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NATURALIST: 

A 
MONTH l.N' jOl'RNAL OF 

NATURAL HISTORY POR THE NORTH OF ENGLAND. 

i.:nrn'.i) by 
THOS. SHKPPARI), M.Sc, F.G.S., F.R.G.S., F.S. A.(Scot.). 

Curator OK THK Munk'H'AL Mi'skims, Hii.i.. 

Author ok 'GEoi.oGirAL Ramui.ks in East Yorkshire'; 'Thk Evolution 

OK Kingston upon Huui, '; 'Lost Towns ok thk Yorkshikk Coast,' ktc, etc. 

Editor of Mortimf.r's 'Forty Years' Researches,' 

AM) 

THOMAS WILLIAM WOODHHAD, Ph.D., M.Sc, F.L.S. 

Lecturer in Biology, TixuNifAi. Coi.lece, Hudiierskield ; 

\YITH the assistance AS REKEREES IN STECIAL 1)E I'AKTMENTS OK 

J. GILBKKT BAKER, l-.R.S., F.L.S. GEORGE T. FOKRITT, F.L.S., F.E.S. 

Prok. PERCY F. KENDALL, ALSc, F.G.S. JOHN \Y. TAYLOR, M.c'c^ _ 

T. H. NELSON. M.Sc, M.B.O.U. RILTCY FORTINE, F.Z.S. 



11)1 :>. 



K 



LONDON : 

A. Brown & Sons. Ltd., 5. Farrlncido.n .\\i :m k, E.G. 

And .\t Hi i.l and York. 



«•-%* 



PRINTED AT BKOWNS' SAVILE PRESS, 
SAVILE STREET AND GEORGE STREET, HDLL. 



JANUARY 1915. 



No. 696 

(No, 473 of current series) 




A MONTHLY ILLUSTRATED JOURNAL OF 

NATURAL HISTORY FOR THE NORTH OF ENGI AND 

EDITED BV 

T. SHEPPARD, F.G.S.. F.R.Q.S., F.S.A.Sc * 

The Museums, Hull ; 

AND 

T. W. WOODHEAD, Ph.D., F.L.S., 

Technical College, Huddersfield. 
with the assistance as referees in special departments op 
J. aiLBBRT BAKBR, P.R.S. P.L.S., GEO. T. PORRITF, P.L.S. P.f . , 

Prof. P. P. KENDALL, M.Sc, P.Q.S., JOHN W. TAYLOR, 

T. H. NELSON. M.B.O.U., RILEY PORTUNE, F.Z.S. 



Contents : — 

PAG 

Notes and Comments:— Mr. Riley Fortune, F.Z.S. ; The Plumage Bill ; Vapourer Moth on 
Heather; The Paull Museum, Holderness ; The Story of a ' New ' Bird ; A Yorkshire 
Record ; A Halifax Dealer ; A Halifax Record ; A Little-Bunting ; Sold ; Further Investi- 

gatiqn ; A Memory ; Value of Records 1-5 

Bryobia pratensis Qarman, at Grantham, Lines. (Illustrated)— C. F. George, Af.K.C.S. 6 

The Thinnfeldia Leaf-bed of Roseberry Toppine (Illustrated)—//. Hamshaw Thomas. 

M.A.,F.G.S 7.13 

Yorkshire Naturalists at Leeds— IV. E.L.W. r^. ... 14-I6 

Yorkshire's Contribution to Science— T. Shepparci, F.G.S 17-25 

New and Rare Yorkshire Spiders— /. IF. f/irs/o/) f/nrmon, B.Sc 26-27 

in Memoriam: William Cash, P.Q.S. (Illustrated)— r.S 28-30 

Coal Measure Plant Records— A/a;':t' /I. /o/jns/o«e, B.Sc, F.L.S 31-32 

Pield Notes :— Hen Harriers near Doncaster ; White Blackbird at Barnsley ; Heron Killing 

a Kestrel ; West Yorkshire Mosses and Hepatics 5 16 25 

Yorkshire Naturalists' Union Report for 1914 33-52 

Reviews and Book Notices 13,27 

Northern News 25,32 

Illustrations 6,9,28 



LONDON : 
A. Brown & Sons, Limited, 5, Farringdon Avenue, E.C. 

And at Hull and York. 
Printers and Publishers to the Y.N. U. 



Prepaid Subscription 6/6 per annum, post free. 



In order to expedite this important work, those who have 
not already subscribed are urged to do so NOW. 

An entirely New Work bringing the Vegetational History 
of the County quite up-to-date, 

THE VEGETATION OF YORKSHIRE 

Its History and Associations on the lines of Botanical Survey, 
based on the Geologic and Phyto-palaeologic remains : being an 
examination into the sources, the presence or passing of the 
Floristic Constituents — their When, How and Where ; being also 
a Supplement to previous " Floras " of York, and a list of the 
Localities and Species, newly classified, " New " to the County or 
some of its river-basins since 1888. 

By F. ARNOLD LEES 

M.R.C.S.Eng., L.R.C.P.Lond. 

Demy Svo, on white unsized paper, about 500 pages, 
to be subscribed at 12/6 net (16/- net strictly after publication) 



LONDON 

A. BROWN & SONS, Ltd., 5, Farringdon Avenue, E.G. 
And at Hull and York. 



BOOKS WANTED. 

T/ie Naturalist (? stylographed). York. 1823. 

The British Naturalist. Vol. IV. 1894. 

The Field Naturalist and Scientific Record. Set. 

The Journal of the Keighley Naturalists' Society. Set. 

Huddersfield Arch, and Topogf. Society. 4 Reports. (1865- 1869). 

Reports, Malton Naturalists' Society. Set. 

The Naturalists' Journal. Vols. I.-III. (1892-4). 

Transactions and Monthly Circular, Huddersfield Naturalists' Society. Set. 

First Report, Goole Scientific Society. " 

Cleveland Lit. & Phil. Society's Transactions. Science Section or others. 

The Naturalists' Record. Set. 

The Natural History Teacher (Huddersfield). Vols. I.-H. 

The Economic Naturalist (Huddersfield). Vol. I. 

The Naturalists' Guide (Huddersfield). Set. 

The Naturalists' Almanac (Huddersfield). 1876. 

The Naturalists' Gazette. Set. 

Wesley Naturalist. Set. 

Proc. Yorkshire Naturalists' Club (York). 1867-70. (Set). 

Keeping's Handbook to Natural History Collections (York). 

" Ripon Spurs," by Keslington. 

Apply :—'^d\tot. The Museum, Hull. 



THE NATURALIST 

For 1915. 



NOTES AND COMMENTS. 

MR. RILEY FORTUNE, F.Z.S. 

This year the selection of the President of the Yorkshire 
Naturahsts' Union rested in the first place with the Zoologists 
on the Executive Committee of the Union, and on their recom- 
mendation the election of Mr. Riley Fortune to that office 
was unanimous. Mr. Riley Fortune is not chosen as a ' figure- 
head.' He is one of the Union's workers and is rarely absent 
on field excursions or at indoor meetings. He has held various 
offices in the committees under the vertebrate section, and has 
been president of that section. For some years he has done 
valuable work as Hon. Secretary of the Wild Birds' and Eggs' 
Protection Committee. He is Chairman of the Yorkshire 
Mammals, etc., Committee, and for some years has rendered 
good service to the Union as Divisional Secretary for the 
North West Division. He has been a great help to this 
journal as referee for vertebrate zoology, and his interesting 
notes are familiar to our readers. Flis excellent achievements 
with the camera are well-known, and have enriched the pages 
of this and other scientific journals. ' The Birds of York- 
shire,' published by the Union a few years ago, contained a 
very large number of his photographs, which he freely placed 
at the service of the editors. We can only repeat a toast 
that we saw on a menu the other day (for even naturalists 
dine), ' May Fortune always smile on us.' 

THE PLUMAGE BILL. 

It will be remembered that Yorkshire has always taken a 
prominent part in connection with the passing of Parlia- 
mentary Acts and other measures for the preservation of 
bird life. In connection with the present Plumage Bill, which 
was unfortunately shelved in consequence of the war, at a stage 
in its career when it had every prospect of being passed into 
law, one of the Secretaries of the Yorkshire Naturalists' Union 
communicated with each Member of Parliament for York- 
shire asking for his support. This was done at the suggestion 
of the members of the Vertebrate Section of the Union. A 
number did not reply to the letter at all, others would carefully 
consider it, and the following gentlemen definitel}^ promised to 
support the Bill : — Sir George Scott Robertson, Sir Luke White. 

lylO Jan. 1. 



2 Notes and Comments. 

the Rt. Hon. T. R. Ferens, and Messrs. G. Beckett, J. S. 
Butcher, T. E. Harvey, A. Marshall, A. S. Rowntree, A. 
Sherwcll, J. H. Whitley, and E. Wood. 

VAPOURER MOTH ON HEATHER. 

^Ir. S. Margerison contributes to a recent number of ' Wild 
Life,' a short illustrated article on insect plagues. He refers 
to the recent invasion of a Yorkshire grouse moor by a swarm 
of caterpillars of the Vapourer Moth. A large patch of the 
moor was ' absolutely stripped of every leaf of ling and bil- 
berry, and every blade of grass.' Such a plague was quite 
new to the keepers, and there are no recorded observations of 
an attack upon moorland plants by this species ; yet ' the 
crowd of quickly moving caterpillars was like an advancing 
army, numbering tens of thousands, and young ones were all 
the time emerging from the eggs, which had been deposited on 
silky cocoons fixed to the wiry stems of the vegetation.' Mr. 
Margerison points oat that the Vapourer belongs to the same 
family as the Nun Moth, which has wrought such havoc in 
German and Russian forests. In two years alone these moths 
stripped the leaves of 6,375 acres in the Rothebude Forest, 
' their droppings covering the ground to a depth of five to 
eight centimetres, whilst the sound of their falling was like that 
of heavy rain.' Large sums of money were spent in vain 
attempts at extirpation. 

THE PAULL MUSEUM, HOLDERNESS. 

We take the following from The Museums Journal : — 
'The following characteristic announcement appears in the 
report of the Hull Museums Committee with reference to the 
well-known museum at Paull, an out-of-the-way village in 
Holderness. We understand that the former owner had it 
valued at something like £3,000, and apparently the Hull 
Museum has secured what was worth securing for about £3 :■ — 
" I have to report that on account of the death of Mr. J. D. 
Battersby, an ex-Hull Town Councillor, his well-known 
museum at Paull was put up for auction on the loth and nth 
October. As the committee is aware, there was an enormous 
accumulation of material of various sorts, among which, 
however, were some objects which certainly ought to be in 
the Hull Museums. Fortunately, or unfortunately, partly 
on account of bad weather, and partly on account of the 
inaccessibility of the village, the attendance was small, and we 
were able to get practically everything that was of value to us 
at absurdly low prices ; the price of is. and is. 3d. per lot 
being not uncommon. We missed a few interesting items, 
which were secured by Councillor Harrison, but I have since 
visited his warehouse and he has given us the objects wc wanted 
from his lots. 

Naturalist. 



Notes and Comments. 3 

To give a complete list of the specimens we secured would 
be much too lengthy, but among them are : a fine massivc' 
prehistoric stone hammer from Ottringham ; harpoon gun from 
a Hull whaler ; antique pistol made by Carter, Hull ; antique 
brass powder pistol, by Brunton, Doncaster ; a fine goblet 
of turquoise blue glass, made at the Hull Glass Works ; two 
carved oak pew ends (15th century) from Holy Trinity Church 
Hull ; large model of a fishing smack ; a massive lantern from 
the old Hebbles' light, Paull ; a fine Georgian mahogany 
bedstead, with carved top ; various ecclesiastical antiquities, 
and several interesting models, as also a large osteological 
collection. The remarkable feature of the collection, however, 
was the number of interesting " bygones " which Mr. Battersby 
had secured. Practically the whole of these came to us. 
The total cost to the Corporation for a collection consisting of 
nearly 200 specimens is about £3 3s." ' 

THE STORY OF A ' NEW ' BIRD. 

On May 13th last, two Black-headed Buntings were exhib- 
ited at a meeting of the British Ornithologists' Club, and were 
referred to in the Club's Bulletin No. CXCVIIL, pp. 133-4. 
One had been caught at Halifax, Yorkshire, in December, 
1910, and kept alive in an aviary at Hove until May, 1912, 
when it was killed by a Corn Bunting. The other had been 
shot at Battle (Sussex) in April, 1912. We referred to the 
matter in The Naturalist at the time, and regretted that 
our Yorkshire specimen should have been mixed up with 
a Sussex bird, because rightly or wrongly, northern (and 
some southern) ornithologists have received with suspicion 
so many of the new bird records from the south. Our con- 
temporary, British Birds, also referred to the record, but 
without comment.* 

A YORKSHIRE RECORD. 

The Yorkshire bird had been supplied by a Mr. Hamilton, 
herbalist, etc., of Halifax. As it was the first county record, 
Yorkshire ornithologists were anxious to verify it, and asked 
the Secretary of the Halifax Scientific Society to investigate. 
He called upon Mr. Hamilton, but that gentleman's mind 
seemed to be a blank ; he knew nothing whatever about it ! 
Later, the Curator of the Museum at Hull wrote to Mr. Hamilton 
enclosing a catalogue of the birds in the Hull collection, and 
asking to be informed of any species in Halifax which were 
not at Hull. Particular mention was made of a Black-headed 
Bunting, which he had seen from the papers had been supplied 
to a collector in Sussex. 

* July, 1914, p. 55. 
1915 Jan. 1. 



4 Notes and Comments. 

A HALIFAX DEALER. 

Mr. Hamilton nibbled. He wrote, ' I could not say how 
long I might be getting one in the flesh, having noiv four on 
order, but I have very great facilities for offering rare and 
ordinary specimens and send to the Elite of Society and such. 
At the present time I can only supply two Black-headed 
skins for £i and eggs i/- each. I always send to first P.O. 
or return cash.' Enclosed with his letter was a long list of 
skins recently supplied ' some in the flesh, also eggs, and can 
still supply another lot of each.' 

A HALIFAX RECORD. 

In reply to a question as to the authenticity of the Halifax 
specimen, (which he had forgotten about when he was called 
upon), Mr. Hamilton replied, 'The Black-headed Bunting was 
sent alive and not shot, and certainly not like those I also 
offer imported.' However, on October ist, the Curator of 
the Museum at Hull wrote saying he was not wanting anything 
but Yorkshire birds, so the correspondence ended. 

A LITTLE-BUNTING. 

I However, on October nth, Mr. Hamilton sent a card : — 
I have for disposal something few possess, viz.. Live Little 
Bunting caught near Ripon, grand condition on seed, lowest 
price 15/-, now or never. I give you first chance.' He was 
requested to send the bird on, with an account. But Mr. 
Hamilton was too old a bird to be caught. He wanted cash 
with order as he had bought the bird from a friend, and could 
obtain much more by advertising. Further correspondence 
made it evident that the bird would not be sent before the 
money was received, as Mr. Hamilton later stated, ' I have 
to pay beforehand.' It was also apparent that for the moment 
he was short of money, though he volunteered the statement 
that he had a cheque of /50 to draw in three weeks. 

SOLD. 

Anyway on October 20th, 15/- was sent for the ' Little 
Bunting,' which arrived on the 27th, quite chirpy, and has 
been alive and well ever since in an ordinary canary's cage. 
Later, a receipt was sent for 15/- for the Little Bunting. The 
bird was shown at a meeting of the Vertebrate section of the 
Yorkshire Naturalists' Union at Leeds, on November 21st, 
and, as might have been expected, proves to be no Little 
Bunting at all ! * 

* Our Bnidford friends art- of the opinion that it is the Alario Finch 
(Alario alario, L., the ' Berg- Canarie ' of South Africa ; and if caug-ht wild, 
is probabh- new to Europe ! W'e have compared this with the ilhistration 
and description in Butler's ' Foreign Finches in Captivity,' and it is certainh- 
this species. 

Naturalist, 



Notes and Comments. 



FURTHER INVESTIGATION. 



However, it was suggested that the Secretary of the York- 
shire Wild Birds' and Eggs Protection Committee shouhl write 
to Mr. Hamilton, asking for the name and address of the 
person who caught the bird at Ripon, in order that proceedings 
might be taken against him ! In reply, Mr. Hamilton men- 
tions his severe illness (pneumonia, three broken ribs, etc.), 
refers to the Kaiser and the Creator, and then states that as 
' already said to a caller, he had no knowledge of a Black- 
Headed Bunting, neither have I supplied a Little Bunting 
from Ripon ' ! ! 

A MEMORY. 

Here, then, we have at last had an opportunity of investi- 
gating a case of a new record, seen ' in the flesh ' ; a specimen 
supplied by a dealer who is probably not too well endowed 
with this world's goods, and who knows that a ' new record ' 
for a part of this country is likely to bring him more profit 
than is a foreign bird, sold as such. From the correspondence 
before us he has obviously a very bad memory (possibly 
through no fault of his own). As we heard he had been con- 
sulting bird lists at the local public library it was evident he 
was anxious to know what was ' rare ' and what was not. 

VALUE OF RECORDS. 

But is it fair to the science of ornithology to base new 
records on the evidence of a dealer with such a bad memory ? 
And if one has been proved to have had a bad memory, surely 
it is possible others have also. We do not for a moment suggest 
that a dealer might be unscrupulous in his search for custom 
and gain. Some might make such a suggestion ; we don't. 
W'e merely say it is unfortunate that in this one case we have 
been able to investigate, the dealer has had so bad a memory 
that he states in one letter the very opposite to what he wrote 
in another only a few days before ! 



Hen Harriers near Doncaster. — During the present autumn 
three examples of the Hen Harrier {Circus cyaneus L.) have 
been shot in the neighbourhood of Doncaster. One, an adult 
female or ' Ringtail ' was obtained on the Brodsworth estate 
in October. Two others, both also females, have been shot 
on or near Hatfield Chase. I have not seen these so cannot say 
whether they are adult or young. I hear from the keeper at 
Hatfield that he has seen these birds, which he called Kites, 
off and on for at least a year. If this be so it is just possible 
that they have bred on the moor, but so far as I know no 
' Blue Hawk ' has been seen. — H. H. Corbett. 

1915 Jan. 1. 



BRYOBIA PRATENSIS, GARMAN, AT GRANTHAM, 
LINCOLNSHIRE. 



C. F. GEORGE, M.R.C.S., 

Kirton-inLindsey . 



This mite, when seen alive, is a very beautiful object for the 
microscope ; it may also be well seen if recently killed or after 
only a short time in preservative solution. It does not make 
so striking an appearance, however, when mounted in balsam, 
in consequence of the transparency produced by that medium, 
which renders the scale-like projections difficult to make out. 
N. Banks in his ' Treatise of the Acarina,' gives some very 
good figures of the mite. He says it is the only species of the 
genus Bryobia in America, and it is the only one I have yet 







Bryobia pratensis. x 48. 

met with, although it is many years since I first found it. He 
also says it is very abundant in many localities, and is known 
as the Clover mite ; in the West, it is injurious to fruit trees ; 
in the East it more commonly affects clover, and annual plants. 
Koch figures and describes four species, which are evidently 
very beautiful mites, but pratensis is not one of them. 

It appears to have been very plentiful this year at Gran- 
tham, in Lincolnshire, where it was found by a lady, who sent 
me some leaves of ivy covered with them, she describes them 
as being there in thousands. Mr. Soar's figure gives a good 
idea of the creature, its special points are the four projecting 
scale-like processes in front, and on the body of the mite ; one 
of which, much enlarged, is also shewn. They are opaque 
white and are beautifully seen in the living mice. The wrinkles 
on the body are also remarkable. Banks places it in his 
family Tetr any chid cb, commonly known as red spiders. 

Naturalist, 



THE THINNFELDIA LEAF-BED OF ROSEBERRY 

TOPPING. 



H. HAMSHAW THOMAS, M.A., F.G.S., 

Fillni' of Downing Collcf^c, Cambridt;c, 

The locality of Roseberry Topping is well-known to all York- 
shire geologists, and many will have studied personally the 
fine exposure of Lower Estuarine deposits laid bare by the slip 
on the north-west side. On one of my early visits to this 
exposure, I discovered fragments of a thin, bed which seemed 
to be composed very largely of fragments and leaflets of the 
fronds which are known under the generic name of Thinnfeldia. 
At that time the fall of material from the face above was 
going on almost continuously, and it was scarcely safe to 
venture far in quest of more of these specimens, but in the 
following year, when the ground was becoming settled, I 
obtained further examples which demonstrated the abundance 
of these leaves at a certain level in the dark-coloured lower beds 
lying above the Lias. In the spring of 1913 I set out to try 
to trace the plant beds from Roseberry Topping across to the 
main escarpment, known, I believe, as Little Roseberry, and 
here encountered in a scrape on the hill side, the main portion 
of the Thinnfeldia leaf-becl, which is undoubtedly one of the 
most remarkable fossil-plant deposits in F.urope. I subse- 
quently excavated this bed, anti have made large exposures 
at two places about a hundred yards apart, and from here 
the specimens exhibited* were obtained. 

We have in these exposures a thickness of 8 to 10 feet of 
black or dark chocolate shales containing throughout an abund- 
ance of leaves which are almost all of the same species. In 
many places the leaves are so numerous that in a thickness of 
several inches the bulk of the bed is composed of leaves with 
comparatively little sediment round them. I have not yet 
succeeded in determining any definite periodicity in the succes- 
sive layers, but there are some indications that the leaves were 
not deposited uniformly. The beds at Little Roseberry seem 
to rest directly upon the gray shales of the Upper Lias, and 
seem quite conformable with them so far as can be made out. 
There is no indication of anything comparable to the ferru- 
ginous dogger of Whitby. The massive sandstone which forms 
such a conspicuous feature in the neighbourhood, is many feet 
above at this point. 

At Roseberry Topping I noted the following sequence at 
the top of the Lias on the east side of the slip : — 

Black Shales with sandy partings . . 1 r f ^^t 
Thinnfeldia and other forms at their base I 

* These have been kindly presented to the Museum at Hull. — Ed. 
1915 Jan. 1. 



8 Tliiiuifeldia Leaf- Bed of Roseherry Topping. 

Grey clay . . . . . . . . 6 inches. 

Black coaly clay . . . . 4 inches. 

Grey yellow clay passing into Upper Liassic shales. 
This gradual passage of the Liassic into the Lower Estuarine 
is of some interest, more especially when we remember that 
Thinnfeldia rhomboidalis is typically a Liassic plant. I do 
not think it is possible to say definitely, as the result of exami- 
nation of the strata, whether the beds which we are discussing 
should be reckoned as of Liassic or Lower Estuarine Age. 

The leaves are compound pinnate structures of various 
sizes (see fig.), sometimes reaching about a foot in length, but 
it is seldom that complete leaves are seen or can be extracted 
owing to their constant overlapping. It may, perhaps, be 
more correct to speak of them as fronds consisting of a central 
stalk or rachis some 2-4 millimetres wide, bearing ovoid or 
lanceolate pinna on either side. The shape of the pinna or 
leaflets is somewhat varied, depending to some extent on their 
distance from the apex or the base of the frond, and it varies 
also in. different fronds, but in all cases the apex is bluntly 
rounded, the base is decurrent on the lower side and truncated 
on the upper side. In some cases the pinnae are so close 
together as to overlap one another, but in other specimens they 
may be 3-4 millimetres apart ; towards the base of the frond 
they appear to be inserted on the upper side of the rachis 
somewhat as in the fronds of Some Cycads and Bennettitaleans. 
At the lower end, the rachis may extend for 6 centimetres or 
more below the lowest pinnae, it shows longitudinal ridges, 
and some transverse wrinkling in the centre. In the centre 
of each pinnae is a strong midrib which is almost always very 
conspicuous ; the secondary veins are, however, very indis- 
tinct, and though they frequently appear plain when the 
specimens are first colkcted, they are later almost indistinguish- 
able. There were, however, fine veins given off at an acute 
angle to the midrib, and forking once or twice on their way to 
the margin. 

At the apex of the frond, the pinnae decrease somewhat 
irregularly in size and they become confluent, the tip being 
occupied by a terminal leaflet. Near the apex the distinction 
between pinnae or leafl.ets and stalk seems to be lost. 

Pinnae are frequently irregularly lobed or possess small 
notches on their margins. The very great variation in shape 
suggests that several species of Thinnfeldia based almost 
entirely on small differences in outline ought to be dropped, for 
Thinnfeldia rhomhoidalis certainly shows very different forms.* 



* A very good review of the state of knowledge of the genus has just 
been published by Antevs. K. Svenska. Vet. Akad. Hand. ,Bd. 51, No. 
6, 1914. 



Naturalist, 



Thinnjcldia Leaf- Bed of Roseberry Topping. 9 

For the present I wisli more especially to draw attention to 
the beautiful manner in which these leaves are preserved. As 
will be seen from specimens which have been mounted on paper, 
the tissue of the original leaf is still fairly strong, and the 
individual leaves can be readily separated from the matrix and 
handled almost as easily as dried herbarium specimens. In 
this respect they differ from almost all other fossil plants, 
which occur either as impressions on a matrix, or as a coaly 
layer irremovably attached to the stone, or in exceptional 
cases impregnated with calcium carbonate or some other 




Photo of Leaves of Thlnnfeldia rhomboidalis detached from rock. Natural size. 



mineral substance. But here we have the plant itself, which 
has undergone comparatively little mineralisation, holding 
together by the strength of its own original tissues, a true 
example from the ' Herbarium Diluvianum.' 

We may best speak of this kind of preservation as mummi- 
fication, for neither decay of the tissues nor replacement has 
gone on, only the gradual alteration of the less resistent sub- 
stances composing the original leaf. The chief reason why the 
Thlnnfeldia leaves have retained their form so perfectly is that 
they possessed, when alive, a very thick and leathery cuticle, or 
outer layer to the epidermal cells, and the substance composing 

1015 Jan. I. 



10 Thinnjddia Leaf-Bed of Rosebcrry Topping. 

the cuticle resists all decay and alteration almost indefinitely. 
The cellulose substance composing the middle of the leaves turns 
gradually, after the lapse of a long period of time, into a dark, 
brittle, carbonaceous substance, formed by slow oxidisation ; 
this substance when further changed, becomes like coal.* 

In most of our fossil plants from the fine grained mud- 
stones of the Yorkshire Jurassic, a change of the same kind 
has gone on ; their present condition seems to depend on 
the original proportion of cuticle to softer tissue, and on the 
changes in the leaf just before or immediate^ after preservation. 
It would seem as though any of the Gymnosperms with their 
thick cuticles might become mummified, and in, fact we get 
some interesting specimens of Ptilophylliim (sometimes called 
Williamsonia) fronds from Cloughton Wyke. In these examples 
the soft tissues must have shrivelled before being buried, for 
little but cuticle is left. On the othei" hand the same type of 
leaf from Gristhorpe does not appear mummified, because the 
cuticle is too delicate to hold together the brittle carbonaceous 
matter which represents the original bulky mesophyll. In 
the Roseberry Thinnfeldias the cuticle is very thick in. com- 
parison with the bulk of the inner carbonaceous matter. 

Mummified plants of this type are very infrequent outside 
Yorkshire. Specimens of the same species as those before us, 
have been found in a somewhat mummified condition in. the 
Lias near Lyme Regis, and in Sutherland. Some coniferous 
remains have been discovered in the cretaceous deposits of 
Greenland, and a few come from the Rhaetic beds of Southern 
Sweden. Mummified plants are very rare in the Carboniferous 
rocks, but good examples have been found in species of Sphenop- 
teris found in the oil-shales of Scotland, and some specimens 
of exceptional interest have recently been described by Miss 
Wills (Geol. Mag., 1914), from the Midlands and North Wales. 
A few specimens have come down to us from more recent times, 
and I have seen some from the Tertiary beds near Bourne- 
mouth. 

The Roseberry examples however, stand out above all 
others because of the vast numbers of leaves which are to be 
found there, and we are justified, I believe, in saying that the 
bed is unique. 

The leaves under consideration must be referred to the 
species Thinnfeldia rhomboidalis which was founded by 
Ettingshausen on specimens from the Lias of Steierdorf in 

* An interesting example of this natural oxidation recently came to 
my notice. I received a sample of wheat from an ancient Egyptian 
granary between 5,000 and 6,000 years old. Each grain retained perfectly 
its shape and external markings, but had become converted into a dense 
black brittle substance, with a relatively high percentage of carbon, and 
reminding one very much of some of the seeds found at Gristhorpe. 

Naturalist, 



Thinnfeldia Leaf- Bed of Roscberry Topping. ii 

Hungary. Though Dr. Gothan lias questioned this deter- 
mination on the ground of tlie stomatal structure, it is 
supported by the shape of the fronds and pinnae, and by 
the nervation. The species also occurs on the continent, in 
the Rhaetic of Franconia (Bayreuth), and in France ; while 
it may perhaps be identical with some forms occurring in 
India and South America. In England the type first became 
known from specimens found in the Lias at Lyme Regis, but 
more recently it has been described from the Kimeridgian beds 
of Sutherlandshire by Prof. Seward. Hitherto the genus has 
not been definitely recorded from any of the other plant beds 
in Yorkshire and is certainly entirely absent from all the coast 
localities. I have seen a single specimen in the collection of 
Mr. Sewell. of Whitby, which was badl}- preserved but was 
probably referable to the genus, it came from one of the inland 
localities in the neighbourhood of Goathland. While we are 
probably correct in saying that Thinnfeldia is more typical 
of the Lias than of the Middle Jurassic, we must remember that 
the Sutherland specimens are of Kimeridge age and that 
somewhat similar fronds have been described from the Wealden 
beds under other generic names, such as Dichopteris. 

We ma}' now turn for a moment to discuss the n.ature and 
affinities of these leaves. 

As in the case of so many other fossil plants, the leaves of 
Thinnfeldia have always been found in an isolated condition 
and never connected with any reproductive structures. Under 
these conditions we have only two things on which to base our 
conclusions and both of them are somewhat untrustworthy. 
The first is the form and nervation of the leaf, the second the 
epidermal structure. Early observers basing their conclusions 
on the first named character thought , that Thinnfeldia was a 
fern, for the outlines, and the nervation were quite fern- 
like. Against this view there are two objections {a) that 
no leaf bearing sporangia has ever been foimd, and in the 
millions of leaves at Roseberry some at least should be present, 
and (6) that the texture of the leaf, and the cuticle must have 
been very different from that seen in the ferns of to-day. 

This brings us to the study of the cuticle, and for this 
microscope preparations of the epidermal structures must 
be made. This is effected by placing part of a pinna in a 
watch glass or a small porcelain dish, covering it with small 
crystals of potassium chlorate, and adding a few cubic centi- 
metres of strong nitric acid. The dish is covered up and allowed 
to stand for a day or two until the leaf fragment has assumed 
a brown colour ; the fragment is then removed, washed in 
water and placed in a very dilute solution of ammonia, when ihv 
brown material soon dissolves away, leaving a clear semi- 
transparent and very fragile membrane. This consists of the 

1915 Jan. 1. 



12 Thinnfeldia Leaf- Bed of Roseberry Topping. 

cuticles of the upper and lower sides of the leaf, and after 
washing these cuticles should be separated and mounted up 
on a glass microscope -slide in glycerine or Canada balsam in 
the usual way. 

On examination under the microscope we shall see clearly 
the polygonal outlines of the epidermal cells which were 
separated by thick straight walls and had a somewhat irregular 
outline. The cuticle of the upper side is very little thicker 
than that of the lower side, and is uniform in structure, possess- 
ing no stomatal openings. On the lower cuticle however, we 
may observe small groups of six or seven cells slightly raised 
above the general level of the surface, and with a gap or small 
cavity between them. These are the subsidiary cells which 
surrounded a pit at the bottom of which lay the guard cells 
of the stomata. The guard cells themselves were but lightly 
cuticularised, blit the slit or stomatal opening between them, 
can frequently be made out. The stomata were not flush with 
the surface of the leaf, as seen in modern ferns and in most 
of the plants around us, but sunken in small pits as seen 
in the pines, cycads, and in many plants living in localities 
which are physically or physiologically dry. 

When compared with the cuticles of other plants, ancient 
and modern, we may notice a somewhat similar structure in 
some of the Carboniferous Pteridosperms, in the Nilssoniales- 
section of the Jurassic cycad-like fronds, in some recent cycads, 
and some conifers, both of Cretaceous and recent age. The 
circle of affinities is thus narrowed to the pteridosperms, cycads, 
or conifers, among the plants with which we are now familiar. 

Some time ago Prof. Seward suggested that these leaves 
might have belonged to the pteridosperms, a class of plants 
intermediate between the ferns and cycads. The general 
form and insertion of the pinnae favours to some extent the 
cycad view, while a comparison between Thinnfeldia and the 
curious New Zealand conifer Phyllocladus has been made by 
some, including Mr. Antevs, a Swedish palasobotanist, who 
has just published an excellent revision of the genus. The 
question cannot yet be settled, but let us see whether addi- 
tional evidence can be obtained from the study of the remains 
in the Roseberry bed, for here we have a much larger and more 
complete supply of material than has ever previously been 
obtained. The first point which is noticeble is the vast number 
of Thinnfeldia leaves which go to form this bed, and secondly 
that throughout a thickness of several feet practically no other 
leaves are seen ; we do meet with an occasional Nilssonia 
but they are few and far between. We may conclude from this 
that the Thinnfeldia plants formed an almost pure association 
somewhere in the immediate neighbourhood, and that they 
produced a great number of leaves. Now the cycadean plants 

Naturalist, 



Thinnjeldia Leaf- Bed of Roscherry Topping. 13 

which we know, are ahnost all slow growing plants with few 
leaves, and these persist for several years, and I find tr im- 
possible to concieve of a leaf-bed like ours being formed from 
cycadean plants of any known type. 

It is also possible that the Thinnfeldia plants were decidu- 
ous, for there are few branches or stems to be found in our bed, 
and trees with persistent leaves more readily lose twigs and 
branches during storms. 

But the principal conclusion which I draw from inspection 
of the bed, is that the plants on which these leaves grew were 
probably trees, on no other hypothesis can we explain the 
accumulation of such vast numbers of leaves, at what must 
have been a very rapid rate. Had the supply been small 
and the rate of deposition slow, a certain amount of decay 
must have gone on in the leaves before preservation, but this 
was not the case. These considerations may perhaps favour 
the coniferous view. 

Beyond this I cannot go at the present time, but I may 
mention that I have recently made two discoveries which may 
further elucidate matters when they have been fully studied. 
After prolonged search for reproductive organs I have found a 
small number of seed-like bodies about 5 millimetres in dia- 
meter, which may have been the seeds of Thinnfeldia. Also 
I have found some portions of charcoal-like wood, which may 
provide some additional evidence. Although I cannot now 
announce any startling discoveries, I trust that it has been 
worth drawing attention to this leaf-bed, and the specimens 
obtained from it. 

Mechanical Properties of Wood. By S. J, Record. London : Chap- 
man and Hall, 1914, pp. 6+165, 7S- 6d. net. In the introductory chapters 
of this work the author deals with commendable clearness with the mechan- 
ical principals involved in timber testing. He keeps always in mind the 
fact that those interested in wood have rarely a knowledge of higher 
mathematics, and shows how- successfully a clear idea of the main facts 
can be obtained by the use of simple and intelligible language. The 
numerous factors affecting the strength of timber are considered briefly 
but in an interesting manner, and on the obscure question of the effect of 
habitat on the quality of timber he says that some woods, e.g., long leaf 
pine, appear uninfluenced by habitat, while others, like the short leaf 
pine and loblollv show marked differences according to habitat, also that 
certain woods, e.g., hickory, from limestone soils are superior to those from 
sandy soils. The general conclusion, however, is that all locallies have their 
heavy and light timber, so they all share in strong and weak, hard and soft 
materials, and the difference in quality of material is evidently far more a 
matter of individual variation than of soil and climate. The concluding 
section deals with testing and testing machines and is illustrated by numer- 
ous photographs and clear and helpful diagrams and sections. There is 
a long bibliography chiefly of American papers. A fault common to 
American works is the almost exclusive use of popular plant nanus ; 
if to these the scientific names were added the value of the works would 
be enhanced for a wider circle of readers. 

1915 Jan. 1. 



14 - 

YORKSHIRE NATURALISTS AT LEEDS. 

The members of the Yorkshire NaturaHsts' Union have 
evidently taken well to heart the new British motto, ' Business 
as Usual,' for the attendance at the fifty-third Annual Meeting, 
which was held at the Leeds University on Saturday, the 5th 
December last, was magnificent indeed, in fact, constituting 
a record. It was an honour to the Union to be invited to hold 
their gathering at the Leeds University, the splendid facilities 
available tending much towards making the meeting so great 
a success, further enhanced by the efforts of the Committee 
from the inviting local Societies, ably carried out by Prof. W. 
Garstang. M.A., D.Sc, and Mr. C. H. Grant, M.Sc. 

In the morning a number of members were guided by Mr. 
Albert Gilligan, B.Sc, F.G.S., up the Meanwood Valley as far 
as Adel. Mr. Gilligan ably explained the various geological 
features of the valley, fully set out by him in the circular, 
to which he has paid special attention. The botanists also 
found much of interest, but unfortunately the weather con- 
ditions were a serious drawback, five distinct types of weather 
being experienced, of which wind and hail were the dominant ! 

The Sectional meetings were of brief duration, inasmuch as 
most sections had already held their meeting prior to the gather- 
ing, for the election of their officers and other business. The 
members of the Permanent General Committee, with delegates 
from affiliated Societies, of whom thirty-one sent representatives 
out of the thirty-nine affiliated to the Union, numbering con- 
siderably over one hundred, assembled in the new Education 
Lecture Theatre, when the Annual Report for 1914, and 
Excursion Programme for 1915, were adopted. The acceptance 
by Mr. Riley Fortune, F.Z.S., of Harrogate, as President for 
1915, was most heartily received. 

The applause was great when the Treasurer of the Union 
(Mr. Edwin Hawkesworth) announced that the balance of the 
debt which had so long been an incubus upon the progressive 
work of the Union had been entirely wiped out, and that the 
substantial balance of /40 6s. in actual cash was now in hand, 
and that in addition the Hey legacy of £20 was also intact. 

The Lecture Theatre was crowded at the evening meeting. 
The retiring President, Mr. Thomas Sheppard, F.G.S., F.S.A. 
(Scot.), occupied the chair, and was supported by Dr. Michael 
E. Sadler, the Vice-Chancellor of the University, the President- 
elect, Mr. Riley Fortune, and Messrs. G. T. Porritt, Prof, 
Percy F. Kendall, W. Denison Roebuck, Charles Crossland, 
John \V. Taylor, and Harold Wager, all past Presidents of 
the Union, the Treasurer and Secretaries. 

After an epitome of the Annual Report had been given, 
.and eleven new members had been elected, l\Ir. Sheppard 

Naturalist, 



Yorkshire Naturalists at Leeds. 15 

delivered his presidential address on ' Yorkshire's Contribution 
to Science,' from the chair. 

After expressing thanks to the members of the Union for 
the honour accorded to him in adding his name to the illustrious 
list of Presidents of the Union since 1877, Mr. Sheppard very 
humourously referred to many incidents in his career as a 
scientific worker, and the developement of his passion for 
collecting ; the evolution of the collector as depicted by him 
being most wittily expressed. 

There is probably no more capable member of the Union 
than Mr. Sheppard in the preparation of bibliography, his 
efforts in preparing for publication in The Naturalist for the 
past twenty-three years, the bibliography with respect to the 
Geology and Palaeontology of the North of England, being 
excellent evidence in that respect. His researches therefore 
into Yorkshire's contribution to Science, which had entailed 
the perusal of a great mass of literature dealing with the 
contributions of eminent Yorkshiremen who had made their 
mark in the scientific world, as well as reference to the history 
and publications of the many Philosophical, Literary, and 
Natural History Societies of the County, emphasised the thor- 
oughness of his work. Mr. Sheppard truly remarked that so 
great and glorious was the history of Yorkshire's contribution 
to science that it would be impossible for him that evening to 
give more than a brief outline of the extent of the work of 
past Yorkshire scientists, and of some of the more important 
Societies. The whole address was a masterly compilation, 
and proved deeply interesting and instructive. Very cordial 
indeed were the thanks to Mr. Sheppard for his address, and 
for the great interest he had taken in the work of the Union 
throughout the year, which was ably moved by Prof. Kendall, 
seconded by Mr. Harold Wager. 

Mr. Sheppard's address will appear at length in the pages 
of The Naturalist. 

At the close of the meeting a Conversazione under the 
auspices of the inviting Societies, the Leeds Naturalists' Club 
and Scientific Association, the Leeds Geological Association, 
the Leeds Co-operative Field Naturalists' Club, and the Leeds 
Conchological Club was held in the Biological Department of 
the University. Here was placed on view an excellent array 
of exhibits as follows : — By Mr. H. T. Todd, on behalf of the 
City of Leeds Training College, a collection of local shells and 
insects made by Mr. E. B. Smith, formerly a member of the 
Leeds Naturalists' Club, and a collection of Bees and other in- 
sects made by the late Mr. John Stubbins, for many years a 
member of the Union ; by Mr. A. Gilligan, pebbles from the 
Millstone Grit, with microscopic sections, specimens of 
grit from the Meanwood borehole with sections, fossils from 

1915 Jan. 1. 



i6 Yorkshire Naturalists at Leeds. 

the same borehole, laminated clay from Woodlesford, Cephal- 
opod from Ambergris, and Deer horn picks and pick marks in 
chalk ; by Messrs. A. Burnet and J. H. Everett, fossils from 
the Robin Hood Quarries, details of which are given in the 
last volume of the Transactions of the Leeds Geological 
Association ; Miss M. Lebour, Nests of earwigs with parents 
and eggs ; by Professor W. Garstang, resting attitude of 
insects ; by Dr. E. O. Croft, cases of lepidoptera ; by Mr. J. 
W. Taylor, drawer of Helices with explanatory labels, and a 
framed sheet of drawings of shells ; by Mr. G. B. Stanger, 
local insects ; by Mr. C. Ardill, local lepidoptera collected 
between May and October, 1914 ; by Messrs. A. E. Bradley, 
A. Hodgson and J. C. Hesselgrave, bees and wasps, "Chiefly 
local ; by Mr. A. E. Bradley, plants from the neighbourhood 
of Leeds, including recent additions to the Yorkshire flora ; 
by Mr. T. Cockerline, local plants ; and by the Leeds Natural- 
ists' Club, record books and index cases showing the work of 
this Society in the field. 

A capital lecture was delivered by Mr. Harold Wager, 
F.R.S., F.L.S., on ' The Perception of Light by Plants.' The 
main factors of his address were well emphasised and illus- 
trated by numerous lantern slides showing his experiments 
with the epidermal cells of the leaf of the Spiderwort (commonly 
known as the ' Mother of Thousands '). Mr. C. A. Cheetham 
also showed a large number of his charming coloured lantern 
slides of wild flowers in their natural haunts. 

Light refreshment was provided by the inviting Societies. 
The hearty thanks of those present was voiced by Mr. Riley 
Fortune, seconded by Mr. G. T. Porritt, to the authorities of 
the Leeds University for the use of rooms at the University, 
to the inviting Societies for their hospitality and help, and 
also to Prof. Garstang, Mr. A. Gilligan, and Mr. C. H. Grant 
for their services in connection with the local arrangements, 
the response of Dr. Sadler bringing to a close a most successful 
annual gathering of the Union. — W.E.L.W. 

: o : • 

White Blackbird at Barnsley— A White Blackbird in 
splendid plumage was shot near Barnsley last week, and is 
now being mounted for the Barnsley Naturalists' Society's 
Museum. ^ — W. Barraclough. 

Heron Killing a Kestrel. — My friend, Mr. Bryan Lang- 
mead, writes to tell me of an encounter of which he was an 
eye-witness, in the following words: — ' I saw a Kestrel in the 
air and a Heron by a stream, when suddenly the Kestrel gave a 
a swoop upon the Heron which curled up its neck, and ran its 
beak right through the Kestrel, killing it instantly. I had 
a look at the Hawk afterwards, and all its ribs were broken 
by the bill of the Heron.'— W. W. Mason. 

Naturalist, 



17 

YORKSHIRE'S CONTRIBUTION TO SCIENCE. 

(Presidential Address to the Yorkshire Naturalists' Union, delivered 
^ at the University, Leeds, ^th December, 1914.). 

By T. Sheppard, F.G.S. 

The various Presidents of the Yorkshire Naturahsts' Union, in 
whose steps I have the honour to follow, have, since 1877, dealt 
with a great variety of subjects in their addresses. Occasionally 
these have assumed the form of a general discussion on current 
scientific events ; more rarely have they been suspiciously like 
a ' popular ' lecture, but as a rule the President for the year 
has selected some topic which he has made a special study. 
The address of my immediate predecessor, Mr. Harold Wager, 
may be taken as an example, and I know of no better way in 
which your President can give you of his best, than by reviewing 
some subject that he has made peculiarly his own. 

In endeavouring to follow this admirable lead, however, I am 
at once in a quandary. Lack of years and lack of experience 
have prevented me ' specialising ' in any particular direction, 
even had ability and inclination directed. Instead, I have 
preferred the plan of trying to learn something of everything 
rather than everything of something, though in these days, both 
these tasks are impossible. 

The best way, perhaps, to become thoroughly familiar with 
an object is to possess it, and the desire to possess is likely to 
develop into a collecting mania, which I am afraid may some 
day seriously ' get hold ' of me. But I find on enquiry that 
nearly all my friends interested in natural science, even those 
who have reached the top of the tree (if I may so refer to a naturalist 
without any hint as to his ancestry), began their careers by 
collecting. Those who have preferred to try to know everything 
of something have naturally confined their attentions to one 
particular branch of collecting, and for the most part are not 
very harmful. In my own unfortunate case, however, the vain 
attempt to know something of everything has, perhaps, resulted 
in a species of collecting objects of such different descriptions and 
from such a variety of sources, that my efforts have possibly been 
misunderstood. At any rate, I distinctly remember being 
greeted by a Professor at this very University, and a predecessor 
of mine in this chair (I will mention no names) with, ' Well, 
Sheppard, and how's thieving ? ' 

I mention this because I want to impress upon you the fact 
that I am obviously in the early stages of a scientific training. I 
have not yet been able to follow any special line of research, 
and therefore, my address must necessarily fall far short of 
the standard to which you are accustomed. I am still, in a small 

1915 Jan. 1. ^ 



i8 Sheppard: Yorkshire's Contribution to Science, 

way, trying to emulate the old-fashioned but delightful ' all- 
round ' type of naturalist, of whom many of 3^ou will recollect 
excellent examples on the earlier excursions of the Yorkshire 
Naturalists' Union. But even with this ideal I have found it 
necessary to take such unnatural history pastimes as golf, etc., 
lest I develop into an ' all-round ' naturalist in a more literal 
sense. 

Probably by now it will have dawned upon you that this 
somewhat elaborate preamble is merely an apology for the short- 
comings of my address, and for the glorious traditions of the 
Yorkshire Naturalists' Union I deeply grieve that upon this, the 
first occasion that a University has honoured us by allowing us 
to hold a general meeting within its walls, you have so poor a 
figure-head. (I trust I am not misunderstood in this term, I 
collect ' figure-heads,' so know something about them. A 
figure-head is usually a wooden effigy, more or less grotesque, 
placed on the front of a ship. It has absolutely no say or control 
over the ship's course, but should anything go wrong with the 
steering gear, it is the first to get bruised or damaged). 

But from some slight acquaintance with the rules of the 
Union, I can assure you that the President is not self-elected — 
the figure head is chosen by the builders or by the crew. If it 
fails to add dignity to the craft the fault is not his, and doubtless 
the Union feels something hke Touchstone when introducing 
Audrey to the Duke, ' A poor . . . ill-favoured thing, sir, but mine 
own.' 

Once upon a time I used to write various notes and criticisms 
for a paper called The Naturalist, and the then editor, Mr. Denison 
Roebuck, prevailed upon me to prepare the annual bibliographies 
of geology and palaeontology for the north of England, which have 
appeared fairly regularly ever since, with, I can only hope, some 
little benefit to the geologists, whatever the botanists, zoologists 
and the good old ' general body ' of readers may have thought. 
I was recently horrified to find that I have prepared these 
since 1893, over twenty years ago. 

Though these lists may not appear to be very imposing, only 
the true bibliomaniac knows what their compilation means. I 
will candidly admit that at the time I did not know, or the prob- 
ability is that they would never have appeared. But for their 
preparation it is necessary, not only to record every and any 
independent volume, but an examination must be made of the 
various and numerous publications, reports, transactions, 
proceedings and monographs of the enormous number of geological, 
archaeological, philosophical, microscopical, zoological, entomo- 
logical, conchological, ornithological, botanical and other scientific, 
natural history, antiquarian or literary societies occurring in the 
area dealt with by the bibliography. And, on account of the 
failure of several societies to restrict themselves to the districts 

Naturalist, 



Sheppard : Yorkshire's Contribution to Science. 19 

in which their pubHcations appear, it is necessary to refer to a 
legion of Hterary productions appearing in other parts of the 
country, and even abroad. But this is not all. Important 
papers of local interest frequently appear in the reports 
of our leading Metropolitan societies- — the Linna^an, Entomo- 
logical, Geological, Palaeontographical, Antiquarian and even 
Astronomical: the Royal Society, the Royal Microscopical, 
Royal Geographical and others, as well as the British Association. 
Having formed a fairly good basis by an examination of all 
these as they appear, as well as of the lists of scientific publications, 
additions to the libraries, etc., which some of these societies 
issue, it is necessary to see the various scientific quarterlies ; the 
monthly journals such as the Zoologist, Entomologist, Entomo- 
logist's Monthly Magazine. Entomologist's Record, The Selborne 
Magazine. Knoivledge, British Birds, Wild Life, The Geological 
Magazine, The Antiquary, The Geographical Journal; The Annals 
and Magazine of Natural History ; Nature ; The Mineralogical 
Magazine, and, may I add. The Naturalist, and even stray notes 
on our area now and then appear in magazines specially devoted 
to others, such as the Irish Naturalist, The Scottish Naturalist, 
The Lancashire and Cheshire Naturalist, and so on. 

Our Museums, too, which, quite properly, are yearly increasing 
in numbers and importance, are adding enormously to the 
flood of scientific publications. I recently saw that one of the 
most modern of our Yorkshire public museums had issued its 
' Publication, No. 120.' 

I have by no means exhausted the lists of likely sources for 
information in the compilation of bibliographies for the use of 
workers, but enough has been said to show that their preparation 
is likely to keep the compiler out of mischief. I am not now 
quite certain why I first commenced this kind of work ; I can 
only hope it has kept me busy ! 

In our publication, The Naturalist, it has now and then been 
necessary to refer to the nature of the Journals or Proceedings sent 
for notice. At times, it is quite possible, the authors or editors 
or publishers have not been too hilarious over the review or the 
criticism offered. But in very many cases it seems to be for- 
gotten that the essentials of a local publication should be that they 
should contain original notes bearing upon the district covered by 
that publication. Lectures on Protective Colouration, Astronomy, 
The Human Skull, Petroleum, Japan, Quartz, Climbing Plants, 
Corkscrews, and Peacocks (to quote some from recent publica- 
tions) are all very well in their way, and are desirable and even 
essential ; but it rarely happens that anything really original, i.e. 
a definite contribution to science, will be made, under these heads, 
to a local natural history society. Therefore, such reports 
usually merely gratify the vanity of the readers of the papers, 
which should be discouraged. A single record of a single shell, or 

1915 Jan. 1. 



20 Sheppard : Yorkshire's Contribution to Science. 

beetle, or bird, in a situation hitherto unknown, though such 
record only occupies a couple of lines, is of far more scientific 
value than a whole volume of abstracts of talky-talky addresses 
such as are prepared wholesale wherever the Young Men's and 
Young Women's Mutual Improvement and Literary and Debating 
Societies connected with the pseudo-religious institutes which 
abound in our towns and villages do congregate. 

I believe the title of this address is 'Yorkshire's Contribution 
to Science.' To deal with the subject as a whole would occupy 
several addresses — in fact several volumes. The title might be 
taken in so very many different ways. For instance it would be 
quite permissible to refer to the excellent work of the Leeds 
University, for its ' contribution to science ' is more far-reaching 
than any of us imagine. 

Wherever there is a gathering of scientific men in any numbers, 
you will find that the Yorkshireman takes a similar position to 
that of the Scot in the commercial world. He is there. 

A hundred years before Linnaeus, Dr. Martin Lister, a York- 
shireman, was largely instrumental in preparing the alphabet, as 
it were, of our present study of natural science. Most of his work 
was done in Yorkshire. As pointed out by Mr. Denison Roebuck 
in his address to you in 1903 : — ' His " Historia Animalium 
Anglias " contained the first systematic accounts of the spiders, 
the beetles, the molluscs and the fossils of England, and he was 
also the first man to suggest the construction of geological maps.' 
and it must be remembered that this was in the days of Charles H.. 
The British Association, which has probably done more for 
the advancement of science than any other society in the whole 
world, and has recently held its annual meeting in Australia, 
was founded at York, by Yorkshiremen. Were the county's 
record of scientific attainments limited to that one fact alone, it 
could have no cause to complain. And it was John Philips, a mere 
museum curator, who was the pilot (not the figure-head) when 
that good ship was first launched. 

It would be interesting to refer to the great work of William 
Smith, Sedgwick, Buckland, Strickland and a host of others ; yet I 
must refrain. The Yorkshire roll of honour in the scientific world 
is an extraordinary long one, but I will mention only the names of 
the Presidents of our Union since it was reorganised in 1877 (all 
of whom were connected with Yorkshire either by birth or by 
their work), and it will be seen that a great proportion of them 
are of world-wide renown : — Rev. W. Fowler, Dr. Clifton 
Sorby, Professor W. C. Williamson, J. Gilbert Baker, Lord 
Walsingham, Rev. W. H. Dallinger, Sir Ralph Payne Gallwe}', 
W. H. Hudleston, H. E. Dresser, Dr. Walsham How, Professor 
A. H. Green, C. P. Hobkirk, Henry Seebohm, R. H. Tiddeman, 
Dr. Robert Braithwaite, John Cordeaux, Professor W. Boyd 
Dawkins, Sir Michael Foster, W. West, G. T. Porritt, Professor 



Sheppard: Yorkshire's Contribution to Science. 21 

P. F. Kendall, W. Denison Roebuck, A. H. Pawson, G. W. 
Lamplugh, W. Eagle Clarke, C. Crossland, Dr. Wheelton Hind, 
W. H. St. Quintin, Prof. A. C. Seward, Alfred Harker, J. W. 
Taylor and Harold Wager. 

Many of those mentioned are cercainly the greatest authorities 
in their respective studies. To refer to all their work would be 
an enormous undertaking. I may however be pardoned if I 
single out one to whose help and encouragement I owe much ; I 
refer to the late Dr. Chfton Sorby. He was, unquestionably, a 
giant in the scientific world, and the full importance of his 
attainments will never be fully reahzed. Had Yorkshire done 
little else than produce a Dr. Sorby, it would have good cause to 
be proud of its contribution to science. 

I can speak with perhaps greater pride of the work of York- 
shire's scientific worthies, as I am not prejudiced ; for, though I 
have spent all the lime I can remember in the county, I am not a 
native ; a brief visit to the neighbouring county of Lincoln at a 
rather critical period of my little career, causing me to be, in the 
eyes of the law, a native of that shire. 

Yorkshire's contribution to science. In connection with the 
bibliographical work already referred to, the collecting mania 
somehow seemed to take a hold on me and I began, by begging, 
baying, borrowing, or by other ways, to accumulate sets of vari- 
ous scientific publications ; those referring to Yorkshire alone, 
which I have obtained, occupy an enormous quantity of book 
shelving. 

While, I regret to say, I have not yet been able to secure 
complete sets of all the scientific publications issued in the county ; 
I have, through the help of friends, carefully examined practically 
everything that I have been able to trace. As, in many cases, 
it is apparent that only one set is known (even of our own journal. 
The Naturalist, there appears to be only one really complete 
set in existence !), it seems desirable to place on record, before it 
is too late, particulars of the work of our Yorkshire societies 
and their publications, with some indications of the contents, so 
that future workers will be able to know what has previously 
been done, and thus get a good foundation for their researches. 

I should like to lay particular stress on the necessity for stud- 
ents to become familiar with the records of their predecessors in 
the same field, as over and over again it is found that alleged 
' new records ' have been known years previously bj*" earlier 
naturalists. Not long ago a friend of mine sent me a lengthy 
account of an early and important record, which had obviously 
been transcribed at great pains and printed at some cost ; and 
he was quite unaware that every word had been issued a century 
previously in the publication of our oldest London Society ! 

Quite apart from the quantity of publications now being 
issued, there is an enormous number of magazines and journals 

1915 Jan. 1. 



22 Sheppard : Yorkshire's Contrihittion to Science. 

which have had their httle day and ceased to be. To these, also, 
as will be seen later, Yorkshire has contributed a very fair share. 
Of those of more general interest, I may mention two, viz.. 
Science Gossip — of which thirty-seven volumes appeared between 
1865 and 1902; and Natural Science, a magnificent publication, 
which was 'eliminated' at the close of its fifteenth volume, in 
1899. Comparing these with some of the so-called scientific pub- 
lications now appearing, it can hardly be said that the law of 
the survival of the fittest always applies to scientific serials. 

In examining some of these old journals it must be admitted 
that so far as typography, illustrations, paper, and general 
' get up ' are concerned, the modern publication does not always 
show to advantage in comparison with its predecessors of nearly 
a century ago. In those days the illustrations were frequently 
made by means of copper plates, and were works of art. The 
printer took a pride in the arrangement and spacing of his type, 
and the paper was often hand-made and lasting. The maps and 
diagrams were beautifully prepared and carefully and artistically 
coloured- — frequently by hand. To-day, the apparent feverish 
haste of production, the careless composition, and process block 
frequently made from untidy sketches or poor photographs, are 
not pleasant. Nowadays a photograph is prepared in a few 
minutes, a block is made in a few hours, and printed on paper 
which, with care, may last a few months. 

An examination of the material published by the county and 
town societies, would seem to indicate that the centre of scientific 
activity has shifted from time to time. York once took a good 
lead ; Huddersfield at one time was a long way ahead ; Halifax 
had its day ; Leeds, a while ago, produced the most ; while, at 
the present day, judging from the quantity of different societies' 
journals there published, the ' centre ' is most eccentric of all, 
being at Hull, in a corner of the county. 

The commencement of the systematic publication of scientific 
literature in the county may be said to have occurred early last 
century, when Philosophical and Literary Societies were formed 
in the large towns. These societies discussed — really discussed — 
papers read at their meetings, and issued annual reports, the 
earlier numbers of which , more especially , contained much valuable 
scientific information. The chief pride of these societies, however, 
was in the museums they founded. To-day, I regret to say, 
most of the societies have developed or devolved into popular 
lime-light lecture concerns, and are usually neither Literary nor 
Philosophical. 

County societies then followed, such as the Yorkshire Geo- 
logical and Polytechnic Society, the Yorkshire Naturalists' 
Union and the Yorkshire Archaeological Society. Later, came 
the Field Clubs, which to some extent are carrying out the former 
work of the Philosophical Societies. Each Field Club has 

Naturalist, 



Sheppard : Yorkshire's Contribution to Science. 23 

its ups and downs — for a few years it flourishes, which usually 
means it begins publishing ; then the cost of the production 
becomes difficult to meet after a few years, and so the publication 
ceases ; sometimes the society ceases also. 

From a somewhat intimate acquaintance with the meetings 
of our natural history, geological and antiquarian societies, as 
w^ell as with their publications, I have been led to seriously 
consider whether the time has not arrived when some change 
should take place in the nature of those meetings and publications. 

A century ago our philosophical societies led the way. Their 
meetings were well attended, papers were read, discussed and 
printed. They were of such a character that a good proportion 
of the hearers could understand them and appreciate their import. 
As time went on the subjects became more and more special in 
their scope, though, from a strictly scientific point of view, prob- 
ably more important. The papers appealed to fewer and fewer ; 
discussions became a thing of the past, and the membership grew 
less. To keep up an interest, the ' popular ' lecture made its 
appearance, with the great aid of the lantern, and more recently 
with the cinematograph, and so ' popular ' have these become 
that their titles only are mentioned in the Society's Reports ; and 
at the meetings themselves there is a frantic rush for the door 
immediately the lecture is over. In fact, at some societies in the 
county at which I have lectured in recent years, even the vote of 
thanks is dispensed with in order to prevent the annoyance made 
by hurrying feet during the few brief moments that are occupied 
by the passing of the vote. 

To carry on the work originally performed by these philo- 
sophical societies, county societies and field naturalists' clubs 
came into being. As already pointed out, their meetings 
and discussions were quite as interesting and quite as 
valuable as were those of their predecessors. But they, in 
turn, except in cases where great care is exercised, are as- 
cending or descending in the same way, and interest in them 
is being lost. I am familiar with quite a number of important 
societies in Yorkshire to-day, geological, antiquarian, and natural 
history, which are exhibiting traces of this senile decay. These 
meetings lack the enthusiasm of former days ; the papers read are 
too technical ; their publications appear less regularly, and when 
they do, are certainly ' thinner ' and contain a large percentage of 
papers which can only appeal to a very small section of the 
members.* 

* An experiment in this direction was recently tried by the Geological 
Section of the Yorkshire Naturalists' Union, and proved thoroughly suc- 
cessful, as was reported in The Naturalist for December, pages 390-2. A 
meeting was held at Hull, which occupied the afternoon and evening of 
Saturday, November 7th. Over a dozen short papers were read and dis- 
cussed, each one given in simple language, and was readily understood by 
the large audience from various parts of Yorkshire and Lancashire. 

1915 Jan. 1. 



24 Sheppard : Yorkshire's Contribution to Science, 

I do not profess to be particularly patriarchal, but I can 
remember the time when I awaited the reports of these societies 
with pleasurable anticipation., and read them through from cover to 
cover. And so did many others. I will be bold enough to say that 
to-day, in the case of practically every publication of any im- 
portance issued by the societies referred to, not a single individual 
outside a lunatic asylum, could read them through. Yet they 
are all necessary, all exceedingly valuable, all certainly con- 
tributions to science. But the increasingly specialised nature of 
the memoirs appeals to a decreasingly small number of members. 

These societies are nearly all reaching a critical stage in their 
history, and without actually calling in the aid of stage oratory 
or the moving marvels of the camera, everything must be done 
to keep up an interest in che work, by ' beginning again,' as it 
were. We must descend from the rarified atmosphere of the 
heights, and mix with those in the valleys and on the plains, 
where life is much more normal and much more healthy. 

I am very anxious to take advantage of the position in which 
I am now placed, and to do my very best to drive these facts 
home. Yorkshire's contribution to science, of which I am now 
only able to deal with a very small section, is a glorious one. 
That of no other county can approach it. We must see to it 
that there is no falling back. 

The recent revival in ' Nature Study,' which, quite properly, 
is now officially recognised by the Board of Education, and has 
been taken up in a most encouraging way by both teachers and 
scholars at most of our schools, has not, as yet, made the slightest 
difference to the work of our natural history societies. There is 
no increase in their membership directly due to this cause (few 
can boast an increased membership nowadays), nor to the number 
of published contributions to science. True, the book market has 
been flooded with ' popular ' books on various aspects of natural 
history, to most of which the adjective ' so-called ' should be 
added ; and the recent attempts to produce popular natural 
science magazines have been both ' extensive and peculiar.' 
But as a result of all this, the actual additions to the ranks of 
the field naturalist are practically nil. 

During the past twelve years we have lectured to several 
thousands of Hull's scholars at the city museums ; they are 
accompanied by their teachers, they come in single classes, and 
after the lecture spend the rest of the morning in examining the 
specimens. Scores of lectures have been delivered on natural 
history, geological or antiquarian subjects, and they have been 
given in simple language, easily understood by the children. 
Unquestionably the result is that the scholars are better acquainted 
with the things that happen in every-day life, they have a broader 
outlook, and we hope the result will be that in future years there 
will be a greater number of geologists, or field naturalists, or 

Naturalist, 



Sheppard : Yorkshii'c's Contyibittion to Science. 



^D 



antiquaries in the city. Personally, I doubt it ; and I am not 
going to admit that the lectures are not interesting or easily under- 
stood by the youngest. It almost makes one believe that the 
true naturalist is born, not made. 

It must not be considered that in the following notes there 
appears anything like a history of the various Yorkshire scientific 
societies. I have rather dealt with the matter that has been 
published, and which is therefore to some extent accessible. 
Perhaps it is fortunate that I have not given myself sufficient 
time in the preparation of this address for such a history, desirable 
as it is. I may possibly revert to it, somewhere, on a future 
occasion. Material for such a work is accumulating in great 
quantity, but with regard to the earlier societies, and especially 
those which have left no definiie record behind, the work is exceed- 
ingly difficult and laborious, and necessitates searching through 
piles of old newspapers and reports of meetings and advertisements 
in numerous different magazines. 

In dealing with such a subject as pre-historic man, it is perhaps 
a little difficult to say where the science of geology ends and 
archaeology begins, and as no naturalist worthy of the name 
can leave homo out of his classilication, and has necessarily 
found that the proper study of mankind is man, so it is impossible 
to leave out of our purview the various journals and magazines 
in which archaeological matters are considered. This is perhaps 
as well, as quite apart from the papers on the early inhabitants 
of our islands ; the churchwardens' accounts, etc., and the topo- 
graphical items, frequently contain matters of interest to the 
naturalist or geologist. These are therefore being included. 

In addition to the publications actually issued in the County, 
I propose to deal with such others as have an important bearing 
on our work. 

( To he continued.) 



West Yorkshire Mosses and Hepatics. — During a few 
rambles in West Yorkshire with my friend, Mr. LI. J.. Cocks, 
the pleasure was afforded us of meeting with the following rare 
mosses and hepatics in new localities, viz. : — Seligeria acutifolia 
var. longiseta, Fissidens vufiilus, Brynm concinnatum, Brymn 
mildeaniim, Mniiim orthorrhynchum, Amblystegium conjer- 
voides and Amblystegium sprucei, Pedinophyllum interruptum, 
Scapania bartlingii. For the two Bryums I find no record 
for West Yorkshire.— R. Barnes, Harrogate. 



A past president of the Yorkshire Naturalists Union, Mr. G. W 
Lamplugh, has been elected on the Council of the Royal Society. 

1915 Jan. 1. 



26 

NEW AND RARE YORKSHIRE SPIDERS. 



W. HESLOP HARRISON. B.Sc. 

Middlesbrough. 



Since my last paper dealing with the Arachnid Fauna of 
Cleveland appeared, two very remarkable species have been- 
discovered in this area and, in taking this opportunity of 
recording them, I append notes on other spiders, important 
either as being new to the North Riding, or as affording new 
localities for rarer species. 

Cornicularia karpinskii Camb. — This is an Arctic and 
Alpine species, first described from abroad by the Rev. 
O. P. Cambridge as Erigone karpinskii, * although it is 
very probable that the .species described as Erigone pavi- 
tans from Cheviot is the same spider, in which case, as 
the Rev. J. E. Hull informs me, the name karpinskii will 
sink to pavitans, the latter having a slight priority. Granting 
that C. pavitans and C. karpinskii are synonyms, then the 
first British record would be that of the solitary type female 
taken in 1872. If the two spiders are to be regarded as different 
then the first Bricish record was made by the Rev. O. P. 
Cambridge in recording Mr. W. Evans' Leadhill, Lanarkshire, 
capture in 1900, the second being made in the same note and 
referring to captures made by Dr. Jackson in 1900, in Cumber- 
land. My captures, therefore, in this neighbourhood, provide 
the third British and the first Yorkshire specimens. 

Strange to say, however, my specimens came from the 
marshes at the mouth of the Tees just within the breakwater, 
at a point which has quite unexpectedly yielded other Arctic 
forms, e.g., the beetle Miscodera arctica Payk. This, of course,, 
affords scope for the suggestion that the proximity of the 
port of Middlesbrough is responsible for the occurrence of 
the spider here. All I can say is that a passage from Middles- 
brough to its Cumberland locality could be more easily made 
than to the present one. As a matter of fact, such a journey, 
for a spider, is a physical impossibility. Further, I have now 
taken all the species of Cornicularia, except C. kochii, both on 
the sea coast and on the hills, and, in the case of that spider, 
I have taken it on the coast, whilst my uncle has captured it 
in the hills in Northumberland. In connection with this, it is 
scarcely necessary to refer to the well-known distribution of 
certain plants, e.g., Plantago maritima, found both on the sea 
coast and in mountainous districts. 

Cnephalocotes amhigiius Camb. This species was des- 
cribed f from a single male taken by Mr. W. Evans, in Arran 



* Proc. Zool. Soc, 1873, page 447. 

f In the Proc. Dorset N.H. and A. F. C, vol. XXVI., page 67. 



Naturalist, 



New and rare Yorkshire Spiders. 27 

(not in Bute as therein described). The specimen remained 
unique until the Rev. J. E. Hull and I took a large number of 
examples on the flats on the south-east side of Findhorn Bay, 
in Morayshire, in August, 1910. No other specimens have 
been turned up until I captured several of both sexes at a height 
of nearly 1,000 feet on Easby Moor, on Whit-Monday, 1914. 
Just as in recording Cornicttlaria karpinskii I had to note a 
peculiarity in distribution, so I have in the present case ; 
in this instance the positions are reversed, for here we have a 
case of a spider considered peculiar to salt marshes turning 
up on the hills ! Not that when one analyses the conditions 
under which the spiders live are any great differences observ- 
able ; when we got Cnep. ambiguus at Findhorn, it occurred 
in wet spots at the roots of such plants as Aster tripolium, 
Triglochin maritimum, Armeria maritima, amongst low growing 
mosses and liverworts, whilst on the moors I got it in mosses 
and liverworts growing amongst Drosera rotundifolia and 
various Junci, also in wet spots. The Rev. J. E. Hull identified 
this species. 

Erigone promiscna Camb. — i $ Eston Moor. 

Mengia warbmtonii Camb. — i $ Eston Moor. 

Ceratinella scabrosa Camb. — Several, Eston Moor. 

Bathyphantes pullaUis Camb. — Both sexes, both on Eston 
and Great Ayton Moors. I have now taken all the species 
of the genus Bathyphantes on Eston Moor. 

Leptyphantes tenebricola Wid. — Eston Moor. 

Agyneta decora Camb. — Great Ayton Moor. 

Agyiieta cauta Camb. — Great Ayton Moor. 

Pirata hygropJnlus Thor. — Goathland. 



The Genitalia of the British Geometridae. By F. N. Pierce, F.E.S. 

Liverpool, 1914. After five years since the publication of the first volume 
on the Genitalia of the British Lepidoptera, which dealt with the Noctua% 
we hail with pleasure the appearance of the second volume, which deals 
with the Geometridae. The volume on the Noctuae was so fully noticed 
in this journal [The Naturalist, June, 1909, pages 239-240), that there 
need be little said concerning this companion volume. It is in every 
respect equal to the first, both in the descriptions and plates, and practi- 
cally all we said about the first volume can be applied to this. The author 
has, we think, erred in basing his classification of the species entirely on 
the differences in the genitalia, for its absurdity is apparent when it 
involves, as is here does, the placing of our very familiar Boarmia re- 
pandata and B. gemmaria in different genera {Alois and Selidosema respec- 
tively). These two species are so much alike that for some time one of 
our best southern lepidopterists insisted that a northern melanic form of 
vepandata really belonged to gemmaria. The larvae and habits of the 
two species, too, are almost entirely similar throughout. Yet JNIr. Pierce 
actually places another species (A. glabvaria), which is widely different 
both as larva and imago from either, between them. The book altogether, 
is a grand addition to our literature on the lepidoptera, and we hope that 
the third volume, which is to deal with the Tortricida?, may make its 
appearance long before iiv-e more years have passed — G.T.P. 

1915 Jan. 1. 



28 



3\\ riDenioriam, 



WILLIAM CASH, F.G.S. (1843-1914). 

As this somewhat eventful year is drawing to a close, 
Yorkshire naturalists will learn with regret of still another 
serious gap in their ranks. On December i6th our "old friend 
William Cash passed away. He was returning from a short 
walk, when he fell down and died instan+lv. 




William Cash, F.G.S. 



Quite apart from his scientific attainments, which will long 
outlive him, William Cash had a charming personality which 
at once endeared him to all with whom he came in contact. 
He was ever on the alert to perform a service for the comfort 
of others. 

Professionally he was an accountant. In former years he 
was connected with one of the Halifax banks. 

Naturalist, 



In Memoriam : William Cash, F.G.S. 29^ 

Thougii his earliest papers referred to the mollusca (so 
long ago as 1877 he wrote on the Carboniferous Cephalopoda) 
he soon became deeply interested in the fossil plants which 
occur in such a remarkable state of preservation in the ' Hard 
Bed ' of Halifax. His researches among these — largely with 
the aid of the microscope — are of world-wide reputation, and 
in 1892 a French palseobotanist dedicated a work on ' Lepido- 
dendron selaginoides ' to Mr. Cash. 

Most of his scientific work has been in elucidating the 
structure of Coal Measure plants, in connection with which he 
worked with Williamson, Hick and others, appreciative obituary 
notices of whom it was his lot to write. In The Naturalist 
for 1906 he gave valuable instruction on ' What and How to 
Observe, Collect and Record,' in the way of coal fossils. His 
first contribution to our journal was made in 1881, his last in 
1912. His most important papers on coal plants appeared in 
the Proceedings of the Yorkshire Geological Society, which 
he at one time edited ; he had also filled the office of Treasurer 
to that Society. 

In view of his work in the county, the Yorkshire Naturalists' 
Union recently elected him an honorary life member ; he had 
previously occupied ofhcial positions on its committees. 

He was one of the founders of the Halifax Scientific Society, 
and had been its President. He was also President of the 
Halifax Geological Field' Club, and was at one time Treasurer 
to the Halifax Literary and Philosophical Society. He was 
formerly a Governor of the Halifax Museum, and latterly was 
its honorary curator. He also took a prominent part in the 
promotion of a Public Library for Halifax, and between 1883 
and 1892 was a member of the School Board, being Chairman 
in 1889. He was an honorary member of the Bradford Natural 
History Society, and of the Halifax Scientific Society, and a life 
member, and one time President of the Conchological Society. 
He was elected a Fellow of the Geological Society in 1873. 

In recent years he has done good service by giving popular 
lectiu'cs, in connection with which he paid frequent visits 
to various parts of the county. 

His fine collection of micro-preparations of the coal plants — 
about 700 in all — known as the ' Cash Collection,' has been for 
some time in the University Museum, Manchester. He has 
also supplied specimens to the national collection at South 
Kensington. At the time of his death he was assisting Prof. 
Kendall in some researches in connection with Yorkshire Coal 
Measures. 

In 1911 it gave pleasure to many of his friends to learn that 
he had received a Civil List Pension ; and he also was awarded 
a grant from the Murdoch Trust of Scotland. 

Mr. Cash leaves a son, who is in America, and a dai;ghter, 

1915 Jan. 1. 



30 In Memoriam: William Cash, F.G.S. 

who for many years has been his constant companion. Readers 
of The Naturalist will tender them their sincere sympathy. 

T. S. 

The following is a list of his papers and monographs : — 

1S77. Notes on Carboniferous Cephalopoda. Y. 

1878. *A Contribution to the Flora of the Lower Coal Measures- of 

the Parish of Halifax, Yorkshire. Y. 

1879. *On Fossil Fungi from the Lower Coal Measures of Halifax. Y. 

— *Notes on Traquaria. Y. 

1 88 1. *A Contribution to the Flora of the Lower Coal ■Measures of the 

Parish of Halifax. Y. 

— Yorkshire Mollusca, etc. (Letter). A''. 

1882. On the Halifax Hard Seam. B.A. 

— *On a Fossil Stem from the Halifax Coal Measures. B.A. 

— Yorkshire Fossil Mollusca. Y. 

1883. The Young Stage of some Carboniferous Cephalopoda (title 

only). Y. 

— Preliminary Report of the Committee on the Flora of ' Halifax 

Hard Bed, Lower Coal Measures.' B.A. 

1884. *Contributions to the Fossil Flora of Halifax. Y. 

— Report of the Committee for Investigating the Fossil Plants of 

Halifax. B.A. 

1887. On the Fossil Fructifications of the Yorkshire Coal ^Measures, L, 

Calamostachys. Y. 

— Pala?ontology (Lepidodendron). W.N. 

— Palaeontology (Calomostachys). IF. A'^. 

1888. t Report on the Carboniferous Flora of Halifax and its Neighbour- 

hood. B.A. 

1889. *The Structure and Affinities of Lepidodendron. Y. 

1890. JOn Lepidophlois and Lepidodendron. Y. 
1893. Obituary, James W. Davis. Y. 

1895. Iri Memoriam, Professor William Crawford Williamson (with 

List of ]\Iemoirs). Y. 

1896. In Memoriam, Thomas Hick (with List of Memoirs). Y. 

— In Memoriam, William Crawford Williamson. A\ 

1897. Some Recent Scientific Discoveries (Presidential Address to the 

Halifax Scientific Society). H.\. 

— The Flora of the Halifax Hard Bed. L.A. 

1901. In Memoriam, Walter Percy Sladen, F.L.S., F.G.S. , F.Z.S. (with 

List of Memoirs). Y. 
1906. The Fossil Plants of the Yorkshire Coal Measures. Part I. — What 

and How to Observe, Collect and Record. A'. 
1908. In Memoriam, Robert Law, F.G.S. A'^. 

191 1. (Land and Freshwater Shells at Ingleton). A'. 

1912. ' The Lost Towns of the Yorkshire Coast ' (review of). A^. 

— Mollusca (at Tanfield). A'. 

— Trientalis europea, L., at Bradshaw, Yorkshire. A'. 

— Dispersal of Fresh-water Shells. A"". 



Y. Proceedings Yorkshire Geological Society. 

B.A. Reports of the British Association. 

L.A. ' Transactions Leeds Geological Association.' 

H.N. ' Halifax Naturalist.' IF. A^ ' Wesley Naturalist.' 

A. The Xciiitralisi. * Jointly with Thos. Hick. 

t Jointly with ^^'. C. Williamson. I Jointly with James Lomax. 

Naturalist, 



31 
COAL MEASURE PLANT RECORDS.* 



MARY A. JOHNSTONE, B.Sc, F.L.S. 



Some time ago I collected a few plant fossils from a quarry 
belonging to the Bradford Brick Company and I have been 
asked to add the list to the existing Yorkshire records. Most 
of the specimens were found in clay nodules, embedded in the 
shales below the Better Bed Coal; some were on the flaky 
layers of shale itself. Mr. Kidston was kind enuugh to 
identif}^ them, and the list is as follows :■ — • 

Catamites varians Sherul. var. insignis Weiss. 

Catamites suckowi Bgt. sp. 

Catamites ramosiis Artis. 

Sphenopteris obtusitoba Brogt. 

Sphenophytliim myriophytliim Crepin. 

Mariopteris muricata Schl. sp. 
Urnatopteris tenetta Bgt. sp. 

Lepidodendron obovatum. 

Zeitleria deticatuta Sherub. Sp. 

Zeitleria trichomanoides Kidston M.S. 
(Third locality for this). 

Catamites [Catamitina) varians, was so beautifully pre- 
served and presented features of so much interest, that I 
thought it worth a full description ; this may be found in the 
Proceedings of the Manchester Literary and Philosophical 
Society, Vol. 56, No. 17. 

The fossil is, in my opinion, the cast of piece of decorti- 
cated stem, the surface markings reproducing details of the 
exterior of the woody cylinder. There are present one com- 
plete and two incomplete groups of internodes of unequal 
length showing evidence of periodicity in their arrangement. 

The surface texture is longitudinally furrowed, the ridges 
representing the secondary xylem and the furrows the second- 
ary medullary rays. The nodal lines are marked out as 
ridges, along the top of which lies a chain of contiguous leaf- 
bases. The details of some of these can be made out, and corre- 
spond with regions to be found in microscopical preparations. 

The branch scars are arranged in whorls, as is typical of 
the sub-genus Calamitina ; they are very closely crowded 
together, as in the case of the leaves ; the various markings 
within the scars can be identified by reference to petrified 
•specimens. 

The significance of the variation in the length of the inter- 
nodes is one of the interesting questions connected with these 
calamites. 

* Given at the meeting of the Geological Section of the Yorkshire 
Naturalists Union, at Hull. 

1015 Jan. 1. 



32 Johnstone : Coal Measure Plant Records. 

The periodic recurrence of short and long internodes seems 
to be restricted to the Calamitina, with their ringed arrange- 
ment of small branches. I have found no examples, figured 
or in specimens, among the Eucalamites orthe Stylo-calamites. 

Williamson (i), Stur (2), Kidston (3), and Horwood (4), 
have figured and described this grouping of internodes. 
Williamson says it may have some specific meaning ; Stur-and 
Kidston do not discuss it ; Horwood considers that the short 
internodes furnish support to the whorls of branches. 

Before trying to clear up the functional point, it is necessary 
to decide which is the upper region of the fossil. The evid- 
ence is of two kinds. In the first place, there is a line of what 
are pretty certainly leaf-scars subtending each branch node,, 
whilst certain details in the branch scars themselves can be 
identified with parts proved in structural specimens to be the 
upper portions of the branches. Secondly, there is complete 
similarity with other branching stems, about which there is no 
doubt as to the interpretation. In many of Stur's figures the 
relative positions of leaves and branches are plainly evident, 
and the branches bearing the whorls of leaf-scars are still in 
connection with an older axis. In all cases the internode below 
the branches is relatively long. 

It seems clear that in some species of Calamites, a recurrent 
cycle of internodes was correlated with the occurrence of whorls 
of branches, and that immediately above the branch node 
there appeared one or more stunted internodes. This can 
hardly be regarded an arrangement to furnish special support 
for the branches, as Mr. Horwood suggests. It is more pro- 
bable that it was a condition of growth determined by the 
presence of the numerous branches ; the diversion of a large 
amount of food material outwards to these secondary members 
might lead to an imperfect supply being furnished to the main 
axis just above them. 

REFERENCES. 

(i) Williamson, W. C. {1871). ' On the Organisation of the Fossil 
Plants of the Coal Measures.' Phil. Trans., vol., 161, page 495, plate 27, 

fig-, 30. 

(2) Stur, D. (1887). ' Die Carbon-flora der Schatzlarer Schichten, 
Abt II., Die Calamarien.' Abhand K. K. Geol. Reichsaust, Wein, 
Bdl. XL, Abt 2. 

(3) Kidston, R. (1889). ' Fossil Plants in Ravenhead Collection.' 
Trans. R03'. Soc., Edin., vol. 35, No. 10, plate I., fig. i. 

Kidston, R. (1908). ' Les Vegetaux houillers du Hainault Beige.' 
Mem. Mus. Roy. Hist. Nat. Belg., T. IV., plate XIII., fig. i. 

(4) Horwood, A. R. (1910). ' On Calamites Schiitzei, Stur.' Journ. 
Linn. Soc., vol. 39, page 279. 



A paper on ' The Equipment of a Yorkshire Quarry ' (Craven district), 
by R. Parker, appears in ' The Quarry ' for December. 



Naturalist 



33 
A YEAR'S SCIENTIFIC WORK IN YORKSHIRE : 

BEING 

THE YORKSHIRE NATURALISTS' UNION'S 
FIFTY-THIRD ANNUAL REPORT, 

FOR 19 14. 

{Presented at Leeds, ^t/i December, i()J-f). 

The Fifty-Second Annual Meeting was held at York on 
Saturday, December 13th, 1913. 

The Presidential Address was dehvered by Mr. Harold Wager, 
F.R.S., F.L.S., Leeds, on " The Movements of Micro-Organisms 
in response to External Forces." In a masterly manner, Mr. 
Wager described his investigations of one of the flagellate infusoria, 
Euglena viridis. Additional interest was added b\' an excellent 
series of lantern slides. This address was published in The 
Naturalist pp. 171-17S and 207-214. 

The best thanks of the Union are due to the Yorkshire Philo- 
sophical Society for the hospitality extended to the Union, and 
for placing at their disposal the magnificent Lecture Theatre, 
attached to the Museum, in which the meetings were held. 

Six Field Meetings had been arranged, but five only were 
carried through, the one to Doncaster fixed for the 19th September 
being abandoned ; Doncaster being one of the centres for military 
purposes, and suitable accommodation could not be obtained. 
Excellent reports of the Excursions have appeared in the page5> 
of The Naturalist, accompanied bv illustrations. The Excursions 
were as follows : — 

Yorks., Mid. W.— Knaresborough (Easter Week-end),, 
nth to 13th April. 
S.E.— Filey (Whit. Week-end), May 30th to 

June ist. 
N.W. — Askrigg, Saturday to Monday, 27th to 
29th June. 
,, N.E. — Sleights (for Eskdale), (August Bank 
Holiday Week-end), ist to 3rd August. 
N.E.— Mycological Meeting. Sandsend for Mul- 
grave Woods, 3rd to 8th October. 

In addition, the Marine Biolog}^ Committee held its Annual 
Meeting at Whitby from i8th to 22nd September, and successful 
gatherings have also been held by other sections during the 
autumn and winter months. 

The usual Excursion Programmes, full of useful information 
on the districts visited, have been printed and distributed prior 
to the Field Meetings. 

1915 Jan. 1. 



34 Yorkshire Nahiralists' Union : Annual Report, 1914. 

Permission to visit estates has readily been granted by various 
Landowners, while on the occasion of the visit of the Cnion to 
Glaisdale" on August ist., Glaisdale friends kindly provided 
afternoon tea. The best thanks of the Union are due to the 
Railway Companies who have again afforded the usual cheap 
travelling facilities. 

The Excursions for 1915 will be as follows : — 

Yorks. Mid.W. — Sawley, near Ripon, Saturday, April 24th. 

N.W.— Settle (Whit. Week-end) , May 22nd to 24th. 

S.E.- — Bishop Wood, near Selby, Saturday. June 
19th. 

S.W. — -Hebden Bridge, Saturday. July 17th. 

N.E. — Saltburn (August Bank Holiday Week-end), 
August 7th to Qih. 

N.E. — Mycological Meeting, Scarborough, Septem- 
ber 24th to 29th. 

N.E. — Marine Biology Committe Meeting, Scar- 
borough. 
December 4 — Annual Meeting at Keighley. 

Obituary. — The Union has to regret the loss of many prom- 
inent Yorkshire Naturalists. On the 14th May one of the Ex- 
Presidents, Mr. William West, F.L.S., passed from among us 
in his sixty-sixth year. 

He was the most kindly and unassuming of men ; a hard 
worker, a conscientious student, and one whose love of nature 
was beyond all description. Most painstaking and persevering 
in his work, he has left many important memoirs which will ever 
remain monuments to his memory. Yet he was one of the type 
of men of whom it can truly be said that his greatest achievement 
was in the encouragement he gave to others. 

An " In Memoriam " notice appeared in The Naturalist, 
pp. 227-230 and 257-260. Obituary notices have likewise appeared 
in the pages of the same magazine relative to Major G. B. Barrett- 
Hamilton, Mr. Frederick Brittain, J. P. and Mr. Uriah Bairstow 
(the last two were members of the General Committee of the 
Union). 

Divisional Secretaries and Local Treasurers. — The 
duties devolving upon these gentlemen have been willingly and 
ably performed, and the thanks of the Union are tendered to 
them for their assistance. The Executive have, with much regret, 
accepted the resignation of Mr. W. Robinson, Sedbergh, as 
Divisional Secretary for N. W. Yorks., and desire to place on record 
an appreciation of the many valuable services rendered by him 
to the Union in that capacity. 

General Committee. — The following have been elected as 
members of the General Permanent Committee of the Union : — 

Naturalist, 



Yorkshire Naluralish' Union : Annual R.:port, 1914. J5 

Mr. Rosse Biitterfield, (Kcighley), Dr. E. O. Croft, (Leeds), Dr. 
W. J. Fordham (Bubwith), Mr. Greevz Fysher (Leeds). Mr. John 
Holmes (Crossliills). Mr. W. H. Burrell (Leeds), and Mr. F. H. 
Edmondson (Keighky). 

Sectional Committees. — The General Permanent Coniniittee 
has accepted the recommendations of the Executive as to the 
reconstitution of the Sectional Committees. A new Section, 
Section A, General Biology, has been added, mider which the 
!\Iarine Biology Committee and Micro-Biology Committee have 
been placed. The Committee of Suggestions for Research, having 
accomplished its work, has been dissolved. 

VERTEBRATE ZOOLOGY SECTION. 

West Riding Report. — Mr. Riley Fortune writes : — Summer 
migrants arrived in many instances somewhat earlier than their 
average time. This was especially noticeable in the case of 
Swifts. The average date of arrival in the West Riding is May 
6th., near Harrogate they arrived on April 28th., a date unpreced- 
ented. On May 2nd. and 3rd., I saw some hundreds of these 
birds in the Wharfe valley near Otle3^ The first Hooded Crow 
Avas seen at Harrogate on October 5th., much the earliest record 
I have. 

Nesting commenced early and continued late. In the Harro- 
gate district a pair of Starlings and several Dippers were feeding 
young in the last week of March. A Sparrow was seen carrying 
nesting materials on October 17th. 

Game birds appear to have done very well, particularly 
Partridges, the absence of heavy thunderstorms during the 
hatching period being especially favourable to them. 

Many species continue to decrease in numbers, this is partic- 
ularly the case with Whinchats, Redstarts and Grasshopper 
Warblers. Corncrakes have not been nearly so abundant as 
last year and Spotted Flycatchers have sho^\■n a great falling 
off in numbers. 

The almost sensational " setback " to the annual increase 
of our local starlings has not been accentuated. 

A Bittern was unfortunately shot in ignorance of its identity 
in January, after its second appearance at a pond in a private 
garden, where gold fish were preserved. 

Mr. Alfred Kaye reports a pair of Dotterel on their old 
resting ground at Lindley, near Huddersfield, on May 13th : the 
last record being for May 21st, 1906. 

Mr. Booth has investigated the doubtful addition to the 
Yorkshire aviafauna, in the shape of a Black-headed Bunting, 
[Emberiza melanocephala), vide the "Bull. B.O. Club." No. 
CXCVIII, and The Naturalist 1914, pp. 201-2, and it has proved 
to be much more doubtful, after investigation. 

191-5 Jan. 1. 



36 Yorkshire Naturalists' Union : Annual Report, 1914. 

The discovery of a regular nesting place of the Short-eared 
Owl in the West Riding is worth}^ of note, though it is not advisable 
to specify the particular locality ! Four pairs nested this year. 

East Riding Report. — Mr. E. \\\ Wade writes : — The 
Common Mouse and Short Tailed Field Yole have appeared in 
unusual numbers on the Wolds and in Holderness, and the 
corresponding increase in the numbers of breeding Barn Owls has 
been remarkable. The birds in many cases were sitting by mid 
April and had hatched young on ist. May. The writer saw or 
heard of 11 pairs breeding where ordinarily the number would be 
three or four, and old haunts untenanted for years, were again 
occupied. The Brown Owl was more fertile than usual, but the 
Long-eared only normal. 

Migrants on the average were a few days earlier than in 1913. 
All (species except waders, and such warblers as require an abund- 
ance of moisture, e.g., the Sedge Warbler), have responded to the 
stimulating effect of abundant sunshine and have done well. 
Several clutches of six amongst the Rooks and Carrion Crows were 
observed, and Jackdaws had full clutches by 21st April — at least 
a week earlier than usual. Two clutches of Willow- Warblers of 
eight eggs each were observed on loth May. The Hedge Accentor 
was laying in March and the Greenfinch before the end of April,. 
whilst a Brown Linnet was seen as late as 8th August with three 
eggs. 

The Swallows and House Martins at last appear to be recovering 
lost ground and have done better than for many years. 

The Starling has not yet recovered from the effect of last 
year's epidemic of gapes. 

The Corncrake has been more conspicuous by its absence 
than ever, and the writer has knowledge of but six pairs in the 
district from Howden to Bempton. 

The Whinchat lingers on in slightly greater numbers than 
last year. 

Partridges have at last had a splendid season, following an 
almost continuous run of misfortune for seven years. Wild 
Pheasants also have done well. 

The Stone Curlew in the protected area maintains its numbers, 
but further increase appears unlikely because outside this area 
the eggs get destroyed in the process of tilling the soil. The 
watching at Spurn has been more efficient than for some years 
past ; the system of marking the eggs has been adopted with 
good results. The increase in the numbers of Ringed Plover is 
again satisfactory, (see The Naturalist for November). 

The system of keeping the Mere at Hornsea absolutely undis- 
turbed, as adopted when J . Taylor was appointed watcher, is at last 
bearing its fruit. A notable increase in the numbers of breeding 
Pochards and Tufted Ducks has taken place. At least one pair 

Naturalist, 



Yorkshire Naturalists' Union : Annual Report, 1914. 37 

■of Shovelleirs reared nine young. Three pair of Great Crested Grebe 
nested and broods of three and four young were seen. On the 
other hand the Bearded Tit appears to be vanishing, as Taylor 
has not seen the bird since May, when he noticed one pair only. 

Mr. V. G. F. Zimmermann again records the nesting of the 
Pochard at Skipwith Common. 

An unusual migration of W'axwings took place in the winter 
•owing no doubt to the exceptionally hard weather in Scandinavia. 
In the East Riding about a dozen specimens were procured from 
late November to January. 

From 8th to 31st January, great numbers of Woodcock 
appeared in the district from Scarbro' to Spurn and record bags 
were made. Mr. N. F. Ticehurst attributes this to stress of 
weather on some part of the Continent having forced the birds 
to shift their quarters. Goldcrests appeared in numbers in 
Holderness at the same time. 

A Whooper S\\'an was shot near Leven in the winter. 

On 4th April a flock of Bramblings was observed in Branting- 
liam Dale. 

Mr. F. Boyes reports that the Pink-footed (ioose arrived in 
the Wolds on 27th August instead of the usual date, igth 
September. 

Mr. W. Hewett saw two Hooded Crows near Bempton on June 
23rd, and records an Albino Sparrow captured alive near Beverley 
on July gth. 

The North Riding. — Mr. T. H. Nelson, J. P., writes : — There 
is little of interest to record for the past season, beyond the 
most extraordinary and unprecedented destruction of sea-birds 
in the cj^clone of 2nd July, of which an illustrated article appeared 
in The Naturalist for August.* 

A catastrophe similar to that at the Teesmouth occurred on 
4th July on Mr. E. B. Emerson's estate at Swainby in Cleveland, 
when the grouse on Live Moor were practicalh- wiped out by a 
fall of ice, although the main moor, only half a mile distant 
across Scugdale, was not affected by the storm. 

For the present season all shooting on the coast is prohibited 
by the military authorities. 

Wild Birds and Eggs Protection Com.mittee. — The amount 
received in subscriptions for 1914 is £iy 9s. 6d., which together 
with the balance in hand, makes a total fund of /41 13s. lod. 
The expenditure amounts to £29 os. gd., leaving a balance in 
hand of £12 13s. id. 

The birds at Spiu-n have had a successful nesting season, 
the watcher, G. Hall, has been the best man we have had on this 
ground. He has furnished a detailed list of the numbers of 
nests seen with the results from them. 

* For 'SandsiMuI' under the photograph there api^earing, read 'Teesmouth.' 
iglij Jan. 1. 



38 Yorkshire Naturalists' Union : Annual Report, 1914. 



When the men commenced climbing at Bempton it was 
discovered that for some reason or other the Falcons had deserted 
their eggs, two in number. One of the eggs proved on investi- 
gation to be addled, the other contained a young bird near the 
point of hatching. The eggs, somewhat weathered, were handed 
to the Hull Museum. For some seasons rumours have been 
prevalent that these birds are disturbed by collectors before the 
climbers appear on the scene to give them their protection. 
The result this year certainly justifies a suspicion that this is the 
case. It may perhaps be advisible, if funds permit, to place 
a special watcher on the spot from the beginning of April until! 
the climbing commences. 

Although no direct prosecutions have been instituted by the 
Committee, the\' have upon a few occasions been able to influence 
the police to take action against offenders. 

Payments for 1914. 



Wages, Hornsea . . 

,, Spurn 
Watchers' Travelling Expenses . . 
Donation re Bempton Peregrines 
,, rg Stone Curlews 
re Spurn 
Secretary's Expenses and Sundries 
Posters for Spurn . . 



Balance in hand 



Receipts for 1914. 



The Right Hon. C. G. Milnes Gaskell 
W. H. St. Quint in, Esq. 
T. Waddington, Esq. 
J. Atkinson, Esq. . . 
H, B. Booth Esq. 

Dr. R. S. Bishop 

Leonard Gaunt, Esq. 
0x1 ey Grabham, Esq. 
G. T. Porritt, Esq. 
E. W. Wade, Esq. 
Johnson Wilkinson, Esq. 
Elland Naturalists' Society 
York Field Naturalists' Society 
Digby Legard, Esq. 



£ 


s. 


d. 


12 








12 








I 


4 


3 


I 








I 








I 











10 








6 


6 



/29 g 
16 17 I 

;^45 17 10 



£ 


S. 


d. 


5 


5 





5 








2 


2 





I 


I 





I 


I 


Q 


I 


I 





I 








I 


I 





I 


I 








10 


6 





10 


6 





10 








10 


6 





5 





-Vatura 


list„ 



Yorkshire Naturalists' Union : Annual Report. 1914. 39 

£ s. cL 
W. H. Parkin, Esq. .. .. .. .. ,. 050 

S. H. Smith, Esq. .. .. .. .. .. 050 

E. Wilfred Taylor, Esq. .. .. .. .. .. 050 



/21 13 6 
Balance brought forward from 1913 . . . . . . 24 4 4 

A5 17 i» 



Mammals, Reptiles, Amphibians and Fishes Committee. — 
Mr. A. Whitaker writes : — Attention is drawn to the apparent 
scarcity of bats in the neighbourhood of Selby throughout the 
summer, by Mr. Musham. Elsewhere this does not seem to have 
been noticed, and in the Barnsley district they have been rather 
more plentiful than for several years past, and both Leisler's 
and Natterer's Bats have occurred among other more common 
species. 

Mr. R. Fortune writes that the season for fresh water fish has 
been an exceptionally bad one owing to the lowness of the rivers. 
The most notable captures for 1914 were. Trout, 25^ inches long, 
15 inches girth, weight 7 lbs. 5 oz., at Malton in May. Dace. 
13 J oz., at Pool in July. Flounder. 17 oz., at Newton-on-Ouse 
in July. Chub, 5 lbs. i oz.. Forge Valley, and 5 lb. 2 oz. at 
Yedingham, both in March. Grayling, i lb. 13 J oz., 2 lb. 8 oz.. 
3 lb. 4oz.,at Ganton in March. Roach, 2 lb. i oz., at Yedingham 
in February. Barbel, two, 7 lbs. each, at Brafferton, and a 
Sturgeon, 9 feet long, weighing 230 lbs., near Goole on May 13th. 
Salmon fishing, owing to the absence of floods, has, generally 
speaking, been a failure. 

Mr. Grabham, however, informs me that the netsmen took 
some particularly fine fish from the Ouse below York, but that 
the Smelt netting there in April was a complete failure. 

Mr. Clarke records the capture of a species of fish of which he 
is aware of no previous records for our county, viz., the Electric 
Ray, about thirty inches long {Torpedo mobiliana), which was 
taken from the Salmon nets at Filey on the 29th of June. 

Other interesting captures include the Lesser Forked-beard 
{R. tvifurciis) and the Pearlside (S. pennanti). Mr. Clarke also 
draws attention to the unusual abundance of Porbeagle Sharks 
and Picked Dogfish. 

CONCHOLOGICAL SECTION. 

West Riding. — Mr. Greevz Fysher, writes :- — The excep- 
tionally dry weather of the past season has been very unfavourable 
to the observation and collection of terrestrial mollusca, and 
cases have been observed where even fresh water species have 

1015 Jan. 1. 



40 Yorkshire Naturalists' Union: Annual Report, 1914. 

been practically exterminated by the drying up of the ponds or 
■ditches they recently inhabited. Good work has been done at 
the meetings in comparison of exhibits and study of life history, 
structure, distribution, etc., based on Mr. Taylor's admirable 
papers. The district has been so exhaustively worked that little 
scope is left for the discovery of novelties, but records are kept well 
up to date which on the whole speak mainly of the disappearance 
of many of the rarer forms in certain areas, owing to the growth 
of the human population which destroys many habitats to 
make room for man, his industry and his dwellings. 

East Riding. — Mr. J. F. Musham writes: — Attention has 
been drawn to the very late appearance in this district of Helix 
aspersa, L., the bulk of them being still in hibernation during the 
latter part of May. 

Interesting spots for various species near Selby have been 
entirely wiped out during the last 12 months through building 
operations. 

Marine Biology Committee. — The Rev. F. H. Woods, 
B.D., writes : — Excellent research work has been done by members 
at Filey at Whitsuntide, and at Whitby from September i8th 
to 22nd. A full account of the latter meeting will be found in 
the November issue of The Naturalist. It has been decided to 
hold the Annual Meeting for 1915 at Scarborough with the 
special object of investigating the North Shore. 

ENTOMOLOGICAL SECTION. 

Lepidoptera. — Mr. B. Morley writes : — The following notes 
apply more particularly to the S.W. Division. The early spring 
moths were decidedly scarce and sallow bloom only attracted 
common kinds. Spring larvae were plentiful, T. fimbria, B. 
repandata, A. agathina and N. xanthographa especially so. In 
spite of this, few species have been abundant in the perfect 
stage, with the exception of M. hastata, 0. suspecta, P. gamma, 
C. soladiginis and H. eliitata. 

" Sugar " although no great attraction during the whole 
season has never been quite a failure until the late autumn. 

The three common white butterflies have appeared again in 
normal numbers, showing that they have quite recovered from 
the ill effects of wet seasons a few years ago. 

Vanessa atalanta has again been abundant in late autumn 
and some V . cardtti have been noted so fresh as to indicate local 
origin. V. atalanta, cardui, io, and urticce, have all been seen 
in one field at Skelmanthorpe. The capture of a fine S. con- 
volvuli at Cumberworth in August, constitutes a new record for 
the Skelmanthorpe district. 

Naturalist, 



Yorkshire Naturalists' Union : Annual Report, 1914. 41 

Attention mnst be especially drawn to the serious losses 
suffered by farmers through the attacks of Plutella maculipennis 
on the turnip crops. Many acres have been practically ruined by 
this pest. After the young plants were singled they began to 
assume a grey appearance in the foliage, and the roots developed 
" linger and toe." Swallows were noticed paying much attention 
to the little moths as they fluttered about late in the afternoons. 

Melanism has not been a pronounced feature of the season. 
Dry years seem to arrest its progress. 

A. grosstdariata var. varleyata has again occurred in the 
Barnsle}^ neighbourhood. 

CoLEOPTERA Committee. — Dr. \\ . J. hordham writes: — Two 
of the members have been unable as yet to furnish lists of their 
captures owing to their specimens still being in the hands of 
specialists. The greater part of the collecting was done in 
the spring, when beetles were fairly abundant. Nine species 
have been added to the Yorkshire List during the year, viz.^- 
AcnpalpHS exiguiis Dj. (type), Anaccena hipustulata Steph., Ocyusa 
incrassata Muls., Philonthus splendidulus Gr., Cryptophagus 
pallidus, Stm., Bagous limosus GylL, Sitones iiaterhotisi Walt., 
Trypodendron quercus Eich. and Xylehorus dryographus Ratz. 
In addition to the above there are eleven species to add which 
were taken in previous years, but not recorded, some of them 
having only recently been determined. They are Laemostenus 
complanatus Dj., Cercyon depressus Steph., Tachyusa timbratica 
Er., Homalota triangtilum Kr., Haploderus coelatus Gr., Silpha 
sinuata F., Cryptophagus saginattts L., Catops sericatus Chand, 
Aphodius granarius L., Cyphon nitidulus Th. and Galerucella 
pusilla Weise. 

Mr. E. G. Bayford has published an interesting note on a 
specimen of Monochammus sartor L., from West Yorkshire. 

A full list will appear later. 

Hymenoptera, Diptera and Hemiptera Committee. — Mr. 
Rosse Butterfield writes : — An important list of Ichneumonidae 
from Yorkshire and Lincolnshire by Professor J. W. Carr, of 
Nottingham, appeared in the March number of The Naturalist. 
Among the 24 Yorkshire species there enumerated several are 
additions to the County list. Mr. W. Denison Roebuck states 
that the Ichneumonid Phycadeuon rusticellcB has occurred in 
numbers in his room 259 Hyde Park Road, Leeds, during May 
and June, parasitic on the Moth Tinea hiselliella. It is new to 
our Yorkshire List. Interesting observations on the occurrence 
or habits of bees and wasps have been made by Mr. H. Walsh at 
Halifax, and Mr. J. F. Musham, at Selby. 

Andrena labialis Kirb. and A. thoracica Fab., were captured 
at Keighley by the writer. These have not hitherto been 

1915 Jan. 1. C 2 



42 Yorkshire Naturalists' Union : Annual Report. 1914. 

recorded for the county. The members of this genus, together 
with their inquilines, are now fairly well represented. 

Judging by the experience of correspondents the season does 
not appear to have proved favourable for Aculeates, 

Two saw-flies and two ichneumons from near Keighley are 
new additions, while several species have been found in fresh 
localities. 

A few additions have been made to Diptera, Chrvsotoxum 
arcuatnm L., being the most noteworthy. The season has not 
been unfavourable for the Syrphidae generally. 

The new species have been identified or confirmed by the 
Committee's referees to whom grateful thanks are due. 

Neuroptera and Orthoptera. — Mr. G. T. Porritt writes : — 
The only items of interest relating to the Neuroptera of Yorkshire 
during the present season are the captures of Taeniopteryx 
trifasciata on the river at Knaresborough on April nth and 
13th, and of Nemoura inconspicua at Filey on June ist, both 
common, and both new to the county. On August 8th I took 
H emerobius nervosus in the old Black Fir wood at Farnley Tyas, 
Huddersfield, previously only recorded from the York district in 
our count}'. 

In Orthoptera, Dr. H. H. Corbett sent me, on January 24th, 
a specimen of Phyllodromia germanica which he said was then 
swarming in a house at Doncaster. 

ARACHNiDA.-^Mr. W. Falconer writes : — The results of the 
season's work, though not so extensive as usual, are no less 
interesting and important than in previous years. Three species 
of spiders have been added to the county list : two — rare in 
Britain — by Mr. J. W. H. Harrison, Cnephalocotes amhiguus 
Camb. (communicated by the Rev. J. E. Hull), and Ceratinella 
scahrosa Camb., both sexes, in Cleveland ; and one, which is, 
however, much commoner further south, by the Rev. R. A. 
Taylor, Xysticus pini Hahn., an adult$, near Scarborough ; 
while Porrhomma egeria Sim. 9, Raincliff Woods (R.A.T.), a rare 
spider, is new to the North Riding ; and Lessertia dentichelis 
Sim {CoryphcBits simplex F.O.P.Cb.), Wrenthorpe (Mr. Johnstone), 
and ArcBoiicus humilis Bl. (W.F.), usually a common and widely 
distributed form, Thorner and Mirfield, are new to the West 
Riding. 

The false-scorpion, Chernes nodosus Schr., has again been 
met with in Bradford on the cover of a book (Mr. A. Haigh- 
Lumby ) . 

More attention has been given to mites, especially Oribatids, 
by Messrs. Harrison, Winter and myself, and several additions 
made to the list given in The Naturalist last March. These 
have been mainly identified by Dr. George and Rev. J. E. Hull, 
the latter also communicating the names of mites obtained 

NaturtJist, 



Yorkshire Naturalists' Union : Annual Report, 191 4. 43 

from material sent to him from Hawes by Mr. J as. Smitli, 
Borrowby, Thirsk. 

The rare earth-mite, Ottonia ramosa George, has been met 
with on Cupwith Hill, Slaithwaite, and a form, 0. ignota, new 
to science, from Holme Moss, was described and figured by Dr. 
George in The Naturalist for October, in which journal also 
during the year have appeared two papers with full data dealing 
with the Arachnida of Yorkshire [vide March and August issues). 

BOTANICAL SECTION. 

Mr. J. F. Robinson writes: — As early as Easter this \'ear 
those interested in the Phanerogamic Hora of Yorkshire had a 
good time at the well-attended Field Meetings at Knaresborough, 
where many of the early spring flowers were noted. The promise 
of spring in the cases of such as Blackthorn and Bullace has been 
well filled in fruitage this autumn. The meetings at Filey at 
\Miitsuntide enabled the enthusiastic group of phanerogamists 
who met there to make very interesting and exhaustive investi- 
gations into the flora of Primrose Valley, now almost entirely 
denuded of Primula acaulis Linn., the Flat Cliff and the shore. 
The reports published in The Naturalist for Jidy and August 
are evidence. Associated in a slight degree with the Filey 
Meeting may be mentioned the re-discovery near Hull of the 
rather uncommon sedge. Car ex axillaris Good. 

At Askrigg also, the botanists had a fine opportunity of doing 
good work among the more or less sub-montane forms of phanero- 
gams. A month or two of very dry weather usually clears off 
completely such early flowering forms like Thalaspi occitanum, and 
failure to see this plant is scarcely to be wondered at. The same 
thing has been noticed in the case of Draba Thaliana, Teesdalia 
nudicaulis, etc. It is pleasing, however, to note that Primula 
farinosa and Hahenaria albida are still frequent and were seen 
near Askrigg. A full report of the Eskdale excursions appeared 
in the October issue of The Naturalist. 

Mr. C. A. Cheetham adds : — This summer has again been a 
dry one, but has not given the same results as last year. 

The Hawthorn, Hazel and Mountain Ash are full of fruit 
whereas last year they were barren, and the Ash is now without 
the plenty of last year. This is not merely a local feature for in 
Donegal the same things were noted. 

This year Hahenaria viridis was sought unsuccessfully in a 
meadow which last year had it in quantity — the same remark 
may be made on Epipactis palustris, though in a less marked 
degree ; these things are well-known to field workers, but the 
reasons are left unexplained just as the plant associations of the 
ecologist were known but never recorded and causes enquired 
into until the new study brouglit our laboratories into touch 

101.5 Jan. 1. 



44 Yorkshire Naturalists' Union : Annual Report, 1914. 

with the plants in their homes. If we can get statistics and 
records ready for future enquirers we shall have accomplished 
some good work. 

Botanical Survey Committee. — Dr. T. W. Woodhead 
writes : — Considerable attention has again been paid to the 
vegetation features of the districts visited during the excursions 
of the Union. Of especial interest was the vegetation of the dry 
valleys of the Wolds noted during the Piley excursion at Whit- 
suntide. It is hoped that a detailed study of these valleys will 
be made, as they promised several features of interest. The 
most important work done during the year is the study of the 
ecology and life history of Molinia carulea by the Rev. T. A. 
Jefferies. The distribution of this species and its associates 
have been carefully worked out on the Slaithwaite Moors near 
Huddersfield, and it is hoped that the results, which are of much 
value will shortly be published. Incidental to this investigation 
was the discovery of great numbers of galls on the stems of 
Molinia caused by the gall-midge, Oligotrophus ventricolus, an 
insect new to Yorkshire ; described in The Naturalist for 
November. 

Bryological Committee — Mr. Wm. Ingham, B.A., writes : — 
At the meeting of the Bryological Committee at Plumpton Rocks 
the moss, Orthodontium gractle was found in abundance on 
vertical rocks, also Cynodontium Bruntoni, and the rare Hepatic, 
Sphenolobus exsectcaformis. 

At the Y.N.U. Meeting at Knaresborough were found 
Plagithecium latebricola and Barbula tophacea var. acutifolia. 

At the Meeting at Askrigg, Hypmim chrysophyllum var. 
erectum was found on Addlebrough, Hypnum vernicosum in 
abundance by Semmerwater, Seligeria pusilla and the hepatic, 
Cololejeunea calcarea in Whitfield Gill. 

At the Meeting at Middleton-in-Teesdale, in May, 1910, 
the second Brit, habitat for Hypnum fluitans var. Rohertsice 
was found, the moss being examined and determined in 1914. 

Mr. J.J. Marshall has done further good work in the bryo- 
logically neglected county of Lincolnshire. He has added the 
following to V.C. 54, Dicranum undulatum, Pleuridium suhu- 
latiim, Tortilla muralis var. rupestris, Bryum atropurpureum 
var. gracilentmn, Thuidium Philiberti, Eurhynchiiim speciosum, 
and the rare Hepatic, Ptilidium pulcherrimum. 

Mycological Committee. — Mr. C. Crossland writes : — The 
report of the twenty-fifth Annual Meeting and Foray of the 
Mycological Section will be found, with all particulars, in The 
Naturalist for January, pp. 12-16. 

The seventh supplementary list of recently discovered 
Yorkshire Fungi since the publication of the ' Yorkshire Fungus 
Flora ' appears in The Naturalist for May, pp. 145-150. 

Naturalist, 



Yorkshire Naturalists' Union : Annual Report, 1914. 45 

A summary of the work done by the Committee in the Lythe, 
Mulgravc and Sandsend district, 1894, 1900, 1908, 1910, 1911, 
1912 and 1913 appeared in the February issue, pp. 60-65. The 
results are tabulated on page 64, and show that 1,245 species 
have been noted in that small area alone. 

A report of the unofficial foray held by tlie Committee last 
June in same district, appears in the August issue, and shows a 
further addition of 22 species, of which, it will be seen, 12 are new 
to Yorkshire, 2 being additions to the British Flora. 

Investigations were continued at the annual foray, held 
October 3rd to 8th, in the same woods, when 37 still further 
additions were made, 8 being new to Yorkshire, one of which is 
new to Britain. Fuller particulars will appear in a detailed 
report of the foray. 

Mr. Roe, Scarborough, reported good work done at the 
Filey excursion, including a new Yorkshire species ( The Naturalist 
August, p. 25). 

Miss C. A. Cooper represented the Committee at the Knares- 
borough Excursion {See The Naturalist, June, p. 181). 

At the Sleights Excursion Miss Cooper and Mr. A. E. Peck 
had charge of the Mycology. The results were most successful, 
there being several additions to the county flora (For Report see 
The Naturalist, pp. 319-322). 

Among the good things found about Scarborough by INIr. 
Peck was a fine specimen of Inocybe rhodiola, having only one 
previous record for the British Isles. He has also met with the 
somewhat rare Spathularia clavata. 

GEOLOGICAL SECTION. 

Messrs. J. Holmes and C. Bradshaw report : — The Section was 
officially represented at all the excursions and the attendance 
was on the whole satisfactory, opportunities for practical work 
being possible on each occasion. 

Knaresborough. — In the gorge of the river Nidd between 
the town and Grimbalds' Crag sections of Magnesian Limestone 
unconformable to IMillstone Grit were examined. At Plumpton 
Rocks, pebbles in the grits and false bedding structure were 
noted, while the drift which overlies the Permian strata of the 
Nidd Valley afforded a subject for discussion. 

Filey. — The coast sections between Filey Brig and Cayton 
Bay were carefully explored, and characteristic fossils from the 
Calcareous Grit and Gristhorpe plant -bed were obtained. On the 
hard rock underlying the Boulder Clay of Carr Naze, glacial 
striae were seen, and instances of ' terminal curvatue ' detected. 
Shap granite and Brockram were among the travelled rocks 
collected. An inland excursion to the Wolds, south of the \'ale 

1915 Jan. 1. 



46 Yorkshire Naturalists' Union : Annual Report, 1914. 

of Pickering, proved very successful. Near Flixton the party 
stayed some time to work at a section showing the Black Marls 
which divide the Middle from the Lower Chalk. Afterwards a 
ramble of four miles or so along a winding chalk valley was greatly 
enjoyed, especially so by many of those who for the time first 
made their acquaintance with typical Wold country. 

AsKRiGG. — In Whitfield Gill and neighbouring ravines, 
geologists saw the sections which eighty years ago Phillips 
adopted as a standard of reference for the Yoredales of the 
Carboniferous system, while between Bainbridge and the top of 
Addleborough, a complete sequence from the ' Great Scar ' to the 
' Underset ' Limestone could be studied. Splendid views were 
obtained from Addleborough and Stake Fell. Semmerwater, 
which adds so much to the scenic charm of the district, was 
probably formed by a lateral moraine of the Wensleydale glacier 
damming up the outlet of the tributary valley. 

Sleights for Eskdale. — Lias Alum shales were inspected, 
but as the main attraction of this excursion was glacial geology,, 
the picturesque valley of the Esk in the neighbourhood of Glaisdale 
Egton and Little Beck was explored with that object in view. 

Jurassic Flora Committee. — Mr. J. J. Burton writes: — 
During the year now ending the work has been chiefly amongst 
the Thinnfeldia and Nilssonia beds at Roseberry Topping, and 
in the main escarpment to the East. A number of fresh localities 
have been tried but no new forms have been observed. There 
is a rather promising bed on the Eston escarpment which will 
in the near future be more carefully worked. Such evidence as 
has been obtained seems to indicate that the plants grew in 
colonies and that there was a predominance of particular species 
in each locality. An immense quantity of material has been 
accumulated and is now at Cambridge undergoing identification, 
and classification, and until this work has been accomplished 
it is proposed to devote more time to the discovery of new deposits 
than to collecting. 

Glacial Committee. — Mr. J.J. Burton, F.G.S., writes : — 
' The great landslip on Roseberry Topping has brought down 
many blocks of sandstone with well marked glacial striae. The 
altitude from which they have been brought down is uncertain. 
I observed them in the moving mass of debris of about 750-770 
feet. Most of them have again been covered up. One remains 
in situ having merely had the cover of surface soil removed. 

Mr. G. Sheppard, F.G.S., in The Naturalist for July, describes 
and illustrates a fault which he recently observed in the Glacial 
Beds at Dimlington on the Holderness Coast. In his opinion 
the evidence shows that the dislocation took place \yhen the 
whole mass was frozen. 

Naturalist, 



Yorkshire Naturalists' Union : Annual Report, 1914. 47 

Mr. C. T. Trechmann, B.Sc, F.G.S., read a paper on May 
2ist, 1914, before the Geological Society' of London, entitled 
' The Scandinavian Drift of the Durham Coast and the General 
Glaciology of South East Durham." This paper is of great 
interest to Yorkshire Glacialists. For particulars see The 
Naturalist, July, 1914, page 204. 

At the Whitsuntide Meeting of the Yorkshire Naturalists 
Union held at Filey, there was an interesting discussion as to the 
position of the buried channel which drained the Vale of Pickering 
in pre-glacial times. For particulars see The Naturalist for 
July, page 223. 

Coast Erosion Committee.— In last year's report, Mr. J. T. 
Sewell, J. P., of Whitby, had some interesting notes on the 
erosion of the Coast line between Whitby and Sandsend. 

Mr. Sewell subsequently published a short paper entitled, 
' Coast Erosion at Whitby,' in The Naturalist for April. This 
paper is illustrated, and contains much additional information. 



Micro-Botany and Micro-Zoology Committee. — Mr. J. 
W. H. Johnson, B.Sc, F.L.S., writes : — The Section deeply regrets 
to record the death of its Chairman ; his reputation as a pioneer 
in algology is world-wide, and the loss sustained by the whole 
botanical world is indeed great, but it is especially keenly felt 
by this Section. 

At the recent visit of the Union to Sleights, the rare alga 
Vaucheria synandra was identified from the Ruswarp cars, which 
also contains many marine diatoms. Near the road-side at 
Sleights Spirogyra calospora Cleve was obtained, both these are 
I believe, new Yorkshire alga records. 

During the last few years considerable attention has been 
given to the microscopic life in our rivers and streams, especially 
the fungi and algae, As a result ; the following list of additions 
to our local flora has been made, in many cases the organism is 
apparently new to Britain. In the process of identification 
by subculture, higher forms have often occurred and these have 
been included. 

*ZooglcBa ramigera Itzshn. — River Wharfe at Ilkley ; River 
Calder at Cooper Bridge and Balne Beck, Wakefield ; Kirkham- 
merton ; besides the type the following varieties have been 
noticed, compacta, carnea and ura. 

Sphcerotilus natans Kiitz. — Common in most rivers and 
streams and also in warm effluents from trade premises of W. 
Yorkshire. 

Cladothrix dichotoma Cohn. — River Calder, ^^'akefield, Coxley 
Beck, Balne Beck, Blackburn Brook, Kirkhammerton and 

1915 Jan. 1. 



48 Yorkshire Naturalisfs' Union : Annual Report, iqi-i. 

Bishop Monkton ; River Wharfe in plankton between Otley and 
Pool. 

! GallioneUa jerruginca Ehr. — Strensall Common. 

Chlamydothrix ochracea (Mig) Kiitz. — Of frequent occurrence 
in waters as an ochrey filamentous deposit. 

*Clonothrix fusca Roze. — Balne Beck, Wakefield. (C gracillima 
W. & G. S. West, has already in the Alga-Flora of Yorks., p. 148). 

*Thiothrix nivea (Vauch) Win. — Calder and Hebble -Canal at 
Horbury; Cooper Bridge; River Aire at Leeds; Balne Beck, 
AVakefield. 

Beggiatoa alba (Vauch) Trev. — Frequent in polluted waters, 
also in sulphur waters, e.g., drinking trough near bridge at 
Knaresbrough. 

* Beggiatoa leptomitiformis (Menegh) Trev. — In borehole water 
Bradford ; Balne Beck. Wakefield. 

^Chromatiwn okenii (Ehr.) Perty. — A purple, sulphur bac- 
terium, Baildon ; Cooper Bridge. Abundant in (^rrimston Park, 
Tad caster. 

^Hillhousia mirahilis G. S. West, and v. palitstris G. S. West. 
— The type has only recently been described and is entirely new 
to science ; the ■\^ariety was obtained from a pond near Thornhill 
and is the only record. 



Fusarium aurantiacum Sacc. — Warley, near Halifax. 

Sporotrichum lanatum Wallr. — Greetland, near Halifax. Nat., 
1911, p. 166. 

*Mu-cor circinelloides Van Tiegh. — Frequent Iv develops in 
subcultures of aquatic fungi. 

*Acremonium spicatum Bon. — Developed on culture plates. 
Nat., igii, p. 166. 

Dematiiim pullulans de B. — Developed on culture plates. 

'* Aspergillus ftimigatus Fres. — Developed on culture plates. 

Aspergillus niger Van Tiegh. — Readily develops in cultures 
infected from dark patches in dates and figs. Nat.. 1909, p. 221. 

Aspergillus griseus Lk. — Identified by C. Crossland on culture 
plate. Naturalist, 1909, p. 221. 

*Sachsia suareolens Lind. — On culture plates. 

Monilia variabilis Line]. 

Leptomiius lacteus Ag. — R. Don, at Ickles Bridge ; River Nidd 
at Knaresbrough. 

Thamnidium elegans Lk.— On culture plates. 

Saprolegnia sp. ? — Attacked fish in Lake, Thornes House, 
Wakefield. 

Oospora lactis Sacc. — Very frequent, first noticed in River 
Aire at Apperley Bridge, March 1908. 

% Oscillatoria jormosa Bory. — Balne Beck, Wakefield. 



Yorkshire Naturalists' Union : Annual Report. 1914. 40 

Euglena deses Ehr. — Of frequent occurrence, Frizinghall ; 
Balby near Doncaster. 

\Amphiprora paludosa W. Sni. — See Naturalist, pp. 353-360, 
1911. 

Nttzschia panrdoxa (Gmel.) Grun. — -Balne Beck, Wakefield. 

\\Spirogyra calospora Cleeve. — Roadside, near Sleights. 

f Richteriella botryoides (Schm.) Lemm. and var. fenestrata 
Schdr.— Otley, very plentiful. 

II Vaucheria synandra. — Ruswarp Carrs, Whitby. 

Mr. H. Moore supplies the following list of rotifers, etc., from 
Treeton and Maltby Common : — 

Anurcea aciilcata Saculus viridis. 

cochlcaris. Synchaeta pectinata. 
Asplanchna priodonta. ,, tremula. 

Brachionus pala. 

rtihens. Arcella vulgaris. 

Conochilus volvox. Coleps hirtus. 

Dinockaris pocillum. Synura uvella. 

Notholea acuminata. Uroglena volvox \ in great 

Nommata aiirita. Volvox glohator / profusion. 

Mr. M. H. Stiles adds Wheatley Brick Ponds, nr. Doncaster, 
as a new locality for Volvox. 

The Affiliated Societies. — The number of these Societies 
is now thirty-nine, having a total membership of 3,370. 

Two Societies became affiliated during the year and two have 
ceased to exist. 

The Membership of the Union. — At the end of 1913 the 
membership numbered 376. Twenty-three members have been 
elected. Resignations and deaths have been 22, leaving a total 
membership of 377. 

The following are the newly elected members : — 

Miss Catherine E. Andrews, 19 Lee View, Hebden Bridge. 
Mr. Harry Bendorf, 19 Brundretts Road, Chorlton-cum- 

Hardy, Manchester. 
Mr. J. C. Boden, The Grove, Ilkley. 

Mr. Wm. Holmes Burrell, F.L.S., i Strattan Street, Leeds. 
Mr. W. A. Durnford, M.B.O.U., Elsecar, Barnsley. 
Mr. Harold A. Dale, School House, Askrigg. 
Mr. Walter Greaves, i Chapel Avenue, Hebden Bridge. 



* New to Britain, f Only previous record for British Isles — Lough Beg-, 
Ireland. J West Riding additions only. § New variety. || New to Yorks. 
! Previously recorded for Scotland only. 

1915 J. an. 1. 



50 Yorksliire Naturalists' Union : Annual Report, 1914. 

Major J. Greenwood, i Bartram's Park, Haverstock Hill, 

London, N.W. 
Mr. J. H. Gough, Ph.C, 4 Woodland Grove, Newton Road, 

Leeds. 
Mr. Ward Jackson, 11 South View Terrace, Silsden, Keighley. 
Mr. Geoffrey Laughton, 30 Louis Street, Chapeltown Road, 

Leeds, 
^liss Ivy Massee, Gateacre, Sandycombe Road, Kew Gardens, 

Surrey. 
Mr. C. W. Mason, 78 Beverley Road, Hull. 
Miss Margery Mcllish, Stonebridge Lower House, Wortley, 

Leeds. 
Mr. George Mitchell, " Upwood," Bingley. 
Mr. M. C. Morris, 18 Mount Parade, York. 
Rev. W. Pearson, Spofforth Vicarage, near Harrogate. 
Mr. J. H. Skelton, Stow Park, Lincoln. 

Mr. Herbert J. Sharp, ' Kenilworth,' Avenue Road, Doncaster. 
Mr. Frederick White, Registrar, Cemetery House, Keighley. 
Mr. Herbert J. Williamson, 6 Oakburn Road, Ilkley. 
Mr. C. J. Walker, Pyenot Hall, Cleckheaton. 
Rev. W. K. \\'yley. The Vicarage, Aysgarth. 
Keighley Naturalists' Society. 
Whitbv and District Field Naturalists' Club. 



Transactions. — Part 35 (New Miscellaneous Series, No. 3), 
has just been issued to members. We are indebted to our p^st 
Presidents, Mr. W. D. Roebuck and Mr. J. W^ Taylor, for generous 
donations towards the cost of their addresses ; and Mr. Thomas 
Sheppard for the List of Members to March, 1912. 

SoppiTT Memorial Library. — Dr. T. W. Woodhead reports : — 
We are indebted to Mr. Percy H. Grimshaw, of the Edinburgh 
Natural History Museum, for a donation to the library of 25 of 
his papers on Insects. These include, ' Diptera of Orkney and 
Shetland,' 'Forth District ' (3), ' Perthshire,' ' Inverness-shire,' 
' St. Kilda,' ' West of Scotland,' ' ITannan Islands,' ' Fair Isle,' 
' Clare Island,' ' Lincolnshire,' ' British Hydroids' (3), ' Insect 
Fauna of Isle of May,' ' Grouse Moors,' ' Heather Beetle,' and 
two papers dealing with type specimens of ' Lepidoptera and 
Coleoptera in the British Museum. Mr. Chas. Crossland has 
presented copies of his ' Halifax Bibliography and Fungi in 
Yorkshire.' 



British Association. — Mr. T. Sheppard reports that he 
attended the Conference of Delegates from the Corresponding 
Societies of the British Association, held in Havre in conjunction 



Yorkshire Naturalists' Union : Annual Report, 1914. 51 

with L'Association l-'rangaisc pour L'Avancement des Sciences, 
from July 27th to August 2nd. A notice of the meeting has 
already appeared in The Naturalist for September, and in the 
October number of the same journal Mr. John Hopkinson's paper 
•on the ' Publications of Local Scientilic Societies,' which was 
there read, and discussed is given almost in extenso. 

'The Naturalist.' — During the past year The Naturalist 
has well maintained its reputation as a high-class scientific 
iournal. Many articles by members of the Union have appeared 
in wliich important results of original investigations have been 
recorded. These have covered a wide range of subjects and will 
be found of inestimable benefit to members of the Union, as well 
as to others who may be interested in pursuing studies in the 
various branches of natural history which have thus been dealt 
with. As the official organ of the Union, this chronicle of the 
proceedings and investigations during the excursions to different 
portions of the County will prove of permanent value, and will 
be referred to in the future as a basis on which additional work 
Avill be built. The skilful discrimination with which excerpts from 
■other Scientific publications have been introduced adds much to 
the interest and value of the journal. 

The Presidency. — The Presidency for 1915 has been offered 
to and accepted by Mr. Riley Fortune, F.Z.S., Harrogate. 

The Union wishes to place on record its great indebtedness to 
the retiring President, Mr. Thomas Sheppard, F.G.S., F.S.A. 
(Scot.), for his sterling services in connection with the Union 
•during the year, and also for his attendance at the excursions 
and sectional gatherings, which have been greatly appreciated. 

Financial Statement. — The following is the Hon. Treasurer's 
{Mr. Edwin Hawkeswbrth), Statement of Receipts and Pay- 
ments : — 



It is very satisfactory to have to report that this year's 
income has been sufficient not only to pay all expenses, but to 
clear off the remainder of the deficit, and have a cash balance in 
hand. It is many years since the Union was in such a sound 
■financial position. 



1915 Jan. 1. 



52 



Yorkshire' Naturalists Union : Annual Report, 1914. 



INCOME AND EXPENDITURE STATEMENT, 
12 months to November 24, 1914. 



INCOME. 

£ s. d. 
Members' Annual 

Subscriptions, arrears 8 19 
1914 97 C 

1915 



Levies from Associated 

Societies, airears 

191-1 



Sales of Publications — 

West's 'Alga Flora' 6 2 
Baker's 'North Yorkshire' 11 3 
Porritt's ' Lepidoptera '098 
Circulars 4 2 



1 13 





3 4 

11 13 


4 

7 



Bank Interest 



Naturalist ' — £ s. d. 

Subscriptions, arrears 6 15 

„ 1914 82 6 « 

1015 1 10 



Recognition fee ., 
Discount 



90 11 


6 


5 





2 16 


8 



107 18 



1 11 o 

2 3 



£224 15 



EXPENDITURE. 

Expenses of Meetings 

Printing and Stationery (General A/c). 
Postages, etc. (Hon. Secretaries' A/c) 
Clerkage, ,, ,, 

Printing and Stationery (Hon. 

Treasurer's Account) 
Postages etc.. „ 

Wreath (Mr. Wm. West) 

Cost of Publications : — 

Annual Report, 1913 . . £0 1 G 
,, 1914 (est.) 6 



Less — Provision in A/cs 
for 1913 



6 








6 


1 


6 


1 









Transactions 



' Naturalist ' 

Subscribers' Copies . .£96 5 ."> 

Life Members' Copies"' 6 10 

Exchanges . . . . 8 3 4 

Sundries 1 5 

Editor's Postages, etc. S 15 2 

Extra pages . . . . 1 18 



Balance, being excess of Income over 
Expenditure during 1914 



6 2 

18 2 

13 1 

10 



18 9 
2 14 

1 1 



6 6 



117 16 11 

48 4 4 

/224 15 7 



BALANCE SHEET, November 24, 1914. 



LIABILITIES. 

/: <^. d. 

Amounts due from LTnion — 

' Naturalist ' 

Annual Report, 1914 

Subscriptions received in advance. . 

Life Members' Accou.it 

' Hey ' Legacy Account 
Balance, being excess of Assets over 
Liabilities, Nov. 24th, 1914 



58 10 

6 

3 3 

53 5 

20 



£181 



ASSETS. 

£ s. d. 

Cash at Bank .... 159 8 3 
Cash in Hoii, Secretary's 

hands ' .. 4 12 6 

Cash in Hon. Treasurer's 

hands 5 13 3 

169 14 
Less : Cash due to Hon. 

Editor 12 3 

Subscriptions in Arrears. . 22 12 10 
Less : Amount written 

off as unrealisable . . 10 



£ s. d 



168 11 » 



Audited and found correct, 
Nov. 27th, 1914. 



WALTER GARSTANG, 
ALBERT GILLIGAN. 



E. HAWKESWORTH, 

"Hon. Treasurer. 



Naturali? 



'THE NATURALIST for 1914. 

Edited by T. SHEPPARD, F.G.S. and T. W. WOODHEAD, Ph.U , F.L.S. 

Tastefully bound in Cloth Boards. Price Jj- net. 
Contains 408 pages of excellent reading matter ; 26 full-page, high- 
class plates ; and numerous illustrations throughout the text. 

The volume includes many valuable and attractive articles by some 

of the most prominent naturalists and leading scientific men in the 

country, and forms a handsome, well-illustrated, and most acceptable 

present to all interested in out-door life. 



WATKINS & DONCASTER, 

NATURALISTS, 
3G, STRAND. LONDON, W.C 

(Five Doors from Charing Cross), 

Keep In stock every description of 

APPARATUS, CABINETS, BOOKS, AND SPECIMENS 

for Collectors of 

BIRDS' EGGS, BUTTERFLIES, MOTHS, ETC. 

Catalogue (96 pages) sent post free on application. 

A Book of special interest to Naturalists. 

Yorkshire Moors and Dales 

A Description of the North Yorkshire Moors 
together with Essays and Tales, 

By ALFRED P. WILSON. 

•248 pages, size 8J by 6| inches, and 12 Jull-page plates on Art Paper, tastepdly 
bound in cloth boards, lettered in gold, -d.nth gilt top, lOIG net. 

The district covered by the North Yorkshire Moors is one of the most interesting- 
parts of Yorkshire, and this book ably portrays the charms of a visit to the 
neighbourhood. There is no other place in England so rich in antiquities, and 
most of these are herein described. 

Part I. serves as a guide to the visitor, and brings to his notice the objects of 
interest throughout the district. 

Part II, forms a series of Essays, and, besides other subjects, deals with the 
following : — 

The Dalesfolk. Old Customs. Local History. 

Moorland Roads. Wild Nature. Dialect, etc., etc. 

Part III. consists of a number of stories which further describe the character- 
istics of the dalesfolk. 

London: A. BROWN & SONS, Ltd., 5 Farringdon Avenue, E.C. 

.\ND AT HULL AND YORK. 



Members of the Yorkshire NaturaUsts' Union 
will find much of interest in 

YORKSHIRE 

BY PEN AND PICTURE 

Edited by 

T. SHEPPARD, F.G.S., F.S.A.{Scot.), 

216 pages, crown folio, tenth iipwards of 250 illustrations, and 
strongly stitched in artistic pictorial cover. 

1/- net, or post free 1/3 net. 

This entirely new publication is the latest book issued which 
deals with Yorkshire. Members of the Yorkshire Naturalists' Union 
know that the County has an abundance of Archaeological, 
Architectural and Natural History features, and as the book is 
edited by the Ex-President of their Union, no further recommenda- 
tion is necessary. 

A GRAPHIC ACCOUNT OF COAST EROSION. 

THE LOST TOWNS 
OF THE YORKSHIRE COAST 

And other Chapters bearing upon the 
Geography of the District. 

By THOMAS SHEPPARD, F.G.S., F.R.G.S., F.S.A.(Scot.). 

j^2 pages Demy 8vo, with over 100 illustrations. Cloth Boards^ 

7/e net. 

A new Volume which contains much valuable information 
in reference to the various towns and villages which have dis- 
appeared by the encroaches of the sea. It is profusely illustrated 
by plans, engravings, etc., including many which are published 
for the first time ; and chapters have been added on Geology, 
Antiquities, Natural History, and other subjects relative to the 
scientific aspect of the district. 

Printed at Browns' Savilk Press, 40, George Street, Hull, and published by 
A. Brown & Sons, Limited, at 5 Farringdon Avenue, in the City of London. 

January 1st, 1915. 



FEBRUARY 1915. 



No. 697 

(No. 474 0/ currant seriet) 




A MONTHLY ILLUSTRATED JOURNAL OF 

NATURAL HISTORY FOR THE NORTH OF ENGLAND. 

EDITED BY 

T. SHEPPARD, F.a.S., F.R.G.S., F.S.A.Scot., 

The Museums, Hull ; 

AND 

T. W. WOODHEAD, Ph.D., F.L.S., 

Technical College, HuDDERSFiELn. 

WITH THE ASSISTANCE AS REFEREES IN SPECIAL DEPARTMENTS OF 

J. aiLBBRT BAKBR, F.R.S. P.L.S., GEO. T. PORRITF, F.L.S 

Prof. P. F. KENDALL, M.Sc, F.Q.S., JOHN W. TAYLOR, 

T. H. NELSON, M.B.O.U., RILEY FORTUNE, F 




Contents : — 

Notes and Comments:— A History of British Mammals; Lancashire and CheshT 
mologists ; The Bradford Antiquary ; Taylor's Monograph of Mollusca ; Hiidd 
Naturalists ; Yorkshire Naturalists ; Leeds Geologists (Illustrated) ; Leeds Astronomers ; 
Liverpool Geologists (Illustrated) ; East Anglian Pre-Historians ; Belfast Naturalists ; The 
South Eastern Naturalist ; The Newcastle Museum; Antarctic Fossil Plants; A Glossop- 
teris Flora in the Antarctic ; Wealden Floras ; Absence of Flowering Plants ; East Riding 

Antiquaries; More about the ' New ' Bird ; The Police ; An Apology ; Moral 53-fiO 

Notes on the Merlin — F. H . Edmondson (51 

Structure of Oolitic Limestone (Illustrated)— M. //. S/(/es, F.A'.W.S 02-fi;j 

The Ammonites of the Yorkshire Cornbrash— H. C. Drake, F.Cr.S. fi4-6f) 

Mosses from Pre-Carboniferous Rocks near Austwick- C/n/s, .^ . Checlhnm 67-70 

Yorkshire's Contribution to Science— r. Sheppard, F.G.S 71-77 

Coccidae observed in Durham and N. Yorkshire—/. W. H. Harrison, B.^c 78-81 

Yorkshire Naturalists' Union: Vertebrate Section— A. Haigh-Linnfiy 82-84 

Field Notes: — New and Scarce British Arachnida fig 

Museum News 77 

News from the Magazines 60,61,81 

Northern News 66,70,84 

illustrations 55,5(5,62,72 



LONDON : 

A. Brown & Sons, Limited, 5, Farringdon Avenue, E.G. 

And at Hull and York. 

Printers and Publishers to the Y.N. U. 



Prepaid Subscription 6/6 per annum, post free. 



YORKSHIRE NATURALISTS' UNION. 

VERTEBRATE SECTION. 



President of the SecHon: E. W. WADE, Esq., M.B.O.U. 



Two IMeetings will be held in Room C7 at the Leeds Institute, Leeds, at 3-15 p.m. and 
6-30 p.m. repectively, on Saturday, February 20th, 1915. 
Business : — 

To appoint Bird Watchers for 1915, and discussion upon other matters in connection 
with the Yorkshire Wild Birds' and Eggs' Protection Acts' Committee. 
Papers (mostly illustrated by lantern slides or specimens) will be given as follows : — 

" Notes on St. Kilda," Mr. E. W. Wade, M.B.O.U. 

" Notes on the Ruff and Reeve." Mr. G. A. Booth, F.Z.S., F.E.S., M.B.O.U. 

" Notes on Yorkshire Bird Life," Mr. T. H. Nelson, M.B.O.U. 

" The Bats of Upper Wharfedale and Upper Airedale," Mr. H. B. Booth, 

F.Z.S., M.B.O.U. 
and others, particulars not 3'et to hand. 

.\ny Member or Associate of the Yorkshire Naturalists' Union is invited to attend and 
to bring notes, specimens, lantern slides, etc., and is requested to bring forward matters 
of interest connected with the work of the Section, and to take part in any discussion. 
Will officials of Affiliated Societies kindly notify their members ? 
Any further particulars from 

A. HAIGH-LUMBY {Hon. Sec), 

Nab Drive, Shipley. 



YORKSHIRE BRYOLOGICAL COMMITTEE. 



There will be an Excursion to Castle Howard on Saturday, 20th February, to investigate 
a district rich in bryophytes. The train leaves York at 10 a.m. and reaches Castle Howard 
at 10-23 a.m. All members of the Yorkshire Naturalists' Union wishing to attend are 
welcome. 

WM. INGHAM. 



BOOKS WANTED. 

The A^atnralist (? stylographed). York. 182-5. 

The British Naturalist. Vol. IV. 1S94. 

The Field Naturalist and Scientific Record. Set. 

The Journal of the Keighley Naturalists' Society. Set. 

HuddersfieJd Arch, and Topog-. Society. 4 Report.s. (1S65-1869). 

Reports, Malton Naturalists' Society. Set. 

The Naturalists' Journal. Parts 1-18. 

Monthly Circular, Huddcrsfield Naturalists' Society. Nos. 9, 10, 11, 12, 15, 

16, 17, 20. 
First Report, Goole Scientific Society. 

Cleveland Lit. & Phil. Society's Transactions. Science Section or others. 
The Naturalists' Record. Set. 

The Natural Hi.story Teacher (Hudder.sfield). Vols. I.-II. 
The Economic Naturalist (Huddersficld). Vol. I. 
The Naturalists' Guide (Huddersficld). .Set. 
The Naturalists' Almanac (Hudder.sfield). 1876. 
Proc. Yorkshire Naturalists' Club (York). 1S67-70. (Set). 
Keepingf's Handbook to Natural History Collections (York). 
" Ripon Spurs," by Keslington. 

-i///j/.— Editor, The Museum, Hull. 




NOTES AND COMMEN'S^^^^I j^^^^ 

A HISTORY OF BRITISH MAMMALS. 

Part XVI. of this fine work has recently been pubhshed.* 
It deals with the Orkney Grass Mouse ; Locally Extinct 
Voles ; The British Water Rats ; The South British Water 
Rats ; and Black Water Rats. The different named forms and 
varieties into which these small mammals are now being 
divided, renders their study and identification a matter of 
some difficulty, and unless care is exercised, the tendency seems 
to be to define varieties on rather slender evidence. However, 
" British Mammals " cannot be said to be guilty of hurried 
or careless handling of the subject. There are several illustra- 
tions, including an excellently coloured plate of of skins Microtis 
hirtiis, M. agrestis neglectus, M. orcadensis and M. agrestis exiil. 

LANCASHIRE AND CHESHIRE ENTOMOLOGISTS. 

The thirty-seventh Annual Report and Proceedings of the 
Lancashire and Cheshire Entomological Society are to hand.f 
Besides the rules, list of members, etc., there are summaries 
of papers read, a note on Tortrix costana vars. liverana and 
intermedia, by W. Mansbridge ; the President's address on 
' Hairs and Scales of Lepidoptera,' by F. N. Pierce ; and 
eighteen pages of ' The Lepidopterous Fauna of Lancashire 
and Cheshire,' compiled by W. Mansbridge, ' being a new 
edition of Dr. Ellis's list.' There is a portait of Mr. J. Cotton ; 
and a plate of the new varieties of T. costana, and of lepi- 
dopterous hairs, etc. We would like to suggest to the editor 
the necessity of adhering to the rule that specific names should 
commence with small letters ; especially in the case of new 
varieties ; the large capitals in the heading on page i8 look 
particularly aggressive, besides being inaccurate. By the way, 
in Mr. Mansbridge's ' New Edition of Dr. Ellis's list ' no reference 
whatever is made to the fact that the list was originally pub- 
lished in The Naturalist, and that even in ' publications quoted ' 
no mention is made of this journal. We trust that the omission 
is merely accidental. In an ordinary course we should have 
thought that before anyone printed a ' new edition ' of a list 
appearing in a scientific publication, the necessary permission 
would have been obtained, if only as an act of courtesy. 

THE BRADFORD ANTIQUARY. 

Part XVII. of the new series of this journal has been 
published, and gives evidence of the continued work and 
interest of the Bradford Historical and Antiquarian Society. 
Besides short notes, it contains a paper on ' Broughton Hall 

* Gurney and Jackson, 2/6. 
t XXV. -f 18 pp., 3/6. 

1915 Feb. 1. 



54 Notes and Comments. 

and its Associations,' by Eleanor B. Tempest ; an interesting 
account of ' Three Ancient Crosses near Keighley,' by J. J. 
Brigg and F. Villey ; ' The Roman Road North-westwards, 
from Bradford or its neighbourhood,' by F. Villey ; and 
' Notes on the Re-building of Some Aire and Calder Bridges 
in the reigns of Ehzabeth and James I.,' by W. E. Preston. 
Mr. T. T. Empsall continues ' The Transcript of the Marriage 
Registers of Bradford,' but we cannot find the ' page 33 ' 
referred to in the ' contents.' The pubhcation is illustrated 
by plans and blocks from photographs. 

Taylor's monograph of mollusca. 
We should like to congratulate Mr. J. W. Taylor on the 
completion of the third volume of his valuable monograph 
of the Land and Freshwater Mollusca of the British Isles. 
This was accomplished with the issue of Part 21* on December 
2ist. This volume deals with the Zonitidse, Endodontidse 
and Hehcidae, it occupies over 500 pages, and contains thirty- 
five plates as well as several illustrations in the text. Our 
readers are familiar with the excellent nature of these plates, 
as we recently had the pleasure of reproducing one. 

HUDDERSFIELD NATURALISTS. 

The Annual Reports and Balance Sheets of The Hiiddersjield 
Naturalist and Photographic Society for 1913-14 have been 
published (12 pp.) They include the ' Natural History Report,' 
by Mr. C. Mosley, who is also responsible for ' Entomology ' ; 
Mr. A. C. Elhs writes the ' Photographic Report ' ; Mr. J. H. 
Carter reports for the ' Antiquarian Section,' includmg an 
account of the excavations at Slack ; Mr. E. Fisher reports 
for ' Ornithology ' ; Mr. W. E. L. Wattam for ' Phanerogamic 
Botany ; and Mr. J. W. H. Johnson for ' Cryptogamic Botany' ; 
and there is a brief note on ' Geology,' by Dr. T. W. Woodhead. 
The Balance Sheet shows a 'gain on the year's working' of 
^4 I2S. Tid. 

YORKSHIRE NATURALISTS. 

Part 35 of the Transactions of the Yorkshire Naturalists' 
Union (New Miscellaneous Series No. 3) has recently been 
pubhshed. It contains a reprint of Mr. W. Denison Roebuck's 
Presidential Address delivered at Sheffield on January 2Qth 
1904, on ' Salient Features in the History of the Union ' ; 
a reprint of Mr. J. W. Taylor's Presidential Address delivered 
at Hull in 1912, on ' Dominancy in Nature,' with many coloured 
maps, etc.; a list of members corrected up to March, 1912, and 
reprints of excursion programmes from May, 1909 to December, 
1914 (Nos. 215-255). 

* pp. viii. + 481 — 552, 7/6 



Notes and Comments. 



OD 



LEEDS GEOLOGISTS. 

Under the editorship of Mr. E. Hawkeswortli. part XVII. of 
the Transactions of the Leeds Geological Association has 
appeared, for 1911-IJ (50 pp., 2/-). Besides reports of the 
Societj^'s excursions and meetings, there are papers on 
■' Petrological Characteristics of Underclays,' by Miss S. E. 
Chapman ; ' The Ammonites of the Lias (abstract),' by Mr. 
C. Thompson ; and ' Evidences of Climatic Changes in Geo- 
logical Times ' (abstract), by Prof. P. F. Kendall. Messrs. A. 
Burnett and J. H. Everett give some detailed ' Notes on Sections 




Robin Hoed Quarry, looking east, showing Haigh Moor Coal. 



m a Quarry at Robin Hood, near Leeds,' illustrated by photo- 
graphs and diagrams. One of these we are kindly permitted 
to reproduce. The Leeds Society is to be congratulated on 
the valuable nature of its publication. 

LEEDS ASTRONOMERS. 

No. 21 of the Journal and Transactions of the Leeds 
Astronomical Society, edited bj^ C. T. Whitmell (106 pp., 2/-), 
has been published. It contains some interesting notes by 
the Editor ; some notes on ' Leap Year,' by S. Thorp ; ' The 
Spectroscope,' by P. McC. Wilson ; ' Telescopic Aperture and 
Light Grasp,' and 'The Closing of the Mouth of the Reflect - 
ing Telescope,' by D. Booth ; ' The History of Astronomy,' 

1915 Feb. 1. 



56 



Notes and Comments. 



E. Hawks ; ' Uranus as a View Point,' by C. T. Whitmell ; 
' Are Faith and Science Enemies ? ' by Louisa Tranmar ; and 
' The Work of the Society, 1913,' by the editor. Altogether 
it is a very creditable production. 

LIVERPOOL GEOLOGISTS. 

Mr. E. Montag edited part i of volume XII. of the Pro- 
ceedings of the Liverpool Geological Society, recently published. 
The publication includes the Presidential Address of Mr. C. B. 
Travis, which deals with ' Some Evidences of Peneplanation 




Natural Casts of Rhyncosauroid Footprints from Runcorn HilL 



in the British Isles ' ; 'A Description of a Footprint recently 
found in the Lower Keuper of Runcorn,' by Mr. H. C. Beasley, 
who also describes and figures some fossils from the Keuper 
at Alton, Staffordshire ; Mr. F. T. Maidwell describes some 
sections in the Keuper of Runcorn Hill, and also some Foot- 
prints from the Keuper ; Mr. W. T. Walker gives ' Some 
Observations on the Liassic Outcrop near Whitchurch (Shrop- 

Naturalist, 



Notes and Comments. 57 

shire).' There is a strong ' footprint ' flavour about the 
pubHcation as, indeed, there should be. One ol the ilhistrations 
we are kindly permitted to give for our members. 

EAST ANGLIAN PRE-HISTORIANS. 

The Proceedings of the Pre-historic Society of East Anglia 
for 1913-14, conclude the first volume, and contain pages 
385-491 and numerous plates. In view of the small subscription 
to the society the publication is remarkably large, and contains 
a great variety of papers more or less bearing upon the Society's 
work as defined by its title. Much seems to be made of the 
scratchings and other microscopic characters of flint flakes ; 
in some cases far too much we fear. Personally we agree 
with Colonel Underwood that ' what have been looked upon as 
deep glacial striae may be simply weathered out scratches, 
the initial stage of which did not require very much pressure 
to produce.' We congratulate the editor, Mr. W. G. Clarke, 
for his efforts in preventing the proceeding? bemg quite a ' one 
man ' show. 

BELFAST NATURALISTS. 

The Annual Report and Proceedings of the Belfast Natural- 
ists' Field Club (N.S. Vol. 7, pt. i), contain a record of the 
recent jubilee meeting of the Belfast Society. There is also an 
account of the Club's meetings and records. The Presidential 
Address of the Rev. Canon Lett is ' A Chat about Linne ' ; 
Mr. G. Livens refers to ' Plants in Relation to their Surround- 
ings ' ; ' The History of Irish Woods and Trees,' by Mr. A. 
Henry ; ' How to recognise our Common Wood Lice,' b}^ Mr. 
N. H. Foster ; and the ' History of the Rosapenna Sandhills,' 
by Mr. R. J Welch. Mr. Waterhouse also gives his report on 
the Birmingham meeting of the British Association. 

THE SOUTH EASTERN NATURALIST. 

Under this heading have been published the Transactions 
of the South-Eastern Union of Scientific Societies, for 1914 
{cxxiv. -|- 83 pp.). The first section is devoted to an elaborate 
report of the Nineteenth AnTiual Conference held at Bourne- 
mouth, and the second to the papers etc., presented; the 
publication being edited by Dr. William Martin. Among the 
items printed are the presidential address of Dr. Chalmers 
Mitchell, on ' Science and Life ' ; ' Vegetation of the Bourne- 
mouth District,' by Mr. W. M. Rankin ; ' The Scenery of 
Bournemouth and its Geological History,' by Dr. W. T. Ord ; 
'Flora of the New Forest,' by the Rev. J. E. Kelsall ; 
' AppHed Science and the Patent System,' by Mr. A. F. Raven- 
shear ; ' Problems in Coast Erosion,' by Mr. E. A. Martin ; and 
' The Alum Trade in the 15th and i6th centuries, and the begin- 
nings of the Alum Industry in England,' by Mr. Rhys Jenkins ; 
the last two items have a distinctly Yorkshire interest. 

1915 Feb. 1. 



58 Notes and Comments. 

THE NEWCASTLE MUSEUM. 

The Report of the Natural History Society of Northumber- 
land, Durham and Newcastle-upon-Tyne is more favourable 
than usual. Through the efforts of Mr. N. H. Martin sub- 
scriptions amounting to over £3,700 have been raised towards an 
endowment for the purpose of the Museum. ;{25,ooo is the 
amount required. The Curator still complains of being short- 
staffed, and gives particulars of the work that might be done 
if he had more help. A list of donations to the Museum 
accompanies the report. 

ANTARCTIC FOSSIL PLANTS. 

The Trustees of the British Museum have undertaken 
the publication of the natural history results of the British 
Antarctic ('Terra Nova') Expedition, 1910, sent out under the 
command of the late Captain Scott. It is proposed to issue 
the memoirs as they become ready for publication, and thus 
delay in publication is avoided. The first of the geological 
Memoirs to be completed is an account of the Antarctic Fossil 
Plants,* which is the work of Prof. A. C. Seward. 

A GLOSSOPTERIS FLORA IN THE ANTARCTIC. 

There are many useful pieces of information in this Memoir.. 
The discovery of a Glossopteris flora in South Victoria Land, 
for instance, suggests interesting geological problems. Griffith 
Taylor has called attention to resemblances between the 
eastern side of Australia and Victoria Land, and in the structure 
of South Africa there are points of contact with the polar 
areas. Prof. Seward certainly adds a valuable chapter to our 
knowledge of palaeobotany, thanks to the efforts of the heroes 
of the Antarctic. 

WEALDEN FLORAS. 

In the Hastings and East Sussex Naturalist (Vol. 2, No. 3), 
Prof. A. C. Seward has a valuable paper under this head. He 
shows that ' a comparison of the floras of Japan, South Africa. 
North and South America, Europe and the Arctic regions 
reveals a surp^-ising resemblance in the general facies of the 
vegetation and demonstrates the relative abundance of cos- 
mopolitan types. There were no doubt local differences in 
the composition of the floras, but these were much less marked 
than in equally distant countries at the present day. Another 
interesting fact is that a considerable number of the European 
species are most closely related to plants now characteristic 
of tropical and sub-tropical regions. With these were associ- 
ated Equisetaceous plants similar to existing species in English 
streams and hedgerows, and some of the Wealden Conifers 

* 4to., 49 pp., 8 plates, 6/-. 

Naturalist,. 



Notes and Comments. 59 

show a close resemblance to modern species characteristic of 
temperate countries. The fact that some plants are able to 
flourish under sharply contrasted conditions and that closely 
allied species occur in very different climates renders it very 
difficult to draw conclusions as to climatic conditions from 
data derived from a comparison of extinct and recent plants. 
While admitting the danger of basing opinions on extinct types, 
it is impossible to neglect the cumulative evidence presented 
by the great number of Wealden species that have their nearest 
living representatives in tropical and sub-tropical countries.' 

ABSENCE OF FLOWERING PLANTS. 

' In considering the vegetation as a whole we must not lose 
sight of a significant fact, namely, the absence from the great 
majority of Wealden floras of any representatives of the 
Flowering plants. We cannot form any adequate conception 
of the effect produced on the general facies of a flora by the 
introduction of this efficient class that later in tne Cretaceous 
epoch had progressed far toward- assuming its present dominant 
position. It may be that not chmatic changes alone, but to 
some extent changes in the balance of power brought about 
by the progress of plant evolution resulted in the ousting of 
the numerous Cycadean genera and many other Jurassic- 
Wealden plants from the north.-rn hemisphere. It is at least 
certain that in the Wealden period the type of vegetation was 
very similar to that which flourished over the greater part of 
the' world during the whole of the Jurassic era, and it is equally 
certain that very shortly after the close of the Wealden period 
the vegetation of the world experienced a remarkable trans- 
formation. As we ascend the Cretaceous system the older types 
disappear, giving place to the vigorous and successful Flowering 
plants, the advent of which marks the first stage in the 
formation of modern floras.' 

EAST RIDING ANTIQUARIES. 

Volume XX. of the Transactions of the East Riding Anti- 
quarian Society,* contains an elaborately illustrated paper 
on ' The Arms of Hull,' and another on ' Excavations at 
Peaseholm, Scarborough,' by Mr. T. Sheppard ; the Rev. 
A. R. Gill has a lengthy paper on ' York Boy Bishops,' and 
the President, Colonel Phihp Saltmarshe. gives ' Notes on 
Thorganby, East Yorks.' The Editor, Mr. Sheppard, also 
has a paper on ' East Yorkshire Antiquities,' in which he 
illustrates the various inscribed antiquities found in this area. 
There is a list of the Society's excursions, 1893-1914, and an 
index. 



X. + 70 pp., cloth, 8vo. A. Brown & Sons. 
191.5 Feb. 1. 



6o Notes and Comments. 

MORE ABOUT THE ' NEW ' BIRD. 

With further reference to the Notes and Comments in our 
January issue, we wrote to Mr. Hamilton pointing out that the 
bird he sold as a Little Bunting caught at Ripon, proved to be 
nothing of the sort, and suggesting that the price paid should 
be returned. A reply was received, obviously in Mr. Hamilton's 
handwriting, but ostensibly written by someone else, in which 
he stated that ' Mr. Hamilton as [sic) not had anything to do 
with the address since you bought the bird.' 

THE POLICE. 

\We therefore communicated with the police who informed 
us that they had previously received complaints as to Mr. 
Hamilton's business methods ; that his letters contained in- 
accuracies ; that, though apparently written on his behalf, they 
were really written by himself, and that he was at home. They 
further informed us that Mr. Hamilton was ill and in poor 
circumstances. 

AN APOLOGY. 

As Mr. Hamilton had been visited by the police, we felt that 
the time had arrived to get a statement from him, with an 
apology. In reply to our letter he states, under date January 
loth, ' I did not know a Lesser Black Headed Bunting, never 
having had one to my knowledge . . . and as to Ripon, one 
is apt in trade to make the most and get the most. ... I very 
much regret selling you the bird incorrectly described . . . 
part of the other information (as to the locality) was only 
business in sale.' 

MORAL. 

After his various lapses of memory and terminological 
inexactitudes, this dealer therefore admits that his localities 
are tacked on to his specimens ' merely for business reasons.' 
and in order ' to make the most and get the most.' Such a 
method was doubtless adopted for the new Halifax Black- 
Headed Bimting, seen in the flesh in Sussex and now preserved 
in a Sussex Museum. Having thus fairly well proved that in 
this instance the record was wrong, there is quite a suspicion, 
in fact more than a suspicion, as to the bona fides of other 
recent records of new British birds, ' seen in the flesh.' We 
certainly think naturalists will now be justified in deleting 
several recent ' new records ' from their lists. 

In Lincohishire Notes and Queries for October, published in Janiiar\-, 
is an account of ' Implements of the Stone Age, in the City and Countv 
Museum, Lincoln.' It is illustrated by four plates. We feel sure that the 
anonymous author is correct in assumini; that the one pahrolithic imple-_ 
ment found in the county, now in the British Museum, was a compara- 
tively recent importation into the county. 

Naturalist, 



6i 
NOTES ON THE MERLIN.* 



V. H. EDMONDSON. 



T WAS interested in Mr. Taylor's paper read to the section on 
the Merhn, particularly when in March last I saw them on a 
moor. Mr. Taylor said they fed morning and evening. My 
birds fed every two hours, all through, possibly they were a 
little slacker about noon. The male never brought food to the 
nest. I never saw the hen take food on the wing from him as 
Mr. Taylor reported, but always from one of three rock^ across 
the narrow valley. Mr. Taylor said his nest was untidy ; con- 
siderable refuse bones, feathers and carcasses being left. My 
bird was the opposite. The nest was clean and tidy, though 
perhaps dead bracken tended in this direction in burying some 
of the refuse ; but I saw very few feathers and only two or three 
bones. When flushed, the female invariably flew off with, or 
swallowed what was left. 

The information as to what food was brought when I was 
not there, I got from the Plucking Stones. 

I never saw the slightest trace of grouse, although there 
were many broods of young near. One brood hatched within 
two yards of a Plucking Stone. 

The keeper reported that they had killed a young grouse 
250 yards away. On going to look, I found a young grouse 
disembowled and partly eaten. I think, however it was the 
work of rats, or perhaps a stoat. The male and female have 
a quite distinct voice ; the male being much higher and 
shriller than the female, he was always good and easy to 
distinguish. During the day time the young were brooded 
up to about seven days old ; never afterwards. 

The birds were on the moor by the end of March ; were 
pairing by April 21st ; there were four eggs on May 22nd ; 
the eggs were chipped on June 17th ; young flew 200 yards 
on July 22nd ; there were two large eggs and two small ; two 
females were hatched, one male, and there was one small addled 
egg. Therefore the large eggs would seem to contain females, 
and the small ones, males. Both the male and female sit on 
the eggs ; both kill, though the male mostly ; the female only 
once. The female only was at the nest after the eggs were 
hatched ; the male hovered over once, or twice, but never 
alighted. Among the birds eaten were : — ^tit-lark, many sky- 
larks, young thrush, pied wagtail, sand piper, and old sky-lark, 
which was very tough. 

In The Mincniloi^ical Magazine for December, Dr. H. 1,. Jtowman has 
' Notes on Calcitc from the Chalk at Corfe Castle, Dorset.' 

* Read at a meeting of the \'ertebrate Section of the Yorkshire 
Naturalists' Union. 

1915 Feb. 1. 



62 



STRUCTURE OF OOLITIC LIMESTONE. 



M. H. STILES, F.R.M.S. 



As an aid to the selection of a Limestone for the repair of our 
Parish Church (St. George's, Doncaster), I recently examined 
several samples under the microscope. They were subsequently 
photographed, and the details are appended. All the samples- 
were from Rutland. 

No. I, Casterfon. In this case the oolitic granules are so 
loosely arranged that they are easily detached from the mass, 
and a surface suitable for photographing may readily be 
prepared by lightly grinding down a fragment on an ordinary 
stone sink moistened with water, washing, and subsequently 




drying. The slight friction is quite suificient to detach the 
granules without wearing away their surface. 

With No. 2 from Edithweston this method does not answer, 
as the granules wear down and, to a great extent, lose their 
spherical form. Better results with stones of this character are 
obtained by chipping, and the selection of a piece with a fairly 
flat surface. Here the cohesion of the granules is sufficient 
to resist detachment in many cases, and consequently some of 
them are broken across in the process, as will be seen from the 
photograph. 

No. 3 is a sample of Ketton Stone. The granules are larger 
than those of the other samples, and the prepared specimen 
was so extremely beautiful when examined with a binocular 
microscope that I reproduced it as a stereogram. When 
viewed through a stereoscope the structure is exhibited in a 
very graphic manner. 

No. 4 is an oolite from Clipsham. near Oakham, yielded by 
a new bed just drawn into working. There is a very marked 

Naturalist, 



Stiles : Oolitic Limestone. 63; 

difference between this and Ketton ; the granules are smaller, 
the cementation much more perfect, and the stone is con- 
sequently denser, and I should say more durable. 

Photoc;raphic Details. 

* Objective. — 2 inches without eye-piece, stopped down by 
the insertion of a diaphragm with a small central aperture at 
the back of O.G. 

Magnification. — 12 diameters in all cases. 

Plate. — Ilford Chromatic. 

Developer.- — Rodinal i in 24. , 

Exposure. — 5 minutes. 

Illumination. — Paraffin lamp, flat flame, parallelised by 
a 2 inch double convex lens on to the concave mirror mounted 
above the objective and thence reflected on the object with as- 
little obliquity as possible. In this way deep contrasts are 
avoided, and a softer and more natural appearance thereby 
secured. 

Camera. — A horizontal one, with the illuminating apparatus 
rais.'d sufficiently for the beam of light to clear the stage and 
reach the mirror. 

N.B. — The Photographs have been reproduced on a smaller 
scale in the blocks (8 diameters), and are not so clear as the 
originals. To anyone particularly interested I shall be glad to 
send the originals for inspection, as well as the stereogram. 



ARACHNIDA. 

New and Scarce British Arachnida. — Dr. C. F. George 
has kindly presented the following mites, recently figured 
in The Naturalist, to the Hull Museum, and this record is- 
made so that students of the arachnida will know where the 
originals can be referred to : — • Tromhidium mushami, T.. 
bicolor, T. buccinator. Johnstoniana Icevipes, Ottonia ignota, 
0. sheppardi, Rhagidia, Bryonia pratensis, Ammonia {Cyta),. 
Bdella histrionum, Bd. hexophthalma, Bdella spp. and larva, 
and larvae, nymph, adult, and dissected details of Ritteria 
nemorum. Some of these are the type specimens. They 
are all mounted as microscopical preparations. A previous 
gift of a similar nature was recorded in this journal for Novem- 
ber, 1911, p. 372. — T. S. 



* In taking the Stereogram, the aperture of the diaphragm was- 
ex-centric, its position being reversed for the second exposure. These 
exposures were made on two plates 3i in. x 2^ in., and care was taken 
that the illumination, exposures, developement and subsequent treatment 
were identical. 

1915 Feb. 1. 



(64 

THE AMMONITES OF THE YORKSHIRE 
CORNBRASH.* 



H. C. DRAKE, F.G.S, 

The Ammonites of the Yorkshire Cornbrash all belong to 
the genus Macrocephalites, of the family Stephanoceratidse, 
defined thus : 

Ammonites with numerous ribs, which cross the periphery 
without change, bui which tend to unite on either side at some 
point near the umbilicus. 

The Ammonites of this family commence in the Upper 
Lias and are almost confined to the Lower Jurassic, with the 
exception of the genus Macrocephalites which extends to the 
■Oxford Clay. The Macrocephali are found in the Jurassic 
in most parts of the world. 

The name is derived from fiaKpos, long, K€<paX.7], a head. 
The genus is defined thus by Zittel in his Handbook to Paleon- 
tology :— ' Involute, with broad, rounded exterior, all the 
whorls regularly covered with numerous sharp ribs, which 
divide into two or more near the narrow deep umbilicus. 
Sutures much divided. 

The shell was first figured by Baier in 1757 but not named. 
Schlotheim in 1813 named the shell Ammonites macrocephalus. 
There are five recognised species in the Yorkshire Cornbrash, 
namely, macrocephalus, typicus, herveyi, hudlestoni and com- 
pressus. All my specimens come from the well-known Pea- 
cock's Quarry on the Seamer Road, Scarborough. 

I have obtained macrocephalus. typicus and herveyi in the 
Cornbrash at Red Cliff and in Gristhorpe Bay, but the con- 
dition of the specimens was not good, all being without the 
shell, therefore in the nature of casts. In Peacock's quarry the 
conditions of deposition must have been different, the rock here 
is about 3 to 4 feet thick, but on weathering the bottom 18 
inches is shown to contain a large quantity of broken up 
carbonaceous matter with sandy grains, and breaks up almost 
like the underlying sandstones, but of a slaty blue colour 
with black patches. In this, and almost at the lowest portion, 
I have found one or two specimens of macrocephalus and several 
like typicus, but all was in the form of casts. The upper 
portion about a foot from the top of the rock is the most 
prolific, out of 52 specimens in my collection macrocephalus 
form 26%, typicus 54%, herveyi 6%, compressus 6%, hudle- 
stoni 8%.t 

Macrocephalites macrocephalus. This is the species first 
figured by Baier in 1757, and called A. macrocephalus by 

• Read at the Hull meeting of the Geological Section of the Yorkshire 
Naturalists' Union. 

f In addition I have placed a typical series in the Hull Museum. 



Ammonites of the Yorkshire Cornbrash. 65 

Schlotheim in 1813; Nautilus tumidus by Reinecke and A. 
terebratus by Phillips. This Ammonite is of great thickness 
(tumid), is no mm. wide at the end of the last whorl where the 
body chamber commences, and the height is 65 mm. ; the 
diameter across the umbilicus is 145 mm. and the umbilicus is 
only 25 mm., nearly \. 

In the small specimen the diameter across the umbilicus is 
45 mm., and the umbilicus is 10 mm., or about J of the diameter 
of the shell, besides being so small the umbilicus is very deep, 
the walls being almost vertical. 

The ribs increase on the periphery and decrease towards the 
umbilicus by combination ; on the periphery nearest to the 
body chamber there are four ribs in 23 mm., and at the com- 
mencement of the second whorl six ribs in 23 mm. in the largest 
specimen. 

In the smallest specimen there are four ribs on the outer 
periphery in 10 mm., and on the inner six ribs in 7 mm. 

In the adult form there is a gradual failing of the ribs until 
the surface is almost smooth. 

Macrocephahis lypicus Blake. This Ammonite is called 
macrocephalus by Zittel and Nikitin, and is figured as such by 
Zittel and Kayser-Lake. The sides are flattened, and the 
umbilicus quite vertical, the ribs enter the umbilical wall 
and curve backwards from the umbilicus to the periphery. 

In this specimen the diameter is 95 and that of the umbili- 
cus 15 mm., or just over \ of the entire diameter. The height 
of the last whorl near the body chamber is 28 mm., and its 
width 34 mm. 

In a large specimen of this species the height is 56 mm., 
and the width is 98 mm. 

There are four ribs in 23 mm. on the outer periphery, and 
eight on the inner one. 

This handsome species is totally different from the first 
mentioned species, as it is also from the next species. 

Macrocephalites herveyi Sower by. This Ammonite has not 
flattened, but rounded sides, not globular in appearance as in 
macrocephalus, but really comes between the aforementioned 
two species. The umbilicus is not vertical but nearly so ; 
the diameter of No. I is no mm., and the umbilicus is 30 mm., 
or about \ the diameter. 

The height of the last whorl next to the commencement of 
the body chamber is 40 mm. and the width 60 mm. 

There are nearly six ribs in 23 mm. at this point and seven 
at the commencement of the second whorl. They do not curve 
so much as in typicus, but are stronger and deeper. 

In No. 2 the diameter is 120 mm. and the diameter of the 
umbilicus is about 30 mm. or ^ the whole ; the height is 35 mm. 
and width 55 mm. 

1915 Feb. 1. 



'66 Ammonites of the Yorkshire Cornhrash. 

On the outer periphery there are six ribs in 23 mm. and the 
■same near the inner whorh 

Macrocephalite compressus Quenstedt. The three best 
specimens of this Ammonite that I possess are not in very 
■good condition. They are all small and the best specimen 
shews the compression and very fine ribs which are very little 
curved in comparison to the other species. 

There are sixteen ribs on the periphery nearest to the body 
chamber, and twenty-two on the periphery inside. 

The diameter of the ammonite is 45 mm., and the diameter 
of the umbilicus is 8 mm. 

The inner smaller ribs do not seem to join the thicker 
ribs, which continue to the umbilicus except occasionally, but 
■seem to die away before the wall of the umbilicus is reached. 

Macrocephalites hudlestoni Blake. The best specimen of this 
ammonite is 44 mm. in diameter, and the diameter of the um- 
bilicus is 8 mm. The thickness is about 25 mm. or little more 
than half che diameter. The ribs have scarcely any curve and 
are thick about 10 in 23 mm. on the outer periphery, and 13 
•on the inner. 

In all these ammonites the thickest part is always near the 
umbilicus which is, as a rule, very small. 

The Macrocephali I think, are a peculiar genera of the 
SlephanoccrasidiVaWy . different from the other genera, especially 
by their closed up umbilicus. 

It would seem, therefore, that these ammonites, coming in 
directly after the Estuarine series, and being continued to the 
Oxford clay, show that the Cornbrash is really the commence- 
ment of the Middle Jurassic, especially the upper half of this 
strata. 

We are indebted to Dr. G. C. Crick for his assistance in the 
identification of the more critical species. 



Among the Committees of research appointed at the recent meeting of 
the British Association in Australia we notice a committee ' to formulate 
a definite system on which collectors should record their captures,' and 
another for '. a natural history survey of the Isle of Man.' 

The A'icar of Wawne recently wrote to the press with evident concern. 
On his return home recently his wife found the cast skin of a grass snake 
on his back, and he asks for information as to how it could possibly 
have got there. If he had been a layman it might be suggested that on 
returning from Christmas revels he must have fallen into a dyke or into 
a field where such objects occur. But as he is a clergyman we cannot say. 

The Yovkshire Observer for December gth gives a list of the members 
of the Leeds Naturalists' Club who have joined the Forces, viz., Captain 
J. H. Priestley, Captain H. J. Robson, Lieutenant A. M. Lupton, .Second 
Lieutenant E. H. Croft, H. ]\Iurphy, N. T. B. Turner, W. Withell, C. D. 
Ingleby, F. Fowler, A. Hodgson and E. J. T. Ingle. In addition. Pro- 
fessor Garstang is Chairman of the Military Committee in charge of the 
Officers' Training Corps of the Leeds l^niversity. 

Naturalist, 



67 

MOSSES FROM PRE-CARBONIFEROUS ROCKS 
NEAR AUSTWICK. 



CHRIS. A. CHEETHAM. 



DuKixG the past year, Mr. Haxby and I have been working 
•over the pre-carboniferous rocks around Austwick and Helwith, 
the West Yorkshire records for the type of mosses generally 
associated with these siliceous rocks being sparse, and there 
being evidence in the lack of Ribblesdale records that the 
■district had not been carefully worked. We have been amply 
repaid by the discovery of many new drainage records and 
also by finding in quantity mosses which are generally very 
scarce and in small patches in West Yorkshire. 

The district, when looked at casually, does not give much 
■encouragement to a bryologist, the streams and gullies face 
too much to the south, requisite shade being lacking ; careful 
search however, soon dispelled this impression. One of the 
first interesting facts noted was that some of the typical alpine 
mosses, AndrecBas, occurred in sheets at the low elevation of 
700-800 feet, with them being the alpine bryum also in quantity. 
This was an incentive to further search. Another isolated 
-outcrop of rocks of a more slatey nature was found to be 
covered with Cynodontimn Bruntoni, quite a new moss to the 
district. Again, a few surfaces of rock sloping steeply north- 
wards were found to have a growth of Rhacomitrium protensum, 
•quite suggestive of the Lake district ; on an outcrop facing 
directly south and seemingly very dry, a colony of Grimmias 
has taken hold, an interesting discovery being G. suhsquarrom, 
already noted in this journal. 

There are other mosses which we expected to find frequently 
but which are not plentiful, Ptychomitrium polyphyllnni, 
Hedivigia ciliata, and Pterogonium gyacile are seen occasionally, 
but seem by their distribution to be only just capable of main- 
taining their footing. The first mentioned is generally found 
freely on this type of rock. An interesting occurrence of the 
Pterogonium is on the limestone at Stainforth Force in Ribbles- 
dale, a list of plants on page 76 of ' West Yorkshire Flora ' 
•cites this species as absolutely confined to slate rocks in West 
Yorkshire. A moss which is much more frequent than our 
flora states is Rhacomitrium heterostichum, being commonly 
found all over the district. Campylopus atrovirens is also 
■widely distributed, and is a good index to the type of rocks. 

In passing from Crummock dale head to the Kibble valley, 
the path crosses over the limestone plateau of Moughton, 
and here we see that Hylocomium rugosum is by no means the 
rarity we supposed, for on limestone screes it is generally to 
be found, and in places in great profusion. Careful search 

101.5 Feb. 1. 



68 Mosses from Pre- Carboniferous Rocks. 

here will bring Cylindrotheciiim concinnum, and on one scree- 
facing west where Saxifraga oppositifolia grows, we get Trichos- 
tomum tortuosum var. fragilifolium ; in vertical clefts of the 
limestones we can also find Mniitm orthorrhynchum ; a Thiiid- 
ium found on these dry places is the one previously reported 
by us from Ingleborough, T. Philibertii ; it has recently been 
classed as a variety and called var. pseudo-tamarisci. 

The mosses group themselves in fairly distinct associations, 
if we get a flat surface of siliceous rock at a low angle with slight 
moisture draining over it, we shall find usually Andrecsa Rothii 
var. falcata, A. crassinervium, A. petrophila, Rhacomitrium 
heterostichum, R. fasciculare, R. aciculare, Campylopus atro- 
virens, Bryiim alpinum. 

The nerved Andrecea is much the most frequent, the 
Rhacomitria vary according to the amount of moisture, 
fasiculare if fairly dry, aciculare if wet. The Campylopus and 
Bryum vary in appearance with the moisture, in the wet 
places the former has much shorter or almost lacks the hair- 
point, and the Bryum looses the rich crimson metallic sheen, 
passing into the green variety ; very occasionally in these 
places we get the var. nigro-viride of Trichostomum crispuhim, 
and the var. acutifolium of Diphyscium foliositm ; the frequent 
Zygodon [Amphoridium) Mottgeotii in similar situations is very 
different in appearance and handle, being black below in place 
of the light brown, and harsh to the touch. 

Another group is that of the Grimmias on the rocks facing 
south below Moughton. Here we get a type of moss which 
can stand a large amount of drying ; some experiments made 
by E. Irmscher and published in Jahrb. f. wiss. Bot. 50, pp. 
387-449, showed that G. apocarpa still had a quarter of its 
leaf cells living after drying in a dessicator for 128 weeks ; 
G. pulvinata showed a similar result after 60 weeks' drying, 
wheras the mosses usually found in water were soon killed, 
Fontinalis only surviving five days' treatment. The species 
found here include Grimmia apocarpa, G. funalis, G. pulvinata, 
G. subsquarrosa, G. doniana ; G. funalis and sttbsqiiarrosa 
being far the most plentiful, some tufts of the latter have the 
gemmae in perfect condition. They appear not to have been 
found in the British Isles in this state before. 

Our next group is the moss flora of scattered siliceous 
boulders. This is fairly regular, the main part being Rhacomi- 
trium heterostichum with a little R. fasciculare, and Grimmia 
apocarpa, this being of the gracilis type ; if sufficient soil, we 
find Polytrichum piliferum and occasionally Hypnum cupressi- 
forme. On one or two out of a great number examined we 
found Hedwigia ciliata. 

In the following list the nomenclature adopted is that 
employed in the census catalogue of the British moss club, 

Naturalist, 



Mosses from Pre- Carbonif emus Rocks. 69 

but where the name differs in the Flora of West Yorkshire or 
in Braithwaites Moss Flora, these synonyms have been added ; 
this apparently being the only way to deal with a difficulty 
which is very real and discouraging to beginners.* 

Where the moss is new to either Ribble or Lunc drainage, 
it is shown by the letters L or R in parenthesis. 
(R.) AndrecBU pctrophila. 
(R.) ,, Rothii. 

(R.) ,, Rothii var. falcata. 

(R.) ,, crassinervia. 

These mosses are found in quantity in Crummockdale 
and under Moughton, opposite Horton in Ribblesdale. They 
cover many square yards of surface, making the rocks quite 
black in appearance. The altitude, 700-800 feet, is very low for 
these species in our latitude, and is due to the influence of the 
surrounding mountains. 
(R.) Diphyscium foliosiim [Weber a sessilis). 
(R.) Diphyscium foliosum var. actitijoliwn. 
(R.) Fissidens osmiindoides. 

We have before shown these to be on Ingleborough ; this 
note extends their range into Ribblesdale. 
(L.) Fissidens crassipes {F. viridiihis var. fontanus). Be- 
tween Clapham and Austwick. 
(L.) Pleuridiiim subulatiim. Ingleton. 
(R.) Seligeria ptisilla. Frequent in vertical clefts of the 

limestones. 
(R.) Seligeria recnrvata {S. setacea). On siliceous rocks of 
a soft texture. 
Cynodontium Bruntoni [Dicrano-weisia) [Oncophorus). 
In plenty in one place in Crummockdale. 
(R.) Blindia acuta. 
(R.) Campylopus atrovirens. 
(L. R.) Grimmia subsquarrosa. 
(R.) Rhacomitrium protensuni [Grimmia aquatica). 
(R.) Ptychomitrium polyphyllum [Glyphomitriiim) . 
(R.) Hedwigia ciliata [H. albicans). In Arco wood, it is 
only in small quantity here, and occurs further 
south, beyond the faults, on millstone grit walls 
near Lawkland. 



* If this plan of giving the synonomy, whenever a difference exists in 
these three lists, were generally adopted, it would matter little which 
nomenclature was used by the writer at the time, and also would enable 
anyone to refer to our flora for the known distribution of any species at 
that time. Many beginners get Jamison's Ivey to British Mosses in the 
reprint from the Journal of i3otany, and with this the West Yorkshire 
Flora is in line, but when the worker takes up Dixon's book a new system 
has to be mastered, and this later may have to be revised with Braith- 
waite's, the latter being the only one to give a full synonomy. 

1915 Feb! 1. 



70 Mosses from Pve-Caybonijcyons Rocks. 

(R. L.) Acaulon mutictim [Sphcerani^ium). On Smearside, and 
near Austwick. 
(L.) Tortula amhigiia [T. ericccfolia, Bavlnthi). Near Ingle- 
ton. 
Barbida lurida {Didymodon). Streamside, near Aust- 
wick. 
(K.) Trichostomum crispulum var. nigro-viridc (Mollia). 

Found on flat wet rock surfaces. 
(L.) Trichostomum tortuosum var. jragilifolinm {Mollia). 

Screes, Moughton summit. 
("L.) Splachmim amptillaceum. Austwick moss. 
(R.) Tctraplodon mniodes. On bones in old slate quarry, 

Arco wood. 
(L.) Funaria ericetorum {F. obtitsa. Entostodon). Great 
Blake Gill, also between Helwith and Stainforth 
bridges. 
Funaria calcarea. Feizor. 

Amblyodon dealbatiis. Dripping limestone rocks above 
Warfe village. 
(R.L.) Bartramia pomiformis. At Craghill and at Warte. 
(R.) Bryum filijorme. Arco wood. 
(L.) ,, concinnatum. Crummockdale head. 

(R.) ,, alpinum. Fruiting in Arco wood. 

(R.L.) ,, alpinum var. viride. 

Leucodon sciuroides. In plenty, Austwick-Warfe." 
Antitrichia ciirtipendnla. Warfe, Helwith and Clapham. 
(R.) Pterogonium gracile [P. ornithopodioides). On lime- 
stone at Stainforth and also found near Arco 
quarry. 
(L.) Leskea polycarpa. Riverside near Clapham Station. 
(L.) Cylindrothecium concinnum {Entodon orthocarpus) . 

Crummockdale head and Moughton Scar. 
(L.) Hypnum patientice ( H. arcuatum. Stereodon lin^bergii) 

Wood below Beezley falls. 
(R.) Hypnum scorpiodes {Amblystegium). Helwith moss. 
(R.) ,, straminium [Amblystegium). Helwith moss. 

(R.) ,, sarmentosum [Amblystegium). Arco wood. 

(R.) Hylocomiiim mgosum [Hypnum). Moughton Scar. 
This list adds 14 species or varieties to the Lune drainage, 
and 27 to the Ribble. It shows that it is possible by use of 
geological information, coupled with a knowledge of the moss 
flora of the various rocks, to pick out districts where the 
published information is seen to be lacking these types. 



We regret to notice the death, towards the end of 1914, of Mr. W. 
Hill, F.G.S. Many years ago he did some excellent work among the 
chalk of Yorkshire and Lincolnshire ; his papers on the Lower Chalk have 
never been superseded. 

Naturalist, 



71 
YORKSHIRE'S CONTRIBUTION TO SCIENCE. 

{Presidential Address to the Yorkshire Naturalists.' Union, delivered 
at the University, Leeds, ^th December, 1914.). 

By T. Sheppard, F.G.S. 

{Continued from page j$). 

MAGAZINES NOW EXTINCT. 

The present instalment includes particulars of the magazines 
and journals which are no longer being published. Many are 
■directly connected with Yorkshire ; others contain items bearing 
upon the natural history, etc., of the county. Detailed particulars 
of these are given, as several of the publications are now voxy 
scarce, in many cases my own being the only complete sets I 
have been able to trace. 

In addition to the following, there are such publications as 
' The Halifax Naturalist,' ' The Bradford Scientific Journal,' and 
the journals issued at Barnsley, Keighley, etc., which, however, 
will be dealt with under the heads of the respective towns. 

There are a number of other magaizines, such as ' The Midland 
Naturalist ' (1878-1893, 16 vols., 8vo) ; ' The Essex Naturalist ' 
(1887-1914, 15 vols., 8vo), etc., but these for the most part have 
no particular bearing upon our county, and are not included. 

The Circulator. 

In 1861 the Haley Hill Literary and Scientific Society was 
formed in Halifax.* In 1866-7 it published an interesting 
magazine. The Circulator, a magazine of Literature, Science and 
Art, conducted by members of the Haley Hill Literary and Scien- 
tific Society, 1886-7. It bears the imprint ' Halifax ' and is 
dated 1867. The volume I have seen | contains igo pages, 8vo, 
but there is nothing to show how frequently it appeared nor how 
many pages were issued at a time. % There are interesting 
papers on the natural history and geology of the district, as well 
as on poetry, music, etc. Several of the contributions contain the 
earliest records of the district. The Haley Hill Society may be 
said to be the parent of the Halifax Scientific Society. 

The Practical Naturalist. 

Between January and December 1883, a magazine called 
* The Practical Naturalist,' which contained 140 8vo pages, in 
double columns, was issued, printed and edited in Bradford, 

* F"or a description of the Society and its work see The Halifax Naturalist, 
Vol. VI., pp. 89-92. 

t Since given to me by a Halifax friend. 

\ Up to pag^e 117 there are six 'continued" articles on Geolog-y by J. 
S[pencer], so that probably about a dozen parts were issued in all. 

1915 Feb. \. 



72 Sheppard : Yorkshire's Contribution to Science. 

by H. S. Ward and H. J. Riley, who were printers and booksellers. 
It contains a number of short natural history articles, among 
which are several by Yorkshire naturalists. The journal was 
evidently the organ of the ' Practical Naturalists' Society,' a card 
of membership for which, with a list of Fellows and Members, 
Rules, and a list of books, are bound up with my copy. The 
membership card is signed by Percy Lund, President, and H. 
Snowden Ward, Secretary. From the preface to the volume we 
learn that ' At the end of our first year (which is also our last) .... 
we take the sole responsibility for the failings which are so 



w 



TI I I HIlW T IH llll l lllllllllT TTT HIHIIMMrTMITTTttTrHMIIIIIlllllllllll'rm 



'VTa.- 



., f.atttral%^. ^ 



3 

i We hereby certify that (^ C^^'y?-id£eiJ . 

has been enrolled a Member of this Society 
■ this /y day of (^e/^Uu^i^. i8/2 

Signci^ C/^ i C| <.c<,<^ dj President. 
No. on books A/- S3 y^V / y/ / 

/lry\x4rVOiA. e^K, OU^X/Ua.. Secretary. 



\g^; TTTTll»lllIITTTTIIIlTIII TrTTT-TTT TTr iMlllI l llll I Il ll l l TIIII llIt IIIlll l lll IIMlU j 

F educed fac-simile of Membership Card of the Practical Naturalists' Society. 

numerous in our little magazine .... We regret giving up what 
has been truly " a labour of love," but the work is too great for 
us.' The preface was as true as it was candid. 

The Naturalists' World. 

Mr. Scruton, in Turner's Yorkshire Bibliographer, vol. I., 1888, 
pages 105-110, says : ' The Practical Naturalist was continued 
at Ilkley.' This led me to look in that direction, and I find that 
another journal was certainly published at Ilkley, and in the 
preface, reference is made to 'Our Practical NaMtralists' Society.' 
Not a word, however, is said of the dead Practical Natiiralist, and 
in every way the Ilkley publication must be locked upcn as quite 
separate and distinct. 

No. I of the first volume was published in January, 1884. It 

Naturalist 



Sheppard : Yorkshire's Contribution to Science. 73 

was edited by Mr. Percy Lund, and printed and published* by 
Percy Lund and Co., at the County Press, Ilkley. It was a small 
4to, with double columns, and illustrated ; there were 16 pages 
a month, and the first page of each issue was numbered and 
dated. The first volume contained 216 pages in all. Vol. IL 
(Nos. 13-24), 1885. 236 pages ; vol. IIL (Nos. 25-36), 1886, 220 
pages ; and vol. IV. (Nos. 37-48), January to December, 1887, 
208 pages. With this volume appears the usual epitaph : ' With 
its fourth volume. The Naturalists' World ceases publication. 
This step has been taken because it has been found impossible 
to render it a pecuniary success.' 

When it commenced, The Naturalists' World had a largely 
' Yorkshire ' character, and many contributors to our own journal 
wrote also for it. The very first article in the first number was 
by our old friend the late Rev. W. C. Hey, on ' Shells.' J. W. 
Davis followed on ' Geological Evolution.' The late William West 
commenced the second part with ' Plant Gossip.' Among other 
familiar names in these early parts we notice W. J. Clarke, P. F. 
Lee. J. E. Wilson, W. H. Hutton, T. D. A. Cockerell, H. Wallis 
Kew, and W. D. Roebuck. 

The Young Naturalist. 
Many Yorkshire workers contributed to The Young Naturalist, 
an illustrated 8vo journal which began in November, 1879, ^"d 
continued until December 1890, when it completed its eleventh 
volume. It was edited by J. E. Robson, of Hartlepool and S. L. 
Mosley of Huddersfield. It was at first ' a weekly magazine of 
Natural History' of 8 pages (occasionally four pages only), 8vo, 
double columns. 

Volume I, ended with page 416, on October 30th, 1880. 

2, similarly edited, contains parts 54-103, and 364 pages 
,, 3, contains parts 104-155, in all 411 pages, with 12 

lithographed plates. 
,, 4, The journal became a monthly with this volume, and 

was sold at 6d. It contains parts 37-48,1 with 
a total of 280 pages. 

5, parts 49-60 contains 292 pages. 

6, parts 61-72, 282 pages, and 40 pages of supplement. 

With the February number of this volume, and 
onwards ; it was edited by ]\Ir. Robson only. 

7, parts 73-84, contains 254 pages. 

8, parts 85-96, contains 104 pages. 

9, parts 97-108, contains 200 pages. 

10, parts 109-120, contains 252 pages. 

11, parts 121-132, contains pages 240-232. 

* The first volume only has the name of W. Swan Sonnenchein & Co., 
London, as the publishers. 

t This evidently a.ssumes that the first three volumes contained monthly 
parts. 

1915 Feb. 1. 



74 Sheppai'd : Yoyks/iiyc's Coniribution to Science. 

In January 1891. the journal was publislied under the title of 

The British Naturalist. 

This journal continued from 1891 to December 1894, four 
volumes, the last volume bearing the same title, but called a 
' New Series,' and was edited by Joseph Smith and Linnaeus) 
Greening. 

In the third volume Mr. Robson informs us that during the 
previous fourteen years he had edited The British Naturalist 
and its predecessor The Young Naturalist, and regrets that the 
publication, must cease on account of illness. However, it was 
continued by other editors, but only for one year. 

Volume I, contains parts January 1891 to December 1891. 
numbers 1-12, and 272 + 86 pages. 

2, parts 13-24, and 269 pages. 

3, parts 25-36, and 256 pages. 

4, (New Series), 298 pages, dated January to December^ 

1894. 

A feature of these journals was the illustrat(>d biographies of 
field naturalists.* 

The Naturalists' Monthly. 
A magazine with the above title, ' devoted to the study of 
Natural History,' edited by R. Christie, and printed and published 
by A. Robinson of Bradford, appeared in October, 1882, but 
apparently ceased after the publication of its third number, 
for February, 1883. j 

The Naturalists' Journal. 

In July, 1892, the first part of ' The Naturalists' Journal,' (12 
pages 8vo), appeared, edited by H. K. Swan, published by Elliot 
Stock, and sold at one penny. By June, 1893, the first volume 
(144 pages) was completed. By May, 1894, however, we learn 
that Mr. Swan was not able to give the time necessary for carrying 
out the ' great improvements contemplated by the proprietor,' 
and the title page of the second volume (Nos. 13-24, July, 1893- 
June, 1894, 194 pages) bears the names of A. Ford and A. H. 
Waters. 

Volume III. continued for six months J, in order that the 
volumes might begin with the January number. In November 
Mr. S. L. Mosley was joint editor in place of Mr. Waters, § and we 
learn that ' in future the journal is to be printed in Huddersfield.' 

* My set was formerly Mr. Robson's. 
I See Yorkshire Bibliographer, Vol. I., 1888, p. 108. 
J Ends with No. 30, December, 1894, 148 pages. 

§ Judging by references to ' Leaflets circulated by the late manager,' 
there has been trouble ! 

Naturalist.' 



Sheppard : Yorkshire's Contribution to Science. 75 

With the 5th volume, the words ' and Naturahsts' Guide ' 
were added to the title, and it became ' The Monthly Organ of the 
Economic and Educational Museum, Huddersfield.' In the 
6th volume, the title was altered to ' The Naturalists' Journal 
and Guide ' and it also became the organ of the Britisli Field 
Club. Volume 7 included monographs of Galls and Boleti. In 
1900, (the 9th volume), the title was again changed to The Natural- 
ists' Journal incorporated with which was The Naturalists' 
Guide. Mr. S. L. Mosley retired from the editorship, which was 
taken over by his son Charles, who also printed the journal. By 
volume XI. (1902) the Journal reverted to its 1899 title, and 
though it commenced under the editorship of the son, the father's 
name alone, ouce more, appeared on the title. 

Nature Study. 

Under this title the journal apparently begins a new career. 
Instead of being volume I., however, it is volume XII. — the 
number of the volume being continued from The Naturalists' 
Journal. By its second volume, the title was again altered to 
'Nature Study and The Naturalists' Journal,' and presumably 
the son again takes charge ; with the following year, 1905, volume 
3, or volume 14 as the case may be, ceased. It is to be hoped that 
it is merely a coincidence that the title page appearing with the 
final part, was adorned with a quotation from a paper of my 
own ! 

The first of these volumes is composed of small sections of 
what were presumably some day intended to be complete memoirs 
on various subjects, had they continued. Each one begins a fresh 
pagination, which makes the binding difficult, and the sequence 
well nigh impossible to follow. 

These various volumes issued from Huddersfield are illustrated 
by blocks in the text and numerous coloured plates, which were 
entirely the work of Mr. S. L. Mosley. How he was able to 
produce them in such quantity was always a puzzle to me ; 
they speak well for his ability and industry. 

We may add that the key note of these volumes was the 
economic aspect of natural history. 

The New Nature Study. 

In October 1912, Messrs. S. L. and F. O. Mosley, published No. 
I, New Series of The New Nature Study * (Svo") ' The contents ' 
include 'vol. XIV., Vertebrate Animals, pages 1-2 and 5-10; 
vol. XV., Insects, pages 1-2 ; vol. XVI., Huddersfield District, 

* Published at the Nature Study Office, Beaumont Park, Huddersfield. 
This number is stj'led ' No. 163 from Beginning-,' from which, apparently, the 
numbering has commenced from the first part of its predecessor, The Naturat- 
ists' Journal. See The Naturatist iov 191 3, p. 12. 

1915 Feb. 1. 



76 Sheppard : Yorkshire's Contribution to Science. 

pages 1-2.' Further numbers contain parts of volumes in the 
same way, up to vol. XXVII., 'the Farm.' Apparently, had all 
gone well the parts should have been taken out and eventually 
bound up into volumes, but as only 12 parts of this new series 
appear to have been published, this was not done. 

Each part averaged 16 variously numbered pages, contained 
coloured and other plates, and was sold at 6d. 

Naturalist Notes. 

In June 1894, appeared an octavo magazine with the above 
title, being ' A monthly record of local and scientific natural 
history observations, published under the auspices of the Malton 
Field Naturalists' and Scientific Society.' Thirteen parts of 
eight pages each appeared at the price of id. each. At the 
completion of this volume the parts were bound together and sold 
in one volume at is. 

In July 1895, apparently the same publication was continued 
for another thirteen months, but, though styled volume II. (parts 
14 to 25) and vol. III., No. 26, the heading was altered to 

North and East Yorkshire Science Notes, 
From an editorial it seemed that it was considered that ' the 
word " science " takes in a wider scope of objects and subjects than 
the word naturalist, and the scientific man must above all things 
be consistent and have everything in apple-pie order.' Under 
the new name, however, only thirteen parts were issued and the 
Malton publication ended its career with the twenty-sixth issue 
since it started as ' Naturalists' Notes.' However, the little 
magazine contains many interesting records relating to the 
Malton district. 

The Natural History Journal. 

This little magazine was started in York in 1877, and was 
' conducted by the Societies' of Friends' Schools.' From its 
commencement to the year before its close it was edited by ^Ir. 
J. E. Clark, sometimes with assistance. 

It was an 8vo magazine, frequently illustrated, and there were 
on an average over 200 pages to the volume. 

It commenced in February 1877, and in December of the same 
year completed its first volume (160 pages). Then, regularly for 
twenty-two years, its parts were published, and were bound up 
in the well-known green cloth covers, the final part (No. 198) 
being published in December, 1898. Nine parts were published 
each year, none appearing in the months of January, July and 
August, owing to vacation. 

Though primarily intended for the scholars attending the 
Friends' Schools, where, as we well know, a strong feature is 
made of the study of natural history, the volumes contain many 
interesting and important records referring to the county. 

.Naturalist, 



Sheppayd : Yorkshire s Contribution to Science. 77 

In the last part (December 1898) wc learn that ' for twerity-two 
years has The Natural History Journal been an institution in 
our schools. . . . Probably the feeling was shared by many of 
us that when Mr. J. E. Clark was compelled to retire from the 
post of editor it would be difficult, perhaps impossible, adequately 
to fill his place.' The new editor only accepted the post 'on 
condition that the paper paid its way ; but the fact is the excess 
of expenditure over income for 1908 is £iy, and the financial 
editor feels that he cannot face another year with a similar 
prospect awaiting him at the end of it.' 

Since the cessation of the Journal, the Annual Report of the 
Bootham School Natural History Society has to a small extent 
taken its place. 

Natural Science. 

This shilling monthly magazine (large 8vo), published by 
Macmillan, was by far the finest magazine of its kind on the 
market. It was edited anonymously, though we have an idea 
how and where, and we believe Yorkshire had a finger in the pie- 
Its criticisms were favourable where praise was due, and caustic 
where considered necessary. It made a special feature of its 
current ' Notes and Comments,' book reviews, and smaller news 
items, and many were made to smart by its lashings. Its con- 
tributions were of an exceptionally high order. 

Volume I. (March to Decembei" 1892, contained 800 pages. 
It included articles by J. W. Davis, Thomas Hick, Clement 
Reid, A. Smith Woodward, Henry Woodward, J. E. Marr, 
Alfred Harker, J. J. H. Teall, W. C. Williamson, A. C. Seward, 
A. J. Jukes-Browne, R. Lydekker, G. A. Boulenger, H. O. Forbes, 
and others well known to Yorkshire naturalists. 

Subsequent volumes (2 to 15) were published, two each year, 
and averaged 500 pages each. The publishers were changed 
on more than one occasion, and towards the end, the editor- 
ship was apparently also altered. 

The first ' Note and Comment ' in the issue for December. 
1899, was entitled ' Eliminated,' and read : ' It is one of the 
conditions of continued vigorous activity on an organism's part 
that income be at least equal to expenditure, and the same 
is true of journals. To try to sustain the activity when the 
aforesaid condition is not fulfilled is not uninteresting, but there 
are limits to the possibility of continuing it. We regret to say 
that we have reached these limits as regards National Science. . . . 
We make our bow, then, to the process of natural elimination.' 

{To be continued). 

No. 27 of the Quarterly Notes issued by the Belfast Museum is devoted 
to 'Old Domestic Plenishings,' and No. 26 to 'Objects connected with 
Tobacco Smoking, ' etc. 

1915 Feb. 1. 



2^ 



eOCCIDAE OBSERVED IN DURHAM AND 
NORTH YORKSHIRE. 

J. W. H. HARRISON, B.Sc, 
Middlesbrough. 



The Coccidae, or Scale Insects, observed up to the present 
time in Britain, number about loo species and. of these, I 
fear not one half have any right to be regarded as anything 
more than 'naturalised aliens,' and very undesirable onts, too. 
Be that as it may, it is customary to include them in British 
lists on account of their great economic importance; hence, 
in spite of the fact that most of my work is done out of doors, 
I venture to list species taken in greenhouses to which, through 
the courtesy of friends, I have had access. I give, too, the 
species I have been able to secure from fruit purchased in 
shops. 

Whilst, on account of our climate, I expected to find our 
local Coccids few in numbers, I was surprised to find that there 
was a total absence of certain well-known indigenous species, 
and I find that these species, when tabulated, are chiefly oak- 
feeders. In fact, despite diligent search. I have never seen 
an oak feeding species either in Durham or in Yorkshire. 

On the whole, however, we have a fairly representative 
list, including; species from all of the sub-families, and I have 
hopes that J shall yet secure some of the missing forms, and 
that thus our somewhat short list will be materially extended. 

Aspidiotus aurantii (Maskell).' — Once, on lemons bought in 
Middlesbrough. 

Aspidiotus bromeliac (Newstead). — Rare on pineapples in 
Middlesbrough. 

Aspidiotus dictyospermi var. arecae (Newstead). — On palms 
in greenhouses in Middlesbrough. 

Aspidiotus hederae (Vallot).- — In enormous quantities in 
the sheaths at the base of palms in' a green house at Birtley. 
I have bred an excessively minute hymenopterous parasite 
from this. 

Aspidiotus perniciosus (Comstock). — This is the far famed 
and dreaded San Jose Scale, a pest that has cost millions of 
dollars and destroyed thousands of fruit trees belonging to 
the order Rosaceae in the United States, and in that small 
portion of Canada between Lakes Huron and Erie. I once 
saw a few specimens on a pear in the Greenmarket. Newcastle- 
on Tyne. It is exceedingly unlikeh^ that it will do any damage 
here as it owes its destructive powers abroad to the frequency of 
the broods during the hot summer. Here, even if it did escape, 
it would be single-brooded and barely able to hold its own 
under the most favourable conditions. It might however. 

Naturalist, 



Coccidae observed in Dur/iaui and A'. Yoykshiyc. 79 

be extremely harmful to peaches and nectarines under glass 
if once allowed to secure a footing. 

Parlaioyia proteus (Curtis). Rare on Cypripediuiiis under 
glass at Birtley. 

Parlatoria proteus var. crotonis (Douglas). — I once got tliis 
on Croton but failed to record the locality. In all probabilty 
it was at Birtley. 

Parlatoria pcrgandii (Comstock). — On imported oranges, 
commonly. 

Parlatoria zizyphi (Lucas).- — On oranges, but rare . 

Chionaspis salicis (Linn.)- — Our most abundant Coccid, 
occurring everywhere in the Birtley district on Alder [Alnus 
glutinosa). Ash {Fraximis excelsior) and Sallow {Salix caprca 
et S. cinerea). On ash and Salix aurita near Middlesbrough. 
It is particularly destructive to Salix cinerea on Waldridge Fell, 
and the weakened trees soon fall victims to (he Weevil {Cryp- 
torhyncJms lapathi Linn.) 

Chionaspis aspidistrac (Signoret). — Once on Ferns at 
Birtley in a hothouse. 

Mytilaspis pomornm (Bouche), the Common Mussel Scale.- — 
Not as 'abundant as one would expect. On Salix caprea. S. 
aurita and blackthorn, at Birtley, but on apple at Low Fell. 

Eriopeltis festiicae (Fonscolombe).^ — This has turned up not 
infrequently at Birtley on grasses, not necessarily, but some- 
times, of the genus Festuca. The species is localised in the 
old quarry field in a very small area, well sheltered from north 
and east winds. 

Signoretia Inzulac (Dufour). — Near the above, on Luzula 
campestris , but in much smaller numbers and not always to be 
found when looked for. 

Lichtensia vibitrni (Signoret ).^ — I discovered this for the 
first time at Birtley, on ivy, whilst I w^as looking for Eriopeltis 
festucae. Only two specimens occurred. 

Pulvinaria vitis (Linn.)^ — Scarce at Birtley on blackthorn, 
and only on one tree. 

Pulvinaria vitis var. ribesiae (Signoret). Rarely on black- 
currant {Ribes nigrum) in an old garden at Birtley. Now, I 
fear, extinct as the bushes were killed by the Currant Moth 
{Abraxas grossnlariata). 

Lecanium hesperidum (Linn.) — On young Abutilons in a 
greenhouse in Middlesborough. Now rare, but I was told that 
it had formerly abounded. 

Lecanium persicae var. coyyli (Linn). — Once on hawthorn at 
Birtley. 

Lecanium bituberculatum (Targioni-Tozzetti). — Now gone, 
but formerly quite common on a row of hawthorns in Middles- 
brough. 

Lecanium capreac (Linn.)- — This is very common, if sonu - 

lei."; Feb. 1. 



8o Coccidae Observed in Durham and N. Yorkshire. 

what local, both at Birtley and in Middlesbrough. I have 
taken it from both blackthorn and hawthorn but certainly 
not from the plant Salix caprea from which it derives its name. 

Lecanium cofjeae (Walker) {==hemisphaericum, Targioni- 
Tozzetti).— My friend Mr. John Baxter, late of Birtley", but 
now in the army, discovered this on a fern of the genus Pteris 
at Birtley. I cannot resist giving Mr. Baxter a word of thanks 
here for help rendered in searching for minute species of all 
groups — help I hope he will be able to continvie when the war 
is ended. 

Dactylopius citri (Risso). — This was very common on young 
orange trees, aspidistras, etc., etc., in a greenhouse at Birtley. 

Dactylopius longispinus (Targioni Tozzetti). — With the 
above on various plants, including aspidistra, aralia, etc., at 
Birtley. This, with the preceding, is the Mealy-Bug of 
gardeners. 

Dactylopius n'alkeri (Newstead). — Rather scarce on the 
marram and other grasses on the sandbanks at Redcar and 
Marske. 

Psetidococciis aceris (Signoret). — This species has proved 
unaccountably scarce and has only occurred to me once, and 
that in small numbers, on blackthorn at Chester-le-Street. 

Ripersia suhterranea (Newstead).- — When working ant's 
nests on the sandy ground at the base of the sea banks at the 
Black Hall Rocks, just north of the hotel, I found this sparingly 
on grass roots in the nests of Lasius flavus. I have not, how- 
ever, seen the ant for a year or two, i.e., since the new Black 
Hall Rocks Colliery was opened. 

Eriococciis insignis (Newstead). — Not common on grass on 
Waldridge Fell, and only on the banks of the burn. 

Apterococcus fraxini (Newstead).- — I got this not uncommon- 
ly on an ash in the village of Birtley two years ago. This 
provided the first northern record, but the hopes I formed 
then of finding it well distributed have been unsatisfied. 

Cryptococcits fagi (Barensprung) , the Felted Beech Coccid. 
- — Common at Ravensworth, but rare nearer Birtley in Durham. 
Quite common in Guisbrough Park Wood, near Ormesby and 
Marton in Yorkshire. On beech {Fagus sylvatica) of course. 

Newsteadia jloccosa (De Geer). — This interesting and curious 
looking creature has occurred, although not freely, amongst 
Polytrichiim, at Eston (Yorks.) and on W'aldridge Fell (Dur- 
ham). It occurred in much drier spots than its relative 
Orthezia cataphracta. 

Orthezia cataphracta (Shaw). — This occurs everywhere on 
the moors, amongst very damp sphagnum, in this district. In 
Durham it is just as abundant in similar spots on Waldridge 
Fell, although rarer on Birtley Fell, occurring there rather 
amongst Polytrichiim and rushes. 

Naturalist, 



News from the Magazines. 8t 

Orthezia Sp. — I think I have a new species of this genus 
differing in size and in the dorsal plates from 0. cataphracta. 
This I got amongst Sphagnum on Great Ayton Moor. 

P.S. — In spite of what is said above about> the non- 
occurrence of oakfeeding Coccids in our area, I tock such a 
species on Nov. 9th. This was Aspidiotits zonatus (Frauenfcld). 
Over-wintering females occurred sparingly on scrubby oaks 
near Nunthorpe Station. 

: o : 

The Irish Naturalist for January contains a paper on ' The Geography 
of Ireland as a field for Irish naturalists,' by Prof. G. A. J. Cole. 

Mr. W. G. Travis contributes ' Bryological Notes in the Ingleton 
District,' to the Lancashire and Cheshire Naturalist for December. 

Mr. W. H. S. Cheavin favours us with a reprint of an illustrated paper 
on the Common Gnat, which appeared in Knoivledge. 

In a recent issue of The Journal of Economic Biology (pp. 105-125), 
Mr. J. W. H. Johnson writes ' A Contribution to the Biology of Sewage 
Disposal.' 

The Irish Naturalist Vol. 23, No. 10 contains ' A Note on the Anatomy 
of the Irish Vitrina described as v. pyrenaica or v. hibernica/ by A. E. 
Boycott. 

In The Journal of Conchology for January, Helicella virgata m. 
sinistrorsum is recorded near Scarborough, this being the fourth record 
for the neighbourhood. 

' Notes on High Mortality among Young Common Terns in certain 
seasons,' by A. R. Galloway and A. L. Thomson, appear in The Scottish 
Naturalist for December. 

In the Journal of Anatomy and Physiology, volume 49, Mr. J. \V. 
Jackson describes some Dental Mutilations found in a cave known as 
' Dog Holes,' on Warton Crag, Lanes. 

Part 90 of the Yorkshire Archaeological Journal is almost entirely 
devoted to ' Anglian and Anglo- Danish Sculpture in the West Riding ' 
by Professor CoUingwood, and is very well illustrated. 

Mr. G. T. Porritt records the ' Abundance of Pyrameis cardui at 
Bridlington,' in The Entomologist's Monthly Magazine No. 606. Mr. 
E. G. Bradford records the abundance of the same species near Sheffield, in 
No. 607 of that journal. 

In No. 880 of The Zoologist Mr. A. H. Patterson gives some ' Miscell- 
aneous Notes from Great Yarmouth ' ; in No. 881, Mr. O. V. Aplin gives 
■ Notes on Oxfordshire Ornithology, 1913 ' ; in ^o. 882, ' Extracts from a 
Shooter's Note- Book in 1866, including the Great Frost.' 

We learn from The Lancashire and Cheshire Naturalist for December 
that ' After having once been almost delegated to the formation of a 
local art gallery and museum, to end unlimited suggestions and con- 
troversy, and to relieve themselves of an uneviable position, the trustees 
of the Lightbown bequest at Darwen decided that almshouses be erected 
with the money.' 

Mr. Frank Cuttriss contributes to Knowledge the result of his obser- 
vations on the spinning of a spider's web. The spider was watched from 
seven o'clock in the evening, but she did not begin work until two hours 
later, working from then continuously until 1.25 a.m., when her snare was 
completed. The network and the radial lines were finished by midnight, and 
the spiral part of the web was therefore made in a little under an hour and 
a half. Mr. Cuttriss gives careful diagrams illustrating the construction 
and progress of the web. 

1915 Feb. 1. 



YORKSHIRE NATURALISTS' UNION : 
VERTEBRATE SECTION. 

Yorkshire Naturalists' Union Vertebrate Section meetings 
were held in the Leeds Institute on November 21st, 1914. . Mr. 
H. B. Booth, F.Z.S., M.B.O.U., was in the chair. 

The Meeting heard with great regret that Mr. Johnson 
Wilkinson, the newly-elected Secretary of the Protection Acts 
Committee, had just suffered a painful bereavement by the death 
of his wife, and the Hon. Secretary was requested to convey 
to him an expression of sympathy and condolence. 

The Annual Reports of the North, East and West Ridings 
were read by Mr. H. B. Booth, Mr. E. W. Wade and Mr. Riley 
Fortune respectively ; for details see the Union's Annual Report 
in The Naturalist. Commenting on Mr. S. H. Smith's report on 
the increase of the Red-legged Partridge, Mr. W. H. St. Quintin 
stated that Mr. Wrigley, of Gantree, had shot 29 in one day, 
quite an unprecedented number for any Yorkshire area. The 
Corncrake in the Rillington district was decidedly on the 
down grade, only one brood being noted this year, against three 
in 1913. He was strongly of the opinion that this species 
suffered badly from telephone and telegraph wires. He had 
seen the Waxwing in South France in March, three were shot 
near Hyeres, one in December 1913, and two in January 1914. 
He regretted to say the Bearded Tit experiment at Hornsea had 
apparently failed. 

Mr. G. H. Porritt in contradiction to Mr. Wade's report, 
considered 1914 a very bad insect year, so far as those species 
which constitute bird food are concerned. 

Mr. S. H. Smith had noted while Partridge shooting that 
the Red-legs don't face the guns as readil}' as Perdix cinerea, 
and this fact may account to some extent for the great increase 
of the former species. 

Mr. Fortune presented the General and Financial Repoits 
■of the Yorkshire Wild Birds and Eggs Protection Acts Coim- 
mittee, and the Yorkstiire Mammals, Amphibians Reptiles and 
Fishes Committee for 1914. 

The election of officers for 1915 was proceeded with. The 
question of Recorder for the York District was discussed, and 
Mr. S. H. Smith was appointed to that office. 

On behalf of Mr. G. H. Parkin, Mr. Pollard exhibited 
stuffed specimens of the Common Shrew and the Water Shrew 
(dark variety), also Daubenton's Bat caught at mid-day on 
the margin of the reservoir at Coldhiendley. Mr. Booth showed 
a skin of the Jersey Vole sent by the late W. Cash, and detailed 
its specific differencies. 

Mr. F. H. Edmondson handed round skins of male, female 
and immature male Merlins. 

Naturalist, 



Yorkshire Naturalist Union. Vertebrate Section. 83 

At the evening meeting Mr. Bolam's ' Notes on a Visit to 
South Wales,' were read by the Secretary. 

The chief value o( the paper naturally lay in the observations 
of the Kite, but several other points of general ornithological 
interest are worthy of note. 

A striking scarcity of the Lapwing and Corncrake, both 
formerly abundant, was attributed to the Fox by a game- 
keeper acquaintance, whose judgement however, may have been 
a little warped. During a spell of wet weather at the beginning 
of May, the writer had observed on two separate occasions 
and in two localities, an interesting feature of the Cuckoo not 
generally known. On each occasion the birds were seen to 
survey the ground from a low branch and then drop into the 
grass, out of which they dragged, much after the manner of the 
Thrush, a fairly large earth-worm. When the worm's resistance 
had been overcome, it was taken crosswise in the bill, given a 
not very forcible bite, and forthwith swallowed. 

The staple food of this bird is stated in practically all text 
books to consist of caterpillars, and it probably has caused many 
field naturalists to question how, when and where these are 
to be obtained in the early days and weeks of the summer 
visit. The foregoing may offer a simple explanation. 

The present precarious footing of the Kite in the Princi- 
pality is difficult to explain, as within living memory the species 
was fairly common in some localities and received no more 
attention than the numerous Buzzards do now. In recent times 
the human element has undoubtedl}' contributed to the re- 
duction. The most serious natural enemy is the Carrion Crow, 
which abounds there and is found nesting in close proximit}' 
to every Kite's nest, upon which it wages war. Curiously 
enough the Kite suffers much in comparison with the Buzzard 
in repelling the attacks of this Crow, and a similar contrast 
was noted in the hunting abilities of the two, the Buzzard 
being much bolder and more energetic. The nesting habits 
and food of both birds were detailed, as were those of the 
Raven. 

Several rather rare species of smaller birds were observed 
in good numbers, such as the Woodlark, Pied Flycatcher, 
Green and Great Spotted Woodpeckers, and Longtailed Tit. 
Polecats are still fairly common, but tlie Marten is apparently 
extinct. 

With reference to the Longtailed Skua obtained at Withen's 
Reservoir in June, 1914. as reported in The Naturalist for 
September, Mr. Pollard commented upon the unusual instance 
of this species appearing on the Spring migration, and announced 
that Mr. Parkin, who stuffed the specimen, had identified it 
as a female with well developed ovaries. 

Mr. F. H. Edmondson gave a most interesting paper, 

1915 Feb. 1. 



84 Northern News. 

' Home-life of the Merlin,' illustrated with slides, the result 
of many hours watching and photographing from a hiding tent. 

As supplementary to Mr. Taylor's paper on the same 
subject given at our February meeting, the notes made with 
regard to the feeding, etc., are of particular value, and it is 
hoped to publish these in an early number of The Naturalist. 

The next paper also, ' The British Terns,' given by Mr. R. 
Fortune (illustrated by many fine pictures) cannot be satis- 
factorily dealt with in these minutes, being a most exhaustive 
history of the Tern family generally, and the British Terns 
in particular. It is hoped therefore it will receive a permanent 
record in The Naturalist. 

Mr. T. Sheppard exhibited a caged specimen of a bird 
sold to the Hull Museum by a Halifax dealer as a Little Bunting, 
taken near Ripon, but doubt was expressed as to its identity 
and to the dealer's bona fides. The bird had not the behaviour 
of a newly caught wild bird and little doubt existed that the 
recent Yorkshire record of the Blackheaded Bunting from the 
same source is a similar instance of fraud.* 

A. Haigh-Lumbv, Hon. Sec. 



In No. 279 of the Quarterly Journal of the Geological Society, Mr. L. F. 
Spath has an elaborate paper on ' The Development of Tragophylloceras 
loscombi (better known as our old friend Ammonites loscombi).' 

The fourty-fourth Annual Report of the Libraries, Art Gallery and 
Museums Committee of Bradford, contains a creditable list of additions 
to the Art Gallery ; these are also particulars of a few additions to the 
Museum. 

We have received from Capt. S. S. Flower, Giza, Egypt, a reference 
list of the Zoological Gardens of the world corrected to August ist, 1914. 
From this it seems that there are seven in England, and one each in Ireland, 
Scotland and Wales. 

We regret to notice the death of A. R. Hunt, F.G.S., F.L.S., who made 
a special study of ripple-marks, coast erosion, and raised beaches. He 
also contributed largely to the geology of the district in which he lived, 
viz., Dartmoor and Devonshire. He was 72 years of age. 

From Mr. Baker Hudson we have received his ' Guide to Roman 
Antiquities, found within Cleveland, and now in the Dorman Memorial 
Museum, Middlesbrough,' (8 pp., 8vo.). It principally refers to the 
specimens found during excavations at the Outlook Fortress at Hunt- 
cliff e, near Saltburn. 

With the January number of the Entomologist' s Monthly Magazine, 
that journal commences its 51st volume, being the first of the third series. 
We should like to congratulate the editors and publishers on the con- 
tinued prosperity of this publication. In the notes from Dr. E. Bergroth 
on page 16, reference is made to the specimens collected by the late George 
Norman, a well-known Yorkshire naturalist, and on the next page is 
an interesting letter from William Spence, which indicates the extent of 
his share of the work in the well-knov.n Introduction to Entomology. 

* See The Naturalist for January for details. — Ed. 

Naturalist, 



A Book of special interest to Naturalists. 

Yorkshire Moors and Dales 

A Description of the North Yorkshire Moors 
together with Essays and Tales, 

By ALFRED P. WILSON. 

-248 pages, size 8 J by 6J inches, and 12 Jull-page plates on Art Paper, tastejully 
bound in cloth boards, lettered in gold, ivith gilt top, XO/6 net. 

The district covered by the North Yorkshire Moors is one of the most interesting- 
parts of Yorkshire, and this book ably portrays the cliarms of a visit to the 
neighbourhood. There is no other place in England so rich in antiquities, and 
most of these are herein described. 

Part I. serves as a guide to the visitor, and brings to his notice the objects of 
interest throughout the district. 

Part II. forms a series of Essays, and, besides other subjects, deals with the 
following : — 

The Dalesfolk. Old Customs. Local History. 

Moorland Roads. Wild Nature. Dialect, etc., etc. 

Part III. consists of a number of stories which further describe the character- 
istics of the dalesfolk. 

Members of the Yorkshire NaturaHsts' Union 
will find much of interest in 

YORKSHIRE 

BY 

PEN AND PICTURE. 

Edited by 

T. SHEPPARD, F.G.S., F.S.A.(Scot.), 

2i6 pages, crown folio, with tipwards of 250 illustrations, and 
strongly stitched in artistic pictorial cover. 

1/- net, or post free 1/3 net. 

This entirely new publication is the latest book issued which 
deals with Yorkshire. Members of the Yorkshire Naturalists' Union 
know that the County has an abundance of Archasological, 
Architectural and Natural History features, and as the book is 
edited by the Ex-President of their Union, no further recommenda- 
tion is necessary. 

London: A. BROWX & SONS, Ltd., 5 Farringdon Avenue, E.C. 

AND AT HULL AND YORK. 



WATKINS & DONCASTER, 

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Keeper, Natural History Dept., Royal Scottish 
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V R.S E.,F.Z.S. ; Evelyn V.Baxter, H.M.B.O.U. ; 
Leonora J. Rintoul, H.M.B.O.U. ; Hugh S. Glad- 
stone, M.A., F.R.S.E., F.Z.S.; James Ritchie, 
M.A.,B.Sc. ; A. Landsborough Thompson, M.A., 
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Prifited at Browns' Savile Press, 40, George Street, Hull, and published by 
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February 1st, 1915- 



MARCH 1915. 



No. 698 

(No. 475 0/ current seri'ei) 




A MONTHLY ILLUSTRATED JOUJ^NAL OF 

NATURAL HISTORY FOR THE NORTH OF ENGLAND. 

BDITBD BY 

T. SHEPPARD, F.G.S., F.R.Q.S., F.S.A.Scot., 

Thk Museums, Hull ; 

AND 

T. W. WOODHEAD, Ph.D., P.L.S, 

Technical Collkoe, HuoDBRsriELD, 

WITH THE ASSISTANCK AS RSrEREBS IN SPECIAL DEPARTMENTS Qt' ' 

J. aiLBBRT BAKBR, P.R.S. P.L.S., GEO. T. PORRITI*, P.L.S.. 

Prol. P. P. KBNDALL, M.Sc, P.Q.S., JOHN W. TAYLOR, 

T. H. NBLSON, M.B.O.U., RILEY FORTUNE. P.Z.S. 




Contents : — 

PAGM 

Note* and Comment* (Illustrated) :— Sewage Disposal ; Boiling Hall, Bradford; Frogs in 
Coal ; Georgina Thompson's Frog ; Country Life ; Liverpool Biologists ; The Amber 
Trade ; The Striation of Flint Surfaces ; Photographing Birds' Nests ; ' The Birds of 
Northumberland'; Cleveland Naturalists 85-90 

New Records and Additional Localities for the Moss-Plora of Durliam and 

YorkaMrc— Richard Barnes 91-94 

Deyeuxia neglecta Kunth. in yorVuMre.— Arthur Bennett 96 

The Oerman Bombardment of Hartlepool, Whitby and Scarborough— S. Margerison 96-98 

Recently Discovered Fungi in Yorltshire.— VIII.— C. Crossland 99-108 

Lesteva luctuosa Fauv. : a Species new to England—/. IV. Carter, F.E.S 104 f 

Yorkshire Entomology in 1914 — B. Murley 105 108 

Yorkshire's Contribution to Science— 7. 6;!e/>^(jrrf, F.G.S 109-114 

Field Notes: — Dicraiium strictum Schleich ; Catoicopitim nigrituui Brid., in VV. Ycrks. ; 
DJcranxH! s^rtc/«m in Yorkshire 



Northern News 

Museum News 

Proceedings of Provincial Scientific Societies 

News from the Magazines 

Illustrations 



116 

90, 98, 104 

103 

...108,114 

... 95. 118 

85, 87, 89, 90 



LONDON : 
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And at Hull and York. 
Printers and Publishers to the Y.N. U. 



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YORKSHIRE BRYOLOGICAL COMMITTEE. 



The next meeting will be held at Austwick, Easter week-end, April 3-6. Will 
members intending being present please notify Mr. C. A. Cheetham, who will make 
arrangements for them, and supply details of trains, etc. 

Mr. Georg-e Bolam of Tyne Bridg-e, Alston, Cumberland, has a few 
remaining copies of his Birds of Northumberland (illustrated, 726 
pages), and would be glad to exchange a copy with any reader of TJie 
Naturalist for a copy of Birds of Yorkshire. 

BOOKS WANTED. 

Quarterly Journal of Science. Set. 

Bibliotheca Bradfordiensis (Catalog-ue of Bradford Books, etc.). 1895. 

Frizinghall Naturalist (lithog-raphed). Set. 

The Field Naturalist and Scientific Record. Set. 

The Journal of the Keighley Naturalists' Society. Set. 

Huddersfield Arch, and Topog. Society. 4 Reports. (1865-1869). 

The Naturalists' Journal. Parts 1-18. 

Monthlj- Circular, Huddersfield Naturalists' Society. Nos. 9, 10, 11, 12, 15, 

16, 17, 20. \ 

First Report, Goole Scientific Society. 

Cleveland Lit. & Phil. Society'.s Transactions. Science Section or others. 
The Naturalists' Record. Set. 

The Natural History Teacher (Huddersfield). Vols. I.-H. 
The Economic Naturalist (Huddersfield). V^ol. I. 
The Naturalists' Guide (Huddersfield). Set. 
The Naturalists' Almanac (Huddersfield). 1876. 
Proc. Yorkshire Naturalists' Club (York). 1867-70. (Set). 
Keeping-'s Handbook to Natural History Collections (York). 
" Ripon Spurs," by Keslington. 
Geological and Natural History Repertory. Set. 

Apply :—^CAXor , The Museum, Hull. 

An entirely New Work bringing the Vegetational History 
of the County quite up-to-date. 

THE VEGETATION OF YORKSHIRE 

Its History and Associations on the lines of Botanical Survey, 
based on the Geologic and Phyto-palaeologic remains : being an 
examination into the sources, the presence or passing of the 
Floristic Constituents — their When, How and Where ; being also 
a Supplement to previous " Floras " of York, and a list of the 
Localities and Species, newly classified, " New" to the County or 
some of its river-basins since 1888. 

By F. ARNOLD LEES 

M.R.C&En^., L.R.CP.Lond. 

Demy 8t;o, on white unsized paper, about 500 pages, 
to be subscribed at 12/6 net (16/- net strictly after publication) 



LONDON 

A. BROWN & SONS, Ltd., 5, Farringdon Avenue, E.G. 

And at Hull and York. 



8-5 



NOTES AND COMMENTS. 



SEWAGE DISPOSAL. 



We have been favoured with a reprint of ' A Contribution 
to the Biology of Sewage Disposal,' by J. W. Haigh Johnson, 
B.Sc, which appears in the Journal of Economic Biology, 
volume 9, No. 4, pages 105-164. It deals fully with ' Histori- 
cal account of the development of the modern sewage (sprink- 
ler) filter ' ; ' Organisms as an index of pollution ' ; ' Eco- 
logical associations and distribution of organisms in a sewage 
filter ' ; ' Some noteworthy dominant organisms occurring on 
sewage filters («) the Sewage or moth-fly {Psychoda) ; (6) 
the water springtail Podura, Achorutes viaticus (L.) Tulb. ; 
(c) other dominant or sub-dominant organisms.' Even in this 
somewhat special subject it is interesting to find that Mr. 





1. — Group of insects (n^itviral size). 



^S 



2. — Podura aquatica, show- 
ing how the spring (s) projects 
backwards beyond the bodv. 
X 23. 




3.— Eggs of Achorutes 
uiaticus {Linn.) Tulb., show- 
ing separation of ruptured 
outer integument and the 
developing embryo. 



Johnson pays tribute to the researches of the late Dr. Sorby. 
The paper contains a fearsome list of the more characteristic 
organisms, arranged according to the pollution intensity, some 
of the illustrations of which we are able to reproduce. It is 
quite possible that his lists may contain additions to our 
county's fauna. 

BOLLING HALL, BRADFORD. 

An inquiry was recently held at Bradford in reference to 
the appHcation of the Bradford City Council for power to borrow 
;^6,35o for the purchase of land adjoining Bolhng Hall, and for 
the adaptation of that building for the purpose of a museum. 
The City Librarian pointed out that the new museum would 
contain views of old buildings and of old Bradford, portraits 
of local worthies, plans, manuscripts, and deeds relating to 
the city, a certain number of books, and a collection of relics, 
such as Chartist pikes and other arms, and old domestic and 
other articles of interest. The South Kensington Museum 
authorities have promised to lend the Corporation a collection 



1915 Mar. 1. 



S6 Notes and Comments. 

of contemporary furniture, and there would also be loans from 
private individuals. The Libraries Committee already had 
sufficient material to set the museum going on a sound "basis. 
It was intended that the museum should be a sort of reflection 
of the history and antiquities of the city, and he believed the 
building would be opened with a " flourish of trumpets." 
There were precedents in other cities, he pointed out, for such 
a museum. In reply to the question as to whether it was 
robbing Peter to pay Paul, Mr. Woods stated that as a matter 
of fact they would be very glad to get rid of considerable 
material at the Cartwright Hall. We hope there will be a 
curator appointed to assist in the ' blowing of trumpets ' ! 

FROGS IN COAL. 

Notwithstanding the war, the newspapers evidently are 
able to find room for the revival of the silly old fables of frogs 
in coal, the London Daily Chronicle being the latest to succumb 
to the stories. It seems that Sir Francis Brain records the 
discovery of a live frog in the 20 inch seam in the Trafalgar 
Colliery. He says : ' It would be interesting if those com- 
petent to express an opinion would say how they think it can 
have been sustained under such circumstances, and over such 
a very long period — many, many thousands of years.' He also 
informs us that he is presenting the frog to the British Museum, 
where we have no doubt it will be placed in a suitable repository. 

GEORGiNA Thompson's frog. 
This record is followed up by Georgina Thompson in the 
following note : ' In 1875, when my husband was Vicar of 
Aldeburgh, Suffolk, we were in the old Manor House while the 
vicarage was rebuilding. One morning I was dressing my 
baby in a ground floor room, and broke a large coal on the fire. 
Instantly there leapt out from it a black frog or toad, which 
began crawling on the flannel apron I was wearing. Being 
startled, I put the baby down, opened the window and shook 
the creature off. I was afterwards vexed to have done this, 
and went out to try and find it. Snow was on the ground, so 
my search was not long. I did not find it. It was as black as 
the coal ; very thin, though rather long, and quite hvely.' 
It is a pity the frog was not found, as the British Museum 
might then have had two, and put them in a pond like the 
proverbial gondolas ! In this case it is fairly obvious, of 
course, that the frog had been tumbled out of his hiding place 
in the coalhouse and thrown on the lire, and naturally jumped 
off as quickly as he could. 

country life. 
This, one of the best illustrated papers of a general type that 
we know, has recently paid particular attention to natural 

Naturalist, 



Notes and Comments. 



87 



history and scientific matters. In the three parts before us we 
notice articles on rock gardens, oak galls, insects, the nightingale, 
etc. There are also three articles by Sir Ray Lankester, 
entitled, ' Science at Leisure.' They deal with the large shells 
in the Suffolk Crag stones, etc. These are very well illustrated. 

LIVERPOOL BIOLOGISTS. 

Volume 28 of the valuable Proceedings and Transactions 
of the Liverpool Biological Society (498 pp., 21/-) has been 
issued. It contains the presidential address of Dr. C. J. 
Macalister on ' Some Relationships between Education and 
Co-ordination of Function.' Prof. W. A. Herdman gives his 




A remarkable Plankton haul of the Ctenophore, 
Pleurobranchia pileus : natural size. 

usually full and scholarly ' Report of the Liverpool Marine 
Biological Committee and their Biological Station at Port 
Erin ' (this being the twenty-seventh) ; there is also the ' Report 
on the Investigation carried on during 1913, m connection 
with the Lancashire Sea-Fisheries' Laboratory at the Univer- 
sity of Liverpool, and the Sea-Fish Hatchery at Piel, near 
Barrow,' by Prof. Herdman, Mr. A. Scott and Dr. J. Johnstone. 
The above occupies nearly 300 pages. Mr. H. C. Chadwick 
contributes a memoir on ' Echinoderm Larvae.' There are 
numerous plates, charts, etc., and whether considered from a 
scientific or economic point of view, the record is a remarkable 
one. We are permitted to reproduce one of the illustrations. 

1915 Mar. 1. 



N^otes and Comments. 



THE AMBER TRADE. 



According to The Mining Journal, the war is likely to 
have a serious effect on the amber trade, as the great bulk of 
supplies is derived from the deposits in the neighbourhood 
of Dantzig and Konigsberg. The production from the Royal 
Amber mines in 1913 amounted to 427 metric tons, as compared 
with 400 tons in 191 2. There is an increasing demand for 
raw material to the extent of 20 per cent., so much so that the 
price was advanced by the State factory at the beginning of 
1914. In addition to the ordinary requirement for Europe 
and America, a good trade is done in amber beads for Asia 
and Africa. Some amber is found on the Baltic coast, in 
Russian territory, in the neighbourhood of Libau, and its 
occurrence has been noticed in various places in Siberia.* 

THE STRIATION OF FLINT SURFACES. 

In Man, volume 14, part 11, Mr. J. Reid Moir, who is a 
prolific writer on the subject, has an article on ' The Striation 
of Flint Surfaces.' In this he states • ' If, as I think it seems 
reasonable, the thin plates of shattered flint would weather out 
in 500 years, then these particular stones, at any rate, must 
have been scratched since the fifteenth century, and as we know 
that this country has not been glaciated since that date, 
ice action is accordingly put out of the question. I do not 
wish at this stage of my researches to put forward any definite 
views as to the means by which these various stones have been 
striated, but with these facts before us, and bearing in mind 
that steel will scratch flints, I consider it needful to go forward 
ver}' carefully in this matter, and to realise that while moving 
ice, with stones in its grip, has no doubt scratched some flints 
found in some deposits, yet certain others found upon the 
surface of the ground must owe their striae to some ordinary 
every day occurrence — possibly connected with agricultural 
operations.' 

PHOTOGRAPHING BIRDS' NESTS. 

In The Anim.al World, a magazine which is printed in the 
interests of animals, we notice that in an article by Mr. Stanley 
Crook on ' A British Diamond,' which is illustrated by photo- 
graphs of Kingfishers and their nests, he states, ' I saw the bird 
fly out and carefull}^ enlarged the hole until I was just able tO' 
reach the nesting chamber, and ascertained that the nest 
contained one egg. I did not visit it again for nearly a month, 
when I hoped to find nestlings, but my disappointment was great 
when I found there were still eggs in the nest and that they were 
stone cold. As I thought this was too good an opportunity 

* See The Quarry for February. 

Naturalist, 



Notes and Comments. 



89 



to be missed, I had no compunction about digging (with the 
aid of a stick and my hands) until I came to the nest ! ' It 
probably was entirely due to Mr. Crook's attention to the hole 
in the first instance which resulted in the nest being deserted. 

' THE BIRDS OF NORTHUMBERLAND.' 

The accompanying illustration of the nest of the Long 
Tailed Tit is one of very many appearing in ' The Birds of 
Northumberland,' by our contributor, Mr. George Bolam. Mr. 
Bolam's excellent report on the ' Birds of Hornsea Mere ' will 




Nest of the Long Tailed Tit. 

be remembered by our readers, and his Northumberland book 
is done in the same thorough and scientific style. It occupies 
726 pages and certainly deserves every encouragement. The 
few remaining copies are in his hands at Tyne Bridge, Alston, 
Cumberland, to whom applications should be made for partic- 
ulars. 



191d Mar. 1. 



90 



Notes and Comments. 



CLEVELAND NATURALISTS. 

We have received the Proceedings of the Cleveland 
Naturahsts' Field Club for 1912-13, volume 3, part 2, edited 
by the Rev. J. Cowley Fowler.* Mr. Frank Elgee gives a 
detailed report of the work of the club during the two years. 
There are also the following interesting papers, all of which 
have especial local interest : — ' Coast Erosion ' (illustrated), by 
J. J. Burton ; ' Record of Plants found during Excursions of 
the Field Club ' b\- T. T Cozens : ' Coleoptera observed ia 




Estuarine Rocks near Hayburn Wyke, showing the uneven 
weathering of hard and soft bedded rocks. 

Cleveland in 1912-13,' by M. L. Thompson. Mr. Burton's 
paper contains a summary of the Coast Erosion of the British 
Isles, with particular reference, of course, to Yorkshire, one 
of the illustrations in which we are permitted to reproduce. 
Bibliographers should note that although the cover bears the 
date 1914, the publication was not issued until early in 1915. 



Sir Henry IVIiers has been elected \'ice-Chancellor of the \'ictoria 
University, Manchester. 



Hull : A. Brown & Sons, pages 85-146, 2/-. 



NaturcU.^f, 



91 
NEW RECORDS AND ADDITIONAL LOCALITIES 
FOR THE MOSS-FLORA OF YORKSHIRE 
AND DURHAM. 



RICHARD BARNES. 



Since contributing the last notes on this subject, I have 
gathered a number of the rarer Mosses and Hepatics, several 
of which are new to their respective vice counties, while one — 
Aplozia lanceolata var. prolijera — is now first recorded for 
Britain. 

In my visits to Thorns Gill, Blayshaw Beck, Sandwith 
and Harlow Moors, I was accompanied by my valued friend, 
Mr. LI. J. Cocks, whose name I should like to associate with 
my own in regard to the records from those localities. 

My sincere thanks are hereby tendered to Mr. H. N. Dixon, 
and Mr. Symers M. Macvicar, for their kindness in examining 
and verifying and in some instances in determining the more 
critical species contained in this list. 

The V.C. number marked with an asterisk, indicates that, 
so far as I can ascertain, the record is a new one for the Vice 
County, while the plant name thus marked indicates that the 
record is a new one for the County as a whole. 

Oligotrichum incurvum (Huds.l, Lindb. Blayshaw Beck 
(V.C. 64). 

Diphysciiim foliosum Mohr. Ravensgill, Pateley Bridge 

(64)- 

Swartzia montana (Lamk.), Lindb. On a wall near Black- 
well, Darlington (66). A certain amount of interest is 
attached to the appearance of this montane species in a locality 
at so low an altitude, and so well away from the river, hence 
my reason for including it in the present list. I have previously 
observed it as far down the Tees as Gainford, but only on 
rocks near to the edge of the river ; its distribution in such 
instances being easily accounted for. 

Szi'artzia inclinata Ehrh. On damp limestone ledges, 
Farnham, Knaresborough (^64) ; and by the Yore above 
Wensley Bridge (*65). 

Seligeria acntifolia var. longiseta Lindb. On limestone 
rocks above Clapham Cave (64). 

Seligeria tristicha (Brid.), B. & S. West Burton, Wensley- 
dale (65). 

Brachyodus tyichodcs Fiirnr. On sandstone rocks, Lul 
Beck, Ramsgill (64). 

Cynodontium Brnntoni (Smith), B. &S. Ravensgill, Pateley 
Bridge (64). 

Dicranella crispa Ehrh. Ingleby Greenhow (62). 

Dicranella Schreberi (Swartz.), Schp. Starbeck, and also 
at Birstwith (64). 

191.') Mar. 1. 



92 New Records for the Moss- Flora of Yorks. and Durham. 

Dicranella squarrosa (Schrad.), Schp. Blayshaw Beck (64). 
In tine fruiting condition. 

Dicranodontium longirostre B. & S. Wath Woods,' 1900 ; 
and also by the stream in going towards the Merryfield lead 
mines, Nidderdale. Although the above species has been 
previously recorded in this journal (April 1909, p. 144), by Mr. 
Cheetham, as new to the Nidd drainage area, I contributed 
the two above localities in July, 1908, to the list then in com- 
pilation for Dr. Lees' ' Flora of West Yorkshire.' 

Fissidens exilis Hedw. Hedgebank, Rudding Park, near 
Harrogate (64). 

Fissidens rufulus B. & S. I-ing Gill and Thorns Gill, 
Ribblehead, and Ingleton (64). In Roxby Beck, Cleveland 
(*62). The latter station is a new record for V.C. 62. Mr. 
H. N. Dixon refers to the Ling Gill plant as 'very good F. rufu- 
lus,' and to the Roxby as ' being similar in character to that 
gathered in the Wharf e.' 

Fissidens osmundoides Hedw. Ravensgill, Pateley Bridge 
(64). Richly fruiting. 

Campylostelium saxicola (W. & M.), B. & S. Duncombe 
Park, Helmsley (62). 

Acaulon mutictim (Schreb.), CM. Duncombe Park, Helms- 
ley (62). I am not aware of either this species or the Campy- 
lostelium having been previously found on the Hambleton 
range of hills. 

Phascum ciirvicoUe Ehrh. Kirk Deighton (64); Burton 
Leonard (64). 

Pottia recta (With.) Mitt. Kirk Deighton (64) ; Ripley (64). 

Pottia intermedia Fiirnr. Kirk Deighton (64) ; Blayshaw 
Beck (64). 

Pottia lanceolata (Hedw.), CM. Knaresborough (64) ; 
Wormald Green (64). 

Tortula brevirostris Hook & Grev. On limestone marl in 
Grimbald's Quarry, Knaresborough (64), Burton Leonard, and 
at Wormald Green (64). 

Tortula rigida Schrad. Kirk Deighton, near Wetherby (64). 

Tortula ambigua Angstr. Very fine in the limestone 
quarries, at Burton Leonard (64). 

Tortula marginata (B. & S.), Spruce. Rievaulx Abbey (62) ; 
in fine fruiting condition. 

Tortula angustata Wils. Knaresborough (64). 

Tortula mutica (B. & S.), Lindb. On tree trunk Ripley (64). 

Tortula papulosa Wils. On tree near Cowton Castle (65). 

Barbula lurida (Hornsch.), Lindb. By the side of the 
Nidd, Knaresborough (64), in fruit. Avery short broad-leaved 
form occurs by the Tees at Rokeby, and by the Yore at Tan- 
field. 

Barbtila recurvifolia Schp. In the limestone quarry at 

Naturalist, 



New Recordsforthe Moss- Flora of Yorks. and Durham. 93 

Kirk Deighton (64). It grows in great luxuriance by the 
walls in going to Greenhow Hill. 

*Barbida glauca Ryan. On limestone rocks between Rich- 
mond and Downholme (*65). A new county record. 

I gathered this plant some time ago, and feeling uncertain 
I sent a specimen lately to Mr. H. N. Dixon, who kindly 
informs me that Mr. Nicholson and himself quite concur in 
their opinion as to its identification with the above and further, 
that it has only been described in recent years and has, he 
believes, only once been gathered in this country before, Mr. 
Nicholson having met with it in Sussex. 

Mr. Dixon further remarks that it is very near to Barhula 
rigidula and in his arrangement would have to go as Barhida 
glauca (Ryan.), Dixon. = Didymodon glaucus Ryan. 

Barbitla sinuosa Braith. Bolton Woods (64). 

Barbula gracilis Schwgr. Kirk Deighton, near Wetherby 

(64)- 

Barbula Hornschuchiana Schultz. Middlesmoor (64), with 
young fruit ; Ripley (64) ; Knaresborough (64) ; Wormald 
Green (64) ; Burton Leonard (64) ; Ripon (64) ; Pilmoor, 
near Thirsk (62) ; Beckwithshaw, near Harrogate (64) ; 
Upleatham (62) ; Laithkirk (^65). 

""Weissia crispa (Hedw.), Mitt. var. aciculata Mitt. Deepdale 
Barnard Castle (*65). A new county record. 

Trichostomum crisptilum Bruch. In Kirk Deighton quarry 
{64), and very fine by the Yore at Hackfall (64). 

Trichostomum crispulum Bruch. var. nigro-viride Braith. 
Thorns Gill, Ribblehead (64). 

Trichostomum tenuirostre (Hook and Tayl.), Lindb. On 
sandstone rock, Bolton Wood (64), and in Deep Gill, East 
Witton (65). 

Encalypta ciliata (Hedw.), Hoffm. In very fine fruit on 
wall near Wemmergill, Lunedale (65). 

Zy god 071 viridissimus (Dicks.), Brown. Cotherstone, in fruit 

(65). 

Orthotrichum rivulare Turn. Cover Bridge, in very fine 

fruit (65). 

Orthotrichum Schimperi Hamm. On trees between Wensley 
and Leyburn (65). New to Wensleydale. 

Orthotrichum stramineum Hornsch. In hedgerow near 
Bilton, Harrogate (64). 

Orthotrichitm tenellum Bruch. On tree near Ripley (64). 

Orthotrichum ohtusifolium Schrad. Reeth (65). New to 
Swaledale. 

Discelium nudum (Dicks.), Brid. Blayshaw Beck, Nidder;- 
dale (64). 

Aulacomnium androgynum (L.) Schwgr. Very abundant 
on hedge bank near Cattal (64). 

1915 Mar. 1. 



94 •^^'^ Records for the Moss-Flora of Yorks. and Durham. 

Bartramia pomiformis (L.) Hedw. var. crispa (Sw.) B. & S. 
Ravensgill, Pateley Bridge (64). 

The remarks under Dicranodontiurn /owg'iVos/^'g apply also to 
the above plant, and to Dicranella secunda as to former records^ 
The late John Nowell was I believe the first to record the last 
named for West Yorkshire. 

Brymn concinnatum Spruce. Ling Gill and Thorn Gill, 
Ribblehead (*64). Some years ago I gathered this plant in 
nice condition in Whitfield Gill and noted it accordingly. In 
visiting the locality this last autumn, I saw it again, but in 
poor condition. The part where it grew appears to have 
altered considerably, due, no doubt to the terrific storm that 
passed over that part of the dale some four years ago, scour- 
ing out many of the streams in the district. 

Bryum lactistre (Bland.) Brid. Birk Crag, Harrogate (64). 

Bryum uliginosum (Brid.) B. & S. By stream between High 
Force and Langdon Beck, Upper Teesdale (66). 

Bryum bimttm Schreb. Hell Kettles, near Croft, Dar- 
lington (66). 

Bryum pallescens Schleich. On wall near Summerbridge, 
Xidderdale (64). 

Bryum affiiie (Bruch) Lindb. Quarry Moor, Ripon (64) ; 
Blayshaw Beck (64) ; Coatham Marshes (62). 

Bryum capillare L. var Ferchelii (Funck.) B. &S. • Below 
Giggleswick Scars (64) and on walls near Ribblehead (64). 

Bryum obconicum Hornsch. By the Tees near Gainford 
(65) ; fruiting freely. 

Bryum atropurpureum W. & M., var. gracilentum Tayl. 
On rocks in the Tees, Winston Bridge (66). 

Bryum murale Wils. The distribution of this species is, 
I think, more general than it is usually supposed to be. About 
Harrogate and Knaresborough I have seen it in quite a dozen 
localities, and in a good few in other parts of the county. It 
seldom bears fruit and is, doubtless, on that account often 
overlooked. 

I have found it with fruit in the following localities in the 
Nidd drainage area, viz., Stockeld Park, Kirk Deighton, and 
Howstean Beck, and in that of the Yore at East Witton and 
West Burton, and in Cleveland at Ingleby Greenhow. f 

Bryum Mildeanum Jur. Thorns Gill, Ribblehead (*64). 

[To he continued). 

t A correction is needed in regard to Mr. Ingfham's remarks in The 
Naturalist, June 1906, page 187, as to the above plant being new to the 
County. Prior to this date it had been duly noted in this journal as having 
been gathered by myself in two localities on the Yorkshire side of the Tees, 
viz., Rokeby, with fruit in good condition, Naturalist, May 1892, p. 153 ; 
and at Croft with male flowers, June 1897, p. 185. 

Naturalist, 



95 
DEYEUXIA NEGLECTA, KUNTH. IN YORKSHIRE. 



ARTHUR BENNETT. 



In The Naturalist for 1887 at page 201, I made some remarks 
on the above plant as occurring in Mr. F. J. Hanbury's her- 
barium from ' Castle Howard Woods, July. 1844, H. Ibbotson.' 
At page 273, Dr. Arnold Lees also gave some notes respecting 
it, doubting it as ever occurring. The plant having been 
found in Norfolk this year, and sent me by the finder, Mr. F. 
Robinson, I had cause to look up its distribution, and l came 
across a copy of a letter from Dr. R. Spruce to Mr. M. Slater of 
Malton. It seems well to print this, as Dr. Spruce could hardly 
have been mistaken :— 

' CONEVSTHORPE, 2nd AugUst, 1887. 

Dear Sir^ — ^If Calamagrostis stricta grows where it did 53 
years ago, I can tell you where to find it. When you disembark 
at Castle Howard Station, go up Gilla Leys on the south side, 
near the very top (following the stream) Trichocolea used to 
grow in some abundance- — perhaps you might find it in fruit. Go 
right on till you come to Wellburn Mill ; there on mud-capped 
walls used to grow the peristomirate form of Encalypta vulgaris. 
Keep by the beck, or on the hill side above it till 3'ou come to 
Wellburn Moor ; there you will see a bridge over the beck (Old 
Crambeck Bridge), do not cross it, but keep right on to Pretty 
. Wood Gate, just within that gate going up the brook that 
joins Crambeck, on bogg}^ ground, and in the Wood Ledge, 
used to grow the Calamagrostis. I had called it in my boyhood 
C. lanceolata (for I found no C. stricta in Smith's Compendium), 
but when Ibbotson was here last he told me Jas. Backhouse and 
(I think) Asa Gray had made it out to be the true C. stricta. 
The plant was still in some abundance when Ibbotson passed 
this way, and gathered some of it ; but for the last three 
years there has been a mania for draining on this estate, and 
it may have extended to the locality of the Calamagrostis 
(which the gods forefend).— Yours faithfully, Richard Spruce.' 

This seems some evidence that something else besides 
C. lanceolata grew there. Anyhow, the specimens in Mr. 
Hanbury's herbarium are C. stricta not C. lanceolata ! 

Dr. Lees seems to assume in his note that some pale form 
of lanceolata may have been meant or mistaken for stricta, 
but that is not so, with the specimens I name. 



o 



In The Museums Journal for February, Messrs. E. L. Gill and H. 
Fletcher describe their method of making plaster casts of fishes, which 
gives some very practical and useful hints. 

1915 Mar. 1. 



96 

THE GERMAN BOMBARDMENT OF HARTLE- 
POOL, WHITBY, AND SCARBOROUGH, 

1 6th December, 19 14.* 

S. MARGERISON. 



The following correspondence in ' The Yorkshire Post,' 
from the 19th to the 26th December, 1914, is worthy of 
preservation : — 

THE SOUND OF THE GUNS. 

Here at a distance of about 35 miles from the coast, it was heard 
most distinctly and also caused considerable vibration to the 
houses. A westerly breeze was blowing at the time. 

Yours etc., H. B. Drew. 

Sutton-on- the- Forest, Dec. 17th. 

The guns were heard so very distinctly about Eavestone, Sawley, 
Risplith, Studley, etc., that they must have been audible con- 
siderabl}^ further to the westward. From three local sources I 
have heard that the pheasants were highly excited in a peculiar 
manner, different from that caused by either sporting guns or 
thunder. These places are all about 55 miles from Hartlepool, 
Whitby, and Scarborough. 

Yours etc., Saml. Margerison. 

Risplith House, near Ripon, Dec. 19th, 1914. 

The firing was distinctly heard in Lunedale, about 50 miles due 
west of Hartlepool. A westerly breeze was blowing at the time, 
which makes it the more remarkable. I was in the Barnard Castle 
district, which is a little nearer, and a distinct tremor and vibration 
was noticeable. 

Yours etc., E. Hardy. 

Maylands, Garden Village, Hull, Dec. 19th, 1914. 

I was on the Town Aloor of Harrogate, quite close to the meteoro- 
logical hut, between 8-15 and 8-20 a.m. on Wednesday, the i6th 
inst., when I distinctly heard several smothered reports like the 
sound of large calibre gunfire. I listened attentively, and the 
reports were again audible. I did not count the number of reports 
but I should think I must have heard about 20. The morning was 
bright and clear, with the wind about west-north-west, so far as 
I could remember. 

Y^ours etc., Alister Alison. 

36 Harlow Moor Drive, Harrogate, Dec. 19th, 1914. 

I had a man ploughing in a field in Parlington Parish who told me 
before dinner that he had heard heavy firing, north-east, between 
8 and 9 a.m., which ended as our school bell ceased. Distance by 
straight line, 50 mUes. Birds of all kinds in a plantation near by 
were greatl}^ disturbed. 

Y^ours etc., J no. Heaton. 

Swan Farm, Aberford, near Leeds, Dec. 21st, 1914. 

* The Times has since had a similar correspondence in reference to 
Lincolnshire, etc. — Ed. 



Bombardment of Hinilcpool. Whitby and Scarborough. 97, 

The guns were heard very distinctlj' at Wetherby, which is about 
60 miles from Scarborough, and considerably further from ^^'hitby 
and Hartlepool. The pheasants were mofe highly excited than 
ever I have seen them before. 

Yours etc., H. Heudkn. 

Ingmanthorpe, Wetherby, Dec. 21st, 1914. 

The firing was heard last Wednesday, the 16th inst., between 8 
and 9 a.m. in Leeming Bar, Bedale, and in the parish of Thornton 
Watlass. The last-named place is about 47 miles from Scarborough 
and about 44 from \Miitby. The Hambleton Hills are between 
these three places and the coast. The guns were also heard at 
a place about a mile south-west of Thornton village, and a man 
remarked it to a friend at the time, and also said that the pheasants 
were making a great noise, and showed signs of much uneasiness. 

Bedale, Dec. 22nd, 1914. Yours etc., C. M. 

Mr. T. Penrith, Winton, distincth' heard the East Coast bom- 
bardment, at, as nearly as he can fix it, 8-30 a.m. Winton is in 
Westmorland, at the western foot of the Pennines, and about 
half-a-dozen miles from the summit of the famous Maiden Castle 
Pass, though which the Darlington and Tebay railway passes. 

Yours etc., Jas. Sagar. 

Winton, Kirkby Stephen, Dec. 22nd, 1914. 

Guns were heard here and the same effect on the pheasants noticed. 
The distances are — Hartlepool 36 miles, Whitby 47, and Scarborough 
54. Those from Wetherby are — Hartlepool 52 miles, Whitby 
48^ miles, and Scarborough 46^ miles. IDesultory firing was also^ 
heard this morning. 

Yours etc., John Maugtian. 

Jervaulx, Middleham, Yorks., Dec. 23rd, 1914. 

I have since learnt that the sound was heard beyond 
Fellbeck, in the Pateley Bridge direction, and 60 miles west 
of the bombarded towns. At the time it was attributed to 
blasting operations at the Bolton Abbey quarries. Possibly 
the same idea may have kept back other observations from 
further west. There are several places among the Pennines 
whence the sound of blasting is regularly coming. At Gilling 
West, near Richmond, the sounds were very distinctly heard, 
and there was considerable vibration of windows and doors ;. 
and the atmospheric waves caused similar effects at Cayton, 
near Ripley, in the Nidd valley district. 

The distances at which the guns were heard make one 
interesting item in these observations, but perhaps the behavi- 
our of the birds (and probably of other animals) is of even more 
concern to naturalists. The pheasants around here suddenly 
dropped from their perches (day had just dawned), and ran 
about in a state of abject terror, their behaviour being markedly 
different from what it is under their ordinary circumstances 
of fear. 

Whether this indicates some abnormal excitation of such 
of their senses as we are capable of understanding by means. 

1915 Mar. 1. 



98 Bombardment of Hartlepool, Whitby and Scarborough. 

of the development of our own, or points to some special 
sense-organs of which we are ignorant, is a question of much 
interest. It is strongly held by many students, that certain 
animals have more than the five senses which man uses — 
other senses which he cannot understand simply because of 
his lack of them or of their development. 

At any rate, the somewhat ' hysterical ' behaviour of the 
pheasants and other birds at such a great distance from the 
scene of the bombardment seems noteworthy, and it would be 
useful to know if anything similar occurs within sound of 
gun-testing grounds, or in the countries which are, alas! 
now becoming too familiar with the booming of the great 
guns. Of course, the disturbance coming at the birds' awaking 
time counts for much, but not, I think, for all. 



We regret to announce the death of the Rev. F. H. Woods, of Bainton. 
A photo and notice will appear in our next issue. 

We received some little time ago the Handbook of the Amateur Camping 
Club which contains numerous illustrations of the various and numerous 
camping equipments, as well as of many ways of preparing various appli- 
ances. It should prove most useful and interesting in camping. 

With reference to our remarks in The Naturalist last month in refer- 
ence to the Report of the Lancashire and Cheshire Entomological Society's 
Report, Mr. W. Mansbridge informs us that acknowledgments to this 
journal will be made in the preface published with the new list. 

The daily press has recently had much fo say about a Mastoden tooth 
found at Southwark, now in the London musuem. In Nature it is pointed 
out that ' if really found near Southwark, the specimen must certainly 
be a mammoth's tooth,' such as may be found in most museums. 

At the annual meeting of the Yorkshire Philosophical Society, held 
on February 8th, it was announced that the president, Mr. W. H. St. 
Quintin, J. P., had presented to the museum a specimen of the Great 
Bustard, which had been killed in the East Riding of Yorkshire-. 

We have received Old- Lore Miscellany of Orkney, Shetlatid, Caithness 
and Sutherland, part i of volume 8, 64 pages, which contain much useful 
information relating to the antiquities, old-lore, etc., of the North of 
Britain, published by the Viking Society for Northern Research, Univer- 
sity of London. It is illustrated. 

In British Birds (Vol. 8, No. 6) is a well illustrated article on ' Cor- 
morants in Norfolk,' by E. L. Turner. In No. 7, W. Farren writes on 
' Feeding Habits of the Sparrow Hawk,' and the editor gives remarkable 
results of his bird-marking scheme ; one ornithologist alone is credited 
with ringing 2,521 birds ' There are notes on ' Probable Yellow-browed 
Warblers in Nottinghamshire ' ; ' White's Thrush ir Northumberland,' etc. 

At a recent meeting of the Laucashire and Cheshire Entomological 
Society, Mr. W. Mansbridge read a paper entitled, ' Silverdale as a Collecting 
Ground.' He gave a brief survey of the geology and flora of the district, 
and enumerated a large number of local species of lepidoptera, generally 
rare in the north of England, which had been recorded from that favoured 
area. Many of these however had not been reported for a couple of 
decrdes or longer, and members were urged to endeavour to contirm such 
recc ''e as L. corydon, T. betulce, P. egeria, E. hyperanthes, L. minima, 
S. malvcB, S. anomala, A. marginepunctata, L. olivata and E. ttpniata ; all 
of which had been recorded some thirty years ago. 



99 
RECENTLY DISCOVERED FUNGI IN ' 

YORKSHIRE— VIII. 



C. CROSSLAND, 

Halifax. 

The following is the eighth supplementary list of additions 
to our knowledge of fungi found in Yorkshire since 1905. It 
enumerates 51 species, all, with three exceptions, discovered 
during 1914. Four are new to the British flora. Upwards of 
half are the produce of Mulgrave Woods. The remainder 
were found in various parts of the country, notably Hawkswick, 
Buckden, Grassington, etc., by the present chairman of the 
mycological committee, Mr. Harold Wager. Others were met 
with at the ordinary Union excursions, particularly Filey ( The 
Naturalist, 1914, p. 253), and Eskdale (loc. cit., pp. 319-322). 

Many have been temporarily entered in The Naturalist, 
but several have not, hence it is considered advisable to include 
all the year's discoveries in one article for the convenience of 
future mycological students. The words, ' To precede,' and 
' To follow,' accompanied by figures enclosed in brackets, 
indicate the sequence of the species as followed in the Yorkshire 
Fungus Flora. 

At the close of 1914 the known fungus flora of the county 
numbered 3051. 

There are two corrections necessary. (See below). 

Five additions to host-plants were recorded for the county 
during the year. 

NEW TO BRITAIN. 

Lactarius lividus Zamb. [To follow 812]. 

N.E. — Mulgrave Woods. F.F. Oct. 1914. ' Nat.' p. 382. 
The following is a short description as given in Massee's 
European Agaricaceae, p. 67. 

' Pileus convex, then plane or depressed, not distinctly zoned, 
pale livid, centre fuscescent, visid (?) ; gills sub-decurrent, pale 
■livid, crowded ; stem livid, solid, curved ; milk white, acrid.' 

CoRTiciUM MiCROSPORUM Karst. [To precede 1167]. 

N.E. — Mulgrave Woods. On decaying wood. Myc. C, 
June, 1914. See ' Nat.' p. 252 for description and note. 

Peniophora pallidula Bres. in Bourd. and Galz. Bull. 
Soc. Myc. Fr. 1912, p. 390. Certe Miss E. M. Wakefield. 

Effused, cream to alutaceus in colour, when fully developed 
somewhat fleshy and often granular, not unlike Grandinia 
granulosa. Hymenium densely hispid under a lens. Hyphae of 
subiculum closely agglutinated cystidia arising from base, smooth, 
cylindrical, thin walled, usually more or less septate ; apex obtuse, 
sometimes expanded slightly into a globular head, coated exter' ally 
with a resinous secretion ; average measurements, 80-90 x ^-b//. ; 
spores elliptical, often giittulate, 4-6 x 2-4ya. 

,1916 Mar. L 



100 Crossland : Recently Discovered Fungi in Yorkshire. 

Occasionally small encrusted cystidia like those of Hydnum 
alutaceum are present, and it is possible that this plant may he a 
young state, or a corticioid form of that species.' 

N.E.— Mulgrave Woods. Sep. 1913, and June 1914. 

Miss Wakefield also received specimens from Rev. W. L. W. 
Eyre, Alresford, Hants. April, 1914, on fir. 

Taphridium umbelliferarum Karst. [To follow 2155]. 

N.E. — Mulgrave Woods. On Heracleum. F.F. Oct. 1914. 
' Nat.' p. 252. 

NEW TO YORKSHIRE. 

To save repetition in the name of locality it may be stated 
that the 19 species and var. immediately following were all 
found in Mulgrave Woods, either in June or October, 1914. 
See ' Nat.' pp. 251-2, and 380-386. 

Tricholoma loricatum Fr. [To follow 109]. 

Pholiota luxurians Fr. [To follow 401]. 

Pholiota subsquarrosa Fr. [To follow 405]. 

RussuLA chamaeleontina Fr. [To follow 898]. 

Boletus (Gyrodon) McQueenii, Mass. [To follow 999]. 

ElCHLERIA deglubens (B. & Br.) 

On rotting branch. Certe Miss E. M. Wakefield, Kew. 
See ' Nat.' 1914, p. 252 for synonyms. Was also found in 
Mulgrave Woods in May, 1912, but not then recorded. Position 
uncertain but somewhere in the group Thelephoraceae. See 
also ' Notes on the Thelephoracese, Trans. Brit. Myc. Soc, 1913,' 

P- 305- 

Galera hypnorum var. sphagnorum Fr. 

Daedalea vermicularis Pers. [To follow 1094]. 

On rotten wood and soil. 

TOMENTELLA RUBiGiNOSA (Bres.) V. H. ( = Hypochnu&. 
rubiginosus Bres.). Certe. E. M. Wakefield. 

On rotting wood. [To follow 1200]. 

CoNiOPHORA BERKELEY! Mass. [To precede 1205]. 

On decorticated wood. 

Gyrocephalus rufus Bres. [To be placed near 1272]. 

On piece of rotting branch, June. 

Rhopographus pteridis Fckl. [To follow 1502]. 

On Pteris aquilina, June. 

Cenangium leoninum Cke. and Mass. [To precede 2102J. 

On hard decorticated wood, June. 

Phacidium minutissimum Auers. [To follow 2139]. 

On dead oak leaves, June. 

Peronospora alta Fckl. [To follow 2188]. 

On living leaves of Plantago lanceolata. 

CONIOTHYRIUM CONCENTRICUM SaCC. [To foUow 2240]. 

On decaying Aloes. June. 

Phlyotcena vagabunda Desm. [To follow 2264]. 

On dead thistle, June. 

Naturalist, 



Crossland : Recently Discovered Fungi in Yorkshire. loi 

Ramularia violae. Trail in Scott. ' Nat.' IV. p. 74 (1889) ; 
Tr. B.M.S., Vol. III.. Part 2 (1909), p. 121. 

On living Viola sp. Accidentally omitted from the Mul- 
grave list for October. 

Cladosporium fasciculare Fr. [To follow 2401]. 

On dead leaves, June. 

Cercospora calth^ Cke. [To precede 2418]. 

FOUND IN OTHER PARTS OF THE COUNTY 
AS FOLLOW: — 

Tricholoma collosum Fr. [To follow, 91]. 

:\[id. \V.— Buckden Wood, Aug. 1914. H.W. 

Tricholoma glaucocanum Bres. [To follow 129]. 

Mid. W. — Hubberholme Woods, Aug. 1914. H.W. 

Clitocybe suaveolens Fr. [To precede 165]. 

Alid. W. — Grass Wood, Grassington, Aug. 1914. Odour of 
aniseed. HAV. 

Collybia hariolorum (Bull.) [To precede 183]. 

Mid. W. — Grass Wood, Aug. 1914. H.W. 

Mycena pelt ATA Fr. [To precede 240]. 

Mid. \V. — Among moss, Buckden Wood, Aug. 1914. H.W. 

Pleurotus petaloides (Bull.) [To precede 305]. 

S.W. — Longwood, Hudderstield, Sep. 1912. A.Clarke. 

Several specimens growing out of the wood lining of a 
domestic washing machine, in use only a fortnight previously. 
Specimens near 4 inches tall. Was accidentally omitted from 
batch No. VI. 

Entoloma erophilum Fr. [To follow 337]. 

Mid. W. — In mountain pasture near Kettlewell, Aug. 
1914. H.W. 

Entoloma pulvereum Rea. [To precede 348]. 

N.E. — Eskdale Exc. (' Nat.' 1914, p. 321). 

Inocybe maritima Fr. [To follow 426]. 

N.E. — Eskdale Exc. (' Nat.' 1914, p. 321). 

Inocybe rhodiola (Bres.) Mass. Monograph of the genus 
Inocybe. Annals of Botany, 1904, p. 486. ' Mass. Eur. 
Agaricacere,' p. 150. [To follow 427. Y.F.Flo]. 

N.E. — Among grass, roadside. Forge Valley, Scarborough, 
Sep. 1914. A. E. Peck. 

Only one previous British record. The Hazlemere Foray, 
1905. Brit. Myc. Soc. Trans. 1906, pp. loi and 128. 

Inocybe margarispora Berk. [To follow 440]. 

N.E. — Eskdale Exc. (' Nat.' 1914, p. 321). 

Inocybe brunnea Q. [To follow 443]. 

Mid. W. — In a wood near Buckden, Aug. 1914. H.W. 

Hygrophorus (Cam.) nemoreus Fr. [To precede 774]. 

Mid. W^ — In pasture, Penyghent, Aug. 1914. H.W. 

1915 Mar. 1. 



102 Crossland : Recently Discovered Fungi in Yorkshive. 

Lactarius retisporus Mass. [To follow 839]. 

N.E. — Eskdale Exc. (' Nat.' 1914, p. 321). 

S.W. — Found also at Hebden Bridge by Miss C. E. Andrews, 
Oct. 3rd, 1914. Miss Andrews forwarded the specimens to 
the Mycological Meeting then being held at Sandsend. 

Boletus aestivalis Fr. [To procede 970]. 

N.E. — Eskdale Exc. (' Nat.' 1914, p. 321). 

Uromyces flectens Lagerh. [To follow 1302]. 

S.E. — On Trifolium repens. Filey Exc. (' Nat.' 1914, p. 
253). T.B. Roe. 

' Differs from U. trifolii in the larger sori, and in having 
only the Teleutospore stage.' These differences were only 
discovered by M. Lagerheim in 1909. 

Uromyces caryophyllinus Wint. [To follow 1312]. 

N.E. — Hackness Hall. On Dianthus caryopliylliis. In 
green-house, April 1914. T. B. Roe. 

Puccinia Acetos^ Korn. [To follow 1354]. 

N.E. — Uredospore stage on Rumex acetosa. North Cliff, 
Scarborough, June 1914. Coll. C. W. Horrell, per. T. B. Roe. 

MucoR circinelloides Van Teigh. [To follow 2163]. 

S.W. — Wakefield, J. W. H. Johnson. Frequently developes 
in subcultures of aquatic fungi. ' Nat.' 1915, p. 48. 

Saprolegnia sp. (?). [To follow 2194]. 

S.W. — Attacking iish in Lake, Thornes House, Wakefield. 
' Nat.' 1915, p. 48. Also in R. Don, and at Wrenthorpe, 
Wakefield, Dec. 1910. J. W. H. Johnson. 

OospoRA lactis Sacc. [To follow 2299]. 

Mid. W. — Burnsall Exc. (' Nat.' 1913, p. 274). 

Monilia variabilis. [To follow 2304]. 

Mid. W. — Burnsall Exc. ('Nat.' 1913, p. 274). 

Aspergillus fumigatus Fres. [To follow 2317]. 

S.W. — Developed on culture plate Wakefield after in- 
oculation with mud from R. Don, Jordan Dam, and Tinsley, 
May, 1914. J. W. H. Johnson. ' Nat.' 1915, p. 48. 

Penicillium olivaceum. [To follow 2321]. 

Mid. W. — Burnsall Exc. (' Nat.' 1913, p. 274). 

The three Burnsall species were accidentally omitted when 
list VIL was compiled. 

FUSARIUM AURANTIACUM SaCC. [To foUoW 2470]. 

S.W. — Warley, Halifax, Oct. and Nov. 1912. J. W. H. 
Johnson. ' Nat.' 1915, p. 48. 

Sachsia suaveolens Lind. 

S.W. — Developed on sub. culture of material from Greetland 
near Halifax, January 1912, Wakefield. J. W.H.J. ' Nat.' 
1915, p. 48. 

Dematium pullulans Fres. 

S.W. — Treeton, May 1912. Developed on subculture of 
material from Treeton. J. W.H.J. ' Nat.' 1915, p. 48. 

Naturalist, 



Crossland : Recently Discovered Fungi in Yorkshire. 103 

Leptomitis lacteus Ag. 

Mid. W. — R. Nidd, Knaresborough 1910. 

S.W. — Sour pasture, Doncaster, Ap. 1910 ; R. Don, Ickles 
Bridge, i\Iay, igio ; Holme Shay, Bradford, Feb. 1912 ; 
Halifax, Oct. 1912 ; Wrenthorpe, Wakefield, 1914. J. W.H.J. 
" Nat.' 1915, p. 48. 

Often referred to as a Sewage Fitngiis. 

ADDITIONAL HOST-RECORDS. 

PUCCINIA MENTH.^. 

N.E. — Found on young stoloniferous plants of Ajuga reptans 
in Mulgrave Woods, June 1914. ' Nat.' p. 252. The only 
previous record for P. menthcs on Ajuga reptans is by Johnston 
in ' Flora of Berwick,' Vol. 2, p. 127. 

PUCCINIA CARICIS Reb. 

S.E. — Uredo-stage on Car ex acutiformis. 

Filey Exc. (' Nat.' 1914, p. 253). T. B. Roe. 

Cystopus candidus Lev. 

N.E. — On Arahis alpina. Garden, Sandsend. June 1914. 
' Nat.' p. 282. 

Protomyces menyanthes De By. 

N.E. — On Menyanthis trijoliata. Throxcnby ]Mere, near 
Scarborough, 1911. T. B. Roe. 

Mid. W. — Austwick Bog, near Clapham, 1912. 'M. Malone. 

S.E. — Filey Exc. (' Nat.' 1914, p. 253). T. B. Roe. 

The only record previous^ published in the Yorkshire 
Fungus Flora is on Comarum palustre. 

Darluca filum Cast. 

N.E. — Parasitic on the Aecidium stage of Puccinia primulcB 
in ^lulgrave Woods, June 1914. ' Na*.' p. 252. 

■ CORRECTIONS. 

Agaricus bernardii Quel. The Natur.ilist, 19 13 pp. 
24-5. This species was first discovered as British in Oct. 
1910, on the edge of the cliffs near the sea, Bettyhill, Sutherland- 
shire. (Trans. B.M. Soc. Vol. III., Part 4, p. 295). This 
was overlooked at the time Mr. Hebden found the specimen 
recorded as above. It is therefore new to the county only. 

AscoBOLUS STiCTOiDEUS Speg. was published in The 
Naturalist, 1900, pp. 8 and 179, also in the Yorkshire Fungus 
Flora, p. 298, as a first British record. A record of the species 
for Orkney by W. Phillips has recently been found in The 
Scottish Naturalist, 1891, pp. 90-91. Therefore our Halifax 
record is not the first British as we thought, but new to the 
-county only. 



The 36th Annual Report of the St. Helen's Museutii contains an 
illustration of a case of corals presented by the late John M origan. 



1915 Mar. 1. 



104 



LESTEVA LUCTUOSA, FAUV. 

A SPECIES NEW TO ENGLAND. 



J. W. CARTER, F.E.S. 



At a meeting of the Entomological Section of the Yorkshire 
Naturalists' Union, held at Leeds on the 31st October last, I 
exhibited examples of a species of Lesteva which I had tried 
in vain to identify with any of the species described in Vol. 2 
of Fowler's British Coleoptera. It was obviously in some 
respects closely related to L. pubescens Mannh. Mr. Thompson 
kindly gave me a specimen of L. pubescens, when I saw at once 
that it was very different. I therefore sent a specimen to Mr. 
J. R. le B. Tomlin, M.A., F.E.S., who kindly examined and 
returned it as an undoubted specimen of Lesteva luctuosa 
Fauvel, a species introduced to the British fauna by Mr. 
Donisthorpe in The Entomologist' s Record, igii, p. 301, on a 
single specimen taken by himself ' in the Isle of Eigg, a small 
island near the Isle of Mull, in the inner Hebrides, off the 
west coast of Scotland.' On reference to Fauvel's original 
description — translated in the above-named journal by Mr. 
Donisthorpe — there can be no doubt of the accuracy of Mr. 
Tomlin's determination, and as Mr. Donisthorpe remarks, ' the 
contrast between the yellow tarsi and red apex of the tibia, and 
the dark legs is most striking,' and it is very different in other 
respects from any of our British species. I took my specimens 
in July, 1913, in a mountain stream near Malham, in West 
Yorkshire. They were closely attached to the underside of 
stones- — just as one finds Dianous — at the bottom of the stream 
in six or eight inches of water. There are evidently no records 
since Mr. Donisthorpe's original specimen. Fauvel regards it 
as ' very rare, under refuse and stones, half submerged on the 
borders of torrents in the mountains.' 



\\'e see an announcement of a book by Sir E. Ray Lankester, entitled, 
' Diversions of a Naturalist.' With this author's extensive experience, 
the book ought to be particularly interesting. 

The January number of the Transactions of the Institute of Marine 
Engineers contains an interesting paper on ' Terrestrial Magnetism,' by 
Mr. A. N. Somerscales, of Hull. It is well illustrated. 

\\'e have received the Inaugural Address of the President, W. A. Evans, 
to the members of the Leicester Literary and Philosophical Society, October 
5th, 1914, on ' \\'heat, and its Relation to the Present Crisis.' 

On January 21st, Mr. T. Sheppard delivered a lecture to the Royal 
Geographical Society on the ' Geography of East Yorkshire, as shown 
by Maps.' It was illustrated by a large collection of maps and charts 
indicating changes in the area, dating from the time of Henry VIII. At 
the request of the president, Mr. Douglas Freshfield, these were allowed 
to remain on exhibition at the Society's rooms, Kensington (^>ore, in order 
to give the Fellows an apportunity of examining them. 



105 
YORKSHIRE ENTOMOLOGY IN 1914. 

The members of the Entomological Section of the Union met 
on October 31st. 1914. in the Leeds Institute. Mr. G. T. 
Porritt presided. The following were shown. A fine gynan- 
dromorphous specimen of Ocneria dispar, right side $ and left 
side (^, by ^Ir. G. B. Stanger ; a fine series of Vanessa antiopa of 
continental origin, by Mr. W. Barraclough ; red and yellow forms 
of Arctia caia, Callimorpa hera, and C. dominiila ; fine fasciata 
forms of Spilosoma lubricipeda from a Scarborcjiigh $ > buff 
Spilosoma mendica (^ specimens from the Colne Valley, Yorks., 
and white spotted ^ specimens from Kent ; white and yellow 
spotted Orgyia antiqua from West Riding localities ; a fine 
suffused (^ Bombyx var. callimce, Penistone Moors, and Lyccsna 
corydon var. semi-syngrapJia, from Hertfordshire, by Mr. B. 
Morley ; fine Abraxas grossulariata vars. nigro-costata and 
nigro-sparsata from wild Huddersfield larvcX this year, by Mr. 
G. T. Porritt, who also showed two species of new Yorkshire 
Neuroptera, Tceniopterx trifasciata and Nemoura inconspicua. 
Sirex juvenciis $ taken at Middlestown, near Wakefield, by 
Mr. J. Hooper ; Peripianeta americana and P. australasice from 
Keighley, and Mittilla europcBa from Scotland by Mr. Rosse 
Butterfield. 

The exhibits of Coleoptera included : — Monochammus sartor, 
L.. (^, taken aHve in a shed at Keighley Railway Station, 
Mr. Rosse Butterfield, $ dug from a stump in a garden at 
Middlestown, near Wakefield, 2 e. coll. the late W. Talbot 
of Wakefield, without locality, but probably local ; Af . 
siitor L , $, taken alive at Carlton Main Colliery, near Barnsley, 
^Ir. E. G. Bayford ; Anchomenus versutus Gyll, Ryhill reser- 
voir ; Lesteva (?) sp., by Mr. J. W. Carter; Notiophiliis 
biguUaUis F., n:ui-metallic, alpine form, by Mr. W. Falconer ; 
Acupalpits exigitus Dei., Anacaena bipustulata Steph., Homa- 
lota ciispidata Er., Philonthiis splendidulus Grav., Haploderus 
caelattis Gr.. Bagous limosns Gyll., Hylastes palliatus Gyll., 
Trypodendron domcslicitm L., T. quercns Eich., (?) Xyleborus 
dryograpJiiis Ratz., all from the Doncaster district, by Dr. 
H^ H. Corbett. 

Mr. -\I. L. Thompson showed from the Cleveland district :• — 

Haliplits stviatus Sharp. Xcuvaphes elou^atitliis Miill. 

Cercvon nigriceps ]\Iarsh. Scydmaenus sciitellnvis Miill. 

Ocyusa incrnssata Mul?. Bytkimts piincticollis Denny. 

Hnmalota eremita Rye Ptenidimn intermeduim Wank. 

Gyi'ophaena laevipeunis Kraatz. Epiiyaeti- flovea Er. 

Mvllaena elongata Matth. Meligethes ovatns Sturm. 

Heteroihops dissimilis Grav. Chnlcoides helxines L. v. fiilvicornis 
Quedius aiiricomus Kies. F. 

Lesteva punctata Er. Rhynchites cupreus L. 

Homalium ioptevum Steph. A nthoiwmus conspersus Dest. 
Cholsva niorio F. 

1915 Mar. 1. 



io6 Yorkshire Entomology in 1914. 

Judging from the reports submitted by various members, 
the season, generally, has not been a good one for lepidoptera, 
with a few exceptions species have not appeared commonly. 
Light has not attracted much, and ' sugar,' although never a 
great attraction, has never been a failure until the latter part 
of the season, many late autumn species were entirely absent. 
Spring larvae were common enough, Agrotis agathina and 
Xanthia citrago very common ; about a score Xaiithia aurago 
larvae were found in sycamore buds in Deffer Wood, where 
the species must now be considered established. 

The exceptions to the general paucity of the perfect insects 
were the abundance of Brcphos parthcnias, Enpithecia castigata, 
and its black variety, and Melanippe hastata in the Wakefield 
district, the last also appeared in some numbers at Edlington. 
In birch woods in the West Riding Orthosia Si4specta was very 
common at the end of July. On the moors in the West Riding 
during August and September the following species appeared 
in vast numbers, Cidaria popnlata. C. testaia (of which many 
were of an unicolorous purple form), Oporabia jiUgrammaria, 
Celcena haivorthii, Hypsipetes sordidata in great variety, with 
many red forms. Cloantha solidaginis swarmed on the flowers 
of Juncus, six in one instance were noticed feeding on one 
flower head. 

Pupae of Hydrcecia petasitis were dug freely from about the 
roots of butterburr in the Hudderfield district in the middle of 
August. 

Acronycta alni, A. leporina, and Cymatophora fluctrtosa, 
were taken during June in the Wakefield district. 

^lelanism has not been a pronounced feature of the year. 
Dry seasons seem to arrest the progress of this phenomenon. 
Such species as Agrotis agathina, Boarmia repandata and 
Cleoceris viminalis in the West Riding have practically become 
entirely melanic races, but they did not appear as intensely 
black as in previous years. Such species as Acronycta psi, 
A. rumicis, Polia chi, Seodiona belgiaria, Ematiirga atomaria 
and Xylophasia polyodon, all of which usually have a good 
sprinkling of black or ver}- dark specimens amongst them, 
this season have not given the same proportion of melanism 
either in numbers or intensity. With Polia chi even the variety 
olivacea was scarce. 

^Ir. G. T. Porritt reports that he found the Polia flavocincta 
at Bridlington to be quite the ordinary pale type, and not of 
the dark form which alone seems to occur in South-West 
Yorkshire. He also has an interesting notice of the abundance 
of Pyramcis cardni at Bridlington, in the ' Entomologist's 
Monthly Magazine ' of November, 1914. to which reference 
should be made. 

Dr. G. \^'. K. Crosland took Tinea julvimitrella in Lepton 

Naturalist 



Yorkshire Entomology in 1914. 107 

Wood, Huddeisfield, a new and very interesting record for the 
district. Mr. T. Ashton Loftliouse writes :■ — He first noticed 
Dasycera siilpJntrella and Inciirvaria mtiscalella flying freely 
in the sunshine in his garden at Middlesborough about the 
middle of April. Cemiostoma lahtirnella occurred about the end 
of April and was noticed again in August. It seems to be very 
plentiful in this district on laburnum, the foliage of which is 
very much disfigured by the mines of the species. In early 
June Adela rujimitrella was noticed at Ingleby Greenhow and 
near Northallerton. On June 13th Mixodia schulziana, 
Toririx viburnana. Phoxopteryx myrtillana, Adela fibulella, 
Microptcryx calthclla. M. sepella and M. aureatella, Tinea 
weaverclla and Argyresthia atmoriella were noticed at Great 
Ayton, Dicrorampha herbosana occurred at Redcar, Middles- 
borough, Salt burn, and Sandsend during June and July. D. 
plumbagana, Sandsend, and D. plumbana at Salt burn and 
Sandsend, and a single specimen of Stigmonota orobana at Sands- 
end (m June 20th. Ephippiphora brunnickiana flying freely 
in sunshine about coltsfoot in Kilton \A'oods on July 4th, on 
which date Cemiostoma wailesella was taken about Genista 
tinctoria at Saltburn. this species appears to be an addition to 
the Yorkshire list. Amphysa gerningana and Cemiostoma 
spartijoliella, Lealholm on July nth. Cerostoma sequella 
two specimens at Kildale on July 20th, and a single specimen 
at Sleights on August 3rd. Xanthosetia zoegana at Saltburn 
on August 14th ; Peronea comparana at Ingleby ; P. sponsana 
and Argyresthia semitestacella about beech at Eston in Septem- 
ber and Ephippiphora similana about birch in the same locality. 
About the middle of October Exapate congelatella occurred 
freely in a restricted locality on the Moors near Battersby, 
flying in the sunshine about 2 p.m. Mr. Lofthouse also took 
the following insects last year, 1913, that have not been previ- 
ously recorded for Yorkshire : — Micropteryx sangii, near 
Kildale in May ; Cedestis gysselinella. Great Ayton end of 
July ; and the following of which there are few Yorkshire 
records: — Nemotois capriacelliis, Great Ayton (only one 
previous Yorkshire record), Incurvaria cehlamannella. Great 
Ayton, Brachmia mmtfjetella. and Bucciilatrix cristalella, 
Kildale. 

For further particulars of the work of this Section, see the 
annual report in The Naturalist, for January, 1914. 

Hymenoptera, Diptera and Hemiptera. — Besides the 
information in the Annual Report in The Naturalist last 
month ]\Ir. H. Walch writes to say that he has taken a queen 
Vespa germanica at Halifax, after several years' search. 

An ichneumon which Mr. G. T. Porritt took in his garden 
at Elm Lea, Dalton, Huddersfield, has been named by Mr. 
Claude Morley as Tryphon trochanter atiis, this, as far as is 

1915 Mar. 1. 



io8 Yorkshire Entomology in 1914. 

known, is new to the County list. On the occasion of the 
Union's excursion to Knaresborough. at Easter, he obtained 
Ophion obsciirus Fab. Mr. Porritt observes with regard to 
Stenichneumon trilineatus Gmel., which he usually breeds in 
plenty, some years in abundance, from wild larvae of Abraxas 
grossitlariata, was this year apparently quite absent. Out 
of considerably over 6,000 wild larvae he did not this year 
breed a single ichneumon of any description. 

Not much work has been done in the Saw-fiies. Mr. Porritt 
reports that the gooseberry sawfly, Pteromis ribcsii has been 
very destructive in gardens in the Huddersfield district, quite 
<lefoIiating many bushes. Two saw-flies from the Keighley 
neighbourhood are apparently additions, while several inter- 
esting species have been found in new localities. 

In the November number of The Naturalist, Mr. Percy H. 
Grimshaw gives a detailed acocount of a new Yorkshire 
gall-midge, Oligotrophus veniricolus Riibs. Mr. Grimshaw 
records another new dipteron. Acleioxenus lorrnosus Leow., 
from Burley-in-Wharfedale. Empis tessellata Fab. $ has 
also occurred at Keighley. Mr. Porritt mentions that the 
dipterous parasite of A. grossulariata [Phryxiis vulgaris), 
appeared in ver\ small numbers this 3'ear. It is usually very 
abundant. 

No observations of any moment appear to have been 
made with regard to Himiptera and active workers in this 
order are needed. The new species above-mentioned have been 
identified and confirmed by the Committee's honorary referees, 
to whom grateful thanks are due. 

B. MORLEY. 



The Proceedings of the Cheltenham Natural Science Society for the 

session 1914-3 (X.S. vol. 2, pt. 3, pp. 103-142, i/-), are chiefly occupied 
by the address of the President (Dr. E. T. \\'ilson) on ' The Long- Barrow 
^len of the Cotswolds.' It is reprinted from the ' now defunct ' newspaper, 

The Examiner. 

From the Hertfordshire Natural History Society and Field Club we have 
received volume 15, part 4 of its Transactions, edited by Mr. John Hopkin- 
son (pages 193-272 and i.-lxviii.) The volume includes the following 
notes of distinctl}^ local interest : — ' Testacella scittulum in Hertfordshire, ' 
and ' The Palmated Newt in Hertfordshire,' by G. Oldham ; ' The Climate 
of Hertfordshire,' ' The ^^'eather of the year 1913 in Hertfordshire,' and 
.' Observations in Hertfordshire,' by J. Hopkinson ; ' Birds observed in 
Hertfordshire,' by AVilliam Bickerton ; 'Botanical Observations in 
Hertfordshire,' by E. J. Salisbury ; ' Acroloxus lacustvis in Hertfordshire,' 
by E. Popple ; ' Geological ^' ork in Hertfordshire,' by H. Kidner. There 
is also an interesting classified subject-index to the principal contents of 
the Transactions for the 40 years, 1875-1914, under the following headings : 
'Topography,' 'Geology,' ' Hydro- Geology,' ' JNIeteorology,' 'Phenology,' 
' Biology,' ' Botany,' ' Zoology,' ' Archaeology,' ' Physical Science,' 
' Miscellaneous.' 



109 

YORKSHIRE'S CONTRIBUTION TO SCIENC?:. 

(Presidential Address to the Yorkshire Naturalists' Union, delivered 

at the University, Leeds, $th December, 1914.)- 

By T. Sheppard, F.G.S. 



[Contimied from page 77). 

MORE MAGAZINES. 

The Naturalists' Monthly : A Journal for Nature-Lovers 
AND Nature-Thinkers. 

This publication is a large -[to much resembling ' Knowledge ' 
in appearance. It was edited by Dr. J. \V. Williams, !M.A. The 
first number appeared in September, 1887, and contains 20 
pages with three columns to the page, the last page of No. 6 being 
120. The first paper is by our contributor, the Rev. Hilderic 
Friend, and among other contributors we notice J. R. V. Tomlin, 
Dr. Dallinger, and other northern writers. The publication does 
not seem to have lasted long, my set ending with vol. I, No. 6, 
for February, 1888, which number contains the additional name 
of B. Middleton Batchelor, as sub-editor. The journal was 
published by Walter Scott, London, at 6d. a month. 

The Birmingham Naturalists' Gazette. 

was pubhshed in June, 1882, vol. I., No. i (8 pages, 4to, 3 columns 
to a page), being edited by \\'. Harcourt, Bath. It \vas pub- 
lished monthly, and was sold at one penny, the first six parts 
forming Volume I. In January-, 1883 appeared vol. 2, No. 7,* 
though the paging was from 49-56. The publication then appar- 
ently ceased, and the seven parts were bound up and solcl as 
' The Birmingham Naturalists' Gazette, and ^lagazine of the 
Birmingham Naturahsts' Field Club. . . . 1882 June to 1883 
January. Price one shilling and sixpence.' It contained many 
northern items and interesting advertisements of old magazines, 
etc. In September, 1882, Mr. H. B. Thornton gave an account 
of the Whitby Naturalists' Field Club. There were also reports 
from Sheffield, Barnsley, etc. 

This publication was followed by- — 

The Naturalists' Gazette. 

London. \\'. P. Collins." Vol. L, No. i being dated January, 
1889. It was foolscap in size, containing 8 pages matter and 4 
pages advertisements, 3 columns to a page, and was sold at one 
penny. By December, part 12 concluded vol. I. (at page 96). 

* This one number was called The }^ atuyalists' Gazette. 
1910 Mar. 1. 



rlo Sheppard : Yorkshire's Contribution to Science. 

January, 1890, saw vol. 2, No. i, and by December, 1890, vol. 2, 
No. 24 appeared — the last page (without the advertisements) 
being No. 96. The journal continued until July, 1891, when 
vol. 3, part 31 was published, apparently the last. The large 
proportion of fullTpage Birmingham advertisements indicated 
its source. With No. 9 the London publisher was changed to 
E. W. Allen, and by No. 20 ' Birmingham : The Naturalists' 
Publishing Company' was added. There is no doubt that the 
journal was a wonderful pennyworth. Many northern naturalists 
contributed to its pages. 

The Field Club. 

In 1890 appeared the first volume of The Field Club, edited by 
the Rev. Theodore Wood, and published by Elliot Stock. It 
was apparently issued in monthly parts of 16 royal octavo pages 
each. Generally it was ' popular ' The names of many York- 
shire contributors appeared in its pages, and the magazine con- 
tained a record of meetings, etc., of various scientific societies 
in the county. One of the earliest articles is an account of the 
Huddersfield Naturalist Society and its work, by S. L. Mosley. 
Vol. I. contained 190 pages ; vol. II., 1891, 190 ; vol. III., 194 ; 
and vol. IV., 140. With the final part of vol. IV. we find : ' We 
much regret to inform our readers that, with the present issue, 
The Field Club will cease to exist as a separate magazine. 
Arrangements have been made, however, for its incorporation 
with Nature Notes.' 

The Field Naturalists' Quarterly. 

In February, 1902, was published the first number of a substan- 
tial quarterly, of 78 octavo pages, at half a crown a part ; 4 parts to 
the volume. It was edited by Dr. Gerald Leighton and published 
by Blackwood of Edinburgh.* The journal was ' devoted to zoology 
in all its branches, botany, archaeology, folk-lore, and all subjects 
worked by field naturalists and kindred societies.' Many prom- 
inent naturalists were contributors, including Yorkshiremen. 
Vol. I. contained 340 pages ; vol. II. (1903), 365 pages ; and vol. 
III. (1904), 382 ppages. Nothing was pubhshed after part 12. 

The Naturalist's Monthly Review. 

In April, 1901, appeared Vol. I., No. i, of 'The Naturalist's 
Monthly Review of New Books, Publications, Records and Cap- 
tures, Sales and Wants, etc' The first part (4 pages) was not 
paged ; No. 2 was paged 1-4 ; No. 12, for March, 1902, contained 
(including Index of Contents) pp. 73-80. The publication then 
ceased, and was followed by : — 

* Halfway throug-h the second volume the publishing' was undertaken by 
G. A. Morton, Edinburg'h. 

Naturalist 



Sheppard : Yorkshire's Contribution to Science. iii 

The Naturalists' Quarterly Review. 

In December, 1905, was published by J. and W. Davis, of 
Dartford, vol. I., part i, of 'The Naturalists' Quarterly Review' 
(New Series, 8vo, 32 pages, yd.). By September, igo6, No. 4, 
completing vol. I., was issued (128 pages). From December, 
1906, to September, 1907, pages 5-8 appeared, forming vol. II. 
The publication then ceased It was apparently a dealer's 
venture. 

The Journal of Natural Science. 

This is referred to under the head of ' Hull Junior Naturalists/ 
Society.' Vol. i No. i (8vo, pages i to 32) was for April- June, 
191 1, and vol. i part 2, for July-September, 1911 (pages 33-58) 
appeared on November 4th ; the publication then ceased.* 
Besides various notes on natural history it contained ' Photo- 
graphic and Philatelic Notes.' 

SciENXE Gossip. 

Though not bearing directly upon our county, Hardwicke's 
Science Gossip, as it was familiarly known (being published by 
Hardwicke, of Piccadilly), was so persistently subscribed to 
by almost every naturalist, that it must take a place in our review,, 
especially as many Yorkshire naturalists were contributors. It 
was a quarto magazine in double columns, was well illustrated, 
and appeared monthly. The first volume, edited by M. C. 
Cooke, appeared in 1865, and from then it regularly appeared 
until 1902 ; up to 1892 being bound in the familiar and somewhat 
gaudy blue cloth covers. Cooke ceased his editorial duties in 
1872, and was succeeded by J. E. Taylor from 1873 until volume 
29 in 1893. 

It was published by Hardwicke until 1875 ; by Hardwicke 
and Bogue until 1878 ; by David Bogue until 1882, and by 
Chatto and Windus from 1883 to 1893. 

In 1894 a new series commenced, under the editorship of 
J. T. Carrington, the publishers being Simpkin Marshall. In 
volume 5 Mr. Carrington had the assistance of Miss Flora Win- 
stone. This series somewhat abruptly terminated when nearing 
the completion of the 8th volume (1902-3), eleven parts only 
being published. 

There are very many writers who have made a name in 
natural science, who made their first contributions in the pages 
of Science Gossip. 

A Classified Index to ' Science Gossip.' Vols. I. -XII., 1865- 
1876, was pubhshed. 

Research. 

In July, 1888, appeared vol. I., part i of this quarto publication, 
averaging 32 pages with covers, etc., printed in two columns. 

* This was fully dealt with in T/ie Xaturalisf, March, 191 2, pp. 66-68. 
1915 Mar. 1. 



112 Sheppard : Yorkshire's Contribution to Science. 

Vol. I. ends at page 236. Vol. 11., with a change of cover, com- 
menced on July 1st, 1889, ended with No. 24, dated June 2nd, 
1890, and contained 288 pages. With the completion of the second 
volume the journal ceased to appear on account of insufficient 
financial support. It contains a number of useful papers bearing 
upon natural history matters in the north of England, the work 
of the Yorkshire Naturalists' Union being frequently referred to. 

The Wesley Natukalist. 

In IMarch, 1887, appeared Part i of ' The Wesley Naturalist,' 
an octavo publication of 32 pages (sold at 6d.), and the first 
number contains notes from the Rev. Hilderic Friend and other 
of our contributors. The journal was published by B. Moore, of 
Burnley. Each part contained a lithographic frontispiece, one 
being the famous Carboniferous Tree from Yorkshire, now in the 
Manchester Museum. The Wesley Naturalists' Society was 
responsible for much of the matter in its pages. Volume I. 
concluded with the number for February, 1888, the last page 
being 383. 

Volume IT, March, 1888 to February, 1889, 384 pages, and 

Volume TIT, March, 1889 to October, 1889* (232 pages) when 
the publication ceased, t 

The editors were Revs. W. H. Dallinger, W. Spiers and 
Hilderic Friend. 

The Natural History Teacher. 

' A monthly illustrated magazine for Young Lovers of Nature, 
conducted by S. L. Mosley, a small 4to publication, was started 
in January, 1885, and Volume I. including the twelve parts for 
the year, contained 84 pages. Volume II. (parts 13-24, 1886) 
contained 92 pages, and we learn from the December issue that 
it had ' not circulated largely in the channel set out for it,' so it 
was decided to alter its character, and in its place appeared- — 

The Economic Naturalist. 

' An illustrated monthly journal of useful natural history.' 
The first part (8 pages 8vo), was issued in January, 1887. I 
cannot ascertain how long it lasted, but I have seen Part 11, for 
November, 1887 (pages 91-98). The parts were .^old at 2d. each. 

The Naturalists' Guide. 

A Journal with the above title evidently started somewhere 
about November, 1890, and apparently took the place of ' The 
Economic Naturalist.' I have only been able to see Parts 39- 
48, January to October, 1894. It was also edited, printed and 

* Nothing- was issued for September this year. 

f I am informed by one of the editors that the Weshy Na/nralist was then 
* amalgamated with the Journal of the Postal Microscopical Societ)'.' 

Naturalist, 



Slieppdi'li : Yofkshiye's Contjihution to Science. 113 

publislud by 'Sir. S. L. Mosley (Svo. lod. eachV Tlicrc^ were 
not many pai^a^s in each part."" but there were some really very 
fine plates of Butterflies, etc. The parts I have seen contain a note 
to the effect that ' the present volume will contain a complete 
monograph of British Butterflies and Sphinges, illustrated with 
coloured figures of every species.' Probably about the date 
named The Naturalists' Gnide ceased, as we find Mr. Mosley's 
name as joint editor, for the first time, of The Naturalists' 
Journal for November, 1894, at the close of its third volume. f 

The Naturalists' Record. 

' The Naturalists' Record : a Monthly Illustrated Magazine, 
devoted to the interests of Science,' was conducted by H. C. Oak- 
shott, of Falmouth, and was published by E. T. Oliver, London, 
price 2d. It contained 16 pages, all but the first in double 
columns, and the pages measured 10 by lo-J inches. Vol I., Nos. 
1-9 (1889-90) were published. 

The Country-Side. 

' The Country-Side ' is a journal of many vicissitudes. It 
first appeared as a weekly in May, 1905, and existed as such 
until vol. 10, which was unfinished, in 1909. It was 4to in size, 
averaged about 16 pages, was first sold at id. and then at 2d., 
and was edited by E. Kay Robinson. Its contributions consisted 
of natural and pseudo-natural history notes and articles written 
in a popular style, and very general in character. Some of them, 
however, refer to Yorkshire. The last part I have been able to 
trace is No. 244 of vol. 10, dated January 15th, 1910. 

Then follows an extraordinary series of varied publications,. 
most of which seem to have been associated in some way or other 
with the said E. K. Robinson. 

In April, 1908, appeared vol. I., No. i of ' Countrj^ Queries and 
Notes.' By March, 1909, vol. I., No. 12 appeared with a total 
of 582 pages, in two columns, which completed vol. i., as there is 
a title page and index. It was published monthly at 4d. 

In April, 1909, appeared vol. II., No. 13, of the same journal, 
paged 1-36, but by May the title is alterecl to that of — 

SciENXE Gossip and Country Queries and Notes. + 

and presumabl}^ to prevent confusion it is numbered vol. II, 
No. 2 and No. 14, and contains pages 37-96. By February, 1910. 
appeared vol. II., No. 11 and 23, pages 473-516 which closed the 
volume, and an index and title page were issued later. 



* One hundred and forty-four plates in the ten parts. 
t See page 121 of the iSovember issue, 1894. 

+ This should not be confused with the publication issued bv Hardwicke, etc. 
referred to elsewhere. 



114 Sheppard : Yoykshirc's Contribution to Science. 

In June, 1910, appeared vol. I., No. i, of — 
The Couxtry-Side Monthly. 

royal 8vo, 42 pages in two columns, price 4d. From a reference 
on page 4 it seems clear that ' Country Queries and Notes ' had 
suddenly expired and that no index was published. All seemed 
to go well with the first four parts of the new series, and then 
with vol. I., No. 5, which was issued for two months, namely, 
October and November, igio, there is added to the title ' with 
which is incorporated Science Gossip and County Queries and 
Notes.' Vol. I., apparently concluded with the December 
number, No. 6, the last page being 258. By January, 1911, 
vol. IT., No. I, appeared, the volume being concluded with No. 
6, for June, the last page being 240. Vol. III., contained the 
parts July-December, igii, 210 pages. Hitherto we see that six 
parts constituted a volume. Vol. IV., part i, contains an apology 
from the editor for the absence of any issue during December, and 
No. I, 28 pages, is for January and February, and contains the 
title and index, (4 pages), to vol. III. All went well until No. 
5, for June, which ended with page 156. There was no No. 6, 
but by July the title was again altered to — 

The Country-Side 

and was marked ' New Series,' but was numbered vol. IV., No. 7, 
the paging starting with 157. It was continued until December, 
1912, the last page being 536. There was no index nor title. This 
volume contains 11 parts issued during 1912. 

During 1913, twelve monthly parts were issued forming 
vol. v., but again there is neither title nor index. During 1914 
the publication again ceased, as we find in the press for February, 

1915. 

'The Country-Side Leaflet 

has been established to fill the gap caused by the suspension of 

Country Side during the war.' 

{To be continued). 



We have received the Transactions and Journal of Proceedings, 1913-14, 
third series, volume two, of the Dumfriesshire and Galloway Natural 
History and Antiquarian Society, royal 8vo, 298 pages. Among many 
interesting papers we note : ' \Vhite Quartz Pebbles and their Archaeo- 
logical Significance,' by Nona Lebour ; ' A List of the Coleoptera of the 
Solway District,' by B. M'Gowan ; ' Dumfries : Its Burghal Origin,' by 
G. Neilson, and ' Further Excavations at the King's Castle, Kirkcud- 
bright,' by J. Robison. The following statement by Miss Lebour was a 
little unexpected : ' It is a curious fact, as Mr. Gatty pointed out to me, 
that the white quartz pebbles give out a bright spark when struck together, 
and even when struck under water the light emitted is almost better.' We 
certainly doubted this, but the statement proved to be true when put to 
the test. 

Naturalist, 



FIELD NOTES. 115 

MOSSES. 

Dicranum strictum Schleich.''— On December 12th last, 
I found a small patch of this elegant and rare moss on a fallen 
tree in Sunnydale, E. Morton, near Bingley. I understand 
from Mr. W. Ingham, to whom I am indebted for the verification 
of my specimen, that this is an addition to the Yorkshire flora. 
— Harold E. Johnson, Bradford. 

Catoscopium nigritum Brid., in W. Yorks. — On Satur- 
day, January 30th, Mr. \\'. H. Burrell, F.L.S., and I were 
examining the small exposure of Silurian rocks near Gordale 
Beck on Malham Moor, and were pleased to see a tuft of the 
above moss in fine fruit. The place is an interesting one for 
Oythotheciiim rufescens {Stereodon) and Splachniim ampullacewn 
are found here. The only other known Yorkshire habitat for 
Catoscopium is in Teesdale, an interesting fact being that a 
flowering plant, the alpine bartsia, has the same restricted 
range, growing near the moss in both places. The moss was 
once erroneously reported for West Yorkshire, but the above 
is the first record. — C. A. Cheetham. 

Dicranum strictum in Yorkshire. — Dicraiiiiin strictum 
{D. viride of Braithwaite's Moss Flora) is one of the few mosses 
which, as an indiginous species, has been questioned. It was 
first found in Staffordshire in 1864 on old wooden rails, and it has 
been suggested that possibly it had been introduced with the 
timber. It has since been detected in other parts of the county 
and also in Banffshire and near Edinborough, and now shows 
four vice-county numbers, as its range in the Moss census lists. 
Whilst on what might be termed a preliminary visit to Sawley, 
where the Union meet on their first excursion this year, in 
company with ]\Iessrs. Margerison and Sanderson, I had the 
pleasure of gathering a small tuft of this moss. I submitted 
it to Mr. H. N. Dixon, who kindly confirmed the identification. 
The Sawley High Moor, where it occurs, was planted about 
i860, and there is a possibility of the moss having been brought 
with the young plants, if so, it has evidently found the place 
suitable, existing there some fifty odd 3'ears. Another very 
rare moss, Buxbaumia aphylla was reported from this district 
and a note on it and at the same time a remark as to it being 
never since confirmed, will be found in both the West and North 
Riding floras. It is quite possible that B. aphylla might also 
be introduced with the trees, and if so it may still be refound 
there. If there is any fact in this theory for the introduction 
of mosses, is it not possible that there may be some surprises in 
store for other sections of the Union ; the wood in question is 
of very large extent, and has many interesting features for 
the general body of naturalists. — C. A. Cheetham. 

* It is remarkable that there should be two records of this rare moss 
within a fortnight. — Ei). 

1915 Mar. 1. 



ii6 

NEWS FROM THE MAGAZINES. 

In British Birds for January, j\Ir..H. C. Alexander writes ' A Practical 
Study of Bird CEcolof^jy.' 

In The Museums Journal for December, Mr. B. H. iVIullen describes 
the Children's Room at the Salford INIuseum. 

In volume 4, part i, of the Journal of Roman Studies is an article on 
' Roman Silver in Northumberland,' by Professor Haverfield. 

The Museums Journal for Januarj^ contains a paper on ' Banktield 
[Halifax] Museum Publications,' by Mr. H. Ling Roth. 

Volume 15, part i of the Annals of the South Arican Museum consists 
of an account of ' South African Crustacea,' by the Rev. T. R. Stebbings. 

The Irish Naturalist for February is partly occupied by ' A List of 
the Land and Freshwater INIollusca of the Dingle Promontory," by A. W. 
Stelfox. 

In The Zoologist for January, Colonel C. E. Shepherd gives an illustrated 
note on ' The Location of the Sacculus and its contained Otoliths in 
Fishes.' 

In The Quarry for February, Mr. R. Parker has an article on ' Tar 
Macadam, its Manufacture and Industry,' in which he describes the works 
of Messrs. Ord and Maddison of Darlington. 

With The Zoologist for January-, the editorship has changed; Mr. W. 
L. Distant has severed his connection with the journal after many years' 
work, and the new editor is Mr. Frank Finn. 

Bird Notes and News volume 6, part 4, contains an interesting article 
on the food of the house sparrow, and the statistics are certainlyin favour 
of the bird being of service to the fruit grower. 

In The New Phytologist, volume 13, No. 9, we notice an article by N. 
Bancroft on ' A Review of Literature concerning the Evolution of Mono- 
cotyledons,' and in part 10 of the same journal there is a paper by Ruth 
Holden on ' The Relation between Cycadites and Pseudocycas.' 

In the Scottish Naturalist for January, Mr. W. Eagle Clark describes 
' A New Scottish Bird : the Aquatic Warbler, at Fair Isle,' and in the 
same Journal, Mr. George Eolam has notes on ' Newts on the Eastern 
Borders,' in which reference is made to localities in Northumberland. 

British Birds for February contains an illustrated paper on ' Breeding 
Habits of the Little Stint,' by Maud D. Haviland. Mr. H. W. Robinson 
gives a report on the results of Ringing Black-Headed Gulls. From the 
list it seems that of 8,096 birds ringed at Ravensglass, 345 have been 
recovered. 

In The Geological Magazine for January is a notice of the work of Dr. 
Arthur Smith Woodward, of the British Museum (Natural History), 
whose researches among the fossil fishes, etc. are so well known. Dr. Wood- 
ward has done much to add to our knowledge of the fossil lishes of the 
Yorkshire Lias, etc. The memoir is one of the ' Eminent Living Geologists' 
series, and is accompanied by an excellent portrait. 

Among many of the articles appearing in The Essex Naturalist, parts 
10 and 12 of volume 17, for April-December, 1913, recently received, we 
notice : — ' Sarsen, Basalt, and other Boulders in Essex ' ; ' The Coast- 
Flora of the Clacton District ' ; ' Mycetozoa seen during the Crypto- 
gamic Forays in Epping Forest ' ; ' The Occurrence of Rhaxella-Chert 
in Epping Forest Gravels ' ; ' Notes on Essex Geology at the latter end of 
the Nineteenth Century and After ' ; ' Cultivation of Fuller's Teasel in 
Essex, ' etc. 



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Some Geographical Factors 
in the Great War. 

By T. HERDMAN, M.Sc, F.G.S.' 

(Lecturer in Geography, Municipal Training College, Hull). 

'J2 pages, crown 8vo, with 6 Maps, sewn in 
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A feature of vast importance in the titanic struggle now taking- 
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'* Some Geographical Factors " the author provides much interesting" 
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followed by some sound reasoning on the commercial war and the 
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YORKSHIRE 

BY 

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Edited by 
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London: A. BROWN & SONS, Ltd., 5 Farringdon Avenue, E.G. 

AND AT HULL AND YORK. 



Printed at Browns' Savile Press, 40, George Street, Hull, and published by 
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March ist, 1915. 



APRIL 1915. 



No. 699 



(No. 476 of current sr 




A MONTHLY ILLUSTRATED JOURNAL OF 

NATURAL HISTORY IDR THE NORTH OF HNGLAND. 



KDITKl) BY 

T. SHEPPARI), F.G.S.. F.R.Q.S., F.S.A.Sco 

Thk MnsF.uMS, Hull; 

AND 

T. W. VVOODHHAD. Ph.D., F.I 

TkCHNICAI. CoLI.KGE, HuDDERSFIELn. 
WITH THE ASSISTANCK. A-^ KKFKRKKS IN SPECIAL DEPARTVeNTS OP 

J. QILBBRT BAKBR, P.R.S. F.L.S., QEO. T. HORRITlV^^/^.. P.fi.? 

Pro». P. F. KENDALL, M.Sc. F.O.S.. JOHN W. TAYLOR, ^^^fiai 

T. H. NBLSON, M.B.O.U.. RILEY FORTUNE, F.Z.S. 




Contents : — 

Notes and Comments:— The British Associntion ; Phenological Observations ; Records of 
New British Birds; The lale J'rofessor Geikie, F.R.S. ; James Geikie's Books: his 
Honours ; The Taming of Streams in Inhabited Countries ; Bronze-age Invaders of 
Britain; Different Landing Places; Newspaper Archaeology; Cone in-Cone Structure; 
Professor Bonney on Cone-in Cone ' 117-121 

ConBt Erosion— J. J. Burton, F.G.S. 122-124 

A New Record of Qlacial Drift near Wakefield.- and its bearing on the late Glacial 

Changes in Lower Calderdale (Illustrated -/J. .-). IFmy, B.Sf.,F.G.S. 125-128 

New Records and Additional Localities for the Moss-Flora of Durham and 

Yorkshire — Richard Hames 129-130 

Yorkshire's Contribution to Science—/'. Slte/>[>(ni1, F.G.S 1:!1-1:1H 

A Diary of Ornithological Observations in Brittany— £rf»i«»ii/ Selons 339-141 

In Memoriam :— The Rev. F. H. Wiiods, BD. (Illustrated) 142-144 

Benjamin Holgate, F.G.S. (Illustrated) 145-14ft 

Field Notes : — Large Porpoise at York ; The Misdeeds of a Kingfisher ; Fhonui iicicolii 

(Lev.) Sacc, in Yorkshire ; Marine Shells from the Ancient Beach at North Somercotes, 
Lincolnshire 



Museum News 

Northern News 

Reviews and Book Notices 

Proceeding's of Provincial Scientific Societies 

News from the Magazines 

Illustrations 



147-148 

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124, 13» 

144 

146 

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An entirely New WorJi bringing the Vegetational History 
of the County quite up-to-date. 

THE VEGETATION OF YORKSHIRE 

Its History and Associations on the lines of Botanical Survey, 
based on the Geologic and Phyto-palaeologic remains : being an 
examination into the sources, the presence or passing of the* 
Floristic Constituents — their When, How and Where ; being also 
a Supplement to previous " Floras " of York, and a list of the 
Localities and Species, newly classified, " New " to the County or 
some of its river-basins since 1888. 

By F. ARNOLD LEES 

M.R.C.S.En^., L.R.C.P.Lond. 

Demy Svo, on white unsized paper, about 500 pages, 
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BOOKS WANTED. 

■Quarterly Journal of Science. Set. 

Frizing'hall Naturalist (lithographed). Set or parts. 

The Field Naturalist and Scientific Record. Set. 

The Journal of the Keighley Naturalists' Society. Part I. 

Huddersfield Arch, and Topog. Society. 4 Reports, (i 865-1869). 

The Naturalists' Journal. Vol. I. 

Monthly Circular, Huddersfield Naturalists' Society. Nos. 20, 31, 32. 

First Report, Goole Scientific Society. 

Cleveland Lit. & Phil. Society's Transactions. Science Section or others. 

The Naturali.sts' Record. Set. 

The Natural Historj' Teacher (Huddersfield). \'ols. I.-H., or parts. 

The Economic Naturalist (Huddersfield). \'ol. I. 

The Naturalists' Guide (Huddersfield). Set or parts. 

The Naturalists' Almanac (Huddersfield). 1876. 

Proc. Yorkshire Naturalists' Club (York). 1867-70. (Set). 

Keeping's Handbook to Natural Hislorj' Collections (York). 

*' Ripon Spurs," b}- Keslington. 

Geological and Natui^al Htstor\- Repertory. Set. 

A/y/>/y .-—Editor, The Museum, Hull. 




NOTES AND COMMENTS. 117 

THE BRITISH ASSOCIATION. 

The Council of the British Association, in consultation with 
the local Executive Committee at Manchester, have decided 
that the annual meeting of the Association shall take place in 
that city as arranged, in September next. Both the Committee 
and the Council felt that it would be inexpedient under the 
present conditions to offer that elaborate local hospitality in the 
form of social and other arrangements which has been extended 
to the Association on former occasions. The Committee, how- 
ever, desire that the long continuity of yearly meetings should 
not be broken, and would prefer that the meeting should be 
held, although restricted to its more scientilic functions. 

PHEXOLOGICAL OBSERVATIONS. 

We have recently received from Messrs. J. E. Clark and R. 
H. Hooker a copy of a very valuable report of Phenological 
Observations. It includes most useful information with 
regard to dates of flowering of plants, the dates of song and 
migration of birds, the first appearance of insects, etc., all very 
carefully classified and commented upon. Mr. Clark informs 
us that he has been fortunate in securing the co-operation of 
thirteen observers in the West Riding, but at present there is 
only one each for the North and East Ridings. We feel sure 
there are many naturalists who would be willing to assist 
him. The work is not difficult. Possibly any who may feel 
disposed will communicate with Mr. Clark, ' Asgarth,' Riddes- 
down Road, Purley, Surrey. 

RECORDS OF NEW BRITISH BIRDS. 

We notice that the editor of British Birds in his publication 
for March, thanks us for disposing of a bad record in connection 
with the alleged black-headed bunting in Yorkshire. It will 
be remembered that at a meeting of the British Ornithologists' 
Club, two examples of this continental species were recorded, 
both had been bought from dealers, and both are now in a 
Sussex Museum. We must admit that we quite expected 
Mr. Witherby would delete the Yorkshire specimen from his 
list, but he says nothing about the Sussex specimen, so that 
presumably it stands ! He cannot see the force of our con- 
tention, that, having fairly proved that in this instance the 
record was wrong, there is ' quite a suspicion, and, in fact, 
more than suspicion, as to the bona fides of other recent 
records of British Birds " seen in the flesh." ' At any rate, 
Yorkshire naturalists are glad to be rid of their alleged new 
record, and are quite prepared to leave their friends in Sussex 
to have as many ' new records ' as thej' like. 

THE LATE PROFESSOR JAMES GEIKIE, F.R.S. 

We regret to record the death at Edinburgh, late on March 
ist, of Dr. James Geikie, F.R.S., younger brother of Sir Archi- 
bald Geikie, and, like him, a distinguished geologist. James 

1915 April], H 



ii8 Notes and Comments. 

Geikie was born at Edinburgh in 1839. I^^ 1861 he joined the 
Geological Survey of Scotland. For twenty-one years 'he was 
engaged on this survey, and rose to be District Surveyor, and 
Local Director of the Survey in Scotland. On the retirement 
of his brother. Sir Archibald, from the Murchison Professorship 
of Geology and Mineralogy in Edinburgh University, in 1882, 
James Geikie was appointed his successor, and that same year, 
on the institution by the Royal Commission of a Faculty of 
Science in the University, he was at once elected Dean of the 
Faculty. 

JAMES GEIKIE'S BOOKS ; 

He was the author of several books that enjoyed considerable 
popularity with students ; notably, ' The Great Ice Age in its 
relation to the Antiquity of Man,' which was first published 
in 1874, and reached its third edition in 1894 ; ' Prehistoric 
Europe — a Geological Sketch,' 1882 ; ' An Outline of Geology,' 
1884 ; fourth edition, 1903 ; ' Fragments of Earth Lore,' 1893 ; 
' Earth Sculpture, or the Origin of Surface Features,' 1898, re- 
issued 1909. In a different vein from his scientific work was a 
book on 'The Songs and Lyrics of Heine and other German Poets, ' 
published in 1887. His latest books were, ' Structural and Field 
Geology,' first published 1898, and again issued in a third edition 
in 1912 ; ' Mountains, their Origin, Growth, and Decay,' pub- 
lished in 1913, and ' The Antiquity of Man in Europe,' 1914. 

HIS HONOURS. 

Professor Geikie was one of the founders and an original 
member of the Royal Scottish Geographical Society, and the 
honorary editor of the ' Scottish Geographical Magazine ' — 
the organ of the Society. He was awarded the Macdougall- 
Brisbane Medal of the Royal Society of Edinburgh, the Mur- 
chison Medal of the Geological Society in 1889, and the gold 
medal of the latter Society in 1910. He was also an honorary 
and corresponding member of many foreign scientific societies. 
From Edinburgh University he received an honorary LL.D. 
and D.C.L., and he was a Fellow of the Royal Society, and 
of the Royal Society of Edinburgh. 

THE TAMING OF STREAMS 

Mr. G. W. Lamplugh, F.G.S., has favoured us with a copy 
of his paper in The Geographical Journal on ' The Taming of 
Streams.' In this he says, ' In uninhabited regions the rivers 
are wayward and restless, ever shifting from place to place 
within the bounds of the valleys, that are theirs to sprawl across 
at will. If a flood should heap up a bar in the channel ; or 
fallen timber gather into a dam ; or swamp-vegetation block 
the fairway in a sluggish reach ; the stream swings easily aside 
into a fresh course. In a new country the tangled swampy 
bottom-lands of the valleys are the most difficult of all to 

Naturalist, 



Notes and Comments. iig 

traverse. It was so with the valleys of Britain at the beginning 
of human occupancy, and this explains why the oldest roads 
of our country so often take an ill-graded way instead of the 
apparently simpler and more direct course along a valley.' 

IN INHABITED COUNTRIES. 

' But as soon as a country acquires a settled population, 
this unstable habit of running water is corrected. For many 
. reasons, human interests demand that a stream shall have a 
fixed course. When tribal or individual ownership of land was 
established, the rivers and streams often afforded the best 
natural boundaries. The convenience of sites chosen for 
dwellings depended upon the constancy of the waters ; and 
every cattle-enclosure required a permanent drinking place. 
Even the smallest brooks thus came under the influence of 
proprietary rights that were exerted to restrain the stream to 
the convenient channel and to curb its natural waywardness.' 

BRONZE-AGE INVADERS OF BRITAIN. 

Nature, No. 2363, contains the presidential address delivered 
to the Roj/al Anthropological Institute by Professor Arthur 
Keith, F.R.S., on ' The Bronze-Age Invaders of Britain.' He 
• informs us ' that somewhere about the year 2000 B.C., when the 
peoples of western Europe were beginning to learn the uses of 
bronze and to alter the style of their pottery, a race of invaders 
began to reach our shores, who were totally different from 
any race which had lived in Britain before that time. The 
ancient British, although of various strains, were all of them 
of the long-headed type ; they had projecting occiputs ; their 
heads appeared as if compressed from side to side. But those 
Bronze-Age Invaders had rounded heads, with flat occiputs ; 
their heads had the appearance of having been compressed 
from back to front. European anthropologists name this 
round-head type of man " Celtic " ; they regard him as an 
offshoot from the racial type which now attains its greatest 
purity in the mountainous countries of Central Europe — the 
" Alpine " type of race.' 

DIFFERENT LANDING PLACES. 

' The Hon. John Abercromby, who is our leading authority 
on British pottery, weapons, and ornaments of the Bronze 
age, is of opinion that the round-headed invaders were few in 
number, and that, after gaining a foothold in Kent, they gradu- 
ally spread northwards and westwards throughout our coun- 
try. With that conception I cannot agree. The south- 
eastern part of England was apparently only one of the landing 
places ; the reseaches which were carried out by Canon 
Canon Greenwell and Mr. Mortimer leave us in no doubt as to 
their arrival in eastern Yorkshire ; the round-heads became 
m usters of it. The counties which bound the Firth of Forth 

19 vpril 1. 



I2() Notes and Comments. 

formed another centre of the invasion ; the round-heads 
conquered that part of Scotland. For our present purpose their 
extensive settlement in the lowlands of Aberdeenshire and along 
the southern shores of the Moray Firth are the most important. 
In recent years Prof. Reid and Dr. Alex. Low, of the University 
of Aberdeen, have made us familiar with the Bronze-age men 
of the north-east of Scotland. These more northern invaders 
had their own peculiar kind of round-headedness, a kind 
remarkablv flat on the crown — just as they had their own kind 
of graves, their own kind of pottery and ornaments.' 

NEWSPAPER ARCHEOLOGY. 

Excavations made in connection with home defence have 
exposed some skeletons in North Lincolnshire. According to 
the Press, ' the peaceful and picturesque park at Riby was 
the scene of a somewhat startling and gruesome character 
recently. While excavating, a beautifully preserved and 
compact skeleton of a finely developed man, well over six 
feet in height was unearthed. The teeth were so fastly em- 
bedded in the jaws that even now it is impossible to draw 
them out. Through the groin was a dagger about six inches 
in length. This however, was in a corroded condition that at 
the merest touch it crumbled away to powder. Quite close 
to these remains were found an ancient earthenware jar, 
possibly of an ancient type, which had been buried long before 
the skeletons, as the figuring upon the vessel, according to an 
authority suggests the period of the ancient Briton.' Some 
printed semi-parchment was another interesting find. ' Now 
what does the discovery of all these human remains suggest ? 
We have it in history that there were battles in every part of 
Lincolnshire during the Civil War of the seventeenth century ! ' 
It seem? that apparently part o!^ an Anglo-Saxon cemetery was 
discovered. Possibly however, the parchment will tell us all 
about it. 

CONE-IN-CONE STRUCTURE. 

At a recent meeting of the London Geological Society, 
Mr. S. R. Haselhurst gave ' Some Observations on Cone-in- 
Cone Structure and their Relation to its Origin.' He outlined 
the phenomenon of megascopic pseudostromatism, and certain 
tectonic features which are always associated with cone-in-cone 
structure in areas where it is greatly developed. He pointed 
to the disadvantage accruing from many observers not having 
seen it in situ on a large scale, and endeavoured to show how a 
simulation of horizontality in stratification masks what he took 
to be the key to the diagnosis of this structure. Two typical 
areas are described : — [a) The St. Mary's Island-Tynemouth 
district of the Dg Coal-Measures of Northumberland; {b) The 
Hawsker-Robin Hood's Bay-Ravenscar district of the North 
Riding of Yorkshire. The specimens collected in these areas 

Naturalist, 



Notes and Comments. 121 

were said to be unique, and some dozen types from other 
areas, including Sandown, Portmadoc, Olney, Somerton, Lyme 
Regis, and Merivale Park were examined in detail with reference 
to : — {a) Evidence furnished by distorted fossils ; [b) Chemical 
composition ; (c) Geometrical similarities ; {d) Microscopic 
structures. The Author critically examined the accepted 
hypothesis that cone-in-cone structure is something essentially 
due to crystallization. He concluded from the evidence of 
experiments (i) that cone-in-cone is not due to crystallization, 
but is a mechanically produced structure due to great and 
localized pressure ; (ii) that it is closely allied to the phenomenon 
known as pressure solution ; (iii) that cone-in-cone structure is 
closely associated with other rock-structures which are mutually 
indicative the one of the other, and also of their mode of origin. 

PROFESSOR BONNE Y ON CONE-IN-CONE. 

At the meeting a letter was read from Prof. Bonney, viz : — 
In the Miner alogical Magazine, vol. xi., p. 24, I published a 
paper discussing the origin of cone in cone structure, which 
was in general agreement with, but supplementary to, the work 
of Sorby, Mr. W. S. Gresley, and Prof. G. A. J. Cole. Though 
I had for some years been examining specimens which showed 
this structure, it was not until 1892 that I chanced to come 
across a good instance of it in the field. That occurred in the 
upper part of the \\'ealden formation at Sandown Bay, in the 
Isle of Wight. The lower portion of the specimen contains, in 
a rather muddy calcareous matrix, numerous more or less 
imperfect valves of lamellibranchs (? Cyrena), a few gastropods 
(probably Palitdina), and numerous valves, double or single, of 
ostracods, together with a few subangular fragments of quartz. 
The upper portion is a homogeneous dirty limestone. In it 
the " shaving brush " crystalline structure is well developed. 
It is true that this bed forms part of the Isle of Wight anticline, 
but none of the organisms, and no part of the specimen, show 
the slightest sign of crushing in situ, or of any kind of disturb- 
ance from pressure. Evidence of that is tendered in the paper, 
and reasons are given for believing that the spiral cracking of 
the cone in cone is the result of contraction, probably in 
drying. Thus, to whatever inductions the Author's experi- 
ments and observations may lead, I am obliged to regard them 
as incompatible with all the specimens that I have examined 
and must continue to maintain, as stated in the concluding 
words of my paper, published in 1894, that cone in cone 
structure is primarily due to crystallization, but the develop- 
ment of it — " its existence in short as cone in cone — is due to 
contraction subsequent to this crystallization, and thus the 
mechanical cause is not less essential than the chemical for its 
formation." ' 

1915 April 1. 



122 

COAST EROSION.* 



J. J. BURTON, F.G.S. 

Coast erosion is not confined to Yorkshire nor to our British 
coasts. 

All land areas are subject thereto. Inland surfaces are 
carried down the streams so that the sea is swallowing the 
hills and eating up the valleys. All ocean fringes are not 
equally eroded. Some very little, others considerably. Some 
are gaining. 

Much attention has been given to this subject in recent 
years, but sea encroachment is as old as land formation, and 
man's fight against it as old as civilisation. 

The coast of Holderness is probably the most seriously 
affected in this country, and the subject is therefore very 
appropriate for a Hull gathering of Geologists. 

From investigations made by Professor Phillips 60 years 
ago, by our President, Mr. Sheppard, recently, and by a Royal 
Commission, we find that the Manor of Tharlesthorpe provided 
pasturage for 1,274 sheep in the thirteenth century and yielded 
annually 300 quarters of grain. The whole area disappeared 
in the fifteenth century. Ravenser once returned two members 
to Parliament and has an important place in history. Where 
it stood is to-day unknown. 

Auburn, Hartburn, Hyde, Frismersk, Redmayr, Pennys- 
merk, Upsal, Pottersfleet, Owthorne, are now merely place 
names without a site. Withernsea and Dimlington are rapidly 
joining the group. In the North Riding, as well as in the East 
Riding, the sea is claiming for its greedy maw, chunks from 
Sandsend, Whitby, Robin Hood's Bay, Scarborough, and on 
to Filey. Further south along the Suffolk coast, in spite of 
protective works, the loss is considerable. In the Channel on 
the Hampshire coast the waste of cliff is enormous, and there 
is keen competition between it and Holderness for premier 
place in spending power. 

We might take a toar with the tides in their ebb and flow 
round our coasts and observe the changes going on, but time 
limits confine me to a brief consideration of the causes which 
are producing the effects \^e see or coald see. 

As a general rule it is the older and better compacted rocks 
which offer the greater resistance, but this resistance varies 
inversely as the rocks are fissured, irregularly bedded, or dip 
shoreward, and is affected by many other conditions such as 
faults, permeability, solubility, springs, surface drainage, nature 

* Paper read at the meeting of the Yorkshire Naturalists' Union 
(Geological Section) at Hull, November yth, 19 14. It was illustrated by- 
several lantern slides. 

Naturalist, 



Burton: Coast Erosion. 1^3 

of the beach, whether hard or soft or shelving, as well as by 
the set of currents and tides. 

The atmosphere has great crumbling action on soft bedded 
rocks, and they would gradually accumulate as rock debris 
or talus, and be banked up against any cliff exposure and so 
protect it from further denudation, but in the case of shore 
cliffs this protective action is denied them, and waves carry 
away the weather-worn material, and thus atmospheric de- 
nudation is continuous. 

A fault is in ilsjlf not necessarily an active agent in wasting 
shore cliffs, but fault s usually produce springs of water and these 
are a most prolific source of waste of land. 

Rocks of hard material which will withstand great abraisivc 
action, are sometimes composed of such porous or soluble matter 
that percolating rain water dissolves some of their constituents 
and gives them a brecciated appearance, and makes them 
peculiarly liable to marine denudation. Magnesian Lime- 
stone and Chalk, and even the more resisting Mountain Lime- 
stone, come under this head. 

Currents have much to do with erosion, as unless the wasted 
rock material is removed the waste would cease. How some 
currents are formed is not quite easy to explain, but their 
effects are visible in such places as Spurn Point, Chesil Bank. 
Dungeness and elsewhere where the travel of beach material 
has been arrested. This travel is curious. Apparently it is 
from north to south between the Tweed and Thames ; west 
to east along the south coast up ,to the Thames ; south to 
north along the west coast as far north as Morecambe Bay ; 
then locally, north to south between Walney Island and Work- 
ing on ; from there again north round the coast of Scotland 
back to the Tweed. 

Rain water, whether by carrying down the soft surface 
deposits, or by percolating through the hard subsoil and the 
sill harder lower rocks, greatly aids erosion. In the former 
case the action is direct and evident. In the latter it is in- 
direct and inferential, but not less certain. The solvent action 
of the water removes certain salts from practically every rock 
through which it percolates, and in the case of Magnesian and 
Carboniferous Limestones and Chalk this action is fairly 
rapid. Under certain conditions the same solvent force is 
equally active in ferruginous rocks. Surface drainage by 
cu ing down the land surface until it reaches sea level is 
another continuous cause of coast erosion. 

A laminated and jointed shale beach is peculiarly liable to be 
brok n up, and as the breaking up process proceeds the waves 
reach further inshore with greater force. The converse is true. 

Erosion is greatest around our shores {a) where the shore 
cliffs consist of masses of boulder clay, sand and gravel, or 

1915 April L 



124 Burton : Coast Erosion. 

other drift material, as in the estuary of the Humber and 
Holderness, and in many of our filled up ancient valleys which 
now form Bays in our coast line ; or {b) in the great Eocene 
basin on the south coast, especially amongst the Bagshot 
sands, gravels and clays of the Hampshire area. 

Vegetable growths, such as Marram grass on the sand 
dunes, by knitting the sand together by root fibres, arrest 
waste by wind and wave ; and so also seaweed growing on a 
rocky shore, by offering a soft cushion to the sand and pebbles, 
and lumps of rock thrown on it by the stormy sea, saves its 
host from being worn awav by attrition. 

On the other hand it sometimes contributes to destruction 
when growing near or below low water level, as big billows 
tear it up along with some of the rock in which it has clung. 
Stormy seas carrying grit, pebbles or chunks of rock, break 
down by attrition, but it is in their lifting and carrying power 
that their influence is greatest. 

It is a true saying that the lowly and minute are im- 
portant, but who would imagine that the rock boring mollusc 
PJiolas had anything to do with coast erosion, and yet 
it is proved that by their boring they have lowered the sea 
shore chalk beds in the neighbourhood of Cromer until they 
are now below sea level. 

The little limpet on the other hand protects the rocks 
to which it clings from abrasion and attrition. 

A last instance. Hard rocks by earth movements become 
broken up, fissured, faulted, or bent and weakened. In such 
condition they are an easy prey to a stormy sea. 

Is England disappearing ? No. Some parts are losing 
heavily, which is a pity. Others are gaining considerably, 
which is pleasing, but the gainer does not compensate the loser, 
and it is too often fertile land which goes and sterile land which 
is made. 

Protective works are of doubtful value. They often change 
the direction of currents and arrest the travel of beach material, 
and cause a gain in one locality at the expense of erosion in 
another. 

Reclamation works on the other hand have added many 
valuable areas won from the waters. 

Doubtless the whole land area is being lowered, but the pro- 
cess, counted by lives, is too slow to be important, and before 
it becomes so, earth movement may have counteracted or 
accelerated it. We have no data for a forecast of events. 

In the meantime land is being lost here and gained there. 
There is everywhere change, but in the balance there is no loss. 

Mr. Henry Coates has been appointed Curator of the 7'crthshire Museum 
in place of the late A. M. Roger. 

Naturalist, 



125 

A NEW RECORD OF GLACIAL DRIFT NEAR 
WAKEFIELD : 

AND ITS BEARING ON THE LATE GLACIAL CHANGES 
IN LOWER CALDERDALE. 



U. A. WRAY, B.Sc, F.G.S. 
H.M. Geological Sur-jLy. 



Some months ago my attention was drawn to some excavations 
being made to the immediate west of the church in the centre 







of the village of Horbury, near Wakefield. Under two feet 
of made ground the subsoil consisted of about four to six feet 
of clayey gravel, resting on much disturbed Coal-measure 
shales. As both slopes of the Calder valley appear to be very 
free from glacial drift, this deposit is worthy of note, and especi- 
ally the peculiar type of boulders it contains. These consisting 
in the main of Carboniferous sandstones and grits, which might 
have come from any direction ; also include several brown and 
black flints ; fossiliferous Magnesian limestone ; red quartzite 

1915 April 1. 



126 New Record of Glacial Drift near Wakefield. 

(Bunter ?) ; Shap granite, with characteristic large felspar . 
crystals ; and a small pebble of decomposed basalt, the origin 
of which I have been unable to ascertain. 

The exact extent of the deposit could not be estimated, 
as all the adjoining ground is built over, but it seems to be quite 
small as the workmen informed me they had not seen any 
similar deposit in making excavations close at hand. Moreover, 
the material dug in the churchyard close by, is typical yellow 
Coal-measure clays and shales. It seems probable therefore, . 
that this small patch may have escaped erosion by being 
preserved in a pre-glacial hollow. The gravel was but little 
waterworn, though the larger boulders, four to five inches 
across, are well rounded, while some seem to show glacial 
striations. The locality is about 250 feet above sea-level or 
about 160 feet above the level of the river Calder at Horbury. 

The general bearing of this deposit on the glacial history 
of Lower Calderdale seems to be of considerable interest. The 
researches of Professor Kendall and others have shown* that 
in late glacial times all the Pennine valleys as far south as the 
Aire had their own glaciers, which descended on to the vale of 
York. The Calder valley however, does not appear to have been 
occupied by any glacier of its own, but instead, to have been 
filled with the meltwaters of the extensive ice-sheets on the 
Pennines of East Lancashire. This suggestion is strongly 
supported by the character of the deposits on the floor of 
Calderdale, and the general contour of the valley ; while the 
researches of Dr. Jowett further indicate that the conspicuous 
gorge which truncates the Pennine watershed at Walsden is 
in reality a ' col ' produced by the overflow of an extensive 
series of glacial lakes in East Lancashire, f East of Tod- 
morden no true boulder-clay has been recorded in Calderdale, 
and the bed of the river is composed of a sandy clay with 
numerous rounded stones, which in the neighbourhood of 
Mirfield reaches a thickness of 30 feet,^ and at Dewsbury about 
50 feet. 

An undoubted eastern element, however, first makes its 
appearance at Horbury, where in addition to the small outlier 
of drift described above. Professor Fearnsides has recorded a 
similar set of erratics from the valley floor ; including in 
addition the distinctive ' rhomb-porphyry ' § which is not , 
known in situ nearer than Scandinavia. 11 , 



* P. F. Kendall. — Victoria County History, Yorkshire (Geology). 
Lond., 1907, pp. 79-90. 

I A Jowett, Quart. Journ. Geol. Socy. vol. 70, 1914, p. 215. 
{ P. F. Kendall, op. cit. p. 88. 

§ There is a possibility that this is a comparatively recent introduc ■ 
tion. — Ed. 

II W. G. Fearnsides, Brit. Assoc. Rep., 1901, p. 286. 

Naturalist, 



Neu^ Record oi Glacial Drift near Wakefield. 127 

These records, therefore, seem to indicate that an ice-sheet 
from an easterly source pushed up the valley as far as this 
point. On the other hand it might be suggested that as no 
true boulder-clay has been found here, these erratics reached 
their present position by means of icebergs, but this seems verj- 
improbable when it is seen later that the whole current of 
water would be in an opposite and easterly direction. 

The conditions in Airedale have been described by Messrs. 
Jowett and ]\Iuff, who state that ' at the period of maximum 
glaciation, there stretched along the southern border of the 
Airedale glacier, a series of six lakes, the surface levels of which 
fell from about 1,325 feet in the north-west to about 700 feet 
in the Bradford basin. The overflowing waters from these 
lakes discharged into the head of the Spen valley, and so into 
Calderdale.'* 

The quantity of water entering Calderdale at this period 
must therefore have been very considerable, including, as it 
did, probably the whole of the melt waters from the southern 
edge of the Airedale glacier, and also that from the extensive 
series of glacier-lakes described by Dr. Jowett in East Lancashire. 
Though this water may have at first entered a glacial ' Lake 
H umber ' in the vale of York.f it must have been subsequently 
diverted by the presence of the ice, which is indicated by the 
scattered patches of boulder-clay around Barnsley and Don- 
caster. These deposits have been described by Mr. \V. L. 
Carter, and according to him indicate that the ice at its maxi- 
mum extension reached as far east as the valley of the Dearne, 
and closed the present outlet of the Calder.J He further adds 
that 'we cannot stop the movement short of Woolley Edge ridge, 
on the eastern slope of which, up to 250 feet, are several drift 
gra\'el-patches. A great lake would necessarily be formed in 
Calderdale, fed by the overflow from the Lancashire side by 
way of the Burnley and Summit valleys. This lake would 
gradual^ creep up to Mirfield, accounting for the great deposits 
of drift at 150 feet above O.D., with abundance of great angular 
blocks of ganister, and to Elland, where there are extensive 
detrital deposits in the valley, and up to Mytholmroyd, where 
it would account for the great delta from 330 to 360 feet above 
O.D." § The bottom of the overflow channel between Woolley 
and Bretton is 405 feet O.D., so that a very considerable glacial 
lake must have existed (cf. accompanying plan). The waters 
from this lake would be discharged at this period ' into Lake 
Don by way of which they would pass by the Kiveton gorge 

* A. Jowett and H. B. Muff, Proc. Yorks. Geol. Socy., vol. XV., 1905, 
p. 228. 

t P. F. Kendall, Quart. Journ. Geol. Socy., vol. 58, 1902, p. 567. 
X L. W. Carter, Proc. Yorks. Geol. Socy., vol XV., 1905, p. 434. 
§ Ibid. pp. 434 to 435. 

1915. April 1. 



128 New Record of Glacial Drift near Wakefield. 

into the Triassic plain which was then probably also a glacial 
lake.'* 

Mr. Carter, however, further contends that the existence 
of tliis lake would explain the deltaic sands and gravels which 
occur on the Aire-Calder watershed at Rothwell and Oulton. 
These, however occur much farther east than Horbury, and 
moreover at an altitude varying from 17^ to 27^ feet O.D., 
so that it seems more probable they would be produced during 
a later stage, when the ice had retreated down the Calder 
valley. That they were produced by the washing and sorting 
of the lateral moraine of the Airedale glacier, as Mr. Carter 
suggested, seems highly probable from more recent obser- 
vations f made there, and it seems highly suggestive they were 
probably produced when glacial lake Calderdale had much 
contracted, and was probably overflowing by a lower ' col ' on 
the Calder-Dearne or possibly on the Calder- Went watersheds. 
: o : 

Among the additions to the Spalding Museum in the Report recently 
printed, we notice that xVIr. Reeks has given a ' Phlegm.' We now know 
why certain objectionable notices are posted iip in some museums. 

The lVarytngto)i jSIitseum and LidKafy has issued its ' Recent Additions 
to Books and Specimens,' dated December, 1914, 12 pages, which is sold 
at one half-penny. In the list we notice ' Ichneumon-Flies, British, 328 
species,' which seems a good haul. 

The seventh report of the Public Library, Art Gallery, and Museum, 
Beverley, contains a list of additions for the year. We notice that the 
\\'ater Vole and Pole Cat are classified under ' Birds, etc' whereas Hedge- 
liogs come under ' Miscellaneous.' In eggs we have the following entries : 
' Guillemot, Ostrich, Swan's eggs, Turkey eggs.' 

From the National ^Museum of Science and Art, Dublin, we have received 
six parts of the Museum Bulletin. It is a well illustrated and well written 
magazine, and contains particulars of some of the important acquisitions, 
etc., during the year. It deals with with a variety of subjects, such as 
snails, lace, old glass, Roman portraits, porcelain, medals, plants, furniture, 
statuarj', etc. The publication is one of the best that we know issued by a 
museum. 

In the last report of the Public Museum, Sheffield, the ' list of additions in 
the previous two years shows continued liberal donations from the public, 
and steady development of the collections by purchase.' Nearly 1,000 
specimens have been added, viz. : ' Zoology 265 ; Geology and Mineralogy 
235 ; Coins, Archaeology 72 ; Pottery, Art, Medals 290 ; Cutlery, Metal 
\Vork 97. The publications received from the British Museum are par- 
ticularly useful in connection with the scientific work of the museum.' 

The Hull Museum has recently issued its Quarterly Record of Additions 
No. 49 ; illustrated ; (publication No. 102). It contains reproductions 
of old views of east Yorkshire, New Yorkshire tokens, and a Saxon bronze 
pendant, old Yorkshire lead work, a mortar, etc. Publication No. 105 
has also appeared and contains a well illustrated account of East York- 
shire Antiquities, and Excavations at Scarborough, by the Curator. Both 
these papers are reprinted from the Transactions of the East Riding Anti- 
quarian Society. 

* Ibid. p. 435. 

t E. Hawkesworth, Proc. Yorks. Geol. Socy., vol. XV., 1905, pp. 
456-462 ; and Trans. Leeds Geol. Assoc, part XVI., pp. 24-26 and 31, 1911. 

Naturalist, 



129- 

NEW RECORDS AND ADDITIONAL LOCALITIES 

FOR THE MOSS-FLORA OF YORKSHIRE 

AND DURHAM. 



RICHARD BARNES. 



{^Co 11 tinned from page g^). 

Mnium orthorrhynchum B. & S. Bolton Woods (64), Thorns 
Ci-ill, Ribblehead (64), and at \\'est Burton, Wensleydale (65). 

Mniiini subglohosum B. & S. Sawley Moor, Ripon (64). 

Neckera pumila Hedw. On tree below Giggleswick Scars, 
near Settle (64). 

Thuidiufn hystricosmn ]\:itt. By road side, Nosterfield (65). 

Pylaisia polyantha (Heda-.) B. & S. Copgrove (64); and 
Langdon Beck, Upper leesdale (66). 

Eurhynchium Teesdalci bchp. Ling Gill, Ribblehead (64). 

Plagiothecium latebricola (Wils.), B. & S. Ripley (64), 
Banks of the Nidd near Scotton Dam (64), Lul Beck, Ramsgill 
(64), Bardsey (64). 

Amhlystegium Sprucei B. &S. On rocks near the Dropping 
■ Well, Knaresborough (64), 1 horns Gill, Ribblehead (64). 

Amhlystegium confervoides (Brid.), B. & S. Below Giggles- 
wick Scars (64), on stones. 

Amblystegium varium (Hedw.) Lindb. Newsham. near 
Thirsk (62), with fruit. 

Amblystegium irriguum (Hook and Wils.) B. & S. Cother- 
stone near Barnard Castle (65), Baydale Beck and Cleasby, 
near Darlington (66), Bolton, in rivulet near the Wharfe (64)'. 
*Amblystegium irriguum (Hook & Wils.) B. & S., var. spini- 
folium Schp. Marske Mill, Saltburn (*62). A new Count v 
record. 

Hypnum incurvatttm. Deep Gill, East Witton (65), and b\- 
the Yore above Wensley Bridge (65). 

Hypnum ochraceum Turn. On stone in the Nidd, Birst- 
with (64). 

Hepatic^. 

Blasia pusilla L. Blayshaw Gill (64). In very fine con- 
dition. 

Alicularia Geoscyphus DeNot. Guisbrough Moor (62). 
*Aplozia lanceolaia (Schrad.) Dum. var. prolifera Breidler. 
In woods between Kirby Knowle and Cowesby, near Thirsk 
(62). 

I have submitted specimens of this gathering to Mr. Symers 
M. Macvicar and he kindly informs me not only of its correct- 
ness, but that it is new to Britain. 

*Lophozia Muelleri (Nees.) Dum. var. Liberies (Hiiben) 

1915 April 1. 



130 Neic Records of the Moss-Flora of Yorks. and Durham. 

Schiffn. Mid(ilesmoor, Upper Nidderdale (64). New to the 
County. . ''-* 

Lophozia hicrenata (Schmid.) Dum. Boltb\', near Thirsk 
(62), with perianths. 

Lophozia excisa (Dicks.) Dum. Guy's Cliff, Pateley 
Bridge (64). 

Lophozia barhata (Schmid.) Dum. Lingj Gill, Ribblehead 

(64). 

Sphenolohiis miniitits (Crantz.) Steph. Guy's Cliff, Pateley 
Bridge (64). LI. J. Cocks, 1897 ; LI. J. C. and R. B., Novem- 
ber, 1914. Ling Gill, Ribblehead (64). 

Plagiochila spinulosa (Dicks.) Dum. Ling Gill, Ribblehead 

{64). 

Pedinophyllurn interruptiim (Nees.) Pears. Ling Gill, 

Ribblehead (64), with antheridia. Thorns Gill, Ribblehead 

(64), with perianths. West Burton, Wensleydale (65). 

Pediiiophylliim interruptiim (Nees.) Pears, var. pyrenaicum 
Spruce. Howstean Beck (64), with fruit June 191 1. 

Cephalozia connivens (Dicks.) Lindb. On Harlow and 
Sandwith Moors, Harrogate (64), andSawley Moor, Ripon (64). 

* Cephalozia macrostachya Kaal. Sandwith Moor near 
Beckwithshaw. This is not mentioned in the last census for 
V.C. 64, and is I believe a new record for it, if not for the 
county generally. 

Cephalozia Francisci (Hook.) Dum. Harlow ]\Ioor, Harro- 
gate (*64). New to V.C. 64. 

Cephalozia flnitans (Nees.) Spruce. Sawley and Sandwith 
Moors (*64). New to V.C. 64. 

No'd-ellia eiirvi folia (Eicks.) ^litt. Duncombe Park, Helms- 
ley (62). 

Odontoschisma denudatutn (Nees.) Dum. Widdy Bank, 
Teesdale (*66), Sandwith Moor (*64). New to V.C. 64 and 66. 

Lepidozia Pearsoni Spruce. Thorns Gill, Ribblehead (*64). 
New to V.C. 64. 

Scapania compacta (Roth.) Dum. Ravensgill, Pateley 
Bridge (64), with perianths. 

Scapania suhalpina (Nees.) Dum. Thorns Gill, Ribble- 
head (*64). New to V.C. 64. 

Scapania Bartlingii (Hampe.) Nees. Richmond (65), 
Aysgarth Force (65), Thorns Gill, Ribblehead (64). 

Scapania aspera Bernet. On walls near Ribblehead, and 
between Hawes Junction and Thwaite Bridge (65), also very 
fine in similar places in going from Settle to Scaleber Force (64). 

Scapania intermedia (Husnot.) Pears. Duncombe Park, 
Helmsley (62). 

Scapania rosacea (Corda).) Dum. Brimham Rocks, Nidder- 
dale (*64), \\\M\ Bank, Teesdale (*66). New to V.C. 64 and 
66. 

Naturalist 



131 
YORKSHIRE'S CONTRIBUTION TO SCIENCE. 

<{Pyesidential Address to the Yorkshire Naturalists' Union, delivered 
at the University, Leeds, $th December, 1914.). 

By T. Sheppard, F.G.S. 



[Contimu'd from page 114). 
EXISTING :\IAGAZINES AND THEIR PREDECESSORS. 

The Naturalist. 
The tirst magazine bearing this title was evidently a written 
monthly periodical, issued at York. For the following reference 
to it I am indebted to Mr. E. G. Bayford ; it is taken from ' John 
Stephenson Rowntree : His Life and Work.' Memoir by Mr. 
Rowntree on the ' History of the York Friends' Boys' School,' 
1908. page 339:— 

' Lovell Squire came to Laurence Street as a teacher in the 
summer of 1829. Amongst other ways of interesting the boys 
in natural history he wrote out monthly a little periodical called 
The Naturalist. Probably it recorded such achievements as the dis- 
covery of Listera cordata at Langwith and of Crocus vermis, alas ! 
now long since disappeared, on Knavesmire. In 1834 Lovell Squire 
left York but the seed he had sown flourished, and in the harvest 
tide of that year the Natural History Society was formed.' 

Through the good offices of Mr. Norman Penney, of the 
Friends' Reference Library in Bishopgate, I have been able to 
see this publication. He traced it in the Bootham School, York. 
The journal consists of twelve numbers, each beautifully 
written in two columns on sheets of foolscap, eight or ten sheets, 
stitched in a cover, forming a part. These were evidently lent 
out among the boys, as instructions are given to exercise care in 
handling the dried plants, most of which still remain in the sheets. 
The first part is dated ' 7th day, 6 month, 14th, 1834 ' (Saturday, 
June 14th). 

There is an excellently drawn title-page, and the publication 
is dedicated — 

To 

JOHN FORD, 

as a slight acknowledgment 

of the encouragement ivhich he has given 

to the Study of 

NATURE 

and those pursuits connected with it, 

as well as for much personal kindness, 

This little work 

Published in York School 

is presented 

by his sincere and obliged Friend 

The Editor. 

1915 April 1. 



[32 Sheppard : Yorkshire's Contribittion to Science. 












Copy of the MS. Title-page of The Naturalist issued in the 
York School in 1834. 



Naturalist. 



Sheppard : Yoykshire's Contribution to Science. 133 

Our monthly journal, The Naturalist, is considered by Mr. 
Roebiick* to have started in January, 1833, when the first part of 

The Field Naturalist 

was published, ' A review of animals, plants, minerals, the struct- 
ure of the earth, and appearances of the sky.' It was an octavo 
monthly illustrated magazine, averaging 48 pages, edited by 
James Rennie, and published by Orr and Smith, London. The 
first volume contained 12 monthly parts (552 pp., Jan. -Dec.) and 
the second volume contained the four parts, January-April, 1834, 
(220 pages). It ceased with its fourteenth issue. A title page 
was issued, dated 1835, with the words ' Two Volumes in One.' 
An index appeared to ' vols, i and 2,' at the conclusion of 
which is ' The End,' so that clearly no more were issued. It is 
pleasing to state that this publication gave the part and number 
of the volume on each sheet, and the date was printed on the first 
page of each month's issue, so that its collation has been an easy 
matter. 

This was followed by 

The Naturalist. 

The first printed publication that I have been able to trace with 
this title, consisted of five royal 8vo volumes, published betw'cen 
October 1836 and September 1839. Volume I., edited by B. 
^laund and W. Holl, and published by R. Groombridge, London, 
(October 1836 — March, 1837), contained 291 pages ; Volume II. 
was edited by Neville Wood, and published by Whittaker & Co., 
both of whom were connected with the journal in their respective 
capacities until the end of the series. The volumes contained I'- 
ll., April — December, 1837, 5^6 pages ; III., January — Septem- 
ber, 1838, 505 pages ; IV., October, 1838— June, 1839, 504 
pages ; and V., July — -September, 1839, 171 pages. Thus thirty- 
six monthly parts were issued, averaging 50 pages each ; as 
well as illustrations in the text, there are several excellent coloured 
plates of rare birds, etc. 

As in the case of its predecessor, with the exception of a few of 
the earlier numbers, each part published was clearly numbered 
and dated. 

From Volume II. (1837) ^^^^' publication can be said to be a 
distinctly Yorkshire production, as Neville Wood lived at Camp- 
sail near Doncaster, and apparently the journal w^as printed in 
Doncaster, for in an ' editorial ' dated August 26th, 1839, '^^ 
read : ' On the completion of the third year of the existence 

* Mr. W. Denison Roebuck, in his address on ' Salient Features in the 
History of the Yorkshire Naturalists' Union,' 1904, p. 10, speaking- of our 
journal, says ' The first series was one of twelve numbers, published in 1833, 
under the title of " The Field Naturalist," ' Presumably Mr. Roebuck had seen 
the first volume only. 

1915 April 1. I 



134 Shcppaii^ : Yoikshirc'^ Coiiii'ibiitioii to Science. 

of this journal, aiul more especially on the removal from Doueaster 
of the printer hitherto employed, it has become necessary to 
enquire into the expediency of discontinuing the work. . . . The 
result of this enquiry has been that the expenses of the magazine 
still so greatly exceed the receipts, as to compel the relinquisliment 
of the undertaking.' 

Neville Wood dedicated his tirst volume (i.e., ^'ol. 2 of the 
series) to Edwin Lees ; the next to J. W. Childers, of Cantley 
Hall, Yorks. ; and his next to Charles Waterton. of Walton Hall. 
Yorks. 

The Naturalist (Secoxd Series). 

In 1851 another series of The Naturalist 'a popular monthly 
magazine, illustrative of the animal, vegetable, and mineral 
kingdoms," appeared, and reached eight annual volumes. The 
first five volumes were edited by Beverley R. j\Iorris, of York,* 
the remaining three by F. 0. ^Morris, of British Birds fame, also 
a Yorkshire man. 

The first number (1851) contains the account of a meeting of 
the Yorkshire Xatiiralisfs' (liib. which 'met as usual at ^h. 
Graham's, in Lubbergate, York.' There were present D. Ferguson 
of Redcar. F. Gibbes of Northallerton. Baines, Charlesworth. 
Dr. Miu'ris, T. Allis. Richardson, and Graham. 

There are man}' well-known names among the contributors 
to-this series, such as Thomas Edwards, T. Foggitt, J. H. Gurney, 
the two Morris's, T. G. Bonnej', C. Waterton, T. Southwell, 
F. M. Burton, H. Doubleday. A. Strickland, H. Denny, A. M. 
Norman. H. Saunders, R. A. Julian, and T. S. Cobbold. 

Like its predecessors, this series contained several excellent 
coloured plates. The following are particulars of the pages, etc. : — 
Vol. I., 252 pages ; IL, 2gs ; TIL, 284 ; IV. 284 ; V. 286 ; VI., 
2QI ; VII., 286; and VIII. , 314. 

The N.vturalist (Third Series). 

In Hudderstield, in IMay, 1864, was published part I. of The 
Naturalist, a sensible 8vo publication ; all subsequent issues 
have adhered to this size, and have not fallen a victim to the 
prevalent craze for enlarging the size of the pages. 

The second title of the publication was ' Journal of the West 
Riding Consolidated Naturalists' Society [the predecessors of 
our Union], and manual of Exchange in all Departments of 
Natiu^al History. \\'ith which is incorporated the Entomolo- 
gists' Journal.' 

No editors' names appear, but it was edited by oiu" old friends, 
C. P. Hobkirk. and Geo. Tindall : the latter being the printer and 
publisher. 

* I notice iii the pai^t for January. 1S54, ' letters, etc., are to be addressed 
to Beverlej' R. Morris, Esq., M.D., Drirticld." 

Naturalist, 




NATUI(ALISI 



% 



•Shcppard : Yorkshire's Contribution to Science. 135 

On the first page of part I. we read : — 
' At the commencement of our career it is 
jxrhaps necessary to make our readers 
acquainted with the reasons which have 
induced us to embark in a boat which 
has twice suffered shipwreck. . . . The 
demise of the ' Weekly Entomologist ' 
left a gap in Entomological literature 
which was keenly felt by the working 
student .... as well as of its predecessor 
the ' Entomologists' Intelligencer ' . . . . 
Although the two former PLntomological 
periodicals failed through lack of sym- 
pathy and encouragement .... there is 
reason to believe that a Magazine .... 
on the more extended basis of Natural 
History in the widest signification of the 
term . . . would have a much better chance 
of success.' 

The first volume contained the parts 
from May 1S64, to May 1865 (380 pages), 
and, quite appropriately, had as a fron- 
tispiece, coloured illustrations of varieties 
of the Current Moth, Abraxas grossiilari- 
ata, in connection with a note by J. 
Varley. This is drawn by C. P. Hobkirk. 

Volume IL, May 1865, to May 1866 
(366 pages). 

Before the completion of \'ol. III., 
however, the boat is wrecked again ! 
The title page says : ' Vol. III., from 
-May r866, to May 1867,' but there were 
only 184 pages. On my copy (which was 
-Mr. Hobkirk's own ; I bought it together 
with several of his books) is written : 
' this volume was never completed.* 
This volume is scarce.' With the final 
part, imder the head of ' Requiescat in 
pace ' we learn : ' The Naturalist is dead. 
This issue is our last, at any rate for the 
present. We regret extremely the stern 
necessity which will thus sever the 
pleasant and agreeable connection that 
has existed during the last three years 
between ourselves and our contributors. 
. . . But .... the plain truth is that 



* So far as I can see il is complete, with index, etc., tlioutjh with fewer 
pages each part, apparently for the sake of economy. 

1915 April 1. 



136 Sheppard : Yorkshire's Contribution to Science. 

the circulation is not sufficient to pay che expenses of its produc- 
tion.' There is quite a Yorkshire straightforwardness about tliat 
statement ! 

After a few years' rest, we find our West Riding friends 
entering upon a fourth series, under the title 

The Yorkshire Naturalists' Recorder. 

From the title page we learn that this w^as the ' Journal of 
the West Riding Consolidated Naturalists' Society, edited, accord- 
ing to a title page in my copy, by Joseph Wainwright, F.L.S., 
July 1872 to August 1873. All pubhshed. Wakefield.* J, 
Wilcock, Northgate. 1873.' 

From the first part of this it is apparent that the editor has 
our old friend the boat in view, as he states the paper ' is now 
launched on the changeful waves of public opinion.' The publi- 
cation of the journal is the result of a desire that the members of 
the Consolidated Society should have a boat of its own. Part I. 
contained 20 pages, but later 16 was the average. 

With part XL for June 1873, under the heading ' Original 
x\rticles. To our Readers, Contributors, and Friends,' we find, 
' With the issue of the present number the ' Yorkshire Naturalists' 
Recorder ' completes its first year of existence. . . . Notwith- 
standing the great pecuniary sacrifice sustained, it has been 
decided to make the Recorder a Two Years Volume.' This 
wish, however, was not consummated, as with part IV. for August 
1873 (the last page being 223), the good ship was again wrecked, 
without any explanation or reason being given. It was apparently 
unexpected, as the last part contained articles ' to be continued.' 
From the title page of the volume already quoted, it is apparent 
that this is ' all published.' 

From many notes in the journal, however, this incomplete 
volume is of considerable value. The first article was on the 
' History and Progress of the West Riding Consolidated Naturalists' 
Society, from its Origin (1861) to the present time (July 1872).' 
This History, which is the only one extant, was ' by J. M. Barber, 
Honorary Secretary to the Society,' and was continued in small 
instalments through the various parts. Unfortunately by the 
time the boat ran aground, Mr. Barber had only reached the year 
1867. Another valuable feature is a record of the meetings of 
the various Yorkshire societies forming the ' Consolidated ' 
society. There is not an index, but a ' List of Contributors ' 
(16 names), viz., J. Abbott, J. M. Barber, J. R. S. Chfford, E. 
Foxton-Firby, J. Grassham, C. H. [? P.] Hobkirk, F. A. Lees, 
T. Lister, J. H. Martin. G. Mawson, S. L. Mosley, C. H. Raynor, 
J. Sim, W. Talbot, E. Taylor and J. TindalL. 

* Mr. Roebuck, in the address already referred to, say it was printed, 
edited and published at Heckmondivike — presumably an error for ' Wakefield." 



Shcppard : Yorkshire's Contribution to Science. 



^Z7 



As a frontispiece to the volume is a map of ' The West Riding 
of the County of York, shewing the River Drainage, C. P. Hob- 
kirk, 1871.' 

The Naturalist, (Fifth Series). 

In August 1875, The Naturalist as now constituted appeared, 
our present journal being a direct and uninterrupted continuation 
thereof, notwithstanding changes in editorship and place of 
publication. It was at first a 16-page monthly, and after the 
first part each was dated on the first page. From the ' Address ' 
on page i, it was apparent that the ' Societies in the Union of the 
West Riding Consolidated Naturalists' Societ}' ' arranged to call 
it The Yorkshire Naturalist, but previous to the part appearing 
before the public, it was decided to omit the word ' Yorkshire,' 
though it is admitted it had then, and has had ever since, a 
<listinctlv Yorkshire bias ! 





Block used on the cover of the fifth series of 

The Naturalist. 



Volume I. of the present series, was also ' the Journal 
of the West Riding consolidated Naturalists' Society and General 
Field Club Recorder.' It was printed, published and edited in 
Huddersfield. the editors being C. P. Hobkirk and G. T. Porritt. 
It contained 12 monthh^ parts (to July 1876). By the time the 
title page of Volume II. was printed it became the ' Journal of 
the Yorkshire Naturalists' Union,' the Yorkshire Naturalists' 
Union, as such, being constituted at Pontefract on April 2nd, 1877. 

With the same editors and printers, The Naturalist completed 
its 9th volume of the New Series, for 1883-4. The pages were : 
Vols. I. to v., 192 each ; VI., 196 ; VII., 208 ; VIII., 192 ; and 
IX., (1883-4), 220. Illustrations were very rare, most of the 
volumes having none. Reports of the societies were a strong 
feature. At the close of this ninth volume we find a very inter- 
esting paragraph. The craft had steered clear of rocks ! The 
journal appeared punctually every month, and what is more, 
there had been a small balance in hand at the close of each year. 
Other urgent duties induced the editors to resign, but they found 
competent successors before they did so. 

The publishing and editing of the journal was then transferred 

1915 April 1. 



138 Shep-pard : Yorkshire'^ C ontrihtition to Science. 

to Leeds, and we find the title modified to The Naturalist, a 
monthly journal of natural history for the nortJi of England. 

It was edited by W. Denison Roebuck and W. Eagle Clarke, 
and their first volume (vol. 10 of the new series) contained 16 
monthly parts, from August 1884 to December 1885 (376 pages). 
This enabled No. ii and future volumes to cover the year, January' 
to December, which was convenient. After four years of this dual 
editorship, Mr. Eagle Clarke's appointment to the Museum at 
Edinburgh caused him to resign his position, and from i88g to 
1902 it appeared under the editorship of Mr. Roebi;ck, with the 
assistance of specialists in different departments, except for the 
year 1892, when Mr. E. R. Waite was his colleague. 

After its removal to Leeds the journal contained 32 pages 
monthly, and occasionally had an illustration. During his 




Block at present used on the cover of The Naturalist. 



editorship, Mr. Roebuck made the publication of bibliographies 
and lists of various kinds a strong feature, and frequently these 
have been found of great service to students and specialists. 

On Mr. Roebuck's resignation in 1902, the printing, pub- 
lishing, and, to a fair extent, the editing of the journal were 
transferred to Hull. 

The new features included many plates and illustrations 
in the text, and supplements with extra pages; in addition to 
which the Union has been relieved of the financial anxieties which 
it formerly enjoyed. An attempt has also been made to copy 
what were considered to be the good features of Natural Science, 
in the form of Notes and Comments, news items, and reliable 
reviews of books. We have just completed our 12th annvial 
volume at Hrdl. 



With the January number The Quarry commences its twentieth volume. 

We have received from the Birmingham and Midland Institute Scientific 
Society their Records of Meteorological Observations taken at the Observatory, 
Egbastoii, 1914, by Mr. Alfred Cresswell, Curator of the Observatory, price 
2/-, which is a very useful compilation, and is illustrated by many charts 
in colours. 

Naturalist 



139 

A DIARY OF ORNITHOLOGICAL OBSERVATIONS 
IN BRITTANY. 



EDMUND SELOUS. 



Whilst residing in Brittany, I made some observations on 
the domestic habits of various small birds — mostly belonging 
to the Warblers. Those which here follow I believe refer to 
the Melodious Warbler, since on seeing a set-up specimen 
of this species, though the colouration was wan and faded, 
I was instantly struck by the strong resemblance, or rather 
identity of the shape and general appearance — more particu- 
larly in regard to the head and bill — with that of the birds that 
I watched. The nest (open — not domed) was also very similar 
to the one of theirs, which I took, after the family had left. 
When, however, I turned to the description of this species in 
the classified notes of vols. 4 and 12 of ' The British Bird Book,' I 
was unable to reconcile it either with the actual stuffed example 
or my recollections from the life. An illustration of the Marsh 
Warbler might also very well have represented my birds, but 
here again the letterpress gave a still more inconsistent account, 
nor could I find any other which seemed to fit. I have, there- 
fore, failed to identify the species, though I still suppose it 
to be Hypolais polyolotta. Personally I do not think the 
uncertainty very much matters, since I probably saw nothing 
that was not representative of the genus. My own field 
description of the birds I watched (dated July i6th), is as 
follows : — Head and upper surface, generally light brown, 
darker on wings ; pale yellow eye-stripe ; throat and whole 
under surface of a pale yellow (lighter on sides) except the 
under rectrices, which are brown ; legs light brown ; beak, 
brown, but under mandible much lighter than upper one, so 
that it looks almost pinkish. The beak is pointed and dagger- 
like, and long in proportion to size of bird, so that, in some 
actions, the head and beak have almost a Kingfisher-like 
appearance. The eye is black. The yellow colour I have 
spoken of, on the under surface, though it strikes one as the 
bird's chief characteristic, is, after all, very pale, so that, in 
the female, which is paler coloured than the male, it approaches 
to white. The plumage — and this too, is a marked feature — 
has a sleek and glossy appearance, as if it had been oiled and 
polished. This last, indeed, is a distinguishing trait of the 
family, but it appeared to me to be more marked in this 
species than in any other I have seen, though I dare not take 
the responsibility upon me of saying how much more. 

May 22ND, 1909. — A Warbler that I have several times 
seen here, but which is not, I think, one of our British ones 
(though doubtless like the Ibis and Griffon Vulture, included in 

19ir, April 1. 



140 Selous : Ornithological Observations in Brittany. 

the list) was, to-day, collecting insects, that is to say, catching 
one after another, and retaining them all in its bill. This was, 
no doubt, to feed its young with, yet it did not, by its' move- 
ments, give me any clue to the nest. This Warbler has a 
pretty song, but I do not find it either so sweet or so rich as 
that of the Garden Warbler. 

June qth. — The song of my yellow-throated Warbler — 
for the hue seems brightest on the throat — is often ushered in 
by a long-drawn ' too-i, too-i, too-i, too-i,' and there are numer- 
ous other sounds, such as ' twee, twee, twee, twee, tweer-le- 
veer,' etc., distinct from the actual warble, and generally 
preceding it. The bird is still in full song, but it has changed 
its habits, as well as its locality, for it is now always hidden. 

June I2TH. — My object now is, if possible, to find the nest, 
and see something of the domestic economy of this Breton 
Warbler, still constantly singing here. 

June 2oth. — I watched these Warblers for some time, 
again, this evening, from about 5-30 but failed, as before, to 
find any nest. Where are the females ? — for unless they, too, 
sing, I can hardly have seen a single one. There are two 
or three about here (in the valley), but I never watch any of 
them for long without its singing, though the song is now 
much deteriorated. I can never see one, with either food or 
nesting material in the bill, both of which would argue, even 
if they did not prove the feminine. Incubation, of course, 
remains, but all the hens of the males I have watched cannot 
have been incubating all the while. These Warblers seem 
to be much more fly — or gnat — than caterpillar-catchers. 
I have, however, from time to time, seen them search a leaf, 
though not yet catch a caterpillar. 

June 2ist. — I thought this morning that I had located the 
nest of a pair of these Yellow Warblers that haunt a bramble 
and willow brake, enclosed in a little quiet valley here, through 
which — that is to say just this part of it — a tiny stream rather 
oozes than flows. One of the two went repeatedly to a certain 
spot amidst bracken, often flying near about in the between- 
whiles, catching insects on the wing — as far as I could judge, 
at least. This I took to be the female, not only as being the 
more domestically inclined, but by her quieter and less bold 
manner and lighter song — for she did sing once or twice if not 
oftener. She also broke out occasionally into the same harsh 
ratthng note, indicative of displeasure or apprehension. Through 
the glasses she looked both smaller and paler than the male, 
a subdued edition of him so to speak. The latter also went 
down once into this same place, but it was after her, and as 
he seemed to me afterwards to be pursuing her amidst the 
bracken, I think the motive was a conjugal rather than a 
domestic one, especially as the same thing M^as repeated once, 



Seloiis : Ornithological Observations in Brittany. 141 

not quite at the spot. However, this may be a mistaken 
inference. 

Having watched many of these visits, and always seen the 
braken move in just this one place wherever else the bird went 
to, I at last walked up to it, but, instead of the nest, found a 
bird certainly quite full-fledged and resembling the parents, 
more especially the female, but with a certain young appearance 
not to be mistaken. It flew a little way as I came up, in the 
ordinary immature manner. I could not find any nest. It is 
plain, from this, that the female at any rate, if not the male 
bird also, has been occupied in feeding the young, and that, 
at least, one of the latter has left the nest ; if the last to do so, 
this would account for his still being near it. 

It was the same this afternoon. The young are now 
certainly being fed in various places, and sometimes the mother 
seems to have a difficulty in finding where the one or the other 
of them is. They utter, however (I suppose at least, that it 
comes from them) a plaintive cry more resembling a mew than 
a chirrup. Again it seems to be the female who does either 
all or most of the feeding, though the male is about in the 
neighbourhood, and the two converse, as it were, in answering 
snatches of song. I believe it is flies that the young are mostly 
fed on, though, as with other Warblers, caterpillars may play 
their part, and this seems only probable. Still, whenever I 
have seen anything in the parent's beak, I have not been able 
to make out that it was a caterpillar. 

June 22ND. — This morning there is much less to be seen 
of the feeding operations carried on by these birds, and what 
there is suggests that the young are getting further afield, and 
becoming more and more emancipated. Like the White- 
throat, this bird has, besides its song (which, however it be 
more praised, never seemed to me so sweet and rich as that of 
the Garden Warbler) a remarkable rattling sort of note very 
loud and continuous, which would popularly be called the 
alarm note, though, as with other birds, whose cries are thus 
labelled, it seems by no means always to express fear or anxiety. 
It is something like the analogous note of the Garden Warbler, 
but a more continuous, undivided sound, as if inside the bird's 
body there were a small policeman's rattle, that kept on going 
round, whereas that of the latter species is more syllabic like 
a quickly repeated ' tut, tut, tut, tut, tut.' 

July 6th. — There are signs now, of a pair of these Warblers 
either having or contemplating having a nest here, but, if they 
have, I hardly expect to discover it. It is the same place and 
the same vicinity as a fortnight ago, but whether the birds are 
the same, and can have come on again thus rapidly, I know 
not. 

{To be continued). 

1915 April 1. 



142 



3n riDenioriam. 



The Rev. F. H. WOODS, B.D. 
(1850— 1915). 

From the time the Rev. F. H. Woods came to Yorkshire a few 
years ago, he took a very keen interest in the natural history of 




the county. Always a keen collector, he had an eye for beauty, 
and although his inclinations led him in various directions, 
he devoted his attentions mainly to those objects which he 
considered to be the most beautiful, and he had an extensive 
collection of shells, wild flowers, and birds' eggs. Some time 
ago he called at the Museum at Hull in connection with local 
marine shells, and on our suggestion he at once commenced 
systematically collecting Yorkshire coast moUusca. He also' 
prepared a list of the marine mollusca of our coast ( Transactions 
Hull Scientific and Field Naturalists' Club, vol. iv^, part 5, 

Natnralist, 



In Mcmoriam : Rev. F. H. Woods, B.D. 143 

pages 231-250 ; reprinted as a Hull Museum publication, No. 
91). This list included all the known marine shells of York- 
shire, and subsequently Mr. Woods paid more particular 
attention to the almost microscopical mollusca, and added 
many further species to the list. While he placed the best, 
and in many cases the only local examples in the Museum at 
Hull, where the collection is specially set apart, he has given 
specimens to the Beverley and other museums. His own 
collection was an extensive one, including specimens from 
different parts of the country. 

With his wild flowers Mr. Woods had infinite patience, 
and was successful in preserving many of the most difftcult 
species in their natural colours. 

In 1904 he became a member of the Yorkshire Naturalists' 
Union, and since then he has taken a prominent part in the 
organization of the Marine Biology Committee. He was a 
regular attender at the Yorkshire Naturalists' Union meetings 
and excursions, and has also on many occasions given lectures, 
and conducted excursions, for the Hull Scientific and Field 
Naturalists' Club and other similar bodies. 

He frequently asked his naturalist friends to his home at 
Bainton on the Wolds, where they always enjoyed examining 
his extensive collections. 

Mr. Woods was the Rector of Bainton, was educated at 
Oxford, and in igio the present Archbishop of York made him 
one of his examining chaplains. He was an exceptionally 
hard worker, very enthusiastic, and will certainly be missed 
by many of the readers of this journal. 

The following notes from his pen appear in The Naturalist : 
' Conchology at Pocklington ' (September 1905, page 267) ; 
' Marine Mollusca at Robin Hood's Bay ' (June 1907, pages 
201-2) ; ' Birds of Thorne Waste ' (September 1907, page 318) ; 
' Marine Conchology at Hornsea ' (August 1908, page 308 ; 
also October, page 386) ; ' Marine Conchology at Runswick ' 
(September 1909, page 311-312) ; ' Marine Biology at Redcar ' 
(November 1910, page 408-410) ; ' Report of Marine Biology 
Committee, 1910 (January 1911, page 57-58) ; ' Marine Biology 
at Scarborough ' (Dec. 1911, page 420-422) ; ' Marine Biology 
at Bridlington ' (July 1912, pages 216-217) ; ' Marine Shells at 
Bridlington ' (Oct. 1912, page 302) ; ' Adeorbis subcarinatus, 
at Scarborough ' (Dec. 1912, page 361) ; ' Yorkshire Marine 
Biology Committee at Robin Hood's Bay (December 1912, 
pages 368-370) ; ' Annual Report of the Marine Biology 
Committee, 1912 ' (January 1913, page 81) ; ' Marine Biology 
at Filey ' (October 1913, pages 364-367) ; ' Yorkshire Marine 
Mollusca ' (December 1913, page 411) ; ' Report of the Marine 
Biology Committee ' (January 1914, page 29-30) ; ' Rare Shells 
at Filey ' (April 1914, page 130) ; ' Marine Biology at Filey ' 

1915 April 1. 



144 Reviews and Book Notices. 

(i\ugust 1914, page 254) ; ' Marine Biology at Whitby ' (Novem- 
ber 1914, pages 358-359)- 

In the Journal of Natural Science (Hull) he wrote ' Among 
the Birds of Shetland ' (volume i., No. i, pages 26-2S, July to 
September, and vol. i., No. 2, pages 39-44). 

Mr. Woods is also responsible for the following works on 
theology, travel, etc. : — 1880-82, ' A Guide to the Study of 
Theology in Oxford ' ; 1882, ' Sweden and Norway ' ; 1882, 
' Canons of the Second Council of Orange ' ; 1896, ' The Hope 
of Israel ' ; 1906, ' For Faith and Science ' ; 1887, Joint 
Translater with Rev. J. O. Johnstone of ' Three Anti-Pelagian 
Treatises of St. Augustine ' ; 1888, ' The Civilisation of Sweden 
in Heathen Times ' (translated from the Swedish) ; 1885-91, 
Contributor to ' Studia Biblica et Ecclesiastica ' ; 1898-1900, 
' Hastings Dictionary of the Bible ' ; and 1908-1912, ' Hastings 
Encyclopaedia of Religion and Ethics ' ; 1909-12, Joint Editor 
of ' The Hebrew Prophets for English Readers.' 

T. S. 



-: o :- 



Roman and other Triple Vases. J^y Walter H. Kaye, jun. London ; 
Elliot Stock, 40 pages, 2s. net. Some little time ago yir. Kaye contributed 
notes to The Antiquary on ' Curious Triple Vases,' which principally dated 
from Roman times. Sometimes these occur on separate bases and some- 
times these vessels are placed on a common base. Illustrations of typical 
examples are given, and by far the largest proportion has been found in 
the northern counties. Of the 32 recorded as known, 8 are from Carlisle ; 
3 from Warrington ; 3 from York ; 2 from Chester, and one each from 
ilkley, Durham, South Shields and Newcastle-on-Tyne. The little volume 
is well bound. 

Australasian Fossils. By F. Chapman. London : G. Robertson & Co., 
341 pages, 7s. od. net. Mr. Chapman's position as f^aHontologist to the 
.National Museum, Melbourne, enables him to speak with some authority 
on the fossils of the great island continent. The present book, ' a manual 
of palaeontology for students,' will doubtless be of great service to workers 
in Australia. After the general introduction, in which comparison is 
made with British deposits, the author reviews the various strata, and illus- 
trates his remarks by a large number of diagrams and blocks from photo- 
graphs, etc. The English student desirous of obtaining knowledge of the 
palaeontology of the Antipodes will do well to peruse the book. Mr. Chap- 
man gives full references to the literature, and the volume is well indexed. 

Geological Excursions Round London, By G. M. Davies. London : 
Thomas Murbv & Co., 156 pages, price 3s. ()d. The meetings of the 
London Geological Field Club which were held for many years, as well as 
the excursions of the Geological Association, etc., have demonstrated 
that a keen interest is taken in the geology of the unusually interesting area 
around London. The information thereon however, is somewhat scattered 
in different Societies' Transactions. In the present volume Mr. Davies 
has brought this information together and has added many notes and 
observations of his own. The book is well illustrated by photographs, 
and there is also a coloured geological map of the south-east of England as 
a frontispiece. Mr. Davies gives a general account of the stratigraphy of 
the south of London, and follows with particulars of excursions in the 
London basin, the Weald, and beyond the Chilterns. 



145 

3n nDemoriam. 



BENJAMIN HOLGATE, F.G.S. 

(1838-1915). 

We regret to record the death of Mr. Benjamin Holgate, of 




Leeds, a hfe member of the Yorkshire Naturahsts' Union, and 
one of the oldest members of the Union. 

He was well-known in the local engineering and scientific 
circles, and was one of the sons of the oldest working engineer 
in Leeds. 

He took a general interest in geology, more particularly 
in the rocks of the Carboniferous formation. 

1915 April 1. 



146 In Memoriam : Benjamin Holgate, F.G.S. 

He was a Fellow of the Geological Society ; a member of 
the Yorkshire and Leeds Geological Societies ; The Leeds 
Naturalists' Club (of the last two he was a foundation member, 
and a past president) ; and also of the Leeds Co-operative 
Naturalists' Club ; the last saw him a good deal. 

Mr. Holgate frequently contributed notes dealing with the 
geology of Leeds district to The Naturalist, to the Transactions 
of the Leeds Societies, and two papers were read b}^ him at the 
last meeting of the British Association held at Leeds. 

He was one of those usually described as a ' self-educated 
man,' and certainly his knowledge of the geology and natural 
history of his district enabled him to frequently conduct par- 
ties interested in these subjects. He was just over 77 years 
of age. 

The following is a list of his contributions : — 

Proceedings Yorkshire Geological Society. — ' The Minerals 
of the Yorkshire Coal-field as applied to the modern manufac- 
ture of Iron,' 1877 ; ' Some Physical Properties of Coal,' 1890 ; 
' The Mode of Deposition and Properties of the Carboniferous 
Strata of Leeds and its immediate suburbs,' 1892. 

The Naturalist : — ' Geology of Grassington,' 1891 ; Boul- 
ders at Scarborough,' and ' Geology of Rokeby,' 1892. 

Transactions of the Leeds Naturalists' Club and Scientific 
Association: — 'Points of Comparison between Limestone, 
Flint, and Iron-stone Nodules ' (1886). 

Transactions of the Leeds Geological Association : — ' The 
Geology of Leeds ' (part i) ; ' The Lower Coal Measures of 
Leeds ' and ' Notes on the Geology of Bournemouth ' (part 2) ; 
' Notes on the Lake District ' and ' The Magnesian Limestone 
of Yorkshire ' (part 4) ; 'A Long Buried Oak ' (part 6) ; 
' Some Examples of Change in Rocks caused by the Permeation 
of Underground Water ' (part 8) ; ' A Geological Study in the 
Horsforth Valley ' (part 10) ; ' Coal Measure Plants ' ; ' Geol- 
ogy of the Meanwood Valley and District to the North of it ' ; 
and ' Some Points of Comparison between Plants of the Present 
and those of the Coal Measures ' (part 11) ; ' Description of 
Plates showing Sections in Coal Measures of Leeds ' (part 14). 

Report of the British Association (Leeds Meeting), 1890 : — 
' The Carboniferous Strata of Leeds and its Immediate 
Suburbs,' and ' Some Physical Properties of the Coals of the 
Leeds District.' — T.S. 



Professor T. McKenny Hiijjhcs has an interesting paper on ' Flints,' 
in the Proceedings of the Cambridge Antiquarian Society, recently issued. 

.\mongst the contents of the Transactions of the Yorkshire Dialect 
Society, volume 3, part 16, we notice : ' Popular Speech and Standa- 
English,' by Mr. P. Smith, and ' Richard RoUe : The Yorkshire Mysti 
by Dr. F. W. Moorman. 

Natural] 



147 
FIELD NOTES. 

MAMMALS, 

l^arge Porpoise at York. — A Porpoise was shot in the 
River Ouse at Low Acaster on February 4th, 1915, by a keelman 
as he was bringing his vessel up to York. It was five feet long, 
had a girth of three feet, and weighed 122 lbs. I understand 
the carcase was taken to Bishopthorpe for the purpose of 
tanning the skin and boiling out the oil. — Sydney H. Smith, 
York. 

— : o : — 
BIRDS. 

The Misdeeds of a Kingfisher. — A friend of mine recently 
•constructed a rock garden, almost in the centre of Harrogate. 
An ornamental pool was well stocked with gold fish, many of 
them smallish in size. Although the pond is situated quite a 
mile and a half, as the crow flies, from the nearest stream 
frequented by Kingfishers, and to reach it, it would be necessary 
for a bird to pass, over many houses, yet in some mysterious 
manner a Kingfisher has discovered the little ' gold mine' and 
"by frequent ^'isits, has so far accounted for over a hundred of its 
inhabitants. — R. Fortune. 

— : o : — ■ 
FUNG/ 

Phoma acicola (Lev.) Sacc, in Yorkshire. — In June of 
last year ^Ir. Samuel Margerison forwarded to the Natural 
History Mueum a consignment of diseased Scots Pine. On 
some of the dead and dying leaves were present a number of 
pycnidia, which on examination proved to be Phoma acicola 
(Lev.) Sacc. This fungus appears to have been only once 
previously recorded for this country : in that case it occurred 
on leaves of Scots Pine at Marston Green, Warwickshire 
(W. B. Grove, Joiirn. Bat. L., 1912, p. 50). The fungus was 
found by Mr. Margerison on wind-sown pines in vSawley High 
Moor Plantations, 7 miles west of Ripon. Another fungus, 
Hormiscium pithyophilum (Wallr.) Sacc, which seems to be 
unrecorded for Yorkshire, was also present on some of the 
leaves forwarded. Phoma herbarum is reported to have oc- 
curred on rasp-canes at Grantley, last year. — J. Ramsbottom. 

— : o : — 
MOLLUSC A. 

Marine Shells from the Ancient Beach at North Somer- 
cotes. Lines. — Underlying the village and warren of North 
Somercotes on the Lincolnshire Coast is an ancient shingle 
beach. On the area known as ' the Warren ' this beach is 
overlaid with blown sand, in some places to a height of 20 feet 
,to 30 feet. In the village excavations were made for the 
purpose of obtaining the shingle, which is about 4 feet in 

•1915 April 1. 



148 News from the Magazines. 

depth. On the occasion of a visit by members of the Louth 
Naturahst's Antiquarian and Literary Societ}^ to the Warren, 
four of their number paid a hurried visit to the excavations. 
As there seems to be no record, as far as we know, of this 
beach, except the incidental reference to its existence in the 
Memoir of the Geological Survey, it is desirable to place on 
record the list of shells obtained on this hurried visit. 

Mytihis ediilis. Portion of one valve. 

Ostrea edulis. Very abundant. 

Pecten varius. Rather common. 

P. opercularis. One valve. 

Macoma {=Tellina) balthica. Common. 

Mactra sUiltonim. One valve. 

S pi sill a { = Mactra) solid a. Rare. 

Cardium edulc. Abundant. 

Mya trimcata. One valve. 

Gibbula {=Trochiis) cineraria. Rather common. 

Calliostoma (= Trochns) zizyphinum. One broken example, 

Littorina obtiisata. One example. 

L. riidis. Rather common. 

L. littorea. Common. 

Trivia {=Cyprcea) europcea. One example. 

Bucciniim undatum. Common. 

Ocinebra { = Miirex) erinacea. Rather common. 

Trophon truncata. One example. 

Purpura lapillus. Abundant. 

C. S. Carter, Louth. 



The Mtiseitiiis Joitnial for March contains a paper by E. Howarth, 
F.Z.S., of Sheffield, on ' The Museum and the School.' 

' Notes on the Habits of the Fulmar Petrel,' by O. G. Pike, appear in 
British Birds for March, and are well illustrated. 

Man for March contains an excellent portrait of the late Frederick- 
William Rudler, I.S.O., together with a notice by Sir Edward Brabrook. 

The Zoologist for February includes ' A Diary of Ornithological 
Observations made in Iceland during June and Jul}', 1912,' by Edmund 
Selous. 

In Aiiiiotationes ZoologicB Japonenses there are papers on Japanese 
Echinodcrms, East Indian Termites, and Japanese Myopsida, all of which 
are illustrated. 

Mr. Arthur Bennett has favoured us with a copy of his notes on ' The 
Potamogetons of the Philippine Islands,' reprinted from The Philippine 
Journal of Science. 

In The Lancashire and Cheshire Naturalist for February is a record 
of ' Lnnularia cruciata with Male Inflorescence in East Cheshire.' Refer- 
ence is also made to Yorkshire specimens. 

The Entomologist' s Monthly Magazine for March is an unusually large 
number and is sold at 2/-. It includes plates illustrating details of British 
Siphonaptera. The paper on this subject, by the Hon. N. Charles Roths- 
child, M..\., occupies the greater part of the publication. 

Naturalist, 



Some Geographical Factors 
in the Great War 

By T. HERDMAN, M.Sc, F.G.S. 

(Lecturer in Geography, Municipal Trainiiin College, Hull), 

y2 pages, crown 8vo, with 6 Maps, sewn in 
stout printed cover, gd. net, post free lod. net. 

A feature of vast importance in the titanic struggle now takinij 
place is the geographical condition of the various countries. In 
" Some Geographical Factors" the author provides much interesting 
information which helps his readers to a wider understanding of an 
important aspect of the present campaign. The concluding chapter 
■on "The Problems of Nationality " affords a glimpse of the immense 
difficulties that face those statesmen to whose heads and hands will 
be committed the adjustment of the new boundaries. 

The ^'Literary World" says: — " Those who would follow intelligently 
the movements in this world contest will find much help in this little 
handbook. Mr. Herdman's exposition of the part played in the war 
by the great land-g-ales and the seas is clear and informing:, and is 
followed by some sound reasoning: on the commercial war and the 
problems of nationality." 

A Book of special interest to Naturalists. 

Yorkshire Moors and Dales 

A Description of the North Yorkshire Moors 
together with Essays and Tales, 

By ALFRED F. WILSON. 

■248 pages, size 8| by 6J inches, and 12 Jull-page plates on Art Paper, tastepdly 
bound in cloth boards, lettered in gold, ivith gilt top, XO/6 net. 

The district covered-by the North Yorkshire Moors is one of the most interesting 
parts of Yorkshire, and this book ably portrays the charms of a visit to the 
■neigfhbourhood. There is no other place in England so rich in antiquities, and 
most of these are herein described. 

Part Ii serves as a guide to the visitor, and brings to his notice the objects of 
interest throughout the district. 

Part II, forms a series of Essays, and, besides other sul^jects, deals witii the 
following : — 

The Dalesfolk. Old Customs. Local History. 

Moorland Roads. Wild Nature. Dialect, etc., etc. 

Part III. consists of a number of stories which further describe the character- 
istics of the dalesfolk. 

London: A. BROWX & SONS, Ltd., 5 Farrin'gdon Avenue, E.G. 

AND AT HULL AND YORK. 



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The volume includes many valuable and attractive articles by some 

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present to all interested in out-door life, 

THE IRISH NATURALIST 

A Monthly Journal of General Irish Natural History. 
BOTANY. ZOOLOGY. GEOLOGY. 

EDITED BY 

GEO. H CARPENTER, R.Sc, R. LLOYD PRAEGER, B.A., and 

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This MAGAZINE should be in the hands of all Naturalists interested in the distribution of 

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To Subscribers, 6s, per nnnum ; Post Free, 6s. 6d . 

The Scottish Naturalist 

with which is incorporated 

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A Monthly Magazine devoted to Zoology 

Edited by William Ivagle Clarke. F.R.S.E., 
F.L.S., Keeper Natural History Dept., Royal 
Scottish Museum William Evans, F.R.S E., 
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Printed at Bkown.s' Swii.e Prks.s, 40, George Street, Hull, and published by 
A. Rrown .V ^. >Ns. Limited, at 5 Farrlngdon Avenue, in the City of London. 

April i.st, 1915. 



MAY 1915. 



No. 700 



(No. 477 0/ current sc 




A MONTHLY ILLUSTRATED JOURNAL OF 

NATURAL HISTORY FOR THE NORTH OF ENGLAND. 

EDITED BY 

T. SHEPPARD, F.Q.S., F.R.Q.S., F.S.A.Scot.. 

The Museums, Hull ; 

AND 

T. W. WOODHEAD. Ph.D., F.L.S., 

TscHNicAL College, HuDDERSFiEt.n. 

WITH THE ASSISTANCE AS REFEREES IN SPECIAL DEPARTMENTS OF 

J. aiUBBRT BAKER, P.R.S. P.L.S., GEO. T. PORRITF, P.L.S.. H.H.S 

Prof. P. P. KENDALL, M.Sc, P.Q.S., JOHN W. TAYLOR, 

T. H. NELSON. M.B.O.U.. RILEY PORTUNE, F.Z.S. 



Contents : — 

PAG 

Notes and Comments (Illustrated) :— Fossil Remains of Man ; Dr. A. Smith Woodward's 
Address; The War and Second-hand Books ; Presentation to Mr. J. W. Taylor ; Flints : 
The Ashgillian Succession ; Effect of Smoke on Lichens ; Geologists in Bowland ; Ingle- 
borough and Bowland Limestones ; Investigation of Yorkshire Rivers ; Dew Ponds ; Dew 
Ponds on the Yorkshire Moors ; their Sites ; their Construction ; Action of Light upon 
Chlorophyll ; Experiments on O.xalis acetosetUi ; Lonsdaleia and Dihunopliyllum rugosum 149-150 

On the Occurrence of Pauliaella chromatophora (Lauterborn) in Britain (illustrated) 

--James Meiklt Brown, B.Sc, F.L.S., F.£.6 157-159 

A Diary of Ornithological Observations In Brittany— £rf«i«)irf 5^/ons 360-163 

Yorkshire Coleoptera in 1914— W. J. Fordhain, M.R.C.S., F.E.S 164-167 

Bryologista at Austwick (Illustrated)— C. /4. C/ief^/;(i>« ]()8-170 

Yorkshire Naturalists' Union: Vertebrate Section— A .Haif;h-Lumby 171-173 

Bryology of Castle Howard— M');;. /ng'/m»i. fl. /J I74 

Field Notes: — Gagta fasciculaiis Salisb. (hitea L.) as a Garden Weed ; Seligeiia. ncurvata 
B. & S., in Cumberland; Lepidozia sylvatica Evans, a new Yorkshire Hepatic: Stenicli- 
iietimon pictus in Yorkshire... ... ... ... ... 175 

In Memoriam:— Thomas Bunker (illustrated) ; William Simpson, F.G.S. ; Harry Speight ; 

Joshua Rowntree ; Thomas Whitham ; Edward Peacock, J. P., F.S. A. 176-179 

Reviews and Book Notices 170, 17:j 

Museum News 167 

Proceedings of Provincial Scientific Societies 16:^ 

News from the Magazines 150,179 

Northern News I59, leo 

illustrations 



149, 151, 154, 157. 168, 17:1, 170 



LONDON : 

A. Brown & Sons, Limited, 5, Farringdon Avenue, E.C. 

And at Hull and York. 

Printers and Publishers to the Y.N. U, 



Prepaid Subscription 6/6 per annum, post free. 



An entirely New Work bringing the Vegetational History 
of the County quite up-to'date, 

THE VEGETATION OF YORKSHIRE 

Its History and Associations on the lines of Botanical Survey, 
based on the Geologic and Phyto-palaeologic remains : being an 
examination into the sources, the presence or passing of the 
Floristic Constituents — their When, How and Where ; being also 
a Supplement to previous " Floras " of York, and a list of the 
Localities and Species, newly classified, " New " to the County or 
some of its river-basins since 1888. 

By F. ARNOLD LEES 

M.R.C.S.En^., L.R.CP.Lond. 

Demy Svo, on uohiie unsized paper, about 500 pages, 
to be subscribed at 12/6 net (16/- net strictly after publication) 



LONDON 

A. BROWN & SONS, Ltd., 5, Farringdon Avenue, E.G. 
And at Hull and York. 

FOR SALE. 

From the Library of the late W, CASH, F.G.S. 

Proc. Yorks. Geol. Soc. 30 parts, 1878-1914. 
Linn. Soc. Journal. 16 odd parts, 1888-1891. 
Fauna de la Normandie. Parts 1 and 3. 

1-iecherches sur I'appareil veg-etatif des Bii^'nonacees, Rhinanthacees, Oroban- 
chees et Utriculariees. 766 pag'es. 

BOOKS WANTED. 

Quarterly Journal of Science. Set. 

Frizing-hall Naturalist (lithog'raphed). Vol. L and Vol. IL, pt/ i. 

The Field Naturalist and Scientific Record. Set. 

The Journal of the Keighley Naturalists' Society. Part i. 

Huddersfield Arch, and Topog. Society. 4 Reports. (1865-1869). 

The Naturalists' Journal. Vol. L 

First Report, Goole Scientific Society. 

Cleveland Lit. & Phil. Society's Transactions. Science Section or others. 

The Naturalists' Record. Set or parts. 

The Natural History Teacher (Huddersfield). Vols. L-H., or parts. 

The Economic Naturalist (Huddersfield). Parts i and 2. 

The Naturalists' Guide (Huddersfield). Set, or parts 1, 4-12, 15-20, 29, 30, 34, 

The Naturalists' Almanac (Huddersfield). 1876. 36-38. 

Proc. Yorkshire Naturalists' Club (York). 1867-70. (Set). 

Keeping-'s Handbook to Natural History Collections (York). 

" Ripon Spurs," by Keslington. 

Geologfical and Natural History Rej^ertory. Set. 

Apply .-—Editor, The Museum, Hull. 



NOTES AND COMMENTS. 



149 



FOSSIL REMAINS OF MAN. 

Under the above heading the authorities at the British 
IMuseum (natural history), have issued a remarkably cheap 
guide, which contains 33 pages, four plates and twelve text 
figures. It is sold at the low price of 4d. Written by Dr. A. 
Smith Woodward, it can be taken as most authoritative and 






reliable. The illustrations of the various important remains 
of early man are remarkably clear, and special prominence 
is given to the Piltdown specimens, which are now in the 
national collection. We are permitted to reproduce one of 
the illustrations herewith, which shows left side view of the 
Piltdown skull {a) ; the Neanderthal (Mousterian) skull from 
La-Chapelle-aux-Saints {b) ; and a modern human skull (c), 
the second after M. Boule ; one quarter natural size. The lower 
jaw of the La-Chapelle skull is altered by the loss of the teeth 
and disease. 



I'.ilS May ].j 



150 Notes and Comments. 

DR. A. SMITH woodward's ADDRESS. 

In his recent Presidential Address to the Geological. Society, 
Dr. A. Smith Woodward remarked that the progress of Geology 
depends on so many lines of research, that each specialist does 
well at times to pause and consider the relation of his own small 
part to the whole. He therefore reviewed some results of his 
study of fossil fishes in their bearing on stratigraphy. However 
necessary detailed lists of species of fossils might be for com- 
parative work with sediments in restricted areas, he hoped to 
show that in dealing with broader questions, names were reall}- 
of small importance. Certain general principles had been 
arrived at, which would serve for all practical purposes. Each 
successive great group of fishes began with free-swimming 
fusiform animals, of which some passed quickly into slow- 
moving or grovelling types, while others changed more gradu- 
ally into elongated or eel-shaped types. There was also a 
constant tendency for the primitive symmetry of the parts 
of the skeleton in successive members of a group to become 
marred by various more or less irregular fusions, sub-divisions, 
and suppressions. Some of the successive species of each 
group increased in size, until the maximum was reached just 
before the time for extinction. These and many other more 
special inevitable changes had now been traced in most groups, 
and the various geological dates at which they occurred had 
been determined by observations on fossil fishes from many 
parts of the world. Even fragments of fish-skeletons, too 
imperfect to be named, were often therefore of value for 
stratigraphical purposes. 

THE WAR AND SECOND-HAND BOOKS. 

The war is responsible for much, but it was a little un- 
expected to find notes similar to the following in a list of books 
for sale issued by one of our leading firms : — No. 834. — Becker 
(Leon), ' Les Arachnides de Belgique.' — '. . . Since the informa- 
tion of the above work, Belgium has been overrun by the 
enormouse migration of a gigantic bloodsucking spider, 
Kultiiria Vastatrix Treitschk, with falces of a noxiousness 
hitherto unknown to naturalists. Although in their new 
habitat these Archnida have approximated to the trap-door 
spiders, their expulsion and extermination is only a matter of 
time.' No. 835. — Beneden (Pierre Joseph van)'. . . . Animal 
Parasites and Messmates.' ' Like Belgium in general, Louvain 
in particular is suffering from the unexpected arrival of vermin 
of a very low type, which are unlikely to survive the freshening 
winds of spring.' No. 1066. — Haeckel (Ernst), ' Report on 
the Siphonophorae . . .' ' This is the man who, with Dr. 
Eucken, put forth with his tongue in his cheek the lying 
statement that the French invaded Belgium before his own 
countrymen did.' 

Natiir.ilist, 



Notes and Comments. 



151 



PRESENTATION TO MR. J. W. TAYLOR. 

The Journal of Conchology for April contains a record of an 
interesting event which recently took place at a meeting of the 
Conchological Society. This was the presentation of an 
illuminated address to a past president of the Yorkshire 
Naturalists' Union, Mr. John W. Taylor, on having attained 
his seventieth birthday. Mr. Taylor was the founder of the 
Society, which started as a Leeds Institution about forty 




.*' ., ill .I.C1U.U..- .'UK- --* ^ 




years ago. We give a reproduction of the title page of the 
address herewith. 

FLINTS. 

In volume 18 of ' The Cambridge Antiquarian Society's 
Communications,' Professor T. McKenny Hughes has an 
interesting paper on ' Flints.' Fewer people have had greater 
experience than Professor McKenny Hughes, • consequently 
his remarks will be perused by students with the greatest 
possible profit. In reference to the alleged artificial nature 
of the sub-Crag Flint implements described by Sir Ray Lankes- 
ter. Professor McKenny Hughes writes : — ' I must, however, 
say that I have failed to arrive at the same conclusion, but 
find that identical forms are produced under shore conditions 
which must have been similar to those under which the Suffolk 
Bone Bed was laid down.' 

THE ASHGILLIAN SUCCESSION. 

At the recent meeting of the Geological Society Dr. J. E. 
Marr read a paper on ' The Ashgillian Succession in the Tract 
to the West of Coniston Lake.' Dr. Marr has studied in detail 



1915 May 1. 



152 Notes and Comments. 

the succession of the Ashgilhan strata in Ashgill Beck and the 
adjoining tract. An account of the Hthological . characters 
and lists of the fossil contents of the various divisions were 
given, and confirmatory sections from Coniston Village to 
Appletreeworth Beck described. A comparison was made 
with the beds of the Cautley district which he had previously 
described. Some fossils which have not yet been found in the 
Lower Ashgillian of the Cautley district occur in the beds of 
that division at Coniston. From a study of the fossils of the 
Coniston tract and of other areas in Britain and the Continent, 
it would appear that a two-fold division of the Ashgillian strata 
which is of more than local value may be made. The lower 
division is characterised by the abundance of PhillipsineUa 
parahola, and the upper by the profusion of Phacops miicronatiis. 

EFFECT OF SMOKE ON LICHENS. 

Mr. G. T. Porritt writes :— At a recent meeting of the 
Linnean Society a paper entitled, ' The Lichens of South 
Lancashire,' was read by Messrs. J. A. Wheldon and W. G. 
Travis. After referring to the enormous industrial develop- 
ment of South Lancashire during the last century, the authors 
pointed out the deterioration of the flora which had conse- 
quently ensued, and entered into details as to the results of 
the effects of air-pollution by coal smoke on cryptogamic 
vegetation, and more particularly on lichen growth. They 
were of opinion that South Lancashire shows the deleterious 
effects of smoke on vegetation over a larger area than perhaps 
any other part of Great Britain. In the discussion which 
followed, the President of the Society, Professor E. B. 
Poulton, remarked on the similar changes which the insect 
fauna in the same district had undergone, probably owing to 
the same causes as those which had affected the lichens. As 
melanism in lepidoptera (the characteristic to which Professor 
Poulton alluded), is probably much more prevalent in South- 
West Yorkshire than in South Lancashire, it would be an in- 
teresting study for our South Yorkshire botanists to investigate 
and ascertain whether our lichens have also been affected as in 
South Lancashire. 

GEOLOGISTS IN BOWLAND. 

The members of the Yorkshire Geological Society visited 
the Forest of Bowland during Easter week-end, and the 
Yorkshire Observer gave the usual racy accounts of the work 
accomplished. From that source we learn that the old question 
of the origin of the Reef Knolls was discussed on the spot. 
Dr. Vaughan satisfied himself that the general assortment of 
fossils found in the knolls of Bowland was similar to the 
assortment of fossils found in ()th(M- knolls both in Wales and in 



Notes and Comments. 153 

tlie neighbouring country of Craven which he liad previously 
examined, and that they were different in species and in associa- 
tion from the fossils found in the ordinary bedded hmestones. 
The deduction is obvious that they represented a fauna which 
regularly adopted the knoll form of growth, and could not 
])()ssibly have been squeezed out of other beds in the manner 
l)()stulated by Dr. INlarr. Such a triumphant vindication of 
Air. Tiddeman's original suggestion was the chief interest of 
the excursion on the Carboniferous side. A further piece of 
lividence in support of the knoll theory was the discovery in 
the limestones of the Knott, near Knowlmere, of little beds of 
tufa. Tufa is derived from the deposition of limestone from 
solution practically by evaporation. Assuming that these 
little patches were the floors of lagoons and pools in the reef 
their presence is easily intelligible. It would be difficult to 
explain them on any other basis. 

IXGLEBOROUGH AND ROWLAND LIMESTONES. 

Incidentally some attention was given to another problem 
of the locality which has been also hotly contested. l\Ir. 
Tiddeman noticed, when he surveyed the district, that the 
limestones in the Bowland district were extremely different 
from those of Ingleborough, and that the mud-stones (shales) 
lying upon the limestones in the two areas were also very 
distinctive. He quaintly compared the rocks of the two areas 
to the Jews and the Samaritans, who agreed in nothing but a 
common boundary and the determination to have nothing to 
do with one another. The geological boundary in the Yorkshire 
case he found to be the great Craven fault, that dislocation 
which formed the impressive wall of limestone rocks from near 
Skipton round to Ingleborough and beyond. It has been 
found by Air. Cosmo Johns that part of the difference at least 
which j\lr. Tiddeman found in the Ingleborough and Bowland 
limestones arose from the fact that they are not precisely 
contemporary. But difficulty has arisen with regard to the 
shales which form the upper part of both Ingleborough and 
Pendle. Dr. Wheelton Hind, writing on similar evidence of 
fossils, came to the conclusion that, similar as the great York- 
shire and Lancashire heights are in structure, there was a great 
diversity in their age, for he found evidence for the belief that 
the Pendleside series — as they have been called — are of later 
■date than the Yoredales of Ingleborough and North Yorkshire. 

INVESTIGATION OF YORKSHIRE RIVERS. 

The drainage system of Yorkshire places it in a unique 
])osition among the counties of England for carrying out a 
systematic research upon its water resources, and the Yorkshire 
Geological Society has decided upon setting such an enquiry on 
foot. The aims and scope of the work are set forth on a leaflet, 

r.il.-i May 1. 



154 



Notes and Comments. 



issued by the Society, and it is proposed to do the work in a very 
comprehensive manner. In order that the scheme- may be 
carried through successfully it is necessary to enlist the co- 
operation of all who are interested in such work. Those who 
wish to help should comm.unicate with the Secretary, Mr. A. 
Gilligan, the University, Leeds. 

DEW PONDS.* 

Mr. Martin has taken a considerable interest in these 
structures, and from time to time has contributed notes in 
different scientific journals on the subject. The present book 
is a summary of the information he has gathered together as 
to their age and history, theories, modes of construction, 
experiments and observation. By the illustrations given it 




Sheep watering at Upper Standson Pond. 

is evident that in the south of England dew-ponds are of 
much larger size and importance than the so-called dew-ponds 
on the Yorkshire Wolds. He states that when he commenced 
his experiments he had a strong leaning in favour of the theory 
of the replenishment of these ponds by dew, but he was soon 
led to abandon this idea, and, although there is evidence to 
show that considerable condensation takes place into high- 
level ponds other than rain, dew has, he submits, little or 
nothing to do with it. 

DEW PONDS ON THE YORKSHIRE WOLDS. 

Mr. Martin quotes the following interesting note by the late 
J. R. Mortimer : — ' Perhaps no district of the same area 
contains more ponds than the Mid- Wolds of Yorkshire. These 
are partly ancient, partly modern. The latter can be numbered 
by hundreds, nearly all of which have been made during the 
last 150 years — mostly after the inclosures of the parishes. 



* History, Observation and Experiment, by E. A. ^Martin, F.G.S. 
London ; T. Werner Laurie, Ltd. 208 pages, 6s. Not dated. 



Naturalist, 



Notes and Comments. 155 

Previous to that, the stock grazing on the open commons were 
driven to be watered at the ponds in the villages. These 
ponds are mostly of a circular form and of all sizes, from ten 
yards to fifty yards in diameter. A few are oval, to adapt 
themselves to the ground on which they are constructed.' 

THEIR SITES. 

' Their chosen sites are generally in depressions on the' 
surface of the land, in which the rain-water has a tendency to 
collect, or on sloping ground, and often near the side of a high 
road or track-wa3^ where the running water from the roads 
during rain can be conveyed by a channel or gutter into the 
pond. This is the means by which the ponds are supplied on 
the Yorkshire Wolds. No one ever thinks of filling them by 
any other means, the condensation of a fog or mist being a 
very small factor.' 

THEIR CONSTRUCTION. 

' In this district they are constructed as follows : — First, 
a dish-shaped excavation with a gentle slope to the centre, is 
made in the ground, to the depth of 4 to 6 feet, according to 
the diameter of the pond. This is then covered with quick 
Ume, next a layer of clay, which is wetted and beaten with 
wooden mallets into an impervious sheet, 3 to 4 inches thick. 
Again a covering of quick-lime is applied, then a coating of 
stiff wheat-straw, and on the top of this is spread broken chalk. 
The two coverings of lime are to prevent earth-worms boring 
through the bed of clay. The bed of straw is to prevent the 
covering of broken chalk from being trodden, by cattle going 
to drink, into the impervious bed of clay, which, if not pro- 
tected by the straw and broken chalk, would be pierced througli, 
and the pond would lose its water. I believe it is generally 
considered that, as soon as the pond is constructed, the sooner 
it is filled with water the better, as, if without water for anv 
length of time, the clay lining is liable to shrink and crack from 
the effect of dry weather.' 

ACTION OF LIGHT UPON CHLOROPHYLL. 

At a recent meeting of the Linnean Society, Mr. Harold 
Wager read a paper on ' The Action of Light upon Chlorophyll.' 
' By making a film of chlorophyll, upon paper and on glass, 
by floating an alcoholic solution, and allowing it to dry, the 
author was able to bleach a portion under strong sunlight, 
and covering a portion by black paper ; when this was tested 
by Schiff's solution, the exposed, that is the bleached portion, 
became pink, the unexposed portion showing no colour change. 
Another experiment was made by subjecting similarly bleached 
portions of chlorophyll to the action of potassium iodide, when 
the exposed parts turned reddish-blue, in consequence of the 
liberation of iodine, which acts upon the starch on the paper. 

11I1.5 May 1. 



156 Notes and Comments. 

The experiments clearly show that the decomposition of 
chlorophyll is accompanied by the formation of an 'aldehyde 
and of something able to oxidise the potassium iodide and to 
set free the iodine. Instead of alcoholic extract of chlorophyll 
we may use dried leaves, or chlorophyll expressed from leaves, 
or layers of Euglena or algae spread over the paper. The 
reactions also take place inside a leaf, if the bleaching has been 
efficient.' 

EXPERIMENTS ON OXALIS ACETOSELLA. 

' Thus if sunlight is condensed by lens upon a living leaf of 
Oxalis acctosella containing plenty of starch, the chlorophyll is 
bleached in a small area, and if treated with Schiff's solution, 
a strong aldehyde reaction results ; if tested with potassium 
iodide the said area becomes blue. It having been stated that 
formaldehyde is produced when chlorophyll is exposed to 
sunlight in the presence of carbon dioxide, an attempt was 
made to determine whether such was the case in the present 
series of experiments, but the author was not able to satisfy 
himself on this point, though several of the tests succeeded even 
with so small an amount as one-millionth of formaldehyde. 
Hydrogen peroxide had been suggested as the gaseous oxidising 
compound of chlorophyll, but the result of many varied tests 
showed that this was not so.' 

LONSDALEIA AND DIBUNOPHYLLUM RUGOSUM. 

At a recent meeting of the London Geological Society, 
^Ir. Stanley Smith read a paper on ' The Genus Lonsdaleia 
and Dibunophylhim ntgosum (McCoy).' He discussed the 
literature, structural characters and development, descent, 
classification, and distribution of the corals constituting the 
genus Lonsdaleia, and gave a description of Dihunophyllnm 
ntgosum (McCoy). The Author's reasons for including a 
description of D. ntgosum in the paper are, first, the fact that 
the species was originally described by McCoy as Lonsdaleia 
fugosa ; and, secondl5^ that considerable confusion exists 
between it and the fasciculate forms oi Lonsdaleia. Lonsdaleia 
is a compound member of the Clisiophyllidse, and occurs both 
as fasciculate and as massive colonies. The chief distinguish- 
ing features of the genus are the wide extrathecal area, large 
dissepiments, complex central column, and horizontal and 
widely-spaced tabulae. Lonsdaleia is an Avonian or Lower 
Carboniferous genus, especially abundant in the highest 
horizons of that series (D- and higher beds). The earliest 
example is Lonsdaleia prcvnitntia, from the Syringothyris Zone 
(C). A number of species and local forms liave been recognized 
and were described. 

The .spring number of liivd Xotes and Xeu": contains a line coloured 
])!ate of the Crossbill. 

Naturalist, 



157 
ON THE OCCURRENCE OF PAULINELLA 
CHROMATOPHORA (LAUTERBORN) IN BRITAIN. 

lAMKS MKIKLE BROW.V, B.Sc, l-.L.S., l.C.S., 
Sheffield. 



Paulixella CHROMATOPHORA is a Small, ftlose, testaceous 
Thizopod, which is either remarkably local in its distribution, 
•or else it has been generally overlooked. 

It is of great beauty and elegance, but of small size, reaching 
a length of about 30 /x. On cursory examination it might be 
mistaken for a species of Sphcnoderia to which it bears some 
superficial resemblance. 

In outline the test is ovoid and very symmetrically formed 





Fig. 2. 



<tig. i). It is constructed of siliceous plates, regularly disposed 
in five longitudinal rows, each row consisting of eleven or 
twelve plates. In general, the plates of adjacent rows alternate 
with each other and though in shape they are somewhat 
rectangular with rounded ends, they have the appearance of 
being hexagonal owing to their position relative to one another. 
A similar feature may be seen in the tests of Eii^lyp/ig and 
Sphcnoderia. A character not generally met with in the tests 
<)f rhizopods is the presence of a short straight collar, sur- 
rounding the narrowly elliptical mouth. 

The most characteristic structure of the animal is the 
chromatophore, a comparatively large horse-shoe shaped 
body of green colour. Typically, one only is present, but as is 
noted below two may occur in the same individual. 

The species was discovered and described first b3' Lauter- 

1915 Mav 1. 



158 Paulinella Chyomatophora [Lauterhorn) in Britain. 

born (1895), who obtained it from the Rhine, at Neuhofen 
(Bavaria) and from the Black Forest. 

Later, Dr. Penard collected numerous specimens in Lake 
Geneva, and gave an excellent account (1905ft), of the structure 
and habits. In a footnote to this paper, Penard mentions that 
it had been obtained also by Levander in a lake near Helsingfors 
(Finland). 

It was first reported from Britain by Penard (1905a), who 
observed a single empty test amongst some material supplied 
to him from Loch Ness (Scotland), and obtained at a depth of 
272 feet. 

The present writer obtained further a number of empty 
tests in a small tarn — Highlow Tarn — in Lancashire (1910). 
This was the first record of its occurrence in England. 

Since then no records from Britain appear to have been 
published, but after continued collection of material from the 
lakes and tarns in the English Lake District, I am able to 
extend the known British distribution by the record of the 
following localities where I have collected specimens : — 

Sprinkling Tarn (Cumberland) in 191 1 ; Windermere Lake 
(Westmorland) and a small tarn on Claife Heights (Lancashire) 
in 1912 ; Easedale Tarn (Westmorland), and again Highlow 
Tarn (Lancashire) in 1913. 

In the gathering obtained from Easedale Tarn during 
May, 1913, and examined during November of that year, the 
living animal was obtained for the first time, I believe, in 
Britain ; though only one was discovered. In this individual 
the protoplasm showed the characteristic faintly bluish tinge, 
and contained numerous clear granules and rounded bodies 
(droplets ?), and a single pulsating vacuole. The nucleus was 
obscured by the large size of the chromatophores. Of these 
bodies the protoplasm enclosed two, lying across one another 
(fig. 2 chr.). Thej^ were of a bright bluish-green colour, 
similar to that of the blue-green algae. Penard, in his account, 
describes the chromatophores as having all the characters of 
distinct organisms of the nature of cyanophyceae, living 
apparently symbiotically with the rhizopod, but incapable of 
existence apart from it. They grow and divide, and thus the 
occasional occurrence of two chromatophores in one individual 
would be accounted for. 

Chlorophyll bodies are also observed in some other rhizopods, 
e.g., species of Amphitrema, and they are here probably of a 
similar nature. In both these cases, solid food bodies are not 
observed in the protoplasm of the animal, and this absence 
would be explained by the supposed symbiosis. IMuch work, 
however, remains to be done on this interesting subject.* 

* One might refer here to the observations on symbiosis by Professor 
Keeble, an account of which is given in his book on ' Plant- Animals.' 



Northern Nen's. 159 

The animal was distinctly active, and progressed in an 
irregular jerky fashion by means of two long, rigid, threadlike 
pseiidopodia, which were occasionally withdrawn suddenly 
in a zigzag fashion (fig. i). Locomotion recalled that observed 
in species of Eitglypha. 

The test was 30 /<- long and 23 /x broad. 

It will be noticed that in all localities given above, the 
animals were living in clear water, as distinct from bog-water. 
It seems probable that more extended researches on the 
sediment of lakes and tarns would show that Paulinella 
ckromatophora is much more widely distributed than our 
present knowledge suggests. Investigation on the sediments 
from our Scottish Lochs and Welsh Lakes is much to be 
desired. 

LITERATURE. 

1895. Lauterborn, R., ' Protozoenstudien,' in Zeitschr, f. wiss. Zool., 

Bd- 59. 
iQ05a. Penard, E., ' Sur les Sarcodines du Loch Xess, ' in P. R. Soc, 

Edin., XXV. 

19056. ■ • ' Notes sur quelques Sarcodines,' in Revue Suisse de Zool. 

1910. — Brown, J. M., ' Freshwater Rhizopods from the English Eake 

District,' in Journ. Einn. Soc. Zool., XXX. 



The Journal of the Board of Agriculture, volume 21, part 11, contains 
an illustrated report on ' The Manufacture of Charcoal.' 

In The Journal of the Board of Agriculture for March, Mr. B. B. Osmaston 
has an article on ' Larch Killed by Longicorn Beetle ' ( Tetropium gabrieli 
var. crawshayi). 

An interesting paper on ' The Genesis of Geography,' by Miss Kate 
Oualtrough appears in The Journal of the Manchester Geographical Society, 
volume 30, parts i and 2, 191 4, issued ]\Iarch 191 5. 

The Journal of the Derbyshire ArchcBological and Natural History 
Society, volume 37, is well filled and well produced as usual, under the 
careful editing of C. E. B. Bowles. The publication contains papers on 
■ Megalithic Remains,' ' Stone Circles,' ' Earthworks,' ' Derbyshire Place- 
names,' and other items of antiquarian interest. Messrs. Jourdain and 
Hayward contribute the ' Zoological Record 1914,' which deals particularly 
with birds and lepidoptera. 

From Dr. R. W. Shufeldt we have received the Blue- Bird, an American 
publication, which contains an admirable illustration and description of 
what is described as ' The Last Passenger Pigeon ( Ectopistes rnigratoriiis) ' ; 
and in The A^tk Dr. Shufeldt gives an elaborate anatomical description 
of the same species, with illustrations. Dr. Shufeldt is certainly to be 
congratulated on the way with which he has preserved all available inform- 
ation relating to this species. 

The Journal of the Northa)!ts Natural History Society and Field Club, 
volume 17, is quite up to the standard of this society's publications. There 
are notes on the natural history and archaeology of the county, and Mr. 
Beeby Thompson contributes more of his interesting notes on ' Wells and 
Spas.' Among other subjects dealt with are fresh water shells, meteor- 
ology, valentines, embroidery, earthworks, etc. There are also some 
excellent reproductions of photographs. 

1915 May 1. 



i6o 

A DIARY OF ORNITHOLOGICAL OBSERVATIONS 
IN BRITTANY. 



EDMUND SELOUS. 



{Continued from page 141). 

July 8th. — Some mornings ago I saw a pair of these birds 
about a certain briar-bush bordering the osier-bed that runs 
through a part of this valley, making the stream more a sop. 
This morning I saw one of them (as I suppose) fly from the 
same bush again, and, examining it, found indeed a nest of the 
right type, but an old one. This a curious thing. The situ- 
ation of the nest — horribly guarded by the stems of brambles, 
between which it is wedged — is exactly in accordance with the 
entry of the bird into the bush, which is that in and about which 
a pair have been observed by me. If, therefore, this old nest 
is not theirs, it is a curious coincidence ; but if it is, what is 
the meaning of their coming to it ? Do they intend to lay 
in it again, having perhaps repaired it ? — or to make another 
near by ? It was certainly these birds and no others, for, 
on going to the bush, I heard their alarm, or irate note, in the 
neighbourhood. 

July 9TH. — Have again this morning seen the two birds 
in the close neighbourhood of the old nest, but more about the 
bush next to the one it is in. It is the same this evening — 
from 6-35 — and there can, I think, be no doubt, either that 
they have built or are building or intending to build there. 
I do not think it is the first, as I have not been able to make 
out any carrying of food, and the movements seem different, 
the two birds sometimes chasing each other. The second it 
may be, for one of them this morning came out upon the grass, 
and I judged — for I could not get the glasses on it in time to 
make sure — that it was pulling at a piece of it. This was 
probably the female. I looked for her to come down again 
in what seemed so favourable a spot, but she did not, nor had 
I before been able to put this interpretation on either of the 
bird's actions. If, however, the material for the nest is being 
collected mostly within the osier thicket, it would be impossible 
to see the birds. It is true that some days ago I saw a bird of 
this species with a moth in its bill (suggesting nursery cares), 
but this was in another part of the labyrinth, and I think it was 
another individual. Having long watched the little corner of 
bush, as it were, round which these two disappeared, into it, 
as it seemed to me, I at length examined it, but could find 
nothing. I have also made a sort of bower amongst the osiers, 
quite near where the nest, in my opinion, should be, and put 
down a bundle of bracken to sit on, the ground being not quite 
terra fir ma. 

Naturalist, 



Seloiis : Ornithological Observations in Brittany. i(n 

July ioth. — The same pair of birds (as I make no doubt) 
still about the same place this morning — 6-30 to 8 — but have 
got no further to my knowledge. 

July iith. — For about an hour before breakfast, I again 
watched the outskirts of the osier-beds, but without result. 
Coming again, after breakfast, I took up my position in the bed 
itself in the place I made yesterday, which just commands the 
spot which r still think must be the birds' nesting-place. I 
spread my cycling cape on the heap of bracken I had put down — 
which was now all a sop — put my satchel, which is my usual 
seat, on this, and sat and watched in silence. It was not long 
before I saw one of the birds, but though this was repeated, 
and the harsh rattling note sounded from time to time, I got 
no further indication. All then ceased for a considerable time, 
but at last I caught a glimpse of a small brown shadow passing 
across a leaf amidst the labyrinth into which I tried to pene- 
trate. Then the same leaf, and another beyond it, twitched 
once or twice, the birds were their sure enough, but put my 
head to this side or that as I would, I could never quite see 
them. During an interval of quiescence, I walked quickly out, 
clipped an intervening osier spray or two, and took my seat 
again. Now there was another long interval, half-an-hour 
perhaps, during which I saw nothing, then the bird was there 
again, and flitted down into the bush. Once or twice again 
this happened, and each time a certain stem shook. F"ixing my 
eyes on this stem, and getting it again when I lost it, which, 
in creeping out under the tangle, on my hands and knees, I 
could not avoid doing, I at length stood still, looking at it ; 
then, walking up to it, a beautiful little nest hanging on a bram- 
ble bough, and beautifully concealed by its leaves, was before 
me. In it were three tiny young birds, naked and yellow. 
r put back the intervening foliage between the bush place and 
my observatory, and, exposing the nest in the same way, so 
as to cover it again when I left, took my seat and waited again 
with glasses adjusted on the seat of my camp-stool. In a ver}^ 
few moments a prett}' little, sleek-looking, yellow-breasted 
Warbler, with long dagger beak — the best view I have yet had 
of it — flew to the nest, fed a young one, was off again, returned, 
fed another, and so once again, then brooded the young, making 
a sweet little picture. I was just concluding that I had been 
right in concluding that the young were fed only by the hen, 
when up flew the male, swiftly passed something to his mate 
as she sat, and in a moment was gone again. The hen had now 
a small green caterpillar in her bill, and she remained sitting 
thus with it till just before leaving the nest, when she ate it. 
She was back almost directly with a fly, which she gave to one 
of the young, and whilst standing over them, the male flew 
in again and gave her another fly, which I think she ate, and 

191.5 May 1. 



i()2 Seloits : Ovnithological Observation^^ in Brittany. 

then something larger — of goodly dimensions — what I cannot 
say, and this she fed the chicks with. She continued of her 
own efforts to feed and brood them at intervals, and every 
time whilst she brooded, the male flew in with a fly (except 
once when it was a caterpillar) in his bill, which he gave her. 
This she sometimes ate at once, but more often remained with 
it in her bill whilst she sat on the nest, and, on leaving it, 
carried if off with her. In a moment or two she would return 
with food for the nursery, but I have no doubt that she had 
first eaten what her husband had brought her, for once when 
this was a caterpillar, she flew off with it and returned with a 
fly. 

And so this pretty little play went on. I do not think the 
male ever fed the young, except thus indirectly, but I am not 
sure. He certainly more than once dipped down his head into 
the nest, but I think it was to eat something in it, whether a 
fly or other winged thing that had been dropped there from 
his own or the female's bill, or an excrement in the orthodox 
manner, I am not sure. Several times something was picked 
thus out of the nest and eaten by both parents, but mostly 
the hen, and that these were for the most part, if not always, 
the droppings of the young birds, would be according to all 
analogy. But I could never quite make this out. They were 
apparently very much smaller than in the case of the Garden 
Warbler, but this might be in relation to the size of the young. 

My observations were continued in the afternoon. The male 
does certainly, I think, sometimes feed the young because, on 
one occasion, the arriving bird came so close after the one that 
went — the female which had been brooding the young — and 
from the opposite direction to that in which she had flown, that 
it could hardly by any possiblility have been the same. This 
bird then, which must therefore have been the male, fed the 
young. This however, seems only to be occasional with him, 
his usual habit being to bring something to the female, which 
either gives it to the young, eats it herself, there and then, or 
sits with it in her bill till she flies oft", carr3ang it with her, pre- 
sumably to eat elsewhere. I have seen her do all three, but 
the first is the least frequent. When she feeds the young with 
what is brought to her in this way, she does not hop on to the 
rim of the nest and give it them from there, which is otherwise 
her usual method, but rises up in it, where she sits and bends 
down her head to them. This gives her a lean and lanky 
appearance, or rather it exaggerates it, for this, and a certain 
smoothness and glossiness of the plumage is more characteris- 
tic of this species than of our own Warblers. She shows, 
on these occasions, the feathered part of her legs, but not the 
naked shanks. The food thus brought in for the female, as she 
sits, is presented and taken by her in the tip of the bill, and held 

Naturclist, 



Selous : Ornithological Observaliojis in Brittany. 163 

thus all the time. The bill is a veritable dagger, so sharpl\- 
and finely is it pointed, and, in proportion to the size of the 
bird, of some length. Once when the male came in with a 
good-sized green caterpillar, the voices of people passing 
through the valley (it being Sunday) startled him, and he 
flew away with it. As he did not bring it again on his return, 
presumably he ate it himself. All has gone on as before, 
the female making two or three visits, and feeding the chicks, 
in quick succession, then settling herself upon them with 
several little rufflings of her feathers, rising a little and re- 
settling herself, as with extreme satisfaction, before finally 
brooding. If the male comes with his offering, well and good, 
but she does not wait for him, but goes off when she has sat 
long enough herself, without food, or thinks the chicks want 
more. The whole thing is perhaps the prettiest picture of 
bird life that I have yet seen. It seems probable that, from 
relations like these, has grown that fixed division of labour as 
between the male and female, in the providing and sub- 
sequent disposal of the food, which we see in some of the birds 
of prey, e.g., the Peregrine, Merlin, and vSparrow Hawk, 
and which has become so tyrannical, that it seems probable 
the young would be left to starve in the nest sooner than an 
alteration of custom be made to meet some sudden contingency, 
such, for instance, as the death of either parent. Whether 
however, the habit of the male feeding the female on the nest 
has originated out of his feeding the young, or vice versa is 
not, perhaps, easy to settle, though the first seems the most 
probable. 

This time I saw more clearly the process of cleaning the 
nest, which consists, with these birds, in the systematic swallow- 
ing of the excrements of the young. The female was the most 
assiduous in this, which is a necessary outcome of her being 
far more on the nest, but both parents are influenced by the 
same traditions. 

The above observations were made from an efficient shelter 
at a greater distance from the nest than I had watched at, 
on former occasions, as there had lately been signs of the birds 
becoming shy, which might, perhaps, have ended in the male's 
ceasing to co-operate. I have now a perfect view (except for 
the gloom of their nesting retreat) at a quite safe distance as 
far as observation is concerned. I left at 7-10. 

{To be continued). 



The Transactions of the Yorkshire Dialect Society, part 10, has recently 
been issued, and contains a paper on ' How we used to deal with Wife 
Beaters in Holderness.' Among the other items is a paper on ' Popular 
Speech and Standard English,' by E. P. Smith. 

1915 May 1. 



1(34 

YORKSHIRE COLEOPTERA IN 1914. 



W. J. FORDHAM, M.R.C.S., F.E.S. 

The following list of beetles includes the more noteworthy- 
captures of 1914 and also several previous captures not alread}^ 
recorded. The amount of material provided by the members 
of the Yorkshire Coleoptera Committee was so large that it 
has been difficult to select the records for this list without 
making it unduly long. The lists of beetles taken during the 
excursions of the Yorkshire Naturalists' Union and already 
published in The Naturalist should be consulted. On the 
occasion of the Union's visit to Filey, Mr. E. C. Horrell took 
182 species, including many very interesting new records and 
several varieties and aberrations. It is hoped that in future 
more attention will be paid to varieties and local forms. The 
dagger (f) as usual indicates a new county record and the 
asterisk (*) a new riding record. The initials indicate Dr. 
H. H. Corbett, Messrs. E. G. Bayford, J. W. Carter, E. C. 
Horrell, E. W. Morse, M. L. Thompson, W. E. Sharp, G. B. 
Walsh and the writer. 

* Notiophiltt.s sitbstriatiis Wsit. Bubwith. W. J. F. 

Acu palpus exiguiis Dj. Thorne Moor, April, in a heap of 
cut rushes. H.H.C. A specimen nearer type than the 
var. luridus Dj. taken by Dr. Corbett in the same 
locality, 15-5-1903. [Nat., igo8, p. 13). 

'^ Bradycellus cognatus Gyll. Filey. E. C. H. 

'^■Ophomis brevicollis Dj. Knottingley, 1898. W. J. F. 

* Harpalus riihripes Duft. Filey. E. C. H. This was an 

example of the var. sobrimis Dj. with dark legs. 
Ptcrostichus aethiops Pz. Ingleby Moor, Cleveland. A. A. 
Fordham. 
minor Gyll. Bubwith, W. J. F. Rainclifte Wood. 
E. C. H. 
Aiiiara rujocincta Dj. and similata Gyll. Cotherston. G. B. W. 
^Laoiwstenus complanatus Dj. Middlesbrough, 1912. A. A. 

Fordham. 

Anchomenus gracilis Gyll. Bubwith and Skipwith. W. J. F. 

Bemhidium lampros Hbst. var.' velox Er. Helmsle}^ 1912. 

G. B. W. 

atrocceruleum Steph., decorum Pz. and prasinum 

Duft. Richmond, Aug., in numbers. G.B.W. 

* hruxellense Wesm. Near Keighlev. H. E. John- 
son. (J. W. C). 

Patrohus cxcavatus Pk. Moors above Hipswell. G. B. W\ A 
small dark form, probably that mentioned by Bold as 
being mistaken for assimilis Chd. 

Naturalist, 



FordJiam : Yorkshiye Coleoptci'a in 1914. 1O5 

*Palrobiis clavipcs Th. {^assiniilis Chd.). Filey. E. C. H. 

* H.aliphis confiiiis Stcph. Bubwith, 1911. W. J. F. 

* jluviatilis Aub. Hackness. E. C. H. 
Hydroporiis septentrionalis Gyll. Richmond, August. G.B.W. 
Acilius fasciatus De G. Thorne, April. H. H. C. 

^AnaccBna bipustiilata Steph. Thorne, April, numbers. H. H. C. 

* Hclocliares ptinctaf lis Shp. Skipwith Common. W. J. F. 
Berosus liiridits L. Thorne, April, abundant. H. H. C. 

1 1 elophoriis arvernicus Muls. Richmond, August. G. B. W. 
Hcnicoceyiis cxsculptiis Germ. Richmond. G. B. W. Settle. 
W. E. S. 
^Cercyon depressits Steph. Filey, 191 1. W. J. F. 
*Oxypoda opaca Gr. Bubwith. W. J. F. 
*Ischnoglossa corticina Er. Filey. E. C. H. 
^Ocyusa incrassata Muls. Whitfield Gill, Askrigg, June. M. L. T. 
Moss. Kildale, July. 'M. L. T. 
Phlceopoya rcptans Gr. Cusworth, April. H. H. C. and Prof. 
T. H. Beare. 

* C allicenis obsairits Gr. Filey. E. C. H. 
■\ Hoiiialota insecta Th. Filey. E. C. H. 

* aequata Er. Doncaster. Abundant under bark 

and in old polypori. Spring. H. H. C. and 
T. H. B. 

* angusUila Gyll. Bubwith, 191 1. W. J. F. 

* ctispidata Er. Wheatley and Cusworth under 

bark, April. H. H. C. 
eremita Rye. Kildale. June, sphagnum on high 
moor. M. L. T. 

* trianguUini Kr. Skipwith, 1913. W. J. F. 

* Tachyiisa flavitarsis Sahl. Filey. E. C. H. 

I iimbratica Er. Redcar, 1913. W. J. F. 

Gnvpeta coeridea Sahl. Ingleton, June, some numbers. 

E. W. M. 
Encephalus complicans West. Roundhay Park. Spring- 
Sparingly in moss on walls. E. W. M. 
jGyropJicena laevipennis Kr. Glaisdale, fungi, August. M. L. T. 
*Epipeda plana Gyll. Cusworth, abundant, April. H. H. C. 
T. H. B. 
Sipalia riificollis Er. Askrigg. ]\I. L. T. Arncliffe Wood. 

M. L. T. 
MvUacna clongata ^lat. Leven Bridge, stream bank, July. 

M. L. T.^ 
Hypocyptiis laeviiisciilus Man. Arncliffe Wood. M. L. T. 
Roundhay Park in moss on walls sparingh, spring. 

E. w. ":\i. 

"^'Tachvporiis pallidus Slip. Thorne, April, fairlv common. 
H. H. C. 
briinneits, F. Filey. E. C. H. Bubwith. W. J. F\ 

1915 May 1. 



i66 Fordham : Yovkshirc Colcoptcya in 1914. 

Tachinus laticollis Gr. Raincliffe Woods and Stoney Haggs. 
E. C. H. 
*Megacronus cingulatus Man. Thorne, April, sweeping. H.H.C. 
^ Heterothops dissimilisGr. Spurn, 1911. G. B. W. Middles- 
brough in dunghill. M. L. T. 
Quedius mesomelinus Marsh *va.T. fageti Th. Bubwith. W.J.F. 
cruentus 01. fvar. virens Rott. Bubwith, 1913. 

W. J. F. 
obliteratiis Er. Heeley, Sheffield, 1906. W. J. F. 
auricomus Kies. Whitfield Gill, June. M. L. T. 
^Staphylimis pubescens De G. Bubwith. W. J. F. 
*Philonthus atratus Gr. Skipwith Common. W. J. F. 

* cephalotes Gr. Filey. E. C. H. 

* cfiientat-us Gmel. Skipwith Common. W. J. F. 

Type and immaculate var. 
■\Gabriiis splendidulus Gr. Wheatley Wood, under bark of 
felled trees, April, H. H. C. T. H. B. 

* Gabrins nigrit'ulus Gr. Bubwith. W.J.F. 

*■ Leptacinus parumpiinctatiis Gyh. Marr, 2-8-1906. H. H. C. 

* formicetontmMark. Cusworth, 10-9-1911. H.H.C. 
*Othius myrniecophihis Kies. Viley. E. C. H. 

Lathrobium longulum Gr. Escrick, 1911. W. S. F. 

quadraUim Pk. Bubwith, 1910. W. J. F. 
*Cryptobium glaberrimttm Hbst. Ringingkeld Bog in wet 

sphagnum. E. C. H. (also Filey. E.C.H.). 
^Stilicus orbiculatus Pk. Filey. E. C. H. (Also Wheatley, 
1903. H. H. C). 
Dianous ccerulescens Gyll. Shipley Glen, July, rather com- 
mon. J. W. C. 
*Stenus biguttatus, L. Bubwith. W. J. F. 

guynemeri Duv. Whitfield Gill. M. L. T, 
latifrons Er. Stoney Haggs. E. C. H. 
^'Oxytclus initstus Gr. Filey. E. C. H. 
]■ Haploderus ccelatus Gr. Thorne, 4-8-1907 and April 1914, 

H. H. C. Bubwith, 1916. W. J. F. 
* Trogophloeus arcuaUis Steph. Bubwith. W. J. F. 
^Lesteva punctata Er. Arncliffe Wood and Kildale in sphag- 
num. M. L. T. (also Whitfield Gill, M. L. T.). 
Acidota crenata F. Eston Nab., one shaken out of grass tuft, 

27-4-1909. G. B. W. 
Homalium piinctipenne Th. Wheatley and Cusworth, April. 
H. H. C. 
■\ iopternm Steph. Kildale, mountain ash, June. 

M. L. T. 
*Megarthrus affinis Miill. Filey. In nest of field mouse. 
E. C. H. 
PhlcBobium dypeatmn Miill. Filey. E. C. H. Thorne. April. 
H. H. C. 



Fordham : Yorkshire Coleoptera in 1914. 167 

* Phlceocharis suhtilissima Man. Filey. E. C. H. 
*Leptinus testaceus Mull. Filey, in nest of field mouse. E. C. H. 

(also Raincliffe Wood, moles' nest (leg. R. A. Taylor). 

E. C. H.). 
■\Siipha sinuata, F. Wheatley, July, 1904. H. H. C. Escrick 

1912. W. J. F. 
*Choleva agilis 111. Bubwith. W. J. F. 

* morio F. Whitfield Gill, moss, June. M. L. T. 

* grandicollis Er. Bubwith. W. J. F. 

* fumata Spence. Bubwith. W. J. F. (It is very 
probable that the occurrence of this species in Yorks. 
(Ste. 111. and Man.) being communicated by Spence would 
be in Hull neighbourhood). 

•\Catops sericatiis Chaud. Escrick, 1911. W. J. F. 

* Neuraphes elongatitlits ]Mull. Roundhay Park, sparingly in 

moss on walls, spring. E. W. M. (also Kildale, moss, 

June. M. L. T.). 
Scydmceniis sciitellaris Miill. Great Ayton, moss, August. 

M. L. T. Seamer Moor. E. C. H. Filey. E. C. H. 
ScydmcBniis exilis Er. Adel. A few under fir bark, February. 

E. W. M. 
Trichopteryx grandicollis Man. Raincliff Wood. E. C. H. 
Ptenidiiim intermedium Wank. Leven Bridge, May, flood 

refuse on banks of stream. 1\I. L. T. 
•\Scymnus testaceus Thunb. var. Filey. E. C. H. (Of this 
specimen Mr. E. W. Sharp, F.E.S., says ' possibly 5. 

lividiis Bald.'). 
Hister unicolor L. Bubwith. W. J. F. 

* carhonarius 111. Bubwith. W. J. F. 
*Micropepliis staphylinoides Marsh. Filey, in nest of field 

mouse. E. C. H. 

* margaritcB Duv. Filey, in nest of field mouse. 

E. C. H. 
*Cercus bipustulatus Pk. Filey. E. C. H. 
Epnrcea melina Er. Filey, in nest of field mouse. E. C. H. 
Bubwith. W. J. F. 
florea Er. Glaisdale, mountain ash, August. M.L.T 
*Micrurula melanocephala Marsh. Filey. E. C. H. 
Nitidula rufipes L. Hawksworth, 1913. T. Stringer. 
(J.W.C). 

{To be continued). 



The Repovt of the Manchestev Museuyn (publication 76) is considerably 
curtailed owing to the grant from the Council of the University being 
reduced from /i,2oo to ;^2oo on account of the war. It contains the 
refreshing piece of information, however, that during the year the museum 
has spent the /i.ooo which had been given by the University for the 
purchase of new cases. 

1915 May L 



i68 



BRYOLOGISTS AT AUSTWICK. 



CHRIS. A. CHEETHAM. 



Owing to the early date of Easter the first meeting of the York- 
shire NaturaHsts' Union this season was postponed, and the 
Bryological section took advantage of this and visited Austwick. 

The lessened railwa}- facilities reduced the attendance 
somewhat. 

On the first evening specimens and diagrams of the Thuidia, 
which have been recentlv revised by Mr. H. N. Dixon, F.L.S., 








Wl 








1. Thiiiftitim tamariscinum . 2. T. Philiberti. 3. T. delicatiilum. 4. T. recognitiim 

A. Apex of branch leaf. h. Apex of stem leaf. 

in The Journal of Botany this year (pp. 189-192) were ex- 
hibited and the differences pointed out. A working ke}' based 
on that given by Mr. Dixon w^as used, but it must be here 
emphasised that the following remarks are based on the plants 
as seen in this district : — 

^Branch leaf with pointed apical cell .. .. = T. taniayisciintm. 
\ ,, ,, ,, truncate and pappilose apical cell = 2 

( Stem leal with filiform point of single cells .. = T. Philiberti. 

\ ,, ,, without ,, „ ,, . . = 3 
j'Stem leaf with apparently ex-current nerve the 

I cells in apex much elongate .. . . =^ T. recognitnni. 
•"* j Steni leaf with ner\-c ceasing below apex which 

y is of short cells .. .. .. .. = T. delicatithuu. 



Naturalist, 



Cheetham : Bryologists at Aiistwick. 169 

It was shown that the pointed apical cell clearly differ- 
entiates T. tainariscinnm under the microscope, and also that 
its tripinnate branching was a good field character being only 
very occasionally acquired by T. Philihcrti in its variety 
psendo-tamarisci , and in this case, as also in typical Philiberti, 
it is quite easy to see the filiform point of the stem leaves with 
a pocket lens. 

Under the microscope T. yccognitum is a much coarser 
plant than T. delicatuluni, the cells and pappillae being con- 
siderably more elongate, the apical cell of the branch leaf of 
T. delicatuluni is generally as long as broad, whereas of T. 
recognitum is almost twice as long as broad. The stem leaves 
are usually quite distinct, though, until one has seen T. 
recognitum it is possible to imagine that an elongation is 
occasionally noticable in T. delicatnlum ; this, however, is 
ne\'er of the distinct type found in T. recognitum where the 
shorter cells of the lamina seem to finish somewhat abruptly 
at the base of the apex. Again, the stem leaf margin of T. 
recognitum is generally plane or very slightly recurved, whereas 
that of T. delicatuluni is strongly recurved. 

In the field the difference between the two in the extreme 
types is fairly satisfactory, the general impression that is 
gained is that delicatulum is in somewhat swollen tufts, the 
ends of the stems being curved down and a certain neatness 
thus acquired, the tufts also are mostly quite pure ; on the 
other hand T. recognitum is generally much mixed with H. 
molluscum, etc., and has a straggling habit. Another small 
point is that the branches of T. recognitum have an attenuate 
appearance, the central axis of the branch being considerably 
lengthened out. 

The general facies of T. delicatuluni and T. recognitum, 
as seen near Austwick, is quite at variance with Limpricht's 
description of the continental specimens, so it is necessary to 
reiterate the fact that these remarks apply to the local plants. 

Mr. Dixon, in drawing attention to these plants, pointed 
out that true T. recognitum appears to be distinctly rare in 
Britain, occurring in older herbaria from Matlock and Ingleton, 
whereas most of the modern gatherings are misnamed and 
belong chiefly to Philiberti ; this is certainly the case with 
previous Yorkshire records, which must be revised. T. Phili- 
berti will now become a fairly well-distributed Yorkshire 
species, it was first recognised as such in igii, where it is 
reported in The Naturalist on page 232. 

The only member of the series seen in fruit was T. tamaris- 
cinnm although careful search was made seeing that the fruiting 
characters of the fertile plant are valuable for classification. 

T. Philiberti was alwa3's found in dry places, on walls, 
limestone screes, etc. ; T. recognitum and delicatulum on 

1915 May 1. 



170 Cheetham : Bryologists at Austwick. 

limestone rocks in shade ; T. tamariscinum frequent in all 
situations. 

The first excursion was via Trow Gill and across to the 
head of Crummockdale. Some nice Seligeria recurvata (5. 
setacea) was the first prize, then came the above mentioned 
Thuidia and an addition to the Lune drainage in Amhlystegium 
confervoides which Mr. R. Barnes showed to belong to West 
Yorks. on page 129 of this volume ; Zygodon gracilis [Z. NoweUii) 
was also seen in fair quantity ; Antitrichia ciirtipendiila and 
Polytrichum strictum on the open ground in crossing over, and 
also Pleuridium subulatvm, this latter being very frequent all 
over the district. 

In Crummockdale Hypnum falcatum var. virescens {Am- 
blystegiiim falcatum var. fluctuans), Grimmia Doniana, Acaiilon 
mitticum [Sphcerangium) and Cynodontinm Bruntoni were the 
first to claim attention, and later Andrecea petrophila, and 
crassinervia, Bryum alpinum and Hedwigia ciliata ( H . albicans). 

The next excursion was to Helwith IMoss. Leucodon 
sciiiroides was seen in abundance, and a little Pterogonium 
gracile (P. ornithopodioides), this being found later in fair 
quantity. On the Moss some fine Hypnum gigantemn {Am- 
blystegium) and fruiting Mnium siibglobosum {M. psendo- 
punctatum), the last named new to Ribble drainage ; on the 
rocks above, Grimmia jiinalis and siibsqiiarrosa. 

Monday gave us a glorious day and Moughton Scar was 
visited, the Saxifraga oppositifolia in grand flowxr being 
highly appreciated. Of mosses, Hylocomiitm rugostim 
{Hypmtm), Cylindrothecium concinnnm {Entodon ortJwcarpus), 
and Thuidiitm Philiberti were the best. Down the other side 
of the hill the Andreceas, Bryum alpinum and Campylopus 
atro-virens were again seen. Additional species were Hypnum 
sarmentosum {Amblystegiiim), Dipkyscium joliosum (Webera 
sessilis), Fissidens osmiindoides and Funaria ericetorum. 

Other trips were to Oxenber Woods to see the Thuidia 
again, and here we got fruiting Fissidens decipiens, and to 
Feizor, where Funaria calcarea was gathered. 

The days passed far too quickly, and the lively discussions 
with the help of microscopes in the evenings often made the 
lamps burn midnight oil. 

: o : 



Some Geographical Factors in the Great War contains 71 pages (price 
gd. net, A. Brown & Sons, Ltd., Hull). In this little book Mr. T. Herdman 
describes some general considerations. Geography contains the great 
dramas of history. Great campaigns have been lost or won, attempts at 
colonizations have failed or succeeded, political arrangements have been 
fleeting or permanent according to the appreciation of geographical 
conditions shown by the leaders responsible for them. All this is shown 
in the volume, which is illustrated by a number of maps. 

Naturalist, 



171 

YORKSHIRE NATURALISTS' UNION: 
VERTEBRATE SECTION. 

A Meeting of this section was held in the Leeds Institute on 
February 20th; :\Ir. E. W. Wade, M.B.O.U. in the Chair. 
Mr. Bagshaw urged the advisabihty of keeping in touch with 
the West Riding County Council with reference to its list of 
birds issued under the Wild Birds' Protection Acts. He 
found that little had been done for several years, but he was of 
the opinion that a deputation from the Union would be effective 
in removing many of the present anomalies, or, suggestions 
might be sent in writing for the Sub-Committee's consideration. 

"Mr. Bagshaw 's idea was to have three Schedules, viz. : — 
(i) Comprising the birds now omitted from the list. (2) Birds 
coming under the heading of game. (3) Injurious birds — such 
only to be shot, caught or destroyed by the owner or occupier. 

Mr. W. H. St. Ouintin reported that the Departmental 
Committee of the Home Office had not yet concluded its 
sittings devoted to the survey of all the various lists in operation, 
and the evolution of a uniform schedule applicable to the whole 
country. Owing to the war, however, there seemed little 
likelihood of anything being done at present. 

"Mr. Fortune's experience, when he interviewed the Com- 
mittee at Wakefield, was the absence of any difficulty in adding 
birds to the hst, and the utter impossibility of deleting a single 
species. Discussion was deferred until the November meeting. 

"Mr. H. B. Booth drew attention to the fact that the Heron's 
five years' full protection would lapse this year. 

"Mr. Booth, on behalf of Mr. Wilkinson, reported the decision 
of the Wild Birds' Committee on the appointment of watchers 
for 1915. 

The President referred to the death of the Rev. F. H. Woods, 
of Bainton, a well-known figure at the Union's excursions. 

l\lr. Wade handed round a copy of the revised nomenclature 
of British Birds issued by the British Ornithological Union, 
and exhibited many interesting specimens from St. Kilda. 

In connection with the so-called Little Bunting shewn at 
the November 'Meeting, Mr. H. B. Booth shewed skins of the 
proper species as well as of the Blackheaded Bunting. 

Mr. Wade expressed the appreciation of the Section to Mr. 
St. Quintin for the erection of bird-rests on Spurn lighthouse, 
Mr. St. Quintin having borne the whole expense. Unfortun- 
ately owing to the unusual conditions prevailing on the East 
Coast, no opportunity had been afforded of estimating the 
beneficial results to our migrant birds, but reports from other 
lighthouses where similar structures were installed demon- 
strated their efficacy in a marked manner. 

The Royal Society for the Protection of Birds, with the 

1915 May 1. 



172 Yoykshive Naturalists' Union : Vertebrate Section. 

co-operation of the authorities of the Trinity House, whose 
Engineer had given his personal help and interest, had been 
responsible for the erection of three other stations in addition 
to the above, i.e., at St. Catherine's, I.-of-W., the Caskets off 
Alderney, and South Bishop off Pembrokeshire ; and had 
further work in view. 

Mr. H. B. Booth then gave a \ery interesting and detailed 
paper, ' The Bats of Upper Airedale and Upper Wharfedale,' 
dealing with their distribution and status in part of the district 
under investigation by the Bradford Natural History and 
Microscopical Society. 

The President (Mr. E. W. Wade) gave a lantern lecture 
entitled, ' Birds of St. Kilda,' dealing very fully with the 
topography and natural history of this well known bird resort. 
The lecturer had paid particular attention to the St. Kilda 
Wren, and in contradiction to Howard Saunder's assumption 
in i88g that ' the few pairs had probably been extirpated,' it 
was gratifying to note its comparative ubiquity in 1914. The 
price of 20s. for a clutch of eggs in 1889 had, no doubt, resulted 
in a serious reduction in the numbers of this Wren, but after 
the demands of the wealthy but indiscreet collectors had been 
met, the price fell to such a figure as to offer no inducement to 
the natives to continue the supply. 

The Tree Sparrow, Rock Pipit, Wheatear, Starling, Eider 
Duck, Oyster Catcher, Guillemot, Razor-bill and Kittiwake 
were all noted as being very common, but even these species 
were insignificant when compared with the countless thousands 
of the Gannet, the Pufhn and the Fulmar Petrel. In spite of 
the enormous niuiibers taken every year for food, these three 
birds dominate the Islands and have apparently driven off 
the Gulls. 

The paper was enhanced by the exhibition of skins of the 
Wren, the Fulmar, Leach's Petrel, the St. Kilda Vole, etc. 

Mr. Booth drew attention to the similarity of the native 
Wren to that resident in the Scillies, which shewed variations 
in size and colour, on much the same scale. 

In the absence of Mr. G. A. Booth, his paper ' Notes on 
the Ruff and Reeve,' was read by Mr. Fortune, accompanied 
by the exhibition of many beautiful lantern slides of the 
birds taken in their Dutch habitat. 

The antics of the male birds at breeding time, which are so 
marked and problematical, were fully described, and the many 
beautiful variations of plumage were well depicted by the 
photographs, as well as the actions and demeanour of the 
Reeve when approaching and occupying the nest. 

The concluding paper was by Professor W. Garstang on ' The 
Development of Flat Fishes.' At former meetings we have had 
evidence of Professor Garstang's work on the Fisheries Com- 

Naturalist, 



Yorkshire Naiiiralisfs' I'nion : ]'crfchr(itc Sccti())i. 173 

mission, and the present paper was in no way behind, either in 
interest or scientific value. Diagrams were shewn illustrating 
the evolution of the different types comprising the Sole, Plaice, 
Flounder, Hali]:)ut, in one group of ' left side ' species, and the 
Brill and Turbot which ' turn ' in a reverse manner. 

The many complicated changes of the anatomy of each 
species, from the normally shaped young to the fully develoj)ed 
fish, were explained with care and thoroughness not usually 
associated with ' fishy stories.' * 

A. Haigh-Lumby. 



Highways and Byways in Lincolnshire. By W. F. Rawnsley. Lon- 
don : I\[acmillan & Co., 519 pages. Stamford, Grantham, Lincoln, Isle 
of Axholme, Grimsby, Caistor, Louth, Boston, Spalding, Croyland and 
many other charming spots in our second largest county are described in 
this very interesting fjook by iSlr. Rawnsley, and the value of the volume 




Surfleet Windmill. 

is enhanced by the numerous excellent sketches made by F. L. C^riggs. 
In addition to the notes on ancient and modern Lincolnshire the author 
has gathered together much useful information relating to the Black Death, 
Fenland, Old Lincolnshire Families, h'olk Song, etc. This book is a most 
useful one and will do much to draw attention to the beauties of a county 
usually neglected by the student and tourist. 



* In the report of the last meeting of this section it should have been 
stated that, on Oct. 7th last, Mr. H. Wrigley, of Ganton Hall, and party 
shot 29 brace of Red-legged Partridge in a total bag of over 150 brace, 
comprising both species (see The Natuvalist, Feb., page 82). On the same 
page, for Daubenton's Bat read Whiskered Bat. — .-\.H.L. 



191.5 M;iy 1. 



174 

BRYOLOGY OF CASTLE HOWARD. 



WM. INGHAM, B.A., 

York. 



The 2oth February, 1915, was a glorious spring-like day for 
the Excursion of the Yorkshire Bryological Committee, a great 
contrast to the wet days that preceded it. 

We first examined the quarry close by the station. The 
dominant mosses here were three, all of the genus Hylocomium, 
viz., H. splendens, H. squarrosum, and H. triquetrtim. A 
sub-dominant was Brachythecium puritm, the fisherman's 
moss, as he uses it for scouring his worms. On the sides of 
the grassy hillocks was Thuidiiim Philiberti. On loose stones 
at the side of the quarry were the minute moss Seligeria doniana, 
and the glossy moss Plagiothechim depressum. On the cart- 
track leading into this quarry was Barhiila Hornschuchiana in 
flat patches with adust complexion. The B. piiriim (a rare 
fruiter) fruits well here. 

Proceeding along Crambe Beck we found the great rariety 
Weisia calcarea var. viridula lining the face and sides of a small 
depression on a bank. Here also was Fissidens incurvus mixed 
with F. taxifolius. We next took a long walk to the Castle 
Howard Quarry. Many small estuarine sandstones are 
scattered over the floor of the quarry, and the surfaces of these 
stones are kept sufficiently moist by shade, and by the dripping 
of water from the grasses, to support a rare moss in abundant 
fruit. This is Brachyodus trichodes. The writer has a speci- 
men of this moss from the highest land in Britain, the summit 
of Ben Nevis, but mostly barren. This species was also found 
on the vertical face of a rock in situ, in shade, and therefore 
damp. Polytrichum urnigerum and Dicranum Bonjeani var. 
calcaretim were also found here. 

We found our way thence, guided by Mr. Mennell, to a 
small and interesting sandstone quarry. We were pleased to 
find here a repetition of the moss Weisia calcarea var. viridula. 
The dark green colour of this variety is evidently due to the 
influence of the sandstone habitat, as the pale green typical 
plant grows directly on the limestone. 

This quarry produced the rare plants Ditrichttm tortile and 
Dicranella crispa, both in fruit. We had clearly found here 
the happy hunting ground of Dr. Spruce and Mr. M. B. Slater. 
On the face of the crumbling sandstone was Barbula vinealis 
of a more vivid green colour than the writer has ever seen in 
this moss. On a very old wall with the ferns Aspleniiim 
adiantum-nigriim and A. rnta-muraria var. datum Lange, was 
Bryum caespiticium near var. imbricatum, with pure white 
peristomes to capsules, the white almost vanishing on drying. 

Naturalist. 



FIELD NOTES. 175 

FLOWERING PLANTS. 

Gagea fascicularis Salisb. (lutea L.) as a Garden 
Weed. — I recently visited a nursery garden in Doncaster, in 
order to see a 'troublesome yellow flowered weed ' that was 
there. I was surprised to find the ' weed ' to be G. fascicularis. 
The plants were literally in thousands, growing among Scillas, 
Tulips, Narcissi, etc., and the proprietor told me that they 
appeared about five years ago, and that he could not get rid 
of them. It seems remarkable that this pretty and rare plant 
of the open woodlands should become a pest. — H. H. Corbett. 

MOSSES. 

Seligeria recurvata B. & S. in Cumberland. — In July, 
igio. I found this moss growing on rocks on the Cumberland 
side of the River Irthing near Gilsland. It was in abundant 
fruit. This is, I believe, the first record of any species of 
Seligeria from this county. "My gathering was kindly verified 
bv -Mr. Ingham. — Jas. "Murray, Carlisle. 

Lepidozia sylvatica Evans, a new Yorkshire Hepatic. 
— For some time this has been known as a North American 
species, and has also been recorded by Douin from the Con- 
tinent. In the Journal of Botany for March, 1915, is a des- 
cription of the plant with an announcement of its discovery 
in Sussex by Mr. \\\ E. Nicholson. On August i6th, 1904, 
January 4th, 1905 and April 25th, 1905, I found a Lepidozia 
growing directly on sand with a beautiful green form of the 
Hepatic Sphenolobiis minnius. This was in a small wood by 
the side of Strensall Common in North-East Yorkshire. On 
receiving the description in the Journal of Botany, I re-ex- 
amined my gathering and made it Lepidozia sylvatica. I sent 
a specimen to "Mr. Nicholson who agrees. As "Mr. Nicholson 
sa\-s, L. setacea is a plant of Sphagnum bogs, L. trichoclados of 
pure peat, and L. sylvatica of sandy ground or rocks. Students 
of Hepatics should re-examine their Lepidozias, noting the 
habitat of each. — Wm. Ixgham, York, April loth, 1915. 

HYMENOPTERA. 
Stenichneumon pictus in Yorkshire. — On January 2nd, 
1915, ^Ir. S. Margerison found hibernating under the bark of a 
partly decayed pine in the Sawley High "Moor Plantation, the 
ichneumon, Stenichneumon pictus Grav. Mr. Claude "Morley, 
to whom the specimen was submitted, says that it is a dis- 
tinctly uncommon species, and that he was unaware that it 
hibernated as an imago. x\ccording to Vol. I. of ' British 
Ichneumons,' Stephens found an example near London in June, 
and another is mentioned as being in Mr. Chitty's collection 
taken in September, at Ilfracombe. Specimens, however, 
have been bred several times from Macaria liturata and Thera 
juniperata. — R. Butterfield, Keighley. 

19I.5 May J. 



176 

3n riDemorianu 

The hand of Death has recently reduced the ranks of Yorkshire 
naturalists in a way which is surel}^ unprecedented. For some 
time we have, month by month, recorded the loss of prominent 
workers. We have now to deplore the departure from our 
midst of the following, who were connected with the Yorkshire 
Naturalists' Union : — 

THOMAS BUNKER. 

The death of Thomas Bunker at the age of 85 removes from 




our midst one of the last of the naturalists of the old type. 
Years ago he was a familiar figure at the field meetings of the 
Yorkshire Naturalists' Union, and was not ashamed of his 
large butterfly-net and his vasculum. He was equally interested 
in bird, plant or insect, and was ever ready to impart his 
knowledge to anyone interested ; many Yorkshire naturalists 
to-day will remember with pleasure the interest shewn in their 
work and the encouragement given by Mr. Bunker. 

A native of Bedfordshire, he first went to Goole as head- 
master of the National schools ; he then had a private school ; 
later he was a collector of taxes, but retired about twenty-five 



Ill Menioriam. lyj 

years ago. He was of a retiring disposition, l)ut in a quiet 
way greatly assisted the various Committees of the Yorkshire 
Naturalists' Union in their work. He has also made many 
important additions to the fauna and Ifora of the (ioole district. 

He had much to do with the founding of the (roole Scientific 
Society, about 1875, and in 1876 was the assistant secretary, 
his colleague being the late Dr. H. F. Parsons. Later, he was 
a president of the Goole Society. He frequently contributed 
to T/ie Naturalist, and the ' Transactions of the Yorkshire 
Naturalists' Union ' contain many of his records. Perhaps his 
best paper, and one which more than any showed his extensive 
knowledge of natural history, was printed in the first part of 
the ' Transactions of the Hull Scientific and Field Naturalists' 
Club,' in 1898. It was entitled, ' The Natural History of Goole 
j\Ioor.' 

In recognition of his services to natural history, the York- 
shire Naturalists' Union at a recent meeting elected him an 
Honorary Life Member. The pity is he has not long enjoyed 
the honour. We feel sure our readers join us in expressing our 
sympathy with Mrs. Bunker and the famil}'. 

WILLIAM SLMPSON, F.G.S. 

William Simpson died at Catterall Hall, near Settle, at the 
age of 56 years. He was managing director of the firm of 
Simpson and Sons, Ltd., cabinet-makers and upholsterers, of 
Halifax and Blackburn. Prior to 1903 he resided at Halifax, 
and was widely known in business circles. His hobby was 
geology, and he devoted special attention to the Millstone Grit. 
Papers by him were printed in the ' Reports of the British 
Association,' in the ' Proceedings of the Yorkshire Geological 
Society,' ' The Halifax Naturalist,' and The Naturalist. He 
rendered good service in connection with the Halifax Scientific 
Society, and was one of the founders of the Halifax Sunday 
Lecture Society. For some years he was the Honorary 
Treasurer of the Yorkshire Geological Society. 

HARRY Speight! 

Harry Speight, the well known writer on Yorkshire History 
and Antiquities, died recently at his residence, Bingley, being 
a victim of influenza. He was born at Bradford 59 years ago. 
So long ago as 1877 be began writing sketches for magazines. 
His earlier books were written under the pen name of ' Johnnie 
Gray ' and included ' A Tourist's View of Ireland,' and 
' Pleasant Walks Around Bradford.' Then followed in 1891 
the first of a series of books which made him known far and 
wide amongst Yorkshire folk, viz. : — ' Through Airedale, from 
Goole to M'alham.' The works which followed were on a more 
ample scale and are held in high repute. They include ' The 

1915 May 1. 



178 In Memoriam. 

Craven and North- West Yorkshire Highlands,'" ' Nidderdale 
and the Garden of the Nidd,' ' Romantic Richmondshire,' 
' Upper Wharf edale,' and ' Lower Wharf edale.' In 1898 he 
pubUshed his 'History of Bingley,' and among other publications 
of a similar nature were his ' Two Thousand Years of Tadcaster 
History,' and ' Kirby Overblow and District.' In his more 
active days he was a great pedestrian and he tramped over 
almost every portion of the British Isles and ascended most of 
the home mountains. He was an occasional contributor to 
The Naturalist. 

JOSHUA ROWNTREE. 

Joshua Rowntree, J. P., ex-M.P. for Scarborough, and a 
prominent member of the Society of Friends, died recently at 
the residence of his sister, Mrs. J. E. Ellis, Wrea Head, Scalby, 
near Scarborough, in his 71st year. Mr. Rowntree had been in 
failing health for some time. 

Mr. Rowntree had been ^layor of Scarborough and was 
.well known for his practical sympathies with any scheme for 
the betterment of mankind. He took a keen interest in the 
various Yorkshire scientific societies. 

THOMAS WHITHAM. 

Until quite recently a familiar figure at the excursions of 
the Yorkshire Naturalists' Union was that of Thomas Whitham, 
of Bramhope. He was tall and his high and wide-brimmed 
silk hat gave him quite a picturesque appearance. He was 
an artist of some ability, and frequently amazed his friends 
by the rapidity with which he could transfer to canvas his 
impressions of a landscape. He frequently exhibited at the 
local art exhibitions. He took a delight in the discussions 
held during the field excursions. Those who saw him tramp 
miles over hill and vale will be surprised to learn that he died 
at the advanced age of ninety-five, being Wharfedale's oldest 
inhabitant. 

EDWARD PEACOCK, J. P., F.S.A. 

Edward Peacock, well-known as a historian and antiquary, 
and the father of a talented famih^ died on March 31st at 
Kirton-in-Lindsey. He was born at Hemsworth, Yorkshire, 
in 1831. He was a frequent contributor to various literary and 
scientific journals. 

He was editor of ' Army Lists of Roundheads and Cavaliers ' 
{1863), ' English Church Furniture, Ornaments and Decora- 
tions ' (1866), ' Instructions for Parish Priests ' (1868), ' A 
List of Roman Catholics in the County of York in 1604 ' (1872), 
' A Glossary of Words used in the Wapentakes of Mauley and 
Corringham, Lincolnshire ' (1877, second edition 1889),' Index 

Naturalist, 



News from the Magazines. 179 

of English Speaking Students who have graduated at Leyden 
University ' (1883), ' The "Monckton Papers ' (1885), ' Index 
to Engravings in the Proceedings of the Society of Antiquaries ' 
(1885). In 1873 he pubHshed 'France, the Empire and 
CiviHsation,' without the author's name. Further, among 
other essays, he contributed eleven papers to the Archceologia 
of the Society of Antiquaries, and many articles to The Pro- 
ceedings of the same Society. He also wrote several romances, 
' Ralf Skirlaugh,' ' Mabel Heron,' ' John Markenfield,' ' Narcissa 
Brendon,' and ' Otherwhere.' He was also a careful collector 
of antiquities. — T. S. 



The principal article in British Birds for April ck-als with the Blakcney 
Point Ternery, and is well illustrated. 

In The Lancashire and Cheshire Xatitrnlist for March, Dr. Jackson 
writes on ' Lancashire and Cheshire Arachnids and Myriopods.' 

The Quarry for April contains an illustrated article on ' Excavating by 
Power,' in which Lincolnshire and Yorkshire quarries are represented. 

The Scottish Naturalist for April contains a paper by the Hon. Sir 
Herbert Maxwell on 'Waterfowl and the American Pondweed {Elodea 
Canadensis).' 

The Irish Naturalist records the death of what is probably the last 
Irish golden eagle. In the same journal Dr. R. F. Scharff has a paper on 
the Irish Names of Mammals, though we fear few English readers will be 
able to make much of the names as printed. 

Wild Life for April contains a well illustrated article on Stone Curlew, 
written by Wm. Farren ; Frances Pitt describes The INIartin ; Mr. Bootham 
has a note on The Bulf:-backed Heron ; and IMr. F. J. Stubbs writes on 
The Plague Flea. The publication has the usual fine illustrations. 

The Entomologist's Monthly Magazine for April contains a note on 
'* An Anthomyid Fly, Phaonia ( Hyetodesia) trimaculata Bouche, Jvew to the 
British List,' the species being from Cheshire. Records of Cumberland 
Hemiptera-Heteroptera, and Cheshire Diptera in 191 3- 14, also appear. 

The Glasgow Naturalist recently issued, edited by D. A. Boyd and J. 
Paterson, contains a record of the work of the Glasgow Natural History- 
Society. Among the papers we notice ' West Highland Mosses,' ' Glasgow 
Leeches,' 'The Trees of Kilkerran,' '.Clyde Micro-fungi,' 'Clyde ^Marine 
Fauna,' 'Clyde Birds,' and 'London Trees.' 

In The Entomologist's Monthly Magazine for March, :\Ir. F. B. Brown 
writes ' With regard to the specific identity of H. apicalis Thorns., and 
H. striatus Shp., I am in the same position as my critic Dr. Sharp, in that 
neither of us has seen Thomson's types, but, curiously enough, the very 
words which Dr. Sharp quotes from Thomson's description, and which 
•do not agree with any Haliplus known to Dr. Sharp, are just the words 
which first caused me to suspect the specific identity of striatus and apicalis:* 

The Geological Magazine for April contains an unusually large proportion 
of papers of particular interest to our readers. Dr. C. W. Andrews des- 
cribes a wonderfully perfect skeleton of Ophthalmosanriis icenicus from 
the Oxford Clay near Peterborough ; Professor J. W. Gregory describes 
' A Deep Bore at Seascale in Cumberland ; ' Mr. A. E. Trueman writes on 
the ' Fauna of Hydraulic Limestones in South Notts. ; ' Mr. A. Bell 
describes ' The Fossilif erous Deposits of Wexford and North Manxland, ' 
and the Rev. Canon Crewdson has a paper on ' The Coniston Grits of 
Windermere. ' 

1915 May 1. 



i8o 



NORTHERN NEWS. 



Dr. J. Scott Keltic, who is 75 years of aj^e, is resigning the post ot 
Secretary of the Royal Geolographical Society, which he has held for 
twenty- three years. He is succeeded by Mr. A. R. Hicks. 

We regret to notice the death of Mr. W. M. Dobie at the age of eighty- 
six. With Charles Kingsley he founded the Chester Society of Natural 
Science, Literature, and iVrt, and for two years was its President. 

The new Burton-on-Trent Public Museum and Art Gallery was recently 
opened by the Mayor, the collections being arranged in the uppe?; story of 
the Old Police Station. It is the intention to keep the museum strictly 
local in its scope. 

We regret to record the death of John Shillito, J. P., F.R.G.S., of 
Halifax, at the age of 83. He was a member of the Yorkshire Naturalists' 
Union since iSgo, and a member of the Halifax Scientific Society. He 
was interested in land and fresh-water mollusca. 

iSIessrs. Hutchinson & Co., are issuing a magnificently illustrated work 
entitled Belgium the Glorious, in fortnightly parts at yd. each. It con- 
tains reproductions of art treasures of that delightful country as they 
appeared before the war. The part before us includes over 80 illustrations. 

Richard Lydekkei", of the British ISIuseum, and the author of an enor- 
mous number of popular and technical natural history works, has just 
died, at the age of 66. His best work had reference to the Mammalia, 
living and extinct. Few journals of any standing had not printed articles 
from his pen. 

From the Board of Agriculture we have received the Annual Report 
of the Horticulture Branch, proceedings under the Destructive Insects and 
Pest Acts, i8j7 and 1907, and with the Board of Agriculture Act, 1889 
(Section 2, Sub-Section 3) for the year 1913-14. It contains 79 pages, and 
is sold at the low price of 4|d. 

A heron shot near Hedon on February 13th had on its leg Aberdeen 
University ring No. 35764. This we understand \vas ringed in the nest 
by Mr. S. H. Smith at York, on May 3rd, 1913. Mr. Smith also informs 
us that a Lesser Tern which was ringed at Spurn last July w^as shot at 
Oporto, Portugal, in September. 

We take the following from the current number of The Museums 
Journal and make no comment. ' He was a striking example of that 
combination of powerful intellect with a child-like, lovable nature and 
delight in the beautiful, which we have always been accustomed to look 
for in its full development in Germany.' 

We notice that Mr. A. R. Horwood was recently lecturing to the 
Leicester Literary and Philosophical Society on ' Plant Life in the Past.' 
We were surprised to learn from the circular however that Fiends were 
"particularly invited (the italics are not ours). It was evidently expected 
that Mr. Horwood was going to give them a devil of a time. 

W'e see from the Hull Daily News that a certain local geologist recently 
delivered a lecture on ' The Lost Towns of the Yorkshire Coast, ' and that 
a discussion followed in which several local naturalists took part ; which 
seems fairly matter of fact. The newspaper reporter evidently was so 
impressed by the harmonious nature of the proceedings that he headed 
the report ' Geological Society Concert.' 

Judging from the columns of the daily press, the war is having some 
effect on the names given to new arrivals of Homo sapiens. It is not often, 
however, that anything of this kind influences scientific nomenclature. 
In a recent number of the 'Annals and Magazine of Natural History,' 
we find the following three new names for Bats, in a paper by Mr. Old- 
field Thomas: — Xyctalus joffrei, Pipisfrellus kitcheneri, and Pipistrcllus 
stuvdeei. 

Naturalist. 



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'The Naturalist' for 1914 

Edited by T. SHEPPARD, F.G.S. and T. W. WOODHEAD, Ph.D., F.L.S. 

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Scottish Museum- William Evans, F.R.S E., 
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Museiim. Assisted by J. A. Harvie-Brown, 
F.R.S.E.,F.Z.S.; Evelyn V.Baxter, H.M.B.O.U. ; 
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Some Geographical Factors 
in tlie Great War 

By T. HERDMAN, M.Sc, F.G.S. 

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J2 pages, cnnvn 8vo, with 6 Maps, sewn in 
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A feature of vast importance in the titanic struggle now taking 
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difficulties that face those statesmen to whose heads and hands will 
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The '■'Literary World" saj's ■' — " Those who would follow intelligfently 
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problems of nationality." 



YORKSHIRE 

BY 

PEN AND PICTURE 

Edited by 
T. SHEPPARD, F.G.S., F.S.A.(Scot.), 

216 pages, crown folio, i&ith upwards of 250 illustrations, and 
strongly stitched in artistic pictorial cover. 

1/- net, or post free 1/3 net. 

This book, which might be almost described as a picture gallery 
of the County of Broad Acres, contains a great deal of useful and 
entertaining matter relative to every aspect of popular interest. 

The Yorkshire Post says : " Mr. Sheppard is well known as a 
writer on antiquarian subjects, and this volume reflects his acquaint- 
ance with Yorkshire." 



Printed at Brovvns' Savile Press, 40, George Street, Hull, and published by 
A. Brown & Sons, Limited, at 5 Farringdon Avenue, in the City of London. 

May 1st, 1915. 



JUNE 1915. 



No. 701 

(No. 47S of current serlei) 




A MONTHLY ILLUSTRATED JOURNAL OF 

NATURAL HISTORY FOR THE NORTH OF ENGLAND. 

EDITED BY 

T. SHEPPARD, F.Q.S., F.R.Q.S., F.SyljfilSSp Mlh 

The Museums, HuLl ; 

AND , 

T. W. WOODHEAD, Ph.D., F(L.SjfWWl4 IMS 

Technical College, Huddersfield. 



WITH THE ASSISTANCE AS REFEREES IN SPECIAL DEPARTN 

J. aiLBERT BAKBR, P.R.S. P.L.S., QEO. T. PORRITF, 

Prof. P. P, KENDALL, M.Sc, F.O.S., 
T. H. NELSON. M.B.O.U., 



JOHN W. TAYLOR, 
RILEY FORTUNE, F.Z.S. 



Contents : — 

PAG 

Notes and Comments (Illustrated): — Honorary Degrees for Yorkshire Naturalists; Honour 
for a Leeds Professor ; Mr. W. N. Cheesman, J.P. ; Spurn Lights in 1895 ; Arcadia ; Gun- 
Flints ; Lincolnshire Naturalists ; Cumberland Nature Reserve Association ; Blakeney 
Point; Corresponding Societies' Committee ; The British Association ; The House-Fly ; 

A Monograph ; Its Contents ; Hibernation of A/«sca i/onjcs^tVii ; Fat Flies 181-186 

A Cumberland Nature Reserve— L. E. H 187-191 

Grimmla Hartmani Schp. : an addition to tlie Yorkshire Moss Flora— C. A . Cheetham 192 

A Diary of Ornitliological Observations in Brittany— fit/mioi^ Seloiis 193-197 

Yorltshire Coleoptera in 1914 — W. J. Fordhain, M.R.C.S., F.E.S 198-200 

The Spiders of Wiclcen, with description of two new species— IF;ji. Fakona ... 201-204 
Natural History of Sawley and Eavestone, near Ripon (illustrated)— TK.fX. II". ... 205-208 
Undesirable Insect Aliens at Doncaster— //. // Corbett, M.R.C.S 209 

Field Notes: — East Yorkshire Lepidoptera ; Grasshopper Warbler at MythoImro)d ; Early 
Arrival of Swifts 



Reviews and Book Notices 

Proceedings of Provincial Scientific Societies 

Northern News 

News from the Magazines 

Illustrations 



210-211 

192, 197 

186,209 

200, 204, 208, 211 

212 

... 1)^2,184,205 



LONDON : 

A. Brown & Sons, Limited, 5, Farringdon Avenue, E.G. 

And at Hull and York. 

Printers and Publishers to the Y.N. U, 



Prepaid Subscription 6/6 per annum, post free. 



An entirely New Work bringing the Vegetational History 
of the County quite up-^to-date. 

THE VEGETATION OF YORKSHIRE 

Its History and Associations on the lines of Botanical Survey, 
based on the Geologic and Phyto-palaeologic remains : being an 
examination into the sources, the presence or passing of the 
Floristic Constituents — their When, How and Where ; being also 
a Supplement to previous " Floras " of York, and a list of the 
Localities and Species, newly classified, "New" to the County or 
some of its river-basins since 1888. 

By F. ARNOLD LEES 

M.R.C.S.En^., L.R.C.P.Lond. 

Demy 8vo, on white unsized paper, about 500 pages, 
to be subscribed at 12/6 net (16/- net strictly after publication) 



LONDON 

A. BROWN & SONS, Ltd., 5, Farringdon Avenue, E.G. 
And at Hull and York. 

FOR SALE. 

From the Library of the late W. CASH, F.G.S. 

Proc. Yorks. Geol. Soc. 30 parts, 1878-1914. 
Linn. Soc. Journal. 16 odd parts, 1888-1891. 
Fauna de la Normandie. Parts i and 3. 

Recherches sur I'appareil vegetatif des Big-nonacees, RhinantHacees, Oroban- 
chees et Utriculariees. 766 pages. 

BOOKS WANTED. 

Quarterly Journal of Science. Set. 

Frizinghall Naturalist (lithographed). Yol. I. and Yol. II., pt. i. 

The Field Natin-alist and Scientific Record. Set. 

The Journal of the Keighley Naturalists' Society. Part I, 

Huddersfield Arch, and Topog. Society. 4 Reports. (1865-1869). 

The Naturalists' Journal. Vo\. I. 

First Report, Goole Scientific Society. 

Cleveland Lit. & Phil. Society's Transactions. Science Section or others. 

The Naturalists' Record. Set or parts. 

The Natural History Teacher (Huddersfield). Yols. I. -II., or parts. 

The Economic Naturalist (Huddersfield). Parts i and 2. 

The Naturalists' Guide (Huddersfield). Set, or parts i, 4-12, 15-20, 29, 30, 34, 

The Naturalists' Almanac (Huddersfield). 1876. 36-38. 

Proc. Yorkshire Naturalists' Club (York). 1867-70. (Set). 

Keeping's Handbook to Natural History Collections (York). 

" Ripon Spurs," by Keslington. 

Geological and Natural History Repertory. Set. 

Apply .-—Editor , The Museum, Hull. 



i8i 
NOTES AND COMMENTS. 

HONORARY DEGREES FOR YORKSHIRE NATURALISTS. 

It must be very gratifying to the Yorkshire Naturalists' 
Union to find that its work has been so greatly recognised by 
the Leeds University. From the Yorkshire Observer for May 
2oth we learn that at the Court of the Leeds University held on 
May 19th, the Pro-Chancellor announced that the committee 
concerned had decided to confer honorary degrees upon- the 
following gentlemen : — D.Lit. — The Rev. Charles Hargrove, 
M.A., and Mr. Philip Wicksteed, of Leeds, LL.D.— Dr. D. 
Forsyth, M.A., D.Sc, head master of the. Leeds Central High 
School, who has exerted considerable influence in developing 
the national policy in regard to secondary education. D.Sc. — 
Mr. Harold Wager, F.R.S., an expert on fungi. M.Sc. — Mr. 
Thomas Sheppard, F.G.S., F.R.G.S., F.S.A. (Scot), director 
of the Hull Museums, and president of the Yorkshire Natural- 
ists' Union in 1914 ; Mr. J. W. Taylor, a former president of 
the Yorkshire Naturalists' Union ; Mr. T. W. Woodhead, Ph.D., 
F.L.S., hon. secretary of the Yorkshire Naturalists' Union and 
head of the natural history department of the Huddersfield 
Technical College ; Mi. T. H. Nelson, a prominent member of 
the Yorkshire Naturalists' Union and an expert in ornithology ; 
]Mr. W. Denison Roebuck, for many years hon. secretary and 
treasurer of the Yorkshire Naturalists' Union ; Mr. John 
Wilkinson, of Leeds, well known as the blind botanist. It was 
fitting, Mr. Lupton remarked, that the excellent amateur work 
rendered to science by the Yorkshire Naturalists' Union should 
be recognised by the conferring of honorary degrees upon a 
few representative members. The Court formally confirmed 
the action of the committee, and fixed upon July 3rd as the 
degree day. 

HONOUR FOR A LEEDS PROFESSOR. 

The Trustees of Columbia University in the City of New 
York have awarded the Barnard gold medal to Professor W^ H. 
Bragg, F.R.S., Cavendish Professor of Physics in the University 
of Leeds, and his son, Mr. W. L. Bragg, Fellow of Trinity College 
Cambridge, and a member of the college staff, at present 
holding a commission in the Leicestershire R.H.A. (T.F.), for 
their work on X-rays and crystals. The medal is awarded 
every five years for ' meritorious service to science,' on the 
recommendation of the National Academy of Sciences of the 
L'nited States. The previous recipients have been Lord 
Rayleigh and Sir William Ramsay, Professor von Rontgen,. 
Professor Henri Becquerel, and Professor Sir Ernest Rutherford. 

MR. W. N. CHEESMAN, J. P. 

At the invitation of the Executive Committee of the 
Yorkshire Naturalists' Union, Mr. W. Norwood Cheesman, J. P., 
of Sel'by, has accepted the Presidency of the Union for 1916. 

1.915 June 1. ^'>- 



l82 



Notes and Comments. 



Mr. Cheesman's work is well known to our readers, and The 
Naturalist is indebted to him for a number of racy papers. 
Yorkshire naturalists will certainly look forward to seeing 
him with them at the various meetings during the year. 

SPURN LIGHTS IN 1 895. 

The accompanying block is made from a photograph taken 
by Mr. J. Darker Butterell, and is the only illustration we know 
showing three lighthouses on Spurn Point. It was taken just 
before Smeaton's ' old light ' was demolished, the wall around 
which, known as the ' compound,' still exists. Mr. Heseltine, of 





the Hull Trinity House, informs us that the old lighthouse was 
taken down in 1895, so that the photograph would be taken 
just before that. 

ARCADIA. 

It is refreshing to find a sample of mediaeval rurality now 
and again, as for example the following report taken from a 
recent issue of the daily press. It is headed, ' May Day at 
Sompting.' — ' War time made no difference to the celebration 
of May Day at Sompting. In gala attire, and carrying garlands 
and floral wands, the children assembled earty at the Abbots, 
where they went through the picturesque ceremony of crowning 
the May Queen. The regal honours fell this year on little 
Kitty Varndell, and her attendants were Kathleen Richardson 
and Olive Pierce. The Queen was " enthroned " in a donkey 
cart beneath a canopy of flowers and foliage. After the 
crowning came the procession through the village, the children 
singing patriotic songs as they merrily marched along. The 
Queen and her retinue led the way, and Britannia, with shield 
and tripod [!] was conspicuous among the masqueraders. At 
the residence of Mr. A. Pullen-Burry the children danced around 
the Maypole and sang appropriate songs. Thev were rewarded 

Naturalist, 



Notes and Comments. 183 

with refreshments. Afterwards they went on to Lower Coke- 
ham, where Mr. Dillstone provided oranges, and there the 
celebration came to an end. Mr. Pullen-Burry kindly placed a 
field of flowers at the disposal of the children for their festival, 
and they were allowed to pick all the daffodils, wallflowers, 
etc., that they wanted. Mr. Archard (Schoolmaster) undertook 
the organization, and had the assistance of Miss Barrett and 
the Misses Honnywill.' 

(iUX-FLINTS. 

It is interesting at the present time, says Mr. Wilfred Mark 
I Webb in Knowledge, when the manufacture of cartridges and 
shells is of the utmost importance to the nation, to remember 
that the production of gun-flints still goes quietly on. Thou- 
sands are exported every year, particularly to tropical coun- 
tries, where more primitive methods linger or are found to be 
more convenient ; or, again, where the British Government 
sees to it that modern firearms do not get into the hands of 
the natives. There seems little doubt but that the maker of 
gun-flints, or the flint-knapper, as he is called, is carrying on 
an industry which has continued unbroken from very early 
prehistoric times, when man first began to fashion implements 
of stone. It would appear, nevertheless, at first sight that 
there is a fallacy somewhere, and that there must have been a 
very long gap between the dying out of the flint arrowhead and 
the invention of the flint-lock musket. This is true ; but it 
must be remembered that the flint in the guns was put there 
to produce sparks, and was only an adaptation of the strike-a- 
lights which all through the ages, and even within the memory 
of many persons still alive, have been used for the purpose of 
obtaining fire. There is, indeed, a considerable family likeness 
between the flints made for the tinder-box and the prehistoric 
flint implements which are known as ' scrapers.' 

LINCOLNSHIRE NATURALISTS. 

The Lincolnshire Naturalists' Union Transactions (pages 
151-212), for 1914, contain Miss S. C. Stow's presidential 
address on ' Plant Galls ' and a lengthy account of ' The Birds 
of Lincolnshire,' by F. L. Blathwayt. In addition are the 
reports of the general secretary and of the sectional officers, 
namely, E. A. Woodruffe-Peacock, W. Denison Roebuck, 
G. W. Mason, J. F. Musham and F. L. Blathwayt. There 
are one of two shorter notes dealing with Cakile maritima, 
' The Crested Lark,' and Passer domesticus. The frontispiece 
is a portrait of the Rev. Alfred Hunt, M.A., President 1907-8, 
with the usual memoir, which is as usual inaccurately headed 
^ The Presidents of the Lincolnshire Naturalists' Union.' If 
it is one of a series, the number should be given. Lincolnshire 
geologists are apparently inactive at the moment. 

1915 June!. 



i84 



Notes and Comments, 



CUMBERLAND NATURE RESERVE ASSOCIATION. 

As will be seen from the report in another column this 
Association is doing excellent work in a part of the country 
which we hope may for all time remain in as natural a state as 
possible. The district and its fauna and flora appeal to many 
besides those living in the neighbourhood, and the secretary, 
Mr. Linnaeus E. Hope, F.L.S., of The Museum, Carlisle, would 
be very pleased to have subscriptions, however small, which 
he assures us would be put to a very good service. 

BLAKENEY POINT. 

The National Trust has issued an interesting report on 




Little Tern — sitting 



' Blakeney Point in 1914,' which includes the report of the 
Management Committee and the Laboratory Report. Special 
reference is made to the sections of the Bird Colony, and there 
is some interesting information with regard to the flora. The 
report is illustrated ; one of the blocks we are kindly permitted 
to reproduce. The similarity between Blakeney Point and 
its flora and fauna to that of Spurn is remarkable. 

CORRESPONDING SOCIETIES' COMMITTEE. 

The Report of the Corresponding Societies' Committee and of 
the Conference of Delegates held at Harve has been issued bj^ the 
British Association, 134 pages, is. net. It contains Sir George 
Fordham's paper on ' The History of the Endeavour to Co- 

■ Naturdis't, 



Notes and Comments. 185 

ordinate the Work of Local Scientific Societies in Great Britain,' 
and Mr. John Hopkinson's on ' Local Natural History Societies 
and their Publications,' with discussions. Mr. Hopkinson's 
paper has already been fully dealt with in this journal. There 
is also a suggestion for a ' Bibliography of the Publications of 
Local Scientific Societies,' and the usual useful classified list 
of contents of the publications of the Affiliated Societies. 

THE BRITISH ASSOCIATION. 

For the meeting of the British x\ssociation, to be held at 
Manchester from September 7th to nth, under the presidency 
of Professor Arthur Schuster, the following sectional Presidents 
have been appointed : — Mathematics and Physics — Sir F. W. 
Dyson. Chemistry — Professor H. B. Baker. Geology — Pro- 
fessor Grenville Cole. Zoology — Professor E. A. Minchin. 
Geography — Captain H. G. Lyons. Economics — Dr. W. R. 
Scott. Engineering — Dr. H. S. Hele-Shaw. Anthropology — 
Dr. C. G. Seligman. Physiology — Professor W. M. Bayliss. 
Botany — Professor W. H. Lang. Education — Mrs. Henry 
Sidgwick. Agriculture — Mr. R. H. Rew. Evening discourses 
will be delivered by Mr. H. W. T. Wager on ' The' Behaviour 
of Plants in Response to Light,' and by Dr. R. Sampson, 
Astronomer Ro3'al for Scotland. 

THE HOUSE-FLY ; * 

If the science of entomology needed any justification it is 
afforded in this remarkable volume. Here we have a, book of 
382 pages devoted to a single small insect of the Diptera, but 
dealing with it in such a way that the book is indispensable 
not only to the student of entomology, but to medical men and 
officers of health. Moreover, apart from the chapter dealing 
with the technical and detailed structure of the house-fly, the 
book is extremely readable and interesting to the general 
reader. 

A MONOGRAPH ; 

Among the numerous and remarkable advances which have 
been made in the realm of medical science within the last 
twenty years, none has created so wide a public interest, and 
none has been destined to affect the future welfare and progress 
of mankind to so great a degree, as the discovery of the role 
which insects play in the dissemination of disease. We read 
much nowadays of the havoc caused by the mosquito, by the 
flea, and by lice. Of all revelations, however, none affects so 
great a number of people in all countries, both by its significance 
and effects, as the demonstration of the disease-carrying power 
of the common house-fly. The presentation of our knowledge 

* Miisca domestica Linn., its structure, habits, development, relation 
to disease and control, by C. Gordon Hewitt, D.Sc, F.R.S.C. (Cambridge 
University Press, 15s. 8vo, pp. 282-f-viii.). 

1915 June 1. 



i86 Notes and Comments. 

of this insect, its habits, and relation to disease, has thus 
been rendered very desirable, and this difficult task the author 
has undertaken with great success. 

ITS CONTENTS. 

There are chapters dealing with the Structure and Habits 
of the House-Fly ; The Breeding Habits, Life History and 
Structure of the Larva ; The Natural Enemies and Parasites 
of the House-Fly ; Other Species of Flies frequenting Houses ; 
The Relation of House-Flies to Disease ; and Control Measures. 
The chapters are illustrated by a number of coloured plates 
very beautifully executed, and by a large number of illustrations 
in the text. As showing the enormous amount of literature 
on the subject it may be mentioned that the Bibliography takes 
up 36 pages. 

HIBERNATION OF ' MUSCA DOMESTIC A.' 

The author goes very fully into the question of hibernation 
of the House-Fl3^ The disappearance of flies towards the end 
of October and during November is a well known fact and the 
question is frequently asked, what becomes of them ? To 
this disappearance three causes contribute, namely, retreat 
into hibernating quarters or into permanently heated places, 
natural death and death from the parasitic fungus, Empusa 
musca. The natural death of flies he considers may be com- 
pared to the like phenomenon that occurs in the case of the 
hive-bee, Afis mellifica, where many of the workers die at the 
end of the season by the fact that they are simply worn out, 
their function having been fulfilled. 

FAT FLIES. 

The flies which die naturally have probably bred for many 
weeks or months during the summer and autumn, and in the 
case of the females have deposited many batches of eggs ; 
their life work, therefore, is complete. Those flies which 
hibernate are the most recently emerged, and therefore, the 
youngest and most vigorous. On dissection it is found that 
the abdomens of these hibernating individuals are packed with 
fat cells, the fat body having developed enormously. Mature 
spermatozoa have been found in hibernating males. In some 
females it was found that the ovaries were small and in others 
very well developed. 



The Proceedings of the Liverpool Naturalists' Field Club for 1914 

(84 pages) contain Mr. J. W. Ellis's account of the Field Meetings, which 
is mostly botanical ; and Part 4 (Conclusion) of ' Wirral Fungi,' by the 
same author. 

The Transactions of the Entomological Society of London, issued 
April 2ist, contain the presidential address of G. T. Bethune- Baker, 
which deals with ' The Development of Clasping Organs in Insects.' It is 
remarkably well illustrated. 

Naturalist, 



i87 

A CUMBERLAND NATURE RESERVE. 

Although the first General Meeting of the Cumberland Nature 
Reserve Association took place on March 14th, 1913, when a 
Council and Officers were elected, the active existence of the 
Association commenced in February, 1914. 

The offer by the Corporation of Carlisle to hand to the 
Museum Committee the historic common of Kingmoor to be 
used as a Nature Reserve was the initial step, and a very ample 
basis upon which to found a Nature Reserve Association. It 
was shewn, however, that a Cumberland Nature Reserve 
Association entailed a much wider scope of action, and that 
there were many animals and plants in the county which 
urgently required adequate protection, which were not numbered 
amongst the denizens of Kingmoor Common or Wood, and 
which might possibly never be included within the limits of 
any Nature Res.erve or sanctuary established in the county. 
Therefore the objects of the " Cumberland Nature Reserve 
Association " include the establishment and assisting in the 
upkeep of Nature Reserves in the county, as well as a scheme 
for the protection of animals outside any such provisional 
area. 

There are three birds nesting in this county which are the 
especial objective of ^gg collectors, viz.: — ^the Peregrine 
Falcon, the Common Buzzard and the Raven. These fine 
birds required the careful attention of the Association, and a 
scheme was devized which has proved highly successful. 
These birds' eyries or nests occupy extremely isolated positions, 
and to engage permanent watchers for the numerous areas in 
which they occur would be impracticable. A member of the 
Committee, ^Ir. Eric B. Dunlop, undertook to locate nests or 
eyries of these species and report to the Sub-Committee ap- 
pointed to deal with the matter, where possible ; arrangements 
were then made with a resident in the district who undertook 
to look after the nest, prevent molestation and report to the 
Sub-Committee when necessary. If the birds successfully 
reared their young he was paid a certain amount agreed upon. 

During the spring of 1914 we had three Raven's nests, two 
Buzzard's eyries and one Peregrine's eyrie under supervision, 
all of which successfully reared young. The Peregrine and 
two of the Ravens are known to have previously endeavoured 
unsuccessfully for several years to raise their broods. 

To enable the Association to undertake this work, it was 
necessary to acquire funds, and therefore the Council of the 
Association decided to establish a ' Watchers' Fund.' A 
circular was printed drawing attention to the Association's 
work and requesting subscriptions. 

The Association hopes to extend the scope of this phase 

1915 June I. 



l88- A Cumberland Nature Reserve. 

of its work in future years if sufftcient financial support is 
obtaine'd. 

Turning to wliat was primarily the object of tlie Association, 
the promotion and provision of Nature Reserves in Cumber- 
land, local Secretaries, Miss Newling and Mr. Ritson, have been; 
appointed in two districts, viz., Keswick and Wigton, in the 
hope that suitable tracts of country will eventually be set apart 
and properly administered by a local Committee. 

Kingmoor Nature Reserve is the only fully constituted and 
affiliated Reserve yet in the county, and in spite of many 
difficulties encountered by the Reserve Committee, and the 
despoliation of the land as a primitive tract which had been 
going on for years, it is a great success. 

:, A grant of £25 from the funds was made for 1914, and from 
that the Committee have done much good and necessary 
work, and provided a regular keeper from April to September. 
A bimgalow was erected for the use of the keeper and wardens, 
the building being the gift of Mr. F. W. Halton, while timber for 
repairs and additions was given by Mr. A. Anderson. Ma.jor 
Spencer Ferguson (Mayor of Carlisle), Mr. D. Losh Thorpe, and 
the Hon. Secretary spent much time in arranging and providing 
these necessaries, which included a suitable drinking pond for 
birds. 

Three gentlemen were appointed to compile lists of the 
Flora and Fauna of the Reserve with a view to comparison 
with past records and also with future developments, viz. : — 
Mr. F. H. Day for Insects ; Mr. T. Scott Johnstone, for Flowering 
plants and general botany ; and Mr. Jas. Murray, for the 
Mosses and Liverworts. 

Mr. Day records 15 species of Butterflies, 122 species of 
Moths and 257 species of Beetles. Three of the beetles are new 
to Cumberland, viz., Apion genistce, Helophorus quadrisignaUts. 
and Psylliodes affinis. 

Mr. Johnstone reports the identification of 120 plants 
growing on the common and in the wood. Some of these are 
quite rare and have been previously recorded, among them being 
the Whorl-leaved Meadow-Parsnip, Carum verticillaUim, re- 
corded by T. C. Heysham in 1837. ^^ appears to be increasing, 
but on the other hand at least 10 of the previously recorded 
species have not been seen during the past year. Twelve 
hundred species of flowering plants have been recorded for the 
whole of Cumberland, so that Kingmoor Nature Reserve, with 
an area of less than 50 acres, can show exactly 10 per cent, of 
the Flora of the county. The list will doubtless be con- 
siderably increased in future years. 

Mr. J. Murray reports that the locality is not a good one 
for either mosses or liverworts, and that some of those noted 
were abnormally stunted and ill-developed. This year he 

Naturalist^ 



A Cumberland Nature Reserve. i8g 

identified 12 species of mosses and three liverworts, but states 
that no doubt further searches will produce more species.' ' 

Messrs. D. Losh Thorpe, Geo. Davidson, the Secretary, the 
Rev. H. D. Ford and Miss E. Newling are responsible for the 
particulars of the Vertebrates of the Reserve, and a list of 43 
species of birds seen on the Common has been drawn up, '27 
of which nested or reared their young, while 4 species of Mam- 
mals and 3 of Rcptilia and Batrachia were recorded. . , > 

The Glaucous Gull, Great-Spotted Woodpecker and Grass- 
hopper Warbler are the best species recorded ; the last mentioned 
nested on the Common. 

The keeper had at one time about 100 nests of various 
species under observation, and this was probably doubled or 
trebled as a total during the season. The most conspicuous 
species was the Willow- Warbler. 

Over 60 nesting boxes were fixed in the wood, provided by 
Messrs. D. Losh Thorpe and F. Wright, 50 per cent, of which 
were used, chiefly by Blue-tits. The Committee is greatly 
indebted to Mr. Lamb and his tenant Mr. Graham, of King- 
moor Farm, for the permission to include the wood in the 
Reserve area. ■ . 

Out of the whole number of nests of birds under observation 
in the area, which included Pheasant and Partridge, only 6 
nests were noticed destroyed — three by a grass fire which 
■occurred in May, one, a waterhen, by a dog killing the old 
bird, one, a Willow-Warbler's, the old bird killed by a weasel, 
and one Blackbird's nest robbed by a Magpie. 

At the General Meeting in December, the Officers were 
elected as follows : — President, The Speaker of the House 
of Commons, the Rt. Hon. J. W. Lowther ; Vice-Presidents, 
Sir Benjamin Scott, J. P., Sir R. A. Allison, J. P., The Mayor 
of Carlisle, F. P. Dixon, Esq., J. P., The Mayor of Whitehaven : 
H. W. Walker, Esq., J. P., R. Heywood Thompson Esq., J. P., 
F. P. Johnson, Esq., J.P., M.B.O.U., Henry Gaudy, Esq., J. P., 
Harold Carr, Esq., E. R. Sheldon, Esq. ; Chairman, Major 
Spencer C. Ferguson, J. P. ; Vice- Chairman, D. Losh Thorpe, 
Esq., M.B.O.U. ; Hon. Secretary and Treasurer, Linnaeus E. 
Hope, Esq., F.L.S. 

L.E.H. 

List of Birds seen ix Kingmoor Reserve, 1914. 

*Mistle Thrush *Sedge \\'arbler *Linnet 

*Song Thrush *Grasshopper Warbler * Bullfinch 

*Blackbird *Hedge Sparrow *Yellowhammer 

*Redbreast *Wren Spotted Flycatcher 

*Whinchat *Tree Creeper Swallow 

*Whitethroat House Sparrow Great Tit 

*Willow Warbler *Chaffinch *Blue Tit 

*Wood Warbler *Greenfinch Coal Tit 

1915 June 1. 



I go 



A Cumberland Nature Reserve. 



*Tree Pipit 
*Pied Wagtail 

Skylark 

Starling 
*Magpie 
*Rook 

Carrion Crow 



Swift 

Cuckoo 

Great Spotted ^^'ood- 
pecker 
*Wood Pigeon 
* Partridge 
*Pheasant 



*Moorhen 
Redshank 
Lapwing 
Curlew 

Blackheaded Gull 
Glaucous Gull 



This list does not include birds recorded before 1914, and of" 
which Mr. B. Johnston has a list of 37 additional species. 



Mammals. 




Common Shrew 


Mole 


Rabbit 


Weasel 



Frog 



Amphibia and Reptilia. 

Toad Common Lizard 



Entomology — Mr. Day writes : — Years ago, because of its 
nearness to Carlisle, Kingmoor was much frequented by 
collectors of butterflies and moths, and interesting insects were 
captured from time to time. For the last ten years or so the 
place has been neglected, as it was found that many of the 
species were becoming scarce or disappearing altogether. 
I have drawn up a list of the various butterflies and moths 
(to the end of the Geometrse) which I know have occurred 
there, mostlj' based on my own investigations. The list 
includes 15 species of butterflies — rather more than one fifth 
of the British fauna, a really excellent list for such a small area. 

Of the moths I have records of 122 species, and I believe 
this number could be added to extensively. 

The Lepidopterous fauna being so well known, I did not, 
during the present season, spend much time in investigating 
it any further, but I noticed the ' Orange tip ' was common 
on the dampish ground about half way down the moor. 



Lepidoptera. 



Rhopalocera (butterflies). 

Pieris brassic<s L. 
P. rupee L. 
P. napi, L. 

Eitchloe cavdamines L. 
Aglais nyticcB L. 
Pyvameis atalanta L. 
Pyrameis cardui L. 
Pararge niegcera L. 
Satyrus semele L. 
Epinephele janira L. 
E. hyperanthus L. 
Coenonympha pampliilits L. 



Riimicia phlasas L. 
Polyommatus icariis Rott. 
Nisoniades fages L. 

BOMBYCES. 

Hylophila prasinana L. 
Lithosia mesomella L. 
Euchelia jacobeecs L. 
Nemeophila russiila L. 
Arctia caia L. 
Spilosoma fiiliginosa L. 
5. menthastvi Esp. 
Hepialns hiimiili L. 
H. velleda Hb. 



* Nested in the Reserve. 



A Cnmberlmtd Nature Reserve. 



191 



Hepialiis lupulimis h. 

Cossus iigniperda Fb. 

Dasychira fascelina L. 

Bombyx rubi L. 

B. quercus L. var. callunce I 'aimer. 

Odonestis potatoria L. 

Satitrnia pavonia L. 

Drepana falcataria L. 

Cilix glaucata Scop. 

Dicranura vinula L. 

Phalera bucephala L. 

PygcBva pigra Hufn. 

Thyatira batis L. 

A sphalia flavicornis L. 

NocTU.a;. 
Acronycta psi L. 
A . rumicis L. 
Diloba cceruleocephala L. 
Leucania conigera F. 
L. lithavgyvia Esp. 
L. iynpura Hb. 
Z,. pallens L. 
Tapinostola fiilva Hb. 
Axylia putris L. 
Xylophasia rurea F. 
X. lithoxylea F. 
.X'. monoglypha Hufn. 
Charceas graminis L. 
Apamea basilinea F. 
.4. gemina Hb. 
-■i. didyma Esp. 
Miana stvigilis Clerck. 
A/, fascinncula Haw. 
A gratis segetnm Schiff. 
-•i. exclamationis L. 
-J. strigula Thnb. 

Noctiia augur F. 

N. plecta L. 

iV. brumiea F. 

AT. festiva Hb. 

iV. fca/a F. 

iV. xanthogvapha F. 

Triphesna comes, Hb. 

T. pronuba L. 

Tceniocampa incerta Hufn. 

T. cruda Hb. 

T. gothica L. 

T. stabilis View. 
Anchocelis rufiria L. 
.(4 . litura L. 

Cerastis vaccinii L. 

Scopelosoma satellita L. 

Xayxthia fulvago L. 

X. flavago F. 

Miselia oxyacanthcB F. 

Agyiopis apvilina F. 

Phlogophora meticulosa L. 

Hadena proteci Bork. 

//. oleracea L. 



Hadena pisi L. 
//. thalassina Rott. 
Xylocampa areola Esp. 
Calocampa exoleta L. 
Plusia gamma L. 
Anarta myrtilli L. 
Phytometra viridaria Clerck. 
Hypena proboscidalis L. 
Hypenodes costcestrigalis St. 

Geometrae. 

Uropteryx sambucaria I.. 
Epione apiciaria Schiff. 
Rumia luteolata L. 
Selenia bilunaria Esp. 
Odontopera bidentata Clerck. 
Himera pennaria L, 
Phigalia pedaria Fb. 
Amphidasys strataria Hufn. 
^. betulavia L. 
Clear a lie hen aria Hufn. 
Boarmia repaiidata L. 
Pseudoterpna pruinata Hufn. 
Geametra papilionaria L. 
/o(iis lactearia L. 
Asthenia candidata Schiff. 
Acidalia bisetata Hufn. 
/l. remidaria Hb. 
Cabera pusaria L. 
C. exanthemata Scop. 
Ematurga atomaria L. 
Aspilates strigillarta Hb. 
Abraxas grossMlariata I.. 
Lomaspilis marginata L. 
Hybernia rupicapraria Hb. 
//. margitiaria Bork. 
//. defoliaria Clerck. 
Cheimatabia brumata L. 
Oparabia dilutata Bork. 
Larentia didymata L. 
L. multistrigaria Haw. 
L. viridaria Fb. 
Emmelesia albulata Schift. 
Euptthecia nanata Hb. 
ii. minutata Gn. 
Hypsipetes sordidata Fb. 
Melanippe sociata Bork. 
M. montanata Bork. 
M fluctiiata L. 
Camptagramma biliucata L. 
Cidaria siterata Hufn. 
C. corylata Thnb. 
C. truncata Hufn. 
C. immanata Haw. 
C. testata L. 
Pelurga comitata L. 
Eubolia palumbaria Bork. 
Chesias spartiata Fues. 
Tanagra atrata L. 



1915 June 1. 



(To 6(? continued. 



192 



GRIMMIA HARTMANI, Schp. 

AN ADDITION TO THE YORKSHIRE MOSS FLORA. 



CHRIS. A. CHEETHAM. 



On the occasion of the recent Bryological meeting in Crummock, 
Dale, a moss was gathered which agreed with the description 
of the above in all but general colour, it has since been submitted 
to Mr. H. N. Dixon, F.L.S., who has kindty verified \the 
identification. 

A subsequent visit shows the moss to be fairly plentiful, 
and suggests that it may have been overlooked as Rhacomitrinm 
heterostichum with which it is associated ; the colour is similar, 
green above, black below, but it lacks the usual hoary appear- 
ance of R. heterostichum owing to the very short hyaline points, 
and it is more compact and neater in growth. The habitat 
is on scattered siliceous boulders, not in streams nor where 
likely to be submerged at any time, the situation is sub-alpine 
as is shown by the Andreaeas, etc., in the vicinity, although the 
altitude is only 750 feet above O.D. 



Ancient Hunters and their Modern Representatives. By W. J. SoHas, 

Macmillan cV- Co., 591 pages, 15s. net. The fact that this vohime has 
reached its second, edition within four years, speaks well for its popularity. 
In the present edition many changes and amplifications, etc., have been 
made as a result of recent research ; in fact, the amount of new information 
that has been obtained with regard to primitive man in recent vears is 
extraordinary. 

Text-Book of Embryology. Volume i., Invertebrata. By Professor 
E. W. MacBride. Pp. xxxii + 692. London: Messrs. Macmillan 8z Co. 
Price, 25s. net. Since the publication of Balfour's work on Comparative 
Embryology in 1880, many additions have been made to our knowledge 
of this intensely interesting branch of zoology. The need of a work 
putting forward concisely the results of recent research in animal develop- 
ment has for some time been urgent. This is now met, as far as the 
Invertebrata are concerned, by the publication of Professor MacBride's 
handsome text-book. Its arrangement is a distinct improvement on the 
earlier work of Balfour and contains some quite new and useful features. 
The plan followed is to describe a number of typical life-histories, illustrat- 
ing all the important groups of Invertebrata, selecting types which have 
been fully worked out, and as far as possible, such as are easily accessible to 
students in temperate regions. Thus the spider has been chosen as a type 
of the Arachnida rather than the more generalised scorpion. A general 
account of the development of other members of the group follows the 
description of the type. In indicating some of the pi-oblems in the field 
of embryology which still remain to be solved, and also in giving an account 
of the methods of microscopical technique used by the best investigators, 
the book will prove invaluable to students. It contains nearly five hundred 
illustrations, and is provided with a copious index and bibliographies of 
the more important works referred to. It is printed and got up in that 
excellent way of which Messrs, Macmillans' name is the hall-mark, and the 
volume should certainly be acquired by every public and scientific societv's 
library. 

Naturalist,. 



193 

A DIARY OF ORNITHOLOGICAL OBSERVATIONS 
IN BRITTANY. 



EDMUND SELOUb. 



{Continued from page i6j). 

July i2TH. — The following was observed by me this morn- 
ing, during about an hour's watching. At 7 the female flew 
in to the nest and fed the young twice in rapid succession. 
She had left it only the moment before on the ' rattle ' of the 
male, somewhere near. At 7-13 there were two more such 
quick-recurring visits, and at 7-14 another, each time, I think, 
the female. At 7-15 there is a double visit of both the birds. 
Both I think feed the young, the first certainly, and it is the 
second arrival that now broods. 7-18, bird rises on nest, and 
resettles itself ; 7-19, two quickly repeated conjugal visits (with 
food, that is to say), to the sitting bird, and the latter feeds 
the young with this, and then flies off ; 7-23, a bird flies in and 
broods the young ; 7-24, a conjugal visit, as before defined ; 
7-28, another, and now I feel assured that both parents brood 
the young, for the one that brought the food, and should there- 
fore by previous observation, not contradicted so far as I had 
perceived in the present instance, be the male, showed the one 
upon the nest — the female — in many pretty ways, that it 
wished to take her place there. He pressed gently against 
her, looked a little anxious, toyed with his bill amongst the 
feathers of her breast, etc., but she, with a pretty insistence, 
still sat there, and was left in possession. I could see no other 
way of accounting for these actions than a desire on the part 
of the bird that used them to brood the young, and there was a 
certain indefinable look also, which made it unmistakeable. 
It is true that these actions in themselves seem more to desig- 
nate the female, but in that case, the male was brooding. 
Either way, I have now no doubt that he shares this duty (as 
also probably that of incubation) with the female, though 
probably not equally ; and this is so also, in the case of the 
Garden Warbler. The brooding bird remains till 7-40 and then, 
probably after taking food from the other, flies off, leaving the 
nest empty. 

7-43, a bird flies in and feeds young, then broods them. 
This bird is so yellow that I think it must be the male. The 
nest, with the bird on it, now looks inconceivably pretty, with 
checkers of sunshine on the leafage about it. 

7-47, the brooding bird shows signs of anxiety, gradually 
increasing till it flies off. A moment afterwards either it or 
its partner appears in the neighbourhood of the nest, and a 
moment after that one or other of them flies down and feeds 
the young. Having done so, it flies away at once, but either 

1915 June 1. 



194 Scions : Ornithological Observations in Brittany. 

is quickly back and feeds them again, or the other one does so, 
and there are two quick repetitions of this before the young are 
brooded by the last provider. This one, just before 8, receives 
a green caterpillar from the bill of its cara sposo. 

July i6th. — This afternoon I watched the nest at very 
close quarters for about an hour and a quarter. This proximity, 
which yet left the birds entirely at their ease, I achieved by 
pulling down the osier branches over and all around me, tying 
them together with string, and then thatching them, as it 
were, with bracken fronds. When all was completed I looked 
right into the nest at only a step or two away. My chief 
observations were as follows : — 

(i) The habits of mutual accommodation, as between the 
parents and young which have arisen in relatio-n to the de- 
foecation of the latter. So accustomed has the chick become to 
have the excreta removed, immediately upon the performance 
of this function, that the time of the arrival at the nest of either 
parent has become connected in its mind with the act in 
question, nor will it, apparently, unless through necessity 
(which happens but rarely) relieve itself in this manner during 
the intervals between such visits, but concurrently with them, 
cocks up the anus, most evidently for the parent to perform 
this othce. The parent does so, as a matter of course, and if 
there is any undue delay, pecks with its bill into the orifice, 
thus hastening the evacuation. But whether the parent also 
sometimes in the first instance, endeavours to induce the 
young to defoecate, when it has, as yet, made no motion towards 
it, I am not quite sure but think so, as it certainly directs its 
bill downwards to the chick in the nest, and, I think, to that 
part, whilst waiting obviously for this to take place. Moreover, 
the other makes this, being but a slight extension of it, in 
itself, probable. 

(2) The occasional bringing to the nest of several flies at 
a time, with which two or more chicks are fed. 

(3) Once something very peculiar, viz., a long string, or 
rather chain of flies, hanging one from another, as though the 
legs had been threaded together. With this fly-chain, two 
chicks, as a minimum, were fed. 

(4) The excreta were either swallowed, at once, upon re 
moval by the parents, or else carried away by them. 

(5) The ' rattling ' or harsh chattering note which would 
be almost universally attributed to alarm or disquiet on the- 
birds' part, was frequent, even when feeding was proceeding 
freely, and the young would often rise up open-mouthed in 
the nest, upon hearing it. There were numerous visits at 
irregular and mostly short intervals, and both parents fed 
the young. The time occupied was from about 6-30 to 7-45 
p.m. 

Naturalist, 



Selous : Ornithological Observations in Brittany. 195 

July 17TH. — At the nest again in the afternoon, at 2-50, 
getting under the very close shelter I had made, and, during 
an hour and 25 minutes from then, all my observations of 
yesterday were confirmed. The chicks most certainly look 
upon the visits of the parents as the proper occasions for 
defoecation, nor have I once either to-day or yesterday, seen 
them perform this act during the intervals of these, though 
representing a longer period of time. The parents are both 
very assiduous, the male nearly if not quite as much so as the 
female; there is little, I think, to choose between them. The 
food brought is mostly flies, including ephemerids and other 
small flying creatures, but caterpillars are given, from time to 
time, and twice this afternoon a "Meadow-Brown Butterfly was 
brought and presented whole to one chick. On a former occa- 
sion, I had seen a bird of this species (possibly one of the pair) 
with a good-sized moth in its bill. Several flies are usually 
brought at a time, as with Wagtails, and once the male fed 
two with a sort of ball of them, first letting one peck two or 
three times at it, thus getting something, and then giving the 
residue to the other. On other occasions, two or perhaps all 
three of the young were fed, but it is more usual for one only 
to be at each visit. Twice both the parents were at the nest 
together, and each fed a chick. 

July i8th. — I sat and watched the pair at their nest, from 
my nest, as I might call it, from 6 p.m. to nearly 8-30 p.m. 
The young birds collectively defoecated during this time, 
either nine or ten times (I am not quite sure which, but I think 
ten) and every time was during the visit of one of the parent 
birds, who regularly took the dropping in transitu and either 
swallowed it there and then, or flew off with it. There was 
just one occasion, however, when the act was rather sudden, 
and the parent did not quite succeed in its attempt to seize 
the object, which fell to the ground. As with the Blackcap, 
on a similar failure, it immediately dived down after it, and 
either swallowed or carried it away in the bill — I cannot now 
speak certainly as to which. The food consisted almost wholly 
of flies, which were brought in, in little black balls, but there 
also were two butterflies, a white one and a meadow brown, 
and a caterpillar. Both parents took part in the feeding, which 
continued, at short intervals, till about 7-30 when there was a 
longer one of some twenty minutes. It then recommenced 
and went on till twelve minutes past eight, when, as the very 
last offering, the Meadow Brown Butterfly which I have 
mentioned was given by the female, who, a moment afterwards, 
came gently on to the nest, or, rather, the fledgling birds, for 
they now entirely filled it. It seemed rather a difflcult matter 
for her to brood them, and she was often pushed up by one 
head or another and only got into position again with some 

1915 June 1. 



196 Selous : Ornithological Observations in Brittany. 

difficulty, but she sat at last completely covering all three, 
high above the level of the nest, like a little sylvan queen on 
her throne. At 8-15 the male was heard, and at 8-25 again, 
each time some little way off. It was just a single rattle the 
first time, several the second. All then became gradually still, 
but a little later, when ' the shades of night were falling fast ' 
a Thrush began to sing, and was still singing when I left, at 
about half-past eight. 

July 20th. — Got up at 4. My watch was to-day indis- 
posed, but as I postponed ablutions till my return, I must have 
been under cover by 4-30 at the latest. At first I thought the 
largest of the chicks was the hen on the nest, but the next 
moment she arrived and fed one, and the feeding then went on 
in the usual manner. Evidently, then, the birds begin their 
domestic duties with the first light of morning (it was hardly 
light at 4) and continue them till past eight in the evening, a 
sixteen hours day. As my object in coming (which had been 
to ascertain this) was now attained, and there was not likely to 
be any new thing to see, with this species, I did not stay longer, 
and in getting out of my quite perfect place of espial, made a 
rustle, which, though only a slight one, set both the birds off 
chattering — or rattling as I have called it, the sound is so 
continuous and peculiar — in quite a wonderful manner. Their 
anger, their indignation was extreme, causing them to assume 
all sorts of strained and violent attitudes, and, as I began to 
creep out on all fours, they clung to stems much lower down 
than is their custom, and, bending to the extreme length of 
their bodies, flung down their fury on my head. Nor were they 
alone, for a Robin, a Wren, and a hen Cirl Bunting now made 
part of the angry chorus, which reminded me of the frontis- 
piece to Bates's ' Naturalist on the Amazons,' except that there 
they are all of one species — Toucans namely. But it at once 
struck me that birds, here at home, do not mob men in this way, 
but only Cats, and as only my head was now visible, and that 
half-hidden and near the ground, I made no doubt it was a 
Cat that I was taken for, especially as there is one often to 
be seen about here, and always received thus heartily. When 
I rose up my suspicion was at once confirmed, for there was an 
immediate dispersal to a greater distance and a drop in the 
intensity of the scolding. This reminds me that, a morning or 
two ago, a hen Cirl Bunting — probably this same bird — came 
into the neighbourhood of the nest, when there was an immedi- 
ate jangle between her and these Warblers. Now again she 
had come within the prohibited degree of proximity, as also 
the other two, but, bound together by the stong tie of a common 
hostility, this point did not arise. The lesser casus belli had 
been merged in the larger one. 

July 2IST. — On coming to the nest, this afternoon, I find 



Revieivs and Book Notices. 197 

it empty. This does not surprise mc as the young are now 
fully large enough to have left the nest, and from sounds I 
hear in the thicket, and the behaviour of the old birds, I have 
no doubt they are still being tended and that all is in order. 
Had they been taken, the parents would now have nothing to 
be excited about, but would probably show signs of despondency 
and listlessness. By rustling and playing the Cat, I had them 
again about me, but this, perhaps, can hardly be used as an 
argument, since the stimulus would be in connection with the 
still more paramount law of self-preservation. However, the 
time was ripe for their departure, and it is perhaps even still 
more decisive for their having departed, and in peace, that the 
nest remains in situ and intact. 



Geology of To-Day. By Prof. J. W. Gregory, F.R.S. London : Seeley, 
Service & Co., Ltd., 32S pages, 5s. net. This is ' A Popular Introduction 
in Simple Language.' The book is divided into four sections, Introductory, 
Physical Geology, Historical Geology, and The Story of Life on the Earth. 
Each section is really a small book in itself, and may be said to contain 
the most recent information on the subject dealt with. The illustrations 
and diagrams given with the volume are remarkably fine. An indication 
of the up-to-dateness of the book is shown by the fact that the Piltdown 
skull is described. It is a well printed volume and is remarkably cheap 
at 5s. The frontispiece shows a statue of Agassiz thrown from its niche 
above Arches, Stanford University, and is one of the most extraordinary 
geological photographs wc have seen. 

Plant Life in the British Isles. By A. R. Horwood. London.: J. and 
A. Churchill, 1915, Vol. III., pp. xvi+^i^, 6s. Gd. net. This is the third 
and concluding volume on ' Plant Life in the British Isles,' by Mr. Hor- 
wood, and follows similar lines to the two earlier volumes already noticed 
in the pages of this journal. In an introduction of 95 pages, the author 
deals with what he terms ' the main principles of botany in brief.' As in 
the previous volumes, this consists of a scrappy condensation of facts and 
fancies gleaned from a very varied literature, rather than a clear enun- 
ciation of those elementary principles which it is necessary to place before 
the beginner, for whom the work is written. In his endeavour to bring 
in a wide range of subjects, the references are often too brief to be of value 
and tend rather to confusion than helpfulness. Teleological explanations 
are much to the fore, and are sure to produce erroneous impressions in the 
mind of the young botanist. The very wide field covered, naturally 
carries the author at times out of his depth, but he errs also on simpler 
points, as when, on page 46, he refers to the germination of the seed as 
' the initial stage of a new generation.' It will be news to the field botanist 
that the INIarsh Samphire [Salicoviiia hevhacea) ' is found in all parts of the 
British Isles.' The Saltwort (Salsola), we are told ' is one of the strand 
plants which take the place of a sand-dune formation where no dunes are 
formed.' This we suppose is an illustration of Ecology ! Although, on 
page 330, we are assured that the seeds of the Bluebell ' are dispersed by 
the wind,' those familiar with our common woodland plants will be con- 
vinced with difficulty that this is the usual mode of dispersal, or even that 
the smooth globular seeds are well adapted for this purpose. Notwith- 
standing these blemishes, the author has brought together a large col- 
lection of interesting facts concerning our wild flowers, and the 121 photo- 
graphic illustrations are a further aid to the usefulness of this well- 
printed volume. 

1915 June ]. ^' 



igS 

YORKSHIRE COLEOPTERA IN 1914. 



W. J. FORDHAM, M.R.C.S., F.E.S. 

{Continued from page 167). 

*Meligethes brunnicornis Stm. Filey, a dark form. E. C. H. 
^Meligethes ovatus Stm. Great Ayton, one by sweeping in 
Airyholme Wood, August. M. L. T. 
Ips 4 punctata Hbst. Bubwith, flood refuse. W. J. F. 
^Ips 4 pustulata L. Buckden, 1910. T. Stringer. (J. W. C). 
Rhizophagus cribratus Gyll. Raincliff Wood. E. C. H. 

nitidiilus F. Raincliff Wood and Stoney Haggs. 

E. C. H. 
dispar Pk. var. punctulatus Guill. {^oblongocollis 
Blch.) Stoney Haggs. E. C. H. 
*Enicnius testaceus Steph. Filey. E. C. H. 
*Corticaria serrataVk. Filey. E. C. H. 
\M elanophthalma transversalis Gyll var. ivollastoni Wat. Filey. 

E. C. H. 
*Bytunis sambuci Scop. Filey. E. C. H. 

tomentosus F. var. flavescens Marsh. Raincliff Wood. 

E. C. H. 

^Telmatophilus caricis 01. Sandall Beat, 15/6/1913. H. H. C. 

Cryptophagns setulosus Stm. Selby, in diseased potatoes. 

J. F. Musham. 

'\ pallid'us Stm. Selby, in diseased potatoes. J. 

F. Musham. 
j- saginatns Stm. Doncaster, October 1907. 

H. H. C. Bubwith, 1912. W. J. F. 
-j- umbratus Er. Filey, in nest of field mouse. 

E. C. H. 
distinguendus Stm. Cusworth. H. H. C. 
^ Ephistemus globosus Waltl. Bubwith. W. J. F. 

gyrinoides Marsh. Cloughton. E. C. H. 
*Scaphisoma boleti Pz. Escrick. W. J. F. 
Litargus bifasciatus F. Wheatley Wood, April, very common 

under bark of felled trees. H. H. C. T. H. B. 
Elmis parallelopipedus MiilL, E. subviolaceus MiilL, E. citpreus 
Miill. and E. nitens Miill. Richmond, by sweeping long 
grass by the river, August. G. B. W. 
Aphodius scybalari'us F. var. conflagratus 01. Filey. E. C. H. 
constans Duft. Ingleby Moor, Cleveland. A. A. 
Fordham. 
•j- granarius L. Escrick, 1910. W. J. F. 

* piisilhts Hbst. Knaresborough. H. V. C. Bub- 

with. W. J. F. (new both to W. & E. Ridings). 

* depressus Kug. var. nigripes Steph. { — atramentarius 

Er.) Bubwith. W. J. F. Bempton. E. C. H. 

* obliteratus Pz. East Cottingwith. W. J. F. 

Naturalist, 



Ford/uiin : Yorkshire Colcoptera in 1914. 199 

Cryptohypniis dermestoides Hbst. and var. 4 guitatus Lap. 
Swale Bridge. Richmond, abundant, August. G. B. W. 

* Cryptohypniis dermestoides Hbst. var. 4 giittatiis Lap. Filey. 

E. C. H. (The type form is not yet recorded from E. 
Yorks.). 
*Agriotes sputator L. Filey. E. C. H. 
Corymbites holosericeus F. Dalby Warren, Thornton Dale. 
C. Hill. (E. C. H.). 
metallicus Pk. Bubwith, a few by sweeping um- 
bellifers on river bank. W. J. F. 
*Cyphon nitidulus Th. Bubwith, 1912. W. J. F. (Since 
reporting this as a new county record. I find a record 
from Hayburn Wyke. Nat., 1891, pp. 287-8). 
Lampyris noctiliica L. Scarth Nick near Redmire in Wensley- 

dale, very abundant in June. G. B. W. 
Ancistronycha abdominalisF. Arncliffe. F. Booth. (J.W.C). 
*Telephoriis lituratus Fall. Bubwith. W. J. F. 

* thoraciciis 01. Bubwith. W. J. F. 
Ptilinus pectinicornis L Bubwith. W. J. F. 

*Chrysomela orichalcia Miill. var. hobsoni Steph. Bubwith. 
W. J. F. 
Galerucella calmariensis L. Filey. E. C. H. (Recorded from 
Filey in 1878 by Canon Fowler). 

* tenella L. Bubwith. W. J. F. 

t pusilla Weise. Bubwith, 1912. W. J. F. 

*PhyIlotreta jlexuosa 111. Filey. E. C. H. 

* exclamationis Thunb. Thorne, sweeping April. 
H. H. C. 

*Batophila rubi Pk. Filey. E. C. H. 
Chalcoides fidvicornis F. { = smaragdina Foud). fvar. picicornis 
Weise. Great Ayton, Sallows, August. M. L. T. Bub- 
with. W. J. F. 

* Hippuriphila modeeri L. Bubwith. W. J. F. 
*Tetratoma fungoriim F. Skipwith. W. J. F. 

Salpingus aeratus Muls. Ringing Keld Bog. E. C. H. 
Metcecus paradoxus L. Richmond, a fair number in wasp's 

nest, October. J. B. Howard. (G. B. W.). 
Brachytarsus varius F. Thorne, April, sweeping. H. H. C. 
Rhynchites ciipreiis L. Kildale, mountain ash, June. M. L. T. 
Apion cruentatum Walt. Raincliff Wood, mole's nest. R. A. 
Taylor. (E. C. H.). 
pallipes Kirb. Silpho Moor. E. C. H. Filey. E. C. H 
Richmond. G. B. W. 

* bohemani Th. Filey. E. C. H. 

* trifolii L. Richmond, August, common. G. B. W. 

* nigritarse Kirb. Bubwith. W. J. F. (also Richmond. 

G. B. W. Arncliffe Wood. M. L. T.) 
aethiops Hbst. and senicnlum Kub. Richmond. G.B.W 

1915 June 1. 



200 Fordham : Yorkshire Coleoptera in 1914. 

Apion gyllenhali Kirb. Hackness. E. C. H. 
Polydrusus cervinus L.ab. maciilosus Hbst. Filey. E. C. H. 
* Phyllobius maculicornis Germ. Filey. E. C. H. 
■\Sitones waterhousei Walt. Cantley. H. H. C. (This con- 
firms a previous doubtful record. See Ann. and Mag. of 

Nat. Hist. XVIL, 1846, p. 235). 
jBagofts limosus Gyll. Thorne, April, probably common. 

H. H. C. 
^Anthonomiis pediciilarius L. var. conspersiis Desb. Kildale 

and Glaisdale, July, August, common on mountain ash. 

M. L. T. 
Nanophyes lythriF. Thorne, April, sweeping. H. H. C. 
■\Ceiithorhynchus cyanipennis Germ. Filey. E. C. H. 
* Rhinonciis castor F. Bubwith. W. J. F. 
Phytohitis ^-Uihercidattis F. Roundhay Park, sparingly in 

moss on walls in spring. E. W. M. 
* Hylastes palliatiis Gyll. Wheatley Wood, April, one under 

bark of felled tree. H. H. C. T. H. B. 
*Phloeophthorus rhododactylus Ma.vsh. Bubwith, 1910. W.J.F. 

Filey. E. C. H. 
Dryocc^tes villosus F. Cusworth, April, swarms. H. H. C. 

T. H. B. 
*Pityogenes bidentatns Hbst. Lonsdale, Cleveland, 1908. 

W. J. F. 
Xyloterus doniesticns L. Wheatley and Cusworth, under bark, 

April. H. H.C. 
] Xyloterus signatus F. (= Trypodendron quercus Eich). Wheat- 
ley and Cusworth, under bark, April. H. H. C. 
^ Xylebortts drvographus Ratz. Cusworth, April, a few. H.H.C. 

T. H. B. 



The Board of Agricultiire and Fisheries has recently issued special 
leaflets, Nos. 11, 24, 28, 29, dealing with Poultry Houses and Appliances 
for Allotment Holders, Cottagers, and others ; Seed Testing ; Suggestions 
for the Cultivation of Catch Crops and Home Grown Feeding Stuffs ; 
and Flax Growing for Fibre. 

From Professor G. F. Atkinson, whose presence at one of the Yorkshire 
Fungus Forays will be remembered by many, we have received the follow- 
ing interesting papers : — ' The Development of Armillaria mellea,' ' Homo- 
logy of the " Universal Veil " in Agaricus,' ' The Development of Amani- 
topsis vaginata,' ' The development of Lepiota clypeolaria,' and ' The 
Development of Agaricus arvensis and A. comtnlus.' 

From Mr. T. Petch, B.A., B.Sc, one of our workers in Ceylon, we have 
received a number of interesting communications, namelv, ' Havea Tapping- 
Results, Experiment Station, Peradeniya, 1911-1913,' ' The Tapping of 
an old Hevea Tree at Heneratgoda, ' ' The Genera Hypocrella and Ascher- 
sonia,' and ' Notes on the History of the Plantation Rubber Industry of 
the East.' The first two are Nos. 12 and 13 Bulletins of the Department of 
Agriculture, Ceylon, while the third and fourth are reprinted from the 
' Annals of the Royal Botanic Gardens, Peradeniya,' volume v., part 7, 
September, 1914. 

Naturalist 



201 



THE SPIDERS OF WICKEN, WITH DESCRIPTION 
OF TWO NEW SPECIES. 



WM. FAJXONER, 
SlaithiL'aite, H udder f field. 



Ix a paper published in The Naturalist for October, 1912, 
pp. 310-324, I recorded 107 species of spiders for Wicken, the 
famous naturahsts' resort in Cambridgeshire. For the purpose 
of continuing the investigation of the fen and its vicinity, I 
have since paid the district two more extended visits, viz., 
from July 25th to August ist, 1913, and from May 30th to 
June 6th, 19 14. On both occasions favourable weather 
conditions were experienced, but on the other hand the great 
luxuriance of plant growths was found to be a decided hindrance 
to successful collecting, at least as regards spiders. Most of 
the rarities of the fen again occurred, amongst them being 
Mcngea warhiirtonii Camb., which does not seem to have been 
noticed here, or has been unrecorded, since 1894, and the 
black variety of Crustiilina sticta Camb., (i $), which has been 
reported from various places in the South of England. At the 
Sycamores in the village further examples of Scotophceiis 
hlackii'allii Thor., Steatoda biptinctata Linn., Leptyplumtes 
niinutus Bl., Ero jurcata Vill., Philodromus dispar Walck., 
and in the fen, Theridion pallens BL, Leptyphantes tenuis BL, 
Bolyphantes concolor Wid., Porrhomma microphthalnium Camb., 
Dicymbium nigrum BL, and Walckenaera nudipalpis Westr., 
were taken. Marpessa pomatia Walck. was again abundant, 
and in July the females were spun up in the heads of the reeds 
with their newly hatched young. Further examples of Zora 
letifera Falcr., were found to have the ocular pubescence, 
(evidently more fugacious in this species), which was said in 
the original description, loc. cit. pp. 319-20, to be wanting. 

Altogether 112 different species were obtained, of which 
30, although a good proportion of them are by no means rare, 
or restricted in distribution, do not appear to have been 
previously recorded for the locality. Of the more noteworthy 
ones, two, Centromenis incultus and Maro sublestus, are new 
to science, and are interesting additions to the number of 
endemic species which are already known to inhabit the fen. 

Not included in any of the above totals are 4 others, which 
are stated to have been obtained in the fen at various times, 
but were not entered in my iirst list, because, in one instance, 
I was not aware of its present identity, and in the others, 
doubtful of the value to be attached to them. They are now 
inserted, with the necessary particulars, in their proper places, 
bringing the total for the district up to 141, a number which 
certainly does not yet exhaust the possibilities of the fen, for 

1915 June 1. 



202 Falconer : The Spiders of Wicken, Cambridge. 

in addition to the commoner kinds, which may be expected to 
occur in their season, there is at least one other spider new to 
science, but its generic position is uncertain, a sohtary ^ only 
having been taken (June). 

A morning was spent on both occasions in Edmund Fen, 
which adjoins the Burwell side of the ' Ten Acres,' and the 
following were met with in addition to the few, which are 
noted elsewhere : — Both Sexes — Cltibiona holosericea Degeer, 
C. rechisa Camb., C. subtilis L. Koch, Prosthesima latreillH C. L. 
Koch, Zora letifera Falcr., Antistea elegans C. L. Koch, Theridion 
bimaculatum Linn., Robertiis lividus BL, Bathyphantes pttllatus 
Cambr., Agyneta conigera Camb., CEdothorax gibbosus BL, 
(E. tuberosus BL, Maso gallica Sim., Dismodicus bijrons BL, Tiso 
vagans BL, Entelecara oniissa Camb., Pocadicnemis pitmila BL, 
Tapinocyba siibitanea Camb., Pachygnatha degeerii Sund., 
P. clerckii Sund., Pirata piraticus Clerck, Lycosa pullata Clerck, 
L. jarrenii Camb., L. prativaga C. L. Koch, Neon valentnlus 
Falcr., Sitticus caricis Westr., Marpessa pomatia Westr. 
Males — Erigone atra BL, Araeoncus humilis BL Females — 
Leptyphantes ericaeus BL, Gongylidiellum vivtrni Camb., G. 
murcidum Sim., Savignia frontata BL, Wideria antica BL, 
Oxyptila flexa Camb., 0. trux BL, Tibellus maritimus Menge, 
Trochosa spinipalpis F. O. P. Cb. 

Nine species of harvestmen were noted, but only one, 
Oligolophus spinosus Bosc, was of Siny consequence. 0. 
morio Fabr., and 0. ephippiatiis C. L. Koch were found to be 
frequent visitors in the evenings to the lepidopterists' ' sugar ' 
and illuminated sheets, especially the latter, roaming over them 
in search of the flies, etc., which settled on them. 

Several mites were also secured, and for their identification 
I sought the assistance of Dr. George and the Rev. J. E. Hull. 

ADDITIONS TO LIST. 
Spiders. 

Segestria senociilata Linn. One female on right side of fen. 

Prosthesima lutetiana L. Koch. Several immature examples 
collected in the fen by Mr. W. Farren about 1869, and deter- 
mined to be this species by M. E. Simon, (' Spiders of Dorset,' 
p. 463). Not noticed since. P. latreilleii C. L. Koch, has 
however occurred in an adult state. P. lutetiana is a very rare 
British spider, but widely distributed. 

Clubiona branpes BL An adult male from the left side of 
the fen. 

Agroeca proxima Camb. A female from the left of the fen. 

Lathys humilis BL An adult female beaten from the 
bushes on the left hand at the entrance to the fen, June, 1914. 

Amanrobius jcnestralis Stroem. Many examples, immature 
and adult, in the cracks of tree trunks in the Drive. 

Naturalist, 



Falconer : The Spiders of Wicken, Cambridge. 203 

Argyroneta aquatica Latr. The ' Water-spider,' numerous 
adult females and immature examples of both sexes in the 
ditch by Spinny Bank ; probably also in other weed-filled 
dikes and pits of the fen, which were not searched. 

Tegenaria derhamii Scop. Outhouses at the Sycamores 
and at the Fen Cottage. 

Ciciirina cinerea Panz., sub. Coelotes immaenlatiis Camb., 
' Spiders of Dorset,' p. 169. One female in the fen. This 
synonym, which does not appear in his ' List of British and 
Irish Spiders,' has been kindly communicated to me by the 
Rev. 0. Pickard Cambridge. ISfot a common spider but widely 
distributed. 

Leptyphantes pallidum Camb. One female, Lepidopterist's 
Drove, one male on left of fen, June, 1914. Widely distri- 
buted but not very conmion. 

Bathyphantes gracilis Bl. Many of both sexes from various 
parts of the fen, and amongst heaps of sedge litter. 

Centromerus expertus Camb. One male and numerous 
females from various parts of the fen, Lepidopterist's Drove 
and Edmund Fen. A female was taken in 1912 by Dr. Jackson 
but not recorded. 

C. incidtiis sp. nov. An adult female, July ,1913, from the 
right of the fen. The example was posted to Cracow, to obtain 
the opinion of Professor Kulczynski, but was unfortunately 
lost in transit. It had, however, been seen by both the Rev. 
O. Pickard Cambridge and Dr. Jackson. As it will probably 
turn up again if looked for in autumn, I describe and figure 
it below. 

Microneta viaria Bl. A few females from the Drove and 
the fen. 

Micryphantes riirestris C. L. Koch. Numerous males and 
females from various parts of the fen and in the Drive. 

M. saxatilis Bl. 4 males and i female, Lepidopterist's Drove. 

M. mollis Camb. One male on right of fen, and several 
females amongst heaps of sedge litter on the Drove, July, 
1913. An uncommon spider, which has been recorded for 
Dorset, Gloucestershire, Essex, Warwickshire and Glamorgan. 

Maso sundevallii Westr. Several of both sexes from the 
Drove, and one male from the Drive. 

(Edothorax apicatiis Bl. One male from grass in the Drive. 
Very widely distributed, but not common. 

(E. juscus Bl. Numerous examples, both sexes, from various 
parts of the fen and heaps of sedge litter. 

ffi. retusus Westr. Numerous examples, both sexes, from 
various parts of the fen and heaps of sedge litter. 

Maro suhlestiis sp. nov. One adult female, shaken from old 
bundles of Cladium, far back on left hand side of the fen, 
June, 1914. For description, etc., see below. 

1915 June 1. 



204 Falconer : The Spiders of Wicken, Cambridge. 

Erigone dentipalpis Wid. Many of both sexes from various 
parts of fen, the Drove and the Drive. 

Erigone graminicola Sund. A female from the fen, June, 
1912 (Dr. A. R. Jackson), but not determined until later. 

Lophocarenum nemorale Bl. Three females from an old 
heap in Edmund Fen. 

Cnephalocotes elegans Camb. An adult male from the 
left of the fen, June, 1914. Once considered a very rare spider, 
but recently it has been met with in several Northern localities, 
and in a few of them more or less freely. 

Wideria melanocephala Cambr. An adult male from a heap 
of sedge litter in the Drove, June, 1914. A rare spider previously 
recorded for Dorset, the New Forest, Delamere Forest (Cheshire) 
and Carlow, Ireland. 

Ceratinella brevipes Westr. A female from the left of the 
fen, and one of each sex from heaps in the Drove. 

Epeira diademata Clerck. In the garden of the Sycamores. 

Epeira adianta Walck. Several males and females were 
presented to me some years ago by Mr. F. P. Smith, for whom 
they were collected by an old pensioner, now dead, who stated 
they had been taken in Wicken fen. It is very strange, how- 
ever, that such a striking spider should not have been noticed 
by any subsequent observer, and it is quite probable that an 
error has been made. 

Oxyptila praticola C. L. Koch. An adult male from a heap 
in the Drove (June, 1914)- Widely distributed in England, 
rare in Ireland, but not yet noted for Scotland. 

Pirata hygrophilns Thor. Four females from various parts 
of the fen. 

Salticus scenicus Clerck. Both sexes on the walls of a house 
in the village. 

Hyctia nivoyi Luc. ' Spiders of Dorset,' p. 560 ; an im- 
mature female. A very unmistakeable spider, usually fre- 
quenting coast sandhills, but local in its distribution, being in 
England most often met with on the south coast. 

{To be continued). 

: o : 

We regret to notice the death of Mr. Joseph Horsfall Turner, of Idle, 
at the age of 70. In one way or another Mr. Turner has published an 
enormous amount of matter relating to the antiquities of Yorkshire, 
including a number of magazines, etc., such as ' Yorkshire Notes and 
Queries,' and ' The Yorkshire Genealogist.' 

The Lord Mayor of Newcastle (Alderman Fitzgerald) presided at a 
representative meeting in Newcastle recently to consider the invitation 
given last year to the British Association to visit Newcastle in 1916. 
Principal Hadow said that if the war were not over the business would 
— as at the Manchester meeting this year — consist entirely of scientific 
papers and the interchange of scientific thought. 

Naturalist, 



205 

NATURAL HISTORY OF 
SAWLEY AND EAVESTONE, NEAR RIPON. 

Proverbially fickle is the month of April, but the party who 
assembled at Ripon Station on April 24th to participate in 
the first excursion of the Yorkshire Naturalists' Union's pro- 
gramme for the present season, although naturally disappointed 
at the drizzling rainfall, commencing practically on their 
arrival, did not let it daunt their cheeriness, for there were 
signs that it would clear. This proved to be case about noon. 




Yorkshire Naturalists near Ripon. 

and although remaining dull, yet the work of the various 
sections was not interfered with to the extent which once 
appeared likely. 

The area of investigation was within the Ure drainage, 
and comprised the townships of Sawley (except ' Sawley 
detached '), Eavestone, and such parts of Warsill and Bishop 
Thornton as lie within the Ure drainage. This area had not 
previously been visited by the Union, and thus an added zest 
was given to the excursion. 

The seven miles drive from Ripon to the head of Picking 
Gill was through a vast pastoral plain, and proved very en- 
joyable. On arriving at their destination, the party had the 
pleasure of making the acquaintance of Mr. James Ingleby, of 

ldl5 June 1. 



2o6 Natural History of Sawley and Eavestone. 

Eavestone, a veteran naturalist of eighty-four years, who has 
kept careful records of some of the natural features of the 
neighbourhood. In particular he furnished notes on the district 
for the ' Birds of Yorkshire,' and his records of mollusca have 
also proved of use, and he possesses a good collection of local 
fossils. Mr. Ingleby proceeded with the zoologists to Eavestone 
and these gentlemen of the younger generation afterwards 
commented upon the old gentleman's remarkable vigour. 

Picking Gill is a delightful sylvan valley, and although it 
was evident that it was too early to see the ground vegetation 
to perfection, yet there were many interesting phases of 
vegetation, while the beauty of the Gill as a whole was ample 
recompense for the journey. After passing through Hebden 
Woods, a visit was made to the Wet Carr and Mill Gill Woods, 
the return to headquarters (Risplith House), being through 
Sawley Village. 

The President of the Union (Mr. Riley Fortune, F.Z.S.), 
occupied the chair at the meeting held at the close of the 
excursion, when reports upon the work accomplished were 
given as follows : — Vertebrate Zoology, Mr. H. B. Booth, 
F.Z.S. ; Conchology, Mr. W. Denison Roebuck, F.L.S. ; 
Flowering Plants, Mr. J. Hartshorn ; Mosses, Mr. C. A. 
Cheetham ; Hepatics, Mr. R. Barnes ; Fungi, Mr. A. E. Peck ; 
Lichens, Mr. W. E. L. Wattam ; Geology, Mr. E. Hawkesworth. 
A vote of thanks to the landowners, the Marquis of Ripon, 
Lord Furness, Sir John N. Barran, Bart., M.P., Captain W. F. 
Wormald, and Captain Greenwood for the exceptional facilities 
given, was passed. A similar compliment was paid to Mr. 
Samuel Margerison. It was due to his exertions in calling 
attention to the attractiveness of the area, and in obtaining 
members of the Union to interest themselves in materials 
collected by him, as well as for the excellent manner in which 
he had carried out the local arrangements, that the excursion 
was so pronounced a success ; and those present voiced their 
appreciation of his services and many courtesies, most heartily. 
A fair number of members prolonged their stay over the week- 
end, and to these Mr. Margerison read an interesting paper on 
' The Natural History of the Sawley District,' which was 
illustrated by maps, his relief map of the district being an 
excellent piece of workmanship. — W. E. L. W. 

Appended are the reports of the various sections. 

Geology. — Mr. Edwin Hawkesworth writes : — For some 
unknown reason, the Geological Section was very meagrely 
represented, which is regrettable, as the district offered many 
attractions. The fine gorge of the Skell, and one or two of the 
smaller gills, suggested interesting glacial problems, but time 
did not permit of any close study of them. An instructive 
section in a ' gravel pit ' at Clipped Thorn was examined. 



Natural History of Saudey and Eavestone. 207 

This was 400-500 feet above sea-level, and appeared to be on 
the summit of the watershed between the Skell and Ure. The 
material was a dirty sand, containing large numbers of pebbles 
and boulders, which included many kinds of Carboniferous 
limestones and cherts, grits, ganisters, andMagnesian limestones. 
Some of the boulders were fairly big, there was no stratification 
visible, the included stones being scattered quite indiscrimi- 
nately throughout the mass. This, coupled with the fact that 
many of the boulders and pebbles were well polished and 
striated, forced one to the conclusion that the deposit was a 
moraine. At Pickerstones, about 700 feet O.D., the main 
party saw a section of gravel. A quarry in Fountains Lane, 
where the ' Shell Bed,' a member of the Cayton Gill series 
in the Millstone Grit is exposed, was examined, and many 
characteristic fossils were noted. 

Vertebrate Zoology. — Mr. H. B. Booth, F.Z.S. writes : — 
Because of the interest attached to the only really reliable habitat 
of the Lesser Horse-shoe Bat in Yorkshire, and this being its 
most northerly British record, the members of the Vertebrate 
Zoology Section investigated the Eavestone caves and lakes. 
Our guide was Mr. James Ingleby, who was chiefly responsible 
for having added this species to the Yorkshire fauna. A 
thorough search of the particular cave was made with the aid 
of artificial light, but, unfortunately, with a negative result. 
No sign of any species of Bat was visible — excepting a skeleton 
which Mr. Ingleby previously informed us that we should find 
lying on a rock inside the cave. This skeleton had almost 
perished and I am not certain that it belongs to a bat at all. 
Mr. Ingleby informed us that the end of this colony of Lesser 
Horse-shoe Bats had been hastened by some lads visiting the 
cave one Sunday afternoon, and liberating the bats in Sawley 
church during service the same evening. The vicar made 
strong representations to the local landowner, who in turn 
instructed his gamekeepers to bank up the small entrance 
to the cave, which remained so for a year or two. An adjacent 
and similar cave — (in which the bats might have taken refuge 
if they were not all fastened in) — was equally thoroughly 
searched, but without any success. In the opinion of those 
present, a certain gentleman, who was known to have occasion- 
ally visited this cave for specimens, was also partly responsible 
for the extermination of this isolated colony. 

It is reported that this particular Bat still occurs at another 
place a few miles distant. We hope so, but this probably 
ends one of the most interesting of Yorkshire wild mammals. 

Very few Squirrels were to be seen in what appeared to be 
almost a Squirrel's paradise. This was explained by a game- 
keeper (Mr. Fearnley). that probably their decrease was due 
to a great abundance of Rabbits formerly, which had gnawed 

1915 June 1. 



2o8 Natural History of Sawley and Eavestone. 

at, and killed, most of the hazel bushes, thereb}^ reducing the 
annual crop of nuts. But there was plenty of other food for 
Squirrels, and we should attribute their decrease to other 
causes, possibly, amongst these, to the increase of the number 
of males in proportion to females, as has been known to be the 
case with the liberated North American Grey Squirrel in this 
country. Rabbits were certainly anything but abundant. 
A huge Badger ' earth ' was examined. There was good evid- 
ence to prove that the Water Vole is abundant at Eavestone 
Lake. 

In birds the chief features noticed were three pairs of 
Tufted Duck on Eavestone Lake, and the number of Stock Doves 
evidently nesting in the cliffs surrounding the lake. The 
Nuthatch, a decreasing Yorkshire species, and alwaj^s worth 
recording, had been noted by Mr. Margerison for several days 
in the vicinity of Risplith House. The Greater-Spotted 
Woodpecker was heard, and a newly-formed nesting-hole appar- 
ently of the Green Woodpecker was noted. Among other 
species seen were the Grey Wagtail, Dipper, Mallard, and a 
single Yellow-hammer (near to Sawley village). The song of 
the Mistle Thrush, orStoimcock, accompanied us throughout 
the day's excursion, no doubt as appropriately reminding us 
of the weather. Pheasants were numerous, ancl a nest contain- 
ing sixteen eggs (apparently deserted) was seen. Owing to the 
war, no artificial rearing is to be done this season. 

Perhaps Raven's Crag overlooking Eavestone Lake is worthy 
of passing note. It is reported to be an ancient nesting haunt 
of the Raven. Mr. Ingleby informed us that it was stated 
when he was a boy that Ravens bred there annually, until a 
local farmer, who had lost some lambs, offered £i to anyone who 
would destroy them. In his opinion this would refer to the 
beginning of the nineteenth century, since when, he was 
certain that they had not bred there, on the evidence of old 
men when he was still a youth. For the date of this excursion, 
summer migratory birds were extremely scarce, no doubt owing 
to the cold unseasonable weather. Two or three Willow 
Warblers, a few Swallows, and a Wheat ear completed the list. 

In the lower vertebrates there was nothing noted of import- 
ance. Trout were much in evidence in the streams, and ' rising ' 
in the Eavestone Lake, and the Toad was common in the lake 
in Picking Gill. 

{To be continued). 



We learn from the daily press that 'ornithologists will be interested 
in the case of the man who, charged at Marylebone with stealing a parrot, 
said that he took it for a lark.' 

We presume the controversy in reference to the Piltdown skull is now 
at an end. We notice that Dr. A. Smith Woodward and Dr. Keith are 
both ' hung ' in the Academy this year. 

Naturalist, 



209 

UNDESIRABLE INSECT ALIENS AT DONCASTER. 



n. H. CORBETT, M.R.C.S. 



On Saturday, I\Iay 8th, I was asked to visit a tannery in 
this town, in order to examine some damaged hides from India. 
The hides had evidently got damp during trans-shipment 
and fermentation had taken place. Those that I saw were 
stained almost black in parts, and there were many cracks 
and holes in them. On and about them were numerous 
insects, some dead and crushed, many alive and active. One 
bale had not been opened, but on thrusting one's hand into 
it, it was found to be very warm inside. On the following 
Monday I again visited the place while the bale was being 
opened. Here indeed was ' good hunting.' As the heated 
and rotten hides were lifted off, insects crawled and ran about 
in hundreds. I took samples of all the species that I could 
catch and the following list will show what was there. It 
will be seen that most of the species are well-known warehouse 
pests, but one is an addition to the Yorkshire list, and others 
are far from common. 

EUPLEXOPTERA. 

Aptevygida arachides. — Mr. Porritt tells me that this 
species has been taken in a bone warehouse in the Isle of 
Sheppey, but so far as he knows not elsewhere in Britain. 

Orthoptera. 

Phillodromia germanica. — This species was very abundant. 
i\Iy thanks are due to Mr. Porritt for naming these species. 

COLEOPTERA. 

Carpophiliis mittilatits Er. — Abundant and much more 
active than C. sexpttstulatus. A new West Riding record. 

Laemophloetis jernigineus Steph. — This insect was the most 
aboundant species and occurred literally in thousands. 

Necrobia riifipes De G. — A few living, and many dead and 
crushed. 

Alphitohius diaperimts Panz. — Abundant, more so than the 
following species. 

Alphitobiits piceiis 01. — Not so common as A. diapcriniis. 
Both the Alphitobii are new records for the West Riding. 

Triholium fernigineuni F. — Abundant. 

Besides these insects there were a few chelifers which I 
have not yet named. 



The Transactions of the Entomological Society of London, 1914, parts 
3 and 4, include a paper on ' The Authorship and First Publication of 
the " Jurinean " Genera of Hymenoptera : Being a reprint of a long-lost 
work by Panzer, with a translation into English, and Introduction, and 
Bibliographical and Critical Notes." by the Rev. F. D. Moricc, M.A., and 
Jno. Hartley Durrant. 

1915 June 1. 



210 FIELD NOTES. 

LEPIDOPTERA. 
East Yorkshire Lepidoptera. — In the Entomologist' s Record 
for April last, is a paper by Mr. A. S. Tetley, M.A., entitled, 
' Lepidoptera round about Scarborough.' The lepidopterous 
fauna of Scarborough, has, of course, been well-known for many 
years, but fortunately Mr. Tetley has extended his excursions 
a good deal further aiield, with the result that we get some very 
interesting records. Perhaps the most valuable is the con- 
firmation of the old record of Nola strigula, which we are told 
still occurs in Raincliff Woods, Scarborough. This species 
was included in the ' List of Yorkshire Lepidoptera ' in 1883, 
but the record seemed so doubtful that in the preface to the 
' Supplement ' to that List, it was included with five other 
species which it seemed desirable to delete. Then of Melanargia 
galathea Mr. Tetley tells us he first found the species on the 
Wolds near Cowlain in 1902, and that it was really abundant 
there in 1914. Other noteworthy records include Lyccena 
agestis which swarms on the Wolds near Pickering ; Thecla 
W-album, Sleightondale, to the west of Pickering ; Nemeobius 
lucina, Helmsley ; Chortobius davus, in two places on the 
moors in the East Riding ; Procris statices ' in the marshes at 
Seamer ' ; Procris geryon, ' common on Haugh Rigg, near 
Pickering ' ; Chelonia plantaginis, common on the moors of 
the East Riding ; the three species, Tapinostola elymi, Mam- 
estra albicolon, and Agrotis ripce, all ' on a patch of sandhills 
some three miles south of Bridlington, where once stood the 
village of Auburn,' all of them as Yorkshire species only 
previously recorded from Spurn ; Epimda hitulenta, on the 
coast ; Toxocampa pastimum, Sledmere and Pickering ; Plusia 
interrogationis, common on the moors near Ravenscar, etc. ; 
Scotosia undulata, two specimens in a pine wood above Beedale. 
— Geo. T. Porritt, Huddersfield, May, 3rd, 1915. 

— : o : — 

BIRDS. 

Grasshopper Warbler at Mytholmroyd. — Apparently the 
first appearance of this species in this district occurred on a 
swampy piece of ground just off the main road up the Cragg 
valley, Mytholmroyd, on April 29th. It was seen by Mr. 
C. J. Dugdale, who informed me of it on May 8th, on which 
evening T listened to its continuous trill from 8-30 to 8-45 p.m. 
On the following night the bird uttered its first few notes at 
8 o'clock, and a short time afterwards was in full song. I 
saw it several times on this occasion. It appears to spend 
all its time in two bushes ; when flushed from the one it flew 
to the other, and vice versa.* Thomas Allis mentioned the 

* Mr. Dugdale also informs me that he saw a tern (species ?) consorting 
with black headed gulls in the Calder at Greenhill, Rh'tholmroyd, on May 
6th. This is also an unusual occurrence here. 

Naturalist, 



Northern News. 211 

species as frequenting Hebden Bridge in his 1S44 list of York- 
shire birds, but I have never been able to trace a positive 
occurrence prior to the present. The attention of persons not 
interested in birds was arrested by the song, and there were 
frequently little groups of listeners gathered in the main road. 
The bird was still singing in the same place on May 19th. On 
the preceding Sunday Mr. Dugdale says it sang all day, prac- 
tically continuously.— Walter Greaves. 

Early Arrival of Swifts. — For the second year in success- 
ion Swifts have arrived in Harrogate abnormally early. This 
year, on the 30th April a considerable number arrived, and 
on the ist of May we appeared to have our full numbers, 
and they were chasing each other round in small flocks, 
screaming in their characteristic manner, as if they had been 
with us for a month or more. This is only the second time 
that I have known them arrive in April, May 6th being their 
usual date. — R. Fortune. 



We notice The Yorkshire Observer has re-commenced the ' Out of 
Doors ' column, which appears on Friday mornings. Several Yorkshire 
naturalists contribute. 

We see from the Yorkshire Observer that at the Yorkshire Assizes 
at Leeds, on May 5th, an action for damages for libel was brought by 
Lionel Walmsley against Mr. T. Sheppard, curator of the Hull Museums 
and joint editor of The Naturalist, and others. Mr. Cuthbertson was 
for the plaintiff and Mr. R. A. Shepherd for the defendants. Mr. Cuth- 
bertson said that the plaintiff, who was about 22 years of age, wrote two 
articles, which were revised and reprinted in book form in March, 1914. 
Various copies of this book, which was called ' A Guide to the Geology 
of the Whitby District,' were sent out for review, including one to The 
Naturalist, where it was reviewed in May, 19 14, and it was there stated 
' During the past six years, at any rate, the author seems to have become 
fairlv familiar with the principal memoirs dealing with the district, and 
in these he has deeply delved, and made tracings of the plans, sections, 
and fossils, etc' This was the part of the libel which he regarded as 
serious. Before evidence was called the Judge suggested that this was 
a case in which some effort might be made to reach a settlement, and after 
a consultation between the parties it was agreed that the records should 
be withdrawn. Mr. Shepherd said that his clients had no desire at any 
time to harm the career of the plaintiff, and had no knowledge that the 
words used could do so. His clients had no intention of saying that the 
book was not to a very large extent original work. Of course, the plaintiff 
had studied the works of the people who had spent years in investigating 
the geology of the district, but his clients were quite prepared to say that 
the plaintiff's work was of good, substantial merit. Mr. Cuthbertson said 
his client had not brought the action to put money into his pocket, but 
because he thought his reputation had been attacked. Once it had been 
established by what j\Ir. Shepherd had properly said on behalf of the 
defendants there was no more to be said, and he was willing that the 
records should be withdrawn. The Judge said he was very glad that 
course had been taken. He was convinced of two things — that the book 
was of undoubted merit and contained original and useful work ; and 
that the defendants never had any real intention or saying anything 
spiteful of injurious to the plaintiff. 

1915 June 1. 



212 

NEWS FROM THE MAGAZINES. 

Professor C. J. Patten contributes some notes on ' The Aquatic ^^"arbler' 
to The Zoologist, for March. 

The Entomologist' s Record for May has an article on ' Breeding Odon- 
topera bidentata, ' by W. Bowater. 

The Lancashire and Cheshire Naturalist for April contains a continu- 
ation of Dr. J. W. Ellis's ' Wirral Mycetozoa.' 

The Geological Magazine for May contains a memoir and portrait of 
Dr. A. Strahan, under the ' Eminent Living Geologists ' series. 

Knowledge for May contains a well illustrated article on ' Some Notes 
on the Biology of the Larger British Fungi,' by Somerville Hastings. 

The Belfast Museum and Art Gallery has issued its 47th publication, 
which deals with ' engravings ' and is well illustrated. It is sold at id. 

The Entomologist for May contains an article on ' The Rearing of 
Larvae ' with special reference to the British Lepidoptera, by C. Rippon. 

The Scottish Naturalist for May includes a note on the ' Occurrence of 
the Eastern Short- Toed Lark at Fair Isle : an Addition to the British 
Avi-fauna.' 

In the Mav issue of The Selbourne Magazine, the editor informs us that 
originallv ' an Adder ' was called ' a Nadder,' and that another amphibian 
now called ' a Newt,' was originally termed ' an Ewt.' 

No doubt owing to the war, The Quarterly Journal of the Geological 
Society, No. 280, for December, issued April 9th, 191 5, is the smallest 
number we ever have noticed. It contains a single paper dealing with 
New Zealand Lavas. 

From a circular issued by Mr. A. Flatters, of 16-20 Church Road, 
I-ongsight, Manchester, we gather that The Micrologist, the second volume 
of which was completed in April 1914, will be revived in October next, 
providing sufficient subscribers (6s. 8d. per annum^ are forthcoming. 
Perhaps our readers who are interested will communicate with Mr. 
Flatters. 

According to The Daily News, ' the butterflies of this month are very 
few, apart from the second-hand hibernators from last year. The green 
hairstreak is a surprise without a rival. Who could see an apple-green 
butterfly without marking it with a red letter.' To this Punch adds : 
' This branding of butterflies, even if they are second-hand, ought to be 
stopped.' 

Wild Life for May has four important contributions, namely, ' The 
Blackcocks' Tournament,' by H. B. Macpherson, ' A Critical Study of 
British Rats,' by F. J. Stubbs ; ' The Early Breeding Habits of the Shag,' 
by Edmund Selous, and 'The Orange-Tip Butterfly,' by A. E. Tonge, 
ail of which are illustrated in the remarkably fine way now expected in 
this interesting publication. 

The New Phytologist published March 31st (the volume number, etc., 
etc., are much too long to quote) contains the following items : ' New 
Marine Fungi on Pelvetia,' ' Vegetative Production of Flattened Protonema 
in Tetraphis pellucida,' 'The Algal Vegetation of Some Ponds on the 
Hampstead Heath,' 'A Somerset Heath and its Bryophytic Zonation,' 
' The Inter-relationships of Protista and Primitive Fungi,' etc. 

From The Haslemere Natural History Society we have received Science 
Paper No. 6, ' English Science and its Literary Caricaturists in the 17th 
and 1 8th Centuries,' an address given at the 25th Anniversary of the 
Haslemere Natural History Society, 12th December, 1913, by Sir Archibald 
Geikie, O.M., K.C.B., D.C.L., F.R.S. (45 pages, price 6d.). As might be 
expected from anything by Sir Archibald Geikie, the address is a very 
fascinating one and is extremely humorous. 

Naturalist, 



Some Geographical Factors 
in file Great War 

By T. HERDMAN, M.Sc, F.G.S. 

(Lecturer in Geography, Municipal Training College, Hull). 

^2 pages, croimi Svo, with 6 Maps, scivii in 
stoitt printed cover, gd. net, post free rod. net. 

A feature of vast importance in the titanic struggle now taking 
place is the geographical condition of the various countries. In 
" Some Geographical Factors " the author provides much interesting 
information which helps his readers to a wider understanding of an 
important aspect of the present campaign. The concluding chapter 
on "The Problems of Nationality " affords a glimpse of the immense 
difficulties that face those statesmen to whose heads and hands will 
be committed the adjustment of the new boundaries. 

The ^'Literary World'" says: — "Those who would follow inlelligentl}' 
the movements in this world contest will find much help in this little 
handbook. Mr. Herdman's exposition of the pari played in the war 
by the great land-g-ates and the seas is clear and informins^:, and is 
followed by some sound reasoning: on the commercial war and the 
problems of nationalit)'." 

London: A.BROWN & SONS, Ltd., 5, Farkinc.don Avkxuk, 1-;.C. 

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This book, which might be almost described as a picture gallery 
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writer on antiquarian subjects, and this volume reflects his acquaint- 
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A GRAPHIC ACCOUNT OF COAST EROSION. 

THE LOST TOWNS 
OF THE YORKSHIRE COAST 

And other Chapters bearing upon the 
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A new Volume which contains much valuable information 
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June 1st, 1915. 



JULY 1915. 



No. 703 

(No. 479 of current series) 




A MONTHLY ILLUSTRATED JOURNAL OF 

NATURAL HISTORY FOR THE NORTH OF ENGLAND. 

EDITED BY 

T. SHEPPARD, M.Sc, F.Q.S., F.R.Q.S., F.S.A.Scot.. 

The Museums, Hull; 

AND 

T. W. WOODHEAD, M.Sc, Ph.D., F.L.S., 

Technical College, Huddersfield. 

WITH THE assistance AS REFEREES IN SPECIAL DEPARTMENTS OF 

J. aiLBBRT BAKBR, P.R.S. P.L.S., GEO. T. PORRITF, P.L.S., P.E.S 

Prof. P. P. KENDALL, M.Sc, P.Q.S., JOHN W. TAYLOR, M.Sc, 

T. H. NELSON. M.Sc, M.B.O.U., RILEY FORTUNE. F.Z.S. 



Contents : — 

PAGE 

Notes and Comments:— War Names ; The Age of Oysters ; Winkles and Fish i;. Law ; The 
Law and Prawns ; The Vasculum ; British and German Steel Metallurgy ; The ' Ideal 
Curator ' ; British Association ; Sections of Coal Strata ; Sinker's Terms ; The Crossland 
Collection of Fungi 213-216 

Observations on tlie Qrey Seal — Edmnnd Selous 217-221 

Mycological Notes from Scarboroujrli (Illustrated)— /I. i=:. Pecft 222-224 

The Spiders of Wicken, with description of two new species 'Jl\ust.)—Wm. Falconer 225-230 

Natural History of Sawley and Eavestone, near Ripon—W.E.LAV 231-237 

A Cumberland Nature Reserve— L. £. H 238-243 

Museum News 216,230 

News from the Magazines 221 

Reviews and Book Notices 224,243 

Northern News 244 

Illustrations 223, 228 



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IN THE PRESS. 



YORKSHIRE'S 
CONTRIBUTION TO SCIENCE 

{Being based upon the Presidential Address to the 
Yorkshire Naturalists' Union at the Leeds University) 

By THOMAS SHEPPARD 

M.Sc, F.G.S., F.R.G.S., F.S.A.(Scot.) 

This work has been considerably extended, and occupies over 200 pages. 
It contains an account of tlie various scientific publications issued from 
Ackworth, Addingham, Barnsley, Ben Rhydding, Beverley, Bradford, 
Doncaster. Driffleld, Goole, Halifax, Harrogate, Haworth, Hebden Bridge, 
Huddersfield, Hull. Idle, Ilkley, Keighley, Leeds, Malton, Middlesbrough, 
Pocklington, Pontefract, Ripon, Rotherham. Scarborough, Sedbergh, 
Selby, Settle, Sheffleld, Wakefield, Whitby and York. In addition there 
is an exceptionally complete bibliography of the various natural history 
journals and publications now issued for the first time. The author has 
been successful in obtaining many publications not in the British Museum. 

EXTRACT FROM PREFACE:— 

In the following pages an effort is made to indicate the various sources 
of information likely to be of service to a student in his work on any 
branch of natural science dealing with our broad-acred shire. The 
section arranged topographically under towns shows what has been 
accomphshed in each place, while the remainder of the book is devoted 
to an enumeration of the general sources of information which should be 
consulted. Several of the items unfortunately are scarce, in many cases 
only one set being known, a circumstance which has induced me to give 
the bibliographical details rather fully. By a series of fortunate circum- 
stances, and as a result of several years' collecting, I possess sets of most 
of the publications mentioned, and I shall endeavour to arrange that 
they remain intact for the benefit of future workers, as it will certainly 
be very difficult, if not impossible, to get such a collection together again. 
It is also hoped that the bibliographical particulars of the various 
journals and Societies Transactions will be of service to librarians and 
others who often find it difficult to trace items of this character. , I 
believe they are now given in this form for the first time. 



ORDER FORM. 

Please send me cop of Yorkshire's Contribution 

TO Science, hound in cloth at 3s. 6^. net. 

Name 

Address 



T. Sheppard, M.Sc, 

IMiiseum, Hull. 



213 

NOTES AND COMMENTS. 

WAR NAMES. 

' Why Mr. Oldfield Thomas should have apphcd the names 
of Joffre, Kitchener, and Sturdee to certain bats is,' writes 
a zoological correspondent, ' as incomprehensible to me as it 
appears to be to you. But I fancy that yet another new 
species — Pipistrellus principuhis — must have been so named 
in honour of the German Crown Prince, for its chief character- 
istic is a " skull with a quite unusually swollen brain case." ' 

THE AGE OF OYSTERS. 

On this subject Professor J. Arthur Thomson writes in 
Knowledge for June. He says : ' It is supposed by many 
that the age of an oyster can be ascertained by counting the 
rings, or groups of rings, on its deep valve, each group being 
regarded as a year's growth. Miss Anne L. Massy has tested 
this in reference to specimens from the oyster station at Ardfry, 
at the head of Galway Bay ; but she does not recommend the 
method. " All I can honestly say I have learnt from a patient 
scrutiny of over six hundred samples of various ages, from 
eighteen months to six years, is that an oyster of eighteen 
months or two summers appears to possess at least two rings, 
but may have as many as five. One of three summers has at 
least two rings, and may have six. A four-year-old oyster 
may have only three rings, or may possess seven or eight." ' 

WINKLES AND FISH V. LAW. 

We learn from the Yorkshire Observer that the High Court 
of Justice has decided unanimously that a winkle is a fish. 
The case was an appeal against a conviction under the Larcency 
Act of 1891, which Act imposes a penalty on any person who 
takes or destroys any fish in any water which is controlled by 
private fishery rights. The appellant had been found picking 
up winkles on mud-flats in a tidal river, and the point submitted 
to the Court was whether winkles were fish or not. The Lord 
Chief Justice confessed that he would have been puzzled how 
to decide had he not found guidance in a former judgment 
to the effect that crayfish were fish, and he quoted this inter- 
esting declaration of Mr. Justice Mathew : ' It is perhaps, 
difficult to give any definite reason except that crayfish are 
fish.' This, said the Lord Chief Justice, ' was a decision which 
they must follow.' Mr. Justice Avory agreed, adding that 
but for the precedent he would have decided otherwise, and 
Mr. Justice Low superciliously declared that he ' saw no reason 
why ? winkle should not be a fish.' To the lay mind it does not 
seem" a necessary conclusion that a winkle must be a fish 
because a crayfish has been held to be one, but legal logic 
follows rules of its own. ' The Standard Dictionary ' defines 
a fish as (i) a vertebrate animal with gills, and (2) an animal 

1915 July 2, ^ 



214 Notes and Comments. 

habitually living in the water. Neither crayfish nor winkles 
come in under the first definition ; crayfish certainly do under 
the second. But can winkles be said to live habitually in the 
water ? The same authority describes a winkle as a ' large 
spiral gastropod,' but makes no mention of its habitat. A 
gastropod is an animal which has a foot attached to its ventral 
surface, and the order includes all slugs and snails, but has no 
kinship either with fish or crayfish. Are our garden snails 
now to be regarded as fish within the meaning of the Larcency 
Act ? 

THE LAW AND PRAWNS. 

Following on the above case we learn from the daih" press : 
' Is a prawn a fish ? This was the question debated at the 
Eastbourne Borough Bench recently. Richard Barrett, of 
Eastbourne, was summoned for hawking fish on the parade 
on 14th May, and denied the offence. P.S. Holden deposed 
that defendant shouted " Fine large prawns," and called at 
several houses. He told witness he was on his way home. 
Defendant : A prawn is not a fish. Mr. E. O. Langham 
(Magistrates' Clerk) : Yes, it is. What do you call it — a bird ? 
Defendant : No ; it's an animal. Mr. Langham : It is a 
crustaceous fish. Defendant : No, it is not. Barrett, leaving 
this point, denied that he was hawking. He had to pay a 
fine of 2S. 6d.' Apparently up-to-date legal classification is 
after the style of the well-known railway porter's classification 
in Punch, many years ago : ' Cats is dogs and monkeys is 
dogs, but a tortoise is a hinseck.' 

THE VASCULUM. 

We have received the first part of an ' Illustrated Quarterly 
dealing primarily with the Natural History of Northumberland 
and Durham and the tracts immediately adjacent,' which is 
edited by J. E. Hull, Richard S. Bagnall, George Bolam, and 
J. W. H. Harrison (32 pages, is. net). There is an ornamented 
cover with the names of many leading northern naturalists. 
Mr. Bolam writes on ' Newts,' Mr. C. E. Robson on ' The 
Hancock Prize,' Mr. J. W. H. Harrison on ' Root Parasites,' 
Mr. H. Preston on ' The Black Hall Rocks,' Mr. R. S. Bagnall 
on ' A New Species of Neuroptera from the North of England ' ; 
and there are shorter notes and records, and particulars of a 
competition for young people. We hope there will be sufficient 
enthusiasm among our friends in Northumberland and Durham 
to keep the journal going. 

BRITISH AND GERMAN STEEL METALLURGY. 

In a pamphlet with the above title, written by Professor 
J. O. Arnold, F.R.S., of the Sheffield University, published as 
one of the Oxford pamphlets (2d.) it is shown (i) that German 
steel metallurgy owes far more to British inventors than 

Naturalist, 



Notes and Comments. 215 

British steel metallurgy owes to German inventors, and (2) 
that the steel department of the University of Sheffield has 
done work greatly superior to that of the corresponding depart- 
ment at Charlottenburg. The following is the claim bearing 
on the latter thesis : — ' There are about twenty-nine con- 
stituents or sub-constituents of steel and iron. Of these, 
twenty-six have been discovered in Sheffield, the steelopolis 
of Great Britain ; three in Middlesbrough, its ironopohs ; and 
the record of Charlottenburg in this branch of research is 
absolutely blank.' 

THE ' IDEAL CURATOR.' 

Different people have different ideas as to the duties and 
accompHshments of Museum Curators. We know of several 
' ideal curators,' but the writer of the following paragraph 
taken from the daily press, has evidently peculiar views as to 
a curator's duties : — ' In George IV. 's wardrobe were found 
many things that could not be offered for sale — countless 
bundles of women's love letters, women's gloves, and locks 
of women's hair. These were destroyed. And five hundred 
pocket-books came to light, all containing sums of money, 
^10,000 in all was thus collected. For the King was a great 
hoarder and yet systematic in his hoarding. He carried the 
catalogue of his wardrobe in his head, and could, it is said, 
call for anything at any moment. He would have made an 
ideal curator of a museum.' 

BRITISH ASSOCIATION. 

We should like to congratulate the Secretary of the British 
Association on the fact that the annual reports are now being 
issued a little more promptly. In the past we have been 
given to understand that it was impossible for the report of 
one meeting to be issued much before the eve of the next ; 
impossible or not, the reports now appear earlier than they did. 
The report of the 1914 meeting, notwithstanding the fact 
that it was held in AustraHa, was received by us on June 4th. 
We shall still hope that the day will come when the report 
is issued during the same year as the meeting. 

SECTIONS OF COAL STRATA. 

From the Midland Institute of Mining, Sheffield, has been 
issued two valuable volumes, the first being entitled ' Sections 
of Strata of the Coal Measures of Yorkshure, together with a 
few Derbyshire Sections, compiled from Records of Borings 
and Sinkings ' (303 pages, royal 8vo), and the second, ' Cross 
Country Sections and Map of Yorkshire Coalfield.' The 
sections were prepared by Messrs. W. H. Chambers, H. St. 
John Durnford, John Gerrard, Prof. F. W. Hardwick, W. 
Hargreaves, W. H. Humble, T. W. H. :\Iitchell, J. Nevin, 

1915 July 2. 



2t6 Notes and Comments. 

Prof. L. T. O'Shea, E. W. Thirkell, G. Blake Walker, W. Wilde 
and J. R. R. Wilson. The late John Nevin acted as Chairman 
of the Committee for several years, and the collection was 
largely due to his initiative. It contains details of the various 
borings in the numerous Yorkshire collieries. 

sinker's terms. 
There is a general introduction and a glossary of Sinker's 
terms, many of which are somewhat unusual, namely : — 
Blaes and Balls, Black Bat, Blue Bind, Cank, Clod, Clunch, 
Conny, Corrity Stone Bind, Fakes, Fakey Blaes, Greydogs, 
Mingy, Rattle Rack, Skerry, Slum or Sloom, Smuts or Smut, 
Soapy Blaes, Spavin and Spire. Those concerned in the 
thickness and depth of the various old rocks of the county 
will find some useful information in this volume. The second 
includes a map of the coalfield showing the position of the vari- 
ous colleries, and lines of two sections, which are given in detail 
in the same cover. One is from Burnley to Pontefract, and 
the other from Manchester to Doncaster. 

THE CROSSLAND COLLECTION OF FUNGI. 

We see from the Kew Bulletin an interesting announcement, 
to which we have already briefly referred in these pages :■ — 
" A valuable addition to the already extensive mycological 
collection in the herbarium has been made through the purchase 
of the series of drawings and specimens of British fungi belong- 
ing to Mr. C. Crossland, of Halifax. The drawings, representing 
543 species, mostly Discomycetes, are especially welcome. There 
is a coloured representation of each species, natural size, 
accompanied b3^ sections, dissections and spore measurements ; 
also a detailed description, critical notes, etc., and in each 
instance by the specimens from which the figures and descrip- 
tions were drawn. The general collection of fungi, numbering 
2,000 species, is in an excellent state of preservation, and 
embraces representatives of every group of British fungi. 
There are also some 84 Myxomycetes.' 



The Report of the Library and Museum at Bootle shows that the museum 
still continues its useful educational work in that town. 

Belfast Museum Publication, No. 49, deals with ' The House Fly and 
Disease,' and is illustrated. It is written by the Curator, Mr. A. Deane. 

The Colchester Museum has issued its report for the past year (32 
pages, 2d.), and, as usual, it contains particulars of an enormous number 
of valuable additions. There are illustrations of some recent antiquities. 
The 44^A Report of the Rochdale Public Libraries, Art Gallery and 
Museum Committee contains a portrait of the late Col. Fishwick, F.S.A., 
as well as particulars of additions during the 3'ear, of the lectures given, 
etc. 

Naturalist, 



217 

OBSERVATIONS ON THE GREY SEAL. 



EDMUND SELOUS. 



Oct. iith, 1914. — Yesterday, in company with my friend. 
Dr. Heatherley (to whom as its originator, the credit of the 
expedition, with all that came of it, wholly belongs), I arrived 
at St. Mary's, the pleasant little capital of the Scilly Isles, and, 
this evening, we set sail in a small, open yacht, with the view 
of making, through the medium of observation and photo- 
graphy, some addition to the present knowledge of the Grey 
Seal [HalichcBrus grypus, as I understand). Mr. King, who 
resides in the town, and whose sea-bird and seascape photo- 
graphy is well-known, came with us, as also his son. It being 
now the childing time, young Seals of this species (for the Com- 
mon Seal, oddly enough, is not found here) were to be expected 
on some or other of the more promising outlying islets. On 
the first of these that a long course of slaughterous experience 
(now happily over) suggested to our skipper, we found two 
lying on the rocks, but the difficulty, in the event of the sea 
rising, both of getting a boat in and getting into it from the 
rocks, was decisive against our being left here. After a good 
deal of coasting to no purpose, we were again successful with 
another small fragment of territory, formed, for the most part, 
of more or less rounded masses of granite, varying in size from 
pebbles to blocks of titanic magnitude, and alternately rising 
into pinnacles and sinking into beaches or, more frequently, 
rocky foreshores. 

Here again we found two quite young Seals, each in its 
own bay or cove, and- — -a point to be remembered — entirely 
cut off from each other. As the conditions for landing and 
return were more generally favourable here, the tent was put 
up (leaving the shed for to-morrow) and, about five, my friends 
put off to the yacht. 

Only a few minutes after I had been left alone — probably 
before the boat had reached the yacht- — a female Seal (as was 
soon made evident) came close into the shore, and, in another 
few, began to ascend the rocky pathway — by which I mean the 
least steep or least resistance-offering, or most direct line — 
towards her calf, who, ever since our landing (between i and 2 
perhaps — it was now about 5 p.m.), had lain in the same place, 
almost without moving. He* now began to move, to meet his 
dam, each of them pausing, at intervals, to rest from the exer- 
tion of jerking themselves along. At a certain point — half- 
way, perhaps, between the sea and her young one — the old 

* I never knew the sex of any of these young Seals, and only vise the 
personal pronoun when wishing to avoid the ' it.' 

1915 July 2. 



2i8 Selous : Observations on the Grey Seal. 

Seal halted more definitely, and, stretching herself luxuriously 
on her side, waited whilst it continued its little forced marches 
towards her, evidently (tlie calf I mean) in a state of antici- 
pation. The exigences of the rocks however, prevented his 
getting quite comfortably at her dugs, and in this she had to help 
him by sundry large motions and shiftings of position. I saw 
the whole expanse of her conspicuously marked belly, which, as 
I had before remarked in the Shetlands, can present a most hand- 
some appearance in the water. The calf sucked first one and 
then another of her two tits (after observation showed that there 
were no more, though at first, I thought four was the number), 
situated one on either side of the median line, in about the same 
relative position as those of a dog or cat, but with a broader 
space between them, answering to the portly size of the great 
belly. Whilst the calf was engaged vvith the under one, I 
could often see the milk exude from the one above it, and 
trickle down past his muzzle. At intervals he butted the udder, 
with his nose, as a lamb does, but not so quickly, nor, as it 
struck me, so violently. The repast seemed to me (for I had 
no watch) to last five minutes, but it may have been ten, after 
which time, the mother, before the calf had finished, jerked 
herself away and retreated into the water. The young one 
followed her, but I did not see it enter the sea, as, just at its 
edge, a rock was in the way. After waiting some little while, 
and seeing no more of either of them, I concluded that both had 
swum away together. At any rate, the incident which I have 
narrated was now closed, so crawling out of the tent, over the 
rocky ridge of the island, immediately behind it, I walked, under 
cover, to a niche in the rocks commanding an unseen view of 
where another, a full-grown Seal had for some while been lying 
— this, too, a female and mother. She was still there, and 
motionless as ever except when the tide, which was now coming 
in, just touched her nose, at intervals, through a larger wave, on 
which she threw up her head protcstingly, for a moment, like 
a heavy sleeper informed that breakfast is ready. After 
awhile, and before she was in any immediate danger of being 
floated off, she aroused herself, but instead of entering the sea 
as I had expected, began to climb further up the rock. This 
she continued steadily to do, in spite of the roughness and 
difficulty of the ascent, till, all at once, a young Seal, till now 
hidden, came into sight, shuffling down the rock to meet its 
mother. But although the two were soon almost together, 
the difficulties for the calf were so great that it had to ascend 
a different rock from the one she was on, thus travelling away 
from her, on which she jerked herself quite round, and at the 
same time up this one, tail foremost, and on her side, as it 
seemed to me, all the time, and so presented her dugs to the 
calf in the same way that the other had done. Doubtless all 

Naturalist, 



Seloiis : Observations on the Grey Seal. 2xg 

now went forward as before, but it had become too dark for 
me to follow it, and, short as the distance was, I thought I 
had better make sure of the way back to my tent. This I 
did, and then returned again. I could just see that the old 
Seal and her calf were lying in the same juxtaposition towards 
one another as I had left them in, though, as I should suppose, 
the latter would, long ere now, have had all the nourishment 
it required. I then left them again for my tent, and after some 
rude eating (the sweeter for being so), turned in. 

To the above I have to add that, whilst the mother Seal 
was lying on the rock, and had not yet begun her further 
ascent, another full-grown one had, several times, appeared 
just under the shore, floating upright, for the most part, in 
the water, with his head held high out of it and flung right back. 
He often shook it, with his whole throat, and whether doing 
so or not, often kept his jaws wide open. I assumed that this 
was the male, and husband of the alma mater on the rocks, as 
also that a complaining cry, as it sounded, having a wonderfully 
human intonation, which came, first at intervals, and latterly, 
almost continuously, proceeded from him. This, however, as 
will appear, by my next entry, was probably a mistake. 

Oct. I2TH. — The sound that I yesterday attributed to the 
male Seal I have now heard made several times by the last -fed 
calf, at close quarters, so that I feel pretty sure it was it that 
so cried to be fed, and not the male. Also both since then, as 
well as formerly in the Shetlands, I have seen these Grey Seals 
holding their heads thus straight out of the water and opening 
their mouths, at intervals, without uttering any sound. Early 
in the morning of this day I saw from my tent two grown 
Seals — I think a male and female — constantly swimming and 
' peg topping ' (as I have elsewhere called it, floating, that is 
to say, perpendicularly) in the water, close to the shore of the 
little bay or nook where I saw the first young Seal fed, and, 
after awhile, I saw this same young Seal (as I make no doubt 
it was) go up out of the sea on to the rocks again. I could 
only see it, for a little, however ; the rocks soon hid it, and one 
was just in front of where it at last settled down though I 
could sometimes see the end of its outstretched flipper above 
it. Probably it lay on its back, which, I find, is a favourite 
attitude with these young Grey Seals, as it is with the full- 
grown Common one. I fancy it is less so with the species in 
question, but must look up my ' Bird Watcher in the Shetlands' 
again to be sure of this. 

Dr. Heatherley, with Mr. King and his son, turned up from 
the yacht about ii a.m., with the different parts of a wooden 
shed, to put together, upon the rocks, for the purposes of photo- 
graphy. On repairing to the place where I had yesterday 
watched the suckling of a young Seal, there was now, besides 

1915 July 2. 



220 Selous : Observations on the Grey Seal. 

this one, another lying on the rocks, considerably smaller, 
and which, by all the signs — umbilical cord, blood close by, 
etc. — could not have been born above an hour or so ago. It 
could, therefore, have had no previous experience of mankind, 
and I particularly noted (wishing to test the matter) that it 
moved its head towards my hand and even made immature 
snaps at it, when I touched it on the body, thereby proving that 
distrust of, and hostility to humanity must be instinctive in 
this Seal, and not either taught it by its mother, or gained 
through individual experience. This fact is interesting and 
I do not see how it could be better proved. Now how did this 
fear of man, or of enemies in which man is included, come into 
the possession of our newly born Seal ? Must it not have been 
through a long road of previous individual experiences, each 
one of which marked a mental impression (having its physio- 
logical analogue) on the brain ? If so, were not such impressions 
acquired characters ? These actions of the baby Seal were 
not like mere general response to stimulus. Though weak, 
and, as it were, clouded through its own weakness and im- 
maturity, yet one got clearly that suggestion of intent and 
individuality which would appeal to a sportsman as vicious- 
ness. I find it difficult to believe that such characterised 
movements can be due to a process of natural selection, with 
which impressions gained through the senses in their re-actions 
to the external world had nothing to do, as being brought 
to bear on the non-somatic cells only. In two other young 
Seals whose acquaintance I made on the way here, on an island 
too exposed to heavy seas to make it advisable to stay there, 
and who might have looked upon the world for a full week or 
ten days perhaps, the hostility referred to was more developed, 
having the greater vigour of their greater age. 

The shed was put up upon a high-standing, flat-topped 
rock which just accommodated it, and stood just between 
a little sea-pool, either left or sprayed up by the tide, in which 
the elder young Seal was now domiciled, and the newly-born 
one on the rocks about twelve paces off. No mother came out 
upon the rocks for about two hours, as I should conjecture, 
after the party had gone. Both the young seals cried, the 
younger one more weakly and sharply than the other. It is 
difficult to find a special word for this sound, neither bellow, 
bleat, nor low suiting it. It is more like a moaning, the 
intonation being very human, and often resembles — to the 
extent, indeed, of being most painful to hear — the bitter crying 
of a child. For this description, however, to be fully justified, 
the desire of the calf for nourishment must be acute, and its 
age, as I should think, at least a week. 

After the two hours or so I have conjectured, a grown 
female Seal swam right into the shore, and began to ascend the 



Selous : Observations on the Grey Seal. 221 

rocks. It soon appeared that she was the mother of the newly- 
born one, as she came and lay upon the rock next to the one 
on which the latter lay. Strictly speaking, indeed, the two 
were one, but separated by a complete split or fissure which 
continued through the greater part of their length. To get 
upwards to the joined part, and then down on the other side, 
involved much more climbing than I should have thought the 
little thing had been equal to, but he accomplished it, after 
several near-tumblings, in a surprising way. The mother lay 
entirely on her side, but unfortunately this time, her back was 
turned to me, which quite hid the young one, from the time 
it got into proper position. After about the same space of 
time as on the first occasion of my witnessing this scene, 
the mother moved off into the sea again, and the young one 
settled down to sleep on the rock where he had been suckled. 
As for the other young Seal, if he was fed at all, it must have 
been after dark when I could have no longer distinguished 
anything, and in consequence, had given up watching. His 
cries during all this while were most distressing. They con- 
tinued to be so for some time after I had lain down, but there 
came a point when they grew less, and then ceased, which leads 
me to cherish the hope that he was fed by his more suspicious 
parent during the night, and as he has now, for a long time, 
since morning, been silent, there may have been a time when, 
after much watching from night into day, this may have hap- 
pened again, after I dozed off. 

[To he continued). 



The Scottish Xaturalist for June contains a paper on ' Scottish Hair- 
worms { Nematomovphia, Govdiidae), their Occurrence, Habits and Char- 
acteristics : with a key for the Discrimination of the species recorded 
from Britain,' by James Ritchie. 

In Wild Life for June are two papers on ' The Woodlark,' by W. 
Farren, and E. E. Pettitt respectively ; ' The Shoveller,' by ^I. Portal ; 
' The Shag,' by Edmund Selous, and ' The Yellow Necked Mouse,' by 
Miss F. Pitt. All are well illustrated, as usual. 

The Zoologist for June includes an article on ' A \'ariety of \\'ater- 
Shrew ' which is almost white, and is presumably from Nottingham. 
The same journal contains a sketch of some curious abnormal hands of 
crabs, and there is an illustrated account of some star fishes feeding upon 
a pipe-tish. 

The Neiv Phytologist published June 7th (the reference as gi\'en is 
far too long to quote) includes papers on : ' Structure and Development of 
Tavgionia hvpophylla,' by Lillian O'Keeffe ; ' Further Observations on 
the Heath Association on Hindhead Common,' by F. E. Fritsch and E. J. 
Salisbury' ; ' The Australian Meeting of the British Association,' by E. N. 
Thomas ; ' Foreign Pollen in the Ovules of Giukgu and of Fossil Plants,' 
by Birbal Sahni ; ' A Disease of Plantation Rubber caused bj- Usfuliiia 
zonata,' by F. T. Brooks, and ' The Inter-relationships of Protista and 
Primitive Fungi,' by F. Cavers. 

1915 July 2. 



222 

MYCOLOGICAL NOTES FROM SCARBOROUGH. 



A. E. PECK. 



The Mycological Committee of the Yorkshire Naturalists' 
Union held its spring meeting from May 29th to June ist, 
with headquarters at the Forge Valley Hotel, West Ayton. 
Permission to visit their respective estates had been kindly 
granted by Lord Londesborough and Lord Downe. 

Messrs. Harold Wager, F.R.S. (Chairman), Alfred Clarke, 
T. B. Roe, and A. E. Peck (Secretary), members of the Com- 
mittee, and Mr. R. Fowler Jones, made some excellent records, 
although investigations were limited to Yedmandale, Forge 
Valley, and a part of Rainclffe Woods bordering on Lady 
Edith's Drive. 

The ground covered may be considered ' classical ' from the 
Mycological standpoint, as it was here that Mr. George Massee 
worked for so many years, his many notable records being dulj^ 
set out in the ' Yorkshire Fungus Flora.' Here were met with 
many of the original specimens upon which new species were 
founded, and some of the figures illustrated in Dr. i\l. C. Cooke's 
book were the result of Mr. Massee's industry in this locality. 
The local records have been somewhat increased by Mr. T. B. 
Roe and the writer. 

In Forge Valley were found two specimens of the Morel 
{Morchella esculenta) and the writer gathered a dozen speci- 
mens at the same spot a fortnight earlier. He then had also 
observed Mitrophora semilibera and M. gigas, two species 
closety related to the Morel. 

In all sevent\'-eight species and one variety were met 
with, the following being of chief interest and importance : — 

^ ThelebnlHsterresfris (A. & S.) Tode. *Gorgoiiiceps giieniisaci Sacc. var. 

\Pleiirotus salignus Vers. leptospova Mass. = Vibrissea 

Puccinia chrysosplenii Grev. gueynisiiciCiouan vav. leptospi-ra 

f Cordyceps capitata Fr. Mass. 

Xylarici corni'ornns Fr. Peziza reticulata Grev. 

Hypoxylon margiuatum Berk. * Hiiniai'ia pilifera Sacc. 

Omhrohhila davits Cke. 

The following are of special note : — 

Gorgoniceps giternisaci Sacc. var leptospora Mass. ( = 
Vibrissea giternisaci Crouan var. leptospora Mass.) — This, which 
is new to Yorkshire, i\Ir. Wager found in Forge Valley in a wet 
place on a fallen branch of a wild rose. It is a small dis- 
comycete with a yellowish disc and a dark olive exterior. On 
being held up in a window of the hotel in the sunlight, the 
elongated spores were seen to be waving about on the disc in 
a vibril manner, collectively appearing like strands of shining 

* Xew to 'S'orkshirc. | Xe\v to \'icc County, X.E. 

Naturalist, 



Peck : Mycological Notes from Scarborough. 



223 



flossy silk. These were quite easily detached and removed to 
a, slide, and proved to be most interesting objects under the 
microscope. 

Cordyceps capitata Fr., a very rare species, was found by Mr. 
Wager and Mr. Peck in a meadow on the border of a wood in 
Yedmandale. This pyrenomycete is parasitic on Elaphomycea 
grannUitiis Fr., a subterranean species. Search was afterwards 
made for the host, but without success, as it was difficult to 
locate the exact spot where the Cordyceps had been collected. 
This species was found by Bolton in 1786 in Ramsden Wood, 





Cordyceps oapitata. 



and life size. 



Halifax. Sowerby (1S03) says : ' I have only seen one specimen 
of this fungus, for which I am obliged to the Rev. Mr. Francis, 
whose lady found it at Holt, in Norfolk.' 

It is the largest Cordyceps the members present had seen. 
Cooke's description is ' Fleshy, head ovato-globose, bay- 
brown ; stem yellow, then blackish ; sporidia colourless, 
jointed, the joints rod-shaped or cylindrical, joints of sporidia 
(.0003 in.) .0076 mm. long.' Fries says, ' Often tufted ; stem 
1-4 in. high, 2-4 lines thick, equal, smooth, lemon-coloured, 
at length fibroso-strigose and blackish. The colour of the 
head borders on yellow, red-brown, and black ' (Cooke's Hand- 
book Brit. Fungi, page 771). 

1915 July y. 



224 ■ Reviews and Book Notices. 

Hiimaria pilifera Sacc. New to Yorks. This very beauti- 
ful species was found by Messrs. Wager and Peck. It is a 
small orange-red discomycete occurring on sandy soil. The 
margin and exterior of the ascophore are minutely fimbriate. 
The clavate paraphyses are remarkably beautiful, being filled 
with orange oil globules at the apex, these giving the character- 
istic colouration to the disc. 

Mr. Clarke subsequently circulated to members from his 
portfolios, drawings and notes on Cordyceps capitata made 
respectively by Bolton (1786) and Sowerby (1803). 

Wonders of Wild Nature. By Richard Kearton, F.Z.S. Cassell & 
Co., Ltd., 1915, 174 pages, 6s. The house of Cassell has issued a number of 
volumes under the name of Kearton, and these have usually been exceed- 
ingly attractive from the fact that they have been well illustrated. The 
present volume contains photographs taken by Richard Kearton and his 
daughter Grace. It includes chapters on ' Wild Life Round London,' 
' Wild Life of Lonely Isles,' ' Bird Life on the Polders and Meers of Holland, ' 
and ' Wild Life on the Norwegian Mountains.' Many of the photographs 
are of great interest and there are some illustrations in colours. It is a 
very attractive volume. 

Whitby Wild Flowers. By Bernard Reynolds, ^^'hitby : Home & 
Son, 1915, pp. 60, IS. net. This list of W hitby plants is intended to replace 
that by J. Swales in the ' Guide to \Mntby.' It is much fuller and better 
than most lists in guide books, and includes not only the district of \Miitb}% 
but also Levisham and Scarborough. The Latin names we are told are 
those of Babington's Manual, 9th edition, but unlike the latter work, the 
author is very erratic in his use of capitals for specific names. More than 
half the book is devoted to notes on the plants, and these add greatly to 
the value and interest of the work. In this section are contributions by 
Mr. F. Arnold Lees, Rev. E. A. Woodruffe Peacock and Mr. J. Foggitt. 
The localities of the more interesting species are described in accounts of 
six excursions, in one of which a reference to Cyprepedimn requires con- 
siderable revision. The work concludes with ' Floral Notes ' extracted 
from the contributions of the late John Swales. In a short bibliography 
a list is given of some of the chief Yorkshire floras, in which the author 
misquotes and apparently misunderstands Davis & Lees ' West Yorkshire. 

The Families of British Flowering Plants. By W. B. Grove, M.A. 

Longmans, pp. vi. + 49. is. net. This little work reminds us, were that 
necessary, that the ' old order changeth.' The system of Bentham and 
Hooker, which has so long served British botanists, is slowly but surely 
giving place to the more natural system of Engler. This is the natural 
result of scientific progress, and the time now seems ripe for the change, 
though doubtless many present-day botanists will still cling to the more 
familiar system. The families, i.e., the natural orders of British floras, 
are arranged on Engler's system, with several slight modifications, and the 
author adopts from floss's British Flora the group names Amentiflorae, 
Petaloideae, Centrospermal and Heterochlamydeae. The characters of 
each family are in most cases fully given, together with a list of British 
genera, and also the more interesting foreign genera which students should 
be familiar with, or are met with frequently in cultivation. The synopsis 
is well arranged and clearly printed, though some of the contractions are 
at first a little puzzling. It will form a handy guide to students working 
at systematic botany, and doubtless will become of general use in the 
determination of the main groups of flowering plants. 

Naturalist, 



225 

THE SPIDERS OF WICKEN, WITH DESCRIPTION 
OF TWO NEW SPECIES. 



WM. FALCONER, 

Slaith.'aitc, HiuiJersfichi. 

{^Continued from page 204). 

Harvestmen. 

Liobiinum rotunditm Latr. Several examples, the Drove, 
and in the garden of the Sycamores. 

Phalanginm payietinum Degeer. Several from the fen, an 
outhouse in the village, and at the Sycamores. 

P. saxatile C. Koch. The fen, Edmund Fen, and Sycamores. 

Platybnnns corniger Herm. The fen, the Drove and the 
Drive. 

Oligolophus morio Fabr. Bushes at the entrance, and in 
many parts of the fen and the Drive. Plentiful also in Edmund 
Fen. 

0. agrestis Meade. Several examples near the fen. 

0. ephippiatus C. Koch. Numerous in various parts of 
the fen, and less so in the Drive. 

0. spinosus Bosc. Several examples beaten from borders 
of box in the garden of the Sycamores. Apparently a local 
species, not yet found north of Leicester. In addition to 
places in the South of England, from which it has already been 
recorded, I have had examples from Cheltenham (Mr. W. P. 
Winter), and have collected it at Eastbourne. 

Nemastoma hignbre Mtill. Various parts of the fen, the 
Drove and Edmund Fen. 

Mites. 

Anystis baccarum Linn. Common in various parts of the 
fen. 

Ovibates setosiis C. L. Koch. Several from newly cut grass 
in the Drove. 

Bdella vulgaris Herm. One from the Drove. 

Johnstoniana errans Jhnstn. Numerous all over the fen, 
and less so in Edmund Fen. 

Trombidumi {Ottonia) sheppardii George. A few from 
both sides of fen. 

T. purpuremn Koch.* One juvenile= O/^/o/^V? bnllata 
George, Edmund Fen. 

T. pexatum Koch* {Ottonia conifera George). One example. 
Edmund Fen. 

ErythrcBUS hirsiitus George. One from left side of fen. 

* These .synonyms are given on the authority of the Rev. J. E. Hull. 
1915 July 2. 



226 Falconer : The Spiders of Wicken, Cambridge. 

ErythrceHs nemonim Moch. Several examples from various 
parts of fen. 

Gamasus crassipes L. Abundant in the fen. 

Cyrtolcelaps nemorensis Koch. One example from each side 
of fen. 

DESCRIPTION OF NEW SPECIES. 
CENTROMERUS INCULTUS Sp. nov. 

(Figs. I, 2, 3). 
Adult female, i-g mm. 

This little spider is similar in general appearance and 
structure to other smaller members of the same genus, but is — 
although different individuals of the latter (especialty in C. 
arcanus Cambr., in which the male is also always larger than 
the female, an unusual circumstance amongst spiders) vary 
in point of size and depth of colour — distinctly smaller, and of a 
somewhat different coloration, the whole body being dull 
yellowish brown, suffused with blackish brown on the abdomen, 
cephalothorax and legs. Its mouth parts, eyes (fig. 2), and 
sternum (fig i) conform to type and present no exceptional 
features. 

Its epigyne is of the same type as that of C. arcanus Camb., 
and at first sight appears very similar, but comparison of the 
various details shows that it is quite distinct from it, and 
characteristic. In both species this organ is of rather complex 
structure, but on reference to the drawing of that of C. in- 
ciiltus (fig. 3), it will be seen that the distinctive central longi- 
tudinal ligulate process is much broader and shorter and 
extends very little beyond the posterior level of the rest of 
the epigyne, while the corresponding process in C. arcanus 
Cambr. (fig 4), is not only much longer and narrower, but 
projects a considerable distance backwards. There are other 
obvious differences which together with its smaller size and 
different colouration, will render the identification of the 
present species easy. 

I am indebted to the Rev. O. Pickard Cambridge for 
drawings from which figs, i, 2, 3 were prepared. 

MARO SUBLESTUS Sp. nov. 

(Figs. 5, 6, 7, 8, 9, 10). 

Adult female, 1-3 mm. 

Cephalothorax, Maxillae, Falces and Legs of a general 

yellowish brown colour, the first-named with the darker 

markings specified below. Pubescence sparse. 

CEPHALOTHORAX (fig. 5) much longer than wide, oblong 

oval, narrowed a little forward from the level of the 

Naturalist, 



Falconer : The Spiders of Wicken, Cambridge. 22j 

coxae of legs I, rounded in front and truncate behind. 
The profile line curves gently upwards behind the ocular 
area, and is then fairly level to the thoracic junction, 
just beyond which the posterior slope is rather abrupt, 
and somewhat excavated. The thoracic sutures and 
other grooves are marked on their lower parts by uneven 
dusky lines, which converge towards the thoracic junction, 
just in front of which, centrally placed, is a large, irregular- 
edged, dark marking, rounded behind and transversely 
nearly straight in front, close to which two round yellowish 
brown spots are visible ; each of its anterior external angles 
is prolonged to just behind the posterior lateral eye on 
the same side b}' a slender outwardly curved line. At 
the beginning of this marking, and also immediately 
behind it, are slight dips in the profile line. Lateral and 
posterior marginal lines black and uneven, the former 
disappearing forward. 
Caput well marked, somewhat convex behind the ocular 

area, which occupies the whole width of the upper 

front. 
EYES (figs. 5 and 8). — Eight, in two rows, moderately large 
and closely grouped ; the anterior centrals alone dark- 
coloured, the rest pearly white. 
Posterior Eyes on black spots, subequal in size and 

arranged in a shallow backward curve. Centrals 

separated by about a diameter, and distinctly nearer to 

the adjacent lateral than to each other. 
Anterior Eyes, their whole area suffused blackish, almost 

in contact and with the laterals of the posterior row 

forming a strong curve forward. The laterals are a 

little the largest and the centrals much the smallest 

of the eight eyes. 
Lateral Eyes on each side in contact, and situated on a 

low oblique prominence. 
Central Eye Space longer than wide, and much narrower 

in front than behind. 
CLYPEUS low, about as high as the ocular area, depressed 

below the eyes and slightly projecting at lower edge. 
FALCES fairly long and stout, straight, vertical, conical, and 
finely transversely striate on outer margin. Fang, 
slender, long and tapering ; upper fang groove with 4 short 
conical yellowish-brown teeth (fig. 7), the first three 
contiguous at base and increasing in size outwards to the 
third, which is the largest ; the fourth a little removed, 
and a little smaller than the third ; lower fang groove with 
4 very minute, granular teeth. 
MAXILLAE moderately long and strong, oblong, inclined to 
labium, the internal margin a little bent. The outer 

1915 July 2. 



228 Falconer : The Spiders of Wicken, Cambridge. 

margin with 3 or 4 strong, black, curved, bristly hairs, 

followed nearer apex by a short dark, distinct serrula ; a 

few scattered hairs on the other surfaces. 
LABIUM (fig. 6), dull dark brown, very wide and short, blunt 

and rounded at extremity, deeply transversely impressed 

across the middle. 
STERNUM (fig. 6), large, shield-shaped, width and length 

about equal, squarely truncate in front, and produced 




Ceiitronicnis inciiUus sp. nov. $. 
Fig'. I. Sternum. 
Fig. 2. Eyes from above and 

behind. 
Fig:- 3- Epig-yne. 

CentroDiertis arcauKs Cambr. 
Fig. 4. Epigyne of female. 



Maro sublestus sp. nov. $. 

Fig. 5. Cephalothorax from above. 
Fig. 6. Sternum and labium. 
•Fig. 7. Teeth of the upper fang 

groove. 
Fig. 8. Eyes from in front. 
Eig. 9. Epigyne from below. 
Fig. 10. Epigyne from the side. 



backward between the posterior coxae in a downward 
inclined process with slightly converging sides, and of 
rather less width than coxae IV. ; dusky brown with small 



Naturalist, 



Falconer : The Spiders of Wicken, Cambridge. 229 

round yellowish brown spots of varying size freely scattered 
over its somewhat convex surface ; a distinct but slender 
black marginal line. Hairs few, scattered. 
PALPUS without a terminal claw. Femur long, slender, 
bowed, slightly enlarged towards distal end. Patella 
almost nodiform, with a long erect bristle at extremity. 
Tibia short, gradually enlarged upwards from base. 
Tarsus provided with hairs and a few long slender black 
spines, acuminate and nearly one and a half times as 
long as the tibia. 
LEGS damaged, order of length apparently 4, i, 2, 3, fairly 
long and strong and well supplied with black hairs, 
arranged on some of the joints in definite rows and mostly 
seated on black, slightly raised bases ; this arrangement 
most noticeable on the tarsi and in a less degree on the 
metatarsi. 
Tibiae with a long erect slender black spine, much exceeding 
the diameter of the joint on the dorsal surface near the 
base. Tibia IV. also with a long dorsal acoustic seta 
near the distal end. 
Patellae with a similar spine at extremity. 
Tarsi very little shorter than the metatarsi, but distinctly 
so in leg IV., slightly tapering. Claws small and 
slender. 
ABDOMEN oblong oval, widest in posterior half, rounded 
before and behind, projecting a little over the cephalo- 
thorax ; sparsely provided with black hairs, and with a 
patch of longer, stronger, more bristle-like, upcurved 
hairs at the fore extremity, springing from black, slightly 
raised bases. Dull yellow-brown in colour, suffused 
thinly all over with a dusky tinge, through which show a 
number of roundish spots similar to those on the sternum, 
but varying more in size, and more irregularly disposed ; 
some of these on the under surface become partly con- 
fluent, and form two more or less continuous lines, one on 
each side of the median line. About the spinners are a 
number of minute black spots mostly arranged in diverg- 
ing rows along the edges of paler lines. 
SPINNERS short, stout, conical, truncate, converging towards 
summits. At the point of junction of each of the lower 
pair with the abdomen is a semicircle of 3 or 4 evenly 
separated, distinct, small round black spots, from two 
of which fine straight lines of the same colour pass upwards 
to two similar spots quite half way up the spinners. 
EPIGYNAL AREA yellowish brown, suffused in parts. 
Epigyne (figs. 9 and 10) raised and projecting ; on the 
posterior margin two conspicuous narrow reddish-brown, 
oblong, convex tubercles, converging forward to form an 

1915 July 2. P 



230 Falconer : The Spiders of Wick en, Cambridge. 

inverted a ; nearly filling up the space between them, a 
very pale round-headed process ; on the anterior part two 
large round dark-coloured spermathecse separated by less 
than the diameter of one of them, and each flanked a 
little below by two long straight stiff black hairs. 

Three other species of Maro have previously been described, 
and are, as at present known, exclusively British. Maro 
minutus Camb.* and M. falconerii ]a.cks,-\ are usually a little 
smaller than M. sublestus and more unicolorous. The first 
examples of M. minutus Camb. (types, etc.), which has so far 
been confined to the Colne Valley, South- West Yorkshire, were 
obtained from amongst an old heap of sand-stones loosely 
embedded in the ground and covered with soil, and harmonised 
with them in colour, being of a uniform yellow-brown ; later 
specimens found in other places, both in the open and in woods, 
have borne faint traces of darker markings or of more general 
suffusion. On comparing the epigynes of these two species with 
that of M. sublestus, the generic affinity of the three is at once 
evident, but in both the former, that organ is neither partly 
detached from the abdomen, nor projecting, nor so far as can 
be seen provided with any tubercles. The remaining species, 
M. persimilis Camb. J (i $ Fenagh, Ireland), is doubtfully 
allocated to this genus. It is much the same size as M. 
sublestus, and has also certain darker markings, which are 
however, of a browner hue, and although its epigyne, which is of 
a different type from the others, is both partly detached and 
projecting, the backward process is of a totally different 
character and structure. 



The Museums Journal for June contains a paper on ' Regional Study 
in Museums,' by Professor H. J. Fleure. 

The May list of additions to the Warrington Museum includes an item 
of ' 66 stone implements from French Cave deposits.' 

We notice The Library Assistan-t contains an advertisement, ' Wanted, 
an Assistant Librarian and Caretaker for the Museum ' of a Yorkshire 
Society. 

We hear that the most important article in the last volume of The 
Museums Journal had reference to ' The preservation of Antiquities,' and 
was written by a German. 

Manchester Museum Handbook (Publication 75) deals with the Stela of 
Sebek-khu, the earliest record of an Egyptian Campaign in Asia, and is by 
T. Eric Peet, B.A. It is sold at 2S. 

* ' Proceedings Dorset N. H. and A. F. Club,' vol. xxvii., 1906, tigs. 
12-18, and ' Trans. Nat. Hi.st. Soc. Northumberland, Durahm and New- 
castle,' New Series, vol. iii., pi. iv., figs. 21-25. 

•j- ' Trans. Nat. Hist. Soc. Northumberland, Durham and Newcastle,' 
New Series, vol. iii., pi. iv., figs. 16-20. 

I ' Proc. Dorset N. H. and A. F. Club,' vol. xxxiii., 1912, figs. 20-22a. 

Naturalist, 



231 

NATURAL HISTORY OF 
SAWLEY AND EAVESTONE, NEAR RIPON. 

{^Continued from page 208), 

MOLLUSCA. — Mr. W. Denison Roebuck, F.L.S., writes that 
the conchologists explored Picking Gill and other parts of 
Sawley parish, the main part of the collections made being by 
Mr. Greevz Fysher that day and about Risplith the next. 
These notes include the mollusca which were collected by Mr. 
James Ingleby in the parish of Eavestone during the years 1882 
to 1886 inclusive, and seen by Mr. J. W. Taylor and himself. 
As Mr. Ingleby pointed out, the district with its peaty soils on a 
millstone grit formation, is singularly unfavourable for mollusca. 

Limax maximus and var. cellaria. Eavestone. 

Agriolimax agrestis and var. reticulata. Abundant at Eavestone, 

Sawley, Picking Gill, Risplith, and Howhill Fountains.. 
A. IcBvis. Eavestone. 
Avion ater. Eavestone, Sawley and Risplith ; var. litteopaUescens 

common at the two latter places. 
A. sitbfuscus. Eavestone and Sawley ; vars. nifofusca and citiereo- 

fiisca at the latter place. 
A. horteiisis. Eavestone. 
A. civcitinscriptus. Not uncommon, Eavestone, Sawlej', Risplith. 

One at Howhill Fountains (Fysher). 
A. intermedins and var. grisea. Sawley and Risplith. 
Vitrina pellucida. Eavestone and Risplith. 
Hyalinia cellaria. Common at Eavestone. 
H. alliaria. A few at Eavestone and Sawley. 
H. nitidula. Eavestone, a few. 
H. crystallina. A small colony in a damp place among trees at 

Eavestone ; a few at Sawley. 
Pyraniidiila rotitndata. Found in Fishpond Wood, Eavestone, not 

very common ; common in Sawley parish. 
Helix nemoralis. Eavestone, not very common. 
H. hortensis var. lutea 12345. Eavestone, very rare. 
Hygroniia hispida. Picking Gill, one or two, fine. 
Ena obscura. Stephenson Bank, Risplith, on a wall, very rare 

(Ingleby). 
Clausilia hideutata and var. albinos. On old wall by roadside. 

Lodge Bank (another name for Stephenson Bank), Risplith 

(Ingleby). 
Cochlicopa lubrica. On tiles at Eavestone, not very common ; 

a few at Sawley. 

The only water-shells are those noted by Mr. James Ingleby 
as follows : — 

Pisidiitni fontiiiale. Common, taken from the side of a trout pond 
at Eavestone, a few days after the water had broken through 
the bank. The pond had been previously searched several 
times but nothing could be found there, but 

Ancylus fluviatilis. and that rarely. 

Pisidium piisilliim and 

Limncea truncatula were numerous in a ditch fed by a spring at 
Eavestone, quite isolated from any other water. In summer 
the water of this ditch is often dried up, and the ditch was 
often scoured, and how the mollusca lived and multiplied 
was a mystery to ]\Ir. Ingleb}'. 

1915 July 2. 



232 Natural History of Sawley and Eavestone. 

Anodonta cygnea. In the lake at Eavestone, very common. 

Physa fontinalis. At Eavestone in 1882 was quite local and not 
numerous anywhere about. Behind Mr. Ingleb^^'s former 
residence, Brim House, there was a small colony where it 
occurred under stones and on the grass ; a curious habitat 
which should be investigated. 

A further set of captures made by Mr. Fysher included the 

following : — 

Planorbis albus. Not uncommon in Bryn Brae Lake or Pond. 

Pisidhim cinereum. One from same pond. 

Hyalinia fulva. One. 

H. pur a var. nitidosa. One. 

A canthinula lamellata.^ One. 

All these in company with Clausilia bidentata (of which the 
elongated var. graciHor also occurred), Eiia obscnra, Hyalinia 
alliaria, etc., on Stephenson Bank, Risplith. 

These occurrences are most interesting, especially the 
Planorbis and Pisidium cinereum, while that of Acanthiniila 
lamellata is a most im.portant discovery of a new locality for a 
rare species of limited range. 

CoLEOPTERA. — Mr. Margerison states that he has taken 
Halyzia iS-guttata on Sawley Moor, identified by Mr. J. W. 
Carter, the fourth record for Yorkshire. Nebria brevicollis, 
Sericosomus briinneiis and, Otiorhynchus picipes, which were 
submitted to Dr. W. J' Fordham for identification, were taken 
in Picking Gill on the day of the excursion. 

Arachnida. — Mr. W. P. Winter, B.Sc, writes : — The follow- 
ing lists are based on collections made by Mr. S. Margerison, 
and will perhaps furnish a foundation for future work. In 
many instances the species were identified by Mr. Falconer. 
The most interesting examples are Hahnia pusilla C.L.K.,. 
Centromerus arcaniis Camb., Lophocarenum mengii Sim. and 
Meta menardi Latr., which are either rare or local. Hahnia 
pusilla C.L.K. (both sexes), has been recorded previously from 
Delamere Forest, Cheshire, and from Flebden Bridge, West 
Yorks., one $ from roots of heather. Meta menardi Latr. 
frequents caves, cellars and old ruins in the north of England,, 
and has been found also in North Wales, Isle of Man, and widely 
in Ireland. As a Yorkshire species it is reported from caves 
and an old lead mine in the West Riding, and from Lonsdale in 
the North Riding. 

Localities : — [a) Sawley, 1914. 

[b] Risplith, January, 1915. 

(c) Sawley, January, 1915 ; March, 1915. 

(d) Sawley High Moor, March, 1915. 

[e] Sawley, Spa Gill, April, 1915. 

Segestria senoculata Linn., 5, c. Dictyna arundinacea Linn., Imm. 
Dvassus lapidosus Walck., 5, d. $, c. 

Clitbiona trivialis L. Koch, §, d. Ainaurobius similis Bl., $, c, e (and 
C. comta C.L.K., Imm. $, a. q), b. 

Naturalist, 



Natural History of Sawley and Eavestone. 233 

Amaiirobius feiiestralis Stroem. Ceiitromerus arcaniis Ch., '^, ^, d. 

Several ^Q, a, e (and 1^), c. Oedothorax retusus Westr., ^, a. 

Cryphoeca silvicola C.L.K., c (q), Lophoinina herbi^radum Bl., 9, d- 

e ($). Xerieue rubois Bl., $, d. 

Coelotes atropos, $, \\'alck., a. Diplocephalus cristatus Bl., $, rr. 

Tegenaria derhamii Scop., $, «, b. D. picinus Bl., several $$, «. 

Hahnia pusilla C.L.K.), $, ^. £). fuscipes Bl., (;J, a. 

Theridion pallens Bl., q*, rf. Lophocarenum mengii Linn., $, f/. 

Phyllonethis lineata Clerc"k., $, «. Minyriolus pusillus Wid., $, rf. 

Linyphia insignis Bl., Tmm. j and Tapinocyba pallens Cambr., rj, </. 

(J, «. *Walckenaera acuminata Jil., 'i^, 

L. montana Clerck., $, ^, a, c. Ceratinella brevipes Westr., 2^ d. 

L. triangularis Clerck., $, (^, o. Nesticus celluhoius Clk., §, c. 

Z.. peltata Wid., $, ^, «, c. i\/e/rt segrnentuta Clerck., 2, a, d. 

Labulla thoracica Wid., $, q, a, c. M. merianae Scop., $, a, c (and (^). 

J^eptyphantes minutus Bl., Imm. §, M. menardi Latr.., ad ^ from Ned 

a. Hole, Eavestone Lake, Sawley, 

L. leprosHS Ohl., $, c, e. April, 1915. Also a cocoon 

L. ^errj'co/rt C.L.K., $, e. from a cleft in the same dis- 

L. blackwallii Kulcz., 9, a, d. trict. 

L. obscurus Bl., $, a. 

L. pallidus Camb., 9, «• Pseudoscorpion. 

L. tenuis BL, q, «. Obisiuni musconirn Leach, a, d, e. 
L. ericaeus BL, ^, a. 

-Poeciloneta globosa BL, Imm. 9, o, « Harvestmen. 

* Bathyphantes concolor Wid., $, (J, a Kemastoma lugubre O.F.M., a, d. 

Maso sundevallii Westr., $, a, d. Oligolophus morio Fabr., a. 

Macrargns rufus Wid., ^, c. O. agrestis Meade, Imm., a. 

Flowering Plants. — Mr. W. E. L. Wattam writes : — The 
tardiness of springtime was everywhere apparent except where 
shade from the prevalent easterly winds was best afforded to 
plant life. From the varied nature of the ground traversed, 
no doubt it would prove most interesting say from June to 
August. The coniferous belts of woodland, especially through- 
out the whole extent of Picking Gill, was one of the pleasing 
features of the walk. Their composition is luxuriant examples 
of Spruce Fir, Larch, and Scot's Pine. At the extreme end of 
Hebden Woods are several fine specimens of Wellingtonia, and 
■close by thriving Corscian Pine and Douglas Fir. Midway 
down the Gill is a dense growth of Rhododendron, and imagin- 
ation alone can picture the beauty of that particular area when 
in full blossom, of which there was great promise. In the open 
parts of the Gill, Bracken grows to perfection, while Bilberry 
and Ling are also not uncommon plants among the grit strewn 
oak portions of the wooded areas. In the shade. Dog's ^ler- 
cury, with Lesser Celandine, and patches of Wood Anemone, 
are the striking features of the ground vegetation, while Luzula 
pilosa and L. maxima favour the moister parts. In the lake 
is an abundance of Canadian Weed and oblong-leaved Pond- 
weed. The swamps in Wet Car and Mill Gill Woods were 
glorified with the blossoms of the ^larsh ^larigold, and here 

* Collected by Mr. Wattam on the Excursion, 1915. 
1916 July 2. 



234 Natural History of Sawley and Eavestone. 

also were a fair amount of the prominent flowers of the alternate- 
leaved Golden Saxifrage. Other plants noted were Hairy 
Bitter Cress, Hemlock Water Dropwort, Water Crowfoot, 
Water Capitate Mint, Yellow Flag, Marsh Thistle, Valerian, 
and Tufted Hair Grass. The slopes of Wet Carr Wood, wherein 
the chief tree is Oak, had a dominant ground vegetation of 
Holcus-Bracken-Bluebell, with sundry patches of Wood 
Anenome, Red Campion, Wood Sanicle, and Broad-leaved 
Garlic. Near Sawley Hall was Sweet Violet, Dog Violet, 
Ivy-leaved Toadflax, Tuberous Moschatel, Cuckoo Pint and 
Toothwort. Along the road to Sawley were Purple Dead 
Nettle, Jack-by-the-Hedge, Primrose, Foxglove, and Ground 
Ivy. The Cowslip is abundant in the pastures. Honeysuckle, 
Blackthorn, and Gooseberry are conspicuous in the hedgerows. 
The Common Polypody and Wall Rue are not uncommon ferns. 

Mr. Margerison adds that he has noted over 200 species of 
flowering plants and ferns in the Sawley district. Herb Paris 
occurs below Eavestone Lake ; Monkshood and Snowdrop, 
both species probably only naturalised, occur on the Sawley 
side of Spa Gill. The Lily of the Valley grows in Calf Haugh 
Wood, where the Oak and Beech Ferns have also been noted. 
The autumn Crocus is abundant in a field outside the Sawley 
Township towards Ripon, and the Daffodil occurs sparingly 
in a few fields. The Bird Cherry known locally as ' Heg- 
Berry,' is not uncommon. 

Bryology. — Mr. C. A. Cheetham writes : — The selected 
route through Picking Gill promised well but the results were 
disappointing, the gritstone woodland seemed comparable with 
the woods by the Strid at Bolton and mosses known there were 
to be expected. There is no lack of either mosses or hepatics, 
but greatly restricted in variety of species. Commencing at the 
head of the Gill, the ponds gave a few common types, Hypnum 
cuspidatum, Bryum pallens, B. psetido-triquetriim, etc. The 
rocks here were dry. Dicranum fuscescens, D. scoparium^ 
Campylopus flexuosus and Dicranoweisia cirrhata were found, 
these being general on the drier rocks throughout. Further 
down on the Black Dyke, a subsidiary streamlet, the moister 
rocks were better, Tetraphis pellucida, T. Browniana, Plagio- 
thecium undulatum. P. denticulatum, Leucohryiim glauciim, 
Dicranum majtis, etc., being added. The streamlet bed is. 
dominated by hepatics and one moss, Hyocomium flagellare 
this in a varied series of forms from the finely pinnate to the 
almost simple and extremely robust, and in shade to the very 
complanate forms, for one unused to this moss it is an excellent 
place to study it. Mnium hormim, which is perhaps the best 
distributed moss in the area, was found on rocks in the stream 
occasionally. Time interfered with us here, and the next 
streamlet, even more promising, had to be left unworked, a 

Naturalist, 



Natural History of Sawley and Eavestone. 235 

move being made to the high rhododendron clad slopes over- 
looking the first of the Wellingtonias. There again came hope 
without realization, for on the rotting tree trunks and old fern 
roots plants like P. latebricola and Die. strictum were expected 
but the only Plagiothecium beyond those previously mentioned 
was elegans and its var. collinum. 

To look at the valley as a whole, the principal mosses are : 
Mnium horniim, Dicranium majus, D. scoparium, D. fuscescens, 
Canipylopus jlexiiosus, C. pyriformis, Dicranoweisia cirrhata, 
Tetraphis pellucida, Dicranella heteromalla and Leucobryum 
glaucum. Were these to be removed it would leave a wilderness 
as far as mosses are concerned. 

Below the Gill on gritstone walls in the open, Grimmia 
trichophylla was seen fruiting with one or two Othotricha and 
Ptychomitrium polyphyllum, etc. Mill Gill had to be passed 
through unsearched. 

The whole district of Sawley is not included in this walk 
nor are its resources exhausted ; the Skell valley has many good 
things, Fontinalis squamosa, Catharinect crispa, Weisia tenuis, 
Seligeria reeurvata, Leptodontium jlexijolium, etc. Then at 
Eavestone Lakes, Orthodontium gracile occurs and in the High 
Moor plantations, Dieranum strictum and Ditrichum homo- 
mallum. 

A definite gritstone area such as this will repay more detailed 
work, and we propose to give it careful study. The following 
seem to be new drainage records for the West Riding Flora : — 
Catharinea crispa [Atrichuni). Physcomitrium pyriforme. 

Polytrichum urnigerum (P. subro- Orthodontium gracile (Stableria). 

tundum) [Pogonatum). Webera annotina [Pohlia). 

Ditrichum homomallum. W. proligera (Pohlia). 

Dicranella rufescens (Anisothecium). W. came a (Pohlia). 
Campylopus flexuosus. Mnium stellare. 

C. fragilis. Fontinalis squamosa. 

Leucobryum glaucum. Heterocladium heteropterum. 

Grimmia trichophylla. Brachythecium albicans (Hypnunt). 

Rhacomitrium fasciculare (Grimmia) B. plumosum (Hypnum) (H. pseitd- 
R. heterostichum (Grimmia). oplumosum). 

R. canescens (Grimmia). Eurhynchium piliferum (Hypnum). 

Pottia truncatula. E. crassinervium (Hypnum). 

Zygodon viridissimus. E. Swartzii (Hypnum). 

Orthotrichum cupulatum. Plagiothecium silvaticum (Hypnum) 

O. affine. Hypnum uncinatum (Amblystegium 

O. diaphanum. aduncum). 

H. stramineum (Amblystegium). 

Fungi.— Mr. A. E. Peck writes :— Mr. M. Malone and I 
represented the Mycological Committee. Species peculiar to 
springtime were not met with, the chief finds being parasitic 
fungi of last year's growth, these occurring on their usual 
hosts. The woodlands of the district are very attractive and 
no doubt an autumnal visit would produce much of interest 
to the Mycologist. The following are the species noted : — 

1915 July 2. 



236 



Natural History of Sai&ley and Eavestone. 



Tubaria fiivfuracea. 

Hypholoma fasciciilare. 

Coprinus micaceus. 

Polyporus squamosus. 

P. betulinus. On birch. 

P. brumalis. 

P. cuticularis. On alder. 

Fames fomentariiis. On plum. 

F. annosus. On Conifer stumps. 

Daedalea quercina. On oak stumps 

Polystictus versicolor. On stumps. 

Poria vaporaria. 

Hymenochaete riibiginosa. 

Stereum hirsutum.. 

Corticium Sambuci. 

Bovista nigrescens. 

Scleroderma vulgare. 



Dasyscypha calycina. 
D. virgineus. 
Helotiiim cyathoideum. 
Mollisia cinerea. 
Chlorospleniiim aeruginosa. 
Exoascus turgidus. (Witches 



broom). 
Rhytisma acerimtni. (On Sycamore 

leaves). 
Phyllachora pteridis. (On bracken 

stems). 
Xylaria hypoxylon. 
Lephodermium Rhododendri. 
Heptameria acuta. (On dead nettle 

stems). 
Nectria cinnabarina. 
Frankinella alni. (On roots of 

alder) . 

The following Mycetozoa have been met with in the Sawley 
district by Mr. A. R. Sanderson, of Bradford, since January 
last : — 

Badhainia utvicularis Berk. (Plas- 
modium feeding on Grandinia 
granulosa). 

Physaruni nutans Pers. (stalked 
and sessile forms, including 
plasmodiocarps) . 

Craterium minutum Fr. On holly 
leaves. 

Didymium squamulosum Fr. Com- 
mon on leaves of various kinds. 

Stemonitis fusca Roth. On dead 
sycamore. 

Comatricha obtusata Preuss. On 
dead elm. 

Cribraria avgillacea Pers. On dead 
pine. 

Lichens. — Mr. Wattam writes : — The list of species enum- 
erated below has been compiled in chief from materials collected 
during the past winter, and sent to me by Mr. Samuel Margeri- 
on. It would have been impossible on the day of the excursion 
to have covered the great extent of ground from which the 
lichens have been collected by him. To Mr. Margerison must 
be given due appreciation for his energy in enabling me to 
present so large a list of species from within the area. It is 
not claimed that its lichen flora is by any means exhausted, 
and doubtless many additions will still be made. 

I devoted my attention to Picking Gill, and the lower part 
of Hebden Woods, Wet Car and Mill Gill Woods. The slight 
rainfall was naturally beneficial to this class of plants, and they 
showed their beauty to perfection, especially in Picking Gill. 
The outstanding feature was the great abundance of Parmelia- 
saxatilis L., which covered the huge grit boulders and the boles 
of trees with immense silvery bosses, even to the highest 

Naturalist, 



Trichia affinis De Barj^ Fruiting 
on moss. 
persimilis Karst. On willow. 
scabra Rost. On willow. 
varia Pers. On various dead 
wood. 
Botrytis Pers. On rotten wood. 
Arcyria fervugiuea Sant. On pine. 
A . punicea Pers. On dead ash. 
A. cinerea Pers. On dead ash. 
Perichaena corticalis Rost. On al- 
der and elm. 
Tnbifera ferruginosa Gmel. Among 
pine needles. 



Natural History of Sawley and Eavestone. 



'■37 



elevation (Lord's Nab). A great competitor, especially on 
tree boles and outcropping roots thereof, and also upon dead 
branches of Spruce Fir, was the crimped Parmelia physodes Ach, 
while the darker sheen of Parmelia tiliacea Ach. was likewise 
common. The frondose Evernia furfiiracea Mann, thrived 
best on the tops of the gritstone walls, but tree boles were also 
another of its habitats. In the open spaces in the woodlands, 
and on soil covered boulders, species of Cladonia, especially 
C. gracilis, macilenta, pyxidata, and squamosa, were very 
beautiful and conspicuous, occurring in large sheets. The 
Eavestone and Sawley records have been kept separate ; the 
species occurring in the Eavestone area only are signified by a 
dagger ; those from Sawley only by an asterisk ; unmarked 
species denote that they occur in both areas. 

Collema fuvvum Ach. 
t C. pulposum Ach. 
t var. tenax Ach. 
* Trachylia tympanella Fr. 

Sphaerophorus covalloides Pers. 



5. fragilis Ach. 

* Baeomyces rufus DC. 

t Cladonia cervicornis Schaer. 
C. cornucopioides Fr. 
C. digitata Hoffm. 

f. polydactyla Flk. 
C. fimbriata Fr. 
C. fiircata Hoffm. 

var. spinosa Hook. 
C. gracilis Hoffm. 

var. chordalis Ach. 
C. macilenta Hoffm. 
var. scabrosa Nyl. 
t f. carcata Nyl. 

* C. pityrea Floerke. 
C. pyxidata Fr. 

f C. sobolifera Del. 

C. squamosa Hoffm. 

Cladina sylvatica Nyl. 

C. uncialis Nyl. 
f Usnea bavbata f. plicata Fr. 
t U. hirta Hoffm. 

Evernia furfuracea Mann. 

* Ramalina farinacea Ach. 
*R. fraxinea Ach. 
*Peltigera canina Hoffm. 

* Parmelia caper ata Ach. 
*P. conspersa Ach. 

P. fuliginosa Fr. 
P. laevigata Ach. 
*P. per lata Ach. 

* var. ciliata Nyl. 
P. physodes Ach. 

var. labrosa Ach. 
P. scortea Ach. 
P. tiliacea Ach. 
P. saxatilis L. 

f. furfuracea Schaer. 

1915 July 2. 



*Physcia lychnea Nyl. 
P. parietina De Not. 
*P. pitlverulenta (Schreb). 
*P. stellaris, subsp. tenella l\y\. 

* Pannaria rubiginosa Del. 
*P. pezizoides (Web.) 

* Lecanora atva Ach. 
*L. badia Ach. 

*L. ferruginea Huds. 
*L. gibbosa Ach. 
*L. sophodes Ach. 
*L. subfusca L. 
*L. sulphur ea Ach. 
*L. symmicta Ach. 

* L. varia Ach. 
t L. ventosa L. 

L. vitellina Ach. 

* var. aurella Ach. 

* Urceolaria scruposa Ach. 
Pertusaria amara Nyl. 
P. communis D.C. 

* f. rupestris DC. 
*P. globitlifera Nyl. 

* Lecidia coarctata Nyl. 
fL. confluens Ach. 

L. contigua Fr. 

* var. flavicunda Nyl. 

* var. platycarpa Fr. 
fL. endoluca Nyl. 

L. lucida Ach. 
*L. sanguninaria L. 
*L. quernea Dicks. 
fL. uliginosa Tayl. 
*Bilimbia ar.omatica Jaffa. 
*Buellia parmeliaruni Oliv. 
* Rhizocarpon geographicum DC. 
*Opegrapha atra Pers. 
f O. vulgata Ach. 
t Gvaphis scripta Ach. 
*Arthonia pnininosa Ach. Sydow. 
*.4 . radiata Ach. var. Swartziana. 
t Vervucaria mavgacea Wahl. 
t F. rupestris Schrad. 



238 



A CUMBERLAND NATURE RESERVE. 

{Continued from page igi). 



Most attention wa^ given to the Coleoptera, of which there 
are practically no records from Kingmoor. I was both surprised 
and pleased to meet with considerable success. 

During the year I took 258 species of beetles made up as 
follows : — 18 Ground Beetles, 31 Water Beetles and their 
allies, 63 Cocktails (Brach elytra), 33 Clavicorns, 3 Chafers, 
7 Skipjacks, 16 Soldier Beetles and their allies, 4 Teredilia, i 
Longhorn, 30 Phytophaga and 52 Weevils. Many of these 
of course, are generally common insects, but a good proportion 
are local and scarce in Cumberland. 



Coleoptera. 



Notiophilus biguttaius F. 

N. palustris Duft. 

Nebria gyllenhali Sch. 

Clivina fossor L. 

Bradycellus siniilis Dj. 

Havpaliis latus L. 

H. ritficornis F. 

Pterostichus versicolor Stm. 

P. madidus F. 

P. diligens Stm. 

Aniara communis Pz. 

Calathus melanocephaliis L. 

Anchomenns dorsalis Miill. 

Bembidiiim gutlula F. 

B. lampros Hbst. 

B. littovale Ol. 

Trechiis minutus F. 

Dromius ^-macidatus L. 

Haliplns riificollis De G. 

H. lineatocollis Marsh. 

Hydroporus lepidus Ol. 

H. gyllenhali Schiod. 

H. palustris L. 

H. memnonius Nic. 

H. nigrita F. 

H. pubescens Gyll. 

H. planus F. 

Agabus stiirmi Gyll. 

A . chalconotus Pz. 

A. bipustulatus L. 

Ilybius fuliginosus F. 

Colymbetes fuscus L. 

Dytiscus punctulatus F. 

Gyrinus natator Scop. 

Hydrobius fuscipes L. 

Auaccena globulus Pk. 

A . limbata F. 

Limnebius truncatellus Thunb. 

Helophorus aquaticus L. 

H. aqualis Th. 

H. quadrisignatus Bach. 



Helophorus (sneipennis Th. 

H. brevipalpis Bed. 

Ochthebius pygmesus F. 

Hydrcena riparia Kug. 

Cercyon melanocephalus L. 

C. flavipes F. 

C. lateralis Marsh. 

C. hcemorrhoidalis F. 

Aleochara lanuginosa Gr. 

A. succicola Th. 

Oxypoda opaca Gr. 

Drusilla canaliculata F. 

Homalota gregaria Er. 

H. elongatula Gr. 

H. malleus Joy. 

H. circellaris Gr. 

H. eremita Rye. 

H. analis Gr. 

H. nigra Kr. 

H. atricolor Shp. 

H. atramentaria Gyll. 

H. longicornis Gr. 

H. muscorum Bris. 

H. laticollis Steph. 

H. fungi Gr. 

Tachyusa atra Gr. 

Leptusa fumida Er. 

Conosoma lividum Er. 

Tachyporus obtustis L. 

T. chrysomelinus L. 

T. hypnorum F. 

T. pusillus Gr. 

Tachinus rufipes De G. 

r. marginellus F. 

Bolitobius trinotatus Er. 

B. pygmceus F. 

Quedius mesomelinus Marsh. 

§. tristis Gr. 

g. boops Gr. 

Philonthus politus F. 

P. varius Gyll. 



Naturalist, 



A Cumberland Nature Reserve. 



239 



Philonthits sordidus Gr. 

P. concinnus Gr. 

P. varians Pk. 

Xantholinus punctiilatus Pk. 

A', lineavis 01. 

Baptolinus alternans Gr. 

Othius fithipennis F. 

Lathyobiii))i fulvipennis Gr. 

Lathrobiiim brimnipes F. 

Steniis bitnaculattis Gyll. 

5. speculator Lac. 

S. providus var. rogeri Kr. 

S. declaratiis Er. 

S. brunnipes Steph. 

S. ossiiim Steph. 

S. impressiis Germ. 

5. nitidiusculus Steph. 

5. picipes Steph. 

S. similis Hbst. 

S. flavipes Steph. 

Platystethus arenarius Fourc. 

Oxvtelus rugosus F. 

O. laqueatus Marsh. 

O. tetracavinatits Block. 

Homaliitm rivulare Pk. 

H. rufipes Fourc. 

H. concinnum Marsh. 

Anthobium sorbi Gyll. 

A. torquatum Marsh. 

A. minutum F. 

Silpha atrata L. 

Choleva velox Spence. 

C. tristis Pz. 

C. kirbyi Spence. 

Adalia bipiinctata L. 

Coccinella lo-pimctata L. 

C. hieroglyphica L. 

Halyzia i^- guttata L. 

Scymniis suturalis Thunb. 

Rhizobius litura F. 

Coccidiila ritfa Hbst. 

Onthophilits striatus F. 

Epuresa csstiva L. 

E. obsoleta F. 

Meligethes ceneus F. 

M. lumbavis Stm. 

M. viridescens F. 

M. picipes Stm. 

Rhizophagus bipustiilatiis F. 

Lathridiiis lardarius De G. 

Coninomus nodifer West. 

Enicmiis transversus Ol. 

MehDiophthalma gibbosa Hbst. 

il/. JHsciila Hum. 

BytiiYus tonientosus F. 

Antheyophagus nigricornis F. 

Cryptophagus affinis Stm. 

Micrambe vini Pz. 

Atomaria fuscata Sch. 

^. ana lis Er. 

1915 July 2. 



Typhcea fumata L. 

Byrrhiis pilula L. 

Cytilus varius L. 

Aphodius fimetarius L. 

yi. merdavius F. 

/I. punctato-sulcatus Stm. 

Cryptohypnus riparius F. 

Athous hcemorrhoidalis F. 

Sericosomns briinnens L. 

Agriotes obscurns L. 

yl. pallididus 111. 

Dolopius marginatus L. 

Corynibites qiiercus Gyll. 

Microcara livida F. 

Cyphon pallidulus Boh. 

Telephones rusticus Fall. 

T. livid us L. 

T. pellitcidus F. 

r. nigricans v. discoideus Steph. 

T. figuratus Man. 

r. bicolor F. 

T. flavilabris Fall. 

Rhagonycha fiilva Scop. 

i?. limbata Th. 

i?. pallida F. 

Malthodes marginattts Lat. 

M. pelhicidus Kies. 

M. minimus L. 

M. atomtis Th. 

Priobium castaneiim F. 

Czs boleti Scop. 

C. festivtis Pz. 

Octoteniuiis glabriculus Gyll. 

Rhagium bifasciatum F. 

Lema lichenis Voet. 

(Shrysomela staphylea F. 

C. polita L. 

Phcedon tiimidulus Germ. 

Phyllodecta vitellincB L. 

Hydrothassa marginella L. 

H. rt»c/a F. 

Luperus rufipes Scop. 

Lochmoea suturalis Th. 

Galerucella tenella L. 

Longitarsus holsaticiis L. 

L. luridtis Scop. 

L. sittiirellus Duft. 

L. melanocephalus De G. 

L. pusillus Gyll. 

Phyllotreta imdulata Kutz. 

P. flexuosa 111. 

P. exclamationis Thunb. 

Mantura rustica L. 

Crepidodera ferruginea Scop. 

C. smaragdina Foud. 

Plectroscelis concinna Marsh. 

Psylliodes affinis Pk. 

Cassida viridis L. 

C. flaveola Thunb. 

Rhinosimus planirostris F. 



240 



A Cumberland Nature Reseiue. 



Anaspis frontalis. L. 

A. rufilabris Gyll. 

A. maculata Fourc. 

A. ruficollis F. 

Deporaiis betitlcs L. 

Apion ulicis Forst. 

A. genistcB Kirb. 

A. apricans Hbst. 

A. assimile Kirb. 

A. dichroum Bed. 

A. cardiwrum Kirb. 

A. pirens Hbst. 

A . pisi F. 

A . ervi Kirb. 

A. sciitellare Kirb. 

A . loti Kirb. 

A . a f fine Kirb. 

A. violaceuni Kirb. 

A. hum He Germ. 

Otiorhynchus picipes F. 

Strophosomus coryli F. 

5. lateyalis Pk. 

Sciaphilus muricatus F. 

Polydrusus cervinus L. 

Phyllobius pyri L. 

P. argentatus L. 

P. uniforniis JNIarsh. 

Sitones cambricus Staph. 



Sitones regensteinensis Hbst. 

5. tibialis Hbst. 

5. hispidulus F. 

5. sutiiralis Steph. 

5. sulcifrons Thunb. 

Hypevn punctata F. 

H. polygoni L. 

H. nigrirostris F. 

Orchestes quercus L. 

0. fagi L. 

O. rusci Hbst. 

O. stigma Germ. 

Rhamphus flavicornis Clair. 

Erirhinus acridulus L. 

Dorytomus maculatus Marsh. 

Anoplus plantaris Nsez. 

Gymnetron beccabungcs L. 

Anthonomus comari Crotch. 

Cceliodes rubicundus Hbst. 

C. quercus F. 

C. quadrimaciilatus L. 

Ceuthorrhyiiclius assimilis Pk. 

C. contractus Marsh. 

C. quadridens Pz. 

Ceuthorrhynchidius floralis Pk. 

C. troglodytes F. 

Balaninus salicivortis Pk. 

B. pvrrhoceras Marsh. 



Particular interest attaches to three species, viz. : — 

Helophorus quadrisignatus, of which I took two specimens 
in a small pond, in Maj^ 

Psylliodes affinis, a numerous colony found on the Woody 
Nightshade in August. 

Apion genistcB, abundant on the Petty Whin in May and 
again in August, so that it is evidently double-brooded. 

These three species are now recorded for the first time as 
natives of Cumberland. It is apparent, therefore, that King- 
moor must be reckoned as a good locality for beetles. 

I also collected a number of Hemiptera and Hymenoptera, 
but have not yet worked out the nomenclature. 

One dragon-fly {Agrion puella) was abundant, and possibly 
other species occur. 

Flora of Kingmoor, 1914. 

Flowering Plants, etc. — Mr. T. Scott Johnstone writes : — 
Between the beginning of April and the end of October a 
number of visits have been paid to the Moor. The fact that 
it has been let for grazing purposes for a number of years, 
beyond interfering with its natural wild features, has perhaps 
not had such an adverse effect on the flora as might have 
been anticipated, and in the course of another year or two the 
Moor will, it is to be hoped, present a very different and im- 
proved appearance. 

Naturalist, 



A Cttmberlana Nature Reserve. 



241 



Until th-e past year, no very thorough attempt has appar- 
ently been made to compile a complete record of the flora of 
Kingmoor. Some records of the rarer or less common species 
we have, by various observers, the earliest being that by T. C. 
Heysham, a former Mayor of Carlisle, who was the first to 
record, in 1837, the appearance of the Whorl-leaved Meadow 
Parsnip ( Car urn verticillatum) on Kingmoor, no other station in 
Cumberland, save one — in the Keswick district — being known 
for it. 

It is satisfactory to note that it still flourishes on the !Moor 
and of late years appears to have considerably increased. 

The subjoined list is a record, as full as it has been possible 
to make it, of all plants hitherto found. All except those in- 
dicated by a dagger have been noted during the past season, 
and where a plant found during the present year has been the 
subject of a previous record it is distinguished by an asterisk. 

The plants indicated by a dagger (|) are, for the most part, 
of somewhat local or rare occurrence. There are only eleven of 
these, and we hope to re-establish the old records as well as add 
new ones as time goes on. One, Hnhenaria bi folia, the Butterfly 
orchis, was, some years ago, verj^ plentiful on the Moor, and 
it has therefore been somewhat disappointing that not a single 
specimen has been noticed during the past year. 



f. RA^'UNCULACE.^. 

A)ieiiiu)ic nemorosa L. 

* Ranunculus Flamniula L. 
R. acris L. 

R. repens L. 
Caltha paliistris L. 

VI. — Crucifer.^. 
Barbarea vulgaris Ait. 
Cardamine pratensis L. 
Brassica arvensis O. Kuntze. 

IX. VlOLAC.^. 

Viola Riviniana Reichb. 

X. POLYGALACE^. 

*Polygala vulgaris L. 
*P. serpyllacca Weihe. 

XII. — Caryophyli.ace^e. 
Lychnis Flos-cuciili L. 
Stellaria media Vill. 

XVI. — Hypericace.^. 
Hypericum quadrangulum I.. 

XXV. — Leguminos^. 
"* Genista anglica L. 

* Ule.x europcBus L. 

* U. Gain Planch. 
CytisHS scoparius Link. 
Trifolium pratense L. 
T. repens L. 

T. dubiunt Libth. 
Lotus corniculatus L. 

1915 July 2. 



]'icia ietrnspenna Moench. 

V . sepiuni L. 

V. saliva L. 
Lathyrus pratensis L. 

XXVI. — RosacejE. 
Rubus fruticosus L. 
Potentilla erecta Hampe. 
Poterium officinale A. Graj^ 
f Rosa eglanteria Huds. 
R. canina L. 
Pyvus Malus L. 

XXVII. — Saxifragace.5. 
Chrysosplenium oppositifolium 
XXIX. — Droserace,^. 
^Drosera rotundi folia L. 

XXXI. — Lythrace^e. 
Ly thrum Salicaria L. 

XXXIV. — ^Umbellifer.5. 
* Carum verticillatum Koch. 
A nthriscus sylvestris Hoffm. 
*A ngelica sylvestris L. 
Heracleuni Sphondylimn L. 
Daucus Carota L. 
Caiicalis Anthriscus Huds. 

XXXV. — Araliace.5. 
Hedera Helix L. 

XXXVII. — Caprifoliace.^. 
Lonicera Periclymenum L. 



242 



A Cumberland Nature Reserve. 



XXXVIII.— RUBIACE^. 

* Galium saxatile L. 
G. palustre L. 

XXXIX. — Valerian ACE^. 

* Valeriana officinalis L. 

XL. DlPSACE^. 

*Scabiosa Siiccisa L. 

XLI. — Composite. 
Bellis perennis L. 
Gnaphalium uliginosum L. 

* Achillea Ptarmica L. 
Chrysanthemum Leucanthemum L. 
Tussilago Far far a L. 

*Senecio aquations Hill. 

Carduus crispus L. 

Cniciis lanceolatus Willd. 

C. palustris Willd. 

C. arvensis Hoffm. 
•\Serratula tinctoria L. 

Centaurea nigra L. 
j" C. Cyanns L. 

Hieracium boreale Fr. 

Hypochesris radicata L. 

Leontodon autumnale L. 

Taraxacum officinale Weber. 

XLII. — Campanulace,^. 
'\Jasione montana L. 
Campanula rotundifolia. 

XLIV. — Ericace^. 
Calluna vulgaris Hull. 
"* Erica Tetralix'L. 
■\Pyrola minor Sw. 

XLVII. — Primulace^. 
^ Centunculus minimus L. 

LII. BORAGINE^. 

Myosotis ccespitosa Schultz. 

LIV. SOLANACE.E. 

*Solanum Dulcamara L. 

LV. SCROPHULARIACE.E. 

j- Veronica A nagallis L. 
V. Beccabunga L. 
Bartsia Odontites Huds. 
Pedicularis sylvatica L. 

LIX. — Labiate. 
Prunella vulgaris L. 
Ajuga re plans L. 

LX. — Plantaginace.^. 
Plantago major L. 
P. lanceolatus L. 

LXIV. POLYGONACE^. 

Polygonum aviculare L. 

P. Persicaria L. 

Rumex conglomeratus Mnrr. 



Rumex sanguineus L. 
R. crispus L. 
R. Acetosa L. 

LXXI, — Urticace.^. 
Urtica dioica L. 

LXXIII. CUPULIFER^. 

Betula alba L. 
Quercus Robur L. 
Fagus sylvatica L. 

LXXIV. — Salicace^. 
Salix alba. L. 
S. aurita $ L. 
S. aurita ^ L. 
S. cinerea $ L. 
S. cinerea ^ L. 
S. repens L. 

LXXVII.— CoNIFERiE. 

Pmus sylvestris L. 

LXXIX. — Orchidace^. 
Orchis latifolia L. 
O. maculata L. 
■j" Habenaria bifolia Br. 

LXXXIII. — Liliace.^. 
'^ Allium vineale L. 

LXXXIV.— JUNCACE^. 

J uncus conglomeratus L. 
J. acutifloYus Ehrh. 
Luzula campesfris D.C. 

LXXXVIII.— Alismace^. 
^Alisma Plantago L. 

XCI. — Cyperaceje. 
Eriophorum angustifolium Roth. 
Carex vulgaris Fries. 
C. panicea L. 
C. distans L. 
C. flava L. 

XCII. — Gramine^. 
Anthoxanthum odoratum L. 
Agrostis canina L. 
Deschampsia caspitosa L. 
Holcus lanatus L. 
CywosMyj^s cristatus L. 
Molinia ccerulea Maench. 
Dactylis glomerata L. 
Briza media L. 
Poa annua L. 
Festuca ovina var. B. capillata 

Hackel. 
Nardus stricta L. 

XCIII.— Filices. 
Athyrium Filix-fcemina Roth. • 
Lastrea Filix-mas Presl. 
Polypodium vulgare L. 

Naturalist, 



A Cumberland Nature Reserve. 243 

It is not claimed that the hst given is an exhaustive Flora 
of the moor. Probably many common things have been over- 
looked. But it is given as a basis to which additions may be 
made from year to year, and it may in the meantime be noted 
that of the 98 British orders of Flowering Plants, 89 are repre 
sented in Cumberland, and 38 of these on Kingmoor, the actual 
number of species as so far recorded being 122 as against some 
1,200 for the whole of Cumberland and 2,075 for the whole of 
Great Britain and Ireland. 

Mosses and Liverw^orts. — Mr. J. Murray writes : — The 
following plants were found during a visit on April nth, 1914 : — 
Sphagnum sqnarrosum Pers., was the only species of bog moss 
found, all the specimens being very stunted. A plant super- 
ficially very like a Sphagnum, but very different under the 
microscope, was Leucobryiim glauciim Schp., several large 
tufts of which were noticed. On several places where fires 
had been, the large round tufts of Funaria hygrometrica Sibth., 
had sprung up. On the dry banks the reddish purple tufts of 
Ceratodon purpureus Brid. were just maturing their fruit, and 
added colour to the black earth. A moss which I found on 
the moor some years ago, but which I could not find again this 
year, was Ephemeriim serratum Hpe. This is one of the smallest 
of mosses, resembling a green film on the ground, so is not easy 
to detect. On these same dry banks Mnium hornum Linn, was 
fairly abundant, but had not come into fruit, nor were the 
male catkins found. At the northern end of the moor, and in 
the wettest parts were several characteristic mosses, Hylocomiiim 
triquetrum B. and S., with its recurved leaves was conspicuous. 
Two others growing in fair quantity were Hypnum Schreberi 
Willd. and Hypnum palustre Huds. Hypnum cupressiforme 
Linn, with its strongly falcate leaves, was common both in 
separate tufts, and mixed with the above named mosses. 
Some of the plants came very near the var. ericetorum B. and S, 
Barren tufts of Dicranum scoparium Hedw. were not rare. 

Only three common species of liverworts were found : — 
Calypogeia trichomanis Linn, growing over mosses ; Lophocolca 
bidentata Linn, on dead wood, and Diplophyllum albicans Linn, 
on the edge of a ditch. 

This list is somewhat meagre, but the locality is not a good 
one for either mosses or liverworts. Others will yet be found, 
but probably 50 or 60 species will be all that will be discovered. 



We have received an interesting volume entitled ' The Break-up of 
Europe,' a prophetic translation of Claudian's iMasterpiece against Rurtnus 
in two books (translated from the Latin of Claudian), re-printed a.d. 1914 
by W. W. Strickland, B.A., Trinity College, Cambridge. It is printed and 
published by R. H. Smithson & Blanchard, Yorkersgate, Malton. The 
author, Sir Walter Strickland, is a member of a well-known Yorkshire 
family, and his present work is especially appropriate at the present time. 

1915 July 2. 



244 

NORTHERN NEWS. 

The Journal of the Board of Agriculture for June contains an article 
on ' The Prevention of Egg-Laying on Turnips by the Diamond- Back 
Moth,' by R. A. Harper Gray. 

We see much made in the daily press of ' a scorpion with a sting notor- 
iously venomous,' brought to Leeds in a crate of bananas. The ' reptile ' 
was taken to a local naturalist, who appears to have supplied the news. 

The Annual Report of the Board of Regents of the Smithsonian Institution 
for 1913, just received, includes a number of important papers, among them 
being ' Whale Fisheries of the World,' by Charles Rabot, and another 
' The Most Ancient Skeletal Remains of Man,' by Dr. A. Hrdlicka ; both 
are well illustrated. 

The twenty-fourth annual report of The Royal Society for the Pro- 
tection of Birds has been issued (84 pages, is.) and is an excellent record 
of this society's achievements. Perhaps Yorkshire does not take quite 
such a prominent part in the work of this society that it would do, were 
it not for the fact that this county already has its own Bird Protection 
Committee, which is doing such good work. 

The Journal of the Quekett Microscopical Club for April contains the 
following notes : ' The Early History of the Quekett Microscopical Club,' 
by R. T. Lewis ; ' A New Copepod found in Water from Hollows on 
Tree Trunks,' by D. J. Scouriield ; ' Some Details in the Anatomy of the 
Rat Flea,' by A. E. Minchin ; Presidential Address on the 'Biological 
Conception of Individuality,' by A. Dendy ; 'British Hydracarina : 
the Genius Lehertia,' by W. Williamson and C. D. Soar. 

Mr. C. S. Middlemiss, of the India Geological Survey, who was a native 
of Hull, and many years ago spent much time in investigating the geology 
of East Yorkshire, has made a valuable addition to the geological section 
of the Hull ^luseum. He has presented his entire collection, the specimens 
being all carefully labelled and catalogued, and most of them refer to 
East Yorkshire. Some years ago Mr. Middlemiss had an opportunity of 
examining the interesting sections in the Kellaways Rock at South Cave, 
which were made during the construction of the Hull and Barnsle\' Railway, 
and described in the Geological Magazine at the time. The South Cave 
specimens, together with many others from the red and white chalk, 
etc., are included, and in addition there is a valuable series of rocks, with 
a catalogue giving full localities, etc. 

There are various methods of describing natural history records ; but 
the following, which is only a part of the discourse, appears under the 
head of ' An interesting find at Robin Hood's Bay,' in a recent journal, 
and, presumably, has to do with a record of ' The Worm Pipe Fish ' :— 
' In modern warfare there are two general methods of dealing death 
with rifles. In the first the soldiers drawn up in a certain stratagetic 
order fire in unison in the direction of the enemy without taking special 
aim at any individual. The effectuality of this method depends more or 
less on the laws of chance. Whilst the majority of the bullets whistle 
harmlessly past the heads of the enemy (not without their moral effect 
perhaps), a deadly few find human billets, achieving from the stratagists 
point of view economical success. The other method is that of the sharp- 
shooter who carefully picks out a commanding position. Here he methodi- 
cally calculates the range of the distant enemy, the rise and fall of the 
intervening country, the direction and force of the wind. Slowly, but 
surely, he adjusts the sights and guages on his specially-chosen rifle, and 
gives it its deadly charge ; carefully picks out the individual enemy whose 
soul and body he wishes to disconnect ; steadily aims, fires — and gives 
vent to a feeling of surprise and deprecating annoyance if the chosen one 
does not re-act in the generally-accepted manner. The modern rifleman 
is seldom surprised in this respect.' 

Naturalist, 



Some Geographical Factors 
in ttie Great War 

By T. HERDMAN, M.Sc, F.G.S. 

(Lecturer in Geography, Municipal Training College, Hull). 

y2 pages, crown 8vo, with 6 Maps, sewn in 
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A feature of vast importance in the titanic struggle now talcing 
place is the geographical condition of the various countries. In 
" Some Geographical Factors " the author provides much interesting 
information which helps his readers to a wider understanding of an 
important aspect of the present campaign. The concluding chapter 
on "The Problems of Nationality " affords a glimpse of the immense 
difficulties that face those statesmen to whose heads and hands will 
be committed the adjustment of the new boundaries. 

The ^'Literary World" sa_ys.'—'^ Those who would follow intellig-entl}- 
the movements in this world contest will find much help in this little 
handbook. Mr. Herdman's exposition of the part played in the war 
by the great land-gates and the seas is clear and informing, and is 
followed by some sound reasoning on the commercial war and the 
problems of nationality." 

London: A. BROWN & SONS, Ltd., 5, Farringdon Avenue, E.C. 

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A VOLUME OF INTEEEST TO NATURALISTS & SPORTSMEN. 

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Their Natural History and Origin. 

By FRANK ELGEE, F.G.S. 

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YORKSHIRE 

BY 

PEN AND PICTURE 

Edited by 
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216 pages, crown folio, with upwards of 250 illustrations, and 
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1/- net, or post free 1/3 net. 

This book, which might be almost described as a picture gallery 
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London : A. BROWN tS: SONS, Ltd., 5, Farringdon Avenue, E.C. 

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July 1st, 1915. 



AUG. 1915. 



No. 703 

(No. 480 of current series) 




A MONTHLY ILLUSTRATED JOURNAL OF 

NATURAL HISTORY FOR THE NORTH OF ENGLAND. 



T. SMEPPARD, 



EDITED BY 

M.Sc, F.Q.S., F.R.Q.S., F.S.A.Scot., 

The Museums, Hull ; 



T. W. 



WOODHEAD, Ph.D., M.Sc. 

Technical College, Huddersfield. 



F.L.S., 



WITH THE ASSISTANCE AS REFEREES IN SPECIAL DEPARTMENTS OFX^V 

J. QILBBRT BAKBR, P.R.S. P.L.S., QEO. T, PORRITF, P.LvSTpK 

Prof. P. P. KENDALL, M.Sc, P.O.S., JOHN W. TAYLOR, M.Sc, 

T. H. NELSON, M.Sc, M.B.O.U., RILEY PORTUNE, P.Z 



\ 



Contents 



^i^'onal t^i 



Notes and Comments:— Recognition of Natural History Work ; A ' Field Day ' ; The Leeds 
University and Yorkshire Naturalists ; Harold Wager; Thomas Hudson Nelson ; William 
Denison Roebuck ; Thomas Sheppard ; John William Taylor ; John Grimshaw Wilkinson ; 
Thomas William Woodhead ; Notes on Cetacea ; LordAvebury; A Popular Scientist ; 
Marine Biology (Illustrated) ; Accessory Minerals in Lake District Granite ; Rare 
Minerals; Detection of Accessory Minerals 245-252 

Observations on the Qrey Seal — Edmund Seloiis 253-257 

Yorkshire Naturalists at Settle— IF. iS. L.IK. 258-202 

Yorkshire Naturalists at Hambleton, near Selby (Illustrated)— M^.f.Z,. IF 263-266 

Museums and Education— T.S 267-269 

Field Note :— Curious Place for Great Tit's Nest (Illustrated) 270 

BibIiog:raphy :— Papers and Records relating to the Geology and Palajontology of the North 
of England (Yorkshire excepted), published during 1914 — T. Sheppard, M.Sc, F.G.S. ... 



Proceedings of Provincial Scientific Societies, etc 

News from the Magazines 

Reviews and Book Notices 

Northern News 

Illustrations 



257, 



271-274 
252, 270 
266, 275 

269 

262, 276 

251, 263, 2C4, 270 



LONDON : 
A. Brown & Sons, Limited, 5, Farringdon Avenue, E.G. 

And at Hull and York. 
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IN THE PRESS. 



YORKSHIRE'S 

CONTRIBUTION TO SCIENCE 

{Based upon the Presidential Address to the Yorkshire , 
Naturalists' Union, delivered at the Leeds University) 

By THOMAS SHEPPARD 

M.Sc, F.G.S., F.R.G.S., F.S.A.(Scot.) 

This work has been considerably extended, and occupies over 200 pages. 
It contains an account of the various scientific publications issued from 
Ackworth, Addingham, Barnsley, Ben Rhydding, Beverley, Bradford, 
Doncaster, Driffield, Goole, Halifax, Harrogate, Haworth, Hebden Bridge, 
Huddersfield, Hull, Idle, Ilkley, Keighley, Leeds, Malton, Middlesbrough, 
Pocklington, Pontefract, Ripon, Rotherham. Scarborough. Sedbergh, 
Selby, Settle, Sheffield, Wakefield, Whitby and York. In addition there 
is an exceptionally complete bibliography of the various natural history 
journals and publications, now issued for the first time. The author has 
been successful in obtaining many publications not in the British Museum. 

EXTRACT FROM PREFACE:— 

In the following pages an effort is made to indicate the various sources 
of information liiely to be of service to a student in his work on any 
branch of natural science dealing with our broad-acred shire. The 
section arranged topographically under towns shows what has been 
accomplished in each place, while the remainder of the book is devoted 
to an enumeration of the general sources of information which should be 
consulted. Unfortunately, several of the items are scarce, in many cases 
only one set being known, a circumstance which has induced me to give 
the bibliographical details rather fully. Bv a series of fortunate circum- 
stances, and as a result of several years' collecting, I possess sets of most 
of the publications mentioned, and shall endeavour to arrange that 
they remain intact for the benefit of future workers, as it will certainl}'' 
be very difficult, if not impossible, to get such a collection together again. 
It is also hoped that the bibliographical particulars of the various 
journals and Societies' Transactions will be of service to librarians and 
others who often find it difficult to trace items of this character. I 
believe they are now given in this form for the first time. 



ORDER FORM, 

Please send me cop of Yorkshire's Contribution 

TO Science, bound in cloth, at 3s. 6d. net. 

Name 

Address 



T. Sheppard, M.Sr., 

Museum. Hull. 



245 
NOTES AND COMMENTS. 

RECOGNITION OF NATURAL HISTORY WORK. 

The word ' research ' has recently become so intimately 
connected with our great universities, that the conscientious 
work of the amateur field naturalist is apt to be almost over- 
looked, even by the greater seats of learning which often 
depend so much on the work of the field naturalist for the 
basis of their researches. Such a charge cannot be laid at the 
doors of the University of Leeds, which has so generously 
appreciated the work of the Yorkshire Naturalists' Union by 
conferring the degree of Doctor of Science upon one of the 
Union's past presidents, and the degree of Master of Science 
upon others of the Union's prominent workers. 

A ' FIELD DAY.' 

July 3rd can be recorded as a real ' field day ' for Yorkshire 
naturalists, who packed the great hall at the University to 
witness the impressive ceremony on that occasion. All felt 
that the Union had been greatly honoured by the University, 
and the honour is certainly appieciated. Below we reprint 
the addresses given by the respective Professors on presenting 
the candidates to the Chancellor, the Duke of Devonshire. 
Professor Cohen introduced Mr. Harold Wager ; Professor P. F. 
Kendall presented Mr. Sheppard ; and the others were presented 
by Professor Garstang. Personally we consider that some of 
the remarks were exceedingly encouraging and flatteiing, and 
one member was heard to remark that they savoured of pre- 
mature obituary notices ! However, we are pleased to preserve 
the addresses in the Union's official organ. 

THE LEEDS UNIVERSITY AND YORKSHIRE NATURALISTS. 

In introducing the members of the Yorkshire Naturalists' 
Union to receive honorary degrees. Professor Garstang, stated : 
The study of nature cannot be restricted within the walls of 
universities and laboratories. Certain aspects of the subject, 
it is true, can only be effectively pursued under these con- 
ditions, but there are vast fields of knowledge only to be gar- 
nered by outdoor study. These fields are open to all, and 
Britain is distinguished among all the countries of the world 
by the abundance of the scientific work carried out, and the 
value of the discoveries made by her long succession of dis- 
tinguished amateurs. Yorkshire has ever been to the fore in 
this spontaneous growth of scientific zeal, and in the Yorkshire 
Naturalists' Union we have one of the most striking examples 
of organised effort to explore the fields which lie open for in- 
vestigation in a great and varied locality. In the forty local 

1915 Aug. 1. 

Q 



246 Notes and Commcrds. 

societies of natural history included in the Union, there are 
several thousands of members who devote an appreciable 
portion of their leisure time to the study of various aspects of 
nature, largely by co-operation in the meeting and in the field. 
The University of Leeds appreciates highly these evidences of 
a wide diffusion of intellectual interests in the county, and in 
seeking to enrol among its Honorary Graduates the dis- 
tinguished naturalists who are here to-day, it honours no less 
the much larger number who have helped them to guide and 
increase the love of learning and investigation in their various 
localities. 

HAROLD WAGER. 

From his boyhood, Mr. Wager has been a devoted lover and 
student of nature. Inspired by the teaching of Huxley, under 
whom he studied, and later by Scott, with whom he worked, 
he turned his attention to natural science. Research has been 
the kejmote of his life's work. Neither his duties as demon- 
strator and lecturer in Botany in our Yorkshire College, a 
position which he held with distinction for six years (1888-1894), 
nor his later more unsettled and arduous life as His Majesty's 
Inspector of Secondary Schools, have diverted him from his 
eager study of biological problems; a pursuit which he has 
carried on uninterruptedly for 30 years. He is the author of 
memoirs and papers on various botanical subjects concerning 
the structure and physiology of the lower organisms and their 
modes of growth and reproduction, and the structure and life 
history of the yeast plant, the response of plants to light, the 
function of chlorophyll, and the behaviour of microscopic 
organisms under the influence of gravity. The value of his 
contributions to science has been recognised by the Royal 
Society, who elected him to the fellowship in 1907, and by the 
committee of the British Association, who made him president 
of the botanical section in 1905. He has filled the presidential 
chairs of the British Mycological Society and of the Naturalists' 
Union, and is a member of other scientific societies, where his 
single-hearted devotion to science, his keen powers of obser- 
vation and of lucid exposition are widely recognised, and serve 
as an inspiration and encouragement to others. 

THOMAS HUDSON NELSON. 

Thomas Hudson Nelson is the biographer of the Birds of 
Yorkshire. The grandeur of Yorkshire in the extent and 
variety of its surface, in its moors and dales and forests, and 
in its sea-worn cliffs and headlands, and in its sandy bays 
and tidal estuaries, has provided problems of endless scope 
for the ornithologists, and it has needed a succession of many 
ardent naturalists to build up the material for a full representa- 



Notes and Comments. 247 

tion of the bird life of our county. Upon T. H. Nelson fell 
the mantle, now many years ago, of a distinguished predecessor, 
who left the county before his work in this respect was finished, 
and it is to Thomas Nelson that we owe one of the most im- 
portant and reliable county histories of birds ever published. 
This work expresses the very spirit of co-operation which 
prevails among our Yorkshire naturalists, full of the detail 
which the student of birds requires concerning their local 
distribution, their periodic wanderings and casual movements, 
enriched by friendly helpers with many a charming photograph 
of their favourite haunts and nesting sites, the work of a 
master of his subject, surrounded b}^ helpful friends in every 
Riding, and bringing to a clear issue the comprehensive results 
of long and loving studies by many hands. 

WILLIAM DENISON ROEBUCK. 

William Denison Roebuck is the pioneer and organiser of 
the systematic survey of the county, the man of method, 
insistent upon the guarantees of accuracy and completeness, 
the keeper of our records, a student of many-sided interests 
and of indefatigable perseverance. Joint author of the stand- 
ard handbook of the Vertebrate Fauna of Yorkshire, his 
versatility extends to an intimate knowledge of our Bees and 
Butterflies, our Slugs and Snails, and of many other classes of 
our native fauna. Impressed, however, at an early date with 
the importance of co-operation and method in order to secure 
the fullest and most reliable results from local amateur effort, 
William Roebuck set to work some forty years ago to re-model 
the federation of our local societies of Natural History on 
broader and more effective lines, and both the constitution 
and the working of the Yorkshire Naturalists' Union as it 
exists to-day, embracing some 40 local societies, with a member- 
ship of several thousand naturalists, are largely due to his 
suggestion and initiative. The reconstitution of the Union, 
of which he was Honorary Secretary for nearly thirty years, 
resulted in a great impetus to systematic scientific investi- 
gation all over the county, and in the publication of numerous 
important memoirs and books on various branches of York- 
shire Natural History. Much of Roebuck's best work has been 
done in connection with the Leeds Naturalists' Club, the 
members of which owe much to his foresight and tireless 
service, and honour him as one of their most distinguished 
members. 

THOMAS SHEPPARD. 

Mr. Thomas Sheppard is well-known throughout Yorkshire 
as an untiring and prolific worker in the fields of Geolog}^ and 
Archaeology, whose expositions on the lecture platform, lucid 

1915 Aug. 1. 



248 Notes and Comments. 

and precise, lose nothing of force from the wit that ever enlivens 
them. Engaged in youth in the clerical work of a great 
railwa}^ administration, he yet early won distinction in the 
investigation of the traces of the Ice Age that are so amply 
displayed in this great county. His versatile mind now finds 
scope for wider activities in the control of three splendid 
museums in the city of Kingston-upon-Hull. Not content 
with the exacting demands such a post makes on his strength 
and energy, he added to them for many years the arduous 
duties of Secretary to the Yorkshire Naturalists' Union. His 
eminent services in this capacity received the recognition of 
election to the presidential chair, which he occupied at the 
annual meeting held within the walls of this University last 
December. As editor of The Naturalist, now and for many 
years he has led that journal on a career of steadily widening 
influence. The range of his original work in geology is wide, 
and its penetration deep. Possessing the pen of a ready 
writer, his books have had a notable effect in awakening and 
maintaining interest in his favourite studies. 

JOHN WILLIAM TAYLOR. 

John William Taylor is one of our greatest living authorities 
on the Land and Fresh Water Mollusca. He founded, and 
edited for many years, the ' Journal of Conchology,' and con- 
tributed to it numerous papers of importance. His ' Mono- 
graph on the Land and Fresh Water Mollusca of the British 
Isles,' on which he has been engaged for many years, is, perhaps, 
the best and most scientific work on this branch of science, 
as it certainly is the most comprehensive. It has been received 
with the most cordial appreciation by naturalists all over the 
world, who speak in the highest terms of praise of its extensive 
and exact learning, its scientific insight, and the beauty of its 
illustrations. In the preparation of this work Mr. Taylor's 
observations and experience led him to generalisations on the 
centre of distribution of life in all forms, and to the formulation 
of an original hypothesis which seems to give a new clue to 
the right understanding of problems of the distribution of both 
animal and vegetable life. This was elaborated in an address, 
delivered to the International Entomological Congress at 
Oxford, and was later taken as the basis of his Presidential 
Address to the Yorkshire Naturalists' Union. Mr. Taylor's 
Monograph is still unfinished. The University of Leeds offers 
him its congratulations on the large portions already published 
and a sincere hope that, in spite of his threescore years and ten, 
he may enjoy health and strength to complete the great under- 
taking to which the leisure hours of his busy life have been so 
successfully devoted. 

Naturalist, 



Notes and Comments. 249 

JOHN GRIMSHAW WILKINSON. 

John Grimshaw Wilkinson has made himself an acknow- 
ledged authority upon Systematic Botany. Triumphing by 
perseverance and enthusiasm over an early affliction of total 
blindness, he has obtained an extensive and exact knowledge 
of the general structure of plants, both British and foreign ; 
and he possesses a critical insight into the systematic classi- 
fication of British flowering plants and ferns, and their geo- 
graphical distribution. He has an intimate knowledge of the 
songs of birds, being able by his exquisite sense of hearing to 
distinguish may a subtle feature ordinarily unrecognised. For 
some time he was President of the Leeds Naturalists' Club, and 
did much valuable work in connection with its botanical 
section. His services, we understand, have often been of 
assistance to the Leeds City Council in the selection of the trees 
which have been planted in and around Leeds, and it is largely 
due to him, we believe, that our public gardens and parks are 
adorned wath so many interesting and beautiful trees and 
plants. In the autumn of his modest life, so nobly lived, may 
we not, w4th honour to our seat of learning, extend to him the 
hand of fellowship and sympathy, expressing to him, in the 
words of the poet of nature, the encouragement of spring ? 

' Wliile my hand exults 

W'ithin the bloodless heart of lowly flowers 
To work old laws of love to fresh results, 

Thro' manifold effect of simple powers — 
I too would teach the man 

Be}'ond the darker hour to see the brigfht, 
That his fresh life may close as it began, 

The still-fulfillingf promise of a light 

Narrowing the bounds of night.' 

THOJilAS WILLIAINI WOODHEAD. 

In Thomas William Woodhead we welcome a colleague in 
one of our affiliated institutions, the Technical College at 
Huddersfield. As a Biologist his investigations have covered 
a wide field, always fruitfully, while his numerous and im- 
portant memoirs in the department of Plant Ecology and Dis- 
tribution have given him an honourable position among British 
botanists. He has devoted special attention to the training 
of young teachers in the study of nature, incorporating original 
ideas with marked success, and spreading the spirit of scien- 
tific method into the study even of the simplest and most 
accessible phenomena. He has lately become an Honorar}^ 
Secretary of the Yorkshire Naturalists' Union and a Joint 
Editor of The Naturalist, thus sacrificing, with characteristic 
generosity, the scanty leisure of a busy teacher to the service 
'of his fellow naturalists. 

1915 Aug. 1. 



250 Notes and Comments. 

NOTES ox CETACEA. 

The British IMuseum (Natural History) has issued Dr. S. F. 
Harmer's ' Report on Cetacea, stranded on the British Coasts 
during 1914 '* It is illustrated by maps which clearly indicate 
the various occurrences of cetacea stranded on the coasts of 
the British Islands during the year. In the northern counties 
we notice records of Pilot Whale at Brunton Burn ; White- 
beaked Dolphins at Amble and Redcar ; Bottle-nosed Whale 
at Blyth ; Common Porpoise at Barrow-in-Furness, Mable- 
thorpe, Sutton-on-Sea, and Skegness. 

LORD AVEBURY.t 

The various books written by Lord Avebury, better known 
as Sir John Lubbock, are perhaps as widely read as are those 
of any scientific writer ; not only by the person with scientific 
tastes, but equally by our friend, the ' man in the street.' His 
writings certainly had and still have a charm ; the subjects he 
wrote about were well chosen and popular, and he seemed to 
be equally able to clearly express himself, whether dealing with 
Prehistoric Times, Wild Flowers and Insects, Ants, Bees and 
Wasps, the Collembola and Thysanura, Marriage, Totemism 
and Religion, Scenery of England, the Use of Life, Peace and 
Happiness, or Municipal and National Trading. His books 
and addresses deal with subjects as varied as can well be 
imagined. 

A POPULAR SCIENTIST. 

Lord Avebury himself probably held more honourable 
positions in the various scientific societies of the world than 
any man of his time. In addition to all this he was a most 
successful man in business, a rare character in a scientist. 
True, it has been said of him that ' bankers considered him a 
great scientist and men of science a great banker.' We feel 
sure we can say that Mr. Hutchinson has succeeded in dis- 
abusing the reader of any impression that this epigram may 
have suggested. Mr. Hutchinson has also succeeded in pre- 
senting a very readable and valuable record of the life and 
achievements of one who did his best to educate and elevate 
his fellow men and women. Lord Avebury, both by lectures 
and by books, tried to prove that, whatever happens, life is 
worth living, and certainly thousands of those who may have 
had doubts on the matter, had these doubts dispelled after 
reading ' The L"^se of Life,' or other of his books of a similar 
nature. 



* 4to., 16 pages, is. 6d. 

■]• Life of Sir John Lubbock : Lord Avebury ; by Horace G. Hutchinson, , 
2 vols., 338-I-334 pp. London : Macmillan & Co., 30s. net. 

Naturalist,. 



Notes and Comments. 



251 



MARINE BIOLOGY. 

We have received the Anmial Report for 1914 of the 
Scottish Marine Biological Association (90 pages), which is 
well illustrated, and contains an excellent record of this society's 
work. We suppose it is more or less appropriate that by article 
15 ' the Association shall liave a common seal,' though it hardly 
seems a strictly biologiced operation that it ' shah be affixed 
to any deed or document,' unless, of course, such document 




A good collecting ground. 



be the label. We reproduce one of the many illustrations 
which adorn the report. 

ACCESSORY MINERALS IN LAKE DISTRICT GRANITES. 

At a recent meeting of the London Geological Society, 
Messrs. R. H. Rastall and W. H. Wilcockson read a paper on 
' The Accessory Minerals of the Granitic Rocks of the English 
Lake District.' Prehminary investigations promised results of 
interest if the rocks of a whole district were examined, and 
for this purpose the Lake District was selected. The rocks 
described are the granites of Skiddaw, Shap, and Eskdale, 
the microgranite of Threlkeld, and the granophyre of Butter- 
mere and Ennerdale. The material was pounded in a mortar, 
washed, and panned, and the concentrate separated in bromo- 
form after the removal of the magnetic portion. The general 
results showed a well-marked variation of accessory minerals 
between the different intrusions, but a similarity between parts 

1915 Aug. 1. 



252 Notes and Comments. 

of the same intrusion, although the minerals of apophyses are 
not always the same as those of the main mass. No evidence is 
afforded for a genetic connexion between the different intrusions. 

RARE MINERALS. 

One of the most remarkable results obtained is the rarity of 
magnetite and the wide prevalance of pyrrhotite, which was 
present in every sample examined, some thirty in number. 
Special attention was paid to the characteristics of the zircon- 
crystals, which lent no support to the conclusions of Chrust- 
choff as to the occurrence of detinite types in granite and gneiss- 
ose rocks respectively. In parts of both the Skiddaw granite 
and the Threlkeld micro-granite, anatase and brookite were 
found in abundance. It was not possible to determine their 
origin. Epidote is the characteristic mineral of the Ennerdale 
granophyre, while garnet is abundant at Threlkeld and Esk- 
dale. The Eskdale granite also contains much tourmaline. 
The Shap granite is especially characterized by apatite and 
sphene. 

DETECTION OF ACCESSORY MINERALS. 

The method adopted by Messrs. Rastall and Wilcockson is 
the only way to detect the rarer accessory minerals of rocks. 
One of the samples which they crush down contains about 5 
or 6 cubic inches, and may yield perhaps 5 or 6 minute crystals 
of a rare mineral like anatase. A thin slice has at most a 
volume of yoVo cubic inch, and the chance of its catching one 
of the crystals is therefore something like one in 1000. Of 
specific results, the wide distribution of pyrrhotite in these 
Lake District intrusions is interesting. 



The Memoirs and Proceedings of the Manchester Literary and Philo- 
sophical Society, 1913-14, includes papers on ' Faunal Survej' of Ros- 
therne : Preliminarv List of I.epidoptera found round the Mere,' by 
A. \V. Boyd, and ' Juvenile Flowering in Eucalyptus globulus,' by Prof. 
F. E. Weiss. 

The Annual Report of the North Staffordshire Field Club, Volume 
XLIX., recently issued, contains the usual reports of the various sections 
on natural history, together with notes on archaeology and other matters. 
Among the items likely to interest our readers are : the Presidential 
Address, ' Staffordshire Mammals,' by J. R. B. Maselield ; ' Mining Note 
Book of iSth Century,' by J. T. Stobbs ; ' Bird Notes (1914),' by W. Wells 
Bladen; ' Holocene MoUusca of Letocetum,' by H. Overton. The 
volume is edited by S. A. IT. Burne. 

The Transactions of the Perthshire Society of Natural Science, volume 
6, part I, has pages 32-54, and contains the following : — ' The Drought of 
1913/ by C. INI'Intosh ; ' List of Plants in Flower in November, 1913,' by 
W. Barclay ; ' Potamogeton trichodes, Cham, et Schlect, as a probable 
Perthshire Species,' by A. Bennett ; ' The Evolution of Man in the Great 
Ice Age,' by Dr. Lyell ; 'New Perthshire Fungi,' by James Menzies.; 
" Further notes on Highland Rocks,' by George F. Bates. There is also 
an elaborate record of the Society's meetings and excursions. The report 
is illustrated by several plates. 

NaturcUst, 



253 
OBSERVATIONS ON THE GREY SEAL. 



EDMUND SELOUS. 



{Contmued from page 221). 

The new-born Seal, however, was fed again. I cannot, of 
course, say whether this was only the second time and while it 
was still night, that is to say while it was still dark, except for the 
weak light of a crescent moon which had now risen.* Yet it was 
not by this light — at least not alone — ^that I was able to see what 
took place. Something, to me quite new, aided me in this, and I 
can now record that Seals — at least Grey Seals — are phosphores- 
cent at night. Both the shape and the movements of the mother, 
as she came up the rocks, were revealed to me owing to this 
circumstance, and then I saw the young one, like an enlarged 
glow-worm, jerking itself towards her. When I say the shape, 
I mean only the general mass of the substance, or rather some 
part of it, and the outline was only indicated, and probably 
falsely. The light, as it seemed to me, spread outwards from 
some central portion, but without reaching the periphery. It 
was greenish or greenish white, with a blue gleam here and there. 
Sometimes it shone more or less brightly, and at other times, 
almost or quite went out. In, or as this light, I saw the 
young one descend from the rock on which it had been moving, 
and where it had before been fed, into the cleft or channel 
beyond its edge (a thing which I had thought quite impossible 
for it to do, except through accident, with death as a con-* 
sequence), climb up another great block bordering this upon 
the other side, on which the mother now lay, and then the small 
fish-like form of elfish fire jerked itself up to the larger one, 
the two as they coincided, being in the same relative position 
towards each other as on the other occasions of suckling. 
After about the same time as before, the old Seal moved again, 
revealing herself clearly through her luminousness (which she 
had nearly ceased to do, as she lay) and I saw her thus self- 
light her way down the rocky channel to the sea by which 
she had made her approach and retirement in the evening — 
yesteday evening now, this entry passing into that of 

October i3TH.- — It was perfectly evident that the lumin- 
ousness of the Seals increased or decreased according to their 
movements or quiescence, becoming much more vivid through 
motion. One must, I suppose, attribute the whole effect to 
the water of the sea in the animal's fur, which would preclude 
the -idea of its being under personal control. On this view, 
however, the young Seal must have managed to wet itself 

* According to my recollection or conjecture there was certainly 
some small light which was not, I think, that of dawning. 

1915 Aug. 1. 



254 Seloiis : Observations en the Grey Seal. 

where it was, on the approach of its mother, for its coat before 
then had long seemed perfectly dry. 

From now on, I continued to watch and wait, and during the 
early morning light (having no watch I cannot say what o'clock 
it was), another feeding of this same baby seal took place. 
This last was all in the swirl and swell of the tide, the waves 
washing over the rock on which the mother lay, and often 
bumping her several feet out of place. As for the calf, it had 
often almost to swim, whilst imbibing, and once the dug it 
sucked had the salt wave around or upon it. This time it had 
a still greater climb, to get to its mother, or, rather, to its place, 
before she came there, and only managed it by a drop into the 
sea, off the rock's edge, which I should never have thought it 
was equal to. Then, for quite a long time, it swam about, 
first in the sea-pool, and then, as the tide rose and overflowed it, 
in the actual sea, climbing, now and again, for a little way, up 
on the rock, and then going back again. Here, then, is an 
actual demonstration that swimming in this species is instinc- 
tive, and that the J'oung are not taught by their parents, for 
this one was scarce twenty-four hours old, and (unless we 
suppose that its mother had taken it out to sea whilst I slept), 
this was the first time that it had come down to the sea, or the 
sea had come up to it, since its birth.* 

Finally the last suckling up to now, has taken place only 
some fifteen or twenty minutes ago. I should think it must be 
mid-day. The mother this time, came right up on the rock, 
close to where the young one was lying, and getting into posi- 
tion upon her side, stomach towards me, gave me a splendid 
view, at less, perhaps, than twelve paces distant. The thing 
was very interesting, for the day -old calf was not an expert, 
and one might almost say that though swimming lessons for 
young Seals are not necessary, sucking lessons are. The calf 
did not seem to know with exactitude where the dugs were, 
and, leaving the right place, was putting its head too far 
upwards, when the mother, several times, gently flicked its 
nose with her flipper — using the claws but not so as to hurt it 
at all — and, in this way, got it back into position. Again, 
after a little interval, she achieved the same result through 
this means, in combination with a nice placing of the dug, 
through the shifting and twitching of her large expanded belly. 
Thus, though the young one, when it found and got hold of 
the dug, knew how to suck it, it certainly received and seemed, 
to a certain extent, to require assistance in the suckling, itself, 

* Yet anyone sufficient!}- low-down can surprise and club these 3'oung- 
Seals, for they often lie far from the sea, and do not sufficiently understand 
escaping. It is to be hoped that their present protection may be made per- 
manent, or the direct encouragement which has hitherto been given to their 
slaughter in the Scilly Isles will soon exterminate the species there. 

Naturalist, 



Selous : Obsei'vaiioiis on tJie Grey Seal. 



■^OD 



as a whole. After the usual time occapied in this function the 
mother Seal slipped into the sea again — now almost or quite 
at high tide — and swam off, leaving her young one on the 
rocks. Thus this one calf, born on the morning of yeste'"day, 
has been fed four times as a minimum (but, in all probability, 
more often), between about 5 p.m. of the same date and noon 
to-day. How the tide was when the first suckling took place 
I cannot quite recall, but, I think, fairly high. Each time 
afterwards it was higher than the time before, and the last time 
almost high tide. I believe, however, that between the first 
and the second suckling, as witnessed by me, it must have come 
in full, gone back, and returned to a little beyond where it 
then was. The intervals between the three last times seemed 
to me to be about one and a half or two hours, which frequency 
may have to do with the recent birth of this young Seal. From 
the last time, however, when, I think, it was about mid-day, 
till I left the shed, for a little, there was no further suckhng, 
and this represented a considerable space of time, during 
most of the latter part of which no old Seal appeared off the 
rocks. Now, however, at perhaps 3 or 4, one — I think 
the one — swims in to them, and it is to me interesting — for 
no sound that I could hear was uttered or made by it — that 
the calf, nevertheless, which has been lying quite quietly in 
one place, ever since my return, in such a situation that, to see 
anything in the sea, or the sea at all, seems an impossibility 
for it, owing to rocks, which rise higher than it can possibly 
raise its head, entirely interposing, yet begins almost from the 
very moment of the re-appearance, to get restless, and with a 
low and weak moaning, moves a Httle towards the tide-line, as 
though divining the presence of its mother. Here I may say 
that though the young Seals call upon their dams in the way 
I have described, no cry audible to me (recognising now the 
mistake I was previously under, as I suppose it to have been), 
has been uttered by any of the grown Seals, male or female.* 
The expected suckling now takes place. It was in full view, 
as also wonderfully close, and made the prettiest sight of all. 
The cub left off once, went on again, and then, again desisting, 
began to crawl towards the fore-part of its mother's body, 
which she tried to prevent by repeated quick flickings with 
her paw or flipper, but finding her child persisted, not under- 
standing, she turned herself round on about the middle of 
her side, as upon a pivot, f flopped, and then slid into the water, 
again, and was off. As for the other and more ancicnt-of- 



* See, however, post. 

jDr. Heatherley has described one of the young seals turning itself in 
this way. In both cases the rest of the body on each side, was off the 
rock. 

1915 Aug. 1. 



256 Seloiis : Observations on the Grey Seal. 

days J^oung Seal, though I have seen nothing of it, it must. 
I think, have been very well fed during the darkness of night, 
when I was for the most part asleep or trying to be, for it lies 
now, and has done almost all to-day, looking the picture of 
well-being, fat, rounded, with various twitching motions 
which seem to denote both bodily and mental ease and con- 
tentment. Now, however, he has awaken and begins again 
to call lustily, though I see no more liklihood than yesterday of 
his appeal being answered before nightfall. 

I may mention that on the suckling before this last one, I 
carefully examined the body of the mother Seal, through the 
glasses, and saw that it was marked in various places with what 
seemed deep, raking claw wounds, and, in fact, could not well 
have been anything else. They were in sets, as it were, as one 
would expect were this the case, and one of three, close together, 
was particularly deep, and still bloody, if not quite bleeding. 
From this we musr conclude that the female Grey Seals fight 
together, if they do not owe these favours to the graspings 
of rival males, which is perhaps more likeh'. 

I cannot understand this young Seal. He looks as I said, 
yet his cries are now such as seem certainly to denote suffering, 
and very painful to hear. If something has happened to his 
dam, and he really starving, though in the first easy stages of 
the process, it is very distressing, the fatter the more shocking. 
There is nothing I can do. I have drunk all the milk, and even 
if I had not that would only lengthen it out. 

October 14TH. — It grew rough in the night, and was so 
rough and windy when I went out of the shed, this morning, that 
I did not expect to be fetched off to-day. I spent most of the 
morning watching the parent Seals of the first young one, 
whose feeding I watched the first day (last Sunday) from the 
tent. The two kept constantly swimming about in the little 
bay on the rocky shore of which the young one lay. They were 
often very sportive together, one of them sometimes making a 
quick little succession of blows at the other with its flipper — 
in play, as it seemed to me, for the most part, but when this 
happened whilst the two were close in shore, and the female, 
leading, seemed desirous of suckling her calf, it struck me that 
they were delivered in earnest, and that she cuffed back at the 
male to prevent his following her. Several times the pair got 
right into the white water of the bursting waves close on the 
shore, and it struck me that this had an exhilirating effect on 
them (as though it had been effervescing champagne) since 
several times — twice, at any rate, if not thrice- — ^their little 
sportive mock combats broke out in it. I had observed either 
this or another pair acting thus on (I think) the first day I 
came, and then (which was not the case now) they often raised 
little cloads of spray about themselves. The most violent waves 

Naturalist, 



Sclous : Observations on the Grey Seal. 257 

(and it was rough all the time) were as notliing to these Seals. 
As a great green wall of water burst upon and over them, one 
would catch sight of their bodies in its midst, as it reared itself, 
(like moving flies in amber) to be lost next moment, and re- 
appear, again, far in its rear as the mass rolled on ; or, with the 
same insouciance, they would go forward upon the seething 
cataract of foam. They were like a shaped part of the water 
itself, with all its immunities from dangers of rocks. 

I have spoken of the two sporting together, and there was a 
period during which something more defined and of greater 
import seemed to be proceeding out of this. I cannot speak 
with assurance, as probability may be against such an inter- 
pretation, but certainly their actions, during a lengthened 
period, gave the idea that copulation was proceeding. In this 
the male clasped the female round the neck or shoulders, 
lying all along her back, and in this position they floated or 
swam together, and once, at the least, rolled round like logs in 
the water. These embraces took place once or twice, as though 
the male had made more than one attempt before succeeding 
in his object, after which it appeared that they had reached 
their conclusion, since they were not resumed subsequently 
whilst I watched. They thus appeared to form a special act 
arising out of play more or less amatory, and not a mere part 
of this, which, indeed, if it had been, would have made it a 
very peculiar and specialised form of play. 

Finally after I had watched them for, as I should think, 
well over an hour, the mother Seal landed and suckled her calf. 
She lay this time half on her side and half on her back, taking 
great pains to present her teats to the young one, who came 
down to meet her, and sucked, lying on one rock, with its head 
over the narrow chasm which separated it from that which 
its mother had chosen. Afterwards the mother moved a 
little farther off and reposed herself, whilst the young one 
retreated towards where he had come from, and did the same. 
When I returned some time later, the tide was more in and I 
could see neither the one nor the other, so assumed that both 
had entered the sea, as the young one had done so before. 
The yacht came a little after this, and I returned in it, after 
some time, with my friends. 

{To be continued). 



o 



I\Ir. S. Hastings has some well illustrated notes on ' the Biology of 
the larger British Fungi ' in Knoivledge for June. 

The Lancashire and Cheshire Naturalist for June contains the first 
Annual Report of the Lancashire and Cheshire Fauna Committee. 

The Irish Naturalist for June includes an article on ' The Long-Finned 
Bream [Brama longipinnis Lowe) ; an addition to the Britannic Fauna,' 
by K. F. Scharff. 

1915 Aug 1. 



258 

YORKSHIRE NATURALISTS AT SETTLE. 

" Give me a da}-. 
One day with life and heart 
Is more than time enough to find a world." 

These words of Lowell rang true to those lovers of nature who 
assembled at Settle for the Whitsuntide excuisions, for every- 
where, and each day, did the pulse of nature seem to beat in 
unison with their wishes. 

Considering the withdrawal of the usual cheap travelling 
facilities, there was quite a good company staying over the 
week-end at the Ashfield Hotel, whilst the additional influx 
of members on Monda}^ helped to bring the attendance on that 
day to a good total. The weather was ideal throughout ; 
glorious days of sunshine tempered by an easterly breeze of 
not too rough a nature. The full beauty of the spingtime was 
everywhere apparent, and thus the many charms which are 
within the confines of the Ribblesdale Valley were seen prac- 
tically in their full perfection. 

On Saturday, the whole party devoted attention in their 
respective spheres of study to Giggleswick Scars and Woods. 
A visit was paid to the Museum at Giggleswick Grammar 
School, and an inspection made of the objects obtained from 
the Victoria Cave at Settle. 

On the following day a wide area of the district planned for 
investigation was explored, inasmuch as three distinct parties 
were concerned in the operations. One spent the morning on 
Cockett Moss, where the flora proved very interesting, and in 
the afternoon the same party visited the Victoria Cave. A 
second went to the prettily situated hamlet of Feizor, and then 
to Oxenber Woods and Scars, devoting its whole time to the 
phases of plant life' on the limestone pavements, ultimately 
crossing to Wharfe Gill, a deeply cut sylvan gorge, returning 
back through the wooded heights down Feizor Nick and over 
the upland pastures. The third party, to whom the geologists 
allied themselves, first visited Stainforth, afterwards proceeding 
to the head of Crummockdale, visiting Moughton Whetstone 
Quarry and finishing at Austwjck Beck Head. On the Monday 
ail trained to Horton-in-Ribblesdale, first visiting Messrs. 
Delaneys' quarries. After leaving the quarries, progression was 
made through Arco Woods to Cragg Hifl, where the Bala 
outcrop was noted, then along the valley to Helwith Moss, 
and back by Stainforth valley to Settle. 

At the close of the excursion a meeting was held in the 
grounds at headquarters, Mr. E. Snelgrove, President of the 
Botanical Section, presiding. The usual sectional reports were 
given, and votes of thanks accorded to Messrs. Delaney, Ltd. 
for permission to visit their quarries ; to Mr. J. G. Robinson, 
J. P., F.G.S., Mr. Wm. Ingham, and Mr. R. Hallam for the 

Naturalist, 



Yorkshire Naturalists at Settle. 259 

privilege so kindly granted to visit their respective estates ; 
and to Mr. R. N. Douglas, M.A., for permission to visit the 
Museum at Giggleswick Grammar School. Hearty thanks were 
also accorded to the divisional Secretary, Mr. J. Hartshorn, 
for the excellent local arrangements he had made. 

On Saturday evening Mr. John Holmes gave a lecture 
upon the Geological features of the Settle District. Mr. J. H. 
Howarth, J. P., F.G.S., occupied the chair. Mr. Holmes 
stated that the three outstanding geological features of the 
Settle district were the Millstone Grit on the south, the Great 
Scar Limestone between the southern and northern branches 
of the Craven Fault, and the Silurian track from Stainforth 
to Horton. 

These features were dealt with in detail, and their character- 
istics pointed out in a very lucid manner. At Settle itself 
the Craven Fault has brought up the Great Scar Limestone 
to a height of several hundred feet above the Millstone Grit, 
and this prominent feature extends from beyond Austwick to 
Attermire, a typical limestone tract with very little drift. 
Further north, at Stainforth, the Silurian rocks representing 
an older formation than the limestone, are brought nearly to 
the same level as the limestone scar. Mr. Holmes briefly 
outlined the notable geological features which would be met 
wdth on the route traversed on Whit Monday. The chief of 
these were the Ingletonian Rocks at Horton, the Bala Lime- 
stone at Cragg Hill, the Austwick Grits and the Horton Flags. 
The formation of the Ribble Valley and the glaciation of the 
district were also shortly discussed. Several maps and dia- 
grammatic drawings were also exhibited by Mr. Holmes. A 
discussion followed. — ^W. E. L. W. 

Vertebrate Zoology. — Mr. Rosse Butterfield writes : — 
The most interesting bird I noticed was the Grasshopper 
Warbler on Austwick iMoss. On the same moss and Lawkland 
^loss the Sedge W^arbler and Reed Bunting were noticeably 
common. The Golden Crested Wren was seen in the pinewoods 
overlooking Austwick Moss. Owls frequented the wood as 
was shown by the pellets. On previous visits I have seen 
the Long-eared Owl here. The Redstart was common in all 
the wooded parts. Frequenting the screes several Kestrels 
were observed. The Wheatear was quite at home nesting in 
the limestone walls in the high summit over Settle. The 
Curlew, Redshank, Snipe, Yellow Wagtail, Ring Ouzel and 
Meadow Pipit were seen in all likely places, and nests of some 
were found. 

On Helwith Moss a young dead Coot was picked up. The 
woods at Horton-in-Ribblesdale were tenanted by the character- 
istic sylvan birds in North- West Yorks, a special feature being 
the abundance of Spotted Flycatchers. 

1915 .A.ug. 1. 



26o Yorkshire Naturalists at Settle. 

]\Ir. H. B. Booth informs me that Mr. G. Bolam visited the 
district during the Union's excursion, and reported seeing the 
Stonechat. This is a most interesting record, and one which 
the Bradford naturahsts have tried to estabhsh for many years. 
It has frequently been reported for the North-West portion, 
but hitherto, so far as I am aware, without success. 

CoNCHOLOGY. — Mr. Thomas Castle writes : — The sunny 
and dry weather did not favour the Conchologists. The dusty 
condition of the roadside vegetation, due to the abnormal 
motor traffic, and the dry condition of the ground in the 
wooded areas (except in very shady places), .also militated 
against record making, so that several species previously found 
in the district were not confirmed on this visit, though additions 
were made. The varied geological formations covering the 
area" traversed should, upon persistent search, considerably 
extend the species known for the district. The Giggleswick 
School museum should be enriched by the addition of local 
specimens of land and fresh water shells, as they would also be 
useful as permanent records of the mollusca occurring in the 
district of Settle. 

The land shells noted were : — 

Helix aspersa. H. pitva. 

H. nemoralis. Bulimus obsciivus. 

H. ericetorum. Cochlicopa lubrica. 

H. ritfescens. Pupa ringens. 

H. rotundata. Clausilia rugosa. 

H. rupestris. C. dubia. 

Hyalina nitidula. Vitrina pelucida. 

H. cellaria. An undetermined species of Vertigo. 

H. crystallina. 

The freshwater species noted were : — 

Limnea peregra, the long spine form in pond near the 
Victoria Cave ; the short spine form in river Ribble ; young 
growth in many smaller ponds and wells, including the Ebbing 
and Flowing Well. 

Limnea truncatula in the river Ribble. 

Ancylus fluviatilis, common, and of good form in river 
Ribble. 

An undetermined species of Pisidium was found on Cocket 
Moss. 

Hymenoptera. — Mr. R. Butterfield writes :■ — In spite of 
the sunny weather, an easterly wind proved unfavourable for 
collecting hymenoptera. The social bees and wasps were not 
uncommon, but solitary species were scarce. Of the social 
bees, Bombus soroensis was the most interesting. B. terrestris, 
B. lapidariiis and B. hortorum were well distributed. Among 
the wasps, both the species which nest in trees were captured. 
A single example of the rare Audrena lapponica Zett. was 
caught. 

Naturalist, 



Yorkshire Naturalists at Settle. 261 

Flowering Plants.— i\Ir. J. Hartshorn writes : — Some 
species, as the Bog-Bean, were not as conspicuous as they 
will be later when the season is more advanced, and in this 
respect the time of flowering of Thlaspi alpesire, seen in pas-- 
tures near the " Celtic Wall,' may be noted. Here the plants 
were only coming into bloom whereas on Wensleydale the var. 
occitanum was in bloom this year in April loth. Confirming 
the record in the ' Flora Cravoniensis,' Cardamine impatiens 
and Andromeda polifolia were found, the latter in two stations. 
In one of these there were Lily of the Valley, Herb Paris, 
Solomon's Seal and the Horse-shoe Vetch, with Allium vineale 
near, by the roadside. 

Other interesting species seen were : — 

Columbine. Utyiculavia vulgaris. 

Trollius europacus. U. minor. 

Draba incana. Polygonum viparum. 

Arenariaverna. Myrica gale. 

Silene maritima. Sparganium natans. 

Viola littea. Shoenus nigricans. 

Mares-tail. Melica nutans. 

Sundew. Sesleria caerulea. 

Melanchoty Thistle. Juniper, plentiful in ' Juniper 
Primula farinosa. A'alley.' 

The Ferns noticed were : — 

Havscented Mountain Fern. Beech Fern. 

Bladder Fern. Moonwort 

Green-Stemmed Spleenwort. Adders-tongue. 
Black Stemmed Spleenwort. 

Geology. — Mr. John Holmes writes : — On Saturday, the 
geologists walked from Settle to Giggleswick Scars along the 
line traversed by the southern branch of the Craven Fault. 
Here, on the right, the Great Scar Limestone rises to a height 
of several hundred feet, while below, on the left, are Millstone 
Grits. The Ebbing and Flowing Well was visited, but owing 
to the drought the ' ebb and flow ' had ceased. 

At the foot of Buckhaw Brow the party crossed the road 
to examine the shales and grits on the downthrow side of the 
fault. No fossils were found, but lithologically the beds 
resemble the Kinderscout Grits. 

On the way to Smearside the limestone pavement on the 
top of the scars was examined. This area has been glaciated, 
but, with the exception of a few isolated Silurian boulders, 
little drift material remains. After visiting the supposed 
Celtic Wall, the party left the scars by a ' dr\' valley,' near 
Stackhouse, and returned to headquarters. 

On the following day, a small party of geologists joined the 
botanists who were investigating the flora of the Pre-Carbon- 
iferous Rocks of the district. The full length of the Crummock 
valley was explored, and its geological structure explained 
by the leaders. 

1915 Aug. 1, 



262 Yorkshire Naturalists at Settle. 

At Horton, on Monday, the Grits and Conglomerates of 
the Ingletonian Series were examined in the bed of the Kibble 
at Row End, and in Messrs. Delaney's Quarry near the station. 
At the latter place they are worked below the level of the ground 
to a depth of 100 feet. The beds of the Ingletonian Series are 
probably the oldest strata exposed in the county. Mr. Rastall, 
who has made a detailed strafigraphical and petrological exami- 
nation of these rocks, has arrived at the conclusion that they 
are of Pre-Cambrian age, and the materials from which they 
have been formed were derived b}^ denudation from an area of 
igneous rocks. In the upper part of Messrs. Delaney's Quarry 
the Great Scar Limestone is worked for lime-burning. Owing 
to the lower beds not being worked, the junction between the 
limestone and the Ingletonian is not seen. 

South of Horton the Ingletonian Series is succeeded by 
Ardovician and Silurian Rocks, which have bent into a series 
of folds with their axes striking N.W. and S.E. These folds 
were denuded to an almost level surface before they sunk 
below the waters to form the sea floor upon which the limestone 
of Moughton Fell was deposited. Near Garth House, and again 
under Horton Wood, the Austwick Grits were seen in a double 
synclinal, and at Cragg Hill, the Bala Limestones and shales 
with the lower beds of the Silurian bent over them. A few 
corals and brachiopods were collected from the weathered 
limestones. 

Near Cragg Hill, on the south side of the anticlinal, an 
outcrop of the Moughton Whetstone was found. This curiously 
coloured rock is found on the north side of the fold in the 
Crummock Valley, and .is used locally as a whetstone. The 
Horton flags occupy the trough of the fold south of Cragg 
Hill, and appear on the surface for a distance of two miles. 
The unconformity between the Silurians and the Carboniferous 
Limestone is clearly seen at Arco Wood, and at Combe Quarry, 
where the flags have been quarried back to the face of the lime- 
stone which rests upon their upturned and denuded edges. 
Worm tracks were noticed in the flags at Combe Quarry. 
Actinocrinus was found at Dry Rigg, and Orthoceras at Helwith 
Bridge. Helworth Moss was visited, and a section of peat 
6 feet thick was seen. On the way down the river bank, 
Stainforth Force was passed where some excellent examples of 
' pot-hole ' formation were seen in the limestone bed of the 
stream. 

: o : 

From Mr. J. Wilfrid Jackson we have received a ' Report on the Animal 
Remains found at the Roman Fort at Manchester,' and also a reprint 
from the Annuls and Magazine of Natural History dealing with the 'De- 
generation in the Teeth of Oxen and Sheep.' The latter is based upon 
an examination of specimens from Derbyshire, Yorkshire, Lancashire, 
etc. 

Naturalist, 



263 

YORKSHIRE NATURALISTS AT HAMBLETON, 
NEAR SELBY. 

Glorious weather favoured the Union's visit to Hamblcton, 
near Selby, on the third Saturday in June, and no doubt this 
was partly the cause of the excellent attendance, which con- 
stituted a record for the present year's excursions. With 
one exception all the Sections were well represented, and despite 
the heat, there was no lack of zest in the work put forth within 
the area of investigation, and if the dry conditions proved 
unfavourable to workers in certain sections, they had recom- 
pense from the beauties of nature on every hand apparent. 







Yorkshire NaturaUsts at Hambleton. 



The general body of naturalists devoted the whole of its 
time within Bishop Wood, an area of ground covering about 
eight hundred acres, which, according to records, has been 
devoted to the cultivation of timber since Tudor times. It is 
one of the largest indigenous woods in the county, and to 
entomologists in particular has long been considered classic 
ground for their sphere of study. The wood is exceedingly 
well timbered, and although the oak is the dominant tree, 
there is an excellent admixture of other woodland trees. To 
the older members present pleasant memories were revived, 
inasmuch as Bishop Wood was first investigated by the members 
of the Union practically thirty-seven years ago, that is, in 
August 1878. 

1915 Aug. 1. 



264 



Yorkshire Naturalists at Hambleton. 



Permission to visit tlie wood had been kindly granted by 
Mr. J. Elston Cawthorn, who, with his woodmen, accompanied 
the party. At noon Mr. Cawthorn invited the members to 
partake of an excellent lunch, and hearty thanks were accorded 
to him for his hospitality on the motion of Dr. Corbett, seconded 
by Mr. W. N. Cheesman. 

The geologists proceeded to Brayton Barff, where Mr. Bruce 
McGray, the manager of the Selby Council's Waterworks, 
exhibited a series of cores obtained at the time the test was made 
for the present water supply on the Barff. He also produced 
for inspection a plan of the waterworks bore in Ousegate in 




Jaws and Geologists at Hambleton. 



1854, '^I'^tl a coloured drawing showing the outer strata between 
Brotherton and Selby, prepared by Prof. Kendall. A detailed 
examination was also made of the gravels and pebbles, and 
altogether a most instructive time was spent. 

At the meeting held at the close of the excursion, the 
President (Mr. Riley Fortune, F.Z.S.) moved a resolution con- 
gratulating those members of the Union who had been honoured 
by the Leeds University by the conferring of honorary degrees 
(see The Naturalist for June, p. 181). This resolution was 
seconded by Dr. Corbett, and carried with acclamation. The 
various sectional reports were presented, and the meeting 
brought to a close with a vote of thanks to Mr. J. E. Cawthorn 

Naturalist, 



Yorkshire Naturalists at Hamblcton. 



265 



for permission to visit tlic wood, to the manager of the Selby 
Waterworks, to Mr. Cheesman for making the local arrange- 
ments, and to Mr. J. F. Musham and Mr. W. Reeston for acting 
as guides to the geological party. — W. E. L. W. 

Vertebrate Zoology. — Mr. E. W. Wade and Mr. A. 
Haigh-Lumby write : — Considerable attention was given to 
the edge of the wood, and the keeper's gibbets were also exam- 
ined. Mr. Cawthorn informed us that there is a winter roost 
of the Rook in the wood, although no birds nest in the vicinity. 
This, of course, is contrary to the usual experience. Two 
members of this section report that the previous week they had 
seen nests of the Hawlinch, Chiff-Chaff and Goldfinch, but 
these escaped our vigilance. The species noted were : — 





Mammals. 




Hare. 


Mole. 


Stoat. 


Hedgehog. 


Rabbit. 


Long-tailed Fieldmouse. 


Weasel. 


Birds. 




Song Thrush. 


Blackbird. 


Whinchat. 


Redbreast. 


Whitethroat. 


Lesser Whitethroat. 


Blackcap. 


Garden Warbler. 


Gold-Crested Wren. 


Willow Wren. 


Hedge Sparrow. 


Great Titmouse. 


Coal Titmouse. 


Jiluc Titmouse. 


Long-tailed Titmou.se. 


Common Wren. 


Yellow Wagtail. 


Meadow Pipit. 


Tree Pipit. 


Swallow. 


Martin. 


Greenfinch. 


Common Sparrow. 


Tree Sparrow. 


Chaffinch. 


Linnet. 


Common Bunting. 


Yellow Bunting. 


Reed Bunting. 


Skylark. 


Common Jay. 


Rook. 


Hooded Crow. 


Carrion Crow. 


Common Swift. 


Common Nightjar. 


Great Spotted Wood- 


Cuckoo. 


Barn Owl. 


pecker. 


Sparrow Hawk. 


Common Kestrel. 


Ring Dove. 


Turtle Dove. 


iMoorhen. 


Lapwing. 


Common Redshank. 


Tree Creeper. 


Woodcock. 


Spotted Flycatcher. 


Pheasant. 


IMagpie. 


Partridge. 

Fishes. 




Roach. 


Trout. 


Minnow. 


Stickleback. 


Eel. 



CoNCHOLOGY. — Mr. Greevz Fysher writes : — The Concho- 
logical section was represented by ]\Ir. John Taylor, Mr. W. 
Denison Roebuck and myself. The dry conditions were not 
conducive to molluscan research. Much time was spent along 
a portion of the Hambleton Dyke, and also the Duckpond in 
the wood. The following species were recorded, viz. : — 



Avion ater. 
A. ater var. pliimbea. 
A. ater var. castanea. 
Agriolimax agrestis. 
A. IcBvis. 
Hyalinia fidva. 

1915 Aug. 1. 



Hyalinia crystallina. 

H. radiatula. 

Helix nemoralis var. libcUula (00000). 

H. cantiana. 

Hygromia hispida. 

Helicella caperata. 



266 



Yorkshire Naturalists at Hambleton. 



Helicella virgata. 
Pyramidula rotundata. 
Succinea putris. 
Zua lubrica. 

Valvata piscinalis. 
Bythinia tentaciilata. 
Limncsa peregra. 
Physa fontinalis. 



Aplexa hypnoritm. 
Planorbis corueus. 
P. albiis. 
P. carinatus. 
P. marginatus. 
P. leucostonia. 
SphcBrium cornenm. 
Pisidium milium. 



Lepidoptera. — Mr. B. ]Morley writes : — The fame of Bishop 
Wood is well-known to the ardent entomologist, but on the 
date of the excursion nothing of outstanding rarity was noted. 
The following were the species met with, and many of these were 
scarce, viz. : — 



Imagos of 
Pieris bvassiccp. 
P. 11 a pi. 
P. vapcB. 
Vanessa atalanta. 
Epinephele janiva. 
Euchelia jacobcecB. 
Eitclidia mi. 
Tephrosia punctitlata. 
Abraxas nlmata. 
Eupisteria- oblitevata. 
Melanthia albicilata. 
Melanippe montanata. 
M. fluduata. 
Caiiipiogi'itDima bilineata. 
Cidaria vussata. 



Cidaria silaceata. 
Emmelesia albiilata. 
Tanagra atrata. 
Scoparia ambignalis. 
Hydrocampa nymphcealis. 
Crambus horiiielhis. 
Cnephasia muscuJaua. 
Ptycholoma lecheaua. 

Larv^ of 

Thecla quercus. 
Dicratntra vinula. 
Orgyia antiqita. 
Diloba cceruleocephala. 
Hybernia aurantiaria. 
H. defoliarid. 



Neuroptera and Trichoptera. — Mr. G. T. Porritt writes : 
— For some inexplicable reason the wood proved very dis- 
appointing to the entomologists, and did anything but main- 
tain its reputation of years gone by. Among Trichoptera and 
Neuroptera nothing of the least rarity was noted, and many 
usually common wood species seemed to be quite absent. 
Trichoptera were represented by Phryga-nea striata, Linmo- 
phihts jlavicornis and L. auricula, the last being very abundant. 
Of Neuroptera, the Chrysopidse were in good numbers, Chrysopa 
perl a, alba, aspersa and one or two others. Dragon-flies were 
represented by the common Agrion puella and Isckmtra 
elegans. Nemoura variegata and sundry species of Hemerobins 
and Psocus complete the list. 

{To be continued). 



: o 



Mr. Arthur W'hitakcr has a weU ilhistrated paper on ' The Long Eared 
Bat,' in Wild Life, Vol. VL, No. 3. 

We have received part 2 of Tlie Australian Zoologist, which contains 
the report of the Council of the Royal Zoological Society of New South 
Wales ; ' Bird Notes,' by W. W. Froggatt ; ' Two New Australia Beetles,' 
by W. J. Rainbow ; ' The Migration of the Jolly-Tail or Eel-Gudgeon,' by 
A. R. McCuUoch ; and the Genus Tisiphone by G. A. Waterhouse. 

Naturalist, 



267 

MUSEUMS AND EDUCATION. 

In view of the conditions prevailing, the Council of tlie Museums 
Association did not consider it advisable to hold the usual 
week's conference this year. As there were one or two matters 
of urgency, however, it was decided to hold one day's meeting 
in London, on Wednesday, July 7th ; and on the 8th the vari- 
ous curators were invited to meet a special committee of the 
British Association for the Advancement of Science, to con- 
sider some suggestions for better relationships between mus- 
eums and educational authorities. While it was found that 
many of the suggestions made by the British x\ssociation 
(such as lectures to scholars, lectures to the public, assistance 
to art students, loans to schools, etc.) have already been carried 
out at several museums, without extra assistance in the way of 
staff or funds, one or two points were raised that are worthy of 
consideration. 

The attendance was remarkabl}^ good, and the delegates 
were welcomed by the Director of the Victoria and Albert 
Museums, Sir Cecil Smith. 

While in the National Museums the curators had an ex- 
cellent opportunity of seeing what was being done in those great 
institutions towards special protection against fires, etc., as 
well as upon many other points connected with museum 
administration. 

Dr. F. A. Bather (British ^luseum) spoke on the ' Museums 
and the War ' ; Mr. W. R. Butterfield (Hastings) dealt with 
' The Museums and the National Cause ' ; Mr. G. W. Prothero, 
of the Central Committee of National Patriotic Organisation, 
also spoke on the same subject. Several suggestions were made 
as to ways in which museums might be more useful in the 
present crisis, such as assisting recruiting by special exhibitions 
of various military and naval relics, uniforms, badges, war 
medals, relics from past wars, etc. 

It was pointed out by Mr. H. Bolton (Bristol) that hitherto, 
on account of quality and cheapness, the supply of glass jars, 
iron trays, and several other necessary museum appliances, 
had been obtained from Germany. A committee was formed 
for the purpose of ascertaining the possible requirements of 
the various museums of Great Britain, and of approaching 
British manufacturers with the object of meeting these require- 
ments at a cheaper rate than has obtained in the past. 
It was felt that this would be possible if all the orders were 
placed in one channel, instead of being given independently by 
each institution as at present. This committee, however, will 
issue its report in due course. 

Dr. F. Grant Ogilvie presented a paper on ' Some Sections 
of ]\Iuseum Collections illustrative of Science.' This aspect of 

1915 Aug. 1. 



268 Museums and Education. 

museum work is admirably shown in the Scottish National 
Museum at Edinburgh, which was explained to the members 
by Dr. Ogilvie at the Edinburgh meeting some years ago. 
The present seems a particularly opportune moment to extend 
the technical side of museum work by the exhibition of models 
of machinery, etc. 

After lunch the members adjourned to the Natural History 
Museum, South Kensington, where Dr. S. F. Harmer gave the 
results of some systematic experiments made with regard to 
the fading of museum specimens exposed to light. Various 
types of object, zoological and botanical, were exposed to 
different lights, natural and artificial, direct and diffused, 
under various kinds of glass, and the results were most marked. 
In some cases the colour had entirely faded in twelve months ; 
in others very little, if any change, was noticeable. Full advan- 
tage of these elaborate tests will doubtless be taken by those in 
charge of provincial museums. Methods of preserving flowering 
plants, sea-weeds, etc., with the natural colours, were described 
by Dr. Kendall, by Mr. Tate Regan, Dr. Smith Woodward 
and others, and in this way the smaller museums reap the 
benefit of experiments, sometimes very costly, made by the 
National Institutions. 

Mr. H. H. Peach (Leicester), read a paper on ' The Design 
and Industries Association and the Museum.' He pointed out 
many ways in which museums might help the local arts and 
crafts, and drew attention to the deplorable manner in which 
such encouragement was frequently neglected in local museums. 
He advocated the proper exhibition of objects to illustrate 
present and past woodwork, iron-work, needle-work, basket- 
work, embroidery, toys, etc. It was shown that in many 
cases local trades and industries had entirely disappeared in 
recent years as a result of foreign competition, but that there 
was now an opportunity of reviving many of these, and to a 
large extent museums were in a position to encourage this 
revival. 

Prof. W. R. Lethaby, of the Koyal College of Art, made some 
interesting remarks from the point of view of a ' Museum Lover.' 
He took up the attitude of the ordinary educated visitor, 
and, in humorous vein, pointed out many ways in which the 
exhibition, classification and labelling of museum specimens 
may yet be improved, both from the point of view of the 
casual visitor, and of the more serious student. 

Nurse Prior (Leicester), described ' A Children's Welfare 
Section in the Museum,' at Leicester, where an attempt had 
been made to arrange an exhibition of interest to mothers. 
In this were shown specimens to illustrate proper and incorrect 
methods of feeding, clothing, and rearing children generally, 
which seems to be more or less appropriate at the present time. 

Naturalist, 



Museums and Education. 269 

Particulars of the kinds of exhibits were given in great detail, 
and there is no question that such exhibitions are of great and 
practical value. 

Mr. J. P. Maginnis submitted a paper on ' The Educational 
Value of Models,' and Mr. H. J. E. Peake (Newbury) dealt 
with ' A Catalogue of Bronze Implements.' 

The meeting then dispersed, after a solid eight hours' session. 

On the following day Professor J. A. Greene, M.A. (Pro- 
fessor of Education, University, Sheffield), opened a conference 
between the Museums Association and the British Association 
Committee of enquiry upon museums in relationship to edu- 
cation. His paper contained many suggestions as to the ways 
in which museums could co-operate with educational authori- 
ties, but most of these had already been carried out at many 
places. From the various remarks which were made it was 
apparent that what with lecturing to scholars and the public, 
the duties of the curators were increasing to such an extent 
that the time seems to have arrived when something should 
be done by way of relief. A member of the ^lanchester 
Education Committee stated that at Manchester it was felt 
that much of the museums curator's time was occupied by 
these lectures, and an arrangement had been made which was 
proving very satisfactory. Some of the schools there had been 
closed to meet the requirements of the military authorities, 
and teachers were therefore available. A few of the teachers 
who were specially able to do the work had attended the 
museum, and each one had, with the aid of the museum staff, 
prepared a lecture on a particular subject, and now the scholars 
were instructed by the teaching staff of the schools, and in this 
way the curators were more at liberty to attend to their own 
duties. — -T. S. 



An Introduction to Geology. By C. I. Gardiner, M.A., F.G.S. G. Bell 

& Sons, London, iS6 pages. In a series of twelve chapters the senior 
Science blaster at Cheltenham College writes a ver^- readable and well- 
illustrated introduction to the study of geology. He gives an account of 
the lives of Werner, Hutton, Smith and Lj^ell ; then deals with ' Denu- 
dation and Deposition of the Present Time ' ; ' Land Elevation and Sub- 
mergence and accompanying Phenomena ' ; The Sedimentary Rocks, 
Scenerv, Glaciers, Caves, Coal, \'olcanoes, Fossils and ]\Iaps. 

Minerals and the Microscope : An Introduction to the Study of Petrology. 
By H. G. Smith, F.G.S. T. Murby & Co., London, ii6 pages. This little 
book is written to be used in conjunction with Harker's ' Petrology for 
Students.' It contains a description of a Petrological Microscope, particu- 
lars of the characters of minerals in ordinary light, transmitted light, 
reflected light, polarised light, cross nicols, etc. There are a number of 
excellent illustrations of typical minerals under the microscope, and careful 
■descriptions of the more important ones. There is a chapter on ' Refractive 
Index of Isolated Fragments,' and some hints on petrology. 

1915 Aug. 1. 



270 



FIELD NOTE. 



BIRDS. 

Curious Place for Great Tit's Nest. — A pair of Great 
Tits built a nest in the crupper of a rocking-horse in the 




gurclen at 40 iiruok street, v-5eiL)y (,Ai-a}' lothj. 
be easily seen. — J. F. Mush am, Selby. 



The 



:'ggs could 



The Fifth Annual Report of the Doncaster Art Gallery and Museum (14 

pp.), just to hand, contains record of the work of this institution during 
the year. It seems somewhat hampered by the want of exhibition space. 

The Annual Report and Transactions of the Manchester Microscopical 
Society contains, among other items, the Presidential Address, ' Juvenile 
and Adult Structure in Plants,' by Prof. F. E. Weiss ; ' The Microscopy of 
the Manchester Water Supply,' by Charles Turner ; and ' The Histology of 
a Leaf,' by G. McKechnie. 

The Report and Proceedings of the Manchester Field Naturalists' and 
Archaeologists' Society for the year 1914, 90 pages, contains illustrated 
reports of excursions and meetings of this society, some being as far away 
as Leamington and Bournemouth. The reports are of a general character 
and contains notes on plants, liirds, etc. The publication is well produced. 

The Transactions of the Burton-on-Trent Natural History and Archaeo- 
logical Society for Sessions 1910-11, 1911-12, 1912-13 (77 pages), edited by 
G. H Storer, forming Volume VH., has just been received. Besides papers 
of antiquarian interest, annual reports, etc., we notice ' Our Summer 
Migrants,' and ' Dates of Arrival of Summer Migrants, 1911, 1912, 1913,' 
by Charles Hanson, jun. ; 'A Visit to the Roman Wall in Connection 
with the Monk's Bridge,' Ijy H. A. Rye ; ' Some Bird Notes,' and ' A List 
of the Vertebrate Animals in the Society's Collection,' catalogued by G. 
H. Storer; and Meteorological Summary, 1911, 1912, 1913. 

Naturalist, , 



271 

BIBLIOGRAPHY : 

Papers and Records relating to the Geology and PalaEon = 
tology of the North of England (Yorkshire excepted), 
published during i9"4' 



T. SHEPPARD, M.Sc, F.G.S. 

The ' North of England ' inckides the counties of Cheshire, 
Derbyshire, Nottinghamshire, Lincolnshire, and to the north 
thereof ; including the Isle of ]\Ian. 

X913. 

Yorks., Lanes., Lines., Cheshire, 
Axon (G.C. Rly.) Notts. & Derbyshire. 

Per Rail. Inchides maps and sections of Coal-lields, etc.], pages 238 + 
Ixxvii. 
A. C. HousTOX. Yorlcs., Lanes., Cheshire, etc. 

Studies in Water Supply, London, pp. xii. + aoj. 

19X4. 

Anon, Notts., Lines. 

Ice-flows in the Trent Basin : Scandinavian and British Ice. The Xatural- 
ist, April, pp. 107-8, 

Anox. 
Catalogue of the More Important Papers, especially those relating to Local 
Scientific Investigations, published by the Corresponding Societies 
of the British Associatiouj during the year ending May 31st, 1913. 

Rep. Brit. Assoc. (Birmingham), for 1913, pp. 349-364. 

Axox. Yorks., Lanes., Lake District. 

Glaciation of East Lancashire [notice of Dr. Jowett's paper]. The 
Xtdiiralisf, March, pp. 75-76. 

Axox'. Lanes., Yorks. 

Lancashire Naturalist [Megalichthys hibberti in Yorks. and Lanes.] The 
Xdtiiicilisf, October, p. 303. 

Axox. Derbyshire, Yorks. 

Sections of Strata of the Coal Measures of Yorkshire, together with a few 

Derbyshire sections compiled from Records of Borings and Sinkings. 

By a Committee of the Midland Listitute of Mining, Civil and ]\Icchan- 
ical Engineers, Sheftield, 303 pages. 

Anox. Lanes., Yorks. 

Cross Country Sections and Map of Yorkshire Coalfield [includes map of 

Yorkshire coalfields showing collieries and positions of two sections, 

which are also given in the same cover, namely, Burnley to Ponte- 

fraet, and Manchester to Doncaster]. Sheffield. 

Anox. Cumberland. 

The Carlisle-Solway Basin. The Naturalist, July, pp. 202-3. 

Axox. Durham, Xorthumlierland. 

Scandinavian Drift of the Durham Coast ; Pre-glacial Depressions ; Scottish 
Rocks ; Yorkshire Drift. The Xaturalist, July, pp. 203-203. 

1915 Aug. 1. 



272 Bibliography : Geology and Paleontology, 1914. 

-^>^'o>-'- Derbyshire. 

The Derbyshire Coalfield. T/ic Xatuvalist, August, p. 236. 

^>>'o>^'- Notts. 

The Water Supply of Nottinghamshire. The Naturalist, August, pp. 236-7. 

^'^^o^. Lanes. 

Fall of Meteor at Standish 1 ' a fortnight ago ']. Lanes, and Cheshire 
Xatuvalist, October, p. 243. 

Axon. Lanes. 

A Curious Fossil [east of Bellerophon eomuarietes from Chatburn]. Lanes, 
and Cheshire Naturalist, Oetober, pp. 260-1. 

Axox. ^signed ' Pro Tempore ']. Lanes. 

Disworth Field Club [refers to Laneashire Geology, etc.] Lancashire and 
Cheshire Xaturalist, June, pp. 91-97. 

^^'o^'- Lanes. 

Aerolite in Lancashire. The Naturalist, December, p. 361. 

George Abbott. Durham. 

Is Atikokania laiusoni a Concretion ? [compares with the Magnesian Lime- 
stone of Sunderland]. Nature, December 31st, pp. 447-8. 

George Abbott. Durham. 

Zonal Structure in Colloids [letter on ; also letter from H. J. Johnston- 

Lavis]. Nature, January 29th, pp. 607-8 and February 19th, p. 687. 

George Abbott. Northumberland, Durham. 

Discoid Limestones which Simulate Organic Characters. A Case of Inor- 
ganic Evolution. Reprint from ' The Pioneer,' March 20th and 27th, 
pp. 8. 

B. Amsdex. Northumberland, Durham. 

Report of the Field Meetings of the Natural History Society for 1910 [includes 

geological notes]. ' Trans. Nat. Hist. Soc. of Northumberland, 

Durham and Newcastle-upon-Tyne ' (New Series), Vol. I\'., Part i, 

pp. 200-209. 

H. C. Beaslev. Cheshire. 

Description of a Footprint recently found in the Lower Keuper Sandstone 

of Runcorn Hill. ' Proc. Liverpool Geol. Soc.,' \'ol. NIL, Part i, 

PP- 32-34- 

L. L. Belixfaxte [edited by], N. Counties. 

Abstracts of the Proceedings of the Geological Society of London, Nos. 

946-962. London, 8vo., pp. 126. 

Northern Counties. 
[L. L. J^ELixFAXTE] edited by ; [C. P. Ch,\twix] compiled bv. 
Geological Literature added to the Geological Society's Library during the 
year ended December 31st, 1912. Pages 1-266. 

F. Beyschi.ag, J. H. L. Vogt, P. Krusch. N. Counties. 

The Deposits of the Useful Minerals and Rocks, their Origin, Form and 
Content, translated by S. J. Truscott. \'ol. L, pp. 514. 

S. CtRaham l^iRKs. Lanes. Yorks. 

The Crossopterygian Fossil Fishes of this Area. I. Introductory [Megal- 

ichthys hibberti]. The Lanes, and Cheshire Naturalist, August, pp. 

185-1S7 ; IL, the Genus Megalichthys, loc. cit., September, pp. 227- 

236. See also The Naturalist, October, p. 303. 

X'aturalist, 



Bibliography : Geology and PalcBontology, 1914. 273 

P. G. H. BoswELL. Lines. 

On the Occurrence of the North Sea Drift (Lower Glacial) and certain other 
Brick-earths in Suffolk. ' rroc. Ccol. Assoc.,' Vol. XX\'., Part 3, 
Juiif, pp. 121-153. 

K. G. A. BuLLERWELL. Northumberland. 

A Section of the Cliffs near Newbiggin-by-the-Sea, in which is exposed a 

Gravel Bed containing Chalk Flints. ' Trans. Nat. Hist. Soc of 

Northumberland, Durham and Xe\vcastlc-upon-T\ne ' (New Series), 

Vol. IV., Part I, pp. 61-6. 

J. W. Carr and H. H. Swix.nicrtox. Notts. 

Report of an Excursion to the Nottingham District. ' Proc. Gcol. .\ssoc.', 
\'ol. XXV., Part 2, pp. 84-89. 

GL;K.\r.D O. Case. Northern Counties. 

Coast Sand-Dunes, Sandpits and Sand Wastes. London, pp. viii. + 162. 

Frederick Chapman. Cheshire. 

Australasian Fossils [gives illustrations of a Submerged Forest in Cheshire, 
etc. I. Melbourne, pp. 341. 

C. P. Chatwin-. See L. L. Belinfaxte. 

W. G. CroLLiXGWooD . Cumberland. 

A New Bloomery-Site in Tilberthwaite. ' Trans. Cumb. and Westm. Ant. 
and Arch. Soc.,' Vol. Xl\'. (New Series), p. 493. 

T. .\. Coward. See W. iM. Tattersall. 

A. C. Daltox. Lines. 

Geology j^of Scunthorpe. Circular 226 in " Trans. Yorks. Nat. Union,* 
Part iS- 

R. M. Deelev. Yorks., Notts. 

Ice-Flows in the Trent Basin. Geological Magazine, February, pp. 69-73. 
The Naturalist, April, pp. 107-8. 

W. F. Dexxing. Lanes., Yorks. 

A Meteoric Fall in Lancashire [with list of previous English falls]. Nature, 
November 5th, pp. 258-9. 

Lake District, Yorks. 
Gertrude L. Elles and Ethel M. R. Wood [Mrs. Shakespear]. 
A Monograph of British Graptolites. Palaeontographical Society Mono- 
graph for 1913, published 1914. Part 10, pp. 4S7-526, plates I.-lii. 

John W. Evans. ' North of England.' 

The Wearing Down of the Rocks, Part IL, Chemical Action in Terrestrial 

Areas [brief reference to anhydrite and rock salt deposits]. ' Proc. 
Geol. Assoc.,' Vol. XXV., Part 4, pp. 229-270. 

E. DE Fraine. Lanes. 

A New Species of Medullosa from the Lower Coal Measures [Lancashire]. 
■ Rep. Brit. Assoc' (Birmingham) 1913, p. 709. 

C. I. Gardiner. Northern Counties. 

An Introduction to Geology, 186 pages. 

E. J. Garwood. N. Counties. 

Presidential Address to Section C (Geology) [deals with algae as rock-forming 
agents]. ' Rep. Brit. Assoc' (Birmingham), 1913, pp. 453-472. 

1915 Aug. 1. 



274 Bibliography : Geology and Palceontology, 1914. 

\i. J. (Iarwood. Westmorland. 

Some New Rock-building Organisms from tlie Lower Carboniferous, 

Westmorland [abstract of I'rt'siclential Address to ISrit. Assoc] 
(iC(>li>i;iail Magazi)ie, Juno, })p. 2()5-2 7i. 

C. J. Gordon. Westmorland. 

A Submerged Church in the River Eden. " Trans. Cumb. and Westm. .\nt. 
and .\riii, Soc.,' \o\. XI\'. (New Series), \iy). 328-3(1. 

|. W. C.KI'U-.ORV. Cinnberland. 

The Structure of the Carlisle-Solway Basin, and the Sequence of its Permian 
and Triassic Rocks. Abstracts in Nature, May 14th, p. 28S ; Gcul. 
Md'f^., June, p. 287, and The Natuyalist, July, pp. 202-3. 

.\L|-Ki':n H.XRKER. Cumljerland. 

Some Remarks on Geology in Relation to the Exact Sciences with an 
Excursus on Geological Time. ' I'roc Vorks. (">eol. Soc.,' Nol, XIX., 
Part 1, pp. 1-13. 

V. W . ll.\i;Mr.K. Isle of Man, Lines., \'orks. 

The Pliocene MoUusca of Great Britain, being supplementary to S. V. 
Wood's Monograph of the Crag MoUusca. Part i, Palaont. Soc 
Monog. for 1^13, pp. 1-200, jilatt's i. .\.\i\'. 

A. ]. Heelis. ('und)erland. 

The Caves known as ' Isis Parlis.' ' Trans. Cumb. and Westm. .\nt. and 
.\rch. Soc,' Vol. XI\'. (New Series), pp. 337-42. 

(;. HicKLiNc;. See D. M. S. Watson. 

). 1>. Hill. See W. Gibson. 

\V 1 1 !•: 1: 1. ION H 1 N D. J )erbyshire. 

Teinnocheilus derbiensis sp. nov. [from tlie Carboniferous Limestone]. 
' i'roc. Vorks. Geol. Soc,,' \'ol. XIX., Part i, pp. 18-19. 

T^()^L\s 11. lloLLAxn. Xorthern Counties. 

Report on behalf of the Delegates to the International Geological Congress, 
Canada, 1913 [refers to Coal-Kcservcs in liritish Coalfields . ' Trans. 
Manch. Geol. and Min. Soc,' Vol. XXXIII., Part 11, pp. 430-430. 

John Horne. See W. T?. Wrtoht. 

I. W. Jackson. Lanes. 

On the Discovery of a Bloomery at Lindale Church, near Grange-over- 
SandS. ' Trans. Cumb. and Westm. .\nt. and .\rch. Soc,' XOi. Xl\'. 
(New Series), pp. 256-O1. 

I. W. JACKSON. Westmorland. 

Report on the Exploration of a Cave at Haverbrack, Westmorland. ' Trans. 

Cund). and Westm. .\nt. and .\rch. Soc,' \'ol. XIW (New Series), 

pp. 2()2-27I. 

]. Wilfrid Jackson. N. Lanes., Westmorland. 

Notes on Shell-Marl Deposits in N. Lancashire and Westmorland. Lanes, 
and Cheshire Naturalist, August, pp. 197-201. 

H. J. Johnston-Lavis. Sec George .\bbott. 

.\ii;ert Jowett. Lanes., Yorks. 

On the Glacial Geology of East Lancashire. ' (,)uart. Journ. Geol. Soc,' 
Vol. TXX., Part 2, No. 278, pp. 199-^.^1 (maps) ; Abstract in Geol. 
Mag., March, pp. 138-9, also The Natiiyalist, March, pp. 75-7<>. 
{To be continncd). 

Naturalist, 



275 



NEWS FROM THE MAGAZINES. 



Colonel C. E. Shepherd has a ])apcr on ' The " 1-apilhis " in Fishes,' 
in The Zoologist for July. 

There are notes on ' The Moults and Sequence of l'lumaf,'cs in some 
liritish Ducks," by Annie C. Jackson, in British Birds for July. 

In Man for July, Mr. W. P. Pycraft puts forward ' A Plea for a sub- 
stitute for the Frankfort Base-line : with an account of a new method of 
drawing Skull Contours.' 

The Geological Magazine for July includes papers on ' The River Tyne 
Drainage Area,' by Edward Merrick, and ' Marine Hand in MidhuKl Coal- 
Measures, Lancashire,' by R. L. Sherlock. 

L>om. Mr. T. Fetch we have received a reprint of a paper on ' The 
Fungus-diseases of Hevea brasiliensis ' in the Internationaal Ritbber- 
Congres met Tentoonstelliiig, Batavia, 1914. 

We notice in the ' Additions to British Conchology, ' published in the 
Joiivnal of Conchology for July, a record of Trochus occidentalis ' off 
W'ithernsea, ' and Littorina riidis var. similis from the Isle of Man. 

The Lancashire and Cheshire Naturalist, No. 86, contains many reports 
issued by the members of the Lancashire and Cheshire Fauna Committee. 
There is also a record of ' Sclerotinia curreyana in the Kibble Valley.' 

The Scottish Naturalist for July is an unusually thick number, and is 
devoted entirely to ' A Report on Scottish Ornithology in 1914, including 
Migration,' by Evelyn V. Baxter and Leonora Jeifrey Rintoul, and is 
sold at IS. 6d. net. 

Wild Life for July contains a well illustrated paper on ' The Home 
Life of the Kestrel,' by O. J. Wilkinson ; ' Hobbies," by J. G. Cornish ; 
' The Otter,' by J. K. Emsley ; ' The Rmged Plover,' by William Farren, 
and ' Domestic Habits of the Little Grebe,' by Edmund Selous. 

In The Entomologist' s Monthly Magazine for July, Mr. J. Edwards 
has some notes on British Homoptera, which include records from York- 
shire, Nottinghamshire, and other northern stations ; illustrations are 
given. Mr. G. T. I^orritt has an interesting note on Cymatophora or. 

In The Entomologist's Record for July-August (page 160), occurs the 
following account of some remarkable achievements of some Swiss butter- 
vies :■ — 'On the I4tli 1 took six Polyommatus atnauda below St. Triphon 
Quarries, in the marsh on my bit of land there ; and yesterday live more, 
walking from St. Triphon to Aigle Rhone Bridge by the canal (most tvere 
about half way there).' We have heard of rabbits barking, but this is the 
first record of a butterflies' route march. 

Knowledge for July, publishes some excellent illustrations of insects 
and of plant structure, which show the very great perfection to which 
photography with the microscope has been brought. Some years ago, 
drawings had to be resorted to in order to bring out many of the details 
of the objects examined, but a great deal more now can be done by photo- 
graphy. Advantage is taken of colour-sensitive plates, and, in the instance 
to which we allude, of Wratten light filters also, which allow only ravs of 
certain colours to reach the photographic plate. 

W^e notice that the Scunthorpe museum has secured the collection 
formed by the late Fred Brown of Scunthorpe. It includes many barbed 
and leaf-shaped arrow-heads, spear-heads, borers, drills, knives, etc., and 
a large series of beautifully worked 'thumb-flints,' or 'strike-alights,' 
and scrapers. The ' pygmy ' flints are well represented by several hundred 
typical specimens, 'fhere is also a large dagger of black flint from Manton 
Common ; several stone celts, some Roman glass beads, Roman pottery, 
and 17th century pipes, all found near Scunthorpe. 

1915 Aug. 1. 



276 



NORTHERN NEWS. 



We notice that several Lincolnshire antiquities, collected by the late 
Edward Peacock, F.S.A., have been secured for the Lincoln museum. 

We have received Vol. IV., part i of The Botanical Society and Exchange 
Club of the British Isles, being the report for 1914, bj^ G. Claridge Druce. 
It occupies 108 pages, has a numter of interesting plates, and is sold at 5s. 

The Thoresby Society's Publication, Vol. XXII., part 3, just issued, 
contains an account of ' The Early Cross of Leeds,' by Prof. W. G. CoUing- 
wood, and Mr. A. S. Ellis writes on ' Yorkshire, a.d. 120, according to 
Ptolemy's Geography.' 

We are glad to learn that Mr. H. C. Versey, M.Sc, has obtained a renewal 
of the scholarship awarded by the Leeds University, in order to complete 
his researches upon the Permian Rocks, which he has been carrying out 
at the Leeds University, with Prof. Kendall and Mr. A. Gilligan.' 

Readers of this journal will remember the interesting contributions 
on the birds and spiders of Rydal, made by the late Miss M. L. Armitt. 
We are pleased to see there is a work on Rydal by Miss Armitt in the press, 
particulars of which will be gladly sent on application to Mrs. Stanford 
Harris, Rydal Cottage, Ambleside. 

At a recent meeting of the Zoological Society of London, Sir Edmund 
G. Loder exhibited the skull of a walrus, with record tusks, from Kam- 
schatka. They weighed twenty-one and a half pounds, and measured 
thirty-six and a half inches in length, twenty-nine and a half inches from 
outside the gum, and nine and five-eighth inches in girth. 

The Whitby Literary and Philosophical Society has issued its 92nd 
report. The chief item in it is the report for Meteorology by T. W. Parkin- 
son. The Society has thirty-two members, and three honorary members. 
During the year a little bunting, a hawfinch, three ' Cook ' prints, skin of 
a platypus, a map of the coast, and a view of Whitby, have been added to 
the collections. 

We are glad to welcome part ij oi A History of British Mammals 
(Gurnej' and Jackson), pages 503-552, 2S. 6d. net. It deals with the 
Field ]\Iouse, Hebridean Field Mouse, St. Kilda Field Mouse, Fair Isle 
Field Mouse, Yellow-necked Field Mouse, De Winton's Field Mouse ; and 
is well illustrated. The question of the identification of the various 
species of mice is becoming more and more difficult. 

The Journal of the Torquay Natural History Society (Vol. 2, No. i, 
61 pages, IS.) contains among many others, the following items ; ' The 
Life of a Shore Fly {Fiicomyia (Caelopa) frigida Fin.)', Major E. V. Elwes ; 
' Study and Collecting of Insects in South Devon,' Dr. C. L. Perkins ; 
' Devon Pansies,' by Miss C. Ethelinda Larter ; ' Kent's Cavern, with 
Plan,' and ' Relics of the Ice Age in Devon,' both by Harford J. Lowe. 

We Ifearn from a review in The Yorkshire Post that the Bankfield 
Museum, Halifax, has followed in the wake of several other museums 
during the past twenty years, viz., it ' has set an excellent example to 
other Corporation Museums and Libraries, by the issue of pamphlets 
dealing with particular svibjects appertaining to objects exhibited within its 
walls.' If any other museum is thinking of ' setting such an excellent 
example,' it must hurry up, as there will soon be no museums left that 
does not publish such handbooks. 

Readers of The Naturalist will be glad to see the following note received 
from Mr. George Mitchell, a member of the Vertebrate section of the 
Yorkshire Naturalists' Union, who is now with the British Expeditionary 
Forces in France. He states, ' I have several times seen a Kestrel hovering 
between our trenches and the Germans, absolutely taking no notice of 
the rifle fire, and I also saw a Common Buzzard starting to soar within 20 
yards of the ground and not 200 yards behind our fire trenches ! ! All 
the birds have got quite used to the war, and one can see larks and their 
broods which they have reared within twenty yards of our trenches.' 

Naturalist 



"A really useful contribution to economic science." 

Yorkshire Evening Post. 

LABOUR UNREST 

War-Time Thoughts 
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y 8 pages, crown 8vo, in strong paper wrapper, 6d. vet, post free 8d. 

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The " Oxford Magazitte" says : — *' We have not space to do 
justice to Mr, Toogood's contentions ; we can only recommend 
his pamphlet to the student of industrial relations, and observe 
that it is worth a good deal more than sixpence." 



Some Geographical Factors 
in the Great War 

By T. HERDMAN, M.Sc, F.G.S. 

(Lecturer in Geography, Municipal Training College, Hull). 

y2 pages, cro7vn 8vo, with 6 Maps, sewn in 
stout printed cover, gd. net, post free lod. 7iet. 

A feature of vast importance in the titanic struggle now taking 
place is the geographical condition of the various countries. In 
" Some Geographical Factors " the author provides much interesting 
information which helps his readers to a wider understanding of an 
important aspect of the present campaign. The concluding chapter 
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difficulties that face those statesmen to whose heads and hands will 
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SEPT. ipis- 



No. 704 

(No. 481 of vurrent aeries) 




A MONTHLY ILLUSTRATED JOURNAL OF 

NATURAL HISTORY FOR THE NORTH OF ENGLAND. 

EDITED BY 

T. SHEPPARD, M.Sc, F.Q.S., F.R.Q.S.. F.S.A.Scot.. 

The Museums, Hull ; 

AND 

T. W. WOODHEAD, Ph.D., M.Sc, F.L.S., 

Technical College, HuDDERSFiELn. 

WITH THE ASSISTANCE AS REFEREES IN SPECIAL DEPARTMENTS OF 

J. QILBERT BAKER. P.R.S. F.L.S., GEO. T. PORRITT. F.L.S.. F.H.S.. 

Pr«f. P. P. KENDALL, M.Sc. F.Q.S.. JOHN W. TAYLOR, M.Sc. 

T H. NELSON. M.Sc, M.B.O.U.. RILEY FORTUNE. F.Z.S. 



Contents : — 

Notes and Comments:— American Grey Squirrel ; Harvest Mice ; Forms of Sand ; Ravens 
on Bempton Cliffs ; Ecology of the Purple Heath-Grass ; Phylogeny and Relationship ni 
the Ascomycetes ; Curious Phenomenon in Pigeon-breeding; Bird Migration at Scar- 
borough ; Changes in Coleoptera Fauna 

Observations on the Qrey Seal— £(^wMnrf SWoi/s 

mouUing oi Ottlscus asellus Unni— Charles MosUy 

Yorkshire Naturalists at Hambleton. near Selby—U.f;./.H 

Yorkshire Naturalists at Hebden Bridge— IK EX. IF 

in Memoriam: Second-Lieutenant George Mitchell (Illustrated)— //.e./; 

Field Notes -.—Sermyki halensis var. cupiina Weise at Carlisle ; Arachnida at Settle ; Early 
Reference to the Plover in Yorkshire ; A new West Riding Heronry ; Torhila ccinua 
Lindb., near Leeds 

Bibliojrraphy:— Papers and Records relating to the Geology and Palaeontology of the North 
of England (Yorkshire excepted), published during 1914—2'. Sheppard, M.Sc, F.C.S. ... 

News Irom the Magazines 

Reviews and Book Notices 302. 

Northern News 

Illustrations 



•277-2.S0 
•281-284 
284-285 
286-291 
292-297 
298-299 

:i00-302 

303-300 

285 
307, ;%8 
280, 308 

298 



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IN THE PRESS. 



YORKSHIRE'S 

CONTRIBUTION TO SCIENCE 

{Based upon the Presidential Address to the Yorkshire 
Naturalists' Union, delivered at the Leeds University) 

By THOMAS SHEPPARD 

M.Sc, F.G.S., F.R.G.S., F.S.A.(Scot.) 

This work has been considerably extended, and occupies over 200 pages. 
It contains an account of the various scientific publications issued from 
Ackworth, Addingham, Barnsley, Ben Rhydding, Beverley, Bradford, 
Doncaster, Driffield, Goole, Halifax, Harrogate, Haworth, Hebden Bridge, 
Huddersfield, Hull, Idle, Ilkley, Keighley, Leeds, Malton, Middlesbrough, 
Pocklington, Pontefract, Ripon, Rotherham. Scarborough. Sedbergh, 
Selby, Settle, Sheffield, Wakefield, Whitby and York. In addition there 
is an exceptionally complete bibliography of the various natural history 
journals and publications, now issued for the first time. The author has 
been successful in obtaining many publications not in the British Museum. 

EXTRACT FROM PREFACE.— 

In the following pages an effort is made to indicate the various sources 
of information likely to be of service to a student in his work on any 
branch of natural science deahng with our broad-acred shire. The 
section arranged topographically under tow^ns shows what has been 
. accomplished in each place, while the remainder of the book is devoted 
to an enumeration of the general sources of information which should be 
consulted. I'nfortunately, several of the items are scarce, in many cases 
only one set being known, a circumstance which has induced me to give 
the bibliographical details rather fully. By a series of fortunate circum- 
stances, and as a result of several years' collecting, I possess sets of most 
of the publications mentioned, and shall endeavour to arrange that 
they remain intact for the benefit of future workers, as it will certainly 
be very difficult, if not impossible, to get such a collection together again. 
It is also hoped that the bibliographical particulars of the various 
journals and Societies' Transactions will be of service to librarians and 
others who often find it difficult to trace items of this character. I 
believe they are now given in this form for the first time. 



ORDER FORM, 

Please send me cop of Yorkshire's Contribution 

TO Science, bound in cloth, at ^s. 6d. net. 

Name 

Address 



T. Sheppard, M.Sc, 

Museum, Hull. 



277 
NOTES AND COMMENTS. 

AMERICAN GREY SQUIRREL. 

We have received an interesting reprint from The Field, deal- 
ing with the ' American (irey Squirrel in Britain,' by Mr. Hugh 
Bo3^d Watt. He summarises the occurrence of this species in 
this country, and, relating to our Yorkshire station he says : 
' At Scampston Hall, Rillington, Yorkshire, an experiment was 
made, I am informed, with some brought from Woburn. In 
a letter in Country Life (Oct. 17, 1914, p. 532), Mr. W. H. St. 
Ouintin stated that about thirty were turned out, and during 
the first year following they could not be found to be breeding, 
but presently they began to multiply rapidly, as many as nine 
young being found in one nest. Within two or three months 
after their introduction one was reported to have been killed 
about seven miles away. They were found to be so destructive 
that most of them have been got rid of after three years' con- 
stant warfare.' 

HARVEST MICE. 

In connection with the preparation of the new British 
Museum catalogue by 'Mr. Martin Hinton, we are asked for 
information in reference to the distribution of the harvest 
mouse, Mns miniitis. The verification is quite necessary, 
not only on account of the uncertainty which has prevailed, 
but also because it is quite possible that modern reaping 
machinery has exterminated him from districts where he was 
well-known a generation ago. Care must be taken not to 
confound him with other mice. He weaves his nest of grass 
about the size of a cricket ball, in common long grass, and is 
known to havesters and gamekeepers as ' the little red mouse.' 
Information should be sent to Mr. W. Lewis Reid, 46 Tytherton 
Road, Trefnell Park, London, N. 

FORMS OF SAXD.* 

This pamphlet, which is illustrated by a series of remarkable 
drawings, contains an account of some interesting observations 
made at Redcar in 1882-3 by Sir W. W. Strickland. He states : 
' Curiously enough the observations led the observer in those 
days to those very same dualistic and spiritual conceptions, 
which the intolerant religious fanatics were blowing themselves 
purple and apoplectic in endeavouring to impose by dilettante 
spiritualism and a priori dogma and assertions about a God and 
a will of God, which they pretended to know more about than 
anyone else. I have retained the reasoning that led to those 
conclusions as an interesting record of a transient phase of 
mind, long lived through. It seems unnecessary to take the 

* By Sir \\'. W. Strickland, Bart., B..\. MaIt<^.1^\BV H. Smithson^*'V^ 
and Blanchard, 36 pages, is. 6d. //t-^ 

1915 Sept. 1. if ^EP** 

- s 




tk^A^ 



278 Notes and Comments. 

trouble to refute them. Professor Le Due, in his wonderful 
book upon the production of life forms, by means of diffusion 
and osmotic pressure, has observed that form is the basis of 
life, and I may add that the laws of force and mathematics 
are the basis of form. This certainly opens the window to a 
nobler conception of nature than that it was cobbled together 
by a personal Creator with a consciousness — idealize it how 
you will — as imperfect a vehicle of truth as their own would 
be even were it not what it is and with sentiments as crude. 
But that it is possible that there may be something better than 
consciousness, feeling and personality, beyond the narrow 
sphere of these transient and unsatisfying illusions, in the 
absolute negation of them, is an idea inconceivable to our 
religious and " scientific " European owls.' 

RAVENS ON BEMPTON CLIFFS. 

Mr. Johnson Wilkinson has sent the following notice 
to the daily press : — ' No doubt you will be pleased to hear 
that through the kindness of Mr. St. Ouintin some young 
ravens have been set at liberty on Bempton Cliffs. It is to 
be hoped that no one will molest these interesting birds, but 
that they may have a chance of living and breeding on these 
Cliffs as formerly. It is considerably over a generation since 
the ravens bred there — one of the present climber's grand- 
father has shown to him where the old breeding site was (now 
in the sea). It may be mentioned that these birds have been 
added to the Protection Schedule of the 1880 Act, so that 
anyone killing or taking their eggs is liable to a heavy fine.' 
This notice was presumably issued by the Yorkshire Wild 
Birds' Protection Committee. 

ECOLOGY OF THE PURPLE HEATH-GRASS. 

In the current number of The Journal of Ecology there is 
an article by the Rev. T. A. Jefferies, F.L.S., on ' The Ecology 
of the Purple Heath Grass {Molinia caerulea).' An introductory 
section describes the area on Slaithwaite Moor near Hudders- 
field, in which the researches were carried out, and with the 
aid of a map draws attention to some special features of its 
plant associations which were carefully surveyed. Section 
two summarises from the biological standpoint the chief facts 
of Molinia structure, emphasising especially its well developed 
root system, its storage organs, its mechanical strength, and 
its ' acquatic type of leaf strengthened to resist the mechanical 
stresses of wind.' In the third section the author attempts 
to find the key to the extremely varied habitats favoured by 
the species, and discusses the relation between the grass and 
its closest competitors, Nardus striata and Eriophorum vagina- 
turn, its hold on the flushes, its relation to springs and to 

Naturalist, 



Notes and Comments. 279 

surface slopes, its presence as an early invader in degenerate 
fields, and its development in many localities into a marginal 
belt. He concludes that the main factor in its distribution is 
the water supply, that as compared with Matt Grass it requires 
more water and compared with Cotton Grass it requires fresher, 
i.e., better aerated and less acid water. This conclusion is 
supported by the results of experiments on soil content and 
acidity, the method of determining soil acidity by titration 
being described. The last section deals with 'seed' dispersal, 
where we get a description of what is called ' sun-crack plant- 
ing,' with the invasion of Molinia of Calluna moors and of woods 
with the closed association, with the plant as a peat former, 
and with the phenomena of retrogression. The paper is well 
illustrated by a map, one text figure and thirteen photographs. 

PHYLOGENY AND RELATIONSHIPS IN THE ASCOMYCETES. 

From Prof. G. F. Atkinson, of the Cornell University, we 
have received an interesting paper with the above heading, 
reprinted from the Annals of the Missouri Botanical Gardens. 
The author points out that perhaps there is no other large 
group of plants whose origin and phylogeny have given rise 
to such diametrically opposed hypotheses as the fungi. The 
presence of chlorophyll and the synthesis of carbohydrated 
from inorganic materials, are such general and dominant 
characteristics of plants, that many students regard them as 
the fundamental traits which primarily mark the divergence 
of plant from animal life. According to this hypothesis all 
plants possess chlorophyll, or were derived from chlorophyll- 
bearing ancestors. No one questions the origin of the chloro- 
phylless seed plants from chlorophyll bearing ones by the loss 
of chlorophyll and reduction of photosynthetic organs. What 
is more natural then, than the hypothesis that the fungi have 
been derived from chlorophyll-bearing ancestors ? It is not 
his purpose to discuss the question as to whether or not the 
Phycomycetes or lower fungi, had an independent origin, or 
were derived from one or several different groups of the green 
algJE. He considers some of the evidence which points to the 
origin of the Ascomycetes from fungus ancestry, rather than from 
the red algae. Professor Atkinson's paper is accompanied by 
a chart showing the suggested phylogeny of the Ascomycetes, 
and there is an extensive list of literature quoted. 

CURIOUS PHENOMENON IN PIGEON-BREEDING. 

The late Professor C. O. Whitman, of Chicago, spent many 
years in the study of pigeons, and, in Knowledge for August, 
Professor J. Arthur Thomson expresses the hope that his 
unpublished observations will be made available. One of 
the phenomena which he noticed was that, if certain somewhat 

1915 Sept. 1. 



28o Notes and Comments. 

distantly related kinds of pigeons be crossed, and if the eggs 
be taken away as fast as they are laid (so as to induce the pair 
to continue to lay fertile eggs), then in the spring both eggs 
of a clutch will usually develop into males, while in the autumn 
both will usually develop into females. In the transition period 
the first egg of the clutch usually develops into a male, and the 
second into a female. 

BIRD MIGRATION AT SCARBOROUGH. 

In British Birds for August is a record of unusual migration 
of Sea-Birds at Scarborough. The writer during the last week 
of June and the first week of July was daily on the Marine Drive 
and Piers, and on each occasion there were ' thousands of 
Guillemots, in small parties, numbering from half a dozen 
individuals up to 40 or 50 together. A steady stream of such 
flocks were passing all day ui.til dusk, and almost all going 
in the same directior, very few returning south, and these 
mostly single birds. Smaller numbers of Razorbills, Puffins, 
Kittiwakes and Herring-Gulls were also noticable, and all 
proceeding steadily northwards. This migration was still con- 
tinuing on July 1 6th, when many birds were passing, although 
not in such numbers as previously.' 

CHANGES IN COLEOPTERA FAUNA. 

In The Entomologist's Monthly Magazine for August, ]\Ir. 
G. B. Walsh gives some ' Observations on Some of the Causes 
determining the Survival and Extinction of Insects, with 
special reference to the Coleoptera.' He explains the geological 
features and the physiographical changes which have taken 
place in the vicinity of the Humber, Tees, Wear and Tyne, 
which are the areas dealt with in his notes. He compares 
the present and past faunas of the Yorkshire Wolds, the 
Holderness marshes, and so on. We hardly agree with him 
however, in assuming that if coast erosion goes on at its present 
rate ' it will be only a comparatively short time to the complete 
disappearance of Spurn Point, with its rich store of sea-coast 
and sand-hill species.' As a matter of fact, the more the coast 
is eroded the more Spurn grows, as it is made up of material 
washed from the cliffs. Spurn has considerably extended 
during the past century. 



In sending reports of the animals and plants observed on the ex- 
cursions of the Yorkshire Naturalists' Union, etc., will our contributors 
kindly note that it is not desirable to give lists of common species of 
general distribution. There is always much more material to print than 
we can find room for in the journal, and it is a pity to occupy space with 
information of this kind. As far as possible the lists should be confined 
to new records for the districts visited, unless, of course, there is some 
special rieason for mentioning the species. 

Naturalist, 



28l: 

OBSERVATIONS ON THE GREY SEAL. 



EDMUND SELOUS. 



{Continued from page ^57). 

October 15TH. — ^Re-embarked for the island alone. I 
had hoped to get away by 3 p.m., but the nominally more 
important things of life supervening and demanding the writing 
of various letters, etc., it must have been nearer six I think, 
when I was put ashore — for always I have no watch. I did 
not go near the shed, determining to confine my observations 
to the pair of Grey Seals and their young one last watched by 
me in the nearer bay. After nightfall it came on very dark, 
with no moon, and after having gazed into this darkness for 
sometime without any phosphorescent form of a Seal appearing, 
I desisted, made my bed, and went to sleep. 

October i6th.— Before it was full light, I left the tent and 
climbed up to a rocky pinnacle overlooking the whole bay. 
The young Seal lay on its back on the rocks apparently asleep. 
The tide was then well out, but rising, and it was not until it 
had come a good deal farther in that one of the old Seals — I 
think the female- — appeared. I, however, only saw it for a 
moment or two. I think it had just swum through the bay, 
giving a general glance round. In a little while I again saw it 
close in amongst the rocks, but once more it dived and dis- 
appeared. Then a considerable interval passed, after which 
it came again, but went away, almost as soon, after much the 
same procedure as previously noted. In a subsequent visit 
however, it stayed longer. 

It having seemed to me before that these Seals closed their 
eyes when sinking, but not having been sufficiently certain to 
make the statement, I now paid particular attention, with the 
result that I certainly saw it close them several times when its 
head was just above water, and now again nine times just as 
it has sunk it, so that this seems fairly made out. The nostrils 
are also closed. This last may be invariable, but I should 
hardly think it was with the eyes. They must be re-opened, I 
suppose, when once the whole head is under water, but it seemed 
to me that the animal disliked getting any dash of the wave 
into them. 

At this point the yacht arrived. As a result, the old Seal, 
which had been just about to feed her young one, went off, and 
the young one, as I believe, some little while afterwards, also 
took to the sea. That it is now quite capable of doing so is un- 
doubted, since I saw it come out of the water on to the rocks, 
one or two mornings ago, though I may have forgotten to enter 
it. Also, in the later afternoon to-day it came into the shore 

1915 Sept. 1. , 



282 Selous : Observations on the Grey Seal. 

again, evidently with the idea of coming out, but again theAvan- 
dering human form turned it away. Heatherley, King and 
myself now walked towards the farther nook of the shore, 
where the two young Seals, the younger of which was born 
now four days ago, are accustomed to lie on the rocks. As 
we got there one of these was being suckled. I could, it is 
true, only just see the body of the old Seal, but both from her 
attitude (on her side) and position in relation to the calf, I 
feel sure of the fact. But which of the two calves was it that 
she was suckling ? I certainly took it to be the larger and 
older one of the two, and our skipper's son, an alert lad of some 
sixteen or so, when the point arose, sometime afterwards, 
stated positively that it was. The point, as will shortly be 
seen, is of interest and therefore I emphasise the fact, that this 
lad, without knowledge of the question at issue or having 
personal interest in the matter, beyond that which belongs to 
an eye-witness as such (which, however, would be here pretty 
keen), gave prompt and positive testimony to having seen 
and distingusihed both the young Seals, and that it was the 
larger of the two that was with the parent. How far the 
suckling had proceeded, whether it was but just begun or (as 
I now think) nearly over, I cannot say, for, with a view to test- 
ing the truth of the various stories- — none, so far as I know, 
satisfactorily attested — of phocine delight in the ' concord of 
sweet sounds,' the gramaphone was now set going, with the 
instantaneous effect (to all appearance) of sending the mother 
into the water. Here she hung about, close in shore, with all 
the appearance of being pleased with the strains, but as she 
continued to do so after they had ceased, for a reason which 
will shortly appear, it will be seen that the post hoc here by no 
means implies the propter hoc. Meanwhile the calf that had 
been with the old Seal just before her flight, climbed further up 
upon the rock and went to sleep, lying on its back in a very 
comfortable looking manner, quite in consonance with the view 
that it had been fed. A little while afterwards the newly-born 
calf came into view, and, after considerable delay, the same 
mother Seal came in and suckled it. On the point of identity 
I can speak here with confidence, but I am not, it seems, 
entitled to feel equally sure in regard to that of the young Seal 
that had just gone to sleep, as described, since my notes state 
as follows : — ' I am very sorry that I cannot say with absolute 
certainty that it was the calf which, at the time of our arrival 
was being suckled, that thus acted.' I cannot now (when 
copying out my notes a month afterwards) recall every detail 
to my memory, but since the relative sizes of the two young 
Seals did not allow of their being mistaken, one for the other, 
if clearly seen, and since there was no doubt at all in regard 
to the identity of the one last suckled, whilst my description 

• Naturalist, 



Selotis : Observations on the Grey Seal. 283 

of tlie other one's actions certainly suggests tliat I saw it 
plainly too, the evidence is, I think, fairly good that the same 
mother suckled this pair of young Seals. Several times before 
this, whilst watching in the shed, a grown Seal had appeared 
off the rocks where the larger calf was lying, and once, particu- 
larly, seemed several times on the point of entering the little 
cove or channel running up to the point from which they were 
ascendable. This Seal did not look big enough for a male, 
and seemed to me to have a sh^^er manner than the one that 
was undoubtedly the mother of the newl^^-born calf,* and it 
always went away without landing. At that time the respect- 
ive calves were well separated, but now the elder had travelled 
down towards the younger one, and the two were near each 
other. My idea is that the shed and humanity, combined, kept 
the mother of the earlier born calf from discharging her duties 
towards it, either wholly or in part, that the latter, either by 
chance or design, worked its wslj down to the younger one, 
whose mother then charitably suckled them both. 

The last mentioned suckling was the same interesting sight 
as it has always been, but there was no new feature to recount. 
As once before, it took place half on the rock and half in the 
sea. During the interval between this and the last one, whilst 
the mother hung about outside the little cove, as one may 
almost call it when the tide is in (as now) the baby Seal had 
swum and disported there, thoroughly enjoying itself, and now, 
after the feeding, there was the pretty sight of mother and 
child swimming and playing about in it together, the little 
one now pressing to its mother, then swimming a little way 
away from her, returning and pressing up to her again — and 
this went on for a considerable time. Often the young one 
would get upon the mother's back, as she swam, or perhaps I 
should rather say would lie upon it, for this seemed to me more 
an effect of its pressing, and her sinking herself a little, than to 
represent an actual purpose on the part of both or either. 
Whether premeditated or not, however, the calf was sometimes 
there lengthwise for a minute or two. The calf would often 
roll on its back in the water, and flick up with one of its 
flippers, in, to all appearance, frolicsome mood, which struck 
me as remarkable in a thing so young. It was a sweet and 
lovely sight. 

October i8th. — ^Having left the island yesterday, without 
anything further to enter, I returned to it to-day, in company 
with King and Heatherley. Whilst the latter were occupied in 
photography I peeped about behind the ridge way of that part 



* On her first suckling it she bore the plainest marks of recent par- 
turition, which only went by degrees. 

1915 Sept. 1. 



284 Selous : Observations on the Grey Seal. 

of the coast -line which forms here on the * side, 

during ordinary tides, three Httle inlets which have become now, 
through the present spring-tides, so many straits between rocky 
islets, at high water. In one of these I saw a young Seal swim- 
ming about and much enjoying itself, often on its back, with 
one or other flipper projecting from the water and flapped 
lazily and luxuriously, as before described. Before long this 
young one was joined by its mother and there was again the 
sympathetic sight of the two playing affectionately together, 
the young one once or twice on the old one's back, but not 
oftener, and it again struck me that this was not a definitely 
proposed thing, but that it came about sometimes more or less 
fortuitously. To these general frolic — or play- — actions I 
have to add the specialised one of nosing, now several times 
seen by me, but before this only during or just before suckling. 
Mother and calf press their noses, more particularly — to some 
extent the whole muzzle- — lightly together, and keep them thus 
for a few seconds. In sackling (though I have not before 
recorded it) this may take place as the mother and calf meet, 
or the mother will move her head round to the calf, in an interval 
of the feeding, as she sometimes raises and sweeps it a little in 
its direction merely to look at it. On these occasions, the 
initiative is all on her part but thus performed in the water 
it is — that is to say it was now shared by both of them. The 
action is very light, and is over quite quickly — ^like smelling 
a rose. It is very pleasant to witness, seeming to be full of 
a mutual quiet affection. 

[To be continued). 



MOULTING OF ONISCUS ASELLUS, LINNE. 



CHARLES MOSLEY. 



While gardening on the afternoon of July 7th, my daughter 
Beatrice discovered a woodlouse {Oniscus aselhis Linne.), 
in the act of casting its skin. The creature had taken up its 
position for the purpose amongst broken ' crocks,' used for 
potting. The process of casting the anterior portion of the 
skin was in operation, and we watched it to the finish. The 
head and the next two or three segments were still under the 
old skin, which, however, was ver}^ loose ; apparently it had 
already almost left the larger surface of the body, and the 
animal was then engaged more in extricating the limbs, 
antennae, legs, etc. The old skin was very pale grey and semi- 

* I must confess to not knowing whether it was north, south, east or 
west. 

Naturalist, 



Monltin^;^ of Oniscus asellus Linne. 285 

transparent, but not sufficiently so to be able to see clearly 
what was going on beneath. The posterior portion of the 
body, i.e., the last nine segments, had a very fresh look, having 
recently shed its portion of the old skin ; that portion of the 
fore part which was visible, viz., the fifth, fourth and a little 
of the third segments, were much shrunken, giving a very 
curious appearance to the woodlouse. It would appear that 
the process of moulting is anticipated by a shrinking of the 
body within, which, thus contracted, leaves the old skin loosely 
about it and facilitates casting. Every few seconds the animal 
visibly contracted the frontal segments by muscular action, 
and in so doing pulled itself slightly out of the old skin, these 
periods of activity being alternated by longer periods of qui- 
escence. This continued for about fifteen minutes, when the 
old skin was completely shed. The position of the woodlouse 
on an inclined plane caused the cast skin to drop on to the 
ground some inches away, therefore I had not the opportunity 
of ascertaining whether the animal would have regarded it in any 
way. 

The dorsal plates of the fifth to the second segments of the 
discarded skin were intact, and on the underside still attached 
to the plates, were the ' shells ' of the four pairs of legs. I 
could find no trace of the ventral plates, but the head clearly 
showed the several appendages attached thereto in the living 
animal — maxillae, mandibles, antennae, etc. 

That portion of the woodlouse just moulted was not colour- 
less, but was of a brown hue, varying little in this respect 
from the hinder portion previously moulted, except that, as 
already mentioned, whilst the latter portion was bright and 
glossy, the former was dull, with a decided ' bloom ' upon it. 
The dorsal plates of the ' new ' portion, i.e., as far as the fifth 
segment, were narrower than the remainder, and were rather 
more convex, being curved somewhat down the sides of the 
body. The first four pairs of legs were very short, quite invisible 
from above, and obviously as yet not available for walking, 
as the animal pushed itself along by means of the three hinder 
pairs already hardened and serviceable. 

At this stage I placed the woodlouse in confinement, hoping 
thus to have opportunity of noting its development during the 
succeeding days ; but apparently its new quarters were not 
congenial, and it died. 

: o : 

In an article on " Coal Smoke and Stone Work," which appears in 
The Quarry for August, it is estimated that in one year Gtj millions tons 
of coal were carbonised in the retorts of our gas works. 

In The Lancashire and Cheshire Naturalist for July, I\Ir. H. \V. Robin- 
son draws attention to many inaccuracies in the bird list published in 
the " Victoria Country History of Lancashire " ; and Mr. W. H. \^'estern 
figures some Galls on Hieractum boreale. 

1915 Sept. 1. 



286 



YORKSHIRE NATURALISTS AT HAMBLETON, 
NEAR SELBY. 

{Continued froin page 266). 

Arachnida. — Mr. W. Falconer writes : — The advantage of 
a more restricted area than usual for investigation was more 
than counterbalanced by the exceeding dryness, and lack of 
depth of debris on the ground. The latter situation produced 
very little, and collecting was therefore mainly confined to 
beating and sweeping. Generally speaking, spiders were not 
plentiful ; no false scorpion was seen, and only two mites, one 
of which, Anystis haccarum Linn., was fairly abundant. Of the 
three Epeirids mentioned in the circular, two were again met 
with, qiiadrata being the absentee, but in its place Epeira 
stiirmii Hahn., a recently discriminated British spider, was 
beaten from a fir-tree. Many immature examples and one 
well-grown $ of Epeira pyramid at a Clerck, were obtained, as 
also were a few spiders for which additional county records are 
desirable, viz., Theridion varians Hahn., T. vittahim Koch., 
T. him acid atum Linn., Entelecara acuminata Wid., Styloctetor 
penicillatus Westr. and Salticiis cingidatiis Panz. 

Dr. Fordham and Mr. Stainforth assisted in the collecting. 

The names of the 58 species of spiders, four of harvestmen 
and two of mites so far yielded by the wood, are given below : — 



o 

?■ 



Spiders. 
Harpactes hombergii Scop 
Sagestria senoculata Linn. 
Clubiona lutescens Westr. 
C. reciusa Camb. (J, 9s. 
C. brevipes Bl. $. 
Dictyna iincinata Westr. 
A nianrobius fenestralis Stroem 
Theridion vittatuni Koch. Sev. 2s. 
T. sisyphiiim Clerck. ^s, ^s. 
T. denticulaUtm Walck. q, O. 
T. varians Hahn. $. 
T. bimacidatiim Linn. ^. 
T. pallens Bl. ^s, $s. qS., ^s- 
Phyllonethis liiieata Clerck. and var. 

redimita Koch. ,^s., $s. 
Robertus lividns Bl. ^J. 
Drapetisca socialis Sund. ^s- 
Linyphia montana Clerck. 2s. 
L. peltata Wid. (Js, ^s. 
L. triangularis Clerk. 2s. 
Leptyphantes blackwallii Kulcz. 

c^s, $s. 
L. obscurus Bl. ,^s. ^s- 
Bathyphantes approximatus Camb. 

S. $s. 
B. nigriniis Westr. 2s. 
B. dorsalis Wid. ^s, 2s. 
Agyneta conigera Camb. 2- 



Maso sundevallii Westr. (J, 2- 

Gongylidiuni rufipes Sund. 2s- 

Erigone pvomiscua Camb. q. 

E. dentipalpis Wid. 2- 

E. atra Bl. ^. 

Lophontma punctatum Bl. 2- 

Dicymbium nigrum Bl. ^, $. 

D. iibiale B.l ^. 

Enidia bituberculata Wid. 2. 
Dismodiciis bifrons Bl. 2- 
Entelecara acuminata Wid. (Js, 2s. 

E. erythropus Westr. (J. 
Savignia jrontata Bl. 2- 
Metopobactrus promiiiuliis Camb. 

<^s, 2s. 
Styloctetor penicillatus Westr. q . 
Cornicularia cuspidata Bl. 2s. 
Tetragnatha solandrii Scop. 2s- 
Meta segmentata Clerck. (^s, 2s- 
M. meriance Scop. 2s. and imm. 
Epeira pyramidata Clerck. 2 ^"^^ 

imm. 
E. diademata Clerck. Imm. 
E. cuciirbitina Clerk. 2- 
E. stiirmii Hahn. 2- 
E. itynbratica Clerck. 2- 
E.quadrata Clerck. 1877. 
Xysticus cristatus Clerck. 2 ^^d 

imm. 

Naturalist, 



Yorkshire Naturalists at Hamhleton. 287 

Philodvomus dispar WsiXcV. $. Harvestmen. 

P. cespiticolis \\&\ck. ^, $s. J'/atybumis cormger Hcrm. 

Pirata pivaticus Clerck. $s. Uobinnim rotundtim Latr. 

Lvcosa amentata Clerck. ^, $s. Oligolophus morio Fabr. 

L. piillata Clerck. ^. O. ephippiatus. C. Koch. 
L. htgitbnsWvAc'k. $. Mites. 

Salticits ciiigulidus Panz. 9- Gamasus cyassipes Linn. 

Anystis baccantm Linn. 

COLEOPTERA. — Dr. W. J. Fordham writes : — The work 
accomplished by the three coleopterists present, with the aid 
of one or two other members, was very satisfactory. The total 
(excluding a few species still unidentified) reached 148 species, 
including 13 species new to V.C. 64 and one species new to 
Yorkshire. The members of the Coleoptera Committee 
present were Dr. Corbett, Mr. T. Stainforth and the writer. 

The most noticeable feature was the abundance of Tele- 
phorida; ; lividiis L. and pellucidus F. being in swarms, and 
among the latter were two specimens of Podabrtts alpinns Pk., 
exactly similar in colouring and not distinguished from it in 
the field, or more specimens might have been taken. Podabrus 
alpinns is only previously known from Wheatley Wood and 
North Yorkshire. One specimen of Rhagonycha testacea L. 
occurred among the commoner limbata Th. and pallida F. It 
is a very local insect in Yorkshire. Malachius bipustulatus L. 
was common. Two species of Scymniis viz., nigrinus Kug. and 
capitatns F. were taken singly, both having previously only 
one record each (in North Yorks.) An entirely black specimen 
of Micropeplits staphylinoides Marsh occurred in the sweep net, 
and one example of Gymnetron beccabimgce L. (of the var. 
nigrum Hardy), which latter insect is new to Yorkshire. A look 
out was kept for Strangalia armata Hbst. which Mr. Roebuck 
had found to be abundant on umbellifers on a previous visit, 
but none was seen. The only Longicornes taken were Clytus 
arietis L. (two specimens) and Grammoptera riificornis F. 
(several, including an extremely small form, and one much 
above the average size). Mr. B. Morley handed in a specimen 
of Attelabus cnrculionoides L. of which insect he saw several 
on young oaks. Bembidium rufescens Guer., Bradycellus 
placidus Gyll. and Trechus secalis Pk., were taken by Mr. 
Falconer when searching for Spiders in the marshy field near 
the wood. A small specimen of Brachytarsiis varius F. (rare 
and only previously taken near Doncaster), was picked out of 
Mr. Porritt's umbrella, probably beaten from pine, where the 
larva feeds on a Lecanium. 

Among ]\Ir. Stainforth's captures were four specimens of 
Melandrya caraboides L. from under the bark of an old willow 
tree. This local and handsome blue black insect has been 
recorded for Selby by the Rev. C. D. Ash. Mr. Stainforth 
notes that he captured large numbers of Anchomemis oblongiis 
St^Ti., a local species, which however, often turns up in numbers 

1915 Sept. 1. 



Yorkshire Naturalists at Hamhleton. 



in a limited area. A specimen of Xantholiniis ochraceiis Gyll. 
was taken of a dark form which Mr. W. E. Sharp thinks is a 
northern race, and which occurs occasionally at Bubwith. 
Phyllobius oblongus L. was very abundant and varied greatly 
in size and colour. 

Other beetles deserving special mention are: — Hygronoma 
dimidiata Gr., very local, nearest localities are Askham Bog and 
Bubwith. Gyrophaena gentilis Er., only previously recorded 
from N.E. Yorks. Meligethes Y^lfipes Gyll., very local and new 
to V.C. 64. Psylliodes af finis Pk., on Solanum Dulcamara. 
Only records, York and Bubwith. Hypera rumicis L., a local 
species taken at Hull, Filey and Ashkam Bog. Magdalis pruni 
L., rare (previous records, York and Rossington). 

In the following list of species the dagger (f) indicates that 
the insect has not previously been recorded from Yorkshire, 
and the asterisk (*) that the record is new for V.C. 64, M.W. 
Yorks. Species very common generally have not been included. 



Notiophilus palustris Duft. 
Bradycellus placidus Gyll. 
Pterostichus strenuus Pz. 
Anchomenus angiisticollis F. 
A. oblongus Stm. 

A. fiiligiiiosus Pz. 
Boiihidimu nifescens, Guer. 

B. jlaniinulatiim Clair. 
Patrobus excavatus Pk. 
Trechiis secalis Pk. 

* Brychius elevatus Pz. 
Hyphydrus ovatus L. 

* Gyrophaena gentilis Er. 
Hygronoma dimidiata Er. 
Tachyportts solutus Er. 

T. pusillus Gr. 

Ocypus briinnipes F. 

Philonthus fimetarius Gr. 

Xantholiniis ochraceus Gyll. 

Stiliciis affinis Er. 

Stenus bimaculatus Gyll. 

5. briinnipes Steph. 

5. pallitarsis Steph. 

5. picipes Steph. 

Lesteva longelytrata Goeze. 

Anthobium torquatum Marsh. 

Necrophoriis vespillo L. 
*Scymnus nigrinus Kng. 
*S. capitatus F. 

*Micropeplus staphylinoides jNIarsh. 
*Meligethes rufipes Gyll. 
*M. liimbaris Stm. 

M. viridescens F. 

Bytunis tomentosiis F. 

Agriotes pallidulus 111. 

Dolopius marginatus L. 



Corymbites quevcus Gyll. 
Campylus linearis L. 

* Cyphon nitidulus Th. 
* Podabriis alpinus Pk. 

Telephorus pellucidiis F. 
T. nigricans Mull. 

* T. lituratus Fall. 

* Rhagonycha testacea L. 
*R. pallida ¥. 

Malthodes marginatus Lat. 
Malachius bipustulatus L. 
Clytus arietis L. 
Grammopfera ruficornis F. 
Hydrothassa marginella L. 
Aphthona nonstriata Goez. 
Mantura riistica L. 
Psylliodes affinis Pk. 
Melandrya caraboides L. 

* Brachytarsus varius F. 
Attelabus curciilionoides L. 
Apion ervi Kirb. 

A . violaceum Kirb. 
A. hiimile Germ. 
Polydrusiis cervinus L. 
Phyllobius oblongus L. 
Hypera rumicis L. 
Erirhinus acridiilus L. 
'[Gymnetron beccahiinga L. (var. 
nigrum Hardy). 
Cceliodes 4 maculatus L. 

* Poophagus sisymbrii F. 
Ceuthorhynchus erysimi F. 
C. contractus Marsh 
Ceuthorhynchideus floralis Pk. 
Rhinoncus pericarpius L. 
Magdalis pruni L. 



Botany. — Mr. W. E. L. Wattam writes : — In all probability 
Bishop Wood is on the site of the ancient forest of the Ouse and 

Naturalist, 



Yorkshire Naturalists at Hambleton. 289 

Uerwent. From the evidence still remaining, it was originally a 
Carr Wood covered by alder, willow, poplar, and birch in the 
wetter parts, and chiefly by oak in the drier parts. Considerable 
changes have, of course, taken place by reason of constant 
felling and replanting, but although covering such a large 
acreage the wood is devoid of any particular planned zonation 
of its timber growth. The oak, both of the types pediinculata 
and sessiliflora, is common, and there is a good admixture of 
ash, beech, sycamore, mountain elm, small-leaved elm, birch, 
alder, goat willow, crack willow, black poplar, white poplar, 
elder, geulder rose, hazel, spruce, scot's pine, and larch. 

The type of vegetation found in the wetter parts of the wood 
is an association consisting chiefly of Angelica sylvestris, Cniciis 
palnstris, Spircea nlmaria, Epilohium angitstifolium, Iris 
pseud- acorns, a vigorous grass sward of Aira ccespitosa, and 
Poa trivialis, and an abundance of the ferns, Lastrea Filix- 
fcemina, L. filix-mas, and L. spinulosa. Undoubtedly one of 
the floral charms of the wetter drives was the abundance of 
Lysimachianemoriim, whose massed wealth of blossom clothed 
this particular habitat as with a ' cloth of gold.' 

In the drier parts of the wood the association was of S cilia 
jestalis, Allium ursinum. Primula vulgaris, Oxalis Acetosella, 
Sanicula europcea and Holcus, with zones of Pteris acquilina. 
Where deeper shade occurs prominent plants are Circa; a 
lutetiana, Mecurialis perennis, Melica uniflora and Brachypod- 
ium sylvaticum, along with the ferns previously mentioned. 

Near the south side of the wood there is a large portion of 
ground which, some years ago, was broken up for small holdings. 
These fell into disuse, and this area was replanted with young 
trees of ash, elder, alder, birch, sycamore, larch, and species 
of pine. The ground is extremely moist, and the undergrowth 
consists of Epilohium angusttjolium, Spircea Ulmaria, Cnicus 
palustris, Scrophularia nodosa, S. aquatica, Ajuga repfans, 
Galium palustre, Digitalis purpurea, Arctium Lappa, Aira 
ccBspitosa, Poa trivialis, and Dactylis glomerata. The chief 
plants of the dry ridges of the cart tracks are Potentilla Tormcn- 
tilla, P. reptans, and Stellaria holostea. 

A further pleasing feature of the woodland carpet is un- 
doubtedly the ferns which luxuriate to perfection. Lastrea 
Filix-fcemina and L. filix-mas are exceptionally common, and 
L. spinulosa is abundant also. Where practically pure oak 
occurs Pteris acquilina grows vigorously, and is of great height. 
A single patch of Poly podium Dryopteris was noted, but most 
noteworthy was Polypodium Phegopteris in one part of the wood 
covering about twelve square yards of ground, and in the im- 
mediate vicinity were other fair-sized patches of the same fern. 

A hue form of bramble was met with, thought to be the 
variety Balfourianus. It was about four and half feet in 

1915 Sept. 1. 



290 Yorkshire Naturalists at Hamhleton. 

height, with many vigorous off-shoots. The fohage was also 
very large, and the flowers, of good size, were borne on stems 
about nine inches in length. There is also a patch of the 
Convallaria majalis, and Mr. Cawthorn subsequently sent me 
specimens of Echium vulgare. 

The duckpond in the wood yielded Myriophylliim spicatiim, 
Potamogeton natans and Lemna trisidca. Along its borders 
flourished Lycopus europceus, Iris pseud- aconts, Lysimachia 
nummularia, Scrophularia aquatica, Orchis macidata, Epipactis 
palustris and Car ex remota. 

Before entering the wood the vegetation of a portion of 
Hambleton Dyke was examined, and here were noted Ranun- 
cidits sceleratus, Veronica Anagallis, Hippuris vulgaris, Cera- 
tophyllum demersum, and Glyceria jluitans. 

Mycology. — Mr. A. E. Peck writes : — This section was 
represented by Messrs. W. N. Cheesman, R. Fowler Jones and 
myself. Bishop Wood can never be a ' Mycologists' Paradise ' 
so long as it is so ' well kept,' old and decayed trees being practi- 
cally non-existent. The long spell of dry weather, as expected, 
operated against great ' finds.' 

On an old willow outside the wood Fomes fomentarius 
occurred, and Poly poms Rostkcnni, new to the district, was 
found on a stump in the wood. 

It was observed with some interest that Polyporus squamosiis 
here frequently possesses a central and symmetrical stem, 
whereas lateral stems are the usual form. 

The following is a full list of the species met with. The 
Mycetozoa hst, which is supphed by Mr. Cheesman, includes 
species gathered by him on a visit made three weeks earlier. 

Avmillaria mellea (mycelium only). Xylaria hypoxyloii. 

Collybia platyphylla. Nectria cinuabarimt. 

Mycena sanguinolenta. 

Russida olivascens. Mycetozoa. 

Lentinns lepideus. Badhamia utricularis. 

Hypholoma fasciciilare. Physanmi nutans var. leucophcBum. 

H. velutinus. Cribraria auvantiaca. 

Polvpovus sqiiamosiis. Comatricha nigra. 

P. Rostkovii. C. elegans. 

Fomes fomentarius. Steniouitis flavogenita. 

Polystictus versicolor. Dictydiaethalium plumbeum. 

Poria vaporaria. Trichia persimilis. 

Solenia anomola. T. varia. 

Corticium calcium. T. botrytis. 

C. Sambuci. T. decipiens syn. fallax. 

Helotium luteolum Currey. Hemitrichia clavata. 

H. aureum Pers. Avcyria ferruginea. 

Melanomma pulvis-pyrius Fckl. A. nutans syn. flava. 

Daldinea concentrica. Lycogala epidendrum. 

Geology. — Mr. T. Sheppard reports : — With the guidance 
of Messrs. J. F. Musham and W. Reeston, the members com- 
prising the geological section took the road to Bra^iion Barff 

Nat iralist. 



Yorkshire Naturalists at Hamhleton. 291 

and thence to Hambleton. At the Barff, Mr. B. McGray, the 
Waterworks Manager, kindly showed the members round the 
waterworks and also exhibited some interesting cores taken 
from borings on the Barff. One of these was of particular 
value, as it enabled the formation of the Lady Well or Wishing 
Well to be determined. 

Brayton Barff itself is an ' outlyer ' or island of sandstone 
left behind while the great mass of Trias, which once existed 
where the Vale of York now is, was being denuded. Judging 
from the cores, on the top of this island at the close of the Ice 
Age, or possibly some time after, a lake was formed covering 
about 2\ acres. The lower part of the section consisted of a 
very find bed of clay ; upon this was a white deposit greatly 
resembling the chara marl (though more sandy), found in the 
lacustrine deposits on the Holderness coast, and upon this 
again was a layer containing decayed vegetation. If this 
surmise is correct it seems very likely that a small mere once 
existed at the top of this sandstone island, the clay bed of 
which still holds the water which supplies the Wishing Well. 
It is possible, of course, that this may have originated at the 
time the ice filled the Vale of York, the Barff being between 
the two ice streams which its presence formed. We hear 
locally that for many years it has been the practice of the 
Selby people, mostly young people, to throw some trifle into 
this well, at the same time wishing whatever was the particular 
fancy of the person at the time. ' 

Capping Brayton Barff is a large deposit of gravel, very 
similar indeed to that of Holme-on-Spalding-Moor and Mill 
Hill, Brough, and other places in the district. Of course the 
gravel rests between the solid bed of sandstone and the lake 
bed already referred to. A good section in the gravel was 
examined, and from this was obtained quite an interesting 
collection of glacial erratics, namely : — Cheviot porphyrites. 
Hornblende Rock from the Lake District ; Carboniferous 
Sandstone (common) ; Millstone Grit ; Carboniferous Lime- 
stone and chert, both with encrinites (common), white quartz, 
quartzites, etc. At another gravel pit at Lund Farm, close 
by, large numbers of pebbles of Magnesian Limestone were 
also found, as well as most of the kinds already mentioned. 
There is no doubt that these gravels take us back to the Great 
Ice Age, when the Vale of York was filled by the glacier 
coming down from the Lake District and Teesdale. In 
another sandstone pit the geologists had a pleasant surprise in 
the form of a large lunch basket replete with all manner of 
eatables and drinkables, which was most welcome. We believe 
they were indebted to Mr. Musham for this treat. There was 
nothing ' erratic ' about it, except, perhaps, at the end of the 
lunch. 

1915 Sept. 1. 



292 

NATURALISTS AT HEBDEN BRIDGE. 

Grey skies, and half a gale, were the early morning weather 
conditions for the Union's excursion to Hebden Bridge on 
Saturday, July 17th. Naturally they were not conducive to 
a large party assembling at headquarters to set out upon the 
investigation of Crimsworth Dene, but fortunately the gale 
had spent itself by eleven o'clock, and from that time the sun 
held sway, and the rest of the day was glorious. The attend- 
ance gradually grew, and ere the excursion ended assumed 
quite reasonable proportions. The South-West Yorkshire 
naturalist has reason to be proud of the many wondrous valleys 
which have been carved out of the gritstone rocks, and beauteous 
indeed was the walk up Crimsworth Dene from its base to 
Lumb Falls, which were seen almost to perfection. A peat- 
coloured stream of water in good force cascaded along a rocky 
bed, and on each side was a pleasing picture of vegetation 
that never failed to tire, and a wealth of sweet blossom pro- 
duced by plants which recalled the lines of Austin : — 

" No rare exotics nor forced are these ; 
They budded in darkness and throve in storm ; 
They drank their colour from rain and breeze. 
And from sun and season they took their form." 

No wonder then, that with a district so classic, especially 
from a botanical standpoint, the memory of such stalwarts as 
the late Samuel Gibson, John Nowell, and Thomas Needham 
were recalled, and not least was the pleasure shared by all, of 
giving welcome once more to one of the Union's past Presi- 
dents, and most eminent mycologist, Mr. Charles Crossland, of 
Halifax. 

Grainwater Bridge, which was set as the limit of the area of 
investigation, was never reached, inasmuch as the students 
present found quite sufficient to interest in Midgehole Wood, 
and along the valley as far as the Falls. 

By permission of the Governors, and the Principal, Mr. 
M. E. Wager, B.Sc, tea was taken at the Secondary School,, 
where the subsequent meeting was also held. The attendance 
at this meeting was excellent, and under the chairmanship of 
another of the Union's past Presidents, Dr. Harold Wager, 
quite an instructive time was spent. Sectional reports upon 
the work of the day were given as follows : — Geology, Messrs. 
J. Henry Greenwood and Abraham Newell ; Vertebrate 
Zoology, Mr. Walter Greaves ; Flowering Plants, Mr. F. W. 
Whitaker ; Dr. Woodhead supplementing with remarks upon 
the chief ecological features of the Crimsworth Valley ; Ferns, 
Mr. Fenton Greenwood ; Mosses, Mr. W. H. Burrell ; Fungi, 
Dr. Harold Wager, F.R.S. ; Conchology, Mr. Greevz Fysher ; 
Hymenoptera, Mr. Rosse Butterfield. A comprehensive v^ote 
of thanks to the landowners for permission to visit their 

Naturalist, 



Yorkshire Naturalists at HebUen Bridge. 293 

respective estates, to the guides, Messrs. W. Greaves, S. C. 
Moore, S. Fielding, A. Newell, and J. H. Greenwood, to the 
Governors and Principal of the Secondary School, to the 
Hcbden Bridge Literary and Scientific Society, and to Mr. 
Edward B. Gibson for making the local arrangements, was 
unanimously adopted on the motion of Dr. Woodhead, seconded 
by Mr. W.H. Burrell. 

The collections of the late Mr. James Needham were placed 
on exhibition by the local society. — ^W. E. L. W. 

The following sectional reports are to hand : — 

Vertebrate Zoology. — Mr. Walter Greaves, writes : — 
The necessary impetus for a strict investigation was lacking, 
because to all the vertebrate zoologists taking part the fauna 
was intimately known. Only a small number of birds, and 
one mammal were noticed. In Middle Dene wood a too 
precocious Sparrow Hawk, with down still on its head, was 
caught, and the other most noteworthy find was a Redpoll's nest, 
still with eggs, in a bush not more than four feet off the ground. 
The less common of other birds seen or heard were Redstart, 
Spotted Flycatcher, Grey Wagtail, Dipper and Sandpiper. 

CoN'CHOLOGY. — The Conchological Section was represented 
by Mr. Greevz Fysher, who found in Peckett Wood Arion ater 
type, adult, and vars. nigrescens and luteopallescens juv. ; A. 
sitbfitscus var. rujofusca, Agriolimax agrestis var. reticulata, 
Hyalinia alliaria, Pyramidula rotnndata, Helix hortensis var. 
lutea 12345, Cochlicopa luhrica, Limncea peregra, L. truncatula, 
and an undetermined Pisidium. 

Bryology. — Mr. W. H. Burrell, F.L.S., reports : — The 
moss flora is typical of a gritstone clough. Tctr aphis pellucida, 
Ceratodon pnrpiireus, Dicranella heteromalla, Campylopus 
flexuosns, Webera nutans, Mnium hornuni, Plagiothecium 
elegans, are the conspicuous species on peat and rock of the 
drier slopes ; wet rocks in the rivulets are clothed with Mnium 
piinctatum, Eiirhynchium rusciforme, Conocephalum conicum, 
Pellia epiphylla, Chiloscyphus polyanthus and Scapania un- 
aulata ; swampy areas near the river have a marsh flora 
indicated by Sphagnum sp., Fissidens adiantoides, Hypnum 
cuspidatum, Hypnum stramineum, etc. Recent heavy rains 
had left the rupestral mosses in beautiful condition ; special 
note was made of great sheets of Barbula cylindrica lining the 
roadside walls, showing colour and texture to perfection. 

Some interesting Dicranoids were gathered in Midgehole 
Wood. Opinion differed as to whether they were forms of 
Campylopus flexuosus or of a Dicranum. A studj^ of the leaf 
sections showed that all had the nerve characters of Campy- 
lopus. Some tufts were almost devoid of tomentum, and 
consisted largely of the well-known deciduous flagelliform 

1915 Sept. 1. 



294 Yorkshire Naturalists at Hehden Bridge. 

branches, with short obtuse leaves. Ditrichum homomallum 
was gathered by Mr. H. E. Johnson, and Mr. J. C. Wilson 
directed attention to Catharinea crispa and Tetvaphis Browni- 
ana, the former in great profusion, with male inflorescence. Al- 
together forty-nine species of mosses and liverworts were noted. 

Flowering Plants and Ferns. — Miss C. E. Andrews 
writes : — The botanical section was well represented. The 
rainfall had refreshed all vegetation, and the floral charms of 
the valley were seen practically to their full perfection. 
Undoubtedly the most interesting plant was Pyrola media. 
The noteworthy plants of the swamp areas were Lychnis jlos- 
cuciili, Valeriana officinalis, Myosotis palitsiris, Qinanthe 
crocata, Cardamine amara, Glyceria fluitans, Carex ovalis, 
C. sylvatica, C. hinervis, and Equisetiim pabistre. The cut- 
leaved form angitstifolium of Heracleum sphondylium, often 
met with in gritstone valleys, was also noted, as was also 
Hypericum pulchrum. Unfortunately the herbage of the 
field where rare species of orchids were known to occur had 
been cut down, and the only species seen were Hahenaria 
virescens Druce, and 0. maculata. On the steep crags near 
the Falls the countless blossoms of Crepis pahidosa and Lactuca 
muralis made a pretty picture. Amongst the trees was 
Primus Padiis in fruit. The uncultivated upland pastures 
yielded a characteristic heath association of plants, Erica 
tetralix being not uncommon. The wealth of ferns is one of 
the charms of the valley. Many species were seen, amongst 
them being fine examples of Lastrea oreopteris, L. dilatata, L. 
spimilosa, L. filix-mas, with its scaly rachis form paleacea, 
and Athyrium Filix-fcemina. Mr. Burrell found a frond of the 
latter fern which had developed two distinct branches. Poly- 
podium vulgare and Opkioglossum vulgattim were also listed. 

Geology. — Mr. J. Henry Greenwood reports : — The geolo- 
gists took the opportunity of examining the lower beds of 
Kinderscout grits and the upper beds of the Yoredales or 
Pendlesides. These beds form the most prominent physical 
feature of the district from the bottom of the Calder Valley, 
320 feet, to the 800 feet line. Above these the alternating 
bands of grits and shales of the middle grit series, with a thin 
seam of coal and ganister, at 1,000 feet, cap the hills to the 
east and south-east. A good section of the Kinder grits was 
seen in Nutclough. They were found to be a very coarse 
grained sandstone containing a large quantity of quartz 
pebbles, and also a number of fairly large nodules. Throughout 
the district on this particular horizon these nodular concretions 
are very abundant. They were also examined at the quarries 
in Pecket Wood. 

In Crimsworth Dene the effect of grit rocks resting on 
shale beds in a narrow valley was noticed. Huge blocks of 

Naturalist, 



Yorkshire Naturalists at Hebden Bridge. 295 

•sandstone are strewn along the sides of the valley, while others 
have rolled down into the river bed. 

From the foot of the Dene to Lumb Falls, the Yoredales 
or Pendlesides were found to be exposed along the stream 
sides with the exception of a short distance where the Wet 
Ing fault, with a downthrow of about 35 yards, bring the 
Kinder grits into the bottom. 

The hard nodular bands of limestone which occur on the 
left hand side of the stream just above the fault were worked 
for a little while, and a few fossils, Aviciilapectens and Goniatites 
were obtained. 

x\t Lumb Falls the formation of water-falls was well illus- 
trated. The shales are overlaid by the hard band of Kinder 
grits over which the stream flows, and as the continued swirling 
of the water wears out the softer material, the harder step 
which forms the fall is constantly breaking off and gradually 
receding. Several fiat places on the hillsides were pointed out 
as old river terraces. 

Mr. Abraham Newell records the presence of a number of 
pot-holes in Nutclough, both in the bed of the stream, and on 
inchned and vertical sides of the rocks. The generally accepted 
theory imputes them to the grinding action of sand and pebbles 
set in swirhng motion by wind or water. Personally, I con- 
sider that the alleged motion seldom takes place, and if it does 
the grinding effect is very feeble. Obviously this action cannot 
take place on upright faces of rocks. The potholes noticed 
during the excursion are coincident in horizon with beds in 
which nodular concretions are abundant wherever quarries 
are opened. These statements hold good throughout the Kinder 
grit and Haslingden Flag districts, where are thousands of pot- 
Jioles, whether in a clough or the open country. The nodules, 
being composed of more easily eroded material than the surround- 
ing rock, have been disintegrated and removed, leaving cavities 
behind. Thus every pothole represents a once existing nodule. 

Lepidoptera. — Mr. E. B. Gibson writes : — Lepidoptera 
were very scarce, and none but common species were obtained. 
Tortrix viridana was abundant and in fine condition. Metro- 
campa margaritaria, Cidaria popiilata, Tortrix ministrana and 
T. josterana were the only other species observed. 

Hymenoptera. — Mr. Rosse Butterfield reports : — Dr. A. 
Wilman and I explored Crimsworth Dene for Hymenoptera 
and Diptera. Commencing at Lumb Bridge we worked down 
the valley to the bottom. The lower part of the Dene seems 
favourable for the Fossorial Hymenoptera, but on the day of 
the LTnion's excursion the sun did not gain sufficient power to 
induce these active creatures to fly. On both sides of the 
valley several large nests of the ant, Formica nifa, were found, 
and a careful though fruitless search was made for Formi- 

1915 Sept. 1. 



296 Yorkshire Naturalists at Hebaen Bridge. 

coxenns nitiduhis, which associates with this ant, and which 
was found some years ago by the Rev. F. D. Morice in an 
adjoining valley. Apparently the woods and heaths of Hard- 
castle Crag and Crimsworth Dene are the only remaining 
localities for Formica rufa in the hilly portion of West York- 
shire. There is no doubt that it has disappeared from other 
localities within recent years, and in others again there is 
nothing but place names to indicate its former occurrence, i.e.. 
Pismire Clough. Other species of ants noted, chiefly under 
stones, were Myrmica rubra and Lasiiis niger. 

The following social bees were found frequenting heads of 
marsh thistle and the flowers of meadow sweet: — Bombiis 
agroriim, B. pratorum (very common), B. latreillelhis (queen 
only), B. terrestris (common), B. terrestris var. virginalis, B. 
lapiaarius, B. lapponiais (worker only), Psithyrtts vestalis. 

The social wasps seen were : — Vespa vulgaris, V. riifa^ 
V. norvegica, V. sylvestris. 

Of the solitary bees the common species Halictiis rubiciindits 
and Andrena albicans only were captured. 

DiPTERA. — Mr. Butterfield writes : — Among the larger 
Diptera, the undermentioned were deterinined : — Syrphus 
ribesii, S. grossularia, Volucella pellucida, Sericomyia borealis, 
Eristalis pertinax. 

Mr. W. H. Burrell reports that a large proportion of the 
Birch seed that was seen was infested with the grub of Oligo- 
trophus hetulcB. He is indebted for the identification of this 
species to Mr. G. H. Taylor of Leeds University. 

Arachnida. — Mr. Falconer writes :• — ^The following arach- 
nida were obtained as the result of three day visits paid at 
different times to the Hardcastle Crags valley, and one with 
Mr. Winter as my fellow worker to Crimsworth Dene, July 31st. 
The entries include 88 species of spiders, 7 harvestmen, one 
false scorpion and 10 mites. The rarer British species on the 
list are Hahnia pusilla C. L. Koch (Delamere Forest and Ripon), 
Onesinda minutissima Camb., Centronierits arcanus Camb., 
Macrargus firmus Camb., Sintula cornigera BL, and Maro 
sp.ined. (the last also at Slaithwaite, but male not yet to hand). 
Of a few others the distributional range in the county still 
needs elucidating, Leptyphantes mengii Kulcz., Porrhomma 
montanum and P. pallidum Jacks, P. thorellii Herm., Enidia 
bitubercnlata Wid. (records for W. Riding unaccountably few), 
Wideria cuciillata C. L. Koch, etc. The Hahnia, Sintula, and 
W. cucullata were taken in Shackleton Wood, Centromerus 
arcanus, C. pr^idens, Macrargus firmus, Maro, at Hardcastle 
Crags, and Onesinda shaken from heather roots overhanging 
a wall at the Fishpond, Crimsworth Dene. 

In the list the species which occurred in both valleys are 
unmarked ; those only in the Hardcastle Crags Valley are 

Naturalist, 



Yorkshire Naturalists at Hehden Bridge. 



297 



distinguished by an asterisk, and those only in Crimsworth 
Dene by a dagger. In the case of the spiders, unless otherwise 
stated, both sexes were obtained. 



Spiders. 
*Oonops pulcher Tempi., $s. 
Micaria pulicaria Sund. 

* Clubiona terrestyis \\'estr., ^. 
C. reclusa Camb. 

*C. trivialis L. Koch. 
*C. cotnta C. L. Koch. 
Amaiirobius similis Bl., $s. 

A. feitestralis Stroem., ^s. 

* Coelotes atropos Walck., $s. 
Tegenai'ia devhaniii Scop. 

* Hahnia pusilla C. L. Koch., $. 
* Pholcomma gihbitm Westr. 

Onesiuda miimtissima Camb., ^s. 
* Phyllonethis lineata Clerck., $s. 
Robertas Hvidits Bl. 
Bolvphantes alticeps Sund. 

B. luteolus Bl. 
Drapetisca socio lis Sund. 
Stemonyphantes lineata Linn. 
Linyphia triangularis Clerck. 
L. pelt at a Wid. 

*Z.. clathvata Sund., $s. 

Labulla thoracica Wid. 

Leptvphantes terricola C. L. Koch. 

L. blackivallii Kulcz. 
*/.. obscuriis Bl., $s. 

L. pallidits Camb. 

L. tenuis Bl., ^s. 

L. ericaeus Bl. 
■fi. mengii Kulcz., ^s. 

* Poeciloneta globosa Wid. 
*Bathyphantes concolor Wid. 
*B. approximatiis Cs-mh. 
■\B. pavvulus Westr. 

*B. gracilis, Bl. 

^ Porrhomma monianuni Jacks., $• 

*P. pallidum Jacks., $. 

*P. thorellii Herm., ^s. 

Hilaira excisa Camb. 

Macrargus rufus Wid. 
*M. firmus Camb., $. 

Oreonetides abnormis Bl. 
*Centromerus arcanus Camb. 
*C. prudens Camb., ^. 

* Centromeria bicolor Bl., ^s. 
*C. concinnus Thor., 2s. 

Agyneta conigera Camb. 

Micryphantes viaria Bl. 
-\M. saxatilis, Bl., ^^s. 
^Sintula cornigera Bl., $s. 

Rhabdoria diluta Camb. 
*Maro sp.ined. 2- 

Maso sundevallii Westr. 

(Edothorax agvestis Bl., 

O. retusus Westr. 

1915 Sept. 1. 



t Tisovagans Bl., 9s. 
*Erigone dentipalpis Wid., ^. 

E. atra Bl., $s. 

Dicymbium tibiale Bl. 

Neriene rubens Bl. 

A'. yi<fee//rf Bl. 
*Enidia bituberculata Wid., $. 

Dismodicus bifrons Bl. 

Diplocephalus cristatus Bl., $s. 

i). fuscipes Bl. 

£). latifrons Camb., $s. 
] Etitelecara erythropus Westr. 

Pocadicneniis pumila Bl. 
t Cnephalocotes obscurus Bl., (5*s. 

Tapinocyba pallens Camb. 
*\Videria cucullata C. L. Koch. 

Walckencsra acuminata Bl. 
*H'. luidipalpis Westr., ^s. 

Coruicularia cuspidata Bl. 

Ceratiuella brevipes Westr., ^s. 

Pachygnatha degeerii Sund. 

Xesticus cellulanus Clerck. 

Meta segmentata Clerck. 

-T/. meriancB Scop. 
*Zilla x-notata Clerck. 
*Epeira diademata Clerck. 
* Xysticus cristatus Clerck., Imm. 
^ Pirata piraticus Clerck. 
t Trochosa terricola Thor. 
*Tarentula pulveridenta Clerck. 

Lycosa amentata Clerck. 

L. pullata Clerck. 

Xeoii reticulatus Bl. 

Harvestmex. 
Liobunum rotundum Latr. 
Platybunus corniger Herm. 
Oligolophus morio Fabr. 

and Forma alpinus Herbst. 
O. ephippiatusC. L. Koch. 
O. agrestis Meade. 
X emastoma lugubre O. F. IMiill. 

False-Scorpiox. 
Obisium muscorum Leach. 

Mites. 
Anystis baccarum Linn. 
Erythraeits nemorum Koch. 
Linopodes motatorius Linn. 
Cyrtolaelaps nemorensis Koch. 
Gamasus crassipes Linn. 
G. coarctatus Koch. 
^Oribates globulus Nic. 
O. edivardsii Xic. 
Oppia bipilis Herm. 
Damaeus clavipes Herm. 



298 



3u fiDeinoviam, 



Second-Lieutexaxt GEORGE MITCHELL. 

Unfortunately this great and terrible war is already taking 
toll of the membership of the Yorkshire Naturalists' Union, 
as it is more seriously of the best and the most physically fit of 
the youth of the nation — and of Europe. In George Mitchell 
our country has lost one of its finest examples of youthful 
manhood, and one who could with nature's weapons, have 

' laid out ' any Ger- 
,. .. .^ man ever born. Al- 

though only twenty- 
six years of age, he 
was a veritable giant 
in physique, and a 
thorough sportsman 
in every sense of the 
word. He was about 
the finest amateur 
heavy-weight boxer 
in the country, and 
his wrestling was very 
little behind his box- 
ing, and in the West 
Riding was only 
about second to his 
brother Tim. Al- 
though such a perfect 
exponent of the 
' noble art of self 
defence ' he was one 
of the most gentle 
and considerate of 
companions. His 
bout with Georges 
Carpentier — the French boxing champion of Europe, although 
it brought Mitchell into notoriety, showed him up in an unfair 
light. Through the services of a mutual friend, he paid for a 
private trial with the champion under the impression that he 
would be able to stand up against him longer than Bombardier 
Wells had done, which he succeeded in doing, but only by a few 
seconds. Unfortunately the press got scent of the match, and 
in a slack time of news they made the most of it. 

For the past three years George Mitchell had attended the 
meetings of the Vertebrate Zoology section of the Yorkshire 
Naturalists' Union, where he had taught us much of Value and 
of interest concerning the details of falcons and falconry, 
and eighteen months ago he became a life member of the 

. Naturalist, 




In Mcmoriatn : George Mitchell. 299 

Union. In spite of his years he was already an authority on 
the very ancient (and once noble) sport of falconry, and in 
every detail appertaining to his favourite birds and hobby. 
From his earliest ' teens ' Young Mitchell dearly-loved a 
hawk or a falcon, and was rarely without one or more, which 
he delighted to train and to control. Later he became a mem- 
ber of the Old Hawk Club, and at his father's house, The Up- 
wood, near Bingley, he usually had trained Peregrine Falcons, 
Merlins, Goshawks, etc., besides a trained falconer in velve- 
teens from the Old Hawk Club. At times, and for many 
5'ears past a Falcor, Goshawk, or Buzzard would escape from 
his falcon-house, and for some time would be a target for all 
the local gunners, and would also have supplied an additional 
local ' record ' had we not known of its history. At such times 
he was called upon to pay accounts for numerous pigeons, 
chickens, etc., by local farmers and others. He more than 
once assured the writer that none of his captive birds had a 
tithe of the appetite that his escaped birds had ! 

Shortly after the outbreak of war, George Mitchell, together 
with his only brother, joined the Public Schools Officers' 
Training Corps at Ashted, Surrey, and later obtained a com- 
mission in the celebrated Black Watch Regiment. He special- 
ized in bomb-throwing, and thereby met his death at the front 
on July 22nd. He was instructing a detachment of the Grena- 
dier Guards in the art of bomb-throwing, when the bomb 
exploded in the trench-mortar and literally blew him to pieces. 

George ^litchell's death is a great loss to the Yorkshire 
Naturalists' Union, and more especially to falconry, for how 
many young fellows now take up this sport whole-heartedly ? 
He was also a fairly good all-round ornithologist and a pro- 
tector of wild birds in moderation. In this respect I should 
not do him justice if I omitted to say that just before the war 
broke out he was in league with our Wild Birds' and Eggs' 
Protection Acts Committee to try and trap some persistent 
robbers of Peregrine Falcons' eyries. 

Death has been unkind to his family lately. The last 
time that I saw George Mitchell was at his father's funeral, 
about two months before his own unexpected decease. Shortly 
before that his uncle, Mr. Percy lUingworth, the late Chief 
Liberal Whip died suddenly. Before the war young Mitchell, 
was in his father's business — Messrs. Mitchell Bros., Ltd., 
Bradford, Mohair Spinners and Manufacturers. The photo- 
graph (in the uniform of the Black Watch Regiment) was 
taken a few weeks before his death. 

It is a pathetic incident that the last note on the last page 
of The Naturalist for August was written by Geo. Mitchell, at 
the front in Flanders : the September number contains his 
obituary notice !■ — H. B. B. 

1915 Sept. 1. 



300 

FIELD NOTES. 
COLEOPTERA. 

Sermyla halensis var. cuprina Weise at Carlisle. — 

The type of this beetle is plentiful in some parts of this district. 
It chiefly occurs on Bedstraw in autumn. Near the village of 
Belle Vue I obtained one specimen of the var. cuprina of Weise, 
and many of the usual form. Mr. Newbery, who has seen my 
specimen, says this variety is rare in Britain. — Jas. ^Iurray, 
Carlisle. 

ARACflNIDA. 

Arachnida at Settle. — Partly because of the long period 
of dry weather, collecting at Settle during Whit week-end did 
not yield a very comprehensive ' bag.' Although small in- 
sects were numerous on butterwort leaves, no spider was 
observed making any attempt to benefit therefrom. 

The following list includes the spiders, etc., collected during 
the course of the excursion of the Yorkshire Naturalists' 
Union, as well as others handed in by members of the party. 
There are also included some which were taken by Mr. Falconer 
on July 2nd, 1910, a very wet day. 

(a) Giggleswick Scars ) 1910, July 2, 

(b) Stainforth Force | Mr. Falconer. 

(c) Horton in Ribblesdale to Settle, mostly by the Ribble, 1915. 

(d) Giggleswick Scars and to Oxenber, 1915. 

(e) Cocket Moss, 1915. 

Harpactes hombergii Scop., $, ^, a. Ero fitvcata Wid., $, a. 

Oonops pulcher Tempi., $ Imm., d. Meta segmentata Clerck), ^, d. 

Drassus lapidosiis Walck., $ Imm., 71/. merianae Scop., $, Imm., d. 

c. Xysticus cristatiis Clerck., $, d., q, 
Clubiona comta C.L.K., $, d. c, d. 

C. diversa Cb., $, d. Pirata piyatic iis Clerc\z., 9, <S, ^■ 

Dictyna uncinata Westr., $ Imm., e. Trochosa tervicola Thor., Imm. §, d. 

Amaurobius fenestralis StToeni, ^, a, Tarentula pulveyiilenta Clerck., $, 

(^, nearly adnlt, d. d., ^, c, d. 

Cryphoeca silvicola C.L.K., $, b. Lycosa amentata Clerck., 9. ^• 

Coelotes atropos Walck., $, a, d. L. pullatc Clerck., $. d, c, ; <^, d. 

Hahnia helveola Sim., 9. f'- L. palustvis Linn., 9, d, e., q, c, d. 
Leptyphantes minutus Bl., 9, b. 

L. blackwallii Kulcz., $, d. Harvestmen. 

Bathyphantes nigrinus Westr., $, b. 

B. dorsalis Wid., ^J, c. Liobiiuitm rotunduni Latr., b. 

Phaulothrix huthwaitii Cb., $, c. Oligolophiis morio Fabr., d. 

Dismodicus bifrons Bl., $, d. O. (ilpiniisHeThst., a, b. 

Diplocephalus cristatiis Bl., ^, b. O. agrestis Meade, Imm., a. 

Walckenaera acuminata Bl., (J, a. Nemastoma lugrube, O.F.M., d. 

W. p. Winter. 

Naturalist 



Field Notes. 301 

BIRDS. 

Early Reference to the Plover in Yorkshire. — I have 
recently obtained a small 4to volume entitled ' Newes out of 
York-shire : or An Accovnt of a lovrney, in the trve Discovery 
of a soueraigne Minerall, Medicinall Water, in the West-Riding 
<ii York-shire, neerean ancient Towne called Knaresboroiigh, not 
inferiour to the Spa in Germany. Also a taste of other ]\Iinerall 
Waters of seuerall natures adioyning, by M.S.' [Michael 
Stanhope]. This work was written ' this summer 1626.' On 
page 3 we learn ' It is (as I am credibly enformed) about 50 
yeres since first notice was taken of a Spring (in the West-riding 
of Yorke-shire, neere a Towne called Knaresboroiigh) called 
at this day by the countrey people, Tiiit-n'cll, it seemes for no 
other cause, but that those birdes (being our grecne Plouer) doe 
vsually haunt the place.' On page 4 : ' This Tuit'ivell (I feare 
the poorenesse of the name, hath not a little disaduantag'd it) 
hath beene most grosly neglected, as if it were a place onlye 
w'orth the notice of that silly bird.'* — T. Sheppard. 

A new West Riding- Heronry. ^A new heronry is being 
formed in extreme upper Wharfedale, where no heronry is 
known to have ever existed anywhere near. The birds were 
first noticed to frequent Kirkgill Wood, near Hubberholme, 
in the 3^ear 1913. In 1914 there were two nests, and this year 
three pairs have safely nested. Fortunately it is situated on 
the estate of Miss Crompton Stansfield, of Buckden, to whom 
I am indebted for several interesting details, and this lady 
has given strict instructions to her gamekeeper not to allow 
the birds to be interfered with, or annoyed in any way. The 
Heron and its eggs are protected all the year round in the 
West Riding, and the Wild Birds' and Eggs' Protection Acts 
Committee of the Yorkshire Naturalists' Union is prepared 
to take proceedings against offenders. I feel quite sure that 
this new heronry is an off-shoot from the old-established one 
at Eshton, in Airedale. On the Eshton estate tree-felling has 
been going on for several years. Herons, like Rooks, do not 
like trees being cut down in the vicinity of their nests, even 
though scrupulous care be taken not to fell a tree that contains 
a nest. — H. B. Booth. 

MOSSES. 
Tortula cernua Lindb., near Leeds- — At the June 
meeting of the Leeds Naturalists' Club, a discussion centred on 
a luxuriant growth of Leptobryum pyriforme Wils., and its 
habitat — a lime debris — which had attracted attention during 
a ramble to Aberford on the previous Saturday. Mr. Chris. 
Cheetham suggested the likelihood of such a station harbouring 

* This referred to the Tewit well which is .still much used at Harrogate. 
1915 Sept. 1. 



302 Field Notes. 

Tortilla cernua, seeing that it was in the immediate district 
that Mr. Webster first found the plant in 1900, and that in 
its only other recorded station at Conisborough, in 1909, it was 
growing on lime debris in association with Leptohryum. The 
suggestion was promptly utilised and man}^ old discoloured 
capsules of the Tortilla were found, which had been previously 
overlooked, owing to the plants being buried in a dense growth 
of Funaria hygrometrica, the oblique gibbous capsules of the 
two species having some superficial resemblance. A beautiful 
display of this rare moss has since developed, several square 
yards of ground being toned with the red setae of the young 
sporophytes. The lime on which it grows is sedimented from 
water pumped from a neighbouring coal mine, after use in 
steam condensers. When tested at the outfall to a cooling 
pit, this condenser waste had a temperature of i3o°F. The 
overflow runs away as a small open stream to the Cock beck. 
Alkaline earths in solution are precipitated when carbonic 
anhydride is dissipated by heat, the troughing, cooling pit and 
stream bed being thickly coated with the white deposit, which 
is from time to time cleared out and dumped on some adjoin- 
ing rough pasture. The Tortula and Leptohryum are restricted 
to damp places near the stream and some depressions where 
water is held up by the underlying clay. Another station has 
been found about two miles distant, at the base of a wall on 
the Permian Limestone. Here too, it is associated with 
Funaria and Leptohryum, the permanently humid conditions 
being evidenced by a plentiful growth of Marchantia poly- 
morpha L. — W. H. Burrell. 

: o : 

Elements of Forestry. By F. F. Moon, B.A., and N. C. Brown, B.A. 
London : Chapman and Hall, pp. xvii. + 392, 8s. ()d. net. As the 
authors point out, American forestry is of comparatively recent develop- 
ment. The first forest reserves were set aside by President Harrison 
about 20 years ago, but the chief credit for its development is due to 
President Roosevelt, who, during his term of office, raised the acreage 
from 46 millions to 194^ millions, and during this time forestry adminis- 
tration was greatly perfected. Naturally the Americans are still far 
behind some European states where State forests, e.g., in Switzerland, 
have been developed from very early times. Nevertheless, American 
forestry has advanced with great rapidity, and this work has been written 
for students in schools of agiculture and forestry to meet this ' educational 
awakening.' The authors deal clearly and simply with practically every 
phase of forestry, and though certain aspects are only briefly treated, 
students will find it a compact and convenient summary of the leading 
principles. Part i deals with forestrj- in America and abroad ; the tree, 
its functions and requirements, silvics and silviculture, improvement, 
regeneration, protection, mensuration, lumbering, utilization, wood 
technology and preservation, economics and finance. Part 2 deals with 
studies of the forest regions, and is illustrated by a map showing the 
natural forest regions of North America. There is an Appendix of rules 
and tables, and a glossary and short index, the latter being largely a 
classified list of the subjects mentioned in the full table of contents. The 
work is illustrated by 65 well selected photographs. 

Naturalist; 



303 

BIBLIOGRAPHY : 

Papers and Records relating to the Geology and Palason = 
tology of the North of England (Yorkshire excepted), 
published during I9i4- 

T. SHEPPARD, M.Sc, F.G.S. 

{Continued from page 2^$). 

Percy F. Kexdall. Derbyshire, Lanes., Notts., Yorks. 

On 'Cleat' in Coal Seams. Geol. Mag., Februarj', pp. 49-53- See also 

Tlic Xntiir/ilist, April, p. 107. 

Krusch, 1*. See F. Beyschlag. 

G. W. Lamplugh and B. Smith. Notts. 

The Water Supply of Nottinghamshire from Underground Sources [with 

a chapter on the rainfall by H. R. Mill]. ' Memoirs of the Geological 

Survey,' pp. 1-174. See also The NattiraMst, p. 236 and Geol. Mag., 

October, pp. 475-476. 

G. W. Lamplugh. Cheshire. 

Physiographical Notes. II., on the Taming of Streams. ' Geog. Journ.', 
June, pp. 651-656. 

G. W. Lamplugh. See W. Gibson. 

James Lomax. S. Lanes. 

The Microscopical Examination of Coal. ' Trans. Manch. Geol. and Min. 
Soc.,' Vol. XXXIIL, Part 12, pp. 457-464. 

James Lomax. S. Lanes., Yorks. 

Further Researches in the Microscopical Examination of Coal, especially in 
Relation to Spontaneous Combustion [with reproductions of 00 photo- 
micrographs of sections of coal from Yorkshire, Lancashire, etc.] 
'Trans, .^fanch. Geol. and Min. Soc.,' Vol. XXXIIL, Part 10, pp. 
355-398. 
Sir Charles P. Lucas. Lines., Cumberland. 

Man as a Geographical Agency : Address to Section E. (Geography), British 
Association, Australian Meeting. Natuve, September loth, pp. 40-48. 

Charles Lyell [the late]. N. Counties. 

The Geological Evidence of the Antiquity of Man, with Introduction by 
R. H. Rastall. London, pp. xx.-f407. 

F. T. :\Iaidwell. Cheshire, S. Lanes. 

Notes on Footprints from the Keuper. II. ' Proc. Liverp. Geol. Soc.,' Vol. 
XII., Part I, pp. 53-71. 

F. T. Maidwell. Cheshire. 

Some Sections in the Lower Keuper of Runcorn Hill, Cheshire. ' Proc. 
Liverp. Geol. Soc.,' Vol. XII., Part i, pp. 40-52. 

C. A. Matley. Notts., etc. 

Note on the Source of the Peebles of the Bunter Pebble-Beds of the English 
Midlands. Geol. Mag., jMa\-, pp. 21 1-5. 

H. R. Mill. See G. W. Lamplugh. 

1915 Sept. 1. 



304 Bibliography : Geology and Paleontology, 1914. 

L. MoYSEY. Derby, Lanes., Notts., Yorks. 

Some further Notes on Palseoxyris and other Allied Fossils, with Special 
Reference to some New Features found in Vetacapsula. ' Rep. Brit. 
Assoc.' (Birmingham), 1913, pp. 492-3. 

L. MoYSEY. See W. Gibson. 

James Park. X. Counties. 

A Text-Book of Geology [many references to northern counties]. London 
pp. XV. +398. 

Henry Preston. Notts. 

Clay-Balls and Striated Pebbles, from Bunter Sandstone, Notts. The 

Natuvalist, March, pp. 79-83. 

H. Preston. Lines. 

Report on Geology. ' Lines. Nat. Union Trans, for 1913, ' published 1914, 
pp. 108-9. 

WiLLINGHAM FrANKLIN RaWNSLEY. LiuCS. 

Highways and Byways in Lincolnshire [brief geological notes]. London, 
pp. 519. 

F. R. Cov>-pER Reed. Lake District. 

Notes on the genus Trinuc/eus, Part III. Geol. Mag., August, pp. 349-359. 

C. E. RoBSON. Northumberland and Durham. 
Report of the Field Meetings of the Natural History Society for 1909 [includes 

geological notes]. ' Trans. Nat. Hist. Soc. of Northumberland, Dur- 
ham and Newcastle-upon-Tyne.' (New Series), Vol. IV., Part I. 
pp. 177-199. 

H. G. S.ARGENT. Derbyshire. 

Rock-Soil and Plant Distribution [criticism of ]Mr. Horwood's paper]. 
Geol. Mag., March, p. 139. 

D. H. Scott. Lanes. 
On Medullosa pusilla [from Colne, Lanes.] ' Proc. Rov. Soc.,' B., Vol. 

XCVIL, pp. 221-8. 

A. C. Seward. Lanes., Yorks. 

Climate as Tested by Fossil Plants. ' Quart. Journ. Royal Meteorol. 
Soc.,' \o\. XL., No. 171, July, pp. 203-212. Reprinted in Natitve, 
October 29th, pp. 242-246. See also Knowledge, May, p. 190. 

Mrs. Shakespear. See Ethel I\I. R. Wood. 

Hilda D. Sharp. See Horace B. Woodward. 

T. Sheppard. Lines. 

Geology [of Barton-on-Humber]. Circular 231 in ' Trans. Yorks. Nat. 
I'nion, ' part 35. 

T. Sheppard. Cheshire. 

Early Mining Implements [from the old Copper Mines, Alderley Edge]. 
Lancashire Xatiiralisi, March, pp. 447-449 (plates). 

T. STheppard]. Yorks., Lines. 

In Memoriam, Alfred John Jukes-Browne, F.R.S., F.G.S. 1851-1914 [brief 
references to his work in Yorks. and Lines.] The Naturalist, October, 
P- 325- • ■ 

Naturalist, 



Bibliography : Geology and Palceontology, 1914. 305 

T. Sni;i'i'ARD. N. ("(luntii-s. 

Bibliography : Papers and Records relating to the Geology and Palaeontology 

of the North of England (Yorkshire excepted), published during 1913. 

The .\'iitiir(ili.<:/, -May, pp. iOi-i()0, ; Juiu-, pp. 193-199. 

R. L. Sherlock. See W. Gibson. 

HERVI•:^■ W'ooDBURX SiiiMKR. N. Counties. 

An Introduction to the Study of Fossils, Plants and Animals. 450 pp. 

B. Smith. See G. W. T.amplugh. 

H. G. Smith. Northern Counties. 

Minerals and the Microscope, an Introduction to the Study of Petrology, 

110 pages. 

J. A. Smythe. Northumberland. 

On Some Inclusions in the Great Whin Sill of Northumberland. Geul. 
Mai;., June, pp. 244-255. 

J. A. Smythe. Northumberland and Lake Dist. 

The Glacial Geology of Northumberland. ' Trans. Nat. Hist. Soc. of North- 
umberland, Durham and Newcastle-upon-Tyne.' (New Series), 
Vol. IV., Part I, pp. 86-116. 

E. Stanford. See Horace B. Woodward. 

A. Strahax. Cheshire. 

Summary of Progress of the Geological Survey of Great Britain and the 
Museum of Practical Geology for 1913, pp. 107. 

H. H. SwixxERTox. ■ Notts. 

Periods of Dreikanter Formation in South Notts. Geol. Mag., May, pages 
20IS-11. 

H. H. SwixxERTON. See J. W. Carr. 

W. M. Tattersall and T. .\. Coward. Cheshire. 

Faunal Survey of Rostherne Mere, I. Introduction and Methods. ' Mem. 
and Proc. Manch. Lit. and Phil. Soc.,' Vol. LVHL, Part 2, No. 8, 
pp. 1-2 1. 

JoHx W. Taylor. N. Counties. 

Dominancy in Nature and its Correlation with Evolution, Phylogeny, and 
Geographical Distribution [reprint]. 'Trans. Yorks. Nat. I'nion,' 
Part ^^^, pp. 1-40. 

J. W. Taylor. Lines., Derbyshire, Lanes., Westmorland, Yorks. 

Monograph of the Land and Freshwater Mollusca of the British Isles, Part 

20 [includes particulars of the occurrence of fossil and sub-fossil 
forms of Helicogona arbustovuni in the counties mentioned]. Marcli 
14th, pp. 417-80, Plates xxvi., xxxv., and xxxvi. 

Ivor Thomas. Northern Counties. 

British Carboniferous Producti, I., Genera Pustula and Overtonia [figures 
and describes Pustula elegaus (M'Coy) ; P. venusta, gen. et sp. nov. ; 
P. sub-elega)is, gen. et sp. nov. ; P. punctata (Mart.) ; P. ovalis (Pliill.) ; 
P. py.xidiformis (de Koninck), etc.]. ' Memoirs of the Geol. Survey, 
Palaeontology,' Vol. I., Part 4, pages 197-366, Plates xvii.-xx. 

Charles B. Travis. Northern Counties. 

President's Address [Some evidences of Peneplanation in the British Isles]. 
' Proc. Liverpool Geol. Soc.,' Vol. XII., Part i, pp. 1-31. 

1915 Sept. 1. 



3o6 Bibliography : Geology and Paleontology, 1914. 

W. G. Travis. Lanes. S. 

The Plant Associations of Some Lancashire Peat-Mosses. The Lancashive 
and Cheshire Naturalist, August, pp. 171- 176. 

C. T. Trechmaxn. Durham and Yorks. 

On the Lithology and Composition of Durham Magnesian Limestones [brief 

references to Yorkshire]. ' Quart Journ. Geol. Soc.,' Vol. LXX., 

Part 2, No. 278, pp. 232-265. Abstract in Nature, February 26th, 

p. 729. 

C. T. Trechmann. Xorthumberland and Durham. 

Notes on Neolithic Chipping-Sites in Northumberland and Durham. ' Trans. 
Nat. Hist. Soc. of Northumberland, Durham and Newcastle-upon- 
Tyne ' (New Series), Vol. IV., Part i, pp. 67-85. 

C. T. Trechmann. Durham. 
The Superficial Deposits of South-East Durham and the Lower Tees Valley. 

Abstract Geological Magazine, Juh', pp. 331-2. See also The Natural- 
ist, July, pp. 203-5. 

S. J. Truscott. See F. Beyschlag. 

Charles Turner. Lake District, Yorkshire. 

The Microscopy of the Manchester Water Supply. ' Ann. Rep. and Trans. 
Manchester Microscopical Society,' 1913, pp. 44-58. 

J. H. L. VoGT. See F. Beyschlag. 

W. T. Walker. Lanes. S., Cheshire. 

Some Observations on the Liassic Outcrop near Whitchurch (Shropshire) 

[refers to the Cheshire and South Lanes. Area]. ' Proc. Liverpool 
Geol. Soc.,' Vol. XII., Part i, pp. 72-87. 

D. M. S. Watson and G. Hickling. Notts. 
On the Triassic and Permian Rock of Moray [brief reference to Mansfield]. 

Geol. Mag., September, pp. 399-402. 

C. B. Wedd. See W. Gibson. 

W. J. Weston. Durham. 

Durham [Geological Notes]. Cambridge, pp. 

Albert Wilmore. N. Counties. 

A First Book of Geology. London, pp. 141. 

[J. R. R. Wilson]. Lanes, and Cheshire. 

Quarry Inspection Reports, 1912. Mr. J. R. R. Wilson's Report on the 
Liverpool and North Wales, District 6. The Quarry, iMay, pp. 123-6. 

Ethel M. R. Wood. See Gertrude L. Ellis. 

Horace B. Woodward. N. Counties. 

Stanford's Geological Atlas of Great Britain and Ireland, with Plates of 

Characteristic Fossils. Third edition, London, 8vo, pp. xii. -{-214. 
With photographic supplement by Hilda D. Sharp. 

W. B. Wright. N. Counties. 

The Quarternary Ice Age [many references to northern glacial geology]. 
London, pp. xxiv. -[-464. Reveiwed in Nature by John Home, 
December 24th, pp. 451-452. 

Naturalist 



307 



REVIEWS AND BOOK NOTICES. 



' Rain and Rivers, the Rev. Professor Bonncy and the late Col. George 
Greenwood published in the interest of historical truth, and dedicated 
(without permission) to the Editor of the " Cambridge Manuals of Science 
and Literature;' by G. G. Greenwood, M.P. London : W atts & Co lO 
pa-es price ^d. This is a criticism of Prof. Bonney's recent work on Rain 
and Rivers ' from which it is apparent that he has not dealt fairly \yith 
regard to the work on ' Rain and Rivers ' originally written by the late 
George Greenwood. , ^-, i u n 

Studies Of Trees. Bv J. J. Levison. London: Chapman and Hal, 
1014 pp X and 253, 7s." net. This book claims to be an ' all round book 
on trees ' and certainly the author has brought within a very limited 
space references to trees from an unusually large number of points of 
view ' viz ■ indentification, structure, uses, habits, enemies, planting, 
care' forestry and nature-studv. A good feature, wanting m many 
\merican books is that the scientific as well as the common names are 
"iven of the species described, this adds much to its general usefulness. 
Some of his descriptions of the characters are almost too brief for indenti- 
fication but the photographs are often a useful aid. The use of a few terms 
is unusiial, e.g., where he refers to the ' leaflets ' oi Tsuga. In the struc- 
ture of stems no reference is made to the bast, and we are told that the 
cambium and part of the sap-wood ' transport the water and food of the 
tree ' Useful chapters deal with insect pests and fungoid diseases, and 
there is an interesting chapter on the care of the woodland. The work 
concludes with ' an outdoor lesson on trees,' which is intended to en- 
coura^e the love of trees and things beautiful, and the author has worked 
this into a very readable summary of the more important features dealt 
with in the earlier chapters of the book. There are 155 useful illustrations, 
mostly from photographs. ^ «, * 17 i„„„ 

Tlie Study of Plants : an Introduction to Botany and Plant Ecology. 
Bv T W. Woodhead, M.Sc, Ph.D., F.L.S. Clarendon Press, Oxford, 
440 pp 5s 6d Friends of Dr. Woodhead, who have been eagerly awaiting 
the pubiication of this book, will find their highest hopes more than 
realised He has succeeded in presenting elementary botany m a sur- 
prisingly fresh and interesting light ; he has produced a series of drawings 
and photographs far surpassing anything we have seen in a book put>lished 
at such a price and he has written an elementary book so packed with 
ori<^inal observation that the oldest student will find in it much that is 
new The work is divided into five parts : Vegetative Organs, 150 pp. ; 
Reproductive Organs, 70 pp. ; Systematic Botany, 40 pp. ; Common 
Trees and Shrubs, 45 PP- : and Ecology, 85 pp. The subject is approached 
mainly from the physiological standpoint, plant morphology being treated 
less extensively than has usually been the case, or rather morphology 
being subordinated and related to the study of function. This comes out 
very strikingly in the constant linking up of structure and function with 
the habitat "of the plant under discussion, especially in the important 
section dealing with ecology. In this book more than in any elementary 
botany we know, we become conscious that we are studying hying or- 
ganisms The plants themselves are kept before us, and the study ot 
the structure of each organ is linked with its development: seeds with 
germination, roots with growth and thickening, shoots with buds and 
their opening, and flowers with wind pollination or insect visits or whatever 
the case may be ; we find a chapter on ' Hibernation and the Structure of 
Alodified Shoots,' and another on ' Movements and Attitudes of plants 
This characteristic, together with the emphasis on physiology and plant 
ecology lift the whole subject out of the atmosphere of books and class- 
rooms and bring it into the open-air. The book provides no tempta- 
tion to cramming : it teaches the eye to see and the mmd to interrogate. 
Teachers will find it of extreme practical value ; the examples, evidently 

1915 Sept. L 



3o8 Northern News. 

chosen with their needs in view, are such as can easily be obtained, the 
figures are drawn from material commonly used in classes for nature 
stud}', and the photographs are of places such as are frequently visited 
on the rambles of botany students. For those who teach the life histories 
of common plants, important details are given, both of the plants them- 
selves, and as to the best methods of studying them, while related in- 
formation is made easily available by the admirable index. This index is a 
most valuable addition to the usefulness of the volume ; it contains over 
4,500 references with sub-indexes to all important subjects. But, apart 
from the subject matter itself, the most remarkable feature is the illus- 
trations ; there are over six hundred drawings, photographs and photo- 
micrographs, of which all but a few figures are entirely new ; and they 
have been so well drawn, photographed, and reproduced that the work 
is worth buying for their sakes alone. A special word is due to the printer, 
for type, illustrations, and general arrangement are all that could be 
desired ; evidently the publishers have taken a pride in their work and 
thev have produced a volume thoroughlv worthy of the Clarendon Press. 

T.A.J. 
: o : 

We are glad to see that a past President of the Yorkshire Naturalists' 
Union, Prof. A. C. Seward, F.R.S., has been elected master of Downing 
College, Cambridge. 

Xo 54 of the Old Lore Series issued by the Viking Society contains 
many interesting records of northern life. There is an illustration of a 
' Blogaben,' the name given to one of the bones of a halibut, carried b}- 
boatmen to insure good luck. 

From Mr. Arthur Bennett we have received two interesting reprints 
from the Transactions of the Botanical Society of Edinburgh on Jiincits 
tenuis, Willd. : Its Distribution in the British Isles,' and ' Hydrilla verti- 
cillata, Caspary, in Great Britain.' 

We have received the Twenty-first Annual Report, Sectional Reports 
and Records of the Year 1914-15, issued by the Midland Railway Natural 
History Society (24 pages). There are records in many branches of 
natural science, and also reports on archaeology. 

Reprinted from the Proceedings of the United States National INluseum 
we have received a valuable ' Report on Some Carbonic Acid Tests on 
the Weathering of ^Marbles and Limestones,' by George P. ?klerril. The 
experiment seems to be confined to American rocks. 

After some considerable delay, two parts of ' The Birds of the H udders- 
field District' (Nos. 15 and 16, and Nos. 17 and 18 respectively) have 
appeared, with coUoured illustrations. As the work is to be complete with 
20 parts there seems to be some prospect of this being done. 

In connection with the forthcoming meeting of the British Association 
at Manchester, we learn from The Times that ' Dr. Dalton will give an 
exhibition and explanation of diagrams illustrating his atomic theory.' 
This must be one of Sir Oliver Lodge's ' rat-tat at the past ' tricks, as 
ordinarily Dr. Dalton has been dead since 1844. 

Leaflet No. 132, issued by the Board of Agriculture is a somewhat 
remarkable pamphlet dealing with slugs and snails. The author's name is 
not given. The species seem to be classified as grey field slug, bulb or 
root-eating slug, black slug, j-ellow or household slug, the large garden 
snail, wood snail, strawberry snail, and small-banded snail. 

From the President of the Yorkshire Naturalists' Union we have 
received an interesting reprint from The Journal of Botany dealing with 
the ' Mycetozoa of Australia and New Zealand.' The material was 
collected during Mr. Cheesman's trip with the British Association. Mr. 
G. Lister supplements the notes with details of the various species collected. 

Naturalist, 



"A really useful contribution to economic science." 

\'iirks/nye livening Post. 

LABOUR UNREST 

War-Time Thoughts 
on a National Danger 

BY 

GEORGE EDSON TOOGOOD 

j8 pages, croivn Svo, in strong pupcr "iVnipper, 6(1, iic/y post free Sd. 

The Press have given striking' prominence to this Httle 
work, and are practically unanimous in declaring that the 
author's proposals go a long way towards solving one of 
our most pressing of national problems. 

The " Oxford Magazine" says : — " We have not space to do 
justice to Mr. Tooc.oou's contentions; we can only recommend 
his pamphlet to the student of industrial relations, and observe 
that it is worth a gfood deal more than sixpence." 



Some Geographical Factors 
in tlie Great War 

By T. HERDMAN, M.Sc, F.G.S. 

(Lecturer in Geography, Municipal Training College, Hull). 

y^ pages, cro7i'?i Svo, imth 6 Maps, se^vti in 
stout printed cover, gd. net, post free lod. net. 

A feature of vast importance in the titanic struggle now taking 
place is the geographical condition of the various countries. In 
" Some Geographical Factors " the author provides much interesting 
information which helps his readers to a wider understanding of an 
important aspect of the present campaign. The concluding chapter 
on "The Problems of Nationality " affords a glimpse of the immense 
difficulties that face those statesmen to whose heads and hands will 
be committed the adjustment of the new boimdaries. 

The ^'Literary IVorid" saj>s.' — " Those who would follow intelligently 
the movements in this world contest will find much help in this little 
handbook. Mr. Herdman's exposition of the part ]Dlayed in the war 
by the great land-gales and the seas is clear and informing, and is 
followed by some sound reasoning on the commercial war and the 
problems of nationality." 

London: A. BROWN Jt SONS, Ltd., 5, Farringdon Avenue, E.C. 

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1/- net, or post free 1/3 net. 

This book, which might be ahnost described as a picture gallery 
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T/ie Yorkshire Post says : " Mr. Sheppard is well known as a 
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with which is incorporated 

"The Annals of Scottish Natural History " 

A Monthly Magazine devoted to Zoology 

Edited by William Eagle Clarke, F.R.S.E., 
F.L.S., Keeper Natural History Dept., Royal 
Scottish Museum ; William Evans, F.R.S.E., 
Member of the British Ornithologists' Union; and 
Percy H.Grimshaw,F.R.S.E.,F.E.S., .4ssts<an/- 
Keeper, Natural History Dept., Royal Scottish 
Museum. Assisted by J. A. Harvie-Brown, 
F.R.S.E.,F.Z.S. ; Evelyn V.Baxter, H.M.B.O.U. ; 
Leonora J. Rintoul, H.M.B.O.U.; Hugh S.Glad- 
stone, M.A., F.R.S.E., F.Z.S.; James Ritchie, 
M.A.,D.Sc. A. Landsborough Thompson, M.A., 
M.B.O.U. 

Edinburgh : OLIVER & BOYD, Tweedale Court 
Lond.: GDRNEY & JACKSON 33 Paternoster Row 



THE ENTOMOLOGIST'S MONTHLY 
MAGAZINE. 

PRICE SIXPENCE MONTHLY. 

Edited by G. C. Champion, F.Z.S., J. E. Collin, 
F.E.S., G. T. Porritt, F.L.S., R. W. Lloyd, 
W.W. Fowler, D.Sc, M.A., F.L.S., J. J. Walker, 
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This Magazine, commenced in 1864, contains 
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Sept. 1st, 1915- 



OCT. 1915. 



No. 705 

(No. 482 of current aeries) 




A MONTHLY ILLUSTRATED JOURNAL OF 

NATURAL HISTORY FOR THE NORTH OF ENGLAND 

EDITED BY 

T. SHEPPARD, M.Sc, F.Q.S.. F.R.Q.S., F.S.A.Scot.. 

The Museums, Hull; 



J 
Prof 



T. W. WOODHEAD, Ph.D., M.Sc, F.L.S.. 

Technical College, HunnKRSFiELD. 

WITH THE ASSISTANCE AS REFEREES IN SPECIAL DEPARTMENTS OF 

aiLBBRT BAKER, P.R.S. P.L.S,, QEO. T. PORRIXr, P.L.S.. I .K.s. 

KENDALL. M.Sc, P.O.S., JOHN W. TAYLOR, M.Sc. 



P. P. 



T. H. NELSON. M.Sc, M.B.O.U., 



RILBY PORTUNE. P.Z.S. 



Contents : — 

Notes and Comments: — British Association ; The President ; The Scientific Mind ; The 
Work of the British Association ; Its Early Years; Science and Humanity; 1 he Hand- 
book ; Is Europe 'Settled?' The Greatest Change; Prof. W. R. Scott's Address; Mr.R. H. 
Revv's Address ; Major H. G. Lyons's Address ; Prof. W. H. Lang's Address ; Mrs. Henrv 
Sidgwick's Address; Prof. W. M. Bayliss's Address; Prof. E. A. Minchin's Address; 
Protocyte, Cytode, Micrococcus and Biococcus ; Sir F. W. Dyson's Address ; Prof. C. G. 
Seligman's Address ; Museums ; The Place of Museums in General Education ; Scheme 
of Arrangement ; Local Museums and their Duty ; National t;. Provincial ; Local Museurn's 
Duty; Introductory Collections; 'Discussion!' Provincial Societies ; German i/. English 
Methods; A Danger; London v. Provinces ; The Amateur Naturalist ; The Antiquity of 
Man ; Geological Evidence in Britain ; Piltdown Remains ; Early Man on the Continent ; 
Early Man in East Anglia; Distribution of Bronze Age Implements; Classification of 
Tertiary Strata by means of Eutherian Mammals ; Glacial Geology of the Western 
Slopes of the Southern Pennines ; Erratics; One Glaciation ; Carboniferous Limestone 
Zones of N.E. Lancashire ; An Old Battle fought over again ; Origin of Reef- Knolls ; The 
Middle Tees and its Tributaries ; A Study in River Development ; Tertiary Elevation ; 
The Avonian Shore Line ; The Classification of Land Forms 

Yorkshire NaturaHgts at Saltburn (Illustrated)— I^.fi.L.W' 

Field Notes •.—Chimcera monstrosa (illustrated) ; Mistle Thrush falling down chimney ; An 
overlooked Occurrence in Yorkshire of the Surf Scoter ((Edemva perspicillata) 

British Association News 

Northern News 

News Irom the MaKazines 

Proceedings of Provincial Scientific Societies, etc. 

Illustrations 



309-333 
334-337 

338-339 

339-3iO 

333 

337 

340 

3.3C, 338 



LONDON : 
A. Brown & Sons, Limited, 5, Farringdon Avenue, E.G. 

And at Hull and York. 
Printers and Publishers to the V.N. U. 



Prepaid Subscription 6/6 per annum, post free. 



IN THE PRESS, 



YORKSHIRE'S 
CONTRIBUTION TO SCIENCE 



{Based tipon the Presidential Address to the Yorkshire 
Naturalists' Union, delivered at the Leeds University) 

By T. SHEPPARD, m.sc, f.g.s., f.r.g.s., f.s.a.(scot.) 

This work has been considerably extended, and occupies over 200 pages. 
It contains an account of the various scientific publications issued from 
Ackworth, Addingham, Barnsley, Ben Rhydding, Beverley, Bradford, 
Doncaster, Driirield, Goole, Halifax, Harrogate, Haworth, Hebden Bridge, 
Huddersfleld, Hull, Idle, Ilkley, Keighley, Leeds, Malton, Middlesbrough, 
Pocklington, Pontefract, Ripon, Rotherham. Scarborough, Sedbergh, 
Selby, Settle, Sheffield, Wakefield, Whitby and York. In addition there 
is an exceptionally complete bibliography of the various natural history 
journals and publications, now issued for the first time. The author has 
been successful in obtaining many publications not in the British Museum. 

EXTRACT FROM PREFACE:— 

In the following pages an effort is made to indicate the various sources 
of information likely to be of service to a student in his work on' any 
branch of natural science dealing with our broad-acred shire. The 
section arranged topographically under towns shows what has been 
accomphshed in each place, while the remainder of the book is devoted 
to an enumeration of the general sources of information which should be 
consulted. Unfortunately, several of the items are scarce, in many cases 
only one set being known, a circumstance which has induced me to give 
the bibliographical details rather fully. By a series of fortunate circum- 
stances, and as a result of several years' collecting, I' possess sets of most 
of the pubhcations mentioned, and shall endeavour to arrange that 
they remain intact for the benefit of future workers, as it will certainly 
be very difficult, if not impossible, to get such a collection together again. 

HULL : A. BROWN & SONS, Ltd., Price sl6 net. 



f! 



YORKSHIRE NATURALISTS' UNION. 

ANNUAL MEETING OF THE ENTOMOLOGICAL SECTION, 

President.— \N. J. FORDHAM, M.R.C.S., F.E.S., Bubwith. 

Two meetings will be held in the Zoological Department of the Leeds University, by the 
invitation of Professor Garstang, on Saturday, October 30th, 1915. 

Business at the afternoon meeting to commence at 3-30 : to consider and pass the 
Sectional Reports for 1915, and to elect Officers for 1916. 

The evening meeting will commence at 6-30, and exhibits of all orders of insects are 
invited. Several addresses on entomological topics will be contributed by the members. 

It is of importance that exhibitors should attach their names to their exhibits, and 
label specimens with names and localities, as this would greatly add to the interest. 

The various Secretaries earnestly solicit notes and records made during the season 
on entomological subjects in the county, which should bs sent to them at once, as a 
general report is required as soon as possible. 

Officials of Affiliated Societies are requested to notify their members. 

Secretaries. — (Lepidoptera), A. Whitaker and B. Morley ; (Coleoptera), Dr. Fordham 
(Hymenoptera, Hemiptera and Diptera), Rosse Butterfield ; (Xeuroptera Trichoptera 
Orthoptera), G. T. Porritt. 



Iiam j», 
di an(flj 

J 



309 
NOTES AND COMMENTS. 

BRITISH ASSOCIATION. 

Under the shadow of the war cloud the members of the 
British Association met at ^lanchester from tlie 7th to the 
nth September. Notwithstanding" a certain gloominess, the 
sections devoted themselves to serious work, in which the 
subjects of war and women, and the effects of war, and the 
work which women had done or could do, played an important 
part. We may be mistaken, but our impression was that 
this year there were more women taking part in the proceedings 
than usual. Having regard to the number of the younger 
members who are serving their country, to the lack of travelling 
facilities, and the absence of the usual elaborate arrangements 
for entertaining the members, the attendance this year, viz., 
1439, may be considered very satisfactory. 

THE PRESIDENT. 

Probably the attendance of distinguished scientists is 
larger this year than might have been expected under the 
circumstances of the restricted programme. But, as stated 
in The Yorkshire Observer, many have felt it a duty to put in 
an appearance to demonstrate their repudiation of an attempt 
made to boycott the President (Professor Arthur Schuster, 
F.R.S.). 'To the neurotic, spy-smelling journalism of some 
quarters of London such a combination of letters as ' Sch ' 
in the President's name is intrinsically unpatriotic, even 
traitorous, and so with an easy contempt for facts the demand 
was made, with all the impudence of ignorance, that the 
President should retire.' Dr. Schuster has been called by his 
own friends ' an international medium of science,' but it happens 
that he comes of Swiss race — not of German — and his family 
have been associated with Manchester for nearly a century. 
Even were it otherwise, his half-century of work in England 
and the lustre he has shed upon English science as a fellow- 
worker with Lord Rayleigh and Clark iVIaxwell in the famous 
school of physics at Cambridge, has well earned honour, while 
his patriotism — testiiied by his having given sons and nephews 
to the Army and his own time and genius to organising, as 
secretary of a committee, the services of the Royal Society 
for the advantage of the Government — is beyond question. 
That distinguished Yorkshireman and brother physicist, 
Professor Silvanus Thompson, described the attack on Pro- 
fessor Schuster as ' one of the meanest things that has ever 
been done in the much abused name of patriotism,' and the 
warmth of the welcome accorded to the President showed that 
the members were quite of that opinion. 

1915 Oct, 1. 



310 Notes and Comments. 

THE SCIENTIFIC MIND. 

The main subject of the presidential address was a Httle 
academic. Dr. Schuster set himself to define the ' scientific 
mind,' quoting extensively and aptly from the brilliant mathe- 
matician and philosopher who is brother to the present Presi- 
dent of the French Republic. He came to the conclusion that 
there was no essential difference between the successful scientific 
mind and the successful mind in any other sphere of business 
in which theory is combined with practice. The great pre- 
occupation of the war could not be kept out altogether, and 
incidentally the President had a word for those perfervid 
patriots who in the intervals of assailing Mr. Asquith and Lord 
Kitchener cry aloud for ' government by business men ' and 
* government on scientific lines.' Either these desiderata are 
the same thing, said the President, in effect, or they are different. 
If they are different, then we may cancel one set of the agitated 
and vociferous against the other set. If they both mean the 
same thing, then government by business men upon scientific 
lines is just what this nation has got. 

THE WORK OF THE BRITISH ASSOCIATION. 

Of lesser general importance, but of no little domestic 
interest, were a few rather cryptic observations which the 
President introduced as preface to his address. He announced 
that proposals were before the Council directed to secure greater 
continuity in the work of the Association, and also its better 
co-ordination with that of other scientific organisations. In 
this respect the unspoken comment of his hearers was probably, 
' Quite time, too,' for scientific folk have long been dissatisfied 
with the British Association meetings. Some very important 
committees, which report from year to year — and get half a 
line of recognition on the programme, and as much of the time 
of one section as suffices to read the head-line of a report — are 
doing most valuable work, and some joint meetings of sections 
for discussion are useful and suggestive. But the readers of 
individual papers often feel themselves ploughing the sands. 
Their papers may be interesting enough, but they are pub- 
lished only in the briefest and scrappiest summary and after 
long delay, and unless they secure publication in the technical 
journals and magazines, their treatises can be accounted 
stillborn. Some papers, on the other hand, ought never to 
have been read at all ! This year, however, many of the 
' bores ' were absent. 

ITS EARLY YEARS. 

But the intimation of the President was associated with 
some remarks in which were contrasted the ideals of two 
opposing bodies of the founders. When the British Association 
originated in York eighty-four years ago, the whole idea of 

Naturalist, 



Notes and Cormncnts. 311 

such a popular ' picnic of science ' was scouted by many of the 
professorial scientists of the Universities, who rather resented 
the intrusion of the laymen and the amateur into their well- 
endowed patrimony. But the laymen — men like Vernon 
Harcourt and John Phillips, of York, the latter not till afterward 
a professor and till the end of his life an amateur in the best 
meaning of the word — with the inspiration and aid of such 
briUiant ' outsiders ' (from the University point of view) as 
Brewster and Dalton, made a success of the enterprise. When 
it was apparent that they would be done without, the university 
professors came in, but the faction feeling was for a long time 
strong in favour of confining membership to the select few — 
the really learned, with a sort of condescending or rather, 
perhaps, fawning concession to ' the nobility, clergy, and 
gentry.' Something of this old exclusiveness, this rather 
pedantic disdain for the vulgar herd, has been evident in recent 
years in some contemptuous references to picnics and garden 
parties. But garden parties and external attractions mean 
members — -members means guineas — and a well-stored coffer 
enables much important and expensive research to be subsidised. 
So that if the scientific mind is a business mind, as the Presi- 
dent suggested, it is not quite easy to understand to what 
end his reminiscences of the old controversy were directed. 

SCIENCE AND HUMANITY. 

The President concluded by stating that he was drawing 
no ring round a privileged class, but urged that the hunger 
for intellectual enjoyment is universal, and everybody should 
be given the opportunity and leisure of appeasing it. The 
duty to work, the right to live, and the leisure to think, are 
the three prime necessities of our existence, and when one of 
them fails, we only live an incomplete life. In the struggle 
which convulses the world, all intellectual pursuits are vitally 
affected, and science gladly gives all the power she wields to 
the service of the State. Sorrowfully she covers her face because 
that power, accumulated through the peaceful efforts of the 
sons of all nations, was never meant for death and destruction ; 
gladly she helps, because a war wantonly provoked threatens 
civihsation, and only through victory shall we achieve a peace 
in which once more science can hold up her head, proud of her 
strength to preserve the intellectual freedom which is worth 
more than material prosperity, to defeat the spirit of evil that 
destroyed the sense of brotherhood among nations, and to 
spread the love of truth. 

THE HANDBOOK. 

Unfortunately the handbook issued by the local com- 
mittee, edited by H. M. McKechnie, is not up to the usual 
standard, and is even issued in paper covers, which is some 

1915 Oct. L 



312 Notes and Comments. 

indication of the local committee's own estimation of its worth. 
It contains just over loo pages with a brief supplement issued 
separately, without covers, and is, perhaps, more accurately 
described by its title, ' Manchester in 1915.' There are articles 
on the various Manchester Institutions, but we miss the 
valuable accounts of the geology, natural history and archae- 
ology, etc., of the district, which usually appear in these pub- 
lications. From the preface we gather that originally the 
committee responsible for this production was going to produce 
an even smaller volume, but owing to the generosity of the 
various people invited to contribute articles, it is even larger 
than was contemplated ! Apparently this decision was 
arrived at without any considerations due to the war. As we 
feel sure many members value these local handbooks as guides 
to the respective districts, it seems a pity that Manchester was 
so cheese-paring in its policy. In the case of our own copy we 
have to hesitate whether to go to the expense of binding in 
order to preserve it. Unquestionably the articles appearing 
are excellent, but they do not seem to go far enough. 

IS EUROPE ' SETTLED ' ? 

In the Geological Section, Professor Grenville A. J. Cole 
(Royal College of Science, Dublin), in his presidential address,, 
discussed problems relating to the earth's crust and crust 
movements. He said the globe was still strange to us because 
its vast interior was unseen, and we were apt to speculate about 
the stars, when the behaviour of the ground beneath concerned 
us tar more nearly. In spite of the swamping of the Alkmaar 
country in 1825, in spite of the tragedy of Messina only seven 
short years ago, we feel that Eui'ope is a settled continent, and 
we judge the past and future by the present superiicial peace. 
We have applied the same thoughts to human movements, 
and the inconceivable has happened in our midst. We natur- 
ally find it difficult to carry our minds back to epochs when the 
earth-blocks may have parted asunder as ice parts across the 
polar seas. We have, however, still very much to learn about 
causes now in action ; and the mystery of the earth, and of our 
connexion with it, grows upon us as we learn. 

THE GREATEST CHANGE. 

Can we at all realise the greatest change that ever came upon 
the globe, the moment when living matter appeared upon its sur- 
face, perhaps over a few square miles ? Matter is either dead or 
living, that is, endowed with life ; there is no intermediate state. 
And here was living matter, a product of the slime, if you will, 
but of a slime more glorious than the stars. Was this thing, life, 
a surface-concentration, a specialisation, of something that had 
previously permeated all matter, but had remained powerless 
, because it was infinitely diffuse ? Here you will perceive that 

Naturalist, 



Notes and Comments. 313 

the mere geologist is very much beyond his depth. Let us 
return to our orderly studies, our patient hammerings, our 
rock-slices, our chiselling out of fossil shells. Behind it all 
is the earth itself, quiescent, it may be, but by no means in 
the sleep of death. As Termier puts it, ' La planete n'est pas 
encore mortc ; clle nc fait que dormir.' 

PROF. W. R. SCOTT's ADDRESS. 

A strong note on current topics was sounded in Prof. W. R. 
Scott's address to the Economic Science and Statistics Section. 
Not the least dominant phase of the present epoch-making 
struggle is the economic one ; and it is inevitable that con- 
sideration should be given to some of the reactions of this 
great war upon industry, credit and finance. In many repsects 
the economic problems that will confront us after the war will 
be even more serious, and certainly not less difficult, than those 
of the present time. Still there can be no doubt that these 
will be faced with courage and patience. The period of stress 
through which we are passing has shown the unity of thought 
and pvu'pose throughout the whole Empire. And this, in spite 
of many appearances to the contrary, will be a great asset in 
the future. The great national emergency has caused a closing 
of the nation's ranks, and it rests with us to keep them firm 
and steadfast when peace returns. There are plain signs that 
it may not always be easy, since so many industrial and other 
difficulties have been carried forward as a suspense account 
which is to be dealt with when the war is over. National unity 
is enabling us to progress towards victory, and the same unity 
will be reqiiired to enable us to reap the full fruits of that 
victory at home. It would be a mad waste not to employ the 
qualities of heart and mind which have been aroused in this 
great struggle in the service of peace and social progress. The 
future may be difficult for some years to come, but difficulties 
are the opportunities of the strong and courageous. It has 
fallen to us to live in an heroic age ; and, if we remain true to 
ourselves and to our high destiny, we shall have the strength 
and the fixity of purpose to achieve greatly in peace as well as 
in war. 

MR. R. H. REW'S ADDRESS. 

Similarly in his address to the Agricultural Section, ]\Ir. 
Rew referred to the eftect of war especially on farming and 
on food supplies. In total weight of food-stuffs, the quantity 
brought to our shores was rather larger in time of war than 
in time of peace. Yet one still occasionally meets a purblind 
pessimist who plaintively asks what the Navy is doing. This 
is a part of the answer. It is also a measure of the success 
of the much-advertised German ' blockade ' for the starvation 
of England. So absolute a triumph of sea-power in the first 

1915 Oct. 1. 



314 Notes and Comments. 

year of war would have been treated as a wild dream by, the 
most confirmed optimist two years ago. The debt which the 
nation owes to our sailor-men is already immeasurable. That 
before the enemy is crushed the debt will be increased we may 
be assured. The crisis of our fate has not yet passed, and we 
may be called upon to meet worse trials that have yet befallen 
us. But in the Navy is our sure and certain hope. ' That 
which they have done is but earnest of the things that they 
shall do.' Under the protection of that silent shield the land 
may yield its increase untrodden by the invading foot, the 
trader may pursue his business undismayed by the threats of 
a thwarted foe, and the nation may rely that, while common 
prudence enjoins strict economy in husbanding our resources, 
sufficient supplies of food will be forthcoming for all the reason- 
able needs of the people. 

MAJOR H. G. LYONS'S ADDRESS. 

The importance of Geographical Research, a particularly 
important topic at the present time, was the subject of Major 
Lyons's address to the Geographical Section. He opined 
that societies can do far more good in the promotion of geo- 
graphy as a science by assisting competent investigators, by 
the loan of books and instruments, and by giving facilities for 
the discussion and publication of technical papers, than by 
undertaking the investigation of problems themselves. Among 
the earlier Presidential Addresses of this Section some have 
laid stress on the importance of the recognition by the State 
of geography in education ; others have represented the great 
part which the Geographical Societies have played in support- 
ing and advancing the subject ; others again have urged the 
fuller recognition of geography by Educational Institutions. 
I would on this occasion attach especial importance to the 
prosecution of serious research by individuals in any branch 
of the subject that is accessible to them, to the discussion of 
the results of such work by others of like interests, and to the 
publication of such studies as having a real value in promoting 
the advancement of scientific geography. 

PROF. w. H. Lang's address. 
In his address to the Botanical Section, Prof. Lang dealt 
with Phyletic and Causal Morphology, Individual Development, 
The Constitution of the Shoot, Alternation of Generations, and 
The Seed and its Embryo. Prof. Lang concluded that though 
results may seem far off, we must not slacken, but redouble 
our efforts towards the solution of the fundamental problems 
of the organism. This can be done without any antagonism 
between pure and applied botany ; indeed, there is every 
advantage in conducting investigations on plants of economic 
importance. It would be well if e^'ery botanist made himself 

Naturalist, 



Notes and Comments. 315 

really familiar with some limited portion of applied botany, 
so as to be able to give useful assistance and advice at need. 
The stimulus to investigation would amply repay the time re- 
quired. Even in continuing to devote ourselves to pure botany 
we cannot afford to waste time and energy in purposeless work. 
It is written in ' Alice in Wonderland ' that ' no wise lish goes 
anywhere without a porpoise,' and this might hang as a text 
in every research laboratory. A plant is a very mysterious 
and wonderful thing, and our business as botanists is to try 
to understand and explain it as a whole and to avoid being 
bound by any conventional views of the moment. We have 
to think of the plant as at once a physico-chemical mechanism 
and as a living being ; to avoid either treating it as something 
essentially difterent from non-living matter or forcibly ex- 
plaining it by the physics and chemistry of to-day. It is an 
advantage of the study of causal morphology that it requires 
us to keep the line between these two crudities, a line that may 
some day lead us to a causal explanation of the developing 
plant and the beginnings of a single science of botany. 

MRS. HENRY SIDGWICK's ADDRESS. 

Mrs. Sidgwick was the President of the Educational Science 
Section, and expressed the opinion that the general public must 
be encouraged to take its share even in the part of education 
carried on at school and college, and in particular those members 
of the general public who are parents of pupils. But this 
conclusion is rather barren, for she had no very deiinite plan 
to suggest for carrying it out. The State cannot now, even if 
it would, abandon the responsibihty for the elementary school 
education of the children, and even if it could, it is more than 
doubtful whether it would be desirable. For though we 
have now secured that all parents shall themselves have had 
school education, we still cannot trust them all voluntarily 
to give that advantage to their children. So the drawback 
must be put up with that parents cannot feel the same degree 
of responsibility resting on themselves when the responsibility 
is undertaken by the State. It is to be hoped, however, that 
we shall be very careful how far we entrust to the State the 
regulation of education higher than the primary. Bureau- 
cratic regulation may be well adapted to produce German 
Kiiltur, but it is not the way to secure the attitude of mind 
which leads to freedom, independence of thought, and culture 
in the best sense. And it is very apt to lead to want of inde- 
pendence in the teacher. Probably our best hope for progress 
in the right direction lies in movements like the Workers' 
Educational Association, where we have voluntary effort put 
forward to satisfy spontaneous desire to learn. As this move- 
ment extends we hope more and more to get a generation 

1915 Oct. 1. 



3i6 Notes and Comments. 

of parents who, having themselves experienced intellectual 
curiosity and the joy of satisfying it, who, having thernselves 
felt the gain of a wider outlook on men and things, may by 
their example inspire their children with a similar disinterested 
desire for learning and culture. 

PROF. W. M. BAYLISS'S ADDRESS. 

The Physiological Importance of Phase Boundaries was the 
subject of Prof. Bayliss's address to the Ph3'siological Section. 
He stated that we may conclude that more study of the 
phenomena at phase boundaries will throw light on many prob- 
lems still obscure. It would probably not be going too far 
to say that the peculiarities of the phenomena called ' vital ' 
are due to the fact that they are manifestations of interchange 
of energy between the phases of heterogeneous systems. It 
was Clerk Maxwell who compared the transactions of the mater- 
ial universe to mercantile operations in which so much credit 
is transferred from one place to another, energy being the 
representative of credit. There are many indications that it 
is just in this process of change of energy from one form to 
another that special degrees of activity are to be observed. 
Such, for example, are the electrical phenomena seen in the 
oxidation of phosphorus or benzaldehyde, and it appears that, 
in the photo-chemical system of the green plant, radiant energy 
is caught on the way, as it were, to its degradation to heat, 
and utilised for chemical work. In a somewhat similar way, 
it might be said that money in the process of transfer is more 
readily diverted, although perhaps not always to such good 
purpose as in the chloroplast. Again, just as in commerce 
money that is unemployed is of no value, so it is in physiology. 
Life is incessant change or transfer of energy, and a system in 
statical equilibrium is dead. 

PROF. E. A. MIN'CHIN's ADDRESS. 

Prof. Minchin's address to the Zoological Section was on 
a well-worn topic, ' The Evolution of the Cell,' but was dealt 
with in the hght of recent work. He stated : ' I have set 
forth my conceptions of the nature of the simplest forms of 
life and of the course taken by the earliest stages oi evolution, 
striving all through to treat the problem from a strictly ob- 
jective standpoint, and avoiding as far as possible the purely 
speculative and metaphysical questions which beset like pitfalls 
the path of those who attack the problem of life and vitalism. 
I have, therefore, refrained as far as possible from discussing 
such indefinable abstractions as ' living substance ' or ' life,' 
phrases to which no clear meaning can be attached. How far 
my personal ideas may correspond to objective truth I could 
not, of course, pretend to judge. It may be that the mental 
pictures which I have attempted to draw are to be assigned, 

Naturalist, 



Notes and Comments. 317 

on the most cliaritable interpretation, to the reahn of poetry, 
as defined by the greatest of poets, rather than of science. 

" The lunatic, the lover and the poet 
Are of imagination all compact ; 

And as imagination bodies fortli 
The forms of thin.^s unknown, the poet's pen 
Turns them to sliapes and gives to airy nothin.tis 
A local habitation and a name." 

PROTOCYTE, CYTODE, MICROCOCCUS AXD BIOCOCCUS. 

' If I might be permitted to attempt an impartial criticism 
of my own scheme, I think it might be claimed that the various 
forms and types of organisms in my evolutionary series, 
namely, the simple cell or proctocyte, the cytode or pseudo- 
moneral stage, the micrococcus, even the biococcus, are 
founded on concrete evidence and can be regarded as types 
actually existent in the present or past. On the other hand 
the role assigned by me to each type in the pageant of evolution 
is naturally open to dispute. For example, I agree with those 
who derive the Bacteria as primitive, truly non-cellular organ- 
isms, directly from the biococcus through an ancestral fprm, and 
not at all with those who would regard the Bacteria as de- 
generate or highly-specialised cells. But the crux of my 
scheme is the homology postulated between the biococcus and 
the chromatinic particle — chromidiosome or chromiole — of 
true cells. In support of this view, of which I am not the 
originator, I have set forth the reasons which have convinced 
me that the extraordinary powers and activities exhibited by 
the chromatin in ordinary cells are such as can only be explained 
on the hypothesis that the ultimate chromatinic units are to be 
regarded as independent living things, as much so as the cells 
composing the bodies of multicellular organisms ; and, so far 
as I am concerned, I must leave the matter to the judgment 
of my fellow-biologists.' 

SIR F. \V. DYSOX'S ADDRESS. 

In his addresses to the ^lathematical and Physical Science 
Section, Sir F. W. Dyson dealt with ' The Construction of the 
Heavens.' After a very clear statement of recent researches, 
he stated that it must be admitted that we are as yet very 
ignorant of the more distant parts of the ' island universe.' 
For example, we can make little more than guesses at the dis- 
tance of the !^Iilky Way, or say what part is nearest to us, what 
are its movements, and so on. But nevertheless, the whole 
subject of the Construction of the Heavens has been opened 
up in a remarkable manner in the last few years. The methods 
now employed seem competent to produce a tolerably good 
model showing the co-ordinates and velocities of the stars 

1915 Oct. 1. 



3i8 Notes and Comments. 

as well as their effective temperatures and the amount of light 
they radiate. Industry in the collection of accurate data is 
required, along with constant attempts to interpret them as 
they are collected. The more accurate and detailed our know- 
ledge of the stellar system as it is now, the better will be our 
position for the dynamical and physical study of its history 
and evolution. 

PROF. C. G. SELIGMAN's ADDRESS. 

In his address to the Anthropological Section, Prof. Seligman 
outlined the early history of the Anglo-Egyptian Sudan from 
the standpoint of the ethnologist. He stated that concerning 
the early pre-history of the Anglo-Egyptian Sudan we have 
no more than indications. In the Neolithic stage, which 
appears to have persisted until a comparatively recent date, 
Negro influence, if not predominant over the whole area, was 
at least powerfully felt even in the north, as is shown by the 
distribution of polished axe-heads. But against this northward 
pressure must be set the continual extension of Egyptian 
culture, the evidence for which may best be found in the 
eschatological ideas and burial customs (' mummification ' and 
anthropoid coffins) of the peoples of Equatoria. This influence, 
which seems to have persisted until mediaeval times, may have 
reached tropical Negroland as early as the Middle or even the 
Old Kingdom. Nor was the Nile route the only one by which 
Egyptian influence was spread. Another and later drift 
extended westwards as shown by the coinage of the north 
African States, which enables us to fix its date within fairly 
precise limits. We do not know how far south this drift 
travelled, but it seems certain that it reached at least as far 
as the Senegal River and the great bend of the Niger. 

MUSEUMS. 

The Committee appointed to examine the Character, Work, 
and Maintenance of Museums reported that during the year it 
had carried out extensive inquiries upon various aspects of 
museums in relation to Education. Sectional Reports upon 
the museum needs of school children, students, and the general 
public have been drawn up by sub-committees, and afterwards 
issued to all the members. A lengthy questionnaire was pre- 
pared by the Committee in the hope of its adoption by the 
House of Lords for departmental issue to all museums. Owing 
to the war, this M^as not possible, and the questionnaire was 
therefore issued by the Committee on its own responsibility to 
all provincial museums in the British Isles. About one hundred 
and forty replies have been received, and are now under con- 
sideration. A special questionnaire upon classical education 
in relation to museums has also been issued. A joint con- 
ference between the Committee and the Museums Association 

Naturalist, 



Notes and Comments. 



SIQ" 



was held at the Victoria and Albert Museum, London, on July 
9th, when Professor J. A. Green introduced the question of the 
museum in relation to schools. Attention is also being directed 
to the question of the relation of museums to universities. The 
Committee hopes to complete its labours during the course of 
the coming year. 

THE PLACE OF MUSEUMS IN GENERAL EDUCATION. 

Professor W. Boyd Dawkins stated the value of museums 
in general education depends upon their arrangement, and 
their being classified so as to show the true relations of the 
various objects to one another. He put before the Section a 
scheme of classification based on his experience in Manchester 
dating from 1869, in combining various scattered collections 
into one museum, which is now of equal service to the Uni- 
versity, to the various schools and institutions of the district,, 
and to the general public. What has been done here on a fairly 
large scale may be done with equal success on a small scale else- 
where. The difficulty of co-ordinating the widely different 
groups of objects of human interest has been overcome by the 
adoption of the principles of time and evolution as the basis- 
of classification, as seen in the following scheme : — 



Modern History of 
the Earth. 


VL 
Animals. 


VIII. 
Man. 


VII. 
Plants. 


VIII 
VII. 


History, Anthropology, 
Ethnology, Art. 
Botany. VI. Zoology. 




v. Tertiary Life 
(Cainozoic). 


v., IV. 
v., IV^ 

II. 
I. 


III., II., I. Geology. 


Ancient History 


IV. Secondary Life 
(Mesozoic). 


, III. Palaeontology. 


of 
the Earth. 


III. Primary Life 
(Palaeozoic). 






II. Rocks. 


Petrology.:; 




I. Minerals. 


Mineralogy. 



SCHEME OF ARRANGEMENT. 

In this scheme the minerals are placed at the bottom 
because they are the materials forming the rocks. The existing 
animals and plants stand at the top in their true relation to 
the geological record, and the various changes, which they 
have undergone in becoming what they are, fix the geological 
age of the rocks in which they He. The place also of the 
collections illustrationg History, Anthropology, and other 
subjects grouped together in No. VIII., in close relation with 
those of Zoology, Botany (VI., VII.), and Geology (I. to V.), 
is fully justified by the connection between those sciences, and 

1915 Oct. 1. 



320 Notes and Comments. 

more particularly by the appearance of man in the geological 
record. The continuity is so marked that the present face of 
nature may be taken to be the current, but not necessarily the 
last, of the stages of the evolution of life in the Tertiary Period. 
A museum arranged on these lines, made intelligible by lectures 
and addresses, cannot fail to become an important instrument 
in a system of education in which the study of things is becoming 
at least as important as the study of books. 

LOCAL MUSEUMS, 

In opening a discussion on ' Local Museums ' at the Con- 
ierence of Delegates, Dr. W. E. Hoyle proposed ' merely to 
throw down certain bones of contention for those present to 
worry to their hearts' content.' He stated that ' May I lay 
it down at the outset that the first and fundamental function 
of a museum is to preserve. We museum officials are now-a- 
days given so much good advice about the desirability of 
making our exhibits aesthetically attractive, of compiling 
explanatory labels which shall at the same time instruct the 
specialist and interest the casual visitor, and of catering for 
school children, that we are, perhaps, in danger of forgetting 
that our paramount duty is to see that " neither moth nor 
rust doth corrupt " and that " thieves do not break through 
nor steal." It always tends to clearness of thought in approach- 
ing any subject to begin with a definition. I will, therefore, 
provisionally define a local museum as a museum existing in 
a place, belonging to that place, destined for the instruction 
and delight of the dwellers in that place and illustrative of that 
place.' 

AND THEIR DUTY. 

It follows from this that the first duty of a local museum 
is to preserve the things of interest pertaining to the locality, 
whether they illustrate its history, folk-lore, natural history or 
any other topic. These must be carefully kept and every 
particular relating to them recorded with scrupulous accuracy. 
A certain proportion must be exhibited in such a way that 
their points of interest may be readily seen and they must be 
adequately labelled — all this in accordance with principles 
which are now-a-days well understood by every qualified 
museum official. Complete reference collections of animals, 
plants, fossils and the like, must be formed and kept in cabinets 
accessible to those desiring to make use of them for purposes 
of study.' 

NATIONAL V. PROVINCIAL. 

' Here, I think, it is necessary to consider the important 
and delicate question, " What ought to be the relations between 
the Local Museum and the National Museum ? " Broadly 
stated, the solution is to be found in the general principle, 

Naturalist, 



Notes and Comments. 321 

what is of national importance should be preserved in the 
national museum, what is of merely local interest should be 
kept in the local museum.' Quite so, but who is going to define 
what is of local interest, and what is of national interest ? It 
is purely a question of the point of view. When Dr. Hoyle 
adorned one of our provincial museums, he in some way 
' acquired ' certain objects which he then certainly considered 
were suitable for that museum. Now, however, that he 
governs one of our national institutions it seems quite likely 
that he may be of the opinion that many of the objects in the 
Manchester ]\Iuseum are of sufficient importance to be trans- 
ferred to a national museum, perhaps even in Wales. In fact we 
believe, judging from his reports, that some of the collections 
he has purchased for the Welsh National Museum would be 
considered by his successor at ^Manchester to be more appro- 
priately housed at ^lanchester, and were Dr. Hoyle si ill at 
Manchester, that would doubtless be his view. 

LOCAL museum's DUTY. 

' It having been admitted that the formation and pre- 
servation of a local collection is the primary duty of a local 
museum, and supposing this function to be adequately dis- 
charged, should a local museum undertake any others ? I 
should say " Certainly, if its means and opportunities allow, and 
the possibilities are many and various." One ob\dous way in 
which the museum can be of the greatest service is by pro- 
viding collections which shall give the visitor a preliminary 
sketch of some department of knovvledge. I allude to w^hat 
are often called " Index " collections, though the term " Intro- 
ductory " collections would be more appropriate.' 

INTRODUCTORY COLLECTIONS. 

' For instance a larger and smaller collection illustrating the 
animal kingdom w^ould furnish a suitable preliminary to a 
study ot local fauna, a series of specimens showing the technique 
of different processes of engraving, etching and mezzotint 
would furnish a valuable introduction to a collection of local 
prints, a number of objects from different prehistoric and 
historic periods would enable the visitor to place in their proper 
chronological relation the collections of local archaeology, and 
numerous other possibilities will readily suggest themselves. 
Another direction in which a local museum may profitably 
develop is by coming into direct connection wdth the educational 
system of the locality. This may be done either by setting 
apart and furnishing a room for the special use of school classes 
or by providing topical collections which can be lent to, or 
circulated among the schools. There is already an extensive 
literature on this subject so I need not enlarge further upon it.' 

1915 Oct. 1. 



322 Notes and Comments. 

' DISCUSSION ! ' 

What perhaps might be described as a ' discussion' certainly 
followed Dr. Hoyle's paper, but as it resolved itself into an 
account of the good things done at the rnuseums in the towns 
represented by the various delegates who spoke, the discussion 
might very easily have taken place at another Association 
which we know very well. 

PROVINCIAL SOCIETIES. 

Sir Thomas Holland presided at a meeting of delegates 
from corresponding societies, and spoke upon the necessity 
for organisation of scientific and learned societies. He said 
that the war would result, more completely than any of its 
puny predecessors, in recasting our national ideas, economical, 
political, and literary, and of the lessons we were likely to 
learn the one that so far promised most to affect the life of the 
nation might be summed up in the word ' organisation.' 

GERMAN V. ENGLISH METHODS. 

' In Germany the scientific, technical, and commercial 
community was mobilised, and each individual in it was given 
his appropriate function. In this country still, in these in- 
stitutions, we had the right men in the wrong places, while 
scientific activity seemed to be devoted to the voluntary 
formation of innumerable and often irresponsible committees 
with overlapping functions and no apparent common aim in 
view, and with convergent interests. The plan that had often 
•occurred to him as a possible compromise between the claims 
of central organisation and provincial autonomy, was this. 
The recognised chief among the learned societies — the Royal 
Society of London — should, by affiliation of its provincial poor 
relations, take over the cost as well as the responsibility of 
their serious publications. They would enjoy home rule so far 
as their meetings, discussions, and finances were concerned, 
but their papers offered for publication would be censored by 
the appropriate sectional committees of the Royal Society, and 
would rank technically for purposes of quotation and priority.' 

A DANGER. 

This may be alright theoretically and, as we have pointed 
•out on many occasions, an examination of the publications of 
the various societies, metropolitan and provincial, is a difficult 
problem. But it must be remembered that this London 
' censorship ' may do harm. In the first place quite a number 
■of important local notes and records would certainly be 
' censored ' by a central governing and a central paying body. 
' A List of the Dipt era of Hull,' or ' An Account of a Ramble 
of the Yorkshire Naturalists' Union at Elland,' or a ' List of 
the Fungi of Halifax,' would in all probability be considered 
of insufficient importance from a Royal Society Committee's 

Naturalist, 



Notes and Comments. 323 

point of view. But workers in the county know how necessary 
and how valuable these local records are, and we know that 
professors and other quite important people find these local 
lists useful. 

LONDON V. PROVINXES. 

Besides, as in the case of deciding on the objects to be placed 
in a local or in a national museum, so the difficulty will arise 
with publications, as to whether they are of London or provin- 
cial importance. And, just as a donor may have some say as 
to the destination of his gifts, so an author may want some 
voice in the matter of the place of publication of his work. We 
believe Sir Thomas Holland suggested that the local societies 
might still issue an annual report, with ephemeral matter which, 
presumably, the superior scholar may afford to ignore. But 
it is more than probable that some of these ' unimportant ' 
notes and records may be very important in the future. We 
know how, over and over again, commonplace records of one 
generation have been of the utmost value to another. Pepy's 
Diary would have been censored by the London referee had he 
submitted it for publication in his day. As it is, it throws a 
vivid light on the life of his times, and is now a classic. 

THE AMATEUR NATURALIST. 

But there is another point to be considered ; and an im- 
portant one. In most of our provincial societies the amateur 
naturalist receives encouragement and inspiration. Quite a 
large number of our professional scientific men began their 
career in a provincial scientific society. Their early papers 
were read at its meetings ; their first encouragement was 
received there. What would the effect upon these young 
naturalists be if their first papers had to be submitted to a 
Royal Society's Committee in London ? In most cases the 
papers would certainly be ' censored.' Politely, perhaps, but 
firmly, they would be told that their work was not up to 
* standard ' and could not be printed. This is not encourage- 
ment. And it is to the encouragement given to their maiden 
efforts that so many of our professional scientific men owe the 
positions they hold to-day. No ; our methods may not be 
perfect ; they may not be German, but before any such change 
as that suggested takes place, the matter should be very care- 
fully considered. 

THE ANTIQUITY OF MAN. 

On this subject Prof. Boyd Dawkins made an important 
contribution. Professor Boule, in his masterly essay pub- 
lished in Anthropologie, xxvi., Jan. -April, 1915, freely criticised 
the evidence on which the antiquity of man in Britain has been 
stated to go back beyond the early Pliocene age, and concludes 
that it is not of a nature to throw light on so important a prob- 

1915 Oct. 1. 



324 Notes and Comments. 

lem. The antiquity of man — or, in other words, his place in the 
geological record — is a geological question to be decided, like 
all others, on the lines of a rigid induction. In each case it is- 
necessary to prove not only that the objects are of human 
origin, but further that they are of the same age as the strata 
in which they occur, without the possibility of their havmg 
been introduced at a later time. The Pliocene age of man in 
East Anglia is founded entirely on the roughly chipped flints 
in the basal Pliocene strata — on eoliths, mainly of the rostro- 
carinate or eagle's-beak type of Moir and Lankester. It has 
been ampW proved in this country by Warren, Ha ward, and 
Sollas, and in France by Boule, Breuil, and Cartailhac, that 
these can be made without the intervention of man by the 
pressure and movement of the surface deposits, by the action 
of ice, by the torrents and rivers, and by the dash of the waves 
on the shore. The type specimens taken to be of human work 
have been selected out of a large series of broken flints that 
graduate into forms obviously made by natural fractures. They 
are, as Boule aptly says, ' hyperselectionnees,' and can only 
be rightly interpreted by their relation to the other flints on the 
Pliocene shore-line. 

GEOLOGICAL EVIDEXCE IX BRITAIN. 

' As might be expected, if they are due to natural causes, the 
" rostro-carinates " are widely distributed through the basal 
beds of the crag in Norfolk and Suffolk. They occur also in 
the Upper IMiocenes of Puy-Courny (Auvergne), in the Pleisto- 
cene gravels of London, and the present shore-line of Selsey, 
where they are now probably being made by the breakers. For 
these reasons I agree with M. Boule that they have not been 
proved to have been made by man, and that therefore they 
throw no light on his place in the geological record. The 
presence of man in East Anglia during the Glacial period is 
founded on even worse evidence than this. The Ipswich 
skeleton on which Moir and Keith base their speculations was 
obtained from a shallow pit sunk through the surace soil of 
decalcified boulder clay — not of boulder clay in situ, as stated — 
into the Glacial sand that crops out on the valley slope. It is, 
in my opinion, a case of interment that may be of any age from 
the neolithic to modern times. The skeleton also is of modern 
tvpe, and belongs, as Duckworth shows, to the graveyard series 
of burials.' 

PILTDOWX REMAINS. 

' We come now to the consideration of the evidence of the 
famous discovery on Piltdown of Eo-anthropus Dawsoni — the 
missing link between primitive man and the higher apes. After 
the examination of the whole group of remains, and a study of 
the section, I fully accept Dr. Smith Woodward's opinion that 

Naturalist,, 



Notes and Comments. 325 

the find belongs to the early Pleistocene period. The associated 
implements are of the same Chellean or Acheulean type as 
those so abundant in the mid-Pleistocene Brick-earths of the 
Thames Valley between Crayford and Gravesend. They may 
imply that Eo-anthropus belongs to that horizon, in which 
the stag is present and the reindeer absent. It must not, 
however, be forgotten that the classiiicatory value of these 
implements is lessened by their wide range in Britain and the 
Continent through the later Pleistocene River deposits. The 
stag, the beaver, and the horse of Piltdown — leaving out of 
account the Pliocene fossil mammals more or less worn into 
pebbles — are common both to the pre-Glacial Forest-bed and 
the Lower Brick-earths of the Thames Valley. It must also 
be noted that the intermediate characters of the Piltdown 
skull and lower jaw point rather to the Pliocene than the Pleis- 
tocene stage of evolution. We must wait for further evidence 
before the exact horizon can be ascertained. On the Continent 
there is no such difficulty.' 

EARLY MAN ON THE CONTINENT. 

' The earliest traces of man are there represented at Mauer 
by a mandible associated with the peculiar fauna of the Forest- 
bed, showing that Homo Heidelbergensis, a chinless man, was 
living in the Rhine Valley during the earliest stage of the 
Pleistocene. The Neanderthal man, thick skulled and large- 
brained, with small chin and stooping gait, belongs to the 
Mousterian stage, that, in my opinion, is not clearly delined 
from the Chellean and Acheulian gravels of the Late Pleistocene. 
He ranged from the Rhine through France southwards as far 
as Gibraltar, and was probably the maker of the Palaeolithic 
implements of those strata throughout this region. It is also 
probable that he visited Britain, then part of the Continent, 
in following the migration of the mammalia northward and 
westwards. While primitive men of these types inhabited 
Europe there was no place in the Pleistocene fauna for the 
thin-skulled men taken by Dr. Keith* and others to prove that 
modern types of men lived in Britain in the Pleistocene age. 
Man appears in Britain and the Continent at the period when 
he might be expected to appear, from the study of the evolution 
of the Tertiary Mammalia — at the beginning of the Pleistocene 
age when the existing Eutherian mam.malian species were 
abundant. He may be looked for in the Pliocene when the 
existing species were few. In the older strata — Miocene, 
Oligocene, Eocene — he can only be represented by an ancestry 
of intermediate forms.' 

* The skeletons of Galley Hill, in Kent, and that of Cheddar Cave in 
Somerset, have, in my opinion, been buried, and do not belong to the 
I'leistocene age. 

1915 Oct. 1. 



326 Notes and Comments. 

EARLY MAN 

' The Rev. H. J. Dukinfield Astley stated it was unnecessary 
to enlarge on the classification now accomplished of Palaeolithic 
times, chiefly from the data in the French caves. Formerly it 
was sufftcient to differentiate the Drift and the Cave periods.* 
It is now realised that the Cave Period was of vast duration 
and consisted of a succession of well-defined epochs, as did 
also the Drift. Various classifications have been attempted 
as knowledge has improved — those of Monstrelet, Piette, 
Hoernes ; the latest are those of M. Rutot and the Abbe Breuil, 
and a careful table in the Report of the last Prehistoric Congress 
at Geneva, 1912. This definitely established the existence of 
the Aurignacian Period between the Mousterian and Solutrian 
periods, tentatively suggested by the Abbe Breuil at the 
Monaco Congress in 1906. (The names are derived from the 
caves containing the characteristic culture).' 

IN EAST ANGLIA. 

' As regards England, Professor Sollas has assigned the 
Paviland Cave to the Aurignacian Period, and some implements 
with distinctive Aurignac features have been found in Kent's 
Cavern and Wookey Hole. The object of this communication 
is to show reason for affirming the habitat of Aurignac Man 
in districts where no caves exist. The ' Cissbury ' type shows 
unmistakeable Aurignac affinities. A rich field has been lately 
disclosed in East Anglia — not only in the Palaeolithic Floors at 
Thetford Warren and Lakenheath and Ickhngham, so un- 
tiringly explored by Dr. Sturge, but in the now celebrated 
' Grime's Graves ' near Brandon, f Mr. Reginald Smith's 
doubts have led to further excavations undertaken in 1914. 
The results show implements of undoubted Mousterian and 
Aurignac types, and go to prove that the original miners be- 
longed, not to the Neolithic people, who came here when 
Britain was already an island, but to the Cave people, who 
arrived here immediately preceding the Wiirm glaciation, and 
continued after it passed away, while the British Isles still 
formed part of the Continent. It is suggested that the sand 
covering the pits is Loess.' 

DISTRIBUTION OF BRONZE AGE IMPLEMENTS. 

Mr. Harold J. E. Peake, Secretary of the Committee, 
reported that no meeting of the Committee was held during 
the year, but he attended the meeting of the Association 
Francaise, held at Le Havre in July 1914, and through the 
courtesy of Dr. F. Gidon, its President, was enabled to bring 



* Evans, ' Stone Implements,' and Avebiiry, ' Prehistoric Times.' 
■j- ' Descriptionof Grime's Graves, Canon Greenwell's Excavations, 1870' 
- — all assigned to the Neolithic Age. 

Naturalist, 



Notes and Comments. 327 

the objects of the Committee before the Section of Anthro- 
pologic. The idea was received very cordially by those present, 
especially by M. A. de Mortillet, and many offers of assistance 
were received. The order for the mobilisation of the French 
army, which was issued the following day, has prevented any 
further communication with our allies on this subject. A 
considerable number of sketches and notes has been furnished 
referring to specimens in the museums of Newbury, South- 
ampton, and Carisbrooke, as well as to those in several small 
private collections. The Committee is anxious to get sketches 
of all the Bronze Age Implements in the Country. Those able 
to assist should communicate with Mr. Peake, at Westbrook 
House, Newbury. 

CLASSIFICATION OF TERTIARY STRATA BY MEANS OF EUTHERIAN 

MAMMALS. 

Prof. W. Boyd Dawkins gave a classification based on the 
evolution of the mammalia, the only group in the animal 
kingdom that was, as Gaudry writes, ' en pleine evolution ' in 
the Tertiary Period, all the lower forms having already under- 
gone their principal changes and none changing fast enough 
to be of service in defining the stages. The scheme is as follows . 

liable of the Dii'isions of the Tertiary period. 

Descriptions. Characteristics. 

Historic, in which the events are recorded Modern types of man. Man the master 

in history. of nature. 

Prehistoric, in which man has multiplied Modern types of man-cultivated plants, 

exceedingly and domesticated both animals Domestic animals — dog, sheep, goat, ox, 

and plants. Wild Eutheria on the land of horse, pig, etc. Wild Eutheria of living 

existing species, with the exception of the species. 
Irish elk. 

Pleistocene, in which living species of Extinct types of mankind. (Modern 

Eutheria are more abundant than the extinct types?) Living Eutherian species domin- 
species. Man appears. ant. Man. 

Pliocene, in which living Eutherian species Living Eutherian species present. Extinct 

occur in a fauna mainly of extinct species. species dominant. 

Miocene, in which the alliance between No living Eutherian species. Living Eu- 

living and extinct Eutheria is more close therian genera appear. Anthropoid apes, 
than in the preceding stage. Extinct genera dominant. 

Oligocene, in which the alliance between No living Eutherian genera. Living 

extinct and living Eutheria is more close families and orders. Extinct families and 
than in the Eocene. orders numerous. 

Eocene, in which the Eutheria are repre- No living Eutherian genera. Living 

sented by living, as well as by extinct, families and orders. Lemuroids. Extinct 
families and orders. families and orders dominant. 

The most important break in the succession of life-forms 
occurs at the close of the Oligocene age in Europe and America. 
From this break down to the present day the continuity is 
so marked that we may conclude that the present face of the 
earth is merely the last in a long succession in the Tertiary 
Period. 

1915 Oct. 1. 



328 Notes and Comments. 

GLACIAL GEOLOGY OF THE WESTERN SLOPES OF THE SOUTHERN' 
PENNINES. 

Dr. Albert Jowett dealt with the area extending irom 
Blackstone Edge southwards to the southern extremity of the 
Pennines. No striated surfaces of solid rock have been dis- 
covered at high levels, and the two that have been recorded at 
Salford and Fallowfield serve only to indicate a general move- 
ment from N.W. to S.E. For more detailed information as to 
the movements of the ice-sheet, the only evidence is that 
afforded by the distribution of the drift at high-levels and by 
the systems of drainage along the edge of the ice. From this it 
may be inferred that the main directions of ice-movement about 
the time of the maximum extension of the ice-sheet were 
roughly towards the north-east in the Tame valley, the east in 
the Etherow valley, and the south-east and south-south-east 
in the Goyt valley and further south. These directions were 
much modified locally by the complicated configuaration of the 
sub-glacial surface. The first barrier of hills met with on 
approaching the Pennines from the South Lancashire and 
Cheshire plain was almost everywhere overridden by ice, which 
left definite deposits of drift with foreign rocks at altitudes up 
to 1,360 feet, and scattered erratic boulders up to 1,400 feet. 
As this foreign drift penetrates further into the hills its maxi- 
mum altitude falls steadily. It has only been traced across the 
main Pennine divide at the broad col (1,100 feet above O.D.) 
south-east of Chapel-en-le-Frith. 

ERRATICS. 

Thick deposits of drift and big erratics are comparativeh' 
rarely met with at the extreme limit of the foreign drift, 
towards which the erratics generally diminish in number and in 
size. Boulders of local rocks, often obviously transported 
and uplifted beyond their parent outcrops, become relatively 
more abundant towards the limit of the foreign drift, and 
generally form a spread of drift extending beyond it and passing 
insensibly into the driftless area. Great lakes were held up by 
the ice-barrier some time after it commenced to retreat from 
the western slopes of the Pennines. During early stages in 
this retreat the drainage from the lakes in and north of the 
Etherow valley excaped northwards, and ultimately passed 
through the Walsden gap into the Calder. When the ice- 
barrier east of Manchester fell below 600 feet above O.D., this 
drainage followed the course of that south of the Etherow 
valley and escaped southwards. The action of the ice-sheet 
with its associated streams of water, together with the marginal 
water derived from melting ice and draining from the region 
beyond the ice-sheet, assisted by the action of post-glacial 
streams, in depositing the original drift, in cutting new channels 

Naturalist, 



Notes and Comments. 329 

through rock and drift, and in resorting and redepositing the 
debris, seerns quite sufficient to account for the comphcated 
superficial deposits in this area. 

ONE GLACIATIOX. 

No evidence has been found of more than one period of 
glaciation nor of any local glacier system. There are, however, 
curious corrie or cirque-like features, e.g., on Shelf Moor, 
Glossop. Moreover, although the Pennines are on the whole 
much lower north of the Etherow Basin than further south, 
the overflow-channels of glacier-lakes can be found at higher 
altitudes in the former than in the latter region. This is the 
reverse of what might be expected if the higher ground were 
ice-free. It may be, therefore, that at and near the time when 
the ice-sheet attained its maximum development, the snow-line 
actually descended below the altitude of the higher Pennine 
hills, and, without bringing about a definite local glaciation, 
temporarily filled the higher hollows with snow up to the 
general level of the ridge. Thus, instead of the margin of the 
ice-sheet at that stage melting away rapidly, melting might be 
considerably reduced and even temporarily suspended, and the 
ice-sheet reinforced by the local snow-fall. Such conditions 
would tend to depress the limit of distribution of erratics 
immediately west of the highest ground, but where an ice- 
stream carrying erratics actually crossed the watershed, they 
might lead to the distribution of those erratics further and 
more widely than otherwise might have been possible. 

THE CARBONIFEROUS LIMESTONE ZONES 

Dr. Albert Wilmore stated that the sequence is well seen in 
the neighbourhood of Clitheroe, where numerous quarries 
have been opened up. The lowest beds exposed are near 
Chatburn Hill, and are dark, thinly-bedded limestones with 
calcareous shale partings. Fossils are very scarce. There is 
a great thickness of these almost unfossiliferous beds, the top 
parts of which are dolomitic. Bold Venture Quarry, Horrocks- 
ford Quarry, and several other exposures show beds in probably 
Lower C. with numerous small Zaphrentids (chiefly Zaphrentis 
omaliusi, with the variety ambigua of Mr. R. G. Carruthers 
very common). Higher parts of these beds contain Caninia 
cylindrica, which has been found at Brungerly Bridge, in Bold 
Venture Quarry, at Pimlico, and at Downham. This species 
is not so common or well-developed as in beds farther east, 
towards Hellifield and district. Among the brachiopods are 
Chonetes comoides, Orthotetes crenistria, etc. Large gasteropods 
such as Euomphalus pentangulatus and BeUerophon cormiarietis 
are common. Conocardium hibernicum is a characteristic 
lamellibranch. Above these beds come the lowest beds with 
Productits siib-lavis, and the Knoll beds of Coplaw, lower part 

1915 Oct. 1. 



330 Notes and Comments. 

of Worsaw, etc. Here are the typical C. knolls with numerous 
brachiopods, the gasteropods mentioned above, but few corals. 
Amplexus coralloides is, however, common, and Michelinia sp. 

OF N.E. LANCASHIRE. 

Above these are well-bedded crinoidal limestones, leading 
up to the probably C.-S. knolls of Salt Hill, Bellman Park, 
Worsaw, etc. These beds contain a rich brachiopod fauna, 
quite distinct, however, from that of Elbolton. Whilst Pro- 
ductus pustulosus, P. semireticularis, Spirifer striatus, etc., are 
quite common, one never finds P. striatus, P. martini and other 
D. forms so common in those eastern knolls. A fairly rich 
coral fauna has lately been discovered in these C.-S. or S. 
knolls ; it has not yet been worked out, however. There is 
probably an unconformity at this level, and then there succeeds 
a great thickness of shales with limestones, with few fossils. 
These would appear to be on the same horizon as the richly 
fossiliferous beds of Elbolton. x\bove these shales with lime- 
stones come the Pendleside limestones, black limestones with 
cherts, and with irregular bands of more fossiliferous limestone. 
The Ravensholme limestone appears to be similar and to 
contain some of the same fauna as the highest limestone at 
Cracoe and the limestone of the railway quarry at Rylstone. 
The Sabden shales succeed these beds, and lead up to the Mill- 
stone Grit series. A map was exhibited on which some of 
these generalisations were shown. 

AN OLD BATTLE FOUGHT OVER AGAIN. 

According to The Yorkshire Observer the discussion on 
this paper drifted almost entirely on to a rather warm con- 
troversy upon the origin of the reef-knolls of that area and of 
Craven. Professor Fearnsides, premising that he was brought 
up scientifically at Cambridge, expounded the view held by 
Dr. Marr, that the knolls were masses caused by a squeezing 
of the limestone in the course of earth-movements, and the 
doubling of beds by them being overthrust laterally one upon 
another. 

ORIGIN OF REEF-KNOLLS. 

Dr. Vaughan, of Oxford, turned upon the speaker with 
vigour, and the old battle, which made the Bradford meeting 
of the British Association memorable, was fought over again 
in the light of the new work of ' zoning the limestone,' in which 
Dr. Vaughan has had the lion's share. Dr. Vaughan denied 
that the origin of the knolls was any longer a matter of specu- 
lation. It was a matter of observation. If we examined the 
limestone in the valley of the Meuse at Dinant, in Belgium, one 
could see in sections the whole structure of just such a knoll as 
exists in Yorkshire. There was no sign of squeezing or over- 
thrusting. It was just a thickened mass due to vast accumu- 

Naturalist, 



Notes and Comments. 331 

lations of animal debris in the deeper parts of the clear water. 
These thickened masses everywhere wherever they were found 
presented a very remarkable palaeontological ' facies.' The 
assemblage of fossils represented in them was found nowhere 
else, and it was impossible therefore to conceive that they could 
have been squeezed up from the horizontal beds which were 
found wrapped round about them. They could only have 
been original depositions. Dr. Vaughan spoke with warmth, 
and the chairman. Professor Grenville Cole, who, apparently, 
did not enjoy ' a scrap ' so much as most Irishmen, had to 
interpose to bring the discussion back to calmer waters. 

THE MIDDLE TEES AND ITS TRIBUTARIES : 

Mr. C. B. Fawcett, wrote : — The streams here considered 
are the middle portion of the Tees and its tributaries from 
Stainmore to the eastern edge of the Carboniferous rocks of the 
Pennines. The district which they drain is characterised by 
the presence of three distinct types of topography, viz. : (i) 
A wide and comparatively smooth upland surface, sloping 
gently eastward, but cut off abruptly to the west by the Pennine 
Scar, with a few hills rising above it ; (2) A series of wide, 
shallow, mature valleys ; (3) A series of narrow and youthful 
valleys, which are for the most part sunk below the floors of 
the mature valleys. The rocks of the district are almost 
entirely of Carboniferous age, mainly Lower Carboniferous 
limestones and shales in the southern half and Upper Carbon- 
iferous sandstones and shales in the northern. The complex 
topography is not primarily due to the rock structure, which 
is quite simple ; but must be ascribed mainly to the work of 
the streams, influenced in some cases by lines of faulting. Of 
these streams the middle part of the Tees is the longest and 
much the largest. It enters Middle Teesdale from the Upper 
Dale by the Eggleston Gap, with a sharp change in its general 
direction on doing so. It then flows for about six miles in an 
almost straight trench at the foot of the fault-line scarp of 
Marwood Scar, receiving several tributaries from the west and 
none from the east. At Barnard Castle, the Tees bends east- 
ward, and thence flows, along an arc convex to the south, to its 
junction with the Langley Beck through a series of alternating 
gorges and wider terraced valleys. On joining the Langley 
Beck the river resumes its E.S.E. direction, and two or three 
miles lower it leaves the Carboniferous rocks. 

A STUDY IN RIVER DEVELOPMENT. 

This northern west-to-east valley is very similar to the one 
south of the Tees which is occupied by the River Greta and 
the Tutta and Clow Becks. Except for the parts of streams in 
fault-line \'alleys and in subsequent reaches due to stream, 
capture, there are few subsequent, and still fewer obsequent 



332 Notes and Comments. 

streams ; hence the river system, as a whole is in a compara- 
tively early stage of development. It is, however, the product 
of at least three distinct cycles of erosion : — First, the 
comparative^ smooth surface of the upland is part of a 
peneplain. If its valleys were filled up it would be a plain 
sloping gently eastward with its surface cutting across the 
rock strata at a small angle. The formation of this peneplain 
probably occurred during the Tertiary era. Second, the wide 
shallow mature valleys mark the second cycle. Their shallow- 
ness indicates that the change of base level which caused 
their formation was small ; and their relation to the glacial 
drift and the route of the ice indicates that they had 
reached their full development before the Ice Age. 

TERTIARY ELEVATION. 

The elevation which led to their formation probably occurred 
in the latter part of Tertiary time. The main consequent valleys 
are all of this type ; and the more important of the subsequent 
valleys are also pre-glacial, though somewhat younger. The 
Ice Age does not seem to have caused any serious changes in 
the stream lines of Teesdale ; but the extensive river terraces 
of many of the valleys probably date froin, the period following 
the melting of the ice. Third, the deep and narrow gorges in 
which many of the streams flow are the product of the last 
cycle of development, which is still in a very youthful stage. 
Its initiation was due to a post-glacial uplift of the region. The 
change from the second to the third cycle is readily seen in the 
longitudinal sections of the streams, most of which show very 
marked changes of slope. The fall is usually much greater in 
the lower course than in the middle. A typical tributary valley 
consists of three clearly marked sections. First, the upper course 
on the upland with a very slight valley. Second, a broad and 
shallow valley on the floor of which the stream meanders. 
Third, a gorge in the bottom of this wide valley in which the 
stream rushes along over a series of rapids. These three 
sections of the valley repeat the three types of topography 
which characterise the district as a whole, and are the results 
of the three cycles of erosion to which its present form is due. 

THE AVONIAN SHORE LINE. 

Dr. Arthur Vaughan exhibited a map showing the shift of 
the western shore line in England and Wales during the Avonian 
period, in which he gave an idea of the geography of the sea in 
which the limestones were laid down. Dr. Vaughan suggested 
that the result of the study of the ' zones ' of the limestone 
proved the existence in early Carboniferous Limestone times of 
a great land mass, including all Wales and the Wicklow moun- 
tains, and a continuous land mass extending through the Lake 
District, the Isle of Man, and the mountains of Countv Down. 

Naturalist, 



Azotes and Comments. 333 

A channel ran eastward south of the Lakeland mass into York- 
shire, and another southward of the Wales mass. It had 
become possible to trace in some detail the changes in the geo- 
graphy of these two channels and the differentiation of the 
northern land mass into islands in the Carboniferous seas. 

THE CLASSIFICATION OF LAND FORMS. 

^Ir. J. D. Falconer read a remarkable paper witli the above 
heading to a joint meeting of the Geographical and Geological 
Sections, in which he stated it is proposed to set up two classes 
of land forms, each containing two orders : — Class A, Endogen- 
etic Forms : Order I. Negative Forms ; Order 11. Positive 
Forms. Class B, Exogenetic Forms : Order I. Degradation 
Forms ; Order II. Aggradation Forms. The two orders of 
endogenetic forms are then subdivided into four families : 
Family i, Forms due to superficial volcanic activity ; 2, Forms 
due to sub-crustal volcanic activity ; 3, Forms due to radial 
movements ; 4, Forms due to tangential movements. Similarly 
the two orders of exogenetic forms are each subdivided into 
nine families : Family i, Forms due to the action of the run-off ; 
and eight other forms due to the action of percolating water, 
streams and rivers, life, lightning, sun-heat, the atmosphere, 
frozen water, and the sea.. He then sub-divides these nine 
families into genera, and species or specific forms. This means, 
for example, that there are quite a number of land forms due 
to the action of lightning. As was pointed out during the 
discussion, supposing one is viewing a landscape is it not much 
better to describe in English exactly what one sees rather than 
to say that the view represents a certain species of a certain 
genus of a certain form of a certain order of a certain class of 
land form ? Even if such a description is accurate, according 
to the suggested classification, the student must have a classi- 
fication in his own hands before he can form any idea of the 
nature of the landscape in question. As Professor Cole pointed 
out in the discussion, surely it is better to use the English 
language as tersely, as accurately, and above all as beautifully 
as we are able (and few writers to-day excel Professor Cole in 
his charming descriptive language). ' By all means,' said 
Professor Cole, ' let us use our own language to the best of 
our ability, as after all it is the power of language which dis- 
tinguishes man from the foraminifera ! 



The collection of local books and pamphlets formed by the late J. 
Horsfall Turner, which includes about five thousand items (a fifth of 
which refer to Halifax), has been offered to the Halifax Corporation for 
the nominal sum of ;^5o, and the recommendation of the Library Committee 
to accept it has been adopted. 

1915 Oct. 1. 



334 
YORKSHIRE NATURALISTS AT SALTBURN. 

The Union's visit to Saltburn was a fitting finale to the season's 
excursions, and favoured as the party were on the first two days 
with glorious weather, those present spent a most enjoyable 
time. The attendance scarcely came up to expectations, 
especially considering the delightful uncertainties of bombard- 
ment by ' my glorious fleet ' and Zeppelin raids, in addition to 
the natural beauties which Saltburn, and the immediate neigh- 
bourhood set out as the area of investigation, offers to the lover 
of the beautiful. More especially is this so seeing that it is 
twenty eight years since the Union last paid a visit. The 
sylvan beauties of the ravines are great, while the coast line 
ever affords a pleasing picture. 

The dreadful war is still with us, and no doubt this was 
partly responsible for the non-attendance of members in great 
numbers. Nevertheless, if ever the ' inner history of the war ' 
is written, will there be inscribed upon its pages the names of 
that brave host of ineligible military members who, regarding 
the honour of the Union as a form of highest culture, were pre- 
pared to face any fright fulness of Germain origin. I wonder ! 

The Union is once again greatly indebted to Mr. J.J. Burton, 
F.G.S., for the excellent local arrangements made by him for 
the success of the excursion. 

On Saturday under his guidance, all parties journeyed by 
train to Skinningrove and revelled in the charms of the Kilton 
Valley. They also inspected the ruins of the old Norman 
Castle of Kilton, and the Norman Church at Leverton, wherein 
is an exceptionally fine and elaborately carved Chancel arch. 
The return journey was made from Loftus Station. 

On the following day the general body of naturalists, under 
the guidance of Mr. W. H. Thomas, walked along the beach as 
far as Skinningrove Ironworks ; a delightful walk from a scenic 
standpoint. On leaving the coast an investigation was made 
of a charming wooded ravine, the party ultimately emerging 
to the cliff tops, along which the homeward journey was made, 
having a floral feast all the way. The geologists were taken by 
motor by Mr. Burton to Newton Roseberry, from which hamlet 
they made an ascent of Roseberry Topping, and spent an in- 
teresting time in examining the famous plant-bed disclosed 
after the great landslip some years ago. They afterwards paid 
a brief visit to the neighbouring Whinstone Workings, ending 
with afternoon tea at Mr. Burton's residence, and subsequently 
enjoying the lovely display of roses and rock plants for which 
his gardens are famous. 

On Monday the geological party was again led by Mr. Burton 
and imtil the storm made them retrace their steps, spent their 
time in examining the coast exposures, and the erratics strewn 
at the base of the lofty clift's. 

Naturalist, 



Yorkshire Ndtiircilisfs at Saltbiini. 335 

The rest of the party trained to (iuisboroiigh, and after 
inspecting the Church, and the Bruce Cenotaph, was led by 
Mr. T. A. Lofthouse to the Skeltoa valley, and was soon ab- 
sorbed in its floral wealth and beauties, the arboreal features 
being especially magnificent. A thunderstorm of two hours' 
duration made all seek shelter within one of the coniferous belts, 
and when the storm clouds had passed the sunshine once again 
heartened, and the full programme was accomplished. 

At the subsequent meeting the President of the Union 
(Mr. Riley Fortune, F.Z.S.) occupied the chair, and reports upon 
the work accomplished were given as follows : — Geology, Mr. 
Burton ; Vertebrate Zoology, Mr. H. B. Booth ; Conchology, 
Mr. Greevz Fysher ; Lepidoptera, Mr. T. A. Lofthouse ; 
Coleoptera, Mr. M. L. Thompson; Fungi, Miss C. A. Cooper; 
Flowering Plants, Mr. Wattam. Hearty thanks were accorded 
Mr. Burton for his services in making the local arrangements, 
to Earl Zetland, Colonel W. H. A. Wharton and ]\Ir. Burton 
for permission to visit their estates, to Sir Joseph Walton, M.P., 
for the privilege of visiting the grounds of Rushpool Hall, and 
to the guides. — W. E. L. W, 

The following reports are to hand : — ■ 

Geology. — Mr. J. J. Burton, F.G.S., writes : — The object 
set before the Geological section was to observe the sequence 
of strata between the top beds of the Lower Lias and the Moor 
Grit of the Lower Oolites, the whole of which were exposed 
within the area marked out for the week-end excursions. 

Some little confusion is apt to be experienced unless it is 
remembered that palaeontologists have adopted different 
divisions between the Upper and Middle and the Middle and 
Lower Lias from those marked by the Geological Survey ; the 
latter have made the divisions entirely on lithological grounds, 
the former on the grouping of representative fossils. It is 
convenient to follow the Survey and place the Jamesoni zone 
in the Lower Lias, which zone the party had the opportunity of 
seeing at the base of Huntcliff where the anticline brings it up 
from below the shore level. The tide being favourable it was 
easy to examine the section which was found to consist of shales 
and dogger, the latter apparently ferruginous and very hard. 
The characteristic ammonite was not observed, but Belemnite 
degans and Gryphcea ohliqiiata were plentiful. The cliffs 
here are almost vertical and therefore any hammer-work 
except on the exposed shales and fallen rocks on the beach was 
impossible, but the lithological sequence of the strata up 
through the sandy series to the jet rock could be plainly seen 
and the numerous blocks which had fallen, chiefly from the 
margaritatiis zone,, enabled the party to see the nature of the 
rocks and to observe the masses of fossils crowding them, 

1915 Oct. 1. 



336 



Yorkshire Naturalists at Saltburn. 



indicating that the Liassic sea at the period when the rocks were 
laid down must have been teeming with life. 

The wasting away of the boulder clay in the neighbourhood 
has left behind much evidence of glacial action. Far-travelled 
boulders from the Cheviots, from the Lake district and from 
Upper Teesdale were strewn in the greatest profusion between 
.Saltburn and Huntcliff. Besides igneous rocks from a distance 
and a remote past, there was a curious assortment of verj^ recent 
igneous rocks of strictly local origin, the product of Middles- 
brough blast-furnaces, much of the slag from which is tipped 
at sea. These are not unlikely to give rise to some speculation 




Photo by] 



Skinningrove showing Coast Erosion. 



[H. B Booth. 



amongst scientific contemporaries in the far off age. when that 
coming artistic New Zealander shall sit in solitude on a broken 
arch of London Bridge sketching the ruins of St. Pauls ! 

One of the most striking features of the coast at Saltburn 
is the large conical mound named Cat Nab. Its origin is fairly 
evident. The little pre-glacial bay and the two valley streams 
(Saltbruni beck and Skelton beck) which flowed into it were 
choked with boulder clay. On the ice receding the two streams 
severally cut there courses in the clay and either entered the 
sea separately in near proximity or joined seaward of the present 
coast-line. As they cut deeper a ridge was formed between 
them. Subsequently this ridge was cut through by the two 
streams approaching each other and Saltburn beck was captured 

Naturalist; 



Yoykshire Nattii'alists at Saltbiirn. 337 

1)3^ Skelton beck. Both streams have cut deeply through the 
clay and thus left this isolated mound to tell the story. 

Inland in Kilton Valley the sequence was further traced up 
to the Moor Grit but the luxuriant vegetation and the steep 
nabs, whilst adding so much to the beauty of the landscape, 
made it difficult to closely examine many of the exposed sections. 
It was, however, quite easy to trace the lithological changes in 
most cases and to study some of them in detail. The abrupt 
transition from shales to coal and sandstone, and the very 
irregular bedding, showing the influence of currents, were very 
noticeable ; as was also the very wavy or sloping line of some 
of the beds, probably from having been laid down on a shelving 
bottom or being subjected to some lateral pressure whilst being 
consolidated. 

The plant beds on Roseberry Topping were also visited and 
the enormous landslip seen. Almost half this well-known 
conical hill has split away from the remainder and bodily slipped 
down to a lower level, leaving an extraordinary scene of con- 
fusion and mix up. The top consists of a heavy cap of Oolitic 
Sandstone resting on rotten vegetable beds, which again rest on 
friable shales, some of which are water-logged. On the sides 
under the accumulated detritus there is much saturated yellow 
brick-clay of the consistency of mortar. A fault running 
through the hill provides a line of weakness. PZverything com- 
bines to produce an unstable equilibrium. ^Mining operations 
were also in progress, but as there was neither crushing of the 
pillars nor any sign of disturbance in the mine when the slip 
took place it is contended that such operations were not the 
cause of the slip. 

The removal of the surface covering has exposed many 
blocks carrying well-marked deeply-cut glacial striae, some of 
which are still in situ, the direction of the stride being N.W. 
to S.E. 

The great Cleveland \'\ hin Dyke which cuts through a 
shoulder of Roseberry Topping was visited. The quarrying of 
the dyke for road metal has left a huge gaping chasm with 
vertical sides, giving it a very weird appearance. The dyke 
is generally considered to be of Tertiary age. - 
{To he continued). 

: o : 

Among the contents of The New Phytologist, Vol. XIV., Xos. 6-7, for 
June and July, we notice ' A Contribution to the Cytology and I.ife- 
History of Zygncma ericetovitm Kutz., Hansg., with some remarks on the 
"genus" Zygogonium,' by G. S. West and C. B. Starkey ; ' Preliminar}^ 
Observations on the Pollination Mechanism of Avctotis a'ipera Linn., by 
James Small ; ' The Inter- Relationships of Protista and Primitive Fungi,' 
by F. Cavers ; and ' A Jurassic Wood from Scotland,' by Ruth Holden. 
With regard to the last paper we notice reference to specimens being ob- 
tained from the ' Lias of Scarborough,' which might be correct if there were 
Lias at Scarborough. 

1915 Oct. 1. 



FIELD NOTES. 
FISHES. 
Chimsera monstrosa. — A specimen of the ' Rabbit Fish ' 
or^ King of the Herrings' {Chimcera monstrosa), has been added 
to^the Hull Fisheries and Shipping Museum by the kindness of 
Capt. F. Bridgeman, of the steam trawler ' Drax.' As will be 
seen from the illustration, the fish is of anomalous structure, 
possessing a club-like process above the snout, the purpose of 
which is not clear ; a long, whip-hke tail ; a long sharp spine 
in front of the large back fin, and large clasping processes. It 
measures about two feet in length, and the species belongs to a 
very ancient form, which, although common in past geological 
periods, is now approaching extinction. Of the four surviving 




Chimcera monstrosa ^ (after British Museum Guide to Fishes). 

genera, ' Chimera' lives off the European coasts, Japan and the 
Cape of Good Hope ; * Callorhynchus ' in the seas of the 
Southern hemisphere; ' Harrotta ' in the deep Atlantic off 
North America ; and ' Rhinochimsera ' in deep water off Japan. 
The specimen figured herewith, taken in the North Sea, is a 
m.ale ; a female is figured in Country Life for July loth, 1915. 
Page 72.— T.S. 

— : o : — 

BIRDS. 

Mistle Thrush falling down Chimney. — From time to 
time one is surprised — and at times annoyed — by the soot and 
dirt brought down by birds falling down chimneys. The 
Starling is the most addicted to this fault ; in fact it is almost 
an annual event at my house with this species. Other species 
that I have known to slip down chimneys are House Sparrows, 
a Chaffinch, a Blue Tit and Jackdaw. On August i8th I was 
surprised to find a Mistle Thrush in the drawing-room, in a 
sooty condition, and dead, under a piece of furniture. It had 
evidently been in the chimney for some days, as the fire-place 
at the bottom was nearly blocked up with fancy paper. It is 
a most unlikely species to expect slipping down one's chimney ; 

Naturalist, 



British Association Neies. 339 

but, in this ceisc, may be partl}^ accounted for by the onslaught 
the various species of Turclidae were making on the berries 
of several Rowan, or Mountain Ash, trees in my garden at the 
time. It was in the plumage of a bird of the year, and in a 
very emaciated condition — the latter no doubt due to its 
imprisonment. — H. B. Booth, Ben Rhydding. 

An overlooked occurrence in Yorkshire of the Surf 
Scoter {(Edemia perspicillata). — While hunting through some 
old records of the Scarborough Philosophical and Archaeological 
Society, I came across the minutes of a meeting held in the 
Museum on November i6th, 1855, in which it is recorded that 
a Surf Scoter, which had been shot at Filey, was exhibited by 
Mr. Roberts. The late Alfred Roberts, who was at that time 
the Curator of the Scarborough Museum, was well-known in 
his day as a careful and painstaking observer, and a reliable 
ornithologist, and records from his lists of birds of the Scar- 
borough district have frequently been quoted in various orni- 
thological works, including ' The Handbook of Yorkshire 
Vertebrates, 1881 ' ; and ' The Birds of Yorkshire, 1907.' 
None of these works make any mention of this bird, nor can 
I find any printed record which appears to refer to it until I 
turn to Theakston's ' Scarborough Guide,' pubhshed in 1865. 
This contains lists of the flora and fauna of the district, and 
therein I find the following note : — ' Anas perspicillata, the 
Surf Scoter. A rare bird very seldom seen on the Yorkshire 
coast. One preserved by Mr. Roberts.' It seems probable 
that this record refers to the specimen exhibited at the Scar- 
borough Museum in 1855. This appears to have been the 
only Yorkshire occurrence of this species. — W, J. Clarke. 

: o : 

BRITISH ASSOCIATION NEWS. 

Bournemouth will be the meeting place of the Association in 1917. 

Dr. E. Marion Delf read a paper on ' The Effect of Temperature on 
the Permeability of Protoplasm to Water.' 

Close upon ^1,000 was voted to the various committees by the British 
Association at RIanchester, for the advancement of science. 

The members of the British Association made a visit to the Roman 
Camp at Ribchester, where a meeting was held to open the newly built 
Roman Museum. 

Sir Arthur J. Evans of Oxford will be the President of the British 
Association at Newcastle next year. He is the eldest son of the late Sir 
John Evans, and has made important archa;ological discoveries in Crete 
and also excavated the Palace of Knossus. 

There were 1,439 members attending the British Association namely : — ■ 
Old Life Members, 242 ; New Life Members, 19 ; Old Annual Members, 
286 ; New Annual Members, 116 ; Associates, 483 ; Lady Members, 141 ; 
Student Members, 144 ; Foreigners, 8. 

Among the interesting reports presented by the British Association 
we notice those relating to ' The Belmullet Whaling Station ' ; ' The Age 
of Stone Circles ' ; ' Excavations on Roman Sites in Great Britain ' ; 
' Seismological Investigations,' and ' Nomenclator Animalium.' 

igi.j Oct. 1. 



340 British Association News, etc. 

For obvious reasons the daily press did not give quite the prominence 
to the reports of the meetings of the British Association this year, as 
forrnerly. The IMauchester Guardian and The Yorkshire Observer were 
in the front with reports and criticisms, and their efforts were much appre- 
ciated. 

The Committee appointed to investigate the I,ake Villages in the 
neighbourhood of Glastonbury gave a good account of its fifth season's 
work. Details of many interesting relics are given, classified under the 
heads of amber, bone, crucibles, baked clay, white metal, bronze, iron, 
lead and tin, glass beads, Kimeridge shale, antlers, spindle-whorls, flint, 
querns, stone, pottery, animal and human remains. 

Punch says ; ' We always look to the British Association to provide 
sensations for September, and, though this September is in no need of 
such stimuli, here they are. The President of the Zoological Section 
describes the earliest forms of life on this planet as " specks or globules 
of a substance similar in its relations to chromatics." From these — in 
time — sprang all our great men. Coming over with the Conqueror is no 
longer a boast of any value. The thing now is to have come in with the 
glolDules, so to speak.' 

: o : 

In The Entomologist for August, Mr. W. J. Lucas reviews ' British 
Neuroptera in 191 4.' 

Leeds naturalists familiar with ' The Eagle ' in a well-known Leeds 
thoroughfare, will have noticed that ' the bird ' has been extinguished 
V)y a Yorkshire Naturalists' l^nion Jack. 

Volume IV., part 2 of the Museum Bulletin issued by the National 
Museum of Science and Art, Dublin, contains an illustrated account of 
the domestic animals of Ireland ; Notes on Boring Sponges, the Arm- 
strong Collection of Musical Instruments, and Old Pipes. 

The Annual Report of the Yorkshire Philosophical Society for 1914 is 
to hand, and is unusually bulky, being almost entirely occupied by r, very 
valuable and well illustrated paper on ' The Ancient Painted Glass Windows 
in the Minster and Churches of the City of York,' by Mr. George Benson. 
In the Report we notice that Mr. Oxley Grabham, the curator, arranged to 
take a series of tours around the museum and garden, but there was only 
an average attendance of six. 

Memoirs and Proceedings of the Manchester Lit. and Phil. Society, 
Vol. LIX., pt. I, have been issued, and contain the following memoirs of 
interest to our readers : — ' The General Morphology of the Slock of 
Isoetes lacustris,' by Prof. Wm. H. Lang ; ' ^^ariation in a Carbonifei^ous 
Brachiopod, Reticularia lineata Martin,' by Henry Day, B.Sc. ; 'Note 
of Foggy Days in Manchester,' by William C. Jenkins; 'Note on the 
Monthly Variation of Sunshine,' by Prof. W. W. Haldane Gee. Prof. 
Lang makes an interesting comparison between Isoetes and Carboniferous 
Plants, and Mr. Day gives some remarkable researches in the variation of 
Carboniferous Brachiopods, based on specimens from Castleton. 

We have received a valuable paper on ' " Black Neck " or Wilt Disease 
of Asters,' which is reprinted from The Annals of Applied Biology, by 
Wilfrid Robinson, M.Sc, Lecturer in Economic Botany, Manchester 
University. From his summary we gather that the tissues of asters 
attacked by the wilt disease always contain the mjxelium of a species 
of Phvtophthora ; this fungus was isolated and grown in pure culture on 
various media. The sporangia show most of all the characters described 
by De Bary for Phytophthora omnivora, but after the discharge of zoo- 
spores the stalk of the sporangium grows through and produces a second 
and even a third sporangium within the first. This proliferation has not, 
as far as is known, been previously described for any species of Phytopihora. 



THE COUNTY OF 
THE WHITE ROSE 

AN INTRODUCTION TO THE HISTORY 
AND ANTIQUITIES OF YORKSHIRE 

BY 

A. C. PRICE, M.A. 

Formerly Scholar of Pembroke College, Oxford 
Author of " Leeds and its Neighbourhood," etc. 

415 pages, croiPfi 8vo, with upwards of 70 illustrations and a 

folding map of the three Ridings, tastefully bound in Art 

Cloth Boards lettered in gold inth rose in white foil and gilt 

top. 3s. 6d. net. 

Contents. ^ — The Land, The Early Inhabitants, Yorkshire 
under Roman Rule, The Anglian Kings, The Danes, 
The Norman Conquest, The Yorkshire Barons, Churches 
and Abbeys, Mediaeval Towns, The Tudors, The Stuarts, 
Modern Yorkshire. 



THIS work has been compiled to assist the large number 
of persons — residents and visitors — who take interest 
in Castles, Abbeys, Churches, Battlefields, etc., but from 
want of a proper historical basis, fail as a rule to understand 
the allusions and technicalities in the ordinary guide books. 
It will also help intelligent boys and girls who desire to study 
the history of their County, on the lines advocated by the 
Board of Education. The book is the only one of a reason- 
able size which deals at all adequately with the history of 
Yorkshire as a whole. Many of the illustrations have 
been reproduced from photographs by Mr. Godfrey Bingley, 
Mr. A. C. Parry and Mr. R. Stockdale. To several chapters, 
notes are appended to guide readers who might wish to 
extend their studies, and the value of the book is further 
enhanced by the provision of a very exhaustive Index of 
names and places. 



London : A. Brown & Sons, Ltd., 5 Farringdon Avenue, E.C. 
And at Hull and York. 



Some Geographical Factors 
in tlie Great War 

By T. HERDMAN, M.Sc, F.G.S. 

(Lecturer in Geography, Municipal Training College, Hull). 

^2 pages, crown 8vo, with. 6 Maps, sewfi in 
stout printed cover, gd. net, post free lod. net. 

A feature of vast importance in the titanic struggle now takings 
place is the geographical condition of the various countries. In 
" Some Geographical Factors" the author provides much interesting" 
information which helps his readers to a wider understanding of an 
important aspect of the present campaign. The concluding chapter 
on "The Problems of Nationality " affords a glimpse of the immense 
difficulties that face those statesmen to whose heads and hands v/ill 
be committed the adjustment of the new boundaries. 

The ^'Literary Wor/d" sa_ys.' — " Those who would follow intelligfently 
the movements in this world contest will find much help in this little 
handbook. Mr. Herdman's exposition of the part played in the war 
by the great land-gates and the seas is clear and informing', and is 
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problems of nationalit)'." 

London': A. BROWN & SONS, Ltd., 5, Farringdon Avenue, E.C. 

AND AT HULL AND YORK. 

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Keep in stock every description of 

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To Subscribers, 6s. per annum ; Post Free, 6s. 6d, 

The Scottish Naturalist 

with which is incorporated 

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A Monthly Magazine devoted to Zoology 

Edited by William Eagle Clarke, F.R.S.E., 
F.L.S., Keeper Natural History Dept., Royal 
Scottish Museum: William Evans, F.R.SE., 
Member of the British Ornithologists' Union; and 
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Museum. Assisted by J. A. Harvie-Brovvn, 
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Printed at Browns' Savile Press, 40, George Street, Hull, and published by 
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Oct. 1st, 1915. 



NOV. 1915. 



No. 706 

(No. 483 of current aariet) 




A MONTHLY ILLUSTRATED JOURNAL OF 

NATURAL HISTORY FOR THE NORTH OF ENGLAND, 

BDITBD BY 

T. SHEPPARD, M.Sc, F.Q.S., F.R.Q.S., F.S.A.Scot., 

The Museums, Hull ; 



T. W. WOODHEAD, Ph.D., M.Sc, F.L.S., 

Tbchnical College, Huddersfield. 
with the assistance as referees in special departments of 
J. QILBBRT BAKBR, P.R.S. P.L.S., QEO. T. PORRITF, P.L.S., 

Prof. P. F. KBNDALL, M.Sc, P.Q.S., JOHN W. TAYLOR, M.Sc, 

T. H. NELSON, M.Sc, M.B.O.U,. . RILBY FORTUNE, F.Z.S. 



P.E.S. 



Contents : — 

Notes and Comments (illustrated):— The Micrologist ; Mesozoic Plants; Palaeontographical 
Society ; Survival and Extinction of Insects ; Scillies' Seals ; Insects at Lighthouses ; 
Dasypolia tempH ; Wilberforce Museum, Hull ; A Bradford Museum ; Preserving Plants ; 
Earth Movements in Sheffield ; The Vasculum ; A Curious Helix ; The South Eastern 
Naturalist ; The Essex Naturalist ; Mr. C. Crossland's Collection of Halifax Mosses ; 
Leyland's Mosses ; The use of Fossil Fishes in Stratigraphical Geology ; Grime's Graves ; 
Fauna of the Limestone Beds.; At Treak Cliff and Peakshill, Castleton, Derbyshire ; Zonal 
Determination; The Isolation of the Directions-Image of a Mineral in a Rock-slice; 
Norwegian Granite ; The Heterangiunis of the British Coal Measures ; Heterangium 
lomaxii ; Polydesmic Heterangiums ; Fossil Fungi and Fossil Bacteria ; The Aptian Flora 
of Britain ; Early Angiosperms and their Contemporaries ; Boys and the War 

Observations on the Qrey Sta\— Edmund Selous 

Arachnida of the Sawley District— Wm. Falconer 

Yorkshire Naturalists at SaXthurn—W.E.L.W 

Field Notes: — Immature Gannet at Withernsea ; Beiytus montivae us Fieb.. etc .. at More- 
cambe ; ' Aliens ' in the Calder Valley ^^.^rrf ... 1 7^7^- 

Proceedlngrs of Provincial Scientific Societies, etf^jft. 



Museum News 



Northern News 

News from the Magazines . 
Reviews and Book Notices. 
Illustrations 




341-357 
358-;^62 
363-364 
365-368 

36S> 
357 



362 

.;) 368 
./ 369, 372 
... 370-372 



^ri,nat-V1^2^^''''^'^^^''" 



LONDON : 
A. Brown & Sons, Limited, 5, Farringdon Avenue, E.G. 

And at Hull and York. 
Printers and Publishers to the Y.N. U. 



Prepaid Subscription 6/6 per annum, post free. 



YORKSHIRE NATURALISTS' UNION. 



Vertebrate Zoology Section Annual Meeting. 

President : E. W. WADE, Esq., M.B.O.U. 



Two Meetings will be held in Room C7 at the Leeds Institute at 3-15 p.m. and 
6-30 p.m. respectively, on Saturday, November 20th, 1915. 

Business at the Afternoon Meeting : — 

To consider and pass Sectional Reports for 191 5, and to elect Officers 
for 1916. 

To consider and pass the General and Financial Reports of the York- 
shire Wild Birds' Protection Acts Committee for 191 5, and to 
elect Officers and Committee for 191 6. 

To consider and pass the Report of the Yorkshire Mammals, Am- 
phibians, Reptiles, and Fishes Committee for 1915, and to elect 
this Committee for 191 6. 

The following Papers (mostly illustrated by lantern slides or specimens) 
will be given : — 

"Observations on the Sparrow-Hawk and Long-eared Owl," 

Mr. T. M. Fowler. 

" British Reptiles and Amphibians," Mr. Oxley Grabham, M.A. 

" Extracts from Field Notes," Mr. AV. H. Parkin. 

Any Member or Associate of the Yorkshire Naturalists' Union is invited 
to attend, and to bring notes, specimens, lantern slides, etc., or matters of 
interest connected with the work of the Section, and to take part in any dis- 
cussion. 

Will officials of Affiliated Societies kindly notify their members ? 

A Committee Meeting of the Yorkshire Wild Birds' and Eggs Protection 
Acts Committee will be held at 2-30 p.m.' 

All Members of the Committee are requested to attend. 

A. HAIGH-LUMBY (Hon. Sec), 

Nab Drive, Shipley. 



Geological Section. 

President : J. J. BURTON, Esq., F.G.S. 



.\ Meeting of the Geological Section of the Yorkshire Naturalists' 
Union will be held in the Leeds University, on Saturday, November 6th, 
at 3 p.m. 

A number of interesting Geological Notes will be read by Professor 
Kendall and others. 

There will also be an exhibition of microscopic sections of Yorkshire 
Rocks. Arrangements will be made for tea for those who communicate with 
.Mr. .\. Gilligan, B.Sc, at the University, before November 4th. 

JNIembers and Associates are invited to attend, and to bring exhibits. 

C. BRADSHAW, \ „ <;^^ . 
J. HOLMES, ^non.^et,. 



341 
NOTES AND COMMENTS. 

THK l\nCKOL()(".IST.* 

This magazine has started its third volume after a slight 
rest, and contains some excellent illustrations. The articles 
are on ' The Cabbage Root Fly, Chortophila brassicae Bouche,' 
bv Mr. J. T. Wadsworth, with notes on its preparation by 
I\ir. A. Flatters. J\Tr. A. Dinsley writes on ' The Phenomena of 
I'-ertilisation and Embrvologv of the Chick,' and Mr. Flatters 



4a 
4 




Chick of II days" incubation, seen from the right side, nat. size. 
The feathers are clearly recognisable. 



1. Ear. 

2. Eye. 

3. Upper p^rt of beak, bearing at its end the 

' egg tooth.* 

4. Wing, the first digit, 4a, is seen separate 

from the rest. 



5. Leg (with toes complete). 

6. Stalk of allantois and yolk-sack cut 

across. 

7. Cloacal papilla. 

8. Tail. 

9. Tongue. 



adds notes on ' Incubating and the Preparation of Chick- 
Embryos.' Mr. Robert Pettigrew has a short note on the 
' Preparation of Crystals.' By the courtesy of the publishers 
we art- able to reproduce one of the illustrations. 



* Manchester, 23 pages, is. 6d. 



1915 Nov. 1. 



342 Notes and Comments. 

MESOZOIC PLANTS.* 

In this volume Dr. Stopes continues her extraordinarily 
detailed work among the remains of the Cretaceous plants 
preserved in the British Museum, and incidentally the collec- 
tions in the York, Maidstone and other museums are illustrated 
and described. The first plate figures an unusual fine specimen 
of Bcnnettites allchini, named after the curator of the museum at 
Maidstone, who gave facilities for examining it. As illustrating 
the extraordinary strides recently made in palseo-botany, it may 
be stated that most of the enormous numbers of specimens 
referred to in this substantial work are merely fragments of 
wood, such as are usually found in museums labelled ' fossil 
wood from Greensand,' etc. A microscopical examination of 
these specimens has resulted in most important contributions 
to science on the subject, some indication of the nature of which 
was given by Dr. Stopes at the British Association meeting at 
Manchester a little while ago. 

PAL.^OXTOGRAPHICAL SOCIETY. 

Volume 68 of this valuable journal, issued for 1914, is 
probably remarkable from the fact that it is the thinnest and 
most overdue volume issued by this society. Both facts are 
doubtless accounted for by the war. The present volume is 
entirely occupied by an account of ' The Pliocene Mollusca of 
Great Britain, by F. W. Harmer, being Supplementary to 
S. V. Wood's Monograph of the Crag Mollusca.' It occupies 
pages 201 to 302, and plates XXV-XXXII. Manx and Brid- 
lington specimens are illustrated and described. The mono- 
graph is useful on account of the revision it makes of some of 
the so-called ' Crag ' fossils found at Bridlington, in possession 
of Mr. W. B. Headley, and others, and the illustrations are 
admirable. 

SURVIVAL AND EXTINCTION OF INSECTS. 

In concluding his notes on ' Observations on some of the 
Causes determining the Survival and Extinction of Insects ' in 
The Entomologist's Monthly Magazine, Mr. G. B. Walsh states 
' it seems probable that the most potent human causes in the 
destruction of animal life are building operations, close grazing, 
clean agriculture and forestry, destruction of woodlands, heaths, 
commons, etc., and destruction of plant life by smoke, dust, and 
fumes ; the most potent human factor in its preservation is the 
establishment of preserves where conditions are like those of 
primaeval nature ; and then, besides this, there is apparently 

* ' Catalogue of the Mesozoic Plants in the British Museum (Natural 
History), Cretaceous Flora, Part 2, Lower Greensand (Aptian), Plants of 
Britain.' By Marie C. Stopes, D.Sc, London : British Museum, 3G0 
pages, 32 plates. 

Naturalist, 



Notes and Comments. 343 

some power of adaptation of at least certain species of insect 
life which enables them to survive under most unnatural 
conditions.' 

SCILLIES' SEALS. 

In Country Life for June 12th, July loth and August 7tli, 
Dr. Francis Heatherly contributes a series of very interesting 
articles on ' A Sealing Trip to the Scillies ' which will appeal to 
our readers, especially to those who have followed Mr. Edmund 
Selous's notes on the same expedition, which have appeared in 
The Naturalist. Dr. Heatherly's articles are illustrated by a 
wonderful series of photographs of seal life, some of which are 
taken by himself, and others by Mr. C. J. King. We should 
like to take this opportunity of congratulating Country Life 
upon its magnificent illustrations, quite a large number of which 
are of interest to naturalists. There are photographs of giraffes 
and other large animals in Africa, rare fishes, illustrations of 
waste lands and other objects, in fact almost every branch of 
natural history is represented. 

INSECTS AT LIGHTHOUSES.* 

This is a reprint of a paper, put into pamphlet form, parts 
of which appeared at frequent intervals in the Scottish Naturalist 
from March 1914, to June 1915, and a very interesting 
and valuable paper it is. For a number of years Mr. Evans 
has induced the lighthouse keepers of no fewer than thirteen 
lighthouses off the Scottish Coast, to secure and send to him 
such insects of all orders which the lights attracted, as they could 
collect. From these sources he received some 7,500 specimens, 
exclusive of over 2,000 gnats. The species represented num- 
bered 241, of which 161 were lepidoptera (2 butterflies and 
159 moths) ; 18 were neuroptera and trichoptera ; 40 diptera ; 
10 coleoptera ; and 12 of other orders. The great majority 
were of course insects attracted from the nearest mainland, but 
there is little doubt that the three Hawk moths attracted 
(i Acherontia atropos and 2 Sphinx convolvuli) were immigrants. 
Naturally immigration in insects is much better shown by the 
lighthouses on our south coast than by those so far north. Full 
lists of the species are given, and serve the very useful purpose 
of shewing their distribution on the Scottish Coast. 

DASYPOLIA TEMPLI. 

A remarkable instance of this occurs in the case of Dasypolia 
templi. At one time regarded as almost exclusively a South 
West Yorkshire moth, lighthouses have proved that it is pro- 
bably common throughout Britain, or at any rate nearly all 
around the coast. Common at the Scottish lighthouses, it is 

* ' Lepidoptera and other Insects at Scottish Lig^hthouses.' By WiUiam 
Evans, F. R.S.E. 



344 Notes and Comments. 

equally so at the lighthouses off the extreme south of England. 
On the other hand this report of Mr. Evans is valuable as 
shewing how rare the hawk moths must be in Scotland, only 
the three specimens already mentioned being noted. Light 
has a very strong attraction for these big insects, so much so 
that at one southern lighthouse, to the writer's knowledge, 
dozens of the very rare Deilephila livornica have been secured 
by the lighthouse keeper during the past three or four years. 
Mr. Evans tells us, what of course every collector at street 
lamps knows, that the preponderance of males over females 
visiting the light is large. He gives it as 2 or 3 to i, but we 
should have expected a far greater proportion, as of the moths 
which visit inland lights, the comparative number of females is 
very much smaller. Nor do we agree with Mr. Evans that this 
signifies ' an actual inherent preponderance of males ' ; for 
everyone who breeds lepidoptera in large numbers knows that 
in most cases the sexes are about equal, but in cases where there 
is a preponderance at all, it is almost always on the female side. 
Much might be said on the extraordinary power of flight which 
some of the geometers and even Tinese, which we have regarded 
as weak winged, must have, as proved by these observations ; 
and on many other points brought out by Mr. Evans' interest- 
ing investigations. — G.T.P. 

WILBERFORCE :\IUSEUM, HULL. 

On September 28th two valuable additions to Hull's 
historical museum at Wilberfdixe House were made available 
to the public. A very fine carved oak overmantel (circa 1590), 
supported by thirty-four oak pillars, which was removed to 
Markington Hall near Harrogate some years ago, was restored 
to its original position in the main room, having been purchased 
for £500. £\2'^ of this was presented by Councillor W. H. 
Cockerline, J. P., the balance being provided by the Board 
of Education. The overmantel was unveiled by Mrs. Cocker- 
line. On the ground floor a very fine Georgian room, decorated 
circa 1750, and restored by Messrs. Francis and Arnold Reckitt, 
was opened by Sir James Reckitt. The Chairman of the 
iMuseums Committee gave an account of the history of the 
building. There is still a fine oak room to be restored ; at 
present the panelling is hidden under numerous coats of paint. 

A BRADFORD JNIUSEUM. 

Boiling Hall, near Bradford, was opened as a museum of 
local antiquities on September 22nd, by Sir Arthur Godwin. 
About three years ago Mr. George Arthur Paley presented the 
Hall and nearly 6,000 square yards of land to the people of 
Bradford. Since then the Corporation has spent about £5,000 in 
carefully restoring the Hall. Under the direction of Mr. Butler 
Wood, "the City Librarian, the building (which is of various 

Naturalist 



Notes and Comments. 



345 



■dates, and in parts is said to be of the fourteenth centur\'). has 
been arranged as a museum, and apparently contains a Ime 
collection of old furniture, etc. Judging from the outside of 










DQ 



the building, and from the excellent handbook and catalogue 
which Mr. Butler Wood has issued, Bradford has at last a 
museum worthy of the importance of the city. Personally 
we have not seen the inside as yet, as we spent the afternoon 
of the opening ceremony outside, listening to the various 
and numerous speeches and votes of thanks, and the thanks 

1915 Nov. 1. 



34^ Notes and Comments. 

for the speeches, and the thanks for the votes of thanks. We 
hope, however, to see the collection soon. From the daily 
press we gather that the new museum has been very much 
appreciated by the public. We trust that the Corporation will 
now turn its attention to the natural history museum. At 
present it is a disgrace to Bradford. 

rRESERVING PLANTS. 

In the Museums Journal for July, Dr. Fothergill describes 
a method of preserving plants with their natural colour. Dr. 
Fothergill employs sheets ot absorbent cotton wool, placed in 
three layers forming two compartments between two ' grids,' 
which are made of a ' wire mesh-v/ork of half-inch squares 
with a heavy encircling band.' The necessary pressure is 
obtained by fastening one or two straps, preferably of webbing, 
around the grids, and tightening them as required. The 
flowers to be pressed, having been placed in the grid, are then 
suspended in front of a hre, or in the sun, when this is sufficiently 
powerful. The explanation of the success of the method is 
that the process of drying is so rapid that the pigment is fixed 
instead of being slowfy decomposed. 

EARTH MOVEMENIS IN SHEFFIELD. 

Professor Wm. G. Fearnsides has kindly favoured us with 
a copy of his paper on ' Some Effects of Earth Movement on 
the Coal Measures of the Sheffield District (South Yorkshire 
and the neighbouring parts of West Yorkshire, Derbyshire 
and Nottinghamshire),' part i, recently read to the Institute 
of Mining Engineers. In this he states, ' it is clear that in 
recent years the current view among workers in our district 
has been that ' rock-faults,' ' washes,' and ' wash-outs ' are 
occurrences caused by some sort of stream action during 
Coal Measures time. Possibly, as Prof. Kendall suggests, two 
kinds (the contemporaneous-erosion and the tectonic) may 
exist side by side, but, so far as the writer's own experience 
has extended, he has visited no single example which he can 
accept as belonging to the contemporaneous-erosion class. He 
•has not evidence enough to allow him to dogmatise, but he 
proposes to state a case for the view that the majority of the 
rock-faults which occur in our own district, as well as the much 
more frequent examples of rock-rolls which locally come down 
on to the coal and displace the usual bind or ' clod ' in the 
roof of seams which are subject to rock-faults and wash-outs, 
have been brought about by horizontal earth-movements due 
to lateral pressure at a time when the deposition of the measures 
which contain the coal-seams had been already completed. 

THE VASCULUM. 

No. 2 of this journal, dated August, has reached us. It 
contains an article on ' Winter and Summer at Budle,' by Mr, 

Naturalist,. 



Notes and Comments. 347 

E. L. Gill ; ' A Record of a New British Frogliopper [Homop- 
tera) from Teasdale ' {sic), by Mr. R. S. Bagnall ; ' Carnivorous 
Plants/ by J. W. H. Harrison ; ' Ballast Plants at Middles- 
brough,' by il. Preston ; ' Belsay Lake,' by Rev. J. E. Hull ; 
' A New Flowering Plant from North Yorkshire,' {Poteutilla 
argentes-venata, n. sp. from Goathland), by Mr. Harrison ; 
' Glacial Surface Features,' by Dr. J. A. Smythe ; ' The Pied 
Flycatcher,' by Mr. George Bolam ; ' A List of Birds Observed 
on the Outer Fames,' by Mr. Edw. Miller ; and ' Notes and 
Records of Animals and Plants,' by various contributors. 
We notice this list includes several insects new to Yorkshire, 
and one neuropteron, Coniventzia pincticola End., from Cleve- 
land, new to Britain. 

A CURIOUS HELIX. 

In The Journal of Conchology for October, ]\Ir. A. J. Arkell 
illn.strates an interesting Helix iiemoralis with deformed 
tentacles. The upper pair are conjunct for half their length, 
thus forming a fork, like the letter Y. The lower tentacles 




iJ*<^- 



are even more abnormal, for where the right tentacle would 
normally be, there is a kind of irregular reproduction of the 
upper fork, the right prong being much bigger than the left 
one ; both these prongs possess the characteristics of tentacles. 
On the other hand, where the left tentacle would normally be, 
there is a small protuberance, which only resembles a tentacle 
in that it is somewhat retractile. This is the only feature 
not shown in the drawing, which is X3. In all other respects 
the snail is apparently quite a normal five-banded example. 
By the kindness of the Editor of the Journal we are able to 
give a reproduction of this illustration. 

THE SOUTH EASTERN NATURALIST, 

Being the Transactions of the South Eastern Union of 
Scientific Societies for 1915,* contains an elaborate report of 
the conference at Brighton this year, and we must congratulate 
the editor. Dr. Wm. ^Martin, on the promptness with which 



* cxii. -L 100 pages, js. Oil. net. 
1915 Nov. 1. 



34^ Notes and Comments. 

the volume has appeared. The presidential address of Dr. J. S. 
Haldane refers to ' The Place of Biology in Human Knowledge 
and Endeavour,' and the volume includes many interesting 
papers read at the Conference. •• These deal with ' Regional Sur- 
\'ey and Local Natural History Societies,' by C. C. Fagg ; ' Ter- 
restrial and Fluviatile Shellfish,' by Hugh Findon ; ' Brighton's 
Lost River,' by E. A. Martin ; ' Study of Place-Names, with 
Illustrations from the South-East of England,' bv Arthur 
Bonner ; ' The Connection of Kew with the History of Botany,' 
Prof. G. S. Boulger ; ' Sussex Orchids,' by E. J. Bedford ; 
and ' The Fly Peril and its Cure,' by G. Hurlstone Hardv. The 
report is well illustrated. 

THE ESSEX NATURALIST. 

After a lapse of some time, what is described as parts i-6 of 
volume XVIIL of The Essex Naturalist (88 pp.), has appeared. 
The contents are varied, but among them we notice ' Illustra- 
tions of Mycetozoa, dechcated to Samuel Dale, M.D., in Micheli's 
" Nova Plantarum Genera," 1719,' by Miss Gulielma Lister ; 
' Note on the Occurrence of Chalky Boulder Clay at Chingford,' 
by P. G. Thompson ; ' The Dating of Early Human Ren)ains,' 
by S. H. Warren; 'The Chigwell Row Medicinal Springs: 
a Late i8th century account of them, by (?) the Rev. Dr. Wm. 
Martin,' edited by Miller Christy ; ' Notes on the Low Level 
Gravels of the River Lea and their Palteohthic Implements,' 
and ' Notes on a Fossiliferous Exposure of London-Clay at 
Chingford, Essex,' by A. Wrigley ; ' Tree Trunk Water Pipes,' 
by T. V. Holmes ; and ' The Slipper Limpet in Essex.' 

MR. C. CROSSLAND's COLLECTION 

A collection of mosses has recently been presented to the 
Halifax Museums Committee by Mr. Charles Crossland, and de- 
posited in the botanv room at the museum. Thev are from 
Mr. Ci'ossland's Moss Herbarium, but confined solely to speci- 
mens gathered within the Parish of Halifax, mostly during the 
last 25 years. They represent about 150 species and varieties, 
but there are over .400 separate packets in the collection, stored 
in four suitable cardboard boxes, and all scientifically arranged 
and named. Box No. i contains the Bog or Peat mosses, 
called also pack-mosses, a group technically known as Sphag- 
naceae, a class of mosses which grow only in wet places on 
moorlands or on other swampy, waste ground. This com- 
prises a fairly complete set of the bog-mosses recorded for the 
Halifax district, and include specimens gathered on Wads- 
worth, Stansfield, Erringden, Norland, Sowerby, Saltonstall, 
Ogden, and other local moors. They are classed according to 
Dr. Warnstorf's ' European Sphagnaceae,' a reprint of a trans- 
lation of which from the Journal of Botany, igoo, accompanies 
the mosses. Boxes 2, 3, and 4 contain the ordinarj- mosses to 

Naturalist, 



Notes and Comments. 349 

be found, among other places, in woodlands, in courses and on 
banks ot clear streams and small water runs^ in well troughs, 
on moist shady walls, dripping rocks, moorland ground, tree 
trunks, poor starved fields, waysides, garden walks, poor 
lawns, greenhouses, etc. 

OF HALIFAX MOSSES. 

There are speciniens gathered from all the above habitats. 
These are named and arranged according to the system adopted 
by the Rev. H. N. Dixon, M.A., in his ' Students' Handbook of 
British ]\Iosses,' i8g6. In addition to the technical name of 
the moss, each packet bears the date when the specimen was 
gathered, the locality v/here found, and name or initials of 
finder. It is noticeable that many were gathered in the 
Hebden Bridge district by James Needham, and by Sh. J. T. 
Aspin in other local districts. An extra box is set apart for 
the reception of the Halifax mosses found in Leyland's Her- 
barium of British Plants. This herbarium was formed by 
Roberts Leyland for the museum founded by the Halifax 
Literary and Philosophical Society at Harrison Road about 
iSjo, of which he was one of the original members, a trustee, 
and curator of the Museum until his death in 1847. -^^ ^^ 
well-known, the society presented the collections in their 
museum to the town in 1896, and they have since been housed 
at Belle Vue. 

leyland's mosses. 

When, in 1901, ^Ir. Crossland went through the moss por- 
tion in search of Halifax specimens to include with his own in 
compiling the moss section of ' The Flora of Halifax ' (by 
Crump and Crossland), he kept Leyland's specimens separate, 
so as to render them of easier reference to future local students. 
The collection was found to contain about 100 specimens 
■collected within the Parish, bearing dates between 1819 and 
1846, but mostly during the years 1833 to 1S37. Where 
necessary, modern names were added, and all were numbered 
according to Dixon's ' Handbook ' Catalogue, a marked copy 
of which is deposited with the mosses. In addition to this, Mr. 
Crossland has presented to the Public Library a copv of ' The 
Flora of Halifax,' with the moss portion (pp. 145-203) marked, 
indicating the specimens in each collection. 

the use of fossil fishes in stratigraphical geology. 

From Dr. A. Smith Woodward of the British ^Museum we 
have received a copy of his presidential address dealing with 
the above subject. In this he points out that it is clear from 
the stratigraphical distribution of the Palaeozoic and IMesozoic 
fishes, after due allowance has been made for imperfections in 
the record, their order of succession corresponds with their 
zoological grade as determined by embryology — a fact first 

1915 Nov. 1. 



350 Notes and Comments. 

noted in general terms by Louis Agassiz. The dominant 
Silurian fishes seem to represent a stage before the interior 
visceral arches had become completely differentiated into jaws, 
and before paired fins had been developed. The subsequent 
successive stages are marked by (i) the acquisition of normal 
jaws and paired fins ; {'i) the addition of a bony exo-skeleton ; 
(j) the supersession of paddles by purely dermal expansions as 
fins ; (4) the abbreviation of the primitive tail and the correla- 
tion of the dermal rays with the endoskeletal supports in the 
dorsal and anal fins ; and (5) the completion of the ossification 
of the endoskeleton. The directions of specialization in each 
of these grades, at successive periods, are essentially similar, 
but at every advance more variation becomes possible, and the 
diversity among Tertiary and recent teleostean fishes is very 
much greater than in the groups of any earlier period. Whether 
these advances have taken place simultaneously in different 
parts of the world, or whether they have occurred locally and 
then spread by migration, is still a difficult question. This 
and kindred problems can only be discussed by comparing 
the palaeontology of the fishes with that of other animals 
which have been similarly studied. 

grime's graves. 
We have received an admirable ' Report on the Excavations 
at Grime's Graves, Weeting, Norfolk,' March-May, 1914, 255 
pp., price 5s. net. A committee was formed for the purpose of 
systematic excavations of the remarkable structures known as 
Grime's Graves, and whatever may be one's views as to the 
origin of these extraordinary structures, there can be no 
question that the present report supplies a mass of facts which 
should be carefully studied by the serious student. The 
Society has also illustrated the report by thirty plates and 
nearly a hundred illustrations in the text. There is a dis- 
cussion as to the age of the pits. We are permitted to repro- 
duce a remarkable photograph of an extraordinary number of 
picks of red deer antlers (erroneously called ' horns ') found 
during the excavations. Many of the subscribing institutions 
now have examples of these in their collections. 



BRITISH ASSOCIATION NOTES. 

FAUNA OF THE LIMESTONE BEDS 

]\Ir. Henry Day put forward some observations on a collect- 
ion of some three hundred species of Carboniferous Limestone 
fossils from the localities Treak Cliff and Peakshill, Castleton, 
and embracing about one hundred species of brachiopods and 
corals. The beds at both places may be referred to the ' brachio- 
pod beds ' of Sibly (' Q.J.G.S. 1908 '), and what are allocated 
by him to sub-zone D" — the Lonsdalia sub-zone. The present 

Naturalist, 



N'otes (Old Comments. 



351 




Deer-antler picks from Grime's Graves. 



lOld Nov. 1. 



35-2 Notes and Comments. 

list of species presents some features of considerable interest 
bearing on the value of certain types as zonal indices. Reference 
is made to Vaughan's paper on the Bristol area, where it is 
indicated that amongst the brachiopod groups conlined to the 
Tournaisian in that area are the following : Prodiictus cf. 
martini ; Leptena analoga ; Schizophoria resiipinata ; Rhipi- 
domella aff. michelini ; Spiriferina octoplicata ; Syringothyris 
cuspidata. Two of these, it is noted, Spriferina octoplicata 
and Schizophoria resupinata, are sub-zonal indices, and each 
with its maximum in its sub-zone. The list of Castleton forms 
from weJl up in D, now presented, includes all the above- 
mentioned brachiopod groups. Syringothyris cuspidata and 
Spiriferina octoplicata are fairly abundant at both Treak 
Cliff and Peakshill, Schizophoria resiipinata is extremelv abund- 
ant at both places, Leptena analoga is abundant whilst Pro- 
diictus cf. martini and Rhipidomella michelini are rare. 

AT TREAK CLIFF AXD PEAKSHILL, CASTLETOX, DERBYSHIRE. 

Passing to the coral fauna, the genus Zaphrentis appears 
in the Castleton list, i.e., one of the two genera of corals con- 
fined to the Tournaisian in the Bristol area and not extending 
into the Visean. The genus, though not "very abundant, is 
represented by several species. In addition, the genera 
Michelinia and Amplexus, characteristic of the Upper Tournais- 
ian of Bristol, but possibly extending into the base of the Visean 
are cited in the Castleton list, Michelinia glomerata being fairly 
aboundant at Peakshill, and Amplexus coralloides is found at 
Treak Cliff, but is extremely rare. 

ZONAL DETERMIXATIOX. 

These facts lead to a consideration as to how far the types 
mentioned are of value in zonal determinations. If any one of 
them, as recorded from Castleton, be regarded as representing 
exactly the same form as that recorded from the Bristol area, 
then its value as one of a number of index fossils of a zone 
becomes negligible. Examples are cited in the cases of Spiri- 
ferina octoplicata and Schizophoria resupinata. If the Castleton 
forms of D^ horizon agree in identity with the Bristol types of 
K- and Z^ respectively, then these two types become worthless 
as sub-zonal indices. It was pointed out that, even allowing of 
the rather unlikely possibility that in all the cases cited the 
Castleton specimens represented mutational forms of the 
Bristol species, the real difficulty as to their zonal value is not 
overcome, since the line of demarcation between mutations is 
more or less arbitrary and there is still a considerable field of dis- 
cussion as to what constitutes a 'mutation.' It appears probable 
that any system of zonal indices can be of local value oiTly, as for 
example in the application of the Bristol zonal indices within 
the Bristol area, and cannot be of any general application. 

Naturalist, 



Notes and Comments. 353 

THE ISOLATION OF THE DIRECTIONS-IMAGE 

Dr. J. W. Evans discussed the different methods by which 
the interference figures of a small mineral in a rock-slice may 
be kept distinct from those of adjoining minerals. He recom- 
mended two. In one, which he believes to be new, a dia- 
phragm with a small aperture is placed below the condenser, 
which is lowered till the image of the aperture appears in focus 
on the rock-slice. In some microscopes the iris diaphragm 
provided for the Becke method of determining the refractive 
index may be employed. In others it is too near the condenser. 
The aperture should be sufficiently large to illuminate the 
maximum area of the mineral under investigation, but no 
portion of the others. The directions-image may then be 
observed in any of the usual ways. Unless the condenser and 
diaphragm revolve with the stage the aperture must be very 
carefully centred with the axis of rotation. 

OF A MINERAL IN A ROCK-SLICE. 

The other method was proposed by Becke in 1895, but is 
very little known. The diaphragm is placed in the focus of 
the eye-piece so as to shut out all except the mineral selected. 
The Becke lens, or system of lenses resembling an eye-piece, is 
placed above the eye-piece, when the directions-image of the 
mineral will be seen without any admixture of light from its 
neighbours. This method has the advantage that the dia- 
phragm is less highly magnified at the time of adjustment. 
When a rotating stage is employed, a very accurate centring of 
the nose-piece of the microscope is required, so that the co- 
incidence of the object with the aperture may be maintained. 
The common practice of placing a diaphragm for this purpose 
immediately below the Bertrand lens rests on no scientific 
basis, and is not effective in shutting out the light of minerals 
other than that which is being studied. 

NORWEGIAN GRANITE. 

A rather interesting example of the value of the interchange 
of ideas on the heterogeneous mass of papers read at a meeting 
of the British Association arose in the Geological Section. 
There Professor R. C. Wallace described some of the salt pans 
of Manitoba, in north-west Canada, and showed that the salt 
had a peculiar disintegrating action upon certain volcanic 
rocks which were found as boulders in their neighbourhood. 
Professor Fearnsides imparted a topical interest by connecting 
the observations with a phase of the Tariff' Reform agitation of 
a few years ago. At one time a great outcry was made against 
the importation of Norwegian granite for the building of Govern- 
ment dock walls. During this controversy an engineer de- 
clared that even if the price was equal, the Norwegian granite 
was to be preferred as the more durable. Professor Fearnsides 

1915 Nov. I. 



354 Notes and Comments. 

was asked to advise whether there was any geological basis for 
such an opinion, and he frankly told the section that he re- 
ported that, so far as he knew, there was no warrant for the 
opinion at all. He saw now from Professor Wallace's obser- 
vations on the Manitoba boulders that it was quite possible 
and probable that such a difference might exist in favour of 
the Norwegian granite. The Canadian speaker had shown that 
the durability of the granite depended upon whether it contained 
soda or potash in its felspar. The potash felspars were strongly 
acted upon by salt water — -not by the salt solution directly, 
but by an acid solution which arose indirectly from the brine. 
The soda felspars were not readily affected. It remains to be 
proved whether the Norwegian granite contains felspars con- 
taining potash or soda, if they contain soda, then it is quite 
probable that the rule-of-thumb experience of the engineers 
was right. 

THE HETERANGIUJMS OF THE BRITISH COAL MEASURES. 

Dr. D. H. Scott stated that Williamson, in his published 
papers, only recognised two British species of Heterangium, H. 
Grievii and H. tiliceoides. Under the former name he included 
not only the Lower Carboniferous plant from Burntisland, on 
which the species was founded, but also certain Coal ^Measure 
forms from Dulesgate. In the joint work by Williamson and 
the present author the same nomenclature was adopted, but 
a second form from Dulesgate was also described under the 
provisional name H . cylindriciim. H . tiliceo'ides, a Coal Pleasure 
species from Halifax, remarkable for the great development and 
perfect preservation of the phloem, has been kept distinct ever 
since its first discovery in 1886. The enormous difference 
of age between the Burntisland and the Dulesgate plants 
rendered their specific identitj^ highly improbable, and the 
latter has been separated under the name H. Lomaxii, origin- 
ally suggested by Williamson himself, after the name of the 
discoverer, though not published. 

HETERANGIUM LOMAXII. 

H. Lomaxii is characterised by the great distinctness of the 
primary xylem-strands, by their nearly exarch structure, with 
little primary centrifugal wood, by the abundant secretory 
sacs of the stele and by the rather scattered leaves. In the 
Dulesgate material, several forms of Heterangium stem have 
been found in association ; it is unlikely that they are specific- 
ally distinct — they more probably represent axes of different 
orders. The provisional species H. cylindriciim differs in no 
important respect from H. Lomaxii, to which it should be 
reduced. A very fine Heterangium from Shore was dis- 
covered by Mr. Lomax and his son in 1912. It is of large size, 
at least 17 mm. in diameter, though without secondary growth. 

Naturalist, 



Notes and Comments. 355 

The plant was originally compared with the so-called H. 
cylimhicnm, but is at least as close to H. tilioeoides. The 
feature which at first seemed to be most striking is the fact 
that four distinct leaf-trace bundles enter the base of the leaf, 
each of them dividing into two in the petiole. This is certainly 
the best example yet found of a polydesmic petiole in Heter- 
angium, and shows an interesting approach to the McduUosese 
in this respect. We may also compare Dr. Gordon's new genus 
Rhetinangium. 

POLYDESMIC HETERANGIUM. 

However, there is reason to believe that most of the British 
Coal Measure Heterangiums were polydesmic. In H. tilioeo'ides 
there are four distinct bundles in the petiole, and the same was 
the case in H. Lomaxii. In all these plants two bundles start 
from the stele to form the leaf-trace, dividing into four, at 
least in some cases, before entering the leaf-base. Only in a 
very small stem from Dulesgate (not associated with H. 
Lomaxii) did a single bundle leave the stele (as in the Burnt- 
island species) dividing into two on its outward course. This 
little stem has nothing to connect it with any other form and 
may be distinguished as H. minimum. H. tiliceotdes is main- 
tained as a distinct species, mainly on the ground of its highly 
developed phloem with dilated medullary rays. In the be- 
haviour of the leaf-traces it comes very near the Shore plant, 
which may, for the present at least, be kept distinct under the 
name H. shorense. 

FOSSIL FUNGI AND FOSSIL BACTERIA. 

Dr. D. Ellis reported that an investigation of the ferruginous 
and fossiliferous rocks of Great Britain showed that some of the 
organic fragments in the ferruginous rocks had been in a state 
of putrefaction when engulfed. A study was made of the 
micro-organisms which were responsible for this putrefaction. 
A fossil fungus was found in the Frodingham Ironstone of 
Lincolnshire (Lower Lias). To this organism the name Phy- 
comycites Frodinghamii has been given. Chavacteristics. — 
Hyphae of two dimensions, namely 2 /^ and 3J/X respectively. 
The two sizes of hyphae were found in organic connection. 
There were no traces of transverse walls. In addition to the 
ordinary alternate branching whorls of hyphae arising front 
the same level were frequently observed. In many places 
the threads showed thickening cushions. Some of these were 
apparently in 'association with the formation of branches and 
were of a supporting nature ; others, however, had no apparent 
significance. Some of the hyphae had terminal dilatations of a 
sporangial nature, as in a few cases spore-like bodies were 
enclosed in them. The sporangia measured about 24 jj. {-^^^ mm.) 
and were roughly spherical. The spores were 10 11 in diameter. 

1915 Nov. 1. ■ ■ 



336 Notes and Comments. 

Probably each sporangium normally enclosed four spores. 
The fungus, unlike all modern fungi, had a power of attraction 
for iron-compounds, and in all cases its hyphae were covered 
with a varying quantity of ferric hydroxide. Other examples 
from Scotland etc., were also described. 

THE APTIAX FLORA OF BRITAIN. 

Dr. Marie C. Stopes stated the so-called ' Lower Greensand ' 
deposits of this country are of Aptian age, and represent the 
upper division of the Eocretaceous according to the recent 
classification by Haug. From these deposits the plants hitherto 
known — notably Bennettites Gibsonianiis Will, and Cupressin- 
oxylon vectense Barber — have been so few that it has been 
impossible to speak of a Lower Greensand ' flora.' It has been 
generally assumed that both the climate, and the animals and 
plants then living were the same as those of the preceding 
Wealden. As a result of recent work the author has now 
brought together a flora consisting of 45 species, containing 9 
Cycadophyta, 27 Conifers, and 5 Angiosperms. Most of these 
are represented by petrifactions of the cellular anatomy, and 
many are very beautifully preserved. 

EARLY ANGIOSPERMS AND THEIR CONTEMPORARIES. 

Some of the forms have structures of botanical interest, 
while others are of value as indicators of the climate of the 
epoch, of which nothing was previously known. It is in- 
teresting to find evidence of a change of climatic conditions 
about this time, so that the cooler weather and well-marked 
seasons of the Lower Greensand afford a great contrast to 
the ' tropical climate ' of the Wealden of Southern England. 
Among the plants of botanical interest may be mentioned a new 
genus of Cycadophyta with curious wood structure ; a new 
species of Protopiceoxylon ; the leaf anatomy of a true Sequoia ; 
several species of Pityoxylon with well-developed ray-tracheids ; 
and several Dicotyledons. It should be remembered that 
these are all contemporaneous with the type species of 
Bennettites. The Angiosperms are the oldest found in Northern 
Europe, and the oldest of which the anatomy is known. They 
are all woodv ; two of them, at least, must have had tall 
timber trunks. In some of them the minute details are par- 
ticularly beautifully petrified, and show a very high degree of 
organisation. Like the Conifers, they show seasonal growth. 
They represent a dry — possibly fairly high — land vegetation. 

BOYS AND THE WAR. 

What do our children really think of the war ? Dr. Kimmins 
endeavoured to elucidate this question in a paper read before 
the Association. In an essay competition, in which 1,511 boys 
and 1,570 girls in the senior departments took part, the fact 
emerging most clearly was the bellicose attitude of the girls 



* Museum News. 357 

of 10, the wave of depression at ii, and the estabUshment of 
normal interest at 12 years of age. The boj'^s, on the other 
hand, became more warhke at 11, and though a period of 
shght depression followed upon this, it was much less marked 
than in the case of the girls. From the age of 11 onwards 
great anxiety was felt with regard to the price of food. Some 
examples of unconscious humour are given. A little girl, aged 
II, wrote : ' The origin of the war is this, that when the German 
Emperor was at Windsor he insulted Queen Victoria, and so 
King Edward smacked him round the face. The German 
Emperor said, " I'll be avenged," and hence the war.' A boy 
of 12 wrote : ' The advantage of the war is that women have 
learned to knit.' Another wrote : ' The main disadvantage 
of the war is that girls must remain old maids because there 
will not be any men left.' These illustrations rather lend 
point to the contention of Mr. Leslie Scott that the war booklets 
of the French Government might be imitated with profit in 
English schools. 



The Mitseiiins Journal for September contains a report of an interesting 
discussion on ' JNIuseums and the War.' 

The National ]\Iuseum of Wales has issued a large ' Descriptive Hand- 
book to the Relief Model of \N'ales ' by W. E. Whitehouse, and a ' Catalogue 
of an Exhibition of Welsh Topographical Prints ' by I. J. Williams. 

The Museums Journal for October contains a report of the discussion 
on ' Museums in relation to Education ' which was opened at the conference 
of the Museums Association by Prof. J. A. Green of Sheffield. 

The Reports of the Librarian, Parks Superintendent and Museum 
Curator of the Borough of Stockport have been issued. The last, Mr. 
Hewitt's fourteenth annual report, includes particulars of additions made 
during the year. 

We notice that the Catalogue of the Museum of Fisheries and Shipping, 
Pickering Park, Hull, has reached its fourth edition, and the new issue 
contains particulars of many valuable additions. The catalogue contains 
52 pages, is well illustrated, and is sold at id. 

The Sixty-Sixth Annual Report of the Ipswich Museum, etc., contains 
illustrations of a Roman Amphora, Deer Antler Picks from Grimes Graves, 
and Rostro-Carinate Implements, these being among many interesting 
additions to the collections made during the year. 

Hull Museum Publication, No. 103, being the Quarterly Record of 
Additions, No. 50, has been issued. It contains a number of repi'o- 
ductions of local bygone rolics and other objects added during the three 
months covered by the record. It is sold at one penny. 

The Museums Journal for August contains the Presidential Address 
of Mr. E. Rimbault Dibdin of the Walker Art Gallery, Liverpool, which 
deals with the question of the management of Art Galleries under war 
conditions. There is also an excellent portrait of Mr. Dibdin. 

The Report of the Warrington Museum Committee for 1915 contains a 
list of numerous additions during the year, with an illustration of a ver}- 
fine Equestrian Aquamanile of the 14th century, which has been recently 
presented. During the year ]\Ir. Dunlop has prepared and displayed a 
series of specimens to illustrate the characters and forms of the mollusca. 

191.5 Nov. 1. 



358 

OBSERVATIONS ON THE GREY SEAL. 



EDMUND SELOUS. 



[Conhnued from page 284). 

At length the mother Seal came out on the rocks, but the 
young one was unable to get up into the proper juxtaposition, 
and, after a little while, she came off into the sea again. There 
was now another lengthy interval, and, during a part of the 
time, the male Seal was often in the near neighbourhood of 
the mother and calf, though never quite close to them. Finally 
the mother went up on the rocks again, either at the same place 
or very near it, and, the tide being now a good deal higher, her 
calf was able to follow her and suckling took place. It was, 
however, brought to a somewhat premature conclusion through 
a wave washing over the rock, and drawing the young Seal 
down with it as it receded. The mother, whose bulk was not 
so easily shifted, remained for a little on the rock and seemed 
waiting for the young one to come back. This however, it did 
not do, nor did I see it again till sometime afterwards. Now, 
however, appeared the male, and, swimming right up to the 
rock on which the female was lying, he raised his head a little 
up the face of it and seemed asking her to come off, as in a 
moment or two indeed, she did, when they swam away together 
— the usual varied degree of proximity that is to say. A little 
before she did so, at the time, more or less, of the male's close 
arrival, a cry, very like the moaning of the calf to be fed, arose, 
and was attributed by both King and Heatherley (who were 
here joint watchers with me) to the female Seal. I certainly 
did not see the calf during the time of its utterance, nor had I 
since the backwash of the wave took it off. jMoreover it had 
been pretty well fed before this occurred. The above incident, 
together with what else evidential on the subject I have seen 
hitherto, seems to point to these Seals being monogamous and 
also very affectionate in their conjugal relations. Heatherle3^ 
however, formed the opinion that the male Seal saw us and 
gave the alarm to his mate. In this I do not concur, I saw 
no evidence of alarm on his part and ths whole of his conduct 
is easily accounted for by supposing him impatient for the 
company of the female. The cry was not his, but hers. It was, 
I think, of the nature of a greeting, and her going off, after 
uttering it, was natural and much after the manner of her usaal 
departure after suckling the calf. Even without the induce- 
ment of the male, she had so nearly finished doing this before 
the slight contretemps mentioned, that I feel sure, from previous 
experience, she would not have waited long for the quite 
problematical return of a well-fed child. Again, both the 

Naturalist, 



Seloiis : Observations on the Grey Seal. 359 

distance and the only very slight elevation of our heads above 
the irregular line of the rocks, behind which wc crouclu-d, 
make it, to my mind, highly improbable that either of the 
Seals should have sighted us, nor would they have been likely 
to show active alarm, even if they had. I had noticed several 
times that if these Seals saw anyone sufficiently close, or 
obstrusively outstanding, to make them apprehensive, they 
■snapped themselves under water, so to speak, with a splash, but 
otherwise went down quite quietly, one may say lazity. This 
indication was never given by the male Seal as he swam up, 
nor by either of the pair as they swam away; in each case, it 
seemed to me, quite at ease. Neither in the above incident, 
therefore, nor on any other occasion was I able to find any 
■evidence of the male Grey Seal's playing the part of sentniel to 
his family, as Heatherley thought it did. There was nothing 
that I saw, where this question might seem to arise, that was not 
amply accounted for by ordinary conjugal affection. The calf 
was often left for hours — once for ten hours — on the rocks, 
without either of the parents coming to that part of the shore — 
indeed, they were not to be seen anywhere — and the male was 
often equally absent whilst the suckling was taking place. In the 
•case of the Common Seal, I have more than once demonstrated 
the fact that any one of a group on the rocks that saw me 
would drop into the sea, leaving the others still lying there. 
Where, then, was the sentinel ? and can it be supposed (as 
ic has been suggested) that any animal — even a Seal — exer- 
cising discreaon and judgment, would sometimes post sentinels 
and sometimes not ? 

Whilst the suckling was proceeding, Heatherley drew my 
attention to a rounded boss on the upper part of the body of 
the alma mater, a little below the chest, on the right side, which 
was the one uppermost and most exposed to view. He sug- 
gested that this might be a rudimentary teat. As to the 
physiological possibility, or otherwise, of this, I am not com- 
petent to express an opinion, but the supposition certainly 
■seems to give a new significance to the endeavours, during the 
ieeding time, of the calf to move upwards towards the head of 
the mother, and of the latter's flicking of it down, again, to the 
right place, by quickly repeated gentle blows of that flapper at 
liberty — the upper one, that is to say, as she lies. On two of 
these occasions the calf was thus induced to continue sucking, 
his mouth being once actually guided to the teat, whilst on the 
third, when he persisted, the mother went off. 

I was left alone about 5 p.m. to spend the night in the shed, 
which I did, keeping absolutely quiet and closing up every 
aperture, even to the small ventilation holes, before lighting a 
candle to read by. I cannot, of course, say whether any seal, 
young or old, came out upon the rocks, in the night, whilst I 

1915 Nov. 1. 



360 Scions : Observations on the Grey Seal. 

slept, but I do not think so, since none lay there this morning — 
(October iqth now) — -though one, a full-grown female, swam 
about for sometime in one of the little inlets of the sea running 
up to the shed. As the tide sank, it afterwards disappeared — 
not landing, I believe — and has not again returned, nor has 
any grown Seal visited this whilom resort of theirs, all day 
long, so far as I have been able to observe. In fact, it is very 
evident that the Seals have withdrawn from this cove, as from 
a populous resort, such is their appreciation of the upright 
human form, that 

' . . . far nobler shape, erect and tall. 
Godlike erect, in native honour clad. 
In naked majesty " 

But the passage can no longer be closely applied— perhaps 
its the clothes they object to. Shortly after the tide had begun 
to go out, however, I saw a young Seal lying approximately 
where the one that was fed yesterday had been, and, no doubt, 
the same animal. It was not however, before it was more than 
three quarters high tide again that the parent Seal appeared 
and made a long and what seemed rather a precipitious climb, 
to get to her infant, which did not, this time, come to meet her. 
As she now, in suckling it, lay on that side which presented 
her back to me, the latter had to go round, and so was invisible 
to me all the while. The time taken must, I think, have been 
fully a quarter of an hour, and then the old Seal came down by 
a still longer way, making, at the last, a long sliding drop into 
the water, over some steeply sloping rocks that overhung it. 
The male soon appeared, but there were no connubialities, 
and, after awhile, he retired again. The female kept about, off 
the shore, as if waiting for her calf, which lay most immovably 
a little higher up on the rocks than where he had been fed. 
The tide rose and rose, and the spray began slightl}- to touch 
him, but he took little or no notice, when, all at once — as a 
surprise, I should imagine, but perhaps it was in his previous 
experience — several big waves rushed,* one after another, up 
the rock and burst in foam and thunder all over him. The 
young Seal was swept right away into the sea- — invisibly, 
however, so lost was he in the white seething caldron — and it 
was not till a considerable while afterwards that I saw him, 
again, for certain, swimming off the shore, and seeming none 
the worse for his accident, if it can be considered as one. The 
sea now rushed foaming over the rocks on which his mother 
had just fed him, making a broad strait (in proportion with 

* Three or four, I think — those 'three kicks of the sea,' which shore 
folk and fishermen speak of ; and rightlv, in a rough way, to go by my 
own experience here. In another such instance I should certainly have 
been washed off the rocks myself had I not been warned in time. 

Naturalist, 



Seloiis : Observations on the Grey Seal. 361 

the small scale of things here) between two tidally sundered 
rocky islets. In this turmoil I soon again lost him, nor did 
I see him any more whilst I stayed. The female, however, 
continued, for a long while, to swim or float perpendicularly 
amidst the swirling waters, making of them, through her 
reposeful luxurious motions, 

' her thrice-driven bed of down.' 

I think there must have been an interval of at least ten 
hours between when I first saw the young Seal lying on the rocks 
and the time at which it was suckled. As my presence was 
unsuspected during the whole of the time, and there was no one 
else on the island, this must represent a natural period. Thus 
a great difference is observable between the frequency with 
which quite young calves and older ones are suckled. I put 
•down the one in question as some ten days or a fortnight old, 
and since it was in all probability the larger of the two that 
had lain near the shed, it can hardly I think have been older — 
the first figure perhaps is more likely. 

I noticed (as I had done yesterday, but now more plainly), 
whilst the mother Seal lay with her back to me, that she had, 
a little to one side of the median line, and about half way down, 
a long deep-looking wound.* It was also wide — indeed a very 
ugly trench indeed — at the least a foot long, but I should say 
nearer eighteen inches. It could hardly, I believe, have been 
worse had it been made by the claw of a Tiger. Another 24 
hours on the island gave me nothing further to record. 

As the above notes represent original observation on the 
habits of a quite well-known species, I have not added to their 
length by saying anything about its classification, Latin name, 
size, weight, ' pelage,' etc., all which are to be found in the 
ordinary standard compilations. I may remark, however, that 
the young Seals are white or nearly so (that at least was my 
experience) and that the splendid mottled, or rather, blotched, 
belly of the grown ones, as well as the beautiful appearance 
whi