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1/ 

3 

THE 

NATURALIST: 

A 
MONTHLY JOURNAL OF 

NATURAL HISTORY FOR THE NORTH OF ENGLAND 

EDITED BY 

THOS. SHEPPARD, M.Sc., F.G.S., F.R.G.S., F.S.A.(Scot.). 

Curator of the Municipal Museums, Hull. 

Hon. Member of the Yorkshire Naturalists' Union; the Spalding Gentlemen's 
Society; the Doncaster Scientific Society; the Selby Scientific Society. 

and 

THOMAS WILLIAM WOODHEAD, Ph.D., M.Sc, F.L.S. 

Lecturer in Biology, Technical College, Huddersfield ; 
with the assistance as referees in special departments of 

J. GILBERT BAKER, F.R.S., F.L.S. GEORGE T. PORRITT, F.L.S., F.E.S. 

Prof. PERCY F. KENDALL, M.Sc, F.G.S. JOHN W. TAYLOR, M.Sc. 

RILEY FORTUNE, F.Z.S. 

9 



1917. 




LONDON : 

A. Brown & Sons. Ltd., 5, Farringdon Avenue, E.C, 

And at Hull and York. 



PRINTED AT BROWNS' SAVILE PRESS, 
SAVILE STREET AND GEORGE STREET, HULL. 



JAN. 1917. 



No. 720 

(No. 496 of current t»ri»s) 




A MONTHLY ILLUSTRATED JOURNAL OF 

NATURAL HISTORY FOR THE NORTH OF ENGLAND. 



T. SHEPPARD, 



EDITED BY 

M.Sc., F.Q.S., F.R.Q.S., F.S.A.Scot.. 

The Museums, Hull ; 

AND 

T. W. WOODHEAD, Ph.D., M.Sc./ F.L.S., 

Technical College, Huddersfield. , 'J 1 1 hi ii 

WITH THE ASSISTANCE AS REFEREES IN SPECIAL DEPARTMENTS OP 

J. OILBBRT BAKER, F.R.S. P.L.S., OEO. T. PORRITT, F.L.S., H.H.S. 

Prof. P. F. KENDALL, M.Sc, P.Q.S.. JOHN W. TAYLOR, M.Sc, 

RILEY FORTUNE, F.Z.S. 



Contents : — 

Notes and Comments (illustrated) :— Taylor's Monograph of Mollusca ; The Vinculum; 
An Unknown Warbler ; Manchester Microscopists ; Popular Lectures; Leaf Skeletons; 
The Palaeontographical Society; Protective Shell-Banding, and Natural Selection ; Early 
Man ; A Reply ; Man and Mr. Moir ; Flints under Ice-Sheets ; A Prehistorian's Geology ; 
Archaeology and Geology ; The Ipswich Skeleton ; A Signed Report ; The Geological 
Evidence; How the Young Man Died; Expert Reports ; The Young Man of Ipswich ; 
Boulder Clay and not Boulder Clay ; Genitalia of Omix ; A Halifax Industry 

On the Occurrence of Manganese in Land and Fresh Water Mollusca— Prof. A . E. 
Boycott, M.D., F.R.S. , etc 

Yorkshire Naturalists' Union: Vertebrate Section — A. Haigh Lumby 

Yorkshire Naturalists at Selby (illustrated)— W. E.L. W 

In Memoriam :— Charles Crossland — T.S. 

Clement Reid, F.R.S., F.L.S., F.G.S.— T.S 

Sir Ralph Payne-Gallwey, Bart, (illustrated)— R.F 

J. M. Campbell (illustrated)— R.F. 

Yorkshire Naturalists' Union's Report for 1916 

Reviews and Book Notices 

Northern News 

News from the Magazines 

Illustrations ... 1.2, 4, '20, 

Plate 1. 



1-10 

11-is 
19 
20-23 
21-20 
26-27 
27-2- 
29-30 
33-1* 
23, 30 
19, 31 
32 
27,29 



LONDON : 

A. Brown & Sons, Limited, 5, Farringdon Avrnuk, EC. 

And at Hull and York. 

Printers and Publishers to the Y.N. U. 



Prepaid Subscription 6/6 per annum, post free. 



Books for Sale. 

Flight of Birds. Headley. 3/6 

Our Summer Migrants. Harting. 3/- 

Birds of Britain.. Evans. 2/6 

Genetalia of Geometrid^e. (48 plates.) Pierce 6/6 

Vertebrate Fauna of North Wales. Forrest 12/6 

Hunting in British East Africa. Madeira. 15/- 

Natural History Essays. Renshaw. 4/- 

Final Natural History Essays. Renshaw. 4/ 

How to Teach Nature Study. Hoare. 2/6 

Our Insect Friends and Foes. Duncan. 4/- 

The Nature Study Idea. Bailey. 3/- 

Mosses and Liverworts, (plates.) Russell. 3/6 

Text Book of Zoology. Wells and Davies. 4/6 

Highways and Byways in Derbyshire. Firth. 4/6 

Outdoor Common Birds. Stannard. 2/- 

Natural History of some Common Animals. Lattar. 3/6 

Derby : Its Rise and Progress. Davison. 3/6 

The Yorkshireman. By a Friend. Vol. I., Pontefract, 1833 4/- 

Birds of Yorkshire. Nelson. Large Paper Edition. Offers? 

Engineering Geology. Reis and Watson. 10/- 

Animal Romances. Renshaw. 4/- 

Natural History of Animals, 8 vols. 4/6 per vol 

Animal Life. Gamble. 4/- 

Science from an Easy Chair. Lankester. 4/- 

D o- (Second Series). 4/- 

W hite's Natural History of Selborne. Coloured Illustrations by Collins 6/- 
The Making of Species. Dewar and Finn. 4/- 
The Greatest Life. Leighton. 3/- 
History of Birds. Pycraft. 6/- 

Natural History of some Common Animals. Latter. 3/- 
Home Life of Osprey. Abbott. 2/6 



Published Records of Land and Fresh -Water Mollusca, East Riding 

(Maps). T. Petch, B.Sc, B.A. 1/6 
Diatomace^ of Hull District. (600 illustrations). By F. W Mills FRMS 

and R. H. Philip. 4/6 

Apply:— Dept. C, c/o A. BROWN & SONS, Ltd., Hull. 



BOOKS WANTED. 

Trans. Yorks. Nat. Union. Part I. 

Naturalists' Journal. Vol. I. 

W. Smith's New Geological Atlas of England aud Wales. 1819-21 

Frizmghall Naturalist. Vol. I., and part 1 of Vol. II. (lithographed). 

Illustrated Scientific News. 1902-4. (Set). 

Journal Keighley Naturalists' Society. 4 to. Parti. 

Cleveland Lit. & Phil. Soc. Trans. Science Section or others 

Proc. Yorks. Nat. Club (York). Set, 1867-70. 

Keeping's Handbook to Nat. Hist. Collections. (York Museum). 

Huddersfield Arch, and Topog. Society. 4 Reports. (iSe-s-iSeo). 

First Report, Goole Scientific Society. 

The Naturalists' Record. Set. 

The Natural History Teacher (Huddersfield). Vols. I. -II. 

The Economic Naturalist (Huddersfield). Vol. I. 

The Naturalists' Guide (Huddersfield). Set. 

The Naturalists' Almanac (Huddersfield). 1867. 

" Ripon Spurs," by Keslington. 

Reports on State of Agriculture of Counties (1790-1810). 

Early Geological Maps. 

Selborne Letters. Vol. I. 1881. 

Apply— Editor, The Museum, Hull. 



A 



THE NATURALIST, 1917. 



HYGROMJA AND HELICODONTA. 



» 




Hygromia striolata (C.Pfeiffer) X i-}. 
Boston Spa, Yorkshire. 



...A^, 

* 







//. striolata var. ra&ews (Moq.) x 1J. //. striolata var. «»a (Moq.) xlj. //. striolata var. albocincta (Ckll.) x ]}. 
Boston Spa, Yorkshire. Bristol, Mtss F. M. Hele. Saundcrsfoot, Pembroke, F. M. Burton. 











Hygromia hispida (Linne) X 2. 
Por/ Bannatyne, Bute, T. Scott. 







H. hispida var. tinea (.Moq.)X2. 
Grimsargh, Lanes.. IF. H. Heatheole. 



H. hispida var. sericea (Drap.)x! 
Bavaria, S. Clessin. 



^ ._ 



•■ 4& 



Hygromia revelata (Michaud) X 1J. 
77j« Lizard, Cornwall, Miss F. M. Hele. 



Hygromia fit sea (Montagu) X i£. 

Bassenthwai/e, Cumberland. Capt. W. J. Fairer. 




Helicodonta obvolvta (Miiller) X t1. 
Ditcham IJ'oorf, Hampshire, L. Dawes. 






J W. Taylor, del. ad nat. 



THE NATURALIST 



FOR 1917. 



NOTES AND COMMENTS. 

taylor's monograph of mollusca. 
Notwithstanding the depletion of his staff by voluntary and 
forcible enlistment, Mr. J. W. Taylor has brought out part 
22 of his Monograph of the Land and Fresh-water Mollusca of 
the British Isles,* which apparently commences a new volume. 
He also hopes to issue a further instalment shortly. Part 22 
deals with Hygromia striolata ; H. hispida ; H. revelata ; 
H. fusca ; and H. obvoluta. Each is dealt with under the 
various and familiar headings, and well illustrated, in Mr. 





Young shell of H. striolata X 5, Grange, Mr. F. Booth, showing the 
hispid epidermis (from photograph by Mr. W. Bagshavi ). 

Taylor's usual careful way ; and with each species is given a 
photograph of some zoologist associated with the particular 
form. There are also the familiar distribution maps. There 
is a coloured plate showing the various species of Hygromia 
and Helicodonta, which is perfect. The only error we have 
noticed in the part is that Mr. T. Sheppard's record of the 
fossil form of H. hispida for Yorkshire, should be from Biel- 
becks, near Market Weighton. We are kindly permitted to re- 
produce one of the 93 illustrations in the text, as well as the 
coloured plate already referred to. 

THE VASCULUM. 

The Vasculum for November, is excellent. Mr. G. Bolam 
contributes two good papers on Birds, which contain valuable 
records and observations, including a note on a Little Bittern 
at Gateshead on July 27th. Mr. G. B. Walsh writes ' On the 



64 PP-> 5 plates, 7s. 6d. net. 



1917 Jan. 1. 



2 Notes and Comments. 

Preparation of Insects as Microscopic Mounts.' Mr. A. Chap- 
man records a Grey Shrike at Wark's-fell, on January 7th, 
1916, and writes on ' Woodcock in Spring.' Mr. H. Preston 
gives ' First experiences with a Marine aquarium.' There are 
also the numerous and valuable ' Notes and Records,' most 
of which refer to V.C. 66 (Durham), though there are Yorkshire 
items. There are the usual minor misprints on the head-lines. 
In one case, the printer has failed to spell ' Vasculum ' properly. 

AN UNKNOWN WARBLER. 

In the same journal, Mr. A. Chapman figures ' An unknown 
Warbler,' which he sketched, but was unable to shoot. It 





disappeared while he was seeking a ' collecting gun.' We are 
kindly permitted to reproduce his sketch, made while the bird 
was on a rockery at Houxty, North Tyne, on September 23rd, 
1913. ' In colour, its upper parts were chocolate-brown, 
ruddier on the rump, while below it was pale grey fading away 
to almost white. A dark band through the eye, with white 
superciliary streak above, were conspicuous features.' Possibly 
some of our readers may care to try to identify the species. 

MANCHESTER MICROSCOPISTS. 

The Annual Report and Transactions of the Manchester 
Microscopical Society for 1915,* includes the Presidential 
Address (with plates) on ' Graft Hybrids,' by Prof. F. E. 
Weiss ; ' A sandy sea-shore,' by Joseph Kitchen ; ' Yeast/ 

* W. F. Jackson & Sons, The Manor Press, 71 pages, 1/6. 

Naturalist, 



Notes and Comments. 3 

"by W. Salmon ; ' The Life of the Honey Bee,' by Frederick 
H. Taylor ; ' Mounting in Fluids,' by Win. Cookson ; ' The 
Preparation of the Knife for Section Cutting,' by Albert 
Newton ; ' The Preparation and Staining of Material for 
Mitosis,' by A. E. Openshaw. In addition are the usual reports 
of meetings and rambles. We as glad to find that this Society 
continues to issue its welcome reports, which keep up the well- 
known standard of excellence. 

POPULAR LECTURES. 

Mr. P. J. Ashton's paper on ' Popular Lectures.' read 
before the Conference of Delegates at the Newcastle Meeting 
of the British Association, is printed in The Selbome Magazine 
for November, and is worth the serious consideration of prov- 
incial societies. His conclusions are : — (1) The objects of the 
various societies should be carefully scrutinised to see whether 
any alterations in the rules are necessary in order to widen 
the scope of their activities. (2) A central Bureau for the 
supply of lecturers should be established in order that profess- 
ional or other competent lecturers can be at the service of the 
Societies, regulating their visits in a manner which will com- 
pensate them for their services, and be within the financial 
scope of the Societies. (3) Where the funds of the Society 
will not permit of direct payment of fees, the difficulty of 
raising the necessary expenses can be overcome by dividing 
the meeting into two classes : (a) special members' evening 
for discussion of local or advanced topics ; (b) popular 
evenings to which a charge for admission could be made, and 
the public admitted. This method has been adopted with 
success in many Societies, including recently the Selborne 
Society. Our subscription (five shillings per annum) being 
manifestly inadequate to meet the expenses of professional 
lecturers and guides, the lectures and rambles have been 
subdivided, the members' excursions, under voluntary guidance, 
l)eing continued side by side with a new series of public rambles 
and lectures under professional leadership. 

LEAF SKELETONS. 

Miss F. A. Gordon writes on ' Leaf Skeletons ' in The 
Selborne Magazine for December. She says she prefers the 
method of using fresh water only. ' It is very slow, but the 
results are better, and patience is occasionally rewarded with 
a really perfect specimen, with every fibre quite unbroken. 
It is also possible to preserve skins. It is always easy to 
get one skin, the upper and strongest. To get both is difficult, 
but it is worth the trouble and care. This fresh-water method 
is quite wholesome, with no unpleasant and stagnant water. 
For the best results, gather well-developed leaves, put them 
in Water at once, changing it every day for about two weeks, 

1917 Jan. 1. 



4 Notes and Comments. 

then twice a week for a month, then once a week or Jess in 
cold weathe; ; in from rive to fifteen months, the specimens 
will ripen. Flat white porcelain dishes, used for photographic 
work, are very nice and useful. The necessary tools are a 
good small paint brush, a tiny piece of sponge, and an old 
knitting needle, but fingers must do most of the work. Keep 




Skeleton Leaves of Ivy. 



the specimen under water, supported on a piece of glass/ 
We are permitted to reproduce two of the illustrations. 

THE PAL^ONTOGRAPHICAL SOCIETY. 

Notwithstanding many adverse circumstances the Palae- 
ontographical Society was able to issue its Report for 1915 
before the close of 1916. It is occupied by two important 
memoirs. The first, by Dr. A. Smith Woodward, F.R.S., 
describes the Wealdon and Purbeck Fishes, and is illustrated 
by ten plates, besides numerous blocks in the text. Dr. Smith 
Woodward's unrivalled opportunities, together with his 
exceptional knowledge, make this memoir of especial im- 
portance. The second is Part II of Mr. W. K. Spencer's 
' British Palaeozoic Asterozoa ' in which he deals with a very 
intricate and difficult branch of Palaeontology. The specimens 
he describes and figures are principally from the Upper Ordo- 
vician and Upper Silurian. 

PROTECTIVE SHELL-BANDING 

In The Naturalist for 1909 the Rev. E. A. Woodruiie- 
Peacock stated that around Brigg the shells occurring most 
commonly at thrush anvils were unbanded, while shells with 

Naturalist 



Notes and Comments. 5 

one band came next in order, although these varieties were 
not the most abundant in the neighbourhood. This study 
has been continued by Mr. A. E. Trueman, B.Sc., in The Annals 
and Magazine of Natural History for October, 1916. He 
states : — 

AND NATURAL SELECTION. 

"Striking confirmation of Mr. Woodruff e-Peacock's obser- 
vations on the localization of the different varieties was 
obtained while making this collection ; thus in the lane near 
Broxtowe for a distance of 50 yards quite four-fifths of the 
shells found had one band only. The complete details of the 
collections were as follows : — 

Standard Collection. " Anvil " Collection. 
Unbanded .... 25 per cent. 38 per cent. 

1 band 16 „ 23 

2 2 ,, 2 ,, 

3 ',', 5 „ 6 „ 

4 ,. 9 .. § ., 

5 , 42 „ 23 „ 

6 ,, less than 1 ,, 

Thus, although fully two-fifths of the standard collection had 
the normal five bands, little more than half this proportion 
of the broken shells were so marked. Further, although 
unbanded shells constituted only a quarter of the standard 
collection, they occurred in greater numbers among the broken 
shells. The chances of an unbanded shell being observed 
are, according to these figures, about three times as great as 
of a normal shell. Stated more concisely, in the standard 
collection, there was an average of 2*9 bands per shell ; among 
the broken shells the average was much lower, viz., 1-9 per 
shell." 

EARLY MAN. 

Mr. J. Reid Moir writes : — " It is pleasing to a prehistorian 
to notice the amount of space devoted in the November number 
of The Naturalist to the subject of early man. It is also of 
interest to me that two of my latest papers have been mentioned 
by the writer of your ' Notes and Comments.' But I fail to 
understand why on page 339 he states, in reference to my 
paper in the Journal of the Anthropological Institute, that 'we 
are not quite sure of the object of the contribution.' On page 
338 he quotes the title of the paper in full, ' On the evolution 
of the earliest palaeoliths from the rostrocarinate implements,' 
and this title seems clear and incapable of misunderstanding. 
But if your reviewer was unable to grasp its meaning, a careful 
perusal of the paper itself would have dispelled his doubts. 
Can it be that he has not read the paper through ? If he has 
not, it would seem that he ought not to criticise it." 

1917 Jan.], 



6 Notes and Comments. 

A REPLY. 

But we did read Mr. J. Reid Moir's paper and have read 
it again. We have read dozens of Mr. J. Reid Moir's notes 
in various and numerous publications, and we are still, in 
many cases, unable to understand his object in writing them^ 
as very often the same statement occurs time after time in 
different journals. From the quantity of his notes, we have 
almost got the impression that possibly their publication was 
to advertise Mr. J. Reid Moir. Possibly we are wrong. But 
we leave our readers to read the paragraph headed ' Pointed 
Palaeoliths ' on page 339 of our journal. The paragraph is 
Mr. J. Reid Moir's, not ours. And if they can then see what 
his object is, we are satisfied. 

MAN AND MR. MOIR. 

Mr. J. Reid Moir continues : — "Then again, on page 341, 
where your reviewer criticises my note which appeared in 
last month's issue of Man, it seems that an attempt has been 
made to fog the issue. In this note I made it quite clear 
that Mr. Warren, whose paper I was criticising, stated that 
he could not imitate the flaking upon the sub-crag flints, 
because it was not possible to use such an amount of pressure 
experimentally. This, as I demonstrated, is incorrect, as 
I have seen flints flaked by pressure in a press which showed 
flake-scars quite as large as those exhibited by the sub-crag 
specimens. I stated also that I have proved by experiments, 
which your reviewer can easily repeat if he wishes to do so, 
that no flint will stand any very great pressure without suffering 
disintegration. This being so, it follows that those specimens 
in the boulder clays which are striated, are those to which 
this maximum pressure has not been applied. The other 
specimens which were subjected to the maximum were, no 
doubt, ground up and have disappeared. And this would 
inevitably be the fate of any flint subjected to the amount of 
pressure which Mr. Warren had in mind and which he said he 
could not imitate experimentally, and which ' obtains beneath 
an ice-sheet.' " 

FLINTS UNDER ICE-SHEETS. 

Basing his remarks on his experiments, Mr. J. Reid Moir 
distinctly states in Man, page 156, that " Flint of even the 
best quality and greatest hardness will stand only a limited 
amount of pressure before fracturing, and the pressures ' that 
obtain beneath an ice-sheet ' would undoubtedly reduce it 
to powder." Now as there are tons upon tons of flints of all 
sizes in boulder clay, a deposit undoubtedly formed beneath 
an ice-sheet, we must conclude either that the ice-sheet has 
acted in an improper way and contrary to Mr. J. Reid Moir's 
laws, or that Mr. J. Reid Moir's experiments are not reliable. 
Personally, we should put our money on the ice-sheet. 

Naturalist, 



Notes and Comments. y 

A prehistorian's geology. 
Mr. J. Reid Moir goes on to say: — "I am quite familiar 
with striated flints in boulder clay, and have described their 
nature and characteristics with some care and detail (see ' The 
Striation of Flint Surfaces,' Man, Vol. XIV, No., n, November, 
191 4). It appears to me that it would have been almost as 
well if your reviewer had made himself acquainted with this 
fact before accusing me of a lack of ' an elementary knowledge 
of geology.' It may even be that my knowledge of the con- 
stituents of boulder-clay surpasses his own. But in any case, 
I feel justified in asking that in future your reviewer may take 
the trouble to possess himself of at least an elementary know- 
ledge of my work before essaying to criticise it in a public 
journal." 

ARCHEOLOGY AND GEOLOGY. 

As already stated, we have read, marked, and tried to 
digest Mr. J. Reid Moir's numerous epistles, and we know 
all he has written in Man, and while we did not necessarily 
imply that the cap would fit him, we still maintain that 
anyone trying to prove that any human bones or wrought 
implements are of extraordinarily great age, the person at- 
tempting to do so should have at least an elementary knowledge 
of geology. We do not for one moment wish to compare our 
knowledge of glacial beds with that of Mr. J. Reid Moir. 
Judging from his writings, his knowledge in that direction is 
unique. We know no geologist who would vie with him. 
Mr. J. Reid Moir once certainly did publish some of his obser- 
vations on boulder clay. Let us see what happened. 

THE IPSWICH SKELETON. 

In the Proceedings of the Prehistoric Society of East Anglia, 
Vol. I., part 2, Mr. J. Reid Moir contributed a paper on ' The 
occurrence of a Human Skeleton in a Glacial Deposit at Ipswich.' 
Together with ' expert ' opinions, it occupied sixteen pages, 
and three plates, and is illustrated by photographs, drawings, 
sections, etc ; altogether an elaborate business. One of the 
plates shows Mr. J. Reid Moir with his ' left arm ' resting on 
a ' block of clay.' And it's a very good photograph too. 
His paper includes a report signed by himself and three other 
local prehistorians. This contains the following : — 

A SIGNED REPORT. 

' We, the undersigned, were present at, and superintended, 
the digging out of the human remains found at Messrs. Bolton 
and Laughlin'spit, Ipswich, on Saturday, October 7th, 1911. We 
all most carefully examined the section of decalcified boulder 
clay, under which the bones lay, before any digging commenced, 
and were absolutely convinced that no grave had ever been 
dug on the spot before. This opinion was confirmed (1) By 

1917 Jan.l. 



8 Notes and Comments. 

the extreme hardness of the boulder clay, which necessitated 
the continued use of picks in getting it up. (2). There was 
not the slightest sign of any mixing of the soils (such as would 
occur in an old grave), the boulder clay resting normally 
on the underlying glacial sand as it does in all sections known 
to us where the succession of the beds is the same.' 

THE GEOLOGICAL EVIDENCE. 

And now we come to Mr. J. Reid Moir's geological work. He 
says " Let us suppose that this man, whose remains we have 
found, was wandering over the sandy land surface, and was over- 
come with the cold. If this were the case he would lie down, 
curl himself up for warmth, and eventually get covered by the 
sand as it was blown by the wind. This supposition is 
borne out by the fact of the contracted position in which the 
body was found, and also as the climate was fast degenerating 
into glacial conditions, it is certain very low temperatures 
were present. There also seems no doubt that when the 
boulder clay was first deposited, there was a very much greater 
thickness of it than is seen now. The melting of the ice-sheet 
which laid it down would cause a lot of denudation, and during 
the ages which have been passed since the ice finally disappeared 
the same process has been continually going on." .... 

HOW THE YOUNG MAN DIED. 

" Now if this man was lying on this glacial sand, and was 
covered by the boulder clay, we can be sure that as the clay 
became decalcified, the human bones would also disappear 
by the same process. This is exactly what happened. The 
skeleton was found lying partly embedded in glacial sand and 
partly in boulder clay. The glacial sand underlying the clay 
in both sections is highly calcareous. Tin's condition could 
not possibly be present if at any time the clay had been denuded 
and re-deposited, because the water which would accompany 
any such phenomena would dissolve out the chalk from the 
underlying sand. There can, I think, be no doubt that the 
material under which the bones were lying is the undisturbed, 
though eroded and partly decalcified, base of the chalky boulder 
clay formation." 

EXPERT REPORTS. 

One well-known geologist, a Fellow of the Royal Society, 
thinks there is no doubt that the pit shows a ' junction section 
of the boulder clay with the underlying sand and gravel, but 
he fails ' to understand how man could have lived at the time 
of the commencement of the Boulder Clay.' Another geologist, 
a Professor, guardedly states that he is ' unable to distinguish 
a thin mass of such a clay from true boulder clay.' Dr. Arthur 
Keith, whose work among the bones of early man is well known 
to our readers, also gives a report, in which he says, ' If Mr. 

Naturalist, 



Notes and Comments. 9 

Moir and I arc right in assigning the remains here described 
to a man who lived in Suffolk before the formation of the 
boulder clay, then there can be no doubt we are dealing with 
one of the earliest representations of man yet discovered. The 
only other remains which are certainly older are the Heidelberg 
jaw and the fossil man of Java (Pithecanthropus credits).' 
And Mr. J. Reid Moir concludes by stating that ' It will, 
I think, be seen from these carefully-compiled reports that in 
all respects this matter has been gone into in as thorough and 
scientific a manner as possible.' He also gives a photograph 
of a tusk of Elephas at Charsfield, which, in his opinion, was 
found on the same horizon, and suggests that the Ipswich man 
and the Charsfield elephant were contemporary. That was 
all five short years ago. 

THE YOUNG MAX OF IPSWICH. 

And now, after the elaborate and illustrated and signed 
reports, we get a reverse, which comes as a thunderbolt. This 
geological "prehistorian," with his expert knowledge of boulder 
clay, beats a retreat, regardless of the former .assistance of 
his allies. As has been pointed out in The Naturalist on more 
than one occasion, the extraordinarily great age of the so-called 
Ipswich man was very doubtful, notwithstanding the lengthy 
reports on the subject prepared by Ipswich antiquaries, backed 
up by specialists who ought to have known better. We hope 
those specialists share our feelings at seeing the following admis- 
sion which has been sent to the press by Mr. Reid Moir. The 
pity is that the original announcement was ever made, as the 
Ipswich skeleton, endowed with questionable years, lias found 
its way into more than one text -book. 

BOULDER CLAY AXD XOT BOULDER CLAY. 

Mr. J. Reid Moir writes : — "It will no doubt be remembered 
that at the time of the discovery, in 1911, of a human skele- 
ton in a sand pit in the occupation of Messrs. A. Bolton & Co., 
Ltd. (late Bolton & Laughlin), of Henley Road, Ipswich, it 
was held by some geologists, and by myself, that the remains 
occurred beneath an undisturbed stratum of weathered chalky 
boulder clay. Since this discovery I have been enabled to 
investigate the small valley adjoining the sand pit in which 
the human skeleton was found, and to conduct excavations in 
the immediate vicinity of the spot where the bones occurred. 
These investigations have shown that at about the level 
at which the skeleton rested, the scanty remains of a ' floor ' 
are present, and that the few associated flint implements 
appear to be the same as others found on an old occupation- 
level in the adjacent valley. This occupation-level is, in all 
probability, referable to the early Aurignac period, and it 
appears that the person whose remains were discovered was 

1917 Jan. 1. 



io Notes and Comments. 

buried in this old land surface. The material which has since 
covered the ancient ' floor ' may be regarded as a sludge, 
formed largely of re-made boulder clay, and that its dis- 
position was probably associated with a period of low tempera- 
ture occurring in post-chalky boulder clay times It appears 
then, that the human skeleton found is referable to a late 
Palaeolithic epoch, and cannot claim a pre-chalky boulder 
clay antiquity. I wish to take this opportunity to state that 
those who opposed my contention as to the great age of these 
remains were in the right, while the views held by me regarding 
them have been shown to be erroneous." As The Naturalist r 
from the first, opposed Mr. J. Reid Moir's contention, we can 
fairly assert that, on his own showing, The Naturalist is right,, 
and Mr. J. Reid Moir is wrong. 

GENITALIA OF ORNIX. 

At a recent meeting of the Lancashire and Cheshire En- 
tomological Society, Mr. F. N. Pierce read ' Notes on the 
Genus Ornix,' in which he reviewed the synonymy of the 
genus and mentioned having recently examined the types 
of the various species, with the assistance of Mr. Hartley 
Durrant, at the British Museum. Mr. Pierce alluded to the 
difficulty of identifying captured specimens by the wing- 
markings, and told how a little practice enabled one to correctly 
name any of the genus by an examination of the genitalia, 
and described how this could be done with certainty, without 
damaging the insect for cabinet purposes. The author ex- 
hibited all the British species of Ornix, including the species, 
which as the result of his investigation, he had introduced to 
the British List, viz. — Ornix finitimella, already known to 
occur on the Continent. 

A HALIFAX INDUSTRY. 

We learn from The Yorkshire Observer, that Halifax holds 
two world ' records " — the largest carpet works in the world 
and the largest building society. It is not so well known that 
Halifax also holds a record at the other end of the scale of 
business. This is in respect to the making of rings for canaries 
and poultry. By his own efforts, Mr. S. Drake, of Haley 
Hill, himself a keen fancier, makes as many as from five to 
ten million rings in normal times, but since the war, the diffic- 
ulty of obtaining aluminium has caused a reduction of output. 
It is a one-man business, and that makes it the more notable. 
Mr. Drake manufactures for the Bird Emigration Inquiry 
Department of Aberdeen University, and one of their orders 
was for rings to be used for the marking of golden eagles. 
These were made of hard-drawn copper, which the birds were 
unable to bite through. 

Naturalist, 



II 
ON THE OCCURRENCE OF MANGANESE 
IN LAND AND FRESH WATER MOLLUSCA. 



Prof. A. E. BOYCOTT, M.D., F.R.S , etc. 



The present investigation originated in the observations of 
H. C. Bradley 1 on the occurrence of considerable quantities 
of manganese in fresh-water mussels in North America. Ex- 
amining hundreds of specimens of Anodon and Unio from many 
different localities (the species are not particularised), he 
constantly found manganese to the«extent of about i per cent, 
of the dry weight of the animal ; the shell contained about 
0-15 per cent., mostly in the nacre 2 ; a manganiferous 
Crenothrix formed an important food of the mussels, and he 
suggests that the occurrence of this Crenothrix (and possibly 
other organisms which accumulate manganese) may determine 
the distribution of the molluscs. His observations are of much 
interest, especially as throwing light on the natural foods of 
mollusca (a matter on which there is little accurate knowledge), 
and indicating lines which may explain some of those curiosities 
of distribution and habitat which are familiar to field naturalists. 

Following these indications, I have briefly explored such of 
our British land and fresh-water mollusca as I have been able 
to obtain, or which I happened to have by me, fifty-six 
in number. The results seem interesting enough to put forward 
in their present incomplete state in the hope that others will 
pursue the matter and help to clear up many points at present 
in doubt. The bodies alone have been investigated, and I 
know nothing of the occurrence of manganese in the shells. 

The method of analysis is that indicated by Bradley and 
Bertrand. 3 The tissue, dried at ioo°C, is burned., fused with 
potassium nitrate (the presence or intensity of green giving 
a good idea of quantity of manganese), dissolved in dilute nitric 
acid, strong nitric acid and solid potassium persulphate added, 
boiled with silver nitrate as a catalyser and the resultant 
permanganate estimated colorimetrically against known solu- 
tions. The method is admittedly of no very high order of 
precision, but it is quite accurate enough for the present pur- 
pose, and for a preliminary survey its simplicity makes it 
eminently suitable. In my hands o-oi mg. manganese 
gives an obvious reaction and 0*005 m g- 1S detectable ; it is 
inconvenient to have more than 2 or 3 milligrammes present. 

1 Jouy. Biological Chemistry, Vol. III. (1907), p. 151 ; Vol. VIII. (1910), 
P. 237. 

2 E. M. Nance (Science Gossip, n.s. Vol. I\ . (1898), p. 343), showed 
that the pink colour of the nacre of some specimens of Unio pictorum was 
probably due to manganese. 

3 Journ. Biol. Chem., Vol. VIII. (1910), p. 237 ; H. P. Smith, Chemical 
Xews, Vol. XC. (1904), p. 237 ; G. Bertrand and P. Thomas, Guide pour 

les manipulations de chimie biologique, ed. 2, 1913, pp. 16, 31. 

1917 Jan. 1. 



12 Manganese in Land and Fresh Water Molhisca. 

The results are expressed below as parts of manganese per ten 
thousand parts of dried snail body. Owing to the small amount 
of material available, 1 accurate measures in the case of species 
poor in manganese have not always been achieved, and with 
the smaller species ' trace ' signifies something less, and gener- 
ally much less, than i part. At present, however, all I seek 
to show is that some species have very much less than others, 
leaving the precise amount for future enquiry. 

In the following systematic catalogue of the results I have 
noted the localities and some data as to habitats which may 
be germane. Many are local specimens from the neighbourhood 
of Aldenham in South Hertfordshire. 

Gastropoda pulmonata. 
Testacella maugii. Hereford (garden) 1-5. 
Limax maximus. v. concolor, Aldenham (garden) young 5, 23 
adult 6, 12 ; Hampden, Bucks (beech wood) 56 ; v. fasciata 
St. Albans (garden) 9 ; Aldenham (hedge-bank) 2. Mean 16. 
L. cinereoniger. Hampden (beech wood) 86. 
L. flavus. St. Albans (garden, hole in lime tree) 1-3. 
L. arborum. Hampden (beech wood) 270. 
Agriolimax agrestis. Aldenham, five loci (fields and hedge- 
banks) 5, 6, 6, 6, 8 ; beechwood 13; St. Albans (garden) 
14 ; Holmer, Hereford (garden) 2. Mean 9. 
Milaxsowerbyi. All from gardens ; Aldenham 3, 8 ; St. Albans 

2 ; Hereford 13 ; Holmer 3. Mean 7. 
Vitrina pellucida. Aldenham, three loci, less than 2. 1, 3. 

Mean 2. 
Hyalinia lucida. Portmadoc, Carnarvon (1913) 23 ; (1914) 

7. Mean 15. 
H. cellaria. Ludlow, Shropshire 16 ; Castleton, Derby 25 ; 
Tremadoc, Carnarvon 71 ; Compstall, Cheshire 23 ; 
Symond's Yat, Gloucester 25 ; Barton, Lancashire 7 ; 
Aldenham, six loci 3, 4, 7, 17, 24, 34 ; Long Lane, Middle- 
sex 27. Mean 22. 
H . helvetica. Bicknor, Gloucester (1913) 14 ; ditto (1915) 35 ; 
Marple, Cheshire 69 ; Tremadoc 49 ; Aldenham, seven 
loci, 6, 10, 13, 16, 2^, 24, 26. Mean 26. 
H . alliaria. (a) from trees in beech woods, Hampden, Bucks. 
99 ; Cranham, Gloucester 6 ; (b) woodlands, Credenhill, 
Hereford 62 ; Miller's Dale, Derby 3 ; Romiley, Cheshire 
71 ; Aldenham n ; (c) mossy stone wall, Portmadoc, Car- 
narvon 43 ; (d) ruins under stones, Ludlow 1.4 Mean 39. 
H . nitidnla. Marple 85 ; Tremadoc 73 ; Ludlow 22 ; Castle- 
ton 17 ; Chepstow, Monmouth 6 ; Barton, Lancashire 8 ; 
Aldenham, three loci 2, 9, 20. Mean, 27. 

1 Many species are inconveniently small : about So dried bodies of 
Hy. nitidnla go to a gramme, about 30 H. rufescens and some 400 A ncylus 
fluviatilis. 

Naturalist, 



Manganese in Land and Fresh Water Mollusca. 13 

Zonitoides nitidus. Aldenham 10. 

Z. excavatus. Portmadoc, Carnarvon (top of old stone wall, 
among dead leaves) 127 ; Romiley, Cheshire (under stones 
in wood) 185. Mean 156. 
Avion ater. Aldenham (roadside) ater 4-4, 1-3 ; albus i-o, 1-4 ; 
Monk's Risborough, Bucks (roadside) ater i-o ; Hampden, 
Bucks, (fungi in beech wood) reticulata 47. Mean, 9 or 
(excluding the high figure), 2. 
A. sitbfuscus. Hampden (beech trees) cinereofusca 274. 
A. hortensis. From gardens: — Aldenham 4, 5 ; St. Albans 8; 
Hereford 12; Holmer 6; field: — Aldenham 3. Mean 6. 
Helicella virgata. Thurlestone, Devon 0-7. 
H. itala. Aldbury, Herts 0.4. 

H. caperata. Aldenham (off beech trees in wood) 0*5 ; Monk's 
Risborough, Bucks, (grass) trace ; Prestatyn, Flint (grass) 
07. Mean 0-5 ca. 
H. gigaxii. Aldenham (grass) o-8 ; Prestatyn (grass) o-8. 

Mean o-8. 
Cochlicella barbara. Thurlestone, Devon, trace. 
Theba cantiana. Aldenham, five loci 0-4, 07, 0-9, i-o, i-i ; 
Hereford, trace ; Monk's Risborough i-o. Mean o-8 ca. 
T. cartusiana. Lewes 2. 

Hygromia grannlata. Long Lane, Middlesex 2. 
H. hispida. Aldenham, three loci, trace, trace, nil ; Ludlow 

07. Mean 0-3 ca. 
H . rufescens. (a) gardens, Hereford nil ; Andoversford, 
Gloucester 0-3 ; Aldenham 0-2 ; (b) roadsides, Portmadoc, 
trace ; Brock, Lanes, nil ; Doward, Hereford 0*4 ; (c) beech 
woods, Hampden o-6 ; Cranham, nil. Mean 0-2 ca. 
Helicodonta obvoluta. Ditcham, Hants., nil (less than 0-9). 
Helicigona lapicida. Symond's Yat, Gloucester (1913) 6 ; 
ditto. (1915) 12 ; Monk's Risborough, Bucks., trace ; 
Cranham, Gloucester, trace. Mean 5 ca. (?). 
Arianta arbustorum. Aldenham, trace 0*3 ; Miller's Dale, Derby 

o«3 ; Symond's Yat, Gloucester 1*3. Mean, o-6 ca. 
Helix aspersa. Aldenham, three garden loci 0-4, 1.5, 1*6 ; 
Miller's Dale (wild) 17 ; Hereford (garden) 0-9 ; Birming- 
ham 07. Mean 1. 
H. pomatia. Banstead, Surrey 2-5. 

H. nemoralis. (a) roadside banks, Aldenham, three loci 0-2, 
0-4, i-8 ; Hereford, two loci, i-i, 1-2 ; (b) beech wood, 
Cranham 07; vars. rubella, libellula and castanea examined. 
Mean 1. 
H. hortensis. Roadside banks, Aldenham, three loci v. hitea 
o*5, 0-3 ; v. incamata, trace, 0-3, 0.3 ; v. fasciata o*8 ; 
Hereford, v. lutea 1-2 ; v. fasciata 1.6. Mean 0*6. 
Ena montana. Beech woods, Hampden, Bucks. 103 ; Cranham, 
Gloucester 77. Mean 90. 

1917 Jan. 1. 



14 Manganese in Land and Fresh Water Mollusca. 

E. obscura. Beech woods, Hampden 85 ; Cranham 75 ; 

hedge-bank, Aldenham, 81. Mean 80. 
Clausilia laminata. Monk's Risborough, Bucks, (beech wood) 

6 ; Aldenham (hedge-bank) 10. Mean 8. 
Saccinea putris. Doward, Hereford 6. 

S. elegans. Hereford 3 ; Long Lane, Middlesex 3. Mean 3. 
Ancylus fluviatilis. Aldenham 21. 
Limncea auricularia. Aldenham, two loci, 2, 3. 
L. peregra. Aldenham (a) ponds, nine loci, 1, 2, 2, 3, 3, 4, 5, 

7, 10 ; (b) streams : — five loci 2, 3, 4, 4, 4. Mean 4. 
L. palustris. Aldenham (a) ponds, three loci 2, 2, 3 ; (b) river, 

trace. Mean 2 ca. 
L. stagnalis. Aldenham (a) ponds, eleven loci, 1, 1, 2, 2, 4, 

5> 5. 5> 6, 9, 29 ; (b) river 2 ; Alderley Edge, Cheshire 6. 

Mean 6, or (without exceptional case) 4. 
Planorbis corneus. Aldenham 2 ; Hereford 18. Mean 10. 
PL complanatus. Aldenham, three loci (ponds), 2, 3, 4. Mean 3. 
Physa fontinalis. Aldenham, two loci (streams), 3, 8. Mean 6. 
Ph. hypnorum. Aldenham, trace. 

Gastropoda prosobranchia. 

Bithinia tentaculata. Aldenham, two loci o*8, i-i. Mean 1. 
Pomatias elegans. Aldenham 1-2, i-i ; Monk's Risborough ; 
trace. Mean o«8 ca. 

Pelecypoda. 

Unio pictorum. Aldenham (lake) shell, 37 mm., 27 ; 45 mm., 

36 ; 75 mm., 19. Mean 27. 
Anodonta. Aldenham (lake) shell, 65 mm., 24; 100 mm., 34 ; 

120 mm., 113 ; Barton (Canal), Lanes., 80 mm., 27 ; 

Birmingham no mm., 56, 96 ; locality unknown 35 mm., 

24. Mean 53. 
Sphcerium corneum. Aldenham, four loci (three ponds, one 

river) nil. 
Sph. lacustre. Aldenham, four loci (ponds) nil. nil, nil, trace. 
Pisidium amnicum. Aldenham, nil. 

Putting these results together, it is evident that the species 
examined fall into several groups as regards their content in 
manganese. 

(a) Taking first the land snails, the helicids show little, 
ranging from obvoluta, barbara, hispida, rufescens with hardly 
any to nemoralis, aspersa, granulata and pomatia, which show 
up to 2 parts per ten thousand : the position of lapicida is 
uncertain, specimens from two loci in the Forest of Dean 
showing as much as 6 and 12, while others from the Cotswolds 
and Chilterns gave only a trace. The Zonitidse, on the other 
hand, give uniformly high figures, which are the more reliable, 
as specimens have been examined from a wider range of 

Naturalist, 



Manganese in Land and Fresh Water Mollusca. 15 

localities. Nitidus and lucida are the lowest, while excavatus 
showed 127 parts from Carnarvon and as much as 185 (1*85 per 
cent.) from Cheshire. Bidiminus montanus and obscurus both 
give very high figures, while Claiisilia laminata and Succinea 
have a moderate amount, and Cyclostoma only a little. Among 
the slugs, Testacella has least, ater, hortensis, sowerbyi and 
agrestis a fair quantity, maximus a large amount, while 
ciner eoniger , arborum and subfuscits give very high figures. The 
last three species are, however, represented from a single 
locality only, and the figures are therefore unreliable. For 
this reason it is not possible at present to draw any distinction 
between the Arionidae and the Limacidae. Vitrina has only 
a little, something about 2. 

(b) Among the water snails, Ancylus fluviatilis gives far the 
highest amount (21), and Bithinia and Physa hypnorum very 
little. Planorbis and Limncea all show a moderate quantity, 
PI. cornens the most, with a large difference for the two localities 
-examined. The general position for the water snails is that 
they have more than the Helicidae and less than the Zonitidas. 

(c) The bivalves fall into two very distinct groups — (1) those 
with much (Anodonta, Unio) and (2) those with little or none 
(Sphceriiim and Pisidinm). A. cygnea, for example, may have 
1 per cent, and Sph. corneum may give a negative reaction with 
as much as o-8 gramme, i.e. something less than 6 per million. 

I have made only a few casual observations on the dis- 
tribution of manganese within the body. 1 If the carcase is 
roughly divided into (a) the head, neck, foot, with the lower 
part of the genitalia ; (c) the apical part, consisting of liver, 
intestine and hermaphrodite gland and (b) the rest, we find most 
in the liver and least in the head. Thus, in a series of stagnalis : 

Parts Manganese per 10,000. 
(a) heads. (6) middles, (c) tails, whole. 

Shells 18 mm. long ..faint trace ( < o-6) 9 16 8 
30 . . trace ( < 0-3) 7 13 6 

40 . . trace ( < 0-3) 6197 

The liquid obtained by gently crushing others of the same 
lot yielded none, which suggests that there is no manganese 
in the blood. The same preponderance in the liver was found 
in nemoralis (3-1 against 1-8 for the whole body), cantiana 
(3-0, i-i and 3-4, 07), aspersa (3-1, 0-9 and i-8, 07), pomatia 
(4-5, 2-5), helvetica (63, 49), lucida (13, 7), lapicida (22, 12), but 
not in Arion ater, where the distribution was pretty uniform 
all through the bodies of two specimens, nor in Limax maximus, 
one of which (v. fasciata) gave a uniform distribution, while 

1 In mussels, Bradley (loc. cit.) found it in all organs, but mostly in 
the liver and mantle. 

1917 Jan. 1. 



1 6 Manganese in Land and Fresh Water Mollusca. 

anojther (v. concolor) most of the manganese was in the skin 
(skin 16, liver i«8, rest 1*5) •* 

The significance of these data cannot be fully determined 
without a good deal of further observation. It is, I think, 
pretty clear that a certain quantum of manganese is not a 
fixed and necessary constituent of the body for each species 
of snail. The different results from the same species are too 
variable for this. Thus, of the stagnalis from thirteen different 
loci, eleven fall between I and 6, one gives 9 and one the unusual 
figure of 29 ; in peregra from fourteen loci the variation is less, 
from 1 to 10, but is still considerable ; among eight lots of 
alliaria the highest is 99, the lowest 3 ; in twelve batches of 
cellaria the range is from 3 to 71, and so on. In specimens from 
the same locus the variability Is much less ; thus, twenty-five 
specimens of Avion hovtensis collected in one place at the same 
time were analysed in five lots of five each and gave 8, 11, 12, 
12, 16 ; five lots of sowevoyi similarly treated, 11, 12, 14, 14, 14. 
It seems unlikely, therefore, that the manganese in these snails is 
in combination in the blood as a respiratory proteid such as the 
haemoglobin described by A. B. Griffiths 2 in Pinna squamosa 
in which manganese was found in quantity by Krukenberg 
long ago. 3 If this were its office, one would certainly expect 
the quantity to be more uniform. On the other hand, the 
differences between different species are too large and too 
regular to be due to ' accident.' If one compares, for example, 
the Zonitidse with the Helicidse, there can be little doubt that 
it is definitely characteristic of the former to have more manga- 
nese than the latter ; of 45 analyses of Zonitidae, one falls as 
low as 2, and in 38 of Helicidse only one rises as high. Similarly 
Anodonta evidently has much ; Sphcerium little or none. 

It is an obvious suggestion that the differences found depend 
upon differences in food, the intra-specific variation being due 
to casual vagaries of eating, the inter-specific differences to 
more regular dietetic habits. Our information as to the natural 
foods of mollusca is very sparse, and the subject is not easy to 



1 The skin constituted 69 per cent, of the total dry weight and con- 
tained 95 per cent, of all the manganese : in the other the figures are 
66 and 61 per cent, respectively. 

2 Comptes Rendus, Vol. CXIV. (1892), p. 840 ; Proc. Roy. Soc. Edinb., 
Vol. XVIII., p. 293 ; Physiology of Invertebrates, p. 145. 

3 Other objections to this view are that the moderately manganiferous 
PI. corneus has much haemoglobin, and the highly manganiferous Anodon 
and Unto are commonly said to have haemocyanin (O. von Fiirth, Chem. 
Physiol, dev niederen Tiere, 1903, p. 105). I found no manganese in the 
j uices of L. stagnalis. It has been supposed, but apparently on insufficient 
grounds, that manganese is a necessary constituent of human blood, and 
that its absence leads to a special form of anaemia (J. Gaube, Mineralogie 
Biologique 1899, Vol. I., p. 161). 

Naturalist 



Manganese in Land and Fresh Water Mollnsca. 17 

investigate; the valuable observations of W. A. Gain 1 give 
little positive information, since the questions of what snails 
will eat in captivity and what they do eat in nature are ob- 
viously distinct, except in so far as one may probably conclude 
with propriety that what they will not eat under artificial 
surroundings will at any rate not be a common food under wild 
conditions. Examination of the stomach contents of freshly 
caught specimens has occupied my attention for some time, 
but here again it is hardly possible to distinguish between 
what the snail meant to eat and the other stuff that he picked 
up incidentally. Water snails may, for instance, contain 
fragments of cellular plants with many diatoms, but we do 
not know whether the snail picked up the diatoms in eating 
phanerogamic tissue or vice versa or, indeed, whether what he 
really wanted to eat leaves recognisable remains. To find 
a snail habitually about some plant is not necessarily evidence 
that he is there to eat that plant rather than the adherent 
organisms ; the feeding tracks of Limncea and Planorbis are 
admirably displayed in the brownish coating of the under side 
of elderly water-lily leaves, and it seems likely that a particular 
plant is regularly attended for its associated algae and the like 
rather than for itself. In other cases, too, it is the dead or 
partly decayed leaves which appear to attract particular 
attention. 2 Our domesticated plants are relatively open to 
attack by snails, and when one finds a couple of fat sowerbyi or 
hortensis inside a particularly fine potato or prowling up a 
lettuce, one has no doubt as to what they want to eat, and what, 
in fact, they do eat. But most green plants seem to be, when 
living, pretty satisfactorily protected, 3 and it is illegitimate 
to conclude that all the snails one finds in a favourable nettle- 
bed feed on nettles. It is also an open question whether each 
species has any particular or favourite food. Arion ater will 
eat pretty well anything — green plants, dead plants, fungi, 
bread, earthworms, etc. — in nature ; Gain could not find any- 
thing which Limax arbornm was prepared to enjoy. There is, 
perhaps, every gradation between these extremes, but just 
how each snail stands we do not know. 

Such being our state of ignorance, it is impossible with the 
present data to solve the question. Certain points, however, 

1 Journ. Conch., Vol. VI. (1891), p. 349 ; The Naturalist 1889, p. 55 ; 
see also H. W. Kew on the food of slugs ib. p. 103 and 1893, p. 145 ; R. F. 
Scharff Set. Trans. Roy. Dublin Soc, Vol. IV. (1891) p. 513, and A. H. 
Cooke in Molluscs and Brachiopods, 1895, p. 30. 

2 e.g. from H. pomatia, which, according to W. Jeffrey (J. E. Harting, 
Rambles in Search of Shells, 1875, p. 72), is harmless to green plants in the 
garden, which my own observations fully confirm. 

3 See J. W. Taylor Monograph Br. L. F. W. Mollusca, Vol. I. (1899), 
pp. 286 ff. 

1917 Jan. 1. 



1 8 Manganese in Land and Fresh Water Mollusca. 

have been noted which suggest that locality has a good deal of 
influence, and locality is, in this connection, most easily in- 
terpreted as food. Thus, M. sowerbyi and A. hortensis collected 
together in one garden gave 13 and 12 ; from another garden 
only 3 and 6. The mean figure for H. cell aria from Aldenham 
district is 15 ; one locality gave as little as 3, and the nitidula 
which accompanied it 2, compared with a local mean of 10 ; 
another locality 4, and the helvetica with it 6, instead of 17. 
Both these localities were in wet places by the river side, and 
cellaria from a third similar place gave only 7, the figures for 
drier loci ranging from 17 to 34. It is difficult to resist the 
conclusion that in this particular sort of place Hyalinia has a 
specially low content in manganese and the suggestion that 
this is due to a difference in food. A third example is afforded 
by a series of mollusca collected one day in the great beech 
woods near Great Hampden, in south Buckinghamshire. x 
The mean figure for Limax maximus from other localities is 9, 
from here 56 ; the mean for A. ater 2, 2 from here 47 ; for 
Hy. alliaria 39, from here 99. L. arborum (270), A. subfuscus 
(274) and L. cinereoniger (86), gave very high figurres, though 
there are no others for comparison ; the highly manganiferous 
B. montanus and obsairus also occurred here. Altogether, 
therefore, the locality is evidently one which encourges a high 
content in manganese, and since all the species except ater 
were taken crawling on beech trunks, one may suppose that 
this habit has something to do with it. 3 On the other hand, 
all snails from the beech woods do not show exceptionally high 
figures, e.g., rujescens, 4 " lapicida and laminata, and in apparently 
similar woods on the Cotswolds (where the Bulimini give the 
same high figure) rufescens, lapicida, nemoralis, and even 
alliaria. 5 The chief locality in Aldenham for caper ata is a beech 
wood with bare floor, where the species occurs freely, climbing 
up the trunks, but it has no more than the normal manganese 
content, though A. agrestis from die same wood has twice the 
normal amount. 

(To be continued), 

1 A delectable locality indicated by Mr. Charles Oldham (Journ. I 

Vol. XIII. (191 1 ), p. 148) ; the woods are supposed to be some of the Jew 
remnants of the ancient forest of Bernwood (A. H. Allcroft, Earthwork of 
England, 1908, p. 29a). 

2 A specimen from the roadside chalky bank close to the woods gave 
only 1 . 

3 In W. A. Gain's experiment, lichens, moss and the green growth on 
b^ech were by no means favourite foods. 

4 vufescens alone does not commonly climb up the trees. 

5 The habit of Alliaria to walk about openly in the daytime on tires, 
walls, etc., is relatively unique among the Hyalinia, and is presumably 
associated with its nasty taste (Lancashire Naturalist, Vol. VII. (1914), 
P- 3")- ; 

Naturalist, 



19 
YORKSHIRE NATURALISTS' UNION : 
VERTEBRATE SECTION. 

Two Meetings of this section were held in the Leeds University 
on November 18th, 1916, Mr. W. H. Parkin presiding. 

Mr. L. Gaunt reported a 35-pound Badger being killed 
at Bolton Abbey on the 15th. The result of the official bus- 
iness of the afternoon is incorporated in the Annual Report 
of the Union, appearing elsewhere in The Naturalist. 

At the evening meeting, Mr. Greaves gave a paper on 
' Some Bird Observations on the Hills of the Upper Calder.' 

The bleak hills of the Lower Pennines are not generally 
associated with a rich or varied avi-fauna, but the lecturer 
demonstrated that by systematic and indefatigable watching, 
many unusual and interesting visitors may be noted, particu- 
larly during the Spring and Autumn. 

As most of our moors are now used as gathering grounds 
for an increased supply of water to our towns, their aspect 
and attraction as resting-places for migrating shore and aquatic 
birds have undergone a gradual but decided change, so that 
in addition to the resident Moorland species, there is now a 
fairly regular succession of immigrants affecting the small 
stretches of sand and mud flats surrounding the many reser- 
voirs, the Waders, of course, predominating. 

So far, the result of the survey is the satisfactory list of 
135 species noted in the Hebden Bridge district, to which, no 
doubt, additions will be made. Mr. Greaves suggested a 
thorough exploitation of our inland waters during the mi- 
gratory periods, as likely to yield good results. 

Mr. T. M. Fowler read a paper on ' Wild Life on the Manx 
Shearwater and Storm Petrel in the Scillies," (see Wild Life), 
and with the aid of photographs taken at this stronghold of 
the two species, described the many strange characteristics 
affecting their resting habits. 

The proceedings closed with a vote of thanks to the 
Lecturers and to Prof. Garstang, and to the Council of the 
University for their hospitality .—A. Haigh Lumby. 



The Belfast Municipal Museum Publication No. 57, is devoted to 
' Human Pests,' the subjects dealt with being the Flea, Bed-Bug, Louse, 
and Itch-Mite. 

The Annual Report and Balance Sheet of the Huddevsfield Naturalist 
and Photographic Society (10 pages) shows a slight falling oft" in the mem- 
bership. This Society is still keeping an interest in its work and has a 
good balance in hand at the Bank. The reports printed are as follows : — 
General and Photographic, by E. S. Maples ; Natural History and 
Entomology, by C. Mosley ; Antiquities, by J. H. Carter ; Library and 
Ornithology, by E. Fisher ; Botany, by W. E. L. YVattam ; Geology, by 
Dr. T. W. Woodhead. From the Librarian's report, we notice there 
are eight Volumes of the Naturalist to dispose of, but that the Society's 
set of its own reports is incomplete. 

1917 J an. 1. 



20 



YORKSHIRE NATURALISTS AT SELBY. 



The Fifty-fifth Annual Meeting of the Yorkshire Naturalists' 
Union was held at Selby, by invitation of the Selby Scientific 
Society, on Saturday, December 2nd, 1916. 

The members who arrived in the morning paid a visit 
to Brayton Barff, an outlyer of sandstone left behind whilst 
the great mass of Trias, which once existed where the vale 
of York is, was being denuded. The geological features of 
the Barff were fully described by Mr. Thomas Sheppard, M.Sc, 



■ *. .,.•'. ..a' -".--5.,"'.'* HolB/mne «K 



Photo by] 



Yorkshire Naturalists at Selby. 



[W. Farley. 



in the circular convening the Annual Meeting, and reference 
might also be made to the same gentleman's report of the 
visit of the Geological section of the Union to the same locality 
in June, 1915 (see p. 264 of The Naturalist, 1915). A collection 
of the glacial erratics, and other pebbles, obtained at the 
Barff was placed on exhibition by Mr. J. F. Musham, F.E.S. 
On their return, the members were photographed, and by the 
kindness of Mr. W. Farley, the result is reproduced in these 
pages. 

Mr. C. A. Cheetham writes : — The small party of botanists 
who joined the geological excursion to Brayton Barff was 
well repaid. The vegetation of this hill would be an interesting 
study for the local society. It appears to be the remains 

Naturalist, 



Yorkshire Naturalists at Selby. 21 

of oak woodland, and some small attempts have apparently 
been made to introduce Spruce pines. Bracken covers prac- 
tically the whole floor space, and it would be interesting to 
know to what extent the Blue-bell grows here, only a few 
fruit stalks being seen.* Mr. Burrell, F.L.S., and the writer 
kept a sharp look out for mosses and hepatics by the invitation 
of Mr. Musham, and appended are the species noted : — 

Tetraphis pcllucida. On dead wood. * 

Catharinea undulata. Exposed sand surface. 

Polytrichum piliferum. Heathy places. 

P. formosum. ,, 

Ceratodon purpureas. Wide spread. 

Dicranella heteromalla. Sand exposures. 

Campylopus pyriformis. Heath land. 

Dicranum scoparium. ,, 

Tortula muralis. Walls. 

Webera nutans. Heath land. 

Bryum argenteum. Roadside and made ground of reservoir 

top. 
Mnium affine. Woodland floor. 
M. hornum. 

M. undulatum. ,, 

Brachythecium albicans. Sandy heath land. 
B. purum. Hedgerow bottom. 
Eurhynchium prcelongum. Woodland. 
Plagiothecium Borreriannm. Heath land. 
P. undulatum. Woodland. 
Hypnum cupressiforme. Tree boles. 
Hylocomium squarrosnm. Heath land. 

Hepatic. 
Lophocolea bidentata. Heath land. 

Those members who were ineligible to attend the meeting 
of the General Committee were conducted through the Abbey 
by the Rev. J. Solloway, D.D., who delivered a short address 
on the architectural and other features of the building, and 
also upon the various Monastic remains still in the town. 

The members of the General Committee assembled in the 
Museum Hall under the chairmanship of the President, Mr. 
W. N. Cheesman, J. P., F.L.S. The Hon. Secretaries presented 
the Annual Report of the Union, which recommended the 
following excursions for 1917 : — 

Newby Wiske Carrs, Saturday April 28th. 

Thorntondale or Pickering (Whit week-end), May 26th-28th. 

Market Weighton, Saturday June 16th. 

* The whole of the northern side is a solid expanse of colour during 
the flowering season. — J. F. M. 

1917 Jan. 1. 



22 Yorkshire Naturalists at Selby. 

Crosshills, Saturday, July 14th. 

Grassington (August Bank Holiday week-end), August 
4th to 6th. 

Mycological Meeting, Helmsley, in September. 

By the kind invitation of the Wakefield Naturalists' 
Society, the Annual Meeting for 1917 will be held in that 
City. 

The Hon. Treasurer (Mr. Edwin Hawkesworth), presented 
the Balance Sheet, which showed a profit on the year's working, 
despite the increased cost in connection with the publication 
of the Union's magazine. The Report and Balance Sheet 
were unanimously adopted. 

The announcement that Sir Archibald Geikie, O.M., K.C.B., 
LL.D., of Haslemere, the eminent Geologist, had been 
appointed President for the ensuing year, was most heartily 
received. 

No change was made in the other responsible officials of 
the Union. Mr. C. A. Cheetham was elected as Divisional 
Secretary for South-west Yorkshire, and Mr. Sheppard as the 
Union's delegate to the British Association Meeting. 

A vote of condolence was passed to Lady Payne-Gallwey, 
on the death of her husband., the late Sir Ralph Frankland 
Payne-Gallwey, Bart., a past President of the Union. 

At the commencement of the evening meeting, Mr. T. S. 
Ullathorne, J. P., Chairman of the Selby U.D. Council, ex- 
pressed the pleasure it gave him to welcome the members to 
Selby. At the conclusion of the formal business, the retiring 
President, Mr. Cheesman, delivered his Presidential Address 
from the chair on ' Economic Mycology : the Beneficial and 
Injurious Influences of Fungi.' After remarking upon the 
hopeful and encouraging attitude of the public mind towards 
science in relation to commerce and industry, Mr. Cheesman 
paid a tribute to the early workers in Yorkshire Mycology, 
especially praising the assiduous labours of past President, the 
late Charles Crossland, and Mr. George Massee. He then 
commented upon the great variation which existed amongst 
fungi, and the enormous number of species known to science. 
Quotations were made from the writings of the Ancients, 
commencing from the time of Theophrastus (B.C. 287), and 
to the work of a Selby-born man, Thomas Johnson, who 
wrote an amended edition of Gerard's Herbal in 1633, and 
therein described and figured certain species of fungi. The 
economic value of fungi, especially as food materials ; their 
use medicinally and otherwise to mankind ; their injurious 
effects when not kept under control ; the relationship of 
fungi to the higher plants ; the biological study of their or- 
ganisms and the economic success resulting therefrom, and 
the probable immunity of plants from fungoid pests, were 

Naturalist, 



Yorkshire Naturalists at Selby. 23 

also questions discussed, and very ably dealt with by Mr. 
Cheesman during the course of his address, proving how keen 
and able a student of this class of plants he was. 

Mr. Cheesman's address will appear in the pages of The 
Naturalist. 

At the conclusion of his address, Mr. Cheesman was heartily 
thanked for his services to the Union during the year, and also 
for his address, on the proposition of Dr. Wager, F.R.S., 
seconded by Mr. M. H. Stiles. 

The remainder of the evening was profitably occupied in 
a Conversazione under the auspices of the Selby Scientific 
Society. The portfolio of prints, and numerous lantern slides 
by members of that Society, were on view ; also numerous old 
prints of Selby ; pen and ink sketches of the Norman door- 
ways of the churches at Riccall, Adel and Brayton ; of Howden 
Church and Selby Abbey ; and also of the storehouse of the 
Monastry of Selby, all the work of Mr. T. Howden. Mr. 
Cheesman also exhibited a copy of Johnson's Herbal, referred 
to in his address. The museum founded by the late Sir 
Jonathan Hutchinson, and bequeathed to the town of Selb\ , 
was open to members until dusk. Light refreshments were 
provided by Mr. Cheesman. 

The concluding resolution of thanks to Mr. J. F. Musham 
for the excellent manner in which he had made the local 
arrangements, to Dr. Solloway for conducting the party 
through the Abbey, and to the Selby Scientific Society, was 
moved by Dr. Corbett, seconded by Mr. J. W. H. Johnson, 
M.Sc, and very heartilv carried. 

W.E.L.W. 
: o : 

Rydal by the late Miss Armitt, edited by W. F. Rawnsley. Kendall, 
Titus Wilson, 1916, xv+727. 12s. 6d. net. Our readers will remember 
that the late Miss M. L. Armitt, of Rydal, was a frequent contributor to 
our pages. Her 'Birds of Rydal' (reprinted in the present work) appeared 
in The Naturalist for August, 1902. But for several years she worked at 
preparing a History of Rydal which, the editor informs us, was left prac- 
tically finished at her death in 191 1. It is a remarkably complete and clear 
account of the various vicissitudes through which Rydal has passed. 
Beginning with the Celt, Roman, Angle, Dane, Norseman and Norman, 
the history of the place is taken step by step until comparatively 
modern times. As illustrating the thoroughness of the book, we may quote 
the headings to the chapters of two of the seven ' Parts ' : — III., (1) Hus- 
bandry in Rydal ; (2) Cattle Grazing and Marketing ; (3) Corn-growing ; 
(4) Sheep ; (5) The Fisheries : IV., (1) The Typical House ; (2) Husbandry ; 
(3) The Farmholds ; (4) The Smithy ; (5) The Cornmills ; (6) The Inns : 
(7) The School. In perusing the book it is obvious that Miss Armitt's 
reading and researches have been extensive. She has put the facts in 
readable form, and the book will have value far beyond the confines of the 
Lake District. The editor and publisher are to be congratulated upon 
bringing out such a substantial work in these difficult times. It is ex- 
cellently produced, and the price is very moderate indeed. We trust the 
book will have the support it deserves. 

1017 Jan. 1. 



24 

3n fIDemoriam. 



CHARLES CROSSLAND. 

It came as a painful surprise to many of us on the morning 
of December nth to learn that still another of our few really 
prominent Yorksthre naturalists had passed away ; Charles 
Crossland died the previous Saturday, at the age of 72 years. 
He was a ' worker ' in every sense of that word. He believed 
that one was much more likely to ' rust out ' than to ' wear 
out/ and there was no idle moment for Charles Crossland. 
Though, as he described himself, he was a ' Knight of the 
Cleaver,' and led a very strenuous business life, he yet did 
far more to further the interests of Yorkshire natural history 
than many of his fellows, albeit that he only commenced to 
take an interest in the subject after he had reached his fortieth 
birthday. As the Yorkshire Observer tells us, ' His daughter 
entered some wild flower collecting competition and the 
father's aid was invoked. For the first time realising that 
wild flowers were of interest, he possessed himself of a good 
book and friends of like mind, and with his ingrained thor- 
oughness studied the botany of the flowering plants to the 
depths of the science of the day. When he was about 45 
years of age, he was persuaded, by the head of the Mycological 
Department of Kew Gardens, Mr. George Massee, whose 
acquaintance he had made on an excursion, to take up the 
study of fungi, then much neglected. Mr. Crossland then 
plunged into the task, and he and Mr. Massee laid the founda- 
tions of a committee of the Yorkshire Naturalists' Union for 
the study which has made Yorkshire famous in botanical 
circles all over the world.' 

' A great number of species previously unknown to Britain 
or even unknown to science, were the result of Mr. Crossland's 
researches, and his accumulated knowledge was recorded in 
the big ' Fungus Flora of Yorkshire,' which he and Mr. Massee 
produced, and in his contribution to the Halifax Flora, in 
which he collaborated with Mr. W. B. Crump. He was nearly 
50 years of age when, in consequence of the difficulty of pre- 
serving his collections of fungi, he started to learn to draw 
and paint that he might record his finds. He developed an 
almost pre-Raphaelite minuteness and accuracy of touch 
with the paint brush, which made his pictures of scientific 
value ; as well as a fine sense of colour, which made them 
pleasing works of art, and it is a testimony to their quality 
that Sir Joseph Prain, the Director of Kew, declared himself 
very glad to be permitted to purchase them for the national 
collection. In the study of dialect — which he spoke to per- 
fection — in the study of the local antiquities, and in many 
other ways, he did excellent work. Honours fell upon him — 

Naturalist 



In Memoriam : Charles Cross! and. 25 

he was made a Fellow of the Linnean Society and President 
of the Yorkshie Naturalists' Union, as well as local recognition — 
but no honours spoilt his modest, self-effacing devotion to 
his work, and his eagerness to find new recruits to carry it 
on.' He was also President of the Yorkshire Dialect Society. 

He had passed his sixtieth milestone when he undertook 
to prepare a ' Bibliography of Halifax/ in connection with 
which he was communicating with the present writer up to 
the week in which he died. For the past few years the Halifax 
Antiquarian Society has printed instalments of this Biblio- 
graphy in its Transactions ; the section of which, devoted to 
Halifax Natural History, being probably of greatest interest 
to him ; but he did all the sections well. His one grievance, 
if grievance it can be called, was that in his later years, he 
did not seem to be able to work with quite the speed and ability 
of his younger — that is, middle-age — years. 

Quite apart from the volumes on the Fungus Flora of 
Yorkshire, and the Halifax Flora, both of which are permanent 
monuments to his industry, the pages of The Naturalist for 
many years have given evidence of his work. Great and 
valuable as his published writings — on a variety of subjects — ■ 
are ; we are inclined to think that there was one side of his 
character which has probably been of greater service to York- 
shire science. That was the extraordinar}? patience and 
pains he took to interest others in the study of botany in its 
various branches. Very many Yorkshire naturalists, occupying 
prominent positions in the Union to-day, owe their first 
introduction to the study of nature to the thoughtfulness and 
infectious enthusiasm of Charles Crossland. The present 
writer owes him much in the way of information on a great 
variety of subjects ; particularly if they were bearing upon 
out-of-the-way matters. And he can also testify, as few 
can, to the enormous amount of work he could accomplish. 
When the Fungus Flora of Yorkshire, which he had the pleasure 
of seeing through the press, was ready for the printers, Cross- 
land found that it would save the printers trouble, save the 
Union expense, and enable him to better judge the probable 
cost, if his manuscript were re-written ; and, though his 
original manuscript was remarkably clear and distinct, he 
re-wrote the whole, giving not only the correct number of words, 
but the correct number of ems to a line and the correct number 
of lines to a page, so that the book eventually appeared word 
for word, space for space, line for line and page for page, as 
it was in manuscript. The gigantic nature of this task alone 
can be better judged if any of our readers care to go to the 
trouble of copying out even one of the 400 pages of the Fungus 
Flora, most of which were occupied by the long scientific 
names of Fungi. 

1917 Jan. 1. 



26 In Memoriam : Clement Reid, F.R.S., F.L.S., F.G.S. 

It was only after some years that the present writer pre- 
vailed upon Charles Crossland to allow an account of his 
work to appear in the series of ' Prominent Yorkshire Work- 
er ,' which was published in The Nahiralic4. Crossland felt 
that the time had not yet come for him to be included among 
the ' prominent ' workers ; and then only was sanction given 
after agreeing to submit the proofs to him, lest he should be 
receiving credit for work which was not his. To that biography,, 
which appeared in The Naturalist for October, 1910, we would 
refer our readers for an account of bis work up to that time ; 
and the pages of this journal have gladly recorded the work 
he has done since. The photograph then given was one of the 
best he ever had taken. 

Crossland was painstaking and methodical to a fault. 
The care with which he prepared his additions to the Fungus 
Flora, from time to time, is an example difficult to follow. 
He certainly lived a life that was worth while, whim is probably 
the one thing he would have wished to have had said about 
him, had it been possible to have asked him. We are proud 
and honoured that he lived in our county. Yorkshire nat- 
uralists will have difficulty in filling his place ; his friends 
in Halifax can never do so. Our loss is great, but even that 
is exceeded by the loss sustained by Mrs. Crossland and the 
family, to whom we tender every sympathv. — T.S 



CLEMENT REID, F.R.S., F.L.S., F.G.S. 

We regret to record the death of Clement Reid, who for many 
years served on H.M. Geological Survey, and who is known to 
Yorkshiremen by his admirable Memoir on ' The Geology of 
Holderness,' published by the Survey in 1885. That memoir 
laid the foundations of our knowledge of the glacial features 
of the area dealt with, and while his suggested ' Interglacial ' 
age of the Holderness gravels is not now generally accepted, 
his volume contains a valuable record of details of the beds 
which were very favourably exposed during his survey. He 
wrote a similarly useful volume dealing with the Cromer 
district, and others bearing upon Newquay, Land's End, etc. 
He was specially interested in the fossil plant seeds found in 
the more recent geological beds, and probably knew them more 
thoroughly than did any of his compeers. Much of his time in 
recent years has been spent in their examination, and, together 
with the help of Mrs. Reid, he has written several papers and 
books bearing on the subject. Among these are ' The Origin 
of the British Flora ' (1899), ' The Pre-glacial Flora of Britain ' 
(1907), and numerous reports on the botany of Roman Britain. 
In 1890 he wrote a valuable memoir on the ' Pliocene Deposits 
of Britain.' He was of a retiring disposition, and always wrote 

Naturalist, 



In Memoriam : Sir Ralph Payne-Gallwey, Bart. 27 

and spoke with extreme caution. In recent years, he was 
very helpful to Yorkshire geologists in connection with the 
botanical remains found in the more recent deposits in the 
countv. He was 63 years of age. — T.S. 



SIR RALPH PAYNE-GALLWEY, BART. 

Death has of late taken heavy toll of the members of the 




Sir Ralph Payne-Gallwey, Bait. 

Yorkshire Naturalists' Union, and it is with deep regret that 
we have to chronicle the decease of one of our past Presidents, 
Sir Ralph Payne-Gallwey, Bart., who, after an illness of some 
months, passed peacefully away at his residence, Thirkleby 
Park, on November 24th, at the age of 68. 

A sportsman-naturalist of the best type, Sir Ralph was 
a keen sportsman and a fine ornithologist. The combination 
resulted in the publication of two standard works, " The 
Fowler in Ireland,' and ' The Book of Duck Decovs : their 

1917 Jan. 1. 



28 In Memoriam : Sir Ralph Payne- Gallwey, Bart. 

History, Construction and Management.' As a wild-fowler, he 
was pre-eminent, and upon his estate he constructed and 
maintained one of the very few Yorkshire decoys. In col- 
laboration with Lord Walsingham (another past President 
of the Union) and Lord Lovat, he was responsible for two 
volumes upon ' Shooting ' in ' The Badmington Library,' the 
finest volumes of the series. Other works from his ready pen 
were ' Letters to Young Shooters,' and ' High Pheasants in 
Theory and Practice.' These volumes show not only his 
keen interest in sport, but also what a close and accurate 
ornithological observer he was. 

He was also a great authority upon Archery and a skilled 
performer with the crossbow ; he held the record for long- 
distance shooting with this weapon. As a result of his interest 
in this sport, he published in 1903. an able volume upon ' The 
Crossbow, Mediaeval and Modern, Military and Sporting.' 
Another work showing the many-sided character of the man, 
is ' Projectile-Throwing Weapons of the Ancients,' published 
in 1906. He also invented many useful articles connected 
with sport, some of which have- been further developed and 
found of great use in the present war. 

He devoted considerable time at one period to Falconry, 
and some of the members of the Union have pleasant recol- 
lection of the exhibition of rook hawking he gave with his 
Peregrines, when the Union visited him at his home during 
his year of office. His consideration for others was well 
illustrated upon that day. A visit had been paid by a number 
of members present to Gormire Lake ; Sir Ralph drove there 
in a Norwegian cariole, with his boy seated behind, when, 
travelling down Sutton Bank at a good speed, the pony stum- 
bled ; Sir Ralph performed two or three rapid somersaults 
over the animal, followed by the boy. The first thoughts of 
Sir Ralph when he had gathered himself together was of the 
boy. ' Where is the boy ? ' ' Is he hurt ? ' Luckily, however, 
none of them were any worse for the mishap. 

He published many interesting notes connected chiefly with 
ornithology and sport in the pages of The Field, etc. His 
interests were not, however, connected entirely with sport 
and natural history, for Historical studies occupied some 
considerable portion of his time ; two works, a result of his 
versatile pen, which he published, may be mentioned, viz., 
'History of the George worn by King Charles I. on the scaffold,' 
and ' The Mystery of Maria Stella, Lady Newborough.' 

Nowhere will he be missed more than upon his own estates, 
where the happiest relations have always existed between 
the tenants and himself, and this appears to have been always 
the case upon this estate where farms have been in the occu- 
pation of successive tenants of the same families for two or 
three hundred years. — R.F. 

Naturalist 



/;/ Memoriam : J. M. Campbell. 



29 



J. M. CAMPBELL. 

The death has recently taken place of J. M. Campbell. He 
was well known to many North Country ornithologists, who 
made his acquaintance whilst he was light-keeper on the Bass 
Rock. 

Mr. Campbell was a naturalist of the best type. A keen, 
careful and original observer, his positions gave him unique 
opportunities of studying nature at first hand. 

Whilst stationed on the Bell Rock Lighthouse, he published 
a charming little work upon ' The Natural History of the 
Bell Rock.' A somewhat amusing incident occurred with 




/ koto by] 



J. M. Campbell (on the right) 



[R. Fortune, F.Z.S. 



regard to this. On one of the visits paid to the Bass by the 
writer, he was comparing notes with Mr. Campbell upon certain 
natural history books, when he advised him to read an inter- 
esting little book written by a fellow lighthouse-keeper on 
the Bell Rock. ' Do you remember his name ? ' asked Camp- 
bell. 'No, I am sorry to say I do not.' 'Well, it was I !' 
This was naturally a great surprise, but a pleasant one,' as 
it gave an opportunity of expressing sincere congratulation 
to the writer. 

Whilst on 'The Bass,' Campbell paid great attention to 
the habits of the gannets breeding there, and published many 
interesting and valuable notes in connection with them. He 

1917 Jan. 1. 



30 Reviews and Book Notices. 

was the first to photograph a Gannet feeding its young one, 
not an easy subject to secure. 

; To all visitors he was genial and courteous, and to nature 
photographers he was particularly helpful, as no trouble 
was too great for him to undertake in order to aid them in 
their work. The writer and his friends have received many 
kindnesses at his hands. He will be generally missed and 
deeply regretted by the great number of naturalists and 
photographers who have visited ' The Bass ' whilst he was 
stationed there. 

Latterly, he was transferred as Head Keeper, to the Noss 
Head Lighthouse, Wick, where he continued his observations 
and studies with his usual keenness. — R. F. 



The Elephant by Agnes Herbert. London : Hutchinson cS: Co., 284 pp. 
6s. net. This is not a scientific monograph on Elephas, but a book written 
for children interested in Nature Study. In language simple and easily 
understood, Miss Herbert relates the life account of an elephant ; giving 
much sound, scientific information during the progress of the story. There 
are several good illustrations by Miss Winifred Austin. 

The Grizzly. By J. 0. Curwood. London : Cassell & Co., 259 pp., 6s. 
The author of this book, who lives at ' Owosso, Michigan,' is a reformed 
character ! He recalls one of many instances of taking life in which he 
now regards himself as having been almost a criminal, as he now considers 
that ' killing for the excitement of killing can be little less than murder.' 
The author tells a tale of a gigantic grizzly, ' Tyr,' and describes the home 
life of the bear with a detail which clearly indicates familiarity. In addi- 
tion to ' Tyr ' are brother and sister bears, and an Indian attendant. The 
book contains a story, and must not be mistaken for a monograph on any 
species of Ursus. 

British Birds. By A. Thorburn. London : r Longman, Green cv Co. 
Vol. IV. 107 pp. Plates 61-80. Undoubtedly one of the most 

remarkable achievements in the publication of natural history books, 
in this time of scarcity of paper and labour, is the prompt manner in which 
the four parts of Mr. Thorburn's work have made their appearance. The 
excellent and accurate drawings, the natural attitudes of the birds, and 
their realistic groupings, enable the identification of British Birds to be 
now a comparatively easy matter. The excellence of the paper and print- 
in ', and the fact that the plates are mounted on thick cards on linen 
guards, assist in making the work ' permanent ' in more senses than one. 
We trust that the sale of the work will reward the publishers for their en- 
terprise in these unfavourable times. 

Windmill Land. By Allen Clarke. London : J. M. Dent & Suns, 
287 pp., 3s. 6d. Dedicated ' To the lady whose honeymoon and mine 
began in Windmill Land and continues there,' this volume contains a 
series of chatty and informative articles which originally appeared in 
news-papers and magazines. He describes the county in the northern 
half of Lancashire, ' The Golden Cornfield of Amounderness,' where there 
are no railways, no steam engines, no electric cars, no gas, no water-mains — 
candles and rain-tubs and pumps — in short, Windmill Land, with all 
its pleasant paths and rustic charm.' In twenty-two chapters tin an t lun- 
has fathered together much quaint lore relating to windmills, and with 
the aid of pen, photograph and anecdote, gives a valuable and readable 
account of the charming county in which he lives. 

Naturalist, 



3i 



NORTHERN NEWS, etc. 



The Thirty-eighth Annual Report of the Libraries and Museum at St. 
Helens, contains particulars of a gift of two large pictures, which have 
been renovated. It is pleasing to notice that the Museum is ' growing 
in interest and value each year, and continues to attract a large number 
of visitors,' especially as the amount provided for Museum purposes 
appears to be ^36 os. 4d., apparently all of which has been expended. 

A resident in a well-known Yorkshire city promised his boy tbat 
'someday ' he would take him to the local museum. After several re- 
minders, he at last put off his harmless, but necessary, game of golf, and 
spent two long hours in explaining the various exhibits to his young 
hopeful. Being far more tired than if he had ' done ' an eighteen-hole 
round twice, he sat down, and awaited the boy's verdict. After a painful 
silence the boy looked up and said A ' Father, when does it begin ? ' 

In The Meaning of Life for December (8 pp.) ' E.K.R.' tells us that 
' undoubtedly ' there is a soul-line, ' a line above which creatures have 
a spiritual consciousness or instinctive knowledge that they possess a 
soul .... and I am not inclined to say that an intelligent domesticated 
animal, after long companionship with good human beings, may not 
acquire a glimmering of it. ' In the same publication we learn that ' khaki ' 
is ' a little word of five letters.' We have counted them and find this to 
be correct. 

Liverpool University has received a gift of ^10,000 for the endowment 
of a chair of geology. In making the announcement at the Annual Meeting 
of the court, Alderman Alsop said the gift was from Professor and Mrs. 
Herdman, who desired the chair to be a memorial to their son, George 
Andrew Herdman, who was killed in action on the Somme, and who was 
an earnest student of nature and deeply interested in scientific investiga- 
tion. Professor Herdman was one of their oldest professors, and Mrs. 
Herdman, who belonged to a family known for its gifts and service, was 
formerly a distinguished student of the old University College. 

We learn from the press that at Thirsk recently ' Enoch Kitching, 
innkeeper, South Otterington, was summoned under the Wild Birds 
Protection Order for shooting a bittern on November 9th. Defendent 
pleaded guilty to shooting, but said he did not know it was a protected bird. 
Supt. Walker, Northallerton, said defendant told him he thought the 
bird was a seagull. Bitterns had frequently tried to settle in the district, 
but had been ' unfortunate in meeting with men like Mr. Kitching.' The 
Superintendent asked for the full penalty, which was only £1. The Bench 
fined defendant £1, including costs.' Bearing upon this is the following 
note in The Field for November 25th, 1916 :■ — ■' A fine Bittern was shot on 
November 9th by Mr. Enoch Kitching, in the Otterington Willow Garth, 
near Northallerton, and has been entrusted to us to mount ' (Edward 
Allen & Co., York). 

We have just received the Annual Report of the Brighton and Hove 
Natural History and Philosophical Society for 1916. It contains an 
account by Mr. A. W. B. Anderson of his alleged discovery of fossil animal 
bones, which Mr. Toms stated were only ordinary flints (see The Naturalist, 
1915, page 376). Apparently the specimens were submitted to the 
authorities at the British Museum, but they were not able to support 
Mr. Anderson's theory ; notwithstanding this he still continues in his 
belief that he is right ! In the same publication, Mrs. Maud Dickinson 
writes on ' Vegetable Radium,' which was referred to in this journal for 
July, 1916, page 214. There are reports on other papers dealing with 
'Modern Explosives,' 'Inland Navigation,' 'Thoreau,' 'Evelyn,' etc. 
Personally we should like to see a few more papers bearing upon the 
district covered by the Society's Transactions. 

1917 Jan. 1. 



32 

NEWS FROM THE MAGAZINES. 

Mr. W. Mark Webb illustrates ' The British Species of Testacella,' 
in Knowledge for November. 

In The Zoologist for November, the Rev. F. C. R. Jourdain writes on 
' The Status of the Black Redstart in England as a Breeding Species.' and 
Mr. E. B. Dunlop gives a contribution to the Life History of the Herring- 
Gull. 

A writer in The Field for November 25th, 1916, p. 804, states that 
the late lamented George Mitchell added a new chapter to the history of 
falconry when he accomplished the feat of killing a number of Snipe with 
Merlins. 

In The Entomologist's Monthly Magazine for December, Mr. H. Britten 
adds six species and one variety to the list of Cumberland Hemiptera, 
which appeared in The Naturalist for August, 191 6. An exotic Blattid, 
Rhvpavobia maderee, is recorded at Halifax. 

' Notes on the Diptera of Derbyshire,' by Eric and Hilda Drabble ; 
and ' Biological and Systematic Notes on British Thysanoptera, ' by C. B. 
Williams, appear in The Entomologist for December. In future, the 
subscription to this journal is to be advanced to 7s. per annum. 

Under the Heading of ' Agriculture and the War,' the Journal of the 
Board of Agriculture for November contains a ' Report of a Meeting 
between the President of the Board of Agriculture and Fisheries and 
Members of the Somerset War Agricultural Committee and others at 
Taunton.' 

On account of the extra cost of production, the price of The Entom- 
ologist will in future be 7s. per annum. The December issue contains 
'Notes on Derbyshire Diptera,' by Dr. Eric and Hilda Drabble, and 
' Biological and Systematic Notes on British Thysanoptera,' by C. B. 
Williams. 

The New Phytologist, Vol. XV., No. 8, contains the following items : — 
'Recent Developments in the Study of Endotrophic Mycorhiza,' by 
M. Chevelv Rayner ; 'Carbon Assimilation,' by Ingvar Jorgensen and 
Walter Stiles ; ' The Translocation of Latex and the Multiple Razor,' by 
James Small ; 'The Natural History of a Siberian Coal,' by M. D. Zalessky. 

Wild Life for November contains an excellent series of photographs 
illustrating the nesting of Montagu's Harrier. Mr. R. Chislett writes on 
' Photographing the Sand Martin ' ; Mr. J. K. Emsley uses many illustra- 
tions in his ' Description of the European Lynx ' ; Mr. E. Selous con- 
tinues his observations on 'Sexual Sslection in Birds,' and there are many 
other shorter notes. 

In The Mineralogical Magazine for November, Dr. G. T. Prior has two 
papers on Meteorites ; Dr. J. W. Evans has two technical papers bearing 
upon Petrology and the Microscope ; Mr. A. Holmes describes a series 
of rocks from Angola ; Dr. T. L. Walker writes on Spencerite, a new zinc 
phosphate from British Columbia, and Mr. L. J. Spencer illustrates and 
describes a Butterfly-twin of Gypsum from Italy. 

British Birds for December contains a remarkable record of the progress 
of its Bird Marking Scheme during 1916, by H. F. Witherby, and Miss 
M. D. Haviland has some valuable illustrated notes on Temminck's Stint. 
In the way of new Sussex records, however, the Journal has ' broken out 
again.' In May last, two male collared Flycatchers were shot near St. 
Leonards, and those and two others are the only authentic British oc- 
currences ; also in May a Savi's Warbler was shot near St. Leonards, and 
except for those recorded in Fair Isle in 1908, this is the only authentic 
occurrence of the bird in the British Isles, since about 1856. These three 
Sussex birds were ' examined in the flesh ' by Mr. R. Butterfield, presum- 
ably about May last, and in view of their apparent extraordinary im- 
portance, one wonders why they have only been just recorded. 

Naturalist 



33 



A YEAR'S SCIENTIFIC WORK IN YORKSHIRE: 

BEING 

THE YORKSHIRE NATURALISTS' UNION'S 
FIFTY-FIFTH ANNUAL REPORT 

For 1916. 

[Presented at Selby, 2nd December, igi(>.) 



The Fifty-Fourth Annual Meeting was held at Keighley 
on Saturday, December 4th, 1915. The Naturalist for January, 
1916, contains a report of this most successful gathering, or- 
ganised by the Keighley, Crosshills, and Earby Naturalists' 
Societies. The Presidential address of Mr. Riley Fortune, 
F.Z.S., on ' The Protection of Wild Life in Yorkshire ' has 
likewise appeared in the same Journal, pp. 53-59 ; 92-95 ; 
124-131 ; 151-154 ; 183-188. 

The Field Meetings for the year have been six in number. 
The Excursion fixed for the August Bank Holiday week-end 
to Wentbridge was, owing to the withdrawal of that particular 
holiday, curtailed to a single day. Despite the strenuous 
energies which are called forth on behalf of our country in 
connection with the greatest war in history, and the continued 
absence of cheap travelling facilities, the majority of these 
meetings were well attended. The Excursions were as follows — 

Malton (Easter week-end), April 22nd to 24th. 
Bolton Woods, Saturday, May 20th. 
Middleham (Whit week-end), June 10th to 12th. 
Driffield, Saturday, July 8th. 
Wentbridge, Saturday, August 5th. 
Buckden (Mvcological Meeting), September 23rd to 
28th. 

The usual programmes have been printed and circulated 
prior to each meeting, and reports of the Excursions have 
appeared in the pages of The Naturalist. 

Successful Sectional meetings have also been held during 
the autumn and winter months. Permission to visit estates 
has readily been granted by various landowners, to whom 
thanks have been accorded at the close of each Excursion. 

1917 Jan. 1. 



34 Yorkshire Naturalists' Union : Annual Report, 1916. 

The Excursions for 1917 will be as follows : — 

Newby Wiske Carrs, Saturday, April 28th. 
Thorntondale or Pickering (Whit week-end), May 26th 

to 28th. 
Market Weighton, Saturday, June 16th. 
Crosshills, Saturday, July 14th. 
Grassington (August Bank Holiday week-end), August 

4th to 6th. 
Mycological Meeting, Helmsley, in September. 

The Annual Meeting for 1917 will be held at Wakefield, 
by the kind invitation of the Wakefield Naturalists' Society. 

Obituary. — It is with regret that we record the death of 
the following members during the year, viz. : — Mr. W. Barra- 
clough, H. E. Dresser, F.Z.S., F.L.S., (an ex-President of the 
Union) ; Sir Ralph Frankland Payne-Gallway, Bart., Thirkleby 
Park, near Thirsk (an ex-President of the Union) ; J. A. 
Harvie-Brown, F.R.S,E., J. R. Stubley and Mr. B. Turner. 
' In Memoriam ' notices of these gentlemen have appeared in 
The Naturalist. 

Divisional Secretaries and Local Tre ,rers. — The 
thanks of the Union are tendered to these gentlemen for the 
valuable services rendered during the year. 

General Committee. — The following have been added to 
the permanent General Committee : — ■ 

Active Service Members. — Further members of the 
Union who have joined the Forces during the year are : — 
Mr. Charles N. Barr, Mr. S. H. Couldwall, Mr. W. A. Millard, 
B.Sc, Mr. George Sheppard, B.Sc, Mr. A. R. Sanderson, Mr. 
S. H. Smith, Mr. T. Stainforth, B.Sc, B.A., Mr. E. W. Taylor, 
and Mr. F. W. Whittaker. 

BIOLOGY SECTION. 

Marine Biology Committee. — Dr. J. Irving writes : — 
Notwithstanding a serious attempt to organize a meeting of 
this Committee at Scarborough, in September, owing to war 
and other contingencies arising out of it, the attempt proved 
a failure. During the year some work on the coast has been 
done by one or two of the members, but the result has not 
materially added to the records of previous years. 

Yorkshire Micro-Biology Committee. — Mr. J. W. H. 
Johnson, M.Sc, writes : — During the past season the work 
of this Section has been very seriously impeded. However, 
notwithstanding the difficulties incidental to the war and the 

Naturalist, 



Yorkshire Naturalists' Union : Annual Report, 1916, 35 

illness of active members, some valuable work has still been 
performed. Most of the common organisms were of frequent 
occurrence ; the interesting flagellate Anthophysa. vegetans 
(O.F.M.) Busc, was found in quantity near Harrogate during 
the early months of the year. 

VERTEBRATE ZOOLOGY. 

West Riding. — Mr. H. B. Booth reports : — Nesting notes 
perhaps have yielded the most interesting results in 1916. 
Almost all the summer immigrants arrived later than usual, 
with the exception of the Swift, which again arrived early, 
and in numbers. Mr. A. Haigh Lumby saw two at Cottingley 
on April 24th, and I saw about a dozen at Bolton Abbey on 
April 29th, and they were also reported from many quarters 
about the same time. The most interesting nesting note is 
that of the Stonechat. Mr. W. Greaves sent me word that a 
friend of his (Mr. D. Sutcliffe) had seen a pair of Stonechats 
at Threshfield, near Grassington, on June 19th. On July 8th, 
I had the satisfaction of seeing a male, female, and one young 
Stonechat just able to fly, at the exact spot indicated, so that 
it may almost be taken as presumptive evidence that they 
had nested L re. These are the first Stonechats that I have 
ever been able to see in the West Riding during the nesting 
season. 

Very curiously, when I reported this occurrence to the 
president of this section, he replied that he had seen a female 
Stonechat with ' feed ' in her beak on the following day (July 
9th) at Menston, in the same dale. Neither Mr. Parkin nor I 
were able to see anything further of this bird, or her relatives, 
later. Another interesting record is that of the nesting of the 
Chiffchaff in Upper Airedale, at Gilstead, Bingley (S. Long- 
"bottom), but the lateness of the dates almost points to it being 
a second brood, although the birds had not been previously 
noted in the neighbourhood. It was first heard on June nth, 
and in conjunction with Mr. E. P. Butterfield, Mr. Long- 
bottom discovered that there was a pair engaged in nest- 
building. The first egg was laid on June 18th ; the completed 
clutch of five eggs was noted on June 23rd ; and on July 5th 
all the eggs had hatched, and eventually the five young safely 
left the nest. This is the first nesting of the Chiffchaff so high 
up Airedale that I have known It has been reported as nesting 
at Apperley Bridge (Mr. Dodd), and about 27 years ago a 
clutch of eggs was exhibited at the Bradford Natural History 
and Microscopical Society's meeting by Mr. C. Allen, which 
had been taken at West Wood, Baildon. That season and 
for several seasons after, two friends and myself frequently 
visited the spot without, however, seeing or hearing the Chiff- 
chaff. 

1917 Jan. 1. 



36 Yorkshire Naturalists' Union : Annual Report, 1916. 

I have carefully investigated the report that several pairs 
of Short-eared Owls have nested on Grassington Moor during 
the last iew years (ante pp.34 and 185) and find it to be in- 
accurate. I had the good fortune to come across the game- 
keeper there (Cousins), and gathered from him that there 
was not a word of truth in the report. He described these 
birds accurately that he occasionally saw in the autumn ; but 
he did not know their name ; yet he was quite certain that 
neither they nor their nests occurred in the summer on that 
moor, and he had been the gamekeeper there for the past eight 
years. There was good evidence that the Long-tailed Tit was 
again nesting in Upper Wharfedale, and in the same dale the 
Bullfinch was increasing as a nesting species. The Hawfinch 
appeared to be decreasing there, but it has certainly increased 
as a nesting species on the western suburbs of Keighley. 

The nesting of most species of birds was quite two to three 
weeks later than usual — probably owing to the cold, backward 
season. I have had many reports of belated nesting from which 
I select the following : — 

A Woodcock hatched off its four eggs near to Strid Cottage, 
Bolton Woods, on July 12th* (T. Roose). 

A Snipe was sitting on four eggs near Headingley during 
the first week in July (J. Atkinson). 

A Sparrow-hawk's nest noted with half-grown young at 
West-end, Washburndale, on Sept. 2nd, and a Nightjar still 
sitting on eggs on Keighley Moor on Aug. 13th, reported by 
Mr. F. H. Edmondson. 

Game birds have had a good season- — I have never before 
seen so many Red Grouse on the moors in September. 

A Dotterel was identified on Fly Flatts reservoir on Aug. 
28th (Mr. D. Sutcliffe — per W.G.). This species is very rarely 
seen in the West Riding on its autumnal migration — although 
formerly it was always expected (and looked forward to by 
those in search of feathers for angling) on several of our moors 
from the 9th to the 16th of May. A Great Grey Shrike was 
watched by members of the Crosshills Naturalists' Society on 
Oct. 31st, close to Bolton Abbey station, when it attacked and 
killed a Robin. A Sheld-Duck (now in the Morley Museum) 
a few Common Scoters, a Greenshank and several Ringed 
Plovers are reported from the reservoirs in the neighbourhood 
of Hebden Bridge (Mr. W. Greaves). Mr. Greaves also reports 
that a pair of Stonechats spent the winter (October to February) 
in that district — an unusual proceeding. Mr. A. R. Sanderson 
reported a Nuthatch in Mickley Woods, near Tanfield, in the 
nesting season. I have not a single report of the Grasshopper 
Warbler from the whole of the Riding this year. 

* A note in The Field of Aug. 12th reported a young brood of Wood- 
cock on Aug. 5th ! 

Naturalist. 



Yorkshire Naturalists' Union : Annual Report, 1916. 37 

Mr. R. Butterfield reports a Little Auk * from Cottingley 
Bridge, and some Mealy Redpolls near Wilsden, in early March. 
In The Zoologist for April, 1916, Mr. E. P. Butterfield suggests 
that some of them may have been Cones's Redpolls. 

East Riding Report. — Mr. E. W. Wade writes : — In 
consequence of a wild and wet spring our breeding birds, with 
but few exceptions, were late in nesting. 

Redshanks were unusually early, man}' of them having laid 
by mid-April, but by the second week of May the breeding 
grounds were under water and many eggs destroyed. 

An unusually large number of Turtle Doves was observed 
in the East Riding, and the bird was breeding in localities 
where it had not been previously seen. 

The Corncrake has been scarcer than ever, only four breed- 
ing pairs being reported. The usual reports of the birds being 
slaughtered on the autumnal migration come from the southern 
counties, and it is a pity something cannot be done to stop this. 

Partridges have had the worst season since 1878, and Pheas- 
ants have had a bad season, there being no rearing to com- 
pensate for the disastrous effects of the wet weather. 

On 7th May a Pied Flycatcher (male) was observed at 
Burton Constable Park, and on 13th May, another bird (female), 
but they did not stay to breed. 

There has been a satisfactory increase in the numbers 
of Goldfinches breeding locally, probably because the scarcity 
of labour has caused a great increase in the crop of thistles. 

Migrants generally arrived earlier than last year 

On 26th February a Little Auk was picked up alive at 
Scarborough ; one at Warter in the same month, and another 
dead at Cottingham. 

On 30th April I saw a Peregrine Falcon near Newport. 

On October 9th two Quail were observed during partridge 
shooting at North Dalton. 

A Greater Spotted Woodpecker $ was shot at Cawooa. 

The Pink Footed Geese arrived in the Wolds on 21st Sept. 

There has been an increase in the number of Stone Curlew 
in the protected area on the Wolds, seventeen having been seen 
in October. The birds arrived on 12th April. No doubt the 
decrease in the number of shooting men, owing to the war, 
has had something to do with this. 

Mr. J. Tavlor reports from Hornsea that seven young 
Whoopers were on the Mere on 29th September, and on 30th 
September, while duck shooting, his dog set a Bearded Tit (male) 
out of the reeds on the South side of the Mere. He had a good 
view of the bird and could not be mistaken. 

* Another Little Auk at Barden on March 1st, (see The Naturalist, 
1916, p. 173). 

1917 Jan. 1. 



3$ Yorkshire Naturalists Union : Annual Report, 1916. 

A large fall of cliff occurred early in May, a little to the 
N.N.W. of Haitley Shoot, the cliff face scaling off for a distance 
of about eighty yards, and driving off large numbers of breeding 
birds, who had settled down for the season. Instead of seeking 
other nesting quarters, they remained in the water opposite 
their old home all the season, only a few of them finding 
nesting places on the newly exposed cliff face in June. 

North Riding Report. — Mr. T. H. Nelson writes : — The 
Military restrictions on the coast are not relaxed, and observa- 
tion of bird-life is rendered extremely difficult. 

The only notes of interest relate to the presence of three 
pairs of Sandwich Terns, which frequented the Tees Bay and 
neighbourhood from the beginning of May until the middle 
of August, but it was not possible to ascertain if they nested 
in the Tees area. 

Mammals, Amphibians,. Reptiles and Fishes. — Mr. 
H. B. Booth reports : — A Badger was dug out, with considerable 
difficulty, and after three days' work, at White Crag, Silsden, 
on March 31st (Mr. R. Butterfield). A colony of Long-eared 
Bats was walled in at Dent a few years ago by Mr. W. Hicks 
(Mr. F. H. Edmondson). The ' record ' British Fox near 
Bingley was proved to be an entire fabrication (ante 1916, 

PP- 173-4)- 

Three Badgers were trapped in Brantingham Dale last 
winter and over a dozen at Newbald. 

Mr. J. F. Musham reports that on 29th December, 1915, 
an Otter (female) was killed at Spaldington, and on 1st January, 
1916 

Fishes. — An Eel 27 inches long was taken near Hebden 
Bridge (Mr. W. Greaves), and Grayling have so increased 
in some portions of the Wharfe, that I am assured by reliable 
angling friends that the ' reach ' from Bolton Abbey until 
near to Burnsall is the finest Grayling ' stretch ' in the county. 

WILD BIRDS AND EGGS PROTECTION COMMITTEE. 

Spurn. — Mr. Johnson Wilkinson writes : — I much regret 
we have not been able to have any watchers at Spurn this 
season. We applied in the first instance to the Headquarters, 
Humber Garrison, Hull. The General Commanding Officer 
there gave a most decided answer that no watcher could be 
allowed. Mr. Wade then kindly visited the Headquarters, 
unfortunately with the same result, but was promised that 
Bills should be posted for protection of both Eggs and Birds. 
During the season, I received letters mentioning the destruction 
of Eggs, so a second application was made to the Military 
Authorities. The General Officer replied that he could not 

Naturalist, 



Yorkshire Naturalists' Union : Annual Report, iqio. 39 

alter his previous decision, but would issue very stringent 
orders for the protection of both Birds and Eggs. From one 
of the Officers, I received a letter saying that from personal 
observation, both by himself and other Officers, since the 
Railway was put along the Spurn, birds had not gone there. 

Bemptox. — Only one young Falcon appears to have been 
hatched and it is thought to have got safely away, as it was 
seen many times flying about at the close of the egging season. 
The quantity of eggs taken by the gatherers seems to have 
been about the same quantity as usual. 

Unfortunately the Ravens put down last vear have all left. 

North Yorkshire. — I have unfortunately a sad tale to 
tell about the young Peregrines. Four eggs were laid, and 
seen by Mr. Edmondson, who wrote expressing the care taken 
by the watcher. On May 31st, I received a letter to say the 
young ones had been shot on the nest. I at once put the 
matter into the hands of the Police, who visited the place and 
saw the man who was alleged to have shot them, but no real 
proof could be brought against him and the matter had to be 
dropped. I wrote the Royal Society for Protection of Birds, 
who were equally desirous of taking the matter up. I also 
put myself in communication with the Agents of the Estate, 
and received the following reply : — "I have attended to the 
matter and trust there will be no further cause for complaint." 
There is no doubt that Falcons breeding in the middle of a 
Moor run a great chance of getting shot as they are looked 
upon by many people as vermin." 

Hornsea Mere. — There have been many Pochards and 
Tufted Ducks this year. Both have done well, especially the 
latter. A dead Sclavonian Grebe was picked up in December 
last ; a most unusual thing. 

There have been more Great Crested Grebes this season 
than for the last seven years, and all have done well, but 
unfortunately the Mere has been much disturbed by military 
operations. 

Many dead Swifts have been picked up ; also a Spotted 
Crake. 

Stone Curlews. — Sons of the watchers, who have taken 
great interest in the birds, and assisted in finding nests, have 
all joined the Army, so that the nests have not been found as 
before, but the usual quantity of young birds have been seen 
and their calling heard in the evenings. 

Finance. — Expenses have not been as heavy as usual, but 
the balance in hand will be useful when stricter watchfulness 
can be resumed at the conclusion of the war. 

1917 Jan. 1 



40 Yorkshire Naturalists' Union : Annual Report. iqt6. 



CASH ACCOUNT. 










Receipts. 






£ 


s. 


d. 


Balance brought forward • . . 




9 


12 


1 


Mr. W. H. St. Quintin 




5 








Mr. Leonard Gaunt 




o 
j 


3 





Mr. Jasper Atkinson 




i 


I 





Mr. E. W. Wade 




i 


I 





Mr. ]ohnson Wilkinson 




i 


I 





Mr. H. B. Booth 




i 








Mr. F. H. Edmondson 




i 








Right Hon. Milnes Gaskill (Donation) 




i 








Mr. G. T. Porritt 







10 


6 


Mr. A. H. Lumby 







10 





Mr. W. H. Parkin 







10 





Mr. S. H. Smith 







5 





Rotherham Naturalists' Society 







5 





Bank Interest 




o 


4 


6 




£26 






1 



December, 1915 : 

Spurn 

Bempton 

re Stone Curlews 

North Yorkshire 

Hornsea Mere 

Cash at Bank . . 



Payments. 



Paid to Watchers 



I 








I 








2 








I 








6 








15 


3 


1 



£26 3 1 



Audited and found correct, 

W. E. L. Wattam, ijth September, 1916. 



CONCHOLOGICAL SECTION. 

West Riding. — Mr. J. Digby Firth writes :• — We are able 
to report one addition to the County list in Pseudanodonta Sp., 
taken at Agbrigg, near Wakefield, in January last, an account 
of which appeared in The Naturalist for July. Paludestrina 
jenkinsi, a species which seems to be rapidly extending its 
range in the West Riding, has also been taken in the same 
locality. Mr. Hargreaves is investigating certain alien land 

Naturalist. 



Yorkshire Naturalists' Union : Annual Report, 1916. 41 

mollusca imported into the county along with grain. Many 
arrive in a living state and they have been noticed in an active 
condition on the refuse heaps where the ' screenings ' of the 
grain have been deposited, and no doubt remain alive for some 
weeks. 

Most of the field meetings have been attended by our Presi- 
dent, and other members of the section. The number of species 
recorded at the various meetings is as follows : — Malton, 36 ; 
Bolton Woods, 27 ; Coverdale, 21 and Wentbridge, 16. 

East Riding. — Mr. J. F. Musham writes :— At Selby 
H. arbustorum seems to be on the decrease. It is also in- 
teresting to report that the little colony of Hyalinia lucida. 
discovered at Selby in 1911 is still existing ; an isolated rind 
like this suggests accidental importation. 



ENTOMOLOGICAL SECTION. 

Lepidoptera.— Mr. B. Moriey writes : — Military restrictions 
have prevented coast and night collecting. Owing to the 
cold, wet weather, which prevailed practically the whole of 
the season to July, very few insects were seen. Since July 
noctuse have been common. 

Eupithecia plumbeolata has been added to the Skelman- 
thorpe district list by the capture of two specimens in May, 
and careful search amongst poplar in June for larvae of Tethea 
subtusa resulted in an abundance being found in the same 
district. The species was first recorded two years ago, buc 
evidently it has long been established in the neighbourhood. 
Black specimens of Ematurga atomaria were taken in June on 
the Moors to the south of Holmfirth. This form has now been 
taken on all the moors in the South West Riding, and is evidently 
becoming more common. 

Coleoptera. — Mr. W. J. Fordham writes : — It is impossible 
at this early date to give a list of beetles obtained during the 
year by the members of the Committee. Several interesting 
species have been added to the Yorkshire list. A full and 
detailed account will appear later in The Naturalist. 

Hymexoptera, Diptera, axd Hemiptera. — Mr. Rosse 
Butterfield writes : — The most interesting addition to the 
hymenopterous fauna is that of the aquatic " fairy-fly," 
Caraphractus ductus Haliday. Mr. A. R. Sanderson found 
several specimens of this Mymarid in an observation tank in 
which had been placed acquatic plants brought from Austwick 
Moss (see The Naturalist for November). A Mymarid is said 
to have been found previously in a pond near Skipton, but 
no record was made. 

1917 Jan. 1. 



42 Yorkshire Naturalists Union : Annual Report, 1916. 

The past season has not been favourable for aerial Hymen- 
optera, although additions have been made in parasitic groups. 
The capture of Vespa germanica near Keighley makes the 
list of British social wasps complete for the West Riding. 

Mr. J. F. Musham writes : — ' Throughout the Selby district 
Bombi have been scarce during the summer.' This appears 
to have been the case in other parts of the County where 
information has been obtained, though apparently normal 
numbers of queens appeared in spring. A large number of 
fertile queens of both social bees and wasps perished as a result 
of cold during May. Another specimen of Sir ex juvencus, 
writes Mr. E. G. Bayford, is recorded by the Rev. F. D. Morice 
(Trans. Ent. Soc. 1916 p. 10). The only genuine British 
specimens of this insect have both occurred in Yorkshire, viz., 
at Doncaster and at Wakefield. 

Good work in the order Diptera has been done by members 
of the Bradford Naturalists' Society, and a number of critical 
specimens are still in the hands of the Society's recorder, Mr. 
J. H. Ash worth, awaiting further examination. Dolichopus 
discifer, taken by Mr. F. Rhodes at Sunnydale, Bingley, is a 
noteworthy addition. Ischyrosyrphus glaucius has been taken 
at Grassington and WoodhaJl Hills. Mention here should be 
made of the occurrence of the new and rare dipteron Xylophagus 
ater determined by Mr. Grimshaw (Skelmanthorpe, 1915, Mr. 
B. Morley). Mr. W. H. Burrell makes an addition in the shape 
of the gall-fly Asphondylia ulicis, Verrall. He says an inter- 
esting point is that at Allwoodly Moor, near Leeds, Ulex gallii 
is the host ; a few galls have been seen on U. europaeus, but 
bushes of U. gallii are most affected. This is perhaps due to 
the period of flowering. The fly emerges freely in September 
when U. europaeus has ceased flowering. The following are 
also additions, Culex nemorosus (Bradford), Bibio lacteipennis 
(Oakworth), and Catabomba selenitica (Board Hill). 

Hemiptera-Homoptera have received no attention apart 
from the account of ' The Psyllidge of the Clevelands,' by J. 
W. H. Harrison, Naturalist, December, 10,15, wherein 22 
species are mentioned. 

Arachnida. — Mr. W. Falconer writes : — During the year, 
the following papers dealing with the Arachnida of the county 
have been published in the Naturalist : (1) The Harvestmen 
and Pseudoscorpions of Yorkshire, March to June. (2) in 
' Yorkshire Naturalists at Bo'ton Woods," August. (3) The 
Distribution of Spiders in the East Riding, September and 
December. (4) Foreign Spiders in Yorkshire, November. 

Late in 1915 and early in 1916, Mr. Stainforth forwarded 
for identification, a very extensive collection of spiders, etc., 

Naturalist, 



Yorkshire Naturalists' Union : Annual Report, 1916. 43 

from the East Riding, amongst them being two species new 
to the count v, Prosopotheca incisa Camb. (a very rare British 
spider), and Scotina gracilipes Bl. ; several new to v.c. 61, 
including Hahnia helveola Sim., Oreonetides firmns Cambr., 
Mcngca scopigera Grube, Cnephalocotes interjectus Cambr., 
Cornicularia vigilax Bl. and Pachygnatha listeri Sund. ; and a 
few others such as Lophomma subaequale Westr., Panamomops 
bicuspis Cambr., Cercidia prominens Westr. (1st Yorkshire <$), 
second records of rare species for the same division, while 
Cornicularia kochii Cambr. turned up at a new station (Hornsea 
Mere), and another pair of Erigone spinosa Cambr.* at Saltend 
Common. In v.c. 63 Diplocephalus protuberans Cambr. $ was 
taken in Drop Clough, the third Huddersfield locality (the 
only other British station being Gibside, County Durham), 
and Lophocarenum mengii Sim., in particular abundance, 
both sexes, in the Chew Valley, Greenfield, where also two $ 
Evansia merens Cambr., the last again in nests of Donisthorpea 
nigra. In v.c. 64 Diplocephalus castaneipes, Sim., £ $ occurred 
on the summit of Ingleborough, Troxochrus scabriculus Westr., 
new to the v.c, in three localities about lngleton (the only 
inland county records), and Tmeticus graminicola Sund., at 
Linton Common, where it literally swarmed on bushes. 
Lophocarenum nemor ale Bl. $, River Cover (W. E. L. Wattam) 
is new to v.c. 65. 

The investigation of the mites continues and several new 
county and some British records have been made, particulars 
of which will be given later. Authorities to whom the mite 
recorded as Smaridia papillose Herm., was submitted, disagreed 
as to its identity, and eventually Dr. George described it as 
a spec. nov. under the name Trombidium parvum (Nat., June, 
pp. 189-190). There is, however, no doubt in the case of the 
allied species, Smaridia impulliger Berk, taken by Mr. Stain- 
forth at Brantingham Dale in April. 



BOTANICAL SECTION. 

Flowering Plants. — Mr. J. F. Robinson writes : — At the 
various field meetings, a fair attendance and a steady interest 
have been maintained — vide exhaustive reports in The Nat- 
uralist of late months. New localities of certain uncommon 
and interesting species have been discovered, as for example, 
in the case of Car ex paradoxa, Willd. in two stations near 
Driffield, Car ex Pseudo-cyperus, Linn, near Hull, and Epipactis 
palustris, also near Driffield. The confirmation of a number 
of stations of former well-known species supposed to be among 

* Vide The Naturalist, Jan. 1914, p. 32. 
1917 Jan. 1. 



44 Yorkshire Naturalists' Union : Annual Report, 1916. 

those designated ' vanishing ' ones, is pleasant to record, 
especially as in some cases the growth is now luxuriant, or 
even rampant, e.g., Lastrea Thelypteris, in the comparatively 
recently discovered spot near Driffield. In a less degree, the 
same may be said of Ranunculus Lingua Linn., Schcenus 
nigricans, Linn, and Sparganium simplex, Huds. 

Mr. J. Holmes reports finding Andromeda polijolia in 
flower on Ickornshaw Moor, v.c. 63, on May 27th. 

Mr. C. A. Cheetham writes : — Interesting papers have 
appeared in The Naturalist during the year, amongst which 
are : — 

' Wild Roses of Durham,' by J. W. H. Harrison. 

Yorkshire Hawkweeds,' by J. Cryer. 
' Lichen Flora of Harden Beck,' by T. Hebden. 
' Notes on Brefeldia,' by A. R. Sanderson ; and 

Plants of Commondale,' by J. G. Baker. 

Information has been readily given in reply to enquiries 
as to the fruiting of the commoner trees and shrubs, and the 
noticeable failure is that of the ash ; the rest, though varying 
somewhat in different districts, seem to have had an average 
crop, perhaps the roses might be put down as specially full 
of fruit. 

Mr. Cockerline reports that the Leeds Cooperative of Field 
Naturalists have been paying special attention to the alien 
flora of their district and have been successful in adding several 
species to the British list, which will be published later. In 
view of the many different sources of grain that are being util- 
ized at present, it would repay societies to keep a watch on 
these alien plants and note any alterations. * 

Botanical Survey Committee. — Dr. T. W. Woodhead, 
M.Sc, writes : — The work of the year has been very satisfactory 
and the evening discussions at our Excursions have proved 
both helpful and suggestive. The studies of Molinia, by the 
Rev. T. A. Jefferies, have been continued, and an account of 
the vegetative anatomy ot this plant was published in Vol. 
15 (1916) of The New Phytologist. Further work by him on 
Molinia-peat is making good progress. Interesting peat 
problems were raised during the excursion to Austwick in 
August, and at a joint meeting of Botanists and Geologists 
held at Bradford in October, a very profitable discussion took 
place on the features observed on the Ling-covered areas of 

Naturalist, 



Yorkshire Naturalists' Union : Annual Report, 1916. 45 

the limestone plateau at Moughton. An investigation has 
also been commenced on the development of the vegetation 
in seven selected turbary pools on Austwick Moss, in which 
Mr. W. H. Burrell and Mr. C. A. Cheetham are taking keen 
interest. Preliminary notes on this work have appeared in 
The Naturalist for August and November. 

Bryology. — Mr. W. Ingham B.A. writes : — Mr. C. A. 
Cheetham has added Trichostomum nitidum to v.c. 64 at 
Austwick. Mr. W. Bellerby has added Sphagnum batumense 
to Yorkshire, found at Goathland. 

Mr. W. Ingham has added Sphagnum auriculatum var. 
ovatum found at Little Beck, v.c. 62 and Philonotis caespitosa, 
var. orthophylla, Lske. (Saltersgate Beck, v.c. 62) S.imbricatum 
var. affine (Arncliffe Wood, v.c. 62) to Yorkshire. He also 
found S. pulchrum in Fen Bog, near Goathland, v.c. 62. 

Mycology. — Mr. A. E. Peck writes :— The Mycological 
Committee has been officially represented at all the Meetings 
of the Union held during the year. Reports will be found in 
The Naturalist for August, 1916, pages 266, 270, 299 and 303. 

The Annual Foray was held at Buckden in Wharfedale, 
from September 23-28 and was well attended. Large numbers 
of species were obtained, some of which were new to Britain, 
and several were additional records for Yorkshire, of which- 
an account will duly appear in The Naturalist. 

The Naturalist of January, 1916, page 19, contains a note 
by Mr. Massee respecting the Stinkhorn, Ithyphallus impud- 
icus and its occasional occurrence bearing a veil. Oddly this 
feature has again been noted by Mr. Peck on a specimen 
growing at Cloughton, September 1916. In The Naturalist, 
June, 1916, Mr. A. R. Sanderson gives a list of Mycetozoa 
noticed by him in 1915, two of which are new to Yorkshire. 



GEOLOGICAL SECTION. 

Geological Section. — Messrs. J. Holmes and C. Bradshaw 
report : — The postponement of the Bank Holidays prevented 
many members from attending the Middleham and Wentbridge 
meetings. 

At Malton, quarries in the Oolitic Limestone were visited 
and typical fossils collected. Glacial problems of the district 
also received attention. At Bolton, the limestones, shales, 
and grits of the Wharfe Valley were examined with interesting 
results. 

At Driffield, a visit was paid to the Chalk quarries, and 

1917 Jan. 1. 



46 Yorkshire Naturalists' Union : Annual Report, 1916. 

afterwards the large and excellent collection of Chalk fossils 
In the Mortimer Museum was inspected. 

Lecturettes on geological subjects have been given at two 
of the week-end meetings. 

The Geological and Botanical Sections have held .1 joint 
meeting to discuss certain problems connected with the 
distribution of plants in the Settle district. 

Glacial Committee. — Mr. J. W. Stather reports ' — 

Roseberry Topping. — Mr. J. J. Burton, J. P., writes that 
there is now an exposure of a great number of well-marked 
strise on rock in situ, on the face of Roseberry Topping. The 
direction of the stria? is towards the S.E. by E. (magnetic 
compass) and at an elevation of approximately 780 feet. 

Hunmanby. — In The Naturalist for August, page 24S, 
Mr. T. Sheppard, M.Sc, gives an account of a recent visit to 
a clay and gravel pit near Hunmanby Station. The beds 
are described and 26 varieties of boulders noted. No large 
boulders of chalk were seen. 

Huddersfield. — In The H udder fiseld Naturalist and 
Photographic Society's Annual Report, just issued, Dr. Wood- 
head describes some sections in the Spur separating the Colne 
from the Lees Beck. This shows boulder clay, etc., and 
indicates with the ice extended southwards beyond the northern 
bank of the Calder, which is further than was previously 
supposed. 

COAST EROSION COMMITTEE. 

Mr. J. W. Stather reports : — For obvious reasons, a com- 
plete report, with details of measurements, is impossible this 
year. 

Whitby. — Mr. J. T. Sewell reports a large fall of cliff at 
Whitby in the neighbourhood of the East cliff. 

Bempton. — In June this year, there was a fall of cliff in 
the neighbourhood of Bempton, said to be the largest within 
living memory. See The Naturalist, July 1916, page 240. 

Holderness. — The high tides of September made consid- 
erable inroads into the cliffs immediately south of Bridlington, 
also at Kilnsea, and other places on the Holderness coast. 



The Affiliated Societies now number thirty-four, having 
a total membership of 2669. The Brighouse, Lindley and 
North Eastern Railway Naturalists' Societies have resigned. 



Naturalist, 



Yorkshire Naturalists' Union : Annual Report, 1916. 47 

The Membership of the Union at the close of 1915 
{exclusive of the Affiliated Societies) numbered 359. The 
resignations, deaths and names struck oil the roll total 30, 
leaving the membership at 33J. The following members were 
■elected during the year, viz : — 

Mr. Edward Bilton, 81 Abbey' Street, Hull. 
Mr. Matthias Bywater, 64 Park Road, Low Moor, Bradford. 
Mr. F. Croft, Bank House, Ley burn, S.O. 
Sir William Garforth, Syndale Hall, near Pontefract. 
Mr. Sam Longbottom, 24 Knight Street, Bingley. 
Mr. M. Odling, M.A., B.Sc, F.G.S., the University, Leeds. 
Miss E. E. Rushworth, 16 Westfield Place, Halifax. 
Mr. Hubert A. Todd, 6 Queen's Road, Linthorpe, Middles- 
brough. 

Soppitt Memorial Library.— Few additions have been 
been made during the year, but we have pleasure in acknow- 
ledging the following : — " The Study of Diptera " and ' Diptera 
Scotica, VI.— The Western Isles,' by Mr. Percy F. Grimshaw ; 
'Ecology of the Purple Heath Grass {Molinia ccerulea)' and 
* The Vegetative Anatomy of Molinia ccerulea ,'by the Rev. T. 
A Jefferies ; the Transaction and Annual Report for [915-1916, 
of the North Staffordshire Field Club, and ' Morphology and 
Development of Agaricus rodmani,' by Prof. G. F. Atkinson. 

British Association.— The Yorkshire Naturalists' Union 
was officially represented .it the meeting of the British Associ- 
ation at Newcastle, by Mr. T. Sheppard, M.Sc, who had the 
honour of being elected the vice-presidenl of the Conference 
of Delegates. A detailed reporl of the meeting was given in 
The Naturalist for October, pp. 305-323. 

' Thi: Naturalisi ' has well maintained its reputation as 
a high-class scientific journal, and the Editors are to be con- 
gratulated on the maintenance of the standard ol efficiency 
of the Union's Journal. 

Presidency for 1917 has been offered to and accepted 
by Si] Archibald Geikie, O.M., K.C.B., LL.D. 

The Union wishes to record its indebtedness to it- retiring 

dent, Mr. \V. X. Cheesman, J.P., F.L.S., of Selby, for his 

services during the year, and for his attendances at the ex- 

1 ursions and sectional gatherings, all of which have been greatly 

appreciated. 

■ \iimk\i. The following is the Hon. Treas- 
urer's (Mr. Edwin Hawkesworth) 'statemenl ol Receipts and 
Payments : — 

1917 Jan. 1. 



4'S Yorkshire Naturalists' Union : Annual Report, 1916. 

STATEMENT OF INCOME AND EXPENDITURE, 
12 months to November 14, 1916. 



INCOME. 

£ s. 

Members' Annual 

Subscriptions, arrears 6 15 

1916 87 3 

1917 1 1' 



Levies from Associated 

Societies, arrears 1 7 11 
1910 H) 3 10 



Life .Members' Subscriptions (< antra) 

Sales of Publications 

Bank Interest 



95 in 



11 11 9 

7 7 

2 

3 13 2 



Naturalist ' — 
Subscriptions, 


arrears 
1916 
1917 


£ s. 
:> L6 

7.". 10 
1 


d. 

n 
(i 





82 5 

a ia 




7 






8117 7 










£203 IS I 



EXPENDITURE. 

£ s. d. 

Expenses ol Meetings 7 13 a 

Printing and Stationery (General A/c) 19 2 8 

Postages, etc. (Hon. Secretaries' A/c) 12 9 10 

Clerkage, „ „ 10 

Stationery, tic. (Hon. Treasurer's A/c) 18 

Postages etc.. ,. 1 B 9 

Life Members' Account [contra) .. 7 7 
Cost of Publications : — 
Annual Report, 1915 . . £('. 15 
„ 1916 (est.) IS 

13 10 o 
Less — Provision in A/cs 

for 1915 6 

7 10 

' Naturalist ' 

Subscribers' Copies £100 13 B 
Exchanges .. .. S 12 

Sundries 1 6 2 

Editor's Postages, etc. * I 7 6 
Extra pages .. .. ti 10 
Binding 16 

127 15 

Balance, being excess of Income over 

Expenditure during 1916 .. .. 7 17 11 

£202 12 4 



BALANCE SHEET, November 14, 1916. 



LIABILITIES. 

Amounts due from L'nion — 

' Naturalist ' 

Annual Report, 1916 

Subscriptions received in advance. . 

Life Members' Account 

' Hey ' Legacy Account 

Balance being excess of Assets over 

Liabilities. Nov. 14th, 1916 



66 2 

(i 15 

2 2 

74 19 

20 



£247 



ASSETS. 

£ 

Cash at Bank . . . . 2o5 o 
Cash in Hon. Secretary's 

hands 4 11 

Cash in Hon. Treasurer's 

hands 13 

Less : Cash due to Hon. 
Editor 

Subscriptions in Arrears. 
Less Amount estimated 
as unrealisable 



s. d. 



240 8 


A 


3 4 


• 


14 19 


ii 


4 19 






£ s. d. 



3 9 



: 10 



£247 



Audited and iound correct, 
Nov. 24th, 1916. 

WALTER GARSTANG, 
ALBERT GILLIGAN. 



E. HAWKESWORTH, 

Hon. Treasurer. 



Naturalist, 



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BIBLIOGRAPHY 



OF 



YORKSHIRE GEOLOGY 

1534-1914. 

By T. SHEPPARD, m.sc, f.g.s,, f.r.g.s., f.s.a.(scot.) 

8vo, xxxvi. + 629 pp. 15/- net. 

This forms Volume XVIII. of the Proceedings of the Yorkshire 
Geological Society. It contains full references to more than 6,300 
books, monographs and papers relating to the geology and physical 
geography of Yorkshire, and to more than 400 geological maps and 
sections, published between 1534 and 1914. In its preparation over 
700 sets of Scientific Journals, Reports, Transactions and Magazines 
have been examined. There is an elaborate index containing over 
26,500 references to subjects, authors and localities. 

London : A. BROWN & SONS, Ltd., 5 Farringdon Avenue, E.C. 
AND ALL BOOKSELLERS. 

THE LOST TOWNS 
OF THE YORKSHIRE COAST 

And other Chapters bearing upon the 
Geography of the District. 

By T. SHEPPARD, IW.Sc, F.G.S., F.R.G.S., F.S.A.(Scot) 

352 pages Demy 8vo, -with over 100 illustrations. Cloth Boards, 

7/6 net. 

This Volume contains much valuable information in reference 
to the various towns and villages which have disappeared by 
the encroaches of the sea. It is profusely illustrated bv plans, 
engravings, etc., including many which are published for the 
first time ; and chapters have been added on Geology, Antiquities, 
Natural History, and other subjects relative to the scientific 
of the district. 

London 

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5 Farringdon Avenue, E.C. 

And all Booksellers. 



Printed at Browns' Savile Press, 40, George Street, Hull, and published by 
A. Brown & Sons, Limited, at 5 Farringdon Avenue, in the City of London. 

Jan. 1st, 1917. 



FEB. 1917. 



No. 721 

(No. 487 of current nri*i) 




A MONTHLY ILLUSTRATED JOURNAL OF 

NATURAL HISTORY FOR THE NORTH OF ENGLAND. 

EDITED BV i 

T. SMEPPARD, M.Sc, F.G.S., F.R.O.S., F.S.A.Scot., 

The Museums, Hull ; 

AND 

T. W. WOODHEAD, Ph.D., M.Sc, F.L. 

Technical College, Huddersfield. 
with the assistance as referees in special department 
J. GILBERT BAKER, P.R.S. P.L.S., GEO. T. PORRITT, 

Prof. P. F. KBNDALL, M.Sc, P.O.S.. JOHN W. TAYLOR, 
RILEY FORTUNE, F.Z.S. 







Contents : — 

PAoa 

Notes and Comment* :— Exit 'The Zoologist' ; British Birds ; Towns of Roman Britain ; 
The ' County ' Mania in Ireland; Spoons; Sales from the National Gallerv ; Carbonifer- 
ous Corals ; Diagnoses ; Discussion ; Facetted Pebbles from Lancashire ; Differentiation ; 
The Belemnite ; Lias Specimens ; Tentacles of Belemnites 49-55 

Norwegian Boulder in the Millstone Grit of Yorkshire (illustrated)— A. Gilligan, 

B.Sc, F.G.S 56-57 

Icthyoiogical Notes from the Scarborough District, 1915-16— W.J. Clarke, F.Z.S. 58-60 

On Arranging Museum Cases for Birds (illustrated)— T. Skeppanl, M.Sc, F.G.S. ... 61-68 

On the Occurrence of Manganese in Land and Fresh Water Mollasca— Prof. A. E. 

Boycott, M.D.,F.R.S., etc 69-73 

Yorkshire Coleoptera in 1916— W. J. Fvrdham, M.R.C.S., L.R.C.P., F.E.S 74-7G 

Yorkshire Entomology In 1 9 1 6— B. Morley 77-79 

Field Notes:— Turnstones in Upper Wharfedale ; Wild Geese in Upper Wharfedale ... 79 

News from the Magazines 55, 57, 79 

Reviews and Book Notices (illustrated) 60, 80 

Northern News 68, 80 

Illustrations 56, 57, 60, 64, 05, 80 



LONDON : 
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And at Hull and York. 
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Prepaid Subscription 6/6 par annum, post free. 



YORKSHIRE NATURALISTS' UNION : VERTEBRATE SECTION. 

President— Prof. W. GARSTANG, M.A., D.Sc. 

The February meetings will be held on Saturday, the 17th, in the Philosophicat 
I [all, Leeds (close to the City Square), at 3-15 and 6-30 p.m. respectively. 

Business. 

Report of the Birds and Eggs Protection Committee, and discussion on any matter 
relating thereto. 

Short papers (some illustrated by lantern slides and specimens), have been promised 
including one by the President on 'Notes on Nestlings and on the peculiarities of Nestling 
Plumage. ' 

Mr. H. B. Booth will introduce a discussion on — Why do the different Species of Birds 
vary so much in the number of the Eggs they lay ? 

A cordial invitation is extended to any member or associate to present notes on original 
observations, exhibit photographs, lantern slides or specimens. 

The Museum will be open to persons attending. 

It is urgently desired that all who can will make an effort to be present and contribute 
to the success of the gathering. 

Further particulars from Walter Greaves, Hon. Sec, 

1 Chapel Avenue, Hebden Bridge. 



SUBSCRIPTIONS — Subscriptions to the Yorkshire Naturalists' Union are due on 
January 1st, and should be sent to the Treasurer, Mr. E. Hawkesworth Sunnyside 
Crossgates, Leeds. 



BOOKS WANTED. 

Proc. Bristol Naturalists' Society. All before 1874. 

Trans. Woolhope Club. 1866-80 ; 1898-9. 

Quarterly Journal of Science. Vols. XV., XVI., XIX., XX., XXII. 

Trans. Geol. Soc, London, 4to. 2nd series, Vols. IV.-V1I. (1836-56). 

Geological Magazine, 1890-1-2-4. 

Mackie's Geol. and Nat. Hist. Repository. Vols. II., III. ] • 

Proc. Liverpool Geol. Association. Parts 1, 3, 7, 16. 

Journ. Northants. Field Club. Vols. IX. -Xi ' 

Reliquary (Jewett's 8ov. Series). Vols. X., XII., XV., XVI XVIII XXII 

XXIV and XXVI. 
Irish Naturalist. Vols. 1912-16. 
Chester Arch, and Hist. Soc. Vols. V.-IX. 
Yorks. Arch. Journal. Parts 63, 69. 
Scottish Naturalist. 1881-95. 
Annals of Scottish Nat. Hist. 1905-1916. 
Walford's Antiquarian Mag. and Bibliographer for 1885. 
Proc. London Geol. Soc. Vols. I. -IV. 1826-45. 
Quart. Journ. Geol. Soc. Vols. I. -XIV. 
Proc. Geol. Assoc. Vol. I. Parts 1-2 (pp. 1-18). 
Trans. Yorks. Nat. Union. Part I. 
Naturalists' Journal. Vol. I. 

W. Smith's New Geological Atlas of England aud Wales. 1819-21. 
Frizinghall Naturalist. Vol. I., and part 1 of Vol. II. (lithographed). 
Illustrated Scientific News. 1902-4. (Set). 
Journal Keighley Naturalists' Society. 4to. Parti. 
Cleveland Lit. & Phil. Soc. Trans. Science Section or others. 
Proc. Yorks. Nat. Club (York). Set. 1867-70. 
Keeping's Handbook to Nat. Hist. Collections. (York Museum). 
Huddersfield Arch, and Topog. Society. 4 Reports. (1865-1869). 
First Report, Goole Scientific Society. 
The Naturalists' Record. Set. 

The Natural History Teacher (Huddersrield). Vols. I .-II. 
The Economic Naturalist (Huddersfield). Vol. I. 
The Naturalists' Guide (Huddersfield). Parts 1-38. 
The Naturalists' Almanac (Huddersfield). 1867. 
" Ripon Spurs," by Keslington. 

Reports on State of Agriculture of Counties (1790-1810). 
Early Geological Maps. 
Selborne Letters. Vol. I. 1881. 

Apply— Editor, The Museum, Hull. 



NOTES AND COMMENTS. 



'UN2fl920 



EXIT THE ZOOLOGIST. 

We much regret to read the following in British Birds 
for January : — ' The well-known and old-established natural 
history monthly, The Zoologist, having been acquired by the 
proprietors of British Birds, is now incorporated with this 
magazine. While we welcome this union as an accession 
to our journal, we can but deplore the cessation as a separate 
publication of our aforetime contemporary, which has had so 
long and honourable a career of usefulness. The Zoologist 
was established in 1843 by Edward Newman, who edited it 
until his death in 1876. From 1877 to 1896 the journal 
was conducted by Mr. J. E. Harting, and this was no doubt 
its most flourishing period so far as ornithology is concerned. 
From 1897 to 1914 Mr. W. L. Distant was Editor, and in 
1915 he was succeeded by Mr. Frank Finn.' 

BRITISH BIRDS. 

' So far as the future of our magazine is concerned, we do 
not propose to make any serious change in its scope or policy. 
It will still be devoted entirely to Birds, and it is with regret 
that we must exclude from its pages all other branches of Natural 
History which found a place in The Zoologist. We propose, 
however, while still specializing in the birds of the British 
list, slightly to enlarge our scope by admitting a limited number 
of articles and notes on the avifauna of other parts of the 
western portion of the Palaearctic Region or, in other words, 
of Europe and North-west Africa.' From this, it is obvious 
that The Zoologist, which has been such a friend to British 
naturalists, virtually ceases, especially as British Birds does 
not seem to contain any additional pages. In fact, if anything, 
it is even smaller, the present number containing only 24 
pages, whereas formerly it contained 36 pages ; and The 
Zoologist averaged 40 pages per month. 

TOWNS OF ROMAN BRITAIN.* 

In the first paragraph of this book, we find that the author, 
who has written on ' Genesis and Evolution of the Individual 
Soul,' ' The Birth and Growth of Toleration,' ' Wooing and 
Wedding,' etc., tells us that he writes ' the last line of this 
book with a sigh at the incompleteness of his work. He is 
conscious he has touched but the fringe of the mantle covering 
the form of the silent Muse of History.' We sigh in sympathy 
with him, and agree with his opinion. When, however, he 
modestly informs us, ' the present work is intended to furnish 
a compendious guide to readers who desire to study the fruits 

* By the Rev. J. C. Bevan. London : Chapman & Hall, 66 pages, 
2s. 6d. net. 

1917 Feb. -1. 



50 Notes and Comments. 

of the Roman occupation, to trace out the roads they laid 
down, and to possess themselves of the position and essential 
features of the centres where they congregated for commerce, 
pleasure or defence,' we fear we must admit, as one of the 
readers, to a considerable feeling of disappointment. The 
book is a scrappy summary of what is known of Roman Towns ; 
Colchester occupying about half a page, and York only a 
little more. The author refers to ' the wonderful secrets 
which await the skilful use of such humble implements as 
the shovel and the pick in almost any quarter of our island 
home.' We could put him on several square miles of our 
island, in different parts, where he could spend the rest of his 
days with the shovel and the pick ; but he would find few 
' hidden secrets,' though he might produce a new treatise 
on ' Toleration ' ! As the book is not bound in cloth, the 
price at 2s. 6d. seems ample. 

THE ' COUNTY ' MANIA 

In The Irish Naturalist for January, Mr. Roland Southern 
writes on ' The State of Ireland,' in which he refers to the 
present ' county mania ' with regard to recording species. He 
points out that ' the seaward boundary of the terrestrial 
divisions was fixed at low- water mark. Consequently, one 
shore of nine of the principal bays was in one sub-province 
down to low water-mark, and in another sub-province below 
low-water mark. One might catch a crab just above low-water 
mark in ' Desmond,' but if the crab was nimble enough, and 
managed to slip into the water before being captured, it would 
figure in the records of ' Thomond.' If that crab had been 
already recorded from ' Desmond,' but not from ' Thomond,' 
there would be a strong temptation for the record hunter to 
chivy it over the border before capturing. But such deplorable 
chicanery could not have occurred to the mind of Mr. Adams, 
for he says ' Species obtained by shore-collecting belong 
(naturally enough) to the county on whose shores they are 
collected.' Nor, apparently, have the vagaries of ' low-water 
mark,' as a territorial boundary, troubled him.' 

IN IRELAND. 

' But these minor absurdities do not constitute the chief 
objection to such ready-made faunistic and floristic divisions 
of a country. They are fundamentally wrong, insomuch as 
they precede a knowledge of distribution, instead of being 
based on it. If they are to have any value, they must represent 
the observed limitations of species, and those factors in the 
environment which prevent their further dispersal. It will 
then be obvious (as it is now) that each species has its own 
peculiar distribution, and only two divisions will be necessary 
to express it, one in which it occurs, and one from which it 
is absent.' 

Naturalist, 



Notes and Comments. 51 

SPOONS. 

In his speech at a meeting held in connection with the 
future Craft Museums recently, Dr. W. Evans Hoyle, who is 
apparently an authority on the subject, states ' I am a repre- 
sentative of one of those small nationalities in which we are 
supposed to be feeling a special interest just now. In Wales, 
in times noi so far back, many of these home industries were 
habitually practised : it was the fashion for a young man to 
present the girl he was courting with a spoon, the handle of 
which was elaborately carved. Often the handle was fearfully 
and wonderfully made and of such dimensions, as to render 
the object quite useless, especially when, with touching sig- 
nificance, two bowls were attached to one handle. I do not 
know whether this practice is the origin of the expression 
" being spoony " on a girl, but it is not so far-fetched as some 
etymologies that one comes across. Such objects as these 
and many similar ones are relics of a time before facilities 
of travel and picture palaces had drawn people away from the 
pursuit of fireside handicrafts.' 

SALES FROM THE NATIONAL GALLERY. 

The Council of the Museums Association, through Mr. E. 
Rimbault Dibdin, the president, and Mr. E. E. Lowe, the 
secretary, have written to the Trustees and Director of the 
National Gallery to record their appreciation of that part of 
the National Gallery Bill, 1916, which proposes to allow loans 
to colonial galleries, and some extension of the facilities for 
the loan of pictures and works of art to provincial galleries. 
With regard to the sale of works of art by the National Gallery 
Trustees, the council ask that, in the event of the Bill becoming 
law, sympathetic consideration should be given to the needs 
of provincial and colonial galleries before any work be sold. 
They further submit that it would be desirable to have an 
expert independant advisory tribunal to examine and confer 
with the Trustees and Director in regard to works to be sold 
or exchanged, and that any legislation designed to restrict 
the exportation of certain classes of paintings, etc., should 
apply to all works falling into those classes, and not be res- 
tricted to those specified on a list prepared by or for the 
Trustees of the National Gallery. 

CARBONIFEROUS CORALS. 

At a recent meeting of the London Geological Society, 
Dr. Stanley Smith read a paper on ' Aulina rotiformis, gen. 
et sp. nov., Pkiliipsastrcea hennahi (Lonsdale), and the genus 
Oriona-ircea.' . The primarv object of the present communi- 
cation is a description of a new aid interesting coral genus 
of colonial habit, Aulina, obtained from the highest limestone 
that can be associated with the lower Carboniferous— the 

1917 Feb. 1. 



52 Notes and Comments. 

Fell Top Limestone of Northumberland and its equivalent 
horizon in Teesdale, the Botany Beds. Since this form has 
been confounded with another Carboniferous species, well 
known under the name of ' Phillip sastrce a radiata (S. Wood- 
ward),' it has been found advisable, in fact necessary, to 
extend the original scope of the paper so as to include a revision 
of the genus Phillip sastrce a and a description of ' Ph. radiata * 
and its allies, which he has grouped together under a new 
generic name, Orionastrcea. Several type-specimens, including 
that of Phillipsastrcea hennahi (the genotype of Phillip sastrce a), 
are described and figured. The new genus from the Fell 
Top Limestone is a very distinctive form, on account of the 
remarkable annular wall developed within the theca, and may 
prove of considerable value as a zonal index. The corallum 
in this genus, as also in Phillipsastrcea and in Orionastrcea r 
represents a stage in colonial development in which the epitheca 
of the individual corallites has entirely disappeared, and these 
are consequently united by their dissepimental tissue — a 
type of colony to which the term ' Astraeiform ' may be applied. 

DIAGNOSES. 

Aulina rotiformis. — The corallum is massive, and the 
corallites are united by their extrathecal tissue ; all the septa 
dilate at the theca, and those of the major cycle again dilate 
at their axial edges, in such a manner as to fuse together, and 
so build a cylindrical wall or tube within the theca. The 
structure of the form is in most respects similar to that of 
Phillipsastrcea, but it appears to carry forward the septal 
characters peculiar to that genus to a further stage of devel- 
opment. 

Phillipsastrcea. — The corallum is composite and massive ; 
the corallites are united by their dissepiments, or are only 
separated by a thin epitheca ; in the former case, the septa 
are often confluent. Major and minor septa dilate at the 
theca ; the latter terminate there, and the major septa atten- 
uate and advance into the intrathecal region, and there often 
dilate again at the axial edge. The central part of the corallite 
is occupied solely by tabula?. 

Orionastrcea. — The characters of this genus are essentially 
those of Lithostrotion, but of a modified form. The corallum 
is composite and massive, and the corallites are either defined 
by a thin epitheca, or, in the more typical instances, by no 
epitheca at all ; in this latter case, the corallites are united by 
their dissepiments and the septa are confluent. 

The distinguishing characters of the three species recognized 
and described are as follows : — 

i. O. ensifer (Edwards & Haime). Septa not confluent. Culumella present. 

2. O. phillipsi (McCoy) Septa confluent. Culumella present. 

3. O. placenta (McCoy) Septa confluent. Culumella absent. 

■ Naturalist, 



Notes and Comments. 53 

DISCUSSION. 

Professor E. J. Garwood quite agreed that the form, 
generally known as ' Phillipsastrcea ' radiata, which occurs 
in the Botany Beds in Yorkshire and also in the Fell Top 
Limestone of Northumberland, was a distinct form apparently 
limited to a high horizon in the Yorkshire beds, and he had 
himself used it as a zonal index for this horizon. He pointed 
out that at Botany, the beds still contain abundant examples 
of Dibunophyllids and other well-known marine Lower Car- 
boniferous forms, although they occur some 200 feet above 
the base of the Millstone Grit Series of the Geological Survey 
maps. It was obvious, therefore, that, however useful it 
might be for economic purposes to represent the arenaceous 
occurrences by a special colour, this sandy episode entered 
in different districts at different periods, and could not be 
used as a definite stratigraphical horizon dividing the Lower 
and Upper Carboniferous rocks. 

FACETTED PEBBLES FROM LANCASHIRE. 

At the same meeting, Mr. J. W. Jackson exhibited a number 
of facetted pebbles from Pendleton (Lancashire), and stated 
that nearly 200 of these had been collected during the last 
six months from near the top of a section of current -bedded 
and faulted Glacial Sand and Gravel at an altitude of about 
200 feet O.D. The pebbles occur in situ some 2 or 3 feet 
below the capping of darker subsoil, which contains cores 
and flakes of flint, including pigmies. They consist of slate, 
granites (Eskdale and Shap), Ennerdale granophyre, Borrow- 
dale volcanic tuffs, porphyries, quartzites, Millstone Grit, 
sandstones, Chalk flints, Carboniferous chert, and other rocks. 
The largest facetted pebble measures njx8£ inches, and is 
7 inches high ; the smallest is only half an inch in diameter. 
The facets are generally concave, grooved, or fluted. They 
vary in number : some stones have one facet only, others two 
or more. One stone with a flat top shows five incipient facets. 
On some, the grooving is of the nature of parallel series of 
elongated pits. 

DIFFERENTIATION. 

Differentiation, according to varying hardness and com- 
position, is well displayed on the granites, porphyries, grits, 
etc., where the weaker constituents have been strongly eroded, 
leaving the stones with an irregularly pitted surface. The 
production of facets by splitting along joint-planes is seen 
on some examples of sandstone ; but the facet thus formed 
has been modified by wind-action. A few pebbles occurred 
in the sand completely inverted, and some show distinct 
facetting on both sides. Of examples orientated in situ, the 
facets faced north-westwards, westwards, and south-west- 

1917 Feb. 1. 



54 Notes and Comments. 

wards — the directions of the present prevailing winds. Alt 
the pebbles are of Glacial origin, but the facetting may be 
relatively quite recent. The upper part of the sands where 
they occur may be the result of redistribution by wind before 
a soil-cap began to form. 

i.l i) THE BELEMNITE. 

At a recent meeting of the London Geological Society, Mr. 
G. C. Crick, A.R.S.M., F.G.S., gave an account of some recent 
researches on the belemnite animal. He stated that it was 
his intention to confine himself to the restoration of a typical 
belemnite animal and its shell, as shown particularly by 
examples in the British-Museum collection. He first demon- 
strated, by means of a rough model, the construction of the 
belemnite shell, including the guard or rostrum, the phrag- 
mocone with its ventr ally-situated siphuncle, and its thin 
envelope the conotheca, with its forward prolongation and 
expansion (on the dorsal side) known as the pro-ostracum. He 
then noted the abrupt termination of the chambered cone on 
the lower part of the pro-ostracum. of which the dorsal surface 
may have been partly or almost completely covered by a thin 
forward extension of the guard. To illustrate what was' 
known of the complete body of the animal as found associated 
with the guard, he showed photographic slides of two of the 
examples figured by Huxley in his ' Memoir on the Structure 
of the Belemnitidae,' published in 1864. Each of these exhib- 
ited the guard associated with portions of the pro-ostracum, 
the ink-bag, and the hooklets of the arms. The form of the 
liooklets with their thickened bases was discussed, this feature 
in a great measure justifying the attribution to the belemnite 
of certain cephalopod remains (found practically at about the 
same geological horizon) that included uncinated arms associ- 
ated, ,with an ink-bag, and frequently also with nacreous 
portions' of (presumably) the pro-ostracum. 

>"•.'. LIAS SPECIMENS. 

Of the remains of uncinated armed cephalopods from the 
Lias, each exhibiting the same form of hooklets as those figured 
by Huxley, he said that the British-Museum collection con- 
tained seventeen examples, all from the neighbourhood of 
Lyme Regis and of Charmouth, in Dorset. Each specimen 
exhibits a number of uncinated arms associated usually with 
an ink-bag, sometimes also with nacreous matter, and in two 
instances also with the guard or rostrum. These two examples 
were those to which he had already referred as having been 
figured by Huxley, and unfortunately the arms are not well 
preserved in either of these specimens ; in one (B. bruguierianus, 
from the Lower Lias near Charmouth) there are only a few 
scattered hooklets, while the arms of the other (B. elongatus, 

Natural st. 



Notes and Comments. 55 

from the Lower Lias of Charmouth) are represented only by 
a confused mass of hooklets. Of the other fifteen examples, 
in one there are a few solitary hooklets ; in another the number 
of the arms is very indistinct ; in two the remains of only two 
arms are preserved ; in one there are traces of three arms ; 
in two there are indications of three, or possibly four, arms ; 
and in one there is a confused mass of possibly four arms ; 
and in one there are the remains of four, or possibly of five, 
arms. In each of the remaining six specimens six arms can 
be more or less clearly made out, while there is not a single 
example in which more than six uncinated arms are displayed. 

TENTACLES OF BELEMNITES. 

Of the six examples that exhibit six uncinated arms four 
are stated to be from the Lias of Lyme Regis ; one is from the 
Lias of Charmouth ; and one was obtained from the Lower 
Liassic shales between Charmouth and Lyme Regis. From a con - 
sideration of these specimens, the speaker concluded that the 
cephalopod represented by these uncinated arms is the animal 
known as the belemnite, and that the six uncinated arms were 
arranged in three pairs of unequal length, of which the longest 
pair was lateral, the medium sized pair probably dorsal, and 
the shortest pair probably ventral. He considered the presence 
of tentacular arms to be doubtful. These observations were 
in accord with those of Huxley, who, in his ' Memoir ' already 
cited, stated that he had ' not been able to make out more 
than six or seven arms in any specimen, nor has any exhibited 
traces of elongated tentacula, though the shortness of the 
arms which have been preserved would have led one to suspect 
their existence.' The speaker regarded certain markings 
sometimes to be seen on the guard as indicating that during 
the life of the animal the guard was almost, if not entirely, 
covered by the mantle, in which case it was highly improbable 
that the guard was pushed into the soft mud cf the sea-bottom 
in order to act as an anchor. He considered the animal to 
have been a free swimmer, swimming forward ordinarily, but 
when desirable, capable also of sudden and rapid propulsion 
backwards. 



The Entomologist for January contains a paper on ' Two Days' Collect- 
ing in Lancashire and Cumberland.' 

Animal World for January contains a paper on ' The Jelly Animals,' 
by Evelyn Cheesman, and also one on ' Oxen Ploughing- Teams in the 
Past and Present,' by Harwood Brierley. 

Wild Life for December has a paper on ' The Sheld-duck,' by C. R. 
Brown, which is illustrated by a remarkable series of photographs, some, 
which are tinted on coloured mounts, being perfect. Mr. O. J. Wilkinson 
writes on ' At Home with the Reed Warbler,' which is also well illustrated, 
and there are other items of particular interest to the naturalist. 

1917 Feb. 1. 



56 



NORWEGIAN BOULDER IN THE MILLSTONE 
GRIT OF YORKSHIRE. 



A. GILLIGAN, B.Sc.,, F.G.S. 
Leeds. 



Among a remarkable suite of pebbles which the author has 
obtained from the Millstone Grit series of Yorkshire occurs 
one which has a striking resemblance in the hand specimen to 
the well-known rhomb-porphyry of the Christiania district 
which is so abundant in the Glacial deposits of E. Yorkshire. 
The pebble when first obtained was roughly ellipsoidal in 




Photo by] [A . Gilligan . 

Showing obtuse angle of one of the large 

felspar crystals, and fine-grained groundmasB. 

x 20. 

form, the axes measuring 5x2^x2 inches. The broken surface 
is lighter in colour than the common type of rhomb-porphyry. 

Under the microscope, it shows the following characters. 
The groundmass is rather fine grained, and is made up of felspar 
(microperthite), with rather abundant quartz. The accessory 
minerals are sphene, zircon and apatite, but these occur very 
sparingly. The phenocrysts are probably anorthoclase, but 
are so decomposed that definite determination is impossible. 

The specimen and section have been submitted to Prof. 
Brogger of Christiania, who writes as follows : — ' The rock 
is not a rhomb-porphyry. It is, however, possible that it 
belongs to the alkaline series of eruptive rocks of the Christiania 

Naturalist, 



Norwegian Boulder in the Millstone Grit of Yorkshire. 57 

Region, the total destruction of the dark non-felspathic silicate 
forbids one deciding this question.' 

Referring to the structure of the rock, he further writes : — 
' The structure resembles some " Ekerite-porphyries " from the 
Christiania Region, and it is thus possible that this rock may be 
an altered " Ekerite-porphyry " from Norway.' It does not, 
however, agree with any of the ten thousand specimens of 
alkaline rocks from the Christiania Region in the museum 
under the direction of Prof. Brogger. 

While then a Scandinavian source cannot be definitely 
assigned to this rock, it is so unlike any British rock with 
which the author is acquainted, that he is disposed to think 
that it may have been derived from some Scandinavian mass 



A 




Photo by] [R. Simpson. 

Polished surface of Pebble. 
Natural size. 

which has long since disappeared. The age of the eruptions 
which yielded the rhomb porphyry of Christiania, is Devonian, 
the same as the Shap Granite, so that the specimen here 
described may have been yielded by the denudation of the 
erupted masses. In a similar way, pebbles of the Shap 
Granite, which, of course, never reached the surface until 
exposed by denudation, are found in the Carboniferous basal 
conglomerate in the neighbourhood of Tebay. 

The only other areas where rocks of the rhomb-porphyry 
type are known to occur are Mts. Kilima Njaro and Kenya, 
East Africa; and in the neighbourhoood of Mt. Erebus in 
Antarctica. 

: o : 

Prof. W. G. Fearnside's paper on ' Refractory Materials in South 
Yorkshire,' read to the Midland Institute of Mining, etc., Engineers, 
appears in The Quarry for January. 

1817 Feb. 1. 



58 

ICHTHYOLOGICAL NOTES FROM 
THE SCARBOROUGH DISTRICT, 1915-1916. 



W. J. CLARKE, F.Z.S. 



Owing to the restrictions upon the movements of fishing 
vessels, due to the war, and also to the greatly reduced number 
of boats now engaged, there has not been during the past two 
years so many opportunities for seeing uncommon fishes, 
which have been caught in the trawls or upon the fishermen's 
lines. In Marine fishes, the following species, however, have 
been noted : — 

Three-bearded Rockling (Motella mustela). — Although 
resident, this species is not very often seen at Scarborough, 
and is sufficiently scarce to be an object of curiosity to the 
fishermen when caught. A specimen, 16 inches in length, was 
picked up dead, but perfectly fresh, in Burniston Bay, a 
couple of miles north of Scarborough, on November 28th, 1915. 

Pilchard (Clupea pilchardus). — The Pilchard is said to be 
a casual visitor in summer, sometimes in numbers, to the 
Yorkshire coast, but for many years I have sought for it in 
vain. Enquiries amongst the fishermen and others engaged 
in the fish trade, led me to the conclusion that the occurrence 
of this species at Scarborough, is very uncommon. Only one 
man professed to have ever seen one, and on asking him how 
he distinguished the fish from a Herring, he replied that it 
was quite easy, as the Pilchard has its scales the ' wrong way 
on,' i.e., pointing from the tail to the head, which, of course, 
is absurd. Hence I was very pleased on finding amongst 
half-a-dozen herrings, purchased from a street hawker on 
August 9th, 1916, a fine full-grown Pilchard. Enquiries from 
the man showed that the fish had come from a boat fishing 
out of Scarborough, and had been landed that morning. As 
at that time the boats were restricted to fishing within a very 
small area from port, there is no doubt that this specimen 
was caught very near to Scarborough. An examination of 
the man's stock-in-trade did not reveal further specimens, 
and it remains the only Yorkshire example I have seen. 

Short Sunfish (Orthagoriscus mold). — It is seldom that a 
summer passes without a specimen of this singular fish being 
captured somewhere in Yorkshire waters, and it is, during the 
warm months, probably of more common occurrence than is, 
generally supposed. An example, weighing 20 lbs., was 
captured by Mr. M. Jenkinson, two miles from shore off the 
South Bay, Scarborough, on October 2nd, 1916. These 
wanderers are generally either cast ashore in rough water, or 
entangled in the herring nets, but I have a note of one captured 
near the East Pier, Scarborough, on August 17th, 1901, which 
took the piece of squid used as bait upon a mackerel line. 

Naturalist, 



Ichthyological Notes from the Scarborough District. 59. 

Porbeagle Shark (Lamna cormibica). — This Shark is a 
regular and not uncommon visitor to Yorkshire waters during 
the warm months, and although during the past two years 
fewer examples have been landed, that is solely due to the 
smaller number of vessels engaged in the herring fishery, and to 
the fact that they have fished closer inshore. The specimens 
seen during 1915 and 1916, indicate that there has been no 
falling off in the numbers of this fish which have visited our 
coast. Most of the examples range from ^\ to 6 feet in length, 
and seldom exceed the latter, although I have a note of one 
stranded in Burniston Bay on March 3rd, 1911, which measured 
8£ feet. 

. Picked Dogfish (Acanthias vulgaris). — This destructive 
species has for several years past been exceptionally numerous 
off Scarborough, and great numbers of them have been landed 
by the trawlers and herringers. Formerly thrown away as 
worthless, they have of late years gradually increased in favour 
as an article of food, being skinned and sold as ' deep sea 
Gurnards.' Among the smaller species, a few Tope (Galeus 
canis) can generally be seen, and they also are now sold as food. 

In Freshwater fishes, the following records are of interest : — 

Planer's Lamprey (Petromyzon planexi). — An adult seen 
swimming in the Derwent at Forge Valley on May 14th, 1915, 
was captured and is now in the Scarborough Museum. This 
species seems to make its way up the higher reaches of the 
Derwent annually during the months of April and May. On 
June 19th, 1915, an Ammocete, or larva of this species came, 
in a much bruised and battered condition, but still alive, 
through a water tap in Scarborough, having, no doubt, origin- 
ally come from the Derwent at Ayton, whence a portion of 
the local water supply is derived. 

River Lamprey (Petromyzon fluviatilis) . — This species 
commonly ascends Scalby Beck in numbers from the sea, but 
I had never seen it in the Derwent until, on October 22nd, 
1915, while engaged in emptying an artificial pond used for 
rearing young trout, I found in the pond a specimen of this 
species. It had, no doubt, passed in with the water supply 
from the Derwent in Forge Valley and was unable to make its 
way out again. 

The Scarborough district is not famous for the ' Specrmen ' 
fish caught in its streams, and those mentioned hereafter, are 
doubtless not very exceptional for many districts, but they 
are of considerably greater development than the average 
specimen caught in our part of the county. 

Roach (Leuciscus rutilus).- — One weighing 2lbs., 40Z., was 
taken by Mr. D. Davy in the Derwent at Yedingham Bridge.* 

* A Roach of 2lbs. or over is a notable fish anywhere. — R. F. 

ror7Feb. 1. 



■6o 



Book Notice. 



Common Trout (Salmo jario). — Trout weighing 3lbs. i2|oz., 
and 3lbs., were captured during the season of 1916 in the pre- 
served water of the Derwent Anglers' Club at Forge Valley 
and Hackness. One weighing 5lbs. 40Z., was caught in the 
stream at Thornton Dale by Mr. W. T. Garbutt on July 4th, 
1916. When in process of preservation, this fish was found to 
have in its stomach a young kitten about three weeks old. 

Tench {Tinea vulgaris). — A specimen weighing 4 lbs. was 
taken, during the summer of 1915, from the Seamer Mere by 
Mr. G. A. Milner. This fine fish was unfortunately not pre- 
served. 

Chub (Leuciscus cephalus). — An exceptionally fine specimen 
weighing 61bs., 30Z., was caught during the early autumn by 
Mr. Moseley, in the Derwent between Scarborough and Malton. 



Insect Enemies. By C. A. Ealand. London : Grant Richards, 223 pp., 
6s. net. The sub-title to this volume defines its scope : — 'enumerating the 
life histories and destructive habits of a number of important British 




Insect Enemies. 

Pine Saw-fly, Lophyrus pint L. 1. Male; 2. Female; 8. Larva; 4. Pupa; 5. Twig 
damaged by the larvae. 

injurious insects. Together with descriptions enabling them to be recog- 
nised, and methods by means of which they may be held in check.' Mr. 
Ealand departs from the usual plan of a book on insects, and instead of 
praising the bsauties of the moths, beetles, flies, mites, etc., he shows in 
no hesitating way how harmful many of them are. He deals with them 
under the heads of pests of the Forest, of Fruit Trees, of Flowers, of 
Vegetables, or Crops, of Domestic Animals, of the Household, of Ware- 
houses, and of man. He is much indebted to the Board of Agriculture 
and Fisheries, whose leaflets, dealing with similar subjects, are well known. 
There are numerous illustrations, the nature of which can be gathered 
from the specimen which we are enabled to reproduce herewith. 

Naturalist, 



6i 
ON ARRANGING MUSEUM CASES FOR BIRDS. 

T. SHEPPARD, M.Sc, F.G.S. 



It would be a great advantage to everybody if taxidermists 
would adopt some definite plan for the cases they make. At 
present there seems to be no system whatever. A bird, taken 
to the average ' stuffer,' is inserted in a wooden box, the 
height, depth and width of which varies according to the 
taxidermist's idea, or lack of idea, or according to the size 
of a particular board he may have in stock. In addition, 
the ' decoration ' of the case depends, as a rule, upon the 
odds and ends that happen to be in his den ; thus the glass 
may be edged with coloured paper, a strip of gold picture- 
framing, mahogany, or may be left black. This system, or 
lack of system, certainly lends variety ; but when a number 
of such cases are brought together, the result reminds one 
of the patch-work quilts in which our grandmothers used to 
take such pride. In visiting a collection of local birds in 
a small Yorkshire Museum a little while ago, this need for 
uniformity was especially apparent. Most of the cases cer- 
tainly were edged with black, but the mixture of mahogany, 
gold strips, etc., suggested that a good supply of black paint 
would do much to create harmony. In addition, the irregular 
shapes of the cases made the grouping exceedingly irregular, 
so that the top was castellated, and in the distance repre- 
sented the appearance of some ruined castle wall. 

Another fault is the want of method in decoration. Some- 
times a case is painted or papered throughout with a 
monotonous grey, light brown, blue, or even yellow colour. 
If they are all alike, the effect is not so bad, especially if 
the colour is a good light blue. But usually they are not. 
Then the average ' stutter ' delights in perching his bird oa a 
composition twig, wrapped with faked lichen, with here and 
there a little sheaf of ' trembling-grass,' or other vegetal 
monstrosity. The ' back-ground ' is decorated by a pair of 
butterflies in impossible attitudes, or, if the specimen happens 
to be a shore-bird, the foreground is glued over with absurd 
pieces of sea-weed, coralline, and varnished mussels, cockles, 
periwinkles and whelks. At times, the amateur hand tries 
to play the part of Nature, and the back of the case is painted 
with volcanoes, crags, lakes, etc., which certainly at times 
is advantageous, as it takes the eye away from the specimen 
itself, which, if ' a neagle or a nawk or a nowl,' or worse still, 
a bittern, usually looks at the visitor with a forbidding and 
wooden stare from its usually too-large black eyes. 

On the question of the postures of the birds, however, it 
is not now proposed to speak. The inexperienced but cheap 

1917 Feb. 1 



62 Arranging Museum Cases for Birds. 

'' stuffer ' can only caricature nature's feathered beauties, and 
many of our most charming birds are destined to haunt us 
like a feather-be-decked gargoyle, until that grand day arrives 
when the moth and rust doth corrupt, or, what would truly 
be a god-send, when the thieves break through and steal ; 
though usually thieves are not sufficiently imbecile to take 
sawdust- or ' tow '-stuffed birds. 

Why cannot taxidermists aaopt some definite scale for 
their cases ? A foot — the ordinary twelve-inch foot — should 
be a good basis, the measurement to be of the outside of the 
case. Thus, a case for an average-sized small bird could be 
a foot square, or a foot high by i| feet broad. Slightly larger 
birds could be in cases 18 inches square, or 18 inches by 2 
feet. Larger sizes of 2 feet, 2\ feet, 3 feet, and so on, could 
be adopted. In this way, no matter how large a collection 
grows, the cases can be easily arranged together, and can be 
finished off in a straight line at the top, bottom and sides. 
By adopting some such definite series of measurements for a 
case, a few inches extra can always be given, with advantage 
to the exhibit. When the beak, top of the head, tail and 
feet respectively almost touch the four sides of the case, (as 
for instance, the Bustard in the middle of the bottom row of 
fig 1), the most likely impression made on the mind of a juvenile 
visitor is that the curator is trying to see how long the bird 
can remain in its cribbed cabined and confined state before it 
dies of suffocation ! It leaves the same evil thoughts in 
one's mind that exist when one hears a lark trying to sing in 
its cage of six or eight inch sides. And museums or private 
collections should not cause such thoughts. 

Some time ago, I had to arrange a large collection of cases 
of birds ; hence these tears. Mr. and Mrs. Wickham Bo\nton 
presented to the Hull Museum the enormous collection of 
British birds formed by the late Sir Henry Boynton, a well- 
known Yorkshire naturalist; About the same time, we ac- 
quired the fine series of Yorkshire-obtained* birds formed by 
Mr. Riley Fortune, F.Z.S., of Harrogate. We already had 
the well-known collection of the late Henry J. Robinson Pease. 
In additk ji was a typical series such as one finds in the museum 
of a city like Hull, where specimens had accumulated for thiee 
quarters of a century. Among them were some good ones, 
and several of local interest. There was also the usual assort- 
ment one gets about spring-cleaning time, mindful of the old 
wool-work pictures with which our mothers and aunts whiled 
away their winter evenings. f 

* This sounds better than ' shot.' 

t I have one in mind particularly ; it shows a wall-eyed sparrow-hawk 
perching on a well-blooming- red rosebush — a thing of beauty and a joy 
for ever ! 

Naturalist, 



Arranging Museum Cases for Birds. 63 

This accumulation of collections of cases of birds was almost 
about sufficient to entirely blot out, if not consume, the entire 
general collection in the Museum. But, as so often happens 
with those *vho get more than they can accommodate, something 
happened.* The generosity of the Hon. T. R. Ferens, M.P., 
in presenting a handsome sum to the Corporation of Hull for 
the purchase of pictures, caused that body to build a new Art 
Gallery, and the old Art Gallery, consisting of three excellently 
top-lighted rooms, became vacant. I got it; and in went the 
birds. And then the trouble began. Then it was that the 
absurdity and uselessness ot lack of method of making bird 
cases was forced upon me. To have to take several hundred 
cases, of all so.ts and sizes, from those large enough to be 
made into good sized ' dug-outs,' to others which would 
suffocate a mouse, and fit them together with a straight line 
at the bottom and another at the top, and at the same time 
keep the birds in their natural order, is a Chinese puzzle which 
once solved is never forgotten Nor was the matter simplified 
by tne fact that one case sometimes contained two or more 
species of birds which should be as far apart as the size of the 
rooms would allow. 

However, the cases were first placed together in the other- 
wise empty rooms. Then the duplicates were sorted out, it 
being unnecessary to state that the best of each species was kept. 
The rest were carefully cleaned up and made as presentable as 
possible with a minimum of expense, and ' lent ' to the Art 
School, the Secondary Schools, and several elementary schools 
in the city. In this way about 250 cases were disposed of, 
without interfering with the value of the collection remaining ; 
in fact the loss was an improvement. It is sincerely to be 
hoped that these cases may do a little towards :reating an 
interest in birds among our young people, and thus counteract, 
to some extent, the effect of the Wild Birds, etc. Protection 
Acts, which, admirable and necessary though they are, are 
not inclined to create ornithologists. 

1 hen the glass had to be removed from each case in turn, in 
order that the specimens, some of which had been interned for 
nearly half a century, might receive attention, and in order 
that birds out of place might be put in something like sys- 
tematic order ; due care, of course, being paid to keep the data 
of each species. This alone gave an insight into the methods 
of taxidermic glazing. Some of the glass fell out if the back 
of the case was tapped ; other pieces were gummed, glued, 
papered, screwed and rivetted, and then secured with sprigs 
ana held in position with wood strips. In such instances, it 

* See 'Pastimes for Curators,' Museums Journal, 191 1, and Hull Museums 
Publication No. 85. 

1917 Feb, 1. 



6 4 



Arranging Museum Cases for Bird's. 




Naturalist, 



Arranging Museum Cases for Birds. 



65 




3 
X 



cd 
O 






1917 Feb. 1. 



66 Arranging Museum Cases for Birds. 

was deemed advisable to make an attack in the rear, and 
remove the backs of the cases. At this stage the services of 
a competent naturalist-taxidermist, who knew a heron from 
a handsaw, were requisitioned, and he was kept employed for 
some months. Fortunately, a good proportion of the cases 
had been already painted by him, with an Italian sky-blue 
tint ; this was adhered to for the whole collection, and the 
result is not displeasing. Then all the gold, mahogany and 
other variously coloured strips were either lost or painted 
black, the birds were cleaned up, relaxed and remounted where 
necessary, and stray butterflies ana beetles, grasses and artificial 
flowers, and incongruous mollusca were removed, with one 
flagrant exception which was kept as an example of how not 
to do it. The cases were then arranged in systematic order 
and each specimen was carefully numbered, for reference to 
the full particulars in the catalogue,* and labelled with the 
common and scientific names of the bird. These labels were 
placed on the glass inside the case, at the bottom. 

The walls of the rooms, which fortunately were not broken 
by windows, doors, or other nuisances, were then marked off, 
the bottom line being not too low to be seen without stooping ; 
the top one being not sufficiently high to create a Zeppelin 
neck ; in this respect, the lines formerly occupied by the 
pictures formed a good guide. To take the weight of the 
cases, a long narrow table, on squared tapering legs, was 
built, with a mahogany plinth about 3 inches deep ; and at the 
top a fairly deep, but not too deep, cornice, was placed, the 
distance from the wall being that of the deepest case ; all the 
fronts of the other cases being brougnt to the line. This 
plinth and cornice, giving a horizontal play of about six or 
seven inches, saved the situation. 

The cases, already numbered in their natural order, 
were then arranged as near their numerical order as was 
possible, beginning at the left-hand side, next to the 
entrance, and extending round the four sides of the room. 
But as two cases were rarely of the same — or even similar 
size, the scheme devolved into an exercise of ingenuity and 
patience. As regards height, the space between the top 
and the bottom of the plinth, and the top and bottom of the 
cornice, enabled the lines to be kept. If the total neight of 
the three, four, five or more cases was rather more than the 
average, the bottom case was lowered to the bottom of the 
plinth, and the top one was inserted well in towards the top 
of the cornice ; and as the bottom of the bottom case was 
usually ' earth ' or ' rock,' and as the top of the top case was 

* A Guide to the Birds in the Hull Museum, by T. Sheppard, 122 pages, 
and 26 plates, 8vo, price 3d. 

Naturalist, 



Arranging Museum Cases for Birds. 67 

invariably ' sky,' the artistic eye was not offended, nor was 
the scientific value of the exhibit impaired. A few inches in 
height could be gained, if necessary, by inserting thin pieces 
of wood between the fronts of the cases. These were painted 
black, in harmony with the front edges of the cases, and were 
hardly noticeable. But from the way in which this type of 
case usually recedes from front to back, together with their 
varying depths, a regular scaffolding of laths and boards was 
necessary at the back, somewhat resembling the appearance 
of the underworld behind the Mappin terraces at the Zoo, 
excepting that in the Museum they cannot be seen, as between 
the cornice and the wall, there is a covering of matchboarding 
which keeps out the dust, cigar-ends, waste paper, etc. 

As the work proceeded laterally the same scheme of filling 
in spaces by thin strips of black wood had to be resorted to, 
as will be seen in Fig. 1. 

On the right-hand side of the main room (see The 
Naturalist, December, 1910, Plate XVIII.), the lower three 
feet was occupied by drawers, containing the collections of 
birds' eggs, etc. The distance of the front of these from the 
wall had to be determined by the depth of the drawers, and 
was rather more than the depth of the cases warranted. The 
result was, a small space was left between the top of the 
drawers and the bottom of the bird-cases. This was filled in 
by representations of various typical sites ; thus one section 
has a typical piece of sandy shingle (real sand and real shingle!) 
with a painting of Spurn Point at the back. On this beach 
material, were placed eggs 01 the Lesser Tern, Ring Plover, 
and other suitable species, the natural colouring of the eggs 
illustrating ' protective resemblance.' In another section was 
a representation of a section of the famous Bempton cliffs, 
with a chalk ledge (not real chalk, as real chalk didn't look 
'real') upon which were eggs and young of the Guillemot, 
Razorbill and Puffin. There was a typical piece of reed- 
covered ground, with eggs of Redshank, etc. ; next a piece of 
a Yorkshire moor, with eggs of Curlew, Grouse, etc. ; then a 
piece of a tilled field with eggs of the Stone Curlew, from a 
well-known Yorkshire station ; another was a representation 
of a stream side, with sections showing the nests and eggs of 
the Sand Martin and Kingfisher, respectively, at the ends of 
the burrows, and so on. And so we got our house in order. 

And then we began all over again, and tried to further 
improve, and I believe succeeded. The wall at the far end 
of the large room was first attacked. It so happened that it 
was the smallest, and contained the Grouse, Ptarmigan, Red- 
shanks, Plovers, Sandpipers, Crakes, Snipe, etc. The part 
occupied by cases measured 20 feet by 7 feet 3 inches, and, as 
will be seen from fig. 1, contained no fewer than fifty-seven 

1917 Feb. 1. 



68. Northern News. 

different cases, all varying in size and shape not even two being 
alike. These were all removed, and twelve large cases,* each 
measuring 5 feet by 2 feet, 5 in;hes, were made. The contents 
of the fifty -seven cases were then divided into twelve groups, 
each being placed in one of the new large cases. Before the 
birds were placed in, each was painted and arranged to represent 
the natural surroundings of the particular group. For example, 
a snow scene takes the Ptarmigan, Red Grouse and Willow- 
Grouse in winter plumage; moors accommodate the Black 
Grouse. Red Grouse, Ptarmigan, etc., in summer plumage ; 
an estuary takes the Grey Phalaropes, Godwits, Redshanks, 
etc. ; a sea-shore produces the Ring Dotterel, Avocet, Oyster 
Catcher, etc. Other cases contain the Sandpipers, etc. ; Pallas 
Sandgrouse, and Stone Curlew, Crakes and Rails ; Woodcock 
and Snipe ; and last of all, Partridges and Quails. At the 
bottom of each case the numbers and names of the birds are 
given. From every point of view, however, the exhibition is 
more true to nature, more educational, and therefore more as 
a museum collection should be. The new arrangement is 
shown in fig. 2. 

Unfortunately, like many other schemes, this one, owing 
to the war, had to be postponed. But some day it may 
extend to the rest of tne collection. 



At the Annual Meeting of the Yorkshire Numismatic Society, held 
at Leeds on December 16th, the following officers were elected ■ — President, 
Mr. G. L. Shackles ; Vice-Presidents, Mr. J. Digby Firth and Mr. J. F. 
Musham ; Hon. Treasurer, Mr. E. Croft ; Hon. Secretary, Mr. J. Digby 
Firth ; Editor, Mr. T. Shepparcl. 

Part 4 of A Bibliography of British Ornithology (Macmillian &.Co.,. 
6s. net, pages 385-406). The present instalment contains particulars 
of the life and work of quite a number of Ornithologists familiar to our 
readers. Among them may be mentioned Beverley R. Morris, F. O. 
Morris, S. L. Mosley, T. H. Nelson, Edwara Newman, Robert Newstead, 
Charles Oldham, C. J. Patten, Sir Ralph Payne- Gallwey, Edward Peacock 
and W. P. Pycraft. There are of course, numerous other names. 

The Bradford A ntiquary, part 19 of the New Series, edited by Dr. J. H. 
Rowe, has made its appearance. Some notes on the Boiling family, with 
a good view of Bradford's new Museum, are followed by a paper on ' The 
Rectory Term/ by Mr. H. F. Killick, which term is evidently going to be 
a god-send for future Bradford lawyers ! Mr. Percival Ross writes on 
the Roman Road from Ribchester to Low Borrow Bridge near Tebay, 
and also on the first stage of the Roman Road from Ribchester to York ; 
both are well illustrated. Mr. W. E. Preston writes on ' An Endowment 
of Thornton Grammar School,' and the part concludes with a further 
instalment by Mr. T. T. Empsall on ' The Marriage Registers of Bradford.' 
The Society is to be congratulated on the valuable and local nature of 
its publication. 

* Of course an ideal arrangement would be for one large case for each 
species, as in the well-known Booth Museum at Brighton ; but wall space 
and money are not everywhere so plentiful as at Brighton. 

Naturalist, . 



69 
ON THE OCCURRENCE OF MANGANESE 
IN LAND AND FRESH WATER MOLLUSCA. 



Prof. A. E. BOYCOTT, M.D., F.R.S., etc. 

(Continued from page 18). 

It is also noticeable that obvoluta, typically a beechwood 
species, does not differ from the other helicids which evidently, 
as a group, have very little manganese. B. ob scums gives 
the same very high figure, whether from beechwood or from 
a civilised hedge-bank between a high road and arable country. 

That snails eat manganiferous food is evident from the 
analyses of their excreta — 



Hygromia hispida 
Helix horiensis 


In faeces. 
27 

2-3 


In corresponding snails. 

<o- 5 
0-4 


Theba cantiana 


<i-7 

2-5 


0-4 
o-8 


Avion ater 


i-8 


' 1-2 


Cyclostoma elegans 


o-5 
2-9 


4-4 

1-2 


Limax agrestis 


< 07 


6-o 


Liinax maximus 


< 07 


117 


Limncea stagnalis 


<2- 5 

74'4 


57 
7-0 



As far as these few results go, they indicate that the amount 
of manganese in the body is not proportional to the amount in 
the food. 

I fancy, therefore, that two factors are at work. In the 
first place, there is the tendency for some species to accumulate 
manganese from almost any surroundings, 1 and in the second 
place, there is the influence of varying local conditions. The 
relative import of these two factors can only be determined by 
detailed investigation in a variety of localities and habitats 
in different parts of the country ; at the moment it certainly 
appears that the former commonly overides the latter. 

For there should be no great difficulty in any snail finding 
as much manganese as it wants about the world. Manganese 
in smaller or larger quantities is widely distributed both in 
animals and plants as well as in inorganic nature. 2 Thus, it 

1 The carnivorous marine gastropod Sycotypus canaliculatus accumu- 
lates zinc in considerable quantities from almost zincless surroundings 
(L. B. Mendel and H. C. Bradley, Amer. J. Physiol., XIII. (1905), p. 17, 

xiv. (1905), p. 313)- 

2 According to F. W. Clarke (Data of Geochemistry, ed. 3, 1916, p. 34), 
manganese constitutes 8 parts per ten thousand (0-08 per cent.) of all 
known terrestrial matter, i.e. a good deal more than such well-known 
elements as copper, lead, zinc or arsenic : like some rare elements (e.g. 
gallium) it is widely dispersed. 

Naturalist, 



70 Manganese in Land and Fresh Water Mollusca. 

is foulid rather abundantly in tea, coffee, tobacco and wine,, 
and in this way passes pretty freely into man ; it is not, however,, 
absorbed, but excreted in the faeces, and is present in human 
tissues in very small traces 1 ; hence, in our anthropomorphic 
way, we have given it less attention than it probably deserves. 
P. Pickard 2 says that it is universally present in all orders 
of plants, and points out that animals have much less ; fungi 
and lichens have most and mosses much. P. Q. Keegan 5 
notes its occurrence in a number of wild English plants. The 
occurrence in mammals has been investigated by G. Bertrand 
and F. Medigreceanu 4 ; the liver generally has most and o-i 
part in ten thousand is a high figure, other tissues showing per- 
haps only a twentieth of that. The same authors 5 examined a 
number of invertebrates and note that specially large amounts 
were found in Limncea stagnalis, Littorina littorea and Pecten 
jacobmts, less in Helix hortensis, Unio sinuatus and half-a-dozen 
other, marine mollusca. Bertrand 6 has advanced the view that 
manganese salts play an important part as oxidising ferments, 
though the idea has not been without objectors 7 ; he also 
showed that Aspergillus will not develop conidia in the absence 
of manganese. 8 Contino 9 found manganese always present 
in Italian soils from traces to 0-3 per cent. It is present in 
traces in many waters, especially mineral waters 10 ; the Buxton 
thermal water, for example, contains o*ooi in ten thousand, 
and the mud deposited by it 51 per cent. 11 

The meaning of the prevalence of manganese in plants I 
would not venture to indicate ; possibly it expresses nothing 
beyond the fact that the element is universally present in small 



1 E. Maumene Comptes Rendus, Vol. XCVIII. (1884), pp. 845, 1056 and 
1416 : Bull Soc. Chim., Vol. XLII., p. 305 : sec also experiments by 
Bertrand, Comptes Rendus, Vol. CLV. '(1912), p. 1556. 

2 Comptes Rendus, Vol. CXXVI. (1898), p. 1882 : unfortunately no 
quantitative data are given. 

3 The Naturalist 1909, p. 430; 1910, pp. 177, 321 ; 1911, pp. 222, 418. 

4 Comptes Rendus, Vol. CLIV. (1912), pp. 941, 1450; Bull. Soc. 
Chem. (4) Vol. XI. (1912), p. 857 ; Ann. lust. Pasteur, Vol. XXVI. (1912), 
p. 1013 ; Vol. XXVII. (1913), p. 1. 

5 Comptes Rendus, Vol. CLV. (1912), p. 82. 

6 Ann. Agron., Vol. XXIII. (1897), p. 285; Comptes Rendus, Vol. 
(XXIV. ( 1 y < > 7 ) , p. 1355 (see also p. 1349) ; also G. M. Piccinini, Arch. ital. 
de Biol., Vol. LVIII. (1912), p. 360 ; on its share in the familiar blueing 
of broken boleti, see Aim. lust. Past., Vol. XVI. (1902), p. 184. 

1 see Oppenheimer, Handbuch der Biochemie Suppl., 1913, p. 157. 

8 Comptes Rendus, Vol. CLII. (191 1), p. 225 ; Vol. CLIV. (1912), 
pp. 381 and 616 ; Bull. Soc. Chim., Vol. X., pp. 212, 347, 400 and 494. 

9 Staz. sperim. agrar. itul., Vol. XLIV. (1911), p. 51. 

!0 F. Jadin and A. Astruc, Comptes Rendus, Vol. CLVII. (1913), p. 338 ; 
sec also the analyses of mineral waters in A. Albn and C. Neuberg, Physiol. 
11. Path, der Mineral stoffwechsels, 1906, and Data 0/ Geochemistry passim. 

H J. C. Thresh, Examination of water and water supplies, cd. 2. 1913, 
pp. 124, 381 and 409. 

Naturalist, 



Manganese in Land and Fresh Water Mollitsca. 71 

amounts in the soil, 1 and its relative absence in the higher 
animals is in correspondence with their superior selective 
power. It seems, however, that snails must necessarily take 
it up in their food, whatever sort of vegetable or animal that 
may be, and in a certain number of cases it accumulates in 
them. They do not, on the whole, appear to show any pre- 
ference for manganiferous food ; potatoes, containing very 
small traces, are eaten readily enough, Arion hortensis and 
H. rujescens will climb high into trees to eat apples 2 ; L. stag- 
nates will swarm on to a cabbage leaf or a dead frog) while the 
plants around them contain far more manganese. But I ad- 
mit that the difference between, e.g., Bnliminus and Helicelloi 
may turn out to be due, partly at any rate, to a preference by 
the former for a cryptogamic diet, though on any diet they 
would probably maintain their relative positions in the manga- 
nese scale. 3 Experimental feeding is the obvious solution ; 
but the basal diet would have to be white of egg, with perhaps 
a little potato and mammalian muscle, and even this would 
not be quite innocent of manganese. 

I have not been able to find any extensive series of analyses 
giving the quantity of manganese actually present in different 
plants, and such analyses might be misleading if, as is prob- 
able, the quantity varies much in different localities. 4 A few 
analyses have been made of local vegetation 5 which gave the 
following results (parts manganese per ten thousand of plant 
dried at ioo° C.) : — 





Land 


Plants. 




Grass 


o-6, o-Cj, i-i 


Cabbage 0*1, 


•3, i-o 


Urtica 


07 


Lettuce 


o-3 


Oak (leaves) 


5-3 


Marrow (leaves) 


0-2 


Beech (leaves) 


107, 8-6 


Artichoke (leaf) 


0-4 


Ash (leaves) 


< 0-2 


Foxglove 


1-2 


Hedera 


07 


Strawberry 


i-o 


Lamium album 


< 0-08 


Dock 


0.4 


Aethusa 


o-6 


Potato 


nil. 


Sisymbrium alliaria 


o-6 







1 cf. ;he general occurrence of titanium in plants, C. E. Wait, /. 
Amcr. Chcm. Soc, 1896, p. 402 ; and in mammals, C. Baskerville, ib. Vol. 
XXI., 1S99, p. 1099. 

2 E. A. W. Peacock, The Naturalist, 1902, p. 139. 

3 Testacella has less than most slugs ; earthworms from my garden 
gave 0-9 per ten thousand. Hyalinia are of course not exclusively, and 
perhaps only occasionally, carnivorous. 

4 F. Jadin and A. Anstruc (Compte's Revdvs, Vol. CLV. (1912), p. 406) 
in more than So species in 32 families found frcm 0-014 to 7-6, with a 
variation from o-i to 2*0 in different lots of mistletce. 

5 The currant tea and tobacco both gave 1*9 parts. 

1917 Feb: 1. 



72 Manganese in Land and Fresh Water Mollusca. 



Tree Trunk Scrapings 
Beech, Aldenham, close 

green o-6 

1 ,, Hampden ,, 1-5 

1 ,, ,, grey lichens 8-2 

1 ,, ,, moss 15-8 

Oak, Aldenham, grey-grn. 0*4 

Mosses 
From stone walls 
old timber 



Large Fungi 
(Agarics). 

2 Beechwood 0-7, 

Hedge bank 

Lepiota rhacodes 

Clitocybe sp. 



<o-o5 
o-4 

0-2 
0-2 



I'l, 



hedge bank 
Water Plants. 



1-2 

1-3 
i'3 



Potamogcton crispus 

P. nutans 

P. densns 

P. perfoliatus 

P. lucens 

P. pectinatus 

El odea (two loci) 

Lemna minor 

L. trisulca 

Nitella 
Chara 

Moss 6 (floor of culvert) 690 
,, Fontinulis antipyretica 12 



1, 6 

14. 65 

4, 5 

7 
28 

45 
14. 23 

9 

72 

10 
4 



Callitriche 
Myriophyllum 
Ceratophyllum 
Ranunculus 
Nymphcsa 
Limnanthemum 
Watercress 3 



16 
19 

44 

77 
26 

33 

8 



22 7 
85 



Green slime (streams), 

20, 4 107, 377? 
Brown slime (pond) 
Deposit on stagnalis shells 8 41 
Deposit on peregra shells 41 

These results show that whatever vegetation snails eat they 
will get more or less manganese. The amount in water plants 
is singularly larger — roughly about twenty times in the higher 
plants — than in land species. It should, however, be noted 
that the water plants were analysed as they were, being simply 
washed under the tap and then dried. The figures include, 
therefore, the manganese in any epiphytic life, which coats 
most water plants, 9 and in any inorganic deposit 10 ; in the 



1 The trees from which excessively manganifcrons snails and slugs 
were obtained (supra p. 18). 

2 The fungi on which the Avion ater with most managnese (supra 
p. 18) was feeding. 

3 Sna ils were eating this freely ; stagnates g&vs 1*4 peregra, 4*4. 

4 L. peregra living among this gave 3*1. 

5 L. pert-grit living among this gave 3-6. 

c Eurhynchium vusciforme v. alopeciiroides. 

~> Ancylus fluviatilis living among this gave 21. 

S Deposit consisted largely of calcium carbonate. 

9 see e.g. J. ("r. Needham and J. T. Lloyd, Life oflnland Waters, ioi(>, 
P- 336. 

10 A. Kerner and F. W. Oliver ( Natural History of Plants, 1002, Vol. I., 
p. 261}, record 1*2 per cent, of manganese in the deposit on the leaves of 
Potamogeton lucens. 

Naturalist, 



Manganese in Land and Fresh Water Mollusca. 73 

•case of Pot. crispus, natans and densus, the first figure refers 
to fresh shoots, the second to older, discoloured portions. 
The sinter was most obvious in the specimens of Pot. crispus, 
lucens, and especially perjoliatus, and the fact that the figures 
for these species are on the whole rather low suggests that it 
is not a very important factor in raising the content in manga- 
nese. I daresay that the prodigious amount of manganese in 
the hydrohypnum was largely a surface deposit or entangled 
precipitate which was not removed by moderate washing and 
squeezing in water, 1 but in any case an animal feeding among 
it would probably pick up a good deal. 

Taking the figures in a general way, algse and such like 2 
(but not fungi 3 ) seem to have a good deal more than the higher 
plants, and the suggestion that the manganiferous snails 
(Hyalinia, Buliminus) eat specially large amounts of these 
is obvious. Note, too, that Scharft 4 classes L. maximus, 
arborum, Arion subfuscus, minimus and Geomalacus as the 
slags which characteristically feed on non-chlorophyllaceous 
plants. It is rather curious that waHr snails have much less 
manganese chat the manganiferous land species, considering its 
much greater abundance in water plants. 

Summary. 

The proportion of manganese in the bodies of land and 
fresh-water mollusca varies widely in different species ; there 
are exceptionally large amounts in Anodon, Unio, Buliminus, 
Hyalinia, Ancylus and Limax (partly), while Sph cerium and 
the Helicidce have comparatively little. 

I am very much indebted to a number of friends for kind^' 
help, and Miss M. Boycott, Mr. Charles Oldham, the Rev. Dr. 
Cooke, Miss Hopton, Mr. J. W. Jackson, Mr. R. Standen, 
Mr. W. D. Roebuck, Mr. J. W. Taylor, Mr. H. Beeston and 
Dr. E. J. Salisbury have supplied most useful specimens and 
other assistance. It is evidently desirable that specimens from 
a wider range of localities and habitats, especially from the 
north, should be examined, and I should be particularly glad 
of help in clearing up the positions of Limax arborum, L. sub- 
fuscus, L. cinereoniger, H . lapicida, Planorbis corneus, Paludina 
and M. margaritifera. I have also been unabie to gain an}' 
information about the occurrence of Crenolhrix manganifera 
ir tnis country : an account of it is given by D. D. Jackson. 5 

1 This is supported by the fact that two different samples gave widely 
varying results, viz., 890 and 489. 

2 My botanical identifications are terribly inadequate : I hope someone 
better equipped may investigate the matter. 

3 I judge this from my own analyses, and the summary statement of 
Jadin and Astruc, Combtes Rendus, Vol. CLV. (1912), p. 406. 

4 Set. Trans. Roy. Dublin Soc, Vol. IV. (1891), p. 513. 

5 Trans. Amer. Micro. Soc, Vol, XXIII. (1902), p. 31. 

1917 Feb. 1. 



74 YORKSHIRE COLEOPTERA IN 1916. 

W. J. FORDHAM, M.R.C.S., L.R.C.P., F.E.S. 

Very little has been published during the year relating to 
the Coleopterous fauna of the count}'. Ihe only excursion? 
of the Yorkshire Naturalists' Union at which beetles were 
obtained were Malton (see The Naturalist, 1916, Aug., p. 
265 — 32 species), and Bolton Woods (The Naturalist, 1916. 
Sept., p. .293 — 53 species, including Malthodes brevicollis Pk. 
(nigellus Kics) new to the county). 

Mr. C. Mosley ha? an interesting note (wth photograph) 
on Brachycerus cinereus 01., an impoited Weevil at Sheffield 
(The Naturalist, 1916, May, p. 174). 

In The Entomologist's Monthly Magazine for 1916 are 
several notes of interest to Yorkshire Coleopterists, including 
in March, an Obituary Notice of Edward Alexander Water- 
house. When a young man, Mr. Waterhouse was Museum 
Curator to Earl de Grey at Fountains Hall, and added many 
rare and interesting species to the Yorkshire list from Studley 
and neighbourhood, as the list of Yorkshire beetles in the 
Victoiia County History, Canon Fowler's ' British Coleoptera,' 
and the early volumes of the E.M.M. testify . The Waterhouse 
Collection cf British Coleoptera, which probably contains 
main Yorkshire species, is now in the Museum of the Entom- 
ological Department of Eainburgn University. 

Mr. E. G. Bay ford notes that during the past year, the 
most noticeable thing has been the profusion of Pterostichus 
madidus F., which has swarmed all over the Barnsley district. 
The capture of a specimen of Leptura. sanguinolenta L. has 
already been recorded. He has seen a specimen oi Blethisa 
multipi'.nctata L. taken on August 19th by the side of a stream 
running through a field at Beeston, near Leeds, thus providing 
a fresh locality for this very local and uncommon insect. A 
few specimens of this beetle have also turned up again in Mr. 
Bay for el's original locality. 

Mr. J. W. Carter contributes the following list of species 
from the Bradford district : — 

Coleoptera. 
Synuchus (Taphria) nivalis Panz. Grassington. F. Rhodes. 
Oxypoda opaca Gr. Addingham. F. Rhodes. 
O. haemorrhoa Mann. Bingley. F. Rhodes. *64. (There is 

only one previous record. Scarborough. 1865). 
Aleochara maesta Gr. Sunnydale. J. Ashworth. 
Atheta insecta Th. Bradford. T. Stringer. ^63. 
\Atheta aterrima Gr. Bingley. F. Rhodes. 
Conosoma littoreum L. Frizinghall. F. Rhodes. 
Tachinus laticollis Gr. Bingley. F. Rhodes. *64. 
Philonthus longicomis Steph. Frizinghall. F. Rhodes. ^63. 
Stilicus rufipes Germ and S. erichsoni Fauv. (orbicularis Er.). 
Addingham. F. Rhodes. 

Naturalist, 



F. Rhodes. 


*6 3 - 


F. Rhodes. 




Bingley. F. 


Rhodei 


Rhodes. 




Rhodes. 


♦64. 


F. Rhodes. 


*6 4 . 


F. Rhodes. 





Ford ham : Yorkshire Coleoptera in 1916. 75 

Lesteva heeri Fauv. Shipley Glen. F. Boot!). 
Megarthrus siuuatocnllis Lac. Saltaire. 
Eup! edits sanguineus Den. Addingham. 
Micropeplits fuhus Er. (margaritce Duv.). 
Monotonia longicollis Gyll. Bingley. F. 
Cartodere ruficollis Marsh. Bingley. F. 
Riolus (Elmis) citpreus Mull. Malham. 
Scaphidemo. metallicum F. Frizinghall. 
Alphitobius piceus 01. Bradford. T. Stringer. 
Orchestes rusci Hbst. Frizinghall. T. Stringer *63. 
Saltaire. F. Rhodes. 

Mr. M. L. Thompson writes that he never did less collecting 
during a season, and June was a bad month. Two days in 
Swaledale in September, added nothing new to his previous 
records from this locality. Miscodera arctica Pk. was picked up 
in September at the head waters of the Esk above Casileton. 

Mr. G. B. Walsh., in addition to Trichopteryx jratercula 
Matth. (recorded in the E.M.M.), records: — 
Anaccena limbata F. var. nitida Heer. (ovata Reiche). Askham 

Bog. 19th April, 1915. 
Cercyon mgriceps Marsh. Bubwith. *6i. 
Mycetoporus splendidus Gr. and britnncus Marsh (lepidits Gr.). 

North Cave. Both *6i. 
Xantholinus tricolor F. Eston Nab and North Cave. 
Oxytelus inustus Gr. Glaisdale. 
Olophrum fuscum Gr. Eston Nab. 
Agathiditim varians Beck. Dalton. ^65. 
Haltica britteni Shp. Cotherstone (V.C., 65) in small numbers. 
This is the species described by Dr. Sharp (E.M.M., 1914. 
Nov. 261) as distinct from ericeti Allard. It is said to have 
been found by Wilkinson at Scarborough on Hdianthemum 
(Rye, Ent. Ann., 1869, p. 55), but Dr. Sharp doubts the correct- 
ness of this observation. It appears to be a northern species 
and it probably not uncommon on Erica. 

As a further confirmation of the help received in the past 
by the Coleoptera Committee from other members of the 
Union, a large consignment of beetles was sent to the Secretary 
by Air. W. Falconer, and contained, among many other species 
of interest, Barypithes araneiformis Schr, *6-|., Atomaria 
apicalis Er., *6-4 and Tachyporns atriceps Steph. (humerosus 
Er.) from cut -grass heaps by roadside, Thornton in Lonsdale, 
4tn August, 1916; Atomaria apicalis Er., *6j and Amaru 
lunicollis Sch. (tiiree specimens — one bluish-black) from Chew 
Valley, Greenfield, 15th July, 1916 ; Atomaria apicalis Er., and 
Brachysomus echinatus Boris, *6 4 from Rigton Bank, Bardsey, 
28th June, 1916 ; Choleva Kirbyi Spence, *6 3 from Hardcastle 
Crags, 12th June, 1916 ; and Deliphrum tectum Pk., and 
Syntomium ceneum Mull. *6 3 from Slaithwaite, 28th April, 

1917 Feb. 1. ' ' 



76 Fordham : Yorkshire Coleopteva in 1916. 

1916. The writer obtained a profusion of beetles from flood 
refuse from the River Derwent at Bubwith in January, but 
the only species worthy of note were f Anthracus consputus 
Duft. (one), j Atheta gyllenhali Th., and A. debilis Er. A 
few moles' nests in February produced Qucdiits nigro- 
cceruleus Rev . (8), Aleochara spaaicea Er. (7) *6i, and Oxypoda 
longipes Muls. (1) *6i ; but in March, although 56 nests were 
examined, owing to the extreme wetness of the ground very 
few beetles were obtained, though even nests saturated with 
moisture contained beetle larvae, fleas and mites. The species 
obtained were Quedius t alp arum Dev. (20), Q. nigroccerulcus 
Rey. (2), Q. brevicomis Th. (2), Hister marginatum Er. (1), 
Aleochara spadicea Er. (3), with single examples of Clivina 
fossor L., Tachyporus chrysomelinus L., Oxytelus tetracarinatus 
Block, (which at first raised hopes of the mole's nest Saulcyi 
Pand.), and Epurcea depressa Gyll. (cestiva Er.). Three 
visits to Barmby Common, near Pocklington (April 26th, 
June 9th and July 29th) produced Litargus connexus Geoff., 
(bifasciatus F.) in profusion in colonies of six to a dozen or so 
under bark of birch stumps, but very difficult to capture 
many at a time, owing to their agility (a single specimen was 
also taken at Bubwith under ash bark). With the last species, 
also occurred Diphyllus lunatus F. (*6i) and in fungi on the 
stumps were f Cryptophagus ruficomis Steph., and -fCis setiger 
Mell (villosulus Marsh) ; Dorytomus salicis Walt. *6i, and 
Deporaus mannerheimi Humm. (megacephalus Germ.) *6i, 
were beaten from sallow and birch respectively. 

At Esciick on Ap.il 15th, Phloeonomus pusillus Gr. *6i 
and Hylastes palliatus Gyll. occurred under fir bark and 
\Atheta fungivora Th. was taken in a fungus, and on June 16th 
Brachytarsus (Anthribus) variegatus Fourc. (varius F.) *6i was 
beaten from young conifers, and Dryophilus pusillus Gyll. 
from both these and oak. By general sweeping were taken 
Orchestes rusci Hbst. *6i, Coeliodes rubicundus Hbst. *6i, and 
Alophus trigitttatus F. Skipvvith Common produced on July 
15th, Dorytomus rujulus Bed. (pecloralis Gyll.) *6i and salicis 
Walt. *6i from sallow, and ^Atheta sodalisJL. and f Gyrophcena 
nana Pk. from fungi. 

In addition may be noted a dark specimen of Agonum 
ericeti Panz. from Burton Moor, Cleveland (A. A. Fordham) 
*62 and a fine $ specimen of Monochamus sutor L. taken in a 
woody ard in Huddersfield by Mr. Cocker. 

The dagger and asterisk are used as in previous reports to 
indicate additions to County and Vice-County lists respectively. 

Much help has been given in the identification of many of 
the above species by Messrs. E. A. Newbery and W. E. Sharp, 
and the nomenclature of their ' List ' has been followed as in 
the previous report. 

1917 Feb. 1. 



77 
YORKSHIRE ENTOMOLOGY IN 1916. 



B. MORLEY. 



The Annual Meeting of the Entomological Section of the 
Yorkshire Naturalists' Union was held in the Doncaster Museum 
on November 4th, 1916, under the presidency of Prof. Garstang. 

Dr. Corbett had on exhibition his collection of local en- 
tomological specimens. The coleoptera and lepidoptera were 
well represented and filled many cases, and much had been 
done among the other groups, especially neuroptera, hymen- 
opt era and diptera. It is evident that the Doncaster district 
is one of the best in Britain for insect life, and much credit is 
due to Dr. Corbett for his diligence. The reports which the 
various committees have supplied for the annual meeting of 
the Union were read and passed. Supplementary to the lepi- 
doptera report, Mr. T. Ashton Lofthouse has sent the following : 
" Generally speaking, the most noticeable feature has been the 
lateness of appearance of most of the species this year, due, 
no doubt, to the cold weather, which also seems to have 
accounted for the non-appearance of any of the Vanessas 
this autumn, not a single one has been noticed in the garden 
where, on the flowers of Sedam spectabile, we usually have 
V. urticce and V. atalanta, and sometimes V. cardui. 

"There has been no 'sugaring ' or lantern work owing to 
military restrictions, but I have taken one or two interesting 
small species in my garden. 

'' Towards the end of May, I bred a nice lot of Coccyx 
strobilella from spruce-fir cones, fully a month later in hatching 
out than usual. I also took or noticed in the district, Clepsis 
ritsticana, Gelechia cethiops, and bred Lithocolletis frolichiella 
from alder. In June, I took Grapholitlia unguicella in Upper 
Teesdale (Yorkshire side). 

" In July, Stigmonota conifer ana, Argyresthia atmoriella, and 
Lithocolletis lariciclt 'a on Eston Hills, and Hydrocampa stagnalis, 
including the pale form, near Redcar. In the garden at Lin- 
thorpe, Eubulea crocealis occurred about Inula glandidosa 
plants. Spilonota roborana and Argyrolepia cnicana were also 
noted. In August, in the garden, Grapholitlia Havana about 
holly, a good specimen of Dictyopteryx forskaleana, Sciaphila 
pascuana, Coccyx nanana freely about some fancy spruce 
firs flying in the early evening on and about August 9th, this 
date being fully six weeks later than I have usually noticed 
it in another local locality, these being the only Yorkshire 
records, I believe, with one exception. Argyresthia semijuscana, 
Ornix anglicella and Laverna hellerella were also noticed, and 
a specimen of Scoparia angustea was taken oft a tree in the 
road near. On August 12th, in another locality in the district, 

1917 Feb 1. 



yS Morley : Yorkshire Entomology in 1916. 

Grapholitha trimaculana, G. cinerana (among aspens), Olindia 
idmana and Sciaphila sinuana were taken." 

Dr. Fordham exhibited nine species of coleoptera new to 
the Yorkshire list and several new to V.C. 61 (S. E. Yorkshire), 
etc., details of which will appear in his report to be presented 
in The Naturalist shortly : — Anthracus consputus, Atheta gyllen- 
hali and Trichopteryx jratercula from Bubwith, Gyrophcena nana 
and Atheta sodalis from Skipwith Common, Atheta fungivora 
from Escrick, Cry ptophagus mficornis and Cis vilhsulus from 
Barmby Common, near Pocklmgton, and Malihodes nigellus 
from Bolton Abbey, and the following species new tc V.C. 61, 
S.E.Yorks : — Diphyllus lunatus, Dorytomus salicis, D. pectoralis, 
Brachytarsus varius, Atheta debilis, Oxypoda longipes, Coeliodes 
nibicundits, Deporaus niegacephalus and Orchestes nisei, and 
a specimen of Anchomenus ericeti from Cleveland (new to V.C. 
62, N. W. Yorks.) and also Brachycerus cinereus, an imported 
weevil (see Naturalist, May, 1916). Among several rare and 
interesting specimens (British, but not Yorkshire), were 
Pterostichus angustatus (recently added to the British list), 
Anchomenus 6-punctatus and A. 4-punciatus from Crowthorne, 
Berks., taken by Mr. W. E. Sharp, and some interesting colour 
varieties of various species. Mr. William Hewitt exhibited 
a fine collection of Coleoptera, collected by the late Mr. C. W. 
Simmons of York, and Mr. Ed. Cocker showed a 2 Monoch- 
ammns sutor L. taken in a wood-yard at Huddersfield. 

Mr. E. G. Bay ford showed Le.ptwa sanguinolenta L., a 
5 caught at Barnsley, July 20th, 1916, and the Hemipterous 
Gcrris najas De. G., Walton, August 24th, 1916 and Nabis 
flavo-marginatus, Scholtz, near Buxton, August 21st, 1916. 

The exhibits of lepidoptera were as follows : — Mr. J. 
Hooper, a series of Oporabia filigrammana, from Penistone 
Moors, Mr. Ed. Cocker, a series each of Hydrcecia petasitis, 
Folia flavociucta, Hadena glauca and melanic Cleoceris viminalis 
from the Huddersfield district ; and Mr. B. Morley, Picris 
rapm and a fine series of Pieris napi, taken by Dr. Smart in 
Northern France, and also a series of heavily marked P. napi 
of North Irish origin. 

At the evening meeting, Mr. B. Morley gave an address 
based on a collection of lepidoptera made by Dr. Smart in 
the area between Arras and the Somme Valley in France 
during 1916. The most striking feature of the collection is 
its remarkable British character. Tnirty-one species of 
butterflies are represented, and only three, Melitcea parthence, 
Lyccena cyllaris and Syricthus ilvceus do not occur in Britain. 
Generally, the colours of the insects do not excel in brilliance, 
but in certain cases are of larger size than British ones. Males 
of Pieris rapce are large and white, the females ordinary and 
contrast strikingly with P. brassicce, the males being much 

Naturalist 



Field Notes. 79 

under -sized and the females very large. Of the two British 
species of C ' alias, our rare hyale has been common, but no 
edusa has been sent, the reverse of what one would have 
expected. There is a large and fine series of Lyccena icarus, 
some of the females being of a fine dark blue shade ; there 
arc also many fire under-side varieties. 

About sixty species of moths are in the collection. Nolo, 
centonalis and Boletobia juliginaria being represented and 
noteworthy as being of rare occurrence in Britain ; indeed, 
every species of moth sent occurs in Britain. 

Mr. E. G. Bayford addressed the meeting on two recently 
published works of interest to Yorkshire Entomologists — (1) 
' British Ants : their lite history and classification,' by H. 
St. J. K. Donisthorpe, F.Z.S., etc. This book deals very 
fully with the British species of ants and should be of great 
use to students. (2) A Compilation b}- Prof. Carr, M.A., of 
the Invertebrate Fauna of Nottinghamsliire. The class hem- 
iptera was chosen by the speaker as offering an excellent 
means of comparing the fauna of a neighbouring county with 
our own. Gerris najas De G., which has occurred for several 
years at Walton, is not recorded for Notts. (See notice in 
The Naturalist, 1916). A discussion upon both papers followed. 
A vote of thanks to Dr. Corbett for his kindness brought an 
enjoyable meeting to a close. 



BIRDS. 

Turnstones in Upper Wharfedale. — On December 30th, 
the country around here was much flooded. At Escroft 
(between Ben Rhydding and Burley), I was surprised and 
delighted to see two adult Turnstones on the margin of a small 
flood. As is usual with Turnstones, they allowed a near 
approach, and then only flew to the opposite side of the water . — 
Harry B. Booth, Ben Rhydding. 

Wild Geese in Upper Wharfedale, — On December 13th, 
after wild weather, a flock of about twenty ' Grey ' Geese 
settled in a large marshy field at Denton — just on the opposite 
side of the river to Escroft. They would most probably be 
Pink-footed Geese ; but as none were shot, they could not be 
correctly identified. Although from time to time, Wild Geese 
are noted, or heard flying over this district, it is very rarely 
that a flock settles, and the local farmers prophesied that it 
meant a continuance of bad weather .—Harry B. Booth, Ben 
Rhydding. 

— : o :— 

The Entomologist's Record for December contains a note on ' The 
Alate Females of the Ant-aphis Forda,' with plate. 

1917 Feb. 1. 



So 



BOOK NOTICE, Etc. 



Algae (Vol. I.). By G. S. West, M.A., D.Sc, etc. Cambridge Univer- 
sity I 'rcss, 191(1, 475 pp., 25s. net. We must tender our sincere con- 
gratulations to our valued contributor, Prof. West, and the Cambridge 
University Press, on the production of a magnificent volume, which will 
doubtless remain the standard work on the subject for some time to 
Twelve years ago Prof. West issued his well known 'Treatise on 
British Fresh-water Algae, ' which was soon out of print. The present is 
our of two volumes, which will take the place of the Treatise, and will 
include particulars of the various discoveries which have been made in 
this fascinating branch of botany in recent times. The present volume 
contains particulars of the .1/1 tphyceeB, Peridiniees, Bacillaricce and 
Chlorophycces, with particulars of the occurrence ami distribution of 









4 5 6 

Germination of the zygospore of Clostetium sp. 

1. Zygospore just before germination, the nuclei of the gametes not having yet fused; 
2. The first mitosis of the fusion-nucleus ; 3. First division of nucleus completed ; 4. The 
second mitosis ; 5. Completed division of protoplast into two cells, each showingja large 
nucleus and a small nucleus ; 6. Further stage in germination, the^cells beginning to assume 
a definite shape. All x 308. (After Klebahn, from Oltmanns). 



Freshwater Algae. From the remarkably complete Bibliographies given 
in each section of the work, as well as from the text itself, it is apparent 
that Prof. West is master of his subject. Though in a difficult study 
such as the Algae, illustrations are essential, it must be conceded that the 
author has more than met the wishes of the most exacting critic. There 
are nearly 300 figures, and quite frequently, each figure has ten or more 
separate drawings. For clearness of detail and accuracy of draughtsman- 
ship, they would be difficult to beat. We arc permitted to reproduce one 
of them (fig. 236) herewith, which in itself illustrates, by the description 
given, the thoroughness and interest of Prof. West's volume. 



We have received Vol. I., part 2 of Coleoptera Illiistrata by Howard 
Notman, 136 Joralemon Street, Brooklyn, N. Y. It consists of 50 plates, 
illustrating the Carabidce. The illustrations are all enlargeo, and each 
is supplied with the name, dimensions and particulars of distribution. 
The illustrations given would be excellent for hand-colouring. 

Naturalist, 



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NATURAL HISTORY FOR THE NORTH OF ENGLAND. 

EDITED BV 

T. SHEPPARD, M.Sc, F.O.S., F.R.O.S., P^A^Scot., 

The Museums, Hull ; S^ 

AND / 

T. W. WOODHEAD, Ph.D., M.Sc, F.L.S., 

Technical College, Huddersfield. 
with the assistance as referees in special departments of 
J. OILBERT BAKER, P.R.S. P.L.S., QBO. T. PORRITT. F.L.S., P.B.S., 

Prof. P. P. KENDALL, M.Sc, P.O.S.. JOHN W. TAYLOR, M.Sc, 
RILBY FORTUNE, P.Z.S. 



Contents : — 

PAQB 

Notes and Comments (illustrated) : — Pseudoscorpions ; Natural History Publications and 
Permanence ; What is Instinct ? Animals and Telepathy ; A Bad Egg ; Mesozoic Cycads ; 
Methods of Occurrence ; Natural History 150 years ago ; The East Riding ; The North 
Riding ; Scarborough ; An Early Octopus Record 81-8S 

The Occurrence of the Rare Mineral, Monazite, in the Millstone Grit of York. 

shire— A. Gilligan, B.Sc, F.G.S 87-88 

A New British Lichen— Rev. W.Johnson ' ... 88 

Ornithological Observations and Reflections In Shetland— Edmund Selous 89-92 

Cumberland Coleoptera In 1916— F. H. Day, F.E.S 93.94 

The Shells of the Holderness Basement Clays— Alfred Bell 95-98 

Yorkshire Mycologists at Buckden (illustrated) — A. E. Peck 99-102 

Observation* on Rmnuaculus Ficaria—Mary A .Johnstone, B.Sc. , F.L.S 103-10* 

Field Notes :— Cumberland Hemiptera; Varieties of Helix nemoralis L. in Notts.; Mam- 
malian Remains, etc., from the Holderness Gravels 88, 94, 105 

Bibliography : Papers and Records relating to the Geology and Palaeontology of the North 

of England (Yorkshire excepted), published during 1916— T. Shtppard, M.Sc, F.G.S. ... 106-109 

In Memorlam :— Thos. Scott Johnstone— F.H.D 1 110-111 

Reviews and Book Notices (illustrated) 92, 98, 111, 112 

News from the Magazines 112 

Northern News 94, 105, 112 

Illustrations 81,86.99,111 



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BIBLIOGRAPHY OF 

YORKSHIRE GEOLOGY 

1534-1914. 

By T. SHEPPARD, m.sc, f.g.s,, f.r.g.s., f.s.a. (scot.) 

8vo, xxxvi. + 629 pp. 15/- net. 

This forms Volume XVIII. of the Proceedings of the Yorkshire 
Geological Society, It contains full references to more than 6,300 
books, monographs and papers relating to the geology and physical 
geography of Yorkshire, and to more than 400 geological maps and 
sections, published between 1534 and 1914. In its preparation over 
700 sets of Scientific Journals, Reports, Transactions and Magazines 
have been examined. There is an elaborate index containing over 
26,500 references to subjects, authors and localities. 

London : A. Brown & Sons, Ltd., 5 Farringdon Avenue, E.C. 
And of all Booksellers. 




8i 



NOTES AND COMMENTS. 



PSEUDOSCORPIONS. 

In the Journal of the Qitekett Microscopical Club, No. 79, Mr, 
H. Wallis Kew gives ' An Historical Account of the Pseudo- 
scorpion-Fauna of the British Islands,' in which he describes 
most of the important publications dealing with these animals, 
and he enumerates the twenty-four species* which are known 
for the British Islands. He gives an interesting illustration 
of a specimen of Cheiridium museorum as figured bv R. Hooke 
in his ' Micrographia : or some Physiological Descriptions of 




Minute Bodies made by Magnifying Glasses' which was 
printed so long ago as 1665. Bearing the date in mind, this 
drawing of the 'crab-like Insect ' by Hooke is a remarkably 
good <-nc. We are kindly permitted to reproduce the illus- 
tration. Notwithstanding the unfavourable conditions ob- 
taining on account of the war, the volume recently issued i- 

very encouraging, and shews that much g 1 work has been 

done by the Club during the year. 

NATURAL HISTORY PUBLICATIONS, 

During the pasl two or three years, it has been painfully 
necessar} to record the decease of many valuable scientific 
publications, -<>me of which had appeared regularly for aboul 
half a century or so. Such of these as are of general int< 
may be found in the larger Libraries, and can be referred to, 
if neces sary, by workers. On the other hand, the records! 

1917 Mar. 1. 



82 Notes and Comments. 

often valuable, which appear in local publications, are not so 
easily accessible, and hence it is very desirable that very careful 
consideration should be given before any new publication 
is started. As was pointed out in ' Yorkshire's Contribution 
to Science,' in this county alone, many really valuable public- 
ations have appeared in comparatively recent years, and these 
have contained records in various branches of Science ; but 
unfortunately it rarely happens that the enthusiasm, scientific 
standing, and finances of a Society, are sufficiently lasting to 
ensure permanence. 

AND PERMANENCE. 

The result is the periodical ceases to appear, sometimes in 
the middle of a Volume, and strangely enough, few people seem 
to bother to preserve their copies. Even in such a publicatioxi 
as The Naturalist, only one complete set is known to exist. At 
Bradford, Halifax, Leeds, Barnsley, Hull, York, and other 
places, useful publications appeared from time to time ; they 
had their little day and ceased to be. Other Yorkshire towns 
have commenced publishing literature of this kind, but in many 
instances, have not succeeded in issuing more than one or two 
parts. While such publications may satisfy the passing desires 
of one or two enthusiasts, their multitude seriously handicaps 
research. While, therefore, we hope that Societies already 
publishing proceedings regularly, will continue to do so, we 
trust any others who may have anything of the kind in mind, 
will very carefully consider their responsibilities in case the 
publication is not permanent. 

WHAT IS INSTINCT ? * 

The name of the author seems new to us, though his methods 
of argument seem familiar. According to the prospectus, 
' the book opens a new page in nature study and suggests a 
theory which may illuminate many of the mysteries of animal 
life.' On the other hand, it may not ; and while a new page 
may have been opened, it is what is upon the page that matters. 
The author begins with a quotation from the Daily Mail ! 
and though he lays no claim to deep scientific learning, he is 
constrained, in the interests of science, to submit his obser- 
vations . . . He points out that ' persons having subliminal 
tendencies are generally described as " gifted." One has the 
gift of clairvoyance, another the gift of psychometry, whilst 
a third is endowed with the power of water-finding (divining) 
and so on.' And he thinks that ' these manifestations should 
not be considered in the light of special gifts, but rather as 
fitful recurrences of faculties prevailing in times before the 

* By C. Bingham Newland. London : John Murray. 213 pp., 6s. 
net. 

Naturalist, 



Notes and Comments. 83 

■evolution of self-conscious mind, and in which heredity takes 
part.' He then states (and here, presumably, is the new page 
in nature study) ' analogous faculties when manifested in 
animals are vaguely described as " instinct." 

ANIMALS AND TELEPATHY. 

But though those ' gifted with clairvoyance and divining ' 
appeal to Mr. Newland, and he believes in them, there are 
very many others who look upon them with very grave sus- 
picion, so much so that we should not like to think that ' anim- 
als ' ( in which word our author apparently does not include 
man), were under such suspicion. He also points out that 
while man cannot detect truffles underground, a pig or a dog 
can ; and while a man cannot smell a jack snipe held in his 
hand, a dog is aware of its presence when fifty yards dis- 
tant. ' If these performances are due to the sense of smell, 
they transcend anything we understand of that faculty,' the 
author adds. And because of the author's inability to under- 
stand, the dogs and pigs are presumably endowed with powers 
of divining or clairvoyance. The author follows up his argu- 
ment with chapters on the Puss Moth, Eggs of Birds, Frogs 
and Toads, etc. The following is a sample of his argument 
(pp. 60-61) : — 

A BAD EGG. 

' For the sake of convenience, I have used the expression 
'" a bird is aware of an addled egg." Perhaps it would be more 
correct to say that, so far as the bird, an unreasoning creature, 
is concerned, an effete egg is non-existent ; there being no 
life in it, all connection between the bird and the egg ceases ; 
thus the bird ignores the egg because, mentally, she is unaware 
of it. Hence, notwithstanding its perfect outward resemblance 
to the others, the pied flycatcher takes no notice of the rotten 
egg, but leaves it in the nest along with the chips and other 
rubbish ! " No, Mr. Newland can endow his animals with 
divining, clairvoyance, telepathy, or psychometry, but we 
prefer " instinct," whatever it means ; often it is largely 
common sense. 

MESOZOIC CYCADS. 

At a recent meeting of the Geological Society of London, 
Dr. Marie C. Stopes gave an account of some recent researches 
on Mesozoic ' Cycads ' (Bennettitales), dealing particularly 
with recently-discovered petrified remains which reveal their 
cellular tissues in microscopic preparations. To make the 
significance of the various fossil forms clear, Dr. Stopes first 
showed some lantern-slides of living Cycads, and then pointed 
out that it was in their external features and in their vegetative 
anatomy only that the fossil ' Cycads ' were like the living 
forms ; the most important features, the reproductive organs, 

1917 Mar. 1. 



84 Notes and Comments. 

differ profoundly in the two groups, and the fossils were funda- 
mentally distinct, not only from the living Cycads, but from 
all other living or fossil families. The fossils representing the 
group that are most frequently found are (a) trunks, generally 
more or less imperfect casts or partial petrifications, and 
sometimes excellent petrifications preserving anatomical details 
and cell-tissues ; (b) impressions of the foliage. Not infrequent 
are the detached impressions of incomplete ' flowers ' or cones, 
of one cohort (the Williamsonese), while petrified fructifications 
are numerous in some of the well-petrified trunks of the Ben- 
nettiteas. 

METHODS OF OCCURRENCE. 

The described species of the group run into hundreds, but 
probably many of these duplicate real species, because the 
foliage, trunks, pith-casts, various portions of the fructifications, 
etc., have often been separately found and named. In very 
few cases have the different parts been correlated. The species 
of the foliage are the most generally known, as they are the 
most readily recognized with the naked eye ; they have been 
described under a variety- of generic names. The following 
tabie gives the proved, or probable, associated parts of some 
members of the group : — 

Foliage. Trunk. Fructifications. 

Zamites spp. Bennettites spp. Bennettites spp. 

Zamites gigas. Attached, no separate Williamsonia gigas. 

name. 

Otozamites sp. Williamsonia spectabilis. 

Ptilophyllum pectinoides. Williamsonia whitbiensis. 

Anomozamites minor. (Only slender branches Wielandiella angustifolia. 

known, no name). 
Tceuiopteris vittata. Williamsoviella coronata. 

NATURAL HISTORY 150 YEARS AGO. 

We recently obtained a work entitled ' The Natural History 
of England ; or A Description of each particular County In 
Regard to the curious Productions of Nature and Art,' in two 
volumes. Vol. I., 410 pp., 1759 ; Vol. II., 392 pp., 1763. 
' Yorkshire' occupies pages 273-304 of the second volume. 
Of ' natural history ' as we know it, however, there seems to 
be but little. For instance, ' the Soil, Air and Product, greatly 
vary in different Parts of the County : in some Places, the Ground 
is of a stony, sandy and barren Nature ; in others it is pungent 
and fruitful ... In the extreme Parts, you meet with scarce 
any Thing but craggy mountainous Rocks and Moors, which 
produce little else than Heath. Here the air is sharp and 
bleak, and the Hills are frequently covered with Snow till 
May. The more wild and uncultivated Parts are not without 
several useful Products, as large quantities of Iron Ore, Allum, 
Jet, Lime, Liquorice, Coals, and good Stone : One Sort partic- 
ularly that slits into Slabs three of four Feet Square. Here 

Naturalist, 



Notes and Comments, 85 

are likewise great Plenty of Game, which occasions their being 
resorted to by Gentlemen, who find it necessary to carry 
provision with them.' 

THE EAST RIDING. 

' The Middle of this Division is Sandy and Dry, and less 
fertile, which is called Yorkswould. However, these are great 
Downs, which produce some Corn . . . The Soil about these 
Woidds abound with Chalk, Flints, Fire-stones, &c, and in 
diverse parts of it, there are Mines of Coal and Freestone ; 
near Bogthorpe and Leppington, are found the stones called 
Astroites, dug out of a blue clay .... The Man water [Hornsea 
Mere], which is in the Way from Bridlington to Hornsey, is 
pretty deep and always fresh : it is about 2 Miles long, and | 
a Mile broad, and abounds with the best Perch, Pike and 
Eels ; it is said, at first, to proceed from some Earthquake, 
with a Flux of Water following it ! The Fuel of the Riding 
is chiefly Pit-Coal, but it does not want wood and turf.' 

THE NORTH RIDING. 

' Besides Wood and Coals, this Riding produces Marble, 
Allum, Jett and Copperas .... The chief Allum-works were 
carried on by the late Duke of Burlington at Whitby, where 
was the greatest Plenty of this Mineral. — As for Jett, Geat or 
black Amber, in Latin, Gagates ; though the name is given to 
the Agate ... it is found ... in the Chinks and Crevices of the 
Rocks near the Sea . . . Besides the famous Spaw at Scar- 
borough, there is a well near New Malt on, whose Waters are 
supposed to have the same Virtue, but the spring is too weak 
to afford a large Quantity. There are likewise, mineral Waters 
upon Ounsberry-hill, or Roseberry-chopping, and at the very 
Top, there flows a clear Spring of Water, esteemed very salutary 
for sore eyes.' 

SCARBOROUGH. 

Of Scarborough we claim that ' The medicinal Waters are, 
in their Nature and Operation, powerfully Cathartic and 
Diuretic, communicate a sensible Alacrity to the Mind, Strength 
and Vigour to the Body, and Elasticity to the Stomach ' — The 
qualities of the Spaw are ' a Compound of Vitriol, Iron, Allum, 
Nitre and Salt, very transparent, inclining somewhat to a 
sky-colour, and of a pleasant taste.' Another ' spaw ' is 
recorded : — ' About a Mile from Beverley, in a Pasture called 
Swinemoor, is a Spring of a mineral Nature ; though it is scarce 
distinguished by the Taste, it has been found of a very drying 
Quality, and when applied, inwardly or outwardly, to be of 
Use in the Cure of scorbutic Humours '! Such was the natural 
history ' of Yorkshire a century and a half ago ! 

AN EARLY OCTOPUS RECORD. 

In the first volume of this ' Natural History,' is an early 
and quaint record of Octopus vulgaris, together with a plate, 

1917 Mar. 1. 



86 



Notes and Comments. 



which we reproduce on a slightly reduced scale. It is recorded 
that : — -'At this place [St. Agnes, Cornwall], in the Creek, among 
the Rocks, was taken a singular and most extraordinary Sea- 
Animal, which we think may be properly called a Sea-Polypus : 
It consists of a small Body about the bigness of the Palm of the 
Hand, to which was annexed a hollow Pouch, and on the middle 
part of the body was a curious beak, or Bill, about an Inch 
and Half long, and three quarters of an inch wide, of a roundish 
form, a Tortoise-shell colour, and curved somewhat like a 
Parrot's Bill : from the body proceed eight legs, nearly at 
an equal distance from each other, about an inch and a quarter 
wide at the body, and nearly 30 inches long, of a tapering 




form, terminating in a point at the Extremity ; the Legs were 
of fleshy and membraneous Substance and thick set with small 
pouches, or Holes (about half an inch wide the largest), dimin- 
ishing gradually towards the Extremity, in each leg. These 
holes seemed destined to answer the design of Gills, in common 
fish ; of these Holes, there were between 30 and 40 in each leg. 
These legs were all contracted and enclosed in the pouch, or 
loose bag, on one side of the body, and the animal lay seemingly 
asleep, when first observed ; the person, however, striking it 
with a stick, it expanded its legs with great violence, and put 
itself, as it were, in a posture of defence ; but by repeated 
blows, it was subdued, and it appeared of so surprising a Form, 
and such an animal never before observed, we have thought 
the representation of it, hereto annexed, would be very ac- 
ceptable to our Readers.' 

Naturalist, 



§7 
THE OCCURRENCE OF THE 

RARE MINERAL, MONAZITE, IN THE MILL- 
STONE GRIT OF YORKSHIRE. 



A. GILLIGAN, B.Sc, F.G.S. 

Leeds. 



The presence of fragments of garnets in the Millstone Grit 
was recorded by W. C. Trevelyn as far back as 1835, and other 
workers have since detected them in the same series of rocks 
in widely separated districts. They have been found by the 
writer to be very common in all the coarser beds of the series 
examined by him. Generally, they are sporadically scattered 
through the mass of the rock, but a fortunate discovery of 
garnet if erous layers in the Rough Rock of Cragg Hill Quarries, 
Horsforth, called for a closer investigation, not only of the 
garnets, but of the associated heavy minerals in these layers. 
These include zircon, tourmaline, rutile and monazite. This 
last mineral, which is a phosphate of the rare earths cerium, 
lanthanum and didymium (Ce, La, Di) PO-4, with some silicate 
of thorium, Th Si O4, occurs as rounded, honey-yellow grains, 
which, however, are often clouded by alteration products. 
No trace of crystal outline has so far been observed, although 
the zircons with which it is associated, show perfect crystal 
forms, the faces being easily determinable. This difference 
in form is, of course, accounted for by the lower degree of 
hardness of the monazite, which is only 5.5 (Moh's scale), as 
compared with 7.5 of zircon. 

Though only a small quantity of the monazite has so far 
been separated, it has yielded satisfactory chemical tests for 
the phosphate. The most reliable test however, is afforded 
by the spectroscope, the mineral when examined by direct 
sunlight giving an absorption spectrum which makes it un- 
mistakable. Prof. Bowman, of Oxford, has very kindly 
confirmed the spectroscopic tests, so that there can be no doubt 
of the correct identification of the mineral. 

Since monazite occurs in granites and granite gneisses, and 
especially in crystals of considerable size, in pegmatites, its 
presence in such a rock as the Millstone Grit is not surprising, 
for the lithological character of the grit makes it quite certain 
that it was derived from such types of rocks as those mentioned 
above. 

Having with certainty determined its presence in the Rough 
Rock, a search was made for it in other beds of the Series, and 
it is found to be of widespread occurrence. It has been found 
in the Kinderscout Grit and Middle Grits of several localities. 
It occurred to the writer that it might also be found in the 
glacial sands of Airedale, such as those at Newlay, and on 
examination, this was found to be the case. In these sands 
it is associated with the usual heavy minerals of the Millstone 

1917 Mar. 1. 



88 A New British Lichen, etc. 

Grit, proving, if such proof were needed, that the sands and- 
associated gravels of glacial origin in Airedale are made up 
of locally derived material. 

In view of the mineralogical work upon the clastic deposits 
now being carried on in various parts of the British Isles, it 
has been thought advisable to publish this record. 



A NEW BRITISH LICHEN. 



Rev. W. JOHNSOX. 

I found the lichen here diagnosed, in Teesdale, Durham, that 
favourite hunting-ground of the late W. Mudd. I classed it 
as follows : — 

Lecanora privigna Nyl., var. flava Johns. — Thallus effuse, 
thinnish, more or less continuous, leproso-tartareous, rarely 
smoother or rimulose, yellow-grey K-C- ; apothecia moderate, 
innate at first with distinct thalline margin, then lecideine, de- 
pressed in the centre and occasionally convex, dark-brown or 
black, more or less circumcissed and white pruinose ; para- 
physes discrete, except at the brown apices ; spores numerous, 
minute, oblong ; hymenial gelatine bluish, then intensely yellow- 
wine-red with iodine. 

This lichen grows on the limestone, and was found in 
an old limestone-quarry, on the opposite side of the road to 
the Church, near Langdon Beck. I purpose including it in 
the 13th Fasciculus of ' The North of England Lichen- 
Herbarium,' which I hope to issue shortly. 

Miss A. L. Smith, F.L.S., of the British Museum, Natural 
History Department, has classed this lichen as a new species, 
under the name Biatorella flava A.L.S., Syn. Lee. privigna 
Nyl., var. flava Johns, in the new Monograph on British Lichens. 



Cumberland Hemiptera. — A study of last autumn's 
captures has enabled me to add two more species and a variety 
to our county list. Phytocoris dimidiatus Kb., a single specimen, 
was beaten from Oak at Orton in September. In the same 
month, I beat several specimens of Psallns alnicola D. and S.. 
from Alder near Dalston. By sweeping in a grass}- lane near 
Kirkbampton, I captured a specimen of Calocoris ochromelas 
var. fornicatus D. and S. This is a very distinct variety, 
and in confirming my determination, Mr. E. A. Butler, B.A., 
F.E.S., says it is apparently a northern form, the original 
specimens having come from Durham. It is not included in 
Mr. Whittaker's Lancashire List, and it would be of interest 
to know if Yorkshire collectors have met with it. — Jas. 
Murray, 2 Balfour Road, Carlisle. 

Naturalist, 



8 9 



ORNITHOLOGICAL OBSERVATIONS 
AND REFLECTIONS IN SHETLAND.* 



EDMUND SELOUS 



October 13TH, 1911. — An episode just witnessed by me 
may give a hint as to the real meaning of the cormoroid (sic) 
habit of holding the wings ' out to dry.' A fine black Shag 
came forward in a manner denoting some special intention 
towards another, whose much browner hue and lightness on 
the breast — giving it the appearance of a small Common 
Cormorant — denoted it a young one. No sooner did the 
latter perceive the action of its parent than it bustled eagerly 
towards it, with open bill and extended wings, which it both 
shook and hela out exactly as this is done by the mature bird 
throughout its life. For the hanging out of the wings is 
generally preceded by this shaking, which may often, before 
the final attitude is assumed, become a violent flapping. So, 
indeed, it did in the case of this young bird, after the parent 
had fed it and gone, and then it stood for some time, with 
wings extended, just after the fashion of its elders. It was 
impossible not to recognise in all these actions, the counterpart 
in its various stages, of the habit in question. It is now 
nearly the middle of October, and, as we see, some of the 
young are still being fed. One can understand that if the 
young Shag or Cormorant were fed to a somewhat late period, 
the actions connected with so important a matter being also 
continued, these might, by habit, be permanently retained, 
and pass into the after-life of the bird. When the parent 
opened her mouth to feed this young Shag (which she, this 
time fronted), the latter thrust its whole head and bill into 
it, up to the throat. Subsequently, either this one or another 
young bird, so teased its dam fcr food, that she flew into the 
sea, and it then pursued her there, causing her to dive. 

To-day I, for the first time, saw something like real hosti- 
lities between two Shags. One flew over the water at another, 
who received it with severe peckings. The aggressor dived, 
but not as it appeared to me, to avoid these, but in order to 
attack its foe under the water, and the latter then aived also 
so as to avoid the attack. Shags often show some illwill 
towards new arrivals on the rock, receiving them with pecks 
(though generally these appear slight), and causing them to 
change their places of alighting. 

The entrances of the ' hellirs ' or caverns where the rock- 
doves breed here, are sometimes but little above the margin 
of the sea, and it is then a pretty sight to see the birds sink 

* Continued from The Naturalist for 1916, p. 388. 
1917 Mar. 1. 



go Ornithological Observations in Shetland. 

down upon extended pinions against the face of the precipice,, 
in order to enter. When a single one does this, one might 
think, at a little distance, that it was one of the hawk tribe, 
in pursuit perhaps, of the tenants of the cavern, instead of, 
itself, one of these. 

October 14.TH. — I make out the coloration of the vast 
mass of the Kittiwakes, here, to be as follows : — viz., head,, 
neck, breast, neutral surface and tail, white ; back and wings, 
a pretty mauve colour, something that of the Rock Dove, but 
the primary quills or some portion of them from their tips 
backwards, are black, whilst the feathers bordering the upper 
part of the wing, on its inner side (that towards the tail) are 
white. The beak is black or blackish, and does not seem 
large, thus contributing, with the blueish or mauvy coloration^, 
to the dove-like appearance of these pretty birds. The eye 
black. The legs seem to be of a dull slaty hue — not conspic- 
uous or gaudy. The above is through the glasses, from some 
two hundred yards or so. It is principally the beak, therefore, 
which shows these birds not to be mature. 

It is, to-day (near noon) as yesterday morning, but the 
number of Kittiwakes — eighty odd — is not so great ; there 
has been more time for some to disperse. Twice has the 
whole assembly— to a Kittiwake, I think, the second time, at 
least — risen as by a <£*?///>/ — that simultaneous common impulse, 
which the Athenians of old, noted as sometimes sweeping over 
popular human assemblies — flown out over the waters of the 
loch, wheeled and disported a little above them, and then all 
flown back again. Now (before I have finished the above 
entry) they do so a third time. The whole troop rise together 
from entire placidity, fly softly and in perfect silence, out to 
about the middle of the loch, and, without any wheeling or 
skimming, turn and fly softly back again. One spirit at one 
time has actuated every bird in the troop, for not one has 
stayed behind, and all seemed to rise at one instant. When 
I say not one, I mean of the Kittiwakes, for one Herring Gull 
has stayed. 

How are these facts to be accounted for ? The actions 
of the birds did not at all suggest that they were alarmed, 
nor was there anything that I cou.d observe to alarm them. 
Yet the conditions were such that I could hardly have failed 
to note anything of an alarming nature, had it been at all 
violent or salient, and nothing that I can think of, not answering 
this description, could have caused so many birds, scattered 
over so considerable a space of ground to rise thus, unanimously, 
as I have described. Before I had spent much time in watching 
birds, I was under the impression, as I believe most people 
are, that if one or two, or a few, of a number collected together, 
take genuine alarm, and rise in precipitate flight, the rest will. 

Naturalist,. 



Ornithological Observations in Shetland. 91 

as a matter of course, follow their example. Experience, 
however, has not verified this preconceived opinion, founded 
on mere plausible ignorance. Even in the case of birds so 
wary and alert as Woodpigeons or Pheasants, I have found 
that so potent a cause as my own approach has produced 
flight or retreat in such individuals (presumably), only, as 
actually saw me. I say presumably because it is not often 
possible to be quite certain that when half a dozen or so, for 
instance, fly off, one or two of these do not merely follow the 
others. When, however (to take Woodpigeons) the bulk 
remain, some evidently in a highly nervous state, and anxiously 
trying to discover the cause of their companions' flight, whilst 
others sit comparitively undisturbed, and when, during a 
further stealthy advance, the same class of phenomenon is 
repeated, the birds going off in successive batches with such 
sudden action as seems to demonstrate that each individual 
composing them has caught sight of the intruder, till on coming 
wholly into view, the residue rise all together or in quick 
succession — in face of such facts, it becomes fairly evident 
that each bird of the flock relies directly upon its own sense- 
impressions of any cause of alarm, and not, except in a subsid- 
iary degree, upon those of its fellows. This subsidiary degree 
amounts, as a rule, to no more than a predisposition to flight, 
owing to the flight, through alarm, of others. It may be 
greater or less, according to circumstances or individual 
disposition, but, if not great enough to issue in action, it will 
gradually subside, in the absence of further ground for appre- 
hension, so that many a flock that we may come upon, sitting 
quietly, and, as it would seem, hitherto undisturbed, may be 
more or less diminished in numbers — unless, indeed, the 
seceders have returned — through precedent alarms. In the 
case of Pheasants, I was once much interested in observing 
that when two birds, having seen me, ran swiftly off, a third 
that had not seen me, at first followed them but soon stopped, 
and being still unable to, came back and continued to feed as 
before. Though I remember this clearly, I can find no record 
of it, but the following is from notes on the spot : — ' When 
the small birds fly suddenly off in a cloud, as they do every 
few minutes with a great whirr of wings, the Pheasants all 
stop feeding, look about, pause a little, seeming to consider, 
and then recommence, as though they had decided that such 
panic was uncalled for and that there was no rational ground 
of alarm. An hour or two later, three out of the four birds — 
for two have got gradually to the other side of the stack — see 
enough of me, in the straw, to make them suspicious, and go 
off at half pace. The fourth bird notes their retreat, looks 
all about, can see nothing to account for it, and, instead of 

1917 Mar. 1. 



•92 Reviews and Book Notices. 

following them, as might be expected, goes on feeding.'* I 
have seen similar self-reliance markedly exhibited in the case 
of Shags and Rooks, and Starlings fall under the same category. 
In short, the above has been my general experience. 

The surmise, therefore, that a certain number of the Kitti- 
wakes flew up, because they saw something to alarm them, 
and that the rest followed, as it were, upon trust, would not 
satisfy me, upon general principles, even if I had not definite 
reasons for rejecting ' it ; it is, in fact, out of harmony with 
too many of the facts of the case. As for the theory that the 
whole flock of some eight}' odd were under the government 
of a leader who, in some way communicated a wish, for which 
all motive of urgency or importance seems wanting, to the 
whole of them, at almost the same instant of time, this also 
appears to me untenable. It is, at least, beset with difficulties. 
I saw no evidence of it here, nor have I in other and still more 
striking cases of the same kind. We therefore seem to stand 
in presence of a very puzzling phenomenon, that, namely, of 
occasional collective actions in birds, through what is appar- 
ently a collective impulse, not arising out of any sudden, 
simultaneous sense-perception, of a kind known to us. I 
shall later have occasion to refer to some striking testimony 
in corroboration of my own observations to this effect. 



The Practical Principles of Plain Photo-Micrography, by George West 
(University College, Dundee), 145 pp. 4s. 6d. net. This treatise, with 
its large type, paper cover, and wealth of marginal references, reminds 
one of a ' Blue Book ' ; though to a naturalist it is much more interesting 
and certainly more useful. The author has obviously had considerable 
practical acquaintance with his subject, and he explains the alpha and 
omega of photo-micrography, with illustrations of his apparatus, and 
reproductions from photographs of the results of his work. There is a 
quaint ' dialogue ' between Old Surefoot and Young Castlebuilder, on the 
making of a photo-micrograph, which contains many useful hints. 
Naturalists interested in photo-micrography will find the book of service. 

A Naturalist in Borneo, by the late R. W. C. Shelford. London, T. 
Fisher l T nwin, pp. 331, 15s. net. All naturalists will be grateful to Prof. 
E. B. Poulton for the care with which he has edited and prepared the 
incompleted MSS. of Mr. Shelford, who died at a comparatively young 
age (he was born in 1872). In 1895 he was the demonstrator in Biology 
at the Yorkshire College, Leeds, and two years later he went to Borneo 
as curator of the Sarawak Museum. His seven years' stay in Borneo 
enabled him to write a series of fascinating chapters on the natural history 
of that country, chapters which are so full of accurate observation and 
scientific deduction, that it is a pleasure to read them. Few branches 
of natural history were there neglected, and his notes on mammals, 
birds, reptiles and insects, all of which are well illustrated, show Shelford s 
many-sided character. His anthropological notes towards the end of 
the volume are distinctly valuable. ' A Naturalist in Borneo ' is one of 
the most interesting books we have read for some time. 

*' Bird Watching, ' pp. 207-8. 

Naturalist, 



93 
CUMBERLAND COLEOPTERA IN 1916. 



F. H. DAY, F.E.S. 



My field work last year was confined to about half a dozen 
short excursions in the immediate neighbourhood of Carlisle. 
So far as I could judge, it was not a good season for insects, 
being too cold and wet. Very few of my captures were above 
the common rank, but given more opportunity, I might have 
had more of interest to record. 

At Durdar in April, Haliplus fiilvus F., Hydroponis 
lepidus 01., and H. striola Gyll. (vittula Er.), occurred in a 
freshwater pond, and an hour's work with the bark ripper on 
some felled pines yielded a few each of Phloeopora testacca 
Mann, (reptaus Er.), Stic/ioglossa (Ischnoglossa) prolixa Gr., 
Lepttisa haemorrhoidalis Heer. (fumida Er.), and Phloeocharis 
subtilissima Mann. In ground moss, Staphylinus (Ocypus) 
brunnipes F., and Quedius ntfipes Gr. were frequent. 

On Rockcliffe Marsh in May, Agabus conspersus Marsh., was 
captured in a weedy creek, on the mud of which occurred 
Ochthebius marinus Pk. and others of the genus. The genus 
Dyschirius, for which these Solway marshes are famous, was 
only represented by politus Dj., and salinus Schaum. Few 
species of Bledius were about, but I was glad to get longulus 
Er. here for the first time. 

My most productive outing during the year was to Thurs- 
tonfield Lough in June, a large sheet of fresh water with marshy 
surroundings. Here I got Agabus unguicularis Th., A. labiatns 
Brahm., (femoralis Pk.), Rhantus exoletus Forst., Helophorus 
ytcnensis Slip, (new to Cumberland), Hydrochus brevis Hbst. 
(common), Phyllotreta flexuosa 111., Phaedon armoraciae L., 
Philonthus umbratilis Gr., Stenus melanarius Steph., S. binotatus 
Ljun., Bagous nigritarsis Th., B. claudicans Boh., Rhinoncus 
perpendicularis Reich., Phytobius canaliculatus Fahr., Lito- 
dactylus leucogaster Marsh., Eubrichius velatus Beck., with many 
more species. 

At Orton on the same day, Corymbites pectinicomis L., 
was noted in numbers on the wing in a meadow bordered by 
a large wood, and Magdalis carbonaria L. was swept. In the 
same month I paid one visit to the Nature Reserve at King- 
moor, when beetles were abundant. Most of the species have 
already been recorded {The Naturalist, 1915, pp. 238-240), but 
Tychus niger Pk., Neuraphes angulatus Mull., and Gyrophaena 
af finis Mann, were added to the list. 

At Orton in July, while working for Hemiptera, I took an 
example of Anisotoma (Liodes) orbicularis Hbst. in the sweeping 
net, this being the first record of the species for the county. 
Scymnus nigrinus Kug. was beaten from Scotch fir, Liopus 

1917 Mar. 1. 



94 Field Notes. 

nebulosus L. from oak, Anthophagus caraboides L. {testaccus 
Gr.) from birch, and Rhynchites nanus Pk., and R. mannerheimi 
Humm. (megacephalus Germ.), from various trees. 



MOLL USC A. 
Varieties of Helix nemoralis L. in Notts. — I have 
received a number of varieties and modifications of Helix 
nemoralis which, judging from the lists in J. W. Taylor's 
' Monograph of Land and Freshwater Mollusca,' and Prof. 
Carr's recent ' Invertebrate Fauna of Notts.' have not been 
recorded in this neighbourhood. I am much indebted to 
Messrs. W. D. Roebuck and J. W. Taylor for verifying examples 
of the varieties quoted. Shells recorded from ' Aspley ' are 
from the lane near Aspley Hall, on the west of Nottingham, 
which appears to possess a very rich molluscan fauna. 

var. rubella Pic. Very common. Aspley, Wollaton, Ed- 
walton, etc. 
s.v. violacea Baud, ooooo. Lane near Aspley. 
s.v. albescens Pic. Not uncommon, ooooo. Edwalton. 

00300 Aspley. 
Also some extremely pale specimens from Gotham, 
s.v. camea Baud. Common. Aspley, Edwalton, Wolla- 
ton and Gotham, 
var. fascialba Pic. Common in 00300. Aspley, Wollaton, 

Gotham and Barton Moors, 
var. roseolabiata Kob. Fairly common at Aspley. 
var. bimarginata Pic. Not rare. Aspley. 

s.v. tenuis Baud. Aspley. Relatively thin shells are 
not uncommon on the Bunter sandstone near 
Wollaton. 
I have also noticed the following band variations in addition 
to those recorded by Prof. Carr : — - 

I0 345 m v - libellula. Gotham and Aspley. 

02345 

1(2345) >> >> Whitemoor. 

i(23)(45) „ ,, Aspley. 

i 2 2345 ,, ,, Gotham. 

12340 ,, v. rubella. Gotham. 

—Arthur E. Trueman, M.Sc, University College, Nottm. 



Mr. J. F. Musham has been elected President of the Selby Scientific 
Society. 

At a recent meeting of the Lancashire and Cheshire Entomological 
Society, Mr. William Mansbridge described some ' Recent Experiments 
in breeding Aplecta nebulosn.' In these, he had a confirmation of an 
experiment in 1914 where var. robsoni was bred from moths of the typical 
form of markings. Attention was also directed to a recurring variation, 
of a leaden-grey ground-colour, for which the name plumbosa was proposed. 

Naturalist, 



95 
THE SHELLS OF THE HOLDERNESS 
BASEMENT CLAYS. 



ALFRED BELL 



So much has been written about the basement clay, its origin 
and contents, that another paper may be deemed superfluous 
after the comprehensive memoirs and works of Professor 
Phillips, and Messrs. Reid, Lamplugh, Drake and Sheppard 
amongst others. 

A re-examination of the mollusca obtained from the Holder- 
ness Clay now in the museums of London, Cambridge, York, 
Hull, the private collection of Mr. Headley of Stamford, and 
some material in my own possession, has enabled me to revise 
and enlarge the published lists, with the kindly assistance of 
F. W. Harmer, Esq., F.G.S., who is also adding to the number in 
his memoir on the ' Pliocene Mollusca of Great Britain,' now 
in course of publication by the Palaeontographical Society. 

The shells as at present listed represent two zones of life, 
one dwelling between tide marks, and a deeper one reaching 
thence to beyond 1,000 feet. The late Dr. Jeffreys proposed 
to exclude most of those pertaining to the littoral zone, as not 
coming from the clay itself but from a more recent bed. 

Some of the later gatherings have been taken at extreme 
low tides, and the specimens obtained are not above suspicion. 
Some that I have seen appear to be comparatively recent, or 
perhaps from an overlying muddy clay of no great age. Their 
number however is not great either in specimens or species ; 
too few to interfere with the general result. 

Some of these species do occur at great depths. Mr. Friele 
told Dr. Jeffreys that he had dredged Mytilus edulis and 
Littorind rudis in 350 fathoms in company with Lima sub- 
excavata. 

Of the 180 molluscs recorded below, at least 100 are no longer 
living south of the Shetlands, and the remainder, with a few 
doubtful exceptions, are all recorded by Sars and other writers 
from Arctic Norway. Jeffreys described a few new species from 
the Headley Collection but as since then, one (Rissoa wyville- 
thomsoni) has been found alive at great depths (1,250 feet), 
it is probable that the others, all small species, may be found 
some day. 

Admete vividula Fabr. B. decussata inftata Posselt (PI. 

A. viridula conthouyi Jay. simplex Jeff. 11011 Midd.). 
Amaura sulcosa Leche. B. dowsoni S. V. Wood. 
Amauropsis islandica Gmel. B. elegans Moll. 

Astyris rosacea Gould. B, elegantior S. V. Wood. 

Bela angulosa G. O. Sars. B. exavata Moll. 

B. bicarinata Couth. B. harpularia Couth. 
B. cinerea Moll. B. niulti striata Jeff. 
B. decussata Couth. B. nobilis Moll. 

1917 Mar. 1. 



9 6 



Shells of the Holdemess Basement Clays. 



Bela plicifera S. V. Wood.(?) 

B. pyramidalis Strom. 

B. pyramidalis semiplicata G. O. 
Sars. 

B, robusta S. V. Wood. 

B. scalaris Moll. 

(B. simplex see B. decussata). 

B. trevelyana Turt. 

B. turricula Mont. 

B. violacea Couth. 

B. vividula Moll. 

Buccinum inexhaustum Verk. 

B. grcenlandicum Chemn. 

Cemoria noachina L. 

Fusus (see Neptunea and Sipho). 

Hcedropleura rufa Mont. (?) (pos- 
sibly Bela pyramidalis). 

Helcion pellucidum L. 

Lacuna divaricata Fabr. 

Lepeta cceca Mull. 

Littorina globosa Jeff. 

L. Httorea L. 

L. obtusata Gmel. 

L. rudis M. & R. (purchased). 

Margarita grcenlandica Chemn. 
(see also Solariella). 

Menestho albula Fabr. 

Molleria costulata Moll. 

Murex erinaceus L. (very doubtful). 

Natica affinis Gmel. 

N. grcenlandica Beck. 

N. montagui E. F. 

N. occlusa Wood. 

N. tenuistriata Dautz. et. Fisch. 

Neptunea contraria typica L. 

N. contraria car in at a Wood. 

N. despecta L. 

N. despecta carinata Perin. 

N. Spitsbergen sis Reeve, vide Jeff. 

Odostomia conspicua Alder. 

Pleurotoma (see Bela and Hcedro- 
pleura). 

Parisipho kroyeri Moll. 

Purpura lapillus L. 

Rissoa costata Ad. 

A', parva Da Costa. 

A', parva inter rupta Ad. 

R. semistriata Mont. 

R. striata Ad. 

R. subperforata Jeff. 

A\ wyville-thomsoni Jeff. 
Sea/aria grcenlandica, Ch. 
5. gvcenl. crebricostata G. O. Sars. 

Sipho attenuatus Jeff. 

5. curtus Jeff (see Note B.). 

5. exiguus F. W. Harmer. 

5. gracilis Da Costa. 

S. latcriceus Moll. 

5. leckenbyi Wood. 

S. propinquus Aid. 



Sipho pygmmus Gould. 

S. sabini (in Wood. Crag Moll. 

= 5. exiguus). 
S. sarsii Jeff. 

5. tenuistriatus F. W. Harmer ( T. 
ventricosus Wood, non Grav). 
Solariella cinerea Couth. 
S. obscura Couth. 
5. obscura bella Verk. 
S. varicosa Mighels. 
Trichotropis borealis B. & S. 
T. insignis Midd. 

Trochus (Calliostoma) zizyphinns L. 
T. (Gibbula) cineraria L. 
Trophon clathratus L. 
T. fabricii Beck. 
T. fabr. reticulata Harmer. 
T. gunneri L. 
T. truncatus Strom. 
Turritella polaris Beck. 
T. terebra L. 
Bulla crebristriata Jeff. 
Cylichna .alba Brown. 

C. scalpta Leche. 
Utriculus constrictus Jeff. 
U. obtusus pertennis Gould. 

Dentalium entalis L. 

D. striolatum Stimp. 

D. tarentinum Lam. ? (a doubtful 

identification). 
Rhynchonella psittacea Chemn. 
Anomia ephippium L. 
A-nomia ephippium aculeata Mull. 
A . ephippium squamula L. 
A st arte. Note C. 
Astarte arctica Gray. 
A. banksii warhami Hanc. 
A. bennettii Dall. (Proc. Nat. Mus 

U.S. vol. 26, pi. LXIII. f.6). 
A. compressa globosa Moll. 
A. compressa latior King. 
A. ? compressa nana Jeff. 
A. compressa striata Leach. 
A. crenata Gray. 
A. elliptica Brown. 
A. elliptica ovata Brown. 
A. elliptica crassa Leche. 
A. placenta Morch. 
A. richardsoni Reeve. 
A. semisulcata Leach. 
A . semisulcata lactea B. and S. 
A. sericea Posselt. 
A. soror Dall (op. cit.). 
A. sulcata Da. Costa. 
A. withami Smith. 
■ Axinopsis orbiculata G. O. Sars. 
Cardita ( Venericardia) borealis 

Conr. 
Cardium\echinatum L. (Dimling- 

ton). 



Naturalist, 



Shells of the Holderness Basement Clays. 



97 



Cardium edtile L. (very doubtful ; 

perhaps from Speeton). 
C. islandicum L. 
C. (Serripes) grcenlandicum Ch. 
Corbula gibba Olivi. 

C. pusilla* Phil, vide Jeffr. 
Crenella decussata Mont. 
Cyprina islandica L. 
Donaxvittatus Da Costa (purchased) 
Dosinia exoleta L. (S. Sea landing). 

D. lincta Pult. (Headley Coll.). 
Lima excavata Fabr. (York Mus.) 
Lutraria elliptica Lam. (Filey). 
Mactra elliptica Brown. 

M. solida L. 

M. suotruncata. 

Modiola ( Volsella), modiolus L. 

Mont acuta dawsoni Jeff. 

M. bidentata.\ 

Mya arenaria L. 

M. truncata L. 

M. truncata uddevallensis E. F. 

Mytilus edulis L. 

Nucula nucleus L. 

A 7 , tenuis Mont. 

N. tenuis in flat a. 

Nucula'{Acila) cobboldies Sow. Note 

D. 
A. insignis Gould. 
Nuculana caudata buccata Steem. 



Nuculana pernula Mull. 
N. minuta Mull. 
Ostrea celtica A. Bell. Note E. 
Panomya norvegica Spengl. 
Pecten islandicus Mull. 
P. maxim us L. 
P. opercularis L. 
P. pusio Penn. 
P. septem-radiatus Mull. 
Pectunculus glycimeris L. 
Pholas crispata L. 
Saxicava arctica L. 
S. vugosa L. (salcosa Smith). 
Solen ensis L. 

Tellina (Macoma) balthica L. 
T. calcarea Chem. 
T. obliqua Sow. 
T. pusilla Phil. 
Thracia pubescens\ Pult. 
T. pratenuis Pult. 
Femjs fluctuosa Gould. 
V. ovata Penn. 
Yoldia intermedia M. Sars. 
Y. lenticula Moll. 
Y. limatula Say (Jeff.). 
Y. tenuis Phil. 

y. oblongoides Wood, vide S. P. 
Woodward. 
( Yoldia truncata and Y. oblong- 



oides are perhaps allied species). 

Note A. — Buccinum inexhaustum : — Dr. S. P. Woodward, 
writing in 1865, could not refer the Bridlington Buccina to 
any of the ordinary recent forms of B. undatum. Mr. Headley 
has a large example in the clay matrix, but like so many of the 
Bridlington shells of other species, while retaining its form, is 
separated into many fragments. 

It comes near to B. inexhaustum, with which I propose to 
identify it. 

Note B. — Siftho curtus : — Which American shell Jeffreys 
had in view when creating this species it is impossible to say. 
He defines it as having a short spire, and as being smaller, and 
more tumid than the Fusus gracilis of the earlier Pliocene 
Crag as then understood, and a little later, when collating 



* Jeffreys seems to have duplicated Phillips's reference in error. 
Erycina [Tellina) pusilla is the only one named in that author's book 
En. Moll. Sil. 

f Inserted in the list of Bridlington Shells, by a mistake of Forbes 
vide S. P. Woodward, Geol. Mag., Vol. I., p. 42. 

{ T. pubescens, recorded from Bridlington and Dimlington. These 
are very unusual localities for such a very S. W. English Channel species. 
T. convexa, another large species, occurs fossil at Portobello and Belfast ; 
also in an elevated glacial deposit 400-500 (?) Drontheim. Sars figures 
other large Northern Arctic Thracias — T. truncata Brown, and a variety 
devexa, and I suggest it is to one of these the shell should be referred. 



1917 Mar. 1. 



98 Shells of the Holderness Basement Clays. 

the Mollusca of Europe and Eastern North America, Ann. 
and Mag. Nat. Hist. 1872, p. 245, makes it the same as the 
much larger F. islandicus of Gould (S. Stimpsoni Morch). 

Some small shells bearing the name F. curtus in his own 
writing, contained in the Headley and Leckenby collections, 
represent very distinct species. Mr. Harmer tells me he has 
identified amongst them F. pygmaeus Gould, Sipho exiguits 
F. W. Harmer, and Neptunea tenuistriata F. W. H. (the Fusus 
curtus var. expansa Jeffr.). Two of the Headley fragments so 
named I find agree with F. attenuatus Jeff. (Sykes, Proc. Malacol. 
Mag., IX., p. 377 (figure), 1911), and another with S. latericeus 
as figured by Sars, Moll Reg. Arct. Norveg. pi. XV., fig. 8. 

Mr. Harmer (Pliocene Mollusca) has adopted Jeffreys' name 
for a group of Crag Shells and Mr. Friele uses it for a number 
of other North Sea Siphos. One of these, figured by Wood as 
Trophon leckenbyi, is correlated by Jeffreys with his Fusus 
turgidulus, but the identification is not satisfactory. 

Fusus sabinii vide Woodward (in Brit. Mus.), Jeffreys 
also correlates with F. (Neptunea) spit zber gen sis Reevz. 

Note C. — Astarte: — Forbes and Hanley and Jeffreys 
agree upon the extreme range in variation of the different 
members of this difficult genus and I have thought it better 
to give the Bridlington shells, numerous as they are, the names 
whether they are specific or varietal that have been assigned to 
their representatives elsewhere ; and as Dr. Dall says, writing 
in 1902 upon this genus in the Proc. Nat. Mus., Washington, 
XXIV., p. 934. " Whether these be regarded as species or 
not, we have the satisfaction of knowing what we mean when 
we employ a name." 

All the forms referred to live considerably within the 
Polar Circle. The periostracum on two of my specimens is 
fairly well preserved and shows definite colour stripes, radiating 
from the apex to the ventral edge, a somewhat unusual feature 
in these shells. 

(To be continued). 



The Manufacture of Historical Material, by J. W. Jeudwine. London, 

Williams and Norgate, 268 pp., 6s. net. This is ' an elementary study 
in the Sources of Story.' In this remarkably scholarly volume, the 
author traces the evolution of the method of supplying, conveying and 
recording news. In the early days, its transmission by song and tradition 
was necessarily unreliable, and the author gives many instances of the 
faulty nature of early history. He appeals for more reliable methods of 
recording. ' There is a plaintiff and defendant in every cause, and neither 
holds the whole of the truth. ' [The author speaks as a Barrister-at-Law ! ] 
' If you take the monastic view that one man in any age controlled affairs 
because he was unutterably bad, or impossibly saintly, you lose sight of 
the causes, spiritual, physical and commercial, which regulated the 
happening of history.' 

Naturalist, 



99 



YORKSHIRE MYCOLOGISTS AT BUCKDEN. 



A. E. PECK. 



The Autumn Fungus Foray of 1916, organized by the My- 
cological Committee of the Yorkshire Naturalists' Union, was 
held at Buckden, in Wharfedale, from September 23rd to 
September 29th. 

An excellent attendance of Members and friends included 
Harold Wager, D.Sc, F.R.S. (Chairman), W. N. Cheesman, 
J.P., Alfred Clarke, Geo. Massee, V.M.H., Thos. Hebden, C. 
H. Broadhead, M. Malone, R. Fowler Jones, J. Ackroyd, Miss 




Photo by] 



[A . E. Peck. 



A. Wallis, A. E. Peck, Mrs. Greevz Fysher, Mr. Greevz Fysher, T. Hebden, T. Hey, 
T. Smith, R. Fowler Jones, 
Miss C. A. Cooper, W. N. Cheesman, Harold Wager, Geo. Massee,'Alfd .Clarke, 
W. B. Haley. M. Malone. 

C. A. Cooper, Anthony Wallis, M.A. (Penrith), Thos. Hey 
(President Midland Railway Naturalists' Society), Thos. Smith 
(Alderley Edge), Mr. and Mrs. Greevz Fysher (Leeds), Wm. 
Bellerby (York), W. B. Haley (Cleckheaton), J. Hartshorn 
(Leyburn), and A. E. Peck, Secretary. 

Headquarters were at the Buck Inn. Fine weather favoured 
the proceedings throughout, and this, together with the capital 
muster, the comfortable quarters, the charming and romantic 
surroundings, and the abundance of interesting specimens, con- 
tributed to make the gathering both successful and eminently 
enjoyable. The Naturalists were further favoured in having 

1917 Mar. 1. 



ioo Yorkshire Mycologists at Buckden. 

the kindly co-operation of the Rev. R. F. Anderton, Vicar of 
Hubberholme, who was good enough to place the excellent 
schoolroom at Buckden at the visitors' disposal for the evening 
lectures. To him thanks also are due for providing the 
lantern, for his personal and genial presence at these gatherings,, 
for his kind words of welcome to the district spoken on behalf 
of the inhabitants, and for general interest and cordial help 
throughout the visit. 

Mr. Anderton also conducted a party over his ancient 
Church of Hubberholme, pointing out its highly interesting 
antiquities, after which Mrs. and Miss Anderton entertained 
the party to afternoon tea at the Vicarage. Small wonder, 
then, that responsive sentiments of acquiescence were manifest 
when the Vicar made a touching plea for a second Mycological 
Survey of this district. His ' Wull ye no come back again ? r 
will long be remembered. 

Landowners who had thrown open their estates to investi- 
gation were : — Miss E. A. Crompton-Stansfield, Mrs. Hird, 
Mr. O. Lodge, Mr. J. E. Dinsdale and Mr. John Beresford. 

Collecting began on Saturday morning, and during the day 
many baskets and boxes of interesting specimens were brought 
to the workroom. It was soon apparent that the district was 
going to prove well worthy of the visit of investigation now 
accorded it, as species were early recorded which were now 
seen for the first time by members present. 

Agarics were in preponderance, while Polypores were by 
no means numerous. The district appears to be singularly 
free from tree parasites. Polyporus squamosus, which has an 
almost universal range, was never recorded, whilst P. betulinus 
was only met with on either one or two birch trees. Fomes 
annosus, extremely common about the base of conifers in 
some localities, is here quite rare. On the other hand, Arm- 
illaria mellea is of frequent occurrence, and many big and 
luxuriant patches came under observation. 

Mr. Wallis, a new member of the Committee, had the good 
fortune to pick up specimens ' New to Britain ' on this, his 
first ' Foray.' He and the writer were passing along a wood- 
land path when Mr. Wallis gathered some pretty agarics of 
lilac colour which the writer at once recognized as new to him, 
but had no difficulty in relegating to the genus Lepiota. The 
specimens were tenderly dealt with until the workroom was 
reached, when a very short reference to Massee's ' European 
Agarics ' sufficed to establish the new find as Lepiota lilacea 
Bresedola, an addition to the British flora. 

A subsequent new British record of more than common 
interest was the pink-spored agaric Nolanea vinacea Ft., easily 
distinguishable by the delicate yellow colour of the stem. 

Another ' pink-spored ' form, Entoloma ardosiacum, though 

Naturalist 



Yorkshire Mycologists at Buckden. 



101 



•only now first recorded for Yorkshire, proved anything but 
rare hereabouts, and the rich colouring of these specimens 
was much admired. Dr. Wager mentioned that he had ob- 
served this species many times in this district during the past 
two or three years. 

The chief work at the tables was undertaken by Messrs. 
Massee and Clarke. Specimens of resupinate fungi were for- 
warded to Miss E. M. Wakefield, F.L.S., of Kew, who kindly 
undertook to deal with this rather difficult group. Her list 
includes 17 species, of which two Odontia farinacea (Pers.) 
•Quel., and Tomentella fusca (Pers.) are first British records. 

Mr. Cheesman, as usual, dealt with the Mycetozoa, and 
writes as follows respecting them : — ' It is somewhat remark- 
able that, although the specimens were " few an' far between," 
the total number recorded is larger than that of any previous 
foray. This large number may be accounted for by the 
dissimilar working grounds, and the varied nature of tree and 
plant life in the district. 

The most noteworthy species are Physarum straminipes 
Lister (second Yorks. record), a newly-made but distinct 
species with straw-coloured stalks and cross-like markings on 
the spores. Mucilago spongiosa Morgan was found on the 
bleak, wind-swept hill top, and had crept nine to twelve inches 
up the grass stems before completing its life cycle, and Bad- 
hamia utricularis which covered a fallen ash trunk many square 
feet in area, with its unbroken sporangia, like miniature bunches 
of grapes. No new county record is made, but those marked * 
are new to Mid West Yorks.' 



Cevatiomyxa fruticulosa Macbr. 

Badhamia utricularis Berk. 

Physarum psittacinum Ditm. 

P. viride (var. aurantium) List. 
*P. straminipes Lister. 

P. cinereum Pers. 

P. nutans Pers. 
*P. sinuosum Weinm. 

Cvaterium minutum Fries. 

Leocarpus fragilis Rost. 

Fuligo septica Gmelin. 

Didymium dif forme Duby. 

D. squamulosunz Fries. 

Mucilago spongiosa Morgan. 

Stemonitis fusca Roth. 

G. flavogenita Jahn. 

Comatricha nigra Schroe. 

C. typhoides Rost. 
*Amaurochaete fuliginosa Macbr. 

Cribraria aurantiaca Schrad. 



C. argillacea Pers. 
Tubifera ferruginosa Gmel. 
Reticularia Ly coper don Bull. 
Lycogala epidendrum Fries. 
Trichia affinis de Bary. 
T. scabra Rost. 
T. varia Pers. 
T. contorta Rost. 
T. decipiens Macbr. 
T. Botvytis Pers. 
Hemitrichia vesparium Macbr. 
H. clavata Rost. 
Arcyria ferruginea Sauter. 
A. cinerea Pers. 
*A. pomiformis Rost. 
A. denudata Sheldon. 
A. incarnuta Pers. 
A. nutans Grev. 
Perichaena corticalis Rost. 



Mr. Hebden worked the district for Lichens and an excellent 
list of his discoveries is appended hereto : — 



1917 Mar. 1. 



102 Yorkshire Mycologists at Buckden. 

Lempholemma myriococcum Ach. Wet moss. 
Collema granuliferum Nyl. Walls. 
C. melaenum Ach. Walls. 

Leptogium scotinum var. sinuatum Mall. Moss. 
Cladonia pyxidata var. lophyra Ach. Hill tops. 
C. jurcata var. adspersa Ach. Stony places in moss. 
C. jurcata var. scabriuscula Nyl. Stony places in moss 
C jimbriata var. tubaeformis Fr. Mossy banks. 
C. digitata var. monstrosa Nyl. Rotten wood. 
Ramalina farinacea Ach. Bark. 
Platysma glauca Nyl. Wall tops and bark. 
Evemia furfuracea Fr. Wall tops. 
Parmelia saxatilis Ach. Bark. 
P. scortea Ach. Walls. 
P. sulcata Tay. Bark. 
P. fuliginosa Nyl. Bark. 
P. physodes var. tubulosa Mudd. Wall tops. 
Peltidea apthosa Ach. Damp rocks. 
Solorina saccata Ach. , ,, 

Peltigera rufescens var. praetextata Hk. Mossy banks. 
P. horizontalis Hoff. ,, 

Physcia parietina var. congranulata Cr. Wall tops. 
P. pulverulenta var. panniformis Cr. Bark. 
P. stellaris var. leptalea Nyl. Walls. 
Placodium sympagea Nyl. Walls. 
Leproplaca xantholyta Nyl. Rocks. 
Lecanora hcematites Nyl. Bark. 
L. irrubata var. ca/va Nyl. Stone. 
L. subfusca var. campestris Nyl. Stone. 
L. rugosa Nyl. Bark. 
Aspicilia calcarea Nyl. Walls. 
^4. calcarea var. contorta Nyl. Walls. 
Pertusaria lactea Nyl. Walls. 
P. globulifera Nyl. Bark. 
P. velata Turn. Stone. 
P. communis var. rupestris D.C. Stone. 
P. scutellaris Hue. Stone. 
Gyalecta cupularis Sch. Damp rocks. 
Lecidea albo-coerulescens Nyl. Rocks. 
L. lurida Ach. ,, 

Bilimbia squamulosa A.L.S. Wall Tops 
Rhizocarpon calcareum Fr. ,, 
Opegrapha conjluens Stiz. Rocks. 
V errucaria limitata Krmp. „ 
Polyblastia intercedens Lonn. ,, 
Thelidium immersum Mudd. ,, 

(Po fe continued). 

Naturalist, 



ICH 



OBSERVATIONS ON RANUNCULUS FICARIA. 



MARY A. JOHNSTONE, B.Sc, F.L.S. 

One of the most curious features of the morphology of the 
Lesser Celandine (Ranunculus Ficaria) is the duplicated 
grouping of tuberous roots, a duplication, the occurrence of 
which is limited to certain plants. 

The simpler type of plant possesses only the underground 
tuberous organs. Below ground it consists of a much abbre- 
viated stem region, a few ordinary absorptive roots and a 
crowded cluster of pear-shaped storage roots, together with, 
at certain times, the remains of the tubers of the previous 
season. From the top of the buried stem arise one or more 
branching aerial stems, bearing scale and foliage leaves ; a 
varying number of radical leaves may also spring from the 
same region ; flowers are borne apparently terminally on the 
branches. 

In the more complicated plant, additional tuberous bodies 
arise in the axils of the cauline leaves ; these also are modified 
roots. When present at all, they occur in the axil of every leaf , 
the number at any level varying from one to about nine. When 
the plant dies down in June, the tubers, together with the 
minute bud to which they are attached, drop to the ground 
along with the decaying, leaf age. There they may develop as 
independent plants, and thev thus constitute a well-known 
example of vegetative reproduction. They are interesting in 
many ways, but the only point upon which I wish to touch 
now is the relationship of the plants that bear them to those 
of the first group, and the relationship of both to their 
surroundings. 

The commonly accepted theory is that plants bearing 
aerial tubers are restricted in their occurrence to deeply shaded 
situations, from which flower -bearing plants are in their turn 
absent. The absence of flowers is considered to be correlated 
with the infrequency of insect visits in such quarters, re- 
production being provided for by the vegetative structures 
in the leaf axils. Whilst acknowledging the existence of 
of a sufficient amount of evidence to account for such a 
generalisation having been put forward, I think, after comparing 
together a very large number of habitats, that the explanation 
does not account for the actual distribution of the plants, 
and I should like to record a few out of many instances where 
I have considered it to fail. 

A word first about those specimens which bear aerial 
tubers. The most significant distinguishing characteristic is 
the great reduction in the number of flowers produced, and in the 
number of carpels on these few flowers ; in some colonies, 

1917 Mar. 1.2 



104 Observations on Ranunculus Ficaria. 

yards in extent, not a single flower is to be seen. The number 
of leaves is often unusually great. Very often an abundance of 
aerial tubers is associated with a very vigorous growth of 
underground tubers. I have found, in all cases, that if tubers 
are present at all, every leaf possesses one or more. The size 
and habit of the plant vary greatly — from the one extreme in 
which aerial internodes are unlengthened, and the leaves 
with their tubers cluster on the ground in rosette fashion, to 
the othei , in which the long-branched, straggling plants are 
exaggerated in length in every part, including the tubers. The 
rosette condition is unusual. Root hairs are scattered in the 
usual way over the surface to within a short distance of the tip ; 
they are preserved from shrivelling as long as they are enclosed 
within the sheathing leaf-bases, and when they emerge, as they 
sometimes do, into protected chambers, formed by over- 
arching leaves. 

The two habitats first to be described form a complete 
contrast, and if they were considered alone, or if they were 
representative of all others, they would fully justify the idea 
that light and shade explained all differences. 

The first is the grassland association, of which R. Ficaria 
may be a very conspicuous member. In this, which is the most 
exposed situation possible, I have never found a single aerial 
tuber. The grassfield Celandine has adopted the rosette habit 
of many of its grass-field associates ; its parts are dwarfed ; 
its stems and petioles are prostrate, or nearly so ; the flowers 
are small ; the whole arrangement is compact, both above 
and below ground. As one of a closed and highly competitive 
community, it has adapted itself to the struggle, and the aerial 
tuber evidently is not the means of survival upon which it 
depends. 

As a complete contrast to the field may be given a steep 
slope in a deciduous wood, with a ground covering of 
leaves, through several inches of which the celandine had to 
push its way The illumination was not good. All parts, 
even the tuber, were greatly attenuated. Aerial tubers were 
very numerous ; they were cylindrical, approximating to 
ordinary roots ; they and their etiolated stems Were so deeply 
imbedded amongst herbage that they were practiclly under- 
ground. Flowers and fruits were very scarce. 

Such instances as the above might be regarded as con- 
clusive, but they do not represent the whole case. It is true 
that deep shade may not favour flower production, but it is 
also true that tuber production is by no means limited to shade 
condition. I have found (excepting the grass land) very few 
situations of any size where tuber-bearing individuals did not 
flourish alongside flower-bearing. I outline below a few such 
habitats : they were not solitary instances, but are typical. 

Naturalist, 



Field Notes, etc. 105 

(a) This was a sloping bank, fairly well shaded and bore 
little vegetation other than R. Ficaria. Almost all the plants 
were of small size, possessed numerous leaves, few flowers and 
many tubers. Intermingled with these and standing up above 
the surface of the bed like comparative giants were solitary 
plants of much handsomer appearance. Their flowers were 
large and brilliant ; tubers were absent. Whilst the average 
height of the majority in the bed was about three inches, the 
measurements of the stragglers were on the scale of the following 
example : — 

From bottom of main internode to top 

of central flower . . . . . . 10 inches. 

Length of peduncle . . . . . . 7 

Diameter of flower . . . . . . 1*8 ,, 

Diameter of leaf . . . . . . 2*0 

In their isolation they were very striking, suggesting the 
idea of a variety other than that of their surrounding relatives, 
or that they had reached a more advanced stage in their life- 
histor}?. 

(To be continued). 

MAMMALS, 

Mammalian Remains, etc., from the Holderness 
■Gravels. — Among some fossil bones recently obtained from 
Kelsey Hill, received from Mr. T. Sheppard, on January 25th, 
1917, (and returned), are the following : — 

Bison or Bos. — Probably Bison, as this has already been 
recorded. Parts recognised — Humerus (large), metacarpal, 
calcaneum, astragalus, tooth, horn-core, vertebrae. 

Red Deer (Cervus elaphus) .—Piece of antler tyne and piece 
of ilium. 

Reindeer {Rangijer tavandus). — Antler, basal portion. 

Seal (Phoca vitulina ?). — Two tibiae. 

Fish Vertebra. — Probably Codfish. 

The seal and red deer are not recorded in Reid's ' Geology 

•of Holderness,' but have subsequently been recorded in The 

Naturalist (May, 1913, p. 197) and ' Geological Rambles in 

East Yorkshire ' respectively. — E. T. Newton, January 30th, 

1917. 

Mr. R. W. Goulding favours us with an interesting illustrated pamphlet 
on ' Louth Parish Church,' being a paper read before the Louth Natura- 
lists' Antiquarian and Literary Society recently. It enumerates many 
interesting events in connection with the church, from which we notice 
that in 1693, a raven built her nest at the north-west pinnacle, and that 
in 1897, a Cormorant was seen several times on the top of the spire. It 
was subsequently shot at Tathwell. With regard to the raven record, 
we should assume that the chronicler meant a rook. 

1917 Mar 1. 



io6 

BIBLIOGRAPHY : 

Papers and Records relating to the Geology and Palaeontology of the 
North of England (Yorkshire excepted), published during 1916. 



T. SHEPPARD, M.Sc, F.G.S. 



Details of the places of publication of the Bibliographies 
for 1884-1915 are given in The Naturalist, February, 1916, 
pp. 67-8. 

1915. 
T. G. Bonne y. Cumberland. 

On Certain Channels attributed to overflow Streams from Ice-dammed 
Lakes. Cambridge, 1915, 8vo., 44 pp. [See also P. F. Kendall, Geol.. 
Mag., January, 1916, pp. 26-29, February, pp. 77-81. Naturalist, 
May, 1916, pp. 145-148]. 

R. G. Carruthers, T. Eastwood, G. V. Wilson, R. W. Pocock, D. 
A. Wray, H. Dewey and C. E. N. Broomhead. 

Northern Counties. 
Special Reports on the Mineral Resources of Great Britain. Vol. II., 

Barytes and Witherite. Mem. Geol. Survey, pp. iv. -+- 93. 

H. Dewey, C. E. N. Broomhead, T. Eastwood, G. V. Wilson and 
R. W. Pocock. Cumberland, Derbyshire. 

Special Reports on the Mineral Resources of Great Britain. Vol. I. Tungsten 
and Manganese Ores, Mem. Geol. Survey, pp. iv. + 59. 

David Ellis. Lines. N. 

Fossil Micro-organisms from the Jurassic and Cretaceous Rocks of Great 
Britain [includes a fungus (Phycomycites Frodinghamii) from the 
Lower Lias of Frodingham, Lines.], Proceedings Royal Society", 
Edinburgh, Vol. XXVI., Part 1, No. 10, pp. 110-133. See notice in 
Knowledge, February, 1916, pp. 40-41. 

T. S. Ellis. Lines., Cheshire, Lanes. S. 

On the Control of River Channels [refers to the Humber and the Dee]. 
Proc. Cotteswold Nat. Field Club for 1915, Vol. XIX., pt. 1, pp. 
29-48. Noticed in Naturalist, May, 1916, pp. 148-150. 

R. L. Sherlock and B. Smith. Northern Counties. 

Special Reports on the Mineral Resources of Great Britain. Vol. III., 
Gypsum and Anhydrite, by R. L. Sherlock and B. Smith ; and Celes- 
tine and Strontianite, by R. L. Sherlock. Mem. Geol. Survey, pp. 
iv. + 57- 

H. Hamshaw Thomas. Yorks. 

On Williamsoniella, a new type of Bennettitalean Flower. P. Trans. Roy. 
Soc, Ser. B., Vol. CCVIL, pp. 1 13-148, Pis. 12-14. (See Nature, 
Nov. 18, p. 330). 

H. Hamshaw Thomas. Yorks. 

On Some New and Rare Jurassic Plants of Yorkshire : the Male Flower of 

Williamsoniella gigas [Lind. and Hutt.). Proc. Camb. Phil. Soc, 
Vol. XVIII. , pt. 3, p. 105. Abstract in Nature, March nth, p. 55. 

1916. 

Anon. Lake District. 

The Geology of the Lake District and the Scenery as Influenced by Geolog- 
ical Structure. By J. E. Marr [review of]. Geol. Mag., August, pp. 
324-5- 

Naturalist, 



Bibliography : Geology and Paleontology. 107 

Anon. Durham, Derbyshire. 

Fluor-spar [review of Geol. Survey Memoir, by W, H. W.]. Knowledge, 
May, p. 101 ; also see Geol. Mag., September, p. 430. 

Anon. Northern Counties. 

Catalogue of the more important papers, especially those referring to Local 
Scientific Investigations, published by the Corresponding Societies 
during the year ending May 31st, 1915. Report Corves. Societies, 
British Association, 1915 (published 1916), pp. 21-35. 

Anon. Northumberland, Durham, Yorks. 

Report of the Joint Discussion on Coal at the Newcastle Meeting of the 
British Association. Geological Magazine, November, pp. 511-518. 

Anon. Northern Counties. 

Eminent Living Geologists, John Edward Marr [Memoir : list of papers, 
etc.], Geological Magazine, July, pp. 289-295. 

Anon. Lines., Yorks. 

Flints in Boulder Clay. Naturalist, November, p. 341. 

Anon. Northumberland, Durham, Yorks. 

Obituary : C. T. Clough, M.A., LL.D., F.G.S., F.R.S.E., of Geological Survey 
of Great Britain. Born December 23rd, 1852 : Died August 27th,. 
1916 [refers to his work in various counties]. Geological Magazine, 
November, pp. 525-527. 

Anon. Northern Counties. 

Quarrying in September. Quarry, November, pp. 247-8. 

Anon. Lanes. S., Cheshire. 

Liverpool Geological Society [reports of papers read to: by 'the Hon. 
Secretary,' ' Notes on some ferruginous nodules in local sandstone ';. 
A. W. Harris, Note on a Section in the pebble beds at Mossley Hill ; 
and D. A. Wray, On a recent Exposure in Liverpool. Lancashire 
and Cheshire Naturalist, April, pp. 21-22. 

Anon. Cheshire. 

Triassic Rocks of Wirral [brief notice of Greenwood and Travis's paper : 
see 1915 Bibliography]. Geological Magazine, April, p. 180. 

Anon. Lake District, Lanes. S., Cheshire. 

Liverpool Geologists [notice of Transactions of the Liverpool Geological 
Society]. Naturalist, April, pp. 1 19-120. 

Anon. (Signed A.S.). Cumberland, Yorks., etc. 

On Certain Channels [etc., by Prof. Bonney : review of]. Geological 
Magazine, May, pp. 229-230. 

Anon. Lines. N. 

Fossil Fungi [note on D. Ellis's paper]. Naturalist, August., p. 245. 

Anon. Cumberland, Yorks. 

Professor Bonney on ' Certain Channels ' [notice of]. Naturalist, May. 
pp. 145-148- 

Anon. Lines., Yorks, 

Control of River Channels [notice of T. S. Ellis's paper]. Naturalist, May, 
pp. 148-150. 

Anon. Lanes., Yorks. 

The Heterangiums of the British Coal-Measures. By D. H. Scott [notice 
of]. Geological Magazine, March, pp. 123-4. 

1917 Mar. 1. 



108 Bibliography : Geology and Palceontology. 

Anon. Northern Counties. 

Northern Mines and Quarries [particulars of output, etc., from J. R. R. 
Wilson's Report]. Naturalist, January, pp. 2-3. 

G. Abbott. Durham. 

Notes on Concretions [from the Magnesian Limestone at Fulwill]. Pro- 
ceedings Geological Association. Vol. XXVII., Pt. 3., pp. 192-197. 

G. Abbott. Durham. 

Tubular Rock Structures [refers to Magnesian Limestone of Sunderland]. 
Nature, February 17th, pp. 677-8. 

John Boland Atkinson. Northern Counties. 

Mining and Quarrying [in North of England]. British Association Official 
Handbook to Newcastle and District, pp. 38-44. 

Richard S. Bagnall. Northumberland. 

Report of the Field Meetings of the Natural History Society for 1911 [includ- 
ing Geological Excursion to Beadnell]. Transactions Natural History 
Society, Northumberland, Durham and Newcastle. N. S., Vol. IV., 
Pt. 2, pp. 344-365- 

[L. L. Belinfante : Edited by]. Northern Counties. 

Abstracts of the Proceedings of the Geological Society of London. Session 
1915-1916. Numbers 979-994, 80 pp. 

F. Beyschlag, J. H. L. Vogt and P. Krush. Northern Counties. 
The Deposits of he useful Minerals and Rocks : their Origin, Form and 
Content. Vol. II. Translated by S. J. Truscott. London, pp. xxi. + 
515-1262. 

A. Graham Birks. Lanes., Northumberland, Yorks. 

Megalichthys : a Study incorporating the Results of Work on previously 
undescribed Material. Transactions Natural History Society, North- 
umberland, Durham and Newcastle, N.S. Vol. IV., Pt. 2, pp. 307-329. 

Herbert Bolton. Lanes. S., Northumberland. 

Fossil Insects from the British Coal-measures [six wings, three of which 
are described as new to science]. Abs. in Geological Magazine, May, 
PP- 235. 

T. G. Bonney. Cumberland and Yorks. 

■"On Certain Channels." [Reviewed in Geological Magazine, May, pp. 
229-230 by A.S.] ; also by R. H. Rastall in Knowledge, May, p. 112. 

P. G. H. Boswell. Northumberland, Durham, Yorks. 

The Petrology of the North Sea Drift and Upper Glacial Brick-earths in 
East Anglia. Proceedings Geological Association. Vol. XXVII., 
Pt. 2, pp. 79-98. 

P. G. S. Boswell. Northern Counties. 

A Memoir of British Resources of Sands for Glass-making, with Notes 
on certain Crushed Rocks and Refractory Materials. London. 92 
PP- 

W. S. Boulton. Northern Counties. 

Address to the Geological Section [of the British Association : dealing 
with Coalfields, Petroleum, Underground Water, etc.]. ' British 
Association Leaflet, 16 pp. ; See also Nature, October 8th, pp. 100- 
103, Naturalist, October, pp. 309-310 and Geological Magazine, 
December, pp. 550-564. 

C. E. N. Broomhead. See R. G. Carruthers. 

Natnralist, 



Bibliography : Geology and Palceontology. 109* 

R. G. Carruthers, R. W. Pocock, D. A. Wray, H. Dewey and 
C. E. N. Broomhead. Northern Counties. 

Special Reports on the Mineral Resources of Great Britain. Vol. IV., 

Fluorspar . . . Mem. Geol. Survey, pp. iv. -f- 38. 

W. L. C[arter]. Derbyshire, Yorks. 

Geology at the British Association. Nature, October 19th, pp. 138-9. 

C. T. Clough. See A. Strahan. 

G. C. Crick. Derbyshire, Yorks. 

Note on the Carboniferous Goniatite Glyphioceras vesiculiferum De Koninck 
sp. Proceedings Malacol. Society, Vol. XII., Pt. 1, March, pp. 47-52. 

C. H. Cunnington. See A. Strahan. 

Henry Day. Derbyshire. 

A Brief Criticism of the Fauna of the Limestone Beds at Trech Cliff and 
Peakshill, Castleton, Derbyshire. Report, British Association for 
1915 (Manchester), pp. 428-9. 

R. M. Deeley. Cumberland, Northumberland, Durham, 

Yorks., Lines., Derbyshire, Notts., Isle of Man. 
The Fluvio-glacial Gravels of the Thames Valley. Geological Magazine, 
February, pp. 57-64, March, pp. 111-117. 

H. Dewey. See R. G. Carruthers. 

H. Dewey. See A. Strahan. 

C. H. Dinham. See A. Strahan. 

James \V. Dunn. Lake District. 

Skiddaw and the Rocks of Borrowdale. Proceedings Liverpool Geological 
Society. Vol. XII., Part 2, 1915 [received 1916], pp. 109-130. 

T. Eastwood. See A. Strahan. 

David Ellis. Lines. N., Northumberland. 

The Fossil Fungi [figures Phy corny cites Frodinghamii from the Frodingham 
Ironstone], Knowledge, April, pp. 73-79. See also Naturalist, August,, 
p. 245 ; additional notes in Knowledge, June, p. 30 ; and criticism 
by M. C. Stopes, loc. cit., p. 30. 

D. Ellis. Lines. N. 
On Fossil Fungi and Fossil Bacteria [Phycomycites Frodinghamii from the 

Frodingham Ironstone]. Report British Association for 1915 (Man- 
chester), pp. 729-730. 

R. Lethbridge Farmer. Notts., Derbyshire. 

Chellaston Alabaster. Journal Derbyshire Archcsological and Natural' 
History Society, Vol. XXXVIII., pp. 135-146. 

C. B. Fawcett. Durham, Yorks. 

The Middle Tees and its Tributaries : A Study in River Development. 

Report British Association for 1915 (Manchester), pp. 493-4. 

J. S. Flett. See A. Strahan. 

E. J. Garwood. Westmorland, Lanes. N. 
The Faunal Succession of the Lower Carboniferous Rocks of Westmorland 

and North Lancashire. Proceedings Geological Association, Vol. 
XXVII. , Pt. 1, pp. 1-43. See notice in Nature, September 28th, pp. 
76-77. 

(To be continued). 

1917 Mar. 1. 



I'lO 

3n HDemoriam. 



THOS. SCOTT JOHNSTONE. 

The death occurred at Carlisle on February 5th, at the age of 
fifty-three, of Thos. Scott Johnstone, Vice-President of the 
Carlisle Natural History Society, and a former President. His 
interests were many and varied. He was connected in one 
way or another with the several Scientific Societies existing 
in the border city. 

It is as a botanist, however, that he chiefly merits claim to 
notice here. Naturalists in all branches of study have always 
been few in Cumberland, botanists fewest of all, and in the 
Carlisle district Johnstone was practically alone in his studies 
in recent years. During its existence of twenty-three years, 
he was almost the only member of the Carlisle Natural History 
Society who specialised in phanerogamic botany. Having the 
field to himself, practically everything of botanical note in 
the area in question was the result of his investigations. Cen- 
tred in a fertile plain, as yet but little affected by the adverse 
influences of industry, he had ample scope for his researches. 
Rural lanes, moss, and woodland are within easy reach of 
Carlisle, while equally accessible the salt marshes and sand 
hills of the Solway Firth were the scene of many noteworthy 
rinds. 

As a result of many years of study, he amassed notes of the 
greatest value on the Carlisle Flora, and also formed a select 
and carefully prepared herbarium, which it is hoped will 
eventually be placed in the Carlisle Museum. Of a naturally 
retiring disposition, it is a matter for regret that he published 
little. He, however, contributed several important papers to 
the Carlisle Society on ' Plant Life around Carlisle,' which are 
published in the Society's Transactions, and also on ' Rare 
Cumberland Plants,' which will eventually be published. 

Latterly, he devoted much time to tabulating and arranging 
the botanical notes in the diary of Bishop Nicholson, who 
held the See of Carlisle over two hundred years ago. The 
diary, which is dated 1690 and is in manuscript, is preserved 
in the Archives of Rose Castle, the episcopal residence. These 
notes naturally contain many puzzles in nomenclature, but 
by much patient labour, Johnstone overcame them and com- 
pleted his transcription some little time before he died. 
This, it is hoped, will form the subject of a posthumous paper 
to the Carlisle Society. On the formation of the Cumberland 
Nature Reserve Association in 1913 he entered into its work with 
zeal and energy. 

On the acquirement of Kingmoor Common by the Associa- 
tion, he was appointed its botanical recorder, and his first list 
of the Flora was published in The Naturalist in 1915, pp. 

Naturalist. 



Reviews and Book Notices. in 

240-243. Living within easy walking distance of Kingmoor, 
he spent much time there and extended the list considerably. 
He was a strong advocate of leaving Kingmoor in its natural 
state. Anything in the way of proposed draining or levelling, 
which would tend to destroy the character of the place, found 
in him a vigorous opponent. His desire was to see things 
revert to primitive wildness unassisted by the human hand 
of improvement. 

His death leaves a conspicuous gap in the ranks of Cumber- 
land Naturalists, and the Carlisle Society has lost an irreplace- 
able member. He leaves a widow and two daughters. — F.H.D. 

: o : 

The Correct Arms of Kingston-upon-Hull, by T. Sheppard, M.Sc. F.G.S. 
Hull, A. Brown & Sons. 54 pp., 2S. 6d. net. Mr. Sheppard tell us that 
five years ago, he read a paper, which was duly published, on the Arms of 
Hull, in which he appealed for uniformity in the use of the city's arms, 
and he gave what he considered to be the correct arms, this being the 
earliest representation known. Over four years later a well-known archi- 
tect in Hull wrote a book on ' The Arms of Hull,' in which he said that 
Mr. Sheppard's representation was 'incorrect,' and that several which 




An early dispute in connection with Arms : from an old 
Anglo-Saxon manuscript. 

Mr. Sheppard said were incorrect, were correct. We don't know much 
about arms, but we do know something about Mr. Sheppard. His reply, 
in the present volume, is what we might have expected. He has reprinted 
his original paper, which is a distinct contribution to local history : and 
then says something about the volume written by his critic. That ' some- 
thing ' is very amusing — very caustic, and, well — we are glad to think 
that we know better than to roughly handle .Mr. Sluppard. One of the 
fifty illustrations is reproduced herewith, and is fairly typical of the tone 
of the volume, which is well bound and in keeping with the same author's 
' Lost Towns of Yorkshire ' and ' Yorkshire's Contribution to Science.' 

Part 5 of A Bibliography of British Ornithology, by W. H. Mullens 
and H. Kirke Swann (MacMillan cV- Co., pp. 497- 62 4. 6s - net ). contains 
biographies from ' J. B. Rowe ' to ' H. W. Wheelwright,' and includes 
the names of many contributors to The Naturalist. We cannot refer to 
all those enumerated in this section of the Bibliography, but the ornith- 
ological work of the following writers is mentioned : — John Ruskin, Sir E. 
Sabine, Howard Saunders, P. L. Sclater, Henry Scebohm, P. J. Sclbv, 
Robert Service, W. Shakespeare, R. Bowdler Sharpe, Thomas Sheppard, 
A. E. Shipley, Sir Robert Sibbald, T. Southwell, J. Sowerby, C. Stonham, 
H. K. Swann, W. B. Tegetmeier, A. Thorburn, N. F. Ticehurst, J. G Tuck, 
M. Tunstall, W. Turner, E. W. Wade, C. Waterton, W. M. Webb, H. W. 
Weir and W P. Westell. Many of these names will be familiar to our 
readers. Quite a large proportion were, or are, contributors to our journa I , 
though we'cannot claim Shakespeare nor Ruskin. 

1917 Mar. 1. 



ii2 Northern News, etc. 

Nature Study Lessons Seasonably Arranged, by J. B. Philip. Cambridge 
University Press, 147 pages. 2s. 6d. net. This book belongs to a clas& 
which should never be written — a nature study book to be placed in the 
hands of children. ' Nature Study ' should be a study of nature, not of 
somebody's talk about it. There is nothing in the book to commend it 
to anybody. In his preface, the author claims a sequence for his lessons ; 
it goes no deeper than talking about fruits in autumn, flowers in summer, 
and germination in spring. There is an amazing lack of grasp of the 
mental capacity of a child of eleven to fourteen betrayed in the choice of 
subjects and the range of questions. If it is profitable to stimulate a 
child's intellect by telling it that the stalk of an apple performs two services — 
first to fasten the apple to the tree and second to enable it to drop off — it 
is surely far beyond the same child's powers to investigate in detail the 
structure of a cocoa-nut, discover its ' homologues ' as compared with the 
apple, and in turn compare the latter with the orange. Will a twelve-year 
old really follow the reasoning which goes to show that the dots in the 
pulp of the apple are ' vestigial structures ? ' The book is said to represent 
a session's work; the first chapter alone describes all the physiological 
processes of plant life, and, from the material of four Snapdragon plants 
supplied to the Class, elicits information not only about every normal 
plant organ, but about spines, tendrils, suckers, stings, flower sheaths. 
As examples of some of the exercises set, the following are typical : — (1) 
Write the names of the red and yellow paints in your paint box. (2) 
Pound an apple stalk in a mortar, tease the material out in water, examine 
under a microscope to detect the sap-tubes. (3) How are shop window 
apples polished ? (4) Make a microscopic examination of the green sub- 
stance in the interior of a cabbage leaf. Are both types of question 
sensible ? The writer is very fluent. 



We notice the price of two of our monthly entomological magazines is 
now 9d. net per month. 

In Animal World for February is an illustrated note on ' Swans and 
Swanneries,' by F. M. Burton. 

The Journal of Conchology for January contains a part of the Presi- 
dential Address of Mr. R. Standen ' On the Calcareous Eggs of Terrestrial 
Mollusca.' 

Three interesting abnormalities of the beetle Prasocuris fund, from 
Barnard Castle, are recorded in The Entomologist's Monthly Magazine 
for February. 

The Quarterly Journal of the Geological Society for 191 5 contains 
four parts, one of which was issued in September, 191 5, two during 191 6, 
and one in January, 1917. 

In The Zoologist for December, the editor informs us that the necessary 
increased support from subscribers has not been forthcoming during 
1916 ; consequently the publication ceases. 

We regret to record the death of Mr. Harvy Sheppard, F.E.I.S., head- 
master of the Craven Street Higher Grade School, Hull, at the age of 66. 
He was the pioneer of Science teaching in Hull. 

In the Quarterly Journal of the Geological Society, No. 284, Messrs. 
W. H. Wilcockson and R. H. Rastall write on ' The Accessory Minerals 
of the Granitic Rocks of the English Lake District.' 

The Board of Agriculture and Fisheries has issued three special leaflets 
Nos. 67-9, dealing with ' Economy in using Potatoes,' ' Hints on Purchasing 
" Seed " Potatoes,' ' The Culture of Early Potatoes Under Glass.' 

The Annual Report of the Spalding Gentlemen's Society for 1916, 
contains particulars of many valuable additions to the Society's Museum 
and Library, and we are glad to notice particular attention is paid to the 
objects relating to the Spalding district. 

Naturalist 



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This Volume contains much valuable information in reference 
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first time; and chapters have been added on Geology, Antiquities, 
Natural History, and other subjects relative to the scientific 
of the district. 

London 

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numerous text diagrams and maps, 39 photographic plates, I coloured plate, and 

folding geological section. X5/- net. 

This work is the first of its kind in the English language, and deals not only 
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of interest to naturalists and sportsmen. 

London : A. BROWN & SONS, Ltd., 5 Farringdon Avenue, E.C. 
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A BOOK OF GREAT INTEREST TO YORKSHIRE PEOPLE 

showing the wealth ot Archaeological, Architectural, Civic and 
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A work which aims at stimulating mental comparison between, 
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Yorkshire floors and Dales 

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By ALFRED P. WILSON. 

248 pages, size 8| by 6J inches, and 12 jull-page plates on Art Paper, tastejully 
bound in cloth boards, lettered in gold, with gilt top, *7/€$ net. 

The district covered by the North Yorkshire Moors is one of the most interesting* 
parts of Yorkshire, and this book ably portrays the charms of a visit to the 
neighbourhood. There is no other place in England so rich in antiquities, and 
most of these are herein described. 

Part I. serves as a guide to the visitor, and brings to his notice the objects of 
interest throughout the district. 

Part II* forms a series of Essays, and, besides other subjects, deals with the 
following : — 

The Dalesfolk. Old Customs. Local History. 

Moorland Roads. Wild Nature. Dialect, etc., etc. 

Part III. consists of a number of stories which further describe the character- 
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Printed at Browns' Savilb Press, 40, George Street, Hull, and published by 
A. Brown & Sons, Limited, at 5 Farringdon Avenue, in the City of London. 

Mar. 1st, 1917. 



APRIL 1917. 



No. 723 

(No. 499 of current atriet) 




A MONTHLY ILLUSTRATED JOURNAL OF 

NATURAL HISTORY FOR THE NORTH OF ENGLAND 

EDITED BY 

T. SHEPPARD, M.Sc, F.Q.S., F.R.CLS., F.$. 

The Museums, Hull ; 

AND 

T. W. WOODHEAD, Ph.D., M.Sc, F.L 

Technical College, Huddersfield, 
with the assistance as referees in special departments of 
J. OILBBRT BAKER, P.R.S. P.L.S., GEO. T. PORRITT, F.L.S.. P.K.S. 

Prof. P. P. KENDALL, M.Sc. F.O.S.. JOHN W. TAYLOR. M.Sc, 

RILEY FORTUNE, F.Z.S. 




Contents : — 

PAGK 

Notes and Comments (illustrated) :— A Yorkshire Flood; Other Yorkshire Floods; The 
Bilberry Reservoir; Bird ' Stuffers' v. Taxidermists ; The Size of Cases; Classification ; 
Hair Cut and Birds Stuffed ; Sieglingia decumbens ; Science Progress ; The Piltdown Jaw ; 

Another Eoantltropus dawsoni; Details of the New Discovery ; Parka decipiens .' 113-118 

The Mosses and Liverworts of an Industrial City (illustrated)— W. H. Burrell, F.L.S. 119-124 

Cleveland Hymenoptera— J. W. Heslop Harrison, M.Sc 125-126 

Observations on Ranunculus Ficaria— Mary A. Johnstone, B.Sc. F./..S 127-129 

Yorkshire Mycologists at Buckden — A. E. Peck 130-132 

Yorkshire Naturalists' Union : Vertebrate Section— W . Greaves ... 132-134 

The Shells of the Holderness Basement Clays— Alfred Bell 135-138 

In Memoriam (illustrated) :— George Massee, F.L.S , V.M.H. —T.S 139-142 

R. H. Tiddeman, M.A., F.G.S.— T.S 142-143 

Field Notes : — Bird Notes from the Huddersfield District 124 

Reviews and Book Notices ' 129 

Northern News 134 

News from the Magazines 126,144 

Illustrations 113.119,130,143 



LONDON : 

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And at Hull and York. 

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Prepaid Subscription 6/6 per annum, post free. 



BOOKS WANTED. 

Proc. Bristol Naturalists' Society. All before p. 75 of Vol. I., 1866. 

Trans. Woolhope Club. 1866-80 ; 1898-9. 

Quarterly Journal of Science. Vols. XV., XVI., XIX., XX., XXII. 

Trans. Geol. Soc, London, 4to. 2nd series, Vols. IV. -VII. (1836-56). 

Geological Magazine, 1890-1-2-4. 

Mackie's Geol. and Nat. Hist. Repository. Vols. II., III. 

Proc. Liverpool Geol. Association. Parts 1, 3, 7, 16. 

Journ. Northants. Field Club. Vols. IX. -X. 

Reliquary (Jewett's 8ov. Series). Vols. X., XII., XV., XVI, XVIII., XXII. 

XXIV and XXVI. 
Irish Naturalist. Vols. 1912-16. 
Chester Arch, and Hist. Soc. Vols. V.-IX. 
Yorks. Arch. Journal. Parts 63, 69. 
Scottish Naturalist. 1881-95. 
Annals of Scottish Nat. Hist. 1905-1916. 
Watford's Antiquarian Mag. and Bibliographer tor 1885. 
Quart. Journ. Geol. Soc. Vols. I.-XIV. 
Proc. Geol. Assoc. Vol. I. Part 1. 
Trans. Yorks. Nat. Union. Part 1. 
Naturalists' Journal. Vol. I. 

W. Smith's New Geological Atlas of England aud Wales. 1 819-21. 
Frizinghall Naturalist. (Lithographed). Vol. I., and part 1 of Vol. II. 
Illustrated Scientific News. 1902-4. (Set). 
Journal Keighley Naturalists' Society. 4to. Part 1. 
Cleveland Lit. & Phil. Soc. Trans. Science Section or others. 
Proc. Yorks. Nat. Club (York). Set. 1867-70. 
Keeping's Handbook to Nat. Hist. Collections. (York Museum). 
Huddersfield Arch, and Topog. Society. 4 Reports. (1865-1869). 
First Report, Goole Scientific Society. 
The Naturalists' Record. Set. 

The Natural History Teacher (Huddersfield). Vols. 1. -II. 
The Economic Naturalist (Huddersfield). Vol. I. 
The Naturalists' Guide (Huddersfield). Parts 1-38. 
The Naturalists' Almanac (Huddersfield). 1867. 
" Ripon Spurs," by Keslington. 

Reports on State of Agriculture of Counties (1790-1810). 
Earlv Geological Maps. 
Selborne Letters. Vol. I. 1881. 

Apply — Editor, The Museum, Hull. 

BIBLIOGRAPHY OF 
YORKSHIRE GEOLOGY 

1534-1914. 

By T. SHEPPARD, m.sq., f.g.s,, f.r.g.s., f.s.a. (scot.) 

8vo, xxxvi. -f- 62g pp. 15/- net. 

This forms Volume XVIII. of the Proceedings of the Yorkshire- 
Geological Society. It contains full references to more than 6,300 
books, monographs and papers relating to the geology and physical 
geography of Yorkshire, and to more than 400 geological maps and 
sections, published between 1534 and 1914. In its preparation over 
700 sets of Scientific Journals, Reports, Transactions and Magazines 
have been examined. There is an elaborate index containing over 
26,500 references to subjects, authors and localities. 

London : A. Browx & Sons, Ltd., 5 Farringdon Avenue, E.C. 
And of all Booksellers. 




"3 



NOTES AND COMMENTS. 



A YORKSHIRE FLOOD. 

We have recently obtained an interesting coloured print, 
measuring 14I ins. by o,£ ins., entitled ' Bursting of the Bilberry- 
Dam Reservoir at Holmfirth, near Huddersfield, on the night 
of Wednesday, February 4th, 1852, thereby causing an awful 
loss of human life, and destruction of property to an immense 
amount.' It shows the waters rushing from the reservoir on 
the hill top, many of the houses being almost entirely submerged, 
while floating about in the flood are quantities of chairs and 




Bursting of the Bilberry-Dam Reservoir at Holmnrth, 1852. 



tables, and in the foreground, three human bodies. The plate 
is reproduced herewith on a smaller scale. 

OTHER YORKSHIRE FLOODS. 

The following notes on this and other floods are taken from 
C. P. Hobkirk's ' Huddersfield : its History and Natural 
History,' Second edition, 1868 : — ' As might be expected from 
the situation of Huddersfield — being hemmed in on all sides 
by high hills- — there have been several disastrous floods in 
the valleys. In 1799, several mills and houses were swept 
away between Holmnrth and Huddersfield by a flood. In 
1815, a large water spout was seen at Marsden, after which 
followed a most terrible and destructive tempest. The bursting 
of the Standedge reservoir was another disastrous calamity, 
as also the bursting of the Black Sike Mill reservoir, on the 
21st September, 1820, which occasioned an immense loss of 

1917 April 1. 



H4 Notes and Comments. 

property, but happily no lives were lost. The most awful 
event of this character was the bursting of the Bilberry reser- 
voir, three miles above Holmfirth, on the morning of the 5th 
February, 1852. During the week previous to this date, 
there had been almost incessant rain, and every streamlet was 
swollen into a torrent. 

THE BILBERRY RESERVOIR. 

This reservoir, which was fed by these streams, was unusu- 
ally full ; indeed, it is calculated that when the embankment 
gave way, there was not less than " 86,248,000 gallons of 
water in it, or the enormous and fearful amount of 300,000 
tons in weight." The rain had ceased, and the moon shone 
out bright and clear over one of the most lovely valleys in 
England ; the tired and weary labourers were all enjoying 
their sweet repose, oblivious alike of toil and danger, save a 
few who had serious apprehensions for the safety of the em- 
bankments, and who stood on the hills above contemplating 
the quiet scene, when about one o'clock the vast mass of water 
burst its bounds, and rushed down the valley with the voice 
of ten thousand thunders, carrying death and destruction in 
its headlong course. Factories, bridges, trees, and even 
villages were but as straws before its surging front ; boilers, 
vats, and utensils of all descriptions floated down on the rushing 
wave, and were deposited many miles from their original 
situations. The scene presented, when daylight appeared, 
was harrowing in the extreme — more particularly at Diglee 
Mill, which had borne the first brunt of the rushing waters. 
The tall chimney twice bent like a willow to the force of the 
current, but it finally resisted the attack, and stood a solitary 
monument, amid the wide-spread desolation. No less than 
eighty-one persons perished on this awful night ; property to 
the amount of nearly £200,000 was destroyed, and seven 
thousand artisans were thrown out of employment.' 

BIRD ' STUFFERS ' 

Referring to the paper ' On arranging Museum Cases for 
Birds ' in our February issue, a ' taxidermist of 33 years' 
standing,' who is a well-known Yorkshire naturalist, writes 
at some length, more in sorrow than in anger. But our 
remarks on the weird ways of ' country stuhers ' were not 
intended to apply to the scientific taxidermist ; and after 
all, they were more or less introductory to the main grievance 
we had, viz., the lack of system adopted by both ' stuffers ' 
and ' taxidermists ' alike, in regard to the dimensions of the 
cases. To some extent our correspondent confirms the opinion 
we expressed as to the desirability of a definite standard : 
he gives the reasons why there are not, some of which we know. 
Anyway, if people ordering and paying for the cases insist 
on certain sizes, possibly they would get them. 

Naturalist, 



Notes and Comments. 115 

V. TAXIDERMISTS. 

Our correspondent says, ' It is well known, and has been 
a sore point for many years, the lack of protection in the trade ; 
anyone with only the crudest ideas of anatomy and general 
effect, could ' set up ' for himself in a back room, generally 
without capital, and turn out goods at a small charge, because 
his materials were rubbish and his knowledge the same. This 
takes with a large section of the public who wish work done 
for the lowest amount, irrespective of getting value for money ; 
and doubly fostered by the popular belief that stuflers are 
perfect ' Shylocks ' in their charges, and the undoubted fact 
that, at sales, ' stuffed ' birds, no matter how mounted, are in 
little demand, and only fetch a fraction of their original cost. 
Thus, in time, these examples gravitate to local museums as 
an emporium for goods unsaleable* ; hence the oddity of finish 
and size of case so apparent when a crowd of them is so 
gathered together. Many of our rarest birds and museum 
specimens were mounted at a time when Taxidermy was in 
its infancy, and the demand by the then owner (who never 
studied the ethics of surroundings) for something showy, all 
helped to produce what, in the aggregate, we now with more 
cultured eyes look upon with pity.' 

THE SIZE OF CASES. 

' The different sizes of cases is a foregone conclusion, as 
their occupants vary in size — and so did the original owners' 
pockets when ordering ; if all in ' the trade ' had only been 
given carte blanche, a different tale would t now be told. 
Glazing varies according to individual styles, each tradesman 
adopting a different style, etc. When I was in business, all 
my ordinary cases were made of the best quality yellow-pine 
wood to templet, and were sawn out and dressed in batches, 
each top, bottom, side and back were made in exact pairs ; 
glazing, English sheet-glass, ' Belgian ' and ' old crown ' 
distorts. A subdued effect of sky and distance was painted 
on the back in distemper, and each subject ' trimmed ' with 
the fnoss, grasses or pebbles common to the habitat of each 
individual. Now, when this had to be done in many instances 
in competition with some amateur, who was cutting you in 
his spare time, it is easy to see why so many of these goods 
show cases too small, and inferior workmanship.' 

CLASSIFICATION. 

' Again, classification as to species does not come in to the 
head of the ordinary householder, who requires, perhaps, two 
quite diametrical subjects mounting, and orders the size of 

* It does not follow that any or all are exhibited. Most museums have 
a big cellar. — Ed. 
t i.e. might. — Ed. 

1917 April 1. 



n6 Notes and Comments. 

the case probably to go, when finished, on some pet bracket, 
or convenient niche in his house, of which the ' tradesman ' 
who mounts it knows nothing beforehand ; if a rare bird, it 
probably ends its days in a museum, another oddity in case,. 
size and mount. No ! it is not always the fault of the 
taxidermist first concerned that museum acquirements are 
often such incongruities ; I have had customers order impossible 
landscapes, foreign butterflies, and exotic marine shells in 
cases of British subjects, because ! one expense would do for 
the lot ; a country ' stuffer ' cannot always shape his cloth, 
with the money staring him in the face. Yes — latitude now 
must be given, and many museum acquirements must be looked 
at through spectacles of say fifty years ago ; and so must be 
rearranged to modern ideas, thankful that the older hands 
did their best.' 

HAIR CUT AND BIRDS STUFFED. 

' One example of the trials of a ' decent ' man in the trade, 
and I have done. I was once told by a person in a high position 
in life, that my work was too dear, as he could get in his 
local town the same done for 4/6 that I was charging 7/6 for. 
I told him that if the lower price and work was satisfactory, 
to go there in future. A year or two later, I was in the same 
town, and looked up this cheap ' stuffer.' I found he was a 
barber and hairdresser, who did such work in his spare time ; 
needle, s to say the finished job was a monstrosity.' 

SIEGLINGIA DECUMBENS. 

The'Rev. E. A. Woodruff e-Peacock has a note on ' Sieglingia 
decumbens in Lincolnshire,' in The Journal of Botany for 
December, pp. 359-360. The species was first recorded for 
Lincolnshire in 1851, by H. C. Watson. It is found in ten out 
of the eighteen divisions ; but the heath-peat upon which it 
occurs, however thin, must be limeless, and for certain months 
of the year fairly moist. It is distinctly a damp-loving species, 
but not a ' lime-water lover.' The plant has not been recorded 
for Lincolnshire for carr-peat, though the writer cannot, say 
why. 

SCIENCE PROGRESS. 

We have received the January number of this interesting 
quarterly journal, which is edited by Sir Ronald Ross, and 
published by John Murray (pp. 361-544, 5s. net). It contains 
original articles, reviews, summaries of recent advances in various 
branches of science, etc. There is also an admirable ' Essay- 
review ' by the editor, who refers to recent poems by Masefield 
and Gollancz. Sir Ronald Ross gives an account of a visit 
to the Valley of the Muses on Mount Helikon. ' There, in the 
old days, I thought, men were wise enough to worship, not 
this Muse or another, but all the Muses ; for their temple was 



Notes and Comments. i\y 

•one, and, really, the worship of them is one .... After all, 
polytheism is the true faith. Let us therefore not sink to the 
condition of the present monotheistic occupants of that divine 
valley : huge fat black people, grunting after the fruits of the 
earth ; or lean, long-eared eloquent people, braying their 
wisdom at the eternal hills ; or great tortoises sunning them- 
selves into life among the broken marbles of the past. Let the 
lovers of art spare roses for the altar of science, and the lovers 
of science lilies for the shrines of the arts ; and we shall ah find 
sufficient asphodel, at least, everywhere about us, for both.' 

• THE PILTDOWN JAW. 

Mr. W. P. Pycraft writes on ' The Jaw of the Piltdown 
Man ; a Reply to Mr. Gerritt S. Miller.' Mr. Miller, of the 
Smithsonian Institute, Washington, who has not seen the 
actual remains from Piltdown, but has been supplied with 
plaster casts, is apparently convinced that the Piltdown skull 
is human, while the jaw is that of a chimpanzee. Mr. Pycraft, 
whose excellent work in reference to the Archgeopteryx will 
be remembered, deals with Mr. Miller's arguments in detail. 
By the time Mr. Pycraft has finished it is apparent that Mr. 
Miller's opinion is not one that will have much weight in the 
scientific world. ' A very brief study of his arguments will 
show that they are based on assumptions such as would never 
have been made had he not committed the initial riistake 
of overlooking the fact that these remains are of extreme 
antiquity, and hence are to be measured by the standards of 
the palaeontologist rather than of the anthropologist.' 

ANOTHER EOANTHROPUS DAWSONI. 

Probably no greater proof of the accuracy of Dr. A. Smith 
Woodward's conclusion with regard to the nature of the 
Piltdown remains could be desired, than the recent further 
discovery of similar remains, a mile from the first pit ex- 
amined, which are unquestionably of another individual of 
the same species. These were described at a recent meeting 
of the Geological Society by Dr. Woodward. He reports 
that : Excavations last summer round the margin of the 
gravel-pit at Piltdown (Sussex) supported the conclusion 
that the deposit is a varied shingle-bank, and that the three 
layers containing Palaeolithic remains and derived Pliocene 
fossils are approximately of the same age. Many elongated 
flints and pieces of Wealden sandstone were observed in the 
bottom sandy clay with their long axis more or less nearly 
vertical. No teeth or bones were found, but one nodular flint 
obtained from the same layer as Eoanthropus, seems to have 
been used by man as a hammer-stone. This is not purposely 
shaped, but merely battered along faces that happened to be 
useful when the stone was conveniently held in the hand. 

1917 April 1. 



Ii8 Notes and Comments. 

DETAILS OF THE NEW DISCOVERY. 

In the winter of 1915 the late Mr. Charles Dawson discovered' 
in a ploughed field, about a mile distant from the original 
spot, the inner supraorbital part of a frontal bone, the middle 
of an occipital bone, and a left lower first molar tooth, all 
evidently human. These are rolled fragments, and the first 
and third may be referred with certainty to Eoanthropus 
dawsoni ; but it is doubtful whether they represent more than 
one individual. In mineralized condition they agree with the 
remains of the type-specimen. The piece of frontal bone 
exhibits the characteristic texture and thickness, with only 
a very slight supraciliary ridge, and a small development of 
air-sinuses. The occipital bone is somewhat less thickened 
than that of the original specimen of Eoanthropus, and bears 
the impression of a less unsymmetrical brain. The external 
occipital protuberance is a little above the upper limit of the 
cerebellum, as in Neanderthal man ; thus differing from the 
condition both in Eoanthropus and in modern man. The 
lower molar is exactly similar to the first lower molar of Eoan- 
thropus already described, but it is more obliquely worn by 
mastication. Detailed comparison shows that this tooth is 
human, differing essentially from that of a chimpanzee in its 
more hypsodont crown, thicker enamel, and less prominence 
of the neck over the root. The occurrence of the same type 
of frontal bone with the same type of lower molar in two dis- 
tinct localities, adds to the probability of their belonging to 
one and the same species. With these remains were found 
brown flints in great abundance, and one rolled portion of a 
lower molar tooth of Rhinoceros in the same highly-mineralized 
condition as the derived Pliocene teeth at Piltdown. 

PARKA DECIPIENS. 

This curious Old Red Sandstone fossil, made known to so 
many by Hugh Miller's ' Old Red Sandstone,' is the subject 
of an important paper by the late Lieut. A. W. R. Don, and 
Dr. G. Hickling, in the ' Quarterly Journal of the Geological 
Society,' part 4 of Vol. LXXI. for 1915, published January 
13th, 1917. The fossil was early recognised as ' puddock 
spawn ' by the Forfarshire quarrymen, a view supported by 
Mantell. Powrie suggested that Parka was the egg packet of 
Pterygotus — a view accepted by Lyell, Page, Murchison, 
Woodward, Huxley and a host of others, and this view for a 
long time was generally held. In 1890, Messrs. Reid and Gra- 
ham were convinced of the vegetable nature of Parka, and the 
present authors do much to prove this. They consider that 
Parka is a complete plant, flat and thalloid, of variable form 
and size, and to have increased by marginal growth. It was 
a Thallophyte with Algal affinities. 

Naturalist,. 



ii 9 



THE MOSSES AND LIVERWORTS OF AN 
INDUSTRIAL CITY.* 



W. H. BURRELL, F.L.S. 



A study of the distribution of Bryophytes within the Leeds 
City boundaries was prompted by a desire to fill a blank in 
the record books of the society, and to gain first-hand knowledge 
of the influence of smoke on this group of cryptogams. The 
area examined covers about thirty-four square miles, within 



... sol 



JOOr 
(V.OORTOWN 



MWKiWO'STH 



BMMLEY 



k M«$TALL 



ARMLEY 

MOOCH tNO 



EAST END 
TMJK 






FARRtEyvicwDBEc^ 



*7 HOCBECK huMSLET 
N10OR 
BEESTON 



Plan of Leeds City prior to the extension of 1912. 

the old city boundaries, excluding the recent extension at 
Shadwell, Roundhay, Seacroft and Crossgates. Altitude 
ranges from 500 ft. in the north and west to 80 ft. in the south- 
east where the river leaves the city. The most interesting 
ground for the moss student is the Millstone grit tract of the 
north and west, including Meanwood Beck, Clayton Wood 
and Hawkesworth Wood, retaining some of its natural vegeta- 
tion of ling, bilberry, oak and birch, and the south-western 



* Resume of Presidential Address to the Leeds Naturalists' Club and 
Scientific Association, December nth. 1916. 



1917 April 1. 



120 Mosses and Liverworts of an Industrial City. 

suburbs, including Troydale and Cockersdale, where there are 
exposures of coal measure, sandstones and shales, which 
weather to a clay soil carrying pasture and oak. 

It has been shown* that the reduction of the intensity of 
sunlight, due to matter suspended in the atmosphere, amounted 
in the worst cases to 40 per cent, in the industrial districts of 
Leeds, growth being further prejudiced by mechanical obstruc- 
tion of assimilation and respiration ; by the toxic effect 
of sulphur compounds penetrating leaf tissues, and by the 
deleterious action on soil bacteria of free acids washed down 
by rain. Atmospheric impurities detected at different recording 
stations were influenced by the less complete combustion of 
domestic fires as compared with factory furnaces, and by 
prevalent winds, the cleanest districts being in the north-east, 
north and west. It is in these districts that the moss flora 
best maintains itself ; as the industrial centre is approached, 
mosses decrease, until three only survive to rank with the 
sparrow as city dwellers. There is evidence that these three 
plants tolerate the worst atmospheric conditions, provided a 
favourable minimum of moisture is assured. Their absence 
from many miles of streets may be attributed to the combined 
effect of human disturbance, drought and chemical poisoning ; 
in the midst of barren surroundings, they invade walls moistened 
by leaking pipes and steam exhausts, and they abound in 
damp, shady enclosures protected from excessive treading 
such as may be found at Holbeck Workhouse, East End Park, 
etc. The precincts of the Parish Church, the riverside near 
The Calls," Hunslet Moor, and the immediate neighbourhood 
of the Leeds steel works probably represent the extreme of 
adverse atmospheric conditions for vegetation, but even there 
these mosses maintain an existence. 

Some notes on their general distribution taken from 
standard authors j - show that in addition to smoke resistence, 
they have an adaptability to extremes of temperature that gives 
them a claim to ubiquity. 

Ceratodon purpureus. — The most cosmopolitan of all mosses ; 
throughout almost the whole world from Spitzbergen and 
Greenland to the Antarctic regions. 

Funaria hygrometrica. — Throughout almost the whole world 
on walls and rocks and especially on burned soil. 

Bryum argenteum. — Almost everywhere throughout the 
world — Europe, America, India, Australia, Tasmania, to the 
extreme limit of terrestrial vegetation in 64 S. 

* The Nature, Distribution and Effects upon Vegetation of Atmospheric 
Impurities in and near an Industrial Town, by Charles Crowther, M.A., 
Ph.D. and Arthur G. Ruston, B.A., B.Sc. Journ. Agr. Set., IV., p. 24. 

f Index Bryologicus, E. G. Paris ; ' Handbook of the New Zealand 
Flora,' J. D. Hooker; Synopsis Muscorum, C. Mueller. 

Naturalist, 



Mosses and Liverworts of an Industrial City. 121 

The absence of the two former from the region of his travels 
was considered worthy of note by that well-known Yorkshire 
bryologist, Richard Spruce. Writing to Sir Wm. Hooker, he 
said* : ' Since I set foot in South America, now more than four 
years ago, I have not once seen Funaria hygrometrica, the 
moss, which as someone has said, more poetically than truly, 
" Springs up wherever the wild Indian has lighted his fire." 
I have seen hundreds of places in Amazonian forests where 
Indians, wild and tame, have lighted fires, and the plants 
which spring up in such places are not mosses .... Ccralodon 
purpureus is an almost constant companion of Funaria in 
Europe and has, like it, the reputation of being cosmopolite, 
but I have never seen it here.' Funaria fruits in Hunslet, 
and is normal in habit. The other two react in special ways 
to very severe conditions. The typical silvery green julaceous 
branches springing from below the inflorescence of the Bryum 
are replaced by very short bud-like branches which arise all 
along the stem, having the appearance of green specks scattered 
over the dense blackish cushions ; they are easily detached 
and aid vegetative distribution. Ceratodon may occasionally 
be seen in an almost unrecognisable state in which groups of 
cells of otherwise dead leaf and stem tissues make a filamentous 
growth ; the dark green protoplasm abandons the old tissues 
and may produce a considerable amount of protonema from 
which moss plants have been seen developing. 

When discussing some of the problems of their city dis- 
tribution with Mr. C. A. Cheetham, he suggested that the Bryum 
is, in England, constantly associated with man, pointing out 
that whereas its two companions compete with the natural 
vegetation of heathlands, one never expects to see Bryum 
argenteum except on paths, roadsides, roofs, walls or disturbed 
soil. The habitats described by authors are not inconsistent 
with that suggestion, and it is a point worth determining to 
what extent in England it is dependent upon man. 

The list of one hundred and seven species, comprising 
about ten per cent, of the British Bryophytes, represents the 
flora as it exists to-day, all but two having been seen recently. 
It has a negative as well as a positive interest ; one misses 
many of the large very common Feather Mosses ( Hypnum) ; 
the Grimmias, Bristle Mosses (Orthotrichum), Metzgeria and 
Frullania. Species worthy of special notice, included, are 
Naked Apple-Moss (Discelium nudum), the Earth Mosses 
(Ephemerum serratum and Acaulon muticum), Barbula lurida 
and White-leaved Fork-Moss (Leucobryum glaucum). The 
last was believed to have disappeared from Adel Black Moor, 

* Notes of a Botanist on the Amazon and Andes, Vol. I., p. 382. 
1917 April 1. 



122 Mosses and Liverworts of an Industrial City. 

just outside the city boundary, about 1870*, but is still lingering 

there as well as in the station now recorded. 

Nomenclature is that of the Census Catalogues of British 

Mosses and Hepatics. 

Mosses. 

Sphagnum fimbriahtm. Mean wood ; Clayton Wood. 

S. subnitens 

S. intermedium ,, M 

S. rujescens ,, ,, 

5. squarrosum. Clayton Wood. 

Tetr aphis pellucida. Common on rock and dead wood. 

Catharinea undulata. Common in woodland. 

Polytrichum aloides. Meanwood. 

P. gracile. Moor Town, 1877, vide Lee's Flora. 

P. commune. Clayton Wood ; Farnley. 

Pleuridium axillare. Farnley ; Bramley. 

P. subulatum. Moor Town. 

Ceratodon purpureus. Common throughout the city. 

Dichodontium pellucidum. On wet rocks, Meanwood Beck. 

Dicranella heteromalla. Common in the outskirts. 

D. cerviculata. Near Headingley vide Carrington's flora ; 
Clayton Wood ; Woodhouse ridge. 

D. varia. Woodhouse ridge ; Moor Town ; Farnley. 

Dicranoweisia cirrata. On log. Meanwood. 

Campy lopus pyrijormis. Woodhouse Lane Cemetery. Com- 
mon on heathland. 

C. flexuosus. Meanwood. Hawksworth Wood. 

Dicranum scoparium. Meanwood. 

Leucobryum glaucum. Hawksworth Wood. 

Fissidens exilis. On a clay bank, Bramley. 

F. viriduhis. On rocks, Meanwood Beck. 

F. bryoides. Common at Meanwood and Farnley. 

F. taxifolius. Common on clay soil. 

F. pusillus. On sandstone, Troydale. 

Acaulon muticum. Meanwood. In Corn stubble, J. Abbot, 
1871. Hough End. On fallow land, 1916. 

Phascum cuspidatum. Hough End. Fallow land. 

Pottia truncatula. Meanwood (W. West, Lee's Flora) ; Farnley. 

P. intermedia. Roadside walls. Farnley, C.A.C. 

Tortula muralis. Common in the outskirts of the city. 

T. subulata. Farnley. 

Barbula lurida. Farnley, C. A. Cheetham ; confirmed by W. 
E. Nicholson. 

B. tophacea. Farnley ; Kirkstall. 

B. fallax. Common in the outskirts. 

B. rubella. Farnley. 

* Lee's ' Flora of West Yorkshire,' p. 542. 

Naturalist, 



Mosses and Liverworts of an Industrial City. 123 

Barbula cylindrica. Farnley. 

B. vinealis. Farnley. 

B. convoluta. Very common by roadsides. 

B. ungniculata. Common on walls and banks. 

Le-ptodontium flexifolium. On gritstone. Meanwood. 

Weisia viridula. Farnley. 

W. rupestris. On grit wall. Weetwood Lane. 

Ephemerum serratum. Hough End. On fallow land. 

Funaria hygrometrica. Common throughout the city. 

Discelium nudum. Cockersdale, C.A.C., December, 1916. 

Aulacomnium androgynum. Meanwood. On gritstone ; Farn- 
ley. 

Leptobryum pyriforme. Well distributed in small quantity on 
damp walls. 

Webera nutans. Very common on heathland and in quarries. 

W. proligera. Cockersdale ; Moor Town. 

W. annotina. Cockersdale. 

W. carnea. Farnley. 

W. albicans. Farnley. 

Bryum ccespiticinm. Common on walls in the outskirts. 

B. capillare. Common on walls in the outskirts. 

B. atropurpureum. Roadsides. Farnley. 

B. argenteum. Common throughout the city. 

Mnium punctatum. Wet places in the North and West. 

M. cuspidatum. Farnley. 

M. hornum. Common in woodland. 

Fontinalis antipyretica. Meanwood Beck. On submerged 
rocks. 

Brachythecium rutabulum. Common in the outskirts. 

B. populeum. Meanwood and Farnley. 

B. velutinum. Farnley ; Armley. 

B. plumosum. Meanwood. 

Eurhynchium Sivartzii. Farnley. 

E. prcelongnm. Common in the outskirts. 

E. pumilwm. Farnley. 

E. rusciforme. Common in wet places. 

E. murale. Headingley ; Farnley. 

E. confertum. Common in the outskirts. 

Plagiothecium elegans. Common in woodland. 

P. denticulatum. Cockersdale ; Troydale. 

Amblystegium serpens. Farnley ; Meanwood. 

A. Juratzkanum. Cockersdale. 

A. filicinum. Common in wet places. 

Hypnum riparium. Meanwood Beck, on submerged rocks. 

H. aduncum. Farnley. 

H . cupressiforme. Sparingly distributed on walls, etc., in the 
outskirts. Good variety ericetorum occurs in Cockers- 
dale. 

1917 April 1. 



124 Field Note. 

Hypnum palustre. Common on wet rocks. 
H. cuspidatum. Meanwood ; Troydale. 
H. cor di folium. Farnley. 
Hylocomium squarrosum. Cockersdale. 

Hepatics. 
Riccia glauca. Fallow land, Hough End. 
Conocephalum conicum. Very common on wet rocks. 
Lunularia cruciata. Meanwood. 

Marchantia polymorpha. Common in damp shady places. 
Aneura pinguis. Canal bank, Rodley ; Farnley. 
A. multifida. Troydale; Farnley. 
Pellia epiphylla. Very common in wet places. 
Fossombronia pusilla. Moor Town ; Bramley ; Farnley ; Cock- 
ersdale. 
Alicularia scalaris. Troydale. 
Gymnocolea inflata. Meanwood. 
Lophozia attenuata. On gritstone. Meanwood. 
L. ventricosa. Meanwood. 
Lophocolea bidentata. Common in woodland. 
L. heterophylla. Common in woodland. 
Chiloscyphus polyanthus. Troydale ; Cockersdale ; Farnley. 
Cephalozia bicuspidata . Common in the outskirts. 
C. hammer si an a. Cockersdale. 

Cephaloziella byssacea. On gritstone. Hawksworth Wood. 
Calypogeia Trichomanis. Very common in the outskirts. 
C. fissa. Ridge of Woodhouse Moor (Naturalist, 1911, p. 61). 
Lepidozia reptans. Common on gritstone in the north and west. 
Diplophyllum albicans. Meanwood. 
Scapania undulata. Meanwood. 



Bird Notes from the Huddersfield District. — The 

recent severe weather brought some unusual bird visitors to 
the Huddersfield district. Some passed on, their identity 
only guessed at, but others have fallen to local gunners, and 
can be authenticated, having been preserved and stuffed by 
Mr. Alfred Kaye of Lindley. Among those I have seen are a 
common Scoter duck and a black-throated diver from Thorpes 
Reservoir, Slaithwaite. The former is an occasional winter 
straggler into the district, and the latter is recorded for Hudders- 
field in the ' Birds of Yorkshire ' on the authority of Eddison, 
but this is regarded as a doubtful record in Mosley's ' Birds of 
Huddersfield.' In February, some young common gulls 
(Laris canis) were shot near Elland, and towards the end of 
last year, a little grebe (Podiceps jluviatilis), an almost extinct 
native of the district, while resting on the ground some distance 
from water, was seized by a dog at Mapplin Lees, Marsh. — Wm. 
Falconer, Slaithwaite, February 27th, 1917. 

Naturalist 



125 

CLEVELAND HYMENOPTERA. 



J. W. HESLOP HARRISON, M.Sc. 

In this series of notes it is proposed to put on record various 
captures made during the past few years in the more northern 
portions of the Cleveland District. Most of the species 
recorded below have been taken casually whilst working other 
groups, and have been worked out subsequently. As the 
record, in some groups, of such casual captures have reached 
appalling dimensions, I have finally been forced to prepare 
the present papers, which are not to be considered to exhaust 
even the material already worked out. 

* Vespa vulgaris Linn. Common everywhere in the neighbour- 

hood. 
V. gcrmanica Fab. Although, in many places, even in York- 
shire, as in the Malton and Castle Howard district, this 
occurs just as plentifully as V. vulgaris, I have only 
taken it once here, and that at Newby. 

* V. rufa Linn. Also fairly general, but not nearly as plentiful 

as V. vulgaris. 
V. austriaca Panz. This is probably the most important record 
I have to make. I take the hibernated queens every 
year, towards the end of June, in Lonsdale, in some 
quantity. This is long after the queens of all the other 
species are past their prime. These queens are taken as 
they flit in and out of the bases of the bilberries and the 
like. It is an extremely important point that V. austriaca 
is commoner in Lonsdale than V. rufa, on which it is 
supposed to be solely inquiline. Moreover, I have actually 
taken a queen investigating a small nest of V. sylvestris 
suspended from a low pine branch amongst heather. 

* V. sylvestris Scop. About as common as V . rufa, although 

a little commoner on the higher ground. Have seen a 
nest in a back-yard in the heart of Middlesbrough. 

V . norvegica Fab. With the latter species, but less common. 

Bombus smithiauus White. Pretty common on all the moors. 
Although it appears to be common enough in the low- 
lying districts of North Durham, I have never seen it 
lower than Eston Moor here. 

*B. agrorum Fab. Abundant everywhere and varying tremen- 
dously in depth of colour. 

*B. hortorum Linn. As with B. agrorum. 

B. laireillellus var. distinguendus Mor. I take this sparingly 
on Eston Moor ; the type does not occur. 

* Indicates a species captured in Middlesbrough itself. 
1917 April 1. 



126 News from the Magazines. 

*Bombus lapidarius Linn. Not as common as one might 
expect, but still far from rare. Occurs generally. 

B. sylvarum Linn. Very sparingly, Great Ayton. 

B. derhamellus Kirby. Sparingly, but general in its occurrence. 

*B. pratorum Linn. Common everywhere. 

B. lapponicus Fab. Rare on Eston Moor, but quite common on 
Great Ayton and Easby Moors, as well as in the open 
spaces in Kildale Woods. This is probably our earliest 
bee, as I see the workers in some numbers at bilberry 
flowers. Anyone wanting an exercise in quickness of 
hand should endeavour to net the little worker from the 
flowers. Their quickness in turning in and vanishing 
from the net can only be described as phenomenal. 

*B. terresiris Linn. Very common ; the var. lucorum seems to 
predominate in the lowlands, and the var. virginalis on 
the moors, the latter assuming an enormous size. Tj^pe 
forms, as well as the two varieties, occur everywhere. 

Psithyrus vestalis Fourc. Common everywhere. 

P. barbutellus Kirby. General, but not so common as the 
last species. 

P. campestris Panz. Not very common, but to be found every- 
where. I have taken the black form on Eston Moor. 

P. quadricolor Lep. Only sparingly ; certainly not so common 
as its association with B. pratorum would suggest. 

Andrena cineraria Linn. Very common, but exceedingly 
capricious in its appearance at bilberry in Lonsdale. 

A. minutida Kirby. Also common on bilberry on Eston Moor 
and in Lonsdale. 

A. clarkella Kirby. Common enough on Eston Moor. 

A. wilkella Kirby. Also abundant on Eston Moor. 

*Sirex gigas Linn. Whilst I often get specimens of this sawfry 
taken in Middlesbrough brought to me for identification, 
I have also beaten it in some numbers from larch and fir 
at Eston. I have also, on two occasions, found moribund 
females with their saws fixed in larch trunks, as if they 
had been unable to withdraw them. 

*S. nociilio Fab. Precisely the same remarks apply to this as 
to S. gigas, except that it occurs less freely. It, too, 
has been taken at Eston with its saws fixed in a larch trunk. 

: o : 



The Irish Naturalist double number for November and December, is 
entirely occupied by an author's index of the Irish Naturalist from Vol. i 
to 25, by Alice Scharf . The readers of the journal will find the index very 
useful. 

In The Entomologist for March, Mr. Mainbridge describes a new variety 
plumbosa of Aplecta nebulosa (see The Naturalist, March, p. 94) ; Mr. L. W. 
Newman gives ' Notes on rearing Macrothylacia (Bombyx) rubi/ and Mr. 
Claude Morley continues his ' Garden Notes.' 

NaturaliM 



127 
OBSERVATIONS ON RANUNCULUS FICARIA. 



MARY A. JOHNSTONE, B.Sc, F.L.S. 



[Continued from page 105). 

(b) This was in the same narrow valley as [a), but on the 
•opposite bank of the stream. The canopy of small birch trees 
was broken by many gaps ; the ground was lightly shaded in 
summer and perfectly open in winter and spring ; the aspect 
was South. The dominant amongst the ground vegetation 
was R. Ficaria, which formed an almost uniform carpet. I 
examined an area of several hundred yards and was struck by 
the seemingly erratic variations in distribution. Some of the 
patches — several yards in extent- — presented the appearance of 
close green mats of leaves, with just here and there as in (a) 
solitary, tall, flowering exceptions. The modest leaf display 
was the covering for an interesting underworld. Spreading 
slightly outwards, the upper leaves touched and overtouched 
one another till they constituted a green roof for quiet little 
houses beneath them. Their still, dark, sheltered chambers 
had tempted out from the leaf-bases crowds of little tubers. 
The moist, equable air conditions suited them admirably, and 
a delicately pretty appearance was given by the fine clothing 
of root-hairs, softening the clean white surface. 

Quite close alongside these green stretches, were others 
shining as sheets of blossom. Scarcely a tuber was to be found 
there. I could find no difference in age, soil, drainage, lighting, 
protection or other factor which could account for the abrupt 
changes which succeeded each other all over that piece of 
ground. 

(c) The ground was drier in the area here described. Cel- 
andines had colonized parts here and there alongside a pathway 
through a plantation of young spruce and larch. No obvious 
law decided the prevalence of one or other of the types of Celan- 
dine. In one spot, exposed to full sunshine, the plants were 
small, had numerous aerial tubers and showed flowers at the 
rate of about a dozen to five square yards. Elsewhere, they 
grew through a layer of pine needles ; light was medium, 
shelter was good ; growth was vigorous, flowers were not 
many and tubers were absent. Again, on a rather more open 
space, tall, well-branched plants were growing amongst moss. 
Some of these produced aerial tubers and about an equal 
number produced flowers. 

(d) This location lay along the side of a moorland road 
bordered by a few feet of grass edge, a shallow ditch, and the 
remains of a hawthorn hedge. The cutting of the hedge 
looked as if it might have been done witnin the last few years ; 
the hedge had probably been so tall as that still left on the 

1917 April!. 



128 Observations on Ranunculus Ficaria. 

opposite side of the road — about nine feet. When I saw this 
place at the end of April, it presented a perfectly gorgeous 
display of Celandine bloom ; the flowers in their thousands 
were thrown wide open to the strong sunshine. A few yards 
further on, I came upon another expanse, surprisingly different. 
Here, in precisely similar relationship to hedge and ditch, 
there was scarcely a single flower. General growth was 
luxuriant and tubers were borne plentifully. The two strips, 
throughout their whole length and breadth, benefitted equally 
from the full day's sunshine. They were equally moist and 
they gave equal facilities to insect visitors. I could find no 
differing factor in the two environments, and I could find no 
indication that the beds were of different ages. There was no 
means of finding out if the two parts of the hedge had been 
cut in different years. On going back to the brilliant bed, I 
found on closer examination that it was by no means uniform. 
In some groups of plants, blossoms were thrown up most pro- 
fusely, but no tubers. Side by side with these other smaller 
and more readily overlooked clumps mustered few flowers 
but many tubers. A third variety consisted of normal flower- 
bearing specimens, with the unusual accompaniment of a num- 
ber of aerial tubers. 

It was a possibility that the second strip mentioned had 
not been free from the shade of the hedge for as long a period 
as the first, and that its vegetation had not had time to accom- 
modate itself to the new condition ; on the same supposition, 
some of the examples in the flowering area might have been 
in a transition stage. It might be noted, however, that the 
few plants growing under the tall hedges near by were very 
free-flowering. 

(e) At the bottom of a deep, wet ditch, on dark sodden 
leaf-mould, there grew only a few rather rank-conditioned 
Celandines. No flowers Were present ; the leaves were remark- 
ably crinkled and there was a goodly crop of tubers. Eighteen 
months ago, several of these were transplanted into good 
garden soil and into a situation where they were fully exposed 
to light. Last summer, they came up in a miserable fashion, 
the whole extent above the ground being no more than an inch 
and a half. They bore no flowers : the leaves were very small, 
but they were still crinkled ; aerial tubers persisted, now quite 
close to the soil. 

(/) Throughout a small area amongst the grass surrounding 
the stump of a tree on a lawn, small, compact specimens of 
R. Ficaria were to be found. They resembled the plants of 
the grassland association except that they possessed a system 
of tubers arising in their leaves. Presumably, they had existed 
as free-growing forms beneath the shade of the tree and the 
tubers were relics of that time, which they had retained. 

Naturalist, 



Reviews and Book Notices. 129 

Nothing quite conclusive emerges from the consideration 
and comparison of the typical habitats instanced above, but 
the following points may usefully be summarised : — 

1. Flowering forms are not the commonest in shade habitats. 

2. The tuber-bearing form is common in such places. 

3. The tuber-bearing form is not limited to the shade ; it 

often exists intermingled with, or close by the other in 
even the most brilliantly lit spaces. 

4. The closed community of the grassland never harbours 

the tuber-bearer. 

5. The plant seems to retain its tuber -bearing characteristic 

even when it changes many others, on being subjected 
to change of surroundings. 

The illumination factor does not seem to afford a solution 
for all cases of the problem. It remains to be proved by further 
observation and by experiments in tuber and seed propagation 
whether or not the differences between the two types of plant 
are inherited and are indicative of species or variety. 

: o : 

Economic Geology. By H. Ries (4th ed.). London : Chapman & Hall, 
xviii + 856 pp., 17s. net. There is little wonder that this excellent woik, 
with its 300 maps, sections, diagrams and photographs, and very good 
index, has reached its fourth edition in eleven years. The author is 
Professor of Geology at the Cornell University, and he naturally illustrates 
the various sections of his work by American examples. Certainly that 
continent is able to provide ample illustrations of the various ways in 
which geological science can be employed economically. The first section 
of the book is devoted to ' Nonmetallics,' and refers to Coal, Petroleum, 
Building Stones, Clay, Lime, Salt, Gypsum, Fertilizers, Asbestos, Graphite, 
Sand, Precious Stones, Underground Waters, etc. The second portion 
refers to the various metallic ores, their occurrence, working, etc. Each 
subject is dealt with exhaustively, and is amply illustrated by numeious 
blocks. Though British products are not dealt with, British geologists 
will find much of value in the volume. 

The Origin of the Earth, by T. C. Chamberlain, Chicago. University 
Press, 271 pp. 6s. net (published in the United Kingdom by the Cambridge 
University Press). In this book (the weight of which we are told is lib. 
6 oz.), the author carefully reviews the various theories as to the origin of 
our planet. He refers to Laplace's beautiful theory of the origin of the 
solar system, that the earth was at first all gas, then became a white hot 
mass of lava, and gradually cooled to the earth as we know it. ' But the 
theory of a simple decline from a fiery origin to a frigid end, from a thick 
blanket of warm air to a thin sheet of cold nitrogen, consonant with the 
current cosmogony as it was, logical under the premises postulated, 
pessimistically attractive in its gruesome forecast, already in possession 
of the stage, with a good prospect of holding it — this theory of a stupendous 
descensus none the less encountered some ugly facts as enquiry went on. 
In seemed to accord well enough with an ice-age, if the ice age came only 
in the later stages of the earth's history, but it was ill suited to explain 
an ice age in the earlier geologic eras.' The author has much to say on 
'the juvenile shaping of the earth,' due to gravitation and rotation, 
and he gives some remarkable diagrams in support of his views. He 
concludes that, in his opinion, what we conveniently regard as merely 
material, is at the same time spiritual, that what we try to reduce to the 
mechanistic, is at the same time volitional. 

1917 April 1. 



130 

YORKSHIRE MYCOLOGISTS AT BUCKDEN. 



A. E. PECK. 



[Continued from page 102). 

The evening Lectures, held in the Village School-rcnm, 
were well attended by local residents. 

Mr. Cheesman gave a well considered address upon the 
subject of the Tremellineae. 

' The Tremellinacese,' he said, ' may be considered to be 
the lowest and primitive group of the Hymenomycetes. They 
are of a jelly-like consistency, hard and horny when dry and 
reviving when moistened. 

The basidia which are immersed in the gelatinous matrix, 
are very variable in form and unlike those of any other group, 
being transversely or longtitudinally septate, indicating a 
connecting link between the Ustilagineae and the Uredineae 
on the one hand and the true Basidiomycetes on the other. 

The spores of some species, instead of germinating at once 
into mycelium, produce secondary spores or sporidiola. A 
review was made of the three sub-families and the fourteen 
genera of the group, the leading features of interest pointed 
out and illustrated by means of diagrams and specimens.' 

Mr. Peck gave his Lantern Lecture entitled ' In the Track 
of the Gamekeeper,' dealing with the work and surroundings 
of the interesting individual named, coupled with natural 
history references and the relation of a few anecdotes and per- 
sonal adventures. 

Dr. Wager gave a lecture on ' Toadstools and their Ways,' 
illustrated by specimens and drawings on the blackboard. In 
his introductory remarks, he mentioned that this was the 
third time the Mycological Committee had met under the 
shadow of the great war. The desirability of continuing to 
hold these meetings had been under consideration, but it was 
felt that the study of Fungi is so important, both from an 
economic and a scientific point of view, that it would be unwise 
to discontinue them altogether. Many problems of general 
scientific interest in Biology have been elucidated by the study 
of the structure and physiology of the Fungi, and, in its more 
utilitarian aspects, a knowledge of the life histories of Fungi 
is of paramount importance in our # attempt to deal with the 
enormous annual losses due to the fungus pests which attack 
our field and garden crops. The utilisation of Fungi as food 
is also an important matter. For want of an elementary 
knowledge on the part of the people, both rich and poor, of 
what are called toadstools, large quantities of most excellent 

Naturalist, 



Yorkshire Mycologists at Buck Jen. 



131 



food are wasted annually which, at the present, time especially, 
would be of the greatest assistance in economising our food 
supply. 

All the larger Fungi except mushrooms, are commonly 
known as toadstools from some supposed association with 
toads. Thus, Spencer, in the Shepheard's Calender (December) 
says : — 

" Where I was wont to seeke the honey Bee, 

Working her formall rowmes in wexen frame, 

The grieslie Tode-stoole growne there mought I see, 

And loathed paddocks lording on the same : " 

In discussing the structure and life history of typical 
toadstools, Dr. Wager referred to the enormous number of 
spores produced. In an ordinary mushroom for example, 
Buller has calculated that in a specimen with a pileus 8 cm. 
in diameter, there are approximately 1,800,000,000 spores. In 
a large specimen of the giant puftball, Buller estimated there 
were produced about 7,000,000,000,000 spores, or as many as 
would be liberated by about 4,000 good sized mushrooms. 

Among other topics dealt with in the lecture, were the 
development of the fruit bod}^, reproduction, the distribution 
of spores, spore colouration and classification. 

Altogether, 350 species were recorded, which included 39 
Mycetozoa and 47 Lichens, the following being the more note- 
worthy : — 

First British Records. 



Lepiota lilacea Bres. 
Tricholoma unguentatum Fr. 
Hygrophovits obscuratus Karst. 
Nolanea vinacea Fr. 
Entoloma dichroum Pers. 



Hebeloma diffractum Fr. 

Hypholoma irroratum Karst. 
Udontia farinacea Pers. (Quel.). 
Tomentella fitsca Pers. 



New to Yorkshire. 



Lepiota holosericea Fr. 
Entoloma ardosiacum Bull. 
Cortinarius (Phleg.) claricolor Fr. 



Cortinarius (Derm.) cotoneits Fr. 
Polystictus gossypinus Lev. 



First Records for Mid-West Yorkshire. 



JLycoperdon schinatum Pers. 
Armillaria vamentacea Bull. 
Tricholoma onychinum Fr. 
T. immundum Berk. 
T. sulphur eum Bull. 
T. albellum Fr. 
Clitocybe ditopoda Fr. 
Mycena rugosa Fr. 
.1/. ammoniaca Fr. 
M. haematopoda Fr. 
Omphalia sphagnicola Berlc 
Entoloma lividum Bull. 
E. porphyropheum Fr. 

1917 April 1. 



Entoloma rhodopolium Fr. 

Leptonia solstitialis Fr. 

Pholiota aurea Pers. 

P. togularis Bull. 

P. aegerita Fr. 

P. adiposa Fr. 

P. flammans Fr. 

Inocybe Godeyi Gillet. 

/. sindonia Fr. 

Hebeloma glutinosum Lindg. 

H. sinapizans Fr. 

H. longicandum Pers. 

H. ischnostvlum Cke. 



132 Yorkshire Naturalists' Union : Vertebrate Section. 

Tubaria paludosa Fr. Russula furcata Pers. 

Cortinarius (Phleg.) glaucopus R. savdonia Fr. 

Schaff. R. lactea Pers. 

,, ,, fulgens A. & S. R. armentaca Cke. 

Cortinarius (Ino.)albo-violaceusPers. Boletus cvassus Massee. 

,, (Derm.) tabularis Bull. Polyporus fragilis. 

,, ,, caninus Fr. Fomes connatus Fr. 

,, (Tel.) rigidus Scop. Poria terrestris Fr. 

,, (Hydr.) leucopus Bull. Sphaerotheca pannosa Wallr. 

Psathyra bifrons B. & Br. Dichaena quercina Pers. 

Coprinus tardus Karst. Helvetia ephippium Lev. 

Paxillus lepista Fr. Geoglossum hirsutum Pers. 

Hygrophorus fusco-albiis'La.sch. Peziza (Galactinia) succosa Berk. 

Lactarius insulsus Fr. Otidea leporina Batsch. 

L. umbrinus Pers. Cyathicula coronata De N. 

L. minimus W.G.S. Irpex obliqnus Fr. 

Russula- chloroides Bres. Stereum rugosum Fr. 

New Host Record. 

Pilobolus crystalliuns Tode (on deer's dung). 

It was decided to meet next year at Helmsley. 



YORKSHIRE NATURALISTS' UNION : 
VERTEBRATE SECTION. 

Meetings of the Vertebrate Section of the Yorkshire 
Naturalists' Union were held in the Philosophical Hall, Leeds, 
on February 17th. Mr. H. B. Booth presided over the business 
of the Birds and Eggs Protection Acts Committee, to which 
Messrs. Johnson Wilkinson, M.B.O.U., Huddersfield, and 
F. H. Edmondson, Keighley, were elected joint secretaries. 
Last year's methods having proved satisfactory, it was agreed 
that bird protection in the county this year continue on similar 
lines, and representations be made to the military authorities 
to suspend ' bombing ' practice at Hornsea Mere from mid- 
April to mid- June. 

In proposing that Lord Devonport, the Food Controller, 
be requested to make use of the eggs of the Black-headed, 
Common, Herring, Greater and Lesser Black-backed Gulls, 
Guillemot and Razorbill, in large and easily accessible 
colonies, in 1917, Mr. H. B. Booth remarked that the society 
for many years had helped the gulls, and it was felt 
that in this year of threatened food shortage, the gulls 
could materially help us, without imperilling the number of 
any, all having increased out of proportion to the available 
food supply in late years. The watchers at the gulleries, 
with a little assistance, could regularly collect the eggs for 
despatch to the large towns, where they could be retailed much 
cheaper than those of the barnyard fowl. Mr. Booth estimated 
that in this way millions of additional eggs, equal to hundreds 
of tons in weight, could be brought into the market. He also 

Naturalist, 



Yorkshire Naturalists' Union : Vertebrate Section. 133 

pointed out that such eggs are regularly taken for food in 
Continental countries, particularly Holland, and that Black- 
headed Gulls' eggs, when mistakenly eaten for Plovers' eggs in 
England, were counted great delicacies. The proposition was 
unanimously accepted, and the members present offered to 
place their services at the disposal of Lord Devonport should 
he require suggestions or advice as to the best method of collect- 
ing and distributing the eggs. 

Prof. Garstang, M.A., D.Sc, presided at the ordinary meeting 
of the Section, at which Messrs. W. Denison Roebuck, M.Sc, 
and J. F. Musham, the chairman and convener respectively, 
reported that the Mammals, Amphibians, Reptiles and Fishes 
Committee had been revived at the annual meeting of the 
Union, at Selby. 

At their invitation many specimens of the smaller mammals 
were exhibited. These included a variety of the Water Shrew, 
formerly known as the ' Eared Shrew,' dug from the garden of 
Mr. J. W. Taylor, M.Sc, Horsforth, in November. Except 
for a small artificial pond in the garden, the nearest water is 
some distance away. Mr. Booth brought a melanic water vole 
sent by Mr. T. Roose, who obtained it from a swamp at Hazle- 
wood, near Bolton Abbey. For 70 or 80 years a colony of voles 
of this variety has been known to exist there, and wrongly 
supposed by many to be Old English Black Rats. Unfor- 
tunately for the animals, the swamp has recently been drained. 

Many accounts of the sufferings of birds during the pro- 
tracted frost were given ; in various parts of the county 
grouse have been driven from the moors to the valleys. 

With a nestling Hoatzin (South America) as a model, 
Prof. Garstang offered some notes on Nestlings and on the 
peculiarities of nestling plumage. The Hoatzin nests in the 
trees over swamp and water. The nestlings have sparse, 
downy tracts, and as soon as they are hatched they leave the 
nest, and by beak, claws and nails on the wing, climb about 
the trees. Anatomists had suggested this as evidence that 
birds had evolved from lower animals, and that the very 
earliest forms built their nests in trees. Prof. Garstang, who 
believed the earliest forms were ground nesters, exhibited 
down from various nestlings, and traced the evolution of a 
feather from the scale of a Lizard, through the extinct 
Archaeopteryx and other early birds, to the down of a 
modern nestling. Those of the most ancient and lowest 
forms, such as the struthious birds, the Tinamons and 
a genus of Sand Grouse, were longitudinally striped. In 
modern ducklings there is noticeable a distinct shaft with many 
horizontal or crossed filaments ; domestic fowl chicks and young 
game-birds have this shaft less discernible, and the horizontal 
filaments are fewer ; but in young terns the shaft and horizontal 

1917 April 1. 



134 Northern News, 

filaments have entirely disappeared, the down consisting simply 
of a small quill which has independent radiating filaments. 
Comparing the eggs of a Snipe and a Thrush, and a Lapwing 
and a Jackdaw, birds about the same size, Prof. Garstang 
showed that the egg which produces a downy chick is larger 
and longer in incubating, than the egg of a passerine or more 
highly developed species. 

Mr. Booth, introducing a discussion on the varying number 
of eggs laid by different species, contended that whilst the 
Columbidse (Doves) and Charadriid?e (waders, etc.) are constant 
in their egg laying habits, the majority of British species show 
considerable diversity. One explanation was that they are 
endeavouring to increase their numbers or at least keep up 
to the level of the past. Yet some species are decreasing 
whilst others are increasing, and the singular thing is that 
the Blue Tit, which lays a large number of eggs, probably is 
not increasing as much as the Guillemot, Gannet and Fulmar, 
though they lay only a single egg. The speaker's former 
opinion was that the smallness of a clutch was associated 
with longevity, but in the case of the notoriously long lived' 
species comprising the Anatidae (Swans, Geese, Ducks), this 
does not apply. Neither does the relative abundance or 
variety of the food supply throw any light on the matter. It 
is even doubtful whether, in years of super-abundance of a 
suitable food, certain species do increase the number of their 
eggs, as is attributed to the Short-eared Owl in Scotland during 
a vole plague. Trustworthy oological friends entitled to speak 
with authority, assured him that neither the Rough-legged 
Buzzard nor Arctic Skua increase their clutches when Lem- 
mings, on which both very largely feed, are plentiful in Scan- 
dinavia. In fact, over-feeding in domestic varieties tends to 
decrease productiveness, and this also appears to be true in the 
human race. 

The discussion was continued, but nothing definite could 
be arrived at. 

Mr. Ralph Chislett showed a fine series of lantern slides of 
the Nightjar, eggs, parent birds, and the young in stages up to 
15 days. Mr. Jasper Atkinson had also a fine selection of 
slides of his last year's work, which included series of the 
Redstart, Snipe, Blue Tit and Sand Martin. — W. Greaves. 



Hull Museum Publications, No. no (being the Quarterly Record of 
Additions No. 55), is largely composed of papers which originally appeared 
in The Naturalist. It contains Mr. T. Sheppard's paper ' On Arranging 
Museum Cases for Birds ' ; papers on Mollusca by Mr. Hans Schlesch ; 
The Distribution of Spiders in East Yorkshire, and The Bristly Millepede 
in East Yorkshire ; by Mr. T. Stainforth, and Pseudanodonta rlongata in 
Yorkshire by J- A. Hargreaves and J. Digby Firth. The publication is 
sold at one penny. 

Naturalist, 



135 
THE SHELLS OF THE HOLDERNESS 
BASEMENT CLAYS. 



ALFRED BELL. 



{Continued from page 59). 

Asiarie banksii Leach is often used instead of A. compressa 
Mont. The latter name is so well known that for present 
purposes it is not worth changing, and has so many varieties 
of which the A. warhami may be an extreme form. A. 
banksii is here used for the elongate type and A. compressa 
for the more circular varieties. 

A. compressa latior is probably one of Bean's M.S. names. 
It is quoted in Forbes Memoir (Geol. Surv., Vol. I., 1846, p. 414) 
as var. B. [latior) now essentially northern, and by Prof. King, 
Ann. Nat. Hist. XVIII., as a Bridlington Shell. A specimen 
in the York Museum is nearly one inch broad. 

A. compressa nana, a small shell in the York Museum, 
labelled A. indefinita in Bean's well-known writing seems to be 
the A. compressa var. nana Jeff., B.C. ii., p. 316. 

A. richardsoni, figured in Belcher's Last of the Arctic 
Voyages, pi. 33, fig. 7 (1855), is a well-grown shell, L. 30 mm. 
B. 38 mm. It is rare in Bridlington. 

A. placenta Morch is well figured by Jensen, Danish Ingolf. 
Expedition, 1912, pi. IV., f. c d, and by Leche, Svenska, Exped. 
till Novaja Semlja in 1878, pi. I., fig. 4. 

A fine shell in the York Coll., labelled A. fluctitosa in Bean's 
writing appears to be a very elongated form of A. semisulcata, 
H..24 mm., B. 45 mm., apex nearly central. It seems to be 
an extreme example of the var. sericea Posselt. (Med. om. 
Green., XIX., pi. I., fig. 8-12, and by Jensen op. cit., pi. IX., fig. 
1 /. The above three shells appear to belong to the semisulcata 
group, frequently known as A. borealis. 

A. elliptica (crassa Leche) Brown. The Bridlington shell I 
refer to this is figured by Jensen, op. cit., pi. IV., fig. 40, as 
A. elliptica var. crassa Leche, pi. I., fig. $ab. It has little 
reference to the shell we consider as the type. 

The A. lactea of Brod. and Sow., figured by Dautzenberg and 
Fischer in the Monaco Scientific Expedition (Mollusques), pi. 
XL, figs. 26 to 28, seems to be the same as that figured by 
Wood, Crag Mollusca, pt. 2, pi. XVL, fig. 3, as A. withami. 

Note D. — Acila — The shells of this ornamental group of 
Nuculas abound in the Bridlington series, frequently in pairs, 
but more often in various sized fragments. Small valves 
from barely 3 mm. in diam. upwards are present. 

The name shell A. cobboldice J. Sowerby, is very variable 
in the later pliocene series, ranging from a nearly circular to 
the angular types figured by Mr. Wood — or probably there 

1917 April 1. 



136 Shells of the Holdemess Basement Clays. 

are more than one species so called. This seems to be so at 
Bridlington where the N. insignis Gould is common. It also 
occurs in the Chillesford beds. Wood's figure seems to differ 
in shape (not sculpture) from Sowerby's type, as it also does 
from the fully adult A. lyalli. 

Woodward remarks that the Bridlington shells differ from 
those of the Crag in a tendency to become smooth when ap- 
proaching full growth. Such is the case with the few frag- 
ments of this shell I obtained from the Wexford gravels. 

Note E. — Ostrea celtica* — Oysters are rare in the Brid- 
lington group. The best I have seen is the one in the York 
Museum, H. 60 mm., B. 45 mm. It is not well preserved, but 
appears to be of the same type that occurs at Bohuslan and in 
the Shetlands, where it is nearly extinct — as it is in most 
localities in the north where formerly abundant, i.e. W. Scotland. 
It is not the 0. edtdis of Linne, the type of which in the Linnean 
Society's possession is the 0. cristata of southern authors, and 
ranges in a living state from Bohuslan to the Mediterranean, 
via the West Coast of Ireland. Pending a memoir on the 
British Oysters, I have named the northern form A. celtica 
to distinguish it from the Linnean shell. Jeffreys seems to 
have been misled in giving Iceland as a locality, as his authority, 
Mohr!, 1786, is only quoting from an earlier work by Olafsen, 
1772, who, in his turn remarks, ' but we have not seen it.' 
(Jensen op. cit.). So far as I can see, after a careful examina- 
tion, this type of oyster has only a cousinly relation to its 
pliocene predecessor. 

The shells vary very much as regards preserva.tion. In the 
body of the clay they are, or were, often preserved in places. 
In others, while the contour of the shell is unaltered, the 
shell itself has been separated into many fragments, much as 
if the shell had been broken in situ, and the edges ol the frag- 
ments contracted after breakage. This disjunction seems to 
be the cause of so many loose pieces remaining after washing. 
Mr. Headley, writing to me, says ' The shells in the clay seemed 
broken in place and the edges were sharp.' In the sand 'the 
edges were worn and broken.' 

The clay is very homogenous and is regarded by Mr. Lamp- 
lugh as a true glacial mud. Its origin I suggest to be due 
in large measure to muddy streams or to ' large volumes 
of water issuing from the edges of the ice upon the escarp- 
ment,' (Lamplugh), some miles to the N. East. R. Brown, 
Physics of Arctic Ice, Q.J.G.S., 1870, p. 671, noted from 

* Mr. Reid records a bed of double Oysters from above the Weybourne 
Crag, near Lower Sheringham, N. of Weybourne, and apparently on a 
level with the Leda myalis bed. 

Naturalist, 



Shells of the Holdemess Basement Clays. 137 

experience in Greenland that such streams deposited a muddy 
sediment, averaging 3 inches yearly upon the sea bottom into 
which it flowed and incorporating in its body the shells and 
stones already present on its floor. 

The shells in the streaks and pockets of sand imbedded at 
different levels in the body of the clay, appear to have a 
different origin although of the same geological age, and as 
I suggest came into our area from a distant region near to, or 
within the Arctic circle, brought by floating ice in some form, 
liftea from the sandy bottom or sea shore by anchor ice, and 
transported in bulk as frozen masses, or boulders to the York- 
shire coast. Once deposited, the frozen sand would lose 
cohesion and easily acted upon and distributed. As Mr. Lamp- 
lugh sa\s, 'Somewhere there must have been a peiiod when 
the sea was crowded with icebergs and floe ice flowing hither 
and thither at the mercy of wind and waves., and there is no 
reason why portions of a sea bottom may not be caught up 
and carried by detached bergs till stranded on opposite and 
far distant shores.' 

It is to some such agency rather than to the passage of ice 
traversing the sea bottom that I think we must look to account 
for the arctic shells in such abundance. It is significant that no 
similar assemblage of species occurs living south of the arctic 
circle, as at present recorded unless at extreme depths. 

The undoubted presence of Bear, and the traces of a fresh- 
water plant bed, with Limnaea peregra in the basement clay 
below the purple clay, lends support to the suggested proximity 
of land ; and this view seems to harmonize with Mr. Lamplugh's 
opinion ' that the Basement Clay cannot be marine, and can 
scarcely be other than the product of land ice,' and yet allow 
for the presence of marine shells in the clay. 

Concerning the place in time of the Bridlington group, Mr. 
Lamplugh suggests that the old Sea-beach series at Sewerby, 
below the basement clay is coequal with the Leda myalis bed 
of the Cromer Cliff, Norfolk. I would go farther, and make 
the Sewerby shore and the Weybourne Crag march together 
and place the overlying myalis bed at Runton Gap, the Chilles- 
ford sand and clay seen at Chillesford Church pit, Suffolk, and 
the Bridlington beds on the same horizon, as I agree with Prof. 
Prestwich, Geology, Vol. II., p. 447, 1888 'that' the Bridlington 
Clay may represent or be equivalent to the more arctic portion 
of the Chillesford Clay. 

The Chillesford shells in the accompanying list, were 
collected by Dr. Boswell and myself during 1913, and the 
myalis species are taken from Mr. Reid. Plioc. Dep. Great 
Britain (Mem. Geol. Survey), p. 193. Except Lucina borealis 
all these occur at Bridlington, and like the shells there are 
frequently found double and in their natural life-positions. 

1917 April 1. 



i3§ 



Shells of the Holderness Basement Clays. 



If this view is sustained, there is no reason to consider the 
other members of the Bridlington beds as derived. Those I 
have seen are perfectly fresh and unworn, — a polyzoan (Flustra) 
and an Echinus (norvegicus ?) may be added to the list. 



Chillesford CI 


urch, C. Myalis (Cromerian) bed M 










C 


M 




C 


M 


Amauropsis islandica . 






X 


Mya arenaria 






X 


Buccinum undatum 




X 


X 


71/. iviincatti 




X 


X 


Ldttorina littorea 






X 


Mytilus edulis 




X 


X 


L. rudis 




X 


X 


Acila cobboldicB 




X 




Natica tiffin is 




X 


X 


Nucula tenuis 




X 




yteptuiica aniiqua 






X 


Yoldia lanceolate 




X 




N. conlraria 






X 


Y. myalis 






X 


Purpura lapillus 






X 


Y . oblongoides 




X 




Turritella terebra 




X 




Oslrea edulis ! sp. 






X 


Astarte borealis . . 






X 


Panopea norvegica 




X 




Cardium ednle . . 






X 


Pecten opercularis 




X 




C. greenlandicum 




X 




Tellina balthica . . 






X 


Cyprina islandica 




X 


X 


T. obliqua 




X 


X 


Luc in a borealis . . 




X 




T. pvaeteuitis 




X 




Mactra elliptica . . 




X 




Syndosmya alba . . 




X 





The absence of Tell, balthica from the above list is the prin- 
cipal item against the Chillesford Clay being synchronized with 
the Bridlington Leda myalis beds, seeing it is so abundant in 
the Wey bourne and Bure Valley deposits. It may have been 
passed over as a young Tell, obliqua as I certainly received it 
amongst a parcel of the latter from Aldeby, recognised as T. 
balthica by Messrs. Wood, Jeffreys and other conchologists, who 
rejected it on the ground that being an only specimen, it must 
have got in to the parcel by accident, a view I objected to at 
the time as I do now, because in texture, colour and condition, 
it was not different from the others and unlike those from any 
of the Weybourne group of deposits. 

I have to thank the Custodians of the Bridlington treasures 
for the kindly and ready facilities afforded me in the work, 
and the ' Percy Sladen Memorial Fund ' for assistance in meet- 
ing expenses incurred in search of material; 

Addendum. 

Since the above was written, I have received from Mr. 
Kennard, F.G.S., a quantity of material obtained by him from 
the Leda myalis bed, including Scalaria grcenlandica, Bela 
(several species), Nucula cobboldice, Yoldia hyperborea or ob- 
longoides, and others, all of forms occurring in the Bridlington 
list, numbering up to 40 species. (The Yoldia truncata bracketed 
in the last line of that list should read Y. hyperborea Lov.). 

Dr. C. T. Trechmann has recently described (Quart. Journ. 
Geol. Soc.) some remnants of early clays on the Durham coast 
containing arctic shells and Norwegian rocks of the usual types, 
apparently of the same age as the Holderness basement clays. 

Naturalist, 



139 



3n flDemoriam. 



GEORGE MASSEE, F.L.S., V.M.H. 

(1850—1917). 

The thinning ranks of Yorkshire naturalists are still receiving 
losses of exceptional severity. In recent months our pages 
have recorded the decease of many prominent workers. To 
the list must now be added the name of George Massee, through 




Photo by] 



George Massee. 



[Miss Ivy Massee. 



whose enthusiasm and hard work the Yorkshire Mycological 
Committee came to be, carried out its several years of useful 
work, and published the first county Fungus Flora ever prepared. 
Each year, for years, he regularly gave much of his valuable time 
in investigating the mycological flora of the areas worked by 
this committee ; they were no ' pleasure trips ' to him, and his 
assiduous labours in collecting and identifying specimens, in 
assisting other workers, and in giving popular lectures, will 
long be remembered by those who had the privilege to benefit 
thereby. 

1917 April 1. 



140 In Memoriam : George Massee, F.L.S., V.M.H. 

He was a prolific writer, being the author of over 250 books 
and papers. He worked with rapidity, and had a very good 
memory. One of his first papers, on woodpeckers, written 
when he was seventeen years of age, was published in The 
Intellectual Observer. 

An excellent account of Mr. Massee, in the ' Notable 
Personalities ' series, appears in The Agricultural Economist 
for July, 1913, from which we take the liberty of quoting the 
following : — 

' Born at Scampston, a hamlet in East Yorkshire, in 1850, 
George Edward Massee spent his youthful days on his father's 
farm. It was at this village where, to use his own words, 
" they attempted to educate me at a private school, but failed." 
It was intended that he should follow in his father's footsteps 
and be a farmer, so that on leaving school we see the youthful 
botanist performing the duties of ploughing, sheep washing, 
threshing, milking, and the like. It is in this practical routine 
work on the farm that Mr. Massee attributes a great deal of 
the success that he achieved in plant pathology. Many of the 
so-called plant diseases are due to cultural defects. As a 
farmer's son Mr. Massee is able to give practical advice, and 
in this respect he has the advantage over the man of purely 
academic training.' 

' But as a young man George Massee had ambitions in life 
other than that of being a farmer. He had a great liking for 
drawing and Nature study. So it was that he was sent to the 
York School of Art, where he was fortunate in gaining the 
national medal of the year for drawing flowers from Nature. 
At the same time he studied chemistry and physics. At this 
time he was taken in hand by his relative, Dr. Spruce, botanist 
and traveller, and when not ploughing or working in the sheep- 
fold he worked hard at botany. Massee's gift of drawing from 
Nature stood him in good stead, and the illustrations of Dr. 
Spruce's classical work on Hepatics are mostly his work. It 
was at Dr. Spruce's suggestion that Mr. Massee went to the 
West Indies and South America to study plants and collect 
Orchids. He sent home Oncidium macranihum, the large 
golden-yellow flowered species, and one of the most handsome 
Orchids in cultivation, also N anodes Medusa-. (Medusa's), 
an Orchid with lurid purple and deeply fringed flowers that 
give it a most sinister appearance. The Andes, notably the 
eastern slopes and the great Brazilian Plain are, in Mr. Massee's 
opinion, far less known than darkest Africa, and from a 
botanical and zoological point of view there is no corner of the 
world that offers such a wide field to the explorer and collector. 
Among his many exciting experiences on this expedition were 
earthquakes.' 

' Being an only son, his mother prevailed upon him to 

Naturalist, 



In Memoriam : George Massec, F.L.S., V.M.H. 1^1 

stay at home on his return. So that we again see him 
dividing his energies between farming and botanical study, 
specialising in fungi and plant diseases. On his father's death 
he came to Kew and worked in the herbarium as a free lance, 
and in 1893 was appointed Principal Assistant (Cryptogams). 
During the twenty years that Mr. Massee has spent at Kew it 
is not too much to say that he has done more than any man 
towards elucidating mysterious fungus diseases. His name 
is as familiar and almost as widely known as the nefarious 
plant diseases of which he has made a special study. He has 
written books and voluminous articles in the leading scientific 
journals of the day. Among his most useful works may be 
mentioned the " Text Book of Plant Diseases," which has been 
superseded by his " Diseases of Cultivated Plants and Trees " 
(1910), a work that is necessary for the proper equipment of 
every gardener, farmer or forester. " British Fungi, with a 
Chapter on Lichens," is his most recent book, and this is beauti- 
fully illustrated by Miss Ivy Massee, his talented daughter. In 
collaboration with Professor Theobald he brought out the book, 
indispensable to rosarians, entitled the " Enemies of the Rose." ' 

' It is, however, as lecturer that Mr. Massee will best be 
remembered by those who have had the real pleasure of listening 
to him. He is a breezy Yorkshireman, and his perorations 
always ripple with good humour. He is beloved of Kew men, 
and an appreciation, obviously written by one who knows him 
well, appeared in the " Kew Guild Journal," 1908, from which 
the following extract is taken : — " No one who has heard George 
Massee lecture upon or talk about the department of science, 
of which he has long been a past master, could think the subject 
uninteresting ; on the contrary, they would probably say that 
it was as exciting as romance. . . . His method — if it be method, 
probably it is the man himself — is not to talk learnedly about 
things, the common fault of lecturers, but to, as it were, pitch 
the subject before his class or audience, get them all round it, 
and then help them by means of comment, explanation, joke 
and gibe to take in as much of it as their capacity will stand." 
Few men know better than Mr. Massee how to sugar a pill, and 
however technical and otherwise uninteresting a subject may be, 
he has the happy knack of imparting it with good humour. The 
present writer well remembers a lecture by Mr. Massee on the- 
diseases of fruit trees, wherein the lecturer impressed his hearers 
with the importance of keeping a constant look-out for the 
first signs of attack, concluding his remarks with the appropriate 
exhortation, " above all, watch and spray." ' 

Accounts of his life and work will also be found in the 
Kew Guild Journal already referred to, and also in an illustrated 
memoir issued by the ' Lloyd Library ' of Mycology, in Cin- 
cinnati, Ohio. 

1917 April 1. 



142 In Memoriam : R. H. Tiddeman, M.A., F.G.S. 

Thirty or thirty-five years ago he lived at Scarborough, 
where he taught drawing and botany at some of the schools. 
A correspondent who evidently knew Massee well, wrote to the 
Yorkshire Post that ' Massee was a rare instance of an all-round 
naturalist. He was not only an " inside " man, but an " out- 
side " man as well. He was a skilled laboratory worker, but 
not less he was a practical field botanist. There was no em- 
piricism about him. He had nothing but scorn for 'would-be's ' 
and people of little or no qualification who sought the lime- 
light, but he was the essence of kindness to the real worker and 
seeker after knowledge. Unconventional and unpretentious, 
but intensely enthusiastic in his calling, he may be said to have 
devoted his life to the interests of botanical science. He found 
in life something he could do, and did it. His name is known 
in the five Continents, and his work appreciated, and while his 
death will be universally regretted, we who were privileged to 
know him intimately, feel intensely poorer for his removal. He 
leaves a widow and family to mourn his loss.' 

To these we offer sincere sympathy. This is extended to 
our old friend, Mr. Alfred Clarke, of Huddersfield, and many 
other Yorkshire mycologists, whose friendship with Mr. Massee 
was very great indeed. 

To Miss Ivy Massee, who is well-known to Yorkshire 
mycologists and inherits many of her father's gifts, we are 
particularly indebted for the photograph reproduced herewith. 
It is the last one taken of her father. — T.S. 



R. H. TIDDEMAN, M.A., F.G.S. 

(1842-1917). 

Yorkshire Geology has to mourn another of its workers ; 
in February, R. H. Tiddeman, so well-known and beloved by 
Yorkshire hammer-men, passed away. He was a quiet and 
conscientious worker and made many firm friends in the 
county in which he did so much good work. In appreciation 
of his services, he was elected president of the Yorkshire 
Geological Society in 1914, and during his period of office, he 
made special efforts to be with his friends at meetings and 
excursions ; albeit often at great personal inconvenience. 

Sir Roderick Murchison gave him the appointment as 
Assistant Geologist on the Geological Survey so long ago as 
1864, and he remained in the service to until 1902, when he 
retired. 

His principal work was in connection with the Carboniferous 
Rocks of Yorkshire and the neighbouring counties of Cumber- 
land and Lancashire, which occupied twenty years. Later, 

Naturalist, 



In Memoriam: R. H. Tiddcman, M.A., F.G.S. 143 

he worked in North Wales. He was naturally one of the 
greatest authorities on our Carboniferous rocks. Another 
excellent piece of his work was in connection with the explora- 
tion of the well-known Victoria Cave at Settle. 

In 191 1, the London Geological Society awarded him the 
Murchison Medal in recognition of his services to the science. 

He was not a great writer ; the Geological Survey Memoir 




Photo by) 



[H. E. Wroot. 



R. H. Tiddeman. 



on the ' Water Supply of Oxfordshire ' bears his name, and 
he contributed to many other Survey publications. In the 
field he was an ideal companion and guide. 

He leaves a widow and two daughters to whom we extend 
every sympathy. — T. S. 

Mr. W. Williamson writes on Water Mitts in the Scottish Naturalist 
for February. 

Among the obituary notices recently published we notice those <>! 
William Cray (aged 86), of the Belfast Naturalists' Field Club, and a 
familiar figure at the British Association meetings ; Charles O. Water- 
house, the entomologist (aged 73), whose portrait appears in Tht 
Entomologist's Monthly Maga ine for March : and [..Piatt Barrett, entom- 
ologist (aged 77). 

1917 April 1. 



144 

NEWS FROM THE MAGAZINES. 

The Museums Journal for February contains a report on Museum 
Glassware, by Mr. E. E. Lowe. 

The Geological Magazine for February contains some papers of ex- 
ceptional interest. Prof. Grenville A. J. Cole writes on ' Rhythmic 
Deposition of Flint ' ; Dr. Aubrey Strachan on ' Geology at the Seat of 
War ' and Dr. A. Smith Woodward on ' The Jaw of Plectrodus, a Silurian 
Fish.' 

Wild Life for January contains well-illustrated articles on Finding a 
Sheld-duck's nest ; Leaf-rolling Beetles ; Points in the Nightjar Sympos- 
ium ; on Spotted Flycatchers ; Concerning the Picidaj ; among others.. 
The illustrations accompanying the notes on Spotted Flycatchers are 
especially fine. 

In The Lancashire and Cheshire Naturalist for January, Mrs. R. S. 
Bagnall gives a list of Lancashire and Cheshire Midge-Galls ; Dr. W. E„ 
Collinge describes three new varieties of British Woodlice (from Cheshire,. 
Derbyshire, etc.), and Mr. G. A. Dunlop has a paper on Coleoptera col- 
lected in 1915. 

British Birds for March is largely occupied by Mr. J. H. Gurney's 
'Ornithological Notes from Norfolk for 1916,' this being his 23rd annual 
report. These reports formerly appeared in The Zoologist. They are now 
arranged under species and other headings, instead of in diary form as was 
the case previously. 

The Irish Naturalist for March has an account of Some Irish 
Ichneumonidse ; Measurements and Weights of Birds' Eggs ; and a report 
of the Royal Zoological Society of Ireland, which contains details of the 
difficulties the Society had to contend with during the outbreak in Dublin 
in Easter week, 191 6. 

The South Eastern Naturalist for 1916, contains xciii. + 89 pages, 
and is a valuable record of the work of the South Eastern Union of 
Scientific Societies during the year. The papers read at Tunbridge 
Wells Congress, including the President's address, are printed in extenso. 
The frontispiece is a reproduction of the group taken at the Tunbridge 
Wells. 

In The Scottish Naturalist for March, Dr. W. Eagle Clarke records 
' An overlooked occurrence of the Black Lark in Great Britain,' recorded 
for Middlesex (Highgate}, about 1737, and described and figured in Albin's 
Natural History of Birds, 1738. Thus the alleged 'first ' record on the 
coast of Kent and Sussex, in 1907, is about 170 years too late. The 
same journal reprints Dr. W. E. Collinge 's paper on ' The Economic 
Status of Wild Birds, ' from the Journ. Roy. Hort. Soc. ; and Mr. Percy 
H. Grimshaw concludes his notes on ' The British Lice (Anoplura) and 
their hosts.' 

We quote the following two verses from a palseontological parable in, 
Punch, entitled ' The Mammal-Saurian War ' : — 

' The Saurians, clad in coats of mail, 

Shone with a most attractive lustre ; 
Strong claws, long limbs, a longer tail — 

They pinned their faith to bulk and bluster ; 
They laid their eggs in every land 
And hid them deftly in the sand 

The Mammals, small as yet, and few, 
Relying less on scales and muscles, 
Developed diaphragms, and grew 
Non-nucleated red corpuscles ; 

They walked more nimbly on their legs, 
And learnt the art of sucking eggs.' 

Naturalist, 



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This Quarterly is now in its eleventh year of publication. Its 
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The Ploorlands of 
North Eastern Yorkshire: 

Their Natural History and Origin. 

By FRANK ELGEE, F.G.S. 

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numerous text diagrams and maps, 39 photogrcphtc plates, i coloured plate, and 

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London : A. BROWN & SONS, Ltd., 5 Farringdon Avenue, E.G. 
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A BOOK OF GREAT INTEREST TO YORKSHIRE PEOPLE 

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a work which aims at stimulating mental comparison between 
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Yorkshire Moors and Dales 

A Description of the North Yorkshire Moors 
together with Essays and Tales, 

By ALFRED P. WILSON. 

24N pages, size 8| by 6^ inches, and 12 Jull-page plates on Art Paper, tastefully 
bound in cloth boards, lettered in gold, with gilt top, 7/6 net. 

The district covered by the North Yorkshire Moors is one of the most interesting 
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neighbourhood. There is no other place in England so rich in antiquities, and 
most of these are herein described. 

Part I. serves as a guide to the visitor, and brings to his notice the objects of 
interest throughout the district. 

Part II, forms a series of Essays, and, besides other subjects, deals with the 
following : — 

The Dalesfolk. Old Customs. Local History. 

Moorland Roads. Wild Nature. Dialect, etc., etc. 

Part III. consists of a number of stories which further describe the character- 
istics of the dalesfolk. 

Printed at Browns' Savile Press, 40, George Street, Hull, and published by 
A. Brown & Sons, Limited, at 5 Farringdon Avenue, in the City of London. 

April 1st, 1917. 



»/i A\r NO. 724 

MAY 1917. ' ^ 



(No. 500 of current ttritt) 




A MONTHLY ILLUSTRATED JOURNAL OF 

NATURAL HISTORY FOR THE NORTH OF ENGLAND 

EDITED BY 

T. SHEPPARD, M.Sc, F.Q.S., F.R.G.S., F.S.A.Scot., 

The Museums, Hull ; 

and , 

T. W. WOODHEAD, Ph.D., M.Sc, F.L. 

Technical College, Huddersfield. 
with the assistance as referees in special departments v>f *■» u |\ 
J. Q1LBBRT BAKER, P.R.S. P.L.S., QEO. T. PORR1TT, P.\s., P.R.S 



Prof. P. P. KENDALL, M.Sc, P.O.S., 

RILEY FORTU 



' 



JOHN W. TAYLOR, M.Sc>, 
NE, F.Z.S. 



Contents : — 

PAGB 

Notes and Comments (illustrated) -. — Wild Life; Postponement of Excursions for 1917; 
' New ' British (?) Birds ! Delayed Records ; Dealers' Business Methods ; d'Orbigny ; A 
Fisheries Museum ; Literature of British Diptera ; Report on Cetacea ; Sands for Glass 
Making; Derbyshire Lavas ; The Oldest Flint Implements ; 'Popular' Scientific Terms ; 
A Prehistoric War Wound ' 145-1.-0 

A Hoard of Axes, etc., of the Bronze Age, from Scarborough (illustrated)— 

1 T. Sheppard, M.Sc, FG.S 151-154 
Some Weapons of the Bronze Age, recently found in East Yorkshire (illustrated)— 

T. Sheppard, M.Sc, 1 .G.S. 155-157 

Notes on the Wood Ant (Formica rufai—J. T . Seidell, J. P 158-159 

Yorkshire Coleoptera in 1916— W.J. Fordham, (M.R.C.S., L.R.C.P., F.E.S. ICO 

The Geographical Distribution of Moths of the Sub-Familv Bistoninae— J. W. 

Hcslop Harrison, B.Sc 161-164 

Orobanehe reticulata Wallruth— A . Bennett 155 

Notes on Helix (Acanthioula) harpa Say, and its Distribution (illustrated)— 

Hans Schltsch 166-168 

Malacological Fauna of Halldorsstodum, North Iceland— Hans Schlesch 169 

List of Iceland Land and Fresh Water Mollusca— Hans Schlesch 169 170 

Bibliography : Papers and Records relating to the Geology and Palaeontology of the North 

of England (Yorkshire excepted), published during 191C— T. Sheppard, M.Sc, F.G.S, ... 171-17", 

Field Notes: — Birds and the Storm ; Cumberland Mosses 150,157 

Review ' 170 

Northern News 164, 168, 170, 176 

News from the Magazines 160, 175, 176 

Illustrations 145, 147, 150, 167 

Plates II., III., IV., V. 

LONDON : 

A. Brown & Sons, Limited, 5, Farringdon Avenue, E.C. 

And at Hull and York. 

Printers and Publishers to the Y.N. U. 



Prepaid Subscription 6 6 per annum, post free. 



BOOKS WANTED. 

Trans. Norfolk and Norwich Nat. Soc. Vol. I., Parts i and 2 ; Vol. IV., Pt. 3. 

Peterborough Natural History Society. Reports, 1-8, 11-12, 14-26. 

Brighton and Sussex Naturalist History Society Reports, 1855-1874. 

North Staffordshire Field Club Reports for 1866, 1869-1873, 1876. 

Bedfordshire Natural History Society Proceedings. Set. 

Trans. Royal Cornwall Geological Society. Set. 

Yorkshire Ramblers' Club Journal. Nos. 2, 3, 4, 5. 

J 'roc. Bristol Naturalists' Society. All before p. 575 of Vol. I., 1866. 

Trans. Woolhope Club. 1866-80. 

Quarterly Journal of Science. 1878-9, 1882-3, an< 3 1885. 

Trans. Geol. Soc, London, 4to. 2nd series, Vols. IV.-V11. (1836-56). 

Geological Magazine, 1S90- 1-2-4. 

Mackie's Geol. and Nat. Hist. Repository. Vols. II., 111. 

Proc Liverpool Geol. Association. Parts 1, 3, 7, 16. 

Journ. Northants. Field Club. Vols. IX. -N. 

Reliquary (Jewitt's 8vo. Series). Vols. X., XII., XV., XVI XVIII. XXII 

XXIV and XXVI. 
Irish Naturalist. Vols. 1912-16. 
Chester Arch, and Hist. Soc. Vols. V.-IX. 
Yorks. Arch. Journal. Parts 63, 69. 
Scottish Naturalist. 1881-95. 
Annals of Scottish Nat. Hist. 1905-1916. 

Wal ford's Antiquarian Mag. and Bibliographer for July-Dec, 1S8 5. 
Quart. Journ. Geol. Soc. Vols. I.- XIV. 
Proc. Geol. Assoc. Vol. I. Part 1. 
Trans. Yorks. Nat. Union. Part 1. 
Naturalists' Journal. Vol. I. 

W. Smith's New Geological Atlas of England aud Wales. 1 819-21. 
Frizinghall Naturalist. (Lithographed). Vol. I., and part 1 of Vol. II. 
Illustrated Scientific News. 1902-4. (Set). 
Journal Keighley Naturalists' Society. 4to. Parti. 
Cleveland Lit. & Phil. Soc. Trans. Science Section or others. 
Proc. Yorks. Nat. Club (York). Set. 1867-70. 
Keeping's Handbook to Nat. Hist. Collections. (York Museum). 
! Iuddersfield Arch, and Topog. Society. 4 Reports. (1865-1869). 
First Report, Goole Scientific Society. 
The Naturalists' Record. Set. 

The Natural History Teacher (Huddersfield). Vols. I. -II. 
The Economic Naturalist (Huddersfield). Vol. I. 
The Naturalists' Guide (Huddersfield). Parts 1-3S. 
The Naturalists' Almanac (Huddersfield). 1867. 
" Ripon Spurs," by Keslington. 

Reports on State of Agriculture of Counties (1790-1810). 
Early Geological Maps. 
^elborne Letters. Vol. I. 18S1. 

A pply— Editor, The Museum, Hull. 

BOOKS FOR SALE. 

Animal Life. (Iambic 4/- 

Science from an Easy Chair. Lankester. 4/- 

Do. (Second Series). 4/- 

White's Natural History of Selborne. Coloured Illustrations by Collins, 6/- 
The Making of Species. Dewar and Finn. 4/- 
The Greatest Life. Leighton. 3/- 
History of Birds. Pycraft. 6/- 

Natural History of some Common Animals. Latter. 3/- 
Home Life of Osrrey. Abbott. 2/6 

Published Records of Land and Fresh -Water Mollusca, East Riding. 

(Maps). T. Petch, B.Sc, B.A. 1/6 
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Apply :— Dept. C, c/o A. BROWN & SONS, Ltd., Hull. 



NOTES AND COMMENT 










JUN2 4 ^ 






WILD LIFE. 

This interesting journal continues to cheer us with its 
beautiful pictures and well written articles. In the March 
number there are papers on ' A Welsh Sea-Bird Resort,' by 
R. Chislett ; ' The Cockchafer,' by O. Warner ; ' The Haunt 
of the Sea Fowl,' (the Fames), by Charlotte Mason ; and ' The 
Glutton or Wolverene,' by H. L. Townsend. There are 22 
reproductions from fine natural history photographs, some of 




Guillemot Flapping its Wings. 



Copyright : Ralph Chislett. 



which are mounted on tinted paper. One of them we are 
kindly permitted to reproduce herewith. 

POSTPONEMENT OF EXCURSIONS FOR I917. 

In accordance with the National call for economy, and 
having regard to the curtailment of travelling facilities and 
increase of railway fares, the Executive Committee of the 
Yorkshire Naturalists' Union decided that the Excursion 
Programme arranged for the present year shall be postponed 
until 1918. We notice also that the British Association for 
the Advancement of Science will not hold its annual Conference 
this year, though the General Committee, and possibly the 

1917 May J. 



146 Notes and Comments. 

Conference of Delegates, will be held in London. This is 
the first break in the continuity of the Association's meetings 
since its foundation in 183 1. 

' NEW ' BRITISH (?) BIRDS ! 

In its April number British Birds has ' broken out ' again, 
and badly ! In less than a page, three ' new ' species' are 
added to the British list, and then follow eight pages of editorial 
comments thereon. In the first case, Mr. J. B. Nichols tells 
us that two Calandra Larks were shot at St. Leonards in May, 
1916, and shown in the flesh to Mr. Ruskin Butterfield. Mr. 
Nichols, also, records an Eastern Great Reed-Warbler, also 
from St. Leonards (' picked up under wires '), also last year, 
and also examined in the flesh by Mr. Butterfield. Mr. T. 
Parkin records a Semi-Palmated Ringed Plover, also from St. 
Leonards, shown to him, in the flesh, by a taxidermist, in 
April, 1916. 

DELAYED RECORDS. 

In view of the apparent extraordinary importance attached 
to these records, is it not odd that these valuable additions to 
our fauna — made in April, May and August last year, are not 
given to the world until April, 1917 ? Why did not Mr. 
Butterfield tell the scientific world of the great things he had 
seen ? It is admitted that, with regard to the Calandra 
Larks, two have previously been recorded. One said to have 
been got near Devonport and the other near Exeter, and 
were recorded in The Zoologist and the Birds of Devon at 
the time. But it is naively added ' these records have very 
properly never been accepted as authentic' Why? Cer- 
tainly Mr. Butterfield was not living then, and therefore did 
not see them ' in the flesh ' ; and British Birds was not then 
published. But, after all, we must remember that these new 
Calandra Larks were ' said ' to have been shot at St. Leonards ; 
the Eastern Great Warbler was ' said ' to have been ' picked up,' 
and the St. Leonard's taxidermist ' said ' his Semi-Palmated 
Plover had been shot. 

dealers' business methods. 

While this particular St. Leonard's taxidermist may be 
like Caesar's wife, in some respects, we certainly do not like 
this periodical immigration of new British Birds in this one 
particular locality, and certainly do not feel justified in accepting 
the records as British on the evidence brought forward. A 
little while ago * we were able to investigate a case, and proved 
that a dealer had sold an imported bird as ' British,' and a new 
record at that ; he did so as ' one is apt in trade to make the 
most and get the most,' and that the information about the 
alleged locality of the record ' was only business in sale.' f 

* 1915 pp. 3-5. t l° c - °it- P- 60. 

Naturalist 



Notes and Comments. 



147 



d'orbigny. 
Mr. E. Heron- Allen favours us with a copy of his Presidential 
Address to the Royal Microscopical Society* on ' Alcide 
d'Orbigny : his Life and Work.' d'Orbigny, whose work 
among the Foraminifera brought him to the front rank of 
naturalists, was born in 1802, and died at the comparatively 
early age of fifty-five. Mr. Heron-Allen has spent much 
research in connection with his theme, and illustrates his 
address by portraits, views of d'Orbigny's birthplace, his 
microscope, etc. There are also some remarkably fine coloured 
plates of Foraminifera. 

A FISHERIES MUSEUM. 

The Illustrated Catalogue of the Museum of Fisheries and 
Shipping, Hull, has just reached its fifth edition. It tells 
much about the old whaling days. There are four pages of 
particulars of exhibits added since the previous edition was 




published. The objects shown in this Museum illustrate the 
growth and evolution of the fishing and shipping industiies 
from the earliest times. One of the illustrations, showing 
a Roman enamelled brooch in the form of a fish, is given here- 
with. The original was found in North Lincolnshire a few 
years ago. 

LITERATURE OF BRITISH DIPTERA. 

Mr. Percy H. Grimshaw of the Royal Scottish Museum, 
favours us with a copy of his Vice-Presidential address to the 
Royal Physical Society of Edinburgh,! the subject being 
' A Guide to the Literature of British Diptera.' Those who 
may have been under the impression that there is a paucity 
of literature dealing with the Diptera will be disilusionised 
on perusing these pages. Mr. Grimshaw enumerates over 
four hundred works, and he promises to publish a supplement 
with further information shortly. Due importance is attached 

* Joum. Roy. Micro. Soc, 1917, pp. 1-105. 

f Printed in the Society's Proceedings, Vol. XX., Part 2, pp. 78-117. 2/-. 

1917 May 1. 



148 Notes and Comments. 

to the List of Durham Diptera by the Rev. W. J. Wingate, 
which originally appeared in The Naturalist, and was subse- 
quently published in an extended form by the Northumberland 
Society. We hope and believe that Mr. Grimshaw's address 
wa^ not delivered quite in the form in which it is published. 

REPORT ON CETACEA. 

We have received from the British Museum, Natural 
History, Dr. S. F. Harmer's ' Report on Cetacea Stranded on 
the British Coasts during 1916,' this being the fourth report, 
and is sold at is. 6d. Notwithstanding the adverse conditions 
for observation which now exist, some interesting records have 
been made, including ' A Cuvier's Whale, Ziphius cavirostris, 
believed to be the first specimen of this species recorded from 
the English Coast ; A Sowerby's Whale, Mesoplodon bidens, 
from Lincolnshire ; A White-sided Dolphin, Lagenorhynchus 
acutus, a common northern species which has seldom been 
recorded from British seas ; a Young Sperm Whale, Physeter 
catodon, with uncut teeth and presumably a " sucker ; '•' a 
Killer or Grampus, Orcinus orca, of exceptional and perhaps 
record size.' There are illustrations of the Killer from Colvend 
(South Scotland), and also a map showing the localities of 
the various specimens stranded during the year. 

SANDS FOR GLASS MAKING. 

As was shown in the report of the meeting of the British 
Association at Newcastle, the economic value of scientific work 
is being forcibly recognised in these days. We have already 
referred to special memoirs being issued by the Geological Sur- 
vey, bearing upon minerals, etc., which are of special importance 
at the present time. From Messrs. Longman, Green & Co., we 
have received a memoir ' Published at the Instruction of the 
Ministry of Munitions of War, by the Imperial College of 
Science and Technology. A Memoir on British Resources 
of Sands suitable for Glass-making, with notes on certain 
crushed rocks and refractory materials. By P. G. H. Bos well. 
With Chemical Analyses by H. F. Harwood and A. A. 
Eldridge (92 pp., 1/6).' It deals with the uses, nature, com- 
position and distribution of sands, the process of glass-making, 
and gives details of localities in England where suitable sands 
occur ; in Yorkshire at Huttons Ambo, Burythorpe, Guiseley 
and South Cave ; at Spital, in Cheshire, and other localities in 
Derbyshire, etc. 

DERBYSHIRE CARBONIFEROUS LAVAS. 

At a recent meeting of the London Geological Society 
Mr. H. C. Sargent read a paper ' On Spilitic Faces of Lower 
Carboniferous Lava-flows in Derbyshire.' The President 
(Dr. Alfred Harker) welcomed this contribution to the petrology 
of the Carboniferous lavas. The interesting alkaline types 

Naturalist, 



Notes and Comments. 149 

described had been hitherto neglected, owing partly to a 
tendency to select for study the fresher-looking material. 
It would appear that in Lower Carboniferous times the British 
area included two petrographical provinces, both characterised 
by rock-types rich in sodic felspars, but having different 
histories. The southern or Cornish province was an old- 
established one, and was spilitic. The Somerset lavas must 
be included here. The northern province represented a 
reaction from the very different Caledonian regime, and was 
marked by the prominence of olivine-basalts and mugearites, 
with some soda-trachytes. Here belong the Scottish and 
Irish districts with the Isle of Man. In Derbyshire, occupying 
geographically an intermediate situation, the volcanic rocks 
seem to be mainly of Scottish types, but with spilitic affinities 
indicated in some of the occurrences. 

THE OLDEST FLINT IMPLEMENTS. 

Mr. J. Reid Moir has a paper in Science Progress on ' The 
Oldest Flint Implements,' in a little section to himself, with the 
heading ' Popular Science.' He refers to the well-known eoliths 
found in Kent over fifty years ago by Mr. Benjamin Harrison. 
These were described at the time by the late Sir Joseph 
Prestwich, as of human workmanship, an opinion which has 
been shared by dozens of other workers during the past half- 
century. After somewhat naively stating ' without troubling 
the reader with the somewhat complex geological facts which 
demonstrate the great antiquity of these primitive flaked 
flints,' Mr. Moir is of opinion that his examination of the 
specimens ' has indicated with some amount of certainty,' 
that they are of human origin, and modestly refers to ' tangible 
evidence such as has been set forth in this paper.' 

' POPULAR ' SCIENTIFIC TERMS. 

It seems a pity that Sir Joseph Prestwich has been dead 
so many years, as it is possible he may have received some 
encouragement in his work from the fact that Mr. Moir (who 
was not born when Sir Joseph's papers were written) adds 
his seal of authority to the correctness of Sir Joseph's views. 
We have some evidence of Mr. Moir's youth in his choice of 
adjectives in writing this ' Popular ' science article. The flint 
implements he describes are chocolate-brown, or of a cafe-au-lait 
shade ; some are light chestnut brown ; others are toffee-coloured 
(a very ' popular ' scientific description). We have failed to 
find any reference to brandy-balls or humbugs. 

A PREHISTORIC WAR WOUND. 

Lieut. L. F. West describes ' A Prehistoric War Wound ' 
in The British Medical Journal. While excavating on the 
site of a prehistoric fort on the Wiltshire Downs, a human 
skull was found, which bore evidence of rough treatment. 

1917 May 1. 



150 



Wield Note. 



' The wound seems to have been produced by the pointed 
end of the celt, which fell upon the supraciliary ridge over 
the left orbit with such a force that it sunk clean within the 
skull, eaving a sharp edged hole, about f in. in one diameter, 
and J-inch in the other.' The injury was not immediately 
fatal for there are signs of repair all round the wound. Dr. 




Drawing of frontal region of prehistoric skull, a. External 
angular process, b. Supranasal region c. Primary perforating 
wound, d. Sinus leading to frontal air cell. e. Part which has 
been attenuated either by scraping or by absorption. 

Keith, to whom we are indebted for the loan of the illustration, 
also has a note on the specimen. 



Birds and the Storm. — During January and part of 
February, the birds in this district suffered very much owing 
to the effect of the severe and lasting storm. On the moors 
the snow being very deep, and freezing hard on the surface, 
the grouse were in many cases unable to obtain food. They 
consequently migrated to the lower lands in search of it. A 
number was seen within the boundaries of Harrogate and in 
the fields on the outskirts. On one farm for a few days, a 
pack of at least two thousand birds could be seen. One grouse 
perched in a tree in Harrogate and remained there for some 
time, despite efforts to dislodge him by soldiers and boys, and 
it was only upon the approach of a boy who climbed the tree 
that it opened its wings and sailed away. Many redwings, 
always heavy sufferers in such weather, were picked up dead. 
In my garden for some time fourteen species of birds came regu- 
larly to the food laid out for them. — R. Fortune, Harrogate, 
February 28th, 1917. 

Naturalist, 



I5i 

A HOARD OF AXES, ETC., OF THE BRONZE AGE, 
FROM SCARBOROUGH. 



T. SHKPPARD, M.Sc, F.G.S. 



{Plates II. and III.). 

While the wastage of the Yorkshire Cliffs is deplorable, the 
result is sometimes of advantage to the geologist and anti- 
quary. Recently, in the vicinity of Scarborough, the fall of 
a cliff revealed a hoard of bronze implements which, though 
picked up piecemeal, is now gathered together again, and 
has been placed in the Municipal Museum at Hull. The 
collection consists of twenty pieces of bronze, many of which 
were evidently destined for the melting pot, and doubtless 
formed the stock-in-trade of some metal-worker of the Brcnze 
Age. In consists of 12 fairly perfect socketed axes, and portions 
of three others, two pieces of a large spear head, the handle of 
a sword, a socketed gouge, and a socketed chisel ; all in 
bronze. Four of the socketed axes are of the typical East 
Yorkshire form, such as usually occurs in the district, and 
represented in the hoards found at Leppington, Sproatley 
and other places. They are of the type shown in figure 164 
of ' The Ancient Bronze Implements of Great Britain' (1881), 
by the late Sir John Evans. They contain, however, one or 
two interesting features. 

Fig. 1 is a well-made implement, 3^" in length, i|" at the 
cutting edge, and iV square at the socket. It is provided 
with a loop, and is decorated on the two sides with three 
parallel lines, extending from the collar to about half-way 
along the length of the axe. On the inside is a prominent 
central ridge, extending about three-quarters of the distance 
of the wedge-shaped hollow in the axe. The implement has 
a small hole, about \" in width, near the loop on the left-hand 
side, evidently a flaw in casting, which has doubtless destined 
the axe for the melting pot before use, as the lines where the 
two valves of the mould met are still prominent, and the 
cutting edge is in its rough squared shape, instead of being 
hammered out and sharpened. It is clear that this particular 
implement has never been in use. 

No. 2 is of the same length, and the square socketed end is 
also ii" across. It is provided with a strong loop, and has 
evidently been in use. The cutting edge has been hammered 
out and sharpened, though is now somewhat blunt, due partly 
to oxidization. There is no well-marked collar, and each 
side of the axe has three slight ridges, extending for about 
half the length. On one side they are equi-distant, and on 
the other not quite ; the second line being nearer one side 

1917 May 1. 



152 Axes, etc., of the Bronze Age, from Scarborough. 

than the other. There is no ridge on the inside of the casting. 
On the right hand side of the axe, towards the cutting edge, 
is a hole |"X|" across, which is evidently an old fracture, 
and probably resulted in the specimen being put aside for the 
melting pot. 

No. 3 is a somewhat similar type of weapon, but it has a 
feature which has not previously been observed by the present 
writer on a socketed axe of the Bronze Age. The loop for 
secure shafting has evidently been imperfectly cast, and has 
been broken away. To assist in securing the axe to the shaft, 
a circular hole has been carefully drilled from the outside, 
midway between the two points of attachment of the loop. 
This is f " wide on the outside, and \" wide on the inside of 
the axe. The implement, which has obviously been in use, 
has been sharpened, and like the two already described, has 
three parallel ridges on each side, extended downwards, from 
a well-marked collar. The wedge-shaped cavity in the axe 
is perfectly plain ; a small portion is missing from the collar 
on the right-hand side. 

No. 4. A well-made axe with the cutting edge well turned 
and finished. There is only the merest trace of a collar, and 
the three lines extending therefrom are rather indistinct. 
There are the usual ridges inside the socket. It is 3^" long, 
by i|" across the socket, the cutting edge being 2" from point 
to point. A portion of the left side of the collar has been 
broken recently, but is preserved. 

No. 5. This is very similar to No. 1 in every respect, 
and has probably been cast in the same mould. It has, how- 
ever, been slightly hammered out at the cutting edge. 

No. 6 is of a somewhat similar type, though the three 
ornamental ridges are irregularly done, especially on the 
right side of the axe, and there is a slight ridge on each side 
in the socket. It is quarter of an inch longer than No. 5 ; 
in other respects the description holds. 

No. 7. Like No. 1, this is a casting in -the rough, as 
turned out of the mould, and has not been finished off and 
sharpened, though the weapon is quite perfect and in good 
condition. There is only a suggestion of a collar, and the 
three lines extending therefrom are very indistinct. It is 
3J" in length, i|" each way across the socket, if" along the 
cutting edge, and there are no ridges inside the socket. 

No. 8. A rather narrower celt than those already des- 
cribed, and, though it has a well-marked collar, the usual 
three lines extending therefrom are missing, and there are 
no ridges inside the socket. It is 3^" long, if'xij" across 
the socket ; the cutting edge being if". 

No. 9. This axe is longer than any of those described, 
and is rather squared in construction, after the manner of the 

Naturalist, 



THE NATURALIST, 1917 



Plate II. 




Part of the Scarborough Hoard. 



THE NATURALIST, 1917, 



Tlatf. III. 




Part of the Scarborough Hoard. 



Axes, etc., of the Bronze Age, from Scarborough. 153 

French type of celt. It is just as turned out of the mould, 
and apparently two flaws, as well as an imperfectly cast loop, 
destined the specimen for the melting pot. In shape, it 
resembles Evans's No. 137. There is a well-marked collar, 
from which three lines at unequal distances apart, extend 
half the distance down the blade. The axe is four inches 
long, the socket is i£"xif", the cutting edge is if" long, and 
there are no ridges inside the socket. 

No. 10 is smaller than the examples described, and the 
cutting edge, has been well hammered out, in this respect 
more resembling No. 149 of Evans. It is 2§" in length, 2" 
wide across the cutting edge, and if" by ij" across the open- 
ing. There is a well-marked collar, with the usual three 
lines extending therefrom on each side of the axe, and inside 
there is a slight ridge on the right and left. A portion of the 
loop is missing, and part of the collar on the right-hand side 
is broken away. 

No. 11 is a very different type of socketed axe, being very 
similar to Evans's No. 150 in general outline, though in ours 
there is no collar, no parallel lines, no chamfered edges ; in 
fact the axe is devoid of decoration of any sort. The length 
of the implement is 4I", the width across the cutting edge if", 
and when complete would be about 1" each way across the 
opening, though this part of the axe is slightly broken. The 
wedged-shaped hollow inside the axe is perfectly plain. There 
is a small well-made loop, and all trace of the line made by the 
two halves of the mould has disappeared. 

No. 12. This axe somewhat resembles No. 11, though the 
corners of the cutting edge are hammered out more acutely. 
Like No. 11, it is perfectly plain, but is more cylindrical in 
section. The socket is also cylindrical, but tapers to a wedge- 
shaped end at the bottom of the axe. In cleaning out the 
material which still remained inside when received, I found, 
wedged at the bottom, the thin end of the original wood shaft, 
which had evidently been quite sharp, in order to fit the 
socket. The wood is apparently ash. The length of the 
axe is 3I" ; it is 2J" across the cutting edge ; the socket is 
*¥ X ij". 

No. 13 is a type of bronze implement not previously rep- 
resented in the Hull Museum Collection. It is a well-made 
socketed chisel, 3" in length, nearly circular at the top, and 
square towards the point, which is \" across. At the socket 
it is |" wide, and the hollow for the reception of the shaft is 
somewhat squared, and extends a little more than half the 
length of the chisel. Three somewhat similar chisels were 
found with a hoard at Westoe, Yorkshire, many years ago, 
one of which is figured by Evans (No. 201). One of the Westoe 
chisels has a square socket like the specimen just described. 

1917 May 1., 



J54 Axes, etc., of the Bronze Age, from Scarborough. 

Oft this chisel the lines showing where the two halves of the 
mould met are clearly shown. 

i No. 14 is another somewhat unusual type of bronze im- 
plement, namely, a gouge. It is similar in general appearance 
t© the chisel already described, but is circular in section at 
the top, from which a gradually increasing grove terminates 
in a curved edge in the form of a hollow chisel, and was evidently 
used for working out rounded or oval holes. This specimen 
is 3" long, %" wide at the top, and slightly over half-an-inch 
at the cutting edge. The socket is conical and extends three- 
quarters of the length of the implement. The mould marks 
are clearly shown at the sides, and the implement is devoid 
of ornamentation. In type it comes midway between Nos. 
204 and 208 of Evans. 

■)■.'■ No. 15. This is a handle of a bronze sword, which has been 
cut off at the point of junction with the blade. The sharpness 
of its edges suggests that it has possibly not been in use, and 
owing to some defect in the casting has been cut into sections 
for the melting pot. It is slightly over 3" in length and if" across 
at the broad end, and \" in thickness. There are three circular 
holes bored for the purpose of securing the haft of bone or 
other material, and from the first of these to the broken edge 
is the end of a gradually widening ridge, which originally 
extended along the blade, at each side. This handle is larger 
than the handle of a complete sword which was found at Leven, 
now in the Museum at Hull, but otherwise it is similar. The 
Leven example, however, has only one hole in the handle and 
two at the top of the blade, being practically identical with 
Fig. 355 of Evans. 

i No. 16 is the pointed end of a large socketed spear, with 
a prominent central rib, which was cast hollow. The fragment 
is 2|" longxij" wide, and is apparently portion of a very 
similar weapon to one from Nettleham, Fig. 382 of Evans. 
, i No. 16a is a further portion of the same spear-head, and 
the two pieces fit together. In this case only half the width 
of the spear is preserved, but it indicates that the socket 
extended the whole length towards the point. Probably when 
complete the spear-head would be 8" or so in length. This 
fragment measures 2|"xf". 

No. 17 is the upper portion of a socketed axe, similar in 
type, to Nos. 1 and 3, showing a well-marked collar, and with 
the loop preserved. It measures 1^" X 1 j". 

No. 18 is the lower portion of a rather finely made socketed 
axe, which has been broken in two for the melting pot, and 
in the process the sides have been almost hammered together. 
The cutting edge is if", and the length of the specimen i£". 
: No. 19 is a small fragment, possibly from No. 17, or it 
may be from No. 11. 

Naturalist, 



155 
SOME WEAPONS OF THE BRONZE AGE, 
RECENTLY FOUND IN EAST YORKSHIRE. 



T. SHEPPARD, M.Sc, F.G.S. ; 

(Plates IV. and V.). 

In addition to the preceding hoard, a number of other 
Bronze Age weapons, of somewhat unusual type, from East 
Yorkshire, are in the Hull Museum, most of which have been 
acquired comparatively recently. . 

No. 20 is a socketed axe head of the ordinary type, from 
Hutton Cranswick. It is 3^" long, has a squared socket, and 
is provided with a loop, has three short ridges proceeding 
from the collar on each side, and has prominent mould 
marks. There is a ridge on each side of the socket, to assist 
in hafting. This axe, however, reveals a feature which I have 
not noticed previously, and it does not seem to have been 
observed by Evans. Within the cutting end is a mass of 
lead, which has been introduced into the casting, though it 
leaves quite a sixteenth of an inch of bronze on the outside of 
the axe. The lead however, seems to have burst the bronze 
casting, which is cracked and thrust outwards on both sides. 

No. 21. An unusually small bronze axe of the palstave 
type, found at Bridlington, which for many years has been in 
the possession of a Bridlington collector. Generally speaking, 
it is rather flat and very much resembles in size and shape an 
example from Ireland, figured by Evans (No. 29). It is 
3^" in length by f" across the cutting edge, nearly an inch in 
width, and i" in thickness. The edges have been hammered 
over slightly, and there is a cross ridge about half-way up, 
to assist in the shafting. 

No. 22. Another small bronze axe of the palstave type, 
but with very large wings, is from the Yorkshire Wolds. It 
is 3|-" long, and i|" across the cutting edge. There is no stop 
for the shaft. In this respect the axe resembles No. 53 of 
Evans, but in his book there is no illustration quite like this 
example. 

No. 23 is a fine massive palstave from Ripon. It is 5|" 
in length, 2V wide, the wings, which are very pronounced, 
are i£" across, and there is a slight ridge or stop with traces 
of a semi-circular decoration attached to it. The cutting 
edge has been well hammered round, the points being turned 
back in the form of hooks. As in the previous and following 
examples, there is no loop. Evans does not figure anything 
quite like this, his nearest apparently being an implement from 
Reeth (No. 56). 

No. 24 is very similar in type to the last, except than it is 
a trifle smaller and the wings are relatively much wider. This 

1917 May 1. 



156 Weapons of the Bronze Age found in East Yorkshire. 

is from Hutton Cranswick, and measures 5" in length, 2" across 
the cutting edge, and if" across the wings. On the casting 
there seems to be evidence that the mould has been altered at 
a later date for the purpose of adding these large wings. 

No. 25 is a well-made socketed spear-head, of lanceolate form, 
from Swine. It is based upon a large conical socket for the 
shaft, 5" in length, on the sides of which for a length of 3|" 
are two small knife-like projections, forming the spear. The 
socket, which is conical, extends to V from the point, and at 
a distance of .V from the bottom, a hole is bored through 
opposite the blade on each side, evidently to take a rivet 
for secure hafting. This specimen is exceptionally well pre- 
served, and in type resembles Evans No. 386, from Reach 
Fen. 

No. 26 from Hutton Cranswick, is a much more delicate 
type of implement, with a longer shaft, and with flattened 
side loops, an inch from the socket, for the purpose of attach- 
ment. The socket is conical, and extends to a i\" from the 
point. The blades are 2§" long, and are nearly an inch across 
at the widest part. Evans does not figure one of this type, 
his nearest form being from Laken Heath (No. 395). 

No. 27 is a portion of a very well-made and finely-cast 
spear head from the Yorkshire Wolds. On each side of the 
conical medial ridge is a well-defined hollow, beyond which 
the spear head tapers to a knife edge. The point is missing, 
and apparently at the place where the spear is broken were 
two holes for either ornament or attachment. The specimen 
is 4 \" in length by ~l\" in width, and half-an-inch across the 
socket, the hollow extending in the spear head for ii". A 
part of the shaft has been carefully cut or broken all round, 
in order that the spear head might still be used in its shortened 
form. Originally it was probably 2|" longer in the shaft. 
Evans figures an example from Elford in Northumberland 
(No. 405), which our example exactly resembles. 

Fig. 28 is a very rare type of implement, which had not 
previously been represented in the Hull collection. It was 
found at Bridlington many years ago, and after passing through 
various hands, reached Hull. It is of the type of blade known 
as a halberd, rather than a dagger, and of these, the late Sir 
John Evans states they are by no means common in England 
and Wales, though they occur occasionally in Ireland. Evans 
mentions only four examples from England and Wales, viz., 
from Westmorland, Shropshire, Cambridgeshire, and Norfolk. 
The first mentioned is figured (No. 337), and would somewhat 
resemble the Bridlington specimen. In this however, a small 
portion at the point is missing, and the opposite end, which 
originally would have three or four rivet holes, is also broken 
away. At some time this broken halberd has been used as 

Naturalst, 



THE NATURALIST, 1917. 



Plate IV 




Bronze Age Weapons from East Yorkshire. 



THE NATURALIST, 1917 



Plate V. 




Bronze Age Weapons from East Yorkshire. 



Weapons of the Bronze Age found in East Yorkshire. 157 

a chopper, and for about half its distance, on one side, is 
considerably blunted, though evidently it was done a long 
time ago, and it was in this condition when found. Like the 
Northumberland example, there is a broad low central ridge, 
which gradually tapers towards the point, outside which the 
edge of the halberd is reached, after passing two smaller ridges 
at the sides. The specimen in its present state is 7I" long, 
and 2|" wide at the bottom and ~" across at the pointed edge. 
When complete it would probably be 9" or gh" in length, 
and nearly 3V' across at the widest part. 

The last specimen to be described, No. 29, was dug up in 
Holderness while ploughing. It is evidently the point of a 
plough-share of the Bronze Age. The top and bottom are 
quite rounded and, like the point, is blunt. The socket is 
oval and extends to within an inch of the point. The hole 
on each side evidently enabled a rivet to fasten the point 
to the plough. It is 5§-" long, and at the top of the socket 
if'Xi" across. Evans does not mention anything of this 
kind in his book, but I saw one precisely similar to this, figured 
in the Transactions of an Antiquarian Society in the south of 
England, a little while ago. 

: o : 

Cumberland Mosses. — The following mosses were gathered 
in the Caldbeck district, and on the surrounding hills, in 
mid Cumberland. All doubtful species were submitted to, 
and kindly verified by, Mr. William Ingham, B.A. : — Andrecea 
petrophila Ehrh., common on rocks on Carrock Fell. Dicrano- 
weisia cirrata Lindb., a small form on the ground in Roughtin 
Gill. Campylopus atrovirens De Not., at the foot of High 
Pike. Grimmia pulvinata Sm., on rocks and walls, common. 
G. Doniana Sm., on rocks in Roughtin Gill. Rhacomitrhim 
heterostichum Brid., abundant. Encalypta streptocarpa Hedw., 
on wall in Hesket Newmarket. Ulota crispa Brid., in a wood 
below Park Head, on Oak. Tetraplodon mnioides B. and S., 
Carrock Fell, on ground at 2,000 feet. Philonotis fontana 
Brid., in boggy places in Roughtin Gill, and high up on High 
Pike. Weber a nutans Hedw., top of Carrock Fell (2174 feet), 
on ground. Bryum inclinatnm Bland., Roughtin Gill, on 
ground. Neckera complanata Hubn., stone wall in Caldbeck 
village. Anomodon viticulosus Hook, and Tayl., at tree roots 
in the ' Howk.' Pleuropus sericeus Dixon, fruiting specimens 
on a wall in Caldbeck. Brachythechtm purum, Dixon, found 
with fruit on a hedge bank on Warnel Fell. Hylocomium 
triquetrum B. and S., abundant in the ' Howk.' Among Hep- 
atics, I found the rather uncommon Lophozia Fleorkii (W. 
and M.) Schiffn., growing on rocks on Carrock Fell. — Jas. 
Murray, 2 Balfour Road, Carlisle. 

1917 May 1. 



i 5 8 
NOTES ON THE WOOD ANT (FORMICA RUFA). 

J. T. SEWELL, J. P., 

Whitby. 

Recently when examining some old natural history notes, I 
found the follow' ng entries made in 1893-4, at which time my 
business constantly took me through the Arncliff woods near 
Glaisdale ; it was in these woods that the ant nest subsequently 
referred to was observed. 

This nest, built on the level, was composed, as is usual, of 
twigs, the needles of the fir and other vegetable matter ; it wae 
frequently several feet across and raised from one to probably 
three feet in the centre ; during one period (possibly owing to 
the still weather), it was built on a narrower base, and higher, 
the apex being divided into two small cones, with an entrance 
low down in each cone, the contour somewhat resembling in 
miniature the illustration of the nests of the African Termite. 

1893 April 25TH. — Have had a very fine and dry early 
spring, with scarcely a day's rain since the beginning of March, 
the drought getting serious ; to-day very hot, the ant nest 
extraordinary — to which I was attracted by the noise — the 
ant . were like a swarm of bees, and the noise like the patter 
of rain on dry leaves ; the surrounding ground was seemingly 
in motion, as the straws, twigs and leaves were being dragged 
to the nest ; a wasp also was being taken to the larder. 

May 23RD. — Ants very lively, many having wings, walking 
about ; thundery weather. 

June 19TH. — Nothing to report ; late spring has been very wet . 

July i8th. — Ant nest not so busy as previously ; it is much 
flattened ; probably many ants have been drowned by the rain, 
ferns previously seen growing through the nest have been killed ; 
ants working into the roots of an adjacent tree ; they also appear 
to have formed nests at the base of the lower branches of a fir, 
on the trunk of which they are passing up and down ; several 
small nests have been formed around the original one. 

August 15TH. — Ant nest much the same as at first, viz.; 
one main nest, on which the aphis ' cows ' are seen being 
milked by the ants ; weather very hot. 

September 12th. — The nest has a bad smell, fermentation 
having probably taken place ; during the past month the 
nest, which looks very wet, has been raised very considerably ; 
only a few ants to be seen. 

October ioth. — Very few ants to be found and these only 
under a decayed tree root. 

November jth. — No ants ; a rabbit, or badger (?) has 
burrowed into the midst of the nest and scattered it ; a good 
deal of snow. 

1894. — Tne ant nest is again in the same place. 

March 27TH. — Easter ; weather hot, 65 in the sun to-day ; 

Naturalist, 



Seivell : Notes on the Wood Ant. 159 

ants out sunning themselves, great numbers continually 
swarming out of their holes in the side of the nest, climbing 
over one another, and gathering into a little living ball at 
the hole' entrance, until becoming top-heavy, the foothold 
gives way and the cluster rolls down the side of the nest. They 
are very shiney, as if just emerged from the pupa state, and 
at first sight look like black buds belonging to the twigs to 
which they cling ; the bright red of their legs, however, betrays 
them. The ants are not seeking food, nor collecting building 
material ; some appear very savage ; there are many lying 
dead beside the nest. 

May 22nd. — The nest well built up, a few ants with wings 
crawling about ; the sun coming out while I was still examining 
the nest ; the latter soon swarmed with winged ants. May 
i8-2oth had been very cold, with much snow ; a sharp frost 
on the night of the 21st (compare the same date last year). 

June ic/th. — Ants greatly excited, possibly colonies going 
off ? I saw what I imagine to be three separate queens, out 
for an airing. Distinct sets of ants appear to use different 
entrances ; is this a ' colonial ' family, i.e., the members uniting 
to build a common shelter, but having separate apartments ? 

July 17TH. — Top of the nest divided into two distinct 
cones with an entrance near the base of each cone ; nest more 
column shaped than usual. 

September 14.TH. — Nest recovered its old shape ; food 
providers busy. I have not noticed any bird or other foe 
preying on the ants. 

October c/th. — A few ants still carrying food ; sorry I 
have not been able to trace the extent of their collecting area. 

November 6th. — The nest is still in order, but only saw 
one or two ants. A squirrel collecting beech nuts near by. 

The above notes were taken, in each case, at about the 
same time of the day, about noon. In 1895, there was no 
ant-hill at this place, although 1894 had finished up, as far as 
we can judge from the ant point of view, very favourably, 
the year having seemingly been more prosperous than the 
preceding one, judging from our notes ; we wonder if the 
summer conditions extending into autumn, in contrast to the 
wet ' back end ' of 1893, had any effect in causing less foresight 
for the future ? On the other hand, our notes show us that 
the apparently disastrous ant year in 1893 was followed by a 
prosperous and larger settlement. The nest was in rather an 
exposed position where the winter winds would play havoc 
with it, if not covered by snow. 

A local farmer told me how he saved the replanting of his 
turnip field at a time when his seeds were suffering from a 
bad attack of fly, by carting a similar ant hill into the middle 
of his field. 

1'J17 May 1. 



i6o 

YORKSHIRE COLEOPTERA IN 1916. 



W. J. FORDHAM, M.R.C.S., L.R.C.P., F.E.S., 

Bubwith. 



Since the publication of the report of the Yorkshire Coleoptera 
Committee, several additional records of interest have come 
to hand. 

Mr. G. B. Walsh reports the following : — 

Philonthus varius Gyll. var. f bimaculahts Gr. Hotham 
Carrs, April, 1915. 

■\Bledius erraticus Er. One under a stone on a bank of 
sand and shingle in the River Swale above Richmond. 
Also the following species which he took when on a visit to the 
writer at Bubwith : — 

^Cerylon fagi Bris. One under rotten ash bark in garden. 
(This Ash stump has furnished me with several inter- 
esting beetles, including Litargus connextts Geoff. 
{bifasciatus F.) and Scaphisoma boleti Pz.). 

*Stenus ater Man. ] in moss by the River 

Stenus vafellus Er. I Derwent in Bubwith 

j- Ceuthorkynchus rugulosus Hbst. ) Ings. 

I find that I have an unrecorded specimen of the latter 
insect taken in the house at Bubwith in May, 1909. It is a 
not uncommon species, but has hitherto been overlooked in 
Yorkshire. 

In December, 1916, I sent a small sample of flood refuse 
from the River Derwent to one or two entomological friends. 
Mr. E. A. Newberry, in this, found among other species : — 

*Cercyon marinus Th. [aquations Brit. Cat.). 

*Abrceus globosus Hofi., and 

*Helophorus granulans L. (brevicollis Th.). 
The species obtained by Mr. W. E. Sharp include : — 

Bembidium lunulatum Fourc. (riparium 01.). 

Anthracus consputus Duft. (a previous specimen from 
Bubwith flood refuse is so far our only Yorkshire 
record) . 

*Pria dulcamara Scop., and 

* Longitarsus castaneus Foud. 

With reference to the report for 191 6, I believe that Oxypoda 
longipes Muls. is new to the county and not merely to V.C. 61. 

The dagger and- asterisk, as in previous lists, refer to New 
County and Vice-County Records respectively. 



In The Entomologist's Record for February. Dr. T. A. Chapman has 
illustrated ' Notes on Early Stages and Life History of the Earwig ( Forficula 
auricularia).' 

Naturalist, 



i6i 

THE GEOGRAPHICAL DISTRIBUTION OF THE 
MOTHS OF THE SUBFAMILY BISTONINAE. 



J. \V. HESLOP HARRISON. M.Sc. 

VIII.— THE GENUS ZAMACRA (MEYRICK). 

Zamacra. 

Sub-genus Acanthocampa (Dyar.). Species with two pairs 
of spurs on the posterior tibiae. 

Acanthocampa excavata (Dyar.). Distribution '.—Japan. 

Acanthocampa diaphanaria (Piing.). N. Persia. 

Sub-genus Zamacra (Meyrick). Species with one pair of 
spurs on the posterior tibia?. 

Zamacra flabellaria (Heeg.). N. W. Africa, Greece and its 
islands, Sardinia, Sicily, Asia Minor, Cyprus, Syria, Armenia 
and Mesopotamia. 

Zamacra marocana (Dognin). Morocco. 

Zamacra juglansiaria (Graes.). Ussuri district and Japan. 

Zamacra okamotonis (Mats.). Japan. 

Of lepidopterous freaks, Zamacra is one of the strangest, 
with its huge plumose antennas, its curious narrow triangular 
wings and the reduced genitalia in both sexes ; and these 
latter unique features mask its affinities and cause great 
difficulty in assigning it to its correct position. In spite of 
its anomalies, careful study shows that everything in its 
structure is purely Bistonine, and its genitalia, when analysed 
point by point, only serve to emphasise this. 

To determine its point of attachment to the main Bistonine 
line is still, however, a difficult problem. Its plumose male 
antennas indicate that it originated early, as this character 
seems to differentiate Bistonine forms developed in early Pliocene 
(or possibly late Miocene times) ; whilst the existence of species 
within its limits provided with the full complement of two 
pairs of spurs on the posterior tibiae shows that it is a transition 
genus evolved just when the Non-Boarmioid forms were in 
the making. Again, its peculiar half-developed wings suggest 
that it arose at a time when the first wingless mutations 
occurred, and when this feature was not sexlinked but was 
passed on in a manner showing blending inheritance. But 
this combination of plumose antennae, double-spurred tibiae, 
and incipient female apterousness was only possible at some 
point between the evolution of Megabiston and Phigalia — and 
appealing to its larva for indications — we find that its larva 
is spined or humped ; thus its origin is thrown near to that of 
Phigalia. Now both Megabiston and Phigalia, as their 
distribution, particularly that of the former, proves, are of 
North-eastern Asiatic origin. From this, it is clear that Zam- 
acra was cradled in the same area ; and this is rendered the 

1917 May 1. 



162 Distribution of Moths of the Sub-family Bistonina ?. 

more certain by the occurrence of its most primitive double- 
spurred species Zamacra excavata side by side with the one- 
spurred form, Z. juglansiaria in Japan. 

Very probably, the genus arose at some point northward 
of its present area and, with other forms of late Miocene and 
early Pliocene origin, was forced southward along the coast 
and into the warmer coastal plain which then embraced not 
only the present coast, but also the basin of the Yellow Sea 
and Japan by of the approach of the Ice Age. 

The discovery of the species with two pairs of posterior 
tibial spurs alongside those with only one pair shows that, even 
in these early days, the tendency of the Non-Boarmioid 
BistonincB to lose one pair had already manifested itself and, 
consequently, the final separation of Japan from the mainland 
shut off species of both sub-genera. 

However, Acanthocampa occurs in North Persia, whence 
we see that both sub-genera had early begun to send offshoots 
along the route adopted by the earliest horde of Eastern 
Asiatic migrants pressing into Europe. These, in all proba- 
bility, skirted the southern shores of the great Central Sea of 
early Pliocene Asia, passing between it and the long uplifted 
Altai and neighbouring mountains. When Acanthocampa had 
reached Persia, its momentum seems to have been spent, for 
the sub-genus is lacking further to the west ; it is not so, 
however, with Zamacra, for it reappears just west of Acan- 
thocampa in Mesopotamia in the very familiar form of Zamacra 
flabellaria. On reaching the Tigris, it had swept onward into 
Syria and Asia Minor. No northward course was open for 
the Asian Sea barred the way. Evidently, when it arrived 
in Syria, the early Pliocene disturbances which tore that land 
asunder had already set in for Z. flabellaria failed to pass into 
Egypt. Instead, it marched forth from Asia Minor into 
Greece which then, with Asia Minor, Cyprus and Crete, formed 
one continuous land mass. 

From this area, if one judges from its distribution now, it 
has pursued a most erratic and, in the light of present day 
geography, an impossible course. It seems to have passed 
on from Greece to Sicily without entering Italy — an extraor- 
dinary occurrence. But why, we ask, does this strange failure 
in Italy exist ? The answer is plain. When Z. flabellaria 
was moving, Italy, as we know it, was yet a land of the future. 
All that was developed in early Pliocene times was a rocky 
peninsula jutting out from the Alps into the Early Pliocene 
North-western Mediterranean Sea. In its place, there was 
a huge tract of land stretching westward from Greece and 
embracing Crete, Sicily, Malta, Sardinia, Tunis and Morocco. 
That such a mass then existed can be proved, independently 
of any consideration of the western Mediterranean Flora and 

Naturalist, 



Distribution of Moths of the Sub-family Bistonince . 163 

Fauna of to-day, by an examination of the Pliocene fossils of 
Malta and Crete. These include abundant remains of elephants 
and hippopotami. These forms argue the presence of con- 
siderable land areas supporting enormous forests whilst the 
latter animals prove that this land was intersected by many 
noble rivers. 

If we appeal to present conditions, then the Arctiad genus 
Ocnogyna, with its local species on all of the several portions 
of this long lost continent, no matter how small, abundantly 
proves the same proposition : and as equally weighty evidence 
the existence of the Cedar of Lebanon ( Cedrus libani) in distinct 
local races on Mount Lebanon in Syria, and in the mountains 
of Northern Africa may be adduced. 

Over this land, far and wide, Zamacra flabellaria spread, 
extending as far northward as Sardinia. Yet, when it occupied 
the Pliocene Sardinian peninsula, the break up of Tyrrhenis 
(adopting the name suggested for this sub-continent) had 
already commenced. Whilst Corsica and Sardinia had been 
disjoined from South France* since early Tertiary times, as 
the paucity of Alpine plants and animals common to the 
Maritime Alps and the two islands proves, and the number of 
endemic forms like the butterflies Argynnis elisa and Papilio 
hospiton found only in these two islands confirms, still for 
ages they had been one as the presence of common endemic 
forms shows. Nevertheless, when Z. flabellaria occupied 
Sardinia, Corsica was even then an island and no passage was 
open ; this early break between Corsica and Sardinia is ren- 
dered the more vivid by the numbers of peculiar Corsican 
species, exemplified by the moths Aegeria anthraciformis, 
Ellopia pinicolaria and Orgyia rupestris, to be obtained. 

Toward the south-west, however, advance was still possible, 
and following the routes traversed by such migrants as the 
Painted Frog (Discoglossus pictus) and the Greek Tortoise, at 
length Tunis was reached and immediately afterward Algeria 
and Morocco colonised. At some period subsequent to this, 
in the Moroccan area, the species Zamacra marocana has been 
evolved from Z. flabellaria. 

When, finally, flabellaria reached its " furthest west," the 
Straits of Gibraltar had already been formed and it found its 
passage into the Spanish Peninsula closed ; its wanderings 
thus had been much more delayed than many of the early 
members of the first Oriental migratory wave. This would 
indicate that the Straits of Gibraltar were formed not long 
after the inauguration of the Pliocene epoch. Very probably, 
it was their formation which initiated the slow break up of the 

* Unique forms like Aegeria aerifrons prove the former continuity of 
Corsica and South France. 

1917 May 1. 



164 Distribution of Moths of the Sub-family Bistonince . 

Mediterranean continent, resulting first in the isolation of the 
Balearic Islands, then of Corsica, followed by the crumbling 
away of the lands uniting Malta, Sicily and Greece, culminating 
in early Pleistocene times in the steady wash of the Aegean 
Sea into the Black Sea and the consequent separation of 
Z. flabellaria on all of the many islands it now holds. 

Probably, the last to be cut off thus was Cyprus, which 
remained connected to Asia Minor far into the Pleistocene 
Age. 

IX.— THE GENUS MEGABISTON (LEECH). 

Megabiston plumosaria (Leech). Distribution: — Japan, 
Ussuri District. 

Megabiston plumosaria, although veritably a genuine 
member of the Bistoninae, presents superficially a most curious 
compromise between species of the Boarmia consonaria group 
and the two Lyciae, L. hirtaria and L. ursaria. Irrespective 
of this, in structure, it combines the characters of Lycia, 
Amphidasys and Biston. 

In its two pairs of posterior tibial spurs and the armature 
of the male vesica, it makes a close approach to earlier Am- 
phidasyd forms, whilst in the furca and other points of contact 
of Amphidasys and Biston, it resembles both ; and the whole 
is crowned and toned down by a multiplicity of minor and 
unobtrusive points reminiscent of Lycia. These latter mar- 
shalled in line and totalled up reveal that its leaning is on the 
whole toward this last genus. In a few words, the whole 
meaning of this melange of relationships is that it is a transition 
form exhibiting to the enquiring mind what the Non-Boarmioid 
Bistons looked like immediately after their evolution from 
the Boarmioid main stem. From it, undoubtedly, Lycia, 
and therefore its linked up genera, have been built and in a 
significant way, its status as a pioneer species of future apterous 
groups is stamped on it by its huge feathered antennae. -{, 

We are thus left with no other conclusion possible than that 
Megabiston bears somewhat the same relation to Lycia as 
Nyssiodes does to Poecilopsis and Nyssia, and this judgment 
is confirmed most curiously by the similarity in distribution 
between Lycia, Poecilopsis, and Nyssia on the one hand and 
between Megabiston and Nyssiodes on the other. 

Careful study having revealed the history of the pere- 
grinations of Nyssiodes, upon that history that of Megabiston 
hangs as on a peg, for it is to all intents and purposes the same 
and need not therefore be repeated here. 



We have received three special leaflets from the Board of Agriculture 
and Fisheries, No. 32, dealing with ' War Food Societies ; ' No. 49, ' The 
Selection of Wheats for Spring Sowing ' and No. 70, ' The Cultivation of 
Parsnips.' 

Naturalist, 



i65 
OROBANCHE RETICULATA, WALLRUTH. 



A. BENNETT. 



This species (as the /. procera Beck), was found in Mid-W. 
Yorkshire by Mr. H. E. Craven in 1908 near Leeds, and a 
specimen was sent me by Mr. J. F. Pickard of Leeds. I have 
now to record it from ' N. E. Yorkshire, 1881, Mr. G. Webster,' 
sent me by the late Mr. G. Nicholson of Kew, under the name 
of ' minor.' At that date, I had placed it with 0. rubra Sm., 
but lately, looking through my specimens, I saw it could not 
be that species. Unfortunately, there is no exact station, only 
as I quote. The genus wants carefully examining in Britain, as 
I feel sure we have other species beyond those recorded. I 
have a specimen named ' 0. clatior, Lock Nell, Oban, 1846, ex 
herb. E. Harvey.' But this lady's specimens were not always 
to be relied on. It is certainly not elatior ; it may be 0. cruenta 
Bert. (0. gracilis Sm.), which occurs on a large number of 
plants of various orders. I have also three specimens from 
Sark, Channel Isles, one at least of which is new to our Flora, 
but they are too far gone over to identify with certainty. 

William Smith: His Maps and Memoirs. By Thomas 
Sheppard, M.Sc pp. 75-253 and 17 plates. Price 7/6 net. 

If any man can be truly said to have come into his own 
after much neglect, that man is William Smith. Officially 
ignored to a great extent, he pursued his steady course, seeing 
his results published with or without acknowledgement by 
others, while he, in his own words, was ' left to pursue, unre- 
warded and alone, the drudgery of more substantial utility ' 
(1818), until in his old age, the Geological Society of London 
gave him the Wollaston Medal (1832), the Government a 
Civil List Pension of £100 (1832), and Dublin an LL.D. in 
1835. He died in 1839. J°hn Phillips, his nephew and com- 
panion, wrote his life in 1844, and now the generosity of the 
Yorkshire Geological Society (Proc. Vol. XIX., Pt. 3, March, 
1917), has provided for the publication of a complete history 
of his works and aims, the loving labour of Thomas Sheppard. 
This extremely interesting memoir gives a sketch of Smith's 
English predecessors in geological mapping, details biblio- 
graphically and critically all Smith's own works, gives extracts 
from those authors who acknowledged his great services, 
sketches his life, residences, and memorials, and concludes 
by reprinting his ' Claims ' (a noteworthy document), and several 
of his manuscripts. It is a memoir worthy of its subject, 
and a lasting tribute to a great man. Excellently produced, 
with numerous facsimiles of maps, sections, portraits and title 
pages, it reflects the highest credit on its author, and those who 
preside over the Yorkshire Geological Society.— CD. S. 

1917 May 1. 



i66 

NOTES ON HELIX (ACANTHINULA) HARPA, SAY, 
AND ITS DISTRIBUTION. 



HANS SCHLESCH, 
Hellerup, Denmark. 

1824 Helix harpa Say. Longs : Exp. VI., p. 256. 

1844 Pupa costulata Mighels. Proc. Boston. Soc. Nat. Hist. 

I., p. 187. 
1847 Bulimus harpa Pfeiffer. Zeitschr. f. Mai., p. 147. 
1856 Helix aculeata Miiller. Nordenskiold och Nyelander : 

Finlands Moll., p. 13. 
1859 Helix amurensis Gerstfeldt. Land-und Susswasser Moll. 

Sibir u. Amur, p. 13. 

1864 Zoogenetes harpa Morse. Portl. Soc. Nat. Hist. I., 

p. 32, t. i., f. 1-12. 

1865 Helix harpa Say. Westerlund : Sv. Moll., p. 46. 
,, ,, Expose 1 crit., p. 57. 

Faun. Moll. Sv., Norv. 
et Dan., p. 153. 
,, Esmark : Land and Fresh-water 
Moll, in the Arctic Reg. 
of Norway, p. 98. 
Westerlund : Land och Sotvatten- 
moll. ins. under Vega- 
Exp. 
Clessin : Moll. Fauna Oesterr, Ungarn 
u. d. Schweiz, p. 793, f. 525. 
Westerlund : Fauna palsearc. Reg. 
leb. Binnenconch, p. 17. 
1897 „ ,, ,, ,, Synop.Moll. ext. Scand., 

p. 46. 
1901 ,, ,, ,, Luther : Land och Sotvattengast. 

utbred. i. Finland, p. 59. 
1908 Acanthinula harpa Say. Odhner: Moll. d. Lappl., Hoch- 

gels, p. 140. 
Testa ovata-turrita, tennis, virescens vel corneo-lutescens 
sericina, confertim striatula et distanter membranaceo-costulata. 
Spira elevata, obtusiuscula ; anfr. 4-4^, convexiusculi, ultimus 
ventrosus, spiram subczquans ; sutura profunda, umbilicus 
profundus, sed angustus ; apertura semi-ovalis et rotundato- 
sublunaris ; peristoma simplex, acutum, margine columellari 
subreflexo (Westerlund). 

Animal oviviviparum marginibus pedis profunde crenulatis 
(Morse). Diam., 2-2| ; alt., 3^-4 mm. 

Helix harpa Say, is a typical arctic species, distributed over 
North America, Asia and Europe, and is remarkable as the 
largest of the subgenus Acanthinula, just as Pupa hoppii Moller, 
from Greenland, is by far the largest Vertigo. Helix harpa 

Naturalist.. 



1871 
1871 


,, 


1882 


Patula 


1885 


Helix 


1887 


,, 


1889 


, , 




Helix (Acanthinula) harpa, Say, and its Distribution. 167 

Say, lives under the decayed foliage of Betula, Salix and Corylus, 
often near running waters, but also under moss, stones, in 
woods of Abies, as well as on the hills. It is a very hardy 
species, able to withstand periods of drought and severe cold. 
During winter it creeps only a little depth beneath the surface 
of the ground, the aperture closed by a thin membrane only, 
and during periods of drought it is found under decayed foliage, 
etc. It is a very active species, and enters its shell like a 
Physa. With regard to Morse's observations that it is ovivivi- 
parous, he found that in several specimens examined, some had 
over four embryos in the ovary, some only two. Helix harpa 
Say., was first found in Maine, U.S.A., by Say., during Long's 
Expedition to Peter's River, and des- 
cribed by him in 1824. Later it was 
found in several places throughout the 
Northern U.S.A. and Canada, and by Dr. 
Krause in Alaska, in 1882. 

In Sweden, it was first found by Prof. 

Bohemann, 1843, near Rabacken in Lulea 

I Lappmark (67 N. lat.) and later by him 

in the Lyksele Lappmark. In 1870, E. 

Hemberg observed it common near lakes 

Storafvan, Nddjaur and Hornafvan, and 

Heiix (Aoanthiruia) harpa. especially near Arjeploug in the Pitea 

Lappmark (c. 66° N. lat.). 

Further, Sakokhutte and Vastenjaure in Sarek Mountains, 

1906 (Odhner), near Hvitvattenskrcgen, in Jemtland (Weves), 

Funnasdal and Rosvalen in Herjedalen (Soderlund), Sathersdal 

in Dalarne (C. G. Anderson), Gefle in Gestrickland (Hj. Theel) 

and Lindbo in Westmannland (C. H. Johansen), Ostra 

Stacket, Verundo (0. Sandahl, 1883), Lidingo (P. de Laval) and 

Bellevue (V. Lundberg) near Stockholm. 

In Norway it was first recorded from Horgheim, in Romsdal, 
14th August, 1858, by Prof. Lilljeborg, and from Skovlokken, 
near Veiensten, in Geisdal, by C. M. Poulsen. In July, 1882, 
the Curator (Sparre Schneider) of the Tromso Museum, found 
two dead specimens at Kirkenaes, in South Vararger, and it 
was noticed at Elevenaes in the same area, by H. Nordquist. 
Helix harpa Say. is probably spread over the whole country, 
but more common in the north. 

In Finland it is very common along the Arctic Ocean, but 
it is scarcer southwards, and is not found in the southernmost 
parts, although E. Nylander reports it from the 110 metres 
high Kasberget (Jomala) in Aland Isles (cf. its occurrence at 
Stockholm). Luther cites the following localities* (except 

* Land-och Sdtvattengastropodernas Utbredning, i Finland, Helsing- 
fors, 1 901, pp. 59-61. 

1917 Mayl. 



168 Northern News. 

the finds made by my friend, Onni Sorsakoski) : — Common 
along the shore of Luttojoki (B. Poppius), Outakoski f jell in 
Utsjoki (H. Nordquist), Patsjoki and Tscharminjarga by 
Poppius ; Anarjoki ; between Tschkarajoki and Kuoppaniva ; 
Kusraka and Olenitsa, in the Kola peninsula, by K. M. Levan- 
der ; Lake Enare, by E. Nylander ; Kalkkuoaivi, Peldoaivi, 
and Ketola, near Nuortijarvi (B. Poppius) ; Kantalaks 
(J. Sahlberg) ; Kemi-Trask, by E. Nylander ; Tuntsa, near 
Kuolajarvi ; Alapera, near Kitinen, in So'dankyla. ; between 
Kultala and Rovanen ; Enontekis, near Kakkalanjokis 
outlet, in Ounasjokis, by H. Nordquist ; Kuusamo (Holmberg) ; 
Ruthinansalmi, Suomussalmi and Kuhmoniemi (Onni Sor- 
sakoski) ; Uleaborg, Kiiminki and Kalkkimaa (near Tornea), 
by Mela ; Solovetsk (K. M. Levander) ; Vigsjon (Mela) ; 
Jacobstad and Jalguba (J. Sahlberg) ; Kuusaranda and 
Schungu (B. Poppius) ; Koli, near Pielisjarvi and Linnun- 
niemi near Joensuu (W. Axelson) ; Hirvilaks (Mela) ; Kuopio 
(K. M. Levander) ; Karstula and Uddegard, in Jyvaskyla 
(Gadolin) ; Konginkangas, Viitasaari and Vasa (A. Luther) ; 
Palkjarvi, near Lake Ladoga (H. Backmann) ; Luukala, by 
Willmanstrand and Pekkala, near Ruovesi, by J. Sahlberg. 

The occurrence of Helix harpa Say. at Astrabad, in Trans- 
caucasia and on Riffelalp, in Switzerland, at an altitude of 
2,100 metres, is interesting, and must be a survival from the 
glacial period (cf., the occurrence of Pupa arctica Wallenberg, 
in Tyrol, Riesengebirge, Tatra* and Switzerland - ]"). As already 
remarked, it is, as far as I know, not yet reported from Russia J 
and Siberia, but in 1859, was recorded by Gerstfeldt as Helix 
amurensis from Amur. According to Westerlund, it was 
found by the Vega Expedition in Konjambay (65 N.) in the 
Chukchees peninsula, 28-3oth July, 1879, and Bering Island § 
on I5~i9th Aug., of the same year. 



Mr. T. Sheppard, M.Sc, has been elected honorary life member of 
the Selby Scientific Society. 

A correspondent writes : — 'I endorse all your remarks on publications 
on page 82. I wonder how many of our Libraries in the six northern 
counties have even a few volumes of The Naturalist on their shelves, yet 
every year it contains valuable matter relating to every area covered. 
Our Libraries don't receive the attention they ought. The question 
of education is constantly forward, yet to educate a lad well, and then not 
have a good library to his hand, is like giving the key of an empty cupboard 
to a hungry lad. Perhaps some of my fellow readers may not preserve 
their Naturalists. They might do worse than have them bound up at 
the year end, and present them to some Library where somebody would 
appreciate them.' 

* The Naturalist, 1914, p. 243. 

t The Naturalist, 1916, p. 61. 

\ Except its occurrence at Petcrhof (Lindholm). 

§ 54 4o'-55° 25' N. Alt., 165 40' — 166 40' east of Greenwich. 

Naturalist, 



169 



MALACOLOGICAL FAUNA OF 
HALLDORSSTODUM, NORTH ICELAND. 



HANS SCHLESCH. 
Hellerup, Denmark. 

Mr. Francis Pallsson from Halldorsstodum in Laxardal, 
Sudur Thingeyarsyssel in N. Iceland, sent me a small box of 
shells, which Mr. John W. Taylor, M.Sc. had the kindness to 
verify my oeterminations. The box contained the following 
species : — 

Vitrina (Phenacolimax) angelica Beck. 

(Syn : V. pellucida Midler). 
Agriolimax agrestis Linne. 
Avion subjuscus Draparnaud. 
Limncea peregra var. ovata Draparnaud. 

truncatula Midler. 
Pisidium subtruncatum Malm. 
The specimens are included in mv collections in the Hull 
Museum. 



-: o :- 



LIST OF ICELAND LAND AND FRESH WATER 
MOLLUSCA. 



HANS SCHLESCH, 
Hellerup, Denmark. 



J Recorded. 



Supposed distribution. 



Limax arborum Bouchard-Chantereaux . . 

... »» var. alpestvis Lesson and Pollonera 

Agriolimax agrestis Linne 

reticulata Muller 
laevis Mull., var. hyperborea Westerlund 
Vitrina pellucida Muller 
Euconulus fulvus Muller 
Hyalinia alliaria Muller 
,, radiatula Alder 

A tiou (iter Linne 

,, var. atra Linne . . 
,, var. nigrescens Moquin-Tandon 
subfuscus Draparnaud 

,, var. aurantiaca Locard 

var. fuliginea Morelet 
korteusis Ferussac 
Helicogona arbustorum Linne 

„ var. alpestris L. Pfeiffer 

var. hypnicola Mabille . 
.. ,, var. trochoidalis Roffiaen 

C epaea hortensis Muller 

var. roseolabiata Taylor .. 
■ • var. ludoviciana d'Aumont 

1917 May 1. 



I 7° 



Northern News. 





NAME. 




w. 


N. 


Pupilla muscorum Linne var. lundstromi Westerlund 


? 




Vertigo arctica Wallenberg 




t 


* 


Cochlicopa lubrica Miiller 




t 


t 


Succinea groenlandica Beck 




t 


t 


,, altaica var Mart., var. norvegica Westerlund . 




? 




Radix pereger Miiller 




t 


t 


,, ,, var. geisericola Beck 




t 


t 


,, 


, ,, albina 




t 




,, 


, ,, ovata Draparnand 




t 


* 


,, 


, ,, steenstrupi Clessin 




t 




,, 


, ,, fontinalis Studer 




t 


t 


,, 


,, piniana Hasay 




t 


t 


, , 


,, microcephala Kuster . . 




* 


t 


, , 


„ sikesi Preston 




t 




, 


, ,, lacustrina Clessin 




t 




Limnophysa truncatula Miiller 




f 


t 


,, ,, spira gracilis Morch 




t 




Gyrorbis leucostoma Mill. 




t 




,, spirorbis Linne 




t 




Gyraulus glaber Jeffreys 




? 




,, arcticus Beck 






t 


Pisidium amnicum Miiller . . 




* 


t 


,, pulchellum Jenyns 




t 




,, nitidum Jenyns . . 




t 




,, ,, var. fedderseni Westerlund 




? 




,, subtvuncatum Malm 




* 


t 


,, lilljeborgi Clessin . . 




t 


* 


,, scholtzi Clessin 




t 




,, pusillum Gmelin 




t 




,, casertanum Bourguignat 




t 




,, personatum Malm 




t 




,, milium Held 




t 




,, fossarinum Clessin 




t 


t 


,, ,, var. flave teens Clessin 




t 




,, obtusale C. Pfeiffer 




t 


* 


); steenbuchi Moller 




* 


t 


Margaritc 


ma margaritifera Linne . . 




? 





Mr. A. E. Gibbs, the well-known entomologist, has died. 

We regret to notice the death of Mr. Edward Hewitt, who for fourteen 
years has been curator of the Museum at Stockport. 

We learn irom the daily press that ' Dr. F. A. Bather, of the British 
Museum, advises the collection of local printed matter, posters, bills and 
notices. Historians, he says, may write what they like about the Kaiser 
and Hindenburg and Lloyd George, but the great demand would always be 
for an account of what happened to the ordinary man and what he was 
doing at the time.' 

When Punch indulges in natural history, he is amusing, if not pathetic. 
The following is his latest :• — ' One of the rarest of British birds, the 
Great Bittern, is reported to have been seen in the Eastern counlies 
during the recent cold spell. In answer to a telephonic enquiry on the 
matter, Mr. Pocock, of the Zoological Gardens, was heard to murmur : 
" Once bittern, twice shy." ' From what we know of Mr. Pocock, we are 
inclined to think that he murmured it was a Great Auks. 

Naturalist, 



17? 



BIBLIOGRAPHY 



Papers and Records relating to the Geology and Palaeontology of the 
North of England (Yorkshire excepted), published during 19 16. 



T. SHEPPARD, M.Sc, F.G.S. 



{Continued from page 109). 

Herbert W. Greenwood. Lanes. S., Cheshire, Cumb., Isle of Man. 
The Origin of the British Trias. A re-statement of the Problem in the 
light of Recent Research. Proceedings Liverpool Geological Society, 
Vol. XII., Pt. 3, pp. 209-235. 

H. W. Greenwood. Lanes. S. 

Note on a Boring recently made at Vauxhall Distillery, Vauxhall Road, 
Liverpool [500 feet deep]. Proceedings Liverpool Geological Society, 
Part 2, Vol. XII., 1915 [received February, 1916], pp. 135-6. 

H. W. Greenwood. Lanes. S., Cheshire. 

The Origin of the Trias : a re-statement of the problem [abstract of paper 
read to Liverpool Geological Society]. Geological Magazine, March, 
p. 139; and Lancashire and Cheshire Naturalist, March, p. 436. 

H. W. Greenwood and C. B. Travis. Cheshire. 

The Minerological and Chemical Constitution of the Triassic Rocks of 
Wirral. Proceedings Liverpool Geological Society, Part 2, Vol. XII., 
1915 [received February, 1916], pp. 161-188. 

A. F. Hallimond. See A. Strahan. 

A. \V. Harris. Lanes. S. 

A Note on an Exposure in the Lower Pebble Beds at Mossley Hill, June, 
1915. Proceedings Liverpool Geological Society, Vol. XII., Pt. 3, 
pp. 236-237. 

A. W. Harris. See Anon. 

George Hickling. Lanes. S. 

The Coal-Measures of the Croxteth Park Inlier. Transactions Manch. 
Geol. and Min. Society, Vol. XXXIV., Pt. 7, pp. 268-273, and 
Transactions Inst. Min. Eng., Vol. L., pp. 322-327. 

George Hickling. Lanes. S. 

The Geological Structure of the South Lancashire Coalfield. Transactions 

Manch. Geol. and Min. Society, Vol. XXXIV., Part 7, pp. 274-296, 
(map and sections), and Transactions Inst. Min. Eng., Vol. L., pp. 
328-350. Noticed in Geological Magazine, September, p. 430. 

John George Hodgson. Northumberland, Durham. 

The Grindstone Trade of Newcastle. British Association Official Handbook 
to Newcastle and District, pp. 136-139. 

G. T. Holloway. See Frank Rutley. 

T. V. Holmes. See A. Strahan. 

A. R. Horwood. Lanes., Cheshire, Derbyshire, Notts. 

The Upper Trias of Leicestershire. 8. Economics and Water Supply [brief 

references to Cheshire, Lanes., Notts, and Derbyshire]. Geological 
Magazine, September, pp. 411-420; October, pp. 456-462. 

1917 May 1. 



172 Bibliography : Geology and ~P alee ontology. 

T. McKenny Hughes. Lines., Yorks. 

Notes on the Fenland (with a Description of the Shippea Man, by Alexander 
Macalister). Cambridge, 8vo., 35 pp. 

T. A. Jones. Lake District. 

Note on the presence of Tourmaline in Eskdale (Cumberland) granite. 

Proceedings Liverpool Geological Society, Part 2, Vol. XII., 191 5 
[received February, 1916], pp. 137-140. 

T. A. Jones. Lanes., Cheshire. 

Notes on some Ferruginous Nodules in the Permo-Triassic Sandstones of 
South-west Lancashire. Proceedings Liverpool Geological Society, 
Vol. XII., Pt. 3, pp. 252-263. 

Albert Jowett. Lanes. S., Cheshire. 

A Preliminary Note on the Glacial Geology of the Western Slopes of the 
Southern Pennines. Report Brit. Association for 1915 (Manchester), 
pp. 431-2. 

W. B. R. King. See A. Strahan. 

P. Krush. See F. Beyschlag. 

Thomas Hedley Leathart. Northumberland, Durham. 

Lead and Copper. British Association Official Handbook to Newcastle 
and District, pp. 123-126. 

Nona Lebour. Northumberland, Durham, Derby, Yorks. 

Amber and Jet in Ancient Burials : Their Significance. Trans, and 
Journal of Proc. Dumfriesshire and Galloway Nat. Hist, and Antiq. 
Soc, 1914-15. Third Series, Vol. III., 1915, Published 1916, pp. 
106-120. 

Henry Louis. Northumberland, Durham, Yorks. 

The Iron and Steel Industry of Northumberland and Durham [includes 
Cleveland]. British Association Official Handbook to Newcastle and 
District, pp. 45-67. 

Alexander Macalister. See T. McKenny Hughes. 

F. T. Maidwell. Cheshire. 

Some Sections in the Lower Keuper of Runcorn Hill, Cheshire, II. Proc. 

Liverpool Geological Society, Part 2, Vol. XII., 1915 [received February 
1916], pp. 141-149. 

F. T. Maidwell. Lanes. S. 

Geological Notes on some recent Excavations at West Bank Dock, Widnes. 

Proceedings Liverpool Geological Society, Part 2, Vol. XII., 1915 
[received February, 1916], pp. 156-160. 

John Edward Marr. Lake District. 

The Ashgillian Succession in the Tract to the west of Coniston Lake. Quart. 

Journal Geological Society, Vol. LXXL, Pt 2. (No. 282). February 
23rd, pp. 189-204. 

J. E. Marr. Lake District. 

The Geology of the Lake District and the Scenery as influenced by Geological 
Structure. Cambridge, pp. xii. + 220. Review in Geological 
Magazine, August, pp. 374-5. See also Naturalist, October, pp. 331-2. 

Sidney Melmore. Cumberland. 

A Chemical Examination of the St. Bees Sandstone of West Cumberland. 

Geological Magazine, January, pp. 17-21. 

Naturalist, 



Bibliography : Geology and Palceontology. IJ3 

Thomas H. Mottram. Notts., Derbyshire, Yorks. 

Quarries Inspection Reports, 1915. York and North Midland Division. 
Quarry, November, pp. 254-5. 

[T. H.] Mottram. Derby, Notts., Lines., Yorks. 

Quarry Inspection Reports, 1914. Mr. Mottram's Report on the York and 
North Midland Division (No. 3). I. — Report under the Metalliferous 
Mines Act. Quarry, February, pp. 39-43. 

A. D. Nicholson. Lanes. 

Quarries Inspection Reports. Lancashire, North Wales and Ireland Division. 

Quarry, November, pp. 255-6. 

W. A. Parker. Lanes. 

Belinurus lunatus, from Sparth, Rochdale. Lancashire and Cheshire 
Naturalist. March, pp. 417-8. 

E. Adrian Woodruffe-Peacock. Lines. 

The East Fens [brief Geological notes]. Transactions Lincolnshire Nat. 
Union for 1915, pp. 228-236. 

R. W. Pocock. See R. G. Carruthers. 

R. H. Rastall. Northern Counties. 

Agricultural Geology. Cambridge, xx. +331 pp. Reviewed in Naturalist, 
November, p. 355. 

H. H. Read. See Frank Rutley. 

J. E. Wynfield Rhodes. Cheshire. 

Microscopic Examination of Sandstones from the Lower Keuper and 
Bunter Beds of Runcorn Hill, Cheshire. Proceedings Liverpool 

Geological Society. Part 2, Vol. XII., 1915 [received February, 1916], 
pp. 150-155- 

Frank Rutley. Northern Counties. 

Elements of Mineralogy, by Frank Rutley. Revised by H. H. Read. 
Introduction by G. T. Holloway. Nineteenth edition, London, 
xxii. +394 PP- [many northern localities for mineral cited] ; reviewed 
in The Naturalist, November, p. 355. 

D. H. Scott. Lanes. S., Yorks. 

The Heterangiums of the British Coal-measures [notice of British Associa- 
tion leaflet]. Geological Magazine, March, pp. 123-4. 

J. B. Scrivenor. Lake District. 

The Grainsgill Greisen of Carrock Fell. Geological Magazine, May, PP- 
239-246. 

T. Sheppard. Cheshire. 

Early Mining Implements [from Alderley Edge ; see also under 1914]. 
'Hull Museums Publications,' No. 108, 3 pp. Noticed in Nature, 
September 14th, pp. 38-9. 

T. Sheppard. Northern Counties. 

Yorkshire's Contribution to Science, with Bibliography of Natural History 
Publications. 8vo., viii. + 233 pp. Reviewed in Naturalist, May, 
p. 150. Geological Magazine, June, p. 282. 

T. Sheppard. Northern Counties. 

Bibliography : Papers and Records relating to the Geology and Palaeontology 
of the North of England (Yorkshire excepted), published during 1915. 
Naturalist, February, pp. 67-74. 

1917 May 1. 



174 Bibliography : Geology and Palceontology. 

W. C. Simmons. See A. Strahan. 

Bernard Smith. Notts., Cumberland. 

Ball or Pillow-form Structures in Sandstones [brief references to Notts, 
and Cumberland]. Geological Magazine, April, pp. 146-156. 

Bernard Smith. Cumberland, Lake District. 

' On Certain Channels ' [a reply to Prof. Bonney's pamphlet, 191 5]. Geol- 
ogical Magazine, January, pp. 45-47. 

Stanley Smith. Northumberland, Yorks. 

Aulina rotiformis, gen. et. sp. nov., Phillipsastrcea hennahi (Lonsdale), 
and tne genus Orionastrsea. Abstract in Geological Magazine, Dec, 
PP- 574-575- 

Stanley Smith. Northern Counties. 

The Genus Lonsdaleia and Dibunophyllum rugosum (McCoy). Quart. 

Jouvn. Geol. Soc, Vol. LXXI., Ft. 2 (No. 282), February 23, pp. 
218-272. 

J. A. Smythe. Northumberland. 

Two Newly-discovered Whin-Dykes on the Coast of Northumberland. 

Trans. Nat. Hist. Soc. Northumberland, Durham and Newcastle, 
N.S., Vol. IV., Pt. 2., pp. 330-343- 

[H. C. Stewardson]. Northern Counties. 

Catalogue of the more important Papers, especially those referring to Local 
Scientific Investigations, published by the Corresponding Societies 
during the year ending May 31st, 1915. Report British Association 
for 1915 (Manchester), pp. 801-815. 

M. C. Stopes. See David Ellis. 

A. Strahan. Northern Counties. 

The Search for new Coal-fields in England [abridged from lecture delivered 
at the Royal Institution]. Nature, June 1., pp. 292-294.' 

A. Strahan, J. S. Flett, C. H. Dinham, C. T. Clough, T. Eastwood 
and A. F. Hallimond. Cumberland, Westmorland, Lake 

District, Lines., Yorks. N.E., S.E. 
Special Reports on the Mineral Resources of Great Britain. Vol. V., 
Potash, Felspar, Phosphate of Lime, Alum-shales, Plumbago or 
Graphite, Molybdenite, Chromite, Talc and Steatite (Soapstonc, 
Soap-Rock and Potstone), Diatomite. Mem. Geol. Survey, pp. iv. 
+ 41- 

A. Strahan, T. V. Holmes, H. Dewey, C. H. Cunnington, W. C. 
Simmons, W. B. R. King and D. A. Wray. Northern Counties. 
On the Thickness of Strata in the Counties of England and Wales exclusive 
of rocks older than the Permian. Mem. Geol. Survey, 1916, pp. 172. 

Fredk. J. Stubbs. Lanes., Yorks. 

The National Neglect of Peat. Lancashire and Cheshire Naturalist, Jan., 

PP- 369-374- 

|. W. Taylor. Lines., Derby., Lanes., Notts., Westmorland, Yorks. 
Monograph of the Land and Freshwater Mollusca of the British Isles. 

Part 22, pp. 1-64 [refers to fossil and sub-fossil shells in various 

northern localities]. 

C. B. Travis. See H. W. Greenwood. 
S. J. Truscott. See F. Beyschlag. 

Naturalist, 



News from the Magazines. 175 

Arthur Vaughan. Northern Counties. 

Shift of the Western Shore-Line in England and Wales during the Avonian 
Period. Report British Association for 19 15 (Manchester), pp. 
429-430. 

J. H. L. Vogt. See F. Beyschlag. 

John Watson. Northern Counties. 

British and Foreign Marbles and other Ornamental Stones : A Descriptive 
Catalogue of the Specimens in the Sedgwick Museum, Cambridge. 

Cambridge, pp. x. -+- 485. Reviewed in The Quarry. October, pp. 
221-224. 

W. A. Whitehead. Lanes., Cheshire, Isle of Man. 

Presidential Address. The Formation of a Sandstone. Proc. Liverpool 
Geol. Soc, Part 2, Vol. XII., 1915 [received Feb. 1916], pp. 93-108. 

W. A. Whitehead. Lanes. S., Cheshire. 

Presidential Address : Sand-banks and Sand-dunes. Proc. Liverpool Geol. 
Soc, Vol. XII., Pt. 3. pp. 189-206. 

W. H. W[ilcockson]. Durham, Derbyshire. 

Flour-Spar [review of Memoir on]. Knowledge, May, p. 101. 

Albert Wilmore. Lanes. N. 

The Carboniferous Limestone Zones of N. E. Lancashire. Report British 
Association for 1915 (Manchester), pp. 427-8. 

J. R. R. Wilson. Durham, Lanes., Yorks. 

Quarries Inspection Reports, 1915. Northern Division. Quarry, Nov., 
P- 2 54- 

D. A. Wray. Lanes. S. 

A Description of the Strata exposed during the Construction of the New 
Main Outfall Sewer in Liverpool, 1915. Proc Liverpool Geol. Soc, 
Vol. XII., Pt. 3, pp. 238-251. 

D. A. Wray. See Anon. 

D. A. Wray. See R. G. Carruthers. 

D. A. Wray. See A. Strahan. 

: o : 



Mr. J. T. Marshall gives Additions to ' British Conchology,' and Prof. 
A. E. Boycott has a Preliminary Note on the Geneta'ia of Acanthi. tula 
lamellata Jeff., in The Journal of Conchology for April. 

Wild Life for February contains the following interesting notes : — 
' The Peregrine Falcon at Home,' by J. Atkinson ; ' The Click Beetle or 
Skipjack,' by O. Warner ; ' Notes on the Reed Warbler,' by J. H. Murray 
and A. M. C. Nicholl ; ' Notes on the Fallow Deer,' by J. K. Emsley ; 
' On the Protection of Birds,' by P. B. Mitford ; ' Notes on the Spoon- 
bill,' by G. S. Felton, and ' A Sea-Mews' Darien,' by A. Macdonald. 

In The Entomologist's Monthly Magazine for March, Dr. R. C. L. Per- 
kins concludes his account of the Kirby Collection of Sphecodes, etc. He 
gives particulars of a dozen changes of names which will have to be made 
in our lists : we give the first and last, from which it will be seen that these 
are rather drastic : — Melitta monilicomis K. = Sphecodes subquadratus Sm. ; 
and Andrena leucophthalma K.= Nomada borealis Nyl. Mr. H. Britten 
writes on ' Meolica exiliformis Joy, a good species', and Mr. J. B. Walsh 
' On the rarity and restricted distribution of animal — especially insect — 
species.' 

1917 May 1. 



176 

NEWS FROM THE MAGAZINES, etc. 

Knowledge and The Quarry will appear quarterly, instead of monthly, 
for the future. 

The Belfast Museum Publication No. 59, is devoted to ' Weeds, and 
How to Combat Them,' by the Curator, Mr. A. Deane. 

Mr. A. Chapman writes on Brent Geese, and Mr. W. Denison Roebuck 
on the Mollusca of Elgin, in The Scottish Naturalist for April. 

Prof. G. H. Carpenter's Presidential address to the Dublin Naturalists' 
Field Club, on ' Useful Studies for Field Naturalists,' is printed in The 
Irish Naturalist for April (pp. 66-70). 

The natural history collections at the University College, Nottingham, 
are to be transferred to Burwell Hall, which is some distance away. We 
trust that Prof. Carr, who has done so much for this Museum, will still 
be able to keep a watchful eye upon it. 

Among the papers in The Entomologist for April are ' A New Geometrid 
Moth,' by Rev. J. W. Metcalfe; ' New and Little Known British Aphides,' 
(referred to as ' Britishaphides ' ), by F. V. Theobald ; ' British Plant 
Galls,' by H. J. Burkill ; ' British Neuroptera in 1916,' by W. J. Lucas. 

In The Entomologist' s Monthly Magazine for April, Mr. W. E. Sharp 
writes on Cryptocephalus bipunctatus L., and C. biguttatus Scop. ( = bipus- 
tulatus F.) ; and Mr. G. T. Porritt describes a new variety of Abraxas 
grossulariata, bred at Huddersfield by Mr. J. Lee, to which the name 
albovarleyata is given. 

Punch draws the attention of Biologists to the fact that a recent 
writer in the Daily Mail refers to a certain octopus having antenna?. 
Presumably the point is there antenna. Personally, we don't think that 
biologists would consult either Punch or the Daily Mail as to the precise 
histological significance of the sessilc-suckered tentacles in the larger 
cephalopoda. 

The Vasculum for February contains the following items : — ' Mice, 
Voles and Shrews,' by George Bolam ; ' Some Beasts of Barn and Byre/ 
by J. E. Hull; 'Concerning Grebes,' by A. Chapman; 'Talks about 
Plant Galls,' by Richard S. Bagnall and J. W. Heslop Harrison ; ' A 
New British Midge-Gall from County Durham,' by Harry Stewart; 
' Newham Bog,' by J. E. Hull; among others. 

We regret to see the announcement of the death of the Rev. O. 
Pickard-Cambridge, M.A., F.R.S., who was born in 1828. He frequently 
wrote on entomological subjects, and had a world-wide repulation as 
an authority on Arachnida, his ' Spiders of Dorset ' being a classic. He 
also contributed a fine article on Arachnida to the ' Encyclopaedia Brit- 
annica ' (9th ed.). He frequently helped Yorkshire naturalists in their 
work among the spiders, as the pages of The Naturalist testify. 

We notice that the caretaker at the offices of a large Railway Company 
at Hull was recently summoned in respect of a light which was visible 
all night. The defence was that the rats had evidently run over the 
lever and turned the gas on. It is not stated whether the rats struck a 
match and applied it to the gas jet. We know rats are very accommo- 
dating at Hull. Even specimens of the old English black rat occasionally 
walk into the traps which are set for them in the garden at one of the 
museums there. 

The largest haul of coarse fish ever made in the River Eden has been 
made by Inspector Whyte in the Kingarth Water. He had noticed a 
large collection of fish below the ice covering a pool, and with the assist- 
ance of two other water bailiffs he managed to get a net round them below 
the ice, and when the net was hauled in about 8,000 fish, chiefly chub and 
dace, which weighed over a ton, were caught. Most of the fish were in 
spawn. The largest number taken previously in one draft from the Eden 
was about 1,300. 

Naturalist, 



SCIENCE PROGRESS 

A Quarterly Review of Scientific Thought, 
Work and Affairs. 

Editor - SIR RONALD ROSS, K.C.B., F.R.S. 



This Quarterly is now in its eleventh year of publication. Its 
object is to give all readers of wide culture and interest in science 
a knowledge of the numerous advances which are being - continually 
made in connection with scientific work and thought. Each number 
contains Recent Advances in Science (by a number of experts), 
Articles, Popular Science, Essay-Reviews, Correspondence, Notes, 
Essays, many Reviews, and a Book List. Published early every 
quarter by John Murray, 50a Albemarle Street, London W. Annual 
Subscription £1 and price of one number 5s. Subscriptions through 
bookseller or direct to the Publisher. 

"... Science Progress, which has now reached its 
thirty-ninth number, not only covers a remarkable wide 
field with great ability, but has had impressed upon it, 
by the energetic and humane spirit of its editor, a certain 
dynamic quality which makes it a force as well as a 
source of light." The Times, Literary Supplement, ^m\ 
March, 1916. 



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Printed at Browns' Savile Press, 40, George Street, Hull, and published by 
A. Brown & Sons, Limited, at 5 Farringdon Avenue, in the City of London. 

May 1st, 1917. 



JUNE 1917. 



No. 725 

(No. 501 of current t9rie$) 




A MONTHLY ILLUSTRATED JOURNAL OF 

NATURAL HISTORY FOR THE NORTH OF ENGLAND. 

EDITED BV 

T. SHEPPARD, M.Sc, F.Q.S., F.R.Q.S., F.S.A.Scot.. 

The Museums, Hull ; 

AND 

T. W. WOODHEAD, Ph.D., M.Sc, F.I/ 

Technical College, Huddersfield. 
with the assistance as referees in special departments olj u in >v ' 
J. QILBERT BAKER, P.R.S. P.L.S., GEO. T. PORR1TT, P^L.S., P.B.S., 

JOHN W. TAYLOR, M>^k tv 



Prof. P. P. KENDALL, M.Sc, F.Q.S., 

RILEY FORTUNE, F.Z.S. 



!?n«l M« 



Contents : — 

PASS 

Notes and Comments (illustrated):— Rev. O. Pickard Cambridge; Wierd Winds; The 
Vasculum ; A Coalfield in the Fenland ; The Supply of Iron Ore ; Geological Photographs ; 
The Scarborough Bronze Axes ; Yorkshire Antiquities ; Lancashire and Cheshire Ento- 
mologists ; Aclisina; Microscopic Material of the Bunter ; A New Russian Magazine; 
Leeds Conchologists and the War ; Irish Shells ; Mosquitoes, Bug», and Spiders ; King 
of Fishers " 117-184 

Economic Mycology : The Beneficial and Injurious Influences of Fungi— II'. Y. 

Cheesman,J.P.,F.L.S 185-200 

Notes on Plaaorbis and Margaritana in Iceland— Hans Schlesch 201 

In Memoriam: W. Barwell Turner (illustrated)— R 202 20", 

William Foggitt, J. P., F.L.S. (illustrated) 205-206 



Field Notes:— Mycology at Buckden ; Athcta britteni Joy, in East Yorks. 
Gulls 

Northern News 

Review 

News from the Magazines 

Illustrations 



The Storm and 



207 

184,200. 204. 206 
207 

ao8 

177. 202, 203, 20fJ 



LONDON : 

A. Brown & Sons, Limited, 5, Farringdon Avenue, E.C. 

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177 
NOTES AND COMMENTS. 

REV. O. PICKARD CAMBRIDGE.' 

Mr. Wm. Falconer writes : ' Of commanding height 
(standing well over six feet) and genial presence, the Rev. 
O. Pickard Cambridge, whose death was briefly recorded in 
our last issue (p. 176), was a familiar figure in Dorset, having 
been rector of Bloxworth for 49 years. His interest in spiders 
began so long ago as the days of Westwood, Blackwall and 




Meade. In the course of his long and eminent services to 
British Arachnology, he originally named and described nearly 
one quarter of the species on the now corrected British list, 
and by corresponding and exchanging specimens with foreign 
naturalists established the identity of such of our spiders as 
were known on the Continent under other names, and at the 
same time ascertained their correct nomenclature. Latterly, 
owing to his advanced age, he had been unable to do any 
outdoor work, but continued his annual reports on the Arach- 
nida, the last published in 1914 giving ample proof of unabated 
mental vigour. His collection, the most complete as regards 
British species, is bequeathed to the Hope Museum, Oxford 
University, his Alma Mater.' 



917 June 1, 



M 



178 Notes and Comments. 

WEIRD WINDS. 

In a note on ' The Means of Plant Dispersal : — Storm 
Columns," in The Selborne Magazine for April, the Rev. E. A. 
Woodruffe Peacock states : — ' On July 28th, 1908, there was 
another fall of outside material at Cadney, which by singular 
good luck was fully observed. I was sitting writing at my 
study table in the window, and as I looked up from my paper 
detected the grasses slowly falling from a cloudless sky. I 
seized the field-glasses and ran out to observe all that I could 
make out. This shower had been on for fully five minutes 
before I detected it, and lasted for about another ten minutes 
afterwards, judging solely by the material on the ground when 
I first ran out and the after-addition made to it. Standing on 
the footpath in the middle of the Vicarage garden, the falling 
grasses seemed to be about three feet apart. The smoke was 
going straight up from the chimneys round, and so far as I 
could detect there was not a breath of moving air. The fall 
was quite perpendicular and very gradual, but with what I 
may call a good deal of side-slip in some of the specimens. I 
put the marine sight on the field glasses and ranged the zenith. 
What distance these binoculars would carry upwards I cannot 
say, but as far as I could range with them with there was 
falling material coming from a point beyond my aided vision. 
On an average every fragment of a plant or perfect specimen 
was about a yard from the next at first, and from twenty to 
twenty-five feet when the fall was about over.' 

THE VASCULUM. 

The Vasculum for March contains some notes on ' The 
Vegetation of Sea-Sand,' by Mr. H. Jeffreys ; the Rev. J. E. 
Hull has an interesting paper on ' Natural Features in local 
Place-names ; ' Mr. J. W. H. Harrison writes on ' Sallowing ; ' 
Mr. J. S. T. Watson on ' The Nightjar ' and Mr. C. E. Robson 
reports on the Field Meetings. Mr. G. B. Walsh gives an 
account of ' The Entomologist's Bookshelf,' in which many 
works of varying worth receive a cheap advertisement. We 
doubt, however, whether any ordinary human entomologist 
has such a book-shelf. Mr. T. A. Lofthouse contributes ' A 
few Entomological Notes from Upper Teesdale,' and there are 
the usual valuable ' Notes and Records.' We eagerly looked 
to two important items named in the ' Contents,' but they 
proved to be notices of papers in the Journal of the Quekett 
Club and The Naturalist respectively. 

A COALFIELD IN THE FENLAND. 

We notice in the discussion of a paper on ' The Effects of 
Earth Movement in the Sheffield District, etc. [Trans. Inst. 
Mining. Eng.), Prof. Kendall referred to ' a very small-scale 
map that he had ventured to put before the Royal Commission 

Naturalist, 



Notes and Comments. 179 

on Coal Supplies, embodying his views as to the probable 
(or possible) extension of the concealed coalfield. That 
portion of the map which was extended in a south-easterly 
direction into the Fen country, was rather severely criticised 
by members of the Geological Survey at the time, and a member 
of the Royal Commission attached to it a name which, he 
was sorry to say, still lingered in the minds of members of the 
Commission, and was occasionally quoted — -namely, " Kendall's 
preposterous belly.' That extension of the coalfield was, 
he thought, considerably sustained and justified by the work 
that Prof. Fearnsides had done.' It is a remarkable fact that, 
of the three hypothetical boundaries of the hidden coalfield 
suggested by Professor Kendall, this, upon the south-east, 
which came in for the. most criticism, is the one most strongly 
sustained by subsequent research. 

THE SUPPLY OF IRON ORE. 

At the Royal Society of Arts recently, Professor W. G. 
Fearnsides of Sheffield, dealing with the available home supply 
of iron ore, said that of the 29 counties working ore, Yorkshire 
(Cleveland) got nearly 5,000,000 tons in 1915, from which 
1,446,413 tons of pig iron were obtained. Northampton, 
Lincoln and Cumberland were next in order, the last-mentioned 
county turning our by far the best value. The total output 
in pig iron for 1915 was 4,567,351 tons. Germany had increased 
her output of pig iron from 9,000,000 tons to 19,000,000 in 
ten years, and our own output had not increased in ratio. 
The hematitic belt extended in England from Cleveland to 
Banbury, but there were immense beds of a low grade ore in 
this country which contained a good deal of phosphorus, and, 
therefore, not so good in the furnace. Germany's great super- 
iority in output was due to the realisation of just such quality 
ore, and if our metallurgists were to exploit our own supply 
to such a good purpose as steel-making, he thought it would 
be found there was no national shortage or iron ore whatever. 

GEOLOGICAL PHOTOGRAPHS. 

Prof. W. W. Watts favours us with a copy of the Eighteenth 
Report of the Committee on Photographs of Geological Interest, 
presented at the Newcastle meeting of the British Association. * 
From this we learn that ' Mr. Bingley adds still further to 
his photographic survey of the Yorkshire coast, as well as 
sending sets from the Yorkshire Dales, from Settle and from 
Leeds. He also contributes a carefully selected set from the 
Magnesian Limestone of the Durham coast. To him we owe 
prints from Cumberland, Westmorland, Lancashire, and the 

* The seventeenth report was presented at the Sheffield meeting in 
1910. 

1917 June 1. 



180 Notes and Comments. 

Isle of Man.' Mr. Godfrey Bingley's contribution consists 
of 207 prints, including some from Cornwall. We notice 
the Carnarvonshire views were photographed by . . . ' L ' — we 
daren't even make a guess who it is ! There are now 5,656 
photographs belonging to this committee, the northern counties 
being represented by Cumberland 45, Derbyshire, 69, Durham 
210, Lancashire 86, Westmorland 93, Isle of Man 109, Yorkshire 
1,087 ! 

THE SCARBOROUGH BRONZE AXES. 

The hoard of bronze axes described in these pages for May 
has given rise to some discussion in the press. Mr. A. V. 
Machin, J. P., writing to the Yorkshire Post, says (after some 
really kind and complimentary remarks about the Hull Museum, 
which we omit) : — ' I should much like to know how it is that 
these interesting relics were not secured for the Scarborough 
Museum. Personally I would like to see the " finds " of each 
locality housed in the principal place of the neighbourhood, 
even in a place of the size of Filey, where so many interesting 
things have been found in the past 25 years. Some years 
ago I ventured to ask the Filey Urban Council if they could 
not set apart a room or do something to keep local " finds " 
together, but the Council could not see its way to do anything. 
I know there was then a prominent inhabitant who was willing 
to give of his treasures. Since those days the Rev. W. H. 
Oxley has opened a small private museum which may be seen 
on payment of a small fee, which goes towards a local charity. 
I fear a good many very interesting " finds " have left the 
neighbourhood for ever, instead of being kept in local museums 
to remain objects of interest to visitors and, what is more 
important, to be of educational value for this and future rising 
generations. I feel sure if duplicates were found in any locality 
and were secured for the local museum, Mr. Sheppard would 
probably be glad to negotiate for exchanging objects of an- 
tiquarian value, and so the local museums, say, at Scarborough, 
Filey, and Bridlington, etc., would benefit as well as the 
excellent Municipal Museum at Hull.' 

YORKSHIRE ANTIQUITIES. 

To this, as might be expected, Mr. Sheppard replied : ' I 
should like to say at once I heartily agree with Mr. Machin that 
the best place for a find of antiquities is the nearest museum, but 
it is necessary that the nearest museum should be a permanent 
institution. I believe I am correct in saying that the Scar- 
borough Museum, that at Whitby, and even those at York and 
Leeds are in the hands of private Societies, and while there is 
every reason to hope and believe that some day they may 
be permanently in the possession of the respective towns or 
cities, there is just a possible chance that they may not. Even 

Naturalist, 



Notes and Comments. 181 

the Driffield Museum, which contained a finer collection of York- 
shire pre-historic remains than all these museums put together, 
might easily have been lost to the county, if not to the country, 
were it not for the generosity of Colonel G. H. Clarke, who 
purchased it and presented it to the people of Hull. Even 
the Hull Museum itself (that is the first one we had) was at 
one time in private hands, but through the admirable arrange- 
ment made between the Literary and Philosophical Society 
and the Corporation, is now public property. When that 
grand day arrives that each of our Yorkshire museums becomes 
public property and its permanency is assured, doubtless 
some such exchange as Mr. Machin suggests can be made. 
I know of many specimens in most of the museums mentioned 
which, in my opinion, should be in Hull.' 



LANCASHIRE AND CHESHIRE EMTOMOLOGISTS. 

At a recent meeting of the Lancashire and Cheshire En- 
tomological Society, a discussion and exhibition of ' Backyard 
Insects,' to which most of the members contributed, was the 
leading feature of the meeting. Mr. West contributed the 
following Diptera from St. Helens, viz. : — Chrysis ignata, 
C. rubii, Thereva nobilata, the silver-tail fly ; Leptis scolopacea, 
L. lineola, Sarcophaga carnaria, and several species of Doli- 
chopodidse. Mr. F. N. Pierce exhibited Blastotere glabratella 
Zell., an argyresthid moth belonging to the illuminatella group, 
captured near Repton, Derbyshire, by Mr. C. H. Hayward. 
The species was introduced to the British list by Lord Wal- 
singham in 1906 from specimens taken in Norfolk, and it has 
since been captured near Kings Lynn by Mr. Atmore ; the 
Derbyshire record therefore seems to indicate that it is spreading 
in Britain. Mr. Pierce also exhibited a series of drawings of 
the male genitalia of the Palaearctic Psychidae executed by the 
Rev. C. R. N. Burrows from his own recent preparations. 
Mr. W. Mansbridge showed a series of Scoparia ambigualis 
and its melanic variations from the West Riding and East 
Lancashire. Mr. Mansbridge also read a paper describing the 
work and methods of the Lancashire and Cheshire Fauna 
Committee. Mr. F. N. Pierce showed series of Catoptria 
czmulana, C. tripoliana, and from the late S. Stevens' collection, 
a series of reputed C. decolorana ; also a supposed specimen of 
Eupcecilia manniana which, from an examination of the geni- 
talia, he had found to be a dwarfed Argyrolepia cnicana. Mr. 
S. P. Doudney had a long series of Porthesia similis from wild 
larvae taken on the same hedgerow at Huyton, near Liverpool, 
in which many of the females had the tail-tufts brown instead 
of yellow, except for a slight admixture of yellow hairs ; all 
the males were normal. 

1917 June 1. 



182 Notes and Comments. 

ACLISINA. 

At a recent meeting of the Geological Society of London, 
Mrs. Longstaff read a paper on Aclisina and Aclisoides, with 
descriptions of six new species. The diagnoses of these were 
given, and a species named by Mr. H. Bolton Loxonema 
ashtonensis is referred to this genus, as several specimens 
show the characteristic lines of growth. The total number, of 
species of Aclisina is now brought up to twenty-two, and there 
are besides several varieties. A small variety of Aclisina 
pulchra De Koninck appears to have continued for the greatest 
length of time, commencing in the Calciferous Sandstone Series, 
existing throughout the Lower and Upper Limestone Series 
and on into the Millstone Grit of Scotland. Additional ob- 
servations are also made on Aclisoides striatula De Koninck, 
showing its variation in size and ornamentation, as well as its 
range throughout the Lower and Upper Carboniferous Series 
of Scotland, its occurrence at Settle and Poolvash, and at 
Tournai as well as Vise. 

MICROSCOPIC MATERIAL OF THE BUNTER. 

At the same meeting, Mr. T. H. Burton read a paper on 
' The Microscopic Material of the Bunter Pebble-Beds of 
Nottinghamshire and its Probable Source of Origin.' As 
shown by the distribution of the heavy minerals, combined 
with (a) the direction of the dip in the cross-bedding, (b) the 
evidence adduced by boreholes and shaft-sinkings, a main 
current from the west is indicated. In the neighbourhood of 
Gorsethorpe this current bifurcated, one division flowing east- 
wards, the other running south-eastwards. A large quantity 
of the material is derived from metamorphic areas, as shown 
by the presence of staurolite, shimmer-aggregates, microcline, 
sillimanite, and kyanite. The source of the bulk of the material 
is probably Scotland, and the westward adjoining the vanished 
land, from rocks similar in the main to those of the metamorphic 
and Torridonian areas known in that country. Minor supplies 
came from the neighbouring Pennine ridge, and from other 
surrounding tracts of high land. The material was transmitted 
by means of a north-western river and its tributaries, flowing 
into the Northern Bunter Basin. During certain flood periods 
this river overflowed across Derbyshire, carrying its load of 
sediment, much of which was deposited, as it is now found, 
in the Pebble-Beds of Nottinghamshire. 

A NEW RUSSIAN MAGAZINE. 

As we have recently recorded the decease of a number of 
British scientific journals, it is with some satisfaction to record 
a new Russian scientific journal, the Revue Zoologique Russe, 
edited by A. N. Sewertzoff and W. S. Elpatiewsky, the English 
agents for which are Messrs. Witherby & Co. The articles 

Naturalist 



Notes and Comments. 183 

are in Russian, French and English ; most of them apparently 
in both Russian and French. Among the papers are ' Les sper- 
matozoides de l'lsodactyle ' ; ' Le systeme nerveux du somite 
chez Pontobdella muricata L ' ; ' The Removal and Trans- 
plantation of the Auditory Vesicle of the Embryo of Bufo 
(the correlation at the formation of the cartilaginous skeleton).' 
There is also a Bibliography of current literature. There are 
plates and other illustrations. 

LEEDS CONCHOLOGISTS AND THE WAR. 

Of the Leeds Conchological Club, which consists of about a 
score of members, three are, or have been, in the Army on active 
service or in training — Private Walter Withell, Leeds, 15th 
Battalion West Yorkshire Regiment, was wounded and dis- 
abled on the first day of the Battle of the Somme, when he 
was in the leading company of the leading battalion of his 
division. Has collected shells in Egypt and at Serre, in France, 
as well as in camp in Wiltshire, and in hospital at Dorchester 
after his war services. Second Lieutenant C. Theodore Cribb, 
of Shipley, was in the Army Service Corps as Andriencq in the 
Dep. Pas de Calais ; made large collections of the shells of 
that district. His list will appear in the Journal of Con- 
chology and will be a notable contribution to the malacology 
of France. He is now in Sussex, training for the Royal Field 
Artillery, is using his spare moments in working at Sussex 
mollusca, and has already sent an addition to the recorded 
fauna. 

IRISH SHELLS. 

Signaller Ernest Stainton, B.Sc, of Doncaster, of the 2nd 
Sixth Battalion Scottish Rifles, is in training at Kilworth Camp, 
near Fermoy, County Cork. He is at present utilizing his 
spare time to great advantage, investigating the mollusca of 
the Fermoy district, and has already sent a large number to 
Mr. W. Denison Roebuck for record, who will probably draw 
up and publish a report of his work for The Irish Naturalist. 
This is not a bad record for a little society, when all its service 
members do good work and utilize the scanty opportunities 
they have. 

MOSQUITOES, BUGS AND SPIDERS. 

The British Museum (Natural History) has recently issued 
three of its ' Economic Series ' of publications, which are 
especially valuable at the present time. One, dealing with 
' Mosquitoes and their Relation to Disease : their Life History, 
Habits and Control,' is by F. W. Edwards. Another, by 
B. F. Cummings, refers to ' The Bed-Bug : its Habits and 
Life-History and how to deal with it.' Like the preceding, 
this is sold at one penny. A more substantial pamphlet 
describes ' Species of Arachnida and Myriopoda (Scorpions, 

1917 June 1. 



184 Northern News. 

Spiders, Mites, Ticks and Centipedes) Injurious to Man/ and 
is by S. Hirst (60 pp., 6d.). All three are well illustrated, 
the last having twenty-six text figures and three plates. The 
British Museum is certainly doing good work in publishing 
these useful monographs so cheaply. 

KING OF FISHERS. 

O ! blue bird of Yore, 'mid its sallows galore, 

What time the bare wythes are whip wandy ; 
A rainbow you make as wet diamonds you shake 

From the penns that endue you a dandy ; 
But if only you knew, as flash ! by me you flew, 

What thoughts you inspire — yet, No, 
You act on a need all amoral, no meed 

Save exist and subsist — be it so. 
A minnow's live inch you spear on the lynch, 

Of a bank, or weir's bollard green-moss'd ; 
Your cravings so say it, and straightway you slay it — 

Your daring the rubicon crossed ; 
For nature recks naught of a human law taught ; 

As with your gaunt fere the grue heron. 
Nor Reason may spean from its trick of rapine, 

Its purpose a new brood to spur on. 
We, therefore, condone, since " for each scale its bone ; " 

Low, food for the Higher, by venvil, not grace, 
So, Kingfisher, you ; the true " Bolt from the blue "— 

Thy cache of globes glossy, hatched, plead well your case. 

April 14th, 1917. F. Arnold Lees.* 



We learn from the press that at the Annual Meeting of the Zoological 
Society recently, it was stated that the total number of animals had been 
very greatly reduced, partly because the large animals that had died during 
the war had not been replaced, and partly because many animals which 
could be replaced in normal times had been destroyed. There was a 
corresponding reduction in the consumption of food, and the principle 
had been adopted of using only food unsuitale for human consumption. 
At least six of the penguins have recently died as a result, it is said, of 
the abnormally damp and protracted winter. 

It has remained for an American weekly paper to distinguish the 
difference between birds and birds. It was like this : A young woman 
entered a bookshop in Chicago and asked the help of the clerk in selecting 
suitable reading. She especially desired some native American fiction, 
she said. " Why not try Allen's ' Kentucky Cardinal ' ? " said the sales- 
man, taking a copy of the book off the shelf. " That's a very popular 
book." " No ; I don't think I care for those theological stories," said 
the lady. " But this cardinal was a bird ! " "I am not interested in 
the scandals of his private life," replied the young woman, and out she 
walked. 

* In The Yorkshire Post. 

Naturalist, 



185 

ECONOMIC MYCOLOGY : THE BENEFICIAL AND 
INJURIOUS INFLUENCES OF FUNGI.* 



W. N. CHEESMAN, J. P., F.L.S. 

We meet for the third time under the cloud of a great European 
War, the most terrible war the world has ever seen. Let us 
hope that when the successful end is accomplished, and the 
silver lining comes into sight, means will be adopted to prevent 
the repetition of such a world's calamity. 

May nations in the future strive only to excel in the peaceful 
arts and sciences, and in the production of things which may 
tend to the happiness and betterment of mankind. 

Already the attitude of the public mind towards science in 
relation to commerce and industry is hopeful and encouraging. 

Although Mr. Crossland, in his Presidential Address in 1908, 
acknowledged the part taken by the early workers in Mycology, 
I feel that no reference should be made to Yorkshire Mycology 
without expressing deep appreciation of the great help rendered 
to the workers by Mr. George Massee, for many years the head 
of the Cryptogamic Department in the Royal Herbarium at 
Kew, and who for forty years has been the mainstay of the 
section in our county, f 

Others who have rendered yeoman service in their time, 
and who have passed away may be mentioned : The Revd. 
Canon Fowler, Dr. Franklin Parsons, R. H. Philip, H. T. 
Soppitt and William West. 

All honour and appreciation is due to our esteemed veteran 
and past President of the Union, the late Charles Crossland, 
who for many years laboured most assiduously and successfully 
in the Mycological work of the county. We have still with 
us energetic workers in the persons of Dr. Harold Wager 
(Chairman of the Mycological section), Alfred Clarke, Thomas 
Gibbs, Sir Henry Hawley and others, all of whom are doing 
useful work in their different departments. 

To define a group of plants of such varying characters as 
the Fungi is not an easy matter. The number of species is 
computed to be over seventy thousand, the forms, sizes and 
colours of which range over an enormous extent. Perhaps the 
most concise definition is' ' Cryptogams minus chlorophyll,' 
meaning that they belong to one of the lowest groups of 
vegetation, having the reproductive organs hidden or concealed, 
and that they are devoid of chlorophyll, the green colouring 

* Being the Presidential Address to the Yorkshire Naturalists' Union, 
delivered at Selby on December 2nd, 1916. 

■j- Since the above was written we have had to deplore the loss of 
both Geo. Massee and Chas. Crossland. 

.1917 June l. 



186 The Beneficial and Injurious Influences of Fungi. 

matter of plants ; thus they are unable to elaborate their 
food from inorganic matter and can only subsist as parasites 
or saprophytes on organic substances. 

The economic value of Fungi is of greater importance to 
mankind than that of any of the other classes of Cryptogamia, 
although they are generally supposed to militate for injury 
rather than for benefit. Certainly in many ways Fungi are 
injurious to man, but the good services they render balance 
their occasional devastations. Truly Fungi may be rightly 
called ' Nature's Refuse Destructors,' for they have the power 
of reducing to the natural elements the accumulations of 
non-living vegetable and animal substances, which, but for 
these powers of operation would soon render many parts of 
the world untenantable. 

The spores of Fungi are so small and light that they float 
in the air in considerable quantities, and the work of des- 
truction at once commences when the spores alight on material 
forming a suitable nidus, given the requisite amount of moisture 
and warmth. 

Their power of multiplication is enormous (much greater 
than that of any other class of organisms), and when their 
allotted task is accomplished they swiftly disappear after 
running their life's course, diffusing their spores in the atmos- 
phere ready again for similar destructive work, like the com- 
parison of motor and horse traction, where the former only 
requires feeding when active service is required, and the latter 
needing food whether at work or at rest, so the Fungi spring 
suddenly into existence when their services are required, 
complete their work of destruction, and then returning to their 
latent unnoticed state, ready, however, at a moments warning, 
again to be developed. 

Other benefits which mankind derive from Fungi may be 
mentioned : (i.) Their value as a food supply ; (ii.) Their uses 
in medicine ; and (hi.) In the arts of brewing, cheesemaking, 
tanning, &c. 

That the ancients were acquainted with the food value of 
Fungi is proved by allusions to the same in many of the classical 
writings. The botanical remains of Theophrastus (d. B.C. 
287), contain several references to Boleti (under which name 
all large fungi went) describing iheir forms, habitats and 
qualities. Nicander, the poet-physician, who flourished a 
century later, in his work on ' Poisons and their Antidotes,' 
enumerates several species of fungi which were considered to 
be poisonous, the growth of which he attributes to ' fermenta- 
tion,' and recommending amongst other remedies a mustard 
emetic for those who had inadvertently eaten poisonous 
Fungi. 

The ' Materia Medica ' of Dioscorides (circa A.D. 50) 

Naturalist, 



The Beneficial and Injurious Influences of Fungi. 187 

describes between 500 and 600 plants, chiefly medicinal ; in 
it is the first mention of the word Agaricum, which word has 
been adopted by modern mycologists for the large group of 
gilled Fungi of which we have in Britain over a thousand 
species. Dioscorides says : ' Fungi (fivKpqes) have a twofold 
difference, for they are either good for food or poisonous,' and 
indicates one species as being useful for ' imparting a sweet 
taste to sauces,' also recommending that the edible fungi 
be cooked in oil and with much honey. 

Pliny (b. A.D. 23) tells us in his ' Natural History ' much 
about the preparation of the dishes of Boleti which was one 
of the luxuries of the wealthy Romans. The Fungi were to be 
prepared by the epicures themselves with amber knives and 
silver service, and were never to be trusted in the hands of 
servants, for he says it would be safer to send silver or gold by 
a messenger than to trust him with Boleti. ' Argentum atque 
aurum facile est laenamque togamque mittere : Boletos mittere 
difficile est.'— Ep. XIII. 48. 

The correct description given by Pliny of several of the edible 
Fungi enables us to recognise some well-known species. 

The death of Claudius Caesar (A.D. 54) by poisoning was 
attributed to a dish of his favourite Boleti prepared by the 
Empress Agrippina, but whether the poison was originally 
in the Fungi or introduced by Agrippina (as Pliny asserts), 
we are not in a position now to determine, but the case will 
suffice to show that the eating of Fungi by the wealthy Romans 
was prevalent, and by them esteemed a luxury, notwithstanding 
the constant warnings against the possibility of poisoning. 

These warnings, which were so frequently given by the 
ancient writers, might serve as an argument against the use 
of Fungi as an article of diet, but we must bear in mind the 
crude state of botanical knowledge, especially in mycology, 
which the ancients had, and their ignorance of structure, 
affinities, classification and chemical properties which the 
mycologists of the twentieth century possess. The number 
of species of Fungi named and recognised by the ancient bot- 
anists would probably not exceed a score and these were the 
large species considered to be suitable for food. The absence 
of proper descriptive characters would lead to mistakes being 
made, often with serious consequences. 

It may be of interest to state what a very distinguished 
Selby botanist wrote three hundred years ago. This Selby 
born man, Thomas Johnson by name, wrote an amended 
edition of Gerard's Herbal in 1633, and in the chapter on Fungi, 
he says :— 

' Some mushrumes grow forth of the earth, other upon the 
bodies of old trees, which differ altogether in kindes. Many 
wantons that dwell neere the sea, and have fish at will, are 

1917Junel. 



188 The Beneficial and Injurious Influences of Fungi. 

very desirous for change of diet to feed upon the birds of the 
mountaines ; and such as dwell upon the hills or champion 
grounds do long after sea fish ; many that have plenty of 
both do hunger after the earthy excrescences called Mushromes ; 
whereof some are very venomous and full of poyson, others 
not so noisome ; and neither of them very wholesome meate, 
wherefore for the avoiding of the venomous quality of the 
one, and that the other which is less venomous may be discerned 
from it, I have thought good to set forth their figures with their 
names and places of growth.' * 

' Divers esteeme those for the best which ggrow in medowes 
and upon mountaines and hilly places, as Horace saith, lib. 
ser. 2. Satyr 4 : 

pratensibus optima fungis. 

Natura est, alijs, male creditur. 

The medow Mushroms are in kind the best. 
It is ill trusting any of the rest. 

Galen affirms that in their Temperature and Virtues, they 
are very cold and moist, and therefore to approach unto a 
venomous and muthering facultie, and ingender a clammy, 
pituitous and cold nutriment if they be eaten. To conclude, 
few of them are good to be eaten, and most of them do suffocate 
and strangle the eater. Therefore I give my advice unto those 
that love such strange and new fangled meates, to beware 
of licking honey among thornes, least the sweetnesse of the 
one do not countervaile the sharpnesse and pricking of the 
other.' 

Parkinson divides the group into Fungi esculenti (32 sp.) 
and Fungi pernitiosi (32 sp.), finishing with ' Thus have I 
shewed you all the kindes and sorts of Mushromes, both 
wholesome and dangerous.' 

This was written in 1640, so we may assume that at least 
sixty-four species of Fungi were then known and recognised. 

Carolus Clusius, who was born at Antwerp in 1526, published 
his book entitled ' Rariorum Plantarum Historia,' in which he 
gives an appendix on ' Mushromes,' observing that they grew 
more abundantly in moist weather after thunder. It is left 
for the present day mycologist to explain the cause of this. 
Massee thinks that the nitric acid generated in the atmosphere 
by the thunder is brought down by the rain thus accelerating 
the growth of fungi. The same cause is given for the curdling 
of milk and souring of beer in thundery weather. 

That thunder exercised some peculiar power in producing 

* Gerard's Herbal, 2nd edition, by Thos. Johnson, 1633. With all 
respect to my fellow townsmen, I venture to think that had he lived in 
this twentieth century, he would probably be standing before you as the 
President of the Yorkshire Naturalists' Union, and expressing similar 
thoughts to those I have the honour of lay before you. 

Naturalist. 



The Beneficial and Injurious Influences of Fungi. 189 

fungi was an opinion current among the ancients, and Plutarch 
has given us a long and curious dissertation in his ' Symposiacs' 
(Book IV.) on the question ' Why fungi are thought to be 
produced by thunder.' At a certain supper in Elis, where 
large truffles were found, some of extraordinary size were 
set on the table. Many of the guests seemed to wonder, 
whereupon some individual jokingly referred to the thunder- 
storms which had lately happened as being the cause of their 
appearance, meaning to deride the popular opinion as absurd ; 
whereupon Agemachus, the worthy host prayed the company 
not to conclude a thing was incredible because it was strange 
and wonderful. The influence of thunder rains on truffles 
is referred to by Juvenal, who also speaks of the great estima- 
tion in which they were held — 

' Post hunc tradentur tubera, si ver 
Tunc erit et facient optata tonitrua ca?nas 
Majores, Tibi habe frumentum, Alledius inquit, 
O Libye ; disjunge boves, dum tubera mittas ! ' 

Sat. V., 116-119. 

The economic value of Fungi as an article of food is un- 
doubted. During these strenuous times when everyone is 
advising war economy, it behoves us to look round and see 
how we can further utilise the ' fruits of the earth ' for increasing 
our food supplies ; and it is somewhat sad to see the vast quan- 
tities of edible and nutritious fungi which every season are 
allowed to waste for want of knowledge as to their food value. 

They surpass all other vegetable products in the richness 
of their proteids, and as the percentage of nitrogen is an indica- 
tion of nutritive value the following examples are quoted of 
percentages of nitrogen in dried fungi : — 
Cantharellus Boletus Russula Lactarius Agaricus Morel Truffle 

3-22 47 4-27 4-68 7-26 8-23 15-35 

In comparison with other vegetable foods the percentages 
of proteids are : — 

Truffle Morel Mushroom Lentil Peas Wheat Rye Potatoes Turnips, etc. 
35 36-25 26-31 29-33 28-02 16 12 1/5 1-5 

Even the poisonous fungi contain much nutritious food 
material and would be equally valuable if their poisonous 
elements could be eliminated, some of which are volatile and 
can be dispersed by high cooking, others are rendered innocuous 
by the application of vinegar and salt. 

A short list of exulent Fungi, nearly all of which have 
been tested at the Forays of the Mycological Section. 

Spring Species. 

Marasmius oreades Fairy ring champignon. 

Tricholoma gambosum St. George's Mushroom. 

Morchella esculenta Morel. 

1917 June 1. 



190 The Beneficial and Injurious Influences of Fungi. 
Autumn Species. 

Amanita rubescens Blusher. 

Amanitopsis vaginatus Grisette. 

Armillaria mucida Beech tuft. 

Lepiota procera Parasol. 

Tricholoma personatum Blue-stalk. 

T. nudum Wood blewit. 

T. grammopodium Striped Stalk. 

Pleurotus ostreatus Oyster of the Woods. 

Agaricus campestris Pasture Mushroom. 

A. arvensis Meadow Mushroom. 
Coprinus comatus Shaggy Inkcap. 

C. atramentarius Smooth Inkcap. 

Hygrophorus pratensis Field Apricot. 

H. niveus Snowdrop. 

Lactarius deliciosus. Delicious Red-Milk. 

Cantharellus cibarius Chanterelle. 

Boletus edulis Dainty bolet. 

B. scaber Rough bolet 
Fistulina hepatica Beefsteak. 
Hydnum repandum Wood urchin. 
Clavaria vermicularis White Coral Tufts. 
Lycoperdon giganteum Giant Puff Ball. 
Helvetia crispa Brittle Helvel. 
Peziza badia Brown Elf Cup. 

P. vesiculosa Bladder Elf Cup. 

The question at once arises : How can this vast supply of 
food be made available for public use ? 

There are many ways of doing this which quickly suggest 
themselves to our minds. 

Instruction in schools should be given of some elementary 
knowledge of Fungi ; models and coloured illustrations, like 
the large wall maps prepared by Worthington Smith and others, 
might with great advantage be exhibited in schools, and the 
scholars invited to collect and compare specimens with the 
models and illustrations, and by periodical exhibitions of 
named specimens. In the Nature Study Classes, which are 
formed mainly of the teaching community, there is a great 
amount of ignorance with regard to the nature of Fungi, 
especially their edible and poisonous properties and their 
economic importance generally, some progress is being made, 
but much more remains to be done to remove this ignorance 
and prejudice. 

It must be borne in mind that there is no golden rule to 
distinguish the good from the bad, such as the peeling of the 
cuticle, or testing with silver spoon or golden ring or such like 
fancies, but the characters of a dozen good eatable species are 
as soon acquired as those of a dozen flowering plants. 

In many of the continental countries Fungi are more used 
for food than with us in England. They are not only used 
in the fresh state but are preserved or dried for winter use. 
Here the only one generally used is the common Mushroom, 

Naturalist, 



The Beneficial and Injurious Influences of Fungi. 191 

but in France and Italy other species are more esteemed, as 
a visit to the markets testifies. In many places an inspector 
of Fungi examines and gives certificates for the sale of Fungi 
brought to the market and condemns that of a doubtful nature. 

Ergot of Rye Claviceps purpurea (of which I shall later on 
have to mention as a pest), holds a place in the Materia Medica 
on account of its active principles and is employed as a vaso- 
constrictor in uterine haemorrhage. 

The Giant Puff ball, Lycoperdon covista, is still used in our 
country places as a styptic. Even a century ago, important 
surgical operations were performed under its influence as an 
anodyne and styptic. 

The mycelium of Chlorosplenium aeruginosum stains wood 
a rich blue-green colour and the wood thus coloured was 
much used formerly for many ornamental purposes. 

Cheese ripening is due to fermentation caused by bacteria, 
and the blue mottled colouring and flavour to the mould 
Penicillium glaucum which develops readily in the spaces of 
unpressed cheese like Stilton, Wensleydale and Gorgonzola, 
whilst in pressed cheeses of a more homogeneous nature like 
Cheddar and Cheshire, the spores of the fungus are unable to 
mature owing to lack of air and oxygen which the intertices 
of the former cheeses provide. 

Brewing and Wine and Cyder making are dependent on 
Yeast, Saccharomyces cerevisice, for the conversion of the sugar 
in the wort into alcohol, emitting during the process C0 2 
(carbonic acid gas). 

It is found that the terminal rootlets of some plants are 
are invested with fungus hyphae forming root caps which do 
not appear to be detrimental to the host but are in some 
cases actually necessary to the existence of the plant. This 
partnership or cohabitation has been termed symbiosis, and 
the organs performing the symbiosis of root and fungus have 
been named mycorhiza or fungus-roots which seem to perform 
the functions of root hairs. 

Symbiosis is known to occur in several Orders and Genera 
of plants, viz., Cupuliferae, Salicaceae, Abietineae, etc., certain 
of the Orchideae and some of the Ferns and Lycopods. These 
fungus-roots are found where much humus exists in the soil 
and are absent from the roots of plants growing in poor soil 
with small humus content. The fungus is able to utilise the 
organic material of the humus and convey it directly in some 
form to the plant. Although the case is still sub judice, it is 
possible that these fungus-nurses contribute more to the sus- 
tenance of the higher plants, including the cereals and forest 
trees, than has hitherto been supposed. 

It is known to farmers that the Leguminosae (Peas, Beans, 
Vetches, Clover, etc.) in conjunction with certain species of 

1917 June 1. 



192 -The Beneficial and Injurious Influences of Fungi. 

soil bacteria, have the power of fixing the atmospheric nitrogen 
and storing it up in their roots- in the form of nodules, which 
act beneficially on the following crops. This action of the 
nitrifying bacteria is produced under the influence of the fungus 
Rhizobium leguminosarum. 

The Leguminous plants develop these root tubercles most 
readily in soil deficient in nitrogenous food substance and less 
in soil rich in humus and nitrogenous matter. 

Virgil (b. B.C. 70), when writing on the cultivation of the 
soil in his Georgics, Book I., is aware of the advantage of a 
corn crop following a leguminous one when he says : 

' . . . . where, vetches, pulse, and tares have stood, 
And stalks of lupines grew (a stubborn wood), 
The ensuing season, in return, will bear 
The bearded product of the golden year : ' 

Dryden's Translation. 

Having said so much for the good influences of Fungi, we 
may now consider how they militate to the injury of mankind, 
by lessening the food supply or by damaging its quality by 
means of the many forms of plant diseases which go by the 
names of smut, rust, mildew and blight in corn, canker and 
rot in fruit, ' demic ' disease in potatoes, and many others so 
well-known to farmers, gardeners and timber growers. 

The number of diseases to which human flesh is heir, 
is exceeded by the number of diseases to which plants are liable ; 
and as the study of human diseases has resulted in the allevi- 
ating and in the prevention of much suffering and loss of life ; 
so the study of the life history of these fungal diseases furnishes 
us with the means of combating them, and thereby lessening 
the loss on our corn and fruit crops and our timber supplies. 

Such knowledge empowers us with the means to receive 
the most good from the hands of Nature and to avoid that 
which might be injurious. 

It is not easy to estimate the world's annual loss from the 
depredations of Fungi, but competent authorities are agreed 
that the total loss caused by fungi to corn, fruit and timber 
exceeds £300,000,000 per annum, much of which could be 
averted by remedial measures. 

In this direction reference may be made to the statistics 
issued by the Agricultural Department of the United States 
where plant diseases are more studied than in any other part 
of the world. 

The principal estimated losses recorded are as follows : — 
The annual loss from Rust in Wheat ... ... £15,000,000 

,, ,, Potato Disease ... ... £7,000,000 

,, ,, Vine Disease in California £2,000,000 

,, Smut in Wheat ... ... £3,000,000 

,, Bitter-rot in Apples ... £2,000,000 

Naturalist, 



The Beneficial and Injurious Influences of Fungi. 193 

totaling, with some of the minor diseases, to over £50,000,000 
per annum. The Prussian statistics for the year 1891 estimate 
the injuries to corn crops alone, to be over £20,000,000. 

No statistics are available for Britain, France, Russia, 
Canada, Australia or South America. 

These figures will suffice to emphasize the destructive 
effect of plant diseases when not under control. 

One of the most destructive of the parasitic fungi is the 
Rust of wheat (Puccinia graminis) which affects the leaves 
so much as to lessen the vitality of the plant, thereby reducing 
considerably the quality and quantity of the corn produced. 

This fungus pest has been known for thousands of years ; 
many of the ancient writers refer to it, Pliny several times 
mentions it, and in one passage calls it ' the greatest pest of 
the crops.' They tried to account for its presence in various 
ways such as evil spirits, * the weather, lightning, blight, wrath of 
the Almighty, etc. Virgil suspected the proximity of Juniper 
bushes to be the cause when he says : 

' From Juniper unwholesome dews distil, 
That blast the sooty corn, the withering herbage kill.' 

Pastoral X. 

The Romans held on April 25th in each year a festival called 
Rubigalia to implore their deities to ward off the Rust disease 
and to protect their crops from this fungus pest. 

The study of the life history of this Rust disease has been 
for many years pursued by plant pathologists on account of 
its importance economically, and of its great interest biologically 
as it passes through three well-defined stages in its existence, 
each of which was formerly considered a separate entity. 

The first appears in spring on the leaves of Barberry and 
shrubs of that natural order in the form of yellow cluster 
cups producing spores (aecidiospores) which, when carried by 
wind and other agencies, infect the young wheat plants, 
causing them in a few weeks to have a rusty appearance due 
to small bright orange patches filled with power (uredospores) 
and the infection of the surrounding plants quickly takes 
place. From these same patches, a few weeks later, another 
set of spores arise, purple black in colour (teleutospores) which 
lie dormant all the winter and infect the Barberry leaves in 
spring. 

For two or three centuries past it was noticed that the 
presence of the Barberry had an injurious effect upon the wheat 
crops, and a law was passed in 1755 for the extirpation of all 
Barberry bushes in the province of Massachusetts in America, 

* . . . The foul fiend Flibbertigibbet mildews the white wheat. 

King Lear, Act III., Scene IV. 

1917 June 1. 



194 The Beneficial and Injurious Influences of Fungi. 

but the biological connection between the three forms of the 
pest was not suspected until Professor De Bary in 1864 proved 
by cultures that they were three stages in the life history of the 
fungus plant Puccinia graminis. 

The wild barberry is absent from this district but the Rust 
disease is very prevalent, and there is still some uncertainty 
how the first gets over the winter months under these circum- 
stances. Experts are of opinion that the uredo or summer 
spores perpetuate the disease by infecting grasses in sheltered 
places and perhaps by the mycelium of the uredospore lying 
dormant in the grain. 

Nearly two hundred species of Rusts have this heteroecious 
mode of life. 

The Bunt in Wheat ( Tilletia Tritici) is another pest which 
unlike the Rust completes its life-cycle on the same plant, 
infecting it at an early period and growing up through the 
season in the tissues of its host, appearing at harvest as black 
spore masses within the chaff. When this sooty mass is 
bruised, it emits a disagreeable fishy odour which is often 
perceptible in the holds of wheat-laden ships, indicating its 
presence in the wheat-growing countries abroad. 

The infection takes place whilst the plant is in the seedling 
stage and it is noticed that where a plant is infected, it is always 
found that every ear of the plant and every grain in each 
ear is destroyed. This would not always be the case if the 
plant was infected at maturity by spores conveyed by the 
wind or other agencies. 

The disease is more prevalent in spring-sown than in autumn 
sown corn, the reason being that the late autumn weather is 
not so favourable to spore germination as the spring, and in 
the case of autumn-sown wheat the young plant by springtime 
is proof against infections. 

Gerard the botanist, writing in 1597, on the pests of the 
Corn Crops, says : — ■ 

I. Hordeum ustum or Ustilago Hordei, is that burnt 
or blasted Barly which is altogether unprofitable and good 
for nothing, an enemy unto corne ; for that instead of an 
eare with corne there is nothing els but blacke dust, which 
spoileth bread or whatsoever is made thereof. 

II. Burnt Otes or Ustilago Avenae or Avenacea is 
likewise an unprofitable plant, degenerating from Otes, as 
the other from barly, rie and wheat. It were in vain to 
make a long harvest of such evil corne, considering it is 
not possessed with one good qualitie. And therefor thus 
much shall suffice for the description. 

III. Burnt Rie hath no one good property in physicke 
appropriate either to Man, Birds, or Beast and is an hurtful 
maladie unto all Corne where it groweth, having an ear in 

Naturalist, 



The Beneficial and Injurious Influences of Fungi. 195 

shape like to Corne, but in stead of graine it doth yeeld a 
blacke pouder or dust, which causeth bread to looke blacke, 
and to have an evill tast : and that Corne where it is, is 
called smootie Corne and the thing it self, Burnt Corne, or 
Blasted Corne. 

Three woodcuts are given, perhaps the oldest pictures 
known of the effects of the pest Ustilago. These woodcuts, 
illustrating Gerard's Herbal, were printed from blocks procured 
from Frankfort, being the same blocks which had been used for 
the ' Kreuterbuch,' the German Herbal of Tabernaemontanus 
in 1588. 

Ergot of Rye (Claviceps purpurea) produces terrible effects 
when taken into the alimentary canal by man or animals, 
causing gangrene of the extremeties and other maladies. 
It has the effect of causing muscular contraction and by stopping 
the supply of fresh blood to the limbs causes them to rot and 
fall off. It is also extremely injurious to sheep and cattle during 
the breeding season. Ergot may be observed in almost every 
rye field during June and July by the blackish horn-like growths 
taking the place of the grain and projecting from the ears often 
an inch or more in length. Many of these sclerotia( = compacted 
mycelium) fall to the ground and remain dormant until the 
spring, when they produce small drumstick-like bodies covered 
with flask-shaped cavities filled with spores which, when 
liberated, infect the flowers of the corn. Many of the grasses 
and sedges are affected with ergot in a similar manner to the 
corn crops and are able to convey the infection to the cereals, 
although it is noticed that the ergots on grasses vary their 
time of germination to suit the flowering period of their hosts. 

That the ergot of grasses infect corn was suggested last 
summer by the appearance of a rye field on the edge of a 
common in the Selby district which was affected to quite ten 
per cent, whilst near by the wild grasses Lolium perenne and 
Holcus lanatus were similarly affected, but in the part of the 
field distant from the grasses the infection of the crop did 
not reach one per cent. In this country, where the practice 
of crop rotation is generally followed, the diseases of the crops 
are not so virulent as where constant growth of the same crop 
prevails, the interval being usually sufficient for the decay 
of the resting spores although the vitality of some species is 
remarkable, for instance, Ergot. In the spring of 1916, some 
sclerotia of this, labelled July, 1880, was taken from the 
cabinet and placed on moist sand in a Petrie dish, and in about 
a month several ascophores of Claviceps purpurea were developed 
so that the thirty-six years of complete dessication had not 
destroyed the vitality of the plant. 

Crop rotation has been able to ward off the Black Wart 
disease of Potatoes (Synchytrium solani), a pest which has 

1917 June 1. 



196 The Beneficial and Injurious Influences of Fungi. 

lingered for several years in some allotment gardens near 
Selby, where year by year the potato is the staple crop but 
is quite unknown to the farmers in the district where the 
usual crop rotation is observed, although experiments at Kew 
prove that the resting-spores in the soil are capable of imparting 
the disease for five years. The spores are 40 X yofx diam. and 
are not so easily carried by the wind as are those of Phytoph- 
thora infestans, which measure only 25 X 15/j.. 

The Potato Disease (Phytophthora infestans), which causes 
such enormous losses in favourable seasons, made its appearance 
in this country in 1845, and is now known in every part of the 
globe where the potato is grown. 

In dry weather, it does not assert itself, but when favoured 
by moist warm weather the disease becomes of serious im- 
portance. The usual mode of infection is through the leaves 
by conidia brought by the wind. Each conidium contains 
six or eight oospores which when liberated germinate at once 
on the moist leaves and send out tubes penetrating the stomata 
or boring through the cuticle, down the stems to the tubers, 
which may either be destroyed at once or they may receive 
the infection so lightly as to remain apparently sound until 
the following spring ; these, when planted, produce the disease 
in their offspring, ready to break out under favourable climatic 
conditions to complete the life-cycle. 

The American plant-pathologists have much confidence in 
the spraying of the plants with Bordeaux mixture ; (Copper 
sulphate 5 lbs., Quicklime 5lbs., Water 50 gillons). They 
claim that by spraying the disease is held in check, and also 
that the fungicide invigorates the foliage. 

The principle fruit disease with us is the Apple Scab and 
Canker ( Venturia inaqualis). The variety of fruit bearing 
the disease is usually condemned instead of laying the blame 
on the pest, and very little attention is paid to its eradication, 
but in the South and West of England, Canada, the United 
States and Australia, where pomaceous fruits are extensively 
grown, every endeavour is made to cope with it by pruning 
and spraying, which methods are in the main successful. 

Our timber trees bear parasites which, unlike the micros- 
copic ones previously mentioned, are composed chiefly of 
large agarics and polypores. The destruction of the wood is 
caused by the mycelium permeating the tissues of the wood 
like the dryrot fungus (Merulius lacrymans), or by sending 
out cord-like strands between the wood and the bark, robbing 
the host of its sustaining fluids and eventually causing 
strangulation. 

The questions will naturally be raised : ' Has the biological 
study of these organisms resulted in any economic success ? 
The answer is Yes, decidedly. For instance : — 

Naturalist, 



The Beneficial and Injurious Influences of Fungi. 197 

The Pine Disease (Peridermium pini) may be exterminated 
by clearing away all plants of the Genus Senecio (Groundsels 
and Ragworts) upon which it passes one of its life-stages. 

Anbury or Finger and Toe. (Plasmodiophora brassicce) 
in Cruciferous plants (Turnips, Cabbage, etc.), can be prevented 
by making the soil non-acid by limeing and by keeping in 
check weeds of the same Natural Order in the field sides and 
headlands. 

Fruit Scab and Canker ( Venturia incequalis) is averted 
by spraying with Bordeaux mixture and by pruning off the 
infected twigs. 

The Damping off of Seedlings (Pythium debaryanum) is 
checked by ventilation and similar treatment as for Anbury. 

Smut and Bunt in Corn. ( Ustilago sp. and Tilletia 
triteci) may be minimised by dressing the seed corn with 
formaline or copper sulphate. 

Dryrot in Timber (Mertdius lacrymans) may be prevented 
or eradicated by proper ventilation and by the application of 
creosote solution. 

We read much about the breeding of plants which are 
immune to certain diseases, but we have yet to learn of what 
this so-called immunity consists. Is it because the stomata 
are too small for the germinating hyph« of the spore to enter, 
or is the virtue in the harder and less succulent epidermis of 
the plants ? Dr. A. D. Selby has pointed out that in the 
study of disease susceptibility it has been shown that other 
features being the same, the percentage of water is an index : 
thus, parts having the higher water content are attacked more 
readily than those with a lower water content.* 

Few will doubt that certain plants have been raised which, 
so far, are disease resistant, and we must be thankful for 
these, even if their raising has been brought about by guesswork 
methods ; there is, however, the fear that when circumstances 
of climate, soil or moisture are favourable, the disease will 
reassert itself. In this district the Potato is extensively 
cultivated and any fact relating to its growth or life history is 
of interest. 

Some years ago I pointed out to Mr. Massee that the 
microscopic structure of tubers immune to and those subject 
to the disease (Phytophthora infestans) differed, inasmuch as 
the former has much thicker cell walls than those of the latter. 
Mr. Massee desired me to verify this by growing a number of 
varieties under the same conditions of soil, climate and moisture, 
and he sent me some thirty or forty named sets, which were 
planted and grown in a plot under the same conditions, when 
further microscopical examination was made confirming my 

* Ohio Exp. Sta. Bull., 214; March 1910. 
1917 June 1. 



198 The Beneficial and Injurious Influences of Fungi. 

previous results ; thus the varieties with thick cellulose cell 
walls were always watery or soapy when cooked and the 
varieties with thin cell walls were always mealy or floury. 

When a variety is newly raised from seed it has a thick cell 
wall and is consequently undesirable in the market for its 
cooking qualities, however desirable it may be for its pro- 
ductiveness on yielding larger and better shaped tubers. It 
is then to a great extent resistant to the disease ; after a period 
of growth, the cell walls become thinner and the tuber more 
desirable for the table, but often losing its high productivity, 
and at the same time becoming more susceptible to disease ; 
hence many of the old varieties are completely discarded on 
that account, although much esteemed for table purposes. 

It was recently pointed out in the Journal of Agriculture 
that the enzyme, the function of which is to convert the starch 
into sugar so as to be directly available for growth, has to a 
great extent ceased to exist, hence growth or sprouting is 
checked, and it is now believed that this enzyme existing in 
considerable quantity in a thick cell-walled tuber is the natural 
fungicide protecting the plant against the attacks of its pest. 

Eight to twelve years seems to be the period a variety of 
potato takes to run from infancy to old age, when its vitality 
is lowered, is then subject to disease, and its productivity 
much diminished. A fillip may be given to the plant by a 
change of soil and climate, even as sometimes a change of air 
and occupation is to ourselves. 

Many troublesome skin diseases such as Ringworm, Barbers' 
rash, Thrush in infants, etc., are attributable to fungi, in fact 
all human diseases which are infectious or contagious are 
caused by micro-organisms which may be regarded as of a 
fungoid nature. The salmon of our rivers and the gold fish 
of our ponds often suffer from a destructive parasite (Saprolegnia 
ferax) which causes the fish to become sick, sluggish and even- 
tually to die, but broadly speaking, Fungi seem to be more 
fatal to insects than to the other branches of the animal 
kingdom. Much loss is caused in some years by the malignant 
silkworm-disease (Botrytis Bassiana) and beekeeping is becom- 
ing almost impossible at home in consequence of the scourge 
known as the Isle of Wight bee disease, which has so far 
baffled experts to counteract. Some insects seem to have a 
tendency to favour the attacks of a singular class of parasitic 
fungi, the mycelium of which permeates the dormant and buried 
chrysalis, sending out an orange-red fleshy club-shaped stem 
projecting two or three inches out of the ground and tuberculose 
with flask-shaped bodies containing spores in asci. This 
fungus (Cordyceps militaris) is not uncommon in damp woods 
during the autumn months. It is a debatable point whether 
the fungus is parasitic or saprophytic, but the stronger weight 

Naturalist , 



The Beneficial and Injurious Influences of Fungi. 199 

of evidence is towards the former character. A rare species 
of this group with a globose head (C. capitata) was found at 
one of our forays two years ago. 

Some wonderful examples of Cordyceps often reaching to 
six or eight inches in length are found in Australia and New 
Zealand ; they are eaten by the Maoris as a bonne bouche and 
are also collected and sold to visitors as curiosities. 

I trust the few examples I have given of beneficial and 
injurious Fungi will suffice to show the important part Fungi 
play in the economy of Nature, and that the study of Mycology 
is worthy of our serious consideration. 

National legislation might be profitably directed to the 
employment of universal measures for combating fungoid 
plant-diseases, the individual efforts, however well applied, will 
be nullified by careless neighbours as the spores are in most 
cases windborne. Laws are provided for protecting man and 
animals from infectious diseases and it is also essential that 
the infection of our crops should be guarded against by : — 

(I.) Instruction by experts in the nature of plant diseases, 
their appearances and easy recognition, methods of pre- 
vention and remedies for the control, checking, or 
extirpation of the destructive parasitic organisms. 
(II.) The exhibition of affected plants in museums and edu- 
cational centres. 
(III). More stringent means for preventing the introduction 

of fresh diseases into new localities or countries. 
(IV.) To inculcate the value of crop rotation, whereby the 
continuity of the life-cycle of the fungus is broken. 
(V.) Further study and investigation into the nature of 

resistent and non-resistent crops. 
(VI.) The removal of complementary hosts in infected areas. 
(VII.) Further experiments in the efficacy of spraying, pro- 
tective to the host and destructive to the parasite. 
(VIII.) The appointment of more mycologists, specially trained 
in plant-pathology. 

Let me recommend to the delegates of Yorkshire Naturalists' 
Societies the encouragement of the study of Fungi by their 
botanical members. Some previous botanical knowledge 
is really necessary, before entering the field of Mycology, but 
one is convinced they would find this an attractive and inter- 
esting section, furnishing work at a time when most of the 
flowering plants are at rest. To the microscopist, Fungi present 
objects of great beauty and diversified forms. 

Full use should be made of the British Museum booklets 
on Fungi and Mycetozoa, which are alone sufficient to enable 
students to recognise very many species commonly found in 
all districts. The drawing, painting and photographing of 

1917 June 1. 



200 The Beneficial and Injurious Influences of Fungi. 

specimens is advised, as work of this kind enables the student 
to grip the characters and leading features better than by 
any other means, for after a drawing or painting is made the 
image of the plant and its salient features are often strongly 
impressed upon the memory. . 

A leading spirit is very desirable to give inspiration and 
guidance, and this must be found, if not amongst the members 
themselves, then such a leader must be sought for in some 
expert outside the Society. 

The specimens and classification should be explained and 
described in simple language so as not to deter the student. 

Scientific terminology is quite right when the majority of 
the audience can follow the speaker, but it is often discouraging 
to the earnest enquirers for information ; it must be remem- 
bered that most of our members in local Societies have not 
had the previous training to enable them to understand the 
mysteries of Nature couched in professional phraseology. 
Let them be led by degrees to unfold the treasures which 
Nature offers to those who seek her shrine. 

After the student has decided to take up the study of 
Mycology, a general review should be made of the classification, 
and before long, some section of this large subject will appeal 
to him. It is very desirous that whilst knowing ' something 
about everything,' he should endeavour to know ' everything 
about something ; ' in other words he should specialise on 
some particular class, order or genus. By so doing, he will 
derive more pleasure and satisfaction, and also be able probably 
to contribute a mite to the general stock of knowledge on his 
particular selected subject. 

The student must not be content with names alone, but 
should strive for an intimate knowledge of the structures, forms 
and life histories of these organisms which are often of great 
microscopic interest, opening out thereby a new world of beauty 
and wonder with appearances as diversified and fruits as multi- 
farious as the trees and plants of the familiar world, to be 
enjoyed only by those who delight in perusing the picture 
book of nature. 

And Nature, the old nurse, took 

The child upon her knee 
Saying ' Here is a story-book 

Thy Father has written for thee : ' 
' Come wander with me,' she said, 

' Into regions yet untrod, 
And read what is still unread 

In the manuscript of God.' 

Longfellow. 



Naturalist, 



201 



NOTES ON 
PLANORBIS AND MARGARITANA IN ICELAND. 



HANS SCHLESCH. 
Hellerup, Denmark. 

It is noteworthy that these genera have not been found in 
Iceland for nearly fifty years, and the species may be looked 
upon as either of doubtful occurrence or of only temporary 
introduction, except Planorbis arcticus Beck, which also lives 
in Greenland, Northern Scandinavia and Finland. 

Planorbis (Gyrorbis) leucostoma Mill. (=rotundatus Poiret). 
W. Reykjavik Tjornin (Steenstrup and Hallgrimsson)* 
Laugarnar near Reykjavik, 1868 (Gronlund). 
Planorbis (Gyrorbis) spirorbis Linne. 
W. Reykjavik, 1877 (Th. Thoroddsson, spec, in Reykjavik Mus.) 
Planorbis (Gyraulus) glaber Jeffreys. 
Recorded from Iceland by Westerlund (Synopsis Moll. 
Extram. Scandinav., 1897, p. 122). 

Planorbis (Gyraulus) arcticus Beck. 
N. Myvatn, 1876 (Th. Thoroddsson, spec, in Reykjavik Mus.). 

Margaritana margaritifera Linne. 
W. Reykjavik, 1863 (Israel). 

Remarks : The well-known Unio collector, the apothecary 
Israel wrote (20th March, 1914) to me about this interesting 
find, ' I have in my collection a specimen, big, thick-shelled, 
plump form, which my father found living in a streamlet 
near Reykjavik in the year 1863, while he was a private 
teacher in the house of a Danish nobleman.' 



-: o :■ 



Mr. W. N. Cheesman, J. P., has presented a collection of myxomycetes 
to the Botany department of the Leeds University. 

In a paper on ' The Development and Morphology of the Ammonite 
Septum, ' by Prof. Swinnerton and Mr. Trueman, recently read to the Geo- 
logical Society of London, two methods of studying the septum (not 
merely the suture) were used : — (1) Cleaning the face of the septum com- 
pletely ; (2) filing away the surface of the whorl in successive layers, and 
thus making a series of sections — called septal sections — of the septum 
parallel to its periphery. 

We have just received The Lancashire and Cheshire Naturalist for 
February and March, which completes Vol. IX. As these ' have been 
turned out almost entirely by one pair of hands,' it would perhaps be 
unkind to criticise the typography ; to prevent mistakes in binding, 
however, it is as well to point out that the first page in the February 
issue should be 281, not 261. Among the subjects discussed are Midge- 
Galls ; Arachnida ; Ornithology ; a record of a rare wood-louse (Porcellio 
ratzeburgii) ; Mite-Galls ; ' Castration-Parasitaire ' in insects ; Nature 
Study in Schools ; School Gardens ; Querns in North Wales ; The Charles 
Bailey Herbarium ; and Oikogetons. Most of the papers refer to Lanca- 
shire or Cheshire. 

1917 June 1. 



202 



3n flDemoriam. 



W. BARWELL TURNER. 

The decease of William Barwell Turner removes one who, 
in his time, played no mean part in the development and ad- 
vancement of science in Leeds. A native of Warwickshire,* 
he came to Leeds in 1877, soon gravitated to the Naturalists' 
Club, and became one of those who made the Society one of 
the most successful of its kind. It was in the days when as 
yet there was no University, not even the Yorkshire College of 




Science which was its precursor, and at that time the Natura- 
lists' Club was one of the principal centres of intellectual 
progress in the city, as the subsequent careers of many of 
its then members demonstrated. 

Our subject was the son of Thomas Turner, and of his wife 
Sarah, the daughter of William Barwell, of an old Birmingham 
family. He was educated at a famous institution, King 
Edward's Grammar School, at Birmingham. On leaving, he 
entered the service of Samuel Allsopp and Sons, the famous 
brewers of Burton-on-Trent, where he learned the business 
thoroughly, especially on its scientific or chemical side. This 

* Born at Birmingham 9th June, 1845 ; Died at Leeds nth May, 1917. 

Naturalist, 



In Memoriam : W. Barwell Turner. 



203 



was from 1861 to 1866. He then entered breweries at Ply- 
mouth, at Watlington in Oxfordshire, and Bruton in Somerset- 
shire ; then in Staffordshire, and finally came to Yorkshire in 

1876, being first at Bentley's Brewery at Woodlesford. In 

1877, he settled down in Leeds as manager of the Brunswick 
Brewery, and was married in the same year to Miss M. E. Jones, 
of Bruton, Somerset. He left the Brunswick service in 1884, 
and set up in private practice as Consulting Brewer and 
Analytical Chemist. In 1891, he was stricken down by a 
grievous illness, which rendered him more or less an invalid 
for the remainder of his life, and necessitated, in 1909, the 
amputation of one of his legs. This illness was to him a more 




W. Barwell Turner's Book Plate. 

than ordinary trial, cutting short the various activities of a busy 
man. He was essentially a man of strong and active con- 
stitution, powerful build and unceasing energy, of the nature 
to whom enforced inaction was in the highest degree irksome 
and tedious. 

The interest to readers of a journal like this lies more in 
his scientific proclivities, his leisure-time hobbies, than in his 
professional career. 

As a member of the Leeds Naturalists' Club, of which he 
was President in 188 1, he devoted himself to microscopical 
research, and he energetically conducted the microscopical 
section of the Club. He directed his own attention more 
particularly to the fresh-water algae, and was in this a fellow- 
worker with various others, including Otto Nordstedt and 

1917 June 1. 



204 In Memoriam : W. Bay well Turner. 

William West, and published various papers. In The 
Naturalist for October, 1879, pp. 38-40, appeared ' The Fresh- 
water Algae of the Leeds District.' A paper on the ' Algae of 
Strensall Common ' was printed in the same journal for 
December, 1883, with a plate by himself. In The Naturalist 
for September and October, 1887, he printed notes on Algae 
collected at Gormire and Thirkleby, describing a new species. 
In The Transactions of the Leeds Naturalists' Club, Vol. I., 1886, 
he published, along with other Leeds microscopists, an Alga- 
Flora of West Yorkshire. Other algological papers by him 
were, one on ' Mounting and Staining Desmids (Journ. R. 
Microsc. Soc, Series 2, Vol. V., 1885, p. 742) ; ' On some New 
and Rare Desmids,' with two plates (same vol., Dec, 1885) ; 
' Notes on Fresh-water Algae, with Description of New Species ' 
(The Naturalist, Feb., 1886, with a plate) ;' Desmid Notes' 
(same journal, Nov., 1893). 

The most important publication of his was his monograph 
of the Indian Desmids (Algae aquae dulcis Indiae Orientalis, the 
fresh- water algae (principally Desmidieae) of East India). This 
was, through the influence of his friend, Otto Nordstedt, pub- 
lished at Stockholm in 1893 by the Royal Swedish Academy of 
Sciences, and was illustrated by 23 plates by his own hand. 
Had it not been for the unfortunate breakdown of his health, 
his algological work would have been continued, to the great 
benefit of science. 

As it was, he was henceforth restricted to the study of 
another subject on which he was a leading authority. He 
was an ardent student of genealogy and heraldry, for which 
his remarkable skill as a draughtsman, his equally remarkably 
retentive memory, and his painstaking industry, peculiarly 
qualified him. A series of heraldic drawings by him was 
shown to the King when he visited the Leeds University in 
1915, and much interested His Majesty. 

The man himself was, however, the most interesting. Tall 
and well built, remarkably handsome in appearance, he was 
essentially a strong and vigorous personality. Constitutionally 
and physically strong, in spite of his serious illness — strong in 
will, strong in his opinions, which were expressed in copious 
and vigorous language, he combined with it all a delicacy of 
touch, refinement of feeling and keenness of insight, which 
peculiarly fitted him for the studies which were his hobbies. 
His eyesight, too, was remarkably powerful and microscopic. 
In his youth, although town-born, he was country-bred, with 
the instincts of a sportsman, as was his father before him. 
He was an excellent shot, having learnt the art as early as nine 
years of age, and at seventeen, when at Burton-on-Trent, he 
joined one of the then recently formed Volunteer Corps. In 
his intercourse with his friends over a pipe and a cup of tea — 

Naturalist, 



In Memoriam : William Foggitt, J. P., F.L.S. 205 

for he was ever an inveterate smoker and enjoyed the cup the 
contents of which he was fond of describing as worse than 
intoxicants — his picturesque and copious flow of language 
gave expression to his views on things in general, and upon 
various questions of Church and State in particular. He was 
a Churchman and a Conservative of the views congenial to the 
famed squire of Blankney. 

His wife survives him, also a daughter and four sons, in 
whom are repeated some of the paternal characteristics. All 
have the love of country life, and the artistic and other attain- 
ments rind repetition. The second son, Cecil, was at one time 
Hon. Secretary of the Leeds Naturalists' Club, and the eldest 
shares his father's taste for heraldry. The younger sons are 
on active service abroad, Geoffrey in France, Noel with the 
Indian Army in Mesopotamia with a commission in the cavalry, 
for which his knowledge of Hindustani, acquired while five 
years in Upper Assam, is a qualification. — R. 



WILLIAM FOGGITT, J.P., F.L.S. 
1835— i9 T 7- 

There is perhaps no locality in the kingdom, probably not in 
the world, which has produced so remarkable a cluster of able 
botanists as North East Yorkshire, and especially that portion 
of it known to politicians as the Thirsk and Malton Division. 
In proof of this it is sufficient to cite such names as Spruce, 
Ibbetson, Stabler, Massee, Slater, and more particularly John 
Gilbert Baker, all of whom have made their mark in the develop- 
ment of botanical research. 

Among these is William Foggitt, who has just passed away. 

While still at school he contrived during the leisure of 
summer days to collect no fewer than 500 specimens of British 
plants, which he pressed and catalogued. Leaving school at 
13, during an apprenticeship to his father's business, he was 
helped in the same direction by a close friendship formed with 
a youth of similar tastes, John Gilbert Baker. Their joint 
rambles resulted in the formation of a very fine herbarium, and 
they co-operated in forming the first Natural History Society 
in Thirsk. For some time William Foggitt gave weekly 
botanical lessons at Thirsk High School, and took walks into 
the country with the scholars, where growing specimens were 
described to them. He possessed a delightful fund of humour, 
and his reminiscences of the many and varied experiences 
when botanising in different parts of the country were a treat 
to hear. 

In 1903 he was elected a Fellow of the Linnaean Society. 
He was one of the Entomological Committee of the Yorkshire 

1917 June 1. 



206 



Northern News. 



Naturalists' Union, honorary member of the Scarborough 
Natural History Society, and one of the original founders of 
the Thirsk Natural History Society. In the last-named he 
evinced a very special interest, was never absent from its 
meetings, and always had a good collection of exhibits, which 
it was a pleasure to hear him describe. 

Mr. Foggitt, who was a magistrate for the North Riding, 
married a daughter of the late John Blackett, currier, Thirsk, 




but she died some years ago. There was a numerous family, 
of whom five sons and three daughters survive. Two of the 
sons are abroad, and the remaining three are all following in 
the footsteps of their father, not only in their love for natural 
history, but in business affairs. 

: o : 

The annual meeting of the Leeds Philosophical and Literary Society 
was held recently. The report, submitted by Prof. W. Garstang, regretted 
that the attendance at the lectures was far from satisfactory, and mentioned 
that the Council was obliged to consider whether some rearrangement 
of the normal meetings of the society might not be necessary for the ensuing 
session. ' The increasing popularity of the museum,' the report proceeded, 
' is a pleasing feature of the year, the number of visitors having surpassed 
even the record numbers of the previous year.' Under the Leeds schools 
museum scheme 136 schools had sent 13,000 children, and by the end of 
the month between 15,000 to 16,000 would have passed through the able 
hands of Mr. Crowther. At the beginning of the year there was owing 
to the treasurer ^622 and at the close the adverse balance was ^711. 
Altogether the deficit for the year was ^114. 

Naturalist, 



207 

FIELD NOTES. 

FUNGI. 
Mycology at Buckden. — Miss E. M. Wakefield, of the 
Herbarium, Kew, points out that Odontia jarinacea and 
Tomentella fusca are not new British records as described.* 
Odontia jarinacea is merely the more modern way of naming 
Hydnum farinaceum, a very old species, whilst Tomentella 
fusca was first recorded from Clare Island some years ago and 
has been listed at nearly every foray of the British Mycological 
Society, as well as at Yorkshire Forays since then. — A. E. 
Peck, Scarborough. 

— : o : — 

COLEOPTERA. 
Atheta britteni Joy in E. Yorks. — Several specimens of 
this interesting beetle have been discovered in flood refuse 
from the River Derwent, at Bubwith (Dec, 1916), by Messrs. 
E. A. Newbery and W. E. Sharp. The species was described 
by Dr. Joy (E.M.M., 1913, p. 154), on four specimens taken 
in flood refuse in Cumberland in May, 1911, and the only other 
record is of about thirty specimens from Sutherlandshire, in 
May, 1914, also from flood refuse (E.M.M., 1914, p. 195). 
— Wm. J. Fordham, Bubwith. 

BIRDS. 
The Storm and Gulls. — At a large munition works in 
the West Riding, where thousands of girls and men are employed 
filling shells, there is a large refuse heap. When the severe 
weather commenced at the beginning of the year, a few gulls 
found it out ; their numbers rapidly increased until a very 
considerable flock, chiefly Black-headed and Herring Gulls, 
frequented it regularly every day, and are still there. They 
evidently found an abundance of food and are loth to leave 
it, for at the time of writing they are as abundant as ever. — 
R. Fortune, Harrogate, March 2nd, 1917. 



Illustrations of the British Flora, by W. H. Fitch and W. G. Smith, 4th 

ed., revised ; L. Reeve, 1916. This very useful book of illustrations is 
too well known to botanists to require further commendation for this 
revised edition. Several improvements have been made, e.g. clear 
diagrams are given, illustrating the relationships of the floral organs which 
are characteristic of the four classes of Dicotyledons, and there is an 
arrangement of natural orders or families, with their characters given 
in sufficient detail to enable the family to be determined. The illustrations 
though small, are clear and are better printed than in some earlier issues. 
To each scientific name under the figure are added, not only the synonyms 
in many cases, but also the common name, and the colour of the flower is 
also indicated. 

* Naturalist, March and April, 1917. 
1917 June 1. 



208 

NEWS FROM THE MAGAZINES. 

The Journal of the Board of Agriculture contains a paper on ' Sclerotinia 
Diseases.' 

Mr. T. A. Chapman writes on ' The Genus Hesperia,' in The Entomo- 
gist's Record for May. 

The Rev. C. R. N. Burrows writes on ' The British Psychides ' in 
The Entomologist' s Record for April. 

An illustrated article on ' Leaf Spot of Celery ' appears in The Journal 
of the Board of Agriculture for April. 

In The Irish Naturalist for May, the Rev. W. F. Johnson writes on 
' Lissonota basalis Brischke in Ireland, an addition to the Britannic List.' 

In Man for May, Dr. T. E. Nuttall writes on the Piltdown Skull, in 
which he seems to take views intermediate between those of Dr. Smith 
Woodward and Dr. Keith. 

In The Entomologist' s Monthly Magazine for May, Mr. James Waterston 
writes ' On a New Species of Docophoroides Gigl. (Eurymetopus Tasch.) 
from an Albatross (Diomedea melanophrys) ' ; and the specimen is figured. 

In The Geological Magazine for May, Mr. H. L. Hawkins writes on 
' The Sunken Tubercles of Discoides and Conulus,' and Dr. F. A. Bather 
writes on ' The Base in the Camerate Manocyclic Crinoids.' In the latter, 
Dr. Bather refers to his ' unforgiveable habit of offering up his own inter- 
pretations of what he does not thoroughly understand in the works of 
other authors.' 

Wild Life for April contains the following papers : — ' The Life Story 
of the Liver-fluke,' by I. W. Lindsay; ' The Sparrow-Hawk at Home,' by 
T. M. Fowler ; ' Birds, Insects and Crops,' by The R.S.P.B. ; ' Pertain- 
ing to Common Buntings,' by E. E. Pettitt ; ' Notes on the Kestrel,' by 

E. Eykyn, and 'The Puss Moth.' The part is illustrated by 22 reproductions 
from photographs. 

Referring to the note in The Naturalist for May (p. 176), to the effect 
that the natural history collections at the University College, Nottingham, 
were to be transferred to Bulwell Park, we are glad to learn that this is 
not to be. Some such suggestion was certainly made, but was promptly 
' squashed ' by the City Council. The collections therefore remain under 
the care of Prof. Carr. We obtained our information from the Museums 
Journal, which we 'naturally assumed would be reliable. 

The Athenceum says ' We hope it will be recognised that men of science 
have much to learn in the way of clear expression of their results.' To 
this, Science Progress replies : ' Agreed ; and, while literary persons 
invariably express themselves perfectly, we hope they will recognise that 
they seldom have anything to express. It would be an excellent thing 
if a literary man were to be appointed to every laboratory in order to attend 
to the style of the investigator and, also, to learn the difference between 
real and imaginary work.' 

In British Birds for April, 19 17, Mr. J. B. Nichols records a White's 
Thrush shot in Sussex in December, 19 15, and 'seen in the flesh' by Mr. 

F. Lindsay ; another shot at St. Leonards on February 26th, 1916, and 
was ' seen in the flesh ' by Mr. R. Butterfield. But why this delay in 
recording such apparently important finds ? On page 296, Mr. J. H. 
Gurney thinks that the Calander Lark from Devonport ' worthy of some 
consideration ' (see Naturalist, April, page 146). The editor of British 
Birds still maintains that although it was ' certified ' the bird was killed 
by St. John's Lake, and was seen in the flesh by the taxidermist, he is 
' strongly of the opinion that such a record should not be accepted.' 
Yet, on precisely similar evidence, he accepts new British records, from 
Sussex, in British Birds. We should like to congratulate the editors of 
British Birds on the completion of their first decade. 

Naturalist, 



WATKINS & DONCASTER 

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Edited by William Eagle Clarke. F.R.S.E., 
F.L.S., Keeper Natural History Dept., Royal 
Scottish Museum ; William Evans, F.R.S.E., 
Member of the British Ornithologists' Union; and 
Percy H.Grjmshaw,F.R.S.E.,F.E.S., Assistant- 
Keeper, Natural History Dept., Royal Scottish 
Museum. Assisted by J. A. Harvie-Brown, 
T.R.S.E..F.Z.S. ; Evelyn V.Baxter, H.M.B.O.U. ; 
Leonora J. Rintoul, H.M.B.O.U. ; Hugh S. Glad- 
stone, M.A., F.R.S.E., F.Z.S.; James Ritchie, 
M.A.,D.Sc. A. Landsborough Thompson, M.A., 
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BIBLIOGRAPHY 



OF 

YORKSHIRE GEOLOGY 

1534-1914. 

By T. SHEPPARD, m.sc, f.g.s., f.r.g.s., f.s.a.(scot.) 

8vo, xxxvi. + 620 pp. 15/- net. 

This forms Volume XVIII. of the Proceedings of the Yorkshire 
Geological Society. It contains full references to more than 6,300 
books, monographs and papers relating to the geology and physical 
geography of Yorkshire, and to more than 400 geological maps and 
sections, published between 1534 and 1914. In its preparation over 
700 sets of Scientific Journals, Reports, Transactions and Magazines 
have been examined. There is an elaborate index containing over 
26,500 references to subjects, authors and localities. 

London 

A. BROWN & SONS, Limited 

5 Farringdon Avenue, E.C. 

And all Booksellers. 



Twelve Illustrations, beautifully printed in colours and Mounted on Slant 
Boards, 24 x 1!> inches, eyeletted and strung, including Descriptor Hand- 
book, in Leather Board Case 15 - net the set. 

BROWNS' 

ENEMIES OF THE GARDEN 

Reproduced in the very best style of Lithography from special designs by 
H. W. BRUTZER, M.A., F.E.S. 

THE 12 ILLUSTRATIONS ARE AS FOLLOWS : 

1. OUTLINE OF INSECT LIFE.— Hymenopt era, Coleoptera, Lepi- 

doptera, details. 

2. LACKEY MOTH.— Egg, Caterpillar, Nest, Cocoons, Female Lackey 

Moth, Egg Cluster. 

3. SMALL ERMINE MOTH.— Eggs, Caterpillar, Cocoons, Ermine Moth. 

Nest in Apple Tree. 

4. GOOSEBERRY SAWFLY.— Egg, Larva. Larva (last stage), Leal', 

Sawfly, Branch, Cocoon. 

5. ASPARAGUS BEETLE.— Eggs, Larva, Beetle, Pupa, Asparagus 

stripped of leaves, Cocoon. 

6. BLACK CURRANT MITE.— Mite, Big Bud on Branch. Section of 

Bud with Mites. 

7. RASPBERRY STEM BUD CATERPILLAR,— Caterpillar, Chrysalis. 

Moth (enlarged), Raspberry Cane. 

8. MILLIPEDES and CENTIPEDES.— Three destructive Millipedes and 

two useful Centipedes. 

9. SCALE. — Currant Scale, Scale on Aralia and Myrtle Leaves and Mussel 

Scale. 

10. WIREWORMS.— Click Beetle and Skip Jack showing details. 

11. PEA THRIPS, COCKCHAFER, DADDY LONGLEGS, WOOD- 

LOUSE and EARWIG, showing sections and details. 

12. SOME USEFUL INSECTS.— Dragon Fly, Ichneumon Fly, Lady Bird, 

Tiger Beetle, Hover Fly, Glow- Worm, Cocktail Beetle, Lacewing Fly. 

All the designs are printed on appropriately tinted backgrounds, devoid of 

any white border, thus enabling the various sections on the Charts to be 

seen with great clearness. 

We always have enemies within our garden-gates, and would-be 
gardeners are often reminded that the results of their labours may In- 
brought to nought or greatly lessened by the work of destructive insects. 
There are other insects, however, that are our Allies, as they live on the 
destructive pests and thus help to protect the vegetables and fruit. It 
is, therefore, most necessary to be able to distinguish between useful and 
destructive insects, hence the popularity of Browns'- " Enemies of the 
Garden,'' as the charts show at a glance how to tell our enemies from our 
friends. A set of the illustrations should be exhibited in every rural 
school or village club, as the knowledge which they and their accompanying 
handbook convey is essential to successful gardening. The small ex- 
penditure on same will prove a truly profitable investment. 



London : A. BROWN & SONS, Ltd., 5 Farringdon Avenue, E.C. 
and at HULL & YORK. 

Printed at Browns' Savilk Press, 40, George Street, Hull, and published by 
A. Brown & Sons, Limited, at 5 Farringdon Avenue, in the City of London. 

June 1st, 1917. 



JULY 1917. 



No. 726 

(No. 502 of currant ttriat) 




A MONTHLY ILLUSTRATED JOURNAL OF 

NATURAL HISTORY FOR THE NORTH OF ENGLAND. 

EDITED BY 

T. SHEPPARD, M.Sc, F.G.S., F.R.G.S., F.S.A.Scot., 

The Museums, Hull ; 

AND 

T. W. WOODHEAD, Ph.D., M.Sc, F.L.S., 

Technical College, Huddersfield. ^<L'~ 



WITH THE ASSISTANCE AS REFEREES IN SPECIAL DEPARTME 

J. OILBBRT BAKER, P.R.S. P.L.S., GEO. T. PORRIT 

Prof. P. P. KENDALL, M.Sc, F.Q.S., JOHN W. TAYLO 

RILEY FORTUNE, P.Z.S. 




. p m^6n p 7' s " 



Contents : — 

Notes and Comments (illustrated) :— South Eastern Naturalists; The Bulletin; The 
President's Address ; Unity, Organisation, Co-ordination ; A Full Programme ; Science 
Progress; Age of the Earth ; Salt Water and Salmon ; Scratches on Flints ; Cause and 
Effect ; The Collector ; Evolution of Geological Maps ; Early References'to Geology- 
Soil Maps ; The First Geological Map ; Later Maps; Natural History in 1485 ; Victoria 
and Albert Museum ; A Business Museum ' 209-216 

Oolite Grains in the Upper Lias of Grantham (illustrated)— H. Preston, F.G.S., and 

A. E. Trucman, M.Sc. 217-218 

Occurrence of Boulder Clay at Huddersfield (illustrated)— T. W. rVoodhead,M.Sc„ Ph.D. 219-232 

Abnormal Spiders— Wm. Falconer 232-233 

Dreissensia polymorphs Pallas — Hans Schlesch 234 

In Memoriam: Samuel Margerison— H.E.IV 235-236 

T. McKenny Hughes, M.A., F.R.S., F.G.S., F.S.A. (illustrated)— T.S. 237-238 

Field Notes i—Limnea stagnalis introduced into Cumberland ; May-blobs Poisoning Bees 239 

Proceedings of Provincial Scientific Societies 218, 240 

Northern News 216,218,233,238,239 

News from the Magazines 240 

Illustrations 215, 217, 220, 221, 223, 225, 226, 228, 237 



LONDON : 

A. Brown & Sons, Limited, 5, Farringdon Avenue, E.C. 

And at Hull and York. 

Printers and Publishers to the Y.N. U. 



Prepaid Subscription 6/6 per annum, post free. 



BOOKS WANTED. 

Trans. Norfolk and Norwich Nat. Soc. Vol. I., Parts i and 2 ; Vol. IV., Pt. 3. 

Peterborough Natural History Society. Reports, 1-8, 11-12, 14-26. 

Brighton and Sussex Naturalist History Society Reports, 1855-1874. 

North Staffordshire Field Club Reports for 1866, 1869-1873, 1876. 

Bedfordshire Natural History Society Proceedings. Set. 

Trans. Royal Cornwall Geological Society. Set. 

Yorkshire Ramblers' Club Journal. Nos. 3, 4, 5. 

Chester Soc. Nat. Science : Ann. Reports, i.-iv. ; Proceedings, 1, 2. 

Proc. Bristol Naturalists' Society. All before p. 75 of Vol. I., 1866. 

Trans. Woolhope Club. 1866-80. 

Quarterly Journal of Science. 1878-9, 1882-3, an d 1885. 

Trans. Geol. Soc, London, 4to. 2nd series, Vols. IV.-V1I. (1836-56). 

Geological Magazine, 1890- 1-2-4. 

Mackie's Geol. and Nat. Hist. Repository. Vols. II., III. 

Proc. Liverpool Geol. Association. Parts 1, 3, 7, 16. 

Journ. Northants. Field Club. Vols. IX.-X. 

Reliquary (Jewitt's 8vo. Series). Vols. X., XII., XV., XVI, XVIII., XXII., 

XXIV and XXVI. 
Irish Naturalist. Vols. 1912-16. 
Yorks. Arch. Journal. Part 69. 
Scottish Naturalist. 1881-95. 
Annals of Scottish Nat. Hist. 1905- 1916. 

Watford's Antiquarian Mag. and Bibliographer for July- Dec. ,1885. 
Quart. Journ. Geol. Soc. Vols. I.- XIV. 
Proc. Geol. Assoc. Vol. I. Part 1. 
Trans. Yorks. Nat. Union. Parti. 
Naturalists' Journal. Vol. I. 

W. Smith's New Geological Atlas of England aud Wales. 1 819-21. 
Frizinghall Naturalist. (Lithographed). Vol. I., and part 1 of Vol. II. 
Illustrated Scientific News. 1902-4. (Set). 
Journal Keighley Naturalists' Society. 4T0. Parti. 
Cleveland Lit. & Phil. Soc. Trans. Science Section or others. 
Proc. Yorks. Nat. Club (York). Set. 1867-70. 
Keeping's Handbook to Nat. Hist. Collections. (York Museum). 
Huddersfield Arch, and Topog. Society. 4 Reports. (1865-1869). 
First Report, Goole Scientific Society. 
The Naturalists' Record. Set. 

The Natural History Teacher (Huddersfield). Vols. I. -II. 
The Economic Naturalist (Huddersfield). Vol. I. 
The Naturalists' Guide (Huddersfield). Parts 1-38. 
The Naturalists' Almanac (Huddersfield). 1867. 
" Ripon Spurs," by Keslington. 

Reports on State of Agriculture of Counties (1 790-1 810). 
Early Geological Maps. 
Selborne Letters. Vol. I. 1881. 

Apply — Editor, The Museum, Hull. 



FOR SALE. 

Price £40 — Entomological Cabinet, 35 drawers corked and glazed 
and 4 large store boxes, containing over 2,000 species of Moths, 
Butterflies and Preserved Larvae, British and Foreign, many rare 
local and bred ; over 6000 specimens. 

Also— Price £20 — Collection of British and Foreign Land, Fresh- 
water and Marine Shells ; about 6,000; 1,100 species and varieties, 
many local and rare. 

Apply- J. W. BOULT, 

50 Washington Street, 

Beverley Road, 

Hull. 




Mue^J 



NOTES AND COMMENT! 

SOUTH EASTERN NATURALISTS. 

The members of the South Eastern Naturalists' Union, 
although finding it inconvenient to hold their annual con- 
ference at Reading, as was arranged a year ago, yet wisely 
decided to ' carry on.' From June 6th to 9th the Union's 
Conference was held in London, the rooms of the Linnean 
Society being kindly lent for the purpose. These rooms — 
even the large lecture theatre — proved too small, however, so 
well attended were the meetings. That the Council acted 
wisely in deciding to hold a conference was demonstrated by 
the fact that about 150 members and associates took part in 
the meetings and excursions. These were by no means all 
Londoners, but assembled from the various counties in the 
South East .of England. 

--•-,.. THE BULLETIN. 

A useful feature was the publication of daily bulletins of 
four or eight pages each — five of which were issued in all. 
These gave details of the forthcoming meetings, as well as 
criticisms of those which had passed, with occasional items of 
miscellaneous information more or less connected with the 
Union and its work. They were edited by Mr. E. A. Martin, 
F.G.S., the brother of the President, Dr. W. Martin, F.S.A. 
The editor proved to be an excellent trumpeter ! 

THE PRESIDENT'S ADDRESS. 

Mr. E. A. Martin tells us that his brother's Presidential 
address was much appreciated. " In great and eloquent words 
the address will fall on willing scientific ears as a clarion call 
to the service of arms at the present moment, and in the service 
of peace in a happier time to come. The conclusion reached a 
noble height, and we here reproduce the epilogue : — ' My 
prologue was pitched in a minor key. The epilogue to my 
story demands a less plaintive strain. But perhaps the keen 
ear may have already detected dominant notes suggestive of 
a brighter, even if not, a joyous theme. " England's on the 
anvil — hear the hammers ring — Clanging from the Severn to 
the Tyne." Amid the upheavals to which industries have been 
subjected during the beating of ploughshares and pruning- 
hooks into implements of war, it may be that the Country has 
already proceeded apace towards greater triumphs. Old 
machinery has been scrapped, antiquated custom flung away, 
and resources have been adapted to the stern demands of a 
People under arms. With new measures, new men have arisen. 

UNITY, ORGANISATION, CO-ORDINATION. 

Unity, organisation, co-ordination, precision are the weapons 
with which without misgiving the future may be faced. And 

1917 July 1. 



210 Notes and Comments. 

when the present conflict shall be as a far off, unhappy tale 
of long ago, and this our brief hour's traffic of the stage shall 
have run its course, the stimulus which has compelled each to 
offer his truest and best for the commonweal will prove an 
abiding force. And may we not fitly anticipate the time when 
from the ashes of an otiose past and an age of neglect, a re- 
juvenated nation will have arisen among whom lethargy and 
indifference shall be as aliens ? At such a time, we shall regard 
the period before the shock of war was upon us as the ultimate 
remnant of the Dark Ages and shall fail to understand that 
mental attitude which considered science a luxury and its 
application to the industries in need of advocacy. Proceeding 
to eradicate the ugly and horrible effects of the War, we the 
children of the Great Awakening will prove ourselves, by de- 
votion to science with its train of blessings, worthy followers 
of those who for King and Country were called upon to make 
the supreme sacrifice.' " 

A FULL PROGRAMME. 

Besides the meetings of Committees and Delegates, the 
following interesting events took place : — Wednesday (after- 
noon), visit to Westminster Abbey under the guidance of 
Canon Westlake ; (evening), Presidential Address on 'The 
Application of Scientific Method,' by Dr. Martin. Thursday 
(morning), Dr. A. Smith Woodward, a lantern lecture on 
' Vertebrate Remains from London Excavations' ; (afternoon), 
visit to Lincoln's Inn (Old and New Halls, Library and Chapel), 
conductor, Dr. W. Martin ; address in the Natural History 
Museum, South Kensington Museum, on ' Some Skulls and 
Jaws of Ancient Man, and his Implements,' by Mr. E. A. 
Martin; (evening), joint meeting with the Linnean Society 
to hear the ' Hooker ' Lecture by Prof. F. O. Bower. Friday : 
a lantern lecture ' Are Acquired Characters Inherited,' by Prof. 
E. W. MacBride ; and ' Tokens of London,' by Mr. W. Dale, 
F.S.A. ; (afternoon), visits to Munitions Inventions Depart- 
ment, and to a Munitions Factory ; and an address on ' Reptiles 
in Captivity,' by Prof. G. A. Boulenger, in the Zoological 
Society's Gardens ; (evening), lecture ' Notable Trees and 
Old Gardens of London,' by Dr. B. D. Jackson. Saturday: 
(morning), lecture ' Abnormal Atmospheres and means of 
Combating them,' by Dr. J. S. Haldane, F.R.S. ; (afternoon), 
visit to the Chelsea Physic Garden, and a paper on ' The 
Associations of the Garden with the History of Botany,' by 
Prof. G. S. Boulger ; visit to Messrs. Siebe Gorman and Co's. 
Diving and Mine Rescue apparatus works, under the direction 
of Dr. J. S. Haldane. Considering the large numbers present, 
the arrangements made were excellent, as the writer, who was 
privileged to take advantage of some, can testify. Altogether, 

Naturalist, 



'Notes and Comments. 211 

the South Eastern Union can be congratulated on ' carrying 
on ' so well ; in this respect the child setting a good example 
to the elderly, but we hope not less energetic parent — the York- 
shire Naturalists' Union ! 

SCIENCE PROGRESS. 

The interesting nature of the contents of this Quarterly, 
edited, and to a large extent written, by Sir Ronald Ross, 
causes us eagerly to await its appearance. No. 44 contains 
a variety of contributions, including ' Polymorphism,' by 
F. D. Chattaway, F.R.S. ; ' Osmotic Pressure in Animals and 
Plants,' by W. R. G. Atkins, Sc.D., and ' The History of 
Comparative Anatomy, Part I. ; a Statistical Analysis of the 
Literature,' by F. J. Cole, D.Sc, and N. B. Eales. There are 
also useful summaries of the recent advance in different 
branches of science, by specialists. 

AGE OF THE EARTH. 

' Salt and the Age of the Earth,' by G. W. Bulman, deals 
with Prof. Joly's estimate of the age of the earth by estimating 
the quantity of salt annually washed into the sea, where it ac- 
cumulates. Assuming an original saltless ocean, and dividing 
the amount of salt in the ocean by the amount carried down 
each year, the age of the earth is estimated to be something 
like ninety million years. ' Now, if we compare in a broad 
and general way these salt deposits from the Silurian to the 
Miocene, it is impossible to suggest that Tertiary oceans were 
Salter than the Primary, as they ought to have been. The 
sea which could give us the salt beds of the Salina group of 
North America, and those of the Indian salt range, must have 
contained — one suggests — at least as much salt as those of 
to-day, or of the Miocene which gave the Polish deposits. Nor 
can we think that our Triassic salt deposits, or the German 
Permian, came from oceans richer in salt than these Devonian 
seas which yielded the salt of the salt range.' 

SALT WATER AND SALMON. 

' And if, as Prof. Joly suggests, the rocks of the earth 
are having their sodium contents washed out continually, 
the newer formed deposits should have less than the older. 
Thus, a river which is cutting its way through Triassic rock 
may be dealing with matter which has had its sodium subject 
to a like action, say in Carboniferous times. The rivers of 
to-day must be bringing down less sodium than those of the past. 
Is this possibly why the salmon requires to go to the sea ? 
The river having become too fresh for it, the salmon must go 
for the necessary saltness to the ocean. The eel, also, may 
have found it impossible to complete its life history in the 
river's growing scarcity of salt. 

1917 July 1. 



212 Notes and Comments.- 

SCRATCHES ON FLINTS. 

Under the above heading, we have one of the extraordinary 
effusions by Mr. J. Reid Moir, who repeatedly refers to himself 
throughout as ' the author.' ' The author ' has already had 
a similar article in Man.* As any school-boy knows, a freshly 
broken flint has a very hard face : a flint which has been 
' weathered ' in the soil for a considerable time acquires a 
soft white surface, which becomes softer and whiter the longer 
it is weathered; and naturally, ploughs, etc., passing and re- 
passing over these flints scratch them, the scratches being deeper 
on the soft ' patina ' than on a fresh flint surface. 

CAUSE AND EFFECT. 

But Mr. Moir holds an ' inquiry ' ; an ' investigation ' ; 
an ' examination ' : he conducts ' experiments,' and voild, 
' these experiments demonstrated clearly that newly broken, 
sound, unpatinated flint is very hard ; that other patinated 
examples are in a much softer condition.' Also, ' the author ' 
has found that ' it is possible to scratch patinated flints with 
a steel point, and that these scratches vary in depth and 
appearance according to the amount of patination .... The 
susceptibility of patinated flint to striation by the pressure of 
a steel point may perhaps explain the large number of scratched 
flints found upon the surface of the ground in certain localities.' 
Marvellous ! and if ' the author ' were to carry out his enquiry, 
his examination, his investigation, his experiment further, he 
would find that flints, when washed about on the beach, become 
quite rounded and lose all their scratches. And he would no 
doubt be able to conclude that this was accomplished by the 
action of the waves. ' Popular Science ' is indeed wonderful. 

THE COLLECTOR. 

Mr. Bruce Cummings writes on ' The Art of Perpetuation,' 
in which he says, ' the joy of possession, the greed, the vanity 
and self-aggrandisement of the collector proper, are deftly 
subverted to the use of the explorer and conservator of know- 
ledge, who, having a weak proprietorial sense — bloodless, 
anaemic, it must seem to the enthusiastic connoisseur — is 
satisfied so long as somewhere, by someone, Things are securely 
saved. The purpose of the arch-conservator — his whole design 
and the rationale of his art — is to redeem, embalm, dry, cure, 
salt, pickle, pot every animal, vegetable, and mineral, every 
stage in the history of the universe from nebular gas or 
planetismals down to the latest and most insignificant event 
reported in the newspapers. He would like to treat the globe 
as the experimental embryologist treats an egg — to preserve 
it whole in every hour of its development, then section it with 
a microtome. 

* Vol. XIV., No. ii, 1914. 

Natural'st, 



Notes and Comments. 213 

EVOLUTION OF GEOLOGICAL MAPS. 

At a recent meeting of the Geological Society of London, 
Mr. T. Sheppard, M.Sc, F.G.S., gave a lecture on ' British 
Geological Maps as a Record of the Advance of Geology.' 
The author pointed out that it often happened changes were 
indicated upon old topographical maps ; consequently, though 
not strictly ' geological ' maps, many old plans and charts 
were of use in connection with geological enquiry. Examples 
of maps of the Humber area, dating from Elizabethan times, 
were exhibited, and showed that great geological changes had 
taken place ; on the one hand, large tracts of land had been 
denuded and many towns and villages had disappeared, while 
on the other, new land had been formed, and where once was 
water, were now large areas of reclaimed land. 

EARLY REFERENCES TO GEOLOGY. 

It was shown that so long ago as 1595, writers were familiar 
with the differences in the geological structure of the country, 
and in 1683 Martin Lister read a paper to the Royal Society, 
in which he definitely outlined a scheme for ' the mapping of 
soils and rocks,' mentioning the various kinds occurring in York- 
shire ; but his plan was not actually carried out until over a 
century later. The remarkable sections and plans of Strachey 
(1719) and Packe (1743) were also described. The first 
systematic series of maps illustrating the geological features 
of the counties, was issued in the Reports of the old ' Board of 
Agriculture,' dating from 1793 to 1822. 

SOIL MAPS. 

These reports usually contained ' soil maps ' of the 
countries described, upon which chalk, sandstone, limestone, 
peat, marl, gravel, etc., were shown by colours or shading. 
These Agricultural Surveys were certainly familiar to William 
Smith, and doubtless he drew from them information to assist 
him in his great map of the Geology of the British Islands 
issued in 1815. One of the earliest serious attempts to prepare 
geological maps was by Prof. Jameson, who read a paper, in 
1805, ' On Colouring Geognostical Maps ' (Wernerian Nat. 
Hist. Soc., Vol. I., published 1811), but the enormous number 
of complicated signs and symbols which he suggested proved 
unsuitable for practical mapping, though his colour scheme 
had many good points in its favour. 

THE FIRST GEOLOGICAL MAP. 

The first strictly geological map was apparently that in 
the Society's possession, which was made by W. Smith in 1799, 
and showed the geological structure of the Bath district. Mr. 
Sheppard was able to show that this was coloured on a plan 
originally issued in ' The New Bath Guide ' of 1799, which he 
had succeeded in tracing. The first geological map of England 
and Wales was a small one, also by Smith, which was presented 

1917 July 1. 



214 Notes and Comments. 

by ' The Father of English Geology ' to the Society, when he 
received the award of the Wollaston Medal in 1831. The 
history of the various maps and sections published by Smith 
was given, and two hitherto unknown maps by Smith in the 
Society's possession were described, and Mr. Sheppard also 
exhibited another of the Scarborough district, which he had 
found when cataloguing the Society's maps ; this particular 
map had been lost for over eighty years. Smith's finest piece 
of work, his map of the Hackness district, dated 1832, appar- 
ently has not been seen by any worker since its publication, 
and the lecturer explained how he had recently been able to 
trace one or two copies, one of which was exhibited. 

LATER MAPS. 

The maps of Greenough, of which the Society possessed a 
very large and valuable collection, published and in manuscript, 
were then described. Next followed an account of an extra- 
ordinary series of coloured maps of England and Wales, and 
of the British Islands, issued by Arrowsmith, Murchison, 
Walker, Ramsay, Ravenstein, Knipe, Phillips, Johnstone and 
others, during the middle of the nineteenth century. The 
Geological maps of Scotland and Ireland were dealt with, 
and it was shown that the Society possessed many maps of 
those countries, some of which were of great value and historical 
interest. Special reference was made to a manuscript map 
of Scotland by Necker, dated 1808, which was earlier than 
Smith's large map of England and Wales. Then followed a 
description of various privately published maps, such as those 
of the Bristol Coalfield by Sanders, The London District by 
Jordan, The Lancashire District by Elias Hall, etc., and finally 
reference was made to the earlier maps of the Geological Sur- 
vey. He concluded by referring to the scope of the catalogue 
of the maps in the Society's possession, which he was preparing, 
and which contained details of something like three thousand 
maps. 

NATURAL HISTORY IN I485. 

Among many interesting items for sale in a catalogue 
recently issued by Messrs. W. Heffer & Sons, Cambridge, is 
a small quarto volume, dated 1485, by J. Publicius. It is 
entitled ' Oratoriae artis epitoma, vel quae brevibus ad consuma- 
tum spectant oratorem ex antiquo rhetorum gymnasis,' etc. 
An illustration from this book is given, which we are permitted 
to reproduce herewith. The block is interesting, as it represents 
various animals as they were understood to exist in the fifteenth 
century. We are not in the habit of having guessing com- 
petitions in connection with this journal, otherwise we might 
have offered a prize for the correct names of the twenty-five 
animals shewn thereon. 

Naturalist. 



Notes and Comments. 



215 




Erbardus Ratdolt auguftefis ingenio miro &r arte ppolita im/ 
prefUonimirificedediti48rpricU€alcn,febraaj , ii.V^ctiis» 






Illustration from ' Oratoriae artia epitoma,' etc., by J. Publicius. 1485. 

1917 July 1. 



2i6 Notes and Comments. 

VICTORIA AND ALBERT MUSEUM. 

A letter has been sent from the Museums Association, 
representing the museums and art galleries of the Empire, to 
the Prime Minister, protesting against the closing of the 
Victoria and Albert Museum, in whole or part, in order to 
provide offices for the Board of Education. It is pointed out 
that, ' apart from all other considerations, it is universally 
recognised that to secure the supremacy of British trade after 
the war the standard of artistic excellence in our manufactures 
must be raised, and this is the special raison d'etre of the Victoria 
and Albert Museum. To appropriate extensive portions of 
the institution for quite other purposes will greatly hamper 
this vital function of the museum. The loss to the general 
community from the educational point of view will be heavy, 
too, and we find it difficult to conceive that the Board of 
Education, of all Departments, can be a party to the arrange- 
ment.' The hope is expressed that it ' may be found possible 
to provide other and more suitable quarters for the Board, 
and thus avoid this seriously retrograde step.' 

A BUSINESS MUSEUM. 

' The Londoner ' writes on the subject in the London- 
Evening News of May 31st. He truly says : — Some of us are 
going to be robbed of what pleases us very much : friendly 
fellow-citizens should stand by us. But there is a better 
reason for complaint. It is the sacred reason that every 
Englishman will heed. When I say that, ' after all, Business 
is Business,' the great heart of the country should be touched. 
And here is a case where we should say that Business is Busi- 
ness. If we close this Museum and turn it into another nest 
for those swarming Cuthberts, the civil service clerks, we 
shall lose money by the change. For South Kensington Mus- 
eum, if you look at it fairly, is Business : it is a factory : it 
is an annex to half our factories. South Kensington Museum 
is there to teach their trades to weavers and joiners and potters, 
to workers in glass and metal. I do not say that, if we shut 
all our Museums, we could not make ourselves cups and plates 
and tables and the rest, things that would serve their purpose 
in our houses. But be very sure that, if we cut off the workers 
from the sight of all the beautiful work of the ages gone by, 
we shall lose all our foreign trade in such wares. We shall 
give the world-market to the Boche, who is not closing his 
industrial Museums. So like our officials, is it not, that this 
thing should be threatened by a Board which calls itself a 
Board of Education, which is setting about to stop the educa- 
tion of the hand and the eye ? ' 



A supplement to the Journal of the Board of Agriculture dealing with 
grass land and ploughed land, has been issued, at the price of 4dr 

Naturalist, 



217 



OOLITE GRAINS IN THE UPPER LIAS OF 
GRANTHAM. 



H. PRESTON, F.G.S., and A. E."TRUEMAN, M.Sc. 

Oolite grains are found occasionally in the limestones of the 
Lias, as for example, in the ironstone of Frodingham, North 
Lincolnshire, and in the upper bed of marlstone at Chipping 
Warden, Northants. They are not, however, of common 





*> fi «5 










w.3 



Fig j —Compound grain X 15. Fi g 2.— Enlarged portion of Fig. 1 a. 
(p = Tubule. v = Radial structure). X 3 2 



Figs. 3, 4. — Typical grains. x 15. 



occurrence in the clays of the upper Lias, although they have 
been recorded in certain beds in Northamptonshire.* 

Comparatively large oolite grains are by no means uncom- 
mon in a bed of clay, about a foot in thickness, exposed in 
Rudd's brickyard, south of the railway station, Grantham. f 



* B. Thompson, ' Northamptonshire.' Proc. Geol. Assoc, 1910, p. 461. 
t H. Preston. Pvoc GeoL Assoc, 1905, p. 114. 



1917 July l. 



218 Oolite Grains in the Upper Lias of Grantham. 

The bed is very fossiliferous and contains abundant ammonites 
of the falcifer series, with numerous gastropods and small 
lamellibranchs {Nncula hammeri). The grains are depressed 
oval in form, varying in length up to 5 mms., but averaging 
2-5 mms. The thickness rarely exceeds 1 mm. The grains 
are scattered throughout the clay, nowhere forming more than 
one-twentieth of the mass, but they may be readily separated 
by washing. 

Sections of these grains show that they consist of con- 
centric laminae of calcite surrounding a nucleus of varying 
character. Little trace of radial structure is seen, but if 
certain laminae are examined carefully with a high power they 
are seen to be made up of radially arranged fibres of calcite : 
this, according to Cohen,* is one of the forms of oolite most 
common in British rocks. 

Traces of minute tubules are visible in many grains (fig. 2g) 
and suggest that they are mainly of organic origin. The 
tubules appear circular in section, with a diameter of about 
.03 mms., and in many respects resemble those which have 
been described by Wethered as Girvanella. The Grantham 
oolite grains are somewhat unusual in their flattened form, 
which seems to be independent of the shape of the nucleus. 

The bed we have described probably represents locally a 
period of slow deposition, probably in shallow water. 



We see from the Report of the Geological Society of London recently 
to hand, that Mr. C. Da vies Sherborn has got to GOT with editing his 
card catalogue, and it is complete and fitted up to FIT. 

In the Transactions of the Entomological Society of London, issued 
on June 7th, Mr. H. Ling Roth, of the Bankfield Museum, Halifax, has 
some ' Observations on the Growth and Habits of the Stick Insect, 
Carausius morosus Br., intended as a contribution towards a knowledge 
of variation in an organism which produces itself by the parthenogenetic 
method.' 

The Executive Committee for the local arrangements in connection 
with the 1916 meeting of the British Association at Newcastle have sub- 
mitted a report to the General Committee. The report says the meeting 
will take a high position among the annual conferences of the Association. 
The statement of accounts shows that it has been possible to discharge the 
relatively modest expenditure incurred by the meeting by a call on each 
of the guarantors of one-fifth of the sum guaranteed by them. 

The Memoirs and Proceedings of the Manchester Literary and 
Philosophical Society, Vol. LX ., part 3, include the following memoirs : — 
' The Geographical Distribution of the Use of Pearls and Pearl-shells,' 
and ' The Use of Shells for the Purposes of Currency,' both by J. Wilfred 
Jackson. There is also the Society's report, with a summary of the 
lectures, etc. This seems to be one of the few societies issuing publications 
which indicate that the members are still Literary and Philosophical. 

* See A. Harker, ' Student's Petrology.' 4th Ed., 1908, p. 259. 

Naturalist, 



2ig 

OCCURRENCE OF BOULDER CLAY 
AT HUDDERSFIELD. 



T. W. WOODHEAD, M.Sc. Ph.D. 



For more than half a century, geologists in the Huddersfield 
district have been familiar with deposits containing water-worn 
material, at ioo feet or more above the present level of the 
river Colne on which the town stands. These deposits have 
been frequently exposed in excavations for buildings, drains, 
railway cuttings and borings. It has been customary to regard 
them as river gravels, and as indicating the former course of 
the Colne. 

During the past two years, excavations made in connection 
with the extensive works of British Dyes, Ltd., in Huddersfield, 
have furnished an opportunity of examining very numerous 
sections covering a large area of the alluvial tract of the Colne, 
especially around the spur known as Briery Bank, which 
separates the Colne from Lees Beck. This latter stream, which 
runs almost due north, drains the Kirkburton valley and is 
suggestively small for so wide a valley ; it bears seven names 
along its course of seven miles, the last half-mile is known as 
Lees Beck, and as most of the deposits on its banks, referred 
to below, occur within this length of the stream, it will be con- 
venient to use the above name only. 

At the junction of Lees Beck with the Colne, the alluvium 
covering the valley floor is three-quarters of a mile wide, as 
shown on the Geological Survey Map (sheet 246), and it varies 
in altitude from 160 ft. to 200 ft. O.D. 

To account for these deposits, it was presumed that the 
Colne formerly persued a course from S.W. to N.E., correspond- 
ing roughly with the track between the present 275 ft. and 
300 ft. contour lines, and that in course of time it had cut its 
way along the strike of the Lower Coal Measures in an easterly 
direction, down to its present level. Hence the gently sloping 
left bank, covered with a wide stretch of alluvium, and the 
precipitous right bank, where, as at Dalton Bank Plantation, 
in a distance of less than 400 yards, it rises from 175 ft. to 
525 ft., a gradient of 1 in 1-9. 

In the Geological Survey, all these deposits are mapped as 
alluvium, and in no part of the Colne drainage area is there 
any indication given of deposits belonging either to the first 
river terrace, or the high level river gravel ; but to the N.E., 
beyond the junction of the Colne with the Calder, extensive 
river terrace deposits are shown on both banks of the Calder, 
between Colne Bridge and Dewsbury. A smaller area marked 
' old river gravel ' is also shown at Kirklees, on the left bank 
of the Calder. 

Considerable attention has been paid to such deposits in 

1917 July 1. 



220 Occurrence of Boulder Clay at Huddersfield. 

the upper part of the Calder, and especially to the valley of 
the Aire, by Jowett and Muff* ; while to the south-east, the 
Don area has been described by Lower Carter, f Up to the 
present, geologists have paid little attention to the area drained 
by the Colne and its tributaries. Kendall J says, ' The country 
south of the Calder has been for many years a puzzle to the 
glacial geologist. Its general aspect is that of an unglaciated 
region, yet small sporadic patches of unmistakable glacial 
deposits are scattered at wide intervals through the lower 
ends of the valleys in the Don and Dearne drainage.' 

In the absence of any detailed account of such deposits 
in the drainage area of the Colne, it may be well to place on 
record such facts as have come to light during the excavations 




Fig. 1.— Junction of Lees Beck with the Colne. 

above referred to, and also in similar exposures elsewhere 
in the neighbourhood. 

The principal excavations were on the wide alluvial flat 
at the end of the spur separating the Colne from Lees Beck. 
As might be expected in alluvial deposits, these showed great 
variations in the composition of the beds within short distances. 

Fig. i shows the confluence of the streams. Lees Beck 
on the left of the illustration, and the Colne, crossed by a 

* Jowett and Muff : ' Glaciation of the Bradford and Keighley Dis- 
trict.' — Proc. Yorks. Geol. Soc, 1904-1905. 

f W. Lower Carter: 'Glaciation of the Don and Dearne Valleys.' 
Proc. Yovks. Geol. Soc, 1905. 

\ P. F. Kendall, 'The Glacial Deposits' (of Yorkshire). Victoria 
County History, York, Vol. I., p. 88, 1907. 

Naturalist; 



Occurrence of Boulder Clay at H udder s field. 



221 



foot-bridge, on the right. At this point both streams run over 
a bed of gravel four feet in thickness. 

Fig. 2 shows the deposits on the left bank of Lees Beck 
in detail. Below the surface soil (seen on the left of the 
illustration) is six feet of sandy loam resting on gravel. A 
sudden change occurs at the point where part of the bank is 
broken away ; to the right of the two-foot rule, the loam is 
only four feet six inches thick, the gravel here being one foot 
six inches thicker than to the left. 

On the opposite (right) bank of Lees Beck, and on the right 
bank of the Colne, the excavations showed the sands and 




Fig. 2. 



-Sand and gravel, left bank of Lees Beck near junction 
with the Colne. 



gravels to be nine feet six inches to ten feet in thickness and 

ox-bow of Lees Beck the 



ft- 
4 
r 

4 



ins. 
o 
o 
6 



resting on black shale. Near the 
following beds were exposed : — 

Sandy loam 
Sandy gravel 
Coarse grey gravel... 

The latter bed (charged with sewage which percolated 
into it from the stream) continues to just beyond the con- 
fluence, and here it contained a number of large water-worn 
boulders. At this point the bed thins out and merges into a 
bed of fine grey mud one foot in thickness, resting on a bed of 

1917 July 1. 



222 Occurrence of Boulder Clay at H udder s field. 

ochreous gravel ten inches thick. This grey gravel did not 
appear in sections on the left bank of the Colne. The colours 
of the gravel vary from rich ochreous yellow to dark slaty grey, 
probably indicating varying degrees of oxidation, as the 
materials are very similar in type. On the left bank of the 
Colne, near the foot-bridge, one section twelve feet in thickness 
did not reach the bottom of the gravels. The section showed 
the following layers : — 



ft. 


ins. 


Fine sandy loam ... i 


6 


Coarse „ ... i 


6 


Sandy gravel ... o 


6 


Coarse sand ... i 


6 


Ochreous sandy gravel I 





Coarse gravel ... 6 






Most of the excavations here were confined to the surface 
layer four to five feet in thickness, varying from sandy loam 
to coarse sand and fine gravel, often current bedded. In the 
latter, at two feet from the surface, was found the left scapula 
of an ox, the species of which has not yet been determined. 
In the alluvium in the neighbourhood of Huddersfield, ox 
bones have frequently been found and they are usually referred 
to Bos primigenius, but I know of no instance where the species 
has been determined with certainty. 

The gravels appear to increase in thickness further to the 
north, e.g., at the New Peace Pit, five hundred yards to the 
north-west from the confluence of the streams, the depth is 
seventeen feet six inches. On the left bank of the Canal 
near Colne Bridge, an excavation, 18 feet deep, showed the 
following deposits : — 

ft. ins. 

Surface Soil ... ... ... ... i o 

Sandy Clay with fragmented Shale, 

and a few Sandstone boulders ... 3 o 

Dirty loam with numerous boulders 12 o 

The latter bed was aptly described by the navvies as 
' muck and stones.' Some of the boulders here were of large 
size, being one to two tons in weight. The bottom of the 
deposit was not reached. . 

With the exception of one or two doubtful finds, all the 
deposits exposed in these sections are composed of local rocks 
viz. : — Lower Coal-Measure and Millstone Grit Sandstones 
and Shales. Water-worn boulders of Canister, containing 
Stigmarian rootlets, are abundant. 

Excavations made at higher levels, however, revealed 
deposits of a different kind. The most interesting were on 
the eastern slope of the spur separating the Colne from Lees 

Naturalist, 



Occurrence of Boulder Clay at Huddersfield. 223 

Beck. Before excavations commenced, suspicious-looking 
deposits were exposed in the natural sections of the left bank 
of Lees Beck, where a bed of ' gravel ' was seen resting upon 
a high bank of black faulted shale ; one section showed this 
deposit filling a V-shaped hollow, ploughed out of the shale, 
ten feet or more above the stream bed. 

Higher up on the. spur good sections of this deposit were 



% 




Fig. 3.— Pipe track from Lees Beck to Dalton Gardens 
Reservoir, showing boulder clay. 

exposed in excavating for the foundations of the works labora- 
tory. This proved to be stiff yellowish clay merging into a 
sandy clay, with both water-worn and angular stones of all 
shapes and sizes, indiscriminately embedded in it. Frequent 
globular pockets occurred, filled with fragments of shale and 
coal, the filling material readily crumbling away, leaving a 
smooth lining with a greyish white incrustation. 

This deposit covers the end of the spur, and can be traced 
in a southerly direction (up stream) to Sand Ings, nearly 

1917 July 1. 



224 Occurrence of Boulder Clay at Huddersfield. 

half-a-mile away. Fortunately, a pipe line was cut at right 
angles to the spur, from Lees Beck to the hill-top at Dalton 
Gardens (Fig. 3), this enabled the deposit to be examined 
more carefully. Its upward distribution proved to extend 
to the two hundred feet contour line, i.e., about thirty feet 
above the level of the stream bed. The lower zone contained 
many water-worn and irregular stones, some of large size 
(a ton or more in weight), and among these were several having 
undoubted ice scratches. One of these is shown in Fig. 4. A 
little higher up the slope, the excavation revealed a bed four to 
five feet thick, of stiff, tenacious, blue-grey clay, free from 
boulders, and this was overlaid by a bed of yellow clay from 
two to four feet in thickness, thinning out about the two hun- 
dred feet contour line. These sections were seen by Mr. A. 
Gilligan, and later by Prof. P. F. Kendall, and both agreed 
that the deposits were typical boulder clay. Another interest- 
ing section was exposed near the commencement of this pipe 
line, when making a diversion of Lees Beck. Here it was found 
that the boulder clay was resting upon current-bedded gravels, 
this is shown in the photograph (Fig. 5). 

In the curious depression known as Sand Ings, about 
half-a-mile further up the valley, the excavations revealed a 
thick deposit of clay, free from boulders, viz. : — An upper 
layer, fourteen feet thick, of brown clay, resting upon a layer, 
four to five feet thick, of stiff blue clay. The little stream 
which drains Sand Ings pursues a normal course to the east 
until it approaches the bottom of the valley, then it turns 
sharply to the south (up the main valley) before joining Lees 
Beck ! Features very similar to those described at Dalton 
Lees and the spur above, are repeated at Kirkheaton and Mill 
Hill (also in the Kirkburton valley). Between the railway 
and Mill Hill is a wide stretch of alluvium through which the 
Beck meanders. In May of last year, a pipe line was cut 
through the alluvium from Messrs. Jarmain's works to Lees 
Beck, the deepest part of which showed ; — 

ft. ins. 

Soil 1 3 

Sandy loam ... 3 o 

Ochreous stony gravel 4 3 

Blue Clay ... ... 1 o 

Grey sandy gravel 2 o 
but the bottom of the gravel was not reached. * 

South-west of Messrs. Jarmain's works, the beck makes a 
deep horse-shoe bend, and on its left bank is cutting into the 
steep slope of Mill Hill, on which the sanatorium is built. 

*Mr. G. S. Jarmain kindly informs me that at a borehole in their works, 
the depth of gravel was 13 feet. 

Naturalist, 



Occurrence of Boulder Clay at H Uddersfield. 225 




Fig. 4. —Ice-scratched and polished sandstone boulder, 
found in the pipe track, Briery Bank. 




Fig 5.— Boulder clay resting on current-bedded gravel 
in diverted course of Lees Beck. 



1917 July 1. 



226 Occurrence of Boulder Clay at H udders field. 

Here a section of sandy boulder clay is exposed, and it may 
be traced over the hill, which is about twenty-one feet above 
the bed of the stream. The ploughed fields, and also the drains, 
in the sanatorium grounds, reveal abundant traces of boulder 
clay, and the constituents examined agree with those found 
on Briery Bank. It was in this neighbourhood that a horn 
was found in 1882, supposed to be that of Bos primigenius 
(see The Naturalist, 1882, p. 150). 

At Mill Hill, the beck receives a tributary from Whitley ; 
in this, near Rods Mill Dam, at 500-550 feet, boulder clay is 
again met with and a little further north, near Houses Hill, 




Fig. 6.— Boulder clay resting on a concave bed of Lower 
Coal Measure shale, Hillbouse. 

it has recently been exposed in several sections at 400-450 
feet. 

Near Fenay Bridge is another tributary valley drained by 
the Rushfield Dyke — the Mollicar Valley— and near Fenay Hall 
and Rushfield, clays and gravels occur which suggest a further 
extension of this deposit, but satisfactory sections have not 
yet been exposed and examined. 

Continuing along the main valley, good sections may be 
seen at the Spa Green Brick Works, Cownes ; and a mile 
further, opposite the junction with the Woodsome road, the 

Naturalist, 



Occurrence of Boulder Clay at Huddersfield. 227 

site of an old excavation is marked ' gravel pit ' on the early 
survey maps. Beyond Kirkburton, the valley forms a pic- 
turesque wooded gorge to Thunder Bridge where it is joined 
by a tributary from Fulstone. Near the head of this stream 
glacial deposits are again indicated between Ellen Spring and 
Wood End Wood at 625 feet, and in the bed of the stream at 
Ellen Spring, I found a boulder of Carboniferous Limestone 
but whether it had been derived from the deposits on the 
stream bank or not is uncertain. 

In the main valley of the Colne, on the gently sloping left 
bank, deposits occur, spread over a wide area in the centre of 
Huddersfield and to the north-east, which have been known 
for many years, and been frequently revealed in excavations 
and borings, and are generally spoken of as the ' old river bed.' 
About twenty-three years ago, I remember visiting the rail- 
way cutting at Hillhouse siding in company with the late 
Edward Brooke, F.G.S., and other local geologists, and the 
fine section then exposed was regarded as river deposit. Ex- 
cellent sections of the same bed may now be seen in the Hudders- 
field Brick and Tile Works in the vicinity, and they prove to 
be undoubtedly boulder clay. Mr. Gilligan has been good 
enough to examine these along with me and he agrees as to 
their glacial origin. In this material large blocks of sandstone 
occur, some weighing one to two tons. One section (Fig. 6) 
shows what is either a fold in the shales filled with boulder clay, 
or more probably, the latter, in moving over the surface, has 
ploughed out a concave bed. This boulder clay has been traced 
from Chapel Hill (299 ft.) where the bed is eight feet in thick- 
ness, to Queen Street South, Shore Head, Kirkgate, Hillhouse, 
Fartown Green, Birkby* and Grimscar ; at the latter place 
interesting sections are exposed at a height of nearly four 
hundred feet. It is continued beyond Sheepridge and Wood- 
house to Bradley, where good sections may be seen in the 
railway cutting and in numerous excavations at Messrs. 
L. B. Holliday's Works. From here it can be traced with little 
interruption to Colne Bridge and the junction with the Calder. 

At Kirklees, on the left bank of the Calder, a bed of gravel 
occurs at Castle Hill, the highest point in the park (300 ft.). 
The gravels cover an oval patch of ground a quarter of a mile 
long, and on this is Robin Hood's grave, and also the remains 
of a Roman fort. Good sections are seen in the gravel 
pit here and Fig. 7 shows one of them. These gravels have 
been seen by Mr. Gilligan, and we have compared them with 
the gravels at Rothwell Haigh, and he agrees they should be 
placed in the same category. Their origin is very difficult to 

* Recorded by S. L. Mosley, in the Huddersfield Examiner Supp., 
May 30th, 19 1 4. 

1917 July l. 



228 



Occurrence of Boulder Clay at Huddersjield, 



explain; the Geological Survey (sheet 246) mark them ' old 
river gravel.' Probably they were transported, by ice, and 
later, redistributed to some extent by water, as indicated by 
the evidence of current bedding, in them. The western slope 
of Castle Hill is precipitous, and a hundred and fifty feet below 
runs the Calder. A small piece of chert was found in the 





■*WP*1 











WW 




>*•''' ■ •%> 


. C 


'■'.•w. 


. ." .- 


* *'-r. 








m 



Fig. 7.— Section in gravel pit, Kirklees Park. 

Kirklees gravels during our visit, otherwise the material 
examined was derived from local rocks. 

In the Holme Valley, interesting sections have been recently 
exposed near West Wood, Honley (450 feet), where boulder 
clay 4-5 feet in thickness is seen resting on the shales in the 
works of the Meltham Silica Fire Brick Co. A little to the 
north east of this, on the slopes of Lud Hill at 650 feet, large 
mounds occur which are very suggestive of glacial deposits, 
but these have not yet been excavated. Probable connecting 
links between Honley and the Colne are the surface deposits at 

Naturalist, 



Occurrence of Boulder Clay at Huddersfield. 229 

Newsome (525 feet), Primrose Hill (425 feet), and Longley Park 
(225 feet). 

It has been customary to regard the district south of the 
Aire as practically unglaciated. Concerning the Calder valley 
Kendall remarks,* ' So far as can be ascertained, no native 
glacier occupied the valley, though the occurrence of boulder 
clay, containing rocks of the Lake District, at the gasworks 
at Todmorden, may be taken to prove the protrusion of a 
glacier lobe down to that point. Through the rest of Calder- 
dale gravels containing similar foreign stones occur in the floor 
of the valley at least as far as Thornes, below Wakefield.' 
But the more these deposits are examined, and especially the 
remains of boulder clay on the slopes high above the valley 
floor, the more does it become probable that the ice extended 
much further down the valley. 

The deposits above recorded as occurring in the neighbour- 
hood of Huddersfield, when plotted on a map, strongly suggest 
morainic remains, not only in the valley of the Colne, but of 
its tributaries as well, viz., the Holme and the Kirkburton 
valleys. These deposits also enable us to connect the story of 
glaciation between the Aire, as described by Jowett and Muff, 
and the Don area studied by Lower Carter, with that of Rosen- 
dale more recently described by Jowett. f Jowett showed how 
the great ice sheet from the Irish Sea, joined by that from the 
Clyde, crossed the plain of Lancashire, and invading the Pen- 
nines, reached the ridge and forced a plug of ice into the head of 
Calderdale. He indicates a fringe of local Drift, backed by 
north-western Drift, down to Buckstones at the head of the 
Colne. This was the limit of the area he described. This 
sea of ice, however, extended further south, from Rochdale to 
Oldham, and also invaded and filled the Saddleworth and 
Greenfield valleys. Portions of these deposits are indicated 
on the Drift map of this district on sheet 88 S.W. (Hudders- 
field). There are also evidences in the clays beneath the peat, 
of an extension of the ice along the Stanedge, which involves 
the head waters of the Colne. 

Is it too bold a suggestion, that during the period of 
maximum extension of the ice, when — to use a favourite expres- 
sion with glacialists — ' the ice over-rode everything,' it may 
well have crossed the head of the Colne, and also the Holme, 
and made its way down these pre-glacial valleys ? 

Before reaching the Pennine ridge, the western ice, for a 
distance of about thirty miles, had to pass over the outcrops 
of beds of the Lower Coal Measures and Millstone Grits, and 

* Ibid, p. 88. 

t A. Jowett : ' Glacial Geology of East Lancashire.' Quarterly 
Journal Geol. Soc, 1914, pp. 199-228. 

1917 July 1. 



230 Occurrence of Boulder Clay at H udder sfield. 

would thus deposit in these Yorkshire valleys, rocks of the 
same formations as those which the valleys themselves are 
composed. 

The deposits already found suggest that the ice entered 
the cirque at the head of the Holme, and passing eastward, 
overrode the spur at Wooldale, entered the Valley at New 
Mill, then ascending the slope to Fulstone, passed through the 
gap (650 feet) between Haw Cliffe (950 feet) and Snowgate 
Head (900 feet) and so down the Kirkburton Valley. A 
branch passing down the Holme might have given off a lobe 
which, ascending the slopes of Lud Hill, passed over Farnley 
Hey (675 feet), entered the Mollicar Valley and joined the 
main flow at Woodsome Mill ; from thence its course would be 
to Fenay Bridge and Dalton Lees, where it would merge with 
the flow coming down the Valley of the Colne. Such a course 
would account for the deposits as above recorded, and the 
hypothesis will serve to indicate the lines along which further 
evidence may profitably be sought. 

In the papers above referred to by Jowett and Muff and 
Lower Carter, another problem involving this area is briefly 
dealt with. These geologists carry the lateral moraine of the 
Aire glacier southwards across the Calder at Horbury, and if 
Carter's view is correct, the embankment was high enough 
to hold up the Calder drainage to such an extent that its over- 
flow channel near Wooley Edge was, at its lowest point, four 
hundred and five feet above sea level. 

The lake also received part of the Aire drainage, which made 
its way along a pair of successive channels near Wibsey, and 
entered the lake at the head of the Spen Valley. 

A dam of the kind suggested would produce a lake of 
truly fine dimensions, concerning which, however, some geolo- 
gists are sceptical. If the area which would be covered were 
indicated on a map, ' Lake Calderdale ' would be seen to 
extend from Horbury to Todmorden (about 22 miles), and 
would submerge much of the Spen Valley, also Batley, Dews- 
bury, Ravensthorpe, Mirfield, Huddersfield, Brighouse, Elland, 
Sowerby Bridge, Hebden Bridge and the intervening lowlands. 

One of the difficulties raised against the former existence 
of such a lake, is the absence of records of laminated clay, so 
characteristic of other lake deposits. Although searched for 
in the sections recently exposed, I have not found any clay 
of this type. Those who have doubts about this lake, however, 
agree that the Humber drainage was blocked by the North Sea 
ice to a height of at least two hundred and seventy five feet. 
The lake which would thus be formed would include much of 
the area of ' Lake Calderdale,' still laminated clays are ap- 
parently absent ! But if the boulder clay is so obscured 
and fragmentary as to have escaped the notice of glacialists, 

Naturalist, 



Occurrence of Boulder Clay at Huddersjield. 231 

we need not wonder at the difficulty of finding such an easily 
denuded deposit as laminated clay on the precipitous slopes 
of the Calder and Colne, especially when we consider how few 
relatively, are the areas which have been exposed and ex- 
amined. Foreign materials, Granite, Whinstone, etc., have 
been reported from the Colne and Holme valleys, and though 
these did not receive expert examination, it is probable that 
part of the north-western Drift found its way into these valleys, 
and further investigation may reveal its presence. 

Notwithstanding the fragmentary character of the evidence, 
it is sufficient to enable us to suggest a probable explanation 
of the deposits as we now find them. 

1. They probably belong to an early period of the Ice Age. 

2. The valleys were perhaps occupied by ice for a relatively 
short period. 

3. The direction of the ice, and the rocks it passed over, 
would account for the deposits being almost entirely composed 
of rocks of the Millstone Grits and Lower Coal Measures. 

4. The valleys were pre-glacial in origin, and already con- 
tained an alluvium with numerous water-worn pebbles and 
boulders of Grit, Sandstone, Ironstone and Ganister. 

5. The long period during which the deposits have been 
exposed to denudation, on the sides of valleys with precipitous 
slopes, may well account for its present fragmentary character, 
especially where the matrix was a sandy clay. 

6. If in later glacial times a lake was formed, the wash of 
its shores would tend towards further denudation and re- 
distribution of the material. 

7. The lake period was probably a short one, and laminated 
clays, perhaps at no time in abundance, may have since been 
obliterated, or remain undiscovered. 

8. Before the ice receded from the Pennine ridge, the rush 
of melt-waters down these valleys might well have been 
responsible for some of the features which render them of 
peculiar interest. 

9. Evidences of super-deepening are not so pronounced 
as in the valley of the Calder, which indicate that the present 
land surface is two hundred feet lower than in glacial times. 
In no part of the Colne drainage have the gravels been found 
at so great a depth as in the Calder, but some of the tributaries 
of the Colne, which drop steeply into the main valley, may 
be in part thus accounted for. The gorge-like character of the 
Colne, expecially where the river breaks through the Rough 
Rock at Longroyd Bridge before entering the lower Coal Meas- 
ures, is very suggestive. Similarly, but on a smaller scale, 
the Meltham Brook has cut through the Rough Rock at the 
' Mag ' before joining the Holme. 

10. It seems probable that the broad band of alluvium 

1917 July 1. 



232 ' Talconer: Abnormal Spiders. ■ 

which now covers our valley floors, is in some measure at least 
redistributed boulder clay, and this boulder clay in turn, is 
in part the ice-borne sand and gravel of pre-glacial rivers. 

It is evident that more extended research will reveal the 
presence of remains of the Glacial Period in these valleys to 
a much greater extent than has formerly been supposed. 

In conclusion, I wish to record my indebtedness to Mr. 
W. H. Sikes, who has taken much interest in the deposits, 
and has also been at much pains to secure a large series of 
photographs of the sections exposed, including those used in 
illustrating this paper. Also to Prof P. F. Kendall and Mr. 
A. Gilligan, for examining some of the sections, and with whom 
I have had many helpful discussions on the problems involved. 
I also desire to thank the directors of British Dyes, Ltd., and 
Mr. Nicholson of the Huddersfield Brick and Tile Co., for so 
freely granting facilities to visit their works. 



■: o :- 



ABNORMAL SPIDERS. 



WM. FALCONER, 

Slaithwaite, Huddersfield. 



Since writing on this subject,* I have been struck by the 
frequency with which spiders have occurred to me with one 
or both congeries of palpal organs imperfectly developed or 
altogether . wanting. These organs,! appendages confined to 
the male sex, are not of vital function, being employed only 
in the act of generation, so that wanting them, those afflicted, 
perforce having to remain bachelors, are of no account in the 
propagation of the race. Otherwise they do not seem affected 
in any other way, the individuals seen being well-grown and 
coloured, active and vigorous. The cause of the defect is ob- 
scure, but may have resulted congenitally from some eccen- 
tricity in the protoplasm of the germ or from failure to complete 
successfully an early moulting process in this part of its organism, 
or other accident. As the palpal organs are only fully developed 
and disclosed in the adult, they cannot be replaced by new 
growths during a moult as is the case with lost limbs, so that 
the condition is permanent. • 

Instances of mal-growth are, of course, from their very 
nature, easily observable, while total loss in course of develop- 
ment may be at once distinguished from that due to violence by 
the smooth unbroken surface of the exposed ends of the palps, 
much in the same way as the internal lacunae of water plants 

* Vide The Naturalist, May 1910, pp. 199-203, and June 1910, pp. 229-232. 
f for figures of such organs see The Naturalist, Oct. 1912, PI. XV., figs. 
1-7 and 21. 

Naturalist, 



Northern News. 233 

may be discerned from the similar cavities in the stems of 
horsetails, grasses, etc. The examples noted have not belonged 
to, or been more plentiful in, one group of spiders than in 
another; an example of total suppression of palpal organs in 
Epeira sturmii Hahn (East Riding, T. Stainforth, 1916) and 
another of mal-development of the same in a Clubiona terrestris 
Westr. (near Huddersfield, June 1917) being far apart in a 
classificatory sense. 

One or two cases of so-called hermaphroditism, that is of 
the same spider possessing one palp of the male type and the 
other of the female type as well as the female organ (both 
kinds of genitalia more or less defective), have also occurred. 
From examples noted by observers at different times in various 
countries, the condition has been thought to be a peculiarity 
of the sub-family Linyphiince, but in June, 1913, at Hebden 
Bridge, I took a Neon reticulatus Bl., in which the state was 
well exemplified, the right palp only being of the male type, 
but as usual neither this nor the female vulva perfect. 

It is, I think, to be expected that the condition will occur 
also in other sections, rarely, however, in most and only com- 
paratively more commonly in the Linyphiince, which constitute, 
both as regards genera and species, by far the greater bulk of 
our spider population. 

With regard to other forms of abnormality mentioned 
(loc. cit.) partial blindness by obliteration or imperfect develop- 
ment of one or more eyes keeps recurring, but the most frequent 
of all is that of deep wide longitudinal channels in the soft 
substance of the abdomen, above or below. 

Finally, a kind of superficial deviation from rule new to me 
is furnished by a spider taken in Cumberland, fully two-thirds 
of its ocular area being, if I may use a botanical term, etiolated, 
with an appreciable effect on the formation of the eyes affected. 

: o : 



We have received the Eighty-third A nnual Report of the Bootham 
School, York, Natural History Society, which bears evidence that this 
famous school still keeps up its reputation for encouraging the study of 
nature among its scholars. 

A recent writer in the Yorkshire Weekly Post gave a description of the 
colony of the Black-headed Gulls on Skipwbrth Common. In this he 
referred to the ' falling off in numbers which is extraordinary and un- 
accountable. Since the season began, in the first week of May, the keeper 
has sent about 300 eggs to York, 360 to Bradford, and there were 140 in 
hand. A Saturday's collection numbered 70 or 80, so that there is a total 
of say 900 eggs ; and this, he estimates, is about half the usual yield. 
Normally, under protection, there are fully 500 pairs of gulls on the Com- 
mon ; to-day there are not more than 200. On Washdyke, for example, — 
a deep, extensive pond, thick with reeds, and an ideal breeding place- 
there used to be 100 nests ; there is not one to be found this season. The 
adjacent dykes, where he used to see 50 or 60 nests, contain only one 
to-day, from which three eggs have been taken.' 

1917 July 1. 



234 

DREISSENSIA POLYMORPHA, PALLAS. 



HANS SCHLESCH, 

Hellerup, Denmark. 

Dreissensia polymorpha is one of the few species of which 
it is possible to trace the introduction into the parts of Europe 
in which it occurs. According to Mousson and v. Martens 
its original home is S. E. Europe, as it is found in small lakes 
isolated from rivers and canals in Rumelia and Albania, and 
Andrussov records it from the tertiary formations near Bejuk- 
Schor and Balachany in Caucasia*. Dreissensia polymorpha 
was first found by Pallas in 1768 in the lower parts of the 
Ural River |) and it was found in the Wolga in 1780. It is 
interesting to note that this species lives as well in salt as 
in freshwater, and on account of its resemblance to Mytilus 
Pallas named it M . polymorphus. It inhabits also the Caspian 
Sea, Lake Aral, etc. From these parts of Europe it has 
spread over the greater part of Europe, except Scandinavia, 
Spain, Portugal, Italy and Greece, fastening itself by its 
byssus to ships, etc., and proceeding up the rivers, has passed 
from one river valley to another, until it reached the Baltic. 
On 2nd November, 1824, Sowerby exhibited in the Linnean 
Society, the first British specimens, found in the London 
Docks. In 1825 it was recorded from Frische — and Kurische 
Haff, in 1826 in the Rhine near Leyden, in 1827-29 in Havel 
near Berlin ; in 1835, in the Eidern in Holstein and 1843, by 
Morch from Copenhagen. From Holland, it has spread over 
Belgium and France and in Germany down the Rhine, as far 
as Basel, and the Main river, and by the Danube — Main Canal 
into the Danube to Regensburg. 

Hazay records Dreissensia polymorpha from Budapest, in 
1824, but probably it was carried by ships from the Black Sea. 
At the present time, it probably inhabits the Danube along its 
whole length. An example of an isolated locality in which it 
has suddenly appeared, is Lake Fureso, a few miles north of 
Copenhagen. Fureso is certainly the best studied locality in 
Denmark since the days of the celebrated Danish malacologist, 
Otto Friederich Miiller, who did much collecting there, but it 
was found there first only a few years ago, and in abundance. 
In April, 1835, Prof, van Beneden named this species Dreissen- 
sia, in honour of the apothecary, Dreissens, who obtained the 
first specimens in the Maastricht Canal ; at the same time Prof. 
Rossmassler named it Trichogonia, but as van Beneden also 
described the animal, the name Dreissensia is to be used. 

* A portion with fossil Dreissensia is to be seen in the Hull Museum. 
t Reise durch versch. Prov. des Russ. Reich's 1771, I., p. 375. 

Naturalist 



235 

3n flDemoriam. 

SAMUEL MARGERISON. 

The death took place in Leeds on June 8th of Mr. Samuel 
Margerison, for many years one of the best known and most 
highly respected residents of Calverley. Mr. Margerison, who 
was in his sixtieth year and was unmarried, had been keen on 
assisting his country in the war, and had been working in a 
Leeds munition factory. He was taken ill a week ago with 
pleurisy and bronchitis, but despite the attention of Dr. Arnold 
Lees, pneumonia developed with fatal results. 

Mr. Margerison was the son of the late James Margerison 
of Calverley, and was a member of a family which has been 
resident in the parish for some centuries. For several genera- 
tions, the family has been associated with the timber trade, 
and Samuel Margerison, succeeding his father in the 
business, specialised principally in English oak. Much timber 
collected by him from various parts of the country is now in 
buildings of historic fame, and when Mr. Margerison, some 
twenty years ago, erected at Calverley his beautiful house, 
Grey Gables, for which he acted as his own architect and 
which he decorated with his own hand, he filled the place with 
fine panelling, some of it historic. It included for instance 
the panelling of the historic ' murder room ' of the scene of 
the ' Calverley Tragedy ' of pseudo-Shakespearian fame. To 
the scientific and economic study of timber, Mr. Margerison 
made important contribution, and he was a vice-president of 
the British Timber Trade Association. For a considerable 
number of years he paid great attention to the subject of 
timber-planting, and he came to be prominent among the 
expert foresters in the country. He was called upon to give 
evidence to the Royal Commission on Afforestation, and he 
acted as adviser to many owners of large estates and to several 
corporations and other public bodies. Perhaps the most 
interesting enterprise with which he was associated in this 
direction was the afforestation of the area adjacent to the 
Leeds waterworks reservoirs in the Upper Washburn. The 
idea of planting waterworks catchment areas with trees met 
with a good deal of opposition from some waterworks engineers, 
but Mr. Margerison, with pen and voice, urged the desirability 
of the project, and his advice, with that of other experts, pre- 
vailed with the Leeds authority. It must be, of course, years 
before the Leeds corporation reaps the financial reward of their 
enterprise in afforesting slopes surrounding the Fewston and 
Swinsty reservoirs, but there is already assurance that the 
experiment, as it was regarded by many at the time, will 
prove eminently successful. 

A man of enormous energy of mind, Mr. Margerison made 

1917 July 1. 



236 In Memoriam : Samuel Margerison. 

for many years a practice of concentrating his studies for a 
definite time upon some specific branch until he had mastered 
it. As a consequence he might be considered a specialist in 
an exceedingly wide range of studies. He was one of the best- 
informed naturalists in the county. A good general knowledge 
of even the lesser-known branches of botany was the basis 
of some studies on the colonising capacity of different wild 
plants and their ability to dominate others in the struggle 
for existence, studies which were carried out in some old 
quarries in Calverley Woods. His book on this subject at- 
tracted much notice from botanists in many parts of the 
country as an excellent piece of original work. He was keenly 
interested in Alpine plants, and his garden at Calverley became 
one of the show-places of the district, and he was never happier 
than when entertaining the members of the Leeds and Bradford 
natural history societies, who were. long wont to pay him an 
annual visit to see his treasures under his own guidance. It 
was a great grief to him when unsuccessful investments com- 
pelled him to give up to others the house and grounds into which 
he had put so much affectionate labour. He was one of the 
designers of the Bradford Botanical Garden in Lister Park, 
and was a member of the advisory committee appointed by 
the Corporation in connection with the garden. 

It was as an antiquary that he did most enduring work. 
He was little more than a youth when he undertook a tran- 
scription of the parish registers of his native place, which he 
published in three volumes. He was an early member of 
both the Bradford Historical and Antiquarian Society and of 
the Thoresby Society, and contributed to the publications of 
both societies. For the Thoresby Society, he transcribed, 
and in conjunction with Mr. Paley Baildon edited, the early 
charters of the Calverley family, which are now in the British 
Museum. This produced a stout volume full of important 
historical information, and the enterprise was completed by 
the transcription and the publication — through the Surtees 
Society — of the memorandum-book and diaries of the builder 
of Esholt Hall — another important local ducument. Beside 
these Mr. Margerison collected much historical information 
and made many drawings for a history of Calverley, 
which, however, he was fated never to write. He was an 
excellent photographer and lantern-slide maker, and the 
lecture which he frequently gave in various parts of the country 
on ' What to See in an Old Church," did much to popularise a 
knowledge of church-antiquities. He was a frequent contribu- 
tor to: The Naturalist and The Bradford Scientific Journal and 
was a life member of the Yorkshire Naturalists' Union. He 
was buried at Calverley Church, and Yorkshire Naturalists 
were well represented at the funeral. — H.E.W. 

Naturalist, 



237 



3n flDemoriam. 



T. McKENNY HUGHES, M.A., F.R.S., F.G.S., F.S.A. 

We much regret to add the name of still another veteran 
worker to the list we have recently published of those who have 
left us after giving a useful life in the interests of geological 
science. Prof. T. McKenny Hughes was 85 years of age, and 
was able to write and carry out his work almost to the end. 
For many years he was the Woodwardian Professor of Geology 




at Cambridge. As an Archaeologist, too, he had a considerable 
reputation, especially in those branches bordering on geological 
science. 

Yorkshire was particularly favoured with his attentions, 
and so long ago as 1867 he had some ' Notes on the Break 
between the Upper and Lower Silurian Rocks of the Lake 
District, as seen between Kirkby Lonsdale and Malham, 
near Settle,' in The Geological Magazine, Vol. IV., p. 346-356. 
In 1868 he had some ' Notes on the Geology of Parts of York- 
shire and Westmorland ' in the Proceedings of the Yorkshire 
Geological Society, Vol. IV., p. 565-577. This Society has 
been regularly favoured with the results of his work ever since ; 
his valuable series of papers on ' Ingleborough,' published 
in recent years, forming an exceptionally complete account 
of the interesting geological features of the most remarkable 

1917 July 1. 



238 In Memoriam: T. McKenny Hughes, M.A.,F.R.S., etc. 

of our Yorkshire mountains. His other contributions to 
Yorkshire Geology includes : — ■ 

The Geology of the Country around Kendal, Sedbergh, Bowness and 
Tebay. (With W. T. Aveline). Geological Survey Memoir, 8vo, London, 
1872. 

On a Series of Fragments of Chert collected below a chert-bearing 
Limestone in Yorkshire [Ingleborough]. Rep. Brit. Assoc, for 1872, 
sections p. 189, 1873. 

Exploration of Cave Ha, near Giggleswick, Settle, Yorkshire. Journ. 
Anthrop. Inst., Vol. III., No. 3, pp. 383-287, 1874. 

On the Evidence for Preglacial Man. Proc. Cambridge Phil. Soc. 
Vol. III., Pt. 1, pp. 16-17, l8 7 6 - 

On some Perched Blocks and Associated Phenomena [Norber Brow, 
etc.]. Quart. Journ. Geol. Soc, Vol. XLIL, pp. 527-539. Geol. Mag., 
December, Vol. III., pp. 375-376, 1886. 

On the Drifts of the Vale of Clwyd and their Relation to the Caves 
and Cave Deposits. Quart. Journ. Geol. Soc, Vol. XLIIL, pp. 73-120, 
1887. 

On Caves. [Ingleborough!. Journ. Trans. Vict. Inst., Vol. XXI., pp. 
77-106. 1888. 

Caves and Cave Deposits [Ingleborough Caves]. Proc. Chester Soc. 
Nat. Set. No. 4, pp. 141 et. seq. (see Review in Naturalist, pp. 241-2), 
1894. 

Ingleborough, Pt. 1, Physical Geography. Proc. Yorks. Geol. Soc, 
Vol. XIV., pp. 125-150, 1901. 

Part 2, Stratigraphy, loc cit., Vol. XIV., pp. 323-343, 1902. 

Part 2 [should be part 3]. Stratigraphy (continued), loc. cit., Vol. 
XV., pp. 35I-37 1 - I 9°6. 

Part 4. Stratigraphy and Palaeontology of the Siurian. loc. cit., 
Vol. XVI., pp. 45-74. 

Pt. 5, Devonian and Carboniferous, ibid., pp. 177-196, 1907. 

Part 6. The Carboniferous Rocks (with plans, sections, etc., and 
lists of organic remains), loc. cit., Vol. XVI., pp. 253-320, 1909. 

He was also responsible for much of the geological work 
on the maps of Yorkshire issued by the Geological Survey. 

Even so recently as a few months ago he published some 
work on the gravels of East Anglia, which was duly noticed 
in the columns of The Naturalist. 

Prof. McKenny Hughes made a special study of the contents 
of the caves in various parts of this country, and prepared 
many monographs on the subject. An account of his life's 
work with portrait and list of memoirs appears in The Geological 
Magazineior January, 1906 in the ' Eminent Living Geologists ' 
series. — T.S. 



An extraordinary sight was witnessed at Horncastle on Saturday 
evening, June 16th. At the back of the Court House are three brick-clay 
pits, now disused, two of which are full of water and used by the Angling 
Club. In the smaller pit the water has diminished of late, owing to the 
dry weather. The top of the water was alive with eels, and around the 
sides they were in bunches, while many had actually got on to the bank 
side. The news quickly spread, and within a short time men had gathered 
and enjoyed a rich harvest. It is estimated that quite 40 stone of eels 
were obtained on Saturday evening and about ioolb. on Sunday, the 
majority being between £lb. and 2lb. in weight. 

Naturalist, 



239 
FIELD NOTES. 

MOLLUSC A. 

Limnea stagnalis introduced into Cumberland. — This 
species has no place in any of the lists of Cumberland Mollusca 
that I have seen, nor have I ever found it myself. In July, 
1914, I brought half a dozen fine adults and a quantity of 
spawn from Wanstead Park in Essex, and put them down in 
some ponds on the old rifle range at Cummersdale near Carlisle. 
On May 19th last, while working these ponds for Water 
Beetles, I netted two nice specimens of L. stagnalis. I am 
recording it now to explain its occurrence here in case anyone 
' discovers ' it. — J as Murray, 2 Balfour Road, Carlisle. 

— : o : — 

HYMENOPTERA. 

May = bIobs poisoning Bees. — While in Deffer Wood, near 
Skelmanthorpe, on the morning of May 13th, my attention 
was attracted by the brilliance of the flowers of a small bed of 
May-blobs, Caltha palustris. I found the flowers had also 
attracted a number of humble bees, with disastrous results. 
There were eight Bombus terrestris and four B. venustus on 
the flowers, all either dead or dying. One terrestris, not so 
helpless as her sisters, was feebly thrusting her tongue amongst 
the stamens, and continued doing so for a few minutes, but 
eventually became listless and as defenceless as the rest. When 
I left, four of the bees were quite dead. A few honey bees, 
Apis mellifica, were also working the flowers, but they were 
never seen to use their tongues, they seemed to be only collecting 
pollen by walking about over the anthers, golden masses of 
which were packed between the upright hairs on the thighs of 
the hind-legs. They suffered no harm. Listless humble bees 
are quite common objects on the flowers of thistles and scabious 
in the autumn, but then the purpose of their lives has been 
accomplished ; but in this case, the insects were all young 
queens working to get a home together for their progeny. 

The weather at the time was hot and close, and on the 
preceding and following nights, heavy thunderstorms passed 
over the district. In striking contrast to last season, humble 
bees are abundant this season ; the common wasp, however, is 
scarce. The charming little bee, Andrena fulva, which I have 
only once before noted in this district, has been a constant 
visitor at a few gooseberry bushes in the garden during the 
last few days. — B. Morley, Skelmanthorpe, May 16th, 1917. 

: o : 

Mr. F. H. Day, of 26 Currock Terrace, Carlisle, is endeavouring to 
draw up a list of Westmorland coleoptera, and would be glad if any readers 
of The Naturalist, who have records for the county, would communicate 
with him. 

1917 July 1. 



240 

NEWS FROM THE MAGAZINES. 

The Entomologist for June has an illustrated note on the ' Destruction 
of Wheat by Wasps,' by F. W. Frohawk. 

No. 66 of The Scottish Naturalist contains a lengthy paper on ' A 
Chair of Economic Ornithology,' by W. Berry. 

The Scottish Naturalist for May contains a useful ' Check-List of the 
British Terrestrial Isopoda (Woodlice).' by Walter E. Collinge. 

The New Phytologist (double number) Vol. XVI., Nos. 1 and 2, contains 
' Observations on the Evolution of Branching in the Filicales,' by Birbai 
Salmi. 

In The Entomologist's Monthly Magazine for June, Mr. H> Britton 
describes a new species of Coleoptera, Ptilium asperum. It was taken in 
an old squirrel's drey in Cumberland. 

In the Selborne Magazine for May, it is recorded that a male Sparrow 
Hawk, while attempting to carry off a chicken from a hen-coop near a 
Somerset Rectory, was killed by the old hen. 

The Transactions of the Manchester Geological and Mining Society, Vol. 
35, pt. 2, has an interesting paper dealing with Old Colliery Machinery, 
by Mr. W. T. Anderson. It is well illustrated. 

The Lancashire and Cheshire Naturalist for May contains the Third 
Annual Report of the Lancashire and Cheshire Fauna Committee ; Mr. 
R. Standen writes on Woodlice, and there are numerous shorter notes. 

The Report of the Corresponding Societies' Committee of the British 
Association contains a record of the papers and discussions at the Newcastle 
meeting, also the usual list of the contents of the publications of the 
the various corresponding Societies. 

In The Geological Magazine for June, Mr. W. D. Lang has a paper 
' On some new Cenomanian and Turonian Cheilostome Polyzoa, ' in which 
he describes a new species from South Elkington, Lines., collected by 
Mr. C. S. Carter. It is called Tylopora lorea. 

The Lancashire and Cheshire Naturalist for April contains many notes 
bearing upon the natural history of the counties covered by the journal, 
as well as a paper on the ' Pollination of the Henbane,' by Mr. W. A. 
Lee, and a report on False Scorpions by Mr. R. Standen. 

We have received the Annual Report of the National Trust for Places 
of Historic Interest or Natural Beauty. Notwithstanding the strenuous 
times we are living in, this Society continues to do its very excellent 
work, which will certainly be much appreciated in the years to come. 

Wild Life for May deals with ' Resting Attitudes of Moths and some 
Notes on their Habits,' by C. W. Colthrup ; 'Colour in Animals,' by 
Charles Piatt ; ' Crossbills,' by T. M. Fowler ; ' A Fight between two 
Gluttons,' by F. D. Welch ; and ' Sexual Selection in Birds,' by Edmund 
Selous. 

In the Journal of the Quekett Microscopical Club, No. 80, is printed 
the Presidential address of Dr. A. Dendy, entitled ' The Chessman Spicule 
of the Genus Latrunculia : a study in the origin of specific characters ; ' 
Mr. D. Bryce has ' Notes on the Collection of Bdelloid and other Rotifera ; ' 
and Mr. C. D. Soar describes ' Two new Species of Hydracarina or Water- 
mites, Dartia harrisi and Eylais wilsoni.' 

The Journal of the East Africa and Uganda Natural History Society 
for March (Longmans, Green & Co. Vol. 6, No. n, 5/4), contains the 
following papers : — ' A Rare Forest Francolin,' by Dr. V. G. L. van 
Someren ; Fishing at Mafia Island,' by C. W. Hobley ; ' The Desiccation 
of Africa,' by R. L. Harger ; 'Game Fish in Tanaland,' by R. Skene; 
' A Natural History Expedition through the Kedong Valley, ' by A. Love- 
ridge ; in addition to many shorter notes. The first paper is illustrated 
by a good coloured plate. 

Naturalist, 



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Edited by William Eagle Clarke. F.R.S.E., 
F.L.S., Keeper Natural History Dept., Royal 
Scottish Museum ; William Evans, F.R.S E., 
Member 0/ the British Ornithologists' Union; and 
Percy H.Grimshaw, F.R.S.E.F.E.S., Assistant- 
Keeper, Natural History Dept,, Royal Scottish 
Museum. Assisted by J. A. Harvie-Brown, 
F.R.S.E..F.Z.S. ; Evelyn V.Baxter, H.M.B.O.U. ; 
Leonora J. Rintoul, H.M.B.O.U. ; Hugh S. Glad- 
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YORKSHIRE'S 
Contribution to Science 

(Based upon the Presidential Address to the Yorkshire 
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By THOMAS SHEPPARD 
M.Sc, F.G.S., F.R.G.S., F.S.A.(Scot.) 

240 pages Demy 8vo, illustrated, tastefully bound in Cloth 
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ENEMIES OF THE GARDEN 

Reproduced in the very best style of Lithography from special designs by 
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THE 12 ILLUSTRATIONS ARE AS FOLLOWS : 

1. OUTLINE OF INSECT LIFE.— Hymenoptera, Coleoptera, Lepi-' 

doptera, details. 

2. LACKEY MOTH.— Egg, Caterpillar, Nest, Cocoons, Female Lackey 

Moth, Egg Cluster. 

3. SMALL ERMINE MOTH.— Eggs, Caterpillar, Cocoons, Ermine Moth, 

Nest in Apple Tree. 

4. GOOSEBERRY SAWFLY.— Egg, Larva, Larva (last stage), Leaf, 

Sawfly, Branch, Cocoon. 

5. ASPARAGUS BEETLE.— Eggs, Larva, Beetle, Pupa, Asparagus 

stripped of leaves. Cocoon. 

6. BLACK CURRANT MITE.— Mite, Big Bud on Branch, Section of 

Bud with Mites. 

7. RASPBERRY STEM BUD CATERPILLAR.— Caterpillar, Chrysalis, 

Moth (enlarged), Raspberry Cane. 

8. MILLIPEDES and CENTIPEDES.— Three destructive Millipedes and 

two useful Centipedes. 

9. SCALE. — Currant Scale, Scale on Aralia and Myrtle Leaves and Mussel 

Scale. 

10. WIREWORMS.— Click Beetle and Skip Jack showing details. 

11. PEA THRIPS, COCKCHAFER, DADDY LONGLEGS, WOOD- 

LOL T SE and EARWIG, showing sections and details. 

12. SOME USEFUL INSECTS.— Dragon Fly, Ichneumon Fly, Lady Bird, 

Tiger Beetle, Hover Fly, Glow Worm, Cocktail Beetle, Lacewing Fly. 

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London : A. BROWN & SONS, Ltd., 5 Farringdon Avenue. B.C. 
and at Hull & York. 

Printed at Browns' Savilk Press, 40, George Street, Hull, and published by 
A. Brown & Sons, Limited, at 5 Farringdon Avenue, in the City of London. 

July 1st, 1917. 



AUG. 1917. 



No. 727 

(No. 503 of current wriest 




A MONTHLY ILLUSTRATED JOURNAL OF 

NATURAL HISTORY FOR THE NORTH OF EP \ 

EDITED BV 

T. SHEPPARD, M.Sc, F.Q.S., F.R.Q.S., F.S.A 

The Museums, Hull ; 

AND 

T. W. WOODHEAD, Ph.D., M.Sc, F.L.S., 

Technical College, Huddersfield. 
with the assistance as referees in special departments of 
J. OILBBRT BAKER, P.R.S. P.L.S.. GEO. T. PORRITT, P.L.S.. P.R.S. 

Prof. P. P. KENDALL, M.Sc, F.O.S.. JOHN W. TAYLOR, M.Sc, 

RILEY FORTUNE, F.Z.S. 




Contents : — 

PAGB 

Notes and Comments (illustrated) :— The British Association ; Papers and Discussions; 
Mr. Hopkinson's Address ; Weights and Measures ; The Museums Association ; The 
Report; Correlation of Jurassic Chronology; The armatum Zone; Ammonite Nomen- 
clature; Secondary Rutile in Millstone Grit; Etlustus newtoni ; A Transparent Rat; 

Echinoidea Holectypoida 241-240 

Bird Notes from Hebden Bridge— W. Greaves 247-248 

Meteorological Notes from Selbv— /. F- Mushatn, F.E.S 249-251 

The Geographical Distribution of Moths of the Sub-Family Bistoninae— /. IF. 

Heslop Harrison, D.Sc 252-257 

The Icelandic Forms of Limnxa- Hans Schlesch 257-259 

Ornithological Observations and Reflections in Shetland— Edmund Selous 260-269 

Field Notes: — The Caterpillar Plague in South-west Yorkshire ; Plusia moneta in East 

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In Memoriam : Samuel Margerison (illustrated)— F. Arnold Lees 270-271 

Charles Bradshaw 271 

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\ 

JUN 2 4 1920 



241 



NOTES AND COMMENTS. 






THE BRITISH ASSOCIATION. 

The General Officers of the British Association having 
learnt, on consulting members of H. M. Government, that the 
proposed meeting at Bournemouth would be deprecated, it was 
decided to postpone the meeting for this year, and that Sir 
Arthur Evans remain president for another year. The Annual 
Conference of delegates from corresponding Societies, however, 
was held, in the rooms of the Linnean Society, Burlington 
House, on Thursday and Friday, July 6th and 7th. Mr. John 
Hopkinson, a Yorkshireman, was the president, and Dr. F. A. 
Bather, vice-president. There was a fair attendance. 

PAPERS AND DISCUSSIONS. 

Mr. C. C. Fagg read a paper on ' Regional Surveys,' illus- 
trating his remarks by maps, etc. prepared by the Croydon 
Society ; Mr. T. Sheppard, M.Sc. dealt with ' Weights and 
Measures/ and Mr. W. Mark Webb introduced a discussion on 
' The part to be played by Local Societies after the War in 
the Application of Science to the Needs of the Country.' On 
Friday evening, the delegates were invited by the Selborne 
Society to hear an address by Prof. R. A. Gregory on ' Popular 
Science Lectures.' Owing to a series of unfortunate events, 
the notices to the members of the Selborne Society had been 
delayed, and the Selbornians were not present. Many of the 
delegates also had either returned home, or had fallen victims 
to the various lures of London. Prof. Gregory gave his address 
however, and those who heard it were indeed favoured and 
grateful. An address by Prof. Armstrong, on a similar theme, 
was also read, in the absence of the author. It was all very 
unfortunate; and the address given to those interested in 
popular lectures, at any rate, demonstrated that, besides the 
lecturer, another thing was necessary for the thorough success 
of a lecture, viz., an audience. 

MR. hopkinsqn's address. 

In his Presidential Address to the conference of delegates, 
Mr. John Hopkinson dealt with the work and aims of the 
corresponding Societies. As a write! in Nature points out. 
' it was Mr. Hopkinson who first suggested, nearly forty years 
ago, that delegates from the different Societies should hold an 
Annual Conference, and it must have been some satisfaction 
to him to preside over what i- now an important annual event 
for many of the representatives of the Scientific Societies in 
this country. Mr. Hopkinson gave a review of the work of the 
British Association as affecting the corresponding Societies, 
dealing in turn with the various sections ot tin- Association. 
I lis address was 50 varied in its scope that each member of his 
audience must have fell that some of it a1 leasl had particular 

1917 Aug. 1. 

Q 



242 Notes and Comments. 

reference to his or her own special study. It was not the 
address of a specialist, but on general lines, as might have been 
expected from a naturalist who has been so long the secretary 
of an important provincial society. Among the subjects dealt 
with were Meteorology, Geological Photographs, Bird Pro- 
tection, Desmids and Diatoms, Maps, Free Trade, Kent's 
Cavern, the teaching of Greek, Museums, and Forestry. He 
concluded that the chief aim of all of us should be — 
" To make the world within his reach, 
Somewhat the better for his being, 
And gladder for his human speech." ' 

WEIGHTS AND MEASURES. 

Mr. T. Sheppard, M.Sc. opened a discussion on the Metric 
System, and showed the necessity of some such scheme in the 
interests of the advancement of science. He gave an account 
of the various specimens of Money Scales and Weights in use 
from Greek and Roman to Victorian times. By far the finest 
collection of these money scales in the country, consisting of 
over 200 varieties of boxes, is now in the Hull Museum. In 
collecting Mr. Sheppard stated that he had had the help of 
Mr. J. F. Musham of Selby. The lecturer dealt with the 
absurdities to the present system of weights and measures, 
and illustrated this, as regards money weights, by a series of 
specimens from the Hull Museum collection. A long discus- 
sion ensued, which was continued on the following day. The 
paper was ordered to be printed in extenso in the Annual 
Report of the British Association. 

THE MUSEUMS ASSOCIATION. 

The Museums Association, for similar reasons to those which 
influenced the British Association, dispensed with its Annual 
Conference this year, but held a business meeting in the Vic- 
toria and Albert Museum, London, on July 10th. There were 
members present from all parts of the country, and among 
the subjects discussed were Rectangular Glass Jars, Income 
Tax on Art Galleries, and National War Museums. The 
members had the privilege of being addressed by Lord Plymouth 
on the subject of Local War Memorial Museums. 

THE REPORT. 

From the annual report we learn that the Association 
intervened in the matter of the National Gallery Bill, 1916, by 
a letter expressing the opinion that any pictures not required 
for the National collections could be absorbed by the provincial 
and colonial galleries, to distinct advantage, and asking that 
their claims should be considered before any were sold. The 
Bill called forth criticisms from many quarters and is now in 
abeyance. A letter of protest was sent from the Association 

Naturalist, 



Notes and Comments. 243 

to the Leeds Art Gallery Committee, against the closing of 
their gallery, and the Council is glad to say that the Leeds 
Committee decided to re-open their institution. A memorial 
has also been addressed to the Prime Minister, on behalf of 
the Association, with regard to the appropriation of part of 
the Victoria and Albert Museum to provide offices for the 
Board of Education. 

CORRELATION OF JURASSIC CHRONOLOGY. 

At a recent meeting of the Geological Society of London, 
Mr. S. S. Buckman read a paper with the above title. He 
stated : — One of the principles utilized in this paper to ascertain 
or to surmise faunal sequence where precise information is 
defective, is that of what may be called ' faunal dissimilarity ' — 
that is, if the deposits of two neighbouring localities A and B, 
supposedly isochronous from their sequential position, show 
differing faunas, it is a reasonable inference that the faunas 
are not of the same date. Theoretical stratigraphical correla- 
tion has usually worked along these lines, but the principle 
involved has not been recognized by name. Now the principle 
is utilized, not only in regard to neighbouring localities, but 
even more widely, with suggestive results. The paper is 
chiefly concerned with the Liassic Ages hitherto known as 
Domerian, Charmouthian, Sinemurian. In all of them there 
is proposed a considerable increase of the number of faunal 
horizons indicative of consecutive time-intervals, or hemerae. 
In the case of the first no change of name is made ; but in 
regard to the other two, subdivision seemed necessary, and 
each is apportioned into three Ages, as follows : — 

Proposed Names. Old Terms. 

Hwiccian. ) 

Wessexian. Charmouthian. 

Raasayan. ) 

Deiran. ) 

Mercian. Sinemurian. 

Lymian. J 

THE ARMATUM ZONE. 

These, with the Domerian, each contain on an average 
about ten hemerae, the grouping being controlled by the dom- 
inance of ammonite families or phases thereof — thus, Domerian : 
Age of Amaltheids ; Raasayan : Age of Deroceratidae and 
Echioceratidae. It is obvious that, with this increase in the 
number of local non-sequences is greatly increased. Some 
comparative diagrams illustrate this. One of the most inter- 
esting discoveries which has resulted, partly from the great 
thickness of Scottish strata investigated and collected from, 
partly from comparisons with other areas, is that the so-called 
' armatum Zone ' of the English Midlands and that of the 
Radstock district, of Yorkshire and of the Scottish Isles, are 

1917 Aug.l. 



244 Notes and Comments. 

not isochronous, but are separated by a time-interval which 
corresponds to a thickness of some 300 feet of deposit in the 
Scottish area. Thus, instead of the simple descending sequence 

Deroceras artnatum 
Echioceras raricostatum, 

there is this sequence ascertained : 

An upper Deroceras horizon, 

An upper Echioceras horizon in three distinct stages, 

A lower Deroceras horizon. 

A lower Echioceras horizon with some Armatoids ; 

and even now possibly this is not the end of the complication. 

AMMONITE NOMENCLATURE. 

In the discussion which followed, Mr. G. W. Lamplugh, 
F.R.S., said that, while recognizing the scientific value of this 
intensive study of the Liassic ammonites, he feared that the 
Author's continued refinements of the nomenclature and 
zonal classification had carried the subject beyond the reach 
of the ordinary field-geologist. From the imperfect nature 
of the evidence, such exactitudes as those shown in the tables 

* could rarely be applicable in the field. The use of fossils by 
the stratigrapher in the past, though crude, had generally 
been effective for his purpose ; but he could not be expected 
to master the complicated technicalities of these new methods. 
The stratigraphical deductions drawn solely from these palae- 
ontological studies did not inspire confidence. 

SECONDARY RUTILE IN MILLSTONE GRIT. 

Mr. H. W. Greenwood recently read a paper to the Liver- 

• pool Geological Society, ' On an interesting Occurrence of 
Secondary Rutile in the Millstone Grit.' The grit in which 
the rutile occurs forms the base of a long ridge of hill which 
commences about a mile north-east of Macclesfield, runs for 
about two miles in a northerly direction, and terminates just 
above the village of Bollington. The particular exposure 
described occurs in a quarry on the hillside overlooking 
Bollington. The rock contains a quantity of light yellowish 
interstitial decomposition product, and it is in this and also in 
small cavities lined with iron-stained debris that the secondary 
rutile occurs in little glistening grains of a brilliant pink colour, 
sometimes deepening to a port wine tint. In some parts of 
the rock the crystals occur in such quantity as to become the 
dominant heavy mineral. The evidence points to the rutile 
having been formed from the alteration of a titaniferous biotite. 
In addition to the secondary rutile there are also deep yellowish 
red usually rounded grains which form part of the original 
constituents of the rock. Anatase is also abundant, generally 
growing on leucoxene, and staurolite was also noted. 

Naturalist, 



Notes and Comments. 



245 



EDESTUS NEWTONI. 

The specimen of Edestus newtoni described in these pages 
for Nov. 1916 (pp. 352-353) by Mr. J. R. Simpson, has recently 
been described in detail by Dr. A. Smith Woodward in the 
Quarterly Journal of the Geological Society, and we are kindly 
permitted to reproduce, on a smaller scale, the illustration 
there given. Dr. Smith Woodward states that the new fossil 
displays a single example of Edestus with a detached dental 
crown and another fragment of the same form, near the tapering 
ends of a symmetrical pair of cartilages (c) which evidently 
represent a jaw. Whether they are upper or lower is uncertain, 
on account of shortness if the portions preserved ; but, as the 




anterior ends suddenly begin to taper and eventually become 
very slender, they are probably the pterygo-quadrates of the 
upper jaw. The cartilage is well calcined in very small tesserse, 
and, as shown both by the portions of jaws themselves and 
by remains in front of the fossil, the calcification penetrates 
more deeply than is usual in recent Elasmobranchs. The 
best-preserved outer surface of the cartilage, on the side of 
the specimen not shown in the figure, is slightly marked with 
scattered fine pittings, such as have already been described in 
Edestus minis. 

A TRANSPARENT RAT. 

We learn from The Publishers' Circular that the Trustees 
of the British Museum (Natural History), South Kensington, 
applied to the Controller of Patents, recently, for licence to 
use the German patent 8621, of 1909, in the name of Streller, 
which asserts a sure process ' for rendering organic and in- 

1917 Aug. 1. 



246 Notes and Comments. 

organic bodies transparent and translucent ' by the employ- 
ment of the refraction of light. Dr. S. F. Harmer, F.R.S., 
declared the process was a remarkable one. It offered 
peculiar advantages for the study of the internal structure of 
animals. You could take a rat and prepare it in a certain way, 
put it in certain solutions specified, and it would become 
extremely transparent, so that you could see the details of the 
skeleton through the skin and muscles. He desired to make 
use of the process at the South Kensington Museum. The 
general principle of making objects transparent by putting them 
in liquids of suitable refractory indices they knew about before 
the patent, and the patentee could not claim any patent rights 
in general scientific principles. 

ECHINOIDEA HOLECTYPOIDA. 

Mr. H. L. Hawkins has a paper in The Geological Magazine 
on ' Morphological Studies on the Echinoidea Holectypoida 
and their Allies.' Dealing with the Type of Pygaster he states : 
' For the present purpose it is sufficient to note that there 
exists such a species as Pygaster semisulcatus, figured by 
Phillips (Geol. Yorks.) under the name of Clypeus, though not 
described by him ; and that it was originally found, and may 
yet be collected, in the Coralline Oolite of Malton. This form 
must, then, represent the type of Pygaster, the Inferior Oolite 
species to which the name has been most frequently applied, 
being here regarded as not even congeneric. Pygaster, with its 
restored genotype, will include three of the four species 
described by Agassiz in 1839 — P. patelliformis, P. tenuis, and 
" P. umbrella " — and so may be taken as expressing most 
adequately the original meaning of its author. It will absorb 
the subgenus Megapygus proposed by me in 1912, that name 
having been given in ignorance of the real meaning of the 
term " P. semisulcatus ".' He concludes : ' The following list 
includes all the changes rendered immediately necessary as a 
result of the previous discussion : — 

Pygaster, Agass., 1836 (incl. Megapygus, Hawkins, 1912). 
Type, Clypeus semisulcatus, Phill. Corallian (incl. Pygaster 

umbrella, pars, auct.) (non Pygaster semisulcatus, auct.). 
Plesiechinus, Pomel, 1883 (incl. Pygaster sens, str., Hawkins, 

1912). 
Type, Pygaster macrostoma, Wright. Bathonian. 
Generally speaking, Pygaster is a Middle and Upper Oolitic 

group, and Plesiechinus is restricted to the Lias and 

Lower Oolite.' 

: o : 

We have received the Annual Report of the Public Libraries, Art 
Gallery and Museum Committee of Rochdale, which contains a record of the 
work done during the year. 

Naturalist* 



247 
BIRD NOTES FROM HEBDEN BRIDGE. 



W. GREAVES. 



The decrease in the numbers of the two resident Thrushes, 
especially T. musicus (throstle) is the most conspicuous feature 
of the bird life of Hebden Bridge in the first half of the present 
year. In the cloughs in preceding years, from late April to 
June, it could be imagined there was one bird singing in each 
tree at daybreak, judging from the volume of song, but there 
has only been an isolated bird here and there this year, and 
never anything approaching normal song volume. Noticing 
this early on, I refrained from drawing a hasty conclusion, 
thinking that the severe weather persisting well into the song 
period of the species named might be partially responsible. 
There has since been ample evidence to justify my calculation 
that this year there is a decrease of at least 50 per cent. — and 
probably it is as high as 75 per cent. — in the song thrushes 
of the neighbourhood. I am confirmed in my impressions as 
to the relative scarcity by three other individuals, two of 
whom remarked on it to me quite voluntarily. The third, 
whose opinion I wished to ascertain because of his residence 
in the middle of the woods at the Hardcastle Crags, had noticed 
the scarcity — the absence of song is most obvious to even 
a casual observer — and had satisfied himself that it was due 
to the birds being killed for food purposes. The real explana- 
tion is, of course, the abnormally severe weather in the past 
winter. An attendant on one of our sewage farms informs me 
that five dead birds seen on the beds this winter were all 
throstles. Blackbirds seem to have suffered little, if at all. 
The missel thrush is, probably, a little less plentiful, but it 
has been difficult to arrive at a percentage on account of the 
shorter song period compared with the song thrush, combined 
with the further disadvantage of unsuitable weather at a time 
when the birds would have been most vigorous. Judging 
merely from song the woods in May have savoured more of 
August, and the effect has been depressing. Other species 
do not appear to have markedly suffered. Blackbirds are in 
usual numbers, and this year outnumber the throstles, which 
is unusual, but there is just a suspicion that Chaffinches, which 
are still plentiful, have slightly dwindled. In April, Meadow 
Pipits (few of which winter in the immediate district) seemed 
far from being present in their usual numbers, but perhaps 
they were later in arriving at breeding haunts this year. Most 
of the dates on which migrants were first observed are later 
than the average, viz., Wheatear, April 1st ; Ring Ousel, April 
15th ; Swallow, April 22nd ; Sandpiper, April 24th ; Cuckoo, 
April 29th ; Willow Wren, April 29th ; Yellow Wagtail, April 

1917 Aug. 1. 



248 Field Note. 

30th ; House Martin, May 1st ; Tree Pipit, May 2nd ; Sand 
Martin, May 6th ; Redstart, May 6th ; Spotted Flycatcher, 
May 6th ; Wood Wren, May 6th ; Landrail, May 13th ; 
Whinchat, May 13th ; Whitethroat, May 13th (none seem to 
have stayed so far as yet gathered) ; Nightjar, May 17th ; 
Swift, May 26th ; Garden Warbler, June 3rd ; Blackcap, June 
3rd. Matthew Barr, of Walsden, records Sedge Warbler for 
May 25th, an addition to the usual score which annually visit 
Upper Calder Valley. 



The Caterpillar Plague in South = west Yorkshire. — 

The much-published account of the caterpillar plague on the 
high hills in the south-western portion of our county induced 
a few of us to visit some of the district on June 24th. Passing 
through Birds' Edge, Crow Edge, Hepshaw, Carlecotes and 
Dunford Bridge, we saw nothing at all unusual with any of 
the crops in the fields. Leaving Dunford Bridge and cultiva- 
tion behind, we proceeded over the high Saltersbrook Ridge 
towards Woodhead. Directly we came to the Cotton grass 
bog, numbers of caterpillars of the Antler Moth (Charceas 
graminis) were crawling about in the road. Pulling up the 
grass revealed many larvae just under the surface of the 
ground. On the summit of the ridge the larvae were in 
very great numbers, crawling about in all directions. It was 
quite impossible to walk without killing some at every step. 
A rough square yard drawn in the road enclosed twelve live 
larvae and a number of dead ones. Incredible numbers had 
been crushed to death in the roadway by passing traffic and 
perhaps a greater number had died by being washed into the 
streams. The cotton-grass bog on this ridge is a vast one, 
extending for many miles, and as the larvae were always 
plentiful all the way from Dunford Bridge to Woodhead, a 
distance of four-and-a-half miles, it must be past comprehension 
to imagine the number of larvae feeding here at this time. 
The species is always abundant on these wild uplands, the 
males flying freely in the sunshine during August. During 
the time spent among the larvae, it is interesting to note that 
no other larva of any species was seen, with the exception of 
a single wireworm. — B. Morley, Wind Mill, Skelmanthorpe, 
June 27th, 1917. 

The above note refers to S.W. Yorkshire, but enormous 
numbers of larvae have occurred elsewhere. Altogether it has 
been an extraordinary occurrence, the number of caterpillars 
having been prodigious, even allowing for probable exaggeration 
by the daily newspapers.— G.T. P. 

Naturalist, 



249 
METEOROLOGICAL NOTES FROM SELBY. 



J. F. MUSHAM, F.E.S. 

The following readings were taken from a minimum self- 
registering thermometer, six feet from the ground, on a post 
facing S.E. in Brook Street, Selby. 

It was not so much the severity of the weather of the past 
winter that made it so irksome and unwelcome, as the length- 
ened period over which it extended, coupled with the regular 
falls of snow or rain, so persistent during the latter part of the 
period. 

The first fall of snow was on Nov. 18th, 1916, over a month 
before the scheduled date of winter, a timely warning of what 
was to follow. 

On that date and the next day, starlings began to gather 
for food in the gardens, together with a hen-chaffinch, which 
evidently thought discretion the better part of valour, and 
stayed at home with her mate in preference to migrating. 

The second fall of snow was on December 19th, temperature 
below the normal ; the next on January 10th, followed by a 
heavy fall during the night of Jan. 13th — 14th, similar during 
the night of 15th — 16th, the temperature in the intervals 
calling for no comment. 

Feb. 4th, snow practically continuous from this date ; 
birds very tame and approaching the houses for scraps of 
food. 

As thermometer readings vary even in restricted areas 
according to aspect and position of the instrument, the following 
records are not necessarily representative of the whole district. 
Night of Feb. 4th — 5th cold, thermometer 16 F. at 8 a.m. = 16 
degrees of frost. 
Do. Feb. 5th — 6th cold, thermometer 14 F. 
Do. Feb. 6th— 7th „ ,, 14 F. 

Do. Feb. 7th— 8th „ M 16 F. 

Do. Feb. 8th— 9th „ „ 15 F. 

Do. Feb. 9th— 10th „ „ 16 F. 

Do. Feb. 10th — nth, rise in temperature, 

ther. 28 F. 
Do. Feb. nth— 12th, „ ,, 26 F. 

thawing at 8-50 a.m. 
On Feb. 8th and 10th, an unusual visitor to town backyards 
for food was the female of the redwing thrush. This bird, like 
the fieldfare, is seldom seen except in the open ; a proof of a 
heavy snow fall and cold weather. 

Nights of Feb. 12th and 13th, thermometer again down to 24 F. 
Night of Feb. 14th — 15th, thermometer 29 F., only 3 degrees 
of frost ; warmer. 

1917 Aug. 1. 



250 Meteorological Notes from Selby. 

Night of Feb. 15th — 16th, thermometer 27 F., rain during the 

day. 
Night of Feb. 16th — 17th, thermometer 28 F., day damp and 

foggy- 
Night of 17th — 18th, thermometer 30 F. (2 degrees frost) 

bright morning after rain. 
To end of month — heavy rains, cold nights. 
March 4th, heavy fall of snow, cold and strong east wind — a 

renewal of the early February wintry weather ; getting 

colder. 
March 7th— 8th, ther. 18 F. to 8 a.m. 
March 8th — 9th, ther. 14 F. at 8 a.m., or 18 degrees of frost. 

Wintry weather till the 20th ; on that day there was a 

strong breeze with light snow showers, and the same 

the following day. 
March 22nd, still cold, strong wind with heavy fall of snow ; 

thawing later. 
March 23rd, again a slight covering of snow ; night reading 

of thermometer 21 F. ; wind variable. 
March 25th — 26th, ther. 26 F. 
March 26th, still cold ; snow showers, with strong northerly 

wind all day, and sunny intervals. 
March 26th, caught a long-tailed field-mouse in front sitting 

room ; this country cousin is a very unusual visitor to 

a house in a town, — a further proof of the severity of 

the weather, and lateness of spring. 
March 26th — 27th, heavy fall of snow during this night, wind 

N.E., ther. 26 F. at 8 a.m. 
March 27th — 28th, ther. again 26 F., milder during the day. 
March 28th — 29th, much milder ; ther. 32 F. or 1 deg. of frost. 
March 29th — 30th, white frost at night ; ther. 28 F. 
April 1st, wind N.E., ther. 26 F. ; much the heaviest fall of 

snow during the winter, no break in same from 7 a.m. 

to 3 p.m., then sudden rise in thermometer to 30 F. 

for an hour or -so. 
April 2nd, another heavy fall of snow, preceded by a very cold 

night, down 7 F., or 25 degrees of frost ; an exceptionally 

low reading. Robin in garden with feet so cold it could 

not stand, later a brown wren in an almost similar state. 
April 2nd — 3rd, ther. 18 F., thawing at 9-30 a.m. ; wind 

variable. 
April 3rd — 4th, another cold night, ther. 24 F. ; thawing at 

9 a.m. 
April 4th — 5th, ditto, rising at 10 a.m. to 40 F. with bright 

sunshine ; wind S. by W. 
April 5th— 6th, snow during this night, ther, 18 F., followed 

by bright, sunny day ; wind easterly, veering to N.W., 

thermometer up to 55 F. in sun at 11-30 a.m. 

Naturalist, 



Field Note. 251 

April 6th — 7th, hoar-frost at night, ther. 25 F. 

April 7th — 8th, warmer, ther. 31 F., followed by bright, sunny 

morning. 
April 8th — 9th, heavy rain during early evening, frost in morn- 
ing, ther. 30 F. ; light snow showers during the day. 
April 9th — 10th, 2 inches snow ; during this night, ther. 26 F. 
April 10th — nth, another heavy fall of snow during night, 

ther. 27 F., rising to 50 F. 9-30 a.m. (civil time). 
April nth — 12th, light fall of snow, ther. 27 F. ; warmer during 

day. 
April 12th — 13th, no snow, ther. 28 F. 

April 13th — 14th, ther. 27 F. warm in the sun during the day. 
April 15th — 16th, ther. 32 F. ; morning of 16th overcast ; 

wind S.W. 
April 16th — 17th, snow during the night, cold N.E. wind. 
April 17th — 18th, ther. 31 F. rainy ; day of 18th dull and 

cloudy, but warmer. 
April 18th — 19th, steady warmer rain, ther. 36 F. ; saw a 

house-martin at 5-30 p.m., the first of the season — a 

harbinger of the belated spring. 
April 19th — 20th, ther. 30 F., followed by sunny morning. 
April 20th — 21st, ther. during the night lowest reading 40 F., 

bar. 30.4. The first night with such a high reading for 

four long months. 

Note. — The double dates refer to the night readings of the thermometer. 

For these notes we are indebted to the Editor of The Selby 
Times 



PJusia moneta in East Yorkshire. — From the report of a 
meeting of the Hull Scientific, etc., Club, we notice Mr. R. 
Chapman exhibited a specimen of a moth taken at Hull on 
June 27th, and identified as the new ' Plusia moneta.' ' As this 
is a species that is not only comparatively new to British 
Lepidoptera, but has never been previously taken in Yorkshire, 
it evoked a good deal of interest.' — Ed. 

Plusia moneta is not quite new to Yorkshire, as a specimen 
was taken at Robin Hood's Bay, by Mrs. Holmes of Sevenoaks, 
so long ago as 1901. The first record for the species in Britain 
was in 1890, when one was captured at Dover. There was 
probably a small immigration at that time, and the moth 
evidently found our climate most congenial to it, and has 
since spread with wonderful rapidity, and is now quite common 
in our Eastern Counties, and will apparently soon become so 
in the Midland ; and at no distant date, probably throughout 
England. It is essentially a garden insect, the larvae feeding 
on Monkshood and Delphinium. Being a beautiful and con- 
spicuous moth, it is too a welcome addition to our gardens.— 
Geo. T. Porritt. 

1917 Aug. 1. 



252 

THE GEOGRAPHICAL DISTRIBUTION OF THE 
MOTHS OF THE SUBFAMILY BISTONINAE. 



J. W. HESLOP HARRISON. D.Sc. 

X.— THE GENUS AMPHIDASYS (TREITSCHKE). 

Amphidasys b etui aria (Linn). 

Palfeotypical form, A. cognataria (Gn.). Distribution : — 
In North America : Northern Atlantic States, Quebec, 
extending in Canada as far west as the Rocky Mountains. 
In Asia : Ussuri and Amur Districts, West Central China to 
the Thian Shan Mountains, occasionally in Armenia. 

Neotypical form, A. betularia (L.). Central Europe (ex- 
cluding the Polar Regions and the Balcan Peninsula), Siberia, 
Japan, Armenia. 

Amphidasys huberaria (Ballion). Western Siberia, Tibet. 

Amphidasys thoracicaria (Obthr.). Ussuri District, Corea 
and China. 

Amphidasys tortuosa (Wileman). Japan. 

In discussing the geographical distribution of forms of such 
(apparently) erratic occurrence as Amphidasys cognataria, a 
mere consideration of present day geographical conditions is 
utterly futile. We have, if possible, to reconstruct for ourselves 
the position of the main land masses on the earth's surface 
when the forerunner of the form had occupied its maximum 
area, and then, from the possibilities there presented to us, 
draw the necessary conclusions. 

Direct appeal to the geological record for fossil evidence, 
is, in the case of insects, almost useless from the very nature 
of things ; only in very rare and exceptional cases, exemplified 
by the Miocene shales of Florissant in Colorado, do such 
remains appear in any quantity. We can, however, argue 
from the fossils of less perishable forms which existed in the 
times we must consider, and which at the present time display 
the same range as the objects of our studies. 

But before doing so, let us look at the structure of the 
continental masses of the Tertiary Period. Throughout 
Miocene time, and very probably in the Eocene and the 
Oligocene also, the continental areas of the Northern Hemi- 
sphere were much more extensive than at present. Almost 
certainly the only gaps in the huge circumpolar continent (if 
one may call a continent stretching as far south as the Gulf 
of Mexico circumpolar) were one to the east of the Japanese 
area, a second in Central Asia and another which, of a certainty, 
existed in Eocene times and probably, in part, far into Pliocene 
times along the Western Coast of North America. If others 
occurred they do not concern us here. The last-mentioned 
marine basin almost coincided in position with the land now 

Naturalist, 



Distribution of Moths of the Sub-family Bistonince. 253 

occupied by the Sierra Nevada, Coast Range and other Moun- 
tain Systems of California, Oregon, Washington and British 
Columbia. Exactly how far this extended into the Pacific does 
not affect our investigation. But let there be no misconception, 
although the connection was much more precarious than that 
between Eurasia and America to the west of the former, never- 
theless there was a North Pacific link, possibly not a broad one, 
but including what is now the Behring Straits. 

This enormous continent was bounded on the South by 
the great Sub-equatorial marine belt which effectually separated 
Eurasia and America from the Africano-Brazilian continent 
on the one hand, and from the Africano-Australian continent 
on the other. Whether the latter masses were connected to 
the west of the former is probable, but still doubtful. 

It will thus be evident that North America was completely 
cut off from what then existed of South America. In fact, 
the formation of the Isthmus of Panama, and the uplifting of 
the Sierra Nevada, Cascade and Coast Ranges are two events, 
geologically speaking, quite recent in occurrence, certainly not 
taking place earlier than Pliocene times, and then contem- 
poraneously. Even the Rocky Mountains are of no great age, 
the oldest portions being of early Tertiary origin. 

Not only did the Northern Continent extend so far, but 
the climate, whilst varying as might have been expected as 
one passed from north to south, was remarkably uniform. 
Identical species in all groups of animals and plants are wide- 
spread in Miocene (for this is the period that concerns us most) 
fossiliferous deposits. In Greenland, Spitzbergen, Europe, 
Siberia and North America, genera such as Liriodendron (the 
Tulip Trees), Sequoia (Giant Redwoods of California), Sassafras, 
Torreya, Magnolia and Onoclea (the Sensitive Ferns) occurred 
as identical species. 

Where now on the earth's surface are we to search for 
such forms ? W T e find them in isolated localities, in some 
cases with a distance of half the earth's circumference between 
them. The noble Sequoia, which once held sway over the 
whole earth, now present two species, Sequoia sempervirens and 
S. gigantea, the latter with a feeble hold on a limited area at a 
height of 6,000 ft. in the mountains of California, and the 
former of fairly general occurrence on the western coast of 
temperate North America. Magnolias and the Liriodendrons 
are restricted to Eastern North America and Eastern Asia ; 
whilst Sassafras only survives in Atlantic North America. 
Torreya — a peculiar gymnosperm genus — follows Liriodendron 
and the same holds true of the Sensitive Fern ( Onoclea sensibilis). 
Had we not fossil evidence, it would have been difficult indeed 
to believe that these plants had once been of general dis- 
tribution ; in the case of herbaceous forms we can only reason 

1917 Aug. 1. 



254 Distribution of Moths of the Sub-family Bistonince. 

from analogy. If we find such fragile plants as Podophyllum, 
Stylophorum and Boltonia with precisely the same modern 
habitats as Magnolia, Liriodendron and the rest, we can only 
conclude that their histories coincide, i.e. that they once had 
an enormous range in the huge Miocene Northern Continent. 
Extending the argument from plants to other forms is again 
perfectly natural, and the same conclusions must be drawn. 
If the Bottle-nosed Sturgeons (Scaphirhynchi) and the Paddle- 
fishes (Polyodontidce), and such Amphibians as the Amphiumidce 
have likewise the same abodes nowadays, they too have 
occupied, in earlier ages, the same far-flung extent of territory. 
Finally, when we perceive insects like Amphidasys cognataria 
with a distribution exactly similar to all of these many beings, 
then it also has had the same vicissitudes ; it has once ranged 
over the whole habitable Northern Continent. Amphidasys 
cognataria then once increased and multiplied from the Rocky 
Mountains eastward to the Miocene limits of Eastern Asia 
and in areas, as the occurrence of fossils of Juglans and other 
plants cited above there proves, far to the north. As a matter 
of fact, the genus probably originated in North Eastern Pliocene 
Asia, i.e. an Asia reaching far to the north of its present limits. 

Let us now consider what caused the breakdown of this 
once continuous distribution. 

In earlier Pliocene times changes, tremendous in them- 
selves, but when considered in respect to the northern land 
masses as a whole not fundamentally altering the positions 
of the great continents, occurred. Subsidences in the Northern 
Arctic Regions took place ; North and South America became 
united ; the Behring Straits were formed and so on. All of 
these changes working together, possibly aided by external 
factors effecting climate, brought about a marked alteration 
for the worse in the climatic conditions of the Northen Hemi- 
sphere, involving a general movement of all forms of life 
toward the south. Forms pressing southward into America 
and Eastern Asia, aided by the directions of the coast ranges, 
had an easy passage, in one case taking refuge in lands around 
the Gulf of Mexico and, when periods of subsidences set in, 
in the Alleghany Mountains and, in the other, following 
exactly the same direction and passing down the coastal 
ranges, in South Eastern Asia. And we must not forget 
that these migrating forms were in all areas almost identical. 

In Europe the same attempts were made ; here, un- 
fortunately, the main mountain systems stretch from east 
to west. Consequently, the path of the fleeing forms was 
barred and many of the more tender temperate forms, including 
Sassafras, Liriodendron, Magnolia and Onoclea, and hosts of 
others were crushed out of existence before access to the 
warmer regions of Southern Europe and Northern Africa 

Natural. st, 



Distribution of Moths of the Sub-family Bistonince. 255 

could be gained. Even then, any interchange between Africa 
and Europe was but slight and, had an easy crossing been 
possible, the Sahara Desert would have been hopeless as a 
refuge for temperate forms. 

Throughout the Glacial Period, crowds of refugees suc- 
cessfully lived far from glacial conditions in Japan, China, 
Mexico and the Southern United States. It is necessary to 
note, however, that the Asiatic sanctuary, on account of its 
great southward extension, its warm Japanese current, its 
more decidedly insular climate, sheltered a great many more 
forms than did Eastern America. In consequence, even in 
the latter area, many species like the Maiden Hair Tree ( Ginkgo 
biloba), once ubiquitous (as the fossils indicate), have died out, 
and yet have survived in Asia. 

Here a new problem crops up. Had all of these surviving 
forms common to the American and the Asiatic areas been 
continuous right across America from the Atlantic to the Pacific 
Ocean, we should have attached no great significance to the 
discontinuity of the Asiatic and American habitats. We 
should have concluded that, in all probability, we were dealing 
with very early Quaternary Asiatic immigrants of the same 
group as such palpably Palaearctic invaders as Papilio zolicaon, 
Thecla (Callophrys) dumetorum and Saturnia mendocino, now 
domiciled in Pacific North America. But, strange to say, 
none of these Tertiary relicts common to America and Asia 
appear in California, Oregon, Washington and British Columbia. 
Not only do these groups fail, but indeed extremely few forms 
are common to Pacific and Atlantic America ; in fact, the whole 
aspect of the two Floras and Faunas is totally dissimilar. 

It seems, at first sight, that we have on the West coast 
the same conditions postulated as likely to favour Tertiary 
survivors. We have the same north and south trend of the 
mountains, the same coast conditions and the same insular 
climate. This summary of phenological conditions assumes, 
however, that the Pacific Coast of to-day and that of later 
Tertiary times were much the same. As a matter of fact, 
I believe that the coast line of that region, in Miocene and earlier 
Pliocene times, approximated to a line just west of the Rocky 
Mountains ; all that existed of the coast states was a peninsula 
jutting out westward from Wyoming and Colorado. Only by 
this route was access for Eastern species to the Californian 
area possible. This explains the paucity of such forms as 
Platysamia rubra (representative of the Eastern P. cecropia) 
and Telea polyphemus, west of the Rockies, and shows why 
Sequoia, which revels in a very moist climate, persists in the 
west and not in the drier regions to the east of the barrier. 
Any great use of the gateway to the Pacific was an impossibility, 
for prairie and desert conditions, as well as the mountain 

1917 Aug. 1. 



256 Distribution of Moths of the Sub-family Bistonince. 

chain itself, militated against it. Probably Sequoia worked 
its way down the mountains and to its present, and very 
obviously, favourable stations. 

Returning now to Amphidasys cognataria, we must picture 
it as driven southward and surviving the Glacial period in 
the Southern Atlantic United States, and in the Chinese area, 
with all the forms discussed above. With the appearance of 
more genial times, its course to recover lost ground was just 
that mapped out in the case of Lycia ursaria ; therefore its 
distribution to-day in America is co-extensive with that of 
that insect. In China, too, its course was gradually northward 
and along the river valleys until its ' present stations were 
attained. 

Now it will be noted that this form occurs in Turkestan, 
and crops up casually in Asia Minor. This may occur in two 
ways ; we may have a reversal to type of the neotypical 
A. betularia or, otherwise, there has been, in some portion of 
Eurasia, a further refuge for Tertiary insects. If the former 
supposition were justifiable, then at any point in the range 
of A. betularia, cognataria forms should occasionally appear, 
and this is not the case ; whence we must assume that the 
second supposition is the correct one. 

This then involves the corollary that we ought to be able 
to produce species of similar history ; and some of these should 
occur in North America. Such instances are easily adduced, 
and these in weighty and remarkable examples. Amongst 
them are the two Mud-fishes, Umbra limi in the Danube, and 
U. krameri in the Mississipi, the Walnuts — the genus Juglans — ■ 
found in all three stated refuges of Tertiary relicts, Atlantic 
America, Eastern Asia and Asia Minor and, possibly, a fourth, 
Turkestan, unless it is to be regarded (correctly in my view) 
as part and parcel of the third. Thus, in a round-about manner, 
the history and geography of the palseotypical form of 
A. betularia has been traced. 

Taking now the case of the neotypical and nymotypical 
form A. betularia, we find that it appears throughout the 
Pakearctic area from Japan to Britain ; but, of course, is more 
or less of a northern insect, as its name ' betularia,' derived 
from that of its chief food-plant birch (B etui a alba), would 
cause one to surmise. Obviously, as it comes into intimate con- 
tact with A. cognataria in Southern Siberia, it has arisen from 
that species in that area, and, favoured by the slightly delayed 
advent of Glacial conditions there, has soon after its evolution, 
worked its way both to the east and to the west along the 
birch-clad foot-hills of the mountains of Central Asia where, 
in turn, it has given birth to the species Amphidasys huberaria. 
Thus, when an entrance was possible to Europe across the bed 
of the older and more extensive Caspian Sea, it pressed onward 

Naturalist, 



The Icelandic Forms of Limncea. 257 

amongst the pioneers of the great Siberian invasion which 
repeated, in some respects, the important Oriental wave 
which had preceded it ages before. Having once reached 
Hungary and Roumania, its path to its present localities was 
precisely that of Lycia hirtaria except that, as it arrived in 
Europe long after that species, it found the route via Dalmatia 
and Southern Italy to North Africa non-existent, hence it is 
absent from these points. 

Two forms, which, in my eyes, do not rank as genuine 
members of the genus Amphidasys, yet remain to be dealt 
with, A. (?) thoracic aria and A. (?) tortuosa. These, in times 
anterior to the appearance of A. cognataria, even in its old 
world form, had come into being as a single mutation from the 
oldest Amphidasyd stem, as we recognise from the primitive 
wing pattern. Never enterprising, and not of any great vigour, 
it had restricted its range to lands kept warm by the warm 
Japanese current which plays the same role in the east as our 
Gulf Stream does with us. Still, it had colonised Eastern China, 
Corea and Japan long ere the latter country became an Archi- 
pelago. However, in the end, as we know, Japan was severed 
from the mainland, and with it was cut off, in part, the insect. 
This portion has diverged from that left on the mainland 
and has had the name A. tortuosa bestowed upon it ; the 
remainder rejoices in the name of A. thoracicaria, but whether 
the divergence is really of specific value is a matter for some 
future zoologist of the East to elucidate. 



THE ICELANDIC FORMS OF LIMNiEA. 



HANS SCHLESCH, 
Hellerup, Denmark. 

In the numerous hot springs scattered over Iceland Luir-aa 
peregra Mull is very common. Besides this, the only other 
species of the genus yet found is Limncea truncatula Mull. 
Limncea peregra is a very variable species, and great care must 
be exercised in introducing and describing new forms, a view 
shared by the Norwegian conchologist, the late Miss Bertha 
Esmark, who writes {Journal of Conchology, 1886, p. 116) of 
this species as ' so changeable in form from two localities. 
All these variations and transitions make it very difficult and 

doubtful how to deal with varieties I had the opportunity 

to collect them two succeeding summers on same place, but 
they are not only* different the two years, but also each collec- 
tion." Mr. Bjarni Saemundsson of Reykjavik kindly sent 
me his finds of Limncea from his voyage in the Nordur and 
Sudur Thingeyarsyslur in the North, during July-August, 1913, 

1917 Aug. 1. 



258 The Icelandic Forms of Limncsa. 

and Mr. John W. Taylor, M.Sc, very kindly identified the 
specimens. During a visit to the Natural History Museum 
at Reykjavik, I had the opportunity of looking over the collec- 
tions of shells there. All my own finds were made in the North- 
West, 1913-14.* 

Mr. F. H. Sikes, of Sevenoaks (Kent), published a list of 
his collections made in 1912, in the Journal of Conchology, 1913, 
pp. 54-56, and in the Proceedings of the Malacological Society 
of London, 1914, pp. 11-12, Mr. Preston has described a new 
variety, sikesi. I have also referred to the localities of finds 
made by the late Professor Steenstrup, in Morch's ' Faunula 
Molluscorum Islandice,' 1867, and Dr. A. C. Johansen's ' Om 
den fossile Kvartcere Molluskfauna i Danmark,' etc. Probably 
Eggert Olafsonf meant Limncea peregra in his ' another kind, 
white Turbo globoso-acutus, spiris tribus, testa crassiore, alba, 
lives by a brooklet in Saudlauksdalur, and is to be found both 
in the water and on dry land, X and Turbo globoso subacutus 
fuscus is that species discovered in 1752 among the washed- 
up water-plants on the shores of the Myvatn, it follows then, 
that this species lives in this lake.' My own specimen and 
some of Mr. Saemundsson may be seen in the Hull Museum. 

I. Subgenus Radix Montfort. 

1. — Limncec peregra [Miiller]. 
W. Bessastadir near Reykjavik (J.St.), Raudavatn near 

Revkjavik, 1912 ! (F.H.S.). 
N. Svartadalsvatn, 1876 ! (T.Th. in R.M.). 
S. Sidan, near Skapta ! (J.St.). Laugarvatn in a tempera- 
■ tureof 4 3°C.! (J.St.). 

(i.) var. geisericola [Beck]. 
(Syn. var. minor M6rch = var. conglobata Taylor.) 

W. Laugarnar by Reykjavik! (J.St, and F.H.S.). 

Reykjavalla— laug, 11/7/1896 ! (B.S. in R.H.). Botn 
in Sugandafjordur, 1913 ! (H.S.), Raudamyri! Kelda ! 
Reykjanes in 45°C. ! Laugaland and Laugabol! all in the 
Isafjardardjup 1913 ! (H.S.), Hjardarholt in Dalasyssel, 
Aug., 1887! (R.M.) 

S. Near Hekla in 40°C, Geysir in 34°C, (A.C.J.). 

N. Botnvatn, S. Thingeyarsyssel 1/8/1913 ! (B.S.). 

(ii.) forma albina. 
W. An albino specimen of var. geisericola was found in the 
hot spring near Laugabol, in the interior of Isafjordur, 
4th June, 1914! (H.S.). Specimen in the Hull Museum. 

* The Naturalist, 1913, pp. 119-120. 
•f Rejse gennem Island, Soro, 1772. 

\ It is characteristic of L. peregra that it often lives in mud, in ditches 
without water. 

Naturalist, 



The Icelandic Forms of Limncea. 259 

(iii.) var. ovata Draparnaud. 
W. Engidal, near Isafjordur, 1913 ! (H.S.). Laugabol and 

Laugaland in the Isafjardardjup, 1913 ! (H.S.). 
5. In a small lake on Vestmannaeyar, 27/8/1877 (B.S.). 

Laugarvatn, near Reykjavik, 1912 ! (F.H.S.). 
E. Sudurland Fljotsdalsherad, 9/9/1898 ! (B.S.). 

(iv.) var. steenstrupi Clessin. 
S. Laugarvatn, near Reykjavik, 1912 ! (F.H.S.). 

(v.) var. fontinalis Studer. 
5. Laugarvatn, near Reykjavik, 1912 ! (F.H.S.). 
N. Graenavatn, Myvatn, 24/7/1913 ! (B.S.). 
(vi.) var. piniana Hazay. 
W. On a moor near Reykjavik, 27/7/1912 ! (H.J. in R.M.). 
N. Botnvatn, S. Thingeyarsyssel, 1/8/1913 ! (B.S.). 

(vii.) var. microcephala Kiister. 
N. Asmundastadavatn, Melrakkasletta, N. Thingeyarsyssel, 
17/7/1913 ! (B.S.). 

(viii.) var. sikesi Preston. 
W. Raudavatn, near Reykjavik, 1913 ! (F.H.S.). 

(ix.) var. lacustrina Clessin. 
W. Laugarnar, near Reykjavik, 1912 ! (F.H.S.). 

II. Subgenus Lymnophysa Fitzinger. 

2. Limncea truncatnla [Miiller]. 
W. Laugaland in Skjaldfannardalur, Isafjardardjup, 1913 ! 

(H.S.). 
5. Krisuvik, in hot sulphur springs (J.St.). 

Geysir, 1912 ! (F.H.S.). 
N. Akureyri, 1912 ! (F.H.S.). Svartadalsvatn, 1876 ! (T.Th. 

inR.M.). Myvatn, 1916 ! (F.P.). 

(i.) /. spira gracilis Morch. 
W. Reykjavik-Tjornin (J.H.). Laugarnar, near Reykjavik, 

(G.). 
5. Krisuvik, Reykjanes (J.St.). 

Abbreviations. 

G. =Adjunkt Gronlunds. 

J.LI. =Jonas Hallgrimsson. 

A.C.J. =A. C. Johansen, D.Ph. 

H.J. =Helgi Jonsson, D.Ph. 

R.M. = Reykjavik Museum. 

F.P. =Francis Pallsson. 

H.S. =Hans Schlesch. 

F.H.S. =F. H. Sikes. 

J. St. =Japetus Steenstrup, Prof. 

T.Th. =Thorvaldur Thoroddsson, Prof. 

1917 Aug. 1. 



260 



ORNITHOLOGICAL OBSERVATIONS 
AND REFLECTIONS IN SHETLAND.* 



EDMUND SELOUS 



In my last contribution under this heading, I mentioned 
that twice, when all the Kittiwakes rose, apparently, at the 
same instant, and flew out over the loch, one Herring Gull 
stayed behind. I should have added, these words, however, 
which immediately follow in my diary, viz., " The others 
have gone and returned with the Kittiwakes." The ^VMi 
therefore, as will be later much more strikingly apparent in an 
observation which I have to quote, is not necessarily confined 
in its action to one and the same species. I did not put down, 
at the time, how many herring gulls stood, on this occasion, 
amongst the Kittiwakes. The maximum number, however, 
up to then, that I had seen thus associated with them, on the 
land, was seven, or possibly eight. That was on the day 
before, when the Kittiwakes, also, were more numerous, and 
had it been greater, in this instance, I should probably have 
recorded it. 

October 14TH. — It is noticeable that in any smaller 
segregation of these Kittiwakes from the main body, one or 
more Herring Gulls are generally to be seen. For instance, 
two, a young and an old one, are now in company with just 
a few of them that are bathing in the loch. Having watched the 
main assemblage for about an hour, I walked to the place 
and then patrolled the ground on which they had been standing, 
on the look out for any dead body, but I found none. It 
was easy to keep the right course, because of the feathers 
scattered all over it. I also walked to the first-mentioned 
bathing place, at the head of the loch, but there was no corpse 
there either. I then started for other parts, and, about a 
mile on, came to a loch near the sea, on the other side — the 
east coast — on the shore of which stood a lesser gathering, 
which I had noticed before, about a week or ten days ago. 
They went up before I could make use of the glasses, but five 
birds that were in the loch, when I came, remained there. 
Four were Kittiwakes, the other a young Herring Gull. On 
coming up to the place I found that it was apparently a larger 
assembly-ground than the other, feathers being freely scattered 
over a long and wide space along the shore of the loch. But 
here, too, I could find no dead bird. It seems evident, therefore, 
that it is to a very limited extent that the Herring Gull preys 
upon the Kittiwake — only perhaps, as I am now inclined to 
think, during a quite short period, after the latter have first 
come down from their nests on the ledges — then, too, but 
sparingly. Neither during this, or any other period, have I 

* Continued from page 92. 

Naturalist, 



Ornithological Observations in Shetland. 261 

seen them interfered with by the Great or Lesser Blackbacked 
Gull, nor have either of the latter species joined their assem- 
blages. As the tide of vilification and inappreciative dislike 
of the first of these two — the Great Blackbacked Gull — more 
especially, is apt to rise very high indeed, I may as well say 
here that, according to my own experience and observation, 
he must be a very patient and persevering man indeed, who will 
watch one of these birds till he has actually seen it do any harm 
whatever. Yet all the while (though it may not have occurred 
to him) he will have been watching one of the greatest en- 
hancements of the wilder sea-coast beauties of his native 
Isles. It has been asked by a landed proprietor what good 
does this bird do ? But what of the landed proprietor him- 
self ? I know which does most good on a bold headland. 

A single Cormorant standing now amidst a number of 
Shags. Its larger size, though at some distance, is at once 
apparent and gives a more interesting effect to the scene — 
relieving the sameness, whilst seeming to emphasize the 
character. 

What I have written above as to the simultaneous flight 
and return of all the assembled Kittiwakes would equally apply 
to two assemblages of Shags on two great ' stacks ' of rock 
at the extreme western point of this Island. They, too, have 
twice risen, all together, without the slightest warning or 
indication, flown out over the sea, and by the same common 
consent, returned and stood or sat as before. ' Wisdom,' we 
are told, ' cries out in the streets, and no man regards it.' 
So do facts not in harmony with current ideas. Things are 
simply not seen, until the cause of their occurrence is either 
known or supposed to be known. 

On this eastern side of the island, numbers and numbers of 
Kittiwakes are now wheeling and hawking for fish just off 
the shore. I have given the prevailing coloration and markings 
of those that I have seen standing together, but now appears, 
almost in equal numbers, a variation of these so marked that 
one might think it belonged to another species, though it can 
only indicate another and earleir stage of growth. In this 
there is a broad black ring round the neck or, at least, all that 
part of it that can be seen in a view from above, for no under 
one is here possible. The wings are broadly edged with black 
all along their anterior margin ; and two broad black bands pass 
across the shoulders, from the neck, all along where the wing 
joins the body. The tail, too, otherwise white, has a broad 
black edging. The rest of the colouring of back and wings is of 
a lighter hue than the blueish or mauvy one of the older birds. 
It is a lovely sight, these ever-flitting, light, graceful forms (the 
souls of birds rather than birds themselves they seem) beauti- 
fully and harmoniously blended, both in their alikeness and 
unlikeness. The coast-line here is wild cliffs — some lower, 

1917 Aug. 1. 



262 Ornithological Observations in Shetland. 

some higher — from the summit of which one looks down upon 
them, flitting, hurrying, at a height, midway, then gliding lower, 
hovering near the water, about to plunge, sheering off, going 
to again, half plunging, righting themselves with an effort, 
re-hovering, poising, abandoning, returning, on the point — 
now ! — no — yes — no — yes — and down ! They do not now 
close the wings and fall, like falling stars, they are hovering 
too close over the surface and have neither time nor space. 
Instead, they hold the wings up, as they enter the water, and 
though it is often head first that they do so, yet often too, it is 
a mere drop at full length upon it, the fall of an inch or two. 
In this case they do not disappear beneath the surface, but 
otherwise they do, and it may be from one to several seconds 
before they emerge again. Always there is the little jolt, 
forward and downward, of the head, and, even in the flattest 
effort, they may get their fish, as I have plainly seen them do, 
more than once, with the naked eye — glasses are not quick 
enough here. Sometimes, however, they will plunge from much 
higher, the action being then more like that of the Tern, 
though much inferior in grace, if not in effectiveness. It 
is delightful (though chilly) to look down from the frowning, 
overhanging brow of some high point, on to all these little, 
flitting forms, this atmosphere of wings and grace, this crowd 
of Ariels, ever crossing and recrossing, sweeping together and 
sweeping away again, as close, sometimes, almost as the flakes 
of a snowstorm, yet never touching, all so rapid, yet all so 
secure and easeful, though affecting you, almost, with giddiness. 
Now another and darker form appears, graceful indeed (as 
any), but evil and piratical, that of the Arctic Skua, who, singling 
out a particular bird — one of the black-banded juvenals — 
pursues him so closely as almost, but never, as it seems to me, 
quite to touch him. He never deviates in pursuit of another, 
though others are all around, though he flies through a web of 
them ; none but this will serve. On they go, the persecuted 
one uttering indignant, hoarse cries of distress, his pursuer, 
still with hardly an interval, turning with every turn that he 
makes, curving and zigzagging as he does, so closely, so almost 
adherently as to make one think — for a simile — of the shadow 
that one cannot fly from ; of conscience, destiny, a haunting 
thought, or of a line I remember in the Ingoldsby Legends — 

" ' Running- after him (so said the abbot) ' like Bricks.' " * 

There is no other Gull, in all this scene of graceful activity, 
there could be no other, I think, that would not seem un- 
graceful as part of it. 

October 15TH. — At eleven this morning there is a great 
assemblage of Kittiwakes at the usual place, the great majority 
sitting on the grass, really sunning themselves now, for it is 

* "The Ing-oldsby Penance."— Fytte, y. 

Naturalist, 



Ornithological Observations in Shetland. 263 

a beautiful morning — the sun of summer through the mists of 
autumn — even preening seems in abeyance. There are more 
Herring Gulls than yesterday, more than a dozen, young and 
old. There may be twenty. Whilst my glasses are full upon 
them, there is a sort of electric thrill or startle through the 
entire phalanx. All are now on their feet, seem to give a shake 
or ruffle of the plumage, and the next instant, all rise into the 
air and fly out over the loch — not one bird is left upon the 
ground. After circling and sweeping about for a moment or 
so, they all come flying back, but go down some little way 
farther off than where they were before. Careful searching 
with the glasses fails to discover any cause for this sudden 
simultaneous vacation and quick return. There seems ab- 
solutely nothing that can have startled the birds. No figure, 
either of man or beast, appears. I myself am too far off to 
have been able to put them to flight, had I tried, both by voice 
and gesture — considerably further than when I watched them 
on the previous occasions without their being in the least 
disturbed by me. Why, indeed, should they be, since all 
gulls here are quite familiar with man, and trouble themselves 
very little on his account ? Moreover, had the birds really 
been frightened, they would certainly not have behaved as 
they did. Nothing in their actions spoke of fear, but everything 
of enjoyment, on the bird plane. A sudden outbreak of 
spirits on the part of any individual bird or animal may not 
surprise us, though it seems curiously human, but that it 
should be simultaneously shared in by more than a hundred, 
who have all, up to a moment previously, been in a state of rest 
and quiescence, and of whom no one could, on account of inter- 
posing bodies, have been so placed as to be able to see all the 
others, is certainly a puzzling phenomenon. It has the appear- 
ance, indeed, of a miracle, which it is, or as much as any other, 
since a miracle, if substantiated, is only something of which the 
cause is unknown. Man never wonders but through ignorance, 
for in nature, as apart from mere human sensation, one thing 
is neither more nor less wonderful than another. At least I 
venture that proposition. 

Striking again for the east coast, I passed the loch mentioned 
in my entry of yesterday, on whose banks there is another 
large gull meeting-ground, which was now quite deserted. 
By another loch, quite inland, a good many Herring Gulls 
were assembled, but before I could get to a coigne of vantage, 
from which to watch them, they rose (I cannot in this instance 
say under what circumstances) and flew towards the sea. All 
were Herring Gulls. Later, whilst walking along the same 
cliff, as yesterday, I saw, when some way off, another assembly 
of these Gulls, standing on the green head of one of those 
bastion-like bulgings of the precipice so frequent here, owing 
to the erosion of the sea on either side any promontory, 

917 Aug. 1. 



264 Ornithological Observations in Shetland. 

along the narrow neck of which a man — and sometimes even 
a sheep — can with difficulty pass. The situation here was 
an admirable one for the class of research I was engaged 
in, for behind the birds, and cut off by this ridge of approach 
was the great lonely slope of the hill, rising to the sky-line, 
whilst in front of, and many feet below them, was the equally 
lonely great sea. Yet thus standing, isolated and alone, 
with nothing visible where there was such complete visibility, 
a sudden motion broke out in the band, as a whole ; the front 
ranks ran, in a peculiar eager manner, in the direction in which 
they had been standing — of the sea namely — and were followed 
after a moment, by those behind till, in a second or two, all 
rose, flew swiftly over the cliff's brow, and, after circling and 
sweeping for a little, in a wild tumultuous manner, and with 
shrieking cries, dispersed in various directions. They were 
all Herring Gulls with the exception of a single Great Black- 
backed, who joined in the exodus, its partner having gone off, 
some time before. Here too, then, though not quite instan- 
taneous, as in the previous instance, a sudden general impulse 
towards flight seems to have arisen in the assembled birds 
without any discernible cause for this, external to their own 
minds. There was a sudden idea apparently, a sudden little 
run — and off ! I have mentioned the ' eager ' manner in 
which the birds ran. The word is an approximation merely, 
and was suggested much more by the expression, as caught 
through the eye and way of holding the head, than by the gait. 
It was a very odd look that they presented, not at all easy to 
describe, but perhaps more equivalent to what in ourselves we 
should call wrapt than to the idea conveyed by the word I 
have used. I had the sense of having witnessed something 
strange and unaccountable. It was as though, upon a sudden, 
the birds had heard a voice, saying ' Fly ! ' To convey this 
convincingly to anyone not a witness of the incident is im- 
possible. Birds must be watched hard, and the spirit out of 
which only such watching can proceed, is a down-gun and up- 
observation one. 

October i6th. — Kittiwakes standing or sitting on the wet 
sand at 9-30, this morning, twenty-one in all, eighteen sitting, 
of which fifteen are asleep, that is to say have the head turned 
back, and bill buried in the dorsal plumage — in popular parlance 
the head under the wing. Of the three that stand, one also 
has the head thus turned and two are preening. This so-called 
sleep is hardly, I believe, really such, for the bird that, if 
it were, should be asleep, stretches one leg backwards now, in 
the common bird fashion so pleasing to see. There is another 
little group of eight, near by, who sit on the dry sand, as the 
others on the wet. Six of them tuck in their heads first, and 
then the other two. To the Kittiwakes, now — those of them 
upon the wet sand — flit in, like shadows, from seaward, three 

Naturalist, 



Ornithological Observations in Shetland. 265 

or four little Ringed Plovers, and walk seekingly where sand 
and tide meet. Soon, however, they seek the pebbles and sandy 
shingle higher up, and standing there, also turn their heads bed- 
wards, which, in a front view, gives them the lugubrious 
appearance of having all been decapitated just above the little 
white collar. The apparent necessity of exercising their wings, 
every now and then, breaks these slumbers. They are opened 
for a moment, and, in leisurely fashion, spread vertically 
upwards, by which the suddenly revealed under feathering 
gleams out a soft, silver white. And since the bird, to do this, 
is awake, however short the time some fraction of it must be 
given to preening, and the indispensable little bob. A good 
preliminary for the shaking off of sleep is to hop a little on the 
one leg that is commonly in use whilst it lasts. 

Their colouring certainly makes these birds very incon- 
spicuous amongst the stones they delight in. Whether they 
know this, in effect, and trade on it — that is to say whether 
natural selection has shaped their habits as part of the same 
process by which she has produced their outward garb — is a 
question which may be variously, but never, I suppose, finally 
answered. I have walked up and down the fore-shore, parallel 
with a group of them, decreasing the distance between us with 
each turn. At fifteen paces they stood firm. At ten, after 
huddling a little closer to the water, they went up. Eleven 
paces — they must be natural and not overdone ones — is pretty 
near to get to birds. 

A Herring Gull is swimming near the shore, followed closely 
by her big young one, who, with bowing head, and little piping 
cry, presses importunately to be fed — but she will none of him. 
A few others, farther off, are also thus followed by their chicks, 
brown, but as big, or nearly so, as they are. I have not seen 
one fed, but they are not driven away. The parent's plan here, 
is to fly away herself. This also seems to apply to the Shag— 
at least I have seen it, but not the other. There are as many 
light as dark ones to be seen together now, yet very few are 
still being fed. 

A pair of Rock Pipits, one would say, if one went by 
topogrpahy, but otherwise Titlarks, now run and flit along the 
sea-shore, pecking amidst the pebbles at the moist edge. 
Sometimes, with keen eye and investigative step, they draw 
near to rocks which are to them as sundered masses of the cliffs 
(here called ' stacks ') to us, at the hanging seaweed of which 
they pull daintily, their plain but dapper little bodies standing 
out against the wet base, smooth and naked, in a very charming 
manner. Certainly they seem to me, these little pipits, to be 
of the meadow and not the rock kind. Their bodies are longer 
and lankier, as well as lighter coloured, and moreover they both 
came from meadows, and, having returned to them, come not 
again. When first seen upon the borderland — the turfy bank 

1917 Aug 1. 



266 Ornithological Observations in Shetland. 

that bounds the higher dry-stone beach — they were pursuing 
one another in sportively amorous fashion, piping one-notedly, 
the while. The ' chord of self,' however, has not ' passed out 
of sight ' (or become double) along these lines, whether in 
music or otherwise, since if it becomes apparent to the one that 
the rock which the other has chosen is yielding a rich harvest, 
the former flies down upon it, and puts the prior harvester to 
flight. Whether the parts played by the actors in this small 
drama are constant or interchangeable I cannot state positively, 
the sexes, in appearance, being indistinguishable. Nor is it to 
be settled by internal evidence, since with birds, at any rate, 
the hen is quite capable of being in the wrong. The Rock 
Pipits, also, seem to spend their time, when not actually feeding, 
in little flights after one another, uttering, the while, a weak 
little ' pseep, pseep.' ' A solitary, serious creature, little caring 
for the society either of members of its own or of other species ' * 
Thus, Gaetke describes this bird, and again, though this may be 
upon a fine spring morning,' he says, ' solitary, serious and 
active, and without displaying any particular shyness in regard 
to man, it performs the various functions of its daily existence.' f 
But in these the whole of the activities connected with the 
reproduction of the species are included, and the fact that noth- 
ing whatever is said about this well-nigh half, and certainly 
most interesting part of the whole, renders the above descrip- 
tion, which purports to be a general one, negatively, at least, 
very deficient. The deficiency is greater than might be 
imagined for, according to Gaetke, who, of the ' various func- 
tions ' has (except for the call-note, which is just mentioned) 
only said anything about one, the bird ought, by its present 
conduct, to approve this summing-up of its character, for it is 
not even spring now, but half way through October. It 
should be 'searching for food, walking step by step, only rarely 
at an accelerated pace, over the sea-tang on the shore, or on the 
rocks and debris exposed at low tide, uttering its call-note only 
when taking to flight,' \ etc., and in this, or in anything else it 
might be doing, it ought to be quite by itself. Yet here it is, 
neither solitary nor, apparently, for the moment, hungry. 
For the Rock Pipit can love, and since the actual business of 
love is now over, the actions here mentioned exhibit it in a 
light not compatiable with the rigour and circumscription of 
Gaetke's description. We see the bird emotionally acted upon, 
at a time when emotion is no longer necessary for the con- 
tinuance of the species. As with us, that force through which, 
if at all, life is to maintain itself, has produced its quite similar 

* Heligoland as an Ornithological Observatory. Translated by Rudolf 
Rosenstock, M.A. (Oxon.), 1895, p. 342. 
t Ibid, p. 343. 
\ loc. cit., p. 342. 

Naturalist, 



Ornithological Observations in Shetland. 267 

by-product of enduring affection. Whether the latter, ' bright, 
consummate flower ' though it may seem to us to be, is not a 
little tainted in its origin, is a question which we must all 
answer in our own way, that is to say strictly according to 
temperament, and not at all as being hampered by facts, or 
through logical inference ; for thus do ' views ' grow up in the 
human mind, that is to say in the majority of human minds. 

A number of Kittiwakes are now standing together on the 
beach, at the end of the voe, all of which except one, have the 
green bill and legs of the mature bird. A Crow — all the Crows 
here are ' Hoodies ' — hops up, with a sort of bullying air to 
within a few feet of one of these Kittiwakes — not the single 
juvenile one — and, making a sideway offensive movement, 
or pretence of it, puts him to flight. After this, he pecks about 
a little, and then walks up, nearer still, to another of them, 
but without any demonstration, and this one stands firm. It 
looks as if the Crow wished merely to assert himself as cock of 
the walk, to hint that the ' force majeure ' lay with him, and 
that the position thus laid claim to was recognised by the 
Kittiwakes. There is a Herring Gull with its young one 
amongst this group of ' coloured ' Kittiwakes. Going back to 
the other groups, at the opposite end of the beach, who have 
now settled on the grass above it, I note that they have, for 
the most part, unmistakeably black or dark bills, whilst in a 
few, they are more advanced towards the bright greenish hue. 
There seems, therefore, to be a tendency for the birds to 
associate, according to colour, but, in the present instance, 
this applies more to the bill and legs than to the plumage. 

I now walk on, along the shore of the neighbouring loch, 
and find the Kittiwakes assembled on one of their usual gather- 
ing-grounds near its farther end. I take up my position on 
a mass of rocky earth, three hundred to three hundred and 
twenty paces distant, and having seated myself, turn the 
glasses upon them, placing them first, as is my plan for long- 
continued observation, on the seat of my walking-stick camp- 
stool. * 

* This I find admirably adapted for this purpose, since, with a hand 
on the cane margin of each wing of the seat, they can not only be kept 
quite motionless, but also be moved very steadily, either from side to 
side or in a wide half circle, as occasion may require. As it happens, the 
mechanism of the seat so fits itself to that of the glasses, that, unless for 
aerial observation at a high angle, it is not even necessary to strap them 
on to it, which however, can easily be done. What is of still greater 
advantage is that the point of the stick, very often, need not rest on the 
ground at all — or even on one's waistcoat or trousers — for it can be held 
so firmly in both hands, whilst one sits, as to render this quite superfluous. 
As, in all my watching, I have been accustomed to carry this particular 
kind of camp-stool, I have never felt the want of any fixed rest for the 
glasses. Fixity in field observation must be attended with certain 
disadvantages. The above may perhaps be of use as a hint to fellow 
observers. 

1917 Aug. 1. 



268 Ornithological Observations in Shetland. 

The Kittiwakes, in so far as I am able to count them, 
number some ninety odd, but must really be well over a hundred, 
being, in some parts, so closely packed that it is impossible 
for me to make out every individual. I have not sat long, 
thus watching, when, all at once, in ' this very now of time,' 
there comes that collective burst from, more or less, total 
inaction into fullest sudden activity, which I find it so hard 
to understand — for the normal channels of sense do not seem 
adequate here, and nobody understands thought-transference, 
if it be that. This time, there is all at once, a great waving 
of a host of wings, as the whole of the birds rise and sweep off 
over the loch, from which, after a few seconds, they sweep back 
as usual, but whilst about half return to the same place, the 
rest go down where I first saw them bathing, some couple of 
hundred yards or so away. It appeared to me that the move- 
ment began at one end of the assemblage — instantaneously as 
far as a number of pairs of wings were concerned — and became 
universal about a second afterwards. But this may very well 
have been because my fixed gaze, through the glasses, could 
not concentrate on the whole extended line at once. Certainly, 
in a mere moment or two, the whole flock were in the air, with 
the grass, from which they had gone up, perfectly bare, not 
a single bird staying behind. Some attendant Herring Gulls 
were of the party, and rose and went off with the rest. There 
was absolutely nothing, so far as I could see, to startle these 
Kittiwakes, and, by the very conditions of things here, there 
hardly could have been. In my judgment, however, this 
cause is excluded by the very nature of he phenomenon. 

After this, I walked towards the east coast, in the same 
direction as yesterday, and coming within view of the loch, 
again saw a number of Herring Gulls collected at the same spot. 
I counted, at first, fifty-two, and, during the time I watched 
them, the number varied (approximately) from this, to sixty 
and thirty-seven. There were no Kittiwakes, the single alien 
being a Great Blackbacked Gull. It was 2-20 p.m. when I 
sat down to watch these birds, an ordeal — and, during the latter 
stages I may well call it so — which lasted till just upon 4. 
During all this time, there was a continual passage of birds, 
in more or less numbers, as indicated above, between the loch, 
where they bathed and disported, and the gathering-ground, 
where they stood or sat, preening or sunning themselves, 
for it was sunny most of the time, but so cold, latterly, that the 
sun itself seemed to partake of this quality. Many also dis- 
persed themselves, feeding, over the hills, but most of these, 
as also of the bathers, either came back or went away altogether. 
But there was no general movement amongst those that re- 
mained on the shore, and, at the last, may have numbered 
some forty. Just before 4, three or four birds, with a little 
preliminary run, flew off towards the sea, and these were 

Naturalist, 



Ornithological Observations in Shetland. 269 

followed, on the spur, by another three or four, and then 
another and another, and thus they departed, in little batches, 
till only about a dozen were left, who showed no desire to go 
with the rest, but continued to stand or sit stolidly. Having 
seen all I wished to see, therefore, I now pursued my path, 
which lay through the place of resort, to the sea, where, how- 
ever, I saw nothing worth entering. 

What, if any, conclusion, is to be drawn from the above 
observations ? No cause beyond that of a common inclination 
need be sought for to explain the quick following of one in- 
dividual Gull by another (had this been the case) for probably, 
taking the time of the day into consideration, each would 
know or surmise where those that preceded it were off to, so 
that a predisposition would be stimulated by example. But 
why were the several departures in batches ? The same idea 
seemed certainly, in each case, to occur to some of the birds 
at the same time. If we liken each unit of the collected flock 
to an electric battery dealing out shocks to other units round 
about it, then both the force of the shock and the numbers by 
whom it was felt would be in accordance with the strength of 
the battery, that it is to say, in the case of thought transference, 
with the vividness of the thought arising in the mind of each 
bird. Thus (and this might conceivably depend upon at- 
mospheric conditions), on a day when the birds were feeling 
great mental alacrity, we migyt expect to see the whole flock 
act suddenly, all together, in a flash, as in some of the cases I 
have recorded ; but when they were duller and more mopish, 
the impulse, in whatever part of the assembly it originated, 
would not be likely to extend so far out from the centre of 
energy — from any individual, that is, to say, or to produce 
action in all those to whom it did extend. The result of this 
might well be that the flock, instead of going off all together, 
would do so in little groups or batches as has been here recorded. 
In this case, the last batch, or, rather, a small number of birds, 
towards the end, would be left alone, and, partly as a result of 
this, since there would be no others around them, to transmit 
the influence, and partly, perhaps, also, on account of fewness 
of numbers being in itself, a less favourable condition for 
thought-transference than the opposite one of a large assem- 
blage, these might either stay longer before the </>i?P7 broke 
out amongst them, or go at last upon individual prompting, 
merely, without its having done so. I regret now that I did 
not continue to watch till the birds were all gone, for I might 
then have been able to judge of this. 



We have received the Report of the Norwich Castle Museum Committee 
for 19 1 6, which gives the usual evidence of the good work done at this 
institituon, with a list of the additions during the year. 

1917 Aug. 1. 



270 



3n fIDemoriam. 



SAMUEL MARGERISON. 




Our world is poorer for his death, and yet 

May we not hold that still beyond our seeing 
The choate forces building up our being 

Engerm in what he leaves us, well inset 

Of languaged concepts, something of the debt 
That nature-lovers owe to such as he 
Who dower us with a richer field ' in fee ' 

For further insearch ? Let, then, no one fret. 

He won Regard — he kept what so he won, 
Despite such frailty as is heir of flesh ; 

And now amid our mourning, and the stun 
Of recent loss, let each of us, afresh, 
Pick up the down-dropt clew, the riven mesh, 

And, maybe, frame a whole of what he spun. 

Naturists, truly, are on solid ground 

Who take what men call ' Fate ' in perfect trust ; 

For what is any thinking form but dust 
In vital patterns cosmically bound ? 

Naturalist, 



In Memoriam : Charles Bradshaw. 27 r 

Floweret and flesh cell are not kin to sound, 
But atoms of the Immortal undiscussed ; 
And thirst for knowledge, prayer ! not brainy lust 

But verity, transmutable, profound. 

We loved him as he loved all Nature fare, 

The verds of earth her garment, Spring renews, 

The forest giants green or winter-bare, 
The fairy forms that feed upon her dews ; 
And drink a like upliftment from her cruse, 

Fearing no drop of gall, for none is there ! 

F. Arnold Lees 



CHARLES BRADSHAW. 

We regret to record still another gap in the ranks of York- 
shire geologists, caused by the death of Charles Bradshaw, 
which occurred with tragic suddenness on the morning of 
July 3rd. He had been at business on the previous day, but 
was taken suddenly ill on the evening, and died a few hours 
afterwards. Charles Bradshaw was in his fifty-seventh year. 
He had been on the staff at the Sheffield Museum forty years, 
commencing work there as an assistant at seventeen ; in 
recent years he was the assistant curator. He paid particular 
attention to the geological and natural history section of the 
Museum. He took a prominent part in the work of the 
Sheffield Naturalists' Club, and had occupied the offices of Secre- 
tary and President. He was interested in the work of the 
Yorkshire Naturalists' Union, held positions on its Committees, 
and was secretary of the geological section. He was not a 
prolific writer, but the results of some of his work will be found 
in the pages of The Naturalist. We extend our sympathy to 
his widow and family. — T.S. 



Wild Life for June contains the following well illustrated papers : — 
' Some Reflections on Swallows,' by C. R. Brown ; ' On Colour in Animals,' 
by Charles Piatt ; ' Illustrations of Conflicting Impulses in Birds, ' by 

F. B. Kirkman ; ' Sexual Selection in Birds,' by Edmund Selous. The 
photographs illustrating Black Headed Gulls squabbling are especially 
interesting. 

The Vasculum for June is a particularly good number. Mr. H. G. 
Bolam writes on ' Some of our Reptiles and Amphibians,' with illustrations 
of the common adder, the little red adder, and the grass snake. Mr. 

G. Bolam gives ' Jottings from the East Nook of Cumberland ' ; Mr. 
N. H. Patterson deals with ' Natural Features in local Place-names ' ; 
Mr. H. S. Wallace writes on ' Eel-worms ' ; Mr. R. S. Bagnall on ' Primitive- 
Tails, Bristle-tails and Spring-tails ' ; 'A Rare Pond Snail ' is by Mr. 
George Bolam ; ' Ornithological Notes from Middlesbrough,' by Mr. C. E. 
Milburn ; ' Northumbrian Pisidia,' by Mr. A. M. Oliver ; ' A new species 
and Genus of Aleyrodidcs,' by Dr. J. W. H. Harrison, and there are records 
of Acari. 

1917 Aug. l. 



272 

NORTHERN NEWS. 

We notice that Major A. R. Dwerryhouse, D.Sc, has been elected 
President of the Belfast Naturalists' Field Club. 

A fine bust of William Smith, 'The Father of English Geology,' has 
been purchased for the Museum at Hull. It was formerly in the possession 
of the late Sir Andrew Ramsay. 

The Twenty-sixth Annual Report of the Royal Society for the Protection 
of Birds has been received. It describes the way in which bird protection 
has been affected by the war. 

We learn from the press that the caterpillar ' plague, ' which tus 
wrought havoc on the Caldbeck range of hills in Cumberland, is subsiding. 
Large quantities of the grub have been destroyed by firing the herbage 
on the fells, but the rooks, gulls, and starlings, which have been attracted 
to the place in thousands, have been the greatest factor in reducing the 
pest. 

The Ninety-fourth Annual Report of the Whitby Literary and Philos- 
ophical Society contains particulars of a number of valuable additions to 
the Museum, among which we notice ' Gills of a southern Right Whale,' 
though if these are ' gills ' the whale must be a ' wrong 'un.' The report 
contains valuable meterological reports, and though the society is a 
small one we are glad to see that it is still flourishing. 

Punch says the most satisfactory test to distinguish edible from 
poisonous fungi is to look for them. If you find them they are likely 
to be poisonous. If they have been already gathered they were probably 
edible. This is nearly as good as the plan recommended by a well-known 
Yorkshire mycologist, whose advice was ' try them on the Missis ; if she 
lives, they are all right : if she doesn't, they are poisonous.' 

The following is possibly a joke, so we must not quibble at the fact 
that no neolithic man could possibly have stoned a mastodon : — 
In Days of Yore. 
An irate Neolithic man, 
His anger to assuage, 
Once stoned a peaceful mastodon — 
('Twas in the Stony Age). 

His simply-costumed lady-love, 

Who dearly loved to pun, 
Remarked with sparlding, roguish eyes. 

" What has the mastodon ? " — Chaparral. 
We take the following from the Yorkshire Weekly Post : — A Bold 
Resolve. — "Mr. S. L. Mosley, F.E.S., Naturalist to the Huddersfield 
Technical College, is an enthusiast of no mean order. In the ' Hudders- 
field Examiner,' he writes : — ' Lately, in connection with my museum 
work, I have had occasion to extend my knowledge of the birds of foreign 
countries. I have been so struck with the exquisite beauty and variety, 
and with the many forms so entirely different from anything we have in 
this country, that I have resolved to paint the likeness of every kind of 
bird in the world.' The order appears somewhat a large one for a gentle- 
man, who, on his own admission, ha's attained to the patriarch's three 
score years and ten, but the spirit that can calmly contemplate such a 
task is certainly to be commended. We might suggest to Mr. Mosley as 
a sequel to his new work, a series of coloured plates of the Beetles of the 
world, with their caterpillars, arranged on some simple plan. There are, 
we believe, about 130,000 known species, and their identification is often 
extremely difficult from the existing books." As the British Museum hand 
list of birds, by the late R. Bowdler Sharpe, published some little time ago, 
contains about 18,500 species of birds other than those in the British list, 
we can only hope that Mr.. Mosley will be enjoying good health when his 
labours in that direction are completed. 

Naturalist, 



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YORKSHIRE'S 

Contribution to Science 

(Based upon the Presidential Address to the Yorkshire 
Naturalists' Union, delivered at the Leeds University) 

By THOMAS SHEPPARD 

M.Sc, F.G.S., F.R.G.S., F.S.A.(Scot.) 

240 pages Demy 8vo, illustrated, tastefully bound in Cloth 
Boards, with gilt top and gilt lettering on back and side, 

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"The object of this volume is to provide students of the Natural History of 
Yorkshire with a guide to all sources of information likely to be of service to 
them. Many workers in biological and geological science will be grateful to Mr. 
Sheppard for the particulars he has brought together about Yorkshire Periodical 
Publications dealing with natural history, Yorkshire Scientific Magazines now 
extinct, and Yorkshire topographical and general magazines." — Nature. 

GRISELDA. 

A POETICAL DRAMA, FOUNDED ON BOCCACCIO'S NOVEL AND CHAUCER'S POEM. 
By E. HAWORTH EARLE. 

64 pages , 7 in. by ."> in., artistically printed and strongly sewn in stout boards. 

Price Is. net. 

"This is the classic story which a Hull man of real literarv aspirations and 
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poetic-drama as ' Griselda.' " —Eastern Morning News. 



London : A. BROWN & SONS, Ltd., 5 Farringdon Avenue, E.C. 4. 
and at Hill & York. 



Twelve Illustrations, beautifully printed in colours and Mounted on Stout- 
Boards, 24 x 19 inches, eyeletted and strung, including Descriptive Hand- 
book, in Leather Board Case 15/- net the set. 

BROWNS' 

ENEMIES OF THE GARDEN 

Reproduced in the very best style of Lithography from special designs by 
H. W. BRUTZER, M.A., F.E.S. 

THE 12 ILLUSTRATIONS ARE AS FOLLOWS : 

1. OUTLINE OF INSECT LIFE.— Hymenoptera, Coleoptera, Lepi- 

doptera, details. 

2. LACKEY MOTH. — Egg, Caterpillar, Nest, Cocoons, Female Lackey 

Moth, Egg Cluster. 

3. SMALL ERMINE MOTH.— Eggs, Caterpillar, Cocoons, Ermine Moth, 

Nest in Apple Tree. 

4. GOOSEBERRY SAWFLY.— Egg, Larva, Larva (last stage), Leaf, 

Sawfiy, Branch, Cocoon. 

5. ASPARAGUS BEETLE.— Eggs, Larva, Beetle, Pupa, Asparagus 

stripped of leaves, Cocoon. 

6. BLACK CURRANT MITE.— Mite, Big Bud on Branch, Section of 

Bud with Mites. 

7. RASPBERRY STEM BUD CATERPILLAR.— Caterpillar, Chrysalis, 

Moth (enlarged), Raspberry Cane. 

8. MILLIPEDES and CENTIPEDES.— Three destructive Millipedes and 

two useful Centipedes. 

9. SCALE. — Currant Scale, Scale on Aralia and Myrtle Leaves and Mussel 

Scale. 

10. WIREWORMS. — Click Beetle and Skip Jack showing details. 

11. PEA THRIPS, COCKCHAFER, DADDY LONGLEGS, WOOD- 

LOUSE and EARWIG, showing sections and details. 

12. SOME USEFUL INSECTS.— Dragon Fly, Ichneumon Fly, Lady Bird, 

Tiger Beetle, Hover Fly, Glow Worm, Cocktail Beetle, Lacewing Fly. 

All the designs are printed on appropriately tinted backgrounds, devoid of 

any white border, thus enabling the various sections on the Charts to be 

seen with great clearness. 

We always have enemies within our garden-gates, and would-be 
gardeners are often reminded that the results of their labours may be 
brought to nought or greatly lessened by the work of destructive insects. 
There are other insects, however, that are our Allies, as they live on the 
destructive pests and thus help to protect the vegetables and fruit. It 
is, therefore, most necessary to be able to distinguish between useful and 
destructive insects, hence the popularity of Browns' " Enemies of the 
Garden," as the charts show at a glance how to tell our enemies from our 
friends. A set of the illustrations should be exhibited in every rural 
school or village club, as the knowledge which they and their accompanying 
handbook convey is essential to successful gardening. The small ex- 
penditure on same will prove a truly profitable investment. 



London : A. BROWN & SONS, Ltd., 5 Farringdon Avenue, E.C. 4. 
and at Hull & York. 

Printed at Browns* Savile Press, 40, George Street, Hull, and published by 
A. Brown & Sons, Limited, at 5 Farringdon Avenue, in the City of London. 

Aug. 1st, 1917. 



SEPT. 1917. 



No. 728 

(No. 504 of current tarUt) 




A MONTHLY ILLUSTRATED JOURNAL OF 

NATURAL HISTORY FOR THE NORTH OF ENGLAND 



T. SHEPPARD, 



EDITED BV 

M.Sc, F.Q.S., F.R.O.S., F.S.A.Scot. 

The Museums, Hull ; 



T. W. WOODHEAD, Ph.D., M.Sc, 

Technical College, Huddersfield. 
with the assistance as referees in special def 
J. GILBERT BAKER, P.R.S. P.L.S., GEO. T. POR 

Prof. P. P. KENDALL, M.Sc, F.Q.S., JOHN W. T. 

RILEY FORTUNE, F.Z.S 



F.L.S. 



Contents :■ 



P.L.S., P.R.S., 
LOR, M.Sc, 

JUN 2 4 1920 



Notes and Comments (illustrated):— Fossil Plants; Jurassic Plants; Ducks and Plant 
Dispersal; A Globular Springtail ; Birmingham Naturalists; A Rare Hymenopteron ; 
Refractory Materials; Yorkshire Naturalists' Union ; Nutritive Value of Edible Fungi ;' 
Bristol Naturalists ; The Neglect of Science ; The Need for Science in Education ; The 
Life of Nature ; The Green Woodpecker ' 273-28u 

A Rare Type of Bronze-Age Weapon from Lincolnshire (illustrated)— T. Sluppard, 

M.Sc.,F.G.S 281-282 

More Bronze-Age Relics from Scarborough (illustrated)— T. Sheppard, M.Sc, F.G.S. 283-284 

The Mosses and Hepatlcs of Denbighshire— I). A. Jones 285-292 

The Geographical Distribution of Moths of the Sub-Family Bistoninae— /. II'. 

Heslop Harrison, D.Sc 293-296 

Notes on the Slugs and Land Shells of Iceland — Hans Schlcscli 297 300 

Bottle-nosed Dolphin (Turslops tursio) caught off Walney Island—//. B. Booth 

M.B.O.U., F.Z.S ' ... 300-301 



Field Notes 

Nottinghamshire 

Reviews and Book Notices 
News from the Magazines 



Camberwell Beauty near Bradford ; Discovery of Hygmmia striolata in 

301 

301-303 

296, 303, 304 



Northern News 

Proceedings of Provincial Scientific Societies 
Illustrations 



284,303 

303 

.. 273, 274, 375, 276, 282, 283 



LONDON : 

, A. Brown & Sons, Limited, 5, Farringdon Avenue, EC. 4. 
And at Hull and York. 

Printers and Publishers to the Y.N. U. 



Prepaid Subscription 6/6 per annum, post free. 



BOOKS WANTED. 

Newbury District Field Club Transactions. Vols. III. and on. 
Reports" Wakefield Lit. and Phil. Soc. Set. 
Proc Birmingham Nat. Hist, and Phil. Soc. Vol. I., part z. 
fourn Manchester Geographical Soc. Vols. I. -A". 
Proc Soc of Antiquaries, ist Series, Vols. I. and II. 
Trans Manchester Geol. Soc. Vols. XV., XVI., XIX. -XXIII. 
Lincolnshire Notes and Queries. Vols. IV.-VHI. 
Transactions Burnley Literary and Scientific Club. Set. 
Trans Barrow Nat. Field Club. Vol. VII. 
Dudlev and Midland Geol. etc., Soc. 1862-80 (14 parts). 
Vale of Derwent Nat. Field Club. Old Series, Vols. I. -III. 
Salisbury Field Club. Transactions, Vol. II. 

Trans. Norfolk and Norwich Nat. Soc. Vol. I., Parts 1 and 2 ; Vol. IV., Pt. 3. 
Peterborough Natural History Society. Reports, 1-8, n-12, 14-26. 
Brighton and Sussex Naturalist History Society Reports, 1855-1870; 1872-3. 
North Staffordshire Field Club Reports for 1866, 1869-1873, 1876. 
Bedfordshire Natural History Society Proceedings. Set. 
Trans. Royal Cornwall Geological Society. Set. 
Chester Soc. Nat. Science : Ann. Reports, i.-iv. 
Trans. Woolhope Club. 1866-80. 

Quarterly Journal of Science. 1878-9, 1882-3, an( * 1885. 
Trans. Geol. Soc, London, 4to. 2nd series, Vols. IV. -VII. (1836-56). 
Geological Magazine, 1890- 1-2-4. 

Mackie's Geol. and Nat. Hist. Repository. Vols. II., III. 
Proc. Liverpool Geol. Association. Parts 1, 3, 7, 16. 
Reliquary (Jewitt's 8vd. Series). Vols. X., XII., XV., XVI, XVIII., XXII., 

XXIV and XXVI. 
Irish Naturalist. Vols. 191 2- 16. 
Scottish Naturalist. 1881-95. 
Annals of Scottish Nat. Hist. 1905- 1916. 

Walford's Antiquarian Mag. and Bibliographer for July-Dec, 1885. 
Quart. Journ. Geol. Soc. Vols. I. -XIV. 
Proc. Geol. Assoc. Vol. I. Part 1. 
Trans. Yorks. Nat. Union. Part 1. 
Naturalists' Journal. Vol. I. 

W. Smith's New Geological Atlas of England aud Wales. 1819-21. 
Frizinghall Naturalist. (Lithographed). Vol. I., and part 1 of Vol. II. 
Illustrated Scientific News. 1902-4. (Set). 
Journal Keighley Naturalists' Society. . 4T.0. Part 1. 
Cleveland Lit. & Phil. Soc. Trans. Science Section or others. 
Proc Yorks. Nat. Club (York). Set. 1867-70. 
Keeping's Handbook to Nat. Hist. Collections. (York Museum). 
Huddersfield Arch, and Topog. Society. 4 Reports. (1865-1869). 
First Report, Goole Scientific Society. 
The Naturalists' Record. Set. 

The Natural History Teacher (Huddersfield). Vols. I. -II. 
The Naturalists' Guide (Huddersfield). Parts 1-38. 
The Naturalists' Almanac (Huddersfield). 1867. 
" Ripon Spurs," by Keslington. 

Reports on State of Agriculture of Counties (1790-1810). 
Earlv Geological Maps. 

Apply — Editor, The Museum, Hull. 

BOOKS FOR SALE. 

Birds of Britain. Evans. 2/6 

Genetalia of Geometrid.^. (48 plates.) Pierce. 6/6 
Vertebrate Fauna of North Wales. Forrest. 12/6 
Hunting in British East Africa. Madeira. 15/- 



Published Records of Land and Fresh -Water Mollusca, East Riding. 

(Maps). T. Petch, B.Sc, B.A. 1/6 
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and R. H. Philip. 4/6 

Apply.— Dept. C, co A. BROWN & SONS, Ltd., Hull. 



NOTES AND COMMENTS. 



273 



FOSSIL PLANTS.* 

There are two kinds of workers to whom students are 
especially indebted ; those who carry out original investiga- 
tions, and those who, having a bibliographical bent, bring 
together a summary of the work of others, and thus save endless 
time in searching through oceans of literature for information 
upon any particular subject in which a student may be in- 
terested. In ' Fossil Plants,' we have the results of Prof 
Seward's investigations, as well as a most reliable record of 
the work of others ; consequently we are doubly indebted to 
him. In work of this kind it is essential that a 'writer should 
be thorough, and the enormous strides made in paleobotany 
in recent years in all parts of the world, prevent a standard 




Williamsonia whitbiensis (after Nathorsl ; ,; nat. size). 

work being published quickly. So long ago .1- 1898, the'first 
volume of this treatise appeared; Volume II. in 1910 ; 'Vol. 
III. is. before us. Vol. IV. is in the press. Prof. Seward hopes 
it will be published before the end of 1917, and the publishers 
hope it will appear early in 1918. The first two volumes 
have already been noticed in this journal, and excellent though 
they were, Vol. III. is even better. 

JURASSIC PLANTS. 

In some respects it is perhaps as well Prof. Seward was 
not able to publish the complete work in 1898 : as it is, we 
now have a useful account of the remarkable flora of the York- 
shire Oolites. A systematic study of some new aspects ol 
this flora was commenced a few years ago by a Committee of 
the Yorkshire Naturalists' Union, was continued bv Mr. H. 



* Vol. [II., pp. xviii. : 656 pp. 15- net. 



1917 Sept. 1. 



274 



Notes and Comments. 



H. Thomas and Prof. Nathorst, and ably summarised by Prof. 
Seward in his presidential address to the Yorkshire Naturalists' 
Union in 19 10. The section devoted to the Yorkshire Jurassic 
plants is an important section of the present work. The 
volume is dedicated to Professor Charles Rene Zeiller, and 
deals with the Peteridospermese, Cycadofilices, Cordaitales, 
and Cycadophyta. There is also an important section devoted 
to Palaeozoic seeds. Each contains a scholarly summary of 
all that has been published, in addition to the original work 
of the author. The references to the literature on every 
possible section will be a great boon to present and future 
students. The value of the work is greater by the wealth of 
illustration, there being over 250 in the present section ; and 
for this we are doubtless indebted to the generosity of the 




Williamsonia whitbiensis. — A, male flower ; B, sporophyll with symangia. 

(After Nathorst). 



Cambridge University Press. 
two of the smaller blocks. 



We are permitted to reproduce 



DUCKS AND PLANT DISPERSAL. 

Writing in The Selborne Magazine for July, the Rev. E. A. 
Woodruffe-Peacock states ' Few Naturalists still grasp their 
surroundings sufficiently to carefully watch what is going on 
unobtrusively, yet actively, under their noses, as I may say. 
So the poverty of illustrations of dispersal in Darwin's and 
Wallace's works, and of other later writers, even such as the 
the late Clement Reid, in "The Origin of the British Flora," 
has not yet been supplemented by the present generation of 
workers. Early in life my mind was turned, by Darwin's 
notice of the seeds in the ball of clay on the foot of a Partridge, 
to noting all questions of dispersal. The first almost that 
struck me was the sowing abroad by young blackbirds (for 

[Naturalist, 



Notes and Comments. 275 

the young Thrushes rarely took part in this work) of the 
Ribes species of our kitchen gardens. The Gooseberry was 
-everywhere, in woods and hedges alike, in endless forms of 
varieties. The Red Currants came next in frequency, but the 
Yellow I did not see for very many years. Their colour did 
not then attract the attacks of birds. At that time, I still 
believe, they thought Yellow Currants were unripe red ones ; 
but they have become better educated in the last fifty years. 
The Black Currants were then, and are still, much rarer ; but 
all these, with the Raspberry added, were not uncommon on 
the Pollard Willows round about my home. Though I was 
only a child of ten at the time, under the influence of Gilbert 
White's "Selborne" and Charles Darwin's works, what I had 
discovered set me thinking and observing still further.' 

A GLOBULAR SPRINGTAIL. 

In The Vasculum for June, Mr. R. S. Bagnall deals with 



some of the neglected orders, viz., Primitive-tails, Bristle-tails 
and Spring-tails. Mr. Bagnall has added to our knowledge of 
the less-known orders very considerably, and his records are 
always reliable. The specimen figured herewith is reproduced 
from the paper cited, and shows a globular Springtail, Sphvro- 
theca lubbocki Tullb. (Sminthuridce). Size, 1-3 mm. 

BIRMINGHAM NATURALISTS. 

We have received Part 1 of Vol. XIV. of The Proceedings of 
the Birmingham Natural History and Philosophical Society 
(56 pp., 3s.), edited by Prof. W. S. Boulton, and we are glad to 
see that this society keeps up the excellent character of its 
publication. There are some illustrated natural history notes 
contributed by various members ; Mr. L. J. Wills has a well 
illustrated article on ' The Structure of the Lower Jaw of 
Jurassic Labyrinthodonts ' ; Prof. E. W. Carlier writes on 
the ' Post Pericardial Body of Skate ' ; the Editor describes 
an Esker at Kingswinford ; Messrs. J. L. Haughton and D. 

1917 Sept. 1. 



276 



Notes and Comments. 



Hanson give ' Observations on the Transit of Venus/ and Mr. 
W. H. Foxall, the Hon. Secretary, has three papers, viz. :— ' The 
Drainage of Shenston Vale ' ; ' The Geology of the Eastern 
Boundary Fault of the South Staffs. Coalfield,' and ' History 
of Endowment of Research Fund.' The publication is well 
illustrated. 

A RARE HYMENOPTERON. 

In The Lancashire and Cheshire Naturalist for June (which 
is a particularly good number) Mr. J. Ray Hardy describes 
a rare insect, captured near Hollingworth, Cheshire, in July, 
1916. It was found among some black ants. He says, ' It 
is evidently a rarely met with Hymenopteron belonging to the 
Dryinidre, in which family it is placed under the name 




Dicondylus pedestris Curtis. 



Dicondylus pedestris Curtis, by 'A. H. Haliday, in the " Entom. 
Mag.," November, 1832, page 273, and he also gives its 
synonyms Dryinus pedestris Dalm., and Dryinns formicarius 
Dalm., as given in Dalman's " Analecta Entomologica " — a 
work I have not seen ; but otherwise makes no comment 
about it. I note also that Gray places this species in his 
" List of Hymenoptera " (Brit. Mus., 1853), as Gonatopis 
pedestris Haliday ( — Gon. formicarius Dalman). After long 
and careful search through all the literature relating to Hymen- 
optera at my command, I at length found the insect figured in 
a paper on " Notes on the Oxyura," by Francis Walker, in 
The Entomologist for January, 1874, page 27. Unfortunately, 
there is not the least reference to it in the text of this paper. 

Naturalist, 



Notes and Comments. 277 

It is not mentioned in Cnrtis's " British Entomology," but 
as Curtis is the author of the name it may possibly occur in 
his " Guide to an arrangement of British Insects " — to which 
I have failed to gain access, as it does not appear to be in any 
of our Manchester Libraries. I should therefore esteem it a 
favour if any of my readers could furnish any information 
either from Curtis's work or from their own personal knowledge 
of the insect itself, as I am desirous to know something of its 
life history.' 

REFRACTORY MATERIALS. 

With the above heading the Faraday Society has reprinted 
from its Transactions, a General Discussion on the subject, 
held in November last.* It has remained for the war seriously 
to bring home to us the necessity for paying regard to the 
scientific study of Refractory Materials, among many others. 
The Faraday Society has devoted a long meeting to the dis- 
cussion of this subject, and, with many written contributions 
by specialists, has issued a full report thereon. This includes 
contributions by Sir Robert Hadfield, Prof. W. G. Fearnsides, 
Dr. A. Strahan, Mr. J. Allen Howe, Mr. Cosmo Johns, Dr. 
P. G. H. Boswell, Prof. Cronshaw and others. The volume 
may safely be said to form a useful and up-to-date account of 
the scientific side of refractory materials, from almost every 
point of view. There are several plates, tables, and a biblio- 
graphy. 

YORKSHIRE NATURALISTS* UNION. 

By the kindness of our friends at Wakefield, the date of the 
Annual Meeting of the Yorkshire Naturalists' Union has been 
altered to December 8th, in order to ensure the presence of the 
President, Sir Archibald Geikie, O.M., F.R.S. We are informed 
that the title of Sir Archibald's address will be ' A Yorkshire 
Rector of the Eighteenth century,' and we have reason to 
believe that he will deal with the important work of a Yorkshire 
Geologist. 

NUTRITIVE VALUE OF EDIBLE FUNGI. 

In The Journal of the Board of Agriculture for July is an 
article with the above heading. It is stated that ' Suggestions 
are frequently received that the use of edible fungi should be 
encouraged, particularly in times of shortage like the present. 
Such suggestions are largely founded on the widespread belief 
that the nutritive value of mushrooms and other edible fungi 
is very great. It is now known that this is not the case, and 
in view of the well-known risks attaching to the use of fungi as 
food by persons not very well acquainted with the plants, it 
is desirable that the true facts as to their place in the diet 

* 189 pp., 12/6. 
1017 Sept. l. 



278 Notes anu Comments. 

should be more widely understood. The idea that fungi are 
highly nutritious originated in the fact that analyses have shown 
them to contain a relatively large proportion of nitrogenous 
compounds. It was formerly customary to assume that the 
total amount of nitrogen present represented " crude Protein," 
the valuable formative constituent of such foods as meat, fish, 
beans, etc., hence it is chiefly as a proteid or " flesh-forming " 
food that fungi have been recommended. Summarising the 
results obtained from the analysis of various edible fungi, 
and comparing them with other foods, it is obvious that 
mushrooms can in no sense be regarded as substitutes for 
flesh-forming foods such as meat. It may be noted that the 
common mushroom (Agaricus campestris) is richest in proteid 
substances of all the species examined. Even so, however, 
its proteid content is no higher than that of cabbage or potatoes, 
and in total nutritive value it is far inferior to the latter on 
account of its poorer carbohydrate content.' 

BRISTOL NATURALISTS. 

We are glad to see from the last three parts of the Pro- 
ceedings of the Bristol Naturalists' Society that our Bristol 
friends pay particular attention to their district, though 
occasionally the papers are of more general interest or do not 
bear upon the Bristol area. Among the contributions we 
notice ' Two Blastoids from Somerset ' (which have found 
their way to London), by Dr. F. A. Bather ; Bristol Diptera, 
by H. J. Charbonnier ; Silurians of the Eastern Mendips, by 
Prof. S. H. Reynolds ; Bristol Botany, by Miss I. M. Roper ; 
Bird Notes, by Mr. D. Munro Smith ; Lists of Local Geological 
Publications, 1875-1913, by Prof. S. H. Reynolds and Mr. 
J. E. Livingstone ; ' Fifty Years of Bristol Botany,' by Mr. 
J. W. White ; ' Fifty Years of Bristol Entomology,' by Messrs. 
A. E. Hudd and G. C. Griffiths ; ' Fifty Years of Bristol Zoo- 
logy,' by Mr. H. J. Charbonnier ; ' Fifty Years of Bristol 
Geology,' by Prof. S. H. Reynolds ; List of Bristol Mycetozoa, 
by Miss A. Fry, and the Carboniferous Limestone of Over and 
Tytherington, by Prof. Reynolds and Mr. D. E. Innes. 

THE NEGLECT OF SCIENCE. 

We have received a valuable Report of a Committee dealing 
with the above subject, signed by Sir E. Ray Lankester, Mr. 
A. S. E. Ackermann and Prof. R. A. Gregory. From this we 
learn that ' Several communications have been received from 
organizations concerned with professional aspects of education, 
and the Committee has been able to afford assistance to such 
bodies in the way of providing information. The Committee 
is of the opinion, however, that its activities are best limited 
to the advocacy of adequate attention to the natural sciences 
in the public schools and at Oxford and Cambridge, and to 

Naturalist. 



Notes and Comments. 279 

securing for them a prominent place in the examinations for 
the public services. These matters define clearly the work of 
the Committee, and are not the objects of any other organiza- 
tion. While, therefore, the Committee is aware of desirable 
changes in the position of science in schools of all grades and 
in national affairs generally, it believes that the best means of 
effecting reforms in all directions will be the securing of ade- 
quate attention to science in the education of students at the 
public schools and Universities where a large number of the 
most influential members of the community receive their 
early training. Its activities will be continued until these 
ends have been attained.' 

THE NEED FOR SCIENCE 

We have also received a pamphlet entitled ' The Need for 
Science in Education,' written by Sir E. Ray Lankester. In this 
he states : — ' We believe in the great importance of science and 
the scientific method — not merely for the advancement of the 
material well-being of the community, but as essential to the 
true development of the human mind and spirit. And for this 
reason we think that there is a need for the very serious and 
determined introduction of the study of the natural sciences, 
their history and method, as an integral part of the education 
given in all schools, but more especially in those where the 
youth of the well-to-do classes who will succeed to positions of 
influence in the State, in industry and commerce, are enabled 
to give ample time to the acquirement of knowledge and the 
discipline of their minds.' 

IN EDUCATION. 

' The mass of detailed knowledge of nature arranged so as 
to exhibit " the causes of things," grouped under larger and 
smaller " laws of nature" or general statements, is nowadays 
arranged in a series of separate branches — the several " sci- 
encies " known as physics, chemistry, astronomy, geology, 
botany, zoology and anthropology. It is of the utmost 
importance that in school education as much as half the pupil's 
time should be given to gaining a knowledge of the main facts 
revealed by these sciences and to personal observation of the 
experiments and methods of reasoning by which they have, 
been demonstrated. These studies must not exclude but be 
accompanied by the study of the English language and litera- 
ture, and of univeral history, and by the acquirement of 
facility in the use of simple mathematics and of at least two 
foreign languages.' 

THE LIFE OF NATURE. 

Dr. J. Arnold Lees writes : — A sophic nature-lover, Richard 
Higgs, better known to Lancashire than to Yorkshire naturists, 
said an old thing newly but extra-finely the other day. Quoting 

19'7 Sept. i. 



280 Notes and Comments. 

the French Scientist's calculation that, in cultivating the soil, 
for every single effort put forth by man and beast, Nature 
gives an effort equal to Five hundred ! he asked once yet 
again the evergreen question : " What is ' Life '?.... The 
answer comes, as all Nature's teaching comes, not in the definite 
and clear statements (so beloved of scientific humanity), not 
in a mathematic formula, or a clear and logical phrase ; but 
slowly, vaguely and indefinitely, as the bursting seed or the 
opening flower, Nature tells us of life in endless forms, and the 
sun shows us an endless object-lesson of what life is. The 
West wind tells that life and immortality are one, that life 
is freedom, great, abounding, majestic and wonderful as the 
vast ocean and the immeasurable sky. The winds and the 
hills show that death is but a change of existence, that life is 
the essence of all creation." . . etc. Verb. sap. 

THE GREEN WOODPECKER.* 

O Yaffle ! flinging sorrow to the wind, 
Born forester, half outlaw, green o' garb 
Like Sherwood's Robin, garnet crest a-barb ; 

Your ' char ' chant makes a Message to' my mind. 

Each tap's a spell since wood-deaf ears it glads, 
As ' screeve ' or bore you, by instinctive rule, 
Beech balk, the pine's mast, beam-tree rod : the tool 

Your bill ! — in one a ' nauger,' mallet, adze. 

Yet, half a parrot, clench you yon' high bole — 

The woodman's cheery mockster. Mark ! how fast, 
After each dull deep axe-thuck to the bast, 

We hear you, Up there ! chorussing his role. 

Why do we rank you higher than most that sing — 
If but the rare, true Woodlark be except — 
When at one craft and only, you're adept ? 

Is't that you corral Sorceries 'neath your wing ? 

O ! Yaffle, Yaffle, on a Yoreland bough — 

Which more of late you've favoured — tell me this : 
Why, for all nature-lovers, like a kiss 

Inviting more, are you ? that Troth may trow. 

' Associations ' count in every sphere — - 

' Birds of a feather flock,' the saw-rhyme says : 
Then may your tactic 'liven all our days — 
Swink at the woodfall's lighter with you near ! 
S.M. F.A.L. 

* 'Communicated' by the late S. M., Forester; versed by F. Arnold 
Lees. 

Naturalist 



28l 



A RARE TYPE OF BRONZE-AGE WEAPON 
FROM LINCOLNSHIRE. 



T. SHEPPARD, M.Sc, F.G.S. 



The specimen figured herewith (page 282) is a socketed dagger, 
an unusual type of Bronze-age weapon, which has recently 
been found in north Lincolnshire. It is now in the Municipal 
Museum in Hull, which previously contained nothing quite 
of this type, nor is there one in the Museum at Driffield. The 
specimen is 6|" in length, f " across the blade, i£" wide across 
the mouth of the oval socket, which measures 1" X §" inside, 
the socket being if" in depth. 

As will be seen from the illustration the dagger has a straight 
and double-edged blade. Sir John Evans, in his book on 
' Ancient Bronze Implements, etc., in Great Britain,' shows a 
somewhat similar example (fig. 240), 5§" long, found with a 
hoard of socketed celts, etc., near Worthing. He also figures 
another example (fig. 241) found with a hoard near Burwell. 
From the well-known Heathery-Burn Cave in Durham, is 
figured still another example (fig. 242), and he states this 
' presents the remarkable feature of having upon each face of 
the socket six small projecting bosses simulating rivet heads.' 
Usually the shaft of these daggers is bored for the reception of 
a rivet. On each side of the North Lincolnshire example are 
two projections, resembling the heads of rivets, but they are 
merely ornamental, and the shaft is not pierced for the rivets. 
Of course, these may have served as knobs to assist in secure 
shafting. 

These socketed daggers are very scarce in Great Britain, 
though more abundant in Ireland. They have been recorded 
for Glamorgan, Anglesea, Denbighshire, Cornwall, Dorset, 
Kent's Cavern (Torquay), the Thames, and Suffolk, in addition 
to the localities already mentioned. A plaster cast of this 
specimen has been sent to the Scunthorpe Museum. 



MORE BRONZE-AGE RELICS FROM SCARBORO' 



T. SHEPPARD, M.Sc, F.G.S. 

Referring to the notes in The Naturalist for May, relating 
to the hoard of bronze implements found at Scarborough, 
there has been a discussion in the Scarborough press in reference 
to the specimens coming to Hull. This has had a somewhat 
unexpected result. A reader of the paper, who had found a 
very fine axe, and also a large mass of bronze, seemed to think 
that these specimens should be preserved at Hull, with the 

1917 Sept. 1. 



Socketed Dagger from North Lincolnshire. Naturalist, 



More Bronze-Age Relics from Scarborough. 



28 



remainder of the find, and this has since been accomplished. 
The axe head is one of the most perfect that has been found 




in the hoard, and in type somewhat resembles No. 10, plate 
2 (The Naturalist, May). It is 3^" in length, slightly over ih" 
across each way at the top ; the loop is preserved, the collar 

1917 Sept. 1. 



284 More Bronze-Age Relics from Scarborough. 

extends to five-eights of an inch from the top, and three parallel 
lines extend, at each side of the collar, about half-way down the 
axe, though in each case the centre line is the longest. The 
cutting edge is well hammered out and sharpened, and is 2J" 
in length. The lines on each side where the moulds met are 
sharp and clear, and the central ridge inside the socket on 
each side of the axe extends to the apex. The specimen is 
illustrated on page 283. 

The piece of bronze represents nearly half of a ' cake ' of 
metal, is flat at the top, convex beneath, and has evidently 
been formed in a crucible. It is 3^" X 2J" and ij" thick, in 
the middle, and weighs 24 ozs. troy. This specimen confirms 
the opinion expressed in the notes already referred to, that the 
Scarborough find represents a founder's hoard. 

Bronze ' cakes ' of this kind have previously been recorded 
with hoards of socketed axes, etc., from Cornwall, Somerset, 
Sussex, Surrey, Hertfordshire, Essex, Kent, Lincolnshire, 
Yorkshire and Durham.* 



The Numismatic Circular for July-August contains part of a paper 
on the Fauna and Flora of the Coin-types of ancient Rome. 

Some visitors were gazing at the head of a Canadian Moose in a York" 
shire museum recently, when one was heard to exclaim, ' Lawks, if that's 
a moose, what must their rats be like ! ' 

The Geological Magazine, No. 637, contains an excellent portrait of 
Dr. Alfred Harker, F.R.S., with Memoir. Dr. Harker is a Yorkshireman, 
and a past-president of the Yorkshire Naturalists' Union. 

Part 6, (pp. 625-691) concludes the Bibliography of British Ornithology* 
by W. H. Mullens and H. Kirke Swann (Macmillan & Co., 6/-). With 
it is issued a prefatory note, list of publications consulted, etc. In its 
complete state, this forms a valuable work of reference. 

We have received a copy of the South African Railways and Harbours 
Magazine for June. It contains many articles of interest, but to 
naturalists ' The Natal Museum,' by Dr. E. Warren, is of especial value. 
It is illustrated by numerous reproductions of photographs of the larger 
African mammals. 

The Journal of the Northants Natural History Society and Field Club 
for 19 1 6 includes many papers bearing upon the district. Among the 
more interesting we notice ' The Snail and its name,' by A. Wallis ; ' Early 
Man in Northamptonshire,' by T. J. George; 'The River System of 
Northamptonshire,' by Beeby Thompson, and the usual useful meteor- 
ological reports. 

Writing to the Yorkshire Post in reference to the Caterpillar plague 
recorded in various parts of the county in June, Mr. G. T. Porritt points 
but that the caterpillars are those of the Antler Moth. The insect is 
more or less common every year in most parts of Yorkshire and the North 
of England generally, especially on the grassy parts of the moorlands, 
but fortunately rarely appears in sufficiently large numbers to cause 
noticeable damage. 

* See Sir J. Evans's 'Ancient Bronze Implements, etc., of Great Britain.' 



285 
THE MOSSES & HEPATICS OF DENBIGHSHIRE. 



D. A. JONES. 



The part of the county of Denbigh which lies to the south- 
east of the Berwyn Mountains and Cyrn y brain forms a well- 
defined rectangular area about twenty-seven miles long and 
ten miles broad. It is divided into two nearly equal sections 
by the River Dee — one to the north-east and the other to the 
south-west of the river. 

These notes deal mostly with the distribution of Mosses and 
Hepatics in the former portion, to which are added a few records 
for Llandegla and Glynceiriog, north and south of the area 
respectively. 

The district consists of hills and dales. The land rises 
gradually towards the north-west. Above Llangollen it 
reaches an elevation of 1,648 feet in the fine Eglwyseg Rocks 
which are continued in a northerly direction as far as World's 
End. The latter contains some of the most prolific rocks in 
cryptogams in the county. To the north-east of this part 
the land attains its highest point at Cyrn y brain, 1,839 ^ eet - 
Again, the hills that lie to the north-west of Wrexham have 
an altitude of over 1,000 feet at Bwlcbgwyn increasing to 1,500 
feet on Minera Mountain. Beyond this high ground a wide 
stretch of moorland covered with heather extends as far as 
World's End to the south-west. 

The vales of Llangollen and Gresford, watered by the 
Rivers Dee and Alun respectively, occupy opposite ends of 
the district. 

Nant y Ffrith is a deep ravine running from Ffrith to 
Bwlchgwyn. Its caves and miniature waterfalls are very 
beautiful. The outcrops of Millstone Grit and limestone 
produce a varied and interesting moss and hepatic flora. 
Some of the rocks forming the right side of the basin of one of 
the larger waterfalls are lined with extensive cushions of 
Weisia curvirostris var. commutata, covered with hundreds of 
capsules. The higher rocks lower down the river and on the 
same side form a substratum on which great masses of 
Metzgeria pubescens grow, a plant not elsewhere recorded for 
the Principality. The Sandstone caves — floors and sides — are 
literally covered with cryptogams — Brachythecium velutinum 
in close green and silky sheets, Web era proligera,.W. albicans, 
together with Plagiochila .asplenioides var. humilis, Cepha- 
loziella stellulifera, Calypogeia arguta and other minute hepatics. 
The stream that flows through the ravine forms the boundary 
between the counties of Denbigh and Flint. 

Geologically, the district shows the three principal divisions 
of the Carboniferous Formation. They are : — 

1917 Sept. 1. 



286 The Mosses and Hepatics of Denbighshire. 

i. The Coal Measures. 

These are represented at Acrefair, Ruabon and Wrexham. 

The following mosses and hepatics are the most charac- 
teristic species of the flora of this formation : — 

Shales. — Dry and barren — Catharinea undulata, Poly- 
trichum piliferum, Dicranella heteromalla, Glyphomitrium poly- 
phyllum, Rhacomitrium fascicular e, R. heterostichum, Ceratodon 
purpureus, Alicularia scalaris, Pellia epiphylla, Diplophyllum 
albicans, Scapania compacta. 

Clays. — Heavy and retentive of moisture — Catharinea 
undulata, Dicranella varia, D. Schreberi, Fissidens taxifolius, 
Tortula ambigua, Barbula cylindrica, Webera carnea, W. 
albicans, Aneura pinguis, Blasia pusilla, Pellia epiphylla, 
Chiloscyphus pallescens and Calypogeia irichomanis. 

Sandstone. — Dry and unproductive — Tortula muralis, 
T. ruraliformis, Barbula sinuosa, Aulacomnium androgynum, 
Brachythecium velutinum, Hypnum Patientice, Alicularia 
scalaris and Cephalozia bicuspidata. 

The spoil banks from coal-pits are very barren, Ceratodon 
purpureus, Webera nutans, Bryum capillare and B. argenteum 
being met with here and there. 

2. Millstone Grit Formation. 
This consists of a wide expanse of heathery moorland. 
It generally occupies the highest ground and has therefore a 
different flora — Sphagnum intermedium, S. cuspid at urn, S. 
papillosum, Campylopus flexuosus, Dicranella heteromalla, 
Rhacomitrium heterostichum, R. fasciculate, R. lanuginosum, 
Webera annoiina, W. proligera, Hypnum cupressiforme, 
Alicularia scalaris, Lophozia attenuata, L. Floerkii var. 
Naumanniana, L. bicrenata, L. excisa and Diplophyllum 
albicans. 

3. The Carboniferous Limestone 

of Minera and Eglwyseg Rocks. The strata all dip to the north- 
east, the Carboniferous Limestone being the lowest member 
of the formation. The moss flora on these rocks is rich, 
especially in the damper spots — Seligeria pusilla, Ditrichum 
flexicaide and var. densum, Tortula aloides, Trichostomum 
crispulum and var. elatum, Barbula rubella var. ruberrima, 
B. recurvifolia, Funaria calcarea, Philonotis calcarea, Orthotri- 
chum cupubatum and var. nudum, Anomodon viticulosus, 
Thuidium Philiberti, C amptothecium lutescens, Hypnum com- 
mutatum, H. falcatum, H. molluscum, H. chrysophyllum, 
Metz°eria pubescens, Pellia Fabbroniana, Lophozia turbinata, 
Scapania aspera, Cololejeunea calcarea and Marchesinia Mackaii. 
At the foot and to the east of the Carboniferous Limestone 
which appears between the above moorland formed by the 

Naturalist, 



The Mosses and Hcpatics of Denbighshire. 2S7 

Millstone Grit and the hills of Cyrn y brain, lies a patch of 
rock which is supposed to be Old Red Sandstone, together 
with grey sandstones and cornstones, concretions containing 
some limestone. It contains no fossils, so that its age is 
rather uncertain. 

4. The Denbighshire Grits 

are represented in the Llangollen District. These consist of 
an extensive series of shales, flagstones, sandstone and grits, 
and are marked by the absence of limestone. They are of 
Lower Wenlock and LTpper Silurian age. They cover an ex- 
tensive tract of country, mostly moorland, in which the Heather 
association is dominant — Dicranum scoparium, Campylopus 
fiexuosus, C. Pyrijormis, Rhacomitrium fasciculare, Alicularia 
scalaris, Gymnocolea inflata and Lophozia ventricosa. 

5. Ordovician or Lower Silurian. 

These comprise the imposing hill called Cyrn y brain, 
which lies to the west of the Carboniferous Limestone. It 
is surrounded by wettish heathery moorland. The commoner 
mosses and hepatics are well distributed over this area and 
grow in quantities, especially those belonging to the genera 
Sphagnum, Polytrichnm, Campylopus, Rhacomitrium and 
Grimmia. In Merionethshire, Grimmia arenaria is generally 
associated with Coscinodon cribrosus and Grimmia Stirtoni on 
this formation, but hitherto it has not been met with in the 
district, although the last two mosses occur. The other species 
characteristic of the flora of this ground are: — Ceratodon pur- 
pureus, Webera nutans, Bryum pseudo-triqitctritm, B. capillarc 
Brachythecium populeum, Plagiothccium clcgans, P. denti- 
culatum, Scapania compacta, Alicularia scalaris, Lophozia 
quinqucdentata, Marsupdla emarginata and Diplophyllum 
albicans. 

The corticole species are rare in the general district referred 
to, on account of the atmospheric pollution by noxious products 
resulting from the incomplete combustion of coal. These 
products are discharged from the chimneys of coal mines and 
steel works, as well as from numerous domestic fires. Mr. 
J. A. Wheldon, in his excellent paper on the Lichens of South 
Lancashire, states that the burning of coal is accompanied by 
the liberation of sulphur dioxide (SO..), which becomes oxidised 
in the atmosphere into sulphuric acid (HoSO,), and brought 
down in the rain. Such sulphur compounds as sulphur di- 
oxide and sulphuretted hydrogen produce injurious effects on 
vegetation. He also states that soot has a very deleterious 
effect on most arboreal plant growths. As rain is carried down 
the tree trunks, it becomes more and more charged with acid 
impurities, which must prove fatal to young and tender plants. 
A film of soot forming on the surface of the bark must also 

1917 Sept. 1. 



288 The Mosses and Hepatics of Denbighshire. 

interfere with the germination of the spores of mosses and 
hepatics. The more delicate species of these cryptogams 
suffer to the extent of becoming extinct under such conditions. 
These atmospheric impurities, however, affect the vegetation 
of the country to the west and north-west of Llangollen to a 
less degree than to any portion to the east of the town, because 
of the proximity of the latter to the Ruabon and Wrexham 
manufacturing and more populous centres. Such bark-loving 
species as Orthotrichum Lyellii, O. affine and 0. stramineum 
occur very sparingly in the former localities. In the Wrexham 
area Nant y Ffrith produces the following corticole species 
in small quantities : — Ulota Bruchii, U. crispa, Lophocolea 
heterophylla, Frullania tamarisci and F. dilatata. The purer 
air of the higher altitude at which this ravine stands, the 
shelter and protection due to its depth, as well as the greater 
amount of humidity that prevails, tend to counteract to some 
degree the unfavourable atmospheric conditions that cause 
the deterioration of plant growth in the district. It may be 
of interest to mention here that William Wilson, of Warrington, 
in his Bryologica Britannica (1855) records Orthotrichum tenel- 
lum for Gresford Vale. The conditions to-day do not favour 
the occurrence of this beautiful little moss in that locality. 

The average rainfall in inches from 1880 to 1884 f° r the 
following places in the district is as follows: — 

Ruaton (Wynnstay) . . . . . . 34*87 

Llangollen (Plas Beryn) . . . . . . 4472 

Wrexham (Pack Saddle Reservoir) . . 33*32 

(Cae Llwyd Reservoir) . . 43*Si 
(Plas Power) . . . . 36-55 

(Brymbo) . . . . . . 33-62 

Rossett (Trevalyn Hall) . . . . 29-08 

Chirk (Cefn-y-Wern) . . . . . . 35*45 

The following list contains records of mosses gathered 
in the county of Denbigh by the late Professor Barker, of 
Buxton. These records were compiled from MS. belonging to 
him. A list of Hepatics collected by the same bryologist in 
the Llangollen district is also included. This collection was 
examined by Mr. Ingham, secretary of the Moss Exchange Club, 
who kindly sent the records to the writer. The following 
excursions by Prof. Barker in the county are represented by 
the figures 1-10. A number quoted after each species, therefore, 
refers to the locality in which that species was collected by 
Prof. Barker. For records not followed by a number the 
author is responsible. 

(1) Near Colwyn Bay and Bettws y Coed (V.C. 50), August 
and September, 1899. 

Mosses collected and noted in the neighbourhood of 
Llangollen (V.C. 50), August I4th-29th, 1900 : — 

Naturalist, 



The Mosses and Hepatics of Denbighshire. 289 

(2) Via north side of Geraint — Bryn Mawr — Vivod — 
Berwyn — across Chain Bridge— Valle Crucis Abbey — Llangollen 
— Wrexham Road (i| miles) — Llangollen. August 14th. 

(3) Via east side" of Castell Dinas Bran — Eglwyseg Rocks 
at end of Panorama Walk — North, along top of ravine which 
goes back and ends near a little plantation — down ravine — 
road West of Castell Dinas Bran— footpath between that and 
Dinbren Hall — Llangollen. August 15th. 

(4) Glyndyfrdwy Station across River Dee — along road on 
north side to Chain Bridge — across River Dee — Holyhead 
Road — path, south bank of River Dee — Llangollen. Aug. 16th. 

(5) Road to Glynceiriog to near summit — to left over heather 
and along old road on ridge — old quarry near a house — further 
along ridge — descent towards Pen y Coed — along road south 
of latter — Llangollen. August 17th. 

(6) Llangollen to Geraint — across Holyhead Road near 
Llangollen. August 19th. «* 

(7) Llangollen to World's End by footpath east of Dinbren 
Hall, and road west of Eglwyseg Rocks — east across heather 
to Watershed, then along parts of Rocks nearest World's End 
and back by same road to Llangollen. August 20th. 

(8) Along south side of Geraint to road from Vivod, across 
to Blaen y Bachau, to Marsh — back by Blaen y Bachau to 
Llangollen. August 21st. 

(9) Castell Dinas Bran. August 22nd. 

(10) A list of Hepatics collected by Professor Barker in 

the neighbourhood of Llangollen, August I4th-29th, 1900. 

The following list contains : — 

New County Records. 

Species and Species and 

sub-species. Varieties. sub-species. Varieties. 

Mosses . . 229 48 97 34 

Hepatics .61 7 33 6 

Many of the following records were included in the list of 
Mosses and Hepatics for Wales, sent by the writer to the Moss 
and Hepatic Census Catalogues of the Moss Exchange Club. 
They were published under their vice-commital number in 
those catalogues, but the localities are now recorded for the 
first time. The records in the list mentioned above which were 
new, and others made subsequently, are denoted by an 
asterisk (*). 
Sphagnum cymbifolium Ehrh., 1 ; Cyrn y brain, Nant y Ffrith, 

Miner a. 
5. papillosum Lindb. ; Minera, Cyrn y brain. 
S. molluscum Bruch ; Cyrn y brain. 

S. cuspidatum (Ehrh.) W., var. * falcatum Russ. and var. 
*plumosum Bry. germ. ; Cyrn y brain. 

1917 Sept. 1. 



290 The Mosses and Hepatics of Denbighshire. 

Sphagnum recurvum var. *mucronatum (Russ.) W. ; Minera, 
Nant y Ffrith, Cyrn y brain. Var. *amblyphyllum (Russ.) 
W. ; Cyrn y brain, Minera. 
*S. Girgensohnii Russ. ; Minera. 

S. subnitens Russ. and W. ; Nant y Ffrith, Cyrn y brain. 
*S. quinquefarium (Lindb.) W. ; Nant y Ffrith. 
*S. subsecundum (Nees) Limpr., 1. 
*S. contortum Schultz, 1. 

*S. inundatum (Russ.) W. ; Minera, Cyrn y brain. 
*S. rufescens (Bry. germ.) Limpr. ; Minera. 
Andrecea Rothii var. falcata Lindb., 1. 

Tetr aphis pellucida Hedw., 1 ; Nant y Ffrith, Minera, Gresford. 
Catharinea undulata Web. and Mohr, 1, 5 ; Minera, Wrexham, 
Nant y Ffrith. 
* Polytrichum nanum Neck. ; Nant y Ffrith. 
P. aloides Hedw., 1, 6, 8 ; Nant y Ffrith, Cyrn y brain. 
P. urnigerum L., 1, 5 ; Minera. 
P. piliferum Schreb., 9 ; Wrexham, Minera, Eglwyseg Rocks, 

Cyrn y brain. 
P. juniperinum Willd., 3, 7, 8 ; Cyrn y brain, Minera. 
P. strictum Banks, 1. 
P. formosum Hedw., 4, 5, 6, 7 ; Cyrn y brain, World's End, 

Nant y Ffrith, Minera, Glynceiriog. 
P. commune L. ; Cyrn y brain, Minera. 
Pleuridium axillare Lindb., 3, 4, 5, 6 ; Nant y Belan. 
*P. alternijolium Rabenh. ; Brynteg, Wrexham. 
Ditrichum ftexicaule Hampe, 1, 3, 7 ; Nant y Ffrith, World's 
End, Berwig, Minera. Var. densum B. and S., 1, 3, 7 ; 
Berwig, World's End. 
*Seligeria pusilla B. and S. ; Bwlchgwyn (Watson, Duncan 

and Jones), World's End. 
*S. recurvata B. and S., 2. 
Ceratodon purpureas Brid. ; common throughout the district. 
Cynodontium Bruntoni B. and S., 1, 9 ; Minera. 
Dichodontium pellucidum Schp., 2, 7 ; Nant y Belan, Nant y 

Ffrith, Berwig, Minera. Var. *fagimontanum Brid., 7. 
D. flavescens Lindb., 1, 2, 7 ; Nant y Ffrith. 
Dicranella heteromalla Schp. ; frequent. Var. *interrupta 

B. and S. ; Bwlchgwyn, Nant y Ffrith. 
/). varia Schp., 1, 3, 5, 7 ; Coedpoeth (abundant), Berwig, 
Nant y Ffrith, Gresford, Minera. 
*D. Schreberi Schp., 1, 4, 5, 6, 8 ; Gresford, Nant y Ffrith, 
Berwig. Var. *elata Schp. ; Gresford. 
Dicranoweisia cirrata Lindb. ; Ruabon, Minera Mt. 
Campylopus flexuosus Brid., 1,7; Bwlchgwyn, Nant y Ffrith, 
Cyrn y brain. Var. ^paradoxus Husn., 5 ; Nant y Ffrith. 
C. pyriformis Brid., 7 ; Bwlchgwyn, Cyrn y brain. 
C. fragilis B. and S., 8 ; Minera, Nant y Ffrith. 

Naturalist, 



The Mosses and Hepatics of Denbighshire. 291 

Campylopus atrovirens De Not., 1 ; Cyrn y brain. 

Dicranum Bonjeani De Not., 1, 4 ; Llangollen, Berwig, 
Nant y Ffrith. 

D. scoparium Hedw. ; common. Var. *orthophyllum Brid., 1, 5. 

D. majns Turn., 1, 2 ; Nant y Ffrith. 

Leiicobrynm glaiicum Schp., 1 ; Cyrn y brain. 
* Fissidens exilis Hedw. ; Glasgoed. 
*F. pusillus Wils. ; Nant y Ffrith. 
*F. incurvus Starke ; Glasgoed. 

F. bryoides Hedw., 1, 6, 8 ; Glasgoed, Brynteg, etc. 
*F. crassipes Wils. ; Gresford. 
*F. osmundoides Hedw., 1. 

F. adiantoides Hedw., 1, 3, 5, 7, 8 ; Nant y Ffrith. 

F. decipiens De Not., 3, 5, 7 ; Nant y Ffrith, Minera. 

F. taxifolins Hedw., 1, 7 ; Nant y Ffrith, Gresford. Eglwyseg 
Rocks. 

Grimmia apocarpa Hedw.; frequent. Var. rivularis Web. 
and Mohr ; Nant y Ffrith. 

G. pulvinata Smith, 1, 2, 3 ; common in the Wrexham 
district, World's End. 

*G. orbicidaris Bruch, 1. 

G. trichophylla Grev., 1,4; Cyrn y brain. 
*G. Stirtoni Schp., 1, 2, 4, 9 ; walls near Llandcgla. 

G. Doniana Sm., 1. 
*G. arenaria Hampe, 1. 
Rhacomitrium aciculare Brid., 1, 2 ; Cyrn y brain. 
A', protensum Braun, 1 ; Minera, Cyrn y brain. 
A', jascicidare Brid., 1,5; Minera, Nant y Ffrith, Cyrn y 

brain. 
A. heterostichnm Brid., 1, 2, 5 ; Minera, Cyrn y brain. Var. 

*ulopecnrum Hiibn., 1. 
A. lamiginosum Brid., 1, 5, 9 ; Minera, Cyrn y brain. 
A. canescens Brid., 7, 8 ; Minera. Var. ericoides B. and S., 7 ; 
Minera. 
*Coscinodon cribrosus Spruce; found growing in mouse-like 
tufts on walls and rocks on a hillside not far from Llandegla. 
I'tychomitrium polyphyllum Fiirn., 1, 3, 5 ; Minera, Nant y 

Ffrith, Llandegla, Wrexham. 
I/cdwigia ciliata Khrh., 1, 5 ; Cyrn y brain. 
*Acaulon muticum CM. ; Brynteg. 

Phascum cuspidatum Schreb., 4, 5, 6 ; Brynteg, Wrexham. 
Var. *pilifemm Hook, and Tayl., 5. 
*P. curvicolle Ehrh. ; Brynteg, Wrexham. 

Pott ia truncatula Lindb., 1, 3, 5, 7 ; Brynteg, Wrexham. 
*P. intermedia var. littoralis Mitt., 3. 
*P. minutula Fiirnr. ; Brynteg, Wrexham. 
*Tortula rigida Schrad., 4. 
T. ambigua Angstr., 4 ; Wrexham. 

1917 Sept. 1. 



292 The Mosses and Hepatics of Denbighshire. 

Toriula aloides De Not., 1, 6 ; World's End. 

T. muralis Hedw. ; abundant. Var. rupestris Schultz, 1,2; 

Wrexham, Llangollen. Var. *astiva Brid., 2. 
T. subulata Hedw., 1, 3, 5 ; Minera. 
T. Icevipila Schwaeg., 1, 3/4, 7. 
T. intermedia Berk., 1, 3, 9 ; Llangollen, Berwig, Nant y 

Ffrith, Minera. 
T. ruralis Ehrh., 7 ; Brynteg. 
* T. ruralijormis Dixon, 1 ; Eglwyseg. This sub-species was 

gathered among the limestone scree at the base of the 

Eglwyseg Rocks. The leaves are distinctly narrowed at 

the apex and the lamina runs out into a hyaline point. 

It is a common plant on Welsh coast sandhills where it 

is often fertile. 
Barbula lurida Lindb. ; Colwyn Bay. 
B. rubella Mitt., 1, 3, 4, 5, 6 ; Nant y Ffrith, Wrexham, 

Minera. Var. *niberrima Ferg. ; a beautiful form of this 

variety occurs among the broken limestone at Berwig. 
*B. recurvijolia Schp., 1, 3 ; in similar situations to the last 

at Berwig. 
B. fallax Hedw. ; frequent. Var. *brevifolia Schultz, 1, 3, 4 ; 

Eglwyseg Rocks. 
*B. tophacea Mitt. ; Eglwyseg Rocks, Berwig. 
B. spadicea Mitt., 1, 3, 7 ; Nant y Ffrith. 
B. rigidula Mitt., 1, 2, 4, 7 ; Ffrith, Minera, World's End. 
B. cylindrica Schp., 1, 2, 6 ; Wrexham, Nant y Ffrith. 
B. vinealis Brid., I, 4, 7 ; Wrexham. 
B. sinuosa Braithw., 1, 4, 5. 
*B. gracilis Schwaeg , 1 ; a rare moss not hitherto recorded 

for the Principality. 
B. Hornschuchiana Schultz, 1, 5, 6, 7 ; Ffrith, Bwlchgwyn. 
B. revoluta Brid., 1, 4, 5 ; Wrexham, Ffrith. 
B. convoluta Hedw., 1, 3, 4, 5, 6 ; Wrexham, Minera, World's 

End. Var. Sardoa B. and S., 2, 6. 
B. unguiculata Hedw. ; common. 
Leptodontium flexifolium Hampe, 5 ; Bwlchgwyn, Nant y 

Ffrith. 
*Weisia tortilis CM., 1. 
*W. crispata CM., 1. 

W. viridula Hedw., 3, 4 ; Berwig, Minera. 
*W. calcarea CM., 1, 7. 
W. rupestris CM., 7 ; Nant y Ffrith. Var. *ramosissima 

Bry. Eur., 3, 4. 
W. curvirostris CM. Var. commutata Dixon ; Nant y Ffrith. 

Some of the leaves occasionally have shorter papillose cells 

approaching the type. 
W. verticillata Brid., 3. 

(To be continued ). 

Naturalist, 



2 93 

THE GEOGRAPHICAL DISTRIBUTION OF THE 
MOTHS OF THE SUBFAMILY BISTONINAE. 



J. W. HESLOP HARRISON. D.Sc. 

XL— THE GENUS BISTON (LEACH). 

Biston strataria (Hufn.). Distribution : — Central Europe, 
The British Isles, Southern Scandinavia, Spain and Portugal, 
Morocco, Algiers, North and Central Italy, Dalmatia, South 
Russia and Asia Minor. 

Biston comitata (Warren). Eastern Siberia, China and 
Japan. 

Biston robustum (Butler). Japan. 

Biston regalis (Moore). North India, Himalayas. 

The name Biston has, unfortunately, always been mis- 
applied, Lycia hirtaria uniformly being quoted as Biston 
hirtaria — a very natural mistake — for Leach included Lycia 
hirtaria and Biston strataria, as well as Amphidasys betularia, 
within his genus. Very early in the ' thirties,' however, both 
Stephens and Westwood restricted the name to strataria which, 
in consequence, becomes the type and carries with it the ad- 
ditional species cited above ; and, in truth, comprising these 
forms the genus is a very natural one. 

Just as when one throws a stone into a pool, of the ripples 
formed, the furthest away from the centre of disturbance or 
dispersal is the oldest, so B. strataria, located thousands of 
miles away from what we shall demonstrate to be the metropolis 
of the genus, is the most primitive species ; this fact its com- 
paratively slight development of sexual dimorphism confirms. 

Indeed, so little has the physiological affinity between 
our familiar B. strataria and the genus Amphidasys as ex- 
emplified by A. betularia been diminished, that hybrids between 
them have been successfully reared. Nor is the morphological 
difference between them very striking, the only feature of any 
importance being the absence in Biston of the posterior middle 
tibial spurs. Now, as there exists no similar pair of species 
within the groups, we must assume that Biston, in a form not 
differing widely from strataria, arose from some exponent of 
the Amphidasys of the A. betidaria-cognataria type by a muta- 
tion resulting in the loss of the second pair of spurs. 

At first sight, we might venture upon the conjecture that 
this may have occurred at any station in the European habitats 
common to the two insects, but to any adoption of this view 
many serious objections may be advanced. Amongst them 
there is none greater than the fact that, of the two significant 
betularia forms, B. strataria appears to be nearer the Palas- 
typical insect, i.e., A. cognaiaria, and this, as we have seen 
previously, is absent from Europe and, furthermore, has its 

1917 Sept. 1. 



294 Distribution of Moths of the Sub-family Bistonince. 

headquarters in Eastern Asia ; secondly, the genus Biston 
reaches its highest pitch of development in Asia ; thirdly, 
there are no true Bistons in the intervening tracts in Asia as 
there would have been infallibly had Biston been of European, 
and therefore of recent, evolution ; lastly, had Biston originated 
in Europe it is exceedingly difficult to see how strataria could 
have reached Algiers and Morocco in the limited time at its 
disposal with the causeways in their present broken-down 
condition. 

In truth, all of these arguments point unwaveringly to one 
conclusion, and that is that Biston, like all its immediate allies, 
is a genus of far Eastern antecedents. Many facts of small 
import singly (some of which have been stated), but of com- 
pelling force when in bulk lead us to that decision. 

Having thus, in our own minds, fixed its home in the far 
East, we must now determine when it appeared. Its failure 
in America gives us a starting point. Had it been a dweller 
in the old Miocene continent then, of a surety, we should 
have found it there. Again, Phigalia has been derived from 
some link between Amphidasys and Biston, as many characters, 
pupal, antennal and otherwise suggest, and Phigalia, as we know 
managed to reach America by the Northern route ; whence the 
necessary conclusion is that Biston came into being at some time 
between the close of the Miocene Period and times when the 
Northern path was under such climatic conditions as allowed 
Phigalia to pass but prevented Biston, a genus more fastidious 
in its climatic requirements. These times, with due respect 
to its inability to pass to America, were not long prior to the 
middle of the Pliocene Epoch. 

Additional evidence of quite a different type gives ample 
confirmation of this judgment. Japan, as we see above, 
produces one endemic species so that the genus cannot have 
been produced since Japan became an island. Moreover, it 
has crept into India, which suggests that it passed when the 
Himalayas were less of a barrier than at present and, lastly, 
we find it in Africa. From this evidence, built up link by link, 
but one conclusion is tenable, and that the same as arrived at 
before, that Biston put in an appearance in the first half of the 
Pliocene Period. 

Couple the facts of its occurrence in North Africa and 
Spain with its Eastern origin, and we perceive that, in our 
own B. strataria, we have a representative of the old familiar 
Oriental, as opposed to the later Siberian migration, which, 
in those early times, whether by direct or by devious paths, 
was a weighty factor in the populating of Europe. 

Unless we encounter here a case of converging evolution, 
the nearness of B. robustum in the female sex to the genera 
Megabiston and Lycia would indicate that B. robustum has 

Naturalist, 



Distribution of Moths of the Sub-family Bistonince. 295 

assumed that peculiar state of sexual dimorphism before it 
reached Japan. Now this observation brings it into con- 
tact with B. comitata and its Indian relative B. regalis, whence 
we glean that like many another member of Oriental stream 
Biston overflowed from the Chinese area. 

Very soon, indeed, one offshoot pressed into regions with 
climate so propitious that it waxed great, and part attained 
such imposing proportions for a Geometrid that the name 
B. robustum applied to it is no misnomer. So nearly confined 
to the Japanese area was this section that, when in the end 
Japan was separated from Corea and China, within its limits 
was included the insect. But it was not so with the continental 
stock. Leaving many detachments behind, some of which in 
turn threw off colonies into Japan, that host spread widely, 
ever seeking genial climes and as it gained them ever growing 
larger. Finally it passed into India through the passes and 
gorges of the Brahmaputra valley. There, limited only by its 
predilections for trees of more temperate leanings, it reached 
a size and appearance so noteworthy as to warrant the name 
B. regalis. Its relatives in the ' old country ' attained no such 
dimensions, and perforce have to remain contented with the 
less presumptious title B. comitata. 

However, not all of the prototypical form was fortunate 
enough to strike in these directions of novel and stimulating 
conditions. Part of the original stock made a powerful thrust 
to the west over the Great Central Plateau which then was 
much better watered and not so relatively high as now, the 
great uplift culminating in the huge tableland of to-day not 
occurring until later. Soon, as it progressed, it was crowded 
to the south-west, due western advance becoming impossible 
owing to the enormous Central Sea ; thence its way was across 
North Persia, through Armenia to Asia Minor. Onward, 
without cessation, always greedy of new ground, it journeyed 
into Balkan Area which then was one with Asia Minor. Unlike 
what obtains to-day, direct advance then, into and across 
Central Europe, was as yet impossible. The country about 
the Danube was too impeded ; although quickly to vanish, the 
old lakes and morasses yet beset the land. Necessarily, our 
insect drove west across the future Balkan Peninsula to South 
Italy and Sicily and thence across the Mid-Mediterranean 
Subcontinent to North Africa, whence it once more invaded 
European soil by crossing into Spain from Morocco, for the 
Straits of Gibraltar had noi: then appeared. 

Immediately a slow northward movement was initiated, 
and about the same time advance from the Balkans became im- 
possible, and thus two streams were striving to occupy Europe, 
no doubt in those warmer days with complete success. 

Scarcely was their journey thus apparently ended when 

1917 Sept. 1. 



296 Distribution of Moths of the Sub-family Bistonincc. 

retreat followed. As with thousands of other arrivals in 
Europe, the oncome of the ice forced it back, further back indeed 
than many, for oaks, to which it is attached, are very impatient 
of icy soils. Once again, too, the reunited invaders were dis- 
joined, for local glaciers in Central Europe occupied the plain, 
one contingent withdrawing to Spain and the other to South- 
eastern Europe, here outstaying the inclemencies of glacial 
days. 

Nevertheless, the latter were not to last ; warmer suns 
returned to smile on Europe, and in its turn the ice fell back. 
Again Biston strataria passed slowly forth, following hard on 
the oaks to which it was bound. Like other insects of similar 
diet, an example of which we met in Poecilopsis pomonaria, 
the Eastern division was able to repopulate Central Europe 
and Southern Scandinavia, that from Spain just reaching 
Britain, and penetrating to the Midlands, ere its impulse was 
lost by Britain becoming an island. 

But this latter restricted occupation of the British Islands 
has not to be dismissed as a minor point ; a like peculiarity 
is stamped on nearly all oak feeders, and suggests that all such 
beings repopulated Western Europe from the Spanish Peninsula. 
We shall not linger on the matter here, for we shall reserve it for 
subsequent full consideration when we take up the study of 
the genus Apocheima. 

Still one more feature remains for treatment, and that is 
the break-down of the range of the group in Western and Central 
Asia. When Biston was advancing, Central Asia was a land 
totally dissimilar from that of our days. It was well-watered, 
less elevated and conditions were ideal for deciduous trees. 
Gradually, however, the Great Central Sea dried up and rains 
became infrequent. Hard on this diminishing rainfall the 
wooded areas contracted ; where once oaks and similar trees 
flourished, nothing could succeed save drought resisting shrubs 
like Eleagnus and Lycium. Upon these Biston could not 
maintain itself, and thus the geographical continuity of the 
genus was broken. Nor was this all ; great uprisings took place 
and from the ' Roof of the World ' eastward for many miles life 
for trees became hopeless. As a result existence for creatures 
of arboreal tendencies became impossible, and the gap was 
widened. 

Such, too, has been the history of many cases of like dis- 
continuity in distribution, prominent amongst which is the 
well-known case of the two Blue Jays (Cyanopica cooki and 
C. cyanea) — prominent, not because their case is unique, but 
because it is so well-known. 



Mr. J. Groves contributes a memoir on the late Clement Reid, with 
portrait, in The Journal of Botany for June. 



Naturalist, 



297 



NOTES ON THE SLUGS AND LAND SHELLS 
OF ICELAND. 



HANS SCHLESCH. 

Hellcrup, Denmark. 

In its Land Mollusca the Iceland fauna is very poor and 
possesses the characters of that of Scandinavia. Only two 
species are Arctic forms, viz., Pupa arctica Wall, and Succinea 
groenlandica Beck. Messrs. F. H. Sikes (Sevenoaks), and 
Bjarni Saemundsson (Reykjavik), have added a good deal 
to our knowledge of this fauna, and have kindly provided me 
with lists of their finds. As the island becomes more system- 
atically explored, however, it is probable that additional 
species will be found. The collections of Mr. Bjarni Ssemunds- 
son are placed in the Reykjavik Museum ; of Mr. F. H. Sikes 
in the British Museum, and my own in the Hull Museum. 

The abbreviations of the collectors' names are the same as 
in my paper on ' The Icelandic Forms of Limncea ' ( The 
Naturalist, 1917, pp. 257-259). 

Genus Limax (Linne). 
Limax arborum Bouchard-Chantereaux. 
(= L. marginatus M tiller). 
S. Nuphlid, 1841 (J.St.), Vestmannaeyar (B.S.). 
W. Stykkisholmur (B.S.), Reykjavik (B.S.). 
N. Bakkafjordur (A.C.J.). 

var. alpestris Lesson and Pollonera. 
W. Hafnarfjordur, 1913 (F.H.S.). 

Genus Agriolimax (Morch). 
Agriolimax agrestis Linne. 
W. Reykjavik (G. & F.H.S.), Isafjordur, 1913 (H.S.). 

• Kaldalon in the lsafjardardjup, 1913 (H.S.). 
5. Nuphlid (10 specimens) of which the greatest was 20 mm. 
long (J.St.). 

Jarngerdarstadir in Grindavik (B.S.). 
N. Halldorsstodum, Laxardal, 1916 (F.P.). 

Remarks : The most common shell-less snail ; it is named 
' Brekku-snigill,' and Eggert Olafsson says in his work* (p. 715). 
' it is here (North Iceland), and everywhere over the country 
common.' 

Agriolimax reticulata Miiller. 
W. Reykjavik, 1912 (F.H.S.). 

Agriolimax Iczvis Miiller, var. hyperborea Westerlund. 
Recorded from Iceland by Westerlund in Synop. Moll. 
Extram. Scand., 1897, p. 31, as collected by Arthur Feddersen, 

* Rejse ig;ennem Island, Soro 177-. 
1917 Sept. 1. 



298 Notes on the Slugs and Land Shells of Iceland. 

Genus Vitrina (Drapernaud). 
Vitrina pellucida Miiller. 
( = V. angelica Beck, V. beryllina C. Pfeiffer.) 
W. Saudlauksdalur (E.O.), Heidalur, Kaldalon, Armula, 
Laugabol, all in the Isafjardardjiip, 1913 (H.S.). 
Isafjordur, 1913 (H.S.), Hafnarfjordurhraun (J.St.), 
from Stadafell to Brjamslcek (J.St.). 
5. Hofdabrekka in Myrdalssandur (J.St.), Nuphlid in 

Reykjanes (J.St.), Grindavik (B.S.). 
E. Nordfjordur, 1912 (F.H.S.). 
N. Halldorsstodum, Laxardal, 1916 (F.P.). 

Remarks : Common everywhere under foliage and stones, 
especially in damp situations. Eggert Olafsson called it Nerita 
testa subviridi, splendidissima spira duplici nigricante, and says, 
' this exquisite little mollusc, not any larger than a turnip 
seed, is very thin, tender and transparent — its sea-green colour 
is very polished.' 

Genus Euconulus (Reinhardt). 
Euconulus fulvus Miiller. 
{ = E. jabricii Beck, E. trochiformis Mtg.) 
W. Isafjordur (A.C.J., F.H.S. and H.S.). 

Heidalur, Armula and Kaldalon, 1913, in the Isafjar- 
dardjup (H.S.). 
N. Hals near Akureyri (A.C.J.). 
E. Seydisfjordur, 1912 (F.H.S.) . 

Remarks : Euconulus fulvus Miiller is a common snail 
under leaves in shady and damp places, and is probably dis- 
tributed over the whole of Iceland. 

Genus Hyalinia (Charpentier). 
Sub-genus Euhyalinia Albers. 
Hyalinia alliaria Miiller. 
W. Hafnarfjordur, 1912 (F.H.S.), Reykjavik (A.C.J.), from 
Stadafell to Brjamslcek (J.St.), Isafjordur (F.H.S. and 
H.S.). 
5. Nuphlid in Reykjanes (J.St.), Jarngerdarstadir in 
Grindavik (B.S.). 
Remarks : This species is somewhat rare, lives in damp 
and shady places, and is easily recognised by its onion-like 
odour, when irritated. 

Sub-genus Polita (Held). 
Hyalinia radiatul 'a Alder (=H. hammonis Strom). 
W. Isafjordur, 1913 (H.S.). 
5. Nuphlid in Revkjanes (J.St.). 
N. Akureyri, 1912 (F.H.S.). 

Naturalist, 



Notes on the Slugs and Land Shells of Iceland. 299 

Genus Arion (Ferussac). 
Avion ater Linne. 
W. Hafnarfjordur, 1912 (F.H.S. and B.S.). 

Common on the lava-flows in the Reykjanes peninsula, 
1901 (B.S.). 
S. Nuphlid (J.St.). 

2 specimens from Thingvellir (J.H.). 
E. ' Not rare in the East ' (Mohr). 

var. atra Linne. 
W. Hafnarfjordur, 1912 (F.H.S.). 

var. nigrescens Moquin-Tandon. 
W. Hafnarfjordur, 1913 (F.H.S.). 

Remarks : Avion ater occurs probably only on the S.W. 
and Southern parts of Iceland. 

Arion hortensis Ferussac. 
W. Reykjavik (B.S.). 

Two specimens, labelled ' Iceland,' found 1840 by Jonas 
Hallgrimsson (Morch). 

Arion snbfuscus Draparnaud. 
N. Halldorsstodum, Laxardal, Sudur Thingeyarsyssel, 1916 

(F.P.). 
W. Reykjavik (G. & B.S.). 
S. Grindavik (B.S.). 

var. aurantiaca Locard. 
W. Reykjavik, 1912 (F.H.S.) . 

var. juligiuea Morelet. 
W . Hafnarfjordur, 1913 (F.H.S.). 

Genus Helix (Linne). 
Sub-genus Hygromia Risso. 
[Helix hispida L., var. morchi Westerlund, recorded in error by 
Westerlund (Syn. Moll. Extram. Scand., 1897, p. 49, etc.) from Iceland ; 
but he means Thorshavn, in Farce Islands (see Land-och Sottvatten- 
Mollusker fran Vega-expeditionen, 1885, p. 145) by the same author]. 

Genus Helicogona (Ferussac). 
Helicogona arbustorum Linne. 
E. Seydisfjordur, July 8th, 1905 (B.S.) ; Nes in Nordfjordur, 
1911 (S. Tomasson) ; Nordfjordur, 1912 (F.H.S.) ; 
Bodvarsdalur in Vopnafjordur, Sept. 9th, 1898 (B.S.). 
W. Isafjordur, 1913 (H.S.). 

var. alpestris L. Pfeiffer. 
(=var. alpicola Ferussac). 
E. Nordfjordur, 1912 (F.H.S. 
W. Isafjordur, 1912 (H.S.). 

1917 Sept. 1. 



300 Notes on the Slugs and Land Shells of Iceland. 

var. hypnicola Mabille. 
E. Islandia borealis fide clar Servain (Westerlund). 

var. trochoidalis Roffiaen. 
W. i specimen from Isafjordur, 1913 (H.S.). 

Remarks : Helicogona arbustorum is a very common species 
in the East ; it is probably introduced at Isafjordur, as it was 
only found in a garden near Stakkanes, and there in single 
specimens. Mohr says, ' it lives often on flanks of hills and 
heights.' 

( To be continued) . 



BOTTLE-NOSED DOLPHIN (TURSIOPS TURSIO) 
CAUGHT OFF WALNEY ISLAND. 

H. B. BOOTH, M.B.O.U., F.Z.S. 

Spending a few days' holiday with my family at Morecambe 
in mid-August, I was naturally attracted by the advertisement : 
' A Large Whale on View, caught by Morecambe fishermen,' 
etc. On seeing the enclosure, bounded on one of its longest 
sides by an old fishing boat, the other three sides made up 
with all kinds of odds and ends, I was naturally quite prepared 
to see nothing more than a common Porpoise. But I was 
pleased to find the exhibit to be a Bottle-nosed Dolphin ; a 
species, I believe, of somewhat rare occurrence on the English 
coasts. It measured 10 feet 10 inches in a straight line, and 
was almost exactly the length of the dray upon which it was 
exhibited. Possibly it may have shrank a few inches, as it 
was exposed to the full rays of the sun and to the wind. I 
mention this because when I saw it again a few days later 
it was quite three inches shorter. From what information 
I gathered it was seen in a dazed or stunned condition five 
miles west of the south point of Walney Island on August 8th. 
The fishermen managed to get a rope round the narrowest 
part of its body inside the flukes, and towed it in to Heysham 
Harbour. Naturally this procedure forced its head under 
the water, and soon deprived it of what little life it had left, 
by drowning. Before being exhibited it had been disem- 
bowelled and treated with some formaline concoction. This, 
together with the effect of the sun and the weather, had some- 
what dulled its appearance. When first caught I was informed 
it was blue-black, on the upper parts, shading through a beau- 
tiful grey on the sides to a shining silvery white below. The 
white however, did not extend so far up as to include the gape 
of the mouth, and to form a narrow streak above the upper 
lip, as I have seen it figured. From what I could learn, it 
was a female. The lower jaws protruded by about two inches 

Naturalist, 



Reviews and Book Notices. 301 

and contained twenty-two teeth on each side. The shorter 
upper jaws had twenty-three teeth on each side ; or ninety 
teeth in all, and they extended further back into the mouth 
than those of the lower jaws. The teeth were worn quite 
flat, proving it to be adult — probably aged — and as it did not 
show any sign of injury, possibly the beast had succumbed 
to old age. 



FIELD NOTES. 

ENTOMOLOGY. 

Camberwell Beauty near Bradford. — On Wednesday, 
August 15th, I had an excellent view of a Camberwell Beauty 
[Vanessa antiopa) in the old quarries in Woodhall plantation, 
Fagley, near Bradford. It danced round me for quite a couple 
of minutes so that I saw it perfectly. — Herbert E. Wroot. 



MOLLUSC A. 

Discovery of Hygromia striolata in Nottinghamshire. 

— The inexplicable apparent total absence of this species from 
Nottinghamshire has been frequently remarked upon by the 
students of geographical distribution. This blank in the 
Catalogue of Notts, species has now been filled up by Mr. 
T. H. Chambers of Leeds, a diligent and enthusiastic con- 
chologist, who has recently collected a number of living 
specimens at Worksop and also in the vicinity of Newark. — 
Jno. W. Taylor, Aug. 18th, 1917. 



REVIEWS AND BOOK NOTICES. 

Neolithic Dew-Ponds and Cattle-ways, by A. J. and G. Hubbard. Long- 
mans, Green & Co., 116 pp. Excepting that the words ' second edition ' 
are altered to ' third edition,' and the date 1907 is altered to 1916, and 
the printers' imprint is in different type, this ' third edition ' seems in 
all respects similar to the second edition, which was reviewed in these 
columns for September, 1908, p. 354. The prefaces to the 1st and 2nd 
editions are reprinted ; no preface to the third edition being given. That 
a third edition of a work of this kind (more local in its scope than indicated 
by the title) should be called for, is evidence of its popularity. 

Microscopical Determination of the Opaque Minerals : an aid to the 
study of Ores, by J. Murdock. New York and London (Chapman and 
Hall, 165 pp., 9/6). The Author is 'Geologist, Secondary Enrichment 
Investigation,' and his book is surely systemization and classification in 
perfection. By the aid of thumb-cuts at the tops of the pages, reference 
is readily made to the sections devoted to Gray, White and Coloured 
minerals. The right-hand sides of the pages of these sections are cut 
away to indicate various colours, hardnesses, etc. ; the right-hand sides 
being further cut to show ' Eff. HN0 3 ,' 'No Eff. HNO a , HNO a , Neg,' 
etc., the pages on each of these subsections containing details of the 

1917 Sept. 1. 



302 Reviews and Book Notices. 

minerals coming under the respective sub-headings. The Preface and 
Introduction explain the scope of the work, and when these have been 
mastered, there is no doubt the book will be of service to the practical 
worker. Nine and sixpence seems sufficient for 166 pages, but no doubt 
a fair proportion goes to the person who has had to cut so many pages in 
so many different ways. 

A Pocket Handbook of Minerals, by G. M. Butler. 2nd edition. New 
York and London: (Chapman & Hall), 311 pp. 11/6. This handbook is 
by the ' Professor of Mineralogy and Petrology and Dean' at the University 
of Arizona, and is ' designed for use in the field or class room with little 
reference to chemical tests.' It deals with the various minerals under the 
heads of Name, Composition, Hardness, Lustre, Colour, Streak, Cleavage, 
etc. ; there is a good index and elaborate tables at the end. Illustrations 
are given of typical crystals and minerals, one being of ' Arazonite, Cum- 
berland, England.' The volume is printed on very thin paper, on small- 
sized pages with rounded corners, evidently to fit into the pocket. The 
price however, seem rather ' stiff " even for these times, but as a ' second 
thousand ' has been issued, the book evidently fills a want. 

Studies in Insect Life, by Dr. A. E. Shipley. London : T. Fisher 
Unwin, 338 pp., 10s. 6d. net. Dr. Shipley's charming style is so well 
known that a book of his needs no recommendation from us. We merely 
chronicle its appearance. The ' Studies ' just issued contain eleven clever 
essays, not necessarily confined to insects. The subjects are ' Insects 
and War, the Honey-Bee, The Humble Bee, Moths and Bees, Ocean 
Depths, Sea fisheries, Sir John Murray, Grouse Disease, Shakespearean 
Zoology, Science in the Seventh Century, Hate.' Though the subjects 
dealt with are varied, all are interesting and up-to-date. Some of the 
essays we had previously read elsewhere, but they are welcome in their 
present permanent form. Personally we don't like to see a specimen of 
Homo sapiens as a frontispiece to a book on insects, albeit that the portrait 
is a very nice one, and of the author. 

The Biology of Dragonflies, by R. J. Tillyard. Cambridge Uni- 
versity Press, 396 pp., 15/- net. The author tells us that during the 
past three years he has been able to undertake a considerable amount of 
work on the internal anatomy of Dragonflies, adding some new discoveries, 
and here and there rectifying errors. Most of the work is as yet unpub- 
lished, but a summary appears in the present volume, which is for the 
biologist rather than the systematist. More than ninety per cent, of the 
papers so far published, dealing with the Odonata, have been systematic 
in their aim. ' It is hoped that the method of treatment followed in this 
book, by which the morphological, phylogenetic and physiological view- 
points have been correlated, in so far as our present knowledge allows, 
will enable students of the Odonata to take up any line of research in 
this interesting order with a full knowledge of what has already been 
achieved.' Besides dealing with the various parts of the Dragon fly, the 
author refers to embryology, classification, distribution, the geological 
record, bionomics, and collecting and rearing. One chapter is devoted 
to British species. There is a Bibliography, a Glossary, map and plates. 

On Growth and Form, by D'Arcy Wentworth Thompson. Cambridge 
University Press, pp. xvi. + 793, 21/- net. The author tells us that 
this volume of over 800 closely printed pages is ' all preface ' from beginning 
to end. He has ' written it as an easy introduction to the study of organic 
form, by methods which are the common-places of physical science, 
which are by no means novel in their application to natural history, but 
which nevertheless naturalists are little accustomed to employ.' He shows 
that a certain mathematical aspect of morphology, to which as yet the 
morphologist gives little heed, is interwoven with his problems, comple- 
mentary to his descriptive task, and helpful, nay essential, to his proper 

Naturalist, 



News from the Magazines. 303 

study and comprehension of form. While he has endeavoured to show 
the naturalist how a few mathematical concepts and dynamical principles 
may help and guide him, he indicates to the mathematician a field for his 
labour, a field which few have entered and no man has explored. His 
chapters deal with Magnitude, Rate of Growth, Forms of Cells, Absorption, 
Forms of Tissues, Concretions, Spicules, the Logarithmic Spiral, Spiral 
Shells of the Foraminifera, Shapes of Horns, Teeth and Tusks, Leaf 
arrangement, shapes of eggs, etc. There are over 400 illustrations. 



NEWS FROM THE MAGAZINES, etc. 

Prof. Sharff gives a report on ' Advances in Irish Marine Zoology,' 
in The Irish Naturalist for July. 

Mr. J. Small writes on 'The Origin and Development of the Com- 
positac* ' in The New Phytologist for July. 

Mr. Cosmo Johns writes on ' Refractory Materials used in the Iron 
and Steel Industry ' in The Quarry for July. 

Dr. Winifred E. Brenchley has an interesting paper on ' Buried Weed 
Seeds ' in The Journal of the Board of Agriculture, Vol. XXIV., No. 3. 

The A nimal World for July contains a paper on ' How Animals protect 
their Young,' by Donald Payler ; and ' The Charm of Bats,' by L. Douglas. 

The Scottish Naturalist for July- August is entirely occupied by a 
' Report on Scottish Ornithology in 19 16, including Migration,' by Leonora 
Jeffrey Rintoul and Evelyn V. Baxter. 

The Hull Scientific and Field Naturalists' Club is apparently introduc- 
ing a certain liveliness into its meetings. According to a press report, 
they have just had ' I Night with Bees.' 

The Selborne Magazine for August contains Prof. R. A. Gregory's 
address to the Conference of Delegates of Corresponding Societies of the 
British Association, held in London in July. 

The Museums Journal for August is almost entirely occupied by the 
various discussions which took place at the annual business meeting at 
London on July 10th. In parts it is quite amusing. 

The Entomologist's Record for June contains ' Records of some New 
British Plant Galls. Ninety -nine New British Gall-mites (Eriophyidse).' 
By Mr. Richard Bagnall and Dr. J. W. H. Harrison. 

The Proceedings of the Liverpool Naturalists' Field Club for 1916, 
recently issued, contain a portrait and memoir of Lt.-Col. 1. W. Ellis, a 
prominent member of the Society, who died last year. There are also 
short notes on the Club's excursions, etc. 

Dr. J. W. H. Harrison describes ' New and Rare Homoptera in the 
Northern Counties,' and Mr. Richard South ' The Noctuida: of Great 
Britain as arranged in the General Collection at the Natural History 
Museum,' in The Entomologist for August. 

The Proceedings of the Geologists' Association, Vol. XX VIII., pt. 1, 
contain a paper on ' The Age of the Chief Intrusions of the Lake District,' 
by J. F. N. Green, also a report of an excursion to the Lower Carboniferous 
Rocks of Westmorland and North Lancashire. 

A writer in The Entomologist draws attention to the following gem 
from The Daily Telegraph : — ' The caterpillar plague in the Peak district 
has extended to Yorkshire and Westmorland, the pests evidently having 
travelled from the mountain tops in search of food.' 

1917 Sept. 1. 



304 News from the Magazines, etc. 

' What is Religion ? ' ; 'To the Bereaved ' ; ' Germans and the Mem- 
orial ' ; ' Happiness and Music ' ; ' What are Dreams,' and ' Our Age of 
Unrest' are the titles of articles in 'The Meaning of Life,' edited by 
Mr. Robinson, who has edited a series of magazines dealing with ' popular ' 
natural history. 

In The Entomologist's Monthly Magazine, No. 638, Mr. M. Cameron 
points out that a specimen found in Cumberland by Mr. Day, and des- 
cribed by Mr. Joy as Trogophlocus hemerinus, is really T. 'schneideri. 
In the same journal Mr. J. Murray records Ceuthorrhynchus alliarice 
Bris. in Cumberland. 

Among the contents of The Entomologist's Record for July and August, 
we notice ' The Genus Hesperia, ' by T. A. Chapman ; ' The Coloration 
Problem,' by W. P. Curtis ; ' Notes on the Coleophoridse, ' by H. J. Turner ; 
' Erebia zapateri, ' by T. A. Chapman, and ' The British Psychides, ' by 
C. R. N. Burrows. There are several plates. 

Among the contents of The Entomologist' s Magazine for August, we 
notice ' Excessive abundance of the larvae of Ckaraeas graminis in June, 
19 1 7,' by Mr. G. T. Porritt ; ' Remarks on the Biology of Charaeas gram- 
inis, by Dr. A. D. Imms, and a note on two Dragon-flies (Leucorrhinia 
dubia and Agrion pulchellum) new to Cumberland, by Mr. F. H. Day. 

Nature refers to the recent death of Dr. C. O. Trechmann, of Castle 
Eden, who was born at Hartlepool in 1851. Dr. Trechmann took a keen 
interest in mineralogy and crystallography, and had a fine collection of 
crystals, the best of which were bequeathed to the British Museum. A 
sulpharsenate of silver, trechmannite, which he discovered, was named 
after him. 

Wild Life for July is again delightful. A. B. Wingman writes 
' Concerning the Bittern ' ; F. D. Welch on ' Old Age Coloration in some 
Mammals ' ; C. W. Colthorp on ' Resting Attitudes of Moths, and some 
Notes on their Habits ' ; E. E. Pettitt ' Notes on the Common Gull in 
East Sutherland,' and Jasper Atkinson on 'The Greater Black-backed 
Gull.' There are also shorter notes, and the usual fine plates. 

British Birds for July, besides containing many notes on birds, contains 
another sheaf of Sussex records. A Red Breasted Flycatcher was shot at 
Rye in October, 19 16 ; a Dusky Warbler was shot in the same month at 
West St. Leonards, and is said to be the second British specimen ; an 
Orphean Warbler was shot in September, 19 16, at West St. Leonards, and 
is said to be the fifth recorded English specimen ; an American Golden 
Plover was shot at Rye in the same month. All, of course, were ' examined 
in the flesh ' at the time. 

Among the contents of The New Phytologist, Vol. XVI., Nos. 5 and 6, 
we notice ' The Syrphid visitors to certain flowers,' by E. and H. Drabble ; 
' The Physiology of Parasitism,' by W. Brown, ' Recent work on Trans- 
piration, ' by R. C. Knight ; ' The Discharge of Spores of Leptosphceria 
acuta,' by W. J. Hodgetts ; 'The Distribution of Sexes in Myrica gale,' 
by A. J. Davey and C. M. Gibson; ' Radical Leaves of Parnassl» pahistris 
and Valeriana dioica,' by H. S. Thompson; and a Memoir on ' Ruth 
Holden (1890-1917),' by A. C. Ssward. 

British Birds for August, contains ' Field Notes on the Nesting of the 
Hobby' by the late Capt. C. S. Meares ; ' The Moults and Sequence of 
Plumages of the British Waders,' by Miss A. C. Jackson. There are also 
a number of shorter notes, among which are the usual belated Sussex 
records. A male Bonoparte's Sandpiper was shot at Rye, in April, 1916. 
It was duly ' examined in the flesh ' at the time, and is now recorded. It 
is difficult to understand why all these rare Sussex specimens should 
almost invariably remain unrecorded over a year — unless — ? 



Twelve Illustrations, beautifully printed in colours and Mounted on Stout 
Boards, 24 x 19 inches, eyeletted and strung, including Descriptive Hand- 
book, in Leather Board Case 15/- net the set. 

BROWNS' 

ENEMIES OF the GARDEN 

Reproduced in the very best style of Lithography from special designs by 
H. W. BRUTZER, M.A., F.E.S. 

THE 12 ILLUSTRATIONS ARE AS FOLLOWS : 

1. OUTLINE OF INSECT LIFE.— Hymenoptera, Coleoptera, Lepi- 

doptera, details. 

2. LACKEY MOTH.— Egg, Caterpillar, Nest, Cocoons, Female Lackey 

Moth, Egg Cluster. 

3. SMALL ERMINE MOTH.— Eggs, Caterpillar, Cocoons, Ermine Moth, 

Nest in Apple Tree. 

4. GOOSEBERRY SAWFLY.— Egg, Larva, Larva (last stage), Leaf, 

Sawfly, Branch, Cocoon. 

5. ASPARAGUS BEETLE.— Eggs, Larva, Beetle, Pupa, Asparagus 

stripped of leaves, Cocoon. 

6. BLACK CURRANT MITE.— Mite, Big Bud on Branch, Section of 

Bud with Mites. 

7. RASPBERRY STEM BUD CATERPILLAR. Caterpillar, Chrysalis, 

Moth (enlarged), Raspberry Cane. 

8. MILLIPEDES and CENTIPEDES. -Three destructive Millipedes and 

two useful Centipedes. 
!). SCALE. — Currant Scale, Scale on Aralia and Myrtle Leaves and Mussel 
Scale. 

10. WIREWORMS.- Click Beetle and Skip Jack showing details. 

11. PEA THRIPS, COCKCHAFER, DADDY LONGLEGS, WOOD- 

LOUSE and EARWIG, showing sections and details. 

1 2. SOME USEFUL INSECTS.— Dragon Fly, Ichneumon Fly, Lady Bird, 

Tiger Beetle, Hover Fly, Glow Worm, Cocktail Beetle, Lacewing Fly. 

All the designs are printed on appropriately tinted backgrounds, devoid of 

any white border, thus enabling the various sections on the Charts to be 

seen with great clearness. 

We always have enemies within our garden-gates, and would-be 
gardeners are often reminded that the results of their labours may be 
brought to nought or greatly lessened by the work of destructive insects. 
There are o' ier insects, however, that are our Allies, as they live on the 
destructive pests and thus help to protect the vegetables and fruit. It 
is, therefore, most necessary to be able to distinguish between useful and 
destructive insects, hence the popularity of Browns' " Enemies of the 
Garden," as the charts show at a glance how to tell our enemies from our 
friends. A set of the illustrations should be exhibited in every rural 
school or village club, as the knowledge which they and their accompanying 
handbook convey is essential to successful gardening. The small ex- 
penditure on same will prove a truly profitable investment. 



London : A. BROWN & SONS, Ltd., Tj Farringddn Avenue, E.C. 4 . 
and at HtruL & York. 



WATKINS & DONCASTER 

NATURALISTS, 
36, STRAND, LONDON, W.C. 

(Five Doors from Charing Cross), 

Keep in stock every description of 

APPARATUS, CABINETS, BOOKS, AND SPECIMENS 

for Collectors of 

BIRDS' EGGS, BUTTERFLIES, MOTHS, ETC. 

Catalogue (96 pages) sent post free on application. 

YORKSHIRE'S 
Contribution to Science 

(Based upon the Presidential Address to the Yorkshire 
Naturalists' Union, delivered at the Leeds University) 

By THOMAS SHEPPARD 

M.Sc, F.G.S., F.R.G.S., F.S.A.(Scot.) 

240 pages Demy 8vo, illustrated, tastefully bound In Cloth 
Boards, with gilt top and gilt lettering on back and side, 

51' net. , 

" The object of this volume is to provide students of the Natural History of 
Yorkshire with a guide to all sources of information likely to be of service to 
them. Many workers in biological and geological science will be grateful to Mr. 
Sheppard for the particulars he has brought together about Yorkshire Periodical 
Publications dealing with natural history, Yorkshire Scientific Magazines now 
extinct, and Yorkshire topographical and general magazines." — Nature. 

GRISELDA. 

A POETICAL DRAMA, FOUNDED ON BOCCACCIO'S NOVEL AND CHAUCER'S POEM. 
By E. HAWORTH EARLK. 

64 pages, 7 in. by ."> in., artistically printed and strongly seivn in stout boards. 

Price is. net. 

"This is the classic story which a Hull man of real literary aspirations and 
attainments has turned into a play. Mr. E. Haworth Earle is to be congratulated 

alike on his choice of subject and his treatment of it 'tis no small credit to 

a man that he should pioduce, so effectively arranged and so smoothly written, a 
poetic-drama as 'Griselda.'" — Eastern Morning News. ' 



London : A. BROWN & SONS, Ltd., 5 Farringdon Avenue, E.C. 4. 
and at Hull & York. 

Printed at Browns' Savile Press, 40, George Street, Hull, and published by 
A. Brown & Sons, Limited, at 5 Farringdon Avenue, in the City of London. 

Sept. 1st, 1917. 



OCT. 1917. 



No. 729 

(No. 504 of current teriet) 




A MONTHLY 

NATURAL HISTORY 



ILLUSTRATED JOURNAL OF 

FOR THE NORTH OF ENGLAND. 



EDITED BY 

T. SHEPPARD, M.Sc, F.d.S., F.R.G.S., F.S.A.Scot.. 

The Museums, Hull; 

AND 

T. W. WOODHEAD, Ph.D., M.Sc, F.L.S., 

Technical College, Huddersfield. 
with the assistance as referees in special departments of 
J. OILBERT BAKER, P.R.S. P.L.S., OEO. T. PORRITl/ P.L.S.. F.E.S., 

Prof. P. P. KENDALL, M.Sc, P.O.S., JOHN W. TAYLOR, MiSfc.L 



RILEY FORTUNE. F.Z.S. 



Contents : — 



A: 



Jt£Jon»i ft4> 



Notes and Comments:— Brittsh Association's Report; Shells and Early Culture ; York- 
shire Philosophical Society; A Link with the Past ; The Marine Biological Association ; 
Rugby School Naturalists ; The Antler Moth Plague ; Caterpillars Migrating ; Science 
Progress ' 305-308 

A New Species of Lima from the English Chalk (illustrated)— T. Sheppard, M.Sc, 

F.G.S 309-311 

The Geographical Distribution of Moths of the Sub-Family Bistoninae— J. W. 

Heslop Harrison, D.Sc. ... 



312-320 
321-327 
328-329 
330-332 
332-32J 



The Mosses and Hepatics of Denbighshire — D.A.Jones 

Hedge Beadstraw among Stone Walls— F. A. Lees 

Notes on the Slugs and Land Shells of Iceland — Hans Schlesch 

Notes on Margaritaaa margaritlfera (Linne) — Hans Sehlesch 

Field Notes : — Thecosmilia sp. in the Millepore Oolite of South Cave ; Birds in Wharfedale ; 

Wilsden Lepidoptera ; Mammoth Teeth on the Yorkshire Coast 311,320,329 

Proceedings of Provincial Scientific Societies 334 

News from the Magazines 335 

Northern News 327, 336 

Illustrations 311 



LONDON : 

A. Brown & Sons, Limited, 5, Farringdon Avenue, E.C. 4. 

And at Hull and York. 

Printers and Publishers to the Y.N. U. 



Prepaid Subscription 6/6 per annum, post free. 



YORKSHIRE NATURALISTS' UNION. 



ANNUAL MEETING OF THE ENTOMOLOGICAL SECTION 



President: W. P. WINTER, Esq., B.Sc. 



Two meetings will be held in the Leeds Institute, Cookridge Street, on Saturday, Octobei 
jjth, 191 7. Afternoon meeting at 3-15 p.m., to consider and pass the Sectional reports 
for 1917 and to elect officers for 1918. 

Tea will be provided at the Institute at 5 p.m. At 6 p.m. a further meeting will b< 
held, at which several addresses on entomological topics will be contributed. 

Exhibits of all orders of insects are invited, and it is important that exhibitors shoulc 
attach their names to their exhibits and label specimens with names and data. 

The various Secretaries earnestly solicit notes and records made during the seasor 
on entomological subjects in the county. 

Members and Associates of the Union are cordially invited. 

Secretaries. — (Lepidoptera), T. Ashton Lofthouse, F.E.S., Middlesbrough, am 
I'.. Mprley, Skelmanthorpe ; (Hymenoptera, Hemiptera and Diptera), J. F. Mushani, F.E.S 
Selby ; (Neuroptera, Orthoptera and Trichoptera), Rosse Butterlield, F.E.S., Keighlej 
(Cok'optera), W. J. Fordham, M.K.C.S., F.E.S., Bubwith. 

B. MORLEV, 

(Sectional Secretary), 

Skelmanthorpe. 



BOTANICAL SECTION. 

Tins section will meet at the Leeds Institute, Cookridge Street, on Saturday, Octobe- 
6th, at =5-30 p.m., in Room B.3. 

Mr. E. C. Horrell will exhibit and speak about some Yorkshire Alien plants. 

Dr. H. H. Corbett, M.K.C.S., will give a short account of some work the Doncaste 
Naturalists are doing at Martin Beck Wood. 

Some further notes will be presented on the Moughton Scar peat (see Naturalist 
1 '.10, pp. 246, 383). 

An Exhibit will be made of interesting Mosses from Leeds City ( Naturalist, 1017, pp 
1 19-124). 

In view of the absence of excursions, members are particularly asked to bring o 

send reports of any botanical notes they may have made during this year, so that the} 

may be included in the annual report. 

T. F. Robinson, ) ,, - c 
i, . ,-, V Hon. Sees. 

C. A. Cheetham, j 



BOOKS FOR SALE. 

Highways and Byways in Derbyshire. Firth. 4/6 

Outdoor Common Birds. Stannard. 2/- 

Natural History of some Common Animals. Lattar, 3/6 

Derby: Its Rise and Progress. Davison. 3/6 

The Yorkshireman. By a Friend. Vol. I., Pontefract, 1833. 4/- 

Birds of Yorkshire. Nelson. Large Paper Edition. Offers ? 

Engineering Geology. Reis and Watson. 10/- 

Animal Romances. Renshaw. 4/- 

Natural History of Animals, 8 vols. 4/6 per -vol. 

Natural History of some Common Animals. Latter. 3/- 

Home Life of Osi'Rey. Abbott. 2/6 

Animal Life. Gamble. 4/- 

Published Records of Land and Fresh -Water Mollusca, East Riding, 

(Maps). T. Petch, B.Sc, B.A. 1/6 
Diatomaceje of Hull District. (600 illustrations). By F. W, Mills, F.R.M.S., 
, and R. H. Philip. 4/6 

Apply.— Dept. C, co A. BROWN & SONS, Ltd., Hull. 



•v 



JUN2 4^0 



NOTES AND COMMENT s^^SaaUSSSJ 

BRITISH ASSOCIATION'S REPORT. 

The Report of the Newcastle meeting of the British 
Association was issued in July, and, notwithstanding the 
present conditions, it contains over 800 pages, most of which 
are printed in the interests of the advancement of science. 
In The Naturalist for October last, reference was made to the 
presidential addresses, etc. : these appear in the present report 
in extenso. In addition to the reports of the papers read at 
the sections, there are valuable Reports on the state of science, 
the Report of the Conference of Delegates, etc. 

SHELLS AND EARLY CULTURE. 

Mr. J. W. Jackson of the Manchester Museum has produced 
a book on ' Shells as evidence of the Migrations of Early 
Culture,'* and in case recent events may confuse the nature 
of the ' shells," which seem to be associated with Culture in 
these days, let us hasten to add that Mr. Jackson refers to 
Mollusca. The nature of the work is well shown in Professor 
G. Elliot Smith's Preface, where it is stated that ' Mr. Jackson 
undertook the task of collecting the ethnographical evidence 
relating to the cultural use of shells and of determining the 
specific identity of the latter. The first fruits of the preliminary 
survey rivalled the products of ' Father O'Flynn's ' intellectual 
achievements : — 

' Down from mythology into thayology, 
Troth ! and conchology, if he'd the call." 

A SCIENTIFIC STUDY. 

' Mr. Jackson submitted a series of six reports upon his work 
to the Manchster Literary and Philosophical Society and these 
wire published in its Proceedings.' These are reprinted, with 
certain additions, in the present volume, and we certainly 
congratulate the author on the way in which he has handled 
his subject. The story as told is very fascinating, and his 
theme shows that much valuable scientific research can be 
accomplished by a trained worker, and that there is much in 
the study of mollusca besides the compilation of lists. The 
book is illustrated and there are distribution maps. 

YORKSHIRE PHILOSOPHICAL SOCIETY. 

The Annual Report of the Yorkshire Philosophical Society, 
York, for 1916, is principally occupied by the eleventh instal- 
ment of a ' Catalogue of the British Plants in the Society's 
Herbarium,' by H. J. Wilkinson, the last number being 1574. 
Details of localities, collectors, etc., are given. There is also 

* Manchester University Press. 216 pp. 7/6 net. 
1917 Oct.]. 



306 Notes and Comments. 

an Index to the genera mentioned in the whole of the Catalogue. 
Mr. C.Wakefield gives a ' Description of the Coins of ^Ethelraed 
II. and Cnut,' in the Society's Collection, in the same report. 
There is a flattering reference to the recently published 
Bibliography of Yorkshire Geology, which is stated to be 
' perhaps the greatest aid to the study of the natural features 
of the county since the publication of Prof. Phillips' . great 
Classics on the " Geology of Yorkshire." There is no other 
county which can boast of such a work.' 

A LINK WITH THE PAST. 

The report also contains the following note : — ' An interesting 
link with the past history of our Society was severed by the 
death of Miss Baines on the 22nd May, 1916. She was born 
in the Museum basement where her parents resided, and almost 
the whole of her long life of over 80 years was spent in the 
service of the Society. She well remembered Professor 
Phillips, the Rev. C. Wellbeloved and the Rev. J. Kendrick. 
Her father, Henry Baines, was Sub-Curator of the Museum 
from 1829 to 1878, and Miss Baines delighted to recount how 
in the early days of our Society a small menagerie was kept in 
the gardens, including a bear, a golden eagle, and several 
monkeys. The bear got loose and chased Professor Phillips 
and the Rev. Vernon Harcourt into an outhouse, and was 
afterwards sent by stage coach to the London Zoological 
Gardens in the charge of Henry Baines.' 

THE MARINE BIOLOGICAL ASSOCIATION. 

We have received The Journal of the Marine Biological 
Association* It includes the following papers : — ' The Micro- 
plankton of Plymouth Sound from the Region beyond the 
Breakwater,' and ' The Peridiniales of Plymouth Sound from 
the Region beyond the Breakwater,' and ' Some Parasites of 
Sagitta bipunctata,' all by Marie V. Lebour ; ' Post-Larval 
Teleosteans collected near Plymouth during the Summer of 
1914,' by E. J. Allen ; ' On the Amount of Phosphoric Acid 
in the Sea-water off Plymouth Sound,' by D. J. Matthews ; 
' The Development of Alcyonium digitatum, with some Notes 
on the early colony formation,' by Annie Matthews, as well as 
the Council's report, etc. The part is well edited, and there 
are several illustrations. 

RUGBY SCHOOL NATURALISTS. 

We have received the 50th Report of the Rugby School Natural 
History Society, which is a well-illustrated, well-printed, and 
well-edited publication of 128 pages. It includes the following 

* New Series, Vol. XI., No. 2. Pages]i33 to 272, 3/- net. 

Natura ist, 



Notes and Comments. 307 

papers : — ' The Fiftieth Birthday of N.H.S. : Notes on the 
Early History of N.H.S.' by Canon J. M. Wilson ; ' Remi- 
niscences of Charles Darwin,' and ' The Habits of Sesia 
bembeciformis,' by W. C. Marshall ; ' Some Metallic Carbon 
Compounds,' by C. V. Patrick ; ' Surface Tension,' by M. 
Bateson ; ' Aluminium,' by J. D. R. Murray; ' The Migration 
of British Birds,' by R. P. Greg; 'The Tawny Owl,' by C. C. 
Bevington, as well as summaries of proceedings, and twelve 
sectional reports. The illustrations include : — Francis Elliot 
Kitchener, Captain Frederick Courteney Selous, The Tawny 
Owl, Lesser Whitethroat's Nest, Lapwing's Nest, A Corner of 
the Horse Pond in Fawsley Park, Fawsley Church and Stokesay 
Castle. We congratulate this well-known society on its jubilee. 

THE ANTLER MOTH PLAGUE. 

The Journal of the Board of Agriculture for August contains 
two papers of a special interest, namely, ' Report on an In- 
festation of Larvae of the Antler Moth (Charceas graminis, L.) 
in the Peak District/ by A. C. Cole and A. D. Imms, and ' An 
Invasion of the Caterpillars of the Antler Moth into Yorkshire," 
by John Snell. From the latter we learn that ' the damage 
done by the pest appears to have been confined entirely to the 
mountain pastures land, and in no instance does it appear to 
have reached the meadow lands or the mowing grass. Early 
in May, one or two farmers in the Airton district had noticed 
that some of their pasture still maintained a ' brown, winter 
appearance,' and that the sheep were being ' starved,' but it 
was only about the 1st June that they actually observed the 
presence of the caterpillars. The pastures which were first 
attacked were those near the tops of the Fell. On one farm 
alone on Scotsthrop Moor over 100 acres of mountain pasture 
were damaged to such an extent that practically no stock will 
be able to be carried for the rest of the summer. In this 
district there is practically no arable land, but the farmers were 
greatly alarmed lest the plague should spread to the better 
pastures and the meadow land in the valleys and on the lower 
slopes of the hills. The caterpillars were most abundant by 
the walls and along the small watercourses which intersect 
the pastures. At first, it was thought that this was due to the 
fact that in these situations there was probably a larger pro- 
portion of the harder and smoother grasses, but subsequent 
investigation indicated that the walls and the small streams 
acted as barriers to their progress. In the small stone folds 
thousands of caterpillars accumulated in the corner of a field. 

CATERPILLARS MIGRATING. 

' When the district was visited on the 15th June, which was 
a bright .sunny day, a large proportion of the caterpillars 
appeared to be migrating rather than feeding. The extent to 

1917 Oct. 1. 



308 Notes and Comments. 

which they were present was indicated by the large numbers 
which were trapped in holes and cavities due to drains having 
fallen in. In a single hole there must have been many thous- 
ands of larvae. In the pools of one small stream there were larvae 
lying in masses from 6 to 9 in. deep. These were decaying 
and the stench was very noticeable. In fact, all the small 
streams intersecting the invaded pastures were covered with a 
green slime due to the decay of large numbers of caterpillars 
which had been drowned. Mr. Cousins, who visited the Howes 
district, states that caterpillars found their way into the wool 
of the sheep when they were lying down, and that consequently 
the sheep became very restless. The owner of the sheep stated 
that it had been necessary to move them to other pastures, 
but it seems probable that the sheep were restless owing to 
the lack of grass.' We are indebted to the Board of Agri- 
culture for permission to reproduce the illustration. 

SCIENCE PROGRESS. 

Science Progress for July contains a remarkably good 
summary of ' Recent Advances in Science,' under various head- 
ings, by specialists, and among the papers we notice one on 
the ' Eruption of Sakura-jima on January 12th, 1914,' by Dr. 
C. Davison ; ' The History of Tools,' by Prof. Flinders Petrie, 
and the inevitable contribution by Mr. J. Reid Moir, this 
time dealing with the ' Most Ancient ' Flint Implements. In 
his admirable and cleverly illustrated paper, Prof. Flinders 
Petrie points out ' the spread of forms throughout the ancient 
world illustrates the movements of trade and of warfare, 
while the isolation of various types at the same time shows 
how efficient and self-supporting the ancient civilisations were 
in most requirements. The history of tools has yet to be 
studied by a far more complete collection of material, above 
all of specimens dated back from scientific excavations. It 
will certainly be, in the future, an important aid in tracing the 
growth and decay of civilisations, the natural history of man.' 
Mr. Reid Moir calmly begins by informing us that ' if a typical 
example of these implements be examined, it will be recognised 
at once that the specimen owes its outline and form to a series 
of dexterous blows delivered by someone with a very definite 
idea of the kind of implement he wished to produce.' Most 
people would have guessed as much. We note that the author 
is now concerned solely with the form and flaking of the various 
specimens, and that, with the wisdom acquired by bitter ex- 
perience, he considers that the ' somewhat complex geological 
problems involved ' must be left to others for solution. We 
are getting a little hope for Mr. Reid Moir, inasmuch as he 
does not now claim infallibility, and no doubt as time goes on, 
he will deem it advisable to ' read more' and write less. 

Naturalist, 



309 

A NEW SPECIES OF LIMA FROM THE ENGLISH 

CHALK. 



T. SHEPPARD, M.Sc, F.G.S. 



Some time ago the Museum at Hull acquired the collection of 
Chalk fossils made by Mr. E. B. Lotherington, from his chalk- 
pit at Middleton-on-the-Wolds. This pit is situated at a 
height of 223 feet above sea-level at a point about equidistant 
from Beverley and Driffield, and a little to the west of those 
places. The quarry is ioo feet deep. 

The collection referred to consists of nearly a thousand 
specimens, remarkable on account of their excellent state of 
preservation and by the fact that they differ in general appear- 
ance from the fossils usually found in the Chalk of Yorkshire. 
There are, moreover, several species not recorded from the 
Chalk of any other part of the North of England. The Sponges, 
too, are unusual in appearance, inasmuch as in many cases they 
consist entirely of oxide of iron, but, notwithstanding, the 
most minute details of their structure are still preserved. 

The quarry is also well known as yielding the fine series of 
Inoceramus involutus Sowerby, notable in this locality on 
account of its abundance and unusually large size. The largest 
specimen we have has a height of 114 mm. in its upper or right 
valve, and a length of 216 mm., while the lower valve is still 
larger on account of its inflation; it is 300 mm. across, and 
554 mm. along the outside edge. Some of these Inocerami, as 
in the case of many of the Sponges, are preserved in a light- 
coloured, brittle flint, which in places resembles very hard 
white chalk in texture. 

In connexion with this quarry, one may mention also the 
large number and variety of well-preserved specimens found 
there, having regard to its limited area ; though this may be 
to some extent due to the assiduity with which the specimens 
have been collected. 

Among the specimens in our collection from the Middleton 
pit are Sponges (various species, including Stachyspongia 
spica* Roemer sp.), Inoceramus involutus Sowerby, /. cuvieri 
Sowerby, Spondylus latus Sowerby, Lima hoperi Mantell, 
Terebratula carnea Sowerby, T. semiglobosa Sowerby, 
Terebratulina striata Davidson, Actinocamax verus Miller, 
Micraster cor-angtcinum Leske, M. praecursor Rowe, Echino- 
corys scutatus Leske, Cidaris sceptrijera Mantell, C. hiritdo 
Sorignet, Epiaster gibbits, Parasmilia centralis Mantell, Poro- 

* Of this species, Dr. A. W. Rowe informed Mr. Lotherington that he 
had not previously seen it above the Chalk Marl, hundreds of feet lower 
than the Middleton example. 

1917 Oct. l. 



310 A New Species of Lima from the English Chalk. 

sphcera globularis Phillips, Ptychodus mammillaris Agassiz, 
Oxyrhina mantelli Agassiz, and fish Vertebrae.* 

In the collection is a Lima remarkable alike for its unusual 
shape and for its excellent state of preservation. It was found 
in association with fossils typical of the base of the cor-anguinum 
zone at a depth of about 70 feet from the ground-^vel. 

Fortunately, Mr. Henry Woods has published a monograph 
on the Cretaceous Lamellibranchia, and his researches in 
connexion with the Limidaef have considerably facilitated the 
work of ascertaining that the present species had not been 
previously described. 

Notwithstanding the extraordinary variations in form and 
ornamentation in the species of Chalk Limidae figured and 
described in this Monograph, the shape of the present specimen 
is even more unusual than in any chalk Lima hitherto known. 
The nearest related species is apparently Lima (Plagiostoma) 
hoperi Mant., shown in figures 8a and 8b on Plate IV., of the 
Monograph, from the zone of Actinocamax quadratus at East 
Harnham, the specimen being in Dr. Blackmore's collection. 

The specimens of L. hoperi figured are not from the same 
horizon as the Middleton quarry ; although we have a specimen 
(a single valve) of L. hoperi from Middleton, but it is much 
higher in comparison with its length than those figured by 
Mr. Woods. 

Lima (Plagiostoma) middletonensis n.sp. 

The new species, to which we propose to give the name of 
Lima {Plagiostoma) middletonensis, consists of two valves 
preserved in contact near the umbones with the anterior dorsal 
margins separated, and the ventral margins wide apart. The 
left valve is quite perfect and the right valve has part of the 
shell missing on the dorsal slope and towards the anterior 
end. The following description therefore is based on an 
examination of the left valve. 

Description : — Shell oval-oblong, nearly twice as long as 
high, convex, rounded ; unusually inequilateral. Anterior- 
dorsal margin very long, almost straight ; posterior-dorsal 
margin very short ; the remainder forming a fairly regular 
long-oval curve. Umbones pointed, close together. Apical 
angle 125 . Ears small, with growth lines ; posterior longer 
than high ; the left anterior ear broken, and the right not 
well shown, but evidently smaller than the posterior ears. 
Anterior area well developed and slightly concave, distinctly 

* In case any would-be collector is desirous of visiting the Middleton 
Quarry, it may be as well to state that the owner's permission is necessary 
before a visit can be made. 

f A Monograph of the Cretaceous Lamellibranchia of England. Mon. 
Pal. Soc, Vol. II., Part 1, 1904, pp. 1-56. 

Naturalist, 



A New Species of Lima from the English Chalk. 311 

limited, strongly marked with eighteen radiating grooves. 
The grooves are uniformly distinct throughout. 

Surface of shell with pronounced lines of growth forming 
fairly distinct peripheral grooves. Throughout the surface 
fine linear striae with pits occur, though these are more pro- 
nounced on the margins of the valves. The striae are slightly 
wavy, occasionally discontinuous, and are deeper near the 
posterior margin. The pits average four to the millimetre. 

Measurements : — Length, 50mm., height, 33 mm. 

Affinities : — This species appears to be very markedly 
distinct in shape from any other of the Cretaceous Limidae, 
and seems most nearly to resemble Lima hoperi, which has 




Lima (Plagiostoma) middletonensis n.sp. 

a wide range in the south of England, and is found in the 
same quarry as that from which the new species was obtained. 
L. middletonensis is distinguished at once from L. hoperi by its 
extreme anterior development and by its much more oval 
contour. 

Type : — In the Hull Municipal Museum. 

Distribution : — Base of the Micraster cor-anguinum zone, 
Middleton-on-the-Wolds, East Riding of Yorkshire. 



-: o 



Thecosmilia sp. in the Millepore Oolite of South Cave. 

— Some weathered slabs of Millepore Oolite recently obtained 
from the cutting west of South Cave railway station were 
covered by a large coral. Mr. Lang, of the British Museum, 
has kindly examined these and refers the species to Thecosmilia, 
though specific determination was difficult on account of the 
condition of the specimens. In any case, this seems to be an 
addition to the fauna of the Yorkshire Millepore bed. — 
T. Sheppard. 

3 917 Oct. 1. 



312 

THE GEOGRAPHICAL DISTRIBUTION OF THE 
MOTHS OF THE SUBFAMILY BISTONINAE. 



J. W. HESLOP HARRISON. D.Sc. 

XII.— THE GENUS PHIGALIA (DUPONCHEL). 

Phigalia pedaria (Fab.). Distribution : — Central Europe, 
the British Isles, Southern Scandinavia, Northern Italy, 
Russia, the Uralsk, Siberia and the Ussuri District. 

Phigalia sinuosaria (Leech). Japan. 

Phigalia titea (Cramer). Atlantic America as far north as 
Canada and as far south as Texas. 

Phigalia (?) verecundaria (Leech). The Japanese area. 

Phigalia, with all due respect to its apterous females, bears 
no close relationship to any of the genera of like peculiarities, 
the wanderings of which we have already followed. Those 
genera are of immediate evolution from the Megabiston Lycia 
line whilst the present, by the presence of the prominently 
spined harpe on the male genital valves, is thrown very closely 
indeed to the members of the closed section of the Amphid- 
asyds on the one hand, and to the true Boarmiince on the other. 
To certain species in the latter group, as illustrated by Arich- 
anna melanaria and A. hamiltoni, it comes near enough in 
the male genitalia as to indicate an alliance of immediate 
phylogenetic value. 

Without encroaching further on the subject matter of 
my essay on the phylogeny of the Bistonince, enough has been 
said to demonstrate that Phigalia arose at some point where 
the Amphidasyd Bistonines and the specialised Boarmiince 
rubbed shoulders with one another. Such contact occurs at 
many stations, but most of these may be dismissed from our 
calculations as representing stations reached by migrating forms 
spreading from the same centre under the action of the same 
compelling forces, and therefore hurried along the same path. 

But both groups in question attain their maximum develop- 
ment in Eastern Asia, as does also the genus Phigalia. The 
natural inference, therefore, is that in Phigalia we have a 
genus of Eastern origin ; and, allowing for its preference for 
temperate climates, its original home was Northern Asia. 

Where do we find its habitats of to-day ? We find them 
precisely in the positions upon which Amphidasys betularia 
and its various forms have a firm hold but with this difference, 
that the latter species, in its Palseotypical form, A. cognataria, 
without betraying the slightest divergence from type, exists 
in all the recognised abodes of Tertiary relict forms. The 
present genus, whilst undeniably existing in the same habitats, 
displays a noteworthy difference inasmuch as in each station 
it appears in the guise of a distinct species. Nor must it be 

Naturalist, 



Distribution of Moths of the Sub-family Bistonince. 313 

supposed that such species are what we have termed or have 
come to regard as " representative species ; the departure 
from type is too great for that. 

In our studies in the genus Amphidasys we concluded that 
it arose in time when the climatic conditions to the north 
and to the south, to the east and to the west, were so uniform 
as to cause animals and plants throughout that vast area to 
be specifically the same. From this we gather that Phigalia 
spread seemingly when these conditions were breaking down, 
and when climatic variations were able to work their will in 
the moulding of new species from plastic genera — and this 
conclusion demands in its turn that Phigalia colonised new 
ground in later times by far than Amphidasys, and times 
when inroads of the sea and various other contributory factors 
were adversely affecting the geographical and climatic con- 
ditions of the more northern regions. Such a period, never- 
theless, must have been one when free access existed for 
insects feeding on oak and trees of a similar type to America 
from North-western Eurasia. 

In other words the period must have been when the sub- 
polar temperate belt rejoiced in a sylva comprising not such 
trees as Magnolia, Sassafras, Liriodendron, but consisting of 
members of the genera Querciis, Ulmus, Fraxinus, etc., whence 
we decide that our genus was moving in early or middle 
Pliocene times — a period indicated independently by the 
demonstrably later evolution of Phigalia as compared with 
Amphidasys. 

Here we must direct our attention to the individual species 
of the genus which is so homogeneous that, at first sight, one 
can scarcely grasp, making due allowance for geographical 
and climatic agencies, differences tangible enough to aid us 
in fixing upon any one species as the earliest form. However, 
dissection of the male genitalia reveals that the vesica in 
Phigalia titea bears an enormous finger-like cornutus, not 
undeveloped in the others, for its positions can be discerned, 
but lost. The possession of this cornutus brings us once more 
toward the Boarmiince, and also very near the next genus 
Microbiston, a genus barely younger that Phigalia but actually 
so, as its excised genital valves and its enormous abdominal 
development of spines demonstrate. Since Phigalia has 
yielded Microbiston, whilst Phigalia both in Eurasia and 
America once possessed this exaggerated spine, it follows 
that Phigalia titea more nearly approaches the original form. 
Furthermore, this same conclusion would have been gained 
had we made a minute examination of such minor features 
as the greater or less elaboration of wing pattern, and the 
nearness of such patterns to those of the primitive Boarmia 
and Amphidasyd wing. 



314 Distribution of Moths of the Sub-family Bistonince. 

Thus once again, confirmatory evidence is gained that 
Phigalia is a genus originating in Asia for, necessarily, we have 
to fix its home somewhere in Siberia to allow for its contact 
with its immediate relatives Microbiston and Chondrosoma. 
Somewhere then in the old basins of the Obi and Yenesei, 
Phigalia took its rise, and thence worked its way east and west 
in northern latitudes, very early in its wanderings throwing 
off Microbiston or what, in those far off days, represented it. 

Almost equally early a form not far removed from Phigalia 
pedaria came into being and lagged behind ; but the prototype 
pressed on in its westward march reaching the American area 
before the inevitable southward flight of animals and plants 
began. When that event did occur, following the same route 
as Amphidasys cognataria and crowds of other insects in like 
plight, it took sanctuary in that refuge for trees and arboreal 
forms, the Atlantic and Gulf States of America. 

But the reign of the Ice King was not to last for ever ; 
century after century elapsed, but, in the end, genial conditions 
did for P. titea what they did for its companions. As in 
byegone ages, its northern home was in part reopened. Slowly 
the forests of deciduous trees readvanced and with them 
went the insect, regaining lost ground as far north as Canada 
just as did A. cognataria and L. ursaria. Unlike these, it has 
managed to retain some hold on its home of refuge for it 
yet inhabits Texas. No doubt this possibility is caused by 
its appearance early in the year and by its rapid feeding up, 
coupled with its powers of activating as a pupa. 

Its history thus, in all essentials, is parallel with that of 
other early forms we have already discussed. 

Next we must return to the form which we shall now know 
as P. pedaria. To the west and to the east it passed ; not, 
we must be careful to note, over Transcaspia and to the north 
and south of the Caspian Sea. Had the insect occurred so 
far south no passage was open in that direction; the Aralo- 
Caspian Sea still maintained its maximum area. On the 
contrary, its westward course (and its eastward one too) was 
to the north of the Eurasia of to-day. Therefore, when, in 
Northern Europe of late Pliocene times, subsidences occurred, 
followed by the fall in temperature indicating that the Glacial 
Period was at hand, P. pedaria fell back to the south, delaying 
its retreat by assuming a birch diet. Its final withdrawal had 
to come, and it accompanied the great host of later fugitives 
into Southern Europe until the Glacial night-mare was past. 
With the vanishing of the ice, it very early made a move, 
relying on its powers of adapting itself to new foods, and 
managed to reach and colonise the whole of Britain ere our 
islands were disjoined from the mother continent. 

But P. pedaria for its continuity had not to rely solely on 

Naturalist, 



Distribution of Moths of the Sub-family Bistonince. 315 

the European contingent. Quite the larger portion of its 
Pliocene habitats were north Asiatic, and these it enjoyed 
long after the European detachment had been driven back. 
Even in Siberia, however, the land in time became ice-bound, 
and it was only in maritime districts and sheltered nooks in 
non-glaciated mountains that survival was possible. There 
it persisted but, ere encroachment on lands where once the 
ice held sway was feasible, Japan was severed from the main- 
land and insular, as opposed to conditions almost continental, 
played their part. As a result of such determining factors 
added to geographical isolation, specific divergence occurred, 
and the Japanese race became P. sinulosaria. Not far away 
mutation was working too, and the slimmer P. (?) verecundaria 
appeared. 

Subject to no such novel conditions, but still influenced by 
its environment to some extent, the continental division 
diverged so very slightly that its divergence was of varietal 
value only, and has resulted in the Siberian local race extinc- 
taria. 

When a more temperate climate was once again the 
possession of Siberia, a gradual westward movement ensued, 
resulting in the occupation of all the other stations of the 
present day. 

XIII.— THE GENUS CONIODES (HULST). 

Coniodes plumigeraria (Hulst). Distribution : — British 
Columbia, California and Colorado. 

We often hear it propounded as a paradox that, whilst the 
Flora and Fauna of Atlantic North America seem to contain 
the same general elements as that of Pacific Asia and Japan, 
on the contrary the affinities of the Flora and Fauna of Pacific 
America are more or less with those of Europe. 

For practical purposes, the former statement may be 
regarded as strictly in accord with the facts, because both 
areas in question include within their limits the remains of a 
Fauna and Flora which was once universal in the Northern 
Hemisphere as was pointed out in discussing the genus Am- 
phidasys. Differences of detail, involving the presence of 
' representative ' species, occur, but these in themselves are 
insufficient to alter the facies of the life of the two regions. 

The latter portion of the paradox is only relatively true. 
As was mentioned in studying the Mid-Tertiary genus Am- 
phidasys, compared with Eastern North America, the area west 
of the Rockies is, geologically speaking, young. Naturally, 
therefore, the old Tertiary plants and animals, except those 
which could cross the plains or had fled down the mountains 
themselves were not able, except at isolated points, to reach 

1917 Oct. 1. 



316 Distribution of Moths of the Sub-family Bistonince. 

the Californian, British Columbian and intervening regions ; 
such beings, then possess but few representatives in the west. 

This, no doubt, is possible but that the dwellers there 
to-day, save these very few relict forms such as the Welling- 
tonias (Sequoice), form a complex of very recent aggregation 
indeed. In this, complex careful disentanglement reveals a 
structure composed of five elements : — 

(i) The not inconsiderable endemic group certainly, in 
the first place, evolved from intruders from the south. 

(2) Forms palpably of southern origin. 

(3) Forms just as decidedly from the north-west and there 
fore from Asia. 

(4) The very few eastern forms that have crossed the 
mountains. 

(5) The Tertiary relict forms probably of diverse origin. 
Of these five divisions only the third concerns us here. 

After Pacific America emerged from the sea, and prior to 
the Glacial Period, a gradual infiltration of Asiatic forms took 
place via the land now overwhelmed by the Behring Straits ; 
nor did the occurrence of the Glacial epoch in Europe interrupt 
this entirely, for the advent of the Ice Age was long postponed 
in Asia as well as in Western America. Clearly, all such 
migrating species would be of temperate proclivities. 

Concerning the fate of these intruders but little doubt can 
be felt but that the local glaciation experienced in the Cali- 
fornian area was not sufficient to exterminate them. More- 
over, there never has been a protracted (relatively) period 
without its uplift rendering the passage of these types possible, 
although it was interrupted at the climax of the Ice Age. 

Even if this survival cannot be conceded, one must admit 
that, throughout the Northern Hemisphere, the Glacial Period 
was succeeded by a climate so genial that the average annual 
temperature was far higher than that of our era. 

Preceding this and persisting through it, a slight uplift 
of the sea bottom brought about the reunion of America and 
Eastern Asia. Aided by the conjunction of a milder climate 
in northern latitudes with the reopened causeway, a flood of 
forms of all groups, 'ranging from buttercups to larches, and 
from butterflies to the Rocky Mountain Sheep (Ovis montana) 
migrated from Asia to America. Unless such forms were 
Arctic or montane, they found in the Rockies an insurmount- 
able barrier, and were forced to restrict their habitats to the 
tract between California and Alaska. As any such invasion, 
granting the maximum possible increment in average annual 
temperature, was only permissible for forms of temperate 
tendencies all such immigrant species are bound to be char- 
acteristic of temperate climates. If not contemporaneously 
then not far behind or before, Europe was re-opened for 

Naturalist, 



Distribution of Moths of the Sub-family Bistonince . 317 

settlers but, from its geographical limitations, its small exten- 
sion in a north and south direction, all it could receive was 
a quota of temperate forms from Asia and a small proportion 
of other forms (which, since they have now deserted us, need 
not be considered) reinforcing its Glacial survivors. The 
bulk, if not all, of species seeking to become naturalised 
Europeans could only come from Eastern Asia, and thus from 
the very area whence the new temperate element in Pacific 
America advanced. 

Wherefore, in a broad way, the dwellers in the two regions 
must coincide, although plainly they may, as indeed they do, 
differ in detail. 

Amongst such components of common origin, in the 
Lepidoptera are to be found, Callophrys rubi, replaced in far 
western America by C. dumetorum, Parnassius delius by P. 
sminthens, Papilio machaon by P. zolicaon, Saturnia pavonia 
by 5. mendocino and, lastly, the objects of our investigations, 
Coniodes plumigeraria, representing the development, already 
foreshadowed in P. (?) verecundaria, of the genus Phigalia. 
Our insect yields us then in Pacific America a metamorphosis 
of Phigalia, which, pressing on from Asia, crossed the Behring 
area and, kept within bounds by the Rockies, skirted the 
coast finally to organise all suitable ground from Alaska to 
Southern California. 

However, the Post-pleistocene promise of warmer days 
was not kept. Gradually, the annual isotherms favourable 
for the continuance of the insect in its northernmost abodes, 
slipped to the south ; with them passed the insect until it was 
pressed within its limits of to-day in British Columbia, Cali- 
fornia and Colorado — there to be an ever-present terror to 
the twentieth century walnut grower. To the genus Juglans 
it has transferred its attentions from Quercns, Ulmus, Salix 
and the like. 

Thus we see how it happens that Phigalia occurs in a 
typical form in the Appalachian subregion but is replaced, 
on the other side of America, by the allied genus Coniodes. 

XIV.— THE GENUS APOCHEIMA (HUBNER). 

Apocheima hispidaria (S.V.). Distribution : — Central Eur- 
ope, North and Central Italy, Northern Balkans, East-central 
Siberia. 

Apocheima cineraria (Ersch.). Eastern Turkestan, Bokhara 
and Samarkand. 

In Apocheima is to be recognised a branch from the main 
stem of which Microbiston is the modern representative. 
Indeed, allowing for the dwarfing of the latter genus, an 
almost inevitable result of its desert abodes, there is but little 

1917 Oct. 1. 



318 Distribution of Moths of the Sub-family Bistonince. 

to separate them ; what little there is lies in the loss in 
Apocheima, of the huge vesical cornutus peculiar to Microbiston 
and the primitive Phigalia, together with that unerring mark 
of progress in the Bistonines, the disappearance of the posterior 
middle spurs. So close are the two genera that the only 
opinion one can form is that Apocheima was evolved from 
Microbiston. This latter genus occupies a somewhat limited 
tract in West Central Asia, and seems never to have departed 
far from it. In consequence, in that very area Apocheima 
took its rise. But Microbiston originated from Phigalia. 
Therefore, in view of the apparent lack of enterprise displayed 
by Microbiston in colonising new ground, Phigalia too, must 
have, in its early days, gone forth from localities much the 
same. In both cases this allocation fits in exactly with the 
facts, for the tract in question is precisely half way between 
the disconnected habitats of Apocheima hispidaria, and 
likewise lies midway between the extreme outliers of Phigalia 
and its more modern derivatives. 

Phigalia, however, we have regarded as of Middle Pliocene 
origin ; Apocheima must necessarily be assigned to later days. 
Developing in the same lands, with the same preferences for 
an oak diet, and under conditions not dissimilar, both journeyed 
forth along the same paths. Making the most of its start, 
Phigalia wandered further afield, its outposts reaching Japan 
in the east and America in the west. Apocheima, on the other 
hand, seems to have stopped short in Europe. 

Obviously, this lack of coincidence in the areas occupied, 
primarily caused by the later development of Apocheima, was 
actually brought about by interruptions in the land-bridges, 
or rather by unfavourable climatic conditions on them when 
Apocheima was speeding on. 

Be that as it may, Apocheima hispidaria, the less highly 
specialised of the Apocheima forms, striking to the north-west, 
soon after its rise (direct western movement being as we 
know impossible), proceeded America- wards in some land of 
high northern latitudes where now rolls an Iceberg-strewn 
sea. Ere its goal was attained, that event, so often pictured 
before, swept the oak-belt southward and with it the insect. 
Not being of a very adaptable nature as regards food, no 
lasting substitute was adopted and the earliest stages of the 
Glacial Epoch saw it in full possession of the non-coniferous 
forests of Central Europe. Here its stay was but temporary. 
The piling up of the ice fields in the north was followed by the 
sweeping of the Alpine ice to the lowlands and the oak forests 
were obliterated, the trees surviving to perpetuate their race 
being hurried south in two divisions, one retreating through 
France and on to Spain and the other to the Balkan Peninsula. 

Clearly the retreat due south would afford more facilities 

Naturalist, 



Distribution of Moths of the Sub-family Bistonince. 319 

in the way of refuge for creatures of warmer preferences, whilst 
that to the south-east would carry with it beings more tolerant 
of colder climates. Thus the insects withdrawing to these 
refuges, would be, unavoidably, of different tendencies. 

But how does that affect our investigations ? In any 
consideration of the British range of insects depending on 
oak* for their pabulum, a remarkable set of facts asserts itself. 
Unless such insects have alternative foods, except in extremely 
few cases, they stop short in Yorkshire or to the south thereof ; 
but rarely indeed do they reach Ireland. Furthermore, they 
are found quite commonly in the oak forests of Spain. Link 
these facts with the further observation that forms peculiarly 
Central European, like Drymonia querna, attached to oak, 
are absent from Britain, and we must accept it as certain 
that the bulk of our British oak feeders regained this country 
from the south of France and from Spain. Since such forms 
are limited in range in Great Britain and Ireland, and ordinary 
Central European insects are widespread, if not universal, in 
our islands, advance due north for them must have been a 
much more serious undertaking than that to the west so 
successfully made by the general feeders. Despite this, the 
northward passage for oaks and their tenants has been easier 
than for oaks of eastern origin striking westward. And this 
was to be expected, for the matter depends upon soil. Most 
of the commoner plants issuing from the Balkans would find 
the recently glaciated lands not unsuitable, but it was not so 
with the oaks ; their march was invariably behind. On the 
contrary, in the other case, when once the Pyrennees were 
negotiated a free course to the north over unglaciated areas 
lay open to oaks and their satellites. Still, such a northern 
advance, depending as it did on the progressive amelioration 
of the climate, was necessarily slow and tedious, and that is 
the reason why species of this type so rarely penetrated far 
into Britain. Ere they could do so, Ireland was cut off and 
soon also England was separated from the Continent and, the 
impulse behind being lacking, a halt was called. 

This, therefore, has been the history of the British stock 
of hispidaria ; it has been a refugee in the Spanish Peninsula, 
and has emerged thence with the vanishing of the ice in North 
and Central Europe. 

Similarly, the other part seeking shelter in the Balkan 
haven, issued forth and accompanied the oaks. This, as we 
pointed out, was precisely the procedure of Poecilopsis potn- 
onaria. In consequence, the ground held by this contingent 



* In Epping Forest the larva: of A. hispidaria feed largely on hawthorn 
as well as on oak ; and it has, of course, long been known that they would 
eat hawthorn in confinement. — G.T.P. 



1917 Oct. 1. 



320 Distribution of Moths of the Su h -family Bistonince. 

of Apocheima hispidaria coincides with the habitats of P. 
pomonaria. This, and the subsequent fusion of the two 
bands, completes the history of Apocheima in Europe. 

Northern Europe was not, however, the sole terrain colon- 
ised by Pliocene A. hispidaria. It had occupied the whole of 
the oak districts of Northern Asia and, when glacial conditions 
at length made their presence felt there, retreat was a necessity 
for safety and the insect fell back. The fate of the European 
stock was repeated and the Siberian host was split in two, 
one section passing south-west into drier and therefore non- 
glaciated areas of Eastern Turkestan, and the other into 
sheltered nooks in the river valleys of Eastern Siberia. In 
the latter region, the insect encountered a climate not unlike 
what it had been accustomed to and little, if any, divergence 
occurred physiologically or otherwise. In Siberia, the dis- 
appearance of Glacial conditions has not been so marked as 
in Europe and thus the old forest belts are monopolised by 
league after league of coniferous trees ; as a result, only a 
little ground has been re-colonised by Siberian A. hispidaria. 

To conclude, let us return to that other portion which 
wintered in Eastern Turkestan. Climatically, the conditions 
were vastly different from what it had enjoyed before and, 
moreover, they kept deteriorating. In place of the rainfalls 
of temperate lands, it had to endure scorching dry summers 
and chilly winters. Size reduction took place and, as a defence 
from the heat, the body vestiture altered ; there was a tough- 
ening of the abdominal chitin to lessen the chance of desicca- 
tion and, simultaneously, the body armature increased. Thus 
the species Apocheima cineraria was evolved and spread into 
regions of like environment. 

From this it will be seen that, in Apocheima, we have a 
case of the origin of species through geographical isolation 
and other climatic conditions. 



BIRDS. 

Birds in Wharfedale. — I was at Gillbeck, Barden, Wharfe- 
dale, in June last when a Hawfinch alighted in an oak tree at 
a short distance from where I was standing. I was told that 
the Woodcock had again nested in Wharfedale. The Chiffchaff 
which bred last year within a few miles from here has probably 
nested again this year. At least, I am informed by Mr. 
Longbottom of Bingley that a pair has been about the same 
place during the whole of the breeding season. The Chiffchaff 
breeds very sparingly in North-west Yorkshire. — E. P. 

BUTTERFIELD. 

Naturalist, 



321 

THE MOSSES & HEPATICS OF DENBIGHSHIRE. 



D. A. JONES. 



[Continued from page 2Q2). 

Trichostomum crispulum Bruch, i, 7 ; Wrexham, Berwig. 
Var. datum Schp., 7. Var. *nigro-vivide Braithw., 7 (near 
it) ; Minera, World's End. The form of this variety that 
grows on the limestone rocks and blocks in the last two 
localities differ in size from the original gathering from 
Ingleboro', Yorkshire. The stems that make up the small, 
neat tufts, are short, and the leaves very small, concave 
and sub-tubular. This is the third record for the British 
Isles. Var. *brevifolium B. and S. ; another very rare 
variety which was found in compact tufts on damp shelves 
in a limestone quarry at Berwig. 
T. mutabile Bruch, i, 3, 7 ; Berwig, Nant y Ffrith. Var. 
littorale Dixon, 1, 2, 3 ; Minera, Nant y Ffrith, World's 
End. Var. *cophocarpnm Schp. ; Minera, World's End. 
*T. flavovirens Bruch, 1. 
*T. nitidum Schp., 1. 
T. tortuosum Dixon, 1, 3 ; Wrexham, Minera, World's End. 
Cinclidotus fontinaloides P. Beauv., 2, 3, 4, 7 ; Llangollen, c.fr. 
Gresford, Nant y Belan. 
*Encalypta rhabdocarpa Schwaeg. ; World' ^ End (Ingham and 
Jones), Berwig. First detected by Mr. Ingham in the 
former locality. With the exception of Carnavonshire and 
Yorkshire, the records for this moss in the British Isles 
have hitherto been confined to Scotland. 
E. streptocarpa Hedw., 1, 5, 7 ; Wrexham, Berwig, etc. 
Zygodon Mougeotii B. and S., 1, 5 ; Minera. 
Z. viridissimus R. Brown, 1, 7. Var. *rupestris Hartm., 1, 7. 
Ulota Bruchii Horns ch., 1 ; Nant y Ffrith. 
U. crispa Brid. ; Nant y Ffrith. Var. intermedia Braithw., 1. 
Orthotrichum anomalum var. saxatile Milde, 1, 3 ; Berwig 
Nant y Ffrith, World's End. 
*0. cupulatum Hoffm., 1, 3 ; Minera. Var. "nudum Braithw., 
7 ; Nant y Ffrith, Minera. 
0. leiocarpum B. and S., 1. 
0. Lyellii Hook and Tayl., 1, 4. 
0. affine Schrad., 1, 4. 

0. rivulare Turn. ; Nant y Belan, Llangollen. Roots of trees 
on the banks of the River Dee at both places. 
*0. stramineum Hornsch., 1, 4. 
O. tenellum Bruch, 7. 
0. diaphanum Schrad., 1, 7. 
*Splachnum ampiillaceum L., 1. 
* Ephemerum serratum Hampe ; Glasgoed. 

1917 Oct. I.J 

X 



322 The Mosses and Hepatics of Denbighshire. 

* Physcomitrella patens B. and S. ; Gresford. 
* Physcomitrium pyriforme Brid. ; Gresford. 

Funaria jascicularis Schp, ; Brynteg. 
*F. Templetoni Sm., i. 
*F. calcarea Wahl., i ; Minera. 

F. hygrometrica Sibth., I ; generally distributed in the 
Wrexham district. 

Aulacomnium palustre Schwaeg., i, 8 ; Minera, Cyrn y brain. 

A. androgynum Schwaeg. ; Brynteg. 
* Bartramia ithyphylla Brid., 2, 5. 

B. pomiformis Hedw., 1, 4, 5, 8, 9 ; Minera, World's End, 
Cyrn y brain. Var. *crispa B. and S. ; Minera. 

Philonotis fontana Brid., 1, 8 ; Berwig, Minera, Nant y 

Ffrith. 
P. calcarea Schp., 3, 7 ; Eglwyseg Rocks. 
Breiitelia arcuata Schp., 1, 5, 7, 8 ; Nant y Ffrith. 
* Leptobryum pyriforme Wils. ; Nant y Ffrith. 
Webera nutans Hedw., 1, 2, 5, 7 ; Bwlchgwyn, Minera, 

Cyrn y Brain. Var. Hongiseta B. and S., 7. 
*W. annotina Schwaeg ; Nant y Ffrith. Var. *proligera 

Bryhn, 8 ; Nant y Ffrith, Minera, Bwlchgwyn. 
W. carnea Schp., 1, 2, 5, 6, 7, 8 ; Glasgoed, Nant y Ffrith. 
W. albicans Schp., 1, 3, 5, 8 ; Nant y Ffrith, World's End, 

Minera. 
Bryum inclinatum Bland., 1, 2, 4, 5, 7 ; Minera. 
B. pallens Sw., 3, 4, 7 ; Berwig, Minera, Nant y Ffrith. 
B. pseudo-triquetrum Schwaeg., 3, 4, 7, 8 ; Wrexham, Nant y 

Ffrith, Bwlchgwyn, Cyrn y brain. 
*B. intermedium Brid. ; Berwig. 
B. capillar e L. ; general. Var. *elegans Braithw., 2 ; Minera, 

World's End (Duncan and Jones). In very small tufts 

on limestone rocks. 
*B. obconicum Hornsch., 1, 6. 
B. atropurpureum Web. and Mohr, 3, 4, 6 ; Wrexham, 

Minera. Var. *gracilentum Tayl., 4 ; Minera. 
B. murale Wils., 1, 6 ; Wrexham, Berwig. 
B. alpinum Huds., 1 ; Minera. Var. *viride Husn., 1. 
B. argenteum L. ; generally distributed. Var. Hanatum 

B. and S. ; Minera, Wrexham. 
Mnium cuspidatum Hedw., 7. 
M. rostratum Schrad., 1. 

M. undulatum L., 1, 2, 5, 7 ; Wrexham, Minera, World's End. 
M. hornum L. ; abundant. 
*M. serratum Schrad., 7 ; Minera. 
*M. stellare Reich. ; Gresford, Berwig. 
M. punctatum L. ; frequent. 
Fontinalis antipyretica L. ; Gresford, Wrexham. 
F. squamosa L. ; at Llangollen, in River Dee. 

Naturalist, 



The Mosses and Hepatics of Denbighshire. 323 

Neckera crispa Hedw., 1, 3, 7 ; Berwig, Nant y Ffrith, Minera. 

Va.r.*falcata Boul., I, 3, 7 ; World's End. 
N. complanata Hiibn., 1, 3, 7 ; Gresford, Minera. 
Leucodon sciuroides Schwaeg., 3, 4, 7 ; Eglwyseg Rocks, 

Llandegla, on trees (Wilson, Duncan and Jones). 
Pterygophyllum lucens Brid. ; Minera. 
Porotrichum alopecnrum Mitt., 1,2,7; River Dee at Llangollen, 

Nant y Ffrith. 
*Leskea polycarpa Ehrh. ; Gresford. 
Anomodon viticulosus Hook, and Tayl., 7 ; Eglwyseg Rocks, 

Wrexham. 
Heterocladium heteropterum B. and S. ; Minera. 
Thuidium tamariscinum B. and S. ; not uncommon. 
*T. delicatulum Mitt., 1, 7 ; probably the moss found in the 

part of the district marked 7 is T. Philiberti. 
*T. Philiberti Limpr. ; Berwig, Minera. 
Climacium dendroides Web. and Mohr, 1 ; Minera. 

* Cylindrothecium concinnnm Schp. ; Minera (Knight and Jones). 

* Orthothecium intricatum B. and S ; Minera. 
Camptothecium sericeum Kindb. ; frequent and generally 

distributed throughout the district. 
C. hitescens B. and S., 1, 7 ; Wrexham, Berwig. . 
Brachythecium albicans B. and S., 1, 3. 
B. rutabulum, B. and S. ; frequent. Var. *plumosulnm Bry. 

Eur., 5. 
B. rivulare B. and S., 5 ; Nant y Ffrith, Minera. 
B. velutinum B. and S., 1, 2, 4 ; Nant y Ffrith. 
B. popaleum B. and S., 1, 5 ; Wrexham, Cyrn y Brain. 
B. plumosum B. and S., 1, 2 ; Glasgoed, Nant y Ffrith, 

Minera. 
B. purum Dixon, 1, 5, 7 ; not uncommon in the remaining 

parts of the district. 
Eurhynchium crassinervium B. and S., 2, 3, 7 ; Minera. 
E. prcelongum Hobk., 1, 2 ; Nant y Ffrith, Minera, Cyrn y 

Brain. Var. *Stokesii Brid., 1, 8. 
E. Swartzii Hobk., 1, 2, 4, 7 ; Gresford. 
*E. piimilum Schp., I, 2. 
*E. Teesdalei Schp. ; Gresford, Nant y Ffrith, World's End. 

The fertile plant grows freely on boulders and rocks in 

the stream that flows from World's End. 
E. tenellum Milde, 1 ; Gresford, Nant y Ffrith. 
E. myosuroides Schp., 1 ; Minera, on rocks. This common 

moss is found in great abundance on trees in the counties 

of Merioneth and Carnarvon. Its extreme rarity in this 

part of Denbighshire is no doubt due to the injurious 

effects of smoke. Var. *rivulare Holt, 2, 4. 
E. myarum Dixon, 1, 4, 5 ; Minera. 
E. striatum B. and S., 1, 3, 5, 8 ; Wrexham. 

1917 Oct. 1. 



324 The Mosses and Hepatics of Denbighshire. 

Eurhynchium rusciforme Milde ; generally distributed. 

E. murale Milde ; Berwig, Minera. 

E. confertum Milde, 1, 2, 4 ; Wrexham, Cyrn y brain, 

Ruabon, Nant y Belan, Minera, World's End. 
*Plagiothecium depressum Dixon ; Glasgoed. 
P. elegans Sull., 1 ; Minera. 
P. denticulatum B. and S., 1, 5, 8 ; Nant y Ffrith, Wrexham, 

Minera. 
P. silvaticum B. and S., 1, 4 ; Minera, Nant y Ffrith. 
P. undulatum B. and S., 1 ; Minera. 
Amblystegium serpens B. and S., 1, 2, 4, 8 ; Wrexham, rather 

common. 
*A. Juratzkanum Schp. ; Gresford. 
*A. Kochii B. and S., 3 ; a rare plant for Wales, previously 

only recorded from Merionethshire. It has since been 

found in Pembrokeshire. 
A. fluviatile B. and S., 4. 
A. filicinum De Not., 1, 3, 4, 7 ; Wrexham, Nant y Belan, 

Minera, World's End, Nant y Ffrith. Var. Hrichodes 

Brid. ; Nant y Ffrith (Duncan and Jones)— first detected 

by J. B. Duncan. 

* Hypnum polygamum Schp., 1. 

*H. stellatum Schreb. ; Wrexham, Berwig. Var. *protensum 

Rohl, 1, 7. 
*H. chrysophyllum Brid., 1 ; Wrexham, Minera. 
H. uncinatum Hedw., 3, 7 ; Nant y Ffrith, Minera. 

* H. revolvens Swartz ; Minera. 

H. commutatum Hedw., 3, 7 ; Eglwyseg Rocks, Gresford, 
Minera. 
*H. falcatum Brid., 2, 7 ; Eglwyseg Rocks. 
H. cupressiforme L. ; generally distributed. Var. resu- 
pinatum Schp., 1, 2, 3 ; Minera. Var. filiforme Brid., 1, 2. 
Var. ericetorum B. and S., 4, 7 ; Bwlchgwyn, Cyrn y brain. 
Var. tectorum Brid., I, 4, 5 ; Wrexham, Ruabon, Minera, 
World's End. *Var. elatum B. and S., 3. 
*H. Patientice Lindb., 1, 4, 8. 
H. molluscum Hedw., 1, 3 ; Wrexham, Minera, World's End, 

Nant y Belan. 
H. palustre Huds., 2, 3, 7, 8 ; Gresford, Glasgoed, Brymbo. 
*H. scorpioides L., 3, 7. 
*H. stramineum Dicks., 1. 

*H. cordifolium Hedw. ; Nant y Ffrith (Duncan, Watson and 
Jones). 
H. cttspidatum L. ; common. Var. *pungens Schp. ; World's 

End (Ingham and Jones). 
H. Schreberi Willd. ; frequent. 
Hylocomium splendens B. and S. ; not uncommon. 
H. lor earn B. and S. ; Minera. 

Naturalis t 



The Mosses and Hepatics of Denbighshire. 325 

Hypnum squarrosum B. and S. ; abundant. 
H. triquetrum B. and S. ; frequent. 

HEPATICS. 

*Riccia crystallina L. ; Gresford. 

* Ricciocarpus nutans (L.) Corda ; pond near Rossett, legit 

Dr. Thomas, of Chester. New to Wales. Specimens of 
this interesting hepatic were exhibited at a meeting of 
the Liverpool Botanical Society in July, 1917, by the 
finder. The President, Mr. W. G. Travis, kindly sent me 
a few fronds for examination. 
*Reboulia hemisphcerica (L.) Raddi. ; Minera, Nant y Ffrith. 

* Conocephalum conicum (L.) Dum. ; Gresford, Glasgoed, 

Minera. 

* Lunnlaria cruciata (L.) Dum. ; Glasgoed, Gresford, Brynteg. 
*Preissia quadrata Scop. ; World's End. 

*Marchantia polymorpha L. ; c.fr., Nant y Ffrith (Watson, 

Duncan and Jones). 
Anenra pinguis. (L.) Dum. ; Berwig, Minera, Nant y Ffrith, 

World's End, Eglwyseg Rocks. 
*A. multifida (L.) Dum. ; Eglwyseg Rocks. 
A. major (Lindb.) K. Mull. ; Nant y Frith. 
Metzgeria jurcata (L.) Lindb. ; Nant y Ffrith, World's End, 
Minera. 
*M. pubescens (Schrank) Raddi ; Nant y Ffrith, Minera 

(Duncan, Watson and Jones), World's End. 
*Moerckia Flotowiana (Nees) Schiffn. This rare and interesting 
hepatic is not uncommon on the sandhills of North Wales. 
It grows on calcareous soil at Berwig and Minera. In 
August 1907, I gathered it at Burbage, in Derbyshire, in 
a similar habitat to the latter. 
Pellia epiphylla (L.) Corda ; well distributed in the district. 
*P. Fabbroniana Raddi ; Minera, Nant y Ffrith, Eglwyseg, 
World's End, Gresford. Var. Horea Nees ; Nant y Ffrith, 
World's End— in extensive sheets in the latter locality. 
*Blasia pusilla L. ; Minera, Nant y Ffrith. 
Marsupella emarginata (Ehrh.) Dum., 10 ; Minera. 
Alicularia scalaris (Schrad.) Corda, 10 ; Minera, Berwig, 

Nant y Ffrith, Eglwyseg Rocks. 
*Ettcalyx hyalinus (Lyell) Breidl., 10. 
Haplozia crenulata (Sm.) Dum., 10 ; Minera. Var. *gracillima 

(Sm.) Heeg ; Minera. 
H. cordifolia (Hook.) Dum., 10. 

H. riparia (Tayl.) Dum., 10 ; Nant y Ffrith, World's 
End. Var. *rivularis Bern. ; World's End (Ingham and 
Jones). 
Gymnocolea inflata (Huds.) Dum. ; common on Minera 
Mountain. 

1917 Oct. 1. 



326 The Mosses and Hepatics of Denbighshire. 

*Lophozia turbinata (Raddi) Steph. ; Glasgoed, Gresford. 
L. ventricosa (Dicks.) Dum., 10 ; Minera, World's End, 

Nant y Ffrith. 
L. bicrenata (Schmid.) Dum., 10 ; Minera, embankment near 
Moss and Pentre Railway Station. 

*L. excisa (Dicks.) Dum ; embankment near Moss and Pentre 
Railway Station. 

*L. incisa (Schrad.) Dum., 10. 

*L. quinquedentata (Huds.) Cogn. ; Minera. 
L. Floerkii (Web. and Mohr) Schiffn. ; Nant y Ffrith, 
moorland, Minera. Var.* Nanmanniana Rees ; moorland, 
Minera (Duncan and Watson). This variety grows in 
great quantities under the heather. Gemmae in yellowish 
clusters were found in the type on the leaf-lobes at the 
apex of the stem. Unfortunately, they were too young 
to be figured and described. Hitherto they have never 
been seen to occur on this plant. According to a note in 
Macvicar's Handbook to British Hepatics, the descriptions 
of gemmae had to be transferred to the allied species, 
L. Hatcheri. 

*L. attenuata (Mart.) Dum. ; banks of Sychnant River, Minera. 
Plagiochila asplenioides (L.) Dum. ; Nant y Ffrith, Gresford, 
Minera, Eglwyseg Rocks, World's End. Var. *minor 
Lindenb. ; Minera, Nant y Ffrith. Var. *humilis Lindenb. 
Nant y Ffrith. Var. major Nees, 10 ; Nant y Ffrith, 
Minera. 
Lophocolea bidentata (L.) Dum., 10 ; Glasgoed, Minera, 
Eglwyseg Rocks. 

*L. heterophylla (Schrad.) Dum. ; Glasgoed, Nant y Ffrith, 
Gresford. 
Chiloscyphus polyanthus (L.) Corda ; Llangollen, Nant y Ffrith, 
Minera, Gresford. 

*C. pallescens (Schrad.) Nees ; Nant y Ffrith. 
Cephalozia bicuspidata (L.) Dum. ; generally distributed. 

*C. media Lindb. ; Nant y Ffrith. 
Cepholoziella byssacea (Roth.) Warnst., 10 ; Minera, Nant y 
Ffrith. Var. *asperi folia (Jens.) Mac v. ; banks of 
Sychnant River, Minera. A very rare and distinct variety 
with large conical papillae on the leaves. 

*C. bifida (Schreb.) Schiffn. ; banks of Sychnant River, Minera. 

*C. stellulifera (Tayl., MS.) Schiffn. ; caves, Nant y Ffrith — 
the only other Welsh record is from Pembrokeshire 
(V.C.45). 

*C. myriantha (Lindb.) Schiffn., 10. This rare hepatic was 
gathered by Prof. Barker on a moorland between Llan- 
gollen and Glynceiriog. It is the first record for the 
Principality. Since then, the writer has found it among 
heather on the Flintshire side of Nant y Ffrith. 

Naturalist. 



The Mosses and Hepatics of Denbighshire. 327 

*Ccpholoziella Limprichtii Warnst. ; Nant y Ffrith (J. C. 
Wilson). It occurs in five other vice-comital areas — four 
in England and one in Scotland. Barren and non-typical 
plants have a remarkable resemblance to C. ceraria and 
were at first doubtfully recorded as belonging to that 
species. Fertile plants were found by Mr. Wilson and 
the paroicous inflorescence excludes the rarer species. 
C alypogeia trichomanis (L.) Corda ; Nant y Ffrith, Minera, 
World's End. 
*C. fissa (L.) Raddi ; Brymbo, Glasgoed, Nant y Ffrith. 
*C. arguta Nees and Mont. ; Nant y Ffrith. 

Lepidozia reptans (L.) Dum. ; Nant y Ffrith, Minera. 
*L. setacea (Web.) Mitt ; Nant y Ffrith. 
Ptilidinm ciliare (L.) Hampe, 10 ; World's End. 
Diplophyllum albicans (L.) Dum. ; common. 
Scapania compacta (Roth.) Dum. ; Minera. 
5. aspera Bernet ; Abergele (Pearson), Coedpoeth, Berwig, 
World's End. 
*S. nemorosa (L.) Dum. ; Minera, Nant y Ffrith. 
*S. dentata Dum. ; Nant y Ffrith, Minera. 
S. undulata (L.) Dum. ; Minera, Nant y Ffrith. 
5. ivrigna (Nees) Dum. ; Minera. 
*Madotheca thu]a (Dicks.) Dum. ; Eglwyseg Rocks. 
M. platyphylla (L.) Dum., 10 ; Nant y Ffrith, Minera, 
Eglwyseg Rocks. 
*M. rivularis Nees ; a rare species growing on boulders in the 

stream that flows through Nant y Ffrith. 
*Cololejeunea calcarea (Lib.) Schiffn. ; in fair quantity on the 
rocks at World's End. 
FrnUania tamarisci (L.) Dum, and F. dilatata (L.) Dum., 10 ; 
Nant y Ffrith. 



The Forty-sixth A initial Report of the Chester Society of Natural Science, 
Literature and Art is ' considerably condensed in order to economise 
paper as desired by the paper commissioners appointed by the Board of 
Trade.' The report deplores the death of Thomas Shepheard, who was 
one of the original founders of the Society, and of Prof. McKenny Hughes, 
who was President for 16 years. There is a lengthy list of members 
who have ' given their services to their King and Country for the period 
of the war,' though, unfortunately, some of them have apparently done so 
for a much longer period. 

We quote the following from the Yorkshire Post of August 28th, 
without comment : — ' The death occurred suddenly at his residence, 
Eyebury, Peterborough, on Saturday, of Major A. N. Leeds, a well-known 
geologist and agriculturalist, at the age of 70. Major Leeds, who was 
an old Volunteer officer of the Northamptonshire Regiment, was a great 
authority and practical manipulator of the Saurian remains in the Oxford 
clays of the Peterborough district. A mammoth discovered some years 
ago in the Fletton Brickyards, near Peterborough, was set up by him, 
and is now in the South Kensington Museum. It was named in his honour 
Plesiosaurus Leedsi. 

1917 Oct. 1. 



328 

HEDGE BEADSTRAW AMONG STONE WALLS. 



F. A. LEES. 



On the mountain limestone of Craven and the Oolites of 
North Yorkshire, this aggregate (perhaps not quite fixed) 
species, at elevations where the typical road-hedge Mollugo is 
running out, and Galium montanum (austriacum) beginning 
to appear, the close observer of variation constantly finds 
growths (in not-normal sites) which strike him as ' different,' 
either in leaf contour, or stature, with quite indeterminate 
characters of inflorescence as regards size of seed or pedicellar 
dichotomy. Such an example Mr. Pickard found recently on 
the Stockdale road above Settle, at circa 800 feet. Naturally, 
one tries to find such a noticeable growth with a name, formal 
or varietal, but, alas ! careful examination and reference to 
Dr. F. N. Williams' Prodromus Flora Britannicce (Pt. 5, p. 216, 
1909) emphasises what I have just said — he has been through 
the mill — that at the zonal limit lines where a plant is just 
'running out,' at the end of its endurance, all sorts of vegetative 
variations, telling of inexpressible stresses of local ' climate ' 
will be in evidence (not perhaps beyond a season or two). 
Mr. Pickard's gathering cannot be called typical datum Thuill, 
and in oval-obovate membranous leaflet-of-whorl, it only 
resembles that ' umbrosum ' (shade growing ?) form — not even 
' var ' of Williams, to which he refers G. insubricum of Gaudin, 
and Syme. 

In the note on stational distribution, Dr. Williams notes 
that, normally an ubiquit on the Permian marl-lime tract, it 
grows up to 270 metres in Westmorland, and adds, further, 
that it will hybridise with Galium verum (often growing on the 
same lynch of wayside bank or undercliff, and that a Symean 
variety ' Bakeri ' judging from Yorkshire specimens has ' no 
characters' by which to separate it from datum Thuill. ! Here 
in west-York Craven, we have an exactly similar abnormal 
growth facially varying, as two brothers or sisters may, and 
yet without any clear invariable habit or value of line that 
can be put into definite words. It is all very interesting to 
the enthusiastic herbarium maker, young or old ; but I think 
the lesson is not hidden from us too deeply to be unearthed. 
Nature ' recks not ' (of course) of the systematists' feeble 
forcible efforts to express her, because ' She ' or ' It," as you 
like, is merely our term for a Law of cell-life invariable in 
its greater, and even lesser lines of scaffolding ; but elastic 
for all that, the ' finished article,' be it leaf contour or vestment 
showing the final, and as it seems, proximal effect of repression 
or restriction on the part of something externe (quite invisible 
if atmospheric, tho' not so inobvious in a water plant immersed 
in its medium). But, an we wish, a pretty clear correlation 

Naturalist, 



Field Notes. 329 

of these varigrowths to soil matrix and elevation above sea- 
level, plus aspect, N.S.E. and W. but never allwards, can be 
arrived at. This perhaps is all we can do, beyond recording 
our impressions which, too, may develop and vary with that 
' experience ' which alone ' teaches ' as the Latin tag had it. 
In my own Flora of West Yorkshire, I recorded it up to 750 
feet, and gave several Rib-Craven stations. In the as-yet 
unpublished Supplement, I -assign this ascending Excelsiorian 
to the Early Modern or Patrial Class, which, ' doing its bit ' 
to compensate for the eons of disintegrational elimination of 
earlier forms of herb life, is slowly but surely gaining a higher 
foot of earth where circumstances allow of it. In 1888 it 
had reached Addingham in Wharf edale, it has now got much 
higher by the river nearly to Coniston Cold. 



GEOLOGY. 

Mammoth Teeth on the Yorkshire Coast. — Though the 
opportunities for examining the Holderness Cliff sections at the 
present time are not ideal, coast erosion still goes on, and has 
revealed a number of teeth of the mammoth (Elephas pnmi- 
genius). We have recently obtained examples from Spurn 
Point, Withernsea and Hornsea. — T. Sheppard. 

— o — 
ENTOMOLOGY. 

Wilsden Lepidoptera. — A few days ago one of our 
schoolmaster's sons described a butterfly which he had recently 
seen in this neighbourhood, which could be no other than a 
Camberwell Beauty ( Vanessa antiopa). It must, I think, be 
thirty years since I last saw this species in the Wilsden district. 
On Friday last, a friend of mine informed me that he saw at 
rest on a wall near Thornton, in August, a Convolvulus Hawk 
Moth {Sphinx convolvuli) ; and whilst talking with a friend in 
the main street here, at the end of July, I saw a Humming- 
bird Hawk Moth (Macroglossa stellatarum) feeding on the red 
valerian, and another specimen of this species flew into a house 
in this town and was shown to me. Another insect which I 
have not seen for years was brought to me by a contractor's 
son, namely Sesia bembeciformis, which he had taken from the 
bole of a willow. I have only seen one specimen of Scoparia 
conspicualis this year. Scoparia pyralalis, which is a very 
local insect in this district, I saw very plentifully on the pipe 
tract near Bingley. Coccyx vacciniana, which I have always 
considered scarce up to this year, I found in some plenty near 
Bingley. I took one Mixodia schulziana on Baildon Moor 
last June or July ; only one record is previously given for 
this district, for 1897. — E. P. Butterfield, Bank House, 
Wilsden, 12th Sept., 1917. 

1917 Oct.l. 



330 



NOTES ON THE SLUGS AND LAND SHELLS 
OF ICELAND. 



HANS SCHLESCH. 
Hellerup, Denmark. 

( Continued from page 300), 

Genus Cepaea (Held.) 
Cepaea hortensis Miiller. 

S. Nuphlid (E.O. and J.H.), Bjarnanes in Hornafjordur, 1913 
(H.S.), Hofdabrekka in Myrdalssandur (J.St.), Drangs- 
hlid in Rangarvallasyssel near Eyjafjcellajokul, July, 
1896 (B.S.). 

E. Seydisfjordur, 1912 (F.H.S.). 

var. roseolabiata Taylor. 
5. Bjarnanes in Hornafjordur, 1913 (H.S.) 

var. ludoviciana d'Aumont. 

According to Prof. Sandberger, the specimens recorded by 
0. A. L. Morch belong to this thin-shelled form. 

Remarks : Cepcsa hortensis Miiller is very rare and appears 
only to exist in the Southern parts from Reykjanes to Seydis- 
fjordur. Eggert Olafsson called it Nerita testa globosa planius- 
cula apertura parva, tribus anfractibtis, and says, ' this is a 
well-known and acknowledged prominante species, found on 
Nuphlid, a short distance from Krisuvik, on the South Coast 
(of Reykjanes peninsula) ; it may be justly compared to a 
small cherry and tolerably as large over all hitherto known 
Icelandic Land-snails. It is dark yellow, with five stripes over 
the under side ; it lives mostly amongst the dry places, between 
heather and Blayberry-roots.' The occurrence of Cepaea 
hortensis Miiller is interesting. In the Tertiary times a hypo- 
thetic land-bridge connected N.W. Europe with Iceland, Green- 
land and America. Mr. John W. Taylor says,* ' Cepaea 
hortensis has probably arisen within the north-westerly part 
of the Germanic region and has diffused itself chiefly to the 
north-west, spreading to the Faroe Islands, Iceland, and even 
to North America. The presence of H. hortensis is somewhat 
perplexing, and has led to much speculation and diversity of 
opinion as to its claim to be regarded as a true native of that 
country, or whether it owes its presence there to the voluntary 
or involuntary agency of man, as it is a species which has 
extended its range very far beyond that of its immediate 
European allies, from which it is now completely isolated 

* Monograph of British Land and Freshwater Mollusca, III., p. 361-62. 



Notes on the Slugs and Land Shells of Iceland. 331 

geographically. In its organisations it is also quite different 
from and immensely superior to the Protogona, the general 
helicidian type characteristic of Eastern North America, 
which, according to Dr. Pilsbry, has a very simple and primitive 
structure ; yet the distributional area of H. hortensis, ex- 
tending as it does along more than a thousand miles of coast, 
and its occupancy of numerous rocky islets uninhabitable by 
man, combined with the discovery of its presence in the 
Pleistocene clays of Maine, lend support to the view that it 
has reached that country through natural diffusion, by means 
of the land-bridge, believed by many to have connected North- 
western Europe with North America during Tertiary periods, 
and by means of which a few other terrestrial species of boreal 
distribution have probably also reached eastern North America.' 

Genus Pupa (Draparnaud). 
Sub -genus Pupilla L. Pfeiffer. 
Pupa muscorum L., var. lundstromi Westerlund. 
Recorded by Westerlund in Syn. Mollusc, extram. Scand., 
1897, p. 61. 

Sub-genus Vertigo M tiller. 

Pupa arctica Wallenberg. 

W. Isafjordur (F.H.S. and H.S.). 

Heidalur, Armula and Kaldalon, all in the Isafjardardjup, 

1913 (H.S.). Saudlauksdalur (E.O.). 
Remarks : Probably distributed over the whole of Iceland, 
and found under stones, in decomposing vegetation, near 
running water, etc. Eggert Olafsson says, ' Cylindrus, testa 
tota spirali ad extremitates obtusa, spiris 6 ore angustissimo is a 
shell about the size of a cabbage seed. The two circular grooves 
at the opening are the colour of flesh, the others blue-grey ; 
they live principally in the fields, among grass and moss, on 
and near the rocks (near Saudslauksdalur in Patricksfjordur).' 

Genus Cochlicopa (Risso). 

Cochlicopa lubrica Miiller. 

W. Saudlauksdalur (E.O.), Hofda in Dyrafjordur, 1913 (H.S.), 

Isafjordur, 1914 (H.S.). 
S. Nuphlid (J. St.), Kirkjubaer (Sidan), near Skapta (J.St.). 
N. Akureyri, 1912 (F.H.S. ). 

Remarks : Exists over the whole island, partly in damp 
places and partly in dry places, under leaves, moss, stones, in 
grass, and in the crevices of rocks, etc. Eggert Olafsson writes 
about this species, ' Buccinum testa ovataacuta, spiria 6, mem- 
branacea fulva splendente is a most beautiful snail, especially 
through its glittering red-yellow shell, in which it surpasses all 
the other species, but it is very small ' and inconspicuous.' 

1917 Oct. 1. 



332 Notes on the Slugs and Land Shells of Iceland. 

Genus Succinea (Draparnaud). 
Sub-genus N eritostoma Klein. 
Succinea groenlandica Beck. 
W. Reykjavik, June, 1841 (J.H.) ; Laugarnar by Reykjavik 
(J.St.) ; Pokufoss in Kjosarsyssel, August 28th, 1896 
(B.S.) ; Isafjordur, 1913 (H.S.) ; Armula near the 
Drangajokul, 1913 (H.S.). 
N. Akureyri (A.C.J, and F.H.S.). 
5. Hofdabrekka in Myrdalssandur (J.St.). 

Remarks : In general, common everywhere, in shadowy 
and damp places, under stones, etc. ' Dolium ovato-planius- 
culum, spira duobus anjractibus obtusa, testa fusca ' (Eggert 
Olafsson). 

Sub-genus Amphibina (Hartmann). 
Succinea altaica v. Mart, var. norvegica Westerlund. 
Recorded from Iceland by Westerlund in Syn. Moll, extram. 
Scandinav., 1897, p. 88. 



: o 



NOTES ON MARGARITANA MARGARITIFERA (LINNE). 

HANS SCHLESCH, 
Hellerup, Denmark. 

1758 My a margaritifera Linne, System. Naturae, ed. X., p. 671 

1761 ,, „ ,, Faun. Sveciae, p. 516. 

1774 »i >> Miiller, Vermium terr. et fluviat., II., 

p. 210. 
1779 >> >, Schroter, Die Geschichte der Feussconch., 

p. 168,. tab. 4, fig. 1. 
17 88 Unio margaritijerus Retzius, Novae Testaceorum genera 

p. 16. 
1793 ,, ,, Sprengler, Skrivter af Naturhist. 

Selsk. 3, p. 53. 
1817 Margaritana jluviatilis Schumacher, Essai d'un Nouveau 

Systeme des Habit, des Vers Testaces 
p. 124, tab. 10, fig. 4. 
1822 Unio margaritiferus Nilsson, Historia Moll. Sveciae, 

p. 103-06. 
1831 ,, margaritifera Draparnaud, Hist. Nat. d. Moll. terr. 

et fluv. de France, p. 132. 
1856 ,, maygaritifcr Nordenskjold and Nylander, Finlands 

Mollusker, p. 86-87. 
1868 Margaritana margaritifera Colbeau, Moll. viv. de la Bel- 

gique, p. 26. 
1871/73 ,, „ Westerlund, Fauna Moll. terr. 

et fluv. Sveciae, Norvegiae et 
Daniae, p. 577-79. 

Naturalist, 



Notes on Margaritana margaritijera (Linne). 333 

1882 Margaritana margaritijera Esmark, Land and Freshwater 

Mollusca in the Arctic 

Regions of Norway, p. 103. 
3:884 >> " Clessin, Deutsche Excursions 

Mollusker-Fauna II., AufL, 

P- 529-32. 
1887 ,, ,, Clessin, Die Moll. - Fauna, 

Oesterreich, Ungarns u. d. 

Schweiz, p. 722. 
1896 ,, „ L. E. Adams, The Collector's 

Manual of Brit. Land and 

Freshwater Shells, 2 edit., 

p. 149-50. 
igoo ,, ,, Goldfuss, Die Binnenmollusken 

Mittel-Deutschlands, p. 263- 

65. 

1917 „ „ Schlesch, Notes on Planorbis 

and Margaritana in Iceland 
(The Naturalist, p. 201). 

Concha ovali-oblonga, compressa, crassa, margine superiore 
curvato, inferiore recto vel sinuato ; dentibus cardinalibus crassis, 
conicis, lateralibus nullis. 

L. 120-135, ait - 5 -65, cr. 35-40 mm. 

This interesting mussel was named ' Musculus niger, om- 
nium longe crassimus ; concha longce ; species Gesn. Aldrov.' 
by Martin Lister. Margaritana margaritijera is one of the few 
species that have a wide distribution. According to Lionel 
Adams the ' pearl mussel ' is found in rivers in mountainous 
districts in several parts of Great Britain from Shetland to 
Cornwall, but only to the west of a line drawn from Scarborough 
to Exeter, and also in Ireland and the Isle of Man. On the 
Continent it is distributed from Aragon, in Northern Spain, 
the Pyrenees, France, the Vosges, the Ardennes, Belgium, 
Netherlands, in a few places, Germany*, Bohemia, Russia 
(Dniester, Don and Volga to the White Sea), Denmark (in 
Vardeaa, Jutland), the Scandinavian peninsula from Scania to 
the Arctic Ocean, f In Finland it is common and distributed 
in the numerous lakes and streams. It has been recorded for 
Iceland, a single specimen being found in 1863, near Reyk- 
javik. Further, Margaritana margaritijera lives in Siberia, 
Altai Mountains, Manchuria and the eastern and western river 
systems of North America. 

* Bavaria, Bohmerwald, Fichtelgebirge, Saxony, several brooks in 
Silesia, Hanover, Thuringia, in the Sauer in Nassau, Westerwaldes and 
Hundsriickens. 

•f Miss Birgithe Esmark records M. margaritijera from Senjen Island 
and Borge in Lofoten Islands ; also in Berlevaag in East Finmarken and 
in South Varanger. 

1917 Oct. 1. 



334 Notes on Margaritana margaritifera (Linne). 

Characteristic of this species is, that it lives in swiftly- 
running brooks on the hills, the waters of which are rather 
poor in lime. When, by any accident, the epidermis is des- 
troyed, the anterior margin and umbones are often dissolved 
by the water and the animal is gradually destroyed, and finally 
there only remains the chitin of which the epidermis consists. 

When extraneous bodies enter into the mussel between the 
shell and mantle, the latter is irritated, and the animal 
secretes ' mother of pearl ' around the irritant bodies, and in 
this way the pearls are formed. According to Lionel E. Adams, 
Suetonius says that Caesar was partly attracted to Britain 
by the reports of pearls found there, and Pliny states that he 
covered a buckler with them, which he dedicated to Venus 
Genetrix. Tacitus mentions a theory current in his time 
that the dull reddish colour of our pearls was due to their being 
collected from cast-up shells instead of being gathered from 
living shells from the bottom of the sea ; but he adds, with 
characteristic dry humour, that the fault probably lay in the 
pearls themselves, as otherwise his avaricious countrymen would 
have been sure to discover the best methods of obtaining them. 

Schroter tells in his work * how the Chinese produce 
genuine pearls. He says that they introduce into every mussel 
a diminutive ball made of mother of pearl, after which operation 
the mussel is deposited in the river beds. After some years, 
the mussel is again fished up, when every ball is found to be 
coated with a new layer of mother of pearl. 

Big ball-shaped clear pearls are the most valuable, and the 
price is fixed according to size. Pearl fishing was formerly 
carried on in many parts of Europe, but it does not pay as, 
according to Clessin, one hundred mussels must be examined 
in order to obtain a single pearl, and only one of eighteen 
pearls can be used ; a few times, however, big finds have been 
made, for instance in Donegal and in the Conway. 

Mr. H. A. Allen sends us a ' Catalogue of Types and Figured Specimens 
of British Cretaceous Gasteropoda preserved in the Museum of Practical 
Geology, London, reprinted from Summary of Progress of the Geological 
Survey for 191 5. 

In the Memoirs and Proceedings of the Manchester Literary and Philo- 
sophical Society (Vol. LXL, pt. 1) Mr. H. Bolton has a paper on ' The 
" Mark Stirrup " Collection of Fossil Insects from the Coal Measures of 
Commentary (Allier), Central France.' 

Mr. Charles Bailey favours us with a copy of his interesting paper 
' On the Contents of a Herbarium of British and Foreign Plants for 
presentation to the Victoria University of Manchester, reprinted from 
Vol. LXL, part 2, of Memoirs and Proceedings of the Manchester Literary 
and Philosophical Society, Session 1916-7. 

* Die Geschichte der Feussconchylien, Halle, 1779, p. 178. 



335 
NEWS FROM THE MAGAZINES. 

The Museums Journal for July contains a paper on ' Preparation of 
Plants for Exhibition,' by C. E. Jones. 

The Entomologist's Record for September contains some ' Further 
Notes on the Earwig,' by Dr. Chapman. 

In The Irish Naturalist for September, Mr. R. Lloyd Praeger has an 
illustrated paper on ' Equisetum litorale in Ireland. 

In The Entomologist' s Monthly Magazine for September, Mr. E. E. 
Green gives ' Observations on British Coccidae ; with description of new 
species. ' 

In The Journal of Conchology for August, Mr. A. E. Boycott has a note 
entitled ' Where is the Male of Paludestrina fenkinsi ? ' and Mr. J. T. Mar- 
shall gives ' Additions to British Conchology.' 

In The Lancashire and Cheshire Naturalist for July Mr. R. S. Bagnall 
has some notes on ' Lancashire Myriapoda New to Britain.' He also writes 
on ' The Symphyla of Lancashire and Cheshire.' 

Mr. F. Pitt gives ' Some Notes and Observations on the Mole in 
Captivity,' and Mr. L. H. Huie has ' Some Notes on the Microscopical 
Preparation of Insects,' in The Scottish Naturalist for September. 

The Entomologist for September contains ' Contributions to our 
Knowledge of the British Braconids, No. 3, — Microgasteridae.' by G. T. 
Lyle ; and ' British Odonata in 1916,' by W. J. Lucas. The latter includes 
many northern records. 

In The Selborne Magazine for September, the Rev. E. A. Woodruff e- 
Peacock, writing on 'The Means of Plant Dispersal,' states: — 'People 
will " pull your leg " if they can — a " scientific leg " is irresistible and 
fair game. " They are so dully knowing, these naturalists." ' 

We learn from Nature that ' The first part of a Bibliography of Fishes,' 
the work of Dr. Bashford Dean and Dr. C. R. Eastman, has just been pub- 
lished by the American Museum of Natural History. It consists of the 
first instalment (A to K) of a list of titles of papers, arranged under author's 
names, and is a large octavo volume of 718 pages. 

Wild Life for August includes the following well illustrated papers : — 
' On the Present Status of the Wryneck ; Abnormal Colouration in 
Mammals,' by Dr. F. D. Welch ; ' The Currant, or Magpie, Moth,' by 
C. W. Colthrup ; ' Resting Attitudes of Moths, and some Notes on their 
Habits,' by C. W. Colthrup ; ' Notes on the Yellow Wagtail,' by E. Eykyn ; 
' Sexual Selection in Birds,' by Edmund Selous. 

The Geological Magazine for September, contains the following papers — 
' Notes on the Pycnodont Fishes,' by A. Smith Woodward ; ' Morphology 
of the Echinoidea and their Allies,' by H. L. Hawkins ; ' Evidence of 
Charnian Movement in East Kent,' by H. E. Baker; ' Albite-Granophyre, 
etc., of Carrock Fell,' by A. Holmes; ' The Fossils of the East Anglian 
Boxstones, ' by Alfred Bell ; ' Mammalian bones from the London District, ' 
by A. Smith Woodward. 

We obtain the following from The Entomologist' s Record for September : 
' Aught of the potato seems to attract the attention of many just now. 
A correspondent's box was put in our hands the other day, on the lid of 
which was pasted the following paragraph : — " The Potato Bug. — Here 
(observes a Canadian contemporary) is a good thing on the Colorado 'tater- 
bug.' Three men comparing notes — one says : " There are two bugs 
to every stalk." A second says : " They have cut down my early crops 
and are sitting on the fence, waiting for my late crop to come up," and 
" Pshaw ! " says the third, " you know nothing about it. I passed a 
seed store the other day, and saw the bugs looking over the books to see 
who had purchased seed potatoes." 

1917 Oct. 1. 



336 

NORTHERN NEWS. 

Dr. P. G. H. Boswell has been appointed to occupy the Herdman 
Chair of Geology at Liverpool. 

The Board of Agriculture and Fisheries has issued two leaflets dealing 
with the storage of potatoes, and breaking up grass-land. 

The Herbarium at Kew has acquired the Mycological collection of 
the late J. W. Ellis, which consists of nearly 1,600 specimens. 

The 68th Report of the Ipswich Museum, etc., gives particulars of the 
work accomplished during the year, and there is an illustration of a 
specially designed case for postage stamps. 

The P'ood Production Department of the Board of Agriculture and 
Fisheries has issued a ' Report on the Breaking-up of Grass Land in England 
and Wales in the Harvest Year, 19 16-7.' This includes reports on the work 
accomplished in the Northern counties. 

Prof. W. G. Fearnsides has been awarded the Greenwell Silver Medal of 
the North of England Mining and Mechanical Engineers for his paper on 
' Some Effects of Earth Movements on the Coal-Measures of the Sheffield 
District (South Yorkshire), and the neighbouring parts of West York- 
shire, Derbyshire and Nottinghamshire.' 

Heard at the Zoo (in front of the Ostrich's cage) : — 
1st Youthful Naturalist : " 'Sneagle." 
2nd Do. : " 'Snotaneagle, 'Snork." 
1st Do. : " 'Snotanork, 'Snowl." 
2nd. Do. : " 'Sneither, 'Snostrich." — London Opinion. 

Punch gives 'From a cigarette-card: — Reed Warbler, Acrocephalus 
streperus. This bird is found in nearly every part of the British Islands. 
It builds a nest about a foot off the ground in the reed beds, and is formed 
of grass, horse hair and sometimes feathers.' Of course, if Punch will 
go to ' gasper-cards ' for his natural history we can't help it. Besides, 
no doubt, the warbler figured was a stuffed specimen, which would account 
for the grass and horsehair. 

The 56/A Quarterly Record of Additions (Hull Museums Publication : 
No. in) has just been issued (34 pages, with illustrations, id.). Among the 
contents we notice : — ' Spout of Roman Terra Cotta jug ' ; Early Burial 
Customs ' ; ' Concerning Pins ' ; ' A Whaling Token ' ; ' Old Wine Bottles, 
' War Relics ' ; ' An interesting Find on the Humberside ' ; ' Jutland 
Battle Medals ' ; 'A Sedan Chair ' ; ' Mr. C. S. Middlemiss's Collection ' ; 
' Rare Yorkshire Tokens,' and ' Interesting Slavery Relics.' 

Volume LI. of the Transactiotis of the North Staffordshire Field Club 
includes the following items : — ■' Presidential Address : Progress in 
Geology,' by J. T. Stobbs ; ' Erratics in Coal Seams,' by J. H. Lister and 
J. T. Stobbs ; ' The Course of the River Sow,' by A. Huntbach ; ' Local 
Distribution of Glacial Boulders,' by P. W. Taylor ; ' Scandinavian 
Place Names in North Staffordshire, ' by H. V. Thompson ; ' Neolithic 
Flints on Cannock Chase,' by T. C. Cantrill. There are also reports of 
the six sections ; and of Excursions and Evening Meetings. 

Volume XXI. of the Transactions of the Institution of Water Engineers 
contains a number of interesting papers, among which we notice : — 
' The Alignment Diagram applied to the Flow of Water in Uniform and 
Compound Mains,' by D. Halton Thomson ; ' Plans and Records of Water 
Distribution Systems,' by Wm. P. Walker ; ' The Cross Hill Covered 
Service Reservoir for the Birkenhead Waterworks,' by W. J. E. Binnie ; 
' The Rating of Waterworks,' by Charles Clifton. The volume is well 
illustrated by diagrams and illustrations from photographs, etc., and also 
contains an index to the 21 volumes so far published. 

Naturalist, 



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BIBLIOGRAPHY OF YORKSHIRE GEOLOGY 

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By T. SHEPPARD, M.SC, f.g.s., f.r.g.s., f.s.a.(scot.) 

Svo, xxxvi. + 629 pp. 15/- net. 

This forms Volume XVIII. of the Proceedings of the Yorkshire 
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Printed at Browns' Savilk Press, 40, George Street, Hull, and published by 
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Oct. 1st, 1917. 



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ENEMIES OF the GARDEN 

Reproduced in the very best style of Lithography from special designs by 
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1. OUTLINE OF INSECT LIFE.— Hymenoptera, Coleoptera, Lepi- 

doptera, details. 

2. LACKEY MOTH.— Egg, Caterpillar, Nest, Cocoons, Female Lackey 

Moth, Egg Cluster. 

3. SMALL ERMINE MOTH.— Eggs, Caterpillar, Cocoons, Ermine Moth, 

Nest in Apple Tree. 

4. GOOSEBERRY SAWFLY.— Egg, Larva, Larva (last stage), Leaf, 

Sawfly, Branch, Cocoon. 

5. ASPARAGUS BEETLE.— Eggs, Larva, Beetle, Pupa, Asparagus 

stripped of leaves, Cocoon. 

6. BLACK CURRANT MITE.— Mite, Big Bud on Branch, Section of 

Bud with Mites. 

7. RASPBERRY STEM BUD CATERPILLAR.— Caterpillar, Chrysalis, 

Moth (enlarged), Raspberry Cane. 

8. MILLIPEDES and CENTIPEDES.— Three destructive Millipedes and 

two useful Centipedes. 

9. SCALE. — Currant Scale, Scale on Aralia and Myrtle Leaves and Mussel 

Scale. 

10. WIREWORMS.— Click Beetle and Skip Jack showing details. 

11. PEA THRIPS, COCKCHAFER, DADDY LONGLEGS, WOOD- 

LOUSE and EARWIG, showing sections and details. 

12. SOME USEFUL INSECTS.— Dragon Fly, Ichneumon Fly, Lady Bird, 

Tiger Beetle, Hover Fly, Glow Worm, Cocktail Beetle, Lacewing Fly. 

All the designs are printed on appropriately tinted backgrounds, devoid of 

any white border, thus enabling the various sections on the Charts to be 

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We always have enemies within our garden-gates, and would-be 
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London : A. BROWN & SONS, Ltd., 5 Farringdon Avenue, E.C. 4- 
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NOV. 1917. 



No. 730 

(No. 505 of current tariet) 




A MONTHLY ILLUSTRATED JOURNAL OF 

NATURAL HISTORY FOR THE NORTH OF ENGLAND 



T. SHEPPARD, 



BDITBD BV 

M.Sc, F.Q.S., F.R.Q.S., F.S.A.Scot. 

The Museums, Hull ; 



T. W. WOODHEAD, Ph.D., M.Sc, F.L.S 

Technical College, Huddersfield. 
with the assistance as referees in special departmen 
J. OILBBRT BAKER, P.R.S. P.L.S., GEO. T. PORRITI", /F.L.Sj.i |Pl 

Prof. P. P. KENDALL, M.Sc, P.Q.S., JOHN W. TAYLOR.lM.Sc.U ^ 

RILEY FORTUNE. F.Z.S. 




H.S. 



Contents : — 

PAGE 

Notes and Comments (illustrated): — Biology of Waterworks ; Fauna and Flora of Water 
Pipes; Botanical Society and Exchange Club ; Geoteresy ; The Prevalence of Anophe- 
lines ; Records ; Identification ; Phenological Observations ; The Antler Moth in York- 
shire ; The Great Auk ; Science Teaching in Secondary Schools ; Science and Scientific 
Method ; Scientific History ; Science Courses ; A Boy's Education ; Other Schemes ; 
The Interglacial Problem ; The Kirmington Deposit ; Correlation of Deposits ; Plant 
Diseases in Muf.ums 337-346 

347-348 

349-352 

353-356 

357-358 

359 

359-360 

361-363 



Notes on the Flora of Rlbble -Craven— Joseph Fry Pickard 

Sphagna — Wm. Ingham, B. A. 

Old Natural History Magazines, etc.— T. Sheppard, M.Sc, F.G.S 

Cumberland Dragonflies — F. H. Day, F.E.S. 

Prehistoric Remains at Doncaster— A . Jordan 

Yorkshire Naturalists' Union : Botanical Section— (.'. A. Cheetham 

In Memoriam : Robert Bralthwaite (illustrated)— R 

Field Notes: — Vitrea lucida at Louth, Lines.; Unusual Sites of Starlings' Nests; Records 
of two rare Wasp-Galls {Cynipidce) from Yorkshire ; Galls of the Alpine Rose (Rhododen- 
dron fcrnigineutii) ; Lepidoptera at Louth ; Chsrocampa celerio at Scarborough ; Gonatopus 
pedestris Dalm., in Cumberland; Hedge Bedstraw in Wharf edale ; Starlings and Berries ; 
Fowls and Aeroplanes ; Starling v. Blackbird ; Varieties of the Starling ; Blackbird Sing- 
ing in Severe Winter Months; Notes on the Pied Wagtail ; Nesting of the Long-tailed 
Titmouse in Upper Wharfedale 358,360,364-367 

News Irom the Magazines 368 

Northern News 348,367,368 



Illustrations 



337, 340, 341, 343, 361 



LONDON : 

A. Brown & Sons, Limited, 5, Farringdon Avbnub, E.C. 4. 

And at Hull and York. 

Printers and Publishers to the Y.N. U. 



Prepaid Subscription 6/6 per annum, post free. 



YORKSHIRE NATURALISTS' UNION. 



VERTEBRATE Z()()L()(JY SECTION. 



The meeting usually held in November will not take place this year. It is 
hoped to be able to hold the February meeting as usual, particulars of which 
will be given later. 

For the purpose of electing Officers of the Section, members are requested 
to meet half an hour before the meeting of the general committee on the occasion 
of the Annual Meeting of the Union at Wakefield, Saturday, December 8th. 

Walter Greaves (Hon. Sec), 
i Chapel Avenue, 

Hebden Bridge. 

BOOKS WANTED. 

M.Simpson. Fossils of Yorks. Lias. i2mo. ist ed., 1855. 

M. Simpson's Guide to Whitby, ist ed. [before 1881 i. 

Journ. Postal Micro. Soc. Vols. V.-IX. 

Scientific Enquirer, 1886- 

Internat. Journ. Micros, and Nat. Sci. 1891-97. 

I ourn. Micrologv and Nat. Hist. Mirror. 19 14- 

Phillip's Geol. of Yorks. Vol. I., 2nd Ed. 1835. 

Young and Bird. Geol. of Yorks. Coast. 2nd ed. T828. 

Derby Arch, and Nat. Hist Soc. Parts 17, 18, 20, 21. 

Journal Marine Biological Assoc. Vols I. -IV. 

Croydon Nat Soc 6th Report, and Trans, for 1887-8. 

Yorks Ramblers' Club Journal No. 8. 

Newbury District Field Club Transactions. Vols. III. and on. 

Reports Wakefield Lit. and Phil Soc Set. 

Proc Birmingham Nat Hist and Phil Soc. Vol I., part 2. 

Journ Manchester Geographical Soc. Vols. I., Nos. 1-9; Vol. III. Nos. [-6 

Vol. I V"., all. 
Proc Soc. of Antiquaries, ist Series, Vols I. and II 
Trans Manchester Geol. Soc. Vols. XV., XVI., XIX. -XXIII. 
Transactions Burnley Literary and Scientific Club Set 
Trans Barrow Nat Field Club. Vol VII. 
Dudlcv and Midland Geol etc., Soc. 1862-80 (14 parts). 
Vale o'f Derwent Nat Field Club. Old Series, Vols. I. -III. 
Salisbury Field Club Transactions, Vol. II. 

Trans. Norfolk and Norwich Nat. Soc. Vol. I., Parts 1 and 2 ; Vol. IV., Pt. 3. 
Peterborough Natural History Society. Reports, 1-8, 11-12, 14-26. 
Brighton and Sussex Natural History Society Reports, 1855-1870; 1872-3. 
North Staffordshire Field Club Reports for 1866, 1869-1873, 1876. 
Bedfordshire Natural History Society Proceedings. Set. . 
Trans. Royal Cornwall Geological Society. Set. 
Chester Soc. Nat. Science : Ann Reports, i.-iv. 
Trans. Woolhope Club. 1866-80. 

Quarterly Journal of Science. 1878-9, 1882-3, an d 1885. 
Trans. Geol. Soc, London, 4to. 2nd series, Vols. IV.-V1I. (1836-56). 
Geological Magazine, 1890-1-2-4. 

Mackie's Geol. and Nat. Hist. Repository. Vols. II., III. 
Proc. Liverpool Geol. Association. Parts 1, 3, 7, 16. 
Reliquary (Jewitfs 8vo. Series). Vols. XXII. and XXIV. 
Irish Naturalist. Vols. 1912-16. 
Scottish Naturalist. 1881-95. 
Annals of Scottish Nat. Hist. 1905- 1916. 

Walford's Antiquarian Mag. and Bibliographer for July-Dec, 1885. 
Quart. Journ. Geol. Soc. Vols. I.-XIV. 
Proc. Geol. Assoc. Vol. I. Part 1. 
Trans. Yorks. Nat. Union. Parti. 
Naturalists' Journal. Vol. I. 
W. Smith's New Geological Atlas of England aud Wales. 1819-21. 

Apply^Editor, The Museum, Hull. 




JUN24 1920 



NOTES AND COMMENTS. 



°u u j MviS^ 



BIOLOGY OF WATERWORKS. 

The British Museum (Natural History) has issued a hand- 
book entitled ' The Biology of Waterworks,'* by R. Kirk- 
patrick. It deals with the purity of water supplies as affecting 
plant and animal life, and contains many useful hints of 
service to those interested in the subject. There are several 
illustrations, one of which we are permitted to reproduce 
it explains itself. 



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tk n 


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Water-meter Strainer clogged with branches of Polyzoa (two species) ; 
and new strainer, on the left, for comparison. 

FAUNA AND FLORA OF WATER PIPES. 

From the handbook we learn that : ' It has been proved 
by sad experience, in this country and abroad, that in a 
water-supply which is not protected by adequate filtration 
microscopic organisms such as Diatoms gain access to the pipes, 
and can there serve as food for animals which depend on this 
kind of nutriment. The chance introduction of a few 
" statoblasts," " gemmules," or other reproductive bodies may 
then be followed by the establishment of corresponding growths 
of Polyzoa, Sponges, or other animals on the walls of the 
water-pipes. Here they find a congenial home, sheltered from 



* Economic Series, No. 7, 58 pp., 1/- 



1917 Nov. 1. 



,;j 



8 Notes and Comments. 



extremes of cold and heat, and provided with abundant 
Diatoms as food. .New reproductive bodies are given off and 
effect a lodgement elsewhere, and carnivorous animals of 
various kinds prey on the colonies thus diffused. The final 
result may be the occurrence, in the water-pipes of a town. 
of thousands of individuals or masses the weight of which 
must be estimated in tons, of various fresh-water animals. 
Not only do these tend to restrict the effective size of the pipes, 
but their decay, especially at the approach of winter, sets free 
branches of Polyzoa and Hydroids, which give rise to serious 
trouble by blocking strainers and taps, besides resulting in 
the fouling of the water and the encouragement of the growth 
of Bacteria, some of which (the " Iron Bacteria") have the 
most far-reaching consequences. 

BOTANICAL SOCIETY AND EXCHANGE CLUB. 

There have recently been issued the report for 191O of the 
Botanical Society and Exchange Club of the British Islands, 
Vol. IV., Pt. 5, pages 393 to 550, by Mr. G. Claridge Druce ; 
also the Report of the Botanical Exchange Club, by Messrs. 
W. H. Pearsall and D. Lumb. Vol. IV., Pt. 6, pages 551 to 600 ; 
also Second Supplement to Botanical Society and Exchange 
Club Report for 1916, by G. Claridge Druce, pages hoi to 653. 
Each of these contains much matter of interest to northern 
botanists. 

GEOTERESY. 

In the Journal of the Royal Geographical Society Mr. W. 
Coldstream writes : — ' I have found the need of a word to ex- 
press the idea of operations for the protection of the suface of 
the earth. I found no single English word to express the idea. 
" Protective Forestry " covered a considerable part of that 
which had to be expressed, but not the whole, for there are 
other modes of protection besides planting ; for instance, 
barrages, embankments, etc. Finding no general word for 
the purpose, I have proposed the word " Geoteresis " or " Geo- 
teresy." (I suppose, if it came into English use, it would have 
the penultimate short.) It would include protection against 
(1) erosion by torrents, rivers and sea, and (2) submersion by 
those agencies, and also by sand drift and silt deposit. I 
venture to think that it would be convenient, and that it is 
almost a necessity, to have some such word in discussing such 
questions as the action of torrents, the denudation of the sur- 
face by forest clearings and excessive grazing, also erosion 
of river banks and also of the sea coast. Perhaps "Geoteresy," 
with its adjective " Geoteretic," is as convenient and expressive 
a word as can be found.' 

Naturalist, 



Notes and Comments. 339 

THE PREVALENCE OF ANOPHELINES. 

In connexion with possible risks of malaria being acquired 
in this country, the Local Government Board are anxious 
to collect as much information as possible at the present time 
regarding the prevalence and distribution of anopheline 
mosquitos in various parts of the country. Naturalists and 
field entomologists could give much valuable help in the 
matter : — (a) by keeping notes and records, beginning at once, 
of any adult insects which they may meet with during natural 
history searches, etc., and also of the detection of anopheline 
larvae ; (b) by forwarding any information on the subject 
already in their possession. 

RECORDS. 

In making records the following are important : — 
Adults : Date. 

Hour of collection. 

Place (if in a building, specify its nature). 
Condition of weather and temperature. 
Whether few or abundant. 
Larvee : Date. 

Hour of collection. 

Locality. 

Nature of collection of water (natural or 

artificial) . 
Nature of breeding place (shady pools, open 
collections of water ; presence or absence 
of weed, fish, etc.). 

IDENTIFICATION. 

As regards differentiation of anopheline from other species 
reference may be made to the British Museum pamphlet on 
Mosquitos (Economic Series No. 4, British Museum ; Price id.) 
or, of course, to any larger text books. In case of doubt as to 
the identity of insects collected, specimens may be sent for 
identification by post addressed (O.H.M.S.) to the Medical 
Officer, Local Government Board, Whitehall, London, S.W. 1., 
and marked on the cover ' Entomologist.' Letters relating 
to investigations (a) and (b) above should be similarly addressed. 

PHENOLOGICAL OBSERVATIONS. 

From Messrs. J. E. Clark and H. B. Adames, we have 
received their valuable Report on the Phenological Observations 
in the British Islands, from December, 1915, to November, 1916, 
reprinted from the Quarterly Journal of the Royal Meteorological 
Society. From this we learn that : — ' When, in 1892, Mr. 
Mawley took over from the late Rev. T. A. Preston responsi- 
bility for the Annual Report, he entirely re-organised its 

1917 Nov. 1. 



34° 



Notes and Comments. 



character. For twenty-two years he was solely responsible, 
the magnitude and consistent excellence of his annual labours 
placing the Phenological Report of our Society in the front 
rank among investigations into the inter-relation of biological 




A. Fig. 1.— Phenological Provinces and Stations, 1916. Also Isophenes of 
120, 130, 140 and 160 days. 

and meteorological phenomena. So finely conceived was the 
basis of his organisation that his successors have endeavoured 
to retain his system practically unmodified. Any changes 
have been rather by way of additions, as in the case of the 
spring migrant returns. Thus, any investigator working upon 

Naturalist. 



Notes and Comments. 



34i 







1917 Nov. 1. 



34 2 Notes and Comments. 

the records will lind a homogeneity which greatly facilitates 
his labours, and the cumulative value increases more rapidly 
year by year. We cannot be too grateful for the perspicacity 
of him by whom the foundations of this ever-rising edifice were 
so well and truly laid.' The report certainly contains a 
wonderfully compact record of various observations made 
during the year. We are permitted to reproduce an interesting 
map which appears in the report, as well as a valuable table 
giving particulars of the dates of flowering plants. 

THE ANTLER MOTH IN YORKSHIRE. 

Mr. J. W. Carter writes : — ' During the first week of 
September, I spent a few days at Malham, and had not been 
long in the village before I was told of the " great plague of 
caterpillars " they had experienced. I made enquiries of 
some of the farmers ; Mr. Swinbank informed me that on their 
farm they had no fewer than So acres of grass-land on the 
Fells so badly infested that they had to remove all their cattle 
and sheep on to the land at a lower elevation — which was quite 
clear of the pest. Another farmer, less fortunate, had the 
whole of the land occupied by him so badly infested that he 
had to sell out his entire stock of cattle and sheep. The pretty 
moth was still on the wing during my visit.' We take this 
opportunity of reproducing the illustration referred to on page 
308 of The Naturalist for October. 

THE GREAT AUK. 

In The Museums Journal for October, Mr. W. H. Mullens 
has an interesting paper on W. Bullock's London Museum. 
From this we gather — ' When Mr. Bullock was at the Orkney 
Islands, he had the pleasure of chasing a male of this species 
for several hours, in a six-oared boat ; but without being able 
to kill him, for though Mr. B. and his companions frequently 
got near him, so expert was the bird in its natural element 
that it appeared impossible to shoot him. The rapidity with 
which he pursued his course under water was almost incredible. 
The bird was, however, killed in the following year and came 
into Bullock's possession under the following circumstances, 
as set out by him on page 75 of the sixteenth edition of the 
Companion, 1814 : — 'The Great Auk or northern penguin 
(Alca impennis). — Of this rare and noble bird we have no 
account of any having been killed on the shores of Britain, 
except this specimen, for upwards of a hundred years ; it was 
taken at Papa Westray, in Orkney, to the rocks of which it 
had resorted for several years, in the summer of 1813, and was 
finely preserved and sent to me by Miss Trail, of that island, 
a lady to whom I am under considerable obligations for pro- 
curing me many valuable and rare subjects from the northern 
isles, and much interesting information respecting their habits. 

Naturalist 



Notes and Comments-. 



343 




1917 Nov. 1. 



344 Notes and Comments. 

I had the pleasure of examining this curious bird in its native 
element ; it is wholly incapable of flight, but so expert a diver 
that every effort to shoot it was ineffectual." 

SCIENCE TEACHING IN SECONDARY SCHOOLS. 

The introduction to the ' Report on Science Teaching in 
Secondary Schools, issued by the British Association' (86 pp., 
price i/-) gives a short historical resume of the Association's 
previous efforts to reform the teaching of science, dwelling more 
particularly on the heuristic phase of Armstrong and Miall. 
Some comparison is made of the time devoted to different 
branches of science in different types of Secondary Schools ; 
although the suggested proportion of £ for boys and -1 for girls 
is not followed in the typical schemes which are given. 

SCIENCE AND SCIENTIFIC METHOD. 

It is pointed out that science, as distinguished from scientific 
method, has its own particular value in a curriculum, and that 
in teaching, the ' wonder motive ' arising from delight in 
natural phenomena, the ' utility motive ' which leads man 
to make use of nature and the ' systematising motive,' should 
all be recognised as inherent activities of a child's mind and 
should be cultivated in due order. Other subjects are the 
growing scarcity of teachers of science and their inadequate 
remuneration, the rarity of schools with a scientific Principal, 
the necessity for freedom in teaching and the advantages of 
basing examinations on a school's own scheme of studies. 

SCIENTIFIC HISTORY. 

There is little in the Report which is fresh or even freshly 
stated. Perhaps the most valuable items are the emphasis 
which is placed upon the rousing and humanising stimulus 
obtained by introducing more of the history of scientific 
discoveries and biographies of scientists, and the idea of 
leading more frequently from the great applications of science 
to the science of the laboratory experiments. 

SCIENCE COURSES. 

A group of typical Science Courses is given, concerning 
which the most curious fact is that almost without exception 
they are drawn from the South of England. Is there no science 
teaching worthy of consideration in the North of England or 
in Scotland, and are there no science teachers in the North 
capable of expressing their views on the subject ? It is un- 
fortunate that what might have been a Report of the highest 
value at the present time should have left outside its limits 
the experience of the most vigorous industrial areas of the 
country, whilst at the same time it has provided so little 
inspiration or sound suggestion. 

Naturalist, 



Notes and Comments. 345 

A boy's education. 
The most amazing of the typical courses is that drawn up 
by the Professor of Education in the University of London, 
and intended as suitable for boys between twelve and sixteen. 
In five hours per week a boy is expected to gain ' a real, if 
rudimentary, acquaintance with the true character of scientific 
enquiry ' as exemplified in the sciences of Biology, Astronomy, 
General Physics, Heat and Chemistry — (Geology and Mechanics 
are allotted to other lesson periods). By fourteen, he appears 
to reach the matriculation stage in several of the subjects ; 
by sixteen he has covered what looks like a Bachelor of Science 
Course, skimming lightly through such investigations as the 
theory of organic evolution, harmonic vibration of a compound 
pendulum, colours of thin films, polarisation, radio-activity, 
modern explosives, proximate constituents of food, chemical 
industries and processes. It may be suggested that it would 
not matter if the scheme were even extended, as, long before 
he reached the end of it, the boy would be dead. It has been 
said that to work this scheme out by heuristic methods would 
require a hundred years. 

OTHER SCHEMES. 

In the scheme for Oundle School, the value of workshop 
practice is dwelt upon ; the headmaster of Shepton Mallet 
Grammar School correlates his science with the industries of 
the school district, but considers that lessons out of doors 
waste much valuable time, which is surely not unavoidable. 
The Courses for girls present no new features. Prof. Armstrong 
has a paper on Practical Food Studies, which is not new. 

THE INTERGLACIAL PROBLEM. 

In Scientia, (Bologna), Mr. W. B. Wright says : ' The epidemic 
of wild theorising which followed close upon the first great strides 
in the study of glacial geology gave place towards the close of 
the last century to a severely critical attitude, salutary, no doubt, 
but unstimulating. To the workers in this period of scepticism, 
all honour is due, for they carried forward with admirable 
judgment the work of clearing the ground upon which a 
saner edifice of thought might be built. As a result of their 
careful sifting of materials, it is now becoming increasingly 
possible to construct from the facts certain will founded 
generalisations, which indicate the directions in which progress 
may be made. Any advance of this kind would have been 
very difficult without the preliminary critical work of Lamplugh 
and Kendall in England, Geinitz in Germany, Hoist in Sweden, 
and Wright and Upham in America. We are now in a position 
to put aside the complicated and artificial systems of the earlier 
interglacialists, and enquire without prejudice how far we are 
entitled to go in deducing the occurrence of milder epochs during 
the glacial period.' 

1917 Nov. 1. 



34° Notes and Comments. 

THE KIRMIXGTOX DEPOSIT. 

' As regard fossiliferous deposits occurring between beds of 
boulder clay, only a few have stood the test of critical exam- 
ination. One is the estuarine clay of Kirmington in Yorkshire 
[ should be Lincolnshire], in which the stratification is undis- 
turbed and the shells occur in the position of growth embedded 
in the clay. It lies beneath the Hessle Clay which is part of 
the newer drift and on top of the Purple and Basement Clays 
which probably belong to the older drift. The deposit is 
undoubtedly in situ, but the locality is not very far from the 
margin of the newer drift and in consequence the amount 
of withdrawl directly demonstrated is not great. The fauna 
is not in any sense arctic, but beyond this does not afford data 
for more definite conclusions as to the climate.' 

CORRELATION' OF DEPOSITS. 

' There can be little doubt that in time, with the advance 
of the study of Archaeology and the facilities it affords for the 
dating of various stages in the glacial succession, much will 
be done in the way of correlating the epochs of advance and 
retreat in the different districts. By this means and by careful 
mapping of traceable ice-margins it may even be possible to 
bring the marine interglacial deposits into line with the terres- 
trial deposits and to form a proper estimate of the extent of 
retreat during each oscillation. It would seem as if little Was. 
to be expected from archaeological researches in America, at 
least as regards correlation with Europe. How this difficulty 
is to be got over we cannot at present surmise, but we need 
have little doubt that, like others in the past, it will ultimately 
be overcome by the ingenuity and industry of man.' 

PLAXT DISEASES IN MUSEUMS. 

We take the following from The Museums Journal for 
October : — ' In a valuable presidential address to the Yorkshire 
Naturalists' Union ( The Naturalist, June, 1917) Mr. W. X. 
Cheesman suggests that Museums should exhibit plants 
affected by fungi. " Full use," says he, " should be made 
of the British Museum booklets on Fungi and Mycetozoa 
(is. and 3d. respectively) which are alone sufficient to enable 
students to recognise very many species commonly found in all 
districts." We are glad to note that renewed attention is 
being paid by the authorities to the illustrations of animal 
enemies of economic plants exhibited in the North Hall of the. 
Natural History Museum. But why are not the plant enemies 
included in this series ? They are quite as important. In 
North America, the annual loss on the potato crop from the 
attack of a single species of fungus is estimated at £7,000,000. 
This is one of at least eight fungi that attacks potatoes in our 
own islands. It might conceivably pay the nation to show 
them in its national museum.' 

Naturalist, 



347 
NOTES ON THE FLORA OF RIBBLE-CRAVEN. 

JOSEPH FRY PICKARD. 

Residence for a few weeks of bad weather in August of this 
year at Overdale, Settle, enabled me to bring together a few 
notes which supplement the knowledge afforded by the books, 
etc., dealing with the area. One at least emphasises the fact 
that in undisturbed ground, plants may miss flowering for a 
season, but only very, very slowly ' miff ' out altogether, 
although, a tramper over their sites may well miss spotting 
them nine years out of ten. I made acquaintance with Mr. 
H. H. Sturdy, of Settle, well ' posted up ' in the usual species 
characteristic of the region. Under his direction, and ako of 
my own observation, I made a number of interesting ' finds,' 
and in one or two instances proved the long persistence of 
varieties, thought to be extinct, in situations further from the 
beaten track. 

Berberis vulgaris, bushes, probably bird-sown, at Sannet 
Gill, above Stainforth, and near Bolton-by-Bowland. 

Armaria verna, sparingly on the Moughton limestone, 
probablv due to the scarcitv of lead in the formation hereabouts. 

Ar en aria gothica, still in some scattered plenty about 
Crummock plate limestone, together with Sedum villosum 
which likes wet, and quantities of Sagina nodosa ; but all of 
dwarf stature this year. 

Acer cam pest re, apparently rare, but in evidence in hedges 
near Bolton-by-Bowland. 

PotentiUa procumbens, rather plentiful where the moory 
sand comes in, near Wigglesworth. 

PimpineUu major, very characteristic of the hedge banks 
in the Wigglesworth district. 

Galium moll H go, var. Stockdale Roadside, over Settle, 
qoo ft. Dr. Lees has dealt with this in The Naturalist for 
October. The type is to be seen about Horton and Settle, on 
road banks without hedges. 

Inula dysenterica , a tall clump on hill-slope, above Sannet 
Gill, on sandy shales ; an unusual site, for a pelophile ; and 
curiously enough Mr. Shuffrey of Arncliffe, has placed on 
record a similar ecadic occurrence above Hawkswick, in the 
fall of another river-basin. 

Campanula rapunculoides. By Stainforth Beck, in one 
place ; first record for Ribble, showing the vigorous tendencies 
of creeping-root species, that can store up nutriment and 
survive dislocations. 

Gentiana Pneumonanthe. Local observers who cover the 
ground at intervals through a year always upturn the most 
varieties. Mr. Sturdy confirms The Naturalist of igio (p. 

1917 Nov. 1. 



348 Notes on the Flora of Ribble- Craven. 

357) that this heather gentian still thrives on the slope up from 
Clapham Station towards Keasden, at ' The Knotts.' 

Erinus alpinus, a singularly interesting coloniser, following 
apparently upon the ' agger ' making labours of the Romans, 
occurs in many places from Chatburn to Bolton-by-Bowland, 
and appears to be increasing. First mentioned by Geo. 
Bentham in his Handbook of British Plants — 4th edition of 
1888, published just too late to be included in Dr. Lees' Flora 
of West Yorkshire. Most of the Stations are just within the 
South Lancashire boundaries, on natural rock faces left after 
making bridges. Rumex scutatus of alien origin occurs with 
it. 

Verbascum Thapsus, over disturbed soil surfaces, etc., on 
Sannet Gill shales and grits. 

Linaria repens, still retains its hold in the masonry abutting 
on Giggleswick Station and rail-bank, where I noted it first 
about 20 years ago. Dr. Lees says it appears to be the striped, 
erect form of repens L., equalling L. striata D.C., not the plant 
of Oxfordshire cornfields ; perhaps brought from Arnside 
with limestone or shingle-ballast, but now found further down 
the line (Mr. Sturdy) ; anyway the first record for West 
Yorkshire, whatever its category of denizenship. 

Veronica Buxbaumii (Tournefortii Gmelin). This agrestral 
colonist of quite recent introduction to the country (first 
known as British in 1829, Yorkshire, 1841), was pointed out 
to me by Mr. Sturdy by the roadside, beyond Langcliffe from 
Settle ; first record for Ribble. This stranger has been overrun 
in its spread over the country by that remarkable ' pine-apple 
Maithweed,' Matricaria suaveolens, first brought from Chili 
with nitrates, within living memory, to become ubiquitous 
to-day wherever manure and cultivation go. I only noted a 
very little of it about Settle. 

Juniperis communis var. intermedia Nyman, on Moughton, 
occurs in distinctly Ribble as well as Lune basin (also on 
Giggleswick Scars) but uncertain whether var. or type. 

Polystichum Lonchitis (the Holly Fern) has been recently 
found (Sturdy and Wilson) to be survivant still on at least 
one of the higher Scars among talus over Settle in the direction 
of Malham. I saw it there in August, some six or eight fine 
plants ! 

Osmunda regalis, seen by Mr. H. H. Sturdy, near Rathmell 
in one place ; no former record for Yorkshire Ribble. One 
record in the Stonyhurst List for near Leagram. 

: o : 



The death is announced of Prof. Charles Latham, of the University of 
Glasgow. He was trained at the Wigan School of Mines, and for nine 
years had been director of Mining at University College, Nottingham. 

Naturalist, 



349 
SPHAGNA. 



WM. INGHAM, B.A., 

York. 



This is an old Greek name for some plant, thought by some 
to be sage, by others to be a lichen. The singular number is 
Sphagnum, a name first applied to these plants by Dillenius. 

The popular names are Bog mosses, because they are so 
common in bogs ; Peat mosses, because they form a con- 
stituent of peat ; and Sphagnum mosses by those who use them 
in the treatment of soldiers' wounds. 

Each plant is so delicate that it cannot stand upright by 
itself, and so we find the peat mosses in compact colonies in 
which the individual plants are close together and thus support 
one another. This compact growth leads to another im- 
portant result, for it keeps the moisture, so important to these 
plants, within the tufts, and so well is this done that even in the 
driest summer the peat mosses are found to be wet if trod upon. 

If the plants float on water, there is no need for compact 
masses, so in this case single plants are found floating. 

Each plant, when dry, is lighter than a feather, on account 
of its very loose cellular structure, which is very beautiful under 
the microscope, and reminds one of very delicate lace-work. 

One peat moss alone contains thousands of delicate leaves, 
all sessile on the main stem, and numerous branches. The 
leaves on the main stem are nearly always of different shape 
and structure from those on the branches, and these branches 
are mostly in tufts, some of the branches spreading out, and 
others lying along the main stem. 

To aid in the diffusion of moisture the leaves in most cases are 
perforated by numerous pores, beautifully seen when a leaf is 
soaked in methyl violet, and then transferred to the microscope. 

These mosses may be easily recognised in a walk over a 
moor, by their usually paler colour than the surrounding 
vegetation. They particularly delight in growing under the 
shade of heather, which must be drawn aside to see them. 

The branches at the top of the stem are very much shortened 
and form a kind of head, known as the capitulum. By river 
sides, where sand has been deposited, the peat mosses are 
sometimes buried up to their capitula. 

They often drape the sloping wet cliffs, and in this case the 
capitula point downwards. Early in the year they may be 
seen growing under water on the beds of pools, and in this case, 
should they be entangled with other vegetation such as 
Pilularia globulifera, they always remain on the bed, and can 
only be approached when the pool dries up. 

They are of varied colours — white, green (the commonest 
colour), brown to nearly black, ruby-red, yellow, violet, purple, 
grey, flesh-coloured, rose-coloured, and sometimes variegated 

1917 Nov. 1. 



35P Ingham : Sphagna. 

with several of the above colours. On account of the very loose 
cellular structure, the very narrow chlorophyllose cells, the 
very large empty cells known as hyaline cells, and the numerous 
pores, water quickly permeates the whole plant by capillarity. 
So excellently adapted are they for obtaining water, that 
they can use the water in the moisture-laden atmosphere 
above them. They act, indeed, in Nature, as most delicate 
sponges. 

Under the destructive action of sunlight, and when water is 
deficient, new growths start forth above. The lower parts of 
the plant die, and, being very brittle, often break off. 

These plants can endure almost any amount of cold weather. 

On 4th January, 1897, the writer found on Strensall Common 
a white peat moss in the middle of a blqck of ice. He took the 
ice home and melted it, the result being a beautiful white 
plant in excellent condition. 

On the other hand, they are injured by heat, hence there are 
no peat mosses in the tropics. 

It follows from the above that the natural habitat of these 
plants is the Temperate and Arctic regions of the Earth. 
They are recorded as extremely abundant in Siberia. 

Sphagna are sometimes in pure masses, but often heather 
branches, needles of pine, winged seeds of alder and other 
impurities, are mixed with the tufts. 

Also other plants are often mixed with them such as the 
true mosses Aulacomnium palustre and species of Polytvichum. 
Again, there is a true moss known as Leucobryum glaucum, 
which is often gathered for a Sphagnum by the uninitiated, 
but this last has none of the feather-like branches of the 
Sphagna, but only oblong-like leaves on the main stem. On 
account of the above impurities, we have places set apart 
during the present great war to pick over the Sphagnum 
mosses so as to separate them from the impurities. 

These peat mosses, as we might infer from their wonderful 
structure, are of great use in Nature, and also in social life. 

I. — In Nature. 

1. Many streams on the hills and on the hill-slopes rise in 
peat-moss beds. The result is the water flows down gradually, 
and the supply is kept up. 

2. On moorlands where they are abundant, on account 
of their capacity for retaining great quantities of water, in 
time of heavy rains they prevent flooding in the valleys below. 

3. As the new plants grow on the old ones, in time they 
drain pools and make room for higher plants, such as trees. 

4. Moist peat possesses a powerful antiseptic property, 
attributed to the presence of gallic acid and tannin ; hence, 
under peat, in perfect preservation, there are not only ancient 

Naturalist 



Ingham: Sphagna.. 351 

trees, leaves, fruit, etc., but sometimes animal bodies. It 
may be said that bacteria cannot exist under peat mosses. 

II. — Ix Social Life. 

1. Sphagnum moss is now manufactured into blankets, 
carpets, rugs, wadding, paper, cardboard, and is an isolating 
materia] superior to cork. 

2. They make excellent bedding material, and when they 
become lumpy, they can be restored to their original softness 
by being taken out and placed in water, and then dried in a 
shady place. As far as we know these plants can be wetted 
and dried for an indefinite time without being subject to decay. 

3. The production of peat gas for power purposes has proved 
a success. 

4. They are admirably adapted to spreading over the floors 
of stables, which are thus kept dry and clean, a result not to be 
obtained by using straw for that purpose. 

5. The plants are used largely by gardeners in the culti- 
vation of heaths and rhododendrons, and everyone is familiar 
with them on pots of orchids. 

0. In a dry form they are sometimes used as a filling for 
pillows and mattresses, especially those used by invalids. They 
may also be wrapped around steam-pipes or packed in the walls 
of houses, where they act as a non-conducting substance. 

7. In northern regions they are used for lining clothes, 
especially boots, and as wicks for lamps. 

8. During the present great war, they are being extensively 
used in surgical dressing, being admirable for filling small pads 
to place upon wounds, because they are exceedingly light and 
also have the valuable property of being antiseptic. Another 
advantage is they are very plentiful in these islands. 

In 191 1, Warnstorf published his life's work on these plants, 
the book being known as Sphagnologia Universalis, dealing 
with the Sphagna of the whole world. 

Probably that monumental work will stand for all time. 

Mr. J. A. Wheldon, F.L.S., of Liverpool, has had the privilege 
of studying the above work, and based upon it, he produced in 
June, 1917, a Synopsis of the European Sphagna. 

On account of the close connection Sphagna have with water, 
combined with their delicate structure, we should expect great 
variation, and this has led Warnstorf to adopt forms, but most 
of these are separated from their varieties by structural differ- 
ences. Even colour with these plants has some importance, 
as the writer has found a ruby red Sphagnum in the middle of 
a yellow species, about three inches across, so the habitat in 
this case was not the cause of the difference in colour between 
the two species. 

1917 Nov. 1. 



352 Ingham : Sphagna. 

In Mr. Wheldon's Synopsis of the European Sphagna 
there are 59 species, 228 varieties and 407 forms known to the 
present time in the Continent, including the British Isles. 

Of the above numbers there are so far recorded in the British 
Isles 45 species, 134 varieties and 258 forms. 

It is clear, then, that the British Isles are very rich in 
Sphagna, not only in the numbers of species, varieties and forms, 
but in the quantity of plants as seen by the writer in his travels 
through the British Isles. 

Appended is a list of Sphagna recorded for Yorkshire only, 
to June, 1917. The place where found precedes the name of 
the collector, and the writer is responsible for all those that 
end in a place only. 

The writer is indebted to Mr. Wheldon and to the Synopsis 
for being able to bring most of his Sphagna to the new system 
as described in the Sphagnologia Universalis. 

Yorkshire Species, Varieties and Forms. 

Sphagnum fimbriatum Wils. Very common. 

var. robustum Braithw. (Near York) Anderson. 

var. validius Card., f. spectabile Warnst. (Wheeldale) ; 

f. compactum W. (Saltersgate Beck), 
var. intermedium Russ., f. densum Wheld. (Strensall Com.). 
var. tenue Grav. Common, fruiting abundantly on 

Askham Bog. 
var. laxifolium W. (Arncliffe Wood, Goathland.) 
S. Girgensohnii Russ. Not common. 

var. robustum W. (Cronkley Fell) Jones and Horrell. 
f. speciosum W. (Cronkley Fell) Jones and Horrell, 

and (Black Hambleton). 
f. coryphceum W. (Cronkley pastures) Horrell. 
f. laxifolium W. (Cronkley Fell) Jones and Horrell. 
var. microcephalum W. (Cronkley Fell and Mickle Fell) 

Jones and Horrell, and (Wheeldale). 
var. gracilescens Grav. (Cronkley pastures) Jones and 

Horrell. 
var. stachyodes Russ. (Cronkley pastures) Jones and Horrell. 
S. Russowii W. Not common. 

var. Girgensohnioides Russ. (Farngill.) 

f. flavescens Russ. (Cronkley Fell) Jones and Horrell. 
f. virescens Russ. (N.W. Yorks.) Wheldon, (Cronkley 
Fell and Mickle Fell) Jones and Horrell. 
var. rhodochromum Russ. (Cronkley Fell and pastures) 

Jones and Horrell, (near White Force), 
var. poecilum Russ. (Cronkley Fell) Jones and Horrell, 
and (Cronkley pastures). 

(To be continued J, 



353 
OLD NATURAL HISTORY MAGAZINES, ETC. 



T. SHEPPARD, M.Sc, F.G.S. 



" Yorkshire's contribution to Science " can never be final, 
and though every effort was made in the volume with that 
title (which was reviewed in this journal for May, 1916, p. 150) 
to have the record as complete as possible, one or two items 
have been since brought to light, and one publication, Wild 
Life, though briefly referred to in the book, was not dealt with 
in detail. The following notes, therefore, are supplementary 
to the volume. The writer would feel grateful for partic- 
ulars of any other publications not already noticed. The 
present opportunity is also taken of giving additional informa- 
tion in reference to some of the papers already reviewed, as 
a result of complete series having now been obtained. To 
Mr. A. Clarke, Mr. J. W. Carter, Mr. Mark L. Sykes, Mr. J. T. 
Sewell, J. P., and the Editor of The Animal World, I am in- 
debted for the help given me in securing rare items. 

WILD LIFE. 

No 1 of this excellent illustrated monthly, edited by Douglas 
English, and sold at 2/6 a part, appeared in January, 1913, 
part 6 for June completing the first number. It is quarto in 
size. The first Volume contained 398 pages, and is illustrated 
by the fine photographs of various phases of life, many being 
on tinted mounts. 

Vol. II. was completed in December, with 390 pages. The 
four parts, January to April, 1914, completed Volume III. 
with 230 pages. 

Vol. IV. contained the parts May to August, 238 pages. 

Vol. V. contains the four parts, September to December, 
1914, the covers of which still show 'edited by Douglas English.' 
In the editorial with the December number signed by Douglas 
English and C. W. R. Knight, it is apparent that both these 
gentlemen were serving in the army, and the publication is 
not quite so large, there being a total of 124 pages for the 
four months September to December. The index was issued 
separately. 

Vol. VI. contains the six parts January to June, 1915, the 
name of Mr. English disappearing from the cover with the 
April number. There is a total of 192 pages and index. 

Apparently in 1915, the Company owning the paper had 
some financial trouble, but since then Mr. Edward E. Pettitt, 
of 38 Cursitor Street, E.C., took charge of the publication, and 
is now producing it. 

Vol. VII. contained six parts from July to December, with 
a total of 232 pages, exclusive of insets. It still appears, the 
last part being Vol. IX., No. 9, for September, 1917. 

1917 Nov. 1. 



354 Old Natural History Magazines, etc. 

THE WHITBY REPOSITORY : FIRST SERIES. 

Of the new series of The Whitby Repository (2 vols. 1866-8) 
details have already been given (loc. cit. p. 87). Of the scarce 
old series, however, I had not been able to see more than 
a few odd parts, now in the Bradford Public Library, which 
were kindly lent to me by Mr. Butler Wood. Recently I have 
traced, and secured, a complete set of the nine volumes, many 
fortunately being in the original wrappers. Among the con- 
tributions are some observations on the possibility of coal 
occurring beneath Robin Hood's Bay, by William Smith, the 
geologist, which had previously escaped notice, and have been 
dealt with fully elsewhere.* As I have no knowledge of another 
set of this publication, the following particulars are given : — 

The Publications are all octavo in size. 

Vol. I. is entitled ' The Whitby Repository, and Monthly 
Miscellany : Religious, Sentimental, Literary, and Scientific. 
Volume first, 1825. Whitby : Printed and Published by R. 
Kirby, Bookseller, Bridge Street.' It contains the twelve 
monthly numbers for 1825 (3^5 pages), and a supplement, 
dealing with Kirkstall Abbey, etc., which, with the index, 
bring the total to 400 pages. It is in two columns, and we 
are informed on the last page that ' in future it will be printed 
on superior paper and not in columns.' As a frontispiece is a 
view of Kirkstall Abbey dated 1823, and there are a few other 
illustrations. 

Vol. II., containing the parts for 1826, has iv. +392 pages, 
which, with a supplement and index, brings the total to 418 
pages. There are some interesting plates. 

Vol. III. for 1827 contains 428 pages, including the. usual 
supplement, and a number of plates of Whitby Abbey, etc. 

Vol. IV. for 1828, contains twelve monthly parts and index, 
totalling 398 pages. 

Vol. V. for 1829, 388 pages. 

Vol. VI., containing the parts 61 to 72 for 1830 (the last 
part is wrongly numbered 71) with index, contains 386 pages. 
From the original covers it would seem that this publication 
was still sold at 6d. per month. 

In 1831, the publication appeared, but as ' Volume I.' 
of a new series, evidently under a different editor, the Rev 
Joseph Ketley. It contains 386 pages. 

Vol. II. of the new series (parts 13 to 24 for 1832), 384 pages. 

The last of this series containing the parts for 1833, has 
also 384 pages. The publication apparently came to an 
abrupt termination. Though there is a title page, there is no 
index, and some of the articles were ' to be continued.' 

* ' William Smith : his Maps and Memoirs, ' by the present writer, 
in Proc. Yorks. Geol. Soc, Vol. XIX., Pt. 2, pp. 75-253. 

Naturalist, 



Old Natural History Magazines, etc. 355 

YORK TOURIST SOCIETY. 

' The York Tourist Society originated from a few friends 
joining together in excursions to Castle Eden Dene or Dell, 
in Durham, and the princely Chatsworth, in Derbyshire. 
These visits took place in the year 1865, when Edward Wade, 
Esq., J. P., was the Lord Mavor of the City of York, and 
accompanied the party.' Mr." Wade was the President, and 
Mr. Henry Brearey, Hon-Secretary. ' In course of time, the 
Society gradually increased in numbers, and Mr. R. W. 
\nderson has taken the place of Mr. Brearey as Hon. Secretary. 
It was not until the Spring of 1873, that any Tourist Papers 
were written, since then, however, the author, Dr. Procter, 
Mr. G. C. Baskett, Mr. J. L. Foster, and others, have occasion- 
ally illustrated the movements of the Society.' 

" The above particulars are taken from ' Tourist Rambles 
in Yorkshire, Lincolnshire, Durham, Northumberland and 
Derbyshire, by J. Brown, York, 1878.' 269 pp., a copy of 
which has recently come into my possession. 

The first paper is ' Tours in Yorkshire,' an Address delivered 
at the York Institute on November 21st, 1876. Other papers 
deal with Wensleydale, Coningsboro' Castle, Wharfedale, 
Durham and Northumberland, Scoreby Woods, Pickering 
Castle, Lincolnshire, Saltburn, Teesdale, Durham, Derbyshire, 
Crayke Castle, etc., Burton Picture Gallery, York Roman 
City Wall, and the Eastern Question. 

THE ANIMAL WOR] D. 

In January, [906, appeared No. 1 of Volume 1. of The 
Animal World, an illustrated quarto Magazine, published under 
the auspices of the R.S.P.C.A. It has been issued regularly 
ever since, the 12 monthly part- for each year forming a 
Volume, and each part is sold at 2d. The publication is devoted 
to the interests of the Society, and contains many Natural 
History notes and records. In recenl years, the covers have 
been artistically coloured. Volume I. contained 320 pages, 
which has been the average number ever since. 

THE ECONOMK NATURALIST. 

Through the kindness of a Huddersfield friend, I have 
recently obtained a complete set of this journal, consistin 
10 parts the last two being numbered g and to, and n and 
12 respectively. Parts 1-8, January to August, were sold 
at 2d. each, the remaining two parts at [d. in addition to the 
numbered pages are various supplements for Labelling insects, 
printed on one side of the paper only. There are also other 
supplements, printed on both sides of the paper, which are 
separately numbered* 

* This description takes the place of thai appearing m ' Yorkshire's 
Contribution to Science,' p. 1 1''. 

1917 Nov. 1. 



356 Old Natural History Magazines, etc. 

SELBORNE SOCIETY LETTERS. 

Apparently the first publication of the Selborne Society 
had the above heading, and consisted of parts 1-12, dated 
January 1st to December, 1887. They were issued without 
covers, octavo, averaged eight pages, and were sold at id. 
each, though the December number, which consists of pages 
137-158, and has a title, was sold at 2d. The nature of the 
publication can be ascertained from the following extract from 
the first page : — 

It is intended from time to time to issue Letters (after 
the manner of Gilbert White) on the objects and work of the 
Selborne Society, to be written by Members who have a special 
knowledge of the subject of which they treat.' 

THE SELBORNE MAGAZINE. 

On page 148 of ' Yorkshire's Contributions to Science,' I 
gave an account of Nature Notes, the Selborne Society's 
Magazine, and as my set commences with Vol. I. of that journal, 
dated 1890, I assumed that I had all the publications. Mr. 
Mark Webb informs me, however, that previous to Nature 
Notes, another Magazine was published, and I have since 
managed to obtain the two Volumes issued. They are small 
octavo in size, and are entitled The Selborne Magazine ; No. 1 
is dated January, 1888, and contains 16 pages. The publica- 
tion was continued monthly, the Volume closing with page 192. 
Apparently some of the parts were re-issued, as the title pages 
of Nos. 2, 3 and 4 for February, March and April, state 
''second edition.' Unfortunately my copy of Vol. I. does not 
contain either title page or index. Vol. II., containing the 
monthly parts 13 to 24, dated from January to December, 
1889, is similar in size to the preceding, and the title page 
reads : — ' The Selborne Magazine for Lovers and Students of 
Living Nature, edited by Charles Roberts, Vol. II., 1889, 
London, John Bale & Sons, 87 Great Titchfield Street, W.' 
The index occupies 2 pages. 

THE NATURALISTS' WORLD.* 

Mr. Percy Lund has sent me a circular in reference to The 
Naturalists' World, on which occurs the words ' with which 
is incorporated The Practical Naturalist.' Volume I. of this 
journal was printed at Leeds, Vols. II. and III. at Ilkley, and 
Vol. IV. at Bradford. 

(To be continued). 



* See ' Yorkshire's Contribution to Science,' p. 104. 

Naturalist, 



357 
CUMBERLAND DRAGONFLIES. 



F. H. DAY, F.E.S. 



Leucorrhinia dubia Lind. Apparently a very local species 
in Cumberland, but I met with it in abundance in June and 
July last on Cumwhitton Moss. There are many similar 
' mosses ' in the county, most of which I have collected over, 
without however noticing this striking insect. The male is 
more abundant than the female. The flight of this species is 
somewhat slow, and it loves to skim over the surface of ponds 
and ditches, and hover gracefully over clumps of rushes or 
other aquatic vegetation, but it is easily alarmed and then 
darts off with a soaring flight far beyond the reach of a net. 
It also takes short, jerky flights over the heather, alighting on 
a patch of exposed peat, and tempting one into pursuit, but 
on the rough ground this is not always an easy matter. 

Sympetrum scoticum Don. A typical ' moss " dragonfly, 
but at the same time decidedly local. It is common in the 
Bowness-on-Solway district. Other localities are Lazonby 
Fell, Orton, and near Keswick. It occurs throughout August. 
Occasionally it occurs in marshy meadows far away from its 
usual habitat. It haunts the ditches and ponds on the ' mosses,' 
but often indulges in flight over the heather. Owing to its 
inconspicuous colours, it is not easily followed. Examples of 
immature development are much easier to see when in flight. 

Libellula quadrimaculata Linn. Another ' moss ' species 
which I have taken on Bolton Fell, Newton Reigny, Bowness 
and Hay ton Mosses. It is an earlier species than the last. My 
earliest date is May 25th. I saw many (and captured some) 
in the first week of August this year, which were getting 
tattered and faded, albeit still strong on the wing. I have 
sometimes found it resting among the heather on sunless 
days. 

Orthetrum ccerulescens Fabr. I captured a male of this 
insect in Borrowdale on June 30th, 1903 (E.M.M., 1904, 
p. 111). I am unaware of its further occurrence in Cumberland. 

Cordulegaster annulatus Latr. This species occurs with us 
only in the Lake district so far as I am aware. It is a most 
vigorous insect on the wing, often flying far out across the 
water and in consequence is difficult to capture, although not 
at all scarce. I have it noted from Derwent water, Ullswater, 
Crummock and Buttermere, for the month of July. 

sEschna juncea Linn. Fairly common in Cumberland. 
Localities are Orton, Newton Reigny Moss, Wan Fell, Cum- 
whitton Moss and Bowness Moss. In the first-named locality 
it frequents lanes on the outskirts of the wood, and I have 
found the nymphs in boggy ponds in clearings in the wood. 
The other localities are open peat mosses where the insect may 

1917 Nov. 1. 



35& Day : Cumberland Dragonflies. 

be freely observed shooting like an arrow over the pools and 
ditches. It occurs from the end of June to late September. 

sE. cyanea Mull. Scarce. I have only taken two specimens 
myself — both near Carlisle. It is more southerly in its range 
than the preceding species.* 

Calopteryx virgo Linn. Frequents the edges of small 
streams which are fringed with osiers and alders. My only 
localities are the River Petteril near Carlisle, and the Derwent 
near Seathwaite. It is on the wing in June and July. I have 
not, however, seen it for some years, and have always con- 
sidered it a rather scarce insect. 

Pyrrhosoma nymphula Sulz. Common and widely distrib- 
uted in this county, frequenting heaths, streamsides, and 
marshy ground in fir woods. I have even taken it in my 
garden. It seems most at home among the ponds on the 
peat mosses, its beautiful crimson colour (when mature) being 
very striking. It occurs from May to August. 

Ischnura elegans Lind. One of our commonest species, 
occurring similarly to the last. Very abundant at the Black 
dub near Carlisle, and on Solway Moss. The middle of June 
is its usual time, but it lingers until August. 

Agrion pulchellum Lind. Newton Reigny Moss near 
Penrith, June 25th, 1905, four specimens. It is possible this 
species may occur more generally. It may easily be overlooked 
for the closely, allied A. puella. 

A. puella Linn. Common. I have found it all over the 
county. 

Enallagma cyathigerum Charp. Somewhat uncommon. I 
have it from Solway Moss, and Kingmoor, and it has occurred 
near Brampton and Keswick. My captures were made in June. 



MOLLUSC A. 
Vitrea Jucida at Louth, Lines. — About 1-30 p.m. on 
September 20th, my youngest daughter called my attention 
to a ' snail ' crawling up the wall in our yard at 46 Westgate, 
Louth. This was a fine specimen of Vitrea lucida ; when 
crawling the animal measured, from posterior extremity to tip 
of tentacle, 32 mm. ; the animal and shell, alive, weighed 
11 grains, the shell only 3 grains. Breadth of shell (greatest 
diameter) 16 mm., (smallest) 14 mm. ; height of shell, 7 mm. 
When found, a number of mites were running about the animal. 
I believe this is only the second specimen recorded for the 
county. — C. S. Carter, Louth. 

* In my experience JEschna cyavrea is much commoner in Yorkshire 
than is /£. j'uncea, especially in the southern division. This year, how- 
ever, Dr. W. J. Fordh m found JE. juncea in plenty on September 4th, 
at Bishopdale, near Buckden. — G.T.P. 

Natura'ist,. 



359 
PREHISTORIC REMAINS AT DONCASTER. 

A. JORDAN. 



Four or five years ago extensive alterations were carried out 
by removing the turf and levelling large areas on Doncaster 
Race Common. The race track was sunk in one part, and 
large elevated grounds were made near the grand stand. 

During these alterations I paid constant visits, and on the 
Rose Hill side I found several neolithic flint flakes. A flint 
flake knife, nearly three inches long, of red flint ; the other 
flakes are blue, except one which is quite black. Near the 
grand stands I found a flint scraper and a flint disc. 

The flint disc is a peculiar implement and its use not clear. 
It is found in varied numbers, often with the dead, and by 
early writers was thought to have been some sort of currency, 
possibly to pay toll on the journey to the next world. 

Many years ago one of the finest polished axes ever 
found in Yorkshire was obtained on the Common, and is now 
in the Doncaster Museum ; also of interest was the discovery 
under the turf over a very large area, of long strips of land, 
like occupation plots, about forty feet wide and three to four 
hundred yards long. 

They were in the southern part of the Common, at the foot 
of Rose Hill, parallel to each other, and each plot extending 
in a southerly direction. 

I pointed this out to the Borough Surveyor, Mr. Kirby, 
who said he had noticed similar plots near the grand stand, 
which had been covered up before I saw them. 

It is pleasant to think the Doncaster Race Common, which, 
in peace times, gives pleasure to thousands with its racing, was 
also the settlement of men in neolithic times, a people who built 
the foundation of our present life. 



YORKSHIRE NATURALISTS' UNION 
BOTANICAL SECTION. 



C A. CHEETHAM. 



The annual meeting of this section was held at the Institute, 
Leeds, on Saturday, October 6th ; the President of the Section, 
Mr. E. Snelgrove, B.A., occupied the chair. Reports were 
submitted by the secretaries of the committees and, after 
discussion, were adopted for submission to the annual meeting 
of the Union, together with suggested alterations to the officers 
of the various committees. 

Mr. E. Chas. Horrell gave an address on alien plants, 

1917 Nov. 1. 



360 Yorkshire Naturalists' Union :„ Botanical Section. 

giving percentages of the various natural orders represented in 
the different area groups ; his paper was illustrated by a large 
series of specimens, and evoked much interesting discussion. 
The spread of the Pineapple weed (Matricaria discoidea), 
which Mr. J. Beanland cited as a rarity thirty years ago and 
seen on Baildon Green, is now lining the roadsides by the 
loneliest farm buildings in the wildest localities, and seems an 
example of distribution more striking than the Canadian water 
weed of a previous generation. 

lmpatiens glandulifera which is now a feature of most of 
our river sides, as cited by Mr. W. B. Haley, is only a quite 
recent introduction ; he also mentioned Convolvulus americanus 
as making headway on the banks of the Calder. 

Dr. H. H. Corbett gave some particulars of the 
vegetation of Martin Beck Wood, on the border of Yorkshire 
and Nottinghamshire. The Doncaster Scientific Society have 
had permission to work here during the past year, and there 
are some interesting features. The wood is on the summit of 
a Bunter sand hill and has a local peat bog with Myrica gale 
and Carduus pratensis, the latter a very infrequent plant 
in Yorkshire ; it is intended to publish a full report on the 
place later. 

Dr. T. W. Woodhead, M.Sc, reported on some experiments 
the Huddersfield Corporation have made with Professor 
Bottomley's bacteriaized peat ; he showed a number of photo- 
graphs, the general results being disappointing, and the con- 
clusion is that, on a commercial scale, it is unsuccessful, not- 
withstanding the striking laboratory experiments conducted 
with it on Duckweed in petrie dishes at the Imperial Institute. 

Mr. Cockerline showed and commented on a series of plants 
collected around Arncliffe and Upper Wharf edale, and also some 
interesting sheets of Ranunculus ficaria to which his attention 
had been directed by Miss Johnstone's paper in The Naturalist. 

Mr. W. H. Burrell had an exhibit of some of the 
most interesting mosses from the Leeds City area, which were 
recorded in his paper in The Naturalist, on pp. 119-124. 

The experiment of an indoor meeting with papers, in place 
of the usual excursion, proved quite successful, the present 
difficulties of transit being the reason for the change. 

: o : 



Unusual Sites of Starlings' Nests. — This year I found 
a Starling's nest in an old wall, where a stone had been removed. 
It was quite open and only about a foot from the ground. I 
found another perfectly open nest in a ruined windmill near 
York. Some bricks had fallen out, from the side of the door- 
way, below the eye level, and here a starling had built a nest 
in quite a Blackbird-like style. — R. Fortune. 

Naturalist, 



3n flftemoriam. 



361 



ROBERT BRA1THWAITE. 

Born at Ruswarp, 10th May, 1824. 
Died in London, 20th October, 1917. 

By the decease of Robert Braithwaite at the ripe age of 
ninety-three, bryological science has lost one of the greatest 




of her votaries and Yorkshire one of the most distinguished 
of her sons. 

Born at Ruswarp, near Whitby, on the 10th of May, 1824, 
lie was not the least brilliant of the galaxy of botanists who 
have sprung from the soil of North-East Yorkshire, the worth}' 
contemporary of such men as Spruce, Massee, Stabler, Ibbetson, 
to name but a few of those who have passed away, and whose 
survivors still remain in the honoured names of Matthew B. 
Slater and John Gilbert Baker. 

1917 Nov. 1. 



3t>2 In Memoriam : Robert Braithwaite. 

He was the eldest son of Robert Braithwaite, a Whitby 
shipowner, but he did not remain long in his native county. 

He studied for the medical profession, which he entered in 
1858, taking his M.R.C.S.Eng. and L.S.A. qualifications in 
that year after study at University College, London. He 
took his M.D. degree at the University of St. Andrews in 1865, 
and his professional career was spent in. the Metropolis, in the 
Clapham district. 

He was a devoted student of the mosses, upon which he 
became one of the greatest authorities. In 1880, he produced 
a most important monograph of the Sphagnacese, or Peat- 
mosses of Europe and North America, with 29 coloured plates 
from his own drawings. 

But in 1879 he commenced, and in 1905 completed, his 
great work, ' The British Moss-Flora,' which extended to three 
volumes — a truly monumental production — full and detailed 
in every respect, and illustrated by a series of fine plates from 
the author's own drawings and dissections ; a work which 
will stand for years to come as the indispensable companion 
of every student of the British moss-flora, and which can never 
be superseded. The fact that other manuals on the British 
mosses have since appeared is but a further tribute to the 
excellence of Braithwaite's work, upon which, of necessity, all 
subsequent investigation must be based. 

Devoted as he was to the completion of his magnum opus, 
there are not many smaller papers of his. The Royal Society's 
Catalogue of Scientific Papers enumerates 17, all on bryological 
subjects, published from 1868 to 1883 in The Journal of Botany, 
Grevillea, Popular Science Review, Quekett Club Journal and 
Monthly Microscopical Journal, those in the last-named 
periodical constituting a series of papers on bog-mosses, during 
the years 1871-5. To Trimen and Thiselton Dyer's Flora of 
Middlesex he contributed the list of mosses. 

He was a Fellow, and attended Meetings, of various Societies 
in London. He became a Fellow of the Linnean Society on 
the 5th February, 1863, served as Vice-President in 1889-1891, 
and on the Council, 1872-74. 

He was elected Fellow of the Royal Microscopical Society 
in i860 and was President for the year 1892, his address, the 
subject of which was the ' Anatomy of Mosses,' being delivered 
on the 18th January, 1893, and subsequently printed in the 
J.R.M.S. for April, 1893, pp. 137-144. 

He also took an active interest in the affairs of the Quekett 
Microscopical Club and in the Ray Society, in both of which 
he served on the Council. He was elected member of the 
Quekett Club on 27th October 1865, and was its President for 
the years 1872 and 1873. 

He was President of the Yorkshire Naturalists' Union for 

Naturalist 



Field Notes. 363 

1895, and not by any means the least distinguished of the 
goodly array of Yorkshire scientific celebrities who have 
occupied that position. His presidential address, delivered on 
the 30th of October of that year at York, was upon " The Study 
of Mosses," and it is a gratifying recollection that one of the 
ablest of the Yorkshire bryologists of to-day traces his in- 
spiration to that address. In this connection we should like 
to refer to The Naturalist for September 1903, where there is 
an illustration from a photograph showing Robert Braithwaite 
and Matthew B. Slater at Bowes, an interesting reminiscence 
of the two leaders in the kindred subjects of mosses and 
hepatics. 

Of his private life we have little information — except that 
his marriage was into a botanical family — for in 1869, he wedded 
Charlotte Elizabeth, the. daughter of the celebrated botanist, 
N. B. Ward, F.R.S., of Clapham Rise. 

He retired from the practice of his profession in 1S99, and 
in 1905 he completed his life's work by the publication of the 
final part of his British Mosses. Thenceforth, he continued 
to reside in suburban London, crowned with length of days and 
with the honour and respect felt for him by all who knew him 
and his works. — R. 



FIELD NOTES. 
CECIDOLOGY. 

Records of two rare Wasp = GalIs {Cynipidae) front 
Yorkshire. — Whilst collecting in the Leeds area last week- 
end, we found the following Wasp-Galls, both of which are 
worthy of record. 

Aulacidea pilosellce was added to the British List on examples 
found by Dr. J. W. H. Harrison and R. S. Bagnall in the county 
of Durham, where it is very local, but sometimes occurs in 
numbers. Close search for it in Northumberland and Lan- 
cashire on numerous occasions has always proved fruitless. It 
affects the midrib of Hieracium pilosella, causing a short 
swelling, generally discoloured yellowish to red, and' containing 
a solitary yellow larva. A Cecidomyid midge causes an identical 
gall, but the larva is of an orange colour. Yorks., in a field 
near Bardsey (Barry Stewart). 

Xestophanes brevitarsis Thorns, on Potentilla tormentilla, 
galls never fused. Yorks., Roundhay Park, Leeds (R. S. 
Bagnall). — Richard S. Bagnall and Barry Stewart, October 
10th, 1917. 

Galls of the Alpine Rose {Rhododendron ferrugineum). — 
Not long ago I spent a pleasant half-hour in my friend Mr. 
Lofthouse's moraine garden at Linthorpe, near Middlesbrough, 
and had the opportunity of examining some galled plants of 

1917 Nov. 1. 



364 Field Notes. 

Rhododendron ferrugineum, finding the galls of a midge (Perrisia 
rhododendroni KiefT.), of a mite (Eriophyes alpestris Nal.) and a 
fungus (E xobasidhim rhododendri) , all of which are well enough 
known on the Continent, and are of interest to us as following 
the plant into garden cultivation. I do not know of previous 
British records. 

Perrisia rhododendroni causes a bud-like gall at the ex- 
tremity of a twig or branch. I only saw two larvae. 

Eriophyes alpestris (with another species, Phyllocoptes 
thomasi) exhibits signs of its presence in the longitudinal 
marginal rolling of the leaves. It also causes double flowers. 

The fungus, Exobasidium rhododendri, causes most re- 
markable hypertrophies in the shape of cherry-like structures 
upon the leaves, sometimes attaining the size of a large walnut, 
pale at first, becoming reddish and shining. It appears in 
July, is known as the ' Alpine Rose Apple,' and is sweet to 
the taste. It seldom deforms the leaf and seems to follow the 
mite-gall. — R. S. Bagnall, F.L.S. 

— : o :— 
LEPIDOPTERA. 
Lepidoptera at Louth. — Convolvulus Hawk Moths have 
been fairly common this season in Louth and district. The 
first I saw was brought to me on September 1st, caught in Louth. 
The Peacock butterfly, which is usually somewhat rare here, 
has been fairly common, as also has the Red Admiral. — 
C. S. Cartek, Louth. 

Chserocampa celerio at Scarborough. — On Sept. 13th 
a neighbour brought me a living Hawk Moth taken at rest on 
his garden gate. It was a stranger to me, but turned out to be 
Chcerocampa celerio $. I wrote Mr. H. W. Head, of Burniston, 
as to the possibility of its being an escape from his ' butterfly 
farm,' but he replies that he has never once bred this insect. 
I have the specimen. — D. W. Bevan, Scarborough. 

— : o : — 
HYMENOPTERA. 
Qonatopus pedestris Dalm. , in Cumberland. — The 

interesting note and figure of this insect in The Naturalist 
(antea p. 276) reminded me that I had captured something like 
it. I have since had my specimen verified in London as 
G. pedestris Dalm. I beat it from Elder flowers in July last, 
on the ' Fell Road,' between Wath Brow and Egremont, in 
Cumberland. It was very active, running on my beating 
sheet like a Pezomachus. I should think its habits are pre- 
darious, its large eyes (occupying the whole of the sides of the 
head), the muscular anterior femora and peculiar arrangement 
and form of the tarsal claws suggesting this. Its prey may be 

Naturalist, 



Field Notes. 365 

Formica fusca, which was not uncommon where my capture 
was made. There is a figure of it, along with some notes, 
in a paper on ' Insect Oddities,' by Mr. E. A. Butler, in 
Knowledge for 1902, p. 258. There is also an indifferent 
figure of it in Buckton's ' British Cicadae,'— Jas. Murray, 
2 Balfour Road, Carlisle. 

BOTANY. 

Hedge Bedstraw in Wharfedale. — A funny — and punny 
—lapse was made by me, writing current e calamo in The 
Naturalist for October (p. 329), when I stated that the great 
Hedge Bedstraw had ' got ' up Wharfedale per vias naturalibus, 
possibly fodder waggoned too, to ' Coniston Cold.' Meeting a 
formerly fellow, who seemed to be a resident near the Bridge 
lane by Kilnsey, I asked him the name of the hamlet I saw 
couched on the north bank of the river, and he replied, I thought, 
' It's cauld Coniston.' He meant — called, and I imagined it 
was ' Cold,' whereas it was I who was ' cold ' as the children's 
' findy ' game has it. Mr. C. Cheetham detected the slip, and 
points out that Coniston Cold is near Malham, in Aire-Craven. 
Mr. J. Beanland adds that now this hedgebank straw grows as 
high as Hubberholme in the bed of the dale by Buckden, at 
quite 850 feet altitude. I quite credit it ; in nature no zonal 
limit is a rigid barrier line. Ascending species, and Des- 
cending species overlap and bypass a given figure based on 
averages with plus-minus modifications in vegetative ' charac- 
ters.' — F. A. Lees. 



BIRDS. 

Starlings and Berries. — My elderberry trees, which were 
covered with fruit, have again been completely stripped by the 
starlings, which appear to relish the juicy fruit, for as fast as 
the berries have ripened they have cleared them. Several 
Mountain Ash trees were also covered with fruit, these too 
have also been quite cleared by the starlings. — R. Fortune. 

Fowls and Aeroplanes. — We have aeroplanes almost 
daily over my house, sometimes a dozen at a time. It is very 
interesting to note the effect they have on my fowls. When the 
hum of the propellor is first heard, though the planes themselves 
cannot be seen, the birds bolt, helter-skelter, for cover under 
some large elderberry trees, remaining there until the last 
sound has been inaudible for some time. — R. Fortune. 

Starling v. Blackbird.— A friend of mine living in 
Duchy Road, Harrogate, informs me that a Blackbird en- 
deavoured to build a nest in a Yew Tree, opposite his dining- 
room window. The foundation of the nest was laid several 

1917 Nov. 1. 



366 Field Notes. 

times, but each time a Starling came and went off with the 
materials to its own nesting site, This continued until the 
Blackbird became discouraged and sought a fresh nesting 
place. — R. Fortune. 

Varieties of the Starling. — An albino starling, a bird of 
the year, was knocked down with a walking stick at Birstwith 
in June. The plumage was cream coloured, some of the 
feathers being edged with faint buff, the eyes being pink. A 
very noticeable bird is flying about our neighbourhood at the 
time of writing (October). His plumage is normal with the 
exception of the tail, which is quite white, making him very 
conspicuous, especially when flying. — R. Fortune. 

Blackbird Singing in Severe Winter Weather. — Fast 
spring when the conditions in Harrogate were almost Arctic, 
a blackbird which had frequented my garden all winter (he 
was without a tail, so easily recognised) sang daily before my 
window just before going to roost, which he regularly did in 
some ivy growing on the house side. He generally perched in 
a small chestnut tree. In early April when the weather was 
particularly severe, his song was rather half-hearted, but 
nevertheless he persisted. Afterwards, when the weather 
improved somewhat, he betook himself to a large elm, and the 
first sound I heard every morning was his song, for he had a 
particularly fine voice. Song Thrushes and many other 
birds suffered severely during last winter and spring, the 
mortality being very great, but strange to relate, Blackbirds 
did not suffer very much. — R. Fortune. 

Notes on the Pied Wagtail— The autumn of 1916 was 
remarkable for the great number of Pied Wagtails frequenting 
the neighbourhood of my house. I first noticed them particu- 
larly on August 31st, when a large flock of at least 200 birds 
was hawking about for insects, in quite a swallow-like manner. 
They were there for some time. After that date until Sep- 
tember 15th, numbers passed over every evening from 7 to 
7-30, flying in a direct line from north to south, and during the 
day they were to be seen in the roadways and on the lawns in 
every garden in the neighbourhood. I frequently had a 
dozen or more at one time in my garden. On September 7th, 
I was in the centre of the town when a large flock passed over, 
flying high, from the N.W. to the S.E. This movement con- 
tinued throughout September. On Oct. 3rd the numbers about 
during the day had greatly diminished, and on the 7th I saw 
only five during the whole of the day, and after that they dis- 
appeared. I did not see any more until April 6th of this year, 
when to my surprise I saw a big flock of two to three hundred 
birds at the junction of Ripon Road and Swan Road ; this was 
in the early evening. They were scattered about on the roofs of 

Naturalist, 



Field Notes. 367 

the houses and perched in some ash trees. Two houses in 
Ripon Road, had ornamental ridge coping tiles, with arrow-like 
heads every nine inches or so, and on every point a wagtail 
was perched. They were there again on the following evening, 
after which I saw them no more. This influx was particularly 
remarkable, owing to the severe wintry conditions then pre- 
vailing, thick snow and keen frost which had persisted for 
some weeks. — R. Fortune, Harrogate. 

Nesting of the Long-tailed Titmouse in Upper Wharfe- 
dale. — During the last few years there has been good evidence 
that the Long-tailed Tit has been returning to this district. 
At the first small parties were reported in the non-breeding 
months of the year ; but last summer (ante 1916, p. 267 and 
1917, p. 36), we were pretty certain that at the least two pairs 
nested in Bolton Woods, and another pair in the Middleton 
Wood, on the opposite of the river Wharfe to Ilkley ; but with 
our limited leisure we were not able to actually locate a nest. 
On June 9th, of this year, Mr. T. Roose showed me a nest 
of this species in Bolton Woods, not very far from the Abbey : 
but across the river. It was in a most unusual situation for 
a nest of the Long-tailed Tit, and was difficult to see, being in 
the broad bare fork of a tall Ash tree, and at the least forty-five 
feet from the ground. At that distance it exactly matched the 
Ash bark and the lichens upon it. The birds, or at least one 
bird, was feeding young in the nest, and by their actions I 
judged that the nest contained recently-hatched chicks. That 
is if this species behaves like the other Titmice ; which with 
newly-hatched babes, the female alone enters the nest with 
food. The male attends her on her excursions for food, and 
returns with her to within two or three yards of the nest. He 
then hops about with an occasional note, or a subdued snatch 
of his song, until she comes out of the nest ; when he again 
accompanies her on her journey. In two or three days he 
takes his share in the feeding of the family and before long 
both work independently and indefatigably. However, as 
this was the first nest of the Long-tailed Tit I had seen in 
Upper Wharfedale (or in Upper Airedale) for near, if not 
quite, a quarter of a century (ante 101*9, PP- 55~57), I was 
naturally delighted to watch them at work. The same day, 
I saw another pair in the sam. woods— on the island higher 
up the river—but failed to find evidence of their nesting — 
though most probably they would be.- Harry B. Booth, 
Ben Rhydding. 



Hull Museum Publication, No. 112 (32 pp. and plates, price one 
penny) contains reprints of illustrated papers on Bronze-Age weapons, 
and on a new Lima from the English Chalk, by Mr. T. Sheppard, M.Sc., 
and several papers on Iceland Mollusca, by Mr. Hans Schlesch. 



l'J17 Nov. 1. 



368 

NORTHERN NEWS, etc. 

The death is announced of Prof. C. E. Bertrand, the pakeobotanist. 

The Journal of the Board of Agriculture for September contains an 
illustrated article on ' Blackleg ' or Black Stem-Rot in potatoes. 

In the Annals of the South African Museum, Vol. XVII., pt. i, the 
Rev. T. R. R. Stebbing, F.R.S., contributes part 9 of his monograph on 
' South African Crustacea.' 

In Nature for October 25th Mr. E. E. Lowe, of the Leicester Museum, 
gives the results of some of his researches in connexion with the ' Isle of 
Wight Disease ' in the Honey Bee. 

Punch tells us that to catch a butterfly, the best way is to crash a 
chopper down on its third vertebra. Of course this is a joke, as Punch 
knows butterflies have no vertebrae. 

The Entomologist's Record for October contains a paper on ' New and 
Rare British Cecidomyidae, ' by R. S. Bagnall and J. W. H. Harrison, 
which includes a number of northern records. 

In Vol. IX., part 3 of the Annotationes Zoologicce Japonenses, Madoka 
Sasaki has a note ' On the male of Amphitretus pelagicus Hoyle,' and 
also ' Diagnoses of Four New Species of Polypus.' 

We have received a ' Report of a Speech by the Right Hon. R. E. 
Prothero, M.P., addressed to Agriculturists at the Mechanics' Institute, 
Darlington, Friday, 5th October, 19 17 (12 pages), published by Darling 
and Son, Ltd., Bacon Street, E.2. 

In the presidential address to the Manchester Literary and Philo- 
sophical vSociety recently, Mr. W. Thompson gave a sketch of the Society's 
work since its inauguration in 1781, as a continuation of the Warrington 
Academy, which was founded in 1757. 

The Royal College of Surgeons has issued an interesting Descriptive 
Catalogue of the Surgical Instruments (Hunterian Relics). (16 pages), 
prepared by Alban H. G. Doran. It includes illustrations of various 
instruments and other relics once the property of John Hunter, each of 
which is carefully described. 

Our old friend and contributor Mr. J. G. Baker, F.R.S., favours us 
with a reprint of his paper on ' the Botany of Burnham Beeches,' from 
The Journal of Botany ; and Mr. D. A. Jones sends reprints of his papers 
on ' New Varieties of British Mosses, Muscineae of Achill Island, and the 
Mosses and Hepatics of the South-west of Anglesey. 

Among the contents of Wild Life for September, are papers on 
' The Marsh Harrier, ' by A Burdet ; ' The Story of a Long-Eared Owl, ' 
by Edwin L. Wood ; ' Abnormal Colour in Mammals, ' by Dr. F. D. 
Welch ; ' Botanical Notes from Watlington, Oxon,' by G. Abbey; most of 
which are illustrated in the familiar way. There is an illustration of a 
Bearded Tit at its nest, apparently a Norfolk example. 

The death is announced of Prof. Edward Hull, F.R.S., in his eighty- 
ninth year. Prof. Hull was late Director of the Geological Survey of 
Ireland. He wrote a number of books and papers on the Coalfields of 
Britain and wrote or contributed to a large number of Geological Survey 
Memoirs, and maps, many of which referred to the north of England. 
In the recently published ' Bibliography of Yorkshire Geology,' he is 
responsible for about thirty items. 

We much regret to record the death of George Charles Crick, of the 
Geological Department of the British Museum, which occurred on October 
1 8th. He was born in 1856. He made a special study of fossil Cephalo- 
poda, and was one of the best authorities on that subject. Though he 
has been in failing health for some time, he was at work at the Museum 
until the day before his death. He contributed to many scientific 
Societies' Proceedings and Journals, including The Naturalist.. 

Naturalist, 



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Twelve Illustrations, beautifully printed in colours and Mounted on Stout 
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ENEMIES OF THE GARDEN 

Reproduced in the very best style of Lithography from, special designs by 
H. W. BRUTZER, M.A., F.E.S. 

THE 12 ILLUSTRATIONS ABE AS FOLLOWS : 

1. OUTLINE OF INSECT LIFE.— Hymenoptera, Coleoptera, Lepi- 

doptera, details. 

2. LACKEY MOTH. — Egg, Caterpillar, Nest, Cocoons, Female Lackey- 

Moth, Egg Cluster. 

3. SMALL ERMINE MOTH.— Eggs, Caterpillar, Cocoons, Ermine Moth, 

Nest in Apple Tree. 

4. GOOSEBERRY SAWFLY.— Egg, Larva, Larva (last stage), Leaf, 

Sawfly, Branch, Cocoon. 

5. ASPARAGUS BEETLE.— Eggs, Larva, Beetle, Pupa, Asparagus 

stripped of leaves, Cocoon. 

6. BLACK CURRANT MITE.— Mite, Big Bud on Branch, Section of 

Bud with Mites. 

7. RASPBERRY STEM BUD CATERPILLAR.— Caterpillar, Chrysalis, 

Moth (enlarged), Raspberry Cane. 

8. MILLIPEDES and CENTIPEDES.— Three destructive Millipedes and 

two useful Centipedes. 

9. SCALE. — Currant Scale, Scale on Aralia and Myrtle Leaves and Mussel 

Scale. 

10. WIREWORMS. — Click Beetle and Skip Jack showing details. 

11. PEA THRIPS, COCKCHAFER, DADDY LONGLEGS, WOOD- 

LOUSE and EARWIG, showing sections and "details. 

12. SOME USEFUL INSECTS.— Dragon Fly, Ichneumon Fly, Lady Bird, 

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There are other insects, however, that are our Allies, as they live on the 
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London : A. BROWN & SONS, Ltd., 5 Farringdon Avenue, E.C. 4 
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Printed at Browns' Savilb Press, 40, George Street, Hull, and published by 
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Nov. 1st, 191 7. 






DEC. 1917. 



No. 731 

(No. 506 of current uriet! 




A MONTHLY ILLUSTRATED JOURNAL OF 

NATURAL HISTORY FOR THE NORTH OF ENGLAND, 

EDITED BY 

M.Sc, F.Q.S., F.R.Q.S., F.S.A.Scot., 

The Museums, Hull ; 

AND 

WOODHEAD, Ph.D., M.Sc, F.L.S., 

Technical College, Huddersfield. ^<rT^ tn i,, . 

WITH THE ASSISTANCE AS REFEREES IN SPECIAL DEPARTMENTS OF 

J. GILBERT BAKER, P.R.S. F.L.S., (JEO. T. PORRITT, P.L.S.. P.E.S., 

Prof. P. P. KENDALL, M.Sc. P.Q.S., JOHN W. TAYLOR, M.Sc., \ 

RILEY FORTUNE, F.Z.S. 



T. SHEPPARD, 



T. W. 




Contents : — 

Notes and Comments (illustrated):— Primitive Man; Unwritten History; The Piltdown 
Man ; Manchester Geological and Mining Society ; The Ingleton Slates; Studies in Edrio- 
asteroidea ; Science Progress ; Huddersfield Naturalists ; Bedfordshire ; Prehistoric 
Society of East Anglia ; Other Papers ; Monograph of Mollusca ; Portraits ; The Museum ; 
Future Museums ; Architects and Museums ; Types of Museums ; Modern Man and his 
Forerunners ; Extinct Forms ; A Conclusion ; Lancashire and Cheshire Entomologists ; 
From the Beeeh Woods ; The Writing on the Tree 



369-378 
379-386 
387-391 
392-397 



The Colonist- Alien Heron-Bills of Yorkshire— F. Arnold Lees, M. R.C.S.Eng., etc. 

Old Natural History Magazines, etc.— T. Sheppard, M.Sc, F.G.S 

Sphagna — Win. Ingham, B. A. 

Field Notes:— Pied Wagtails, etc., on Migration ; Breeding of the Long-tailed Tit in Aire- 
dale; Analysis of Water from Manvers Main Colliery, Wath, near Rotherham ; Sphinx 
convolvuli in the Scarborough District in the Autumn of 1917 ; Prehistoric Remains at 
Doncaster 391, 398-399 



Reviews and Book Notices 

News from the Magazines 

Northern News 

Illustrations 

Title = Page, List of Contributors, and Index to this Yolume. 



397, 399 
400 
400 
374 



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Archaeological Cantiana. Vol. I. 

M.Simpson. Fossils of Yorks. Lias. i2mo. ist ed.,