Iay, the Rev. O. Fisher, M.A., F.G.S., has a paper on ' Some 
handiworks of early men of various ages.' The following is 
one of the ' evidences ' he gives : — ' At one time, when I was 
digging for bones in the gravel at Barrington, I found two 
round stones of the same size near one another. One of them 
was a flint nodule, the other of a different rock. They attracted 
my attention at the moment, but their possible significance 
did not occur to me then, and I did not preserve them. I 
afterwards thought that they might have been bolas, such 
as are used in South America for catching game. They were 
of a suitable size for such a purpose.' When we have been 
digging for bones in the Holderness gravels, we have found 
round stones, some of which were flint nodules. There were cart 
loads of them. Their full significance did not occur to us at 
the time, and we did not preserve them, but we now think they 
may have been footballs, cricket balls, tennis balls, marbles 
and pills. They were of suitable sizes for such purposes. But 
we never previously thought they were relics of early man. 

WEST INDIAN RHIZOPODS AT WHITBY. 

At a recent meeting of the Linnean Society, Dr. J. Mastin 
made the following report : — •' On the 4th September, 1911, 
a few days after a stormy sea and heavy wind, on the coast 
off \\'hitby, Yorkshire, I saw a little patch of beautiful irrides- 
cent colour floating on the surface of the then calm water. I 
skimmed this cloud of colour, and on clearing later, found it to 
be varieties of Polycistina, of the family Rhizopoda, but having 
siliceous instead of calcareous shells. These shells, which are 
of magnificent forms, are identical with those usually (and I 
am informed 07ily) found in the West Indies, and along the 
coasts of Florida and the Gulf of Mexico. I believe they are 
the first discovered on the English coast to which they will 
most probably have been brought by the Gulf Stream.' We 
have not seen drawings nor even the names of these Rhizopods, 
but we think it very likely that they are either known in many 
places elsewhere than in the West Indies, or they have reached 
Whitby by other means than the Gulf Stream. 

CLEANSING GREASY INSECTS. 

Most collectors of Lepidoptera will have been inconvenienced 
at one time or another by their specimens turning ' greasy.' 
In The Entomologist's Record for May, Mr. P. A. H. Muschamp 



3912 June I. 



M 



1 66 Notes and Comments. 

describes ' an absolutely effective system ' of dealing with the 
matter, which may be interesting to our readers. Obtain a 
quart of Toluol (CyHy) from the druggist, and pour a quantity 
into each of three vessels, the size of which will depend upon 
individual requirements. Put two or three specimens into 
the first for twenty-four hours, then pass them on into the 
second bath, and after a day there, pass them into the third. 
' Thus each has three full days of the cleaning process and 
comes out of his bath spick and span and wonderfully re- 
juvenated. No resetting is required as the bath does not in 
the least relax the patient.' The vessels should be covered 
with a piece of glass to prevent evaporation. 

THE PORTSMOUTH REPORT. 

For some years we have drawn attention to the delay in 
the appearance of the reports of the meetings of the British 
Association for the Advancement of Science, and we have 
more than once suggested that it would be in the interests of 
the advancement of science if the report of one meeting appeared 
a little earlier than on the eve of the next. Seeing that the 
addresses, reports of committees, abstracts of papers, the list 
of members, and practically everything but the index is in 
type at the time. of the meeting, nine or ten months for re- 
paging, indexing, and binding, has seemed, to us, rather a long 
while ; especially when it is borne in mind that the very value 
of these reports on the state of science rests in their prompt 
appearance. The matter has even been discussed at the 
Association's meetings ; but we have generally been given to 
understand that the earlier publication of the report would 
interfere with the holidays of the staff. Anyway, holidays or 
no holidays, we received the 191 1 Report on April 26th, 1912, 
which is certainly a record in recent years, and we should like 
to congratulate the new secretary, Mr. O. J. R. Howarth, on 
the prompt appearance of this volume. We shall still hope 
that it may be possible some day to receive the report in the 
same year as that in which a meeting has been held. 

THE HORNSEA EXPERIMENT. 

It is with pecuhar pleasure that we print Mr. H. B. Booth's 
account of the success of the Bearded Reedling experiment at 
Hornsea. This beautiful bird, hitherto almost extinct in 
Britain, cannot possibly have any ill effect upon the fauna 
or flora of the district ; and the appearance of numbers of these 
birds can only be an added charm to the mere, which is already 
a veritable paradise to the naturalist. It may be satisfactory 
to Yorkshire naturalists to know that the suggestion originated 
at a meeting of the Yorkshire Naturalists' Union at Hornsea 

Naturalist, 



Proceedings of Provincial Scientific Societies. 167 

Mere in 1908, in the same way as an excursion of the Union 
to the Flamborough district resulted in the preservation of 
the peregrines at Bernpton, which now, form another valuable 
addition to our local avi-fauna. 



YORKSHIRE UNIVERSITIES MARINE LABORATORY. 

The Universities of Leeds and Sheffield have recently 
acquired a lease of the old coastguard cottage at Robin Hood's 
Ba3^ and have fitted it up with water, gas, and work-benches 
for use as a marine laboratory by their students. The labora- 
tory will be administered as an extension of the Zoological 
Departments of the two Universities, Professor Denny of 
Sheffield and Professor Garstang of Leeds acting jointly as 
directors. The undertaking is of an experimental nature at 
present, but there can be little doubt that the arrangement 
will meet a distinct need. Experience has shown that very few 
Yorkshire students can afford the time and expense involved 
in journeys to Plymouth or even Port Erin, and a party of ten 
students who made use of the laboratory at Easter, found in the 
simplicity of their accommodation, no hindrance to a week's 
successful work. 



The report of the Colchester Museum for the year ending JNIarch 31st, 
19 1 2, contains the usual extensive list of suitable additions. There are 
illustrations of founder's hoards of the Bronze Age, Bronze Age and Late 
Celtic earthenware, bygones, etc. 

The Eighty-Ninth Report of the Whitby Literary and Philosophical 
Society contains a list of additions during the year, a useful meteorological 
report, a note on ' Dentritic Markings in Rain Gauge,' and, as an appendix, 
' A List of Ethnographical Collection, Antiquities, Curiosities, Specimens 
of Art from Semi-barbarous Countries, etc.'. This includes 26S items. 

The Fifty-Ninth Annual Report of the Nottingham Naturalists' Society 

for 1910-11, was published, as properly stated on the cover, 'Friday, 
May 3rd, 1912.' It contains an abstract of a paper on the ' Geological 
Aspects of Scenery near Nottingham,' by Dr. F. Oswald ; a paper on ' The 
Mycetozoa of Nottinghamshire,' by Prof. J. W. Carr ; ' Annelid 1-funting 
in Nottinghamshire,' by Rev. H. Friend, and ' On the Discovery of Anthra- 
palaemon in the Nottinghamshire Coalfield,' by Dr. Moysey. 

From the Bankfield Museum, Halifax, we have received publications 
Nos. 8, 9, 10, and 11. The first-named is sold at one shilling, and deals 
with Halifax Posts, 1684-1852, and contains illustrations of a large number 
of postmarks, etc. Like Nos. 9 and 11, it is by the Hon. Curator. Mr. H. 
Ling Roth. No. 9 is entitled ' The Introduction of Scientific Physical 
Culture into England,' and is sold at threepence. No. 10 is by Mr. F. 
Villey, and describes the Roman Remains from Slack, which are in the 
Halifax museum. It is well illustrated, and, like No. 11, is sold at one 
penny. The pamphlet on Hand Card Making is of exceptional value, ' 
and Mr. Ling Roth is to be congratulated upon having placed on record 
information respecting this bj'-gone industry ; information which future 
investigators could not possibly secure. 

1912 June I. 



i6S 

THE BEARDED TIT EXPERIMENT AT HORNSEA MERE. 



H. B. BOOTH, F.Z.S., M.B.O.U. 



So far the experiment of the Wild Birds' and Eggs' Protection. 
Acts' Committee of the Yorkshire NaturaUsts' Union in intro- 
ducing the Bearded Tit (or, I think more correctly, the Bearded 
Reedling, Paniirus biarmicus) to Hornsea Mere, has turned out 
to be an unqualified success. The conditions are ideally 




The first-known Yorkshire Bearded Tit's nest, taken at Hornsea Mere on May 11th, 1912 

(after the young birds had left it), and now in the Hull Museum. 

(Photo taken looking from above). 



suitable to their habits and nesting requirements, and for 
many years it has been a matter of surprise that no birds of 
this species took up their quarters there. After some discussion 
among the members of this committee, Mr. Fortune's suggestion 
of obtaining eggs of the Bearded Tit from the Norfolk Broads 
and inserting them into nests of Reed Warblers at Hornsea, 
appeared to be the best and easiest means of trying the experi- 



The Bearded Tit Experiment at Hornsea Mere. 169 

ment. This was, of course, subject to the necessary permission 
being obtained. 

However, the president of the committee (Mr. W. H. St. 
■Quintin), generously undertook to obtain several pairs of 
the birds from Holland, at his own expense, and to keep them 
for several months in his aviaries before liberating them. 
Notes and criticisms on this experiment have already appeared.* 
On April nth, 191 1, fourteen birds (eight males and six females) 
were liberated by Mr. St. Quintin. f They were reported occa- 
sionally after ; but unfortunately our bird-watcher at the Mere 
was not competent as an ornithologist, although towards the 
end of his engagement he stated that he had seen a pair followed 
by its young. This year, our watcher of the two past seasons 
having taken another situation, we engaged a more experienced 
ornithologist as bird-watcher in Mr. George Bolam, who took 
up his duties on April 20th, with special instructions to look 
out for the Bearded Tits. He immediately reported that they 
were in evidence, and shortly after that, three paii^s at the least 
were feeding young at the nests. 

On May loth and nth, the writer visited the Mere in com- 
pany with the bird-watcher, and was delighted to see many 
Bearded Tits ; adult males and females, and also young birds, 
begging with quivering wings, for food from their parents. 
Adult males, in their beautiful characteristic plumage, pre- 
dominated ; sometimes five or six being visible at the same 
moment, which rather pointed to some of the females being 
already engaged with second nests. On a previous occasion, 
the watcher had seen eight males (curiously the exact number 
liberated) engaged in chasing one female. The colony now 
appears to be vv'ell established, and under favourable circum- 
stances should contain not less than fifty or sixty birds at the 
end -of the present season. Owing to the vast and almost 
inextricable masses of reeds, etc., at certain parts of the Mere, 
and the practical impossibility of getting to them, the Bearded 
Tit should become quite a common species there — even possibly 
the strongest single colony in England — and a welcome addition 
to this ornithological paradise. 

The birds appeared to be equally as much at home as I 
have seen them on the Norfolk Broads and in Holland ; and 
their active, restless habits, together with their clear metallic 
■'ping ping' notes, render an additional charm to the Mere. 
I also noticed at Hornsea — as I have done elsewhere (although 
I do not remember having seen it recorded) — the peculiar 
Dragon-fly-like flight of a pair of Bearded Tits when in the air 

* See The Naturalist, 191 1, pp. 45, 172, 279 and 348 ; and 1912, p. 22. 
Also British Birds, Vol. V., p. io8. 

t The Naturalist, 191 1, pp. 279-280. .1 

1Q12 June I. 



170 The Bearded Tit Experiment at Hornsea Mere. 

over the reed bed, and evidently courting. I brought away 
a nest from which the young had left a few days before ; and 
as this is the first that had actually been found by the watchers, 
and the first-known Yorkshire nest of what may prove a most 
thriving colony, I presented it to the Hull Natural History 
Museum. It is the characteristic nest of the species, being 
composed externally of fiat sedges and reeds, with a thick 
lining of the old flower-heads of the reed stalk. 

Mr. vSt. Quintin has visited the Mere on two occasions 
recently, and is naturally highly pleased and justly proud 
with the success of the experiment. All true lovers of wild 
birds in Yorkshire owe a debt of gratitude to him for his 
generosity, and for the time and trouble he has expended in 
bringing about such a successful issue, and in really adding^ 
such a delightful and resident species to our county's avi-fauna.. 



Moths of the Months and how to identify them, by the Rev. S. N. Sedg- 
wick, M.A. London : Charles H. Kelly. 

This is another instance of the attempt of an author to write on a sub- 
ject of which he evidently knows but little. A very cursor}'^ knowledge of 
the current literature on the subject, or of the doings of present-day lepidop- 
terists, would have prevented some of the pitfalls into which he has fallen. 
For instance, in his instructions on ' setting,' (p. 14), he tells us that ' a 
large number of species are small and fragile, and only the finest pins must 
be used ; others are too small for pins and must be gummed on to card.' 
The ' finest-pin ' notion was that of forty years ago, for nowadays students- 
use the stoutest entomological pin consistent with the size of the moth ; 
whilst we do not remember to have ever before heard of even the smallest 
moths being gummed on to card. Such method is used for beetles, but ta 
adopt it for moths would be to ruin the specimens absolutely for scientific 
purposes. And he would be a clever boy who could name his captures 
from the descriptions. The complete description of Larentia multistrigaria 
is ' coloured as its name implies ' ; of Fidonia pintaria, ' bright brown 
with slight fringe of white ' ; of Melanippe fluctiiata ' grey with brownish 
patches on upper wings,' and so on. Then we are told that the larva of 
Cheimatobia brumata ' feeds on hedges ' ; that of Hybervia rtipicapraria 
'on blackthorn and similar bushes,' etc. Of Callimorpha her a we learn that 
' occasional specimens are found in England, but its chief habitat is the 
Channel Islands,' whereas everybody knows that for many years now it 
has been taken in abundance on the South Devon Coast ; then the next 
species to it in the book, Deiopeia pulchella, which is one of the very rarest 
of species in Britain, is noted as being ' not a very common species.' 
Sphinx convolvuli is stated to be ' rarely found in England, but once fairly 
common,' when, in fact, it is now no longer regarded as a rarit3^ and last 
year (191 1), as in other recent years, was quite plentiful in some parts of 
the south of England. Of the illustrations, many of the more striking 
species are recognizable, but many are so blurred, that only their shape 
suggests what they are supposed to represent. The coloured frontispiece, 
representing the larvae of five of our larger butterflies and moths, is good,. 
and is a great contrast to the figure of the larva of Arctia caja, which, as 
represented, is truly a ' fearsome beast.' Enough has been said, though 
allusion might be made to the almost total absence of generic names, and 
the not rare errors in spelling. As a cheap little book for children, no^ 
doubt it will be more or less useful, but it is a pity it has not been written 
on more modern lines. — G. T. P, 

Naturalist, 



171 
YORKSHIRE NATURALISTS AT RICCALL. 

The fifty-first year's field work by the members of the Yorkshire 
NaturaHsts' Union was commenced at Riccall on Saturday, 
May 4th, by investigating the Commons of Riccall and Skip- 
with. The weather was fine, though sunless, and the paucity 
of the April rainfall was evidenced in the dryness of the ditches 
and depressions by which the drainage of the Commons is 
carried away. 




Plioto by] 



Female Emperor Moth : Riccall Common. 



[A.E. Peck, 



Between fifty and sixty members were present, twenty of 
the affiliated societies being represented, and all were evidently 
well satisfied with the day's outing. The President, Mr. J. W. 
Taylor ; the Treasurer, Mr. H. Culpin ; and the Secretaries, Dr. 
T. W. Woodhead and Mr. W. E. L. Wattam, were in attendance. 
An apology for absence, owing to indisposition, was received 
from Mr. Harold Wager, F.R.S. At the general meeting held 
in the schoolroom at Riccall, Mr. Taylor presided, and reports 
on the work accomplished during the excursion were given by 
Messrs. H. Culpin, W. Ingham, S. H. Smith, J. F. Musham, 
and W. N. Cheesman. Five new members and one society 
were elected to membership. Hearty thanks were accorded 
to Lord Wenlock and Mr. Riley Briggs for the permission 

1912 June I. 



172 Yorkshire Naturalists at Riccall. 

granted to visit the Commons; also to the guides, Mr. W. 
Ingham, Rev. C. D. Ash, Dr. W. J. Fordham, and Mr. W. N. 
Cheesman ; particularly to the latter gentleman for his great 
help in making the local arrangements ; and also to the Rev. 
R. Hyde for the use of the school. 

The result of the work of the sections is given in the follow- 
ing reports : — ■ 

Geology. — Mr. H. Culpin writes : — The route taken was 
from Riccall by the bank of the River Ouse to Turnhead Farm, 
then across the fields to the Common, and back to Riccall by 
the field path north of Danes' Hills. The natural bank of the 
river at the bend near Turnhead Farm was examined, and 
was found to shew several feet of coarse brown sand. On the 
Common and the adjoining fields there was much blown sand, 
some of it very fine grained. A section on the Common gave 
eight inches of peat on 2 feet of sand. Three small boulders 
were found about half-a-mile south of Danes' Hills. One was 
Carboniferous Limestone, one a grit with Proditctus, and one 
a close-grained grit without fossils ; otherwise there was a 
remarkable absence of stones (and gravel) throughout the 
. district traversed. The prevailing soil was loose and sandy. 
South of the Common some fields with a clayey soil were noticed. 

Flowering Plants : — Mr. J. F. Robinson writes : — From 
notes made at Riccall and Common it was apparent that things 
were not nearly so numerous nor luxuriant as one has previously 
experienced in this bit — one of the very few left — of primitively 
wild East Yorkshire. This was undoubtedly accounted for 
by the recent lack of rain ; and things generally did not look 
their brightest on this occasion for the reason that, besides 
being dry, it was decidedly chilly. But many plants were 
flowering : notably the white and red Dead Nettles, Storksbill, 
Erodium cicutarium, Viola riviniana, and V. palustris. The 
greater and lesser burnet, Sanguisorha officinalis and Poterium 
Sanguisorha, the former in foliage only, the latter with flower- • 
buds not yet open ; the three common heath plants, Calluna, 
Erica tetralix, and E. cinerea, were all seen in greater or less 
profusion ; but with scarcely a sign of the new season's foliage 
as yet. Nearer Skipwith, on the side of the Common remote, 
from Riccall, Rumex maritimus, and Mentha Pulegium were 
seen in their well-known station ; whilst by the roadside 
Bryonia dioica, Malva sylvestris [y^ith. the characteristic fungal 
ascidia on the leaves), Artemisia vulgaris, etc., vegetated pro- 
fusely. 

Later in the evening, with Messrs. Cheesman, Culpin, and 
Stather, I went to the banks of the Ouse, and in a field adjacent 
thereto saw a marvellous growth, (it was all over the field), of 
crow garlic, Allium vineale, and of Colchicum aiitiimnale, the 
* crocus ' which flowers in autumn (September) when the leaves 

Naturalist, ■ 



Yorkshire Naturalists at Riccall. 173 

have all died off, and fruits in spring in the midst of the succu- 
lent, upright leaves. Colchicum seems to fruit well in this 
station. 

The sundew, butterwort, Salix repens, with the argentea 
variety, Orchis Morio, etc., were brought to the meeting and 
reported there. 

The plant associations of the areas under investigation are 
typically those of a heath type. Calluna vulgaris and Erica 
tetralix are in abundance ; the general hairiness or ' incana ' 
form of each being a very striking feature. The chief grass 
is the tussocky Molinia ccerulea. There is a very. little of dwarf 
Vaccinium myrtillus and plenty of Potentilla tormentilla. The 
ill-drained portions are the habitat of Eriophorum vaginatum 
and E. angtistijolium, with immense zones of Juncus effusus. 
Near to Skipwith a fairly large area is controlled almost entirely 
by Pteris aquilina. The woods are dominated by the conifers, 
Pinus sylvestris and Larix europcea ; seedlings of the former 
being frequently met with on the open Common. In addition 
are Bctula tomentosa, Salix caprea, and 5. repens ; Ulex euro- 
pcBUs of great height on. the higher and drier mounds is also a 
conspicuous feature. In the vicinity of the drains, and the 
open parts of the birch-willow woods, Epilohium angustifolium 
is a most common plant, and also occurring are Lastrea filix- 
foemina and L. filix-mas. 

Mosses and HEPATics.^Mr. Wm. Ingham, B.A., writes : — 
A genus of mosses well represented on Riccall Common was 
Campyloptis, of which several species were seen. These were 
in dense tufts buried up to their apices in peaty soil, so that 
they were well protected against the dry April weather. The 
commonest species is C. pyriformis, which is easily distinguished 
by the detached leaves lying on the tufts. These leaves are 
blown about by the wind and each leaf has the power of pro- 
ducing a fresh plant. A near neighbour to this is C. flexuosus, 
a moss which is frequent on our Yorkshire Commons. A third 
species, C. fragilis, was frequently met with in our route across 
the common. Two other members of the geniis are of con- 
siderable interest. One is C. brevipilus, known at once under 
the microscope by its narrow leaf cells having a sigmoid curve. 
This species was unusually fine in deep tufts. The last species 
found and also the rarest is C. atrovirens var. miiticus. Al- 
though found by the writer on 12th March, 1897, and again 
On 4th April, 1901, this year it was found to be more abundant 
and in deeper tufts. Mr. Cheetham detected this moss in 
several places. As its specific name denotes, the tufts are black 
below and green above, and the varietal name indicates that 
the usual hair points of the leaves are absent. This last 
Campylopus is not recorded from any other place in Yorkshire, 
nor even from any other place in England. 

1912 June 1;, 



174 Yorkshire Naturalists at Riccall. 

Another rare moss which is buried in the peaty soil up ta 
its apices is Dicranum spurium, easily distinguished by the 
pointed apex of the individual stem. This moss was repeatedly 
found, and man}^ of the tufts seen were very fine with long 
stems. In the same habitat as the one affected by this Di- 
cranum was a very rare creeping moss, Hypnum imponens, 
distinguished from a near neighbour by the golden yellow 
colour of the tufts. Both the above mosses once grew on 
Strensall Common ; but drainage has destroyed the Dicranum^ 
and has rendered the Hypnum very difhcult to find. 

Proceeding further afield we came to extensive wet ground 
free from heather. Here was a magnificent growth of Hypnum 
lycopodioides, with stems reminding one of a lycopodium or 
club moss. Near this was another very rare moss, Hypnum 
wilsoni var. hamatum, which occurred abundantly. Both these 
fine mosses are golden yellow at all times, never green like 
most mosses ; and this is probably due to their habitat being 
stagnant water, for, in running water or in clear pools having 
an outflow, such as those on Widdy Bank Fell in Teesdale, 
other golden yellow mosses of the stagnant pools of the plains- 
were found to be of a beautiful green colour. 

The Sphagna or Peat Mosses are well represented in 
species on this common ; but owing to the long dry weather 
they were not much in evidence. Submerged in the pools 
that existed was 5. cuspidatiim, and around the borders of the 
pools was 5. crassicladum. A common peat moss of the shallow 
water splashes was 5. nijescens. Some of the rarer Sphagna. 
and Harpidia seen by the writer in former years were not seen 
on this occasion ; their existence depending no doubt upon 
congenial conditions for their growth. In the deep ditch 
crossing the common by the tall pine trees once grew very large 
dark coloured plants of 5. crassicladum, floating on the water 
in the ditch. On the present occasion the ditch was dry, and 
the fine floating Sphagnum was reduced to a very poor stranded 
representative. 

The Hepatics or Liverworts were also interesting. 
Among the heather in many places the beautiful Blepharozia 
ciliaris was seen. Fossombronia dumortieri, which ought to. 
have been on the bed of a ditch, had disappeared, and its 
place was occupied by other plants. Among the heather was 
Calypogeia flssa. On the bare peat was Lophozia gracilis, 
and by the side of sandy cuttings, Nardia scalaris, Cephalozia 
hicuspidata, and Scapania irrigua ; the last in small quantity. 

Fungi. — Mr. W. N. Cheesman whites : — After despatching 
the parties to the common, the writer spent the day investigat- 
ing the coniferous woods outskirting the common on the western 
side, and here were found twelve species of Mycetozoa ; one, 
Comatricha clegans, being new to the county. This species differs. 

Naturalist, 



Yorkshire Naturalists at Riccall. 175 

from C. ohtiisata in the capillitium branching from the apex of 
the short columella and not from all parts of the columella as 
in C. ohtusata. 

In one larch wood the beautiful but destructive ascomycete, 
Dasycypha calycina, was playing havoc with the trees, quite 
one-third being dead or dying through its influence ; the fallen 
branches being completely covered with the sporophores which 
were humourously compared to microscopic lemon curd cheese- 
cakes. In another wood of Pinus sylvestris and Larix mixed, 
the latter trees were quite healthy and strong. About a dozen 
more of the true fungi were also found, most of which, like the 
mycetozoa, appeared to be of last year's growth. One of the 
gems of the day was Mitrula laricina, a beautiful plant with 
orange cap and white stem, found by Mr. A. E. Peck in moist 
places under the shelter of pine trees. 

Prof. J, H. Priestley brought in some fine specimens of 
Sclerotinia curreyana growing on rushes. 

A Corticium, along with a few other things, w^ere forwarded 
to Mr. Crossland, who was unable to attend the excursion. 
The Corticium could not be satisfactorily determined, and was 
forwarded to Miss E. M. Wakefield, Royal Harbarium, Kew, 
who is making a special study of the Thelephoracea, and will 
report later on the Riccall specimen. 

Fungi. 
Collybia tenacella. 
Psilocybe ericcBa. 
Galera hypnorum. 

,, tener. 
Stereum. hirsutum. 

piirpureum. 
Grandinia granulosa. 
Hirneola auricula-judce. 
Polystictus versicolor. 

„ abietinus. 
Polyporus brumalis. 
Dasyscypha calycina. 
,, virginea. 

,, nivea. 

Sclerotinia Ci rreyana. 
Mitrula laricina. 

Mammals. — Mr. Sydney H. Smith writes : — The mole, 
short-tailed and water voles are fairly numerous, and there are 
more stoats and weasels than the keepers desire. 

Birds. — On the date of the excursion all the winter visiting 
birds had departed, and only a few of the summer visitors were 
in evidence. This is more particularly so this spring, the 
majority of migratory species being very late in arriving. In 
spite of these drawbacks Skipwith Common proved very inter- 
esting. The colony of black-headed gulls is of course worthy 
of first place ; as yet they had not commenced nesting in good 
earnest, and there appeared to be barely more than twenty-five 

1918 June I 



Mycetozoa. 
Badhamia utricularis. 

(Sclerotium stage). 
Physarum nutans. 
Didymium diffovme. 
Reticithria Lycoperdon. 
Comatricha obtusata. 

,, elegans Lister. 

Syn. Raciborskia elegans Berl. 
Trichia scabra. 

,, varia. 

,, fallax. 

,, Botrytis. 
Arcyria ferruginea. 

„ incarnata. 
Diachcea corticalis. 



176 Yorkshiye Naturalists at RiccalL 

per cent, of the number present that was in evidence last breed- 
ing season. In addition to the usual common species we saw 
several whinchats, sedge-warblers, and redstarts, all new arrivals, 
probably only of the previous night. A fine male wigeon was 
seen by Mr. E. W. Taylor. A pair of these birds has been 
noticed on the common during two past seasons, but whether 
they nest or not has still to be discovered. A pair of shoveller 
ducks was noticed, but may not have nested yet. There are 
generally five or six pairs frequenting the common. Other 
nests observed were those of the wild duck containing nine and 
eleven eggs respectively, and that of a teal with eleven eggs ; a 
nest of the jay discovered by the writer held the unusual number 
of seven eggs, four of which were pale blue in colour instead 
of the usual olive green. 



BB^f 




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■ 




l&jr. 1 




^^^^^^^H^^^^H^^I 


I^H 










i 










^ 





Phoio by] [S. H Smith. 

Viper on Riccall Common. 

Mr. W. Parkin reported having seen a long-eared owl in 
one of the woods, and finding remains of hatched eggs of that 
species. Other species observed were the common, yellow and 
reed buntings (the males of the latter species being in gorgeous 
breeding plumage), magpie, coot, moorhen, swift, swallow, 
and house martin. There were also several nests of redshanks 
and snipe that contained their full complement of eggs. 

Mr. C. F. Procter reported that he had seen a lesser backed 
gull ori one of the smaller ponds , and, on wading out to nests 
of the black headed gulls, which it had been raiding, he found 
over a dozen clutches disturbed, and many of the eggs destroyed 
by the marauder. 

Reptiles. — A female viper, measuring twenty-two inches 
in length was found on a part of the common that had recently 

Naturalist, 



Yorkshire Naturalists at Riccall. 177 

been fired. This reptile was persuaded to pose for photo- 
graphic purposes, with the result shewn by the accompanying 
picture. 

CoNCHOLOGY. — Mr, J. F. Musham, F.E.S., writes : — Owing 
to the drought, and the sandy nature of the ground investigated, 
a careful search of the common resulted in almost a blank. 

Thanks to the energy of Mr. W. Cash, however, this was 
partially redeemed later in the day, by securing four aquatic 
species in a pool near the village ; the remaining members 
being equally fortunate, on visiting the banks of the Ouse, the 
other side of Riccall, in further adding fourteen terrestrial 
species ; the day's results being as follows : — Arion ater var. 
castanea, Arion minimns, Limax maximns var. jasciata, Hyalinia 
cellaria, H. nitidula, H. alliaria (a fine colony taken in the 
churchyard), H. pur a var. nitidosa, Vitrina pelhicida, Zua 
luhrica, Hygromia hispida, Pyramidula rotundata. Helix ne- 
moralis, H. arhustorum, H. cantiana, Limncea peregra, Sphcer- 
ium corneum, Valvata piscinalis, Pisidium suhtrtmcatiim, and 
Succinea putris. 

Trichoptera. — A Trichopteron, obtained by Mr. Wattam 
in one of the pine woods, has been determined by Mr. G. T. 
Porritt as Limnophilus auricula. 

Arachnida. — Mr. Wm. Falconer writes : — More members 
of the Arachnida Committee attended the meeting than is 
usually the case, yet as very close search is necessary to procure 
spiders, only a limited area of the common could be investigated, 
but this was intentionally a portion which had not before been 
worked for arachnids, the route selected traversing the first 
wood, the open damp ground beyond, and the wood beyond 
the second guide post. Dry conditions favoured collecting, 
seventy-nine species of spiders, two of harvestmen, and one 
pseudoscorpion, being met with. Twenty-four of these had 
not previously been recorded for the common ; most were 
common and widely distributed spiders, but the rest furnish 
valuable additional records for the county list, viz. : — 

Argyroneta aquatica Latr. Line Ponds, two $s, Dr. Ford- 
ham, who had known of its presence .there for some time. 

Crustulina guttata Wid. Two $s, from heather bordering 
road at the second wood. A southern species, though twice 
noted previously in the East Riding. 

Entelecara thorellii Westr. An adult pair. T. Stainforth. 
One $ previously taken in North Riding. A rare spider also 
elsewhere. 

E. acuminata Wid. 3 (^s, 3 ^s, the latter not adult, from 
heather roots. 

Tapinocyba pallens Cambr. 3 (^s, 2 $s, from the woods. 
Omnes. 

igi2 June i. 



178 



Northern News. 



Cyclosa conica Pallas, i adult (^ from second wood. Only 
two previous Yorkshire records ; Bradford and East Riding. 

Cercidia prominens Westr. i $ from bracken debris near 
second wood. Only two other northern records, one being 
for Adel Moor, near Leeds. It is not uncommon, however, in 
the south of England. 

Epeira sturmii Hahn. Adult pair, first wood ; adult $, 
second wood, with many immature examples from coniferous 
trees. 

Where no name is attached, the spider was of my own 
collecting. The others new to the common are : — 



Linn. 



?• 



Segestria senoculata 
W.P.W. 

Clubiona holosericea Degeer. i Q. 

Agroeca proxinia Camb. 2 imma- 
ture $s, T.S. 

Hahnia montana Bl. Omnes. 

Theridion denticulatum Walck. i ^, 
3 $s, W.P.W. 

Linyphia peltata Wid. Omnes. 

Oreonetides abnormis Bl. i $, T.S. 

Agyneta decora Camb. i ^. 



/Edothorax fuscus Bl. 1$, W.P.W. 

Walckenaera acuminata Bl. Omnes. 

Ceratinella hvevis Wid. i 5, W.P.W. 

Pachygnatha degeerii Sund. Omnes. 

Epeira cucurbitina Clerck. Imma- 
ture example, T.S. 

Ox-yptila trux Bl. 2 $s, W.P.W., 
W.F. 

Meta merianae Scop. 2 $s. 
W.P.W., W'.F. 

Tvochosa terricola Thor. Omnes. 



Of the more uncommon spiders which have been pre- 
viously reported, only Clubiona diversa Camb., Theridion hima- 
culatum Linn., Linyphia pusilla Sund., Leptyphantes obscurus 
Bl., Hillhousia miser Camb., Gongylidiellum vivum Camb., 
Cnephalocotes obscnris Bl., Enidia cormita BL, and Pepono- 
cranium ludicrum Camb., (the last two rather freely), again 
occurred. 

For such a promising locality (one of the best in Yorkshire), 
the total number of arachnids, 130, is by no means a large one, 
and indicates not so much what has been done, as what remains 
to be done, so that regular and systematic collecting cannot 
fail rapidly to swell the list.— W.E.L.W. 



Prof. P. F. Kendall has been elected President of the Leeds Philoso- 
phical and Literary Society. 

We learn from the ' latest news items ' in the Standard that ' on the 
Blackwater Broads in Essex, the Flycatcher bird, a rare visitor to these 
shores, has been shot.' 

According to the report of the Borough Librarian and Secretary to 
the Museum Committee of the Borough of Beverley, just to hand, the 
Public Library Committee at Beverley includes an assistant, an attendant, 
and Mr. and Mrs. Barrow, cleaners. 

While stripping the dense growth of ivy from the walls ot an outhouse 
which was not more than twenty feet by ten feet, at Selby recently, a 
man is reported to have obtained 210 sparrows' eggs, for whichi he was paid 
a half-penny each from the local farmer's club. 



Naturalist, 



179 

FRESHWATER RHIZOPODA AND HELIOZOA FROM 
KINDER SCOUT. 



JAMES MEIKLE BROWN, B.Sc, F.L.S., 

Sheffield. 



No records of Rhizopods or Heliozoa from the Kinder Scout 
district appear to have been pubhshed, and as it may be taken 
to represent the highest moorlands in the county, a study of the 
;micro-fauna should prove to be of interest. During a visit 
;made early in March, material was collected along a route 
following the public footpath from Edale Head, by way of 
Edale Cross, William Clough and Ashop Clough to the Snake 
Inn. This, unfortunately, does not allow of collecting being 
done on the Kinder Plateau itself (2000 feet). 

Sphagnum and other submerged mosses and hepatics were 
gathered at as many points on the way as possible, so that the 
material may be regarded as characteristic of the district at 
this season. The following are the chief localities, several 
gatherings being taken from each : — 

1. Jacob's Ladder (1500-1600 feet). 

2. Kinder-low End (1600 feet). 

3. William Clough (i 100-1600 feet). 

4. Ashop Head (1670 feet). 

5. Ashop Clough (Featherbed Moss side, 1260 feet). 

6. Ashop Clough (Cabin Moss side, iioo feet). 

7. Near the Snake Inn (1070 feet),* 

All these localities are on the Limestone Shales (Yoredale 
Rocks), and it is an interesting question whether the geological 
nature of the locality has any direct influence upon the Rhizopod 
fauna. It certainly seems true that the Carboniferous Lime- 
stone districts are less rich than the Gritstone, Granite and 
similar areas which I have examined, but it will probably be 
found that the influence is indirect, and depends mainly upon 
the vegetation rather than directly upon the geological char- 
acter. 

From the point of view of vegetation, the collecting grounds 
I and 7 are classed as Siliceous Grassland, 2 and 3 as Bilberry 
Moor, and 4, 5, and 6 as Cottongrass Moor,! but on comparing 
the lists given below, no great distinction can be drawn between 
the faunas of these associations ; the Cottongrass Moor shews, 
however, a slightly greater number of species (49), the Bilberry 
Moor comes next (38), while the Siliceous Grassland shews the 
•least (26). 

* Heights are approximate. 
■)■ See ' Types of British Vegetation,' Ed. Tansley, 191 1, p. 274. 

igi2 June i. 



iSo Freshwater Rhizopoda and Heliozoa from Kinder Scout, 







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LIST OF SPECIES. 


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►J D 




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W 




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Q Z 


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73 [i( 

<; ■ — • 


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m 




I 


2 


3 


4 


5 


6 


7 


I. RHIZOPODA. 
















Amoebina. 
















Amoeba vespertilio Penard 










X 






Umax Dujardin 


X 




X 


X 


X 






limicola Rhumbler . . 


X 


X 












Dactvlosphaeriiini radiosum (Ehrenb.) 
















Biitschli 


X 






X 








Arcellina. 
















Pseudochlamys patella Clap et Lach. . . 












X 




Pyxidiciila sp. 




X 


X 










Arcella vulgaris ILhvenh. 










X 






hemisphaevica Perty . . 




X 








X 




catinus Penard 








X 








Centropyxis aculeata (Ehrenb.) Stein 


X 


X 


X 


X 








laevigata Penard 






X 










DiFFLUGINA. 
















Difflugia oblonga Ehrenb. 


X 


X 


X 


X 


X 






bacilli f era Penard . . 








X 








,, rubesc-ens Penard 






X 




X 






,, penardi Hopk. 










X 






piilex Penard 






X 










globulus Ehrenb. 














X ; 


constricta (Ehrenb.) Leidy. 


X 


X 


X 


X 


X 




X 


Pontigulasia vas (Leidy) Schout. 






X 


X 








compressa (Carter) Cash. 






X 


X 








Cryptodi/Pugia oviformis Penard 


X 


X 


X 




X 


X 




ehoracensis Wailes 






X 










Phryganella hemisphaerica Penard . . 










X 






nidulus Penard . . 










X 






Nebelina. 
















Hyalosphenia papilio Leidy . . 










X 






Nebela collaris (Ehrenb.) Leidy. 




X 


X 


X 


X 






tincta (Leidy.) Awerintz. 


X 


X 




X 


X 


X 


1 


t libido sa Penard 


X 


X 




X 


X 






,, flabellulum Leidy 


X 






X 


X 


X 




militaris Penard 


X 






X 




X 




tubulata Brown 


X 


X 












dentistoma Penard 


X 


X 


X 




X 






var. laevis Hopk... 


X 














Quadrula symmetrica (Wallich) 
















Schulze 




X 


X 


X 


X 


X 




Heleopera petricola Leidy 






X 










rosea Penard 


X 


X 


X 


X 


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Naturalist, 



Freshwater Rhizopoda and Heliozoa from Kinder Scout. i8i 



LIST OF SPECIES— co«/^. 



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EUGLYPHINA. 

Pamphagus granulatus (Schiilze) Pen 

ard . . 
Capsellina timida Brown 
Euglypha alveolata Dujardin 

ciliata (Ehrenb.) Leidy 
,, strigosa (Ehrenb.) Leidy 

compressa Carter . . 
„ filifera Penard 

denticiilata Brown 
laevis Party 
Assulina seminnliim. Leidy . . 

,, muscorum Greeff 
Cyphoderia ampulla (Ehrenb) Leidy 
var. imbricata* 
Penard 
? Campascus minntus Penard 
Spkeiioderia leuta (Ehrenb.) Leidy 
,, fissirostris Penard 

dentata Penard . . 
Trinema enchelys (Ehrenb.) Leidy 
,, linear e Penard 

complanaium Penard 
Corythion dubiiim Taranek .. 
,, piilchelluni Penard 

Amphistomina. 
Amphitrema stenostoma Niisslin 

II. HELIOZOA. 

Actinophvys sol Ehrenb. 
Actinosphaeriitm eichhovnii (Ehrenb.) 

Stein 
Acanthocystis pertynua' Archer 
Raphidiophvys pallida Schulze 



The submerged ' moss ' material was particularly poor in 
species and in individuals ; the Sphagnum was distinctly 
richer, yet compared with similar collections which I have made 
elsewhere, could not be considered very prolific in forms. 

Some species which are usually common in upland bogs, 
and which one might have expected, such as Placocysta spinosa, 

* Recently renamed by Mr. W'ailes as C. trochits var. amphoralis in 
' Proc. Roy. Irish Acad.', XXXI. , 1911. 

1912 June I. '^ 



1 82 Freshwater Rhizopoda and Heliozoa from Kinder Scout. 

Ditrema flava, Amphitrema wrightianurn, were entirely absent 
from the material examined ; while Sphenoderia lenta, Assulina 
semimilum, Amphitrema stenostoma occurred in only one or two 
gatherings, and then in very small numbers. 

Hyalosphenia papilio, though plentiful in No. 6, was absent 
from the rest of the material, and, so far as I have been able 
to notice, it is generally a rare species in North Derbyshire 
and South Yorkshire,* though common in Scotland, f the Lake 
District and elsewhere. 

Nebelas were not as plentiful as is usual in sphagnum. 
Typical N. coUaris was represented by only a few individuals, 
N. tincta and N. flabellulum occurred in larger numbers, while 
N. tubulosa was quite common in those gatherings in which 
it occurred. Heleopera rosea was fairly common, to the ex- 
clusion of H. petricola. It is one of those species which seems 
more abundant in upland regions (see below), 

Capsellina timida and Euglypha denticulata% are less con- 
spicuous species found in moss. The records of these forms 
add to their known distribution. 

Pyxidicula sp. This species somewhat resembles P. in- 
visitata Awerintz, but differs in some important respects. 
Without further study, I hesitate to describe it as a new species, 
and this applies, also, to a Nebela found associated with 
N. tubulosa. 

On comparing the above records with those obtained from 
Scotland (q.v.) the Lake District and elsewhere, it would appear 
that the following species generally occur more plentifully 
in upland bogs than in similar situations at lower levels, 
though in what way they may be adapted to greater altitudes 
is difficult to imagine. 

Nebela carinata^ Heleopera rosea 

,, marginata^ Placocysta spinosa^ 

,, flabellulum Amphitrema stenostoma . 

Hyalosphenia papilio ,, wrightianurn^ 

More exact records on this point are required, however, 
before very definite conclusions can be drawn. 



* See ' Freshwater Rhizopods from the Sheffield District,' ' The 
Naturalist,' 1910, p. 92. 

I See ' A contribution to our knowledge of the Freshwater Rhizopoda 
and Heliozoa of Scotland,' ' Ann. of Scot. Nat. Hist.', 191 1, p. 228. 

J Recently described and figured in 'The Scottish Naturalist,' 1912, 
p. Ill, plate V. 

§ Absent from the Kinderscout material. 

Naturalist, 



I S3 



SOME BRITISH EARTHMITES. 



C. F. GEORGE, M.R.C.S., 

Kirton-in-Lindsey. 

Labidostomma luteum Kramer, a curious and very beautiful 
mite, was described by Dr. P. Kramer in the ' Erstes Heft ' of 
the ' Archiv fur Naturgeschichte ' for 1879, with some good 
figures. As it was so very different from any known genus of 
mites, he called it Labidostomma, and on account of its beautiful 
orange yellow colour, gave it the specific name luteum. It was 



x^ 




Labidostomma luteum Kramer, (x 60). 



1. — Dorsal aspect. 
2.— Ventral ,, 



3.— Palp. 
4.— Mandible. 



subsequently minutely described by A. D. Michael, F.L.S., 
in a paper published in the ' Journal of the Quekett Micros- 
copical Society ' for August i88o (Vol. VI., page 107). He 
found it in moss, in the Spring of 1878. I found it on May 3rd, 
1879, in moss, and circulated a specimen in the Postal Micros- 
copical Society, and my short notes were printed in that 
society's journal for 1883, page 245. Since that time I have 
not met with it until February last, when I found a single 
specimen in mites kindly sent to me by Mr. Musham of Selby, 

1912 June I. 



184 George : Some British Earthmites. 

who obtained them at Heighington, near Lincoln. I sent this 
mite to Mr. Soar, together with one or two of my old mounts, 
from which he has made the very characteristic drawings 
reproduced herewith. I think that few microscopic mounts 
exist in England, as I have never heard of any one but Mr. 
Michael and myself noting it. IVIr. Banks, of the United States 
National Museum, does not mention it in his ' Treatise on the 
Acarina or Mites, 1904.' The beauty of the mite could hardly 
be shewn except by coloured drawings taken from the living 
creature. I hope at no very distant date to send a mounted 
specimen to the Hull Museum, where my other specimens are, 
but as I am by no means an adept at mounting, it will not be 
such as I could wish it to be, but will serve for examination 
by any student of the Acari who is sufficiently interested in the 
matter to take that trouble. Having been found in two dis- 
tricts in Lincolnshire, no doubt it will be found elsewhere. 

I would strongly advise those interested to read Mr. 
Michael's paper, which gives a minute description. It is 
written in English, and is fairly accessible. 

How Sealskins are obtained, by Joseph CoIIinson, is a pamphlet sold 
at twopence by the Animals' Friend Society, York House, Portugal Street,. 
\\'.C. It is not pleasant reading. 

The Gardener and the Cook, by Lucy H, Yates. 260 pp., illustrations, 
1912 (Constable), 3/6. 

This is a delightful book for the amateur — whether cook or gardener 
— but for the professional of either calling of little value. There are books 
innumerable on the flower garden, but very few on the kitchen garden ; 
this one relates, with a strong vegetarian bias, the story of a poetical mis- 
tress, who says ' let there be beans,' and there were beans ; an immaculate 
Cook (one longs for a catastrophe to occur in her kitchen), who is of wonder- 
ful culinary skill ; of a Gardener, one Charlemagne ; and last and least. 
The Better Half — which by the way is a most objectionable term — the 
husband, who appears to be just a comfortable mole who is fed when 
necessary. Heaven forbid that many houses and gardens should be 
run by two such immaculate persons as this cook and gardener. It is a 
curious thing that amateur gardeners, especially amateur women gardeners, . 
invariably appear to suffer from that irritating complaint — an excess of 
superior theoretical knowledge. They alwa^^s triumph over the ordinary 
being, who has only had practical experience ; the gardeners they portray 
are generally crusty, ill-tempered old fellows, living solelv for the purpose 
of growing cabbages. There is a sort of dining-room culture about this 
book, in fact, it is full of hints as to the replenishing of the still-room 
and is in reality a book of recipes. The fruits and vegetables grown in 
this garden are those which a discerning man grows for his own eating, 
and are unlike those recommended by gardening manuals as suitable to 
be grown ' for market purposes.' The writer has a most aggravating 
habit of using French phrases, than which nothing is more detestable, 
especially when there is an English equivalent. ' Now that Spring's in 
the world again,' it is refreshing to read of delectable and appetising salads ; 
and we recommend its perusal to those sufleiing from loss of appetite,, 
as after reading it one has a longing to taste some 01 the delightful-sounding 
dishes, salads, and sauces, the secrets of which are revealed by the wonder- 
ful Charlotte. The book is well printed, with some charming pen and ink 
sketches. — F. 

Naturalist, 



i85 
PLANER'S LAMPREY NEAR SCARBOROUGH. 



W. J. CLARKE, F.Z.S., 

Scarborough. 

During the latter half of -April a considerable migration of 
this interesting little fish has taken place in the waters of the 
Upper Derwent at Forge Valley and Hackness, near Scar- 
borough. On April 15th, numbers of them could be seen 
swimming up sti'eam near the surface of the water, and others 
were observed on the i6th, 19th, 23rd, 24th, and 29th ; after 
which date, only a single specimen was noticed. All the indi- 
viduals captured were adults, probably making their way up 
stream for the purpose of depositing their spawn. The usual 
length was about five and a half to six inches, very few exceeding 
the latter size. Lampetra planeri may be distinguished from 
its larger relative the River Lamprey {Lampetra fluviatilis) by 
the close contact of the first and second dorsal fins, which are 
separated in the larger species, and also by the presence on 
the circular lip of numerous papillae, from which it has taken 
the name of Fringe-lipped Lamprey. Specimens from the south 
reach a length of eight or nine inches, the females being a little 
larger than the males ; but northern examples do not usually 
€xceed six inches. The Lampreys are remarkable for under- 
going a metamorphosis from a larval form to the adult stage, 
which has been carefully worked out in the case of Planer's 
Lamprey. In the larval state, which takes three years to 
complete, the sucking disc is imperfect, and has not the power 
■of adhesion found in the adult. 

The eyes are very small, and almost hidden in a fold on 
the skin ; there are no teeth ; and there are important intestinal 
differences. In the fourth year the change to the perfect form 
takes place, and occupies about ten days. There is no increase 
in size, but rather the reverse, the perfect form being smaller 
than the larva owing to the shortening of the intestinal canal. 
At this time a separate respiratory tube is acquired, teeth 
appear, the eyes are much 'enlarged, and the lips are formed 
into a complete sucking disc. The larva, not having the power 
of clinging to stones like the adult, lives buried in the mud at 
the bottom of the stream, and has been described as a distinct 
species under the names of Mud Lurker, Mud Lamprey, Sand 
Pride, and Pride. It is described under this name in the 
■* Vertebrate Fauna of Yorkshire ' as occurring in the rivers of 
our county, but 'no mention is made of the adult form. 

I noticed an example quietly swimming up stream a few 
inches from the bank where the current was not so strong, 
when a trout made a dash at it, but missed. The frightened 
fish darted to the bank and threw itself out of the water. The 
trout, disappointed of its prey, after cruising about for a few 
moments, left the place ; but the lamprey lay upon the moist 
earth for probably ten minutes before it re-entered the water 
and continued its journey up stream. 

3912 Jane i. 



i86 

3n fiDemoriam. 

F. M. BURTON, F.L.S., F.G.S. 
(1829 — 1912). 

We are sorry to have to record the 'death, '"on May 17th, of 
Frederic Merryweather Burton, at his residence, Highfield, 




Gainsborough. Though considerably handicapped through 
the loss of his right arm as a result of a shooting accident, Mr. 
Burton successfully practiced as a solicitor, and from 1859 ^o 



News from the Magazines. 187 

1902 he was Registrar of the Gainsborough County Court. 
He was educated at Rugby, and early in hfe took a keen interest 
in natural history, particularly botany and geology. So long 
ago as 1866 he drew attention, in a communication to the 
Geological Society of London, to an exposure of Rhaetic rocks 
in the railway cutting at Gainsborough ; and in The Naturalist 
for 1903 he recorded the presence of the same beds in a deep 
boring at Lincoln. 

He was a frequent contributor to our journal, and in 1895 
wrote ' The Story of Lincoln Gap ' in the November number. 
In the previous year he printed a paper on ' How the Land 
between Gainsborough and Lincoln was Formed ' ; and these 
two, together with additional information, formed a little 
book on ' The Shaping of Lindsey by the Trent,' which was 
published by Messrs. A. Brown & Sons in 1907, and noticed 
in this journal at the time. In more recent years Mr. Burton 
took a keen interest in the erratics found in his county, and 
communicated a number of notes on the subject to The Natura- 
list. In connection with this work he paid a visit to the York- 
shire coast, and the writer well remembers the rate at which 
Mr. Burton was able to walk on the sands from Withernsea 
to Spurn. 

Mr. Burton took a keen interest in the Lincolnshire Natura- 
lists' Union, and occupied its presidential chair in 1894-5. He 
frequently attended its meetings, and rarely was so happy as 
when conducting a party over ground he knew so well. He 
took a prominent part in the formation of the County Museum 
at Lincoln. 

Mr. Burton was an ardent angler and an enthusiastic 
horticulturalist, and his gardens at Gainsborough were well 
stocked with rare Alpine and marsh plants. He had also a 
valuable collection of orchids. 

He was twice married ; his eldest son is the vicar of Ban- 
bury, and his j^ounger son is vicar of Christchurch, New Zealand. 

Some little time ago the Lincolnshire Naturalists' Union 
published an account of Mr. Burton's work, in its Transactions, 
to the editor of which we are indebted for the loan of the ac- 
companying block. — T. S. 



Hutchinson's Popular Botany : the Living Plant from Seed to Fruit, 
by A. E. Knight and Edward Step. This is apparently a new edition of 
' The Living Plant,' by the same authors published a few years ago. In 
the present work many of the crude text figures of the earlier work have 
been omitted, and numerous photographs have been added, most of which 
are excellent. The work, which is written in an attractive style, is to be 
completed in eighteen parts at yd. each, and will contain 1000 illustrations, 
some of which are coloured. Being printed on art paper, full justice is 
done to the photographs which form a striking and pleasing feature. 

1912 June I. 



188 

BIBLIOGRAPHY: 

Papers and Records published with respect to the Geology 
and Palaeontology of the North of England (Yorkshire 
excepted), during 1910. 



T. SHEPPARD, F.G.S. 



{Continued from page 166). 

T. Sheppard. Lines., N. 

Mammoth Tooth from a Chalk Fissure in North Lines, [at South Ferriby]. 

' The Naturalist,' October 1910, p. 374 ; and ' Hull Museum Publica- 
tion No. 74,' September 1910, p. 374. 

Thomas Sheppard. Lines., N. 

The Pre-historic Boat from Brigg [with list of mosses of pre-Roman date]. 
' Trans. East Riding Antiq. Soc.', Vol. XVII., 1910, pp. 32-60 ; and 
'Hull Museum Publication No. 73,' August 1910, pp 32-60. 

T. Sheppard. Yorks., N.E., S.E., Lines., N. and S. 

Recent Geological Work in the Humber District [a summary of the various 
papers which have appeared during the past few years]. ' Trans. 
Hull Geol. Soc.', Vol. VI., pt. 2, 1910, pp. 1 12-129. 

[T. Sheppard]. Yorks., N.E., etc., Lines., N. 

A ' Faked ' Fossil Fish ; Liassic Plesiosaurs ' ' Snakestones ' ; New Lincoln- 
shire Belemnites. ' The Naturalist,' March 1910, pp. 106-107. 

T. S[heppard]. Lines., N. 

Naturalists at Scunthorpe [with geological notes by A. C. Dalton]. ' The 
Naturalist,' November 1910, pp. 391-398. 

Bernard Smith. Notts. 

The Upper Keuper Sandstones of East Nottinghamshire. ' Geol. Mag.', 
July 1910, pp. 302-311. 

B. Smith. Notts., etc. 

On some recent changes in the Course of the Trent. ' Geog. Journ.', Vol, 
XXXV., 1910, pp. 568-577. 

J. A. Smythe. See M. K. Heslop. 

Stanley Smith. Northumberland. 

The Fauna! Succession of the Upper Bernician. ' Trans. Nat. Hist. Soc.', 

Northumberland, Durham, and Newcastle-upon-Tyne, N.S., Vol. III., 

pt. 3, pp. 591-645 ; Abstract in ' Geol. Mag.', January 1910, pp, 40-41. 

Stanley Smith. Lake District. 

On the Grainsgill Greisen. ' Proc. Univ. of Durham Phil. Soc.', Vol. III., 
pt. 5, 1910 (pp. 1-4 of reprint). 

J, A. Smythe. See A. R. Dwerryhouse. 

L. J. Spencer. See Reinhard Brauns. 

L. J. Spencer. Durham. 

On the Occurrence of Alstonite and Ullmannite (a species new to Britain) 

in a Barytes-Witterite vein at the New Brancepeth Colliery near Dur- 

.. ham. 'Mineral Mag.', Vol. XV., No. 71, March 1910, pp. 302-311, 

Naturalist, 



Bibliography : Geology and PalcBontology, igio. 189 

[The late] Abraham Stansfield. Lanes., S. 

The Physiography of Todmorden and its Neighbourhood. ' The Lancashire 
Naturalist,' September 1910, pp. 183-190; October, pp. 217-211. 

Marie C. Stopes. Lanes., S., Yorks., Mid.W., etc. 

Ancient Plants ; being a simple account of the past vegetation of the 

Earth and of the recent important discoveries made in this realm of 

nature study. [Yorkshire, etc., specimens figured and described]. 

1910, 198 + viii. pp. 

F. J. Stubbs. Lanes., N. and S. 

The Origin of Lancashire Peat. ' The Lancashire NaturaHst,' April, pp. 
27-30, and July 1910, pp. 123-130. 

H. H. SWINNERTON. NottS. 

Organic Remains in the Trias of Nottingham [footprints and remains of 
fish (Semio)iotHs)]. ' Geol. Mag.', May 1910, p. 229. 

John W. Taylor. Yorks., S.E., Lanes., S. 

Monograph of the Land and Freshwater Mollusca of the British Isles. Pt. 

17 [dealing with the distribution, etc (including fossil forms) of Helix 
pomatia, H. aspevsa, and H. nemoralis], pp. 225-304, July 9th, 1910 

Alfred J. Tongue. Lanes., S. 

Sinking into the Lower Coal-Measures at Hulton Colliery [with details 

of section to a depth of 1954 ft. 5 ins. from the surface ; and plate of 

fossils]. ' Trans. IManchester Geol. and Mining Society,' Vol. XXXI., 

pts. 14 and 15, 1909-10 ; publ. 1910, pp. 254-266. 

C. B. Travis. Lanes., H. 

Note on the Chemical Solution of Carboniferous Limestone at Warton Crag, 
Carnforth. ' Proc. Liverpool Geol. Assn.', N.S., No. 4, 1907-9 ; (publ. 
1910), p. 29. 

C. B. Travis Isle of Man, Lake District, Derbyshire. 

Field Work among Igneous Rocks [under the heads of Dykes, Contem- 

peraneous and Intrusive Rocks, Sills, Volcanic Necks, and Plutonic 

Rocks]. ' Proc, Liverpool Geol. Assoc.', N.S., No. 4, 1907-9 (publ. 

1910), pp. 13-22. 

C. B. Travis. Lanes.. S. 

Some Borings and a Buried Pre-Glacial Valley near Burscough. ' Proc. 

Liverpool Geol Soc.', Vol XL, pt. i, 1909-10, pp. 47-57. 

H. Vassall. Derbyshire, Lake District. 

Neolithic Celt [from Repton • made of Borrowdale volcanic ash]. ' Journ. 
Derbys. Arch, and Nat. Hist. Soc.', Vol. XXX., 1910, p. 76. 

A. Vaughan (Secretary). Westmorland, Northumberland, Yorks. 

Fauna] Succession in the Lower C arboniferous Limestone (Avonian) of the 
British Isles. Report of the Committee. ' Rep. Brit. Assn.', Winnipeg, 
1909 (publ. 1910), pp. 187-191. 

Arthur Vaughan. See E. E. L. Dixon. 

R. D. Vernon. Notts. 

The Occurrence of Schizoneura paradoxa, S. and M., in the Bunter of Not- 
tingham. ' Proc. Cambridge Phil. Soc.', Vol. XV., 1910, pp. 401-405. 
1912 June 1. 



igo Bibliography : Geology and Palceontology, igio. 

A. Wade. Cheshire. 

A Deep Boring at Heswell (Cheshire) and its Bearing upon the Underground 
Geology of the Liverpool-Wirral Areas. ' Trans. Inst. M.E.', Vol. 
XXXIX., 1910, pp. 163-176. 

[Mrs.l Meade-Waldo. Derbyshire. 

' History and Customs of Lead-Mining in the Wapentake of Wirksworth.* 

' Journ. Derbyshire Arcli. and Nat. Hist. Soc.', Vol. XXX., 1910, pp. 
171-181. 

S. Hazzledene Warren. Lines., N. and S. 

And on the Levels of the Lincolnshire Coast [discussion on W. H. Dalton's 

paper on ' Subsidence of Eastern England and adjacent areas ']. 

' Essex Naturalist,' Vol. XVI., pts. 3 and 4, publ. December 1910 

pp. lOO-IOI. 

Stephen Watson. See William Morley Egglestone. 

W. W. Watts. Northern Counties. 

The Physical Environment on Geology, etc. [chapters on Denudation, De- 
position, Clastic Rocks, History of Landscape, History from the rocks, 
the Geological Record, the Growth of Britain, Maps, etc. ; with illus- 
trations drawn from the northern counties, especially Yorkshire]. 
' The Book of Nature Study,' Vol. VI., 1910, pp. 92-222. 

W. W. Watts. Northern Counties. 

Fifty Years' Work of the Geologists' Association [references to numerous 

papers, printed by the Association, several of which bear upon the 

geology of the northern counties]. ' Proc. Geol. Assn.', Vol. XXL, 

pt. 8, 1910, pp. 401-424. 

G. Weyman. See A. R. Dwerryhouse. 

W. J. Wingate. See A. R. Dwerryhouse. 

Percy Lee Wood. See Charles Pilkington. 

[A] Smith Woodward. See Edward Sandeman. 

Horace B. Woodward. Northern Counties. 

The Geology of Water Supply. xii. + 34o pp., 1910. 

David Woolacott. Durham. 

Preliminary Note on the Classification of the Permian of the North-East 

of England. ' Rep. Brit. Assn.', Winnipeg, 1909 (publ. 1910). pp. 
476-7. 

[D.] Woolacott. See A. R. Dwerryhouse. 

Geo. W. Young and William Wright. Northern Counties. 

A Classified Index to the Contents of the Proceedings of the Geologists' 
Association, Vols. I. to XX. ' Proc. Geol. Assoc.', Vol. XXL, pt. 7, 
March 1910, pp. i.-j-xl. 

According to the daily press, Cottingham is the proud possessor of a 
' polyoviferous ' duck. 

We learn from a Yorkshire weekly newspaper that ' Olive Drew found 
a thrush's nest containing several eggs, in Mr. Brumfield's field on Tuesday, 
and the scholars of the Council School are thus afforded another oppor- 
tunity of observing the hatching and rearing periods in conjunction with 
their nature study lessons.' Poor thrush! 

Naturalist, 



FIELD NOTES. 19^ 

FLOWERINQ PLANTS. 

Early Flowering of the Hawthorn. — On the 29th of 
April I saw a spray of May blossom. I do not remember seeing 
any in April previously, and in this district it is more often 
June than May before it flowers ; but the first few days in 
May this year produced a good many sprays of the blossom. — 
R. Fortune. 

LEPIDOPTERA. 

Green Hairstreak Butterflies near Scarborough. — 
Enormous numbers of Green Hairstreak Butterflies ( Callophrys 
ruhi) are to be found on the Moors near Scarborough. They 
are evidently well established, and in some places many hun- 
dreds can be seen within a very short radius. Although May 
and June are said to be the months for the Butterfly, yet they 
were flying in this district about the first week in April, which 
is a very early date. — Harry Witty, Scarborough. 

FISHES. 

Coitus bubalis at Scarborough. — A remarkably fine 
specimen of the Common Fatherlasher {Cottus bubalis) was 
caught off the pier at Scarborough, on May 14th. It measures 
exactly twelve inches in length, and weighed, the day after cap- 
ture, and when very dry, i lb. ^ oz. In ' Yarrell's British Fishes' 
the usual length is given as from six to ten inches. The largest 
specimen I have previously seen is one which I have preserved, 
and which was also caught from the Scarborough Pier, on 
February i8th, 1896 ; this measures ten inches in length and 
weighed | lb. — W. J, Clarke. 

VERMES. 

Piscicola geometra at Scarborough. — While fly fishing 
recently in the Derwent at Forge Valley I caught a trout 
which had attached to its side, near the pelvic fins, a small 
greenish leech about one inch in length. I sent this while still 
ahve to Mr. W. A. Harding, F.Z.S., of Histon, who kindly 
identified it as Piscicola geometra. In Mr. Harding's work on 
' The British Leeches ' is the following account of this species : — ■ 
Piscicola geometra is widely distributed in Europe and not 
uncommon in the British Isles. It attacks probably most of our 
species of fresh-water fishes. It attaches itself firmly by the 
posterior sucker to some convenient object, and, stretching 
itself out like a rod and swaying its body to and fro, lies in 
wait for its prey. With the anterior sucker it strikes at, and 
fixes upon any passing fish with remarkable speed and pre- 
cision, and letting go its hold posteriorly is carried off attached 
to its victim. It remains upon its host for some days, drawing 
blood chiefly from the fins, and drops off when gorged. The 
process of digestion is comparatively short. — W, J. Clarke. 

1912 June I. 



192 

NEW NATURAL HISTORY BOOKS. 

At this time of the year there is usually a good crop of books dealing 
with the various and numerous branches of natural science ; and it is 
refreshing to find that each year sees a great improvement in the books 
as a whole, and individually they are of a higher standard of excellence. 
The publishers, for the most part, have found out that a few photographs 
of cuckoos and cuckoo-flowers, tacked together by talky-talky nonsense, 
do not constitute books that will sell. With being so frequently ' sold ' in 
this way they have become careful. The books before us are all of the 
kind that one reads and then puts on the shelves for future reference. 

The first among them is on Reptiles, Amphibia, Fishes, and 
Lower Chordata, by R. Lydekker, J. T. Cunningham, G. A. Boulenger 
and J. Arthur Thompson. (Methuen & Co., 510 pp., 10/6 net). It 
is a companion volume to Pycraft's ' History of Birds,' issued by 
the same firm some little time ago, and is in every way as excellent. The 
names of the authors alone are a guarantee of the scientific value of the 
contributions. The chapters are also all written from the point of view 
of evolution, and we feel that Mr. Pycraft is not at all exceeding the true 
estimate of their worth when he opines that they will be a landmark in 
the annals of zoological literature. We do not remember the ground 
being so thoroughly and so conscientiously covered previously." The 
very existence of the primitive animals described by Prof. Thomson is 
unsuspected by most of us. The student of sociology will find in his 
chapters, no less than in those concerning more familiar creatures, much 
food for reflection bearing on the subjects of adaptation to environment, 
degeneration, and so on. To those who .seek to discover the subtle and 
mysterious factors which govern the transformation of animals, will find 
much food for thought in Mr. Lydekker's account of the reptiles, and 
in the chapters on the nursing habits of amphibia and fishes by Mr. G. A. 
Boulenger and Mr. J. T. Cunningham ; and to these we would add the 
weird and fascinating chapter on the fish-life of the abysses of the ocean, 
a world wherein the light of day never penetrates, and where the pall of 
night is broken only by the pale phosphoresence emitted by the creatures 
doomed to dwell there. The illustrations are all that can be desired, some 
being coloured. 

A Catalogue of the Vertebrate Fauna of Dumfriesshire has been prepared 
by Mr. Hugh S. Gladstone, and 250 copies only have been printed, and 
are for sale by Messrs. Maxwell cS: Son, of Dumfries. (80 pp., and map). 
In addition to an admirable introduction, the volume contains par- 
ticulars of the mammals, birds, reptiles, amphibians, and marine and 
freshwater fish. The book is bound so as to match ' The Birds of Dum- 
friesshire ' by the same author. 

A subject usually neglected by ornithologists has been dealt with by 
Mr. F. W. Headley, in his volume on The Flight of Birds. (Witherby & Co., 
5/- net, 163 pp.). Those who are familiar with the leading zoological 
journals will have seen Mr. Headlej^'s interesting contributions from time 
to time. In the present volume the substance of them all is included, in 
addition to which there is much new matter. There are nine chapters in 
the book, dealing with Gliding, Stability, Motive Power, Starting, Steer- 
ing, Alighting, Machinery of Flight, Varieties of Flight, Pace and Last, 
Wind and Flight, and Some Accessories. Throughout the work the author 
compares the birds with aeroplanes ; and in many ways, other than 
that of natural history, will the book be found to be useful. 

Lectures in Biology, by Dr. Curt Thesing, translated by W. R. 
Boelter. (London : Bale, Son & Danielsson, 334 pp., price 10/6). 
This volume contains a series of lectures delivered at the Humboldt 
Academy and the Urania in Berlin. They are entitled, ' From Thales to 

Naturalist, 



New Natural History Books. 103 

Lamarck,' ' Phenomena and Conditions of Life,' ' The Forces in the 
Organism,' ' The Building Stones of the Organic World,' ' The Origin of 
Life,' ' The Evolution Theory,' ' The Factors of Evolution,' ' The Conser- 
vation of Life,' and ' Reproduction and Heredity.' The book is well 
illustrated, some of the plates being in colours. The object of the volume, 
however, is to shew that it is no longer possible, having regard to the 
advances of modern research, to find complete satisfaction in being an 
out-and-out believer in the Darwinian or Lamarckian or any other theory. 
The factors which the different doctrines assume to be at work in the 
genesis and evolution of the organic world are, in the author's opinion, not 
exclusive, for the Theory of Selection, the Doctrine of Adaptation and of 
Use and Non-use, and finally De Vries' Theory of Mutations, offer each 
for a certain section of organic evolution a sufficient and satisfactory 
explanation. 

The Migration of Birds, by T. A. Coward. (Cambridge, 1912, 137pp., i/-). 
This is one of the admirable and well-bound ' Cambridge Manuals of 
Science Series,' issued from the Cambridge University Press. Our readers 
are already familiar with I\Ir. Coward's work, and in the present little 
volume he has prepared an excellent summary of the dilficult question 
of migration, dealing with it from its various aspects. To shew the thorouo^h 
way m which the subject is handled, we quote the following sub-headings 
to one of the eleven chapters : ' Direction of Passage,' ' The Potentiality 
of Flight,' ' Habit of Wandering,' ' Memory,' ' Extension of Range,' 
'Influence of Temperature,' 'Desire for Light,' 'Glacial Epoch,' 'Food 
Basis,' ' Sexual Impulses,' ' Competition.' We strongly recommend our 
readers interested in ornithology to purchase this cheap volume. 

Earthworms and their Allies, by F. E. Beddard. (150 pp., i/-). 
This is in the same series as the' preceding volume, and is similarly 
well produced. As will have been noticed from the pages of ' The Natura- 
list,' the study of a neglected branch of natural history, viz. : the earth- 
worms, has recently been revived, and many important additions to our 
knowledge have been recorded in these pages" and elsewhere. The volume 
principally deals with the question of the geographical distribution of 
earthworms, though in order so make this question better undorstood 
Mr. Beddard has prefaced his rernarks by an excellent anatomical and 
zoological summary, illustrated by diagrams. The volume refers to 
nearly all the usually admitted genera of worms, particularly of the ter- 
restrial forms, which at present appear to be the more important in con- 
sidering the question of geographical distribution. 

Aristotle's Researches in Natural Science, by T. E. L^nes. London 
West, Newman & Co., 1912. 274 pp., 6/- net. 

There is no doubt that, as the author of this volume points out, much 
is said and much more has been written at different times and in different 
places, in reference to Aristotle's scientific work ; in fact, a formidable 
list of treatises on the subject is enumerated. But there is still room for a 
single volume, re-examining his statements as far as possible by first-hand 
research, and utilising the work of previous investigators. Dr. Lones 
summarises the nature and value of Aristotle's researches in subjects now 
considered to belong to physical astronomy, meteorology, physical geo- 
graphy, physics, chemistry, geology, botany, anatomy, physiology, em- 
bryology and zoology. In that part of the work relating to anatomy! etc. 
the author has tested .\ristotle's statements as far as pcssible. We must 
say that Dr. Lones appears to have thoroughly and conscientiously studied 
the very large subject he now so well summarises. 

The Ox and its Kindred, by R. Lydekker. (271 pp., 6/-. Methuen & 
Co.). In view of the interest that has arisen in connection with British 
wild cattle, etc., and the notes thereon which have appeared in " The 
Naturalist," we have every confidence in recommending Mr. Lydekker 's 
igi2 June i. 



194 -^^^ Natural History Books. 

remarkably cheap book to our readers. Though it deals with the ox from 
the point of view of the naturalist, antiquary, breeder and sportsman, the 
extinct wild ox is obviously the main theme of the book. The book opens 
with a useful discussion on the names of the ox and its ancestors, and 
is followed by a careful description of its zoological position and 
structure. Mr. Lydekker deals very fully with the question of the ex- 
tinction of the European ox, which occurred during the middle ages, the 
last refuge being a Polish forest. Personally we look upon this as the 
most valuable part of the book. That it is adequately illustrated 
is what we might expect in a book written by a gentleman who has such 
ready access to the national collections. 

Wimbledon Common, by W. Johnson. (London : FisherjUnwin. 304 pp., 
5/- net). It is always a pleasure to read an account of a particular area from 
its geological, antiquarian, natural history and historical points of view ; and 
when an author is sufficiently versatile to be able to write on all these 
points himself, the pleasure becomes the greater. In the present work 
Mr. Walter Johnson has covered the whole ground well ; and what there 
is to be known of Wimbledon Common is surely in this volume. We have 
previously referred to Mr. Johnson's work in these pages, and always with 
pleasure. In the present book reference is made, in fourteen chapters, to 
the physical geography and geology, streams, springs, ponds, pre-historic 
times, early and mediseval history, the fauna and flora from various points 
of view ; and there is an excellent bibliography and index. The book is 
well illustrated by maps and photographs ; among the latter, Yorkshiremen 
will be interested in the view of Lauriston House, Wimbledon Common, 
where ' the boy William Wilberforce lived for some time with his uncle, 
and in 1777 returned as owner of the mansion.' 

Wild Flowers as they Grow. Photographed in colour direct from 
Nature by H. E. Corke, with descriptive text by G. C. Nuttall. Third 
series. Cassell & Co., 1912. 200 pp., 5/- net. This is the third volume in 
the wonderfully illustrated series of botanical books, to two of which we 
have previously drawn attention in these pages. The present volume is 
in every way equal to its predecessors. Of the illustrations it is difficult 
to say which me admire the most ; though the Honeysuckle, the Field 
Rose, the Bramble, and the Peppermint, are perhaps the best. 



We have received the Report on the Present Condition of the Bardney 
Abbey Excavations for the year 1911, which shews that excellent progress 
has been made by the Vicar, the Rev. C. S. Laing, and his willing helpers. . 

Cruelties in Dress, b^^ Jessey Wade, is the title of a pamphlet issued 
by the Animals' Friend Society, York House, Portugal Street, Kingsway. 
(2d.). It points out the nature of the cruelties practiced in order to be- 
deck ladies with fine feathers and furs. 

Mr. S. L. Mosley, of Huddersfield, is issuing privately to subscribers 
only, An Account of the Birds of the Huddersfield District, with 40 crayon- 
watercolour plates (a new hand process), and 40 distributional maps 
illustrating all the common kinds. Part I. contains coloured illustrations 
of the Rook and Magpie, with maps, etc. 

From the Agricultural and Horticultural Association, London, we 
have received two pamphlets. The first. Window Gardens, by T. W. 
Sanders, is sold at one penny, and deals with the subject referred to in the 
title, in all its branches. The second is the One and All Gardening Annual 
for 1911, and is sold at twopence. It contains articles on Port Sunlight, 
Shore Gardens, Violets, the Birds of the Air, Intoxicated Plants, etc. What 
appears to be a photograph of sun spots, on page loi, is labelled ' Hiving 
a, swarm of bees under difficulties.' 

Naturalist, 



195 

PROCEEDINGS OF PROVINCIAL SCIENTIFIC SOCIETIES. 

The Journal of the Chester Archaeological Society, Vol. XVIIL, con- 
tains an account of ' Parkgate : an old Cheshire Port,' and ' An Ancient 
Boat in Baddiley IMere,' by the Ven. E. Barber. Both are well illustrated. 

The Seventy-Eighth Annual Report of Bootham School Natural History, 
etc., Society is to hand, and has been carefully compiled and well edited. 
There is every evidence of the school doing excellent work in natural 
science. We can find nothing wrong with it, not even misprints. 

Vol. XI. of the Bulletin of the Geological Institution of the University 
of Upsala, edited by H. Sjogren, contains many valuable papers, some of 
which are printed in English. Among them are ' On the Geological 
Structure and History of the Falkland Islands,' by T. G. Halle, and ' Notes 
on some Fish Remains from the Lower Trias of Spitsbergen,' by Dr. A. 
Smith Woodward. Some of the latter are described as new. There are 
many maps and plates. 

The papers of interest to naturalists in the Memoirs and Proceedings 
of the Manchester Literary and Philosophical Society, Vol. LVL, Part I., 
are on ' Researches on Heredity in Plants,' by Prof. Weiss ; on a collection 
of Arachnida and Chilopoda from Rhodesia, by S. Hirst ; ' Intensive 
study of the scales of three specimens of Salmon,' by Philippa C. Esdaile ; 
' Observations upon the improvement of the Physique of Manchester 
Grammar School Boys during the last thirty years,' by Dr. Mumford ; 
' The Duration of Life of the Common and Lesser Shrew,' b}^ L. E. Adams ; 
and a Note on the Little Owl and its food, by T. A. Coward. 

The Annual Report of the Proceedings under Acts relating to Sea 
Fisheries for the year 1910 (cviii.-|-i94 pp., 2-3) has been issued by the 
Board of Agriculture and Fisheries recently. It contains a mine of in- 
formation relative to the fishing industry of this country, and while it is 
necessarily largely written from the economical standpoint, it contains 
much information of interest to naturalists. It is pleasing to observe that 
the Board makes grants to the Zoological Department of the University 
of Liverpool (;{20o), and to the Armstrong College (/loo), in aid of fishery 
research. 

The Annual Report of Proceedings under the Salmon and Freshwater 
Fisheries Acts, etc., etc., for the year 191 1, came to hand from the Board 
of Agriculture about the same time. It consists of xvi. + 55 pp., and is 
sold at 3^d. It contains carefully compiled reports for each of the districts 
in England and Wales, and useful information in reference to the captures, 
etc., of the various kinds of freshwater fish. One wonders how the ' estima- 
ted ' number of salmon caught is arrived at, particularly in Yorkshire, 
where we learn that during 191 1, exclusive of the Esk, 421 salmon were 
caught by net and rod, weighing 4735 lbs. 

The Report of the Corresponding Societies' Committee and of the Con- 
ference of Delegates held at Portsmouth is to hand (35 pp., i/-), and can 
be obtained at the offices of the British Association, Burlington House, W. 
It contains Prof. J. W. Gregory's address. As a result of the discussion 
in reference to the best way of classifying natural history records, the 
committee has agreed to the Watsonian Vice-County system, as was advo- 
cated by the delegate appointed by the Yorkshire Naturalists' Union 
when the matter was brought up a year or two ago. The discussion is 
given on Mr. H. Wager's paper on ' The Study of Fungi by Local Natural 
History Societies,' which was printed in extenso in ' The Naturalist ' ; 
there is a report of a discussion opened by Sir Daniel Morris on ' Co-ordina- 
tion of the work of Local Scientific Societies,' and of a discussion on ' The 
Protection of Plants,' opened bj^ Mr. W. M. Webb. The report also con- 
tains the usual useful list of papers which have appeared in the various 
publications of the corresponding societies, classified according to subjects. 

19:2 June I. 



196 



NEWS FROM THE MAGAZINES. 



The Museum News (Brooklyn) for March, contains an interesting note 
on the black rat, and its origin. 

Mr. C. Mosley gives his ' Impressions of Hagenbeck's Zoological Gar- 
dens ' in The Animals' Friend for May. 

Part IV. of Cassell's Nature Book contains a charming object lesson on 
' The Romance of a River,' by the late Joseph Lomas. 

Mr. E. A. Martin has some notes on Ponds in Agricultural Districts, 
in the Journal of the Board of Agriculture, Vol. XIX., No. i. 

Some brief notes on ' Lepidoptera at Grassington in 191 1 ' and ' Col- 
lecting in Westmorland,' appear in The Entomologist for May. 

The Journal of the Manchester Geographical Society (Vol. XXVII.,. 
Part i), contains papers on the Panama Canal, the Sudan, and northern 
Persia. 

In Volume XI., part 2, of Records of the Past (Washington, D.C.), Mrs. 
Adelaide Curtiss has an admirably illustrated paper on ' The Venerable 
City of York.' 

In The Zoologist (No. 850) Mr. J. M. Charlton describes the birds of 
south-east Northumberland, and Mr. E. B. Dunlop has a lengthy paper 
on the Large Larch Sawfiy. 

A new pose for nurses. In the Animals' Friend (Vol. XVIII, No. 7) is 
a photograph of a bird standing on the chest of a sleeping baby : it is 
entitled ' The Bird as Nurse.' 

We are agreeably surprised to find the editors of British Birds, in the 
May issue, state that ' to regain a former breeding species, or to gain a new 
one, is of far greater interest and value than to discover a new " straggler." ' 

In The New Phytologist (Vol. XL, No. 4), Mr. H. Hamshaw Thomas 
has a useful paper ' On some methods in Palaeobotany,' and Mr. J. R. 
Weir gives a ' Review of the Characteristics of the Uredineae,' a subject 
dealt with by R. H. Philip recently in The Naturalist, though his paper 
does not appear in Mr. Weir's bibliography. 

According to the local press ' a seal was caught in the Grimsby fish- 
dock recently. It is supposed to have floated from the Arctic regions on 
an ice-floe which was melted in the warmer waters of the North Sea. 
Thence it must have got into the muddy waters of the Humber.' We 
suppose it could not have come from the Wash, a few miles away, -wliere 
seals breed in great numbers ? 

In The Zoologist for May Messrs. L. E. Hope and D. L. Thorpe con- 
tribute natural history notes in the Carlisle district during 191 1. There 
is also a record of Trichoniscoides sarsi, a wood louse new to Britain, found 
under small stones on the clay cliffs near Whitby. Previously it has only 
been recorded for the Christiania district. There is likewise a record, 
apparently the first, of the Whiskered Bat in Westmorland. 

In the Museums Journal for May, Dr. H. S. Harrison gives ' Notes on 
one kind of Museum,' in which he states that ' The chief function of a 
museum is the education of its curator, and the instruction conveyed to 
others is incidental.' He also informs us that ' a satisfied curator, like 
a finished museum, is damned and done for.' We know now the origin 
of the saying that ' he is well paid who is well satisfied.' Curators are 
never satisfied. In the same journal Mr. T. Sheppard has a paper on a 
Fisheries and Shipping Museum, which was read at the Stockport Con- 
ference of Museum curators on April 25th. Apparently this subject was 
accepted in place of ' Museums versus Refuse Destructors,' which was 
originally suggested. 

Naturalist, 



248 pages, size 8f by 6^ inches, and 12 fidl-page plates on Art 
JPaper, tastefully hound in cloth hoards, lettered in gold, with gilt top, 

10/6 net. 



J^orkebire 
/Iftoore an6 2)alce 

A Description of the North Yorkshire Moors 
together with Essays and Tales, 

BV 

ALFRED P. WILSON, 



The North Yorkshire Moors, which cover such a large portion 
of the North Riding, have not hitherto received from either the 
tourist or the antiquarian the same attention which has been given 
to the other parts of Yorkshire. 

The district which they cover is one of the loveliest and most 
interesting parts of Yorkshire, and this book shows how delightful 
;a visit to this neighbourhood can be. 

There is no other place in England so rich in antiquities as this 
•>iourland district, and most of these are described in this volume. 

Part I. serves as a guide to the visitor in going from place 
to place, and brings to his notice most of the objects of interest 
throughout the district. 

Part II. is a series of Essays, and, besides other subjects, deals 
with the following : — 

The Dalesfolk. Old Customs. Local History. 
Moorland Roads. Wild Nature Dialect, etc., etc. 

Part III. consists of a number of stories which further describe 
the characters of the dalesfolk. 



London : A. BROWN & SONS, Ltd., 5 Farringdon Avenue, E.G. 

AND AT HULL AND YORK. 



WATKINS & DONCASTER, 

36, STRAND, LONDON, W.C. 

(Five Doors from Charing Cross), 

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APPARATUS, CABINETS, BOOKS, AND SPECIMENS 

for Collectors of 

BIRDS' EGGS, BUTTERFLIES, MOTHS, ETC. 

Catalogue (96 pages) sent post free on application. 

THE IRISH NATURALIST: 

A Monthly Journal of General Irish Natural History. 
BOTANY. ZOOLOGY. GEOLOGY. 

EDITED BY 

GEO. H. CARPENTER, B.Sc, R. LLOYD PRAEGER, B.A., and 

ROBERT PATTERSON, F.Z.S., M.R.LA. 

This MAGAZINE should be in the hands of all Naturalists interested in the distribution of 

animals and plants over the British Islands. 

6d. Monthly. Annual Subscription {Post free) Ss. 



DUBLIN :— EASON & SON, 40, LOWER SAGKYILLE STREET, to which address 
Subscriptions should be sent. 

BELFAST :— EASON & SON, 17, DONEGALL STREET. 

LONDON ;— SIMPKIN, MARSHALL, HAMILTON, KENT & Co. _^ 

THE EVOLUTION OF 

KINGSTON-UPON-HULL 

AS SHEWN BY ITS PLANS. 

BY 

THOMAS SHEPPARD, F.G.S., F.R.G.S., F.S.A. (Scot.), 

Curator, Municipal Museums, Hull. 

Containing 204 pages, demy Svo, fully illustrated^ and with 
copious Index. 

Bevelled cloth hoards, 3/6 net, postage 4d. extra. 



Printed and Published for the Hull Corporation by 

A. BROWN & SONS, Ltd., Hull, and 5 Farringdon Avenue, 

London, E.G. 



Printed at Browns' Savile Press, 40, George Street, Hull, and published by 
A. Brown & Sons, Limited, at 5, Farringdon Avenue in the City of London. 

June ist, 1912. 



■ Ill \r No* 666 

JULY, 1912. 

(No, 444 »f turrtnt terlei). 




A MONTHLY ILLUSTRATED JOURNAL OF 

NATURAL HISTORY FOR THE NORTH OF ENGLAND. 

EDITED BY 

T. SHEPPARD, F.G.S., F.R.Q.S., F.S.A.ScoL, 

The Museums, Hull ; 

AND 

T. W. WOODHEAD, Ph.D., F.L.S.. 

Technical College, Huddersfield. 
with the assistance as referees in special departments op 
J. aiLBERT BAKBR. F.R.S. P.L.S., GEO. T. PORRITF, F.L.S., P.E.S. 

Prol. P. P. KENDALL, M.Sc, F.O.S., JOHN W. TAYLOR, 

T. H, NELSON, M.B.O.U., WILLIAM WEST, P.L.S., 

RILEY FORTUNE, F.Z.S. 



Contents : — 

PAGE 

Notes and Comments: — The Sportophyte; An Ecological Study; Clare Island and its 
Botanical Survey ; ' Punch,' the Naturalist ; The new London Museum and its Catalogue ; 
The Public Utility of Museums ; The York Museum and its new Lecture Theatre ; Roman 
Ironi from Corbridge ; An East Anglian Elephant ; The Ipswich Skeleton; Ankerite in 

Coal; Insect Remains in Coal ; The Origin of Life 197-23;-J 

A Pre-Qlacial Lake-bed near Northallerton— firfiMn Hawkcsworth 204-205 

Phaeaagella Smlthlaaa Boud. in Yorkshire— C. Crossland 206-201 

Xanthia aurago in the West Riding: of Yorkshire— fl. Morley 208 209 

Yorkshire Naturalists at Bridlington (Illustrated)— W.JB.L.W 210-218 

Plant Associations of Flamborough Head (Illustrated)— 7". W. Woodhcact, Ph.D., F.L.S. 219-223 

In Memoriam— Thomas Newbitt, F.G.S. (Illustrated)—/. S ... 224-225 

A Humber Salt-Marsh— r. S?rtm/o>-//i, /3./1 225-226 

Field Notes (Illustrated) : — Dytiscus ciraimcinctus Ahr. in the East Riding ; Coleoptera at 
Riccall and Skipwith ; White Rooks at Brompton ; Pine Marten in Cumberland ; Pine 
Marten near Hebden Bridge 205, 226-227 

Northern News 203,207 

Museum News 209 

News from the Magazines 218,223 

Proceedings of Scientific Societies 228 

Illustrations 213, ,222, 224, 227 



LONDON : 
A. Brown & Sons, Limited, 5, Farringdon Avenuej E.G. 1 

And at Hull and York. \ 

Printers and Publishers to the Y.N. U. \^ 



/hif 



PRICE 6d. NET. BY POST 7d. NET. 



Geological Pamphlets 

(Excerpts from the Geological Magazine, etc.'; from the Library 
of a Yorkshire Geologist, recently deceased). 



Price 4d. each, post free. 
Apply^J. B. FAY, Royal Institution, Hull. 

A New Genus of Crinojd. (Plates). 

On Bone Beds and their Characteristic Fossils. W. F. Symonds. 
Upper Silurian Corals. G. E. Roberts. 
On the Wyre Forest Coalfield. G. E. Roberts. (Illus.). 
On the Geology of Fairy Hill, Co. Tipperary. A. B. Wynne. 
Recent Encroachments of the Sea on the Shores of Torbay. W. Pengelly. 
On a Bone Cavern at Brixham, Devonshire. W. Pengelly. 
Ripple Drift in Mica Schist. (Plates). S. J. Mackie. 
On a New Species of Hybodus. S. J. Mackie. (IIlus.). 

British Earthquakes. S. J. Mackie. • 

On Certain Cretaceous Brachiopoda. E. Ray Lankester. (Plate). 
Budleigh Sai.terton Pebble-Bed. J. W. Salter. 

Recent and Tertiary Species of Thecidium. Thomas Davidson. (Plates.) 
Old Volcanic Action at Burntisland. Archibald Geikie. 
On Acrodas Anningidc Agass. C. H. Day. (Plates). 

On the Nature and Origin of Banded Flints. S. P. Woodward. (Plates) 
On a Section of the Lower Chalk near Ely. Harry Seeley. 
Some Points in Geology. T. Rupert Jones. 
New Reptile from the Coal. Prof. Owen. (P!ates). 
Valley Deposits of the Nar. C. B. Rose. 

New Species of Actinocrinus from the Mountain Limestone of Lancs. John Rofe. 
Fossils in Millstone-Grit. W. Presser. 
Coal Measures at Kingswood. H. Cossham. 
The Laurentian Rocks. R. I. Murchison. 
On the Crags of Suffolk and Antwerp. E. Ray Lankester. 

On the Connection between the Crag and Recent North Pacific Faunas. P. Carpenter. 
Coal Basin of South Wales. G. Phillips Bevan. 

On the Evidence of Recent Volcanic Eruptions in Central France. Rev. T. G. Bonney. 
Notes on some Echinodermata from the Mountain Limestone, etc. J. Rofe. (Plate). 
Tertiaries of Trinidad. J. L. Guppy. 
Macclesfield Drift Beds. R. D. Darbishire. 
On the Lake District. D. Mackintosh. (lUus.V 
On a New Genus of Mammal. Prof. Owen. (Plate). 
On Traces of Glacial Drift in the Shetland Islands. C. W. Peach. 
A Walk over the Ash-Bed and Bala Limestones. D. C. Davies. 

The Cambrian Rocks and Fossils of the British Islands. W. Hellier Baily. (Six Illustrations). 

Crustacean Teeth from Carb. and Upper Ludlow Rocks of Scotland. Henry Woodward. (Plates). 
Ancient Sea Margins in the Counties Clare and Galway, G. H. Kinahan. (lUus.). 
On Watersheds. George Maw. 

Notes on Subaerial and Marine Denudation. George Maw. Map and Sections. (Illus. ). 
Structure of Valleys in Essex. S. V. Wood. 

Some Observations on the Zoantharia Rugosa. Gustave Ludstrom. (Plate). 
On the Geological Epochs at which Gold has made its Appearance. David Forbes. 
On the Cliffs and Valleys of Wales. D. Mackintosh. (Plate). 
On Some Flint Cores FROM the Indus. Tohn Evans. (Plate). 
Relative Age of Stone and Metallic Weapons. Rev. Anthony Cumby. 
Glacial Origin of Denudation. O. Fisher. 

On some Fossils from the Graptolitic Shales of Dumfriesshire. H. A. Nicholson. (Plate). 
On the Formation of the " Rock-Basin " of Lough Corrib, County Galway. G. H. Kinahan. (Map). 
Gravel and Drift of the Fenlands. H. G. Seeley. 

On Denudation with Reference to the Configuration of the Ground. A. B. Wynne. (Plates). 
Carboniferous Rocks of North Wales. A. H. Green. 

On a Bed of Phosphate of LiMii North-west of Llanfyllin, North Wales. D. C. Davies. (Illus.). 
On New Genus of Graptolites in the Notes on Reproductive Bodies. H. A. Nicholson. (Plate). 
The Moulded Limestones of Furness. Miss E. Hodgson. 

On a New Fossil Myriapod and New Phyllopodus Crustacean. H. Woodward. (Plate). 
Glaciations of the Lake District. C. E. De Ranee. (II us.). 
Sketch of the Scientific Life of Thomas Davidson. F.R.S. (Portrait). 
Inversion of Coal Strata. H. B. Woodward. (Illus.). 
Pre-Glacial Geography of North Cheshire. C. E. De Ranee. 

On the Thforv of Seasonal Migration during the Pleistocene Period. James Geikie. (Plate). 
On Fossil Tubicolar Annelides. Prof. F. A. Nicholson. (Plate). 
Notes on Caleola Sandalina. Rev. T. R. R. Stebbing. (Plate.) 

Mineral Veins in some Rocks of Carboniferous Age in North-west Country. C. E. De Ranee. 
Earthquakes. H. P. Malet. 

Halenia and Lepidodendron. W. Carruthers. (Plate). 
On the Microscopic Structure of Tkap-Rocks. Prof. E. Hull. (Plates). 
On Fissures, Faults, Contortions, Etc. Dr. Ricketts. 
On Swiss Jurassic Foraminifera. Prof. T. R. Jones. 



NOTES AND COMMENTS. ^ 

THE SPORTOPHYTE. 

'Volume ' III. of this ' British Journal of Botanical Humour,' 
the ' only comic scientific journal,' has made its appearance, 
and apparently the first piece of humour is giving the name 
' volume ' to a pamphlet of twenty-four pages. But we do not 
consider that the present ' volume ' is as amusing as its prede- 
cessors. Dr. Stopes is evidently taking an interest in lan- 
guages, and we find notes in French and German, though, as 
in the case of some of the contributions in English, the humour 
is very ' thin.' There are the usual botanical definitions, 
that of ' Siphonogames ' being ' certain people who have very 
much need for soda-water in the morning.' There is a quaint 
poem on the ' Origin of the Angiosperms,' and a really charming 
' Ecological Study of the Distribution of Vegetation in the 
Potteries.' 

AX ECOLOGICAL STUDY. 

In this we learn that the area investigated was King Williain 
Street, Tunstall. The street runs exactly north and south, 
sloping steeply towards the south. Consequently each side 
receives approximately the same amount of illumination, 
though, in both cases, the intensity is slight, owing to the 
prevalence of carbon in the air. The vegetation of the street 
is strictly limited to the window of the one front room, down- 
stairs, of each house. This room, technically known as the 
' best room ' or ' parlour,' is seldom used, and seldomer venti- 
lated, so that we can safely assume that we are dealing with a 
virgin forest flora. The most striking feature is the dominance 
of Aspidistra lurida.' Details are then given of the actual 
numbers, and percentages, of houses in the street ; the number 
in which Aspidistra occurs, on the west side, and on the 
east side. A diagram showing the distribution of the species 
is promised when the paper appears ' in full.' And so on. 
The ' New Phytologist ' may be obtained from the editor at 
the University College, London, for a shilling. 

CLARE ISLAND 

It is safe to say that no part of the British Islands has 
been studied more systematically than Clare Island. This 
excellent piece of work, organised by Mr. R. Lloyd Praeger, 
is very comprehensive, and includes not only the geology and 
physical features of the island, its history and archaeology, 
agriculture and meteorology, but also every branch of natural 
history. Each section is being dealt with by a specialist, and 
Mr. Praeger is to be congratulated on his success in securing 
the active assistance of so many authorities who have made 
special visits to the island for the purposes of the survey. 
The results are being published by the Royal Irish Academy. 

1912 July I. O 



198 Notes and Comments. 

AND ITS BOTANICAL SURVEY. 

About fifty of these will deal with the various groups of 
animals, and ten with the plants. Part X., dealing with the 
Phanerogamia and Pteridophyta, published recently, is by Mr. 
Praeger, and gives a most interesting and readable account of 
the higher plants under the following heads : — ' General Features 
of the District,' ' Extent and Character of the Flora and Com- 
parison of the Floras of adjacent Islands,' ' Description of the 
Vegetation/ ' List of the Flora,' ' Influence of Man upon the 
Flora,' ' Origin of the Flora,' ' Transport by Water, Wind 
and Birds.' The part is illustrated by nine of Mr. Welch's 
excellent photographs, and a vegetation map which shows 
with great clearness the chief plant associations of the island. 
The many-sided outlook on the flora of the island shown 
by Mr. Praeger in these 112 pages is worth careful considera- 
tion by all interested in study of the natural history of a 
restricted area. 

' PUNCH,' THE NATURALIST. 

We have previously had cause to grumble at the fact that 
our contemporary. Punch, pays too much attention to Natural 
History. The limit has surely been reached in the number 
before us (No. 3701). There is an illustration of a young man 
who has apparently succumbed to the ' effect of a too prolonged 
study of the cuckoo's note,' or at any rate made that his excuse ; 
there is an illustration showing the best way to decoy snails 
fi"om a garden city ; the artist, oddly enough, being a ' Bird ' ; 
and there is an illustration of a teacher instructing a ' Nature 
Study ' class to ' make careful notes of the behaviour of the 
ordinary earthworm on its emerging into daylight!' Among 
the notes not illustrated are references to an ' eight legged fish 
that barks like a dog,' an ancient story about a telescope ' useful 
for Naturalists and Etymologists,' ' larks' eggs six thousand 
years old,' ' The Rose Garden,' a terrier that was run over but 
only slightly injured, and Sudden Sundays. There is a poem 
to a Crustacean, which begins ' Lobster, lo ! ' ; there is a cartoon 
depicting cruelty to the race-horse, Tagalie. There are refer- 
ences to dams for fish ; a note on Sodium Phenylmethyl- 
pyrazolOnamidomethansulphonate ; a Lover of Nature who 
shot elephants, deer and grouse ; Peacocks and Pansies, etc. 
The same number contains illustrations of a dog, lion, 
elephant, crocodile, cat, palm trees, fir trees, horses, dogs, rose 
trees, a cow, calf, and Mercury. If Punch will not leave the 
Naturalist alone. The Naturalist will have to seriously consider 
the advisability of being humoi"ous. 

THE NEW LONDON MUSEUM 

We- recently paid a shilling for a guide to the extraordinary 
miscellaneous collection gathered together, with no apparent 

o Naturalist. 



Notes and Comments. , 199 

arrangement or classification, in the new ' London Museum 
at Kensington Palace.' The objects exhibited include an 
umbrella used by the Prince of Wales, shoes and socks worn 
by the late King, and similarly instructive relics ; while a 
distinct Madame Tussaud flavour is given by the exhibition 
of a model of Jack Sheppard* in his cell, and other similar 
exhibits. Among the collection, of course,, are many really 
valuable and appropriate exhibits. We bought the guide 
in order to get information about some of the specimens which 
were not labelled, but the objects were not even mentioned, 
nor could reference to the cases be found at all. On the title 
page we are told to ' Notice. — This catalogue and guide are 
copyright, and immediate proceedings in Chancery will be 
taken against any infringers thereof.' The punishment would 
certainly fit the crime ! 

AND ITS CATALOGUE. 

The guide itself is a fair model of what such a guide should 
not be. It is badly printed, with ancient type, on poor paper. 
The details of the cases are mixed up with the history of the 
Palace, and with a catalogue of the pictures, and there is no 
index ; so that it is really a difficult matter to find anything 
in it. Many of the cases are not numbered at all, and we read 
Case No. (long),' 'Case No. (side),' 'Case No. (centre)' 
Case No. (side long),' and so on. An idea of the scheme of 
classification ' can be obtained from the following particulars 
of the first few cases, in which, if anywhere, an attempt at 
classification has been made : — ' Case i. Stone Ages, Bronze 
Age, late Celtic Period. Case 2, Ceramic Art. Case 3 [No 
heading at all! but apparently contains objects of the first to 
fifth century, A.D.], Case 3 (continued) Saxon Period, " Relapse 
to Barbarism " [sic]. Case 4, Early Mediaeval Pottery. Case 5, 
Battle Axes, Swords, etc. Case 6, Wine Bottles. Case 7, 
Lighting Appliances. Case 8, Prehistoric Mammalia, etc. 
[the " etc." includes all sorts of things that ought to be miles 
away]. Next is a ' Green Coloured Bust ' [sic] and a ' Bell in 
Case.' Then.' Case No. 9, Mediaeval London,' and so on to case 
12. Then follows a description of ' Queen's closet,' and ' Pic- 
tures of Old London,' followed by ' Nos. 20 to 34,' which are 
apparently pictures. After all this, oddly enough, we come to 
a heading in large type, ' London Museum Exhibits,' and calmly 
proceed to a hst of the contents of case No. 13. And the guide 
ends up with ' A Condemned Cell, Old Roman Galley, Mantel- 
pieces, etc.. Panoramic Models of Old London, Lobby for 
Various Exhibits, Old Jacobean Room.' It was with some 
such remark as ' A Condemned Cell ' that we closed the ' Guide,' 
and thought of what might have been done with that shilhng. 

* Even the name of this Great Hero is spelt wrongly in the catalogue ! 
iipi2 July I. 



200 Notes and Comments. 

THE PUBLIC UTILITY OF MUSEUMS. 

Lord Sudely has kindly favoured us with a copy of a pamph- 
let he has issued on ' The Public Utility of Museums.' It 
contains a number of letters written by Lord Sudely and others 
to The Times, as well as leading articles in that journal, re- 
printed in convenient form. The pamphlet should be in the 
hands of everybody interested in the educational work of our 
museums. Briefly, Lord Sudeley's suggestion is, that the 
educational value of our great museums would be considerably 
increased if guides were appointed to conduct visitors round 
the collections, explaining the more interesting and more 
important exhibits. Since the letters appeared, the experiment 
has been tried at the British Museum, and from what we have 
personally seen at that institution it can certainly be looked 
upon as successful. A time table has been drawn up so that 
the visitor may arrange to hear the guide's remarks on any 
subject in which he is particularly interested. Arrangements 
can also be made for special parties to be conducted round the 
collections, without charge. There can be no question that 
Lord Sudeley's suggestion is on the right lines. Whether it 
can be carried out in the provincial museums or not will largely 
depend on the old question of funds. It is certain that, except 
in rare cases, the curator cannot spare the time for these 
lectures. And most visitors would be glad to have such 
guidance, and would profit thereby. 

THE YORK MUSEUM 

On June the 6th, Dr. Tempest Anderson, the President, 
formally presented a magnificent lecture theatre to the York- 
shire Philosophical Society, which will be a valuable addition 
to the Society's property. In the erection of the new room 
full advantage has been taken of all modern improvements. 
The former lecture theatre, which was too small for the Society's 
requirements, has been levelled, and makes a convenient 
entrance-hall to the museum. At present, however, the exhi- 
bition space available in the museum is still much too small, 
and has not been improved by the recent changes. 

AND ITS NEW LECTURE THEATRE. 

The lecture theatre was opened by Prof. Bonney, who gave 
an address on the advantages of nature study, and on the 
history of York ; oddly enough the audience almost entirely 
consisted of York people. Mrs. Gray, in a charming speech, 
presented Dr. Anderson with an illuminated album from 
his numerous friends, which contained an expression of thanks 
for the Doctor's various acts of generosity. The Very Rev. 
the Dean of York, after a few well-chosen words, unveiled a 
portrait of Dr. Anderson, which is to adorn the walls of the 
new room. In this we must admit we missed the pleasant 

Naturalist, 



Notes and Comments. 201 

and ' knowing ' smile so familiar with us on the original of the 
portrait ; and we can understand the statement that was made 
by a gentleman who had seen Dr. Anderson ' look hke that 
when the hot water pipes had gone wrong! ' Dr. Anderson 
returned thanks ; Sir Everard ini Thurm and Prof. Boyd 
Dawkins thanked Prof. Bonney for his address ; and Prof. 
Bonney replied. Tea was provided in the Society's beautiful 
grounds, and the band of the York Company of the National 
Reserves played ' I don't care what becomes of me,' ' Yip-i- 
addy-i-aye,' etc. 

ROMAN IRON FROM CORBRIDGE. 

Sir Hugh Bell has kindly favoured us with a copy oi an 
interesting paper which he recently read at a meeting of the 
Iron and Steel Institute. During the excavations on the 
site of the Roman station of Corstopitum, near Corbridge, the 
remains .of a furnace were found, in which was a bloom. of iron, 
weighing over three hundredweight. It was three feet four 
inches long, seven inches square at one end, tapering to four 
and a half inches at the other end, which was well rounded. 
In order to make a thorough investigation, the bloom was 
sawn through, and carefully examined, the results of which 
are given in the paper. It is apparent that the bloom was 
built up by small ingots of iron being welded together, and in 
the opinion of Sir Hugh Bell and others, the iron was probably 
derived from the local blackband ironstones of the Carboni- 
ferous series. The paper is accompanied by a map, photo- 
graphs of the furnace and bloom, and of photo-micrographs 
of the metal. 

AN EAST ANGLIAN ELEPHANT. 

In a recent number of Nature Mr. J. R. Moir has an illus- 
trated note describing an elephant's tusk found at the top of 
the Middle Glacial Sand, beneath the Chalky Boulder Clay, 
near Ipswich. As no human bones were found with the tusk, 
however, we can hardly agree that ' this discovery appears to 
be of some importance, and affords an answer to those critics 
who were dissatisfied with the discovery of the human skeleton 
because any other mammalian remains were not found at the 
same horizon.' The tusk recently found may have been at 
the same depth as the alleged pre-glacial human skeleton found 
some little time ago ; but, as previously explained in this 
column, the mildest verdict that can be given with regard to 
the alleged great age of the Ipswich man is that the matter 
is ' not proven.' 

THE IPSW'ICH SKELETON. 

Since our remarks on the Ipswich skeleton were made, we 
have received the Antiquary for June, which contains a report 
of the paper read to the Royal Anthropological Institute in 

1912 July I. 



202 Notes and Comments. 

reference to these human remains. From this we gather that- 
Prof. Boyd Dawkins, who has a reputation both as a geologist 
and anthropologist, said that ' on the previous Saturday 
he had made a careful examination of the section in which 
the skeleton was found, and he was of opinion that the inter- 
ment was not found beneath the boulder clay as such. The 
clay was not in situ, but there had been a vertical movement 
in that section. There was absolutely no geological evidence 
in that place of pre-glacial man. In the case of the Ipswich 
skeleton there was every reason to suppose it was a modern 
interment.' 

ANKERITE IN COAL. 

In No. 75 of the Mineralogical Magazine, Mr. T. Crook has 
a paper on the frequent occurrence of Ankerite in coal. Doubt- 
less many of our readers will have noticed the white layers 
which occur frequently as in-fillings of joint cracks in coal. 
These are miniature mineral-veins. Though averaging less 
than a millemetre in thickness in ordinary specimens, these 
veins are in many cases very numerous, and their presence 
constitutes an important feature in the composition of the coal. 
As a rule the dominant mineral is ankerite, which may be 
normal in composition {i.e., correspond to the formula 2 CaCOg. 
Fe(Mn)CO;;. MgCO.-j.) or may contain a small excess of calcium 
carbonate, apparently in the form of an isomorphous growth. 
Calcite also occurs, and is sometimes the dominant mineral. 
The other associated minerals are iron-pyrites, barytes, zinc- 
blende, and galena. Examples of coal containing ankerite 
are recorded from Yorkshire, Lancashire, Nottinghamshire, 
and other coalfields. 

INSECT REMAINS IN COAL. 

At a recent meeting of the Geological Society of London 
Mr. H. Bolton read a paper on some Insect Remains from the 
Midland and South-Eastern Coalfields. The writer described 
a series of three insect-wings obtained by Dr. L. Moysey, from 
the Shipley Clay-pit near Ilkeston (Derbyshire), and a blattoid 
wing, and three fragments from the borings of the Kent Coal 
Concessions Company, Ltd., in East Kent. The first series 
of insect-wings occurred in greyish-brown ironstone nodules, 
which lie in bands in a yellow clay about thirty or forty feet 
below the Top Hard Coal. They are not referable to any 
known families. Three new . famihes are formed to contain 
them, one of which is nearly related to the Dictyoneuridas 
with some suggestion of the family Heholidae. A second new 
family is allied to the Heliolidse, and the third new family to 
the Homoiopteridae, or, as the writer believes, near to the 
Lithomantidae. 

Naturalist, 



Northern News. 203 

THE ORIGIN OF LIFE. 

The Presidential Address of Prof. E. A. Minchin to the 
Quekett Club is printed in the Club's Journal, recently pub- 
lished, and deals with ' Speculations with regard to the simplest 
forms of life and their origin on the earth.' He deals fully 
with what he terms the Lankesterian theory and the Arrhenian 
theory of the origin of life. But concludes : ' Since it is im- 
possible to put the matter to a crucial test, each of the two 
opposed views remains a pious belief merely. For my part I 
believe that the view which a man holds with regard to the 
nature of life depends on the inner constitution and fabric, so 
to speak, of his mind, and not on his reasoning process. A 
man is born a vitalist or a mechanist before ever he has thought 
about such matters, and to argue on the subject is futile. At 
a time when I was younger than I am now, I have myself 
debated and discussed such matters hotly, like old Khayyam : — 

Myself when young did eagerly frequent 
Doctor and Saint, and heard great Argument 
About it and about ; but evermore 
Came out by the same Door as in I went. 

It is my belief that all that is gained by such discussions is 
to enable a man to ascertain what is the type of mental bias 
with which he has come into being. The questions which lie 
at the base of the difference of opinion are at present not capable 
of being put to the test ; and so far as one can see, they seem 
likely to remain for ever the most inscrutable of problems.' 



The Rev. E. Jones has presented a collection of remains from the 
Elbolton Cave to the Keighley Museum. 

We learn from the Yorkshire Evening Neii-s that ' Professor Boyd 
Dawkins told a York audience that man was in York in the Stone Age. 
He said nothing of the stone- jar age.' Ccmic papers please copy. 

From the Board of .Agriculture and Fisheries we have received a leaflet 
Xo. 261, which deals with ' The Scawby Agricultural Credit Society. An 
example of an Agricultural Credit Society.' Scawby is near Brigg, in 
Lincolnshire, and the society referred to is the oldest of its kind in the 
country. 

Mr. C. G. Lloyd, of the Lloyd Library, Ohio, has issued an admirable 
pamphlet entitled Synopsis of the Stipitate Polyporoids, which contains 
some of the finest illustrations of fungi that we have ever seen. As a 
frontispiece is a portrait of the Rev. G. Bresadola, of whom Mr. Lloyd states 
that he ' has the best critical knowledge of foreign Polyporoids, and to 
whom I am indebted for many determinations and advice.' 

We have previously remarked on the large field covered by budding 
librarians. In a set of questions issued by the Library Association, for 
the ' Professional Examination,' under the head of ' Library Routine,' 
we notice ' D. — i. — State the Act or Acts under which Museums may be 
established in this country, and the provisions which such Act or Acts 
make for their financial support.' And in order to pass their examination, 
we suppose all the assistants must reply ' The Public Libraries Act, of 
course ' ! 

1912 July I. 



204 

A PRE=GLACIAL LAKE=BED NEAR NORTHALLERTON. 



EDWIN HAWKESWORTH, 



On a recent visit to Brompton, near Northallerton, a friend 
drew my attention to a section exposed in making a pond in his 
grounds. The surface was composed of a varjdng thickness of 
Boulder Clay, containing numerous boulders of Carboniferous 
limestones, sandstones and grits ; chert, grey and other granite, 
and igneous rocks, including basalts, and one of Shap granite 
quite a cubic foot in size. Beneath this Boulder Clay was a 
bed of peat and peaty silt, in some places seven or eight feet 
thick. Several small trunks, or branches of oak were found in 
this. The peat rested upon about eighteen inches of white 
marl, but, as the Avater had reached the top of this, and what 
had been dug out had been dispersed, an examination of it 
was impossible. However, I was informed that it was full of 
shells, which, from the description given, would most likely 
be some species of Limncea. 

My friend had laid aside, as a curiosity, a small mass of 
quite green, compressed moss, which he had found between the 
peat and the marl. I sent this to Mr. Wm. Ingham, B.A., who 
identifies it as one of the Harpidioid Hypna — Hypnum ftuitans, 
Linn., group exannulatum Renauld. var. pinnatum Boulay, 
forma gracilescens Renauld. He writes that the same moss now 
exists on shallow water splashes on Strensall and Skipwith 
Commons, but the Brompton specimen differs from the modern 
representative in being more pinnately branched, and in 
hundreds of leaves floating off the moment its stem touches 
water, due, no doubt, to its great age. The present plant 
on the above commons is more rigid, and the leaves so firmly 
fixed that they never come off when the stems are soaked in 
water. The cell structure of the leaves is exactly the same 
in both cases, as is the nerve. Mixed with this moss were a few- 
stems of Hypnum cuspidatum, our commonest moss in wet 
places. Notwithstanding its age, this is as rigid as its modern 
representative, and does not lose its leaves when the stem 
touches water. 

I secured a small quantity of shell-marl which was found 
as a lenticle in the peat, and sent it to Mr. A. Gilligan, B.Sc, 
F.G.S., who has examined it under the microscope, and reports 
that it contains large numbers of Gyrogonites, the oospores 
(or seeds), of the calcareous algae Chara. The spiral arrange- 
ment of the whorls can'be seen on a number of perfect speci- 
mens. Many of the internal cysts (or nuts, as the^^ are some- 
times called), are present, both free from the surrounding 
case of calcium carbonate, and some still inside it. These 
show sharp spiral ridges. Planorhis is present in quantity, 

Naturalist, T 



Field Notes. 



205 



but no perfect specimens. (I kept a good one out, before 
sending the marl to Mr. Gilligan). Small pebbles of an 
opalescent quartz, beautifully rounded, also occur. 

My thanks must be expressed to Messrs. Ingham and 
Gilligan, for so kindly examining and reporting upon the 
moss and marl, respectively. 

: o : 

ENTOMOLOGY. 

Dytiscus circumcinctus Ahr. in the East Riding. — On 
August 3rd and loth, 191 1, I captured several Dytisci in a pond 
by the River Derwent at Bubwith, and at the time put them 
away in my collection as marginalis L. However on sending 
a smooth § to Mr. G. B. Walsh, he discovered that it was 
circumcinctus Ahr. On working through the beetles I find 
that there are several marginalis L. and six circumcinctus 
Ahr. (4 (^s and 2 smooth $s). I believe that the only other 
Yorkshire capture was about forty years ago, when Archdeacon 
Hey and the Rev. W. C. Hey took a single smooth ^ at Ask- 
ham Bog. — W. J. Fordham, Bubwith. 

Coleoptera at Riccall and Skipwith. — The following is 
a list of beetles found on Riccall and Skipwith Commons on the 
occasion of the Y.N.U. visit on May 4th. Most of the species 
have been kindly verified by Mr. E. A. Newbery. 



Cicindela campestvis L. Larvae in 

burrows. 
Acupalpus dorsalis F. Sphagnum. 
Bradycellus similis Dj. 
Harpalus froelichi Stm. ( = tardus 

Pz). On sandy road. 
Calathiis melanocephalus L. Sphag- 
num. ( 
Pterostichus nigrita F. Sphagnum. 
Anchomenus ftiliginosiis Pz. ,, 
Droniiits linearis Ol. 
Haliplus fulvus F. In pond. 

liueatocollis Marsh. Tn 
pond. 
Hydroporits umbrosus Gyll. In 

pond. 
Hydvoporus gyllenhali Sch. In pond. 
Agabiis femoralis Pk. 

chalcoiioius Pz. 
Ilybins fuliginosus F. 
Dytiscus marginalis L. (larva) 

In pond. 
Hydrobius fuscipes'L. 
Philhydrus melanocephalus 01. 

In pond. 
mimttus F. 
* Laccobius minutus L. 
Helophor us aquatic us L. 



Helophorus oeneipennis Th. In pond 
Oxypoda longiuscula Gr. Sphag- 
num. 
Gymnusa brevicollis Pk. Sphagnum 
Conosoma ptibescens Gr. 
Tachyporus obtusus L. 

,, chrysomelinus'L. 

hypnorum F. 
Lathrobiitm brunnipes F. 

termin atum Gr. 
*Cryptobium glaberrimiini Hbst. 

Sphagnum. 
Olophvum piceum Gyll. 
Philorhinuni sordidum Steph. ,, 
Coccinella, 11 punctata L. On Fir. 
Halyzia 18 guttata L. 

22 punctata L. 
Coccidiila rufa Hb.st. Sphagnum. 
Micvambe vini Pz. Gorse. 
Dolopius marginatus L. Sweeping. 
Pvasocuris phellandrii L. Sweeping 

reeds. 
Lochmaea suturalis Th. Heather. 

(Type and a black form). 
Apion ulicis Forst. Gorse. 
Sitones lineatus L. Sweeping. 
Ceuthorhynchus evicts Gyll. 

Heather. 

W. J. Fordham, Bubwith. 



= Apparently new county records. 



1912 July I. 



2o6 



PH /BANG ELLA SMITH I AN A BOUD. {= PSEUDO- 
PHACIDIUM SMITHIANUM BOUD.) IN YORKSHIRE. 



C. CROSSLAND, 
Halifax. 

In August, 191 1, Mr. T. B. Roe, Scarborough, sent me specimens 
of a minute Discomycete on browned leaves of Empetrum 
nigrum, from Seamer Moor, near Scarborough. When in a 
dry condition the margin of the ascophore is so much incurved 
as to give it the appearance of a Pyrenomycete ; when, how- 
ever, it is moist, mature ascophores are seen and its true 
character is at once revealed. Being out of the ordinary run 
of Discomycetes, mature specimens were straightway described 
and figured from a careful microscopic examination. This 
was done before trying to determine the species by aid of books, 
or to ascertain if it had previously been described. On even- 
tually referring to the Trans. Brit. Myc. Soc, Vol. IIL, Part IL, 
p. 8r, I met with the description of a ' New Species of Pseudo- 
phacidium " — P. Smithianum — by Em. Boudier, with figure 
on plate 4. This also was found on browned leaves of Em- 
petrum nigrum, collected in Ayrshire by Mr. D. A. Boyd, and 
in Ross-shire by Miss A. Lorrain Smith, and forwarded to Dr. 
Boudier by Mr. Carleton Rea. This appeared to be the same 
thing as the Seamer Moor gathering, but the description of 
spores and paraphyses did not quite agree with mine. M. 
Boudier describes the spores as hyaline or slightly coloured, 
at first filled with small ' oil drops,' and non-septate ; par- 
aphyses unbranched above, divided at base only. 

The early stages of the spores of the Yorkshire specimens 
answer this description exactly, but later, the contents become 
homogeneous and take on a pale yellow-green tint which 
gradually deepens to dark olive ; finally the spores are distinctly 
one-septate ; the colour deepens tardily and during the change 
the ascus disappears ; the spores are not expelled from the 
apex as is usually the case. Paraphyses profusely branched 
above. 

Samples of the Seamer Moor gatherings were submitted 
to Dr. Boudier and his attention drawn to the dark coloured, 
one-septate, mature spores. After receiving a second lot, and 
further study of the ascophores, Dr. Boudier accepted the 
suggestion that this was the same species as the one from 
Scotland, described and figured in the above ' Transactions.' 
Evidently the Scotch specimens were immature, as he had not 
observed dark coloured, one-septate spores. He added that 
these characters necessitated the species being placed in 
another genus, and would set the matter right. 

The following is a translation of his communication to the 

Naturalist, 



Northern News. 207 

' Trans. Britl Myc. Soc.', Vol. III., Part V., p. 324, 1911-12 : — 
' When in 1908 I published in the " Trans. Brit. Myc. 
Soc." my note on the little Discomycete discovered by Miss 
Lorrain Smith, which was sent to me by my good friend, Mr. 
Carleton Rea, I believed myself to have in hand specimens 
which had attained their complete development. I had 
not noted anything further until August this year (191 1) 
when our colleague, Mr. Crossland, had the kindness to send 
me numerous specimens on two different occasions. The 
examination of these specimens enables me to state what had 
already been recognised by our experienced colleague himself 
that the spores of this species were not only continuous and 
uncoloured or slightly coloured, but that with age, not only 
acquire an intense colouration, even to an olive-black, but 
also present a median septum, becoming clearly distinct only 
at this period of full maturity. 

' I must also further remark that the paraphyses which 
I had seen at first simple, or only divided near the base, often 
present ramifications in the upper portions, a fact also observed 
by Mr. Crossland. 

' These observations have necessarily modified my opinion 
as to the genus in which this species should be placed ; and, 
although some of the characters do not quite accord, I believe 
it ought to be included in the genus Phaeangella of Saccardo. 
' This necessary correction is one more proof of the opinion 
I have often expressed how little certainty is afforded among 
the Discomycetes by the divisions of the spores. These organs 
often present divisions in their interior only on their extreme 
development which suffice to place them in quite different 
genera ; so also of their tardy colouration.' 

A full description of the new find will be given later. 

♦♦ 

In the Transactions of the North of England Institute of Mining and 
Mechanical Engineers, Vol. LXII., Part V., Mr. James Lomax suggests 
the term ' Micro-coalologist ' or ' some such name ' should be given to an 
investigator of the microscopic structure of coal. If this is adopted, we 
would suggest the term ' microcarboniferouslimestoneologist ' for members 
of the band studying the structure of the Carboniferous Limestone ; and 
' micromoorlogologist ' for those now busy studying moorlog from the 
North Sea. But we think it would only be fair to consult the gentlemen 
concerned before victimising them in the way suggested. 

It is encouraging to find what a great interest is taken in ' Nature 
Study ' nowadays, and how anxious even our leading newspapers are to 
print anything with a natural history flavour. The following observation, 
by a Durham clergyman, recently finds space in the columns of the York- 
shive Post : — ' Perhaps it may interest some of your readers to know that 
I found a cuckoo's egg in a nest with four hedge-sparrow's eggs. The nest 
was of course in a hedge, but the hedge was on the side of a highroad in 
North Yorkshire. The egg was very dark, and spotted all over, rather 
like a lark's in appearance, though slightly larger ; but it was considerably 
smaller than that of a thrush.' Unfortunatelv we are not informed what 
shape the egg was. 

1912 July I. 



2o8 



XANTHIA AURAGO IN THE WEST RIDING 
OF YORKSHIRE. 



B. MORLEY, 

Skiiinanthorpe. 



The status of Xanthia aurago as a Yorkshire species is based 
on the capture of about two dozen specimens, all within the 
area of Doncaster, Rotherham, Sheffield, Barnsley and Skel- 
manthorpe (leaving out Stainton's record of its occurrence 
at York). According to Mr. Porritt's ' List of Yorkshire 
Lepidoptera,' the first West Riding specimen was taken at 
Sheffield in 1859. The species was also taken there in i860, 
and again in 1887. In 1893 it was captured at Rotherham and 
Doncaster ; was taken at Skelmanthorpe in 1900 and 1901, 
and at Barnsley in 1903. At Skelmanthorpe the species was 
not seen during the period from 1901 to 1911, when three 
specimens were secured in Deffer Wood. It is interesting to 
know that it has been taken in so many widely-separated 
districts in our county, but the rarity and uncertainty of 
its appearances rather limits the satisfaction of knowing 
that it is included in our county's fauna. 

The re-appearance of the species in Deffer Wood after the 
lapse of ten years, suggested the continuity of a race, and that 
it must be established there, but if that were the case, some 
substitute food was used, for its ordinary food, beech or maple, 
are both wevy scarce in the wood. Sycamore on the other hand, 
being very plentiful, was thought to be the probable substi- 
tute. 

One of the moths taken last autumn was a female, and, after 
being kept alive for sixteen days, laid a few eggs here and there 
on twigs of beech. About the middle of April this year the 
little larvae began to emerge from the eggs, and they were put 
upon bursting buds of sycamore. When it was almost too. 
late, however, it was found that a grave mistake had been made, 
as unblown buds only should have been used. The larvae 
when young are confirmed miners, and the necessary substance 
they require to mine into not having been supplied, man}- of 
them died. But a few revived and revealed their habit. 
The buds are entered at the base, and at once their develop- 
ment is arrested. Securely sealed in the interior, the larvae 
consume all the inside of the buds, and find enough food to half 
complete their growth before they retire from their burrows. 
The bracts of the buds are not eaten, but are left complete. 
The next operation of the larvae is to spin the edges of two 
leaves together, and hide inside during the daytime, or descend 
from the tree and hide on the ground, leaving the hiding places 
at night to feed on the expanded foliage. 

Naturalist, 



Museum News. 209 

On May lith a search was made for wild larvae on sycamore, 
and about a score were found. An earlier date would have 
given better results, for many of the dead buds were found 
deserted when opened, but there was abundant evidence that 
the species was common. Searching the leaves for hiding 
larvae produced the best results, but that method was made 
very unpleasant by the continual shower of the larvae of the 
various winter geometers whose numbers were countless. 

Sufficient proof was obtained, however, that the species 
is indigenous in the wood, and it is probable that searching 
for the larvae will prove it to be so in many woods in the south 
of our county. ' Sugar ' can scarcely be relied upon as a 
medium of capture, as it has little attraction for the genus 
Xanthia in these parts. 



The Horniman Museum, Forest Hill, has recently issued a useful 
' Handbook to Marine Aquaria ' (Second edition), with two plates. It 
contains 52 pages and is sold at twopence. 

The Forty-first Annual Report of the Rochdale Libraries, Art Gallery, 
and Museum Committee expresses the hope that the extensions to the 
museum and art gallery will shortly be accomplished. We regret to see 
that the branch museum at Falinge Park has been closed. 

The Report of the Museums and Art Galleries of Glasgow contains 
details of many additions to the various departments. Among the objects 
are many models, including those of ships. The Board of Education has 
made a grant of ;/|22o towards the purchase of specimens during the year. 

The Twenty-sixth Report of the Libraries and Museum Committee of 
Great Yarmouth contains illustrations of local shipping items in the Museum 
there, and also of Yarmouth Glass and Pottery. It is pleasing to learn 
that the chief librarian has discharged his duties with zeal and courtesy 
during the year! 

The Twenty-fifth general Report of the Free Library and Museum 
Committee of Bootle contains a ' list of donors and donations to the 
museum', and also of ' loans and lenders.' We are also glad to learn that 
at Bootle, also, ' painstaking, efficient, and loyal service ' has been rendered 
by every member of the staff! 

The Second Report of the Doncaster Municipal Art Gallery and Museum 
(formerly it was the Museum and Art Gallery) contains the list of additions 
made, and also particulars of the work accomplished in the various rooms. 
■ Three additional rooms have been opened during the year,' which is a 
good sign. According to the turnstile, the daily average attendance has 
been 196, while on Sundays the average has been 383. 

The Bankfield Museuni at Halifax has issued a valuable pamphlet 
(No. 12) on ' Local Pre-historic Implements,' by H. P. Kendall and H. L. 
Roth. (20 pp., 6d.). It is well illustrated, and contains particulars of the 
finds made in the Halifax district. There is certainly something wrong 
with fig. 18, said to have been found near Todmorden. It is surely either 
a forgery, or from America. And we are not quite sure that there is 
satisfactory evidence that the spindle-whorl (fig. 43) is ' most probably 
pre-historic' Being found among ' tipped debris' means that it is prob- 
ably later in date ; such things were in use even until comparatively 
recent times. The authors' remarks on the probable use of the so-called 
' pigmy-flint ' implements (pp. 15-16) are interesting. 

1912 July I. 



2IO 

YORKSHIRE NATURALISTS AT BRIDLINGTON. 

The 237th gathering of the Union was held at Bridhngton at 
Whitsuntide, May 25th to 27th. It is regrettable that the 
excursions were so sparseley attended, and unofficially repre- 
sented, especially considering the excellent local arrangements 
made by Messrs. J. W. Stather and Thomas Sheppard. The 
weather was ideal, and it was thought that at least on the 
Monday's excursion the Societies in the East and West Ridings 
would have been better represented. ■ However, if the atten- 
dances at the excursions were meagre (twenty on Saturday and 
thirty on Monday), good work was done by many. 

The headquarters were at the Station Hotel, Bridhngton, 
where a room was set apart for the use of the members, 
in which the meetings on the evenings of Saturday and Monday 
were held. 

On Saturday, the geologists, under the guidance of Messrs. 
Sheppard and Stather, investigated the coast sections between 
Bridlington and South Landing, and on Monday, under the 
guidance of the same gentlemen, journeyed to Flamborough 
by train, and examined the chffs from Thornwick Bay 
onwards to the South Landing. The botanists on Saturday 
visited Boynton Woods, under the guidance of Mr. J. F. Robin- 
son, who was ably assisted by Mr. Hannah, the Steward in 
charge of the Boynton Estate. On Monday, with the same 
leader, Mr. Robinson, they journeyed to Flamborough by 
train, and, after watching the egg-chmbers at work on the 
cliiSs at Buckton and Bempton, worked back to Bridlington 
by way of Danes' Dyke Ravine. 

At the evening meeting on Saturday, the President occu- 
pied the chair. Mr. Thomas Sheppard, F.G.S., read a paper 
on ' The Evolution of Bridlington.' After giving an excellent 
resume of the geological formations on which the town is 
built, and also of those in its immediate vicinity, he dealt 
briefly with the growth of the town from very early times to 
the present day. In addition, he read extracts from old books 
in his possession, dating back to the middle of the seventeenth 
century, relative to local government, the local industries, 
and the tokens issued by many of the tradesmen of those days. 

Of great interest was the exhibition by Mr. Sheppard of 
his collection of geological and antiquarian' views of Bridling- 
ton and district. 

Mr. J. W. Stather, F.G.S., followed with a brief account of 
his investigations on ' Moorlog : an interesting chapter in the 
history of the North Sea.' 'Moorlog' is a. compact peat, 
brought up in pieces twelve to eighteen inches thick, in the 
nets of trawlers when working along the northern escarpment 
of the Dogger Bank, from a depth of about twenty 

Naturalist; j 



Yorkshire Naturalists at Bridlington. 211 

fathoms. In this vegetable matter have been detected 
remains of the Arctic Birch, Arctic Willow, Hazel, and seeds 
of the Bog Bean. No wind-born fruits have been detected. 
An interesting discussion followed the close of the lectures, and 
after several questions had been answered by the readers of the 
papers, hearty thanks were accorded to them on the motion 
of Dr. T. W. Woodhead, F.L.S., seconded by Mr. Thomas Castle. 

At the evening meeting on Monday, the President again 
occupied the chair. Twelve societies were represented, and 
three new members were elected. Excellent sectional reports 
were given on geology by Mr. Sheppard, on Flowering Plants 
by Mr. Robinson, on Plant Ecology by Dr. Woodhead, on 
Vertebrate Zoology by Mr. W. Hewitt, on Conchology by the 
President and Mr. Thomas Castle, and on Marine Biology by 
Rev. F. H. Woods, B.D. 

Cordial thanks were accorded to the gentlemen who had 
granted permission to visit their estates, and to the leaders 
of the excursions. 

The Secretaries were requested to communicate with the 
Town Clerk of Bridlington and the Commons and Footpaths 
Preservation Society, in reference to the closing of the foot- 
path on the South Cliff, by Pitt's Parade. 

Appended are the Sectional Reports : — 

Botany. — Mr. J. Eraser Robinson writes : — Those who 
attended the Whitsuntide meetings were remarkably well 
favoured in respect of weather, almost perfect sunshine pre- 
vailing during the three days ; and this, following upon the 
many showers of the previous week, made the field of opera- 
tions in first rate condition, for the botanists at least. Saturday 
was devoted to the investigation of the village and woods of 
Boynton, and the adjacent dale made by the Gypsey Race, a 
very considerable chalk-country beck which rises some eight 
or nine miles to the north-west at North Burton, and enters 
the Sea at Bridlington Quay. The Gypsey was first ap- 
proached and crossed at about a mile and a half from Bridling- 
ton Station. On the sides of the Wold sloping down to the 
stream, and on the terraces forming the banks with which, 
even in normal conditions, it is quite flush, there was ample 
scope for investigation. Hawthorn, CratcBgiis oxycantha — of 
the variety monogyna only — was everywhere flowering at 
its best in the hedgerows, whilst buttercups and daisies were 
most conspicuous in meadows and pastures. After a walk 
along the highroad, the footpath leading by the side of the 
Gypsey towards Boynton was taken, and by its side Geranium 
PhcBum (dusky geranium) was noted, and a new station in the 
East Riding for Sand Garlic, Allium Scorodoprasum was 
discovered. The last plant was much infested by an 
iEcidiomycetous parasite. 

i<,i2 July 1.. 



212 Yorkshire Naturalists at Bridlington. 

At Boynton Church the party was met by Mr. Hannah, the 
genial steward of Sir Walter Strickland's estate, who showed 
them over the ancient structure. Big yew trees grow in God's 
acre, and at its gate there is a tall bush of barberry, which, 
although free from micro-fungi, had upon it one of the larger 
sort, namely, Hirneola auricula-judcB (Jew's-ear fungus), a 
species generally found on the elder. The village church and 
hall of Boynton are embowered in and surrounded by trees, 
many fine, big old samples of elm, beech, spruce, etc., being 
seen. Exotic trees have been largely introduced, the monarch 
of all being a fine specimen of spruce, Abies pectinata, estimated 
to be about 112 feet in height, and it was certainly 13 feet in 
circumference at 4I feet from the ground. Araucaria im- 
hricata (monkey puzzle), Wellingtonia gigantea, walnut, varie- 
ties of the horse chestnut, mulberry, etc., had flourishing 
representatives in the woods and gardens. 

In a corner nearest to the hall, of the first fishpond visited, 
a new station for another and interesting plant was discovered. 
This was the common bladderwort, Utricularia vulgaris, 
growing in the very clear water, probably of the springs which 
supply the pond. (The elevation above sea level here is about 
75 or 80 feet). In the ponds and on the margin, much shaded 
by the somewhat dense arboreal vegetation, grew the white 
waterlily {Castalia speciosa vel Nymphcea alba), Lysimachia 
vulgaris, Rumex Hydrolapathum, Hippuris vulgaris, Potamogeton 
natans, etc. Among the trees the hornbeam and the alder, 
both in fruit, were noted. In the same woods the enchanters' 
nightshade [Circcea lutetiana) Lysimachia nemorum. Cam- 
panula latifolia, Scrophularia nodosa and 5. aquatica, were all 
intermingled in the undergrowth, which included also the ferns 
Aspidium filix-mas (the male fern), Athyrium filix fcemina 
(the lady fern), the broad buckler [Lastrea dilatata), and the 
prickly shield fern [Polystichum aculeatum). In the chalk- 
gravelly glades of the higher portions of the woods there grew 
profusely species like Spircea Filipendula, Viola silvestris, 
Rumex acetosa, etc., with much earthnut, Conopodium denuda- 
tum. 

Leaving the woods, the botanists reached the old road 
known as Wold Gate, which led them over Font Bridge back 
to Bridlington. By the road side a field of rye had just shot 
its first ears. The hedgerows here were very big with dense 
growth of hawthorn, bullace, gorse and crab ; and, for the 
first time in the district, was found a single tree of the wild 
pear, Pyrus communis. A chalk roadside plant, the large 
woolly-headed thistle {Cnicus eriophorus) grew plentifully. 

Whit Monday was spent rambling over and inspecting 
the natural history capabilities of Flamborough Headland. 
At the station the visitors divided into two parties, one for 

Naturalist, 



Yorkshire Naturalists at Bridlington. 



213 



botanical and general purposes, the other for geological. The 
former took the road to the north, making for the villages of 
Bempton and Buckton, which were reached fairly early. At 
the latter place, just at the little mere (E.R. dialect ' marr '), 
251 feet above sea level, the old sunken lane towards the cliff 
edge was entered upon, and after half a mile the little stream 
which fills the mere was found cutting through a bit of marshy 
ground, a list of the plants of which may not be without interest. 
They were : — Caltha palustris, Ranunculus hederaceus, R. 
Flammula, Cardamine pratensis, Valeriana dioica (apparently 
the dominating plant in flower), Menyanthes trifoliata (buck 
bean, very sparingly), Veronica beccabunga, Pinguicula vul- 
garis (flowering nicely), Anagallis tenella, Orchis latifolia (not 
incarnata), Eriophorum angustifolium, Car ex glaiica and 
Eqiiisetum limostim. 




Photo by] 



Buckton Marsh, Flamborough. 



[C. IV. Mason. 



Ascending the dry, grassy slope towards the northern 
edge of Buckton and Bempton Cliffs, the vegetation proved 
to be quite of a different order. The dominant grass is an 
Agrostis, in which were copiously intermingled Viola silvestris, 
Polygala oxyptera, Lotus corniculatus , Lathyrus montanus, 
Bernh, vel L. macrorrhizus, Wim, and chiefly the variety 
tenuifolius Roth., Poterium Sanguisorba, Galuim verum, 
much Conopodium denudatum, and moonwort, Botrychitim 
Lunaria. 

On the dry earthen dyke which, surmounted with barbed 
wire, separates the field just named from the extreme edge 

19:2 July I. P 



214 Yorkshire Naturalists at Bridlington, 

of the .cliff, a number of interesting things were also found. 
Chief' of these were Cerastium semidecandrum, C. glomeratum 
and C. arvense, Daucus gummifer, the four plantains : — Plantago 
lanceolata, P. media, P. maritima and P. coronopus, with 
Hieracium pilosella, Rumex acetosella, and the little spring 
grass Air a prcecox. 

Cow-parsnip and red Campion seem to be the dominant 
plants quite close to the cliff edge, and on the steep slopes down 
the gullies between the cliff faces. 

After skirting the cliff edge for some distance past the 
Bempton section, at Cat Nab the party turned due south, 
proceeding along the fosse or deep depression of the Danes' 
Dyke, until the Flamborough village and station road was 
reached. 

The ravine was a wilderness of flowering plants, some of 
tvhich, in the order in which they were noted on the spot, may 
be mentioned. On the western face of the great earth-work. 
Furze or Gorse, with a considerable quantity of Common Broom, 
so uncommon in the E. Riding generally, were both flowering. 
Another leguminous plant, restharrow, was plentiful, but as 
yet, only in the vegetative state. Pimpinella saxifraga, 
Silaus fiavescens, both also in leaf only, Viola riviniana, Spircea 
Filipendula, primroses still in flower, but only a few signs of 
cowslip, were all found ; while the great beds of red campion, 
containing the biggest and most luxuriant specimens we have 
yet seen, were the admiration of all. Epilobiiim angusti- 
foliiim will make a fine show when the red campion flowering- 
time is past. The true hemlock [Coniiim maculatum) grew 
amongst the rank vegetation in many places. Aspen trees 
{Populus tremula) hung out their silky fruit-catkins, and in 
damp ground at the bottom of the depression, many evidences 
of Ophioglossum vulgatum, the adder's tongue fern, were seen. 

An interesting little oval pond, with dimensions of 20 by 
15 feet, occurs in the depression not far from the Flamborough' 
and Bempton Road. It was bordered by many big old tus- 
socks of the common rush {Juncus effusus) which sprang from 
a green belt of Callitricheverna, Myosotis palustris and Ranun- 
culus aquatilis var. or sub. sp. heterophyllus. Within this, 
towards the centre of the pond, was open water, while the 
middle was covered by an oval patch of the brown-green plants 
of the pond weed Potamogeton crispus, and quite close to the 
patch there were a few plants of the ' flowering rush ' {Butomits 
tcmbellahts) , not yet, of course, in flower. 

One had expected to see more of the orchidaceous type of 
plants in the district visited, but, except for twayblade [Listcra 
ovata), which was plentiful, only Orchis Morio, 0. ustulata and 
0. latifolia were observed. 

GEOLOGY.^Mr. Sheppard writes :— During the week-end 

Naturalist, 



Yorkshire Naturalists at Bridlington. 215 

the geologists were practically able to make a complete examina- 
tion of the coast line of the headland from Bempton to Brid- 
lington. At Thornwick Bay, Selwicks Bay, and near the 
lighthouse, many interesting effects of marine and subaerial 
erosion were clearly shewn, and near Thornwick Bay Mr. 
Stather pointed out a small decapitated valley, now dry, the 
head of which had been carried away through the falling in of 
a cave, now a small bay. The well-known buried cliff at 
Sewerby was seen to advantage, and a little further east the 
' sponge-bed,' with its wealth of fossils, delighted the younger 
students. South of Bridlington the finely-laminated clays 
were seen to advantage, recent falls in the cliff shewing many 
fine sections. The beds were carefully examined in the light 
of the recent works of Swedish geologists in similar series, but 
no definite data could be gathered in the Bridlington sections. 
The beach and cliffs yielded many interesting erratics to some 
members who were beginning to take an interest in the study 
of geology. 

CoNCHOLOGY. — Mr. J. W. Taylor writes : — Ther^ are 
sixty-two species of Mollusca already known to live in this 
district, of which twenty-five are fresh-water shells ; twenty- 
nine land shells, and eight slugs, with very many well-marked 
and distinct varieties, but these I should imagine, are very 
far from exhausting the possibilities of the area in this 
direction. 

Of the twenty-nine species of land shells, perhaps the most 
interesting is Azeca tridens, which has only been found at 
Danes' Dyke on one occasion ; the interest of the other species 
lies chiefly in the varietal forms assumed under the different 
conditions to "\vhich they are or have been exposed. 

Particular mention may be made of the primrose-coloured 
form of Helix aspersa, known by the name of var. exalbida ; 
the beautiful trellised form, known as var. clathrata ; the 
five-banded form, var. zonata ; and the one in which all definite 
markings are obliterated, known as var. unicolor. 

Helix nemoralis also present some remarkable differences 
to the ordinary shells ; the var. jascialha is especially note- 
worthy as exhibiting the evidences of a former scheme of 
coloration, recalling by its arrangement, the species of the 
genus CampylcBa, which are now chiefly restricted to the 
mountains of South and South-Eastern Europe, and reminis- 
cent of the generalized type formerly existent. 

The albino form, var. albolabiata, which is found within a 
very restricted area on the Flamborough road, displays with 
the albino forms of Helix aspersa and Helix rufescens, the 
wonderful effects of food or other life conditions in modifying 
in the same direction, several distinct and only distantly related 
species, and is a subject worthy of serious investigation. 

1912 July I. 



2i6 Yorkshire Naturalists at Bridlington. 

The seven-banded Helix hortensis, found by the Rev. E. P. 
Blackburn at Flamborough, is well worthy of note as a very 
unusual modification, the var, roseolahiata has also been found 
at Bridlington. 

Of the fresh-water species, especial mention should be made 
of the immense specimens of Limncea stagnalis and Planorhis 
Cornells found in the Boynton fish-ponds. They are amor g the 
finest, British specimens known. 

The discovery of the var. atbocincta of H. rufescens by Mr. 
Stather, is the only addition to the known conchological fauna 
of the district. LimncBa glabra, found by Mr. Castle at 
Boynton, is a strikingly decadent species, and is in some 
years abundant in grassy pools at Danes' Dyke, many speci- 
mens being conspicuously decollate. 

Planorhis albus is very fine in ponds on the cliffs at Flam- 
borough, where Planorbis nautileus and its var. crista are 
found in abundance. 

Anodonta cygnea is the sole known representative of the 
Unionidce, and is only as yet recorded from the Boynton fish- 
ponds. 

Of the Slugs, the most interesting form is Arion ater var.. 
albolateralis, which has been found near Bempton ; it has pure 
white sides, and is jet black on the back. It is a very beautiful 
and striking animal, and in its most characteristic form is 
restricted to a limited area in North Wales, where it is found 
quite abundantly. 

Marine Biology. — The Rev. F. H. Woods, B.D., writes : — 
The condition of the tides made any examination of the shore 
itself impracticable, and only a few of the most common and 
familiar molluscs and the like, were found in a living state. 
But a microscopic examination of drift produced fairly satis- 
factory results. One of the most striking features was the 
rather large number of young very fresh specimens of Modio- 
laria discors, shewing that this rare shell is evidently a native 
of the neighbourhood. On the other hand, Hydrobia tdvce 
and Tornatina obtusa, of which there were only one or two 
specimens, are estuary-loving species, where they occur by 
the thousand. It seems not unlikely that they, together with 
a very worn specimen of Mya truncata, have been washed down 
the coast from Teesmouth, a well-known habitat of the last 
species. Another probable instance of migration in a passive 
sense, is the very worn specimen of Cardium norvegicum, the 
smooth cockle, which appears to be a native of the deep sea 
in the Hornsea district. The following is a complete list of 
the species found : — 

Naturalist, 



Yorkshire Naturalists at Bridlington. 



217 



Craspedochilns ciyiereus (a single 
valve only). 
^ Anomia ephippium. 
*Mytiliis edidis. 

Volsella modiolus. 
-fAIodiolana discovs. 
■f ,, discrepans [ = nigra]. 

Ostrea edulis. 
-\Pecten opercularis. 

,, tigerinus (iragment). 

Tnrtonia minitta. 

Cyprina islandica. 

AlontacUta bidentata. 

Tellimya ferruginosa (fragment). 

Lascsa rubra. 

Syndosmya prisruatica (fragment). 
alba. 

Tellina tenuis. 
t ,, fabula. 

Macoma balthica. 

Donax anatinus. 

Mactra stultorum. 
'\Spisula solida. 

Lutraria elliptica (fragment). 

Venus gallina. 
t Cardium echinatum. 
edule. 



Cardium norvegicum (a very worn 
specimen). 

Mya truncata (fragment). 

Ensis [ = Solen'] siliqua. 
'[Saxicava rugosa. 
t ,, arctic a. 

Barnea Candida. 

ZirphcBa crispata. 
*Patella vulgata. 

Gibbula cineraria. 

Lacuna divaricata. 

* Litter ina rudis. 

* ,, litforea. 
Rissoa parva. 

var. interrupta. 
Onoba [= Rissoa] striata. 
Cingula [^Rissoa] semistriata. 
Paludestrina [= Hydrobia] stag- 

nalis [ = ulves]. 
Trivia [ = Cyprcea] europcea. 
Velutina Icevigata. 
Buccinum undatum. 

* Purpura lapillus. 
Nassa incrassata. 

\Bela [= Pleurotoma] turricula. 

t .- rufa. 

t Tornatina truncatula. 

* ,, obtusa. 



An asterisk (*) before a species shews that the specimen 
was found ahve ; a dagger (f) that it was found only in a very 
young state. 

It will be noticed that by far the majority of species are 
bivalves, which is what we should naturally expect on a sandy 
beach. At Scarborough, the alga-loving univalves predominate. 
The absence of such familiar species as AcmcBa virginea, 
Helcion, Eumargarita, Littorina ohtusata, Skenea planorhis, 
Natica alderi, and all species of Odostomia and allied genera 
were particularly noticeable. 

Vertebrate Zoology. — Mr. Wm. Hewett writes : — Not 
many species of mammals were seen. There was an abun- 
dance of hares and rabbits, and also one weasel, and at the 
evening meeting on Saturday, Mr. Thomas Audas reported 
having seen a badger. 

The majority of those present at Monday's excursion took 
the opportunity of observing the wondrous bird life along the 
cliffs from Buckton to Bempton, where the Guillemot, Razorbill, 
and Puffin were in countless numbers, along with the Cormorant, 
Herring Gull, and Kittiwake. The methods of working by the 
egg-climbers, of which there were four parties operating, also 
proved of great interest. 

I saw a single Wheatear at Buckton, and another at North 

1912 July I. 



2i8 Yorkshire Natttralists at Bridlington. 

Burton, and other birds observed were the Rock Dove, Stock- 
Dove, Moorhen, Common Coot, Jackdaw, Swift, Cuckoo, Cor- 
morant, Linnet (in abundance). Kestrel and Sparrow Hawk. 

Lepidoptera. — Mr. Wm. Hewett writes : — The only species 
observed were Pieris hrassicce, P. rapce, Vanessa urticce, V . 
atalanta, Polyommatus phlceas, Melanippe fiuctiiata, and Stenop- 
teryx hybridalis. — W. E. L. W. 

NEWS FROM THE MAGAZINES 

In Knowledge for June, Mr. R. S. Bagnall has an illustrated account of 
some primitive British insects, the Protura, which he first met with at 
Mitford, Northumberland. 

As a supplement to its Journal the Board of Agriculture has issued a 
Report on the Isle of Wight Bee Disease. It is well illustrated, contains 
143 pages, and is sold at a shilling. 

We notice a ' natural history ' monthly, (which, as usual, begins ' about 
ourselves,') adds a little variety to its columns by printing some of its illus- 
trations upside down. 

In The Scottish Naturalist for June, Dr. J. A. Harvie-Brown has a 
paper on ' The Fulmar : its past and present distribution as a breeding 
species in the British Isles,' illustrated by a map. 

In the Journal of the Manchester Geographical Society (Vol. XXVII., 
Part II.), Dr. A. Wilmore refers to ' Some Geographical Problems of the 
Mid-Pennines.' 

We have received Part XI. of Major Barrett- Hamilton's History of 
British Mammalia (Gurney & Jackson, 2/6). . It deals with rabbits and 
hares, and there are illu.strations of Scottish, British, and Irish hares, 
spoors, and skulls and teeth. 

Part VII. of Buckman's Yorkshire Type Ammonites has been pub- 
lished, and contains figures and descriptions of Ammonites solitarius, 
A.trivialis, A.tenellus, A.flavus, A.limatus, A. andraei, A. crassulosus, 
A. fonticidus, and A. crosbeyi. 

In British Birds for June, Mr. P. R. Lowe figures and describes what 
he considers to be a ' new race ' of the ' Lesser Black-backed Gull of the 
British. Isles,' under the name Larus fuscus britannicus. In the same 
journal Mr. Charlton describes the behaviour in captivity of a Tengmalm's 
Owl, caught in Northumberland. 

In The Entomologist's Monthly Magazine for June, Dr. Bergroth des- 
cribes a ' New British Tipulid,' under the name Ephelia verralli. Specimens 
are recorded from Warwickshire and Derbyshire. In the same journal 
Mr. F. W. Edwards describes a dipteron new to Britain, viz. : Oligotrophiis 
ventricolus, presumably from Oldham, Lanes. 

In the Geological Magazine for June, Mr. B. Smith has a paper on the 
Green Keuper Basement Beds in Nottingham and Lincolnshire, and Dr. 
Stopes figures the famous shell of Pectunctiilus glycimeris, upon which a 
human face is carved, and which is alleged to have been there before the 
formation of the Red Crag. All we can say is that the ' face ' on the 
shell is very suspiciously ' beery.' 

■ Parts IV. and V. of The Living Plant, by A. E. Knight and E. Step, 
published by Hutchinson & Co., at yd. each part, maintain the good 
features of the earlier numbers. They deal with the ascending and descend- 
ing sap of plants in a popular manner, and on every page there are ex- 
cellent illustrations of insectivorous plants, parasites, saprophytes, luminous 
plants, and others. There is a coloured plate with each part. 

Naturalist, 



219 

PLANT ASSOeUTIONS OF FL4MB0R0UGH HEAD. 



T. W. WOODHEAD, Ph.D., F.L.S. 



Advantage was taken of the visit of the Yorkshire Naturahsts' 
Union to Bridhngton (May 24th to 28th) to make a series of 
preUminary observations on the plant associations of the 
Flamborough headland. 

The area generally is so highly cultivated that at first sight it 
appears to offer little of interest to the botanist ; but closer ex- 
amination reveals a number of points which are worth recording. 

The area examined was the triangular promontory having 
Bridlington to Speeton as its base and jutting out six miles to 
the east into the North Sea. 

The southern edge varies from twenty-five feet at Bridlington 
to 150 feet at Flamborough Head. From this point its northern 
border rises to 440 feet at Speeton, and throughout the greater 
part of its extent consists of precipitous cliffs of chalk, pictur- 
esquely weathered at the apex into numerous pinnacles and 
caves and covered by glacial drift of variable thickness. 

Boynton Woods, lying a little to the west of this area, were 
also visited. The geology of the area has been carefully studied 
by numerous workers ; the most detailed account being that 
by Lamplugh, ' On the Drifts of Flamborough Head ' {Quart: 
Joiirn. Geol. Socy., 1891), and to this I am indebted for the 
following brief account of the surface deposits. The vegetation 
of the area is determined mainly by the covering of glacial drift, 
and only to a slight extent by the underlying chalk. As deter- 
mined by Lamplugh the glacial deposits consist of three series, 
viz. : (i) a lower dark boulder clay ; (2) an intermediate series 
of more or less stratified material ; and (3) an upper brown or 
red boulder clay, often discontinuous over the crests of the hills 
and mounds. 

A striking feature of these deposits is an L-shaped chain of 
Kame-like or Esker-like mounds and ridges which extend from 
beyond Speeton and pass eastward in line with the coast to 
Sanwick. Here the chain bends sharply to the south across 
the headland, passing through Flambro' village, and terminates 
at Beacon Hill to the east of the South Sea Landing. As 
Lamplugh points out this chain of mounds marks the terminal 
limit of the great ice-sheet, and the material of the mounds was 
laid down during the period when the ice remained nearly 
stationary. This was followed by a period of fluctuation 
resulting in the deposition of the intermediate beds. Finally a 
great advance of the glacier took place, and spread over and 
even beyond the area occupied by the previous flow. This was 

1912 July T. 



220 Plant Associations of Flamborough Head. 

of shorter duration, and on the melting of the ice the upper Clay 
was deposited. 

The material varies considerably from fine laminated clays 
to sand or gravel, and these determine some peculiar features 
in the vegetation of the Headland. 

There is no natural woodland, but there are several planta- 
tions and parklands. The largest is Boynton Wood, which 
was planted about a century ago, and contains a large collection 
of interesting trees planted mainly for ornamental purposes. 
These include many species of Conifers, e.g., Piccea Abies, Pinus, 
Larix, Cedrus, Sequoia, Thuja, Taxus, Araucaria, also Quercus 
and Juglans. The prevailing Oak is Q. robnr ; the sessile 
fruited Oak is absent. There are many fine Beech, Sycamore, 
Chestnut and Ash, and the latter is the most commonly planted 
tree in the hedgerows. The ground Flora is of the moist 
flowery type so common in the glaciated areas of the East 
Riding, and consists of Red Campion, *Herb Robert, Greater 
Stitchwort, Lesser Celandine, Wood Avens, Forget-me-not, 
Primrose, and Wood Violet, with an abundance of Stinging 
Nettle, Enchanter's Nightshade, Yellow Pimpernel, Earth- 
nut, Giant Bellflower, Figwort, also Male Lady and Brittle- 
bladder Ferns. 

Conspicuous introductions in the ground Flora were Saxi- 
fraga umbrosa, and S. Geum ; and along one of the paths 
occurred Geranium phcBum, also Allium scorodoprastim and 
Viola odorata. Under groups of small trees in the park, 
the ground flora, which consisted of meadow species, showed 
interesting change due to the effect of shade. The species 
were the same as those of the surrounding meadow, but the 
change in dominance presented a striking contrast, the shade- 
enduring species standing out conspicuously among the dimin- 
ishing light demanders. 

The fish-ponds in the wood were fringed by an interesting 
zonation of species. The narrow border, between the path 
and the water's edge, was marked by zones, of which the con- 
spicuous species in each zone were (i) Daisy ; (2) Red Campion ; 
(3) Spiraea ; and (4) Rushes, Horsetails, and Water Plantain. 
The outer zone consisted of a grassy border in which the flowers 
of the Daisy formed a conspicuous white line. Associated 
with this were Dandelion, Spear-thistle, Coltsfoot, and Hog- 
weed, wind dispersed along the path ; also the Germander 
and Common Speedwells, Blue Bugle, Ground Ivy, Self-heal, 
Cinquefoil, Creeping Buttercup, Strawberry, and the Common 
Mouse-ear Chickweed. 



The names employed are those of the Botanists Pocket Book, Ed. 13. 
by G. C. Druce. 



Plant Associations of Flamborough Head. 221 

The second zone was a showy belt of Red Campion, together 
with species common in the adjoining wood, viz. : Wood 
Avens, Herb Robert, Wood Sanicle, Cleavers, and the Common 
Dock. 

The third zone approaching the water's edge was dominated 
by the Meadow Sweet, shewing the interesting variations in 
hairiness from the lower to the upper leaves described by Prof. 
Yapp. Along with it were the Cuckoo Flower (Lady's Smock), 
Forget-me-not, and Marsh Horsetail. 

In the fourth zone along the water's edge, the bases of the 
plants standing in very wet soil or in the water, were the Hairy 
Willow Herb, Yellow Loosestrife, Water Mint, Common Rush, 
Water Plantain, Great Water Dock, and the Smooth Water 
Horsetail ; the three latter extending far into the shallow 
water. The chief rooted aquatics were the spiked Water 
Milfoil and the broad-leaved Pondweed. The free-floating 
aquatic, the large Bladderwort, was abundant. In an adjoining 
pond was the white Water Lily and a great mass of Marestail. 

The other plantations of the Headland occur chiefly along 
the Danes' Dyke and at Sewerby, some of them, e.g., Cockerill 
Hill Plantation, containing a considerable variety of trees. 
The Danes' Dyke plantation, which may be given as a type, is 
a Beech-Elm-Ash wood, with a moist and flowery ground flora. 
The Beeches were small, and here and there were a few Syca- 
mores and Scots Pines and Larches. The dominant grass is 
the tufted Hair Grass, and the large Fescue Grass and hairy 
Brome Grass are common, while an abundance of false Brome 
Grass, with yellow green foliage occurs under the Beeches. 
The Red Campion is the conspicuous flowering plant, and seed- 
lings are abundant. 

Other common species are : — Small Celandine, Dog Violet 
{V. riviniana), Wood Avens, Brambles, Herb Robert, Broad 
Smooth-leaved Willow Herb, Hemlock, Cleavers, Primrose, 
Forget-me-not, Marsh Thistle, and a few plants of the Woolly- 
leaved Thistle, Tway Blade, Spotted Orchis and others adding 
to the variety ; but confined chiefly to the path sides were the 
Creeping Buttercup, Daisy, Broad-leaved Dock, and Vernal 
Grass. 

In places where the steep entrenchment was planted with 
trees, the former covering of meadow species was replaced by 
a carpet chiefly of Red Campion and Male Fern ; another 
striking instance of the influence of trees on the ground Flora. 

Most of the land in the area is arable ; Rye (in ear) being 
noted, which is one of the interesting cereals in the East 
Riding. 

The pastures are of two main types, which in the spring 
are respectively dominated by the bulbous Buttercup and the 
Daisy. These two species, when very conspicuous, indicate 

912 July 1. 



222 JPlant Associations of Flamh'orough Head. 

two quite well marked types of soil. The fields yellow with 
the Buttercup, indicate heavy clayey soil and what is of great 
importance to tjhe farmer, a good crop of grass. On the other 
hand the Daisy indicates a lighter, drier, and poorer soil, and 
a poorer grass crop. These two types of grassland are marked 
off in the main by the Kame-like ridge running from Speeton to 
Sanwick ; the fields inland from the ridge being dominated 
mainly by the bulbous Buttercup, while in those between the 
ridge and the coast the Daisy is the conspicuous flowering plant. 
These are connected by an intermediate type in which neither 
plant gains preponderance. 




Photo bx\ _, ,, [C. W. Mason. 

Buckton Marsh, Flamborough. 



The Danes' Dyke provides an interesting illustration of 
change of species due to environment. On the summit of the 
high ridge are many dry-loving species. These give place on 
the slope to species requiring greater protection, and in the 
hollow is every gradation from meadow to marsh and aquatic 
plants, according to water supply. The Gorse was often abun- 
dant on the ridge together with tree-like specimens of Broom 
with stems 4 to 5 inches in thickness. Along the fringe of the 
coast everywhere capped with glacial drift and often covering 
a considerable part of the slope, the prevailing plants are those 
of the adjoining pastures. 

The following list of species at Bempton Cliffs is fairly 
typical : — Sheeps Fescue Grass abundant ; Cocksfoot and 
Smooth Meadow Grass common ; the four Plantains, Ribwort, 

tCaturallst, 



Plant Associations of Flamborottgh Head. 223 

Hoary, Sea and Buckshorn Plantains, Bulbous Buttercup, 
Small Celandine, Red Campion, Common and Mouse-ear 
Chickweeds ; Sea Thrift, and Bird's Foot Trefoil occur in large 
showy patches ; Yellow Bedstraw, Cleavers, Nettle, Hogweed, 
Primrose and numerous composites, e.g. :-v— Daisy, Dandelion, 
Yarrow, Burdock, Black Knapweed, Scentless Mayweed, 
Ragwort, Small Burdock, and Mouse-ear Hawkweed. On 
the chalk cliffs are large patches of the Common Scurvy Grass, 
and near Sewerby and frequently on the drift of the east coast 
the great Horsetail is a conspicuous species. 

Frequently, however, maritime species predominate. The 
most interesting association, well developecl along the edge of 
the cliffs between the North Sea Landing and the Lighthouse, 
is the Plantago sward. Here the dominant species over con- 
siderable areas is Plantago maritima, often with a considerable 
admixture of P. Coronopus. The plants, closely grazed and 
frequently trampled by visitors, are very small. The rosettes 
are rarely more than an inch in diameter, and the leaves are 
pressed flat to the ground ; the flowering spikes, too, are on 
very short stalks. The chief grasses are Festiica ovina and An- 
thoxanthum, and in places the Thrift is an abundant constituent. 

Field ponds and small marshes are numerous on the Head- 
land, an account of which will be given later. The most 
interesting marsh visited was near Buckton some 300 to 400 
yards square, and for the following details I am indebted to 
Mr. J. Fraser Robinson. 

The marsh is fed from a spring issuing from the chalk not 
far from the cliff edge, and drains eventually into Buckton Mere. 
The commonest species were Marsh Valerian, Glaucous Sedge, 
and Carnation Sedge. Other common species were Ivy-leaved 
Crowfoot, Lesser Spearwort, Marsh Marigold, Lady's Smock, 
Water Mint, Brook Lime, and less frequent in clayey marshes 
were Common Butterwort, Bogbean, Bog Pimpernel, Marsh 
Orchis, Marsh Arrow Grass, Narrow-leaved Cotton Grass, and 
Smooth \\'ater Horsetail. 



The Barnsley Technical School Magazine, No. 2, contains 60 pages, and 
is well edited. Among the articles is one by Mr. A. Whitaker, on ' The 
Development of the Senses in Bats,' reprinted from The Naturalist. 
There are other natural historj- notes. 

Two parts of Cassell's Nature Book are before us. Mr. F. M. Duncan 
describes the ' shell-dwellers,' though we like his photographs better than 
his descriptions. There is a striking article on the ' History of a Moun- 
tain,' by the late J. Lomas, and some beautiful photographs of fiingi, by 
Mr. H. Irving, which are described by Maud Clarke. 

Parts XXI. and XXII. of Dr. Reinhard Brauns' Mineral Kingdom 
have been issued, and as this remarkable work is to be completed in twenty- 
five parts, the end is in .sight. The parts are up to the usual standard, 
and the coloured illustrations of Fluor-spar from Cumberland, Northumber- 
land, Durham and Derbyshire, on plate 71, are particularly fine, 

1912 July I. 



'224 



3u riDeinoriam* 



THOMAS NEWBITT, F.G.S. 

1846-1912. 

We much regret to record the death of Mr. Thomas Newbitt, 
of Whitby, which occurred with tragic suddenness on Saturday, 
June 15th. Since he retired from his scholastic work in 1899, 
he has taken'^a prominent part in the municipal and scientific 








life of the town he had made his home in later years, though 
his birthplace was in Lincolnshire. On the death of Martin 
Simpson, Mr. Newbitt was appointed Honorary Curator and 
Secretary of the Whitby Literary and Philosophical Society, 
the reports of which, as we have had the pleasure of noticing 
from time to time, have contained many evidences of his 
activity. Not only has he been entirely responsible for the 
arrangement and classification of the contents of the museum 
in recent years, but he has also catalogued the coleoptera and 
lepidoptera, the ethnographical specimens, and the fairly 
extensive library. He has also devoted much time to the geo- 
logical collections, and has assisted Mr. Buckman in the 
preparation of his work on ' Yorkshire Type Ammonites.' 

Naturalist, 



Stainforth : A Humher Salt-Marsh. 225 

For thirty years Mr. Newbitt acted as Local Registrar for the 
Royal Meterological Society, and took the records from the 
instruments twice daily. In this, and in other directions he did 
a lot of conscientious and valuable work in a quiet way. We 
have had occasion to write to him on not a few occasions, and 
in every instance found him to be most willing to give what 
information was in his power. 

In his early years he had a taste for scholastic work. He 
matriculated at the London University, was Mathematical 
Master at Wesley College, Sheffield, and in 1871 established 
a private school in Whitby, which he kept until he retired in 
1899. He was a Fellow of the Geological Society since 1898. 

We extend our sympathy to Mrs. Newbitt and the members 
of the family. — T. S. 



A HUMBER SALT=MARSH. 



T. STAINFORTH, B.A. 



An interesting Salt-Marsh plant association exists at the present 
time on the Humber shore, south of Welwick and to the east of 
the Patrington Channel outfall. The area covered by vegeta- 
tion is bounded by the Humber bank west of Welwick (Humber 
side) Lane and the Patrington Channel, and to the south by 
barren mud-flats. On a visit to this place about the middle of 
June my attention was drawn to some large masses of the 
foliage and numerous undeveloped panicles of the Sea Lavender 
[Statice Limonin(m), Closer search showed that a distinct belt 
of this plant, consisting of patches varying from a few inches 
to several yards in area, grew parallel to and at a few yards 
from the embankment. 

In the Transactions of the Hull Scientific Club for 1901 (p. 
234), Mr. T. Petch, writing on the occurrence of the Sea 
Lavender in Holderness, says ' there are two small tufts, one off 
Sunk Island and the other opposite Welwick ' ; and in the same 
paper states that ' the whole of the Statice on the Holderness 
coast could be held in one hand.' It is very gratifying to find 
that the plant has made such rapid progress during the subse- 
quent twelve years, as now it would be possible to obtain a 
large quantity. 

The area near Welwick upon which the Sea Lavender grows 
can only be reached by the Humber at extremely high tides, 
and consists of a marshy depression wit}^ a very gradual and 
almost imperceptible slope to the mud-flats. Indeed, the upper 
edge of the mud-flats, by which the marsh is bounded on the 
south, appears to be very slightly higher than the marsh itself. 

1912 July I. 



226 Proceedings of Provincial Scientific Societies. 

Among the other plants occurring was the Shrubby Sea- 
Purslane {Atriplex portulacoides), which grew in shrubby masses 
dispersed over the whole of the area. The Sea-Pink or Thrift 
{Armeria maritinia) formed an inner belt between the Statice zone 
and the embankment. Beneath the larger plants grew a close 
growth of ' Samphire ' [Salicornia herbacea), which vied with the 
Sea Meadow Grass {Glyceria maritima) in distribution over the 
whole area. The grass, however, seemed to have the best of it 
on the edges of the mud-flats. Salicornia grew in especial pro- 
fusion in a series of large rectangular shallow pits made for the 
purpose of repairing the banks, and each pit was bordered by 
a large mass of the Atriplex. The Sea Aster [Aster Tripolium) 
and Sea Arrow-grass [Triglochin niaritimum) occurs over the 
wdiole ground, the Aster not of course being so conspicuous as 
it will be later in the year. Artemisia maritima occupied its 
usual belt on the dry embankment above the Armeria zone. 

In the angle formed by the embankment I found scattered 
specimens of a species of a Scurvy Grass (Cochlearia) , which Mr. 
J. F. Robinson identifies as Cochlearia anglica. Further towards 
the mud-flats, at the side of one of the gullies by which the 
ground is intersected, a small clump about four feet square, of 
the same plant in full flower, was met with. The record of 
this Cochlearia in the Flora of the East Riding is as follows : — 
' Brough, " introduced " (C.W.) ', so that apparently the Wel- 
wick station where the plant occurs is its natural habitat, and 
where there is no reason to believe that it can have been ' in- 
troduced ', is the first satisfactory record of the plant in East 
Yorkshire. 

Changes in the conditions pre\ ailing on the Humber shore, 
owing to natural and^artificial causes, are so rapid and frequent 
that it behoves local naturalists to keep this interesting piece 
of Salt-Marsh under continual observation. 



Pine Marten near Hebden Bridge. — On May nth I 

went to Far Greave, Wadsworth, near Hebden Bridge, to 
see an animal 2^ feet long which Lord Savile's gamekeepers 
had caught in a ' figure four ' trap, and which they thought 
was a 'mart.' Unfortunately it had been dead some days 
when discovered, and was quite unlit to bring away. Anxious 
to supply some evidence of the occurrence,. I cut off the tail and 
despatched it to Mr. H. B. Booth, F.Z.S.. of Ben Rhydding, 
and he kindly informed me that it was undoubtedly the tail of 
a Pine Marten {Mustela niartes). My records shew that a 
Pine Marten was killed at Hebden Bridge on April 2nd, 1858, 
after many fruitless attempts had been made to trap it. — 
Walter Greaves. 

Naturalist, • 



227 



FIELD NOTES. 



BIRDS. 



White Rooks at Brompton. — Two young Rooks were shot 
at Brompton on May nth, 1912, which shew not the sHghtest 
trace of black ; indeed they are practically white — with a very 




Photo by] [C. D. Head. 

Young Albino Rooks in a Rookery near Brompton, Yorkshire. 

slight colouring of cream or light cinnamon. — Harry Witty 
Scarborough. 

— : o : — 



MAMMALS. 

Pine Marten in Cumberland. — A very fine male marten 
{Martes sylvestyis) was trapped in a wood near Seathwaite in 
I3orrowdale, Cumberland, in the spring of 191 1. There are 
said to be two more about the same rocks this spring, but 
up to the present they have, I am glad to say, evaded capture. 
It is satisfactory to know that what is now one of the rarest of 
British mammals still manages to exist in the wilder parts of 
our isles ; but the sheep farmers do not love it, though, no 
doubt, the hill foxes are usually more of a danger to their 
weakly lambs. — E. T. Baldwin. 

1912 July.iv 



228 



PROCEEDINGS OF SCIENTIFIC SOCIETIES. 



According to the report of the Borough Librarian and Secretary to- 
the Museum Committee of the Borough of Beverley, just to hand, the 
Pubhc Library Committee at Beverley, includes an assistant, an attendant, 
and Mr. and Mrs. Barrow, cleaners. 

No. 4 of the first volume of the Journal of the Torquay Natural History 

Society, contains a continuation of Mr. H. J. Lowe's History of the Society ; 
abstracts of lectures on the Origin of Life, Economy in plants, Tides, Cy- 
clones and Moorland Diatoms. Mr. E. V. Elwes has a useful paper on 
' Local Natural History Societies,' and Mr. J. B. Bessell gives the second 
part of his list of the diatoms of the Torquay district. 

The Tliirty-Fifth Annual Report and Proceedings of the Lancashire 
and Cheshire Entomological Society (24 pp., 2/-), beside the list of members 
and summary of the proceedings, contain a valuable address on ' The 
Early Stages of our Dragonflies,' by Mr. W. J. Lucas. In this the author 
gives a useful summary of the literature on the subject, and points out the 
directions in which information is wanted in reference to the early stages 
of the Odonata. 

Beside Prof. Minchin's Presidential Address, referred to in another 
column, the Journal of the Quekett Microscopical Club, No. 70, contains 
a paper by H. Sidebottom, on " Lagenas of the South-West Pacific Ocean " 
(with 8 plates), another by C. F. Rousselet is on " Notholca triarthroides, 
Cathypna brachydactyla, and on a new Brachionus from North Dakota " ; 
and one by D. Bryce is on " Three New Species of Callidina " (illustrated). 
This last paper contains descriptions of C. nana, C. concinna, and C. decora. 
The first is apparently recorded from Epping and St. Leonard's Forests, 
and the last from Perthshire. With regard to concinna, however, though 
a detailed description of the new species is given, the question of locality 
is apparently considered to be of no importance, as all the information we 
can get as to its occurrence is ' habitat, in ground or wall mosses.' We 
have communicated with the author on this point, and he informs us that 
concinna has been found near London, Dunmow, Watford, and the Tyrol. 

The Linc3lnshire Naturalists' Union Transactions for 1911, containing 
pages 235-317, have just been published. There is a portrait and descrip- 
tion of ' The Presidents {sic) of the L.N.U., the Rev. Alfred Thornley,' 
' a little gentleman with a big sweeping net, who wanted to know what 
everybody was collecting, and to learn the scientific names of everything 
from plants to the smallest insects.' This was at an early meeting of the 
Union. There is also Dr. Wallace's Presidential Address, dealing largely with 
Beetles ; the fifth instalment of the list of Lincolnshire Coleoptera — a most 
carefully compiled account, by Messrs. Thornley and Wallace ; ' Additions 
and corrections to the Check List of Lincolnshire Plants, 1909,' presumably 
by the Rev. E. A. \^'oodruffe Peacock, though this is not stated ; and a 
well-illustrated account of the larger forms of Lincolnshire Crustacea, by 
Mr. A. Smith. Thirteen species are figured. There is a brief summary 
of the field excursions, and the reports of the sectional officers, viz. ; 
Geology, Mr. H. Preston ; Botany, Rev. E. A. W. Peacock ; Conchology, 
Messrs. W. D. Roebuck and J. F. Musham ; Entomology, Mr. G. W. 
Mason ; and Vertebrates, Rev. F. L. Blathwayt. We notice that ' boul- 
ders,' ' cryptogams,' and ' fungi ' (on the first page) are still considered 
to be ' sectional officers ' of the Union. The addition of the words ' Re- 
corders for,' or ' Secretary for,' would put the matter right, and should 
not be a difficult matter. 

Naturalist, 



NOTICE. 

The Annual Meeting of the Marine Biological Committee 
will take place at Robin Hood's Bay, October 11-15. Professor 
Garstang of Leeds, and Professor Denny of Sheffield University, 
have kindly consented to allow the use of the Marine Laboratory, 
lately instituted there, as the centre for meetings and work. It is 
hoped that many members will avail themselves of the special 
opportunities of studying marine life in its various forms. All 
communications with respect to it should be addressed to Rev. 
F. H. Wood, Bainton Rectory, Driffield. 

SCIENCE OF THE SEA. 

AN ELEMENTARY HANDBOOK OF PRACTICAL OCEANOGRAPHY FOR NATURALISTS, 
TRAVELLERS, SAILORS AND YACHTSMEN. 

Prepared by the 

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And Edited by G. HERBERT FOWLER. 

W/'/h numerous Illustrations and Diagrams, 6s> net. 

The primary aim of the book is practical — namely, to teach men with no scientific trainiiit; how 
they can do useful work for the advancement of science ; it deals with the various aspects of the 
ocean chapter by chapter, points out where new or renewed observations are needed, and includes 
only sufficient theory to enable the observer to understand what kind of a brick he is building into 
the pyramid of knowledge. 

The book has been written entirely by practical specialists. Being addressed, in the first 
instance, to non-scientific readers, it has been phrased as far as possible in simple English ; but it 
will be found useful by many who already know something of Oceanography. 

London : JOHN MURRAY. 

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THE 



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OF 



North Eastern Yorkshire 



Their Natural History and Origin. 



BY 



FRANK ELGEE, F.G.S., 

Assistant Curator. Dorman Memorial Museum, Middlesbrough. 
Hon. Secretary of the Cleveland Naturalists' Pield Club. 



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Middlesbrough, Yorkshire. 



Printed at Browns' Savile Press, 40, George Street, Hull, and published by 
A. Brown & Sons, Limited, at 5 Farringdon Avenue in the City of London. 

July ist, 1912. 



AUGUST, 1913. 



No. 667 

(N», 445 »f »ummt itrlti). 




A MONTHLY ILLUSTRATED JOURNAL OF 

NATURAL HISTORY FOR THE NORTH OF ENGLAND. 

EDITED BY 

T. SHEPPARD, F.Q.S., F.R.Q.S., F.S.A.Scot., 

Thb Museums, Hull ; 

AMD 

T. W. WOODHEAD, Ph.D., F.L.S., 

Technical College, Huddersfibld. 

with the assistance as referees in special departments or 

J. aiLBBRT BAKBR, P.R.S. P.L.S.. QEO. T. PORRITT, P.L.S., P.E.S. 

Prof. P. P. KENDALL, M.Sc, P.Q.S., JOHN W, TAYLOR, 
T. H. NBLSON, M.B.O.U., WILLIAM WEST, P.L.S., 

RILEY FORTUNE. F.Z.S. 



Contents : — 

Early Microacopes (Illustrated)— r. Sheppard, F.G.S 

Quartilte Boulders in the Scunthorpe Dlatrict— Archibald C. Dalton 

Some British Earthmites (Illustrated)— C. F. Georg-e, M.i?.C.S, 

Nesting of the Common Qull on the Fame Islands—//. B. Booth, F.Z.S. , M.B.O.U. 

Second Supplement to the Flora of Dewsbury and District— By the late P. Fox Lee 

Yorkshire Naturalists at Tanfield W.E.L.W 

Yorkshire Naturalists at Askern (Illustrated)- r. \V. W 

The Museums' Kssoc\tition— Alderman John Brotvn 

Piold Notes :— Salmon in the Upper Nidd ; Leptothorax acervorum in North-East Riding 
Rhyncholophus niger ; Death's Head Moth at Arncliffe _ ... 

News from the Magazines 245, 

Illustrations 229-233, 



PAGE- 

. 229-234 

235 

. 836-237 

237 

238-244 

246-252. 

253-258 

259-260* 

234, 253" 
258, 260 
236, 25* 



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And at Hull and York. 
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Qeological Pamphlets 

(Excerpts from the Geological Magazine, etc. ; from the Library 
of a Yorkshire Geologist, recently deceased). 



Price 4cl. each, post free. 



(SECOND LIST). 
Apply— J. B. FAY, Royal Institution, Hull. 

On a New Heterostracous Fish-Shield. E. Ray Lankester. (Plate). 

On the Formation of Mountains with a Critique on Capt. Hutton's Lecture. Rev. O. Fisher. 
Notes on the Crinoidea. John Rofe. (Plate). 

On the Surface Geology of the Neighbourhood of Cross Fell in Cumberland. C. E. de Ranee. 
Undescribed Lamellibranchiata from the Carboniferous op Scotland. R. Etheridge. (Plate). 
On the Extension of the Boulder Clay on Great and Little Orme. W. C. Lucy. (lUus.). 
On the Carboniferous Deposits of Brown Clee Hill. D. Jones. 
On Changes of Climate and Extinction of Mammalia. Alex. Anderson. 
On Hoematite in Tyrone. E. T. Hardman. (lUus.). 
Oeology of Dorset. J. C. Mansel Pleydell. 

Dithyrocaris from the Carboniferous Limestone. H. Woodward and R. Ethcrbridge. (Plate). 
The Water-Basin of Lough Derg, Ireland. G. H. Kinahan. (Plate). 
On British Graptolites. C. Lapworth. 
Geology of Linley Valley. J. Randall. 

On a New Genus of Fossil Fish of the Order Dipnoi. Ramsay H. Traquair. (Plate). 
Microscopic Structure of Irish Granites. Prof. E. Hull. (Plate). 

New Species of Starfish from the Devonian of Great Inglebourne. H. Woodward. (lUus,). 
Ammonites in Thanet Cliffs. F. A. Bedwell. (lUus.). 

On. the Formation of Mountain : Reply to the Rev. O. Fisher. Capt. S. W. Hutton. 
Formation of Mountains. The Rev. O. Fisher. 

Observation on the Genus Perainbonites. Thomas Davidson. (Plate). 
The Shell Bearing Gravels near Dublin. The Rev. Maxwell Clare. 
A Small Raised Estuarine Beach at Tranore. E. T. Hardman. (Plate.) 

Cycloplychius carbonarius, from the Coal Measures of N. Staffordshire. R. H. Traquair. (Plate). 
On the Physical Changes preceding the Deposition of the Cretaceous Strata. C. E. de Ranee. 
On the Dawn and Development of Life on the Earth. H. Woodward. 
Notes on Carbqniferous Lamellibranchiata. Robert Etheridge, Jun. (Plate). 
Geology of the Nottingham District. Rev. A. Irving. 
A Ramble Across the Mendips. Horace B. Woodward. 

On a Skull of Bos primigenius Perforated by a Stone Celt. James Carter. (Illus.). 
On Drift. J. G. Goodchild. 

■Some Silurian Entomostraca from Peeblesshire. T. Rupert Jones, (Illus.). 
The Mechanism op Stromboli. Poulett Scrope. (Illus.). 
List of Palaeozoic Fishes. W. J. Barkas. 

On Uronernas magnus, a New Fossil Fish from the Coal Measures op Airdrie, R. H. Traquair. 
Description of New Corals from the Carboniferous Limestone of Scotland. Jas. Thomson. (Plate). 
New Species of Cystiphyllum from Devonian op North America. H. AUeyne Nicholson. (Plate). 
New Palaeozoic Polvzoa from North America. H. Alleyne Nicholson. (Plate). 
On the Post-Pliocene Formations of the Isle of Man. J. A. Bird. (Illus.). 
ASAR, EsKER OR Kaims. G. H. Kinahan. 
Sub-Division of the Trias. W. A. E. Ussher. 
Sediment Theory of Drift. J. R. Daykyns. (Illus.). 

On Some of the Massive Forms of Chaetetes prom the Lower Silurian. H. A. Nicholson. 
The Search for Coal under the Red Rocks near Birmingham. Charles Kitley. (Illus.). 
Subaerial Denudation versus Glacial Erosion. W. Gunn. (Illus.). 
On the Classification and Nomenclature of Rocks. G. H. Kinahan. 

A Comparison between the Oldest Fossiliferous Rocks of Northern Europe. G. Linnarssoa. 
On Carboniferous Mollusca. R. Etheridge, Junr. (Plate). 

Large Reptile (Omasaurus armatus) from the Kimeridge Clay, Swindon. William Davies. (Plates). 
Notes on Glaciers. Rev. T. G. Bonney. 

On Some New Pycnodonts. Philip Grey Egerton. (Plates). 
Notes on the Genus Anthrapal^emon from the Coal Measures. 
Northumberland Escarpments and Yorkshire Terraces. Hugh Miller. 
On the Odentornithes or Birds with Teeth. Prof. O. C. Marsh. (Plate). 
Irish Tide Heights and Raised Beaches. G. H. Kinahan. 
New Palaeozoic Crustacea. J. W. Dawson. (Illus.). 
The Lherzolite of Ariege. Rev. T. G. Bonney. 
Consideration of the Flotation op Icebergs. Prof. John Milne. 
High Level Terraces in Norway. J. R. Daykyns. 

Evidence Afforded by the Planet Mars on the Subject of Glacial Periods. Edward Carpenter. 
Discovery of the Upper Devonian Fossils in Torbay. J. E. Lee. (Plate). 

Genus Webbina, with Notice of 2 New Species from Cambridge Green'sand. W. J.SoUas. (Plate). 
Bohemian Coal Fauna and Passage Beds. Dr. Ottokar Feistmantel. 
Age of the Kessingland Peat Bed. J. H. Blake. 
Pliocene Beds near Cromer. Clement Reid. (Illus.). 
Volcanic Rocks of British Columbia and Chile. G. M. Dawson. 
On the " Permian " and " New Red " Rev. A. Irving. 
The Geology of Keighley, Skipton and Grassington. J. R. Dakyns. 
Beds Constituting the Upper Greensand and Chlobitic Marl. A. J. Jukes Browne. 



229 



EARLY MICROSCOPES. 



T. SHEPPARD, F.G.S. 



In connection with the system adopted at the Hull Museum, 
of illustrating the growth and evolution of the various exhibits, 
whether they are spinning-wheels, bicycles, lighting appliances 
or corsets, an opportunity has recently occurred of showing a 
series of instruments illustrating the evolution of the microscope. 






Fig. I. 
•Screw-barrel' Microscope, circa 1735. 

The specimen shown in the first illustration is a pocket 
microscope, which dates to the early part of the eighteenth 
century, probably about 1725. A similar one is figured in 
George Adams' ' Micrographia illustrata,' 1746, plate V., figure 
6. In that work the microscope is referred to as the * screw 
barrell ' or ' Mr. Wilson's single pocket microscope,' and it is 
there stated that this microscope of Mr. Wilson's is an inven- 
tion of many years' standing. It will be seen that the micros- 
cope is focussed by means of a large threaded screw, which 
feeds into the butt of the instrument, and the objects are in- 
serted through the stage, and held in position by means of a 
wire spring. The instrument is held in the hand by a turned 

igia Aug. I. Q 



230 



Sheppard \ Early Microscopes. 



ivory handle. There are six lenses of various magnifying 
powers, protected by small ivory domes. There is also an 
arm, a forceps, and some small ivory slides, each of which holds 
four objects. There is a small box containing talc covers for 
the sides, and portions of elytra of beetles, etc., which were 
the favourite objects for examination. This very interesting 
series of specimens, complete in a shagreen case which mea- 
sures 7I inches long by 2f inches wide, has been presented to 
the museum by Mr. T. Audas, L.D.S. It previously belonged 

to three generations of the 
Harrison family, one of 
whom, Robert, was a well- 
known microscopist early 
last century, and was the 
discoverer of the diatom, 
Odontidium harrisonii. This 
Robert Harrison was at one 
time curator of the museum 
of the Literary and Philo- 
sophical Society at Hull, 
which is now merged into 
the Municipal Museum, and 
in the building is a magni- 
ficent marble bust to his 
memory. 

The accompanying illus- 
tration (fig. 2) is taken from 
George Adams' ' Micro- 
graphia illustrata," 1746, 
and well illustrates the 
parts of this interesting 
instrument. The following 
description is as given by 
Adams : — 




Fig-. 2. 

Screw=barrell ' Microscope, as figured in 
Adams' Micrographia illustrata, 1746. 



AB— The body. 

CC. — Fine threaded male screw. 

D. — Convex glass on which may be placed as occasion 
requires, concave pieces of thin brass with holes 
of different dimensions in their centres to cover 
the glass and diminish the aperture. 

EF— Brass plate, one of which is bent to receive a glass 
tube (to confine living objects). 

G — Hollow female screw to receive the magnifiers. 

H — A spiral spring of steel to keep the objects in position. 

I — A handle. 

K — One of the seven different magnifying glasses. 

L — The seventh magnifier, which can be used in the hand. 

Naturalist, 



Sheppard : Early Microscopes. 



231 



M— Ivory slip called a slider, with four round holes through 
it, wherein to place objects between two muscovy 
talcs. 

N — Forceps. 

0— A little brush. 

P — A glass tube to confine living objects. 




Fig- 3- 

Microscope and Case, circa 1780. 



QRST — An arm of which the hole Q screws into G, the 

speculum fitting R. The forceps T fit into a 

hole somewhere between A and F. 

Hearing that we had such an early example, Mr. C. Davies 

Sherborn persuaded his brother, Mr. Sidney Newton Sherborn, 

to present the specimen illustrated in figs. 3 and 4 to our 

museum. It is a fine instrument, with a polished shagreen 

body. In Adams' work this interesting instrument is also 

figured (see fig. 5), and the following description is given to the 

1912 Aug. I. 



232 



Sheppard : Early Microscopes. 



various parts of ' The double microscope, commonly, though 
very improperly, called the Reflecting Microscope.' 

AB — Body of the microscope in which slides CD. 

E — Eyeglass. 

F — Broad middle plano-convex glass. 

G — Object glass. 

HK— Pedestal. 

I — Tube carrying object glasses. * 



^f-^'f^^^f 






^O©®OO0 








• 



Fig. 4. 
Accessories to Microscope shown in fig'. 3. 



J^ — Pair of nippers. 

L — Drawer. 

M — The stage. 

N — Slider carrier. 

O— Slider. 

P — Fish-pan (to show circulation). 

R — Concave looking-glass (mirror). 

S — A plate, ivory one side, and ebony the other, for objects 
shown by light from the glass a, which turns on 
two screws e and d, and is fixed in a hole /. 

Naturalist, 



Sheppard : Early Microscopes. 



233 



T — A cone to screw into the centre of the stage to intercept 

some of the rays from R. 
U — A brush. 

V — A glass tube for living objects. 
W — A cell containing a concave and a plain glass to confine 

fleas, lice, mites, etc. 
X — A plain circular glass. 




Fig-. 5- 

' The Double Microscope ' (from Micrographia illustrata, 1746). 

Y — A long steel wire forceps which fits into the slot on the 

stage. 
Z — A white round ivory box to hold talcs for the sliders. 

The instrument given by Mr. Sherborn is a slight modifica- 
tion of the above, and is intermediate between it and the one 
described as ' Culpepper's Microscope ' by Kanmacher in his 
second edition of Geo. Adams' ' Essays on the Microscope,' 
1798, pi. IV. This latter picture shows the ivory box Z 

1912 Aug. I. 



234 Sheppard : Early Microscopes. 

of our figure {M in Kanmacher), and the fish-plate P of our 
figure (C in Kanmacher), precisely as in Mr. Sherborn's gift, 
but the microscope itself has apparently two draw tubes and 
not one as in Mr. Sherborn's specimen. We can therefore 
safely date our new acquisition as about 1780. It is in a 
curious pyramidal oak case with a drop handle, and, as in the 
previous instance, is remarkably complete in the way of acces- 
sories. The microscope is on a mahogany stand, in which is 
a drawer containing four magnifying powers, in addition to that 
inserted in the instrument ; a large number of bone slides of 
all sizes, some of which contain four and others six objects 
such as fish scales, pieces of feathers, corallines, portions of 
insects, etc., and a small ivory box contains talc covers for the 
object glasses. With the specimens is the following ' list of 
objects,' written in handwriting of a century ago : — No. i^ 
Butterfly wing, leg of beetle, seed, piece of diamond beetle, 
poppy seed, quills of hedgehog ; No. 2, Ore, wing of insect, 
insect, shell, sea-weed, skin of sole ; No. 3 — Cutting of wood, 
ditto, ditto, scale of perch, scale of sole, scale of haddock. 
No. 4 — Dust of butterfly wing, piece of ditto, farina, human hair, 
feather, eye of fly ; No. 5 — -Wing of libella, cutting of hedge- 
hog's quills, leg of gnat, wing of gnat, head of gnat, flea ; No. 
6 — Sea-weed, ditto, bloom of grass, dust of poppy seed, hair 
off mouse, moss. 

This microscope belonged to Charles Sherborn (1796-1858) 
to the late Charles William Sherborn (1831-1912), and more 
recently to Messrs. C. Davies Sherborn and Sidney Newton 
Sherborn. 

As a connecting link between these early forms of micros- 
cope and the modern appliances, we have an instrument that 
belonged to the late George Norman, of Hull, the well-known 
microscopist and author of many papers on diatoms, etc. 
It was made by Cook over half a century ago, and, up to its 
time, was one of the best instruments available. 

Tw;o other forms, including the early binoculars by Messrs. 
Smith, Beck, and Beck, and others in the collection, well illus- 
trate the growth and evolution of these complex instruments. 

Should any of our readers possess early forms of microscopes 
likely to be of service in completing this series, we should be 
glad to hear from them on the iiiatter. 



Salmon in the Upper Nidd. — On April 20th, a Salmon 
smolt, in the silvery dress usually assumed by the young Sal- 
mon before their migration to the sea, was caught in the Nidd, 
just below Killinghall Bridge. This locality is very much 
higher than Salmon usually ascend the Nidd, and is worthy 
of record.— R. Fortune. 

Naturalist, 



235 



QUARTZITE BOULDERS IN THE SCUNTHORPE 
DISTRICT. 



ARCHIBALD C. DALTON. 



It has been previously shown* that we possess only a re- 
arranged glacial deposit in this district, and that quartzite 
pebbles were most abundant throughout the district. The 
prevailing character of the area is the large quantity of ' Blown 
Sand/ which is, in some places, over twelve feet in thickness. 

Many of the quartzites command special attention, on 
account of their size, their shape and appearance. 

While those previously recorded were just small pebbles 
and were found more often in clay, the specimens now under 
consideration are large, and found chiefly in the blown sand, 
they thus differ both in size and circumstances from those 
recorded by Mr, J. W. Statherf above the line of glaciation on 
the Chalk Wolds. 

The rock, as judged from the boulders, varies in nature 
from a coarse grained one of a white colour to a fine grained 
variety more or less deeply coloured, as if by the presence of 
iron. 

In the Scunthorpe Museum there are some remarkably 
fine specimens of the quartzite boulders, one of which is of 
exceptional size, and weighs i cwt. 2 qrs. 8 lbs. 

The following are the measurements of the circumference 
of a few typical boulders, including the one just referred to. 

' A ' . . 52 inches . . 42^ inches 

'B' .. 13I „ .. I3i „ 

'C' L . 13I „ .. 141 „ 

'D' .. 81 „ .. 71 „ 

From the above it will be seen that the boulders resemble 
each other in shape. In appearance they are all polished by 
the action of wind-borne sand, while the boulder ' A,' which 
is flattened at one end, has the side, which faced the general 
direction of the wind, pitted by the sand being hurled against 
it, the other sides being just polished. 

The origin of these boulders gives rise to much speculation ; 
they certainly appear to be distinct from the smaller pebbles 
in my previous list, which were queried Trias by Dr. Dwerry- 
house. 

Perhaps after more evidence is at hand, we may be able 
to state something of the origin of these boulders ; at present, 
opinion is in favour of their pre-glacial age. 

* A. C. Dalton, ' Glacial Evidences near Scunthorpe,' Nat. 1910, p. 377. 

t J. W. Stather, 'Quartzite Pebbles on the Yorkshire Wolds,' Nat. 
1904, p. 9. 

191 2 Aug. I. 



236 



SOME BRITISH EARTHMITES. 



C. F. GEORGE, M.R.C.S., 
Kirton-in-Lindsey. 



Mr. C. L. Koch in his Uebersicht des Arachnidea Systems, 
published in 1837, divides his Schnabelmilben or Bdelhdes 
into five 'orders '. His first order, Bdella, contains fifteen species; 
his second order he names Ammonia, and includes five species. 
The mite I am now dealing with is not one of these five, but 
belongs to this order. The name Ammonia is objected to by 
N. Banks in his Treatise on the Acarina (1904), as being not 




l.—Cyta lutea n. sp. x 31. 



2.— Palpus X 123. 



3.— Mandible x 150. 



only later, but pre-occupied, and uses instead the name Cyta. 
My mite I therefore call Cyta lutea. In size it is rather small, 
in figure it is oval. The proboscis is wider and shorter than 
that of any ordinary Bdella, and is joined to the body without 
any appreciable neck ; by comparing the figure of this mite with 
Mr. Soar's drawing of Bdella hexopthalma (see The Naturalist 
for February last), the general difference of appearance between 
Bdella and Cyta is very obvious. In colour it is yellow, with 
brownish indefinite markings ; but the most striking difference 
is in the eyes, which are black in colour, and five in number, 
two on each side of the cephalothorax, and a central one, near 
the base of the proboscis on the cephalothorax ; a mounted 
specimen shows these eyes very clearly. In consequence 

Naturalist, 



Booth : The Common Gull on the Fame Islands. 237 

of their dark colour, and the pale yellow of the mite, they are 
also very evident in the recent specimen, and I have no doubt 
could be well seen in the living mite, which, however, I have 
not seen as my specimens were taken by Mr. Pickles, a school- 
master, who transferred them (when caught), to preservative 
solution immediately. They were found near Kirton-in- 
Lindsey. The species is something like Koch's figure of 
megacephala, but he does not mention this central eye. The 
palpus is similar to that of other species of Bdella. This is 
the only species of Cyta {Ammonia of Koch), that I have as 
yet met with. 



■♦»■ 



NESTING OF THE COMMON GULL ON 
THE FARNE ISLANDS. 



H. B. BOOTH, F.Z.S., M.B.O.U. 



Referring to my note on the nesting of Lams canus on the 
Fame Islands in 1910,* I have pleasure in reporting that this 
species has again nested there this year. I had heard of the 
occurrence before my visit to the islands in early July, and had 
hoped to have seen the young birds ; but, unfortunately, the 
newly-hatched chicks were destroyed a week before my arrival, 
by Lesser Black-backed Gulls. This year the nest was on the 
' The Fame ' island itself, where the watcher, Robert Darling, 
lives during his residence on the islands. Darling (who knows 
the bird well) had the nest of three eggs under observation for 
some time. Shortly after the young had been hatched, he 
heard a commotion going on in the direction of the nest, and 
the plaintive cries of the parent birds. Hurrying to the spot, 
he found they were being mobbed by several Lesser Black- 
backed Gulls, and that the young Common Gulls had disap- 
peared. He presumed the Lesser Black-backs had eaten the 
chicks, in the same manner in which they take the young 
Terns. On my return home, I communicated with Mr. H. A. 
Paynter (the Honorary Secretary of the Fame Islands Asso- 
ciation), who had also seen the birds at the nest, and from whom 
I received the following additional corroboration : — ' It was 
a pity about the Common Gulls. There is not the slightest 
doubt about it, as I saw the bird, its eggs, and also saw it 
sitting on its young ones — I was very disappointed, and so was 
Darling — at their untimely fate.' 



* The Naturalist, 1911, p. 179. 
1912 Aug. I. 



238 . : 

SECOND SUPPLEMENT TO THE FLORA OF 
DEWSBURY AND DISTRICT. 



By the Latf. P. FOX LEE, 



With the object of bringing up-to-date this district's records of 
the flowering plants, ferns and charas, the following Second 
Supplement to the Flora of Dewsbury and Neighbourhood is 
given : — 

The Flora was published in the ' Botanical Transactions ' 
of the Yorkshire Naturalists' Union, Vol. L, 1877-1888, pp. 
225-248, and the First Supplement at pp. 251-264*. 

As intimated when the Flora first appeared, it must be 
understood that the soil of the district, consisting of Coal 
Measure Clays and Shales, is geologically not an ideal one for 
very many of the rarer native British plants. Several of the 
streams, too, and their marshy margins are not so inviting to 
plant life as doubtless they would be in former times, yet the 
total number of wildings now known is nearly eight hundred. 

The plant names entered iji this -Supplement with the 
numbers preceding them are those of the Oxford List of British 
Plants, 1908, by Mr. G. Claridge Druce ; a division has been 
made of the indigenous species and the aliens ; a few new 
localities for the rarer plants of the district have been given, 
with several corrections of the names and other details in 
previous lists. 

The aliens recorded by Messrs. F. Buckley and A. Jessop, 
have been verified by Mr. S. T. Dunn, B.A., F.L.S., of Kew. 

I desire again to offer my grateful thanks to Mr. J. G. 
Baker, F.R.S., of Kew, Mr. Arthur Bennett, F.L.S., of Croydon, 
and Mr. F. Arnold Lees, M.R.C.S., of Leeds, for much kindly 
help in the determination of critical species. 

The additional localities are as follows, namely : — Berberis 
vulgaris, shrubbery, Lower Hopton ; Carpimis Behilus, Taxus 
baccata and Ruscus aculeatiis also flourish in the district as' 
planted specimens only . 

Barbarea verna Asch. {praecox Br.). Sandy wayside 
near Overton. 

Stellaria neglecta Weihe. Shady bank of Coxley Dam, 

Malva moschata L. Abundant in a rough, undrained 
pasture, Haigh House near Thornhill Edge. 

Impatiens parviflora D.C. River Calder banks, Mir- 
field, Ravensthorpe to Dewsbury. Quite naturalised. 

Viola odorata. Hedge-bank, Carlinghow (J. A. E. 
Stuart & P. Fox Lee). 

Ulex Gallii Planch. The autumn flowering species of 
Furze. Abundant on the steep declivity of Thornhill Edge. 

Genista tinctoria, a relic of the older flora of the district, 
Heybeck. 

Naturalist, 



The Flora of Dewshury and District. 239 

Anthyllis Vulneraria. Railway embankment. ' Adven- 
tive here ' (Lees). 

Melilotus alba. By old lime kilns, Thornhill Lees. 

Ononis repens L. {arvensis L.). Meadow bank, Midgley ; 
Railway embankment, near Mirfield (J. W. H. Johnson). 

Coronilla varia L. Alien Vetch. Corn mill, goit bank, 
Shipley Bridge, Mirfield. ' Native of woods and dry limestone 
hills, from Central and Southern Europe to Persia, reaching to 
Normandy, Belgium and Northern Germany, and in one locality 
even to England. There seems no reason to doubt that the 
station recorded by Mr. Plumtree {Journal of Botany, 1897, 
p. 449, ) in a rough wood on the chalk in Kent, is a natural one. 
It is much more frequently recorded in England as a waste 
ground plant, in which state it is frequent over most of its 
range.' (Dunn's ' Alien Flora,' p. 54). 

Agrimonia Eupatorium. Meadow, Thornhill Edge. 

Sedum acre. Abundant on Thornhill Edge. 

Sanicula europaea Whitley. (J. W. H. Johnson). 

Sambucus Ebulus. Calder bank, Mirfield ; Ravensthorpe ; 
Horbury. With us a Denizen. "A decoction of the root with 
an iron mordant has long been used for dyeing a raw blue, such 
as one sees bordering blankets, and I believe it was first brought 
to the Spen Valley nigh a century ago for that purpose.' — F. A. 
Lees. 

Centaurea Scabiosa. Hungerhills, Dewsbury (H. Par- 
kinson). 

Campanula latifolia, with white flowers. Bank Wood, 
Emley Woodhouse ; Hungerhills. 

Primula vulgaris Huds. [acaiilis L.). Sandy banks, Emley 
Woodhouse ; Valley below Thornhill Edge. 

P. VERis {officinalis (Jacq.), Meadow, Whitley Lower. 
(H. Parkinson). 

Lysiimachia Nummularia. Abundant, and in fine bloom 
in a ditch at Horbury Bridge. 

Anchusa sempervirens. Hedge bank, near Overton. 
An outcast originally, no doubt. 

Myosotis versicolor. Upland Meadow, Whitley Lower. 
' A true native of dry heaths and pastures in England, though 
so often recorded in local Floras only from artificial habitats.' 
(Dunn's ' Alien Flora,' p. 137). 

EcHiUM vulgare. Ravensthorpe (H. Parkinson). Casual 
only here and other places named in this Flora. 

Plantago media. Upland meadow, Whitley Lower. 

Mercurialis annua L. Waste ground, Mirfield. 

Salix cinerea. The moat, Oakwell Hall, Birstall. 

Listera ovata. Shrubbery, Halifax Road, Dewsbury. 
Associated with lilac, white-beam, and lime trees, etc., and 
probably brought with them from some nursery. In 1892 

1912 Aug I. 



240 The Flora of Dewshury and District. 

two produced fine racemes of typical yellow-green flowers, and 
again in 1893, but no plants have appeared there since ; meadow 
bank near Overton (J. W. H. Johnson and P. Fox Lee) ; 
Meadow, Mirfield and Dimpledale (H. Parkinson). 

Typha latifolia. Pond quite filled with this stately 
plant, near Thornhill Edge. 

Carex muricata. Canal bank and Hostingley Lane, 
Thornhill ; St. Mark's Church grounds, Dewsbury. Brought 
with grass seed most probably. (F. A. Lees). 

C. CARYOPHYLLEA Latour. {prcBcox Jacq.). Coxley Val- 
ley ; Thornhill Edge. 

C. PALLESCENS. Hungerhills, near Dewsbury. 

Dryopteris spinulosa. Wood near Haigh House, Thorn- 
hill Edge ; Emroyd, Smithy Brook, near Middlestown. 

Corrections, Additional Information, etc. 

RuBUS podophyllos p. J. Muell. When the record of 
this new species appeared in the First Supplement to this 
Flora, it had not then been assigned a plant list number. It 
is now No. 832 in the Oxford List, and its census number in 
1908 has been extended to 19 of the 112 county botanical 
divisions of England, Wales and Scotland, with 2 in Ireland. 
' It is a setose evolution from carpinifolius of modern-day 
development, to my eyes. It has been sent me from Halifax, 
and is on the " make " about Leeds.' (F. A. Lees). 

Anagallis arvensis L. /lore. Some time after mentioning 
this species in the First Supplement, p. 259, I saw several 
plants of a blue-flowered form of pimpernel, on waste ground, 
Steanard Lane, Mirfield (H. Parkinson) . . . ' with regard to the 
variety ccsrulea, the plant recorded under this name by British 
botanists is the blue-flowered form of the Pimpernel, differing 
from the type in no other respect than colour. It is a common 
cornfield weed in Europe, and frequently reaches this country 
as a grain introduction.' (Dunn's ' Alien Flora,' pp. 129-30). 

' Yes, often seed-brought when blue or purplish, but also 
often blue on alkaline calc-soils, on sand a pale scarlet. The 
blue non-British species is a stouter plant with turgid capsules, 
A. femina Miller.' (F. A. Lees.) 

Sparganium ramosum, var. microcarpum Neuman. In 
addition to my former note in the ' First Supplement,' (pp. 261- 
2), on this small-seeded variety of the Branched Bur-reed, I 
may say, it was fully described in the Hartmans' ' Handbok i 
Skandinaviens Flora,' 12th ed. (pub. 1889), as occurring in 
Gotland and Medelpad, two provinces of Sweden. About the 
time that Mr. A. Bennett reviewed this Flora of Scandinavia 
in the Journal of Botany for December, 1889, he informed me 
that my Dewsbury record was the only English one then known. 

Naturalist, 



The Flora of Dewshury and District. 241 

5. microcarpum was first found in the south of Scotland, and 
is now reported from several stations in England and Ireland. 

The additions to the indigenous Flora with several Colonists, 
Denizens and Aliens hitherto included in the London Catalogue 
of British Plants, and other lists, are as follows : — 

125. Radicula (Nasturtium) amphibia (L.) Druce. Am- 
phibious Yellow-cress. Canal and River Colne, Mirfield. See 
* The Flora of the West Riding,' Miall and Carrington, p. 5. 

206. Brassica Napus L. Calder Bank, Dewsbury. 

249. Thlaspi arvense L. Calder Bank, Dewsbury. 

254. Teesdalia nudicaulis Br. ' Near Mirfield,' vide 
' The Flora of West Yorkshire,' by F. Arnold Lees, p. 147. 

294b. Viola Riviniana var. nemorosa (Neum.W. and M.). 
Moist meadow bank, Heybeck. (F. W. Whitaker & P. F. Lee). 

377. Stellaria aquatica Scop. Water Stitchwort. Ad- 
dingford, Calder bank, Horbury. (W. Rushforth). New 
record for Calder basin. 

481. Geranium pyrenaicum Burn. fil. A rare denizen, 
roadside, Mirfield. 

628b. Trifolium repens var. rubescens Ser. {Towns- 
endii Bab.). Waste ground, Dewsbury. ' But Adventive 
and Alien here — brought with grass, seed or hen corn most 
likely.' — F. A. Lees. 

669. Ornithopus perpusillus L. Bird's Foot. Sandy 
roadside, Bretton. (H. Parkinson). 

673. Onobrychis vici^folia Scop. Railway embank- 
ment, Horbury Bridge. An escape from cultivation. ' Adven- 
tive here.' (F. A. Lees). 

688c. V191A SEPiUM var. angustifolia Koch. Rough 
bushy pasture, near Overton. 

872f. RuBus dumetorum var. tuberculatus (Bab.). 
Thornhill Lees. 

876. R. c^sius Linn. Dewberry. One of the five or six 
almost indistinguishable forms of this species ; railway em- 
bankment and roadside. Thornhill Lees. ' Ballast brought, 
I believe.' (F. A. Lees). ' Unless we guess at brambles being 
bird-sown, Vias Turdides — thrushes eat the fruit, and are 
partially migrant.' 

902. Potentilla procumbens Sibth. West Mills, Mir- 
field. (Messrs. Buckley and Jessop). An Adventive here, 
that is a native, coming by accident to a non-native station. 

926a. Rosa canina var. lutetiana (Leman). Thornhill 
Edge. 

943b. R. villosa var. c^rulea. Woods. Apple rose, 
red rose. On shale heap, Thornhill Edge. (J. W. H. Johnson 
and P. Fox Lee). 

982. Saxifraga granulata L. Meadow, Heybeck. 

1912 Aug. I. 



"242 The Flora of Dewshury and District. 

1003. RiBES RUBRUM L. Red Currant. Calder bank. 
Garden escape. 

1003b. R. RUBRUM var. PETRyEUM Sm. Rock Currant. 
Stony hollow in Cliff Wood, Howdenclough (J. Walker). The 
rare Scar-limestone wilding occurs about Gordale and 
Malham. Here only ' Adventive ' probably bird-brought. 

1169. Caucalis nodosa Scop. Ardsley (G. Roberts). 
See ' The Flora of West Yorkshire,' p. 262 ; Corn screening 
ground, Mirfield. 

1 173. CoRNUS SANGUINEA L. Dog-wood. Hedgerow, 
near Overton. H. Hey. ' Adventive here.' F. A. Lees. 

1217. Valeriana dioica L. Small Marsh Valerian. 
Marshy ground, near Dyehouse Mill, Horbury (W. Rushforth). 

1229. DiPSACUs FULLONUM L. {D. sylvcstris Huds.). 
Fullers' Teasel. Railway Embankment, Thornhill Lees. 

1229b. D. FULLONUM var. SATivus L. {D. ftdlonumAuct.). 
Railway embankment, Horbury Bridge. 

1240b. EUPATORIUM CANNABINUM Var. INDIVISUM DC. 

Hemp Agrimony, Coxley Dam (O. W Richardson) 

1362. Matricaria suaveolens Buch. {M. discoidea DC). 
Waste ground, Fieldhead, Birstall. ' A species without ray 
florets. In this country it is an introduction of very 
recent origin, but one spreading rapidly where the fields are 
manured with wool-scouring waste.' (F. A. Lees). 

1367. Artemisia Absinthium L. Wormwood. Abundant 
on woollen mill wasteground. Lower Hopton. (F. A. Lees). 

1399. Senecio viscosus L. Stinking Groundsel. A casual, 
waste ground, and hedge bank, Savile Town. 

1433b. CiRSiUM arvense var. mite Koch. Canal bank, 
Mirfield. 

1433d. C. arvense var. setosum C. A. Mey. Margin of 
Lady Wood, Hungerhills, Dewsbury. 

1599b. Hieracium vulgatum var. subravusculum W.R.L. 
Shady bank of beck, Whitkirk. (F. A. Lees and P. F. Lee) . 

1644. Leontodon nudicaulis Banks. (C. hirtus L.). 
Hairy Hawk-bit. Coxley Valley. 

1645b. Taraxacum Vulgare var. erythrospermum 
(Andrz.). Sandy bank, Emley Woodhouse. Rare. New 
record for Calder basin. 

1744. Anagallis tenella Murray. Bog Pimpernel. 
' Between Ossett and Wakefield ' — never confirmed. See 
' The Flora of West Yorkshire,' p. 379. 

1856. Hyoscyamus NIGER L. Henbane. Waste ground. 
Paradise farm and Shepley Bridge, near Dewsbury. 

2064. Galeopsis Ladanum L. Railway embankment, 
Mirfield (H. Parkinson). Generally a plant of dry gravelly 
or calcareous cornfields. A Colonist, according to Watson. 
' Adventive here,' (F. A. Lees). 

Naturalist 



The Flora of Dewshury and District. 243 

2090. Plantago Coronopus L. Buckshorn Plantain. 
Fox Royd Lane, Edge Top, Thornhill, at about 550 feet above 
sea level. A considerable increase on its altitudinal range (o- 
300 feet), as given in ' The Flora of West Yorkshire,' p. 382. 
' A plant of sandy places, and commonest near the sea.' (E. T. 
Gosling). 

2121. Chenopodium urbicum L. Waste ground, malting 
mill, Mirfield. 

2144c. Atriplex patula var. angustifolia (Sm.). Waste 
places. 

2271. Salix purpurea L. Red Withy (the form 5. Helix). 
Osier-bed, Thornhill Lees, and see ' The Flora of West York- 
shire,' p. 405. 

2274. S. viMiNALis X CAPREA {SmitJiiaua Willd.). Calder 
bank, Ravensthorpe (H. Parkinson). 

2324. Orchis morio L. Green-winged Orchis. Liley 
Clough, Whitley Lower (Rev. Canon Fowler). Also with pure 
white flowers (H. Parkinson). 

2343. Habenaria jbifolia Br. Butterfly Orchis. Rare. 
Meadow on Calder bank, Lupset Pond, near Horbury (Miss F. 
Rushforth). 

2363. Gladiolus communis L. As an alien, railway 
embankment, Mirfield (H. S. Mallinson). 

2471. Lemna polyrhiza L. Greater Duckweed. Pond, 
Alverthorpe (T. W. Gissing). See ' The Flora of West York- 
shire,' p. 413. 

2483. Triglochin palustre L. Arrow-grass. Boggy 
ground, Horbury (W. Rushforth) — addition for Calder basin. 
Cockersdale, Drighlington, addition for Aire basin. 

2511. PoTAMOGETON INTERRUPTUS Kit. (flabellatits Bab.). 
In luxuriant barren masses of a brilliant green colour under the 
swiftly-running waters, and growing on the paving stones of 
canal by-wash channels, Dewsbury to Horbury Bridge. 

2503b. P. CRispus var. serratus (Huds.). Skating pond, 
Thornhill Lees. 

2559. Carex riparia Curt. Great common Sedge. Willow 
garth, near Horbury (W. Rushforth). A relic of what was once 
much commoner ; always indicating a low alluvial soil level. 

2560. C. ACUTiFORMis Ehrh. (C. acuta L.). Calder 
bank, Watergate, Dewsbury. 

2566c. C. HiRTA var. SPINOSA Mort. Swampy ground, 
Horbury Bridge ; Canal bank, Mirfield. An unusual form 
of this Sedge, ' the glume foliolating and becoming spiny,' 
(F. A. Lees). 

2575. C. FULVA Host. Tawny Sedge. Marshy meadow, 
Emley Woodhouse. 

2568. C. SYLVATiCA var. CAPiLLARiFORMis Mihi. New 
to science. ' In the early part of July 1909, I first noticed this 

igi2 Aug, T. 



244 ^^^ Flora of Dewsbury and District. 

Carex at Heybeck, near Whitkirk, on some swampy pasture land. 
It is a very graceful looking hair-pedicelled sedge, with recurv- 
ing bright green leaves, and curving pensile spikelets. Its 
kinship to the wood-lover sylvatica was apparent, but it was 
not so robust as the latter species. Mr. F. Arnold Lees, has 
seen the plants in situ, and suggests that, as they shew no 
trace of the fruits, of hybridisation, and simulate the rare 
Yorkshire Carex capillaris in general facies, a fitting name 
would be Carex sylvatica var. capillariformis.' See ' The 
Naturalist,' 1909, pp. 349-351, with a note by Mr. Lees. 

2588. C. FLACCA, Schreb. (C glauca Scop). A form or 
state of this Sedge in moist ground, Bankwood, Emley Wood- 
house. Mr. A. Bennett informs me he has also seen it in Surrey 
and elsewhere and that it is quite a noticeable plant. 

2653. Phalaris minor Retz. Old lime burning pits, 
Thornhill Lees. 

2667. Alopecurus aequalis Sobol. {A. fulvus Sm.). 
Margin of Lady Anne dyke, Howley. 

2699. Apera spica-venti Beauv. Dirtcar side of Lusset 
pond, nea» Horbury (W. Rushforth). An alien here. 

2706. AiRA caryophyllea L. Coxley Valley (W. Rush- 
forth and P. F. Lee). Railway embankment, Birstall ; 
Midgley. 

2717. AvENA FATUA L. Near old Soke Mills, Calder 
bank, Horbury (W. Rushforth) ; Waste ground, Dewsbury. 

2732. SiEGLiNGiA DECUMBENS Bernh {Triodia). Hilly 
pastures, Thornhill Edge and Howley. 

2737. Cynosurus echinatus L. Cornmill outcast, Mirfield. 

2774. Glyceria distans Wahl. An alien here on Shoddy 
refuse, Batley Carr. 

2780. Festuca gigantea Vill. {Bromus giganteus Vill.) 
Oakwell Wood, Birstall. (F. Arnold Lees). 

2801. Bromus erectus Huds. As an alien, Willow 
garth, Horbury (W. Rushforth). 

28o6d. B. Secalinus var. submuticus (Reichb,). Manure 
heap, Ossett. 

2807. B. COMMUTATUS Schrad. Meadow, Thornhill Lees. 

2818. Brachypodium sylvaticum Roem. and Schult 
Arenophile, moist hedge banks ; path sides, Stonecliffe Wood, 
near Horbury. 

2821. LoLiUM TEMULENTUM L. Calder bank, Ledgard 
Bridge, Mirfield. Fruit very poisonous. 

2821b. L. TEMULENTUM var. ARVENSE (With.). L. and Y. 
Goods Yard, Dewsbury. Brought with flax or oil-cake. 

2849. HoRDEUM MURiNUM L. Way-bent. Arenophile 
usually. A casual on wool refuse, Batley Carr. 

fTo be contitiued). 

Naturalist, 



245 
NEWS FROM THE MAGAZINES. 

In the Entomologist's Record (Vols. XXIV., Nos. 7 and 8 : why not 
No. 7 ?) Col. Manders writes on the ' Value of Protective Resemblance in 
Moths,' Mr. H. J. Turner has a note on Nomenclature, Mr. H. C. Dollman 
describes Longitavsus plantago-maritimns sp. nov., a Coleopteron new to 
science, without a figure. 

Mr. R. Standen contributed a paper on the ' False Scorpions of Lan- 
cashire ' to the Lancashire Naturalist, No. 49, and in the same publication 
a writer, after referring to a certain journal as ' a very interesting publica- 
tion which contains much of interest,' calmly proceeds to quote several 
pages of records therefrom. 

In the Zoologist for July, Mr. Harvie-Brown gives some notes on the 
habit of the Whimbrel, and the Editor, Mr. W. L. Distant, has a note on 
large crabs, from which it seems that the largest crab he has been able 
to trace is in the museum at Hull. It weighed twelve pounds, and was 
caught at Brixham, Devon, in October last. 

In the Entomologist for July, it is recorded that one market garden 
near Huddersfield alone supplied six thousand larvae and pupae of Abraxas 
grossulariata to one collector, and could probably have supplied twenty 
thousand. Large numbers of gooseberry bushes were absolutely stripped 
of every ve-stige of leaf. Two pairs of cuckoos got even more larvae from 
the same garden. 

In the Journal of Conchology for July, Mr. W. Denison Roebuck refers 
to a specimen of Neritina fluviatilis from Sutton Drain, near Hull, which 
has not hitherto been authenicated from the East Riding of Yorkshire! 
This statement is difficult to understand, seeing that in Fetch's ' List of 
Land and Fresh- water MoUusca of the East Riding,' published by the 
Hull Club in 1904, many East Riding localities are given, on the authority 
of Martin Lister, Hincks, North, Hey, Christy, Butterell, Foster and 
Blackburn. Or is it that every record is supposed to be valueless unless it 
appears in the Conchological Society's voucher collection ? 

In Nature (No. 2227) is an illustrated account of the laying of the 
foundation-stone of the National Museum of Wales, a ceremony which was 
recently performed by His Majesty the King. This was done during a 
brief spell of glorious weather, in beautiful surroundings, and by the kind- 
ness of the Director of the Museum, Dr. W. Evans Hoyle, a number of 
curators from the provincial museums had an opportunity of being present. 
When completed, the museum will be 440 feet long by 250 feet wide. In 
addition to the museum proper, there will be pavilions for Welsh History 
and Welsh Natural History, an aquarium, and an amphitheatre for the 
performance of Welsh National folk-songs and dances. 

In the Geological Magazine for July, Mr. B. B. Woodward writes on 
the Glycimeris shell with a human face, already referred to in these columns. 
He is satisfied that the carving is not of Pliocene age, and suggests that 
it found its way into the Crag by being placed with a palaeolithic burial. 
It is further stated that the stains are unlike the Crag staining, and it 
is suggested that it looked as if red ochre, as known to the ancient hunters, 
had been rubbed into the cut.' Hitherto the great point has been that 
the staining was not different from the ordinary crag stain. And surely 
it is hardly correct to refer to ' the impossibility of reproducing with 
modern tools and modern conception of the human face, even in caricature, 
the quaint but characteristic scuplture on the shell in question.' If any- 
one cares to look at Punch for July 17th, page 66, he will find the face in 
the boat, at the bottom right-hand corner, with an expression almost 
identical with the face on this alleged palaeolithic Glycimeris. At the 
time the ' discovery ' was made, it was considered to be the result of a 
' joke,' probably played by a quarryman. At present, we see no reason 
to alter this belief. 

1912 Aug. I. -"^ 



246 

YORKSHIRE NATURALISTS AT TANFIELD. 

The third excursion for tlie present year was held on Saturday, 
the 15th June. The headquarters were at Tanfield, near 
Ripon, and, considering that the area suggested for investiga- 
tion included the celebrated Hackfall Woods, it was natural 
that the botanists attended in greatest numbers, though the 
conchological section was also well represented. The members 
were again favoured with a bright, sunny day, though with 
a wind which made itself felt in the more open parts of the 
valley. Those interested in Vertebrate Zoology had as guide 
Mr. Riley Fortune, F.Z.S., and the botanists placed themselves 
under the guidance of the local schoolmaster, Mr. H. Tomlin- 
son, and were also favoured with the company of Mr. W. D. 
Arton, of Tanfield Lodge, upon whose estate they passed the 
whole time, and to whom they were indebted for his kindness 
in pointing out the localities of many of the most interesting 
plants, and also allowing them the privilege of inspecting 
the ' gardens attached to his charmingly situated residence. 
In these grounds Mr. Arton has carefully preserved a portion 
of a finely-carved Saxon Cross, and at Stubbin Farm the mem- 
bers also inspected the base of a Saxon Cross, which the present 
occupier has preserved. 

The attendance was hardly up to expectations, a score 
being present, and those who stayed over the week-end were 
able to add to the records made on Saturday . 

The President, Mr. J. W. Taylor, occupied the chair at the 
evening meeting. Representatives of eight affiliated societies 
responded to the roll call, and one new member was elected. 

Mr. Roebuck referred to a visit which the President and 
he had paid to his old friend Miss Emily Harrison, whose list 
of ferns of Hackfall was published in The Naturalist for June 
1856. She still resides at Mickley Hall, is eighty-eight years 
of age, and, though deaf, is in good health. She is not only 
an accomplished botanist, but equally well versed in her 
knowledge of the land and freshwater mollusca of the dis- 
trict, of which she still retains her collection. 

Cordial thanks were accorded to Mr. Riley Fortune, F.Z.S., 
for the excellent local arrangements made by him ; to Mr. 
H. Tomlinson, for acting as one of the guides ; to Mr. W. D. 
Arton, for permission to go over his estate, and the kindness 
shown to the members during the excursion ; and also to the 
Marquis of Ripon, Sir Willans Nussey, and Miss Staveley, 
for permission to visit their estates. 

Flowering Plants. — Mr. J. Hartshorn writes : — A dis- 
trict noted for the variety and richness of its vegetation and 
flora did not disappoint the botanists. It was decided to work 
up the stream on the north side (vice county 65). Having 

Naturalist, 



Yorkshire Naturalists at Tanfield. 247 

confirmed the records for the walls of the churchyard, the party 
reached the river, and saw Conium maculatum and Atropa 
belladonna, both plants infrequent on the western area of the 
Ure. The recorders were subsequently kept busy, over 240 
species being recognised during the day. The two Common 
Figworts, aquatica and nodosa, were found growing near each 
other, and, as the plants were typical, the specific differences 
were readily seen. Cornus sanguinea was the hedge-former 
most noted, and two abnormal Limes were the most remark- 
able of the trees commented upon. In one nine good vertical 
stems grew or sprung from a common base, raised about three 
yards above ground on stem-like pillars, forming a buttressed 
foundation. Especially interesting were two meadows. In 
the one was an abundance of Campanula glomerata, the other 
was noted for its wealth of Meadow Saffron in leaf and fruit, 
and also the two orchids Hahenaria conopsea and Orchis morio. 
Other orchids seen during the day were Orchis ustulata, 0. 
incarnata, 0. maculata, 0. mascula, Epipactis latifolia, Listera 
ovata and Neottia nidus-avis. The last-mentioned was from 
the south bank (West Riding), as also were Carex Pseudo- 
cyperus and Trollius europceus. Perhaps the most interesting 
plant of the wet land near the river was the Columbine, Aqui- 
legia vulgaris. A few of the others noted were Primula farinosa, 
Mgopodium podagraria and Sium erectum. 

Mr. J. W. H. Johnson, who stayed over the week-end, 
reports that he came across a fine patch of Botrychium lunaria, 
also a white flowered form of Ajuga reptans, Myosotis versicolor, 
Paris quadrijolia, and Erythraa centaurea, and Mr. Wm. Cash 
also added Hyoscyamus niger and Hellehorus foetidus. 

All records are for North Riding except those as indicated. 

Mr. Wattam writes : — Maudlans Wood, which covers a 
large area of ground on the Tanfield side of the River Ure, 
County N.W., exhibits some interesting variations in its 
phases of ground vegetation. Taken as a whole, it is a shade 
wood, the dominancy of the trees practically being Ulmus 
montana, Fagus sylvatica, Quercus sessiliflora, Fraxinus 
excelsior, Corylus avellana and Acer pseudo-platanus. Also 
occurring are Pinus sylvestris, Tilia europaea, Alnus glutinosa, 
Ilex aquifolium, Betula alba. Primus cerasus, and Castanea 
vulgaris. Mr. W. D. Arton informed me that the fruits of the 
latter tree ripened considerably in 191 1, several stones in 
weight, fit for eating, being gathered. 

On entering the wood from the direction of Tanfield Lodge, 
the effect of the shade canopy of the trees was evidenced by the 
abundance of Mercurialis perennis, Circcea lutetiana, and 
Sanicula europcsa, with (to the right of the cart track) a great 
abundance of Lastrea filix-mas, and a slight intermingling of 
Athyrium filix-fcemina. Where felling had left an open glade, 

1912 Aug. I. 



248 Yorkshire Naturalists at Tanfield. 

Pteris aquilina occupied the place. There was little grass, 
but a great abundance of mosses and liverworts, and alongside 
the cart track was plenty of Lysimachia nemorum, and a fair 
sprinkling of Myosotis arvensis, Primula vulgaris, and Cam- 
panula latifolia, while Anemone nemorosa, Ranunculus ficaria, 
and Scilla festalis were also moderately conspicious. 

On nearing the charming natural amphitheatre which is 
known as Hackfall, the grit rocks outcrop to a great height, 
and here Mercurialis perennis occurs in immense zones, and 
along with Lastrea filix-mas easily predominate over all other 
forms of vegetation. In the open place made to better admire 
the view, the ground in the immediate vicinity is clothed with 
Teucrium scorodonia and Solidago virgaurea, and here also 
occur Orchis mascula and Blechnum spicant. The grit rocks 
are prominent throughout the rest of the wood, the dominant 
trees in this portion being Ulmus, Querctis and Fagus, and 
the ground vegetation is almost exactly similar to that of the 
shade woods of the S.W. Yorkshire valleys. The sloping 
banks to the right are almost entirely dominated by Scilla fes- 
talis, with Mercurialis perennis, Lastrea filix-mas, Holcus, and 
Sanicula europcea. The rock ledges are the home of Luzula 
sylvatica, Hieracium murorum, Lactuca mitralis, and Melica 
uniflora, and the bog areas formed at the base of the rock 
zone by the natural drainage, are dominated by Allium 
ursinum. 

Mosses and Hepatics. — Mr. W. Ingham writes : — At a 
small fall on the left side of the river was a large mass of Weisia 
verticillata in fruit. This was of a lurid green, and thickly 
encrusted with lime. It is always quoted in books as a very 
rare fruiter, but here there was much fruit, due, no doubt, to 
its habitat under continually dripping water. Its companion, 
Hypnum commutatum was also encrusted with lime. 

Trichostomum crispulum, Hypnum falcatum var. virescens 
and Trichostomum teniiirostre, were all found by Messrs. 
Cheetham and Johnson. 

On the V.C. 65 side of the river, Mr. Barnes found the very 
rare moss, Thuidium hystricosum, so long considered a southern 
moss, in profusion. This find is an addition to North West 
Yorkshire. He continued to work the north-west side of the 
river after the party left Tanfield, and found the rare mosses 
Bryum murale and Orthotrichum tenellum, also the above- 
named Thtiidium in much greater profusion. 

The best Hepatic, Pedinophyllum interruptum, was also 
found by Mr. Barnes. 

Fungi. — Mr. Charles Crossland writes :■ — ^Fifty-seven species 
of fungi were noted, all but three being from the Tanfield 
side of the river — V. County, N.W. There was not time to 
investigate both sides. Coniophora puteana is the only addi- 

Naturalist, 



Yorkshire Naturalists at Tanfield. 249 

tion to N.W. Most of those seen were fairly common, and of 
wide distribution, but it may not be amiss to record them here 
under their customary habitats : — 

In pastures : — Tricholoma carneum, Marasmius oreades, 
Entoloma jiibatum, E. sericeum, Nolanea pascua, Galera tenera, 
Agaricus campestris, Stropharia albocyanea, Psilocybe fcBnisecii, 
Coprimis plicatilis, Panaeolus campanulatus, Stropharia ster- 
coraria, S. semiglobata, Humaria gramdata, Ascobolus fur- 
furaceus, Pilobolus crystallinus, the last six on dung. 

On the ground in woods: — Amanitopsis fulva, Omphalia 
fibula, Inocybe rimosa, Hebeloma longicaudum, Lactarius ru/us, 
Boletus flavtis, B. subtomentosus. 

On and near rotting stumps, mostly in woods : — Phdeus 
cervinus, Hypholoma siihlateritium, H. fasciculare, Psilocybe 
spadicea, Psathyrella disseminata, Coprinus micaceus, C. atra- 
mentarius. 

On rotting fallen branches : — Mycena rorida, Polystictus 
versicolor, Fomes ferruginosus, Poria blepharistoma, Grandinia 
granulosa, Stereum hirsutum, Corticitcm calceum, Coniophora 
ptiteana, Tremella mesenterica, Calocera cornea, Eutypa lata, 
Lasiosphaeria ovina, Dasyscypha nivea Helotium claro-flavum. 

On decaying herbaceous stems : — Heptameria acuta, Dasy- 
scypha virginea, Helotium cyathoideum. 

Myxomycetes on rotting wood . — Stemonitis fusca, S. 
friesiana, Lycogala epidendron, Arcyria punicea, Tilmadoche 
nutans. 

Parasitic on tree trunks : — Polyporus squamosus. 

Parasitic on plants : — ^Ecidium stage of Puccinia poarum 
on Tussilago farfara, P. obtegens on Carduus arvensis, Ustilago 
violacea, on anthers of Lychnis diurna, Podosphaeria oxya- 
cantha on young leaves of hawthorn, Sphaerotheca pannosa on 
leaves of Rosa. 

Boletus flavus, Mycena rorida and Tilmadoche nutans 
were gathered on the Mid. W. side of the river. 

A very pretty group of Psathyrella disseminata on decaying 
moss covered stump was photographed by Mr. Riley Fortune. 

The Mycological Committee was represented by Messrs. 
Broadhead, Johnson, and the writer, assisted by Mr. J. Wms. 
Sutcliffe, Halifax. 

Vertebrate Zoology.— Mr. Riley Fortune, F.Z.S., writes : 
The vertebrate section was heavily handicapped by having 
only one observer (the writer) in the field ; nevertheless, so 
rich is the district in bird-life, that sixty-eight species were 
noted. 

The only new species added to the local list is the Turtle 
Dove, which was found sitting upon her two eggs in the usual 
apology for a nest, in a thorn bush. 

In common with many other parts of Yorkshire, the district 

1912 Aug. I. 



250 Yorkshire Naturalists at Tanfleld. 

appeared to be suffering from a scarcity of summer visitors, 
the Swallow tribe were not nearly as abundant as usual, but 
the Swifts appeared to be present in normal numbers. The 
Willow Warblers were exceptionally scarce, the rarer Wood 
Warblers being more plentiful. There appears to be a great 
shortage of Willow Warblers in the county, one wood near, 
Harrogate, which usually swarms with these birds, has not a 
single pair this year, and only about half the usual quantity 
of Wood Warblers. It almost appears as if the earlier arrivals 
had met with some disaster, which the Wood Warblers, arriving 
later, had escaped. 

Most of the birds seen during the day were nesting. Along 
the banks of the stream the Kingfisher, Dipper, Sandpiper 
and Grey Wagtail were seen, and a Mallard Duck was observed, 
leading her brood across the river. A pair of Pied Wagtails 
was seen about every farmstead, and several pairs of Yellow 
Wagtails in the fields. Only one pair of Whinchats was 
observed, but this species has been scarce for some years now. 
Four species of Tits were noticed, the absentee being the Long- 
tailed Tit. They were presumably all of the British races, and 
the Marsh Tits may have been Willow Tits. 

One Woodpecker (the green) was seen, and the Great 
Spotted was heard, as was the note of the Nuthatch. This bird 
is an interesting resident, and probably here reaches the northern 
limit of its range. 

Cuckoos were not plentiful, nor were Spotted Flycatchers, 
usually a very abundant species. The Pied Flycatcher was 
observed on the opposite bank of the river, which was in partial 
flood, making it impossible to wade across to look for the nest. 
Both the Garden and Black-cap Warblers were seen and heard, 
but they were not abundant, and the sibulous note of the Gold 
Crest was heard continually in the woods. 

Birds of Prey noted were the Sparrow Hawk, Kestrel, 
Long-eared and Tawny Owls, the latter being most unmerci- 
fully mobbed by some Missle and Song Thrushes and Black- 
birds. 

One nest, evidently deserted, was found, which had every 
appearance of being a Goldfinch's, but, as no birds were about, 
one could not be quite sure. The Hawfinch is present in the 
district, but was not observed during the day. 

Five species of mammals, one reptile, two amphibians and 
four fishes were noted, none of them calling for special mention. 
The list of fishes might have been longer, but for the fact of 
the river being somewhat high and discoloured. 

Neuroptera and Trichoptera.- — Mr. G. T. Porritt spent 
several hours working on the sides of the river Ure, but, owing 
to the strong wind, scarcely anything could be done, and the 
Only species noted were Chrysopa tenella, Perla maxima, 

Naturalist, 



Yorkshire Naturalists at Tanfield. 



251 



Chloroperla grammatica, Hemerohius micans, Leptocerus ater- 
rimus and Hydropsyche augustipennis ; not one species even 
of these was at all plentiful. 

Arachnida. — Mr. Wm. Falconer writes : — The route fol- 
lowed by the solitary arachnologist present led along the 
north bank of the river to Tanfield Hall, and thence along the 
south bank through Mickley and Hackfall Woods. The 
nature of the ground varied considerably, and many methods 
of collecting were resorted to, but time did not permit of a 
thorough examination being made anywhere. Especially 
was this to be regretted in the case of Hackfall, which furnished 
not only the greater number, but also the more uncommon 
spiders, and the Chthonius rayi L. Koch (lO examples), met 
with during the day. These, with a few exceptions, notably 
Philodrbmus dispar Walck and Metopobactrtis prominulus 
Cambr., are common and widely distributed Yorkshire species, 
but as the district investigated had not previously been worked 
for its arachnida, they are given in extenso below — fifty species 
of spiders, three harvestmen, and two pseudoscorpions. 



Harpactes hombergii Scop. 
Oonops pulcher Tempi. 
Clubiona recltisa Camb. 
C. lutescens Westr. 
C. comta C. L. Koch. 
Zora maculata Bl. 
Amatirobius fenestralis Stroem. 
Coelotes atropos Walck. 
Theridion sisy phium Clerck. 
T. denticulatmn Walck. 
T. p aliens Bl. 
Pholcomma gihbitm Westr. 
Phyllonethis liHeataC\erc]>L. and var. 

redimita Koch. 
Robeytus lividus Bl. 
Linyphia montana Clerck. 
L. pelt at a Wid. 
L. hortensis Sund. 
L. clathrata Sund. 
Labulla thoracica Wid. 
Leptyphantes terricola C. L. Koch. 
L. blackwallii Kulcz. 
L. obscurus Bl. 
L. pallidiis Bl. 
Bathyphantes dorsalis Wid. 
B. nigrinus Westr. 
Poeciloneta globosa Wid. 
Macrargus riifus Wid. 
Oreonetides abnormis Bl. 



Microneta viaria Bl. 
Maso sundevallii Westr. 
Gongylidiimi rufipes Sund. 
CEdothorax tubevosus Bl. 
Lophomma herbigradum Bl, 
Dicymbiiim nigrum Bl. 
Neriene rubella Bl. 
Diplocephalus latifrons Camb. 
D. picinus Bl. 
D. cristatus Bl. 
Entelecara erythvopus Westr. 
Pocadicnemis pumila Bl. 
Metopobactrus prominulus Camb. 
Walckenaera acuminata Bl. 
Cornicularia cuspidata Bl. 
Ero thoracica Wid. 
Tetragnatha solandrii Scop. 
Aleta segmentata Clerck. 
AI. merianae Scop. 
Nesticus cellulanus Clerck. 
Philodromus dispar Walck. 
Lycosa amentata Clerck. 



Liobunum rotundum Latr. 
Platybunus triangularis Herbst. 
Oligolophus morio Fabr. 



Chthonius rayi L. Koch. 
Obisium muscorum Leach. 



MoLLUSCA. — -Mr. Wm. Cash, F.G.S., writes : — The search 
for mollusca at Tanfield and Hackfall was not very successful, 
the height of the Ure precluded much collecting therein. The 
one or two small ponds and the ditches also proved disappoint- 
ing. For some reason or another, and quite contrary to one's 

1912 Aug. I. 



252 Yorkshire Naturalists at Tanfield. 

anticipations, shells generally were few, both in species and in 
individuals. Perhaps the most interesting shell found was Acan- 
thinula lamellata among dead beech leaves in Hackfall Woods. 
Appended is a list of shells recorded by myself and one or 
two other members of the Union, a total of thirty-two species 



Agriolimax agvestis (Linne). 

A. IcBvis. 

Vitrina pelhicida (Miiller). 

Vitrea crystallina (Muller). 

Hyalinia helvetica (Blum.) • 

Polita cellaria (Muller). 

P. alliaria (Muller). 

P. pura (Alder). 

P. vadiatida (Alder). 

P. nitidula (Drap). 

Euconulus fulva (Miill). 

Arion ater (Linne). 

A. hortensis. 

A. circumscriptus. 

A. intermedins. 

Sphyradium edentulum (Drap.) 

Goniodiscus rotundata (Miill.) 



Heliomanes virgata (Da Costa). 

Hygromia granulata (Alder). 

H. riifescens (Penn). 

H. hispida (Linne). 

H. hispida (Linne) var. hispidosa 

(Mons.). 
Acanthinula lamellata (Jeffry). 
Helicogona aspersa Linne. 
CepcBa nemoralis Linne. 
C. hortensis Miill. 
Cochlicopa Inbrica Miill. 
Azeca tridens (Pulteney). 
Pirostoma bidentata (Strom). 
Carychium minimum Miill. 
Ancylus fluviatilis Miill. 
Radix pereger (Miill. Sm.). 

W. E. L. W. 
— : o : — 



FIELD NOTES. 

Death's Head Moth at Arncliffe.— A Death's Head Moth 
was found by two boys on the village-green on Saturday, June 
8th last. I am not aware that a specimen of this beautiful 
moth has ever been seen before in this valley, which is 750 feet 
above the sea at the place where the moth was taken. — W. A. 
Shuffrey, Arncliffe Vicar„^e, June 12th, igi2. 

Leptothorax acervorum in North = East Yorkshire. — 

When at the British Museum lately, Mr. Meade-Waldo showed 
me an insect of which Mr. Donisthorpe desired to know the 
locality. It was in the Saunders collection, and when looked 
at with a lens the label was plainly ' Goathland,' in N.E. York- 
shire, but by whom or when it was taken is not evident. This 
is an important record for our county. — W. Denison Roebuck, 
Leeds, 21st June, 191 2. 

Rhyncholophus niger. — During the last month I received 
from Mr. W. P. Winter, of Shipley, some mites, among which 
I found a Rhyncolophus new to me. It was in colour a deep 
black, but in other respects it resembled R. communis. No 
new figures are therefore necessary as those in The Naturalist 
for December 1910, page 428, will serve every purpose. I may 
say that the mandibles which are not there figured, are sword- 
like, and I could see no serrations such as are seen in Erythrceus 
(this should be Ritteria) in the May number of The Naturalist 
for 1907, page 180. — C. F. George, Kirton-in-Lindsey. 

Naturalist, 



253 

YORKSHIRE NATURALISTS AT ASKERN. 

Members of sixteen societies joined in the excursion to Askern, 
Sutton Common and Shirley Pool on Thursday, July ilth. 
Excellent local arrangements had been made by Mr. H. H. 
Corbett for the general body of naturalists, who were conducted 
over the boggy labyrinth of Sutton Common and the adjoining 
woods. Askern is being rapidly .transformed from a quiet 
country spa to a busy mining town, and the huge pit heaps 



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n^h^^r^m ^ai 


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Photo by] 



Shirley Pool. 



[H. G. Brierley. 



have permanently altered its general aspect. In these, how- 
ever, the geologists, who were accompanied by Mr. H. Culpin 
and Mr. J. W. Stather, found much interesting material for 
study. Mr. J. Humble kindly gave permission to visit the 
collieries, and Mr. W. A. Wallis granted a similar privilege 
to examine the clay pits. 

Members of the other sections were met on Sutton Common 
by Major C. Anne, of Burgwallis, who very kindly had three 
trenches cut through portions of the Neolithic earthworks on 
his estate. He also exhibited a number of interesting remains 
found during the excavations, including flints, fragments of 
pottery, sling stones and wooden piles. One of the trenches 
showed a considerable length of rough walling. 

At Shirley Pool a boat was placed at the disposal of the 

1912 Aug. 1. 



254 Yorkshire Naturalists at Askern. 

members, and proved of great use in inspecting at close quarters 
the inner margin of the reed vegetation, by which the pool is 
surrounded, and also in searching the deep mud for molluscs. 

A large number of members attended the meeting held 
later in the day at the Railway Hotel, Askern. The President, 
Mr. J. W. Taylor, occupied the chair, and sectional reports 
were given on the day's work by Mr. H. Culpin, Dr. T. W. 
Woodhead, Prof. J. H. Priestley, Messrs. C. Cheetham, W. N. 
Cheesman, W. Denison Roebuck, H. H. Corbett, E. G. Bay- 
ford, and Dyson. In all sections except Entomology, interest- 
ing results were obtained, and the meeting was obviously 
enjoyable and successful. The President expressed the pleasure 
of the members in being favoured by the presence of Mr. T. 
Bunker, of Goole, who for so many years has been a steady 
supporter of the Union, and one of its oldest members. Hearty 
thanks were accorded to Major Anne and Messrs. Humble 
and Wallis, for the privileges granted, and to the leader and 
local secretary, Mr. Corbett. 

Respecting the pre-historic earthworks on Sutton Common, 
Mr. C. E. C. Anne writes : — About three-quarters of a mile 
south of Askern, on the low-lying marshy tract known as 
Sutton Common, are some interesting earthworks. These, 
apparently, form two distinct camps, east and west of each 
other, and are defended on all sides by ditches and earthen 
ramparts. The camp to the east of the Common is the larger, 
and the more interesting, as here the remains are particularly 
distinct, and one can clearly see the hut circles placed round the 
edge of the camp, behind the defences. 

In this camp the defences on the north-east are three times 
as strong as elsewhere, and here are seen no fewer than fotir 
ditches, and three earthen ramparts thrown up between them. 
This strengthening of the defences is particularly striking, 
and extremely well-preserved. It is suggested that the country 
on the north-east was less marshy, and hence the camp was 
more liable to attack from that quarter. 

Within the defences the ground is raised above the sur- 
rounding land, and would be quite dry, even in times of flood. 

Two entrance gateways in the defence can clearly be dis- 
cerned on the north and east — the latter being defended without 
by a flanking earthwork. 

The hut circles differ from each other in size, and some are 
oblong. Remarkable quantities of oak ashes are found on 
excavation, and would almost lead one to conclude that the 
stockades and dwellings had, at one time, been razed to the 
ground by fire. 

The distance between the camps is, perhaps, from eighty 
to one hundred yards — the western camp being similar to the 
other, but of about half the area. 

Naturalist. 



Yorkshire Naturalists at Askern. 255 

We can imagine that in times of peril the ancient people 
would leave their pleasanter dwellings on the uplands to the 
west, and, with their families and cattle, seek refuge here among 
the stagnant swamps. 

There are still those living who can remember the Common 
before the drainage system intruded itself, when it was seldom 
visited by anyone, save perchance, a sportsman in search of 
wild fowl. 

These earthworks owe their remarkably distinct state of 
preservation in no small measure to their isolated position, 
and, although they have not, as yet, been investigated to any 
extent, they may be expected to yield some interesting ' finds ' 
in the future. 

Geology. — Mr. H. Culpin writes : — A visit was made to 
the colliery tip, and the party had the pleasure of discovering 
some material which had been brought up on the previous 
Monday, from one of the marine bands passed through in the 
sinking. This they found contained Lingiila mytiloides, and 
fish scales. They also obtained fossils from the prinicpal 
marine band of the district, the order of position in which, from 
the top to the base, is as follows : — 

Blue-grey shales, having a soapy feel, with fucoids. 
Blue-grey shales, having a soapy feel, with Lingiila 

mytiloides. 
Blue-grey shales, as above, but tending to grey, with 

Ctenodonta IcBvirostris, Pterinopecten papyraceus, etc., 

etc. 
Dark grey shales, slightly speckled, and somewhat rough 

in appearance, with Pterinopecten papyraceus, Posi- 

doniella Icevis, Goniatites, Orthoceras, etc., etc. 
Dark limestone. 

A cutting, which showed on one side contorted Middle 
Permian Marls faulted against broken Upper Permian Lime- 
stone, and on the other side the massive Lower Permian Lime- 
stone faulted against bent Upper Permian Limestone, was 
inspected. Close by, traces of the Upper Permian Marls were 
noticed lying on the Upper Limestone. In an adjacent clay pit, 
the Middle Permian Marls with gypsum beds, were seen in some 
freshly cut sections. 

A return was then made to the colliery tip for the purpose 
of examining the grey marls from the base of the Permian 
Series. These yield Schizodus ohscuriis. The limestone im- 
mediately above these shales contains Prodiictus horridns, 
Camarophoria schlotheimii, Fenestella, Penniretipora, etc., and 
there are also some traces of copper ore. 

An inspection followed of the inclined Upper Permian 

1912 Aug. I. 



256 Yorkshire Naturalists at Askern. 

Limestone forming Askern Mount. Triassic (Bunter) sand was 
seen in section below the limestone gravels in the adjoining 
gravel and sand pit, and an interesting discussion took place 
as to the relation of the sand to the limestone. A suggestion 
was made by the writer that the Mount is an instance of an 
overthrust fault. 

At the subsequent meeting, the thanks of the Geological 
Section were given to Mr. J. W. H. Johnson, B.Sc, for his 
report on the composition of the Upper Permian Limestone in 
South Yorkshire {Naturalist, September 1911, p. 308). This 
report arose out of a discussion which took place at the York- 
shire Naturalists' Union Meeting at Askern in 1906. 

Botany. — Dr. Woodhead writes : — The neighbourhood of 
Askern possesses many features of interest to botanists. Sutton 
Common is a grassy marsh with numerous water-logged hollows, 
pools and drains supporting a rich marsh and aquatic vegeta- 
tion. The ground-water is very high, as indicated by the 
abundance of such plants as Marsh Pennywort {Hydrocotyle 
vulgaris), Amphibious Bistort {Polygonum amphibium), Lady's 
Smock {Cardamine pratensis), Spearwort {Ranunculus Flam- 
mula). Flea Bane {Pulicaria dysenterica). Marsh Arrow-grass 
{Triglochin palustre), and Marsh Orchis {Orchis latifolia). 
Prominent features in the flora were masses of Meadow Sweet 
{SpircBa Ulmaria) and meadow rue {Thalictrum flavum) in full 
flower, and around the pools a reedy belt of the Common Reed 
{Phragmites vulgaris). Cut-sedge {Cladiiim Mariscus), Yellow 
Iris {Iris Pseudacorus), Bur-reed {Sparganium simplex), 
Purple Loosestrife {Lythrum salicaria), Water Figwort {Scroph- 
ularia aquatica), and at Shirley Pool, in addition to the above, 
were the Great Water-Dock {Rumex Hydrolopathum) , Water 
Plantain { Alisma plantago). Greater Spearwort {Ranunculus 
lingua). Reed-Mace {Typha angustifolia), Cyperus Sedge (Carea; 
pseudo-cyperus) , and in the adjoining Shirley Jungle the Marsh- 
fern {Dryopteris Thelpyteris) grows abundantly among the 
reeds in the Alder- Willow Swamp. On the sides of the drains 
were several rushes {Juncus supimis, conglomeratus and 
glauca), also Water Dropwort {(Enanthe fistulosa), Celery- 
leaved Crowfoot {Ranunculus sceleratus). Brook- weed {Samolus 
Valerandi), Brook-lime {Veronica Beccahunga). 

In the water were the Marestail {Hippuris vulgaris), 
Water Crowfoot {R. trichophyllus) , Water Speedwell (F. Ana- 
gallis). Water Cress {Radicula Nasturtium), Horned Pondweed 
{Zannichellia palustre). Plantain leaved Pondweed {Potomogeton 
color atus), and Water Starwort {Callitriche intermedia). In 
the fields adjoining the Common, the Hawksbeard {Crepis 
taraxaci folia) was found. 

Fungi. — Mr. W. N. Cheesman reports : — The writer and Mr. 
J. W. H. Johnson investigated the woods adjoining Shirley 

Naturalist, 



Yorkshire Naturalists at Askern. 



257 



Pool, and sixty-one species were observed, a few being new 
records for the district. The edible Amanita rubescens was 
seen in great abundance, also a number of the usual species 
of Mycena and Marasmius. 

The rare Polyporus alutacens was found, and has been 
determined by Mr. Crossland. 

A number of fairly common Ascomycetes were observed, 
including Lachnea erinacea. 

The Myxos. included Arcyria pomiformis, the second York- 
shire record for this minute organism. 

Total collected and observed : — 



Agarics 


•• 15 


Polypores 


.. 8 


Thelephoras, etc. 


10 


Ascomycetes 


. . 12 


Mycetozoa 


.. 16 



61 



For the Micro Section, Mr. M. H. Stiles reports as follows : — 
In making our gatherings at Shirley Pool, we had the advantage 
of the use of a boat, and thus were enabled to reach portions 
of the Pool which otherwise would have been inaccessible. 

Using the collecting apparatus as a tow-net, we secured 
samples of the Plankton life of the Pool, consisting mainly 
of Rotifers, which were sent on to Mr. H. Moore, of Rotherham, 
for determination. He states : — ' The tube sent was very 
satisfactory, containing AnurcBa acttleata Ehr, Anurcea coch- 
lear ea Gosse, Asplanchna hrightwelli Gosse, Brachionus angu- 
laris Gosse, arid Pomphalyx sulcata Hudson. The two species 
of Anursea are common in most places, but the other three 
species I rarely meet with about this district.' 

The fresh-water Sponge, Spongilla lacustris, was much in 
evidence, a submerged branch being almost completely covered 
with this interesting type. 

Floating on the water were found two olive-green gelatinous 
masses, one of them of comparatively large size, about i| inches 
by if inches and | inch thick, which Mr, W. West was good 
enough to examine. It proved to be Aphanothece prasina, 
a species not recorded in his 'Alga Flora of Yorkshire.' 

Diatoms. — The following list comprises those at present 
determined, but further examination will doubtless result 
in an extension, which I hope to communicate to a future 
issue. 

The genera most abundant were Diatoma, Gomphonema, 
Epithemia, Cymhella and Synedra. 

1912 Aug. I. 



258 



Yorkshire Naturalists at Askern. 



Gomphonema gracile Ehr. 

,, montanuni var. sub- 

clavatiim Schum. 
,, parviilum var. 

lanceolatum Kutz. 
Rhoicosphenia curvata Grun. 
Cocconeis pediculus Ehr. 
placentula Ehr. 
,, ,, var. lineata. 

Epithemia turgida Ehr. 

,, gibba var. ventricosa Kutz. 
,, sorex Kutz. 
Eunotia lunaris Ehr. 
,, exigua Breb. 
Synedra Ulna Nitzsch. 

,, var. lanceolata 
,, acus Kutz. 
Fvagilaria capucina Desmaz. 
,, var. acuta. 
,, va.r.mesolepta. 
,, constr liens Ehr. 

,, Harrisonii W. Sm. 

tennicollis var. interme- 
dia Heib. 
Diatoma elongatum Ag. 
Cymatopleiira elliptica Breb. 
,. ,. var. 

hibernicai 
,, solea Breb. 

Nitzschia Sigmoidea Ehr. 
,, Hungarica Grun. 

,, vitrea var. recta Norman. 

Cyclotella Meneghiniana Kutz. 

The Coleoptera Committee was represented by Messrs. 
iC. G. Bayford and H. H. Corbett. Beetles were scarce, a 
remark which applies with equal truth to the other orders of the 
Insecta. Perhaps the most noticeable was a male specimen 
of Strangalia armata Herbst., in which the black markings were 
increased to such a degree as to reduce the yellow ground 
colour to very small dimensions. The other species noted were 
all common ones : — 

Harpalus ruficornis F. Hyphydrus ovatus L.- 

Pterostichus diligens Sturm. Hydroporus pictiis F. 

Haliplus fulviis F. Malthodes tnarginatus Latr. 

Neuroptera. — Panorpa communis L. was one of the com- 
monest of insects near Shirley Pool : a female specimen was 
brought to the meeting in order to draw attention to the 
scorpion-like terminal abdominal segments. T. W. W. 



-Amphora ovalis Kutz. 

,, ,, var. afjinis. 

Cymbella Ehrenbergii Kutz. 
,, cuspidata Kutz. 
,, gastr aides var. minor 
Kutz. 
Cymbella lanceolata Ehr. 
Cistnla Hempr. 
,, ,, var. maculata. 

,, obtiisa Greg. 

Encyonema prostratum Ralfs. 

,, caespitosum Ralfs. 
Stauroneis acuta W. Sm. 
Navicula oblonga Kutz. 
,, gracilis Kutz. 

radiosa Kutz. 
,, „ var acuta. 

„ rhyncocephala Kutz. 

,, humilis Donk. 

,, cuspidata Kutz. 

,, sculpta Ehr. 

,, limosa Kutz. 

,, iridis var. amphirynchus 

Ehr. 
,, lanceolata Kutz. 

Pleurosigma attenuatum W. Sm. 

,, Spencerii W. Sm. 

Gomphonema constrictum Ehr. 

,, „ var. capitatum. 

,, ,, var. curta. 

,, acuminatum Ehr. 

,, .. var. 

coronatum. 



In Knowledge for July, Mr. A. M. Broadley contributes a well-illus- 
trated article, entitled ' A Knowledge of the Origin and Early History of 
the Royal Horticultural Society as derived from contemporary medals, 
caricatures and other raroria.' 

Naturalist, 



259 
THE MUSEUMS' ASSOCIATION. 



Alderman JOHN BROWN. 



The Annual Conference of the Museums' Association was held 
in Dublin, from July 8th to July 13th, at which the invitation 
for the conference to be held in Hull in 1913 was unanimously 
accepted. 

The Conference was well attended by the curators and 
representatives of the Committees, etc., not only of all the 
provincial museums, but also of the various English, Scottish 
and Irish National Museums and Art Galleries. There were 
also representatives from America. 

A strong local Reception Committee had been formed, and 
took in hand the various local arrangements, which were 
admirable. 

Count Plunkett, the Director of the Irish National Museum, 
was the President, and the meetings were graced with the 
presence of the Lord Lieutenant of Ireland (Lord Aberdeen) 
and Lady Aberdeen, who also invited the members to their 
residence, and at the annual dinner Lord Aberdeen made many 
sympathetic references to the work of the Association ; in 
fact, all through it was evident that the Irish people had done 
all in their power to make the Conference a success. 

There were several papers bearing upon the work of Museums 
iand Art Galleries, and from these many useful hints were 
obtained. 

Opportunities were afforded for examining the art treasures 
and the natural history and archaeological collections in the 
National Museum, the National Gallery, Trinity College, and 
many other institutions. Visits were also paid to the excellent 
zoological gardens, botanic gardens, Phaenix Park and the 
Vice-Regal Lodge, etc., The social side of the meeting was 
well catered for by Lord and Lady Aberdeen's garden party 
already referred to, a garden party at the beautiful residence 
of Sir John and Lady Nutting at St. Helens, Co. Dublin, 
a conversazione in the National Museum, and an excursion to 
Glendalough, where many Irish antiquities were seen. 

Among the papers read and discussed were the Presidential 
Address : ' The Influence of Museums on the Reform of 
Classical Studies ' by Professor Henry Brown ; ' American 
Museums and School Work,' by Dr. F. A. Lucas ; ' Old and 
New Classifications of Stone Implements,' by R. Smith, F.S.A. ; 
' The Preservation and Storing of Bird Skins,' by Professor 
C. J. Patten ; ' A New Method of Exhibiting Geological 
Specimens in Wall Cases,' by Professor Seymour ; ' The Rating 
of Museums and Art Galleries,' by Mr. H. V. Hodgson ; ' The 
Relation of Schools of Art to Museums,' by Mr. J. Ward, 

1912 Aug-. I. 



26o The Museums' Association, 

A.R.C.A. ; ' The Necessity for Aesthetic Harmony between 
Museums and Galleries and their Contents/ by Sir Walter 
Armstrong ; ' Art and the Child,' by Mr. Percy Bates ; ' The 
Organization of Exhibitions of Foreign Art in England,' by 
Mr. H. D. Roberts ; ' The Care of Paintings, Drawings, En- 
gravings and other Art Treasures,' by Mr. E. R. Dibdin ; ' The 
Exhibition of Reproductions of Greek Sculpture,' by Mr. H. H. 
Mullen ; ' The Bird Collections at Dublin,' by Mr. A. R. Nichol ; 
' Experiments in Museum Work,' by Mr. E. L. Gill ; ' The 
Artists and the Gallery,' by Mr. D. O'Brien ; ' The Dry Sand 
Process for Cleaning Skeletons,' by Dr. R. F. Scarff ; ' Ventila- 
tion and Humidity of the Atmosphere in Museums,' by Dr. 
F. A. Lucas ; ' Museum Guides : Real and Ideal,' by Mr. T. 
Sheppard. 

A public lecture was given on Friday by the Director of 
the Welsh National Museum (Dr. W. E. Hoyle) on ' Museums : 
Interesting and Otherwise.' In addition to the preceding, 
there were many informal discussions bearing upon various 
subjects. 

The Local Committee presented each delagate and associate 
with an admirable guide to Dublin, and the members also had 
facilities with regard to railway and tram rides, etc. 

For the 1913 Conference, which will be held at Hull a year 
hence, Mr. E. Howarth, F.Z.S., F.R.A.S., Curator of the Sheffield 
Museum and Art Gallery, will be President, and it is a com- 
pliment to Hull that Mr. Sheppard is one of the two Vice- 
Presidents. 

In the Entomologist' s Record (Vol. XXIV., No. 6), Prof. T. Hudson 
Beare gives a ' Retrospect of a Coleopterist for 191 1.' 

In the Irish Naturalist for July, Prof. Patten has a paper on ' Wrens 
on Migration observed at the Tuskar Rock and Lighthouse.' 

' On the Recognition of two stages in the Upper Chalk ' is the title 
of a paper in the Geological Magazine for July, by Mr. Jukes-Brown. 

' The Thatching of Ricks ' is a useful paper in the Journal of the Board 
of Agriculture for July. The Board has also issued a pamphlet on Mustard ■ 
Beetles, as Leaflet No. 163. 

The Micrologist for July contains a well-illustrated article on the Com- 
mon Starfish, by G. A. McKechnie, and another on ' Vernal Unfolding and 
Autumn Defoliation,' by Abraham Flatters. 

Obituary notices in reference to R. W. C. Shelf ord, J. G. Keulemans, 
and E. A. Fitch, appear in the Zoologist for July, and to Prof. J. B. Smith, 
in the Entomologist' s Record recently published. 

The Nature Photographer contains an editorial note emphasizing the 
great difficulties of nature photography (which, by the way, we hardly 
agree with), and Mr. E. J. Bedford has an illustrated note on British 
Orchids. 

In the Entomologist' s Monthly Magazine for July, Mr. N. H. Joy pro- 
vides a Table of British Species of the Coleopterous Genus Gyrophcena ; 
the Rev. F. D. Morice contibutes ' Help Notes towards the determination 
of British Tenthredinidcs,' and Dr. J. H. Wood supplies ' Notes on British 
Phora.' 

Naturalist, 



NOTICE. 

The Annual Meeting: of the Marine Biological Committee 
Avill take place at Robin Hood's Bay, October 11-15. Professor 
Carstang of Leeds, and Professor Denny of Sheffield University, 
have kindly consented to allow the use of the Marine Laboratory, 
lately instituted there, as the centre for meetings and work. It is 
hoped that many members will avail themselves of the special 
opportunities of studying marine life in its various forms. All 
communications with respect to it should be addressed to Rev. 
F. H. Wood, Bainton Rectory, Driffield. 

SCIENCE OF THE SEA. 

AN ELEMENTARY HANDBOOK OF PRACTICAL OCEANOGRAPHY FOR NATURALISTS, 
TRAVELLERS, SAILORS AND YACHTSMEN. 

Prepared by the 

CHALLENGER SOCIETY FOR THE PROMOTION OF THE STUDY 

OF OCEANOGRAPHY 

And Edited by G. HERBERT FOWLER. 
With numerous Illustrations a?td Diagrams, 6S« net. 

The primary aim of the book is practical — namely, to teach men with no scientific training how 
they can do useful work for the advancement of science ; it deals with the various aspects of the 
ocean chapter by chapter, points out where new or renewed observations are needed, and includes 
only sufficient theory to enable the observer to understand what kind of a brick he is building into 
the pyramid of knowledge. 

The book has been written entirely by practical specialists. Being addressed, in the lirst 
instance, to non-scientific readers, it has been phrased as far as possible in simple English ; but it 
■will be found useful by many who already know something of Oceanography, 

London : JOHN MURRAY. 

WATKINS & DONCASTER, 

]Sr^TXJR^LISTS. 
3G, STRAND, LONDON, W.C. 

(Five Doors from Charing Cross), 

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We print and publish The Naturalist. 

Taleerams— " BROWN, HULL." Corporation Telephone No. 685. 



TWO BOOKS FOR YORKSHIREMEN. 

NOIV READY. 

THE STORY OF 
THE EA5T RIDING OF YORKSHIRE 

By HORACE B. BROWNE, M.A. 

j68 pages Crown 8vo, printed 07i Art Paper and bound in Art Cloth 
Boards -with I'jo illustrations. 3/- net. or free by post for 3/4- net. 

A BOOK OF GREAT INTEREST TO YORKSHIRE PEOPLE 

showing the wealth of Archaeological, Architectural, Civic and 
Commercial matter which lies in their midst. 

A work which aims at stimulating mental comparison between'^the 
conditions of life of our forefathers and those enjoyed by ourselves. 

IN THE PRESS. 

THE LOST TOWNS 
or THE YORKSHIRE COAST. 

And other Chapters bearing upon the 
Geography of the District. 

By THOMAS SHEPPARD, F.G.S., F.R.G.S., F.S.A.(Scot.). 

Curator of the Hull Municipal Museums. 

J 20 pages, with over 100 illustrations. Cloth Boards, IjQ net. 

A work containing much information regarding the habitations of 
a past generation, but now demolished by the ravages of the sea. 

A number of cliff measurements, documents, plans and charts 
have also been included ; and in the hope that the book may be of 
service to students, chapters have been added referring to the geology, 
antiquities and natural history of the district. 

LONDON 

A. BROWN & SONS, Ltd., 5 Farringdon Avenue, E.C. 

AND ALL BOOKSELLERS. 

Printed at Browns' Savile Press, 40, George Street, Hull, and published by 
A. Brown & Sons, Limited, at 5 Farringdon Avenue in the City of London. 

August 1st, 1912. 



SEPTEMBER, 1912. ^®* ^^^ 

(N», 446 tf »urr»Ht »*ri*»). 




A MONTHLY ILLUSTRATED JOURNAL OF 

NATURAL HISTORY FOR THE NORTH OF ENGLAND. 

EDITED BY 

T. SMEPPARD, F.Q.S., F.R.G.S., F.S.A.Scot.. 

The Muskums, Hull ; 

AND 

T. W. WOODHEAD, Ph.D., F.L.S., 

Tbchnical College, Huddersfiblo. 

with the assistance as referees in special departments op 

J. aiLBBRT BAKBR. P.R.S. P.L.S., QEO. T. PORRiTT, P.L.S., P.E.S. 

Prof. P. P. KENDALL. M.Sc, P.Q.S.. JOHN W. TAYLOR, 
T. H. NELSON. M.B.O.U.. WILLIAM WEST, P.L.S.. 

RILEY FORTUNE. F.Z.S. 



Contents :■ 



PAGE 



Notes and Comments:— The National Trust; Exeunt the Bradford Scientific Journal ; 
Prehistoric Thorpe ; Seventeenth Century Science ; The Origin of Life ; Carlisle 
Naturalists ; Glasgow Geologists ; Changes in Ihe Lower Dee Valley ; Guide to the 
National Reading Room 261-265 

Lamprophyre Dykes at ^ Long Sleddale, Weatmorlani— Alfred Marker, M A., F.R.S., 

F.G.S 266-267 

Chemical Constituents of 'Nloorlog'— T. Lenton Elliott 268-269 

The Evolution of Bridlington— 7". Sheppard, F.G.S 270-273 

Yorkshire Naturalists at Tebay— H^.£.L.H^. 274-278 

Notes on the Botany of Cautley and Tebay (Illustrated)— T. IK. Woodhtad,Ph.D., F.L.S. 278-281 

Yorkshire Plan by William Smith (Illustrated)— r.S 282-283 

Field Notes : — Trollius europceus in Div. II. S.W. Cumberland ; Ancistrouycha abdominalis F. 
in J arrow ; Unusual Situatiou for a Waterhen's Nest (Illustrated) ; The Kite in Yorkshire 

in 1682 283-284,290 

Second Supplement to the Flora of Dewsbury and District— £> the late P. Fox Lee 285-289 

News from the Magazines 265-273 

Museum News 269 

Reviews and Book Notices 290-291 

Proceedings of Scientific Societies 291-292 

Illustrations 280,282.284 



LONDON : 

A. Brown & Sons, Limited, 5, Farringdon Avenue, E.C. 

And at Hull and York. 

Printers and Publishers to the Y.N. U. 



PRICE 6d. NET. BY POST 7d. NET. 



Qeolog'ical Pamphlets 

(Excerpts from the Geological Magazine, etc. ; from the Library 
of a YorI(shire Geologist, recently deceased). 



Price 4cl. each, post free. 



(THIRD LIST). 
Apply— J. B. FAV, Royal Institution, Hull. 

The Kessingland Freshwater Bed and Weybourne Sand. S. V. Wood and F. W. Hanner. 

Northampton Ironstone Beds in Lincolnshire. Capt. Macdakin. (Illus.). 

Geology of the Isle of Man. Henry H. Howorth. 

Chalk in the New Britain Group. Supplementary Note on the Foraminifera. H. B. Brady. 

Notes on Cretaceous Gasteropoda. J. S. Gardner. (Plate). 

Recent Progress in Palaeontology. H. AUeyne Nicholson. 

Classification of the Lower Palaezoic Rocks. C. Lapworth. 

Volcanoes of the Bay of Bengal. V. Ball. (Plate). 

Cretaceous G.^steropoda. J. Starkie Gardner. (Plate). 

Glacial Deposits of Cromer. Clement Reid. (Illus.). 

Pre-Cambrian of Anglesey. C. Callaway. Notes on the Rocks. Prof. T. G. Bonney. (Illus.). 

Brachiopoda of Brittany and South Devon. Thos. Davidson. (Plate). 

The Genus Caunapora of Phillips. Dr. F. Roemer. 

Bones of the Lynx from Teesdale. William Davies. (Plates). 

Influence of Earth Movements on the Geological Structure of the British Isles. J. J. H. Teall. 

Oceans and Continents. T. M. Reade. 

Palaeontology of the Yorkshire Oolites (Pseudomelania). W. H. Hudlestan. (Plates). 

Pebbles in the Bunter Beds of Staffordshire. Prof. T. G. Bonney. 

The Mammoth in Siberia. H. H. Haworth. 

Upware and Potton Pebble-Beds. W. Keeping. 

A Well at Wokingham. Prof. T. R. Jones. 

Whin Sill of Teesdale as an Assimilator of the Surrounding Beds. S. T. Clough. (Illus.). 

Pre-Glacial Mammalia. E. T. Newton. (Plate). 

Volcanic History of Iceland. T. Thoraddsen. 

Palaeontology of the Yorkshire Oolites (Cerithium, etc.). W. H. Hudleston. (Plates). 

Pre-Cambrian Volcanoes and Glaciers. H. Hicks. 

Carboniferous Polyzoa. G. R. Vine. 

Palaeontology of the Yorkshire Oolites (Nerinaea). W. H. Hudleston. (Plate). 

Serpentines from the Rhaetien Alps. T. G. Bonney. 

Stone Implements in Madras. R. B. Foote. 

Classification of the Pliocene and Pleistocene Beds. Clement Reid. 

Traces of a Great Post-Glacial Flood. H. H. Howorth. 

On the Twt Hill Conglomerate. T. G. Bonney. (Section). 

Occurrence of the Cyrena fluminalis at Summertown near O.xford, J. Prestwch. 

Spermophilus Beneath the Glacial Till of Norfolk. E. T. Newton. (Plate). 

Geology of Anglesey. C. Callaway. 

Headen Beds of the Isle of Wight. A. H. S. Lucas. 

A Pteraspidean Cephalic Plate from the Devonian Beds of Gerolstein. J. E. Lee. (Plate). 

The Twt Hill Conglomerate. R. D. Roberts. (Illus.). 

Eminent Geologists — Sir Andrew C. Ramsay, LL.D., etc. (With a Portrait). 

On the Mode of Origin of the Loess. Prof. F. Ricktoffen. 

Permian Reptilia of Russia. W. H. Twelvetrees. (Plate). 

Origin of the Loess. S. V. Wood. 

The Loess. H. H. Howorth. 

Phyllopod Crustacean Shields from Eifel & Wenlock Shale of S. Wales. H. Woodward. (Plate). 

First Impressions of Assynt. W. H. Hudleston. 

Oscillation of Land in Glacial Period. T. F. Jamieson. 

Chloritic Marl and Upper Greensand of the Isle of Wight. M. W. Norman, (Plate). 

BuRE Valley Beds and the Westleton Beds. H. B. Woodward. 

Suggestions for a Revised Classification of the British Eocenes. J. S. Gardner. 

Earth Movements. J. Milne. 

Remains of Plants, Foraminifera in the Silurian Rocks of Central Wales. W. Keeping. (Plate). 

Post-Carboniferous (Dyassic) and Triassic Deposits of the Alps. A. Irving. (Illus.). 

American Jurassic Dinosaurs. O. C. Marsh. (Plate). 

" Joints." J. G. Goodchild. 

Bacshot Sands as a Source of Water Supply. A. Irving. 

A Faulted Slate. J. J. H. Teall. (Plate). 

Fossil Shark from the Lower Carboniferous Rocks of Eskdale, Dumfrieshire. R. H Traquair. 

Galerites Albogalerus. P. Martin Duncan. 

Denticulated Structure of the Hinge-line of Spirifera trigonalis. J. Young. 

Oscillation of Level : South Coast since the Human Period. J. Gardner. 

Canadian ArcHaEan or Pre-Cambrian Rocks and the Irish Metamorphic Rocks. G. H. Kinahan, 

Histianotus angularis at Herstan. J. C. Manse 1-Pleydell. (Plate). 

Statical and Dynamical Metamorphism. J. W. Judd. 

Creeping of the Soilcap through the Action of the Frost. C. Davison. (Illus.). 

Wicklow Greenstones. F. H. Hatch; 

Relations between Syringolit cs and Roemaria. H. A. Nichojson. 

On the Proeoscidea. E. D. Cape. (Plate). 

New Jurassic Fishes. A. S. Woodward. 

Variations of Climate. E. Jaderin. 

Structure of Rhobell Fawr. M. M. Cole and Holland. (Illus.). 

Buhalus bainii. H. G. Seeley. (Illus.). 

Levcillia. E. B. Newton. (Plate). 

Rocks from the Tonga Islands. A. Harker. 



26l 

NOTES AND COMMENTS. 

THE NATIONAL TRUST. 

We have received the annual report of the National Trust 
for places of Historic Interest or Natural Beauty, issued by the 
Secretary, from 25 Victoria Street, Westminster. It contains 
an extraordinary record of the excellent work the Trust is 
performing in the preservation of monuments, be they natural 
or artificial ; and all naturalists must appreciate the way the 
Trust is securing commons and other sanctuaries from the 
maw of the speculative builder, and from the too enthusiastic 
attentions of the collector and ' tourist.' Many pages are 
devoted to descriptions of the Trust's property, and an appeal 
is made for nearly £4000, still required in order to obtain 
possession of Colley Hill, Mariner's Hill, Minchinhampton 
Common, Buckingham (Chantrey Chapel) ; and the Roman 
Fort, Ambleside. We would like to suggest that, instead of 
erecting marble angels to the memory of one's relatives 
or friends, there would be a much more useful and more per- 
manent memorial if the money were sent to the secretary of 
the National Trust. 

EXEUNT * ■ 

On the last page of part 8 of the third volume of the Brad- 
ford Scientific Journal, occurs the following note : — ' The editors 
regret to announce that the Council of the Bradford Scientific 
Association have decided that the publication of this journal 
must now be suspended.' We are sorry to learn this, and 
though no reason is given, it will doubtless be due to the question 
of funds. Judging from the present part it cannot be that 
contributions are not forthcoming. The journal has followed 
many others that have started in the county, and, oddly enough, 
volume III. seems to be about the average extent o'f the pub- 
lications. In view of the fact that Bradford is so important 
a scientific centre, and was also fortunately situated as regards 
financial assistance for its journal, the decease of the publica- 
tion should be taken to heart by other societies who may be 
contemplating publishing a magazine. In the Bradford 
Scientific Journal are many important papers, which will be 
increasingly difficult to consult as years go on, and copies be- 
come scarcer. We trust that our Bradford friends will see 
that complete sets are placed in as many public libraries as 
possible, and private individuals who possess sets should see 
that they are bound up. We know from experience how soon 
such things are forgotten, and, after a lapse of a very few years, 
how difficult they are to obtain. As an instance we may 
mention the Barnsley Society's former quarterly publication, 
which we have not yet been able to obtain, though we have 
tried for the past fifteen years. 

igi2 Sept. I. ^ 



262 Notes and Comments. 

THE BRADFORD SCIENTIFIC JOURNAL. 

The part before us contains a summary of what is known 
of the sources of the River Aire, by Mr. J. E. Wilson ; Mr. 
H, E. Wroot writes about an Old Bradford Botanist (Dr. 
Richard Richardson) ; Mr. A. Wilson refers to Sea Spray carried 
inland ; Mr. C. A. E. Rodgers gives a list of the Macro-Lepidop- 
tera in the Eshold District ; Mr. W. Leach has a paper on the 
' Soft Waters of the Bradford Area/ and Mr. J. Bradley des- 
cribes the Cloudberry. There are also articles on ' A Problem 
of Food Supply,' 'A Glacial Geologist's Note Book' (in which the 
work of the late Carvill Lewis, in the Bradford area, is sum- 
marised), and a New Wild Rose Hybrid, found in Upper Wharfe- 
dale, by Mr. Samuel Margerison, and named Rosa margerisoni. 

PREHISTORIC THORPE. 

There is also an article by ' The Grassington Antiquary ' 
(as the local picture postcards describe Mr. J. Crowther), in 
which he adds ' another link to the chain of antiquarian dis- 
coveries made in Upper Wharfedale during the past twenty- 
four years', though we believe the district yielded many impor- 
tant relics prior to that date. The present link refers to some 
bones and a piece of pottery with ' fish-bone ' (? herring-bone) 
markings, found while removing stones on a knoll. Mr. 
Crowther opines that the remains are ' contemporary with 
human bones discovered in Elbolton Cave, in the year 1888,' 
though the evidence for such a conclusion is not given. And 
the presence of one or two flint scrapers is certainly not ' ad- 
ditional and undeniable proof of the antiquity of the relics ' 
as it is quite possible they have no connection with the human 
remains at all. Nor are we at all satisfied that ' the new 
discovery clears up the mystery that these ancient cave dwellers, 
or hunters of the wild boar, brown bear, griz-zly bear and cave 
bear, had been interred outside ' the cave. No evidence is 
given of any connection between the two. Mr. Crowther also 
complains that a recent work on Roman roads ' never mentions 
either sites of Roman British [sic] camps in Upper Wharfe- 
dale, of which I know of no fewer than six.' Is it not possible 
that the author of the book referred to may not attach quite 
the same importance to the six ' Roman British sites ' that Mr. 
Crowther, who is ' working alone on these hills,' does ? 

SEVENTEENTH CENTURY SCIENCE. 

Mr. A. M. Broadley, in Knowledge for August, gives an 
interesting account of the early scientific instrument-makers, 
deducting many of his facts from the wonderful collection of 
trade cards which he possesses, and from which he has taken 
his illustrations. We learn that it was a cousin of Sir Isaac 
Newton who founded the business of Newton & Company, 

Naturalist, 



Notes and Comments. 263 

which has just recently removed from Fleet Street to Wigmore 
Street and Covent Garden, and that John Dolland, who in 1750 
founded the still-existing firm with its branches east and west 
of Temple Bar, was a distinguished Fellow of the Royal Society, 
and was awarded the Copley gold medal of that body in 1758. 
Mr. Broadley also tells us that a balance made in 1757 by De 
Grave, Short & Company, is still used by Messrs. Garrard, the 
Court Jewellers: All who are interested in the development 
of instruments will learn a great deal from those which are 
figured on the various trade cards, and were sold at the sign 
of the Azimuth Compass, the Golden Lion, or the Globe and 
Sun. 

THE ORIGIN OF LIFE. 

The Origin of Life is the title of the Presidential Address 
to the Birmingham and Midland Institute Scientific Society, 
by Dr. John Hall-Edwards.* The author is evidently im- 
pressed with the fact that Leduc ' proves that neither evolu- 
tion, nutrition, sensibility, growth, organisation, not even the 
faculty of reproduction, is the exclusive appanage of life, and 
that the same physical forces acting upon the same chemical 
elements are common to both the organic and inorganic worlds.' 
He also refers to Dr. Bastian's experiments, when he ' con- 
fined certain superheated saline solutions in hermetically 
sealed glass vessels, which, after being exposed to daylight 
for several months, were opened, and the slight amount of 
precipitate examined under the microscope has been found to 
contain living organisms. If these results can be substantiated, 
we shall, I am afraid, have to swallow the bitter pill, and accept 
spontaneous generation as a fact.' //. We suppose there 
was some reason for printing the pamphlet on pages of the size 
of those of a family bible, though, personally, we can see no 
reason why it could not have been printed ordinary octavo 
size. 

CARLISLE NATURALISTS. 

We have again to congratulate the Carlisle Natural History 
Society upon the care with which its Transactions have been 
produced. Volume II., for 1912, is before us, and every one 
of its 256 pages bears upon the Carlisle district, and contains 
original observations, devoid of talky-talky padding. The 
editors are Messrs. Day, Hope and Murray. The first article 
is an appreciative memoir on the late H. A. Macpherson, 
M.B.O.U., with portrait, and is written by the Curator of the 
Museum, Mr. Linnaeus Hope. Mr. J. W. Branson gives an 
exhaustive account of the Minerals of Cumberland ; • Mr. 
H. Britten, a lengthy account of the Arachnids (Spiders, etc.), 

* 16 pp. London : Rebman, Ltd. 6d. 
1912 Sept. I. 



264 Notes and Comments. 

of Cumberland, enumerating over three hundred species ; 
Mr. T. S. Johnstone writes on ' Plant Life around Carlisle ' ; 
Mr. E. B. Dunlop contributes ' The Natural History of the 
Peregrine Falcon in the Lake District.' The longest con- 
tribution is ' The Lepidoptera of Cumberland, Part IL (Moths)', 
by Mr. G. B. Routledge, and occupies 90 pages. Mr. Hope 
follows with a detailed description of the ' Ducks and Geese of 
the Solway,' and 56 pages are occupied by Part IL of Mr. F. H. 
Fay's ' Coleoptera of Cumberland.' Would that all our pro- 
vincial societies were as careful with their publications as is the 
Carlisle society. There is only one improvement that we 
should like to suggest, and that is that in future the volume 
should be lettered on the back, so that it can be found when 
on the shelf. 

GLASGOW GEOLOGISTS. 

The Transactions of the Geological Society of Glasgow* 
contain a lengthy paper on ' The Carboniferous Limestone Rocks 
of the Isle of Man,' by Mr. John Smith. From this we learn 
that during the ten weeks he hammered at the Manx Car- 
boniferous rocks, he added 377 species and varieties to the 
Government list, including 2 genera and 30 species new to 
science. This seems to be an almost incredible performance. 
He figures and describes three new species, viz. : — Michelinia 
balladoolensis, Mchmina carbonifera, and Mona monensis. 
He also figures some 'diseased fossils.' 'The brachiopods 
(probably from their sedentary habits), were by far the most 
afflicted, Productus and Orthis having suffered more than others, 
perhaps from hereditary complaints of the internal organs.' Mr. 
Smith also refers to the glacial deposits of the island, from which 
it is apparent he can no more subscribe to the views of Lam- 
plugh, in reference thereto, than we can to the views of John 
Smith. There are many illustrations from photographs, in 
most of which a gentleman, possibly the author, is shown as 
standing, sitting, crouching, stooping, sleeping, etc. 

CHANGES IN THE LOWER DEE VALLEY. 

In the Quarterly Journal of the Geological Society, No. 270, 
Mr. L. J. Wills has a paper on ' Late Glacial and Post-Glacial 
Changes in the Lower Dee Valley.' In this he concludes that, 
owing to the obstruction of the peculiarly serpentine course 
of the whole valley of the Dee, near Llangollen, by ice and 
glacial deposits, overflow channels across the necks of several 
loops were initiated. Two of these have become permanent 
on the retreat of the ice, and are now river-gorges, while the 
loop!; are left as dry valleys. Near Cefn the river enters a long 
post-glacial gorge, which extends to beyond Overton Bridge. 

* Vol. XIV., Part II. 

Naturalist, 



Notes and Comments. 265 

The pre-glacial valley of the Dee is traceable beyond Chirk 
in a south-easterly direction to near St. Martin's Moor. The 
drift-filled valley shown by Dr. Strachan to exist below the 
estuary of the Dee and as far south as Pulford, extends to 
Rodens Hall, near Bangor-on-Dee, where it is still 30 feet 
below sea level. This indicated a much steeper pre-glacial 
' thalweg ' than the present one. An attempt is made to prove 
that these two valleys are continuous, although the inter- 
mediate portion is obliterated by Drift. The question is raised 
whether the uplift during which the erosion of this deep buried 
valley took place was pre-glacial, or whether it occurred during 
the Glacial Period. The evidence is far from conclusive, but, 
in the opinion of the author, appears to point to the latter view. 

GUIDE TO THE NATIONAL READING ROOM.* 

Many of our readers have doubtless found it necessary to 
consult the world's greatest library at the British Museum, 
in connection with their researches. And doubtless many have 
wasted a day or more through not knowing the proper way to 
go about. In Mr. Peddie's handbook, all this is clearly ex- 
plained, and many useful hints are given as to the best and 
simplest way of making the most of the library while there. The 
author also has serviceable chapters on the various catalogues, 
bibliographies, etc. The ' one outstanding special collection 
of books ' in the museum is the library of Sir Joseph Banks. 
Information is given in reference to all the departments in the 
museum reading room, from maps and newspapers to Hindi, 
Panjabi, Sindh, and Pushtu. Oddly enough, the one book 
selected from ,the four million volumes for a sample entry in 
the general catalogue, is before the present writer at the 
moment, having been sent ' with the kind regards ' of the 
author. Possibly Mr. Peddie has been similarly regarded. 
We suppose the author had an object in producing his hand- 
book the size and shape of a prayer-book, but it would surely 
have been more useful and less liable to get lost had it been 
octavo size, and then the ' Table of Subjects ' need not have 
been folded into eight, with the result that it is sure to get 
torn ; in fact, ours was on arrival, possibly through some 
inquisitive person examining the book before it reached us. 



In the Journal of the Linnean Society, No. 277, Prof. Herdman des- 
cribes Aniphidinimn operculatum, a new British record. The species dis- 
coloured the ripple-marked sand in the Isle of ]\Iaft. 

Among the articles in the well-illustrated Nature Book now being 
issued by Messrs. Cassell & Co., are the Cliffs and their Story, The Life 
History of a ]\Iountain, Rock Garden, and Summer Insects. 

* The British Museum Reading Room : A Handbook for Students, by 
R. A. Peddie. London ; Clrafton & Co., 61 pp., i/-. 

1912 Sept. I. 



266 

LAMPROPHYRE DYKES IN LONG SLEDDALE, 
WESTMORLAND. 



ALFRED HARKER, M.A., F.R.S., F.G.S., 
Cambridge. 



It is well known that numerous dykes of mica-lamprophyre 
occur in Westmorland and on the western border of Yorkshire, 
and they have often received attention from petrologists. 
The examples to be noticed have not, I think, been described 
or recorded, although they illustrate certain points of general 
interest. 

The locality is in the upper part of Long Sleddale, S.W. 
of Buckbarrow Crag. Here four parallel dykes cross the 
River Sprint near a sheep-fold. The country-rock consists of 
cleaved andesitic lavas, belonging to the Ordovician volcanic 
series, and the dykes cut obliquely across the cleavage. Their 
bearing is about E.N.E., which is directly towards the Shap 
granite, four miles distant. There are good reasons for be- 
lieving* that the whole assemblage of dykes in the district is 
closely related to this granite intrusion, about which the dykes 
are disposed radially. The widths of our four dykes, in order 
from S. to N., are about loft., i| ft., 7 ft., and 8 ft., and it 
is the first and last of these which are most worth examining. 

The most southerly d}^ke is largely of a type which is unusual 
in this connection, a fine-grained bluish basaltic-looking rock 
of specific gravity 2.745. A thin slice shows that it is micro- 
porphyritic, with little crystals of felspar and augite in a fine- 
textured ground, but the whole is too much decomposed to 
allow of any precise diagnosis. Part of the same dyke, however, 
is at once recognized as a lamprophyre with abundant flakes 
of dark mica. Its specific gravity is 2.732. In a thin slice 
it is seen to be of the kersantite type, the felspar being labra- 
dorite. There are numerous shapes of olivine crj^stals, now 
replaced by carbonates, but otherwise the rock is unusually 
fresh. There is a third rock which enters into the constitution 
of this dyke, viz., a quartz-felsite (sp. gr. 2.581). This is found 
in the form of enclosed pieces, and its occurrence in this associ- 
ation is significant. At various other places in the district 
dykes of quartz-felsite and mica-lamprophyre are found 
together in such circumstances as to suggest a close genetic 
relationship, and there is evidence that the acid intrusion is 
somewhat the earlier of the two. In the present case the 
association is even closer, for it appears that the two rocks 
were intruded successively in the same dyke-fissure. 

The most northerly dyke is of mica-lamprophyre, and 
contains similar inclusions of quartz-porphyry. A specimen 
of the dominant type gives the specific gravity 2.712. A series 

* Geol. Mag. 1892, pp. 199-206. 

Naturalist, 



Marker : Lamprophyre Dykes in Westmorland. 267 

of thin slices shows several interesting features. There is 
rather more mica than in the former dyke, and the felspar is 
oligoclase instead of labradorite, while pseudomorphs after 
olivine are uncommon. The rock encloses abundant grains of 
quartz, always showing signs of corrosion. These might 
conceivably be derived from the breaking up of the lumps of 
quartz-felsite which are seen in the dyke ; but this is not a 
probable explanation, for in no case is any of the felsitic 
ground-mass seen adhering to the quartz. Corroded quartz- 
grains are indeed common in the lamprophyre dykes throughout 
the district, even where there is no quartz-porphyry, either 
as enclosed patches or as separate intrusions ; and we must 
infer that they became involved in the lamprophyre magma 
while this was still in the subterranean reservoir from which it 
has been drawn.* 

A more unusual peculiarity of this lamprophyre dyke is 
the occurrence of very numerous little spherical structures, 
about .vL. inch in diameter, which have evidently been steam- 
vesicles, but are now filled in various ways. Some of. tjiem 
are occupied by the ordinary secondary products of the rock — 
calcite or quartz, or both minerals within the same cavity. 
Many of the vesicles, however, are filled with a fine-textured 
felspathic aggregate, which has certainly crystallized from 
fusion. There is usually a border of biotite-flakes arranged 
tangentially about the vesicle, and occasionally a flake projects 
into the interior, or a felspar crystal may be found in a like 
position. But the material within the vesicle proper is wholly 
felspathic, and is of much finer texture than the body of the 
rock, showing either a ' felsitic ' texture or a confused aggregate 
of delicate divergent fibres. The interpretation of this is 
clear. At a late stage of crystallation, when almost the whole 
of the rock had solidified, the residual magma, which was 
wholly felspathic in composition, broke its way into the 
vesicles, displacing the steam, and there consolidated. In 
some places it has not entirely filled the cavity, and there re- 
mained a crescentic space subsequently occupied by calcite 
or quartz of secondary origin. 

This oozing-in of the final residual magma into steam- 
cavities is very common in Tertiary andesitic dykes in the West 
of Scotland and elsewhere, and was first noticed by Dr. Teall 
in the Tynemouth dykef , but it is not, so far as I am aware, 
a usual feature in our lamprophyre dykes. The process which 
it illustrates is of interest in relation to the origin of various 
igneous rocks by differentiation. If the residual juice had been 
by any means squeezed out and injected as a separate intrusion 
it would have given rise to a rock very different from the lam- 
prophyre with which it was so intimately connected. 

* Geol. Mag. 1892, pp. 485-488. 
t Geol. Mag. 1889, pp. 481-483, with plate XIV. 

iQi2 Sept. I. 



268 

CHEMICAL CONSTITUENTS OF ' MOORLOG.'* 



T. LENTON ELLIOTT. 



This substance is a Peat Deposit, dredged from the Dogger 
Bank. It is blackish-brown in colour, similar to old moorland 
peat, but rather denser and more pulverulent than that variety. 
The sample was easily reduced to a coarse powder in a mortar. 

Solubility :• — 14.4 per cent, of the powdered sample was soluble 
in hot water, and the solution gave a neutral re-action, showing 
absence of ' humic acids.' The matter dissolved was chiefly 
non-nitrogenous organic matter ; more than one-fifth of the 
matter dissolved was sodium chloride (common salt) and the 
solution gave reactions for Iron, Alumina, Calcium (Lime), and 
Sulphates. 

This examination is by no means exhaustive, but serves 
to demonstrate the general composition of the substance. 

The percentage of ash (residue after ignition at high tempera- 
ture), of ordinary ' peats ' varies from one per cent, to forty 
per cent. 

Carbonic acid is never found in any quantity in peat-ash, 
on account of the high temperature necessary to completely 
burn it ; it is driven off when present. 

The neutral re-action of the aqueous extract shows the 
absence of alkaline carbonates. 

The percentage of Lime (CaO) i generally about double the 
amount of the oxide of iron (Fe., O3) in ordinary peats. In 
the present report, this usual relationship is disturbed, the 
iron-oxide being about four times the quantity of the lime. 

German moor peat has always a higher percentage of ash 
than Irish bog peat, and while the present figures are unlike 
any recorded analyses at my disposal, they bear some slight 
relationship to German moorland deposits. Generally speaking, 
the German deposits are of an older formation than the Irish. 

General Analysis 

Per Cent. 
Moisture (lost at ioo°-iio° Cent) . . . . 22.0 

fAsh (Mineral Matter) 24.8 

Sodium Chloride (calculated from total Cl) 4.1 

fOrganic Matter (by difference) . . . . 49.1 

loc.o 



* See J. W. Statherin The Naturalist for May, p. 138. 
f Contains Nitrogen — i4'o per cent, (not confirmed). 

Naturalist, 



Museum News. 



*COMPOSITION OF THE As 

Silica (insoluble sand) 

Oxide o Iro i (FcsOs) 

Alumina (AloO...) 

Lime (CaO) 

Magnesia (MgO) 

Sulphuric Acid (combined SO;. 

*Unestimated . . 



269 



Per Cent. 

2*4 
8.2 
2.1 

2.3 
I.I 

5.8 
2.9 

24-8 



The analyses were carried to two places of decimals, but 
as such detail is of little value except in critical determinations, 
I have shown only the nearest figure in the first decimal place. 

The total Chlorine, calculated to Sodium Chloride, is shown 
in the general analysis, because practically the whole of this 
was volatilized at the temperature of ignition, preparatory to 
examining the ash. 

The siliceous matter has the character of sand, and shows 
no evidence of diatomaceous structure on microscopic examina- 
tion. 



The sixty-third report of the museum, etc., at Ipswich has been received, 
and contains details of many valuable additions, including several pur- 
chased by the Felix Cobbold bequest. Mr. J. R. JMoir has assisted in the 
re- arrangement of the prehistoric implements. The Curator gives a 
list of the collections which are packed away, awaiting the provision of 
proper exhibition cases. During the year an appeal was made for £100 
to purchase a collection of heads of African Big Game, and the amount 
was collected in ten days. 

The annual report of the Perthshire Natural History Museum includes 
details of the work' accomplished during the year, as well as a list of the 
additions. These are arranged under the heads of ]\Iammals, Birds, 
Fishes, Invertebrates, Botany, Geology, and Lantern Slides. There 
is also the usual meteorological report, carefully compiled by the Curator, 
Mr. Rodger. Among the botanical specimens, we are not quite sure 
whether ' Lizzie ' is the name of an oak tree, like the ' female leech ' in the 
play, or whether it is a name cut on the bark. 

The Guide to the Museum of Fisheries and Shipping, Hull, has just been 
published. The guide, which is the 87th publication issued by the Museums, 
has been written by ^Ir. Sheppard, and contains an interesting introduction 
to the collection, with special reference to the objects relating to the whaling 
days. Then follow particulars of the live hundred and eighty-nine exhibits 
in the collection, the number of which is increasing almost daily. They 
include specimens ranging in size from small marine organisms preserved 
in spirits, to models of fishing appliances, several feet in length, Esquimaux 
canoes, and skeletons of whales. Though the collection has been on view 
a very short time, the building seems to contain quite as much as it can 
comfortably hold, while on occasions such as Bank Holidays and Sundays, 
there is hardly accommodation for the crowds that visit it. The Guide 
is well illustrated by photographs and sketches, contains 48 pages, and is 
sold at one penny. 

* Alkali metals, traces of Phosphoric Acid, Chlorine, Carbonic .\cid. 
.1912 Sept. I. 



270 

THE EVOLUTION OF BRIDLINGTON.* 



T. SHEPPARD, F.G.S. 

(President: Geological Section, Y.N.U.). 

As we view th grand promontory — Flamborough Head — 
from Bridlington ; or, better still, as we see it from the water, 
and as we admire the magnificent wall of white rock at Speeton, 
towering above us to a height of over 440 feet, we naturally 
feel convinced that such a feature was surely there since the 
earth was made. Centuries of wearing and battering by the 
waves and storms seem to have made no appreciable impression. 
If ever there were everlasting hills, surely they were here. 
Flamborough Headland, one would think, has endured and 
will endure all time. Yet no greater mistake could be made. 
Here, in this part of our glorious county, as elsewhere, it can 
safely be said that 

" The hills are shadows, and they flow 

From form to form ; and nothing stands. 
They melt like mists, the solid lands 

Like clouds they shape themselves, and go." 

And, as we can see later, just as these seemingly solid cliffs 
are wearing and crumbling away, so, too, were they not always 
there. As a matter of fact, they form but quite a recent 
chapter in the earth's history. Myriads of years had passed 
before the Flamborough cliffs, or the beds of chalk of which 
they are composed, were ever formed Thousands upon 
thousands of feet of solid rock occur upon the earth's sur- 
face, entombed in which are the remains of plants, shells, 
insects, large reptiles, fishes innumerable, and even mammals. 
All these had lived and died, and were buried, countless ages 
before a single particle of the chalk forming Flamborough 
Head came to be. These old rocks and their contents clearly 
show to what a variety of changes the surface of the globe 
had been subjected — old land areas with tropical forests ; warm 
seas with coral reefs ; shallow shores ; deep oceanic oozes ; 
rivers and estuaries ; had all existed and left their indelible 
impressions preserved in the rocks. 

Then, and not till then, upon a rocky floor in the bed of an 
extensive and deep ocean, the first chapter in the history of 
Bridlington began to be written. All this, as has been pointed 
out, at a late period in the earth's history. And though, at 
Bridlington, we can trace what took place aeons before man 
ever appeared on the earth at all, still we must look upon our- 
selves as representing merely the final chapters in a great 
history. 

* Read at the Bridlington meeting of the Yorkshire Naturalists' Union. 

Naturalist, 



Sheppard : The Evolution of Bridlington. 271 

Let us for a while take our minds back to that far-off 
time, a time impossible to measure by mere years, when the 
land we now live upon was not existing. When all this part 
of the world was deep down beneath the waters of a great sea, 
the extent of which can be defined to-day with fair accuracy. 
This sea was then as the sea is now, crowded with a profusion 
of animal and plant life. Fishes innumerable from quite 
small ones to large sharks, fed upon the other organisms in 
the water, and upon each other. Cuttle-fishes with their 
many tentacles, and their ink bags for darkening the waters 
when pursued by enemies, abounded. Shells innumerable — bi- 
valves and univalves, were living too ; and frequently reached 
far greater proportions than any shells living in the British seas 
to-day. The sea floor was covered with sponges, and other 
lower organisms. And the water itself from top to bottom 
was crowded with minute specks of life, so small that a power- 
ful microscope is necessary to make out their structure ; just 
as the seas are crowded with similar organisms to-day. They 
are called foraminifera. Yet it is to these, the smallest and 
humblest of them all, that we owe the very foundations of the 
town of Bridlington. As these died, their calcareous skel- 
etons, or shells, slowly found their way to the bottom of the 
water, and accumulated in a soft, chalky ooze, just such an ooze 
was found on the bottom of our present oceans by the re- 
searches of the officers of the " Challenger " expedition. 
Possibly it took very many years, quite likely a century, for 
a layer of even an inch in depth to accumulate. Yet slowly 
and surely the deposits grew in thickness, as century after cen- 
tury passed away. And to add to this formation, though only 
to a slight degree, the remains of the fishes, the squids, the shells, 
and the sponges were left on the ocean bed, to be gradually 
entombed by the constantly falling ooze. All this took place 
before man trod this earth. Yet almost every chapter, every 
page of this part of our earth's history, can easily be deciphered. 

Then, for some cause unknown, one of those great changes 
in the earth's surface, of which we have unquestionable evidence 
of so many, took place. This great cretaceous sea floor gradu- 
ally arose, the waters of the ocean were displaced, and slowly 
the sea-bed not only became dry land, but was lifted up several 
hundred feet above the water level. Partly by pressure of the 
great mass, partly by changes wrought by infiltrating water, 
and for other reasons, the soft ooze was converted into a hard 
limestone, certainly well over a thousand feet in thickness. 
Mr. G. W. Lamplugh, by careful surveys, has estimated that 
in Yorkshire alone, there are to-day over 1,250 feet of solid 
chalk — in other parts there are greater thicknesses — certainly 
a considerable amount has been worn away from the surface 
of Yorkshire since it became dry land. 

1912 Sept. I. 



272 Sheppard : The Evolution of Bridlington. 

As we stand at the foot of the Speeton cliffs to-day, and 
gaze skyward at the 450 feet of towering chalk above us, 
remembering that it also extends some distance beneath our 
feet, does it not fill us with wonder at the way the world 
was made. When we recollect that a single inch layer pro- 
bably represents the accumulation of over a century, it is 
appaling to think of the enormous amount of time that is 
represented in these grand cliffs. It is also worth remembering 
that practically all this rock is formed of the skeletons of 
myriads of microscopic organisms. Bearing this in mind, let 
anyone who is at all concerned with his own importance, try 
to imagine what impression he will have made upon this earth's 
surface, say ten thousand years hence ! He will probably not 
by then have left behind so much as one of these small fora- 
minifera, and by then the foraminifera will, in all probability, 
be still in evidence. 

Let us digress a little, and examine the chalk itself. A 
small fragment, prepared and placed under a microscope, 
will, as stated, be found to consist almost entirely of the skele- 
tons of the small foraminifera. Even now, after all these 
years, their exceedingly delicate shells are still preserved, 
and, in fact, seem quite unchanj,ed ; so much so, that it is 
possible to separate and classify and name the various forms, 
just as to-day we can distinguish an oyster from a periwinkle 
or a mussel. When we come to compare this fossil ooze with 
the ooze from the beds of modern oceans, it will be seen that 
the similiarity is simply marvellous. To view the two together 
will leave no doubt in the mind of any person that they must 
have had a similar origin. 

Then, too, in the quarries or in the cliff face, will be found 
the oyster-like shells, the sea-urchins, the cuttle fish bones, 
the great nautilus-like shells, the sponges, the corals and even 
the teeth and bones of sharks, all clearly and indisputably 
telling the story of their origin, and of the way in which the 
chalk was formed. 

Let us for a moment get back to the .land. Soon after 
the great upheaval of the ocean floor, the rains and winds, the 
snows and frosts would start their work, and carve what was 
probably at first a fairly level surface, into hills and hollows, 
valleys and dales. This would seem inevitable. Lakes and 
streams and rivers would be formed, and the old sea bed would 
soon present a surface, perhaps, not so very much unlike that 
of the wolds to-day. Where a bed of flint, or an extra hard 
bed of chalk rock occured, the river channels would be diverted 
and changed. Possibly, also, in the process of upheaval, 
cracks and fissures would be made, such as, indeed, we still 
can see. Or, as at " Old Dor," great crumplings and foldings 
would be formed in the strata. All these would effect the 



News from the Magazines. 273 

drainage. As time went on, the small streams would join 
together and form larger ones, and eventually a great series of 
rivers and tributaries would exist. 

As a matter of fact, there is ample evidence that there once 
was such a system. A great river formerly flowed northward 
along the middle of what was once known as the German 
Ocean, but is n -w better described at the North Sea — the 
Thames, the Humber, the Tees, and other of our great English 
rivers, were then merely its tributaries. As time went on, 
however, the sea came to its own again, and its waters once 
more began to wash away the very beds of chalk that it had 
formed so many millions of years before. And so we find that 
a cliff-line was formed on the eastern side of our island, and 
slowly this receded westward as the water washed it away. 
By borings, and by aid of quarries, this old cliff line can still be 
traced. It stills exists, though buried. It takes an inland 
course at Sewerby, just north of Bridlington, and extends 
through Driffield, Beverley and Cottingham, to the Humber 
estuary at Hessle. The Humber — a mighty river even in this 
far-oij time, had cut its way through the chalk to the sea ; 
its old bed can yet be traced. And at other places, as at 
Danes' Dyke Ravine, and at North and South Landings, on 
the Headland, earlier streams had cut their way through the 
hard rock to the sea level, their old beds, though blocked by 
later deposits, still being visible in the cliffs. 

Such, then, is the story of the " foundation " of Brid- 
lington. 



British Birds fqr August contains a description and illustration of 
' The Terek Sandpiper : a new British Bird ' taken in Kent, and duly seen 
' in the flesh.' 

A report of the public lecture given at Dublin in connection with the 
Museums Association by Dr. Hoyle, on the subject of ' Museums : In- 
teresting and Otherwise,' appears in The Museums Journal for July. 

In the New Phytologist for July, there is an important paper on ' Floral 
Evolution, with particular reference to the Sympetalous Dicotyledons,' 
by H. F. Wernham, and F. Cavers writes on recent work on the Bryophyta. 

In the Geological Magazine for August Mr. Jukes-Browne concludes 
his paper on the ' Recognition of Two Stages in the Upper Chalk,' and 
gives valuable lists of Inocerami and echinoderms ; the latter includes 
Dr. Rowe's records, ' so that the list is more correct than any that has 
previously been published.' 

The New Phytologist before us contains a paper on ' Floral Evolution,' 
by H. F. Wernham, one on ' Sir Joseph Hooker, and Charles Darwin, 
the History of a Forty Years' Friendship,' by A. C. Seward ; ' Modem 
Systems of Classification of the Angiosperms,' by C. E. Moss, and ' Meiosis 
and Alternation of Generations,' by A. G. Tansley. By the way, we notice 
the part is described as ' Double Number, Vol. XL, Nos. 5 and 6, May and. 
June 1912, published June 24th'. Why the absurdity of the two numbers,, 
and two parts, and the necessity for the words ' Double Number ' ? 

1912 Sept. I. 



274 
YORKSHIRE NATURALISTS AT TEBAY. 

It is seldom that the members of the Union go outside their 
own county for the purpose of an excursion, but in fixing upon 
Lowgill, situate practically in the centre of the Tebay gorge, 
it was necessary that some place more accessible should be 
selected, where facilities for making investigations could be 
more readily accomplished, hence the decision to make Tebay, 
' the land of the mountain and the flood,' the centre from 
which to work. The successful nature of the gathering proved 
the wisdom of Mr. W. Robinson's choice, and the numerous 
members who assembled for the August Bank Holiday week- 
end were well rewarded for their persistent efforts under, at 
times, most inclement conditions. During the very brief 
periods when sunshine favoured the glorious vista of those 
everlasting hills, especially the Howgill Feds, and their green 
■clad intersecting valleys, will always be a pleasant memory ; 
but when clouds veiled the scene and shed their watery con- 
tents with such persistency, what wonder that even the ardent 
student of nature grumbled, just a little, at anticipated pleasure 
spoilt ! 

The headquarters were the Cross Keys Hotel, and its 
.accommodation was sorely taxed by the large number of 
members who put in an appearance, thirteen Societies being 
represented ; but the genial landlady surmounted all difficulties, 
and made provision for the many who had to seek nightly 
repose elsewhere. All were bent on work, and as most sections 
were represented, it was not difficult to find sectional recorders 
for each department, and as Tebay was new ground, particular 
notes on the fauna and flora were made. 

On Saturday the general body of naturalists kept to the 
Yorkshire side, training to Sedbergh, and on arrival there 
driving to Cautley, and, after spending an enjoyable day on 
Cautley Fells, and viewing the celebrated waterfall, returned 
to Tebay. Under the guidance of Mr. Robinson, the geologists 
worked the various gills between Tebay and Ravenstonedale, 
returning by train from the latter place. 

The surroundings of the villages of Orton, Raisbeck and 
Newbiggin also received attention, and yielded many interest- 
ing plants, and plant associations. The members also availed 
themselves of the kind invitation of Mr. H. Goodwin, and 
visited the charming grounds of Orton Hall, and inspected the 
fine rock garden. 

There are humourists at Orton, for decorating the garden 
walls adjacent to two dwelling-houses are slabs of curiously- 
weathered limestone, which, in some cases, by a little artificial 
aid, portray prehistoric mammalian forms, and, in addition to 
unique birds, the word ' Kendal ' is well indicated. 

Naturalist, 



Yorkshire Naturalists at Tebay. 275 

Monday saw the majority journeying by an early train to 
Shap, under the guidance of Mr. J. Oliver. The threatened rain 
came down long before the first of the quarries worked by the 
Shap Granite Co., was reached, and, after a thorough examina- 
tion of the geological features, a small number proceeded by 
the tram track to the celebrated Shap Granite quarry. 

The archaeological remains in the district also received 
attention, a portion of those who took part in Monday's ex- 
cursion visiting the ruins of Shap Abbey, while the excellent 
evidences of Roman occupation quite near to Tebay, the 
' Druidical ' Circle outside the village of Orton, and the ancient 
church at the same place, amply repaid those who visited them. 

The general meeting was held under the presidency of 
Mr. J. W. Taylor. Excellent reports on the work accomplished 
during the excursions were given by Messrs W. Robinson, 
E. Hawkesworth, T. W. Woodhead, Rosse Butterfield, 
Fred Haxby, H. B. Booth, T. Stringer, W. P. Winter and the 
Chairman. A hearty vote of thanks was accorded to Mr. H. 
Goodwin, for permission to visit his estates and gardens ; to the 
Shap Granite Co., for permission to visit their quarries ; and 
to Mr. W. Robinson for the admirable and efficient manner in 
which he made the local arrangements. Mr. Robinson suitably 
acknowledged, and moved that the thanks of the Union be 
accorded to Mr. Taylor, for the interest he had taken in the 
various excursions of the Union during his term of office as 
President. The resolution was carried unanimously. 

Geology.^ — Mr. Edwin Hawkesworth writes : — Silurian, 
Old Red Sandstone (?), Basement Carboniferous, Carboni- 
ferous Limestone, Shap Granite, added to glacial and physical 
features of the greatest possible interest, provided an unusually 
attractive ' bill of fare ' for the geologists. The party had the 
great advantage of the guidance and local knowledge of Messrs. 
W. Robinson and J. Oliver, of Sedbergh. Its work was very 
much hindered by the bad weather, the gills being so full of 
water that many of the sections which should have been 
examined, were quite inaccessible. Saturday was spent in 
studying the conglomerates, with their associated shales and 
sandstones, which are deposited upon the upturned edges of the 
Silurian rocks ; forming the Basement Beds of the Carboni- 
ferous system. Most of the gills flowing northwards into the 
Lune, between Tebay and Kirkby Stephen, cut through these 
beds, which are extremely variable. No junction between these 
and the older rocks is visible in the most westerly gills, but in 
Langdale red conglomerates and sandstones were seen resting 
on highly inclined slates. It is interesting to note that many 
quartz pebbles, some of large size, were found in the former. 
Proceeding eastwards, the red conglomerate appeared to be 

1912 Sept. I. 



276 Yorkshire Naturalists at Tebay. 

absent ; in Flakebridge and at Scar Sikes, the Lower Lime- 
stone Shales series, consisting of shales, calcareous sandstones 
and impure limestones, were seen laid upon the Silurian slates. 
Pinsky Gill, near Newbiggin, was the main objective of the 
day's excursion. The Lower Carboniferous rocks exposed here 
have yielded a somewhat remarkable suite of fossils, but, owing 
to rain coming on, and to the swollen state of the beck, it 
was impossible to trace out the beds. 

It had been hoped that during the excursion, evidence might 
be obtained as to the relationship between the Red Conglomer- 
ates, containing pebbles of very many kinds of rocks, resting 
upon the Silurian, and the overlying Green Conglomerates, 
whose contents are mostly quartz pebbles. In Penny Farm 
Gill, near Sedbergh, there is an unconformity between these, 
and if such can be found in other areas, it will go a long way 
towards proving that these red rocks are of Old Red Sandstone 
age, an opinion which is now held by some eminent geologists. 
Unfortunately, bad weather prevented an examination of the 
one or two localities where both the conglomerates are exposed 
in super-position. 

Monday was devoted to a visit to the parent mass of the 
Shap Granite. All Yorkshire naturalists are familiar with the 
ice-carried boulders of this remarkable rock, scattered over the 
county, so it was not to be wondered at that almost all present 
at the meeting started out betimes to see its source of origin. 
But, alas! only a minority arrived at the granite quarry. The 
morning was exceedingly wet, and, by the time the lower quarry 
was reached, many of the members were ready to turn back. 
This quarry is in the Coniston Limestone (Bala Beds), which 
is very much altered by its proximity to the granite. In one 
or two parts of the section interesting minerals, such as garnets, 
idocrase, and pyrites, were found. Those of the party who went 
ahead to the granite quarry, up Wastdale Crag, by way of the 
railway track, will not readily forget the experience — the 
rain coming down in torrents, and the wind blowing with 
hurricane force. There was a gradual reduction of numbers, 
and when the survivors reached the quarry, there did not seem 
any well-marked disposition to examine the sections at close 
quarters. Some time was spent in a shed, draining the water 
off coats, emptying it out of boots, wringing it out of stockings, 
and waiting for the storm to abate. One prominent member 
of the Union expressed the opinion that he had always looked 
upon the geologists' ' job ' as a gentleman's one, what has to be 
seen always being there, only needing the selection of a fine 
day and a comfortable journey ; but this walk had completely 
altered his views. The weather not improving, a hurried 
glance was made at the section, a few specimens obtained, and 
the hill was descended to Shap. Later in the day, a brief 

Naturalist, 



Yorkshire Naturalists at Tehay. 277 

inspection was made of some of the sections exposed in the 
Blea Beck, showing altered Ordovician beds with igneous dykes. 
It had been intended to make a careful examination of these, 
and the junction of the granite with the Ordovician rocks in 
Sherry Gill, but the prevailing conditions made almost a com- 
plete failure of what should have been a memorable day's 
geology. 

Vertebrate Zoology.— Mr. H. B. Booth, M.B.O.U., 
writes : — This was scarcely the time of the year for the orni- 
thologist to expect much in this district — his time here would 
be in the early spring, when the rapacious birds were nesting. 
In the Yorkshire portion of the area visited the only species 
worth noting were the sight of a Raven, a brood of Ring Ouzels, 
and an enormously large Toad, which, apart from its size, is 
an animal that is but sparsely represented in the more western 
parts of the West Riding. 

Of the vertebrate animals seen in the Westmorland portion 
of this excursion, those chiefly of interest were : — Mammals — 
Hedgehog, Rabbit, Fox ; and the trappings for small mammals 
in the immediate neighbourhood of Tebay, only yielded the 
Common Shrew in abundance. The birds of the neighbour- 
hood were chiefly of the moorland species, viz., Lapwing, 
Golden Plover, Snipe, Curlew, Redshank, Carrion Crow, 
Wheatear, Whinchat, with the Meadow Pipit as the prevailing 
species. A pair of Corn Buntings near to the village of Rais- 
beck was worthy of note, owing to the sparsity of this species 
around this district. The Red Grouse was the only game-bird, 
and the Sparrow Hawk the only bird of prey seen. Other 
species noted were the Common Sandpiper, Grey Wagtail, 
Black-headed Gull and Heron.* Species which only occurred 
very sparingly, and which might have been expected in greater 
numbers included the Skylark, Yellow Hammer, House and 
Sand Martins, Common Whitethroat, and Redstart. In 
reptiles the Frog was abundant all over the district. In 
Pisces, several anglers who were staying at the hotel, brought 
in many Trout, three Eels, and a few young Salmon, from the 
upper reaches of the Lune at Tebay, and reported that Salmon 
or Sea-Trout were abundant there. 

The most interesting ornithological item was the fairly 
large Starling ' roost ' in the vicarage grounds, and immediately 
adjoining the Cross Keys Hotel, where the birds kept up a con- 
tinual chatter until well into the night. The Starling is not 
by any means an abundant bird in this district, and the ' roost ' 
appeared to be resorted to from every point of the compass 
around ; as was proved by watching the birds coming in (in 

* We were informed on very credible authority that a single pair of 
Herons nested at Killeth, near Gaisgill in 191 1, when young were hatched ; 
but these were killed by boys. The old pair did not return in 191 2. 
1912 Sept. I. T 



278 Woodhead : Botany of Cantley and Tebay. 

small flocks) in the evenings. On enquiries, we were informed 
that these Starlings gathered there each season from the be- 
ginning of June (a proof that the majority — if not all — the 
Starlings of the district were single-brooded) and despite all 
efforts to drive them away, they would not leave until the 
leaves of the trees fell (the trees were chiefly Horse Chestnuts 
and Sycamore), which may be, or may not be proof that these 
Starlings were migratory. This yet remains to be proved for 
this area ; a- they may possibly only shift their ' roost ' with 
the fall of the leaves ; but this did not appear to be known 
locally. 

Lepidoptera. — Mr. T. Stringer reports that the only 
species observed were : — Coenonymph pamphilus, Pieris 
brassiccB, P. rapae, Vanessa iiyUccb, V. cardui, Lycaena alexis, 
larva of Bomhyx quercus var. calluncB. 

IsoPODA. — -Only two species, viz. : — ■Oniscus asellus and 
Porcellio scaber. 

CoNCHOLOGY. — Mr. J. W. Taylor writes :■ — Owing to its 
submontane character, the district investigated about Tebay 
is not so favourable for the conchologist ; but thanks to the 
diligent and persistent efforts of Mr. Stringer and Mr. Greaves, 
and the very effective and welcome help of Mr. Winter, no 
fewer than ten additional species were added to the known 
molluscan fauna of the neighbourhood. Of these, only one 
species, Euconulus julvus, found by Mr. Winter, is a Yorkshire 
capture ; the remainder, Arion hortensis, Limax arbor mn, 
Pupa umbilicata and Vertigo edentula amongst the land shells, 
as well as Limncea peregra, Limncea truncatula, Ancyliis 
fluviatilis, Pisidium fontinale and Pisidiwn miluim among the 
freshwater species were all found within the Westmorland 
border.— W.E.L.W. 

NOTES ON THE BOTANY OF CAUTLEY 
AND TEBAY. 



T. W. WOODHEAD, Ph.D., F.L.S. 

During the Yorkshire Naturalists' Union excursion to Tebay, 
August 3rd-5th, 1912, the energies of the botanists were about 
equally divided between the counties of Yorkshire and West- 
morland. Saturday, August 3rd, was spent on the Yorkshire 
side in the neighbourhood of Cautley Spout and the eastern 
slope of Howgill Fell. A study was made of the vegetation of 
the bright green flushes of the fell sides, the intervening drier 
grey-green ridges, the gorge at Cautley Spout, the screws on the 
steep slopes and the higher ground of the peat-covered Fell. 

The numerous flushes of the Fell sides are carpeted with a 
bright green vegetation, and here and there are boggy hollows 

Naturalist, 



Woodhead : Botany of Cautley and Tehay. 279 

with sphagna, Polytrichiim commune, P. jimiperum, Dicranella 
squarrosa and Aulacomium palustre. The characteristic 
flowering plants are Vernal Grass {Anthoxanthiim odoratum), 
Flea Sedge {Carex pulicaris), Yellow Sedge (C. fiava), Glaucous 
Sedge (C glanca), Soft Rush {J uncus e-ffusus) and /. conglomera- 
tus, Bog Asphodel [Narthecium ossifragum), Lesser Spearwort 
{R. flammula), Buttercup {R. acvis), Marsh Violet {V. palustris), 
Wood Sorrel {Oxalis acetosella), Tormentil {Potentilla erccta), 
Bird's foot Trefoil {Lotus corniculatus), White Clover {Trifolium 
repens), Marsh Pennywort {Hydrocotyle vulgaris), Ribwort 
[Plantago lanceolata), Self-heal [Prunella vulgaris). Forget-me- 
not {Myosotis palustris), Eyebright [Euphrasia :ffi,cinalis), 
Lousewort [Pedicularis sylvatica), Sundew [Drosera rotundi- 
folia). Grass of Parnassus [Parnassia palustris), Butterwort 
[Pinguicula vulgaris), Daisy [Bellis perennis), and the Thistles 
[Cirsum palustre and the white variety ferox). In the higher 
parts occurred the Alpine Lady's Mantle [Alchemilla alpina), 
Scurvy Grass [Cochlearia alpina). Marsh Willow-herb [Epilo- 
hium palustre), Alpine Bistort [Polygonum viviparum), and the 
Club Mosses [Lycopoduim alpinum, L. clavatum, L. selago, and 
Selaginella selaginoides) . The drier ridges between the flushes 
are covered with a grey-green sward of wiry grasses ; the chief 
species here are the Sheep's Fescue grass [Festuca ovina), 
Tufted Hair-grass [Deschampsia ccespitosa) and Mat-grass 
{Nardus stricta) ; subordinate species are Vernal grass, York- 
shire Fog [Holcus lanatus), Eyebright, Lady's Bedstraw 
[Galium saxtile), White Clover, Tormentil, dwarf Ling and 
Bilberry, Milkwort, Thyme [Thymus serpyllum). Sheep's 
Sorrel [Rumex acetosella). Heath Rush [Juncus squarrosus) , and 
on the higher slopes the Crowberry [Empetrum nigrum). 
The bracken qovers much of the lower slopes. 

Ascending the Fell above the waterfall the ground is 
•covered by a bed of peat 12 inches to 18 inches thick, and here 
the vegetation forms a vaccinium edge ; the Bilberry is short 
but dominant, and associated with it are Ling, Cross-leaved 
Heath, Cowberry [V. Vitis-idcea), Mat-grass and Hair-grass ; 
the Crowberry is common, and also the Heath Rush. Higher 
stid on the ill-drained ground Cotton grasses [Eriophorum 
vaginatum and E. angustifolium) predominate. 

In a hollo .V bared of peat and much manured by sheep, 
was noted a bright green carpet of Vernal grass and Bent grass, 
together with a luxuriant form of Lady's bedstraw. The hollow 
was obviously used for shelter by the sheep and furnished an 
interesting example of a ' lair flora.' 

The screes near Cautley Spout provided a good illustration 
of plant invasion and migratory association. The larger 
stones of the scree are covered with lichens, the most frequent 
being Lecidia geographica, L. prasiana, Cladonia sylvatica and 

1912 Sept, I. 



28o 



Woodhead : Botany of Cautley and Tehay. 



C. fimbriata, and padding large spaces between the stones were 
dead clumps of the moss, Rhacomitrium canescens ; these were 
the early invaders, and contributed a soil which accummulated 
between the damp stones below. Growing in the shelter of 
hollows and behind banks of stones, the Parsley fern {Crypto- 




Photo by] []■ Bradley. 

Parsley Fern on the Screes at Cautley Crag. 



gramme crispa) flourished luxuriantly, and was the most con- 
spicuous of the vascular plants. Other rhizomatous scree- 
binders were Bilberry, Limestone Polypody, and Bracken, 
the dead fronds and rhizomes of the latter being abundant 
among the stones. On the masses of parsley fern and growing 
in the humus which it forms were Vernal grass. Hair grass. Bent 
grass, Lady's Bedstraw, round-leaved Bellflower {Campanula 
rotundi folia) and Foxglove {Digitalis purpurea). Invading the 
edges were the Soft grass {H. mollis), Bilben-y and Bracken. 

Naturalist,. 



Woodhead : Botany of Cautley and Tehay. 281 

As the vegetation develops, and the scree becomes covered 
except for numerous small stones on the surface, the parsley 
fern becomes less abundant, and give place to a more stable 
association of wiry grasses and heath associates. In addition 
to the above-mentioned species were Sheep's Fescue grass, 
Mat grass, Tormentil, Ling, and Club moss {L. clavatum). 

In the gorge at Cautley Spout, Ling, Cross-leaved Heath and 
Golden Rod occurred in large showy masses hanging on the 
rocky ledges, also shrubby specimens of Mountain Ash, Haw- 
thorn, and Common Ash. Here ferns were abundant, e.g., 
Male Fern [D. Filix-mas), Mountain Fern (Z). montana), Lady 
Fern {A. Filix-fcBmina) and the Spleenworts {Asplenium 
Trichomanes, A. viride and A. Adiantum-nigrnm) . 

The most interesting feature on the Westmorland side was 
the extensive development of Sphagnum bogs at the Howes, 
Gamelands, and, to a much smaller extent, on parts of the 
Calluna heath of Low Moor. 

The bog at the Howes was carefully examined, and was 
found to be developed on Boulder Clay resting on the Lower 
Carboniferous shales. The dominant plant is the bog-moss 
{Sphagnum cymhifolium). Other common mosses are Aulo- 
comium pahistre, Polytrichum commune and P. jiiniperum. 
Rushes and Sedges are abundant, the chief being Juncus 
articulatus, J. conglomeratus , J. effusus, J. hulhosus, and 
/. sqiiarrosus, Carex panicea, C. vulgaris, C. pulicaris, C. fulva 
and C. flava. The marsh club rush [Eleocharis palustris) is 
abundant, and in smaller quantity the cotton grasses {E. vagi- 
natum and E. angustifolium). The chief grasses are Mollinia 
ccBYulea, Nardus stricta and Agrostis tenuis. The Bog Asp- 
hodel {Narthecium ossifragum) is very abundant and was 
undoubtedly the most showy plant seen on the excursion. 
Other common species are Ling, Cross-leaved Heath, Round- 
leaved Sundew, Common Butterwort, Marsh Lousewort 
{Pedicularis palustris). Marsh Bedstraw {Galium palustre), 
Tormentil and the lichens Cladonia rangijerina and C. sylvatica. 

At Gamelands, and also at Low Moor the Bogbean {Men- 
yanthes trifoliata) is plentiful, and on the roadside a single 
specimen of the Marsh Gentian ( G. pnettmonanthe) w^as found. 
In a small sphagnum bog on the grassy fells in the neighbour- 
hood of the Shap Granite quarry the Sweet Gale {Myrica gale) 
occurs in abundance. I 



In Volume IX., Part 2 of the Annals of the South African Museum, 
recently published, Dr. G. S. West has an illustrated account of the Algae 
of South Africa, in which several new species are described. 

As Supplement to No. 9 of its Journal, the Board of Agriculture has 
recently issued ' Notes on Kerry Woods, Illustrating Methods of Collecting 
and Utilising Information for a Forest Survey.' The pamphlet is excep- 
tionally well illustrated, and sold at 4d. 

1912 Sept. I. 



282 



Yorkshire Plan by William Smith. 




Naturalist, 



283 
A YORKSHIRE PLAN BY WILLIAM SMITH. 

Any record of the work of William Smith, the 'father of 
English Geology,' is so very important, and year by year is 
becoming more and more difficult to trace that it is essential 
we should as far as possible make careful note of anything 
of his that turns up. 

Among a collection of Yorkshire maps which I recently 
purchased, is a lithographed copy of a map of South York- 
shire which does not appear to be referred to by John Phillips, 
Smith's nephew and biographer, in the scarce ' memoirs of 
William Smith,' published in 1844, nor is it referred to by 
Woodward, Judd, or other more recent writers. The lithograph, 
which is reproduced herewith (page 282), is described as ' Pro- 
posed Aire and Dunn Canal to drain the contiguous lands and 
to shorten and connect the present navigations. — ^Wm. Smith, 
1819.' In the bottom right hand corner is a note to the effect 
that the map was ' drawn on stone by J. Phillips.' The year 
1819 is that in which the greatest proportion of Smith's maps 
were published, and presumably this map was issued in con- 
nection with a prospectus, as it is fooslcap size, folded in four, 
and has on the back of one of the folds ' Aire and Dun (sic) 
Junction Canal and Extensive Drainage in Yorks. Printed 
by E. William's, 11, Strand.' — T. Sheppard, Hull. 

I rientalis europea L. at Bradshaw, Yorkshire. — 

Midsummer this year. Dr. Woodhead and I visited Soil Hill, 
Bradshaw, where we found Trientalis europea L. in plenty and 
flowering freely, and I am happy to say showing no signs of 
becoming extinct. The late J. Bolton (1775) records it as 
occurring ' on a moor in Bradshaw, about the pipe-clay pits,' 
this station is identical with the one we visited. I think I 
am correct in stating that this is the most southern station for 
this plant in Britain. We noticed one feature which is perhaps 
worthy of a record. On a sloping piece of ground the Tri- 
entalis was found growing plentifully among Nardus stricta 
and Vaccinium Myrtillus. On a careful examination of the 
underground parts, it was distinctly noticeable that the 
Trientalis sent down its stem considerably helow the gi"ass 
tussock, where it spread out its rhizome at right angles to the 
stem axis, and the long rootlets descending from the rhizome 
fed at a lower level than those of the Nardus stricta. A similar 
Complementary society was noticed at Castleton, in Cleveland, 
where Trientalis is abundant and is comparable to that of 
Sphagnum, Calluna and Lister a cordata of our moors. Bolton 
writes of L. cordata as growing at Causeway foot where Tri- 
entalis grows. I am afraid the former has not been seen there 
for many years. — W. Cash, Halifax. 

J912 Sept. I. 



284 FIELD NOTES. 

ENTOMOLOaV. 
Ancistronycha abdominalis F. in Jarrow. — A fine speci- 
men of this beetle was brought to me on May 24th, having been 
picked up in a street in Jarrow, near the outskirts. Bold 
records it in his ' Coleoptera of Northumberland and Durham ' 
(Edition of 1871), without any note as to its frequency ; but 
Fowler says ' confined to hilly and mountainous districts, 
and always rare.' Its occurrence in a flat industrial town is 
thus doubly interesting. — Geo. B. Walsh, Jarrow. 

BIRDS. 
Unusual Situation for a Waterhen's Nest. — I have 
seen Waterhen's nests in many curious and unlikely places 
but have never before this year seen one in the middle of a 




Waterhen's Nest in middle of a Meadow at Bempton. 

meadow. The nest was a considerable distance from the 
water, close to the village of Bempton. The friend who showed 
it to me said he was sure the bird must imagine she was a corn- 
crake.* When going to the nest she evidently alighted some 
short distance from it, and always at one spot, as there was 
a well-marked ' run ' through the grass. — R. Fortune. 



* The bird was surely anticipating the floods of this ' summer.' 



Naturalist, 



285 
SECOND SUPPLEMENT TO THE FLORA OF 
DEWSBURY AND DISTRICT. 



By the Late P. FOX LEE, 



{Continued from page 244). 

2870b. EQUiSETUMLiMOSUMvar. FLUViATiLE (Linn.). With 
the type, about Coxley Dam. 

2872. E. HYEMALE L. Near Lascelles Hall, Mirfield, see 
' The Flora of West Yorkshire,' p. 522. Mr. Lees adds, ' Not 
at all unlikely to be re-found on Calder banks, down washed 
from North Dean or Mirfield. It is tenacious of its sites.' 

2896c. Dryopteris Filix-mas Schott. var. paleacea 
(Don.) Druce (So^rm Newm.). With fine large fronds. Wood 
near Haigh House, Thornhill Edge ; Coxley Wood, Horbury. 

The following Alien Species of the district are grouped under 
headings indicating the various avenues of introduction ; wool, 
cotton, grain, etc., being now imported from many parts of the 
world. 

(i). Miscellaneous— Garden Strays, Relics of Cultivation 
AND Garden Weeds. 

60, Delphinium Ajacis L. Waste ground, Mirfield. 

90. Glaucium coRNicuLATUM Curt. Calder bank, Mirfield. 
The Seedsmen's ' Horn Poppy.' 

277. Raphanus sativus L. Calder bank, Mirfield. Gar- 
den-seed origin. Native of Eastern Europe. 

505. OxALis coRNicuLATA L. Garden stray, Dewsbury. 

1130. FoENicuLUM vulgare Mill. Garden escape. Calder 
bank, Mirfield ; abundant in a stone quarry, Horbur3\ 

Kaulfussia amelloides Willd. The merest garden-stra3\ 
The ' blue daisy ' of florists' catalogues. Wool-waste heap, 
Batley Carr. 

1253. Aster laevis L. Calder bank, Ravensthorpe. 

1290. Ambrosia maritima L. West Mills, Mirfield. (Messrs. 
F. Buckley and A. Jessop). 

1357. Chrysanthemum coronarium L. Probably a gar- 
den escape. By Malt kiln, Mirfield (Messrs. Buckley and 
Jessop). 

1443. Mariana lactea Hill. Milk-veined Thistle. Gar- 
den escape probably, Staincliffe, Dewsbury ; Shepley Bridge. 

1851. Physalis Alkekengi L. Casual. Old corn mill, 
Ledgard Bridge, Mirfield (Messrs. Buckley and Jessop). 

1879. LiNARiA chalepensis Mill. Eastern cornfield plant. 
Old lime-kilns, Mirfield (Messrs. F. Buckley and A. Jessop). 

2137. Beta vulgaris L. Waste ground in several places. 
A relic of cultivation. 

1912 Sept. 1. 



286 The Flora of Dewshury and District. 

(2) Weeds of Cultivated Ground and Introductions. 

108. FuMARiA MURALis Sonder. As a garden weed, 
Dewsbury. 

461. Hibiscus Trionum L. The Bladder Ketmia. In 
a bed of strawberries, garden, Mirfield (C. Ely). 

916. Ac^NA Sanguisorb.e Vahl. Spen Valley, woollen 
mill tips, where Australian fleeces are scoured, and the waste 
cast down. Seen in 1898, 1902, and after. Often misreported 
as the next. (F. A. Lees). 

917. Poterium Sanguisorba L. Salad Burnet. K rare 
plant off limestone strata. Only a casual here. Waste 
ground, Mirfield. (H. Parkinson). 

1076. Bryonia dioica Jacq. Red-berried Bryony. Rare 
in North England, off limestone. Hedge-row, Denby Dale 
road, bird-brought (W. Rushforth). ' This species is xero- 
phile, avoiding Carb. limestone, and occurs in many places on 
Triasssic Sand and gravel as far north as Durham, and on 
Coal Measures in Derbyshire ; it may be bird-sown, that being 
one of its means of distribution, but I believe it to be rather 
an ancient item of the flora now in a rapid decline.' (F. A. Lees). 

1082. Astrantia major L. Vicarage grounds, Thornhill 
Lees. Introduced somehow (C. P. Hobkirk). 

1090. BuPLEURUM rotundifolium L. Hare's ear. Corn- 
field Colonist. Steanard Lane, Mirfield (H. Parkinson). 

1742. Anagallis femina (Mill.). {A. ccerulea Schreb.). 
As a weed in a garden, Dewsbury. Very different looking 
from the ' blue-flowered form ' of the scarlet Pimpernel. This 
had deep blue flowers, and was more erect in habit than the 
commoner species. 

2074. Lamium amplexicaule L. Turnip field, Thornhill 
Edge. 

2217. ViscuM ALBUM L. Mistletoe. Introduced in several 
gardens, Horbury (W. Rushforth). 

(3). Weeds of Waste Places. 

81. Papaver dubium L. Waste ground, Netherton. 

188. Sisymbrium Irio L. London Rocket. Denizen. 
Waste place. Crow Nest Park, Dewsbury. 

360. Lychnis dioica x alba Mill. (L. intermedia Schur.) 
Calder banks, Shepley Bridge, 1907. ' An evident hybrid, fine, 
variable, and in quantity ' (F. A. Lees and P. F. Lee). 

579b. Medicago hispida Gaertn. var. apiculata (Willd.). 
Manure heap, Thornhill Lees. 

596. Melilotus petitpierreana Hayne. {M. arvensis 
Wallr.). Waste ground. Not indigenous. 

664. ScoRPiURUS sulcatus L. Calder bank, Mirfield. 

667. Coronilla scorpioides Koch. Corn mill waste 
ground, Mirfield. 

Naturalist, 



The Flora of Dewsbury and District. 287 

672. HiPPOCREPis UNisiLiQUOSA L. Waste ground, Mir- 
field (Messrs. Buckley and Jessop). 

692. ViciA HYBRiDA L. Waste ground, Mirfield. 

1287. Odontospermum (Buphthalmum) aquaticum 
Sch.-Bip. ' Native of wet meadows in the Mediterranean 
region. Recorded by Mr. Lees in his " Flora of West York- 
shire," p. 295, as sent to him (by the writer of this Supplement 
from Sandal in 1887), from a disused quarry where garden 
rubbish was thrown. It has also been noticed on waste ground 
near Bath. It is not grown in gardens, nor is it likely to be 
imported with grain, so that no clue as to its origin in England 
could have been suggested, had not chance revealed a channel 
of introduction. Upon experimentally sowing a sample of 
bird seed, a few years ago, a quantity of this species came up, 
and its seed was afterwards recognised in other samples. This 
is, therefore, probably one of the casuals introduced with 
foreign bird seed ' (Dunn's ' Alien Flora of Britain,' 1905, 
pp. 105-106). 

1335. Achillea cretica L. By corn-mill, Shepley Bridge 
(F. A. Lees). 

1363. Matricaria decipiens C. Koch. Below corn-mill, 
Shepley Bridge. Erect, tall, not inodorous, with Leucanthe- 
mttm-like flowers, disk solid, florets of ray upcurved forming a 
saucer-like flower-face. As its trivial name implies, a deceptive 
but not unornamental mayweed. 

1440. Onopordum tauricum Willd. Waste ground, old 
malting mill, Mirfield. 

1648. Lactuca virosa L. Calder bank, Mirfield, as a 
casual (H. Parkinson). 

1796. BorAgo officinalis L. Waste ground, Mirfield 
(H. Parkinson). 

18316*5. Volvulus (Calystegia) incarnata L. Calder 
bank, Lower Hopton (F. Arnold Lees). 

1862. Verbascum thapsus L. Has occurred at Morley 
as a casual (G. Roberts). Vide ' The Flora of West Yorks.', 

P- 333- 

2030. Salvia viridis. Alien. Old Cornmill, Ledgard 
Bridge, Mirfield (Messrs. Buckley and Jessop). 

2049. Marrubium vulgare L. Sweet Horehound. On 
mill refuse, Batley Carr. 

2077. Ballota nigra L. Black Horehound. Roadside 
waste ground. Dead Man's Lane, Thornhill. Abundant on 
Permian limestone, but very rare in this district. 

2228. Euphorbia salicifolia Hoet. Hungarian Corn- 
field alien. Calder bank, Cooper Bridge (Messrs. F. Buckley 
and A. Jessop), and Dewsbury. ' This is almost certainly 
identical with the next — a washed down colony of it ' (F. A. 
Lees). 

1912 Sept. I. 



288 The Flora of Dewshury and District. 

2229. E. EsuLA Linn. Alien. Calder bank, Dewsbury ; 
Shepley Bridge. ' Native of woods and meadows in Central 
and South-East Europe, becoming rarer north-westwards.' 
(Dunn's ' Alien Flora of Britain, 1905,' p. 169). 

2229b. E. EsuLA var. pseudo-cyparissias (Jord.). Seed- 
alien. ' A well established patch of this leafy-branched Spurge 
on the Calder bank, Mirfield' (H. Parkinson). 

(4). Aliens, with Straw, Fodder, Grain, etc. 

184. Sisymbrium altissimum L. (5. pannonicum Jacq.). 
Waste ground, Mirfield. 

185. S. ORiENTALE L. (S. c olumn cB Jdicq.). Calder bank. 
' Native of dry hills and rocky places in the Mediterranean 
region' (Dunn's 'Alien Flora of Britain,' 1905, p. 30). 

918. PoTERiUM POLYGAMUM Waldst. and Kit. (P. mur- 
icatum). Waste ground, Mirfield (E. T. Gosling). 

(5). Aliens, with Foreign Grain and Grass Seed. 

14. Adonis ^Estivalis L. From grain screenings, 
waste ground, Mirfield (E. T. Gosling). 

29. Ranunculus trilobus Desf. Waste ground, 
Shepley Bridge. 

152. Alyssum hirsutum M. Biel. By Hirst's corn mill, 
Mirfield. 

178. Wilckia (Malcolmia) africana F. V. Muell. Near 
old corn mill, Mirfield (Messrs. Buckley and Jessop). 

183. Sisymbrium sophia L. Malting mill, waste ground, 
Mirfield. 

186. S. AUSTRIACUM Jacq. Malting mill, waste ground, 
Mirfield. (F. W. Whitaker and P. F. Lee). 

200. CoNRiNGiA orientalis Dum. Malting Mill, waste 
ground, Mirfield. 

220. Brassica hispida Boiss. By corn mill, Mirfield. 

237. Lepidium draba L. Calder bank, Dewsbury ; mill 
rubbish heap, Batley (F. W. Whitaker). 

Native of dry sterile ground in South-east Europe, and 
Western Asia, being especially abundant in the deserts of the 
Caspian region. 

239. L. PERFOLIATUM L. Malting mill, waste ground, 
Mirfield. 

258. Neslia paniculata Desv. Clypeola ion-thlaspi, L. 
Waste ground, Cornmill, Shepley Bridge (F. A. Lees). 

260. Myagrum PERFOLIATUM Linn. A grain-screening 
alien always. From S. E. Europe. Old limekilns, Mirfield 
(Messrs. F. Buckley and A. Jessop). 

263. BuNiAS orientalis L, Meadow adjoining Hirst's 
old malt-kiln ' tip,' Mirfield. 

Naturalist,' 



The Flora of Dewsbury and District. 289 

276. Raphanus landra Moretti. Waste ground, Dews- 
bury and Horbury Bridge. 

331. Saponaria vaccaria L. Waste ground, Horbury 
Bridge and Shepley Bridge. 

Native of oak woods in Asia Minor, and a very common 
cornfield weed in Eastern Europe and Western Asia. It is 
one of the most frequently introduced grain aliens in Britain ; 
it occurs here also as a weed of cultivated ground, possibly 
from the use of foreign seed (Dunn's ' Alien Flora of Britain, 
1905,' p. 37). 

336d. SiLENE LATiFOLiA var. OLERACEA (Bor.). Waste 
ground below cornmill, Shepley Bridge. This pretty nodding 
laxifloral campion, is a variety of our British inflata, with less 
swollen calyx. The Eastern race as it were, and where hitherto 
found, as at Woolwich Arsenal, is rightly ' suspect ' as being a 
foreigner (F. A. Lees). 

341. S. DICHOTOMA Ehrh. Waste ground, Mirfield. 

342. S. GALLiCA L. Calder bank, Shepley Bridge. The 
name is a little doubtful (Lees). Mill waste heap, Batley Carr. 

344. S. QUiNQUEVULNERA L. Waste road-side, Mirfield. 
A rare plant of the Channel Islands. Here a grain or grass- 
clover seed brought casual from S. Europe. 

3g8&zs. Arenaria stellarioides Willd. Waste ground 
by old Malt-kilns, Mirfield. ' A colonising alien from the 
Caucasus and the Euxine, probably brought first to the Halifax 
(in 1895) and later Elland and Mirfield riparian area.' (F. A. 
Lees, ' The Naturalist,' p. 100, March, 1909). The writer 
found it at Mirfield, as above in 1907-8-9. 

554. Trigonella ccerulea Ser. By malt-kiln, Mirfield 
(Messrs. F. Buckley and A. Jessop). 

562. Medicago falcata L. Waste ground, Dewsbury 
Mills, Shepley Bridge. 

622. Trifolium resupinatum L. Casual of grass-seed 
origin. Old lime-kilns, Mirfield (Messrs. Buckley and 
Jessop). 

625. T. SPUMOSUM L. Waste place by Sutcliffe's corn 
mill, Mirfield. 

644. Lotus tetragonolobus L. By malt-kiln, Mirfield 
(Messrs. F. Buckley and A. Jessop). 

658. Astragalus sesamens L. Malt-kiln waste ground,, 
Mirfield. 

668. Ornithopus compressus L. Waste ground, Mir- 
field. 

681. ViciA viLLOSA Roth. Waste ground, Shepley 
Bridge. 

684. V. PSEUDO-CRACCA Bert. Waste ground, corn-mill,, 
Shepley Bridge. 

(7b be continued). 

1912 Sept. I. 



290 Field Notes. 

TroUius europaeus in Div. II. S. W. Cumberland. — 

On Whit Monday, May 27th, Miss Isabel Dobson gathered 
fine blooms of TroUius europaeus which was found growing 
abundantly on the banks of Black Beck where the footpath 
between Swinside and Windy Slack crosses the stream by a 
narrow wooden bridge. — John Dobson, Ulverston. 

The Kite in Yorkshire in 1682. — The following is taken 
from the notes made by Oliver Heywood, the celebrated Non- 
conformist preacher. He was then at Northowram : — ' Young 
turkey catched, Object 13. — My wife had orded an hen to sit 
on turkey eggs, hatcht them, all came to naught except two, 
those two were with the hen in the croft feeding, on Saturday 
forenoon, Aug. 5, 1682, a glead came furiously to catch them, 
the hen fought with the glead a considerable time, but the 
glead catcht one of them, and went away with it, chirping in 
his mouth, some young men at R.S. seeing the sharp contest, 
and the glead carrying the chicken, ran after him, he light 
in a field near to feed on his prey, but, seeing them, took it 
up and fled away with it, so they lost it, the other Chicken or 
young Turkey, being affrighted, hid itself under shrubs, which, 
in a little time they found, the hen going with it was still 
erecting her head waiting for the glead, it came for the other, 
she got under a stone in the court, the chicken under her, sate 
close, secur'd it, and still is exceedingly watchful.' — Oliver 
Heywood's Diaries, 1630-1702. Ed. Horsfall Turner, Vol. IV., 
p. 44. The capitals and commas are as in the volume. — S. L. 
Petty. 



REVIEWS AND BOOK NOTICES. 

Indoor Gardens, by T. W. Sanders, F.L.S. London Agricultural and 
Horticultural Association. Price id. 

To facilitate the art of Indoor Gardening, and to explain how it may- 
be best developed and carried out, is the object of this handbook. The 
author's very practical suggestions are aided by excellent illustrations on 
every page. 

At what seems to us to be a rather high price of 5/-, Messrs. Stanford 
have published a Geological Map of Central Europe, at a scale of i : 6,336,000 
the size of the map being i6| by 10^ inches. It is reduced from the Carte 
Geologique Internationale de I'Europe. The map certainly serves a 
useful purpose, though, on account of its small scale, many formations 
have been lumped together which might have been differentiated. 

A Hand-List of British Birds, with an Account of the Distribution of 
each Species in the British Isles and Abroad. By Ernst Hartert, F. C. R. 
Jourdain, N. F. Ticehurst, and H. F. Witherby. 8vo. London : Witherby 
& Co. 1912. xii., 237 pp. Price 10/6. 

This is the first direct and straightforward attempt to place the nomen- 
clature of British birds on the definite footing of strict priority, and a great 
deal of time and trouble has been expended towards that most desirable 
end. It has been based on Article 26 of the ' International Rules of 
Zoological Nomenclature,' which reads as follows: — 'The tenth edition 
of Linnaeus' " Systema Xatur?p," 1758, is the work which inaugurated the 

Naturalist, 



Proceedings of Scientific Societies. 291 

consistent general application of the binary nomenclature in zoology. 
The date 1758 therefore, is accepted as the starting-point in zoological 
nomenclature and of the Law of Priority.' 

The work also takes account of the use of trinomials for sub-species in 
the following words : — ' As to the use of trinomials for sub-species, or, 
better, geographical or local races, does not seem to be generally under- 
stood, it may here be explained that when a species is divided into two 
or more races, or when two or more species are grouped as races of one 
species, then each of these races must have a trinomial appelation. It 
is impossible to say which is the oldest or parent form, therefore, the first- 
named race of all those grouped under one species is arbitrarily:- taken as 
the tj-pical race, and its name becomes that of the species. 

' Thus Parns niajor is the species of the Great Tit, and includes all the 
Great Tits just as the genus Pants includes all the Tits. As the form of 
Great Tit inhabiting northern Europe was the first to be named, it must 
be called Pants major niajor, and all other names of Great Tits must have 
as their first two names Pants major. Similiarly the typical race of Wren 
must be called Troglodytes troglodytes troglodytes if it is to be distinguished 
from Troglodytes troglodytes hirtensis, or any other race of Wren. It must 
be understood that the binomial Parns major or Troglodytes troglodytes 
refers to the species, i.e., the whole group of sub-species, and cannot be 
xised to differentiate one of those sub-species. It cannot be gainsaid 
that the trinomial system is of the greatest possible use scientificall}' as 
demonstrating the close relationship of geographical forms of the same 
species, just as tlie binomial system demonstrates the relationship of 
species of the same genus.' 

The work before us, in dealing with Parns major (to continue the 
example quoted), shows us on page 42 under the heading parus major, that 
the Continental Great Titmouse, Pants major major, as named by Linnaeiis 
Pants major, was named from a Swedish specimen, and, although living 
here, differs from Pants major newtoui of Prazak, which is a race confined 
to the British Isles, so far as is at present known. For these differences 
the reader is referred to the original literature as this book does not pro- 
fess to be descriptive. But the distribution of the two forms is carefully 
given, and the synonyms pointed out. 

Having thus briefly sketched the object and aims of this book, we can 
only commend it to the reader as of extreme value, and no little interest 
generally, from its careful introduction dealing with nomenclatorial 
questions, and its conscientious handling of a difficult and complicated 
subject. We thank Dr. Hartert and his collaborators for their pains, and 
entirely agree with the greater part of their conclusions, which are based 
on direct and careful investigation of original sources. 



PROCEEDINGS OF SCIENTIFIC SOCIETIES. 

The Belfast Museum has issued its publication. No. 33, being its Quar- 
terly Notes, No. XXI. It contains notes on local medals and tokens, 
the Donegall family, and the House Fly. It is illustrated. 

The Proceedings of the Geologists' Association (Vol. XXIII. , part 3), 
contain a paper on ' The Classification of Palaeolithic Stone Implements,' 
by Reginald A. Smith. The Association seems to have had a good round 
of visits to museums and private collections, reports upon which appear 
in the same part of the Proceedings. 

The Report and Proceedings of the Manchester Field Naturalists' and 
and Archaeologists' Society for the year 191 1 has recently appeared, and 
contains details of the Club's various field meetings, which have a strong 
botanical and archaeological flavour. The Society paid a lengthy visit 
to Yorkshire, which is fully reported, and includes a good account of a 
lecture on the birds of the county, by Mr. Riley Fortune. 

1912 Sept. I. 



292 Proceedings of Scientific Societies. 

From the Birmingham Natural History and Philosophical Society we 

have received its Proceedings (Vol. XII., No. 5, pp. 1-23), entirely occupied 
by a paper on the Algae of Stanklin Pool, Worcestershire, by B. M. Griffiths. 
It is illustrated by diagrams. The same Society's Annual Report for 1911 
contains details of the work done by the different sections, and there are 
particulars of recent exposures in the drift on the Great Western Railway, 
with illustrations. 

Vol. LVL, part 11 of the Memoirs and Proceedings of the Manchester 
Literary and Philosophical Society contain, among others, a paper on the 
' Presence of Maxillulae in the Larvae of Dytiscidae,' by J. Mangan ; ' On 
the Interpretation of the Vascular Anatomy of the Ophioglossaceae, ' by 
W. H. Lang ; and ' The Smelt in Rostherne Mere,' by T. A. Coward. Ap- 
parently this mere is the only locality in England where the smelt can be 
obtained inland, and the species seems there to have become accustomed 
to the fresh-water conditions. 

Vol. II., No. 4 of the Journal of the East Africa and Uganda Natural 
History Society (pp. 79-139, 5s. 4d.), has been published by Messrs. Long- 
mans, Green & Co. There are papers on Fish Culture in British East 
Africa ; the Biting Flies of the same district ; Collecting and Drying 
Plants ; Fish in Lake Magadi ; the Water Elephant ; a human skull 
from British East Africa ; the Importance of Africa in Vertebrate Palaeon- 
tology, and Bats. There are a number of shorter notes, and amoug the 
few illustrations is a reproduction of a photograph of the skin of a Saddle- 
backed Zebra. 

The Transactions of the North Staffordshire Field Club, Vol. XLVI. for 
191 1-2, edited by the Hon. Secretary, Mr. \\'. Wells Bladen, form a sub- 
stantial volume of over 160 pages. Besides containing reports on the 
birds, entomology, botany, geology, meteorology, archaeology, etc., of 
North Staffordshire, there are a number of well-illustrated papers, prin- 
cipally of an antiquarian character. Among those likely to interest our 
readers are ' The Roman Camp at Chesterton,' by S. A. H. Burne ; ' An 
Astronomical Study of some ancient Monuments,' by A. M. McAldowie, 
and the reports of the excursions. 

Under the editorship of Mr. C. E. Bowles, the Derbyshire Archaeological 
and Natural History Society has recently issued volume XXXIV. of its 
Journal, which contains over 250 pages, and numerous illustrations. Most 
of the papers have an antiquarian interest, but among those likely to 
interest our readers are 'Cinerary Urn found near Eyam,' by R. M. S. 
O'Ferrall ; ' Ravencliff Cave,' by R. A. Smith ; ' Fin Cop Prehistoric 
Fort,' by E. Tristram ; ' Milandra Castle Excavations,' by H. Lawrence, 
an excellent ' Zoological Record for Derbyshire, 1911,' by F. C. R. Jour- 
dain, and ' Lepidoptera,' by H. C. Hayward. 

The Forty-lirst Annual Report of the Chester Society of Natural' 
Science, etc (48 pp., 1912)), contains details of the additions to the Society's 
Library and Museum, and also the sectional Secretaries' reports. The 
last include reports of lectures, a few ornithological records, and a descrip- 
tion of a new diatom from Bournemouth, viz., Coscinodiscus heliozoides, 
Siddall. We learn that Mr. Siddall has read a paper on the subject before 
the Royal Microscopical Society, so that if the Chester Society's report 
has appeared lirst, the species will not be " n. sp." when the paper in the 
Royal Microscopical Society's Journal is published. 

The Annual Report for 191 1 of the Scarborough Philosophical and 
Archaeological Society has been published, and includes the report of the 
Scarborough Field Naturalists' Society. Both appear to have had a good 
year. The Recorders' reports published by the latter society contain 
many valuable natural history records, particularly under the heads of 
Marine Invertebrate Zoology, and Coleoptera. The records are contributed 
by Messrs. W. J. Clarke, A. S. Tetley, E. A. Wallis, E. C. Horrell, E. B. 
Lotherington, J. Irving, J. A. Hargreaves, E. R. Cross, A. E. Peck, and H. C. 
Drake. The Societies' Balance Sheets are satisfactory, and intelligible. 

Naturalist, 



NOTICE. 

The Annual Meeting of the Marine Biological Committee 
will take place at Robin Hood's Bay, October 11 = 15. Professor 
Garstang of Leeds, and Professor Denny of Sheffield University, 
have kindly consented to allow the use of the Marine Laboratory, 
lately instituted there, as the centre for meetings and work. It is 
hoped that many members will avail themselves of the special 
opportunities of studying marine life in its various forms. All 
communications with respect to it should be addressed to Rev. 
F. H. Wood, Bainton Rectory, Driffield. 

THE L05T T0WIN5 
or THE yORKSHIKE COAST. 

And other Chapters bearing upon the 
Geography of the District. 

By THOMAS SHEPPARD, F.G.S., F.R.G.S., F.S.A.(Scot.). 

Curator of the Hull Municipal Museums. 
J 20 pages Demy 8vo,with over too illustrations. Cloth Boards, 7/6 net. 

A work containing much information regarding the habitations of 
a past generation, but now demolished by the ravages of the sea. 

A number of cliff measurements, documents, plans and charts 
have also been included ; and in the hope that the book may be of 
service to students, chapters have been added referring to the geology, 
antiquities and natural history of the district. 

Orders should be sent to the Author at the Municipal Museum, Hull. 

WATKINS & DONCASTER, 

36, STRAND, LONDON, W.C. 

(Five Doors from Charing Cross), 

Keep in stock every description of 

APPARATUS, CABINETS, BOOKS, AND SPECIMENS 

for Collectors of 

BIRDS' EGGS, BUTTERFLIES, MOTHS, ETC. 



Catalogue (96 pages) sent post free on application. 



A. BROWN 5 501N.5, Ltd., 

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are well equipped for every 
class of Letterpress Work. 

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Printers by Appointment to many Literary and Scientific Societies. 
Every description of work undertaken. Estimates given free. 

We print and publish The Naturalist. 
Telegrams—" BROWN, HULL." Corporation Telephone No. 685. 



Macmillan's New Books for Naturalists. 
The Early Naturalists : 

Their Lives and Work (1530-1789). 

By L. C. MIALL, D.Sc, F.R.S. 8vo. lOs. net. 

Country Life. — " Professor Miall has performed a valuable service by 
gathering together the material which he has published under the title 'The 
Early Naturalists.' . ... It is really a wonderful piece of work, showing 
how the body of national history possessed to-day has grown up and developed 
during the course of centuries." 

Saturday Review. — " The Naturalists written about so delightfully by 
Professor Miall, are those who from the sixteenth century to the time of Buffon, 
wrote of animals and plants." 

The AthencBum. — "Prof. Miall is to be congratulated on having produced 
a work of distinct historical value to all interested in biological studies." 

The Evening^ Standard. — " It is really a fascinating subject, this gradual 
progress of science from crude beginnings to the endless ramifications that now 
characterise it, and Mr. Miall manages to describe clearly without worrying us 
with over-scientific details." 

Pan's Garden. A Volume of Nature Stories. 

By ALGERNON BLACKWOOD, Author of "The Centaur," &c. 
With Drawings by W. GRAHAM ROBERTSON, Extra cr. 8vo. 6s. 

The Athe7iceum. — " ' Pan's Garden ' is a rich book ; twenty-five years ago 
it would have entitled its author to fame ; and even to-day the individuality 
expressed in it is rare enough to be distinguished from that of any of his 
confreres. . . . Brilliant imagination is displayed in the book." 



A BEAUTIFUL EDITION 
WITH 24 ILLUSTRATIONS IN COLOUR. 

White's Natural History of Selborne. 

With 24 Illustrations in Colour by GEORGE EDWARD COLLINS, R.B.A. 
Crown 4to. los. 6d. net. 

The Guardian. — "An especially handsome book is the fine reprint of 
White s Selborne, with coloured illustrations by Mr. G. E. Collins. His 
illustrations are somewhat of the nature of tinted line drawings, but his tints are 
delicate and clear, and the results charming. ' 

MACMILLAN & CO., LTD., LONDON. 



Printed at Browns' Savile Press, 40, George Street, Hull, and published by 

A. Brown & Sons, Limited, at 5 Farringdon Avenue, in the City of London. 

September ist, 1912. 



OCTOBER, 1912. ^^' ^^^ 

(No, 447 tf *urrtnt ttritt). 




A MONTHLY ILLUSTRATED JOURNAL OF 

NATURAL HISTORY FOR THE NORTH OF ENGLAND. 

EDITED BY 

T. SHEPPARD, F.Q.S., F.R.Q.S., F.S.A.Scot., 

The Museums, Hull ; 

AND 

T. W. WOODHEAD, Ph.D., F.L.S., 

Technical College, Huddersfield. 

with the assistance as referees in special departments of 

J. aiLBBRT BAKER, F.R.S. F.L.S., QEO. T. PORRITF, F.L.S,, F.E.S. 

Prof. P. F. KENDALL, M.Sc, F.Q.S., JOHN W. TAYLOR, 

T. H. NELSON, M.B.O.U., WILLIAM WEST, F.L.S., 

RILEY FORTUNE, F.Z.S. 



Contents : — 

PACK 

Notes and Comments: — The British Association; The Handbook ; Sectional Reports ; 
The Annual Report ; The Presidential Address ; The Origin of Life ; Spontaneous 
Generation; Formation of Living Substance ; £10,000; Sir Joseph Hooker a Philoso- 
phical Biologist ; Address to the Botanical Section ; Mendelism 293-297 

Buckton Marsh, East Yorkshire (Illustrated) — W. E. L. Wattam 298-300 

Field Notes : — Cotyledon in South-West Cumberland ; Pygmy Shrew near Scarborough ; 
Levantine Shearwater at Scarborough ; Melanic Guillemot at Filey ; Honey Buzzard, etc.', 
at Hebden Bridge ; Marine Shells at Bridlington ; Hymenoptera, etc., at Tebay ; Mosses at 
Tebay ; Cnc«//«»j(s g/ofcosi(s in the Derwent 301-303 

Arachnida at Tebay — W.P. Winter, P. Sc 304-305 

Second Supplement to the Flora of Dewsbury and District— B;- the late P. Fcx Lee 306-309 

The Spiders of Wicken, Cambrid£:e (Illustrated^ — Win, Falconer 310-324 

Reviews and Book Notices 303 309 

Northern New« 297, 300 

Proceedings of Scientific Societies 305,324 

Illustrations .51. 

Plates XV., XVI., XVII. 



LONDON : 
A. Brown & Sons, Limited, 5, Farringdon Avi-p.oE, 

And at Hull and York. 
Printers and Publishers to the Y.N. U. 



PRICE 6d. NET. BY POST 7d. NET. 



Geolog^ical Pamphlets 

(Excerpts from the Geological Magazine, etc. ; from the Library 
of a Yorkshire Geologist, recently deceased). 



Price 4cl. each, post free. 

(FOURTH LIST). 
Apply— J. B. FAY, Royal Institution, Hull. 

Post-Pliocene Continental Subsidence versus Glacial Dams. J. W. Spencer. 

Restoration of Stegosaurus. O. C. Marsh. (Plate). 

Scandinavian Glacier and some Inference Derived from it. T. F. Jamieson. 

Transverse Valleys in the Eastern Caucasus. H. Sjogren. (Illus.). 

Origin of Concretions in the Magnesian Limestones of Durham. E. J. Garwood. (Plates). 

Elevation of AmericaJj Cordillera. H. H. Howorth. 

Recent Contributions to Precambrian Geology. J. F. Blake. 

Lower Devonian Fish-Fauna of Campbellton, New Brunswick. A. S. Woodward. (Plate). 

New Forms of Hyaline Foraminifera from the Gault. F. Chapman. (Plate). 

Absence of Glaciation in W. Asia and E. Europe. H. H. Howorth. 

Kellaways Beds near Bedford. A. C. G. Cameron. 

Contribution to Post-Glacial Geology. T. M. Reade. (Plate). 

New Carboniferous Cephalopod Pleuronautilus scarlettensis. F. R. C. Reed. (Plate). 

British Earthquakes, 1893-1899. C. Davison. (Illus.). 

Drift at Moel Tryfaen. E. Greenby. (Illus.). 

CrEOLOGY AND FOSSILS OF SOME DEVONIAN RoCKS OF THE N. COAST OF CORNWALL. H. FoX. (Plate). 

Drepanaspis gmiidenensis. R. H. Traqihair. (Illus.). 

Age OF THE Later Dykes of Anglesey. E. Greenby. 

Studies in Edrioasteroidea. F. A. Bather. (Plates). 

Bala Lake and the River System of N. Wales. P. Lake. (Illus.). . 

Plant-Stems in the Guttanmen Gneiss. T. G. Bonney. 

■Geological Age of the Earth. J. Joly. 

Catalogue of Foraminifera from Chalk and Chalkmarl. T. R. Jones. 

The Genus Conocoryphe. F. R. C. Reed: 

Blue Amphibole in Horneblende from Co. Down. H. J. Seymour. (Illus.). 

On Rhadiiiich'hys morensts and its Distribution in the Yorks. Coalfield. E. D. Wellburn. (Illus.). 

Geology of Snowden. J. R. Dakyns. 

Diagram of Composition of Igneous Rocks. H. Worth. 

Col. Feilden's Contributions to Glacial Geology. T. G. Bonney. 

Consolidation of Minerals in Igneous Rocks. W J. Sollas. 

Fauna of Upper Cassian Zone in Fabjarego Valley, South Tyrol. M. M. O. Gordon. 

■Geology of Bad Nauheim and its Thermal Salt Springs. A. V. Jennings. (Illus.). 

Nephaline Syenite and its Associates in the N. W. of Scotland. J. J. H. Teall. 

Podophthalmous Crustaceans from Upper Cretaceous, British Columbia. H. Woodward. (3 Plit33). 

Palaeolithic Flint Implements from the Isle of Wight. S. H. Warren. 

A Granophyre Dyke Intrusive in the Gablero of Ardnamurchan Scotland. K. Buzz. 

Age of the Raised Beach of Southern Britain as seen in Gower. R. H. Tiddeman. 

Restoration of Stylonurns lacoanus, a Giant Arthropod. C. E. Beecher (Plate). 

On Hypcrodapcdon Gordoni. R. Burckland. (Pate). 

A Summary of Present Kowledge of Extinct Primates from Madagascar. C. T. F. Major. 

Pleistocene Shells from Raised Beach Deposits of Red Sea. R. B. Newton. (3 Plates). 

Notes on Remains of Cryptocleidus fro.m the Kellaways Rock of East Yorkshire. T. Sheppard. 

Coal Plants. W. S. Gresley. (Illus.)., 

1 eiten's Types of Ammonites. G. C. Crick. 

Wenlock Species of Lichas. F. R. C. Reed. (Plate). 

Orginal Form of Sedimentary Deposits. J. F. Blake. (Illus.). 

•Quartz Dykes near Fo.xdale, Isle of Man. J. Lomas. 

Neolithic Flint Implements from the Fa yum, Egypt. H. J. L. Beadnell. (2 Plates . 

Constitution of Laterite. T. H. Holland. 

Development of River Meanders. W. H. Davis. (lUus.). 

Creechbarrow in Purbeck. W. H. Hudleston. (lilus.) 

Composition of Indian Laterite. H. Wcrt.i. 

Brachymetopus. F. R. C. Reed. 

Lower Pliocene Bone-bed of Concud Province of Teruel, Spain. .\ S. Woodward. (Plate). 

Diffusion of Granite into Crystalline Schists. E. Greenby. (Plate). 

Vein-Quartz and Sands. A. R. Hunt. 

Cave Hunting in Cyprus. H. Woodward. 

Disappearance of Limestones in High Teesdale. C. T. Clough. 

Specimens from the Canadian Rocky Mountains. T. G. Bonney. (Plate). 

Isochilin.-e from N. America. T. R. Jones. (Illus.). 

E.XPEDITION TO Fayum, Egypt, WITH DESCRIPTIONS OF New Mammals. C. W. Andrews. (Illj;.). 

Structure of the Palate in the Primitive Theriodants. R. Brown. 

River Curves round Alluvial Plains. T. S. Ellis. 

On Hom/eomorphy among Fossil Plants. E. A. N. Arber. 

Fossiliferous Bed in the Selbornian of Charmouth. W. D. Lang. 

Some Disputed Points in Crystallisation of the Constituent Minerals of Granite, k. R. Haat, 

The Functions of Geology in Education and Practical Life. W. W. Watts. (18 pp.). 

Oldhaven Beds at Ipswich. H. Bassett. 

Straight Shelled Nautiloidea collected in North China. G. C. Crick. (Plate). 

A Carboniferous Ichthvodorulite. A. S. Woodward. 

New Egyhtian Mammal from the Favum. (Plates). 

New Caknivora from the Middle Miocene of La Grive, Saint .^lban, Isere France. C. T. Major. 

Age of Pvrenean Granite. P. W. S. Menteath. 



293 
NOTES AND COMMENTS. 

THE BRITISH ASSOCIATION. 

Dundee has demonstrated that, to a large extent, the success 
of a meeting of the British Association for the Advancement 
of Science depends upon the way in which it is supported locally. 
The town itself has nothing like the attractions that many of 
the towns and cities recently visited have had, and yet the 
number attending the meeting far exceeded any attained for 
many years. The amount locally subscribed for entertaining 
the members was unusually large ; there were over a thousand 
local members, and probably a greater proportion of the visitors 
was privately entertained than has been the case for a con- 
siderable time. When it is remembered that at the York 
meeting in 1906 (the seventy-fifth anniversary meeting) there 
were 1972 members ; at Sheffield in 1910, 1449 members ; and 
at Portsmouth last year only 1241 members present, the 
Dundee figure of 2500 is very satisfactory. At the previous 
Dundee meeting in 1867 the membership was 2444. 

THE HANDBOOK. 

The handbook prepared for the use of the members, under 
the editorship of Messrs. A. W. Paton and A. H. Millar, was 
all that could be desired, and, in keeping with everything else, 
was exceptionally well done. It contained 700 pages, a 
coloured geological map, and an excellent Botanical Survey 
Map of Fife and Forfarshire, by the late Robert Smith, and 
W. G. Smith. The volume contains chapters on history, 
commerce, education, architecture, geology, botany, natural 
history, art, etc., all, of course, having reference to the Dundee 
area. Not only were the members provided with this hand- 
book, but with handbooks on Dundee from the Cars ; Excursions, 
Local Arrangements, Reports of the Medical Officer, Free 
Libraries, etc. 

SECTIONAL REPORTS. 

An innovation at this meeting was the fact that it 
was possible to purchase the presidential address and printed 
abstracts of the papers read in any section, all stitched to- 
gether in one cover. Some of these were issued at sixpence, 
others at ninepence, though we think the former price sufficient 
for each. As probably each of the members attending the 
meeting would be glad to get the papers read at the particular 
section in which he is interested, in this handy form, there 
should have been a large sale of these reprints. Possibly 
there was. Personally we don't think they were brought 
sufficiently before the notice of the members. 

1912 Oct. 1. U 



294 Notes and Comments. 

THE ANNUAL REPORT. 

This brings us to the old question of the delay in the publi- 
cation of the Report of the Meeting. By placing these sec- 
tional reports together, adding the presidential address, list 
of members, etc., (all of which were in type at Dundee), it 
means that the report is ready, except for the page numbers 
being altered, and the index. Surely this should not take nine 
or ten months ? 

THE PRESIDENTIAL ADDRESS. 

As in so many instances recently, the presidential address 
was a wearying business. Notwithstanding the lauditory 
remarks made during the week in Dundee, and by the press, 
it was not the greatest of pleasures to have to sit for two hours 
trying to catch words which were scarcely audible to those 
occupying the front rows. When it is remembered that the 
hall contained many hundred local ladies and gentlemen who 
were supporters of the Association, it seems a bad start to 
make them sit still during a very long evening, most of them not 
hearing a word of the address. Many of the occupants of the 
platform had copies of the address in their hands while it was 
being read, anyone could get them on the following morning, 
either in the reception-room or in the press. In these cir- 
cumstances, it seems a pity that arrangements could not have 
been made to have given a resume of the address, not more than 
an hour in length. And, in the interests of the advancement 
of science, a president who cannot make himself heard, should 
either take lessons in elocution, or allow someone to read the 
address for him. 

THE ORIGIN OF LIFE. 

As regards the address itself, there has, of course, been 
every praise given to it, and unquestionably it is a fairly 
comprehensive account of the present position of the question 
of the origin of life. On the other hand, after all, the address 
does not seem to have advanced the discussion very far, and, 
in parts at any rate, there was just a suspicion of ' playing to 
the gallery.' 

SPONTANEOUS GENERATION. 

In view of the remarks made in this column a little while 
ago, in reference to the origin of life (page 203), it was of 
interest to hear Prof. Schafer say, ' I do not hesitate to believe, 
if living torulae or mycelia are exhibited to me in flasks which 
had been subjected to prolonged boiling after being hermeti- 
cally sealed, that there has been some fallacy in the premises 
or in the carrying out of the operation. The appearance of 
organisms in such flasks would not furnish to my mind proof 
that they were the result of spontaneous generation. Assuming 

Naturalist, 



Notes and Comments. 295 

no fault in manipulation or fallacy in observation, I should 
find it simpler to believe that the germs of such organisms have 
resisted the effects of prolonged heat than that they became 
generated spontaneously. If spontaneous generation is pos- 
sible, we cannot expect it to take the form of living beings 
which show so marked a degree of differentiation, both struc- 
tural and functional, as the organisms which are described 
as making their appearance in these experimental flasks.' 

for:mation of living substance. 

' Nor should we expect the spontaneous generation of 
living substance of any kind to occur in a fluid the organic 
constituents of which have been so altered by heat that they 
can retain no sort of chemical resemblance to the organic 
constituents of living matter. If the formation of life — of 
living substance — is possible at the present day — and for my 
own part I see no reason to doubt it — -a boiled infusion of 
organic matter, and still less of inorganic matter, is the last 
place in which to look for it. Our mistrust of such evidence 
as has yet been brought forward need not, however, preclude 
us from admitting the possibility of the formation of living 
from non-living substance. Setting aside, as devoid o'" scientific 
foundation, the idea of immediate supernatural intervention 
in the first production of life, we are not only justified in 
believing, but compelled to believe, that living matter must 
have owed its origin to causes similar in character to those which 
have been instrumental in producing all other forms of matter 
in the universe ; in other words, to a process of gradual evolu- 
tion.' 

;(^I0,000. 

After the presidential address, the Lord Provost of Dundee 
had a pleasant surprise for the members. This was nothing less 
than a cheque for £10,000, given unconditionally to the Asso- 
ciation, by Mr. J. K. Caird, ' for the advancement of science.' 
This gift, remarkable to state, seems to be unique in the annals 
of the British Association. Each year various sums of money 
are voted to the committees of research, etc., such sums varying 
according to the success of the meeting. The extent of the 
research carried on by the various committees during the 
intervals between the annual meetings is largely governed 
by the amount voted at the general meeting. Consequently 
it is clear that the greater the sum available, the better for the 
advancement of science. Yet it has remained for Dundee, and 
Mr. Caird, to carry on this excellent work independently of 
the income derived from any particular meeting. It is to be 
hoped that this magnificent example may be followed in future 
years. 

.1912 Oct. I. 



296 N'otes and Comments. 

SIR JOSEPH HOOKER 

At the Conference of Delegates, the Chairman, Professor 
F. O. Bower, F. R.S. dealt with the life and work of Sir Joseph 
Hooker, whose death, in December, 1911, may be held to have 
been one of the most outstanding events of the year. He did 
not give any consecutive biographical sketch of this great 
botanist, but indicated the various lines of activity in which 
he excelled. He contemplated him as a traveller and geo- 
grapher, as a geologist, as a morphologist, as an administrator, 
as a scientific systamatist, and, above all, as a philosophical 
biologist. As a traveller Sir Joseph visited all the great 
circumpolar areas of the Southern hemisphere. He spent 
almost four years in India. He botanised in Palestine and in 
Morocco, and finally in the Western States of America. The 
results he worked up into such a great fioristic publications as 
the Antarctic flora and the flora of British India. As an ad- 
ministrator he guided for thirty years the destinies of Kew, 
and served for five years as President of the Royal Society. 
As a scientific systematist he co-operated in the Genexa 
Plantarum and the Kew Index. 

A PHILOSOPHICAL BIOLOGIST. 

But it was perhaps, as a philosophical biologist that he 
rose to the gi'eatest heights. An early friend of Darwin, he 
was the first to accept his views. In 1859 Darwin himself 
wrote : ' As yet I know only one believer, but I look at 
him as of the greatest authority — viz.. Hooker.' While 
Lyell wavered, and Huxley had not yet comein, Hooker 
was in 1859 ^ complete adherent to the doctrine of the 
mutability of species. But this position was confirmed by 
a masterly series of essays from his own pen. The most 
notable address was the introduction to the flora of Tasmania. 
The last was that notable address to the Geographical Section 
of the British Association at York in 1881 on ' The Geographical 
Distribution of Organic Beings.' It was such works as these 
which led to the cumulative result that he was universally 
held to have been the most distinguished botanist of his time.. 

ADDRESS TO THE BOTANICAL SECTION. 

Professor Keeble gave some useful hints to the botanists 
in his address at Dundee. The recent death of Sir Joseph 
Hooker served as a pretext for comparing present day biologists 
with the more versatile workers of the Victorian age. The- 
present generation, he said, has become expert in intensive 
cultivation of scientific knowledge, but it has forgotten how 
to market its produce. In the pre-occupation of specialisa- 
tion it neglects the art of expression. It sinks the artist in the 

Naturalist, 



Notes and Comments. ic^y 

aiiizan. There is too great a tendency to think in symbols 
and to write in shorthand. We have failed to cultivate 
sufficiently the art of expression and neglected too much the 
literary side of education. He blames the Victorians, however, 
for not realising that Mendel was living amongst them, and 
shows that the merit of the discovery of the greatness of Mendel's 
work belongs to our generation, and that while we must give 
to the Victorians the higher need of culture, to us, perhaps, 
belongs the greater perspicacity. If, he says, the greatest gift 
which an experimental science may receive is that of a new, 
serviceable, general method, then to no man are biologists 
more indebted than to Mendel, for such a method he gave to 
our science. 

MENDELISM. 

From this it was an easy step to Mendelism, which 
formed the major part of his address. He gave an in- 
teresting account of recent work on pigmentation in flowers, 
dealing especially with the peculiarities of the two races of 
white flowered varieties which occur in the Chinese Primrose, 
Sweet William, and Sweet Peas, and their behaviour when 
crossed with coloured forms ; also the distribution of oxydase 
and peroxydase in plant tissues and the part they play in the 
formation of Authocyan pigments. Plants subjected to normal 
illumination possess less oxydase than those kept in darkness 
and after exposure for one or two days to darkness, plants 
contain more peroxydase than those kept under normal 
conditions of illumination. He suggests that in these vari- 
ations in oxydase content we may discover therein the means 
whereby many of' the phenomena of periodicity exhibited by 
plants are maintained and regulated, e.g., diurnal and noc- 
turnal positions of leaves, also the phenomena seen in such 
species as Hippolyte varians, which roll up their brilliant 
chromatophores at night and assume a sky-blue colour. When 
daylight comes they put on their day-time dress by spreading 
out the pigment of their chromatophores in far-reaching 
superficial networks. The speculation may be permitted that 
light and darkness may work these wonders through the 
control of chemical agents such as oxydases. 



The Royal Horticultural Society has awarded its gold medal to Prof. 
Newstead, of the University of Liverpool, for his exhibit of insects in- 
jurious to cultivated plants, at the Roj-al International Horticultural 
Exhibition. 

Referring to I\Ir. J. K. Caird's gift of ;^io,ooo to the British Association, 
the Dundee Evening Telegraph stated ' Prof. Schafer will admit that from 
a British Association point of view, ]VIr. J. K. Caird's demonstration of the 
spontaneous production of sponduliks is more important than the pro- 
phesies concerning possibilities of spontaneous generation.' 

1912 Oct. I. 



298 



BUCKTON MARSH, EAST YORKS. 



W. E. L. WATTAM, 
Huddersfield. 



BucKTON Marsh was visited by members of tlie Yorkshire 
Naturalists' Union on Whit Monday last, and a brief reference 
is made to the visit on pages 213 and 223 in the June issue 
of " The Naturalist.' Photographs of the marsh also appear 
on pages 213 and 222. 

While at Bridlington in August I took the opportunity 
of investigating this interesting piece of ground. It is about 
half a mile north-east from the village of Buckton, at the top 
of the old lane leading up from Buckton Mere. Apparently 




Area of Buckton Marsh dominated by Cotton Grass. 



no attempt has been made to drain the area of three to four 
hundreds yards of, what might now be termed, rough pasture. 
The ground slopes slightly to the north-east, and has a more 
pronounced slope to the south-east. " The shallow basin thus 
formed evidently received the drainage, as now, from more 
highly cultivated lands surrounding, and becoming water- 
logged, the land became controlled by the Cotton Grass {Erio- 
phoriim) and its associates, to a far greater extent than is now 
the case. It is this remnant of Cotton Grass bog which is 
being slowly but surely driven to extinction, that makes 
Buckton Marsh worthy of a visit. 

The soil of the slightly higher portions of the ground sur- 
rounding the marsh is of a sandy-clay nature, and has a flora 
typical of such ground. The dominant grass is the Common 
Bent ( Agrostis vulgaris). There are also the Quake Grass 

Naturalist, 



Wattam : Buckton Marsh, East Yorks. 299 

(Briza media), Crested Dog's-tail Grass {Cynosiinis cristatus), 
and Cock's foot Grass [Dactylis glomerata). Associated with 
these are the Mouse-ear Chickweed {Cerastiiim triviale), Creep- 
ing Cinquefoil {Potentilla reptans), Great Knapweed [Centanrea 
Scabiosa), Smooth Hawk's-beard {Crepis virens). Yarrow 
{Achillea Millefolium), Harebell {Campanula rotundijolia), 
and others. As will be seen by the crossed portions on the 
sketch-map, the area which has been practically conquered 
by wet-loving plants is of considerable extent, and the cotton 
grass remnant is encircled by this phase of vegetation. The 
reclamation of these areas is no doubt due to the drain, the 
waters of which have cut across practically from east to west, 
a channel of varied depth, and as this channel deepened it 
drained the area in a natural manner. The conditions becom- 
ing less water-logged, the rushes, sedges, and grasses acted 
as pioneers in ousting the cotton grass, and paved the way for 
the other wet-loving plants which here make home. These 
areas having a peaty subsoil, still retain a considerable amount 
of moisture. 

The rushes which occur here are the Jointed Rush {Jiinciis 
acittiflorus), Spreading Rush (/. effitsus), and Toad Rush 
{/. biifonius), where competition is not severe. The chief 
Sedges are the Pink-leaved Sedge {Carex panicea). Yellow 
Sedge (C. flava), and Glaucous Sedge (C. glaiica), and the grass 
sward is comprised of the Tuftecl Hair Grass {Deschampsia 
ccBspitosa) as dominant. Soft Grass {Holciis lanatus), and 
Cock's-foot Grass. Completing this moist-loving complement 
are Lesser Speartwort {Ranunculus Flammula), Creeping Crow- 
foot {R. repens), Marsh Marigold {Caltha palustris), Water 
Cress {Nasturtium officinale), Ladies' Smock {Cardamine 
pratensis), Marsh Stitchwort {Stellaria uliginosa). Ragged 
Robin {Lychnis flos-cucnli) , Marsh Bedstraw {Galium palustre). 
Marsh Valerian {Valeriana dioica). Marsh Thistle {Cnicus 
palustris), with white flowered form, Sneezewort ( Achillea 
Ptarmica), Water Mint {Mentha aquatica), Common Bugle 
( Ajuga reptans), Spotted Orchis {Orchis mactdata), and Smooth 
Horsetail {Equisetum limosum). Where richer humus has 
accumulated, and conditions tend to a drier state, other 
pla,nts are gradually asserting themselves, such as Red Clover 
{Trifolium pratense). White Clover {T. repens), Least Clover 
( r. dubium), Greater Birdsfoot {Lotus tenuis). Tufted Vetch 
{Vicia Cracca), Black Knapweed {Centaur ea nigra). Field 
Sorrel {Rumex acetosa), Rye Grass {Lolium perenne), and Cat's 
Tail Grass {Phleum pratense). 

The extreme verge of the cotton grass bog remnant is 
bordered by a growth of wet-loving grasses, the species being 
the Whorled Grass {Catabrosa aquatica). Water Sweet Grass 
{Glyceria fluiians). Tufted Hair Grass and Elbowed Fox-tail 

1912 Oct. I. 



300 Wattam : Buckton Marsh, East Yorks. 

Grass ( Alopecurus genie ulatiis), along with the Soft Grass, 
Creeping Crowfoot, and Toad Rush. The portion dominated 
by the Narrow-leaved Cotton Grass {Eriophoriim vaginatum) is 
about twenty-five yards in extent, ten yards being about the 
width of the broadest part. Within this area is the flora, which 
at one time there is no reason to doubt, controlled the greater 
portion of Buckton Marsh. It is now the refuge of the following 
plants, many of which, as the natural drainage continues to 
operate, making more easy the conquest of the soil by stronger 
growing plants which encircle it, will, within no great length 
of time, be non-existent, namely. Marsh Marigold, Lesser 
Spearwort, Bog Stitchwort ; Grass of Parnassus {Parnassia 
pahistris), rare, seven plants only seen, three in bloom ; 
Sundew [Drosera rotundifolia) four plants only seen ; Marsh 
Valerian, Marsh Cudweed {Gnaphaliitm iiliginosnm) ; Bog 
Pimpernel ( Anagallis tenella), very rare ; Bog Bean {Menyanthes 
trifoliata), plentiful ; Forget-Me-Not {Myosotis palustris), 
Water Mint, Marsh Lousewort {Pedienlaris palustris) ; Common 
Butterwort {Pinguicula vulgaris), fourteen plants seen ; Com- 
mon Bugle, Marsh Orchis {Orchis latifolia). Spotted Orchis, 
Jointed Rush, Marsh Grass [Triglochin palustre), abundant; 
Chocolate-headed Rush {Scirpiis pauciflorus), Pink-leaved 
Sedge, Yellow Sedge, Glaucous Sedge, Hairy Sedge [Carex 
hirta). Paradoxical Sedge (C. paradoxa), Short-beaked Bladder 
Sedge (C. vesiearia). Loose Sedge (C. distans), Smooth Horse- 
tail {Equisetum limosum) , Marsh Horsetail {E. palustre) and 
the moss Hypmtm cuspidatum. 

The drain has its origin from a pool a short distance east- 
wards from the marsh, where the drainage from adjacent 
cultivated lands is carried by pipes. It varies in depth from 
twelve to eighteen inches. Its flora is likewise interesting, and, 
of course, typical of such a habitat, the chief plants being 
Water Crowfoot {Ranunculus circinatus) , Ivy-leaved Crowfoot 
{R. hederaceus). Water Starwort {Callitriche verna and its' 
sub-species hamulata), Water Cress, Marsh Marigold, Brooklime 
{Veronica Beccahunga), Water Speedwell {V. Anagallis-aquatica), 
Forget-Me-Not, Spreading Rush, Whorled Grass, and Elbowed 
Fox-tail Grass. This drain is the chief feeder of the Mere on 
the outskirts of the village of Buckton. 

Mr. H. Wallis Kew sends us a reprint of a paper on the extraordinary 
observations he has inade with regard to the Pairing of Pseudoscorpiones 
{Proceedings Zoological Society of London, June 1912, pp. 376-390). 

We quote the following natural history gem from a well known daily 
paper : — ' Rare Bird Visitor. — Mr. C. Pattison Lowther, F.Z.S., who is 
staying at Kingsdown, near Deal, reports having seen a very rare bird, 
the Burm, near Sandown Castle. He believes this bird has ne\'er before 
been recorded in England. It is of the petrel class and is a native of the 
Sahara. Its peculiar reverse flight in stormy weather makes it very 
noticeable.' 

Naturalist, 



FIELD NOTES. 

FLOWERING PLANTS. 
Cotyledon in South=West Cumberland. — To Miss Dob- 
son's find for Hodgson's Div. II., South West Cumberland, may 
be added Cotyledon umbilicus L., which I found on a bank not 
far from Silecroft Church. Hodgson has no record for Div. II.— 
Mabel Petty, Ulverston. 

MAMMALS, 
Pygmy Shrew near Scarborough. — A Pygmy Shrew 
was taken by Mr. H. Witty, on July 21st, 1912, at Seamer 
Moor, and was brought to me for identification. This species 
is probably more abundant than the number of local records 
(two) indicate, as it is doubtless frequently confused with the 
common species.— W. J. Clarke, Scarborough. 

— : o : — 
BIRDS. 

Levantine Shearwater at Scarborough.^ — An adult 
Levantine Shearwater was shot a few miles south-east off Scar- 
borough from a boat, in the dusk of the evening of September 
3rd, and was brought to me in the flesh the same night.- — ^W. J. 
Clarke, Scarborough. 

Melanic Guillemot at Filey. — On July 9th, 1912, 
while upon Filey Brig, I saw a flock of Common Guillemots 
pass at a distance of about fifty yards from where I was 
standing. One of the individuals appeared to be of a uniform 
black, or dark brown all over above and beneath, the under 
parts being, so far as I could see at the distance, equally as 
dark in colour as the upper. The bird was much too large to 
be Uyia gryll&, and lacked the white patches which this 
species has on the wings. I have no doubt that it was a melanic 
variety of the Common Guillemot ( U. troile).- — W. J. Clarke, 
Scarborough. 

Honey Buzzard, etc., at liebden Bridge. ^ — It was reported 
to me in July that a strange bird was frequenting the moors at 
the head of the Cragg Valley, and that it had also been seen in 
the wooded portion considerably farther down. My one 
journey to the latter place in the hope of discovering it was 
unsuccessful ; as a matter of fact, as I heard later, the stranger 
had then been killed. Mr. W. Lord, taxidermist, Rochdale, 
received the bird for preservation, and in reply to my enquiry, 
he stated that it was a fine example of a male Honey Buzzard, 
of which my only previous record for the Hebden Bridge 
district is extracted from ' The Field,' and refers to an in- 
dividual shot at Blackstone Edge on October 8th, 1866. A 
Scoter which I saw at Withens reservoir on August loth, had 
been on that water for at least three weeks previously, according 
to the waterman. — Walter Greaves. 

igi2 Oct. I. 



302 Field Notes. 

MOLLUSC A. 
Marine Shells at Bridlington. — At a visit to Bridlington 
on July 30th, I came across several interesting shells, which, 
should be added to the list obtained there at the meeting of 
Yorkshire naturalists on May 27th, viz. : — Gari {Psammobia)i 
/eroensis, Cultellus pelliicidus, Capiilus hungaricus, Natica 
catena, Turritella communis, Ocinebra [Murex) erinacea, Nassa 
reticulata, Nassa incrassata, Bela trevelyana. Of these, Nassa 
reticulata and Ocinebra erinacea were very much worn, and 
Tiirritella communis is only a fragment of a half-grown shell. 
This mollusc abounds at Redcar, from which locality the shell 
has been probably washed down. Nassa reticulata, though one 
of the commonest shells of our southern shores, is very rarely 
found on the Yorkshire coast. This is only the second specimen 
which I have come across ; the other was at Scarborough, and 
was also much worn. Capulus hungaricus is the largest speci- 
men I have found on our coast, the young shell being not at all 
uncommon from Bridlington to Redcar. Like Pecten opercularis, 
it is probably an inhabitant of the deep sea, which comes in 
towards the shore to breed. Ocinebra is not a common shell 
on the Yorkshire coast, but appears to be rather more frequent 
in the south, about Hornsea, than in the north. The young 
occur, but seldom, in ' shell sand.' Cultellus pellucid us was 
also a very young specimen about one-third of an inch in 
length.— F. H. Woods, Bainton. 

HYMENOPTERA, etc. 

Hymenoptera; etc., at Tebay. — The following is a list 
of the Aculeate Hymenoptera, etc., captured or seen during the 
Tebay excursion of the Yorkshire Naturalists' Union, the most 
interesting capture was that of a dipteron — Sericomyia borealis.. 
Formica fusca L. (W. Y.), Myrmica rubra L. (W.Y.), Odyneru-s 
trimarginatus Zett. W., 0. parietiniis L., Vespa vulgaris L. 
(W. and Y.), V. sylvestris Scop. (W.), V. norvegica Fab. (W. and 
Y.), Halictus rubictindus Chr. (W. and Y.), H. cylindricus. Fab. 
W., Psithyvus vestalis Fourc (W. & Y.), Bombus agrorum Fab. 
(W. and Y.), B.lapponicus Fab. (Cautley Spout, one), B.prato- 
rum L. (W. and Y.), B. terrestris L. (W. and Y.). 

All the specimens were collected on the left-side of the river 
Lune, between Tebay and Lon Gill, B. lapponicus excepted. 

On July 6th I captured a fine male Sericomyia borealis Fin. 
on a head of Knapseed near Boroughbridge. 

Among Silurian debris near Tebay, I was delighted to find 
cocoons of a species of Osmia.- — Rosse Butterfield. 

* W. = Westmorland ; Y. = Yorkshire. 

Naturalist, 



Field Notes. 



303 



MOSSES. 
Mosses at Tebay. — On the occasion of the Yorkshire 
Naturalists' Union Excursion to Tebay, Mr. Bellerby and I 
confined our attention to Tebay Gill and Tebay Gorge, with 
the exception of a hurried visit to Orton Scar. The following 
list of mosses, therefore, refers to Westmorland : — 



A ndrecea petrophila Ehrb. 
Oligotvichiim hevcynicitni Lam. 
Diphyscium foliosum Mohr. 
Seligeria recuvvata B. and S. 
Dicranella squarrosa Schp. 
Campylopus atrovirens De Not. 
Gvimmia Doniana Sm. 
Rhacomitrium aciculare Brid. 
R. fasciciilare Brid. 
R. lanusiuositin Brid. 



Rhacomitrium caiiesceiis Brid. 
Bartramia ithyphylla Brid. 
Breutelia arcuata Schp. 
Wcbera elongata Schwaeg. 
Plagiobryiim Zievii Lindb. 
Antitrichia curtipendula Brid. 
Campotheciuni lutescens B. and S. 
Eurhynchium myosuroides Schp. 
Hylocomium rugositm De Not. 

F. Haxby. 



— : o : — 
VERMES. 

Cucullanus globosus in the Derwent. — In May 1912, 
I took from the stomach of a trout caught in the Derwent, at 
Forge Valley, a bright, coral-red parasitic worm, 3I inches in 
length. In the following month I found another similar 
specimen in the stomach of a trout caught in the Derwent near 
Hackness, the colouring in this individual not being quite so 
brilliant. I sent these to Prof. Nuttall, of Cambridge, 
who in turn submitted them to Dr. A. E. Shipley, who states 
that the worm is Cucitllamts globosus, a very rare species. An 
account of these worms will, I believe, appear in the Journal of 
Parasitology. — Wm. J. Clarke, F.Z.S., Scarborough. 

: o : 

Enemies of the Garden. In connection witla the interest now being 
taken in schools with regard to nature study, we are pleased to find that 
I\Iessrs. A. Brown and Sons, have issued a series of large wall diagrams 
(24 inches by 19 inches) prepared from special designs by the Rev. H. \V. 
Brutzer, F.E.S. The diagrams consist of the following : — (i) Outline 
OF Insect Life. — Hymenoptera, Coleoptera, Lepidoptera, details. (2) 
Lackey Moth. — Egg, Caterpillar, Nest, Cocoons, Female Lackey Moth, 
Egg Cluster. (3) Small Ermine Moth. — Eggs, Caterpillar, Cocoons, 
Ermine Moth, Nest in Apple Tree. (4) Gooseberry Sawfly. — Egg, 
Larva, Larva (last stage). Leaf, Sawfly, Branch, Cocoon. (5) Asparagus 
Beetle. — Eggs, Larva, Beetle, Pupa, Asparagus stripped of leaves, 
Cocoon. (6) Black Currant Mite. — Mite, Big Bud on Branch, Section 
of Bud with Mites. (7) R.aspberry Stem Bud Caterpillar. — Cater- 
pillar, Chrysalis, ;\Ioth (enlarged), Raspberry Cane. (8) Millipedes and 
Centipedes. — Three destructive iSIillipedes and two useful Centipedes. 
(9) Scale. — Currant Scale, Scale on Aralia and Myrtle Leaves and Mussel 
Scale. (10) Wireworms. — Click Beetle and Skip Jack showing details. 
(11) Pea Thrips, Cockchafer, Daddy Longlegs, Woodlouse and 
E.ARWiG, showing sections and details. (12) Some useful Insects. — 
Dragon Fly, Ichneumon Fly, Lady Bird, Tiger Beetle, Hover Fly, Glow 
Worm, Cocktail Beetle, Lacewing Fly. The diagrams are sold at 15s. the set, 
including a descriptive handbook, which may be had separately at the 
price of threepence. By the kindness of the publishers we are able to 
present our readers with reduced facsimiles of two of the diagrams. 
(Plates XVI. and XVII.). 

1912 Oct. I. 



304 

ARACHNIDA AT TEBAY. 



W. p. WINTER, B.Sc, 

Shipley. 



In spite of the bad weather a good deal of collecting was done 
on the Yorkshire Naturalists' Union excursion to Tebay, and 
I have to thank Messrs. Rosse Butterfield, T. Stringer, Cuth- 
bert Hastings and others for their help in bringing specimens 
to my notice. On Friday, August 2nd. the Lune Valley was 
examined from Tebay to How Gill. The two banks are in 
Westmorland until we reach How Gill from the stream in 
which the left bank is part of Yorkshire. Most of the West- 
morland collecting was done in this Gorge or in Tebay Gill. 

On Saturday, Cautley was explored. In the evening of 
Monday and the morning of Tuesday, the Lune Gorge was 
again visited, and on the latter occasion the foot of How 
Gill, on the Yorkshire side, was carefully worked. 

At Cautley Spout it was noticeable that Drassus lapidosiis 
(Walck.) was not uncommon under stones up to a considerable 
altitude, though it is by no means common in most of Airedale. 

In several places a large mite (identified by Dr. George 
as Rhyncolophus communis) was found in abundance on the 
lichen Parmelia saxatilis. These ran very fast when disturbed, 
but although careful search was made no definite cause of their 
collecting together could be discovered. The same mite has 
been found since then all over the areas of Airedale and Wharfe- 
dale. 

In the spiders a notable absentee was Phyllonethis 
lineata Clerck. Neither the type nor the variety redhnita 
was found, but this may be explained by the fact that very 
little search was made in the hedgerows and bushes in which 
it usually occurs. In a number of cases {e.g. Drassus, Cluh- 
iona, Coelotes, etc.), the young spiders had not long hatched 
and numerous females of Lycosa were carrying their young 
on their backs. 

In the following lists the separation between the counties 
has been made. The names marked with an asterisk are those 
of specimens collected in 1909 in Rawthey Valley and sent to 
me by Mr. Booth. I have included these to make the list as 
complete as possible. The spiders collected at the time of 
the excursion number 49, the harvestmen five, with one false 
scorpion and two mites, a total of 57 arachnids, the most note- 
worthy being P. listen Sund. and Clubiona diversa Camb. 

WESTMORLAND AND YORKSHIRE. 

Amaurobius fenestralis (Strocm) §. I Tegenaria derhamii (Scop) $. 

Common.* | Leptyphantes blackwallii (Kulcz) 9, 

Collates atropos (Walck) 9. 0- I o- Common.* 

Common.* ] L. ierviccila (C.L.K.) q. Cautley. 

Naturalist, 



Wi)ifer: Arachnid a at Tebay. 



305 



Poeciloneta globosa (Wid.) $, ^. 

Micryphcmtcs rurestvis (C.L.K.) \, 
^. How Gill. 

Pachygnatha degeerii (Sund.) ^, J. 
How Gill.* 

il/t-to. seginentafa (Clerck) 9, q^. 

Zilla -si-nofata (Clerck). $. How Gill. 

Tareutula pulveruhnta (Clerck) 5. 
How Gill. 

Lycosa cuiieutata (Clerck) 5- Com- 
mon. 

L. pitUata (Clerck) $, ^. Common. 



Ph.\langidea. 

Oligolophus mono (Fabr.) 
O. alpiiius (Herbst). 
O. agvbstis (Meade). 
Xeiiiastoina lugiibre (O.F.M.) *. 

PSEUDOSCORPIONS. 

Obisium muscorum (Leach). 

Mites. 

Rhyncolophits communis. 



WESTMORLAND ONLY. 

(Mostly from the valley of the Lune). 



Oonops pulckey (Tempi.) q. 

ough Bridge). 
Clubiona recliisa (Cambr.) $ 
C. diversa (Camb.) 2. 

Cryphoeca silvicola(C.'L.K.) § 
Robertiis lividits (BI.) $. 
Tapinopa longidens (Wid.) § 
Dolyphantcs alticeps (Sund.) 
Stemonyphantes liiieafa (Linn.) 
Livyphia iusignis (Bl.) $, ^. 
L. tviangidaris (Clerck.), 9. o- 
L. clathrata (Sund.) $. 
Labidla thoracica (Wid.) $. 
Leptyphantes minutus (Bl.) '^. 

(Tebay Gill.) 
Bathyphantes co)icolor (Wid.) "^ 
B. nigvinus (Westr.) $, ^. 
(Edothovax juscits (Bl.) ^. 



Bor- ' Neriene rubens (Bl). §, ^. 
I iV. rubella (Bl.) ^. 
\ Dismodicus bifrons (Bl.) $• 

Diplocephalus fuscipes (Bl.) 9- 

Pachygnatha clerckii (Sund.) 9. 

P. listevi (Sund.) 9. 

Meta merianae (Scop.) ^. 

Epeira diademata (Clerck.) 9. 

Trochosa terricola (Thor.) 9- 

Salticus scenicus (Clerck) 9- 

Phalangide.\. 

Liobtinum rotundum (Latr.) 
Phalangium opilio (Linn.) 

Mites. 

Rifteria nemontm. 



Segestria seuocitlata 

Cautley.* 
Drassiis lapidosiis (Walck.) 9-' 

Cautley. 
Textvix denticiilata (Oliv.).* 
Bolyphantes luteohis (Bl.) 9. (?• 

Cautley, How Gill. 
Linyphia niontaua (Clerck).* 
Agvneta conigeva (Cambr.). 9- How 

Gill. 



YORKSHIRE ONLY. 

(Linn.) 9. 



Lophomma herbigraditm (Bl.) 9- 
Cautley and How Gill. 

Pirata piraticus (Clerck.) 9. o- 
How Gill. 

Lycosa nigriceps (Thor.) 9- Caut- 
ley. 

L. palustvis (Linn.) 9- Cautley. 
Phalangidea. 

Megabuniis insignis (Meade).* 

Oligolophus tridens (C. Koch.).* 



Part X\'. of The Bradford Antiquary contains one or two papers of 
interest to readers of The Xaturahst. Dr. Villey describes the Roman 
site at Kirk Sink, Gargrave, near Skipton, and the Ancient Slag Heaps 
on Rumbolds INIoor, though the conclusions in the latter are particularly 
indelinite. Mr. Preston describes an ancient stone cross on Riva Hill. 
There is a curious note from the Thornton Churchwardens' accounts for 
1 82 1 : — ' It is agreed by the Consent of the \\'ardens together with Mr. 
Bishop as Master that John Drake seenor shall hould the office as Eeagel 
or Dogwhipper so long as he shoU be able and to the satisfaction of the 
minester and the Inhabetants of the Chaplry of Thornton.' 

1912 Oct. I. 



3o6 

SECOND SUPPLEMENT TO THE FLORA OF 
DEWSBURY AND DISTRICT. 



Bv THE Late P. FOX LEE. 



{Continued fyom page 28g). 

691. V. LUTEA L. Cakler bank, Mirfield. 

694. V. PANNONICA Crantz. Waste ground, Mirfield. 

695. V. MELANOPS Sibth. and Sm. Waste ground, by 
Hirst's old Malt-kiln, Mirfield. 

699. V. AMPHiCARPA Dorthes. Waste ground, by Hirst's 
old Malt-kiln, Mirfield. 

701. V. PEREGRINA L. Calder bank, Mirfield. 

715. Lathyrus angulatus L. \A'aste ground, Mirfield. 

721. L. ciCERA L. Waste ground, corn mill, Mirfield. 

726. L. Aphaca L. Manure heap, Batley ; waste ground, 
Mirfield. 

1 103. Carum carui L. Caraway. Waste place by Corn- 
mill, Shepley Bridge. 

1 157. CoRiAXDRUM SATIVUM L. Waste ground, Shepley 
Bridge. 

1 166. Caucalis daucoides L. Corn mill, waste ground. 
(H. Parkinson). 

1169b. C. NODOSA var. pedunculata. ^lalt-kiln, waste 
ground, Mirfield. 

1171. C. LATiFOLiA L. ^^'aste ground, Shepley Bridge 
(H. Parkinson). 

1210. AsPERULA ARVENSis L. Waste grain ground, Mir- 
field. 

1233. Cephalaria syriaca Schrad. Old lime kilns, Mir- 
field (Messrs. Buckley and Jessop). 

1288. Parthenium hysterophorus L. Waste ground 
h>y old corn mill, Mirfield (Messrs. Buckley and Jessop). 

1299. Helianthus decapitatus L. Waste ground, Shep- 
ley Bridge. 

1322. Tagetes micrantha Cav. Calder bank, Ledgard 
Bridge, Mirfield (Messrs. Buckley and Jessop). 

1324. Anacyclus radi.\tus Lois. Waste ground, Mir- 
field.' 

1340. Anthemis altissima L. Old cornmill, Mirfield 
(Messrs. F. Buckley and A. Jessop). 

1344. A. RUTHENICA Biel. Waste ground, Shepley 
Bridge. 

1364. CoTULA AUREA Loefl. Waste ground, corn mill and 
Calder bank, Mirfield. 

1410. Calendula officinalis L. Waste ground, Mirfield, 

1422. Carduus nutans L. (Near) Corn mill, waste 
place, Shepley Bridge. 

Naturalist, 



The Flora of Deivsbury and District. 307 

1432. CiRSiUM OLERACEUM Scop. Cakler bank, Ledgard 
Bridge, .Alirfield (Messrs. H. Wright and P. F. Lee). 

1469. Centaurea napifolia L. Sutcliffe's corn mill, 
waste ground, Mirfield. 

1476. Carthamus lanatus L. By old cornmill, iMirtield 
(Messrs. Buckley and Jessop). 

1478. ScoLYMUS HiSPANicus L. Waste place on bank of 
river Cakler. Mirfield (H. Wright and P. F. Lee). 

1799. Anxhusa uxdulata L. By old corn mill, ]Mir- 
field (Messrs. Buckley and Jessop). 

1803. Anxhusa stylosa Bieb. Waste place, cornmill, 
Mirfield. 

1846. Solanum nigrum L. Field corner, Mirfield and 
Cooper Bridge (H. Parkinson). 

2014. Satureia (Calamintha) graveolexs Carnel. By 
Hirst's corn mill, IMirfield. There is some doubt about this 
name (F. A. Lees). 

2029. Salvia hormixum L. Corn screening ground, 
Mirfield. 

2039. Dracocephalum parviflorum Nutt. Bv Hirst's 
old Malting Mill, Mirfield. 

2048. Sideritis MONTANA L. Waste ground by INIalting 
Mill, Mirfield (Messrs. Buckley and Jessop). 

2067. WiEDEMANNiA ORiENTALis Fisch. & Mey. Cakler 
bank, Mirfield (Messrs. Buckley and Jessop) ; Sutcliffe's 
corn mill, waste ground, ^lirfield (F. W. Whitaker and 
P. F. Lee). 

2095. Plantago lagopus L. Corn screening ground, 
Mirfield. 

2123. CheN'OPODIUM opulifolium Schrad. On mill 
waste ground, Batley and Mirfield. 

2185 ? Polygonum arenarium W.K. An elegant plant. 
Probably a grain casual. Calder bank, Shepley Bridge (H. 
Parkinson). 

2251. L^RTiCA pilulifera L. Roman nettle. An intro- 
duction with foreign barley. By ^lalt-kiln, ^Mirfield (H. 
Parkinson). 

2652. Phalaris brachystachys Link, and 

2654b. P. PARADOXA var. praemorsa Coss. and Dur. 
Waste ground, Malt-kiln, Mirfield. 

2658. Anthoxanthum aristatum Boiss. ' A rare 
casual brought with foreign fleeces presumptively ; the triple- 
awned glume renders it liable to play the part of a burr ' 
(F. A. Lees). On wool-waste out-thrown in Caulmswood, 
Dewsbury : a wood, alas ! no longer, but at one time a pretty 
place. Not in " Dunn's Alien Flora." 

2677. Phleum phleoides Simonk. {P. hoehmcri Wit). 
Seed-alien. Waste ground, Mirfield. 

1912 Oct. I. 



3o8 The Flora of Deiashury and District. 

2844 (sub). Triticum monococcum Willd. {T. astivuin, 
race of). Wool waste heap, Dewsbury. 

2803. Bromus unioloides H.B. & K. On wool refuse, 
Dewsbury ; on woollen mill refuse, Batley. ' A grass of very 
wide distribution in tropical, sub-tropical, and even temperate 
regions, having been long used as a fodder crop. As such its 
seed has been recently on sale in Britain. Its few records as 
sub-spontaneous point, however, rather to its importation 
with foreign grain ' (Dunn's ' Alien Flora,' p. 192). ' I 
find it most frequent about fellmongery factories where fleeces 
have been scoured.' (F. A. Lees). 

(6). Aliens with Wools — on Wool-waste heaps 
NEAR Mills. 

240. Lepidium ruderale L. On wool-waste places by 
mills. 

282. Reseda phyteuma L. Calder bank, Dewsbury. 

454. Malva pusilla With. Roadside, Mirlield. 

456. M. parviflora L. Manure heap, Batley. 

457. M. i-EoYPTiA L. Waste ground, Mirfield. 

496. Erodium ciconium Willd. Waste ground, Mirfield. 

497e. E. cicuTARiuiM var. chgerophyllum (Cav.). Woollen- 
rubbish heap, Batley Carr. 

499. E. CYGNORUM Nees. A pretty alien. Wool-waste 
heap, Batley Carr. 

549. Trigonella gladiata Stev. The Sword Fenugreek. 
Manure-heap, Batley ; waste ground, Mirfield. 

551. T. monspeliaca L., and 

552. T. CORNICULATA L. Manure heap, Mirfield. 

566. Medicago ORBICULARIS All. By Malt-kiln, Mirfield 
(Messrs. Buckley and Jessop). 

580. M. arabica Huds. (M. maciilata Sibth.). Colonist. 
Frequent in places where wool-waste has been tipped. 

590. Melilotus messanensis All. Wool-manure heap, 
Batley. ' Native of damp ground in the Mediterranean 
region, becoming a weed on cultivated ground there and in 
the East ' (Dunn's ' Alien Flora,' p. 61). 

1045. Lythrum hyssopifolia L. Casual. Burgh Fields, 
Ravensthorpe (H. Pai-kinson). 

iioi. Ammi majus L. Waste place by Malting IMill, 
Mirfield. 

1102. A. viSNAGA Lam. The Fennel Carrot. A hand- 
some S. European Umbellifer. Wool-waste heap, Batley. 
' A native of sandy ground in the Eastern Mediterranean 
region' (Dunn's 'Alien Flora,' p. 82). 

1291. Ambrosia artemisifolia L. Wool refuse heap, 
Batley. 

Naturalist, 



The Flora of Dewsbury and District. 309 

1292. A. TRiFiDA L. Waste ground, West Mills, Mirfteld 
(Messrs. Buckley and Jessop) ; Shepley Bridge. 

1312. Galinsoga parviflora Cav. Wool-waste heap, 
Batley. ' Native of rough, marshy, and stony ground in 
Central and South America ' (Dunn's ' Alien Flora,' p. 115). 

1314. Madia sativa Molina. By old corn mill, Mirfteld 
(Messrs. Buckley and Jessop). 

1465. Centaurea Calcitrapa L. On wool waste heap, 
Batley Carr. 

1466. C. CALCiTRAPOiDES L. Batley wool tips. 

1467b. C. PALLESCENS Del. (perhaps) var. hyalolepis 
Boiss. Batley wool tips. 

1473. C. VERUTUM L. Waste places by corn mills, Mirfteld. 
' With peculiar decurrent leaves and yellow florets, the phyl- 
larial spines like a javelin ' (F. A. Lees). 

iyg2bis. Symphytum asperrimum Donn. Calder bank, 
Dewsbury. 

2110. Amaraxthus retroflexus L. \\'ool-waste heap, 
Batley. 

2122 Chenopodium murale L. Shoddy manure heap, 
Batley. 

2639. Setaria viridis Beauv. Waste ground by woollen 
mill, Calder bank, Mirfteld. 

One of the earliest colonising grasses, doubtless a legacy of 
Trade, but in light soils now perfectly denizened in 34 or 35 
County divisions, and be it remembered from 200 to 100 years 
ago some dozens of species now accepted as of our Flora, were 
in like case with Setaria, in the act of coming into their inheri- 
tance. How else, with so many gradual extinctions, should 
the ranks of Britain's floral forces be maintained ? (F. A. 
Lees). 

2640. Setaria glauca Beauv. Casual on wool-waste 
Dewsbury. 

2690. PoLYPOGON monspeliense Desf. Beard-grass. 
On old sunken boat, Dirtcar side of river Calder, near Horbury 
(W. Rushforth) ; wool-waste heap, Dewsbury. An intro- 
duction with wool, generally. Native on the S. E. Coasts ; 
Norfolk, Essex, Kent, Hants., where it is a rare grass, ' But 
extending its range,' Mr. Lees adds. 

2797. Bromus tectorum L. Waste ground by corn 
mill, Shepley Bridge. 



Hull Museum Publication, No. 86, contains an illustrated note on a 
new fossil fish from Barton, 'An Old Hull Whaler,' ' Spurn and Justinian 
Angell,' and an illustrated account of the opening of the new museum of 
Fisheries and Shipping at Pickering Park. It is sold at one penny. 

1913 Opt. I. X 



310 

THE SPIDERS OF WICKEN, CAMBRIDGE. 



WM. FALCONER. 

Slaith'ivaite, Huddersjieli!. 



(Plate XV.). 

Only a few scattered fragments of that great marshland 
which once covered so large an area of the counties of Lincoln, 
Huntingdon, Cambridge, and Norfolk, can now be found in 
an aboriginal condition. The best known of these remnants 
of virgin fen is at Wicken. Portions of it have been acquired 
from time to time and formed into reservations in which it 
is hoped that the interesting fauna and flora characteristic 
of the fenland will find a permanent sanctuary and be saved 
from that extinction which threatened so many species a few 
years ago when it was proposed to drain the fen and bring it 
under cultivation. The moist conditions which are natural 
to the fen are favourable to the production of a superabundance 
of the lower forms of life, which constitute a never failing 
source of a plentiful food supply for a great number of small 
predaceous animals which act as effective agents in keeping 
their prolificness within due bounds. That these hosts of 
minute creatures in all stages of development are able to sur- 
vive the periodical inundations to the depth of from two to 
four feet (the tops of the tall reeds and short willows alone 
showing above the water) which occur during the winter months, 
indicate marvellous powers of adaptation in structure and habits 
to apparently very adverse conditions. 

Although so long and regularly resorted to by naturalists, 
the fen has not yet been systematically worked for its Arachnida. 
Mr. W. Farren collected spiders there in the early part of 1869, 
Mr. F. O. P. Cambridge in 1889, and Mr, C. Warburton in 
1892, and workers in other branches of natural history have 
occasionally bottled conspicuous and obtrusive examples and 
forwarded them for identification to the Rev. O. Pickard 
Cambridge, who has noted sixteen of them in the ' Trans. Linn. 
Soc' Vols, xxvii and xxviii, and in various annual parts of the 
' Proceedings of the Dorset Field Club.' From the quality 
of these records it seemed certain that the fen in time would 
become as famous for rare spiders as it is already for rare 
plants, birds and insects. This view was fully borne out by 
the results of investigations made by myself from May 25th 
to 28th, and by Dr. A. Randell Jackson from June 5th to 
1 2th of the present year. Together we met with 100 differ- 
ent species amongst which were several rare British spiders 
not previously reported from the locality, notably Crustulina 
sticta Camb., Taramicnits setostis Camb., Lophomma subce- 
quale Westr., Entclecara trijrons Camb., Tetragnatha nigrita 
Lendl., Trochosa spinipalpis F. O. B. Cb., and Sitticus caricis 

N aturalist, 



Falconer : The Spiders of Wicken, Cambridge. 311 

Westr. Two others, Zora letifera and Neon valentulus, are 
new to science, and a third, Maso gallica Sim., new to Britain. 
We failed to obtain seven species already recorded, viz., 
Drassus pubescens Thor., Theridion blackwallii Camb., Lepty- 
phantes minutiis BL, Phanlothrix hardii Bl., Mengea warbur- 
tonii Camb., Baryphyma pratensis Bl., and Evarcha arciiata 
Clerck., but they have been added to the following list making 
a total of 107 species. These, with the exceptions noted in 
loco, V ere taken in the fen itself, either by sweeping or beating 
the vegetation, shaking the thick tufts of grass and sedge, or 
sifting the vegetable debris on the ground and the heaps of cut 
herbage w^hich lie undisturbed for months together and become 
the chosen refuge of a multitude of all kinds of creatures. 
Individual spiders of the larger kinds have learnt to ascend the 
lepidopterists' artificial posts to prey upon the moths attracted 
by the sugar. Examples of Epeira cornuta Clerck., two males, 
Chibiona holosericea Degeer., two females, Tibellus maritimus 
Menge., one female, and Xysticus ulmi Hahn., one female, were 
so found one evening, when I accompanied Mr. B. Williams 
of London, on his round. 

My best thanks are due to Dr. Jackson for so generously 
allowing me the use of his material and notes, and to the Rev. 
O. Pickard Cambridge, and Mons. E. Simon, to whom one or 
two of the more critical species were submitted. 

Where no initials occur in the following list, it is to be 
understood that the species was obtained both by Dr. Jackson 
and myself. For convenience also I have named the lepidop- 
terists' drove the Drove, and the grassy road bordered on 
both sides with trees which runs alongside the fen, the Drive. 

ARANEAE. 

Harpactes hombergii Scop. Three females from ivy covered 
gateposts in the Drive, W. F. 

Drassus pubescens Thor. Proc. Dorset Field Club, Vol. 
xxvi, 1905, p. 42, Mr. F. P. Smith. A widely distributed but 
infrequent spider. 

ScotophcBiis blackwallii Thor. An adult female from 
stables in the village, A. R. J. ; another from a wall in the 
village, handed to me by Mr. Stallman, of London. 

Prosthesima latreillei C. L. Koch. An adult female, A. R. J. ; 
an immature female from heap of cut herbage in the Drove. 
W.F. Neither this species nor 5. blackwallii are common, 
although widely distributed. 

Micaria pulicaria Sund. One adult male with the last 
named. W.F. 

Clubiona grisea, L. Koch, both sexes, not uncommon. 

C. lutescens Westr. Both sexes from the fen and ivy cov- 
ered gateposts in the Drive. 

•1912 Oct. I. 



312 Falconer : The Spiders of Wicken, Cambridge. 

C. negect2 Camb. An adult female from the Drove. W.F^ 
A scarce spider but widely distributed. 

C. holoscricea Degeer. Both sexes common. 
C. pallidida Clerck. Both sexes in the same situations as 
C. lutescens. 

C. suhtilis L. Koch. Trans. Linn. Soc, Vol. XXVII.,. 
p. 414, taken in the fen in great numbers by Mr. W. Farren, 
in 1869. It occurred also plentifully at the time of our visit. 
A sou hern species but on record also for Spurn Point, York- 
shire and near Edinburgh. 

C. comta C. L. Koch. One female, the Drive, W.F. 
Zora letijera. sp. nov. figs, i, 2, 3, 4. While collecting in 
the fen adult and immature examples of both sexes of a lighter 
coloured and less strongly marked Zora than usual came 
under my notice. On submitting them to microscopical exami- 
nation, they were found to differ in several specific details 
from other members of the genus. I concluded therefore 
they were of a new species. Other examples were subsequently 
taken by Dr. Jackson who formed the same opinion and for- 
warded specimens to the Rev. O. Pickard Cambridge, who 
concurs in the view taken of them. I therefore describe and 
figure it postea page 317 as a sp. nov. under the above name. 
Dictyna uncinata Westr. Both sexes on the bushes at the 
entrance to th j Drove and along the Drive. 

Amanrohius similis Bl. In a wall in the village, W.F. 
Textrix denticiilata Oliv. Several females from ivy covered' 
gateposts in the Drive, W.F. 

Antistea elegans C. L. Koch. Several adult and immature 
females from various parts of the fen. 

Episinus trmicatns Walck. An adult male, A.R.J. ; an im 
mature male, W.F. 

Theridion denticulatum Walck. Three females from tree 
trunks in the Drive, W.F. 

T. varians Hahn. A female from the lane leading to the 
fen, A.R.J. ; several of the same sex from overhanging ivy in 
the village, W.F. 

T. himaculatum Linn. Many males and females from both 
sides of the Drove. 

T. pallens Bl. A few females from branches of a tree near 
the village, W.F. 

T. blackwallii Camb. Trans Linn. Soc. Vol. XXVII. , 
p. 419, plate 55 no. 16, Mr, W. Farren, an adult male, Feb. 
1869 — the type specimen. A rare British spider which has 
been met with at Cambridge, Oxford, Richmond Park (Surrey), 
in Durham and Northants. 

Phylloncthis lineata Linn. The Drove and the Drive. 
Steatoda bipunctata Linn. Several immature males from 
stables in the village, A.R.J. 

Naturalist, 



Falconer : The Spiders of Wicken, Cambridge. 313 

Criistulina sticta Camb. (figs 21-22). Eight males and several 
females m various parts of the fen. A local spider but occurring 
in several widely separated localities in the south of England. 
Robertus arundinetiCa.mh. One male. A.R.J. ; one female. 
W.F. A rare British spider which has occurred in Dorset^ 
Kent, Yorkshire, Northumberland, Cumberland, at Paisley 
and Forres in Scotland, and in the Isle of Man. 

R. lividus Bl. An adult male from the Drove. W.F. 
Linyphia Montana Clerck. Both sexes on the bushes alone 
the Drive. W.F. 

L. clathrata Sund. Females on both sides of the Drove. 

Taramtcmts setosus Camb. A few females amongst long herb- 
age. A.R.J. ; three males. W.F. A very rare British spider, 
on record for Dorset, Northumberland, Newtown Moss (Penrith) 
and Cheshire. 

Leptyphantes leprosiis Ohl. A male from stables in the 
village. A.R.J. 

L. minutus Bl. Trans Linn. Soc. Vol. XXVII, p. 428 An 
adult male, Mr. W. Farren, Feb., 1869.— sub. Linyphia 
cingulipes Camb. 

L. tenuis Bl. Two males, one female from havstack be- 
tween Wicken and Soham. A.R.J. 

L. ericcBus Bl. Females from both sides of the Drove. 

Bathyphantes concolor Wid. One male. A.R.J. 

B. pullatus Camb. Trans. Linn. Soc. Vol. XXVIII, p. 446. 
Several very young examples, Mr. W. Farren, sub. Linyphia 
crucifera Bl. The type of this variety also came from this 
locality. Several males and females from various parts of 
the fen. 

B. parvulus Westr. A few males amongst herbage in the 
fen. 

B. dorsalis Wid. Both sexes on the bushes in the Drove 
and along the Drive. 

Porrhomma microphthalmum Camb. An adult male from an 
outhouse in the village. W.F. 

Mengea warburtonii Camb. Proc. Dors. Field Club, \o\. 
XVI, 1895, p. 107. An adult female, Mr. C. Warburton. A 
rare British spider on record for Southport, Penrith, North- 
umberland and Yorkshire. 

Phaulothrix hardii Bl. Proc. Dors. Field Club, Vol XVII 
p. 59, Mr. C. Warburton. 

Agyneta conigera Camb. Many examples, both sexes, from 
various parts of the fen, especially in the heaps of cut herbage. 

Maso gallica Sim figs. 17, 18, 19, 20. Both sexes of this 
little spider which is new to Britain occurred freely in the fen, 
in both an adult and immature state. It is a very distinct 
species and an interesting addition to the British indigenous 
arachnid al fauna. Specimens were submitted to the Rev. O. 

1912 Oct. I. 



314 Falconer : The Spiders of Wicken, Cambridge. 

Pickard Cambridge, and Mons. E. Simon, the latter of whom 
kindly confirmed my naming. Description, etc., postea p. 320. 

Gongylidium riifipes Sund. Both sexes, the Drove and the 
Drive. 

(Edothorax gihhosus Bl. ) Both sexes from various parts 

(E. tuberosus Bl. | of the fen. 

(E. dentatus Wid. One male, two females on the left side 
of the Drove. W.F. 

Gongylidiellum vivum Camb. Several of each sex. A.R.J, 
two females, the Drove, W.F. 

G. murcid'um Sim. Proc. Dors. F. Cinb, Vol. XVI, 1895, 
p. 105. An adult male, Mr. W. Farren, 1869. Eight males, 
six females from both sides of the Drove, W.F. A very rare 
British spider occurring also in the New Forest. 

Tiso vagans Bl. One female swept from herbage. A.R.J, 
another from the right side of the Drove. W.F. 

Erigone atra Bl. Male and female. A.R.J. 

Lophomma punctatum Bl. Two females on the right side 
of the Drove. W.F. 

L. subaequale Westr. One male, A.R.J. A rare British 
spider which is now on record for ten widely separated local- 
ities in the British Isles. 

Dicymbium nigrum Bl. An adult pair on left side of the 
Drove, W.F. 

Enidia cornitta Bl. A few of each sex in the hedge of the 
lane leading to the fen. A.R.J. 

E. bitiibercnlata Wid. Many males and females both sides 
of Drove. 

Dismodicus bifrons Bl. In plenty, both sexes. 

Entelecara erythropus Westr. One female, the Drive. W.F. 

E. trifrons Camb. Swept from various parts and not rare. 

E. omissa Camb. Proc. Dors. F. Club. Vol. XXIII, 1902, 
p. 33. Mr. W. Farren (probably in 1869). Plentiful in the fen 
both in an adult and immature form, especially in the heaps of 
cut herbage. Except in this one place, a very rare British 
spider. 

Savignia jrontata Bl. Both sexes from both sides of the 
Drove. 

Araeoncus humilis Bl. One male, several females. 

Pocadicnemis pumila Bl. Plentiful in the fen, both sexes. 

Styloctetor penicillatus Westr. Two females, one from a 
tree trunk in the Drive and the other from a pear tree in the 
village. W.F. 

Tapinocyba subitanea Camb. One male and females from 
stables in the village. A.R.J. 

Baryphyma pratensis Bl. Trans. Linn. Soc. Vol. XXVII^ 
p. 450, plate 57 no. 36. sub Walckenaera meadii Camb, an 
adult male and immature examples of both sexes, Mr. W. 

Naturalist, 



Falconer: The Spiders of Wicken, Cambridge. 31^ 

Fairen, Febraury 1869 . Proc. Dors. F. Club, Vol, XII, p. 94 
sub. W. pratensis BL, an adult male, Mr. F. O. P. Cam- 
bridge, 1889. 

Widera antica Wid. One female in haystack betvv.en 
Wicken and Soham. A.R.J. ; another in the fen. W.F. 

Walckenaera nitdipalpis Westr. Three females. W.F. 

Cornicularia unicornis Camb. Several females from both 
sides of the Drove. 

Ero fiircata Vill. Two females from near the top end of 
the fen. W.F. 

E. camhridgii Kulcz. Several females from both sides of 
the Drove. British examples of this species were until the 
publication of Kulczynski's ' Fragmenta Arachnologica IX,' 
January 1911, pp. 61-2, plate B, figs. 79, 81, 82. confounded 
with E. furcata Vill. Since, however, it has been recognised 
in Dorset, New Forest, Cheshire, Yorkshire, Cumberland, and 
Northumberland. 

Tetragnatha cxtensa Linn. One male swept from rushes. 
A.R.J. 

T. solandrii Scop. Both sexes plentiful on bushes at the 
entrance to the Drove and along the Drive. 

T. obtusa C. L. Koch. Both sexes beaten from bushes at 
the entrance to the Drove. 

T. nigrita Lendl. Two males and some females in company 
with T. obtusa. A.R.J. A very rare British spider from one or 
two localities in the South of England. 

Pachvgnatha degeerii Sund. One or two females in the fen. 
A. R.J. ' 

P. clerckii Sund. Females from various parts of the fen. 

Meta segmeutata Clerck. Females along the Drive. W.F. 

Singa herii Hahn. Proc. Dors. F. Club. Vol. XIV. 1893, 
p. 160. First British record, Mr. C. Warburton, one adult 
male, July, 1892. Vol. XXXI, 1910, p. 61, another male, 
Mr. Warburton, 1900. One adult male swept from grass in 
the drove. A.R.J. There are, so far as I am aware, no other 
British records of this very rare spider. 

Zilla x-notata Clerck. Buildings in the village. W.F. 

Epeira citcitrbitina Clecrk. Both sexes plentiful on bushes 
at the entrance to the Drove and along the Drive. 

E. umbratica Clerck. One female outside a window in the 
village. A.R.J. ; many females on gates in the Drive, invisible 
during the day, hiding in cracks, but coming out in the dusk 
to ensnare their prey. W.F. 

E. cornuta Clerck. Both sexes in the fen and along the 
Drive. 

Xysticus ulmi Hahn. Trans. Linn. Soc. Vol. XXVII, p. 403. 
Immature male sub. Thomisus Weshe'oodii Camb., Mr. W. 
Farren, 1869. Proc. Dors. F. Club. Vol. XIV, 1893, p. 160, 

1912 Oct. J. 



3i6 Falconer : The Spiders of Wicken, Cambridge. 

one female, Mr. C. Warburton, July, 1892. Several males 
and females from various parts of the fen. On record for 
several widely separated localities chiefly in the South of 
England ; also noted at Howth, in Ireland. 

Oxyptila flexa Camb. Proc. Dors. F. Club. Vol. XVI, 1895, 
p. 118. One of each sex, Mr. W. Farren, but taken years before 
being recorded (1869). Both sexes adult and immature from 
various parts of fen. Not a common spider but widely dis- 
tributed. 

0. trux Bl. Both sexes, not rare in the fen. 

Philodromus dispar Walck. A female in lane leading to 
fen, another in an outhouse in the village. A.R.J. ; a third in 
the fen. W.F. 

Philodromus cespiticolis Walck. On bushes at the entrance 
to the fen, both sexes. 

Thanatus hirsutus Camb. Trans Linn. Soc. Vol. XXVIII, 
p. 438. Numerous examples, all immature, A. p. 1869, Mr. W. 
Farren. One female, A.R.J. A rare British spider, which 
has occurred in Dorset, Northumberland, Lincolnshire, and 
Newtown Moss (Penrith). 

Tibelhis maritimus Menge. Both sexes occur reely in the 
fen. Some years ago Professor Kulczynski expressed an 
opinion that we had two species in Britain confused under the 
name of T. oblongus Walck. This was proved to be the case 
by Dr. Jackson in the ' Lancashire Naturalist for April, 1911, 
p. 386.' The distribution of the more recently recognised 
species in this country is still to be worked out. 

Pisaura mirabilis Clerck. One of each sex. A.R.J. 

Pirata piraticus Clerck. From various parts of the fen. 

P. latitans Bl. Females. A.R.J. 

Trochosa spinipalpis F. O. P. Cb. One male, several females 
A.R.J. ; two females. W.F. from both sides of the Drove. A 
very rare British spider on record for Dorset, Cumberland 
and Northumberland. 

Lycosa amentata Clerck. Two or three females in the fen. 
A.R.J. 

L. farrenii Camb. Trans. Linn. Soc, Vol. XXVII, p. 395, 
plate 54, no. 2., Mr. Wm. Farren, February 1869, the type 
specimens. Both sexes frequent in the fen. A rare British 
spider, probably occurring in other fenland districts. 

L. pullata Clerck. Three females near the village. W.F. 

L. prativaga C. L. Koch. Both sexes frequent in the fen. 

L. palustris Linn. One female, the Drove. A.R.J. 

Salticus cingulatns Panz. A female on left side of Drove 
and another on a gatepost in the Drive. W.F. 

Heliophanus flavipes C. L. Koch. One male in the fen. 
A.R.J. 

Marpessa pomatia Walck. Reported several times from 

Naturalist, 



Falconey : The Spiders of Wicken, Cambridge. 317 

the fen. Proc. Dorset F. Club., Vol. XII, p. 97, one female, 
Mr. F. O. P. Cambridge, 1889 ; Vol. XIV, 1893, p. 161, several 
adult males, Mr. C. Warburton, July, 1892 ; Vol. XXIII, 1902, 
one male, Mr. H. Donisthorpe, September 1900. It occurred 
numerously, spun up in the heads of Ariindo phragmitis. A.R.J. 
more occasionally at large amongst vegetation on the ground. 
W.F. A very rare British spider, which has been met with 
also at Southport. 

Neon valenhilus sp. no v. figs. 9, 10, 11, 12. Numbers of 
adults of both sexes of this interesting little jumping spider 
were met with amongst and between the tufts of grass and sedge 
at the top end of the fen, more particularly on the right of the 
Drove, and less plentifully in the heaps of cut herbage. When 
alive it appeared purplish black in colour, which under micro- 
scopical examination by reflected light resolved itself into 
iridescent tints. This feature which was constant in the males 
was much less noticeable in some of the females. In the course 
of two or three weeks immersion in spirit, the iridescent effects 
gradually fade away but afterwards faintly return when the 
specimen is allowed to dry. Examples were subsequently 
submitted to the Rev. O. Pickard Cambridge and Mons. E. 
Simon. The latter stated it to be Neon reticitlatus Bl. forma 
ohscura, common in France. I can find no mention of this 
variety in print and I have seen no French specimen of it, 
but the Wicken examples, at all events, possess characters 
which justify their being regarded as quite distinct from the 
spider above-named. I therefore describe and figure it as a 
sp. nov. postea p. 321. 

Euophrys frontalis Walck. An adult male and several 
immature females from various parts of the fen. 

Sitticus cariciis Westr. One female adult and several 
immature from the fen. A.R.J. A rare spider on record for 
Dorset, Hants., Wilts., Herts., Norfolk, Suffolk, and Cumber- 
land ; in most cases sub. Dendryphantes hastatus C. L. Koch. 

Evarcha arcuata Clerck. Proc. Dorset Field Club., Vol. 
XXVI, 1905, p. 55, an adult male, Mr. F. P. Smith, sub. 
Hasarius arcuatus Clerck. A rare British spider on record for 
Dorset, Burnham Beeches, New Forest, Epping Forest, Wok- 
ingham and Hastings. 

DESCRIPTION OF NEW SPECIES, Etc. 

Zora let if era sp. nov. Figs, i to 4. Adult males, 2.9 to 
3.3 mm. ; adult females, 5.9 mm. 

Male. 
PALPUS, figs I, 2, 3, pale yellow brown, with tarsal joint 
only slightly duller, thinly covered with shortish adpressed 
hairs. Femur with three dorsal spines in terminal half, 

lg!2 Oct. I. 



3i8 Falconer : The Spiders of Wicken, Cambridge. 

and one internal lateral apical spine. Patella i-i basal 
dorsal spines. Tibia with some longer hairs and bristles, 
and a few dorsal, lateral and inferior long, black, sinuous 
spines. 

Patella, viewed from above, a little longer than wide, and 
very slightly enlarged upwards. 

Tibia, viewed from above, about the same length as the patella, 
but much slenderer, and less parallel-sided ; provided at 
upper external angle with a strong straight apophysis (fig. 
I, a), about as long as the width of the joint, directed 
forward, narrow at the base, but enlarged upwards, and 
then abruptly and obliquely contracted into a shortish, 
slender, black point. Other views of apophysis are given 
in figs 2, 3, a. 

Tarsus wide, oval, convex ; on the basal half of the external 
margin a wide vertical border, the edges of which converge 
upwards to a point (figs, i, 3, b) ; apex with a cluster of 
short stout spines. Palpal organs dull yellow brown ; 
bulb oval ; a long reddish brown spine originates near its 
centre, and passing downwards encircles its base and 
inner sides (fig. 2, c) ; a little nearer the apex proceeds a 
long, compressed, stout, sinuous, shiny, reddish process, 
extending beyond the summit of the bulb, its black ter- 
mination abruptly bent downwards and outwards in 
triangular form (figs. 2, i, 3, d). 

LEGS. — Yellow brown, with tibiae I. and IT, wholly or nearly 
so, and metatarsi I. and II. extreme tips only, suffused 
dark brown. Coxal brush on the under surface of legs 
IV., composed of longer, finer, more erect and less black 
hairs than in Z. spinimana, and covering more of the sur- 
face. 

Female. 

CEPHALOTHORAX clear yellow brown ; dark marginal line 
fragmentary, indicated only by a few small linear marks 
which do not extend to the frontal angle. Two uneven- 
edged dark lateral longitudinal bands run backwards from 
the posterior central eyes, brown in colour with transverse 
oblique irregular blackish patches, slightly enlarged and 
divergent backwards, and much narrower than either the 
central or lateral pale bands ; along the median line, a 
blender brown streak followed by a long narrow reddish 
strie. 

Ocular Area inclined, suftused with black between and around 
the central eyes, but the clypeits clear along the lower 
margin. 

Eyes. — Eight in two rows, only slightl}" raised ; posterior 

Natjtiralist,.- 



JFalconer : The Spiders of Wicken, Cambridge. 319 

row very strongly and anterior row very slightly, curved 
forwards. 

Anterior eyes, centrals much larger than the laterals, 
and more separated from each other (interval 
rather less than a diameter) than each is from the 
adjacent lateral. 
Posterior eyes equidistant, more than one diameter 
apart, the centrals slightly the larger, but visibly 
smaller than the anterior centrals. 
Central eye space nearly as wide as long, and as wide in 
front as behind ; without yellowish white pubes- 
cence. 
Clypeus convex, a little wider than the diameter of an anterior 
central eye, its lower margin with a few long projecting 
. incurved spinelike bristles. 

The mouthparts, sternum and spinners present no 
deviation from generic characters. 
Falces with a brown longitudinal band at the base on the 
anterior face, and the Sternum with indistinct brown 
marginal spots opposite the coxae of the legs. These 
two parts together with the leg coxae and under abdomen 
pale yellow brown. 
LEGS. — Order of length, 4. i. 2. 3. moderately long and strong, 
clear yellow brown ; all with long strong spines. The tips 
of the metatarsi alone suffused dark brown, the other 
portions of the legs being quite free from markings. 

TihicB I. and II., with two rows beneath of 7-7 or 8-8 
exceedingly long and strong (especially the posterior 
ones) raised prone spines ; dorsal spines none. 
Metatarsi I. and II., with two rows of 3.3 similar 

spines beneath. 
Tibiae and Metatarsi III. and IV., with dorsal, lateral 

and inferior spines. 
Tibiae IV., with three dorsal spines centrally placed 

in a longitudinal line. 
Femora with dorsal and latero-dorsal spines and on the 
internal side an oblique line running to the apex 
of 7 or 8 long slender spines, diminishing in size 
and strength upwards. Femora I. with a ver\' 
long strong erect spine in terminal half on anterior 
side. 
Tarsi without spines, scopulae confined to extremity 
of joint ; claws with fasciculated hairs. 
ABDOMEN somewhat elongated, the greatest width in pos- 
terior half ; clear yellow brown ; the dorsal dark brown 
patches arranged in three longitudinal lines, the central 
one divided at its anterior end and enclosing a lanceolate 
pale strip, characteristic of the Zors, much less pronounced 

1912 Oct. I. 



320 Falconer : The Spiders of Wicken, Cambridge. 

and more discontinuous, the lines in consequence much 
less conspicuous. Similar patches occupy the sides, and 
much smaller, more scattered ones the ventral surface. 

EPIGYNE a yellow brown plate, as wide as long, with a large 
round, whitish coloured depression, having in its hinder 
half two slender, reddish curved striae converging back- 
wards. SpermatheccB at fore external angles, round, con- 
tinued backwards by a curved tubular duct of nearly 
uniform width and only very slightly oblique. Fig. 4. 

The females from which the above description was taken 
had just become adult, and it is possible that greater age 
might bring a somewhat increased deposit of pigment. 

Z. letifera is closely allied to the commoner and more 
generally distributed Z. spinimana Sund. It is, however, a 
paler coloured, less richly marked, and for its size more slen- 
derly built spider. In the males of the two species, there are 
in addition, well-marked differences in the palpi. In Z. spini- 
mana Sund (figs. 5 to 7), the tarse and palpal organs are on a 
larger scale ; the tibia is much stouter and shorter, and has a 
differently formed apophysis (marked a) ; the apical process 
of the palpal bulb (marked d) is longer, much slenderer, less 
sinuous laterally, and more gradually acuminate at the end. 
In the female of the same species, the formation of the epigyne 
is dissimilar, the central depression being smaller, and more ill- 
defined, the rounded head of the anterior spermathecae smaller, 
and the tubuler dnct larger, widening more or less pos- 
teriorly, and more obliquely placed. Fig. 8. The dispor- 
portion in bulk between the two divisions of the body is much 
less ; both also wider in proportion to their length. The facies 
too, is quite different : the e5^es are larger, less unequal, 
more strongly elevated, and the centrals of both rows much 
the same size ; the ocular area is more vertical, and the middle 
part of it clothed with long yellowish white pubescence which 
is wanting in the new species. 

Maso gallica Sim. Les Arachnides de France. Tome 5, 
part 3, p. 862, sub. M. sundevalli Westr. 

Amongst British spiders, the two species of Maso at present 
recorded for this country may be very easily differentiated by 
(i) their small size ; (2) the two rows of long slender divergent 
spines beneath the tibiae and metatarsi of legs I. and II. 
(longer and stouter in the female) ; (3) the leg tarsi much 
shorter than the metatarsi ; (4) the broadly truncated front 
of the cephalothorax ; (5) the lateral eyes set on strong pro- 
minences ; and (6) the absence in the male of any cephalic 
lobe or elevation and of postocular impressions. 

The genus recognised, the characters most to be relied upon 

Naturalist, 



Falconer: The Spiders of Wicken, Cambridge. 321 

to separate M. gallica Sim. and M. sundevallii W'estr. are found 
in the genitalia of both sexes. 

Maso gallica Sim. Figs. 17 to 20. 
Male. • Fig. 17 and 18. 
PALPUS. Tibia above with a shallow depression at apex,, 
the external angle of which is rounded and the internal 
angle prolonged into a depressed, blunt, black-tipped 
apophysis, at the base of which are three club-shaped 
bristles. 

Tarsus. — Base drawn out into a conical elevation on the 
top of which are three club-shaped bristles. 
In NI. siindevallii Westr. the palpal tarsus is not drawn out 
at the base, the tibia is not excavated, and has no apophysis,, 
and the peculiar club-shaped bristles are entirely absent. 

Female. 

EPIGYNE, figs. 19 and 20. A low semi-circular transverse 
projection, having on each side a black horny space, and 
in the middle a slender, shortish cylindrical process, some- 
what raised and directed obliquely backwards. 
In the epigyne of M. sundevallii Westr., this raised oblique 
process is wanting. If a comparison be made between the 
present drawings and the figures of the latter species given in 
The Naturalist ,June 1910, p. 229, fig. 2, epigyne, fig. 3, male 
palpus, the distinction between both sexes of the two species 
will be clearly seen. 

Neon valentulus sp. nov. Adult males 1.9 to 2.5 mm. ; 
adult females 2.2 to 2.8 mm. 

Male. 

CEPHALOTHORAX very obscure yellow brown, very strongly 
suffused with black towards the margins, especially in 
front, with darker radiating lines behind and on the sides, 
and a strong black marginal line ; the front and sides 
of the caput with a black band dilated around the dorsal 
eyes, and marked with stronger and more bristly hairs 
on slightly raised bases. Tegument of the caput somewhat 
rugose. 

Eyes. — Those of the third row as large as the laterals of the 
first row, and as widely separated so that the dorsal eye 
quadrilateral is parallel-sided. Face eyes straight by 
summits, contiguous and surrounded by white hairs. 

Clypeus narrower than the radius of a front central eye, 
blackish, with a cluster of a few long slender incurved 
bristly hairs projecting outwards from its centre. 

1912 Oct. I, 



322 Falconer : The Spiders of Wicken, Cambridge. 

Falces short, slender, strongly suffused with black both on 
anterior and inferior surfaces, with obscure yellow brown 
oblong longitudinal streaks. 

Maxillae, except on the inner margin and the labium except 
on the anterior edge which are whitish, entirely suffused 
black. 

Sternum of a dusky hue, with a broad darker marginal border ; 
its entire surface covered with numerous small round 
yellow brown spots. 

PALPUS, figs. 9, 10, II, black. 

Tibia, short and stout, enlarged at distal extremity, 
widely and shallowly excavated a-t anterior margin : no 
proper apophysis, but the external angle strongly and 
shortly produced, its apex slightly curved outwards, and 
ending in a point. 

Tarsus oval, slightly hollowed on each side to receive the 
angular extremities of the tibia, with a distinct black 
border, longer than the tibia and patella ; a lighter col- 
oured patch near the extremity showing a number of 
small round dusky yellow brown spots, and covered with 
white hairs beyond which is a cluster of stronger black 
hairs. 

Palpal Organs, figs. 9 and 10, dusky brown, the greater part 
exserted from the tarse, and projecting backwards to the 
base of the tibia. Bulb, oval, its posterior extremity 
attenuated and rounded ; near its summit a strong, very 
oblique transverse fold ; close to the base of the tarse on 
the inner side springs a long black spine which extends 
in three wide curves to the very apex of the joint (figs. 
9 and II (a) ; through its lowest curve, exserted con- 
siderably beyond the tarsal margin and very conspicuous 
when viewed from above, a prominent stout yellow-brown 
process slightly elevated at the upper external angle, and 
■ densely covered especially at apical margin with very short 
strong denticulae. (Figs 9, 10, lib). 

LEGS, order of length, 4, i, 3, 2, Legs I a little thicker than 
the others. Femur I, slightly compressed and enlarged, 
with numerous long black curved bristles on its upper 
surface. Tibial and metatarsal spines, long and slender ; 
tibiae, 3-3 beneath ; metatarsi, 2-2 beneath. Contrary to 
Simon's characterisation of the genus in his Ai-achnides 
de France, Tome 3, p. 208, where the posterior legs are 
stated to be without spines, the metatarsi of III and IV 
are provided with spines but they are much shorter than 
those on I and II ; met. Ill, with four apical spines, the 
two beneath stronger than the two above, met. IV, two 
beneath only, but more laterally placed. A^. reticulatiis 
Bl. has these spines also. 

Naturalist, 



Falconer : The Spiders of Wicken, Cambridge. 323 

Every joint very extensively suffused with black, with 
yellow-brown oblong and linear patches on the large 
joints, small round spots on most of the joints and annul- 
ations of a similar colour at the articulations of the three 
terminal joints ; the tips of tarsi I, very pale coloured. 
ABDOMEN, oval, attenuated behind, broadly truncate in 
front where there are many long black bristly hairs ; very 
obscure yellow-brown in anterior half, becoming black 
in posterior half and on central surface ; unevenly covered 
with yellow-brown spots more irregular in shape and size, 
arranged on the sides in oblique longitudinal rows, and on 
the under abdomen in regular curved longitudinal lines, 
two on each side of the centre ; above in the posterior half 
these spots form a number of transverse angular bars ex- 
tending to the spinners, and in the posterior half four 
others larger than the rest form a quadrilateral. Tegu- 
ment very strongly ridged, laterally and behind. Spinners, 
normal in disposition and structure, bia^ k. 
Epigynal Area, as long as wide, the anterior part with 
two somewhat large, deep, round foveae, finely bordered, 
and separated by a narrow, smooth reddish keel ; the 
posterior portion extending to the epigastric fold, forming 
a large, smooth, slightly convex yellow-brown space, 
scarcely, if at all, passing the lateral level of the foveae. 
Most of the females resembled the male in general character- 
istics, but a few of them were larger than the rest, very much 
less suffused with black, and showed no irridescence, which 
cannot therefore be considered inherent in the species. N. 
valentuhts in form and structure is very close to N. reticulatus 
Bl. Apart from colouration and iridescence, the validity of 
the new species will mainly depend on the importance to be 
attached to the curious sexual differences. In the male, the 
palpus is on a larger scale, the tibia more slightly robust and its 
angular projections stouter ; the palpal organs more voluminous, 
the palpal spine (figs. 9 and 11a) very long, extending from the 
base to the apex of the tarsus ; the transverse fold very oblique ; 
the denticulated process (figs. 9, 10, 11, b.) projecting greatly 
beyond the tarsal border and very conspicuous from above. 
In Neon reticulatus Bl. the same parts are present but much 
reduced in size, somewhat differently shaped, and differently 
placed. The palpal spine (figs. 13, 15, a) a great deal shorter, 
curves slighter, originating below the middle of the tarsal bor- 
der ; the fold of the bulb directly transverse ; the palpal 
process (figs. 13, 15, b), smaller and slender, situated at the 
summit of the palpal organs and completely hidden from 
above. 

In the epigyne of N. reticulatus BL, the foveae are smaller, 
the posterior space larger, and extending well beyond the 

2912 Oct. I. 



324 Falconer : The Spiders of Wicken, Cambridge. 

lateral level of the foveae, so that the epigynal area is wider 
than long (fig. 16). 

Without exception, the males (and I took a great number) 
and the females (not so many) exhibited the sexual character- 
istics described above ; I dicl not meet with a typical example 
of N. reticulatus Bl. or with intermediate forms. 

REFERENCES TO PLATE. 

(Pubescence omitted). 

Zoya letifeva sp. nov. 

Fig. I. Right palp of male from outside [a) tibial apophysis [b) 

tarsal border (c) palpal spine [d] apical process of palpal organs. 
Fig. 2. Left palp of male from below. Lettering as in iig. i. 
Fig. 3. Right palp of male from above and a little to the outside 

[a] as in fig. i. 
Fig. 4. Epigyne of female. 
Zova spiiiimana Sund. Lettering as in previous species. 
Fig. 5. Left palp of male from outside. 
Fig. 6. Left palp of male from below. 
Fig. 7. Right palp from above and a little to the outside. 
Fig. 8. Epigyne of female. 
Xeoii valentulus sp. nov. 

Fig. 9. Right palp of male from the inner side, [a] Palpal spine. 

{b) Palpal process. 
Fig. 10. Right palp of male from above and a little to the outside. 

{b) Palpal process. 
Fig. II. Portion of male palp from below. Lettering as in fig 9. 
Fig. 12. Epigyne of female. 
Neon reticulatus Bl. Lettering as in previous species. 

Figs. 13, 14, 15, 16, corresponding respectively to figs. 9, 10, 11, I2» 
Maso gallica Sim. 

Fig. 17. Left palp of male from above, [a] Tibial apophysis. , 
Fig. 18. Left palp of male from outside and a little below, [a) 

Tibial apophysis. 
Fig. 19. Epigyne of female from above. 
Fig. 20. Epigyne of female in profile. 
Cvustulina sticta Camb. 

Fig. 21. Left palp of male from outside. 
Fig. 22. Epigyne of female. 



The Annual Report and Proceedings of the Belfast Naturalists' Field 
Club for 1911-12, contain an illustrated paper on Beekites, with a biblio- 
graphy ; the presidential address of Mr. R. J. Welch, on Sandhills, their 
Flora and Fauna ; an account of the Kitchen-AIiddens in Dingle Bay, 
and other notes bearing upon the society's sphere of work. 

No. 19 of the Journal and Transactions of the Leeds Astronomical 
Society for the year 1911, edited by Mr. Ellison Hawks (Leeds, R. 
Jackson and Son, 68 pages, 2S.) contain further evidence of the activity 
of this society. Among the contributions are papers bearing on the tides, 
the Nebular, observations for amateur astronomers, recent lunar observa- 
tions, star movements, and mutual eclipses of the Satellites of Jupiter, 
These are by INIessrs. Hardcastle, Gregg, Hawks, Wilson and \Miitmell. 
There are also reprints of several contributions made by the members 
of the .society to other journals. 

Naturalist, 



YORKSHIRE NATURALISTS' UNION. 



ANNUAL MEETING OF THE ENTOMOLOGICAL SECTION. 

President :—H. H. CORBETT, M.R.C.S. 



Two meetings will be held at the Leeds Institute, Cookridge Street, Leeds, 
^t 3-30 p.m. and 6-15 p.m. respectively, on Saturday, October 26th, 19 12. 

BUSINESS (at the afternoon meeting) : — 

To consider and pass the sectional reports for 1912, and to elect officers 
for 1913. 

Exhibition of specimens. In addition to specimens of general interest, 
lepidopterists are especially requested to bring good series of Hybernia aitran- 
tiaria and H. defoliuria. Exhibitions of specimens of other orders of insects 
-are invited. 

At the evening meeting several short addresses on entomological topics 
will be contributed by the members. 

All members and associates of the Yorkshire Naturalists' Union are invited 
to attend and to bring any notes made during the past season. In order that a 
-correct and complete account of all exhibits may be included in the report, the 
Secretaries particularly request that each may be accompanied by a descriptive 
note. 

Officials of affiliated societies are earnestly requested to notify their members. 

Secretaries : — Lepidoptera, A. Whitaker and B. Morley ; Hymenoptera, 
Hemiptera and Diptera, W. Denison Roebuck ; Neuroptera, Orthoptera and 
Trichoptera, G. T. Porritt ; Coleoptera, H. H. Corbett. 

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TWO BOOKS FOR YORKSHIREMEN, 

NOW READY. 

THE STORY OF 
THE EAST RIDING Of YORKSHIRE 

By HORACE B. BROWNE, M.A. 

j68 pages Crown 8vo, printed on Art Paper a7id hound in Art Cloth 
Boards with j']o illustrations. Price 3/- net. 

A BOOK OF GREAT INTEREST TO YORKSHIRE PEOPLE 

showing the wealth of Arch^ological, Architectural, Civic and 
Commercial matter which lies in their midst. 

A work which aims at stimulating mental comparison between the 
conditions of life of our forefathers and those enjoyed by ourselves. 

IN THE PRESS. 

THE LOST TOWNS 
or THE YORKSHIRE COAST. 

And other Chapters bearing upon the 
Geography of the District. 

By THOMAS SHEPPARD, F.G.S., F.R.G.S., F.S.A.(Scot.). 

Curator of the Hull Mxitticipal Museums. 
J ^2 pages Demy 8vo,with over too illustrations. Cloth Boards ^ T/6 net. 

A work containing much information regarding the habitations of 
a past generation, but now demolished by the ravages of the sea. 

A number of cliff measurements, documents, plans and charts 
have also been included ; and in the hope that the book may be of 
service to students, chapters have been added referring to the geology, 
antiquities and natural history of the district. 

LONDON 

A. BROWN & SONS, Ltd., 5 Farringdon Avenue, E.C. 

AND ALL booksellers. 



Printed at Browns' Savile Press, 40, George Street, Hull, and published by 
A. Brown & Sons, Limited, at 5 Farringdon Avenue, in the City of London. 

October ist, 1912. 



NOVEMBER, 1912. 



No. 670 

(Na. 448 »f turrtnt nrlet). 




A MONTHLY ILLUSTRATED JOURNAL OF 

NATURAL HISTORY FOR THE NORTH OF ENGLAND. 

EDITED BY 

T. SHEPPARD, F.Q.S., F.R.Q.S., F.S.A.Scot., 

The Museums, Hull ; 

AND 

T. W. WOODHEAD, Ph.D., F.L.S., 

Technical College, Huddersfiei.d. 

WITH the assistance AS REFEREES IN SPECIAL DEPARTMENTS OF 

J. aiLBERT BAKER. F.R.S. F.L.S., QEO. T. PORRITF, P.L.S.. P.fi.S. 

Prof. P. P. KENDALL, M.Sc, P.Q.S,, JOHN W, TAYLOR, 



T. H. NELSON, M.B.O.U. 



WILLIAM WEST, P.L.S. 



RILEY FORTUNE, F.Z.S. 

Contents : — 

Notes and Comments:— Mr. Harold W. T. Wager, F.R.S. , F.L.S. ; Sir Charles Lyell 
(Illustrated); Red Lion Cubs; Yorkshire Mammals; Story of a Great 'Discovery'; 
Experts' Pickwickian Triumph ' 

The Sexuality of Fungi— Harold Waga: F.R.S 

On the Snout of a Pachychormid Fish (Protosphyraena stebbingi) from the Lower 
Chalk of S. Ferriby, Lincolnshire (Illustrated)— ^4. Soti//i Woodward, LL.D.. F.R.S. 

The Structure of a Garlic Bulb (Illustrated)— £. G. Highfield, B.Sc 

Some Recent Discoveries in the Chalk of the Flamboro' District (Illustrated)— 
George Sheppard 

Bird Notes from the York District— S. H. Smith 

The Distribution of Helix (Acanthlnula) lamellata JeUr.—H. A. Schksch 

The Pyrenomycetes and some Problems they Suggest— Sir H. C. Hawley, Bart 

Field Notes :— Marine Life at Saltburn ; Whiskered Bat in Craven; The two White Hares (?) 

of Sheffield ; Osprey at Scampston 3jO 3^^ 

Bibliography: Papers and Records published with respect to the Geology and Paleontology 

of the North of England (Yorkshire excepted), during 1912— T. Sheppard, F.G.S 345-3.':2 

British Association Notes 

Museum News 

Reviews and Book Notices 

Northern News 

Proceedlng:8 of Scientific Societies 
News from the Magazines 

Illustrations 

Plates XV., XVI., XVII. 




32.5-327 
328 

329-330 
331-336 

337-338 
339' 
340 

341-34.3: 



353-355 

338 

330,343 

327,328 

.344 

330,356 

332, 333, 335, 337 



LONDON : 

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And at Hull and York. 

Printers and Publishers to the Y.N. U. 



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YORKSHIRE NATURALISTS' UNION. 



THE ANNUAL MEETING FOR THE SECTION OF VERTEBRATE ZOOLOGY. 

Prestdeni .—OXLEY GRAB HAM, M.A., M.B.O.U. 



Two Meetings will be held in Room C 7, at the Leeds Institute, Leeds, at 3-15 p.m. 
and 6-30 p.m. respectively, on Saturday, November i6th, 1912. 

BUSINESS AT THE AFTERNOON MEETING — 

To consider and pass sectional reports for 1912, and to elect Officers for 1913 : — 

To consider and pass the General and Financial Reports of the Yorkshire Wild Birds' 
and Eggs' Protection Acts Committee, for 1912, and to elect the Officers and Committee 
for 1913. 

To consider and pass the Report of the Yorkshire Mammals, Amphibians, Reptiles, 
and Fishes Committee for 1912, and to elect this Committee for 1913. 

Papers (mostly illustrated by lantern slides or specimens) will be read by the following 
gentlemen : — Afternoon — " Notes on the Cuckoo," Mr. W. H. Parkin, Shipley ; Evening — 
"Home Life of the Peregrine Falcon," Dr. Francis Heatherley, F.R.C.S. ; "Moorland 
Birds," Mr. E. Wilfred Taylor, York. 

Any Member or Associate of the Y.N.U. is invited to attend, and to bring notes, 
specimens, lantern slides, etc., and is requested to bring forward matters of interest con- 
nected with the work of the section, and to take part in any discussion. 

Will Officials of Affiliated Societies kindly notify their Members. 
Please note change of Room. 
Any further particulars from : — 

A. HAIGH-LUMBY, Nab Drive, Shipley. 



CHARMING GIFT BOOKS 



Wild Flowers as they Grow. Series iv. 

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F.R.H.S., with descriptive text by G. Clark Nuttall, B.Sc, containing 25 
Plates and 25 Segments of the various flowers, Cloth Gilt, 5/- net. 

" ... Charming guides to flora of our meado;eis and lawns. . . . This volume, like its predecessors, is 
one that will delight all lovers of wild flowers into whose hands it may come."- — ^Scotsman. 

Babes of the Wild. By Charles G. D. Roberts. 

With Colour Frontispiece and 32 Half-tone Illustrations by Warwick 
Reynolds, Cloth Gilt, 6/- Prospectus Post Free. 

" The work is one which well maintains Mr. Roberts's reputation, and will be read with keen pleasure by 
ail who take an interest in Wild Nature." — Westminster Gazette. 



Spiderland. By R. A. Ellis. 



With 2 Colour and 52 Full-page Illustrations from Photographs, Cloth 
Gilt, 3/6 net. Prospectus Post Free. 

" Mr. Ellis's book gives a very good account of hmv the spider hunts, feeds, and otherwise fulfils its place 
in Nature. The author writes in an attractive manner, and readers will be surprised at the amount oi infor- 
mation he is able to give." — Westminster Gazette. 



Photographs of the bird-bairns in or about 
their nests are accompanied by notes 
which give useful information. 



KEARTON BOOK 



Cbarming Picture Postcard reproduced 
in Natural Colours, also Prospectus. 
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325 



NOTES AND COMMENTS. 

MR. HAROLD W. T. WAGER, F.R.S., F.L.S. 

It is satisfactory to learn that Mr. Harold Wager, F.R.S., 
for many years a prominent supporter of the Yorkshire Nat- 
uralists' Union, is to be the Union's president for 1913. Form- 
erly lecturer in Botany at the Yorkshire College, Mr, Wager 
naturally takes a principal interest in the plants, especially 
the lower forms. At the Annual Fungus Forays of the York- 
shire Naturalists' Union, he has frequently read papers and 
in other ways added to the success of these gatherings. 
Readers of The Naturalist are familiar with his work, which 
principally refers to the Cytology and Reproduction of the 
Lower Organisms, and the Teaching of Botany. At the South 
African Meeting of the British Association in 1905 he was 
President of the Botanical Section, and he has also occupied 
the presidential chairs of the British Mycological Society and 
the Leeds Naturalists' Club. In addition to being a Fellow 
of the Roj^al and Linnean Societies, he is a Fellow of the German 
Botanical Society. He is also a member of the Council of 
the Royal Society. His position as Inspector of Secondary 
Schools under the Board of Education necessarily makes him 
familiar with modern educational methods. 

SIR CHARLES LYELL. 

The accompanying excellent portrait of Sir Charles Lyelt 
is taken from the menu of the dinner held by the Geological 
Section at the British Association at Dundee. The original 
was hung in the Dundee Art Gallery, by Sir Leonard Lyell, 
Bart., of Kinnordy, who has kindly given us permission to 
reproduce it (Plate XVIII. ). The portrait was painted in 1870 
by Lowes Dickenson, Charles Lyell being seventy-three at the 
time. 

RED LION CUBS, 

The Red Lion Cubs, as the geologists were styled, held one 
of the most successful Dinners that there have been for many 
years, and it was graced by an unusual number of foreign 
visitors who severally toasted the President (Dr. Peach) in 
various languages. It so happened that the dinner was held 
on the date the President was celebrating his seventieth 
birthday, and those who heard him sing the ' Song of the 
Seraphim,' in the chorus of which all the party joined, will 
not soon forget it. The song was specially written for the 
Red Lion Club Dinner held during the Dundee meeting in 1867, 
and was then sung by the author, Dr. Henry Woodward, to the 
tune of ' Bonny Dundee'. The ' Seraphim,' of course, is the 

1912 Nov. I. ^ 



326 Notes and Comments. 

large fossil crustacean known as Pterygotus. The first two 
verses are as follows : — 

To the Lairds of Creation, the ' Seraphim ' spoke 

' Ere my corpus you get at there's stones to be broke ' 

Then each able member of our section C 

Will steze up his hammer and straight follow me. 

There's Powrie and Slimon to show us the way 
To split up the shales, and recover the prey ; 
And if you would wish the right quarry to see 
Take train at 10-30 for Balruddery. 

YORKSHIRE MAMMALS. 

On Wednesday evening, the i6th Oct., a new gallery was 
opened at the Municipal Museum, Hull, which is to be entirely 
devoted to the exhibition of local mammals, The specimens 
include several historical examples from the collection of the 
late Sir Henry Boynton, and other sources, and a number of 
them are the last records of the kind for the district. The 
collection is arranged in specially made cases, in which the 
animals are shown in their natural surroundings, in addition 
to which there are several large groups showing the male, 
female, and their young, etc. The groups consist of Otters, 
Badgers, Hedgehogs, Deer, Foxes, etc. On the occasion, the 
Curator gave an address on the Mammals of the East Riding 
.of Yorkshire. 

STORY OF A GREAT ' DISCOVERY.' 

In these columns we have more than once drawn attention 
to the fact that in the geological and archaeological world 
things are not always what they seem. Usually a ' little 
knowledge ' has proved dangerous to its possessor. In the 
following case, however, which is taken from the Daily Tele- 
graph, the ' discovery ' was made, and an interpretation thereof 
given by those who ought to have known better. But such 
things do occur by those who are in red-hot haste to get their 
' find ' telegraphed and photographed for the daily press. ' The 
first example in Great Britain of prehistoric cave painting of 
the kind already familiar to palaeontologists from the Caves of 
Dordogne, the South of France, the Pyrenees, and the peninsula 
of Spain, has recently been discovered on the walls of Bacon's 
Hole, near Mumbles, by Professor Breuill and Professor 
Sollas.' So reported the Times a few days ago. How these dis- 
tinguished French archaeologists lighted upon this momentous 
discovery was described vividly and with much detail. We 
were told how Professor Breuill, ' without exception the most 
distinguished investigator of Aurignacian deposits,' and Pro- 
fessor Sollas set out on an expedition to the Gower Coast in 

Naturalist, 



Notes and Comments. 527 

search of Aurignacian relics, how they searched until at last 
only one cave remained to be investigated — the well-known 
and easily accessible Bacon's Hole, a few miles west of the 
Mumbles. 

PREHISTORIC PAINTINGS ON CAVE WALLS. 

The Times proceeded ; ' On entering this, one of the 
investigators cried, " Les voila! " and the other " There they 
are." On the right-hand wall at about the level of the eyes 
may be seen— not a picture — but a number (ten) of horizontal 
bands, vivid red, arranged in a vertical series, about one yard 
in height.' On the following day the Times was moved to 
speculate, in a weighty and quite authoritative leading article, on 
the discovery, pardonably proud, of course, of its exclusive news 
scoop. ' The finders,' it said, ' are to be congratulated on the 
fit of enthusiasm which prompted their search. The discovery 
is a triumph for the " a priori " method of investigation.' 
' When,' it was demanded, ' did the Aurignacian man, who 
smeared his red ochre on the walls of Bacon's Hole, live ? ' 
So much for the discovery with which the whole archaeological 
world has been set agog. 

experts' PICKWICKIAN TRIUMPH. 

Now for the answer to the question. The ' prehistoric 
man ' fondly conceived by the French experts lived not 18,000 
years back — as Professor Sollas has estimated — but eighteen 
years. The Cambria Daily Leader explains how he came to 
smear his red ochre on the walls of Bacon's Hole. Eighteen 
years ago a Norwegian barque was driven ashore in the vicinity 
of Bacon's Hole, and a local boatman found among the wreck- 
age a brush which had been used on the vessel for laying on a 
reddish paint. ' Too good to throw away,' the boatman 
remarked, and with the intention of rubbing the paint out 
of the brush, he forthwith proceeded to the side of the cave for 
the purpose. He left behind on the wall ' ten horizontal 
bands, vivid red, arranged in a vertical series.' Quite Pick- 
wickian ! 



The extensive collection of East Yorkshire and North Lincolnshire 
■diatoms, made by the late R. H. Philip, of Hull, also the specimens which 
have been figured and described in the well-known work by Mills and 
Philip, together with his microscope, a fine collection of microscopical 
slides (including several made by Robt. Harrison, a former Hull micro- 
scopist), and his scientific books, have been presented by Mrs. Philip 
and family to the Hull Museum. The collection of slides contains over 
3,000 specimens, and among the books are such important works as " Dia- 
tomees Marines de France," by MM. H. et M. Peragallo ; " A Treatise 
on the Diatomaceae," by Van Heurck ; " Diatomaceae Germaniae," by 
H. Von Schonfeldt ; " British Desmidiaceae," by W. West, and numerous 
other volumes dealing with microscopy. 

1912 Nov. I. 



THE SEXUALITY OF FUNGI.* 



HAROLD WAGER, F.R.S. r ,;, 

The varied phenomena of sexual fusion in the Fungi open up 
some extremely interesting problems concerning the significance 
of sex. During the last 25 years, the cyotlogical features of 
the nuclear fusions which take place in the Fungi have been 
very fully investigated, with the result that in certain forms, 
such as Peronospora and Cystopus, a very distinct sex differ- 
entiation obtains, which closely resembles that found in the 
higher organisms. In other groups, however, Ascomycetes, 
Uredineae, and Basidiomycetes, there is a modification of the 
sexual process resulting in the fusion of two nuclei which are 
found in one and the same cell, Ascus, Teleutospore, or Basidium. 
In the case of the teleutospore the two nuclei can be traced 
back through a long series of generations to the Aecidium, and 
here Blackman has found that the binucleate condition arises 
by the fusion of two cells. In the Ascomycetes, on the other 
hand, the two nuclei of the Ascus cannot be traced back 
in this way, but there is, in some forms, a previous fusion 
of two sexually differentiated cells. Whether these two fusions 
in the Ascomycetes are genetically connected is not known, but 
there is strong evidence to show that the first fusion is a process 
of degeneration and in some forms has entirely disappeared, 
leaving only the fusion in the Ascus. In the Hymenomycetes 
there is only one nuclear fusion, and this takes place in the 
basidium. This means that in this large group of the Fungi 
about gooo species, there is no true sexual fusion and no blending 
of two lines of descent. 

The well marked sexuality which exists in the lower groups 
of Fungi is, therefore, being replaced, in the higher groups, 
by a reduced or apogamous fertilization. What advantage or 
disadvantage this may be, we cannot say ; we require more 
knowledge of the significance of sex in the higher organisms 
before we can attempt to answer the question, but it is an inter- 
esting fact that this autogamous fertilization should occur in 
a group in which there is an extraordinary amount of variation. 



At the meeting of the Vertebrate Section of the Yorkshire Naturalists' 
Union to be held at the Leeds Institute on November i6th. Dr. Heather- 
ley will deliver a lecture on ' The Life History of the Peregrine Falcon,' 
which will be illustrated by an exceptionally fine series of photographs. 
The birds referred to were watched continuously for some weeks without 
a break, so that there is a remaikably unbroken series of notes thereon. 
Several members of the Yorkshire Naturalists' Union took part in the 
observations. 

* Abstract of Lecture deHvered at the meeting- of the Mycologrical 
Section of the Yorkshire Naturalists' Union at Sandsend, Sept. 28th to Oct. 

3«'d- 

Naturalist, 



329 

ON THE SNOUT OF A PACHYCHORMID 
FISH {PROTOSPHYR/ENA STEBBINGI) FROM 
THE LOWER CHALK OF S. FERRIBY, 
LINCOLNSHIRE. 



A. SMITH WOODWARD, LL.D., F.R.S., 

British Museum. 



(Plate XIX.). 

The Cretaceous ganoid fishes of the genus Protosphyycena 
mimic the existing sword-fishes in the outward form, and the 
numerous species are distinguished by the shape of the elon- 
gated snout.* Sometimes the snout is blunt (P. brevirostris) , 
at other times slender {P. tenuis), but in nearly all cases it is 
more or less cylindrical or oval in section. Only in one de- 
scribed species does it form a slender flattened blade approaching 
that of the highest sword-fishes {Xiphias), and this has hither- 
to been known merely by two portions of a single specimen. 

Protosphyycena stehhingi, as the species with the flattened 
blade is named, f was discovered a few years ago by Mr. 
W. P. D. Stebbing, F.G.S., in the Lower Chalk (zone of Holaster 
subglobosits) at Betchworth, Surrey. The parts recovered 
were only the basal portion and a terminal fragment of a snout. 
More recently, Mr. Thomas Sheppard, F.G.S., has obtained 
part of a second specimen from the same geological horizon at 
South Ferriby, Lincolnshire ; and as this belongs to a snout 
about as large as the type, representing the part between the 
two pieces of the latter, it completes our knowledge of this 
interesting fossil in a very remarkable manner. 

The new specimen is shown of the natural size from above 
(fig. i), the right side (fig. 2), below (fig. 3), and in transverse 
sections (figs, a, b) in the accompanying plate. Combined with 
the type, it proves that the snout measured about 45 cm. in 
total length, which is somewhat greater than I originally 
estimated ; and from the side view it is clear that the blade 
curved slightly upwards towards the end like the snout of the 
more normal species of PyotosphyycBua. 

■ As shewn by the type already described, the upper surface 
of the base of the snout rises gently to the middle line, where 
it is traversed by a longitudinal groove, which has a flattened 
smooth floor and sharply-raised tuberculated edges. On either 
side of this prominent median feature the sloping surface is 

* See especially A. S. Woodward, ' Catalogue of Fossil Fishes in the 
British Museum,' pt. iii. (1895), pp. 399-410. 

t A. S. Woodward, ' Fossil Fishes of the Eng-lish Chalk ' (Mon. Pal. Soc„ 
1909), p. 153, pi. xxxiii., figf. 3. 

1012 Nov. I. 



330 Pachychormid Fish from South Ferriby, Lines. 

ornamented by closely-arranged fine longitudinal ridges and 
rows of small bordered pittings. The new specimen (fig. i) 
which must be placed a little further forwards than this basal 
piece, still exhibits the median longitudinal groove, but with 
less prominent edges and gradually becoming much less con- 
spicuous ; while the lateral sloping surfaces are again orna- 
mented with closely-arranged fine longitudinal ridges, which 
are more or less irregular, often bifurcating, often intercalated, 
and usually bearing low tubercles. The rows of bordered 
pits on ihe basal piece evidently represent these tuberculated 
ridges of the middle part of the snout. In the terminal piece 
of the type specimen, the longitudinal median groove is only 
slightly marked, and the longitudinal ridges, which in this 
region are often reticulated or sub-divided into tubercles, 
extend over it. The sharply-rounded lateral edges in the 
proximal half of the snout are also marked with longitudinal 
ridges, which are rounded and smooth, at first inclined down- 
wards and forwards and then, as shown by the new specimen 
(fig. 2) directed upwards again. The lateral edges in the 
distal half are smooth, but impressed with a few irregular 
shallow wrinkles. The lower surface of the new specimen 
(fig. 3), like that of the terminal piece of the type, is smooth, 
except quite at its proximal end where a few very small 
tubercles are irregularly scattered. It is also marked by the 
faint broad median longitudinal groove, and by a pair of lateral 
longitudinal lines. 

From the same horizon and locality as the new specimen 
now described, Mr. Henry C. Drake, F.G.S., has also obtained 
a species of Pachyrhizodus* and other fish-remains of much 
interest ; while in a higher horizon he has discovered character- 
istic portions of Elopopsis crassus.^ 

EXPLANATION OF PLATE XIX. 

Protosphyrcena stebbingi A. S. Woodw. ; portion of rostrum, nat. size, 
seen from above (i), the right side (2), and below (3), with two transverse 
sections in outline (a, b). — Lower Chalk (zone of Holaster subglobosus). South 
F"erriby, Lincolnshire. In Hull Museum. 



We notice from the Publishers' Circular that Messrs. Longman are 
shortly to publish ' the only authorised edition of the address ' of the 
president of the British Association, delivered at Dundee. From this it 
would appear that the copies of the address published and sold by the 
Association at Dundee, and the copy appearing in the Association's Annual 
Report, are not authorised ! 

* A. S. Woodward, op. cit. (Mon. Pal. Soc, 191 2), p. 249, pi. liv. , fig-. 2. 
t A. S. Woodward, The Naturalist, 1907, p. 306. 

Naturalist, 



331 

THE STRUCTURE OF A GARLIC BULB. 



E. G. HIGHFIELD, B.Sc. 



The wild garlic or Ramsons ( Allium ursinum) may, with 
advantage, be chosen by students of botany as a suitable 
plant in which to study the origin and structure of a bulb. 
It is very plentiful, and bulbs in all stages of development from 
germinating seeds upwards can easily be obtained in a wild 
state. 

As compared with other bulbous plants, the garlic presents 
several distinctive characteristics, particularly in the ■simplicity 
of its parts, and the rapidity with which the bulb passes through 
the stages of disintegration and reconstruction. Although 
perennial, yet no part of the bulb is of more than one year's 
duration. Vegetative reproduction is also very rapid, a new 
bulb is separated from the parent stock in one season, and 
may attain full maturity. Bulbs formed from seed, however, 
require several years before they reach a flowering stage. 

Wherever a garlic bed is situated germinating seeds may 
be found abundantly on the surface of the soil during February 
and March. The seedling at once assumes the bulbous struc- 
ture of the mature plant. The tubular base of the cotyledon 
is the first part to emerge from the seed coat, it bends down- 
wards, and produces at its base two or more strong contractile 
roots which tend to pull the plant below the surface. 

Judging from the structure of a mature leaf, the cotyledon 
may be supposed to consist of a lamina, a solid petiole and a 
tubular base. The lamina remains within the seed coat, and 
serves to digest the food storage from the endosperm, and to pass 
it through the petiole to the tubular base, which swells and 
thus forms the first stage of the bulb. The shoot arises within 
the tubular base of the cotyledon, and passes out at the point 
where the tube merges into the solid petiole. Eventually, 
when the food supply of the endosperm is exhausted, the petiole 
of the cotyledon withers and falls off, leaving a scar on one side 
of the small bulb. 

The shoot consists of a sheath or tubular leaf base, sur- 
rounding one perfect leaf. Only one leaf is produced during 
the first year ; as this develops, the food is withdrawn from 
the cotyledon ring, which begins to disintegrate, and soon 
disappears entirely. When the leaf is expanded above ground 
the food manufactured by the lamina is stored in the tubular 
base of this leaf, and at the end of the season the lamina and 
petiole wither and become detached from the leaf base, leaving 
a scar at one side. The new shoot arises at the base of the 
tube as before, and emerges at the point where the tube passes 
into the petiole, thus producing on a larger scale a precisely 

1912 Nov. I. 



332 



High field : The Structure of a Garlic Bulb. 



similar structure to that of the original seedling bulb, and so 
year after year. 

The photographs in fig i show (a) a seedling with seed coat 
attached to the stalk of the cotyledon ; {b) a bulb of one year's 
growth ; ' and (c) a mature bulb. In {b) and (c) a scar is seen 




Garlic Bulbs. 



on the outer sheath, which shows where last year's petiole was 
detached. 

A mature bulb differs only from the young form in the 
greater complexity of its shoot, which consists of two leaves 
and a flower enclosed within a tubular sheath. In bulbs 
which are about to reproduce vegetatively, two shoots are 
contained within the same sheath. 

Fig 2 represents the section of a mature flowering bulb 
taken in April ; the two leaves and flower stalk were above 
ground : — {a) is the food ring or remnant of last year's leaf ; 

Naturalist, 



High/ield : The Structiiye of a Garlic Bulb. 



333 



(b) the sheath ; (c) the tubular base of the first or oldest leaf, 
which encloses {d) the flower stalk and {e) the , second leaf. 
In a series of transverse sections taken successively from above 
downwards this, leaf is seen in the stages of lamina, solid 
petiole, aad tubular base. In the figure the crescent-shaped 
mark shows the interior margin of the tube, which, in its 
upper regions, is a closed slit, but which opens towards the 
base. In the deepest sections next year's shoot may be seen 
arising in the centre of the tube. 



f^ic 2 



a 




Section of Garlic Bulb. 



After the leaves are expanded, the old bulb undergoes 
rapid disintegration. The outer food ring and the sheath will 
have disappeared entirely at the time of flowering. The tube 
of the first leaf then ruptures at one side, causing the parts 
of the bulb to fall asunder, since this leaf and the flower stalk 
are only attached at the base. Probably the function of the 
first leaf is to supply food storage for the seeds. It takes no 
further part in the structure of the bulb, and when the seeds 
are ripe this leaf and the flower stalk wither off at the base, 
leaving practically no trace. The second or last leaf {e) con- 
tinues to flourish for some time longer, and its base becomes 
swollen with food storage. This leaf base is the only part of 
the season's growth which remains to form next year's bulb. 

1912 Nov. I. 



334 Highfield : The Structure of a Garlic Bulb. 

When the leaf dies the petiole becomes detached from the 
tubular base, thus leaving the scar which is seen on one side 
of the bulb in fig, i. 

It may be conjectured that if the first leaf were removed 
before flowering takes place, no seed would be set, and if from 
another plant the second leaf were removed, a new bulb would 
not be formed. 

If a number of the older and more deeply rooted garlic 
bulbs are dug up in February or March, before the shoots have 
developed, it is not uncommon to find two bulbs apparently 
of the same degree of maturity joined together by a si ght woody 
attachment at the base, but otherwise quite separate (fig. 3), 
The attachment indeed is so slight that it will generally have 
disappeared entirely by the time the leaves are above ground, 
and there will be nothing to show that these bulbs have been 
produced vegetatively. 

The production of these twin bulb structures is understood 
when we examine sections of certain mature bulbs, and find 
that in some cases two shoots are enclosed in a single sheath. 
The two shoots may be of different ages and degrees of maturity, 
but since at the end of the season the new bulb is formed only 
from the last leaf base of each shoot, it follows that when the 
outer rings have fallen away, the twins may both be of about 
the same size and age. 

The reconstruction of the shoot and the origin of the twin 
bulb structures can easily be followed in the autumn, after 
the leaves of the plant have entirely disappeared. At this 
time the bulbs present a similar appearance to that shown in 
fig. I, except that the shoot has not yet emerged from the 
hollow leaf base ; it is indeed, only to be found very low down 
in the bulb. 

Fig 4 shows a series of transverse sections taken from the 
same bulb. The outer food ring of the bulb is not shown. 

1. shows {b) the sheath ring, which is seen to resemble the 
tubular base of an ordinary leaf, and'(c) the first leaf arising 
from the axil of the sheath. 

II. — The first appearance of the flower is seen in the form 
of two V-shaped structures, which represent the upper portions 
of the spathe. The flower arises from the axil of the first 
leaf (c). 

III. — The two portions of the spathe become united at their 
edges. A second leaf (cf appears which, from its position is 
seen to have arisen like the first leaf from the axil of the sheath. 
It is this leaf which gives rise to the second shoot axis. 

IV.— The flower is seen in section. A third leaf (e) is seen 
arising from the axil of the first leaf (c). 

v.— The two shoots are now seen separated from each other 
by their enclosing outer leaf bases. A fourth leaf {e') arises 

Naturalist, 



Htghfield : The Structure of a Garlic Bulb. 



335 



in the axil of c', and the structure of the shoot is now complete 
for the ensuing season. 

From the description previously given of the disintegration 
of the bulb, it will be seen that the two last leaves (e) and 
{e'), alone are responsible for the formation of the following 
year's bulbs, and since these two leaves are practically con- 
temporaneous in origin, and of the same stage of development. 




I 



ilL 





Sections of a Garlic Bulb. 



the twin structure of the vegetatively produced bulbs is ex- 
plained. 

A few points in comparison of the garlic with other bulbous 
plants may now be noted. The germination of the seed and 
origin of the bulb is probably typical of a large number of other 
monocotyledonous plants, and consequently, owing to the com- 
monness of the species and regular production of fertile seed, 
it will be found to be a convenient plant in which to study 
this type of germination. The wild hyacinth [S cilia festalis) 
germinates in almost precisely the same manner, and is equally 
abundant, but other wild bulbous plants, e.g., snowdrop and 

igi2 Nov. I. 



i^6 Highfield : The Structure of a Garlic Bulb. 

daffodil, are very uncertain in the production of fertile seed, 
and germinating seeds of these plants are seldom found under 
natural conditions. 

The leaf of the garlic presents a perfect type of monocotyle- 
donous leaf in which the three regions lamina, petiole, and 
tubular base. are clearly defined. It is the utilization of the 
base for food storage which gives rise to bulb structures, but 
in the garlic the shedding of the outer rings is much more rapid 
than in other bulbs, and only the last leaf base is retained for 
winter storage. In the snowdrop and daffodil the leaf bases 
of two or three years are retained. Also in these latter the 
flower stalks disintegrate from within, whereas in the garlic 
they fall away on the outside leaving no trace. 

The vegetative reproduction of new bulbs in the garlic is 
also a distinctive feature. In the snowdrop a new shoot arises 
from the base of the first or oldest leaf, and at a later period 
a second shoot may arise from the base of the second leaf. 
The two shoots are separated from each other by a complete 
bulbous ring, and each is enclosed in a separate sheath. The 
second formed shoot is not separated from the old bulb for 
two or three seasons. In other bulbs consisting of many leaf 
bases this mode of origin of new shoots in the axils of different 
leaves appears to be the general rule, but in the garlic where 
only one leaf base is retained it would be practically impossible 
and, as has been shown, the second shoot is budded off from 
the newly developed sheath ring. Consequently, both shoots 
are enclosed in the same sheath, and the bulbs formed from the 
two shoots attain maturity and a separate existence in one 
season. 



Some Glimpses of old Hull in the light of recent Excavations. i8 pp 

and 6 plates. Hull Museum Publications, No. 89, August, 191 2, price 
one penny. It is only a few months ago that we extended a welcome 
to a volume on the Evolution of Hull, and now we have a' sort of appendix 
to that work written by the same painstaking investigator. Those 
whom pursuit of pleasure or business have taken Hull at intervals during 
the last twenty years must have been struck with the immense improve- 
ment that has taken place in the very heart of the city. In order to bring 
this about, large areas have been purchased and the dilapidated buildings 
with which they were occupied have been pulled down. The excavations 
made in the course of preparing for, among other things, the new main 
street and for the new buildings which now line it on both sides, have brought 
to light many objects of varying interest. In an ancient and important 
city like Hull this is no more than one would have expected, and it is 
a gratifying feature that there were on the spot keen observers keeping 
watch for " any relics of the past, and with excellent results." Ample 
justification for this statement is furnished in the pamphlet before us. 
Representatives of most of the centuries from the tenth down to the 
eighteenth, comprising pottery, leatherware; iron-ware, masonry, coins, 
and pipes, are all described and figured on the plates which accompany 
the work. Besides these latter there are other illustrations in the letter- 
press, which serve to make this one of the most interesting of the many 
pubhcations of the Hull Museum. — E.G.B. 

Naturalist, 



SOME RECENT DISCOVERIES IN THE CHALK 
OF THE FLAMBORO' DISTRICT. 



337 



GEORGE SHEPPARD. 



Despite the fact that the Upper Chalk of the Flamboro' area 
possesses a notorious reputation with regard to the paucity 




Ventriculites (large form). Ventriculites (typical form). Baculites sp. Cephalites bullatus. 

Scaphites, sp. 



of its records, recent investigations have revealed a series of 
interesting forms, some of which are apparently new to the 
Yorkshire Chalk. 

The chief of these is a portion of a large Baculites from 
the A.quadratus zone at Sewerby Cliff. Although, as is the case 
in nearly all of the Chalk cephalopoda, the shell has not been 
preserved and consequently no evidences of ornamentation 
are visible, the typical straight form and elliptical section 

igi2 Nov. I 



338 Recent Discoveries in the Chalk of the Flamhoro' District. 

are quite sufficieni: to enable it to be determined generically. 
The chief interest in this specimen lies in the fact that it 
compares well with the contemporaneous forms in the German 
Cretaceous strata. Cephalites hullatus — a particularly fine 
specimen of Hexactinellid sponge was collected recently in the 
Marsupites zone, west of Danes' Dyke. Although the com- 
moner varieties of sponges [Seliscothon, etc.) are plentiful at 
about this horizon, the above species probably has never been 
recorded before from the Yorkshire Chalk. 

Perhaps the most interesting specimen collected among the 
sponges is a portion of a large Ventriculites which must have 
attained gigantic proportions. Local geologists are fairly 
familiar with the Ventriculites of the Upper Chalk, but, as a 
general rule, they seldom exceed a length of 12 inches. As 
in all this class of sponge the radial canals intersect in a charact- 
eristic reticulate manner, the meshes of which measuie \ inch 
in an average specimen. In the recently found Ventriculites, 
however, the reticulations have an average length of f inch. 
Thus it has been estimated by Mr. Sherborn that this specimen 
must have been at least 6 feet in total length. As far as he 
is aware this is the largest Ventriculite which has ever been 
collected from the English Chalk. Among the cephalopods 
of the inland quarries of the Flamborough district (Bessingby 
and White Hill) the most interesting forms are the Scaphites. 
In a typical specimen the shell is coiled in a plane spiral. 
The whorls are in contact, except the last, which is free from 
the spiral and then recurved in the form of a hook. The sur- 
face of the shell is ornamented with bifurcated ribs and often 
bears tubercles. Two varieties are common to the Yorkshire 
Chalk, Scaphites binodosus and S. inflattis. As a general rule 
the scaphites have a tendency to occur in definite layers or 
zones and consequently prove valuable indices to the various 
horizons. 

Other specimens recently added to the Hull Museum 
collections are : — 



Ostrea vesicularis. 
Holaster sub-globosus. 
Parasmilia centralis. 
Cidaris (young). 
Micr aster (young). 
Infulaster rostratus. 
Plicatula spinosa. 
Pleurotomaria sp. 



Camerospongia. 
Inoceramus lobatus. 
Inoceramus lamarcki. 
Micr aster cor-anguimim. 
Avicula tenui-costata. 
Spondylus latus. 
Seliscothon planus. 



My thanks are especially due to Mr. C. Davies Sherborn, 
who has kindly named the majority of the specimens. 



In the natural history section of the British Museum, a special exhibit 
has been arranged to illustrate the British Lower Carboniferous rocks 
and their fossils. 

Naturalist, 



339 

BIRD NOTES FROM THE YORK DISTRICT. 



S. H. SMITH. 



The following is the list of dates of arrival of local migratory 
species. Many birds were much later than usual, and one 
species, the cuckoo, noticeably early. There appeared to be a 
much larger number of cuckoos in the district this year than 
is usual, and a corresponding scarcity of landrails. 



Chiff Chaff, York, March 29th. 
Wheatear, York, April 2nd. 
Cuckoo, Fangfoss, April 4th. 
Cuckoo, York, April 19th. 
Cuckoo, E. Cottingwith, April 

2ISt. 

House Martin, York, April 22nd. 
Swift, York, April 29th. 
Turtle Dove, Skipwith, April 29th. 
Landrail, York, May ist. 
Whinchat, Skipwith, May 4th. 
Sedgewarbler, Skipwith, May 4th. 
Redstart, Skipwith, May 4th. 



Whitethroat (Common), York, April 

2nd. 
Yellow Wagtail, Stillington, April 

13th. 
Swallow, Huntington, April 14th. 
Swallow, Stillington, April 27th. 
Nightjar, Sandburn, April 29th. 
Nightjar, Skipwith, April 29th. 
Pied Flycatcher, Castle Howard, 

April 29th. 
Spotted Flycatcher, York, May 2nd. 
Blackcap, York, May 2nd. 
Garden Warbler, York, May 2nd. 



Willow Warbler, York, April 2nd. Sand Martin, York, May 2nd. 

During the night of April i6th and 17th, from 8-30 p.m. to 
I a.m., there was a big rush of small waders, and notes of golden 
and grey plovers could be distinguished ; the night was clear 
and starry and the birds were passing over Heworth travelling 
South East. Again on the night of April igth and 20th and 
under similar weather conditions many thousands of birds 
were passing, and from their call notes they seemed to be 
principally curlew, golden and grey plover. These also were 
travelling to the South East. On April 20th I saw a large 
flock of Fieldfares at Heworth and estimated them to be about 
a hundred, and again on April 21st I saw what may have been 
the same flock at East Cottingwith. This appears to be a very 
late date for this species to remain in England.* A male 
Sclavonian Grebe was obtained at East Cottingwith on Feb- 
ruary loth, and is evidently one of a small party, the represent- 
atives of which distributed themselves fairly widely during 
January and February, as reports of observations and captures 
were made from several quarters. A Great Crested Grebe, 
male, in winter plumage, was picked up dead at East Cotting- 
with on February ist. This bird had been fired at some days 
previously and had succumbed to a pellet that had lodged 
in its body. The shoveller duck occurred again at Skipwith, 
but as far as I can gather only one pair attempted to breed 
this year, and a fox took the sitting bird and destroyed the 
eggs just at the time they were almost hatching. 

* Flocks of Fieldfares are frequently observed in the county at a later 
date than this. — Ed. 

1912 Nov. I. 



340 



THE DISTRIBUTION OF HELIX {AOANTHINULA) 
LAMELLATA JEFFR. 



H. A. SCHLESCH. 



It used to be thought that this species was to be found in Great 
Britain only, but during the past few years it has been recorded 
from North Germany, Denmark and Sweden. Its usual 
habitat is in woods near the coast. As a British species it is 
distinctly a northern form, becoming less common in the Mid- 
lands, and rare in the South. It is found in the extreme North 
of Scotland. 

In Ireland it occurs in the maritime counties on the north, 
south, and west coasts, and in county Louth on the east coast. 

In Germany it is found in the northernmost parts on the 
North Sea Coast and the shores of the Baltic as far as the mouth 
of the Oder (Pommern) but has not been found in Mecklenburg. 
It also occurs in Schleswig-Holstein, especially on the eastern 
side. 

In Denmark it is recorded from Jutland, Funen, Zealand, 
Lolland, Falster, Moen and Bornholm, but is scarce every- 
where. Dr. C. A. Westerlund records the species from Sweden, 
and it probably occurs in Holland. 



Marine Life at Saltburn. — During a week-end som- 
little time ago, Mr. C. A. Cheetham and I spent a most intere 
esting time at Saltburn studying the sea-shore life, more 
particularly the zoophytes. Of these we found washed up 
by the tide specimens of the following : — 

Thuiaria thuja, Antenniilaria antennina, Sertiilaria ciip- 
ressina, Sertularia argentea, SerUilarella rugosa, on washed-up 
Flustra joliacea ; Sertularia ahietina, Diphasia rosacea ; Calycella 
syringa, occurring on S. argentea. 

Between tide marks we secured the following : — 

Sertularia pumila (common), Sertularia gracilis, Sertularia 
operculata (common), Plumularia setacea on boulders between 
Saltburn and Skinningrove ; Leptoscyphus tenuis, deep 
pools on Laminarias ; Campamdaria flexuosa, deep pools 
on Laminarias ; Sertularella polyzonias on Halidrys sili- 
quosa, Tuhularia simplex, Staithes ; Coryne pusilla, Rock pools, 
Staithes ; Clytia johnstonia, a fine colony on Corallina officinalis, 
rock pools, Staithes. 

Between Saltburn and Skinningrove specimens of the 
common nudibranchs {Archidoris tuierculata and Eolis papu- 
losa) were found. — A. R. Sanderson, Bradford. 

Naturalist, 



341 . 

THE PYRENOMYCETES 
AND SOME PROBLEMS THEY SUGGEST.* 



Sir H. C. HAWLEY, Bart. 



' What are we to understand by the term Pyrenomycetes ' ? 
Fries regarded as genuine Pyrenomycetes all fungi with asci 
developed in closed and ostiolate perithecia, but grouped with 
them all whose fruit was produced in closed bodies of any 
description and whether in asci or not. Many of the latter 
would now be classed as ' Fungi Imperfecti/ as probable stages 
in the life-history of true Pyrenomycetes. 

Most mycologists of the present day are inclined to confine 
the Pyrenomycetes to the Sphaeriacci in the sense of Berkeley 
and Cooke, and even thus restricted they form a group as ex- 
tensive as they are interesting. They have been somewhat 
neglected in this country. The principal reason for this in- 
attention is the want of an up-to-date English Systematic Text 
Book. But they offer great attractions to the mycological 
student. The specimens are at their best in Winter and early 
Spring when there is a little else to be met with, and, unlike 
most other fungi, may be put aside and preserved for an in- 
definite length of time ; their fruiting characters affording 
very diversified and beautiful objects for study they certainly 
deserve more attention than they get. 

The value, or otherwise, of a stroma (a fungoid growth in 
which the perithecia in some species are imbedded) as one of 
the characters used in classification is worthy of discussion ; 
also, the immersion of the perithecia in the matrix of the plant 
substance in which it is growing, contrasted with their super- 
ficiality. 

Spore characters in relation to colour and septation in 
many species are of importance. In some cases, however, it 
is necessary to be certain the perithecia under examination are 
mature ; if not, the results of the examination are misleading. 
The spores of some species only acquire colour, or become 
septate late in life. If their position therefore depends on one 
of these characters, we must be sure that we are dealing with 
mature specimens. In one specially difficult family, Lophi- 
diiim compressum is an example of a troublesome species whose 
spores pass gradually through every stage from hyaline and 
continuous, to coloured and muriform ; and probably at some 
time or other it has been mistaken for most of the species in 
the Lophiostomaceae ; indeed in this family, the slow develop- 
ment of the spores, together with the presence in certain 

*Abstract of Paper read at the Yorkshire Naturalists' Union Fungus Foray 
at Sandsend. 

1912 Nov. I. Z 



342 The Pyrenomycetes and some Problems they suggest. 

conditions of more or less evanescent hyaline appendages, has 
led to a woeful multiplication of bad species. The beginner 
should be very cautious in dealing with it. 

A reference to the case of the Discomycete, Phaeangclla 
Smithiana Bond, may be excused. First found in Scocland in 
1908, and later, near Scarborough,* described at first from 
immature specimens, it was placed in a genus quite different 
from the one it now occupies. 

Again, in September, 1910, Mr. Gibbs sent me some speci- 
mens from near Sandsend that looked like the fairly common 
Bertia moriformis, but though everything else agreed, the 
spores became as many as 7-septate, whereas Bertia should 
only have i-septate spores. This may represent a hitherto 
overlooked character of the species which would necessitate 
transferring ' moriformis ' to the genus Bertiella. Such few 
cases are enough to show the danger of the hasty making of 
species as well as the inconvenience of genera founded on 
single characters. 

There are many other important morphological characters 
worthy of consideration. 

A different question that, so far as the writer knows, has 
not yet been answered, concerns the Valsaceae — are they 
typically saprophytes or parasites ? The perfect fungus is 
usually found saprophytic on dead twigs often still attached 
to the trees. But were the earlier stages — the myceloid and 
pycnidial — not parasites ? It is a difficult question to solve 
except by cultural experiment, but one would like an answer. 

Modern research into the sexual and cytological features 
of the Pyrenomycetes may possibly affect classification. At 
present though, as far as an outsider can judge, and as was 
stated in a paper in this year's ' Transactions of the British 
Mycological Society,' investigators are not at all agreed as to 
either the correctness of many of the phenomena recorded, 
or their significances. There is something attractive in Prof. 
Lotsy's suggestion | that the true Pyrenomycetes may prove 
to be separated from allied groups by the presence of vestiges 

of original fertilisation by trichogyne and spermatia 

Polystigma rubrum is one of the few Pyrenomycetes that have 
been thoroughly investigated so far, and on the ground that it 
contains very evident gametic organs, trichogyne and sper- 
matia, continuous aseospores and cellular structure little altered 
from its supposed algal ancestors, it has been made by one 
writer the type of a new division of Polystigmales. 

But it is probably too early to make any radical alterations 
in classification on these grounds. However, the ordinary 

* The N iifiirnHsf, July 191 2, pp. 206-7. 
f Vortrage iiber Botaiiische Stammesgfeschichte, Vol. I., p. 470. 

Naturalist, 



Reviews and Book Notices. 343 

mycologist must await with interest the result of further 
experiments and will be ready to accept the conclusions drawn 
from them, if they do not tend to upset obvious affinities 
and do not ask him to examine the divisions or fusions of 
nuclei. Any such work must be left to the specialist, as must 
any attempt to discover by cultures what are the true secondary 
stages of the Pyrenomycetes. Though here something may be 
done by field observations. 

More collections are wanted. We want to know what are 
the truly indigenous British species. Many of the species 
described by Berkely and Broom seem never to turn up again. 
Perhaps they might if more mycologists would employ their 
energies in collecting Pyrenomycetes. 

: o : 

Wild Flowers as they Grow. By G. C. Nuttall, with illustrations from 
photographs in natural colours by H. E. Corke. Fourth series, 200 pp., 
5/- net. London : Messrs. Cassell and Co. This volume is a companion 
to those bearing a similar title, which we have already noticed in these 
columns, and, as in the case of its predecessors, its chief charm. lies in the 
series of beautiful plates, well reproduced from colour-photographs taken 
direct from nature. There are twenty-five such pictures ; those of the 
Blackthorn, Broom, Biting Stonecrop, and Guelder Rose being perfect. 

Snowden Slights — Wildfowler, by Sydney H. Smith. 114 pp. T. A. J. 
Waddington, York. Price 3/6. Mr. Smith has written an extremely interest- 
ing account of the life of one of the fine old Yorkshire Sportsmen, the last 
of what might almost be termed the typical East Riding Wildfowlers. 
Members of the Vertebrate Section of the Yorkshire Naturalists' Union 
will have a pleasing recollection of the visit of this fine old man, over 
eighty years of age, to one of their winter naeetings, when he entertained 
them with some interesting reminiscences. Snowdon Slights followed 
the occupation of basket maker in summer and wildfowler in winter. 
Mr. Smith gives full particulars of both vocations, and of "his struggles, 
failures and successes, and incidentally we are introduced to some inter- 
esting phases of life in the old world village in which he resides. In- 
structive chapters are those devoted to " Punts and Punt shooting," 
" Guns, Dress and Dogs," and much useful information is imparted 
concerning these necessary adjuncts of a wildfowler's outfit. Chapters on 
Salmon, Eel and Lamprej^ trapping illustrate another side of Slight's 
occupations. The author, in one respect, is scarcely happy here, for 
although Slights manufactured eel traps of oiser, he is shown in the illus- 
trations using those made of netting. Chapter VI is devoted to a list of 
the birds of the Derwent Valley. This appears to be a careful and accurate 
account of the birds to be found there, together with a list of rarefies 
which have been obtained from time to time. Popular names, always 
the most interesting in these local lists, are however not dealt with suffic- 
ently, as an instance the first bird mentioned, the Missle Thrush, has no 
local appellation given to it. The analyses of the shots with the big gun 
are valuable as showing the comparative scarcity or abundance of fowl 
in different seasons. The book is well illustrated with photographs by 
the author, though as the blocks have apparently previously been printed 
elsewhere, they are of varying sizes and merit. It may be commended to 
all Yorkshire Naturalists and sportsmen, not only as a biography of 
an interesting type of the sturdy Yorkshireman of the old school, but also 
as a valuable record of the wild life in a district which is even now losing 
some of its peculiar characteristics, and which no doubt in time, owing 
to the advance of civilisaton, will cease to be a great winter haunt of 
wildfowl. R.F. 

.1912 Nov. 1. 



344 

FIELD NOTES. 

MAMMALS. 

Whiskered Bat in Craven. — A specimen of this bat was 
obtained in Skipton Woods, near the old Corn Mill, in August 
of last year. It was sent to me by the Secretary of the Craven 
Naturalists' Society. — ^Walter Wilson, Colne. 

The two White Mares (?) of Sheffield — For some months 
I tried without success to get accurate information on the 
above subject for Major G. E. H. Barrett-Hamilton for his work 
on ' British Mammals.' In J. C. Walter's ' Stray Leaves of 
Travel,' 1910, p. 180 (and in other publications), there is a 
statement that at Sheffield a rent is paid for some property 
enjoined by ancient deed, which consists of two white hares 
to be paid on St. John's Day (Dec. 27th). Eventually I received 
the desired information from Mr. S. O. Addy, of Westbourne 
Road, Sheffield, and that gentleman has kindly given me 
permission to publish it in The Naturalist, viz : — ' The 
alleged chief rent of two white hares in Sheffield in 39 Edw. Ill, 
was due to a mistake of the Rev. Edward Goodwin, who 
mis-read " duos leporarios albos" (two white greyhounds) as 
" duos lepores albos " (two white hares). See Pegge's Anony- 
miana, 1818, p. 159. There is no such rent in Sheffield.' — 
H. B. Booth, Ben Rhydding. 



BIRDS. 
Osprey at Scampston — An Osprey has been at Scampston 
for about ten days this month. It was first seen by us on the 
loth, but some of our men working near the lake noticed it 
several days earlier. As is unfortunately usually the case, 
this Osprey was by no means shy, and could be closely in- 
spected with glasses, and otherwise, as he sat . preening his 
plumage, or pulling up his prey, on one of his favourite perches, 
a Scotch Fir, a very large Black Poplar, and a stag-headed 
Oak. The latter is only about 150 yards from the terrace on 
which he allowed us to stand watching him, without showing 
any alarm. Roach were his principal prey, and their scales and 
fragments were plentiful under his perches. I watched the bird 
from my dressing-room fishing early in the morning of the 17th, 
and about 8-30 a.m. he was noticed passing near the house 
flying north, quite low down. This was the last that we saw 
of him.— W. H. St. Quintin, October 23rd, 1912. 

' The Transactions of the North of England Institute of Mining and 
Mechanical Engineers,' Vol. LXIL, part 6, contains a well illustrated 
paper on the use of X rays in the examination of coal, by Messrs. F. C. 
Garrett and R. C. Burton. 

Naturalist, 



345 
BIBLIOGRAPHY: 

Papers and Records published with respect to the Geology 
and ^Palaeontology of the North of England (Yorkshire 
excepted), during 191 1. 



T. SHEPPARD, F.G.S. 



For details of the previous instalments of this Bibliography 
see The Naturalist for July 1911, page 257, and May 1912, page 
152. The Yorkshire items will be included in a Memorial 
Volume to the late C. Fox-Strangway ■, now in the press, 
which is being edited by the present writer. 

1910. 

R. G. Carruthers. Yorks., Derbyshire, etc- 

On Zonal Work in Lower Carboniferous Rocks, with s)me remarks on the 

C3llecti3n of Fossils. [References to Yorkshire, Derbyshire, etc.]. 

' Trans. Geol. See.', Glasgow, Vol. XIV., pt. i, 1909-10 (publ. 1910), 

PP- 65-73- 

1911. 

Anon. Northern Counties. 

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