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THE 

NATURALIST: 

MONTHLY JOURNAL OF 

NATURAL HISTORY FOR THE NORTH OF ENGLAND 

EUITIiU BY 

THOS. SHEPPARD, M.Sc, F.G.S., F.R.G.S., F.S.A.(Scot.). 

CUKATOK OF THE MuNlCIl'AL MlSELMS, Hi I.I. . 

Author oi- ■Geological Ramulks in East Vokkshire': 'The Kvolution 

oi. Kingston upon Hull"; ' Lost Towns of the Voukshire Coast, etc., i-ic. 

Editor of Mortimer's ' Forty Years Keskakches, 

AND 

THOMAS WILLIAM WOODHF.AD, IMi.U., M.Sc, F.L.S. 

Lecti-rer in Hioi.o(;v, Technical College, Hcddersfield ; 

WITH THE assistance AS REFEREES IN SPECIAL DEPARTMENTS OF 

J, GILBERT BAKER, F.R.S., F.L.S. f GEORGE T. PORRITT, F.L.S., F.E.S. ^^ 

Prof. PERCY F. KENDALL, ^LSc, F.G.S. ' JOHN W. TAYLOR, M.Sc. 
RILEY I'ORTL'NE, F./.S. ^j^vs*"**" I»h"»J7!n 



JUN2 4 1920 



(I 



I). 



LONDON : 

A. Brown cK: Sons. Ltd., 5, Farringuon Avenue, E.C, 

And AT Hull and York. 



riilNTED AT browns' SAVILE PRESS, 
iAVILE STREET AND GEORGE STREET, HULL. 



\ 



JAN. 1916. 



No. 708 

(No. 485 of current aeries} 




A MONTHLY ILLUSTRATED JOURNAL OF 

NATURAL HISTORY FOR THE NORTH OF ENGLAND. 

EDITED BY 

T. SHEPPARD, M.Sc, F.G.S.. F.R.Q.S., F.S.A.Scot.. 

The Museums, Hull ; 

AND 

T. W. WOODHEAD, Ph.D., M.Sc, F.L.S., 

Technical College, Huddersfield. 

WITH THE ASSISTANCE AS REFEREES IN SPECIAL DEPARTMENTS OK 

J. GILBERT BAKER. P.R.S. P.L.S.. GEO. T. PORRITT, F.L.S.. P.E.S.. 

Prol P. P. KENDALL. M.Sc. P.Q.S.. JOHN W. TAYLOR. M.Sc, 

t! H. nelson. M.SC. M.B.O.U.. RILEY FORTUNE. P.Z.S. 



Contents : — 



Notes and Comments (illustrated) :-Liverpool Biologists ; Glimpses of Wild Life, Exit 
The Antiquary ; Northern Mines and Quarries; East Anglian Pre-histonans ; Theories ; 
Lncolnshire Mollusca; The 'Naming' Mania; Australian tungi; Geology of Scar_ 
borough Spec al Work ; Thorburn's British Birds ; Staffordshire Pottery ;Evolu ion of 
the Potter's Art ; Fossiliferous Limestone from the North Sea ; Possibly of Glacial Origin 

The Wild Roses of Durham-/. H'. Hcs/o/) HrtJ-rison, /?.5c 

A Celery Fungus— 2'. B. Koc 

Yorkshire Zoologists at Leeds— /4. Haigh-Lumby 

Yorkshire Mycologists at Scarborough (Illustrated)-^. £. Pt^fft 

Yorkshire Naturalists at KttgMty—W. E.L.VV 

In Memorlam : Henry Eeles Dresser (Illustrated)— iJ. F 

Field Notes -.—Puccinia iridis at Scarborough ; Apple Tree Mildew at Scarborough 

Yorkshire Naturalists' Union's Report for 1915 

Reviews and Book Notices 

News from the Magazines 

Northern News 

Museum News 

Illustrations 



15 



.. 1 



1-8 

9-13 

14-15 

16-17 

18-21 

22-24 

25-26 

27 

31-48 

28-30 

13, 17 

24,26 

27 

, 18, 25 



LONDON : 

A. Brown & Sons, Limited, 5, Farringdon Avknuk, E.G. 

And at Hull and York. 

Printers and Publishers to the Y.N. U. 



Prepaid Subscription 6/6 per annum, post free. 



PUBLICATIONS OF 

Zhc WoxkQbkc 1Ratiu-aIi8t8' XTlnion. 



BOTANICAL TRANSACTIONS OF THE YORKSHIRE NATURALISTS' UNION, Volume I. 

_ . ^vo, Cloth, 292 pp. (a few copies only left), price 51- net. 

contains various reports, papers, and addresses on the Flowering Plants, Mosses, and Fungi of the counti 

Complete, 8vo, Cloth, with Coloured Map, published at One Guinea. Only a few copies left, 10/6 net. 
THE FLORA OF WEST YORKSHIRE. By FREDERIC ARNOLD LEES, M.R.C.S., &c. 

, \"'^' which forms the 2nd Volume of the Botanical Series of the Transactions, is perhaps the moi ; 

-o^^ ^ ^j"',°r'' °, the kind ever issued for any district, including detailed and full records of 1044 Phanero- 
gams and Vascular Cryptogams, U Characeas, 348 Mosses, 108 Hepatics, 258 Lichens, 1009 Fungi, and 389 
Freshwater Algae, making a total of 3160 species. i- . s . 

READY SrfORTLY: Supplement to The Flora of West Yorkshire, by F. Arnold Lees, MR C.S. 

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NORTH YORKSHIRE: Studies of its Botany, Qeology, Climate, and Physical Geography. 

By JOHN GILBERT BAKER, F.R.S., F.L.S., M.R.I. A., V.M.H. 

#„r,^o"»t ^aS^^?'^u °2 the Mosses and Hepatics of the Riding, by Matthew B. Slater, F.L.S. This Volume 
terms the dra of the Botanical Series. 

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THE FUNGUS FLORA OF YORKSHIRE. By G. MASSES, F.L.S., F.R.H.S., & C. CROSSLAND, F.L.S. 

^t u^.u '? ^^^ ^15* Volume of the Botanical Series of the Transactions, and contains a complete annotated list 
ol all the known hungi of the county, comprising 2626 species. 

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•pecies, with tull details of localities and numerous critical remarks on their affinities and distribution. 

Complete, Svo, Cloth. Second Edition. Price 6/6 net. 

LIST OF YORKSHIRE LEPIDOPTERA. By G. T. PORRITT, F L.S., FES. 

The First Edition of this work was published in 1883, and contained particulars of 1340 species of 

Macro- and Micro-Lepidoptera known to inhabit the county of York. The Second Edition, with Supplement 

contains iniich new information which has been accumulated by the author, including over 50 additional 

species, together with copious notes on variation (particularly melanism), &c. 

In progress, issued in Annual Parts, Svo. 
TRANSACTIONS OF THE YORKSHIRE NATURALISTS' UNION. 

..nJi'fti^''''"J'^''''°"^ include papers in all departments of the Yorkshire Fauna and Flora, and are issued in 
nt'f^^fn ^?M^^ K^^"^^' '^^^."ted each to a special subject The Parts already published are sold to the public 
as tollows (Members are entitled to 25 per cent, discount) : Part 1 (1877), 2/3 • 2(1878) 1^9 • 3(1878) 1/6-4(18791 
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i? Jo^J'' ?'6 • }'^ *^*^^'^'' ^'9 ; 15 (1889), 2 6 ; 16 (1890), 2/6 ; 17 (1891), 2/6 ; 18 (1892), 1/9 • 19 (1893) 9d ■ 20 (1894) 5/- • 
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^"^ ^!lI^BO u'^Id F'^lnv^f- A^r 7- ^r< NELSON, M.B.O.U., WILLIAM EAGLE CLARKE, F.L.S. 
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actions TAYLOR, F.L.S,, and others. Also in course of publication in the Trans- 

THE YORKSHIRE CARBONIFEROUS FLORA. By ROBERT KIDSTON, F.R.S.E., F.G.S. Parts 14 
10, vj, 21, &c., of Transactions. ' 

LIST OF YORKSHIRE COLEOPTERA. By Rev. W. C. HEY, .A. 



THE NATURALIST. A Monthly Illustrated Journal of Natural History for the North of England. Edited 
^L ^HLPPARD. F.G.S., Museum, Hull; and T. W. WOODHEAD, F.L.S., Technical CoUeg. 
Hiidderstield; with the assistance as referees in Special Departments of J. GILBERT BAKER F RS 
F.L.S., Prof. PERCY F. KENDALL, M.Sc, F.G S., T. H. NELSON, M.B.O.U.. GECX T PORRITT ' 
F.I S., F.E.S., JOHN W TAYLOR, WILLIAM WEST, F.L.S.. and R. FORTUNE, F.Z.S. (Annuai 
Subscription, payable in advance, 6/6 post free). 

MEMBERSHIP in the Yorkshire Naturalists' Union, 10/6 per annum, includes subscription to The Naturalist 
and entitles the member to receive the current Transactions, and all the other privileges of the Union' 
A donation of Seven Guineas constitutes a life-membership, and entitles the member to a set of the 
Iransactions issiied by the Union. Subscriptions to be sent to the Hon. Treasurer Edwin 
Hawkksworth. Esq., Sunnvside, Crossgates, Leeds. 
Members are entitled to buy all back numbeVs and other publications of the Union at a discount of 25 
per cent, off the prices quoted above. 

All communications respecting 'The Naturalist' and p 
The Museum, Hull ; and enquiries respecting the 
Hon. Secretaries, Technical College, Huddersfield 



>^j....,iiinications respecting 'The Naturalist ' and publications should be addressed to T. Sheppard F G S 
The Museum, Hull ; and enquiries respecting the Yorkshire Naturalists' Union should be addressed to the 
)ecretaries. Technica Colleee. Hndder^tipld 



THE NATURALIST 



For 1916. 



NOTES AND COMMENTS. 

LIVERPOOL BIOLOGISTS. 

Volume xxix. of the Proceedings and Transactions of 
the Liverpool Biological Society* has been issued. It contains 




Twinned Lobster Larvae hatched at Port Erin. 

the Presidential Address — ' The Mode of Transmission of 
Some Tropical Diseases,' by Prof. J. W. W. Stephens ; the 
Twenty-eighth Annual Report of the Liverpool Marine Biology 
Committee and their Biological Station at Port Erin, by Prof. 
W. A. Herdman, D.Sc, F.R.S. ; a Report on the Investigations 
carried on during 1914, in connection with the Lancashire 
Sea Fisheries Laboratory at the University of Liverpool, and 
the Sea Fish Hatchery at Piel, near Barrow, by Prof. W. A. 



The University, Liverpool, 402 pages, 21s. 



1916 Jan. 1. 



2 Notes and Comments. 

Herdman, D.Sc, F.R.S., Andrew Scott, A.L.S. and James 
Johnstone, D.Sc, as well as the L.M.B.C. Memoir on ' Tubifex,' 
by Gertrude C. Dixon, B.Sc. The last item is of special value, 
and is accompanied by seven excellent plates. The report 
throughout is illustrated by several interesting blocks, one of 
which, showing ' Twinned Lobster Larvae hatched at Port 
Erin,' we are kindly permitted to reproduce. 

GLIMPSES OF WILD LIFE. 

Messrs. Virtue & Co., City Road, London, have issued an 
admirable series of fifty stereoscopic photographs taken from 
nature by H. Cox, F.Z.S. The photographs are chiefly of 
various phases of bird life. These are neatly packed in a 
suitable box, together with a well-made stereoscope, and in 
addition is a handbook giving descriptions of the photographs. 
The collection is sold at a guinea, and would be suitable for a 
very acceptable present. They are only sold by Messrs. 
Virtue & Co., direct. 

EXIT THE ANTIQUARY. 

We are sorry to find the following note in The Antiquary 
for November : ' The Publisher of The Antiqiiary regrets to 
be compelled to announce that, owing to lack of sufficient 
support, he is unable to continue the publication of the maga- 
zine. The December number will be the last.' For the past 
thirty-six years this journal has been regularly published 
monthly, by Elliot Stock, under various editors, the present 
being the fifty-first volume. The Antiquary has done much to 
encourage the study of antiquities, by the publication of 
original articles and by reviews and summaries of the various 
volumes and societies' Transactions of antiquarian interest. 
Many northern writers have been encouraged by the journal, 
especially by the present editor, Mr. G. L. Apperson. It 
seems strange that there are not sufficient people interested 
to support one popular antiquarian journal. Time was when 
there were several. We shall miss the familiar quotation from 
Goldsmith on the cover of the journal, which came before us 
each month : ' I love everything that's old ; old friends, old 
times, old manners, old books, old wine,' and the passing of 
an old friend like The Antiquary makes one feel still older. 

NORTHERN MINES AND QUARRIES. 

Some interesting statistics in reference to the output of 
mines and quarries in the north of England are given in Mr. 
J. R. R. Wilson's report, which appears in The Quarry for 
November. The information in reference to the output of 
the various rocks and minerals is summarised in two useful 
tables, which we take the liberty of quoting :— 

Naturalist, 



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1916 Jan. 1. 



4 Notes and Comments. 

EAST ANGLIAN PRE-HISTORIANS.* 

This publication contains a number of papers bearing 
upon the Society's work, most of which have reference to 
East Anglia. Among the contributors are J. Reid Moir, 
Rev. H. G. O. Kendall, Louisa L. F. Gaton, W. G. Clarke, 
J. G. Marsden, H. Dixon Hewitt, A. Leslie Armstrong, T. E. 
Nuttall, A. E. Peake, R. H. Chandler, Reginald A. Smith, 
Henry Dewey, Nina F. Layard, Alfred Bell and C. S. Tomes. Of 
more particular interest to northern readers is an article on 
' The Occurrence of Palaeoliths in North-East Lancashire,' by 
Dr. Nuttall, and a paper on ' A Carib Type of Axe found in 
Yorkshire,' by Mr. Armstrong. Mr. Armstrong kindly showed 
us this axe-head som.e time ago, and we are satisfied, as indeed 
Mr. Armstrong quotes in his paper, that it is of Borrowdale 
Ash and is of Neolithic age. Nothwithstanding this opinion, 
which apparently is not accepted, most of his paper has refer- 
ence to what one writer describes as ' a fine example of the 
exceedingly rare West Indian Carib Type of Axe.' 

' THEORIES.' 

Mr. Armstrong asks : ' If their Carib origin is admitted, 
how can their European distribution in Neolithic tim,es be 
accounted for ? ' Personally we think it much more likely 
that a Borrowdale ash axe-head found near Burley is of local 
origin, the same as are the thousands of other axe-heads found 
in the county, rather than that they have been brought into 
this country in Neolithic times from the West Indies. Such 
a theory is about as absurd as that which was advanced in all 
seriousness a little while ago to account for small flint flakes 
at Scunthorpe in Lincolnshire, because somewhat similar 
implements occurred in India. It was then suggested that 
some Indians had sailed to Scunthorpe in a boat and left these 
remains behind. Surely it must be seen that precisely similar 
objects can occur in countries far apart when the material 
available and the needs of the natives are similar. 

LINCOLNSHIRE MOLLUSCA. 

Mr. J. F. Musham has published a ' List of Lincolnshire 
Land and Freshwater Mollusca ' (Selby, 22 pages). It contains 
elaborate details and localities of the various species, and notes 
on Limnea glabra in captivity, on Vivipara contecta, Anodonta 
cygnea, etc. Mr. Musham's object in printing it was in order to 
make his notes more accessible, and we understand only about 
half a dozen copies were issued. We are indebted to him for 
one. We recently had an opportunity of examining his 
extensive collection of Lincolnshire shells, which contains 
many rare examples. 

* Proceedings of the Prehistoric Society of East Anglia, Vol. II., part 
I (157 pages, 3s. 6d. net). 



Notes and Comments. 5 

THE ' NAMING ' MANIA. 

In The Entomologist's Monthly Magazine for December, 
Mr. Pool states that the insects standing in British hsts as 
Ptiniis testaceous must all be referred to P. pusilhis. Mr. 
Gahan adds that ' Mr. Pool's note, as it stands, may lead to 
continued error. The P. testaceous to which he refers is not 
the P. testaceous of Olivier or Boieldieu, which is a species 
quite distinct from P. pusilhis Sturm. = P. ptisillns Boield., 
but is merely the species known to British collectors as P. 
testaceous. . . . What Mr. Pool has shown in his notes is 
that the female of P. pusilhis has been wrongly identified in 
British collections as P. testaceous or P. brunneus.' On the 
next page Mr. E. R. Newberry points out that ' Ochthebius 
poweri is a vsiviety oi metallascens Kosen. . . . In the Exchange 
List recently published the above note was forgotten, and 
the insect referred to a var. of dentifer Rey, evidently in error.' 
All these errors and corrections may be very interesting, but 
surely there is some fault or carelessness somewhere. On the 
very next page is the following note by Mr. D. Sharp : 
' Meotica exilijoyniis and M. exiUima. Dr. Joy and I are 
agreed that these names apply to the same species ; the 
explanation being that he is so much occupied that he alto 
gether overlooked the description of exillima.' It seems a 
pity that those who have not time to examine previous 
descriptions, should still have time to describe alleged ' new 
species ' which so soon after require correcting. 

AUSTRALIAN FUNGI. 

The Royal Botanical Garden, Kew, have issued a Bulletin 
(No. 8. 1915), by Miss E. M. Wakefield, on ' h Collection of 
Fungi from Australia and New Zealand.' This is devoted to 
a description of a collection formed by the President of the 
Yorkshire Naturalists' Union, Mr. W. N. Cheesman, while 
with the British Association in 1914. The collection has 
been presented to Kew, and Miss Wakefield describes a number 
of new species, which are figured on two plates. Two of these 
are named after Mr. Cheesman, viz., Heierochaete Cheesmanii 
and Peniophora Cheesmanii. 

GEOLOGY OF SCARBOROUGH ; 

After 33 years the Geological Survey has issued a second 
edition of the Memoir dealing with the geology of the country 
between. Whitby and Scarborough. Since the first edition 
(1882, 60 pages), many important publications have appeared, 
mostly from the pens of amateurs, and these have necessitated 
the Memoir being entirely re-written. This has been done 
under the supervision of Mr. G. W. Lamplugh.. the Memoir 
itself being prepared by the late C. Fox-Strangways, and Mr. 
G. Barrow. There is also a chapter on ' The Palaontological 

11116 Jan. 1. 



6 Notes and Comments. 

Classification of the Local Jurassic Rocks/ by Mr. S. S. Buck- 
man. Briefly, the main directions in which our knowledge of 
the area has been increased are with regard to the system of 
glacier lakes so admirably worked out by Prof. Kendall ; the 
extraordinary discoveries made among the fossil plants of 
the district by Prof. Seward and others ; and in naming and 
zoning of the Amnionites, by Mr. Buckman. 

SPECIAL WORK. 

Some idea of the extent to which this last work has pro- 
ceeded may be gathered from the table on page 65. From this 
we learn that our old friend Ammonites annulatus is now 
' Dactylioceras tenuicostatum ; D. gracile' ; and Ammonites 
spinatiis is now ' Paltopleuroceras hawskerense a.nd other species.' 
On the other hand certain species frequently recorded and 
referred to on the old maps are not now recognised at all, 
and are dismissed with the words, ' No Species seen.' All 
this is the result of specialising, which is undoubtedly valuable, 
and in all probability the new names are accurate, but it makes 
the work of an amateur, and even of a fairly advanced student, 
very disheartening, if not impossible. We are sorry that the 
Survey has not adopted the example set in the second edition 
of the m.emoir for the adjoining district South of Scarborough, 
which was illustrated by many excellent plates of the coast 
and landscape, from photographs ; but at 2s. 6d. ^he present 
Memoir of 144 pages cannot be looked upon as dear, though 
the almost total absence of illustrations and the poorness of 
paper makes us wish that our Government surveyors had the 
funds at their disposal to enable them to produce volumes 
after the style of those of the well-known American surveys. 
We notice that the bibliographies appearing in The Naturalist 
are recommended to those desiring particulars of the papers 
written on the district. 

THORBURN's BRITISH BIRDS.* 

The second volume of this magnificent publication has made 
its appearance, and, if possible, is even more beautiful than 
the first. It contains plates 21 to 40, and deals with Passeres, 
Picariae, Striges, Acciptres, Steganopodes and Herodiones. 
The various species are dealt with tersely, accurately, and in 
a pleasant style, on the 72 pages of letterpress. The frontis- 
piece represents the Golden Eagle (adult and young) in flight, 
and is perfect. We do not remember having seen a finer 
representation of this king of birds. The plate of Swifts and 
Nightjars is also remarkably fine. The Eagle Owl, which 
alone occupies plate 28, is another masterpiece. We can 
only wish the book the success it certainly deserves. 

* Vol. II., 72 pages and 20 plates, 4to. London ; Longmans, Green 
& Co., 3 IS. Od. 

Naturalist, 



Notes and Comments. y 

STAFFORDSHIRE POTTERY.* 

Major Cyril Earle has spent much time and much money 
in gathering together a remarkably fine collection of picked 
pieces of Staffordshire Pottery. There are 750 examples, 
many marked with the maker's name. Major Earle has been 
careful to gather together typical pieces, several of which, 
judging from the prices they realize nowadays, are as much 
sought after as the wares of the Derby, Worcester, or better- 
known factories. Major Earle's collection is in the Hull 
Museum, and this work contains a detailed description of each 
piece ; all are figured, many being in colours. He has fine 
examples of Slipware, Saltglaze, Whieldon, Toby Jugs, figures, 
and an enormous number of the quaint representations of 
animals, some of which, however, might not perhaps appeal 
to a critical zoologist ! 

EVOLUTION OF THE POTTER' S ART. 

Mr. T. Sheppard, in whose charge the collection is, con- 
tributes a chapter on ' The Evolution of the Potter's Art,' 
which is illustrated by about a hundred examples of ancient 
pottery from the Driffield and Hull collections. Mr. Sheppard 
evidently believes that there is no art so ancient as the Potter's 
Art. We have heard that even Adam was made of clay and 
Eve made a mug of him ! At any rate, illustrations are given 
of m.ugs quite as old as Adam's time, and the improvements 
from primitive potterj^ to the best productions of the Chelsea, 
Derby, etc., factories, are graphically shown. The book is 
printed on hand-made paper, the plates on fine art paper, 
and the binding and printing are of the best. Speaking with 
some knowledge of the subject, we can say that it is the finest 
book that has ever been produced in Hull. We doubt if the 
price at which it is sold will produce a profit, but that is no 
concern of ours ! 

FOSSILIFEROUS LIMESTONE FROM THE NORTH SEA. 

At a recent meeting of the London Geological Society, 
Mr. R. B. Newton described a piece of Limestone trawled from 
the floor of the North Sea, some 100 miles N.E. | N. of Buchan 
Ness, and was forwarded to the British Museum (Natural 
History) by Mr. R. D. Thom.son, of Aberdeen. It presents no 
appearance of glaciation, so that its occurrence fw situ is thought 
to be probable. There is no record of a sim.ilar limestone 
from either England or Scotland. It is of highly siliceous charac- 
ter and full of marine shells, of which the Pelecypoda are the 
more prominent ; there are, also, occasional fragm,ents of wood 
in contact with the limestone which, from a preliminary exami- 

*'The Earle Collection of Early Staffordshire Pottery,' by Major Cyril 
Earle, T.D. With an introduction by F. Faulkner, and a supplementary 
chapter by T. Sheppard, F.G.S. London : A. Brown & Sons, Ltd., ^to, 
243 pages, 25s. net. 

1916 Jan. 1. 



8 Notes and Comments. 

nation, appear to show coniferous characters. Some twenty- 
three species of mollusca have been determined, all of which 
exhibit a southern facies, including ten gastropods and thirteen 
pelecypods : the latter em.brace a new Dosiniiorm shell belong- 
ing to the genus Sinodia, the relationships of which are entirely 
confined to the Indian Ocean regions of Southern Asia. 
Eighteen of the species, or about 80 per cent., trace their origin 
from the Vindobonian stage of the Miocene ; ten, or about 
40 per cent., may be regarded as extinct ; whereas twelve, or 
50 per cent., still exist in recent seas. The majority of the 
species are fairly evenly distributed in both the Coralhne and 
the Red Crag formations of East Angha, although, on account 
of so large a number being extinct, and bearing in mind their 
southern facies, it is thought that the rock must be of older 
age than Red Crag. Additional support is given to this view, 
because such shells as Arcoperna sericea, Tellina benedeni, 
and Panopcea menardi are not known of later age in this 
country than the Coralhne Crag. The occurrence also of the 
extinct gastropods Streptochetus sexcostatus and Ficus {Pyriila) 
simplex, which are particularly characteristic of the Upper 
Miocene or Messinian deposits of Northern Germany, con- 
stitutes further evidence in favour of a greater antiquity for 
this limestone than that of the Red Crag : it is, therefore, 
considered to be of Coralline Crag age. 

POSSIBLY OF GLACIAL ORIGIN. 

Mr. G. W. Lamplugh congratulated the author on his very 
notable addition to our scanty knowledge of the rock-fioor of 
the North Sea. Geologically, this area was as essentially part 
of Europe as the land above water, and deserved every possible 
effort to determine its structure. Much of the Glacial Drift 
on the margin of Eastern England has been dragged in from 
seaward, and gave some indication of the character of the 
sea-floor. This material included transported patches of early 
Glacial marine deposits along with masses of Jurassic and 
Cretaceous strata ; but in no case had the speaker seen, in the 
Drifts between the Tees and the Huro.ber, any rock resembling 
that now exhibited. It seemed unlikely that any bed of rock 
like that shown existed beneath the southern part of the 
North Sea, and the present discovery certainly added a new 
and important factor to the geology of the whole basin. He 
asked whether the author had considered the possibilit}'- that 
the rock might originate from a detached mass carried by the 
ice-flow from the Baltic basin, as the site of the discovery lay 
in the right position for such transport. Personally we con- 
sider Mr. Lamplugh's attitude the correct one, and that it 
would be unwise to form anj^ conclusions as to the probable 
geological history of the North Sea floor based solely on an 
isolated fragment of rock dredged up by a trawler. 

Naturalist, 



THE WILD ROSES OF DURHAM. 



J. W. HESLOP HARRISON. B.Sc. 
Middlesbrough. 



The necessity of working out the Wild Roses of Durhan; and 
Northumberland, occasioned by the compilation of a ' card 
index ' of the flora and fauna of the two counties, has led to 
the present paper. It has been deemed advisable to divide 
Durham into certain areas, a table of which is given here as it 
is made use of in the list of roses. 

As far as possible, the divisions chosen are natural ones, 
based on geological or geographical features, or both, and it is. 
clear that any such divisions will depend greatly on the three 
drainage areas of the county. The divisions proposed are: — ■ 

I. Tyxeland South — Divided by the water-parting between 

the Team and Derwent into {a) Tjmeland south proper 
(b) the Vale of Derwent as far west as Edmondbyers. 

II. Upper Weardale — Comprising all the Wear Valle}^ west 

of Wolsingham with that part of the Vale of Derwent 
west of Edmondbyers. 

III. Mid Wear — Including all the rest of the Wear Drainage, 

except the jMagnesian Limestone Area. 

IV. Coastland — Coinciding with the Magnesian Limestone 

minus the wedge which strikes toward the Tees west 
of the Skerne. 

V. Upper TeesDx\le — The Tees Drainage west of Egglestone. 

VI. Mid Tees — The Millstone Grit and Magnesian Limestone 

formation between Coniscliffe and Egglestone. 

VII. Lower Tees — The Tees Drainage from Coniscliffe to 

the mouth of the river. 

The Rose Flora of Durham appears to be, on the whole, a 
very rich one, but one which almost baffles any geographical 
classification. 

It is certain, of course, that the Eucanine group is dominant 
everywhere except on the sea coast where Rosa spinosissima 
is the commonest form, and possibly at certain points in Upper 
Weardale and the Vale of Derwent where the Villosae group 
runs it very closely. Elsewhere, the Villosse are widespread, 
occurring very sparsely in Tyneland South proper and Lower 
Tees, but gradually becoming more abundant in Coastland, 
and as we proceed westward. How much this apparent 
scarcity of the Villosge in the industrial areas is real, and how 
much artificial, it is difficult to say, but, of the two species 
which stand for the group in Baker and Tate (1868) Rosa 
mollisima Fr. and R. tomentosa Sm., their remark is ' common.' 
Increasing population ma}- be the cause of the apparent change 

1916 Ian. 1. 



10 Harrison : Wild Roses of Durham. 

as only rarely are the pink flowered forms allowed to fruit, and, 
if they do fruit, their ornamental bristly fruits are soon taken. 
On the other hand, we have the same scarcity of this group 
in areas in other counties of similar geological formation where 
the population difficulty does not exist. 

The Rubiginosae are to be found dotted here and there in 
very small numbers and in such suspicious localities that one 
is irresistibly forced to the conclusion that, as far as our county 
is concerned, this group is merely a naturalised one. 

To the vSystylfe and Synstylae I think the same applies ; 
the former is not recorded by Baker and Tate while the latter 
has now vanished from many of the stations given by them, 
and elsewhere is always found in positions such as to lead one 
to imagine that the plants had been planted for the purposes 
of cover. 

The other groups usually listed are merely hybrids and, of 
course, can only occur where their parent forms overlap and, 
in our counties, these possible areas are almost all near the 
sea coast. 

SYNSTYL^. 

Rosa arvensis Hudson. 

Rare in plantations Ravensworth (la.) quite typical. 
SYSTYL.E. 

Rosa systyla Desv. 

A single plant referable to this species has likewise been 
discovered at Ravensworth, and as the form is 
exclusively southern it seems probable that it was 
planted with the Rosa arvensis noted above. 
EUCANIN/E. 

Rosa canina L. 

m.* lutetiana Lem. Com.mon in all the divisions, 
m. flexibilis Desigl. Scarcely worth a name differing 
from lutetiana practically in the styles only (la.) 
Birtley ; (VII.) Billingham. 
m. senticosa Ach. (VTI.) Cowpen Bewley. 
Rosa sarmentacea Woods = dumalis Bech. 

Practically typical forms occur at (la.) Birtley ; (II.) 
Wolsingham ; (HI-) Satley, Lanchester, Witton 
Gilbert ; (IV.) general ; (VII.) general, 
m. hiscrrata Mer. A strongly biserrate form, but with 
feebly glandular peduncles apparently intermediate 
between this and the type, but leaning most 
strongly toward biserrata, occurs at Lamesley (la.) 
m. Malmtindariensis Lej. Fine and typical. (II.) in a 
dene just above Wolsingham ; (VII.) near Greatham. 

* m. = microgene, or little species, a term applied to the members of 
an aggregate species. 

Naturalist, 



Harrison: Wild Roses of Durham. ii 

Rosa Andegavensis Bast. 

A fine bush quite typical in a hollow just south of 
Wolsingham Station (III.) 
Rosa scabrata Crep. 

m. vinacea. Odd plants in most divisions. 
Rosa dumetorum Thuill. 

Type thinly but widely spread. 

m. urbica Lem. Common everywhere. 

m. hemitricha Rip. Very near urbica, slightly more 

villous, in same areas but rare, 
m. platyphylla Rau. i\nother minor lorm (VII.) Billing- 
ham, 
m. frondosa Bkr. Raie (VII.) Cowpen Bewley. ^ 
m. incerta Des. (III.) Wolsingham. 
Rosa glauca Vill. = Reuteri God. 

This rose is widespread in Durham, but for some reason 
it seems to flower but rarely with us, and this 
renders it very difficult to name its forms. I have, 
however, seen it flowering in its typical form at 
(III.) Witton Gilbert ; (VII.) near Greatham. 
m. complicata Gren. (V.) Rare near Egglestone. 
Rosa caesia Sm. = coriifolia Fr. 

Nearly typical. (III.) Satley ; (VII.) Thorpe, Cowpen 

Bewley. 
m. Watsoni Baker. Very fine and plentiful m a hedge 

bordering Birtley F'ell (la.) 
m snhcollina Chnst. One plant on mineral fine near 

Vigo (III.) 
m. Bakeri Des. (ia.) Between Birtley and Lamesley. 
m. pruinosa Bkr. (II.) Wolsingham. 
Rosa obtusifolia Desv. 

m. Borreri Wood. { = tonientella Lem.) Rare, Bewicke 
Main (la.) 
RUBIGINOS^. 

Rosa micrantha Sm. 

Generally but sparingly on the Magnesian Lmiestone 

(iv.) 

Rosa eglanteria L. = rubigixosa L. 

m. comosa Rip. Sparingly in the Team Valley (la.) ; 

one plant Wolsingham (II.) 
m. echinocarpa Rip. A form very near to this occurs 
between Satlev and Wolsingham (III.) 
VILLOSiE. 

Rosa mollissima Willd. -= tomentosa Sm. 

Regarded as strictly equivalent to tomentosa Sm,., nearly 
' typical forms occur in varying abundance every- 
where, 
m. cinerascens Dum.. In spite of tlie doubt recently 

1916 Jan. 1. 



12 Harrison : Wild Roses of Durham. 

thrown upon the occurrence of this form in Durham 
by certain writers, uniserrate forms which can only 
be referred to this do occur with us at Billingham 
(VII.) 
m. pseudo-mollis J. G. Baker. Ah-nost typical plants but 
with larger leaves than this form demands occur 
on Birtley Fell (la.) 
m. cuspidatoides Crep. Sparing^ throughout our area, 
m. Sherardi Davies. Once, West Cornforth (IV.) ; two 
or three plants growing together Wreckerton (la.) 
m. scabriuscula Winch. (III.) Langley Park, Waldridge. 
m. eminens Harrison. This is a new form which I 
described in the October Vascnlum from Wolsing- 
ham (II.) ; it also occurs (III.) Satley and Lan- 
ch ester. 
Rosa omissa Des. 

m. resinosoides Cr. Thinly distributed, but not un- 
common in the western divisions. Rare at Wal- 
dridge (III.) ; Billingham (VII.) 
m. submollis Ley. Nearly the same, leaves eglandular, 
Wolsingham (II.) 
Rosa villosa L. 

Quite common in the west ; rare elsewhere. 
m. caendea Woods. Rare Beamish (la.) 
Rosa pomifera Herrm. 

A single and cjuite typical plant in a hedge between 
Greatham and Cowpen Bewle)^ (VII.) Near a 
garden and possibly an escape. 
PIMPINELLIFOLIiE. 

Rosa spinosissima L. 

m. pimpinellifolia L. (II.) Sparingly everywhere ; (III) 
Rare ; (IV.) Very common in the coast denes, 
thins out inland ; (V.) Falcon Clints. 
PIMPINELLIFOLIiE x VILLOSA. 
Rosa involuta Sm. 

Form. Sahini. Sparingly Horden, etc. (IV.) 
PIMPINELLIFOLIiE x EUCANIN^. 
Rosa hibernica Tempi. 

This hybrid occurs near Haverton Hill (VII.) but for 
the same reason as recorded under Rosa "lauca, I 
cannot be sure of the exact form. There are 
several plants growing close together in a hedge 
which to judge from their foliage and armature 
must have the parentage assigned to them above, 
but they never flower. If my judgment is correct 
then the parentage will be Rosa spinosissima X R. 
glauca. 
The list given above represents the work of one individual 



News from the Magazines. 13 

carried out as a kind of relaxation and change whilst studying 
other groups. I feel sure that steady work on the coast, 
particularly in the denes which cut through the Magnesian 
Limestone and in the country west of Wolsingham and Lan- 
chester, will reveal the occurrence of many rare and novel 
forms. This work I intend to carry out as opportunity offers 
and hope thus materially to extend this preliminary statement 
of the Durham Rose Flora. 



British Birds for November contains an excellent portrait of the late 
R. M. Barrington. 

Notes on ' New and Little-known British Aphides,' by F. V. Theobald, 
occur in The Entomologist for November. 

The Irish Naturalist for November is nearly entirely occupied by a 
memoir on the late Richard Manliffe Barrington. 

The Quarterly Notes of the Belfast Museum, No. 30, being publication 
No. 51 (13 pages), are devoted to ' An Introduction to the Study of Birds' 
Eggs ' (illustrated). 

The Scottish Naturalist for November contains ' Some Observations 
and Deductions regarding the Habits and Biology of the Common Wasp,' 
by Dr. James Ritchie. 

In The Entomologist for October ]\Ir. G. T. Bethune-Baker points out 
that Mr. Rowland Brown says that he (Mr. Bethune-Baker) retains Thecla 
cesculi as a local form of ilicis, whereas he informs us that he has not seen 
a specimen of cesculi. Mr. Rowland Brown says that he was evidently 
mistaken. 

In The Lancashire and Cheshire Naturalist, No. 90, Mr. J. A. Wheldon 
figures and describes ' A New British Lichen from the Isle of Man,' and 
gives it the name of Acrocordia monensis sp. nov. He also describes and 
figures what ' should probably be cited as Bidens cernuus Linn. var. dis- 
coideus Cand. f. minima Williams.' 

In Knowledge for October, Mr. A. R. Horwood writes on ' The Flower 
Table and its Educational Value.' It appears that the Leicester Museum 
now has wild flower exhibitions arranged scientifically. Brighton is said 
to be one of the first museums in England to exhibit wild flowers, pre- 
sumably Leicester is one of the last. 

In The Entomologist' s Monthly Magazine for October, a specimen of 
Rhantus exoletus Forst, var. nigriventris nos, taken at Askham Bog in 1895, 
is recorded as new to the British list ; Meligethes brevis Sturm, is recorded 
for Durham ; Carabus arvensis in the West Riding, Emmelesia minorata, 
from Grassington, new to Yorkshire, etc. 

In British Birds for Oc-tober is an article on ' " Wait and See " Photo- 
graphy ' by E. L. Turner. This variety is accomplished by sitting inside 
a tent all day. The paper is illustrated by many interesting photographs. 
Eric B. Dunlop writes ' On Incubation.' There is also an illustration of 
the Eastern Black-eared Wheatear seen on the Cleveland Hills, York- 
shire, on June 6th, 1915. 

In The Entomologist' s Monthly Magazine Mr. Norman H. Joy points 
out that a species which he has described as Gabrius primigenius Joy, 
was previously named G. velox by Sharp. ' G. primigenius Joy, is there- 
fore a synonym of G. velox.' There has also been a mistake with regard 
to an illustration. We may be mistaken, but it certainly seems to us, in 
view of these frequent ' corrections,' that some of our entomological 
friends are much too Sharp in describing new species, and the result can 
only be that one's Joy will be turned to Sorrow 1 

191U Jan. 1. 



14 

A CELERY FUNGUS. 



T. B. ROE. 



Mr. T. N. Roberts has handed to me a fungus which has 
attacked his celery plants in the Scarborough district. It is 
Septoria petroselini Desm. var. apii Br. et Cav., one of the 
Deuteromycetes. 

This fungus is new to Yorkshire. Although previously 
known on the Continent and in N. America, the first authentic 
record of its appearance in this country was in igo6 in South 
Devon, although there is reason to believe that it had appeared 
here still earlier. Since then it has caused much damage to 
celery both in this country and in Ireland. 

The leaves and leaf-stalks show yellowish or pale brown 
areas which later become covered with numerous minute 
black dots just distinguishable by the unaided eye, but better 
seen by the aid of a lens, and which are the perithecia or 
fruiting bodies of the fungus, these being strictly the pycnidia. 
They are somewhat globose in shape and rather flattened and 
about 200-250 fji in diameter. The^^ are amphigenous and 
sunk in the mesophyll, at first covered by the epidermis, 
just breaking through at maturity, the spores dehiscing by a 
minute apical pore, in a worm-like tendril-shaped mass. The 
spores are filiform, usually curved, three or more septate and 
guttulate, about 50-65 by 1.5-2/x, and produced in enormous 
numbers. This accounts for the rapid spread of the disease 
after it first manifests itself. The mycelium ramifies among 
the cells of the mesophyll, destroying the chlorophyll, thus 
interfering with the activities and nourishment of the plant, 
and the leaves and leaf-stalks finally wilt and die. 

Mr. Roberts informs me that last year he lost three-quarters 
of a crop of 30,000 heads of celery through this disease alone. 

This year on a different part of his land it has again made 
its appearance but not with the severity of last year's attack ; 
still, the damage is considerable. The disease is usually 
observed about the end of July or beginning of August when, 
unfortunately, it is well established, and the damage is prac- 
tically past repair. 

As it has been proved that the ' seed ' has been known to 
contain fruits of the fungus, washings from which have been 
made by experiment to infect healthy plants, it would be 
advisable for growers to watch their young plants, and at the 
first sign of the disease to spray them with dilute Bordeaux 
mixture or potassium sulphide solution. As a precautionary 
measure microscopical examination of samples of ' seed ' might 
be made, and if the fungus be detected thereon, washings in a 
fungicide might be tried, although it is possible that this would 

Naturalist 



Northern News. 15 

be little more than a palliative. Growers should promptly burn 
all diseased foliage. The practice of throwing diseased plants 
on to a rubbish heap is a great mistake as there is no doubt 
that the fungus can live through the winter and attack fresh 
plants the following year. 

Mr. Roberts informs me that if he had many visitations 
like that of last year, celery growing would become impractic- 
able. The disease must not be confounded with Cercospora 
apii Fr., a Hyphomycete, which attacks celery plants usually 
early in the season. 

Still another celery disease, Phyllostida apii Halsted, has 
appeared in this country during recent years. This is some- 
what similar in outward appearance to the Septoria, but the 
spores in the former are broadly elliptical, while in the latter 
they are needle-shaped. 



o 



We much regret to record the death of Prof. R. Meldola, at the age of 66. 

Mr. W. Denison Roebuck has been elected an honorary member of 
the Conchological Society. 

Dr. R. Assheton, F.R.S., the well-known zoologist, has died. He was 
born at Downham Hall in Lancashire in 1863. 

The Collections in the British and Medieval Department at the British 
Museum have been re-arranged and better displayed. 

The roll of British Officers who have fallen in Gallipoli includes the 
name of Colonel Neville Manders, A. M.S., F.Z.S., F.E.S. 

Lady Church has recently presented to the British Museum the fine 
collection of precious stones formed by the late Sir Arthur Herbert Church. 

An excellent portrait and biography of Prof. William \\Tiitehead Watts 
appears in the Geological Magazine for November. It is one of the 
' Eminent Living Geologists ' series. 

We notice from the syllabus of one of our leading Yorkshire natural 
history societies that 'ladies are now admitted as "full" members.' 
Apparently the gentlemen have previously had the monopoly of being 
' full.' This society's meetings ought to be lively, anyway. 

We see that a meeting has been held to form a ' Society for the Study 
of Geological Physics,' or ' A Society to Study Mineral Life,' we are not 
quite sure which. In any case, we do not anticipate that it will seriously 
clash with the work of the Mineralogical Society. 

Mr. E. K. Robinson is organising a fund to send copies of his pamphlet, 
' The Meaning of Life ' to the soldiers. It contains four leaves, without 
covers, and is sold at i|d. ! The ' leading article ' in the leaflet before 
us is entitled, ' Is there a Devil ? ' It may be of use to the soldiers. 

We much regret to record the death of Mr. W. H. Wheeler, at the age 
of 83. He was an occasional contributor to these columns. He paid 
much attention to the problems connected with coast erosion and the 
draining of fen lands. So long ago as 1868 he published a ' History of 
the Fens of South Lincolnshire.' He also published books on ' Tidal 
Rivers ' (1893) ; ' The Sea Coast ' (1902) ; ' Practical Manual of Tides 
and Waves' (1906), and 'The North Sea' (1908). Mr. Wheeler was 
elected a memljer of the Institution of Civil Engineers in 1867, ^^nd he was 
a frequent visitor to the meetings of the British Association. 

1916 Jaij. 1. 



i6 

YORKSHIRE ZOOLOGISTS AT LEEDS. 



A. HAIGH-LUMBY. 



Mr. E. W. Wade presided at the meetings of the Vertebrate 
Section held in the Leeds Institute on November 20th, 1915. 

The Annual Reports for the West Riding, North and East 
Ridings, and York District, were presented respectiveh'' by 
Messrs. Booth, Wade and Smith, and that of the Wild Birds 
Committee was read by Mr. Booth, on behalf of Mr. J. Wilkin- 
son, the Secretary. 

Mr. W. H. Parkin was unanimously elected to the Presi- 
dency of the section. 

Mr. H. B. Booth exhibited a Cuckoo's egg, sent by Mr. 
Rosse Butterlield, taken from nest of Twite in the Bradford 
District, an unusual host in that locality. 

An interesting collection of field notes was read by Mr. W. H. 
Parkin, comprising records of unusual varieties, peculiar nesting 
incidents, etc., which aroused a very interesting discussion. 

A paper was given by Mr. T. H. Fowler, entitled ' Obser- 
vations on the Sparrow Hawk and Long-Eared Owl.' Of 
late, many valuable ' life histories ' of different species of birds 
have been written, and the lecturer has been a diligent dis- 
ciple of this new school of naturalists, who rightly maintain 
that very little of the psychology and economy of any individual 
or family of birds can be learnt from stufled specim,ens — 
however elaborately mounted. A peculiarity of the Sparrow 
Hawk shared by other members of the ' Raptore ' family, was 
of great assistance when the quest of this particular species 
was decided upon. ' Once a Merlin haunt, always a Merlin 
haunt,' is an accepted truism, and the sam,e applies to the 
subject of this paper. Although the pair of birds was destroyed 
two years in succession, yet a third came and occupied the 
same beat the next year, and with the forbearance of the 
keeper, observations were made and photographs taken cover- 
ing the whole period from the construction of the nest to the 
leave-taking of the young. 

The Long-Eared Owl, generally recognised as a confirmed. 
' tree ' breeder, has recently been noted to be somewhat 
wayward in this particular, and Mr. Fowler gave two instances 
coming under his observation : one nest containing five young 
about fourteen days old, and the other four young and one 
addled egg, on May 15th. In both cases the nest was on the 
ground. 

A fine series of photographs illustrating the home life of 
both Sparrow Hawk and the Owl were shewn on the screen, 
supplemented by a series of the Crested Tit, taken in the 
Spey Valley last year, shewing the bird and nesting sites of 
this extremely local species. 



News from the Magazines. ly 

Slides of the Kestrel, Golden Plover, etc., were described 
by Mr. Jasper Atkinson, and Mr. H. B. Booth related his 
experiences of hunting the Golden Eagle, Ptarmigan and 
Crested Tit in Scotland, also illustrated with slides. 

A vote of thanks was unanimously accorded to the several 
lecturers and to Mr. Graham for the loan of the room. 



An Osprey was noted in Cheshire in September. (British Birds, 
December). 

In Knowledge for November, Dr. P. O. Keegan writes on ' The Inner 
Life of Some Common I^lants.' 

Aphelocheirus aestivalis is recorded for Nottinghamshire. {Ento- 
mologist's MoKtkly ]\[agaziiie, December). 

The Zoologist for October contains records of an Albino Water- Vole, 
an Albino Pheasant, Dunlin, and Little Owls, all in Nottinghamshire. 

In a note on ' Some Coniopterygida; in the North,' in The Entomologist 
for December, Mr. J. W. H. Harrison describes Conwentzia pineticola, 
an addition to the British list. 

In The Entomologist' s Record for October, Mr. R. S. Bagnall records 
a specimen of Pterodela livida Enderlein, a psocid new to the British fauna, 
from Ovingham-on-Tyne, Northumberland. 

Mr. A. W. R. Roberts reports on the Aphid ;r for the Lancashire and 
Cheshire Fauna Committee, though nearly all his records are for West- 
morland. (Lancashire and Cheshire Naturalist for November). 

In The Zoologist for November, Mr. Alfred Bell gives a valuable account 
of the Pleistocene and later Bird Fauna of Great Britain and Ireland. 
He refers to the remains found in caves, peat beds, etc., including York- 
shire. 

With the aid of several figures, Mr. R. S. Bagnall gives 'A Brief Review 
of the British Coniopterygidae (Xeuroptera) with tables of the European 
Genera and Species,' in The Entomologist's Record for ^ovemher. Several 
northern county species are enumerated. 

From a note in The Lancashire and Cheshire Naturalist for October 
we gather that a correspondent has recently seen a large bird with power- 
ful flight and he thinks it might be a Great Bustard. He is also 'assured 
that the Great Bustard is of very rare occurrence in Lancashire.' His 
informant is correct. His name has three o's in it, and they are from three 
ditferent founts. The same journal contains a record of Blepharidea 
vulgaris in the Rochdale district, a dipteron parasitic of Abraxas grossu- 
lariata. 

In The Entomologist's Monthly Magazine for November, Mr. G. C. 
Champion points out that a species to which he had given the name 
Xylophilus immaculatus should be altered to X. immaculipennis, ' Lea 
having already used the same name (under Syzeton, a synonym of Xylo- 
philus) for an Australian insect." On the previous page the same writer 
tells us that ' Ochthebius poweri Rye, treated as a variety of 0. dentifer 
Rey, in our latest British catalogue, seems to me to be inseparable from 
O. metallescens.' 

The Entomologist's Monthly Magazine for November contains records 
of Patrobus septentrionis, Lesteva luctuosa and Carabus arvensis in York- 
shire ; Bothynutus pilosus near Carlisle, and Syrphus guttatus in Cheshire. 
In the December number Mr. G. T. Porritt points out that the specimens 
of Stenobothrus hicolor, which occur among the rubbish near the houses 
at St. Anne's-on-Sea, are much darker than the ordinary form, in some 
cases being nearly black. ]\Ir. F. X. Pierce and the Rev. J. W. Metcalfe 
describe some additions to the British Tortricina, some of which are from 
Teesdale, Hartlepool, Darlington, Cheshire, etc. 

1916 Jan. 1. 

B 



i8 

YORKSHIRE MYCOLOGISTS AT SCARBOROUGH. 



A. E. PECK. 



The Autumn Fungus Foray was held at Scarborough (with 
headquarters at Forge Valley), from September 25th to Septem- 
ber 29th. Present : Harold Wager, D.Sc, F.R.S. (Chairman), 




Photo by] 



Phallus impudicus with veil. 



[A. E. Peck. 



W. N. Cheesman, J. P., Alfred Clarke, J. W. H. Johnson, M.Sc, 
T. B. Roe, M. Malone, R. Fowler Jones, J. Ackroyd, Thos. 
Hey, and A. E. Peck (Hon. Secretary). Several members of 
the Scarborough Field Naturalists' Society called to inspect 
the specimens on view. 

Permission to visit their respective estates had been granted 
by Lord Londesborough and Major the Hon. J. Dawnay. 

Naturalist, 



Peck: Mycologists at Scarborough. 19 

First attention was devoted to the Ing's plantation on the 
Carrs, where specimens proved numerous, the best finds being 
Helvetia macropus, Lactarius scobiculattis and Lepiota jelina. 

Yedmandale, Hke other woods subsequently visited, was 
found to be too dry to produce a first-class mycological dis- 
play. Craterellus cornucopioides was here observed. 

Raincliffe Woods produced Hydnum aitrantiacum and 
Helvella lacunosa, the latter with a white stem somewhat 
resembling H. crispa. 

At Beedale Lepiota lenticularis was gathered, and also what 
proved to be the most interesting feature of the meeting in 
the form of a Phalloid or Stinkhorn fungus, eleven inches in 
height, bearing a reticulated veil suspended from the underside 
of the pileus to a depth of three inches and surrounding the 
stem. This veil was recognised as being characteristic of 
tropical phalloids of the genus Dictyophora. The specimen 
(as well as others gathered a month later) was critically 
examined by Mr. Clarke whose findings, together with photo- 
graphs by the writer, were submitted to Mr. Massee who writes 
as follows : — 

' The photos sent certainly represent Phallus or Ithyphallus 
impudicus. 

' The occurrence of a more or less perfectly formed veil 
has been many times observed in this country and elsewhere. 
Its occurrence in this condition is erratic and the conditions 
that favour the reversion are unknown. There is always a 
ridge or margin corresponding to the starting point of the veil, 
just under the lower loose edge of the cap. Our Phallus 
'.mpudicus may be looked upon as a degenerate type of tropical 
species of Dictyophora that has wandered north and for some 
reason has found no use for the veil under northern conditions ; 
the veil however, sometimes appears, but always abnormal as 
compared with the more or less regularly netted typical form. 
In North America our Phallus impudictis occurs in the typical 
form, but more frequently a veil is present, as in our very 
exceptional cases, and has there been called Phallus duplicatus. 

' It would appear that Phallus impudicus is a somewhat 
unstable species that has become Phalhis as separated from 
Dictyophora by the absence of a veil, although the veil is some- 
times present as a reversion, in a more or less rudimentary form. 

' The above is my interpretation of the matter, as also that 
of other continental and American mycologists, but of course, 
it is not invulnerable. 

' There is a decided difference between Phallus and Dictyo- 
phora apart from the veil, that can only be seen in section.' 

An interesting evening programme had been arranged. 
Mr. Wager spoke upon ' The Classification of the Fungi.' 
An outline of the classifications of the main sub-divisions of 

191G Jan. 1. 



20 



Peck : Mycologists at Scarborough. 



the Fungi was given, and the characteristics of the principle 
groups briefly discussed. It was pointed out that the Agari- 
cineae offer pecuhar difficulties in the discrimination of genera 
and species, owing to the fact that the characters comrnonly 
used are mainly the size, colour and texture of the stem and 
pileus, the attachment, size and conformation of the gills, and 
the colour, shape, surface and size of the spores. It was 
suggested that the microscopic examination of the structure 
and arrangement of the various tissues might afford valuable 
aid in the determination of species and genera, especially in 
forms which have a very close resemblance to one another. 

An interesting discussion followed in which Messrs. Clarke, 
Cheesman, Roe, Johnson and Malone took part. 

Ml. W. N. Cheesman exhibited a collection of Fungi and 
Mycetozoa made by him last year in Australia and New 
Zealand. He pointed out the salient features of interest in 
each species and gave a description of the bush or jungle found 
at the Antipodes and other collecting grounds visited. The 
Fungi consisted mainly of polypores and resupinate Thele- 
phoracese, of which seven species new to science were recorded. 
These are described in the current number of the Kew Bulletin, 
by Miss E. M. Wakefield, and the Mycetozoa in the July number 
of The Journal of Botany. 

Mr. Peck contributed a Lantern Exhibition illustrative of 
the Fungus Flora of the district, and of interesting specimens 
met with at recent annual Forays. 

Mr. Johnson gave an account of his investigations upon, the 
Salmon disease amongst coarse fish. 

The attention of the Mycological Committee was directed 
to certain beech trees in Forge Valley believed to be suffering 
from a fungus disease, but investigation revealed the pest to 
be due to insects. Specimens were collected and sent to the 
Board of Agriculture and Fisheries who identified the Beech 
Felted Coccus, Cryptococcus fagi, the subject of the Board's 
leaflet. No. 140. The owner expressed his intention to carry 
out the Board's recommendations. 

Altogether 310 species and varieties were met with, divided 
into the various groups as follows : — 



Agaricinese 


145 


Sclerodermeae 


I 


Polyporeae 


26 


Uredinaceas 


18 


Hydneae 


II 


Pyrenomycetese . 


12 


Thelephoreas 


13 


Hysteriaceae 


3 


Clavarieae 


6 


Discomyceteae 


25 


Tremellinese 


4 


Phycomycetes . 


4 


Dacryomycete^e 


I 


D enter omycetes . 


3 


Phalloideae 


2 


Hyphomycetes . 


3 


Nidulariaceffi 


I 


Mycetozoa 


29 


Lycoperdaccce . . 


2 


Anomalous 


I 




Naturalist.. 



Peck : Mycologists at Scarborough. 21 

Miss E. M. Wakefield kindly identified several species 
included in the Thelephoreae. 

Mr. Cheesman as usual dealt with the Mycetozoa, and Mr. 
Roe was responsible for the Ascomycetes. Uredinacese, etc. 

The following species marked f are new to the County, 
those marked ** are new to the N.E. Vice-County, and those 
marked * are new to the Scarborough district. 
"^Amanita muscaria L. var. puella Pers. 
\A. strobilijorniis Vitt. 
**Lepiota lenticular is (Lasch.) Fr. = Amanita lenticiilaris 

W.G.S. 
*Mycena nivea Quel. 
**Pleurotus pantoleucus Fr. 
^Lactarius scohiculatus (Scop.) Fr. 
*L. vieftis Fr. 
**L. minimus W.G.S. 
**Russula rosacea Fr. 
*R. purpurea Gillet. 
*R. coerulea Pers. 
*jR. atropurpurea Krombh. 
**Cantharelliis Friesii Quel. 

* Entoloma speculum Fr. 
** Leptonia aethiops Fr 

* Nolanea pisciodora (Ces ) Fr. 
**Inocybe plumosa (Bol.) Fr. 

^Cortinarius (Myx.) delibutus Fr. . 
*Coprinus fuscescens (Schaeff.) Fr. 
■\Hydnum aurantiacum (Batsch.) Fr. 
**//. stipatum Fr. 
^Tremellodon gelatinosum (Scop.) Fr. 
*Clavaria fusijormis (Sow.) 
]Lycoperdon niolle Pers. 

\Septoria petroselini Desm. var apii Br. et Cav. (On 
cultivated celer3^ S earner Road, Scarborough, 
per T. N. Roberts). 
"^Physantm didermoides Rost. 
* Didyminm nigripes Fr. var. xanthopus. 
*Cribraria macrocarpa Schrad. 
^ Enteridium olivaceum Ehrenb. 
Notwithstanding the serious disadvantage arising from the 
absence of such expert workers as Messrs. Geo. Massee, Chas. 
Crossland, and Thos. Gibbs, the results of the Annual Foray 
of 1915 are highly satisfactory. 

At the ' Business ' Meeting held, votes of thanks were 
accorded to Lord Londesborough and Major the Hon. J. 
Dawnay for permission to visit their estates, and it was decided 
to meet next year at Buckden from September 23rd to Septem- 
ber 28th. 

1916 Jan. 1. 



22 

YORKSHIRE NATURALISTS AT KEIGHLEY. 

The welcome rainfall damped not the enthusiasm of the 
members of the Union who assembled from every quarter of 
the county in good numbers at Keighley on Saturday, Decem- 
ber 6th, 1915, to attend the fifty-fourth annual meeting of 
the Union. 

Under the guidance of Mr. Jonas Bradley and Mr. John 
Holmes, a party of early arrivals spent an interesting time in 
the Bronte country. Training to Oxenhope they visited the 
West-end quarries, noting en route one of the oldest Grammar 
Schools in the neighbourhood, founded in 1638. Proceeding 
to Sladen Valley they were there conducted over the new 
reservoir in course of construction for the Keighley Corporation, 
by the Waterworks Engineer, Mr. M. Ratcliffe Barnett, who 
explained in detail the works in course of construction, and 
also exhibited erratic boulders, etc., found during the exca- 
vations. The return was made from Haworth. 

At the meeting of the General Committee held in the 
Lecture Hall at the Museum, twenty-five of the affiliated 
societies were represented. The President occupied the chair. 
The annual report, a full text of which appears in this issue of 
The Naturalist, was presented by the Secretaries, and unani- 
mously adopted. The excursions for igi6 were arranged, 
and the invitation of the Selby Scientific Society that the annual 
meeting of the Union for 1916 should be held at Selby, was 
accepted. The financial position was fully explained by the 
Hon. Treasurer (Mr. Edwin Hawkesworth), and hearty appre- 
ciation was voiced that there was a substantial surplus of 
income over expenditure on the year's working. The announce- 
ment that Mr. W. N. Cheesman, J.P., F.L.S., of Selby, had 
accepted the office of President for the ensuing year, was 
cordially received. Mr. Cheesman suitably acknowledged his 
appointment. No change was made in the other officials of 
the Union. The Divisional Secretaries and Local Treasurers 
were re-elected, except that Mr. J. W. Sutcliffe takes the place 
of Mr. Charles Crossland as local treasurer for Halifax. Thanks 
were accorded to all officials for their services. The meeting 
heard witji deep regret of the death of Mr. H. Eeles Dresser, 
a past President of the Union, and a vote of condolence to his 
widow was passed. 

After the preliminaries at the evening meeting, when four 
new members were elected, the retiring President, Mr. Riley 
Fortune, F.Z.S., delivered his address from the chair. There 
was a large attendance, every seat in the room being occupied, 
and many visitors had to stand. Upon the platform, were 
His Worship the Mayor of Keighley, Councillor W. A. Brigg, 
M.A., J. P., Alderman J. Smith, J. P. (Chairman of the Parks 

Naturalist, 



Yorkshire Naturalists at Keighley. 23 

and Museum Committee), Mr. Sam Clough, J. P., Mr. W. N. 
Cheesman, J. P.. F.L.S. (President-Elect), Mr. Charles Crossland 
and Mr. W. Denison Roebuck, M.Sc, F.L.S. (Past Presidents of 
the Union), the Secretaries, and Treasurer. Choosing for the 
title of his address, ' Some Notes on the Vertebrate Fauna 
of Yorkshire : its Distribution and Preservation,' Mr. Fortune 
entertained his audience with an account of the mammals 
and birds which were once Yorkshire species, present day species 
which were rapidly disappearing, and species which appear 
to be increasing ; and upon the recent additions to the county's 
fauna. He extolled the useful work performed by the Wild 
Birds and Eggs Protection Committee of the Union, and made 
suggestions as to the manner in which the existing Acts of 
Parliament relative to the preservation of bird life might be 
usefully strengthened. The whole lecture showed how deep 
a student Mr. Fortune was of the fauna of the county, whilst 
the lantern slides, used by way of illustration, v/ere excellent. 
A cordial vote of thanks to Mr. Fortune for his address, and 
for the great interest he has ever taken in the work of the 
Union was imanimously recorded. It is hoped to print Mr. 
Fortune's valuable address in these pages. 

After the address a conversazione was held in the Museum 
under the auspices of the Keighley, Crossbills and Earby 
Naturalists' Societies, and the guests were received by the 
Mayor, and Mayoress (Mrs. W. Cecil Sharpe). 

There was a good array of exhibits other than the museum 
collections. These latter were displayed in a very educative 
manner. In addition to the general collections of natural 
history, the museum contains quite a good collection of obsolete 
implements of the local industries and objects of antiquarian 
interest. The Curator (Mr. Rosse Butteriield) has also built 
up a very good school circulation collection of the more common 
local natural history objects. Also interesting was the col- 
lection of local lichens and mosses m,ade in 1808 by the late 
Abraham Shackleton of Braithwaite, near Keighley, and of 
his botanical notebooks descriptive of his finds. Additional 
exhibits were made by the following gentlemen : — Mr. A. 
Gilligan, B.Sc, F.G.S., specimens of Millstone Grit from the 
Netherwood Plantation Quarry, Silsden, containing pebbles, 
and also microscopic slides displaying their structure ; Mr. R. 
Jebson, a series of well mounted local plants ; Mr. W. A. 
Hiscoe, drawings of local fungi ; Mr. Jonas Bradley, nature 
study lantern slides, chiefly of wild birds in their natural 
haunts ; Mr. G. F. Townend, photographs and lantern slides 
of Coal Measure fossils ; Mr. C. A. Cheetham, coloured lantern 
slides of wild flowers in their natural haunts, and scenery ; 
Mr. T. Fieldhouse, case of local lepidoptera ; by the Crossbills 
Naturalists' Society, Relief Map of the Aire Valley from 

1916 Jan. 3. 



24 Northern News. 

Keighley to Skipton, made by their members ; also a series 
of the rarer local plants occurring in their district, and the 
nest of the hive bee in the bole of a holly tree ; Mr. Blackburn 
Holding, a good collection of photographs of Yorkshire 
Boulders ; and by Mr. Thomas Hebden, a series of finely 
executed coloured drawings of local fungi, and a splendid 
display of lichens. Lecturettes were delivered by Mr. C. A. 
Cheetham and Mr. Jonas Bradley. Refreshments were kindly 
provided by the Mayor and Mayoress. Hearty thanks were 
accorded to them for their hospitality, and also to the Parks 
and Museum Committee of the Keighley Corporation for use 
of the rooms, to the three inviting Societies, Mr. R. Butterfield 
for making the local arrangements, and to the guides of the 
excursion. 

The response of the Mayor and Mr. Bradley brought to a 
close a meeting which was in every way a most pronounced 
success. Thanks are also due to the Boy Scouts who acted 
as guides through the Park at night. — W. E. L. W. 



We regret to notice the death on November loth, of Thomas Prichard 
Newman, proprietor of J'he Zoologist, whose father, Edwaid Newman, 
founded that journal. 

The Board of Agriculture and Fisheries has recently issued the follow- 
ing leaflets: 'War Food Societies,' 'Calf Rearing,' 'Diseases of Peas,' 
'The Breeding of Useful Pigeons,' 'Rabbit Breeding for Small-Holders,' 
Housing and General Management,' and ' Silver Leaf in Fruit Trees.' 

Professor P. F. Kendall, the Professor of Geology in the Leeds Uni- 
versity, has been elected as an honorary fellow of the Edinburgh Geological 
Society. Among the geological organisations of the kingdom the Edin- 
burgh Society ranks s.econd only to that of London. The honour con- 
ferred on Professor I\endall is shared by Dr. Teall, the director of the 
Geological Survey ; Dr. Henry Woodward, editor of The Geological Maga- 
zine : and Dr. A. Smith Woodward, keeper of the Geological Department 
of the British Museum. 

The Report for 1914 of The Botanical Exchange Club (Vol. IV., part 
2, pp. 109-177, 3s. 6d.), has been issued, and contains the usual particulars 
of the Club's work. We notice some of the roses originally found by Mr. 
S. Margerison have been distributed. These were described by Major 
Woolley-Dod under the name of ' Rosa spinosissima (agg.) x dumetoritm 
(agg.) or [corii folia ? agg.) /. Margerisonii f. nov.' We are inclined to agree 
with C. E. Britton, who says ' How much more satisfactory would it have 
been had Woolley-Dod simply described this as X Rosa Margerisoni.' 

The Vasculitm for October (32 pages, is.), contains a number of papers 
of general interest dealing with collecting, etc. Among those of definite 
local value we notice notes on ' Some Birds in Teesdale, ' by George Bolam ; 
' Local Pseudoscorpions, ' by J. E. Hull, and a number of notes and records 
in various sections of natural history. From Mr. Bolam 's paper it is 
evident there is an abundance of bird life at Rokeby. The Nuthatch, 
Long-tailed Tit, etc., are fairly common. There is an abundance of 
Greater and Marsh Tits, and a suggested recent immigration of the British 
Willow Tits. We would like to suggest to our friends the editors of The 
Vasculum that the value of their publication would be materially increased 
if the contents were conlined to the area covered by the journal. 

Naturalist 



25 



3n riDenioiiam. 



HENRY EELES DRESSER. 

We much regret to record the death of Henry Eeles Dresser. 
He came of a good old Yorkshire family. He was born on 
May 9th, 1838, at Thirsk, and lived afterwards at Topcliffe. 
In late years, on his visits to Harrogate, he always spent a day 
at Topcliffe. 




He was educated at Bromley, near London, afterwards 
in Germany, and also spent some time at Gefle and Upsala in 
order to learn the Swedish language, German and Swedish 
being necessary for his business in the timber trade ; later he 
embarked in the iron trade. He visited most European 
countries and America, and had many interesting anecdotes 
to relate concerning his adventures in all of them. He told 
me several interesting ones connected with peccaries. He 

1916 Jan. 1. 



26 In Memoriam : Henry Eeles Dresser. 

was always most entertaining. Together with Mrs. Dresser 
he several times called on me while staying in Harrogate, and 
it was a treat to listen to him. He had the rare quality of 
never saying a bad word about anyone. He was strongly 
opposed to the present craze for nomenclature and species 
mongering. 

The first part of his great work ' The Birds of Europe,' 
was issued in 1871, in collaboration with R. B. Sharp, who, 
however, withdrew from participation when appointed Zoo- 
logical Assistant to the Natural History Museum. Dresser 
then carried the work on to its completion in 1881. Though it 
was a very costly undertaking, strange to say it proved to be 
a financial success. 

Other notable works of his are ' A Manual of Palaearctic 
Birds,' published in two parts, 1902-3 ; ' The Eggs of the Birds 
of Europe,' a complement to his ' Birds of Europe.' 

The illustrations in ' The Birds of Europe,' the two Mono- 
graphs, and ' The Eggs of the Birds of Europe,' are exception- 
ally fine and true to nature. The former sells at the present 
time at ;^5o to :^6o. 

He also published two important Monographs ; one on 
the Bee-eaters (1884-86), and one on the Rollers (1893). He 
contributed many important articles to The Zoologist, Ibis, 
etc., besides translating several valuable Swedish articles. 

When President of the Yorkshire Naturalists' Union he 
joined us on the Middleton-in-Teesdale excursion. For a 
number of years he was a member of the Yorkshire Wild Birds 
and Eggs Protection Committee. 

He had a magnificent collection of eggs and birds' skins, 
and I was able to present him with a few varieties of eggs I had 
in my collection which he had never obtained in his long 
experience as a collector. His collections are now in the 
Manchester Museum. ^ — R.F. 



Punch quotes {not from The Yovkshire Observer) : ' Wanted, Shepherd, 
must be used to feeding on roots.' 

An iUustrated account of the Nelson stone quarries, Lancashire 
appears in The Quarry for December. 

We read in a contemporary that the Annual Soiree of the Coventry 
Natural History Society was recently held. There were about 60 guests 
present, including the Mayor, Councillor M. K. Pridmore, which seems 
all right. But the paragraph is headed, ' The Solitary or Mud Wasp ! 

The Transactions of the Yorkshire Numismatic Society, Vol. I., part 5, 
edited by T. Sheppard, M.Sc, has recently been issued, and the part com- 
pletes the first volume. (Hull : A. Brown & Sons, is.). Since the Society 
was founded in 1909, its pviblication has contained descriptions of nineteen 
new Yorkshire medals and tokens, nineteen unpublished seventeenth 
century Yorkshire tokens and eight unpublished Lincolnshire pieces. 
The complete volume contains 238 pages, 19 plates, and no fewer than 
415 illustrations in the text. 

Naturalist, 



27 

FIELD NOTES. 

FUNQI 

Paccinia iridis at Scarborough. — I found Pitccinia 
iridis Wallr. recently, on cultivated Iris in some gardens in 
Scarborough. On examination an abundance of teleuto- 
spores were seen along with uredospores. This disposes of 
the late Dr. Plowright's theory ' that the form which occurs 
on our cultivated Irises is different from that on our native 
species, because he could not find any teleutospores in the 
former ' (see Grove ' Brit. Rust Fungi,' p. 231). In the present 
case I found them freely, and they agreed in every respect 
with those of P. iridis. This fungus is new to Yorkshire — 
T. B. Roe, Scarborough. 

Apple Tree Mildew near Scarborough. — Mr. W. Pearson, 
of Scarborough, has handed to me some apples from Ebberston 
in this district, which have been attacked by the Apple Tree 
Mildew Podosphaera lencotricha Balm., a fungus which is new 
to Yorkshire. The quality of the fruit was much depreciated 
by the disease, the apples being small in size and studded with 
the perithecia of the fungus. Massee in ' Mildews, Rusts 
and Sn"i,uts,' page 40 says : ' Parasitic on species of Pyrus. 
This is a very destructive parasite to the apple in many parts 
of the world.' The specimens found were in the ascigerous or 
perfect stage which is apparently rare in this country, the 
oidium or conidial condition being that usually met with, in 
which the leaves are densely covered with the conidia which 
appear as whitish dust. According to Massee [loc. cit.), ' it is 
believed that the mycelium of the fungus hibernates between 
the bud scales and gives rise to the white oidium condition 
of the fungus.' — T. B. Roe, Scarborough. 



The Norwich Museum has issued ' Descriptive Notes on Some British 
Plants used in Witchcraft and Medicine,' by James Hooper, 23 pages. 

Birkenhead has issued its First Annual Report of the Public Libraries, 
Museum and Art Gallery. The Art Gallery and Museum were opened 
in 1912, and views are given in the report. 

One of the last official functions of the Lord Mayor and Lady Mayoress 
of Leeds (Mr. and Mrs. J. E. Bedford, F.G.S.), before retiring from 
office, was to hold a Conversazione in the hall of the Literary and Philo- 
sophical Society. The Society's museum at Leeds contains many inter- 
esting objects from Mr. Bedford's collection. 

A General Guide to the Collections in the Manchester Museum : Man- 
chester Museum Handbook, No. 97, has been issued (Longmans, Green 
& Co., 3d., 66 pages). The recent important addition of the Egyptian 
rooms to the museum accounts for a good proportion of the handbook, 
though the geological, zoological and botanical sections are well repre- 
sented. The guide book is necessarily somewhat condensed. It is well 
illustrated, and there is an excellent plan of the museum. 

1916 Jan. ]. 



28 



REVIEWS AND BOOK NOTICES. 



The World of Life. By Alfred Russel Wallace. London : Chapman 
& Hall, 408 pages, 6s. net. Most naturalists will remember the reception 
given to Wallace's ' World of Life ' when it appeared in 1910. It was 
' A manifestation of creative power, directive mind and ultimate purpose.' 
In that volume Wallace summarised his half-century of thought and work 
on the Darwinian theory of evolution. He also brought many views 
forward which he had obtained during the last few years of his long and 
busy life ; views which were not accepted with the unanimity which 
greeted his earlier work. In any case a book by Wallace has a value 
and a charm, and the purpose of this note is to draw our readers' attention 
to the fact that an edition, well printed and illustrated, and occupying 
over 400 pages, can now be obtained for the small sum of six shillings. 

In The Birth-Time of the World, Professor J. Joly follows the example 
set by other geologists, and brings together a dozen essays on varjdng 
^subjects (T. Insher Unwin, xvi. -f 307 pages, los. 6d. net), the first of 
which gives the title to the volume. A few years ago he paid a visit to 
the Alps, which much impressed him, and Alpine views illustrate most of 
his lectures, though we hardly see how views of the Aletsch Glacier and 
of Perched blocks assist his essay on Skating ! The Birth-Time of the 
World refers to Professor Joly's work on the age of the earth as based vipon 
the amount of salt in the ocean ; ' Denudation ' naturally follows ; ' Moun- 
tain Genesis ' and ' Alpine Structure ' have reference to the geological 
intervention of radioactivity. ' The Abundance of Life ' and ' The Bright 
Colours of Alpine Flowers ' deal with the same area ; in ' Other Minds 
than Ours,' the author explains the canals in Mars, not as artificial, but 
as formed by the near approach of satellites to the planet in former times. 
In ' Skating' Professor Joly shows that we do not skate on ice, but on water. 
Other essays are on ' The Latent Image ' ; ' Pleochroic Haloes,' which is 
an account of a beautiful phenomenon of the rocks which finds explanation 
in the most subtle fact of radioactivity ; ' The Use of Radium in Medicine' ; 
and ' A Speculation as to a Pre-Material Universe.' All are well written 
and readily vinderstood. 

Vigour and Heredity. By J. Lewis Bonhote. London : West, Newman 
& Co., 263 pages, los. 6d. net. 

If you have a little ' Zoo ' and you don't know what to do 

Do not publish lists of visitors and trash 
But experiment in breeding, observing, crossing, feeding. 

Results will be much better -than mere cash. 
Read of spermatozoa, the zygote and the ova. 

The part that each one plays on this life's stage 
And keep your eye on ' vigour,' it really is the trigger 

That scores the bulk of bull's eyes in this age. 
When the reviewer read it he said Vigour and Heredity 

By Bonhote (J. L.) was a thoughtful book ; 
But whether it will mend all the deficiencies of Mendel 

And of Darwin is quite another crook. 
Statistics of his dogs and cats. 

And pedigrees of ducks and rats 
Literally abound among the pages. 

The secret of success in lives 
Which he has watched (like bees in hives) 

Undoubtedly is ' Vigour,' not in ages.* 

* We must apologise to our readers for this. We fear it is the result 
of our reviewer devoting too much attention to Mr. Bonhote 's statistics. — ■ 
Ed. 

Naturalist, 



Reviews and Book Notices. 29 

Zoological Philosophy : an Exposition with Regard to the Natural 
History of Animals. By J. B. Lamarck. Translated, with an Introduc- 
tion by Hugh Elliot. London : Macmillan & Co., 410 pages, 15s. net. 
By publishing this valuable treatise Messrs. Macmillan have once again 
earned a deep debt of gratitude from all naturalists. The great position 
attained by Lamarck in the scientific world makes a careful study of his 
work essential. His Zoological Philosophy was published half a century 
before The Ovigin of Species ; and by far its most outstanding feature is 
its defence of the theory of the mutability of species against the theory of 
special creations for each species, then almost universally current. Lam- 
arck's work was in three parts; (i) 'Considerations on the Natural 
History of Animals, their Characters, Affinities, Organisation, Classi- 
fication and Species ; (2) An Enquiry into the cause of life, the conditions 
required for its existence, the exciting force of its movements, the faculties 
which it confers on bodies possessing it, and the results of its presence 
in those bodies ; (3) An Enquiry into the physical causes of feeling, into 
the force which produces actions, and, lastly, into the origin of the acts 
of intelligence observed in various animals.' Through Mr. Elliot's 
excellent translation these works are now readily available to the English 
student. In addition, Mr. Elliot gives a masterly resume of Lamarck's 
work, which occupies nearly a hundred pages. To his pen ' falls the lot 
of vindicating the memory of one who, if he had laboured to destroy his 
fellow-men instead of to enlighten them, would have received all the glories 
of a national hero.' 

A Naturalist in Madagascar. By James Sibree. Seeley Service & 
Co., 320 pages, i6s. net. Messrs. Seeley Service & Co., are to be thanked 
for introducing us in such a charming way to another most interesting 
territory. The flora and fauna of Madagascar have long had an attraction 
to the student of distribution, as to the naturalist generally. But for the 
most part the information available was locked up in scattered papers 
and memoirs, difficult to consult. Now, in one volume, from the able pen 
of Mr. Sibree, who has spent half a century on the island and knows it 
thoroughly, we get a careful record not only of the plants and animals, 
but of the natives. There are no ' big game ' in Madagascar ; the most 
dangerous sport is hunting the Wild Boar ; the largest carnivore is the 
fosa, and the most dangerous reptile is the crocodile. In twenty-three 
chapters IMr. Sibree gives a wonderful insight into the capabilities of this 
wonderful island. There is even a fishing story, which we may be par- 
doned for quoting : — ' A curious account is given by the natives of a fish 
which they call Hamby, whose length is said to be about that of a man's 
arm, and its girth about that of his thigh. Its dorsal fin, they say, is just 
like a brush, and it has a liquid about it, sticky like glue, and when it 
fastens on to another fish from below with this brush on its head, the fish 
cannot get away, but is held fast. On account of this peculiarity the 
people use the hamby to fish with. When they catch one they confine it 
in a light cage, which they fasten in the sea, feeding it daily with cooked 
rice or small fish ; and when they want to use it, they tie a long cord round 
its tail and let it go, following it in a canoe. When it fastens on a fish 
they pull it in and secure the spoil.' And Mr. Sibree is a missionary. 

British Ants : Their Life History and Classification. By H. St. J. K. 
Donisthorpe. Plymouth : W. Brendon & Son, Ltd., pp. xvi. -\- 379 
Price 25s. net. This book will be welcomed by all entomologists, few of 
whom can be unfamiliar with the valuable researches into the life histories 
and habits of ouj British Ants carried out for over twenty years by the 
author. So intimate is the association between ants and numerous 
other forms of animal and plant life, that no naturalist can dispense with 
a knowledge of our indigenous species. Such a knowledge can be easily 
acquired from this volume, which describes the species of British ants in 
a manner so clear and interesting that no one should have difficulty in 

1916 Jan, 1. 



30 Reviews and Book Notices. 

identifying any form they find. Each species is dealt with very thoroughly 
as regards its synonyms, technical description, distribution, habitat, habits 
and myrmecophiles, and in every case the original description is quoted. 
Too many of our entomological works are mere classified lists of techni- 
calities and forbidding in form and substance ; but Mr. Donisthorpe's 
book, written in a new spirit, avoids this error, and will command the 
interest of every intelligent naturalist. Particularly interesting are the 
chapters dealing with Colony Founding, Propagation, Metamorphosis, 
Parthenogenesis, Polymorphism, Psychology, etc. The book is illustrated 
by eighteen photographic plates and ninety-two diagrams, and there is 
a very complete bibliography and index. In the preface the author 
points out that his book ' has been brought to a conclusion during the 
opening months of a supreme national crisis — well nigh within sound 
of the guns. At such a time it is too much to hope or even to wish that 
the problems of biological science should receive their due meed of atten- 
tion. But later on, when the success of which we cannot be doubtful shall 
have attended our efforts and those of our Allies, when intellectual pursuits 
have resumed their sway, it is hoped that the present volume will serve 
both as an inducement and an aid to the study of the most fascinating 
of all insects.' 

The County of the White Rose : An Introduction to the History and 
Antiquities of Yorkshire. By A. C. Price. London : A. Brown & Sons, 
Ltd., 403 pages, 3s. 6d. net. The author tells us that ' this book is intended 
neither for the skilled antiquary nor for the hasty reader, but it is hoped 
that it may be of service to those, whether old or young, who take a real 
interest in the history of their county, but lose much of the profit of what 
they see or read because of their inability to understand the allusions 
and technicalities in the ordinary guide books. Nor does it intend to be 
a complete history of the county.' The author has also had in view the 
needs of the teachers, and being neither a ' hasty reader ' nor a ' skilled 
antiquary,' the present writer is prepared to state that the book is up to 
the author's standard. It is also well illustrated, well printed, well bound, 
and reasonable in price. He deals with geology, prehistoric man, the 
Romans, Angles, Danes, Normans, the Barons, Churches and Abbeys, 
Mediaeval Towns, Tudors, Stuarts, and Modern Yorkshire. The author 
is obviously neither a ' skilled antiquary ' nor a ' hasty reader ' him- 
self. He has evidently read much and ' made notes ' as he read. 
Unfortunately he has not been able to differentiate between the reliable 
and the unreliable in his reading, which has resulted in many irritating, 
if trifling errors, which, however, do not seriously detract from the value 
of the book. It is a pity the author has not had some reliable geological 
and antiquarian friend to read through his proofs. For instance he states 
that the geological map ' tells us the kind of rocks we should find if 
we were to remove the turf and upper layer of soil.' Yet his geological 
map shows all Holderness as chalk, which means that ' turf,' etc., to a 
depth of over a hundred feet has been removed ! The fact is the author 
has based his map on the ' solid ' Survey map, instead of the ' drift ' 
edition. Similarly, reference is made to the Roman altar found at Pat- 
rington, and he falls into the error originated, we believe, by Phillips, 
in stating that Patrington is a Roman station. This surmise was certainly 
founded on the 'altar,' no other trace of Roman occupation having 
occurred at Patrington. A few years ago the ' altar ' was rescued for a 
Yorkshire Museum, and was shown to be a seventeenth century sun-dial ! 
A pterodactyle can hardly be called ' a kind of enormous bat ' ; both the- 
lists of Museums on pages 20 and 25 are incomplete, and surely Mortimer's 
' Forty Years' Researches ' contains more about Prehistoric Yorkshire 
than all the books Mr. Price quotes put together. There is a good index, 
and an excellent map of the county at the end. 



31 



A YEAR'S SCIENTIFIC WORK IN YORKSHIRE: 

BEING 

THE YORKSHIRE NATURALISTS' UNION'S 
FIFTY-FOURTH ANNUAL REPORT 

For 1915. 

(Presented at Keighley, ^th December, jcji^J. 

The Fifty-Third Annual Meeting was held at Leeds on 
December 5th, 1914, under the Presidency of Mr. Thonaas 
Sheppard, M.Sc, F.G.S., F.S.A.(Scot.). A report of this most 
successful meeting, the attendance thereat constituting a 
record, appeared in The Naturalist for January, and our 
journal also has contained a portion of Mr. Sheppard's Presi- 
dential Address on " Yorkshire's Contribution to Science." 

The best thanks of the Union are due to the Leeds 
Naturalists' Club and Scientilic Association, the Leeds Geo- 
logical Association, the Leeds Co-operative Field Naturalists' 
Club, and the Leeds Conchological Club for the hospitality 
extended to the Union on that occasion, and to the authorities 
of the Leeds Liniversity for placing at our disposal the rooms 
in which the meetings were held. 

The whole of the six Field Excursions were successfully 
carried through, and despite the withdrawal of the usual cheap 
travelling facilities by the Railway Companies owing to the 
war, the attendance at most of these meetings has been good. 
The Excursions were as follows : — 

Sawley, near Ripon, Saturday, April 24th. 

Settle (Whit Week-end), May 22nd to 24th. 

Bishop Wood, near Selby, Saturday, June igth. 

Hebden Bridge, Saturday, July 17th. 

Saltburn (August Bank Holiday Week-end) July 31st 

to August 2nd. 
Mycological Meeting, Scarborough, September 24th to 

29th. 

Excursion programmes have been printed and distributed 
prior to each excursion, and detailed reports have appeared in 
the pages of The Naturalist, accompanied, in some cases, by 
illustrations. 

The best thanks of the Union are once more due to the 
various Landowners who so kindly granted facilities and 
privileges. Several of the Sections have also held successful 
gatherings. 

1916 Jan. 1. 



32 Yorkshire Naturalists' Union: Annual Report, 1915. 

The Excursions for 1916 will be as follows : — 
Malton (Easter Week-end), April 22nd to 24tli. 
Bolton Woods, Saturday, May 20th. 
Middleham (Whit Week-end), June loth to 12th. 
Driffield, Saturday-, July 8th. 
Wentbridge, near Pontefract (August Bank Holiday 

Week-end), August 5th to 7th. 
Mycological Meeting, Buckden, September 23rd to 28th. 

The Annual Meeting for 1916 will be held at Selby by the 
kind invitation of the Selby Scientific Society. 

Obituary. — The Union has again suffered severe loss by 
the death of many of its prominent members. Amongst them 
was the distinguished Palaeobotanist, Williami Cash, F.G.S., 
of Halifax, whose scientific attainments and charming person- 
ality will ever remain monuments to his memory ; the Rev. 
F. H. Woods, B.D., of Bainton, an active worker of the Marine 
Biology Committee ; Thomas Bunker, of Goole, a general all 
round naturalist, and Thomas Whitham of Bramhope, two of 
the oldest members of the Union ; B. Holgate, F.G.S., of Leeds ; 
Joshua Rowntree, J. P. of Scalby, near Scarborough ; Wm. 
Simpson, F.G.S. of Settle ; and Second-Lieutenant George 
Mitchell of Bradford, an ardent ornithologist and an expert on 
falconry. Obituary notices of these gentlemen have appeared 
in the pages of The Naturalist. 

Honorary Degrees for Yorkshire Naturalists. — The 
Union desires to express its appreciation of the honour done 
by the Leeds University in recognition of the work of the Union 
by conferring honorary degrees upon representative members 
thereof, viz :— D.Sc. : Mr. Harold Wager, F.R.S., F.L.S. ; 
M.Sc. : Mr. Thomas Sheppard, F.G.S. , F.S.A. (Scot.); Dr. 
T. W. Woodhead, F.L.S. ; Mr. John W. Tavlor ; Mr. W. Denison 
Roebuck, F.L.S. ; Mr. T. H. Nelson, J.P.,"M.B.O.U. ; and Mr. 
John G. Wilkinson. The formal presentation of these gentlemen 
to the Chancellor, the Duke of Devonshire, was witnessed by 
an enthusiastic assemblage at Leeds on July 3rd. A full report 
of the ceremony appeared in the pages of The Naturalist for 
August. 

Divisional Secretaries and Local Treasurers. — These 
gentlemen have again rendered valuable service in their 
respective offices, and the thanks of the Union are tendered to 
them for their assistance. 

General Committee. — The following has been elected a 
member of the General Permanent Committee of the Union, 
viz: — A. E. Peck, Scarborough; 

Naturalist 



Yorkshire Naturalists' Union: Annual Report, 1915. 33 

Active Service Members.— The following members of the 
Union are known to be either on active service abroad, or have 
enhsted for such service, viz :— Prof. J. H. Priestley, Dr. A. R. 
Dwerryhouse, Dr. E. Amyott, Dr. Wheelton Hind, B.Sc, 
F.G.S., Mr. C. W. Mason, Mr. A. J. Stather, Mr. E. W. Taylor, 
Mr. E. W. Morse, Mr. J. R. Stutley, Mr. H. D. Cheavin, F.R.M.S., 
F.S.E., and a large number of Associates. 

VERTEBRATE ZOOLOGY SECTION. 

East Riding Report. — Mr. E. W. Wade writes: — The 
season has been on the whole a good one for the birds. The 
early breeders were late owing to the cold weather in April, and 
as a rule not so prolific as in 1914 ; while some of the marsh- 
haunting species, e.g. the Sedge Warbler, have been noticeably 
scarce. 

The spring migrants were unusually late in arriving — a 
week to a fortnight behind the date noticed for the previous 
three seasons, wath the exception of the Swift, which arrived 
eight days earlier than last year. 

Swallows and Martins have had a good year and their 
numbers have again increased. 

There has been a most marked increase in the number of 
Swifts in Holderness during the last few years. 

The Corncrake has been scarcer than ever before. Except 
in the Beverley district, where four pairs were heard, the bird 
seems to have completely disappeared. 

Partridges have done well on the high ground, but on the 
carr land the wet July caused an epidemic of gapes which killed 
off even old as well as young birds. On some of the large 
estates Pheasants have not been reared this season, but the 
wild birds have done well. 

The Wild Geese arrived in the Wolds on 21st August, six 
days earlier than last year. 

In the protected area in the Wolds the number of Stone 
Curlews remains stationary, and there is evidence that occa- 
sional birds get shot in the autumn. Only nine birds were 
seen in a flock before migration, and it is to be feared that there 
are too many amateur gunners for them ever to increase. 

An interesting experiment has been tried by Mr. St. Quintin 
in liberating three young Ravens on the Bempton Cliffs. It is 
about fifty years since the birds bred there, and the last breeding 
place has long since disappeared into the sea. On 2nd July 
they were penned on the cHff to get accustomed to their sur- 
roundings, and on 23rd July to ist August were liberated one by 
one. During the first week of September two of them were 
seen feeding on the land. The fact of visitors being excluded 
from the cliffs this year is very much in favour of the birds, and 

1916 Jan. 1. 



34 Yorkshire Naturalists' Union: Annual Report, IQ15. 

appeals have been issued in the local press to landowners and 
farmers, to protect them. 

North Riding Report. — Mr. T. H. Nelson writes: — The 
opportunities for observation along the northern coastline have 
been considerably curtailed. Ducks and wildfowl generally 
were very plentiful in the marshes, where they were secure from 
harm. I have never seen so many ducks, nor in such a state of 
fearlessness as throughout last winter. During the spring 
nesting has been fairty successful, and young shore birds and 
other fowl were reported by the middle of July. Terns of three 
species (Sandwich, Arctic, and Lesser), were off the coast before 
the end of that month. 

West Riding Report. — Mr. H. B. Booth writes : — In the 
spring immigration it is confirmed beyond doubt that for the 
past two or three years large numbers of Swifts have arrived 
considerably earlier than formerly — numbers being reported 
in various places on May ist or 2nd — or even, in one or two 
instances, on April 30th. The Pied Flycatcher has returned to 
Bolton Woods this year almost in greater numbers than ever 
known before. Mr. W. H. Parkin and his friends have again 
paid special attention to the nesting habits of the Cuckoo. 
Mr. E. P. Butterfield has recorded the finding of a blue egg of 
the Cuckoo in a Hedge-sparrow's nest in Bingley Wood. This 
is the first known record of the Hedge-sparrow as foster parent 
in this district, although it has occurred further south in this 
Riding. The blue egg of the Cuckoo is uncommon in Great 
Britain. When this egg was examined with a lens very faint 
spots were discernible. 

A new heronry has become established at Hubberholme (see 
The Naturalist 1915, p. 301). Mr. Parkin reports that there 
were nine Herons' nests, and another one being built, on 
April 26th, in the Wood near to Eshton Hall. Special attention 
has been paid to the nesting habits of a pair of Grasshopper 
Warblers by Mr. Sam Longbottom, which has certainly increased 
our knowledge of the habits and nidification of this species in 
Great Britain, an account of which will appear later in The 
Naturalist. There appears to be good evidence that two or 
three pairs of Short-eared Owls have nested on one of our Upper 
Wharfedale Moors during the last year or two. Mr. A. Whitaker 
reports that two pairs of Long-eared Owls have nested on 
the ground amongst bracken in clearings amongst Scotch Pine 
trees near Barnsley, an unusual situation. The Redshank is. 
very slowly but surely increasing in numbers and in distribution 
as a nesting species. Most species of birds have had a successful 
nesting season — including game-birds, although less game- 
keeping and artificial rearing has been resorted to. Mr. Rosse 
Butterfield reports that Mr. J. Bartle informs him that the 

Natural'st, 



Yorkshire Naturalists' Union: Annual Report, 1915. 35 

Turtle Dove has nested in Cottingley Wood this year. If this 
can be confirrned it will be an interesting record for Upper 
Airedale. The pair of Stonechats reported by Mr. Bolam as 
being seen about a mile and a half on the main road south-east 
of Settle in the week prior to the Y.N.U. excursion to that 
place ( The Naturalist 1915, p. 260) was unfortunately not con- 
firmed by any of the rnembers who attended the Union's 
meeting. The sudden and unexplainable decrease amongst 
the previously ever-increasing local Starlings, reported two 
years ago, has not varied much since then. They certainly 
have not decreased further ; probably they are very slightly 
increasing again. A reference may be made to three ' recovered ' 
Black-headed Gulls {British Birds, Vol. VIIT, p. 217). One 
ringed as a young bird near Lake Bala, Merionethshire, was 
found dead in the breeding season at the Hebden Bridge 
gullery, Blackstone Edge, three years later — i.e., in 1914. 
More remarkable was a bird of this species ringed at the 
Egton gullery, and found seven months later in the island of 
Flores, in the Azores. Another bird ringed as a nestling at 
Ravenglass, was found dead four years and one month later at 
the Stanedge Moor gullery. As the Black-headed Gull is a com- 
paratively recent addition to our West Riding nesting species 
these data should give a clue to the origin of our guUeries. 

Mr. Walter Greaves reports that he examined a female 
Hen Harrier which had been killed on Langfield Moor on 
October 13th, 1915 ; a Manx Shearwater was caught alive 
at Heptonshall on October 3rd, 1914, and a female Common 
Scoter was seen on Fly Flats reservoir on July 24th, 1915. 

Last year we endeavoured to examine the data of a reported 
British Black-headed Bunting {Emberiza melanocephala) sup- 
posed to have been captured near Halifax, and sold by a 
Halifax bird dealer. This year the same dealer has been 
caught red-handed in offering a newly -caught Little Bunting 
taken near Ripon, which proved to be a common South African 
cage-bird, viz., the Cape Canary [Alario a.lario L.), a species 
not known in a feral state in Europe. The deceptions of this 
bird dealer have already been exposed in The Naturalist, so 
that further comment here is unnecessary. 

Mr. Thomas Roose informs me that one of the Duke of 
Devonshire's gamekeepers brought three strange Wild Ducks 
to the Estate Ofhce at Bolton Abbey. He had shot them on 
Aked's dam, at West End (Washburndale), in the last week of 
October. Mr. Roose identified them as Gadwall {Anas strepera 
L.), two ducks and one drake. 

Mr. Roose had also watched a solitary Crossbill for some 
time near to Bolton Abbey on Sept. 30th. 



1916 Jan. 1. 



36 Yorkshire Naturalists' Union: Annual Report, 1915. 

York District. — Mr. S. H. Smith writes: — A White-fronted 
Goose was shot at East Cottingwith on Nov. 21st, 1914, being 
one of a party of six that stayed in Wheldrake Ings for several 
weeks. Two pairs of Pochards have successfully nested on 
Skipwith Common ; each nest contained ten eggs. At the 
same place twelve pairs of Shoveller Ducks nested, about half 
of their clutches being hatched, depredations by foxes account- 
ing for the remainder. Although half the heronry wood at 
Stillingfleet has been cut down this year, the Herons were in 
nowise disturbed, as I counted thirty nests during a visit there 
in May. Mr. H. E. Preston, the owner of the wood, carefully 
protects these birds, and he informs me there has been a gradual 
increase during recent years, and that one pair has also nested 
on his Elvington estate where he is trying to establish another 
heronry. On the 28th June I saw a pair of Common Buzzards 
at Poppleton, and after having them under observation for 
fifteen minutes they disappeared in a N.W. direction. I found 
the nest of a Green Woodpecker at Skipwith on July 3rd con- 
taining young, and was much struck by the peculiar noise 
made by the young birds, the sustained hissing closely re- 
sembling the whirr of an aeroplane. The migrant arrival data 
obtained by Mr. V. G. F. Zimmerman and myself for the 
current year are as follows: — Chiff-chaff, April ist ; Willow 
Warbler, April 3rd ; Tree Pipit, April 6th ; Lesser White- 
throat, and Swallow, April loth ; Wheatear, April 12th ; House 
Martin, April 19th ; Sand Martin, April 23rd ; Turtle Dove, 
April 22nd ; Yellow Wagtail, April 23rd ; Sandpiper, April 
28th ; Garden Warbler, Swift, Landrail, Blackcap Warbler, and 
Spotted Flycatcher, April 30th ; Nightjar and Redstart, May 
6th ; Whinchat, May loth ; Pied Flycatcher, May 20th. 

The first eggs of the Green Plover were reported on March 
22nd at Thorganby, and also a party of very late staying Field- 
fares in the same neighbourhood on the 13th May. Mr. Zimmer- 
man reports a large flock of Bramble Finches, numbering 
some hundreds, frequented the vicinity of Skelton village 
about April 4th. On May 22nd he found a nest of the Nut- 
hatch about three miles from York, in a hole in a beech tree. 
It then contained two eggs, and on the 19th June he observed 
five young fully fledged in the same nest. A nest of the Pied 
Flycatcher was noted at Brockfield on June 7th containing 
newly hatched young. Suitable protection has been afforded 
to the Goldfinches, Bullfinches, and Hawfinches which have 
been discovered within the York district. Mr. W. H. Parkin 
reports the finding of a nest of the Long-tailed Tit on May loth 
at Chandlers Whin. It was in a V formed by two branches of 
an ash tree, and about twenty five feet from the ground. The 
same gentleman during a visit to Knavesmire Wood on March 
iSth noted a variety of the Common Chaffinch. The bird was 

Naturalist, 



Yorkshire Naturalists Union : Annaiil Report, 1915. 37 

a pale cinnamon colour on mantle, head, neck and lower breast ; 
upper breast showing the pink flush ; white wing bars fully 
defined like a male in ordinary plumage ; the beak horn colour. 

Mammals, Reptiles, Amphibla.xs and Fishes Committee — • 
Mr. S. H. Smith writes: — A Porpoise was shot on the river 
Ouse, below Naburn, on Feb. 4th. The river Foss runs by the 
end of my garden, and in an old willow stump across the water 
a dog and bitch Otter had their four young ones between 
April 20th and May ist, on which date they proceeded higher 
up stream. I kept close watch upon them whenever possible. 
The cubs were constantly crying and the shrill whistling of the 
parents was so loud and continuous at times that I was 
surprised local attention was not called to their presence. 

Pisces. — I have heard that a Trout weighing 4 lbs. 12 ozs. 
has been caught at Newton on Ouse during August, and at the 
same place in September, a Barbel weighing 9 lbs. 

Wild Birds and Eggs Protection Committee. — Mr. 
Johnson Wilkinson writes: — As regards the Peregrines in 
North Yorkshire, exceedingly good reports have been received ; 
one clutch of four birds got safely away, three were flying 
about on July 27th. We have reason to believe the Ravens 
eggs were taken. 

The Peregrines at Bempton were again disturbed, only 
one egg apparently being laid. A large steamer which went 
ashore near Filey was blown up, and the charge was so violent 
as to cause all the birds in the neighbourhood to fly off in 
thousands, including, no doubt, the Falcons. Remains of the 
egg were found discarded and forwarded to me. 

This season has been a bad one for climbers. One of the 
men wrote me saying he had in previous years taken more eggs 
in one week than during the whole of this season. 

At Hornsea, Pochards and Tufted Ducks have been very 
numerous ; they have increased very much during the last 
three years. Great-Crested Grebes as usual were somewhat 
late, but the young ones have hatched well. 

At Spurn we have been very fortunate in securing an 
exceedingly good watcher. He kept a daily diary and for- 
warded the result of his observations at the end of each month. 
There has been a very good crop of Ringed Plovers and Lesser 
Terns, but no Shell Duck or Oyster Catchers this season. On 
May 30th an exceptionally high tide destroyed a great number 
of eggs. 

The Coast from Spurn to Scarborough has been well 
protected the whole of the season, and no permits were 
granted to the general public. 

The Stone Curlews have done very well. 

1916 Jan. 1. 



38 Yorkshire Naturalists' Union: Annual Report, 1915. 

I am sorry to say the subscriptions and a donation received 
this season only amount to £16 12s. and expenses £24. Had 
it not been for balance brought forward we should have been 
awkwardly situated. 



Income for 1915. 

Balance brought forward 

Mr. St. Quintin 

Mr. L. Gaunt 

Mr. J. Atkinson 

Mr. Oxley Grabham . . 

Mr. E. W. Wade 

Mr. J. Wilkinson 

Mr. F. H. Edmondson 

Mr. H. B. Booth 

The Right Hon. C. G. Milnes Gaskell (Donation) 

Mr. A. H. Lumby 

Mr. S. H. Smith 

Mr. W. H. Parkin .. 

Ovenden Naturalists' Society 

Refunded 

Bank Interest . . 



Expenses for 1915. 



Peregrines, North Yorkshire 

,, Bempton 

Stone Curlews . . 
Spurn 

Hornsea Mere 
W. Whiting . . 
Cash at Bankers 
Cash in hand 



i 


s. 


d. 


16 


17 


I 


5 








3 


3 







I 







I 







I 







I 
































10 








5 








3 








5 








15 


3 





3 






;^34 7 4 



7 16 10 
I 15 3 



3 








I 








2 








6 








12 











15 


3 



9 12 



;(34 7.4 



Audited and found correct, 

W. E. L. Wattam, 6fh September, 1915. 



Naturalist, 



Yorkshire Naturalists' Union: Annual Report, 1915- 39 



ENTOMOLOGICAL SECTION. 

Lepidoptera. — Mr. B. Morley writes: — Moths and butter- 
flies, generally, have only appeared in normal numbers in the 
county during the past season. The cabbage-feeding Pierids 
are reported from various parts, however, as having reproduced 
themselves in great numbers, and autumn broods of larvae are 
now feeding in disastrous abundance. 

During July Orgyia antiqua also was so exceedingly abund- 
ant on Barnside Moors near Penistone, that the bilberry 
foliage was all devoured, while a great majority of the larvae 
was still only part grown. 

X ant hi a aiirago larvae were very common on sycamore 
in Deffer Wood, Skelmanthorpe, during May. 

Mr. W. G. Clutten, of Burnley, took Emmelesia minorata 
at Grassington in August, which is a new record for the county. 
He also took at the same place and time Larentia ruficinctata, 
Stilhia anomala and Gnophos obscurata. 

Two specimens of Eiipithecia pygmceata were taken in 
June at Skelmanthorpe, being an addition to the district list. 

A fine specimen of Sphinx convolvuli was taken at Barnsley 
in August. 

CoLEOPTERA COMMITTEE. — Dr. W. J. Fordham writes: — 
There have been added to the Yorkshire list since the last 
report at least thirty species, but this total is not final, as there 
are still some records to come to hand. One doubtful Yorkshire 
species has been confirmed, viz., Patrobus sepfentrionis Dj., 
and an alien species may also be added, viz., Cryptomorpha 
desjardinsi Guer. Lesteva luctuosa Fauv. was omitted from 
the last report as it had not then been definitely identified, 
but it has been taken again this year. The new species (in 
addition to the above) are Bembidium clarki Daws., Haliplus 
immaculatus Gerh., koterus sparsus Marsh., Agabus arcticus 
Pk., Helophonis mulsanti Rye., Cercyon lugubris Pk., and 
granarius Er., Phlceopora angustiformis Baudi, Homalota 
nigella Er., linearis Gr., succicola Th., and indubia Shp., Quedius 
nigrocceruleus Rey., Quedionnchus IcBvigatiis Gyll., Philonthus 
nigriventris Th., Gabrius pennatus Shp., Lathrobium ripicola 
Czwal, Evaesthettis Iceviusculus Mann., Proteinus macroptertis 
Gyll., Euconnus hirticollis 111., Claviger testaceus Preysl., Cory- 
lophus cassidioides Marsh, Cerylon ferrugineum Steph., Pns 
diilcamarce Scop., Cartodere filtim Aub., Phcedon concinnua 
Steph., Aphthona nigriceps Redt., Hypera alternans Steph., 
Orchestes alni L., and Gymnetron beccabungcB L. Several 
articles have been contributed to The Naturalist and the 
entomological journals. A full Hst will appear later including 
numerous additions to the various vice-counties. 

1916 Jan. 1. 



40 Yorkshire Naturalists' Union : Annual Report, 1915. 

Hymenoptera, Diptera and Hemiptera Committee. — ■ 
Mr. R. Butterfield writes -. — -Lieut. H. Vincent Corbett is to be 
congratulated on the results of his studies, although severely 
handicapped by circumstances, in the neglected order of 
Hemiptera. Of the sixty-six species of Hemiptera collected 
in the Doncaster district during the year, twenty-three are 
new to Yorkshire. He has also paid considerable attention 
to Homoptera, the details of which will be announced later. 
Mr.W. Denison Roebuck writes that Mr. J.W. Taylor has noticed 
a water bug in abundance throughout the season in his artificial 
pond at Horsforth. Specimens were sent to Mr. E. A. Butler, 
who stated that the species was Gerris gibbifer, of which he 
had not had a previous example from Yorkshire. Mr. T. 
Stainforth has also made observations on the order. 

Good work has been done in the Aculeate Hymenoptera. 
April and May were favourable months for investigation, but 
July and August proved too wet. The reports regarding 
the prevalence of social bees and wasps are somewhat con- 
flicting, though it is certain that in the hilly portion of the 
county, social wasps have been abundant. Messrs. A. E. 
Bradley and A. Hodgson have made observations on bees in 
the neighbourhood of Leeds. All the British species of Psithy- 
rus have been captured with the exception of true vestalis. 
Mr. Bradley captured two queens of the rare bee, Bombiis 
jonellus, at Adel in April. Bombus distinguendus has been 
secured by both observers. The occurrence of Megachile 
circumcincta at Roundhay in July, is interesting, inasmuch as 
none of the members of this genus are recorded for the hilly 
portion of the West Riding. The Aculeate Hymenopterous 
fauna eastwards from Leeds to the coast presents a striking 
contrast with that of the west. 

Several Ichneumons have been added to the county list, 
particulars of which will be published later. Observations 
have been made or specimens captured by Messrs. W. Denison 
Roebuck at Leeds ; T. A. Lofthouse at Middlesbrough ; B. 
Morley at Skelmanthorpe ; S. Margerison and A. R. Sanderson 
at Ripon ; H. Vincent Corbett at Doncaster and the writer at 
Keighley. 

Some progress has been made with Saw-flies, though the 
material as yet has not been fully worked out. Sir ex gigas 
has been recorded for several localities. Two interesting 
additions to the county list of Diptera are recorded in the 
November number 1914, of The Naturalist, by Mr. P. " H. 
Grimshaw. 

Mr. W. H. Burr ell writes : — Birch seed in the neighbourhood 
of Leeds has been infested with the larvae of theCecid., Oligo- 
trophtts betidcB. During the summer months large gatherings 
have been made at Adel, East Keswick, Aberford, Garforth, 

Naturalist, 



Yorkshire Naturalists' Union: Annnal Report, igi^. 41 

etc., and have been found to be so generally attacked as to 
suggest that a considerable proportion of the local crop of birch 
seed is destroyed by this niea.ns. 

Records of Hymenoptera appeared in the reports of the 
Union's meetings at Settle and Hebden Bridge. 

Arachnida. — -Mr. W. Falconer writes : — Coast collecting 
has been barred, but satisfactory results have been obtained 
elsewhere. Records of the arachnida taken at the various 
places visited by the Union or by some member or other of 
the Arachnida Committee during the year, have already 
been published in The Naturalist : Sawley, July and November ; 
Settle, Bishop Wood, and Hebden Bridge, September. In 
these lists the rarer species were particularised. With respect 
to captures not yet reported on, Lophocarenum ncmorale Bl., 5 
from an old barn at Dean Head, Scammonden, Huddersfield, 
is new to the West Riding ; the false scorpion Chernes panzeri 
C. L. Koch, occurs in a similar habitat at Barrett, Slaithwaite, 
at an elevation of 1,000 feet. Mr. Stainforth gives Houghton 
Woods near Market Weighton as a station for the harvestman 
Megabimtis insignis Meade, new to the East Riding, and as an 
additional station in the same division for Crustulina guttata 
Camb., and Evarcha jalcata BL, all commonly. Mr. Bayford 
forwarded a living adult $ Heliophanus cupreus Walck., taken 
in a merchant's office in the centre of Barnsley. Cornicularia 
karpinskii Camb., recorded by Mr. Harrison in his paper. 
New and Rare Yorkshire Spiders,' The Naturalist, January, 
pp. 26-27, i^ unfortunately an error of designation. The 
specimens were so named at hrst by the Rev. O. Pickard Cam- 
bridge, but on closer examination were found to be undoubted 
C. kocJiii Camb., which had previous^ occurred in the same 
locality. C. karpinskii Camb., must therefore be deleted 
from our list ; the station, too (within the breakwater at Tees 
mouth) was not a very likely one. The statement in the same 
paper with regard to the genus Bathyphantes in Cleveland 
is hardly correct. B. setiger F.O.P.Cb. has not yet been met 
with there, or not recorded ; and B. explicatus Camb. is known 
only from the type (^ from Kew Gardens. 

The only additions to the county list during the year con- 
sist of a number of mites collected by Messrs. Harrison and 
Winter and myself, several of which are, judging from our 
present knowledge of them, rare, and one, Smaridia papulosa 
Herm., from Royal Clough, Scammonden, is probably the 
first British example. 

CONCHOLOGICAL SECTION. 

Mr. Greevz Fysher writes: — Some excursions have had to 
be abandoned in consequence of the withdrawal of railway 

1916 Jan. 1. 



42 Yorkshire Naturalists' Union : Annual Report, 1915. 

facilities, but useful investigation has been carried out at 
Keighley, Hambleton, and other places, results being published 
in The Naturalist. No very conspicuous change in distribution 
of mollusca fauna has been observed. 

Marine Biology Committee. — Dr. J. Irving writes: — ■ 
For obvious reasons marine work this year cannot be compared 
with that of former years. The death of the Rev. F. H. Woods, 
B.D., in March, deprived the Com.mittee of its energetic con- 
vener. Many additions to the microscopic mollusca of our 
coast are due to his periodic and systematic investigation 
of every available region where the shells of these minute 
organisms were likely to be found. It was deemed advisable 
to abandon the week-end meeting which was fixed to take 
place at Scarborough in September. 

In August, at Cloughton Wyke, the remarkable abundance 
of Ligia oceanica, our largest British isopod, was noted. 
Lucernaria campanulata, which appeared in number, locally 
circumscribed, in South Bay, Scarborough, and in Robin 
Hood's Bay, two years in succession, is gone. Frequent 
careful and diligent search has failed to discover a single speci- 
men. On the other hand the sea-hare Aplysia punctata, which 
during these two years was conspicuous by its absence, is this 
yeaif particularly evident, occupying algse formerly favoured 
by Lucernarians. A single female specimen of the vary rare 
crab, Pirimela denticulata, was recently taken alive in South 
Bay, Scarborough, and recorded, but its habitat is elsewhere. 
Accidental forces must have driven it on to the rocks. 



BOTANICAL SECTION. 

Mr. J. F. Robinson and Mr. C. A. Cheetham write: — There 
has been an increase of energy on the part of those able to attend 
the meetings, and if the addition of new species is scanty, the 
careful reports of the rambles help to confirm and bring up-to- 
date the older records. 

The delay in the publication of the supplement to the West 
Riding Flora is a difficulty to the recording sections for that 
area. On many occasions a new locality for some species has 
been announced in The Naturalist whereas, possibly, this 
exact record had been made previously by some other person 
whose lists had been forwarcled for publication in the above 
mentioned work. Some of the Bryological additions have been 
recently published in The Naturalist to obviate this difficulty, 
but it is to be hoped that sufficient subscribers will be forth- 
coming to warrant publication of the supplement. 

The Section has always been well represented on the 
general excursions, and in addition a special meeting was held 

Naturalist, 



Yorkshire Naturalists' Union: Annual Report, ic)i$. 43 

in Dewsbury to take advantage of Mr. F. W. Whitaker's 
knowledge of the alien plants of that locality. 

The Sawley meeting was too early for phanerogamic 
plants, but at Settle, Bishopwood, Saltburn and Hebden 
Bridge, good results were obtained. 

The year opened wet and cold and early spring plants were 
held back, Saxifraga oppositifoUa being two or three weeks 
later than in the previous year ; then came a dry spell with east 
winds which forced on plants on shallow soils such as Rock 
Rose, Mountain Avens, etc., into early blossoms, these dis- 
tricts being badly burnt up ; but on deeper soils plants like 
the Frog, Clove and Butterfly Orchids were kept back. The 
wet time following towards the end of June, caused many of 
the burnt up plants to come forward into bloom a second time. 

The trees and shrubs seem all to have fruited well, and with 
a few local exceptions, there is prospect of an abundant harvest 
of wild fruits, although perhaps the mountain ash may be an 
exception to this. The fine weather of autum.n gives hope 
for the coming year. 

Botanical Survey Committee. — Dr. T. W. Woodhead 
writes: — The most important feature of our excursions during 
the year has been the joint observations made by the geologists 
and botanists during the meeting at Settle in May last. Mr-= J. 
Holmes was at much pains to point out the outcrops and 
distribution of the various beds, from the Silurians to the Car- 
boniferous limestones, grits and shales, and observations were 
made on the changes in the vegetation on the varying soils. 
Attention was also paid to the development of the Ash Woods 
of the Limestone Scars and the retrogressive and progressive 
phases in the vegetation of the limestone pavements. Many 
interesting problems present themselves in this area, and 
arrangements have been made to continue the study in more 
detail during the coming season. The survey of the Molina 
Moors b}/ the Rev. T. A. Jeffries is making good progress, and 
the first results were published in the Journal of Ecology for 
June this year. In this he gives a satisfactory explanation 
of its peculiar distribution and its place in our moorland 
associations. 

Bryological Committee. — Mr. W. Ingham, B.A., writes : 
— 1915 has been a most successful year for the bryologists. 

Mr. R. Barnes of Harrogate has sent important lists of Mosses 
and Hepatics to The Naturalist, March and April, 1915- 

Mr. C. A. Cheetham and party at Austwick, found interesting 
mosses, recorded in The Naturalist, February and May, 1915. 

Mr. C. A. Cheetham found in Crummock Dale, Grimniiar Hat- 
mani, new to Yorkshire. He and Mr. H. E. Johnson added 
Dicranum strictum to Yorkshire. 

1916 Jan. 1. 



44 Yorkshire Naturalists' Union: Annual Report, 1915. 

Mr. G. Webster, of York, found near Rillington Thuidium 
Philiberti var. pseiido-tamarisci, new to N.E. Yorkshire. 

Mr. J. Mennell found on Skipwith Comrnon two stems 
submitted to the writer, of Paludella sqnarrosa. 

Mr. W. Ingham added Lepidozia sylvatica (Strensall Common) 
to Yorkshire, also Oligotrichum hercynicum (Skipwith Com.mon), 
and Chiloscyphus pallescens (Skipwith Common), to the East 
Riding. 

Mycological Committee. — Mr. A. E. Peck writes: — With 
the close of the year 1914, Mr. Chas. Crossland retired from 
the office which he had so long and ably held as Secretary to 
the Mycological Committee and keeper of the County Records. 
At the same time Mr. Geo. Massee, V.M.H., retired from the 
Chairmanship. For report of presentation to Mr. Crossland, 
see The Naturalist, December, 1914, pp. 380-386. 

The eighth supplementary list of recently discovered 
Yorkshire Fungi since the publication of the ' Yorkshire 
Fungus Flora ' appears in The Naturalist for March, 1915, ° 
pp. 99-103. 

Messrs. M. Malone, J. W. H. Johnson, M.Sc, and A, E. Peck 
represented the Committee at the Sawley Excursion held in 
April. For report see The Naturalist for July, pp. 235-236 

From May 29th to June ist a meeting of the Committee 
was held in the Scarborough district with headquarters at 
Forge Valley. 78 species and one variety were met with, two 
being new to Yorkshire and three to vice-county N.E. The 
outstanding feature was the discovery of Cordyceps capitata Fr., 
which so far as has yet been ascertained, would appear to 
have only three previous British records and these dating 
back to the years 1786, 1787 and 1803. For report of meeting 
see The Naturalist, July, pp. 222-224. 

At the Bishop Wood excursion held on June 19th, the 
Committee was represented by Messrs. W. N. Cheesman, 
J. P., and A. E. Peck. Mr. R. Fowler Jones also attended. 

For list of fungi and mycetozoa found see The Naturalist 
of September, pp. 289-290. 

The Autumnal Fungus Foray was held in the Scarborough 
district (with headquarters at Forge Valley), from September 
25th to September 30th, and was attended by eleven members 
and friends. An account will duly appear in The Naturalist. 



GEOLOGICAL SECTION. 

Messrs. J. Holmes and C. Bradshaw report : — Owing to 
abnormal conditions, attendance at several of the excursions 
was below the average. This, however, could not be said of 
the Settle meeting, at which a large number of members spent 

Naturalist, 



Yorkshire Naturalists' Union : Anmtal Report, 1915. 45 

the week-end under ideal weather conditions. Two days 
were devoted to the Carboniferous limestone tract, and two 
to the Pre-Carboniferous rocks north of the Craven Fault. 

At Hanableton in the Vale of York members had an oppor- 
tunity of examining the core of a boring made in Brayton 
Barf. It revealed the geological history of the Barf very 
clearly. 

At Hebden Bridge, sections in the lower beds of the Mill- 
stone Grits and Pendlesides were visited, and a discussion took 
place on the origin of some cavities in the Kinder Scout Grit. 
These cavities are probably formed by the removal of nodular 
concretions. 

The main object of the Saltburn excursion was to observe 
the succession of the strata between the top beds of the Lower 
Lias, and the Moor Grit of the Lower Oolites, the whole of 
which were exposed within the area marked out for the week- 
end visit. Coast exposures at Huntcliff were seen to advantage, 
commencing with the jamesoni zone at its base, and continuing 
through the series to the jet rock. Inland, in the Kilton valley, 
the sequence was further traced up to the Moor Grit, but the 
luxuriant vegetation and steep nabs made it difficult to examine 
at close quarters many of the exposed horizons ; the abrupt 
lithological changes, however, and the very irregular bedding 
showing the influence of currents, were very noticeable. 

The Boulder Clay and its crop of erratics, together with 
the origin of Cat Nab, came in for discussion, and a visit to 
Roseberry Topping to see the effects of the great landslip, the 
plant beds, and the Cleveland Dyke was included in the 
programme. 

Jurassic Flora Committee. — Mr. J. J. Burton writes: — 
Owing to the accumulation of material awaiting expert study, 
and also because of the withdrawal by the railway companies 
of the reduced fares to Societies holding meetings, only in- 
dividual exploration has been carried on during the past year, 
and there is nothing of importance to report beyond that 
which is from time to time given in The Naturalist. 

Glacial Committee. — Mr. J. W. Stather reports that 
coast work has been temporarily suspended and that the chief 
observation made during the year was an important one, viz., 
a record of the erratics on Brayton Barf, near Selby, particulars 
of M'hich appeared in The Naturalist for September, 1915. 

Coast Erosion Committee. — The sea is still eroding, but 
for obvious reasons it is not advisable nowadays to take too 
careful observations on the point. 

Geological Photographs Committee. — The Hon. Secre- 
tary, Mr. A. J. Stather, is serving his country, but we under- 

1916 Jan. 1. 



46 Yorkshire Naturalists' Union : Annual Report, 1915. 

stand that, for apparent reasons, geological photography has 
been somewhat quiet since the last annual meeting. The 
Union's albums of photographs are in good order and in the 
custody of his uncle, Mr. J. W. Stather, F.G.S., pending his 
return. 

The Affiliated Societies now number thirty-seven, 
having a total membership of 2,888. The Malton Society 
and the East Riding Natare Study Association have resigned. 

The Membership of the Union at the close of 1914 
(exclusive of the Affiliated Societies), numbered 377. Twenty 
members have been enrolled during the year. The resignations 
deaths, and names struck off the roll total 38, leaving the 
membership at 359. The following are the newly-elected 
members, : — 

]\Ir. W. R. Barker, Grove Street, Barnsley. 

Mr. Charles N. Barr, 15 Chatham Street, Colne. 

Mr. Edward R. Cross, 12 Filey Road, Scarborough. 

Miss Joyce Capper, 32 Waterdale, Doncaster. 

Mr. Thomas Cockerline, 14 Leicester Place, Blackman Lane, 

Leeds. 
Mr. Sidney H. Couldwell, 18 Clifton Terrace, Beverley Road, 

Hull. 
Mr. G. Crozel, 17 Chemin des Celestins, Oullins (Rhone), 

France. 
Mr. D. Eraser Douglas, Stourton Road, Ilkley. 
Mr. H. England, Providence House, Lock Lane, Castleford. 
Mrs. G. Fysher, 78 Chapel Allerton Terrace, Leeds. 
Captain W. J. Earrer, i Gloucester Road, Birkdale. 
Mr. Edward G. Gibson, L.D.S., Croft Terrace, Hebden Bridge 
Mr. James Y. Granger, 16 Leylands Lane, Heaton, Bradford. 
Mr. J. W. H. Harrison, B.Sc, 181 Abingdon Road, Middles- 
borough. 
Mr. E. Charles Horrell, 23 Victoria Terrace, Bell Vue Road, 

Leeds. 
Rev. T. A. Jefferies, E.L.S., The Clause, Littleborough. 
Mr. C. B. Newton, Waterworks Engineer, Hull. 
Mr. George W. Roome, B.Sc, E.G.S., 214 Psalter Lane, 

Sheffield. 
Miss H. M. Robinson, B.A., E.L.S., Central School, HuU. 
Mr. George Sheppard, B.Sc, E.G.S., Sunny Bank, Withern- 

sea. 

Soppitt Memorial Library. — Dr. T. W. Woodhead reports 
that the additions to the Library during the year include gifts 
by Mr. C. Crossland of Halifax, of a collection of 400 packets 
of Mosses chiefly Yorkshire specimens, many collected on 

Naturalist, 



Yorkshire Naturalists Union: Annual Report, 1915. 47 

Yorkshire Naturalists' Union excursions, comprising about 
270 species and varieties, each packet bearing the species 
numbers in Hobkirk's ' Synopsis ' (1884) and Dixon's ' Hand- 
book ' (1896). All are carefully labelled with date, locality 
and collector's name. Accompanying the collection are 18 
papers and catalogues relating mainly to Mosses and Hepatics 
by Hobkirk, Dixon, Salmon, Carrington, Wager, Jameson, 
Macvicar and Cavers. ■ 

Mr. W. Denison Roebuck has presented copies of his papers 
on the ' Salient Features in the History of the Yorkshire 
Naturalists' Union.' and ' Jai Singh and his Indian Astro- 
nomical Observations.' We have also received Vol. 37 of the 
Journal of the Derbyshire Archaeological and Natural History 
Society.' 

British Association.— Mr. T. Sheppard, M.Sc. represented 
the Union at the Conference of Delegates from Corresponding 
Societies held in connection with the British Association at 
Manchester. Important papers on Provincial Societies and 
their work, and on Provincial Museums, were given by Sir 
Thomas Holland and Dr. W. E. Hoyle respectively. Mr. 
Sheppard's criticisms thereon appeared in the ' Notes and 
Comments ' column in The Naturalist for October. 

The Naturalist has well maintained its status throughout 
the year, much interesting information concerning the natural 
history of the County having appeared within its pages. 

The Presidency. — On the invitation of the Executive 
the Presidency for igi6 has been accepted by Mr. W. N. 
Cheesman, J. P., F.L.S., Selby. The Union wishes to record 
its indebtedness to its retiring President, Mr. Riley Fortune, 
F.Z.S., of Harrogate, for his services during his year of office. 

Financial Statement. — The following is the Hon. Treas- 
urer's (Mr. Edwin Hawkesworth) Statement of Receipts and 
Payments : — 



1916 Jan. 1. 



48 Yorkshire Naturalists' Union: Annual Report, igi^- 

INCOME AND EXPENDITURE STATEMENT, 
12 months to November 15, 1915. 



INCOME. 

£ s. d. £ s. d. 
Members' Annual 

Subscriptions, arrears 8 8 

,, 1915 92 9 5 

„ 1910 1 1 G 

101 18 11 

Levies from Associated 

Societies, arrears 1 14 3 
„ 1915 11 U lu 

13 1 1 

Life Members' Subscriptions {contra) 14 7 

Sales of Publications 9 

Bank Interest 2 10 4 

Anonymous Donation towards Cost 

of Transactions 5 



' Naturalist ' — £ s. d. 

Subscriptions, arrears 6 10 

„ 1915 79 15 

1916 15 



Recognition fee ., 
Discount 



87 





5 





2 14 


6 



94 14 6 
jf232 10 



EXPENDITURE. 

£ s. d. 

Expenses oi; Meetings 18 7 

Printing and Stationery (General A/c) 19 7 5 
Postages, etc. (Hon. Secretaries' A/c) 14 16 'J^ 
Clerkage, „ „ 10 

Stationery, etc. (Hon. Treasurer's 

Account) 19 9 

Postages etc., „ 2 1 

Life Members' Account [contra) . . 14 7 

Cost of Wreath 10 

Cost of Publications : — 

Annual Report, 1914 . . £6 15 
„ ,, 1915 ..600 

12 15 
Less — Provision in A/cs 

for 1914 6 

6 15 

Transactions 18 1 4 

' Naturalist ' 

Subscribers' Copies . .£95 5 
Exchanges . . . . 3 1 3 

Sundries 2 5 4 

Editor's Postages, etc. 11 15 4J 
Extra pages . . . . 4 15 

116 17 4J 

Balance, being excess of Income over 

Expenditure during 1915 .. .. 22 7 

/■232 10 



BALANCE SHEET, November 15, 1915. 



LIABILITIES. 

£ s. d. 
Amounts due from Union — 

' Naturalist ' 

Annual Report, 1915 

Subscriptions received in advance. . 

Life Members' Account 

' Hey ' Legacy Account 
Balance, being excess of Assets over 
Liabilities, Nov. 15th, 1915 



Audited and found correct, 
Nov. 2Gth, 1915. 



/,2U 6 11 



WALTER GARSTANG, 
ALBERT GILLIGAN. 



ASSETS. 

£ s. d. 

Cash at Bank .... 195 7 9 
Cash in Hon. Secretary's 

hands 5 4 4J 

Cash in Hon. Treasurer's 

hands 1 1 11 

201 14 OJ 
Less : Cash due to Hon. 

Editor 7 IJ 

Subscriptions in Arrears. . 16 7 3 
Less : Amount written 

off as unrealisable . , G 7 3 



201 11 



10 



£211 6 11 



E. HAWKESWORTH, 

Hon. Treasurer. 



Naturalist, 



BIBLIOGRAPHY 

OF 

YORKSHIRE GEOLOGY 

1534-1914. 

By T. SHEPPARD, m.sc, f.g.s , f.r.g.s., f.s.a.(scot.) 

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This forms Volume XVIII. of the Proceedings of the Yorkshire 
Geological Society. It contains full references to more than 6,300 
books, monographs and papers relating to the geology and physical 
geography of Yorkshire, and to more than 400 geological maps and 
sections, published between 1534 and 1914. In its preparation over 
700 sets of Scientific Journals. Reports, Transactions and Magazines 
have been exam.ined. There is an elaborate index containing over 
26,500 references to subjects, authors and localities. 

To be obtained from the Hon. Sec. : — 

A. GILLIGAN, B.Sc, The University, Leeds, 
or from A. BROWN & SONS, LTD., Savile Street, Hull, 
AND 5 Farringdon Avenue, e.g. 

THE LOST TOWNS 
OF THE YORKSHIRE COAST 

And other Chapters bearing upon the 
Geography of the District. 

By T. SHEPPARD, M.Sc, F.G.S., F.R.G.S., F.S.A.(Scot.). 

j^2 pages Demy 8vo, imth over 100 illustrations. Cloth Boards, 

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A new Volume which contains much valuable information 
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by plans, engravings, etc., including many which are published 
for the first time ; and chapters have been added on Geology, 
x^ntiquities. Natural History, and other subjects relative to the 
scientific aspect of the district. 

LONDON 

A. BROWN & SONS, Ltd., 5 Farringdon Avenue, E.G. 
and all booksellers. 



Map of Watsonian 
Vice Counties of Yorkshire 

Prepared with the assistance of 
Mr. W. DENISON ROEBUCK. ] 

Printed on stout paper, size 6x8, with a space for notes. 

25, lOd.; 50, 1/6; 100, 2/6; 500, 10/6. 

Post free in each case. 



The pubhshers have pleasure in announcing that at the suggestion 
of readers of The Naturalist, the Map appearing in the December 
number has been re-issued separately. The map is of special service 
to naturalists, as it enables them to record their captures according 
to the vice-counties as given in Watson's Topographical Botany. 

WATKINS & DONCASTER 

ISrA^TXJR^LTSTS. 
3G, STRAND, LONDON, W.C. 

(Five Doors from Charing Cross), 

Keep in stock every description of 

APPARATUS, CABINETS, BOOKS, AND SPECIMENS 

for Collectors of 

BIRDS' EGGS, BUTTERFLIES, MOTHS, ETC. 

Catalogue (96 pages) sent post free on application. 

'THE NATURALIST' for 1915. 

EDITED BY 
T. SHEPPARD, M.Sc., F.G.S., and T. W. WOODHEAD, M.Sc, Ph.D., F.L.S. 

Tastefully bound in Cloth Boards, 7/- net. 

Contains 420 pages of excellent reading matter, and numerous 
illustrations throughout the text. 



The Volume includes many valuable and attractive articles 
by some of the most prominent naturalists and leading scientific 
men in the country, and forms a handsome, well illustrated, and 
most acceptable present to all interested in outdoor life. 



Printed at Browns' Savile Press, 40, George Street, Hull, and published by 
A. Brown & Sons, Limited, at 5 Farringdon Avenue, in the City of London. 

Jan. 1st, 1916. 



FEB. 1916. 



No. 709 

(No. 486 of cut ent seriei) 




A MONTHLY ILLUSTRATED JOURNAL OF 

NATURAL HISTORY FOR THE NORTH OF ENGLAND. 

EDITED BY 

T. SHEPPARD, M.Sc, F.Q.S., F.R.Q.S., F.S.A.Scot., 

Thk Museums, Hull ; 

AND 

T. W. WOODHEAD, Ph.D., M.Sc, F.L.S., 

Technical College, Huddersfield. 

WITH THE assistance AS REFEREES IN SPECIAL DEPARTMENTS OF 

J. aiLBBRT BAKBR, P.R.S. P.L.S., QEO. T. PORRITF, F.L.S.. F.E.S.. 

Prof. P. F. KENDALL, M.Sc. P.Q.S,, JOHN W. TAYLOR, M.Sc, 

T. H. NELSON. M.Sc. M.B.O.U.. RILEY FORTUNE, F.Z.S. 



Contents : — 

Notes and Comments (illustrated): — The Vasciiluin ; Nomenclature: Fossil Zones and 
Geological Time ; Habits of Biack-headed Gulls ; Plants and Light ; Sussex Birds 

The Protection of Wild Life in Yorkshire— W. Fortune, F.Z.S 

Yorkshire Hawkweeds— 7o/i(i Crycr 

Notes on some Danish Mollusca— Hmis Schlcsch 

Psylla bagaalli (Harrison) : A New Species of Psyilid (Ilhist.i— y. W. H. Harrison, B.Sc. 

Recent Work on Prehistoric Man 

Bibliosfraphy : Papers and Records relating to the Geology and Palaeontology of the North 
of England (Yorkshire excepted), published during 1916 — T. Sheppard, M.Sc, F.G.S. 

Yorkshire Naturalists' Union : Entomological Section—/?. Morhy 

In Memoriam : J. R. Stubley 

A Yorkshire (?) Sooty Tern ; Hybrid Epilobiurn in 



Field Notes : — Cordyccps capitata 
Cheshire 

Reviews and Book Notices... 

News from the Magazines ... 

Northern News 

Illustrations 



52, 
63, 66, 



PAGB 

49-52' 
53-59 
59-60 
61 
62-63; 
64-66 

67-7+ 

75-76 

7& 

77 78 
79,80 
76,78 
60,80 
49, 62 



LONDON : 

A. Brown & Sons, Limited, 5, Farringdon Avenue, E.G. 

And at Hull and York. 

Printers and Publishers to the Y.N. U. 



Prepaid Subscription 6/6 per annum, post free. 



YORKSHIRE NATURALISTS' UNION, 



VERTEBRATE SECTION. 

Pvesident of the Section : W. H. PARKIN, Esq. 



Two ^leetings will be held in Room C7 at the Leeds Institute, Leeds, at 3-15 p.m. and 
6-30 p.m. respectively, on Saturday, February 19th, 1916. 

Business : 

To appoint Bird Watchers for 1915, and discussion upon other matters in connection 
with the Yorkshire Wild Birds' and Eggs' Protection Acts' Committee. 

Papers (mostly illustrated by lantern slides or specimens) will be given as follows ; — ■ 

"Yorkshire Reptiles," Mr. Oxley Grabham, M.A. ; 

" Some Freshwater Fishes," Mr. Sidney H. Smith; 

" The Avifauna of some West Riding Reservoirs," Mr. Walter Greaves ; 

"Notes on the Extinct Great Auk," Mr. E. Wilfred Taylor. 

Any Member or Associate of the Yorkshire Naturalists' ITnion, is invited to attend, 
M\d to bring notes, specimens, lantern slides, etc., and is requested to bring forward matters 
of interest connected with the work of the Section, and to take part in any discussion. 

Will officials of Affiliated Societies notify their members ? 

Any further particulars from A. HAIGH-LUMBY (Hon. Sec)., 

II Nab Drive, Shiple^^ 



BRYOLOGICAL SECTION. 

This Section will meet at Huddlestone Quarry at noon on March 4th. The nearest 
■stations are Mickleheld or Sherburn on the N.E.R. 

CHRTS. A. CHEETHAM (Hon. Sec). 



BOOKS WANTED. 

Naturalists' Journal. \'ol. L 

W. Smith's New Geological Atlas of Eng^land and Wales. 1819-21. 

W. Smith's Stratigraphical System of Org-anised Fossils. 1817. 

Frizinghall Naturalist. Vol. 1., and part 1 of Vol. II. (lithograplied). 

Illustrated Scientific News. 1902-4. (Set). 

journal Keighley Naturalists' Society. 410. Part i. 

Cleveland Lit. & Phil. Soc. Trans. Science Section or others. 

Proc. Yorks. Nat. Club (York). Set. 1867-70. 

Keeping's Handbook to Nat. Hist. Collections. (York Museum). 

lludderslield Arch, and Topog. Society. 4 Reports. (1865-1869). 

l"'ii-st Report, Goole Scientific Societj'. 

The Naturalists' Record. Set. 

The Natural History Teacher (Huddersfield). Vols. I.-II. 

Tlie Economic Naturalist (Huddersfield). \"ol. I. 

The Naturalists' Guide (Huddersfield). Set. 

The Naturalists' Almanac (Huddersfield). 1876. 

" Ripon S|)urs," by Keslington. 

.l/)/)/j/— Editor, The 'ViMseum, HmP 



49 



NOTES AND COMMENTS. 



THE VASCULUiM. 

The December number of The Vascnlum (part 4) appar- 
ently completes the first ' volume,' though there is no title 
page. It contains pages 97-128. Among the more important 
items are A List of Birds of the Outer Fames, by E. Millerf; 
A New Rose {Rosa eniinens) [Rosa Eminenslin\the ' Contents'] 
by J. W. H. Harrison ; ' Plant Galls,' by R.^S._Bagnall and 




2D 1P!B 



H. S. Wallace ; ' Uncommon Birds in North Tyne,' by A. 
Chapman ; ' Northumberland Lakes,' by H. Jeffreys ; ' Vespa 
austriaca ' [V. Austriaca in ' Contents '], by J. W. H. Harrison ; 
' Snout Mites in Durham,' by J. E. Hull, and ' The Ruff in 
Durham,' by C. E. Milburn. We are not quite sure whether 
Mr. Harrison has made out a case for a new form of rose (the 
illustration of which we are kindly permitted to reproduce) as 
there is extraordinary variation amongst the wild roses, but 
at any rate he gives a detailed description of it. In his notes 
the Rev. Hull describes two more species of Snout Mites, 
viz., Bdclla lacustris and B. calva, ' Yoskshire,' (p. 125), 
savours of the far east ; there is much broken type ; the photo 

1916 Feb. 1, 



50 Notes and Comments, 

of the nest of the Reeve by T. H. Nelson is very poor ; and the 
' Index to Vol. I.' which occupies less than ninety entries on one 
page, is not a worthy one. Though the magazine is ostensibly 
devoted to Northumberland and Durham, it includes Cumber- 
land and Westmorland ' and parts of all other coimties bor- 
dering on Northumberland and Durham,' in this way closely 
resembling the area covered by The Lancashire and Cheshire 
Naturalist, which, in turn, seems to have chosen almost the 
area covered by The Naturalist. Anyway, there is nothing 
in the index to Vol. I. of The Vasciilnm to show which, if 
any, counties are referred to in the notes, nor are any author s 
names, nor localities given. 

NOMENCLATURE. 

In a recent number of Nature, Dr. Chalmers Mitchell draws 
attention to the fact that Mr. G. S. Miller has recently des- 
cribed plaster casts of the famous remains of early m.an from 
Piltdown, and he considers that the lower jaw has no con- 
nection with the remains of the skull. Without having seen 
the actual specimen he describes it as Pan veUis, so that 
according to Mr. Miller, the object described by Dr. Smith 
Woodward, and in his charge at the British Museum, should 
be cited as the type specimen of Pan vetiis G. S. Miller, this 
being an extinct Chimpanzee ! 

FOSSIL ZONES AND GEOLOGICAL TIME. 

At a recent m.eeting of the Cambridge Philosophical Society, 
Dr. J. E. Marr read some notes on ' Fossil Zones and Geological 
Time.' An attem,pt was m.ade to estim.ate the time required 
for the accum.ulation of the fossilferous rocks by taking the 
case of chalk, comparing its rate of accumulation with that of the 
modern globigerinous ooze, and then calculating the number 
of fossil-zones in the chalk and in the whole of the fossiliferous 
strata. The result obtained suggests a minimum period of not 
fewer than 21,000,000 years for the formation of the fossiliferous 
strata. The controlling factors are too uncertain to permit 
much stress to be laid on this estimate, which is probably much 
too low, but according to it the evolution of organisms from 
the beginning of Cambrian times onwards need not have 
occupied a period of time greater than that which on various 
grounds is granted to geologists by followers of other sciences. 
The method may be applied with nearer approximation to 
accuracy, in estimating the relative importance of different 
groups of strata ; thus the number of zones in Palaeozoic and 
Mesozoic rocks respectively indicates that the period during 
which the former were being laid down was not necessarily 
much longer than that required for the accumulation of the 
latter. 

. Naturalist, 



Notes and Comments. 51 

HABITS OF BLACK-HEADED GULL. 

At a recent meeting of the Linnean Society, Mr. T. A. 
Coward read a paper on ' A Change in the Habits of the Black- 
headed Gull.' Owing to the remarkable increase in its numbers 
since the Wild Birds' Protection Act of 1880, this Gull has 
extended its range inland, and it is now an inland as well as a 
shore bird. This increase, in North Cheshire, has resulted 
in a noticeable change of habit, secondary to the change 
m.entioned above, for within the last few years the bird has 
been roosting nightly on the waters of Rostherne Mere during 
autumn, winter and early spring. Normally, the roosting 
and feeding hours of a bird which feeds upon the coast are 
regulated by the tides, but these Cheshire birds retire to roost 
like any other diurnal bird, about sundown. The area which 
these regular diurnal feeding and nocturnal sleeping Black- 
heads frequent, is contiguous to an area where others of the 
same species feed and sleep according to the constantly changing 
hours of the tide in the neighbouring Mersey estuary. 

PLANTS AND LIGHT. 

Dr. Harold Wager's evening discourse delivered before the 
British Association at Manchester on the behaviour of plants 
in response to the light, is printed in Nature for December 
23rd. It is illustrated by a remarkable series of photographs 
showing the effect of light upon leaves, etc. In accounting 
for this. Dr. Wager says : ' We may imagine that in the plant 
the action is as follows : — The light is absorbed by, and excites, 
certain photo-active substances in the cells of the sensitive 
region. A stimulus is thus set up which is conveyed through 
the cytoplasmic fibrils of the protoplasts to the motor region. 
A further impulse is then set up which acts upon the cells 
in the motor region, by which it is probable that changes in 
the permeability of the protoplasts are effected ; the turgor 
conditions of the cells are thereby differentially altered, and 
the result is a motor response. We have here, in fact, a very 
simple type of reflex act taking place through the agency not 
of highly specialised nerve-cells, but of ordinary protoplasm 
and of the delicate protoplasmic fibrils which extend from 
one cell to another.' 

SUSSEX BIRDS. 

We think the above would be a better title for our ornitho- 
logical contemporary, British Birds, as the first part in the 
new year is almost entirety occupied with Sussex records 
' seen in the flesh,' and several are ' new to the British list.' 
They are ' Moustached Warbler in Sussex ' (shot) ; ' Olivaceous 
Warbler in Sussex ' (shot) ; ' North African Black Wheatear in 
Sussex ' (shot) ; ' Cape Verde Little Shearwater in Sussex ' 

lai&.Fpb. 1 . 



53- - Book Notice. 

(one picked up, caught, and kept alive for two days) ; ' North 
Atlantic Great Shearwater in Sussex ' (washed ashore) ; ' Grey 
Rumped Sandpiper in Sussex ' (shot) ; ' White Winged Lark 
in Sussex ' (seen, and apparently allowed to live, this by a 
lady) ; ' Kildeer Plovers in Sussex ' (two were ' obtained ' 
but a third, ' being very wild has so far escaped the guns of 
the lookers ') ; ' Greater Yellowshank in Sussex ' (shot) ; 
' Mediterranean Black-headed Gull in Sussex ' (in this case the 
bird was seen, and, thank heaven, the writer ' is glad to say 
that no shooting is allowed along the front at Hastings and 
St. Leonards, so that I hope this bird may be allowed to remain 
unmolested and not meet with the fate that unfortunately 
happens to any rare birds which visit this neighbourhood '). 
Bravo, Mr. T. Parkin, and bravo, editor of British Birds for 
printing his observation. We don't, of course, suggest that 
any of the six new additions to the list of British birds ' seen 
in the flesh ' in Sussex, are at all on a par with the well-known 
Ripon ' new record ' which we recently exposed. We can 
only wonder ! At any rate our Sussex friends are apparently 
as confiding as they are vigilant. 

Bibliography of Yorkshire Geology (C. Fox-Strangways' 
Memorial Volume). Proc. Yorkshire Geol. Soc., Vol. XVIIL 
By T. Sheppard. 8vo. London, Hull and York : A. Brown 
and Sons, Ltd. 1915 (Dec), xxxvi. -)- 629 pp. Price 15s. net. 
Yorkshire geologists are in a fortunate position. For 
many years they have been favoured with annual lists of the 
writings on this subject, and Mr. Sheppard has completed 
Fox-Strangways' manuscripts, collected together all previous 
lists, revised the whole, consolidated it from. 1534 to 1914 and 
provided a colossal index by means of which the reader can 
find anything he desires. The test of such a work as this can 
only be proved by constant use. Here we can merely draw 
attention to its publication and its utility, to the time it is 
bound to save to the geological reader, and to the ease with 
which an interleaved copy can be annotated. The index 
seems as near completion as an index should be. We note 
one is able to find a paper under the author, the subject upon 
which he writes, and the locality he deals with. We even find 
subjects indexed under the preceding adjective, e.g., ' Figured 
specimen, York Museum,' a refinement usually considered un- 
necessary. But no one ever grumbles at an extra entry in'an 
index. We thank Mr. Sheppard for the care he has bestowed 
on Fox-Strangways' manuscripts, and the labour he has spent 
in adding to and completing other lists. His reward can only 
be in the quiet knowledge that he is helping others and the 
rarity of the thanks he will receive from those who use his 
work. — C. D. S. 

Natunlistr 



;53 

THE 
PROTECTION OF WILD LIFE IN YORKSHIRE.* 



R. FORTUNE, F.Z.S 



It has frequently been said to me that it is not necessary to 
trouble about the question of the protection of wild life in our 
county, as wild creatures generally are able to look after 
themselves, and are in no danger of extermination. With this 
view, however, I differ entirely. There are species in these 
islands which are rapidly disappearing and when once they have 
gone, nothing can replace them. It is the duty of the present 
generation to preserve our fauna in its entirety as a solemn 
task, and to pass on to future generations the safety of our 
wild creatures. 

No one man or no body of men should be allowed to bring 
any species of mammal or bird to a danger point of exter- 
mination, because for the moment they interfere with some 
matter in which they are concerned, either from a sporting 
or economic point of view. If allowed to do so they will rob 
thousands of individuals of the present and future generations 
of the pleasure that would be derived from personal knowledge 
of the species destroyed. 

We can have no better illustration of how quickly a species 
can be stamped out absolutely, than that of the American 
Passenger Pigeon ; the last example of which died of old age 
in the Cincinnati Zoological Gardens on September 7th, 1914, 
after being in captivity, I think, about 27 years. This bird 
used to flourish in the United States in extraordinary numbers. 
Even twenty years ago it was abundant in certain parts. With 
mysterious rapidity it has become extinct. 

The Chough might perhaps be cited as an example of a 
species which is in great danger of disappearing entirely from 
the British Isles. 

There are a lot of influences at work at the present day 
which help to bring about the destruction of our wild life. 
The 4,000 or so members and associates of the Yorkshire 
Naturalists' Union have a reputation, not a common one I 
am sorry to think as far as naturalists in general are concerned, 
for doing their utmost to protect, not only the mammals, birds 
and other vertebrates of the county, but the plant life too. 
Their exertions have also had excellent results in the preserva- 
tion and the prevention of the destruction of many of our 
• beauty spots and pathways. 

*The Presidential Address to the Yorkshire Naturalists' Union, 
delivered at Keighley on December 4th, 191 5. 

1916 Feb. 1. 



54 Protection of Wild Life in Yorkshire. 

Through the efforts of the Wild Birds' Protection Committee 
of the Union, the Wild Birds' Protection Acts, so far as thej^ 
relate to Yorkshire, have been greatly extended, and the three 
Ridings have been brought more into line with each other. 
There is still room for great improvements in these Acts. The 
names of many species might with advantage be deleted 
altogether, as they do not breed here, in fact have never 
nested with us and are not likely to do so. Confusion arises 
also through species being mentioned several times under 
different names, names by which they are never known in 
the county. 

When, some years ago, I was asked to attend upon and 
advise the Committee of the West Riding County Council 
in these matters, with a view of extending the list of protected 
species in the Riding. I pointed out the absurdity of keeping 
this list of names on the schedule, and suggested they should 
be deleted, but I was told, ' we will put any name on the list 
you think ought to go on, but we will take nothing off.' I 
was too much concerned in obtaining the additions I wanted, 
to trouble unduly about the others. 

There are. as I have previously said, m.any influences at 
work helping to destroy our wild birds especially. Game 
preserving is responsible for the destruction of num,bers of 
Hawks, Owls and members of the Crow fam.ily, and before it 
was made illegal their hateful pole traps encompassed the 
death, often with extreme and prolonged suffering, of many 
harmless and useful birds. These traps may even now, despite 
the Act, be found in some of the more inaccessible parts. 
Cases should at once be reported to our Wild Birds' Com- 
mittee, or if there should be an objection to this course, and I 
know circum.stances make such a course difficult at times, 
at least the traps should be destroyed and made useless. 
Things, however, are not nearly so bad as formerly ; many 
game preservers are only too anxious to protect all the birds 
upon their estates, and many keepers approach the problems 
connected with them in a judicial manner, anxious to preserve 
'a friendly neutrality, a number being quite good naturalists 
who study the habHs of the creatures closely. It is the 
ignorant, thoughtless man who is content to destroy those 
mammals and birds he considers harmful, just because his father 
and his father before him did so, that one would like, to deal 
with. One instance I may mention to show the harm done 
by men of this class. A large estate in the West Riding changed 
hands, the owner dying and being succeeded by his brother.. 
Upon this estate all Owls and Hawks have been protected ever 
since I can remember, and I have had free access over it nearly 
all my life. With the change of ownership the shooting was 
let for a time, this brought new keepers, who promptty started 

Naturalist, 



Protection of Wild Life in Yorkshire. 55 

exterminating both Owls and Hawks. I wrote to the owner 
drawing his attention to this state of things. I received in 
reply a most courteous letter thanking me for drawing his 
attention to the matter, which was entirely contrary to his 
desires, and sta.ting that he had given orders that for the future 
these birds were not to be molested. The sequel, I regret to 
say, is not a happy one, a visit paid to some of the old owl 
trees, did not reveal a single bird at home, so that apparently 
they are being still qiiietly destroyed. I could mention other 
similar cases. 

Game preserving has to its credit one good feature. It 
offers sanctuary and protection to thousands of smaller wild 
birds, who find secure havens in the quiet woods and coverts 
devoted to the rule of King Pheasant. 

Gardners, farmers and foresters are all to blame for much 
unnecessary destruction. The gardener, when he sees a bird 
destroying buds, immediately condemns it to death as a bad 
character, not troubling to ascertain whether the buds are 
sound ones or have, as is usually the case, a nice juicy grub 
in their centre. The farmer will shoot the Owls which are 
preying on the mice and rats about his ricks, also the Starlings, 
Rooks and Lapwings, which are doing their best to rid his 
land of ' leather-jackets ' and other noxious larvse. The 
forester will destroy the Woodpeckers, being usually ignorant 
of the fact that these birds do not attack sound trees. These 
statements may appear rather sweeping. There are, of course, 
manv m.embers of these classes whose num.be s are steadity 
increasing, who have studied the facts carefully for themselves, 
and instead of destroying do all they can to protect birds of 
econornic value. 

One of the evils to contend with are Sparrow clubs. If they 
confine them.selves to their legitimate object of keeping the 
numbers of Sparrows and Rats within reasonable bounds, no 
; objections would be raised against them ; but as at present 
constituted they are sim.ply a curse and ought to be stamped 
out as unclean things. Boys and loafers are encouraged for 
the sake of small rewards, in the destruction of sm.all birds 
and their eggs, so much per dozen being paid for eggs and the 
heads of their victims. 

Unfortunately there are several of these clubs in the county 
and they are increasing. Many of them do not confine their 
activities to Sparrows and Rats, but accept the heads of all 
small birds, consequently there is probably a larger proportion 
of useful insect eating Finches and Warblers destroyed than 
Sparrows. If these clubs cannot be ended, they should at 
least be under efficient control, so that the senseless slaughter 
of useful birds may be stopped. 

There are agencies at work, aiding in the destruction of 

1916 Feb. 1. 



;56 Protection of Wild Life in Yorkshire. 

bird life, altogether unsuspected by the general public. One 
of these is the increasing use of poisonous weed destroyers, 
worms and larvae destroyed by these chemical preparations 
come to the surface to die, and are often devoured by birds, 
with fatal results to the birds. Of late quite. large numbers 
of sea birds and ducks have been found dead and dying along 
the shores of the East coast, their feathers and wings clogged 
with thick oil, so much so, that it prevented them diving, and 
obtaining their food. The substance was said to be oil from 
submarines. Whatever the cause it appears that even the 
birds have to suffer from German ' fright fulness.' 

Cats, with an absolute contempt for the law, destroy an 
enormous number of young birds, especially cats kept near 
woods and coppices and about gardens which afford nesting 
sites for Thrushes and other small birds. When a cat runs 
wild and takes to the woods permanently, it is a terribly 
destructive agent. This summer I had three disappointments 
through an animal of this character. I had three Wood Warb- 
lers' nests under observa.tion. I was anxious to obtain some 
photographs, and in order not to unduly disturb the birds, I 
delayed my operations until the young were nearly ready to 
fly. I spent an hour or two with them one morning, but as 
the light was rather poor, the results were not altogether 
satisfactorv,. so I decided to try again the following day. which 
was nice and bright- Invariably vvhen approaching the nest 

> the parent birds were at once in evidence, their anxiety great, 
and their calls incessant. This m.orning as I drew near the 
silence was ominous, I knew things were not as they should 
be. Investiga.tion showed that the young had disappeared, 
and the inner lining of the nest had been torn out. Proceeding 
to another nest close at hand I was very disappointed to find 
the same fate had overtaken it and from a bush close by, a large 

' tortoise-shell tabby cat darted away. 

Bird catchers do a great amount of harm. The new clause 
in the Protection Acts, prohibiting bird catching on Sundays, 
has, however, curtailed their activities to a considerable extent, 

•as Sunday has been their principal day for operations. 

Formerly large numbers of Gulls and Terns were destroyed 
on the coast ; at one time huge quantities were shot to supply 
the demand of the feather and millinery trades. I remember 
once seeing seventeen dozen Terns, the result of a Sunday 
afternoon's shooting in Bridlington Bay, hung up in the engine 
house at the Spa. They had been shot by the engineer em- 
ployed there at that time, a Harrogate man I am sorry to say. 
He told me he sold them to the agents of the millinery houses 
for 7s. I id. per dozen. It is an easy matter to obtain any 
quantity of these birds, for when shooting into a flock from a 
boat, if one or two are injured and flop about on the surface 

i Katiiralist. 



Protection of Wild Life in Yorkshire. 57 

of the sea, the remainder of the flock will circle about therr\, 
showing evidences of great distress at the predicament of their 
fellows, thus offering the easiest of shots to the murderer. 
Many were also shot from the sands. I always considered 
this slaughter of Terns on the Yorkshire coast particularly 
abominable, for a little futher north a party of bird lovers 
among them, I am pleased to say, several mem.bers of the 
Yorkshire Naturalists' Union, combine to protect all the birds 
nesting on the Fame Islands. Great numbers of Terns were 
reared there in security only to meet their doom as they move 
southwards on the Yorkshire coast. Most of the areas about 
our coast towns are now closed to this class of work I am glad 
to say, and in the future I trust it will be impossible to witness 
such sights as the slaughter which occurred during an extra- 
ordinary flight of Great Skuas along the Yorkshire coast line. 

The last destructive agent, and not the least, I shall mention, 
is the collector. 

I have much sympathy with a collector of birds' eggs if he 
is a naturalist and content to take eggs in a strictly limited 
num,ber for his own collection, and by his own efforts, at the 
same time studying the habits of the birds. Unfortunately it 
generally happens that wlien a man starts to form a collection, 
with this limitation, he speedily strays av/ay from the course 
set and begins to desire series, taking every clutch which differs 
slightly from the ones he already has. Then he begins to 
take more clutches to exchange with friends and correspondents 
for species he does not possess. After a time he finds that 
certain sets which he has had for som.e time are beginning to 
be a bit faded, so they m,ust be replaced by fresh ones, and so 
on, until there is no end to his activities. 1 knew one collector 
in the north, who had an enormous collection, he imported 
large boxes full from Iceland and other places, using them to 
exchange with, and this man was not a naturalist ; he knew 
practically nothing about the birds and their habits. Quite 
a contrast was another who used to charter a steamer to go 
into the Arctic in the nesting season to find and take the eggs 
and study the birds him.self. He told me once that he had 
about 12,000 eggs in his cabinets and they had cost him quite 
£1 per egg to obtain. 

Then we have another class of collector, that of bird skins. 
He comes to the. Yorkshire coast or other parts on the north- 
east coast, often from London and other south country districts. 
He * blazes away ' into flocks of sm.all birds, killing and maiming 
dozens, in the hope of picking up amongst them something 
rare, or, perhaps, a new sub-species. One, a well-known man 
collecting further north than Yorkshire (he has done m.ore than 
his share here), asked som.e sportsmen staying in the same 
place, to shoot all the Marsh Tits they came across. The 

1916 Feb. 1. 



58 Protection of Wild Life in Yorkshire. 

object of this vandalism was the hope of by chance securing 
a specimen of the so-called Willow Tit. 

A number of present day leading ornithologists, as they 
consider them.selves, have had the colossal im.pudence to take 
upon themselves, unasked, the revision of the nomenclature 
of British birds and have, after considerable labour, thrust 
upon the public an undesired list.* In doing this they have 
placed the old order of things at sixes and sevens and have 
constructed a number of unnecessary sub-species. I m,ay point 
out that the inventive genius of these revisions is of such 
an order, that the only scientific nam.e they can invent for. 
our poor little Jenny Wren, form.erly known as Troglodytes 
vulgaris is Troglodytes, troglodytes, troglodytes, and other species 
are named in a sim.ilar manner. What a perfectly ridiculous 
exam.ple of misplaced energy ! 

I do not wish to dwell upon this, but to point out one un- 
fortunate result of their labours. Formerly their disciples were 
content to have type skins of certain species ; now numbers 
of individuals of these particular species must be shot, in the 
hope of securing now and then one of the sub-species. Ringing 
birds, a practice which has assumed large proportions, is 
responsible for a good deal of destruction and suffering. Birds 
are shot to obtain the rings, and I have seen birds. Lapwings 
and others, that through an accumulation of clay or maid on 
the rings, have caused sores and. festers to form upon the leg 
until it has cankered and at length dropped off.| 

We may congratulate ourselves upon the fact that mainly 
through the exertions of the Yorkshire Naturalists' Union,, 
this county will never allow the indiscriminate slaughter 
which goes on regularly in season and out of season, on the 
coasts of Kent and Sussex. Records are published almost 
monthly in that receptacle of obituary notices of rare visitors, 
British Birds, showing that a most careful watch is kept on 
all parts of there coasts where migrants or casual visitors are 
likely to land, and no matter what time of the year they arrive, 
they are promptly shot and proudly exhibited ' in the flesh ' by 
the perpetrator of the vandalism or his hireling. It is a 
standing disgrace and reproach to the authorities in these 
counties, and one can only hope that they will before long 
put an end to this abom,inable state of affairs. The Roj^al 
Society for the Protection of Birds, have I think, neglected 
their duties in that part of the world. 

If it were not for the birds our farms and gairdens would be 

* Since tlie issue of this List, an authorised one, by the B.O.U., has been 
published, which is much more acceptable to the general run of ornitholo- 
gists. — R.F. 

I Since this address was delivered, I have had a number of communica- 
tions confirming this statement.— R.F. 

Naturalist,. 



59 

devastated bj- the grubs of noxious insects, and overwhelmed 
by the insects themselves. Mr. Fred Enoch told us at Harro- 
gate recently that Professor Huxley had calculated that if a 
single pair of green flies were allowed to multiply unchecked, 
their progeny would in a single year equal in weight, in weight 
mind you, the whole of the population of China ! He gave 
us the volume and page of the Ray Society's Transactions 
where this statemnt is made and published, and how he made 
the calculation. This in itself is surely sufficient to prove how 
necessary it is to protect our insect-eating birds. We know 
too, how soon small mammals can increase and multiply. A 
rabbit a 3'ear old is generally a grandfather, and mice and rats 
increase even more rapidly. If they were not kept in check by 
the birds that prey upon them (and we must also give stoats 
and weasels a good deal of credit in this direction), they would 
soon over-run the land. 

{To he continued). 



YORKSHIRE HAWKWEEDS. 



JOHN CRYER. 

The following is an additional list of Yorkshire Hawkweeds 
to that published in this journal, April, 1909, and February, 
1910. I am deeply indebted to the Rev. E. F. Linton, M.A., 
for his generous help and for his copious and critical notes. 

H. anglicum Fr. var. Brigantiini F. J. Hanb. Linton, 
Ghaistrills, Bastow Wood, near Grassington. New locahties. 

H. lasiophyllum Koch. var. euryodon F. J. Hanb. — Cronkley 
Scars, Teesdale. New to North Riding and to Yorkshire. 
Found by the writer, July 6th, 1913. IMr. Linton' says : 
' Correct, though slightly different in the clothing of the 
involucre from other forms of the variety.' 

H. britannicum F. J. Hanb. In abundance in Ling Gill. 
The only other recorded Yorkshire locality is Linton, near 
Skipton. 

H. scoticum F. J. Hanb. Ling Gill and Littondale. This 
was first recorded for Yorkshire by T. A. Cotton in 1892, who 
found it at Deepdale in Upper Wharfedale. Two or three 
plants were seen in Ling Gill, but it was fairly abundant in 
Littondale, August, 1913. 

H. stenolepis Lindeb. Mr. A. Ley in Supplement of Journal 
of Botany, January, 1909, page 5, says : ' No form of H . steno- 
lepis appears to occur in Yorkshire.' The writer found several 
examples of type in Heseldon Gill, June 26th, 1915- 

H. pellucidnm Laestad. Hackfall Woods, near Tanfteld, 
June 7th, 1913. A new station for it in the north Riding. 

1916 Feb. 1. 



6o Northern News. 

11. crehridens Dahlst. There are two distinct forms of this 

' interesting hawkweed — a Scotch form which was taken as 

type, and an Irish form. The Scotch form grows at Arnchffe 

and the Irish form at Linton near Skipton. Fine examples of 

■'each were gathered in June, 1913. A third form with more 

'cordate leaves which Mr. Linton describes as the ' Yorkshire 

plant ' was found at High Force in Teesdale, June 5th, 1914. 

H. sagiUaUim Lindeb. var. subhirUim F. J. Hanb. Winch 
Bridge, Yorkshire side, Teesdale, June 6th, 1914. A new 
Yorkshire record I believe. 

H. rotnndattim Kit. Ling Gill, August loth, 1912. After, 

'careful examination of specimens from Ling Gill, Mr. Linton 

'Writes : ' I am much inclined to place this plant to H. rotiin- 

idaiitm Kit., a Yorkshire form with rather broader leaves and 

, fewer heads than Scotch or Scandinavian specimens usually 

nave. I do not think Yorkshire has been credited with this 

species, but it might well occur.' This hawkweed has only 

been recorded for two counties in Scotland — Forfarshire and 

Perthshire; not hitherto recorded for England. 

H. caesium Fr. Mr. A. Ley in Journal of Botany [he. cit.) 
says : ' not detected in Yorkshire.' Mr. Linton unhestitatingh- 
places a series of plants gathered in Bastow Wood near Grass- 
inton, June 12th, 1911, under the above name. 
l H. acroleucum Stenstr. Ling Gill. There are only three 
§tations known in West Yorkshire — Ribblehead, Shipley, and 
' a^ove. 

H. mtttabile A. Ley. Heseldon Glen, August nth. 1913. 
pirst record for Yorkshire. Since found in Ling Gill, Gordale, 
and in Bastow Wood. 

H. orarium Lindeb. Heseldon Glen, June 26tli, 1915. 
New to Yorkshire ; a first record. 

H. macidat'um Sm. Heseldon Glen, Bastow Wood, Ling 
Gill. New localities. 

H. rigiditm Hartm. var. Friesii Dahlst. Near Grassington. 
A 'rare' Yorkshire hawkweed. Confirmed by Mr. Linton. 

H. crocatum Fr. Abundant in Ling Gill. A new locality. 

The writer of these notes is very anxious to make as com- 
plete a record as possible of Yorkshire hawkweeds, and would 
,|)e glad to co-operate with any Yorkshire botanists who are 
interested in this difficult yet interesting genus. Any com- 
munications addressed to 182 Bradford Road, Shipley, will 
receive immediate attention. 



) We .should like to offer our congratulations to Sir Archibald Geikie, 
who has ju.st celebrated his 80th birthday. 

The Geological Society has awarded its Murchison medal to Dr. R. 
Kidston, whose work on the Fossil Flora of the Yorkshire Coalfields is 
well-known to our readers ; and the Lyell medal to Dr. C. W. Andrews 
of the ]^)ritish Museum. 



6 1 
NOTES ON SOME DANISH MOLLUSCA. 



HANS SCHLESCH. 
HelUrup, Denmark. 

Helix (Helicella) candicans Ziegler, and Helix {Theba) 
carthusiana Miiller, in Denmark. 

Some time ago, Mr. Niels Petersen, of Copenhagen, who for 
several years has assisted me in the collecting of mollusca, 
sent me a small box containing living examples of land-shells 
found near the fortress of Jaegersborg near Copenhagen. 
To my great pleasure they proved to be Helix candicans and 
H. carthusiana, which have not hitherto been found in Den- 
mark. Both these species may be seen in my collection in 
the Hull Museum. 

Helix {Helicella) candicans Ziegler, varies considerably 
in size, form and colour. The variety anomala of Wester- 
lund is very common, while the variety usta of Held is rarer. 
A Swedish malacologist, Mr. Harald Muckardt, found a 
single specimen in 1907, at Helsingborg (Scania), in Sweden, 
and it was noted more than fifty years ago by Dr. Poulsen 
and Von Martens near Frederiksvaern in Norway. Mr. 
Muckardt believes it is carried with foreign turnip seed. 

Helix {Theba) carthusiana Miiller occurred in two forms, 
the type and the variety minor of Westerlund. This find is 
very interesting, as it has not hitherto been recorded from 
Scandinavia. Even in Germany this characteristic South- 
European species is found onl}' in few places, invariably on 
chalky soil. According to Clessin, the species lives only in 
climates which are softened by the gulf-stream. This 
explains its occurrence in Great Britain. 



Pupa arctica Wallenberg. — Since my note on the dis- 
tribution of Pupa arctica Wallb.,* I have learned that this 
arctic species is found in the Val d'Herens (Valois), in Switzer- 
land, at an elevation of 1700 m., and in the Sudeten at an 
elevation of 1600 m.| Mr. Plaget says that it also occurs in 
the Faroe Islands, but it is not yet recorded for this locality, 
though it might verj^ possibly live there as well as at high 
altitudes in the British Isles. — Hans Schlesch. Hellerup, 
Denmark. 

* The Naturalist, Aug. 1914. 

•[• Plaget ' Un MoUusque Arctique habitant les Alpe.s Suisses, ' Feiiille 
des jeunes Naturalistes, Jan. 1914. 

1916 Feb. 1. 



62 



PSYLLA BAGNALLI (HARRISON; 
SPECIES OF PSYLLID. 



A NEW 



j. W. HESLOP HARRISON. B.Sc. 

Middlesbrough. 



In the main the genus Psylla (Geoft'roy) is very homogeneous 
but even in it are sorne small but well marked groups of closely 
allied species ; these, however, are not sufficiently distinct 
from the main groups to be dignified with even subgeneric 
rank. Such a minor group is formed by the subject of the 
present paper, Psylla bagnalli (mihi) and the three species Ps. 
melanonciira (Forster), Ps. nigyita (Zetterstedt), and Ps. sub- 
ferruginea (Edwards). In addition to these, I possess a fifth 
species, provisionally named Ps. proxima, allied to Ps. melan- 




Male caudae. 



. I. — Ps. bagnalli. 
II. — Ps. siibferruginea. 



Fig-. III. — Ps. melanoneura, 
., IV. — Ps, nigrita. 



oneura, but differing from it in thoracic pattern and, more 
particularly, in the genal cones which, instead of being approxi- 
mated and darkish, diverge widely and have somewhat knobbed 
whitish tips. This I refrain from describing as up to the 
present I have only taken specimens of the female sex. Judging 
from the food plants, the group is northern in origin for Ps. 
nigrita and possibly Ps. melanoneura feed on Pinus ; Ps. siib- 
ferruginea on birch, and Ps. bagnalli on rush. 

Psylla bagnalli (sp. n.). 

Length of body 1-8-2 ni.m. ; wing length, 2*25 m..m. ; 
width of head 75- "8 m.m. General colour reddish orange. 
Vertex broad, twice as broad as long, pale in colour, tending 
to white centrally. Genal cones palish, almost white, yellow- 
ish at the base, pubescent, not divergent, rounded at the tip, 
about four-fifths as long as the vertex. Eyes, blackish in 
front, then sharply rust coloured and posteriorly white. Front 
ocellus reddish orange. Antennae one and a half times as 
long as breadth of head, joints i, 2 and 3 fuscous, 4, 5, and 6 
black at apex, fuscous at base, 7, 8, 9, and 10 black, 9 and 10 

JMaturalist, 



Psylla hagnalli {Harrison) : a new species of Psyllid. 63 

forming a slight club. Mouth parts blackish. Pronotum 
outlined in black anteriorly, pale (almost white) behind with a 
fine black line terminally ; praescutum reddish orange ; 
scutum the same, thoracic pattern much the same pattern as 
in Ps. melanoneura but very indistinct. 

Wings smoky fuscous, clearer in the two basal cells and 
near the \eins. Pterostigma pale, appears white in some 
lights ; veins brownish black. 

Legs rather stout, palish, claws blackish ; spur at base 
of tibiae obsolete but two or three black bluntish spines at 
apex ; claws blackish. Abdomen paler, in some cases even 
greenish. 

Genitalia — Male. — Anal valve longish but quite typical, 
finely hairy as are also the forceps which are rather small, 
sinuate or thumb-like in outline ; forceps one half the length 
of valves. 

Female. — Genital segment very long, as long as the rest 
of the abdomen. Dorsal valve long, slender pointed, longer 
than the ventral valve. 

Habitat. — Taken by Mr. R. S. Bagnall, after whom I 
have named it, on rushes on Blanchland Common, Northumber- 
land. 

The nearest ally of the present species is Ps. subjerrtiginea, 
but it is readily distinguished from that form by its size, for it 
is only about two thirds of the size of P. subferruginea. 
Structural^, the two are easily separated in the male sex by 
the genitalia. The genitalia of Ps. bagnalli bear much the 
same relation to those of Ps. ferruginea as do those of Ps. sub- 
melanoneura to those of P. nigrita. 

The males of the four allied form.s can be easily recognised 
by the following table, and when once the males are known the 
females are just as readily separated on general characters : — 

(i) General colouration of insect. reddish brown or orange ; 
forceps one half the length of the anal valve (2). 

Insect dark in tone ; forceps two-thirds or more the length 
of the anal valve (3). 

(2) Insect smaller ; outer edge of forceps sinuate, Ps. 
bagnalli (mihi). 

Insect larger ; outer edge of forceps concave, Ps. subferru- 
ginea (Edw.). 

3. Outer edge of forceps distinctly sinuate, Ps. melanoneura 
(Forst). 

Outer edge of forceps basalty straightish, concave toward 
the tip, Ps. nigrita (Zett.). 



Mr. C. B. Moffat writes on 'The Crossbill and its Diet ' in The Irish 
Natumhst for January. 

1316 Feb. 1. 



RECENT WORK OM PREHISTORIC MAN. 

The remarkable impetus given in recent 3^ears to the study 
of prehistoric man, largely due to the wonderful discoveries 
at Piltdown, Sussex, by Messrs. Dawson and Smith Woodward, 
has resulted in the publication of quite a number of books 
on the subject, some of which have already been referred to 
in these pages. Different authors, interested in the discussion 
upon Eoanthropus daivsoni, have made a re-survey of previous 
important discoveries ; result — books. The first of those before 
us, ' The Antiquity of Man,' by Prof. A. Keith,* is obviously 
a direct result of the controversy he had with Dr. Smith Wood- 
ward as to the proper significance of the Piltdown remains. 
Nearly half the book is occupied by detailed descriptions of 
the Sussex specimens. Prof. Keith points out that most books 
on prehistoric man approach the subject from the point of 
view of the geologist. He therefore deals with it from the 
anatomist's standpoint. This accounts for the importance 
Prof. Keith gives to the ' Ipswich Man ' ; geologists, with their 
knowledge of the deposits in which the remains occurred, are 
of opinion that he is comparatively modern. The same may 
be said for other remains which, had Dr. Keith possessed the 
geological knowledge which is so essential in deciding matters 
of this sort, he would doubtless have treated differently. 
Though generally very interesting, the book is at times a little 
technical and difficult to follow ; some amends ■ are made, 
however, by the wealth of illustration. 

In ' Prehistoric Man and His Story.'! Pkof. G. F. 
Scott Elliot covers an enormous field. In fact the ground 
covered is so great and so varying that it naturally follows 
now and again that it gets a bit unstable and swampy, and 
while we will not go so far as to say that the author gets out 
of his depth, yet at times he seems to get along with some diffi- 
culty. The following are the headings to one chapter : — 
' Embryonic Reasoning and Germs of Morals in Animals — 
Intelligence of Paramoecium, Crayfish, Tortoises and Birds- 
Emotional Possibilities in Birds — Ants which grow Corn and 
Fungi — Puzzle Boxes — Lemurs and Monkeys which throw 
Sticks and Stones — Oran-Utan — Aye-Aye — Peter and the 
Blackboard — Nest-building among Lemurs and Apes — Socia- 
bilitv and good and evil qualties of Monkeys — Appreciation of 
the Sun — Essential Differences of Lowest Man and Highest 
Animal Intelligence and Capacity of Brain— Unsatisfactory 
Figures — Weights of Brains — Size of Hat and Wealth — Growth 
of Skull in Gorilla and Man — Effect of Jaw and Neck Muscles — 



* London : Williams & Norgate xx. -\- 519 pages. los. 6d. net. 
t London : Seeley Service & Co., 398 pages, 7s. 6d. net. 



Naturalist, 



Recent Work on Prehistoric Man. 65 

Possible Assistance of peculiar arrangement in Man — Growth 
in Breadth — Effect on Jaws — Chin — Brow Ridges — Crested 
Skulls — Teeth — A Threat ening Prospect — Eyesight — Lan- 
guage — Tactfulness — The Great Steps — Monogenist — Polygam- 
ist.' This chapter is, not inappropriately, headed ' The Liniit 
of Humanity,' and as there are twenty-seven chapters, it will 
be seen that Professor Elliot covers some ground ! He has 
some elaborate tables, and is fond of figures — ' Oligocene, 
3,200,000 years ago,' etc. ; impressive, but not convincing. 
Speaking of Ice-x\ges, the author admits ' the question is 
really one of geology, and as James Geikie, Penck, Bruckner 
and Sollas (an unusual quartette !) agree as regards the general 
scheme of four Ice Ages, their opponents ought to shew wherein 
their geology is wrong.' Personally we thought this had often 
been done. ' Boyd Dawkins, Lamplugh, and other anthro- 
pologists in this country ' object to the arrangem.ent ! On the 
question of pigmy-flints the author seems to be under the 
impression that they were all made by ' the pigmy flint people 
who belonged to the Mediterranean race.' He admits ' it is 
very difficult to understand how they got to x\ustralia.' Quite 
so, and in recent tim.es the x\ustralian aborigines used 
stone axes almost identical in type with those found in York- 
shire, but nobody suggests that the people of East Yorkshire 
in neolithic times migrated to Australia ? There are not many 
aspects of the subject neglected by Professor Elliot, and as 
he gives an enormous number of references to publications, 
the student of any particular subject can refer to these. Among 
the illustrations are reproductions of the restorations of the 
different types of pre-historic man, by Professor Rutot, though 
these all seem to bear a strong famjly likeness. 

In ' An Introduction to the Study of Prehistoric 
Art,'* Mr. E. A. Parkyn gives a remarkable series of illus- 
trations of the artistic efforts of early man during the Palseo- 
lithic. Neolithic, Bronze and Early Iron Ages. There are also 
chapters on ' Late Keltic Art,' etc. Mr. Parkyn has gathered 
together an enormous number of representations of extinct 
animals, as drawn by palaeolithic man on bone, ivory, on the 
walls of caves, etc., but on examining them one wonders 
whether all the pictures really represent the work of primitive 
man. And similarly, though Mr. Parkyn states his case with 
caution, we should be inclined to think that many of the 
pieces of pottery ascribed to the Neolithic or new Stone 
Age, should really be looked upon as of the Bronze Age. That 
is certainly our opinion with regard to the East Yorkshire 
potter}^ mentioned. The Art of the Bronze Age, Early Iron 
x\ge, etc., is dealt with very clearly and very fully, and examples 

* Longmans, Green & Co., 349 pages, ids. 6d. net. 
1916 Feb. 1. 



66 Neit'S from the Magazines. 

are illustrated from, various parts of the country, and abroad. 
There are over 300 ilhistrations to the volume. Mr. Parkyn 
will find m,ore information in reference to Yorkshire Chariot 
Burials in The Yorkshire Archaological Journal, part 76, 1907. 
' Prehistoric London, its Mounds and Circles,' is a 
som,e\vhat remarkable book by E. 0. Gordon.* It is dedicated 
to Sir Melville and Lady Beachcroft, ' The latter the lineal 
descendant of Beli Mawr, King of All Britain and Wales, B.C. 
132.' The author begins by telling us that ' x\mm.eu Pob 
Anwybod,' i.e., ' Everything Unknown is Doubted,' which 
seems reasonable enough. Presum.ably Lady Beachcroft's 
pedigree is known. As a frontispiece is a plan showing some 
hills around London viz. {a) Llandin (llan = sacred, di.n = 
eminence), this being Parliament Hill ; [b] Penton (Pen = 
head, ton=sacred mound) ; (c) Bryn Gwyn (Bryn=hill, 
Gwyn=white or holy), where the Tower of London now is, 
and {d) Tothill (Tot=a sacred mound), Westminster. All 
this is probably new to most Londoners. The name London 
itself is the ' Llandin ' — welsh for High Place of Worship, or, 
if we wish to have an alternative derivation, we can have Llyn= 
the welsh for Lake. The author then takes us to the Isle of 
Man and shews us the Tynwald Hill ; to Stonehenge and Sil- 
bury Hill, to Glastonbury, and, as we expected he would, to 
Wales, and we are told about the Gorsedd, the Eisteddfod, 
the Maen Logan, etc. And he ends up with ' Duw a Digon ' 
(God and Enough), to which we say Amen ! 

: o :—— 



In the Scottish Naturalist for January is an article by Miss L. H. Huie, 
on ' The Habits and Life History of Hylemyia grisea Fall ; an Anthomyiid 
Fly new to the Scottish Fauna.' 

We learn from Bird Notes and News that ' from the Spurn Lighthouse 
come records of the perches having been used this autumn by, among other 
other species. Larks, Wheatears, Blackbirds, Starlings, Chaffinches, Nor- 
wegian Crows, and a Merlin.' 

Dr. F. Cavers writes on ' The Inter- Relationship of Protista and Primi- 
tive Fungi,' in the December N'ew Phytologist. This is one of the so- 
called ' double numbers,' but as it contains only forty-eight pages and one 
plate, the price of 4s. seems quite sufficient. 

The Lancashire and Cheshire Naturalist for December contains papers 
on ' Marram Grass and Dune Formation on the Lancashire Coast,' by 
W. G. Travis ; ' Derbyshire False-Scorpions,' by R. Standen ; ' Gall 
Midges and Gall Mites at Grange-over-Sands, ' by R. S. Bagnall. 

In The Zoologist for December, a letter dated March 25th, 1692-3, is 
quoted, as under : ' Thare is a great whale com a shore in lincornshire of 
a prodidous bigth so that a man of six feet hiy may stand uprite in his 
mouth & it is sold for a thousan pound.' It is considered to have been 
either a Sperm or a Right Whale. 

* London : Elliott Stock, x. -{- 212 pages, los. 6d. net. 

Naturalist ; 



67 



BIBLIOGRAPHY : 

Papers and Records relating to the Geology and Palaeontology of 
the North of England (Yorkshire excepted), published during 
1915- 

T. SHEPPARD, M.Sc, F.G.S. 



Previous Bibliographies have appeared as under : — 



For 1884 "i Tlu 

,, 1885 

,. 1886 

,, 1887 

„ 1888 

„ 1889 

,, 1890 

„ 1891 

,, 1892 

„ 1893 

„ 1894 

>, 1895 

,, 1896 

,, 1897 

,, 1898 

,, 1899 

,, 1900 

,, 1901 



1902 

1903 
1904 

1905 

1906 

1907 

1908 

1909 in 

1910 

1911 

1912 
1913 

1914 



Trans. Yorks 



Naturalist for Dec. 1885, pp. 394-406. 
Nov. 1886, pp. 349-362. 
June 1888, pp. 178-188. 
Feb. 1889, PP- 61-67. 
April-May 1890, pp. 121-138 
Nov. 1890, pp. 339-350. 
Oct. -Nov. 1891, pp. 313-330. 
July- Aug. 1892, pp. 219-234. 
Sept. 1893, pp. 265-279. 
Sept. -Oct. 1898, pp. 273-296. 
Mar. -April 1899, PP- 81-103. 
Oct. -Nov. 1899, pp. 305-324. 
June 1900, pp. 173-191. 
Jan. -Feb. 1901, pp. 17-36. 
Oct. -Nov. 1901, pp. 305-324. 
Oct. 1902, pp. 317-356. 
April 1903, pp. 141-160. 
Oct. -Dec. 1903, pp. 413-416 ; 

463-473- 
Nat. Union, pt. 34, 1909, pp. i 



17- 

PP- ^7-3Z- 

PP- 33-50. 

pp. 51-66. 

pp. 66-85. 

pp. 85-104. 

pp. 104-119. 

The Naturalist for July 1911, pp. 257-270. 

,, May-June 1912, pp. 152-160 ; 

188-190. 
,, Nov.-Dec. 1912, pp. 345-352 ; 

371-372- 
,, July 1913, pp. 261-270. 
,, May-June 1914, pp. 161-166 ; 

193-199. 
,, Aug.-Sept., 1915, pp. 271-274; 

303-306. 

In December last was issued a ' Bibliography of Yorkshire 
Geology,' forming Volume XVIII. of the" Proceedings of the 
Yorksh ire Geological Society (xxxvi.-f- 629 pp.) This contains 

1916 Feb. 1. 



68 Bibliography : Geology and Palceontology. 

26,500 entries relating to Yorkshire, published between 1534 
and 1914. In future the lists for Yorkshire only, will be 
published by the Yorkshire Geological Society ; the lists 
appearing in The Naturalist will refer to the other northern 
counties. 

Anon. Northern Counties. 

Eminent Living Geologists. William Whitehead Watts [refers to his work 
in the northern counties]. Geological Magazine, November, pp. 
481-487. 

Anon. Lines. N. 

Fossil Fungi and Fossil Bacteria [notice of Dr. D. Ellis's paper]. The 
Naturalist, November, pp. 355-356. 

Anon. Derbyshire. 

Fauna of the Limestone Beds at Treak Cliff, Castleton, Derbyshire. Zonal 
Determination [notice of paper by H. Day]. TJie Natuvalist, Novem- 
ber, pp. 350-352. 

Anon. Yorks., Lanes. 

The Heterangiums of the British Coal Measures, Heterangium lomaxi, 

Polydesmic Heterangium [notice of Dr. D. H. Scott's paper^. The 
Naturalist, November, pp. 354--^55- 

Anon. Yorkshire, Lanes., Northumberland. 

Quarries and River Pollution, Notes of the Royal Commission on Sewage 
Disposal. Quarry, May, pp. 109-110. 

Anon. Lanes., Yorks. 

The Carboniferous Limestone Zones of N.E. Lancashire ; An Old Battle 

fought over again : Origin of Reef Knolls [criticism of paper by 

Albert Wilmore, which see]. The Naturalist, October, pp. 329-331. 

Anon. Derbyshire. 

Derbyshire Roadstones. Quarry, August, p. 197. 

Anon. Lake District. 

Accessory Minerals in Lake District, Granite [notice of paper by R. H. 

Rastall and W. H. Wilcockson]. The Naturalist, August, pp. 251-252. 

Anon. Lanes., Cheshire. 

Liverpool Geologists. The Naturalist, February, pp. 56-57. 

Anon. Lake District. 

Ashgillian Succession [notes on Dr. INIarr's paper]. The Naturalist, May, 
pp. 151-2. 

Anon. Northern Counties. 

Eminent Living Geologists, Aubrey Strahan, M.A., Sc.D. [etc., with list of 
memoirs]. Geological Magazine, IMay, 193-198. 

Anon. Northern Counties. 

Catalogue of the More Important Papers, especially those referring to Local 

Scientific Investigations, published by the Corresponding Societies 

during the year ending May 31st, 1914. Rep. Brit. Assoc (Australia), 

1914, PP- 738-755- 



Bibliography : Geology and Paleontology. 6g 

Axon. Yorks., Lanes. 

Sections of Coal Strata; Sinker's Terms. The Xaturalist, July, pp. 215- 
216. 

Axon. Lake District, Isle of Man, etc. 

The Avonian Shore Line [notice of paper by Arthur Vaughan, which seel. 
The Naturalist^ October, pp. 332-333. 

Anon. Lanes. 

Dr. A Smith Woodward's Address [The L^se of Fossil Fishes in Strati- . 
graphical Gcologyj. The Xaturalist, May, p. 156, and November, 
PP- 349-350. 

George Abbott. Durham. 

Cavities due to Pyrites in Magnesium Limestone. Nature, June loth, p. 
395- 

A. Leslie Armstrong. ' Yorks., Lake District. 

' Carib ' Type of Axe found in Yorkshire [made of Borrowdale Ash]. ' Proc. 

Prehistoric Soc, East Anglia, \'ol. II., Pt. i, pp. 59-61.' See The 
Naturalist, January, 1916, p. 4. 

[L. L. Belixfaxte ; edited by]. Northern Counties. 

Abstracts of the Proceedings of the Geological Society of London [Nos- 

9'J3-97S, pp. 121J. 

Alfred Bell. Lancashire, Cheshire, Isle of Man. 

The Fossiliferous MoUuscan Deposits of Wexford and North lUanxland. 

Geological Magazine, April, pp. 1O4-169. 

H. H. [ArxolDj Bemrose. Derbyshire. 

Roadstones of Derbyshire. Quarry, October, pp. 246-247. 

Margaret Bexsox. Lanes. S. 

Recent Advances in our Knowledge of Sigillaria. ' Rep. Brit. Assoc' 
(Australia), 1914, p. 584. 

Herbert Boltox. Lanes. S. 

The Fauna and Stratigraphy of the Kent Coalfield [brief references to 
Lanes]. ' Trans. Maneh. Geol. and Min. Soc.,' Vol. XXXIV., Part 
6, pp. 158-217. 

J. J. Burtox. Northern Coast Counties. 

Coast Erosion. ' Proc Cleveland Nat. Field Club,' Vol. III., Part 2, 
for 1912-13, dated 1914 (published 1915), pp. 89-101. 

\V. L. C[arter1. Northern Counties . 

Geology at the British Association. Nature, October 17th, pp. 157-158. 

G. A. J. C[ole]. Yorks., Derbyshire, etc. 

Recent Work in Palaeontology [includes summary of H. Hamshaw Thomas's 

paper on ' Jurassic Flora of Cleveland,' and of Ivor Thomas's Memoir 

on 'British Carboniferous Produeti 'j. Nature, May 27th, pp. 354-356. 

— . Crewdsox. Lake District. 

New Fossiliferous Horizons in the Coniston Grits of Windermere. Geol- 
ogical Magazine, April, pp. 169-171. 

G. M. Davies. Cumberland. 

Detrital Andalusite in Cretaceous and Eocene Sands. Mineralogical 
Magazine, Vol. XVII., No. 81, September, pp. 218-220. 

1916 Feb. 1. 



70 BibliograpJiy : Geology and Palceontologv. 

Charles Davisox. Yorks., Derbyshire. 

Earthquakes in Great Britain (1889-1914). Geographical Journal, Novem- 
ber, pp. 357-374. See also Knoivledge, December, p. 354. 

Hexrv Day. Derbyshire. 

A Brief Criticism of ttie Fauna of tlie Limestone Beds at Treak Cliff and 
Peakshill, Castleton, Derbyshire. ' Brit. Assoc. Leaflet,' i p. Geo- 
logical Magazine, October, pp. 467-468. The Naturalist, November, 
PP- 350-352. 

Henry Day. Derbyshire. 

Variation in a Carboniferous Brachiopod [specimens described from Castle- 
ton] ' Memoirs and Proc. ^Manchester Lit. and Phil. Soc.,' 1914-15, Vol. 
LIX., Part I, Memoir IV., pp. 1-18. 

JAME.S W. DuNX. Lajie District, Isle of Man. 

Skiddaw and the Rocks of Borrowdale. ' Proc Liverpool Geol. Soc.,' Vol. 
XII., Part 2, pp. 93-108. See also Geological Magazine, February, 
p. 96. 

G. F. Scott Elliot. Northern Counties. 

Prehistoric Man and His Story. London, 398 pp. 

D. Ellis. Lines. N. 
On Fossil Fungi and Fossil Bacteria [includes description of Phycomycites 

Frodinghamii trom the beds at Frodingham]. ' Brit. Assoc. Leaflet,' 
I p. See also The Naturalist, November, pp. 355-356. 

C. B. Fawcett. Yorks., Durham. 

The Middle Tees and its Tributaries: a Study of River Development. 

' Brit. Assoc. Leaflet. See also The Naturalist, October, pp. 331-332. 

W. G. Fearnsides. Derbyshire, Yorkshire. 

On the Underground Contours of the Barnsley Seam of Coal in the Yorkshire 
Coalfield. Geological Magazine, October, pp. 465-467. 

\Vm. G. Fearxsides. Yorkshire, Durham, Derbyshire, Notts. 

Some Effects of Earth Movement on the Coal Measures of the Sheffield 
District (South Yorkshire and the Neighbouring Parts of West. 
Yorkshire, Derbyshire and Nottinghamshire), part i. A paper read 
to the Institution of Mining Engineers, pp. 29. See notice in Nature, 
August 26th, p. 709, and The Naturalist, November, p. 346. 

E. Leoxard Gill. Durham 
Correspondence [refers to a large Fossil Tree in Millstone Grit, near Stan- 

hope-in-Weardale]. Museums Journal, March, pp. 307-308. 

Joseph Wm. Gr.w. Northern Counties. 

Notes on the Pleistocene Geology of the Area around Worcester. ' Proc. 
Worcestershire Nat. Club,' Vol. \'I., Part i, 1914 (published 1915), 
pp. 65-92. 

J. F. N. Greex. Lake District- 

The Structure of the Eastern Part of the Lake District. ' Proc. Geol. 
Assoc.,' Vol. XXVI., Part 3, pp. 195-223. .\bstract in Geological 
Magazine, April, p. 189, and Antiquary, May, p. 195. 

J. F. N. Greex. Lake District. 

The Garnets and Streaky Rocks of the English Lake District. Mineralogical 

Magazine, Vol. XVII., No. 81, September, pp. 207-217. Abstract in 
Geological Magazine, August, p. 382. 

Naturalist' 



Bibliography : Geology and Palceontology. 



/• 



H. W. Greenwood. Lancashire. 

Note on a Boring recently made at Vauxhall Distillery, Vauxhall Road, 

Liverpool. ' Proc. Liverpool Geol. Soc.,' Vol. XII., Part 2, pp. 135-136. 

H. W. Greenwood and C. B. Travis. Cheshire. 

The Mineralogical and Chemical Constitution of the Triassic Rocks of 

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J. W. Gregory. Lake District. 

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June, pp. 241-249. 

J. W. Gregory. Cumberland. 

A Deep Bore at Seascale in Cumberland ^3,200 feet^. Geological Magazine, 
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J. W. Gregory. Northern Counties. 

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Part 2, pp. 201-302, Plates XXV.-XXXII. [Bridlington and Manx 

specimens referred to]. 

W. HocKNEY. Lines., N. 

Excavating by Power. The Scope and Success of the ' Steam Navvy ' 

[refers to Ironstone Works at Scunthorpe, and other quarries in Lines, 
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T. V. Holmes. Cumberland, Isle of Man. 

On the Evidence as to the Geological Structure of Cumberland, bordering 
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Nils Olof Holst. Northern Counties. 

The Ice Age in England. Geological Magazine, September, pp. 418-424 ; 
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H. Jeffreys. Northumberland. 

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December, pp. iog-113. 

William C. Jenkins. Lanes. S. 

The Apperley Bridge Meteorite. Nature, January 7th, 191 5, pp. 505-506. 

T. A. Jones. Lake District. 

Note on the Presence of Tourmaline in Eskdale (Cumberland) Granite. 

' Proc. Liverpool Geol.' Soc.,' Vol. XII., Part 2, pp. 137-140 (plate). 
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Albert Jowett. Lancashire, Cheshire, Yorkshire. 

A Preliminary Note on the Glacial Geology of the Western Slopes of the 
Southern Pennines. ' Brit. Assoc. Leaflet ' ; Geological Magazine, 
October, pp. 468-469. The Naturalist, October, pp. 328-329. 

Arthur Keith. Derbyshire. 

The Antiquity of Man [refers to remains in Cresswell Crags]. London, 
pp. XX. + 519. See Nature, Dec. 23, pp. 450-451, and Geol. Mag., 
Jan., 1916, pp. 32-34- 

1916 Feb. 1. 



72 Bibliography : Geology and PalcBontology. 

Jas. E. McDonald. Lancashire, Yorkshire, Cheshire. 

How Coal was Formed [abstract]. ' Report and Proc. Manchester Field 

Nat. and Arch. Society for the year 1914 ' (published 1915), pp. 11-12. 

F. T. Maidwell. Cheshire. 

Some Sections in the Lower Keuper of Runcorn Hill, Cheshire. ' Proc. 
Liverpool Geol. Soc.,' Vol. XIL, Part 2, pp. 141-149. 

F. T. Maidwell. Lanes. S. 

Geological Notes on some Recent Excavations at West Bank Dock, Widnes. 

' Proc. Liverpool Geol. Soc.,' Vol. XIL, Part 2, pp. 156-160. 

J. E. Mark. Lake District. 

The Ashgillian Succession in the Tract to the West of Coniston Lake. 

Abstract in Nature, No. 236S, Vol. XCV., p. 83 ; Geological Magazine, 
April, p. 187 ; see also The Naturalist, May, pp. 151-152. 

Edward Merrick. Northumberland, Durham. 

On the Formation of the River Tyne Drainage Area. Geological Magazine, 
July, pp. 294-304 ; August, pp. 353-360. 

H. C. MuNRO, Secretary. Northern Counties. 

Return as to Water Undertakings in England and Wales, ' Local Govern- 
ment Board Report,' folio, 191 5, pp. xlii. + 599. 

T. E. NuTTALL. Lanes., Derbyshire. 

The Occurrence of False Dliths in North-East Lancashire. ' Proc. Pre- 
historic Soc. of East Anglia,' Vol. IL, Part i, pp. 61-71. 

Rupert R. P.\rker. Lanes. 

The Industry and Equipment of a Lancashire Building Stone Quarry [at 

Nelson]. Quarry, December, pp. 295-297. 

Ernest A. Parkyn. Northern Counties. 

An Introduction to the Study of Prehistoric Art. London, pp. xviii. -f 349. 

C. S. Du RiCHE Preller. Cumberland, Yorkshire. 

The Zonal Lake Basins of Sub-Alpine Switzerland [brief reference to 

Cumberland and Yorkshire]. Geological Magazine, May, pp. 215-224. 

E. C. Pulbrook. Northern Counties. 

The English Countryside, 136 pp. 

R. H. Rastall. Lake District. 

Andalusite and Chiastolite [letter on]. Geological Magazine, July, p. 336. 

R. H. R.\stall and W. H. Wilcockson. Lake District. 

The Accessory Minerals of the Granitic Rocks' of the English Lake District 

i^abstractj. Geological Magazine, July, p. 334 ; Nature, June, 24th, 
p. 472 ; see also The Naturalist, August, pp. 251-252. 

J. E. Wyxfield Rhodes. Cheshire. 

Microscopic Examination of Sandstones from the Lower keuper and Bunter 
Beds of Runcorn Hill, Cheshire. ' Proc Liverpool Geol. Soc.,' Vol. 
XIL, Part 2, pp. 150-155. 

J. E. Wynfirld Rhodes. Lanes. S. 

The Drift Deposits of Prestwich, Manchester and Neighbourhood. ' Trans. 

Manchester Geol. and Mining Soc.,' Vol. XXXIV., Part 5, pp. 126-139. 

Naturalist 



Bibliography : Geology and P alee ontology. 73 

Alexander Scott. Lake District, Derbyshire. 

The Crawfordjohn Essexite and Associated Rocks. Geological Magazine, 
October, pp. 455-461 ; November, pp. 513-519. See also Knowledge, 
November, p. 330. 

D. H. Scott. Yorks., Lanes. S. 

The Heterangiums of the British Coal Measures. ' Brit. Assoc Leaflet,' 
I p. See also The Naturalist, November, pp. 354-355. 

T. Shepp.\rd. Northern Counties. 

Papers and Records relating to the Geology and Palaeontology of the North 

of England (Yorkshire excepted), published during 1914. The 

Naturalist, August, pp. 271-274 ; September, pp. 303-306. 

T. S[heppard]. Yorks., Lanes. 

In Memoriam, William Cash, F.G.S. (1843-1914). The Naturalist, January 
pp. 28-30. 

R. L. Sherlock. Northern Counties. 

On a Marine Band in Middle Coal Measures. Geological Magazine, July, 
pp. 311-312. 

A. Smith. Lines. 

Implements of the Stone Age in the City and County Museum, Lincoln, 

Publication No. iS [reprinted from ' Lincolnshire Notes and Queries '], 
6 pages and 4 plates. 

Stanley Smith. Northern Counties. 

The Genus Lonsdaleia and Dibunophyllum rugosum McCoy [abstract]. 
Geological Magaizne, April, 18S-1S9 ; see also The Naturalist, May, 
p. 156. 

Louis B. Smyth. Lake District, Lancashire, Yorkshire. 

On the Faunal Zones of the Rush-Skerries Carboniferous Section, Co. 
DubJn. ' Scientific Proc. Royal Dublin Soc.,' Vol. NIV. (New 
Series), No. 41, August, pp. 535-562. 

J. A. Smythe. Northumberland, Durham, Cheviots. 

Glacial Surface Features. The Vasculwn, August, pp. 47-52. 

Frederick Soddy. Lake District. 

The Cumberland Earthquake of October 2nd, Nature, October 28th, p. 

229 [see also loc. cit. October 21st, p. 208]. 

^^'. J. SoLLAS. Northern Counties. 

Ancient Hunters and their Modern Representatives, second edition, 591 
pages. 

A. Strahan. Yorkshire, Lancashire, Nottinghamshire. 

Summary of Progress of the Geological Survey of Great Britain and the 
Museum of Practical Geology for 1914, pp. 84. 

W. M. Tattersall. Northern Counties. 

General Guide to the Collections in the Manchester Museum. ' Publication 
No. 77 ' [contains illustration of Stigmaria ficoides from Clayton, and 
a Boulder of Andesite from Manchester]. 66 pp. 

H. Hamshaw Thomas. See G. A. J. Cole. 

Ivor Thomas. See G. A. J. Cole. 

C. B. Tr.avis. See H. W. Greenwood. 

1916 Feb. 1. 



74 Bibliography : Geology and Palceontology. 

C. T. Trechmaxx. Northumbciiand, Durham, Yorks., Lake Dist. 

The Scandinavian Drift of the Durham Coast and the General Glaciology of 

South-east Durham. Qucrterley Journal Geol. Soc, Vol. LXXI., 

Part I, No. 281, pp. 53-82 ; see also Knowledge, November, pp. 329-330 

A. E. Truem.\x. Notts. 

The Fauna of Hydraulic Limestones in South Notts. Geological Magazine, 

April, pp. 150-152. 

Arthur Vaughax. Yorkshire, Derbyshire, Lancashire 

Correlation of Dinantian and Avonian. Ouavterly Journal Geol. Soc, 
Vol. LXXI, Part i. No. 2S1, pp. 1-52. " 

Arthur Vaughax. Lakeland, Isle of Man. 

Shift of the Western Shore-Line in England and Wales during the Avonian 
Period. ' British Association Leaflet,' Manchester, 3 pages ; see 
also The Naturalist, October pp. 332-333. 

Arthur Vaughax. See Axox. 

\V. W. Watts. See Axox. 

W. A. Whitehead. Lanes., Cheshire. 

The Formation of a Sandstone [Presidential Address]. ' Proc. Liverpool 
Geol. Soc.,' \'ol. XII., Part 2, pp. 93-108. 

W. H. WiLcocKsoN. See R. H. Rastall. 

Albert \\'ilmore. Yorks., Lanes. 

The Carboniferous Limestone Zones of N.E. Lancashire. ' Brit. Assoc. 
Leaflet'; see also The Naturalist, October, pp. 329-331, and Geo- 
logical Magazine, November, p. 521. 

.•\lbert Wilmore. See Axon. 

J. R. R. WiLSox. Northern Counties. 

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I. Report under the Metalliferous ;\Iines Regulation Act. 2. Report 
under the Quarries Act. Quarry, November, pp. 271-273 ; see also 
The Naturalist, 1916, pp. 2-3. 

T. W. WooDHE.\D. Northern Counties. 

The Study of Plants, an Introduction to Botany and Plant Ecology. Oxford 
or. 8vo, pp. 424. 

E. Adrian Woodruffe-Peacock. Lines. 

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A. Smith Woodward. Lanes. S. 

The Use of Fossil Fishes in Stratigraphical Geology [Presidential Address 

to Geological Society]. Quart. Jouni. Geol. Soc, Vol. LXXI., Part i, 

pp. Ixii.-lxxv. ; see also The Naturalist, IMay, p. 150, and November, 

PP- 349-350- 

A. S. W[oodward]. Derbyshire. 

Fossil Man [review of Prof. Keith's book]. Nature, December 23, pp. 

450-451- 

Naturalist, 



/:> 



YORKSHIRE NATURALISTS' UNION : 

ENTOMOLOGICAL SECTION. 

The annual meeting of this Section was held on October 30th, 
1915, at the University, Leeds. The president, Dr. Fordham, 
was in the chair. The following Lepidoptera were shown : — 
Abraxas grossulariata var. lacticolor hy Professor Garstang; and 
vars. nigrosparsata and hazeleighensis of the sam.e species from 
Clayton West district by Mr. T. H. Fisher and Mr. W. Dyson. 
Dr. Corbett showed a case of com.mon lepidopterous insects, 
species arranged to show how they harmonized in colour with 
their surroundings when at rest. 

Mr. B. Morley showed many striking asymmetrically marked 
specim.ens, including a series of Tephrosia biundnlaria bred 
from parents taken near Wakefield, the male being of the 
extreme dark form, the fem.ale being very pale. The moths 
shown were intermediate in colour but very irregularly splashed 
and streaked with pale markings. 

Dr. Corbett also showed a case of very large orthopterous 
insects introduced into this country with foreign fruit. 

The exhibits of Coleoptera were numerous, and were by 
Messrs. M. L. Thompson, H. H. Corbett, J. W. Carter, 
T. Stainforth and Dr. W. J Fordham. 

The following is additional to the report for Lepidoptera 
which has appeared in the Annual Report. 

Mr. T. Ashton Lofthouse reports Coccyx vacciniana and 
Clepsis rusticana in Westerdale at Whitsuntide ; Cemiostoma 
spartifoliella in Wilton Woods ; Cemiostoma ivailesella, Grapho- 
litha suhocellea and a single specimen of Gnophos obscurata at 
Saltburn on the occasion of the Yorkshire Naturalists' Union's 
meeting ; Ebulea erocealis at Linthorpe and Etipithecia albi- 
punctata and its var. angclicata from the same district. 

From the West Riding Mr. B. Morley reports Amphysa 
prodromana, Penistone Moors, April 21st, plentiful ; May 
24th on Bolderstone Moors Phoxopieryx myrtillana, Gelechia 
longicornis, Saturnia pavonia, Acronycta menyanthidis and 
Hadena glauca were plentiful ; May 25th, Gelechia scalella, 
common in Haw Park ; Phloeodes tetraquetrana, May 26th, and 
Eupcecilia maculosana, June 6th, Deffer Wood ; Ephippiphora 
pflugiana, June 5th and Micropteryx calthella, June 17th at 
Skelmanthorpe. 

Larvae found in ash buds in June produced Prays curtisellus 
in July, and others found in hogweed, Depressaria angelicella 
in August, Skelmanthorpe. Cocoons found on beech trunks 
in Cawthorne Park Wood gave Harpipteryx xylostclla in July, 
At Barugh on July 24th Hydrocampa nymphcsalis, H. stagnalis, 
and Xanthosetia zoegana were taken. 

1916 Feb. 1. 



76 In Memoriam : J. R. Stnhley. 

Ephippiphora tetragonana, June 14th ; Scardia granella, 
August 1st ; Glyphipteryx fuscaviridella, June 5th ; G. thrason- 
ella, July 21st ; Scoparia murana and S. mercurella both 
abundant July and August, were taken at Skelmanthorpe. — 

B. MORLEY. 



3n nDemoriani. 

J. R. STUBLEY. 

We deeply regret to record that since the publication of a list 
of the m.embers of the Yorkshire Naturalists' Union on active 
service, in The Naturalist for January, J. R. Stubley has died 
for his country. For the past year he has been driving his 
car for the First Convoy of the British Ambulance Committee 
attached to the French Red Cross. About five weeks ago he 
contracted pneumonia, and after a serious illness, passed away 
on Monday, December 27th. 

He was a keen entomologist, and when there was a lull in 
the fighting in the Vosges, where he was stationed, and con- 
sequently few wounded to be brought in, he would continue 
the pursuit of natural history and rear caterpillars at his 
billet. 

He was also keenly interested and had a considerable 
experience in the culture of orchids, and being an expert 
photographer, m.ade a fine series of photographs illustrating 
their fertilisation. 

In other country pursuits, he was an enthusiastic motorist 
and tennis player. A first-class gam.e shot, it is pleasant to 
record that he would never kill any rare creature or destroy 
life wantonly. His m,anly qualities and unfailing good nature 
m.ade him. very popular, and he will be greatly missed by all 
who knew him,. Mr. Stubley was a nephew of Mr. Walter 
Bagshaw, of Batley. — R. F. 



The Rev. E. A. Woodruffe Peacock writes on ' Eyes and Ears,' though 
he does not say much about them, in The Selbovyie Magazine for January. 
He explains how to use them. 

The Journal of Conchology for January contains a note on ' The Dis- 
covery of Hygromia iimbrosa in England ' (at Margate), by J. W. Taylor, 
and ' Additions to the Land and Freshwater MoUusca of Jura, Colonsay 
with Oronsay and Islay,' by J. F. Musham. We notice under Helix 
memoralis ' two colonies (Staff-Surgeon Jones and myself) ' ! 

Among the additions to the St. Helens Museum recorded in the recent 
report, we notice ' a fine copy of Raphael's celebrated masterpiece, the 
" Madonna della Seggiola." ' The report goes on to say that 'the frameis 
in English gilt, is of a very elaborate design, and is also an exact facsimile 
of the original.' A case of ptarmigan and a case of butterflies and moths 
form the natural history additions for the year. 

Naturalist, 



77 

FIELD NOTES. 

FUNGI. 

Cordyceps capitata. — In the Annual Report of the 
Yorkshire Naturalist^' Union {The Naturalist, January, 1916, 
p. 44), reference is made to the re-discovery of Cordyceps 
capitata ' which so far as has yet been ascertained would 
appear to have only three previous British records, and these 
dating back to the years 1786, 1787, and 1803.' In a list of 
Fungi, contributed to Mason's ' History of Norfolk ' (1884). the 
late Dr. Plowright wrote : ' Torrubia capitata .... was 
found at Holt by the lady of the Rev. Robert Francis, and sent 
to Sowerby, by whom it was figured in his " English Fungi," 
which was published in 1779-1809. No specimen was again 
seen of it in Norfolk until 1879, when the Rev. Canon Du Port 
met with a specimen in Hockering Wood.' Another occurrence 
is recorded by Phillips and Plowright in Grevillea (New and 
Rare British Fungi, No. 145*) : ' magnificent specimens of this 
very rare Torrttbia were found October, 1878, by Miss L. M. S. 
Paslej^ in Hampshire.' Further search would probably reveal 
other records. In 1902, in company with Dr. Plowright, I saw 
numerous examples of this fungus in a locality near London, 
which I understood was well-known to mycologists in general 
as a liabitat of this species. — T. Petch. 



BIRDS. 

A Yorkshire (?) Sooty Tern. — On the 21st of last Sept., while 
visiting a patient, Mr. Sanderson, Doncaster, my attention was 
drawn to a stuffed bird in his house. On examining it I 
saw it was a Tern of a species unknown to m.e. Mr. Sanderson 
said, ' If that is any use to you at the m.useum, you can take it 
away with you.' This of course I did. On looking it up I saw 
that it was a Sooty Tern. The next time I saw Mr. Sanderson 
I asked him, whether he could give m.e any history of the bird, 
and he furnished the following details. G. Wiles, of Nelson 
Street, Doncaster, was a well-known poacher, who died about 
twenty-five years ago. Wiles shot the bird at Rossington, and 
had it stuffed by Blythe of Cleveland Street. Sometim.e later 
Wiles's poaching got him, into trouble and he was sentenced to a 
term of imprisonment 'with the option.' His wife, in order to 
raise funds to pay the fine, sold som.e cases of stuffed birds, and 
Sanderson bought two of them,, one being the Sooty Tern, and 
the other, which he also gave to m.e, containing two Redwings. 
It does not seem likely that a dull coloured and inconspicuous 
bird, such as the Sooty Tern, would be sent home from ' foreign 
parts ' as a curiosity ; neither is it probable that such a bird 

1916 Feb. 1. 



78 Field Notes. 

would be kept alive in an aviary and escape thence, and although 
the evidence is not conclusive, I think that the probability is 
great that we have here a genuine Yorkshire specimen of 
Sterna iuliginosa. — H. H. Corbett. 



BOTANY. 

Hybrid Epilobium in Cheshire. — On August 4th last, 
while at Helsby, about seven miles from Chester, on the swampy 
edge of a long narrow sheet of water near the station, I found an 
Epilobium that was new to me. It had the flowers of hirsutum 
and the leaves of pahistre. I sent it to the Rev. E. T. Marshall, 
who wrote to m.e as follows : — ' I feel sure that it is E. hirsutum 
X palustre. The capsules, are mostly short and shrunken 
as is usual in these hybrids. The comparatively large petals 
and the sepals point clearly to E. hirsutum as does the pubes- 
cense of the capsules, foliage and stem,. The leaves closely 
approach E. palustre, of which they have the general appearance 
and the revolute edges, but the toothing, though a good deal 
suppressed, especially in the lower leaves, is due to the in- 
fluence of E. hirsutum. This is a new hybrid for Britain and 
probably new altogether.' 

Haussbrecht in his Monograph, p. 63 says : — ' I have not 
seen any example of this alleged combination, nor has the 
description convinced me of its existence.' 

It was described in Bot. Zeitung, 1875, p. 522, from 
material gathered near Petrograd. Professor Haussbrecht 
inform.ed me during our correspondence (many years ago) 
that he had received a specimen and that it was Epilobium 
palustre X parviflorum. 

In a further letter from Mr. Marshall, he says : — ' Your 
hybrid is apparently " new to science," and not only new to 
our country, as the plant previously supposed to be this 
combination proved to be something different.' — Chas. 
Waterfall. 



There is a note on ' The Turnip Gall Weevil,' with illustrations, in 
The Journal of the Board of Agriculture for December. 

Prof. G. F. Atkinson favours us with a memoir on ' Morphology and 
Development of Agaricus rodmani, reprinted from the Proceedings of the 
■imerican Philosophical Society. 

In the Transactions of the Halifax Antiquarian Society, the former 
owners of Boiling Hall, Bradford's new museum, are referred to as ' the 
Boiling Family.' We trust it is only a misprint, and is not a supposition ! 

Punch draws attention to the following example of ' Journalistic 
Modesty ' : ' The Neanderthal man, we know rude ^s he was, made hres, 
and has left indications that he had reasons to suppose his relatives con- 
tinued beyond the grave. His brain case, though not like ours, was quite 
capacious. — Daily News.' 

Naturalist, 



79 
REVIEWS AND BOOK NOTICES. 

Junior Botany. By F. Cavers, D.Sc, F.L.S. W. B. Clivc, 1915, pp. 
xii. -f 288, 2S. 6d. This work is intended to meet the requirements of 
students taking the junior local examinations of Oxford and Cambridge. 
The first sixty-six pages, by means of a series of well selected experiments, 
deal with physics and chemistry, which are essential to a proper under- 
standing of the problems presented in a study of plant life. The rest of 
the book is devoted to the study of plant forms and functions on the 
thoroughly practical lines already familiar to our readers in the author's 
deservedly popular books on plant biology and the life-histories of plants. 
There are 140 clear and helpful illustrations. 

All About Leaves. By F. G. Heath. Williams & Xorgate, pp. ix. 
-f- 228, 4s. 6d. net. The author of this work is well-known for his delight- 
ful descriptions of our wild plants, e.g., his ' Woodland Trees,' ' Fern 
World,' etc. Unfortunately he did not live to see his latest work through 
the press. The introductory chapters deal with the beauty, mystery and 
fabric of the leaf and in the remainder of the volume we have descriptions, 
in the popular and attractive language characteristic of the author's 
writings, of the leaves of thirty-seven shrubs and trees and twentv-five 
herbaceous species. These are well illustrated by eighty photograph.s from 
nature, and four in colours from the excellent drawings by Miss ]\I. 
Schroedter, are of the horse-chestnut, common ash, hazel and larch. 

Determinative Mineralogy with Tables. By J. Volney Lewis. 2nd 

edition. New York : J. Wiley & Sons ; London : Chapman & Hall, 
155 pages, 6s. 6d. net. The first edition of this work was. noticed in The 
Naturalist for 1913, page 435. The present edition differs from it ' in 
the full restatement with each section of the tables of the classificatorv 
characters and tests leading up to it. This adds much to the convenience 
of the tables for reference, since the complete description of a mineral, 
both physical and chemical, will now be found in one place. The supple- 
mentary tables at the end have also been adapted to a wider use by the 
inclusion of specific gravity and composition, in addition to luster, crv- 
stallization, and hardness ; so that they may be used for the rapid deter- 
mination of minerals by means of their physical properties, even in the 
absence of crvstals.' 

Typical Flies : A Photographic Atlas of Diptera, including Aphaniptera. 
By E. K. Pearce. Cambridge University Press, xii. -f 47 pages. Price 
5s. net. This work consists of a series of plates reproduced from photo- 
graphs of the more typical, or common British Diptera, of which about 
130 species are illustrated, in many instances the sexes being shown 
separately. It is issued as a cheap book for beginners, to whom it will 
be helpful. The photographic illustrations render with fidelity an im- 
portant dipterous character — the venation of the wings and the shape 
and general appearance of the insects. Beneath each figure is given the 
size, and a short account of the habits and distribution of the species. 
In many cases it would have been useful if the colouration of the forms had 
been briefly referred to. In the preface the author describes the best 
methods and most suitable times and places for collecting. Brauer's 
classification of the families of Diptera is given, and there is an index 
to the species illustrated. 

Market Gardening. By F. L. Yeaw. Chapman & Hall, 1915, pp. vi. 
+ 102, 3S. 6d. net. At the present time, when so much attention is 
directed to increasing the productivity of the land, the possibilities of • 
market gardening deserve special notice. The author of this small volume 
has had a wide experience and is thoroughly conversant with all the im- 
portant aspects of his subject. No words are wasted on non-essentials 
and he has succeeded in giving a large amount of information in very 

lOtG Feb. 1. 



8o Reviews and Book Notices. 

small space. Throughout, the work is thoroughly practical, and the 
descriptions are given in terse and simple language. Although written 
for American readers, English growers will find it of much value, as most 
of our common vegetables are dealt with. Of the eight chapters in the 
book, the first seven deal with location, cultivation, fertilizers, hot-beds, 
sowing, transplanting, irrigation, home and school gardens, and storing 
and packing. The last chapter deals with the cultivation, harvesting and 
marketing of twenty-three special crops. The work is well illustrated 
by clear line drawings and a number of excellent photographs. 

Soils and Manures. By E. J. Russell, D.Sc. Cambridge Press, 1915, 
pp. ix. -\- 206. 3s. 6d. net. Dr. Russell's work on Soils is too well-known 
to need special notice here, and it is fortunate he is able to spare time from 
his duties at Rothamstead to give students the benefit of his wide know- 
ledge and experience. The present volume is thoroughly characteristic 
of his work and is not only a careful and able exposition of the difficult 
problems associated with soils, but is written in such clear language that 
it may be easily followed by the average reader. As the author points 
out the farmer is dependent ' in the last instance either on his own soil or 
sornebody else's,' and to be successful he must understand the principles 
of soil management. It is to save the heavy cost of acquiring this know- 
ledge solely by experience, that the work has been written as a quicker 
and more scientific guide to the solution of the problems, with which 
every farmer has to deal. In Part i is considered the needs of the plant, 
the composition of the soil and the effect of climate on soil and on fertility. 
Part 2 deals with cultivation and the control of soil fertility ; while the 
final chapters are devoted to a careful consideration of the properties and 
values of fertilizers. Simple but suggestive experiments are freely intro- 
duced and many useful tables given of results obtained under various 
conditions. A useful appendix deals with methods of soil analysis. There 
are thirtv-three illustrations. 



It is reported in the daily press that ' Phcwitts ' are on the increase 
in the York district this year. Help ! 

We regret to record the death of the Rt. Hon. Sir Henry E. Roscoe, 
the famous chemist. He was born in London in 1833. Also of Sir John 
Rhys, Professor of Celtic and Principal of Jesus College, Oxford. He was 
born at Abercaero in 1840. 

We notice the Director of one of our museums is advertising a six- 
penny pamphlet, written by himself, as ' A Unique Christmas Present.' 
Personally we do not receive many Christmas presents in these days, but 
if someone had sent us one, of these pamphlets we should probably have 
found a more descriptive word than ' unique.' 

At a recent meeting of the Lancashire and Cheshire Entomological 
Society the exhibits were as follows : By Mr. F. N. Pierce, an army biscuit 
completely riddled by a small beetle {Ptiniis, sp. ?) ; Mr. R. Wilding, 
series of the very local sand-hill beetles Anisotoma ciliaria and A. furva; 
Mr W. Mansbridge, a long series of Lyocena icarus from Delamere and the 
Crosbv sand-hills," including var. icarinus and under-side variations with 
enlarged and confluent spots. 

We much regret to record the death of Dr. Arthur Vaughan, at the early 
ao-e of 47. The Yorkshire Geological Society is much indebted to him 
for his investigation of the zones of the Carboniferous rocks. We also 
notice the announcement of the death of W. Rupert Jones, who was born 
in 1855. He was the son of T. Rupert Jones, and was for forty years 
assistant librarian of the London Geological Society. He had a wonderful 
knowled'^e of geological literature which was always available to workers. 



BINDING 'THE NATURALIST.' 

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Lists from A. Ford, South View, Irving Road, Bournemouth. 

THE LOST TOWNS 
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And other Chapters bearing upon the 
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By T. SHEPPARD, Itt.Sc, F.G.S., F.R.G.S., F.S.A.(Scot.). 

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Antiquities, Natural History, and other subjects relative to the 
scientific aspect of the district. 

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to naturalists, as it enables them to record their captures according 
to the vice-counties as given in Watson's Topographical Botany. 

WATKINS & DONCASTER 

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Printed at Browns' Savile Press, 40, George Street, Hull, and published by 
A. Brown & Sons, Limited, at 5 Farringdon Avenue, in the City of London. 

Feb. 1st, 1916. 



MARCH 1916. 



No. 710 

(Ho, 487 of current aeriei) 




A MONTHLY ILLUSTRATED JOURNAL OF 

NATURAL HISTORY FOR THE NORTH OF ENGLAND. 

BDITBD BY 

T. SHEPPARD, M.Sc, F.Q.S., F.R.Q.S., F.S.A.Scot.. 

Thb Museums, Hull ; 

AND 

T. W. WOODHEAD, Ph.D., M.Sc, F.L.S., 

Technical College, Huddersfield. 



WITH THE ASSISTANCE AS REFEREES IN SPECIAL DEPARTMENTS OP 

J. alLBBRT BAKBR, P.R.S. P.L.S., GEO. T. PORRITF, P.L.S., 

Prof. P. P. KENDALL. M.Sc, P.Q.S.. JOHN W. TAYLOR, M.Sc, 
T. H. NELSON. M.Sc, M.B.O.U.. RILEY FORTUNE, F.Z.S. 



P.B.S. 



Contents : — 

Notes and Comments (illustrated) :— Economising Brains ! ; Letters in the Press ; The 
Saving; Our Wounded Soldiers; Supervision; Museums and the War; The Moral 
Effect ; What the Enemy Thinks ; The Museums Association ; A Deputation ; Objections 
to Closing; Other Speakers; Mr. Asquith's Reply; The Natural History Museum; 
Concessions; Provincial Museums ; Public Benefactors ; Punch; Tlie Daily Sketch; The 
Evening News; The Passing Show ; Photographs of Wild Life 

The Protection of Wild Life in Yorksliire— /?. Fortune, F.Z.S 

Field Notes: — Coltsfoot in Flower in January; Cumberland Hepatics ; Kingfi?her at 
Slaithwaite ; Water Rail at Marsden ; Antler Moth Larva in February 

Aleuropteryx lutea (Wallengren) : A Neuropteroii New to Britain — /. W. H. 

Harrison, B.Sc. 



Tlie Terrestrial isopoda (Woodllce) of Yorksliire— F. Rhodes 

Tlie Harvestmen and Pseudoscorpions of Yorksliire— ^Fwi. Falconer 

Cumberland Coleoptera — F. H. Day, F.K.S 

News from the Magazines 

Review 

Northern News 

Illustrations 



81-91 
92-95 

96 



97-98 
.. 99-102 
.. 103 106 
.. 107-110 
106 
. :ill-112 
, 102, 112 
89, 90, 91 



LONDON : 

A. Brown & Sons, Limited, 5, Farringdon Avenue, E.G. 

And at Hull and York. 

Printers and Publishers to the Y.N. U. 



Prepaid Subscription 6/6 per annum, post free. 



Vegetation of Yorkshire. 

Early in 1914 it was decided to publish, by subscription, my 
' Vegetation of Yorkshire,' from the historic and chronological 
purview, and some thousand or more circulars were broadcasted 
among the county families and those known to be in sympathy with 
botanical investigation and record. Some ninety responded, when 
the outbreak of war ' hung up ' what the writer feels to be his ' mag- 
num ' and doubtless final ' opus ' ; the great scope of the inquiry 
meriting — in the writer's opinion — that title. 

Efforts recently renewed have added another ten subscriptions, 
but this is not enough by quite a hundred to warrant the publishers 
in commencing to print the work. A substantial guarantee — not 
necessarily from one friend — of ;^ioo is suggested by the publishers 
in consultation with Mr. Thomas Sheppard, of the Hull Museum. 
Anyone feeling in any degree interested in seeing the book a work 
accomplished, will perhaps communicate with 

F. Arnold Lees, 

38 Bentley Lane, Hyde Park, 

Leeds, Yorks. 
February, 1916. 

NORTH YORKSHIRE. 

By J. G. BAKER, F.R.S. 680 pp. Map. 

2nd Edition. Price 15/- 



A. BROWN & SONS, Ltd., Savile Street, Hull. 



BOOKS WANTED. 

Naturalists" Journal. Vol. I. 

W. Smith's New Geolog-ical Atlas of England and Wales. 1S19-21. 

Frizinghall Naturalist. V'ol. L, and part i of Vol. II. (lithographed). 

Illustrated Scientific News. 1902-4. (Set). 

Journal Keighley Naturalists' Society. 4to. Part i. 

Cleveland Lit. & Phil. Soc. Trans. Science Section or otheis. 

Proc. Yorks. Nat. Club (York), Set. 1867-70. 

Keeping's Handbook to Nat. Hist, Collections. (York Museum). 

Huddersfield Arch, and Topog. Society. 4 Reports. (1865-1869). 

P^irst Report, Goole Scientific Society. 

The Naturalists' Record. Set. 

The Natural History Teacher (Huddersfield). Vols. I. -II. 

The Economic Naturalist (Huddersfield). V^ol. I. 

The Naturalists' Guide (Huddersfield). Set. 

The Naturalists' Almanac (Huddersfield). 1876. 

*' Ripon Spurs," by Keslington. 



Apply— BAMoT, The Museum, Hull. 




NOTES AND COMMENTS. 

ECONOMISING BRAINS ! 

The scientific world has recently had two surprises : an 
unpleasant one and a pleasant one. The first was the announce- 
ment that, with the object of economising, most of the London 
museums and art galleries are to be closed. The second sur- 
prise has been the extraordinary outburst of appreciation of 
the value of museum.s and art galleries which came as a result 
of the GoYernm.ent announcem.ent ! The scientific world 
knows full well what the educational value of museums is, 
but never before has there been such evidence of appreciation 
from all sorts and conditions of men, as there has been during 
the past few days. The columns of the leading newspapers 
of the world have been remarkably full of protests at the 
Government's action ; leading articles have been published 
by their respective editors, and the illustrated press has voiced 
public feehng by numerous caustic cartoons. 

LETTERS IN THE PRESS. 

True, there have been a few supporters of the Government's 
action ; but they have been exceedingly few, and for the most 
part the names are of people unknown in scientific, literary 
or other circles. And their arguments have been as weak and 
powerless as their names. On the other hand protests have 
been raised by Lords Morley, Bryce, Grenfell, Sudeley and 
Sydenham, Sir Richard Temple, Sir F. Treves, Sir Thomas 
Barlow, Sir E. Ray Lankester, Sir Edward Fry, Sir Harry 
Johnston, Sir Henry H. Howorth, Dr. A. E. Shipley, Dr. 
Gregory Foster, Prof. Boyd Dawkins, Mrs. Creighton, Mrs. 
J. R. Green, Mrs. Strong,"^ Messrs. Halsey Ricardo, Walter 
Sichel, Frank Brangwyn, G. W. Prothero, Arnold Bennett, 
E. Rimbault Dibdin (the President of the Museum,s Asso- 
ciation), as well as past-presidents and other officials of that 
Association, and others whose words carry w-eight. 

THE SAVING. 

According to the estimates of the Com.mittee appointed 
by the Government, the saving in cash by the closing of the 
national museums will be about £50.000 per annum. The 
estimate made by Lord Morley, and the heads of the national 
museum.s, who are as well able to judge, is a considerably less 
figure. Assuming the form.er is correct, the saving in twelve 
months will be sufficient to pay for the war, at its present daily 
cost, for a quarter of an hour ; according to Lord Morley's 
figures, the annual saving will pay for the war for three minutes. 
All will admit that economy is essential at the present time ; 
but surely this small amount, this " flea-bite " (a word to 



1916 Mar. 1. 



82 Notes and Comments. 

which Mr. Asquith strongly objects; 'flea-bites,' as Sir Ray 
Lancaster agrees, being ' disagreeable ') is nothing compared 
with the great loss which the closing of the m.useums means. 
The good work that museums accomplish is not to be reckoned 
by turnstile-records alone, but the mere number of visitors is 
some indication of the way in which the museums are appre- 
ciated. It has been said that there has been a falling oft in 
the attendance since the war started. This certainly was 
so immediately after war was declared, but recent figures 
show that the numbers are on the increase, and certainly in a 
great proportion of the provincial museums the attendances 
are now greater than ever. 

OUR WOUNDED SOLDIERS. 

There is another aspect of the case. Visitors to London at 
the present time are sorrowfully im.pressed by the enormous 
number of wounded soldiers who are everywhere to be seen. 
For the most part those came from our colonies in every part 
of the globe. Their enforced detention in the greatest city 
in the world — the central home of the arts and sciences — gives 
them the opportunity to spend their long, long hours in fulfilling 
what is to most of them, their heart's desire, examining the 
records of ancient and modern civihzations which are preserved 
more com.pletely than anywhere else in the globe — in our national 
museums. This one solace is denied them by. our ' flea-biting ' 
Government ; a Government which spends as much as it 
saves in closing the museums, in the salaries of two of its 
Law Officers of the Crown alone ; a Government which spends 
five times as much a year than this proposed saving, in paying 
the self-imposed salaries to its members. 

SUPERVISION. 

It has been stated that the closing of the museums would 
release ' hordes of policemen ' who are at present supervising 
the collections. The actual facts are that such police are either 
over military age or medically unfit. But even if their release 
for any other purpose, were desirable, there are plenty of 
wounded soldiers who are sufficiently convalescent to take their 
places, even if they took it in turns to give their services one 
day a week, and this they would willingly do. Further, as 
has been pointed out to the Prime Minister, it would be quite 
an easy matter to find volunteers to carry out these duties. 
Another argument in favour of closing the museums has been 
that they might be useful to the Government for the purposes 
of offices, etc., in connection with war work. This, we believe, 
was actually a consideration when the recommendations were 
first made, but it was soon found that the suggestion was 
impracticable. But, supposing they were suitable, surely 

Naturalist, 



Notes and Comments. 83 

it would be most inadvisable ? If, and we give every value to 
that word ' if,' our museums were put to military purposes, it 
would certainly offer every inducement to the enemy to bom- 
bard such buildings by air-craft. And such bombardm.ent 
has been shown to be possible. We are not at all sure, not- 
withstanding what has been said by a brilhant writer in The 
Museums Journal, that the enem.y would respect our museums 
and art galleries ; still they might, but we could not expect 
them to do so if parts of the buildings were used for war 
purposes ; and plenty of accomm.odation could, if it would, 
be found in many of the Clubs in the vicinity of the War Office, 
which are much more suitable for War Office purposes. 

' MUSEUMS AXD THE WAR.' 

On the other hand, most of our museums, ro.etropolitan 
-and provincial, have arranged special educational collections 
of value to the soldiers and others in the present crisis. This 
is especially so in the British Museums. In a series of articles 
in The Museums Journal, on ' Museums and the War,' Dr. F. A. 
Bather has shown that in many ways our collections are of 
help to the soldiers. In the Natural History Museum at South 
Kensington special exhibits are shown which are of great value 
to our soldiers at the front, as there they have many minor 
friends and enem.ies of ' natural history ' interest ! Mr. J. W. 
Lowther, one of the few supporters of the Government who 
have written to the press, gives us an idea of his knowledge of 
museum work by opining that the museum staff is engaged 
in ' deciphering hieroglyphics or cataloguing microlepidoptera.' 
This apparently belittling suggestion of the nature of the work 
of museum officials is particularly unfortunate, as it is the 
knowledge of the life-history of the micro-lepidoptera which 
bas proved of such incalculable service to this country during 
recent wars, in preventing their ravages among our food 
supplies, ravages which, without the help of those who ' cata- 
logue microlepidoptera ' would have proved as disastrous as 
the worst engagement yet fought. 

THE MORAL EFFECT. 

Another important point which must not be overlooked is 
the moral effect the suggestion will have on our allies and 
on neutral countries. If, with the reputation we hold for the 
help given to the arts and sciences, we close our store-houses 
of knowledge for a comparatively trifling saving, the action 
must be commented upon in other countries. And such 
comment can hardly be favourable. Another aspect is well 
put forward in a letter to the press by Miss May Morris. She 
states : — ' Shall we allow the generations to come to remember 
this of us : that, during the great war, we left open our public- 

1916 Mar. 1. 



84 Notes and Comments. 

houses and closed our national miuseums ? In the record of 
our struggle, full of single-hearted labour and of splendid 
tragedy, it may be counted among our lesser mistakes, but all 
the same it will be a fact for those that follow us to wonder over." 

WHAT THE ENEMY THINKS. 

But the unkindest cut of all comes from TJ2e Cologne 
Gazette, under an article headed ' The Closed English Museums.'' 
It is there stated : — ' In the land of the barbarians, who in 
other respects are more ready to submit to restrictions in their 
way of living than the island people which has been so spoilt 
by fortune, it is regarded as an entire mistake to practise 
econom.y which blocks up important sources of education and 
pure enjoym.ent without saving really considerable sums. 
Of course, it must be remembered that many Londoners wha 
consider them.selves educated, visit the British Museum once 
in their lives out of a sense of duty, and then never visit it 
again. We knew a London lawyer in a distinguished social 
position who had never crossed the threshold of the m.useum, 
and was proud of the fact.' 

THE MUSEUMS ASSOCIATION. 

. A few days ago the present writer had the honour and' 
privilege of taking part in a deputation, which was personally 
received by the Prime Minister at 10 Downing Street. This 
was in response to the following appeal addressed ' To the 
Right Hon. H. H. Asquith, K.C., M.P.' :— On behalf of the 
Museums Association, a society including in its m.embership 
the leading museum,s and art galleries in the United Kingdom, 
the Colonies, France, and America, we desire to lodge a protest 
against the closing of national museums and art galleries by the 
Governm,ent and to ask that the whole m,atter be reconsidered. 
Those in charge of provincial institutions are in a position 
to realise with especial clearness the great growth in public 
use and appreciation of museums and art galleries during recent 
years, and we feel very strongly that in times like the present 
anything which tends to promote rational public relaxation 
should not be the subject of retrenchment without weighty 
and sufficient reasons. Museum, officials yield to none in the 
matter of patriotism and in their desire for the successful prose- 
cution of the war, but we respectfuly submit that none of the 
argum,ents advanced in favour of the proposed closing by 
members of the Government indicate the attainment of ad- 
vantages in any degree commensurate with the loss to the 
public, to students, to the cause of education, and to the in- 
stitutions themselves. The Museum.s Association respectfully 
requests you to receive a deputation with the object of demon- 
strating the great and increasing part museums and art galleries 



Notes and Comments. 85 

play in the life of the nation, and especially of discussing ways 
and nieans by which these institutions can be rendered still 
more valuable in the present crisis.' 

A DEPUTATION. 

Though the announcement in regard to the deputation was 
only made in the press on the day before it occurred, besides 
the Museums Association, there were also representatives from 
the National Art Collections Fund, the Royal Asiatic Society, 
the Art Workers' Guild, and the Imperial Arts Guild. It 
included : — Lord Sudeley, Sir W. Wallis (curator of the Birming- 
ham Art Gallery), Sir Martin Conway, Sir C. Waldstein, Prof. 
W. Bateson, Mr. David Murray, Mr. R. Ross, Mr. R. Witt, 
Mr. G. Protheroe, Mr. P. Gardner, Mr. W. R. Colton, Mr. H. 
Speed, Sir E. Ray Lankester, Mr. E. Rimbault Dibdin (President 
of the Museums Association and Curator of the Walker Art 
Gallery, Liverpool), Mr. E. E. Lowe (Curator of the Leicester 
Museum, and Secretary of the Museums Association), Dr. W. E. 
Hoyle (Curator of the National Museum of Wales), Mr. Thomas 
Sheppard (Curator of the Hull Museums), Dr. Herbert Langton 
(Hon Treasurer of the Museum,s Association, and Chairman of 
the Brighton ^Museum Committee), Mr. F. R. Rowle}' (Royal 
Albert Museum, Exeter, and Vice-President of the Museums 
Association), Mr. W. Ruskin Butterfield, Hastings. Colonel 
Hall Walker introduced the deputation. The views of the 
deputation were presented to the Prime Minister (who was 
accompanied by the Hon. E. S. Montagu) by Sir Sidney Colvin, 
Mr. Witt, and Mr. Prothero on behalf of the National Art 
Collections Fund ; by Mr. Dibdin, Sir Ray Lankester, and Dr. 
Hoyle, on behalf of the Museums Association ; and by Mr. 
Colton on behalf of the Imperial Arts League. Mr. E. E. Lowe 
also presented a petition signed by Mayors and Provosts of 
our large cities, Principals of Universities, University Pro- 
fessors, Offiicials of Scientific Societies, etc. Though there had 
only been two days in which to get the signatures together, 
there were over 800 obtained. 

OBJECTIONS TO CLOSING. 

Sir S. Colvin, referring to the wide and weight}' body of 
€xpert and general opinion which was opposed to the closing 
•of museums, gave extracts from letters of protest written by 
the Presidents of the British Academ.y, the Royal Society, 
the Society of Antiquaries, the Geographical Society, and the 
British Association. A memorial against the proposal had 
also been signed in the course of a single day by eight heads 
•of colleges, 27 University Professors and Readers, and 21 
■College Tutors and Officers. He estimated that the utm.ost 
•.saving that could be made by shutting the two branches of 

4916 Mar. 1. 



86 Notes and Comments. 

the British Museum would be £12,000 a year, against which 
rnust be set sonae £3,000 at present received from the sale of 
official publications. If the closure were part of a general 
measure for the protection of the treasures of the nation from 
air raids, they would all acquiesce. But no such great and com- 
prehensive measure was in contemplation, and the only effect of 
the closure would be to render the museums useless at a time 
when they were doing a most useful work, and to proclaim our 
disregard for the things of the mind. 

OTHER SPEAKERS. 

Mr. R. C. Witt quoted the statement of an enemy newspaper 
that the closing of the museums was ' a declaration of moral 
bankruptcy, throwing a strange light on the economic con- 
ditions of England.' He emphasised the importance of the 
museums and art galleries as the intellectual workshops of 
the nation. Mr. G. Prothero dwelt on the desirability of giving 
students and scholars engaged in historical and archaeological 
research continued access to the Manuscript Room at the 
British Museum. Mr. Dibdin declared that, having regard to 
the necessity for heating and cleaning and the continuance of 
rates and salaries, the closing of municipal and other museums 
in the provinces would not materially reduce their cost. The 
estimated saving in Liverpool would be only £1,355. On ^ 
recent occasion over eight per cent, of the visitors to the Liver- 
pool Art Gallery were soldiers. To close the museums would 
be to deprive the public of intelligent and inexpensive dis- 
traction from the present stress of life and to cripple the 
advance of art and science. Sir Ray Lankester also argued 
that the economy effected would be extremely small and out of 
proportion to the injury done to the public. The museums, 
like the cathedrals, were places of rest and reflection. It was 
unwise to lump them all under one regulation. The saving 
that would result from closing the Natural History Museum 
would be less than £2,500 — a mere flea-bite. Similar pro- 
tests were made by Dr. Hoyle, Mr. Lowe and Mr. Colton. 

MR. ASQUITH's reply. 

Mr. Asquith in reply, said he was sure they would not 
suspect him of any want of appreciation of the invaluable 
work of the museums and art galleries in the promotion of 
culture, the development of scientific research, the application 
of the arts and sciences to industry, and the provision of the 
most wholesome of all forms of recreation and relaxation.. 
Under normal conditions he would have been the last person 
to assent to any curtailment of the national expenditure on such 
institutions, still more to any restriction of the facilities of 
the public for visiting them. But we were at war. 

Naturalist,. 



Notes and Comments. 87 

THE NATURAL HISTORY MUSEUM. 

The Committee recommended that all museums and galleries 
which were a national charge, with the exception of the Reading 
Room of the British Museum, should be closed to the public. 
The Government did not adopt that proposal. They thought 
it right to keep open the National Gallery and Victoria and 
Albert Museum. He agreed with Sir Ray Lankester that the 
case of the Natural History Museum was in some respects 
exceptional. Those parts of it which were representative 
of natural history in the popular sense — the parts in which 
were exhibits of animals, birds, etc. — were very much resorted 
to by Colonial visitors and wounded and convalescent soldiers 
and sailors, and it so happened that this museum was in the 
centre of a district in which were a large number of hospitals. 
He had therefore come to the conclusion that it would be 
desirable and expedient that those parts of the museum should 
remain open. The same arguments did not apply to the 
geological parts, but facilities would continue to be afforded 
to students and persons engaged in research to prosecute their 
studies there. Colonel Hall Walker, on behalf of the deputa- 
tion, thanked the Prime Minister for his speech, especially as it 
indicated that in the closing of museums and picture galleries 
no hard and fast line need be drawn. That fact would be a 
valuable hint to authorities in the provinces when they con- 
sidered how far they should follow the example of the 
Government. 

CO^XESSIONS. 

The deputation had the satisfaction, therefore, of learning 
that, in addition to the Reading Room of the British Museum, 
the National Gallery and the Victoria and Albert Museum, 
which are to remain open, the more popular parts of the 
Natural History Museum, South Kensington, are to remain 
open ; the ancient MSS. and other works of reference at the 
British Museum are to remain available to students (in addition 
to the Reading Room) ; and that it was not the intention of 
the Governm.ent to interfere with the work of serious students 
at the Science Museum and other museums. 

PROVINCIAL MUSEUMS. 

From the point of view of the provincial museum the result 
of the deputation is quite satisfactory. In the original report 
of the Parliamentary Committee a hint was given that the 
lead on the part of the Government might prove of value to 
the provinces. It was clearly demonstrated however that, in 
the provinces, the cost of the upkeep of museums was usually 
at a minimum, the actual expenses, of administration being 
trivial. Further, that if closed, the necessary cost of heating, 

1916 Mar. 1. 



88 Notes and Comments. 

cleaning, rent, rates, taxes, insurance, interest on sinking fund, 
and the supervision that would be essential in view of the 
preservation of the specimens, would leave the actual saving 
so small, that the actual loss, from the point of view of the 
public, would be greater than the amount gained by closing 
down. 

PUBLIC BENEFACTORS. 

From the National Museums down to the smallest provincial 
collection it is, of course, a fact that many of the m.ost valuable 
specimens are gifts made by one or other of our public bene- 
factors. Now and again an entire building and its contents 
are presented to the people — a number of such instances might 
be quoted. In these cases especially the cost of the necessary 
supervision is small. If museums are closed it is not likely 
to encourage generosity of this sort, as if valuable collections 
are to remain under lock and key they are better in the hands 
of private individuals. 

' PUNCH.' 

Punch has a full-page cartoon on the subject in its issue of 
February 9th ; we regret we are not permitted to reproduce it. 
Two wine-filled Philistines in ' boiled shirts ' have just dined 
at a fashionable hotel. They are enjoying liqueurs and big 
cigars ; the empty champagne bottle is still on the ice ; 
' fashionable ' ladies are in the distance. It is called ' Economy 
in Luxuries.' First Philistine : ' I'm all with the Government 
over this closing of museums. I never touch 'em myself.' 
Second Philistine : ' Same here. Waiter get me a couple of 
stalls for the Frivolity.' In the same issue the editor has some 
verses on ' Intellectual Retrenchment. [The annual expenses 
that will be saved by the closing of the London Museums 
and Galleries amount to about one-fifth of the public money 
spent on the salaries of Members of Parliament].' The closing 
lines read : — 

' And when her children whom the seas have sent her 

Come to the Motherland to fight the war. 
And claim their common heritage to enter 

The gate of Dreams, to that enchanted store, 
To other palaces we'll ask them in, 
To purer joys or " movies " and of gin ! 

Kilt let us still keep open our collection 

Of curiosities and quaint antiques, 
Under immediate Cabinet direction — 

The finest specimens of talking freaks, 
Who constitute our most superb Museum, 
Judged by the salaries with which we fee 'em.' 



Notes and Comments. 

' THE DAILY SKETCH.' 



89 



Another telling cartoon which occupies a full page appears 
in The Dailv Sketch : — 




ECONOMY AND OUR MUSEUMS— YEAR 1990. 

" Official notice of closing' of museums has been issued." 

Museum Attendant of the Future: "That document, Madam? — a Relic of our 
Great War when our Museums were closed in keeping- with the Spartan 
economy of the period." 

Fair Thing of the Future : " But the dear little doggy ? " 

JI.A.O.F. : " That, lady, is a lap-dog- sold in the same year for 500 guineas ! " 

Reproduced, by permission, from a full-page cartoon in The Daily Sketch. 



THE EVENING NEWS. 

In a leading article The Evening News deals with ' Charlie 
Chaplin and the British Museum.' It deplores that while 
our public houses, picture palaces, and other ' places of enter- 
tainment ' are open and in full swing, the museums and art 
galleries, which are free, should be closed. ' One is almost 

1916 Mar. 1. 



90 



Notes and Comments. 



tempted to wonder why it has not occurred to practical econo- 
raists hke the Government to use the museums as a source of 
revenue. There are in nearly all such institutions, large apart- 
ments, which, for a trifling expenditure on carpentry and hire 
of chairs could be turned into really excellent theatres where 
Charlie Chaplin iilms (selected) might be exhibited at great 
profit to the State. Apart from, the greater stars the cost of 
dum.ped American film.s is small and the public will always 
flock to see them when they can get nothing else. To ask a 
Government as full of grim resolution as our present rulers to 
reconsider its decision and to keep the museums and picture 
galleries going as usual, would doubtless be a waste of breath, 
and we doubt if even a Note from President Wilson on behalf of 
neutrals resident in London would have the desired effect, but 
still we would ask all those who feel interested in the question 
to make an effort to save us from an ' economy ' which only 
makes us ridiculous in the eyes of the world.' The same 
paper gives the following cartoon : — 




A CHARLIE CHAPLIN WAR ECONOMY. 

It is estimated that by closing the museums the nation will save £50,000. 
This would pay for the war for very nearly a quarter of an hour ! 

Reproduced, by permission, from The Evening News^ 
Naturalist, 



Notes and Comments. 



9^^ 



' THE PASSING SHOW.' 

The Passing Show gives ' A Nasty One ' on its first page 
for Feb. 12th, which we are kindly permitted to reproduce: — 




A NASTY ONE. 
The Prime Minister: 

" M'yes, most interesting; — in peace time. Full of" ancient survivals 
and funny old relics of byg-one times, but a most expensive and 
extravag-ant luxury in time of war, 3-ou know ! " 

Colonial (in London for the first time) : 

" I see, Sir, — very much like the House of Commons, eh ?!" 

PHOTOGRAPHS OF WILD LIFE. 

Referring to the notice in our Notes and Comments column 
in the January issue (p. 2), Messrs. Virtue & Co., the pubHshers,, 
7 City Garden Row, City Road, London, have agreed to forward, 
free of charge, particulars of many photographs of various 
phases of bird life to any reader of The Naturalist interested 
in the subject, on receipt of a postcard with the sender's name- 
and address clearly written thereon. 

1916 Mar. 1. 



^3 

THE 
PROTECTION OF WILD LIFE IN YORKSHIRE. 



R. FORTUNE, F.Z.S. 

{Continued from, page ^g). 

I do not know whether I have given sufficient credit to our 
Yorkshire Wild Birds' and PIggs Protection Comniittee or not, 
but they have performed very efficient service in obtaining 
increased protection for our birds, and will do more in the 
future. By employing keepers in certain localities they 
ensure the safety of a number of our rarer birds, especially 
at Hornsea Mere and Spurn. Mr. St. Quintin, the President 
of the Committee, is indefatigable in his endeavours in this 
direction. He has just had, at his own cost, bird perches 
erected round the lighthouse at Spurn Point, which by enabling 
the birds to rest upon them when attracted by the light, will 
save many thousands of their lives. I regret that owing to 
Spurn now being a military area, it is impossible to show you 
a photograph of this contrivance, which is very popular and 
effective in Holland. 

There is in existence at the present tim.e, though its activities 
are at present suspended owing to the war, a com.mission to 
deal with the Bird Protection Acts. We were asked to give 
evidence, and Mr. St. Quintin and I formulated certain recom- 
mendations, which briefly are that all birds shall be protected, 
but that power shall be given to the county authorities to 
■withdraw protection, for a time, from any species which per- 
haps, owing to its becoming too numerous is consequently 
harmful upon the advice of a small permanent committee 
of naturalists and horticulturists elected for that purpose and 
that lists only of those not protected be issued. 

Egg collecting I would prohibit altogether, for when all is 
said that can be said in its favour, we cannot get away from 
the fact that it serves little useful purpose, but is often simply 
a collecting mania which might equally as well be expended 
upon stamps or parcel post labels. 

I will now briefly draw attention to those mammals and 
birds which have become extinct in our county, to those whose 
numbers are becoming scarcer year by year, and to those w^hich 
have increased, and to some general remarks in connection 
with our vertebrate fauna. I do not propose to go so far back 
as the days of the Cave Lion, Mam.moth, Rhinoceros or Hippo- 
potamus, nor even to a much later date when probably the 
Brown Bear, Wild Boar and Wolf, roamed over the county. 
Within quite recent times the Red Deer ranged wild over our 
broad acres, inhabiting the moorlands and fells as well as the 
forest lands. No doubt, too, the Fallow Deer, though probably 
■of comparatively recent introduction, roamed in a wild state 

Naturalist, 



Protection of Wild Life in Yorksliire. 93 

through our extensive forests, whilst the Roe was at one 
period extremely abundant. They have all long since ceased 
to exist in a wild state. Red and Fallow Deer are still to be 
found in a semi-domesticated state in many parks, some of 
the herds being particularly line ones. It seems a great pity 
that a purely woodland species like the Roe could not be 
introduced once more into its old haunts, as apart from the 
sentimental consideration, they would provide a valuable 
food supply. Herds of the old Wild White Cattle were kept at 
Gisburn and Burton Constable, but in both cases continual 
inter-breeding caused them to die out. 

Species which have ceased to exist in the county within 
' living memory ' are the Wild Cat, the last known specimen of 
which was killed about 1840 in the Hanbleton Hills, and about 
the same time the Common Seal, which formerly bred in 
considerable numbers at the Tees mouth, ceased, chiefly owing 
to the rapid growth of Middlesbrough, to inhabit that locality. 
They are frequently seen on our coast at the present day, and 
at times enter the Humber and penetrate up the Ouse as far 
as Naburn Lock. The Marten which at the date of the pub- 
lication of Clarke and Roebuck's Handbook, was stated to be 
extremely scarce, and restricted to one or two localities, 
probably ceased to exist about 70 years ago, although one was 
caught in a trap at Scugdale, Swainby, in igoo, one was caught 
near Hebden Bridge in May, 1912, and the remains of perhaps 
another were found in Littondale some time previously. 
These were probably escapes, or wanderers from the Lake Dis- 
trict, where they still exist in sm.all numbers. A lady friend of 
mjne obtained two 3'oung ones there this year. Clarke and 
Roebuck state also that the Polecat is irregularly distributed, 
extremely rare and fast becoming extinct. As a m.atter of fact 
it was extinct then and probably disappeared about the sam,e 
time as the Marten. I have had individuals reported to me at 
various times, -but they have invariably proved to be Polecat- 
ferrets. These three last species are extremely destructive, 
and in the nature of things it is impossible for them to exist 
in a cultivated county like ours. 

The last to disappear is one which has only of recent years 
been recognised as a member of the county's fauna. Its 
, recognition has also unfortunatley proved its doom. I allude 
to the Lesser Horse-shoe Bat. A colony of these Bats was 
.found esta:bhshed in a small cave called Ned Hole, near Eave- 
stone Lake, close to the high road leading from Ripley to 
Pately Bridge. A close examination of the cave during the 
Union's visit to Grantley this j/ear, did not reveal any speci- 
mens or even signs of any. Their disappearance is stated to 
have been brought about through the action of the boys at 
Grantley taking a number of specimens from the cave and 

.1916 Mar. 1. 



•94 Protection of Wild Life in Yorksliire. 

liberating them in the church during the service. This caused 
the Vicar to have the mouth of the cave walled up, with the 
consequent destruction of its inhabitants. I do not, however, 
place much credence in this tale, as I am afraid the colony has 
been destroyed by collectors, one in particular. 

The native Black Rat, often called the old English Rat, 
practically disappeared, but, no doubt, reinforced by individ- 
uals from the Continent brought over in ships, it still maintains 
a precarious existence in some of our sea-ports. In Hull 
especially it is fairly com.mon.* 

The Squirrel is still fairly common in m.any parts of the 
county, and is, perhaps, in no immediate danger of exter- 
mination ; yet I am quite sure it is not nearly as plentiful as 
it was in my younger days. Its bad habit of nipping off the 
leading shoots of newly planted trees, frequently brings it 
into disgrace and trouble. 

In Clarke and Roebuck's Handbook, three species of Bats 
are stated to have been recorded only once for the county ; 
which have since proved to be fairly numerous. They are the 
Whiskered Bat, a specimen of which I remember, once dropped 
out of a tree on to a table round which the members of our 
Vertebrate Section were seated, listening to the report of the 
work done during the day at one of the Grassington excursions. 
Natterers, or the Reddish Grey Bat which is particularly fond 
of woodland districts, where it is often found in the company 
of the Whiskered and Long-eared Bats. 

Leislers or Hairy Armed Bat, is so m.uch like the Noctiile 
as to leave no doubt in my mind that it has frequently been 
mistaken for that species. Daubenton's Bat had not even one 
record to its credit. It is now recognised as a member of our 
<:ounty fauna. It is sometimes called the Water Bat from its 
habit of flying over water in search of its food. It may easily 
be overlooked as it flies so low, frequently just skimming the 
surface of the water. Investigation will probably show these 
Bats are much more plentiful than we at present realise, and 
other species will no doubt be added to the list. To the re- 
searches of Mr. Whitaker, of Barnsley, we are greatly indebted 
for our increased knowledge of the Bats of the county. His 
papers have appeared in The Naturalist. 

The Varying Hare has been introduced into Yorkshire, 
and is now extremely plentiful in certain localities, notably 
in the Marsden Moor district, as reported by Mr. H. B. Booth. 

The present craze by Zoologists for splitting up families 
and species into sub-species has given us an addition to our 
local fauna. The Yellow-necked Mouse, a variety really 

* Specimens are still often caught in the premises of one of the niuseums 
—Ed. 

Naturalist, 



Protection of Wild Life in Yorkshire. 95 

of the Long-tailed Field Mouse, is easih' distinguished by its 
size and the yellow on its neck. Observers state that they 
do not mate with the ordinary species. 

In Clarke and Roebuck's Handbook, the Harvest Mouse 
is stated to be scarce and very irregularly and thinly distributed. 
I question whether it ever inhabited the county. In my 
younger days I frequently found the nests of some species of 
mouse intertwined amongst the corn stalks, without doubt 
the Long-tailed Mouse, and possibly this habit has caused the 
nests to be recorded at times as those of the Harvest Mouse. 

The Dormouse is an interesting creature which appears 
never to increase in the county. Judging from my experience 
in keeping them in captivity, there must be a great mortality 
amongst them during the hibernation season. They invariably 
die, though I have fed them up well beforehand and have kept 
them, during their long sleep in as natural conditions as possible. 

One of the most interesting and ancient inhabitants of 
the county is the Badger, and one which I am glad to believe, 
is gradually gaining ground and extending its range. Noc- 
turnal in his habits, it is really a harmless creature. In its 
wanderings it follows the same line of ground with the utmost 
regularity, rarely straying from it. Extremely cleanly in its 
habits, it frequently acts as engineer in forming large earths, 
occupied conjointly by famihes of its own and foxes. A pack 
of hounds in the county recorded that they had hunted and 
killed over 100 badgers in a season. Hardly what one would 
call sport I think, hunting a creature like the Badger with a 
pack of hounds. 

This incident is on a par with the conduct of another set 
of sportsmen who chevied an Otter with a pack of hounds, 
up and down and round a small lake in Wharfedale, for seven 
hours before they encompassed his destruction. Otters are far 
more abundant in the county than most people imagine. I am 
nevertheless eager to know how a writer in a recent number of 
the Shooting Times is able to fix the Otter population of York- 
shire at 1,000. Otters are not nearly so destructive to game 
fish as they are made out to be, they destroy far larger quan- 
tities of eels, theniselves great enemies to fish preservation, 
and coarse fish generally, besides large numbers of Water 
Voles, Field Mice, etc. They are also extremely fond of the 
large Swan Mussel. In fact their diet is very extensive and 
varied. I am quite certain that the extended period over 
which they are allowed to be hunted by hounds might with 
advantage be considerably curtailed. Motor cars, when 
travelling by night, are responsible for the death of many 
mammals and birds. At our last Vertebrate Section meeting, 
Mr. Sidney Smith reported that a motor car had run over and 
killed an Otter on the high road near York. 
1916 Mar.T. {^^ be Continued). 



96 FIELD NOTES. 

BIRDS. 

Kingfisher at Slaithwaite. — I have just seen a Kingfisher 
which has killed itself against an electric cable near the baths- 
at Slaithwaite, and am further informed that there are ' several ' 
about. May they escape the gunner ! — Charles Mosley, 
Lockwood. 

Water Rail at Marsden. — In November last a Water 
Rail was brought to me, which had been picked up on the 
railway embankment that crosses at the bottom of Drop 
Clough, Marsden. Its skull was broken in as though it had 
collided against something in its flight, possibly the telegraph 
wires. In April, 1912, a bird of the same species was shot 
on the moors at the head of this same Clough, and reported in 
the annual publication of the Huddersfield Naturalist and 
Photographic Society for 1911-12. This latter record has been 
referred to elsewhere as ' said to have been,' as though open 
to the possibility of mistake, and no mention whatever is made 
of it in the recently published ' Birds of the Huddersfield Dis- 
trict,' although an earlier record of a Water Rail at Marsden is 
quoted from the Zoologist for 1884. Marsden is described as 
' a very strange place for this kind of bird ' ; nevertheless, both 
these records are absolute genuine. I handled both birds 
myself, and careful enquiry as to date places their accurac}^ 
beyond question. — Charles Mosley, Lockwood. 

LEPIDOPTERA. 
Antler Moth Larva in February. — Yesterday I saw 
a larva of the ' Antler ' ]\Ioth [Charceas gfaminis) lying on the 
snow at Skircout Green, the insect was about full fed and seemed 
very inactive. This is unusual, as these insects hibernate 
during winter. — L. Alderson. 

BOTANY. 

Coltsfoot in Flower in January. — On January 30th in a 
walk with my father on the other side of the ri\'er Wharfe 
(Denton), I gathered two flowers of the Coltsfoot. The}^ were 
in full bloom, and of the usual size ; but I noticed that the 
stalks were rather shorter than usual. No doubt their very 
early appearance is due to this exceptionally mild mid-winter. — 
^Iary Booth, Ben Rhydding. 

Cumberland Hepatics. — I gathered the three following 
species of Hepatics in the neighbourhood of Netherby and 
quite close to the Scotch border, in June, 1912 : Nowellia 
cnrvijolia (Dicks.) ^litt. This beautiful plant was found on the 
trunk of a Scotch Fir tree in a wood. Ptilidiiini ciliare (L.) 
Hampe. Also found on a tree trunk in one of the woods. 
Frullania dilatata (L.) Dum. In considerable quantity, 
including male plants with catkins, on the trunk of a Birch 
tree. — Jas. Murray, Carlisle. 

Natural i.st. 



97 



ALEUROPTERYX LUTEA (WALLENGREN; 
A NEUROPTERON NEW TO BRITAIN. 



J. W. HESLOP HARRISON, B.Sc. 

In May of the past year I had the pleasure of discovering a 
new British Neuropteron, Conwentzia pineticola (End.) of 
the family Coniopterygidae, a fact which stim,ulated me to 
further investigations in this somewhat neglected group. While 
working larches and birches at Wolsingham, co. Durham, I 
beat amongst the crowd of Coniopteryx tineiformis Curtis, 
another species belonging the present group, but obviously 
differing from all the known British forms. This, on subse- 
quent examination, proved to be Aleuropteryx lutea Wallengren, 
a northern insect recorded from Sweden, Finland, Northern 
Siberia, and also from, subalpine districts in Austria. Its dis- 
tribution, therefore, was such as to warrant the expectation of 
its discovery in Scotland or the North of England and this 
anticipation, as has been seen, was justified. 

All these obscure insects have been, in the past, lumped 
together under the generic name Coniopteryx in much the same 
way as all butterflies formerly rejoiced in the name Papilio, 
all hawkm,oths were Sphinx, and so on. 

The present insect was no exception to the rule in spite of 
its great structural distinctness, and when first described by 
Wallengren in 1871 {Skand. Neuropt. Fdrsta afdelningen. 
Neuroptera Plannipennia, p. 81), he called it Coniopteryx 
lutea in which he was followed by McLachlan {E.M.M. Vol. 
XVIL, p. 21). 

In 1885, however, Low {Beit, zur Kenntniss der Coniop- 
terygidien. Sitztmgsber, Math.-Natunv. Classe der Akad. d. 
Wissensch. in Wien Bd. XCI., Abth. I. p. 73), quite correctly 
erected the genus Aleuropteryx to receive it, and in this position 
the m.atter rested until, in igo6, Dr. Giinther Enderlein {Zool. 
Jahrb. XXIII., Abt. f. Sys.) perceived that the species differed 
so greatly from the com.moner form.s that it was worthy of 
form.ing the type of a new sub-family Aleiiropteryginae, basing 
his action on the three jointed m.axilla lobe and the paired 
series of ventral sacs on the abdom.en. 

Unfortunately, at the same time, he quite unnecessarily 
split the genus into the two genera Aleuropteryx and Helico- 
conis on the rather trivial grounds of differences in neuration. 

Details of neuration in the present group, when the same 
insect may differ in its two sides, are not of generic value. 
I have one specimen of Coniopteryx tineiformis differing in its 
forewings to a greater extent than do these two so-called 
genera of Enderlein's. On these grounds, therefore, I reject 

1916 Mar. 1. 



98 Harrison : Aleiiropteryx liitea [Wallengren). 

Enderlein's Helicoconis and describe the insect under Low's 
name of Aleuropteryx liitea. 

Aleuropteryx lutea Wallengren. 

Wing expanse 57 to 6 mm. 

Head slightly narrower than the thorax ; whole bod}' 
covered with a whitish secretion slightly dingier than that of 
Comventzia psociformis Cm"t. Antennae 24-27 jointed, of a 
yellowish colour, som.ewhat more intense near the joints. Palpi 
dull grey. Legs similarly coloured to the antennae ; tibia 
thinnish, sub-cylindrical. 

Forewings radial ramus* simple ; m,edia dividing into three 
branches ; radial ramus connected with m,edia by two cross 
nervules, one near the base of the radial ram.us and the other 
near the base of the second fork of the media. 

Hindwdngs radial ram.us arising near the base of the radius 
and like the media breaking into two forks. 

Taken at Wolsingham, co. Durham,, at about 1,000 feet 
July, 1915. 

There is some mystery attached to the specific name 
' lutea ' given to this insect. Wallengren described the insect 
as covered with a yellowish grey mealiness from which he 
evidentty obtained the ' lutea,' but, very early (1880), McLach- 
lan pointed out that the nam.e was not justified, suggesting 
that Wallengren had before him old specim,ens, and this was 
probably the case for the species is not yellowish. As a matter 
of fact, 0. M. Reuter {Fort. ocJi Besk. dfver Finlands Neurop- 
terer, Acta Societatis pro Fauna et Flora Fennica IX. No. 8), 
who probably has had through his hands more specim.ens of 
this insect than anyone else, describes the insect thus : ' Hela 
kroppen tackt af ett hvitt mjoligt sekret,' practically the same 
formula as he uses in describing SemidaUs aleurodiforynis Steph., 
and my insect exactly agrees with this description, as evidently 
did McLachlan's. From this we must conclude that Wallen- 
gren's insects were old as McLachlan surmised. 



We much regret to record the death of Sir Clements jMarkham, K.C.B.. 
the well-known geographer, which occurred as we went to press with our 
last number. He was in his 86th year. Sir Clements was engaged under 
Captain Austin in the Franklin Search Expedition of 1850-51. He visited 
Peru to inquire into the remains of the old Inca period, and arranged for 
the transmission of valuable Cinchona plants from South America to 
India. He was for twenty-live years the secretary, of the Royal Geo- 
graphical Society, and then for twelve years its President, and was large!}- 
responsible for the success of the National Antarctic Expedition. He was 
a Fellow of the Royal Society. Sir Clements died as a result of burns 
received while reading in bed with the aid of candle light. 

* I have adopted Enderlein's nomenclature for the veins of the wings 
because Bagnall [Ent. Rec, Vol. XXVII., page 242), used it. 

Naturalist, 



99 
THE TERRESTRIAL ISOPODA (WOODLICE) 
OF YORKSHIRE. 



F. RHODES, 

Caytvright Hall, Bradford. 



Thf Woodlice have been somewhat neglected by Yorkshire 
NaturaUsts. The following notes are intended to form a 
nucleus on which to base future records, and also to induce 
fellow naturalists in other parts of Yorkshire to take some little 
interest in this much neglected group of animals, so that we 
can form some idea of their distribution. Some few species 
appear to be distributed throughout the greater part of the 
British Isles. Others are local, probably from geological, 
climatic, or other causes. The reason for their absence or 
presence in a given localitv is one of the things which should 
be worked out. 

Collecting Woodlice is a very simple and easy task, all it 
is necessar}^ to have are a few small bottles containing a little 
weak spirit. Mr. R. Standen, of Manchester, advises 30 per 
cent, spirit to which has been added a little glycerine, in the 
proportions of a teaspoonful to four ounces of the spirit. This 
kills them, and at the same time keeps tiiem limp, and they 
can afterwards be taken out and straightened, then placed in 
stronger spirit. I liave found this formula to work admirably. 

I should take it as a very great favour if anyone would take 
the trouble to collect and forward me specimens from, other 
parts of Yorkshire not mentioned in the following list, or other- 
wise get them identified and record them in The Naturalist. 
Specimens sent to me would be returned, if required, with the 
name affixed. All that is necessary in posting them is to take 
them out of the spirit and place them in damp cotton wool in 
a small tin box, or otherwise in a small glass tube placed in a 
box. 

Woodlice are to be found in many and varied places, but 
chiefly in dam.p situations, under stones, logs, garden refuse, in 
greenhouses, in dam.p woods, under the bark of old trees, 
among fallen leaves, under moss and creeping plants, at the 
roots of grass, and on the top of old walls, also among the 
shingle along river and stream sides. 

FAMILY LIGIIDtE. 

Genus Ltgia Fabr. 

LiGiA OCEAN ICA L. — This is the largest of our British Wood- 
lice, measuring from 20 to 30 mm. It is to be met with all 
along our Yorkshire coast wherever it can find a convenient 
hiding place. It may be looked for on wooden piers, on groynes, 
and under the shingle and refuse at high water mark. 

19] 6 Mar. 1. 



100 Terrestrial Isopoda (Woodlice) of Yorkshire. 

Saltburn, August, 1908 ; Bridlington, August, 1908 ; Flam- 
borough, August, 1909 ; Scarborough, August, 1913. 

Genus Ligidium Brandt. 

Ligidium hypnorum Cuvier. — Up to the present, this 
species has not been found in the north of England. British 
records so far are from Essex, Surrey and Warwickshire, but 
seeing that it occurs in Sweden and Denmark, there is no 
reason why we should not find it in Yorkshire, especially seeing 
that we have many suitable places for it. Its habitat is wet 
moss, so I should like to ask our moss m.en to keep a sharp 
look-out for any Woodlice, when collecting on boggy moors or 
dam.p and wet woods. 

This species is distmguished from. L. oceanica by its sm.aller 
size, and its abdom.en being much narrower than the body. 
It most resem.bles Philoscia muscoruni, both being about the 
same size, 9 m.m., and both having the abdomen narrower than 
the body. There is, however, a marked difference in the tail 
appendages, in L. hypnorum both the tail appendages are alike 
in shape, while in the P. muscorum the outer divisions of the 
tail appendages are broader than the inner ones, and in the 
form.er species the flagellum. of the antennae consists of about 
ten joints, whilst in the latter there are only three. 

FAMILY TRICHONISCIDiE. 
Genus Trichoniscus Brandt. 

Trichoniscus roseus Koch. — The colour of this species 
varies from pale rose to deep coral red, with generally a yellow 
mark down the m.iddle of the back. Specimens taken in the 
open are deeper in colour than those obtained from, greenhouses. 
It is to be found in most gardens, especially on rockeries under 
creeping plants and loose stones, on hedge banks, under dead 
leaves and sticks, in old quarries, under stones, old wood, or 
rubbish. This is one of the species that seem,s to require a 
certain am.ount of moisture for its existence. It is not at all 
uncommon and is undoubtedly an endemic species.' 

Dowley Gap, Bingley, October 1909 ; Lister Park, Brad- 
ford, November, 1908 ; Calverly, S. Margerison, April, 1908 ; 
Knaresborough, October, 1908 ; Gisburn, J. Beanland, Septem- 
ber, 1910 ; Harewood, Yorkshire Naturalists' Union Meeting, 
May, 1911 ; Elks Wood, Ingleton, June, 1912 ; Canal Banks, 
Bradford, Bingley, Keighley, and Kildwick, May, 1913 ; 
Bolton Abbey, August, 1911 ; Bellbusk and Seattle, May, 
1914 ; Castle Flill, Scarborough, August, 1913 ; Colhngham 
and Boston Spa, July, 1915 ; Aberford, Septem.ber, 1915. 

Trichoniscus pusillus Brandt. — This is one of the com- 
monest of our British Woodlice, and is to be found in many 

Naturalist 



Teyyestrial Isopoda {Woodlicc) of Yorkshire. loi 

and varied places, at the roots of grass in the open fields, under 
dead leaves in damp places, under stones along stream sides, 
among moss in wet woodlands or boggy places, it is also 
common on rockeries, and in most gardens under creeping 
plants, etc. 

It would be useless to give a list of the places from which 
1 have obtained this species, sufficient to say is, that it occurs 
comm.only in Airedale, Wharfedale, Ribblesdale, Lunedale, 
Nidderdale, Calderdale, Scarborough and Bridhngton districts. 
Mr. R. S. Bagnall found it on the cliffs at Whitby, and Dr. 
G. S. Brady records it for the Sheffield district. 

T. PUSiLLUS var. violaceus Schobl. — This is a beautiful 
form of a violet colour. I found three specim.ens in Grass- 
wood, and one at Linton, on the Yorkshire Naturalists' Union 
Excursion, 1913, and four in Hackfall Woods, April 1914. 

Trichoniscus pygm.^us G. 0. Sars. — This is one of the 
smallest endemic species, and is apparent^ widely distributed. 
It was discovered by Alex. Patience in the Clyde area, and 
also in the North of England by Mr. R. S. Bagnall, almost 
simultaneously in igo6. 

Mr. R. S. Bagnall found it under deeply em.bedded 
stones on the clifts at Whitby on March 20th, 1912, and he 
infornis me that he has taken it recently at Ravenscar, and 
Rombaldskirk. I have obtained about twenty specimens 
from m.y own garden in Bradford, from under Saxifrages, 
and from a cold frame in which I wintered violas during 
1913-14. Most of the specim.ens taken in the frame, were 
obtained under slices of raw potato put there as snail traps. 

Trichoniscus siebbingi Patience. — -This species has been 
taken in greenhouses in Northum.berland and Durham and also 
in the open in the Clyde area. Up to the present tim.e I know 
of no Yorkshire records for it. 

Genus Trichoniscoides G. O. Sars. 

Trichoniscoides sarsi Patience. — This species was first 
recorded as British by R. S. Bagnall in The Zoologist 
for April, 1912, from a specimen obtained under deeply em- 
bedded stones on the clifts at Whitby on ]\Iarch 20th, 1912. 
He inform.s m.e that he has since taken it on the cliffs near Whit- 
burn, County Durham, thus further establishing it as a British 
species. 

Trichoniscoides albidus Budde-Lund. — Up to the present 
the only Yorkshire records for this species that I am aware 
of are : — Eccleshall Wood, Sheffield, by Dr. G. S. Brady in 
the British Association Hand Book (Zoology) Sheffield m.eeting, 
1910, and under stones on the Whitby Clifts, Mr. R. S. Bagnall, 
March, 1912 {Zoologist, April, 1912). 

1916 Mar. 1. 



102 TeryestriaL Isopoda {Woodlice) of Yorkshire. 

Genus Haplophthalmus Schobl. 

Haplophthalmus mengii Zaddach. — This small Woodlouse 
was first recorded for Yorkshire by Mr. R. S. Bagnall, from 
specim.ens taken at the sam.e tim.e and place as the two form.er 
species. I have since obtained a number of specimens from 
under deeply embedded lim.estone boulders on the river side 
at Grassington in May and June, 1914, and under the stones 
of the first weir below Settle Bridge in IMay, 1914. 

This species appears to frequent the burrows made by 
worm.s and other creatures found under stones. It is pure 
white with longitudinal ribs on each segment of the thorax. 

Although rare, this species appears to be widely distributed. 
It has been taken in Derbyshire, Cheshire, Lancashire, North- 
um.berland, Durham, and eight counties in Ireland. 

Haplophthalmus danicus Budde-Lund. — The Rev. T. R. 
R. Stebbing added this species to our Yorkshire fauna from 
specim.ens obtained at Naburn Hall on the occasion of the 
British Association's visit to York (Victorian County History 
of Yorkshire). Mr. R. S. Bagnall, also found it on the 
cliffs at Whitby on March 20th, 1913 {Zoologist, April, 1912). I 
have obtained a single specim.en in a cold fram.e in m.y garden 
in April, 1914, and two specim.ens in a greenhouse at Lister' 
Park, Bradford, Novem.ber 25th, 1915. 

FAMILY ONISCIDyE. 
Genus Platyarthrus Brandt. 

Platyarthrus hoffmannseggii Brandt. — The Rev. T. R. 
R. Stebbing found this interesting little Woodlouse at Naburn 
Hall (Victory County History, Yorks.). 

Mr. F. Booth and I found it very common in ants' nests 
under large stones, while looking for Acicula acicidoides, a small 
land snail, on the roadside from. Linton Common to Wetherby, 
September, 1908, Mr. F. Booth and Mr. T. Stringer also found 
it in a sim.ilar situation at Milnthorpe in April, 1910. 

Mr. R. Standen, of Manchester, has some interestmg notes 
on this species in the Lancashire Naturalist for November, 
1909. 

Mr. T. Stainforth gives som.e further interestmg notes on 
this species in The Naturalist for Decem,ber, 1915, in a paper 
on ' The Guests of Yorkshire Ants.' 

{To be continued). 



The Forty-fith Annual Report of the Libraries, Art Gallery and 
Mu.seuins Committee of Bradford show.s that much attention has been given 
to Coleoptera, and wild flowers, during the year. A collection of 600 
fossils and minerals has been given by the family of the late John Pickles. 

Naturalist, 



10.^. 



THE HARVESTMEN AND PSEUDOSCORPIONS 
OF YORKSHIRE. 



WM. FALCONER, 

Slaiihwaite, Huddersficld. 

There are still districts in Yorkshire which ha\'e not yet been 
investigated or only imperfectly, especially in vice-county 65, 
but it does not seem probable that any more kinds of harvest- 
men or pseudoscorpions will hereafter be added to its list, or 
if any of the latter, one or two at the most, for those which 
have not yet been met with, are, so far as at present known, 
either more southerly or westerly in their range. They are 
in several instances distributed discontinuously^ — (it may be 
that this conclusion is based more on lack of observation than 
anything else) — over th^ older rock formations, which compose 
the western side of Britain, a few of them having been observed 
as far north as Argyllshire and Ross-shire. The moment 
therefore seems opportune to collate and publish the records 
which have accumulated, and which will indicate not only 
what is at present known of the occurrence and distribution 
of both orders in the county, but also w^hat is as important, 
how much remains to be done, and where investigation is 
most needed. 

BIBLIOGRAPHY. 

Some of the papers contain references to the species in the 
north of England, and other areas adjacent to the county, 
and will form a basis for comparison between them. 

H. E. Johnson. 

1901. — E. Riding PseiuloscoriMnns. ' Trans. Hull Sci. and Field Nat. 
Club," p. 228. 
H. Wallis Kew. 

1901. — Eincolnshire I'seudoscorpions with an Account of the Association 
of such Animals with other Arthropods. The Naturalist, pp. 

193-215- 
1905. — N. of En.i^land Pseudoscorpions. The Xatitralisf, August, pp. 

293-300. 
1906. — Cheviies cyrneus L. Koch, in Notts. ' Trans. Notts N. Soc' lor 
1905-6, pp. 4i-.|(j. 
Rev. E. A. W. Peacock. 

1902. — Tincolnshire Nat. Union's Excursions. The Xatinalist, pp. 
I ^^-8 and pp. 375-380. 
T. Fetch. 

190V — Two l^seudoscorpions at .Mdhorough, Holderncss. The \'<it- 
iirulist, p. 460. 

Rev. O. PiCKARD C.\IMBRIDGE. 

1884. — Pseudoscorpions New to Britain. The Xatiiruli^i, p. 103. 
igo5. — On New and Rare Br. Arachnida ; Cherues cyrneus I^. Kc;ch. 

' Proc. Dorset N. H. and A. F. Club.' p. 56, pi. B, figs. 27-28. 
1907. — Victoria County History of Yorks., Vol. I., Section Arachnida, 

pp. 292-3. 



104 Harvestmen and Pseudoscorpions of Yorkshire. 

Dr. A.'Randell Jackson. 

1906. — Spiders of the Tj-ne Valley. ' Trans. N. H. Soc. of Northumber- 
land, Durham and New.castle-upon-Tyne, ' New Series, Vol. I., 

pt. 3. 
1907. — On Some Rare Arachnids captured in 1906. ' Proc. Chester 

Soc. of Nat. Sci. Lit. and Art.' Part VI., No. i. May. 
1908-9. — Ditto, captured in 1907 and 1908. ' Trans. N. H. Soc, 

Northd., Durham and Newcastle-upon-Tyne,' New Series, Vol. 

III., pt. I and pt. 2. 
1.910.^ — On Some Arthropods observed in 1909. Lancashire Naturalist, 

May, p. 50. 
\V. Falconer. 

1906. — Notes on Harvest Spiders and of their Occurrence in Yorkshire. 

The Naturalist, July and November. 
1907- — A Phalangid New to Yorkshire. The Naturalist, November, 

p. 388. 
1907. — A Pseudoscorpion New to Northumberland. The Naturalist, 

November, p. 388. 
1907. — A Pseudoscorpion New to Yorkshire, December, p. 432. 
1908. — Chiridium niuseorum Leach, at Huddersfield, March, p. no. 
1908. — Chthonius tetrachelatus Preys. New to Yorkshire, p. 288. 
1 910. Keys to the Families, Genera and Species of British Harvest- 
men and Pseudoscorpions. The Naturalist, December. 
1911- — British Pseudoscorpions. The Naturalist, May, 192-3. 
In the Arachxida of the Following Places. — The Naturalist. 
1909. — Cawthorn, November. 
1910. — INIiddleton-in-Teesdale, July ; Malham, September ; N.E. 

Coast of Yorkshire, December. 
191 1. — Harewood Park, June ; Meltham, October. 
1912. — ^Tanheld, August. 
1914. — Knaresborough, June. 
1915- — Bishop Wood and Hebden Bridge., September ; Sawley District, 

November. 
1913. — Annual Report of Arachnida Committee of Y.N.U., for 1912, 

Januar}^, p. 83. 
1914. — Annual Report of Arachnida Committee of Y.N.U. for 1913, 

January, p. 32. 
1912. — Yorkshire Arachnida in 191 1, March. 
1914.^ — Yorkshire Arachnida in 1912-13, March. 
G. A. and R. B. Whyte. 

1907. — False Scorpions of Cumberland. The Naturalist, June, pp. 203-4 • 
G. B. Walsh. 

1908. — Obisium muscorton at Middlesbrough, The Naturalist, March, 

p. no. 
T. Stainforth. 

1908. — Preliminary List of E. Yorks. Spiders, Harvestmen and Pseudo- 
scorpions. 'Trans. Hull Sci. and Field Nat. Club,' Vol. IV., 

pt. I, May. 
1908. — Chthonius tetrachelatus Preys., New to E. Riding and C. rayi 

L. Koch. The Naturalist, October, p. 385. 
1909. — List of E. Yorkshire Spiders, etc. ' Hull Museum Publications, 

No. 59,' April. 
1910. — In Arachnida of Spurn. The Naturalist, September, p. 345. 
1915. — l\Iegabunus insig)iis Meade — a Harvestman New to East 

Riding. The Naturalist, December. 
W. P. Winter. 

1909. — Spiders of the Bradford Area. ' Bradford Scientific Journal,' 

April. 
191 1. — Spiders of the Airedale and Wharfedale Area. The Naturalist, 

January. 

XaUiralist, 



Harvestmen and Pseudoscorpions of Yorkshire. 105 

In the Arachnida of the Following Places. — The Naturalist. 

1912. — Tebay, October. 

1915. — Sawley and Eavestonc, July ; Settle, September. 
E. A. Parsons. 

1910. — List of E. Yorks. Spiders, Harvestmen and Pseudoscorpions. 
' Trans. Hull Junior Field Nat. Soc.,' p. 22. 
H. C. Drake. 

1910. — Arachnida of Kirby Moorside. The Naturalist, November. 
R. Standen. 

1912. — False Scorpions of Lancashire, etc. Lancashire Naturalist, 
April, pp. 7-16. 

1915. — Derbyshire False Scorpions. Lancashire cuid Cheshire Nat- 
uralist, December. 
Rev. J. E. Hull. 

1915. — Local Pseudoscorpions. The Vasculum, p.jo. 

THE HARVESTMEN. 

The late Dr. R. H. Meade, of Bradford, was one of the first 
EngHsh naturahsts of note to study harvestmen, and from his 
pen there appeared in the Ann. and Mag. of Nat. History, 
series 2, vol. XV., pp. 393-416, in the year 1855, a ' Monograph 
on the British Species of Phalangiidae or Harvestmen,' which 
he afterwards (in 1861) supplemented with a short paper in 
the same journal, Series 3, Vol. VII. Of his sixteen species, one 
has since been disallowed, while another is doubtful and may 
be deleted. In 1890, the Rev. O. Pickard Cambridge published 
his standard ' Monograph of the British Phalangidea or Har- 
vestmen.' in the ' Proc. Dorset Nat. Hist, and Antiq. Field 
Club,' Vol. XL, in which he described and figured twenty-four 
species. One of these, Platybunus triangularis Herbst., is now 
generally recognised as the immature form of P. corniger Herm., 
and it is the opinion of Professor Kulczynski* that Sclerosoma 
romanum L. Koch, bears a similar relationship to S. qiiad- 
ridentatum Cuv., (the Rev. 0. P. Cambridge does not subscribe 
to this ruling), f and Oligolophus cinerascens C. Koch, to 0. 
alpinus Herbst., which is itself merely an alpine form of 0. 
morio Fabr., so that the above total will be correspondingly 
still further reduced. The last addition to the British list 
was recorded by Mr. Cambridge in the ' Proc. Dorset Field 
Club, 1907.' Thus twenty species occur in the British Isles, 
and of these fifteen and one variety have been met with in 
Yorkshire, nine being recorded in the above-named works, 
one in the ' Trans, of the Hull Scientific and Field Naturalists' 
Club, 1908,' and the rest in a paper by the writer, 1906. In 
1907, the harvestmen of the county as then known with sum- 
mary of localities, were noted in the Victoria County History 



* ' De Opilionibus ' (1904), pp. 79-80. 

t On Rare and New f3r. Arachnida. ' I^roc. Dorset Field Club,' Vol. 
XXXV., 1914. 



1916 Mar. 1. 



io6 Harvestmen and Psetidoscorpions of Yorkshire. 



of Yorkshire, the specimens therein named having been collected 
by Dr. Meade, C. Mosley and the present writer. 

The five remaining British species are much outside our 
limits, the nearest being Oligolophus meadii Cambr., at Dela- 
mere Forest and Penrith. 

In the following lists, the entries, except in my own case, 
are distinguished by the initials of the collector's name, or 
their origin indicated thus : — 



R. H. 


M. 


= 


Dr. Aleadc. 


S. M. 


= Mr. Margerison. 


R. B. 




= 


Mr. Rosse Butterfield. 


E. A. P. 


= Mr. Parsons. 


F. B. 




= 


Mr. F. Booth. 


T. P. 


= :Mr. Fetch. 


H. C. 


D. 


= 


Mr. Drake. 


F. R. 


= .Mr. Rhodes. 


F. 




= 


IMr. Forrest. 


T.St. 


— Mr. Stringer. 


H. M 


F. 


= 


Mr. Foster. 


T. S. 


= ^Ir. Stainforth. 


J-F- 




= 


Dr. Fordham. 


R. A. T. 


= Rev. R. A. Tavlor. 


J. G. 




= 


Mr. Greenwood. 


G. B W. 


= Mr. Walsh. 


J. w. 


H. 


= 


Mr. J. W. Harrison. 


H. \V. 


= Mr. Wilson. 


C. M. 




= 


Mr. Mosley. 


W. P. ^\'. 


= Mr. Winter. 


V. r. 






The Watson ian Vice- 
Counties.. 

(To be CO 


Y. N. r. 

ntinned ). 


= l^nion Meeting at 
that particular 
place {vide Biblio- 
graph}', p. 103-105). 



Mr. W. Evans writes oh ' Birds and .Aeroplanes ' in The Scotti'^h 
y^atiiralist for February. 

Mr. H. Donisthorpc contributes ' Myrmecophilous Notes for 191 3' 
to The Entomologist' s Record for January. 

In The Entomologist for February, Mr. J. W. H. Harrison has a paper 
on ' The Genus Enfiomos, with an account of some of its Hybrids.' 

Mr. Mottram's report on the Yorkshire and North Midland Division, 
under the Metalliferous Mines Act, for 191 4, appears in The Quarvy for 
February. 

In Lincolnshire Notes and Queries for January is an excellent portrait 
of the late Edward Peacock, F.S.A., and a biographical notice, contributed 
by his son, the Rev. E. A. Woodruffe Peacock. 

We see from Nature that Mr. J. Reid Moir, who has made such extra- 
ordinary discoveries among old flints, is said to be the Curator of the 
Ipswich ^kluseum. On enquiry at Ipswich, however, we find our old friend 
Frank Woolnough is still in charge. 

Besides the notes continued from the previous issue. The New Phy- 
tologist for December (published January 21st, received February 2nd), 
contains a note, ' Is Pelvetia canaliciilata a Lichen ? ' by A. L. Smith and 
J. Ramsbottom ; a short note on ' Tj^pe Slides,' and an obituary' notice 
of Ernest Lee. 

Dr. J. W. Evans has a lengthy paper on ' The Determination of Min- 
erals under the Microscope, by means of their Optical Characters,' in 
The Journal of the Quekett Microscopical Club, No. 77. Other notes are, 
' An Addition to the Objective,' by M. A. Ainslie ; ' Diatom Structure,' 
by A. A. C. E. Merlin ; ' Slides of Fissidentaceae,' by G. T. Harris ; 
' Cultivation of Plasmodia of Badhamia utricularis,' by A. E. Hilton ; 
' Hydrodictyon reticulatum,' by J. Burton ; ' Insect Structure,' by E. M. 
Nelson ; ' Five New Species of Habrotrocha,' by D. Bryce. There is also 
an excellent portrait of the late Professor E. .'\. j\Iinchin. 

Naturalist, 



107 
CUMBERLAND COLEOPTERA. 



F. H. DAY. F.E.S. 



The extended drought of late spring and early summer probably 
shortened the careers of some species of insects, but the heav^- 
and persistent rains of August invested the parched ground with 
new life, and in autumn, insects were more or less abundant. 

The Coleoptera of Cumberland have been closely studied 
during the last twenty years. Nearly i,8oo species have been 
noted as occurring in the county. 

Most of my observations in 1915 were in the immediate 
neighbourhood of Carlisle. I saw no Geodephaga which call 
for comment. A few water-beetles, however, may be men- 
tioned. Haliphlus fulvus F., a local species here, occurred in 
the Nature Reserve at Kingmoor. Hydropori were common, 
including H. nigrita ¥., abundant very early in the season, 
scarcer later on ; H. pictus F., H. lepichis 01., H . lineatus F., 
in ponds of clear water ; H. umbrosiis Gyll., H . tnstns Payk., 
in bogs ; H. rivalis Gyll., H. septenirionalis Gyll., in streams ; 
and most interesting of all, a specimen of H. obsoletus Aube, 
was taken from flood refuse by the River Eden at Wetheral, 
at the end of December. This is only the second specimen 
I have taken in Cum.berland, the first occurring under similar 
circumstances in the autumn of 1903 in the same locality. 
Hydrohius picicrus Thom.s., occurred in late autumn on the 
site of a dried-up bog pool, where it was found by scraping 
away the humid vegetable detritus, with other aquatic species 
such as Helochares grisens Fab. {pnnctatus Shp.) and Philydrus 
minutus F. Laccobuis nigriceps Thorns, was found in flood 
refuse ; P. alutaceus Thorns, and P. minutus L. in clay ponds 
in the Nature Reserve, where also I again m.et with Helophorus 
dorsalis Marsh. {4-signatus Bach.). Other species of Helo- 
phorus to be taken were H. aroernicus Muls., comm.on on the 
sandy margins of the River Caldew, and H . affinis Marsh., in 
clear water. Hydrochus, a scarce genus in Cumberland, was 
represented by angustntits Germ. The only other species I 
have m.et here is H . brevis Herbst., but not for some years now. 
Three species of Ochthebius were obtained b}' swilling round 
the edges of ponds, viz. : — 0. impresses Marsh, [pygmceus 
Payk.), 0. hicolor Germ, {rujiniarginatiis Steph.), and 0. 
impressicollis Lap. [bicolon Steph.). 

Num.erous Staphylinidae were met with. Aleochara diversa 
J. Sahl {moesta Brit. Cat.) occurred several times. It is always 
a much scarcer species than A. sparsa Heer. {succicola Thom,s.), 
with which it was formerly confused in British collections. 
Several species of Oxypoda occurred, the best being O. annularis, 
Mann, and 0. brachyptcra Steph., the form.er in moss, the 
latter on the sandy banks of streams. Ocalca badia Er., O. 
picata Steph. {casfanea Er.) and 0. rivularis ■Mill, [latipennis 

1916 Mar. 1. 



io8 Day : Cumberland Coleoptera. 

Shp.) were taken in flood refuse in December. Of Atheta I took 
a number of species, mostly stil) undetermined. Mention 
may be made however, of A. soror Kr. A. cavijrons Shp. A. 
pallens Redt. and A. pygmaea Grav. all from flood refuse. In 
fungi in late autumn I got a short series of Gyrophaena fasciata 
Marsh., hitherto accounted rare in this district. One of the 
better fungus-frequenting species was Tachinus proximus 
Kr., which preferred absolutely putrid, almost liquid, fungi, a 
circumstance which made its capture a rather unpleasant 
business. Quedius lateralis Grav., and Philonthus puella Nord., 
inhabited the same pabulum and also preferred it in the same 
filthy state. The prevailing Quedius in flood refuse was Q. 
attenuatiis Gyll. In addition to the Philonthus already men- 
tioned I took P. albipes Grav., in meadows recently ' scaled ' 
with manure, P. longicornis Steph., not uncommon in my 
garden in a heap of cut grass, this being the first season in 
which I have taken more than a single specim.en. Staphylinus 
erythropterus L., was picked up on roads. Stenus pallitarsis 
Steph., 5. pubescens Steph., and 5. rogeri Kr., were swept. 
For several seasons I have been on the look out for Oxytelus 
jairmairei Pand., examining dozens of the ubiquitous 0. 
tetracarinatus Block, (surely the commonest of all beetles), 
and this season had the good fortune to take one fine specimen 
on the wing. I got two Trogophlceus arcuatus Steph., in Dec, 
a species I have not seen for a number of years. Ancyrophorus 
omalinus Er., was, however, common as usual in flood refuse. In 
the early spring I took a nice Homalium tricolor Rey., in a dried 
up rabbit's skin,and among the numerous examples of Protienus 
the latter harboured, found one P. limbatus Makl. 

Among the Clavicornia I found few species. Almost the 
only Liodes [Anisotoma) I met turned out to be L. ciirta Fairm., 
new to the county. The specimen occurred in marsh hay in 
August. Rhizophagus fcrrugincus Payk. was common under 
fir bark with others of the genus. 

In view of the numerous recent additions to the British 
list in the genus Cryptophagus, many species were taken, but 
nothing really noteworthy was seen, unless an at present 
undetermined example from flood refuse turns out to be 
something of interest. In my heap of cut grass in the garden 
several species occurred, among them C. pilosus Gyll. C. 
dentatus Herbst. was taken in boleti on birch, C. pallidus 
Sturm., in haystack refuse ; of the two the latter is much the 
com.moner in Cumberland. Pidhis {Scymnus) testaceus Mots., 
not before recorded hence was beaten from Scotch Fir in 
August, although I have specimens taken a few years ago. 
My insects are referable to the var. scutellaris Muls. In June 
I swept up a specimen of Aspidiphorus orbiculatus Gyll., near 
a pond. Previously I have taken it sparingly in moss. 

One of the most interesting skipjacks in Cumberland is 

Naturalist. 



Day : Cumberland Coleoptera. 109 

Corymbites pectinicornis L., of which several were taken in 
June am.ong long grass on the edge of a wood. Sericosomua 
brunneus L., occurred on various trees, and was also swept 
up amongst rough herbage in wood rides, with other com.moner 
species of the family. Longicornia are not numerous here 
although several interesting species are in the county list. 
Saperda populnea L., was noted in its old locality am.ong aspen 
where the bushes are much stunted by its depredations. A little 
beetle I was very pleased to see again was Zeiigophora subspinosa 
F. I took one in 1898 and now again only found a single 
specimen. Both came from, aspen in the sam,e field, so appar- 
ently there is a colony in the vicinity. It is a rare species in 
the North of England, judging from, the absence of records. 
Phyllotreta flexuosa 111. occurred rather freely on various low 
plants. It is well estabhshed in the Nature Reserve on water- 
cress. 

In the same interesting locahty I found Apion scutellare 
Kirb. sparingly on furze, but A. genistae Kirb. was again 
abundant on the Petty Whin. From flood refuse in spring I 
got Ceuthorrhynchiis euphorbiae Bris. and in Decem^ber a fine 
specimen of the striking Liocoma dejlexum Panz. var. collaris 
Rye. In June Magdalis carbonaria L. was found on sallow 
sparingly, and M. phlegmatica Herbst. cam.e from cut fir tops. 
Although never common here, this ' Scotch ' species may be 
taken alm,ost any season in the plantations where recent 
felling has taken place. I got a specimen of Anthonomiis rubi 
Herbst. in September, which is the second I have taken in 
Cum.berland, but the sm.aller A. comari Crotch is invariably 
abundant on various low plants, especially Potentilla. I see, 
however, that the latter is given as an aberration of the former 
in the list of Newbery and W. E. Sharp just published. 

In the Penrith district I found a few interesting insects 
on the single occasion I visited it at the end of September. 
Hydraena britteni Joy, was present in its old locality in mossy 
pools. Cercyon tristis 111., and Chaetarthria seminulum Herbst. 
were shaken out of moss with such species as Myllaena dubia 
Grav., Quedius maurorufus Grav., Philonthus corvinus Er., 
P. nigrita Nord., Stenus argus Grav., S. melanarius Steph., 
S. niveus Fauv., and Xylodromiis depresstis Gr. {Homalium 
deplanatum Gyll.). A quaint little species Hypocyptus ovidum 
Hern, was a welcome capture. Som.e little time was spent in 
this locality in searching for Pselaphus dresdensis Herbst., but 
although some half dozen Pselaphids were captured and duly 
set, only one proved to be that species, the others being P. 
heisei Herbst. In addition to the characters mentioned by 
Fowler, dresdensis m.ay be readily separated from heisei by 
having the apical joint of the palpi smooth instead of being 
sprinkled with minute black tubercles. Sweeping produced 
little but Longitarsus sitccineus Fond, and Meligethes vidnatus 

1916 Mar. 1. 



no Day : Cumberland Coleoptcra. 

Sturm, the latter from the water areas. Galeruca tanaceii L. 
was a conspicuous object on Devil's bit scabious and black 
knapweed. I saw none of its reputed food plant, tansy, in 
the vicinity. This is the first time I have met with the species 
in any numbers in Cumberland, my only previous acquaintance 
with it being limited to two specimens captured in flood refuse 
a long while ago on the banks of the River Caldew. 

On the coast towards Ravenglass Cicindela hyhrida L. 
was abundant on Whit Monday. Among the higher sandhills 
this fine insect is difficult to catch, owing to the irregularity of 
the ground, but where the smaller hills shelve down to the 
beach it may be readily marked down with the eye when it 
settles on the sand after a flight, and if stealthily approached 
may be caught with a long-handled butterfly net when it 
rises again on the wing. Its powers of flight diminish in the 
late afternoon, and it becomes less wary. On sunless days it 
is seldom seen. A few Harpalus neglectiis Dej., were taken 
under stones with Amara litcida Duft., and other commoner 
species of both genera. A colony of Bembidion saxatile Gyll. 
was noted in a damp place where the sand was mixed with clay. 
In this locality I once took a few Saprintts rugiceps Duft. 
(4-styiatus Hoff.), so careful search was made for more, with 
however only partial success, as I could not find more than 
one example. Numbers of sandhill species were observed 
such as Notoxus monoceros L., Melanimon [Microzouni) 
tibiale F., and Phylan [Heliopathes) gibbus F. Two fine 
specimens of Phytonomus fasciculatus Herbst. were taken at 
the roots of Erodhtm. Under seaweed Honialum riigilipenne 
Rj^e and H. riparium Thoms. were com.mon. In the lanes 
behind the sandhills Gymnetron labile Herbst. was abundant 
on black knapweed, while general sweeping produced, among 
others, Subcoccinella 24-piinctata L., Hippuriphila moaeeri L. 
and Tropiphoyiis tomentosus Marsh. 

In 1915 about two hours on Saddleback entirely covered 
my collecting in that delightful country. It was a beautiful 
day in autumn, but insects were very scarce on the lower 
slopes. A few Carabps catenulatus Scop, strayed across the 
path. Many specimens of Geotrupes of the commoner species 
hustled one another round the droppings of sheep in which 
Aphoaius lapponum Gyll was present in numbers, but otherwise 
there was little to be seen. In some sphagnum pools about 
2,000 feet up, which was as high as I got, were a few Agabus 
congener Payk., Hydroporus tristis Payk., H. obscurus Sturm, 
and H. morio Dej., also the two bugs Gerris costae H.S. and 
Corixa pracneta Firb. 

The nomenclature of the Coleoptera mentioned in this 
paper is that of the new exchange list compiled by Messrs. 
E. A. Newbery and W. E. Sharp and published in 1915. 

Naturarist. 



Ill 



REVIEW. 



An Exchange List of British Coleoptera. E. A. Newbery and W. E. 
Sharp. Plymouth: J. H. Keys, 1915. Price 6d. This list of British 
beetles is based on the European catalogue of 1906. Though at first sight 
the changes introduced in many instances appear to be extremely revolu- 
tionary, it is advisable that our nomenclature should be brought into line 
with that used by Continental entomologists. The majority of the new 
names have already been given as synonyms by Canon Fowler in his standard 
work, and if some familiar names are renounced in favour of others, it is 
to be hailed as a distinct advance towards the goal of final stable nomen- 
clature, based on the law of priority wherever possible. The last catalogue 
of British coleoptera was published in 1904 by Professor T. Hudson Beare 
and Mr. H. St. J. Donisthorpc, and since that date large numbers of species 
have been added to our list and these are incorporated in the catalogue 
vmder review. Several instances in which confusion may arise owing to 
a reciprocal alteration of names may be briefly mentioned, in addition to 
the example cited by Mr. Stainforth ( The Naturalist, 1915, p. 403), as regards 
our British species of Noterus Clair (both of which are Yorkshire insects). 
Thus the name Bembidium littoral e Oliv. should rightly be applied to B. 
paliidosiim Panz. and the species known by British coleopterists as littorale 
should become ustidatum L. Philhydrus melanocephalus Ol. becomes 4. 
punctatus Herbst. and Enochrus bicolor Payk. becomes Philhydrus melano- 
cephalus 01. The insect formerly called Ochthebius riifimavginatiis Steph. 
is sunk in bicolon Germ, and our insect known as bicolon Germ, becomes 
impressicollis Lap. The very common large Cercyon which Canon Fowler 
calls haeniorvhoidalis Herbst. ((Fab.) Beare and Donisthorpc), is now known 
as impressns Sturm, and the almost equally common but smaller flavipes 
Fab. (of Fowler and B. & D.) is now haemorrhoidalis Fab. (nee. Herbst.), 
Cercyon obsoletus Gyll. becomes litgiibns Ol. and C. lugubvis Pk. becomes 
cnnvexiuscidus Steph. Stilicus affinis Er. (Fowler and B. & D.) is sunk 
in orbiculatus Pk. and orbiculatus Er. (Fowler), Pk. (B. and D.) becomes 
erichsom Fauv., Sphaeroderma testaceiini F. is now rubiduni Graells and S. 
cardui Gyll. becomes testaceiim Gyll., Cassida equestvis Fab. becomes viridis 
L. and our old viridis Fab. (Fowler) L. (B. & D.), is now rubiginosa MiiU. 
These are the most noticeable instances in which confusion is likely to occur 
for some time, but if coleopterists in recording will always add the name of 
the author of the species there should be no doubt as to which insect is 
meant. A large number of beetles noted in this catalogue have the suffix 
Ijrit. Cat. and this is a distinct advantage in shewing at once that there is 
considerable doubt at this time to what author the species should correctly 
be referred ; for example, there is no doubt that our Cryptoplcurum atomav- 
iitni should be called minutitm F., but it is by no means certain whether 
it is the atomariiim Muls. (of Fowler) or atoiuarium Ol. (of B. & D.). Many 
varieties have had to be omitted, as explained in the editors' note, and this 
IS not of any serious moment as far as mere colour aberrations are concerned. 
However, in the case of well defined varieties it is in some cases uncertain 
whether the variety should be sunk in the type (as is done in the Eur. Cat. 
with the var. procera Er. of Aleochara spadicea Er.), or whether they are 
omitted for economy of space only, without any doubt of their value as 
varieties ; e.g., Scymnus suturalis Thun. var. limbatits Steph., Aphodius 
depresses Kug. var. nigripes Steph., Chvysomela orichalcia Mull. var. hobsoni 
Steph. and Anthicus floralis L. var. qiiisquilius Th., all of which are York- 
shire insects. With regard to Bemtidium audrecB F. and its var. bualei 
Duv. [anglicamim Sharp), it is the latter which occurs on the Yorkshire 
coast, and again with Elmis maiigei Bed. var. aeneus Mull., the type does not 
appear to occur in the county. Two interesting varieties added to the 
list are Rhantus exoletus Forst. var. nigriveulris (n. var.) based on specimens 
taken at Askham Bog b}^ Mr. \V. E. Sharp in ]\Iarch, 1895 and Cafiits 
xantholoma Gr. var. variegatiis Er., taken at Bridlington by Mr. W. E. 
Sharp in 1909, and by Mr. J. H. Keys at Plymouth. The use of the dagger 

191C Mar. 1. 



112 Norihern News. 

is rather too comprehensive, but perhaps under the circumstances it was 
impossible to use a variety of symbols. Several insects recorded from 
Yorkshire are so graced, notably Ophonits calceatus Stm. (the Bridlington 
example remaining unique in the British list), MyllcBna grcBca Kr., and 
Mycetoponts forticornis Fauv. One has to know the insect thus marked to 
be certain whether it is to be classed as an extinct true native, a species 
becoming established (denizen) an occasional visitor, a cosmopolitan, a 
doubtfully true species, or a myth. — W. J. Fordham. 



NORTHERN NEWS. 

' Plant Diseases in England and Wales,' is the title of an article in 
The Journal of the Board of Agriculture for January. 

' The Government is going to close Museums and Picture Galleries 
to the public. No one shall accuse us of being Apostles of Culture.' — 
Punch. 

The Editor of one of our journals asks : ' Who will lend a hand in 
giving the Journal a big boost in the early part of 1916 ? Come along 
all.' In Yorkshire it would be spelt ' bust ! ' 

We see froin the daily press that the Brighton Art Gallery ' has been 
regarded by rival municipalities as a model to imitate.' The note im- 
mediately follows with ■ Brighton lives by advertisement.' The same 
article tells us that ' the total cost of the museum at Hastings does not 
exceed ;^200 a year.' Yet it is called the ' Brassy ' Institute ! 

In a pamphlet entitled The Meaning of Life, Mr. Robinson writes on 
' Who Made God.' We are afraid we must admit we are not very much 
enlightened by its perusal. Possibly our readers may have better luck 
than we have ; anyway, the concluding sentences may satisfy : ' Who 
Made God ? ' ; ' Who Created the Creative Force,' has no strength because 
it has no basis. It wanders round in an emptv little circle, answering 
itself.' 

From Mr. J. E. Clark we have received his valuable ' Report on the 
l*henological Observations from December 1913 to November, 1914,' 
reprinted from the Quarterly Journal of the Royal Microscopical Society, 
No. 176. Among the additional observing stations during the year we 
notice a few Yorkshire localities, but there should be more. Mr. Clark 
also favours us with a copy of his report of the Botanical Committee, 
reprinted from the Croydon Natural History Society's Report. 

The 33>'<^ Quarterly Record of Additions (Hull Museum Publications, 
-Vo. 107), contains the following items : ' A Yorkshire Dene Hole,' ' Record 
Work of Photographic Societies,' ' Five Unpublished Seventeenth Century 
Tokens of Yorkshire,' ' A New Seventeenth Century Token of Lincoln- 
shire,' by T. Sheppard ; and ' The Guests of Yorkshire Ants,' ' Notes on 
Some Yorkshire Coleoptera,' ' Alegabunus insignis, a Plarvestman New to 
the East Riding,' by T. Stainforth. It is well illustrated, and sold at one 
penny. 

The Report of the Corresponding Societies' Committee and Conference 
of Delegates held at the Manchester Meeting of the British Association 
(35 pages, IS.), has been issued. It contains Sir Thomas Holland's address 
on ' The Organisation of Scientific Societies,' and Dr. W. E. Hoyle's 
address on ' Local Museums,' already referred to in the pages of The 
Naturalist ; some remarks by Mr. W. Whitaker on the publication of 
papers, and a paper on ' Colour Standards,' by Mr. J. Ramsbottom. 
There is also a useful ' Catalogue of the more important papers, especially 
those referring to Local Scientific Investigations, published by the Corres- 
ponding Societies during the year ending May 31st, 1915.' 

Naturalist, 



BIBLIOGRAPHY 



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sections, published between 1534 and 1914. In its preparation over 
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have been examined. There is an elaborate index containing over 
26,500 references to subjects, authors and localities, 

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Museum. Assisted by J. A. Harvie-Brown, 
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APRIL 1916. 



No. 711 

(No. 488 0/ curr . ' 




A MONTHLY ILLUSTRATED JOURNAL OF 

NATURAL HISTORY FOR THE NORTH OF ENGLAND. 

EDITED BY 

T. SHEPPARD, M.Sc, F.Q.S., F.R.Q.S., F.S.A.Scot., 

The Museums, Hui.l ; 



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T. H. NELSON, M.Sc, M.B.O.U.. RILEY FORTUNE, F.Z.S. 



H.K.S., 



Contents : — 

PACK 

Notes and Comments :— Dr. Alfred Harker. F.K.S. ; The Ringing of Birds; Mr. Fortmie's 
Reply ; Bird Photographers ; The Craze for Destroying Wild Birds ; A Legitimate Egg- 
Collector's Society ; ' Sport ' ; Rabbits ; Safety of Museums during the War ; Other 
Protection ; An Editorial Reply ; The ' Provincial Curator' again ; The Piltdown Remains : 
An Improbability ; Liverpool Geologists ; The Grassington Mines ; Punctation of the 
Brachiopoda 113-120 

The Terrestrial Isopoda (Woodlice) of Yorkshire— F. Klwdes 121-12'J 

The Protection of Wild Life in Yorkshire— A'. Fortune, F.Z.S 124-131 

The Lichen Flora of Harden Beck Valley — Thomas Hebden 132-13-1 

The Harvestmen and Pseudoscorpions of Yorkshire— U'm. Falconer 135-140 

Yorkshire Zoologists—/!. Haigh-Lumhy 141-143 

In Memorlam:— John VV.Judd, C.B., F.R.S. —r.S 141 

Field Note: — The John Dory (iTcKs/die*-) at Redcar 131 

Northern News 143 

News from the Magazines 123, 140, 144 



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among the county families and those known to be in sympathy with 
botanical investigation and record. Some ninety responded, when 
the outbreak of war ' hung up ' what the writer feels to be his ' mag- 
num ' and doubtless final ' opus ' ; the great scope of the inquiry 
meriting — in the writer's opinion — that title. 

Efforts recently renewed have added another ten subscriptions, 
T)ut this is not enough by quite a hundred to warrant the publishers 
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necessarily from one friend^ — of ;;rioo is suggested by the publishers 
in consultation with Mr. Thomas Sheppard, of the Hull Museum. 
Anyone feeling in any degree interested in seeing the book a work 
accomplished, will perhaps cornmunicate with 

F. Arnold Lees, 

38 Bentley Lane, Hyde Park, 

Leeds, Yorks. 
February, 1916. 

We must apologise to our contributors for several valuable 
papers held over by considerations of space.— Ed. 

Books for Sale. 

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Dictionary of English and Folk Names of British, Birds. 

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Field Studies of some Rarer British Birds. Walpole-Bond. 3/6. 
Birds of Isle of Man. Ralfe. 8/-. 
Book of Migratory Birds. Halliday. 2/-. 
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Home Life of Osprey. Abbott. 2/6. 
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With Nature and Camera. Kearton. 2/3. 
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AViLD Life in West Highlands. Alston. 2/6. 
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113 
NOTES AND COMMENTS. 

DR. ALFRED HARKER, F.R.S. 

From the ' Abstracts of the Proceedings of the Geological 
Society of London,' No. 987, we notice, ' February 23rd, 1916 — 
Dr. Alfred Harker, F.R.S. , President, in the chair.' In this 
way we learn that a former editor of The Naturalist now holds 
the highest position the chief geological society of the world 
can give him, and the further foct that our one-time frequent 
contributor is now LL.D. We sincerely congratulate him 
upon both events ! It will be remembered that Dr. Harker 
formerly took a great interest in the Yorkshire Naturalists' Union 
and conducted the excursions of the Geological section. He 
occupied the Union's presidential chair in igii. He is the 
author of many memoirs and books on petrological subjects; 
his ' Introduction to Petrology ' having passed through a 
number of editions, while his ' Natural History of Igneous 
Rocks ' has a world-wide reputation ; and, Dr. HarKer is a 
Yorkshireman. 

TKE RINGING OF BIRDS. 

The publicity given to Mr. R. Fortune's presidential address 
to the Yorkshire Naturalists' Union, now appearing in our 
columns, caused a letter of protest to appear from Mr. H. W. 
Robinson, who is ' perhaps, the greatest exponent of bird- 
ringing.' He says, ' Mr. Fortune states that m.any people 
shoot birds in the hope of finding rings upon their legs. This 
statement is untrue, for in the returns of marked birds the 
large majority have been found dead from natural causes ; 
moreover, the percentage of returns is a very small one indeed. 
I am writing, not from my imagination, but with the tabulated 
returns of the chief species so ringed before me, the method 
of recovery being given in every case. Can Mr. Riley Fortune 
quote any cases where such ringed birds have sustained any 
damage from being ringed ? I doubt it, for in no single case 
of returns made had tnere been any damage done to the leg 
that bore the ring.' 

MR. fortune's reply. 

In the coiirse of his reply Mr. Fortune stated : — " For some 
years this matter has been freely mentioned at the meetings 
of the Vertebrate Zoology Section of the Yorkshire Naturalists' 
Union, and, generally, universally condemned. Members who 
are thoroughly qualified to know have made statements, of 
which I, too, have personal knowledge, that gulls are regularly 
shot on the Yorkshire Coast for tne sake of the rings. To-day 
a gentleman in this town, who has seen the letter of Mr. Robin- 
son in your columns,* came to me and said : " You are quite 

*i.e., The Y'orkshire Post. 
1916 April 1. 



114 Notes and Comments. 

right ; I have seen men at Scarborough shooting gulls, and 
have heard them compare notes as to the number of rings they 
have obtained." Thank goodness that, under present con- 
ditions, the slaughter of harmless birds on the coast has, for 
the present at any rate, been stopped ! There was another 
point I mentioned in ro,y address to the Yorkshire Naturalists' 
Union, which your reporter did not mention. I said that a 
certain number of cases had been brought to my notice where 
birds living on clayey land had suffered cruelly through these 
rings. Mud or clay had got on to the wings and underneath, 
had hardened, and had caused wounds and sores to form, which 
had eventually caused the leg to canker and the bird to die. 
Two cases of lapwings dying in this manner have come under 
my own notice. 1 have heard of a partridge suffering in a 
similar manner. Another case I may m,ention is that of a 
linnet. Some shreds of wool had caught in the ring on the 
bird's leg. The wool then caught in a branch of gorse ; the 
bird was held fast, and could not escape, the result being that 
it died a lingering death, and was found hanging head down- 
wards near its nest.' We m.ay add that we have seen corres- 
pondence by qualified naturalists who bear out Mr. Fortune's 
contention. 

BIRD PHOTOGRAPHERS. 

Mr. Robinson again enters the lists, and after indulging in 
personalities and making inaccurate statements, writes : — ' Mr. 
Riley Fortune is a bird photographer, and, judging by the 
frequency of his pictures in the Press, makes a living out of 
his craft. I am a bird ringer in the cause of science, and at 
my own expense, without any monetary reward. Mr. Riley 
Fortune does not figure well as a protector of rare birds, con- 
sidering the fact that he and some of his fellow bird photo- 
graphers were responsible for alm.ost the whole of the eggs of 
the rare Sandwich Tern at Ravenglass being destroyed in one 
season, by rigging up their " hide tents " right in front of the 
colonies, thereby keeping the parents away, and allowing 
the black-headed gulls to destroy the eggs in their absence. 
This is admitted by one of the bird photographers in a letter 
to Country Life (August, 1912), in which he states that the 
gulls came and broke the eggs before his eyes, while he was 
in his " hide-tent." One colony alone, undiscovered by these 
people, hatched their eggs ; in all the others the whole hatch 
was destroyed. So serious was the outlook that in the following 
year all bird photographers were forbidden, including Mr. 
Riley Fortune. Hence, I suppose, that gentleman's anger 
against the bird ringers, who still enjoyed the privilege.' Mr. 
Fortune was able to show in his reply that his permission had 
not been withdrawn, and that there were other inaccuracies in 
Mr. Robinson's letter. 

Naturalist 



Notes and Comments. 115 

THE CRAZE FOR DESTROYING WILD BIRDS. 

In a further letter Mr. Fortune states : — ' I should like to 
suggest an antidote for this craze of destroying rare birds. It 
is not a nasty one, like many medicines which are given to 
cure disease, (and the collecting mania is a disease), but a 
very pleasant one. It is to take up the practice of photo- 
graphy in connection with the study of wild things. It is 
almost an absolute cure for the other state. Very many 
years ago I used to collect a little myself, although I was 
never very keen about it, always having a distaste lor taking 
the life of beautiful creatures. I found, however, that 
when I started photographing, and I believe I was about one 
of the first to practice natural history photography seriously, 
all desire for collecting passed away, and many of my friends, 
kindred spirits, who were form.erly more or less fond of the gun, 
confess to the same result. They have now no desire to take 
the life of any wild creature. The practise of photography 
is infinitely more sporting, and the resulting pleasure is im- 
measurably greater and lasting. One com,es into intimate 
contact with the rarest and wildest of our birds and animals ; 
the pleasure of watching their hom.e life at the range of a few 
feet cannot be realised until experienced. No elaborate outfit 
is necessary, a small square tent as a " hide," with a cover not 
too glaring in colour, is every bit as efficacious as the most 
elaborately constructed artificial tree trunks, stuffed oxen or 
sheep. I would, however, suggest that photographers who 
have no genuine interest in natural history, and no sympathy' 
or love for wild life (and there are far too many of this class 
about, who have been attracted to the work by the pretty 
pictures they sometimes obtain), should abstain from, the 
practice, as they at tim.es, from their lack of knowledge and 
sympathy, do considerable harm, in addition to bringing 
disgrace upon the genuine naturalist, as the general public 
cannot always discriminate between the two. Photography 
should be subservient to the real study of the habits and ways 
of wild things.' 

A LEGITIMATE EGG-COLLECTORS' SOCIETY. 

With the above title the editor of a natural history leaflet 
suggests the formation of a societ}^ with an annual subscription 
of 6d. per annum,. The aim of the society is to ' unite those 
who are interested in the study of birds' eggs,' who must 
' exclude from their collections all specimens which have been 
obtained by robbing harmless birds' nests.' It is, perhaps, a 
little difficult to understand how a ' collector ' can progress 
if he keeps to this rule, but we learn that ' one m.ember of the 
society, for instance, might come into possession of an aban- 
doned pheasant's nest containing more than a dozen eggs. 

1916 April 1. 



ii6 Notes and Comments. 

Keeping one for his own collection, he would have all the rest 
to exchange with other members. Such collections might 
grow very quickly.' Quite so ; and no doubt they would. 
But everybody would not rest satisfied with pheasant's eggs 
even for 6d. a year, and there are not many other kinds that 
he would find ' more than a dozen of,' which had been ' aban- 
doned.' Theoretically, egg collectors may be honest ; possibly 
some are ; practically, we know many who are not. To an 
' enthusiastic ' collector, particularly if he is getting good prices 
for rare eggs, there is just a temptation to be rather hasty in 
judging whether eggs are 'abandoned' or not. If the bird 
is not on the eggs when the ' legitim.ate egg collector ' puts 
his hand upon them, they may be said to be ' abandoned.' 
Possibly in most cases they then are ! No. We are inclined 
to follow the lead of Mr. Riley Fortune in his address and to 
look upon egg collecting as a dangerous habit. For this 
reason we consider a ' legitimate egg collectors' society,' not- 
withstanding its ideals, is likely to do more harm than good. 
After a while a ' collector ' will want more than eggs of pheas- 
ants, hens and ducks, and he will become more like the par- 
ticular eggs he is seeking — ' abandoned.' 

' SPORT.' 

We have recently been reading an article on ' Sport in the 
Ham.pshire Chalk Dells ' in a contem.porary, which, we should 
say, was written by a very young contributor. For instance 
we learn that ' 'Tis then Reynard finds his cosy corner in the 
old dells and frequently when least expected, that Lynx-eyed 
whips " Tally Ho, forward away " breaks the m.onotony as 
he views the quarry breasting yonder hill. What a crash for 
a few seconds, necks are strained, reins tightened, the straight 
ones for the post and rails, the crooked for the nearest gate. 
What a merry burst 40 minutes a regular cracker for men and 
horses. The huntsm.an's whoops ending in the death of a 
good straight naked Fox. Long may the old dells respond to 
the call in providing a good fox for those that are well wishers 
for all kinds of sport. The gun every m.onth brings its different 
variety for the sportsman ; to the pigeon shooter the old dells 
are ideal resorts. When these pests of the farmer are feeding 
on the newly sown corn, clover, or turnip tops where birds 
resort thither to rest and digest the greedy repasts their capa- 
cious crops contain.' 

RABBITS. 

And again : — ' A wounded one m.eans trouble (ah, many a 
time have I cussed my chums miss) for shattering Jimm.y's 
hinder leg, which generally ends in a long wait for a ferret, as 
I have previously stated a great many of the earths are 
im.pregnable to spade, at the sam,e time the latter should always 

Naturalist, 



Notes and Comments. 117 

be carried. On these occasions a good trained dog is an 
invaluable acquisition, either a well broken spaniel or a small 
wired-haired terrier, the writer's preferences goes for the latter, 
and if " up-to-date " being very active and small, with the 
former quality he will recover your wounded and being small, 
will do likewise with those that have crawled in the burrow 
a distance of two or three feet.' We are inclined to agree with 
a further remark made by our author, viz., ' Silence is the key- 
note of success.' 

SAFETY OF MUSEUMS DURING THE WAR. 

In the Museums Journal, the official organ of the Museums 
Association, suggestions were recently made that our museums 
should mark their roofs by a protecting sign (a black and white 
panel) because at the Hague Convention this suggestion was 
made, as a protection against bombardment ; the assumption 
being that the ' enemy ' would respect buildings so marked ! 

OTHER PROTECTION. 

To this suggestion a ' Provincial Curator ' replied that : 
Having regard to the great reverence the Germans have 
already shown for " specified buildings " including museums, 
surely the one thing we should not do in this country would 
be specially to mark museums with a so-called " protective 
sign," as such a " protective sign " would certainly be looked 
upon as a target for the air raiders. The present writer " some- 
where in England," has probably seen more results of air raids 
than most curators, and he certainly has reasons for suggesting 
that in our own interests it would not be wise to distinguish 
buildings in this character. Possibly the writer of the note in 
The Mtiseums Journal was inspired by some such notice as 
the following, which appeared in the press, via Amsterdam ; 
personally I look upon it as a delicious piece of irony : " A 
telegram from. Brussels states that the Germ.an Society for the 
Protection and Preservation of Monum.ents has held a session 
at Brussels, under the presidency of General von Bissing, when 
a number of German and Austrian speakers expressed their 
thanks to the German military authorities for the care the army 
had taken of the monum.ents of Belgium, France, and Galicia 
during the operations of the war. The function ended with 
an excursion to Louvain, Malines, Lierre and Antwerp." The 
members would then doubtless form an idea of the way in 
which the Germans would respect the monuments and art 
treasures in Britain, had they the chance.' 

AN EDITORIAL REPLY. 

To this, the editor, who is the curator of the ' Brassey 
Institute,' Hastings, replies : — ' As the wisdom of indicating 
m.useums by a protective sign — the black and white panel — - 

1916 April 1. 



Ii8 Notes and Comments. 

is here called in question, we may as well state the reason why 
the matter has been referred to on more than one occasion 
in these pages. It is as follows : supposing an unindicated 
museum were seriously dam,aged by the enemy, the very first 
question the townspeople would ask would be, " Did the 
Curator take the necessary steps to safeguard the building and 
its contents ? " Now if, in these circumstances, the Curator 
had acted on his own responsibility, he would, we imagine, 
find himself in an unenviable position. Whether a museum 
be marked or left unmarked, it is im,portant that the Curator 
should safeguard himself ; and the obvious thing to do is for 
him to consult his com.mittee, and to leave the decision and 
the responsibility with that body.' 

THE ' PROVINCIAL CURATOR ' AGAIN. 

To this the ' Provincial Curator ' naturally replies : — ' In 
case the editorial footnote to his previous letter gives the 
impression (as it well m.ay do) that " Provincial Curator " is 
neglecting necessary precautions for the protection of the 
building or buildings under his charge, let him say that he has 
already consulted his com.mittee, which has decided not to 
show any distinguishing m.arks, such decision being regarded 
as in the interests of safety by the committee, which consists 
of prominent citizens, broad-minded business m.en Perhaps 
for the guidance of other provincial curators you would not 
mind telling us, Mr. Editor, what our national m,useums have 
done in the way of marking their buildings by " protective 
signs." Has the suggestion been adopted at your museum at 
Hastings ? ' To this question no reply is given, from which 
it is fair to assum.e that the editor of The Mtiseums Journal 
not only insinuates that those not carrying out his suggestions 
are neglecting their duty, but shows that he does not back up 
the advice he so kindly gives to others by carrying out the 
suggested methods of protection which he advocates. We 
hope his comm,ittee won't hear about his ' neglect of duty ' ! 

THE PILTDOWN REMAINS. 

At a recent meeting of the Manchester Literary and Philo- 
sophical Society a communication was given on ' New Phases 
of the Controversies concerning the Piltdown Skull,' by Prof. G. 
Elliot Smith, M.A., M.D., F.R.S. He considered the different 
views that had been recently expressed ; (i) that the canine 
belonged to the upper and not the lower jaw ; (2) that the 
mandible was not hum.an, but that of a hitherto unknown 
species of chimpanzee, Avhich by some unexplained means 
made its way into England in the Pleistocene period ; (3) that 
the features differentiating this m.andible from that of modern 
man had been unduly exaggerated ; (4) that the canine tooth 

Naturalist, 



Notes and Comments. 119 

could not have belonged to the same individual as the skull 
and the jaw because it differed from them, in age, according 
to one authority being definitely older, and to another distinctly 
younger, than the other fragments. These widely divergent 
views tend to neutralise one another. 

AN IMPROBABILITY. 

In considering the possibility that m.ore than a hitherto 
unknown ape-like man, as well as a hitherto unknown m,an-like 
ape expired in Britain side by side in the Pleistocene period, 
and left com.plementary parts the one of the other, the element 
of improbability is so enormous as not to be set aside except 
for the most definite and positive anatom,ical reasons. The 
evidence subm.itted in support of each item of the arguments 
for the dissociation of the fragm.ents was examined ; and it 
was maintained that none of it was sufhciently strong to bear 
the enormous weight of improbability which these hypotheses 
imposed upon it. The author called special attention to the 
implied inference that the cranium itself was not sufficiently 
simian to be associated with the jaw ; and emphasised the fact 
that the skull itself revealed certain features of a more primi- 
tive nature than any other known representative of the human 
family. 

LIVERPOOL GEOLOGISTS. 

With the Lake District and North Wales, and the interesting 
counties of Lancashire and Cheshire within its field of operations, 
the Liverpool Geological Society has am.ple scope for the work 
of its members, and of this every advantage seems to be taken. 
Two parts of their familiar pink-covered publications have 
recently appeared. The first contains W. A. Whitehead's 
Presidential Address, ' The Formation of a Sandstone ' ; J. W. 
Dunn writes on ' Skiddaw and the Rocks of Borrowdale ' ; 
H. W. Greenwood on ' An Example of the Paragenesis of 
Marcasite, Wurtzite, and Calcite, and its Significance,' and a 
' Note on a Boring at Vauxhall Distillery ' ; T. A. Jones on 
' The Presence of Tourmaline in Eskdale Granite ' ; F. T. 
Maidwell on ' Some Recent Excavations at West Bank Dock, 
Widnes,' and on ' Some Sections in the Lower Keuper of Run- 
corn Hill,' the latter with microscopic notes by J. E. Wynfield 
Rhodes ; H. W. Greenwood and C. B. Travis write on ' The 
Mineralogical and Chemical Constitution of the Triassic Rocks 
of Wirral.' This part is edited by E. Montag. The second 
publication is the ' Cope Memorial Volume,' and is a lengthy 
memoir on ' the Igneous and Pyroclastic Rocks of the Ber- 
wyn Hills (North Wales) ' by the late T. H. Cope. It is edited 
by C. B. Travis, and sent out with the compliments of Mrs. 
Cope. Both publications contain results of sound work, 

1916 April 1. 



120 Notes and Comments. 

are well illustrated, and reflect every credit upon our Liverpool 
friends. 

THE GRASSINGTON MINES. 

We learn from The Yorkshire Observer that it is stated 
the historic lead mines at Grassington are to be re-opened. 
Almost at any time during the past fifteen years a rumour 
to this effect has been current, but in the present instance 
something like sohdity is given it by the additional particulars 
that the mines have been let to a wealthy company, who will 
forthwith begin to work them on modern lines. Probably 
never since the mines were closed nearly half-a-century ago 
has the mom.ent been more opportune for their re-opening, 
for with lead at £'^0 per ton they should prove a paving con- 
cern. It was the discovery of surface lead ore in Spain which 
chiefly brought about the closing of the dale mines and also 
led to the scattering of the population which inhabited the 
dale villages. The mines, of course, are not confined to Grass- 
ington. They stretch along the hills to Pateley Bridge, as the 
disused shafts and mills still to be seen on the moorland prove. 
There are also abandoned and disused mines in Arkengarthdale 
and Teesdale. Should the story of their re-opening prove 
correct, there will be one or two little problems to face both 
for the company and the local authority, for with the develop- 
ment of Grassington as a holiday resort the question of housing 
accommodation will have to be dealt with. 

PUNCTATION OF THE BRACHIOPODA. 

At a recent meeting of the Manchester Literary and Philo- 
sophical Society, Mr. F. G. Percival read a paper on ' The 
Punctation of the Brachiopoda.' The shells of the Tere- 
bratulacese are perforated by thousands of little pores, through 
which pass tube-like processes of the m,antle. The number 
of these punctae per sq. mm. varies in different species, and 
this variation has been used as a means of distinguishing 
between different species. Unfortunately, an examination 
of large numbers of individuals belonging to one species shows 
that the variation within a single species is so great as to 
render the character useless as a means of distinction, e.g., 
166 individuals of Terebratula biplicata Brocchi, were examined 
and found to range from 39 to 129 per sq. m.m. Similarly, 
367 specimens of T. punctata Sow., showed a total range from 
66 to 240 per sq. mm. All the readings were taken at approxi- 
mately the same distance from the umbo, because the num.ber 
per sq. mm. increases with the distance from the umbo. These 
two species alone cover the greater part of the total variation 
possible from the group, and the variation in number is there- 
fore almost useless as a means of specific distinction. 

Xatural'st, 



121 

THE TERRESTRIAL ISOPODA (WOODLICE) 
OF YORKSHIRE. 



F. RHODES, 
Cartwright Hall, Bradford. 



{Con^trii/ed from page 102). 

Genus Oniscus Linne. 
Oniscus asellus Linne. — -Common everywhere. 

Genus Philoscia Latreille. 

Philoscia muscorum Scopoli. — This species is recorded 
by the Rev. T. R. R. Stebbing as occurring at Naburn Hall 
(Victoria County History of Yorks.). 

I find it to be generally distributed and com.mon in suitable 
localities. Its favourite habitats are in dam.p woods, on hedge 
banks, among m.oss, dead twigs, and fallen leaves. It is not 
uncom.m.on on the grassy m.argin of the canal banks ; under the 
decaying leaves of herbaceous plants on railway banks, and 
in the open fields. 

This species is variable in colour ; in the woods on the 
mountain limestone districts it is generally hght grey with 
yellow, pink, or red m.arkings, while on the Millstone grit 
areas of the west Riding, it is generally very dark grey with 
almost obscure darker markings. 

Wharfedale, T. Stringer, May, 1909 ; Ben Rhydding, May, 
1909 ; Canal Banks, Keighley, 1909 ; Castle Hill and Grim- 
bold's Crag, Knaresborough, August, 1910 ; Gisburn, Septem.- 
ber, 1911 ; Harewood, Yorkshire Naturalists' Union visit. 
May, 1911 ; Addingham, Septem.ber, 1911 ; Steeton, Bingley 
and Saltaire, August, 1911 ; Elks Wood, Ingleton, May, 1912 ; 
Whitby Clifts, R. S. Bagnall, March, 1912 ; Malham, May, 
1912 ; Forge Valley, Lady Edith's Drive, and Castle Hill, 
Scarborough, August, 1913 ; Canal Side, Wakefield, 1913. 

Philoscia muscorum var. obscura Scopoli. — This is the 
most common form, on the Millstone grits of the West Riding. 

Philoscia muscorum var. flava Bagnall. — -I have taken a 
yellow form with grey markings in Elks Wood, Ingleton, 
which may be referred to this variety. 

Genus Porcellio Latreille. 

Porcellio scaber Latreille. — Porcellio scaber is one of the 
common species, and is to be found in any suitable place. It 
can adapt itself to very varied conditions, either in very damp 
places or on the top of dry limestone walls. 

It would be useless to give localities for this species, as it 
seldom fails to turn up when one is out collecting. I have 

1916 April 1. 



122 Terrestrial Isopoda {Woodlice) of Yorkshire. 

taken it on Fountain's Fell and Horse Head Moor, and near 
the top of Ingleborough. 

PoRCELLio SCABER var. ALBIDA. — I obtained a pure white 
adult (not newly moulted) under loose limestone rubble at 
Grassington, May, 1914. 

PoRCELLio SCABER var. RUFA Bagnall.— Grassington and 
Keighley, May 1907. 

PoRCELLio PiCTUS Brandt and Ratzburg. — This species 
seems to be able to exist with the least moisture of any of the 
Terrestrial Isopods. It is common on the tops of the dry 
limestone walls of the Craven Highlands. It is a very finely 
m.arked creature and has one, sometimes three dark bands down 
the back, which is also more or less mottled with bright yellow. 
The head is black, hence one of its synonyms, melanocephalus 
(Schnitzler). It is a rather lively creature and when the stones 
on the wall tops are moved, one has to be quick to catch it. 

Malham, T. Stringer, June, 1909 ; Common on wall tops, 
Gargrave, June, 1909 ; Sedbergh, F. Booth, June, 1909 ; Dibb 
Scar, Grassington, August, 1910 ; Ingleton, July, 1909 ; 
Addingham, R. Standon, August, 1911 ; Forge Valley, Scar- 
borough, September, 1913. 

PoRCELLio DiLATATUS Brandt. — I have found this species 
in very many greenhouses around Bradford, but very seldom 
in the open country. 

Sedbergh, F. Booth, June, 1909 ; Malham, in rubbish from 
old gardens, September, 1913 ; Manningham, H. Maltby, 
April, 1913 ; Bowling, November, 1913 ; Buckden, June, 1914. 

P. laevis and P. rathkei. — These two species have both been 
taken in Northum.berland, so that there is no reason why they 
should not turn up in Yorkshire. 

Genus Metoponorthus Budde-Lund. 

Metoponorthus pruinosus Brandt. — This is a common 
creature in many greenhouses in the Bradford district, but it 
does not appear to be found often in the open, and then it is in 
the vicinity of gardens. I have taken it in an old chalk quarry 
near Worthing golf links, Sussex, in company with P. laevis, 
both being common, and again in the open at Silverdale, 
Lancashire. 

Lister Park, greenhouses, and on rubbish tip from gardens, 
frequently since 1908 ; BowUng, 1912 ; "Rock-garden, Hare- 
wood Hall, May, 1911. 

Genus Cylisticus Schnitzler. 

Cylisticus convexus De Geer. — Cylisticus like the true 
pill-woodlice ArmadilUdium, is able to roll up into a ball, 
but with the antennae exposed. 

This species is fairly common in the mills and dyeworks, 



Teryestrial Isopoda (Woodlice) oj Yorkshire. 123 

especially in the yards amongst the refuse. It also occurs 
in many cellars of old houses about Bradford and district. 
Like M . pruinosus it frequents most of the greenhouses in the 
district, but it is by no means uncommon in the open. 

Heaton, in cellar, September, igo8 ; Lister Park green- 
houses, Bradford, November, 1908 ; Heckmondwike, T. 
Castle, April, 1909 ; Gisburn, September, 1910 ; Harewood, 
May, 1911 ; Eldwick, near Bingley, September, 1912 ; Scar- 
borough, August, 1913 ; Gargrave, September, 1913 ; Selby, 
1914. 

FAMILY ARMADILLIDIID^. 

Genus Armadillidium Brandt. 

Armadillidium vulgare Latreille. — Although this species 
is considered common, I do not find it so. Up to the present 
time we have not a single record for it in the district for which 
the Bradford Natural History Society is responsible. This 
com.prises the drainage areas of the Yorkshire portions of the 
rivers Lune and Ribble, the Aire from, its source to the Leeds 
city boundary, and the W'harfe from its source to the Wash- 
bourn. It is not uncommon in Nidderdale and on the coast. 

Harrogate, Castle Hill and Grimbolds Crag, Knaresborough, 
October, 1908 ; Scarborough, May, 1909, F. Booth ; Cliffs 
from, Bempton to Bridlington, August, 1909. 

Armadillidium nasatum Budde-Lund. — This species is 
generally found in greenhouses in the North of England, most 
probably it is an endemic species as it occurs in the open and 
away from habitations in the south. 

Greenhouses, Lister Park, Bradford, frequently since 
October, 1908. ' 

Armadillidium pictum Brandt. — It is of great interest to 
be able to include this species in our Yorkshire list, as it has 
only been recently added to the British fauna. It was first 
taken in April, 1913, at Arnside, by Mr. G. S. Spence {Lane. 
Nat., July, 1913), Mr. R. Sanderson found it under a log in 
Ling Ghyll, Ribblehead, November ist, 1915. 

Armadillidium pnlchellum Brandt. — This pretty little crea- 
ture is very like the preceding species, and often occurs in 
com.pany with it ; up to the present I have not found or heard 
of it in Yorkslijre, although I have collected it in W estm.orland, 
Lancashire and Derbyshire, it appears to favour a limestone 
district. 



The Lancashire and Cheshire Naturalist for January has a useful 
' Guide to Current Literature,' in which the headings of articles of the 
principal journals likely to interest its readers, are given. Dr. A. R. 
Jackson writes on ' Some Arthropods Observed in 1915 ' ; Mr. F. J. Stubbs 
writes on ' The National Neglect of Peat, ' and there are other shorter notes. 

191C April 1. 



124 

THE 
PROTECTION OF WILD LIFE IN YORKSHIRE. 



R. FORTUNE, F.Z.S. 



{Continued from page 95). 

The most recent addition to the mammahan fauna is that of 
the N. American or Grey Squirrel, an animal not quite as hand- 
some as our native squirrel. He has the reputation for being 
very destructive, not only to trees but to birds, their eggs and 
young. On Mr. St. Quintin's estate where they were first 
introduced, and where they flourished, they have had to be 
destroyed, as they were causing so much damage amongst the 
trees on the estate. Many complaints have been made from 
various directions, and fears were openly expressed that they 
would soon spread over the land and clear out our native 
species, just as the Hanoverian Rat, as Waterton called him, 
dispersed our native Black Rat. These fears we learn are 
evidently groundless, from a curious fact that was revealed a 
couple of years ago. Enquiries were made at the Zoo from a 
certain estate to see if they could supply them with some 
female Grey Squirrels, as all they caught upon their own place 
were males. In the Zoo and in Regents Park there are great 
numbers at liberty, and they have become very tame. A 
quantity were caught up in the hope of supplying the required 
females, but strange to relate, all that were caught proved to 
be males, and the same state of things seems to prevail in other 
parts. It appears as if nature will regulate. the supply and 
prevent their numbers getting to be excessive. In Regents 
Park where they are very tame, they were at one time mysteri- 
ously disappearing. Eventually it was found that one of the 
unspeakable Germans living in town, was trapping them and 
selling them. 

Before passing on to a consideration of the birds, I should 
like to say a good word for two small animals, almost univers- 
ally persecuted. The Stoat if kept within bounds is a most 
useful little animal, preying to a large extent on sm,all animals 
and upon the Brown Rat in particular. This latter is the 
creature which does more harm to the game preserver than all 
his other so-called enemies put together. We all know how 
hedgerows which have hitherto been infested by rats, are 
suddenly evacuated by the whole tribe, not a rat left in the 
neighbourhood. This sudden exodus is the result of a visit 
of a stoat or party of stoats, they are deadly enemies of the 
Rat and will not leave the hedgerow while there is a rat living 
there. The little Weasel preys principally upon the mice, 

Naturalist, 



Protection of Wild Life in Yorkshire. 125 

and by helping to keep these creatures in check, makes himself 
worthy of our consideration. It is a mistake for any keeper 
to wage a war of extermination on the Stoat or Weasel, and 
they deserve a better fate than the one usually meted out to 
them. 

Turning our attention to the avifauna, we have to deplore 
the extinction of quite a number of interesting birds. The 
Golden Eagle, judging only from certain place names, was 
probably once an inhabitant of Yorkshire, but owing to the 
increasing population and the accessibility of its haunts it 
would as a natural consequence be driven beyond our borders. 
It probably Hngered in Cumberland and Westmorland much 
later than with us.* The Kite was formerly abundant and did 
not deserve to be wiped out, as it was a useful species. It 
still maintains a precarious hold in Wales and, I believe in 
Scotland, but every nest has to have individual watch kept 
upon it, if it has to escape from the raids of collectors. 

The Harriers, owing to their habit of nesting on the ground, 
on account of their conspicuous size, and the fact that they 
are hawks of a kind, could hardly be expected to survive. 
The three species nested with us ; the Marsh Harrier, amongst 
the reeds surrounding marshy ground and meeres ; IMontague's 
Harrier on the m,oorlands and sand-dunes and the Hen Harrier 
in similar localities. The latter is reported to have nested in 
the county only a year or two ago. but 1 am afraid that, despite 
the fact that they are comparatively harmless, there is little 
chance of their ever again becoming permanent members of 
our bird fauna. Individuals of most of the Harriers are shot 
almost every year. Another class of birds has been banished, 
mainly through the drainage of their breeding haunts. Their 
edible qualities probably assisting in no inconsiderable degree. 
The Ruff and Reeve have recently nested on the Durham side 
of the Tees and in Norfolk also, and seeing that they are abun- 
dant on the Continent opposite us, there appears to be no real 
reason why they should not nest again in our county. The 
Black-tailed Godwit, another toothsome bird, formerly much 
esteemed as a table dehcacy, hence their banishment. There 
are several localities in Yorkshire, typical breeding grounds, 
corresponding exactly with the Dutch haunts of these birds 
where both they and the Avocet are still very plentiful. One 
experiences a great want and a deep regret" in passing these 
places as they seem lost without the birds which are a common 
and familiar sight in Holland. The Spoonbill, no doubt, also 
nested in the county. From records we have of Sooonbills in 



* The slides of the Golden Eagle, which were shown when the address 
was given, are from photographs kindly supplied to me by Mr. H. A. 
Macpherson, author of ' The Home Life of the Golden Eacrle.' 



1916 Aprill. 



126 Protection of Wild Lite in Yorkshire. 

England, we find their nesting habits differed somewhat from 
those in Holland at the present day, where they nest amongst 
the reeds in the midst and surrounding the meeres and lagoons. 
In England they were said to nest in tall trees like the Common 
Heron. The Black Tern, essentially a marsh loving bird, has 
too, been driven from its haunts. The fact of its being a 
regular visitor in spring and autumn induces one to believe 
there is always a chance of its returning to nest. There is 
another bird which is also a regular visitor from the coasts 
opposite. Unfortunately they almost invariably meet with a 
hostile reception. The Common Bittern, which might, if left 
unmolested, nest amongst some of our extensive reed beds, if 
not in Yorkshire, at any rate in Norfolk. The note of this 
bird has been likened to several sounds, notably the bellowing 
of a bull ; to me it resem^bles very closely the noise made by a 
ship's fog horn. 

A recent departure is that of the Dotterel, a most charming 
bird, which formerly nested on some of our highest hills. Its 
confiding nature and the demand for its feathers, which are 
highly prized for making fishing flies, were the causes of its 
passing as a breeding species with us. The tragedy of the whole 
affair is that feathers fulfilling the same purpose may be 
obtained from the common and abundant starling. The last 
pair I know which attempted to nest, some fifteen or more years 
ago, was destroyed by a keeper for the feathers. I am afraid 
the bird is rapidly decreasing all over our islands. 

That magnificent bird the Great Bustard formerly in- 
habited the Wolds in great numbers. The last of the race was 
killed at Hunmanby about the year 1830. Much as we deplore 
the passing of such a fine species, we must recognise the fact 
that it is almost impossible for it to exist in its old haunts 
imder the present system of cultivation. 

We can quite imagine, although we do not appear to have 
any definite records of the fact, that the White Stork at one 
time nested at least in the East Riding where conditions would 
be particularly favourable for birds of their habits. 

In addition to the birds which have already disappeared 
as breeders we have unfortunately a formidable list of species 
which are decreasing in numbers, some of them rapidly and in 
an unaccountable way. Indeed, I am afraid the first I shall 
mention, the Common Buzzard, has for some years ceased to 
nest in the county. This is a matter for deep regret. It is 
a fine bird and practically harmless, but being a hawk, and a 
big one, it must be destroyed by the unthinking gamekeeper. 
When I was younger, 1 could in one part of the county, go to 
half-a-dozen nests in a day. A few years ago I searched 
regularly for several years in all likely places without finding 
a nest. Collectors of eggs are also greatly to blame for the 



Protection of Wild Life in Ycrkshirc. 127 

disappearance of the Buzzard. The Peregrine Falcon has a 
very insecure hold, and it is necessary for our Protection 
Committee to subsidise the farmer or keeper on whose land 
the eyre is situate to the extent of £1 for every young bird 
leaving the eyrie, in order that any of the two or three pairs 
which still nest in the county may rear their broods in safety. 
The pair we have under our protection in the Bempton Cliils 
do not seem favoured with the best of luck in their family 
affairs. This year a steamer was stranded, only slightly in- 
jured, broadside right under the cliff and close to the Falcon's 
eyrie. Blasting operations proceeded all through the breeding 
season in order to clear the rocks away and allow the steamer 
to slide down into the open water once again. These opera- 
tions were successful, but the explosions drove the Falcons 
from their eggs, which were upon the point of hatching, con- 
sequently there were no young birds this year. 

Ravens, too, have practically disappeared. Unfortunately 
they resort to the same crags year after year for nesting. These 
haunts are well-known to collectors, consequently they have 
little chance of rearing broods, as the eggs are persistently 
taken. We can only hope that the experiment of turning 
down some young birds in the old haunt of the species in the 
Bempton Cliffs will result in their being able to firmly establish 
themselves there after an absence of 50 ^'•ears. 

At the last meeting of our Vertebrate Section Mr. Booth 
recorded the establishment of a new heronry, and Mr. Smith 
of another, bu I am afraid these are only the result of a decrease 
elsewhere. Generally speaking, Herons are decreasing, slowly 
I think ; of course they are not nearly as abundant as in olden 
times, but we still have one or two very flourishing heron erics 
in the county. It is a great pity that such a picturesque 
bird should be slaughtered in the manner he is, because, the 
generally, I am afraid, unskilful angler is jealous of the bird's 
fishing powers. They do not recognise the fact that fish forms 
only a portion of his diet, and the fact that his levying toll on 
the small trout in the moorland and hill brooks, helps to make 
the size of those left more takable and acceptable ; as a rule 
in these streams there are more trout than there is food for them. 

A common species like the Mistle Thrush would hardly 
be considered to be decreasing in numbers. In my own 
district and in others with which I am familiar, it is not nearly 
so abundant as formerly, when almost every likely tree held 
a nest. Now-a-da^^s one only finds three or four nests in a 
season. The reason for this decrease I cannot fathom, indeed, 
it is impossible to account for the great decrease which has 
taken place in the numbers of many of our common birds, 
both resident and migrant. 

The Long-tailed Tit is a species of which I could at one time 

1916 April 1. 



128 Protection of Wild Life in Yorkshire. 

find half-a-dozen nests in a day ; now I hardly find more than 
one or two in a season. In the winter months family parties 
were to be regularly met with flitting along the hedgerows in 
their characteristic busy manner, now several winters may pass 
without encountering a party. The last lot I saw was just 
outside the railway station at Harrogate. Whinchats, formerly 
abundant, their peculiar note being heard all over our country- 
side, and along the railway embankments in particular, have 
decreased in an alarming manner, and the Redstart, whose 
form we were familiar with in almost every country lane, is 
sadly diminished in numbers. The causes for this cannot lie 
in our own country. I think it may partially arise from the 
continual netting of small birds during the migration season, 
which is persistently carried on in some of the continental 
countries in the lines of migration. 

Of course the numbers of other migrants vary from year 
to year ; in some seasons they are abundant, in others com- 
paratively scarce, but this is only the natural order of things, 
and they do not show the steady lessening in numbers as do 
the species referred to. Pied Flycatchers too, are missing 
from many of their old haunts. I am pleased to say that they 
have, however, returned to one of their old breeding spots, 
not so very many miles from Keighley, in greater numbers than 
usual this year. Reed Warblers, with possibly the exception 
of Hornsea Mere, have been on the down grade for some time. 
In one other locality they have, after rapidly decreasing, 
rather more than maintained their numbers in recent years. 
In my district YeUow Hammers are not anything like so 
numerous as they used to be, and this applies to many other 
districts. I think the present system of uprooting all the 
bush-wood on the country road sides, where Yellow Hammers 
nested freely, in some measure accounts for the diminution. 
We have just had an example of this rural vandalism near 
Harrogate. There is a beautiful country lane leading from 
Birk Crag to Fewston, locally called the rough road ; each side 
was fringed with a delightful tangle of bramble, and other 
bushes ; a favourite spot for picnics. In summer it was a 
delight to wander along it. This year the Knaresborough 
Rural District Council have taken it into their heads to stub 
up all this vegetation. If they persit in their vandalism, it 
will have the result of converting a delightful and picturesque 
lane into a long dreary and iminteresting road to be avoided 
by everyone. 

Common Buntings, or Corn Buntings, as I prefer to call 
them, have decreased I think, ver}^ considerably on our coast 
line. Like Stonechats, they are essentially, in Yorkshire, birds 
of the coast, though they are found inland in much greater 
numbers than the Stonechat. On my last visit to Spurn, I 

Naturalist, 



Protection of Wild Life in Yorkshire. 129 

could not help being struck with what appeared to be a great 
scarcity of these birds from Withernsea to Spurn Point, a 
district in which they were formerly very abundant. It is 
curious to note what a prolonged breeding season Corn Buntings 
have. I have found nests with fresh eggs well into September. 

Bird catchers are greatly responsible for the decrease in 
the ranks of the Linnet, one of the most charming of our 
finches. The clearance of many waste grounds has also had 
some influence in their departure. Both causes too, have 
helped to deplete the numbers of Lesser Redpolls. The most 
unfortunate fact in connection with the wholesale trapping 
of our wild birds, is that comparatively few of them survive 
capture beyond a few days. A popular linnet-cage measures 
only about 6 inches by 9 inches by 3 inches. One can imagine 
the effect upon a wild bird when it is cribbed and confined to 
such a narrow space. To scan the advertisements in the 
papers devoted to the cage-bird fancy is very sad reading. 
Scores of advertisements are there, offering Linnets from is. 6d. 
per dozen, and many other species of British birds at the same 
rates. Some offer twenty-four mixed seed eaters for is. 6d., 
better ones at is. per dozen. Traffic of this kind is abominable 
and should be prohibited by the laws of the land. 

The Bullfinch, partially from the same cause, and partially 
from his habit of attacking the buds of fruit trees, has sadly 
diminished in numbers. Investigation would in many cases 
prove that most birds condem.ned on account of this habit, 
were really not after the bud, but for the grub contained 
therein, which in any case would prevent its development. 

Partridges have for some time been on the down grade, 
the cause of their decrease being without doubt the increasing 
quantity of arable land that has been laid down as pasture. 
One result of the war may be that an increased acreage of land 
will possibly be brought under cultivation for corn, with a cor- 
responding increase in the Partridge population. Quails were 
at one time not uncommonly met with nesting here, now they 
very rarely do so. The netting of thousands of them on their 
migration routes is responsible for the decrease. Most of us 
remember that years ago almost every meadow held a pair of 
Corn Crakes, and their peculiar call could be heard on all 
sides > now one can almost go through a whole summer without 
hearing them. Mr. Wade says they have disappeared entirely 
from Holderness. The universal use of reaping machines 
which destroy not only the nests but the birds themselves, is 
the cause of this lamentable decrease. Many Corncrakes and 
other birds also are destroyed annually by dashing against 
the telegraph wires which now run like net work over the land. 

Black Game were at one time so abundant in some parts of 
the county, that according to Sir Ralph Payne Gallwey, a 

1916 April 1. 



130 Protection of Wild Life in Yovkshire. 

former President of the Union, the haymakers at Blubber- 
houses rebelled at being so often served with Black Game pie. 
They have little chance of doing so at the present day. It is 
pleasing to know that a brood were hatched off this year not 
far from the old haunt mentioned.* 

The Stone Curlew, inhabiting the same district as did the 
Great Bustard, still holds on in greatly diminished numbers. 
Probably not more than half-a-dozen pairs now nest in the 
county. Our Birds' Protection Committee is doing its best to 
preserve them, but I am afraid that owing to the enclosure 
of their ancient breeding haunts, there is very little chance of 
their numbers increasing. The Rock Dove, formerly so plentiful 
in the Yorkshire cliffs, is now much depleted in numbers, indeed, 
I very much doubt if there is a really genuine pure pair to be 
found. Dove cote pigeons frequent these cliffs in numbers, 
and have so interbred with the genuine wild species, that it 
is more than likely that all the existing exam.ples are more or 
less tainted with the cross. Rock Doves are at times reported 
nesting inland, but they invariably prove to be Stock Doves. 

A bird which has unaccountably lessened in numbers very 
considerably in the Harrogate district is the Tree Sparrow, 
the gentleman of the Sparrow tribe. Many of its ancient 
haunts are now deserted, and I have only been able to discover 
one new and small colony. I do not know if this decrease is 
general. There is, I may sa}-, a flourishing colony of these 
birds in the Bempton Cliffs. Another finch, the Twite, always 
a very local bird in Yorkshire, has in most of its old breeding 
haunts, diminished in numbers ; probably the cause of their 
decrease is the depredations of the bird catchers amongst 
the flocks when they frequent the lowlands during the winter 
months. 

We have several species that were decreasing or had de- 
creased almost to vanishing point, but which have, apparently, 
taken a new lease of life, and are now steadily regaining their 
lost ground. The most notable are Goldfinches which through 
the actions of bird catchers mainly, helped perhaps to a small 
extent by many waste areas being brought under cultivation, 
had practically ceased to breed in the county. They are now 
found nesting in various parts in annually increasing numbers. 
The fact that they are now protected all the year round to a 
great extent accounts for this pleasing fact. Kingfishers for 
the same reason are regaining their lost ground. There is 
still, despite the Protection Acts, a lot of illegal destruction 
going on almost daily, their bright plumage being a great 
temptation to vandals who desire to have their dead bodies 

* It was reported to me during the meeting- that a Grey-hen had been 
obtained recently near Keig-hley. 

Naturalist, 



Protection of Wild Life in Yorkshire. 131 

stuck in unnatural attitudes in glass cases. Now-a-days 
they are not used for hat trimming as they were formerly. It 
would be a great pity if these two species, our most brightly 
plumaged birds, were not allowed to increase and multiply in 
peace. 

The Little Tern had almost vanished. The policy adopted 
by the Union's Protection Committee, of keeping a watcher on 
the breeding ground at Spurn during the whole of tlie nesting 
season, has had very happy results. Unfortunately, natural 
causes frequently handicap the colony severely. We had an 
instance this year when on May 30th a tidal wave swept over 
the breeding ground, destroying every nest. Sand storms are 
also a great danger, and frequently bury the eggs under a 
considerable layer of sand. Despite these drawbacks, the 
colony is flourishing and increasing, and another one has re- 
established itself in another part of the county. As it is the 
onlv Tern nesting in Yorkshire, no efforts should be spared to 
ensure its safety. 

The Committee are also responsible for the great increase 
which has taken place in the Kittiwake colonies. They had 
been practically cleared out of their usual breeding haunts 
by gunners, there being at one time a great demand for their 
skins for millinery purposes. They are once again found 
frequenting the cliffs in normal numbers. One of the most 
delightful of birds, the charm, of their breeding haunts is 
beyond any powers of expression. 

House Martins had at one period considerably decreased in 
our midst. I know scores of buildings that used to harbour 
numbers of nests under their eaves, many in Harrogate, which 
have for years been deserted. I am thankful to say they are 
now on the upward grade, and many old haunts have been 
occupied again. Tn their natural habitats among the cliffs 
at Bempton they return regularly in large numbers, also to 
that inland resort of theirs the great cliff at Kilnsey in Wharfe- 
dale. Numbers are destroyed by bird catchers on their 
migration routes in the south of Europe, and their ranks were 
decimated in this country several times by the extremely 
inclement weather experienced soon after their arrival here. 

f To he continued). 



The John Dory (Zeus faber) at Redcar. — A specimen, 
18 inches in length, was washed ashore at Redcar on the i8th 
March. It was alive when found. This is the first example of 
this fish that I have seen here, but two others are known to 
have been taken within the past twenty-five years. — ^T. H. 
Nelson, Redcar, 22nd March, 1916. 

1916 April 1. 



132 



THE LICHEN FLORA OF HARDEN BECK 
VALLEY. 



THOMAS HEBDEN. 



An account of the Lichen Flora of a portion of South-West 
Yorkshire (V.C. 63) may be useful as a comparison with that 
of V.C. 59 and V.C. 63 described by Messrs. Wheldon and 
Travis.* The district I am best acquainted with in V.C. 63. 
is that of Harden Beck Valley, which is within about ten miles 
from V.C. 59, and very similar in geological, climatic and 
industrial conditions. 

Harden Beck Valley may be compared to a little green 
oasis surrounded by a zone of constantly increasing industrial 
activity, and nowhere more than four miles from Bradford, 
Shipley, Saltaire, Bingley, Keighley, Worth Valley, Oxenhope, 
Denholm,e and Thornton, thus completing the circle of smoke- 
producing conditions, the only free portion being to the S.W., 
but even from there the smoke cloud from the Calder Valley 
and Lancashire often reaches this district. 

Harden Beck Valley itself contains the four villages of 
Harden, Wilsden, Cullingworth and Denholme, each with its 
factories and cottage chimneys, adding to the already drifting 
sm,oke-cloud from the surrounding district. 

Geologically, the eastern side of the valley is the outlying 
portions of the Lower Coal Measures ; the western side being 
Millstone grit. The summjts of the hills, capped with isolated 
blocks of rough sandstone, often peat covered, rising to an 
elevation averaging 800 to 1,000 feet above sea level ; the 
valley being nowhere more than three to four miles wide from 
the summits of the watershed. The lower third of the Valley 
is well wooded, oak and birch predominating. Several high- 
ways intersect the valley, mostly limestone repaired, which 
encourage calcicole species, yielding aliens of very interesting 
character. All the Lichens found in the district are in a more 
or less depauperate condition, mostly dwarfed and so much 
smoke-begrimed that it is a difficulty to recognise some species. 
I have never yet succeeded in finding a single corticole specimen 
except an occasional Lecanora varia or Parnielia physodes. 

In comparing results with that of Messrs. Wheldon and 
Travis's list, it is necessary to eliminate their sea-side gatherings 
and also their collection from the district north-west of Colne, 
owing to the geological difterence in both cases. 

The species in the following list have all been collected 
within a radius of about ten square miles, nearly every square 

* ' List of the Lichen Flora of South Lancashire' (V.C. 59 Watson), 
Linnean Society's Journal, Vol. XLIIL, October, 1915 

Naturalist,. 



The Lichen Flora of Harden Beck Valley. 133 

yard of which has been repeatedly searched during the past 
few years. 

Lempholemma chalazanodes Nyl. — On calcareous mud and 
mosses in niches of walls, roadsides, Wicken Cragg ; roadside 
Harden to Bingley, and other places. Common in suitable 
places. 

Lempholemma confertum Nyl. — On calcareous mud and 
mosses in niches of walls, roadsides, Wicken Cragg. Only two 
specimens seen. Quite distinctive from above with its turgid 
cyathoid squamules. 

Collema pitlposum Ach. — On calcareous road scrapings, 
not plentiful. On roadsides in several places. 

Collema piilposum form compactiim Nyl. — On calcareous 
roadsides amongst moss ; roadside Many wells to Flappet. 
Scarce. 

Collema glaucescens Hoff. — On calcareous roadsides, among 
short grass ; roadsides in several places. The commonest 
Collema of this valley. 

Collema cheileiim Ach. — On sandy soil, sandstone walls, 
Cullingworth, Harden, Flappet, Hallas, Wicken Cragg. Com- 
mon. 

CoUemodium turgidum Nyl. — On calcareous road scrapings, 
among moss in wet places, Wicken Cragg. Plentiful. 

LeptOgium tenuissimum Koerb. — On Sandstone debris on 
walls ; roadside Cullingworth to Manywells. Only one speci- 
men seen in well fruited condition. 

Leptogium humosum Nyl. — On hard calcareous mud, 
roadsides, in short grass, Ives Bridge, Ryecroft Road, to 
Keighley. Pentiful. 

Solorina spongiosa Nyl. — On vertical faces of sandstone 
rock, amongst algae ; in fine condition, with numerous apothe- 
cia. I prefer not to give the exact locality of this scarce 
Lichen, only one locality, and not plentiful. 

Peltigera canina Hoff. — On ground, woodland footpaths. 
Goit Stock Woods. Not common. 

Peltigera rujescens Hoff. — On ground (sandstone), Flappet, 
Cullingworth, Harden. Common. 

Peltigera spuria Leight. — On quarry tips, amongst small 
stones, plentiful and usually well fruited, Harden Moor, 
Wicken Cragg. 

Peltigera spuria form erumpens Tay, Journal of Botany, 
1847, p. 184. — On quarry footpaths, amongst small stones, 
plentiful in one locality, but sterile. Harden Moor. 

Peltigera polydactyla Hoff. — On wall tops (sandstone), 
level with grass field, in fine condition and numerous apothecia. 
Only in one locality, roadside Harden. 

Peltigera horizontalis Hofl'. — On grassy bank, one locality 
only, now probably extinct, Hill End Farm, roadside. Harden. 

1916 April 1. 



134 1^^'^^ Lichen Flora of Harden Beck VaUey. 

Cetraria aculeata var. hispida Cromb. — Under Ling, spread- 
ing in loose large sheets, very common in places, Harden Moor, 
Catstones Moor, Black Moor. 

Platysma glaiicum Nyl. — Wall tops under trees, commonest 
Lichen in the district, Goit Stock Woods. 

Everina fiirfuracea Fr. — On wall tops under trees, not 
common, Cullingworth, Manywells, Flappet. 

Evernia fiirfuracea form ceratea Nyl. — On wall tops under 
trees, common, widlely distributed in Goit Stock Woods. 

Parmelia saxatilis Ach. — On wall tops, very common,, 
general throughout the district. 

Parmelia saxatilis form fiirfuracea Sch. — On wall tops under 
trees, not common, Ryecroft, Flappet, Harden Deep Cliff. 

Parmelia omphalodes var. panniformis Ach. — On sandstone 
rocks, in shade, common, Goit Stock Woods, Harden Deep 
CHff. 

Parmelia mougeotii Sch. — On pavement sandstone blocks 
at highest elevations, scarce. Harden Deep Cliff ; Mr. Ferrand's 
private grounds near monument. This very scarce Lichen 
may now be considered almost obsolete, only three specimens 
known to be intact. (Occurs more plentifully on Riveoak 
Edge, Rombalds Moor). 

Parmelia physodes form labrosa Ach. — On wall tops, twigs 
of Larch, on the ground. Generally com.mon throughout the 
district. 

Xanthoria parietina Th. Fr. — On walls, subject to limestone 
dust from, repaired roads, on walls about farm buildings, 
Wicken Cragg, Harden to Bingley. Not common. 

Xanthoria tenella Nyl. — On wall tops, Ryecroft road, 
Cullingworth. Very scarce. 

Xanthoria caesia Nyl. — ^On bridge coping, Ives Bridge, near 
Cullingworth. Only one specimen seen. 

Xanthoria nlothrix var. virella Crom.b. — On walls, mostly 
near farm buildings, Flappet, Harden. Scarce. 

Sqiiamaria saxicola Poll. — On walls, roadsides, garden 
edgestones, almost everywhere throughout the district. Very 
conimon. 

Placodiiim decipiens Arn. — On sandstone walls under 
influence of limestone repaired roads ; only seen at Wicken 
Cragg. Scarce. 

Callopisma vitellimtm Sydow. — Wall tops in crevices, old 
posts, widely distributed throughout the district. Not com- 
mon. 

Callopisma epixantha Nyl. — On cement pointing, on dead 
mosses, Ives Bridge. Scarce. 

Callopisma pyracciun Nyl. — On cement pointing, Ives 
Bridge. Scarce. 

[To he continued). 

Nataralist,. 



135 

THE HARVESTMEN AND PSEUDOSCORPIONS 
OF YORKSHIRE. 



WM. FALCONER, 
Slaithwaite, Huddersfield. 



[Confi)uicd from page io6). 

LIST. 
Class : ARACHNIDA. 

Order : PHALANGIDEA. 



Fam. : PHALANGIID^. 

Sub. Fam. : PHALANGIINiF:. 

Gen., LiOBUNUM C. Koch. 
L. ROTUNDUM Latr. 

One of the most abundant and widely spread species seen 
in autumn running swiftly over the grass and herbage, 
or stationary under coping stones and in crannies of 
walls : sometimes in masses on the under surface of 
projecting rocks, beams, etc. ; often in damp ground 
or near streams in woods and fields. Easily recognised 
by its very long and exceedinglv slender legs. 

1st Record : Bradford, R.H.M. 

V.C. 6i. — Hesslewood, Sutton Drain, Cherry Cob Sands, 
E.A.P. ; Skipwith Common, North Cave, Kelsey Hill, 
Thorngumbald, Bielsbeck, Hornsea Mere, Meaux, 
Haltemprice Lane (Cottingham), Houghton Woods, 
Folkton, T.S. ; Bridlington, H. C. D. ; Rillington, 
Scampston. 

V.C. 62. — Kirby Moorside, H.C.D. ; Falling Foss and Ayton 
Village, W.P.W. ; Scarborough and district, Ringingkeld, 
Cloughton, Hayburn Wyke, Levisham, Boulby, Kilton, 
Upleatham, Redcar, Marske, Saltburn. 

V.C. 63, 64. — Basins of (i) Don, Askern, Deffer Wood ; (2) 
Mersey, Greenfield ; (3) Calder and Colne, Slaithwaite 
and Marsden districts, Honley district, Armitage Bridge, 
Almondbury, Storthes Hall, Outlane, Ripponden, Hard- 
castle Crags, Crimsworth Dene, Mirfield, Coxley Valley ; 
(4) Aire, Bradford, R.H.M. ; Keighley District, R.B., 
W.P.W. ; Shipley District, Harden, Cottingley Wood, 
Skipton, Rylstone, Baildon Green, W.P.W. ; (5) Wharje, 
Ilkley, R.B. ; Wetherby, J.G. ; Bolton Woods ; (6) 
Ribble. Stainforth Force; (7) Liine, Ingleborough, Aust- 
wick, W.P.W. ; (8) Ure, Hackfall ; (q) Oitse, Bishop 
Wood, Selby. 

V.C. 65. — No records. 

1916 April 1. 



136 Harvestmen and Psendoscorpions of Yorkshire. 

L. BLACKWALLii Meade. 

Local and much less common in Yorkshire than the preced- 
ing species but usually abundant where it does occur ; in 
woods and wild heathy places. I have not seen an ex- 
ample from the county, but the following were named 
either by the Rev. O. Pickard Cambridge or Dr. Jackson. 

1st Record : T. Stainforth, Hull, ' Trans. Hull Sci. and 
Nat. F. Club,' 1908. 

V.C. 61. — River Hull bank, T.S. ; Humber Bank East, 
H.C.D., T.S. 

V.C. 63. — Beckfoot, near Bingley, two or Inree examples, 
W.P.W., R.B. 

Gen. Phalangium Linn. 
P. opiLio Linn. 

Abundant and widely dispersed in the British Isles and 
on the Continent, am,ongst grass and vegetation on 
waste ground, woods, etc. In Yorkshire the species is 
most plentiful on or towards the coast, thins out inland 
and is either absent or exceedingly scarce in the more 
westerly portions. The falx of the male develops a 
strong pointed slightly curved horn, variable in size 
and strength, according to age or season. Adult, 
August and September. 

ist Record : R. H. Meade, Bradford. 

V.C. 61.— Spurn, Kelsey Hill, T.S., E.A.P. ; Speeton. 
Sand-le-Mere, Bielsbeck, Birkhill Wood (Cottingham), 
Patrington Haven, Ryehill, Saltend, Cherry Cob Sands, 
tim,ber yard. Aire Street, (Hull), South Cave, Flam- 
borough, Bridlington, North Burton, Welwick, Hessle, 
Barm.ston Drain (Hull), Weedley Springs, T. S. ; Rill- 
ington. 

V.C. 62. — Kirby Moorside, H.C.D, ; Rosebery, Gt. Ayton, 
Egton, W.P.W. ; Scarborough district, Ringingkeld, 
Cloughton, Hayburn Wyke, Staithes, Boulby, and other 
places along Cleveland Coast, Levisham, Goatliland. 

V.C. 63.— Harden Clough, Meltham, i ex., W.P.W. ; 
Bradford, R.H.M. ; Shipley, Calverley, W.P.W. ; Guis- 
burn and Bradford, J. Beanland ; Whetlev Hill, F. 

V.C. 64.— Ilkley, R.B. 

V.C. 65. — No records. 
O. PARiETiNUM De Geer. 

Usuall}' aflects a different situation from the last named, 
being found in outhouses, wall crevices, etc., or wander- 
ing over the walls or floors of buildings, but not ab- 
solutely confined to them. Widely distributed at home 
and abroad. Isle of Man, 1908. Adult, Aug. and Sept. 

ist Record : R. H. Meade, Bradford. 

Naturalist, 



Harvestmen and Pseudoscorpions of Yorkshire. 137 

V.C. 61.— Humber Bank East, H.C.D., T.S. ; New Joint 

Dock, Hull, T.S. ; Welton, E.A.P. 
V.C. 62.— Middlesbrough district, ' comnmon,' J.W.H. ; 

Scarborough, R.A.T. 
V.C. 63.— Bradford, R. H. M. ; Saltaire, Calverley, Seven 

Arches (Bingley), W.P.W. ; Todmorden, Miss Leah ; 

Gipton (Leeds), Slaithwaite and Huddersfield. 
V.C. 64.— Howden Ghyll (Keighley), W. P. W. ; Bishop 

Wood, Seiby. 
V.C. 65. — No records. 

P. SAXATILE C*.^ L. Koch. 

Smaller and without the false articulations in the metatarsi 

of the first pair of legs, which characterise the last two 

species ; roots of grass and herbage and beneath stones. 

Most abundant near coast and in hmestone and chalk 

districts. Adult in autumn, 
ist Record : the Author, Scarborough, August, 1905. 
V.C. 61.— Beverlev, F. J. Lockyear ; Kelsey Hill, E.A.P. ; 

Hedon, Humber Bank East, Sutton Drain, Hessle 

Cliffs, North Cave, T.S. 
V.C. 62.— Plentiful on the Coast, Scarborough, Marske, 

Redcar, Coatham, Tees Mouth. 
V.C. 63.— Bingley Woods, W.P.W. , R.B. ; Askern. 
V.C. 64.— Malham, Y.N.U. 

Gen. Platybunus C. L. Koch. 

P. CORNIGER Herm. 

A distinct species, common amongst grass and vegetation, 
and in woods amongst fallen leaves and moss, on herbage 
and low trees. The male as in P. opilio Linn, develops 
a hornlike projection on the falx, but of much smaller 
size and on a different part of the joint. Adult in May 
and June. P. triangularis Herbst. once regarded as 
a totally different species, is now known to be the im- 
mature' winter form, and is more abundant than the 
adult. 

1st Record : the Author, Roundhay Park, Leeds, 1905. 

V C 61.— Numerous Stations in the East, South and Centre 
of the Riding, T.S., E.A.P., J.F., W.F. 

V.C. 62.— Eston, J.W.H., G.B.W. ; Scarborough, Cayton 
Lane and Forge Valley, R.A.T. 

V.C. 63.— Saltaire, Keighley, Shipley, Bingley, W.P.W. ; 
Calverley, S.M. ; Earby, F.R. ; Huddersfield, C.]\I. 
(V.C.H.) ; Loversal, H.' V. Corbett ; Askern, Leeds 
and district, and less frequently Hebden Bridge, Slaith- 
waite, Helme, Stocksmoor, Honley Old Wood. 

V.C. 64.— Winterburn, R.B. ; Newby Moss, Ingleborough, 

1916 April 1. 



138 Harvestmen and Pseitdoscorpions of Yorkshire. 

Burley in Wharfedale, W.P.W. ; Y.N.U., E. Keswick, 
Harewood Park, Woodhall ; Add ; Knaresborough and 
Bishop Wood ; Chandler's Whin, Askham Bog, Hackfall, 
Bolton Woods, Grass Woods. 
V.C. 65.— Y.N. U. ]\Iiddleton in Teesdale. 

Gen. Megabuxus ^leade. 
M. INSIGNLS Meade. 

A widely distributed and striking phalangid ; among 

moss, debris, and on tree trunks. Isle of ]\ian. igo8. 

Adult July and August. 
1st Record : R. H. Meade, Bradford. 
Widespread but not num^erous in the county. 
V.C. 61. — Houghton Woods, near Market Weighton, T.S. 
V.C. 62.— Eston, J.W.H. ; Langdale End, R.A.T. 
V.C. 63.- -Bradford, R.H.M. ; Hurst Wood (Shipley), 

Marton, Cottingley, W.P.W. : Keighley, R.B. ; Hudder- 

iield district at Woodsome, ^Mollicar. Woods, Armitage 

Bridge, Upper Stones Wood (Stocksmoor). 
V.C. 64.— Malham, T. St. W.P.W. ; Rylstone, Shipley 

Glen, W.P.W. ; Y.N.U., Knaresborough ; Grass Woods, 

Washburn Valley. 
V.C. 65. — Y.N.U. Upper Teesdale. ^lickleton ; Rawthey 

Valley, F.B. 

Gen. Oi.iGOLOPHUS C. Koch. 
O. MORio Fabr. 

This species and the next are most abundant and widely 
distributed, and occur in all the varied situations 
which harvestmen affect. Isle of Man, 190S. Adult, 
late summer and autumn. 

1st Record : R. H. Meade, Bradford, sub Phalanghim 
urnigerum Herm. 

In V.C. 61, 62, 63, 64, 0. nwvio has turned up wherever 
anv investigation at all has been made, so that a list 
of stations would be a very lengthy one. 

V.C. 65. — Y.N.U., Upper Teesdale. This division has not 
yet been worked. 
Var. ALPiNUS Herbst. 

Distinguished from the type by numerous strong spines 
beneath the tibiae of the first pair of legs. It is an 
alpine form and has been noticed on the summits of 
mountains in Wales, Scotland, Cumberland and the Isle 
of Man, as well as at lower elevations in hilly districts. 

ist Record : the Author, Butternab Wood, Huddersfield. . 

V.C. 62.— Scarborough Cliffs, Raincliff Woods, R.A.T. ; 
Airyholme Wood, Cleveland, W.P.W. ; Eston Moor. 

V.C. 63. — Keighle}^ Marley, Shipley, Bingley, Cottingley, 

Naturalistr 



Harvestmcn and Pseiidoscorpions of Yorkshire. 139 

W.P.W. ; Wilsden, R.B. ; Holme Moss (S.L. Mosley) ; 
Slaithwaite and district, Dean Head, Drop Clough, 
Clowes Moor (Marsden), Butternab Wood, Crosland 
Moor, Storthes Hall (Huddersfield), Dunford Bridge, 
Denby Dale, Hebden Bridge, Crimsworth Dene. 

V.C. 64. — Ingleton, Grassington, Bolton Woods, Morton 
Moor, Rombald's Moor, W.P.W. ; Y.N.U. Malham ; 
Giggleswick, Stainforth, Ingleborough on the summit, 
and the ascent via Clapdale. 

V.C. 65.— How Gill, W.P.W. 
O. AGRESTis Meade. 

Adult late summer and autumn. 

ist Record : R. H. Meade, Bradford. 

V.C. 61, 62, 63, 64 as abundant and ubiquitous as the last, 
and stations even more numerous. 

V.C. 65.— How Gill, W.P.W. 
O. HANSENii Kraepl. 

A rare phalangid, hrst discovered as a British species near 
Edinburgh, by Mr. W. Evans in June, 1906. It is 
now on record for Notts, Northumberland, Sussex and 
Cumberland. Abroad the only locality is Hamburg. 

1st Record : the Author, Scarborough, August, 1905. 

Only a few examples have been found in the county. 

V.C. 61. — Hedon, T.S., ' Trans. Hull Field Club, 1908.' 

V.C. 62. — North Bay, Scarborough, one example. 

V.C. 63.— Hurst Wood (Shipley), Harden Moor, W.P.W. ; 
Butternab Wood, Huddersfield. two or three examples. 
O. PALPiNALis Herbst. 

Another of the more uncommon phalangids now reported 
from Dorset, Cheshire, Northumberland, North Wales 
and Edinburgh ; am.ongst dead lea^'es, moss, and roots 
of herbage in woods. Adult late summer and autumn. 

1st Record : the Author, Slaithwaite, July, 1905. 

Nowhere abundant in the county. 

V.C. 61. — Melton, E.A.P. ; Bridlington, Bielsbeck, Kelsey 
Hill, South Cave, T.S. ; bank of river at Selby. 

V.C. 62. — Beast Undercliff, Staintondale, T.S. ; Ringingkeld 
Bog, Oliver's Mount, R.A.T. ; Goathland. 

V.C. 63." — Y.N. XI. Cawthorn, Deffer Wood and Harden 
Clough, (Meltham), Hurst Wood (Shipley), W.P.W. ; 
Bottoms Wood (Slaithwaite), Crosland Moor, Armitage 
Bridge, Woodsome, Storthes Hall, Hey Wood (Honley), 
Lepton Great Wood, all near Huddersfield ; Coxley Valley. 
0. TRIDENS C. L. Koch. 

A common species in many places amongst moss, grass, 
rushes, etc., debris, often in wet ground. Adult August 
and September, some surviving the winter and re- 
appearing in spring. 

1916 April 1. 



140 Harvestmen and Psendoscorpions of Yorkshire. 

ist Record: the Author, Scalby Mill, August, 1905. 

V.C. 61. — Hessle Cliffs, South Cave, Sutton Drain, Dunswell 
Lane, Humber Bank East, Hedon, Leconfield, Houghton 
Woods, T.S. ; Hessle Wood and Bentley Woods, E.A.P. 

V.C. 62. — Ringingkeld Bog, Ohver's Mount, Scarborough, 
R.A.T. ; Scalby Mill, sub. 0. ephippiaius.— The Nat- 
uralist, November, 1906 ; Boosbeck. 

V.C. 63.— Calverley, S.M. ; Shipley, Harden, W.P.W ; 
Ainley Place (Slaithwaite), Lepton Great Wood and 
Hopton Wood near Huddersfield, Adel near Leeds, 
Deffer Wood (Cawthorn). 

V.C. 64. — Ilkley, R.B. ; Gargrave, Saltaire Park, Shipley 
Glen, Broughton (Skipton), W.P.W. ; Colhngham Ridge, 
J.G. ; Boston Spa, Bolton Woods, Washburn Valley. 

V.C, 65.— Rawthey Valley, F.B. 
O. EPHIPPIATUS C. L. Koch. 

An abundant species in many parts of England and Wales ; 
in meadows and pastures, at the roots of grass, and in 
woods amongst low plants, grass and herbage. Isle of 
Man, 1908. Adult in summer. 

1st Record : R. H. Meade, Bradford. 

Widespread in Yorkshire and in several localities abundant. 

V.C. 61. — Bielsbeck, Bridlington, Hornsea Mere, Withernsea, 
Patrington, Humber Bank East, New Joint Dock (Hull), 
Birkliill Wood (Cottingham), Pulfin Bog, and Houghton 
Woods near ^Market Weighton, Barmby-on-the-Marsh, 
Skipwith Common, Folkton, Flamborough, King's Mill 
Marsh (Driffield), Welwick, Sutton Drain, T.S. ; Kelsey 
Hill and Riplingham, E.A.P. ; South Cave, E.A.P., T.S. 

V.C. 62. — Falling Foss, W.P.W. ; North Bay (Scarborough), 
Cayton Bay, Hayburn Wyke, Boosbeck, Kilton Woods, 
Saltburn, Marske. 

V.C. 63.— Bradford, R.H.M. ; Hurst Wood (Shipley), 
Cottingley Wood, Keighley, R.B., W.P.W. : Deffer 
Wood (Cawthorn), Coxley A-'alle^^ Ainley Place (Slaith- 
waite), Crimsworth Dene. 

V.C. 64. — Ingleborough, Grassington, Saltaire, Shipley 
Glen, W.P.W. ; Guisburn, Collingham, F.R. ; Chandler's 
Whin (York), Bishop Wood (Selby), Spa Gill and 
Picking Gill (Sawley), Scarcroft Hill near Leeds, Stain- 
forth Force. 

{To he continued). 



The Museums Jouvual, ' the Organ of the Museums Association,' for 
March, does not contain a detailed report of the interview with the Prime 
Minister, as the interview was given ' at an hour too late for it to be 
possible for us to give a detailed report.' A detailed report appeared in 
The Naturnlist for March. 



Naturalist, 



I4r 
YORKSHIRE ZOOLOGISTS. 

A MEETING of the Vertebrate Zoology Section of the Yorkshire 
Naturahsts' Union was held in the Leeds Institute on February 
19th, 1916 ; Mr. W. H. Parkin in the chair. 

The chairm.an reported a Hoopoe having been obtained near 
Thirsk on October 15th, 1915 ; also a White Fieldfare. The 
last Hoopoe reported in Yorkshire was by Mr. W. H. St. 
Quintin, who gave details. 

Mr. J. Wilkinson announced the arrangements with the 
Watchers proposed by the Wild Birds' and Eggs' Protection 
Acts' Coin.m.ittee for this year. 

Mr. H. B. Booth exhibited a fully developed Trout Ova 
taken from an 8-inch fish in the Wharfe on July 4th, 1.910, 
lent by the Ilkley Angling Club. As Trout are winter-spawning 
the question as to whether the above was a premature or a 
retarded case, led to a considerable discussion. Mr. Booth 
also remarked on the greater percentage of Ptarmigan now to 
be found in game shops. Formerly very few Ptarm.igan were 
to be found among the hosts of Willow Grouse offered for sale, 
but since the war began fewer Willow Grouse and m,ore Ptar- 
migan appeared to be the case, so far as local game shops are 
concerned. 

Mr. St. Quintin suggested some explanation might be found 
in the continued slaughter of all the Raptores in Norway, and 
the possible increased shooting of the Ptarmigan as a sporting 
bird, in contra-distinction to the Willow Grouse which are 
usually snared. Mr. S. H. Smith rem.arked on the increased 
cost of food in Germany and its probable effect on the scarcity 
of Hazel Grouse. Mr. St. Quintin reported Redwings in 
greater nUm.bers in East Yorkshire this winter, which does not 
agree with the observations made in the W^est Riding. 

Mr. W. H. St. Quintin enquired if a plague of Short -tailed 
Field Voles had been noticed in other parts of the county ; in 
the neighbourhood of Malton, he had had an extensive plan- 
tation of Scots Fir and Corsican Pines half ruined by their 
depredations. Peculiarly enough they had entirely disappeared 
apparently simultaneously, in a few weeks' time, evidently 
by death, as no increase had been noticeable in the immediate 
surroundings, whether this was by disease he could not say, 
and no extraordinary increase of the native Owls had been 
noted. 

Mr. E. W. Wade stated the Barn Owl had been very numer- 
ous in Holderness ; quite a large number, shot by the farmers 
with their usual sagacity, had com.e into the hands of the local 
bird-stuff ers. 

The chairman exhibited material taken from Kingfishers' 
nesting-holes in Airedale and Wharfedale, with data from 

1916 April 1. 



142 Yoykshirc Zoologists. 

observations made during 1906-7-8. Undoubtedly in Aire- 
dale the staple food is the Three-spined Stickleback, but in the 
neighbouring valley where the Minnow predominates, practi- 
cally no bones of the former were to be found. 

Mr. W. Wilson had a pair under observation from a hiding- 
tent and noticed that not a single Stickleback had been brought 
to the young. Do the parents feed on these, which, owing to 
the spines, they refrain from, offering to the young ? 

Mr. Oxley Grabham referred to a reported record Roach 
taken in Hornsea Mere weighing 2-lbs. i5|-ozs. — the official 
British record being 2-lbs. 5-ozs. ]\Ir. Proctor had no doubt 
the fish was a Roach-Rudd hybrid which are not uncommon, 
and attain higher figures than the Roach. 

Dr. Corbett exhibited a stufted specimen of the Sootv 
Tern — a southern hem.isphere breeder, obtained near Doncaster 
som,e years ago by a local gamekeeper. 

In the absence of Mr. E. W. Taylor, who is serving with 
His Majesty's forces, his paper, ' Notes on the Extinct Great 
Auk,' was read by Mr. Proctor who successfully deciphered the 
hieroglyphic MS. into an exceedingly interesting report or 
resume of all that is known of this once abundant species — 
the Garefowl or Great Auk. 

The prevalent idea that the bird was an arctic species was 
refuted by the fact that not even a casual occurrence had been 
reported from the arctic circle, and its most northerly breeding 
station was the Geisfiyl Rocks on the Iceland coast, 63/64° N. 

All the known breeding stations were enum.erated with many 
particulars of the few last survivors, m.ost of which are well- 
known specimens in various collections. The recent histor\' 
of these, together with records of the authentic eggs, were 
detailed, and the interest of the paper was enhanced by the 
exhibition of the coloured plate, the property of Mr. Hewett, 
depicting two of the best specimens of eggs, and two lantern 
slides of the bird. 

Mr. Oxley Grabham gave a delightful lecture on ' Yorkshire 
Reptiles,' illustrated by numerous slides on the lantern. From 
personal observation made of the various species of reptiles 
and batrachians in the wild state and in captivity, a most 
comprehensive life history of each was related. 

Mr. E. W. Wade mentioned the vitality of the Adder and 
the resuscitation of an apparently long dead specimen hung 
up by the tail as a trophy. Mr. Wade also drew attention to 
the presence of frogs in many of the higher tarns in the Lake 
District. 

^Ir. S. H. Smith, who has been working assiduously in 
photographing our Yorkshire Freshwater fishes through the 
medium of an aquarium, shewed the result in a fine series of 
slides. The lecturer drew attention to the marked difference 

Naturalist, 



Northern Neu'S. I43 

between fish in the natural state and mounted trophies of the 
angler both in contour and poise, and explanied the position 
and action of the fins when swimming. The lantern shdes 
also included many typical haunts of the various species, with 
patient Isaak at work (or play). Both from the view pomt of 
natural history and of anghng the lecture was equally valuable 

and interesting. , ^ ^ ^i t^- 

Mr Chislett shewed a series of shdes devoted to the Uippei, 
with observations covering the whole period of the nesthng 

state, i.e., twenty-one days. < o^x t^ i 

Professor Garstang delivered a lecturette on The Develop- 
ment of Song Birds ' and suggested some connection between 
the scales on the tarsus and the capabilities of the particular 
bird as a songster. With the aid of diagram.s the scaling of 
various groups or families of birds was shewn, and the evolution 
of the ' passerine group,' which includes the most musical 
species The theory propounded led to a discussion which, 
however, owing to the late hour, was deferred until a later date. 
A hearty vote of thanks to the lecturers and to Mr. Graham 
for the use of the room was carried unanimously. 

A. Haigh-Lumby. 



We notice that Mr. J. R. Davidson has a paper in the TransarUous of 
the Liverpool Englneenng Society, on ' Some Dam FaiUires.' 

We have received from Mr. R. W. Goulding a pamphlet on Louth 
Chronology ' (20 pages). Various events in the history of Louth are 
arranged in datal order, beginning at 1086 and endmg with the year 1500. 

\mong the contents of Vol. VIIL, part 4, of ' Old Lore Miscellany,' 
issued by the Viking Society, we notice : ' The Medieval Church in Caith- 
ness and Sutherland (i 136-1445) ' i ' Rare Orkney Birds ' ; The Capture 
of Shetland, 1667 ' ; and ' A Visit to Shetland in 1832. 

The Memoirs and Proceedings of the Manchester Literary and Philo- 
sophical Society, Vol. LIX., part 3, include ' The Place of Science m 
Historv ' by Prof. T. MacLeod ; and ' John Dalton s Lectures and Lecture 
Illustrations.' by Prof. W. W. H. Gee, Dr. H. F. Coward and Dr. A. Harden. 
\t a recent meeting of the Lancashire and Cheshire Entomological 
Society Captain A. W\ Bovd exhibited a box of Micro-lepidoptera collected 
at Rost'herne, Cheshire. The following species new to that locality were 
included • Aciptilia pentad actvla, Peronea comanana var. potentillana, 
Sciaphila vivgauveana, melanic var., Choveutes mvllerana, Lampvonia 
rubiella, Swammerdammia combinella, Cerostoma costella, (Ecophora laiiib- 
della Chrysoclysta auvifronteUa, and Gracilaria alcheimella. 

We much regret to record the death of Sir Laurence Gomme, well- 
known for his long official association with the local government of London, 
and for his antiquarian and folklorist researches. He was 63 years of 
a^e His two best known works on the City are " The Governance of 
London ' and ' The Making of London,' and in addition he found time to 
edit the Antiquary, The Archceological Journal and the Folklore Journal. 
Sir Laurence was knighted in 191 1. Lady Gomme, to whom he was 
married at the age of 22, and who survives him, shared his archaeological 
tastes, and is the authoress of ' Traditional Games of Great Britain.' They 
had seven sons. 

1916 .'Xpril 1. 



144 

3n flDemoriam. 



JOHN W. JUDD, C.B., F.R.S. 
(1840 — 1916). 

We much regret to record the death of Prof. John Wesley Judd, 
which took place on March 3rd. Born at Portsmouth ; he was, 
as a young m.an, m.aster of a school at Horncastle ; later he 
held the post of analytical chemist at Sheffield, where he made 
the friendship of Sorby. In 1867 he joined the Geological 
Survey, and later was employed in the Education Department. 
After considerable field work in Scotland, which resulted in 
many important papers, Judd visited various volcanic regions, 
and these excursions resulted in his well known work on 
' Volcanoes.' He was Secretary of the Geological Society 
for eight years, and its President for two years. He received 
the degree of LL.D. from the Aberdeen University in 1895. 
He was created C.B., and in 1913 was m.ade an Emeritus Pro- 
fessor of the Royal College of Science. Prof. Judd was re- 
markable for the extraordinary variety of his mem.oirs, all of 
which were exceedingly well done. Referring to East York- 
shire, his paper ' On the Speeton Clay ' {Q.J.G.S., 1868 and 
1870) is a classic. In 1871 he described some curious growths 
of oysters froni, the Yorkshire Cornbrash ; in 1888 ' The 
relation between Central and Local Scientific Societies [York- 
shire Geology] ' ; in 1908, Obituary Notice on Sorby. His 
' Geology of Rutlandshire ' is one of the gems of the Geological 
Survey Memoirs. He took a considerable interest in the early 
Geological maps of Wm. Smith and other workers, and these 
he described in a series of papers in the Geological Magazine. 
In connection with this subject the writer had a letter from 
Prof. Judd, dated so recently as Feb. 4th. He twice revised 
Lyell's ' Elements of Geology/ and also wrote a book on the 
' Coming of Evolution ' for the Cambridge Press. Prof. Bonney 
gives an account of Judd's work in Nature for March 9th. — T.S. 



: o :- 



British Birds for March contains no records of new Britisli birds seen 
in the flesh in Sussex. 

In The Entomologist's Record for Februarj', Mr. G. T. Bethune-Baker 
writes on ' The Synonomy of Zygaena, Adscita (Procris), and Amata 
(Syntomis) . ' 

The Entomologist, No. 632, contains ' Some Additions to the list of 
British Plant Galls,' by H. J. Burkill, which include records for Yorkshire 
and Derbyshire. 

The Lancashire and Cheshire Natiirnlist for February contains a 
portrait and memoir on Christopher Johnson, a bygone Lancashire botanist, 
by A. A. Dallman. 

In The Zoologist for February Prof. C. J. Patten writes on ' Icterine 
Warbler on Migration on Tuscar Rock, with remarks on the status of 
this species in the British Isles,' with a plate. 

Naturalist, 



BIBLIOGRAPHY 



OF 

YORKSHIRE GEOLOGY 

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Geological Society. It contains full references to more than 6,300 
Tjooks, monographs and papers relating to the geology and physical 
■geography of Yorkshire, and to more than 400 geological maps and 
sections, published between 1534 and 1914. In its preparation over 
700 sets of Scientific Journals, Reports, Transactions and JMagazines 
have been examined. There is an elaborate index containing over 
26,500 references to subjects, authors and localities. 

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Map of Watsonian 
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to the vice-counties as given in Watson's Topographical Botan}-. 

A. BROWN & SONS, Ltd., 40 George St., Hull. 

Printed at Browns' Savile Press, 40, George Street, Hull, and published by 
A. Brown & Sons, Limited, at 5 Farringdon Avenue, in the City of London. 

April 1st, 1916. 



MAY 1916. 



No. 713 



(No. 489 of cur 




A MONTHLY ILLUSTRATED 'JOURNAL OF 

NATURAL HISTORY FOR THE NORTH OF ENGLAND 

EDITED BY 

T. SHEPPARD, M.Sc, F.Q.S., F.R.Q.S., F.S.A.Scot.. . 

The Museums, Hull ; 

AND 

T. W. WOODHEAD, Ph.D., M.Sc, F.L.S., 

Technical College, Huddersfield. 
with the assistance as referees in special departments of 



J. QILBBRT BAKBR, F.R.S. P.L.S., 
Prof. P. F. KENDALL, M.Sc. F.Q.S. 
T. H. NELSON, M.Sc, M.B.O.U.. 



GEO. T. PORRirr, F.L.S.. F.R.S. 
JOHN W. TAYLOR, M.Sc. 
RILEY FORTUNE, F.Z.S. 



Contents : — 



Notes and Comments (Illustrated): — 'The Micrologist ' ; Professor Bonney on 'Certain 
Channels ' ; Tribute to Professor Kendall ; Professor Bonney's Conclusions ; Professor 
Kendall's Reply; Professor Kendall's Conclusions; 'The Submergence'; Control of 
River Channels ; The Humber ; Through Channels 

The Protection of Wild Life in Yorkshire—/?. Fortune, F.Z.S 

The Harvestmen and Pseudoscorpions of Yorkshire — Win. Falconci 

The Lichen Flora of Harden Beck Valley — Thomas Hcbdin 

The Qeos^raphical Distribution of Moths of the Sub-Family Bistoninae— 7. \V 

Hcslop Harrison, B.Sc 

Notes on the Nesting of the Grasshopper Warbler in the West Ridincf (Illust.) 
H. B. Booth, M.B.O.U., F.Z.S 



InMemorlam: — Thomas Stephenson (Illustrated)— A'. 

Field Notes (Illustrated) :— Little Auk m Wharfedale ; Shelduck near Hebden Bridffe 
Cumberland Arachnida ; Abnormal (?) Fox reported killed near Bingley ; Importe 
Insects at Sheffield ' 



145-lGO 
151-154 
155-158 
159-lfi2 

163-1G(> 

167-170 
171-172 



Reviews and Book Notices 

Proceedings of Provincial Scientific Societies 

News from the Magazines 

Northern News 

Illustrations 



173-174 

150, 16'2 

170 

100, l.-,4, 166, 175 

170 

145, 149, 167, 169. 171, 174 



LONDON : 

.Al. Brown & Sons, Limited, 5, Farringdon Avenue, EC. 

And at Hull and York. 

Printers and Publishers to the Y.N. U. 



Prepaid Subscription 6/6 per annum, post free. 



yPW I?EADY. 

YORKSHIRE'S 

Contribution to Science 

[Based upon the Presidential Address to the Yorkshire 
Naturalists' Union, delivered at the Leeds University) 

By THOMAS SHEPPARD 

M.Sc, F.G.S., F.R.G.S., F.S.A.(Scot.) 

240 pages Demy 8vo, illustrated, tastefully bound in Cloth 
Boards, witli gilt top and gilt lettering on back and side, 

5/" net. 

The publication of much additional matter has caused some 
delay in the appearance of the book. It is illustrated, and contains 
a com.plete history of the scientific publications issued in the various 
Yorkshire towns. It contains the following :' — ■ 

Yorkshire's Contribution to Science. 

Yorkshire Publications arranged Topographically. 

Existing Yorkshire Scientific Magazines and their Predecessors. 

Yorkshire Scientific Magazines now Extinct. 

County and Riding Societies. 

Yorkshire Topographical and General Magazines. 

Magazines : General Natural History Journals. 

Museums. 

Ornithology. 

Mollusca. 

Entomology. 

Botany and General Biology. 

Geography. 

Meteorology. 
Scientific Societies (General). 
Geological Publications. 

Arch£eological and Antiquarian Publications (General). 
Books of Reference. 

List of Societies, Journals, Proceedings, Magazines, etc., 
described. 



London 

A. BROWN & SONS, Limited 

5 Farringdon Avenue, E.G. 

And at Hull and York. 



NOTES AND COMMENTS. 



145 



• ■ THE MICROLOGIST. 

The Micrologist, Vol. III., Part 3, for April (Flatters, 
Milborne & McKechnie, Ltd., Manchester, is. 6d.) is to hand. 
There is an excellent plate as frontispiece showing details of 
an entire longitudinal median section of a mouse ; Mr. Abraham 
Flatters has a well illustrated article on ' The Sunflower ; its 




Transverse section tliroug-li four disc flowers of the Siuiflower. 

A.— Tubular petals. B. — Style, with a pair of vascular 

bundles shown as black dots. C. — The five antheis containing- 

pollen. D. — Interfloral spaces. 



development and structure.' and there are hints on manipula- 
tion, and ' notes from workers.' We are kindly permitted to 
reproduce one of the illustrations herewith. 

PROFESSOR BONNE Y ON ' CERTAIN CHANNELS.' 

It will be rem.embered that in his Presidential Address to 
the British Association at ShefField in 1910, Professor T. G. 
Bonney dealt with ' Ice Work in Western Europe,' which was 
noticed at some length in The Naturalist at the time. In 
connection with that address we are now informed that he 
examined a part of Yorkshire in which Professor Kendall had 
asserted the existence of overflow channels from lakes pro- 
duced b}^ the obstruction of ice-sheets. In 1912 Prof. Bonney 

1916 May" 1. 



■14^ Notes and Comments. 

spent a further ten days in the district, and in 1913 he spent a 
week in the district around Black Combe, Cumberland, where 
similar features had been described by Mr. Bernard Smith. A 
later visit was paid in 1914. The result of these visits was an 
accumulation of notes which did ' not contain enough new 
matter for the Journal of the Geological Society of London, 
and is much too long for the Geological Magazine.' The 
notes therefore appeared in pamphlet form.* 

TRIBUTE TO PROF. KENDALL. 

In view of the warmth of the discussions which at one time 
occurred between Prof. Bonney and his following of ' Sub- 
mergers,' and Prof. Kendall and the ' land-ice ' men, it is of 
interest to note the following tribute paid to the value of Prof. 
Kendall's work. Prof. Bonney states (p. 8) : — ■' Proceeding 
now to a discussion of those parts of the Cleveland district 
which I have examined, I wish to rem.ark at the outset that, 
while I differ entirely from Prof. Kendall in his interpretation 
of their phenomena, I am none the less sensible of the value 
of his investigations. His paper, with its admirable map and 
sections, is a model of careful and indefatigable work, and its 
value will remain, as a record of facts, whatever be the fate of 
his hypothesis. Speaking in general terms, I accept his facts, 
but interpret them very differently ; indeed, to use a homely 
phrase, we not seldom reverse the position of cart and horse.' 
In short, the rev. gentleman will have none of the dammed 
lakes, but considers the features exhibited represent an ancient 
system of drainage. 

PROFESSOR BONNEY's CONCLUSIONS. 

Prof. Bonney concludes : ' I regard the West Cumberland 
channels as relics of an ancient drainage system ; perhaps pre- 
triassic, but the absence of Carboniferous Limestone from this 
district makes it impossible to make a nearer approximation ; 
those, however, of Cleveland must be Post- Jurassic, if not 
Post-Cretaceous. The Ringstead Channel must obviously be 
the latter, and is probably of the same date as the earlier valleys 
of East Anglia ; that is to say, distinctly anterior to the Ice 
Age. Our choice, in fact, lies between regarding these so-called 
overflow channels as relics of ancient, sometimes very ancient, 
valley systems, or, with the geologists wliose views I have been 
combatting, as quite m,odern features (in a geological sense). I 
have endeavoured to show that the latter hypothesis involves 
difficulties of the gravest kind ; one being that we should have 
to attribute so many of the more important features of Britain 

* ' On certain Channels attributed to Overflow Streams from Ice- 
Dammed Lakes,' by T. G. Bonney, Sc.D., LL.D., F.R.S., etc. Cam- 
bridge : Bowes and Bowes, 44 pages, is. net. 

Naturalist 



Notes and Comments. 147 

to post-glacial sculpture, while its mountain regions, like those 
of Scandinavia and the western half of Europe, indicate that 
little has been changed since the final retreat of the ice, except 
in districts when the rocks yield easily to other agents of 
denudation, and even in these the larger features, the broad 
outlines of the hills and valleys, are pre-glacial. So I am unable 
to believe that these curious channels have been cut by over- 
flows from ice-dammed lakes, notwithstanding the ingenuity 
of the hypothesis and the industry of its supporters.' 

PROFESSOR Kendall's reply. 
In the Geological Magazine for January and February, 
Professor Kendall replies to Prof. Bonney's pamphlet, but 
in such a mild manner that one is led to think that each of 
these champions of their respective schools has substituted a 
hair brush for his tomahawk, and instead of slashing at his 
opponent right and left, which process some of us once watched 
with childish joy, the greatest ' damage' now seems to be for 
one or other to have his hair, or what is left of it, parted in 
the wrong place ! Sic transit. Prof. Kendall states that 
Prof. Bonney's ' whole paper is so moderate, and the author's 
appreciation of my work so generous, that I must break through 
my self-imposed rule of silence,' thirteen years having elapsed 
since his ' Glacier Dammed Lakes ' paper appeared. 

professor Kendall's conclusions. 
After dealing with the various points raised by Prof. 
Bonney, Prof. Kendall gives the following summary of the 
principal objections to Prof. Bonney's explanation of these 
remarkable channels as relics of a very ancient drainage system, 
possibly antedating the Cretaceous period : — ' (i) Their re- 
striction to the glaciated parts of our country ; (2) Their railway 
cutting contours prove them to have been produced by large 
volumes of water ; (3) The evidence of their production at a 
very recent epoch ; (4) The way in which they traverse 
watersheds and their indifference to the geological structure 
of the country ; (5) The continuity of the direction of their 
fall through wide tracts of country ; (6) The discontinuity of 
the slope where wide gaps occur in the sequence ; (7) The 
occurrence of aligned sequences along the face of escarpments 
and along both sides of a river valley ; (8) The occurrence 
of many parallel channels trenching in a single spur ; (9) Their 
occurrence in glacial deposits, though this goes more against 
the date than the mode of formation ; (10) The rarity of any 
infilling of boulder-clay.' 

' the submergence.' 
' On the contrary hypothesis that these channels were 
produced, by the outflowing waters of temporary lakes upheld 
by an ice-barrier, all these phenomena find an explanation,, 

1916 May]. 



148 Notes and Comments. 

and the lakes themselves could in most cases]^have been pre- 
dicted from the positions of the ice-margins that were deducible 
from other classes of evidence. I do not overlook the fact 
that there are two fundamentally antagonistic explanations 
of the " Drift " phenomena — ^the land-ice theory and the 
" Great Submergence," but which ever of these interpretations 
be the right one, neither is compatible with the " river-trespass" 
hypothesis. On the other hand, I have long thought that the 
study of these " certain channels " did administer the merciful 
and much needed coitp de grace to the " Great Submergence." ' 

CONTROL OF RIVER CHANNELS. 

In the Proceedings of the Cotteswold Naturalists' Field Club 
(Vol. XIX., part i) recently issued, Mr. T. S. Ellis has a paper 
on ' The Control of River Channels.' In this he refers to the 
channels of the Humber and the various suggestions which 
have been made for confining the present changing navigable 
channel to a definite course. He illustrates his rem.arks by a 
sketch which we are kindly permitted to reproduce. Mr. 
Ellis states that 

THE HUMBER 

' is really an estuary common to the Ouse and to the Trent^ 
which unite at Trent Falls. The part shown in the figure is 
divided into three sections. The first, which is directed 
north-east, is expanded in the middle and encloses a large 
shoal, the Whitton Sands. The second is directed south-west 
in a single channel. The third branches from, a line of the 
second, and is directed to the east ; it encloses, with a con- 
tinuation of the second section, an island, formerly a shoal — • 
Read's Island. Thus is described a roughly shaped figure-of- 
eight, bent in the middle and enclosing in the two loops the two 
shoals. Taken as a whole, there is an elongated double curve 
having tributaries flowing in on the convexities. Each section 
illustrates the law that when a river's bed is too wide for its. 
requirem,ents at low-water, a shoal will form. This m.ay be 
on either bank, but if tributaries fall in on both sides in suffi- 
cient num.ber or size to keep open a channel, the shoal will be 
in island form. Of the two alternative channels neither is 
likely to be quite satisfactory, or to be perm.anently the better 
of the two.' 

THROUGH CHANNELS. 

' Both of the channels mentioned are necessary — each has 
to take the land drainage on its own side of the river. There is,, 
however, no need that both should be through-channels. The 
question which of them may be closed at the upper end has 
been settled alread}. Although the southern channel gives 
the more direct route from Trent Falls to Brough, the require- - 
ments of the Weighton canal make the upper one necessary. 

Naturalist, 



Notes and Comments. 



149 




1 


^ 


Uj 




lu 


^ 






v.-? 


<l 


i 


"k 


C5 


Q 


^ 





SO it must be kept open. The southern might be closed by a 
.groyne, shown as No. i, directed from a point a little above the 

1910 May 1. 



150 Notes and Comments. 

sluice at Aldborough towards another point opposite the canal 
lock. This would perpetuate the direction of the stream against 
the north bank. The stream, is not at all likely to have caused 
much of the damage, but the tide, coming up in a long line from 
the south side of Read's Island, must impinge on this bank 
and would be likely to damage it. If, however, the southern 
channel were closed by a groyne, shown as No. 2, I feel sure 
that the river would assume some such line as that shown in 
the figure.' At different times the Humber Conservancy 
Board has considered various costly schemes in connection 
with controlling the waters of the Humber. This of Mr. 
Ellis's seems to be new and is worthy of thought. 



Yorkshire's Contribution to Science : with a 
Bibliography of Natural History Publications. By 
T. Sheppard. 8vo, London, 1916, 223 pp. Price 5s. net. 

As President of the Yorkshire Naturalists' Union, Mr. 
Sheppard struck out a new line in his Annual Address by 
making an effort ' to indicate the various sources of information 
likely to be of service to a student in his work on any branch 
of natural science ' dealing with the county of Yorkshire. In 
carrying out his idea he has brought together a large amount 
of information previously inaccessible, and has produced an 
example of Bibliographic work which may well be imitated 
by others for their own counties. For it is precisely by labour- 
saving devices of this kind that the greatest services are rendered 
to students and to science generally. 

Speaking of the volume itself one is first struck with the- 
astonishing number of publications issued in the county. Many 
of them mere ephemerids it is true, but all must have a begin- 
ning, and only the lucky ones survive. The history of The 
Naturalist may be taken as typical of the method and care 
of the compiler, and forms exceedingly interesting and in- 
structive reading. Other local publications are fully dealt 
with for the first time. 

Passing away from local things, Mr. Sheppard has re- 
viewed those publications wnich have printed matter relative 
to Yorkshire ; and there is a lengthy index, which, running 
all into one alphabet, enables one to refer with ease to the 
topographical arrangements adopted for the local portion. 

The book is well and clearly printed, and forms an invaluable 
addition to the literature of Yorkshire. — C.D.S. 



We are glad to see that A History of British Mammals, by Barrett- 
Hamilton and Hinton, is still progressing; Pt. XVIII being recently to hand 
(Gurney and Jackson, pages 551 to 600, 2s. 6d.). It deals exhaustively 
with the Harvest Mouse and the Black Rat. Among the plates, there is ati 
exellent one, in colours, of British Muridac. 

Naturalist, 



151 
THE 
PROTECTION OF WILD LIFE IN YORKSHIRE. 



R. FORTUNE, F.Z.S. 



( Contimied from page 131), 

I am afraid that my review so far, has been somewhat of 
a depressing nature, with the exception of the better news 
relating to the last five species. As a set off we will now 
consider a dozen or so species which have increased considerably 
in^numbers or are entirely new as nesting species. Swifts not 
only arrive in increased flocks, but show a decided tendency to 
reach this country at an earlier date than formerly. Haw- 
finches are decidedly more numerous throughout the county. 
They are extremely shy birds and not often seen by the casual 
observer. Gardeners profess to dislike them because they eat 
their peas and dest oy the buds of the fruit trees. They 
certainly do a little damage amongst the peas, but I am 
perfectly sure they never attack the buds. They are very 
fond of the kernels of the holly berries and hawthorn. We had 
to deplore a decrease in our bonny brown Partridge, as a set off 
we find the Red-legged or French Partridge has extended its 
range considerably. It is a very handsome bird, but of no 
great repute by sportsmen. It does not rise so freely or offer 
such sporting shots as the English birds ; instead of taking 
wing, it runs away in front of the dogs and beaters, and is only 
with difficulty induced to rise. A keeper last year took me to 
identify a strange nest in his garden. It proved to be a Red- 
leg's with sixteen eggs, placed under a rhubarb plant. A 
Woodcock's nest was once considered a great find in Yorkshire, 
but they have spread so rapidly during the last few years that 
they are now found nesting in every part. As a rule two broods 
are reared. The first eggs being deposited in March, the second 
in June or July. Redshanks are without doubt more numerous 
and more widely distributed than formerly. We do not have 
the really large colonies one finds in some localities, but small 
parties are now found resting in practically every portion 
of the county. The remaining species are all water birds, and 
to cheir habit of nesting in quiet and generally strictly pre- 
served districts, we may account for their increase. 

The Tufted Duck, a sprightly diver, has estabhshed himself 
on most of the sheets of freshwater in the county, and breeds 
freely. He is often mistaken for the Golden Eye, a winter 
visitor, which, by the way, is recorded very doubtfully, I 
venture to say, as having nested in the West Riding. A 
young one, in down, was preserved as evidence. Owing to 
the habit of my friend, H. B. Booth, of taking nothing for 

191C May 1. 



152 Protection of Wild Life in Yorkshire. 

granted, it was decided to investigate this record. After some 
difficulty the duckhng was unearthed. Several of us examined 
it carefully and were convinced that it was nothing but a young 
Mallard ! In order to make assurance doubly sure it was 
sent to the natural history museum at South Kensington, 
where our identification was confirmed. The Shoveler duck, 
too, is much more numerous and would be more so, but for its 
unfortunate habit of nesting som.e distance from the water, 
and very often in perfectly open places which causes many of 
them to be destroyed by foxes. 

The Pochard, too, another handsome duck, has increased 
rapidly, especially on Hornsea Mere, and in one or two other 
localities, which for the present shall be nameless ; ' some- 
where in Yorkshire,' shall we say ? The Great-crested Grebe 
now frequents most of our fresh water lakes in the breeding 
season. Unfortunately m.any of their young, and young ducks 
also are destroyed by Pike. I have noticed a curious feature 
for some years in connection with a large sheet of water which 
acts as a reservoir for one of our big towns. A pair of Grebes 
regularly nest there, and usually have occasion to construct 
several nests owing to the first ones being left high and dry by 
the receding water, as the reservoir is lowered by the water 
being drawn off. Little Grebes suffer the same way. 

The Black-headed Gull is now to be found in many parts 
of the county chiefly in small colonies. A fairly large one is 
established at Skipwith Common. They have been accused 
of destroying the eggs and young of other birds on the moors, 
but this is quite a mistake, as far as our county is concerned. 
Wandering Lesser Black-back or Herring Gulls are usually the 
culprits.* 

A bird we can offer a genuine welcome to is the Turtle 
Dove. It has nested in small numbers in the southern parts 
of Yorkshire for a long time. Its frail nest, consisting of a 
few, a very few slender twigs, nia}^ now be seen in our woods 
and coppices in annually increasing numbers. 

An undesirable introduction into the ranks of our bird 

* A good deal of ridiculous information is nowadays imparted by the 
press of this country with regard to natural history matter, but I think 
this extract from The Shooting Times, a paper which ought to know b;tter, 
will take some beating. After giving the Black-headed Gull credit lor 
doing a lot of good in devouring solid matter on the Sewage Farms of 
West Yorkshire, they go on to say : ' We hear of a pair of these birds which 
made themselves very objectionable by visiting the shrubberies of a 
Yorkshire admirer of birds and devouring all the young blackbirds and 
thrushes as they hatched out.' Comment is needless. The same paper 
recently gravely discussed the questions as to whether a Alistle Thrush could 
sing or not, the editor evidently being sure it could not. The question 
as to whether the upper jaw of a Badger could move independently of the 
skull was also discussed, and it was astonishing to find how many asserted 
that it did. 

Naturalist, 



Protection of Wild Life in Yorkshire. 153 

fauna is that of the Little Owl, a bird which is now turning up 
in various parts. They are rnore interesting than welcome, 
as unfortunately they hunt equally well by daylight and dusk, 
and are consequently extremely destructive to small birds, 
therefore not deserving of encouragement. In quite a different 
category is the introduction of the Bearded Tit. An extensive 
experiment has been tried with these birds at Hornsea Mere, 
at first it promised to be a great success, as the birds nested 
and reared their young for a season or two, and were increasing 
nicely in numbers. They have now, I am sorry to say, appar- 
ently disappeared. The ground is a t37pical haunt, exactly 
similar to what one sees of their habitats on the broads and 
on the Continent ; I am however, afraid the area is not suffi- 
ciently large for them, and as a consequence they have wan- 
dered away. Another factor which may have made them 
uneasy in their new home and liave helped to drive them away 
is the immense number of starlings which roost in the reeds 
during the autumn and winter months, battering and breaking 
them down and fouling the whole area as only Starlings can. 

The Willow Tit has been added to our list. Personally I 
consider it a very poor species. In order to distinguish it 
from the Marsh Tit, it is necessary to handle it, and even then 
the differences are so fine, as to make identification uncertain. 
If a specimen is desired, it is necessary to shoot a great 
number of Marsh Tits on the off chance of securing a specimen. 
This procedure was carried out in order to secure the Yorkshire 
specimen. 

There are certain birds whose numbers always appear 
to be stationar3^ They are not at any time too numerous, 
and despite the fact that most of them are able to nest and 
rear their young in safety, they do not increase, neither do they 
decrease. The Grey Wagtail for instance, has as its only 
enemy the egg collector. I know scores of nesting places, 
which are occupied with the greatest regularity year after 
year; most of them, I am glad to say, bring off their young 
safely, yet it is very seldom indeed one finds a fresh nesting 
place. Goldcrests too, despite the fact that their ranks are 
reinforced every autumn by considerable immigrations from 
the Continent, never seem to increase in numbers. With so 
frail a bird, its total weigfit is only about. 70 grains, the annual 
mortality must be very great, effectually preventing any 
superabundance. Nightingales regularly nest in small numbers, 
in the south of Yorkshire, yet their numbers never increase. 
Almost annually individual pairs penetrate into fresh parts of 
the county, but the experiment seems to be very rarely re- 
peated. It was quite a record to have a pair nesting in three 
successive years at Harrogate. It is one of the birdland 
mysteries still to be solved, why this species should rarely 

391G May 1. 



154 Protection of Wild Life in Yorkshire. 

stray from a certain distinct range. There has, however, 
been a tendency evinced by Nightingales of late years, to 
advance beyond their usual boundary in a westerly direction. 

The Grasshopper Warbler is a most uncertain bird, at no 
time very abundant. In some seasons it appears to be very 
thinly and evenly distributed over the county, and then for 
several years in succession hardly a bird is to be seen or heard. 
It is a very shy and retiring bird, but its peculiar reeling note, 
is sufficiently distinctive to prevent their being overlooked. 
The Nuthatch probably reaches its northern limit in Yorkshire ; 
it is another bird whose home hfe is seldom disturbed, but whose 
ranks never gain any additions. In the Harrogate district 1 
know about half-a-dozen nesting haunts, where they are never 
or very seldom interfered with, still for some unexplained 
reason they do not increase. The same remarks apply equally 
as well to the Tree Creeper, certainly much more numerous 
than the Nuthatch, and frequenting the same haunts. Probably 
they do not increase for the same reason I suggest with regard 
to the Goldcrest. 

The Nightjar, one of the latest of our summer visitors to 
arrive in Britain, is probably if anything scarcer than it used 
to be, it is certainly not more plentiful. Like all birds nesting 
on the ground, it is accessible to many enemies, which no 
doubt causes its numbers to remain at the best, stationary. 
On some of our highest hills the Dunhn nests. It is a charming 
and confiding little bird, found on the Humber mud flats in 
immense flocks during the autumn and winter months. These 
flocks however, are composed entirely of visitors from the 
Continent, our own birds probably going further south. One 
would naturally expect some few out of these great flocks to 
remain and nest, but such is not the case, the few pairs nesting 
on the hills never increase. Indeed, I really ought to have 
included the Dunlin in the ranks of those birds which are 
disappearing entirely from the county as nesting species. One 
old breeding haunt, the Tees mouth, has been entirely deserted 
by them. 

[To be continued). 



P. G. Ralfe contributes Manx Ornithological Notes to British Birds for 
April. 

The Zoologist for March contains some lengthy ' Observations on the 
Feeding Habits of the Purple-Tipped Sea Urchin,' by H. N. Milligan, 
and ' the Yellow-Necked Mouse in Shropshire, ' by Frances Pitt. 

The Entomologist for March contains : ' Notes on Aphididae found in 
Ants' Nests ' ; ' The Genus Ennomos, with an account of some of its 
Hybrids,' by J. W. H. Harrison ; ' British Orthoptera,' by W. J. Lucas ; 
'Ectopsocus briggsi, Psocptera,' by T. A. Chapman, and ' The Larva Stage 
of Ancylis siculana,' by W. G. Sheldon. 

NaturaLst, 



155 

THE HARVESTMEN AND PSEUDOSCORPIONS 
OF YORKSHIRE. 



WM. FALCONER, 

Slaithwaite, Huddersfield. 



{Continued fro7n page 140). 

Fam. : NEMASTOMATIDiE. 
Gen. Nemastoma C. Koch. 

N. LUGUBRE O. F. Miill. 

A very common species, sluggish in its movements and 
obtainable throughout the year ; in various habitats 
on the ground ; easily recognised by its black colour 
and the two large distinct yellowish spots on the forepart 
of the body. In the male, an obtuse extension of the 
first joint of each falx projects over the second joint. 
Isle of Man, 1908. 

ist Record : R. H. Meade, Bradford. 

The most widely distributed species in the county and 
usually plentiful. V.C. 61, 62, 63, 64. 

V.C. 65.— Y.N.U. Upper Teesdale. 
N. CHRYSOMELAS Herm. 

A small pretty species, widely distributed in Britain and 
on the Continent, amongst dead leaves, moss and 
debris, in woods and hedgerows and under stones, and 
much less frequently met with than A'', htgubre. In the 
male the first two joints of each falx project at the ends 
contiguous to each other. Adult in late summer and 
autumn. 

1st Record : R. II. Meade, Bradford. 

With a wide range in the county, but infrequent and in 
small quantit\^ 

V.C. 61.— Hessle^ Clifts. T.S. ' Trans. Hull Sci. and Nat. 
F. Club,' 1908 ; South Cave beech woods (1915), T.S. ; 
river bank at Selby. 

V.C. 62.— Eston, J.W.H., G.B.W. ; Egton, W.P.W. ; 
Levisham. 

V.C. 63.— Bradford, R.H.M. ; Saltaire, Harden Clough 
(Meltham), W.P.W. ; Deffer Wood (Cawthorn) ; Bot- 
toms Wood, Ainley Place and Clough House Wood 
(Slaithwaite), Drop Clough (Marsden), Armitage Bridge 
(Huddersfield), Hey Wood (Honley). 

V.C. 64.— Ingleton, F.B. 

191G May 1. 



156 Ilarvestmen and Psendoscorpions of Yorkshire. 

THE PSEUDOSCORPIONS. 

Early in the 19th century, Dr. W. E. Leach in the ' Zoo- 
logical Miscellany,' Vol. III., pp. 48-53 (1817), named and 
described the eight British species which came under his 
notice. Two of them have since been discovered to be identical 
with the older Chernes cimicoides Fabr., 1793, and their names 
have sunk into synonyms. In 1892 the Rev. O. Pickard 
Cambridge issued his ' Monograph on the British Species of 
Chernetidea or False Scorpions,' in the ' Proceedings of the 
Dorset N. H. and Antiq. Field Club,' Vol. XIII., pp. 199-231 
(three plates), in which twent}^ species, two of them new to 
science, were described and figured. Subsequent discoveries 
necessitated the dropping of five of these from the British 
list, four being referred to other species already thereon, and 
one determined to be an introduction and not British at all. 
On the other hand seven species have been added, a net gain 
•of two, giving a present total of twenty-tv/o specie;s. This 
great advance in our knowledge of the British pseudoscorpions 
is due to Mr. H. Wallis Kew, whose close and systematic study 
of these creatures, extending over a considerable number of 
years, has resulted in his excellent ' Synopsis of the False 
Scorpions of Britain and Ireland,' ' Proceedings of the Royal 
Irish Academy,' Feb., 1911, Vol. XXIX., Section B., No. 2, 
pp. 38-64. 

Very few kinds of false scorpions are so abundant as to 
obtrude them,selves upon one's notice, and most are never seen 
unless special search is made for them in their obscure hiding 
places. Although they are more abundant in the south than 
further north, and are little sought after, fifteen species are 
now on record for the northern counties. Seven of these 
already alluded to but not by name, as being mainly southern 
(two being western) in their range, have occurred to the west 
of the Pennine Range in Lancashire (inclusive of Furness 
District). Two of the seven, Chernes godfreyi Kew, and 
Obisium nuiritimum Leach, have been met with also in Argyll- 
shire or Ross-shire, or both ; a third, Chernes cancroides Linn, 
at Glasgow ; while a fourth, Chernes n'ideri C. L. Koch, at 
Sherwood Forest, closely approaches' the southern border of 
the county. Of the eight Yorkshire species, six have been 
recorded in The Naturalist at various times, one in the 
■* Transactions of the Hull Scientific and Field Natural- 
ists' Club, 1901,' and one, Chernes duhins Camb. in the present 
paper (see p. 192.). For the benefit of those who may 
undertake a much needed investigation, it may be well to 
indicate briefly here the kinds of habitat which will best repay 
research, and what means should be taken to secure examples 
of those pseudoscorpions, which, from their nearness to us, 



1 



Harvestmen and Psettdoscorpions of Yorkshire. 157 

may possibly be eventually found in our area. Some conceal 
themselves beneath the bark of old, dead or dying oaks and 
beeches and old willows, even in some cases if close fitting and 
difficult to detach. C/z^rn^s cyrneus L. Koch, C. wideri C. L. 
Koch, C. chyzeri Tom., C. cimicoides Fabr. Some cling to 
the legs of flies — Cherncs godfreyi Kew., C. chyzeri Tom. ; such 
may generally be obtained without labour or special search 
by exposing flypapers (the old-fashioned sheets are most 
convenient), in suitable places, shops, stables and even houses 
near by. One, C. cancroides Linn., frequents old buildings,, 
corn mills, bakeries, stables, lofts ; in Lancashire taken from 
the debris of an old haystack. Others find shelter in manure 
and refuse heaps- — C. godfreyi Kew and C. subruber Sim. , 
from the former they may be obtained by confining flies, from 
which a wing has been removed to prevent flight, under a bell 
glass placed on the heap. If present, they will in time attach 
themseh'es to the legs of the flies. At least this method has 
proved successful abroad. C. cyrneus L. Koch and C. icideri 
C. L. Koch have been met with in Sherwood Forest ; the latter 
also and the remainder in Lancashire. 



LIST. 

Class : ARACHNIDA. 
Order: CHERNETIDEA. 



Sub-Order: HEMICTENODACTYLI Batz. 

Group I. Eyes 4. 

Fam. : CHTHONIID^. 

Gen. Chthonius C. Koch. 

RAYI L. Koch. 

Common and abundant in the British Isles and on the 
Continent. In a variety of situations ; under stones, 
amongst fallen leaves and debris in woods, in the open, 
in farm buildings, under pieces of wood, etc., in cellars 
of houses, chalk pits, old quarries, etc. 

ist Record : H. Wilson, Aysgarth, April, 1903 (H. W. 
Kew), The Naturalist, August, 1903. 

V.C. 61. — Tansterne near Aldborough, under sticks, T.P. 
{The Naturalist, 1903, p. 460); Leconfield, H.M.F. ; 
Bridlington, H.C.D. ; Sand-le-Mere, South Cave, Skidb}' 
Chalk-pits, Spurn, Humber Bank East and West of 
Hull, Salt end Common, Hessle Cliffs, Whitecross (Leven), 
Cottingham, Hedon, Welwick, T.S. ; Hesslewood, E.A.P. 



lOlG May ]. 



158 Harvestmen and Pseudoscorpions of Yorkshire. 

V.C. 64. — Boston Spa, amongst leaves on river bank'; 
Thorp Arch, in a ditch. 

V.C. 65. — Aysgarth, under stones, H.W. 
C. TETRACHELAius Preyss. 

Widely distributed in the British Isles and most abundant 
near the sea, less frequent further inland, occurring 
amongst leaves and moss in woods and beneath stones, 
often in greenhouses and old gardens. The Irish 
records of C. orthodadylis Leach, are referable to this 
•' species. {Irish Naturalist, December 1909, pp. 249-50). 
* iM' Record : the Author, Slaithwaite, June, 1908. 

V.C. 61. — Humber Bank, near Marfieet and at Saltend, 
T.S. The Naturalist, August and October, 1908. 
Spurn at base of sea buckthorn. 

V.C. 63. — Saltaire, behind iv}- on a house wall, two examples, 
W.P.W. ; Mr. Weaving's greenhouse. Bottoms Wood, 
Slaithwaite, on the under surface of the boards, many 
examples. The Naturalist, July, 1908, p. 288. 

Fam. : OBISIIDAE. 

Gen. Obisium Leach. 
O. MUSCORUM Leach. 

The commonest of the Yorkshire pseudoscorpions ; abun- 
dant also in most parts of the British Isles and the 
Continent ; amongst fallen leaves, moss, grass roots, 
and beneath stones, in woods and in the open, ranging 
from our highest hills to the coast. 

1st Record : the Author, Slaithwaite, July, 1899. 

V.C. 61. — Beech wood at South Cave, Houghton Woods 
near Market Weighton, Swine, Welwick, Riplingham, 
Beverley Long Lane, Hornsea Mere, T.S. ; Skipwith 
Common ; Rillington and Scampston. 

V.C. 62. — Numerous stations in the Cleveland, Scarborough 
and Whitby districts, G.B.W., J.W.H., R.A.T., W.P.W., 
W.F. 

V.C. 63 and 64. — In the basins of the Colne, Calder, Aire 
and Wharf e, 0. muscorum has been taken wherever 
search has been made, and stations are too numerous 
to mention individuallv. S.M., W.P.W., R.B., W.F. 
Basin of (i) Trent— ^^Aihy, Y.N.U. ; (2) Don and 
Dearne — Cawthorn and Deffer Wood ; (3) Mersey — 
Saddleworth and Greenfield ; (4) Lune — Ingleborough 
and district ; (5) Nidd — Knaresborough and Pateley 
Bridge, W.P.W., W.F. ; (6) [/y^— Sawley, S.M., W.F. : 
Mickley, Hackfall. 

V.C. 65.— Upper Teesdale, Y.N.U. ; Aysgarth, H.W. 

{To be contimted). 

Naturalist. 



159 



THE LICHEN FLORA OF HARDEN BECK 
VALLEY. 



THOMAS HEBDEN. 



{^Continued from page 134). 

Lecanora irnihata Nyl. — On cement pointing, Ives Bridge. 
Scarce. 

Lecanora galactina Ach. — Stone walls and mortar, Culling- 
worth. Scarce. 

Lecanora dissipata Nyl. — Stone walls, cem.ent, lime pointing, 
very comm.on throughout the district. 

Lecanora iirhana Nyl. — Always associated with Placodium 
■decipiens Arn., Wicken Cragg. Scarce. 

Lecanora crenulata Nyl. — Common on mortar of walls, 
and Calliard sandstone. 

Lecanora Hageni Ach.^ — On decorticated Oak. Only one 
specimen seen, roadside Harden to Bingley. 

Lecanora varia Ach. — On Ling stems, young branches of 
trees, stone walls. Common. 

Lecanora polytropa Sch. — On stone walls, rough sandstone 
outcrops. Common. 

Lecanora badia Ach. — On walls of rough sandstone, Harden, 
Black Moor. Only two specim.ens seen. 

Acarospora fuscata Nyl. — On rough sandstone at base of 
walls, Cullingworth, Harden, Flappet. Comm.on. 

Acarospora rufescens Nyl. — On rough sandstone, on mica- 
ceous laminated sandstone, roadside Ryecroft, Harden. Not 
•com.mon. 

Acarospora smaragdula Nyl. — On micaceous, laminated 
sandstone. Frequent throughout district at highest elevations. 

Acarospora Lesdain N.S. — On vertical faces of stone walls, 
laminated sandstone, roadside, Ryecroft to Guide Stoop on 
Harden Moor. Plentiful. This species easily mistaken for 
A. smaragdula Nyl., but different re-action and size of spores. 
Sent to M. Boulay de Lesdain, of Dunkirk for verification, 
who sent it to Abbe Harmand, Docelles, Vosges, and nam.ed 
by him in honour of M. Boulay de Lesdain. No published 
•description yet, owing to war. 

Acarospora pruinosa form, nuda Nyl. — Buried in m.ortar 
•of wall tops. Harden, Cullingworth, generally distributed. 
■Common. 

Gyrophora polyphylla T. & B. form congregata. — On rough 
sandstone blocks, always on inclined plane. Harden .Cliff, 
Harden Moor, Catstone Moor. Not common. 

Gyrophora polyrrhiza Koerb. — On rough sandstone rock, 

1916 May 1. 



i6o The Lichen Flora of Harden Beck Valley. 

on inclined plane. Only on one particular rock, plentiful 
until 1913 in company with P. mougeotii and G. polyphylla. 
Since entirely destroyed by ' children ' using the rock face as 
a slide. No other habitat known. 

Bacomyces riifits D.C. — On rough sandstone blocks in 
river, Goit Stock Woods. Plentiful and in line condition. 

Bacomyces riifus var. subsqiiamulosus Nyl. — On rough sand- 
stone wall tops under Hawthorn, Eller Carr, Cullingworth. 
Not comrnon. 

Stereocaulon evolutum Graewe. — Very small and in a de- 
pauperate condition, rough sandstone blocks and quarry tips. 
Only seen from two places, widely apart and very scanty, Mr. 
Ferrand's private grounds, near Monument, quarry tips Cat 
Stones Moor. 

Cladonia pyxidata Fr. — Common on peaty ground, on all 
the hill tops. 

Cladonia pyxidata var. lophyra Coem. — In line condition 
and well fruited. Harden Moor under Ling. Common. 

Cladonia pyxidata var. chlorophaca Flk. — Among moss 
base of walls, roadside Harden. Not common. 

Cladonia fimbriata Fr. var. simplex. — On peaty soil. Com- 
mon on all the moors among ling. 

Cladonia fimbriata var. prolijera Ach. — On peaty soil, 
occasionally found, but not comm.on. 

Cladonia sobolifera Nyl. — In niches of rough sandstone 
blocks, substratum peat, Harden Moor, Cat Stones jMoor. Not 
common. 

Cladonia degenerans form pleiolepidea Nyl. — On bare peat, 
in damp places, on all the highest moors in the district. Very 
common. 

Cladonia coccifera var. stemmatina Ach. — On bare peat. 
Not common. 

Cladonia coccifera var. phyllocorna Flk. {synom. C. cornu- 
copoides Frfil.) — On peat, under Ling, sides of moorland paths, 
on all the highest moors. Very common. 

Cladonia coccifera var. extensa Ach. — On peat, mostly under 
Ling, on the highest m.oors. Not common. 

Cladonia incrassata Frfil. — On wet spongy peat, among 
stones. Harden Moor. Only two specimens seen. Scarce. 

Cladonia bellidiflora var. ventricosa Ach. (Wainio, Vol. I., 
p. 205). — On peaty soil, base of stone wall, northern aspect, 
well fruited, Harden Moor. Only one specimen seen. 

Cladonia digitata Hoff.- -Among moss, in fine condition, 
Goit Stock Woods. Common. 

Cladonia digitata var. brachytes Nyl.— On peat under Ling, 
in fine condition. Harden Moor. Not common. 

Cladonia macilenta Hoff. — On rotten stumps, Goit Stock 
Woods. Not common. 

Naturalist, 



The Lichen Flora of Harden Beck ]' alley. i6i 

Cladonia macilenta var. ostreata Nyl. — Vertical face of 
sandstone blocks, shady places under trees, Goit Stock \^^oods. 
Scarce. 

Cladonia flabelliformis var. coronata N3I. — Among moss in 
woods, Goit Stock. Common. 

Cladonia bacillaris Nyl. — Peaty ground, under Ling, Harden 
jMoor. Common. 

Cladonia fioerheana \c\v. trachypoda Nyl. — Peaty ground, 
among stones, Harden Moor, Cat Stones Moor. Very common. 
Cladina sylvatica var. scabrosa Leight. — Among Sphag- 
num in wet places, and under Ling, Goit Stock Woods. Not 
com.m.on. 

Racodium rupestre Pers. — Vertical face, sandstone blocks, 
very fine and in good condition, Goit Stock Woods, Harden 
Cliff. Plentiful. 

Lecidea coarctata Aar. elacista Cromb. — On soft sandstone, 
garden edgings, gate posts, etc., throughout the district. 
Com.mon. 

Lecidea granulosa var. escharoides Sch. — On peaty soil, 
am.ong Ling, on all the moors, not well fruited usually. 
Common. 

Lecidea iiliginosa Ach. — Peatv soil, on all the moors. Very 
common. 

Lecidea sanguineoatra Ach. — On mossy rocks, sandstone, 
Black Moor. Scarce. 

Lecidea contigna Fr. — On all kinds of sandstone, and in 
many varieties throughout the district. Common. 

Lecidea sorediza Nyl. On rough rock. Harden Moor. Only 
few specimens seen. 

Lecidea lithophila Ach. — On rough sandstone, Ives Bridge, 
Black Moor. Not common. 

Mycoblasiiis sanguinaria Ach. (sterile). — Sandstone walls, 
rough sandstone blocks, Goit Stock Woods, in fine condition. 
^'ery plentiful.. 

Bilimbia sabulosa ^lass.- Niches of wall tops, among dead 
m.oss, Bell Horse Lane, Harden, Cullingworth. Not com.m,on. 
Bilimbia sabuletorum B. & R. — On dead moss, wall tops, 
tlu'oughout the district. Com.m.on. 

Bilimbia sabuletorum var. septenaria A.L.S. — On dead moss, 

wall tops. Hunter's Hill, near Harden, distinguished by 

brighter coloured apothecia and seven septate spores. Scarce. 

Bilimbia lignaria Mass. On living m.oss on walls, roadside 

Harden to Keighley. Not common. 

Rhizocarpon geographicum var. atrovirens Koerb. — On 
rough rock among bracken. Harden Moor. Not common. 

Rhizocarpon viridiatrnm Koerb. — On micaceous fi.ssile 
sandstones on wall tops, Benty Lee, Harden Moor. Not 
common. 

1916 May 1. 



i62 Reviews and Book Notices. 

Rhizocaypon conjervoidcs D.C. — On sandstone wall tops, 
Kenty Lee. Scarce. 

Rhizocarpon obscnratum Mass. — Sandstone wall tops, Har- 
den Moor. Not common. 

Verrucaria hydrela Ach. — On submerged stones in stream, 
Cullingworth, very similar to T'. aqitatilis but larger spores. 
Plentiful. 

Verrucaria macrosfoma var. aphanostoma S. & PI. — On 
mortar, wall tops, sandstone, Cullingworth, Many wells Road. 
Not comm.on. 

Verrucaria mitralis Ach. — On mortar, wall tops, sandstone, 
in all the district. Com,m,on. 

Polyblastia intercedens Som. — On mortar, wall tops, sand- 
stone, Many wells Road near quarries. Common. 



Pond Problems. By E. E. Unwin. Cambridge ITniversity Press, 
1 20 pages, 2S. This is one of the Cambridge Nature Study Series edited 
by jNIr. Hugh Richardson, and contains a number of interesting chapters, 
prepared for the use of scholars, and the volume is well illustratecl. Among 
the subjects dealt with are : ' How to obtain specimens ' ; ' What is 
an Insect ' ; ' Breathing Water Beetles and Water Boatmen ' ; ' Diving 
Tubes and a Diving Bell ' ; ' Locomotion ' ; ' Life Stories ' ; ' From Egg 
to Imago.' 

Essays Towards a Theary of Knowledge. By A. Philip. London : C. 
Routledge, 126 pages. The author asks : ' W^hen we find Science, which 
has done so much and promised so much for the happiness of mankind, 
devoting so large a proportion of its resources to the destruction of human 
life, we are prone to ask despairingly ; "Is this the end ? " If not, how 
are we going to discover and assvn^e for stricken humanitv the vision and 
the possession of the Better Land ? ' and he deals with the subject in four 
chapters, the headings of which are : ' Time and Periodicity ' ; ' The 
Origin of Physical Concepts ' ; ' The Two Typical Theories of Knowledge ' ; 
' The Doctrine of Energy.' 

The Determination of Sex. By L. Doncaster. Cambridge L^niversity 
Press, 172 pages, js. ()d. net. In this work Dr. Lancaster brings together 
some information which he intended to include in a second edition of his 
Heredity in the Light of Recent Research. As time went on, however, 
advances in knowledge altered his plan. The present book discusses the 
more important lines of evidence which bear on the problem of sex-deter- 
mination, and he illustrates each with representative examples. Full 
reference to literature enables the reader desiring further information on 
any given point to readily obtain it. The work deals entirely with the 
([nest ion so far as it relates to animal life. The frontispiece is an excellent 
coloured plate of a Gynandromorph Bullfinch, and among the other 22 
plates we notice the following : ' Life Cycle of the Gall Fly ' ; ' Abraxas 
grossulariata (Currant Moth) and its variety lacticolor ' ; ' Sex-limited 
Transmission of barred pattern in Fowls ' : ' Pedigrees of Sex-limited 
.\ffections in Man (Colour-blindness and Haemophilia) ' ; ' Spermato- 
genesis of Ascaris ' ; ' Spermatogenesis of the Hornet ' ; ' The Parasite 
Saccnlina and its Effects on its Host ' ; ' Gynandromorphic Moths pro- 
duced by crossing two species of the genus Lymantria ' ; and Chromosome 
Cycle in the worm Rhabdonema.' These titles alone give an idea of the 
far-reaching character of the book. 

Naturnlist 



163 



THE GEOGRAPHICAL DISTRIBUTION OF THE 
MOTHS OF THE SUBFAMILY BISTONINAE. 



J. W. HESLOP HARRISON, B.St 



r.— INTRODUCTORY. 

This family, in the main, is one characteristic of the Hol- 
arctic region although, here and there, overflows occur into 
neighbouring areas ; independent of these overflows, we have 
possibly one or two outlying species in more or less detached 
localities. 

In the present paper, it is proposed to deal more particularly 
with the centralised forms, but, at the same time, to account for 
the distribution of the outliers as far as possible. 

The family can readily be sub-divided into two sections, one 
of which may be regarded as the true family stock in spite of the 
fact that the genus which gives its name to the sub-family 
belongs, unfortunately, to the other section. The latter non- 
typical portion passes insensibly into the Boarmiinac with which 
sub-family all of its species are distinctly related ; it may there- 
fore be known as the Boarmioid group, as distinct from the 
other or Non-Boarmioid group, which shows no such clear rela- 
tionship. 

Characterised as the sub-family is by the presence of species 
with apterous females and of species with fully winged females, 
one might reasonably expect that this highly important charac- 
ter would be the basis of the division proposed ; such, however, 
is not the case, the divisions containing unequal but large per- 
centages of forms with apterous or subapterous females. The 
characters on which the sub-division is based are of greater or 
less value, but those which are of most importance, are those 
displayed by the male, and, to a less extent, by the female 
genitalia. 

This separation into two groups, although rather of phylo- 
genetic importance, still has its zoogeographical value, for we 
find that, whilst the two parts overlap in most of the areas of 
their distribution, in spite of that fact, each is characteristic of, 
i.e. reaches its greatest development in, certain definite geo- 
graphical areas. 

The Non-Boarmioid fraternity, save for two outliers in the 
Nearctic regions and one or two on the Pacific coast of Siberia 
and in Japan, is centred in Europe and the Boarmioid portion, 
whilst obviously of Asiatic origin, is found, in addition, although 
in sparse numbers, in Europe, N. America and Africa. 

The genera of the first section will be treated first. 

1916 Ma) 1. 



164 Distribution of Moths of the Suh-Family Bistoninac. 

II.— THE GENUS LYCIA. HUB. 

Lycia hirtaria. (CI.) Distribution : — North and Central 
Europe (excluding the Polar Regions), Central Italy, Balkan 
Peninsula, Turkestan, Asia Minor, Algiers, Tunis. 

Lycia ursaria (Walk.) Distribution : — In North America in 
the Northern portions of the Appalachian region, around the 
Great Lakes westward through Manitoba to Alberta, Labrador. 

As is clearly indicated above, the present pair of closely allied, 
although perfectly distinct forms are widely separated geograph- 
ically, one species occurring in the Western portions of the 
Palpearctic area and the other in the Eastern parts of the 
Nearctic region. Undoubtedly, we are here concerned with a 
pair of what are generally termed representative species, i.e. 
species restricted to different geographical areas and which have 
diverged and become species by reason of their long geographical 
isolation — a statement which implies that at some period, these 
species were connected or occupied a continuous area of distrib- 
ution. This, as can be seen from the range of the two species as 
given above, is not the usual Holarctic range of species which 
have, for the most part, originated in Asia and have spread 
westward into Europe and eastward into America, for the group, 
other than as obvious overflows, does not exist in Asia. The 
connection then must have been between Europe and North 
America, either across the North Atlantic or via some long 
submerged Arctic continent far to the north. Judging from the 
northern character of the present group, in no point more strongly 
emphasised than in the proneness of the pup« to lie over for 
several years, in all probability, the connection they used was in 
high Arctic latitudes, a probability which of course does not 
exclude a possible land bridge by way of Iceland, Greenland and 
Labrador. 

Granting that the former bridge was that used, then we have 
a further proof if that M'ere necessarj', that the average annual 
temperature of the North Polar regions during Miocene and far 
into Pliocene times, was much higher than that which obtains at 
the present time. In all probability. Nova Zembla, Franz Josef 
Land and Spitzbergen are the sole existing relics of this connec- 
tion for their former continuity can be' shown most beautifully 
from a consideration of their surviving Bryophytes. 

A land bridge having been shown a logical necessity to bring 
the present forms into contact, we are now face to face with the 
problem of the centre of dispersal of the genus. Three possibili- 
ties are open, (i) that the genus originated in America ; (2) that 
it is of Arctic or Boreal origin ; (3) that it came into being in 
Europe. The first supposition can readily be dismissed when one 
considers that the whole Non-Boarmioid group of Bistonince has 
only two American representatives, one of which, Poecilopsis 

Naturalist; 



Disti'ihution of Moths of the Sub-Familv Bistoninae. 165 

rachelae (Hulst), is a specialised form, derived from Lycia, but 
not closely related thereto, and having three distinct congeners, 
Poecilopsis pomonaria (Hb.) P. lapponaria (B.) and P. isabellae 
(Harr.) in Europe. Two choices are then left as the home of the 
genus. If the present geographical distribution is to be the 
standpoint from which to decide then, from the occurrence of 
Lycia hivtaria in Algiers and in the Abruzzi, and from the great 
development of the whole section in Europe, with the presence 
of the third species Amorphogynia nccessaria (Z.) in Asia Minor, 
we seem irresistibly forced to the conclusion that the group is 
European. If the great number of distinct species occurring in, 
or near, a given area can be used, as seems logical, to determine 
the point of origin of the group, then the genus Lycia and its 
satellites originated in Pliocene or earlier times in the Northern 
and more mountainous portions of the Balkan Peninsula. This 
conclusion, however, takes no account of climatic oscillations in 
the past and it seems clear that all that has been proved, is that 
the Balkan area has once been a centre of dispersal of the various 
genera comprised in the group. From phylogenetical grounds, 
and from the Boreal (as distinct from Arctic) nature of the group, 
in addition to a consideration of the paucity of its representatives 
in America, their true home was in all probability in the old 
Arctic continent at some point much nearer Europe than Amer- 
ica, or in areas from which the various species, except for outliers 
in the Arctic Archipelago, could more readily retreat, when the 
southward march began, to Europe. From this centre of origin, 
the single species, which then represented L. ursaria and L. 
hivtaria, worked its way westward and south eastward, but, as it 
marched, climatic conditions were deteriorating in its northern 
home and the species was forced slowly southward, part pressing 
south to our continent and the remainder passing to America. 
Coincident with, or just subsequent to it, in late Pliocene times, 
extensive subsidences occurred both in the North Atlantic and in 
the more easterly portions of " Arctica " and finally, the Ameri- 
can branch of Lycia palceohirtaria (if one may coin a name for 
the theoretical original species) was effectually severed from 
that invading the European area. 

Conditions, however, did not ameliorate ; in both continents, 
matters moved inexorably to their climax in the Glacial Period 
and further geographical divergence of the two contingents oc- 
curred until, in America, the species which had never penetrated 
far to the west of Greenland and Labrador, was wedged between 
the Appalachian Mountain system and the coast, any possible 
movement north of the Great Lakes and thence southward, 
being squashed by the early development of the Keewatin Ice 
Sheet. In this home of refuge, this division slowly developed in 
Pleistocene times into Lvcia ursaria. Similarly, the European 
migrator}' stream would pass southward but, undeterred by the 

lOlfi May 1. 



i66 Distrihuiion of Moths of the Sub-Family Bistoninae. 

general trend of the mountain ranges, would spread fanwise, 
until all suitable localities in north and central Europe were 
occupied. But the ice gave it no respite ; soon the huge ice 
sheets of northern and western Europe buried the land and, 
except in favoured areas,* all life was banished and forced south- 
ward and eastward, following the great river valleys and the 
general direction of the Central European mountains and our 
species reached (if even in more favourable times, there had not 
been outposts along the foothills of the Carpathians) the Balkan 
area, where it took refuge and finally completed its development. 
That the Balkans formed the centre of dispersal of the species, 
we now know as L. hirtaria is absolutely certain, because every 
line of migration, whence it occupied its present station, radiates 
from that point as a centre, as even a casual glance at the map 
will show. 

But why was the Balkan Peninsula the last refuge of the 
species, might be asked ? And why did the species not pass 
eastward into Siberia ? That it did reach Asia Minor is clear 
from its present stations in Pontus and Bithynia, from which 
we glean that, when the species reached its maximum south 
easterly extension, such difficult passages as the Dardanelles 
and Bosphorus were non-existent. It it could make progress 
in the difficult country of Asia Minor, why did it not pass into 
Siberia, to the north of the Caspian Sea and occupy the whole of 
the land, in an all conquering mass, instead of the narrow wedge 
which strikes now across the Uralsk to Lake Issi Kul ? Simply 
because the Turkestan colony is recent and, when the species 
was retreating before the oncoming ice, it met a barrier which 
efJectually forbade its passage into Asia through the gap between 
the Ural Mountains and the Caspian Sea, and that barrier was a 
long arm from the Arctic Ocean, which, flanking the Ural 
Mountains, connected the Arctic Ocean with the united Caspian 
and Aral Seas. This arm of the sea explains the occurrence 
of so many Arctic species or species ' representative ' of Arctic 
species in the Caspian Sea. 

{To be continued). 



The New Phytologist, published on March 2jth., contains the following 
papers : — On the structure and origin of ' Cladophora ' Balls, by 
Elizabeth Acton ; Carbon Assimilation, by Ingvar Jorgenson and \\altcr 
Stiles ; Notes on the Corolla in the Composit.o, by James Small ; Marine 
Fungi Imperfect!, by Ceo. K. Sutherland. 

* It must not be assumed that I believe in the wholesale stamping 
out of animals and plants demanded by ' whole hogger ' glacialists. 
Our Lusitanian and American elements (and still more the : ' Atlantean ' 
elements present in the mosses and liverworts) must have survived. - Be- 
sides, where, at the present clay, do we find any area devoid of animals 
and plants ? 

Natursjlist 



167 

NOTES ON THE NESTING OF THE GRASS- 
HOPPER WARBLER IN THE WEST RIDING. 

H. B. BOOTH, M.B.O.U., F.Z.S. 



In the first place it is necessary to state that I can only speak 
with any degree of authority for the north of a line drawn 
east and west through Wakefield. The Grasshopper Warblei 
is the rarest, and most erratic, of the summer warblers visiting 
this area of the West Riding, and its life history during the 
period it is with us is less known and described than in the 




Photo by] . [J. H. Priestley. 

Grasshopper Warbler's Nest, July 30th, 191 5. 
Young nine daj's old. 

case of that of any regular summer immigratory bird. I only 
know of one spot in this large area (viz. Austwick Moss) where 
one could expect to find the species with any degree of cer- 
tainty during that period of the year that it spends with us. 
At other places it turns up rarely and unexpectedly, and the 
chosen spot of one season is no guidance that it will ever come 
there again. In stray years — as in 191 1 — a few more birds 
of these species arrive in the district, but hitherto we have not 
been able to learn very much of its habits and life history, 
during its sojourn with us. 

191C May 1. 



l68 Booth : Nesting of the Grasshopper Warbler. 

Several botanical members of the Bradford Natural His- 
tory and Microscopical Society reported that they had heard 
strange bird notes near to the top of Bingley Park, on May 8th, 
1915, which I immediatel}^ recognised as those of the Grass- 
hopper Warbler. I communicated with Mr. Sam Longbottom, 
of Bingley, — whom I knew to be par excellence as a bird- 
watcher, and more particularly so for a man who has his daily 
bread to earn. In the meantime Mr. Longbottom had dis- 
covered the bird, and had commenced his watching, and I 
must acknowledge that I learned more of the life history of 
this species from his notes than I had gathered from all reading 
and from personal observations together. For instance, I 
particularly asked Mr. Longbottom to note the times of ' reel- 
ing,' together with any other notes uttered during incubation, 
and during the feeding of the young. It will be seen that the 
male ' reeled ' vigorously on arrival, and until he procured a 
mate ; when it ceased. It occurred again after the first brood 
had safely left the nest, and until a second nest was arranged, 
and finally in a weaker form, after the second brood had safely 
got away. Now compare this with the behaviour of a bird at 
Ben Rhydding in igii, that ' reeled ' continuously for two 
months. I spent the latter half of ]\lay, 1911, in Holland ; 
so I cannot say when the bird first arri^'ed ; but on my return 
home I immediately detected the note of a Grasshopper 
Warbler several hundred yards awa}'' on the edge of the moor. 
Its ' reeling ' each evening was continuous until I retired to bed, 
and a friend who lived nearer to its haunts than I did, was 
greatly concerned as his dog would keep barking throughout 
the night because of ' some strange and unknown noise.' At 
the time I believed that the bird had nested, and searched all 
around for its nest, or a sign of its young ; but without any 
success. Now I am convinced that its continual ' reeling ' 
until the middle of July was the call for a mate that never 
came. In the same year another bird was behaving in exactly 
the same way near to Cononley, in Airedale. From Mr. Long- 
bottom's observations I feel certain that neither the Ben Rhyd- 
ding nor the Cononley bird nested at all — unless on the very 
unlikely chance of obtaining stray hens at the end of their 
long spell of calling. On this line o'f argument there may 
very easily be slightly more nesting pairs in any district than 
ornithologists believe to be the case ; for from the evidence 
adduced we learn that a Grasshopper Warbler having obtained 
a wife and commenced nesting, practically ceases to ' reel ' 
and thus becomes almost unobservable excepting at close 
range ; whilst the bachelor Grasshopper Warbler still ' reels ' 
incessantly and becomes noticable, notorious and is recorded. 
But the chief value of Mr. Longbottom 's observations is the 
proof that this species is double-brooded, and with concise 

Naturalist, 



Booth : Nesting of the Grasshopper Warbler. 169 

dates of each nest. In any literature on birds that I have read 
I never remember seeing anything definite on this subject. 
There are numerous vague and bare statements that this species 
is — or ' is sometimes,' etc., double-brooded ; or that nests 
found late in the season were probably a second brood ; but 
no such clear evidence has, as yet been produced equal in value 
to the observations of Mr. Longbottom. The two nests were 
within forty yards of each other, and with an Elder-bush from 
Vv^hich the male most usually ' reeled ' in an indirect line between 
them. In confirmation of the above facts I may say that I 
visited the first nest containing six eggs on June 3rd, and the 
second nest with six young about three days old on July 24th. 
It was curious to note on the latter date that the female con- 
tinually brooded the young, and if flushed, immediately 
returned and without any ' feed.' This kept the male very busy 




Photo by] [H. B. Booth. 

Clcneral view of the site of the Grasshopper Warbler's 

Xests after the second brocd had left. 

feeding the family, and on one occasion he returned with a 
fairly large moth that looked quite out of proportion for 
such tiny babes. It may have been broken up or may have 
been food for the female. On Aug. 28th, some time after the 
second brood had left the nest, together with Mr. Longbottom, 
I thoroughly, but unsuccessfully, searched around in the hope 
of seeing young or old Grasshopper Warblers, and with the 
remote possibility of discovering a third nest. The dense 
undergrowth was then up to — and even over — our heads. 
Anyone familiar with the mouse-like movements of this species 
in dense undergrowth can well afford to smile at two humans 
endeavouring to hunt Grasshopper Warblers in such a situation 
— more especially with a lumpy and holey bottom ; but we 

1016 Mav 1. 



170 Booth : Nesting of the Grasshop-per Warbler. 

did our best, although I must admit it was something akin to 
elephants chasing fieldmice in a jungle! As a result of the 
successful nesting of this pair of birds there was a possibility 
of up to fourteen birds leaving for their winter quarters. It 
will be interesting to note if any will return to such a secure 
nesting spot ; or will they behave in their usual manner, and 
' give it a miss ? ' Time will soon show. I must pay a com- 
pliment to the local ornithologists. The first nest was visited 
by almost every lover of birds in the Bradford district, and was 
never disturbed in any way ; although the ground just around 
was nearly worn bare. When the second nest was found I 
asked Mr. Longbottom to keep the matter quiet, as now we 
could learn something of value. 

In publishing these notes it was at iirst thought better to 
keep the place of nesting secret ; but later we decided to give 
full particulars ; as that part of the park is semi-private. In 
case any of the birds should return this season arrangements 
have already been made by the Wild Birds' and Eggs' Pro- 
tection Acts Committee of the Yorkshire Naturalists' Union 
to see that they are not disturbed, and anyone caught inter- 
fering with either the birds or their eggs, will not receive either 
sympathy or leniency. I have to thank Mr. J. H. Priestly 
for the use of a photograph of the actual nest. For the remain- 
der I will leave Mr. Longbottom's notes (extracted from his 
note-book under three headings) to speak for themselves. 

[To he continued). 



The Tyansactions and Proceedings of the Pcvthshire Society of Xcttiivdl 
Science, Vol. \T., part 2, contains among other items a well illustrated 
paper on ' The Evolution of Plant Life on a Haughland,' by H. Coatcs. 
There is also an excellent portrait of the late A. M. Rodger, who was 
Curator of the Perth Museum from 1895 to J 91 4. 

The Annual Report and Transactions of the Manchester Microscopical 
Society for 1914 have just baen issued. Among the contents we notice 
the President s address by Prof. F. E. Weiss on ' Aquatic Plants.' Other 
items are : ' A Note on Simulium,' by Henry Garnett ; ' Odd Thoughts 
from a Naturalist's Note Book,' by F. G. George ; ' Peripatoides orientalis,' 
by Harry Yates ; ' Spiders,' by H. G. Willis ; and some notes on ' Micro- 
organisms found in Manchester Corporation Drinking ^^'ater, ' by E. 
Batty. A number of valuable plates accompany the report, which is 
sold at IS. 6d. (84 pages). 

Volume XVI., part i of the Transactions of the Hertfcn'dshire Natural 
History Society and Field Club is entirely devoted to an elaborate and 
well illustrated paper on ' Roads and Travel before Railways in Hertford- 
shire, ' by Sir Herbert G. Fordham. Part 2 contains papers on ' Cultivation 
and Manufacture of Woad, and Manufacture of Gun Flints, by Charles 
Oldham ; ' Rhyssa persuaoria, the Ichneumon of the Giant Saw-fly,' by 
A. E. Gibbs ; ' Skulls of the Wild Boar from the Roman Level at St. 
Albans,' by G. E. BuUen ; and papers on Birds, Plants, Butterflies, 
Geology and Meteorology of the county. 

Naturalist, 



171 



3n flDemonniiK 

THOMAS STEPHENSON. 
Born 1833, Feb. 12th; died 1916, Feb. 19th. 



It was a distinct advantage to students of National History in 
Yorkshire, that there should have been resident for so many 
years on the coast, in a place like Whitby, a man of the calibre 
and attainments of Mr. Thomas Stephenson, in a position — 




locally as regards his residence in close proximity to the port 
and the fish markets and to the local museum — and mentally 
as regards his qualifications as a naturalist and a gentleman. 
For to this fortunate combination of circumstances, are we 
indebted for the rescue from oblivion of innumerable instances 
of the occurrence of local fishes and birds, and their preservation 
in many instances in the Museum. 

Mr. Stephenson was a good ornithologist, and has been the 
means of placing on record many birds, some indeed as first 
records for Yorkshire. 

But it was more particularly as a keen student of the num- 
erous fishes brought into the port by the fishermen, to whose 

191G May 1. 



172 In M emoriam : Thomas Stephenson. 

willing and eager co-operation he was much indebted, that Mr. 
Stephenson did the greatest service to science. It was scarcely 
possible for anything remarkable to reach Whitby without 
attracting his keen attention, and the fact that he kept detailed 
and careful memoranda of all that he saw, added immeasurably 
to the value of his work. 

To him, the authors of the 1881 Handbook of the Vertebrate 
Fauna of Yorkshire are under an everlasting sense of gratitude 
for the value of his assistance, and later on, he kept this journal 
supplied from time to time with additional records. Other 
journals, too, he wrote in, and the more recently published 
Birds of Yorkshire includes much information originally sup- 
plied by him. His ichthyological researches also led to his 
taking interest in the local Crustacea and preparing specimens 
of them for the local museum. 

He was also much interested in dialect stud}' and folk-lore ; 
he assisted materially the compilers of local glossaries and was a 
correspondent of the English Dialect Society. In early life, he 
was a good all-round sportsman, a fearless rider to hounds, a 
skilful angler and a good shot, and became a member of the Old 
Whitby Volunteer Corps when it was founded. 

By profession a solicitor, he was the oldest practising in 
Whitby at the time of his death. His connection with the 
Whitb}^ Literar}^ and Philosophical Society was long and inti- 
mate. He joined it in 1861, joined the committee in 1876 and 
became an honorary curator in 1880, in conjunction with the 
late Martin Simpson. In 1864 it was decided to form a 
local collection in the Museum, and for the perfection of this 
Mr. Stephenson laboured all the rest of his life. 

He was born at Whitby on the 12th February, 1833, and 
his education was commenced at Glaisdale, continued at Ormes- 
by, and completed at the famous St. Peter's School at York. 
It was at Glaisdale and Ormesby that his interest in Natural 
History commenced, to be continued throughout a long, well- 
filled and useful life. Never a specialist, he remained through- 
out the keen and observant student of nature, whose observa- 
tions were ever at the service of his fellow-students. It was 
always a pleasure to which to look forward, to call upon him at 
his residence at the Pier side, or to find him actually on the pier 
or in the fish-market, to enjoy his genial conversation and to 
draw upon his never failing store of local knowledge. It was 
there, at the pier-side, within sight of the quaint old harbour 
that he loved so well, that he died, at the ripe age of 83 years 
and seven days, on the 19th of February, 1916. His memory 
will long be cherished by his friends, and the ' Natural History 
Notes from Whitb}',' which have appeared in this journal, and 
the local collections in the Whitby Museum, will be his enduring 
monument. — R. 



FIELD NOTES. 173 

BIRDS. 

Little Auk in . Wharfedale. — A little Auk was picked 
up near here (in Barden) on March ist, by Mr. W. Inman, 
gamekeeper ; a male in good plumage and condition. — T. 
RoosE, Bolton Abbey. 

Shelduck near Hebden Bridge. — A mature drake was 
killed at Withens, Cragg \'ale, on ^larch 24th. The specimen 
is being preserved for the Morley museum, on whose water- 
works it occurred. The few previous known occurrences 
suggest that this is one of the rarest members of the Anatid?e 
on fresh water here. — Walter Greaves, Hebden Bridge. 

ARACHNIDA. 

Cumberland Arachnids. — In The Naturalist for iMarch, 
pp. 10J-105, i\Ir. Wm. Falconer gives a Bibliography relating 
to the Spiders, etc., of the North of England and other areas 
adjacent to Yorkshire. I do not know how far this is com- 
plete, but notice only one reference to Cumberland. 

It may not be generally known that the Arachnid fauna 
of this county has really been extensively studied by variovxs 
naturalists during the last 20 years or so. The late F. 0. P. 
Cambridge collected in both Cumberland and Westmorland 
during the period he was resident in Carlisle, and published 
a list in The Naturalist for 1895, pp. 29-48. Later (1901) 
he gave a list for Cumberland only in the Victoria History 
of the county, which included numerous records by Dr. Randall 
Jackson who was a frequent visitor to the Lake District. 

But all previous work was much extended and amplified 
by Mr. H. Britten, who was an assiduous and successful col- 
lector in Cumberland prior to his removal to Oxford, and who, 
in 1912, in the Trans, of the Carlisle Nat. Hist. Socty., pp. 30-65, 
catalogued over 300 species of Spiders, Harvestmen and Pseudo- 
scorpions, with localities and notes. This publication was 
briefly noticed in The Naturalist for 1912, p. 263. — F. H. D.w, 
Carlisle. 

MAMMALS, 

Abnormal (?) Fox reported killed near Bingley. — In 

the Natural History column of The Field for March 5th (and 
also in the local press about the same date), a correspondent 
records the death of an abnormally huge dog Fox, at " The 
Upwood," near Bingley — the residence of the late Mr. Mitchell. 
It was reported to have turned the scales at 28 lbs. 14 ozs. ! — 
an easy record, I should think, for the British Isles or else- 
where. Through the kind inquiries on my behalf, by Mrs. 
Cooke, (house-keeper at " The Upwood,") I found it to be 
a made-up story ; concocted and circulated by a local " stone- 
waller " (a calling that is now fast dying out), who fills in his 
time with many odd jobs — including yarning ! The Fox 

1916 May!. 



174 Field Notes. 

was certainly killed (poisoned) by the local gamekeeper ; but 
it was just an ordinary Fox, and at his (the gamekeeper's) 
estimate, would certainly not weigh 20 lbs. I am sorry that 
my investigations should have robbed the district of the record 
weight Fox for probably all time : but facts are stubborn 
things. — H. B. Booth, Ben Rhydding, April 6th, 1916. 

INSECTS. 
Imported Insects at Sheffield. — Mr. C. W. Hinksman, the 
manager of a firm of wholesale druggists in Sheffield, recently 




Brachycerus cinereus. ^. 

sent me a number of interesting weevils wliich were infesting 
a consignment of garlic received by them. The garlic was 
such as is commercially known as ' Spanish garlic,' but ex- 
actly whence it comes Mr. Hinksman is not able to say. The 
accompanying photograph has been kindly taken for me by 
my brother (Mr. F. 0. Mosley, F.R.M.S.). The beetles eat into 
and hollow out the garlic bulbs. — Chas. Mosley, Lockwood. 

Specimens have been submitted to Dr. Guy Marshall and 
Mr. C. J. Gahan, of the British Museum (Natural History), who 
report that they ' seem to agree very well with the description 
of Brachycenis cinereus Oliv., given in Bedel's Monograph of 
the ^Mediterranean Species.' — Ed. 

Naturalist, 



175 
NEWS FROM THE MAGAZINES. 

In The Irish Naturalist for April, there are two notes on " The Crossbill 
and its Diet.' 

In The Entomologist for April, Mr. J. W. H. Harrison writes on New 
Hybrids in the Bistoninae. 

The Entomologist's Monthly Magazine for April is a record of Bembidiiiin 
vavium. Ol., for County Durham. 

The Studio for March contains an illustrated account of the Hall-i'-th'- 
\N'ood, Museum, Bolton, which is now a Folk-Museum. 

Dr. J. H. Askworth contributes a note on the Hybernation of Flies, and 
Mr. P. H. Grimshaw one on the study of Diptera, to The Scottish Naturalist 
for April. 

Camping (the offi-nal organ of the .Amateur Camping Club) for March, 
which is issued gratis to members, contains an account of the doings of this 
Club, with particulars of favourite localities for camping, etc. 

We feel flattered to find that the Editor of The Entomologist's Record in 
his March number quotes two of our paragraphs on the ' Naming Mania ' 
in extenso ; and he opines that our criticism is clearly justified. 

The Irish Naturalist for March contains a portrait and memoir of 
the late Robert Warren, together with a long list of his papers. In the 
same journal the Rev. Hilderic Friend writes on ' .Are White \\'orms 
Injurious ? 

The Scottish Naturalist for March contains papers on ' Bird Parasites 
and Bird Phylogeny ' ; ' Movements of the C.annet as Observed at the 
Butt of Lewis,' by Robert Clyne, and ' Observations on the Hatching of 
Stenopsocus cruciatus,' by Miss I,. H. Huie. 

The Vasculum for March includes the following items : — Flowering 
Plants of an Upland Dale ; Upper Swaledale, by H. Preston ; Talks aboirt 
Plant-Galls, by R. S. Bagnall ; The Trichoptera or Caddis Flies, by J. W. H. 
Harrison ; On the Slopes of the Cheviot, by J. E. Hull ; The Garganey in 
South East Durham, by C. E. Milburn. 

In The Entomologist' s Monthly Magasine tor March we notice a paper on 
' Tlie Correct Names of some Common British Diptera,' by F. W. Edwards ; 
on ' Tlie Distribution of Miris holsatus F., in Britain,' by Mr. A. E. Butler 
(in which Yorkshire, Lincolnshire and Nottingham specimens are men- 
tioned) ; and Mr. J. Murray contributes a note ' Cumberland Hemiptera 
Heteroptera.' 

British Birds for February has a report on its bird marking scheme for 
1915 ; notes on ' The Lapwing Bunting on the Yenesei River,' bv Maud 
D. Haviland, and 'Moults of Buntings,' by H. F. Witherby. Among 
the shorter notes is one on a Western I^lack-throated Wheatear shot in 
Sussex, and records of Rough-legged and Common Buzzards in Lincoln- 
shire, one of which was shot. 

Among the contents of The Glasgoiv Naturalist for 1Q15 (Vol. VIL, 
parts 1-4, pages 128), we notice ' The " Hydroid " stage of Lar sabellarum,' 
by J. F. Gemmill ; ' Lochlomond Microfungi, ' by D. A. Boyd; 'The 
Spanish Chestnut in the Clyde Area,' by J. Renv;ick ; ' Parasitic Fauna 
of West Scotland,' by J. Ritchie; ' Faunistic Notes,' R. Elmhurst ; 
' Goodyera re pens in Scotland,' J. Renwick ; 'Alpine Louseworts,' R. 
Brown; ' Banffshire flowering Plants,' L. Watt; 'Visit to Source of 
River Fallock ' (Botanical), J. R. Lee ; ' Clyde Microfungi,' D. A. Boyd ; 
■ Mute Swan at F'ossil Marsh,' W. Rennie ; ' Birds of Islay,' A. Ross ; 
' Claytonia sobirica in Clyde Area,' by A. Shanks. There are also shorter 
notes, records of excursions, proceedings, etc. 

1016 May 1. 



176 

NORTHERN NEWS. 

Wc regret to see announcements ol the deaths of Geoffrey jNIeade-Waldo, 
and John Hill ; both well known entomologists. 

The Journals of the Northauts. Natural History Society and Field Club 
for 1915 contain an account of the Leper Hospitals of Northamptonshire ; 
Northamptonshire Spas, the birds of Northamptonshire, the fortifications 
of Northampton, the Snail and its name, and on ' making sections of 
shells ' ; the last being Mulluscan, not munition. 

We see from the report of the IManchester Museum for 1914-15 that 
during the year a donation of /i,30S has been received, anonymouslj', 
in order to pay off the debt on the new museum buildings. The museum 
has also received a legacy of ;^48 for the Geological department, and a fur- 
ther bequest of £s°o from another source. Items of this sort are distinctly 
encouraging, and are some indication of the public feeling towards museums 
as compared with that of the Government. 

^^'e regret to record the death of Sir William Turner, K.C.B., LI..D., 
D.C.L., D.Sc, F.R.S., etc.. Principal of the Edinburgh University. Sir 
William was a native of Lancaster, where he was born in 1832. He was 
President of the British Association at the Bradford meeting in 1900, and 
he had occupied the presidential chair of the Museums Association. He 
was the author of numerous works on anatomy and physiology, had a 
considerable reputation as an anthropologist, and to naturalists was 
perhaps best known for his memoirs on whales. 

The Journal of the East Africa and Uganda Natural History Society 
for March (61 pages, Longmans Green and Co., 5s. 4d.) contains the follow- 
ing interesting papers, most of which are well illustrated ; together with 
shorter notes : — African Lung Fish, by Sir F. J. Jackson ; The Alleged 
Desiccation of East Africa by C. W. Hobley ; Experiments in Hawking, 
by W. F. B. Bryant ; Rearing and Taming of Wild Birds by Dr. V. G. L. 
^'an Someren ; The Organic Cell, by E. Winstone-Waters ; On the Spiny 
Mice of British East Africa, with a description of a new Species from 
Magadi, and two New Pigmy Gerbils from British East Africa, both by 
Guv Dollman. 

From the British Museum, Natural History, we have received The 
Report on Cetacea stranded on the British Coasts during 1915, by Dr. S. F. 
Harmer (4to, with map, 12 pages, is. 6d.). Conditions prevailing during 
the past year have resulted in fewer records having been received by Dr. 
Harmer than in previous years. His excellent map at the end shows at once 
when and where whales were washed up on our coast. The only records for 
the area covered by The Naturalist are. Porpoises at W^hitb}', TTromc, 
Skegness and Sutton-on-Sea ; a common Rorqual at Amble ; a lesser 
Rorqual at Ulrome, and a White-beaked Dolphin at Skinningro\'c. Full 
details as to the dates, measurements etc, are given in the report. 

At the recent annual meeting of the British Ornithologists' Union, a 
resolution was passed in favour of admitting ladies as ordinary members of 
the l^nion. This question has been brought up at several previous annual 
meetings. On the last occasion — as a recompense — it was decided to elect 
not more than ten honorary lady members. It almost looks as though 
there has been some feminine influence behind this continuous agitation, 
and it will be interesting to note who is the first lady ordinary member to be 
elected. At the same meeting there' were ' ructions ' respecting the 
membership of King Ferdinand of Bulgaria. In his younger days, he was 
both a good ornithologist and a good entomologist. The trouble was not 
so much on a question of honour as on a point of order. A sriiall clique of 
members, in their enthusiam to erase the name of this traitorous monarch 
from the list of members, had transgressed the rules of the I^nion. Later 
the motion was put into order ; a special General Meeting was called ; 
King Ferdinand banished, and all ended well. 

Naturalist 



Books for Sale. 



(Mostly from the Library of a Yorkshire Naturahst, recently 
deceased. The books are as new, and the prices asked are, in 

most cases, less than half the published price). 
White's Natural History of Selborne. Coloured Illustrations 

by Collins. 6/-. 
The Humble Bee. Sladen. 6/-. 
Life of MacGillivray. 6/-. 

The Making of Species. Dewar and Finn. 4/-. 
Modern Microscopy. Cross and Cole. '3/6. 
The Greatest Life. Leighton. 3/-. 
Microscopy. Spitta. 6/-. 
Fauna of Cheshire. 2 vols. 15/-. 
History of Birds. Pycraft. 6/-. 
Book of Birds. Pycraft. 2/6. 
Biology of the Seasons. Thomson. 6^-. 
Natural History of some Common Animals. Latter. 3/-. 
The Gannett. Gurney. 13/-. 
Birds of Isle of Man. Ralfe. 8/-. 
Home Life of Osprey. Abbott. 2/6. 
Birds of Kent. Ticehurst. 5/-. 
With Nature and Camera. Kearton. 2/3. 
Wonders of Wild Nature. Kearton. 2/6. 
Wild Life in West Highlands. Alston. 2/6. 

Apply — Dept. C, c/0 A. BROWN & SONS, Ltd., Hull. 



BIBLIOGRAPHY 

OF 

YORKSHIRE GEOLOGY 

1534-1914. 

By T. SHEPPARD, m.sc, f.g.s , f.r.g.s., f.s.a.(scot.) 

Svo, xxxvi. -\- 62g pp. 15/- '^id. 

This forms Volume XVIII. of the Proceedings of the Yorkshire 
Geological Society. It contains full references to more than 6,300 
books, monographs and papers relating to the geology and physical 
geography of Yorkshire, and to more than 400 geological maps and 
sections, published between 1534 and 1914. In its preparation over 
700 sets of Scientific Journals. Reports, Transactions and IMagazines 
have been examined. There is an elaborate index containing over 
26,500 references to subjects, authors and localities. 

LONDON 

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JUNE 1916. 



No. 713 




A MONTHLY ILLUSTRATED JOURNAL OF 

NATURAL HISTORY FOR THE NORTH OF ENGLAND, 



EDITED BV 

SHEPPARD, M.Sc, F.Q.S.. F.R.Q.S., F.Sy 

The Museums, Hull ; 






ifistii 



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Prol. P. P. KENDALL, M.Sc, P.Q.S., JOHN W. TAYLOR, M.Sc, 

T. H. NELSON, M.Sc, M.B.O.U., RILEY FORTUNE, F.Z.S. 



-/. ir 



Contents : — 

Notes and Comments (Illustrated): — Animals and Fungi; British Sea Fish; Roman Camp 
at Stanwick ; Suburban Collecting; A Preamble; Relaxations; The Museums Journal, 
and ' Tykes ' ; Safety of Museums ; Protective Colouration ; A Reply Wanted 

The Bristly Millipede in East Yorlcshire (Illustrated)— T. Stainforth, B.A., B.Sc. 

The Protection of Wild Life in Yorkshire— /?. Foc/ioif, F.^'.S 

Trombidium parvuta n. sp. (Illustrated)— C.F. Geor>yc, M.R.C.& 

The Harvestmen and Pseudoscorpions of Yorkshire— PFwi. Falconet- 

The Geographical Distribution of Moths of the Sub>FamiIy Bistoninae- 

Heslop Harrison, B.Sc 

Notes on the Nesting: of the Orasshopper Warbler in the West Riding— 

H. B. Booth, M.B.O.U., F.Z.S 

Coleoptera in Yorkshire in 1915— 11'./. Foniham. M.R.C.S., L.R.C.P., F.F.S. .. 
Field Notes: — Fungi; Black Tern near Knaresborough ; Local Names for Birds 

Northern News 

Reviews and Book Notices 

Proceedings of Provincial Scientific Societies .. 

News from the Magazines 

Illustrations 



177-180 
181-182 
183-188 
189-190 

isi-ipn 

194-198 

199-203 

. 204-207 

. 182, KO 

188, 198 

193, 207 

203 

208 

181, 189 



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YORKSHIRE'S 

Contribution to Science 

{Based upon the Presidential Address to the Yorkshire 
Naturalists' Union, delivered at the Leeds University) 

By THOMAS SHEPPARD 

M.Sc, F.G.S., F.R.G.S., F.S.A.(Scot.) 

240 pages Demy 8vo, illustrated, tastefully bound in Cloth 
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51" net. 

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Yorkshire towns. It contains the following:- — 

Yorkshire's Contribution to Science. 

Yorkshire Publications arranged Topographically. 

Existing Yorkshire Scientific Magazines and their Predecessors. 

Yorkshire Scientific Magazines now Extinct. 

County and Riding Societies. 

Yorkshire Topographical and General ^Magazines. 

Magazines : General Natural History Journals ; Museums ; 

Ornithology ; Mollusca ; Entomology ; Botany and General 

Biology ; Geography ; ]\Ieteorology. 

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jUNJ 15 1916 
NOTES AND COMMENTS> 

ANIMALS AND FUNGI. 

Mr. Somerville Hastings, whose photographs of toadstools 
are well known, contributes to Knowledge a paper which he 
and Mr. Mottram have written on the results of observations 
and experiments as to the eating of fungi by animals. Squirrels 
and rabbits appear to be the creatures which most commonly 
feed on fungi. In early autumn, when the food is plentiful, 
few specimens are devoured ; but in frosty weather, when 
things are different, very many species of fungi are eaten. 
Only in the case of the buried false truffle do the animals appear 
to assist the fungus by distributing the spores by which it 
reproduces Hself. 

BRITISH SEA FISH. 

' British Sea Fish,' by Harold Swithinbank and G. E. 
BuUen, London, Simpkin, Marshall, Hamilton, Kent and Co., 



Gill-covor 



Caudal 




Barbel 



A""! Lateral Line 



Ventral 



Ltd, 35 pages, 2s. net, is an interesting handbook in which 
the authors give a very useful and elementary summary of the 
principal edible fishes to be found round our coast. ' After the 
introduction dealing with Methods of commercial Fishery and 
a useful table showing comparative values of the principal 
Marine Fishes, the various species are dealt with under the 
headings of ' usual extreme length,' ' description,' ' range ' 
and ' remarks.' An excellent illustration of each species is 
given, one of which we are kindly permitted to reproduce. 

ROMAN CAMP AT STANWICK. 

In an article on ' Roman Piercebridge,' in The Yorkshire 
ArchcBological Journal, part 92, Mr. Edward Wooler states 
that ' Stanwick Camp encloses an area of about 800 acres and 
covers a larger space of ground than has ever been discovered 
in one encampment in Britain. The length of the outward 
ramparts is 8,070 yards, of the outside works 3,183 yards, 

1916 June 1. 

M 



178 Notes and Comments. 

and that of the internal works 2,334 yards. . . . On the 
assumption that there, was a wooden stockade at the top from 
behind which the men fought, the construction of the works 
at the present day would have cost ;^35,75i at iid. per cubic 
yard.' 

SUBURBAN COLLECTING. 

At a recent meeting of the Lancashire and Cheshire Entomo- 
logical Society, Mr. W. Mansfield read a paper on ' Suburban 
Collecting.' Principally with the object of showing how much 
useful work can be done in the immediate neighbourhood of 
one's own home, the author instanced many local insects which 
can still be found in the suburbs of our large towns, in the old 
gardens and parks, on the railway banks and in the old lanes 
which, in many places, still exist as vestiges of a vanished 
countryside. The melanic variations of Odontopera bidentata, 
Polia chi and Hemerophila ahrnptaria , are good examples of 
this phase of variation and practically confined to suburban 
localities ; while anyone with access to an old garden can 
obtain many prizes in the scarce forms of Abraxas grossulariata, 
as well as, from a scientific point of view, contribute to our 
knowledge if he cares to breed from selected parents. In lanes 
bordered with the old hawthorn hedges, the common, but 
variable tortrices, Peronea variegana, Tortrix ribiana and 
Teras contaminana, often absolutely swarm and furnish many 
beautiful examples for the cabinet. Among the warehouses 
of our manufacturing towns, many species are to be obtained 
in profusion, and scarcely in any other way. Many of the 
genera Ephestia, Blabophanes and Tinea are thus to be found ; 
and where electric lamps can be worked, such are a veritable 
mine of insect wealth as at Chester, where some time ago, a 
species new to science, Scoparia vajra Mey., was so captured. 
At the present time, however, such a method as collecting at 
light is practically out of the question, yet it is surprising to 
what a small light moths will sometimes be attracted. 

A PREAMBLE. 

We are asked by Mr. W. R. Butterfield, of the Hastings 
Museum, who is the editor of The Museums Journal, and who 
reminds us that he is a ' tike,' to give the same prominence 
to the following letter that we gave to the remarks about the 
safety of Museums, which appeared in our April issue. We 
are not quite sure whether we are treating Mr. Butterfield 
kindly in carrying out his wishes, but at his request, we sheath 
the editorial blue pencil, and quote his missive as written. He 
says : — 

RELAXATIONS. 

' We need in these harassing times all the reasonable relax- 
ations we can get, and if attacks upon myselfj[afford any 

Naturalist, 



Notes and Comments. lyg 

amusement to the Editors of this iournal, or to its readers, 
well, I suppose I ought to submit thereto with the best grace 
I can ; though I confess I know not why this particular 
butterfly should be chosen for breaking on the wheel. As a 
Yorkshireman (long exiled, alas!) one of my earliest memories 
is that of poring over the pages of The Naturalist. The green, 
insect-haunting woods of Grassington ; the purple masses of 
autumn moorland seen from my native village ; the ferny 
Upper Wharfe on a sunny afternoon ; the well-remembered 
faces of the naturalists who were wont to assemble at my 
father's house ; how clearly these and other recollections of 
dear and far-off Yorkshire days are fixed in the memory ! ' 

THE MUSEUMS JOURNAL. 

Mr. Butterfield goes on to say, with some truth, ' But I 
wander from the point — just as do the Editors in the criticisms 
of myself in the April number. For the most part, so far as 
these criticisms concern The Museums Journal or mj^self, they 
are either misleading or wholly unjustifiable. This is why I 
assume that the comments are intended merely to amuse the 
many readers of The Naturalist, and not to be taken in any 
serious sense. It is also why I do not give a serious and 
effective reply, which would, indeed, have been an easy task, 
if an uncongenial one. My only reason for writing is to beg that 
the Editors, when next they are in need of a victim upon which 
to excercise their playful fancy — or fancy playfulness — will have 
the goodness to leave the inoffensive Museums Journal alone, 
even though they do not exempt myself.' 

AND ' TYKES.' 

We willingly comply with Mr. Butterfield's request, especially 
as, for some reason or other, he is quite willing to continue a 
discussion in The Naturalist, which he could not, or would not, 
continue in his own magazine, the ' inoffensive ' Museums 
Journal. He says he is a ' tyke,' that he is a metaphorical 
' butterfly,' that he once read The Naturalist, that he remem- 
bers the insect-haunted woods at Grassington, the purple 
masses of autumn moorland, and the ferny Upper Wharfe. So 
do we all ; but what on earth has that to do with the matter 
in dispute ? The writer of these Notes and Comments, if not 
quite a ' Tyke,' has been in Yorkshire sufficiently long to have 
acquired, he hopes, the Tyke's characteristic of being 'straight.' 

SAFETY OF MUSEUMS. 

But our criticisms were meant to be serious ; there is 
nothing funn}^ about them, and if Mr. Butterfield thinks the 
matter amusing, it is more than we do, and we certainly think 
his treatment of ' The Provincial Curator ' offensive, an opinion 

1916 June 1. 



i8o Notes and Comments. 

shared by many of Mr. Butterfield's museum colleagues. We 
had thought that the remarks made in The Museums Journal 
were perhaps by one of Mr. Butterfield's colleagues. Appar- 
ently we were wrong, and we are therefore on firmer ground. 
But the matter might never have been referred to in The 
Naturalist at all if ' The Provincial Curator ' had received 
the fair treatment which he felt he ought to have had in the 
Museums' Associations' official organ ; though the safety of 
Museums concerns naturalists as much as Museum officials. 
Mr. Butterfield knew the Provincial Curator was dissatisfied, 
as a letter to that effect was sent to him by his colleague long 
ago. That was also ignored. And now he says our remarks 
are ' misleading or wholly unjustifiable.' That is a definite 
charge, and we challenge it. We leave it with Mr. Butterfield to 
prove his statement. 

PROTECTIVE COLOURATION. 

Museum Curators were first told to decorate the tops of their 
museums for protective purposes. When it was suggested 
that this might not be wise, it was insinuated that the cura- 
tors might get into trouble with their Committees for neglect 
of duty. This was shown to be an improper insinuation, and 
the editor was asked, as a guide to less important museums, 
what had been done at his institution at Hastings, and what, 
if anything, had been done at the national museums. We- 
had good reasons for thinking that no decorations had been 
made anywhere. To this no reply was forthcoming, nor were 
we treated to the old gag that it would not be wise to say what 
had been done. In each case, the Provincial Curator's letters 
were apparently purposely delayed in appearing ; it was 
certainly not due to considerations of space, nor on account 
of the latenesss of the date at which they were received. 

A REPLY WANTED. 

However, as we have been told that our remarks in The 
Naturalist were ' misleading ' or ' wholly unjustifiable,' we 
shall be glad to know in what way this was so. Mr. Butterfield 
says he can give a ' serious and eftective reply,' and that such 
would be ' an easy task, if an uncongenial one.' We hope and 
trust he will do so, seeing that it will not cause him any 
trouble. As to the task being uncongenial, that need not 
worry him at all ; it certainly won't worry us. Of course, if 
he wishes to ' amuse ' our readers, all well and good, but we 
certainly hope there will be more in his uncongenial task than 
the statement that he knows our insect haunting woods, our 
purple moors, and the ferny Upper Wharfe, and that he once 
read The Naturalist. 

Naturalist, 



I«I 



THE BRISTLY MILLIPEDE IN EAST YORKSHIRE. 



r. STAINFORTH, B.A., B.Sc, 
Hull. 



In searching among debris at the foot of larch trees in the 
higher part of Brantingham Dale, East Yorkshire, on Good 
Friday, I met with numerous examples of the Bristly Millepede, 
Polyxenus lagurus. Besides being one of the smallest of our 
indigenous millepedes, adult specimens reaching a length of 
about one eighth of an inch only, Polyxenus is peculiar in 
possessing bundles of bristles on each of its ten body segments, 
and differs in other important respects from normal Diplopods. 
So marked are these differences that the 
Polyxenidae form a separate sub-class 
(Pselaphognatha) of the Diplopoda, of 
which P. lagurus is the only British repre- 
sentative. The accompanying illustration, 
which is reproduced by permission of the 
Trustees of the British Museum, from the 
' Guide to the Crustacea, Arachnida, Ony- 
chophora and Myriopoda' (p. 121), gives a 
very good idea of the appearance of this 
creature. 

It is interesting to know that many 
of the early fossil species of millepedes are 
protected by bundles of bristles similar 
to those of the Polyxenidse, and it is prob- 
able that the family is an ancient one. 
Polyxenus lapurus is said usually to occur 

/ ,, ,° , , . \ -^ ■ The Bristly Millipede 

under the bark of trees. A writer m Poiyxenus lagurus \-i. 
Science Gossip, 1872, p. 31-3, recommends 
searching under the loose bark of old yew trees, and Dr. A. R. 
Jackson (Myriapoda of the Chester District, Lancashire Nat. 
1914, p. 453) records them from under the bark of oak trees, 
while in an article on 'The Pencil -tail {Polyxenus lagurus),' 
appearing in The Journal of the Quekett Microscopical Club for 
1870 (p. no), S. J. Mclntire writes that 'pencil-tails inhabit 
the bark of the willow, the elm., and the apple-tree.' At 
Brantingham Dale, however, I could not find any under 
loose bark, though they doubtless occurred in such situations, 
but specimens were easily found by shaking the debris at the 
foot of the larch trees, over a sheet of paper, the little animals 
being readily recognised as they glided briskly along on their 
thirteen pairs of tiny legs. On visiting the locality again on 
May 14th, Mr. H. M. Foster and I had precisely the same 
experience. We could find numerous exam.ples of all ages and 
sizes among the grass, moss, etc., a foot away from, a certain 
tree, but not one under bark. Mclntire writes that he found 




1916 June 1. 



i82 Field Note. 

a couple under a stone at the foot of a tree near Mickleham, 
and says it was quite an exceptional case in his experience, as 
he had never before obtained any elsewhere than on willow, 
apple and elm trees. He suggests that the two specimens 
alluded to must have been like the members of the Quekett 
Club, out for an excursion, when he caught them. Wood, 
however, in his ' Natural History ' (Vol. III., p. 696) writes 
that Polyxenus is to be found under the bark of trees, in clefts 
of walls, and in m.oss. The species is sure to be found else- 
where in Yorkshire, and it would be interesting to know in 
which habitat it occurs. On account of its bristles and 
scales and small size Polyxenus is much sought after by 
microscopists. Some of the peculiar scales are illustrated in 
the article in Science Gossip and in Mclntire's address referred 
to above. It does not appear to have been recorded hitherto 
for the county, where, however, little attention has been given 
to the Myriapoda. It is not included in the short list of 
^lyriapoda of the Sheffield District [Proc. Sheff. Nat. Club. 
Vol. I, 1910, p. 139) nor in ' The Myriapods of the Derwent 
Valley," (Northumberland and Durham) by R. S. Bagnall. 
{Trans. Vale of Derwent Nat. F. C, 1913, p. 116). Specimens, 
including a microscopical preparation presented by ^Ir. H. M. 
Foster, have been placed in the Hull Museum. 



During 1915, I have noticed the following interesting 
species of Mycetozoa. 

(i) Badhamia panicea. — Fruiting among the moss near an old 
oak stump in Bolton Woods, and also on an elm stump 
in Esholt Woods, (May). 

(2) Pbysarum vernum. — On dead ivy and straw in Bolton 

Woods. (September). 

(3) Crihraria violacea. — on dead ivy. Valley of Desolation, 

Bolton Woods. (September). Cribraria rufa.* — On 

charred stump in Bolton Woods. (November). 

(4) Physariim psittaciniim. — Almost completely covering fronds 

of the male fern in the Valley of Desolation, Bolton 
Woods. (September). 

(5) Comatricha elegans. — On an ash log in Hartlington Ghyll, 

Wharfedale. (September). 

(6) Calloderma ocitlatum. — On an ash log near Bramhope. 

(November). 

(7) Lepidoderma tigrimtm. — On dead wood (hazel twigs) in 

Ling Ghyll. (November). 
3 and 6 are new Yorkshire records ; 5 and 7 are new for 
Yorkshire Mid. W. — A. R. S.\nderson. 

* Cribraria riifra was first recorded for Yorkshire lor C rass Woods. 
Fungus Foray, 1907. The Naturalist, Nov., 1907, p. 399. — Ed. 



i83 
THE 
PROTECTION OF WILD LIFE IN YORKSHIRE. 



R. FORTUNE, F.Z.S. 



{Contiiutcd from page Ij4)- 

From most accounts the Guillemots at Speeton and Bempton 
remain stationary in numbers, though some of the climbers. 
and, I think, Mr. Hewitt, aver that they have decreased. I 
hope the latter view is not correct. The curtailed egging 
season allows the birds to get their young away from the cliffs 
before shooting commences, and as they cannot now be ruth- 
lessly slaughtered on the breeding ledges, as in former times, 
one would naturally expect their number to increase. A visit 
paid to the clifls after a few 3'ears absence convinced me that 
Razorbills had gained much ground and were more abundant 
than they used to be. Their habit of laying their eggs in a 
crevice of the rocks, making it more difficult for the climbers 
to obtain them, may be somewhat of a protection. It A^ill, of 
course, be understood that there are portions of the cliffs, 
which owing to their dangerous nature are never climbed for 
eggs, and in these parts both Guillemots and Razorbills bring 
forth their young undisturbed. 

One or two pairs of Oystercatchers nest almost every year 
at Spurn, the only nesting place of the species in Yorkshire. 
The ground is a typical one, but they never seem to make good 
tneir hold there, and remain stationary at one or the most 
two pairs. Unfortunately Carrion Crows frequent the prom- 
ontory in some numbers during the whole of the year, and 
their depredations may be the cause of the Oystercatchers 
never increasing. The same cannot apply to the Shell Ducks, 
as their eggs are deposited in a burrow, in the sand hills 
generally, where the Crows cannot very well get at them. Tt 
is puzzling why they do not increase. On the west coast, 
especially in Lancashire and Cumberland, they have of late 
increased enormously. It would be interesting to know why 
they prefer the west to the east, for even on the Northumber- 
land coast where there are miles of sand-dunes, typical resorts 
for this Duck, they are found only in small numbers. I 
believe they are increasing on one portion of the East Coast, 
viz., in Norfolk. 

I should like to say just a few words about some of 
our much persecuted birds, in most cases needlessly so. Mr. 
St. Ouintin effectively proved that the Sparrow Hawk is not 
nearly so bad as the game-keeper paints him, by having several 
nests upon his estate watched most carefully after the young 
were hatched, in order to ascertain beyond doubt, what pro- 

191G June 1. 



184 Protection of Wild Life in Yorkshire. 

portion of game birds were brought as food for the young. 
During the whole season not a single game bird was brought to 
the nest and this in a iirst-class game country. I do not want 
to suggest from this that they never do take the young of 
game birds, but I do insist that the damage done by them is 
greatly exaggerated. In a like manner the Kestrel is greatly 
libelled, the food of Kestrels consists mainly of small mammals 
and occasionally small birds. Individual Kestrels will at times 
make raids on the young Pheasants in the rearing fields, 
though the main attraction there is the number of mice con- 
gregated to feed upon tlie food thrown to the birds. In a 
case of this kind, one cannot find fault with a keeper for des- 
troying them. He, however, should not damn the whole 
family because one or two individuals stray from the straight 
path. Several of our members have of late years spent some 
time photographing the Merlin at home. A careful scrutin}' 
of the food brought to the young has shown, that seldom, if 
ever, are young game birds brought. Photographing wild 
birds from small tents or hides, lias helped to dispel many 
erroneous ideas whicli had prevailed respecting the habits 
of birds. The tents are pitched quite close to the nests, as a 
rule the birds quickly become familiar with them, and the 
observer is able at his ease to watch and take careful notes 
of the domestic economy of shy birds, which no otlier method 
would allow. 

The productive power of Hawks and especially of Owls, is 
governed to a great extent bj^ the relative abundance of field 
mice. In a year when the}^ are plentiful, Owls lay larger 
clutches of eggs and have consequently larger families, and 
correspondingly smaller ones when mice are scarce. The chief 
prey of all Owls are small mammals, principally rats and mice. 
The Tawny Owl will occasionally, like the Kestrel, pay undue 
attention to the young Pheasants in the rearing field, and 
consequently deserves the fate meted out to him. The only 
bird (excepting Terns and Gulls) which ever made an attack 
upon me was a Tawny Owl. I had taken her single young one 
from the nest to photograph. ; the nest was an old one of the 
Magpie, and situated right on the top of a Scot's pine. As- 
cending the tree to replace the young one. I suddenly got a 
severe blow on one side of mj' face ; before I could realise 
what had happened I got another one on the other side. Her 
ladyship drew blood on both occasions, but when I tumbled to 
what was happening, I easily prevented futher damage. Tlie 
nest, I might mention, contained besides the young Owl, three 
dead rats about three-quarters grown. 

The Barn Owl is essentially the farmer's friend. Fre- 
quently nesting in pigeon cotes, they never molset the rightful 
occupants, but in return for their shelter, keep them free from 

Naturalist 



Protection of Wild Life in Yorkshire. 185 

rats and mice. A farmer ought to be proud to have a pair of 
these birds residing on his farmstead. They are indefatigable 
in the pursuit of the small mammals which destroy so much of 
his corn. Next to the Lapwing they are his best friends. 
Unfortunately there is a great amount of ignorance and 
prejudice amongst farmers against them, and they are regularly 
and wantonly destroyed. Mr. Wade mentions that one 
taxidermist in Holdcrness has had upwards of forty of these 
Owls brought to him this year by farmers. A shameful record. 
There is a tale of one farmer who was brought to task by the 
Vicar of his parish for shooting a pair ot Barn Owls. He made 
the excuse that he did not know what they were ; he had 
seen the white things flying round his house and he thought 
they were angels, so he brought out the gun and shot them. 

The Long-eared Owl has not so many sins to answer for, 
and as a rule is not so much molested by game-keepers. These 
birds are much attached to certain haunts, and I know a 
number of small plantations on the moorlands which have 
held a pair of these birds ever since I can remember. By the 
way, Long-ears seem to be developing a habit of nesting 
on the ground, like the Short-eared, a number of such nests 
having been reported of late years in the county. 

Short-eared Owls are very scarce, and nest more or less 
irregularly. A plague of mice generally causes an influx of 
these Owls, though how they get the information is a mystery. 
I know one place in the county where they nest pretty regu- 
larly, and where the keepers have had instructions not to 
molest them. They keep to the letter of these instructions 
but not to the spirit, for I heard of one of the keepers saying 
that he took good care to put his foot into any nest he came 
across. The Short-eared Owl differs from our other native 
Owl by always nesting on the ground. 

All the Woodpeckers, the Green, a very large and handsome 
species, the Great Spotted and the Lesser Spotted, are deserving 
of every protection ; they rid the trees of many noxious insects 
and their larvae. Ants they are very fond of, and the Green 
Woodpecker especially, may often be seen raiding an ants nest. 
One fact is certain, they never attack and bore into sound trees. 
The only fault I have to find with our Common Starling is that 
he persecutes the Woodpeckers very greatly, and when a 
nesting hole has been excavated, it is quite a common occurence 
for a pair of Starlings to eject the owner and take possession 
themselves. The ranks of the Great Spotted Woodpecker are 
regularly reinforced by immigrants from the Continent. 

The Lapwing is probably one of the most useful birds 
existing. He has absolutely no bad habits and spends his 
life in the service of the farmer. Despite this, it is only within 
the last few years that much needed protection has been 

19ir. June 1. 



i86 Protection of Wild Life in Yorkshire. 

granted to them and their eggs. The eggs are dainty morsels- 
and were sought for diUgently, and the birds themselves 
affording a toothsome dish, were harried miceasingly by the 
people who should have protected them. Eventually in 
many parts their numbers diminished to an alarming extent. 
They have, however, under protection, again asserted them- 
selves, and have practically recovered their lost ground. 

The Water Ouzel is another much misunderstood bird,, 
and has been accused by ignorant anglers and fish watchers 
of devouring the trout ova in our streams, and many have had 
to be sacrificed to prove that the charge has no foundation. 
The Dipper searches the bed of the streams, feeding on the 
larvae found there, many of which are harmful to the trout ova 
or alvelins. Apart from any question of harmfulness or not, it 
passes my comprehension how anyone can fiuid it in his heart 
to destroy such a charming bird. He is always ' merry and 
bright,' and it is a delight to hear him in mid-winter perched 
on a small boulder in the middle of an ice fringed rapid, singing 
as lustily and cheerily as if the sun was shining and there was 
no winter or misery in the land. 

I should like to put in a word for the Warblers, most of them 
delightful songsters. The Black Cap and Garden Warblers 
take a certain toll from the fruit crops, but by destroying 
enormous numbers of insects and their larvae, they repay a 
thousandfold any tax they levy ; even the Sparrow is not all 
bad ; during the breeding season, which in the case of the 
Sparrow is spread over a considerable time, they destroy an 
enormous muuber of insects upon which their young are mainly 
fed. I have watched a pair of Sparrows for hours which had 
a nest in the ivy covering the house, busy clearing the rose 
bushes of green fly, with which they were feeding their young. 
It does not do to take appearances for granted. Recently 
some investigations were being conducted as to the food of 
Gulls. A flock evidently very busy feeding upon some surface 
fish, it was thought they would prove fine examples of the 
general damage done to the fish fauna by these birds, and a 
number was shot. The result was that it was shown they 
had not been feeding on fish at all, but upon the brittle starfish, 
itself a great enemy to fish life. 

The Stonechat is a much misunderstood bird : references 
are continually being made as to their abundance in certain 
inland localities. Confusion arises from the fact that in many 
districts the Wheat ear is called the Stonechat. The Stonechat 
in Yorkshire is essentially a coast bird, and is rarely found nest- 
ing inland. 

Finally, I should like to make, an appeal against the 
destruction of rare birds which visit our county. Eagles, 
Ospreys, Rough-legged Buzzards, Bitterns and hosts of others 

Naturalist. 



Protection of Wild Life in Yorkshire. 187 

are shot on sight. In the Weekly Post of December 6th there 
is reference to a visit of a Buzzard at Bolton Abbey with the 
naive statement that he keeps well away from the man who 
wants to shoot him. Wh}^ should an attempt be made to 
destroy him ? he will do no harm and should be left at peace. 
The folly of including many rare birds in the list of Yorkshire 
birds is responsible for much of this destruction. Why, because 
a bird has once been seen and shot in the county (the American 
Passenger Pigeon as an absurd example) it should be classed 
as a Yorkshire bird, is beyond ni}/ comprehension. If a rare 
or unusal bird appears, it is at once shot, the excuse being, 
unless the shooter is also a collector, ' I did not know what it 
was.' If this is the case, why not let it go in peace ? It 
does not follow, of course, that because a bird has only been 
obtained once, that it is the only occasion it has appeared in 
the county. Thousands may have visited us and passed on 
undetected. 

Last autumn a pair of Peregrine Falcons was shot by a 
party of sportsmen on a moor near an ancient eyrie in York- 
shire. The usual statement was afterwards made, ' We did 
not know what they were or we would not have shot them.' 
If all birds were understood to be protected and the killing of 
them illegal, it would stop a lot of this senseless slaughter. 
As a contrast to this last action I may m.ention that an Osprey 
frequented the neighbourhood of the lake at Scampston 
recently. He was not disturbed, and after resting some days, 
passed on his way. An example of the eastern Black-eared 
Wheat ear was seen, for the first time in Yorkshire on the 
Cleveland Moors in June of this 5^ear. I understand that an 
application was made to the owner of the estate, asking per- 
mission to shoot it for scientific purposes. It is a great pleasure 
to be able to say that the answer to this request was a prompt 
and decided refusal. I do not want to dwell too much upon 
this subject, it is not a pleasant one, but I should like to 
suggest an antidote for this craze of destroying rare birds. 
It is not a nasty one like many medicines which are given to 
cure a disease, and the collecting mania is a disease, but a 
very pleasant one. It is to take up the practice of photograplw 
in connection with the study of the habits of wild things. It is 
an almost absolute cure for the other state. IMany years ago 
I used to do a bit of collecting myself, although I was never 
very keen about it, alwa3's having a distaste for taking the life 
of beautiful creatures, I found that when I started photo- 
graphing, and I believe I was about the first to take to the 
practice seriously, all desire for collecting passed away, and 
many of my friends, kindred spirits, who were formerly more 
or less fond of the gun, confess to the same result. They have 
now no desire to take the life of any wild creature. The 

1916 June 1. 



i88 Protection of Wild Life in Yorkshire. 

practice of photography is infinitely more sporting and the 
resulting pleasure is immeasurably greater and lasting. One 
comes into intimate contact with the rarest and wildest of 
our birds and animals, and the pleasure of watching their 
home life at the range of a few feet cannot be realised until 
experienced. No elaborate outfit is really needed. A small 
square tent as a hide, with a cover not too glaring, is every bit 
as efficacious as the most elaborate tree trunks, stuffed oxen 
or sheep, and no trouble whatever to cart about. I would, 
however, suggest that photographers who have no genuine 
interest in natural history and no sympathy or love for wild 
life, and there are far too many of this class about who have 
been attracted to the work by the pretty pictures thej- some- 
times obtain, should abstain from the practice, as they at times 
do considerable harm, in addition to bringing disgrace upon 
the genuine naturalist, as people cannot always discriminate 
between the two. Photography should be subservient to the 
real study of the habits and ways of wild things.* 



The Rev. Armitage Goodall contributes a valuable paper on the ' Scan- 
dinavian Element in Yorkshire Place Names ' to Part 1 7 of the Transac- 
tions of the Yorkshire Dialect Society. 

Mr. J. Bradley kindly sends us another of his interesting leaflets issued 
in connection with the Haworth Ramblers, the present being in description 
of a ramble to Eshton and Newfield Hall on Easter Monday. 

The circular issued by the Haworth Ramblers for an excursion to 
Rolling Hall Museum, Bradford, on Sunday, May 21st, is illustrated by 
a block of that institution, and contains an account of the building. 

Volume XXI. of the Transactions of the East Riding Antiquarian 
Society contains the following items : East Riding Muster Roll, 1O25, bv 
T. Sheppard ; Archdeacons of the East Riding, Rev. A. A. R. Gill ; Docu- 
ments at Scampton, Rev. C. V. Collier ; Old Wills from Harpham, W. 
Brown ; The Whitby Arms, G. Buchanan ; Interior of St. Mary's Church, 
Scarborough, prior to its restoration, W. Hastings Fowler ; St. Marys 
Church, Scarborough, Rev. C. Cooper ; Record work for Photographic 
Societies, T. Sheppard ; a German Raid on Sutton in 1872 ; and Arthur 
Francis Leach, an appreciation, bv J. Bilson. 

We much regret to record the death of Mr. Alexander Ramsay at Kew 
recently, in his 77th year. Mr. Ramsay was born at Hampstead, and 
was educated at the Bluecoat School, then in Newgate Street, and after- 
wards at St. Andrew's University, Scotland. He was sometime reader at 
Bradbury and Evans' ; afterwards, in consequence of his deafness, he 
resorted to literature as his occupation. He revised Johnson's Gazeteer, 
and wrote a book on Mineralogy, and many articles from Magazines. In 
recent years he compiled and published a remarkable bibliography, called 
' The Scientific Roll.' This was commenced in 1880, Vol. I., being en- 
titled ' A Bibliography, Guide and Index of Climate,' Vol. II., completed 
in 1900, dealt with 'Climate: Baric Condition, 1680-1883.' The next 
.section dealt with was Bacteria, and Vol. I. was completed in 1905, Vol 2., 
also dealing with Bacteria, was completed in 191 3. He edited The Garner 
and other publications. 

* This address was illustrated by photographs of all the species mentioned. 

Naturalist, 



i89 



TROMBIDIUM PARVUM, N.SP. 



C. F. GEORGE, M.R.C.S., 

Kirton-iii-Lindsey . 



This mite is small for a Trombidium, its body is about 0.88 mm. 
long, and the average breadth about 0.56 mm. It is probably 




a ^ Trombidium parvum n.sp. ; b = crista; c = palpus; d = front 
e = hind leg. 



leg; 



not a mature specimen ; and the vulva, anus and eyes 
be made out ; it is probably in the pupa stage. Mr. 



cannot 
Soar's 



191C Junel. 



1^0 George: Tromhidium parvum, n.sp. 

figure gives a good idea of its shape, which, however, is possibly 
somewhat different from that of a mature female. The whole 
body is covered with hairs, or papillse (which are beautifully 
plumose) with the exception of the upper surface of the ros- 
trum, which is bare of hairs ; this is quite unusual, but possibly 
they have been rubbed off, otherwise this may be a very 
important point. The crista is about 0'26mm. long and differs 
somewhat from any I have before seen ; near the upper, and 
thicker part on each side, there is a stigma, and another in the 
skin, about half way down ; no stigmatic hairs were observed, 
they were probably rubbed off. 

The palpi have each a secondary small claw on the fourth 
segment. The first leg, which is the longest, is about 0.62 mm. 
long, the terminal article of which is remarkably broad and 
strong. The second leg is about 0.45 mm. long, the third 
0.46 mm. and the fourth 0.56 mm. They are all supplied with 
short hairs. 

It is to be hoped that more mature specimens will hereafter 
be discovered in which the important parts, as the e3'es, etc., 
may be investigated ; of course a living specimen would be 
invaluable for identification. There are, I believe, a good 
many varieties of Trombidium, which have not yet been des- 
cribed. They are most beautiful creatures for microscopic 
observation. This specimen was mentioned on page 41 of 
The Naturalist for January, 1916, under the name of ' Smaridia 
papillosa ' Herm. This is a mistake, as proved by dissection. 

[Dr. George has kindly presented two slides illustrating 
the anatomical details of this mite, to the Hull Museum, 
where, with the various other specimens he has described 
from time to time, they can be consulted by students. — Ed.] 



BIRDS. 

Black Terns near Knaresborough. — Lord Mowbray, 
this morning, told me that he had seen two Black Terns fl3ang 
about the bottom lake at Allerton, on Sunday, May 7th. 
They were not there on Monday. — R. Fortune. 10/5/16. 

Local Names for Birds. — On May 6th, 1916, I conducted 
the Maltby Rambling Club to Roche Abbey, and learnt that 
the Maltby children speak of a bird called a " Banky Feather 
Poke." I do not find this name in the " Birds of Yorkshire." 
At Doncaster, the Willow Warbler is named " Ground Feather 
Poke," and at Maltby, both Willow Warblers and Chiff-Chaffs 
are common. Probably the name " Banky Feather Poke " 
is applied to one of those species, and possibly to both of them. — 
C F. Innocent, Sheffield. 

Naturalist) 



191 

THE [^HARVESTMEN AND PSEUDOSCORPIONS 
OF YORKSHIRE. 



WM. FALCONER, 

Slaithivaitc, Huddersficld. 



[Confitiued from page r_yS). 

Sub.-Order : PANCTENODACTYLI, Balz. 

Fam. : CHELIFERIDiE. 

Group II. Eyes 2. 

Gen. Chiridium Menge. 

'C MUSEORUM Leach. 

The smallest British pseudoscorpion, generally distributed 
and abundant in Great Britain, only noticed at Dundrum 
in Ireland. Occurs in a great variety of situations, in 
old houses, stables, barns, haylofts, etc., behind boards, 
among debris, under stones on the floor, in crevices of 
woodwork ; beneath the bark of trees, and in nests of 
bird> in walls and hollow trees. 

ist Record : T. Fetch, Aldborough. The Naturalist, 1903, 
p. 460. 

V.C. 61. — Thorp Garth, Aldborough, in a glass of water, T.P. 

V.C. 63. — Almondbury, Hudderslield, a dozen examples 
under pieces of wood lying on the floor and in the 
neglected cupboards of a tradesman's cellars [The 
Naturalist, March, 1908) ; in the store room of the same 
building during alterations, an equal number, September, 
1909, without special search being made for them. 

Gen. Chelifer Geoff. 

C. LATREiLLEi Leach. 

In this country always found near the sea, hiding beneath 
pieces of wood on the sand, or in old sheathing bases of 
marram grass, etc. It has been observed on the shores 
of the Firth of Forth, and at several places in the East 
and South of England, and is usually plentiful. 

ist Record : H. E. Johnson, Spurn, ' Trans. Hull Sci. and 
F. Nat. Club', 1901, Vol. I., p. 228. 

V.C. 61. — Spurn, under a log of wood on the sands, H.E.J. ; 
since observed in abundance by other naturalists, 
T.S., E.A.P., W.F. 

1916 June 1. i 



192 Harvestmen and Pseudoscorpions of Yorkshire. 

Group III. . Eyes O. 

Gen. Chernes Menge. 
C. NODOSUs Schr. 

Common and widely distributed in Great Britain but not 
yet recorded for Ireland. Frequents vegetable refuse, 
manure heaps and is sometimes seen clinging to the 
legs of flies and occasionally harvestmen, thus securing 
dissemination. H. Wallis Kew in The Naturalist, 
1901, pp. 193-215, discusses this habit and mentions 
other possible reasons. 

1st Record : R. H. Meade, Bradford (Cambridge's Cherne- 
tidea). 

V.C. 61. — Hull, one example on the leg of a fly, Mr. A. R. 
Tankard. 

V.C. 62. — Falsgrove, Scarborough, R.A.T., one example. 

V.C. 63.— Bradford, R.H.M., W. West ; on a book, Mr. 
Haigh Lumby ; Leeds, in a book in a library, The 
Natiiralist, 1884, p. 103 ; Leeds, W. D Roebuck and 
Armley, H. Crowther (V.C.H.). Professor Miall's book, 
' House, Garden and Field,' p. 106, (?) C. nodosus : 
' Sometimes all the flies in a particular shop (a pro- 
vision shop) are found to harbour chelifers.' Locality 
presumably either Ilkley or Leeds. 
C. DUBius Camb. 

Usually under embedded stones in unbroken country and 
near the sea, occasionally under loose stones and among 
debris. Noted in the south of England— Kent, Surrey, 
Sussex, Berkshire, Dorset ; in Cumberland and in 
Ross-shire, Fifeshire, East and West Lothians. 

1st Occurrence : F. Booth, Ingleton, September, 191 1. 

V.C. 61. — Birkhill Wood, Cottingha.m, i example, T.S., 

1915- 

V.C. 63. — Below Ainley Place Wood, Slaithwaite, one 
exam.ple from humus, x\pril, 1916. 

V.C. 64. — Ingleton, under a stone, F.B. Recorded in first 
instance as next species,* but feeling doubtful of the 
correctness of the identification, the specimen together 
with the Cottingham example, was submitted to Mr. H. 
Wallis Kew, and their correct identity established. 
C. PANZERi C. L. Ivoch (C. rufeolus Sim.). 

Added to the British list in 1905, from a London granary. 
Now known to occur in man\' widely separated localities 
in England and Scotland and probably common ; not 
yet recorded for Ireland. Frequents old buildings, 
barns, stables, etc., beneath stones in the floor and among 

* The Naturalist, January, 1913, p. 83 and March, 1914, p. 87. 

Naturalist, 



Harvestmen and Pseudoscorpions of Yorkshire. 193 

hay and refuse ; in old breweries and granaries : in 
hollow trees and in old nests of owl and starling. 

ist Record : the Author, Linthwaite. The Naturalist, 
December, 1907. 

V.C. 63. — Broad oak, Linthwaite, Colne Valley, two 
examples in the cracks between the flagstones of a 
mistal : in a stable behind Wormald House, Almond- 
bury, Huddersfield, many examples of all ages, among 
refuse of hay, oats, etc., 1909 ; in a barn, Barrett, 
Slaithwaite, one example, 1915. 



The Fungus Flora of Wirral. By Lt.-Col. J. W. Ellis (84 pages, cloth, 
price 3s. post free from the author, 18, Rodney Street, Liverpool). Dr. 
Ellis has acted wisely in reprinting his papers on Wirral Fungi from the 
Proceedings of the Liverpool Naturalists' Field Club, as his notes are now 
in very handy form for the pocket. The booklet is illustrated by a 
number of plates from photographs showing haunts of typical Wirral 
Fungi. Altogether his list includes 818 species, 253 of which are Agarics. 

On the thickness of Strata in the Counties of England and Wales, 

exclusive of Rocks older than the I'ermian, (Afem. Cleol. Survey). By 
A. Strahan, T. V. Holmes, H. Dewey, C. H. Cunnington, W. C. Simmons, 
W. B, R. King and D. A. Wray. Royal 8vo, 1916. pp. 172. 4s. 6d. 

In iSoi, William Smith, the father of English Geology, issued a pros- 
pectus of a work of his own, which work never appeared ! Had Smith been 
asked to review the memoir recently published by the Survey, he would 
probably have used very similar words. They are to the effect that from 
the book, ' the Philosopher may derive an inexhaustible fund of valuable 
information. The miner may learn more readily, as well as more certainly, 
to trace the course of his ore ; and, while his ideas are extended a curiosity 
will naturally be excited, that may pave the way to new and unthought-of 
discoveries. The various artists eniployed in building, from the humble 
Mortar-maker to the enlightened Architect, must all be interested in a 
method of discovering sand, clay, stone, slate, and other materials, and of 
selecting with certainty such as are best. Fullers, Founders, Glass-Makers, 
etc.,' will learn where to send for earths and sands of the qualities best suited 
to their respective purposes ; and sources of supply will, probably, be opened 
in places of which they now entertain no idea. Chemists, Colour-men, 
Vitriol, Alum, and Salt-makers, will learn how to trace the materials they 
have occasion for ; and will be enabled frequently to obtain, at once, the 
different advantages of more convenient situations, smaller expense, and an 
improved quality. The Canal Engineer will be enabled to choose his 
stratum, find the most appropriate materials, avoid slippery ground, or 
i^emedy the evil. The Building Contractor may also form his estimates 
with more certainty to himself, and more satisfaction to his employer, by 
the experience he has had, and the observations that he will be lead to make 
on similar works in a like stratum. Brick-makers, Potters, and others, are 
also interested in a knowledge of the correct Theory of those materials 
which furnish their sole employment. Indeed, there are but few of the 
most necessary occupations of life, that may not derive from this Work 
some useful hint or improvement.' The memoir now before us is of quite 
a new type. It is arranged under the heads of counties, and the thicknesses 
of the various beds, from the latest information, are given. This inform- 
ation will be of value to the geological student in a variety of ways, and 
engineers and other will also derive useful information from it. 

1916 June 1. 



194 

THE GEOGRAPHICAL DISTRIBUTION OF THE 
MOTHS OF THE SUBFAMILY BISTONINAE. 



J. W. HESLOP HARRISON. B.Sc. 

[Continued from page i66). 

We begin now to trace what may be regarded as the histor}/ 
of the modern wanderings of the two species L. ursaria and L. 
hirtaria and we shall discuss our own insect first. 

As it reached the Balkans and wended its way through that 
ancient land Dalmatia, it found the passage thence via Central 
and Southern Italy, Sicily to Tunis still open and if, as we 
surmised, the genus Lycia is of northern origin, then we have 
excellent grounds for surmising that this Dalmatia-Italy-Tunis 
land passage existed just at the closing stages of Pliocene times, 
and possibly into early Pleistocene times. At any rate, soon after 
the insect made the passage, the Adriatic Sea was formed and 
the land mass which cut the Mediterranean Sea into an eastern 
and a western section, ceased to exist and left the isolated colon- 
ies of L. hirtaria stranded in the hill gorges of Tunis and Algiers 
and in the elevated portion of Abruzzi in Italy, where they 
remain interned and decadent to-day, just as do similar colonies 
of other European and African plants and animals at varying 
points on the broken land bridge. 

However, as the climate oscillated, so must we suppose the 
range of L. hirtaria varied, until, at length, the lengthy period of 
amelioration known as the interglacial period to some geologists, 
and as an interglacial period to others, saw the species migrating 
in all its vigour northward, westward and eastward, in the two 
former cases following the line of advancing birches (for birch is 
the food in nature of the species) along the valleys of the Danube, 
Rhine, Elbe and Vistula. By flanking the Carpathians to the 
east, and utilising the Vistula valley, it very early reached the 
limits of its Scandinavian area, after passing over the dry beds of 
the Sound, Skagerrack and Cattegat. Even at the present day 
dredgings from interglacial beds at the bottom of these channels, 
bring before our eyes the remains of the birches which supplied 
the conquering hosts with food. By contrasting the ease of the 
route to Scandinavia with the long and tedious route to Britain, 
it is clear that the forms which issued from their retreats, joined 
those which had survived the ' winter of their discontent ' in 
Scandinavia, long anterior to a similar reunion in the British 
Islands. This, supplemented by the Boreal and Alpine forms 
which reached Scandinavia at the same period from the East 
via North Russia and Lapland, caused that area to be amongst 
the first in Europe to have its full complement of Alpine and 
Boreal forms ancl explains why certain of such forms failed to 

Naturalist, 



Distribution of Moths of the Sub-family Bistoninae. 195 

reach the Alps and Pyrenees ; this absence, the usual theory of 
a South Central home of refuge for such species, and a subse- 
quent northern advance fails, to explain. 

Next let us examine the British distribution of the species. 
We see that it presents in the British Islands, the phenomenon 
of double distribution ; one British colony occurs in England, 
extending as far north as the ^Midlands and, of this colony, the 
Irish localities are the outposts which managed to reach Ireland 
by way of the Wales-Ireland land-bridge. Northward, after 
the Midland localities, there is a broad gap in its range and the 
species only reappears in the Scottish Highlands, where probably 
no birch wood fails to produce it. This discontinuity of distri- 
bution undoubtedly demands investigation. It obviously arises 
from a definite cause and is not a matter of chance, for many 
species, e.g. Dimorpha versicolora, Selenia tetralunayia, Anticlea 
cucullata, Thera jiiniperata, Eupithecia dchiliata* and others 
exhibit the same peculiar discontinuity. To account for it, one 
of two causes must be advanced ; either the areas occupied by 
these species were once continuous and have broken down since, 
or the two colonies in our islands are really distinct in origin. 
Let us consider the former view first. What can we advance to 
account for the break ? The break might conceivably have been 
brought about by geological means or by the agency of man. 

If caused by geological means, then the only possible one 
worthy of serious consideration is that of submergence and, if we 
grant this, then the Irish and Southern English habitats of these 
various forms, would have been the first to be overwhelmed by 
the sea and there ought to be lowland Scotch and northern 
English localities, where the fall in land level, if any, was but 
small in which they retained their hold. Possible habitats with 
abundant primeval birch and other necessary food plants are 
plentiful in many upland valleys and lowland ' carrs ' and yet 
the species are unaccountably absent. We are irresistibly forced 
to conclude that such a geological explanation fails to fit in with 
the facts and must, in consequence, be abandoned. There is 
only left the agency of man to account for the gap ; this may 
have worked in various ways ; either the firing of the original 
forest land or intensity of cultivation, or both, have been the 
agencies at work. Both, however, of these suppositions are 
untenable, for they are shipwrecked on the rock that the very 
areas in England in which L. hirtaria abounds, are precisely 
those areas in which the suggested agencies have been longest at 
work and vice versa. We must therefore conclude that the 
stretch of country between the colony in Scotland and that in 
England was never occupied and, consequently, that the two 

* It is worthy of note that the food plants of all of these, and of insects 
with similar distributions, are birch and plants usually associated with 
birch, e.g. Galium sp., Vacciniiim myrtillus, Juniperus communis. 

1916 June 1. 



196 Distribution of Moths of the Sub-family Bistonina^:. 

colonies are totally distinct in origin. This conclusion necess- 
arily carries with it the corollary that the repopulation of the 
British Islands, when the ice waned, was not wholly from the 
South and East as we are generally asked to believe, and this 
conclusion is backed up by the present distribution of all of the 
elements of our Flora and Fauna, which are not of general 
occurrence. Northern species show unmistakable signs of hav- 
ing advanced from the North and are therefore northern and 
western in distribution, as can readily be perceived from a 
consideration of such species as the moths, Larentia caesiata, 
and Cloantha solidaginis, the spider, Caledonia evansii, the 
plant, Empdriim nigrum, chosen at random from a host of 
similar examples in all groups. In the same way, forms of 
Southern afid Eastern origin are southern and eastern in distri- 
bution and it would be but repeating the obvious to select 
illustrative examples. Without doubt, these phenomena are 
not matters of chance and, when we meet with this curious 
circumstance of double distribution, we cannot but conclude 
that we are concerned with two branches, one of which has 
advanced with the southern species and another which has 
accompanied one of the hosts of northern invaders. 

That the northern division came last, is proved by the fact 
that, whilst the southern colony has settlements in Ireland 
which are bound to have reached Ireland via Wales, i.e. by a land 
connection which broke early, on the other hand, the northern 
section has no Irish advanced posts, in spite of the long continu- 
ed existence of the Mull-Islay-Donegal isthmus. 

The conclusion is unavoidable that the wave of immigration 
which gave Britain her northern L. hirtaria was set in motion by 
events to the north of our island, which so lessened the habitable 
areas in Scandinavia, that a great proportion of the Flora and 
Fauna of that country had to seek other shores ; this factor was 
the development of that last phase of the Glacial Period, the 
huge Baltic Glacier, which affected our own islands (if it did 
affect them at all), but little. The ice, ploughing its way from 
the Scandinavian Mountains eastward and southward, advanced 
over the bed of the Baltic Sea, driving in front of it the water to 
form an arm of the sea which stretched out far across Holstein 
into the North Sea plain, and incidentally overwhelming Den- 
mark and North Germany. Thus, plants and animals, which 
had to retreat, were deflected westward, reaching, in the process 
of time, with many other Boreal forms, the Scotch localities they 
now possess, occupying them solidly just as the retreat was 
stopped and climatic and geographical conditions, approximat- 
ing more or less closely to those of the present day, intervened.* 

* From the above line of reasoning it will be seen that I place the origin 
of the British Flora and Fauna as far as the Boreal forms arc concerned, 
as Interglacial. Again it is well to state that I refuse to believe that the 



Distribution of Moths of the Sub-family Bistoninae. 197 

Such an advance of Northern forms, driven westward and flow- 
ing southward in Britain, in the absence of great chmatic 
changes in these islands, I have shown elsewhere to be a possible 
cause of the curious commingling of northern and southern 
forms in certain Pleistocene deposits of our own and contiguous 
areas. 

Whilst these events, mainly of local importance, were occur- 
ring in the west, almost simultaneously, events of far reaching 
importance developed in the east. The Arctic- Aralo-Caspian 
arm of the sea had slowly dried up, opening the way for the pent- 
up horde of Siberian and other Asiatic forms which streamed 
westward as an all conquering flood, giving us some of what 
we regard as our most typical animals and plants. But the 
removal of the barrier had other effects, for the reduced European 
Flora and Fauna also used the narrow gateway to gain new 
ground and a wedge of migrating L. hirtaria passed forth to its 
present Asiatic home in the Issi Kul and Hi districts. With 
this, we have traced L. hirtaria to its present stations and, with 
the final waning of the Baltic Ice, the various sets of conflicting 
settlers assumed a state of equilibrium and, with but slight 
changes, resulting from temporary climatic modifications, have 
remained so until the present day — as far as the hand of man 
has allowed them. 

Next we must take up the problem of the Nearctic L. ursaria 
left penned up by the ice in the Southern Appalachian region. 
With the retreat of the wide-spread icesheet, the species pressed 
slowly to the north, guided along the coast by the ever present 
and impassable Appalachian Mountain system until it reached 
what is now the state of New York, where the outflowing 
species could outflank the mountains over the low-lying land 
between them and Lake Erie ; this a division attempted to 
do, only to be brought up by the barrier interposed by Lake 
Erie which caused the stream once more to bifurcate, one 
branch passing into Canada over the Niagara River and the 
other moving westward, f Thus access was gained to the 
broad area of the Great Central Plains to the south of the 
Great Lakes, and L. ursaria was only bound by the climatic 
conditions which limit its northern and southern trend and 



Scandinavian Flora and Fauna were quite extirpated. If so, what was 
the position of such plants as A rtemisia norvegica at the period in question ? 
f Here it is important to note that insects such as Pieris rapne, Phytono- 
miis pitnctatus and Cvyptovhynchus lapathi which have been introduced 
at various points on the Atlantic seaboard have kept exactly to the lines 
of advance mapped out here as careful observation has shown. Such 
-observations have been used to predict where and when a given alien 
pest will reach the state of Ohio. I have not considered the valley of the 
Big Kanawaka in West Virginia or the Cumberland Gap as giving access 
to the plains beyond the Alleghanies as no introduced species have ever 
been observed to use them. 

1916 June 1. 



iqS Distribution of Moths of the Sub-family Bistoninae. 

these very successfully prevented any great gain of ground 
to the south and, of necessity, caused the present range of 
L. ursaria in the United States other than in the New England 
States, to be very limited. 

The section, however, which reached Canada across the 
Niagara, had no such climatic conditions forbidding its advance 
and, although possibly delayed by the remains of the Great 
Keewatin Ice Sheet, gradually skirted the Great Lakes west- 
ward and eastward. Augmented in its eastern course by 
that part of the original column which had not passed west- 
ward along Lake Erie, but had colonised the more northerly 
New England States, Nova Scotia and New Brunswick, and 
had crossed, after delay, the broad St. Lawrence, it slowly 
passed into Labrador as the Labrador Ice gave way. 

The westward march carried the species across a broad 
belt of suitable territory right up to the foothills of the Rockies. 
Thus L. ursaria, with possible changes due again to partial 
recurrences of glacial conditions causing it to retrace its course, 
attained its present locations. 



We should like to congratulate our old, but ever young friend Mr. \V. 
Whitaker, F.R.S., on having reached his 80th birthday. We trust he 
may long be spared to continue the excellent work he is always doing. 

From Mr. A. C. Dalton, a former contributor to this Journal, we have 
received the reprint of his paper, " Electric Steel Direct from Ore Fines : 
Converting Refractory Ores into Pig Steel in an Electric Shaft Furnace 
using Natural Draft : The Metallurgical Possibilities and I'niform Pro- 
duct,' which appeared in the Iron Age recently. 

At the recent annual meeting of the Leeds Philosophical and Literarv 
Society a statement of accounts, presented by Mr. Richard Wilson, the 
treasurer, showed an adverse balance of /')23. The annual report recorded 
that the number of visitors to the Museum in the pa.st year was 22,110, 
an increase of G.oOO over the number for 1914-15, and of nearly 2,000 over 
the average of the last ten 3'ears. 

The acting librarian of the Barnsley Public Library has issued a 
valuable Bibliographical List of Books, Pamphlets and Articles connected 
with Barnsley and the immediate District, complied by Frank J. Taylor. 
This will be a very useful guide to students of local history, etc' Naturalists 
will find much to interest them under the head of Natural Science, Coal- 
Mining, etc. We cannot fmd that the Library possesses a set of the 
Barnsley Naturalists Society's Quarterly Transactions, but we trust that 
some day this publication may be available. We imderstand the biblio- 
graphy is on sale at the Library, price 3d. 

In case any of our readers should see a reference to an article on ' A 
very rare bird,' which occupies a column and a half in Punch of Mav lOth, 
we may perhaps explain that the contribution is a joke, really. It's 
about a bird ' specialist ' who opined that some reed-warblers were nesting 
in an orchard, on account of the unmistakable note of that bird which he 
heard. It turned out, as might have been guessed, to be a mistake, and 
the reed-warbler was the wheel of the gardener's barrow, which required 
oiling. The joke may be new to Punch, but to many of us it is more of 
botanical interest, and greatly resembles the fruit of Castnnea satiia, a 
tree said to be of Spanish origin. 

NaturiHst. 



199 



NOTES ON THE NESTING OF THE GRASS- 
HOPPER WARBLER IN THE WEST RIDING. 



H. B. BOOTH, M.B.O.U., F.Z.S. 

[Continued fro7}i page J 70). 

Dates of Nests, Hatchings, etc. 

' Reeling ' bird first heard by me, May 9th ; first heard by 
B.N.H. & M.S., May 8th; stated by the park-ranger to have 
been heard almost a week before 9th May. 

Nest found not complete about 8-0 a.m., May 24th, birds 
busy building. 

May 27th, 2 eggs in ; May 29th, 4 eggs in at 4-30 p.m. ; 
May 30th, 5 eggs in at 7-45 a.m., and was still sitting on nest 
at 9-45 a.m., so concluded it had commenced sitting. 
May 31st, did not go near nest. 

June ist, full clutch of 6 eggs in ; June nth, 4 eggs hatched 
out ; June 12th, not visited ; June 13th, 6 eggs hatched out ; 
June 22nd, one bird jumped out of nest as soon as I went near ; 
June 23rd, all birds left nest ; June 25th, park-ranger states 
bird ' reeling ' again in morning ; June 27th and 28th,, bird 
' reeling ' well, but not heard after, so probably decided to nest 
again. 

July i8th, found second nest with 6 eggs, evidently several 
days' incubated ; July 21st, 4 of the 6 eggs hatched out ; 
July 22nd, 5 of the 6 eggs hatched out and other chipping ; 
July 23rd, 6 eggs hatched out ; July 30th, all birds still in 
nest ; July 31st, all birds now left nest. 

Both nests within a radius of 36 yards of the favourite 
resting perch (an isolated Elder tree). 

Bird has a flicking of wings and tail like Hedge Sparrow ; 
walks like a Titlark on ground, and climbs about the bushes, 
weeds, etc., by long climbing, grasping strides ; walks length- 
ways on the tree boughs like a squirrel ; when flying, flies 
low like a Kingfisher ; sings with uptilted head and wide-open 
mandibles, turning its head slowly side to side during utter- 
ance ; seldom mounts high except to sing. Has a long slender 
body and a very graceful outline, which the long fan-shaped 
tail,^ long neck and long legs, heighten. 

Female broods the young well and constantly, and dives 
in the herbage expertly when flushed, without note or cry, 
(reminding one somewhat of the little Grebe diving in water) 
and creeps, with a faint rustling noise, a little distance away, 
but is back instantly that the suspected danger is past. 

19 IG June !. 



200 Booth : Nesting of the Grasshopper Warbler. 

Notes ox ' Reeling,' before, during and after 
Nesting Operations. 

May 9th, Grasshopper Warbler heard 6-30 p.m., ' reehng ' 
persistently ; May nth, 7-0 p.m. to 8-0 p.m. (raining) ' reeling ' 
persistently ; May 12th, 7-0 p.m. to 7-30 p.m. ' reeling ' per- 
sistently ; May 13th, passed and within hearing about quarter 
of an hour, about 9-0 p.m. not heard. May i6th, 6-30 a.m. 
to 11-30 a.m., ' reeling ' persistently during morning ; about 
9-0 a.m. first noticed it skirmishing about with another bird. 
I could never get a satisfactory view of both birds together, 
but gave me impression they were both Grasshopper Warblers. 
After it had been thus chasing the other bird it commenced to 
' reel ' spreading out and shivering its wings, showing plainly 
it was then paying attentions to the female. In the afternoon 
of the same day the bird was still ' reeling ' well, but with much 
longer intervals (would generally start if a motor cycle or car 
mounted the hill close by) and in the evening it ne^'er ' reeled ' 
once during over an hour's time. From this time onwards, until 
after the young were fledged and had left the nest, the bird was 
never heard to 'reel ' again. Once, when both birds were 
together during building operations, I heard a very faint imita- 
tion of the ' reel,' more like a ' purr' than a ' reel,' however, 
of about, at a guess, 8 to 10 seconds' duration ; this only heard 
once. Nor was any call or alarm noticed until the young birds 
were within a few days of leaving the nest, when the bird used 
a sharp single metallic ' click ' note somewhat resembling 
alarm note of Tree and Meadow Pipits or ' Sip ' note of Throstle 
or even the metallic note used by the Tits, like them all some- 
what, but still possessing a distinct character of its own. I 
got a very close imitation by placing on my fingers in a cutting 
position a substantial pair of waistcoat pocket-scissors, and 
bringing the handles together sharply, the click produced 
almost exactly resembling its note, differing mostly in one 
being a tapping sound and the other produced by quick emit- 
tence of air, giving a throaty sound like that heard in ' pink' of 
Chaffinch. After the second brood had just left the nest, the 
bird, I think the female, was giving another cry, a kind of 
jarring, rattling series of notes, again like a Throstle will use 
occasionally ; a dull sounding, coarse series of notes, somewhat 
suggesting the Brown Wren. These it uttered very persist- 
ently and was evidently in a high state of excitement. The 
following are the times I was about the nest and never heard 
any ' reeling ' : — 

May 2ist and 22nd, half hour each. 

May 23rd, Five and a quarter hours from 6-15 a.m. to 
11-30 a.m. (fine and sunny). 

May 24th, three and a half hours, from 5-0 a.m. to 8-30 a.m., 
(fine and sunny). 

NaturaliVf, 



Booth : Nesting of the Grasshopper Warbler. 201 

May 25th, passed about lo-o a.m. ; again 8-30 p.m. (fine 
and sunny). 

May 27th, quarter of an hour, evening. 

May 28th, 20 minutes, evening. 

May 29th, 50 minutes, 3-40 p.m. to 4-30 p.m. (raining). 

May 30th, two and a half hours (fine and sunny). 

May 31st, half hour. 

June ist, one hour (fine and sunny). 

June 3rd, 7-30 p.m. to 8-0 p.m. ; also 9-15 pm. to 9-30 p.m. 
(fine and sunny). 

June 8th, 9th, and loth, quarter of an hour each evening. 

June nth, one hour, 6-45 p.m. to 7-45 p.m. 

June 13th, five hours. 

June 15th, quarter of an hour, about 6-45 p.m. 

June i6th, 17th, and i8th, quarter of an hour ; i8th, first 
suspected the metallic note came from them which, in the 
second nest, proved to be the case. 

June 2oth, four hours, morning. (Fine and sunny). 

June 2ist, 22nd, and 24th, quarter of an hour, about 7-0 p.m. 

June 26th, one hour, (first heavy rain for some time). 

June 27th, one and a half hours in morning. No ' reel,' but 
' reeling ' well in the evening. 

June 28th, ' reeling ' well from 7-0 p.m. until 9-30 p.m. Not 
very frequent at first ; later getting very persistent ; stayed 
another quarter of an hour but it did no more ' reeling.' 

June 29th, twenty minutes, about 7-0 p.m. 

June 30th, twenty minutes, about 8-45 p.m. 

July 1st, 9-25 p.m. to 9-55 p.m., uncertain whether it did 
not ' reel ' just as I was some distance away on my arrival, it 
certainly did none afterwards. 

July 2nd, half an hour, (heavy rain). 

July 4th, six hours, (raining heavily most of time) 5-30 a.m. 
to 11-30 a.m. 

July 5th, quarter of an hour, about 7-0 p.m. ; quarter of 
an hour, 8-45 p.m. (clear and sunny). 

July 8th, three quarters of an hour, 8-0 p.m. to 8-45 p.m., 
{some rain). 

July 9th, one hour. 

July nth, six hours, 5-40 a.m. to 11-40 a.m. 

July 15th, half an hour, about 7-0 p.m. 

July i8th, four and three quarter hours, 6-30 a.m. to 
ii-o a.m. and 11-30 a.m. to 11-45 a.m. 

July 2ist, quarter of an hour. 

July 22nd, half an hour, about 7-30 p.m. 

July 23rd, quarter of an hour, about 7-0 p.m. 

July 24th, hour and a half, 3-15 p.m. to 4-45 p.m. 

July 25th, four hours, morning. 

July 27th, quarter of an hour, 7-0 p.m. 

1916 Junel. 



202 Booth : Nesting of the Grasshopper Warbler. 

July 28th, half an hour, 8-50 p.m. to 9-20 p.m. (cool, but 
fine). 

July 29th, quarter of an hour ; stopped very near nest, 
with both birds creeping anxiously around. They came very 
close and after a time used the ' click ' note elsewhere des- 
cribed. 

July 30th, again stopped near nest : again got note, and 
later, the ' reel,' suggesting that when very alarmed for safety 
of nest they will ' reel.' Before, I have been very careful not to 
unduly alarm them ; probably the ' reel ' would have become 
more sustained if I dared have ventured to stay longer. 

July 31st : went over in the afternoon. When I was 
getting over wall near to the nest, female (?) was uttering the 
rattling notes described elsewhere, but no ' reel ' proper : again 
ten minutes about 7-0 p.m., no ' reel.' 

Aug. 1st, ' reeling ' again commenced , but only occasionally. 
Time 7-0 a.m. to 11-30 a.m., four and a half hours : ' reel ' not 
given above eight or nine times. Last time I noticed it had 
been ' reeling ' on top of ten ft. tree and dropped down into a 
bed of bracken about five yards below first nest here : after 
staying some time out of sight, he came and perched on a tall 
weed among the bracken bed and commenced ' reeling,' and 
spreading and shivering his wings, suggesting he was again 
paying attentions to the female : surely they cannot be 
thinking of nesting again ? 

Aug. 2nd, half an hour, from 6-45 a.m. to 7-13 a.m.. no 
' reel ' heard. 

[From this date onwards, until Aug. 29th, Mr. Longbottom 
paid almost daily visits to the place but neither heard nor saw 
the birds — nor did he see or hear anvthing more of them in his 
still later and more irregular visits after that date. — H.B.B.j 

Description' of Nesting Sites of Grasshopper Warbler. 

Both nests were built on a rough stretch of westward- 
sloping moorland, very dry and naturally well-drained, the 
nearest water being a small runnel about 150 yards away. This 
rough moorland is really part of the Bingley Park, but as yet 
unimproved except by a broad border of close-growing shrubs 
and a double row of tall-growing trees, which tend to keep 
out intruders (there are no footpaths in or through), and tend 
to add to its privacy and seclusion. Here there is an abundance 
of suitable cover to be found : tall-growing bracken, gorse, 
broom, heather, bilberry bushes, roseber-ry growing 7 ft. high 
in the ghylls with which the place is scored, bramble, w-ild 
rasp and the old canes, and under and near the bordering trees 
are tall-growing grasses. More in the open bent, tormentel 
and ladys' bed-straw : dotted about are solitary elders, moun- 
tain ash, sapling, sycamore, silver birch and young oaks. 

Naturalist, 



1 



Booth: Nesting of the Grasshopper Warbler. 203 

The first nest was built on the border of a large patch of 
dead bracken (the new fronds were not up yet) and thistles, 
and was placed down in the centre of a tussock of old grass of 
the tall-growing variety and was built of dried grass : later, 
when the new bracken had come up, was well screened by them. 
It was overhung by a well-grown elder tree whose lowest bran- 
ches swept and interlaced with the bracken : this was one of 
the two favourite approaches to the nest used by the birds, the 
other approach was from a low, long, straggling bush of gorse, 
from which it reached the nest by creeping along a slight 
depression or channel-way among the herbage. 

The second nest was in the bottom of one of the numerous 
small ghylls and was again adjoining a large bed of bracken, this 
time intermixed with wild rasp, with an undergrowth of old rasp 
canes and dead bracken. In this instance it was built between 
a few bracken stalks that formed one of several somewhat 
isolated clumps from the main bed ; here placed this time on 
new grown bent, with first the shelter of the dead bracken 
fronds ; then above the new growth it had placed its nest. The 
nest differed slightly from the first in having a few oak leaves 
interwoven round its outside. One of the two favourite 
approaches to the nest was from a young oak that was growing 
near, and probably this accounts for the introduction of the 
leaves. The other approach was from a tall-grown broom 
from both of which places it reached the nest by creeping 
stealthily along the main bed of bracken. Both nests had a 
clutch of 6 eggs which, in both instances, all hatched out, 
and all the young birds were, when they left the nest, well- 
grown and hardy looking. 

[After the young had left, each nest was taken — the first 
one for the Keighley Museum., and the second one for the 
Bradford Cartwright Hall Museum. — at which places they may 
be seen.— H.B.B.l. 



The Transactions of the Manchester Geological and Mining Society, 
issued in February, 1916, contain Mr. L. R. Fletcher's presidential address 
in which he deals with the question of war and coal mining ; a severe 
criticism by Dr. Arber of ^Nlr. H. Bolton's paper on the ' Fauna and 
Stratigraphy of the Kent Coalfield ' ; two papers by Dr. G. Hickling, 
namely ' The Coal Measures of the Croxteth Park Inlier, ' and ' The Geo- 
logical Structure of the South Lancashire Coalfield.' 

The Quarterly Journal of the Geological Society, \o\. 72, part 2, for 
1915, dated February 23rd, 1916, was received on INIarch 0th. Among the 
contents we notice the following : Dr. A. Dunlop on ' A Raised Beach on 
the Southern Coast of Jersey ' ; Mr. Clement Reid on ' The Late Glacial 
Plants of the Lea Valley'' Mr. S. H. Warren on 'The Late Glacial 
or Ponder's End Stage of the Lea Valley ' ; Dr. J. E. Marr on ' The Ash- 
uillian Succession to the West of Coniston Lake ' ; Dr. Stanley Smith on 
' The Genus Tonsdaleia and Dibunophyllum rugosuiu.' 

1016 June 1. 



204 

COLEOPTERA IN YORKSHIRE IN 1915. 



W. J. FORDHAM, M.R.C.S., L.R.C.P., F.E.S. 



Taken altogether the past season has been better than several 
of the preceding ones, and a noteworth}'- fact has been the 
abundance of some species which are usually limited in numbers. 
Thus Mr. Bayford notes that there appears to have been an 
unusual abundance of our commoner Carahi, violaceus and 
nemoralis, while monilis has appeared more frequently than 
usual, but is by no means a common species. Several melanic 
forms of common species have been noted, in addition to other 
well-marked varieties. 

An innovation in this list is the division of the county into 
the five vice-counties as outlined in The Naturalist for Decem- 
ber, 1915, p. 373, instead of into the three Ridings as in previous 
reports. This brings the work of the Committee into line 
with that of other sections of the Union, and is a return to the 
method adopted in the list of the Beetles of Yorkshire com- 
menced in the Transactions some years ago by the late Rev. 
W. C. Hey. 

Species new to a particular vice-county are indicated by 
an asterisk followed by the number of that division. Additions 
to the county list are characterised by a dagger. 

The initials indicate Dr. H. H. Corbett, Lieut. H. V. Cor- 
bett, Messrs. E. G. Bayford, J. W. Carter, T. Stainforth, W. E. 
Sharp, M. L. Thompson, G. B. Walsh and the writer. ]\Ir. E. W. 
Morse, being on active service in France, and Mr. E. C. Horrell, 
owing to business affairs, have been this year unable to add 
their usual valuable contributions. 

To avoid needless repetition the beetles found on the 
occasions of the Yorkshire Naturalists' Union excursions are 
not included, but the records of these should be referred to. 
For the Settle and Hebden Bridge meetings there are no 
records of Coleoptera, but of the others, for Saltburn ( The 
Naturalist, 1915, November, p. 366), Mr. Thompson records 
forty species; Sawley [The Naturalist, 1915, July, 3, 232), 
four species, and Bishop Wood [The Naturalist, 1915, Septem- 
ber, p. 287) 148 species were noted (in addition to a few since 
identified). As with other years the following list includes 
some insects taken previous to 1915, but only recently identified. 

There have been forty-four species added to the County 
list during the year, and numerous additions to the Vice- 
Counties, and many additional localities for species already 
recorded have to be held over till the publication of our County 
List. The nomenclature of the catalogue of Beare and Donis- 
thorpe (1904) is used in this list, but it is hoped in future to 
adopt the more recent one of ^Messrs. Newbery and Sharp 
(1915)- 

Naturalist, 



Ford/mm : Yorkshire Coleoptera in 191 5. 205 

Various notes have been published by the members of the 
Committee in The Naturalist and The Entomologist' s Monthly 
Magazine, and these are noted in the text of the report. In 
addition however, attention should be drawn to Mr. G. B. 
Walsh's paper on ' Observations on Some of the causes deter- 
mining the survival and extinction of insects with special 
reference to the Coleoptera' {Entomological Monthly Magazine, 
August and September, 1915, pp. 225 and 257), in which 
many references are made to the beetle fauna of the Humber 
and the Tees areas. 

Dr. Corbett has also a note in The Naturalist (June, 1915, p. 
209), on ' Undesirable Insect Aliens at Doncaster.' 

Carabns arvensis Hbst. Birdsedge, 3-5-1914. B. Morley, 
*63. (E.G.B., E.M.M., October,' 1915, 293). Other 
previous Yorkshire records are re-called by Mr. Carter 
{E. M. M., November, 1915, 311), and" Mr. Walsh 
[E. M. M., November, 1915, 311). 

Bradycellus collarisFk. North Cave. G. B. W., *6i. 
Stanage Moor, 17-9-15, under sod. H.V.C. *63. 

Pterostichus oblongopunctatns F. Very abundant and Amara 
fiilva De G. Swarms, August, Houghton Woods. T. S. 

Pterostichus picimanus Duft. Shirley Pool on flowers of 
meadowsweet, 26-8-15. H. V. C. 

Amara aidicaVz. Unusually common in autumn, not often 
common round Doncaster. H. V. C. 

Amara rufocincta Dj. Eston. One under stone near coast 
in June. M. L. T. (Very rare in Yorkshire). 

Calathus melanocephalus L. var. nubigena Hal. Under stones 
on summit of Nine Standards Rigg, Upper Swaledale in 
July. M. L. T. 

Laemostenus complanatus Dj. Hull Docks. Very common 
under rubbish, near timber yards and in warehouses 
and cellars. T. S. *6i. This beetle has a wide range 
over the globe and is evidently distributed by com- 
merce. The only previous Yorkshire record is Middles- 
brough (a few specimens at Messrs. Dorman Long's 
works — not at Grangetown as erroneously quoted by 
Mr. Walsh in his paper above referred to). 
^Bembidium Clarki Daws. Skipwith Common, April, in sedge 
refuse. G. B. W. 

Bembidium atrocceruleum Steph. Lonsdale. G. B. W. 

Bembidium nitidnlum Marsh var. deletnm Serv. Bridlington 
10-8-12. W. J. F. 

Bembidium Saxatile Gyll. Keld, Upper Swaledale. Fairly 
common on margins of mountain stream. September. 
M. L. T., *65. 

1916 June 1. 



2o6 Fordham : Yorkshire Colcoptcra in 1915. 

Patrobiis assimilis Chaud. Keld. Under stones on high 
moor in July. M. L. T. 
■\Patrobus septentrionis Dj. Frizinghall, 1889. J.W.C. A 
iine specim.en of this insect confirms a previous record 
by Mr. E. B. Wrigglesworth for the Wakefield district. 
This latter record was doubted by Canon Fowler as it 
is an alpine species, but a well-marked specimen of 
septentrionis (as is that taken by Mr. Carter) is very 
distinct from the common excavafus Pk. The Frizing- 
hall specimen shews all its diagnostic features in a marked 
degree. (See J. W. C. in E.M.M., November, 1915, p. 
311). This record is extremely interesting in conjunc- 
tion with the records for Agabus arcticus, Quedionuchus' 
IcEvigatus and Lesteva luctuosa noted later, as confirming 
the theory that what we call the north-western element 
of our insect fauna was at one time far more extensive 
than it is at present. 

Pogonus chalceus Marsh. This species still occurs com.monly 
in its only Yorkshire station. Saltend Common. T. S. 

Metabletus foveola Gyll. Rombald's Moor. F. Rhodes. *64. 

Haliplus fliwiatilis Aub. Stamford Bridge, 5-7-13. W. J. F. 
*6i. Near Keld, July. M. L. T. *65. 
■\ Haliplus immaculntus Gerh. (nee. Newb.). Skipwith Com- 
mon, 30-8-13. W.J.F. (kindly verified by Mr. Jas. 
Edwards). Introduced to the British List in 1911. 
{E.M.M., p. 9), nearly all previous records are from 
the South of England. (Fowler, Brit. Col., VL, p. 18). 

Noterus clavicornis De G. Hornsea Mere. T. S. Escrick, 
14-8-15 W. J. F. *6i. 
■\ Noterus sparsus Marsh. Saltend Common. T. S. (See 
' Notes on some Yorkshire Coleoptera,' T.S. The 
Naturalist, 1915. Decem.ber, p. 402). 

Laccophihis interriiptus Pz. Barmston Drain. G. B. W. 
*6i. 

Coelambus p ar all el ogr animus Ahr. Saltend Common near Hull. 
T. S. (Previously recorded from Marfleet. . The Nat- 
uralist, 1909, p. 352). 

Hydroporus davisi Curt. Keld. Fairly common in Septem- 
ber, in a clear running stream. M. L. T. *65. 

Hydroporus vittula Er. Skipwith Common, 22-4-1911. W.J.F. 
*6i. 
■\Agabus arcticus Pk. Keighley, 1915. Mr. Wilman. This 
insect has hitherto only been recorded from Scotland, 
Northumberland and Ireland. 

Rhantus exoletus Forst. var. ■fnigriventris Newb. and Sharp. 
Askham Bog, ]\rarch, 1895. W. E. S. (see E.M.M., 
1915, October, p. 288). 

Philhydrus coarctatns Gredl. Keighle}'. Mr. Wilman. *63. 

Naturalist 



Fordhaui : Yorkshire Colcoptcra in 1915. 207 

■\Helophoriis miilsanti Rye. Saltend Common. T.S. (See 
The Naturalist 1915, December, p. 403). 

Helophorus arvernicus Muls. Malham. J. W. C. *64. 

Cercyon depressus Steph. Bridlington, 23-5-09. W. E. S. 
*6i. The specimen on which this species was added 
to the Yorkshire hst was taken to the north of Filey in 
sheep dung on the cliffs towards Gristhorpe and therefore 
in V.C. 62. (See The Naturalist, 1915, May, p. 165). It 
was recorded by Bold for Northumberland but doubted 
by Canon Fowler [Col. Brit. Isles, Vol. I., p. 256), as 
its other stations are all in the south. 

Cercyon hcvmorrhoits Gyll. Frizinghall and Keighley. F. 
Rhodes. *63. 
•\Cercyon lugiibris Pk. Shirley Pool, Askern. October, 1911. 

W. E. S. 
^Cercyon granariiis Er. Skipwith in fungus, June, 1914. 
W. J. F. 

Cercyon minutus F. Bubwith on bones. W. J. F. *6i. 

Aleochara algarum Fauv. Bridlington, 23-5-1909. W. E. S. 
*6i. 

[To he continued). 



— : o :- 



The Dialect of Hackness (North East Yorkshire) with original specimen, 
and a word list. By G. H. Cowling. Cambridge Ihiiversity Press, 195 pp. 
9s. net. This Grammar ' is an attempt to investigate a modern Yorkshire 
dialect on a scientific plan.' The Ijasis for investigation has been the 
Yorkshire dialect of the fourteenth century, not old English, ' for in spite 
of many modern dialect grammarians, no Northern English dialect is 
derived from old West Saxon.' The author gives examples of many 
old-world local dialects which he consulted, and he offers many interesting 
instances of local sound-changes, and no doubt the phonology will be of 
value to all who are interested in the development of the English language. 
The dialect on the Wolds and in the vales of north-eastern and eastern 
Yorkshire is frostv but kindly. Frosty in its naked directness. Frosty in 
its extreme sobriety of expression. Frosty too, its hatred of diminutives. 
The volume is a remarkable and scholarly production, and will be of 
value for all time. Tts perusal is most interesting, though the frequent 
use of the phonetic symbols is confusing until they are mastered. There 
are samples of Hackness dialect, including a good storj' of the Hare and 
the Prickly-backed iTchin. The hare had called t' prickly-backt urchin 
' bandy legs,' so the latter challenged the hare to a race along the furrows 
in a ' tonnep-field.' The urchin put his ' missis ' at one end of the fun'ow, 
and apparently started to run, with the hare, at the other. By the time 
the hare reached the far end the ' missis ' jumped up and 'mailed oot.' 
■ Here I is.' So the hare raced back and then found Mr. l^rchin jump 
up with ' Here I is.' y\nd the process went on until the hare died of 

exhaustion, it not having occurred to the hare that there were two urchins. 
' T' moral o' this tale is fost, at neabody owt tae think hissen a better 
chap nor other fowk, and mak fun on 'em. And second, at men owt tea 
pick wives like theirsens, wives at can help 'em, and be some use tiv 'em. 
Them at's urchins mun pick an urchin for a wife, and not a fond doe 
rabbit, nor a bit in' rezzil.' 

1916 June 1. 



208 

NEWS FROM THE MAGAZINES. 

The Jonniai of the Board of Agriculture for April contains a report 
on ' Medicinal Plants in England.' 

British Birds for May contains records of a white tailed eagle and 
rough legged buzzards in Lincolnshire. 

The Entomologist's Record for April contains a paper on ' British 
Races of Butterflies, ' by Dr. R. Verity. 

The Zoologist for May includes some notes on Yorkshire Birds, in- 
cluding the Stonechat, Redshank, Swift, Woodcock, etc. 

In The Scottish Naturalist for ^lay, Mr. W. Denison Roebuck writes 
on ' Easterness : the vice county and its MoUuscan Fauna.' 

Lincolnshire Notes and Queries for April contains a well-illustrated 
article on Roman remains at Saltersford, near Grantham, by Henry 
Preston. 

Among the Leaflets recently published by the Board of Agriculture and 
Fisheries, we notice No. 57, which deals with the use of Sulphate of 
Ammonia as Manure ; No. 58, White Mustard, and 80, the use of artificial 
Manures. 

Mr. F. A. Lucas's brief report on ' British Neuroptera in 1915,' which 
includes a few Yorkshire and Lancashire records, appears in The En- 
tomologist for May. A further instalment of Mr. Claude Morley's ' Notes 
on Braconidje ' includes Northern records. 

The Micrologist, Vol. 111., part 2, contains articles on a method 
for grinding rock, bone, teeth, etc., by Charles Cottam ; The Polyzoa, by 
H. E. Hurrell ; and the Fairy Shrimp. There are several excellent illus- 
trations. The Publication is sold by Messrs. Flatters, Milbourne & Mc- 
Kechnie, Ltd., price is. 6d. 

The Eighth Annual Report issued by the National Museum of Wales, 
contains the following interesting items : — ' to specimens ;^2393, to 
Library ^loq, purchases from the Pyke Thompson Fund £333,' and numer- 
ous similar items which show that our friends in Wales are not stinting 
their National Museum, which is not built yet. 

In The Zoologist for April we notice there are papers on ' Birds seen 
during the Dardanelles' Campaign,' by Captain A. W. Boyd; 'The 
Mammals of Flanders,' by Captain P. Gosse, and ' A Diary of Ornitho- 
logical Observation made in Iceland during June and July, 1912,' by 
Edmund Selous ; as well as a number of bird notes for the Bradford 
district. 

Among the contents of the Journal of the Derbyshire ArchcBological 
and Natural History Society, Vol. XXXVIIL, we notice ' Plant Galls of 
Thorp and District,' by H. J. Burkill ; ' Roman Buxton,' by E. Tristram ; 
' Wirksworth China,' by T. S. Tudor; ' Chellaston Alabaster,' by Rev. 
R. L. Farmer ; ' Zoological Notes,' by W. Shipton ; and ' Lepidoptera, ' 
by H. C. Hayward. 

Among the contents of The Lancashire and Cheshire Naturalist for 
March we notice a paper ' On the Pupation of the Fox Moth,' b}' George 
Bolam ; ' Belinurus lunatus from Sparth, Rochdale,' by Mr. W. .A. Parker ; 
' Arthropods observed in 1915. III.— Hymenoptera,' by A. Randall 
Jackson. The April number contains a ' Report on False Scorpions and 
Woodlice,' by R. Standen. 

The Journal of the Manchester Geographical Society, Vol. XXXI., 
Parts 1-4, 1915, dated March 1916, and received on April 20th, is a 
remarkably good number and well illustrated. Besides numerous articles 
on Nigeria, Venezuela, Japan, Ceylon, etc.. Major H. G. Lyons' presidential 
address to Section E (Geography), at the British Association meeting, 
is printed, as well as the president's address to the Manchester Societv, 
by Mr. H. Nuttall, M.P. 

Naturalist, 



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Animal Romances. Renshaw. 4/- 

British Butterflies, etc. (coloured plates). Thomas. 4/- 

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Determination of Sex. Doncaster.- 4/6 

Book of nature Study. Farmer. 6 vols. 4/6 per vol. 

Richard Jefferies. Thomas. 6/6 

Animal Life. Gamble. 4/- 

FuR and Feather Series. Pheasant, Partridge, Grouse. 1/9 

each. 
Science from an Easy Chair. Lankester. 4- 

Do. (Second Series). 4/- 

Nature Through the ^Microscope. Spiers. (99 plates). 4/- 
Fauna of Dumfriesshire. Gladstone. 3'6 
White's Natural History of Selborne. Coloured Illustrations 

by Collins. 6/- 
The Humble Bee. Sladen. 6/- 
LiFE OF MacGillivray. 6/- 

The Making of Species. Dewar. and Finn. 4/- 
The Greatest Life. Leighton. 3/- 
Fauna of Cheshire. 2 vols. 15/- 
History of Birds. P^^craft. 6/- 
BooK OF Birds. Pycraft. 2/6 

Natural History of some Common Animals. Latter. 37- 
The Gannet. Gurney. 13/- 
Birds of Isle of Man. Ralfe. 8/- 
HoME Life of Osprey. Abbott. 2/6 
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Bibliography of Yorkshire Geology 

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By T. SHEPPARD, m.sc, f.g.s., f.r.g.s., f.s.a.(scot.) 

8vo, xxxvi. -\- 62g pp. 15/- iid. 

This forms Volume XVIII. of the Proceedings of the Yorkshire 
Geological Society. It contains full references to more than 6,300 
books, monographs and papers relating to the geology and physical 
geograph}' of Yorkshire, and to more than 400 geological maps and 
sections, published between 1534 and 1914. In its preparation over 
700 sets of Scientific Journals, Reports, Transactions and Magazines 
have been examined. There is an elaborate index containing over 
26,500 references to subjects, authors and localities. 

London- : A. BROWN & SONS, Ltd., 5 Faning-tlon Avenue, E.G. 



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to the vice-counties as given in Watson's Topographical Botany. 

A. BROWN & SONS, Ltd., 40 George St., Hull. 



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Keeper, Natural History Dept., Royal Scottish 
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June 1st, 1916. 



JULY 1916. 



No. 714 

(No. 491 of current series) 




A MONTHLY ILLUSTRATED JOURNAL OF 

NATURAL HISTORY FOR THE NORTH OF ENGLAND. 

EDITED BY 

T. SHEPPARD, M.Sc, F.G.S.. F.R.Q.S., F.S.A.Scot.. 

The Museums, Hull ; 

AND 

T. W. WOODHEAD, Ph.D., M.Sc, F.L.S. 

Technical Collkge, Huddersfield. y^^^^'"'' 

WITH THE assistance AS REf ERSES IN SPECIAL DEPARTMENTS OF 

J. GILBERT BAKER, P.R.S. P.L.S., GEO. T. PORRITF, /p.L.il.) fciH^sl 

Prof. P. P. KENDALL, M.Sc. P.Q.S.. JOHN W. TAYLOR.Vm.^., 

T. H. NELSON. M.Sc, M.B.O.U., RILEY FORTUNE. K^^' 

Contents : — 



Notes and Comments : — South Eastern Naturalists; Their Methods; A Comparison ; A 
Miniature British Association; Faith; The President's Address; 'What is Truth?' 
Scientific Criticism; The Book of Genesis; The Deluge; Superstition; Discussion; 
Other Papers; The British Museum; Radioleucn; The Basis; Tunbridge Wells Hand- 
book ; Dr. W. Eagle Clarke 



209-215 
215-211; 



Jottings from South Eastern Union's Congress 

Whlte=bllled Northern Diver (Colymbus adatnsi) and other Sea Fowl at Scar- 
borough— M^. /. C/ftrAt, F.Z.S 217-2i;> 

The Lineage of Tragophylloceras loscombi J. Sow (Illustrated)—^. E. Trucman, B.Sc. 220-224 



Observations on Brefeldia maxima Rost. (Illustrated)- /I. R. Sanderson 

Pseudaaodonta elongata (?) In Yorkshire (IWMsixAleA)—]. A.Hargreaves and J. Digby 
Firth, F.L.S 



225-228 



?29-280 
231-2:!0 
237-23i? 



Yorkshire Naturalists at Malton (Illustrpted)— H-'.S.L.ir 

Decrease in Birds— VF. /I. DHKi/orrf, M.S.0.J7 

Field Notes:— Nesting of the Grasshopper Warbler in the West Riding; The Distribution 
of Agabiis arcticus Pk. ; Trichostomum nitidum Schp. in West Vorks. ; A Plague of 
Caterpillars; Bird Notes from Whitby 219,224,239 

Proceedings of Provincial Scientific Societies ... 228 

News from the Magazines 219,238 

Northern News 216, 240 

Illustrations 220,222,227,228,229,230,234 



LONDON : 

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And at Hull and York. 

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NOIV /?EADY. 

YORKSHIRE'S 

Contribution to Science 

{Based upon the Presidential Address to the Yorkshire 
Naturalists' Union, delivered at the Leeds University) 

By THOMAS SHEPPARD 

M.Sc, F.G.S., F.R.G.S., F.S.A.{Scot.) 

240 pages Demy 8vo, illustrated, tastefully bound in Cloth 
Boards, with gilt top and gilt lettering on back and side, 

5/' net. 

The publication of much additional matter has caused some 
delay in the appearance of the book. It is illustrated, and contains 
a complete history of the scientific publications issued in the various 
Yorkshire towns. It contains the following: — 

Yorkshire's Contribution to Science. 

Yorkshire Publications arranged Topographically. 

Existing Yorkshire Scientific Magazines and their Predecessors. 

Yorkshire Scientific Magazines now Extinct. 

County and Riding Societies. 

Yorkshire Topographical and General Magazines. 

Magazines : General Natural History Journals ; ^Museums ; 

Ornithology ; Mollusca ; Entomology ; Botany and General 

Biology; Geography; Meteorology. 

Scientific Societies (General). 

Geological Publications. 

Archaeological and Antiquarian Publications (General). 

Books of Reference. 

List of Societies, Journals, Proceedings, Magazines, etc., 
described. 



London 

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5 Farringdon Avenue, E.G. 

And at Hull and York. 



JUN24 1920 




209 
NOTES AND COMMENTS^ use:" 

SOUTH EASTERN NATURALISTS. 

The South-Eastern Union of Scientific Societies, modelled 
after the style of the Yorkshire Naturalists' Union, reached 
its majority this year, and between May 24th and May 27th 
held its twenty-first annual Congress at Tunbridge Wells, the 
place of its birth ; in fact the Society is said to have been 
actually born in the pump-room there ! As we in Yorkshire 
look upon our society as the father of Unions of this description, 
(the Lincolnshire Union being another healthy child — a ' Mid- 
land ' Union dying in its infancy), the present writer gladly 
accepted a kind invitation to join the Congress. And the fact 
that he received a special vote of thanks from the Council for 
his attendance, with a request that he might visit them again, 
is some indication that he behaved himself as a parent should. 

THEIR METHODS. 

The meetings were presided over by the Rev. T. R. R. 
Stebbing, M.A., F.R.S., who was the first president of the Union. 
In some respects the South-Eastern Union's meetings were 
reminiscent of the early days of the Yorkshire Society. There 
was not quite the monotonous harmony which sometimes 
characterises old age. At present our southern friends seem 
to confine their efforts to an Annual Congress, with very 
enjoyable picnics in the afternoons ; receptions, popular lectures 
and visits to cinemas in the evenings, and morning sessions 
for papers and discussions and occasional meetings of delegates. 
On these occasions the heat with which the delegates indulged 
in the feast of wisdom and flow of soul was certainly rem- 
iniscent of the General Committee meetings, held years ago 
in connection with the Yorkshire Society. 

A COMPARISON. 

At present, however, the southern society is still youthful. 
It likes an enjoyable outing. It is still exuberant. It has not 
settled down to the serious work by means of various general 
and special field excursions, and by the formation of sections 
and committees, that obtains in Yorkshire, though there were 
certainly signs that the society was ' coming of age,' and more 
inclined to follow definite lines of research, and one or two 
committees were formed wdth that object. After the Congress 
the various papers and addresses are recorded in the annual 
South Eastern Naturalist, which, last year, appeared with 
commendable promptitude. 

A MINIATURE BRITISH ASSOCIATION. 

In a way the Tunbridge Wells Congress was very like a 
British Association meeting, on a small scale. The men, 
however were distinctly in the minority, though quite a large 
proportion had reached their three score years and ten, and 
not a few had passed their eightieth milestone. These latter 
might easily have been the youngest in the party, whether 

1916 July 1. 



210 Notes and Comments. 

taking part in excursions or in debates. Among them was 
Sir Henry Howorth ; like the holly, evergreen, and fairly 
bristling with sharp witticisms and good humour. He had 
aparently forgotten his Glacial Nightmare and his Flood, his 
Mammoth and his Mongols ; and his charming personality 
and fund of stories were much appreciated. And, of course, 
there were the ladies, very many, though not plenty of them. 
Like the British Association, the Congress concluded with the 
usual ' bread and butter meeting ' where everybody was thanked 
for everything, and all said nice things about each other. 

FAITH. 

One prominent feature of the meetings was the great faith 
with which the members drank in all the wisdom that flowed 
from the lecturers and the lips of the guides on the excursions. 
Curious geological phenomena — explained in curious ways — 
were never questioned ; extraordinary dates and weird 
descriptions given to specimens in the old buildings visited 
w^ere apparently swallowed as though they had been camels. 
We missed the familiar and pardonable, though sometimes 
awkward ' How do you know ? ' and ' Why ? ' that we get in 
Yorkshire. 

THE president's ADDRESS. 

The President, the Rev. T. R. R. Stebbing, the well-known 
authority on Crustacea, certainly gave a surprise and caused 
some concern by his address on ' Thoughts that breathe and 
words that burn.' He began with the anecdote of the man 
going to Bagdad who asked a skull by the wayside, ' How 
came you here, my friend ? ' to which the skull replied, ' By 
talking too much.' Should an antiquarian a thousand y&Qxs 
hence light upon this narrative he must not infer that in our 
epoch skulls without brains retained a limited power of vocali- 
sation. This warning applies to a scientific audience as 
much as any other, in proof of which opinions are continually 
changing, and therefore absolute freedom is necessary for 
scientific expression. To win sympathy for this claim to full 
liberty of conscience Mr. Stebbing quoted Sir Thomas IMoore, 
whose life was forfeited because he quietly clung to the opinion 
in which he had been educated. How men change their 
minds on vital questions, with results which influence the 
world for ages, was illustrated by various examples, and he 
pointed out that it was no refutation of an argument to cast 
stones at the speaker, as at the devout Syrian who was tried 
for his religious faith. It was, moreover, unfair to forcibly 
interrupt an argument midway because one disliked the 
conclusion to which it was leading. On one side one had 
multitudes incessantly and fervidly proclaiming their opinions, 
and on the other, assemblages who, by holding their tongues, 
averted needless obloquy. 

Naturali?! 



Notes and Comments. 211 

' WHAT IS TRUTH ? ' 

It was assuredly in no jesting mood that Pilate asked, 
' What is truth ? ' and had he waited for an answer until 
Bacon's essay on Truth was published he would still have 
found it undefined. Mr. Stebbing did not aspire to answer 
the question. His humbler task was to examine particular 
instances of what is not truth. When we looked at the 
problems involved in human affairs, laws or ethics, where did 
we find anything like agreement or finality ? In spite of 
the fact that the struggle between orthodoxy and heresj^ has 
been repeatedly determined by the sword, it may still be 
maintained that all reasonable human controversy must be 
engaged in bywords. When a fallacy is embodied in a single 
word it may escape notice. There was no word more mis- 
leading in the English language than ' Bible,' which had 
become almost an object of idolatry. Sometimes the title 
' The Book ' was amplified into ' The Holy Bible.' Yet it 
was a selection of many books, whose conflicting contents were 
summed up in the description of the national theology of 
England as given by a famous poet in his invocation beginning 
' Of man's first disobedience.' 

SCIENTIFIC CRITICISM. 

Almost every word of this summary of our national theology 
was now challenged by scientific or other criticism as untenable, 
misleading, and impossible to reconcile with any claim to 
Divine inspiration. Can it be a matter of indifference to our 
law-givers, bishops and clergy, masters of public schools, 
whether tenets which most of them are bound officially to 
accept, and to instil into others, are really of Divine origin, 
or, alternatively, unworthy of belief ? How could missionaries 
confronted with every grade of culture meet men their equals 
in the discipline of argument if they showed themselves lament- 
ably ignorant or wilfully scornful alike of science and the art 
of reasoning ? Those they wished to convert were confronted 
by the geologist with the alternative of believing either that 
Omnipotence spent six days in creating the globe, or that 
Omniscence deliberately inspired Moses to falsify the record. 

THE BOOK OF GENESIS. 

The speaker proceeded to test the Book of Genesis from 
the astronomical, geological and anthropological standpoints, 
bringing the Articles of the Church of England into the com- 
parison. How many women of intelligence even among the 
most devout will be willing to acknowledge the Biblical account 
of the actual origin of their sex. Yet in the New Testament 
the sanctity of marriage was based on a quotation from this 
account. Mr. Stebbing next dealt with the talking, argu- 
mentative serpent, and quoted Professor Owen's description 
of the capabilities of the serpent, which, he remarked, was a 

1916 July 1. 



212 Notes and Comments. 

fine defence for an animal which in these days could not speak 
for itself. In relieving the serpent of responsibility for a share 
in Adam's fall it was urged that man's first disobedience did 
not bring death into the world, because as palaeontologists are 
assured, death was there long before man made his appearance, 
and zoologists are well aware that the serpent is no more 
accursed than any other wild animal. But supposing no 
weight were allowed to the crushing scientific evidence that 
the early chapters of Genesis are not a Divine revelation, there 
still remains the tremendous point tliat the Church bases its 
faith on the record of Adam's fall. 

THE DELUGE. 

The President next passed under review the Biblical 
account of the Deluge and the Tower of Babel, and the pre- 
datory campaigns of the Israelites. In every direction the 
advance of science makes it clear that men of old had no 
more communication with the Most High than we have. In 
their writings of reputed inspiration, noble thoughts and lofty 
ideals are mixed up with atrocities unworthy of a barbarian. 
In these days we may be excused for asking how Christianity 
fulfilled its earliest promise of bringing glad tiding to the 
human race. What he had been saying was not to be regarded 
as a perverse and presumptous challenge, but an appeal for 
vital changes in the laws of the Church and State which conflict 
with the traditional faith of millions. 

SUPERSTITION. 

To this last point he invited attention, not only for its 
intrinsic importance, but because of the misunderstanding 
which attended it. Those who were immovably sure of being 
among the chosen few must have the disquieting suspicion that 
their confidence may be misplaced, and generous minds would 
be haunted by the probability that the majority of their friends 
may not share their bliss. The dreadful arithmetic of the 
Athanasian Creed was appalling. Mr. Stebbing quoted the 
terrors fulminated by last century divines, including the 
description of the infernal regions by good Bishop. Berridge, 
and remarked that poets and preachers seemed seldom to 
reflect that this riot of divine vengeance has left the world 
indifferent. It is surely time for men of science and theologians 
to join hands in revolt against superstition masquerading as 
piety. If a tree can be known by its fruits, the history of the 
world proclaims that there must be something wrong in the 
traditional teaching of Christianity which needs a thorough 
purging. Statements founded on fable and supported by 
false logic must be withdrawn. When the dross has been 
cleared away, the pure gold of true inspiration will have a 
chance of shining. The noblest thoughts which in difterent 
ages have found expression will win their way into the general 

Naturalist, 



Notes and Comments. 213 

conscience, bidding men to do justice and love mercy, and to 
think of God not as an implacable avenger, but as the author 
of Peace and lover of concord, who asks our help in the well 
ordering of this small corner of His wondrous universe, and 
who would have us know that all our doings without lovmg 
kindness are worth nothing. 

DISCUSSION. 

As might be expected, an audience consisting largely of 
ladies, and a fair sprinkling of clergy, received the address 
in dii^erent ways. One member even went so far as to propose 
that the President be asked to write another address ! A 
President's address, however, whether we agree with it or 
not (and few addresses can be found in which there is not 
some point of disagreement) is, by courtesy, not a subject for 
discussion, and should be printed as given, especially when 
it is made quite clear in the volume that the authors alone 
are responsible for the opinions expressed in their communi- 
cations. Eventually this was agreed to by a large majority 
of the delegates. 

OTHER PAPERS. 

The other papers given before the Congress were :— ' Some 
Remarkable Resemblances of Inorganic Formations to 
Organic,' in which Mr. G. Abbott dealt with limestone con- 
cretions' etc. ; ' Extinct Animals,' by Mr. H. R. Knipe ; 
' Prehistoric Man,' by Dr. Keeble ; ' Young Animals,' by 
Dr. Chalmers Mitchell"; ' Coinages and Mints of South Eastern 
England,' by Mr. A. Archibald ; ' Some Rare British Birds,'^ 
by Miss E. L. Turner ; ' The Discovery of Oxygen in the Stars,' 
by Professor H. N. Turner ; and ' The Educational Importance 
of the Kinema,' by Dr. W. Martin. All were well illustrated, 
the last lecture, given at a ' Picture Palace,' being especially 
striking. Papers dealing with definite problems in connection 
with the natural history, geology and archaeology of the area 
■covered by the Union were not quite as plentiful as they might 
have been. The popular lectures of course are valuable and 
desirable, but they do not carry out what should be, and no 
doubt is, the main object of the South Eastern Union, namely 
the scientific investigation of its area. 

THE BRITISH MUSEUM. 

One delegate suggested that a resolution should be sent 
to the Government in reference to the closing of the British 
Museum. Sir Henry Howorth, who was called upon, said that 
as a Trustee of the" British Museum of many years' standing, 
he had made a desperate fight, together with his colleagues, to 
have the Museum left open. The fact was that the whole 
thing was perfectly illegal. There was a Charter in which it 
was specially provided by Act of Parliament that the Museum 
•should never be closed at all, and many things had been given 



214 Notes and Comments. 

on that condition. The Government, however, threatened to 
withdraw grants if the Museum were kept open during the 
war. The only Museum of any quahty or importance in the 
whole of England, Scotland, Ireland or Wales to be closed on 
account of the war was the British Museum. He was afraid 
however, that it was hopeless to attempt to do anything in 
the matter. Professor Boulger asked if they could not apply 
to the High Court for a writ of mandamus against Sir Henry 
and the other Trustees to compel them to re-open the Museum ? 
Sir Henry Howorth replied that if the speaker liked to go 
round with the hat and collect five or six thousand pounds to 
pay for the legal proceedings he might do so. 

RADIOLEUM. 

Of somewhat exceptional and certainly extraordinary 
character, was the exhibit by Mrs. W. Dickinson, of Brighton, 
which was in the temporary Museum at the Technical Institute. 
By an appalling series of photographs, mysterious crystals 
in tubes, microscope slides and so on, Mrs. Dickinson explained 
the wonderful properties of her discovery known as Radioleum. 
This, it is claimed, ' works entirely by nature, and is a radio- 
active agent of purely vegetal origin, which effects many 
wonderful changes, comparable with those produced by radium.' 
From a pamphlet which was distributed, it seems that among 
many other things, Radioleum makes ' pure radio-active 
water ; it produces radiole fibres or threads, radiole stars, the 
brilliant specks, radiole crystals, sometimes snow-like ; it 
produces X-ray photography ; it is a substitute for yeast ; 
it separates and purifies any mineral, gives greater heating 
power with slower combustion to coal, producing no waste ; 
it produces an egenitic fertilizer for pure vegetation from soil ; 
it cleans wool direct from the sheep in a few hours, ready for 
the weaver ; it produces active iris rays in glass, also gaseous 
rays in brilliant colourings ; it purifies and reduces waste paper 
into pulp in a few minutes ready for re-manufacture ; produces 
a substitute for ice from flour, etc' 

THE BASIS. 

Apparently the substitute is derived from an oil from the 
East, which was exhibited, and which we understood Mrs. 
Dickinson to say wa,s something like 2,000 years old, possibly 
more. Any scepticism a visitor might have Was dispelled by 
Mrs. Dickinson's persuasive personality, which was miost 
convincing. In the short time available it was not possible to 
fathom the mysteries of the results of J\Irs. Dickinson's six 
years' hard work. In one respect, however, the present 
writer must express a little disappointment. He was assured 
that Radioleum would considerably reduce his weight, but 
there was no great difference in his bulk when he left Tunbridge 
Wells. Possibly the fair scientist had not proper opportunity 

NaturalistyT 



• Notes and Comments. 215 

for experiment. In any case if Radioleum has anything hke the 
properties claimed for it, we shall certainly be hearing much 
more of j\Irs. Dickinson and her discoveries in years to come. 

TUNBRIDGE WELLS HANDBOOK. 

In one respect the South Eastern Union has carried out a 
magnificent piece of work, which will be a valuable scientific 
record of the district for all time. This is entitled ' Tunbridge 
Wells and Neighbourhood. A Chronicle of the Town from 
1608 [? 1606] to 1915, and papers by various writers relating 
to the Geology, Plant and Animal Life, Archseologj/, and other 
matters of the District. Edited by Henry R. Knipe, LL.B., 
F.L.S., &c., President of the Tunbridge Wells Literary Society.' 
and contains 205 pages with illustrations, the whole being 
bound in an artistic cover. The publication is sold at 2s. 6d. 
The first section contains a chronological list of the events 
between 1606 and the present day. There are chapters on 
Archaeology, Geology, and the various Natural History sections, 
by first-rate men. The editor, Mr. Knipe, is certainly to be 
congratulated upon a very valuable piece of work. 

DR. W. EAGLE CLARK. 

Readers of The Naturalist will be delighted to learn that 
the St. Andrew's LTniversity has conferred the degree of Doctor 
of Laws, ' honoris causa,' on a past-President of the Yorkshire 
Naturalists' Union, William Eagle Clark, F.R.S.E. Dr. Eagle 
Clarke was at one time Curator of the Museum at Leeds, and 
took a prominent part in the affairs of the Yorkshire Naturalists' 
Union, and was joint Editor of The Naturalist. Twenty-eight 
years ago he received an appointment at the Royal Scottish 
Museum, Edinburgh, where he is now the keeper of the 
Natural History Department. While he was one of the Hon. 
Secretaries of the Yorkshire Natiu'alists' Union, together with 
his colleague, Mr. W. Denison Roebuck, he wrote a ' Handbook 
of Yorkshire Vertebrata.' He is also the author of a mag- 
nificent volume ' Studies in Bird Migration,' and at the present 
time is preparing a new edition of Newton's Dictionary of 
Birds. 

The following are a few scraps picked from the discussions during the 
scientific feast at the South Eastern Union's Congress at Tunbridge 
Wells :— 

A collector is no good if he is not a thief. 

The blush that fades at seventeen fixes itself at forty-five. 

While each of us would resent anything said against our mother, all 
of us would be glad to have had a frisk}^ grandmother. 

Improper criticism should be put in the waste paper basket, where 
we all put our soiled linen (and Sir Henry Howorth wondered why the 
delegates laughed ! ). 

Dr. Chalmers Mitchell showed a slide of amgeba, one of which had a 
wide ' modern ' waist, another had a slim one such as he used to put his 
arms round years ago, he said. 

19.16 July 1. 



2i6 Jottings from South Eastern Union's Congress, etc. 

Dr. Woodward tells a story of the late Dr. Gray who was interested 
in Crustacea. One day he was discovered carefully boiling something in a 
test-tube. ' Damn it,' he said, 'it won't go red ! ' It turned out to be 
a domestic flea. 

The late Dr. Buckland was fond of experimenting in a variety of ways. 
He once secured a black patch of fieas from a heron and carefuU}^ placed 
-them in his hat. They all died. A lady to whom he told the circum- 
stances replied, ' Killed by the natives, I suppose ? ' 

The secretary and editor, Dr. W. Martin, resigned his positions after 
six years' service, which was regretted. He stated, with some truth, that 
it was better to feel that there was regret at a resignation, than to hold 
ofifice so long that a resignation came as a relief to the members. 

A scientist called Knipe 

Lectured to the members 
On animals one night ; 

Quaint things that one remembers. 
Such as Iguanodon mantelli. 

Which had a long thumb nail 
And a fearful big round — stomach. 

And a monster of a tail. 

A Canadian visitor to the Zoo asked an attendant what the Kangaroos 
were. On being told they were 'natives of Australia,' he said, 'Well, 
I'm blowed (or words to that effect), my daughter's marrying one of they.' 

As illustrating the advantage of German scientific methods over 
English, Sir Henry Howorth pointed out that every German doctor 
tests his diagnosis by post-mortem. That is pure science. 

The same gentleman at the ' bread and butter meeting ' stated that 
•doubtless the hosts and hostesses would be busy p ounting their silver. At 
any rate he did not give his hostess (the President's wife) an opportunity 
of counting her fountain pen. She told us herself that he took it to 
London with him. Inadvertently, of course. We are glad to take this 
revenge in view of Sir Henry's somewhat pointed remarks about thieves. 

A lady, Mrs. Dickinson, 

Invented Radioleum. 
Its penetrating properties 

Exceeded best petroleum. 
It pulped the evening paper ; 

In glass made little stars ; 
It scorched the skin of Venus, 

And made men laugh in Mars. 
Radioleum originated 

In the fair far East, 
And many ruminated 

At a scientific feast ; 
' It worked entirely by nature,' 

And its action never ceased ; 
Its origin being vegetal, 

It takes the place of yeast ! 



A Cuckoo Note.- — We learn from the press that at Howden recently 
a. labourer, Patrick Larkin, who is known locally as ' the human cuckoo,' 
has a wonderful gift of imitating the call of the cuckoo and has on occasions 
mystified many people in the district. A week ago, in Howden Street, he 
was exercising his peculiar powers, but he also attracted the attention of 
the police by drinking beer from a bottle, and creating a disturbance. He 
Avas fined £2. 

Naturally 



217 

WHITE-BILLED NORTHERN DIVER 

(COLYMBUS ADAMSI), AND OTHER SEA FOWL 

AT SCARBOROUGH. 



W. J. CLARKE, F.Z.S. 



The prolonged period of strong off-sea winds experienced 
•on the Yorkshire Coast during the latter part of February 
and early part of March, 1916, brought great numbers of sea 
birds to the shelter of the coast, where they congregated in the 
harbours and quiet places until the gale subsided. 

At Scarborough, the effect of the storm upon the birds was 
very marked. Great quantities of gulls congregated in the 
South Bay, where at times their numbers must have reached 
many thousands. These thronged the harbour, and sat in 
rows upon the piers and the roof of the fish market waiting 
for the usual offal to be thrown overboard to them. But as 
the trawlers could not get out to sea, there was no food thus 
supphed, and a considerable number of the birds perished in 
-consequence. Every day, during the latter part of the 
gale, dead and dying gulls could be seen floating in the 
harbours. On March 6th, during a couple of miles' walk 
along the south beach, I picked up eleven dead gulls ; on 
the 7th I found eight, and on March 9th seventeen fresh 
■corpses were seen. These included Herring Gulls, Black-headed 
and Common Gulls, and a single Great Black-backed Gull. 
None bore trace of any injury, and a rough post-mortem 
showed in every specimen examined, that the body was ex- 
tremely emaciated, and the stomach contained no trace of 
food. Together with the bodies of the gulls were the recently 
dead remains of many Razorbills, nearly all adult birds, no 
^oubt just returning to their breeding stations at the Speeton 
and Gristhorpe Cliffs, a few Guillemots, including a single Ringed 
-Guillemot, several Puffins, a few Little Auks and a single 
Fulmar Petrel. At one time the presence of so many corpses 
would have brought forth strictures upon ' the man with the 
gun,' but as not a shot has been fired upon our coast since the 
commencement of the war, other reasons must be sought, and 
I am satisfied that the cause of death in almost all cases was 
starvation. 

A visit paid to the harbour during this period of wild 
weather was full of interest. In addition to the crowds of gulls, 
•there were other avian visitors awaiting the return of quieter 
•times. A little group of seven Shags— two adults and five 
immature birds — was a conspicious feature, and as these 
usually shy birds were very tame, an excellent opportunity of 
watching their ways was afforded. They dived constantly 

:»W« July 1. 



2i8 White-billed Northern Diver at Scarborough. 

in search of food, searching the piles and sides of the pier very 
closely, and the course of the submerged bird could be clearly 
traced by the air bubbles rising to the surface of the water. 
The Shags brought up small Coalfish, and also fish offal, and 
did not display any discrimnation in gulping down both living 
and dead food. 

Several Little Auks also availed themselves of the shelter 
afforded by the piers and paddled contentedly about, keeping 
at a respectful distance from their larger neighbours. A 
fisherman on board one of the trawlers scooped one up in his 
net as the bird swam past the stern of the boat, and called to 
his mates to come and look at the ' little duck.' After being 
somewhat roughly, but not unkindly, handed round for inspec- 
tion, it was decided to restore it to liberty and its captor placed 
it on the pier, from whence it was quite unable to take wing, 
probably from exhaustion, as I have seen specimens rise^ 
readily enough from the rocks on other occasions. The little 
bird crawled laboriously about, pushing itself along on its 
breast by means of its feet, its wings being also used as fore 
limbs to assist its progress. It was eventually thrown up 
into the air, and after a short flight alighted on the water. 
Immediately after, the company of Shags which had been 
foraging beneath the water, rose to the surface close to it. The 
Little Auk showed considerable awe of its larger neighbours 
and removed itself as quickly as possible by diving and swimm- 
ing, but the Shags made no effort to molest it. 

On February 29th, learning of the presence in the harbour 
on the previous day of a very large diver, I walked down and 
saw what at iirst I took to be a Great Northern Diver. On 
the approach of the bird, however, I formed another conclusion, 
but in consequence of the military prohibition of the use of 
field glasses, I had none with me and was obliged to come away 
in a state of uncertainty as to the visitor's real identity. On 
the following daj^ I was again there and found the bird 
diving in the rough surf close inshore, where it appeared 
impossible for it to avoid being washed ashore. After a while 
it approached the pier very closely and from a sheltered nook, 
I was able to get a good look at it with my glasses, and to 
confirm the opinion I had formed oh the previous day, that 
it was an adult specimen of the White-billed Northern Diver 
{Colymbus adamsi). At a distance of less than twenty yards, 
I could see the bird as if I held it in ni}^ hand, and the yellowish 
white bill, upper and lower mandibles the same colour, the latter 
much upcurved and giving the bill a distinctly turned-up 
appearance, quite difterent from the bayonet-shaped bill of 
the commoner form, was very distinct. There was a very slight 
brownish tint at the extreme tip of the upper mandible which 
appeared to be due to abrasion of the cuticle at that part. The 

Naturalist, 



White-hilled Northern Diver at ScarboroJigh. 219 

spots on the back were arranged in a similar pattern to those 
on the Great Northern Diver, but were larger individually and 
considerably fewer in number, in colour a light ash grey. The 
feathers of the back and wings bore no light margins, hence 
I concluded the bird was adult. In size, I estimated it to be 
slightly larger than the biggest Great Northern I have handled, 
which was a specimen weighing 10 lbs. 

Although so large a bird, it was very remarkable to note 
the graceful way in which it dived. During the couple of 
hours I had it under observation it was continually descending 
in search of food. This operation was performed by dipping 
the head quietly under water, and the body submerged without 
the slightest disturbance, as if drawn beneath by an invisible 
force. The contrast to the acrobatic feats of the Shags feeding 
close at hand, was very striking, and even the accomplished 
performance of a Red-throated Diver near by was clumsy by 
comparison. 

I did not see it catch a fish, but it several times brought up 
large shapeless lumps of what appeared to be fish offal which 
had been buried in the mud, and these were swallowed. On 
one occasion, it brought to the surface what I took to be a 
crab, but I was not quite sure. 

After three days' sojourn the bird disappeared, and I 
did not see it again. Nor could I hear of it from any of the 
pier men, all of whom had noticed it on account of its great 
size. 



BIRDS. 

Nesting: of the Grasshopper Warbler in the West 
Riding-. — As a sequel to the notes of Mr. Sam Longbottom 
and myself under the above heading {ante pp. 167-170 and 
199-203) on a pair of these birds that successfully reared two 
broods of six in each nest last season (1915), I am sorry to have 
to add that they have kept true to their erratic nature in this 
district, and not any of them, old or young, have returned 
this season. Until June i6th Mr. Longbottom, the park- 
ranger, and several other local observers have kept a strict 
look-out for their return ; so that we can now look upon it 
as hopeless, and we can also designate them as ungrateful 
birds — after such a successful nesting season, and with a promise 
of another similar one ; aided by protective friends. I can 
only add that it is another proof that wild nature has a way 
of its own ; quite regardless of man's idea of what it should 
be. — H. B. Booth, Ben Rhydding. 



Man, for April, contains an excellent portrait and an obituary notice 
of the late Sir Clements Markham. 

1916 Julyl. 



220 



THE LINEAGE OF TRAGOPHYLLOCERAS 
LOSCOMBI (J. SOW.). 



A. E. TRUEMAN.B.Sc, 
University College, Nottingham. 



In a recent paper, F. L. Spath* has suggested that Trag- 
vphylloceras loscomhi is descended from the continental form 
T. nnmismale (Quenst.) the more primitive condition of the 







Fig. 1. — a.b. Shell at diam. 7'3 mms. c. d. The same at diam. l'2inins. 
e. The same at diam. -8 mms. f. At diam, '55 mms. g. h. Protoconch, x 42, 

latter being indicated by its wider umbiUcus and the persistence 
of constrictions until the shell attains a diameter of 20 mms. 
On the tunnel heaps at Old Dalby in North Leicestershire, 
there occur small specimens of T. loscomhi similar to those 
described by Spath from Lyme Regis ; associated with these 

* F. I.. Spath, 'The Development of Trag. loscombi,' Quart. Journal 
■Geol. Soc, 1914, p. 336. 

Naturalist » 



The Lineage of Tragophylloceras loscomhi. 221 

at Dalby are constricted specimens ranging up to 13 mms. in 
diameter. It has been pointed out by B. Smith* that the 
heaps at Dalby probably contain representatives of all the zones 
from oxynotiis to jamesoni, and it is therefore' to be regretted 
that the exact stratigraphical relationships of T. loscombi and 
its constricted variety cannot be satisfactorily studied. Light is 
thrown on its phylogenetic position, however, by a consideration 
of the development of a series of specimens representing the 
intermediate stages between the most primitive form found 
(fig. la, b,) and the normal T. loscombi. 

Details of such a series are given below. The more advanced 
members are characterised by a greater degree of involution 
and by a smaller number of constrictions, which are confined 
to earlier stages in shell growth. 

Umbilicus Number Last 

Diameter, % (at diam. of Constriction 

7'5 mms.) Constrictions. at 

Type 4 (typical 

T. loscombi) 10 ... 20 ... 7 ... 3 mms. 

,, 3 9 ... 26 ... 12 ... 8mms. 

„ 2 13 ... 30 ... 17 ... Still faintly 

constricted. 
„ 1 (Fig. 1) ...... 7-5 ... 35 ... 19+ Marked 

constrictions. 

It appears therefore that we are here dealing with successive 
stages of a lineage or genetic series, the characteristic features 
appearing at earlier stages in the more advanced members 
owing to acceleration in development. 

This conclusion is further supported by a comparison of the 
shells and sutures of the two most widely separated forms. 
The sutural developm.ent of the specimens of Tragophylloceras 
loscombi (Type 4) examined does not differ materially from 
that figured by Spath ; J the development of the suture in the 
constricted form (Type 1) is given in fig. 2 a-f. It will be 
noticed that the first suture (fig. 2a) is of the usual angustisellate 
character ; the " incipient ventral lobe " observed by Spath 
in some examples of T. loscombi is not present. Much greater 
differences are shown in the second suture. The shallow 
ventral lobe, without a median saddle, is suggestive more of 
Phylloceras heterophyllnm § than of T. loscombi. The third suture 
(fig. 2 c) is similar to the second suture of the typical loscombi 
figured by Spath, so that here again the acceleration in devel- 
opment revealed by the constrictions, is quite evident. By the 

* Mem. Geol. Survey, Sheet 142, ' Geol. of Melton Mowbrav tS:c.' 
1909, p. 36. 

+ Loc. cit. Fig. 1, p. 341. 

§ Branco, \V. 'Beit. Eritwick. foss. Ceph. ' Th. I., PI. IX., fig. 1, 1879. 

1916 July 1. 



222 



The Lineage of Tragophylloceras loscomhi. 



seventh suture in T. loscomhi the first lateral saddle is greater 
than the external saddle, a characteristic feature in the sutures 
of Tragophylloceras, yet this is not attained in type i until 
much later. In this form, moreover, the first indications of 
denticulation appear at a diameter of 4 mms., while in loscomhi 
they are developed at little more than half this diameter.* The 
stage reached by the latter form at 4 mms. is not attained by 
type I until the diameter is 7 mms. 



(q-M) 



( 30-,^.) 




•f^ I ?»k,J A..*!.^ "^ ^ 



■f^ J ^x.' '\ <^ "■ 



*■•? Or 



The suture shown in fig. 3 is from a rather more advanced 
form belonging to type 2. That shown in fig. 4 was drawn 
from an isolated piece of a whorl and thus its exact position 
in the series cannot be given, but it is at approximately the 
diameter of 30 mms. and it is closely paralleled by Spath's 
figure of loscomhi at two thirds that diameter. It is also 
practically identical with the suture figured by Quenstedtf as 
Ammonites heterophyllus numismalis. 

The differences Ijetween the relative heights of whorl and 



* Loc. cit. Fig. 1 d., p. 341 

t Quenstedt, F. A., ' Amm. Svvabisch. Jura.' Tab. 37, fig. 10, 1883-5. 



Naturalist, 



combi. 


Type 1. 


' numismale. 


35 . 


.. 37 


... 40 


44 . 


. 46 


... 50 


48 . 


. 46 


... 45 


38 . 


.. 43 


... 45 


54 . 


.. 47 


... • 44 


30 . 


.. 33 


... 36 



The Lineage of .Tragophylloccyas loscomhi. 223 

the degree of involution may likewise be explained by tachy- 
genesis. The following table gives details of whorl heights in 
type I, in loscombi* and in ' numismale.' ^ 

Diameter. 

1 mm. Wh. lit. per cent 

Wh. th. „ 

4 mms. Wh. ht. ,, about ... 

Wh. th. „ ,, ... 
7 mms. Wh. ht. ,, 

Wh. th. „ 

It will be seen from the above that in ' T. mimismale ' whorl 
height is equal to whorl thickness at a diameter of 4 mms. ; in 
type I this condition is reached a little earlier, and in T. 
loscom,bi, at less than 3 mms. At ever}/ stage, the specimen 
shown in fig. i is intermediate between the typical T. loscomhi 
and Pompeckj's numismale. 

The protoconch of type i (fig. i g.h) likewise shows inter- 
esting differences from that of Tragophylloceras loscomhi. The 
former is more timiid and less distinctly fusiform, although 
the lengths of the two forms are identical, viz. about 0.6 mms. 
Probably these characters also are indications of its more primi- 
tive nature. 

It will be apparent that the constricted specimens v.^e have 
described, approach very closely in many respects to T. los- 
comhi ; indeed, similarly constricted forms were described by 
d'Orbigny J under that name. They are still more like the fossils 
referred to numismale by Pompeckj. Buckman, § however, 
has limited the name, and separated Pompeckj's forms and 
some of those figured by Ouenstedt, as T. typicum, which 
is a ' crenulate, compressed development ' of numismale. 
The lineage of numismale-loscomhi in all probability also includes 
Trag. ambiguus, Simps. Pompeckj stated that one of the 
differences between ' numismale' (i.e. typicum, Buck.) and T. 
loscomhi, lay in the smaller number of auxiliaries in the latter. 
Spath urged that this difference is no reason for doubting his 
conclusion, a suggestion which is supported by the types 
described, in which the number of auxiliaries is very variable. 

For our information concerning the constricted form, we 
have had to rely almost entirely on young material, therefore 
we cannot state its precise position in the lineage numismale- 
amhiguus-loscomhi, until the developments of the named adult 

* Spath, loc. cit. Table I., p. 342. 

f Pompeckj, J. F., ' Beit. Revision. Amm. Swab. Jura,' 1893, p. 14. 
Buckman has renamed this T. typicum. See below. 

X d'Orbign}', ' Paleont. franc. Terr. Jurass,' Tom. 1, p. 2(i5, 1842. 
§ Buckman, S. S., ' Yorks. Type Amm.', I., p. viii., 1912. 

isiejulyl. 



224 Field Notes. 

forms are known. The observations, however, are interesting 
since they confirm Spath's conclusion regarding the connections 
between T. niimismale and T. loscomhi ; for although the speci- 
mens whose development has been traced may not prove to 
be T. numismale, they unmistakably carry back the lineage of 
T. loscombi to a form but little removed from it. 

I wish to thank Prof. Swinnerton of University College, 
Nottingham, for the help he has so readily given me at all 
stages of my work, and for allowing me to make use of the 
specimens in the college teaching collection. I must also 
acknowledge my indebtedness to Mr. W. Stafford for the 
abundant material he has given, without which this work 
could not have been carried out so completely. 



COLEOPTERA. 

The Distribution of Agabus arcticus Pl<. — In the 

Nahtralist for June, p. 206, in recording Agabus arcticus as 
new to Yorkshire, Dr. Fordham states that the species has 
hitherto only been recorded from Scotland, Northumberland, 
and Ireland. This is hardly correct. It is a well-known 
Cumberland insect and has several times been recorded from 
the county in the Ent. Mon. Mag. and the Ent. Record, and 
also in the list of Cumberland beetles published in the Carlisle 
Nat. Hist. Society's Transactions. It is largely an Alpine 
insect, most abundant at an elevation of 2,000 ft. or more, 
and is invariably associated with A. congener and Hydroporus 
morio. — F. H. Day. 

— : o : — 

MOSSES. 

Trichostomum nitidum Schp. in West Yorks. — This 
moss has not been recorded for V.C. 64 up to the present ; it 
is known in North Yorks. and found in fair quantity on the 
limestones around Grange-over-Sands. I have kept a careful 
look out for it for some years and at last found it near Austwick ; 
curiously enough, not on the pure limestone, but on the impure 
basement conglomerate at the head of Norber Sike. This 
rock ■ has a very considerable amount of included siliceous 
debris, and near to the Trichostomum on similar rock is a fine 
growth of Ptcrogoniitm gracile, a species which is cited in Lee's 
Flora as altogether confined to the slate type of rock ; this 
latter moss was first noted here by Mr. F. Haxby. It is very 
interesting to get two mosses — one so typical of limestone and 
the other of slate rock — growing together on a conglomerate 
comprised of the two materials. Mr. W. E. Nicholson has 
kindly verified the determination of the species. — C. A. 
Cheetham. 

Naturalist 



225 

OBSERVATIONS ON BREFELDIA MAXIMA, Rost. 



A. R. SANDERSON. 



While searching for IMycetozoa in the Clapham district (Trow 
Ghyll) in November, 1913, I had the good fortune to see a 
large plasmodium of Brejeldia maxima, which had just emerged 
from an old ash stump preparatory to fruiting. The large 
Plasmodium — in many places two inches in thickness, was 
spreading over the vegetation (chiefly old stems of nettles) in 
the immediate vicinity of the stump, but by far the greater 
mass, covering in all about four square feet, had moved much 
further away and was spreading over the vertical faces of the 
limestone rocks, where fruiting was eventually completed in 
the form of large dark brown aethalia, many of these masses 
being several square inches in extent. In October, 1914, a 
similar large plasmodium of the same species was noticed 
issuing from another decayed ash stump, about two hundred 
yards higher up the valley — the same stump also yielded large 
colonies of Lycogula epidendrtim, Physarum nutans, Trichia 
scabra, Trichia varia, Hemitrichia clavata and Arcyna 
denudata. I collected several large masses of the plasmodium 
of Brefeldia maxima and kept them under observation until 
spore formation was completed. One mass in particular about 
8 ins. long, 3 ins. wide and 2in. thick was carefullly watched, 
and in a few hours' time, the upper surface, which was still 
creamy white, showed evidences of demarcation into definite 
small rounded areas, marking the limits of the individual 
sporangia. 

At quite an early stage, these signs became much more 
pronounced at, and around definite centres in the plasmodium 
where the mass became rather more heaped up. The heaping 
up at and round these points became more marked as develop- 
ment proceeded, while the limits of the individual sporangia 
became more strongly marked than in the surrounding parts 
of the Plasmodium further distant from the centres. As 
development continued, it became more and more evident 
that fruiting had commenced at certain points approximately 
equidistant from each other and from these points was spreading 
gradually outwards. At a still later stage, further evidence 
of this was shown by the coloration, for at the centres the 
creamy white appearance had given place to a very pale brown 
which now more rapidly darkened, and passing outward 
from the centres, the colour gradualty changed in shades of 
brown becoming paler to the extremities of well marked zones. 
Finally the colour at the centre became very dark brown and 
this change gradually spread outward as spore formation was 
completed in the zone. Further, at all the centres, fruit 

1916 July 1. 



226 Observations on Brefeldia maxima, Rost. 

formation did not evidently commence at the same time, or 
if so, the time taken for completion was considerably longer 
by, in the last to finish, something like forty hours. At the 
first centre under observation, spore formation was completed 
in about twenty-six hours and throughout the mass, in about 
seventy-two hours. The development of this large mass of 
Plasmodium suggested that it might possibly have divided 
into a number (about five) of smaller aethalia, and that in each 
case, fruiting development had commenced at or near the 
centre and gradually extended outwards in all directions to 
the extreme edges. Thus, while in the mass, development 
proceeds from the centre outwards, in the individual sporangia 
as in Badhamia utricularis, Physavum nutans, etc, development 
proceeds from the outer edge inwards, the last formed spores 
being at or near the centre of the sporangium. 

An interesting point noticed, was that about twenty hours 
after fruiting commenced, a large quantity of water had 
collected round the base of the developing aethalium. This, 
by slightly raising the dish at one end, I drained to the opposite 
end, and the volume was considerably increased during the 
next thirty hours. Unfortunately, I did not measure the 
water exuded, but should estimate it at not less than one 
tenth the volume of the sethalium. It was evidently the excess 
of water being discharged from the plasmodium during the 
process of protoplasmic condensation preceeding spore form- 
ation. The same process is often noticed in such species as 
Physarum nutans, Badhamia utricularis, Trichia decipiens, 
where the sporangia (more or less spherical) arise separately. 
In these cases, the excess water is passed out through the 
sporangium wall and is rapidly evaporated. Each sporangium 
being small, a comparatively large surface is offered for evapor- 
ation, which is therefore rapid, though sometimes the water 
is seen as a small drop on the top of the sporangium. In the 
case of Brefeldia, the excess water was practically all passed 
away downwards and issued from the base of the gethalium, 
and in the case of a large gethalium, such a method seems an 
advantage, as the total amount of water to be discharged, 
compared with the surface of sporangia exposed is relatively 
large, much too large to be got rid of by evaporation from the 
surface as rapidly as it is passed out.* In order to make more 
careful observations as to time required for fruiting etc, I 
kept a separate mass under observation at the same time. 
From this, beginning after eighteen hours, I fixed portions 
every fifteen minutes until the change in colour was marked, 
(about thirty hours). From examination of sections of this 

* I am much indebted to Mr. C. A. Clieetliam for so kindly undertaking 
the photographic part. 

Naturalist, 



Observations on Brejeldia maxima, Rost. 



227 







^^fc'jfJisW 




" ' Tf.'iHt- 



' %Jhfi>.-L£!J^^^^^. 




Fig. I. — Showing' the comparatively 
large channels in transverse section. 
These channels probably facilitate the 
passage downwards of the excess of 
water passed out daring condensation 
of the protoplasm previous to the nuclear 
division which precedes spore formation. 



Fig. 2. — Vertical section, show- 
ing channels which probably 
facilitate the passing out down- 
wards of excess water. 




Fig. 3. — A small portion occupying 
the zone indicated at B in fig. i. The 
nuclei are large, but division has not 
actually begun, and there is scarcely a 
sign of the breaking up of the proto- 
plasm into small masses of two-spore 
capacity. 




Fig. 4. — Nuclei in process of divi- 
sion a short time previous to stage 
shown in Fig. 5. 



1916 July 1, 



228 Observations on Brcfeldia maxima, Rost. 



%■ 






0^ 









Fig-. 5. — A portion from zone C Fig. 6.— Spore formation com- 

(fig. i), showing a more advanced plete. A little later appearance of a 

stage. The division of the nuclei is portion as shown in fig. 5. 

complete, and the protoplasm has 
finall)' broken up into uninucleate 
masses which will eventually form 
the separate spores. 

fixed material, it is evident that division of nuclei for spore 
formation, takes place about twentj^-five to twenty-seven 
hours after development begins. As in other species of my- 
cetozoa which have been examined, the protoplasm, just before 
nuclear division, breaks up into more or less rounded masses, 
in this case of considerable size, [the capillitium has been formed 
a considerable time previously] ; while a vertical section shows 
well marked vertical spaces between the masses. These, as 
also the spaces round the central columella, possibly facilitate 
the passing out of the excess water downward. (See figs. 1-6). 
Large masses of plasmodium of the species appeared again in 
November, 1915, this time, from a third stump, also ash, about 
thirty yards higher up the valley again. It would almost seem 
that the species is making a regular progression from stump to 
stump. 



We have received the Eighty- second Annual Report of the Natural 
History Literary and Polytechnic Society issued by the Bootham School, 
York, which shows that the Society still keeps a keen interest among its 
scholars in Natural History matters. There are illustrations of wasps' 
nests and also of the title page of the manuscript Naturalist of 1834, which 
appeared in this Journal some little time ago. 

Naturalist, 



PSEUDANODONTA ELONGATA(?j IN YORKS. 



J. A. HARGREAVES and J. DIGBY FIRTH, F.L.S. 



On January 29th, 1916, Mr. J. Digby Firth obtained from 
Wakefield a number of freshwater bivalves of various kinds, 
including Unio pidorum, U. tumidus, Anodonta anatina, etc., 
Among the Anodons were two living specimens, which Mr. 
Hargreaves considered to belong to the genus Pstudanodonta 
Bourg., of which two species have been added to the British 




Pseudanodonta elongata (?). 

list during the last few years. The specimens were submitted 
to Mr. J. W. Taylor, M.Sc, who confirmed the generic deter- 
mination. 

Of the two known British species, Pseudanodonta elongata 
Holandre, is recorded from the Thames, and P. rothomagensis 
Locard, from the River Teme in Worcestershire. Both are 
recorded in the Journal of Conchology for January 1911, and 
January 191 2. 



* The specimen sho^\ n on the left of the figure has been kindly given 
to the Municipal Museum at Hull by Mr. Digby Firth, and can be seen 
at any time by those interested.- — Ed. 



1916 July"!. 



230 Psendanodonta elongata (?) in Yorkshire. 

The Wakefield specimens apparently belong to elongata^ 
but as the differences between recognised species are small, 
it is desirable to get further and mature specimens before 
pronouncing as to their specific identity. 

Since seeing the specimens from Wakefield, Mr. Hargreaves 
has seen a specimen from Derby, and as the genus closely 
resembles Anodonta superficially, it is probable that it has 
been overlooked and may occur in other localities. 

The umbones give the readiest and most satisfactory way 
of determining the genus. In Anodonta the umbonal striae 
are concentric and more or less semi-circular, in Pseudanodonta 
the markings are distinctly nodulous and are not concentric. 
A further means of distinguishing the two genera, lies in the 
gap in the ventral margin of Pseudanodonta, which does not 
completely close the shell. This method is not absolutely 
certain, as occasionally Anodons are found with the same 




CnAP (N. 
MARGIN 



peculiarity, but in such cases, reference to the umbones will 
settle the matter. 

On a later occasion, Mr. Firth took over sixty specimens of 
Unionidae from the same locality in which Unio tumidus and 
Anodonta anatina were nearly equal in numbers, a few specimens 
of U. pictorum occurred, whilst there were only three specimens 
of Pseudanodonta, which is therefore scarce. 

The genus Pseudanodonta, of which many species are 
recorded, occurs also in Belgium, France, Germany, Austria, 
Russia, extending as far as Central Asia. In France alone, 
Locard records twenty-seven species, but it must be remembered 
that many of these would be considered by British writers as 
varieties only. 

Along with the Unionidae already mentioned, were also 
found Limnaea pereger, L. palustris, L. stagnalis, Planorbis 
corneiis, P. umhilicatus, P. vortex, Physa fontinalis, Bithynia 
tentaculata, Vivipara vivipara, Valvata piscinalis, Neritina 
fluviatilis, Dreissensia polymorpha, Unio pictorum, U. tumidus, 
Anodonta cygnaea (mostly var. anatina), Sphaerium rivicola, 
S. corneum, and Pisidium amnicum. 

Naturalist, 



231 

YORKSHIRE NATURALISTS AT MALTON. 

The field excursions of the Union for the present year were 
commenced at Malton, where a moderate number of members, 
including the President, Mr. W. N. Cheesman J. P., F.L.S., 
spent the Easter week-end, having headquarters at Wheelgate 
House. 

Neither Malton, nor its immediate vicinity, have claimed 
the attention of the members of the Union very much in the 
past, and it was to some extent a little unfortunate that Spring 
was so tardy in its development, as the many places visited dis- 
played ample scope for more interesting results than were 
obtained. However, the charm of the walks were many and 
varied and there was always something to call for attention 
and discussion, while the lectures in the evenings were an 
additional aid to the happiness of the meeting. 

On Saturday morning, a brief time was spent in the local 
museum, examining the objects of interest, which are, however, 
not seen to advantage. It is intended after the war to house 
the collections in a more suitable building, already purchased 
for the Malton Naturalists' Society by Sir Walter Strickland. 
At noon, the party, which was greatly increased in numbers 
by members from York, Scarborough, Malton, Leeds and 
Bradford, trained to Rillington, walked across the fields 
to Scampston, in order to accept the very cordial invita- 
tion of Mr. W. H. St. Ouintin J. P., D.L., a past-President 
of the Union, to visit his gardens and aviaries. Mr. St. Ouintin 
welcomed the part}', and he conducted one of the three groups 
into which it was divided. The weather being favourable, 
the visit proved a source of great pleasure and profit. The 
magnificent aviaries cover a large extent of ground and although 
the birds have absolute freedom of movement, the almost 
entire absence of timidity was very marked, and this gave ample 
opportunity of noting the many beauties of the birds at close 
quarters. Moreover, being in their best nuptial garb, the 
wonderful variety and blending, and in some cases, most 
gorgeous coloration of the birds, was seen to advantage. 
Ornithologists in general are much indebted to Mr. St. Quintin 
for the scientific manner in which his aviaries are conducted, 
much knowledge as to the habits of many species of birds 
having been gained. The botanical members enjoyed their 
visit immensely, for among the many plants in blossom were 
some of the rarer British Alpines, as Asantm europcBitm- 
(Asarabacca), Cardamine bulbijera (Coralwort), and Anemone 
apennina (Mountain Anemone). The inspection of the Orchid 
houses also proved attractive. 

On Sunday, the morning was spent in a visit to Welham 
Park, near which were examined some lake deposits. From 

1916 July 1. 



232 Yorkshire Naturalists at Malton. 

there, the walk led to Huttons Ambo in order to examine the 
gorge which formed the outlet of Lake Pickering. The return 
was made along the banks of the Derwent. In the afternoon, 
a visit was paid to a house in a yard abutting upon the remains 
of the Norman Castle. On the walls in the bedroom of this 
house is elaborate carving. The cellar of the same house 
contains evidence which points to its having been a Sanctuary 
Chapel. An inspection was made of the Gilbertine Priory 
Church of St. Mary's, ending with a visit to the gravel pit near 
the Electric Power Works. 

The rainfall until nearly noon on Monday, made serious 
working out of the question, nevertheless the walk arranged 
was carried out. Detraining at Castle Howard station, the 
party proceeded alongside Crambe Beck through Pretty Wood, 
inspecting the Pryamid erected to the memory of Lord Howard, 
and then to the Castle, where they were courteously received 
by Mr. C. Luckhurst, who subsequently conducted the party 
through the gardens and the Mausoleum. The homeward 
walk was by way of Lowthorpe, and along a green lane, in 
the hedgerows bordering 'which was an abundance of Daphne 
laureola (Spurge Laurel), to the York Road. 

At the close of the excursion, sectional reports were present- 
ed, and hearty thanks accorded to the Countess of Carlisle, for 
permission to visit her estates at Castle Howard ; to Mr. W. H. 
St. Quintin for permission to visit his gardens and aviaries ; 
to Mr. A. H. Taylor for the many comforts and facilities at 
headquarters, and for acting as guide on the excursions ; to 
Mr. C. C. Laverack for his loan of books and maps, and also 
for acting as guide, and to Mr.' A. E. Peck for making the local 
arrangements. 

At the evening meetings, the. President, Mr. Cheesman, 
discoursed upon some of the species of Australian and New 
Zealand fungi collected by him nearly two years ago, seven 
of which had proved new to science. One of these, Peniophora 
Cheesmani, was among the many species exhibited by him. 

Mr. H. B. Booth gave an interesting resume of the principal 
features of the Scampston Hall aviary, eulogising the services 
which Mr. St. Quintin was rendering to ornithologists. 

Two lecturettes were delivered by Dr. Woodhead. In 
the first, he gave an account of the excavations now in progress 
in the neighbourhood of Deighton, near Huddersfield, on the 
site of the works of British Dyes. The sections here exposed 
are in the so called river gravels, but these deposits were seen 
to consist of successive beds of gravel and sand ; resting on 
the shales was a bed of dirty grey gravel, followed by coarse 
gravel, coarse sand, a thin bed of gravel, and finally a bed of 
fine sand becoming clayey in places. These deposits could 
best be explained on the theory of a glacial lake. The Airedale 

Naturalist, 



Yorkshire NaUtralists at Malton. 233 

filacier dammed up the waters of the Calder and Cohie at 
Horbury, and formed the large lake Calderdale. The Hudders- 
geld deposits could be satisfactorily explained as lake deposits, 
and this theory would also account for the high level gravels 
in the neighbourhood. The paper was illustrated by photo- 
graphs of the sections exposed, and by a map showing the 
extent of the lake. 

His second lecture dealt with the vegetation of the Vale 
of Pickering. After paying a high tribute to Mr. J. G. Baker's 
' Flora of North Yorkshire,' he described the geology of the 
neighbourhood, tracing the beds of the Upper, Middle and 
Lower Oolites and their influence on the topography. The 
surface deposits were illustrated by Prof. Kendall's Glacial 
Map of Cleveland, and on this basis he explained first the 
types of woodland occupying the calcareous dales on the north 
of the Vale, and distribution of the Pine in the higher parts. 
The woods of the Howardian Hills were described, and the 
distribution of the Beech was considered, and the influence of 
limestone on plant distribution, especially on the heather and 
grass moors in the district. The Vale itself was finally described, 
and the distribution of the vegetation shown in detail on a 
number of six inch maps, special reference being made to the 
marshy pastures and their economic influence, and the way in 
which its special topography has influenced man's operations 
from earliest times to the present day. — W. E. L. W. 

Geology. — Miss M. A. Johnstone, B.Sc, writes : — 

In solid geology, the only work done was at the exposures 
of Oolitic limestone. Several of the quarries mentioned hy 
Mr. Burton in the circular notes were visited and typical fossils 
were collected from them. 

The glacial problems of the district and the solutions 
provided for them by the reseaches of Professor Kendall and 
others raised much interest in all sections of the society. 
From the higher levels near Malton, the eye could range over 
the wide vale of Pickering with its encircling hills, within 
which at one stage in the glacial epoch was penned up the 
whole or nearly the whole drainage of Southern Cleveland and 
the northern slopes of the Howardian Hills. Nearly due 
north of Malton, the torrents from the Lakes of Eskdale poured 
out of Newton Dale. Forge Valley brought the waters of 
another chain of lakes and every other dale added its minor 
flood from the moors. The waters of this great lake, surging 
to higher levels at times of melting snow and ice, hemmed in 
from the sea on the East by moraine and ice, converged towards 
the angle in the hills near Malton and cut a way down through 
the watershed of the Howardian hills, to escape into the Vale of 
York. This gorge, one of Professor Kendall's 'direct overflows,' 
was visited, and its impressive and convincing outlines noted. 

1916 July 1. 



234 Yorkshire Naturalists at Malton. 

Half a mile from Norton, in some of the usual field excava- 
tion of the present day, were seen sections of stratified sands 
and gravels. They were horizontal, such as might be deposited 
by quietly moving water in a lake bed. 

A second very interesting gravel section was seen in a sand 
pit near the Electric Power Station about a mile west of New 
Malton. It was near the lOO foot contour line and in the 
region of the old lake shore. 



,-af«^^, '^p,«v«pE5- ,- ^ - -«»-^,. ~-fr>«r-'Tf^yBF>t ^^ 


















Photo by] [C. C. Laverack. 

Section near the Electric Power Station, New Malton. 

The materials are evidentty current-bedded and are sorted 
out into layers with regularity and nicety. The beds lie at 
an angle of 45° ; they are in series, ten of which are exposed. 
In each series, there are three bands ; (a) about nine inches, 
of pebbles averaging four inches in diameter, [h) one foot of 
pebbles resembling small marbles, (c) fine sand, all very much 
waterworn. Most are oolitic, and fossils are plentiful. Th& 
large flattened pebbles lie with their long axes on the 45° 
slope. They seem to lie just as deposited, possibly by the 
wash up from the strong currents crowding together here from 
North West, North and North East, as they hurried into the 

Naturalist,. 



Yorkshire Naturalists at Malton. 235 

gorge. The angle of the sloping beds is a steep one and suggests 
that they were not laid down by a stream entering the lake 
here, especially as no high land is near at hand. 

I am indebted to Mr. C. C. Laverack for the photograph 
of this section which is here reproduced. 

Vertebrate Section. — Mr. H. B. Booth writes : — 

The chief feature of the excursion for this section was the 
inspection of Mr. W. H. St. Quintin's renowned aviaries, which 
being chiefly used for avicultural experiments and knowledge, 
are usually kept as quiet as possible at this time of the year. 
Those members who attended had the opportunity of seeing 
the large area containing paddocks of choice Cranes, Ducks, 
Geese, Tregopans, Black and White Storks, Pheasants, etc. 
There were also the Great Bustards, which until well within 
one hundred years ago, inhabited the Yorkshire Wolds in a 
feral state ; Secretary Birds from Africa — aberrant-birds 
of prey — who in their anatomy appear to be following on the 
line of the Cranes and Flamingoes ; and the celebrated (in 
captivity) pair of nesting Ravens. The sight that appealed 
most was one of a pair of Bitterns, which, owing to the scarcity 
of reed cover, could be plainly seen with its body, neck and 
beak at the perpendicular, and in such a position that it was 
at once a picture and a pattern of protective environment. 
In this same covering, of dead reeds, was another Bittern, 
but no member of the party could discover it — a further proof 
of the complete resemblance of this bird to its environment. 
An item of great interest was the small flock of Soay (the name 
of a ' stack ' off the island of St. Kilda,) sheep. This flock, 
through having been bred in captivity, has somewhat increased 
in size, and now rather resemble Shetland sheep. They should 
be objects of national interest, as I believe they represent the 
most primitive form of British sheep extant, and to-day they 
also represent the nearest source from whence the many 
celebrated breeds of British sheep have been evolved. I am 
speaking chiefly from a ' wool ' point of view. It is all-im- 
portant that this breed should be kept intact and pure. I am 
informed that Black-falced' Scotch rams have been put upon 
the stack of Soay, to improve the breed. Certainly these rams 
will increase the size of the sheep, and also the quantity — but 
not the quality — of the wool. Some of our West-Riding 
towns should try to preserve these Soay sheep. In the first 
place, they would be of educational value to show the nearest 
origin of our celebrated woolled sheep, and secondly, they may 
yet at some future time, be of great value to ' cross-in ' to 
improve the stamina of our ' in-bred ' flocks. 

In wild birds, the greatest rarity seen was a female Pintail 
Duck that had settled on the upper lake at Scampston, on 
April 20th. Unfortunately, Mr. St. Quintin had not any 

1916 July 1. 



236 Yorkshire Naturalists at Malton. 

captive Pintails this season to induce it to remain. Another 
feature of interest at Scampston, was that the heronry on the 
island in the lake, which four or five years ago had become 
reduced to a single nest, and looked like becoming extinct, 
had now revived. There were six, or possibly seven occupied 
nests this season. 

Welham Park Lake was visited, on which were noted ten 
pairs of Tufted Ducks, many Coots and a single female Teal. 

A pleasing feature of the visit to Castle Howard was the 
comparative abundance of Woodpeckers — both the Greater 
Spotted and the Green. Mr. Jefferson, of Castle Howard, 
who kindly acted as guide, pointed out an interesting episode, 
that the Woodpeckers had taken the galls from oak trees 
and inserted them in the deep grooves of the bark for the 
purpose of extracting the grub in the gall. The galls were 
inserted in the grooves in exactly the same way as a Nuthatch 
would insert nuts, and on some of the old Oak trees, there 
were strings of Oak galls in different grooves. Mr. Jefferson 
had never seen the Nuthatch there, nor has he ever actually 
observed the Woodpeckers performing this operation, although 
he was convinced by many reasons that it was the result of 
their work — one being that a pair of Woodpeckers had nested 
in a tree that had a great many galls fixed in its bark. 

I asked Mr. Jefferson to try to confirm this as an actual 
observation. On the lake were five Great Crested Grebes, 
Coots, about twenty pairs of Tufted Ducks, and Mr. Jefferson 
informed me that there were a few Pochards, but these I failed 
to see, possibly owing to the very rough surface that prevailed, 
the date being rathei early for many immigratory species of birds. 
Up to our arrival at the lake at Castle Howard we only noticed 
several Chiffchafl's, many Willow Warblers and a single Swallow. 
Over the lake at Castle Howard were scores of Swallows, several 
Sand Martins, a few House Martins, and, greatly to our surprise, 
ten to a dozen Swifts. This early arrival of the Swift in 
numbers bears out my remarks on previous occasions that 
the Swift has been arriving much earlier during the last few 
years, than formerly* (See ' The Naturalist ' igi6, p. 34). 
Sparrow Hawks are certainly more common in this district 
than they are in most parts of Yorkshire. They were noted 
at Rillington, Malton and at Castle Howard. Jays were both 
numerous and noisy near to the lake at Castle Howard. The 
five species of mammals, one amphibian and three species of 
fishes observed were not notable, unless it be that a fine Tench 
was lying dead on the bank of the lake at Castle Howard. 
{To he continued). 

* On April 29th, I saw eight to ten Swifts circling high over Bolton 
Abbey. On the same date The Field states that Swifts are reported from 
all parts of the country much earlier than usual. 

Naturalist, 



237 
DECREASES IN YORKSHIRE BIRDS. 



W. A. DURNFORD, M.B.O.U. 



In his interesting Presidential Address, which has recently been 
reproduced in your columns, Mr. Riley Fortune deals at some 
length with a well-worn subject, the decrease in the number of 
various species of birds. In this respect Yorkshire appears to 
be singularly unfortunate as, judging from my experience in 
Hampshire, I am inclined to think that the bird population of 
the country as a whole, both in numbers and variety, is greater 
to-day, than it was when I was a boy, between forty and fifty 
years ago, and, although I am aware that the suggestion may 
raise some criticism, I attribute this happy condition of 
things largely to the much abused preservation of Game. 
No one will deny that by the destruction of the Sparrow 
Hawk and the Magpie and above all of the domestic cat, as well 
as b}^ putting a stop to the depredations of the birdcatchers and 
casual gunners, and by providing a supply of food in hard 
weather for many of our resident species, the gamekeeper 
proves himself the best friend of the vast majority of our British 
birds. The protection afforded by legislation has undoubtedly 
had a most beneficial effect. In old days birdsnesting was a 
recognised occupation of boyhood, and in many villages it 
a was common thing to see long strings of blown eggs 
hanging from the ceilings of the cottages. Old Etonians 
will remember how we used to buy small bird's eggs by the 
hundred from the cads who frequented the entrance to the 
School Yard, but to-day the scene has changed, and last 
spring I met an Eton boy on a Hampshire common who was 
intent on securing photographs of the nest and eggs of a Red- 
shank, a bird entirely unknown in that locality until within 
the last few years. Then again, the bird population will vary 
greatly with the weather, it being impossible to estimate the 
destruction caused by one really hard winter. 

To revert to Yorkshire ; my experience is that while I 
agree with Mr. Fortune that large numbers of interesting species 
of what are commonly called small birds, especially insect 
feeders, are rapidly disappearing, the bird population (leaving 
house-sparrows out of the reckoning) as a whole, is larger 
than ever. May I suggest that a partial solution of the problem 
may be found so far as a large portion of the West Riding is 
concerned, in the rapid increase in the number of Chemical 
Works of various kinds which must undoubtedly have a most 
fatal effect on insect life. In my own neighbourhood (South 
Yorkshire) such a thing as a grasshopper or a cricket is un- 
known, and it certainly would seem that, while the more robust 
species of birds such as Rooks, Peewits, Starlings, Blackbirds 
igiejufyl. 



238 Neips from the Magazines. 

and Thrushes can increase and multiply, the more tender 
varieties such as Redstarts, Wheatears, Whinchats, Pipits and 
the various Warblers can no longer find a sufficient supply 
of suitable food within our borders. But however much we 
may theorize on the subject it is quite certain that we cannot 
account for many changes in the distribution of birds with 
which we are all familiar. Why, for instance, should the 
Goldfinch become more numerous while the Yellow Hammer 
apparently the most robust species of the two, seems to be 
decreasing in numbers, or what reason can we give for the 
enormous increase in the number of Starlings during the last 
century ? After all. Ornithology, the most attractive of all 
sciences, would lose half its interest if we could account for all 
the mysteries with which we meet in its pursuit. 



In The Entomologist for June Mr. Claude Morley includes some northern 
records in his ' Notes on Braconida?.' 

Mr. T. A. Coward records the Long-tailed Skua in Lancashire on ]\Iay 
15th, in The Lancashire Naturalist for May. 

An excellent account of the Wellcome Historical Medical Museum, 
London, by C. J. S. Thompson, appears in The Museums Journal for j\Iay. 

In British Birds for June, J. H. Owen has an admirably illustrated 
article on ' The Effect of Rain on the Breeding Habits of the Sparrow- 
Hawk. ' 

The Irish Naturalist for May appears late owing to the fact that when 
about ready for the press the type was destroyed by the tires following 
the rebellion in Dublin during Easter week. 

In The Geological Magazine for May Dr. W. Wingrave describes what 
he considers to be a new variety of Ammonite Cceloceras Davcsi {Davcei on 
the plate : both should be davcei) as variety rectiradiatum. It is from the 
Lower Lias, Dorset. 

Wild Life for May contains the following papers : — ' Carrion Crows,' 
by Edwin Wood ; ' A Mallard Incident, ' by Jasper Atkinson ; ' The 
Dormouse,' by Lionel E. Adams ; ' Wasps,' by David Arthur ; and 
' The Spring Habits of the Stone Curlew, ' by Edmund Selous. They are 
well illustrated. 

The New Phytologist, ' Double Number, Vol. XV., Nos. 3 and 4, 
March and April, 1916. Published May 28th,' (help !). contains, 'The 
Vegetative Anatomy of Molinia ccsrulea, the Purple Heath Grass,' by 
T. A.Jefferies, and 'The Vascular Anatomy of the Tubers of Nephrolepis,' 
by Birbal Sahni. 

In The Entomologist's Monthly Magazine for June, Mr. J. A\'. H. 
Harrison writes on 'The Geographical Distribution of Dimorpha {En- 
dromis] versicolora, L. and what it suggests.' In this he suggests that the 
species ' was driven far to the East during the Glacial Period, whence 
it advanced during favourable inter-glacial periods. . . . The bulk of 
the present habitats of European forms were reached during the last 
inter-glacial period.' The theory may be all right for the followers of 
James Geikie, who think there have been various and numerous inter- 
glacial periods, but it is a bit awkward for the new school of glacialists — 
Wright, Lamplugh, Kendall and others, who think, and we believe 
correctly, that there was but one Ice-age, and therefore no inter-glacial 
periods. ^.^^ 

Natiiralist, 



FIELD NOTES. ^^9 

A Plague of Caterpillars. — With reference to the 
press reports of the devastation caused by caterpillars to the 
oak trees at Ashtead, three or four years since a similar occur- 
rence took place in the oak trees in Richmond Park. The 
denudation of the trees was so severe that in the spring of 
1 913 H.M. Office of Works consulted Mr. Maxwell Lefroy of 
the Royal College of Science, with a view to stamping out the 
pest. Eventually it was decided to spray the trees with 
chromate of lead at such a time that the young caterpillars, 
on hatching out, should have only poisoned food. The spray- 
ing operations were carried out by portable high pressure 
pumping apparatus lent by myself, self-supporting telescopic 
ladders being provided to reach the tree tops some 40 feet from 
the ground. This was, I believe, the first occasion on which 
attempts were made to spray such large trees, and there is 
not much doubt that the oaks at Ashtead could be treated 
in a similar manner It is now too late in the season to take 
preventive measures, but if spraying were undertaken early 
next May I have not much doubt that the pest could be eradi- 
cated. — J. CoMPTOX Merryweather, 4, Whitehall Court, S.W. 

Bird Notes from Whitby. — From the middle to the end 
of November a Velvet-Scoter came into the inner harbour at 
Whitby to feed, almost daily. Two immature Shags appeared 
toward the end of November, frequenting the harbour through 
the winter. One was picked up dead on the beach on Feb. 5th, 
and one remained until March 25th. On Dec. 15th, a Grey 
Phalarope was observed in the harbour. It consorted daily 
with the Black-headed Gulls for about a week, after which it 
disappeared. The lively manners of this interesting little bird 
attracted considerable attention. Towards the close of Jan- 
uary, a Rough-legged Buzzard — in the usual immature plumage 
— was shot a few miles from Whitby. The Purple Sandpiper 
has been noticed here since the latter part of January. A 
small party has been frequently seen feeding on the rocks at 
the mouth of the harbour, and on the pier extension ; last 
seen on April 8th. An immature Glaucous Gull, which has 
been seen about the harbour since the early part of October, 
was last noticed on April i8th. It usually kept apart from the 
other gulls. The Little Auk was observed in November, 
and two were picked up dead on the beach in January. 
The following are the earliest dates : — April 4th, Wheatear ; 
6th, Chiff-chaff ; 17th, Sandpiper ; 20th, Blackcap ; 22nd, 
Swallow, Willow-wren ; 25th, Cuckoo, Sand ]Martin, Redstart ; 
26th Martin ; 28th, Sedge-warbler, Landrail ; 30th, Sand- 
Martin. May ist, Whitethroat, Whinchat, Swift ; 4th, Wood- 
wren ; 5th, Pied Flycatcher ; 8th, Grasshopper-warbler ; 
loth, Garden-warbler, Tree-pipit ; 15th, Spotted Flycatcher. — 
F. Snowdon, Whitby. 

"1916 July 1. 



240 ^ 

NORTHERN NEWS. 



The Journal of the Board of Agriculture for May, contains a report 
on the Food of the Rook, Starling and Chaffinch. 

We note the death of Charles Stonham, whose work on the Birds of 
the British Islands, 5 vols., was issued a few years ago. 

The Board of Agriculture and Fisheries has issued a pamphlet on 
' Weeds and their Suppression,' as leaflet number 112. 

The 25th Annual Report of the Royal Society for the Protection of Birds 
contains an excellent record of the work done during the year by that 
useful Society. 

The death is announced of Professor Silvanus Phillips Thompson, 
D.Sc, F.R.S., B.A. (Lond.) Hon. M.D., LL.D., who was born at York 
in 1851, of Quaker parentage. 

The Report of the British Association for 1915 (Manchester Meeting), 
was received in the middle of June, and occupies more than 1,000 pages. 
It contains the usual valuable record of this great Scientific Conference. 

It will be remembered that Sir William Turner, the well-known 
anatomist and Principal of the Edinburgh University, recently died. 
Oddly enough his successor, Sir James Alfred Ewing, was a ' director of 
naval education.' 

The death is announced at Shirley, Rtisholme, of Mr. J. Howard Reed, 
at the age of 57 years. He was well known in geographical circles in 
Manchester, and was for many years connected with the Manchester 
Geographical Society. 

At a recent sale of the collection of F. H. and A. E. Waterhouse two 
examples of Eiivanessa antiopa, taken in Yorkshire, fetched 22s. each, 
whereas another specimen believed to have been taken in Suffolk, with 
other species, only realised 3s. 

Illustrating some ' Notes on an Excavation in the \\ilderness,' by 
C. J. Alsop in the Report of the Marlborough College Natural History 
Society, No. 64, is an illustration of an Anglo-Saxon cooking-pot. A list 
of others is given, to which should be added an example in the Driffield 
Museum, now in the possession of the Hull Corporation. 

In the recent Annual Lantern Slide Competition promoted by the 
Royal Photographic Society, to which selected work is contributed by 
affiliated societies, the Plaque (the highest honour) in the Scientific Section, 
was awarded to Mr. A. E. Peck ,of Scarborough. The subject was a female 
Emperor moth and eggs which were met with on a Yorkshire Naturalists' 
Union Excursion. 

We learn from The Yorkshire Post of June i6th that ' a tremendous 
fall of cliff has occurred at Bempton, between Flamborough and Filey, 
and as the spot is one of the principal sea-bird breeding grounds of the 
British Isles, the fall is sure to have a serious effect upon the harvest of 
eggs. At one point alone, for a distance of 67 yards, great masses of 
cliff, which in summer time are crowded with sea fowl, have dropped 
into the sea. At least 14,000 cubic yards must have disappeared at this 
spot ; in fact, there is no record of a similar fall having occurred at 
Bempton or Speeton within living memory. As the fall began with the 
breeding season, it must have disastrous consequences to sea-bird life. 
Tens of thousands of the famous Bempton birds have been rudely dis- 
lodged from their habitations, and we hear from a well-known Yorkshire 
naturalist, who has visited the scene, the guillemots and puffins and 
kittiwakes have been sitting looking on at the wreckage ever since, unable 
to rouse themselves to seek suii:able incubating nooks in other parts of the 
cliff.' We understand that the point of cliff where the great fall has taken 
place, is that just showing out of the mist in Mr. Woodhouse's picture, ' A 
Misty Morning on the Bempton Cliffs,' forming the frontispiece to Vol. I. 
of ' Birds of Yorkshire.' 

Naturalist, 



1 



Books for Sale. 

<Mostly from the Library of a Yorkshire Naturalist, recently 
■deceased. The books are as new, and the prices asked are, in 
most cases, less than half the published price). 

Our Common Sea Birds. Lowe. 4to 8/6 

A iMAL Romances. Renshaw. 4/- 

*-^RiTiSH Butterflies, etc. (coloured plates). Thomas. 4/- 

Natural History of Animals, 8 vols. 4/6 per vol. 

Determination of Sex. Doncaster. 4/6 

Book of nature Study. Farmer. 6 vols. 4/6 per vol. 

Richard Jefferies. Thomas. 6/6 

Animal Life. Gamble. 4/- 

FuR and Feather Series. Pheasant, Partridge, Grouse. 1/9 

each. 
Science from an Easy Chair. Lankester. 4/- 

Do. (Second Series), i'- 

Nature Through the Microscope. Spiers. (99 plates). 4/- 
White's Natural History of Selborne. Coloured Illustrations 

by Collins. 6/- 
Life of MacGillivray. 6/- 

The Making of Species. Dewar and Finn. 4/- 
The Greatest Life. Leighton. 3/- 
Fauna of Cheshire. 2 vols. 15/- 
HiSTORY OF Birds. Pycraft. 6/- 
BooK OF Birds. Pycraft. 2/6 

Natural History of some Common Animals. Latter. 3/- 
^AE Gannet. Gurney. 13/- 
Birds of Isle of Man. Ralfe. 8/- 
Home Life of Osprey. Abbott. 2/6 

Apply :— Dept. C, c/o A. BROWN & SONS, Ltd., Hull. 



Bibliography of Yorkshire Geology 

1534-1914. 

By T. SHEPPARD, M.SC, F.G.S,, F.R.G.S., F.S.A. (scot.) 

Svo, xxxvi. -f 62g pp. 15/- net. 

This forms Volume XVIIL of the Proceedings of the Yorkshire 
Geological Society. It contains full references to more than 6,300 
books, monographs and papers relating to the geology and physical 
geography of Yorkshire, and to more than 400 geological maps and 
sections, pubHshed between 1534 and 1914. In its preparation over 
.700 sets of Scientific Journals, Reports, Transactions and Magazines 
have been examined. There is an elaborate index containing over 
26,500 references to subjects, authors and localities. 

London : A. BROWN & SONS, Ltd., 5 Farringdon Avenue, E.G. 
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F.L.S., Keeper Natural History Dept., Royal 
Scottish Museum ; William Evans, F.R.S E., 
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July 1st, 1916. 



AUG. 1916. 



No. 715 

(No. 492 0/ current series) 




A MONTHLY ILLUSTRATED JOURNAL OF 

NATURAL HISTORY FOR THE NORTH OF ENGLAND. 

EDITED BY 

T. SHEPPARD, M.Sc, F.Q.S., F.R.Q.S., F.S.A.Scot., 



T. W. 



The Museums, Hull ; 

AND 

WOODMEAD, Ph.D., M.Sc, F.L.S 

Technical College, Huddersfield. 
with the assistance as referees in special departments 
J. QILBBRT BAKBR, F.R.S. F.L.S. . QEO. T. PORRITr, P. 

Prof. P. F. KENDALL, M.Sc. F.Q.S., JOHN W. TAYLOR, M 

T. H. NELSON. M.Sc, M.B.O.U., RILEY FORTUNE. F 




Contents : — 

Notes and Comments : — Royal Society of Edinburgh ; The British Association Meeting at 
Newcastle; Museums Association; A Wonderful Wheel Animalcule ;' British Birds'; 
Purjile Heath Grass, and its Anatomy; Oxlips ; Rock Structures and Priority ; Fossil 
Fungi (illustrated) 

Botanical Problems at Austw\ck-^C. A. Cliectluuu 

Glacial Beds at Hunmanby, E. \ orks.— T. ShcppanI, M .Sc. F.G.S 

Casual and Alien Plants from Wakefield— /o/hi Crycr 

Cumberland Hemiptera = Heteroptera — F. H. Day, F.ES 

Coleoptera in Yorkshire in igis-lV. J. Fordham, M .R.C.S., L.R.C. P., F.F.S. . 

Yorkshire Naturalists at Malton— ir.K./,. II' 

Yorkshire Naturalists at Bolton Woods ... 

Field Notes :— Bird Notes from Hebden Bridge .. 

Reviews and Book Notices 

Proceedings of Provincial Scientific Societies ... 

News from the Magazines 



Northern News 
Illustration 



241-245 
246-247 
248-249 
250-251 
252-257 
258-264 
265-266 
267-270 
271 
207, 270 

264 

271 

245, 247,264, 272 
245 



24'J, 251, 



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YORKSHIRE'S 
Contribution to Science 

{Based upon the Presidential Address to the Yorkshire 
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By THOMAS SHEPPARD 

M.Sc, F.G.S., F.R.G.S., F.S.A.(Scot.) 

240 pages Demy 8vo, illustrated, tastefully bound in Cloth 
Boards, with gilt top and gilt lettering on back and side, 

51- net. 

The publication of much additional nnatter has caused some 
delay in the appearance of the book. It is illustrated, and contains 
a complete history of the scientific publications issued in the various 
Yorkshire towns. It contains the following: — 

Yorkshire's Contribution to Science. 

Yorkshire Publications arranged Topographically. 

Existing Yorkshire Scientific Magazines and their Predecessors. 

Yorkshire Scientific Magazines now Extinct. 

County and Riding Societies. 

Yorkshire Topographical and General Magazines. 

Magazines: General Natural History Journals; Museums; 

Ornithology ; Mollusca ; Entomology ; Botany and General 

Biology ; Geography ; Meteorology: 

Scientific Societies (General). 

Geological Publications. 

Archaeological and Antiquarian Publications (General). 

Books of Reference. 

List of Societies, Journals, Proceedings, Magazines, etc., 
descri bed. 



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NOTES AND COMMENT! 

ROYAL SOCIETY OF EDIXEURGH. 

At a recent meeting of the Roydl Society of Edinburgh, 
Dr. A. E. Cameron read a paper on ' The Insect Association 
of a local environmental complex in the district of Holmes 
Chapel, Cheshire.' The districts with which the study is 
concerned were two fields, Glover's Meadow and the alluvial 
pasture situated in the farm land of the Holmes Chapel Agri- 
cultural College. In these fields the soils were respectively 
a reddish clay loam and a dark coloured loam. The plant 
environment and its relation to the insects were fully con- 
sidered ; also the physical factors of the en\'ironment, such 
as water content, humidity, light, temperature, precipitation, 
wind, soil, exposure, slope and the like. The index of an 
insect's habitat is where it breeds, and it is important to 
recognise endemic forms which are proper to an association 
and polydemic forms which are invaders. Detailed accounts 
were given of the various orders on insects found, such as 
Diptera, Coleoptera, Neuroptera, Apterygota, Hymenoptera, 
etc., and the facts were brought together in a series of tables, 
showing the months of occurrence of the different species, 
their habits, and the plants with which they were associated. 
Another point of interest was the relation of the soil-inhabiting 
insects to the food habits of ground-feeding birds. 

THE BRITISH ASSOCIATIOxM MEETING AT NEWCASTLE. 

The preliminary programme for the 86th Annual Meeting 
of the British Association at Newcastle in September has been 
issued. On the evening of Tuesday, September 5th, Sir 
Arthur Evans, F.R.S., will deliver his Presidential address in 
the Town Hall, where Dr. P. Chalmers Mitchell is also to speak 
on Friday evening on ' Evolution and the War.' Sectional 
meetings will be held on Wednesday, Thursday and Friday, 
and, if necessary, on the Saturday morning, the following 
being the chairmen of sections : — Mathematical and Physical 
Science, Dr. A. N. Whitehead, F.R.S. ; Chemistry, Professor 
G. G. Henderson, D.Sc. ; Geology, Professor W. S. Boulton, 
D.Sc. ; Zoology, Professor E. W. McBride, D.Sc, F.R.S. ; 
Geography, Mr. D. G. Hogarth, M.A. ; Economic Science and 
Statistics, Professor A. W. Kirkaldy ; Engineering, Mr. G. G. 
Stoney, F.R.S. ; Anthropology. Dr. R. R. IMarett ; Physiology, 
Professor A. R. Cushny, M.'D., F.R.S. ; Botany. Dr. A. B. 
Rendle, F.R.S. ; Educational Science, the Rev. W. Temple, 
M.A. ; and Agriculture, Dr. E. J. Russell. 

MUSEUMS ASSOCIATION. 

The Museums Association held its annual meeting in 
Ipswich, July ioth-i2th, under the presidency of Mr. E. 

1916 Aug. 1. 

Q 



242 Notes and Comments. 

Rimbault Dibdin, of the Walker Art Gallery, Liverpool. The 
following papers, etc., were read : — Address by the President 
of the Association ; Mr. F. Woolnough, ' The Future of Pro- 
vincial Museums ' ; Mr. F. R. Rowley, Demonstration of the 
results of experiments on the use of arsenious jelly as a 
preservative ; Dr. J. A. Clubb, ' Note on the educational value 
in Public Museums of Introductory Cases to animal groups ' ; 
Mr. Reginald A. Smith, ' The collections made by the late Lord 
Avebury ' ; Mr. E. E. Lowe, ' The British Science Guild ' ; Mr. 
Reginald A. Smith, Demonstration in the Geological Room at 
the Museum of Grime's Graves and Northfleet flints ; Mr. J. 
Reid Moir, Demonstration re Sub-Crag Implements ; Inspection 
of the Museum under the guidance of the Curator, who invited 
criticism of fittings, arrangement of specimens, etc. ; Mr. A. H. 
Millar, LL.D., ' The Photographic Survey of Dundee ' ; Mr. F. 
Woolnough, (a) ' Description of case for exhibiting Postage 
Stamps, with lantern illustrations ' ; {b) ' Demonstration of 
methods of preserving Flowers in their Natural Coloui's ' : (i) 
The Fothergill Process, (2) Hot Sand Process ; Private H. D. 
Skinner, ' Museums and the consolidation of the Empire ' ; 
Mr. W. K. vSpencer, ' The use of Gelatine Moulds for Plaster 
Casts ' ; Mr. E. E. Lowe, ' Report on the supply of Museum 
Glassware.' 

A WONDER,FUL WHEEL ANIMALCULE. 

A remarkable account of one of the wheel animalcules, 
or rotifers, is given by Mr. Charles Rousselet in Knoivledge. 
The rotifer — a mere speck -^^ part of an inch is size — first 
allows itself to be eaten and taken inside an armed and well- 
defended fortress (in the shape of another organism), and then 
assails it from the inside ; and, when this does not succeed 
at once, weakening the master of the castle, and depriving 
him of his food-supply by the simple plan of consuming it 
himself, and refusing all the time to be digested ! Lastly 
the rotifer lays one or more eggs, and forces its way out again. 

' BRITISH BIRDS.' * 

With commendable promptitude the third volume of this 
magnificent publication, which has been already noticed in 
these columns, has appeared. If possible the illustrations 
seem to be of even more general interest than in the two 
preceding volumes, especially as several are of peculiar interest 
to Yorkshire Naturalists. Plate 60 shows examples of the 
Great Bustard with their extraordinary displays. The Bitterns 
(plate 41), are very different from the usual ' stuffed ' specimens 
one meets with in Museums. There are many excellent 

* By A. Thorburn. London . Longmans, Green cS: Co. Volume IIL 
Price £\ lis. 6cl. 

Naturalist, 



Notes and Comments. 243 

plates of Geese, Swans and Ducks. Plate 30 illustrates 
Pallas's Sand Grouse, a species of great interest to northern 
Naturalists, and there are also Ptarmigan, Pheasants, Par- 
tridges, Crakes, etc. 

PURPLE HEATH GRASS, 

In The New Pkytologist there is a second illustrated article 
on the Purple Heath Grass by the Rev. T. A. Jefferies, F.L.S., 
entitled ' The Vegetative Anatomj' of Molinia caertilea.' It 
follows up the author's former account of the plant's ecology, 
based on a study of the species carried out on the Slaithwaite 
Moors near Huddersfield at the suggestion of Dr. T. W. Wood- 
head, and describes many peculiar features in the morphology 
of this interesting grass. The roots have root-hairs dis- 
tributed over the entire system and more abundant on the 
thick cord-roots than on the fibrous ; the piliferous layer 
does not become cuticularized and mycorhiza are common ; 
the cord-roots have a well developed stele containing a strong 
sclerenchymatous pith and very large vessels, and surrounded 
by a prominent pitted endodermis. The rhizomes are usually 
much reduced, but elongate considerably when conditions 
call for an upraising of the leaves. The aerial stems have 
tuberous ' basal internodes ' containing verj^ thick walled 
storage tissue, having wide pits which clearly show continuity 
of protoplasm, and packed with starch and protein grains. 

AND ITS ANATOMY. 

These storage organs remain throughout the winter to 
feed the spring growth, and are ' evergreen ' in the upper 
part. Two series of leaves spring from the top and the bottom 
of these ' basal internodes,' and it is noteworthy that in this 
monocotyledonous species we have absciss layers to protect 
the food reserve after leaf fall. The leaves, which, unlike 
some other common moorland grasses, are of the flat ribbon 
tj'pe, possess a highly developed motor mechanism, and have 
vascular bundles with very thick walled elements, double 
sheaths, and stereome girders. In addition to the ' basal 
internodes ' food reserves are stored in the rhizomes and in 
the cortex of the cord-roots, and in the latter case the thick 
walled storage tissue functions also as an aerating tissue. 
Other striking features are the wealth of mechanical 
strengthening tissue in all parts, and the remarkable develop- 
ment of xylem elements. The galls of Oligotropliiis ventri- 
coliis, which are regularly found on this grass, are also briefly 
described. 

OXLIPS. 

In a district where both primrose and cowslip are plentiful 
(says Mr. Highfield in an article in a recent number of Know- 
ledge) it is quite a commom thing to meet with intermediate 

1916 Aug. 1. 



244 Notes and Comments. 

forms possessing, in varying degrees, the character of both. 
These plants are commonly called " oxlips," but they must 
not be confused with the true oxlip {Primula elatior), if such 
exists as a fixed species. There is no fixity about these variant 
forms. Every gradation of intermediate characters between 
the two species may be found, from a primrose-like flower 
borne on a single stalk, but showing cowslip parentage in a 
slightly deeper tinge of yellow, to lambel-bearing flowers, 
varying in colour and form through every possible gradation of 
the two characters. The hybrid origin of these flowers is 
probable from many considerations. There is little structural 
difference between the flowers of primrose and cowslip, and 
there is every likelihood that occasionally pollen should be 
conveyed from one to the other by insects. It is noticeable 
too that the intermediate forms are very commonly met with 
in a belt between a primrose and a cowslip habitat. In order,, 
however, to put the matter to a definite test, Mr. Highfield 
made a number of crosses, and he gives the results with photo- 
graphs of the flowers and leaves of the hybrids. 

ROCK STRUCTURES AND PRIORITY. 

A correspondent who signs himself ' R.H.R.' in Knowledge 
for June, in speaking of ' Structures in vSedimentary Rocks,' 
states, ' one of the pioneers in this kind of work was Professor 
Bonney, who was President of the Geological Section of the 
British Association at Birmingham in 1886. In his presi- 
dential address he gave a most interesting summary of the then 
state of our knowledge on the subject, chiefly based on a study 
of thin slices of the rocks. The late Dr. Sorb^^ of Sheffield, 
also did a good deal of work on the sedimentary rocks.' With 
all due respect to Professor Bonney we think that even that 
gentleman will consider that this correspondent has put the 
cart before the horse, to use an expression familiar to Professor 
Bonney. Surely the late Dr. Sorby was the pioneer in these 
matters. In the very address by Professor Bonney, referred 
to, this would appear to be borne out, judging by the following 
extract : — ' Once for all, I ask you to bear in mind that this 
address is mainly a recital of other men's work, so that I shall 
not need to interrupt its continuit}^ by remarks as to the 
original observers. The subject is, indeed, one to which I 
have paid some attention, but I can only call myself a humble 
follower of such good men as Godwin-Austin, " the physical 
geographer of bygone periods," and Sorby, u^ho ivas the first 
to apply the microscope to similar problems, and to whom in 
this class of investigation, we need only apply the well known 
saying. Nihil tetigit quod non ornavit.' 



Naturalist, 



Notes and Comments. 



245 



FOSSIL FUNGI. 

It might be imagined at first sight that such evanescent 
things as fungi would not be found fossil, but in Knowledge 
for April, Dr. David Ellis shows that this is very far from being 
the case. In some instances, even the delicate fungal threads 
can be distinguished, as they have been replaced, particle by 
particle, by some durable substance, such for instance as oxide 
of iron or calcite. In many cases, however, we get imprints 
of fungi on fossil leaves and stems ; in others, again, the 
threads, or spawn, of parasitic forms are found in the substance 




Phycomycites frodinghamii. x 800. 

(a) Fully developed sporaiig'ia, with attached hypha (c). 

(b) Yoiing^ sporangium. 

(c) Hypha which supports the sporangium (a). 

of fossil trees ; while some very beautiful examples are pre- 
served, as insects are, in amber. Dr. Ellis illij^trates his 
remarks by photographs of Phycomycites frodinghdmii, from 
the Iron-stone of Frodingham ; one of which we are kindly 
permitted to reproduce. 



We should like to congratulate the Hon. Treasurer of the Yorkshire 
Naturalists' Union, Mr. E. Hawkesworth, on being elected a member of 
the Leeds City Council. 

In The Journal of the Board of Agriculture for June, Mr. A. Roebuck 
describes 'A Bad- Attack by the Mustard Beetle on Watercress,' in 
Shropshire. 

A letter from Essex ordering 100 tons of chalk, in an envelope with 
the type-written address, ' J. W. Shepherd, Gotham,' was recently safely 
delivered to the curator of a Yorkshire Museum. Apparently the 
' Gotham ' misled the postal authorities. 

1916 Aug, 1. 



246 

BOTANICAL PROBLEMS AT AUSTWICK. 



C. A. CHEETHAM. 



{(1) The occurrence of Calluna and like species on the 
hmestones. 

{b) The ' survival ' (?) of Silcnc nuiritiina on the high level 
limestone escarpments. 

(c) The varying floras of the old turbar}- pools on Austwick 
Moss. 

{a) The area to be investigated is Moughton Scar, a con- 
siderable part of which is covered with Calluna, Erica, 
Empctrum, ]^accincum, etc. The finest growth is in the 
hollows, and here there is a considerable depth of peat. Samples 
have been taken just above the subsoil some two feet below 
the surface, where it is of a dark brown colour. After air- 
drying 35 grammes were taken and dried 8 hours at ioo°C. This 
reduced it to 30"i grammes ; it was then ignited and gave 
4"34 grammes of a reddish coloured residue which was heated 
with nitric acid, leaving 3-5 grammes. The residue left on 
ignition represented I2'4 per cent, of the air-dried, or 14-4 per 
cent, of the oven-dried peat.* 

Samples of the peat were boiled with caustic potash and 
examined microscopically, in the hope that some light might 
be thrown on the plants which had formed the peat, but without 
success ; no mosses were detected and the only plant remains 
were Calluna rootlets and mycelium, but as the peat is much 
cracked in dry weather the surface vegetation can easily root 
to this depth. 

The sand below was examined and found to be free from 
lime, and of a sharp-angled, gritty nature, the grains small 
and fairly uniform giving a hard compact bed with a narrow 
iron-coloured band, possibly ' pan.' It seemed quite possible 
from the nature of this material that the finer matter has 
gradually been washed out and made the whole less water-tight. 
The subsoil rests directly on the limestone. 

There are plenty of grit boulders about as evidence of 
former ice action, even if we do not look across Crummock Dale 
to the classic examples at Norber. 

At the end of the Ice Age the surface would be covered 
with a clayey deposit and in the hollows water would collect, 
and it is still hoped that evidence of the vegetation history may 
yet be obtained from the peat which has resulted from it. 

Leaving these hollows for the higher parts, Calluna is seen 
growing on a soil free from peat ; the habit of the Calluna is 

* This work was kindl}' undertaken hj- Mr. W. H. ISurrell, F.L.S. 



Cheetham : Botanical Problems at Aiistwick. 247 

more stunted, but healthy. On examination the soil is found 
to be free from lime, although the plants are in direct contact 
with the limestone rock in many cases. 

The hill contour is one of alternate le\'el areas and small 
screes ; it is on the former that the Callitna grows. Dr. 
Rayner has ably dealt with the problems of CaUiina and 
Chalk in papers in The New Phytologist, Vol. XIII.. p. 59, and 
also The Annals of Botany, Vol. XXIX., No. 113. 

{b) Silene maritima has been known in this station for a 
long time, and it has been suggested quite seriously that it is a 
remnant of a time when the sea washed these clifls and slopes. 
This is one of a group of plants, including the well-known 
examples of Sea Thrift and Sea Plantain, which are found on 
sea shores and high mountains, and the question of the escarp- 
ment being at any time a sea cliff with the present types of 
marine plants is scarcely worth consideration. Still, the 
problem of this small group of plants is a fascinating one. 

(c) An investigation of the cause of the varying flora of. 
the different pools seems to promise some interesting features. 
A casual walk round shows that some pools are practically 
pure Sphagnum, others Harpiod Hypna or aquatic hepatic ; 
and lastly, pools with plants as Pondweed or Floating Burweed. 
Sphagnum is well-known to be soon destroyed by alkaline 
conditions, and this suggests a line of enquiry. Preliminarv 
trials show that the pools with the Sphagnum are the most 
acid, though the results are not very decisive as yet ; the water 
in all is very soft. 

Where a cut has been made between a Sphagnum and a 
Hypnum pool the latter seems at first to become covered with 
algal growth {(Edogoniitm). The Sphagnum also gets a 
foothold and seems to oust the true moss or hepatic. 

This rather disposes of a view at first taken that possibly 
the moss or hepatic pools were cut down through the peat 
to the old lake bed which may be of a marly nature, with shell 
remains, and which would neutralize the acidity required b}' 
the Sphagnum. An able resume of the question of the acidity 
of Sphagnum and its relation to Chalk, by M. Skene, will be 
found in The Annals of Botany, Vol. XXIX., No. 113. 

With these problems the botanical section will find plenty 
of scope for discussion and work at Austwick, particulars of 
which will be found on the inside of the cover. 

: o : 

The Journal of the Qiiekett Microscopical Club, No. 78, contains the 
following papers : — ' On the Foi^mation of Sporangia in the Genus 
Stemonitis, ' by A. E. Hilton ; ' On a Species of Alenfodes,' by James 
Burton ; ' The Collection and Preservation of Desmids,' by G. T. Harris ; 
' Presidential Address — Some Factors of Evolution in Sponges,' by 
Arthur Dendy ; and ' On the Bdelloid Rotifera of South Africa,' by \V. 
Milne. 

1916 Aug. 1. 



248 

GLACIAL BEDS AT HUNMANBY, E. YORKS. 



T. SHEPPARD, M.Sc, F.G.S. 



Having occasion recently to wait a while for a train at 
Hunmanby, near Filey, 1 visited Mr. Parker's brick pit, which 
adjoins the station, and which, a few \^ears ago yielded a 
Chariot Burial of the early Iron Age.* The section is about 300 
feet above O.D. and is almost on the line of the moraine which 
is so well developed a little further south, at Speeton. The 
pit is largely overgrown, but is being worked at one or two 
places. An examination of these shows that the deposit is very 
variable, but roughly may be taken to show : — 
Rounded Gravel, 8 feet ; 
Purple Boulder Clay, 6 to 8 feet ; 
Contorted Laminated Clay, 6 feet ; 
and doubtless this rests on a further bed of Boulder Clay. 

In some parts of the pit, at the top of the section, there 
was a loose red earthy clay resembling Hessle Clay, though 
it may have been re-distributed. 

The gravel was typical glacial gravel such as occurs in other 
parts of the district. The purple boulder claj' was also typical 
of that deposit, both with regard to textiu-e and contents. 

The stoneless laminated clay is interesting. Fallen blocks 
on being dried split into innumerable laminae resembling the 
deposit described by G. W. Lamplught in the cliff section 
south of Bridlington. Dried fragments show whitish partings 
on which are small ripple-marks. It has every appearance 
of having been deposited in a glacial lake. But it is not 
entirely in its original position, if at all. The beds are twisted 
and contorted in a remarkable manner. Besides being 
crumpled and folded, whole masses have been torn away and 
thrust along ; in some places they have evidently been heaped 
up and crushed together, now and then resembling current 
bedding, at other times taking the appearance of an enormous 
crush-breccia. The line lines of demarcation between one 
mass and another suggest that the lumps were crushed together 
while in a frozen condition. 

This particular bed of course, though limited in extent, 
makes excellent bricks — those made from the boulder clay 
in the remainder of the section being much inferior. 

At various places in the floor of the pit are heaps of boulders, 
many, especially the limestones, being glacially striated. These 
are no doubt principally derived from the Purple Boulder Clay, 
though a few are obviously from the gravel, and some, such as 

* ' On a Chariot Burial at Hunmanby,' by T. Sheppard, Yoi'ks. Arch. 
JoiiJii., No. 76, 1907, pp. 482-8. 

t Pi'oc. Yoyks. Geol. Soc, \o\. 8, 1882. pp. 27-3S. 

Naturalist, 



Reviews and Book Notices. 249 

the Cheviot porphyrites and the Greywacke sandstone (Silurian), 
are from the Upper Boulder Clay. 

The following is a list of the boulders noticed, many, 
especially the limestones, being striated : — 

Augite syenite (Scandinavia). 

Rhomb-porphyry ,, 

Quartz-porphyry ,, 

Halleflinta ,, 

Hornblende gneiss (Scotland?). 

Gneiss with large red ' eyes ' ,, 

White Granite 

Red 

Porphyrite (Cheviots). 

Amygdaloidal lava (Cheviots). 

Greywacke sandstone ,, 

Basalt (Teesdalc). 

Dolerite ,, 

Andesite (Lake District). 

Lidianstone. 

Millstone Grit (large angular block). 

Carboniferous Limestone (Teesdale). 
Sandstone (Common). 

Micaceous ,, 

Quartz. 

Quartzite. 

Magnesian Limestone (Roker). 

Lias, with Gryphoea incurva, Pectcn, and Saurian vertebra. 

Secondary Sandstones (Common). 

Estuarine ,, (Scarborough). 

Black Flints. 



Methods in Practical Petrology, by H. B. Milner ami G. M, Part. Cam- 
bridge : \V. Heffer cV- Sons, OS pages, 2s. Od. net. The sub-title is ' Hints 
on the Preparation and Examination of Rock Slices.' The authors wish 
the volume to act as a companion to existing petrological textbooks, and 
have consequently omitted detailed description of rocks, minerals and 
structures. They give prominence to methodical procedure in micro- 
scopical work, and an important feature of the book is the section devoted 
to the preparation of rock slices. There is no doubt that a practical 
student will lind it of value. 

The Gravels of East Anglia, by Professor T. McKenny Hughes. The 
University Press, Cambridge.. 58 pages, is. net. There is no doubt that 
the question of the origin of the Gravels of East Anglia is an exceedingly 
difficult one, and it requires a thorough knowledge of the various and 
numerous exposures to enable one to .speak authoritatively on the matter. 
That knowledge is possessed by Dr. T. McKenny Hughes, and the present 
hand-book is of distinct service as it describes and classifies the various 
gravels, and enumerates the mammaliferous and other contents. The 
author also gives a useful summary of the subject. His diagrams illus- 
trating ' False Succession ' should be carefully studied by certain East 
Anglian pre-historians. 

191(5 Aug. 1. 



250 



CASUAL AND ALIEN PLANTS FROM 
WAKEFIELD. 



JOHN CRYER. 

The following list consists mainly of Casual and Alien 
Plants noted by the writer on the banks of the River Calder 
at Wakefield during the past twelve years. Over ninety per 
cent of the total seen were discovered on a piece of land about 
two hundred square yards in extent in a pasture close to the 
river. They are no doubt the outcome of sweepings thrown 
out by the barge men. 

Ranunxulaceae. — Adonis annua L. ; Ranunculus arvcnsis 
L. ; R. sceleratus L. ; Delphinium Ajacis L. ; D. Consolida L. 

Papaveraceae. — Hypecouni grandiflorum Benth. ; Teste, 
Dr. Thellung. This occurred for several years, and in 1912 I 
counted over fifty flowering specimens. 

Cruciferae. — Radicula palustris jMoench. ; Alyssum Alys- 
soides L. ; A. incanum L. ; Sisymbnum Sophia L. ; S. panno- 
nicuni Jacq. ; 5. columnae Jacq. ; S. Irio L. ; Erysimum 
cheiranthoides L. ; E. perjoliatum Crantz. ; Camelina sativa 
Crantz.. ; C. silvestyis Wallr. ; Coronopus didymus Sm. ; C. 
verrucarius (Gars.) Lepidium Draba L. ; L. perfoliatum L. ; L. 
rnderale L. ; L. incisum Koth.. ; L. campestre Br. ; Raphanns 
Raphanistrum L. 

A'iolaceae. — Viola Riviniana, Reichb., var. diversa Greg. ; 
]'. avvensis Murray, var. Lloydii (Jord.). 

Caryophyllaceae. — Saponaria Vaccaria L. ; Silenc juven- 
alis Del. ; S. noctijlora L. ; 5. Aruieria L. ; Stellaria aquatica 
Scop. 

Malvaceae. — Malva moschata L. 

LiN'ACEAE. — Linum usitatissimum L. 

Legumixosae. — Trigonella Foenum-graccum D. ; T. corni- 
culata L. ; T. caerulea Ser. ; Medicago sativa L. ; Melilotus 
officinalis Lam.. ; M. alba Desr. ; M. arvcnsis Waller ; M. 
indica A\h. ; CoroniUa scorpioidcs Koch. ; Vicia hirsuta S. F. 
Gray. 

Umbelliferae. — Coniuni maculatum L. ; Car urn Carvi 
L. ; Scandix Pecten-veneris L. ; Anthrisctis Scandix Beck. ; 
JEthusa Cynapimn L.. ; Coriandrum sativum L. ; Anidrum 
testiculata (Roth.) ; Caucalis leptophylla L. ; C. dancoides L. ; 
C. Anthriscus Huds. ; C. arvcnsis Huds. ; C. nodosa Scop. ; 
C. lafi folia L. 

RuBiACEAE. — Galium tricornc Stokes ; Asperula arvcnsis L. 

CoMPOsiTAE. — Bidens cernua L. ; Anthemis nobilis L. ; A. 
Cotula L. ; Matricaria inodora L. ; M. Chamomilla L. ; .1/. 
siiaveolens Buch. ; Senecio viscosus L. ; 5. sylvaticus L., var. 

Naturalist, 



Reviews and Book Notices. 251 

aiiriculaiiis Meyer ; Carduns pycnoceplialiis L. ; Centaiirea 
Cyanits L. ; C. solstitialis L. ; C. Calcitrapa L. ; C. iberica 
Trev. ; C. Verutum L. 

Campaxulaceae. — Speculana Speculum A. D.C. 

Primulaceae. — Angallis jemina Mill ; Angallis arvensis L. 

BoRAGiNACEAE. — Lappida echinata Gilib. ; Lycopsis ar- 
vensis L. ; Aspenigo procumhens L. ; Lithospermum arvensc L. 

SoLANACEAE. — Sohinum nigrum L. ; Datura Stramonium 
L. ; Hyocyamtis niger L. 

ScROPHULARiACEAE. — Antirrhinum Oronlium L. ; \'eronica 
agrestis L. ; T'. didyma Ten. ; I', multifida. This plant was 
first seen in July, 1910. It is not recorded in Dunn's Alien 
Flora or in Druce's British Plants. 

Labiatae. — Salvia aethiopis L. ; Sideritis montana L. ; 
Wiedemannia orientalis Fisch. & Mey. ; DracocepJialum parvi- 
florum Nutt. 

Plantagixaceae. — Plantago ramosa Asch. ; P. Coronopus 
L. ; P. maritima L. ; P. Lagopus L. 

Chexopodiaceae. — Chenopodium rubrum L. ; C. botryodes 
Sm. ; C. itrbicnm L. ; C. nmrale L. ; C. album L., var. viride 
Syrne. ; C. Vulvaria L. ; Beta vulgaris L. ; B. maritima L. ; 
Spinacia oleracea L. ; Atriplex tatarica L. 

Gramixaceae. — Setaria viridis Beauv. ; 5. glauca Beauv. ; 
Apera interrupta Beauv.; A. intermedia Hack.; Bromus tec- 
torum L. ; B. madritensis L. ; B. arvensis L. ; Hordeum 
miirinnm L. ; H. marinnm Huds. 

My thanks are due to Messrs. A. B. Jackson and W. B. 
Turril of Kew, also to Dr. F. A. Lees of Leeds, for \'aluable- 
help in identifying many of the above. 



Engineering Geology, l)\- H. Ries and T. L. Watson, 2ncl edition. London : 
Chapman & Hall, xxvii. + 722 pages, 17s. net. In this Journal lor 
September, 191 !, a review of this excellent book was given. The present 
notice is to draw attention to the fact that the book has been so far 
successful, that within a very short time a second adition has been called 
for. Much additional matter has been added, bringing the total number 
of pages to about 750, though the price has not been advanced. The 
volume is produced in the excellent style we expect from Messrs. John 
^^'ilev & Sons, New York, where it first appeared. 

A Text Book of Geology, Part 2. Historical Geology, b\ Cliarles 
Schuchert. London : Chapman & Hall, pp. 405-102(1, 12s. net. This 
volume is written ' For use in L^niversities, Colleges, Schools of Science, 
etc., and for the general I'eader.' The author is Professor of Phycsial 
Geology at the Yale l^niversity, and naturally draws largely upon the 
American examples to illustrate his theme. By the aid of innumerable 
pen and ink sketches, maps and photographs, as well as by representations 
of restorations of extinct animals, he has made a very instructive narrative, 
which will by well worth careful study by English geologists. Additional 
interest is added to the volume by the numerous reproductions of photo- 
graphs and paintings of geological pioneers. There is also an excellent 
coloured geological map of North America. 

1916 Aug. 1, 



252 

CUMBERLAND HEMIPTERA-HETEROPTERA. 



!•". H. PAY, F.K.S. 

TiiHKi': are very few publislied records oi these insects from 
Cumberland. In Saunders' ' Hemiptera-Heteroptera of the 
British Isles ' only two or three species are mentioned for the 
county, the most noteworthy being Peribalus vernalis, Wolff. 
There are few records in the entomological magazines. I\Ir. 
James IMurray has recorded some of his captures in the Ent. 
Mon. Mag. during the last few months. In the ' Victoria 
History of Cumberland ' I gave a list of 77 species which had 
been hurriedly collected for the purposes of that work. That 
was i() years ago, since when, as a result of some rather desultory 
collecting, the list has been increased to 173 species. It seems 
desirable, therefore, to publish present knowledge as it stands 
to serve as a foundation for a county list. 

As in the compilation of other lists of Cumberland insects, 
I have had the assistance of my friends, JMessrs. H. Britten, 
J. Murray and G. B. Routledgc. I am also much indebted 
to ^lessrs. E. A. Butler and E. A. Newbery for help in deter- 
mining and verifying many species. 

Where no localities are given after a species it is one of 
common and general distribution. 

Localities without the name of an authority are based on 
my own obserA'ations. 

Pextatomidae. 

Schinis bigiittatiis, L. In moss in spring, Keswick. 

Peribalus vernalis, Wolff. Borrowdale (Saunders' ' Hemiptera- 
Heteroptera of the Brit. Isles,' p. 27). 

Dolycoris baccariDu, L. On Ononis, Seascale. 

Piezoderiis lituratus, E. Eairlv common on Ulex. 

Pentatoma rufipes, L. On various trees and shrubs, not 
uncommon. 

Pieroinerits bidens, L. Locally common near Carlisle on 
Callu)ui. 

RliaeognaiJiiis pmietaliis, L. In moss, rare, Durdar. 

Zicrona coernlea, L. Local and uncommon on Coll una, Wan 
Eell. 

Ac(iii(/i(>so)i!(i inlLrsliiuiiini, L. On birch usually, not scarce. 

Elas)nostel/uis griseiis, L. Of similar distribution. 

Berytidae 
A^'ides tipularius, L. One specimen on the sandhills at Sea- 

.-^cale. 
Berytus minor, H.S. By sweeping etc., Gt. Salkeld (Britten), 

Newby Cross (^lurray). 

Naturalisti 



Day: Cuuihcrland IIcDiiptcrtt- Hctcroptcra. 253 

Berytus crassipes, H.S. By sweeping, Sillotli, Burgli-hy-Sands, 

(Britten). 
Mdacanthus elegans, Curt. Common on the coast sandliills. 

Lygaeidae. 

Nysins thymi, Wolff. Tarn Lodge (Rf)utledge), Sillotli, 

Seascale. 
Cymns glandicoloy, Hahn. In damp i)la(es, Newton Reigny 

Moss, Hayton Moss. 
Ischiiorhynchus geminatus, Fieb. On ('(ill una. Wan I'Y'll, 

(Britten). 
Pamera jracticollis, Schill. In Sphagnum, not common, Orton. 
Stygnocoris rusticus, Fall. By sweeping, etc., Orton, Durdar. 
Stygnocoris pedestris, Fall. In moss, etc., common. 
Stygnocoris fuligineus, Geoff r. Fairly common. 
Peritrechus sylvestris, F. Widely distributed. 
Trapezonotiis arenarius, L. Uncommon, (lelt Woods (MruTay) 

Gt. Salkeld. 
Drymus sylvaticus, ¥. ("(jmmon, Mr. Murray mentions the 

var. ryei from Stainton. 
Drymus brunneus, Sahib. Common. 
Drymus picetis, Flor. In Sphagnum, etc., scarce, Newton 

Reigny Moss (Britten), Castle Carrock Fell (Murray), 

Orton. 
Scolopostethus a/finis, Schill. Scarce, Gelt Woods (Routledge), 

Grinsdale (Murray), Carleton. 
Scolopostethus thomsoni, Reut. Cummersdale, Orton (Murra}^), 

Upperby, several on toadflax. 
Scolopostethus decoratus, Hahn. Commfjn. 
Gastrodes ferrugineus, L. On conifers, Orton, Baron Wood, etc. 

TlXGIDIDAE. 

Acalypta cervina, Germ. In moss, scarce, Carlisle, Newton 
Reigny Moss. 

Acalypta parvula, Fall. In cut grass, etc., common. 

Dictyonota fricornis, Schr. Scarce, Gt. Salkeld (Britten). 

Dicfyonota strichnocera, Fieb. A few taken, Prior Rigg (Mur- 
ray), Wan Fell, Gt. Salkeld. 

Dercphysia foliacea, Fall. On broom, etc., not uncommon. 

Monanthia cardui, L. Common on thistles. 

Hebridae. 

Hchrus ruficeps, Thoms. Abundant in Sphagnum. 

Gerrididae. 
Hydrometra stagnorum, L. Common in flood refuse. 
Microvelia pygmaea, Duf. Edges of ponds, scarce, Orton. 
Velia currens, F. Common, Mr. Britten has taken the de- 
veloped form sparingly. 

191G Aug. 1. 



254 D(i\> : CuiiihcrUnul Ili'iiiiplcra- Hcicyoploui. 

Gcrris lateralis, Scliuin. var. costac, H.S. Common on boggy 

ponds. 
Gen-is tJwraeieiis, Schum. Less common than eostae, Carlisle, 

Silloth, Gt. Salkeld. 
Gei'i'is gibbeyjer, Schum. Hayton ]\Ioss (Koutledge), Gt. 

Salkeld (Britten), Bowness IMoss. 
Gcrris lacustris, L. Common. 

Gcrris odontogaster, Zett. Edenhall, Newton Reign v Moss 
(Britten), Orton. 

Reduvidah. 

Ploiariola vagabunda, L. Scarce, Gt. Salkeld (Britten). 
Ploiaviola culicijovmis, De G. Scarce, Gt. Salkeld (Britten). 

Carlisle (Murray). 
Coranus siibapteriis, De G. Local on heaths, Wan Fell. 
Nahis major, Cost. Local but not scarce, Hayton Moss 

(Routledge), Seascale, Silloth. 
Nabis flavoniarginatus, Scholtz. 
Nabis limbatiis, Dahlb. 



Nabis ferns, L. 

Nabis ericetoriim, Scholtz. 

Nabis riigosiis, L. 



All more or less abundant. 



Saldidae. 

Salda pilosa. Fall. Salt marshes, not scarce on the Solway 

estuary. 
Salda litioraiis, L. Solway estuary, also inland. 
Salda morio, Zett. Scarce, Orton, Cross Fell, Grisdale Pike, etc. 
Salda scotica, Curt. Common on the banks of the rivers Eden, 

Caldew and Gelt. 
Salda orthochila, Fieb. Rare, IM'elmerby Fell (Britten). 
Salda sanatoria, L. Fairly common. 
Salda c-album, Fieb. Common. • 
Salda pallipes, F. Solway marshes. 
Salda lateralis, Fall. Local, Anthorn. 
Salda cincta, H.S. Common. 
Salda cocksi, Curt. Scarce, Wan Fell, (Britten). 

CiMICIDAE. 

CryptosteiiDJia aiieniim, H.S. Sides of streams, Gt. Salkeld. 

Cimex lectulariiis, L. Common. 

Lyctocoris campestris, F. Among hay, common. 

Piezostetkus galactinus, Fieb. By sweeping, scarce, Gt. Salkeld. 

Piezostethus ciirsitans, Fall. Rare, Gt. Salkeld. 

Temnosteth'us pusilhis, H.S. Tarn Lodge (Routledge). 

Anthocoris coiifiisiis, Reut. Common. 

Anthocoris ne mora I is, F. Common. 

AntJiocoris nemorum, L. Cemmon. 

Naturalist, 



Day: Cumberland Hciiiiptcra- Hdcroptcra. 255 

AiifJiocoris gallarum-ulmi, De G. Scarce, perhaps over-looked, 
Orton (Murray). 

Anthocoris sayothamni, L). & S. Tarn Lodge (Routledge). 

Tdraphleps vittata, Fieb. By beating, Orton, Carleton, Gt. 
Salkeld. 

Acompocoris pygmaeiis, Fall. Not uncommon on Scots fir. 

Triphleps miniita, L. Scarce, Gt. Salkeld. 

Microphysa psclaphonnis, Curt. A few taken, Carlisle, Pen- 
rith. 

Capsidae. 

Pithantis maerkdi, U.S. Tarn Lodge, undeveloped forms 
only (Routledge). 

Miris holsattis, F. \ 

Miris calcaratus, Fall. [ Abundant in grassy places. 

Miris laevigatas, L. J 

Megaloceraea nificornis, Fourc. Fairly common. 

Megaloceraea psammaecolor, Rent. Silloth (Murray). 

Teratocoris saundersi, D. & S. Newton Reigny Moss. 

Leptopterna jerrugata, Fall. Local, Kingmoor, Wan Fell 

Leptopterna dolobrata, L. Generally common. 

Monalocoyis filicis, L. 1 ai 1 , r 
D • J,/ w T7 11 r Abundant on ferns. 

Bryocons ptendis, Lall. ) 

Pantilus hinicatus, F. Rare, Rose Bridge (Murray). 

Phytocoris popiili, L. Tarn Lodge (Routledge), Langwathby 

(Britten). 
Phytocoris tiliae, F. Tarn Lodge (Routledge), (it. Salkeld, on 

plum trees (Britten). 
Phytocoris longipennis, Flor. Locally common, Orton, Durdar. 
Phytocoris pini, Kb. Wan Fell (Britten). • 
Phytocoris ulmi, L. Common. 

Calocoris ochromelas, Gmel. Fairly common on oak, etc. 
Calocoris sexguttatus, F. Very common on nettles. 
Calocoris roseo-maciilatiis, De G. Locally common, Tarn 

Lodge (Routledge). 
Calocoris alpestris, Mey. Local and scarce. Gelt Woods 

(Murray). 
Calocoris bipunctatus, F. Common. 

Calocoris lineolattis, Goeze. On Ononis, Silloth, Seascale. 
Calocoris striatals, L. Occurs sparingly in most large woods. 
Dichrooscytus rufipennis. Fall. Locally common on Scots 

fir, Tarn Lodge (Routledge), Wan Fell. 
Plesiocoris rugicollis, Fall. On sallows, Orton, Gelt Woods, etc. 
Lygiis pabulinus, L. Common. 

Lyg'us contaminatiis. Fall. Local, Orton, Gt. Salkeld. 
Lygiis viridis Fall. Fairly common. 
Lygiis leiicorum, Mey. Wreay. 
Lygtis pratensis, L. Very common and variable. 
Lygus cervinus, H.S. Tarn Lodge (Routledge). 

1910 Aug. 1. 



256 Day: Cumberland Hemiptera-Heteroptera. 

Lygits kalmii, L. By sweeping, not uncommon. 
Camptozigum pinastri, Fall. On Scots fir, Orton. 
Poeciloscytus gyllenhali, Fall. Orton, Seascale, Gt. Salkeld. 
Liocoris triptistnlatus, F. Common on low plants. 
Capsus scntellavis, F. Local and scarce, Wan Fell. 
Bothynot'us pilosiis, Boh. Orton, one specimen (Murray). 
Rhopalotomus ater, L. Common. 
Orthocephalus saltator, Hahn. Tarn Lodge, one specimen,. 

undeveloped (Routledge). 
Strongylocoris leucocephahis, L. Orton, Baron Wood, etc. 
Dicyphits epilobii, Reut. Common on willow herb. 
Dicyphus stachydis, Reut. Common on dumb nettle. 
Dicyph'us pallidicornis, Fieb. Common on foxglove. 
Dicyphus globulijer, Fall. Seascale, Gt. Salkeld. 
CyUocoris histrionicus , L. In most large woods. 
Cyllocoris flavonotatus. Boh. Moderately common. 
Aetorhinus angiilatus, F. Common. 
Mecomma ambulans, Fall. Common in marshy places. 
Cyrtorrhinus caricis, Fall. Newton Reign}/ Moss, Gt. Salkeld. 
Orthotyliis marginali's, Reut. Tarn Lodge, Gt. Salkeld, Wan 

Fell. 
Orthotylus flavosparsiis, Sahib. Gt. Salkeld. 
Orthotyliis chloropterus, Kb. Local, Orton. 
Orthotylus ericetorum, Fall. Common. 
Orthotylus viridinervis, Kb. Gt. Salkeld. 
Heterocordylus tibialis, Hahn. Common on broom. 
Conostethus salinus, Sahib. Kirkbride, two specimens. 
Macrotylus payktdli, Mey. Common on the coast. 
Harpocera thoracica] Fall. On oak, common in woods. 
Phylus melanocephalus, L. Gelt Woods (Routledge.) 
Phylus coryli, L. Gelt Woods (Murray). 
Psallus ambiguus, Fall. 
Psallus betideti, Fall. 
Psallus variabilis, Fall. 

Psallus varians, H.S. j common. 

Psallus roseus, F. ' 

Psallus querents, Kb. Orton, scarce. 
Psallus jalleni, Reut. Orton, one specimen. 
Plagiognathus albipennis. Fall. Gt. Salkeld. 
PlagiognathuschrysanthemiWom^ g^^j^ common. 
Plagiognathus arbustorum, b. 1 

Asciodema obsoletum, D. & S. Orton (Murray), Gt. Salkeld 

(Britten). 

Nepidae. 

Nepa cinerea, L. Common. 

NOTONECTIDAE. 

Notonecta glauca, L. Common. 

NaturiUst 



Widely distributed and fairly 



Northcni News. 257 

CORIXIDAE. 

Corixa geojfyoyi, Leach. Locally common. 

Corixa lugubris, Fieb. Burgh Marsh. 

Corixa hieroglyphica, Duf. Cummersdale. 

Corixa sahlbergi, Fieb. Very common. 

Corixa linnaei, Fieb. Scarce, Orton, Cummersdale. 

Corixa limitata, Fieb. Not uncommon, Kingmoor, Cummers- 
dale. 

Corixa semistriata, Fieb. Cummersdale. 

Corixa venusta, D. & S. Scarce, Carlisle. 

Corixa striata, L. Fairly common, Gt. Salkeld, Cummersdale. 

Corixa distincta, Fieb. Thurstonfield, Monkhill, Edenhall. 

Corixa falleni, Fieb. Cummersdale, Monkhill. 

Corixa moesta, Fieb. Local, Wan Fell. 

Corixa fossarum, Leach. Fairly common near Carlisle. 

Corixa scotti, Fieb. Rare, Orton. 

Corixa nigrolineata, Fieb. Very common and variable. 

Corixa praeusta, Fieb. Kingmoor, Cummersdale, Saddleback. 

Corixa caledonica, Kirk. One specimen, Thurstonfield. 

Corixa bonsdorffi, Sahib. Thurstonfield, Monkhill, Edenhall. 

Micronecta minittissima, L. River Caldew (Murray), River 
Irthing 



Third Appendix to tJie Sixth Edition of Dana s System of Mineralogy, 
by W. E. Ford. London : Chapman & Hall, pages xiii + Sj, 6s. 6d. net. 
This volume has bscn prepared by the assistant Professor of Mineralogy 
of Yale t'niversitv in order to bring Dana's well-known text book complete 
to it)i5. The first part deals with recent improvements in mineralogical 
methods, especially by the use of X-rays photography, then follows a 
bibliography of recent papers and an extensive classified list of new names, 
the remainder b;ing occupied bv information respecting various minerals, 
arranged in alphabetical order. 

How to Lay out Suburban Home Grounds, by H. J. Kellaway. London ; 
Chapman & Hall, i;54 pages, 8s. 6d. net. This book is written by an 
American I^andscape Architect, and its object is to show how greatly 
American homesteads may bs improved in appearance by the efforts 
of a ' Landscape Architect.' There is no doubt that our cousins across 
the Pond frequently require the efforts of some such person to beautify 
their dwellings, and the illustrations which Mr. Ivellaway gives clearly 
indicate the success of his methods, though of course from the nature of 
the vegetation, etc., manv of his recommendations would not applv in 
this countrv. 

The Investigation of Mind in Animals, by E. M. Smith. Cambridge 
I'niversity Press, 194 pages, 3s. net. The present little volume is written 
with the object of instructing those interested in animal intelligence, in 
the proper methods employed in animal physiologv, its aims, trend, 
and the general nature of the results hitherto obtained. Th-e chapters 
are headed : — Protozoan Behaviour, Retentiveness, Habit Formation, 
Associative Memory and Sensorv Discrimination, Instinct, Homing, 
Imitation, The Evidence for Intelligence and for Ideas, and in addition 
there is a valuable bibliography, which will enable those interested to 
persue their investigations. 

1916 Aug. 1. ^ 



258 

COLEOPTERA IN YORKSHIRE IN 1915. 



W. J. FORDHAM, M.R.C.S., L R.C.P., F.E.S. 



{Continued from page 2oy). 

•\Plilceopora angnstijormis Bandi. {transita Brit. Cat.). Ed- 

lington. October, 1911. W. E. S. (P. reptans Gr. 

has been taken by Dr. Corbett at Cusworth. These 

species are closely allied and sometimes occur together). 
\Homalota nigella Er. Shirley Pool, Askern. October, 1911. 

W. E. S. This species has not previously occurred 

north of the Midlands. 
■\ Homalota linearis Gr. Shirley Pool, Askern. October, 1911. 

W. E. S. 
Homalota ciispidata Er. Castleton, jM'av, under loose bark. 

M. L. T. 
'\ Homalota succicola Th. [euryptera Stcph ) Shirley Pool, 

Askern. October, 1911. W. E. S. 
Homalota ■haradoxa Rev. Bubwith. ]\Ioles' nests, April. 

W. J.F. *6i. 
■\ Homalota indnhia Shp. Shirley Pool, Askern. October, 

1911. W. E. S. 
^Homalota mortuorum Th. Castleton, May. Two specimens 

under loose bark. ^I. L. T. This is now generally 

considered the same species as atricolor Slip., which has 

been recorded from Redcar, Wheatley and Brimham 

Rocks. If not the same species they are very closely 

allied. 
^Gyrophcvna bihamata Th. Skipwith, August, in fungi. 

W. J. F. Only recently added to the British list but 

probably widely distributed. {Fowler Brit. Col., 

Vol. VI., p. 336). 
Civrophcena afjinis Man. and G. minima Er. Skipwith, 

August, in Fungi. W. J. F. Both *6i. 
Bolitochara lucida Gr. Brough. Common in rotten stump. 

T. S. *6i. 
Hvgronomadimidiata Gr. Bubwith, June Sweeping. W.J.F. 

*6i. 
Gymnusa variegaia Kies. Keld., July, in sphagnum. ]\I. L. T. 

*6i. 
Tachyporus solutus Er. and T. brunneiis F. Shirle}' Pool, 

Askern. October, 1911. W. E. S. Both *6i. 
Megacronus cingulatus Mann. Hawkesworth. T. .Stringer. 

Nine Standards Rigg, July. One under stone on summit. 

M. L. T. *65. 
Mycetoporus splejididus IMarsh. IMalham. J. W. C. *64. 
Heterothops nigra Kr. Bridlington. Mole's nests, 23-5-09. 

W. E. S. ^ *6i. 

Naturalist, 



Fordhajn : Yorkshire Coleoptera in 1915. 259 

Qiiedius longicornis Kr. Bubwith. Two in mole's nest, 

15-2-13. W. J. F. *6i. 
■\Qitediiis nigrocaeruleiis Re}'. Bubwith. Mole's nest, one, 

March. ' W. J. F. 
Qncdiiis hrevicornis Th. Bridlington. Bred from mole's 

nest. May, 1909. W. E. S. Usually occurs in birds' 

and wasps' nests. Never before bred from a mole's nest. 
Qitediiis obliterates Er. Breighton, near Bubwith in moss. 

W. J. F. *6i. 
Quedius scintillans Gr. Sliirley Pool, Askern, October, 191 1. 

W. E. S. *63. 
■fQiiedionuchus Icevigatus Gyll. Sunningdale, near Keighley. 

J. Beanland. An alpine species occurring in Scotland 

and Northumberland. It has, however, been taken at 

Bury St. Edmunds by i\Ir. Tuck. 
Ocypits brunnipes F. forma With black legs. Bubwith. 

W. J. F. 
Philonthiis intermedins Bois. Filev, Escrick, Breighton. 

W. J. F. *6i. 
Philonthiis proxirmis Kr. Bubwith in dung and carrion. 

W. J. F. *6i. 
^Philonthiis nigriventris Th. Breighton Common, two in dead 

hedgehog. May, 1912. W. J. F. A rare species in 

Britain. 
Philonthiis ventralis Gr. Bubwith, 1910 W. J. F. *6i. 

Wheatley. H. H. C. *63. 
Philonthiis micans Gr. Bubwith. Under stones and flood 

refuse, 1910-11-12. W. J. F. (Only pre\-ious record. 

Hornsea. W. K. Bissill). 
■\Gabrius pennatus Shp. Bubwith, flood refuse. W. J. F. 
Cafius xantholoma Gr. var. ^variegatiis Er. Bridlington, 

23-5-09. W. E. S. 
■J Lathrobium ripicola Czws.]. Bubwith. April, 1912. W. J. F. 
■\Lathrobiitm filiformc Gr. Askern, February. H. H. C. 
Lathrobiitm terminatum Gr. var. f atripalpe Scrib. Wilby, 

near Doncaster, 25-6-06. H. H. C. 
Evacstethus scaber Gr. Hornsea ]\Iere. T. S. *6i. 
E. ntficapilliis Lac. Skipwith Common. G.B.W. *6i. 
^E. IcBviusciihis Mann. Skipwith Common. G. B. W. One. 
Stenns subcBneus Er. Shipley Glen. F. Rhodes. *63. 
Stenus ossium Steph. Bubwith, 1912. W. J. F. *6i. 
■fSteniis foveicollis Kr. Keld. September, one in sphagnum on 

high moor. M. L. T. 
Stenus paganus Er. Middlcton-in-Teesdale. Juh', 191 1. 

W. E. S. *65. 
Oxytelus complanatiisEv. Bubwith, May, 1913. W.J.F. *6i. 
Trogophloens corticinus Gr. Bubwith, flood refuse. W. J. F. 

*6i. Shirley Pool, Askern. Oct., 1911. W. E.S. *63. 

J91C Aug. 1. 



26o Fordham : Yorkshire Coleoptera in 1915. 

Geodromiciis plagiatns Heer. var. nigrita Mull. Near Keighley. 

F. Rhodes. *63. 
^Lesteva hictiwsa Fauv. Malham. Three specimens in 1913. 

Common but very local in 1915. J. W. C. (See The 

Naturalist, 1915, March, p. 104 and E.M.M., 1915,, 

March, p. 125 and November, p. 311). 
Olophrum fitscum Gr. Keld, July in Sphagnum. M. L. T. 

*65. 
Homalium striatum Gr. Stamford Bridge on Radicida, 

September, 1914. W. J. F. *6i. 

Edlington, October, 191 1. W. E. S. *63. 
Proteimis ovalis Steph. Bubwith. W. J. F. *6i. Edling- 
ton, October, 1911. W. E. S. 
■\Proteiniis macropterus GyW. Edlington, Oct., 1911. W. E. S. 
Megarthrns denticoUis Beck. Bubwith. G. B. W. *6i. 
M egarthrus depressus Pk. Bubwith, flood refuse. W. J. F. 

*6i. 
Prognatha quadricornis Kirb. Newbald, a male under ash 

bark, 31-10-15. T. S. *6i. Askern, October, 1911. 

W. E. S. 
Silpha opaca L. Rossington, 12th September, swept off 

rushes. H. V. C. *63. 
Choleva kirbyi Spence. Skipwith in fungus, Jime, 1914. 

W. J. F. *6i. 
CatopssericatusC\\2i\xd. Bridlington, 23-5-09. W. E. S. Only 

so far recorded for V.C. 61, but should occur generally. 
Colon brunneum Lat. Bubwith. W. J. F. *6i. 
^Enconnus hirticollis 111. Shirley Pool, Askern. October, 

1911. W. E. S. 
Scvdmaenus' tarsatus ^lill. Weedley. T. S. Bubwith, 1914. 

W. J. F. *6i. 
^Claviger testacens Preysl. Robin Hood's Bay, September. 

191 1 in nest of Lasiiis flavits T.S. (See The Naturalist, 

1915, December, p. 385 and 403). 
Pselaphus heisei Hbst. Houghton Woods. Common. T. S. 

*6i. 
Bythinus securiger Rch. Bubwith, one. G. B. W. *6i. 
^Bryaxis heljeri Schm. Welwick. T. S. and E. Bilton. (See 

The Naturalist, 1915, December, p. 403). 
Bryaxis sp ? A specimen taken by W. J. F. from reed refuse 

on Skipwith Common in April is considered by Mr. E. A. 

Newbery to be possibly nigriventris Schm. (a species 

new to Britain) ; but till more specimens are taken 

this cannot be definitely decided. The Skipwith insect 

resembles juncorum Leach., but is narrower, smaller, 

and darker in colour. 
Trichonyx markeli Aub. Weedley. with Lasius flavus. T. S. 

*6i. 

Naturalist, 



Fordham : Yorkshire Coleoptcra in igi^. 261 

'\Corylophiis cassidioides Marsh. Hornsea Mere. T. S. (See 

The Naturalist, 1915, December, p. 403). 
Subcoccinella 24 punctata L. Bentley Ings. Very common 

by sweeping in Septem.ber. H. V. C. (A very local 

species). 
Halyzia 14 guttata L. A black form with red thorax. Wheat- 
ley Wood, September. H. V. C. 
Hyperaspis reppensis Hbst. Houghton Woods and Hotham 

Carrs Common. T. S. North Cave. G. B. W. *6i. 
Scymnns suturalis Th. Saltend Common. T. S. *6i. 
S. suturalis Th. var. linihatus Steph. Bubwith, flood refuse. 

W. J. F. *6i. 
Cerylon histeroides F. Bubwith, G. B. W. Skipwith, W. J. F. 

*6i. 
■\Cerylon ferrugineum Steph. Helmsley. G. B. W. 
^Pria dnlcamarce Scop. Edlington Wood, one male, 6th 

Septem.ber. H. V. C. 
Meligethes fulvipes Bris. Bubwith. Abundant in August. 

W. J. F. Redcar marshes. G. B. W^ *62. 
Meligethes brunnicornis Stm.. Bishop Wood. W. J-. F. *64. 
Meligethes ohscurus Er. Thorganby, September, on ragwort. 

W^ J. F. *6i. 
Rhizophagus depressus F. Askern, October, 191 1. W. E. S. 
Rhizophagus parallelocollis Gyll. Keighley, R. Butterlield. 

Rhizophagus bipustulatus F. Bubwith, under bark. An 

entirely black example. W. J. F. 
■\Cartodere lilum Aub. Hull Museum. T. S. (See The 

Naturalist, 1915. December, p. 404). 
Corticaria elongata Gyll. Keighley. J. W. C. *63. 
jCryptamorpha desjardinsi Guer. Bradford, in house. F. 

Rhodes. An imported species which is probably 

introduced with bananas and recorded from several 

localities in the kingdom. 
Byturus sambuci Scop. Pickering, July, 1911. W.E.S. *62. 
■\Diphyllus lunatus F. Cusworth, April. H. H. C. This is 

now the most northerly record for this species. 
Crvptophagus saginatus Stm. Selby, 1914, diseased potatoes. 

J. F. Musham. *64. 
Cryptophagus punctipennis Bris. Bubwith, by sifting dead 

leaves. W. J. F. *6i. (This species is only recorded 

from Studley). 
Cryptophagus pallidus Stm. With the last. *6i. 
Crvptophagus pubescens Sim. Bubwith, dead thrush. W.J.F. 

*6i. 
Atornaria mesomelas Hbst. Askern, October, 1911. W.E.S. 

%3. 
Elmis volkmari Pz. ■\Ialham. J. W. C. *64. 

191G Aug. 1. 



262 Fordhani : Yorkshire Coleoptera in 191 5. 

1[ Heteroccnts flexuosns Steph. Welwick. E. Bilton. 

Heterocerus marginatus F. Market Weighton, 1909. T. S. 
Bubwith. W. J. F. *6i. 

Heterocerus Icevigatus Pz. Saltend, Hull, 29-7-08. T. S. 
(This confirms Spence's record for the Humber shore). 

Heterocerus britannicusKuw. Saltend, 15-7-08. T. S. *6i. 

Corymhitcs metallicus Pk. Bubwith, fairly abundant on 
umbellifers and thistles by the River Derwent. W. J. F. 

Lampyris noctiluca L. South Cave, common. T. S. *6i. 

Podabrus alpinus Pk. Unusually abundant (both type and 
black var.) in June. Cleveland. M. L. T. Arnclifle, 
1908-9 (type and black var.). J. W. C. Keighley. 
R. Butterfield. Lonsdale. G.B.W. Helm.sley. G.B.W. 

MaUJwdes mysticus Kies. Saltaire. J. W. C. and F. Rhodes. 
*63. 

Malachius bipustulatus L. Abundant, Bubwith and Skipwith. 
W. J. F. (Not previously noted in this locality). Mr. 
W. E. Sharp has noted in the E.M.M., March 1897, p. 
61, that this species varies in abundance in difterent 
seasons in the Liverpool district. 

Necrobia rufipes De G. Doncaster in hides. H. H. C. *63. 

Niptus hololeucus Fall. Northallerton, infesting an old house 
in considerable num.bers. Keating's Powder had no 
effect on its numbers, H. Slater. (This species is noted 
for its delight in piquant substances, and has been found 
in cantharides, capsicum., cayenne and ginger, so pre- 
sum.ably would delight in the Keatings ! See E.M.M., 
1893, pp. 238 and 261.). 
■\Trigonogenius globulus Sol. Bradford, in different ware- 
houses, 1909 (two) and 1913 (one), Mr. Stringer, 1915, 
J. Beanland. A native of Chile, which may gain a 
footing in suitable localities as it is evidently a follower 
of com.merce. 

Stenostola jerrea Schr. An unset specimen from Mr. Cash 
labelled ' Wadworth, off Elm, 1908.' J. W. C. 

Donacia semicuprea Pz. Apperley Comm.on. J. W. C. 
Keighley. R. Butterfield, abundant but local. Bub- 
with. W. J. F. 

Donacia sericea L. Saltaire. J.W.C. Keighley. Butterfield. 
^63. Bubwith, abundant and variable (including abs. 
jesiucce F., nymphce F., armata Pk. and micans Pz.), 
W. J. F. 

Donacia discolor Pz. Norton, bv R. Went, 13th September. 
H. V. C. *63. 
]Phccdon concinnits Steph. Humber shore at Saltend (Hull). 
T. S. Bubwith, flood refuse, January. W. J. F. This 
is usually considered a salt marsh insect. 

Lupents flavipes L. Skipwith. W. J. F. *6i. 

Naturalist, 



Fordham : Yoykshiye Coleoptera in 1915. 263 

Longitarsiis atricilUis L. Richmond. G. B. W. *65. 
Longitarsus pyatensisFz. va.v. ■\collaris Bed. Stamford Bridge, 

on clover, 5-9-14 (with the type). W. J. F. *6i. 
Longitay sits lavis 'Dixit. Saltaire. F.Rhodes. 
Haltica ytenensis Shp. {oleyacca Brit. Cat.). North Cave. 

G. B. W. *6i. 
Mantiiya yiistica L. var. sutuyalis Weise. BridUngton, 23-5-09. 

W. E. S. *6i. 
Mantura rnstica L. ab. Entirely shiny black with slightly 

pitchy brown apex to elytra, legs wholly black. Bishop 

Wood. W. J. F. 
]AphtJiona nigriceps Redt. Grassington. J. W. C. Adding- 

ham, on Gcyanium pyatensc, T. Stringer. 
Aphthona sp ? A very interesting insect, which Mr. E. A. 

Newbery thinks may possibly be Aphthona. violacea 

Kuts., not previously recorded from Britain, which 

occurs on Enphoybia. One specim.en taken in flight. 

April. W. J. F. 
Psylliodes napi Koch. Richm.ond. G. B. W. *65. 
Psylliodes picina Marsh. Saltaire. F. Rhodes. 
Cassida viyidis F. Unusually comm.on (generally scarce) in 

autumn near Doncaster. H. V. C. 
Alphitobius diaperinus Pz. This species which was abundant 

at Doncaster in damaged hides. H. H. C. ( The Nat- 

iiyalist, 1915, June, p. 209), is not new to V.C. 63 (as 

stated I.e.) having been recorded from, Barnsley. E.G.B. 

{Picens 01. has not previouslv been recorded for V.C. 

63)- 
Clinocaya idyaioma Th. Wheatley Wood, Januarv- H. H. C. 

*63. 
Melandyya cayaboidcs L. Helmsley. G. B. W. 
Attelabus cuycitlionoides L. Houghton Woods, one. T. S. 

*6i. 
\RhyncJiitcs haneoodi Joy. Skipwith. June. W. J. F. Allied 

to nanus and uncinatiis and probably not uncommon. 

{Foiidey, Byit. Col. VI., p. 346). 
Apion mini at urn Germ. Bubwith, on dock. W. J. F. This 

confirms a previous doubtful record for the county. 
Apion paUipes Kirb. Saltaire. F. Rhodes. *63. 
Apion nigritayse Kirb. Saltaire (*63) and Boston Spa. F. 

Rhodes. 
Apion simile Kirb. Skipwith Common on birch. W. J. F. 

*6i. (The only previous record is Knaresborough, 1838, 

J. Walton). 
Apion affine Kirb. Baildon I\Ioor, very abundant on Rumex. 

J. W. C. and T. Stringer. 
Exomias ayaneijoymis Schr. Several in moles' nests at North 

Duflield, April. W. J. F. 

1916 Aug. 1. 



264 Fonlham : Yorkshire Colcoptcra in 1015. 

Tanymecus palliatus F. Bubwith. W. J. F. *6i. Barlow. 

J. F. Musham. 
Barynotus elcoatus Marsh. Bubwith. G. B. W. *Gi. 
] Hypera alternans Steph. Bridhngton, 23-5-09. W. E. S. 
Liosoma avatnlum Clair var. -jcollaris Rye. Bubwith, flood 

refuse. W. J. F. 
^Orchestes alni L. Foggathorpe, near Bubwith. W. J. ¥. 

(The niost northerly record previously is Cleethorpes). 
Dorytomus pectoraUs Gyll, near Keighley. F. Rhodes. 
jGymnetron beccabungce L. Kildale, on Veronica, June i8th. 

M. L. T. Bishop Wood, June 19th, W. J. F. These 

specimens are both of the var. nigrum Hardy. The type 

appears to be rare in Britain. 
Cryptorhynchits lapathi L. Leyburn. G. B. \V. *(i5. 
Rhinonciis gramineus ¥ . Bubwith. W. J. F. *6i. 
Rhinoncus perpendiciilaris Reich. Stamford Bridge on Radi- 

cula, September, 1914. W. J. F. *6i. 
Phytobius coniari Hbst. Bubwith, July, 1912. W. J. F. *6i 
Limnobaris T. album L. Shipley Glen. F. Rhodes. *63. 
f Limnobaris pilistriata Steph. Bubwith. W. J. F. June, by 

sweeping. (See Fowler, jBn^. Co/. F/., p. 198). 
Balaniniis betulce Steph. Wheatley Wood. Several on alder, 

September, H. V. C. 
Cryphalus abietis Ratz. Bubwith, in flight, April. W. J. F. 

*6i. ( The only Yorkshire record previously is Studley, 

E. A. Waterhouse). 
I Xylcborus saxeseni Ratz. This is the insect recorded as X. 

dryographiis Ratz. from Cusworth, H. H. C, in last 

year's report. ( The Naturalist, 1915, June, p. 200). A'. 

dryographiis therefore still remains to be discovered in 

Yorkshire. 



The Pvoceediiigs of the Liverpool Natui-alists' Field Club for 1915 
(20 pages), besides a list of officers and members, etc., contains a report on 
the field meetings for 191 5, by J. W. Ellis, which is mostly botanical. 

In the Joitnial of the Torquay Natural History Society for 1916, Ur. 
A. Smith Woodward describes a specimen of ' A Fossil Arthrodiran Fish,' 
( Homosteiis milleri), which was in a Caithness flagstone in the Victoria 
I'arade, Torquay, and it has been gradually exposed during the past 
30 years, by people walking over it. In the same Journal Mr. H.J. Lowe 
describes some stone implements from Kent's Cavern. 

The Journal of the East Africa and Uganda Natural History Society ior 
June (Longmans, Green and Co. 4s.) is well illustrated and contains a 
coloured plate of Entomological interest. Among the papers are : — ' The 
Game Fish of Mombasa and \Ialindi,' bv E. K. Boileau ; ' Game and War,' 
by Capt. C. W. Woodhouse ; ' Report on the Collection of Ophidia in the 
Society's Museum,' by A. Loveridge ; ' Life Histories of certain Butter- 
flies,' by Capt. P. L. Coleridge ; ' Sundogs and Halos seen at Njoro, ' by 
W. A. Tunstall, and ' Dessication of East Africa,' by Capt. Henry Darley. 
In addition there are several shorter notes. 

Naturalist, 



265 
YORKSHIRE NATURALISTS AT MALTON. 

{Conitnued from page ^j6). 

CoLEOPTERA. — Dr. Fordhaiii writes : — Little was done by 
the coleopterists present (Mr. M. L. Thompson and Dr. Fordham) 
"but 32 species were obtained near the lower end of Crambe 
Beck. The majority of these were common species but the 
following deserve mention : — Anaccena globulus Pk., Tachyusa 
jlavitarsis Sahl., Stcmis impressus Germ, and nitidiusculus 
Steph., Quediiis sciniillans Gr. (a rare species in Yorkshire), 
LathrimcBwn atrocephalum Gyll., Tychus niger Pk., Trichopteryx 
sp. (?), Barynotns moerens F., and an interesting variety of 
Liosoma deflexiim Pz., {=ovatulum Clair) approaching the var. 
collaris Rye., but of a uniformly reddish colour and structually 
slightly different from the type. The majority of the beetles 
taken were obtained imder stones by the Beck or in the lux- 
uriant growth of moss on the ground in the wooded parts. 

CoNCHOLOGY. — Mr. Thomas Castle writes : — 

The recent flooded state of the River Derwent, together 
with the check upon the vegetation upon its margins, had the 
effect of restricting the numbers of fresh-water species. The 
rainfall during the visit to the woods at Castle Howard, made 
observations difficult and the list is far from complete in 
consequence, but ideal places abound for a fully representative 
number of woodland species. The services of Mr. C. C. Laver- 
ack have been secured towards making out a complete record 
of the mollusca of the district. 

Our genial host, Mr. A. H. Taylor, informed me that a 
conchologist once residing in Malton had commissioned his 
children to collect about 10,000 shells of Helix nemoralis in 
the district, with the view of securing specimens of six banded 
varieties, but of this variety only two were obtained, one now 
being in the local museum and the other in the British museum. 
This fact indicates that the geological formation of the district 
is conducive to molluscan life. 

Several fossil representatives of this order, but of marine 
origin, were met with in a gravel pit near the Electric Power 
Station. They are worthy of note as possibly indicating the 
beds from which the material was brought down by the glacial 
rivers, and the suggestion is offered that the specimens should 
be correlated b}^ an expert. 

Fresh Water Shells. 
Anodonta cygnca \ reported by Mr. Wattam from Scampston 

tumidus J Lake. 

Limnea stagnalis shown by Mr. Laverack from River Derwent. 
,, peregra River Derwent and three small ponds. 
,, truncatula 

1916 Aug. 1. 



266 



Yorksliirc Xiifiii-nljsfs al Malton. 



Spliacrinm corneuw. small ponds. 

laciisfris 
Pisidiiim amnicum Ri\'er Derwent and small ponds. 

,, fonfinale small ponds. 

Planorbis spirobis 

albiis 
Physa hy prior urn 

fontinalis River Derwent. 
Ancyliis jluviatilis 

lacustris reported from River Derwent by Mr. Taylor. 



Land Shells. 

Helix aspersa old lanes aroimd I\Ialton. 
ncniofalis 

Iioyfensis dead specimen from old land leading to 
pasture lane crossing approaches to gravel pit. 
,, aybustoritm ,, ,, ,, 

,, cantiana ,, ,, ,, 

,, virgata banded form. Many places. 
,, rufescens t5^pe, old lane and hedgerows. 
,, var. nigrescens ,, 
hispida old lanes and Castle Howard Woods. 
rotundata ,, ,, 

Cochlicopa lubrica ,, 

Carychium minimus 
Vitrina pellucida ,, 

Hyalina cellariiis old lanes and ,, 
alliariiis ,, ,, 

nitidnlns ,, ,, 

Hyalina niiidiis ,, ,, 

pitrva ,, 

Hyalina cyrstalHniis ,, 

ftilvus ,, 

Pupa iimbilicata 
Clausiiia laminata reported by Mr. Ta\-lor. 



Mycology. — Mr. A. E. Peck writes: — 

The Committee were represented by Mr. W. N. Cheesman, 
Miss C. A. Cooper and myself. Mycologists do not expect to 
meet with finds of outstanding interest at this time of year. 
At Castle Howard, Polyporus cuticularis on Beech, according 
to the writer's experience, was unusual on this host. Hitherto 
he had only met wdth it on trunks of Alder. 

Fomes fomentariiis occurs in the fine avenue of Beech trees 
and the writer is confident that certain specimens at the foot 
of one Beech tree are the same as were observed at the time 
of the visit of the M3'cological Committee in 1909. 

Natunli?t, 



267 

YORKSHIRE NATURALISTS AT BOLTON WOODS 

An ideal day favoured the very large gathering of naturalists 
who participated in the Union's excursion to Bolton Woods on 
Saturday, May 20th. All enjoyed the variety of charm of 
springtime in this lovely and romantic portion of the Valley 
of the Wharfe. A pleasing feature was the excellent official 
Sectional representation, and the support given to the President, 
Mr. W. N. Cheesman, J. P., F.L.S., by the presence of four 
past Presidents of the Union, Mr. Riley Fortune, F.Z.S., Mr. 
W. Denison Roebuck, M.Sc, F.L.S., Mr. John W. Taylor, 
M.Sc, and Dr. Harold Wager, F.R.S., F.L.S. 

The area of investigation was from the Abbey to Barden 
Bridge ; the geological party, however, visited the Hambleton 
Quarries at the back of the Railway Station. 

An excellent resume of the day's work was given by the 
Sectional recorders at the meeting held at the close of the 
excursion. Thanks were accorded to His Grace the Duke of 
Devonshire, for the privileges given to visit his estate ; to Mr. 
Rile}' Fortune for making the local arrangements, and to ]\Ir. 
T. Roose and members of the Bradford Naturalists Societies 
for acting as guides. 

Mr. Roose exhibited a line collection of flint implements 
found by him on the Rombalds, Hazelwood and Barden moors. 

Vertebrate Zoology. — Mr. H. B. Booth reports : — 
In all 54 species of birds were seen, of which 19 species were 
what are usually classed as summer migrants. Pied Fly- 
catchers were moderately common, and Wood Warblers 
relatively abundant — in fact I never remember having heard 
quite so many of the latter in Bolton Woods before. The 
three British nesting species of Wagtail were noted* — one 
young brood of Grey Wagtails having already just left the 
nest. The five ordinarily known species of Titmice were 
seen, including a pair of Long-tailed Tits, whicli latter appears 
to be returning to this district as a nesting species, f Bull- 
finches also appear to have slightly increased in numbers. 
On the other hand the Tree-Crecper appeared to have decreased 
from its comparative abundance there of a few years ago, and 
neither the Hawfinch (of which species several pairs have been 
known to nest for many years), nor any of the Woodpeckers 

* Exactly three weeks before this excursion, (viz., on April 26th), I 
noticed a male White-^^'agtail just below the stepping-stcnes. After 
watching it for half an hour, I went for Mr. Roose, and asked him to 
try and keep his eye on it as a rara avis for the Y.N.U. excursion — more 
particularly if it should remain to nest. Although it was still there when 
I returned that evening, neither Mr. Roose nor I have seen it since. 

•f Mr. Roose informed me that there is another pair of Long-tailed 
Tits in another part of the woods. We went to look for them after the 
meeting, but without success. 

19ie Aug. 1. 



26S Yoi'ks/iirc XdfurttHsts at Bolton Woods. 

\vere seen or heard. Of tlie otlior species tlie Blackcap and 
the Garden Warbler were not heard in their usnal numbers 
for this district.' Possibly this may liave been partly accounted 
for by the heat of the day. ]\Iore Tree Pi]nts were seen than is 
usual in a ramble through these woods, yet much fewer were 
lieard in song. 

Many nests of dilferent species wen> noted, including a 
particularly small nest of the Chattinch which more resembled 
the nest of a Humming-bird, on a branch of an ash-tree. The 
sitting Chaffinch's body exceeded the size of this abnormal 
nest by quite one inch at the f(U-eq\iartcrs, and three inches at 
the tail-end. The bird sat most obligingly for a fairly close 
inspection by all present. This species is unusually nmnerous 
and tame in Bolton Woods. A nest of the Dipper, with six 
quite fresh eggs wms examined — evidently a second brood. 
Five species of Mammals were noticed, which included the 
decreasing squirrel — for some reason unknown, as they are 
not killed oft — and eight Red Deer that are supposed to be 
descendants of the original feral stock that were hunted by 
the monks of Bolton Abbey ; with the addition of an occasional 
strange buck in order to prevent the herd from dying out by 
in-breeding. 

Arachnida. — Mr. W. Falconer writes : — After entering 
the park through the Hole in the Wall, the route followed by 
Dr. Fordliam, ^Ir. Winter and myself led up Posforth Gill, 
across to and around the waterfalls in the A'alley of Desolation, 
returning through the pine wood abo^'e and finishing with a 
short stretch on the left bank of the Wharfe from Lud's Island 
to the wooden bridge. Although the season was not an unsuit- 
able one for spiders, they were not found either in number or 
variety, the ground covering being of little depth. Beating the 
trees produced only tlie species commonly met with in such a 
situation, Thcridion pallcjis, BL, Linyphia pdtata Wid., 
Epeira diadcmata Clerck, and less frequently E. cucurhitina 
Clerck, the last two as yet immature, (iri)und collecting was 
a little more productive, a fair number of difierent kinds being 
taken, amongst them Enidia cornida BL, and ten species 
■svhich have not previously been noted for the woods, but all 
of general occurrence except Diploccphaliis lalitrojis Camb., 
and Troxochrus hionalis Bl. The little cave on' the river 
bank was entered, but only Mcta mcyiancv Scop, with its var. 
cclata Bl. was seen. A marked feature of the specimens 
collected was their more distinct markings, or darker coloration. 
Harvestmen were mostly young, only three common species 
being recognisable. A few examples only of the common 
false-scorpion were noticed. The mites were a little more 
numerous, eleven species being obtained, viz., Oribates globulus 
Nic., Oppia bipilis Herm., Damacus clavipcs Herm., 1). gciiicu- 

Naturalist, 



Yorkshire Naturalists at Bolton Woods. 269 

latus C. J.. Kocli, I'rombidium holosericetim Linn, Rittcria 
nemorum Kcjcli, (iamasus crassipes Linn, G. runciger Bcrl, 
Ilypoaspis acideifer G. Can., Linopodes motatorius Linn, 
Anystis baccarum Linn. 

Flowering Plants. — Mr. W. H. Burrell writes : — Billowy 
masses of expanding foliage seen from the numerous beauty 
spots, inters])ersed with a ])rofusion of Cherry and Apple 
blossom, Bluebell, Ramsons, Wood Anemone and Wood 
Stitchwort made an impressive sight that will linger in the 
memory. The following plants were reported as having been 
seen: — Globe Flower, three bitter cresses [Cardamine amara, 
pratensis and hirsuta). Scurvy Grass, three violets ( Viola 
odorata, sylvestris Kit., and Riviniana Reichb.), Wood Geranium, 
Shining Geranium, Water Avens and Geum intermedium. 
Salad Burnet, Rue-leaved Saxifrage. Alternate-leaved Saxifrage, 
Sweet Cicely, Crosswort, Northern Galium, Melancholy Thistle, 
Cowberry, Mimulus, Toothwort, Early Purple Orchis, Lily 
of the Valley, Yellow Gagea, Herb l^aris. Blue Moor and Moun- 
tain Melic Grasses, Eqnisetum maximum and Equisetmn 
hyemale, the latter on the river bank above the Strid, bearing 
mature spikes. 

Mosses and Hepatics. — Mr. C. A. Cheetham reports : — 
A start was made on the wet shales opposite the Abloey, and 
here Webera carnea was seen fruiting. With it were Bryuni 
pallens (also in fruit), Barbida spadicea, Dicranella varia, 
BarbtUa cylindrica, and the hepatic I.unularia cruciata which 
seems too much at home in all parts of Yorkshire to be deemed 
an escape from hothouses. The rocks in the river bed are 
well covered with Cinclidotus jontinaloides, Grimmia apocarpa 
var. rivularis, Amblystegitim jlnviatile and the rare Fissidens 
rujulus, long known from this station. Going upstream on a 
sandy path Plettridium subulatum was seen and on shaley 
sandstones Webera proligera. At a swampy corner, the grit 
l>oulders were covered with Dicranum scoparium, Mnimn 
liornum and Rhacomitrium jasciculare, the shady sides of these 
rocks having delicate growths of H etcrocladium heteropterum 
in plenty ; in the more swampy spots Mniiim ajfine var. datum 
was very fine. Next the woods were entered, with their 
carpet of Dicranum majus, D. fuscescens var. falcifoliiim, 
Mniiim hornum, Polytrichum formosum, E-urhynchiiim striatum 
and many others. In Posforth Gill the clayey banks had 
Pierogophyllum liiccns fruiting, and two woodland mosses had 
made themselves very much at home on the stream sides and 
boulders, viz., M. hornum and Catharinea undulata, in this 
station the latter has wider and shorter leaves than usual and 
somewhat approaches the more usual Catharinea crispa of the 
stream side. 

On the river side above the Strid the low cliffs had Sivartzia 

191G Aug. 1. 



270 Review's and Book Notices. 

montana in nice fruiting condition and line masses of Zy^oclon 
mo'Ugcotii together with Bartramia pomiformis and B.ithyphylla. 
Above these rocks in rather dryer places was seen the rarer 
Oythodonthim gracile easily overlooked as Dicranella heteromalla. 

A complete list of the mosses of Bolton Woods conld serve 
no useful purpose here, but to any one interested in Brvology 
it would be difficult to lind better ground, but let it be in 
winter, when the' flowers, trees and enticing views are not 
calling the bryologist from his purpose. 

Mycology. — ^Ir. A. R. Sanderson writes : — The visit did 
not yield any outstanding species of mycetozoa, the best time 
for these being the Autumn. Perhaps the most interesting 
point was the complete absence of Perichcena corticalis Rost., 
one of our most common and generally distributed species. 
The list includes those found by Mr. Cheesman, Mr. BuiTell and 
myself. Most of the specimens were old and in poor condition. 
Besides the mature and weathered sporangia, two or three small 
Plasmodia were seen, and one in the sclerotium condition. 

The list apart from these is as follows : — Badhamia panicea 
Rost., (on Elm) ; Physarum nutans Pers., comm.on ; Didymiitm 
sqiiamiilosum Fries., common ; Leocarpns jragilis Rost. ; 
Reticularia lycoperdon Bull., ; Lycogala epidendrum Fries, (on 
oak and ash) ; Coniatricha nigra Schroeter. (on Sjxamore) ; 
Trichia ajjinis de Bary ; including a plasmodiocarp form ; 
T. varia Pers. ; T. d ecipiens Macbv . ; T. Botrytis Pers., common ; 
HemUrichia clavata Rost. 

(To be continued) . 



Rambles of a Canadian Naturalist, by S. T. Wood. J. ^^ . l)ent lV- 
Sons, 27 \ pages, 6s. net. ^^'ith the aid of a number of beautifully coloured 
illustrations by Robert Holines, the author of this work gives an intro- 
duction to the more important aspects of nature as illustrated in Canada. 
]3irds, Flowers, Moths and Mammals are referred to in a number of short 
and pleasantly written articles. The book will be useful to those desiring 
information as to the Natural History capabilities in this important 
colony. 

A Veteran Naturalist, being the Life and Work of W, B, Tegetmeier, by 
E. W. Richardson, with an Introduction by the late Sir \\'alter (rilbey. 
London : ^^'ithcrby & Co., z^z pages, los. net. It is always pleasant 
to read an account of the life work of a prominent scientific worth}-, and 
the present volume contains a very interesting account of the great 
Naturalist, ' The Collaborator of Darwin, The Bee Master, The Father 
of Pigeon Fanciers, The Father of the Savage Club,' the man who had so 
many sided a character. His achievements are well described, and 
doubtless those of our readers who are familiar with Tegetmeier's various 
volumes on birds, etc., will be glad to peruse the present interesting 
volume. That he was not a " narrow ' Naturalist may be gathered from 
the illustrations to the book, one of which is Tegetmeier ' training the 
Hallet at Liverpool.' There are two Appendices, the first being a list 
of his works, and the second, a poem headed ' To Sixtj'-six from Twenty- 
six.' 

Naturalist, 



271 

FIELD NOTES. 
BIRDS. 
Bird Notes from Hebden Bridge. — It was hoped that 
a pair of Stonechats, which were tirst observed at Jumble Hole 
in October, and then removed to Withens Reservoir, two or 
three miles away, would stay to nest, but they have not been 
seen here since February 20th. During the last two years the 
Corn Bunting has become very scarce, and I have not detected 
a single bird this year. A fine male Shelduck was killed at 
Withens Reservoir on March 24th (see The Naturalist, May 
igi6, p. 173). Spring and summer migrants were observed as 
follows ; Ring Ousel, March 26th ; Wheatear, April 2nd ; 
Cuckoo, April 21st ; Willow Wren, Swallow, April 22nd ; Sand- 
piper, April 24th ; Tree Pipit, Yellow Wagtail, Whinchat, 
April 29th ; House Martin, Sand Martin, Redstart, April 30th ; 
Swift, May 8th ; Landrail, May 12th ; Spotted Flycatcher, 
Maj^ 13th ; Wood Wren, May 14th ; Garden Warbler, May 
30th ; Blackcap, May 28th ; Nightjar, late May. Landrails 
have been far less numerous then usual, and the Common 
Whitethroat, which has been decreasing the last tv/o or three 
years, has not been noted at all. It is the first time for many 
years that it has altogether failed. Contrary to the general 
custom, the Blackcap, judging from singing males, has out- 
numbered the Garden Warbler. The Golden-Crested Wren 
has nested and is probably doing so annually now. Although 
the nest of the Redshank has not yet been found there is little 
reason to doubt the breeding of the birds at more than one 
place. Tawny and Long-eared Owls are now thoroughly 
established. A very few years ago they were rarities here. 
The Dunlin still maintains its breeding numbers, but Black- 
headed Gulls have either begun to nest in undiscovered 
quarters or bred more sparingly than for many years. Less 
than a score of adults were counted at the largest settlement, 
where there were only a few nests, and the report from the 
other grormd suggests that they have missed altogether, 
though there were a large number of adult birds there in early 
spring. The old breeding ground is under water, which is 
higher than usual at this time of year. During the last day 
or two in June a Lesser Black-back Gull frequented the 
reservoir. — Walter Greaves. 



The Selbovne Magazine for June contains a well-illustrated article 
on the ' Fungi of Bare Pine Woods,' by Somerville Hastings. 

In The Scottish Naturalist for June, Mr. W. E. Collinge writes : — ' On 
the Specific Identity of the Wood-louse, Ouiscus jossor Koch.' 

Wild Life for June contains the following notes : — ' Nature in the 
Arctic ' ; ' The Chough," by Oswald J. Wilkinson ; ' The British Shrews,' 
by Lionel E. Adams ; ' Whitethroats — A Busy Pair,' by A. M. C. NichoU 
and J. H. Franklin ; ' Sexual Selection in Birds,' by Edmund Selous. 

1316 Aug. 1. 



2 72 

NORTHERN NEWS, Etc. 

We learn that Frederic Knoch died at Hastings on Ma\' 31st. He was 
71 years of age. 

A little while ago the timber in a wood on the south-west side of 
Lowthorpe Station, near Bridlington, was felled and cleared away. Its 
site is now entirely covered by a magnificent thick growth of meadow- 
sweet. 

The Proceedings of the Cheltenham Natural Science Society contain 
papers on " The llong Barrow Race beyond the Cotteswolds, " by E. T. 
Wilson, ' Extinct Apes,' by A. G. Thacker, and ' Church Glass,' by A. J. 
de H. Bushnell. 

Entomologists interested in Nomenclature will find some puzzles in 
the report of the British National Committee on Entomological Nomen- 
clature, printed in the Transactions of the London Entomological Society^ 
part 5, issued on June 2nd. 

The report of the Norwich Museum for 1915 (21 pp.) contains records 
of many noteworthy additions made during the year. As a frontispiece 
is an illustration of ' Adult Male, " chick " (1905) and egg (1838) of Em- 
peror Penguin, in the Museum Collection." 

The 29th Report of the Bootle Museum Committee is to hand, and 
shows that there have been over 41,000 visitors to the Museum during 
the year. Dr. Clubb of the Liverpool Museum, has given 24 nicely 
mounted specimens of British Birds, in exchange for some skins of foreign 
birds ; and 75 duplicate specimens of common birds have been sent 
to the schools in Bootle. 

Sir William Ramsay, the eminent chemist whose researches into the 
rarer gasts, and the properties of radium, won him world-wide repute, 
died recently at Beechcroft, Hazlemere, Bucks, after an illness of some 
months' duration. He was born at Glasgow in 1852, and was the only 
son of the late Mr. William Ramsay, C.E., whose younger brother, the 
late Sir Andrew Ramsay, was a famous geologist. 

A pamphlet with the title 'The Meaning of Life,' deals with 'The 
Ascent of Man.' The author states, ' I want to give you, if I can, a clear 
understanding of my theory regarding the ascent of man from the very 
beginning. ... I cannot understand anyone, who looks at it from the 
right point of view, hesitating to accept the whole of it. The only difficulty 
is to get the right point of view.' This ' right ' point of view of cour.sc 
is the author's. He calls it the ' only ' difficulty. Most people find it 
' some ' difficulty. 

Dr. Aubrey Strahan, Director of the Geological Survey, has favoured 
us with a copy of his address on ' The Search for New Coal-fields in 
England,' delivered at the Royal Institution, London, recently. The 
paper contains a useful summary of the history of coal-mining in this 
countrv, as well as the prospects for further supplies of coal in areas at 
present unworked. It is illustrated by maps and diagrams, and, as might 
be expected from the author's reputation and experience, is a valuable 
statement as to the present position of the question. 

Following on the report of the Yorkshire Naturalists' Union meeting 
at Malton, there has been a correspondence in The Yorkshire Post in 
reference to ' Willow Warblers and Chiffchaffs.' That this has proved of 
public interest is shown by an illustrated 'joke,' by ' Kester, ' in the 
Yorkshire Evening Post. Two birds (? a robin and a sea-gull) are perched 
on adjoining trees, one is reading a paper on which appears, ' Yorkshire 
Post Willow Warbler and Chiffchaff,' with the legend : ' Willow \N'arbler : 
Fancy not knowing the difference between a Warbler and a mere Chiffchaff. 
People must be blind and deaf. Why you can't sing for nuts with your 
silly " chift chaff." ' Moral for songsters : Don't eat too many nuts and 
don't let Kester sketch yer. 

Naturalist, 



Books for Sale. 

^Mostly from the Library of a Yorkshire NaturaHst, recently 
■deceasefl. The books are as new, and the prices asked are, in 
most cases, less than half the published price). 

Our Common Sea Birds. Lowe. 4to 8/6 

Animal Romances. Renshaw. 4/- 

British Butterflies, etc. (coloured plates). Thomas. 4/- 

Natural History of Animals, 8 vols. 4/6 per vol. 

Determination of Sex. Doncaster. 4/6 

Book of nature Study. Farmer. 6 vols. 4/6 per vol. 

Richard Jefferies. Thomas. 6/6 

Animal Life. Gamble. 4/- 

FuR and Feather Series. Pheasant, Partridge, Grouse. 1/9 

each. 
Science from an Easy Chair. Lankester. 4/- 

Do. (Second Series). 4/- 

Nature Through the Microscope. Spiers. (99 plates). 4/- 
White's Natural History of Selborne. Coloured Illustrations 

by Collins. 6/- 
LiFE OF MacGillivray. 6/- 

The Making of Species. Dewar and Finn. 4/- 
The Greatest Life. Leighton. 3/- 
Fauna of Cheshire. 2 vols. 15/- 
History of Birds. Pycraft. 6/- • 
Book of Birds. Pycraft. 2/6 

Natural History of some Common Animals. Latter. 3/- 
The Gannet. Gurney. 13/- 
Birds of Isle of Man. Ralfe. 8/- 
Home Life of Osprey. Abbott. 2/6 

Ap'piy :— Dept. C, c/0 A. BROWN & SONS, Ltd., Hull. 



YORKSHIRE NATURALISTS' UNION. 

BOTANICAL SECTION. 

The Botanical Section will meet at Austwick on Saturday, 
August 26th, to investigate some botanical problems in the neigh- 
bourhood. If possible members will arrive on the Friday evening, 
August 25th, and the Secretary, Mr. C. A. Cheetham, Old Farnlev, 
Leeds, will supply members with any information they desire on 
receipt of a post card stating requirements. 

Saturday will be devoted to Moughton Scar, where later arrivals 
may join the party. Austwick Moss will also be visited. 

The nearest Station is Clapham (3 miles) and there is a good 
service of trains BViday evening and Saturday morning and re- 
turning Saturday evening or Sunday evening. 



THE COUNTY OF 
THE WHITE ROSE 

AX INTRODUCTION TO THE HISTORY 
AND ANTIQUITIES OF YORKSHIRE 

BY 

A. C. PRICE, M.A. 

Formerly Scholar of Pembroke College, Oxford 
Author of " Leeds and its Neighbourhood," etc. 

415 pages, crown 8t'o, ivith iipxvards of 70 illustrations and a 

folding map of the three Ridings, tastefully hound in Art 

Cloth Boards lettered in gold with rose in white foil and gilt 

top. 3s. 6d. net. 

CoNTENis. — The Land, The Earty Inhabitants, Yorkshire 
under Roman Rule, The Anghan Kings, The Danes, 
The Norman Conquest, The Yorkshire Barons, Churches 
and Abbeys, Mediaeval Towns, The Tudors, The Stuarts,. 
Modern Yorkshire. 



THIS work has been compiled to assist the large number 
of persons — residents and visitors — who take interest 
in Castles, Abbe37s, Churches, Battlefields, etc., but from 
want of a proper historical basis, fail as a rule to understand 
the allusions and technicalities in the ordinary? guide books. 
It will also help inteUigent boys and girls who desire to study 
the history of their County, on the lines advocated by the 
Board of Education. The book is the only one of a reason- 
able size which deals at all adequately with the history of 
Yorkshire as a whole. Many of the illustrations have 
been reproduced from photographs by Mr. Godfrey Bingley, 
Mr. A. C. Parry and Mr. R. Stockdale. To several chapters, 
notes are appended to guide readers who might wish to 
extend their studies, and the value of the book is further 
enhanced by the provision of a very exhaustive Index of 
names and places. 



London : A. Brown & Sons, Ltd., 5 Farringdon Avenue, E.C. 
And at Hull and York. 



Printed at Browns' Savile Press, 40, George Street, Hull, and published by 
A. Brown & Sons, Limited, at 5 Farringdon Avenue, in the City of London. 

Aug. 1st, 191 6. 



SEPT. 1916. 



No. 716 

(No. 493 of current terirs) 




A MONTHLY ILLUSTRATED JOURNAL OF 

NATURAL HISTORY FOR THE NORTH OF KNGLAND. 

EDITED BY 

T. SHEPPARD, M.Sc, F.Q.S., F.R.Q.S., F.S.A^^COl^ 

Thk Museums, Hull; " "" 



,.(V\s»ni»'i InsMT;]^'-, 



AND / 

T. W. WOODHEAD, Ph.D., M.Sc, ff-'-jHN. 

Technical Collkgk, HunnKRSFiKrn. \ 

WITH THE ASSISTANCE AS REFERKES IN SPECIAL DEPARTMEl\;S^F 

J. QILBERT BAKER. F.R.S. P.L.S.. QRO. T. PORRITF, P.>.^^J^^I^.§j. 

Prof P. P. KENDALL, M.Sc. P.Q.S.. JOHN W. TAYLOR. M.Sc.7~~- 

T H NRI SON. M.Sc. M.B.O.U.. RILEY FORTUNE. F.Z.S. 



Contents : — 

The Geographical Distribution of Moths of the Sub = Family liistoninae- 

HiSlofi Harrison, B.Sc 

Fauna Littorinidae Islandiae Boreali8—/yn;is5c/i.'<si7( 

The Icelandic Pisidiuni = Fauna—HiiHsSfW[S(/i 

The Distribution of Spiders in the East Riding- 7. Slainto-lJi, li.A., IJ.Sb. 

Hemiptera Collected at Baslow, Derbyshire y. TK. Carr, M.A., F.L.S.. F.KS. 

Mr. J. Hawkins' Collection of Grantham Shells— C.-SCfn/fr 

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i|JN 2^31920 

THE GEOGRAPHICAL DISTRIBUTION OF THE 
MOTHS OF THE SUBFAMILY BISTONINAl 



J. W. HESLOP HARRISON, BiSc. 



{Contimicd from page igS). 

III.— THE GENUS AMORPHOGYNIA (WARREN). 

Amorphogynia necessaria (Z.) Distribution. — Asia Minor 
from Smyrna to Armenia. 

Amorphogynia inversaria (Rebel.) Distribution. — Eastern 
Rumelia. 

This genus is a direct derivative of Lycia and there is but 
little to separate the two genera except the semiapterous 
females of the present group. This being so, it must have 
originated in Asia Minor subsequent to the advent of Lycia 
hirtaria. Even in Asia Minor it has been able to occupy only 
a small area although it had reached Europe before the geol- 
ogical changes resulting in the union of the Black Sea and the 
Mediterranean had occurred. The formation of the Bosphorus, 
Sea of Marmora and the Dardanelles, therefore, divided the 
then species into two branches which have diverged so much 
owing to geographical isolation that, whilst it is dubious 
whether the divergence is of specific value, it is still certainly 
of varietal importance. The exact status of the two forms 
cannot be determined until the male of A. inversaria is discov- 
ered. 

IV.— THE GENUS POECU.OPSIS (HARRISON) 

Poecilopsis pomonaria (Hb.) Distribution : — North and 
Central Europe as far west as Paris, Piedmont, Uralsk. Absent 
from Holland, Belgium, the British Islands, almost the whole 
of France, Spain, Italy and the Balkan Peninsula. 

Poecilopsis isahellae (Harrison). Mountains of Silesia, Alps 
of Austria, Bavaria and Eastern Switzerland. 

Poecilopsis liqiiidaria (Ev.) Kirghiz Steppes. 

Poecilopsis lapponaria (B.) Scotland (Perthshire) Lapland 
southward to Livonia. 

Poecilopsis rachelac (Hulst.) In North America from 
Montana northward along the foot hills of the Rocky Mountains 
to Alaska, eastward to Manitoba. 

Here again we have another genus developed from Lycia ; 
it differs from that genus at all points but its species show 
this separation in varying degrees. The first three, P. 
pomonaria, P. isabellae and P. liquidaria, are fairly near to 
Lycia and form a very compact little group whilst the other 
two species, P. lapponaria and P. rachelac, approach the 
genus Nyssia and connect Lycia and Poecilopsis with that 

1916 Sept. 1. 



274 Distribution of Moths of the Sub-family Bistoninae. 

genus ; they, too, form a natural little group of two, differing 
slightly in certain points of structure from the first three. 
Four of the species possess almost apterous females ; of the 
fifth, P. liquidaria, the female is unknown. 

The most primitive, or phylogenetically oldest form, is P. 
pomonaria which, in consequence, is a fairly widespread insect. 
The insect being attached to oak, and not refusing such foods 
as hawthorn, it seems curious that its range is not greater. 
Careful study of the map will reveal the facts that the limits 
are those set by the winter isotherm of 35°F or, more plainly, 
it only inhabits regions in which there is a minimum of two 
and a half months of frost. With most species such factors 
are not of serious importance, but in the case of forms such 
as those comprised in the Non-Boarmioid Bistoninae, which 
pass the winter as a fully formed imago inside the pupa case, 
a very open winter spells disaster* as direct experiment has 
shown. I took about eighty pupae of P. pomonaria as soon as 
they had hardened and exposed them to the weather through- 
out the late Summer and Autumn. The imagines commenced 
to emerge in December and were over by the end of January. 
Ova laid under these conditions would hatch far in advance of 
the leafing of oak and the larvae would therefore perish. Any 
hold then that the species has on regions other than those 
with a fairly rigorous continental climate must be very pre- 
carious. If this state of affairs holds now, it is reasonable to 
assume that the same physiological peculiarities have been 
potent in the past. Therefore, when Poecilopsis was developed 
in the Boreal home of the group, we must suppose that it took 
its origin at some point to the North-east far from the insular 
climates produced by the Atlantic Ocean and possible Gulf 
Stream of early or middle Pliocene times. Now it was pos- 
tulated in tracing the wanderings of Lycia that it arose nearer 
Europe than America ; Poecilopsis, therefore, came into being 
similarly nearer to Europe but to the east of the centre of dis- 
persal of Lycia. In consequence, with the deterioration of the 
climate in late Pliocene and in Glacial times, it would retreat via 
Scandinavia and North Russia until the sunnier and warmer 
Pannonian Hills of Hungary and Southwest Russia were 
reached, whence it issued finally at the close of the Glacial Period. 
Many attempts to advance would be made as so-called Inter- 
glacial conditions intervened ; such attempts, owing to the 
more temperate character of its dominating food plant, oak, 
would be foiled for all suitable points, even in Central Europe, 
were overwhelmed later by the coalescence of the local glaciers 



* Unless they have developed the habit, as in the case of all the genus 
Nyssia, Lycia hirtaria, and Poecilopsis lapponaria of not responding 
readily to the stimulus of a rise in temperature. 

Naturalist, 



Distribution of Moths of the Sub-family Bistoninae. 275 

with those of the Alps and of the Baltic Ice. After the ice had 
finally vanished and the Post-glacial ' Dryas ' period had 
yielded successively to those of birch and pine, and these, in 
turn, had given place to the oak period the species came forth 
with many another Pontic refugee spreading westward and 
northward along the valleys of the Vistula, Oder and Elbe 
as the oaks advanced. Bound by no iron climatic barrier 
such as determined (and determines) the continued existence 
of P. ponionaria, the oaks went far ahead of the insect, for this 
reached its maximum westerly extension just east of Paris. 
Here the proximity of the Gulf stream, with its warmth, 
stopped it short, and its course was now southward down the 
colder parts of the Rhone Valley whence it passed into the 
valleys of Switzerland and the Piedmont until a milder climate 
once more forbade its occupation of new territory. 

Similarly, it passed northward into Scandinavia, Finland 
and Lapland, only bound in its northward career by the failure 
of oak and its powers of adapting itself to new foods. South- 
ward, but little progress could be made as milder winters stepped 
in ; eastward it was more fortunate, a gradual advance 
Toeing made, slow it is true, on account of the lack of food, but 
nevertheless sure, for the insect penetrated Asia across the 
Uralsk far into the steppes of the Kirghiz where, however, 
altered food and steppe conditions have transformed it into 
the elusive species called P. liqiiidaria — evidently but little 
more than a specialised or local race of P. ponionaria. 

Next we take up P. isabellae, the youngest species of the 
genus. The study of the geographical distribution of this species 
presents us with a very pretty problem as to the period of its 
origin — a problem that the specialised nature of its food very 
neatly solves. Unlike its congeners, it is rigidly attached to 
a special food and that special food is the common larch {Larix 
decidua) ; it absolutely rejects all other foods. The connection 
between the insect and the tree is much closer than this would 
suggest. Its larvae in their early stages mimic larch needles 
and in their later ones they imitate the curious markings 
of a larch twig. In addition, the female has acquired the 
curious instinct of climbing the larches and laying its ova 
under the scales of the cones of the previous year. Obviously, 
therefore, if we can elucidate the history of the larch in Europe 
Ihat of the insect is known. 

The genus Larix comprises within its limits nine to thirteen 
species depending upon the value one attaches to certain forms. 
Adopting the minimum view, we have the following species : — 
Larix decidua {europaea) N. Asia, Central Europe, but 
absent from Scandinavia, France, Spain, Apennines, British 
islands etc. 

Larix ledebotirii. — Siberia. 

1916 Sept. 1. 



276 Distribution of Moths of the Sub-family Bistoninae. 

Larix sibirica. — N. E. Russia, Ural Mountains, Siberia to 
Kamschatka. 

Larix dahurica, — Siberia extending far past tlie Arctic circle^ 

Larix griff ithi.~l>iepa.u\, Bhotan, Sikkim. 

Larix leptolepis. — Japan. 

Larix lyalli. — Rocky Mountains. 

Larix americana with its forms pendula and microcarpa. — 
Canada and United States. 

Larix occidentalis. — N. W. America. 

From the above details it will be seen that, if we accept 
the usual test of taking the area in which a genus reaches its 
greatest development as its centre of origin, then the genus 
Larix has spread from some point in South-central or South- 
eastern Siberia. This is confirmed by the fact that the 
European larch is only a form of a widespread polymorphic 
species having local races in the form of L. sibirica, L. occi- 
dentalis and L. decidna from which we see that it extends from 
East-central Europe to N. W. America. But, let it be noted, 
it is of such recent occurrence in Europe that it has not had 
time to spread, as a wild plant, further than the Central 
European Mountains, failing to reach Scandinavia, which, 
for an Alpine plant of Eastern origin, is a very remarkable 
thing. Further, its only occurrence fossil is in certain Inter- 
glacial deposits at Lauenburg in Prussian Saxony and, if 
that were the maximum western range then, it would be 
very seriously limited before the close of the Ice Age. 
Hence, we must conclude that in all probability the larch 
permanently occupied the areas it now holds in Post-glacial 
times. Add to this the fact that P. isabellae is not found 
accompanying the larch either in Russia or in Asia and we 
must draw the conclusion that P. isabellae has arisen from 
P. pomonaria since the larch reached Silesia, Austro-Hungar}' 
and Switzerland and, consequently, is of Post-glacial origin. 
This is strongly confirmed by the fact that in spite of the great 
differences in specific characters between P. pomonaria and 
P. isabellae the physiological divergence is so slight that they 
hybridise freely and, what is still more emphatic, the hybrids 
themselves are fertile. 

From all of these facts, it is clear that P. isabellae must 
have had its origin in a spot where, very early, its food plant 
larch came into contact with P. pomonaria ; this spot, too, 
must be one whence P. isabellae could advance easily to its 
present habitats. Such a locality is the Sudeten Gebirge in 
Silesia or, rather, the angle between them and the Carpathians. 
From this abode, the species has evidently spread, using the 
Mountains of Moravia and the Little Carpathians as its path, 
to the present stations in the Noric and Rhaetian Alps and 
subsequently to the Eastern Alps of Switzerland and Bavaria. 

Naturalist, 



Distrihittion of Moths of the Suh-jamily Bistoninae. 277 

The two remaining species, P. rachelae and P. lapponaria , 
now claim our attention. They are a closely related, but 
perfectly distinct pair of species, and seem, in spite of their 
inhabiting such different geographical areas, not to be 
' representative ' species. P. rachelae is the most primitve 
form and shows most relation to the other group of three. 
Both are northern forms and extend far beyond the Arctic 
Circle and both, in nature, feed on such Arctic or Boreal 
forms as Betitla nana, Myrica gale and the low growing 
Salices peculiar to Northern and Alpine regions. From 
biological and other considerations, I judge that P. rachelae 
originated as a break from the pomonaria stem and, arguing 
from the food plants, possibly as a Northern form of that 
species and this is confirmed by the fact that convergence has 
caused the much younger Alpine form {P. isabellae) of pomonaria 
to assume many of the outward characters of P. rachelae. 
Being the oldest break, and also more Arctic in its nature than 
P. pomonaria, P. rachelae, had time to press far to the north 
west in the Arctic Archipelago, giving off as a new break, 
soon after it commenced to spread, the species which has 
yielded what is now known as P. lapponaria. 

With the approach of the Ice Age, P. rachelae retreated but, 
as the insect was of Arctic origin, its retreat was postponed far 
longer than that of Lycia and P. pomonaria ; these passed south- 
ward and reached refuges, one both in Europe and America 
and the other, on account of its limited range and attachment 
to oak, only in Europe. P. rachelae, on the contrary, gave 
ground before the oncoming glacial conditions so slowly that, 
when it had to flee far to the south, its way was barred in 
the Eastern areas of Arctic America by the newly formed 
Baffin Bay, the formation of which was no doubt almost con- 
temporaneous with the separation of Spitzbergen from Green- 
land. Only one course of escape was now open and that was 
south westward over the northern portions of the Arctic 
Archipelago to the North Canadian coast near the Mackenzie 
river mouth, up the valley of which it slowly withdrew as 
climatic conditions deteriorated. Along the foothills of the 
Rockies, it worked its way into what is now the States of 
Montana and Wyoming, attaining a haven of rest there. From 
this haven, it once more issued as the ice-sheets waned and 
favourable conditions returned, retracing its steps as far as 
possible, but at the same time giving off offshoots which 
passed along the Valleys of the Saskatchewan, Qu'appelle and 
Assiniboine Rivers eastward. Finally, it reached its northern 
limits and rounded the foothills of the Mountains of Alaska to 
reach its most westerly stations. 

With lapponaria, the case was different. This, also, is of 
:great age for, from it, the whole genus Nyssia has been evolved 

1916 Sept.l. 



278 Distribution of Moths of the Sub-family Bistoninae. 

and that at a time when the larval characters were not greatly 
removed from those of P. rachelae but when, nevertheless,, 
the biology of the imago was as specialised as it is now. From" 
which facts, as P. lapponaria is even more Arctic in character 
than P. rachelae as the abnormal period its pupae can lie over 
and its attachment to Betula nana in Lapland tell us, it follows 
that lapponaria must have arisen long before P. rachelae had 
reached its western areas. It must have spread at once to the 
north of the rachelae stations of those days. In all probability, 
then, the ' metropolis ' of P. lapponaria was in some long" 
submerged lands in the neighbourhood of, but to the north of, 
Spitzbergen and Franz Josef Land. It, too, would feel the 
pinch of the approach of the glacial period, but in a far less 
degree than any of the others. Hence, its retirement was still 
slower than that of P. rachelae ; so slow was it that, ere the in- 
sect fell back, the ice smothered the whole of the Scandinavian 
mountains, and when they were reached it found the conditions 
so inclement that it bifurcated* as it struck them, one horde 
passing down to the British Islands, utilising ice-free plains of 
the continuous Scandinavian and British coasts as a causeway 
and the other wending its way down the eastern margin of the 
then much more extensive Baltic Inland Sea through Lapland, 
Finland and Livonia to Central Russia. Somewhere on islands 
fringing the coast, and not impossibly on ice clear spots inland,, 
the western branch of the species survived the Glacial Period, 
reaching its present position (which the Arctic nature of the 
insect demands) when the ice disappeared. The other division, 
similarly, passed through the Ice Age on non-glaciated areas 
of Russia, extending its range slightly as the climate periodically 
improved, but finally emerging as the last phase of the Glacial 
Epoch, the Great Baltic Glacier, melted away. Steadily pur- 
suing a northward course, but limited by the Baltic Sea, which 
was slightly more extensive then, it reached its present posts. 
This completes the history of the wanderings of the species 
we call P. lapponaria, but it is well to note that the Scottish 
insect which I have provisionally described as a subspecies 
under the name P. scotica, owing to its long geographical 
separation from the other colony is clearly diverging from it 
specifically and, if allowed to exist, will finally attain specific 
rank. The Continental insect is a dull, heavy, shaggy insect, 
whereas our own form is more brightly coloured and neater 
reminding one vividly of P. rachelae. 

* Evidences of such bifurcation we see in the present stations of the 
plants Poteutilla fvuticosa, Saxifvaga nivaLs, etc., and this is emphasised 
by their absence from the Alps. Many other such examples are masked 
by the fact that many Alpine forms have gained access to their present 
stations in Scandinavia, N. Russia and the Alps by direct migration from 
the east in late geological times. 

Naturalist, 



279 

FAUNULA LITTORINIDAE ISLAND I AE 
BOREALIS. 



HANS SCHLESCH, 
Hellerup, Denmark. 

Littorina palliata Say. (Syn. : L. arctica Moll.). 

Testa minus solida, colore saepius obscure fusco-viridi, 
interdum fasciata vel fusco-reliculata, forma ovato-globosa, 
spira modice elata \ circiter testae longitudinis occupante, 
anfr. 5 leviter convexis, ultimo magno et dilatato, sutura 
parum profunda, apertura ampla, labro externo valde expanse, 
acuto intus incrassato, columella planulata. Superficies lineis 
numerosis spiralibus tenuissimis undulatis sculpta. Long. 12 
mm. (Sars.). 

Habit. : sparsim vulgaris. 

Var. elatior Sars. 

Testa magis solida ovato-turrita, spira sat producta plus 
^ testae longitudinis occupante, anfr. aequaliter convexis, 
sutura distincte impresssa, apertura minus expansa. Long. 
II mm. (Sars.). 

Habit. : sat vulgaris. 

Var. turritella Schlesch, nov. var. 

Testa subtenuis, conico-oblonga, duplo fere longior quam 
latior, colore saepius obscuro-nigricante, spira sat elevata, 
anfr. 5, subscalariformibus, apert. minus expansa. Long. 
13-15 mm. 

Habit.: portus Isafjordur, 1913, passim (spec. typ. coll. 
Schlesch, Mus. Hull. Anglia). 

Var. carinata Schlesch, nov. var. 

Testa solidula, colore valde variabili, spira obtusa, forma 
ovato-globosa, anfractibus 5, celeriter accrescentibus, ultimo 
maximo, acute carinato, sutura parum profunda, apertura 
ampla, labro externo leviter incrassato, interno callum magnum 
et solidum formante, columella planulata. Superficies lineis 
numerosis spiralibus tenuissimis undulatis sculpta. Long. 10- 
II ; lat. 13-15 mm. 

Habit. : Isafjordur, Islandia boreal, (spec. typ. collect., 
Schlesch, Mus. Hull, Anglia). 

Var. auriculan'a Schlesch, nov. var. 

Testa solida, subglobosa, spira saepissime brevissima, 
anfr. 5, convexis, apert. amplissima, subcircularis. Long. 10, 
lat. 15, ap. long. 8 mm. 

191G Sept.l. 



28o Fauniila Littoi'inidac Islandiae Borealis. 

Habit. : portus Isafjordur 1913, passim, (spec. typ. coll. 
Schlesch, Mus. Hull, Anglia). 

Monst. coarctata Sars. 

Testa obtuse conica, spira valde producta dimidiam fere 
testae longitudinem occupante, apice obtusa, anfr. elongatis 
et medio coarctatis, apertura obpyriformi, labro externo supine 
appresso. Long. 16 mm. (Sars). 

Habit, tota, sed ubique rarior. 

Littorlna obtusata Linn^. 

Testa solida, colore valde variabili, nunc uniformiter 
lutea vel fuscata, nunc modo fasciata vel maculata, forma 
oblique ovata, spira brevissima et obtusa, vix elevata, anfr. 
5-6 convexis, ultimo maximo, oblique expanso, sutura parum 
impressa, apertura plus minusve patula oblique, labro externo 
leviter incrassato, interno callum magnum et solidum formante. 
Superficies sublaevis, striis spiralibus parum conspicuis. Long. 
13 mm.. (Sars.). 

Habit. : raro. 

Littorina rudis Maton. 

Testa solidula, colore saepius uniformiter obscure fuscato, 
rarius rubra vel albida, interdum fasciata vel maculata, forma 
ovato-turrita, spira producta, anfr. 5, angulato-convexis, 
medio saepius leviter planulatis, sutura profunde impressa, 
apert. oblique rotundata, labro externo tenui, columella brevi, 
planulata. Superficies costellis spiralibus plus minusve elevatis 
rudis. Long. 10 mm. (Sars.). 

Habit. : passim. 

Var. groenlandica Menke. 

Testa duplo major, spira magis producta, anfr. 6, aequali- 
ter convexis, apert. sat expansa, columella lata. Long. 20 mm. 
(Sars.). 

Habit. : passim. 

Var. conoidea Schlesch, nov. var. 

Testa subsolida, forma elongato-pyramidali, spira valde 
producta, attenuata, apice acuto, subcostulata, anfr 5, apertura 
subglobosa, labro externo sat arcuato, tenui. Long. 16. lat. 
12, ap. long. 6 m,m. 

Habit : portus Isafjordur, 1913, raro, (spec. typ. coll. 
Schlesch, Mus. Hull, Angha). 

(The specimens referred to in this paper are in the Schlesch 
Collection in the Hull Museum). 

i\aturalist. 



28l 

THE ICELANDIC PI SIDIUM -FAUNA. 



HANS SCHLESCH, 

Hellerup, Denmark. 



This list includes the collections formed by F. H. Sikes (London) 
Bjarni Saemundsson (Reykjadik) and myself, together with 
the finds made by the late Prof. Steenstrup during his visit in 
1839-40. Prof. Steenstrup cites the locality ' Arnardrangur,' 
but I am unable to identify the situation of this. Probably 
it is a small place in West Iceland. I am much indebted 
to Mr. Saemundsson for generously handing over his collections 
to me, and to Mr. John W. Taylor for kindly assisting me in 
the determination of species. Mr. Ssemundsson's specimens 
and my own iinds are included in the collection in the Municipal 
Museum, Hull. 

1. Subgenus Fluminina Clessin. 

I. — Pisidium amnicum Miiller. 

Habit : Botnvatn, Sudur Thingeyarsyssel. N. Iceland, 
Aug. 1st, 1913, (Saemundsson). This species is probably 
identical with the concha bivalvis, testa ovata oblonga. 
planiuscula of Eggert Olafsson and Tellina lacustris of 
Mohr. 

2. Subsfenus Fossarlna Clessin. 

2. — -Pisidium pulchelliim Jenyns. 

Habit : Arnardrangur (Steenstrup). Engidal near Isaf- 
jordur, 1914, (Schlesch). N.W. Iceland. 
3. — Pisidium nitidum Jenyns. 

Habit : Arnadrangur (Steenstrup). Engidal near Isaf- 
jordur, 1914, (Schlesch). N.W. Iceland, 
var. fedderseni Westerlund. 
Habit : Islandia (Feddersen) in Westerlund ; Fauna in der 
palaearct. Reg. leb. Binnenconchylien, 1890, VII., p. 24. 
4. — Pisidium subtruncatum Malm. 

Habit : Botnvatn, Sudur Thingeyarsyssel, N. Iceland, 
Aug. 1st, 1913, (Saemundsson). 
5. — Pisidium lilljeborgi Clessin. 

Habit : Thingvellir and Raudavatn, S.W. Iceland, 1912, 
(F. H. Sikes) ; Bolungarvik, N. W. Iceland, 1913, 
(Schlesch) . 
6. — Pisidium scholtzii Clessin. 

Habit : Hnifsdal, Isafjordur, N.W. Iceland, 1913 (Schlesch). 
7. — Pisidium pusillum (Gmelin). 

Habit : near Arnardrangur (Steenstrup), Laugaland, 
Drangajokul, 1913, (Schlesch). N.W. Iceland. 

19l6"sepL.^' 



282 The Distribtition of Spiders in the East Riding. 

8. — Pisidium cinereum Alder (=P. casertanum Bourg.) 
Habit : Isafjordur, 1912, (Sikes). N.W. Iceland. 

9. — Pisidium pevsonatum Malm. 

Habit : Faxaflbi, W. Iceland, (Steenstrup). 

10. — Pisidium miliiim Held. 

Habit : Gemlufallsheidi, Omundarfjordur, N.W. Iceland, 
1913, (Schlesch). 

11.— Pisidium fossarinum Clessin. 

Habit : Isafjordur, N.W. Iceland, 1913, (Schlesch), 
Granavatn, Mijvatn, N. Iceland, July 24th, 1913, 
(Saemundsson). 

var. jlavescens Clessin. 
Habit ; Isafjordur, 1914, (Schlesch). N.W. Iceland. 
12.— Pisidium obtusale C. Pfeifter. 

Habit : Thingvellir, S.W. Iceland, 1912 (Sikes), Laugaland 
in Skjaldfaunardalur near Drangajokul, 1913 (Schlesch). 
13. — Pisidium steenbuchii Moller. 

Habit : Thingvellir, S.W. Iceland, 1912, (Sikes), Botnvatn, 
Sudur Thingeyaryssel, N. Iceland, Aug. ist, 1913 
(Saemundsson). 



THE DISTRIBUTION OF SPIDERS IN THE 
EAST RIDING. 



r. STAINFORTH, B.A., B.Sc, 
Hull. 



In view of the small number of workers and the large area 
to be covered, generalisations on the distribution of the main 
groups of Arachnida in the East Riding may seem somewhat 
premature. Temporary absence from the district, however, 
has led me to draw up the following notes, which include the 
results of my own collecting and that of others." 

It is obvious that generalisations on the distribution of a 
group of animals in a specified area are unsatisfactory until it 
has been exhaustively examined. The best or richest localities 
are very often those most thoroughly searched, and this is so 
in south-east Yorkshire (V.C. 61), some portions of which, 
particularly near Hull and in the south-west of the division 
have been well worked, whereas other portions, as along the 
northern and north-west boundary, have been neglected or 
visited only casually, owing to difficulty of access from the 
collectors' bases. However, adopting the principle of ' ab 

Naturalist, 



The Distribution of Spiders in the East Riding. 283; 

uno discc omnis,' we may cover over some of the un worked 
gaps in the map. 

Changes in the distribution of animal and plant life are 
necessarily always taking place, even in the natural course 
of events, but these changes are intensified (too often on the 
side of extermination), by drainage, deforestation, military 
works, building and other manifestations of the activities of 
civilised communities. Moreover, long established species may 
be overlooked for many years and the occurrence of some 
form discovered by mere luck — usually by an outsider — is 
liable to upset one's pet theories. Further, additions are 
constantly being made through natural or accidental means 
of dispersal. Thus in matters of distribution there is no 
finality owing to changes on both the plus and minus sides. 

Quite large numbers of spiders are of common occurrence- 
over the whole area, provided they are searched for in their re- 
spective habitats, and this number will probably be still further 
increased as more attention is devoted to collecting. For 
example, under the bark of trees or in crevices of fences can 
always be found Segestria senoculata, Amaurobitis fenestralis, 
Epeira umbratica and Salticus cingulatus ; while every field 
and open space is coursed over by myriads of the Wolf Spiders, 
Lycosa anientata and L. pullata. Affecting human habitations 
and outhouses are such forms as Amaitrobius similis, Tegenaria 
derhamii (par excellence our domestic species), and Zilla 
x-notata ; while every ditch, drain and pond side is frequented by 
Pirata piraticiis, Clubiona holosericea and Enidia bitiiberciilata. 

On the other hand are species which occur only in a limited' 
area, and there perhaps commonly. These are forms specialised 
for life under particular conditions related to either the native 
food supply or soil, relative salinity, or to some indefinable 
cause, and unable in some cases to adapt themselves to even 
slight changes of habitat. 

In investigating the subject of localness of species, puzzling 
facts come to light. How is it, for instance, that Hyctia 
nivoyi and Clubiona subtilis, both abundant species on the 
sandhills at Spurn and the Humber shore at Easington, are 
not found elsewhere in the vicinity of the dunes, nor indeed 
in any other Yorkshire locality, although in other parts of the 
countrv, as at Wicken Fen, they inhabit a totally different 
habitat ? 

For our present purpose the East Riding may be conveni- 
ently divided into the following eight areas : — 

(i) Hull. — It is of interest to know the spiders to be 
found in a large city. In addition to those characteristic of 
human habitations, cellars, warehouses, etc., are species which 
may be introduced by the agency of trade and commerce ; 

1916 Sept. 1. 



284 The Distribution of Spiders in the East Riding. 

and in the course of the ordinary operations of dispersal 
numerous spiders find their way into the streets and gardens. 
As is the case for the whole of Europe and many other parts 
of the world, our common cobweb spider is Tegenaria derhamii, 
which prefers semi-dark or dark conditions. Dysdera crocota 
frequently occurs in cupboards, cellars and outhouses, as well 
as in the open (usually in chalk-pits), and we often have this 
striking spider brought to the Hull ]Museum. Amaurohins 
•similis is also common in houses, especially near windows, 
while Zilhi x-notata is equally abundant, but prefers the 
outsides of houses and other buildings. In the summer time 
Salticus scenicus is very frequently seen, even in the very 
lieart of the city, running and jumping about, stalking flies 
on the sun-lit walls of buildings, and, less frequently, Attns 
pubescens, another of the interesting jumping spiders, may be 
seen in similar situations. The tiny Panamomops bicuspis 
lias been found in Hull and possibly is an urban species, while 
private gardens and public parks provide among others such 
species as Drassus lapidosus, Aniaurobius fenestralis, Theridion 
varians, Steatoda bipuiictata, Stemonyphantes lineata, Lepty- 
pliantes nebulosus, L. leprosiis, Bathyphantes concolor, B. 
gracilis, Micryphantes rurestris, OEdothorax retusiis, Erigone 
promiscua, E. dentipalpis, E. atra, Diplocephalus cristatus, 
D. beckii, Pachygnatha degeerii, P. derckii, Meta scgmen- 
tata, Zilla atrica, Epeira diademata, Xysticus cristatus, 
Lycosa anientata and L. pullata. In greenhouses, the intro- 
duced species Theridion tepidariorum is common, and in the 
park hothouses another alien, Ilasarius adansonii is to be 
found. Little is known yet regarding the spiders which reach 
Hull through the importation of fruit, etc., from foreign 
countries, beyond the fact that living examples of the enormous 
liairy spiders of the genus My.uile are brought to the Hull 
Museum every season. They appear to occur usually among 
Taananas. The difficulties of hunting for spiders in our fruit 
markets are very great and require a considerable amount 
■of nerve, especially at the present time when a spider hunter 
■on the docks would be looked upon with very grave suspicion. 

(2) HoLDERNESS. — Roughly speaking this division includes 
the boulder clay area between the sea and Humber shore and 
the foot of the Wolds. For our present purpose it is con- 
venient to exclude the dune area of Spurn and the estuarine 
area of the Humber shore, owing to the peculiar conditions 
which they exhibit. Most of the Holderness area as thus 
curtailed as somewhat uninteresting owing to the high state 
of cultivation of most of the area. The barrenness of the sea 
■coast is easily accounted for by the instability of the clay 
■clifts and beach, the only species which appears able to maintain 

Naturalist, 



The DistribiiUon of Spiders in the East Riding. 285. 

itself on the sand on every part of the coast from Sewerby 
to Kilnsea being the pretty Trochosa picta. Scotophceus 
blackwallii, Leptyphantes cristatus, Metopobactrits promimilus,. 
Troxochrus scabricidus, Baryphyma pratensis, Xysticus kochii,. 
Taventula andrenivora and Lycosa herbigrada, are recorded 
for the Holderness area only as far as the East Riding is con- 
cerned, but all, or most of these species will almost certainly 
be found in other areas when more collecting is carried on. 

(3) HuMBER Shore and Tidal Affluents. — This division 
includes the shores of the Humber where the conditions are- 
estuarine, that is excluding the dune area of Spurn, Easington 
and Welwick, which has its own peculiarities. The banks of 
the tidal affluents such as the River Hull, R. Ouse, R. Derwent, 
and various creeks partake of the same features. The spiders 
characterising this area are Cicurina cinerea, Halorates reprobus, 
Erigone longipalpis, Erigone spinosa (at Saltend Common 
only), Cnephalocotes curt us, Cornicularia kochii (recently 
found also on the shores of Hornsea Mere), Lycosa purbeckensis,. 
var. minor together with the Harvestmen, Liobunum blackicallii 
and Oligolophus hansenii. 

(4) Spurn, Easington, Welwick. — The sand-dune area 
of the extreme south-east of the East Riding is one of the most 
interesting we have, and many of the spiders found there are 
not recorded elsewhere in the whole county of Yorkshire. 
The following are the more remarkable species found in this 
area : — Prosthesima latreillii, P. electa, Clubiona subtilis,. 
Protadia subnigra, Erigone atra, var. lantosquensis, E. arctica 
var. maritima, Entelecara trijrons, Heliophanns flavipes, 
Hyctia nivoyi, Eiiophrys ceqnipes, and the Pseudoscorpion, 
Chelifer latreillii. If dame Rumour speaks correctly. Spurn 
as the naturalist knows it, is Hkely no longer to exist. 

(5) Hornsea Mere. — As the only survival of the meres of 
Holderness, Hornsea Mere is worthy of special attention and 
investigation. With the exception of Linyphia impigra, and 
Tmeticus affinis, the type of which was found there, there are 
no species pecuHar to the Mere. Naturally many of the forms 
found there also occur in other marshy places in Holderness, 
e.g., Bathyphantes approximatus, Phaulothrix huthwaitii, 
(Edothorax gibbosus, (E. tuberosus and Enidia bitubercidata.. 
Cornicularia kochii, a species which was thought to occur 
only on the Humber shore, was found at Hornsea Mere on 
several occasions last year. 

(6) The Wolds. — The Wold area forms the backbone of 
V.C. 6r. It stretches from Flamborough Head past Driffield, 
and Beverley to Hessle and Brough. As will be seen at a 
glance down column 6 in the following Hst, the spider fauna is 
a fairly rich one although few species can be put down a& 

1916 Sept. 1. 



.286 The Distribution of Spiders in the East Riding. 

peculiar to this area alone. The following are species found 
lip to the present only on the Wolds, but several of these are 
certain to be found in one or the other of the remaining 
districts : — Clubiona terrestris, Chiracanthium carnifex, Any- 
phana accentuata, Coelotes atropos, Antistea elegans, Hahnia 
helveola, Mengea scopigera, Dicymhium tibiale, Neriene rubella, 
Styloctetor penicillatus, Prosopotheca incisa, Pachygnatha listeri 
and Heliophanus cupretts. 

(7) Derwentland. — This is perhaps the richest district in 
insect and spider life that still remains to us in East Yorkshire. 
There are many large areas which have not been cultivated 
and hence still retain their primeval fauna. Such localities 
are Riccall, Skipwith and Allerthorpe Commons, Hotham 
•Carrs, Houghton Moor and Woods, all of them scenes of past 
excursions of the Yorkshire Naturalists' Union. The spider 
fauna is very rich, the following being the species recorded for 
this area alone : — Prosthesima petiverii, Clubiona trivialis, 
Zora maculata, Scotina gracilipes, Dictyna latens, Hahnia 
nava. H. montana, Theridion impressiim, T. bimacidatum, 
CrusttUina guttata, Enoplognatha thoracica, Floronia jrenata, 
Hillhousia misera, L. mengii, Oreonetides jirmus, Entelecara 

.thorellii, Cnephalocotes elegans, Tapinocyba pallens, Cercidia 
prominens, Pisaiira mirabilis, Lycosa nigriceps, Evarcha falcata, 
and the Harvestman, Megabunus insignis. 

This characteristic species for this district are Zora maculata, 
Crustulina guttata and Evarcha falcata. 

(8) Derwent Carrs. — The eighth of the areas into which 
the East Riding has been divided is the least satisfactory, as 
it has received but scant attention on the part of arachnidists. 
It includes the low lands to the north and north-west of the 
Wolds, and drained by the Hertford and Derwent rivers. 
Mr. W. Falconer has fortunately done some collecting at 
Scampston and Rillington and last year I paid a visit to the 
Derwent near Binnington. The only spider recorded for this 
area and not elsewhere in the Riding is Leptyphantes alacris 
(terricola) . 

The following is a complete list of the known spiders of the 
East Riding, the distribution of each being indicated by a 
cross in one or more of the eight areas into which the Riding 
has been divided. 

For assistance in identification I am greatly indebted to 
Mr. W. Falconer, without whose courteous aid this list would 
have been almost impossible. 

All the species referred to are to be seen in the collection 
of Yorkshire Arachnida in the Hull Museum. 

(To be continued). 

Naturalist, 



28; 



HEMIPTERA COLLECTED AT BASLOW, 
DERBYSHIRE. 



J. W. CARK, M.A., F.L.S., F.E.S. 

Tiiii (mly publislicd list ol Derbyshire Hemiptera, so far as 
I am aware, is the exceedingly poor one given in the Victoria 
History of the County (lii05). This list comprises some 29 
species only, and as the majority of these were collected at 
Burton-on-Trent, which is in Staffordshire, the number of 
species undoubtedly taken in Derbyshire is reduced to about 
ten. The following list, the result of casual collecting during 
a short visit to the county, will serve as a first attempt towards 
a better knowledge of the Hemipterous fauna of Derbyshire. 

Last year (19L5) I spent the first ten days in y\ugust at 
Baslow, and— when the weather permitted — did a little col- 
lecting in the grounds of the ' Grand Hotel,' and on the moor 
(Maglestone Flat) immediately above it, as well as on the 
banks of the stream running alongside the Sheffield road in 
immediate proximity to the village. With the exception of 
the Calver records all the specimens were obtained within 
a radius of about a mile from the Hotel. Calver is about 
two miles away. 

The number of species collected was 83 — 31 Heteroptera 
and 52 Homoptera, but with better weather and more system- 
atic work the total would no doubt have been largely increased. 
AH the Heteroptera were submitted to Mr. E. A. Butler, and 
all but the commonest of the Hfjmoptera were determined 
by Mr. J. Edwards. The most noteworthy species taken were 
Acocephalus iricincliis and A. trijasciatus: both sexes of each 
of these were obtained by searching under heather on the 
€dge of the Eaglestone Flat. 

Heteroptera. 
Macrodema microptertim Curt. 
Trapezonotus arenarins L. Eaglest(jne Flat. 
Nabis jlavomarginatus Scholtz. 

,, ericetorum Scholtz. 
Anthocoris confusus Reut. Baslow and (Salver. 
,, nemoralis L. 

,, nemorum L. 

Megaloceroea ruficorni^ F(nirc. 
Monalocoris filicis L. 
('aloe oris sexgiittatus Yah. 
Plesiocoris rugicollis Fall. 
Lygus pabulinus L.' 

,, contaminatus Fall. 

,, cervimis H.-S. 
Dicyphtts pallidicornis h'ieb. On Foxgloves. 

1916 Sept. 1. 



288 Gary : Hemiptera collected at Baslow, Derbyshire. 

Campyloneura virgula H.-S. 

Aetorhinus angulatus Fab. Baslow and Calver. 
Globiceps cruciatus Reut. 
Mecomma amhulans Fall. 
Orthotyliis marginalis Reut. 
viridinervis Kb. 
,, ericetoriim Fall. 

Psalliis amhignns Fall. 
„ variabilis Fall. 
„ varians H.-S. 
,, roseus Fab. 

rotermundi Scholtz. On white poplar, hotel grounds. 
Atractotomus magnicornis Fall. 
Plagiognathiis chrysanthemi Wolff. 

„ arbnstorum Fab. 

Asciodema obsoletitm D. and S. 

HOMOPTERA. 

Philceniis spumarius L. In addition to the type the forms 
lettcocephalus Germ., populi Fab., and vittatus 
Fab. were more or less common. 
,, exclamationis Thumb. 
,, lineatus L. 
Ulopa reticulata Fab. Eaglestone Flat, common under 

heather. 
Euacanthns interruptiis L. 
Batracomorphiis lanio L. 
Oncopsis alni Schr. 

,, rujusculus Fieb. 
,, flavicollis L. 
Macropsis rubi Boh. 
Idiocerns vitreus Fab. 
,, fulgidns Fab. 
,, confiisHs Flor. 
Acocephalits nervosus Schr. 

trijasciatiis Fourc. Several of both sexes obtained 
by searching under heather on Eaglestone Flat. 
tricincttis Curt. Both sexes taken with the pre- 
ceding species. Careful dissections of both 
species have been made by Mr. J. Edwards, 
who vouches for the accuracy of the deter- 
minations. 
Stictocoris flaveola Boh. 

Athysanits brevipennis Kbm. , 

,, sordid Its Zett. 
,, plebejiis Fall. 
,, obsoletits Kbm. 

Deltocephaius ocellaris Fall. 

Naturalist, 



News from the Magazines. 289 

Deltocephalns ilori Fieb. 

distingitendiis Flor. 
th enii Edw. Eaglestone Flat. 
,, punctum Flor. 

,, ahdominalis Fab. 

,, pascuellus Fall. 

,, cephalotes H.-S. 

,, piilicaris Fall. 

Thamnotettix striatulus Fall. Eaglestone Flat. 
Limotettix quadrinotata Fab. 
sulphurella Zett. 
Cicadula sexnotata Fall. 
Alebra albostriella Fall. 
Empoasca smaragdnla Fall. 
Eupteryx urticce Fab. 

melisscc Curt. Common on sage in hotel garden. 
,, auratus L. 
Typhlocyba ulnii L. 

douglasi Edw. 

^(?fsa Edw. On willows by the Derwent at Calver. 
Previously recorded only from Birkdale, Lanes. 
Cixius ctmicidariits L. 

,, nervosiis L. 
Conomcliis limhaiiis Fall. 
Delphax fairmairei Perr. 
Psyllopsis fraxinicola Forst. 
Psylla peregrin a Forst. 

wa/l Schmd. On Mountain Ash. 
ahii L. Baslow and Calver, common on Alder. 
forsteri Flor. With the last in both places. 
buxi L. On Box bushes in hotel grounds. 
spartii Guer. On Broom in hotel grounds. 
Trioza itrticce L. 



The Entomologist for July contains some Durham record.s. 

The New Phytologist, published on July 24th, contains the following 
items :— On a New Penetrating Alga, by Elizabeth Acton ; Dtcraiwcheste 
reniformis, A Fresh Water Alga new to Britain, by W. J. Hodgetts ; 
Carbon Assimilation, by Ingvar Jorgensen and Walter Stiles ; Ihe Pollen 
of Echeveria retusa as Laboratory Material, by INI. C Rayner. 

The Vasculuni for June contains the following notes :—' Marine 
Zoology at Redcar,' by H. Preston ; ' Jottings from the East Nook of 
Cumberland,' by G. Bolam ; ' Talks about Plant Galls,' by R S. Bagnall ; 
and J W. H. Harrison; 'The Study of Moors,' by F. Elgee ; ihe 
History and Geography of the Shrubby Cinquefoil,' by J W H. Harrison ; 
' On the Rearing of Caddis Flies,' by G. B. Walsh ; ' Zoological Miscel- 
lanea ' by G. Bolam ; besides smaller records, etc. A wrong heading 
appears to have cropped in on page 45. We must congratulate the 
Editors on the present number. 



1916 Sept. 



290 

MR. J. HAWKINS' COLLECTION OF GRANTHAM 

SHELLS. 



C. S. CARTER, 

Louth. 



In his presidential address to the Lincolnshire Naturalists' 
Union, igoQ, Mr. W. Denison Roebuck said that Mr. J. 
Hawkins of Grantham was ' the first man who paid attention 
to our (Lines.) shells since Lister's time ' (17th cent.) and that 
' the only regret we can have is that he has never published 
any account of the Grantham shells, and that there is therefore 
no record in print of the admirable work he accomplished 
during a long and well spent life.' This latter I particularly 
endorse with the possible exception that in the year 1903 
Mr. Hawkins did contribute to The Grantham Journal a series 
of four interesting articles containing notes on some Grantham 
shells, under the title 'A Tour in search of Land Shells,' copies 
of which he very kindly sent me at the time. 

It was a great joy to me when on July 7th last, I received 
from the venerable Mr. J. Hawkins (now in his 97th year), his 
kindly greetings and his collection of shells obtained in 
■Grantham and neighbourhood. 

The collection, though not large, is of such interest as to 
be worthy of record, especially as one species {Azeca tridens) 
represented has not, I believe, been previously recorded for 
South Lines. 

Mr. Roebuck in his address remarked ' it was about 1854 
that he (Mr. Hawkins) collected Helix lapicida, the identical 
specimens being now in his, collection — as also are those of 
Clausula laminata, whichl^e found in Ropsley Rise Wood.' 
Fortunately in this collection there is a tube containing 
H. lapicida and bearing a label on which is written ' Harrowby 
Lane, Aug., 1855.' Of this species Mr. R. Worsdale, in an 
interesting paper read before the Grantham Scientific Society, 
remarks ' it is rare hereabouts and can be found in very few 
places round Grantham.' 

Referring to Ccecilioidcs acicula Mr. Worsdale said, ' Mr. 
Hawkins assures me that he found it in the Harrowby Lane 
some forty years ago.' Probably these are the specimens 
in a small tube without locality or date but bearing the label 
' V. minutissima.' There is also a tube labelled ' Ropsley 
Rise Quarry, Sept., 1907,' containing a number of C. acicula, 
■evidently of Holocene age. Mr. Worsdale also remarked that 
' Claiisilia rolphii is a rare variety for Grantham. Up to the 
present it has only been found in Ropsley Rise, and that by 
Mr. Hawkins, who secured it more than forty years ago, and 
•was the first to re-discover it.' As evidence of Mr. Hawkins' 
keenness there is a tube labelled ' Clausilia rolphii, 1904, 



My. J. Hawkins' Collection of Grantham Shells 291 

Bridge End Road, 1905,' containing over 70 specimens of this 
species, and another tube labelled ' Gathered Nov. 3rd, 1903, 
C.I., C.Ri., C.R., Bridge End Road Spinney,' the initials 
signifying respectively Clausilia laminata, CI. rolphii and 
CI. rugosa ; and in yet another tube labelled ' May 30th, 1904, 
Ropsley Rise, lubricits from wood top of hill ' are 3 H. lapicida, 

2 CI. laminata, I E. obsctira {lubricns), 2 P. rotundata and 

3 CI. rolphii. 

It is to be regretted that one tube containing specimens of 
CI. hidentata var. everetti, Jaminia cylindracea, H . caperata 
and one specimen of Azeca tridens is without a label, thus 
preventing a full record of what is probably the first Azeca 
tridens collected in South Lines. 

The following is a full list of species in the collection with 
locality and date as per label : — 
Vitrea cellaria. 
V. rogersi. 

Pyramidula rnpestris. 
P. rotundata. ' Ropsley Rise.' 
Helicellavirgata. ' Storton, Oct. 4th, 1907.' 

var. lutescens. ' Spittlegate Heath, 1902.' 
H. itala. ' Spittlegate, Oct. 29th, 1903.' 
' Belton Park Wall.' 
var. hyalozonata. ' Belton Park Wall.' 
H. caperata. 
Hygromia hispida. 
H. rufescens. ' Spittlegate Heath, 1902.' 

var. albocincta. ' Belton Lane, Oct. 5th, 1903.' 
var. alba. 
Vallonia costata. 
Helicigona lapicida ' Harrowby Lane, Aug., 1855.' 

' Ropsley Rise, May 30th, 1904.' 
Helicigona arbnstorum. 

i 00000 
Helix ncmoralis var. libeUiila - 12345 

i : : 345 

, ,, ( 00000 
,, ,, var. rubella : 

( 1:345 
H. hortensis. 

f 12345 
,, var. lutea - 10345 

1(12)3(45) 
Ena obscura ' Bridge End Road Spinney, Nov. 3rd, 1903.' 
,, ,, ' Ropsley Rise, May 30th, 1904.' 
Cochlicopa lubrica. 
Azeca tridens. 

CcBcilioides acicula. ' Ropsley Rise Quarry, Sept., 1907.' 
Jaminia cylindracea. 

1916 Sept. L 



292 News from the Magazines. 

Balea perversa. ' Carely, Aug. 2nd, 1904.' 

Claiisilia laminata. ' Ropsley Rise.' 

CI. bidentata. ' Bridge End Road Spinney, Nov. 3rd., 1903." 

,, var. everetti ' L. Ponton.' 

CI. Yolphii. ' Ropsley Rise.' 

,, ' Bridge End Road.' 

Ancyhis fluviatilis. ' Waterworks, Oct., 1906.' 
Limncea stagnalis. 
Planorbis corneus. 
PI. carinatus. 

Bithynia tentaculata. ' Belton Park, July, 1904.' 

Pomatias elegans. ' J. White, June 2nd, 1904.' 

„ ' Mr. Stow, June 2nd, 1904.' 



In The Geological Magazine for July is an excellent portrait of Prof. 
J. E. Marr, with a Memoir. 

The Scottish Naturalist for July- August contains pages 147 to 218, and 
is entirely devoted to the report on Scottish Ornithology for 1915. 

The Irish Naturalist for August is almost entirely occupied by an. 
account of ' Two Irish Chilopods,' by Hilda K. Brade and the Rev. S. G. 
Birks. 

The Yorkshire ArchcBological Journal, part 93, contains an illustration 
of a fine Bronze-Age spear-head, nearly 10 inches in length, found at 
Northallerton. 

In The Lancashire and Cheshire Naturalist for June a new variety of 
Chordeumella scutellare var. brolemanni, by Miss H. K. Brade and Rev. 
S. G. Birks, is described. 

The Museums Journal for August contains the presidential address 
of Mr. E. Rimbault Dibdin, of the Walker Art Gallery, Liverpool, as well 
as an account of the recent conference of Museums' curators at Ipswich. 

In the British Dental Journal for May, Mr. W. C. Lyne has an elaborate 
paper on the Significance of the Radiographs of the Piltdown Teeth. In 
this Mr. Lyne evidently considers that the isolated canine tcoth has no 
connection whatever with the remainder of the Piltdown relics. 

Wild Life for July contains the following articles : — ' The Little Owl 
in Essex,' by J. H. Owen ; ' The Wheatear,' by ^^'m. Farren ; ' The 
Beaver,' by W. B. Johnstone ; ' The Curlew,' by the Rev. D. A. Scott ; 
' Notes on the Wryneck,' by E. Eykyn ; ' Sexual Selection in Birds,' 
bv Edmund Selous. 

We notice in Man for July that Mr. J. R. Moir describes some human; 
bones of neolithic and later date, found in the Ipswich district, while 
excavating in the Shelly Red Crag. W'e are inclined to doubt the neolithic 
age of the specimens so described, as judging from the associated objects 
they certainly seem to be of the Bronze Age. The British Museum authori- 
ties state ' late neolithic or early Bronze Age,' but notwithstanding this 
Mr. Moir definitely sa3-s neolithic. 

A writer in The Entomologist's Monthly Magazine for August suggests 
that certain species of insects which were described in some little paper 
should bs treated as though they had never been described. This sug- 
gestion cannot of course be adopted as when a species has once been 
described, no matter where nor how badly, the description must be 
recognised. Of course it is admitted that it would be a great advantage to 
Naturalists if authors describ3d their species properly, in recognised 
Journals. 

Natur?li=i,. 



293 
YORKSHIRE NATURALISTS AT BOLTON WOODS 

[Continued from page 2^0), 

CoNCHOLOGY. — Mr. W. Denison Roebuck, M.Sc, writes : — 
The Conchological Section was represented by its President, 
Mr. Greevz Fysher, Mr. J. W. Taylor and myself. About 27 
species had been observed, two water shells, eight slugs, and 
the rest land shells. The principal addition to the known 
fauna of the area was Zonitoides excavatiis, found in numbers 
on an old stump in the Laund Pasture Plantation, above 
the Valley of Desolation, in company with Hyalinia julva. 
Limncea peregra was also added to the known list. Among 
the rarer species taken were Hygromia jusca, Zonitoides niUdiis, 
Hyalinia helvetica, etc. 

CoLEOPTERA. — Dr. Fordliam writes : — The present writer 
spent the day in Posforth Gill and the Valley of Desolation 
and on the left bank of the Wharfe in Bolton Woods in com- 
pany with Messrs. Falconer and Winter, (to whom he is in- 
debted for several of the species recorded). 

Beetles were not as numerous as expected, although a few 
species, e.g., Ahax ater VilL, Otiorhynchiis picipes F. and 
Strophosomus coryli F. were rather abundant in the woods. 
Fifty-three species were obtained altogether, including two 
specimens of Malthodes brevicollis Pk. [nigellus Kies) by sweeping 
near the Wharfe, which has not previously been found in 
Yorkshire. 

Mr. Falconer obtained Paramecosoma melanocephaliim Hbst. 
by sweeping near the river and Mr. Winter captured a Tiger 
Beetle [Cicindela campestvis L.) in the Valley of Desolation. 

Three species of Bembidinm, iistiilatiim L. {=littorale Brit. 
Cat.) decorum Pz., and tihiale Duft, were abundant in shingle 
by the River Wharfe and by the stream in Posforth Gill, and 
in the latter place occurred in company with Bembidinm 
atrocoeriileum Steph., Stenus guttula Miill. and nitidiuscidus 
Steph. and Helodes marginata F. In the pine wood Rhagium 
bifasciatmn F. and its larvae occurred in a fir stump and a 
specimen of R. mordax De G. [inqnisitor Brit. Cat.) was 
swept up in the same locality. Other beetles obtained by 
■sweeping in the woods were Anthobium primulce Steph. (from 
Primroses), Pkyllobius oblongus L. (commonly), P. viridicollis 
F., Barynotiis mcerens F. (from Mercurialis perennis), Sciaphilus 
asperatus Bonsd. and Orchestes fagi L. Other beetles worthy 
of passing mention are Tetraplatypus similis Dj., Bembidinm 
mannerheimi Sahl., Anaccena globulus Pk., Tackinus hitmeralis 
■Gr., and collaris Gr., and an entirely black specimen of Elmis 
cenetis JMiill., (the latter taken in wet moss by the waterfall 
in the Valley of Desolation). 

In addition to these species the following beetles were taken 

1916 Sept. 1. 



294 Yorkshire Naturalists at Bolton Woods. 

during the meeting and handed over later to Mr. J. W. Carter: — 
A nice series of Triplax cenea Schal. from fungi taken by Mr.. 
Malone ; Haltica oleracea L., taken by Mr. H. Lumby and 
Calvia 14 guttata L., taken by Mr. W. H. Parkin. 

Geology. — Mr. A. Gilhgan, B.Sc, F.G.S., reports : — The 
members of the Geological Section first visited the Hambleton 
Quarries, and it was remarked that many changes in the 
appearance of the folded strata had taken place within the 
memory of those present as the workings have extended 
further into the hillside. It would be of service if someone 
could undertake the work of making a series of photographs 
from which a model could be constructed to illustrate the 
complicated structure here exhibited in such perfection. The 
usual finds were recorded, one member being exceptionally 
fortunate in being able to spot anything which was mentioned 
as being likely to occur, such as various forms of calcite„ 
slickensiding and even the somewhat rare blebs of bitumen 
in the calcite veins. Crystals of kaolinite resulting from the 
decomposition of a felspathic grit occurring in the neigh- 
bourhood of this quarry are on view in the museum of Practical 
Geology, Jermyn Street. One very large, badly preserved 
goniatite was found on a vertical face of shale in the approach 
to the quarry from the station. This was not ' gathered ' 
and was seen by the writer a week later. Proceeding towards 
the abbey and along the left bank of the river to the bungalow 
an excellent opportunity was afforded of studying river action. 
Among the pebbles of the strands several masses of coral 
Lithostvotion, and Syringopora were foimd. A search among 
the pebbles which occur in the grit of the Strid yielded some 
good things, granites and cherts, one of the latter very large, 
at least in comparison with the usual size, being at least one 
and a half inches in diameter. The moraines came in for a 
great deal of attention ; the one on which Barden Tower stands 
was explored and either it or the good things provided by the 
present occupier of this ancient edifice proved so attractive 
that no time was left for the further walk to Burnsall Fell to 
examine the storm channels which, however, the writer can 
vouch are still there, as he visited them the following week. 



We regret to record the death of Abraham Shackleton, retired printer, 
publisher, bookbinder, and a botanist of some repute, at the age of 86 
years, which occurred at Braithwaite, Keighley, recently. He made a 
special study of mosses, and collected largely in lichens, in which he did 
much work in association with j\Ir. Thomas Hebden. With Mr. Hebden, 
he has tramped hundreds of miles in search of specimens. The pair pub- 
lished three or four papers in The Naturalist some twenty years ago, 
giving three very good lists of district lichens. Mr. Shackleton was the 
founder and supporter of the old Keighley Scientific and Literary Society, 
and the existing organisation, the Keighle}' Naturalists' Society, founded 
in 1904, elected him its lirst honorary member. 

Naturalist, 



295 

YORKSHIRE NATURALISTS IN COVERDALE. 

The calls of the time are such that even naturalists must 
expect to have their enjoyment curtailed, and the official request 
for the postponement of the Whitsuntide holidays had its 
effect upon the attendance at the meeting of the Union held 
at ]\liddleham for the Whit week-end, June loth to 12th. The 
number of members present with the President, Mr. W^ N. 
Cheesman, J. P., F.L.S., was not large, and this was the more 
to be regretted considering the excellent local arrangements 
which had been made by the divisional secretary, Mr. J. 
Hartshorn, Leyburn, and also the interest taken in the Union's 
visit by local gentlemen. 

With the exception of Jervaulx, Coverdale has not, until 
the present occasion, been officially visited by the Union. The 
area chosen for investigation was the lower portion of the 
dale, which included West Scrafton, Carleton, East Witton, 
and Jervaulx. Considering the ample scope there is for the 
student in each section, it would most certainly be worth 
while to traverse the same area again when normal times 
return . 

Middleham itself is an old-world town, sheltered by the ruins 
of its mediaeval castle, a memory of the power and glorv of the 
ancient family of Nevilles, and within the immediate vicinity 
of the town is much of historic and archaeological interest. 

On Saturday the members first proceeded to Coverham 
Abbey, the ruins of which were explained to them by the Rev. 
H. G. Topham, Rector of Middleham. The foundation of this 
Abbey of the White Friars dates back to 12 14. The Abbey 
House was also inspected, and it was noticed that many carved 
stones and inscriptions had been incorporated in the adjacent 
buildings. What now remains of the site of St. Simon's Chapel 
and Well were also visited. After leaving the Abbey the 
greater part of the rest of the day was spent in the vicinity of 
West Scrafton, where the beauties of numerous ghylls proved 
very fascinating, closing with a visit to Gilbert Scar Quarry, 
where the members examined the underground workings from 
which sandstone was obtained. The geologists had the able 
guidance of Mr. W. Home, F.G.S., who, despite his advanced 
years, remained with the party all day, and added much to 
the pleasure of the excursion by his local knowledge. 

Sunday morning was spent in examining the meadows and 
woods alongside the river Cover (which joins the Yore at 
East Witton), proceeding as far as the village of Harmby. On 
reaching Leyburn in the afternoon the party was taken in 
charge by Mr. Hartshorn and Mr. F. Croft, and spent a delight- 
ful time on the celebrated " Shawl," where memory was 
sweetened with the magnificent scenic panorama, and the 

1916 Sept. 1. 



296 Yorkshire Naturalists in Caver dale. 

wealth of vegetation disclosed. It was as Maude, the local 
poet, wrote : — 

' We view a lower world where beauties spring 
Tempting and fair, as classic poets sing, 
Woods, streams and flocks the vale's sweet bosom grace, 
And happy culture smooths her cheerful face.' 

On Monday the party passed over the Common to the valley 
of the Cover, calling at Braithwaite Hall, where the tenant 
very kindly permitted an inspection of the rooms,, some of 
which had oak-panelled walls with carving, from which it was 
apparent the building dated back to about the sixteenth 
century. Braithwaite ghyll was explored on the way to the 
moors, on reaching which Mr. J. Maughan conducted the 
party for the rest of the day. From the moors they first 
passed through the very fine coniferous woods, chiefly of spruce, 
and also visited the splendid plantations of Corsican Pine, 
Douglas Fir, Japanese and Silesian Larch, all in a thriving 
condition. Next a series of deciduous woods was traversed, 
including Sawden ghyll, a most entrancing spot, the beauties 
of which were greatly admired, and where a waterfall of about 
120 feet in height was in good force. The excursion was 
brought to a close in the grounds of Jervaulx Abbey, where 
Canon Garrod, Rector of East Witton, very ably and lucidly 
explained the well-kept ruins of this Cistercian monastery. He 
was heartily thanked for his services. 

After the sectional reports had been presented at the 
rheeting held subsequently at headquarters (the White Swan 
Hotel), an omnibus resolution of thanks was recorded : to 
]\Ir. J. Hartshorn for his excellent work as divisional secretary ; 
to the guides ; to Mr. H. Maughan for granting permission 
to visit his magnificent rock garden, and to the following 
landowners for permission to visit their estates, viz., Lord 
Masham, Mr. W. L. Christie, Major Harrison Topham, Mr. A. 
W. Chayton, Sir F. Brown, Capt. W. Burrill Thomson, Mr. H. J. 
Bowring and Mrs. Wright. 

Hearty congratulations were accorded to Mr. W. Eagle 
Clarke, F.L.S., F.R.S.E., a past President of the Union, on whom 
the University of St. Andrew's had conferred the honorary 
degree of Doctor of Laws, as a mark of esteem for his scientific 
work. 

An additional interest to the meeting were the three 
lectures which were delivered. Mr. J. Hartshorn spoke upon 
the chief botanical features of the Middleham district. He 
remarked that the general impression was that geologically 
Wensleydale was a limestone dale. As a matter of fact, the 
relation of limestone to the sandstones and shales of the dale 
was only two per cent. After a brief description of the scenic 
beauties of Coverdale, which were only revealed to those who 
left the beaten track, he remarked upon the number of plants 

Naturalist 



Yorkshire Naturalists in Coverdale. 297 

-which occurred in the district, as remarkable for their occurrence 
in the British Isles and West-Central Europe. The features 
of the flora in general were also commented upon. 

Dr. T. W. Woodhead, M.Sc, discoursed upon the 
life history of the Purple Heath Grass {Molinia cceriilea) in the 
Huddersfield district. He explained that the details of its 
distribution, and of the anatomy of the plant had been worked 
out by one of his students, the Rev. T. A. Jeffries, and 
recently published. The morphological features of the 
plant, and the factors affecting its distribution on the moorland 
areas, and in the woods of the Hudders field district, were 
described, as well as the chief competitors of the grass under 
certain conditions of growth. 

Mr. B. Hobson, B.Sc, gave an interesting account of his 
investigations of the underground watercourses of the lime- 
stone areas, especially dealing with those in the district of 
Ingleborough, the geological features of which he lucidly 
explained. He particularly mentioned the repeated disappear- 
ance of Dale Beck, and also of disappearing streams in 
Dentdale, and in the early sources of the rivers Wharfe, 
Aire and Skirfare. His remarks were illustrated by geological 
maps. — W.E.L.W. 

CoNXHOLOGY. — ^Mr. Greevz Fysher reports : — 

All the shells I collected have been seen by Mr. J. W. 
Taylor, and the slugs by Mr. W. Denison Roebuck. At Slade 
Gill, Coverham, were found Arion circumscriptus, Pyramidida 
rotundata and a fine trochoidal example of Helicigona arbus- 
toriim. At Coverham Abbey were found Af^riolimax agrestis 
v. reticulata, one Ziia luhrica, a few Hygromia hispida and 
numerous H . rufescens. At Scrafton was abundance both of 
Clausilia hidentata and CI. cravenensis, one H. rufescens, two 
Pyramidida rupestris, and a typical example of Limax arbor um. 
At Middleham Helix aspersa was in abundance, Agriolimax 
agrestis and H. rufescens were numerous, together with a few 
.each of Balea perversa, CI. hidentata and Hygromia hispida, 
and one Hyalinia cellaria. On West Witton Fell were found 
fine adult examples of Limax cinereo-niger var. liictuosa and 
L. maxinius var. jasciata, the type of Avion ater, an adult A. 
circumscriptus, a half-grown H. arbustorum, an immature 
H . hispida var. rubens, one Azeca tridens, one CI. bidentata, and 
a few Clausilia laminata. This makes a total of five slugs and 
thirteen land shells for the Lower Coverdale area planned for 
special investigation. Other captures were Helicella cantiana 
and its reddish form in great abundance at Melmerby, near 
Ripon, H. itala in plenty together with H . rufescens and its 
var. rubens and P. rotundata at Leyburn ; and Hyalinia 
cellaria (two adults), CI. bidentata, and a fine example of H. 
aspersa at Wensley. 

1916 Sept 1. 



298 Yorkshire Naturalists in Coverdale. 

Flowering Plants. — Mr. J. Hartshorn writes : — 
During the last week in May the most striking floral feature 
of Coverdale was the Bird Cherry. By Whitsuntide this had 
passed and Hawthorn and some Horse-Chestnut bloom had 
succeeded. A number of Hawthorn blooms were examined 
and all proved monogynous. Of the Crane's-bills, Geranium 
sylvaticum and G: pratense, the latter is the common one in 
this district, with the former most abundant in the upper 
part of the valley. Similar records obtain for Wensleydale, 
while in Swaledale common by the roadside down to Richmond 
we find G. sylvaticum ; also in plenty on the walls and rock ledges 
were G. lucidum and G. robertianum, also Arabis hirsuta, 
Saxifraga tridactylites, Sedum acre, Asplenium trichomanes, 
A. Ruta-mtiraria and Cystopteris fragilis. Other ferns of 
different habitat are Lady Fern, and the lowly yet interesting 
Moon wort and Adder 's-tongue. On the moor traversed there 
was much Empetrum nigrum in fruit. 

As all the members present wished to see the Shawl and 
the plants indicated for Leyburn, an investigation was arranged. 
The following species were noted : — Staphylea pinnata, Ribes 
alpinum, Acer Platanoides, Sedum rupestre, S. album, Hyperi- 
cum calycinum and Sumbucus ebulus. Most of these are quite 
at home and flourish exceedingly, but they were probably 
introduced years ago when a good deal of planting was done. 
Geranium phcsum, sparingly found in Coverdale and Wensley- 
dale has also been introduced. 

On Monday the members had the advantage of Mr. J. 
Maughan's services as guide. Knowing the ground intimately, 
and a keen student of Forestry, he was able to make the 
woods pleasant and instructive. Sawden Beck was charming, 
especially in Deep Gill, and Jervaulx Abbey would have 
provided work for the whole day. Species not already men- 
tioned and worthy of record are : — Colchicum autumnale 
(foliage and fruit), Orc/zis iistulata and 0. morio (both abundant), 
Habenaria viridis, Trollius europceiis, Parietaria ramiflora. 
Primula farinosa, Echium vulgar e and Lactuca virosa. Sweet 
woodruff appeared to be in unusual profusion between Cover- 
ham and W. Scrafton and the fruiting condition of Butter-bur 
was remarkable. 

Near Wensley an abundance of Arenaria verna was noted. 
Bryology. — Mr. C. A. Cheetham reports : — 
The bryologists took a wider survey of Coverdale than that 
included in the circular, three members making the old en- 
trenchment at Coverhead their headquarters on Friday night, 
and starting at sun-rise on Saturday to work the ghylls forming 
the head waters of the Cover. Here on the limestone rocks 
some interesting mosses were gathered, typical things for 
these places, such as Plagiobryum Zierii, Webera cruda, 

Naturalist,. 



Yorkshire Naturalists in Cover dale 299* 

Orthothccium intricatum, Seligeria pusilla, Hypnuni stellatmn 
var. protensitm and Bartramia (Ederi ; in the streams with an 
abundance of Hypnum palustre were found Fontinalis squamosa 
and Hypniim ochraceum. In one swampy spring head what 
appeared like an uncommon Bryum, turned out to be Mni^im 
stellare, a moss one associates with dry woodland walls and 
rocks ; this same moss was also seen on the rocks by the Cover 
side further down the valley. Close to Carlton it was interesting 
to see the variation of the mosses on the walls accordingly as 
they were limestone or grits. On the grit walls Hypnuni 
cupressijorme was dominant, with plenty of Leucodon sciuroides, 
and a little Grimmia trichophylla, whereas on the limestone 
the dominant species is Pleuropns sericeus with Bryum cap- 
pillare, Encalypira streptocarpa, etc., and in one place, near 
Gilbert Scar Bridge, some fine Bartramia ithyphylla. On 
limestone by some of the lower tributary streams we gathered 
Eurhynchium tenellum. In the woodland by Coverbridge 
mosses were luxuriant ; on the walls of the roadway we made 
the most interesting find of the day, a moss, Nechcra com- 
planata, which is extremely frequent in these places but barren, 
was found in very good fruit, the Mnium stellare, before 
mentioned, was also on the walls in its typical state. Some 
damp limestones with tufa had Weisia verticillata in good 
fruit as w^ere Barhula tophacea and Hypnum commutatum. 
A small Eurhynchium gave some trouble and had to be sub- 
mitted to Mr. W. Ingham who determines it as E. pumihim. 
This moss is a new record for the drainage area and was in the 
fruiting state. Mnium cuspidatum was well grown and 
fruiting, and so was Horn alia trichomanes. An adjournment 
was made to the streani side and the rocks examined ; Hypnum 
moUuscum var. fastigiatum, Dichodontum pellucidum of 
varying forms covered many of the rocks, with Barhula 
spadicea, B. cylindrica, Eurhynchium crassinervium, Mnium 
stellare, M. cuspidatum and Bryum pallens. In the afternoon 
w^e cycled to Jervaulx and from here we took the road through 
Masham, calling in Hackfall Woods, where another variety, 
condensatum of H. moUuscum was seen with the uncommon 
Hypnum Patienticr. 

^Iycology. — ^]\Ir. W. N. Cheesman reports : — 
Eastertime is somewhat early for many of the fungi, and 
this year the cold dry weather had the effect of retarding 
growth, but by diligent search, Mr. R. Fowler Jones and the 
writer succeeded in getting together fifty-five species of fungi 
and sixteen species of Mycetozoa, most of which were of common 
occurrence, exceptions being Urocystis colchici, the fungal 
parasite of Colchicum autumnale, which has only been once- 
previously recorded for Yorkshire (1880), and Tremellodon 
gelatinosum growing on the underside of a pine log. This 

1916 Sept. 1. 



300 



Yorkshire Naturalists in Coverdale 



plant is not recorded in the ' Fungus Flora ' of Yorkshire, but 
was found, perhaps for the first time, at Forge Valley last year. 

The three most noteworthy species of Mycetozoa were 
H anitrichia rubiformis, Enerthenema papillata and Perichcema 
vermicularis, all three growing on decaying wood. 

In spite of the care devoted to the well kept woods several 
species of fungi attacking forest trees were noted, especially 
Fomes annosus on Spruce and Pine, Dasyscypha calicina on 
Larch, Poly poms betulinus on Birch, Dcedalea qnercina on Oak, 
and Arniillaria mellea on various deciduous trees. 

The following is a list of the species collected : — 



Cy.iih us vevnicosiis 
S phcevobolus stellatus 
Lycopevdon gemniatiim 

Amanita rubescens 
Lepiota procera 
Avmillaria mellea 
Tricholoma ganibositni 
Clitocybe infiindibuliformis 
Laccaria laccata 
Collybia veliitipes 
Mycena galeviculata 

,, alcalina 
Pluteus cevvinus 
Nolanea pascua 
Pholiota pvcBcox 
■Galeva tenera 
Crepidotus mollis 
■ Stropharia cBrugiuosa 
Hypholoma fasciculare 
Aiicllayia separata 
Co prill Its comatiis 

,, iiiveus 

micaceus 
Marasiniiis oreades 
rot II I a ■ 

Boletus littens 
-Polyporiis brnmalis 

,, sqiiamosus 

,, sulphiireus 

,, betulinus 

,, adustus 
Polystictus versicolor 

,, abietinus 

Fomes fomentarins 

,, annosus 
-Poria vapor aria 
Dcedalea qnercina 



Uadulum quercinum. 
Grandinia granulosum 
Odontia fimbriata 

Solenia anoniala 
Stereum hirsutum 

,, purpureum 

Corticium cake urn 
HymenochcBte rubiginosa 
Peniophora qnercina 
Thelephora laciniata 
Typhula erythropus 

Hirneola auricula- jiidcs 
Tremella mesenterica 
Dacryomyces stillatus 
Calocera viscosa 

Puccinia mentha 

,, primula 

,, suaveolens 

Urocystis colchici 
Graphimn jlexuosum 

Physarmn nutans 
Craterium min utttm 
Didymiuni difforme 

,, squamulosum 

Stemonitis fusca 
Comatricha nigra 
Enerthenema papillata 
Crib ray id argillacea. 
DictydicBthalium plumbeum 
Reticularia. Lycoperdon 
Lycogala epidendrum 
Trichia- per si mi lis 

,, varia 

,, Botrytis 
Hemitrichia rubiformis 
PcrichcBiia vermicularis 



Mr. T. Sheppard, ]\I.Sc., has been invited to accept the position of 
"A'ice-l'resident of the Conference of Deh\gates at the jNIeeting of the 
British Association at Newcastle. 



Naturalist, 



301 

YORKSHIRE NATURALISTS AT DRIFFIELD. 

By a coincidence, the visit of the Union to Driffield on 
Saturday, July 8th, was on exactly the same date as their 
visit to the " capital ' of the Wolds seventeen years ago. 

The weather was glorious, quite a change from the de- 
pressing type of weather experienced just before the excursion, 
and those who were present enjoyed the outing immensely, 
one of the features being the excellence of the working ground 
provided within a very short distance of the town. 

The geological party was under the guidance of Mr. J. W. 
Stather, F.G.S., and after detraining at Lowthorpe the members 
visited quarries at Ruston Parva and Nafferton on their way 
back to Driffielcl. 

The general body of naturalists first \isited the Mortimer 
Museum where, under the able guidance of Mr. Thomas 
Sheppard, M.Sc, they had lucidly explained to them the im- 
portant contents of this finest example of ' local ' museum in the- 
country. It is pleasing to know that through the generosity 
of Col. Tt. H. Clarke the valuable collections made by the late 
Mr. J. R. Mortimer have been presented to the Hull Corpora- 
tion who intend, after the war, to remove the contents to a 
suitable building in Hull. 

Afterwards, under the guidance of Mr. J. F. Robinson and 
Mr. W. H. Blakeston, they spent a most enjoyable time on the 
marshlands, and in the woods in the vicinity of King's Mill, 
Kelleythorpe, and Sunderlandwick, where the flora in par- 
ticular was most delightful and particularly attractive. 

The sectional reports given at the close of the excursion 
showed the time of those present had been well spent. A vote 
of thanks to the landowners, Mr. Bryan Boye=, Mr. Harold 
Hopper, Mr. F. Reynard, J. P., D.L., Mr. A. J. Wise and Mr. 
W. H. St. Quintin, J.P., D.L., as well as to the Divisional' 
Secretary, Mr. J. W. Stather, for making the local arrangements, 
to tne guides, and to the Hull Museums Committee for per- 
mission to visit the Mortimer Museum, concluded a pleasant, 
meeting. — W. E. L. W. 

Flowering Plants. — Mr. J. F. Robinson reports : — 
A verj^ fair number of members and friends were present. 
Active operations in the field were commenced at King's Mill — - 
' Mill ' now only in name, for the picturesque, tree-embowered 
residence of Mr. Brj^an Boyes occupies the place once held 
bv the well known mill, which was burnt down some years ago. 
The millponds, and the swiftly flowing ' race,' are still there, 
however, and to these, with the gardens and grounds around, 
free access was kindly given by the genial gentleman himself. 

The marshy grounds near by afforded many specimens of 
aquatic vegetation including some new things, notably Epifactis 

191G Sept. 1. 



302 Yorkshire Naturalists at Driffield. 

paliistris and Carex paradoxa which, however, were known in 
stations in similar ground below Driffield, towards Wansford. 
There was a large growth of the sedges — chiefly Carex panicnlata 
and the grasses Phalaris arimdinacea and Poa aqitatica. In 
connection with the last, Dr. Woodhead initiated an interesting 
discussion on the ' tussock ' formation that is such a marked 
feature of the damp ground near King's Mill. The origin of 
the ' tussocks ' was to some extent ehicidated later in the day 
\>y investigations made in a wet, shallow gravel-pit of not 
more than ten year's excavation, near to Kelleythorpe, whither 
we proceeded after visiting the King's IMill Marsh. Here there 
■was a wonderful growth of Carex jlava, in specimens and tufts 
of the maximum size, occasionally intermingled with the sedges 
C. Goodenovii, C. glauca and C. paradoxa (another new station). 
As one trod upon the wet, gravelly floor of the pit, and ever and 
anon, upon one of the already fairly large ' tussocks ' of Carex 
jlava, it seemed evident that the sedges do pioneer work in 
■' tussock '-building, the grasses and others coming in later as 
accessories. On dry ground at the edge of the pit the adder's 
tongue fern grows in abundance, man}' plants being found 
bearing aloft the characteristic sporiferous frond. 

The swamp, and the wood on the part of the same, near 
Kelleythorpe, are very wet notwithstanding the two or three 
■ditch-like streams of very clear water by which they are 
intersected. This proved a rich and interesting bit of ground, 
for upon it grev.' a wealth of species in great luxuriance. In 
flower were Thalicirtim jlaviun, Ranunculus Lingua, Myosotis 
palitsiris, Pedicularis palustris, Iris pseudacorus, etc. 

In the wet wood there was profusion of Carex panicnlata, 
again forming huge ' tussocks,' whilst Junctis acutijloriis was 
sparingly present and Schcenus nigricans considerably less 
•so. But the remarkable sight was the luxuriant, almost 
rampant, growtn of the Marsh Buckler fern — Lastrea Thelypteris. 
Leaving the Kelleythorpe habitat of plants beloved by the 
botanist we crossed the railway and made via fields to Sunder- 
landwick, ten minutes from Driffield. 

It had not been a very long round — three or four miles 
in all — but the remark made in the circular programme of the 
m.eeting that near Driffield one finds some of the best botanical 
ground in the vice-County (East Riding) had ample confirma- 
tion. 

Bryology. — Mr. C. A. Cheetham writes : — ■ 

The mosses were few and of a common type, the first noted 
was a fine growth of Eurhynchium rusciforme hy the sluice 
.^ates, with Physcomitrium pyriforme and Webera carnea on 
the river banks. Amongst the grass in the damp meadows at 
King's Mill Hypniim cuspidatum with Climacium dendroides are 
to be seen in plenty and where water usually stands Hypnum 

NaturaUst, 



Yorkshire Naturalists at Driffield 303 

aduncum. In the marshy ground next visited other factors 
seemed to enter in ; the chief moss was Hypnum revolvens 
with some Hypnum ciispidatnm, H. elodes and //. giganteum ; 
also Milium afjine var. elatum, and on the streamside Philonotis 
calcarea, all of which points to the water supply being of a 
calcareous type, and the absence of any sphagnum is con- 
firmatory evidence of this. 

Mycology. — Mr. W. N. Cheesman writes : — 

Mr. R. Fowler Jones and the writer made diligent search 
during the available collecting time with the result of recording 
thirty-five species of fungi and ten species of mycetozoa. 
The most noteworthy fungi were three species of peziza, all 
blood in colour and similar in size (6-8 mm.) and outward 
appearances. Microscopic examination proved these to be 
Spharospora trechispora from marshy ground near King's Mill, 
Lachnea scutellata on decayed wood and L. umbrata on the bare 
soil at Kellythorpe. Puccinia molinicB was abundant on Orchis 
maciilata and its uredospores on Molinia ccerulea near by. The 
elder-bushes in the woods were covered with the Jew's ear 
fungus Hirneola auricula-judce, and in a single instance it was 
found on Almts glutinosa. 

Boggy places yielded a few sporophores of the beautiful 
ascomycete Mitrula paludosa. 

The rare Polyporus elegans was found on the collar of a 
willow-bush in a wet place which was found covered with Lastrea 
Thelypteris. P. radiatus was on the same bush but two or three 
feet above the ground. 

Several patches of Rhizina widulata were seen under fir 
trees in the Kelleythorpe wood. 

Some leaves of Holcus mollis bearing minute brown objects 
proved a mycological conundrum to several experts on leaf 
fungi to whom they were submitted, the Kew authorities 
eventually deciding that they were the sporangia of Pilobolus 
Kleinii which had adhered to the grass when shot off from 
the fungus. 

The most notable mycetozoa gathered were Physariini 
psittacinum, Diachcea elegans, Stemonitis flavogenita and 
Enerthenema papillata ; also plasmodium, still undeveloped. 

Geology. — The Geologists, under the leadership of Mr. 
J. W. Stather, visited the chalk quarries of Ruston Parva and 
Nafferton and obtained some characteristic fossils from the 
beds of Middle Chalk there exposed. Later they examined 
the fine collection in the Driffield Museum. 



Mr. R. A. Phillips figures two species of Pisidium new to Ireland 
(namely P. sitpiniini and P. parvitlum] in the Irish Naturalist for July. 
In the same Journal for June, Prof. C. J. Patten describes ' Fragmentary 
Remains of a Tree-Pipit found on Tviscar Rock.' 

1916 Sept. 1. 



304 

NORTHERN NEWS, Etc. 

We regret to notice the death, at Lewes, of Charles Dawson, the 
discoverer of the famous Piltdown skull. 

Publication 55 of the Belfast Municipal Art Gallery and Mnesitm deals- 
with Soils and their Builders ; How Plants Grow ; and Garden Pests. 

The ' Library Circular No. 60 ' issued by the Sunderland Public 
Libraries, Museum and Art Gallery, contains particulars of recent additions 
to the ]Museum, among which we notice several cases of birds. 

The Report of the National Trust for Places of Historic Interest or 
Natural Beauty has been received. During the past year Thurstaston 
Heath, Cheshire, has been presented to the Trust, and a further portion 
of Wicken Fen has been obtained. 

The g^rd Report of the Whitby Literary and Philosophical Society is not 
very encouraging, and probably for the first time in the Society's history 
not a single donation has been made to the Museum dviring the year. There 
are some meteorological tables in the Report. 

Mr. John Walker, Bootmaker and Antiquarian, of Hull, has recently 
died at the age of 78. He was a well-known Hull character, and for 43 
years has followed the hounds in Holderness on foot. In his shop he had a 
miscellaneous collection of curios. He occasionally joined the excursions- 
of the local scientific societies. 

We much regret to record the death of J. A. Harvie-Brown, of Duni- 
pace House, N.B. Mr. Harvie-Brown was intimately associated with 
The Scottish Naturalist, and was the joint author of a number of valuable 
memoirs bearing upon the Natural History of the various parts of Scotland. 
He was born in 1S44, was a fellow of the Royal Society of Edinburgh, and 
of the Zoological Society, and a member of the British Ornithologists' 
Union. According to Who's Who, he is the author of over 250 books, papers 
and notices. He was an occasional contributor to The Naturalist. 

Parts I and 2 of Volume 60, of the Memoirs and Proceedings of the 
Manchester Literary and Philosophical Society, contain the following in- 
teresting papers : — ' Animal Symmetry and the Differentiation of Species," 
by Prof. S. J. Hickson ; ' Relationship between the Geographical Dis- 
tribution of Megalithic Monunients and Ancient Mines,' by J. W. Perry 
and Prof. G. E. Smith ; ' Notes on some Palaeozoic Fishes,' by D. ISI. S.. 
Watson and H. Day ; ' A Change in the Habits of the Black-Headed 
Gull,' by T. A. Coward ; ' The Money Cowry as a Sacred Object among 
North American Indians, ' ' The Aztec ]Moon-cult and its Relation to the 
Chank-cult of India,' ' The Geographical Distribution of the Shell-Purple 
Industry,' ' Shell-Trumpets and their Distribution in the Old and New 
World,' by J. Wilfred Jackson ; ' The Geographical Distribution of 
Terraced Cultivation and Irrigation,' by W^ J. Perry. 

The death took place in Edinburgh Infirmary on August 27th of Dr. 
C. T. Clough of the Geological Survey of Scotland. He was collecting 
specimens at the railway near IManuel, West Lothian, on Wednesday, and 
was run over by a passing train. Both his legs had to be amputated. 
Dr. Clough was for many years engaged in the geological survey of North- 
West Yorkshire, especially in the Sedbergh, \\'enslcydale and Upper 
Teesdale districts. The earliest Yorkshire publication which bears his 
name was issued as long ago as 1877. In 1883 he completed the map of 
the Angram district. He has written much upon the whindyke of Upper 
Teesdale. In the service of the Geological Survey he had attained to the 
rank of district geologist in charge of the work of revision of the map. 
The circumstances of his death will remind geologists of that of another 
famous Yorkshire geologist, Hugh Strickland, Professor of Geology at 
Oxford, who was killed many years ago by being knocked down by a 
train while he was collecting fossils on the railway banks near Doncaster. 
— [Yorkshire Observer). 

Naturalists 



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Our Common Sea Birds. Lowe. 4to 8/6 

Animal Romances. Renshaw. 4/- 

British Butterflies, etc. (coloured plates). Thomas. 4/- 

Natural History of Animals, 8 vols. 4/6 per vol. 

Determination of Sex. Doncaster. 4/6 

Book of nature Study. Farmer. 6 vols. 4/6 per vol. 

Animal Life. Gamble. 4/- 

FuR AND Feather Series. Pheasant, Partridge, Grouse. 1/9 

each. 
Science from an Easy Chair. Lankester. 4/- 

Do. (Second Series). 4/- 

Nature Through the Microscope. Spiers. (99 plates). 4/- 
White's Natural History of Selborne. Coloured Illustrations 

by Collins. 6/- 
Life of MacGillivray. 6/- 
The Making of Species. Dewar and Finn. 4/- 
The Greatest Life. Leighton. 3/- 
HisTORY OF Birds. Pycraft. 6/- 
BooK OF Birds. Pycraft. 2/6 

Natural History of some Common Animals. Latter. 3/- 
The Gannet. Gurney. 13/- 
Home Life of Osprey. Abbott. 2/6 

Apply :— Dept. C, c/O A. BROWN & SONS, Ltd., Hull. 



BOOKS WANTED. 

Trans. Yorks. Nat. Union. Part I. 

Naturalists' Journal. 

W. Smith's New Geological Atlas of England aucl Wales. iSiy-Ji 

Frizinghall Naturalist. Vol. I., and part i of Vol. II. (lithographed). 

Illustrated Scientific News. 1902-4. (Set). 

Journal Keighley Naturalists' Society. 4to. Part i. 

Cleveland Lit. & Phil. Soc. Trans. Science Section or others. 

Proc. Yorks. Nat. Club (York). Set. 1867-70. 

Keeping's Handbook to Nat. Hist. Collections. (York Museum). 

Hudderslield Arch, and Topog. Society. 4 Reports. (1863-1860). 

First Report, Goole Scientific Society. 

The Naturalists' Record. Set. 

lie Natural History Teacher (Huddersfleld). N'ols. l.-ll. 
The Economic Naturalist (Hudderslield). Vol. 1. 
The Naturalists' Guide (Huddersficld). Set. 
The Naturalists' Almanac (Huddersfleld). 1867. 

' Ripon Spurs," by Keslington. 

Reports on State of .\griculture of Coimties (1790-1810'. 
Early Geological Maps. 

Apply — Editor, The Museum, Hull. 



THE COUNTY OF 
THE WHITE ROSE 

AN introduction" TO THE HISTORY 
AND ANTIQUITIES OF YORKSHIRE 

BY 

A. C. PRICE, M.A. 

Formerly Scholar of Pembroke College, Oxford 
Author of " Leeds and its Neighbourhood," etc. 

415 pagesf crown 8vo, with upieards of 70 illustrations and a 

jolding map of the three Ridings, tastefully hound in Art Cloth 

Boards lettered in gold, with rose in iphite foil and gilt top. 

^s. 6d. net, post free 3s. lod. net. 

THE object of " The County of the White Rose " is 
to make better known the great part which York- 
shire has played in British history. It is the only 
book of a reasonable size which deals at all adequately 
with the history of the largest County as a whole, and it 
will prove a valued treasure to all who take an interest in 
castles, abbeys, churches, battlefields, etc., of which York- 
shire is abundantly endowed. The reader is introduced to 
the geology of the county, to its very early inhabitants, 
to Yorkshire under Roman rule, and right on through the 
various periods to what is termed "Modern Yorkshire." 

Iti,will be noted with special interest, in view of the 
great war now raging, that whereas nearly all the previous 
chapters deal largely with fighting, that which treats of 
the Yorkshire of to-day is devoted entirely to such peaceful 
pursuits, as commerce, science, literature, and the social 
life in general of the people. The internal strife is happily 
now a thing of the distant past and " The County of the 
White Rose " shows in no small measure, the evolution of 
what has become a united nation with one object in view, 
viz., " the triumph of right over might." 

The book contains an abundance of illustrations, man}^ 
reproduced from photographs by Mr. Godfrey Bingley, 
Mr. A. C. Parry and Mr. R. Stockdale. 

There is an excellent folding map of the three Ridings, 
and the value of the book is still further enhanced by the 
provision of a verj- exhaustive index of names and places. 

London : A. Brown & Sons, Ltd., 5 Farringdon Avenue, E.G. 

And all Booksellers. 



Printed at Browns' Savile Press, 40, George Street, Hull, and pviblished by 
A. Rkown &. Sons, Limited, at 1; Farringdon Avenue, in the City of London. 

Sept. 1st, 7916. 



OCT. 1916. 



No. 717 

(No- 494 of current series} 




A MONTHUY ILLUSTRATED JOURNAL OF 

NATURAL HISTORY FOR THE NORTH OF ENGLAND. 

EDITED BY 

T. SHEPPARD, M.Sc, F.Q.S., F.R.Q.S., F.S.A.Scot.. 

The Mcseums, Hull ; 



T. W. WOODHEAD, Ph.D., M.Sc, F.L.S.. 

Technical College, HoDWERSFiKi.n. 

WITH THE ASSISTANCE AS REFEREES IN SPECIAL DEPARTMENTS OP 

J. aiLBBRT BAKER, P.R.S. P.L.S., GEO. T. PORRITT, P.L.S. 

Prof. P. P. KENDALL, M.Sc, F.Q.S., JOHN W. TAYLOR, M.Sc, 

T. H. NELSON. M.Sc, M.B.O.U., RILEY FORTUNE. 



P.H.S. 




JUN2 4 192P 



Contents : — 



Notes and Comments :— ^British Association; Science and War; Presi5mk'$ Address; 
Northern Antiquaries; Government and Museums; Science and Education T'witgftTji^ioH 
of Thought ; Chemical Science ; Mathematics and Physics ; Geology and tlTe War ; 
Geological Survey; False Economy; Zoological Section; Laws of Inheritance; An- 
thropological Section ; Physiological Section ; Botanical Section ; Educational Science 
Section ; Agricultural Section ; Geographical Section ; War and Maps ; Economic 
Science ; Engineering Section ; Science and Salaries ; Popular Science Lectures ; Interest 
in Popular Lectures ; Lectures in the Future ; A Wail from Hull ; A Summary; Prof. 
G. A. Lebour's Address ; Field Clubs ; Colleges and Field Clubs ; Smatterers ; Original 
Observations; Complimentary to Yorkshire; The Fish Supply; Depopulation of the 
Fishing Villages ; The Characteristics of Coal ; Bright and Dull Coal ; The Handbook ... 

Ornithological Observations and Reflections in Shettani—Fdmtind Selous 



305-323 
324-326 



Yorkshire Naturalists at Wentbridge—n'. E.L.W . 

Field Notes: — Natterjack in Cumberland; Foreign Spider at 

Commondale, N.F;. Yorkshire; 7 clcly/u^rus darmninnus Sh^irp 

Reviews and Book Notices 

British Association News 

Northern News 



Huddersfield ; Plants of 
in Cumberland ... 



... 331-334 

... S35-33C 

326, 334,336 



LONDON : 
A. Brown & Sons, Limited, 5, Farringdon Avenue, E.G. 

And at Hull and York. 

Printers and Publishers to the Y.N. U. 



Prepaid Subscription 6/6 per annum, post free. 

s 



NOW READY. 

YORKSHIRE'S 

Contribution to Science 

(Based upon the Presidential Address to the Yorkshire 
Naturalists' Union, delivered at the Leeds University) ^ 

By THOMAS SHEPPARD 

M.Sc, F.G.S., F.R.G.S., F.S.A.(Scot.) 

240 pages Demy 8vo, illustrated, tastefully bound in Cloth 
Boards, with gilt top and gilt lettering on back and side, 

51' net. 

The publication of much additional matter has caused some 
delay in the appearance of the book. It is illustrated, and contains 
a complete history of the scientific publications issued in the various 
Yorkshire towns. It contains the following: — 

Yorkshire's Contribution to Science. 

Yorkshire Publications arranged Topographically. 

Existing Yorkshire Scientific Magazines and their Predecessors. 

Yorkshire Scientific Magazines now Extinct. 

County and Riding Societies. 

Yorkshire Topographical and General Magazines. 

Magazines : General Natural History Journals ; Museums ; 

Ornithology ; Mollusca ; Entomology ; Botany and General 

Biology ; Geography ; Meteorology. 

Scientific Societies (General). 

Geological Publications. 

Archseological and Antiquarian Publications (General). 

Books of Reference, 

List of Societies, Journals, Proceedings, Magazines, etc., 
described. 



London 

A. BROWN & SONS, Limited 

5 Farringdon Avenue, E.G. 

And at Hull and York. 



305 
NOTES AND COMMENTS. 

BRITISH ASSOCIATION'. 

The Eighty-sixtn Annual Meeting of the British Association 
was held between September 5th and qth. Difficulties of 
railway tra\'elling, combined with the fact that so many men 
are now employed on work of national importance, resulted 
in the attendance being smaller than usual — there being 826, 
as compared witli 14JQ at ?^Ianchester last year. The attract- 
ions for the ' hangers-on ' of the British* Association, were 
absent. Visits to works were dispensed with ; there were 
no garden parties, and no river trips. As the flavor told us, 
and as we found out, Newcastle was a ' prohibited area,' and 
the various works were all closed to visitors, with notices 
outside 'No admittance except on business,' and not always 
even then ! 

SCIENXF AXD WAR. 

Still it did not necessitate visits to works to show to what 
a great extent a certain district is dcang its share of work 
in the present national crisis. It was patent everywhere. 
And it was some satisfaction to the visitors to feel that behind 
all this vast multitude of manufactures of war materials, there 
was the trained scientist : — the nature of the explosives, the 
construction of the shells, the manufacture of the guns, the 
building of ships — aerial and marine ; were all the result of 
organized science. The only regret one has is that it is neces- 
sary in this twentieth century that the best brains of the 
country should be put to such a use. 

However, the fact of the members attending, and the 
nature of their discussions, demonstrated that the decision to 
continue these annual confeiences was a wise One. There is no 
question that in future, the necessity of givmg science its 
proper position will be recognised. Its great neglect, by this 
country, in the past, has almost proved a national calamity. 
The British Association may certainly be looked upon as the 
hub of British science, and anything in the way of retarding 
scientific progress, at this juncture, would be deplorable. 

In almost every section, it was shown that science could 
play its part in the country's welfare. The papers read at the 
sections devoted to Mathematics, Chemistry, Geology, (Geo- 
graphy, Engineering, Physiology, Botany, Agriculture, etc., 
clearly indicated the variety of ways in which science could be, 
and is being, placed at the service of tne state. 

THE president's ADDRESS. 

The President, Sir Arthur Evans, delivered an address on 
' New Archaeological lights on the Origins of Civilisation in 
Europe,' a title of peculiar significance at the present time. 

1916 Oct. 1. 

U 



3o6 Notes and Comments. 

The last time archaeology was the theme of the President's 
address was in 1897, when Sir John Evans, the father of Sir 
Arthur, presided at the Toronto meeting. There is no doubt 
that Sir Arthur Evans's address was quite equal to the high 
standard attained by his predecessors, but what with the 
nature of the hall (which the Mayor described as of ' Neohthic ' 
architecture), and the effect caused by the half- tilled seats ; 
the quiet voice of the President could not be heard, and we 
doubt very much if anybody in that vast audience heard a 
tenth of the address. The present writer, who was on the 
platform quite near to the President, adopted with his neigh- 
bours, the expression of an interested listener, albeit he heard 
but little. It seems a pity that the old ' Red Lion Club,' in 
connection with the British Association, has been discontinued. 
At its meetings, the members were able to practice ' roaring 
like a lion,' and whether there is anything in the roar or not, it 
is much better appreciated by an audience than is the bleating 
of a lamb, however intellectual. 

XORTHERX ANTIQUARIES. 

Sir Artlmr Evans paid a tribute to the work of the local 
antiquaries in connection with the Roman remains of the north 
of England ; and then summarised recent researches among 
the early European civihzation, in which he has himself played 
an important part. After dealing with this point, the President 
concludes with a few words as to the future. He says : — ' But 
can we yet despair of the educational future of a people that 
has risen to the full height of the great emergency witn which 
they were confronted ? Can we doubt that, out of the crucible 
of fiery trial, a New England is already in the moulding ? We 
must all bow before the hard necessity of the moment. Of 
much we cannot judge. Great patience is demanded. But let 
us, who still have the opportunity of doing so, at least prepare 
for the even more serious struggle that must ensue against the 
enemy in our midst, that gnaws our vitals. We have to deal 
witn ignorance, apathy, the non-scientific mental attitude, the 
absorption of popular interest in sports and amusements. 

THE GOVERNMENT AND MUSEUMS. 

And what, meanwnile, is the attitude of those in power — of 
our Government, still more of our permanent officials ? A 
cheap epigram is worn threadbare in oider to justify the 
ingrained distrust of expert, in other words of scientific, advice 
on the part of our public offices. W'e hear, indeed, of ' Com- 
missions ' and ' Enquiries,' but the inveterate attitude of our 
rulers towards the higher interests that we are here tc promote 
is too clearly shown by a single episode. It is those higher 
interests that are the first to be thrown to the wolves. ^ All 
are agreed that special treasures should be stored in positions 

Naturalist, 



Notes and Comments. 307 

€.f safety, but at a time when it might have been thouglit 
desirable to keep open every avenue of popular instruction and 
of intelligent diversion, the galleries of our National Museum 
at Bloomsbury were entirely closed for the sake of the paltriest 
saving — three minutes, it was calculated, of the cost of the 
War to the British Treasury ! That some, indeed, were left open 
elsewhere was not so much due to the enlightened sympathy 
of our politicians, as to their alarmed interests in view of the 
volume of intelligent protest. Our friends and neighbours 
across the Channel, under incomparably greater stress, have 
acted in a very different spirit. 

SCIEXXE AND EDUCATION. 

It will be a hard struggle for the friends of Science and 
Education , and the air is thick with mephitic vapours. Perhaps 
the worst economy to which we are to-dav reduced by our 
former lack of preparedness is the economy of Truth. Heaven 
knows ! — it mav be a necessary penalty. But its lesults are 
evil. Vital facts tnat concern our national well-being, otliers 
that even effect the cause of a lasting Peace, are constantly 
suppressed by official action. The negative character of the 
process at work wnich conceals its operation from the masses 
makes it the more insiduous. We live in a murky atmosphere 
amidst tne suggestion of the false, and there seems to be a real 
danger that the recognition of Trul h as itself a Tower of Strengtli 
may suffer an eclipse. It is at such a time and under these 
adverse conditions that we, whose object it is to promote the 
Advancement of Science, are called upon to act. It is for us 
to see to it that the lighted torch handed down to us from the 
Ages shall be passed on v/ith a still brighter fir; me. Let us 
champion the cause of Education, in the best sense of the word, 
as having regard to its spiritual as well as its scientific side. 
Let us go forward with our own tasks, unflinchingly seeking 
for the Truth, confident that, in the eternal dispensation, each 
successive generation of seekers may approach nearer to the 
goal.' 

ORGAN IS.\TION OF THOUGHT. 

Prof. A. N. Whitehead, in his address to the ^lathematical 
and Physical Science Section, deals with the Organisation of 
Thought. He tells us ' It is an organisation of a certain 
t3-pe which one will endeavour to determine. Science is a 
river wdth two sources, the practical source and the theoretical 
source. The practical source is the desire to direct our actions 
to achieve predetermined enas. For example, the British 
nation, fighting for justice, turns to science, which teaches it 
the importance of compounds of nitrogen. The theoretical 
source is the desire to understand. Now I am going to 
emphasise the importance of theory in science. But to avoid 

1916 Oct. 1. 



3o8 Nofc'^ mid ('ommciits. 

misconception I most empliatically state that I do not con- 
sider one source as in any sense nobler than the other, or 
intrinsically more interesting. I cannot see why it is nobler 
to strive to understand than to busy oneselt with the right 
ordering of one's actions. Both have their bad sides ; there 
are evil ends directing actions, and there are ignoble curiosities 
of the understanding. The importance, even in practice, of 
the theoretical side of science arises from the fact that action 
must be immediate, and takes place under the circvmistances 
which are excessivety complicated. If we wait for the necessi- 
ties of action before we commence to arrange our ideas, in 
peace we shall have lost our trade, and in war we shall have 
lost the battle.' 

CHEMICAL SCIENCE. 

Prof. G. (i. Henderson reviewed the recent ad^"ance made 
in Chemical Science. ' The period which has elapsed since 
the last meeting of the Section in Newcastle has witnessed 
truly remarkable progress in every branch of pure and applied 
chem.istry. For fully fifty ^"ears previous to that meeting 
the attention of the great majority of chemists had been devoted 
to organic chemistr\', but since 1885 or thereabouts, whilst the 
study of the compounds of caibon has been pursued with 
unflagging energy and success, it has no longer so largely 
monopolised the activities of investigators. Interest in the 
other elements, which has been to some extent neglected on 
account of the fascinations of carbon, has been revived with 
the happiest results, for not only has cur knowledge of these 
elements been greatly extended, but their number also has 
been notably increased by the discovery of two groups of 
simple substances possessed of new and remarkable properties 
— the inert gases of the argon family and the radio-active 
elements. 

MATHEMATICS AXD PHYSICS. 

In addiaon, the bonds between mathematics and physics 
on the one hand and chemistry on the other have been drawn 
closer, with the effect that the department of our science 
known as physical chemistry has now assumed a position 
of first-rate importance. With the additional light provided 
by the development and application of physico-chemical 
theory and methods, we are beginning to gain some insight into 
such intricate problems as the relation between phj'sical proper- 
ties and chemical constitution, the structure of molecules and 
even of atoms, and the mechanics of chemical change ; our 
outlook is being widened, and our conceptions rendered more 
precise. Striking advances have also been made in other 
directions. The extremely difficult problems which confront 
the bio-chemist are being gradually overcome, thanks to the 

Naturalist, 



Notes and Comments. 309 

indefatigable laljours of a band of liignly skilled observers, 
and the department of biological chemistry has been established 
on a firm footing througli the encouraging results obtained 
within the period under review. Further, within the last few 
years many of our ideas have been subjected to a revolutionary 
change through the study of the radio-active elements, these 
elusive substances which occur in such tantalisingly minute 
quantities, and of which some appear so reluctant to exist 
in a free and independent state that they merge then- identity 
in that of another and less retiring relative within an interval 
of time m.easured by seconds. In truth, if Rip Van Winkle 
among chemists were to awake now after a slumber of thirty 
years, his amazement in coming into contact with the chemistry 
of to-day would be beyond words.' 

c;EOLOGY AMD THE WAR. 

In Prof. \V. S. Boulton's presidential address to the (geo- 
logical Section, as well as in several papers discussed in the 
Section, it was shown that geologists, as well as chemists, 
engineers and metallurgists, have become keenly exercised 
as regards the operation of their respecti^'e sciences, not only 
to the making of munitions of war, but to the advancement 
of industry after the war. 

THE GEOLOGICAL SURVEY. 

In reference to the poor financial help given to the Geological 
Survey, Prof. Boulton makes some vei^y pointed remarks. He 
says that ' In any discussion of the present outlook of economic 
geology in Britain we naturally turn first to the work of the 
(ieological Survey. When in 1835 the National Survey was 
founded with De la Beche as its first Director, it was clearly 
realised by the promoters that its great function was to develop 
the mineral resources of the Kingdom, which involved the 
svstematic mapping of the rocks, and the collection, classifica- 
tion, and study of the minerals, rocks, and fossils illustrative 
of British Geology. For upwards of eighty years this work, 
launched by the enthusiasm and far-sighted genius of De la 
Beche, has been nobly sustained. We geologists outside the 
Survey are ever willing to testifj" to the excellence, within the 
Treasury-prescribed limits, of the published maps and memoirs. 
Indeed, it would be difficult to name a Government service 
in which the officers as a body are more efificient or more en- 
thusiastir in their work. 

FALSE ECONOMY. 

W^e have ceased to hear rumours of Treasiu"y misgivings 
as to whether the Geological Survey can justify, on financial 
grounds, its continued existence. When we call to mind the 
untold wealth of information and fact in the published maps, 

1916 Oct. 1. 



310 Notes and Comments. 

sections, and memoirs, the enormous value of such know- 
ledge to mining, civil engineering, agriculture, and education, 
and indirectly to the development of the mineral resources of 
the whole Empire, and then reflect that the total annual cost 
or the Geological Survey of England, Wales, Scotland, and 
Ireland is somewhere near 20,000/. — less, that is to say, than 
the salary and fees we have been accustomed to pay every year 
to a single Law Officer of the Crown — we should find it difficult 
to bear patiently with any narrow or short-sighted official 
view. But the time is opportune, I think, when we may ask 
whether the Survey is fulfilling all the functions that should be 
expected of it ; whether it is adequately supported and financed 
by the Government ; whether it should not be encouraged to 
develop along lines which, hitherto, from sheer poverty of 
official support, have been found impracticable.' 

Prof. Boulton covers a wide field in his address, other sub- 
jects reviewed being the Developm.ent of Concealed Coalfields, 
Geological Features of the Visible Coalfields which bear upon 
the Distribution and Structure of Concealed Coalfields ; the 
Need for a Systematic Survey by Deep Borings ; Chemical 
and Microscopical Investigation of Coal Seams ; Geology of 
Petroleum ; Underground Water, and Organisation of Expert 
Knowledge. 

ZOOLOGICAL SECTIO:^'. 

An idea of the nature of Prof. E. W. MacBride's presidential 
address to the Zoological Section may be gathered from his 
first paragraph. ' All of us are agreed that our country 
has entered into this conflict with clean hands, and is striving 
to attain high and noble aims ; but many of us think that the 
attainment of those aims has been to a considearble extent 
hindered by a neglect on the part of our rulers and organisers 
to take advantage of the results obtained by scientific research, 
and also by their neglect to provide adequate means for the 
continuance of that research. Hence the Organising Committee 
of the Section has very wisely sought to encourage the pro- 
duction at this meeting of papers setting forth those results 
of zoological research which have either a direct economic 
value as bearing on the rearing of useful animals, or an indirect 
economic one as teaching us how to combat harmful parasites 
both of animals and man. But we m.ust never forget that 
whilst the justification of a science in the long run — at any rate 
in the eyes of the many — may reside in the value of its applica- 
tions, 

LAWS OF INHERITANCE — 

yet the fiist condition of its assured progress is the 
resolute adherence to the investigation of its underlying laws ; 
and surely of all these laws the most fundamental in the case 
of biology are the laws of inheritance. These laws, as we are 

Naturalist, 



Notes and Comments. 311 

all aware, have been the subject of the most intensive research, 
especially during the last sixteen years. In these researches, 
however, the method which has been almost exclusively 
employed has been that of selective mating between different 
strains, and attention has been too exclusively focussed on 
the adult characters of the offspring. Another set of researches 
which may eventually throw a good deal of light on the laws 
of inheritance have been going on simultaneoush' with the 
experiments on cross-breeding. These researches have had 
as their object the determination of the laws governing the 
development of the germ into the adult organism, and researches 
of this kind are generally denoted by the term Experimental 
Embryology. Even in this time of storm and stress, it seemed 
to me to be not inappropriate if I were to endeavour in a 
necessarily brief sketch to take stock of the positive results 
which have been gained as the harvest of thirty years' work 
in this branch of zoology.' He does so. 

ANTHROPOLOGICAL SECTION. 

Dr. R. R. Marett, in his address to the Anthropological 
Section, dealt with Anthropology and University Education. 
He showed that in his section, also, knowledge could be put 
to good service in the interests of the nation. ' We have had 
some experience at Oxford in the anthropological training of 
officers for the public services. The Sudan Probationers, by 
arrangement M'ith the Governor-General of the Sudan, have 
received systematic instruction in Anthropology for a number 
of years. Again, members of the University and others 
serving or about to serve in Africa have more recently attended 
our classes in considerable numbers, and with the express 
sanction of the Colonial Office. If the Indian Probationers 
have so far had less to do with Anthropology, it is simply 
because the programme of studies which they are expected to 
carry out within the space of a year is already so vast. The 
following are some of the impressions I have formed as to 
the most suitable way of training students of this type. In 
the first place, each set of the officers destined for a particular 
province should be provided with a course in the ethnography 
of their special region. In the second place, all alike should be 
encouraged to attend some of the general courses provided by 
the School, if only in order that they may associate with the regu- 
lar students, and so gain insight into the scientific possibilities 
of the subject. Thirdly, such official students ought not to 
be subjected to any test-examinations in Anthropology at the 
end of their course, unless they elect on their own account to 
enter for the ordinary examinations of the School.' 

PHYSIOLOGICAL SECTION. 

Even in his address to the Physiological Section, Prof. A. 

1916 Oct. 1. 



312 Notes and Comisuuis. 

R. Cushny, in dealing with ' The Analysis of li\'ing matter 
through its reactions to poisons,' refers to the past neglect of 
his special branch of science. He states lie wishes to discuss 
an aspect of pharmacological investigation which has not been 
adequately recognised even by the pharmacologists themselves 
and which it is difficult to express in few words. ' In recent 
years, great advances have been made in the chemical examin- 
ation of the complex, substances which make up the living 
organism, and still greater harvests are promised from these 
analytic methods in the future. But our progress so far shows 
that while general principles niay be reached in this wav, the 
chemistry of the living organ, like the rainbow's end, ever 
seems as distant as before. And, indeed, it is apparent that 
the chemistry of eacli cell, while possessing general resemblances, 
must differ in detail as long as the cell is alive. No chemistry 
dealing in grammes, nor even microchemistry dealing in 
milligrammes, will help us here. We must devise a technique 
dealing with millionths to advance towards the living organism. 
Here I like to think that our work in ph.armacologv mav per- 
haps contribute its mite ; perhaps the actions of our drugs and 
poisons may be regarded as a sort of qualitative chemistry of 
living matter. For chemical investigation has ver}- often 
started from the observation of some qualitative reactions, 
and not infrequently a good m.any properties of a new substance 
have been determined long before it has been possible to 
isolate it completely and to cjm|:>lete its analysis.' 

BOTANICAL SFXTIOX. 

In his address to the Botanical Section, Dr. .\. B. Rendle 
pointed out that, in connection with the war, botanists have 
been able to render helpful serx'ice on lines more or less directly 
connected with their own science. Even in Botan\ , a greater 
need for proper scientific training is apparent. ' During the 
past \'ear, there lias been considerable actix'ity in the collecting 
of wild specimens of various species of meclicinal value, fre- 
quently, one tears, involving loss of time and waste of plants 
owing to want of botanical or technical knov/ledge and lack of 
organisation. In this connection, a ustful piece of botanical 
work has been recently carried out by Mr. \V. W. Smith, of 
Edinburgh, on the collection of sphagnum for the preparation 
of surgical dressings. The areas within the Edinburgh district 
have been mapped and classified so as to indicate their respective 
values in terms of yield of sphagnum. By the indication of the 
most suitable areas, the suitability depending on extent of area, 
density of growth, fieedom of admixture of grass or heather, 
as well as facility of transport and provision of labour, the 
report is of great economic value. The continuity of supply is 
an im]iortant question, and one which should be borne in mind 

Naturalist, 



Notes and Comments. 313 

by collectors of medicinal plants generally. And while it is 
not the most favourable time to voice the claims of protection 
of wild plants, one may express the hope that the collector's 
zeal will be accompanied by discretion.' 

EDUCATIOXAL SCIEN'CE SECTION. 

The Rev. W. Temple, in his address to the Educational 
Science Section, touches an interesting topic. He says. ' The 
present interest of Englishmen in education is partly due to 
the fact that they are impressed by Geiman thoroughness. 
Now let there be no mistake. The war has shown the eltective- 
ness of German education in certain departments of life, but 
it has shown not only its ineffectiveness but its grotesque 
absurdity in regard to other departments of life, and those 
the departments which are, even in a political sense, the most 
important. In the organisation of material resources, Germany 
has won well-merited admiration, but in regard to moral 
conduct, and with regard to all that art of dealing with other 
men and other nations which is closely ?Jlied to moral conduct, 
she has won for herself the horror of the civilized world. If 
yoii take the whole result, and ask whether we prefer German 
or English education, I, at any rate, should not hesitate in my 
reply. With all its faults, English education is a thing gener- 
ically superior to the German. It is to perfect our own, and 
not to nnitate theirs, that we must now exert ourselves.' 

AGRICULTURAL SECTION. 

Dr E. J. Russell, in his address to the Agricultural Section, 
demonstrates the necessity for a scientific training in agricul- 
tural matters. ' We are met this year under peculiar conditions 
such as may never recur in our history. We have had a 
demonstration, more striking than ever before, of the vital part 
that agriculture plays in the life of the community ; we have 
seen how in time of war, the supply of food might easily become 
the factor determining the issue, and it is already clear that in 
time of peace a vigorous rural civilisation is indispensable to 
the stability of the social structure of the nation. 1 am going 
to deal with the possibilities and the prospects of increased crop 
production, which, both in its narrow aspect as a source of 
national wealth, and its wider significance as the material 
basis of rural civilisation, must always remain one of the most 
important of human activities. We may take it as an axiom 
that the developments of the future will in the main grow out 
of those of the past. There are no breaks in the continuity 
of progress in agriculture ; the farmer's unit of time — the 
foui -or-five-year rotation — is too big to allow of sudden jumps 
and short cuts from one stage to another ; and so, if we want 
to fixud the most promising lines of progress for the future, we 
must first discover the lines along which progress has been 
made in the past.' 



314 Notes and Comment:^. 

GEOGRAPHICAL SECTION'. 

Still on the same theme, Mr. E. A. Reeves, in his presidential 
address, on ' The Mapping of the Earth, Past, Present and 
Future,' states : ' This is a great testing time — a crisis in our 
history when theories are put to practical trial, and I fear 
many of them will be weighed in the balances and found 
wanting. Scientific training is specially being tested, and 
almost every branch of human knowledge has, either 
directly or indirectly, been called upon to do its utmost in 
connection with the great War. This is no less true of sur- 
veying and geography generally. There has always been of 
necessity a close connection between military operations and 
map-making, and it is not too much to say that one of the 
essential conditions of successful w^arfare is a good and accurate 
knowledge of the geographical features of the theatre upon which 
the operations have to be carried out. Many a battle has been 
lost in the past, as we ourselves know to our cost, through 
imperfect topographical or geographical knowledge. The South 
African Campaign, without referring to any others, produces 
more than enough evidence of the serious results ensuing from 
imperfect maps ; and at the present time the general stafis 
of all combatants seem more than ever alive to the importance 
of this subject. 

WAR AND MAPS. 

There are various ways in which this War will affect the 
map-maker ; not only will new boundaries have to be surveyed 
and laid down ; but outside of Europe districts v.dll have to 
be mapped of which little information has hitherto existed, 
so that, after all is over, our present maps and atlases will be 
out-of-date, and the publisher will find himself called upon to 
produce new ones. 

It therefore appears to me that this is a suitable occasion 
for taking stock of our position, and I will endeavour to give 
you : 

(i) A brief general summary of what has been done in the 
past towards the mapping of the earth's suiface ; 

(?) a sketch of how things stand at the present tim.e ; and 

(3) finall}' add a few remarks upon future work, specially 
as regards instruments and methods.' He does. 

ECONOMIC SCIENCE. 

In this Section, the President, Prof. A. W . Kirkaldy, devotes 
his address to ' Some Thoughts on Reconstruction after the 
War,' and he also deals with the following questions in his 
address: — 'Attempted Forecast of our Industrial Future,' ' The 
Need for National Organisation,' ' Industrial Organisation.' 
He points out that when the British Association held its 

Naturalist, 



A'otes and Comments. 315 

meeting in Australia, in August IQ14, ' the war cloud had only 
just burst, and thus the distinguished economist who occupied 
the Presidential Chair of this Section could deal freely with 
the normal economic problems of old and young communities, 
disregarding the new and disastrous problems resulting from 
a great world war. ' Last year, however, my predecessor was 
compelled to take account of the ciitical events of the preceding 
twelve months. The war which so many presumably well- 
informed people expected to be over in less than a year is still 
v.'ith us, and the economic difficulties have increased in number 
and intensity. It is true that one of our statesmen has declared 
that the war may end sooner than some of us think — a not 
very hopeful utterance, but still I feel warranted from various 
signs in dealing in this address rather with the period of 
reconstruction after the war than with the existing situation, 
for, owing to kaleidoscopic changes, what is written as to 
present conditions in August will probably' be quite out of date 
by September, whilst the work of reconstruction may last for 
the best part of a century, and continue to affect the well-being 
of the community through<:)ui: succeeding history.' 

EXGIXEERIXG SECTION. 

The same tone is to be found in Mr. Gerald Stoney's address 
to the Engineering Section. He points out that ' At such times 
as these, the mind naturally turns to problems to be considered 
both at the present time and after the war, and in considering 
such problems a review of some of the errors committed in the 
past is most necessary. The general complaint is that Univer- 
sity and College men are too theoretical and not practical. It 
is the usual thing for a bad workman to blame his tools, and is 
it not because employers do not know how to make use of such 
labour that they ultilise it to such a small and imperfect extent ? 
Things are very different in some other countries with which 
we have competed in the past, and with which there will be 
in all probability still fiercer competition in the future. There 
we find the fullest use made of highly educated scientific labour. 

SCIENCE AND SALARIES. 

How many engineering firms in this district have a skilled 
chemist on their staff, and what percenta-ge of these pay him 
a decent salary ? And how many heads of firms have sufficient 
chemical knowledge to appreciate the work of and utilise the 
services of such a man because, unless there is appreciation of 
the work done by such a man his services are useless and he 
becomes discouraged, generally finding himself up against the 
blank stone wall of there being no appreciation of his services, 
and yet chemical problems are continually cropping up in 
engineering work. There is the question of the supply of 
materials ; as a rule, the manufacturer trusts to the name of 



3iO Notes and Comments. 

the contractor and assumes that he gets materials of the 
composition and purity he ordered. Ever}' now and then, 
something goes wrong, and the question arises, why ? Witliout 
a chemist to analyse the material, it is often most difficult to 
say. Apart from this question of the analysis of raw or partly 
manufactured materials received, there is the chronic question 
as to the mixtures of the metals in both the metal and brass 
foundry, and large economies can be effected by systematic 
analyses.' 

POPULAR SCIENXE LECTURES. 

The Conference of Delegates, at the request of the Council of 
the British Association, discussed the Report of the Committee 
on Popular Science Lectures. A valuable report, summarising 
ab;)ut 1,500 replies from various societies, has been drawn up 
by Prcf. R. A. Gregory, who was thanked for a useful piece 
of work. It was pointed out that 'At the meeting of the Council 
in June 1916, representations were made by the Organising 
Committee of Section L (Educational Science) that much less 
attention is given to popular lecturing now than was formerly 
the case ; and it was suggested that efforts should be made to 
promote increased public interest in science by means of such 
lectures. The Council, therefore, appointed a Committee 
representative of all the Sections of the Association to institute 
inquiries into this subject and prepare a Report upon it. Many 
local Scientific Societies, Universities, University Colleges, 
and similar institutions have organised popular science lectures ; 
and the Committe has endeavoured to secure the results of the 
experience obtained, with ihe object of discovering the elements 
of success or failure.' There is no doubt that the discussion 
which took place at the Conference of Delegates, where were 
many men with practical experience, will help the Com.mittee 
in its work. 

INTEREST IX POPULAR LECTURES. 

In reply to the question. Has public interest in popiilay 
science lectures increased or decreased in your district durini^ the 
past ten nr tifenty years ? the report says ; ' The analysis of 
replies to this question is inconclusive. Abouc one-third of 
the correspondents report that interest has increased, another 
third that it has decreased, and the remaining third that it 
has remained stationary or no decided change has been noticed. 
Museums mostlv report an increase of interest, and technical 
institutions a decrease. No general conclusion can be derived 
from the replies from scientific societies, in which so much 
depends upon the energy of the secretary and the constitiition 
■of the committee. For example, the Birmingham and Midland 
Institute Scientific Society reports an increase, while the 
Birmingham Natural History and Philosohpical Society records 
a decrease.' 

Naturalist, 



Notes and ('o)nmeuts. 317 

LECTURES IN THE FUTURE. 

The public science lectures of the present tin.es need not 
be of the same kind, or on the same subjects, as those of a 
past generation, but should be adapted to moie modern needs 
and interests. Above all the}' should be intended for the people 
as a whole, and not for students or others who propose to 
devote systematic attention to the subjects of the lectures or 
devote their careers to them. This distinction is not recognised 
in the subjoined remarks by Mr. C. F. Procter (Hon. Sec, 
Hull Scientific and Field Naturalists' Club), which represent 
the views of many scientific societies as to the present position, 
vet it is most important. 

A WAIL FROM HULL. 

Mr. Procter says ; ' Scientific lectures can only be made 
popular in the sense that you attract the crowd of unscientific 
people, with a profusion of experiments, or, failing that, 
lantern illustrations. People will flock to the Eg3''ptian Hall 
and are vastly entertained and educated a little by an ex- 
hibition of what is often clever scientific acrobatics. Human 
nature loves to see what it cannot rmderstand, and twenty 
years ago repiesents a period when the commonplaces of science 
were a wonderland to the average mind. The trend of 
education has altered that, and has sharply divided the same 
people into a minority of scientific enthusiasts who '' ask for 
more," and a majority of indifferents who remain cold at a- 
display of the old elementary stuff. Education (and that in- 
cludes very largely the popular science lectures of the past) 
has created in this, as in all arts, a small aristocracy of intellect, 
or rather, comparatively small. These are not satisfied 
with anything that cnn possibly be popular. They are long 
past that, but will feverishly attend anything which proposes 
further to explore the deep water. The crowd — the man in 
the street and his women-kind — has had its wonder-bump 
excised in the school laboratorj'. Modern sensationalism in 
amusement and the plethora of scrappy yet crisp literature 
(which religiously exploits every new thing, scientific or other- 
wise, that may entertain) has calloused this excision. Trie 
application of the film pictures to microscopy, etc., is about 
the only way to popularise science lectures, but — why bother ? 
We cannot all be men of science, and the present system 
provides that a.ny who get the call may answer it, whilst popular 
lectures onty attempt to entertain individuals of an age who are 
already past the slightest hope of ever being useful scientists. 
The proper thing is already being done by our schools, universi- 
ties, and University Extension lecturers witn our budding pro- 
fessors.' 

1916 Oct. 1. 



3i8 Notes and Comments. 

A sum:\iary. 

The following is a sunimary of the Committee's report : — 

(i) ^lany local societies arrange for the delivery of 
occasional popular or semi-popular science lectures, but the 
audiences are mostly made up of members and their friends. 

(2) In most places there is a small circle of people interested 
in scientific work and development, and sufficient means 
exist to enable them to extend their acquaintance with diverse 
branches of natural knowledge, but the gieat bulk of the com- 
munity is outside this circle and is untouched by its influence. 

(3) Popular lectures on scientific subjects do not usually 
attract such large audiences as formerly in most parts of the 
Kingdom. To make a wide appeal to the general public the 
same principles of organisation, advertisement, and selection 
of lecturer and subject must be followed, as are adopted by 
agents of other public performances. 

(4) Increase in the number of educational institutions has 
provided for the needs of most persons who wish to study 
science, either to gain knowledge or prepare for a career. 
Other people seek entertainment rather than mental effort 
in their leisure hours, and they require subjects of topical in- 
terest, or of social and political importance, to attract them 
to lectures. 

(5) Few popular lectures pay their expenses, and scarcely 
a single local society has a special fund upon which it can draw 
in order to meet the cost involved in the provision of a first-rate 
lecturer and adequate advertisement. 

(6) Expenses of public lectures are usually paid from 
{a) general funds of local societies ; [h) college or museum 
funds ; (c) rates ; {d) education grants ; or {e) Gilchrist and 
other trusts. 

(7) After the war there will be a new public for lectures 
and courses on a wide range of subjects ; but one of the main 
purposes of tlie lectures should be to show as many people 
as possible that they are personally concerned as citizens 
with the position of science in the State, in industry, and in 
education. 

PROF. G. A. LEBOUR's ADDRESS. 

In his presidential address to the Conference of Delegates, 
Prof. G. A. Lebour dealt with ' Co-operation.' He pointed 
out that all Field Clubs, at one period or another, probably 
' have been the means of encouraging and fixing the scientific 
bent of minds which without their help would have been lost 
to science. I refer specially to those many remarkable men 
who, without special training, often without any but the slightest 
elementary education, have done so much towards the advance- 
ment of Biology and Geology. Every district has produced 

Naturalist. 



Notes and Comments. 319 

excellent naturalists of this type, and in most cases their 
success has been greatly due to tlie opportunities given by local 
Field Clubs. . . Clubs like these gave the requisite assistance to 
young men of sagacity and intuition, and started them on a 
career of fruitful observation and discovery. I am anxious 
to claim the utmost credit in the past for Field Clubs in the 
performance of functions such as these. The question now 
arises : are these functions performed with equally good results 
at the present time ? I think that anyone who has had long 
and practical acquaintance with the working of such associations 
will, on consideration, answer this question in the negati^'e.' 

FIELD CLUBS. 

While there is, at the present time, a slight falling off in the 
attendances at the meetings and excursions of some of our 
Field Clubs, we hardly agree with Prof. Lebour in considering 
that they are not doing such good work at the present time. 
A variety of circumstances exist to cause an apparent lack of 
interest just now, but these will be removed. The encourage- 
ment and help given to young men is quite as great now, if 
not greater, than before ; only the young men are not there 
in such great numbers, for obvious reasons. But they will be, 
probably in greater numbers than ever later on. Young minds 
moulded at Field Club Meetings frequently result in the for- 
mation of eminent naturalists. No doubt, the greater propor- 
tion of the audience — among which were many prominent 
naturalists — listening to Prof. Lebour's address, received their 
first introduction to natural history at these meetings. 

COLLEGES AND FIELD CLUBS. 

Prof. Lebour goes on to say, ' A turning-point in the 
history of local societies, and more especially of those of the 
Field Club character, came some forty or fifty years ago. It 
coincided, I firmly believe, with the great increase in the 
number of subjects taught to the masses of the people and with 
the establishment of college after college and university after 
university in every part of the country. We are here concerned 
with the scientific results of the new order of things. One of 
these results was a marked — though some will think bv no 
means sufficiently marked — increase in the number of young 
men trained in the principles of science and practised in some 
branch of it. This was all to the good. A class of potential 
workers in science had come into being. At the same time, 
however, a still larger class had been turned into the world 
with what may not unjustly be termed a smatter of science. 

SMATTERERS. 

It need not be insisted on that the smatterers were not by 
any means always the less noisy, the less self-assertive, or the 
less pretentious of these two sets of men. It could scarcely be 

1916 Oct. 1. 



320 Notes and Comments. 

otherwise. What was the effect of this change on the provincial 
Field Clubs ? The newly created class of workers were soon 
busy at their professional labours — too busy for the most part 
to become active members of the clubs. The smatterers on 
the other hand either joined the clubs in a condescending 
manner or thought themselves too good for them. The 
influence of this on the clubs was a curious one. The old 
genuine Field Club naturalist was no smatterer. What he 
knew, he knew well, from personal observation and from hard 
private reading, carried on often at great saciifice, for the love 
of nature and knowledge. The new smatterers were not to 
his taste ; their long words and arrogance drove him to silence 
and spoilt for him the old feeling of club brotherhood and 
equality as leaners and seekers of the less academic days of the 
past. His modesty produced diffidence. Only the more 
sturdy and independent members resisted and went on as 
before. The others gradually dropped off. The character of 
the club had sensibly changed.' 

To some extent, we must agree here. There is no question 
that the existence of a University College in a town, members 
of which, quite properly, join the Field Club, alters the nature 
of the meetings. The amateur does not care to ask what may 
be looked upon by the professional scientist as simple or silly 
questions. In a way, this may be a disadvantage, but such 
disadvantage should surely be more than counterbalanced 
by the superior methods advocated b}' the trained scientist. 
The members specialise more — which is an advantage — the 
' all-round ' naturalist, as a result of the growth of knowledge 
in all branches, becomes more and more a rarity. Year by 
year, such a man more resembles a miracle. Still, those who 
do not wish to take advantage of this special knowledge, can 
do what actually has been done in one Yorkshire town, viz., 
form another society and keep it among themselves ! 

ORIGINAL OBSERVATIONS. 

Prof. Lebour goes on to say, ' Again, in the course of years 
all the flowers, beetles, butterflies, birds and beasts of a limited 
tract of country have practically been gathered. The Hsts 
of all the la.rger objects are complete or nearty so. Only on 
the luckiest occasion, can even a new variety be found. Hence 
the purposes which actuated the eager searchers of the past 
are much diminished in force. Only microscopic organisms 
are left to be sought for. These hitherto unpopular creatures 
represent almost the only remaining quarry.' On this point 
we can hardly agree with the President ! There are hundreds 
of forms of life, by no means microscopic, which want investi- 
gation. It is not so long ago that a volume dealing with the 
Diptera of Northumberland and Durham, was issued by the 

Naturalist, 



A'otes and Comments. 321 

late W. J. Wingate. It must have contained hundreds of 
additions to the fauna of the area. Other ' neglected orders ' 
would prove similarly beneficial ; in fact, during the Newcastle 
meeting, a well-known worker showed us a note-book containing 
quite a large list of additions to the fauna of the Newcastle 
district, and the species were not microscopic. Encouragement 
should be given to young people to study the usually neglected 
forms of animals and plants. As will be seen from The 
Naturalist in recent years, good will result. 

COMPLniEXTARY T(^ YORKSHIRE. 

Prof. Lebour proceeds : — ' I have now enumerated and 
briefly commented on some of the chief factors which, in the 
past half-century or so have, as it seems to me, been active in 
the evolution of the Field Club type of scientific societ}'. The 
Field Clubs are no longer quite what they were. In some 
respects they have improved, in others, they have deteriorated. 
On the whole, they are perhaps more scientific than they used 
to be. I think they produce rather less original work properly 
so called. They perhaps contain more well-known scientific 
names in their lists of members, but a smaller number of their 
members remind one of the enthusiastic, self-taught, coadjutant 
crowds of the past. They are less popular in the best sense 
of that word. Evolution, here as elsewhere, has been of two 
kinds — both progressive and retrogressive. If it be admitted 
that I am in any way right in the views I have endeavoured to 
lay before vou, we may now proceed to consider whether some 
means can be found by which to make the most of the progress 
and to check or remedy the decadence which has set in. It 
is pleasing to note thait already methods have been adopted 
by several of our societies admirably calculated to do good in 
the right directions. I wish to avoid invidious distinctions, 
but, as an instance, the system of fruitful and promising 
co-operation amongst local societies in Yorksnire, so capably 
conducted by our indefatigable Vice-President, Mr. Sheppard, 
may be referred to without fear of criticism. In some form of 
Co-operation I believe the remedy to besought for lies.' Prof. 
Lebour concluded by showing ways in which Field Clubs can 
accomplish valuable scientific work, these being on the lines 
of the Committees of the Yorkshire Naturalists' Union. 

THE FISH SUPPLY. 

Professor W. A. Herdman, in a paper on the exploitation of 
Britisli inshore fisheries, urged the cultivation of these sources 
of food supply, particularly at the present moment, when so 
many areas for deep sea fishing were closed owing to the exigencies 
of the War. Very profitable industries might be established 
around the coast, giving employment to the fishermen, and 
adding to the food supply of the country. As an example of 

1916 Oct. 1, 

X 



322 Notes and CoiiDiicnts. 

the good results obtained, he quoted the local sprat fishery 
established by local public spirit, ingenuity, and enterprise at 
Morecambe. During the height of the fishery fully seventy 
tons per day were landed in the winter. A ton of sprats averaged 
130,000, so that close on nine million sprats were captured 
per diem, and this went on day by day without any diminution 
of the fish. In his view, it would probably be just as important 
for some time after the war to prevent many from leaving this 
country, and for other reasons, such as the employment of men 
and the production of food, it was obviously desirable that home 
production should be organised and stimulated. The Chairman 
said that Professor Herdman's illustrations of what had been 
accomplished at Morecambe and the Isle of Man were samples 
of what he had urged upon the Government to do generally, 
and what could be done on a much larger scale if the Treasury 
could only be persuaded to disgorge at a more generous rate 
for the home production of food supply. 

DEPOPULATION OF THE FISHING VILLAGES. 

An interesting survey of the coastal fisheries of Northumber- 
land, embodying the results of his investigations during the last 
twenty years, was given by Professor A. Meek. He said it was 
a matter of considerable gratification that the regulations had 
given not merely satisfaction to the authorities who had to en- 
force them, but to the fishermen themselves. The only reason- 
able objection that the inshore fishermen had to their more 
successful deep-sea rivals was with regard to the white fishing.. 
P)Ut the longshore fishermen all told grave stories about che 
destruction of fish by the trawlers, the killing of young fish, 
and destroying the fishing grounds. When they came to inquire 
carefully into the question, they found the main cause of com- 
plaint was that the deep sea fisherman was really a successful 
conipetitor in the market. The war conditions had, however, 
given the inshore fisherman a chance with white fish. He felt, 
however, that in normal times it would pay the inshore fishermen 
to take a large share in the white fishing. The solution ot the 
problems of the inshore fishermen lay deeper than this. They 
must not only preserve and extend their inshore fisheries, but 
must do something to encourage the longshoremen to remain 
in the villages. There was a marked tendency to the depletion 
of their seaside villages. It was deplorable, and unless we took 
step^ to arrest it there would be wdde areas along the coast 
destitute of these interesting and important villages in the near 
future.' 

THE CHARACTERISTICS OF COAL. 

A joint session of the Chemistry and Geology vSections was 
held to consider the investigation of the chemical and geological 
characters of different varieties of coal, with a view to their 

Naturalist, 



Notes and Comments. 323 

most effective utilisation as fuel, and to the extraction C)f;by- 
products. In the course of the discussion, Professor Kendall, 
of the University of Leeds, said that as a geologist he drew a 
distinction between coal and coal seams. He deprecated the 
method of the chemist in taking samples for analysis. The 
chemise simply contented himself by taking a portion and 
assuming it was a fair sample of the bulk. That, in his view, 
was not sufficient, because coal, even in the same seam, varied 
from top to bottom. Broadly speaking they found coal in two 
varieties — in bright lustrous layers and in dull charcoal layers. 
These layers were probably of different botanical constituents 
but it was not so much a difference in plants perhaps as the 
fact that the plants were probably submitted to different 
processes in the course of their accumulation. Chemical analysis 
of these two types of coal had produced very different results. 

BRIGHT AND DULL COAL. 

It was assumed that the bright layers consisted of the bark 
of trees, and that the dull layers were composed of twigs, smaller 
branches, leaves, and so on. When examined chemically it 
was very material. Ash was an important factor in connection 
with the investigation of coal values. He particularly em- 
phasised this, as insufficient discrimination had been paid 
to the method of sampling. He quoted a number of analytical 
results which had been obtained by his friends, from which he 
found that the brighter layers of coal gave a very low per- 
centage of ash, and the dull a much higher percentage. The 
question then arose as to the composition of the ash. Professor 
Kendall referred to the experiments conducted by Dr. Garrett 
and Mr. Burton in connection with the origin of this extraneous 
matter, as to whether it was introduced by percolation. He 
urged the need of correlation between chemist and geologist 
in arriving at the true nature of coal. These investigations 
should be carried through a particular seam. 

THE HANDBOOK. 

' The Official Handbook to Newcastle and District ' was 
well written and well illustrated, being prepared under the 
editorship of Messrs. G. B. Richardson and W. W. Tomlinson. 
It contains 190 pages. We regret, however, that the authorities 
did not consider it worthy of a more permanent cover than one 
of flimsy paper. The Naturalist, also, was very disappointed 
to find not a single paper on the geology, botany or zoology 
•of the area. This seems all the more remarkable when it is 
remembered that the District is well represented in workers 
in various branches of natural science. The omission seems all 
the more unaccountable, for we read in the Preface, ' in 
the articles describing industries the latest developments have 
necessarily been suppressed.' 

1916 Oct. 1. 



324 

ORNITHOLOGICAL OBSERVATIONS AND 
REFLECTIONS IN SHETLAND.* 



EDMUND SELOL'S. 



The Common Cormorant, though greatly outnumbered by the 
Shag, here, is still a Shetland bird. I saw some six or seven 
of ihem together a few days ago, and to-day I located another 
small colony in a bay on the north-eastern coast-line. They 
were assembled on some low rocks, which some of them would 
leave, from time to time, to disport themselves in the bay. 
Here they came into shallow water near the beach, diving all 
the while at more or less frequent intervals. Presumably 
they were fishing, yet they never had anything in their bills 
on coming up. One of them swam about amongst the long 
brown seaweed exposed by the tide as it sank, and it certainly 
seemed to me to be seizing hold of it, as the Eider Duck had 
done, but as the distance was greater in this case, I could not 
make so sure of it through the glasses. But the other day at 
a projecting point, which, according to the state of the tide, 
is either a peninsula or an island, I surprised one of these 
birds amongst a quantity of such seaweed and right in shore. 
Unfortunately it saw me and at once made out into the clear 
sea, but it would hardly have been where it was except for 
sortie purpose connected with the seaweed and so thick was 
this, and so shallow the water, which was quite filled up with 
it, that fish could hardly have swum there. It seems probable, 
therefore, that the Common Cormorant (which would prob- 
ably mean the Shag also), as well as the Eider Duck, feeds to 
a certain extent either on this common brown seaweed itself 
or on something that it finds there which is not a true fish. 

Both the Shag and the Common Cormorant are affectionate 
birds, but of the two I am inchned to think the latter the more 
so, since, though here it is much the less common of the two 
and it being now not the love season, yet it has, notwith- 
standing, contrived to bring more evidence of this under my 
notice. In the Shag, for instance, the conjugal tie seems now 
more or less in abeyance, but these Cormorants still swim in 
pairs and by sometimes coming very close indeed to one 
another, as also by diving and often emerging about the same 
time and not widely separated, and in other less definable yet 
unmistakeable ways, show that they are mutually happy in 
each others society. There is certainly spousal attachm.ent, 
and this may be exhibited in a way that seems almost playful, 
as near at any rate to that complex form of mentality as I 
have seen a bird get or look as if it had got, for I once saw one 

* Made in 191 1. 

Natnralist 



Ornithological Observations and Reflections in Shetland. 325 

•of a pair fly from the rocks to its mate in the water and come 
•down almost, if not quite, upon it. It would have been quite 
if the other had not dived, . and this, too, was done with a 
certain exuberance suggestive of a froUcsome spirit, the two 
birds seeming to be thoroughly pleased with one another. It 
is out of order, so far as I have seen, for a bird to join its mate 
in this fashion, and it struck me that there was a sufficient 
mutual consciousness of this to give something of a racy 
flavour to the performance. I admit, however, that in such 
a matter one may be widely mistaken, also I think that birds 
are often credited with a playful spirit when this cannot 
properly be said to obtain ; indeed, there is more crediting, I 
think, with birds than with any other class of animal. Still I 
maintain that there 'was a certain something and will leave it 

at that. 

As befits its size, the Cormorant is less active and quick 
•both in air and water than the Shag, its dive lacks the energy, 
its flight the lightness— at least the comparative lightness, of 
the latter, but en revanche and equally in accordance with these 
physical diflerences, there seems to be something larger and 
more majestical in the bird's spiritual natiire. A Shag may 
be more pushing and elbowing, it may advertise itself more, 
show more aplomb, and, possibly for these reasons, get on better 
than its larger relative, which here, in the Shetlands, at 
any rate, it seems in a fair way of supplanting ; but it cannot 
assume (much less feel) a look of such quiet importance. In 
the higher meaning of the word it may be said — always speak- 
ing comparatively — to lack deportment, and when it comes to 
calmness it surrenders without a struggle. Also, though 
superior in agility, it can hardly be said to show^ more grace 
in swimming, that which distinguishes it from the Cormorant, 
here, being more like mere glibness of tongue as against ' that 
large utterance' of the latter. As an aerial artist, however, 
the Shag, I think, stands higher, and the general opinion 
would probably be that he is the handsomer bird of the two, 
though as has been said, or implied, less imposing. With 
this let the matter rest. Between two such birds it would be 
rash to give anything hke a final judgment. Better (and 
safer) to admit the merits of both and let admiration halt 
between -he two. In medio tutissimum ibis. 

The caves along the coast, here, which Rock Doves may be 
seen entering or issuing from at any hour of the day, are not 
to be looked upon merely as resting places for these birds, 
but rather as homes, both\o gather and take shelter in. They 
are, indeed, the natural dove-cote of which the manufactured 
one is the lineal descendant, as much as its tenants are those 
of the wild stock. Unfortunately,, none of these caverns — 
none that I have seen, that is to say— are penetrable to their 

1916 Oct. 1. 



326 Ornithological Observations and Reflections in Shetland. 

ends, even at low water, and most of them cannot be entered 
at all, except by boat. I got as far as what seemed about 
three quarters of the length of one, but I heard no sound of 
the birds, nor could I see any place where they might be 
supposed to congregate. Yet it was that very one called par 
excellence the ' doo's hellir ' or cave — that, it would appear, 
being the old Norse word which, thus, at least, as a particular 
designation, has been handed down all these years. That the 
doo's habits in these secret habitations cannot be studied and 
compared which those of the dove-cot Pigeon, their semi- 
domestic representative, is a very great pity. 

On looking, yesterday, at the sands at quite low tide, 
where the two Great Black-backed Gulls, young and old, 
had been feeding, I found it studded all over with the holes of 
Sand Worms. Afterwards, walking on the grass at a low 
altitude above the shores of the voe, where similar sands, 
bored in the same way, were covered by the tide to tlie depth 
of perhaps a foot, I found these shallow ringed holes even 
more strikingly visible than when the sands were bare. Here 
then is the explanation of the actions of these two birds. 

October i2TH. — Great assemblage of Kittiwakes, at 
further end of the loch, beyond the beach of the voe, for bathing 
purposes. Over fort\7 when I counted them, but it has been 
fuller, I think. They bathe in the shallow water along a low 
bank of turf, and as they finish, come out and stand on this, 
so that there are two parties, those bathing and those standing 
quietly preening themselves, the latter growing gradually 
more and more till they include all except a few who stand 
and preen in the water. They bathe very prettily, with much 
flapping of wings and ruffling of feathers. A Whimbrel, 
however, who joins the party, out-bathes them all. He gives 
the water still noisier blows with his wings, and sends a con- 
tinuous shower of drops all over himself, which has a very 
prett\- effect, and must have still more should it happen to be 
sunny. 

(To be continued). 



The Annotationes ZoologiccB Japoiienses, Volume 9, part 2, contains the 
following items, among manv others : — ' Notes on Oegopsid Cephalopods 
found in Japan' by Madoka Sasaki ; ' Some new Scale Insects of Japan,' 
by S. I. Kuwana ; ' Preliminary Descriptions of some Japanese Triclad.s ' 
b}- I. Ijima and Tokio Kaburaki. 

Hull Museum Publications, Nos. loS and 109, have been issued. The 
former is the 54th Quarterly Record of additions, and has illustrated 
articles on a Sedan chair. The Lister Overmantel, A fifth century bronze 
buckle from Lincolnshire, Early Mining Implements, and an East Riding 
Muster Roll, 1625. The latter is an account of ' iMedais, Tokens, etc., 
Issued in connection with William Wilberforce and the .Abolition of 
Slavery.' Each is sold at one penny and is by Mr. T. Sheppard, M.Sc. 

Naturalist, 



3^7 

YORKSHIRE NATURALISTS AT WENTBRIDGE. 

The abolition of the August Bank holiday resulted in the 
Union's meeting fixed for Wentbridge being curtailed to 
Saturday, August 5th, only. It was in some respects unfor- 
tunate that this was necessarj', inasmuch as the district planned 
for investigation was the most picturesque portion of the Vale 
through which flows the Went, one of the little known rivers 
of Yorkshire. The inaccessibility of the chosen area was not, 
however, detrimental to the attendance, which was excellent, 
more than half the affiliated Societies being represented, as 
well as most of the Sections. The President of the Union, 
Mr. W. N. Cheesman, J. P., was in attendance. 

Shortly before noon, all assembled at headquarters, and 
under the guidance of ]Mr. C. A. Cheetham, the time at disposal 
was spent along the right bank of the river to Kirk Smeaton, 
where the celebrated ' Crags ' were duly admired, returning 
along the left bank, to the old quarries, finishing in Broc-o'-dale 
Woods, a route which had many charming attractions. 

The sectional reports presented at the close of the excursion 
were interesting, and at their conclusion, an expression of 
thanks was given to Mr. H. J. H. Barton and Lady Rosse for 
permission to visit their estates, and also to Mr. Cheetham 
for making the local arrangements. — W.E.L.W. 

Vertebrate Zoology. — Dr. H. H. Corbett writes : — A 
better inland district for the Vertebrate Section could hardly 
be found than Wentbridge. Woods, crags, copses, upland 
pastures, low lying water meads with dense growth of rank 
herbage, and reed-fringed stream side, supplied abundant 
breeding sites for birds and mammals. But August is perhaps 
the worst time of the year for observing the former, and the 
thick cover rendered the latter practically invisible. It was 
pleasing to find Magpies and Jays fairly abimdant. Whinchats 
also were very numerous. The Willow Warbler had just begun 
their second singing season which always occurs before 
the autumnal migration, and a few Whitethroats were to be 
heard ' churring.' All three hirundines were in numbers, but 
Swifts were notable absentees. The most interesting finds 
of the day were among the reptiles, an example of the Common 
Lizard being captured, and one of the Slow Worm being seen. 
It was not ' slow ' enough, however, to be caught ! 

CoNCHOLOGY. — ^]\Ir. Greevz Fysher reports : — The weather 
being hot and dry, there were few terrestrial mollusca astir. 
Mr. J. Digby Firth reported seeing Helix aspersa, H . nemoyalis, 
H . rufescens, Arion ater and Agriolimax agresfis. The follow- 
ing species from specimens secured under plants on the limestone 
rocks, have been identified by Mr. John W. Taylor, viz : — ■ 
Clausilia laminata, CI. bidentata, Buliminus obsciirits, Helix 
hispid a and its var : hispid osa, and Pyramid ula rotund at a. 

1916 Oct. 1. 



328 Yorkshire Naturalists at Wcntbridgc 

Dredging in the River Went yielded Paludestrina jenkinsi in 
abundance, Sphcerum corneum, and Valvata piscinalis. Dr. 
Corbett reported having found Planorhis spirorhis and Physa 
hypnorum at Kirk Smeaton. 

Lepidoptera. — Mr. B. Morley reports that ten species of 
butterflies, and a number of moths, were observed, but the 
onl}' species worthy of note were Pararge cegeria and Cucullia 
vcrhasci. 

Flowerinc; Plants. — Mr. W. H. Burrell writes : — The 
necessity of approaching Wentbridge by road, across the 
junction of the Coal Measures and Magnesian Limestone, 
contributed to the interest of the meeting by bringing into 
prominence, early in the day, certain elements in the flora 
common to one soil but more or less rare or absent from the 
other. Meadow Cranesbill made a great show at Thorpe 
Audlin, but during a twenty mile cycle ride from Leeds, via 
Wakefield and Ackworth Moor Top, it was not noticed until 
the Doncaster-Pontefract road had been crossed. 

Brachypodium pinnatmn and Bromiis erediis, two grasses 
rarely seen off the Permian tract, were in abundance, and 
together with Rock-rose, Lady's fingers, Dropwort [Spircea 
fdipendula), Potentilla verna, Squinancywort {Aspentla cynan- 
chica), Small Scabious [Scahiosa Columbaria), Blue Flea-bane 
{Erigeron acre), Ploughman's Spikenard {Inula squarrosa), 
Greater Centaurea (C Scabiosa), a white flowered form was 
seen; Clustered Bellflower {Campanula glomerata), Hound's 
Tongue ( Cynoglossum officinale) and Gromwell ( Lithospermum 
officinale), were recognised as indicators of limestone soil. 
Other plants seen during the day, more or less common on dry 
soils and not confined to limestone were : — Field i\Iouse-ear 
{Cerastium arvense), Mountain St. Jofin's W^ort {Hypericum 
montanum), Bird's-foot {Ornithopus perpusillus), Rcse-bay 
{Epilobium angustifolium), Teasel {Dipsacus sylvestris), Yellow- 
wort {Blackstonia perfoliata), Centaury {Centaurium nmbellatmn). 
Great Mullein ( V erbascum Thapsns), Black Horehound {Ballota 
nigra), Wild Basil {Clinopodimnvulgare) and Hemlock (Conzwrn 
maculaimn). In or near the river were Great Watercress 
( Radicula amphibia), Water Starwort {Stellaria aquatica). Yellow 
Waterlily ( Nymphcea liitea) Arrowhead {Sagiiiaria sagittifolia) 
and Reed Poa (Glyceria aquatica). 

A useful reminder that living organisms have a measure of 
adaptability, and will not alwa3^s restrict themselves to the 
type of habitat in which they are usually found, was afforded 
by a tall plant of Figwort {Scrophularia aquatica) growing on a 
dry scree in a quarry. A parallel case of a plant of Brooklime 
( \'eronica Bcccabunga), of gigantic proportions, ha\'ing been 
found on a dry roadside heap was cited, but no satisfactory 

, Naturalist, 



Yorkshire Naturalists nt Wentbridgc. 329 

•explanation of such a departure from normal conditions was 
available. 

Dr. Corbett recorded having noticed Dipsacns pilosiis and 
Festitca rigida. 

Bryology. — Mr. C. A. Cheetham reports: — The rocks on 
the south side of the stream were found to be excellent for 
mosses ; possibly further work on them would be repaid by 
the discovery of other species. The chief additions to Mr. W. 
Ingham's comprehensive lists on the circular relating to the 
-excursion, are Weisia tenuis in qiiantity and well grown, 
Plagiothecium depressnm and Eurhynchiiim tenellnm. 

Mycology. — Mr. W. N. Cheesman writes : — ^Miss C. A. 
Cooper, Mr. A. R. Sanderson and the writer represented the 
]\Iycological Section. ' Too dry,' said or thought all as they 
walked the hot dusty road from Pontefract to Wentbridge, but 
here compensation came in the sight of a charming well wooded 
■gorge cut through the Magnesium Limestone ridge by the 
small River Went and locally called Broc-o'-dale — Badgers' 
Dale or Broken Dale. 

Eighteen species of Mycetozoa were found, the most notable 
ones being Trichia contorta and Cribraria aurantiaca. Tlie 
latter was in the sap-green plasmodium stage and matured out 
before reaching home. This species is the only known one 
w'ith green plasmodium. It is curious that some of these 
organisms will remain for weeks or months in the plasmodium 
condition and then suddenly complete, their life cycle in a few 
hours. The following Mycetozoa were gathered :- — 

Phvsantm nutans. Reticularia lycoperdou. 

vivide. Trichia contorta. 
Fiiliao septica. ,, Botrytis. 

Craterium minutum. " H emitrichia clavata. 

Didymium dif forme. Arcyria cinerea. '. : ' 

Stenmnitis fiisca. „ denudata. 

Coinatricha nigra. „ nutans. 

Cribraria aurantiaca. PerichcBna cotticalis. 

Tuhifera ferriiginosa. Lycogala epidendrum. 

Fungi were not much in evidence, but the woods gave great 
promise for a later visit. The fungi observed were : — • 

Amanita ruhesccns... Boletus laricinus. 
Armillaria mellea. (Old mycelium. Polyporus squamosus. 
Collybia dryophila. only). Polystictus abietinus. 

Pluteus cervinus. Fomes annosus. 

Galera tenera. Poria '-aporaria. 

Stropharia ceruginosa., DcPdalea quercina. 

Hypholoma fasciculnre. ■ 

Coprinus plicatilis. Covticium sanguiueuni. 

Marasmius oreades. Peniphora pubera. . (See Xatuvalist 
rotula. 1911, p. 169). 

Lentinus cochlentus. ■ 

Ixhyti'ima acerinum. 

Boletus flavus. Xylaria hypo:<:yl"n. , 

igijgocf 1. 



330 FIELD NOTES. 

REPTIUA. 
The Natterjack in Cumberland. — On August i6th, I 
found a line specimen of this interesting species [Bufo calamita) 
at Allonby in this county. I am not sure whether it has 
hitherto been recorded for Cumberland ; it is rarety found on 
our western seaboard. — Rev. W. W. Masox, Melmerby. 

ARACHNIDA. 
Foreign Spider at iiuddersfield. — A few days ago, a 
large spider was given me by ]\Ir. Edgar France, Fruiterer, 
Primrose Hill, who had found it crawling about his shop. I 
submitted it to Mr. W. Falconer, who reports : — ' The spider 
is an exotic, probably brought over in a consignment of bananas 
or oranges, etc. It is a native of the Mediterranean region and 
has also been found in the Canaries, etc. Its name is Zoropsis- 
riifipes Lucas. — Charles Mosley, Lockwood. 

FLOWERING PLANTS. 
Plants of Commondale, N. E. Yorkshire. — During a 
recent visit to Commondale one of our party found Hypericum 
elodes high up in the sphagnum bogs on the bank of the little 
valley which yields the clay for the Commondale Pottery. It 
was associated with Anagallis tenella, Pinguiciila vulgaris and 
Droscra rotundifolia. This Hypericum has only been found 
once before in the Esk district in bogs high up in Sleddale 
where it was discovered by the late Mr. William Mudd, Curator 
of the Botanic Garden at Cambridge. In the lane between 
the railway station and ' Oak Grove ' I' gathered a Bramble 
which the Rev. W. M. Rogers regards as a hybrid between 
Ruhus rusticaniis and R. leucosiachys. The other brambles are 
Rubus rhnmnifolius and 7^. dasyphylliis Rogers. — J. G. Baker. 

COLEOPTERA. 
Telephorus darwinianus Sharp, in Cumberland. — I 

have met with this species in some numbers on the salt mariphes 
both north and south of the mouth of the river Eden. It 
occurs on the long grass near the tide-way, or along the edges 
of the creeks, from mid-May to July. In Mr. W. E. Sharp's 
' Coleoptera of Lancashire and Cheshire,' p. 54, he reports it 
from Southport and Birkdale, adding, ' This, up to the present,, 
appears to be the only English record.' This was in IQ08.. 
It was recorded from Cumberland so long ago as i8gg {Ent.. 
Rec, 1899, p. 105). It is also included in the list of Cumberland 
Coleoptera in the ' Victoria ' History of the County, published 
in 1900. In the Eni. Mon. Mag., 1909, pp. 214-15, Mr. E. A. 
Waterhouse has a note of seven specimens taken on the R. 
Medway in 1857, about nine 3''ears before its publication as a 
distinct species ; also taken at Sheppey by Mr. J. J. Walker.. 
My friend, Mr. F. H. Day, tells me he has also taken it in 
Cumberland, on the Skinburness, Newton, Cardurnock and 
Calvo Marshes. — J as Murray, Carlisle, July 25th, 1916. 

Natuialist, 



REVIEWS AND BOOK NOTICES. 

With commendahU' promptitude, Part j. of A Bibliography of British 
Ornithology, by W. H. Mullens and H. K. Swann has appeared (Macmillan 
cV Co., ()s. net). It occupies pages 113 to 240 and includes such well- 
known names as Cordeaux, Coward, Darwin, Doubleday, Dresser, Fortune 
(who, by the way, is a native of Hull), Fothergill, Frohawk, Gould. 

Rambles in the Vaudese Alps, by F. S. Salisbury. London : J. M. 
Dent c^c Sons, 134 pages, 2s. ()d. net. This volume is a record of a holiday 
spent at Gryon, \'aud, in igoii, and is written to interest those who admire 
Alpine iiowers and scenery. The value of the book is increased by illus- 
trations from photographs of Alpine plants, by Somerville Hastings. 

The Text Book of Geology, by L. V. Pirsson, London, Chapman and 
Hall, 444 pp., los. (k1. net. In this volume the Professor of Physical 
Geologv, Yale I'niversity, gives an extraordinarily clear and well illustrated 
account of the various effects upon the earth of Rain, Hail, Snow, Heat, etc. 
Aided by a miscellaneous series of examples abounding on the American 
Continent the Author has been able to show the effects of various denuding 
agents, probably far better than he could had he been limited to other areas, 
though at the same time we observe that occasional European features are 
illustrated. Whether showing the formation of canyons, deltas, islands, 
hot springs, earthquakes, fractures, or other innumerable geological 
phcnemona, remarkable instances are given and described. An excellent 
coloured geological map of North America accompanies the volume. 

The Place-Names of Durham, by Rev. C. E. Jackson. London : George 
Allen iV- Lnvvin, Ltd., 113 pages, 3s. net. There is much of scientific 
interest in the origin of Place-Xames, and in this connection considerable 
advance has recently been made in their proper study. Durham and 
other eastern counties have Place Names which have a distinct bearing 
upon the Natural Hostory or Physical Features of the district. The 
perusal of Mr. Jackson's ideas of the origin of many of the Durham Place- 
Names is of value, and now and again many old ideas have apparently 
to go to the wall. For instance, our ornithological friends will be sorry 
to be definitely informed that Egglescliff is neither Eagle's Cliff' nor Eggs' 
Cliff, nor has Eggleston any ornithological significance. On the other 
liand, Roker and Rook Hope are said to have some connection with the 
Ffook. 

Bibliography of British Ornithology, by W. H. Mullens and H. K. Swann, 
Macmillan A' Co., London, part i, 112 pp., 6s. net. This useful work 
contains particulars of publications from the earliest times to the end of 
1912, including biographical accounts of the principal writers en birds 
and bibliographies of their published works. The work is to be completed 
in six bi-monthly parts, and there is no doubt that in its complete form 
it will be of incalculable assistance to Zoologists. The present section 
begins with .Adams (not ' Adam ' though surely he ought to be classed as 
an earlv ornithologist and a namer of new species), to Buxton. I^seful in- 
formation is given relating to the different writers, though under George 
Bolam (p. 78) we find no reference to that writer's excellent report on the 
Birds of Hornsea Mere, vet less important items are quoted. Many 
Yorkshire Naturalists, present and past, are referred to in the pages. 

The Geology of the Lake District, and the Scenery as influenced by 
Cieological Structure, by Professor J. E. Marr. Cambridge University 
Press, 220 pp., i2s. net. Few people are able to speak with the authority 
that an acquaintance with a district warrants as does Professor iMarr, 
who knows every nook and corner of ' One of nature's laboratories,' the 
Lake District. Professor Marr considers Jonathan Otley, the Keswick 
Guide, as the ' father of the Lakeland Geology,' and his portrait appears 
as frontispiece to the volume. By the aid of numerous sections, maps, 
diagrams, and reproductions of photographs, Dr. Marr describes the 

1916 Oct. 1. 



332 Reviews and Book Notices 

Palaeozoic series, the instrusive igneous rocks, the Carboniferous Series, 
Post-Carboniferous Changes, the Crlacial J^eriod, and the Post-Glacial 
Changes. There is no doubt that this book will b? the guide to the geology 
of the district for some time to come. In a pocket at the end is a large 
coloured geological map b}' H. H. Thomas. There is an excellent index. 
The price seems rather high, but we suppose it's due to this sanguinary 
war. 

Wild Flowers of the North -American Mountains, by Julia W. Henshaw. 

Pp. xvii. and 383, los. Od. net. McBride, Nast &: Co., 1916. Mrs. 
Henshaw has written this book in the true spirit of the flow^er lover, and 
the region from which she selects her treasures is well adapted to arouse 
one's enthusiasm. The book is written for the traveller and general reader, 
but for the benefit of the botanist there is a general kev to the families. 
For the convenience of the non-botanical reader the species described in 
the body of the work are classified according to colour. In each genus 
<lealt with, one species is usually selected as a type and its character 
described, and the features of the remaining species referred to in popular 
language. English names are added, some of our familiar names being 
applied to very different American species. Occasionallv, as in her 
description of the flower of Parii.assia, she .goes astray, but on the whole 
the book is very readable, well printed and illustrated with 17 coloured 
and 64 uncoloured plates, most of which are beautifully reproduced. 

Plants in Health and Disease, being an Abstract of a Course of Lectures 
delivered m the University of Manchester during the Session, 1915-16. 
University Press, and Tongmans, Green & Co., 1916, viii.+ i.j3 pp. 8vo. 
Price IS. 6d. In order to assist the gardeners and cultivators in the 
Manchester district to increase the productiveness of their holdings during 
the present crisis, a series of lectures was arranged and undertaken by 
the botanical and entomological staff of the Manchester University. 
Such was the success of this very laudable attempt to bring the acquired 
store of expert knowledge possessed by a great university down to the 
level of scientifically untrained minds, that it was decided to issue to each 
member of the various audiences a more permanent record in the form 
of short eight-page summaries. The present volume consists of a complete 
set of these. Lectures i to 7 deal with plants in health, i.e., the general 
physiology of plant life, nutrition, ve.getative and sexual reproduction, 
hybridity, etc. This series was undertaken by F. E. Weiss, D.Sc, 
Harrison Professor of Botany. The remaining lectures treat mainly upon 
plants in disease. In lectures 8 to 12, Wilfrid Robinson, M.Sc, Lectuter 
in Economic Botany, describes the chief fungal diseases of plants, their 
life histories and methods of prevention, and includes the results of recent 
research work on some of the chief pests. The remaining of the seventeen 
lectures are concerned with injurious and beneficial animals, and were 
prepared by A. D. Imms, M.A., D.Sc, Reader in Agricultural Entomology. 
The w^ork has certainly interest and value for a wider area than that for 
which it was specially produced, especially as it is well printed, arranged 
and indexed. It is, however, rather a pity that at least some of the 
diagrams, whereby the lectures were originally illustrated, could not have 
bacn reproduced. 

Lincolnshire. By J. C. Cox, LL.D. (Methuen's Little Guides Series, pp. 
35.1, loii), 2/6). One is scrrv to have to animadvert somewhat severely 
upon a work looked forward to with great hopes ; but this attempt will 
not do, in no- way supplant Murray's Handbook of 1896 ; and is in m.any 
ways worse than up-to-date.- With the Natural history section (pp. 12-18) 
only Th& Natuvrilif^t is, of course, concerned ; but if we are to judge of the 
Test by it, confusion is indeed confounded, .\cknowledgements are made 
(p. vii. viii.) to Mr. Jeans (author of the Murray), and Dr. S}'mpson, and 
others, but help in other departments has apparently not been sought in 
the right quarters. Inaccurate and antiquated indeed, is the account 

Naturalist, 



Reviews and Book Notices. 335 

of the ' Flora and Fauna,' albeit abundant recent material was a\'ailable. 
T.ees's and Peacock's work are just referred to, followed by this jumble 
(p. 15.) 'following Dr. Sympson, in l.iiicoln'^hii'c Gcagniphv.' ' The woods 
in all parts glow with the tender blue of the wild hyacinths ' — blues do' 
not nlow at all, by the bye — ■' the lily of the valley luxuriates in woods 
near Lincoln, and in Scotter parish.' ' The two nightshades are fairlv 
common, and the odious henbane is occasionally found. The beautiful 
grass of Parnassus, the marsh gentian, the bog pimpernel, bitterwort ' 
( ? butter wort mispclt, or felwort ? ) and two kinds of smilax occur in 
shady situations.' This is nigh nonsense, — No Smilax that I know of 
occurs in ]-5ritain at all, and neither bryony (black or white), of cjuite 
different orders, is ever dubbed wild sarzaparilla. The Rev. \\'. Fowler's 
discovery of the caraway-leaved milk-parsley is spelled wrongh- in a new 
way : Murray had Selinum Carvifloria, Cox has Salinum carvifolium, 
shewing crasser ignorance still. Then, ' Samphire appears in abundance 
on certain parts of the coast, largely gathered for pickling,' which reallv 
refers to the so-called Glasswort, which, when burnt, yielding soda, is 
employed in making bottle glass and soap. ' Cranberries used to be 
abundant,' a quite true statement, but founded upon Arthur Young's 
report in his classic Agricultural Survey of T799. All this is Inadequacv 
run wild. The arms of Lincoln figure its unique Tris, vet it hnds no 
mention, i^lyborough Church receives the barest mention (p. 340) in an 
Appendix, its famous and perhaps unique 'tick' none at all ; and Linwood's 
(Lynwode) Brass lacks the interesting detail of the seven-childed wool- 
stapler, ' food for worms, sic transit gloria mundi. ' Sureh' an area wherein 
meet and mingle alpine with lowland plants ; where (at Tvdd goit) the 
rare Sea-heath, Frankenia, once grew ; where the yellow star Ciccndia 
still occurs, where Thesium and Maianthemnm flourish vet, and the tart 
bilberry is not ! deserved fairer treatment than it has been accorded in 
a Twentieth-Century book. One fears to hope, almost, that a second 
Revised Edition may be soon called for. — F. Arnold Lees. 

[The archaeological section of this work, which is its main part, appears 
to be carefully prepared and reliable ; as we should expect it to be. - Ed.], 

The Invertebrate Fauna of Nottinghamshire, by J. W. Carr, M.A., etc. 
Nottingham : J. and H. Bell, Ltd., 1916. 8vo., cloth, viii-fGiS pages.. 
The County of Nottingham is to be congratulated on its possession 
of a society which has so steadily and continuously worked for a long 
series as has done the Nottingham Naturalists' Society, which attained 
its jubilee in 1902. Still more is the Society to be congratulated on the 
nianner in which it resolved to celebrate the jubilee, the result of which 
is the volume now before us. The County, and the Societ\-, are fortunate 
in the number of .sound naturalists and diligent workers who have ac- 
cumulated observations and records for the 5,330 species of invertebrates 
which hnd record in this volume. But that much remains to be done 
becomes evident, when we consider percentages of the Nottingham lists- 
and the British lists. In only three groups does the percentage reach 
half of the British list, the Mollusca (79 per cent.), the Thysanura (80 per 
cent.), and the Neuroptera (64 per cent.). That the percentage of Lepi- 
doptera reaches only 4*) per cent, demonstrates clearly that what an old 
Yorkshire entomologist used to call the ' tinies ' demand their close 
investigation ; but it is not surprising that groups so numerous in species 
as the Coleoptera and the Diptera should have percentages of but 42 per 
cent, and ^t, per cent, respectively. The spiders reach 38 per cent., the 
Sawflies 35 per cent., the Ichnenmon-flies 28 per cent, and other groups 
average from 27 per cent, to 44 per cent., or thereabouts. The impression 
as to the diligence and activity with which the county has been worked 
is deepened and confirmed by the perusal of the work itself with the 
necessarily multitudinous details of localities, dates, and authorities which 
constitute it. The full and free citation of localities and details is an 
absolute necessity. The author is to be congratulated on the exceedingh' 

191u Oct. 1. 



334 Ra'iexvs and Book Notices. 

able manner in which he has executed his task — first as regards the working 
up of the more neglected groups of the invertebrata, and of the more 
neglected areas of the county, in which he has b?cn much aided by the 
Rev. Alfred Thornley and other workers ; secondly, by his invocation of 
the aid of specialists in certain groups, particularly of such as the Rev. 
Hilderic Friend, to whom is due the working out of the Oligochaets or 
earthworms ; and thirdly, in respect of the clean and statesmanlike 
manner in which the book has been written. The county is fortunate 
in having so rich an area of aboriginal ancient woodland as is included in 
the famous Forest of Sherwood, a veritable paradise for insects, especially 
when we consider that these suffer so much from the diligence of agri- 
cultural man, to say nothing of the golfer and the automobile. Problems 
of distribution suggest themselves and call for explanation or investigation. 
Reference is made to single occurrences of Papilio machaon at Welbeck 
and Newark with a presumption of having been accidentally imported. 
Doubtless many are bred in captiv'ity and escape, but the records quoted 
are so ancient that it is quite possible for the species to have existed. 
Evidences of decreases and extinctions among other Lepidoptera bristle 
throughout the work. The occurrences of the Hornet are singularlv like 
Yorkshire experience, where examples have been taken wild which are 
undoubtedly correctly determined, and yet the species is not native. 
One of the most curious problems of range is that of Hygromia striolata 
(ntfescens), of which there is no reliable evidence whatever of its occurrence 
in Notts, and yet it occurs more or less commonly in all the surrounding 
counties, in Leicestershire so near as Melton Mowbray, in Derbyshire at 
]Matlock, and in South Yorkshire at Barnsle}', while in Lincolnshire it 
occurs in 23 out of the 34 districts into which the county is divided for 
natural history work, and it occurs in three of the five divisions bordering 
Notts. The problem of Hygvoiiiia vcvehita is of another kind ; the speci- 
mens were correctly named, but the locality stated was impossible for an 
inland county. The rediscovery of Acoccphahis tyifasciatits after more 
than 80 years since it was last indicated as British is interesting ; as also 
the note of five Notts species of Typhlocybe which have not so far occurred 
elsewhere in Britain. The book is well and artistically printed in clear, 
bold, readable type. The use of bold-faced letter for scientific names, 
and the avoidance of the use of ' small caps' is altogether to the good. 
The volume is well and tastefully bound too. There are, howe\-er, things 
that one misses. One is a bibliography of the principal local works and 
papers under each group treated of. Another is a short readable summary 
of the physical features of the county, with such a sketch map of the soils 
of the county as might have uscfuUv occupied a single page. — R. 



The 45/A Ainiual Report and I'vocccdiugx of the Chester Society of 
Natural Science, Literature and Art is to hand (48 pages), and contains a 
summary of the Society's work during the year. 

Lincolnshire Notes and Queries for Jvdy contains an article on the 
River Humber, and also an illustrated note on the Spout of a, Roman 
Terra Cotta Jug, in the form of a woman's head, found in Lincolnshire, 
the latter being by Mr. T. Sheppard, M.Sc. 

Hull Museum Publication 104, has just been issued (32 pages, id.) and 
is illustrated by numerous half-tone blocks, etc. It is almost entirely 
devoted to the old time Fishing Industry. The articles deal with Sailors' 
Remembrances ; Four Early Hull Built Steamers ; The Whaler, ' Royal 
Bounty,' of Leith ; Legacy of I'ictures to Hull iNluseums ; The Wilson 
Liner ' Rollo ' ; Hull and the Revenue Cutter Da .-s ; The ' Pacific ' ; A 
Relic of Old Shipping Days ; The Hull Steamship * Leopard ' ; The 
Frozen up Whaler 'Jane' of Hull ; Hull's \\haling Days, and Recollections 
of a British Columbian. 

Naturalist, 



335 
BRITISH ASSOCIATION NEWS. 

Prolt'ssor 1'. F. Kendall, of the Leeds I'niversity, has this year b'jen 
elected as vice-president of the geological section of the Jiritish Association. 

Mr. Gerald Stoney, in his address to the Engineering Section, tells us 
that ' It is important to remember that the boy of to-day is the man of 
to-morrow.'. He ought to have been a zoologist. 

Tn a discussion at the Conference, the Rev. T. R. R. Stebbing referred 
to the work of the South Eastern Union of Scientiiic Societies, known as 
the S.E.U.S.S., ' because we like to see ourselves as others SEUSS ' ! 

Prof. E. W. MacBride began his address by stating ' The British 
Association meets for the second time in the midst of a great European 
war.' Prof. Henderson began his by stating ' For the third time l n 
succession, the Section meets under the shadow of the war cloud.' 

Having heard discussions on Omar Khayyam, a Bibliography of 
N'iolins, etc., between prominent members of the British .Association, it 
is perhaps not surprising to find quotations from ' The Pilgrim's Progress ' 
in I'rof. Henderson's address to the Chemical Section. The geologists, 
also, ' Christian '-like, deposited their bundles in the Friends' Meeting 
House, in Pilgrim Street. 

Prof. A. N. Whitehead says ' We may conceive humanity as engaged 
in an internecine conflict between youth and age. Youth is not defined 
by years, but by the creative impulse to make something. The aged are 
those who, before all things, desire not to make a mistake. Fogic is tlie 
olive branch from the old to the young, the wand which is in the hands 
of youth has the magic property of creating science.' 

At a meeting of the General Committee, the Hon. Sir C. A. Parsons 
who had been previously nominated by the Council, was appointed 
President of the Association for the year 191 7-18 (Boiirnemonth Meeting). 
A deputation was received from Cardiff, which conveyed an invitation to 
the .Association to hold its meeting in 1918 in that city. The deputation 
was introduced by the Lord Mayor of Newcastle, .\fter the Lord Mayor 
of Cardiff, the Deputy Lord INfayor, T.ord Pontypridd and other speakers 
had addressed the meeting, the invitation was unanimously and gratefullv 
accepted. 

We learn from the Evening Mail that there were seven signatures 
appended to the request of Sir Benjamin Browne to the members attending 
the meeting of the British .Association, in Newcastle, to sign their names 
and note, to the best of their knowledge, at what age they learned to read. 
Mr. Edward C. .Barton, of Melbourne, .Xustralia, who was born in 1S38, 
stated that he learned to read when between the age of ^h and (> vears, bv 
spelling the letters on the edge of a soup-plate. He learned alphabetical 
order at the age of 12 years. Mr. T. Sheppard wrote : ' J^orn in 187'). 
Learned at 4. Told a lie the same year.' 

Speaking on the question of the fuel supply. Sir Hugh ]]ell recalled that 
Sir William .Armstrong spoke upon a similar question fifty-three years ago. 
Looking round this hall, I don't think many of you heard that address. 
I had the misfortune, one that is inevitable if you go on living. Sir 
William Armstrong in that year pointed out that the total tonnage of coal 
raised in the United Kingdom was 86,000,000, and he thought that the 
limit was being reached. Time has proved his prophecy wrong. Let 
me give you a few figures : — 

1883 163,000,000 tons. 

1908 261,000,000 ,, 

191.? 287,000,000 ,, 

It therefore will not do to prophecy further.' 

I" In ■ .\ Sketch of the Structure of the Northern Pennines.' Dr. A. 

Wilmore stated ' This paper attempts a brief summary of the structure 

of the Northern Pennines for geologists and geographers, especially for 

those who are interested in the relation of geographical form to geological 

1916 Oct. 1, 



33^ Northern News, 

structure. It is, for the most part, a re-statement, and advances little 
that is new.' 

J3esides the [^resident's address on 'Co-operation,' the Conference of 
Delegates of the Corresponding Societies discussed the following ;-^ 

(i) 'The Encouragement of Public Interest in Science by means of 
Popular Lectures.' Introduced by Mr. Percival J. Ashton, Extension 
Lecture Secretary of the Selborne Society. 

(2) ' The Desirability of forming Federations of Societies with Cognate 
Aims.' Introduced by Mr. Arthur Bennett, Delegate of the Warrington 
Society. 

(3) ' The Importance of Kent's Cavern as a National Site.' In the 
absence of Mrs. Hester Forbes Julian (nee Pengelly), Delegate of the 
Torquay Natural History Society, the paper was read by Mr. \\'. Whitaker. 

: o : 



' The Wood Pigeon," is the title of the Board of Agriculture and 
Fisheries Leaflet, No. 307. 

We should like to congratulate our contributor, Mr. J. J. Burton, 
F.G.S., on his election as a Justice of the Peace. 

^^■e regret to record the death of Lieut. Col. J. W. Ellis, a prominent 
member of the Liverpool Naturalists' Field Club. 

From The Times, we learn that a beanstalk has been pulled in the 
Bourne district of Lincolnshire measuring 8ft. 3in. high and carrying 47 
pods. 

The 45th Report of the County Borough of Rochdale Public Libraries^ 
Art Gallery and Musuem Committee, states that pressure of work on the 
Library side has prevented much being done in the Museum. 

We notice from The Handbook and Descriptive Catalogue of the Meteorite 
Collections in the United States National Museum, by G. P. Merrill, 
reference is made to a fragment of the Wold Cottage Meteorite which fell 
in Yorkshire in 1795. 

Mr. G. M. Davies (mis-spelt Davis on the heading en page 94) has a 
valuable paper on the ' Rocks and Minerals of Croydon Regional Survey 
Area,' in the Proceedings and Transactions of the Croydon Natural History 
and Scientific Society, Volume 8, part 2. 

The Annual Report of the Yorkshire Philosof-hical Society for 1915, 
just to hand, contains a lengthy and well illustrated paper on ' Yorkshire 
Potteries, Pots and Potters,' by Mr. Oxley Grabham. Mr. George Benson 
also gives notes on a Cobble Road, uncovered under the Vaulted Archway 
of St. Leonard's Hospital, York. 

Prof. E. J. Garwood has a lengthy paper on ' The Faunal Succession 
in the Lower Carboniferous Rocks of Westmorland and North Lancashire ' 
in the Proceedings of the Geologists' Association, Vol. XXVII , pt. i. It 
is illustrated by numerous sections, maps, photographs and plates of 
fossils, and there are extensive tables of species. 

We notice a correspondent, writing from a Vicarage, to The U'e'^tniinster 
Gazette, states — 'During the last few days, a young but fuUy-fiedged and 
apparently fully-grown hawk has repeatedly flown on to my lawn, and, 
sqatting, has made its hunger or its greed known by constant cries. Quite 
a number of swallows and wag-tails have gone to its assistance, bringing 

it insects and, I think, other food To me, it is a forcible and curious 

comment, in the world of nature, on the well-known Pauline passage : 
' If thine enemy hunger, feed him,' and I am wondering whether, Androcles- 
like, these succourers of a potential foe in distress will escape its future 
hostile proclivities.' As the bird he described was no doubt a young 
cuckoo, the correct quotation should be, ' I was a stranger and I took you 
in.' 

Naturalist, 



Books for Sale. 



(Mostly from the Library of a Yorkshire Naturalist, recently 
deceased. The books are as new, and the prices asked are, in 
most cases, less than half the published price). 

Animal Romances. Renshaw. 4/- 

British Butterflies, etc. (coloured plates). Thomas. 4/- 

Natural History of Animals, 8 vols. 4/6 per vol. 

Determination of Sex. Doncaster. 4/6 

Animal Life. Gamble. 4/- 

Fur and Feather Series. Pheasant, Partridge, Grouse. 1/9 

each. 
Science from an Easy Chair. Lankester. 4/- 

Do. (Second Series). 4/- 

Nature Through the Microscope. Spiers. (99 plates). 4/- 
White's Natural History of Selborne. Coloured Illustrations 

by Collins. 6/- 
LiFE OF MacGillivray. 6/- 
The Making of Species. Dewar and Finn. 4/- 
The Greatest Life. Leighton. 3/- 
History of Birds. Pycraft. 6/- 
BooK OF Birds. Pycraft. 2/6 

Natural History of some Common Animals. Latter. 3/- 
The Gannet. Gurney. 13/- 
Home Life of Osprey. Abbott. 2/6 
Published Records of Land and Fresh-Water Mollusca, East 

Riding. (Maps). T. Petch, B.Sc, B.A. 1/6 
DiATOMACE.E OF HuLL DISTRICT. (600 illustrations). Bv F. W. 

Mills, F.R.M.S., and R. H. Philip. 4/6 

Apply :— Dept. C, c/o A. BROWN & SONS, Ltd., Hull. 



YORKSHIRE NATURALISTS' UNION. 



BOTANICAL AND GEOLOGICAL SECTIONS. 



The Annual Meetings of these Sections will be held jointly in 
Bradford on Saturday, Oct. 7th. Members will meet at Saltaire 
Park Gates at 2 p.m., and walk round Shipley Glen and Baildon 
Moor, returning to Bradford by car for tea at the Silver Grid, Market 
Street, 5-30 p.m. The meetings at the rooms of the Bradford 
Natural History Society, in the Church Institute, at 6-30 p.m., after 
which a joint discussion will be held on " The Origin of the Peat on 
Moughton Fell." 

Further particulars can be had from 

J. HOLMES, 9 Campbell St., Crossbills, Keighley ; 
or C. A. CHEETH.\M. Old Farnlev, Leeds. 



THE COUNTY OF 
THE WHITE ROSE 

AN INTRODUCTION TO THE HISTORY 
AND ANTIQUITIES OF YORKSHIRE 

BY 

A. C. PRICE, M.A. 

Formeiiy Scholar of Pembroke College, Oxford 
Author of " Leeds and its Neighbourhood," etc. 

415 pages, croivn Svo, with upwards of 70 ilhistrations and a 

folding map of the three Ridings, tastefully bound in Art Cloth 

Boards lettered in gold, with rose in u'hite foil And gilt top. 

3s. 6d. net, post free 3s. ~Lod. net. 

THE object of " The County of the White Rose " is 
to make better known the great part which York- 
shire has played in British history. It is the only 
book of a reasonable size which deals at all adequately 
with the history of the largest County as a whole, and it 
will prove a valued treasure to all who take an interest in 
castles, abbeys, churches, battlefields, etc., of which York- 
shire is abundantly endowed. The reader is introduced to 
the geology of the county, to its very early inhabitants, 
to Yorkshire under Roman rule, and right on through the 
various periods to what is termed "Modern Yorkshire." 

It will be noted with special interest, in view of the 
great war now raging, that whereas nearly all the previous 
chapters deal largely with fighting, that which treats of 
the Yorkshire of to-day is devoted entirely to such peaceful 
pursuits, as commerce, science, literature, and the social 
life in general of the people. The internal strife is happity 
now a thing of the distant past and " The County of the 
White Rose " shows in no small measure, the evolution of 
what has become a united nation with one object in view, 
viz., "the triumph of right over might." 

The boolc contains an abundance of illustrations, many 
reproduced from photographs by Mr. Godfrey Bingley, 
Mr. A. C. Parry and Mr. R. Stockdale. 

There is an excellent folding map of the three Ridings, 
and the value of the book is still further enhanced by the 
provision of a very exhaustive index of names and places. 

London : A. Brown & Sons, Ltd., 5 Farringdon Avenue, E.C. 
And all Booksellers. 



Printed at Browns' Savile Press, 40, George Street, Hull, and published by 
A. Brown & Sons, Limited, at 5 Farringdon Avenue, in the City of London. 

Oct. 1st, 1916. 



NOV. 1916. 



No. 718 

(No. 495 0/ current aeriea) 




A MONTHLY ILLUSTRATED JOURNAL OF 

NATURAL HISTORY FOR THE NORTH OF ENGLAND. 



T. SHEPPARD, 



EDITED BY 

M.Sc, F.Q.S., F.R.G.S., F.S.A.Scot., 

The Museums, Hull ; 



T. W. WOODHEAD, Ph.D., M.Sc, F.L.S., 

Technical College, Huddersfield. ^■ 

/ 

WITH THE ASSISTANCE AS REFEREES IN SPECIAL DEPARTMENTS/OF 

J. aiLBBRT BAKER, F.R.S. P.L.S., GEO. T. PORRITF, PiL.S.. 

Prol. P. P. KENDALL, M.Sc, P.O.S., JOHN W. TAYLOR, IW.Sc.v' 

T. H. NELSON, M.Sc, M.B.O.U.. RILEY PORTUNE. F.\.S. 



Contents : — 



; Evolution 
Skull<5 and 



Notes and Comments (illust.) .-—East Anglian Pre-Historians ; 'Earliest Man 
of Man; Stonehenge ; Early Pala?oliths ; Pointed Pateoliths; Trephining 
Charms; ' Men of the Old Stone Age ' ; Divisions of Time ; Restoration; Prof. Osborn's 
Researches ; Flints in Boulder Clay ; New Names for British Birds ; Rats ; More Rats ; 
Modern 'Entomology'; A Wonderful Spider; Discovery; A Popular Fallaty ; A 
Neglected Study ; Science and the State; Investtgations of Rivers 



337-345 
346-347 
348-349 
350-351 
352-353 



Polyaetna aatans in Yorkshire {iWytstrated)— A. R. Sanderson 

Fight between Earwig and Ants— /f. Vincent Corbeit, B.A. ..*. 

Foreign Spiders in Yorltsliire (illustrated)— Win. Falconer 

Edestus newtoni at Rroc\ihoics— J . R. Simpson 

Reported Nesting of the White Wagtail in Yorkshire—//. B. Booth, M.D.O.U., F.Z.S. 354-355 
Conchologica! Notes from Malton— IF. Gyngcll 356-357 

The Qeograpliical Distribution of Moths of the Sub=FamiIy Bistoninae— y. IF. 

Hcslop Harrison, B.Sc 358-362 

Ornithological Observations and Reflections in Shetland- £rfMin;irf Sclotis 3G3-366 

Field Notes: — The Natterjack in Cumberland; Late Nesting of Woodcock; Cumberland 

Hemiptera; Cumberland Hepatics ; Arachnids on,the N. Wales Coast 347, 349, £67' 

News from the Magazines 345, 8.53, 357, 362, 367 

Reviews and Book Notices 351, 355 

Northern News 368 

Illustrations 337,346,350 



LONDON : 

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Prepaid Subscription 6/6 per annum, post free. 



NOW JJEABY. 

YORKSHIRE'S 
Contribution to Science 

(Based upon the Presidential Address to the Yorkshire 
Naturalists' Union, delivered at the Leeds University) 

By THOMAS SHEPPARD 

M.Sc, F.G.S., F.R.G.S.. F.S.A.(Scot.) 

240 pages Demy 8vo, illustrated, tastefully bound In Cloth 
Boards, with gilt top and gilt lettering on back and side, 

51" net. 

The publication of much additional matter has caused some 
delay in the appearance of the book. It is illustrated, and contains 
a complete history of the scientific publications issued in the various 
Yorkshire towns. It contains the following: — 

Yorkshire's Contribution to Science. 

Yorkshire Publications arranged Topographically. 

Existing Yorkshire Scientific Magazines and their Predecessors. 

Yorkshire Scientific Magazines now Extinct. 

County and Riding Societies. 

Yorkshire Topographical and General Magazines. 

Magazines: General Natural History Journals; Museums; 

Ornithology ; Mollusca ; Entomology ; Botany and General 

Biology ; Geography ; Meteorology. 

Scientific Societies (General). 

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Books of Reference. 

List of Societies, Journals, Proceedings, Magazines, etc., 
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NOTES AND COMMENTS. 



337 



EAST ANGLIAN PRE-HISTORIANS. 

Vol. II., part 2, of the Proceedings of the Prehistoric Society 
of East Anglia* is a remarkably well illustrated record of the 
work accomplished by this young society, the membership 
list of which contains quite a number of names of prominent 
workers in the fields of archaeology. The contents are varied, 
but we especially draw attention to Mr. W. J. Lewis Abbott's 
paper on ' The Pliocene Deposits of the South-east of England,' 
and to Mr. A. S. Kennard's notes on ' The Pleistocene 
Succession in England.' Mr. Kennard begins well : — ' It has 
always appeared to me that if any real advance in our know- 



JUN24 192n 




Implement worked on both faces. Grime's Graves. ^. 

ledge of early man is to be made, it is essential that the sequence 
of events during the Pleistocene period must be known, but 
judging from recent literature the prevalent ^ideas as to this 
succession are decidedly nebulous.' Mr. A. E. Peak's presi- 
dential address on ' Recent Excavation at Grime's Graves ' 
has a number of illustrations, one of which we are kindly 
permitted to reproduce. We notice the map of Norfolk is 
up-to-date, as the sea area is described as ' North Sea, late 
German Ocean.' 

' EARLIEST MAN.' 

With the above title Mr. F. W. H. Migeod has issued a 
bookj which he wrote on the Gold Coast, in which district 



* pp. 161-325, 3s. 6d. net, from W. G. Clarke, 12 St. Philip's Road, Norwich. 
7 London : Kegan Paul, 1916, 133 pp., 3s. (>d. 

1916 Nov. 1. 



338 Notes and Comments. 

his surroundings evidently gave him example and inspiration ; 
' it is on the lives of wild animals and primitive men that the 
author has based his theories as to what sort of an existence 
earliest man lived.' While, in that far-off country, the author 
naturally had not a very extensive reference library, it is 
perhaps a little unexpected to find that the two books he 
recommends are ' Guide to the Antiquities of the Stone Age ' 
(British Museum), and ' Man and his Fore-runners,' by 
H. von Buttel-Reepen. 

EVOLUTION OF MAN. 

Mr. Migeod endeavours to give a sketch of the evolution 
of man from his simian ancestry down to the time that he 
attained the rank of Homo primigenius. His chapters deal 
with ' The Dawn,' ' Primary Instincts,' ' Proto-man,' ' Progress 
in the Arts,' ' From Eoliths to Palaeoliths,' ' Origin of Speech ' 
and ' Social Organisation.' He also gives appendices (i) on 
' Cranial Capacity in Cubic Centimetres ' of apes, ancient man, 
modern types of man, and Bismarck ! ; (2) ' Chronological 
Table ' of remains of man in Tertiary and Quaternary time, 
which is elaborate and mystifying with its estimates of years 
and various glacial periods ; and (3) ' Hypothetical Descent 
of Man ' from ' Pre-pithecanthropus' to ' American .Aboriginal.' 
There is a useful Glossary and an index. The book is written 
in simple language. 

STONEHENGE.* 

The Curator of the Salisbury Museum has produced a handy 
guide to Stonehenge, which, even in its present mutilated form, 
is one of the finest monuments of a prehistoric age in our 
islands. He deals with the origin of the stones, their erection, 
and when was Stonehenge built, and why ? He also gives 
an account of the adjoining barrows and their contents. The 
handbook is well illustrated by H. Sumner, F.S.A. 

EARLY PALAEOLITHS. 

In The Journal of the Anthropological Institute] Mr. J. Reid 
Moir has an illustrated paper ' On the Evolution of the Earliest 
Palaeoliths from the Rostro-Carinate Implements.' He 
describes ten flint ' implements ' from beds below the Red 
and Norwich Crags, the Middle Glacial Gravel of Suffolk, 
and River Gravels of the Thames Valley and Suffolk. He 
shows how the ' Eagle-beak ' implements were made, and 
illustrates a number of specimens which he has seen in difterent 
collections, some of which, however, seem to have a more 
accidental than actual resemblance to the original ' rostro- 

* ' Stonehenge, To-day and Yesterday,' by F. Stevens. London : 
Sampson Low, Marston & Co., 1915. 96 pp., is. net. 
f VoL XLVI., 1916, pp. 197-220. 

Naturalist, 



Notes and Comments. 339 

carinates.' We are not quite sure of the object of the con- 
tribution, but the following is the concluding paragraph: — 

POINTED PAL^OLITHS. 

' The author has conducted various experiments in flaking 
flints, and finds that the easiest way to make an implement 
of the pointed type is to proceed as if it were desired to make 
one of the rostro-carinate form. He has found that the remains 
of the dorsal plane appear as a lateral platform on the specimens 
lie has made, and that the outline of the rostro-carinate is 
sometimes preserved. Lateral platforms appear on ovate 
implements, but as these were in all probability evolved from 
specimens of the pointed type, by the simple method of sub- 
stituting a rounded cutting edge for the pointed end, the 
occurrence of such lateral platforms upon these specimens 
is easily explained.' 

TREPHINING. 

Dr. T. Wilson Parry favours us with a reprint of his paper 
in the Journal of the British Archceological Association on 
■' The Art of Trephining among Prehistoric and Primitive 
Peoples ; their motives for its practice and methods of pro- 
cedure.'* He reviews the various instances of prehistoric 
skulls having been operated upon during the lives of their 
owners, five examples of which are known from Great Britain. 
He shows how the holes were probably made in the skulls, 
and though the operations were severe, and necessarily of a 
primitive character, the bone in many cases is shown to have 
healed. 

SKULLS AND CHARMS. 

The researches of Professor P. Broca, among the prehistoric 
skulls of France, show that ' during the Neolithic Period a 
surgical operation was practised which consisted of making 
a hole in the skull, for treatment of certain internal disorders. 
This operation was performed almost, if not quite, exclusively 
on children. The skulls of those individuals who survived 
this operation of trephining were considered to be possessed 
with special endowments of a mystical order, and when the 
individuals died, rounds or fragments were often cut out of 
their skulls to serve as amulets, that part bordering on the 
healed edge of the opening being taken in preference.' It is 
perhaps rather remarkable that among the exceptionally large 
collection of prehistoric skulls from East Yorkshire barrows, 
preserved in the Mortimer Museum, no trace of trephining has 
been observed. 

* See also The Lancet, June 13th, 19 14, and The Medical Press and 
Circular, July 8th and 15th, 1914. 

16 Nov. 1. 



340 Notes and Comments. 

' MEN OF THE OLD STOXE AGE, 

their Environment, Life and Art ' is the title of a volume 
recently issued by Prof. H. F. Osborn.* It is based upon 
the Hitchcock Lectures of the Laiiversity of California, 1914, 
but it contains details of later discoveries, notably of the Pilt- 
down remains. These discoveries in Sussex have caused 
considerable discussion, and indirectly have led to the ap- 
pearance of many books on prehistoric man, the present being 
among them. Professor Osborn is well known for his work in 
America, and he has spent three weeks among the French 
caves, a map showing the route taken being given at the end 
of the volume. 

DIVISIONS OF TIME. 

He deals in detail with the human remains of various 
deposits and periods, though we fear his time divisions are 
so numerous and varied that they will not readily be adopted 
by English archaeologists. For instance, he refers to the 
' Transition to the Pleistocene, The First Glaciation, The 
First Interglacial Stage, The Trinil Race, The Second Glacia- 
tion, The Second Interglacial Stage, The Heidelberg Race, 
The Third Glaciation, The Piltdown Race, The Second 
Period of Arid Xlimate, Close of the Third Interglacial, The 
Fourth Glacial Stage,' and so on. Among them we find such 
headings as 'Date of Pre-Chellean Industry,' Chellean Industry,' 
' Acheulean Industry,' ' Arctic Tundra Life,' etc. 

RESTORATION. 

A feature of the book, which will appeal more particularly 
to the ' general ' reader, is a series of restorations of the features 
of prehistoric men of different periods. Thus there is Pithecan- 
thropus, the Java ape-man, the Heidelberg man, the Piltdown 
man, the Neanderthal man, the Cro-Magnon man, etc. But 
there is almost a family resemblance between some of these, 
though they are separated by thousands of miles, and, in time, 
by periods estimated in hundreds of thousands of years. For 
the most part they have quite refined features, and some at 
any rate have features quite American. This is due no doubt 
to the individuality of the artist being reflected in his work, 
but it detracts from the likelihood of the restorations being 
accurate. 

PROF. OSBORN's RESEARCHES. 

Professor Osborn covers considerable ground in his book. 
Not only does he refer to the remains of the osteological re- 
mains of the races he describes, but the associated implements, 
the rock carvings, paintings, sculpturings, and even the 
associated fauna are described in a detail which is almost 

* London : G. Bell tv- Sons, lyid, pp. 545, price 25s. net. 

Naturalist, 



Notes and Comments 341 

"bewildering. We must say, however, that the vohime is very 
thorough ; his researches have been extensive. The Bibho- 
graphy of twenty pages indicates that he has made a good 
acquaintance with the extensive Hterature on the subject. 
He also has decided opinions of his own, and expresses them. 
There are nearly three hundred illustrations ; but the book 
is a ' heavy ' one, in two senses. 

FLINTS IN BOULDER CLAY. 

In Man for October 1916, Mr. J. Reid Moir criticises 
Mr. H. Warren's paper, ' The Experimental Investigation of 
Flint Fracture and its Application to Problems of Human 
Implements,' [Joiirn. Royal Anthrop. Inst., Vol. XLH'., 1914). 
Without entering into the question as to whether Mr. Moir or 
Mr. Warren is correct, there is one remark in Mr. Reid Moir's 
paper to which we must take exception. He says ' Flint, 
of even the best quality and greatest hardness, will stand only 
a limited amount of pressure before fracturing, and the 
pressures that " obtain beneath an ice-sheet " would un- 
doubtedly reduce it to powder.' As anyone acquainted with 
our northern boulder clays knows quite well, these deposits 
contain tons of flints of all sorts and sizes, which are not crushed 
to powder, though many bear ice-scratches. They are there ; 
and the boulder-clay was unquestionably formed under an 
ice-sheet. This merely confirms an opinion we have pre- 
viously expressed, that before anyone can pose as an authority 
on pre-historic implements, especially when he is trying to 
prove that they are of extraordinarily great age, he must have 
at least an elementary knowledge of geology. 

NEW NAMES FOR BRITISH BIRDS. 

' H.B.B.' writes : — Under the above heading the current 
number of The Ibis (p. 667), gives the following extract :— 
' The July number of The Auk, (p. 346), has a note that, in 
a recent number of " Falco," the organ of the eccentric Otto 
Kleinschmidt, there are descriptions of the British races of 
Passer domesticus and Strix alba under the new names of 
Passer hostilis and Strix hostilis. The author, O. Kleinschmidt, 
states that his sub-species will probably have a hostile reception 
in their native country, and explains th?t he does not name them 
in the interests of British ornithology, but in accordance with 
the thoroughness of German science ! ' This attempt to 
re-name two such well-known British birds as the Common 
Sparrow and the Barn Owl may be taken as an honest endeavour 
of O.K. (Orl Korrect) to assist his country in their strife for 
world domination ; rather than a desire to make his name 
famous for having further confused scientific nomenclature. 

19 IG Nov. 1. 



342 Notes and Comments. 

RATS. 

Part XIX. of ' A History of British Mammals ' has been 
published,* and deals with the Black or Ship Rat, the Brown 
or Common Rat, and the House Mouse. Each species is dealt 
with in the careful and thorough manner which has charac- 
terised this work throughout. We learn that ' extraordinary 
calculations have been made as to the damage done by rats 
and the rate of their increase. F. von Fischer calculated that 
a single pair might leave, after ten years, a progeny of 
48,319,698,843,030,344,720 rats. Mr. Lantz calculates that 
in nine generations, a single pair of rats would, if breeding 
uninterruptedly, produce more than twenty million individuals, 
but such a calculation is entirely theoretical. However, as 
he states that the average quantity of grain consumed by an 
adult or half-grown rat is fully two ounces daily, or 45 to 50 
lbs. a year, the average cost of feeding one rat for a year 
becomes about seven shillings and sixpence.' 

MORE RATS. 

From the October number of The Scottish Naturalist we 
learn that in a communication by Oldfield Thomas, on the 
generic names Rattiis and Phyllomys, the author confesses 
his disappointment at the discovery that the name Rattus was 
used earlier than he anticipated for the ordinary Rats, and, 
therefore, has priority over Epimys, which he hoped would 
be accepted. As a consequence, his ' attempted use of Rattus 
for Azara's Spiny-rat fails, and this animal will have to bear 
in future the burden of Euvyzygomatomys as its generic name.*^ 
Poor creature ! 

MODERN ' EXTOMOLOGY." 

The Entomologist's Monthly Magazine for October is a 
mixed bag. Mr. D. Sharp says, ' I adopted Mulsant's name 
of consimile for this species, being under the impression that 
it and Mulsant's mollis would be found to be mixed in some 
collections, and that Mulsant was authorised to apply the name 
of mollis to either of the two forms. I have, however, found 
no example of his mollis in any collection I have examined.' 
Another ' correction ' is given in the next paper by Mr. G. C. 
Champion, who overlooked a description of Batobius when 
dealing with this genus. But our entomological friends should 
not overlook things, and then have to make corrections after 
giving wrong names; this sort of thing is becoming 'chronic,' 
and is a distinct hindrance to scientific work. Of a more 
satisfactory nature is Mr. R. S. Bagnall's establishment of 
Trioza proxima as a British insect (in Sunderland), and Mr. 
H. S. Wallace's record of a new British gall-midge, Mayetiola 

* Gurncy & Jackson, pp. ()Oi-648 (plates), 2s. 6d. net. 

Naturalist, 



Ng'cs and Comments 343 

yadicijica in Northumberland and Cumberland. Trichopteryx 
fratercida is also recorded as a new Yorkshire coleopteron. 

A WONDERFUL SPIDER. 

In The Entomologist for August, appears the following 
information from the pen of Mr. W. Saunders: — ' The other 
morning .... I felt a tickling sensation on my face, and, 
putting up my right hand to brush awav the cause of irritation, 
I caught on mv forefinger, a shimmering gauzy filament at the 
end of which swung a tiny spider. ... I held it up on a level 
with my head and the insect made one or two ineffectual 
attempts to reach my finger. Apparently realising then that 
tills means of escape was hopeless, he swung inert for a few 
seconds, and then he suddenly shot out in a horizontal direction, 
spinning furiously as he -vent. This continued until he was 
six or nine inches from my finger, when another gauzy filament 
was rapidly dropped downwards at almost right angles to the 
first, attaching itself to a copy of the ' Scotsman,' . . . Who 
could then have had the heart to harm such a brilliant little 
logician.' It seems to have been more than a logician, it was 
a magician. 

DISCOVERY.* 

Professor Gregory will understand that we wish to be com- 
plimentary when we say we have read his book from cover to 
cover, and have enjoyed it. It has the same inspiring effect 
as the famous Somme film, which most people have seen recently. 
Would that it were possible to place a copy of the book in the 
hands of every school boy and school giri. The result would 
certainly be greater than even Professor Gregory's proudest 
hopes. The volume shows that in all times the greatest 
scientific discoveries have been made with most unselfish 
motives ; not for personal gain, but for the. love of science; for 
the good of mankind. Yet the greatest discoveries, whereby 
the lives of untold thousands have been saved, have not 
brought their authors anything like the renown that becomes 
the victorious soldier or sailor. 

A POPULAR FALLACY. 

It is also demonstrated that the scientific man is a man 
of principles, a man essentially human, whose watchword is 
' Truth.' ' To the popular mind, a man of science is a callous 
necromancer who has cast himself off from communion with 
his fellows, and has thereby lost the throbbing and com- 
passionate heart of a full life : he is Faust, who has not yet 
made a bargain with Mephistopheles, and is therefore without 



* ' Discovery : or the Spirit and Service of Science,' by R. A. Gregory. 
Macmillan & Co., igiC), 340 pp., 5s. net. 



191G Nov. 1. 



344 Notes and Comments. 

human interest. Scientific and humanistic studies are, indeed, 
supposed to be anti-pathetic, and to represent opposing 
quaUties ; so that it has become common to associate science 
with all that is cold and mechanistic in our being, and to believe 
that the development of the more spiritual parts of man's 
nature belong essentially to other departments of intellectual 
activity.' 

A NEGLECTED STUDY. 

' The Study of Nature is elevating, and its material value 
is of the highest ; yet it is deplorably neglected, with the result 
that only very rarely is the simplest scientific subject referred 
to accurately in the works of literary men. Our guides and 
councillors, not only in the periodical press, but also in less 
ephemeral publications, are, in the great majority of cases, 
unaware of the most obvious facts and phenomena of Nature, 
and have no acquaintance with the most elementary vocabulary 
of science.* In everything that relates to the natural universe 
around them they are Wind leaders of the blind ; and they 
call their darkness light. They are indifferent to the wonderful 
growth and extent of scientific knowledge, and live in a paradise 
in which rounded phrases and curious fancies are of more 
importance than actual facts. In such a world a one-eyed man 
can be king. A more enlightened man will only be obtained 
when it is realised that an educated man must know something 
of science as well as of literature.' 

SCIENCE AND THE STATE. 

Professor Gregory is inclined at times to be a trifle pessi- 
mistic. ' It would be a revelation to people endowed with a 
large share of worldly riches to be present at a meeting of 
the British Association for the Advancement of Science con- 
cerned with the allocation of grants for scientific purposes. 
Thirty or forty of the leading men of science in the British 
Isles debate for several hours how to divide the sum of about 
£i,ooo, which represents the amount available from the sale 
of tickets at each annual meeting. There are many applica- 
tions for grants from committees of each of the twelve sections 
of the Association, and the amount required has usually to 
be whittled down to £5 or £10, which often does not cover 
the expense of stationery and postage of a research committee. 
Not one penny goes into the pockets of the men who are con- 
ducting the researches, yet claim after claim has to be passed, 
or reduced to its lowest limits, because the fund is miserably 
inadequate to meet the demands made upon it. . . . While the 

* We notice that a well known and much advertised editor of one of 
our weekly papers, writing in a Sunday paper recently, .says the human 
bady consists of .' a mere chemical compound of gas ' !] and carbon and 
lime, synthesised.' — Ed. 



Notes and Comments. 345 

State grant made by Great Britain toward the expenses of 
the pubhcations of learned societies is hmited to the sum of 
£'1,000 annually to the Royal Society, several times this amount 
is expended each year upon stationery alone used by members 
of the House of Commons.' In this connection may we suggest 
to Professor Gregory that ' Nature ' never did betray the heart 
that loved her, and we trust he has found this to be so ! 
There is no doubt that after the present crisis the claims of the 
scientific man will be much more appreciated. In many ways 
he has already demonstrated his worth. And Professor 
Gregory's book will, we hope, do much towards voicing those 
claims. 

INVESTIGATION OF RIVERS. 

In view of the suggested work in connection with Yorkshire 
Rivers being undertaken by the members of the Yorkshire 
Geological Society, we should like to draw attention to a 
valuable Final Report on the Investigation of Rivers, by 
Aubrey Strahan, N. F. MacKenzie, H. R. Mill and J. S. Owens, 
published by the Royal Geographical Society, 94 pages, price 
3s. 6d. The report deals with the Severn basin and its vicinity, 
and is divided under the following headings : — Introduction, 
Report on Severn Discharge and Rainfall in the Basin ; The 
Measurements of Discharges ; Curves showing Rainfall and 
Discharge ; Reporc of the Average Annual Rainfall of the 
Exe Valley ; Report on the Daily Rainfall of the Exe Valley 
during the years 1907-1912 ; On the Area of each Basin and 
the Elevation of different parts of it ; Report on Suspended 
and Dissolved Matter in the Exe, Creedy, Severn and Medway ; 
Appendix — Table of Discharge Coefficients. There are many 
valuable charts and tables accompanying the report, which 
should serve as a model for other areas. 



'Sir. Harold Peakc has a note on ' The Orif;in of the Dolmen ' in Man 
ior August. 

The Entomologist's Monthly Magazine lor September, contains short 
notes relating to "S'orkshire, Cheshire and the Lake District. 

The Entomologist for .August contains a paper on ' Coccidae and 
Alevrodidae in Northumberland, Durham, and North-East Yorkshire, 
by J. W. H. Harrison, AI.Sc. 

The Zoologiit for .August contains the following interesting articles :• — 
' Habit Formation in a Wasp,' by J. M. Dewar ; ' On the Educability of 
Three Rocklings and a Sea-Bullhead,' by H. N. Milligan ; 'Notes on 
Inability of Natural Selection to explain certain steps in the E\'olution 
of Protozoa.' 

In The Entomologist's Record, in 1907, Mr. H. Donisthorpe described 
Cis dentatns Mellie, as a new British insect. In the same Journal for 
July and August, just received, he states that the species is not dcntatus 
but an aberration of C. alni. In the same Journal I\Ir. R. S. Bagnall 
describes some new British Plant Galls from the Northumberland and 
Durham area. 

1916 Nov,]. 



346 



POLYNEMA NATANS IN YORKSHIRE. 



A. R. SANDERSON. 



From a bog pool on Austwick Moss I have to place on record 
the finding of Polynema nutans Lubbock ( Caraphractus cinctus 
Hal.), a very small hymenopterous insect belonging to the 
IMymarides, which by Enoch are called ' Fairy Flies.' Polynema 
nutans, one of the few hymenoptera with acquatic habits, 
has a strange Ufe history, being in the larval stage parasitic 







Polynema natans, and wing, magnified. 

in the eggs of a Dragon Fly. The specimens I obtained were 
present among some Hypniim jluitans, which had been brought 
from the bog pool to feed acquatic larvae. A few days 
after introducing this material to the tank I saw two of the 
insects swimming about in the water, using their wings as 
organs of locomotion. This struck me as being decidedly 
curious, so I watched developments, and noticing the immersion 
was not harmful (at first I took them for small flies in process 
of drowning) kept them under observation. On examination 

Naturalist , 



Field Notes. 347 

I discovered them to be hymenoptera, and found the descrip- 
tion in Professor Miall's ' Acquatic Insects,' which fitted. The 
identity has since been confirmed by Mr. Waterhouse. The 
insects left the water at intervals (they can remain immersed 
for at least twelve hours) and invariably come to rest about 
half an inch to an inch from the surface, head downwards. 
In no case did I find them far above the surface when resting. 
When immersed they were usually active, and I never saw 
them take any food, though seeing they aie only one twentieth 
part of an inch long, it is quite possible to miss that interesting 
operation. It was most interesting to see one re-enter the 
water, and make desperate efforts by means of the legs to 
free itself from the air film, especially on the wings, which are 
clothed with fine hairs. Frantic efforts were often necessary 
'to free the wings from air bubbles, so as to allow the creature 
to sink well below the surface. They moved about in the water 
with a jerky motion, using the wings only for propulsion. 
A second lot of mateiial containing, besides Hypninn fliiitans, 
an acquatic hepatic, was sent to me from the same district, 
and on careful examination I found five Dragon Fly eggs on 
this hepatic, which later provided me with two larvae of Dragon 
Flies and three Polynema, one of which lived for twenty da5''s 
in the tank, (not of course immersed all the time). 

-\ltogether about a dozen ot the insects appeared over a 
period of about nine weeks, and seeing that the creature can 
fly quite well for short distances, the distribution among 
neighboui-ing pools should not occasion much difficulty.* 

AMPHIBIANS. 

The Natterjack in Cumberland. — I am pleased to 
confirm Mr. W. \\ . Mason's note of this species in the north- 
west. A small colony of them may be found at Beck Heads, 
Woodland Fell, on the Lancashire side of the Duddon Valley. 
My first experience was six under loose stones, June 14th, 1913. 
— J. F. MusiL-\M, Selby. 

The Natterjack in Cumberland. — With reference to 
the Rev. W. W. Mason's note in the October number, it may 
be of interest to record that in Juty 1913, I saw an immense 
number of young Natterjacks, barely one inch long, in damp 
spots among the sandhills near Drigg. In June 1915, adult 
specimens were noticed in marshes at the mouth of the Calder, 
north of Seascale, and this year, in June, in the same locality, 
in a brackish pool close to the railway, I found this species 
breeding. — Anthoxy Wallis, Penrith. 

* The specimen rigured herewith has been presented, by Mr. C. A. 
Cheetham to the Hull Museum, where it can be referred to. 

1916 Nov. 1. 



348 

FIGHT BETWEEN EARWIG AND ANTS. 



H. VINCENT CORBETT, B.A. 

•On September 2nd, 1916, at 5-20 p.m., while watching a nest 
of Myrmica ruginodis Nylander, in a garden at Doncaster, I 
saw a worker dragging a large male specimen of the Common 
Earwig by his right front femur. The ant was holding her 
antennas well back, and dodging the earwig's other legs. At 
first the earwig did not fight, merely making an obstinate 
tug-of-war. But, when he got within two incnes of the ants' 
burrow, he evidently realised his danger, for he made a fierce 
resistance. Meanwhile many other ants passed, but few took 
any interes., and these only approached the earwig gingerly, 
and jumped back quickly when he kicked. The earwig's efforts 
were made partly with his legs, never with his mandibles,* 
and chiefly with his forceps. He frequently arched his tail 
right over his head, and attempted to seize the ant. Several 
times he succeeded in turning the ant on her back. 

Four times the ant pulled her prey to within an inch of the 
burrow ; but each time the earwig made a stiff fight and 
dragged her back. At 5-50 the earwig was actually dragged 
into the mouth of the burrow. Not till then did other ants 
take an active part in tne struggle, but now about twelve 
seized the earwig. This time the forceps were brought into 
tremendous play. Time after time ants were dislodged from 
their positions by them, and twice the earwig hurled an ant 
over his back and half an inch behind him. The ants, however, 
did not seem afraid of the forceps, which they often cleverly 
dodged. On the other hand they seemed very much afraid of 
his hind legs. At 6-10 the ants and earwig disappeared down 
the burrow, and I thought the fight was over. I did not observe 
it again until 6-40, when I found that the earwig had again got 
12 inches away from the nest. The original (?) ant was still 
holding on to the right front femur, and two ants [A and B, 
which I had marked for other purposes) were holding the left 
front and left hind femora respectively. This time the ants 
were dragging their enemy away from the burrow. At G-56 
A returned to the nest ; at 6-57 B changed her hold from the 
left hind femur to the left forcep. This provoked the earwig 
to another great effort and at 6-58 B left the fight and started 
fussing around. At 7-1 the earwig seemed much feebler, and 
allowed the ant to drag him on his back to the burrow. He 
then revived, and with his forceps dislodged the ant, which 
at 7-15 returned to the nest, leaving her foe nearly dead. At 
7-19 she returned, and gripped the earwig by the left front 
femur. The earwig again dislodged her with his forceps, and 
the aut wandered about for a while. At 7-29 the ant returned 
once more, and took hold of the earwig's left hind tarsi. At 

Naturalist, 



Field Notes. 349 

7-47 they reached the burrow again, and two new ants came 
out and seized the earwig's right hind leg and left foreleg. The 
earwig made a last effort to use his forceps, but was too weak 
to get them beyond his elytra. At 7-53 he was again dragged 
down the burrow ; and, as he had not reappeared by 8-20, I 
suppose he was at last overpowered. 

The extent to which he used his forceps I thought was in- 
teresting. They were, however, clumsy weapons, and useless, 
except when the actual points closed on the ants. 

I am indebted to Mr. H. St. J. K. Donisthoipe for the 
identification of the ant. 

Late Nesting of Woodcock. — On July 24th, I came across 
the nest of a Woodcock in a wood in this parish, near the foot 
of a fir. The bird flew off at my approach, and the nest 
contained four eggs. As the Woodcock is an early breeder, 
usually nesting in March or April, the above occurrence appears 
to me most extraordinary. It raises the question as to whether 
or this species may be double-brooded.* — W. Wright Masox, 
Melmerby Rectory, Cumberland. 

— :o: — • 

Cumberland Hemiptera.— To the list of Cumberland 
Hemiptera (pp. 252-7 antea) I can add the following : — Mala- 
cocoris chlorizans Fall., very local on Hazel in a lane near 
Wreay, on August 26th last. At the same time and place, I 
beat a few specimens of Campyloneura virgula H.S., from Oak. 
I have since found this latter species at Durdar. A speci- 
men oi Phyllis palliceps Fieb. occurred at Orton from Oak, P. 
melanocephalus Linn, being common at the same time. — Jas. 
Murray, Balfour Road, Carlisle. 

— :o: — 

Cumberland Hepatics. — Many years ago the late Rev. R. 
Wood recorded many species of Mosses from the Caldbeck 
Fells district of Cumberland, but no Hepatics, so that the 
following species, which 1 gathered there in 1913, may be worth 
noting : — Alicularia scalaris (Schrad.) Corda, among mosses on 
High Pike. Lophozia ventricosa (Dicks.) Dum., High Pike, on 
the ground at 2,000 ft. Plagiochila asplenioides (Linn.) Dum., 
on rocks in shade in the ' Howk.' Scapania dentata Dum., 
High Pike, on wet rocks at 1,500 ft. 5. undidata (Linn.), 
Dum., also on High Pike in wet places. Madotheca platypkylla 
(Linn.) Dum., abundant on shady bank in the ' Howk,' at 
Caldbeck. — Jas. Murray, Balfour Road, Carhsle. 

* The occurrence is not extraordinary, as many of the species are 
double brooded. In the North of England, March and April, and June 
and July are the months in which the nests can be looked for.- — R.F. 

1916 Nov. 1. 



350 



FOREIGN SPIDERS IN YORKSHIRE. 



WM. FALCONER, 

Slaithwaite, Huddersfield. 



Adverting to Mr. Mosley's note in last month's issue, p. 330, 
it is not the first time that Zoropsis ntfipes Luc. has been sent 
to me from a Yorkshire locality. In 1912, Mr. Mushani 
forwarded a female, which had been taken alive in the coal- 
scuttle of a Selby tradesman. Early in the same year a female 
of Z. maculosa Cambr.*, (the second known occurrence of this 




Photo by] 



Zoropsis maculosa Camb. 



W.J. Clarke, F.Z.S. 



spider), was obtained on the premises of a Scarborough shop- 
keeper, from a consignment of Jaffa oranges, and kept alive 
for some time by Mr. W. J. Clarke, who managed to secure 
an excellent snapshot of it (herewith produced) in a charac- 
teristic posture, and showing the spots on its body and legs, 
from which it derives its specific name. Both species are 
natives of the Mediterranean region, Canary Islands, etc. 
Though somewhat resembling in appearance some of our 



* Describsd and figured in the Proc. Zool. Soc, London, 1907 (published 
May, 1908) pp. 820-823. 

Naturalist, 



Reviews and Book Notices 351 

larger spiders, they belong to an entirely different group, 
with a different eye arrangement (Cribellatse) characterised 
by the possession of an extra spinner differing in shape and posi- 
tion from the others, which is, always in the $ and sometimes 
in the (^, associated with a comb of hooked bristles on the 
fourth pair of legs, though in Zoropsis neither structure is so 
highly developed as in the allied genera. The spinner pro- 
duces a special kind of silk, which is carded by the comb, 
and spread over a framework of ordinary silk, forming a most 
tenacious snare. Similar webs made by their British relatives 
may be seen in old walls and cellars, and may be recognised 
wnen fresh by their blue appearance. 

Mr. Musham has also sent me from Selby a female Hetero- 
foda Venator ia (of almost world-wide distribution) with an extra- 
ordinary number of young, newly hatched from a single 
egg-sac ; found in a bunch of bananas ; and I have seen dis- 
played in various museums, examples of Mygale caught 
locally, amongst foreign products. 

Doubtless, many other exotics reach this country, but on 
arrival finding no suitable habitat available, are speedily 
■detected and destroyed, and all record of them lost.* 



The Birds of Shakespeare, by Sir Archibald Geikie, O.M., K.C.B., etc. 

Glasgow : J. Mackhose & Sons, 191O. x. -f 121 pp., 3s. 6d. net. In 
this book Sir Archibald Geikie has extended his presidential address to 
the Haslemere Natural History Society, which was delivered in March 
last ; and states that ' In all humility I desire to lay this little Tercentenary 
offering at the shrine of the " Sweet Swan of Avon." ' Over fifty species 
of birds are enumerated by Shakespeare in his plays, and the apt references 
to them prove that in many instances he was familiar with their habits. 
This is shown by many quotations selected, pearls strung together with 
Sir Archibald's facile needle and inimitable thread. His notes are illus- 
trated from blocks taken from Saunder's well-known ' Manual of British 
Birds,' though for some unexplainable reason these seem to us to be out of 
place. There is an excellent head-piece as a tail-piece. It shows the 
author with ' a friendly chough.' 

An Introduction to the Study of Fossils (Plants and Animals), by 
H, W. Shimer. New York : The Macmillan Company. Pp. xiv. -f 450. 
los. 6d. net. This volume is by the ' As.sociate Professor of Palaeontology 
in the Massachusetts Institute of Technology,' and it is essentially an 
American publication. We know of no book quite like it published in 
Britain. Strictly speaking, it is an introduction to the science of Pala'on- 
tology, and deals with almost every phase of the various forms of life 
represented in the rocks by their dead remains. All the examples men- 
tioned are from America, but the remarks on the state of their preservation, 
the various ways in which remains of animals and plants are preserved, 
are so well described, that the volume will be welcome to British workers. 
There are nearly two hundred illustrations to the volume, which alone 
make it of value to the geologist. The price is very reasonable. 

* Sec also The Naturalist, 1913, Feb., p. 114. 
1916 Nov. 1. 



352 

EDESTUS NEWTONI AT BROCKHOLES. 



J. K. SIMPSON. 



Alluvium 



I\Iillstone Grit 
Shales 
below 
Rough Rock 



113 


Q 


129 


9 





3 


130 





12 






142 


3 



About the beginning of IMay, 1916, well boring operations were 
commenced at Rock Mills belonging to Messrs. Joseph Sykes. 
and Co. Ltd., Brockholes, near Huddersiield, and by the middle 
of June the work was completed. A plentiful supply' of water 
was obtained at a depth of 160 feet, and the bore-hole, which 
was 13J inches in diameter, was finished at 165 feet from the 
surface. 

When the boring passed through the alluvium of the valley, 
it entered the group of shales underlying the Rough Rock 
which forms the highest member of the Millstone Grits in the 
district, and the following notes of the various strata en- 
countered were drawn up during the work. 

Section of bore-hole at Rock Mills. Thickness. Depth. 

ft. ins. ft. ins. 

( Sandy Clay . . . . 80 80 

1 Gravel . . . . . . 80 16 o 

("Dark Shales, somewhat 

sandy in places, with 

bands of sandstone and 

ironstone 

Coal 

Sandv shale 

Dark sandstone with shaly 
micaceous bands, ana 
beds of hard siliceous 
sandstone and con- 
glomerate . . . . 17 9 160 Q 

Coal . . . . . . 06 160 6 

Shaly micaceous sand- 
ed stone . . . . . . 46 165 o 

In the shales at a depth of 120 feet, a remarkably fine fossil 
was found by the engineer in charge, Mr. H. H. Freer. A 
small portion of the fossil, accompanied by a rough drawing 
which I made, was forwarded to Mr. John Pringle of the Geolog- 
ical Survey, who recognised it as belonging to Edestus, a rare 
and interesting genus of Coal Measure fish. A request was 
made for the other portion to be sent, and accordingly it was 
taken to London by Mr. Elon Crowther. senior director of 
Joseph Sykes and Co., who, at the request of Dr. A Strahan, 
kindly presented it to the Geological Museum at Jermyn Street. 
Referring to the fossil in the course of a letter to Mr. Crowther, 
Dr. Strahan said, — ' It proves to be an unusually perfect 
example of a fossil fish spine of a type which is of the greatest 
rarity in Europe. We have one poor and imperfect specimen 

. _ Naturalist, 



< 



Simpson: Edestus nei&toni at Byockholes. 353 

in this Museum, the only' one hitherto found in Great Britain. 
Your specimen is far more complete and will be of the utmost 
interest to geologists and zoologists from all parts of the world.' 

The ' other specimen ' referred to by Dr. Strahan was found 
in 1903 by Mr. John Pringle. 

The fossil was then submitted to Dr. A. Smith Woodward, 
who rea:d a paper thereon at the June meeting Of the Geological 
Society, of which the following is an abstract : — 

' The new fossil confirms the interpretation of Edestus as a 
row of symphysial teeth of an Elasmobranch fish. The row of 
eight bilaterally symmetrical teeth, fused together, occurs at the 
tapering end of a pair of calcified cartileges, which evidently 
represent a jaw. An imperfect detached tooth probably 
belongs to an opposing row. All the teeth are unusually large 
compared with their base, and the serrated edges of most of 
them have clearly been worn during life. As in the case of the 
American Carboniferous Edestus mirus, small Orodont teeth 
of the form named Campodus are scattered in the shale near 
the jaw. Markings on the Edestus teeth themselves suggest 
that they have been derived from the Campodus type of tooth. 
The specimen, which represents a new species, was obtained 
by Mr. H. H. Freer from shale below the Rough Rock in the 
upper part of the Millstone Grit at Brockholes, near Hudders- 
field, and was presented to the Museum of Practical Geology, 
London, by Mr. E. Crowther.' 

Dr. Woodward proposes the name of Edestus newtoni for 
the new species, and a full account will appear later in the 
Journal of the Society. A cast of the fossil is being prepared 
and it will be presented to the Huddersfield Natural History 
Museum. 

The fish was associated with a number of marine shells, etc., 
among which the following have been recognised : — 
Posidoniella laevis Brown. Glyphioceras sy>. 

Ptcrinopecten papyyaceus Orthoceras cf. ascicularc Brown 

J. vSow. 
Gasterocevas sp. Edestus neii4oni A. S. Woodward 
Glyphioceras reticulatum Phill. Modiola transversa Hind. 
: o : 

We have frequently drawn attention to the difficulty of quoting from 
The New Phytologist on account of its multiplicity of references. The 
part we have just received, however, seems to be ' the limit.' It is headed 
' Vol. XV. No. 7. July 1916. New Phytologist Reprints. [Published 
September 6th]. No. i [out of print]. Lectures on the Physiology of 
Movement in Plants (1907), by F. Darwin. New Phytologist. Lectures 
on the Evolution of the Filicinean. A British Botanical Journal, by 
A. G. Tansley. Edited by A. G. Tansley, M.A., F.R.S.' The imprint 
reads ' William Weslev & Sons, 28 Essex Street, Strand. Price of Double 
London, four shillings.' It contains 24 pages, without plates, which is 
at the rate of twopence a page. W^e suppose we must put it down to the 
war, or beer ! 

1916 Nov. 1. 



354 

REPORTED NESTING OF THE WHITE WAGTAIL 
IN YORKSHIRE. 



H. B. BOOTH, M.B.O.U., F.Z.S. 

For several years I have been looking forward to being able 
to report the nesting of this species in the West Riding, and 
more particularly from this dale in which I live (Wharfedale). 
I have also drawn the attention of my friends who are ornith- 
ologically inclined to keep a sharp look-out for the same 
possibility. Anyone who has the leisure to regularly patrol 
a few miles of our river banks during the months of April and 
May is almost certain to come across one or more White 
Wagtails. I have even seen single males on March 30th 
and 31st respectively in different years. But most of these 
birds are merely passing immigrants ; although on several 
occasions, I have watched White Wagtails that I believed had 
the intention of — or were actually — nesting here. To quote 
just a few instances that occur, at random. About half a 
dozen years ago, a party of three males and two females 
regularly frequented a portion of the Wharfe close to Ben 
Rhydding to my knowledge for eighteen days, until the end 
of April — after which I could not find any trace of them. On 
another occasion, I watched a male White Wagtail for over an 
hour just above Grassington in the same dale, in May, which 
I felt sure had a sitting female ; but I was unable to locate 
the nest, and I had to hurry away to catch the last train. 
Pressure of business prevented my re-visiting the spot that 
year, and several of my friends to whom I mentioned the 
occurrence, were unable to go to continue the investigation. 
Yet I feel sure that had any fairly good ornithologist been 
able to have spent a few hours there during the period of the 
feeding of the young, he would have been able to add a new 
nesting species of bird to the Yorkshire list. This year, I 
watched a single male for a considerable time on April 26th 
at Bolton Abbey, (ante. p. 267). It disappeared, but my 
friend, Mr. E. P. Butterfield, wrote me later thac he had watched 
with field glasses, a male White Wagtail in Bolton Woods, 
about two miles further up the river on May 22nd. This 
may, or may not, have been the same bird ; but, unfortunately, 
he had" not the time at his disposal to prove whether it was 
nesting there. There are several other instances that I could 
relate in which it might almost be presumed that it was 
nesting here ; but actually, the fact has still to be recorded. 
The current number of The Zoologist, (Sept. pp. 358-9), reports 
the nesting of the White Wagtail on the northern side of 
Scarborough this year, but I am afraid that this record will 
have to be received with a very large mark of interrogation. 

Naturalist," 



Reviews and Book Notices. 



ODD 



The identification rests chiefly with the photograph of two 
nesthngs obtained by a friend. Any bird photographer knows 
that the shght difference in black and white between the Young 
Pied Wagtail and the young White Wagtail, coald not be 
recorded by the camera. A slight exposure, or a light, or a 
dark-print, would make much above the difference. I have even 
seen photographs of Lesser Black-backed Gulls, taken at close 
quarters, that I could not differentiate from Herring Gulls. 
Therefore we can only dispose of this record as eminently 
unscientific. And, although I believe that the White Wagtail 
does nest sparingly in Yorkshire, yet we can onl}' accept 
this Scarborough record as non-proven. 



Elements of Mineralogy, by Frank Rutley. London : Murby & Co., 
1916. Pp. xxii. -|- 394, 3s. 6d.. net. This handbook is too well known 
to need description. The fact that it has now reached its nineteenth 
edition is a sufficient guarantee of its worth. The present edition has been 
revised by Mr. H. H. Reed, and there is a lengthy introduction by Mr. 
G. T. Holloway. Northern students will find many references to minerals 
to be found in Yorkshire, Derbyshire, Durham, Cheshire, Nottinghamshire, 
Northumberland, Cumberland, the Cheviots and Isle of Man. 

The Birds of Britain : their Distribution and Habits, by A. H. Evans, 
M.A., F.Z.S. etc. Cambridge University J*ress, 1916. Pp. xii. -f 275, 
4s. net. The author hopes that the book, ' though primarily intended 
for school,' may be found useful by those who require a short handbook 
which includes the results of the most recent observations, and is adapted 
to modern nomenclature. That it is such a ' short handbook ' we admit, 
but we doubt whether, with all its latin names and classifications, etc., 
it will be in great demand in schools. The notes are certainly written in 
a pleasant style— the number of species dealt with is enormous, and there 
are plenty of illustrations. There is also a list of ' occasional visitors ' 
and a good index. Though the illustrations a,re taken ' for the most part 
from nature,' some at any rate, certainly seem to be photographs of museum 
specimens. 

Agricultural Geology, by R. H. Rastall. Cambridge, 1916 : pp. x. + 
331, los. Od. ^Ir. Rastall deals with Minerals and Rocks, Weathering, 
Transport and Corrosion, Sediments, Superficial Deposits, Soils, \\'ater 
Supply and Drainage, and Geological Maps. The second half of his book 
is devoted to Stratigraphical Cacology, in which rocks from Pre-Cambrian 
to Recent are reviewed. He concludes with a chapter on the Geological 
History of Domestic Animals, and there is a poor index, with which he has 
been helped. There are some remarkably clear diagrams, apparently the 
work of Prof. J. E. Marr. The frequent use of chemical equations gives 
the pages a forbidding aspect. For instance, ' Serpentinization is generally 
attributed to the action of 'Carbon dioxide dissolved in water,' which is 
explained by " 2[2 Mg.O. Si.O.2] -f- CO.o + 2 HoO. = 3 Mg.O. 2 Si.02 
2 H.-20.+Mg.C.0.3. This will not appeal to many readers unless they 
are familiar with chemistry. We find no reference whatever to Marr's 
recent book on a similar subject, and as the author covers so many sub- 
jects, we should have liked some reference to the old soil maps issued in 
the county agricultural surveys published by the Board of Agriculture 
over a century ago. These were largely the basis upon which Smith's 
Geological map of 18 15, and subsequent geological maps, were prepared. 
The price of the book seems sufficient. 

1916 Nov. 1. 



356 

CONCHOLOGICAL NOTES FROM MALTON. 



W. GYNGELL. 



The Malton district has probably been defined by the local 
naturalists, as their vScarborough brother workers have mapped 
out the country, which for such purposes they call their own-j— 
roughly bounded on the South-West b}^ a line drawn from 
Weaverthorpe to Pickering. 

Scarborough conchologists are most justly proud of the very- 
large number of inland species of mollusca found within a 
six-mile radius of their borough. Mr. J. A. Hargreaves' list 
published in the Conchological Society's Journal for July 1909,. 
contains the names of 102 species. Since that date a few 
additions have been made, and at. the present moment quite 
100 species are to be found living in the district. There is no 
reason to doubt that Malton, having land all round it (which 
Scarborough has not), when thoroughly investigated, will be 
able to show as many or more species than may be found near 
Scarborough. 

The writer much regrets that he, personally, has been able 
to spend very little time in or near Malton ; but a few notes 
of his own finds there, .meagre as the}/ are, may not be without 
some interest. 

* Helicigona arbustonirn L. — A colony of this species on the 
Scarborough Road, just beyond Norton, produces in fair 
nimibers the smallest specimens known to the writer. This 
' variety minor ' is also common near North Grimston. 

*| Helix nemoralis L. — One or two varieties of this most 
beautiful and abundant species, varieties absent from the 
Scarborough district, occur at Malton. Variety castanea on 
the road to Old Makon, variety albina also near the town ; 
whilst the band variety 00300, very rare at Scarborough, 
becomes faiily common as one approaches Malton. On the 
road to North Grimston the variety albolahiata was taken in 
1913, and here both large and heavy specimens of fine colour 
are not uncommon. 

The six-banded variety , referred to by Mr. Taylor, of Malton,. 
as having been found some years ago, was doubtless merely 
a split banded form of the type, not a very rare occurrence. 
I Helix hortensis Miiller. — The variety coalita— with bands 
coalesced, and thus almost unicolourous black — not usually 
common, is to be found near Castle Howard, on the road from 
Malton, and here also occur specimens with bright yellow apex. 

* Vertigo pygmcsa- Drapernaud was found near North Giims- 
ton in 1913. 

•[• Succinea putris L. — By the river side at Old Malton very 
large specimens were to be found a few years ago. 
* = East Riding, f = North Riding. 

Naturalist, 



News from the Magazines. 357 

f Linmcea auricularia L. — Most remarkably wide-mouthed, 

and almost square-shouldered specimens, were taken in the lake 

at Castle Howai d "^about ten years ago. The writer has seen 

nothing approacning them from elsewhere, but recent visits 

have failed to produce further specimens or, indeed, the species 

in any form. 

*f Limncea stagnalis h.- — It is quite unusual to find this species 

in a river properly so-called, but Mr. Laverack showed some 

at the recent Yorkshire Naturalists' Uni6n Meeting, which had 

been taken in the River Derwent, and the present writer has 

also taken it there ; only on one otlier occasion has he noted 

a river habitat, and that was at Stafford. 

*-f Planorhis vortex L., lives in the lake at Castle Howard, 

and in the Derwent at Kirkham Abbey. 

t Aplccta hypnorum, in a ditch at Marrishes, together with 

f Limncea palustris Miiller, and 

■j" V.alvata piscinalis Miiller, may be taken any day. 

*t Bithynia tentaculata L., is in the river at Kirkham Abbey. 

Here also occurs 

■*f Unio tumidus ; and the finest set of Pisidium amniaim 

that have had the misfortune to fall into the writer's dredges 

came from this spot. . 

*t One has to go half way to Malton to get iSievitina fkiviatUis 

from the River Derwent ; doubtless it is to be found further 

down the stream. 

* The writer would -like to know more about ' " Anodonta 

tumidus" — reported by Mr. Waltam from Scampston Lake.' 

Herej-may be found Unio pictoriim L., cleaner and more 

delicately formed and coloured specimens than are to be met 

with in other localities. 

Other common species noticed in the ofiicial report of the 
Yorkshire Naturalists' Union i\Ieeting,| and found by the 
wi"iter, need not be repeated here. < 



British Birds for September contains obituary notices of A. G. Leigh ; 
Lieut. Col. B. R. Horsburgh ; Capt. J. M. Charlton, and Lieut. H. V. 
'Charlton. 

The Scottish Naturalist for September contains a memoir and portrait 
of the late J. A. Harvie-Brown. Mr. W. Denison Roebuck writes on 
' Main Argyll and its Inland Molluscan Fauna.' 

^Ir. J. W. H. Harrison has an illustrated note on Psocoptera collected 
by Mr. R. S. Bagnall at Grange-over-Sands, in the Lancashire and Cheshire 
Naiuralist for August ; Mr. G. A. Dunlop gives a list of Hemiptera (of 
Lancashire and Cheshire) collected in 1915 ; Mr. T. A. Coward continues 
his notes on the Vertebrate Fauna of the area, and Mr. R. Standen records 
Chelifer [Cheriies) powelli Kew, and C. (WitJiius) "^ithruher Simon, in 
Lancashire and Cheshire. 

'.:.■!■-•• X See .The Naturalist, 1916,, pp. 2657266. 

1916 Nov. 1, 



358 

THE GEOGRAPHICAL DISTRIBUTION OF THE 
MOTHS OF THE SUBFAMILY BISTONINAE. 



J. W. HESLOP HARRISON, M.Sc. 

[Cojiti?iued ffom page ^/8). 

v.— THE GENUS NYSSIODES (OBERTHUR) 

Nyssiodes lefiiariiis (Erschoff). Distribution: — Japan,. 
Western China, the regions about the Amur riv^er as far north 
as Okhotsk and as far south as Corea. 

. With the study of the present genus, we face for the tirst 
time the consideration of one of the oldest genera of the group.. 
From this, one must not conclude that it has persisted as such 
unchanged during the whole of its existence. Undoubtedly, 
its enormous plumose antennje, the huge jawbone-like gnathos, 
the more slender and less hairy abdomen indicate its primitive 
character. Nevertheless, the valves of the male genitalia are 
of the true Nyssia type to the oldest species of which, Nyssia 
zonaria, it approximates in the very unusual combination of 
a velvety black abdomen with bright yellowish segmental 
incisions. 

Without entering into the phylogenetical connection of the 
genera Me^abiston, Lycia, Palaeonyssia, Nyssiodes, Poecilopsis- 
and Nyssia, which is reserved for special treatmeuc, it is 
sufficient to say that in Nyssiodes, we are dealing with the- 
remains of the line which linked up the forms with apterous 
females to the main Non-Boarmioid Bistonine lim. . 

From the physiological remoteness of the genera Lycia and 
Nyssia, compared with the comparative nearness of Lycia and 
Poecilopsis, as betrayed by their partially fertile hybrids, and 
from the manifest relationsnip between Nyssia zonaria and 
A^. Icjuarius, the^e is but one conclusion to be drawn, and that 
is that the two latter forms, or what then represented Ihem, 
must have a. one time been in contact. At present, if we look 
at the map, we find that tne nearest stations of the two insects 
are two thousand miles apart ; if we replace zonaria by its- 
two nearest allies in the Poecilopsis group, i.e. P. rachelae and 
P. lapponaria, the distance is increased in both cases to four 
thousand miles, in the former case to the east, and in the latter, 
to the west. It is, however, certain that the contact must 
have been at the point of origin of the newer genera and, 
consequently, in the old Miocene and early Pliocene continent 
to the north of Europe and Asia. 

But this implies either that Nyssiodes has retreated from 
that point to its present stations, or that it has originated in 
the territor}' it now holds, and has spread northward, receding 

Naturalist 



Distribution of Moths of the Sub-family Bistonincr. 35Q 

once more when the climate became unfavourable 01 the ground 
submer,c:ed. The former supposition is the least likely, for 
then we should naturally expect to find European colonies of 
the insec, and this we fail to do. Let us observe, however, 
that this view means that, in the case of other insects which 
transgressed the point at which Mio( ene and Pliocene European 
and Asiatic continents were severed, we do find colonies sOs 
isolated. Such, indeed, is the case in very many insects as 
well as in other groups. Typical instances in the Lepidoptera 
are Ennomos antumnaria, limited to Europe and Eastern Asia, 
Deile-htcnia abietaria to Central Europe and Japan, Hybernia 
leucophcearia to Central Europe, the Amur district and Japan. 
From these consideraaons, we conclude either that Nyssi- 
odes originated in its present habitats or more probably, when 
due attention is given to the Boreal nature of the group, at 
points north of them, in Miocene times. This \\e\s is confirmed 
by ttie fact that the lines of advance of all the prim.itive members 
of the Bistoninae, and of the whole Boarmiad familv, as well 
as those of the early groups, e.g., the Attacid genus Actias, 
radiate from the centres. And many of these insects are 
demonstrably of Miocene origin, for their present habitats 
coincide with ttiose of many Miocene relicts, hke the Sensitive 
Fern {Onoclea sensibilis), the former existence of which in high 
x\rctic latitudes, is proved by abundant fossil remains in 
mid-Tertiary strata. Adopting, then, the conclusion that 
Nyssiodes came into being in the ancient Asiatic continent to 
the noith of Wrangel Island, we see tnat it must have spread 
westward but, most certainly, not via Western Asia, for over 
that area rolled a mighty inland sea. Most likely, the advance 
was due west or even north-west. Reaching the nortnern 
European area, it vielded us the genera Poccilopsis and Nys^^ia 
very early. Almost immediately, local subsidences of the land 
cut it off from its derivatives and drove it gradually south 
eastward over the huge peninsula which then, and even into 
Pleistocene* times, stretched north westward from what is now 
Cape Cnelyuskin and the New Siberian Islands. Gaining the 
vallev of the River Lena, and utilising it and the foothills of 
the then relatively lower Yablonoi Mountains as a causeway, 
it continued its slow and methodical retreat, finally obtaining 
access to the headwaters of the River Amur at some place not 
far from the pass used by the Trans-Siberian railway. Here, 
safety was attained, and now it was not a question of retreat, 
but of organising new ground. :\t this period, the whole of 
its present northern stations, as well as the shores of the yellow- 
Sea were invaded, and from Corea, across the low isthmus 
which connected that country to Japan, the latter district was 

* .\s the fossiliferous depo.sits of the islands show, 
lou; Nov. 1. * 



360 Distribution of Moths of the Snh-family Bistonince. 

reached. Simultaneously, another branch advan<:ed up wnat 
was then the basin of the Hoang-ho and took possession of 
tile present outposts in Western China. 

But now, climatic, conditions were more constant, and 
little further change took place in the area occupied except 
that the constant pressure of the Pacific waves and currents 
severed Japan from the mainland. This, except for local 
changes such as that which destroyed the species in its localities 
near the old mouth ,of the Hoang-ho, in 1888, brings the 
vicissitudes undergone /txy Nyssiodes lefiiarius to a close. 

VI— THE GENUS PALiEONYSSIA (HARRISON). 

PalcBonyssia trisecta (Warren). Distribution :— Transvaal' 
Natal, PondQland and Transkei. 

This is the only outlying apterous form of the Bistoninae 
and, geographically, is so isolated that one feels tempted to 
state that it represents an independent development of some 
winged Bistonine genus, of the Haggardia type. This, however, 
demands an arm of coincidence so long that, one cannot grant 
it ; it means that we have to assume that on three, if not 
four, separate occasions, the Bistonine sub-family has yielded 
wingless . forms.. Nor , is there any need of it; structurally, 
in raapy respects, the insect is more primitiv^e than Haggardia 
and its allies and it is precisely in 1;hese structures that PalcB- 
onyssia approaghes the older Bistonine forms. Its heavy 
antennae alone suffice to .indicate an early origin ,and, when 
this is coupled with a furca thiat brings it near to Megahiston, 
a genus which has. certainly produced the ,I.ya'« ]ine and its 
satellites, the only, position possible is that it represents a very 
early offshoot from the line of which the genera Nyssiodes, 
Nyssia and P'oecilopsis are links or appendages. Its almost 
unique, stout, finger-like furca in the male genitalia too, pointy 
to an origin prior to Nyssiodes and, similarly, the heavy, 
antennse, not to mention other minor but primitive structural 
characters, show that it 3.nteda.tes, Nyssia a-nd Poecilopsis. 
Thus, in it, we are concerned with the pldest a,pterous species 
in the chain. This simply means that, let the original home 
of the sub-family be where it may, this species has advanced 
froni; it. As pointed out before, of a certainty, this home was 
in North-eastern Asia, if not of the present, then that of the 
Miocene and Pliocene epochs. From this, it is clear that the 
line of descent \yhich Palcenyssia trisecta represents, has made 
a journey of ten-thousand miles from its birth place. It 
equallv implies that, if such a journey was possible, other forms 
should have traced ouf the same. path and this supposition is 
justified |for such species we see ^n membe.rs pf the genera Actias„ 
Argynnis, 2ind Co/ias .amongst others,. Actiasjnimo.s.ae occurs 
in Natal, in the very,.arpas occupied by P. trisecta. Of all 

Naturalist, 



Distribiitign of Moths oj the Sub-jamily Bistpniiics.. 361 

genera which are of ,Miocene dispersal, and are thus Miocene 
relijCts, Actias keeps closest to the recognised abodes of such 
relict forms in the ea,stern portions of Asia and America. And, 
what is more significant, it has its headquarters now exactly 
where we have fixed the " fons et origo " of the sub-family we 
are studying. 

■; Obviously, a mere study of the map suggests that such 
Miocene elements of the South xAfrican fauna would most 
'easily reach their present abodes across the continent (whether 
we Ga}^ it Lemuria or anything, else) which once stretched 
across the Indian Ocean. But the presence of Actias selene in 
IiT,4ia and Ceylon, of a. modified Actias — Graellsia isabcllae — in