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THE 



NATURALISnrjaN24i92o) 

MONTHLY JOURNAL OF 

NATURAL HISTORY POR THE NORTH OP ENGLAND, 

EDITED BY 

THOS. SHEPPARD, M.Sc, F.G.S., F.R.G.S., F.S. A.(Scot.). 

Curator of the Municipal Museums, Hull. 

Hon. Member of the Vokkshirk Naturalists' Union; the Spalding Gentlemen's 
Society; the Doncastek Scientific Society; the Seley Scientific Society. 

AND 

THOMAS WILLIAM WOODHF.AD, Ph.D., M.Sc, F.L.S. 

Lecturer in iiioi.oGV, Technical College, HuniiFRSFiELn ; 

with the assistance AS REFEREES IN SPECIAL DEPARTMENTS OF 

J. GILBERT BAKER, F.R S., F.L.S. GEORGE T. PORRITT, F.L.S., F.E.S. 

Prof. PERCY F. KEND.\LL, M.Sc, F.G.S. JOHN W. TAYLOR, M.Sc. 

RILEY FORTUNE. F.Z.S. 



1918. 



LONDON : 

A. Brown & Son.s, Ltd.. 5, F"akringi)ON Avknuh, E.C, 

And at Hi r.i. and York. 



«i?Jp>^ 



PRINTED AT BROWNS' SAVILE PRESS, 
SAVILE STREET AND GEORGE STREET. HULL. 



JAN. 1918. 



No. 732 



(No. SO? 0/ current 




A MONTHLY ILLUSTRATED JOURNAL OF 

NATURAL HISTORY FOR THE * NORTH OF ENGLAND. 



T. SHEPPARD, 



BDITBD BV 

M.Sc, F.Q.S., F.R.Q.S., F.S.A.Scot, 

Thk Museums, Hull ; 



T. W. WOODHEAD, Ph.D., M.Sc. F.L.S. 

Technical College, Huddersfield 

WITH THK assistance AS REFEREES IN SPECIAL DEPARTMENlS ,01. 



J. OILBBRT BAKBR, P.R.S. P.L.S., QRO. T. PORRIT] 

Prof. P. P. KENDALL, M.Sc. P.fl.S.. JOHN W. TAYI 

RILBY FORTUNE. F.Z.S. 



P.L.S.. f-\K.S. 



>5^: 



Contents 



f»i.»t: lA. 



Notes and Comments :— Sperm Whales (illustrated) ; Martin Simpson ; Vorkshire Scien- 
titic Societies; The Shap Minor Intrusions; Sir Archibald Geikie ; Black PupaB of 
Abraxa% gro^sulariata ; Roman Piercebridge ; Prehistoric Remains; The Geology of^ 
Bournemouth; Lincoln Naturalists ; Fairies or Beer ? ; Boomerang 1 ricks 1-6 

A Yorkshire Rector of the Eis:hteenth Century— Sir Arcihhald Geikie, OM., K.C.B., 

F.R.S., D.C.L 7-24 

Helix cartuslaaa and Helix syrlaca : Their Relationship and its Probable 

Significance—/. W. Taylor, M.Sc 35-26 

Hemlptera-Heteroptera of West Cumberland— /as. Murray 27-28 

Yorkshire Naturalists at Wakefield— PF. £. Z,. IV 29 31 

Field Notes: — Thrush Feeding on Ltm»iira sfag'/ia/is ; Bean Geese as ' Gabriel's Hounds' ; 
Tree Sparrow near Sheffield ; A Large Flock of Magpies ; Nierembergia gracilts and 
Sisymbrium a/<(sjii««;n at Theddlethorpe Sandhills; Prehistoric Remains at Poncaster ; 
Helicella gigaxii in Lincolnshire ; Nuthatch near Louth ; Common Puffin caught alive at 
CuUingworth 24,26.28,32 

Yorkshire Naturalists' Union's Report for 1917 . . 33-47 

Northern News SL.sa 

News from the Magazines 48 

Illustration 1 



LONDON : 
A. Brown & Sons, Limited, 5, Farringdon Avknub, K C 4 

And at Hull and York. 
Printers and Publishers to the Y. N. U. 



Prepaid Subscription 6/6 par annum, post free. 



BOOKS WANTED. 

Louth Ant. and Nat. Soc Reports, 1-14, 17-19. 

Alford Nat Hist Soc Reports. 

Union Jack Naturalist. Any. 

A rcbx ©logical Cantiana. Vol. I. 

M. Simpson's Giiide to Whitby, ist ed. [before 1881]. 

Journ. Postal Micro. Soc. Vols. V.-IX. 

Internat. Journ. Micros, and Nat. Sci. 1891-97. 

Journ. Micrology and Nat. Hist. Mirror. 19 14- 

Young and Bird. Geol. of Yorks. Coast. 2nd ed. 1828. 

Derby Arch and Nat. Hist Soc. Parts 17, 18, 20, 21. 

Journal Marine Biological Assoc. Vols I -IV. 

Croydon Nat Soc 6th Report, and Trans, for 1887-8. 

Yorks Ramblers' Club Journal. No. 8. 

Newbury District Field Club Transactions. Vols. III. and on. 

Reports Wakefield Lit. and Phil Soc Set. 

Proc Birmingham Nat Hist and Phil Soc. Vol. I., part 2. 

Proc Soc. of Antiquaries ist Series, Vols. I and H. 

Trans. Manchester Geol. Soc. Vols XV.. XVI., XIX.-XXIII. 

Transactions Burnley L"terary and Scientific Club. Set. 

Trans Barrow Na.t Field Club. Vol. VII. 

Dudley and Midland Geol etc , Soc. 1862-80 (14 parts). 

Vale of Derwent Nat Field Club. Old Series, Vols: I. -III. 

Salisbury Field Club Transactions, Vol II. 

Trans. Norfolk and Norwich Nat. Soc. Vol. IV.. Pt. 3. 

Peterborough Natural History Society. Reports, 1-8, 11-12, 14-26. 

Brighton and Sussex Natural History Society Reports, 1855-1870; 1872-3. 
North Staffordshire Field Club Reports for 1869-1873, 1876. 

Bedfordshire Natural History Society Proceedings. Set. 

Trans. Royal Cornwall Geological Society. Vol. V. to date. 

Chester Soc. Nat Science : Ann Reports, i.-iv. 

Trans. Woolhope Club. 1866-80. 

Quarterly Journal of Science. 1878-9, ) 882-3, ^nd 1885. 

Trans. Geol. Soc, London, 4to. 2nd se ies. Vols. IV.- VII. {1836-56). 

Geological Magazine, 1890- 1-2-4. 

Mackie's Geol. and Nat. Hist. Repository. Vols. II., Ill, 

Proc. Liverpool Geol. Association. Parts i, 3, 7, 16. 

Reliquary (Jevitt's 8vo. Series). Vols. XXII. and XXIV. 

Irish Naturalist. Vols. 1912-16. 

Scottish Naturalist. 1881-95. 

Annals of Scottish Nat. Hist. 1905-1916. 

Walford's Antiquarian Mag. and Bibliographer for July-Dec, 1885. 

Quart. Journ. Geol. Soc. Vols. I.-XIV. 

Proc. Geol. Assoc. Vol. I. Part i. 

Trans. Yorks. Nat. Union. Part i. 

Naturalists' Journal. Vol. I. 

W. Smith's New Geological Atlas of England aud Wales. 1819-21. 

Frizinghall Naturalist. (Lithographed). Vol. I., and part i of Vol. II. 

Illustrated Scientific News. 1902-4. (Sf t). 

Journal Keighley Naturalists' Society. 4to. Parti. 

Apply— Editor, The Museum, Hull. 



BOOKS FOR SALE. 

T"E Scientific Enquirer. Cloth. Vols. I. and III. 2/- each. 

Trans. Manchester Geol. Soc. Vol. I., Pf- ; Vol. V., 5/-. 

Trans. Leeds Lit. and Phil, (all published). 5/-. 

Jewitt's Reliquary. Vol. III., :;/>. 

Lee's Note Book of an Amateur Geologist. 4/f>. 

Correspondence of Richardson of Bierley. 4/ii. 

Hitchcock Religion of Geology. 2/-. 

British Organic Remains (Geol Survey). Decades I., II., VII., 2/- each. 

Highways and Byways in Derbyshire. Firth. 4/6 

Outdoor Common Birds. Stannard. 2/- 

Apply:— DBpi. C, c/0 A. BROWN & SONS, Ltd., Hull. 




THE NATURAL 

FOR 1918. ' 

NOTES AND COMMENTS. 

SPKRM WHALES. 

In The Animal World for December, Mr. Donald Payler 
has an article entitled ' Facts and Fables about Whales.' In 
this he gives the accompanying illustration, which we are 
kindly permitted to reproduce. He states that 'sperm whales' 




Three conceptions of the Sperm Whale : — (A) as it appears ; (B) from 
Pennant's 'British Zoology,' 1776; (C) from Dewhurst's 'Nat. History of 
Cetacea,' 1834. 

appear to feed almost exclusively upon cuttlefish, though they 
are known also to cat medium-sized fishes, such as the bonito, 
albicore and rock-cod. We do not, of course, know how 
large the prey consumed in exceptional cases may be, but it is 
said that the throat is capacious enough to accommodate the 
body of a man. 

MARTIN SIMPSON. 

We learn from The Yorkshire Observer that at the recent 
annual meeting of the Yorkshire Geological Society, held at 
Leeds, a paper was read by Mr. T. Sheppard upon the life and 

1918 Jan. 1. 



2 Notes and Comments. 

work of the almost forgotten geologist, Martin Simpson. 
Martin .Simpson was born in 1800 and died in 1892, having 
long outHved his fame. He spent most of his life in the Whitby 
district, and for over half a century had charge of the valuable 
geological collections in the Whitby Museum, though for a 
short period he was the curator of the Yorkshire Geological 
Society's collections, now deposited in the Leeds Museum. He 
was one of the pioneer workers among the Liassic rocks of 
Yorkshire, and considering the early date of his researches, 
the enormous amount of information he accumulated was 
remarkable, and his methods of research had a surprisingly 
modern air. He was the author of a number of geological 
memoirs, most of which were now exceedingly scarce. Mr. 
Sheppard showed a complete series of these works which he 
had collected, the most important scientifically being a memoir 
on the ' Ammonites of the Yorkshire Lias..' which was published 
in 1843, and was long since said to be so rare as to be. known 
only by a single copy. Another work, published when the 
author was in his eight-fourth year, was ' The Fossils of the 
Yorkshire Lias,' in which no fewer than 743 species were 
enumerated and described. Simpson measured with a foot 
rule the thickness of the beds in the cliffs north and south of 
Whitby, taking special note of the specimens pecuhar to each 
bed — a very early example of zonal collecting. 

YORKSHIRE SCIENTIFIC SOCIETIES. 

In ' Yorkshire's Contribution to Science,' the present 
writer had the privilege of giving particulars of the publications 
of the different Scientific Societies in Yorkshire. For many 
years he has been preparing a history of the various scientific 
Societies, large and small, in the county, many of which, 
though they have not published any definite Transactions or 
Journal, have nevertheless accomplished good work, and from 
their ranks have sprung workers whose names are now known 
far beyond the county. While it is hoped that the history may 
include particulars of every Natural History, Scientific, Bot- 
anical, Geological, Entomological, Archaeological, Numismatic 
or other Society in the county, it is quite possible that some 
may have existed, particulars of which have escaped his 
notice. Certainly in many cases casual newspaper reports or 
references in old Natural History Journals are all that has been 
obtained. If, therefore, any reader of The Naturalist has any 
programmes, syllabuses, reports or any information whatever, 
relating to these societies, perhaps he will kindly write to the 
Curator, Municipal Museum, Hull. Any matter forwarded 
will be returned, if desired. 

THE SHAP MINOR INTRUSIONS. 

At a recent meeting of the Geological Society of London, 
a paper with the above title, by James Morrison, was read. 

NaturaliBt, 



Notes and Comments. 3 

It deals with the minor igneous intrusions occurring in the 
■triangular area between Shap, Windermere, and Sedbergh. 
Prom their field relations and petrographic characters the 
intrusions are found to belong to one or the other of two 
well-marked groups, a division which is regarded as connoting 
also an age-classification. The rocks of the earlier set, 
characterized by the presence of large orthoclase-felspars of 
the granitic type, are intimately associated with the granite, 
to the immediate neighbourhood of which they are practically 
confined. The rocks range from quartz-felsites to lampro- 
phyres. Of considerable interest in this group is a series 
of hybrid intrusions, consisting essentially of rocks of a more 
or less basic magma enclosing xenocrysts of a more acid (but 
allied) magma obtained by settlement under intratelluric 
conditions. The constitution of any given member of the 
series is determined by two factors : the abundance of 
xenocrysts and the composition of the matrix, an increasing 
basicity in the latter (due to original magmatic differentiation) 
and a decrease in the former marking the successive stages. 
The more acid have affinities with the porphyrites, the more 
basic with the lamprophyres, the seiies ranging from modified 
biotite porphyrites to modified pilitic lamprophyres. The 
later intrusions are typically free from the large orthoclase- 
felspars, though quartz-grains may occur even in the basic 
members. Associated centrally with the earlier set they are 
distributed over a much wider area, overlapping the former 
in every direction. They are the result of a further differen- 
tiation, and are assigned to a later period when igneous activity 
was renewed on a more or less regional scale. The rocks 
include acid felsites and spessartites. The rocks of the earlier 
set agree in general direction with the north-north-west fractures 
transverse to the strike of the country.rock, while the later 
intrusions trend generally east of north. 

SIR ARCHIBALD GEIKIE. 

The honour of associate-membership of the French Academy 
of Sciences, which has just been conferred upon Sir Archibald 
Geikie, is not the first distinction the famous geologist has won 
from France. Already he was an officer of the Legion of 
Honour and a correspondent of the Institute of France. Sir 
Archibald is eighty-two. 

BLACK PUP^ OF ABRAXAS GROSSULARIATA. 

In a recent number of The Entomologist's Monthly Magazine, 
Mr. G. T. Porritt has the following interesting note : — ' In 
The Entomologist' s Monthly Magazine, 1916, page 206, I 
recorded the occurrence from my wild larvae of Abraxas 
grossulariata of a few pupae of an uniformly glossy black 
colour, without any trace of the usual golden wings. This 

1918 Jan. 1. 



4 Notes and Comments. 

year considerably more of these black pupae occurred, but not 
from the wild larvae, of which from some 2,000 I did not notice 
a single one. But they occurred in three distinct broods 
from my hibernated larvae in the proportion of, I think, quite 
7 or 8 per cent., though I did not count them. None of the 
broods were from last year's black pupae, as they produced 
only the most ordinary forms of the moth, and were not paired. 
This year's produced good varieties, following their parents. 
It did not occur to me either year to pair a couple of moths 
from the black pupae, as I now wish I had done, to ascertain 
whether they would have produced a strain of entirely black 
pupae. This could have been done this year from good 
varieties of the moth, and if a similar opportunity arises 
again, I hope to do it.' 

ROMAN PIERCEBRIDGE. 

Mr. Edward Wooler, F.S.A., who has done so much in the 
interests of archaeology in the Darlington District, has just 
issued a scholarly work entitled ' The Roman Fort at Pierce- 
bridge. County Durham ' (igo pp., 10/6 net.). In this he has 
not only gathered together information derived from in- 
numerable sources bearing upon the past history of Roman 
Piercebridge, but he has included the results of considerable 
personal research. The volume has also the advantage of 
being well-illustrated by a large number of excellent plates. 

PREHISTORIC REMAINS. 

Mr. Wooler begins with prehistoric remains of the neolithic 
period, and illustrates a number of relics of the Bronze Age 
and Iron Age, found at Stanwick. He then deals in turn 
with the Roman Invasion, the Brigantes, Adrian's Wall, the 
Erection of the Forts, Roman Roads, the Mills, Bridge, In- 
scribed Stones, and various other relics from this famous site. 
We would particularly draw attention to the bronze group of 
the Roman Ploughmen with oxen, which was found at Pierce- 
bridge, and is one of the earliest evidences of agricultural 
pursuits in this island. Mr. Wooler's memoir includes care- 
fully compiled details of the various descriptions of earthworks, 
remains of Roman Masonry, Coins, etc., found in the district. 
He concludes ' The buried cities of the Romans are with us, 
but their names are gone, and had they not found a grave to 
preserve their remains, the greatest of all Empires — a nation 
that dominated Britain for more than 400 years — would not 
have left a trace to tell the tale of Roman rule, or Roman pomp 
and power, or the glory, the majesty, and the arts of Imperial 
Rome ' ; and certainly the author has done his share to 
interpret the evidence given by these buried relics. We miss 
an Index, and the work is worthy of a more permanent cover. 

Naturalist, 



Notes and Comments. 5 

THE GEOLOGY OF BOURNEMOUTH. 

Notwithstanding the fact that the Geological Survey is 
being worked at high pressure in connection with the pro- 
duction of important memoirs bearing upon requirements in 
connection with the war, it is satisfactory to find that it is 
steadily at work in producing its Memoirs bearing upon the 
Geology of the different parts of the country. It has recently 
published the second edition of the ' Geology of the County 
around Bournemouth,' by H. J. Osborne White, the first 
edition of which, by the late Clement Reid, appeared in 1898. 
The present memoir contains 80 pages with illustrations, and 
is sold at the low price of 2/-. With it is issued a new edition 
of sheet 329, which is an admirable example of colour printing, 
13 different strata being represented. At the bottom of the 
sheet is a useful section of the country. The map is sold at 1/6. 

LINCOLNSHIRE NATURALISTS. 

The Lincolnshire Naturalists' Union Transactions for igi6 
have recently been published, and presumably the present issue 
is the first part of Vol. IV., as the title page and index of Vol. 
III. are inserted, though that seems to be the only evidence. 
It is mindful of the earlier publications of this useful Society, 
inasmuch as the Rev. E. A. Woodruffe-Peacock is much to the 
fore. There is his admirable presidential address on the Flora 
of Lincolnshire, Sequence Sections ; he contributes the 
botanical report for 1916 ; a note on ' Two Beetles and Two 
Flies ' ; he is partly responsible for the Report on the Shells, 
and, together with Thomas Warner Woodruffe-Peacock, he 
contributes a paper on Thrush Stone Studies. In addition to 
the items mentioned it is possible that he wrote the obituary 
notice of John Hawkins, which includes notes from the Rev. 
Woodruffe-Peacock's diary. We think that the editors might 
have appropriately included the Rev. E. A. Woodruffe-Peacock's 
portrait as frontispiece, though we are very glad to see the illus- 
tration of Dr. W. Wallace, who was president some years ago. 
Other items in the Transactions are ' The Presidents (sic) of 
the L.N.U.' William Wallace ; ' The " General " Secretary's 
Report' ; a Paper on the Lias Brickyards of S.W. Lincolnshire, 
by A. E. Trueman ; Reports on Conchology, by W. Denison 
Roebuck and J. F. Musham ; Entomology, by G. W. Mason ; 
Geology, by H. Preston ; Vertebrata, by Rev. F. L. Blathwayt ; 
and a note on ' Laverna epilobiella,' by G. W. Mason ; A 
Record of the Whiskered Bat in Lincolnshire ; and a note on 
' A Fungus and its Beetles/ by T. W. Woodruffe-Peacock. 
We are glad to find that the present conditions have not 
interfered with the nature of the work of our Lincolnshire 
friends. 

1918Jan. 1. 



6 Notes and Comments. 

FAIRIES OR BEER ? 

Notwithstanding the alleged shortage of paper, we find 
a number of our ' Dailies ' devoting half a column or so of their 
' valuable space ' to such piffle as the following — in one case 
five lines of large type headings being used : — ' Uncanny 
Happenings in a Kentish Dug-Out — Alarming Adventures 
— Builder's Story of Stones and Tools that jumped/ 
It seems that while excavations ' in the form of a cave ' were 
being made in the grounds of a county J. P. in Kent, the 
excavator states that on one occasion a large stone hit him on 
the crown of the head, causing a cut (the wound is still visible) ; 
on another occasion he received a violent blow on his hand, and 
again blood was drawn. Then a missile struck him with 
violence on his right ear. ' Candles were repeatedly extinguished 
by air and sand, to the accompaniment of a whizzing sound. 
On several occasions pieces of rock varying from eight to 
twenty pounds in weight were hurled from one position to 
another. A lad name Penfold, working with him, states that 
he saw the stones lift themselves perhaps an inch, then drop 
again ; then about three inches and drop once more. Then 
they would lift themselves and fall some feet away.' 

BOOMERANG TRICKS. 

' On another occasion there was a heap of stone at one place,, 
and these would ' fly of themselves ' to another position. There 
were bricks on the floor. These rose apparently of their own 
volition and were hurled to other positions. Often these did 
not come in a straight line, but took a semi-circular course.' 
I had two days off,' says the excavator, ' and then, after 
consideration, I determined to finish the job. On starting 
again everything went well for a couple of days. After this 
things became worse. Stones and rocks began to fly about, 
so much so that an iron stove and iron pipe were smashed to 
pieces. Then, to crown all, a short bricklayer's hammer 
weighing about 4 lb. in weight threw itself towards me. The 
boy Penfold shouted " Look out ! perhaps the sledge hammer 
will move." Hardly had the boy uttered the words than the 
sledge hammer weighing 14 lb. came over and dropped near 
with a thud. That is not all. The pickaxe, lying in quite 
another part of the structure, came for me too, in an ominous 
manner. There were three chairs, too, on the floor of the cave, 
and these danced and flew about in the most extraordinary 
style. If some of those weighty stones had fallen on me 
probably I should not be here now.' We understand Sir 
Arthur Conan Doyle and Sir William Barrett are investigating, 
and that Sir Oliver Lodge is to be invited. We would suggest 
that the manager of the local brewery and also a well-known 
member of the Prehistoric Society of East Anglia might be 
added to this investigation Committee. 



A YORKSHIRE RECTOR OF THE EIGHTEENTH 
CENTURY.* 



Sir ARCHIBALD GEIKIE, O.M., K.C.B., F.R.S., D.C.L. 

When the Yorkshire Union of NaturaHsts honoured me by 
electing me to be its President for this 3'ear, the only, or at 
least the chief duty of the ofhce being the dehvery of an Address 
at the Annual Meeting, my thoughts naturally turned to the 
consideration of the subject which might most fitly be chosen 
as the theme of that Address. It so happened, that for a year 
or more, I had been engaged in a somewhat extensive enquiry 
into the lives and work of men of science who flourished in 
this country during the eighteenth century. Among these 
worthies there was one whose career greatly interested me. 
He was highly respected and esteemed by his contemporaries ; 
but subsequent generations have shown less recognition of the 
wide range of his genius, and the originality and value of his 
achievements. As he was a Yorkshire Rector, it occurred to 
me that an account of what this man did for the advancement 
of science would be a not inappropriate topic on which to 
address a Union of Yorkshire students of Nature. With this 
object in view I have made researches in every direction that 
seemed likely to yield information regarding him and his 
studies, and I now piopose to lay before jt^ou an outline of the 
result of my enquiries, f 

John Michell, Rector of Thornhill, a parish in the southern 
division of the West Riding, was probably born in the year 
1724. In the registers of Queen's College, Cambridge, he is 
entered as from Nottingham. He became a Pensioner of that 
College in 1742, but did not take his Bachelor's degree until 
1748. His name appeared as fourth wrangler in the list for 
1748-9, and in the latter year he was elected a Fellow of his 
College. For some fifteen years he continued to reside at 
Queen's, where he filled, from year to j^ear, a succession of 
lectureships in classics and mathematics, and also held the 
office of Tutor. He obtained his degree of M.A. in 1752 and 
took a Bachelorship in Divinity in 1761. Having entered 
holy orders, he was in 1760 appointed Rector of St. Botolph's 
Church in Cambridge. Thenceforward, to the end of his life, 
he was an active clergyman who, besides discharging the 
clerical duties of a country parish, found time to prosecute 
serious studies in the vast domain of natural knowledge. Over 
that domain he ranged far and wide, more especially in the 
fields of physics, astronomy and geology. Gifted with great 

* The Presidential Address delivered to the Yorkshire Naturalists* 
Union, at Wakefield, on December 8th, 1917. 
t A more detailed Memoir will appear later. 

1918 Jan. 1. 



8 A Yorkshire Rector of the Eighteenth Century. 

breadth and originality of mind, he attacked from his own 
point of view the problems that presented themselves for his 
consideration, ever striving to gain a personal acquaintance 
with the underlying facts, and where these were susceptible 
of experimental treatment, devising ingenious pieces of appar- 
atus for their special investigation. He was thus both a 
student and a discoverer, and on every department of science 
in which he worked he left the impress of his originality. 

Already, while he was still an undergraduate at Cambridge, 
his scientific studies had taken practical form. His rooms at 
Queen's College must have often looked like a workshop, for 
he was a true experimental philosopher, resolved from the 
beginning to bring theory, where possible, to the test of actual 
experiment, and designing and constructing with his own 
hands the pieces of mechanism that were needed in the course 
of his investigations. One of the researches on which he was 
engaged in these College days related to the nature of Magnetism 
and the production of artificial magnets. The little volume 
which gave his account of this enquiry appeared in the spring 
of 1750. At the same time he must have been in the habit 
of making excursions in many directions across the south of 
England ; thereby acquiring that intimate and accurate 
knowledge of the geological structure of the country which is 
conspicuous in his essay on Earthquakes published in 1760. 

A contemporary at Cambridge has left a brief description 
of his personal appearance and reputation, as he lived and 
moved during his College life : — ' John Michell, B.D., is a little 
short man, of a black complexion, and fat. I think he had the 
care of St. Botolph's Church, while he continued Fellow of 
Queen's College, where he was esteemed a very ingenious 
Man and an excellent philosopher. He has published some 
things in that way, on the Magnet and Electricity.'* 

Before he left Cambridge Michell's name was known far 
beyond the circles of the University His investigations in 
magnetism had attracted attention, and his scientific reputation 
was greatly increased by the remarkable paper on Earth- 
quakes. Before that paper had been completely read at 
successive meetings of the Royal Society, he was proposed as 
a Fellow, and was duly elected on 12th June, 1760. It is 
worthy of mention that in the roll of membership of the Royal 
Society the name of John Michell immediately succeeds that 
of Henry Cavendish. When the Woodwardian Professorship 
of Geology at Cambridge fell vacant in 1762, it was eminently 
appropriate that this distinguished Fellow of Queen's should 
receive the appointment. He was probably the most promising 
man of science at that time at the University. 

* Cole, MSS. xxxiii., p. 156 (Add. MSS. Mus. Brit. 5843). 

Naturalist, 



A Yorkshire Rector of the Eighteenth Century. 9 

There is no record of his ever having given a course of 
lectures on the subject for the furtherance of which the Chair 
had been founded by Dr. Woodward. But we may well 
believe that he must often have discussed that subject with his 
friends, and not improbably he would now and then be ac- 
companied by undergraduates in his geological rambles. 
Had he retained the professorship, and with it his residence in 
Cambridge, he would doubtless have prosecuted more exten- 
sively the geological studies in which he was interested through- 
out his life, and the progress of Geology in this country would 
have been stimulated. But he held the chair for less than two 
years. It was not tenable by a married man, and Michell in 
September, 1764, took to wife a Miss Williamson of Nottingham," 
and left Cambridge, looking forward to a quiet and happy life 
in a Hampshire rectory to which he had been appointed. In 
the autumn of the following year, however, he had the great 
misfortune to lose his wife. He subsequently married again, 
his second wife surviving him. He left a daughter, probably 
by the first wife, and apparently his only child. On 3rd 
October, 1767, he was instituted Rector of Thornhill, and 
there he continued to live up till his death on 21st April, 
1793, in the 69th year of his age. 

In the summer of 1871, a popular English journal* published 
a communication from a contributor who described himself as 
a great-grandson of Michell, and who gave some particulars 
relating to the life of the philosopher, derived, as he stated, 
from his grandmother, Michell's daughter. These particulars, as 
a welcome addition to the scanty information previously avail- 
able, have been made use of from time to time, though some- 
times with hesitation, in biographical notices of Michell. Some 
of these family traditions can be shown to be inaccurate. One 
of them narrates that William Herschel, afterwards the famous 
astronomer, when he was organist at Halifax used to perform 
on the violin at musical parties given by the Rector of Thornhill ; 
that he received lessons at Thornhill rectory on the construction 
of reflecting telescopes, and that he there ' obtained the germs 
of his great astronomical renown.' The truth is that Herschel 
had left Yorkshire for a busy life as professional musician at 
Bath before Michell settled at Thornhill. Not only did the 
two men not meet at Thornhill in Herschel's musical days, 
but it would appear that they had neither become acquainted 
with each other nor exchanged letters up to the spring of the 
year I78i.t Whether Michell had begun to grind his specula 
and build his telescopes as early as 1767 may be doubted. But 
he never gave lessons to Herschel, who with much labour and 

* English Mechanic, Vol. XIII., p. 310, June i6th, 1871. 

t See Scientific Papers of Sir William Herschel (1912), Vol. I., p. 32. 

1918 Jan. 1. 



10 A Yorkshire Rector of the Eighteenth Century. 

patience constructed his own telescope at Bath in the midst 
of all the distractions of his musical profession there. 

The parish of Thornhill in the latter half of the eighteenth 
century was practically a good deal more remote from the 
centres of scientific enquiry than it has now become. But its 
rector in those days made frequent journeys to London, which 
brought him into personal touch with the Royal Society and 
its Fellows. He was welcomed to the table of the Society's 
Dining Club, even before he was elected a Fellow of the Society, 
and after he became F.R.S., he was so habitually invited that 
there would seem to have been a kind of friendly competition 
among the members for the pleasure of securing him as a 
'guest.* For some years he spent several weeks in London 
every summer, and during his stay he was seldom absent from 
the Club's weekty dinner at the ' Mitre ' in Fleet Street, and 
subsequently at the ' Crown and Anchor ' in the Strand. He 
thus enjoyed opportunities of discussing with the physicists, 
astronomers, chemists and naturalists the problems which were 
engaging his attention. 

In our consideration of the scientific work accomplished by 
this Yorkshire rector, it will be convenient to begin by looking 
into what he did in the investigation of the crust of the earth, 
and thereafter to pass in review his contributions to Physical 
Science and to Astronomy 

L — Contributions to Geology. 

These may be grouped in two sections — first, his observa- 
tions and deductions regarding the structure of the terrestrial 
crust ; and second, his elucidation of the phenomena of move- 
ment in the crust shown in earthquakes. 

L — In Michell's time. Geology had not yet come into 
existence as a definite branch of natural science. The vaguest 
and most inaccurate notions prevailed as to the nature and 
arrangement of the materials that constitute the outer portions 
of the earth. In particular, the old doctrine was not yet 
extinct that the organic remains imbedded in the stratified 
rocks, if they are not mere random 'sports of nature,' but relics 
of once living organisms, were accumulated among the debris 
that subsided from the Deluge of Noah. That these remains 
actually embody a complicated history of the earth's crust, 
and reveal a vast evolutionary progress, during incalculable 
ages, from the simplest forms of life up to man himself, was a 
revelation still undisclosed. Even John Woodward, founder 
of the Chair of Geology at Cambridge, though he clearly 
recognised the organic nature of the fossils, could not disabuse 
himself of the belief that they were all accumulated during 

* Antmls of the Royal Society Club, p. i66. 

Natiualist,. 



A Yorkshire Rector of the Eighteenth Century. ii 

Noah's Flood. He even held that they had settled down in 
the diluvial waters according to their relative weight, the 
heaviest sinking among the lowest sediments, while the lightest 
remained at the top. 

Obviously, one of the first steps towards the elucidation 
of the matter was to ascertain beyond all question whether, 
in the portion of the globe accessible to human observation, 
the materials are tumultuously heaped together as Diluvialists 
supposed, or have been arranged in some kind of recognisable 
order. As far back as the early decades of the eighteenth 
century, John Strachey had shown that in the south-west of 
England a succession of distinct strata could be traced from the 
Coal up to the Chalk, and he enumerated them in condensed 
form, but in their proper sequence. His observations, however, 
were disregarded by theorists like Woodward. It was needful 
that some careful student of nature should verify and extend 
the work done by Strachey.* 

Michell's residence in the southern half of England afforded 
him excellent opportunities of investigating this subject. His 
excursions from Cambridge and his subsequent journeys 
between Thornhill and London brought the grouping of the 
stratified rocks of the region vividly before him, and led him 
early in life to study their succession. Travelling in those 
days was more leisurely than now. As he went to and fro 
across the shires, whether on horseback or by carriage, or in 
such stage-coaches as then plied on the roads between the 
Midlands and London, he would often spend two or three days 
on the way. There is evidence that he kept his eyes open to 
descry any new pit, quarry or other opening that might have 
been laid bare since his previous visit. We know, too, that 
when he halted at an inn for the night he would collect all the 
fresh information which such removals of the surface soil might 
reveal. It must be remembered, also, that as the rectory of 
Thornhill stands on the great Yorkshire Coalfield, the progress 
of the mining industry around him would continuously bring 
geological questions to his notice. 

It is accordingly interesting to find that while still resident 
at Cambridge, Michell, as the result of his own personal ob- 
servations, had arrived at a singularly broad and accurate con- 
ception of an important part of the earth's crust. f He found 
the earth to be ' not composed of heaps of matter casually 
thrown together, but of regular and uniform strata.' He 
remarked that ' these strata, though they frequently do not 
exceed a few feet, or perhaps a few inches in thickness, yet often 

* Phil. Trans. XXX. (1719), P- 968. 

t These observations are contained in the earlier part of his paper 
on Earthquakes pubhshed in the Philosophical Transactioyis, Vol. LI., 
1760. 

1918 Jan. 1. 



12 A Yorkshire Rector of the Eighteenth Century. 

extend in length and breadth for many miles, and this without 
varying their thickness considerably. The same stratum also 
preserves a uniform character throughout, though the strata 
immediately next to each other are very often totally different. 
Thus, for instance, we shall have, perhaps, a stratum of potter's 
clay ; above that a stratum of coal ; then another stratum of 
some kind of clay ; next a sharp grit-sandstone ; then clay 
again and coal again above that ; and it frequently happens 
that none of these exceed a few yards in thickness.' The same 
accurate observer likev/ise noticed the abundant divisional 
planes, known now as ' joints ' ; also the occurrence of disloca- 
tions or ' faults,' wherelDy ' the whole set of strata on one side 
of a cleft are sunk down below the level of the corresponding 
strata on the other side.' He was aware of the frequentl}" 
inclined position of the stratified formations, and pointed out 
that their inclination increases towards the mountains which 
generally, if not always, are formed out of the lower, and there- 
fore older rocks. 

These and other observations detailed in his Earthquake 
memoir relate, indeed, to some of the more obvious and 
elementary facts of geological structure, but they had never 
before been made and described so clearly. They served com- 
pletely to disprove the theory of tumultuous deposition by the 
Flood, and they paved the wa}^ for the establishment of the 
principles of stratigraphical geology, based on organic remains, 
afterwards worked out by the genius of WilHam Smith. But 
Michell proceeded to build on his accumulated observations 
a brilliant illustration by which he indicated his conception 
of the manner wherein, by successive extensive movements 
and prolonged denudation, the crust of the earth, as he knew 
it in England, might have acquired its internal structure and 
superficial aspect. Following his characteristic experimental 
habit, he proposed the construction of a model which would 
place his conception in visible form. ' Let a number of leaVes 
of paper,' he said, ' of several sorts or colours, be pasted upon 
one another ; then bending them up together into a ridge in 
the middle, conceive them to be reduced again to a level surface 
by a plane* so passing through them as to cut oft" all that part 
that had been raised ; let the middle now be again raised a 
little, and this would be a good general representation of most, 
if not all, large tracts of mountainous countries, together with 
the parts adjacent, throughout the whole world.' 

Regret has been expressed that Michell, whose only pub- 
lished geological essay was so remarkable, did not make further 
contributions to a branch of natural history for which he 
showed so great an aptitude. Sir Charles Lyell, in referring 

* Such a plane would in nature be produced by prolonged denudation. 

Naturalist, 



A Yorkshire Rector of the Eighteenth Century. 13 

with just appreciation to his work, was under the belief that 
from the time when he vacated the Woodwardian Chair, 
Michell appeared ' to have been engaged in his clerical duties 
and to have entirely discontinued his scientific pursuits.'* 
The truth, however, is that far from abandoning science he 
devoted his leisure to its cultivation more strenuously than ever. 
Most of his achievements in physics and astronomy were 
accomplished at his Yorkshire rectory. And even in regard to 
geological matters, though he did not publish his observations, 
there is proof that he continued to make them with his ac- 
customed zeal vmtil near the close of his life. He kept up his 
habit of noting on his journeys any fresh evidence as to the 
stratigraphy of the districts across which he travelled. In 
this way he succeeded in making out the broad general succession 
of formations from the Coal of Yorkshire up to the Chalk. It 
appears that about the year 1788 he communicated verbally 
to his friend John Smeaton, the eminent engineer, an account 
of what he had ascertained to be the sequence of the rocks in 
the south, of England. This account, written down at the time 
by Smeaton on the first bit of paper that came to hand, was 
eventually published in the Philosophical Magazine for August, 
1810. It ran as follows : — 

Yards. 
Chalk ... ... ... ... ... 120 

Golt 50 

Sand 
Sand of Bedfordshire ... ... ... 10 or 20 

•fNorthampton lime and Portland limes, 

lying in several strata ... ... 100 

Lyas strata 70 or loo 

Sand of Newark ... ... ... ... about 30 

Red Clay, of Tuxford, and several ... 100 

Sherwood Forest Pebbles and Gravel ... 50 unequal 
Very fine and white sand ... ... uncertain 

Roch Abbey and Brotherton limes ... 100 

Coal strata of Yorkshire ... ... uncertain 

Only an experienced field geologist can appreciate the amount 
of time and labour which the construction of this table involved, 
and the wide extent of ground which must have been examined. 
The key to the sequence of the formations furnished by organic 

* Principles of Geology, loth Edit., Vol. I., page 61. The illustrious 
author of the Principles stated that Michell held the Woodwardian Pro- 
fessorship for eight years. In actual fact, as already mentioned, his 
tenure of the post was less than two years. 

t The Portland limestone of the Upper Oolites and the Northampton 
limestone of the Inferior Oolites belong to different stratigraphical horizons, 
but they both lie above the Lias. The Keuper and Bunter divisions of 
the Trias are correctly placed above the Permian Magnesian Limestone. 

1918 Jan. 1. 



14 A Yorkshire Rector of the Eighteenth Century. 

remains had not yet been discovered. That Michell, without 
that key, should have been able to work out the stratigraphical 
succession over the southern half of England with so near an 
approach to accuracy entitles him to be ranked as the most 
eminent of the English predecessors of William Smith in this 
department of geology. 

Further interesting proof that the Rector of Thornhill 
continued to make fresh detailed geological observations until 
late in life is supplied by a long and still impublished letter 
from him to Henry Cavendish, dated 14th August, 1788. 
This document, together with the draft of the reply to it has 
been preserved among the Cavendish papers. The corres- 
pondence shows that between the years 1783 and 1793 Caven- 
dish, in company with Dr. Blagden, was engaged in tracing the 
distribution and succession of the geological formations in the 
southern half of England. In the course of the journeys which 
this investigation involved, questions arose on which Michell's 
experience could be of service. When thus appealed to, he, 
with his usual generosity, gave in ample detail the results of 
his own observations. His letter to Cavendish, written on 
his return from one of his journeys to London, told how he 
had halted for a night at an inn on Greetham Common, and 
when there, was surprised to find a deposit of clay in the 
midst of the ' yellow limestone,' of Cavendish and Blagden, or 
what was afterwards known as the Oolitic series. From his 
careful description it would seem that this deposit was a 
patch of the Chalky Boulder-clay of that district, containing 
scattered flints and pebbles, which he thought might support 
a conjecture he had formed as to the origin of flints in general. 
As to the nature of this conjecture the letter is silent. The 
writer seems to have taken this boulder-clay to be one of the 
argillaceous bands which are intercalated between the members 
of the ' yellow limestone,' though he had never noticed it be- 
fore. In previous correspondence Michel! had pointed out that 
this ' yellow limestone ' is underlain by the ' Lyas.' He now 
insists upon the importance of this sequence which, he says, 
runs into Leicestershire in the south, and can be traced on the 
north to where the Trent falls into the Humber, and across the 
upper part of the Humber. He shows that there is another 
' yellow limestone ' in his district of Yorkshire, which must 
lie far below that of Cavendish and Blagden. He points out 
that there is ' no Lyas anywhere under it or near it to the 
westward of it, all the way from Leicestershire, by the edge of 
Nottinghamshire and Derbyshire and a long way into Yorkshire, 
and how much farther I don't for certain know. In many 
places, if not everywhere, the coal is found under our yellow 
limestone, through which they sink in many places to come 
at it.' Michell had thus traced the extension of what is now 

Naturalist, 



A Yorkshire Rector of the Eighteenth Century. 15 

known as the Magnesian Limestone from its southern Umit 
near the vale of the Trent, northwards along the margin of 
the great coalfield and far into Yorkshire.* 

II. — The only contribution made by Michell to the dyn- 
amical side of geological science is to be found in the Earthquake 
paper already quoted which appeared in the Philosophical 
Transactions of the Royal Society for 1760. f The memorable 
Earthquake of ist November, 1755, which affected so vast a 
region, directed general attention to the nature and cause of 
such violent disturbances in the terrestrial crust. By far the 
most original and important of the many contributions to 
the investigation of this subject which at that time appeared, 
was this Essay by Michell. In preparing it he turned to good 
use the observations which, as we have seen, he had made 
during various journeys and excursions from Cambridge 
across the outcrops of the geological formations in the south 
of England. He had obviously read widely in the literature 
of earthquakes and had noted the characteristic phenomena 
observed in them from ancient times to his own day. With 
characteristic caution he did not pretend to have certainly 
found their explanation, and he offered what he had to say on 
the subject as ' conjectures ' only. The explanation which 
he proposed postulated the existence of what he called 
' subterraneous fires,' to which water from above obtained 
occasional sudden access. It was the general belief in his day 
that such fires exist and are due to the spontaneous decom- 
position and ignition of pyritous material in association with 
inflammable substances such as coal and bituminous shale. 
In the opinion of many of the leading naturalists of the time, 
the existence of volcanoes was due to this underground ignition, 
and the Wernerian geognosts went so far as to maintain that 
volcanic action must be of comparatively late date in the 
history of the globe, as, in their view, it could not arise until 
after vegetation had long flourished on the surface of the 
earth, and had in places been buried in coal-forming deposits 
beneath sedimentary accumulations. 

* Michell's letter here quoted concludes with a pleasant proof of the 
writer's friendship with Henry Cavendish and the members of the Royal 
Society Club, to whom he sends his ' best respects ' and ' due compliments. ' 
He also includes friends at the ' Cat and Bagpipes Club, ' which seems to 
have been a company that included Cavendish and which met in a tavern 
of that name at the corner of Downing Street. 

\ The title of this paper deserves to be given in full : ' Conjectures 
concerning the Cause and Observations upon the Phasnomena of Earth- 
quakes, particularly of that great Earthquake of the first of November, 
1755, which proved so fatal to the City of Lisbon, and whose Effects 
were felt as far as Africa, and more or less throughout almost all Europe. 
By the Reverend John Michell, M.A., Fellow of Queen's College, Cam- 
bridge.' 

1918 Jan. 1. 



i6 A Yorkshire Rector of the Eighteenth Century. 

Michell conceived that if a body of water was let down 
suddenly on one of these tracts of internal combustion, aqueous 
vapour would be generated, the volume and elastic force of 
which would suffice to give rise to an earthquake. In the 
case of volcanoes, the vapour has been able to break its way 
out to the surface at some weaker parts of the earth's crust, 
and to project huge blocks of stone to great distances. ' If, 
then,' he asks, ' when the vapours find a vent, they are capable 
of shaking the country to a distance of ten or twenty miles 
round, what may we not expect of them when they are con- 
fined ? ' He distinguished two kinds of motion in an earthquake, 
one tremulous over the centre of disturbance and for some 
some distance around, the other undulatory in a succession of 
waves that extend much further than the tremulous movement. 
'As a small quantity of vapour, almost instantly generated at 
some considerable depth below the surface of the earth, will 
produce a vibratory motion, so a very large quantity (whether 
it be generated almost instantly, or in any small portion of 
time) will produce a wave-like motion.' 

In illustration of what he conceived to be the manner in 
which the wave-like motion is propagated, he supposed a 
large carpet to be spread upon a floor, and after being raised 
at one edge, to be suddenly brought down again to the floor. 
' The air under it being by this means propelled, will pass 
along, till it escapes at the opposite side, raising the cloth in a 
wave all the way as it goes.' He believed that as the air 
travels along under the carpet which it uplifts in its progress, 
so ' in like manner a large quantity of vapour may be conceived 
to raise the earth in a wave as it passes along, between the 
strata, which it may easily separate in an horizontal direction, 
there being little or no cohesion between one stratum and 
another. The part of the earth that is first raised, being bent 
from its natural form, will endeavour to restore itself by its 
elasticity, and the parts next to it, beginning to have their 
weight supported by the vapour which will insinuate itself 
under them, will be raised in their turn, till it either finds 
some vent, or is again condensed by the cold into water, and 
by that means prevented from going any farther.' (Art. 58). 

In volcanic districts, the sheets of water which often 
accumulate in extinct craters, may occasionally be suddenly 
precipitated into the region of the molten magma below, 
with the consequent generation of much aqueous vapour. It 
is conceivable that this vapour may force its way for some 
distance between the planes of easily separable strata. The 
minor earthquakes in volcanic regions may sometimes be due 
to this cause, which, however, cannot te accepted as the cause 
of earthquakes in general. But though Michell's 'conjecture' is 
set aside, we should not fail to note that in making it he has 

NaCiiralisf , 



A Yorkshire Rector of the Eighteenth Century. 17 

the credit of having iirst suggested the potency of subterranean 
aqueous vapour as a dynamical agent. A study of the Sills 
or intrusive sheets, which are so abundant in the British Isles, 
shows that the horizontal injection of the internal magma 
(which owes its propulsive energy to the aqueous and other 
vapours which it holds in solution under enormous pressure 
and at a very high temperature) has sometimes taken place 
on a gigantic scale. The Great Whin Sill of the North of 
England, a mass of once molten rock, averaging 80 or 100 
feet in thickness, has been injected between and across the 
Carboniferous strata ov'er a distance of at least 80 miles, 
possibly at successi\'e intervals of intrusion. Such enormous 
inthrusts of the magma charged with its explosive vapour could 
hardly fail to be accompanied by violent earthquakes. 

But in the case of most earthquakes it is not to this cause 
that we must look for the explanation of their origin. Michell 
undoubtedl}^ suggested a vera causa which may sometimes be 
displayed in volcanic regions. He was probably influenced by 
his familiarity with the little disturbed stratified formations 
of the south of England, when drawing his analogy from the 
air wave under the uplifted carpet, he conceived that vapour 
suddenly generated at some depth from the surface of the 
earth would force its way for a long distance between the planes 
of stratification. But the crust of the earth is not everywhere 
so regularly arranged as in the southern counties. Over wide 
tracts it is much more complicated and almost everywhere it 
is dislocated by faults by which strata, otherwise undisturbed, 
have their continuity seriously interrupted. 

Much thought has been bestowed on the study of earth- 
quakes since Michell's time, and a much clearer conception 
has been formed of their cause and their phenomena. The 
terrestrial crust is subject to enormous stresses under which 
it is apt here and there to give way An}' such snap or fracture 
starts a series of elastic waves which travel outwards in all 
directions and are felt as an earthquake at the surface. Prob- 
ably the great majority of earthquakes are due to this cause. 

Michell recognised that earthquake shocks are propagated 
in successive waves in progressively lessening amphtude 
through the solid earth. He also pointed out how the centre 
of disturbance could be determined : ist, by observation of 
the different quarters from which the shock arrives at a number 
of distant places, the common intersection of lines drawn in 
these directions showing the position of the centre ; 2nd, by 
noting the time of arrival of the shock at different places, and 
3rd from the successive hours cf arrival of the great sea-wave. 
Employing these methods he computed that the focus of the 
Lisbon earthquake lay under the Atlantic Ocean at a distance 
of a degree of a great circle from Lisbon, and a degree and a 
half from Oporto. 

1918 Jan. 1. 



l8 .4 Yorkshire Rector of the Eif^hteenth Century. 

vStill more remarkable was the sagacit}' which led him to 
suggest the comparatively slight depth underneath the surface 
at which a severe earthquake might start. As what he calls 
a ' random guess,' he supposed that the depth of the focus of 
the Lisbon disturbance ' could not be much less than a mile, 
or a mile and a half, and probably did not exceed three miles.' 
At the time he wrote hardly any data existed on which to 
base an opinion on the subject. During the last century 
considerable attention was devoted to this section of seismology. 
By different methods of computation the depth of origin has 
been found to vary up to about fourteen miles. These es- 
timates seem to indicate that earthquakes take their rise at 
various depths, but generally, if not always, in the compara- 
tively superficial parts of the terrestrial crust, as Michell was 
led to suggest. 

From what has now been stated our Yorkshire rector must 
be admitted to have been an original genius, gifted with 
insight which placed him much in advance of his time in regard 
to studies that would now be classed as part of geological 
science. His modesty led him to undervalue the importance 
of his observations and to refrain from publishing a large part 
of them, though lie was evidently ready at any moment to 
place them at the service of any inquirer interested in the 
subject. He was a great geological pioneer, and assuredly 
the most accomplished English geologist of his day. 

II. — Contributions to Physical Science. 

It was, above all, in the realm of the physical sciences 
that John Michell accomplished his most original and brilliant 
work. While still in residence at Queen's College, he entered 
on the practical study of Magnetism, and when only six and 
twenty years of age, pubhshed his treatise on Artificial Magnets. 
This little volume, besides setting forth the method which 
he had devised for producing these magnets, contained the 
results of his investigation of the phenomena of magnetism. 
He found that Magnetical attraction and repulsion are exactly 
equal to each other and that ' the attraction and repulsion of 
magnets decreases as the squares of the distances from the 
respective poles increase.' This discovery, now recognised as 
' the basis of the mathematical theory of magnetism,'* was 
stated by him with his characteristic modesty. He would not 
lay it down as certain until further experiments had been 
made, but his work as far as it had gone, made the conclusion 
highly probable, t 

The year 1767, which saw Michell settled in his ^ orkshire 

* Whittaker, History of Theories of Aether and Electricity, p. 55. 
t Treatise of Artificial Magnets, p. ig. 

Naturalist , 



A Yorkshire Rector of the Ei'^htccnth Century. ig 

rectory, likewise brought to Leeds, only a few miles from 
Thornhill, the eminent Joseph Priestley, whose reputation 
as a dissenting minister, and also as a man of science, had 
already made him widely known. He had been elected the 
year before into the Royal Society, and this year lie published 
his History and Present State of Electricity. It was natural 
that two philosophers, having so many interests in common and 
living so near each other, should soon become acquainted. 
Michell was too generous and liberal-minded to allow the 
popular prejudice against the unorthodox clergyman at Leeds 
to stand in the way of their friendly intercourse in science. 
During the next five years, they saw much of each other, 
besides carrying on an active correspondence on scientific 
questions. Priestley has put on record that at this time he 
frequently visited the rector of Thornhill, and ' was very happy 
in his societ3^' In 1772, he published his two quarto volumes 
on the History and Present State of Discoveries relating to Vision, 
Light and Colottrs, in the preparation of which he freely 
acknowledges how much he owed to Michell's assistance. 
The information which he affords regarding this assistance, 
throws interesting light upon Michell's views on a number of 
physical problems which he had considered, but on which he 
had never published anything. The intercourse of these two 
philosophers furnishes another example of Michell's habitual 
generosity and helpfulness in the cause of science. 

Priestley appears to have been impressed by the skill 
shown by the rector in devising and constructing apparatus 
for the purpose of illustrating or solving physical problems. In 
particular, he alludes to an endeavour made by his friend to 
ascertain experimentally, the momentum of light in a more 
accurate manner than had previously been proposed. The 
apparatus, which he describes, was disordered by the experiment, 
but the attempt of its designer, Priestley remarks, ' was not 
wholly without success, and the conclusions that may be drawn 
from it are curious and important.'* He then shows that 
these conclusions which Michell was disposed to draw, pointed 
to the ' mutual penetrability of matter.' The account of these 
inferences had best be given in Priestley's own words : ' The 
ingenious hypothesis of Boscovich on this subject, or at least 
one that is the same in everything essential, also occurred to 
my friend, Mr. Michell, in a very early period of his life, without 
his having had any communication with M. Boscovich, or 
even knowing that there was such a person. These two 
philosophers had even hit upon the same instances, to confirm 
and illustrate their hypothesis, especially those relating to 
contact, light and colours. 

* Discoveries in Vision, Light and Colours, p. 357 
1918 Jan. 1. 



2() .4 Yorkshire Rector of the Eighteenth Century. 

This scheme of the immateriality of matter, as it may be 
called, or rather the mutual penetration of matter, first occurred 
to Mr. Michel! on reading Baxter on the Immateriality of the 
Soul. He found that this author's idea of matter was, that 
it consisted, as it were, of bricks, cemented together by an 
immaterial mortar. These bricks, if he would be consistent 
to his own reasoning, were again composed of less bricks, 
cemented, likewise, by an immaterial mortar, and so on ad 
infinitum. This putting Mr. Michell upon the consideration 
of the several appearances of Nature, he began to perceive that 
the bricks were so covered with this immaterial mortar, that 
if they had any existence at all, it could not possibly be per- 
ceived, every effect being produced, at least, in nine instances 
in ten certainly, and probably in the tenth also, by this 
immaterial, spiritual and penetrable mortar. Instead, there- 
fore, of placing the world upon the giant, the giant upon the 
tortoise, and the tortoise upon he could not tell what, he placed 
the world at once upon itself ; and finding it still necessary, 
in order to solve the appearances of Nature, to admit of 
extended and penetrable immaterial substance, if he main- 
tained the impenetrability of matter ; and observing further, 
that all we perceive by contact is this penetrable immaterial 
substance and not the impenetrable one, he began to think 
he might as well admit of penetrable material, as well as pene- 
trable immaterial substance, especially as we know nothing 
more of the nature of substance, than that it is something that 
supports properties, which properties may be whatever we 
please, provided they be not inconsistent with each other ; 
that is, do not imply the absence of each other. This by no 
means seemed to be the case in supposing two substances to 
be in the same place at the same time, without excluding each 
other ; the objection to which is only derived from the resistance 
we meet with to the touch, and is a prejudice that has taken 
its rise from that circumstance, and is not unlike the prejudice 
against the Antipodes, derived from the constant experience 
of bodies falling, as we account it, downwards.'* 

Like the philosophers of his day, Michell believed in the 
Newtonian theorj' of light, that it was due to the projection 
of corpuscles from a luminous source. He suggested that the 
twinkling of the fixed stars may arrive from the small number 
of such corpuscles received by the eye, perhaps only a few per 
second. These speculations acquire much interest as ' a 
curiously definite foreshadowing of the work on electric radio- 

* Priestley, op. cit. pp. 392-3. As Professor Whittaker has pointed 
out, Faraday's suggestion that ' an ultimate atom inay be nothing else 
than a field of force — electric, magnetic and gravitational — surrounding a 
point centre, is substantially the view of Michell and Boscovich. History 
of the Theories of Aether and Electricity (1910), p. 217. 

Naturalist, 



A Yorkshire Rector of the Eiiihteentli Century. 21 

activity in which Thomson, Rutherford and others ]ia\e 
actually controlled the velocities of the electric corpuscles by 
the agency of field of force and have directly counted the 
numbers of them that are shot out from active matter.'* 

Reference has already been made in the foregoing pages 
to the ingenuity and inventiveness shown by John Michell in 
devising and constructing apparatus for the investigation or 
demonstration of physical problems. By much the most 
famous of these pieces of mechanism was the Torsion-balance 
with which he proposed to determine the mean density of the 
globe. This appears to have been one of his latest inventions : 
at least, he died before he was able to put it into use. After 
his death it passed into the hands of his friend, Henry Cavendish, 
who, after making some modifications in it, put it to the 
purpose for which its author designed it. The first successful 
employment of the balance came to be universally known as 
the ' Cavendish experiment,' but Cavendish was careful to 
make it clear that the design and construction of the original 
mechanism were due to the Yorkshire rector. The idea of 
the inventor was to devise a method whereby it would be 
possible to measure ' the force of gravitation between two 
spheres of such small size that thev could be moved by the 
hand nearer to or further from one another. The essential 
part of the invention was to contri^•e a balance so delicate as 
to measure the almost inappreciable tendency of such bodies 
to unite. Newton had shown that the attraction at the 
surface of an}' sphere is directly as its radius, which, he ob- 
served, must always be incomparably smaller than their 
tendency towards the earth ; that is, their weight. In the 
largest and heaviest masses with which it had hitherto been 
found practicable to operate, this tendency amounts to only 
a very minute fraction of a grain. How could such quantities 
be accurately estimated, so as not only to leave no doubt of 
the phenomenon of gravity thus acting on the small scale, 
but to reduce its amount and hence to ^^'eigh the globe ? ' "j" 

This feat was accomplished by Michell's Torsion-balance 
in the hands of Cavendish • The result of the Cavendish 
experiment showed the mean density of the earth to be 5-48 
times that of water. The experiment has since been several 
times repeated with increased delicacy of mechanism. The 
latest repetition was that of Mr. C. V. Boys, F.R.S., who, 
employing fine quartz fibres instead of metallic wires, found 
the density to be 5-5270,^ Michell's invention has now become 



* Sir Joseph Larmor's ]\IS. 

t J. D. Forbes, Sixth Dissertation of the Eighth Edition of the Eu- 
cyclopeedia Britannica, p. 834. 

X Phil. Trans, Vol. 186 (1896). 

1918 Jan. 1. 



22 .4 Yorkshire Rector of the Eighteenth Century. 

an instrument of supreme value in physical research seeing 
that it affords the standard method for the determination of 
very small forces. 

III. — CoXTRIBUTIOxVS TO AsTKONOMY. 

Probably from an early period in his career Michell included 
in the wide circle of his pursuits the practical study of the 
heavens. His earliest communication to the Royal Society 
was made in the year 1760 and had for its title ' Observations 
on the Comet of 1760.'* He constructed his own reflecting 
telescope, and put it to such good use as enabled him to make 
important additions to astronomy. His papers in this depart- 
ment of science are marked by the same originality of conception 
which, as we have seen, is so manifest in his other researches. 
They gained for him the respect and esteem of his contempor- 
aries, but their merit and the remarkable prescience wherewith 
he sometimes foreshadowed in them some of the discoveries 
of later generations have not until recently been perceived. 

Especially memorable is the paper which he read to the 
Royal Society in 1767, with the title of ' An Enquiry into the 
Probable Parallax and Magnitude of the Fixed Stars, from 
the quantity of Light which they afford us and the particular 
circumstances of their situation.'! This memoir affords 
striking evidence of its author's prowess both as a careful 
observer of fact, and as a philosopher who could discuss with 
great breadth of view, perspicacity and originalitv the problems 
which the observations presented. He was here the first to 
suggest that the close proximity of the constituent members 
of double stars is owing to some physical connection existing 
between them. He likewise initiated the employment of 
mathematical micthods depending on probability and statistics 
in the discussion of the theory of the distribution of the stars 
in the firmament, i His important discovery of the existence 
of stellar groups was appreciatively acknowledged by his 
great contemporary Wilham Herschel, who referred to Michell's 
' elegant proof of it on the computation of probabilities. '§ 

In a subsequent paper which took the form of a letter to 
his friend Henry Cavendish, and was published in 1784,11 ' he 
expressed his firm conviction that the double and triple stars 
discovered by Herschel were so many systems of stars, so 
near to each other as to be liable to be affected by their mutual 
gravitation, and he considered it as not unhkely that the 
periods of the revolutions of some of these about their principals 

* Phil. Ti'iius., Yo]. 51, p. 466. 

t Phil. Trans., Vol. 37, p. 234. 

X R. Grant, History of Physical Astronomy, p. 559. 

§ Phil. Trans., Vol. 75 (1875). 

II Phil. Trans., Vol. 74 (1784), p. 33. 

Naturalist^ 



A Yorkshire Rector of the Eighteenth Century. 23 

might some time or other be discovered.'* a prediction whicli 
was afterwards verilied by the brilhant star-work of Herscheh 

Again, Michell in his memoir of 1767 was the first to pubHsh 
correct views in regard to the telescopic visibility of small 
stars, which he showed to be dependent on the area of the 
aperture of the instrument. ' Assuming the diameter of the 
pupil of the eye to be equal to one third of an inch, and roughly 
estimating the quantity of light lost in passing through the 
telescope, he was enabled to compare the distance of the 
faintest stars seen in a telescope of given aperture, with the 
distance of those barely visible to the naked eye.'f The 
principle thus initiated by him for estimating the distribution 
of stars at different distances in the depths of space was 
afterwards successfully employed by Herschel. 

From the outline which I have now given of the scientific 
labours of John Michell it will be apparent that he must have 
been a singularly gifted philosopher. Among his contem- 
poraries during the latter half of the eighteenth century he 
seems to stand out as conspicuous for the wide range of his 
investigations, and for the originality both of his methods of 
research and of the views to which they led him. Moreover, 
he is now seen to have possessed' the faculty of reaching, in 
more than one branch of enquiry, intuitions which curiously 
anticipate results arrived at by later generations. On every 
line of research which he entered he left the mark of his genius. 
His mechanical skill enabled him to devise and construct 
with his own hands the instruments or apparatus with which 
he could experimentally illustrate or test the theoretical 
conclusions to which he came. In Geology, in Physics, and 
in Astronomy, he was a true pioneer. 

With all this capacity for original research of the highest 
quality, he combined in no common degree the gifts of modesty 
and caution. Even when tolerably certain of the soundness of 
a deduction, he would not go farther than to state its probab- 
ility, until he could, where possible, demonstrate its certainty 
by careful experiment. He was never in a hurry to publish 
his observations, though ever ready to communicate them to 
a fellow-worker interested in the same branch of enquiry. 
There can be little doubt that much of his quiet work at 
Thornhill rectory was never published. He pursued science 
as a pure labour of love. For personal credit or fame he 
appears to have cared little. Though he stood high in the 
esteem of his contemporaries, it would seem that his distinction 
has been somewhat overlooked b^- his successors, and that 
some of his discoveries have been attributed to others. 



* R. Grant, op. cit., p. 559. 
t Grant, op. cit., p. 543. 



1918 Jan. 1, 



24 Field Notes. 

So far as I am aware, no attempt has hitherto been made 
to present a general review of the whole range of his Con- 
tributions to science. Such a review I have endeavoured to 
give in outline in the present Address. Michell was assuredly 
a man whose name merits a prominent niche in the temple 
of British science, and in Yorkshire where he lived so long, 
and where most of his work was done, his memory deserves 
to be cherished as that of one of the most notable scientific 
worthies of whom the coimtv can boast. 



Thrush Feeding on Limnxa stagnalis. — Although it is 
on record, and generally known, that the Thrush feeds on 
Land Snails/ obtaining the mollusc by means of breaking the 
shells, I have so far failed to find any record of this bird feeding 
on aquatic mollusca. It may therefore be of interest to place 
on record that on August 21st, 1904, while ' naturalising ' at 
■ a pond near ' Skirbeck ' in ]\Iaidenwell parish, near Haugham 
Church, I observed a thrush step into the water and fetch out 
large specimens of Limncsa stagnalis that were at the surface 
of the water near the edge of the pond, and take them to a 
stone to break the shells and then proceed to eat the molluscs. 
I afterwards went to see the slaughter-stone and was surprised 
to find a quantity of broken L. sfa.o^nalis shells. — C. S. Carter, 
Louth. 

Bean Geese as 'Gabriel's Hounds.' — I have no doubt 
that some of j^our readers will have heard of the legend of 
Gabriel and his hounds, who may be heard at long intervals 
of many years driving his pack at full cry through the skies. 
I know a gamekeeper who, on the 28th November, this year, 
witnessed this occurrence. He was standing, a little after 
sunset, at the side of a pond and was much surprised to hear 
what he took to be a pack of hounds in full cry, and, on looking 
up, saw passing overhead a flock of bean geese, about 20 to 
30 in number, making a noise which exactly resembles the cry 
of a pack of hounds. It would be interesting to know if any 
of your readers observed or heard the same thing on the same 
date. The flock was flying low and struggling hard against a 
strong head wind. One can quite understand that many who 
have heard this sound, and not seen the cause of it,, would put 
it down to supernatural agency. The last occasion on which 
the same gamekeeper had a similar experience was thirty 
years ago, when he heard the noise but could not make out 
the cause of it. — Anon., Lines., November 30th, 1917. 

[This is a very popular superstition and was prevalent all 
over the country. Nelson mentions it in his ' Birds of York- 
shire.' It would be interesting to know how our correspondent 
was able to identify the birds as Bean Geese ?] — ^Ed. 

Naturalist, 



HELIX CARTUSIANA AND HELIX SYRIACA : 

Their Relationship and its Probable Significance. 



J. W. TAYLOR, M.Sc. 

Helix ( Thcba) syriaca as evidenced by specimens from 
Samos, near Smyrna, and Mount Carmel, Palestine, for which 
I am indebted to Mr. J. R. le B. TomHn and Rev. Canon 
Horsley respectively, indicate that though undoubtedly closely 
allied to our British H. cartnsiana, still show sufficient diver- 
gence to entitle it to an independent status. 

The H. syriaca is characterized by the usually total closure 
of the umbilicus, by the comparatively distinct reticulate 
whorl-sculpturing, the somewhat flatter basal peristome, and 
the presence of a broad and distinct darker band above the 
periphery with a similar though less persistent one beneath, 
separated by a white, calcified, peripheral zone. 

On the other hand, the West European and Mediterranean 
examples of H. cartusiana show a white or whitish shell, 
frequently clouded about the aperture with brown, but oc- 
casionally showing faint vestigial traces of a white and some- 
what cretaceous peripheral band. 

The Samos and Samarian shells demonstrate and confirm 
the accuracy of the explanation that the feeble indications 
of the somewhat opaque peripheral zonulation in H. cantiana 
H. cartusiana, etc., are the relics of the white and calcified 
space separating the formerly existent upper and lower 
group of bands, which have been lost by those species, but are 
still retained by H. syriaca. 

This palpable relationship of our H. cartusiana with 
H. syriaca displayed by the retention of the primitive band 
arrangement by the latter, is indicative of their phylogenetic 
affinity, and the truth of the axiom laid down by the immortal 
Darwin that new species arise because the differences they 
acquire confers some advantage over the more primitive 
forms from which they have arisen, and that they will therefore 
inevitabty crowd out and supplant their progenitors from the 
active evolutionary area and compel their migration to other 
regions. 

We are thus led to the conclusion that — Europe being 
probably the original source and metropolis of the most 
advanced forms of life and the area of the greatest development 
and concentration of the central nervous system, while a de- 
creasing degree of dominating power is demonstrable as we 
recede towards or beyond its confines, so that the oldest or 
most primitive forms, if not isolated in undesirable regions, 
are necessarily the farthest removed from the original home 
of the groups. 

1918 Jan. 1. 



26 Field Notes. 

We are therefore justitied in assuming' that the internal 
structure, which is usualty the last to be affected by evolu- 
tionary change, will, in the case of H. syriaca, show the dart 
sacs of the reproductive system to be in a more primitive and 
functional condition than in the later developed H. cartusiana, 
and that possibly traces may be still perceptible of the initiation 
of the transformation of the crystalline love-dart and its acces- 
sories into the sarcobelum or muscular excitatory organ, as 
now possessed by H. cantiana, and which, in H. cartusiana, 
are in an interesting intermediate stage leading up to the de- 
A'elopment of a similar organ. 

The careful investigation and exposition of the aiiatomical 
structure of H. syriaca would be of considerable interest, and 
would probably confirm the soundness of this phylogenetic 
study and increase the disproofs of those ancient beliefs still 
held by some scientists as to the location of the chief evolu- 
tionary area in Central Asia or in other weak and unlikely 
regions. 

: o : 

Tree Sparrow near Sheffield. — Although I have 
always assumed the presence of the Tree Sparrow in my 
garden, it was not until yesterday that I had the pleasure of 
handling two specimens netted the previous night in the 
shrubberies. On close acquaintance the small size, chesnut 
head and black patches behind the eyes rendered identitication 
a simple matter, especially when comparing them with a male 
House Sparrow captured at the same time in the ivy on the 
house. The fact of the plumage of the male and female being 
practically identical in this species is both curious and in- 
teresting. To anyone not acquainted with this peculiarity 
they would all appear to be cocks. — W. A. Durnford, Elsecar, 
Nov. 2oth, 1917. 

A Large Flock of Magpies. — On November i6th, a friend 
of mine, walking along the lane leading from Adel to Horsforth, 
had his attention attracted b}- a considerable amount of 
chattering, and was surprised to see a large flock of Magpies 
congregated together in a large thorn tree ; upon his approach 
they flew away in twos and threes, so that he was able to count 
them accurately — there were thirty-two. It is recognised that 
the near neighbourhoods of some of our larger Yorkshire 
towns have provided secure breeding places for Magpies, where 
they are not disturbed by the game-keepers' traps or guns. 
I think it has not been given to many to see so large a flock of 
this handsome, but mischievous, bird. On the upland in my 
own neighbourhood Magpies have increased considerably 
during the last two or three years, no doubt as a result of the 
wretched war. — R. Fortune. 

Naturalise, 



27 

HEMIPTERA-HETEROPTERA OF WEST 
CUMBERLAND. 

JAS. MUKKAV, 
Carlisle 

I spmt the first ten days of last July at Seascale, on the south- 
west coast of Cumberland. The weather throughout was 
gloriously fine, so, although rather early in the year for many 
species of Hemiptera, I met with a fair measure of success. 
The only Pentatomid met with was Dolycoriis baccarum Linn., 
and that in the nymphal stage only, but easily recognised 
by its hairy appearance. It occurred under Rest Harrow on 
the sandhills. Of the Coreidae, a specimen of Myrmus miri- 
formis Fall., was obtained by evening sweeping in a marshy 
meadow near Drigg. This is new to Cumberland. A larva 
in last instar of Neides tipulariiis Linn., was found on the sand- 
hills near Seascale. In the same locality, under the Rest Harrow 
Metacanthus elegans Curt., was common, larvae, and mature 
examples of both sexes. The active little Bug, Nysius thymi 
Wolff, was common in some of the sand pits on the golf course. 
Velia currens Fab., a few on a small stream near Cleator. The 
only Nabis was A^. flavomarpjnatus Schotz., which was common 
in Eskdale. Salda C-album Fieb., and Salda saltatoria Linn., 
on mud by side of a pond near Seascale. A few specimens 
of Anthocoris confusns Rent, were obtained at Cleator. 
Pithanus maerkeli H.S. was commonly swept in Eskdale. 
Miris calcaratus Fall., common at Seascale ; Megalocercea 
ruficornis Fourc, common both at Seascale and in Eskdale. 
A few M. psammc^color Rent, on the Seascale sandhills. 
Lepfopferna fcrrugata Fall, swarmed at Seascale, where L. 
dolobrata Linn, was not seen. Both species were equally com- 
mon in Eskdale. Monalocoris filicis Linn, was swept from 
ferns both at Seascale and Eskdale, Bryocons ptevidis Fall, 
also occurring in the latter locality. Sweeping along a lane 
in Eskdale produced a nice set of Lop us gofhiciis Linn., one 
specimen with the pronotum and cuneus black is therefore 
referable to the variety superciliosus Linn. This is also new 
to our county list. Calocoris sexgiittatus Fab. and C. bipiin'ctatus 
Fab. were common hi Eskdale. Lygiis pabiiliniis Linn., not 
uncommon, Eskdale and Cleator. Rhopalotomns atey Linn. 
Seascale and Eskdale, common. Orthocephaliis saltatoy Hahn. 
on Rest Harrow, Seascale. Strongylocoris leucoccphalns Linn., 
Seascale, common. Heterocordylits geniatce Scop., common at 
Seascale and Drigg. H. tibialis Hahn at Holm Rook, not 
common. Macrotylus paykiilli Mey., was ^'ery common all 
along the coast. Phylus melanocephalus Linn., Eskdale, on 
Oak. The only Psallus out was P. lepidits Fieb., of which I 

1918 Jan. 1. 



28 Field Notes. 

beat three from Ash at Hohii Rook. These are the hrst 
Cumberland specimens. Plagiognnthiis was represented by 
two common species, P. chrysanthemi Wolff and P. arbiistorum 
Fab. Asciodenia ohsoletiim D. and S. was abundant on Furze 
at Scascale. A visit during August or September would 
probably add considerably to this list. 



BOTANY. 

Mierembergia gracilis and Sisymbrium altissimum 
at Theddlethorpe Sandhills. — When botanising in August, 
1910, on the Sandhills at Tlieddlcthorpe, my friends the Misses 
Nash found two plants unknown to them which they sent to 
Kew Gardens for identification. The plant found by Miss 
F. M. Nash was identified by the Kew authorities as ' Nicvcm- 
hergia gracilis-., Hook.> a nati^e of temperate South America, 
(?) new to Britain.' The other plant, found by Miss H. M. Nash, 
was indentified as Sisymbrium altissimum Linn., and is believed 
to be new to the district. — C. S. Carter, Louth. 

ARCH/EOLOGY. 

Prehistoric Remains at Doncaster. — It would perhaps 
be agreeable to ^Ir. Seweh to know that, up to twcntv years ago, 
there was hardly a record of any Flint implement found in 
the Doncaster district, when the Archaeological Section of the 
Doncaster Scientific Society took up the matter in earnest, 
and explored the district with fair success, and in all directions. 
From the town, stone implements have been found, consisting 
of polished axes, scrapers, knife, arrow heads, flint disc^ ; a 
flint core from which implements ha%'e been chipped ; also 
many flint flakes. In addition, a number of cinerar}' urns of 
very primitive design, pointing to the very early occupation 
of this district by primitive and neolithic man. Every care is 
now taken with any find which comes to light that links up 
the unwritten history of our district. It is evident we had 
a fairly large population of neolithic people in the Doncaster 
district, though nothing like that of the East Coast country. 
There was a large Settlement at Hooton Roberts, six or seven 
miles from Doncaster, where \-ery many implements have been 
found. Your readers may care to know that in the ancient 
village of Haxey, about twelve miles from Doncaster, they still 
cultivate the long narrow strips of land. One strip is called a 
' land,' two, ' two lands,' and so on. Tradition in the village 
says there is no beginning to their histor}', as they have been 
so cultivated from times before written history began. — A. 
Jordan, Claremont, Doncaster. 

Naturalist, 



29 

YORKSHIRE NATURALISTS AT WAKEFIELD. 

There was a heartiness throughout the whole of the proceedings 
connected with the Fifty-sixth Annual Meeting of the Union 
held at Wakefield on Saturday, December 8th last, that spoke 
well for the future welfare of the Union, when more normal 
times return. The absence of their distinguished President, 
Sir Archibald Geikie, O.M., K.C.B., LL.D., through illness, was 
much regretted, as the presence of his stimulative personality 
would naturally have added to the enjoyment of the gathering. 

In the morning a large party, under the guidance of Mr. H. 
Pollard, visited, by the kind permission of Mrs. E. J. Simpson. 
Walton Park, famous as the residence of the late Charles 
Waterton, an eminent Yorkshire naturalist. The members 
were conchicted over the grounds by Mr. E. T. B. Simpson, 
and much enjoyed the visit under his able guidance. Members 
who arrived later inspected the Chantry on the Bridge, the 
field of the battle of Wakefield, Sandal Castle, and subsequently 
the Cathedral and County Hall, under the guidance of Messrs. 
C. T. Wilby, James Reyner and W. Holmes. 

Alter the Sectional Meetings there was an exceptionally 
well attended gathering of the General Committee, tw^enty-eight 
of the Affiliated Societies being represented. The meeting 
was held in the Council Chamber at the Tow-n Hall, Prof. 
P. F. Kendall, M.Sc, occupying the chair. The report of the 
year's work was fully considered, and the gratifying announce- 
ment by the Hon. Treasurer, Mr. Edwin Hawkesworth, that 
the financial position of the Union was in a sound condition, 
the year's working again showing a balance to the good, was 
receiv'ed with applause. The recommendation of the Executive 
that the Excursions should be continued also received general 
approval, and their suggestions for the places to be visited 
during the coming year were agreed to. The announcement 
that, on the invitation of the Executive, Prof. W. Garstang, 
M.A., Sc.D., F.Z.S., of Leeds, had accepted the Presidency 
of the Union for igi8, was cordially received. 

The Secretaries stated that Mr. R. C. Fowler Jones of York 
had presented to the Union an elaborate and carefully compiled 
index of the Excursion Circulars issued by the Union since 
1877 ; the index also included the Societies which had been 
affiliated with the Union, and of its past Presidents. Thanks 
were accorded to Mr. Jones for his gift. 

After a brief interval, the Annual General Meeting of the 
Union was held, the attendance being excellent. 

Prof. Kendall again presided, and had the support of the 
Mayor of Wakefield, Councillor George Blakey, J. P., Colonel 
E. A. Brotherton, J. P., the President of the Wakefield Paxton 
Society, Canon Welch, the Vicar of Wakefield, and officials of 
the Union. 

191S Jan. 1. 



30 Yorkshire Naturalists at Wakefield. 

The Ma\^or welcomed the members on behalf of the citizens 
of the ancient City of Wakefield, remarking that this was the 
third occasion upon which the Union had held its annual 
meeting at Wakefield, the first time being on the 6th October, 
1877. ^ 

The Presidential address of Sir Archibald Geikie was read 
by Prof. Kendall, the subject being ' A Yorkshire Rector of 
the Eighteenth Century.' The address contained the result 
of his extensive enquiries into the career and scientific labours 
of an eminent Yorkshire Scientist, the Reverend John Michell, 
Rector of Thornhill, near Wakefield, who resided there from 
1767 to the time of his death in 1793. The result of these 
enquiries showed how extensive was the range of the investi- 
gations of this Rector of Thornhill, and especially how true 
were his pioneer achievements in Physics, Astronomy, and 
Geology. The address will appear in the pages of TJie Natura- 
list. 

A vote of thanks was accorded to Sir Archibald Geikie for 
his address, on the proposition of Dr. Forsyth, President of 
the Yorkshire Geological Society, seconded by Mr. A. Gilligan, 
B.Sc, Secretarv of the same Society. Votes of thanks were 
also accorded to the Wakefield Corporation for the use of the 
rooms at the Town Hall, to the Mayor of Wakefield for light 
refreshment, and to Mr. H. G. Townsend for making the local 
arrangements ; to the Wakefield Naturalists' Society, Wakefield 
Paxton Society, and Wakefield Photographic Society for their 
entertainment, and making the meeting the great success it 
was. Col. Brotherton responded on behalf of the Wakefield 
Paxton Society, and Mr. H. V. Pollard on behalf of the Wakefield 
Naturalists' Society. The concluding resolution, most heartily 
carried, to Prof. Kendall for his services, was moved by Canon 
Welch, seconded by Prof. Garstang. 

After this meeting, a pleasant evening was spent at the 
Town Hall. One room was set apart for exhibits, the contribu- 
tors thereto being as follows : — Mr. F. W. Tattersall, architec- 
tural views of the cathedrals of Wakefield, Norwich and Ely, 
and landscape views in the neighbourhood of Settle and the 
Wharf e Valley ; Mr. A. Pickard, ^dews of old Wakefield, York 
Minster, and Bolton Abbey ; Mr. H. G. Townsend, views of 
York Minster and Beverley ; Mr. J. B. Butterworth, old 
fire-arms and helmets, and cases of foreign lepidoptera and 
coleoptera ; Mr. C. W. Halden, armour co-incident with the 
Battle of Wakefield ; Mr. George Wadsworth, eggs of the 
Ostrich and Emu, petrified bird's-nest and eggs, photographs 
of Australian natives, and British agricultural grasses ; Mr. 
H. V. Pollard, cases of Enghsh birds ; Mr. George Parkin, a 
splendid series of mounted British grasses, club-mosses, mosses 
and hchcns ; cases of insects, chiefly Diptera and Hymenoptera, 

Naturalist, 



Noytheyn News. 31 

and a case of Galls. Alien Yorkshire MoUusca whicli had 
been collected at Wakefield were shown by Mr. J. A. Hargreaves 
and Mr. J. D. Firth ; specimens collected at Elland by Mr. 
J. E. Crowther ; and specimens collected at Selb}' by Mr. 
J. F. Musham. A particularly striking exhibit was a series of 
microscopic sections of the Barnsley Bed Seam, from the Hickle- 
ton Main Colliery, Barnsley, together with coloured photographs 
of the same, which had been presented to the Leeds l^niversitv 
by Sir Wm. Garforth, LL.D. 

Mr. C. A. Cheetham contributed a series of his coloured 
slides illustrating the Flora of the Carboniferous Rocks ; Mr. 
George Parkin, a series of hand-coloured slides, the work of 
Miss Parkin, illustrating members of the Order Roseaceae ; 
also his unique series of frost slides and snow scenes. The 
whole of these slides were admirably displayed upon the screen 
by Mr. Harold Parkin, and thanks were accorded to the 
contributors for their entertaining value. 

W.E.L.W. 

In The Geological Magazine Xo. 640, ilr. A. E. Trucman lias ' Obser- 
vations on Pol3-morp]iites.' 

The Journal of the Board of Agriculture for November contaiiis a paper 
on Insects Pests of Basket Willows. 

An excellent portrait of the late Prof. Edward Hull appears in the 
Geological Magazine for December. 

The Board of Agriculture and Fisheries Leaflet No. 299, deals with the 
" Storage of Potatoes and Other ^'egetables for V/inter Use.' 

For the first time a lady (Miss JM. JMasterman, M.Sc.) has been elected 
Presideiit of the Leeds Naturalists' Club and Scientific Association. 

The Quarterly Journal of the Geological Society, No. 287, contains three 
papers dealing with the Geology of Perak, Orange Free State, and Moz- 
ambique. 

The Editor of British Birds, Mr. H. F. \N'ithcrby, has accepted a 
commission in the R.N.V.R., and the Ma.y;azine will be continued durin" 
his absence. 

The death is announced of the Kev. H. A. Povvys, the \'icar of Mean- 
wood. He was for many years a member of the Yorkshire Naturalists' 
Union and some years ago frequently attended the lield excursions. 

The Proceedings of the Geologists' Association, Vol. XXVIII., Part 
3, are almost entirely occupied by a paper on ' The Post-PHocene Non- 
Marine Mollusca of Ireland,' by A. S. Kennard and 15. B. Woodward. 

Prof. P. G. H. Boswell's inaugural address in connection with the 
Herdman Chair of Geology at the University of Liverpool was given on 
November i6th, on ' Sands : considered Geologically and Industrially 
under War Conditions.' 

The Tenth Annual Report of the National Museum of Wales contains 
an admirable reproduction of a ' Relief Portrait of the Late Dr. C. T. 
Vachell by Sir \\'. Goscombe John, R.A., to be erected in the New Building. 
Presented by the Cardiff Naturalists' Society.' There are other illus- 
trations and descriptions of interesting additions made during the j^ear, 
the list being a formidable one. Considerable progress is reported iii 
the Natural History Department. 

1918 Jan. I. 



FIELD NOTES. 

MOLLUSCA. 

Helicetla gigaxii in Lincolnshire. — Mr. C. Oldham recently 
directed my attention to the specific characters of H. gigaxii 
differentiating it from H. caperata. I at once turned out my 
small and long neglected collection of the latter species, amongst 
which I found several examples of H. gigaxii, collected, in 
iqo4, at Redhill near Goulceby ; these were almost identical 
with examples sent to me by Mr. Oldham from Hettfordshire ; 
also several much larger and darker examples collected in 1907 
at Ruckland. As far as I know this species has not been pre- 
\nously recorded for Lincolnshire. — C. S. Carter, Louth, Lines. 

— o — 
BIRDS. 

Nuthatch near Louth. — Mr. E. H. Cartwright, North 
Elkington, reported to me that while shooting in Maltby Wood, 
near Louth, November 1916, he saw a Nuthatch. This bird 
is extremely rare in the Louth District. — C. S. Carter, Louth. 

Common Puffin Caught Alive at Cullingworth. — The 
other night I was asked to go to Cullingworth to see a 
strange bird which had been caught alive in a field near 
Denholme on the 7th instant, and although somewhat late, 
I immediately set off and found the bird to be a Common 
Puffin. The person in whose possession the bird is at 
present could hardly believe it was a Common Puffin, never 
having seen this species before in its winter appearance, 
and this is not to be wondered at, since its beak and sides 
of the head are totally different from what obtain in the 
breeding season. This species, which is essentially pelagic 
in its habits, is never seen near the land except in the breed- 
ing season, unless driven by stress of wind. It is even more 
rare in this district than its near relation the Little Auk, of 
which I had a specimen brought to me, perhaps two winters 
ago, which had been picked up alive near this place, having 
injured itself by flying against the telegraph wires. At about 
the same time as the above Puffin was picked up, the caretaker 
of the Many wells reservoir saw a Gull from his house window 
try to fly over the embankment of the reservoir, in the teeth 
of a very strong wind, but was driven back. This was repeated 
v/ith the same effect. In making its final effort, the wind so 
disabled it, as to render it incapable of flight ; indeed, my 
informant said one wing of the bird was broken. — E. P. 
BUTTERFIELD, Wilsden, Decem.ber 14th, 1917. 



At the recent annual meeting of the Yorkshire Geological Society, 
:\Ir. H. E. Wroot was elected Hon. Secretary and Editor. Mr. A. Gilligan, 
the retiring secretary, was elected on the Council in place of Mr. Cosmo 
Johns, resigned. 



Naturalist, 



33 
A YEAR'S SCIENTIFIC WORK: 

BEING 

THE YORKSHIRE NATURALISTS' UNION'S 
FIFTY-SIXTH ANNUAL REPORT 

For 1917. 

(Presented at Wakefield, 8th December, 1917. 
O 

The Fifty-Fifth Annual Meeting was held at Selby, on 
the 2nd December, 1916. 

The Naturalist for January, 1917, contained a report of 
this successful meeting, and the Presidential Address of Mr. 
W. N. Cheesman, J. P., F.L.S., on ' Economic Mycology : the 
beneficial and injurious influences of Fungi,' appeared in that 
journal for June. 

Field Meetings.— In accordance with the national call 
for economy, and having regard to the curtailment of travelling 
facilities and increase of railway fares, the Executive Committee 
of the Union decided that the Excursion programme arranged 
for 1917 should stand postponed until 1918. 

The usual sectional meetings have, however, been held in 
the autumn. 

The Excursions for 1918 will be as follows : — ■ 

Barnard Castle (Whit Week-end), May i8th to 20th. 

Market Weighton, Saturday, June 15th. 

Crossbills, Saturday, July 13th. 

Settle (August Bank Holiday Week-end), August 3rd 

to 5th. 
Mycological Meeting at Selby. 

Membership. — The membership of the Union at the close of 
1916, exclusive of Affiliated Societies, was 337, and by reason 
of resignations and deaths has been further reduced to 330. 

The following new members have been added during the 
year, viz. : — ■ 

Col. Edward A. Brotherton, J. P., The Hall, Roundhay, 
Leeds. 

Mr. Colin Clegg, A.M.Inst., C.E., F.G.S., More Hall, Bolster- 
stone, near Sheffield. 

Sir Archibald Geikie, O.M., K.C.B., LL.D., Shepherd's 
Down, Haslemere, Surrey. 

Rev. Reginald H. Harvey, The Rectory, Barwick-in-Elmet, 
Leeds. 

Mr. Edward J. T. Ingle, 18 Strattan Street, Leeds. 

Mrs. Charles Ratchffe, Eagle Hall, Pateley Bridge. 

1918 Jan. 1. 



34 Yorkshire Naturalists' Union : Annual Report, 1917. 

Mr. Fred Rhodes, 113 Park Row, Heaton Road, Bradford. 

Mr. J. R. Simpson, Banks, Honley, near Huddersfield. 

Dr. H. Douglas Smart, Clifton House, Shelley. 

Mr. S. S. Stanley, 8 Kingston Place, Woodhouse Lane, 
Leeds. 

Mr. B. J. Whitaker, M.B.O.U., Hesley Hall, near Bawtry. 

The Affiliated Societies now number thirty-three, having 
a total membership of 2391, the reduction being, of course, 
due to the difficulties incidental to the times. 

Obituary. — The Union has to mourn the loss by death of 
several of its prominent members, viz : Charles Crossland, 
Halifax (an ex-President of the Union) ; George Massee, 
F.L.S., V.M.H., Seven Oaks (a valued member of the Mycolog- 
ical Committee) ; T. H. Nelson, M.Sc, J.P., M.B.O.U., 
Redcar (a valued member of the Vertebrate Zoologj^ Section, 
and the author of ' The Birds of Yorkshire ') ; Charles 
Bradshaw, F.G.S., F.C.S., Sheffteld (one of the joint secretaries 
of the Geological Section) ; Wm. Foggitt, J. P., F.L.S., 
Thirsk ; Samuel Margerison, Leeds ; U. Green, F.G.S., 
London ; Mr. C. T. Trechmann, Ph.D., F.G.S., Castle Eden ; 
and Dr. R. Braithwaite (an ex-President of the Union, and 
author of ' The British Moss Flora.') ' In Memoriam ' notices 
of these gentlemen have appeared in The Naturalist. 

Local Treasurers. — For the services rendered by these 
gentlemen the thanks of the L^nion are tendered. 

General Committee. — The following have been added 
to the permanent General Committee, viz. : — 
W. J. Clarke, F.Z.S., Scarborough. 
Walter Greaves, Hebden Bridge. 
G. Howard. Rotherham. 
J. T. Sewell, J.P., Whitby. 

VERTEBRATE ZOOLOGY. 

West Riding.- — Mr. H. B. Booth writes : — Undoubtedly 
the exceptionally long and cold winter of 1916-7 had a most 
disturbing and disastrous effect on the species of birds that 
usually winter in the West Riding, though to what extent each 
species was affected is a matter of doubt, and in some cases, 
of conflicting opinions. But there is general agreement as to 
how the Thrush family were almost decimated, with the 
exception of the Blackbird. Curiously, around Ben Rhydding 
and district there were considerably more hen Blackbirds than 
cocks, which has been exactly the reverse in other winters). 
The nesting Song Thrushes have been much scarcer than I have 
ever known them to be, though this is probably due to the 
severity of the winter in the south-western counties, and also 
in the south of Ireland (see C. B. Moffatt, in The Irish Natura- 
list), where such continuous arctic conditions occurred as have 

Naturalist, 



Yorkshire Naturalists' Union : Annual Report, H)i/. 35 

never been known there before. As tlie winter progressed, 
and the arctic severity increased, the position of many species 
became pitiable. The Red Grouse came down from the 
moors, in large flocks, quite close to our villages and small 
towns, and could be easily approached. The Lapwings and 
Golden Plovers that usually pass the winters in our open 
fields and valleys, disappeared entirely. On February nth, 
which might be called the climax, almost all the small birds 
in the neighbourhood, such as Starlings, Robins, Hedge- 
Sparrows, Wrens, etc., had congregated at the Ilkley sewage 
beds ; where also were several Snipe, a score or two of Black- 
headed Gulls (uncommon visitors in winter) and three Common 
Gulls. On the same day I put up a flock of at the least sixty 
frozen-out Mallards from the middle of a dry field. Personally 
I don't think that several almost semi-domesticated species, 
such as Blue and Great Tits, House Sparrows, etc., felt the 
pinch so badly, as they took advantage of the fare provided 
for them by kindly — but not always prudent — people. As 
the winter's snows continued until mid-iVpril nesting operations 
were delayed somewhat, but Rooks were incubating with 
wreaths of snow around them. The Chiff chaff again nested 
at Gilstead (S. Longbottom) and another Chiffchaff was reported 
near Bingley during the nesting season. There is not a single 
record of the Grasshopper Warbler this season, and Mr. C. A. 
Cheatham, who had exceptional opportunities for observation 
at Austwick Moss during the nesting season, failed to note it 
there — its chief West Riding resort. It has been proved that 
the Long-tailed Titmouse is again nesting in Upper Wharfedale 
[Naturalist, IQ17, p. 367). On June 2nd, I paid a special visit to 
Threshfield in order to lind if the Stonechat was nesting there 
again {ante 1917, p. 33), but failed to find any at all. However, 
Mr. Greaves informs me that Mr. D. Sutcliffe saw a pair there - 
on July i6th, 1917, with three or four young in the nest — 
evidently a second brood. 

Amongst our summer immigrants it is pleasing to note the 
reports from many districts that the House Martin has returned 
this season in its usual abundance, after several years deploring 
its decrease in numbers. On the other hand several reliable 
observers, to whom I can also add my testimony, regret the 
increasing scarcity of the Ring Ouzel on our moorsides. 

Other notes worthy of record are : — ^A Red-breasted 
Merganser on the river between Steeton and Kildwick, on 
November 20th, 1916, and a Goosander was also shot about 
the same time and place (S. Atkinson, per F.H.E.). A Pere- 
grine Falcon shot at Howarth on September 4th, 1917 (J. 
Bradley, per R.B.). A House Martin's nest with four young 
on October 14th, 1917, near Silsden (R. Ellam, per F.H.E.). 
An Arctic Tern sent to me by the Rector of Bolton Abbey, 

1918 Jan. 1. 



3^ Yorkshire Naturalists Union : Annual Report, 1917. 

and picked up recently dead from a shot wound, not far from 
the Strid, on vSeptember 6th, 1917. A Common Scoter and a 
Black-throated Diver were shot on Thorpe's Reservoir, near 
Huddersfield {ante 1917, p. 124). A flock of Wild Geese 
settled in a field in Upper Wharfedale, in full daylight, on 
December 13th, 1916 {ante 1917, p. 79) from which the local 
farmers prophesied a bad winter, and near to the same place 
seventeen days later, after tempestuous rains and floods, I 
was surprised to see a pair of Turnstones {ante 1917, p. 79). 

East Riding. — Mr. E. W. Wade writes : — The exceptionally 
cold and severe winter had disastrous effects upon bird life. 
Blackbirds, Thrushes and Redwings died in large numbers 
and Mistle Thrushes became very scarce. Many remains of 
dead Peewits were observed upon the Carr lands in April, and 
the numbers of breeding birds on this ground were seriously 
diminished, though not on the Wolds. Many of the small 
birds, e.g., Tits, Skylarks and Wrens were conspicuously 
scarcer in the Spring. 

Of the birds breeding when the snow and frost first returned 
in April, e.g., Rooks and Thrushes, some sat through the 30 
degrees of frost we had in this district, and successfully reared 
young, but of the Rooks about 50 per cent, lost their eggs and 
young, whilst those who sat it out reared very small broods. 
A proportion bred again, having young in the nests in June. 

The migrants were generally a week to a fortnight later 
than in 1916 in appearing, but in this district were in the usual 
numbers, reared their young successfully, and all disappeared 
before the end of September, including Swallows and Martins. 

The Corncrake still survives here and there, as the rarest 
of our Summer visitors. 

The Woodwren has bred in two localities in this district, 
where I have no previous record of its occurrence except as a 
migrant. 

A Stone Curlew was shot near Mappleton in November, 
1916. 

A Spotted Crake, a bird of the year, was killed by a cat 
in a garden in the heart of the manufacturing district of Hull,. 
on 5th September. 

The Stone Ciirlew appeared on the Wolds on 21st x\pril, 
and has bred satisfactorily in the protected areas. 

The appearance of the Wild Geese has been most imusual 
this year. A few birds were seen in July, and the bulk had 
arrived early in September, instead of the usual date, 21st 
September. 

Much damage to small birds has resulted from a no doubt 
well-meant attempt to start a crusade against the House 
Sparrow in some localities. Numerous traps have been 
employed by small boys, with a resulting destruction of Tits, 

Naturalist, 



Yorkshiye Naturalists' Union : Annual Report, 1917. 2i7 

Robins, and other insectivorous birds, and all kinds of eggs 
have been taken, including those of Whitethroats and Hedge 
Accentor, with the idea of diminishing the numbers of the 
House Sparrow. 

Mr. St. Quintin writes that there is little doubt that nidre 
than one pair of Quails nested in the East Riding last summt-r. 
His bird-keeper, A. Mood3^ who joined the County Police for 
the summer and autumn, during his night patrols, heard the 
bird, which he knows well, on several occasions. A note 
written on July i8th, stated that ' about a week ago,' he heard 
Quails in three different places between 12 p.m. and i a.m., 
and he knew of another place when he had news of a bird 
calling more than once. A male bird would hardly have 
remained here so late as the beginning of July if he had not a 
mate incubating, or with young following her. 

North Riding. — Mr. W. J. Clarke writes : — In the early 
months of 1917 the thrush family suffered severely. Redwings, 
Fieldfares and Song-thrushes dying in great quantities. Many 
gulls were also starved to death, while the frozen victims 
included such hardy species as the Mallard and the Kestrel. 

The result has been a distinct scarcity, during the remainder 
of the year, of small resident birds. 

Despite the severe weather, a Robin's nest contained hve 
eggs on January 24th ; two of the eggs, which were taken out 
and blown, proved to be perfectly fresh, but the remainder 
did not hatch. 

Migratory birds arrived in. much their usual numbers, 
Landrails and Whitethroats being more numerous than for 
several years past. 

The Hawfinch also has been more in evidence this year 
than is generally the case. 

A pair of Stone Curlews nested in a field of growing corn, 
miles away from their usual Yorkshire haunts. 

A considerable migration of House Martins took place on 
September ist, when many hundreds of these birds made their 
appearance in the evening. All were gone next morning. 

York District. — Mr. W. Hewett writes : — Two Cormorants 
were captured in Buttercrambe Wood, near Stamford Bridge, 
York, on January 9th, 1917, and were kept alive for a few days. 
The weather was very cold at the time, with snow. The 
severe frosts in the spring caused great mortality among 
Song-thrushes and they were scarce all the summer. The 
spring migrants were unusually late. 

Mammals, Amphibians, Reptiles and Fishes. — Mr. J. F. 
Musham writes : — At Selby, on March 2bth last, I caught a 
long-tailed field-mouse in the front sitting-room of my residence. 
Before capture, she had devoured a pound of dates off the table, 
and hidden the stones in a heap under the sofa. 

Jl9'8Jan. 1. 



38 Yorkshire Naturalists' Union : Annual Report, 191 7. 

Mr. Wade writes that the Badger holds its own on the 
Wolds, in spite of much persecution. 

Mr. Roebuck reports a water-shrew dug up in Mr. J. W. 
Taylor's garden at Horsforth. 

'Mr. W. Greaves (Hebden Bridge) and Mr. Hewett (York) 
report that during the severe weather rabbits perished in great 
numbers in their districts. 

Mr. W. J. Clarke (Scarborough) writes : — Several Porbeagle 
Sharks have been recorded during August and September ; a 
slice from one of these proved very good food. An adult female 
Lesser Spotted Dog-fish, containing eggs ready for extrusion, 
was taken at Scarborough, upon a fisherman's line, on qth 
February, 1917. 

Mr. H. B. Booth reports that a Seal, probably a specimen 
of Phoca vitulina, was killed in the Wharfe, just below Tadcaster, 
in mid-March, 1917. A large Badger (35 lbs.) was killed near 
Bolton Abbey. 

Mr. F. Rhodes reports that the Palmated Newt appeared 
to be uncommonly scarce on the moors, the scarcity being 
probably due to the severe winter. 

WILD BIRDS AND EGGS PROTECTION COMMITTEE. 

Spuex. — Mr. Johnson Wilkinson writes : — LTnfortunately 
we have not been able to do any w^atching this Season. The 
Lighthouse-keeper and his assistant proferred their assistance, 
but could get no reply from Trinity House. 

Mr. E. W. Wade informs me that a stringent prohibition 
against disturbing the birds had been issued by the General, 
and the Officers of the R.G.A. at Spurn interested themselves 
in the enforcement of this. He had kept in touch with Major 
T. T. Phelps, Intelligence Dept., Humber Garrison, on the 
subject, and on 30th June, Major Pauley, stationed at Spurn, 
kindly undertook to see that all eggs were marked with indelible 
pencil. He reported that he had seen many eggs, but these 
are scarcer than last year. 

Bemptox. — Unfortunately the Peregrines have not bred 
this Season. One old Falcon has been seen several times, as 
late as June 7th ; we can only hope it may find a mate for next 
Season. There has been only one set of egg-gatherers during 
the day time ; others have gathered during the evening. The 
Season has been a good one. 

North Yorkshire. — Only one young Falcon has been 
hatched ; it got safely away by July 9th. 

Hornsea Mere. — This place has been very quiet, there 
being no bombing ; consequently all eggs have hatched well 
although the numbers of various birds were smaller than usual. 
There has been the usual number of Great Crested Grebe, one 
nest contained five eggs ; the watcher had never seen more 
than four in any nest before. No Bearded Tits have been seen. 

Naturalist, 



Yorkshire Naturalists' Union : Annual Report, 1917. 39 

Stone Cuklevvs. — Stone Curlews have turned up well, 
in fact more than have ever been seen for 10 years, although 
late in arriving. One nest was destroyed in ploughing a field 
of turnips. In these districts the weather has been most 
disastrous for all birds, and migrations most irregular — in fact, 
the Turtle Dove, usually last to arrive, turned up on April ist. 

Black Headed Gulls. — It was not until the 21st of April 
that we heard that the eggs of the Black Headed Gull could be 
taken until June 21st. We at once put ourselves in com- 
munication with the largest Gullery in Yorkshire, and through 
the generosity of the owner, the agent, and watcher, we were 
able to bring about 1,500 eggs into the market, which were 
sold at id. each in Bradford and York. The price in London 
at the same time was 4/6 per doz. We were much disappointed 
at the quantity of eggs as we fully expected between four and 
five thousand, but the usual numbers of birds were not there. 
Another Gullery of between four and five hundred birds 
vielded nearly three hundred eggs, which were taken but not sold. 

It is satisfactory to know that we have provided a number 
of eggs for the poor people ; the small balance in hand after 
payment of expenses was given to the gatherer. 

Prosecution. — My attention was called to a note in the 
Yorkshire Herald of a Bittern having been shot. The Nor- 
thallerton Police took the necessary prosecution and the 
defendant was fined £1 and costs. 

Finance. — Our expenses have been very small, but we 
shall require the balance we have in hand, and more, after the 
war, for strict protection. 



CASH ACCOUNT. 
Receipts. 
Balance brought forward 
Mr. W. H. St. Quintin 
Mr. L. Gaunt ... 
Mr. Johnson Wilkinson 
Dr. Bishop (1916) 
Dr. Bishop 

Mr. F. H. Edmondson 
Hon. G. Milnes Gaskell (Donation) 
Mr. A. H. Lumbv 
Mr. E. W. Wade"' 
Mr. W. H. Parkin 
Mr. G. T. Porritt 
Mr. Sydney Smith 
Rotherham Natural History Society 
Bank Interest ... 



£ 


s. 


d. 


... 15 


3 


I 


••• 5 








••• 3 


3 





I 


I 





I 








I 








I 








I 











10 


6 





10 


6 





10 








10 








5 








5 








4 


9 



£31 2 10 



1918 Jan. 1. 



i 


S. 


d. 


6 


o 





2 


o 


o 


I 


o 





22 


2 


10 



40 Yorkshire Naturalists' Union : Annual Report, 1917. 

Payments. 

Hornsea Mere ... 

Stone Curlews ... ... ... 

North Yorkshire 
Cash at Bankers 

/31 2 10 
Audited and found correct, 

W. E. L. Wattam, i^th September, 1917. 

ENTOMOLOGICAL SECTION. 

Lepidoptera. — Mr. B. Morley writes : — After a long and 
severe winter and a cold and wet April it soon became evident 
that an extraordinary insect season was at hand, larvae began 
to appear in great numbers on almost every kind of plant and 
many species of lepidoptera have subsequently appeared in 
the perfect stage in great numbers. 

The three species of White Butterflies have occurred in the 
greatest abundance throughout the county. Vanessa uriiccB, 
V. atalanta and V. io have been common in many places 
during August and September. The reappearance of V. io 
in numbers is noteworthy, as for many years this species has 
been very scarce. Polyommatus phceas has also been abundant. 
Argynnis aglaia is reported from Doncaster. Vanessa antiopa 
was captured at Silsden on September loth, 1917, and another 
seen at Wilsden during the same month. Many species of 
moths have been very common ; the antler moth being perhaps 
the most abundant, and the swarm not by any means confined 
to the moors, this moth appearing during August in phenomenal 
numbers in many low-land meadows. In June excessive 
numbers of Scardia cloacella, Dasycera sulphur ella and Gly- 
phipteryx fuscoviridella appeared in the West Riding ; the 
same remark applies to the appearance of Penthina saiiciana 
and Aphelia osseana on the moors in July, and to Gracilaria 
syringella in the lowlands in August. 

Acherontia atropos is reported from Huddersfield and 
Doncaster ; Sphinx convolvuli from Hebden Bridge, Keighley 
(three specimens), Barnsley (two specimens), Middlesbrough 
(seven), and Doncaster (common). 

Luperina nickerlii taken at Hebden Bridge in August, 
has been brought to me, two larvae of Acronyda alni were taken 
in Edlington Wood in the same month. 

Dr. Corbett reports Stigmonota nitidana and Choreufes 
scintillulana common at Doncaster. 

Mr. T. Ashton Lofthouse reports from Middlesbrough 
Penthina dimidiana plentiful, and from the same locality 

i^faturalisi, 



Yorkshire Naturalists' Union : Annual Report, i(>i7. 41 

Penthina nigrocostana by Mr. L. S'. Brady, the latter species 
being new to the Yorkshire list, as is also Eriopsela fractifasciana 
at Skelmanthorpe in July. 

Antithesia salicella and Ochscnhcimeria birdella were also 
taken by me at Skelmanthorpe in July ; Tinea semifulvella, 
and Incurvaria tenuicornis in Deffer Wood in June, the latter 
being the second record for Yorkshire. Mr. Porritt has bred 
many fine varieties of Abraxas grossulariata from Huddersfield 
larvae, including a var. varleyata with the characteristic black 
dusting of the nigrosparsata variety on the white parts of the 
wings. 

Mr. W. H. St. Ouintin writes : — Vanessa io occurred at 
Scampston in small numbers. I saw three specimens (slightly 
worn) in the garden on September 5th. I had not seen this 
insect here for quite forty years, previous to which it used to 
occur here in small numbers. On September qth, one V. 
cardui in fine condition ; atalanta was in exceptional numbers, 
in very fine condition during the first half of September. 

Sphinx convolviili : I heard of e.xamples being seen or 
caught at Thornton Dale and Bolton Hall (Leyburn), both in 
the North Riding. V. antiopa : A specimen was seen here 
for a few minutes on September 3rd. After visiting the 
various flowers in the herbaceous borders, it left of its own 
accord (undisturbed) rising high in the air. and flying across 
the open park. 

CoLEOPTERA. — Dr. W. J. Fordham writes : — The work 
accomplished by the members of this Committee has resulted 
in a few interesting records being made, but the number of new 
species added to the county hst is not great. The season 
opened with promise — beetles, especially plant feeders, being 
in abundance in the late spring and earlj^ summer, but their 
duration seemed short. A list of noteworthy captures together 
with general remarks on the season will appear in due course 
in The Naturalist. 

HyMENOPTERA, DiPTERA and HeMIPTERA CO.MMITTEE. — 

Mr. J. F. Musham writes : — In the Selby district, the common 
Bombi and social wasps have been little in evidence. Bombiisi 
terrestris L., and B. agrortim Fab., $'s were more frequently seen 
in the spring than in any other form later. 

Three queen nests of Vespa sylvestris ? have been taken near 
Selby, in each case without imagos. During the latter part 
of September, ^'s of Vespa germanica (locally common) and V . 
vulgaris were numerous. Of more interest, mention may be 
made of the following : — 

Anthropera pilipes, Mcgachile centiincularis, and Colletes 
daviesana, frequent in gardens during July. 

1918 Jan. 1. 



42 Yorkshire NatnraHsts' Union : Annual Report, 1917. 

I noticed a curious habit of Odynerus pictus ; on alighting 
on a bloom of the common blue garden pansy, it immediately 
slipped round to the rear of the bloom and remained there 
until disturbed. What the attraction was I could not dis- 
cover. 

Mr. Butterheld, Keighley, writes : — You are lucky to be 
able to get so many species in your garden ; the species too are 
of a distinctly lowland type, I do not know any one else who 
has Anthophera, Megachile, Colletes and Posopis in this upland 
district. 

For the Keighley district social wasps have not been 
numerous, it is a number of years since they were so uncommon 
here. 

The social bees have been fairly plentiful. Bomhus joneUus, 
considered a rare bumble bee has been locally common, on the 
other hand, I have not seen a single example of the sub-alpine 
moor bee, Bombus lapponicus of late years. This, the most 
handsome of our social bees, has gradually diminished in 
numbers ; it would be interesting to get the opinion of other 
observers, especially in the Whitby area. 

Among the solitary bees a special feature of the season has 
been the large quantities of Nomada. The bright-banded 
parasitic bees have arrested the attention of the least observant. 

The President of the Entomological Section and I saw a 
large number in Shipley Glen. 

Amongst those captured were Nomada fabricinna L., 
bifida Thoms., and lathhuriana Kirb. One day in June, 
thousands were noted along the roadside between Bolton Abbey 
and Beamsley, the species were chiefly N. alterata, Kirb., and 
they were entering the burrows of Andrena rosce, var. trim- 
mer an a. 

Worthy of mention is the occurrence of Halictus atricornis. 
Smith, at Shipley Glen. 

The Medical Department of the Local Government Board 
have asked for the assistance of Members of this Committee 
regarding the movements of Anophelines in connection with 
the possible risks of malaria being acquired in this country. 
The circular sets forth the nature of the records required, 
and copies, can be obtained by writing to the Medical Depart- 
ment of the Local Government Board. 

In the Entomologist for August, 1917, Dr. J. W. H. Harrison 
records the following new and rare Homoptera in the Northern 
Counties : Livia juncaniim Latr., thinly distributed throughout 
the Cleveland district of Yorkshire. 

Livia crefeldensis Minll., rare in the Middlesbrough area 
of North Yorkshire. 

Rhinocola acenis L., rare, Gunnergate, Cleveland. New to 
my Yorkshire list. 

Naturalist, 



Yorkshire Natut'alists' Union : Annual Report, 1917. 43 

Khinocola ericae, Cant. Plentiful everywhere in Cleveland. 

The Entomologist for 1916 also contained papers on Cynipid 
Galls occurring in Durham, Northumberland and North 
Yorkshire by the same writer. 

Arachnida. — Mr. W. Falconer writes : — Three small con- 
signments have been received from Dr. Corbett, Mr. W. P. 
Winter and Rev. R. A. Taylor (Burnley) respectively. The 
first, from Martin Beck Wood, on the county border line, v.c. 63, 
contained amongst others Linyphia pusilla Sund. 1^, 3$s, 
Theridion impressiim L. Koch ^ (second Yorkshire station) 
and Cliihiona grisea L. Koch, $s, all new to the division, and 
Tetragnatha extensa Linn., both sexes, recorded once before 
for it ; the last, from Scarborough, included 8 or 9 examples of 
the false-scorpion, Chernes nodosiis Schr., taken from flies' 
legs. My own collecting furnishes the following records from 
the Huddersfield drainage area : — New stations for Gongylidiel- 
lum paganum Sim. and Maro minittus Camb. (the latter still 
confined to the Slaithwaite district), Porrhomma thorellii Herm., 
numerous ^s and ^s from the sewage works at Berry Brow, 
Tetragnatha solandrii Scop. $, the only one so far seen in 
the drainage area, and many mites, including some ten gall- 
makers. 

BOTANICAL SECTION. 

Flow^erixg Plants. — Mr. C. A. Cheetham writes : — The 
very severe weather during the first three months of the year 
held up all vegetation ; on Moughton Scar, where Saxijraga 
oppositifolia has been seen in flower by February ist, there was 
deep snow up to the second week of April, and until this cleared 
away, there w^as no growth. When open w^eather came, the 
leeway was quickly made up, and by Whitsuntide all plants 
seemed quite up to their usual dates for bloom. The effects 
of the frosts were most noticeable on the gorse and garden 
evergreens ; reports of the former having suffered severely 
were to hand from all districts. 

There is a general agreement that the year is a good average 
one for wild fruits, with the exception of the Ash, which is a 
noticeable failure ; occasionally a tree is seen with ' keys,' 
but this is often on poor grown or diseased plants, or single 
branches of larger trees. Can it be that these flowered at a 
different time to the general body and escaped the untoward 
circumstances which spoilt the rest ? From Swaledale to 
Airedale, and in the Huddersfield district, the Mountain Ash 
carries berries to an abnormal extent and is a glorious sight. 
Mr. J. F. Robinson finds that in the East Riding fruits are 
on the whole below the normal average, citing Ash, Bramble, 
Sloe, Guelder Rose and Woody Nightshade, as all poor. 

lyiS Jan. 1. 



44 Yorkshire Natiiyalisis' Union : Annual Report, 1917. 

Reports of orchards vary somewhat, but a general agree- 
ment is that this has been a pear year. 

No records of new plants are to hand, but confirmations 
of old observations as Trientalis Europcea, Ilkley Moor, near 
Helwick, 1677, vide Lees' ' Flora,' still there (J. Beanland) ; 
Carex axillaris and C. pseudo-cyperus, near Hull, doing well 
this year (J. F. Robinson) ; new localities for Riimex alpinus, 
are GuyscUff, Nidderdale and Cookridge, Airedale (Sanderson 
and Cheetham). 

Mr. W. B. Haley sends a note on the Dewsbury aliens, 
which is added to the report of the botanical sectional meeting. 
At the meeting of this Section held at Leeds, in October, 
Dr. F. Arnold Lees showed fronds of Holly fern collected near 
Settle this year ; it is good to know that this plant still grows 
in our area. He also showed the Galium mentioned in his 
note on page 328 of the October Naturalist. Mr. J. Beanland 
showed a gathering of thi?; plant from Hubberholme, which 
carries it much liigher up the river. 

Botanical Survey Committee. — Mr. W. H. Burrell 
writes : — At Huddersfield Dr. Woodhead has been engaged in 
tracking glacial deposits, with a view to establishing a founda- 
tion for the origin of the local flora. A report of his work 
was published in The Naturalist for July, pp. 219-232, and 
further instalment showing the influence of these transported 
subsoils on the vegetation of the Colne and tributary valleys 
will be looked for. During the year the Doncaster Scientific 
Society has been working at the Natural History of Martin 
Beck, and a botanical survey of the wood is being carried out. 
The progress of the work was sketched by Dr. Corbett at the 
annual meeting of the Botanical Section, and details will be 
published in due course. 

The study of the Ling covered areas of the limestone at 
Moughton is being continued. A series of microscopic slides 
showing seeds and organic debris from the lowest layers of 
peat was on exhibition at Leeds on October 6th. 

Bryology. — Mr. W. Ingham, B.A., writes : — During the 
past year has been published the ' Synopsis of the European 
Sphagna,' by J. A. Wheldon, based upon Warnstorf's Sphag- 
nologia Universalis. In this work are many records by myself, 
of which a few are appended : — 

Sphagnum fimbriatuni var. validus (Wheeldale), var. laxi- 
foliuni (Arncliffe Wood) ; 5. Girgensohnii v. robustum (Black 
Hambleton) and var. microccphalitm (Wheeldale)'; S. Russowii 
var Girgensohnioides (Reeth) ; 5. pliimolosum var. late-virens 
(Buttercrambe Woods) ; 5. compactiim var. isophylla (Sandburn 
Wood) ; 5. squarrosuni var. Spectabile (Buttercrambe Woods) ; 
5. parvijolium vars. WarnstorfU and Inghami (Fen Bog) ; 5. 

Natura'.ist, 



Yorkshire Natitrdlisfs' I'liioii: A iinital Report, U)iy. 45 

pulchritm (Ravenscar) ; .S. aiiricidatitm var. laxifolium (Fen 
Bog). 

Mr. C. A. Cheetham found Wcisia tenuis and Plagiothccinm 
depress urn at Wentbridge. 

Mycology. — Mr. A. E. Peck writes : — No meetings have 
been held, but Mr. Harold Wager has been collecting Fungi 
in Litton Dale, and has been investigating spore colouration 
in the Fungi. He has also made some experiments on the 
colouring matters of Lcptonia incana. Yorkshire Mycology 
suiters severely by the decease of Charles Crossland (December 
Qth, 1916), see The Naturalist, January, 1917, and ' Transac- 
tions of the British Mycological Society for season 1916 ' (Vol. 
v., Part 3.) and of George Edward Massee (Feb. i6th, 1917), 
see The Naturalist, April, 1917, and ' Transactions of the 
British Mycological Society for Season, 1916 ' (Vol. \ ., Part 3). 



GEOLOGICAL SECTION. 

Geological Section. — Mr. John Holmes writes : — Al- 
though there has been no opportunity for combined effort, 
much work has been accomplished by individual members of 
the Section during the year. Dr. Woodhead has made a 
valuable contribution to the glacial geology of Calderdale by 
his observations on the excavations near Huddersfield. Mr. 
Gilligan has described some interesting minerals found in the 
Millstone Grit. The revival of the glass industry in South 
Yorkshire has stimulated the study of sands, wdthin the county 
and elsewhere. The materials used for refractories in the iron 
and steel industry have also received attention. 

Jurassic F^lora Committee. — Mr. J. J. Burton writes :— 
All operations on a systematic scale have been suspended for 
the present. Owing to the war, the difficulty of travel, the 
many claims upon the time of members of the Committee and 
the quantity of material not fully examined, it is not anticipated 
that much more can be done for some time. 

Coast Erosion Committee. — Mr. J. W. Stather writes : — 
The sea is still eroding the Yorkshire coast, and falls of cHff 
have occurred, but for obvious reasons no accurate information 
can be given on these points just now. 

Glacial Committee.— -Mr. Thomas Sheppard,M.Sc., reports 
that Mr. T. Crowder of Bardney, Lines, informs him that 
during some excavations in the main street at Bardney a 
little while ago, an enormous block of stone was discovered at 
about a depth of 2 feet from the surface. It measured 10 
feet long, by 6 feet wide, by 2 feet deep. It was a rough 

I9I8 Jan. 1. ; 



46 Yorkshire NaturaHsts' Union : Annual Report, 1917. 

unhewn block, and had to be broken up in order to remove it. 
A further boulder, somewhat oval in shape, about 3 feet long, 
and 1 1 feet across, was found during excavations at Bardney 
Abbey. Chippings from both these boulders have been sent 
to Mr. Sheppard, who states they are unquestionably of Spilsby 
sandstone. 

SoppiTT Memorial Library. — The following additions 
have been made during the year : — The late Mr. Chas. Cross- 
land's interleaved and annotated copy of the Fungus Flora of 
Yorkshire, kept up to date until his death, also letters and 
obituary notices of H. T. Soppitt and letters relating to the 
library, presented by Mrs. Crossland. A Guide to the 
Literature of British Diptera, by Mr. Percy H. Grimshaw. 
Transactions of the Entomological Society of London, 1916, 
Part 5. Transactions of the North Staffordshire Field Club 
and Report, Vol. LL, 1917. Proceedings of the Birmingham 
Natural History and Philosophical Society, Vol. XIV., Part 
I, and Annual Report for 1915. Tuft's College Studies, Vol. 
IV., Nos. 3 and 4. Synopsis of the section Apus of the genus 
Polyporus, C. G. Lloyd. Archibo? do Jardim Botanico do 
Rio de Janeiro, 1915. Archivos Barcinonensis, Zoological 
Series, 1, 2, 3, 5, 6 and 7 ; and Series Botanica XL, 1917. 

British Association. — Mr. T. Sheppard, M.Sc, writes : — 
Your representative attended the Conference of Delegates of 
the Corresponding Societies held in the Linnean Society's 
rooms on July 6th and 7th, under the Presidency of Mr. John 
Hopkinson, a Yorkshireman, and the report of the meeting 
appeared in The Naturalist for August. He also had the 
honour of reading a paper on the subject of ' Weights and 
Measures,' which will be printed in extenso in the next report 
of the British Association. 

The Naturalist. — This journal has maintained its high 
standard of excellence during the year. The thanks of the 
Union are given to Dr. Woodhead and Mr. T. Sheppard, M.Sc, 
for supplying the blocks in illustration of their various con- 
tributions entirely free of cost. 

The Presidency for 1918 has been offered to and accepted 
by Prof. W. Garstang, M.A., Sc.D., F.Z.S., of Leeds. 

The Union wishes to record its indebtedness to its retiring 
President, Sir Archibald Geikie, O.M., K.C.B., LL.D. 

Financial Statement.— The following is the Hon. Treas- 
urer's (Mr. Edwin Hawkesworth) statement of Receipts and 
Payments : — 

Naturalist, 



Yorkshire Naturalists' Union : Annual Report, 1917. 



47 



STATEMENT OF INCOME AND EXPENDITURE, 
12 months to November 19, 1917. 



INCOME. 

i ^■ 
Members' Annual 

Subscriptions, arrears -1 

1917 04: 10 

„ 1918 1 14 


d. 

II 




i s. d. 


Levies from Associated 

Societies, arrears 11 
iyl7 8 6 








Baak Interest 




4 11 4: 



£ s. d. 



Naturalist' : 


— 




Subscriptions, 


arrears 


3 G 




1917 


SO 14 


» 


1918 


2 U 



SG 2 



£169 14 4 



EXPENDITURE. 

£ ^- 'i- 

Expenses ot Meetings 2 10 10 

Printing and Stationery (General A/c) 8 6 (i 

Postages, etc. {Hon. Secretaries' A/c) 4 17 4 

Clerkage, „ „ 10 

Stationery, !rtc. (Hon. Treasurer's A/c) 14 9 

Postages etc., „ 12 8 

Wreatiis 2 (J 

Bank ComiBission 2 9 

Cost of Publications : — 

Annual Report, 1916 ..£7 17 
., 1917 (est.) 9 

16 17 
Less —Provision in A/cs 

for 1916 'i l-^> 

10 2 

' Naturalist ' : — 

Members' Copies . .£101 11 3 
Exchanges . . . . 3 15 

Sundries 13 

Editor's Postages, etc. i - - 
Extra pages . . . . •'> 10 4 

Binding 10 

Discount deducted 

and not allowed 3 2 6 

122 4 3 

Balance, being excess of Income over 

Expenditure ' '> -^ 

/169 14 4 



BALANCE SHEET, November 19, 1917. 



LIABILITIES. 

£ s. 
Amounts due from Union — 

' Naturalist ' 44 10 

Annual Report, 1917 9 

Subscriptions received in advance 3 16 

Life Members' Account , 74 19 

' Hey ' Legacy Account .. .. 20 
Balance being excess of Assets over 

Liabilities, Nov. 19th, 1917 . . 81 7 



£233 13 8 



ASSETS. 

£ s- 
Cash at Bank . . . . 137 4 
Cash in Hon. Secretary's , i 

hands 2 3 

Cash in Hon. Treasurer's 

hands l-i) 



War Savings Certificates for £100 

(February 12th, 1917), cost . . 

£ s. d. 

Subscriptions in Arrears. . 20 2 

Written off as unreahsablc 12 



140 3 8 
77 10 



E. HAVVKESWORTH, 

Hon. Treasurer. 



19i8Jan. 1. 



48 

NEWS FROM THE MAGAZINES. 

In The Irish Naturalist Vol. 24, No. 10, Mr. C. B. Moffat writes on 
' Losses to a Local Flora,' and Mr. J. P. Burkitt has a ' Note on the 
Long-eared Owl.' 

The December number of British Birds contains particulars of the re- 
covery of marked birds, and a record of Leach's and Storm Petrels in 
North Lancashire and Westmorland. 

Nature for November 22nd contains an abstract of Prof. W. G. Fearn- 
side's Howard Lectures delivered before the Royal Society of Arts on 
' The Shortage of the Supply of Non- Phosphoric Iron Ore.' 

In The Entomologist, No. 653, Mr. W. G. Sheldon writes on ' Pevonea 
cnstana : Its life-history. Habits of the Imago, Distribution of the various 
named forms, and some speculations on the present trend of its variation ' ; 
Mr. Claude Morley ' On the Proctotrypid Genus Gonatopus Ljunch ' ; 
and Daphnis nerii is recorded for Derbyshire. 

Vol. III., No. 3 of The Vasculum contains a paper on ' The Order Pro- 
tura,' by Mr. R. S. Bagnall ; ' The Erosion of Rocks,' by Dr. J. A. Smythe, 
and ' Notes on the Winter of 19 16-7 in the Alston District,' by Mr. George 
Bolam. Dr. J. W. H. Harrison writes on ' The Genera Orchis and Gym- 
nadenia in Durham,' and there are the usual shorter notes. 

A recent number of British Birds contains ' Evidence for the Breeding 
of the Green Sandpiper in Westmorland in 19 17.' To this the Editor 
adds the following note : — ' Had one of the young birds been taken and 
its skin preserved in some public museum lasting and incontrovertible 
proof would have been afforded, and it seems to us a great pity that 
the opportunity of obtaining such a proof was missed.' 

In The Entomologist's Magazine No. 641, Mr. R. S. Bagnall describes 
' Aylax rogenhoferi (Wachtl), A Cynipid (Hymenoptera) new to the 
British Fauna,' from Durham. In the same number Mr. W. J. Fordham 
records the black form of ' Silpha subrotundata Steph. in the Isle of Man ' ; 
and Mr. R. Wilding notes 'Arena octavii Fauv. on the Lancashire 
Coast.' Mr. Fordham also records 'Aylax taraxaci Ashm. in Derbyshire,' 
and Mr. E. G. Bayford has a note on ' CannibaUsm in phytophagous 
larvai when in confinement.' 

Wild Life for October contains illustrated articles on ' The Nesting of 
the Landrail, with some Notes on the species' Distribution,' by Ralph 
Chislett ; ' Some Notes on the Badger,' by Ion C. B. Jamieson ; ' The 
Woodlark in North Devon,' by Owen Wynne ; ' Economic Ornithology, *' 
by William Berry, as well as interesting records under the head of Corres- 
pondence. There is also an obituary notice of the late 2nd Lieut. E. L. 
\Vood, who was a native of Grimsby. 

The New Phytologist, Vol. XVI., Nos. 8 and 9, contains the following 
items : — Ob.servations on the Influence of Aeration of the Nutrient 
Solution in Water Culture Experiments, with some remarks on the Water 
Culture Method, by W. Stiles and I. Jorgensen ; The Origin and Develop- 
ment of the Compositne, by J. Small; The Endotrophic Mycorhiza of 
Ericacea^, by J. Dufrenoy ; Note on Targionia hypophylla, by S. R 
Kashyap ; ' Fossil Plants ' (Review), by D. H. S. ; On Some Criticisms 
of the Osazone Method of Detecting Sugars in Plant Tissues, by S. 
Mangham 

In Man for November, Mr. J. Reid Moir figures and describes a piece 
of Yew from the Cromer forest bed. It is very bluntly obtuse at one 
end, and the opposite end is flat, which, of course, ' appears to have been 
produced by sawing.' The object is described as ' a piece of humanly 
shaped wood,' but the evidence of such a definite statement seems about 
as meagre as is so much of the evidence of very early man, which is con- 
stantly coming forward in East Anglia. Plenty of pieces of wood similar 
to that figured may be obtained from almost any peat bed, which are 
known to have been contemporary with homo, but few experienced 
naturalists would dare to suggest that they were ' humanly shaped.' 

Naturalist ^ 



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Mr. Kearton, F.Z.S., in liis review of tliis work for the Daily Chronicle writes : — 
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THE IRISH NATURALIST 

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BOTANY. ZOOLOGY. GEOLOGY. 

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(Two HOLUERNESS TAI.ES) 

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but assuredly ' Flit and Ko ' run no danger of being outshone even when 
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Sheffield aily Telegraph. — " To lovers of Yorkshire and lovers of 
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studies from life, carefully rendered, and with h<^rdly a weak touch 
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BRAZZOCK 

OR SKETCHES OF SOME HUMOUROUS 
CHARACTERS OF A HOLDER NESS PARISH. 

By the Rev. WILLIAM SMITH, Rector. 

235 pages, Crown Svo, Illustrated, Bound in Art Vellum and 
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Catwick, the Holderness parish which fostered the characters here 
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folk whether good or bad. 



London : A. Brown & Sons, Ltd., 5 Farringdon Avenue, E.C. 
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Printed at Browns' Savile Press, 40, George Street, Hull, and published by 
A. Brown & Sons, Limited, at 5 Farringdon Avenue, in the City of London. 

Jan. 1st, iqiS. 



FEB. 1918. 



No. 733 



(No. 508 of current t»ri«t. 




A MONTHLY ILLUSTRATED JOURNAL OF 

NATURAL HISTORY FOR THE NORTH OF ENGLAND. 



T. SHEPPARD, 



EDITED BV 

M.Sc, F.Q.S., F.R.Q.S. 

The Museums, Hull ; 



F.S.A.Scat. 



T. W. WOODHEAD, Ph.D., M.Sc, 

Technical College, Huddersfield. 

WITH THE assistance AS REFEREES IN SPECIAL DEPARTMENT: 

J. QILBBRT BAKBR, P.R.S. P.L.S., GEO. T. PORRITF, 

Prof. P. P. KENDALL, M.Sc. P.Q.S., JOHN W. TAYLOR, JM 

RILEY FORTUNE. F.Z.S. 




Contents : — 

Notes and Comments (illustrated): — Louvain and London; The British Museum ; Ignor- 
ance; Bombs; Protests; Lord Sudeley ; Lord Curzon ; The Natural History Museum ; 
The Trustees ; Letters to the Press ; The Museums Association ; Sir Henry H. Howorth ; 
The Science Museum ; Sorby Scientific Society ; Northumberland Fishes ; Lancashire 
and Cheshire Entomologists; The South Eastern Naturalist; The Library; Jaws of 
Ancient Men; Handbook of Regional Geology ; Famous Yorkshire Botanists ; London 
Naturalists; Manchester Microscopists ; Sir Archibald Geikie ; Heterangiums of the 
British Coal Measures ; Herefordshire Naturalists ; Liverpool Biologists 49-58 

Implements of the Bronze Age in the Whitby Museum -T. Sheppanl, M.Sc, F.G.S. 59-61 

Mycetozoa of the Austwick District — A. R. Sanderson 62-65- 

Mepatics of Denbighshire^-IFoi. Hy. Pearson 66-G7 

The Geographical Distribution of Moths of the Sub-family Bistoninae-/. ^Y . 

Heslop Harrison, B.Sc 68-72 

Cumberland Coleoptera in igiy— F. H . Day, F.ES 73.74 

Field Notes : — Coleoptera Notes from Huddersfield ; ' Brent Geese ' or ' Gabriel's Hounds' ; 
Separation of the Sexes of the Chafilnch in Winter ; Long-Eared Owl Nesting on the 
Ground ; Curious Behaviour of a Pair of Song Thrushes (Turcius inusicus) ; Scarcity of 
the Bulfinch in Upper Airedale ; Pied Wagtails in Winter and on Migration in the Brad- 
ford District ; Paluciestriiia mimtta in Lines. ; Agrotis obscnra Brahm. {ravida Hb.) at 
Biibwith; Homoptera of West Cumberland 67, 75-79' 

Reviews and Book Notices 61 

Northern News 65,79 

News from the Magazines 74, 79, 80 

Illustrations 57, 58 

Plates l.>ll. 



LONDON : 

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And at Hull and York. 
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Prepaid Subscription 6/6 par annum, post free. 



YORKSHIRE NATURALISTS' UNION. 



VERTEBRATE ZOOLOGY SECTION. 

President : A. HAIGH LUMBY, Esq., Shipley. 



Two Meetings will be held on February i6th, in the Church Institute, North 
Parade, Bradford, at 3-15 and 6 p.m. respectively, and the co-operation of 
all members is invited. At the Afternoon Gathering, there will be a few short 
papers, and a lantern will be provided for any person desiring to exhibit slides 
of Mammals, Birds, Reptiles, Batrachians or Fishes. 

Specimens, photographs, and original observations will be welcomed, and 
opportunity given to any member of the Union to introduce matters of interest 
in any branch of vertebrate zoology. 

I Chapel Avenue, WALTER GREAVES. 

Hebden Bridge. Hon. Sec. 

BOOKS WANTED. 

Garner. Nos. 4, 8, 12, 60. 

Lanes, and Cheshire Antiq. Soc. Vols. IV., V., VIII., XXVI. 

Discovery. (Liverpool, 4to). 1891. 

Louth Ant. and Nat. Soc. Reports, 1-14, 17-19. 

Alford Nat. Hist. Soc. Reports. 

Union Jack Naturalist. Any. 

Archaeologia Cantiana. Vol. I. 

M. Simpson's Guide to Whitby, ist ed. [before 1881]. 

Internat. Journ. Micros, and Nat. Sci. 1891-97. 

Journ. Micrology and Nat. Hist. Mirror. 19 14- 

Young and Bird. Geol. of Yorks. Coast. 2nd ed. 1828. 

Derby Arch, and Nat. Hist. Soc. Parts 20, 21. 

Journal Marine Biological Assoc. Vols. I. -IV. 

Croydon Nat. Soc. 6th Report, and Trans, for 1887-8. 

Yorks Ramblers' Club Journal. No. 8. 

Newbury District Field Club Transactions. Vols. III. and on. 

Reports Wakefield Lit. and Phil Soc. Set. 

Proc. Birmingham Nat. Hist, and Phil Soc. Vol. I., part 2. 

Proc. Soc. of Antiquaries, ist Series, Vols. I. and II. 

Trans. Manchester Geol. Soc. Vols. XV., XVI., XIX.-XXIII. 

Transactions Burnley Literary and Scientific Club. Set. 

Trans. Barrow Nat, Field Club. Vol. VII. 

Dudley and Midland Geol. etc , Soc. 1862-80 (14 parts). 

Vale of Derwent Nat. Field Club. Old Series, Vols. I. -III. 

Salisbury Field Club Transactions, Vol. II. 

Trans. Norfolk and Norwich Nat. Soc. Vol. IV., Pt. 3. 

Peterborough Natural History Society. Reports, 1-8, 11-12, 14-26. 

Brighton and Sussex Natural History Society Reports, 1855-1870; 1872-3* 

North Staffordshire Field Club Reports for 1869-1873, 1876. 

Bedfordshire Natural History Society Proceedings. Set. 

Trans. Royal Cornwall Geological Society. Vol. V. to date. 

Chester Soc. Nat. Science : Ann. Reports, i.-iv. 

Trans. VVoolhope Club. 1866-80. 

Quarterly Journal of Science. 1878-9, 1882-3, ^^^ 1885. 

Trans. Geol. Soc, London, 4to. 2nd series, Vols. IV. -VII. (1836-56). 

Geological Magazine, 1890- 1-2-4. 

Mackie's Geol. and Nat. Hist. Repository. Vols. II., III. 

Proc. Liverpool Geol. Association. Parts i, 3, 7, 16. 

Reliquary (Jewitt's 8vo. Series). Vols. XXII. and XXIV. 

Irish Naturalist. Vols. 1912-16. 

Scottish Naturalist. 1881-95. 

Annals of Scottish Nat. Hist. 1905- 1916. 

Walford's Antiquarian Mag. and Bibliographer for July-Dec, 1885. 

Apply — Editor, The Museum, Hull. 




NOTES AND COMMENTS. 

LOUVAIN 

Bnt a little while ago, the civilized world was horrified at 
the destruction of the wonderful library at Louvain. It was 
felt that such disrespect for a centre of learning could hardly 
exist, even in the breast of the Hun. But it did — and a world- 
famed library was pillaged and burnt, treasures gathered to- 
gether during the lives of many eminent scholars, for the 
enlightenment of humanity, being lost for ever. Few expressed 
themselves more frankly than the British, and a movement 
was soon afoot in this country to endeavour to repair this 
damage, in some small way, by collecting rare books and 
MSS., to be sent to Louvain when it is safe to do so. And we 
thanked Heaven we were British, and joined the world in 
cursing the Hun. 

AND LONDON. 

And then, but a few days ago, we found, in our greatest 
city, in the centre of English wealth and learning, an attempt, 
nay, more than an attempt, to take over the British Museum in 
Bloomsbury, in order to accommodate the rabbit -like increasing 
quantities of males and females employed by the Air Board ; 
and also to take over the Natural History Museum, at South 
Kensington, for the accommodation of clerks employed in con- 
nection with insurance. These steps, we understand, were 
taken by the Office of Works, as represented by Sir Alfred 
Mond — presumably an Englishman, son of Sir Eudwig 
Mond — also presumably an Englishman, though had we not 
known this, we might have assumed that such an action 
had emanated from the brain of a Hun. 

THE BRITISH MUSEUM. 

The treasures in the British Museum are vested in the 
charge of Trustees, who are directly responsible to Parliament. 
As Trustees, they have absolute say and power in matters 
of this sort. Yet they were not even consulted, and without 
attempting to ask their opinion, steps were taken to close 
these national institutions, remove their contents, and trans- 
form the buildings into offices. This by an Englishman, in 
England, in the twentieth century ! 

IGNORANCE. 

Such action surely reflects small credit upon the powers 
that be as to their knowledge of the museum and its work. 
In the first place, the museum — and particularly the Natural 
History Section — has been of incalculable service in connexion 
with the war in many ways. This aspect of the museum's 
work, at least, should appeal to those supposed to be interested 

1918 Feb. 1. 



JUN^4 1920 



'5o Notes and Comments. 

in the furtherance of the war ; yet it would be stopped, if the 
buildings were closed and the collections were removed, to 
say nothing of the loss to science, literature and art generally 
(and we may include commerce), though this may not be ex- 
pected to appeal to the said powers. But the collections in the 
British Museum cannot be hurriedly packed and carted off 
by pantechnicon vanmen, and in any case, if every possible 
care were taken, damage to objects which cannot possibly be 
replaced was inevitable. 

BOMBS. 

There is a further aspect of the question ; if our principal 
museum buildings are being used for war work, we can hardly 
expect them to be respected in case of air raids — which are 
quite possible ; and experience has shown that the raiders are 
able to select their targets — and hit them ! 

PROTESTS. 

However, as soon as the object of the Air Board was known, 
there was such a spontaneous storm of indignation set up — the 
Press, for once, was unanimous in condemning the scheme — 
and scientific societies, large and small, throughout the country, 
were hurriedly called together, and telegrams of protest were 
forwarded in great numbers. Yorkshire societies were as 
active in their way as any. Punch especially had an effective 
appeal in its cartoon, ' Another Air Raid.' The Times and 
other papers published letters and articles. 

LORD SUDELEY. 

When Parliament assembled. Lord Sudeley called attention 
to the proposed appropriation of the British Museum to the 
purposes of the Air Ministry, and of its branch, the Natural 
History Museum at South Kensington, for other public offices. 
He was confident, he said, that the decision to appropriate 
the building was arrived at by the Government before they had 
been able to obtain full information. All the learned societies 
throughout the country, and all the great authorities, had pro- 
tested against the proposal to appropriate so great a national 
trust. The idea was an absurd one, especially in view of the 
fact that other buildings were available for the purpose. The 
accommodation of the Hotel Cecil, he understood, had not been 
fully utilised. The Port of London Authority's buildings and 
the Bethlem Hospital buildings could also be utilised for the 
purposes of the Air Ministry. The Natui-al History Museum 
had done an immense amount of work for War Services. 

LORD CURZOX. 

In repl3^ Lord Curzon said : — ' As regards the British 
Museum, it has been found possible so- materially to reduce 

Naturalist, 



Notes and Comments. 51 

the demands for the accommodation of the Air Ministry that it 
is no longer necessary to appropi-iate a building of that size. 
That, I may say in passing, was the sole reason for which the 
proposal had been put forward to consider that place. Thus 
it will be possible to locate the Air Ministry under my noble 
friend on my left (Lord Rothermere) elsewhere. Meanwhile, 
however, two of the floors of the new wing of the British 
Museum have for some time been occupied by a Public Office 
or for other War purposes. The progressive removal of 
treasures to places of greater safety, which is being steadily 
pursued — as I am sure it will be with the concurrence of the 
House — will enable a still larger space in the Museum to be 
employed for this purpose, and this space will, i&ith the consent 
of the tnistees and in consultation nnth the Museum authorities, 
be utilised for the accommodation for other non-combatant 
departments similar to those which are already housed in the 
Museum." 

THE NATURAL HISTORY MUSEUM. 

' The second part of my noble friend's question relates to 
the Natural History Museum, a branch of the British Museum 
at South Kensington. As regards that place, it has been found 
on detailed examination that any attempt to convert the gal- 
leries to Government uses would entail the closing of the 
building to the public, an extensive rearrangement of the con- 
tents and possible damage in the course of removal, the con- 
sumption of an enormous amount of labour and material, 
and very considerable delay. In these circumstances it has 
been decided that there is no necessity sufficiently urgent to 
warrant the use of the Natural History Museum for Government 
purposes.' Thus, apparently, the reason for the change in the 
attitude of the Office of Works was not on account of the op- 
position of the public and press, but merely that it was possible 
to reduce the demands of the Air Ministry (one report says 
by reducing the staff by 50 per cent. !), and therefore, that a 
large building like the British Museum would not be required ; 
also, that the time of removal, with possible damage to the 
natural history specimens, caused the South Kensington 
Museum to be unsuitable. All we can say is, ' We don't 
think ! ' As one of the London papers puts it, ' All is well 
that ends well, but the incident is not likely to be forgotten, 
and the complete defeat of this mad project by the emphatic 
condemnation of public opinion should be a salutary lesson 
to the new bureaucracy wherever the lesson may be required.' 

THE TRUSTEES. 

One aspect of the case, now that it is all over, would be 
amusing, if it were not so pathetic. The Trustees of the British 
Museum, who morally and legally have absolute control of 

1918 Feb. 1. 



52 Notes and Comments. 

the collections, and to whom the donors look for the proper 
care of the various specimens they have given to the nation, 
have written thanking the press for the support given in this 
crisis. There is no doubt that this support was most necessary, 
but we trust that in the future the Trustees of the British 
Museum will decide momentous matters of this kind without 
leaving it to public opinion. If the Trustees are the Trustees, 
and if they have the power which was given them by an Act of 
Parliament passed in the reign of George II. — an x^ct which has 
never been repealed — they should have had the power to have 
prevented Sir Alfred Mond or anybody else from interfering 
with the control of the Buildings and their contents. 

LETTERS IN THE PRESS. 

We should much like to refer at length to the correspondence 
which has appeared, but will be content with quoting from two : 
the first, on behalf of the Museums Association, signed by the 
President (Mr. E. Rimbault Dibdin), and the Hon. Secretary 
(Mr. E. E. Lowe) ; and the other from Sir Henry H. Howorth. 
Both appeared in The Times : — 

THE MUSEUMS ASSOCIATION. 

' The Museums Association desires to support in the most 
unequivocal manner, the weighty protests raised in your pages 
by Sir John Sandys, Sir Arthur Evans, Sir H. H. Howorth, 
Mr. R. C. Witt, Mr. Kennedy Jones, M.P., Mr. C. J. Holmes and 
Mr. H. E. Maiden. My Council has, however, reason to believe 
that the Government proposes to take a further step no less 
disastrous to the interests of learning. It intends, we hear, 
to turn out collections and workers from the greater part of 
the galleries of the Natural History Museum, so that it may 
house a couple of departments, which it is evicting elsewhere. 
Had the proposers of this step any conception of the damage 
it must infhct on the present and future welfare of the nation 
itself, no less than on the priceless and irreplaceable collections 
entrusted to its charge for present and future generations, 
then no words of reprobation could be too strong for them. 
We who, as professional museum officials, are familiar with 
the vast extent of these collections, with the scientific research 
of which they are the foundation, and with the labour involved 
in the mere task of preserving them in orderly and good 
condition — are appalled at the certain confusion, at the 
inevitable and irremediable damage, and at the years of un- 
necessary labour such a step will involve. Few, even of the 
educated public, understand the magnitude of the interests 
affected, and we therefore consider it our duty to raise the most 
solemn protest and warning before the step is irrevocably 
taken.' 

Naturalist, 



Notes and Comments, 53 

SIR HENRY H. HOWORTH. 

In his letter Sir Henry writes : — ' It was an act of un- 
paralleled impertinence and absurdity when the Chief Officer 
of Works, who did not come himself, sent his myrmidons to 
inspect and to claim to initiate the taking over of the place, 
the movement of its contents, and the alteration of the building 
without the permission of the Trustees, which has never been 
given. I ought to know, for I am one of them. It would be, 
in fact, a gross breach of trust (not the first that some of them 
have committed) if they were to consent. Their Act of Parlia- 
ment behind which they stand absolutely forbids the removal 
of any of the contents of the Museum, and if they consent it 
will be at their peril. I am speaking by the book. It is to 
be hoped that at the earliest moment after Parliament meets 
the whole question will be raised in* the House of Commons 
and a vote taken. If it were to be followed by some resignations 
the skies would not weep.' 

THE SCIENCE MUSEUM. 

As a contrast, we have the news that the Science Museum 
at South Kensington, which was closed some time ago, has 
again been opened to the public. It will be remembered that 
the then Prime Minister, for some reason best known to himself, 
closed, or partially closed, some of the London Museums. It 
was also hinted that this action might be followed in the 
provinces. The suggestion was so much respected that we 
believe not a single provincial museum has closed its doors, 
though most of them are working with a minimum staff. The 
reopening of the Science Museum seems to be an indication 
that the provinces were right, and that our London leaders .vere 
wrong. 

SORBY SCIENTIFIC SOCIETY. 

From the first of January, two old established societies — -the 
Sheffield Naturalists' Club (founded 1870) and the Sheffield 
Microscopical Society (founded 1877) — cease to be as separate 
societies. The members have joined forces, and, under the 
title of ' The Sorby Scientific Society,' the work of the two 
societies will be carried out, but on broader lines, which modern 
developments have made desirable. We should like to con- 
gratulate our friends on adopting the name of Sheffield's 
greatest scientist for the amalgamated society, and we believe 
the members of the new Society will aspire to the standard 
of excellence which the name of Sorby warrants. 

NORTHUMBERLAND FISHES. 

From Mr. George Bolam we have received the first part of a 
memoir on the ' Fishes of Northumberland and the Eastern 
Borders,' reprinted from Vol. XXIII. of the ' History of the 

1918 Feb. 1. 



54 Notes and Comments. 

Berwickshire Naturalists' Club.' The present instalment deals 
with over loo species, principally marine, and in addition to 
giving full details of their occurrence and distribution, he also 
provides an interesting account of previous papers on the same 
subject. The reprint occupies 45 pages, and is a distinct 
contribution to the Zoology of the district with which Mr. 
Bolam is so familiar. 

LANCASHIRE AND CHESHIRE ENTOMOLOGISTS. 

At a recent meeting of the Lancashire and Cheshire 
Entomological Society, Mr. W. A. Tyerman showed a collection 
of moths which were taken in the neighbourhood of warehouses 
in Liverpool. Four species of the genus Ephestia were 
represented, viz., E. elutella, E. passulella, E. ficella and 
E. kuhnieUa, also Plodia interpunctella, MelissoUaptes 
cephalonica and Sitotroga cerealella, all having been more abun- 
dant than usual this year. The Rev. F. M. B. Carr had the 
results of his collecting in Delamere Forest and district during 
the past summer ; the exhibit included a specimen of Plusia 
moneta bred from a larva found at Tarporley, this being the 
second record for Cheshire, the other by Mr. R. Tait being from 
Ashton-on-Mersey. Mr. Carr also showed Plusia iota, 
P. pulchrina and P. festuccB, a nice series of each from his garden 
at Alvanley. Dr. John Cotton exhibited a specimen of Sphinx 
convolvuli taken in a back yard at St. Helens in September. 

THE SOUTH EASTERN NATURALIST. 

The Editor of the South Eastern Naturahst, Mr. E. A. 
Martin, Assistant Commander, Metropolitan Special Constab- 
ulary, is certainly to be congratulated on being able to produce 
a volume of nearly 200 pages, containing full reports of the 
twenty-second Annual Congress held in London in June last, 
as well as the various addresses, etc., then delivered, and on 
issuing it before the close of the same year. The Conference 
was referred to in The Naturalist at the time, but the present 
publication is a permanent record of the valuable reports and 
papers then submitted. 

THE LIBRARY. 

Notwithstanding the difficulties of publication there seems 
to have been no curtailment of the reports, though we think 
this might profitably have been done in the way of the list of 
gifts to the Library. For example, the publications of the 
Brighton and Sussex Natural History Society, etc., could 
have been perfectly well described in half-a-dozen Imes, instead 
of reprinting the exact title of each individual report extending 
between 1855 to date. This occupies four pages, three or 
four lines being usually given in repeating the titles of the 
reports, the only difference being in the date, etc. The same 
with the Essex Field Club, to reprint the title, sub-title, numbers 

Naturalist^ 



Notes and Comments. \ 55 

oi parts, dates, editor's name and titles, and the fact that it 
is iHustrated, occupies 41 Hnes, whereas practically all t\x(* 
information could have been given in four. This, howeverj 
is a detail. 

JAWS OF ANCIENT MEN. 

Dr. W. Martin's presidential address on ' Science and 
Industries ' is given in extenso, Mr. William Huntly Martin 
gives his first experience in diving ; Mr. E. A. Martin writes 
on ' Skulls and Jaws of Ancient Man and His Implements.' 
In this the writer has very closely followed the views expressed 
in Dr. Keith's ' Antiquity of Man,' even falling into the same 
error as Dr. Keith with regard to the Ipswich Skeleton, which 
Mr. Martin, faithfully following Dr. Keith, says 'must be pre- 
Chellean,' being evidently unaware than since Dr. Keith's 
book was printed the original discoverer of the skeleton, Mr. 
J. Reid Moir, has admitted that it is of comparatively recent 
date. This fact has been recorded in Nature and in The 
Natttralist, and other publications, which have apparently 
escaped Mr. Martin's notice. Other papers are : — ' Are 
Acquired Characters Inherited ? ' by Prof. E. W. MacBride ; 
' London Tokens,' by W. Dale ; ' Notable Trees and Old 
Gardens of London,' by B. D. Jackson ; ' Abnormal Atmos- 
pheres and the Means of Defence against them,' by J. S. 
Haldane ; ' The Associations of the Chelsea Physic Garden 
with the History of Botany,' by Prof. G. S. Boulger. 

HANDBOOK OF REGIONAL GEOLOGY. 

Perhaps one of the most remarkable books dealing with an 
interesting aspect of British Geology, has recently appeared in 
English, but printed and published in Germany during the 
third year of the Great War. The book is probably one of a 
series which was started before war was declared, but it 
has been printed while the war has been in progress. The 
volume contains no fewer than 354 pages, and hails from 
Heidelberg. It is remarkably well illustrated by maps, 
sections and diagrams, and forms part 20 (Band 3, i) of a 
Handbuch der regionalen Geologic.' The publication is 
issued under the general editorship of Dr. Evans, and is writ- 
ten by Messrs. P. G. H. Boswell, G. A. J. Cole, A. M. Davies, 
C. Davison, J. W. Evans, J. W. Gregory, A. Harker, O. T. 
Jones, P. F. Kendall, L. Richardson, W. W. Watts, and 
H. J. O. White. We believe there are very few copies in this 
country, but one is to be seen in the Library of the Geological 
Society of London. 

FAMOUS YORKSHIRE BOTANISTS. 

At a recent meeting of the Yorkshire Philosophical Society, 
Mr. H. J. Wilkinson, the hon. curator of the botanical collection, 

1918 Feb. 1. 



56 Notes and Comments. 

who has just completed the catalogue of the Society's her- 
barium, gave an interesting account of some of the principal 
contributors to the herbarium. Chief among these was 
the Rev. James Dalton, rector of Croft, who was born in York, 
and who became one of the leading botanists of the kingdom. 
He presented his herbarium and collection of coleopterous 
insects to the Society. Miss Mary Ann Dalton, who was her 
father's coadjutor, illustrated many of her father's botanical 
works. Sir James Dalton Hooker, the famous scientist, and 
godson of the Rev. James Dalton, when ninety years of age, 
wrote to Mr. Wilkinson stating that Mr. Dalton's microscope 
was given to him by his godfather, and he used it during the 
whole of his work with the Antarctic Expedition in 1833, and 
it was now in the Kew Museum. In the course of some further 
remarks on certain specimens from the herbarium, the lecturer 
stated that he was convinced that if the land around York 
were to go out of cultivation there would again be a magnificent 
forest of oaks. 

LONDON NATURALISTS. 

The Transactions of the London Natural History Society 
have recently appeared (112 pages, 3s.), and besides the reports 
of sections, extracts from minutes, etc., and the Annual Report 
of the Birds of Epping Forest, there are the following : — 
' Presidential Address ' (by Dr. E. A. Cockayne) ; ' The London 
Gulls,' by F. J. Stubbs ; ' Some Points of Interest in the 
Geometridae,' by L. B. Prout ; ' The Apterous Condition in 
Lepidoptera,' by T. A. Chapman ; and ' Some Aspects of 
Birds' Life in Europe,' by J. A. Simes. In view of the present 
conditions the publication is a laudable one, the only objection 
we have being that the advertisements are paged with the 
rest of the matter, and as some are printed on the back of the 
last page of the index they cannot very well be torn out. 

MANCHESTER MICROSCOPISTS. 

The Annual Report and Transactions of the Manchester 
Microscopical Society for 1916 (125 pages, is. 6d.), was issued 
on January 3rd. It is a particularly valuable number, and 
besides the usual reports and rambles, etc., contains the 
following : — President's Address, ' Seeds and Seedlings of 
Orchids ' ; ' Notes on Two Hepatics,' by H. G. Willis ; ' Notes 
on the Reproduction of Hydra,' by A. E. Openshaw ; ' Notes 
on Residues obtained from the Treatment of Substances 
\^dth Acids,' by R. Pettigrew ; ' Plant Hairs,' by C. H. Brierley ; 
' Some Notes on Alcohol,' by H. Garnett ; ' Pathogenic 
Protozoa,' by G. Talbot ; and ' Plumatella repens,' by W. 
Harvey. Of especial interest is Mr. Mark Sykes' report on the 
British Association meeting at Newcastle, in which he deals 

Naturalist, 



Notes and Comments. 



57 



with the discussion which took place relating to extension work 
of local Scientific Societies. It is of interest to recall that the 
Manchester Microscopical Society was the leading Society 
with its scheme of extension lectures, Mr. Mark Sykes being 
one of the founders of that section of the Society's work. 



SIR ARCHIBALD GEIKIE. 



We are honoured in being permitted to present to our 
readers a charming portrait of the Past President of the 
Yorkshire Naturalists' Union, Sir Archibald Geikie, O.M., 




K.C.B., F.R.S., etc. The portrait has not previously been 
published, and in Sir Archibald's opinion, is the best he has 
ever had taken. It was secured by an amateur while Sir 
Archibald was working in bis study. 

HETERANGIUMS OF THE BRITISH COAL MEASURES. 

In the Linnean Society's Journal — Botany, for November, 
Dr. D. H. Scott has a detail paper on the above subject, in 
which he describes Heterangium shorense, a new species from 
Shore, Lancashire, found by Messrs. J. and J. Lomax ; H. 
iilicBoides, from the Halifax hard beds ; H. Lomaxii, and 
varieties from Lancashire ; and H. minimum, a new species 
from Dulesgate, found by Mr. James Lomax. The paper is 

1918 Feb. 1. 



,58 Notes and Comments. 

accompanied by many excellent illustrations of sections of the 
plant described. 

HERTFORDSHIRE NATURALISTS. 

The Transactions of the Hertfordshire Natural History 
Society and Field Club, two parts of which were published 
during 1917, have long been looked upon as model publications 
for a local Naturalists' Society. This is doubtless largely due 
to the care exercised by the Editor, Mr. John Hopkinson. 
The two parts before us contain valuable contributions on 
almost every branch of Natural History, and all the articles 
have a distinct bearing upon the county. Mr. Hopkinson, 
among other contributions, has an interesting note on ' Rotifers 




Test of Nebala coUaris (inverted), inhabited by a rotifer. 

living in Rhizo pods' Tests,' from which paper we are permitted 
to reproduce one of the illustrations. 

LIVERPOOL BIOLOGISTS. 

The Proceedings and Transactions of the Liverpool Biological 
Society, Vol. XXXI., for the Session 1916-1917, is considerably 
reduced in size (114 pages), doubtless as a result of the war, 
though we notice the price has not changed. Among the 
contents, besides the usual summary of Proceedings, etc., are 
Presidential Address, The ' Economy of the Movement,' by 
Prof. J. S. Macdonald ; ' Thirtieth Annual Report of the Liver- 
pool Marine Biological Committee, and their Biological Station 
at Port Erin (with an Address upon " Sir Wyville Thomson 
and the ' Challenger ' Expedition) " by Prof. W. A. Herd- 
man ; ' Report on the Investigations carried on during 1916, 
in connection with the Lancashire Sea-Fisheries Laboratory at 
the University of Liverpool and the Sea Fish Hatchery at Piel. 
near Barrow,' by Prof. W. A. Herdman, Andrew Scott and 
James Johnstone. 

Natttcatist, 



59 
IMPLEMENTS OF THE BRONZE AGE 
IN THE WHITBY MUSEUM. 



T. SHEPPARD M.Sc, F.G.S. 

Through the kindness of Mr. T. Woodhouse Parkinson, the 
Curator of the Whitby Museum, I have had an opportunity of 
examining the small but interesting collection of Bronze-Age 
weapons under his charge. There are twelve in all, though 
two are forgeries, two are evidently of Irish origin, and some 
are imperfect. Respecting most of them there is no informa- 
tion as to locality, though they were probably chiefly found 
in the Whitby neighbourhood. 

Fig. I is a small bronze spear head of plain type, one portion 
of the socket of which is torn away. Its total length is 4^" ; 
it is i' broad, and when complete would be i' across at the 
socket. The socket extends almost to the point, and buried 
in the apex is still apparently a part of the original wood shaft. 
There is a small circular hole for a rivet about J" from the 
bottom. The spear weighs 2 oz. It is very similar in type 
to Fig. 25 on Plate V,, from Swine, figured in The Naturalist 
for May, 1917. 

No. 2 is a spear head, much more massive, and longer, 
though of the same general type as No. i. The sharp edges 
are unequal, and there is a distinct well-made groove on the 
blade at each side of the ridge. The spear is yY in length, 
if across the blade, |" across the socket, and a circular hole 
for a rivet occurs at a distance of an inch from the bottom. 
The socket for the shaft extends well on towards the point. 
The implement weighs 7 oz. 

No. 3 : the remains of a remarkably fine spear head, which 
has been cast hollow, and is broken away, exposing the socket 
on one side. The shaft and point are missing ; what remains 
measures 7|'xi^". Like No. 2, it has a pronounced groove 
on each side of the central ridge, and originally the blade was 
wider, but the cutting edge has been broken. When complete 
the spear-head was no doubt twice its present length, and would 
probably resemble the specimen from Heathery Burn Cave, 
Fig. 381 in Evans' ' Ancient Bronze Implements of Great 
Britain.' Weight, 5 oz. 

No. 4 is a fragment of a Bronze-Age sword, the point and 
handle being missing. It is of the familiar type, with a very 
fine edge, accentuated by a depression ^' in width, which occurs 
on each side of the blade. This example measures S'xil', 
and weighs 7J oz. 

No. 5. The remains of a rare type of Bronze-Age implement, 
namely, a socketed dagger, an example of which, from North 
Lincolnshire, was figured in The Naturalist for September, 
1917, on page 282. In the Whitby example, however, the 

UI8 Feb. 1. 



6o Implements of the Bronze Age in the Whitby Museum. 

socket is broadly oval, and instead of knobs, has a circular 
hole bored through on each side of the socket, at a distance 
of Y from the base. The socket extends to the shoulder, the 
blade being cast solid. Unfortunately this has been rather 
badly used, the blade has been broken, about a half being 
missing, and a crude attempt has been made to sharpen the 
broken piece with the object of using it as a chisel. Extending 
from the shoulder of the handle is a low central ridge, on each 
side of which is a shallow groove, from the outer edge of which 
the implement is sharpened to a fine cutting edge. The total 
length of the specimen is 5^" ; it is if" at the widest part, 
the socket measures i^'Xyl". Weight, 5 oz. 

There are two winged axes of the Palstave type, which are 
cast solid. The first. No. 6, is very similar to the Hutton 
Cranswick example, shown on Fig. 24, plate IV., of The Natura- 
list for May, 1917. It is 4I" in length, ij" across in the widest 
part, the cutting edge being 2|" round. The wings are lozenge- 
shaped as usual, and if in width. The axe has a roughened 
appearance, with fine particles of sand adhering. It probably 
owes this to the fact that it was buried in some peaty deposit.* 
Weight, 9 oz. 

No. 7 is similar in type, but smaller, and has written upon 
it, in ink, ' Found at the foot of the Wolds near Malton, Yorks.' 
It is 4|" long, if" along the cutting edge, the wings being i^" 
across. Weight, 6 oz. 

No. 8 is a socketed axe of the usual pattern, very similar in 
type to the examples recently found at Scarborough, f Its outer 
surface seems to be scored, as though having been exposed on 
the sea-shore for some time. There are just traces of the usual 
three ridges extending from the collar ; the marks where the 
halves of the mould came together are indicated, though more 
clearly on the side where the loop is. There are no ridges 
inside the socket, which extends quite close to the cutting 
edge. The specimen is 3^" long, 2" along the cutting edge, and 
the socket measures if" X i-|". Weight, bj oz. 

No. 9. This specimen, like the following, is evidently of 
Irish origin. It has a circular socket, and the cutting edge 
is without sharp corners at each end. Inside there are very 
pronounced ridges for secure shafting, so pronounced that they 
meet together at the apex of the V. The specimen is 3 J" 
long, 2j" wide, and the socket iV in diameter. Weight, 7I oz. 

* In the Eighth Report of the Whitby Literary and Philosophical 
Society, p. 19, is a record of ' Two fine Celts found at Malton,' having been 
purchased. As No. 6 is similar in type to No. 7, which was from Malton ; 
possibly these are the two referred to. In the Eighth Report, p. 8, it is 
recorded that ' Mr. Jos. Fletcher presented a prehistoric axe ; no locality 
is given, nor does it state that the axe was of bronze.' 

t See The Naturalist, May 1917, pp. 151-154. 

Naturalist, 



THE NATURALIST, W18, 




Bronze Implements in the Whitby Museum. 



THE NATURALIST, J91i>. 



Plate II. 




Bronze Implements in the Whitby Museum. 



Reviews and Book Notices. 6i 

No. 10 is of the same type as the preceding, excepting that 
the socket is oval, measuring ifxil", and at some time the 
cutting edge has been broken and re-sharpened. At the apex 
of the socket there are traces of a medial ridge for secure 
shafting. The specimen measures i"X2|", and weighs 3J oz. 

Nos. II and 12 are almost identical, except that one has a 
hole at one side due to faulty casting. They are obviously 
forgeries, though in general shape and ornamentation the 
implements appear complete. The sockets are perfectly 
square in each case, and altogether give one the impression 
of being rather clumsy copies. Each one measures 
3|'X2|", the socket being ij" across. Weight 9 oz. These 
are evidently the work of ' Flint Jack,' who was a native of 
the Whitby district, and spent some time there in later years 
doing his best to satisfy the demands of collectors. An example 
precisely similar to these two is in the case devoted to Flint 
Jack's work in the Mortimer Museum at Drifheld, which is 
now the property of the Hull Corporation. 

: o : 

How to Collect and Dry Flowering Plants and Ferns, by H. S. Thompson. 
Routledge, 1917. yd. net. This little work of 56 pages, written by such 
a well known field botanist as Mr. Thompson, is full of useful hints to the 
young collector of dried plants. Many a naturalist of note has had his 
life-long interest in science fostered and developed by making puch a 
collection, and if a beginner follows the advice given in this book he will 
be saved many disappointments and failures. 

Ightham : A Story of a Kentish Village, by F. J. Bennett, F.G.S., 
F.R.A.I. [xii.] -f 158 pp. Price 2/-. This is a cheap re-issue of the 
book which was published ten years ago. The present edition has the 
addition of four pages which refer to the papers dealing with subsequent 
discoveries in this interesting area ; there is also a geological map, from 
the South Eastern Naturalist of 1908, and a Map of the District on the 
scale of half an inch to a mile, which do not appear in the first edition. 
A plate of Benjamin Harrison's Eoliths is also loosely inserted. Otherwise 
the book is the same, excepting that the former cloth cover is replaced 
by an artistic paper wrapper, and the price is cheaper. The story of 
Ightham is probably as fascinating as that of any village of its size in 
England, and Mr. Bennett tells it well. Mr. Benjamin Harrison, whose 
work among the Eolithic flints is known the world over, is responsible 
for an interesting section of the book. 

British Grasses and their Employment in Agriculture, by S. F. Arm- 
strong. Cambridge Press, 1917, pp. viii. + 199, 6/- net. Notwithstanding the 
great value of grass-land and its importance in this country, books dealing 
with grasses from the point of view of the Agricultural student are rare. 
This work is intended to fill the gap and the author has succeeded in 
producing a very useful volume. Part i deals in clear and readable terms 
with the morphology, structure and habitats of British grasses ; there 
are keys to the vegetative and floral characters and also to the ' seeds ' 
following with a long chapter on the description of species. Part 2 deals 
with the agricultural value of farm grasses, value and purchase of grass 
seeds, and seed mixtures ; also the treatment of grass-lands. In an 
appendix is given a short account of rare and introduced grasses. There 
are 176 text figures, the drawings on the whole are clear and helpful, but 
some of the photographic illustrations of the inflorescences are not quite 
so successful. The book should prove a very useful guide to all interested 
in grassland. 

1918 Feb. 1. 



62 

MYCETOZOA OF THE AUSTWICK DISTRICT. 



A. R. SANDERSOiJ. 



The district of Austwick near Clapham, by which is included 
the tract of country within a radius of about five miles of the 
-village of Austwick, is singularly well adapted for the study of 
mycetozoa. 

The varying altitude of the land surface 400 ft. to 2,000 ft., 
includes the low-lying mosses — Red Moss (Austwick Moss), 
Lawkland Moss, Helwith Moss, and from these, 450 ft., all 
gradations to the mountain heights of Moughton and Ingle- 
boro, 2,000 ft., offering a variety of situation as regards alti- 
tude, suitable for both lowland and sub-alpine species. 

A more important feature is the variety of the wooded ar6as. 
Many of the drier limestone parts are covered with a more 
or less dense hazel scrub, containing in some portions, a fair 
sprinkling of ash and often much undergrowth. The hill 
slopes (Ingleboro and Moughton), include areas of mixed 
woodland, some of considerable age, containing Oak, Birch, 
Beech, Ash, Sycamore, Mountain Ash, Larch, Pinus and 
Abies, such are, Moughton Plantation and Arco Wood to 1,000 
ft. In a few places, notably on the summit of Moughton 
,(1400 ft.), there is a dense patch of well-grown Juniper, many 
of the trees being of considerable size. On the slopes of Ingle- 
boro and under Norber, are considerable areas of coniferous 
woodland, Raeside plantation on Ingleboro. 1,250 ft., and 
Dear-bought Plantation under Norber, 600 ft. 

The numerous Ghylls provide narrow belts of mixed wood- 
land, chiefly Ash, Mountain Ash, Birch, Oak and Hazel. The 
variety of woodland provides a consequent variety of diet or 
habitat, for a large number of species of mycetozoa many of 
which have a decided preference for particular species of 
wood. In most cases the woods abound with fallen trees and 
branches in different states of decay, while where felling has 
been undertaken in the past, the boles have been left to decay 
naturally. The mycologist finds a happy hunting ground in 
the many woods and ghylls, while the wet mosses, rich in 
decaying vegetation, add their share to the number of species. 
It is perhaps not surprising, then, that such a comparatively 
small district should yield over sixty species of mycetozoa, 
and the majority of these can be counted on at the proper 
season year after year. Probably the most important factor, 
however, in turning up so many species, is the thorough 
searching the district has been subject to, for, thanks largely 
to the valuable help of Messrs. C. A. Cheetham and W. H. 
'Burrell, it has been thoroughly well worked at all seasons for 
the past seven years. 

Perhaps the most outstanding feature is the extraordiriairy 

Naturalist, 



Mycetozoa of the Aiistwick distyict. 65 

abundance of the more common species ; Perichcena vermicnlaris 
Rost., for instance — not by any means a common species for 
the county — was turned up on dead leaves of Hawthorn, grass, 
twigs, etc., along a quarter mile length of road — Slaidburn 
Road — practically every small mass of vegetable matter yielding 
a few sporangia of either the yellow or brown form. This 
species also occurred along the old lane from Austwick to 
Feizar, and in each case in the early part of the year — March 
to May, 1915 and 1916. Lycogala epidendrum Fries., appears in 
the Autumn in Trow Ghyll on the old Ash stumps in great 
abundance, it is no uncommon sight to see large jnasses of 
12-24 good sized sporangia. Brejeldia maxima Rost., also 
on ash stumps in Trow Ghyll, which has again appeared this 
year, has been dealt with in a previous article (see Naturalist, 
July 1916, pp. 225-228). 

Such species as Physarum mttans Pers., P. viride Pers., 
Fiiligo septica Gmelin. — often on the cut surface of the more 
recently felled trees, though sometimes among the decaying 
herbage — Hcmitrichia clavata Rost., Trichia varia Pers., T. 
scabra Rost., T. af finis de Bary, T. decipiens Macbr., T. 
Botrytis Pers., Arcyria denudata Sheldon, A. ferruginea Sauter, 
A. cinerea Pers., Cribraria argillacea Pers., and C. aurantiaca 
Schard., Stemonitis fusca Roth., 5. ferruginea Ehrenb., S. 
jlavogenita Jahn., etc., appear each year with great regularity, 
some of them in great abundance. I shall long remember 
the mass of Tricha contorta Rost., including the typical 
T. contorta with separate elaters, and the Hemitrichia Karstenii 
Lister, which occurred in Catrigg Ghyll this year, a large mass 
of logs and branches of Oak, Beech and Birch, but more 
particularly the Beech, being covered with the yellow or brown 
sporangia. I had never previously gathered more than a few 
sporangia of this species, but here there were many square 
yards of it. 

Margarita metallica is here most cosmopolitan, fruiting, 
though always sparingly, on Oak, Beech, Ash, Birch, Pine, 
Fern leaves, grass and Hazel. Prototrichia metallica Mass., 
can usually be found, but always here on coniferous wood or 
bark, and seldom more than 6-10 sporangia together. The old 
Ash stumps in Trow Ghyll have probably provided the most 
striking masses of these organisms. On several occasions the 
stumps have been covered with sporangia of Trichia varia 
Pers., Physarum nutans Pers. (often apparently preferring 
partly charred portions), Trichia scabra Rost., Trichia persimilis 
Karst., Hemitrichia clavata Rost., Arcyria denudata Sheldon 
and Lycogala epidendrum ¥ vies. It appears sometimes as if 
the various species were jostling one another to get to the 
surface for fruiting. One wonders how the various plasmodia 
have avoided getting in each other's way inside the wood, but 

'1918 Feb. 1. 



64 Mycefozoa of the Austwick district. 

obviously there must be plenty of food material for all. With 
careful searching even the more uncommon species can be 
counted on with a fair degree of certainty, at the proper season, 
and in the situations most suitable for them. This applies 
to such as the three species of Dianema : — Dianema Harveyii 
Rex., D. depressum Lister, and D. coriicatum Lister. On two 
successive days, Mr. Cheetham and I have found all three 
species. 

A perusal of the list appended will show that of the 60 
species, two thirds (66 per cent.) belong to the non-calcarineae,. 
i.e., those species which do not contain lime in the mature 
sporangia or stalk (if present). This is perhaps largely ac- 
counted for by the fact that by far the larger proportion are 
from dead wood rather than from straw, leaves, etc., on which 
a large number of the common lime forms occur. It is perhaps 
possible too, that even the so-called non-calcarineae may in 
the Plasmodium state contain lime salts, which are passed out 
from the plasmodium previous to fruiting, i.e., just before the 
last stage in the life-cycle is commenced, whereas in the cal- 
carinese this operation takes place during the final stage in the 
life history of the organisms, and is therefore manifest in the 
sporangia or capillitium or both. 

SPECIES OF MYCETOZOA FROM AUSTWICK DISTRICT. 

Ceratiomyxa fruticulosa Macbr. Ash and Pine. 

Badhamia utricularis Berk. On Polystictus versicolor. 

B. panicea Rost. On Beech. 

B. lilacina Rost. On grass (Red Moss) and sedges. 

Physarum psittacinum Ditm. On Sycamore, Fern leaves. 

P. viride Pers. On Sycamore. 

P. nutans Pers. On dead wood leaves. 

P. leucophcBum Lister. On dead wood. 

P. compressum Alb. & Schw. On grass. 

Fidigo septica Gmelin. On Oak, grass. 

Craterium minutum Fries. On leaves and grass. 

Leocarpus fragilis Rost. On grass. 

Diderma hemisphericum Hornem. On Sycamore and Oak twigs. 

D. effusum Morh. On leaves and grass. 

D. spumaroides Fries. On leaves and grass. 

Didymium dijforme Duby. On twigs, leaves and grass. 

D. melanospermum Macbr. On Empetrum (Red Moss). 

D. sqiiamulosum Fr. On straw and grass. 

Mucilago spongiosa Morgan. On grass, Helwith Moss. 

Lepidoderma tigrinum Rost. On Birch. 

Stemonitis jusca Roth. On Ash and Pine. 

S. fusca var. confluens Lister. On Oak. 

5. flarogenita Jahn. On Ash. 

Naturalist, 



Mycetozoa of the Austuick district. 65 

Stemonilis ferruginea Ehrenb. On Ash. 

Comatricha nigra Schreoter. On Oak and Pine. 

C. pulchella Rost. On Pine. 

C. typhoides Rost. On Ash. 

C. typhoides var. heterospora Rex. On Pine. 

S. laxa Rost. On Pine. 

Enerthenema papillatum Rost. On Ash and Pine. 

Lamproderma scintillans Morgan. On Mountain Ash. 

L. violaceum Rost. On Ash. 

L. columbinimi Rost. On Hazel twigs. 

Brefeldia maxima Rost. On Ash. 

Cribraria argillacea Pers. On Pine and Larch. 

C. aurantiaca Schrad. On Pine and Larch. 
Dictydium cancellatum Macbr. On Birch. 
Licea flexuosa Pers. On Pine. 

Enteridium olivaceum Ehrenb. Catrigg Ghyll. On Oak, Dec. 

29th, 1917. New to Mid- West . 
Reticularia lycoperdon Bull. On Birch and Willow. 
Lycogala epidendrum Fries. On Ash and Pine. 
Trichia affinis de Bary. On Ash and grass. 
T. persimilis Karst. On Birch, Willow and Ash. 
T. scabra Rost. On moss and Ash. 
T. varia Pers. On dead wood. 
T. contorta Rost. On Beech and Oak. 
T. decipiens Macbr. On dead wood. 
T. Botrytis Pers. On dead wood. 
Hemitrichia clavata Rost. On Ash. 
H. Karstenii Lister. Beech and Ash. 
Arcyria ferruginea Sauter. Ash and Pine. 
A. cinerea Pers. On Oak and Beech. 
A. denudata Sheldon. On dead wood. 
A. incarnata Pers. On Oak and Ash. 
A. nutans Grev. On Ash and Pine. 
Perichcena corticalis Rost. On dead wood and bark. 
P. vermicularis Rost. On leaves and grass. 
Margarita metallica Lister, Pine, Hazel, etc. 
Diastema Harveyi Rex. On Ash. 

D. depressum Lister. On Ash. 
D. corticatum Lister. On Pine. 
Prototrichia metallica Mass. On Pine. 



The ^gth Annual Report of the St. Helen's Library and Museum' is 
to hand, and we are glad to learn that the Museum collection continues'to 
grow in importance. Several war trophies have been received. 

The Report of the Winchester College Natural History Society, 1915-17, 
86 pages, contains a useful summary of the various papers read before the 
Society, which cover most branches of Natural History. There are illus- 
trations of some new Hybrid Orchids, and altogether the report is very 
creditable to this enthusiastic Society. 

1918 Feb. 1. 



66 

HEPATICS OF DENBIGHSHIRE. 



WM. HY. PEARSON. 



The interesting paper on the Mosses and Hepatics of Denbigh- 
shire, by Mr. D. A. Jones, in The Naturalist for September, 
1917, induced me to look through my herbarium to see if I 
had any records of my early botanizing in that county, and I 
have been able to find a few packets of hepatics collected many 
years ago. 

My first visit was to Llangollen in April, 1874, and I find 
three packets of that date — (i) Plagiochila asplenioides L. ; 
(ii) Chiloscyphus polyanthus L. (this I well remember collecting 
in a stone trough on the road to Berwyn, growing in great 
masses, this was the first hepatic I knew) ; and (iii) Lophocolea 
hidentata L. In May, 1875, I visited Llangollen again, and find 
two packets, one marked Castell Dinas Bran, which contains 
a few stems of Frullania Tamarisci L., and another marked 
Moel Sych, a mountain in the three counties of Denbigh, 
Merioneth and Montgomery, which I ascended on this visit 
with a non-botanical party. 

It was a long and wearisome tramp, and from a botanical 
point of view, very uninteresting, for there were no rocks to 
climb, only a gradual ascent through bracken and heather, and 
that may account for the meagre result, for I can only find 
one small packet labelled Moel Sych. Perhaps another reason 
was that none of my companions cared anything for botany, one 
in particular had an open contempt for the study, and I can 
remember him quoting with derision from The Friend, ' What 
is Botany at this present hour ? A huge catalogue. The 
terms, system, method, science are mere improprieties of 
courtesy, when applied to a mass enlarging by endless apposi- 
tions, but without a nerve that oscillates, or a pulse that throbs 
in sign of growth or inward sympathy. The innocent amuse- 
ment, the healthful occupation, the ornamental accomplishment 
of amateurs.' 

At that time I was beginning to take an interest in mosses 
and hepatics, and another unappreciative companion failed to 
see what pleasure I could see in their study, or, as he said, in 
' dirt sorting.' As I said, I have only been able to find one 
packet containing the spoils of that day, it contains Diplo- 
phyllum, albicans L., one of the few hepatics beginners seem 
to be always collecting, and Eucalyx obovatus Nees., not in 
very good condition, but with care I have found a few involucres 
shewing paroicous inflorescences. 

In May, 1877, I visited Llangollen again, but can only find 
one packet, which contains three species — (i) Fossombronia 
pusilla L., there is only a little of this, but one plant has a ripe 
capsule, and from the examination of the spores, there was no 

Naturalist, 



Field Note. 67 

difficulty in referring it to pusilla ; (ii) Haplozia pumila With., 
with its paroicous inflorescence, of which I made quite sure, 
its small size, and its long, narrow, fusiform, smooth perianth 
separates it from H. rivularis Schiffner, which is a species 
more like a paroicous form of H. riparia Tayl. I was glad to 
spend again some time in the study of these two nearly-related 
species. The third species in the packet (iii.) was Scapania com- 
pacta Roth. 

Specimens of Cephaloziella Limprichtii Warnst., listed by 
Mr. Jones, were sent to me by the collector, Mr. J. C. Wilson. 
These specimens must have been much more robust and per- 
fect than those seen by Mr. Jones, and as they were in a fertile 
condition showing unmistakably paroicous inflorescences, 
with entire bracts, I referred them without doubt to C. Lim- 
prichtii Warnst. 

Mr. Jones records Ricciocarpus natans L., found by Dr. 
Thomas, of Chester, in pond near Rossett, as new to Wales ; 
in the Manchester Museum there are specimens of this species 
collected by G. Lloj^d, June, 1842, in pond at Wrexham {ex 
herb. W. Wilson). I suppose the discovery has never been 
recorded. 

Fossomhronia pusilla L. and Eucalyx obovatits Nees, are 
recorded in the ' Census Catalogue ' for VII., 50 (Denbigh), 
although not included in Mr. Jones's list, and Haplozia pumila 
With, is an addition. 



Coleoptera Notes from Huddersfield. — I took a 
Necrophorus humator from under a stone beside a field pathway 
at Thorn Bank, Birkby, on August 8th, 1917 ; and a few 
days before found a Necrophorus rnspator floundering in a 
vessel of water in an outbuilding in my garden. Coccinella 
septempunctata has been remarkably common in the upper 
part of the Wessenden Valley. When I visited that locality 
on Sept. 3rd last, this beetle simply swarmed — so much so 
that I had difficulty to walk without treading on some. I am 
not aware whether its occurrence at Wessenden is itself a 
record ; but certainly its abundant presence at the time 
mentioned is noteworthj^ Blaps mucronata has fully established 
its right to a place as one of the fairly common local beetles, 
since the days when ' one in Swallow Street ' constituted the 
only record.* During the past ten years or so I have very 
frequently seen specimens at various places in the town, and 
only a week ago picked one up in a back lane near my house. 
Other friends have also told me that they too have seen it 
many times. — Charles Mosley, Lockwood. 

* Huddersfield Naturalists' Society's Monthly Circular, May 1891. 
1918 Feb. 1, 



THE GEOGRAPHICAL DISTRIBUTION OF THE 
MOTHS OF THE SUBFAMILY BISTONINAE. 



J. W. HESLOP HARRISON. D.Sc. 

XV.— THE GENERA PHTHONOSEMA (WARREN), 
EUBYJA (WARREN), APHILOPOTA (WARREN). 

Phthonosema tendinosaria (Brem.). Distribution : — The 
Ussuri and Amur Districts and Corea. 
Eubyja grisea (Warren). South Africa, 
Aphilopota suhalhata (Warren). Orange River Colony, etc. 
Aphilopota spissata (Warren). Natal, etc. 
Aphilopota melanostigma (Warren). Angola, etc. 
Aphilopota calaria (Swinhoe). British East Africa, etc. 
Despite the fact that two of these genera are African and 
one Asiatic, there is a direct genetic connection between them 
of a character not unlike, although perhaps closer, than that 
between PalcBonyssia and Nyssiodes. Undoubtedly, had 
Phthonosema and Eubyja occurred in the same zoogeographical 
regions, they would have been relegated to the rank of sub- 
genera ; this fact alone is enough to stamp them indelibly as 
members of one chain — again, a chain with one of its terminal 
links located in Eastern Asia and thus emphasising the essen- 
tially Asiatic nature of the subfamily. Exactly as in Biston, 
the increased sexual dimorphism exhibited by Phthonosema 
shows that Eubyja, in many ways, more nearly approaches 
the common ancestor of both, which, from wing shape and 
general structure, in addition to the extensive development of 
the signum in the female bursa copulatrix, we judge to have 
been sotne form leaving the Amphidasyd highway just piior 
to the evolution of Megabisfon. 

Very early, then, preceding rather than following PalcB- 
onyssia, the original phase of the two radiated from the Far 
East, driving along the then more modest highlands of Central 
Asia and thence to Persia and Arabia. Here, in place of the 
fiery deserts of our age, it encountered the tree-clad uplands 
of the transition period between Miocene and Pliocene times ; 
no obstacle thus lay in its onward path. When, at length, 
what is now the Red Sea was reached, there it found a fertile 
river-valley, over which it crossed, passing on into Abyssinia 
and gaining the Great Central Plateau. Once the Abyssinian 
highlands had been attained a wide and unbroken route lay 
open to the broad and extensive tablelands of South and 
Central Africa to the furthest limits of which it has penetrated, 
and persists as Eubyja grisea. 

Comparatively soon after its arrival in British East Africa, 
from it there arose a new development in the guise of Aphilopota 
which, even more emphatically than Eubyja, was fitted for 

Naturalist, 



■ Distribution of Moths of the Sub-family Bistonincs. 69 

life in those upland regions. Not only was this so, but it was 
so very adaptable in its physiology as to be able to endure 
all the various conditions found on the enormous Central 
Plateaux to the remotest nooks of which, south, east, and 
west, it advanced. 

However, such diverse climatic factors as it met with could 
not be without their inevitable effects ; like all other virile 
genera under similar circumstances, it broke into several 
species, some broadcast and some local. 

Subsequently, the disruptions and upheavals of Early 
Pliocene times in Arabia and Palestine, disastrous in their 
results, made the first gap in the continuity of the allied genera, 
to be followed much later by the further inroads already 
depicted as severing the genus Biston into two sections ; thus 
we find Phthonosema situated in Eastern Asia and far away 
from it, its allies, Aphilopota and Euhyja, in Africa. 

Nevertheless, however conspicuous this discontinuity may 
seem now, it is only too easy to obtain an exaggerated notion 
thereof. Careful examination of the map will show that its 
mileage is much less significant than that presented by the 
outliers of Phigalia, Poecilopsis and other genera. 

Indeed, were it not that one extreme lay in the Far East 
of Asia and the other in the remote South of Africa, the advent 
of desert conditions would have, in itself, sufficed in our minds 
as an eminently satisfactory explanation of a state of affairs 
which, at first glance, appears so anomalous. 

XVI.— THE GENERA EUBYJODONTA (WARREN) AND 
BUZURA (WALKER). 

The genus Buzura. 

Sub-genus Buzura. Species with male antennae bipectinated. 

Buzura suppressaria (Guen.). Distribution : — North India. 

Buzura var. benescripta (Prout). Western China. 

Buzura varianaria (Swinhoe). India. 

Buzura abruptaria (Walker). Widespread around the Gulf 
of Guinea in Africa. 

Buzura analiplaga (Warren). Hinterlands of Nigeria and 
the Senegal. 

Sub-genus Blepharoctenia (Warren). Male antennae sub- 
pectinate. 

Blepharoctenia thibetaria (Obthr.). Tibet, etc. 

Blepharoctenia bengalaria (Guen.). Bengal. 

Blepharoctenia contectaria (Walker), North India, 

Blepharoctenia perclara (Warren). Formosa. 

Blepharoctenia arenosa (Warren). Java. 

Blepharoctenia albescens (Warren). Java. 

Subgenus Amraica (Moore), Male antennas unipectinate. 

1918 Feb. 1. 



70 Distribution of Moths of the Sub-family Bistonince. 

Amraica recur saria (Walker). North India. 

Amraica super ans (Butler). Japan and China. 

The genus Eubyjodonta (Warren). 

Eubyjodonta emarginata (Leech). Western China. 

Eubyjodonta quercii (Obthr.). Western China. 

Eubyjodonta clorinda (Obthr.). Western China. 

Eubyjodonta erilda (Obthr.). Western China. 

On account of the obvious relationship between Eubyjodonta 
and the more primitive members of Buzura, for the sake of 
convenience, the two are taken together. 

It would, however, be erroneous to assume that the main 
genus Buzura is a homogeneous whole ; far from it, as com- 
parison of its components, and the necessary division into 
subgenera upon structural characters drawn from the macro — 
and microscopical examination of the various antennal 
structures, proclaim. 

In coming to any conclusion as to which of these are 
original, and which derived forms, we may proceed in different 
ways, one necessitating a study of the distribution and the 
other based on structure. We shall adopt the latter course 
and then see if it harmonises with the geographical distribution. 

As may be perceived from our tabulation of the species 
given above, the types of antennae exhibited by the genus are 
graded ; first we have a group, the Buzurce proper, displaying 
normal bipectinated antennae ; then follow the BlepharoctenicB 
with the antennae subpectinated or even serrate and, lastly, the 
unipectinated Amraica fraternity. Now, without exception, 
all of the genera already reviewed, whether primitive or highly 
specialised, possess definitely bipectinated antennae and the 
older the form, the more conspicuous the pectinations. Con- 
sequently, we must conclude that, in the subgenus Buztira, 
we have the modern representative of the original break from 
the Northern Amphidasyd line, and from it, necessarily the 
other two have arisen. 

And this feature is exactly where Buzura comes in line with 
Eubyjodonta ; if w"e lose sight of the scalloped margins of the 
latter genus there is but little indeed remaining to separate 
them. Plainly, therefore, these two are basal branches from 
the same main stem, and their centres of dispersal are to be 
placed in localities, if not exactly the same, then contiguous. 
But they occur cheek by jowl in Western China, M'^hence we 
gather that not far from this region both set out on their 
wanderings. 

Once again we ha"\'e brought before us definite evidence that 
the Amphidasyds, as well as the Bistonince, originated as a 
whole in Eastern Asia. Still this difference is manifested that 
the majority of the Amphidasyd genera show distinct inclina- 
tions for warmer climates and are built accordingly ; they. 

Naturalist 



Distribution of Moths of the Sub-family Bistonincs. 71 

therefore, were evolved to the south of the main group, which, 
whilst a creation of Eastern Asia, was still northern and 
temperate in its preferences. 

Buzura arose in China and struck out soon after its devel- 
opment in all possible directions, the line of least resistance as 
regards climate being southward into India where, indeed, 
the conditions were so propitious that it spread far and wide 
in forms differing widely in wing-markings from the familiar 
Buzura suppressaria. When it proceeded forth on its travels, 
it was so clearly and well marked as to make it a worthy 
bearer of the name benescripta bestowed on it by Prout. Nor 
did it part with its wing pattern early, for it pressed onward 
unchanged over the lowlands which then linked up India and 
South Arabia from the Gulf of Cutch to the Kuria Muria 
Islands, and into Africa. Naturally favouring subtropical 
regions, it did not avail itself of the great highway open to it 
down the Great African Plateau. On the contrary, after it 
entered Africa, this event occurring almost certainly to the 
north of Abyssinia, it kept forging ahead and ever to the west 
until it was brought finally to a halt by the Atlantic Ocean. 
In consequence, it has been side-tracked into all the areas 
around the Gulf of Guinea where it has separated into the 
closely allied species, Buztira abruptaria and B. analiplaga, 
the disjunction proceeding from the difference between the 
coast belt of forest and the drier and less densely wooded 
hinterlands of Nigeria and Senegal. 

In later days, in India, the Buzura suppressaria which 
went west in its migrations has shed its clear markings, and 
truly deserves the appellation suppressaria for, except for the 
powdering of darker scales, but few of the typical Amphid- 
asyd markings are retained ; yet, before this pattern degenera- 
ted, it had yielded the species Buzura varianaria. 

To return to the species of which the genus consisted when 
it had but one exponent. 

Gradually from it there emerged a form which, not needing 
the huge ' wireless ' system of the primitive Buzura antennae, 
cast it aside and thus gave the subgenus Blepharoctenia. This, 
too, must have been a later event, for when the insect migrated 
it found exit from India on the west impossible. Eastward 
and Southward, ground could still be gained and B. thibetaria, 
which is as close to the old form as we can get, spread eastward 
over the Chinese plains, in the end advancing into Formosa 
which then cannot have been an island. There its insular 
position has transmuted it into the species B. perclara. 

The mass journeying into the Indo-Chinese Peninsula, at 
first seems to have been a broad one, streaming into India 
through Assam between the mountains and the coast, leaving 
by the way-side the form B. bengalaria. Finally it came to 

1918 Feb. 1. 



72 Distribution of Moths of the Sub-family Bistoninee. 

a stop when no more lands remained for occupation, and settled 
in what it seized as the fine species B. contectaria. 

Still, the whole of the migratory wave did not concentrate 
in India, a strong contingent came down through Annam and 
Siam and surged over lands like those uniting Formosa to the 
mainland, long since buried beneath the waves, passing as a 
narrow stream into Java to be found there yet as the two 
insects B. albescens and B. arenosa. This localisation in 
Java appears very curious but, nevertheless, is not more 
wonderful than the many problems of discontinuity with which 
the East Indian area teems. Possibly, sooner or later, the 
species will turn up in Borneo and Sumatra but up to the 
present they have not been signalled there. 

Exactly as Blepharoctenia developed from Buzura, so Am- 
raica appeared ; in its case the despised antennal pectinations 
not being shed by equal losses on both sides, but by the total 
disappearance of those on one side. How this came about is 
here of little importance, but what does affect us now is the 
fact that, like its congeners amongst the Buzurce, east and 
west it advanced but evidencing a liking for temperate habitats, 
Japan being reached long ere its separation from China and 
Corea happened. Similarly, through passes of the lower 
Himalayas of its colonising days, it occupied the wooded 
foothills. In the end we know that the mountains of Northern 
India thrust their heads higher into the clouds and many 
parts of Tibet lost their woodlands ; where once the silva of 
temperate regions reigned dwell now only Junipers and miser- 
able willows and poplars, and so, many insects vanished. 
Amraica was cut in two ; divergence to some extent ensued, 
and we obtain now what we regard as representative species, 
Amraica recur saria in India, and A. superans in Corea, China 
and Japan. 

Returning for a moment to Eubyjodonta, it will not detain 
us long ; like many other active genera, soon after their birth, 
it had a period of great productive energy and gave rapidly, 
by slight variations, the four species E. emarginata, E. quercii, 
E. clorinda and E. erilda which have been content with their 
original home. 

At this juncture it behoves us to take up the alternative 
scheme propounded as a mode of discovering which of the 
Buzura subgenera was to be considered the oldest. Which 
has led us further afield, and which has demanded geographical 
conditions furthest removed from those of our times ? The 
answer can only be the sub-genus Buzura proper, the very 
genus deemed from morphological standpoints to be of earlier 
origin. Agreement between the indications of structure and 
those of distribution is therefore perfect. 
(To be continued) 

Naturalist, 



73 
CUMBERLAND COLEOPTERA IN 1917. 



F. H. DAY, F.E.S. 



In spite of many extremes in the weather, the season of 1917 
was, on the whole, favourable to insect life. A long winter and 
late, backward spring, were followed by a period of genial 
conditions in June and July, when insects came out with a 
rush. August and September were less satisfactory owing to 
excessive rains, and collecting was limited in consequence. 
Geodephaga were numerous, almost all, however, being well- 
known species in this district. Blethisa muUipttnctata L. 
occurred abundantly at Thurstonfield Lough — a new locality. 
It favours the sloppiest ground on the margins of the Lough, 
and is very active in the sunshine. Various Anchomeni frequent 
the same situations, such as viduum Pz., marginatum L., and 
piceum L. On the Solway Dyschirius angustatus Ahr., was 
met with again, but required more patience than usual to 
find. D. politus Dj. was, however, abundant. Among a 
number of Bemhidion var. properans Steph. [velox Er.), I got 
one of a dark blue colour, a form new to me, and to the county 
also I believe. I took many water beetles in various localities, 
the best perhaps being an example of Hydroporus rufifrons 
Duft. at Kingmoor. Eighteen years ago I took two specimens 
at Orton, since when it has not been noticed with us until 
now, although constantly searched for. The Orton locality is 
on the peat, while the Kingmoor specimen came from a small, 
artificial pond with a clay bottom. H. discretus Fair., also 
occurred at Kingmoor for the first time. It is a widely spread 
species in Cumberland but usually somewhat rare. 

With regard to Helophorus ytenensis Shp., which I recorded 
last year ( Naturalist, 1917, p. 93) as new to Cumberland from 
Thurstonfield, I have since found it in abundance at the same 
place, where it is the commonest Helophorus, in May at any 
rate. I also took it at Kingmoor. H. mulsanti Rye, was 
common at Port Carlisle on the Solway, in its usual habitat of 
brackish pools. These pools are often only a few inches deep, 
and clear, so that the H elophorus may be easily seen walking 
on the mud at the bottom of the water. A Helophorus which 
has been recorded several times from Cumberland is affinis 
Marsh, but studied in the light of Dr. Sharp's recent papers on 
the genus in The Entomologist' s Monthly Magazine, the speci- 
mens in the fairly extensive series of both Mr. Britten and 
myself are undoubtedly minutus F., a common and widely 
distributed species, the real affinis being apparently rare. 
Philydrus fuscipennis Th., I took in fresh water ponds in 
several localities near Carlisle, P. frontalis Er. {nigricans 
Zett.) being attached to ponds on the peat. Cercyon ustulatus 



1918 Feb. 1. 



74 D(iy ' Cumberland Coleoptera in 1917. 

Preys, {haemorrhous Gyll.) was found on the edges of a pond 
near Kirkbride, and under half-decayed turnips close by. 

Among numerous Staphylinidae taken, I may mention 
Atheta granigera Kies. {crassicornis Gyll.), Gyrophaena affinis 
Mann., G. gentilis Er., G. jasciata Marsh., and G. hihamata 
Th., all from a large Boletus on an ash tree in the Gelt woods, 
Philonthus micans Gr., and Lathrobium quadrahim Pk., from 
Thurstonfield, L. ripicola Czwal., from mud banks near Kirk- 
bride, Trogophloeus elongatulus Er. from moss at Kingmoor, 
and Ancyrophorus aureus Fauv., by sweeping round a pond at 
Orton. 

The Clavicornia are not so well represented in Cumberland 
as some of the other groups of Coleoptera. The most note- 
worthy species I met with in 1917 were Euplectus piceus Mots., 
Kingmoor, under bark, Anisotoma {Liodes) humeralis Kug., 
and Enicmus testaceus Steph., in powdery fungi on birch 
stumps in the same localty, Cis festivus Pz. and C. alni Gyll. 
from Polypori at Gelt and Port Carlisle respectively, Epuraea 
deleta Er. also from Gelt, and Cercus rufilabris Lat., beaten from 
hawthorn on Cumwhitton Moss. 

In the Nature Reserve at Kingmoor are a few aspen bushes, 
which for several years I have observed to show signs of the 
work of Saperda populnea L., and this year I met with the 
perfect beetle. Asemum striatum L. I took several times on 
the wing in Carlisle streets evidently disturbed from the pine 
plantations in the district by the felling operations so universal 
nowadays. 

Grammoptera tabacicolor De G. was found in the Gelt 
Woods on raspberry bloom. 

Among the Phytophaga, Donacia discolor Pz., was in 
swarms on the low herbage on Cumwhitton Moss, and all 
shades ol colour almost were represented in green, blue, bronze 
and crimson, and some nearly black. Apteropeda globosa 111., 
rather an uncommon species, was swept from Geranium in 
the Gelt Woods. I got a specimen of Longitarsus nigrofasciatus 
Goeze {patruelis Brit. Cat.), in flood refuse by the River 
Pettenl. All my captures of this species have been made in 
the same way. 

I did not get many weevils which call for comment, the 
most interesting, perhaps, being Bagous Hmosus Gyll. from 
Thurstonfield, the second Cumberland capture I believe, 
Apion gyllenhali Kirb. from Kingmoor, and Phloeophthorus 
rhododactylus Marsh, from Port Carlisle. 



The Entomologist's Monthly Magazine for December includes a 
description of ' Phanacis centaufecB Forster, A Cynipid (Hymenopteral 
New to the British Fauna,' from Durham, by Richard S. Bagnall, and 
Mr. G. T. Porritt records ' Limnophilus elegans Curt, in Cumberland.' 



75 
FIELD NOTES. 

BIRDS. 

'Wild Qeese,' or 'Gabriel's Hounds' {Nat., January, 
1918, p. 24). — I saw a flock flying over Rollerton near here about 
the date mentioned, viz., November 28th, 1917, and also heard 
the ' cart wheel ' sound of their cry, which in South Yorkshire 
foretells a funeral. My elder brother, who spent all his leisure 
winter time in wild-fowling off Spurn or on The Wash, always 
said they went across to the west and vice versa according to 
their natural intuition where their food was most plentiful. — 
Albert Ernest Hall, Southwell, Notts. 

Separation of the Sexes of the Chaffinch in Winter. — 
There is much conflict of opinion among naturalists as to 
whether there is any marked segregation in the sexes of the 
Chaffinch in Britain in winter. If, as Mr. Hudson says in his 
' British Birds,' no separation takes place in the South and 
West of England, it is somewhat curious that White should 
so frequently refer to this separation in his district, where 
this species is abundant in winter, the flocks, however, he says, 
seemed to be almost all females. In this district ( Wilsden) even 
in very mild winters we seldom see many female Chaffinches 
from end of November to February ; they are nearly all 
males. One came to my garden window to be fed all last 
winter, but it had one leg much injured, and I saw another 
feeding yesterday (7th inst.) in the main street in Bingley. 
In northern Europe this separation of sexes is quite marked, 
mostly males are met with in this region, the females pre- 
sumably wintering in a lower latitude.* — E. P. Butterfield, 
Wilsden, January 8th, 1918. 

Long= Eared Owl Nesting on the Ground. — A pair of 
Long-Eared Owls built their nest on the ground at Bell Hole, 
near Hebden Bridge, in the summer of 1917, hatching two 
young, which, however, mysteriously disappeared. There 
seems to be an increasing tendency of this species to depart 
from its normal habit of nesting in trees. It was not my 
privilege to see either the birds or nest, and as the place 
seemed more suitable ground for the Short-Eared Owl than 
for the Long-Eared, it seemed natural to expect that the nest 
belonged to the former. Some feathers from within or around 
the nest, which were put into my possession, proved the sur- 
mise to be incorrect, as they were determined by Mr. T. A. 
Coward, F.Z.S., Bowden, Cheshire, who kindly compared 
them with others at the Manchester Museum, as belonging to the 
Long-Eared Owl. This is the first known case of the species 
nesting on the ground in this district. Mr. Coward adds that 

* The separation of sexes is very marked in this district, where we see 
flocks both of male and female. Quite a number of males have frequented 
the vicinity of my house this winter. — R.F. 

1918 Feb. 1 . 



76 Field Notes. 

the number of occurrences of a similar kind which have recently 
been brought to his notice, is quite surprising. — ^Walter 
Greaves, Hebden Bridge. 

Curious behaviour of a pair of Song: Thrushes (Tardus 
musicus). — Last Spring a pair of Song Thrushes built its 
nest in a yew bush in the garden, almost opposite my sitting 
room window, in such a position that as I sat smoking my 
after-breakfast pipe I could watch practically their every 
movement. After the nest was completed and the lining 
dry, the hen (or what I took to be the hen) used to sit in the 
nest each morning day after day for about half an hour to an 
hour, but no egg was laid. Then the birds disappeared, and 
I naturally concluded that the nest was forsaken. But after 
an interval of perhaps a fortnight, they reappeared, and the 
same proceeding went on again for days but there was never 
any egg laid. That the birds were paired was clear, because 
often whilst the hen was on the nest, her mate was with her 
sitting on a branch within a few inches of the nest. Quite 
five or six weeks I think must have elapsed between the making 
of the nest and the final disappearance of the birds, which did 
not build again in the garden, nor anywhere else so far as I 
could ascertain. — Geo. T. Porritt, Elm Lea, Dalton, Hudders- 
field, January 5th, 1918. 

Scarcity of the Bulfinch in Upper Airedale. — The 
Bulfinch is said to be such a common and generally distributed 
bird, that it may cause surprise to some ornithologists, to be in- 
formed that, except during the autumn and to a lesser degree in 
winter, this species is hardly ever seen in Upper Airedale. In 
the autumn here I have not unfrequentl)^ seen it feeding upon 
elderberries, of which it is very fond, but I have never yet 
found its nest, although a friend of mine used to tell me he had 
found the nest about St. Ives, which is about a mile and a half 
away. It is much more common in the breeding season in 
some parts of the adjoining valley, that is in Wharfedale, and 
it is said to have been much more common in Airedale in former 
years, but this cannot include the last half a century. Tunstall, 
in 1786, states that this species was plentiful in the north of 
Yorkshire, and AUis, in 1844, wrote that it was common in 
some parts, but becoming scarcer in others. On the 2nd inst., 
whilst taking a walk on the western boundary of Bingley 
Wood, I was agreeably surprised to see two Bulfinches in a 
spruce tree, and on my approach they flew into a birch, and 
began at once to eat the buds. I was more surprised still to 
see one feeding upon the seeds of dock in my poultry run on 
the 12th inst. When first seen it was some distance away and 
I could see its white rump (this being the only feature that 
attracted my attention) flitting from plant to plant. I took 
it to be a Mealy Redpoll, which I have occasionally seen feeding 

Naturalist, 



Field Notes. 77 

upon the seeds of meadow-sweet. This rarity of the Bulfinch 
in some parts of Airedale, especially during the breeding 
season, can scarcely be attributed to a lack of suitable food, 
but must be assigned to some other causes. The relative 
distribution of many, if not most of our birds is so little under- 
stood that one could wish for a monographer, not only in 
every district but in every locality. — E. P. Butterfield, 
Wilsden, December i6th, 1917. 

Pied Wagtails in Winter and on Migration in the 
Bradford District. — I think that my friend, Mr. E. P. 
Butterfield, is not strictly in accordance with the known facts 
when he states that in most winters this species ' leaves this 
district to a bird ' {ante 1917, p. 391). Although roughly 
speaking the Pied Wagtail may be considered almost non- 
existent in the neighbourhood during the darker months — 
say November and December ; still it has been proved over 
and over again in the past twenty-five years by the members 
of the Bradford Natural History and Microscopical Society, 
that there is not any month in the winter but that a single 
bird or two may be reported. Usually it is a dirty, be- 
draggled specimen at a sewage bed, mill dam, or some such 
similar place. Occasionally they have been reported from 
the lakes and ponds of our public parks in the depth of winter. 
The great majority of Pied Wagtails leave this district in 
September, though it is rarely that we see them in such numbers 
as Mr. Butterfield describes as seen by him in September, 
1916 ; which would most probably consist of birds that had 
nested further north, and their families. They usually work 
their way leisurely through the district in family parties, or 
in collections of family parties. In spring, however, there is 
generally a large and well-defined immigration of Pied Wagtails 
near Saltaire, commencing as a rule on the last day or two in 
March or early in April, and continuing until the 8th or loth 
of April. At the commencement of this movement the males 
are in the majority by well over 90 per cent., and gradually 
the percentage is lowered ; although it is evident that many of 
the females must follow much less ostentaciously later on. It 
is a curious fact that I have never been able to observe this 
great March-April movement in Wharfedale — only eight 
miles away from Saltaire — but in another valley separated by 
a fairly high moor. In Wharfedale the spring movement 
appears to be leisurely throughout and similar to the autumn 
exodus. If these spring immigrations are carefully watched, 
and the birds individually and carefully scrutinised with a 
good pair of field-glasses, a few male White Wagtails may be 
recorded from time to time. A few females of the same 
species may also be present, but I have great difficulty in 
satisfactorily identifying them unless in the company of the 

1918 Feb. 1, 



y8 Field Notes. 

males. The statement made by Mr. Butterfield that, in spite 
of the winter of 1916-7 having been a long and dragging one, 
yet more Pied Wagtails were seen about than usual, was 
confirmed by the observations of Mr. F. Rhodes in Lister 
Park, Bradford. *—H. B. Booth, Ben Rhydding. 

MOLLUSC A. 
Paludestrina minuta in Lines. — On August 25th, 1904, 
I collected a considerable quantity of very small Paludestrina, 
thickly encrusted, from a drain between Grainthorpe Haven 
and ' The Fifties,' which did not appear to be referable to 
P. ventrosa and have therefore remained unidentified until 
quite recently. In consequence of recent notes by my friend, 
A. S. Kennard, F.G.S., I sent some of this collection to him 
which he has identified as Pahidestrina minuta (Totten). 
Associated with them were a few small P. iilvce (= stagnalis), 
but, unlike P. minuta, these were not encrusted. This interest- 
ing species has only recently been detected in the British 
Islands. — C. S. Carter, Louth, Lines. 

LEPIDOPTERA. 
Agrotis obscura Brahm {ravida Hb.) at Bubwith, 
East Yorks. — During the past season I have examined the 
inside of the bedroom windows of my house at dusk and have 
found moths extremely abundant. The windows were left 
open at the bottom for the moths to enter, and although no 
light was shewn it was usual to capture about half a dozen 
specimens on each window. The majority of these were 
such abundant species as Mamestra brassicce L., Triphcena 
fronuha L., and comes Hb., Amphipyra tragopogonis L., 
Hadena oleracea L., Xylophasia monoglypha Hufn. diVA Apamea 
didyma Esp. (the latter species in bewildering variety and 
easily exceeding the others in point of numbers) ; but there 
were a few other species represented and among these latter 
is a specimen which Capt. H. D. Smart, M.C., R.A.M.C, on 
looking over the collection, recognised as Agrotis obscura 
Brahm. This species is rare in Yorkshire except on the coast, 
but has been taken in the East Riding at Hull. Its nearest 
inland locality to Bubwith is Askham Bog. — Wm. J. Fordham, 
Bubwith, December 5th, 1917. 

HOMOPTERA. 
Homoptera of West Cumberland. — The following species 
of Homoptera were met with in the neighbourhood of Seascale, 

* A party of Pied Wagtails, about 20 in number, passed over my 
house on Jan. loth, about 3-30 p.m., flying direct from N.E. to S.W. A 
smaller party passed over about the same time on the following afternoon. 
For some reason which I have not been able yet to determine, my house 
seems to be in a direct line of a regular wagtails' flight. — R.F. 

Naturalist, 



Northern News, etc. 79 

except where otherwise noted, during the early part of last 
July : — Aphrophora alni Fall., common in Eskdale. Philcenus 
spumarius Linn, common ; the form lateralis Linn., several, 
and the form lineatus Fab., common in Eskdale. P. exclama- 
tionis Thunb., common, Drigg and Eskdale. P. lineatus 
Linn., common. M egophthalmus scanicus Fall., several by 
sweeping a rough meadow. Euacanthus acuminatus Fab., 
Gosforth, just coming on. Oncopsis flavicollis Linn., the 
var. 4 of Edward's ' Homoptera ' was not uncommon in 
Eskdale. Deltocephahis ahdominalis Fab., common on rough 
ground near the sea. D. distinguendns Flor., common. D. 
pidicaris Fall., Eskdale, common. D. sahidicola Curt., common. 
Thamnotettix subfuscidus Fall., Eskdale. Eupteryx signati- 
pennis Boh., Drigg, sweeping in a lane. Cixius cunicularius 
Linn., one swept in Eskdale. Delphax dijjicilis Edw., in Esk- 
dale. Dicranotropis hamata Boh., common in Eskdale. 
Stiroma alho-marginata Curt., common. S. pteridis Boh., in 
Eskdale, by sweeping ferns. Psylla nigrita Zett. {pineti Flor.) 
was common on some young Firs, and a few P. spartii Guer., 
were beaten from Broom. Mr. E. A. Butler, has kindly 
assisted me in determining some of these, and also some of the 
Heteroptera recorded antea p. 27. — Jas. Murray, 2 Balfour 
Road, Carlisle. 

: o : 

The subscription to The Scottish Naturalist has been increased to 7/6, 
and the subscription to The Entomologist's Monthly Magazine is now 9/-. 

The Gardeners' Chronicle for December 22nd and 29th, contains an 
article on the botany and physical geography of the Holy Land, from the 
pen of Mr. J. G. Baker, F.JR.S. 

The Brighton and Hove Natural History and Philosophical Society 
has issued its ' Abstracts and Reports for the year ending July, 1917,' 
42 pages. Some of the abstracts have a bearing upon the Society's 
district, and there are also accounts of rambles. 

Mr. R. BuUen Newton, F.G.S., of the Geological Department, British 
Museum, has just completed 50 years of Government service. On January 
8th, 1868, Mr. Newton was one of the assistant naturalists of the Geological 
Survey, under the late Prof. Huxley, and was transferred to the British 
Museum in August, 1880. 

Referring to the notes on the prevalence of anopheline mosquitos in 
this country, which appeared in The Naturalist for November last, p. 339, 
Mr. A. J. Grove, c/o The Medical Officer, Local Government Board, 
Whitehall, S.W. i, is now putting the records together, and would be glad 
to receive any notes on the subject from readers of this journal. 

The Selborne Society has been incorporated under the Companies' 
Act, and from a legal standpoint, the Society will become a limited liability 
company. We understand from The Selborne Magazine for January, 
that in the event of the winding up of the Society, therefore, each member 
must contribute a sum not exceeding one of their annual subscriptions. 

The Lancashire and Cheshire Naturalist for November contains, 
among other items, the following : — Leach's Fork-tailed Petrel near 
Manchester, by T. A. Coward ; Notes on the Local Captures of Longicorn 
Beetles during 1917, by J. R. Hardy and R. Standen ; Litargus bifasciatus 
Fab. in Cheshire, by J. R. Hardy ; and ' On the Collection, Taxonomy 
and Ecology of the Sphagna,' by J. A. Wheldon. 

1918 Feb. 1. 



8o 

NEWS FROM THE MAGAZINES. 

In The Scottish Naturalist for January Alexander Meek describes 
' The Migrations of Chimeeya monstrosa.' 

A paper on ' Bronze and Tin in Cornwall,' by the late Clement Reid, 
in Man for January, has an important bearing upon the origin of Bronze- 
age implements. 

The Entomologist's Record for January is a ' Special Index number, 
with six plates' (2/-). It contains a note on 'The Pairing Habits of 
Certain Bees,' by Dr. J. W. H. Harrison. 

Prof. S. J. Hickson describes ' The Pennatulacea of the Sibo°a Expedit- 
ion, with a General Survey of the Order ' (Leyden, 256 pp.), a summary of 
which appears in Nature for January 17th. 

In The Irish Naturalist for November and December, Mr. R. F. Scharff 
has an interesting paper on ' The Irish Pig,' some peculiar examples of 
which are illustrated. He also refers to the Wild Pigs of the island. 

In The Entomologist for January, Dr. J. W. H. Harrison writes on ' Rare 
Hemiptera-Heteroptera in the North Eastern Counties,' and Dr. Eric 
Drabble and Hilda Drabble continue their notes on Derbyshire Diptera. 

The Scottish Naturalist for December contains articles on ' Wild Life 
in a West Highland Deer Forest,' by Dr. William Eagle Clarke, and a 
general account of the occurrence of the Convolvulus Hawk-moth in 
Scotland, as well as many shorter notes. 

The Journal of Conchology for January contains Prof. A. E. Boycott's 
Presidential Address on ' The Habitats of Freshwater Mollusca ' ; Mr. 
A. W. Stelfox writes ' On the Recent Misapplication of the Names Pisidium 
nitidum and Pisidium pusillum of Jenyns,' and there are other interesting 
notes. 

The New Phytologist for December contains a lengthy appeal for the 
Reconstruction of Elementary Botanical Teaching which should be 
carefully considered by those interested in the future of Botanical Science. 
We notice that criticisms are desired, and that ' Contributors are urged 
to write exactly what they think on any or every aspect of the subject ' 

In The Entomologist' s Record for December, there is a note on ' Butter- 
flies in North Yorkshire ' by T. A. Lofthouse, which contains the observa- 
tion that ' there appears to be no doubt that long severe winters are 
favourable to insect life, especially the butterflies, and a series of these 
would probably go a long way to re-establishing many species that have 
become very scarce in recent years.' 

British Birds for January has ' Notes and Observations on the Moor- 
Hen,' by Frances Pitt ; ' The Moults and Sequence of Plumages of the 
British Waders,' by Annie Jackson ; ' The Hooded Crow in Warwick- 
shire,' by A. G. Leigh ; Report of the ' Recovery of Marked Birds,' and 
shorter notes, including records of the Black- Throated, Red-throated, and 
Great Northern Divers on Lake Windermere. 

Wild Life for November and December completes Vol. IX. Among 
the contents we notice ' Abnormal Colour in Mammals,' by Fred D. 
Welch ; ' Resting Attitudes of Moths and some Notes on their Habits,' 
by C. W, Colthrup ; ' Economic Ornithology,' by W. Berry ; ' Notes on 
the Butterflies of the Oxfordshire Chilterns,' by G. Abbey ; ' Some Further 
Notes on the Cuckoo,' by E. E. Pettitt ; ' Jottings on Polecats and Martens,' 
by G. Abbey, and ' Sexual Selection in Birds,' by Edmund Selous. 

Among the contents of The Vasculum for December, are the following 
items, together with shorter notes : — Our Local Seaweeds, by W. H. 
Young ; Eyeless Migrants, by J. E. Hull ; Notes on the Winter of 1916-17 
in the Alston District, by George Bolam ; Birtley Fell, by J. W. H. Har- 
rison ; Grant Allen on Floral Colour, by J. E. H. ; The Convolvulus Hawk- 
Moth, by George Bolam. The Rev. J. E. Hull's paper contains illustrations 
and description of a new species. ' Last winter' has certainly seemed a 
long one to some of us, but we hope that the date ' 1616-1917 ' given in 
Mr. Bolam's paper is a mis-print. 

Natiiralist, 



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MARCH 19 18. 



No. 734 

(No. 508 0/ turrtnt uritm 




A MONTHLY ILLUSTRATED JOURNAL OF 

NATURAL HISTORY FOR THE NORTH OF ENGLAND. 



EDITED ,BY 

M.Sc, F.G.3.. F.R.Q.S 

Thr Museums,/Hull ; 

AND • 

WOODHEAD, Ph.D. 

Technical College, Huddersf^eld 
with the assistance as referees in spbcia! 
J. aiLBBRT BAKBR. P.R.S. P.L.S., QEO. T. 

Prof. P. P. KBNDALL, M.Sc. P.Q.S., JQHN W. 

RILBY PORTUNE. P.Z.S 



T. SMEPPARD, 



T. W. 



F. S.A.Scot.. 




Contents ; — 

' PAQB 

Notes and Comments (illustrated): — G. W. LampIugh,-FrR.S. ; Liverpool Botanists; The 
Hedgehog, of two kinds ; Ancient Natural History ; Hedgehog without Spines ; Sands 
and Rocks used in Glass Manufacture ; Author's Reprints ; Microscopic Section of Coal 
Seam ; Peat Problems ; Light and Phototropism ; Physico-Cheniical Activities ; Spore 
Coloration in the Agaricaceae ; Tabulating Habitats ; X-Rays and Foraminifera ; Rotalia 
dubia; Skiagraphs of Foraminifera ; Nummulites, etc 81-88 

A Ploral Film of 1831— £. G. Bayford, F.E.S. ; annotated by F. A. Lees, M.R.C.s. ... 89-92 

Romance of the Cuckoo— £. P. BM^^r^e/rf 93-96 

Yorkshire Entomology in 1917 — E. Motley 97-98 

Yorkshire Coleoptera in 1917— W./.ForrfAflw, JW.i?.C.S., L.ie.C. P., F.JS.S 99-102 

An Addition to the British Lichen-Flora— i?ev. W.Johnson 103 

In Memorlam:— William Greenwell, D.C.L., F.R.S., F.S.A.—T.S 104-106 

W. A. Parker, F.G.S.—r.5 106 

George Alexander Louis Lebour, M. A., D.Sc, F.G.S.—7".S. 106-107 

Matthew B. Slater, F.L.S.—r.S 108-109 

Field Notes:— Cumberland Hemiptera-Heteroptera ; Water-Vole and Hedgehog ; Separa- 
tion of the Sexes of the Chaffinch in Winter ; Status of the Pied Wagtail in Winter in the 
Wilsden District 



Proceedings of Provincial Scientific Societies 

Northern News 

News from the Magazines 

Illustrations 



110-111 

109 

. 103, 109, 111 

...111,112 

82, 83, 106, 109 



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Liverpool Nat. journ Parts i, 3, 7, 9, 1 8, 20 (or set). 

Young England. Set. 

Mem. and Proc. Manchester Lit. and Phil. Soc. Vols. XVIII. 

Entomological Monthly Mag. Part 121. 

Burnley Lit. and Sci. Soc. Parts i, 3, s, 6, 8, 12, 13, 16-27, 29- 

Garner. Nos. 4, 8, 12, 60. 

Lanes, and Cheshire Antiq. Soc. Vols. IV., V., VIII., XXVI. 

Discovery. (Liverpool, 4to). 1891. 

Louth Ant. and Nat. Soc. Reports, r 14, 17-19. 

Alford Nat. Hist. Soc. Reports. 

Union Jack Naturalist. Any. 

Archaologia Cantiana. Vol. I. 

M. Simpson's Guide to Whitby, ist ed. before 18811. 

Internat. Journ. Micros, and Nat. Sci. 1891-97. 

Journ. Micrology and Nat. Hist. Mirror. 19 14- 

Young and Bird. Geol. of Yorks. Coast. 2nd ed. 1828. 

Derby Arch, and Nat. Hist Soc. Parts 20, 21. 

Journal Marine Biological Assoc. Vols. I. -IV. • 

Croydon Nat Soc. 6th Report, and Trans, for 1887-8. 

Yorks. Ramblers' Club Journal. No. 8. 

Newbury District Field Club Transactions. Vols. III. and on. 

Reports Wakefield Lit. and Phil Soc. Set. 

Proc. Birmingham Nat Hist, and Phil. Soc. \'ol. I., part 2. 

Proc. Soc. of Antiquaries, ist Series, Vols. I. and II 

Trans. Manchester Geol. Soc. Vols. XV., XVI , XIX -XXIII 

Trans. Barrow Nat. Field Club. Vol. VII. 

Dudley and Midland Geol etc , Soc. 1862-80 (14 parts). 

Vale of Derwent Nat. Field Club. Old Series, Vols. I. -III. 
Salisbury Field Club. Transactions, Vol. II. 

Trans. Norfolk and Norwich Nat. Soc. Vol. IV., Pt. 3. 

Peterborough Natural History Society. Reports, 1-8, 11-12, 14-26. 

Brighton and Sussex Natural History Society Reports, 1855-1870; 1872-3. 
North Staffordshire Field Club Reports for 1869, 187 1-2, 1876. 

Bedfordshire Natural History Society Proceedings. Set. 

Trans. Royal Cornwall Geological Society. Vol. V. to date. 

Chester Soc. Nat. Science : .'^nn Reports, i.-iv. 

Trans. Woolhope Club. 1866-80. 

Quarterly Journal of Science. 1878-9, 1882-3, and 1885. 

Trans. Geol. Soc, London, 4to. 2nd series. Vols. IV.-VII. (1836-56). 

Geological Magazine, 1890-1-2-4. 

Mackie's Geol. and Nat. Hist. Repository. Vols. II., III. 

Proc. Liverpool Geol. Association. Parts i, 3, 7, i6. 

Reliquary (Jewitt's 8vo. Series). Vol. XXII. 

Irish Naturalist. Vols. 1912-16. 

Scottish Naturalist. 1881-95. 

Annals of Scottish Nat. Hist. 1905-1916. 

Waiford's Antiquarian Mag. and Bibliographer for July-Dec, 1885. 

Keeping's Handbook to Nat. Hist. Collections. (York Museum). 

Huddersfield Arch, and Topog. Society. 4 Reports. (1865-1869). 

First Report, Goole Scientific Society. 

The Naturalists' Record. Set. 

The Naturalists' Guide (Huddersfield). Parts 1-38. 

Reports on State of Agriculture of Counties (1790-1810). 

Early Geological Maps. 

Quart. Journ. Geol. Soc. Vols. I.-XIV. 

Proc Geol. Assoc. Vol. I. Part 1. 

Trans. Yorks. Nat. Union. Part i. 

Naturalists' Journal. Vol. I., and parts 44, 56, 61, 115, 116. 

W. Smith's New Geological Atlas of England aud Wales. 1819-21. 

Frizinghall Naturalist. (Lithographed). Vol. I., and part i of Vol. II. 

Illustrated Scientific News. 1902-4. (Set). 

Journal Keighley Naturalists' Society. 4to. Parti. 

Cleveland Lit. & Phil. Soc. Trans. Science Section or others. 

Proc. Yorks. Nat. Club (York). Set. 1867-70. 

Apply— Editor, The Museum, Hull. 




' 1,1, 

JUN2 4 1920 



NOTES AND COM! 

G. W. LAMPLUGH, F.R.S. 

All naturalists will join us in sincerely congratulating a 
past-president of the Yorkshire Naturalists' Union, Mr. G. W. 
Lamplugh, F.R.S., F.G.S., on his election as President of the 
Geological Society of London, in succession to Dr. Alfred Harker, 
another of our past-presidents, a post previously held by our 
last President, Sir Archibald Geikie, O.M., K.C.B. Mr. 
Lamplugh's election is a fitting answer to the subject of his 
presidential address to the Union, which was ' The Amateur 
Spirit in Scientific Research ' (see The Naturalist, 1906, pp. 71- 
80). Mr. Lamplugh was, and is, essentially an amateur. While 
living at Bridhngton, years ago, he published a series of 
valuable papers on the Glacial and Cretaceous Geology of 
that District, his paper on the Speeton Clays being a classic, 
and his ' Drifts of Flamborough Headland ' has been rightly 
styled one of the gems of glacial literature. These two papers 
appeared in the Quarterly Journal of the Geological Society, 
but the Proceedings of the Yorkshire Society have contained 
much of his work, and The Naturalist has frequently been 
favoured by notes from his pen. He joined the Geological 
Survey in 1892, and was appointed Assistant Director in 1914. 
He has been responsible for the Memoir on the Geolog}^ of the 
Isle of Man, as well as valuable work in Ireland, the Midlands, 
and the Weald District. His paper on the Crush Conglomerates 
of the Isle of Man opened an entirely new chapter in the 
Geological History in these Islands. We trust he may long be 
spared to carry out the useful work he is doing. 

LIVERPOOL BOTANISTS. 

The Proceedings of the Liverpool Botanical Society for the 
years 1912-15, have recently been issued (40 pages), the frontis- 
piece to which is a portrait of Mr. A. A. Dallman, who was 
President 1914-5. There are notes on the South Lancashire 
Flora, and details of the various exhibits, etc., at the meetings 
between January, 1912 and December, 1915, which contain 
many interesting botanical records. There is a substantial 
list of additions to the Library, a list of members, and an ' In 
Memoriam ' notice of Mrs. J. A. Wheldon, wife of. a former 
president. We certainly think our Liverpool friends are wise 
in recording their work in this way. 

THE HEDGEHOG. 

We have recently obtained a copy of a ' new edition ' of 
Oliver Goldsmith's ' History of the Earth, and Animated 
Nature,' printed at York by Thomas Wilson & Son, High 
Ousegate, 1808. It is in four volumes, each of which contains 
over 400 pages and numerous quaint plates. In Volume II., 
pp. 307-310, is a description of ' The Hedgehog, or Prickly 
Kind.' The author places the hedgehogs ' in a class by them- 

1918 Mar. 1. 



82 



Notes and Comments. 



selves ; nor let it be supposed, that while I thus alter this 
arrangement and separate them from animals with which they 
have been formerly combined, that I am destroying any secret 
affinities that exist in Nature.' 

OF TWO KINDS. 

' The hedgehog, with an appearance the most formidable, 
is yet one of the most harmless animals in the world : unable 
or willing to offend, all its precautions are only directed to its 
own security ; and it is armed with a thousand points, to 
keep off an enemy, but not to invade him .... This animal 
is of two kinds ; one with a nose like the snout of a hog ; 
the other more short and blunt, like that of a dog. That with 
the muzzle of a dog is the most common .... They sleep 



^^virhout Bristles 




away the winter, and what is said of their laying up provisions 
for that season is consequently false. They at no time eat 
much, and can remain very long without any food whatsoever. 
Their blood is cold, like all other animals that sleep during the 
winter. Their flesh is not good for food ; and their skins 
are converted to scarce any use, except to muzzle calves, to 
keep them from sucking.' 

ANCIENT NATURAL HISTORY. 

The above, together with much other information, some 
quaint, some trustworthy, some neither, is the sort of natural 
history that was published just over a century ago. The 
description appears towards the end of Volume IL, and the 
illustration, which we reproduce herewith, appears on a plate 
at the front of Volume L, though a good index enables the 
description to be traced. No reference whatever is made in 
the text to the ' Hedge Hog ivithout Bristles.' 

Naturalist, 



Notes and Comments. 



83 



HEDGEHOG WITHOUT SPINES. 

This reminds us that some years ago, in Natural Science, 
appeared an illustration of a Hedgehog without spines,* which 
is also reproduced herewith. The specimen was in the Royal 
Bohemian Museum, and was originally figured in the official 
Bericht of that Museum for 1897. ' In this specimen there 
are none of the characteristic spines, the whole body being 
clothed instead with normal hair. Spines, of course, are 
only highly modified hairs, and this individual is doubtless to be 






regarded as an example of atavism, one in which the dermal 
appendages have reverted to their original condition. 

SANDS AND ROCKS USED IN GLASS MANUFACTURE. 

Messrs. Longman, Green and Co. have recently issued ' A 
Supplementary Memoir on British Resources of Sands and 
Rocks used in Glass Manufacture, with certain Refractory 
Materials,' by P. G. H. Boswell* which, besides the general 
remarks on the methods of examination, includes descriptions 
of sands from the various counties in England, notes on their 
suitability for glass-making, etc. In addition there are three 
maps, and a number of plates showing samples of sand. 

authors' reprints. 

The Library of the late F. W. Rudler, consisting of two 
thousand volumes and four thousand pamphlets will, in future, 
be available to students at the University College of Wales, 
Aberystwyth. It is much to be desired that such life-long 
collections of specialists should be preserved in this way, as it 

* Nat. Set., Sept., 1898, plate II. 
* 92 pages, price 3/- 

1918 Mar. 1. 



84 Notes and Comments. 

frequently happens these collections of pamphlets and authors' 
reprints are of exceptional use to later students working on 
the same lines. The present writer, for instance, has the 
collections of authors' copies formed by the late Gwynn 
Jeffreys, the late Sir Andrew Ramsay, the late C. P. Hobkirk 
and others, which in each case should have been lodged in 
some permanent institution. 

MICROSCOPIC SECTION OF COAL SEAM. 

At a meeting of the Leeds Geological Association, held at 
the Leeds University recently, the Chairman (Professor Kendall) 
drew the attention of the Association to an interesting gift 
which has been made to the University by Sir William Garforth, 
the head of the Altofts Colliery. It consists of a complete 
thin section, in column, of every layer of one of the principal 
coal seams in the Yorkshire coal-field. The gift was of immense 
economic importance, showing as it did the various layers of 
coal in such a way that it was possible to discover which 
particular seams were liable, by spontaneous combustion, to 
cause gob fires Professor Kendall characterised the making 
of the section as being unique. It was the work of Mr. James 
Lomax, and his son, of Bolton, Lancashire, and it was gratifying 
to know that there were two men in England capable of this 
astonishing feat. He knew of no other country in the world 
where such a coal section, showing the constitution of coal at 
every stage of its growth, had been prepared. 

PEAT PROBLEMS. 

At the same meeting a paper on ' Peat Problems/ with 
lantern illustrations, was read by Miss Elsie D. Whitaker, 
who is the first woman to whom a Leeds University fellowship 
has been awarded. Miss Whitaker's paper dealt with the 
properties and origin of peat in their relation to the formation 
of coal, and gave an account of various North-country accumu- 
lations of peat, mentioning as two of the main types those at 
Goole and at Thome, near Doncaster. Pointing out that, 
at the present time, research work in peat was divided into 
two distinct classes, scientific and commercial, Miss Whitaker 
urged that it would be well, in the interests of both science 
and industry, if the two branches of study could be more 
closely allied. 

LIGHT AND PHOTOTROPISM. 

At a recent meeting of the Linnean Society of London, a 
paper was read by Harold Wager, D.Sc, F.R.S., F.L.S., 
entitled ' Intensity and Direction of Light as Factors in 
Phototropism,' and illustrated by lantern slides and models. 
In this communication an account is given of experiments 
made to determine the influence of the intensity and the 

Naturalist 



Notes and Comments. 85 

direction of light in effecting phototropic responses in foliage 
leaves. In accordance with the teachings of physics we may 
assume that it is only the light absorbed by the photo-sensitive 
elements of a stimulable plant organ that is capable of settmg 
up a phototropic stimulus. The hght rays penetrate the 
tissues unequally but symmetrically. The extent to which 
this takes place can be shown by means of a simple piece of 
apparatus which may be called a Phytentoscope. By keeping 
the photo-sensitive region of a foliage leaf in a fixed position 
it can be shown that the orientation to light is determined by 
the varying extent to which the rays of hght penetrate the 
photo-sensitive elements. The photo-sensitive elements of a 
foliage leaf probably consist of parenchymatous cells in the 
apical region of the leaf-stalk. Experimental evidence is 
brought forward to show that it is probably mainly in the 
cortex that the stimulus is received and transmitted. There is 
no evidence to show that the epidermis and pith take any 
large part in the process. 

PHYSICO-CHEMICAL ACTIVITIES. 

If the phototropic response is due to the physico-chemical 
changes set up by the Hght absorbed, then it follows that — 
(i) The intensity of the physico-chemical changes depends 
upon the amount of light absorbed. 

(2) The extent to which the light is absorbed depends 
upon {a) the degree of penetration of the light, and [b) 
upon the selective absorption of the photo-sensitive 
elements. 

(3) The degree of penetration depends upon {a) the intensity 
of the hght that impinges upon the stimulated region, 
and (b) upon the angle or angles at which the incident 
rays strike it. 

We see, therefore, that the distribution of the physico- 
chemical activities in the photo-sensitive tissues is dependent 
upon both intensity and direction of Hght, and since the 
direction of movement may be determined as the resultant 
of the varying physico-chemical activities in the whole of the 
sensitive region, we must conclude that both intensity and 
direction of light are necessary factors in the phototropic 
response. 

SPORE COLORATION IN THE AGARICACE^. 

Dr. Wager read a second paper entitled ' Spore-Coloration 
in the Agaricaceae.' He stated that the use of spore-coloration 
as a basis for the classification of the Agaricaceae is artificial 
and imperfect. There is no clear line of demarcation between 
the various colours, and the designation of the colours in the 
text -books is very indefinite and unsatisfactory. A beginning, 
has, however, been made by members of the Mycological 

1918 Mar. 1. 



86 Notes and Comments. 

Committee of the Yorkshire Naturahsts' Union to obtain 
more accurate records of spore-coloration in terms of a standard 
series of tints, such as that of the ' Code des Couleurs,' by 
Khncksieck & Valette (Paris, 1908). We have already found — 
and this may be a fact of some considerable physiological 
interest — that, with one or two doubtful exceptions, all the 
spore colours so far standardized, whether pjnk, rusty, or 
purple, fall within the region of the less refrangible half of the 
spectrum. Spectroscopic examination also shows this. It has 
been suggested by Buller that these colouring-matters may 
serve a useful purpose by screening off certain of the sun's 
rays from the living protoplasm. If this is so, we ought to 
find some support for the hypothesis in the more abundant 
distribution of the coloured-spored species in the open and of 
the white-spored forms in the shade. 

TABULATING HABITATS. 

On tabulating the records of habitats, it has been found 
that we get approximately : — 

Black-spored forms : 24% occurring in the shade, 76% in the open. 
Purple „ „ 30% „ ,, „ 70% 

White „ „ 90% „ „ „ 10% 

These figures suport the hypothesis. 
The pink-spored forms gave : — 

34% in the shade, 66% in the open. 
This is intermediate, as might have been expected, between 
the dark-spored and the white-spored species. The brown or 
rusty-spored forms, however, gave figures not quite so good 
viz. :— 

52% in the shade and 48% in the open. 

These figures are only approximate, however, as they are 
compiled from a list of habitats which is probably not very 
accurately determined as regards light and shade. Spore- 
coloration may, however, depend, partly at least, upon the 
kind of substratum on which the Fungi grow. It is significant, 
for example, that a large porportion of the black-spored forms 
grow upon dung, whilst the white-spored forms are found 
largely upon the ground, frequently in soil rich in humus, and 
the rusty-spored forms largely upon rotten wood, old stumps, 
etc. It would be instructive if careful records were made of 
spore-coloration in relation to the substratum as well as to 
light and shade. 

X-RAYS AND FORAMINIFERA. 

At a recent meeting of the Geological Society of London, 
a Demonstration on the Application of X-Rays to the Deter- 
mination of the Interior Structure of Microscopic Fossils, 
particularly with reference to the Dimorphism of the Num- 
mulites, was given by Mr. E. Heron-Allen, F.L.S., F.G.S., Pres. 

Naturalist, 



Notes and Comments, 87 

R.M.S., and Mr. J. E. Barnard, F.R.M.S. Mr. Heron-Allen 
said that in the year 1826 Alcide d'Orbigny published among 
the innumerable, and for many years unidentified, nomina nuda 
that compose his ' Tableau Methodique de la Classe Cephalo- 
podes' the name Rotalia duhia. This species was left untouched 
by Parker & Jones in their remarkable series of articles ' On 
the Nomenclature of the Foraminifera.' The French natura- 
list, G. Berthelin, was the first investigator to unearth and make 
use of the ' Planches inedites ' which had been partly completed 
by d'Orbigny for the illustration of his great work upon the 
Foraminifera, a work that was never published. Working 
with Parker and Jones's paper, Berthelin made for his own use 
careful tracings of 246 of A. d'Orbigny's unfinished outline- 
sketches. These sketches were never elaborated by d' Orbigny 
upon the ' Planches,' which are still preserved in the Laboratoire 
de Paleontologie under the care of Prof. Marcellin Boule ; 
among them was found the sketch of Rotalia diihia. On the 
death of Berthelin the tracings passed into the poessssion of 
Prof. Carlo Fornasini of Bologna, who reproduced them all in 
a valuable series of papers published between the years i8g8 
and 1908. Fornasini's opinion was that the organism depicted 
by d'Orbigny was doubtfully of Rhizopodal nature, and that it 
was probably referable to the Ostracoda. The speaker said 
that he had examined the d'Orbigny type-specimens in Paris 
in 1914, and had noted that Rotdlia dubia was a worn and 
unidentified organism, resembling an Ostracod. 

ROTALIA DUBIA. 

There the matter rested until Mr. Arthur Earland and the 
speaker, while examining the material brought by Dr. J. J. 
Simpson from the Kerimba Archipelago (Portuguese East 
Africa) in 1915, discovered one or two undoubted Foraminifera 
of an unknown type, which resembled Berthelin's tracing. 
Prof. Boule kindly sent the d'Orbigny type-specimen to London, 
and the Rhizopodal nature of Rotalia duhia was established. 
It is not a Rotalia, and it must await determination until more 
specimens are obtained. It has been named provisionally 
Pegedia papillata. There were two or three forms of the 
organism, but only one perfect specimen of the d'Orbigny 
type ; and it was undesirable to risk destruction by cutting a 
section of it. In these circumstances Mr. Barnard was ap- 
proached and he experimented with the object of ascertaining 
the interior structure of the shell by means of the X-rays. His 
results were extraordinarily promising, and led to further 
experiments. 

SKIAGRAPHS OF FORAMINIFERA. 

The speaker showed on the screen photographs of the 
common and dense Foraminifer Massilina secans (d'Orb.), 

1918 Mar. 1. 



88 Notes and Comments. 

followed by a skiagraph of the same. A skiagraph of the still 
denser test of Biloculina bulloides d'Orb. shows the arrangement 
of the earlier chambers as clearly as it is indicated in Schlum- 
berger's beautiful sections. The apphcation of X-rays to the 
dense imperforate shells Cornuspira fdliacea (Phillippi) produced 
skiagraphs showing the dimorphism of the shells, both megalo- 
and microspheric primordial chambers being clearly distin- 
guishable. Such results led to the extension of the experiments 
to the agglutinated arenaceous forms, of which sections are 
made with extreme difficulty. The skiagraph of Astrorhiza 
arenaria Norman shows the internal cavities that contained 
the protoplasmic body. Two arenaceous forms, Botellina 
lahyrinthica Brady and Jaculella obtusti Brady, that are almost 
identical in external appearance, are distinguished at once by 
their respective skiagraphs, the one exhibiting a simple tabular 
cavity, the other appearing labyrinthic. 

NUMMULITES, ETC. 

Mr. Barnard subsequently experimented on still more 
difficult material. The massive Operculina complanata De- 
france, the umbilical portion of which is obscured by a mass 
of secondary shell-substance, furnished a clear skiagraph that 
showed some curious distortions of the internal septa. Similar 
results were obtained in the case of Orhiculina adunca (Fichtel 
& Moll), another species overladen with shell-matter. Cyclam- 
mina cancellata Brady is an arenaceous form, composed of 
softer mud and sand, studded with coarse sand-grains which 
make section-cutting almost an impossibility. The skiagraphs, 
however, reveal the primordial chamber, and establish the 
character of this form. The determination of the Nummulites, 
depending as it does on a knowledge of the internal structure 
of the test, is greatly facilitated by the application of X-rays, 
which removes the necessity of splitting it or cutting sections 
through it. The speaker showed ordinary photographs and 
skiagraphs, made at slightly varying azimuths, of Nummulites 
IcBvigata and N. variolaria, forms that strew the shores of Selsey 
Bill. A particularly notable result was obtained in the case of 
N. gizehensis, an organism that forms the dense masses of 
Nummuhtic Limestone of which the Pyramids of Egypt and 
the Citadel at Cairo are built. 

The Journal of the Marine Biological Association, Vol. XI., No. 3, 
is quite up to the usual standard of the Journal we expect from this 
useful Society. It is well illustrated, E. W. Sexton's drawing on plate 
VII. being particularly pleasing. Besides the report of the Council, 
the Journal contains ' The Loss of the Eye-Pigment in Gammarus chev- 
veuxi, a Mendelian Study,' by J. E. Allen and E. W. Sexton ; ' Heredity 
in Plants, Animals, and Man,' ' Food from the Sea," and ' The Age of 
Fishes and the Rate at which they grow,' all by J. E. Allen. 

Naturalist, 



89 
A FLORAL FILM OF 1831. 

E. G. BAYFORD, F.E.S. 
Annotated by F. A. Lees, M.R.C.S. 

This picture of the flora of the Brampton and Wath area as 
set down in three hsts in the Village Magazine or Wath Reposi- 
tory (of 1831) may add an item to the Bibhography of Yorkshire 
Botany. The serial referred to was issued in the years 1831, 
1832 and 1833, when it came to an untimely end. Its editors 
were the Rev. Wm. Moorhouse and Larret Langley, of Brampton 
Academy, near Rotherham. F. A. Lees duly listed the work 
of Langley with that of the Rev. E. Wilson, of Swinton, in 
Loudon's Mag. Nat. Hist., 1828 (Flo. W. Yks., 91), so this 
transcript from the Wath repository of local Indigenous 
Botany is supplementary thereto. 

Nothing has been altered in the record as here given, save 
that in bringing the three papers into one list I have put the 
items into their linear arrangement more or less, and corrected 
obvious misprints such as ' Nitica ' into Urtica, etc. 

Not being a botanist I cannot pretend to pass any criticism 
on the species named ; but I may be permitted to draw atten- 
tion to the ' Green-man Orchis,' which, judging from the 
remarks in Flora W. Yorks. (p. 423) — ' Hampole Wood,' by 
' a Mrs. Broadrick ' (sic) — appears to call for further investi- 
gation. [Ay, and a clue, furnished in the place Brodsworth 
being near Hampole, and the fact that Watson does not 
seem to have seen a specimen. — F.A.L.]. Undoubtedly the 
district, and as a consequence its flora and fauna have 
materially altered in the eighty-odd years that have lapsed 
since 1831. A coleopterist myself, I have spent many years 
in studying the distribution in Yorkshire of our indigenous 
beetles ; and in the Wath area, as also in the Barnsley district, 
the gradual disappearance almost to extinction of the Glow- 
worm is a remarkable and indisputable fact. Although I 
have known both vicinities for over thirty years, I have never 
seen it in either ! yet at one time it was common all over the 
Wath area, Newhill, Brampton, etc. The late Henry Johnson 
[chemist, of Barnsley, who worked with and for me botanically 
in the Eighties. — F.A.L.j told me that the last specimen he 
saw at large was on his father's grave in the churchyard of 
Bolton-on-Dearne. The only place where it now survives is 
on the rail-bank near Conisboro', and it is uncommon there. 
Possibly similar or parallel reasons for this gradual dying-off 
may account for the disappearance of the orchid. [Well, yes, 
and of the dormouse, too, in many an even-still-sheltered 
site upon the warm magnesian limestone. — F.A.L.] unless, 
of course, a mistake in identification was made : whether this 
is possible or probable I do not know. [I cannot say decidedly 

1918 Mar. 1. 



90 Bayford : A Floral Film of 1831. 

yet, though indining towards Aceras having once really grown 
at Brodsworth, as it did in Leo Grindon's day at Gate-Burton 
Wood, near Gainsborough, in Lincoln ; because the Twayblade, 
the green perianthed Lister a, appears also in the second of the 
Wath lists, the only other orchid likely to have been taken 
for it, as to flower, the leaves only patently unlike. — F.A.L.]. 

As for my list, column i gives the scientific, and column 2 
the common, names, as given by G. P. N[icholson], the author 
of the record. Column 3 refers to the particular paper (of 
May 25th, July 26th or August 28th) in the Repository's 
pages. Column 4 the district locality from which the species 
derived. 

A.D.=Adwick-on-Dearne (near). A.H.=Aldwarke Hall, 
near Rotherham. Ar.= Arlington. As. =Askern. A.S=Ad- 
wick-le-Street. Bram.=Brampton. Brod. = Brodsworth (nr. 
Hampole. — F.A.L.). C.b.=Bog near Conisbro' Castle. C.C.= 
Conisbro' Castle Walls. C.v.=Conisbro' village. D. = Denaby 
(near). H.R. = Hooton Roberts. R. = Rotherham. S.=Sprot- 
boro'. W.D. = Wath-upon-Dearne (near). 



Ranunculus aquatilis 


Water crowfoot 




W.D. 


R. hederaceus 


Ivy crowfoot 




W.D. 


R. sclevatus 


Celery-leaved crowfoot 




W.D. 


R. flamnmla 


Lesser spear wort 




C.v. 


Helleborus viridis 


Green Hellebore 




C.v. 


Cardamine amara 


Bitter lady's smock 




C.b. 


Turritis glabra 


Tower wall-cress 




W.D. 


Lepidium campestre 


Mithridate pepperwort 




C.v. 


Senebiera coronopus 


Wart or Swine's Cress 


2 


W.D. 


Spergula nodosa 


Knotted spurrey 


3 


Ask. 


Malta moschata 


Marsh mallow 


2 


R. 


Geranium pratense 


Blue meadow crane's bill 


2 


R. 


Genista tinctoria 


Dyer's green weed 


2 


Bram. 


Astragalus hypoglottis 


Purple mount, milk vetch 


3 


Brod. 


A. glycyphyllus 


Sweet milk vetch 


3 


D. 


Potentilla fruticosa 


Shrubby cinquefoil 


3 


D. 


Geum rivale 


Water avens 


I 


A.H. 


Lythrum salicaria 


Spiked purple loosestrife 


3 


As. 


Myriophyllum spicatum 


Spiked water milfoil 


3 


W.D. 


M. verticillatum 


Whorled water milfoil 


3 


A.S. 


Saxifraga tridactylites 


Rue-leaved Saxifrage 


I 


C.v. 


Hydrocdtyle vulgaris 


Sheep or white rot 


3 


Ask. 


Ciciita virosa 


Water hemlock, or cow- bane 3 Ask. * 


Valeriana dioica 


Small marsh red valerian 


I 


C.b. 


V. officinalis 


Great wild valerian 


2 


A.D. 


Bidens tripartita 


Triiid bur-marigold 


2 


S. 


Campanula latifolia 


Giant bell flower 


2 


Bram. 


C. rapunctiloides 


Creeping bell flower 


2 


A.D. 


Pyrola minor 


Lesser winter-green 


2 


Bram. 



* The one undoubted name-error in the list ; the plant that grew, and 
grows still, from Barnsley area to Askern is (Enanthe crocata, locally called 
' Cowbane, ' also because equally with the Water-Hemlock (a rare, declin- 
ing species, now no longer existent in Yorkshire) it was poisonously acri- 
narcotic to cattle. — F.A.L. 



Bayford : A Floral Film of 1831, 



91 



Chlova perfoliata 
Convolvulus septum 
Hyoscyamus niger 
Veronica anagallis 
Pedicularis palustris 

Orobanche major 
Lamium ample.xicaule 
Echium vulgare 
Poterium sanguisorba 
Lithospermum officinale 
Symphytum officinale 
Pinguicula vulgaris 
Utricularia vulgaris 
Hottonia palustris 
Lysimachia vulgaris 
L. nummularia 

A nagallis caerulea 
A. tenella 

Polygonum amphtbium 
P bistort a 
Urtica urens 
Humulus lupulus 
Triglochin palustre 
Sagittaria sagittaefolia 
Acer as anthropophora 
Orchis pyramidalis 
O. morio 



Perfoliate yellow wort 

Great bind weed 

Common henbane 

Water speedwell 

Marsh louse- wort, or 

tall red rattle 

Greater broom-rape 

Henbit nettle 

Viper's bugloss 

Common salad-burnet 

Grey mill or grey millet 

Common comfrey 

Butterwort 

Greater bladder- wort 

Water violet or featherfoil 

Great yellow loosestrife 

Creeping loosestrife 

money wort 

Blue pimpernel 

Bog pimpernel 

Amphibious persicaria 

Bistort or snake-weed 

Small nettle 

Common hop 

Marsh arrow grass 

Arrow-head 

Green man orchis 

Pyramidal orchis 

Green winged orchis, with 
the dark purple, pale 
pink and milk white 
varieties 

Early orchis 

Spotted palmate orchis 

March [? Marsh] orchis 

Fragrant orchis 

Green habenaria or frog 

orchis 

Butterfly habenaria 

Fly orchis 

Fragrant ladies' tresses 

Broad leaved helleborine 

Cotton grass 

Hard meadow grass 

Marsh shield fern 

Common tway-blade 

Pellitory of the wall 

All-heal, perfectly white 



O. mascula 
O. maculata 
O latifolia 
O CO nop sea 
Habenaria viridis 

H bifolia 
Ophrys muscifera 
Neottia spiralis 
Epipactis latifolia 
Eriophorum a ngustifolium 
Poa rigida 
A spidium thelypteris 
Listera ovata 
Parietaria officinalis 
Prunella vulgaris 

Plants which have been gathered during the past month [i.e. I suppose 
May]. Wath, May 25, 1831. — G.P.N. Indigenous Botany [No. i], p. 170. 

Geum rivale is added to this list as an editorial note. 

Plants which have been gathered in flower during the past month 
[i.e. I siippose July]. W^ath, July 26th, 1831. G.P.N. Indigenous 
Botanj' No. 2, pp. 241-2. 

Plants which have been gathered in flower during the past month 
[i.e. I suppose August]. Wath, August 28, 1831. — G.P.N. Indigenous 
Botany No. 3, p. 276. 
G. P. N[icholson.] 

The Village Magazine or Wath Repositoiy, Vol. I., 1831. 

1918 Mar. 1. 



2 


S. 


3 


W.D. 


3 


D. 


I 


C.b. 


2 


C.v. 


2 


Bram, 


I 


W.D. 


2 


C.C. 


2 


C.C. 


I 


C.v. 


2 


W.D. 


I 


C.b. 


2 


A.S. 


I 


Ar. 


3 


As. 


3 


As. 


2 


W.D. 


3 


C.v. 


2 


W.D. 


2 


WD 


I 


W.D. 


3 


W.D. 




W.D. 


2 


W.D. 


3 


Brod. 





S. 


I 


Bram, 


I 


W.D. 


I 


W.D 


1 


WD' 


2 


Bram 


I 


WD 


I 


W.D. 


I 


W.D. 


3 


W.D. 


2 


Bram 


I 


C.b. 


3 


Brod. 


3 


Ask. 


2 


Bram 


2 


C.C. 


2 


H.R. 



92 Bayford : A Floral Film of 1831. 

PosTSCRiPTUM. F. A. Lees. December, 1917. 

As regards the ' authority ' for the name's in the list, so 
fortuitously unearthed by Mr. Bayford, it must rest with 
G. P. Nicholson (a solicitor of Wath-upon-Dearne, who collected 
plants and preserved them) until we know whether the Rev. 
W. Moorhouse was a practical botanist or not. Langley was, 
and his few records and dried specimens extant, so far as I 
have ascertained so far, are all right, though he did not attain 
the reliable pioneer position of a Mr. S. Appleby — possibly his 
chances of wandering far afield were less — who contributed 
the rare Pore-grass or Land-weed of the pond-weed order, 
Scheuchzeria, from Thorne Moor, in 1832, to Nicholson's 
Herbarium. There were three examples of it — in flower — in 
that collection ; a calf-bound, royal octavo affair, in several 
volumes. These came into the possession of the late S. Mar- 
gerison, and in 1907 and 1908 I perfunctorily examined it ; 
and S.M. gave one of the three specimens to Mr. J. F. Pickard 
and another to myself. What has become of this bound 
witness to the past I do not quite know, but it ought to be 
searched for Aceras, the ' green man,' etc. Many of the mounted 
plants had no indication of exact origin, but others had, as 
with Appleby's contributions. Perhaps the present owner 
will permit an expert examination to be now made of it, and 
so assuredly enhance its value. Then it might, me judice, 
and fitly enough, be presented to some Yorkshire Museum or 
Institution. In some small way this might form a fitting 
memorial to Margerison, just such a sort as would have 
rejoiced his cosmophil spirit. 



Cumberland Hemiptera=Heteroptera. — In addition to 
those recorded in The Naturalist, antea, p. 27-8, I have three 
species in my collection, taken last year, which do not seem to 
have been recorded before for this county. These are : Scolo- 
postethus grandis Horv., one specimen cnly of this fine species 
being taken in April, on the banks of the Eden, below Grinsdale. 
Poeciloscytus nigritus Fall., not uncommon, but extremely 
local on a patch of White Bedstraw, growing in a hedge near 
Carleton. This pretty species scuttles off the beating sheet 
with a peculiar squirming motion, which I have also noticed 
in P. gyllenhalii Fall. Atractotomus magnicornis Fall., odd 
specimens by general sweeping at Orton and Ivegill, in August. 
Orthotylus virens Fall., may be mentioned here, one specimen 
on Alder near Spa Well (see Entomologist' s Monthly Magazine, 
1917, p. 251). I may also record Berytus crassipes H. S. from 
Anthorn in June, and Salda orthochila Fieb. from Orton in Sep- 
tember. The additions have been kindly named or verified by 
Mr. E. A. Butler, F.E.S.— Jas. Murray, 2 Balfour Rd., Carlisle. 

" Naturalist, 



93 
ROMANCE OF THE CUCKOO 



E. P. BUTTERFIELD 

Wilsden. 



The Cuckoo belongs to a family of birds which embraces 
seventeen genera, some of which are to be met with only in 
the tropical portion of the Old World, the Indo-Malayan 
sub-region, and the tropics of the New World, etc. There are 
three species of Cuckoo, in addition to our common species, 
which have visited the British Islands, viz. : — the Great 
Spotted Cuckoo, whose habitat is south-western and southern 
Europe, and an accidental visitant to the British Islands, 
and, like our common kind, is parasitic, placing its eggs in the 
nests of Magpies and Crows ; and the Yellow-billed and Black- 
billed Cuckoo, both American species — the former has occurred 
about ten times, the latter only once, in Ireland. 

The Cuckoo [Cucidus canorus) is a summer visitant to the 
British Isles, where it is common, often almndant, especially 
in some years, and perhaps there is no other British bird 
with the same exactitude can be said to be so universally 
distributed as this species, being quite as much at home on 
the high and bleak moorland regions, wooded valleys, as well 
as the highly cultivated plains, and no other British bird has 
been so much talked and written about as the Cuckoo ; and 
still, "with all the attention it has received from naturalists, 
our ignorance in many points of its life history is profound 
in the extreme. But in spite of this admission, it cannot be 
denied that the mythical element which, in former times, 
clung to the habits of this mysterious bird, has, and is being, 
eliminated by more exact observations. 

The average date of arrival in this district (Wilsden) is 
about April 24th, but the date of arrival, like most migrants, 
is much influenced by the character of the season. 

In 1879, it arrived on 22nd April ; 1882, not till May 4th 
which is a late date. It begins to lose its song here about the 
middle of June, and is usually silent the first or second week 
in July. One bird, however, I heard last year on Barden 
Moor, in Wliarfedale, on July 5th, and was in full song. Most 
of the adult birds must leave here by the middle of July, but 
the young remain much later. A Cuckoo is recorded in " The 
Birds of Yorkshire," by one of my sons, as being killed on 5th 
November, 1902, at Horton, Bradford. 

The well-known call-notes of the Cuckoo is said, by most 
naturalists, to be confined to the male bird, but I do not quite 
share this belief. A friend of mine informs me that he once 
wounded a Cuckoo by a gun-shot as it was flying near an old 
quarry, and was crying " cuckoo " at the time he shot, and on 

1918 Mar. 1. 



94 Romance of the Cuckoo. 

picking up the Cuckoo it laid an egg in his hand. This opinion 
is borne out by a number of other naturalists which could be 
recorded if necessary. 

The Cuckoo is the only bird in Britain which habitaully 
lays its egg in the nests of other birds. Its egg has been found 
in the nests of about 120 species of European birds, nearly a 
hundred of which have been found in the nests of British 
birds. The Titlark is the species in this district which the 
cuckoo usually victimises. Other species are occasionally select- 
ed, such as Whinchat, Tree Pipit, Twite, Ring Ouzel, Skylark, 
and Hedge Sparrow. The eggs found in this district are nearly 
all of one type, which approximate in size and colouration to 
the Skylark, differing in usually being less broadly ovate, 
and not so polished in appearance. Only two variations 
from the type have been found by me, and these were 
striking ; one found in the nest of a Titlark containing a 
light variety, somewhat after the pattern of a Pied Wagtail. 
In this nest two eggs of the Cuckoo were found, which closely 
assimmilated to those of the Wagtail. Two years ago I found 
an egg of the Cuckoo in the nest of a Hedge Sparrow, in Cotting- 
ley Wood, which was quite blue. I feel quite certain that the 
egg in question was the egg of a Cuckoo, since it was exactly 
similar in shape, size and texture, and differed altogether from 
the shape of the eggs in the nest of the Hedge Sparrow. I 
gave it to my son Rosse, who has it at present in the Keighley 
Museum. 

The egg of the Cuckoo is usually deposited in the nest of its 
dupe before it commences to sit, frequently, I have found, when 
about the third egg has been laid, and I have never yet known 
a case where the Cuckoo's egg has been introduced without an 
egg of its dupe having been abstracted. Sometimes it lays in 
empty nests — even deserted nests — and sometimes in nests 
before completion. One correspondent writes that he found 
twelve eggs of the Cuckoo within the radius of a quarter of a 
mile, nine of which, he believed, were laid by two birds (two 
eggs in one nest), and five of the eggs were found in deserted 
nests of the Titlark ; and another writer in The Countryside 
for May 19th, 1906, states that every Cuckoo egg which he has 
found has been laid before any of the rightful occupant's eggs 
have been laid. 

Still another writer, Mr. Shirley Slocombe, in The Country- 
side for September ist, 1906, states that in seven years he has 
found no fewer than six Cuckoo's eggs in empty nests, two of 
which were placed in the nests of the Reed Warbler, the others 
in the nests of the Hedge Sparrow, Meadow Pipit, Pied Wagtail 
and Red-backed Shrike, and what is more remarkable, he further 
says that the colouration of the Cuckoo's egg, in every instance, 
' was designed to match those of the owners of the respective 

Naturalist, 



Romance of the Cuckoo. 95 

nests, whose eggs were deposited afterwards.' The Cuckoo's 
egg found in the Hedge Sparrow's nest above mentioned, the 
writer thinks, is the nearest approach to a blue Cuckoo's egg 
as yet found in this country, having a pale blue ground with only 
eleven fine freckles. The Cuckoo is sometimes accused of not 
only robbing one egg, but the whole clutch, after which it has 
been known to deposit its own egg, but such instances are rare. 

Does the Cuckoo eat birds' eggs or is it a popular legend ? 
I have little hesitation in answering this question in the affirm- 
ative, although it is stoutly denied by some naturalists, and 
even eminent naturalists. Evidence incriminating the Cuckoo 
of this propensity may be quoted from a brochure by J. H. 
Gurney, in which a Mr. Wilson states that in the spring of 
1880 at Porick near Worcester, he actually took the remains 
of eggs, which he judged to be those of a Robin and Hedge 
Sparrow, out of the crop of a Cuckoo, and further evidence is 
given in Booth's rough notes, volume L, on the cuckoo. I 
should not, however, like it to be inferred that I am accusing 
the cuckoo — male and female — of sucking birds' eggs in any 
wholesale or indiscriminate sense, this propensity may be 
chiefly confined to the female at the time of the introduction 
of its egg into its dupe's nest. 

The Cuckoo lays its egg in a much greater variety of nests 
in the south than in the north of Britain, and the egg is much 
more variable. As I have already stated, the type of egg here 
is fairly constant, and it could be easily overlooked if placed 
in the nest of a Skylark. Indeed, I have often wondered why 
the egg is not oftener placed in the nest of this species, as it 
is so very abundant and there would be no difficult)^ for the 
cuckoo to find suitable nests in which to deposit its egg during 
its stay in this district ; yet I have never found but one egg 
in the nest of the lark for over forty years ; and this nest was 
found on a heathy waste where the titlark was in some abund- 
ance. The cuckoo's egg has been found three times in the 
nest of the Ring Ouzel within a radius of seven miles from 
Wilsden. As we get further away from the Pennine Range, 
the Cuckoo deposits its egg in a greater variety of nests from 
what it does in this part of Yorkshire. 

The Rev. Julian Tuck writes me that in Suffolk the Hedge 
Sparrow is the species which is oftenest victimised by the 
Cuckoo, but he has found its egg in the nests of Thrush, Robin, 
Blackcap, Whitethroat, Greenfinch, Reed Bunting, Sedge 
Warbler, Pied Wagtail ; in addition he has been shown the 
nests of Nightingale, Spotted Flycatcher and Tree Pipit, 
containing eggs of the Cuckoo. Thrice has he known the egg 
in the nest of Titlark — once one of this species contained two 
eggs of the Cuckoo. One of the most unlikely dupes of the 

1918 Mar. 1. 



g6 Romance of the Cuckoo. 

Cuckoo is the Hawfinch, recorded in The Zoologist, Vol. VI., 
p. 279, 4th series, in which Mr. Palmer records the finding of 
three nests iii the neighbourhood of Ludlow, which contained 
the egg of the Cuckoo. In recording these occurrences he states 
that for upwards of thirty years' active field-work he had 
never previously found a Cuckoo's egg in the nest of Hawfinch. 
In some parts of Norfolk the Reed Warbler seems to be chosen 
very frequently as fosterer, yet Rev. J. Tuck, in The Zoologist, 
Vol. XIII., p. 317, states thirty nests of this species had been 
found within three years in Suffolk, but not one nest had been 
used by the Cuckoo. About Pentland Hills the Titlark-is the 
commonest fosterer (see The Zoologist, Vol. XI., page 13), 
and what applies to this district, I presume, will apply to Scot- 
land generally, and probably to the whole of Britain north of 
Yorkshire, but of this I cannot speak with certainty. In the 
Wandsworth district (see The Zoologist, Vol. XL, page 430) Mr. 
White has found the eggs of the Cuckoo all in Sedge Warblers' 
nests, and absolutely identical for four successive years (1903-6), 
evidently the produce of one bird, from which it may be in- 
ferred that the Cuckoo returns annually to the same locality 
for breeding purposes. Indeed, it is only on this supposttion 
that many peculiarities in its economy can be explained. I 
have known of one Cuckoo in this district which returned for 
two, if not three, years in succession. It is hardly possible 
I could have been mistaken, as this bird's notes were so very 
much different from the ordinary call-notes of this species. 
In the North Finchley district the Pied Wagtail seems to be 
the favourite dupe, the Cuckoo's egg being of the grey-blue 
type, and it is said the Cuckoo's egg is not found in the nest 
of any other species (see Country Queries and Notes, 1908, 
page 175). 

Sometimes the Cuckoo la3^s its egg in the nest of its dupe 
whose eggs have been incubated some time, and one is recorded 
by Mr. Forrest in his ' Fauna of North Wales ' as having 
been found by Mr. Devonport in the Isle of Arran, in the nest 
of a Titlark, and contained only one egg of the rightful owner, 
hard sat when the Cuckoo's egg was deposited, and Mr. Porritt 
mentions having once found a Cuckoo's egg by itself in a 
slight hollow on Thorne Waste which was also partly incubated. 
Darwin, in his ' Origin of Species,' page 213, gives a similar 
case, on the authority of Adolf Muller, and remarks : — ' This 
rare event is probably a case of reversion to the long-lost 
aboriginal instinct of nidification.' 

It used to be thought that the Cuckoo laid but one egg 
in a season ; now, however, the number is variously estimated 
from seven to nearly three times this number — perhaps ten 
will be nearer the average in a season. 
{To he continued). 

Naturalis: , 



97 
YORKSHIRE ENTOMOLOGY IN 1917. 



B. MORLEY. 



The Annual Meeting of the Entomological Section of the 
Yorkshire Naturalists' Union was held in the Institute, Leeds, 
on October 27th, 1917, under the presidency of Mr. W. P. 
Winter, B.Sc. 

Reports which the various committees had supplied for the 
annual meeting of the Union were read and passed. Exhibits 
were numerous. Capt. H. D. Smart showed a specimen of 
Sphinx cassinea taken in Escrick Park, York, on October 
26th, 1917. Two fine variations of Arctia caia and varieties 
of extreme light and dark forms of Abraxas grossulariata 
ab. nigro-spar^cia, by Mr. Alfred Kaye, Huddersfield, West 
Riding ; Polia chi, Xanthia citrago, Tephrosia biundularia and 
Spilosoma fuliginosa, by Mr. J. Hooper, Middlestown ; Stig- 
monota nitidana and Choreutes scintillulana from Doncaster, 
and specimens of Papilio machaon, Colias hyale and C. edusa 
var. helice from the Somme front, by Dr. H. H. Corbett. A 
large case of New Zealand lepidoptera, including many fine 
species, by Mr. W. Hewett. Mr. B. Morley showed series of 
Pcsdisca solandriana, Tortrix corylana and Scoparia ambigualis, 
each showing extensive colour variation, and a specimen of 
Eriopsela fradijasciana, the last being new to Yorkshire. 

CoLEOPTERA. — Dr. W. J. Fordham included in his exhibits 
a black form of PterosticJms versicolor and several species new 
to V.C's. 61 and 64. Atheta britteni and Gabrius stipes new to 
the county, and a series of colour varieties of Donacia sericea. 

Mr. M. L. Thompson showed, amongst other species, 
Amara rufocincta, Bembidium lunatum, Cymindis raporariorum, 
Bolitochara luniilata, Bythinus burrelli and Rhinomacea 
attelaboides from North Yorkshire, and also Atheta nitidula 
from both Cleveland and Swaledale, new to the county, and an 
imported species Speimophagus pictoralis from Middlesbrough. 

Mr. E. C. Horrell had a specimen of Lissodana ansor, a 
rare British species, new to the county, taken by Mr. J. Digby 
Firth. 

Dr. Corbett showed the following species of dragon-flies 
from the Doncaster district : — Libellula quadrimacidata L., 
L. fidva Miill., Sympetrum striolatum Charp., S. scoticum Don., 
Brachytron pratense Miill., Aeschna juncea L., Ae. cyanea MiilL, 
Ae. grandis L., Lestes sponsa Hans., Enallagma cyathigerum 
Charp., Agrion puella L., Pyrrhosoma minium Harris, Ischnura 
elegans Linden. 

Mr. Rosse Butterfield exhibited on behalf of Mr. Musham 
a number of Aculeate Hymenoptera collected by him in his 
garden at Selby during the summer. Among these were 
Anthophora pilipes, Prosopis communis, Colletes daviesana. 

1918 Mar. 1 . 



98 Yorkshire Entomology in 1917. 

Megachile centuncularis, Odynerus pictus and Crabro leucostoma 
and some widely distributed Andrenidi and Halictix. With 
regard to the four first mentioned species, which were apparently 
common in Mr. Musham's garden, he mentioned that among 
the Yorkshire hills to the West and North West these are 
very rare or not recorded. 

Mr. Butterfield also exhibited all the British species of 
social wasps, and remarked that all occur in Yorkshire with 
the exception of the hornet. The parasite or inquiline, Vespa 
atistriaca Panz., was apparently rare, but its distribution was 
not fully known. 

The following noteworthy additions were made to the report 
on lepidoptera : — Sphinx convolvuli (^ Malton, September 23rd, 
1917 ; another from Todmorden in the same month. One 
specimen at Dunnington, near York ; four obtained at York 
and one at Middleton, near Pickering ; several at Doncaster. 
Also in September Vanessa antiopa seen near Pickering on 
August 7th by Mr. J. W. StancUffe. 

Vanessa io, which of late years had become very scarce, 
has occurred practically all over the country. Pliisia moneta, 
a specimen captured in July by Mr. Willoughby Fabian in his 
garden at York. Mr. Arthur Smith, of York, reports Collix 
sparsata very common at Askham Bog and a specimen of 
Sesia culiciformis at Warthill, near York, July 27th, 1917. 

Mr. J. Hooper reported the great destruction of acres of 
white turnips by the larvae of A gratis segetum at Middlestown, 
near Wakefield. The dead roots were generally attacked by 
four or five caterpillars, upon which large flocks of starlings 
fed daily during September and October. 

In 1916, Mr. Ashton Lofthouse reported Mixodia ratze- 
burghiana from Middlesbrough, and Argyresthia dilectella 
occurred freely about juniper at Linthorpe at the end of July. 
These species have only one previous Yorkshire record. 

Mr. B. Morley read a lengthy report on the exceptional 
abundance of many species occuriing in the south-western area 
of the county. 

At the evening meeting, Mr. Winter gave an interesting 
address on the silk-spinning habits of spiders. Many forms 
of webs were described, the configuration of characteristic 
forms were shown by lantern slides ; various peculiarities 
were explained by means of experiments. 

A discussion followed the conclusion of Mr. Winter's 
address. 

The work done in the county during the past season is 
distinctly encouraging, and the unanimous opinion of all the 
committees of the section is that entomological science has 
advanced appreciably in spite of restrictions and other de- 
pressing circumstances. 

Naturalist, 



99 
YORKSHIRE COLEOPTERA IN 1917. 



W. J. FORDHAM, M.R.C.S., L.R.C.P., F.E.S , 

Bubwith. 



In the preliminary note for publication with the Annual 
Report of the Y.N.U., it was stated that the list of new species 
was not great. Since this was written many fresh records 
have come to hand and the following list includes eleven 
additions to the county list and the confirmation of a doubtful 
record, together with an imported species at Middlesbrough. 
Of these additions perhaps the most interesting to Yorkshire 
coleopterists is Lissodema cursor Gyll., which was added to 
the British list under the name of L. heyanum Redt., on 
specimens taken in Derbyshire by the late Archdeacon Hey. 
There are many new vice-comital records — 14 for V.C. 61, 3 
for V.C. 62, 12 for V.C. 63, 36 for V.C. 64 and i for V.C. 65. 
The large number added to V.C. 64 is incorporated through 
the kindness of Mr. E. C. Horrell, who has permitted me to 
extract them from the record book of the Leeds Naturalists' 
Club. Following a severe winter the past season has been 
marked by an abundance of beetles, though the writer has 
found that their duration has been shorter than usual. Mr. 
M. L. Thompson notes that certain species have occurred this 
year which are somewhat irregular in their appearance, some- 
times several years elapsing between their advent, for some 
reason at present obscure and inexplicable. 

Mr. E. G. Bayford remarks that Pterostichus madidus and 
Ocypus olens are increasingly common in the Barnsley district, 
and communicates the following interesting observation : — 
' On Whit-Tuesday I was in Wentworth Park and for quite a 
long time watched a specimen of P. madidus busy destroying 
a species of Andrena which had numerous burrows in the hard 
footpath. Its habit was to wait until the bee had gone into 
its burrow, when it followed, and I suppose there was a tragedy 
as I did not excavate the burrow to make sure. The beetle 
went to work in a very business-like manner.' 

The breeding out of Aleochara bilineata Gyll. by Mr. Parkin, 
of Wakefield, from the pupa cases of the Cabbage Fly, confirms 
Mr. Wadsworth's researches.* The beetle larva penetrates 
the puparium and feeds on the enclosed pupa of the fly. Very 
little has been published during the year relating to Yorkshire 
Coleoptera, but a note on additional Coleoptera in 1916 (which 
contains three new county records) in The Naturalist, 1917, 
p. 160, should be not be overlooked. As in former years, the 
members of the committee are much indebted to Messrs. E. A. 
Newbery, W. E. Sharp and J. R. le-B. Tomlin for help in the 

* Journ. Econ. Biol., 1915, June, pp. 1-27. 
1918 Mar. 1. 



100 Fordham : Yorkshire Coleoptera in 1917. 

determination of species. The dagger and asterisk refer, as 
usual, to new county and vice-county additions respectively. 

The initials indicate Dr. H. H. Corbett, Messrs. E. G, 
Bayford, J. W. Carter, J. D. Firth, E. C. Horrell, M. L. 
Thompson, G. B. Walsh, and the writer. Records are also 
given in the list for which we are indebted to Messrs. W. 
Falconer, A. A. Fordham, C. W. Horrell, S. Matthewman, 
G. Parkin, C. W. Pybus and A. E. Thornes. 
Carabus catenulatus Scop. Black var. Slope of Mickle Fell, 

Upper Teesdale. September. M. L. T. 
Bembidion hmahim Duft. Abundant on muddy banks of 

Tees estuary at Middlesbrough. M. L. T. *62. 
Bembidion rupestre L. (bruxellense Wesm.) On high moor, 

head of Farndale, Cleveland. May. M. L. T. 
Bembidion saxatile Gyll. The northern type form occurs 

on the coast at Saltburn. M. L. T. 
Ofhonus rufibarbis F. Armley. A. E. Thornes, 4-17. 

Collingham. E. C. H. 6-16. 
Amara prcetermissa Sahl. {rufocincta Dj.). Eston, a few under 

stones. M. L. T. 
Amara lunicollis Schiod. Adel. J. D. F. 5-15. 
Pierostichus casrulescens L. {versicolor Stm.). Skipwith 

Common, 5-17. An almost black form. W. J. F. 
Pierostichus macer Marsh, (picimanus Duft). Aughton, 3-17. 

One in earth on a large mole-hill. W. J. F. 
Synuchus ( Taphria) nivalis Pz. Upsal, near Middlesbrough, 

7-17. W. J. F. 
Agonum gracile Gyll. Abundant in tufts and wet sphagnum 

on Skipwith Common, 5-17. W. J. F, 

Adel Dam, 8-16. J. D. F. *64. 
Agonum ihoreyi Dj. var. puella Dj. Harewood, 4-15. J. D. F. 

♦64. 
Cymindis vaporariorum L. On moor at Commondale. June. 

M. L. T. 
Ilybius fenestratus F. Meanwood, 8-16. J. D. F. *64. 
Orectochilus villosus Miill. One crawling on mud in dried-up 

ditch. North Duffield Ings, 6-17. W. J. F. *6i. 
Cercyon lateralis Marsh, Adel. C. W. Pybus, 6-16, Boston 

Spa, 5-15. J. D. F. *64. 
Cercyon ustulatus Preysl. [hcemorrhous Gyll.). Bubwith 

flood refuse, 12-16. W. J. F. *6i. 
Aleochara bilineata Gyll. Wakefield, preying on Chortophila 

brassiccB Bouche, 9-17. The beetle larva enters the 

puparium of the fly. G. Parkin. *63 (See Journ, 

Econ. Biol., 1915, June. 1-27). 
^Atheta nitidula Gr. Keld, Upper Swaledale in 1915, and moss 

on high moor at Kildale, Cleveland, 1916. Both 

localities at 1200 feet. (A northern species). M. L. T. 

Naturalist, 



Fordham : Yorkshire Coleoptera in 191 7. loi 

Atheta tibialis Heer. A mountain species. Mickle Fell. 

September. M. L. T. 
^Atheta hritteni Joy. Bubwith, in flood refuse. W. J. F. 

(See Nat., 1917, p. 207). 
^Bolitochara lunulata Pk. One in a rotten branch in a moor- 
land wood. Kildale. July. M. L. T. (This species 

was recorded from Yorkshire by Stephens in his 'Manual,' 

but no locality was given). 
Tachinus laticollis Gr. Adel. C. W. Horrell, 4-17. Boston 

Spa. 4-15. J. D. F. *64. 
Bryocharis cingulata Mann. Morton Wood, Hepworth. 

W. Falconer. 
Mycetoporus rufescens Steph. {lucidus Er.). In moss, Moor- 
land Wood, Kildale. July. M. L. T. *62. 
Quedius auricomns Kies. Buckden Ghyll, in wet moss, 9-17. 

W. J. F. *64. 
Quedius umbrunus Er. Buckden Ghyll, in wet moss, 9-17. 

W. J. F. 
Quedius scintillans Gr. Bubwith, 6-15. W. J. F. *6i. 
Quedius longicornis Kr. In mole's nest, Aughton, 3-17, 

W. J. F. 
Quedius picipes Mann. Ellen Springs, Shipley, 7-17. W. 

Falconer. *63. CoUingham, 5-17. C. W. Hoirell. *6^. 
Quedius semiceneus Steph. Harrogate, 9-16. C. W. Pybus. 

*64. 
Philonthus chalceus Steph. [proximus Kr.). Adel. J. D. F., 

4-17. *64. 
^Gabnus appendicidatus Sharp. Bubwith, flood refuse, 1910- 

5-16. G. B. Walsh. 
Gabrius nigritulus Gr. Nunthorpe, 9-15. W. J. F. 
^Gabrius stipes Sharp. Skipwith Common, 5-17. Buckden, 

9-17. W. J. F. 
Stenus flavipes Steph. Adel Dam, 5-17. C. W. Horrell. *64. 
Oxyporus rufus L. Martin Beck Wood, near Bawtrey. 

H. H. C. 
Bledius pallipes Gr. Walshford Bridge, 5-17. J. D. F. *64. 
Trogophlceus elongatulus Er. Bubwith, flood refuse, 12-16. 

W. J. F. *6i. 
' Lesteva heeri Fauv, {sicula Brit. Cat.). Morton Wood, 

Hepworth. W. Falconer. 
Lathrimeum unicolor Steph. Ainley Place, 3-17- W. 

Falconer. *63. 
' Phylloarepa vilis Er. Kildale, on mountain ash. June. 

M. L. T. *62. 
'Proteinus avalis Steph. Adel, 4-17. J. D. F. CoUingham, 

6-16. E. C. H. Boston Spa, 4-15. E. C. H. *6^. 
Megarthrus sinuatocollis Lac. Roundhay Park, 6-16. J. D. F, 
' *64. 

1908 Mar. U 



102 Fordham : Yorkshire Coleoptera in 1917. 

Bythinus burrelli Den. Moss in moorland Wood, Kildale. 

One. July. M. L. T. 
Scydmcenus tarsatus Miill. Adel, 4-17. C W. Horrell. 

Bardse5^ 5-17. J. D. F. *64. 
Catops fumatus Spence. Collingham, 6-16. E. C. H. *64. 

Martin Beck Wood, in dead hedgehog. H, H. C. 
Catops kirbyi Spence. Dead hedgehog, Martin Beck Wood. 

H. H. C. 
Catops watsoni Spence. Dead hedgehog, Martin Beck Wood. 

H. H. C. *63. 
Clambus armadillo De G. Bubwith, flood refuse, 12-16. 
W. J. F. *6i. 
^Ptenidium fuscicorne Er. Adel, 4-17. C W. Horrell. 
JTrichopteryx intermedia Gill {lata Matth.). Two specimens 

in a mouse's nest at Middlesbrough. Sept. M. L. T. 
Byturus fumatus F. [samhuci, Brit. Cat.). Collingham, 5-16. 

J. D. F. Boston Spa, 6-17. J. D. F. *64. 
Carpophilus hemipterus L. Leeds, 5-17, in dried fruits 

E. C. H. *64. 
Glischrochilus {Ips) olivieri Bed. (4 punctata Hbst.). Skip- 

with, 5-17. W. J. F. Escrick, 5-17. W. J. F. 
Rhizophagus perforatus Er. Howden, 5-17. W. J. F. *6i. 
Cryptophagus puhescens Stm. Morton Wood, Hepworth. 

W. Falconer. *63. 
Atomaria rtificornis Marsh. Wilberlee, Slaithwaite, 6-17. 

W. Falconer. *63. 
Ephistemus glohuhis Pk. {gyrinoides Marsh). Collingham, 

6-16. E. C. H. *64. 
Lathridius bergrothi Reitt. In cellar, Leeds. S. Matthewman, 

5-17. *64. 
Mycetophagus piceus F. Tankersley. One, 8-17. E. G. B. *6^. 
Heterocerus marginatus F. Walshford Bridge, 5-17. J. D. F. 

*64. 
Aphodius hcBmorrhoidalis L. Collingham, 6-16. E. C. H. *6^. 
Aphodius granarius L. Adel, 4-17. C. W. Horrell. Arth- 

ington, 3-17, C. W. H. *64. 

Anomala cenea De G. {frischi F.). Numerous on July 6th, 

1917, flying in sun at Warrenby, Teesmoath. A. A. 

Fordham. (None found on July 7th, 1917, W. J. F. 

and M. L. T., and not observed by A. A. F. since. The 

6th was a warm sunny day, the 7th was fine but windy.) 

Corymbites pectinicornis L. Breighton, 6-17. W. J. F. *6r. 

Selatosomus ceneus L. Burley Head, Wharfedale, 8-17. W. J.F. 

Limonius aruginosus 01. {cylindricus Pk.). Thorganby, 

6-17. W. J, F. *6i. (The record in the 1912 report 

was an error — the insect there recorded was Corymbites 

metallicus, noted in a subsequent report from Bubwith.) 

{To be continued). 

Naturalist, 



103 
AN ADDITION TO THE BRITISH LICHEN-FLORA. 



Rev. W. JOHNSON. 



It was my good fortune to discover recently an interesting 
addition to our British Lichen-Flora. 

I have beside me considerable lichen-material gathered years 
ago. I have recently turned my attention to this material, 
and in a gathering from St. Bees, Cumberland, I found on 
examination, what turned out to be not only a new lichen to 
Great Britain, but a new genus also, which is that of Sarcopy- 
renia Nyl. This genus only contains one species which is 
named Sarcopyrenia gihha Nyl. It is a very distinct and 
interesting lichen, having a sort of double clavate sporidia,, 
unlike the sporidia of any previous British species. 

Dr. Nylander records this lichen as previously found in 
Algiers, Switzerland and Germany. It grows on arenaceous 
and limestone rocks. In growth, my specimens are associated 
with Lecanora vitellina Ach., the yellow, squamulose, thallus, 
of which must not be confused with that of Sarcopyrenia. I 
found this new lichen on the shore rocks St. Bees, and on the 
Whitehaven side of those rocks from the entrance from St. 
Bees Village. The rocks were large and flat, and almost on 
the sand level. 

I sent a specimen of this lichen to the British Museum, 
where Miss A. L. Smith, F.L.S., confirmed my discovery, a 
notice of which will appear in her new volume. 

I may also say that I purpose including this new lichen 
in the 13th Fasciculus of my ' North of England Lichen-Her- 
barium,' which is now only awaiting the issue of Miss Smith's 
final volume. 



Water-Vole and Hedgehog. — Recently, a friend of 
mine, while walking along by a small stream in Surrey, saw, a 
short distance ahead, a full grown water-vole pulling some 
heavy object across his path. On reaching the spot this 
proved to be the carcase of a nearly full-grown hedgehog. 
The vole had hold of the hedgehog by the throat, and was 
about to cross the stream with it. No doubt the hedgehog 
had been dead for some hours, and had probably been found 
in that condition by the vole. — L. B. Langmead, Forest Hill, 
Jan. i8th. 1918. 

o 

The Journal of the Board of Agriculture for January contains an illus- 
trated article on Cheese Mites. 

We understand that Mrs. Leo Grindon has offered ;^2,ooo for the 
provision and upkeep of a meeting and lecture room in the future new 
Manchester Free Reference Library for the use of the different Scientific 
Societies in the city. 



I04 

3n flDemoriam. 

WILLIAM GREENWELL, D.C.L., F.R.S., F.S.A. 
1820-1918. 

The name of ' Canon Greenwell ' has been almost a household 
word among naturalists and antiquaries in the north of England 
for more than half a century, and by his writings and collections 




he was known much further afield. His death occurred 
towards the end of January, when he was in his 98th year. 
He was perhaps best known by his ' British Barrows,' a 
volume published in 1877, when the craze for ' barrow-digging ' 
was at its height. The volume contained particulars of the 
excavation of 234 mounds, mostly in the north of England. 
In 1890 he contributed an account of other 61 barrows to 
ArchcBologia, and in the same journal for 1906 he wrote' a 
valuable paper on ' Early Iron Age Burials in Yorkshire,'., , 

. Naturalist, 



In Memoriam : W. GreenweU, D.C.L., F.R.S., F.S.A. 105 

* The Canon,' as he was popularly known, was a collector 
of extraordinary ability ; and what with purse and remarkable 
powers of persuasion, his contemporaries had little chance of 
success if he was in the field. 

While, unquestionably, archaeological science owes much 
to his researches; and while a large number of specimens were 
preserved by his labours which otherwise might never have been 
known, and while, of course, he had the right of disposing of 
his collections in the way he considered best, it must be ad- 
mitted that his method was at times a little disconcerting to 
students. For instance, we believe his collections from the 
barrows, mostly in Yorkshire, were disposed of in different 
ways. The pottery he presented to the British Museum, 
where, as the ' GreenweU Collection ' it is well known ; Dr. 
Sturge, then in Nice, bought his stone implements for ,(1,200 ; 
the human skulls were given to Oxford, but the bronze and 
gold implements he kept at Durham till 1908, when they were 
sold to Mr. Pierpont Morgan, who, fortunately for British 
antiquaries, placed them in the British Museum. We must 
admit that the method adopted by a fellow member in the 
same field, the late J. R. Mortimer, of keeping all the remains 
from a particular barrow together, commends itself to us. 

In 1856 Canon GreenweU travelled extensively in Greece, 
and afterwards formed an unusually large and valuable 
collection of ancient Greek ccins. This was eventually sold 
to a Sussex gentleman, and is now in Boston, U.S.A. 

So long ago as 1846, he helped to promote the Tynesiue 
Naturalists' Field Club, one of 01 r earliest natural history 
societies. In 186?, he joined the council of the Durham 
Archaeological Society, then recently established. He was 
elected President in 1865, and we believe he held that office 
every subsequent year until his deith. He took a keen interest 
in the Cathedral at Durham, particularly with regard to the 
library, etc. ; and it is largely due to his zeal that many acts 
of vandalism were prevented. He contributed some valuable 
volumes to the Surtees Society's publications, and in many 
ways has made his busy life ' worth while.' This is all the more 
remarkable when it is borne in mind that he was forty before 
he took any real interest in prehistoric antiquities. 

To anglers, Canon GreenweU was well known — over half a 
century ago he ' invented ' an artificial fly, ' Greenwrll's Glory,' 
which is known to all fly-fishermen. He also was responsible 
for a salmon-fly which bears his name. 

Though delicate in his youth. Canon GreenweU attained 
an age rarely reached in these times. He retained all his 
faculties to the end — even during 1917 devoting several days 
to his favourite pastime of angling. 

Canon GreenweU is almost the last in the list of our giants 

1918 Mar. 1. 



io6 In Memoriam : George Alexander Louis Lebour, M.A. 

in British prehistoric archseology — Lyell, Pitt-Rivers, Avebury, 
Evans, Mortimer, have all gone — and we look in vain tor similar 
men to take their places. 

Years ago, I received much help and encouragement at 
the hands of Canon Greenwell, and was often invited to visit 
him at Durham, where drawer after drawer of heavy bronze 
implements were displayed and examined. He also gave me 
the great privilege of figuring and describing some of his East 
Yorkshire specimens. The photograph reproduced herewith 
was given to me at that time, and represents Canon Greenwell 
in the prime of his life.- — T.S. 



W. A. PARKER, F.G.S., 1855-1918. 

We much regret to read the announcement of the death 
of W. A. Parker, the Rochdale Schoolmaster, at the age of 
63. He was principally known among naturalists for the 
excellent work he did in connection with the fossils contained 
in the ironstone nodules of the Middle Coal Measures at Sparth, 
Rochdale. With other helpers he brought to light an interest- 
ing number of Orthopterous insects, Arachnida and Crustacea, 
many of which have been figured and described in The Geolog- 
ical Magazine by Dr. Henry Woodward. A new Crustacean, 
Rochdaleia parkeri, was named after him. Many of the speci- 
mens he collected are preserved in the Natural History Museum, 
South Kensington, and in the Manchester Museum, and a 
small series is to be seen in the Museum at Hull. — T.S. 



o : 



GEORGE ALEXANDER LOUIS LEBOUR, M.A., 
D.Sc, F.G.S. 

We much regret to record the death of Prof. Lebour, which 
took place at Corbridge-on-Tyne recently, the Professor being 
in his 71st year. 

Prof. Lebour's work, particularly in Northumberland and 
Durham, is well known. He was the author of a useful book 
on the ' Geology of Northumberland and Durham,' three 
editions of which appeared between 1873 and 1879. He pub- 
lished a ' Geological Map of Northumberland ' m 1877, wrote 
' The Geology of Durham ' in the Victoria History, and has 
contributed over 100 papers on geological subjects to various 
magazmes. These have principally dealt with Carboniferous 
Geology, but he was particularly interested in the relation of 
geology to public health, and made many valuable contribu- 
tions thereon. At the Newcastle meeting of the British 
Association in 1916, he was the President of the Corresponding 
Societies' Committee, and delivered an interesting address 
dealing with ' Co-operation among Field Clubs,' which was 

Natural'st, 



In Mcmoriam : George Alexander Louis Lebour, M.A . 107 

noticed in this Journal at the time (see The Naturalist for 
October, 1916, pp. 318-321). 

Prof. Lebour always deplored the disappearance of the old- 
fashioned ' all-round ' type of naturalist, and he promised our 
readers a paper on the subject, but unfortunately this has not 
been received. As a teacher of Geology, Prof. Lebour was 
eminently successful, and had a charming way of interesting 




his students in the science ; possibly his work in this way, 
though indirect, has been far more beneficial to geological 
science then has his published works, valuable though they 
are. He was the vice-principal of Armstrong College since 
1902, was appointed Prof, of Geology in 1879, having been 
lecturer in Geological Surveying for six years previously. In 
1903 he was awarded the Murchison Medal of the Geological 
Society of London. 

He leaves a widow and two daughters, to whom we extend 
every sympathy. — T. S. 

1918 Mar. 1. 



io8 In Memoriam : Matthew B. Slater, F.L.S. 

MATTHEW B. SLATER, F.L.S. 

A still further gap in the ranks of prominent Yorkshire 
naturalists occurred on the eve of our going to press, in the 
death of Matthew B. Slater, of Malton, at the age of 88. 'Mr. 
Slater was one of the original members of the Yorkshire 
Naturalists' Union, and in the old days was a familiar figure at 
the Union's meetings and excursions, as well as at the 




annual conferences of the British Association, where, together 
with our ex-President, Mr. W. N. Cheesman, and the late 
William West, the present writer had many pleasant meetings. 
Mr. Slater has occupied various positions in the Botanical 
section ol the Union, and some years ago was offered, the 
Presidency, which he declined on the ground of advancing 
years. He was particularly interested in mosses and hepatics,' 
of which he made an extens ve collection, and he contributed 
notes thereon to The Naturalist as long ago as 1880. 

Naturalist, 



Proceedings of Provincial Scientific Societies. 109 

For the second edition of Baker's ' North Yorkshire,' Mr. 
Slater undertook the preparation of the section devoted to 
mosses and hepatics, in connection with which I paid many 
pleasant visits to his home at Newbiggin, Malton. That work 
was issued in 1906 and occiipied the whole of part 33 — nearly 
300 pages — of the Union's Transactions. It not only contained 
particulars of the distribution of 418 mosses (over a hundred 
more than were given in the first edition of 1863), but a list 
of over 120 hepatics — almost entirely new. Mr. Slater also 
recorded many new localities, and considerably added to the 
value of his work by preparing an extensive account of the 
literature of the subject. 

Mr. Slater took a prominent part in founding the Malton 
Naturalists' Society in 1880, and ever since has taken much 
interest in the society's work, has held various offices in con- 
nection with it, given lectures, and materially assisted in the 
formation and arrangement of its museum. In recent years 
his health prevented him from carrying out his work. His 
death is a serious loss to Yorkshire science, and the naturalists 
at Malton Will have difficulty in finding any one to take his 
place. — T. S. 

: o : 

The Journal of the Institution of Petroleum Technologists (Vol. IV. 
No. 13), among many other papers, contains one ' On the Oil Prospects of 
the British Isles,' by W. H. Dalton, F.G.S., the Society's Editor and 
Librarian. 

An order has been made suspending, until the 1st day of June next, the 
Wild Birds Protection (East Riding of Yorkshire) Order of the n22d 
February, 19 16, in so far as it prohibits the taking or destroying of the eggs 
of the blackheaded gull. 

The Manchester Museum Publication No. 80, is a reprint of Mr. Herbert 
Bolton's paper on the ' Mark Stirrup ' Collection of Fossil Insects from 
the Coal Measures of Central France. No. Si is the Museum's Annual 
Report for 1916-17, and contains an excellent record of the useful work 
accompUshed in that institution. 

No. 24 of The Journal and Transactions of the Leeds Astronomical 
Society, edited by Chas. T. Whitmell, was published in January (102 pp., 
2S. 6d.). It contains an enormous number of astronomical notes by the 
various members of the Society, as well as an appreciation of Sir William 
Herschel by Miss C. A. Barbour. Various contributions to other journals 
are here reprinted, so that the Society's publication may be said to contain 
a fair record of the members' work. 

The Proceedings of Birmingham Natural History and Philosophical 
Society, Vol. XIV., part 2, edited by Prof. W. S. Boulton (pp. 57-112, 3/-) 
have been published. They contain the following valuable papers : — 
' Natural History Records of the Midlands ; A survey of the Flora of 
East Worcestershire, by John Humphreys ; Some effects of the Poison 
of the Wasp Sting upon the Heart of a Frog, by Prof. E. Wace Carlier ; 
The Downtonian of South Staffordshire, by W. Wickham King and W. j'. 
Lewis ; On Blattoid and other Insect Remains from the South Stafford- 
shire Coalnelds, by Herbert Bolton ; Mammalian Remains in the Glacial 
Gravels at Stourbridge, by Prof. W. S. Boulton. We are glad to find that 
this old established Society is still continuing its useful contributions to 
science. 

19 1 8 Mac. I. 



ZIO 

FIELD NOTES. 
BIRDS. 
Separation of the Sexes of the Chaffinch in Winter. — 

Referring to Mr, E. P. Butterfield's note and Mr. R. Fortune's 
comments thereon in The Naturalist, p. 75, it must be over 
forty-five years since I controverted (in one of the then Natural 
history journals, Young England I think it was), so far as 
this district is concerned^ the statement in ornithological works 
that the sexes of the Chaffinch separate in winter. I there 
stated that here, at any rate, there is no seymration in winter, 
both sexes always being seen together in about equal numbers. 
I have never had any reason to modify that statement, until 
a few weeks ago, when during the severe weather at the end of 
December, or during the first few days of this year, there was 
a considerable invasion of chaffinches (probably indeed a big 
invasion, if one had had time to visit the different sides of the 
town to see it). In the hedges, and on the roads near my 
house, they were very abundant, and I even saw the bird feeding 
in one of the streets in the middle of the town. All of them so 
far as I noticed were females. But they were evidently not 
resident birds, and were only noticed for a few consecutive 
days. Our birds I have no doubt, were just as mixed in 
the proportion of the sexes as heretofore. — Geo. T. Porritt, 
Huddersfield, February 5th, 1918. 



Status of the Pied Wagtail in Winter in the Wilsden 
District. — Mr. Booth {The Naturalist p. 77) hardly quotes 
correctly from my note {loc. cit. December p. 391). What I 
said was this bird ' almost always leaves this district in winter 
to a bird.' Within a radius of a mile or thereabouts of this 
town I could count on the fingers of one hand all the Pied 
Wagtails I have seen for fifty years. I saw one specimen 
here in the main street in the very hard winter of 1879-80, and 
with the exception of two or three individuals, am not sure 
whether I saw another until the winter of 1916-17, when one 
was about my poultry run all through the winter. I see them 
some times in the valley, especially about the sewage disposal 
works. On the 13th of January last, I saw at least six pied 
Wagtails at the Bmgley Sewage Works, and I saw them again 
on the following day, but I have not seen one so far this winter 
in this immediate neighbourhood, which is somewhat too ele- 
vated for this species in winter. As Mr. Booth states, it is 
very fond of the neighbourhood of sewage works, and in such 
environment, its plumage presents a bedraggled appearance, 
in contrast with those emigrants which have wintered further 
afield, and will reappear in about another month. — E. P. 
BuTTERFiELD, Wilsden, February 2nd, 1918. 

. Naturaiifit 



Field Notes. Ill 

Young Qrey Seal caught at Hornsea. — In The Field of 
January I2th, 1918, p. 70, Mr. P. I. Pocock, of the London 
Zoological Society, reports a Christmas gift of a very young 
Grey Seal ( Halichcenis grypus) to the Society, by a Hull fish 
merchant, Mr. G. T. Witherwick. Mr. Pocock points out that 
the Society almost invariably receives its Grey Seals from the 
Western coast of Great Britain ; the Common Seals [Phoca 
vitidina) on the other hand, coming from the Eastern coast 
and from the South coast of England. He therefore deduces 
that this baby Grey Seal will probably have travelled from 
the ' Shetland Islands, where the species is known to breed.' 
Mr. Pocock has evidently overlooked that there is a well- 
estabhshed and breeding colony of Grey Seals off the North- 
umbrian coast — on the outer group of the Fame Islands. The 
Grey Seal differs from the Common Seal in the large size (and 
weight) to which it attains, and also in the elongated muzzle — 
{i.e., dog-faced) and also in its dentition — a difficult matter to 
verify in most mounted specimens ; but a very dangerous one 
to attempt with the living animal — even if only a baby. But 
the chief scientific difference, and in my opinion the only 
justifiable reason for placing it in a separate genus from 
Phoca, is that it brings forth its young at a most unseasonable 
time of the year, viz., in October and November.* But with 
the exception of this colony of Grey Seals on the Northi mbrian 
coast, the Common Seal is undoubtedly the Seal of our Eastern 
coasts. Twenty to twenty-seven years ago I have many 
times watched the Common Seals in scores in the Wash, more 
particularly in what is known as the ' Boston Deeps.' Their 
round heads, just above the water whilst watching, appeared 
almost exactly like cannon balls, and I was assured by many 
reliable friends that they bred regularly in early summer on 
the Lincolnshire coast of the Wash ; but of this I was never 
able to afford the time for an ocular demonstration. Mr. T. 
Sheppard, M.Sc, tells me that Mr. G. T. Witherwick informs 
him this young Grey Seal was caught at Hornsea. Therefore 
the record that a young Grey Seal, which Mr. Pocock computes 
as not being more than a month or two old, being caught so 
far south on the Yorkshire coast as Hornsea in December, is 
worth being placed on the records of the Yorkshire Naturalists' 
Union. — H. B. Booth, Ben Rhydding. 

o 

The Museums Journal for January contains an article on 'Attempted 
Usurpation of the British Museum ' ; a report on ' Local War Museums,' 
by Messrs. F. R. Fowley and T. Sheppard, and a paper on ' Transparent 
Preparations of Animal Tissues by the Spalteholz Method,' by Mr. R. H. 
Burne. 

* Mr. Edmund Selous has published in this journal for 1915, some very 
detailed and valuable observations on the breeding habits of this species. 

1918 Mar. 1. 



112 

NEWS FROM THE MAGAZINES. 

The Irish Naturalist for February contains an excellent portrait of 
the late Professor Edward Hull. 

Mr. H. Britten describes Lholeva angustata F. and its Allies, in The 
Entomologist's Monthly Magazine for February. 

Mr Alfred Bell has an illustrated article on ' The Age of the Suffolk 
Boxstones.' in the Geological Magazine for January. 

Mr. J. A. Wheldon continues his paper ' On the Collection, Taxonomy, 
and Ecology of the Sphagna,' in The Lancashire and Cheshire Naturalist 
for December. 

Mr. Hans Schlesch favours us with a copy of his paper ' Fauna der 
islandischen Land-und Siisswasser-MoUusken,' reprinted from Nyt Mag- 
azin for N aturvidenskaherne , Christiania. 

The death is announced of Miss Ethel Sargent, who was President of 
section K (Botany) at the Birmingham meeting of the British Association, 
being the first woman choSen to preside over a section. 

We have received an interesting paper on ' Quadruple Hybrids in the 
F^ Generation from Oenothera nutans and Oenothera pycnocarpa, with the 
F^ Generations, and the back and Inter-crosses,' by Prof. Geo. F. Atkinson, 
reprinted from Genetics 2 : 213-259, May, 19 17. 

Wild Life for January contains the following papers, most of which are 
illustrated : — Guillemots and Razorbills, by F. B. Kirkman ; The Common 
Sandpiper in the Thames Valley, by E. E. Pettitt ; The White Stork, by 
G. S. Felton ; The Ringed Plover, by H. Vardey ; and Abnormal Colour 
in Mammals, by F. D. Welch. 

Mr. H. G. Alexander, in British Birds for February, records an 
' Albinistic Yellow Wagtail in Yorkshire ' (in Wensleydale). On another 
page, but in smaller type, the same writer tells us that some rare Phylloscopi 
previously recorded by him in Kent, Sussex, etc., were wrongly identified. 
We are thus gradually clearing up some of the wonderful south country 
records of rare birds which so frequently adorn the pages of our con- 
temporary. 

We learn from Nature that ' It was stated in one of the morning papers 
a few days ago that ' there have recently arrived in England evidences of 
the most important zoological discovery that has come to light since the 

finding of that strange beast, the okapi The discovery proves very 

completely the existence of a new and hitherto unknown species of ele- 
phant, a real dwarf elephant.' All that has really happened is that two 
skeletons have just arrived in this country of a ' dwarf ' race of elephant 
described in the Revue Zoologique Africaine in 1913. Thus the announce- 
ment of this ' discovery ' is somewhat belated. The specimens just 
received are stated to be fully adult examples, but this is not yet certain 
and will be determined by Dr. C. W. Andrews, of the British Museum of 
Natural History, to whom they have been submitted. But we have known 
of the existence of dwarf elephants in Africa since 1906, when the first of 
its kind was discovered. 

We notice a lengthy report of the Entomological section of the Yorkshire 
Naturalists' Union meeting, held in October, appears in the Entomologist's 
Monthly Magazine for January, and while such a long report in our 
contemporary is flattering to the Union and its work, we should like to 
give our readers a hint that The Naturalist is the official organ of the 
Yorkshire Naturalists' Union, and while we are delighted to see its work 
reported in other journals, we should like to impress upon our members 
the necessity of sending information of this kind to us promptly. Under 
the present conditions the space provided for recording scientific work is 
so small that it seems a waste to print the same information in two 
different journals, and certainly just now, when we have so much matter 
in hand, we hardly like to occupy our pages by a report which, through 
no fault of the editors, can only appear some time after a similar report 
has been published elsewhere. 

Naturalist, 



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BIBLIOGRAPHY 

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YORKSHIRE GEOLOGY 

1534-1914c 

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This forms Volume XVIII. of the Proceedini^s of the Yorkshire 
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26,500 references to subjects, authors and localities. 



THE HON. LIBRARIAN, YORKSHIRE GEOLOGICAL SOCIETY, 
THE UNIVERSITY, LEEDS. 



NATURAL HISTORY BOOKS AND SERIALS. 

JOHN WHELDON & CO. have the largest stock in 
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Twelve Illustrations, beautifully printed in colours and Mounted on StotU 
Boards, 24 x 19 inches, eyeletted and strung, including Descriptive Hand- 
book, in Leather Board Case 15/- net the set. 

BROWNS' 

ENEMIES OF THE GARDEN 

Reproduced in the very best style of Litlwgraphy from special designs by 
H. W. BRUTZER, M.A., F.E.S. 

THE 12 ILLUSTRATIONS ABE AS FOLLOWS : 

1. OUTLINE OF INSECT LIFE.— Hymenoptera, Coleoptera, Lepi- 

doptera, details. 

2. LACKEY MOTH. — Egg, Caterpillar, Nest, Cocoons, Female Lackey 

Moth, Egg Cluster. 

3. SMALL ERMINE MOTH.— Eggs, Caterpillar, Cocoons, Ermine Moth, 

Nest in Apple Tree. ^ 

4. GOOSEBERRY SAWFLY.— Egg, Larva, Larva (last stage). Leaf, 

Sawfly, Branch, Cocoon. 

5. ASPARAGUS BEETLE.— ^Eggs, Larva, Beetle, Pupa, Asparagus 

stripped of leaves, Cocoon. 

6. BLACK CURRANT MITE.— Mite, Big Bud on Branch, Section of 

Bud with Mites. 

7. RASPBERRY STEM BUD CATERPILLAR.— Caterpillar, Chrysalis, 

Moth (enlarged). Raspberry Cane. 

8. MILLIPEDES and CENTIPEDES.— Three destructive Millipedes and 

two useful Centipedes. 

9. SCALE.— Currant Scale, Scale on Aralia and Myrtle Leaves and Mussel 

Scale. 

10 WIREWORMS. — Click Beetle and Skip Jack showing details. 

11'. PEA THRIPS, COCKCHAFER, DADDY LONGLEGS, WOOD- 
LOUSE and EARWIG, showing sections and details. 

12. SOME USEFUL INSECTS.— Dragon Fly, Ichnevmion Fly, Lady Bird, 
Tiger Beetle, Hover Fly, Glow Worm, Cocktail Beetle, Lacewing Fly. 

All the designs are printed on appropriately tinted backgrounds, devoid of 

any white border, thus enabling the various sections on the Charts to be 

seen with great clearness. 

We always have enemies within our garden-gates, and would-be 
gardeners are often reminded that the results of their labours may be 
brought to nought or greatly lessened by the work of destructive insects. 
There are other insects, however, that are our Allies, as they live on the 
destructive pests and thus help to protect the vegetables and fruit. It 
is, therefore, most necessary to be able to distinguish between useful and 
destructive insects, hence the popularity of Browns' " Enemies of the 
Garden," as the charts show at a glance how to tell our enemies from our 
friends. A set of the illustrations should be exhibited in all our schools 
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penditure on same will prove a truly profitable investment. 

London : A. BROWN & SONS, Ltd., 5 Farringdon Avenue, E.C. 4. 
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Printed at Browns' Savilb Press, 40, George Street, Hull, and published by 
A. Brown it Sons, Limited, at 5 Farringdon Avenue, in the City of London. 

March i.st, iqi8. 



APRIL 1918. 



^'*** 735 

(No, SOS 0/ ourriht ttri* 




A MONTHLY ILLUSTRATED JOURNAL OP 

NATURAL HISTORY FOR THE NORTH OF ENGLAND 

EDITED BY 

T. SHEPPARD. M.Sc, F.Q.S.. F.R.Q.S.. F.S.A.Scot.. 

The Museums, Hull ; 

AND 



T. W. WOODHEAD, Ph.D., M.Sc, 

Technical College, Huddersfield. 

WITH THK ASSISTANCE AS REFEREES IN SPECIAL DEPAr/meNI^ dA I O /| 100 

J. aiUBBRT BAKER, P.R.S. PL.S., GEO. T. PORRITT, VxJ^., P%.i..^ 

Prof. P. P. KENDALL, M.Sc, P.Q.S.. JOHN W. TAYLOR ..M.Sc, 



RILEY PORTUNE, P.Z.S. 



Contents : — 

fMtm 
Notes and Comments (illustrated) :— Perthshire Naturalists ; Facetted Pebbles ; Wild 
Birds' Eggs ; Northern Breeding Sites; Yorkshire Coal Seams, and their Correlation ; A 
Yorkshire Herbarium ; Chellaston Gypsum-Breccia ; Conclusion ; Forests of the Coal 
Age; 'Early' Man again ; 'Not Proven' 113-llH 

Holocene Shells at Ruckland, near Louth, Lincolnshire— C. S. Carter I19-12ri 

Hepatics of the Hebden Bridge Valley — VVm. Hy. Pearson 1'23-124 

Alien Mollusca in Yorkshire— J. A. Hargreaves and J. Digby Firth, F.L.S.... 125-120 

Romance of the Cucl<oo—£. P. £j(«e>yi£W 127-130 

Ornithological Observations and Reflections in Shetland— £^)Htm:J Se/oi<.s ISl-lS^ 

Yorkshire Coleoptera in 1917— IV. J. Fordham, M.R.C.S., L.R.C. P., F.E.S. 135-187 

Vertebrate Zoology in Yorkshire— W. Greaves 139-140 

A Year's Work at the Scunthorpe Museum— f/aroW £. Dudley, Hon. Curator 141-142 

Reported Nesting of the 

118,138,140 

Proceedings of Provincial Scientific Societies . 124,137 

Reviews and Book Notices 143 

Northern News 124, 144 

News from the Magazines 137,144 

Illustrations 113,117,120 



Field Notes: — Distribution of the Grey Seal; Magpie Flocks; 
Stonechat in Upper VVharfedale 



, LONDON: 
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BOTANICAL TRANSACTIONS OF THE YORKSHIRE NATURALISTS' UNION, Volume L 

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THE FLORA OF WEST YORKSHIRE. By FREDERIC ARNOLD LEES, M.R.C.S., etc. 

This, which forms the 2nd Volume of the Botanical Series of the Transactions, is perhaps the most 
complete work of the kind ever issued for any district, including detailed and full records of 1044 Phanero 
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Freshwater Alga, making a total of 3160 species. 

READY SHORTLY: Supplement to The Flora of West Yorkshire, by F. Arnold Lees, M.R.C.S. 

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LIST OF YORKSHIRE COLEOPTERA. By Rev. W. C. HEY, M.A. 



THE NATURALIST. A Monthly Illustrated Journal of Natural History for the North of England. Edited 
by T. SHEPPARD, M.Sc, F.G.S., F.R.G.S.. F.S.A. Scot., The Museums, Hull; and T. W. WOODHEAD 
Ph.D., M.Sc, F.L.S., Technical CoUesie, Huddersfield ; with the assistance as referees in Special Departments 
of J. GILBERT BAKER, F.R.S., F.L.S., Prof. P. F. KENDALL, M.Sc, F.G.S., GEO. T. PORRITT, F.L.S., 
F.E.S., JOHN W. TAYLOR, M.Sc, RILEY FORTU.NE, F.Z.S. (Annual Subscription, payable in advance 
6/6 post free). 

MEMBERSHIP in the Yorkshire Naturalists' Union, 10/6 per annum, includes subsf.ription to The Naturalist, 
and entitles the member to receive the current Transactions, and all the other privilege- of the Union. 
A donation of Seven Guineas constitutes a life-membership, and entitles the member to a set of the 
Transactions issued by the Union. Subscriptions to be sent to the Hon. Treasurer, Edwin 
Hawkesworth, Esq., Sunnvside, Crossgates, Leeds. 
Members are entitled to buy all back numbers and other publications of the Union at a discount of 25 per 
cent, oft the prices quoted above. 

.^11 communications respecting ' The Naturalist ' and other publications should be addressed to T. Sheppaid, 
1" G.S., The Museum, Hull ; and enquiries respecting the Yorkshire Naturalists' Union should be addressed 
the Hon. Secretaries. Technical College, Huddersfield. 



NOTES AND COMMENTS. 

PERTHSHIRE NATURALISTS. 

The old established Perthshire Society of Natural Science 
still continues to lecord its valuable work in its Transactions 
and Proceedings, Part 4 of Vol. VI., of which has recently 
appeared. There are numerous interesting papers on the 
Archaeology and Natural History of Perthshire, among which 
may be mentioned : — Note on Stone Cists found at Flawcraig 
and Burnfoot, in the Carse of Gowrie, by Henry Coates ; Local 
Museums and Archaeological Research, by J. Graham Callander ; 
Some Aspects of the Forestry Question, by J. A. Donald ; 





Sub-fossil Elk's Horn found at Methven. 



Botanical and other Notes, by D. A. Haggart ; Note on a 
Sub-fossil Elk's Horn found at Methven, by Mr. H. Coates. 
The specimen referred to ' is the left horn [antlerj of a young 
Elk, Alces machlis Gray. It measures 27 inches across.' It 
is' still preserved in the hall of Methven Castle, and we are 
kindly permitted to reproduce the accompanying illustration 
from the Society's publication. 

FACETTED PEBBLES. 

At a recent meeting of the Manchester Literary and Philos- 
ophical Society, Mr. J. W. Jackson read a paper on ' The Associa- 
tion of Facetted Pebbles with Glacial Deposits.' The object of 
the paper was to place on record several recent discoveries of 

1918 April 1. 



114 Notes and Comments. 

facetted and wind-etched pebbles in localities near Manchester 
and in the Wirral peninsula, and to discuss the association of 
such pebbles with glacial deposits. The pebbles are of glacial 
origin, and all show the characteristic features of wind-erosion. 
The most noteworthy feature, however, is the large number of 
split and fractured pebbles, all of which exhibit the action of 
sand-blast on the fractured surfaces, in addition to other parts 
of the pebble. All stages towards the formation of typical 
' Dreikanter ' are exhibited The splitting appears to have 
been independent of rock composition, as both igneous and 
sedimentary rocks are represented in the series ; in the latter 
they are mainly split along joint-planes. The mode of oc- 
currence shows that the pebbles were acted on by sand-blast 
after the disposition of the glacial beds on which they lay, and 
in this respect they agree with similar pebbles found in North 
Germany and in North America. It is suggested thart the 
splitting is due to frost action, and that it is somewhat earlier 
than the wind-erosion. 

WILD birds' eggs. 

The Journal of the Board of Agriculture for February gives 
short descriptions of the various wild birds' eggs which it 
is proposed should be collected and used for food. ' The 
birds whose eggs are to be gathered are :- — Black-headed 
Gull, Herring Gull, Lesser Black-headed Gull, Common 
Guillemot, Razor Bill and Puffin. Probably every seaboard 
county of England and Wales, except Suffolk, has gulleries, 
but of the inland counties it is believed that there is a 
gullery only in Staffordshire where the Black-headed Gull 
breeds. Nests of the last mentioned are often found in inland 
localities and, as a rule, are readily accessible ; and it is this 
bird which is expected to yield the bulk of eggs put on the 
market.' 

NORTHERN BREEDING SITES. 

A list of the chief breeding places is given from which we 
extract the following relating to the Northern counties : — 
Cheshire : Black-headed Gull. Cumberland : Black-headed 
Gull ; (Lake District, especially Ravenglass, near Wigton, 
Solway Flow and among the heather at Bowness) ; Lesser 
Black-backed Gull (very common on mosses and flows) ; 
Greater Black-backed Gull (Lake District and Solway Flow). 
Durham: Black-headed Gull (moors). Lancashire : Black- 
headed Gull (Walney Island and Winmarleigh Moss, near 
Garstang). Lincolnshire : Black-headed Gull (Brigg and 
Twigmoor). Isle of Man : Lesser Black-backed Gull, Greater 
Black-backed Gull, Puffin. Northumberland : Black-headed 
Gull (Pallinsburn) ; Lesser Black-backed Gull (on moors), 
Westmorland : Black-headed Gull. Yorkshire : Black-headed 
Gull (Skipworth Common, Locker Tarn, Wensleydale, Brows- 
Nat uraiist, 



Notes and Comments, 115 

holme Tarn and Grassington) ; Herring Gull, Razorbill and 
Guillemot (Chalk cliffs from Speeton to Bempton, Flamborough 
Head) ; Puffin (Flamborough cliffs). 

YORKSHIRE COAL SEAMS. 

In the Transactions of the Institution of Mining Engineers 
Vol. XIV., pt. 2, Prof. P. F. Kendall, M.Sc, has a ' Note on 
the Correlation of Certain Seams in the Yorkshire Coalfield.' 
He states that ' It is well known that a relatively unworked 
tract intervenes between the main area of the West Yorkshire 
field and that of South Yorkshire, and when some of the most 
important seams are sought on the northern side of this hiatus, 
they exhibit notable differences in their development, which 
not only gravely affect their value, but in some cases render 
their exact identification a matter of great uncertainly and 
difficulty. Green, in the memoir on " The Geology of the 
Yorkshire Coalfield, which is one of our greatest assets, sug- 
gested that an actual physical barrier intervened separating 
two areas of coal-growth at the time of deposition of the 
Silkstone Seam and at that of the Barnsley Bed.' 

AND THEIR CORRELATION. 

The net result of Prof. Kendall's enquiry ' is to confirm 
Green's classification and to estabhsh that— Haigh Moor = 
Swallow Wood; Low Brown Metal =Parkgate ; Middleton 
Main=New Hards or Swilley ; Blocking or Barcelona =Silk- 
stone ; Beeston=Whinmoor. The employment of the name 
' Silkstone ' for the northern seam is sanctioned by over 
half-a-century of usage ; and, if the South Yorkshire producers 
were disposed to cavil at the custom that has grown up, it 
might be pointed out that the West Yorkshire miners have 
paid the true Silkstone Coal the compHment of attaching its 
name to one of their very finest coals.' 

A YORKSHIRE HERBARIUM. 

Some years ago, Mr. H. J. Wilkinson, the Honorary Curator 
of Botany at the York Museum, began publishing a ' Catalogue 
of British Plants in the Herbarium of the Yorkshire Philosoph- 
ical Society,' which has been printed, in sections, in the Society's 
Annual Repoit. The final part (XI.) has been published and 
IS a substantial list of over 150 pages. In all, nearly 1,600 
species are enumerated, with particulars of habitat, distribu- 
tion, locality, date, collector and herbarium. The Catalogue, 
with index, occupies 344 pages, in addition to which is a 
' Historical Account of the Herbarium and the Con- 
tributors thereto ' (27 pp.), from which we gather that the 
Society's Herbarium contains over 10,000 specimens, including 
collectio ns of British Plants from Rev. James Dalton (1827- 

1918 April 1. 



Ii6 Notes and Comments. 

1887), W. Middleton (1827), Giles Munby (1833) and Samuel 
Hailstone (1859). Yorkshire naturalists are certainly grateful 
to Mr. Wilkinson for his enormous work in making the botanical 
treasures of the York Mustum available to students, and the 
Yorkshire Philosophical Society is also no doubt glad to have 
its Herbarium increased in value by the publication of the 
list. We are personally gratified to learn that some remarks 
of our own in ' Yorkshire's Contribution to Science ' were the 
means of facilitating tke publication of the Catalogue. 

CHELLASTON GYPSUM-BRECCIA. 

At a recent meeting of the Geological Society of London, a 
communication was read on ' The Chellaston Gypsum-Breccia 
considered in its Relation to the Gypsum-Anhydrite Deposits 
of Britain,' by Mr. Bernard Smith. This communication was 
designed to clear up some of the ambiguities that have arisen 
with regard to the actual mode of formation of the deposits of 
gypsum in Britain — chiefly from the point of view of the field 
observer. An attempt was made also to show the true rela- 
tionship of the gypsum to the beds of anhydrite with which it 
is sometimes associated. A description was given of a re- 
markable breccia occurring at Chellaston in Derbyshire, and 
its origin was discussed. Important occurrences of gypsum 
in other parts of the country, as well as the alternative theories 
as to their mode of formation, were then reviewed in the light 
thus obtained. The remainder of the paper dealt mainly 
with the possible interchanges between anhydrite and gj^psum. 
The place and the function of the fibrous form of gypsum were 
indicated, and a nomenclature suggested for certain isolated 
masses of the mineral. 

CONCLUSION. 

(i) At Chellaston the gypsum was laid down as such, and 
has suffered no appreciable alteration or addition since the 
time of its original deposition and brecciation. There is no 
evidence that the rock was every anhydrous. (2) By compari- 
son with this deposit, and also by independent evidence, it 
seems probable that most of the important beds of gypsum 
in the country were laid down as gypsum, and have behaved 
throughout as stratified deposits. (3) When anhydrite is 
present, the evidence favours the view that it is original, 
and was deposited in a stratiform manner in sequence with 
gypsum. (4) Microscopic evidence shows that there has 
been, in some cases, an alteration of anhydrite into gypsum 
where the two minerals were in original juxtaposition ; this 
alteration, however, is considered to have occurred at, or 
immediately after, the time of deposition, and to be confined 
to the existing plane of contact of the two minerals. 

Naturalist, 



Notes and Comments, 



117 



FORESTS OF THE COAL AGE. 

Dr, D. H. Scott,'^F.R.S., favour us with a copy of his paper 




Lyginodendron oldhamium. Restoration, showing 
stem and roots, with the foliage ; to the left above is a male 
frond. Observe the contemporary Dragon-fly. (a) Seeds 
in cupules, studded with glands, and borne on a branched 
stalk ; (6) part of male frond showing discs and poUen- 
sacs. (a) and (b) slightly magnified. From drawings by 
Mrs. D. H. Scott. 

on the above subject, which appears in the Volume LIV. of 
the Transactions of the Institution of Mining Engineers. It 
deals with the various larger forms of vegetation flourishing in 

1918 April 1. 



Ii8 Notes and Comments. 

the Coal Age, and the paper is well illustrated by photographs^ 
restorations, etc. The illustration reproduced herewith, by 
the permission of the author and of Messrs. Williams and 
Norgate, is a distinct advance upon the old-fashioned repre- 
sentations of coal floras. 

' EARLY ' MAN AGAIN. 

' In fulfilment of a promise he had made to Mr. Reid Moir,' 
Prof. W. J. Sollas recently occupied a considerable amount of 
the valuable time of the Geological Society of London in con- 
nexion with a paper ' On a Flaked Flint from the Red Crag.' 
The flint was found by Mr. Moir near Ipswich, but Prof. Sollas 
admitted that the specimen was not indisputably of human 
workmanship, and that ' it is eminently a case of "not proven." ' 
Prof. P. G. H. Bcswell, who knows the geology of the district 
well, stated that the stratigraphical position of the bed was a 
matter of extreme doubt. ' From the time of the first discovery 
of these sub-Crag flints he had pointed out that the deposit 
from which most of the described and figured specimens had 
been obtained was not in situ— indeed, was one of a series of 
deposits highly disturbed by glacial action.' This seems to be 
borne out by Mr. Moir's own experience with the ' Ipswich 
man ' skeleton. 

' NOT PROVEN.' 

Mr. Reginald Smith stated ' if the object of the paper was 
to open a discussion of the whole problem, he considered it 
belated ; and if it was merely to make another addition to the 
suspense account, such a stupendous theory ought, in his 
opinion, to have been based on the best material available, not 
on one second-rate specimen. The author had rejected, as 
purety natural, a much more striking specimen in the British 
Museum.' Mr. R. M. Deeley explained how flints were fractured 
and chipped in pipes formed in the Chalk. 



Distribution of the Grey Seal.— With reference to Mr. H. B. 
Booth's note {antea, p. iii), I may add that since the publica- 
tion of my Vertebrate Fauna of North Wales I have obtained 
many additional data from this area. These point to the 
conclusion that many observers have confused together the 
two species — Common and Grey Seal. Several of the examples 
recorded in my Fauna under the head of ' Common Seal ' 
were undoubtedly Grey Seals. Furthermore I am now satisfied 
that the latter is the only seal that is a resident and breeds off 
the Welsh coast. On the other hand the Common Seal occurs 
on the Welsh coast only as an occasional and ii regular visitor, 
chiefly in winter. I have in hand a Supplement and epitome 
of the Fauna which will be published as soon as conditions in 
regard to paper and print allow ! — H, E, Forrest. 

Naturalist,, 



119 



HOLOCENE SHELLS AT RUCKLAND, NEAR 
LOUTH, LINCOLNSHIRE. 



C. S. CARTER, 



In their plav at ' Primitive Man,' tlie children of the Gyps^^'s 
Parson, Rev. Geo. Hall, excavated a ' cave ' in the hillside, in 
the Rectory Grounds, Ruckland, near Louth. 

In this excavation they cut through a large basin-shaped 
pit in the chalk. This pit had been filled in with small water- 
washed stones and dark earth in which were found various 
objects of interest, consisting of fragments of Pottery, bones, 
seeds, shells, charcoal, etc. 

The cave when finished was about 8 ft. in length, 5 ft. in 
width, and about 4I ft. in height and was entered by a low- 
winding tunnel about 5 ft. or 6 ft. long. Mr. Hall invited me 
over to see the children's cave and the objects they had found. 
These latter they entrusted to my care for further investigation, 
together with a box of the soil to wash. It was hoped to 
extend the excavation for the purpose of more definitel}^ 
determining the nature and date of the deposit, but it was 
found almost impossible on account of tree-roots and buildings. 

The objects found were submitted to A. Santer Kennard, 
F.G.S., to whom students of Holocene Deposits are indebted 
for the immense amount of information now accessible. His 
remarks are incorporated in the following notes on the objects 
found. 

Pottery. — There are eight fragments of pottery repre- 
senting probably four or five vessels. One fragment (half the 
base) is ' decidedly well made and is probably of Romano- 
British Age, as is also a small fragment of a rim.' The remainder 
belongs to a different class ; ' it is ill made, badly fired and 
made from bad material and may well be of local manufacture ; 
there is nothing distinctive about it, but it is not improbably 
of Romano-British Age, since similar pottery often occurs on 
the site of Romano-British Villages.' 

Seeds. — These consist of Hawthorn, Galium (?), Elder, 
Medick (?) and others not easily determinable. One hawthorn 
' stone ' showed signs of having been gnawed by a small rodent. 

Bones. — These were not in great quantity, but were of 
interest, particularly a portion of a Red-deer Antler. 

Bos longijrons (Ox). — Five teeth and the basal portion 
of a horn core may well be referred to this species, and probably 
some of the fragments also belong to this species. 

Aries sp. (Sheep). — Six teeth and one bone. 

Microtus agrestis (Field- Vole). — A molar. 

Soxex sp. (Shrew). — A few bones. 

Rana temporaria (Frog). — A few bones. 

1918 April ^. 



120 Holocene Shells at Ruckland, near Louth, Lines. 

Cervus elaphus (Red Deer). — ' By far the most interesting 
object found,' says Mr. Kennard, ' is a portion of a Red-deer 
Antler. It comprises the first tine, the pedicle and part of 
the frontal bone, and bears obvious traces of human handiwork. 
The main portion of the antler has been removed by hacking 
on three sides, and the removal was completed by breaking. 
An^attempt has apparently been made to remove the pedicle 
and frontal bone. The point of the tine has also been hacked, 
evidently to obtain a point. It is by no means improbable 
that at one time it served the purpose of a pick. The animal 




Eed-deer Antler Pick, Holocene Deposit, Ruckland, near Louth, Lines. 

to which it belonged must indeed have been a " Royal Hart." ' 
A portion of a lower jaw and a loose molar belong to this species. 
MoLLUSCA. — Thirty-five species, or 36 if the Avion granules 
be referred to two species, as I believe should be the case, 
have been found. Of this number no fewer than 17 species 
were identified in the collection made by our juvenile archae- 
ologists who kindly supplied me with a box of the soil, measuring 
about 10 in. X gj in. x 9I in. From this soil by means of 
washing I was fortunate in collecting 35 species. It will 
therefore be observed that this deposit is rich in shells, some 
of which are of considerable interest, being either new records 
for the county, or are rare. The species obtained were : — 

Naturalist, 



Holocene Shells at Ruckland, near Louth, Lines. 121 

Limax maximiis, one example. Vallonia pulchella, common. 
Limax arborum, rather rare. Vallonia costata, rather rare. 

Agriolimax agrestis, fairly common. Vallonia e.ycentrica, fairly common. 

Vitrina pellucida, one example. Hehcigoiia lapicida, five or six 

Vitrea crystallina, fairly common. examples. 

Polita cellaria, fairly common. Helicigona arbtistorum, one exa,mple 

Polita nitidula, fairly common. Helix nemoralis, rare. 

Polita pura, fairly common. Ena obscura, rare. 

Polita rogersi, one example. Cochlicopa liibrica, fairly common. 
Polita radiatula, five or six ex- var. e \igua, rare. 

amples. var. lubricoides, rare. 

Euconulns fiilvus, one example. CtBcilioides acicula, abundant. 

Arion sp., abundant. Papilla miisconini, fairly common. 
Punctiim pygmcBuni, fairly common. Vertigo pygmaa, fairly common. 

Pyramidula rotiindata, very Clausilia lamivata, common. 

common. Clausilia bidentata, fairly common. 

Helicella itala, fairly common. Clatisilia rolphii rare. 

Hygrominliheyta, iahly common. Carychiitm minimum common. 

Hygromia hispida, rather rare. Pomatias elegans, common. 

Acanthinula aculeata, fairly Acicula lineata, two examples, 
common. 

Notes on some of the foregoing Species. — Euconulus 
Julvus is of particular local historic interest. It was first 
recorded by Dr. Martin Lister in 1678 for Lincolnshire : — ■ 

Titulus IX. Buccintim parvum sive Trochilus sylvalicus 
agri Lincolniensis. Vix piperis grant dimidiitm iniplet. Ei 
color suhflaviis, pellucidus. Ejus basis planior, senis aut 
septem orbibus in modum Trochili finituv. In musco ad 
grandium arborum radiees in sylvis Bunvellensibus agri 
Lincolniensis nan semel earn inveni : est tamen ad modum 
vara bestiola. 

De Cochleis Terrestribus, p. 123, 1678, note to figure 
10 on plate 2 is so ; probably the engraver was unable to 
render it justice. 

Lis+er's locality, Burwell Wood, is within three miles of 
Ruckland Rectory. This species is now fairly common in 
Burwell Wood. 

_ Arion sp. — Regarding the calcareous granules referable to 
this genus, Messrs. Hinton and Kennard, in a paper on the 
Molluscan remains from Cleeve Hill (Cotteswold), 1904, re- 
marked ' It is notoriously difficult to determine the species 
of this genus from these scanty remains,' and yet, in all proba- 
bility, at least two forms are present— /I. ater and A. hortensis. 
Of the examples found in this deposit, and submitted, Mr. 
Kennard writes : — ' After careful consideration, I think it 
better to call them all Arion sp. The granules you call hor- 
tensis may be that species, for that form of granule is common 
in hortensis but it also occurs in ater.' 

Helicigona lapicida is a rare species in North Lines., especi- 
ally hving. Burwell Wood and South Thoresby are the only- 
localities, as far as I know, for which it has been recorded living. 

1918 April 1. 



122 Holocene Shells at Ruckland, near Louth, Lines. 

Ccscilioides acicula. Many of the shells of this species are 
exceedingly fine examples. 

An interesting, very small form of Pnpilla muscorum was 
found, of which Mr. Kennard writes : ' similar very small 
forms occurred in the Holocene of Cissbury, Sussex.' 

I have collected a similar small form living in Haugham 
Pasture, a wood a short distance to the north of Burwell Wood, 
which is within three miles of Ruckland, and I have also re- 
ceived other examples of this form from the veteran collector, 
Mr. J. Hawkins, collected near Grantham. 

Clausilia roiphii. Of this species, Mr. Kennard writes : — 
' this is an extremely interesting form since it is extremely 
rare in a fossil state.' This species was first recorded for North 
Lines, by Mr. W. Denison Roebuck, in his pioneer list, ' Lincoln- 
shire MoUusca,' The Naturalist, August, 1887; the specimens 
having been discovered in that year (1887) in Burwell Wood, 
Haugham Pasture and the neighbouring Maltby Wood, by 
H. Wallis Kew. At that time these localities were the most 
northerly from which it has been recorded. Since then it 
was found (in 1905) in Claxby Wood, north from Market 
Rasen. It was collected more than fifty years ago by Mr. J. 
Hawkins in Ropsley Rise, near Grantham, South Lines. 

Pomatias elegans, though a common species in this deposit, 
is now rare living in the district, Burwell Wood being the 
nearest, and until a few years ago the only locality in North 
Lincolnshire, where it has been found alive, although keen 
search has been made for it in other places where dead shells 
have been found. This species is also of particular local historic 
interest, for in 1678, Dr. Martin Lister recorded that he found 
it in Kent, Yorkshire and ' also at Burwell Woods, in Lincoln- 
shire ' (De Cochleis terrestribus, p. 120), where it was re-dis- 
covered in 1886 by Mr. H. Walhs Kew. 

Acicula lineata. This species, as far as I know, has not 
been previously recorded for Lincolnshire, nor has it yet, I 
believe, been found alive. 

It is significant that the three commonest species, H. vir- 
gata, H. caperata and H. gigaxii — now living within a few 
3^ards of this deposit, have not been found therein. It is also 
noteworthy that although extremely abundant in the East and 
South-east of England at the present day, Helicella virgata and 
H. caperata are quite unknown from any Holocene deposit which 
can be shown to be Roman or earlier, clearly proving that 
these two species are quite modern immigrants, though there 
can be no doubt that they are truly native in the South West. 
Helicella gigaxii may also be a modern introduction into the 
neighbourhood, though in Kent it occurs in undoubted pre- 
Roman deposits. The absence of Helix aspersa is noteworthy, 
for as a rule it is a constant associate with Roman remains. 

Naturalist^ 



Pearson : Hepatics of the Hcbden Bridge Valley. 123 

Mr. Kennard remarks, in writing of the Ruckland discovery, 
In all probability we have here an artificial excavation in 
the chalk of probably Romano-British Age, which has been 
filled up by a wash from the hillside above ; such pits are 
known to occur in Romano-British villages, numbers having 
been found during the excavations in Wiltshire by the late 
General Pitt Rivers, and it is to be hoped that excavations 
will be made and thus throw additional light on an extremely 
interesting discovery.' 

It should perhaps here be mentioned that many years ago 
Roman remains were found about a quarter of a mile further 
down this valley, and the discovery recorded in the Proceedings 
of the Society of Antiquaries. 

In the field immediately to the North-cast of the Rectory 
Grounds, the Rev. George Hall found a very fine early Neolithic 
Flint Implement ; and other flint flakes, etc., have since been 
found in the immediate neighbourhood. 

The Holocene deposits in Lincolnshire have not yet received 
the attention they deserve and there can be no doubt that 
when they have been investigated, many interesting and 
important facts will be brought to light. 



HEPATICS OF THE HEBDEN BRIDGE VALLEY. 



WM. HY. PEARSON. 



I HAD the pleasure of visiting this interesting locality last 
September in the company of Messrs. Broome Barrett and 
Greenwood, and thanks to the guidance of Mr. Broome was 
able to collect nearly all the rare hepatics for which the Valley 
is famous. 

It was at Hebden Bridge that Samuel Gibson lived 60 to 
70 years ago. He was a keen botanist and known to the 
readers of the old botanical journals as a very controversial 
one ; he was a blacksmith by trade and it is rather remarkable 
that the botanist who has given such lustre to this neighbour- 
hood should also have been one, the late James Needham, 
who died a few years ago. 

Part of Gibson's herbarium is in the Salford Peel Park 
Museum, or at least it was about 50 years ago, when I was in 
the habit of consulting it, along with the 8 volumes they had 
in the Hbrary of the old Sowerby's ' English Botany.' 

Mr. Broome, by his intimate knowledge of the Hebden 
Bridge Valley, made my visit of a few hours eminently success- 
ful ; to be taken direct to where all the rarities grew was an 
experience I have never had before. 

We began by collecting Nardia geoscypha De N., a very 

1918 April 1. 



124 Northern News. 

rare species on banks, unfortunately associated with the 
common Nardia scalaris Schrad., with which it is closely 
related ; later on, on rocks the common Lophozia ventricosa 
Dicks, was met with, and on wet banks Aplozia spharocarpa 
Hook. ; on rocks and at the base of old trees Lepidozia reptans 
L. was the most prevalent species : then following a small 
water course, on the stones by its side Scapania timhrosa 
Schrad., a rare species was met with with sparingly. On a 
rock further up the Valley I got a little of the rare Scapania 
curia Mart. 

The greatest of all rarities for which Hebden Bridge is 
famous is Lophozia atlantica Kaalaas, this was growing in 
considerable abundance on an old wall, also associated with 
Lophozia Floerkii Web. and M., with which it had hitherto 
been confused, but there was no difficulty in recognising the 
difference between the two species in the field. 

I had received many years ago small specimens from Hebden 
Bridge, collected by James Needham, of Jttbiila HutchinsicB 
Hook., and imagined I should have to search diligently for it. 
I was extremely surprised to be taken to a stream where it 
was growing in abundance, along with a beautiful form of 
Chiloscyphiis polyanthus L., this was also growing abundantly. 

Jubula Hittchinsice Hook, was originally collected in the 
South of Ireland more than a hundred years ago by a young 
lady botanist, Miss Hutchins, and named in her honour by 
Dr. Hooker ; the beautiful limestone crucifer Hutchinsia 
Petrea also commemorates her. 

Recently the American hepaticologist. Prof. Evans, has 
monographed the genus Herherta Gray and reports that all 
the European forms of that genus resolve themselves into 
three species, Sauteriana, adunca and another which he had 
published as Herherta Hutchinsia. 

Mr. Broome and I searched carefully for Scapania subalpina 
Nees, but did not meet with it, although in the Report on the 
visit of the Yorkshire Naturalists to Hebden Bridge in June, 
1904, it is referred to as the dominant liverwort of the Hebden 
Valley ; all our specimens are Scapania purpurascens Hook. 

: o : 

In the Proceedings of the Geologists' Association, Vol. XXIX, pt. i, 
recently issued, Professor H. H. Swinnerton has an illustrated article on 
' The Keuper Basement Beds, near Nottingham.' 

We much regret to learn of the death of Dr. Marten Perry, of Spalding, 
which took place on Feb, 19th. Dr. Perry had reached the ripe old age 
of 92 years, and was quite active and walking about Spalding to within a 
few days of his death. He was a keen antiquary, and was greatly in- 
terested in the Spalding Gentlemen's Society, one of the oldest Antiquarian 
Societies in the county, if not the oldest. For many years he was its 
President, and had much to do with the erection of its lecture room and 
Museum, which was opened a few years ago. Among his writings is a 
History of this Society. 

Naturalist, 



ALIEN MOLLUSCA IN YORKSHIRE. 

J. A. HARGREAVES and J. DIGBY FIRTH, F.L.S. 

From time to time various records of alien mollusca in the 
county have been made in different magazines. In 1885 a 
Uving Helix lactea was obtained at Pateley Bridge ; several 
different genera have been obtained at Hull from ships bringing 
cattle bones and other goods, but we have not been able to 
find records for Yorkshire of living molluscs having been 
imported with grain, though frequent mention occurs in isolated 
paragraphs of specimens imported with currants, bananas and 
other fruits and vegetables both in Yorkshire and elsewhere ; 
while Mr. J. W. Clarke has shown Helicella capcrata taken 
from the feathers of an immigrant bird immediately after 
landing on the East Coast. 

Further records are given in Kew's ' Dispersal of Shells.' 
Living specimens of foreign helices were obtained by us from 
the vicinity of Wakefield, and subsequent search resulted in the 
production of over 100 specimens, of which about one third 
were alive when procured. They were obtained from barley 
' screenings ' and were accompanied by large numbers of 
seeds of alien plants, the growths from which have been ex- 
amined by the Leeds Naturalists, a detailed record having 
been made. In the screenings were also found many more or 
less fragmentary specimens of Tenebrionidae, mostly alien 
species of Blaps. 

Careful search was made on more than one occasion to see 
if any of the molluscs were able to establish themselves in the 
neighbourhood. Most of the screenings were deposited on the 
sloping banks of a large deep pond in a disused quarry, and here 
also several living specimens were obtained, along with many 
dead shells. Poultry had free access to the rubbish heap, and 
apparently only a few molluscs escaped their vigilance. In 
this district where the soil is not calcareous, poultry are natur- 
ally keen on the shells of molluscs, and in one place where the 
screenings had been levelled, and afforded a better opportunity 
for seeing them, scarcely a vestige of a shell was to be seen, 
showing how closely the mass had been scrutinised by the 
birds. It appears fairly certain that there is very little proba- 
bility of the molluscs establishing themselves in the neighbour- 
hood unless protected from capture by birds. 

Mr. J. E. Crowther of Elland has obtained a number of 
molluscs from imported barley when it was being steeped, the 
snails rising to the surface. His commonest shell, as at Wake- 
field, was Helicella pyramidata, which comprises over two 
thirds of the specimens. 

It is perhaps advisable to place on record the species 
obtained. For the identifications we are indebted to Mr. J. 

1918 Aprill. 



126 Alien Molhtsca in Yorkshire. 

R. le Brockton Tomlin, M.A. Up to the present, the species 
found are as follows : — 

From Elland : — From Wakefield : — 

Helix verinictdata juv. Miill. Helix vermiculata Miill. 

Helicella emphorca Bourgt. H . melanostoma Drap. 

H. terrestris Penn. H. nissleri Pall., 

H. maiiritanica Bourgt. Helicella pyramidata Drap. and 
H. pyramidata Drap. varieties monozona, alba, mar- 

H. numidica Bourgt. morata, dcpressa and conica. 

H. affinior Deb. H. rhodocheila West. 

H. globuloidea Terv. H. numidica Bourgt. 

Leucochroa candidissima H . cespiHtm Drap. 

Drap. Leucochroa candidissima Drap. 

together with broken valves of non-British Anodonta and Unio, 
and odd specimens of Cypraea annulus, the latter presumably 
dropped on the land surface wlience the barley came. 

The general facies of the above indicates an origin from 
Northern Africa, a conclusion which Mr. Horrell tells us is 
partially but not fully confirmed by the plants and the beetles 
found with them. 

Mr. J. F, Musham of Selby has drawn our attention to quite 
a different source for alien molluscs. The Yorkshire Dyeware 
and Chemical Co. at Selby, import from Jamaica large quantities 
of logwood for the purpose of extracting dyes for commercial 
use. The wood arrives in the form of large logs which are 
unloaded from the canal extending by the works. In unloading 
and drying the wood many animals which have been secreted 
in the crevices of the logs make their presence known. Recently 
living examples of a fair sized lizard, scorpion, hermit crab 
and a large cockroach have been seen, together with numerous 
empty shells of land and marine moUusca. Mr. R. Standen 
of the Manchester University has indentified most of the mol- 
lusca and Mr. J. R. le Brockton Tomlin the remainder, none 
of which were alive when found. 

The Lucerna are characteristic of and confined to Jamaica. 
The species found are as under : — 

Neocyclotus jamaicensis Ch. Lucerna acuta Lam. var. 

Helicina neritella Lam. L. subacuta Pfr. 

Colobo stylus red fieldianusCB. Ad. L. subsloaneana Pils. 
Lucerna picturatus Adams. Livona pica L. 

Many. Littorina sp., indistinguish- 

L. soror Fer. able from L. littorea. 

All these are land shells except the last two, which are 
marine. There is no question of establishing themselves as 
all were dead when obtained. Similar importations with log- 
wood have long been recorded for San Francisco and Germany. 

The writers would be glad to learn of any other Yorkshire 
instances. 

NatutalisI 



127 

ROMANCE OF THE CUCKOO 



E. P. BUTTERKIELD. 



(Continued from page g6). 

Macgillivray, in examining a female Cuckoo, found no 
fewer than twelve eggs in progress of development, and these 
were disposed in separate clusters, one of which contained 
three, another six, and the third three. As to the interval 
between the laying of each egg, which may be variable, there 
is some doubt, but some individuals have been thought to lay 
about every third day. Most of the Cuckoo eggs are laid 
here between the middle of May and middle of June. 

In other parts of Britain, eggs of the Cuckoo have been 
found from early April to, I believe, as late as August — but 
these are rare instances. 

The incubation of the egg of Cuckoo lasts twelve or thirteen 
days. The young, when newly hatched, differ little from young 
Pipits, except in point of size, but soon their skin begins to 
darken, and before they are many days old they are repulsive 
looking creatures, and grow enormously during the first three 
days. Before they are two days old, they usually begin to 
hoist out of nest any young or any unhatched eggs belonging 
to the rightful owner, and this they do by a method which, 
unless one has first witnessed it, would be considered incredible. 
The young Cuckoo, which at this age is very restless, and is 
constantly trying to insinuate itself beneath the bodies of its 
foster brothers until it gets one into a favourable position, that 
is, in the hollow of the back, when it begins to clamber back- 
ward-way up the side of the nest, balancing the young bird on 
its back by elevating its elbows, till it reaches the top, when it 
throws off its burden. As if to make assurance doubly sure, 
that its work has been successful, it remains for some little time 
in this position, the extremities of its wings being kept in motion, 
and then falls forward into the nest. I confess, when I first saw 
this feat accomplished, my language was more expressive than 
prudent, and I had a strong desire to pitch the young Cuckoo 
out of the nest ; nevertheless, the sight is one of the most 
marvellous phenomena connected with bird-life. This intense 
desire to throw the rightful occupants out of the nest begins 
to diminish when a few days old, and it remains blind for about 
a week, at which age it has more the appearance of a miniature 
hedgehog than a bird, but at the end of the second week he 
is getting a fine fellow, and when any intruder approaches, 
he raises himself in the nest, with his feathers about the head 
all erect, and offers fight by sparring and plunging forward ; 
and it remains in the nest until it is three weeks old. The 
call-note of the young Cuckoo which has been reared by a 
Titlark is an exact reproduction of the call-note of its foster 

1918 April 1. 



128 Romance of the Cuckoo. 

parents, and I have wondered, when the Cuckoo has been reared 
by other species than the Titlark, whether it has the same 
call-note, I have kept young Cuckoos which have been reared 
by Titlarks, and sometimes have taken them about with me 
in my rambles. It is often said that small birds in the presence 
of the Cockoo mistake it for a Hawk ; but I cannot share this 
belief. I placed a young Cuckoo on a wall recently in the 
neighbourhood of a Titlark's nest — five Pipits, a Lark and 
Wagtail soon assembled. Certainly the Pipits belonging to 
the nest hustled the Cuckoo off the wall once or twice but the 
other Pipits evinced more curiosity than anger, and kept 
flying from one side to another and appeared to be fascinated 
for over a half an hour. At last two Pipits kept flying down 
into the pasture and back to the Cuckoo ; this they repeated 
a good many times. I took the Pipits to be seeking for food, 
but did not see them offer any to the Cuckoo. I took my 
young Cuckoo again to the moor and sat down near a Titlark's 
nest containing a young Cuckoo, and placed my Cuckoo a 
few yards away. Soon a good many Titlarks assembled, two 
of which played about the Cuckoo as long as I remained sat 
down without manifesting the slightest fear : to me they 
appeared as if they wanted to feed the young Cuckoo. After 
this incident, on returning home, I sat down on the edge of a 
wood, soon after which a Sparrow Hawk flew over my head, 
which was a signal for all the birds in the neighbourhood to 
scamper off into various hiding places, and I could not help 
contrasting the behaviour of the bird at the approach of the 
Hawk, with the Pipits in the presence of the Cuckoo. 

The young Cuckoo has an enormous appetite, so much so, 
that when I have given its meal, I have often declared that 
' it must be all stomach.' And soon after being fed — and even 
when well fed — it would, like Oliver Twist, cry for more. Grati- 
tude it may have, but it is in an Irishman's sense : ' A lively 
sense of favours to come.' When I have had no other food, I 
offered it a young frog, which it swallowed with apparent relish. 

The climbing habit of the Cuckoo when young is much more 
marked than in the adult. It will chmb about a cage much 
"-iter the manner of a Parrot, and when I let it have the run of 
the greenhouse, it could cling with great facility to the ledges. 

When it was being fed, it shook only one wing, lifting it 
quite high instead of shaking both wings as most young birds 
do ; it would follow me about in the garden when I was turning 
over the earth to find worms. One day it left me and flew 
to a neighbour's garden, thence to the main street and came 
back to an ash tree at the bottom of my garden, from which 
I could not dislodge it. After leaving it for an hour it flew 
down when I began to turn over the earth in the garden^in 
the expectation, I presume, of having more worms. 

Naturalist, 



Romance of the Ctickoo. 129 

It has been asserted by some naturalists that the Cuckoo 
has been known to take some interest in its future offspring, 
but I have spent much of my leisure time near the nests which 
have contained Cuckoo's eggs, from the time the eggs have 
been laid, to the time of the young Cuckoo leaving the nest, 
but I have neVer seen anything in their behaviour which 
would lead one to support this assertion. I should not, 
however, like it to be inferred that I deny that occasionally 
this may be done by individual Cuckoos, for there is no limit 
to their vagaries. 

Contrary to what one might expect, the Cuckoo will some- 
times not only take all the eggs in a nest, afterwards depositing 
its egg, but in such instances, the eggs of the dupe usually 
have been known to have been incubated for some time, but 
for some inscrutable reason, it will rob nests of all their young, 
and it is even said that it will sometimes remove a foster 
parent from a nest, in which it intends to deposit its egg. 
Such an instance is recorded in The Field by Mr. C. Wickam, 
Manchester, whose gardener saw a Cuckoo fly down to an 
ivy-coloured wall and emerge in a moment carrying in its 
beak a Wagtail held by both wings and flew to some distance 
with its burden. On inspecting the nest a Cuckoo's egg was 
found, but the Wagtail forsook the nest. 

Young Cuckoos, after they leave their nests on account of 
their wandering habits, are very apt to lose their foster-parents, 
and such is the fascinating power of the young Cuckoo in such 
circumstances that it would seem there is usually no difficulty 
in attracting other birds, other than its foster-parents, to 
provide for its physical needs. A young Cuckoo has been 
known to have been attended by no fewer than six Pied Wag- 
tails, and even in some instances, it has been known to have 
been fed by two, if not three, different species of birds. 

As to the origin of the parasitic habits of the Cuckoo, many 
theories have been advanced, all more or less unsatisfactory, the 
comparative long interval which elapses between the laying of 
each egg, being perhaps the most important factor. Another 
assumption given is that on account of the bulk of the adult, 
Cuckoos having to migrate by the middle of July, said to be for 
lack of food, the time is insufficient, and the Cuckoos would 
have to migrate before the young ones could shift for themselves. 
But the question might still be asked, why should Cuckoos 
migrate by the middle of July, for food at this time is more 
abundant than at any other period since their arrival ? It 
used to be thought that the Cuckoo lived almost exclusively 
on large hairy caterpillars, but such is by no means the case, 
their food being quite as varied as that of most other birds. 

Most naturahsts now assume that the Common Cuckoo 
is polyandrous, and a few even assert it is so in a marked 

1918 April 1. 



130 Romance of the Cuckoo. 

degree, and it is significant that the same ' feature exists, 
or is in course of being developed among many other wholly, 
or partially parasitic species such as the American Cowbirds 
and Cuckoos.' Dr. Fulton, writing from New Zealand in Nature, 
states ' that contrary to the usual opinion, there are numbers 
of instances known where Cuckoos (species not stated) have 
supervised the forced adoption of their offspring by other 
species, have assisted in their feeding, and have reclaimed and 
taken them away from their foster-parents.' 

Another feature in the economy of the Cuckoo is the 
relatively small size of the sexual organs of the male, at the 
Season of what should be their maximum development, and 
this has been a source of not a little speculation, but this may 
be connected with the preponderance of males resulting in a 
loss of parental affection. 

There are other points in connection with our subject, 
about which much speculation exists, but into which I will not 
now enter, but merely refer to one other matter as it illustrates 
' Dimorphism,' and has reference to that curious phenomenon 
which sometimes occurs in animals, where two varietal forms 
exist side by side without such cause being in any way traceable 
to local influences. 

As is well known to naturalists, the young Cuckoo differs 
much from the adult, the plumage being a dark or ashy brown 
colour, barred with rufous, giving it a beautifully mottled 
appearance, with a white patch on the occiput, but there is 
also another phase of plumage confined, it is believed, to young 
birds only, the prevailing colour being rufous. Sometimes a 
rich chestnut colour, similar to the plumage of a Kestrel, and 
it is somewhat curious that this form is chiefly confined to the 
female sex. 

Perhaps, in conclusion, I ought to refer to the assertion 
made by some naturalists that the Cuckoo deposits its egg or 
eggs only in the nests of those birds that laid similar eggs to 
her own, but this is a statement much too sweeping in its 
character. There can be no denying the fact that, in a general 
sense, this may be true, but there are many remarkable excep- 
tions, even in our own district, where the Cuckoo has deposited 
its egg in the nests of the Ring Ouzel and Whinchat, but such 
instances are rare, and in all probability, will be rarer in the 
future, since I have little doubt that the eggs of the Cuckoo 
have been and are undergoing a process of adaptation which 
will ultimately result in fewer faultily-matched clutches such 
as quoted above. Still it would be a difficult question to 
answer why the Cuckoo should have laid their eggs in the nests 
of Ring Ouzel and Whinchat in the height of the breeding 
season when there could have been no difficulty in finding more 
suitable nests, such as the Titlark and Skylark. 

Naturalist, 



131 
ORNITHOLOGICAL OBSERVATIONS 
AND REFLECTIONS IN SHETLAND. 

EDMUND SELOUS. 

October 17TH, 1911. — Kittiwakes either fishing or floating 
idly and prettily on the water. Those fishing plunge, now, from 
a height, closing the wings and shooting some little way beneath 
the surface. To them enter certain Arctic Skuas, and fish, at 
secondhand for the fish that the Kittiwakes have fished for. His 
highly spectacular method brings an odium upon the more ingen- 
ious thief, here, which he does not at all specially deserve — it is 
often so amongst ourselves, indeed. The steward of a Shetland 
passenger steamer, though with no sort of tolerance for birds 
that fish more orthodoxly — Shags, for instance — or love for 
birds in general (or particular) was for destroying the whole 
race of Skuas, so indignant was he made by this sight, and the 
same spirit, higher placed and leading to wanton and stupid 
acts of destruction,* is to be found in larger vessels that go on 
scientific expeditions. To the man of uncultivated mind, 
indeed, the thought of any balance or adjustment — any nicety 
of interrelation between species and species — never occurs. 
He is, or would be, if he could, a great interferer with one, at 
the expense of another, though, at the same time, in larger 
ways, and through his higher-plane human brutalities, he 
will cheerfully bring both to extinction, and as many, to the 
boot, as may be. 

These Skuas, hke Vultures, follow one another to the prey, 
for if one makes chase of a bird that has been successful, his 
companion, or any other that may happen to see him doing so, 
joins in immediately, so that two, three or four — I have not 
seen a greater number — may be pressing one Kittiwake at the 
same time. Do the Skuas note, with accuracy, whether a 
Kittiwake has succeeded, or failed, in his plunge ? I believe 
they do. One plunged whilst a pirate was flying quite close to 
him, but no pursuit ensued. This is in great contrast to the 
way in which, following each other, they sweep to the chase 
when, as is obvious, a capture has been effected, and thus, 
by the action of the Skuas, one can judge as to the result of 
each Kittiwake's attempt. A bird, thus persecuted, utters 
harsh, indignant-sounding cries. Some drop the booty quickly, 
but others show great obstinacy in not surrendering what they 
have caught, and will go down on the water, without doing so, 
the Skua — or Skuas — having, at last, to desist and go off. No 

* e.g, 'All that we could do to protect our friends' (the Adelie 
Penguins namely) ' was to shoot as many of these sea-leopards as 
possible' !!!!!! (the exclamation marks are my own). The above took 
place on the British Antarctic Expedition, 1910-1913. 

1918 April » . 



132 Ornithological Observations and Reflections in Shetland. 

actual attack is made — at least I have never seen this, and 
doubt if it is ever the case. Fishermen here assert — and they 
certainly belong to the class of persons having ' large oppor- 
tunities of observation ' — that if the fish, when relinquished, 
should be missed by the ' Bonxie ' in its fall, the latter will 
never pick it up afterwards, prefering to lose it, if he cannot 
seize it before it strikes the water. But let not the amateur or 
cockney or ' week-end ' naturalist be put off from doubting, 
or using his own eyes, by this, for, in field natural history, a 
mountain of opportunity produces commonly, a mouse of 
observation, and I have twice, now, within a short space of 
time (and also the other day) seen the Bonxie do this very thing. 
At least, under the required circumstances, I saw it dip down 
on the water for something, and for what else could it have 
been ? One of these occasions was when two or three Skuas 
were chasing the same Kittiwake, but the successful robber 
was not molested by the others, and so it may always be — 
' Hawks should not pike out hawks' een.' 

This piratical parasitism of the Arctic Skua upon Terns, 
Gulls, Puffins and other of its fellow fish-eaters, has, of course 
long been known, and is often referred to. Another, and, I 
think, still more interesting example of the same thing, inasmuch 
as, here, the interrelation of vassal and suzerain is between two 
species more widely sundered, if not (having regard to the last 
case) in structure, yet in their typical habits of life, one strictly 
a land, the other, not so strictly, a seabird, is apparently 
less well known, since, striking as the sight is, I have not been 
able to find any proper account of it — nothing coming at all 
near to what I have myself seen. It is a propos, I think, 
therefore, a little to diversify these northern notes with an 
extract from some others (or, rather, a summary of them) 
which I made years ago, far south, on the Dorsetshire coast. 
This appeared in the Saturday Review,* but only once, whereas 
field notes with anything in them, ought to keep on appearing, 
if we cherish the hope that a distant posterity will be better 
supplied with information than we ourselves are, in its standard 
works on ornithology — as surely we must, since it is pretty 
plain that, as things are going, it will be much worse supplied 
with the subject of ornithology — birds, f The extract is as 

* April 12th, 1902. 

I Hardly a day, now, but some proposition or exhortation appears in 
one or other of the papers, to no longer protect, to ' keep down ' or even to 
wholly exterminate some bird that, without any counsel for the defence, 
and on a one-sided, ' hanging-judge ' summing-up, is found guilty of being 
'injurious.' It need not be very injurious. Let it but be shown to do 
any damage at all — to eat a few grains of wheat, mixed in with its insects, 
now and then (the grain, they say, mounts up — mum the insects) — and, 
straightway, kill, kill, kill, kill, kill ! — a Hunnish p-n^an. There is no offset, 
apparently. However charming, however interesting, however instruc- 

Naturalist, 



Ornithological Observations and Reflections in Shetland. 133 

follows : — ' The Gulls* — few in number, having regard to the 
extent of territory over which they work — stand motionless 
and watch the Peewits, as from so many little observatories. 
Of a sudden, one rises, and at the same moment, you catch 
the jerk forward of a Peewit's head, in the act of seizing some- 
thing on the ground. As he jerks it up again, he sees the Gull, 
which is now almost upon him, and instantly takes to flight, 
followed by the latter, who, as soon as he is discovered, raises 
a loud wailing cry which seems to have in it something of an 
upbraiding quality, as though reproaching the Peewit for its 
ungenerous behaviour. The Peewit, deaf to these claims of 
Kultur, exerts itself to the utmost, to get away; labours, at 
first, its broad green fans, then, suspending their motion, shoots 
upwards, poises and comes rushing down in one — and then 
another — of those bold, gliding sweeps, so characteristic of the 
flight of this species. The Gull pursues, with cry on cry, draws 
near, overtakes and even, as it were, lays alongside the quarry, 
but seems purposely to refrain from actual violence ; there is 
turn and turn, double and double, then, all at once, the pursuer, 
checking suddenly and often with difficulty its swift full-sail, 
drops plumb to the ground, picks up and devours something 
greedily, and either remains standing there, or, with a satisfied 
look, flies off to another part of the field. When one sees this 
once, one may think that the Gull has by chance seen some- 
thing on the ground, and that the chase itself has been a more 
or less causeless act of aggression. But as the same thing 
happens again and again — goes on happening, in fact, as long 
as one stays to watch it — as first one Gull and then another 
bears down upon first one and then another Peewit, which 
latter has invariably either just found or just eaten something, 
this theory has to be abandoned and it soon becomes plain 
to sense and reason that the Gulls are systematically and of 
set purpose, robbing the Peewits. Sometimes one may see 

tively and aesthetically elevating, a bird cannot pay for its up-keep. The 
utilitarianism is gross — revolting. It is as though some dull boor were to 
slouch through the Louvre, the Vatican or the National Gallery, shrugging 
his shoulders, and regretting, at every step, that so much space, which 
might be more profitably filled, should be given up to housing mere knick- 
knacks. Is it really, then, a new conception to the educated, that a species 
— a perpetual, living being — -is, in truth, a much greater masterpiece than 
those which — how great soever they may be — at the most but simulate 
nature ? Is not Sus scvofa, after all, a little beyond ' The Florentine 
Boar ' ? Humanity, like Malvoleo, is ' sick of self-love.' How we should 
shudder at the threatened extinction of Gull, Goose or Magpie, if ' one of 
the old masters ' had made them. What should we think then, of the 
' passing ' of the Eagle — or Bird of Paradise, that chef d'ceuvre of how 
great a colourist ? 

* Lams ridibundus is the species — only quite lately threatened, as 
set forth in the note above. So charming a bird, the winter delight of 
our London parks and Thames bridges — largely, too, an insect-eater ! 

1918 April 1. 



134 Ornithological Observations and Reflections in Shetland, 

one of them make a mistake, that is, it will set out towards a 
Peewit, evidently under the impression that the latter has 
found something, but, all at once stop, as having discovered 
its error, and continue to watch and wait. Sometimes also, 
the attack or approach is so swift and silent that the Peewit, 
taken by surprise, flies hurriedly up, leaving its harvest on 
the ground, for the Gull at once to dispose of. As a rule, 
however, the Peewit is chased, and, as a rule, also — I should say 
at least four out of every half dozen times — it parts with what 
it has to the aggressor. In the cases where it does not, it 
either, by its obstinacy, tires the Gull out, or (here is another 
close parallel) owes its impunity to the rival efforts of two or 
more pursuers. For the most part, the Gulls stand at fairly 
wide intervals, over the land, but occasionally, two will be 
near together, and then, whichever of these first rises, the other 
will be sure to do so too, and to pursue either it or the Peewit. 
Great indignation is exhibited, in these circumstances, by both 
the marauders, each one of whom considers the other to be a 
trespasser upon his own rights. They assail one another in 
the air, their course becomes deflected and the Peewit escapes, 
an interesting and pretty illustration of the homely saying that 
' When thieves fall out, honest men come by their own.' 
(Though perhaps the obscure subject of the strife might here 
demur). 

Does the Peewit, when thus forced to relinquish what it 
has honestly and industriously acquired, merely drop it out 
of its beak, or is it made actually to disgorge it, as are Gulls 
themselves, in similar circumstances, by the Skuas ? To 
make this out, through the glasses, is difficult, if not impossible, 
but it seems likely that in the majority of cases the latter is 
what occurs, strange as this may appear, for the Peewit has 
not, like the Gull tribe, the natural habit of disgorging its 
food. I can, however, see no reason why it should not as a 
rule swallow what it finds before the Gull is upon it ... . On 
the other hand, it is possible that the Gull's approach — com- 
mencing from the first indication of success on the part of its 
quarry — may be so swift that the latter has rarely time to 
swallow, on the ground, and finds it difficult to do so during 
flight. If when the Peewit had once swallowed, it could be 
made to disgorge, we could better understand that curious 
change of intention which the Gull sometimes exhibits in 
the very midst of flying down upon it. The precise manner, 
therefore, in which the Peewit is robbed may be as open to doubt 
as it is in some other (higher) instances where the main fact is 
not less certain. A more interesting point is involved in the 
question of what is the precise mental attitude of the two 
birds towards one another. It might be thought that hostility, 
pure and simple, was the only possible one in such a case as 

Naturalist, 



Fordham : Yorkshire Coleoptera in 1917. 135 

this, or that if the Gull had acquired a contempt for the Peewit, 
the Peewit, at any rate, must look with terror and resentment 
on the Gull. But if this last is the case, how is it that the 
two birds may constantly be seen standing almost side by side, 
with apparent indifference, and that, until the actual chase 
is begun, the Peewit never seems at all afraid of its persecutor. 
And then, too, an instinct would seem to have been developed 
in the Gull similar to that which restrains a shepherd's dog 
from biting the sheep, and only allows him to drive and hustle 
them. Though he pursues closely, he does not actually attack, 
and his very cries seem to express complaint, rather than anger, 
as though he were demanding what the Peewit, as well as 
himself, knew to be his due. It is at least possible that this 
may really be the case. However a habit of this kind may 
have commenced, when once the weaker bird had come to be 
terrorised by the stronger one, the latter would be likely, on 
the principle of ' least action,' gradually to accustom itself to 
threaten only, and the threat, in time, would be responded to 
more as an instinct than in fear of something that had ceased. 
Thus, to the Gull, the Peewit might become by degrees first 
a subject having duties, and at last a dutiful subject ; whilst 
the Peewit would see, in the Gull, not so much an oppressor 
as an existing necessary state of things — in fact, an institution 
which would make it all right. This curious result to which our 
human experience may offer, here and there, some analogy, 
is perhaps the most interesting feature in a species of parasitism 
which is in itself full of interest. Indeed, we might almost 
call it commensalism, since the sooner the Peewit gives up 
what it has, the sooner it can get something else, which is 
gain too — of a sort. 

YORKSHIRE COLEOPTERA IN 1917. 



W. J. FORDHAM, M.R.C.S., L.R.C.P., F.E.S. 



{Continued froyn page 102). 

Aihous vittatus F. Roundhay Park, 6-16. S. D. F. Colhng- 

ham, 6-16. E. C. H. *64. Escrick, 6-17. W. J. F. *6i. 
Trixas;us ( Throscus) dermestoides L. Collingham, 6-16. 

J. D. F. *64. 
Helodes marginata F. Morton Wood, Hepworth. Several. 

Lower Harden Clough, Meltham, 7-17. W. Falconer. *63. 
Scirtes hemisphericus L. Menthorpe Ings. One, 26-6-17, 

by sweeping. Extremely abundant on Sallows, 28-7-17. 

W. J. F. *6t. 
Podabrus alpinus Pk. Martin Beck Wood. H. H. C. 
Cantharis bicolor Hbst. {thoracica 01.). Menthorpe Ings. 

Several. 7-17. W. J. F. 

1918 April 1. 



136 Fordham : Yorkshire Coleoptera in 1917, 

Rhagonycha translucida Kry. {unicolor Curt.). Nunthorpe 
Wood, 7-17. W. J. F. 

Rhagonycha lutea Miill {fuscicornis 01.). A few on willows, 
Menthorpe Ings, 6-17. W. J. F. 

Malthinus frontalis Marsh. Martin Beck Wood. H. H. C. *63. 

Malachius viridis F. Escrick, 5-17. W. J. F. *6i. 

Corynetes cosruleus De G. Bubwith, in house, 6-17, probably- 
parasitic on Anohium striatum 01. {domesiicum Fourc). 

Niptus hololeucus Fall. Sparrow's nest under eaves, Wil- 
berlee, Staithwaite, 7-17. W. Falconer. 

Ptinns tectus^o\e\^. Leeds, in ground rice, 6-17. E.C.H. *64. 

Leptidea hrevipennis Muls. In baskets in Zoological De- 
partment, Leeds University, 7-17. E. C. H. *64. 

Leiopus nehulosus L. Collingham, 6-16. E. C. H. 
1[ Cryptocephalus parvulns Miill. Martin Beck Wood. H. H. C. 

Cryptocephaliis ptisillus F. Martin Beck Wood. H. H. C. *6^. 

Timarcha coriaria Laich. Hawkesworth, near Ilkley, 8-17. 
W. J. F. 

Chrysomela marginata L. Bishopdale Head. One. 9-17. 
W. J. F. *65. (The actual spot was very near indeed 
to the watershed which divides V.C. 64 from 65.). 

Chrysomela graminis L. E.Ktremely abundant on Tansy in 
Clifton Ings, York, on June 12th, 1917. W. J. F. This 
locality is an old and well known one, being mentioned by 
Stephens (111. iv., 346). 

Melasoma popuU L. Barmby Common, near Pocklington, 
on dwarf sallows. W. J. F. (There is a great resem- 
blance, except in size, between this species and the 
red galls of Nematiis, which were abundant on the 
sallows, and I frequently, at a distance, mistook the 
gall for the beetle.). 

Chalcoides aurea Geoff, [helxines Foud.). Bramhope, 6-17. 
J. D. F. 

Chalcoides fidvicornis F. {smaragdina Foud.). Collingham, 
5-16. J. D. F. *64. 

Bruchidius cisti F. {villosus F.). Collingham, 6-16. E. C. H. 

Spermophaguspecioralis Shp. Middlesbrough, July. M.L.T. An 
American species, no doubt imported with merchandise. 

Sitones humeralis Steph. Bramhope, 6-17. C. W. Horrell. *64. 

Barynotus squamosus Germ. ab. Schonherri Zett. Wilberlee, 
Slaithwaite, 7-17, in cut docks. W. Falconer. *63. 
Malham, 6-17. J. W. C. *64. 

Phytonomus pedestris Pk. {suspiciosus Hbst.). Bramhope, 
6-17. C. W. Horrell. *64. 

Limobius borealis Pk. {dissimilis Hbst.). Collingham, 6-17. 
C. W. Horrell. 

Grypidius equiseti F. Bramhope, 6-17, C. W. H. Adel, 5-17. 
J. D. F. *64. 

Naturalist, 



Fordham : Yorkshire Coleoptcra in 1917. 137 

Crvptorhynchiis lapathi L. North Duffield Ings, 6-17. W. J. F. 

*6i. 
Cceliodes ruhicundus Hbst. Collingham, 6-16. E. C. H. 
Cetithorrhynchus erysimi F. var. ^chloropterus Steph, Round- 
hay Park. 6-16. J. D. F. 
^Cetithorrhynchus roberti Gyll ab. alliarice Bris. Collingham, 

6-16. E. C. H. 
Limnoharis T. album L. Martin Beck Wood. H. H. C. 
Ciunus pulchellus Hbst. Lister Park, Manningham, 7-17, in 

thousands on Scrophularia nodosa, which for several 

consecutive years has been inhabited by Clonus scro- 

phularicB. The latter insect has disappeared and 

pulchellus has taken its place. J. W. C. *63. 
Magdalisruficornis L. {pruni L.). Collingham, 6-16. E. C. H. 
Apion ononicola Bach, [boheniani Th.). Aberford, 6-17. 

J. D. F. South Milford, 9-16, J. D. F. Boston Spa. 

6-17, J. D. F. Collingham, 5-17. C. W. Horrell. *64, 
Apion vicinum Kirb. Collingham. C. W. Horrell, 5-17. 

(Found by Walton in Yorks. — Fowler Brit., Col. v., 156.) 
Apion ^yllenhaliKivh . Collingham, 5-17. C. W. Horrell.' *64. 
Apion platalea Germ. Collingham, 6-16. J. D. F. *6^. 
Rhynchites harwoodi Joy. Adel, 6-16. E. C. H. *64. 
Rhynchites nanus Pk. Martin Beck Wood. By sweeping 

birch. H. H. C. 
Rhynchites mannerheimi Hum. [megacephalus Germ.). 

Martin Beck Wood. By sweeping birch. H. H. C. 
Aitelabus nitens Scop, [curculionoides L.). Martin Beck Wood. 

H. H. C. 
Rhinomacer attelaboides F. On Scotch fir, Kildale. June. 

M. L. T. 
Xyloterus ( Trypodendron) domesticus L. Howden, 6-17. 

W. J. F. *6i. 
Anoncodes {Nacerdes) melanura L. Warrenby, Teesmouth, 

7-17, in drift wood. W. J. F. 
^Lissodema cursor Gyll. West Garforth, 9-16. J. D. F. 
Meloe proscarabcBus L. Adel, 4-17. Very abundant. J.D.F. 
Meloeviolaceus Marsh. Collingham, 5-17. E. C. H. 
\Anaspis pulicaria Costa. Collingham, 6-16. E. C. H. 
Lagria hirta L. Barmby Common, 7-17. W. J. F. *6i. 
Gonodera (Cistela) murina L. Boston Spa, 6-17. J. D. F. 



The Journal of the Quekett Microscopical Club, No. 81. contains some 
interesting notes on Collecting and Mounting Rotifera, by C. F. Rousselet. 

In the Transactions of the Geological Society of Glasgow, Vol. XVI., 
pt. II., Dr. F. A. Bather, has papers on ' Hydreionocrinus vervucostis, 
n.sp. Carboniferous, Isle of Man,' and ' Some British Specimens of Ulo- 
crinus,' in which latter he describes examples from Yorkshire, Derbyshire, 
etc. 

1918 April 1. 



138 

FIELD NOTES. 

Mag^pie Flocks. — In The Naturalist, p. 26, Mr. Riley 
Fortune records a large flock of Magpies, mentioning that ' it 
has not been given to many to see so large a flock,' and after 
watching these birds in several counties, Yorkshire, Cheshire, 
Hereford, Devon, Hertfordshire and Kent among them, and 
wide apart geographically, and only come across one large 
flock, the truth of the above-quoted statement of Mr. Fortune 
seems undeniable. It would be of interest to know whether 
there was any apparent reason for the collecting together of 
the thirty-two birds, in Mr. Fortune's friend's case, since Magpies 
usually wander about in pairs {i.e., according to my experiences, 
except once). The reason I suggest it was probably not 
an accidental meeting is, firstly, because when staying each 
year at Mottram in Cheshire, an old gamekeeper told me that 
Magpies would collect to ' pitch into the wild cats ' if they got 
one in a hedge, or some place where escape was difficult ; but 
whether what he called ' wild cat ' was a Polecat or only a 
feral domestic cat, I never discovered for certainty. As 
Polecats were rare in those woods, whereas feral domestic cats 
roamed and hunted for some years about that time (1890 to 
1902) to my knowledge, probably it was the latter. It cer- 
tainly was not the true Wild Cat, none of which occurred there. 
In any case, the only large flock of Magpies I ever saw 
seemed to have collected because they had some living creature 
at bay,' this being in Devonshire during August, 1892, at a 
part about four miles from Devonport. They were collected 
on a hedge, within a length of ten or twelve yards from one 
end of the flock to the other, chattering excitedly, with a few 
birds on the ground, and all appeared excited about something 
in the hedge, judging by the way the flock kept moving and 
individuals kept changing positions up and down the hedge, 
and the large amount of noise, flapping of wings, etc. As 
individuals kept moving from one part and side of the hedge to 
another, it was impossible to count them correctly, but the 
nearest estimate of the number would be, I should say, about 
twenty-five. As they were well away from the road, and I 
had shortly before had a serious disagreement with a game- 
keeper aboat trespas-ing aftei butterflies, I did not care to 
investigate matters too closely, but it seems most likely they 
were attracted by a domestic cat ' at bay ' in the hedge. Was 
there any reason in the case quoted by Mr. Fortune ? *— Fred 
D. Welch, M.R.C.S., L.R.C.P., Hartley, near Longfield, Kent. 

* Possibly they were attracted by some food, probably carrion. This 
is more likely than that such a number should gather together to attack 
a cat. Magpies are exceedingly plentiful on the outskirts of some of our 
large Yorkshire towns ; they find secure nesting places, undisturbed by 
the presence of gamekeepers and other destructive agents. — R.F. 

NaturaL'st, 



139 

VERTEBRATE ZOOLOGY IN YORKSHIRE. 

Members of the Vertebrate Zoology section of the Yorkshire Naturalists' 
Union held a meeting at the Church Institute, Bradford, on February 
1 6th, and the attendance justified the change of meeting place from Leeds 
to Bradford. Mr. A. Haigh-Lumby presided. 

There was a generous response to the appeal for exhibits, those of 
Yorkshire interest being a Ruff brought by Mr. Pollard, killed from a 
flock of six at Ardsley, near Wakefield, September 25th, 191 7 ; and a Viper, 
on behalf of Mr. Ashwell, obtained between Whitby and Scarborough. 

Mr. Booth focussed attention on the unusual scarcity of fieldfares and 
redwings this winter, his experience of failing to find a single one of the 
former and but a few of the latter in his district being confirmed by ob- 
servers in other parts. Though most species are less plentiful as a result 
of last year's extraordinary spell of severe weather, its effect on these two 
Norwegian breeding birds was particularly pronounced. 

Mr. Rosse Butterfield reported that on the previous day he had observed 
a party of waders which he believed to be Bar Tailed Godwits on sub- 
merged low lying ground in the Keighley district. He also recorded a 
Goosander shot at Silsden. 

In a paper on ' Colloquial Names of Yorkshire Birds,' Mr. Butterfield 
maintained that scientific names, although indispensable, are of little 
interest in comparison with colloquial names, which are of ancient origin 
and historical value. With the spread of education and the tendency for 
unification of language, these names were rapidly being displaced, and it 
seemed worth while to put as many as possible on record, not adapted to 
modern spelling, but imitating as nearly as possible the spoken sounds. 
He inclined to the idea that the majority of these names were introduced 
by our Teutonic ancestors, and possibly some were of Celtic origin. Others 
were undoubtedly of French origin, especially those connected with the 
sport of hawking. Mr. Butterfield gave several examples of these names, 
many of which are permanently recorded in the Union's publication on the 
county avi-fauna. Altogether he suggested that it was a subject worthy 
of being treated by a scholar of deep and wide knowledge, with an un- 
prejudiced mind and an acute sense of judgement. 

Mr. William Hewett, in some notes from the York district, gave the 
following as the dates when spring migrants were first observed ; — 

House Martin . . . April 

Chiffchaff , 

Swallow ... ... ,, 

Whitethroat 

Cuckoo ... ... „ 

With the exception of Rook and Heron all the species were late in 
nesting. The Turtle dove seemed to be increasing as a nester. Among 
numerous ducks shot on the Derwent during the frost were the Tufted, 
Pochard, Wigeon, and female and young Smews. A pair of wild swans 
was seen on Wheldrake's Ings and an Egyptian Goose was shot at Sutton 
on Derwent. Partridges were fairly common in the neighbourhood of 
York and Woodcocks were increasing as residents, about ten pairs now 
nesting in one wood. He was informed by John Hodgson that no eggs 
had been seen on the Bempton Cliffs up to May nth, 1917, and the season 
had been a poor one. A double-yoked Guillemot's egg obtained last season 
from these cliffs weighed 5I ozs., 70 grains. 

In some notes from Wakefield district, covering a period from 1906 
to the present, Mr. H. Pollard, M.R.C.V.S., recorded from personal observa- 
tion, the Black Tern, Bittern, Black Throated Diver, Green Sandpiper, 
Sanderling, Wigeon, Shoveller, Pochard, Pintail, Ring Plover, Sheldrake, 
Great Crested Grebe, Little Auk. He also alluded to some unusually 
long strides of a rabbit on January i6th, over a field coated with snow. 

1918 April I. 



19 


Willow Wren 


. April 


30 


24 


Swift 


. May 


5 


24 


Landrail (heard) .. 


., 


10 


24 


Turtle dove 


.. 


12 


30 


Nightjar ... 


• 


12 



140 Vertebrate Zoology in Yorkshire, 

The first jump or two were short, the next six feet, a shorter one, six feet 
again, another short one, then 9 ft., 6 ft., 9 ft., and 6 ft. in succession, 
and where the ground decUned, 12 ft., with finally two or three short jumps 
to the hedge. The measurements were taken between the prints of each 
fore feet. 

Mr. William Hewett contributed Notes on the Cuckoo, and said that 
Mr. Massey, Manchester, who possessed an unrivalled collection of the 
eggs of the Cuckoo and those of its ' foster parents,' disputed Mr. Howard 
Saunders' statement that one Cuckoo sometimes deposits two and even 
three eggs in the same nest, holding that where there were two or more 
Cuckoo eggs in any nest they were deposited by different birds. 
From the same informant he had it that the eggs of this species varied 
from 19.5 to 24.5 millimetres in length and from 14.5 to 18.75 in breadth. 
Mr. Hewett stated that he both heard and saw a bird on two occasions 
on April 5th, 1894, for the first time that year, as he was crossing Strensall 
Common, and was within a few yards of it on the second occasion. This 
is an unusually early date, and much before the average. Suspected 
Cuckoo's eggs, a German collector had discovered, were best tested by 
their weight, the empty shells weighing from 25 to 30 per cent, more than 
those of similar size laid by any other passerine bird. 

Maps and views of the Crossbills district, selected for one of the Union's 
excursions during the summer, brought by Mr. J. Holmes, were screened, 
revealing many of the beauty-spots to be investigated. These were sup- 
plemented by descriptive notes, and a few pictorial examples of the fauna. 

Mr. Booth contributed a talk on ' Seals,' illustrated by beautiful 
photographic slides, the work of Mr. Fortune. Of the five species, ringed, 
harp, hooded, common and grey, he regarded the two latter only as being 
positively British. As both were grey, it was unfortunate that name 
should be applied to one. But there were great differences between the 
two, the common seldom attaining a length of 5 ft. whilst the so-called 
Grey approached 11 and 12 ft. Consequently size was always a safe 
guide to identification. He referred to the differences already described 
in The Naturalist (March, p. iii). Mr. Booth also made comparisons 
between seals and sea lions, and pointed out in a wealth of other informa- 
tion that the seals were specialised in greater degree for an aquatic life 
than were the sea lions. 

Mr. Jasper Atkinson exhibited a number of slides of birds of the 
wading orders, most of which were from his own photographs, secured in 
Holland and in varioiis parts of England. He supplemented these by 
appropriate remarks of habitat and habit, and read a printed article of Mr. 
Fortune's on ' The Roseate Tern,' which he was able to illustrate by his 
own work. Mentioning the suspected nesting of the Little Ringed Plover 
at Ravenglass he urged that it would be extremely interesting to obtain 
proof of the breeding of this form at a station so far north. 

A hearty vote of thanks was passed to all contributing and the president 
and secretary were empowered, if circumstances permit, to arrange for the 
usual meeting next November, the place being left open. 

W. GREAVES. 
: o : 

Reported Nesting* of the Stonechat in Upper Wharfe- 
dale. — Mr. D. Sutcliffe informs me that the young Stonechats 
were not in the nest, as I stated in my West Riding Vertebrate 
Zoology Report for 1917 (ante, p. 35). What he saw on July 
23rd or 24th, 1917 (not on July i6th), near to the lime works 
at Threshfield, was an adult pair of Stonechats and three or 
four young birds ; which appeared to be a family party. — H. 
B. Booth, Ben Rhydding. 



141 
A YEAR'S WORK AT THE SCUNTHORPE MUSEUM. 



HAROLD E. DUDLEY, Hon. Curator. 

At a recent meeting of the Scunthorpe Museum Committee, the following 
Report on the work during the year 1917 was submitted : — 

The number of persons visiting the Museum has greatly increased, 
and the Hon. Curator has received many expressions of appreciation and 
encouragement from Councillors and the public generally. The Museum 
is visited by considerable numbers of young people, who appear to examine 
the specimens with much intelligent interest. The information thus 
gained by the local scholars will be helpful to them in the lessons on 
Nature Study and kindred subjects which are given them at the Schools. 
The Museum is thus vindicating its existence as an educational asset to 
the district. 

A great handicap under which the Museum is suffering is the lack of 
room. Many specimens have had to be stored away, particularly in the 
Geological section, and it is to be hoped that it may be possible ere long 
to provide more space for properly displaying them. The large wall-cases, 
which were built to contain books, are in many ways unsuitable for Museum 
purposes. An attempt was made some time ago to render them more 
dust-proof, but with only partial success, as the specimens and labels 
become covered with dust in a few months, necessitating a ' Spring ' 
cleaning at least twice a year. With the provision of proper accommo- 
dation and cases, this unnecessary work will disappear. The whole of the 
collections have recently been rearranged. 

Much kindly and valuable help has been received from the Advisory 
Curator, Mr. T. Sheppard, M.Sc, F.G.S., etc., of the Hull Museums, who, 
in spite of the numberless calls upon his time, is always ready to give 
advice and assistance. 

The additions during the year, although not very numerous in some 
sections, have nevertheless been satisfactory, in view of the fact that 
people generally are so busily engaged in connection with the War. 

Stone Implements. — The additions under this head, which are few, 
include half a stone hammer, of fine grained sandstone, found on Risby 
Warren, by Mr. G. Dent, also several hammer stones from the same 
locality. 

Bronze Implements. — An addition of considerable value and interest 
has been made, in the shape of two bronze axe-heads, part of a hoard 
found at Winteringham. These were obtained from the Hull Municipal 
Museum in exchange for a bronze socketted dagger* found and presented 
by Mr. F. C. Bradley. The axe heads in question, which are good speci- 
mens of Bronze Age implements, are being figured in a publication on 
Bronze Implements by the British Association. Through the kindness of 
Mr. T. Sheppard. a cast of the dagger referred to has been placed in the 
Museum. 

Roman Remains. — Many visits have been made by the Curator to a 
site of Roman occupation in the neighbourhood, with the result that 
considerable numbers of objects of Roman origin have been added to the 
Museum. The chief of these is a large earthenware jar of barrel shape, 
18 in. high by about 18 in. in diameter at its largest circumference. It 
was found in situ about 3 feet 6 inches from the surface, the mouth and 
shoulders having fallen inside the jar. The base is missing, which fact 
leads to the supposition that it was used for child burial. 

Several portions of stone querns (hand mills used for grinding corn) 
have been secured from the same site. One of the specimens now in the 
Museum comprises half of an upper stone neatly and symmetrically made. 

Large numbers of fragments of Roman pottery have been obtained, 

* See The Naturalist, 191 7, p. 2S1. 
1918 April 1. 



142 A Year's Work at the Scunthorpe Museum. 

which give a most interesting idea as to the shapes and sizes of the domestic 
utensils in use during the Roman occupation of this country. They 
include pieces of ' Samian ' ware, ' Castor ' ware, basins, dishes, cinerary 
urns, spindle whorls, roofing tiles, etc. Especially interesting are the 
remains of Mortaria, i.e., earthenware vessels used for grinding food, etc. 
They were shallow, circular basins, lined with fragments of flint or other 
hard stone to facilitate grinding, and possessed a spout or lip for pouring 
out the material when ground. 

Several other miscellaneous objects have also been turned up, including 
an earthenware loom- weight and cakes of lead. There are prospects of 
other numerous additions from this site during the coming year. 

' Bygones.' — A commencement has been made towards forming a 
small collection of ' Bygones,' consisting of objects now practically obsolete, 
but which were formerly used in the household or business life of the 
people, such as tinder-lighters, candle-snuffers, rush-lights, horn lanterns, 
flails, etc. Already many specimens have been secured, including a set of 
brass guinea-scales and weights, a hand-loom shuttle, candle snuffers and 
snuffing tray, gophering iron, hand mangle, and oval boxes of early 
Congreve matches. This section of the Museum has proved of much 
interest and the curator would be glad to hear of any other suitable articles. 

War Relics. — This branch develops only very slowly, but few speci- 
mens having been secured of late. Chief amongst them is a Gas Helmet 
from a German Officer's dug-out, lent by Lieut. G. A. Gibson, R.E. 
Additions would be welcomed. 

Coins. — Under this head are several additions. We have received 
from the Hull Museum, by exchange, a fine seventeenth century Lincoln 
Tradesman's Token, ' Edward Tomson in the Bale of Lincoln,' ^-d. There 
have also been added, amongst others, a forged Lincoln shilling token, 
two replicas of the German ' Lusitania ' medal, and sundry British, 
Colonial and Foreign coins and tokens. 

Natural History. — This branch of the Museum's work is being ex- 
tended in a small way, seven cases of local birds and mammals having been 
added during the past few months. They include : — Common Snipe, Jack 
Snipe, Woodcock, Sparrow Hawk, Long-eared Owl, Short-eared Owl, Barn 
Owl, Squirrel. Other specimens are in the hands of the taxidermist. 

"The new cases are all based on a standard size, so that they may be 
systematically built up as fresh ones are added. Thus, two small cases 
are equal in size to one large one, and so one. This will avoid a lot of 
trouble and unsightliness in the future. 

Owing to the large extensions of the works and the cutting down of 
much timber in the neighbourhood, our local birds and mammals are in 
danger of becoming almost extinct during the next few years. It is there- 
fore the duty of the Museums Committee to see that as many local speci- 
mens as possible are placed in the Museum. The cost of properly preserving 
and casing these is really very small, especially when compared with the 
importance of keeping these local records in the Town's Museum. The 
Museum will fail in one of the chief parts of its work if it allows the 
district to become denuded of wild life without building up a representative 
collection whilst it has the opportunity. 

Mr. Joseph Fletcher has presented a case containing numerous Butter- 
flies and Moths, and various other objects have also been secured. 

Geology. — Many fossils have been obtained from the Frodingham 
Ironstone, but lack of shelf space forbids their exhibition at present. 
An extensive series of fossils has been secured from the strata below the 
Ironstone, i.e., the clays and shales exposed in the Frodingham railway 
cutting. It is hoped that the classification of these specimens may be 
completed at an early date, when it is anticipated that the records will be 
published in The Naturalist. Lack of space again prohibits their exhibi- 
tion. Fossils have also been added from the local ' Pecten ' bed of Iron- 
stone and from the Lower Lias Clay. 

Naturalist 



143 
REVIEWS AND BOOK NOTICES. 

The Wonders of Instinct : Chapters in the Psychology of Insects, by 
J. H. Fabre. London : T. Fisher Unwin, 320 pp., 10/6 net. All English- 
speaking naturalists will thank the publishers for producing this volume 
by ' The Poet of Science ' as Fabre has quite properly been called. The 
book contains the most striking chapters in the author's well-known 
' Souvenirs Entomologiques.' There are no scientific classifications, no 
lists of species nor details of geographical distribution, but, instead, a 
beautifully written narrative of observations made in reference to the ways 
of different species of insects. The various experiments, remarkable alike 
for their simplicity and for the valuable results obtained — are described 
in a style which places Fabre far ahead of any of his contemporaries or 
successors. Among the fourteen fascinating chapters it is difficult to 
say which appeal the most, though perhaps those dealing with the author's 
experiments with dead moles and burying beetles have the greatest ' grip ' 
on the reader. Spiders, Glow-worms, the Cabbage Caterpillar, the Green 
Grasshopper and even the Bluebottle are made to instruct and entertain 
us. This is certainly an ideal book for any reader, and a necesary book 
for the naturalist, but we must warn our readers not to take it up if they 
are very busy, or the inevitable result will be that work will wait. 

Geology, by A. R. Dwerryhouse, D.Sc, etc. T. Nelson & Sons, 301 
pp., 3/6 net. This remarkably cheap volume is one of the ' Romance 
of Reality ' series commenced by Messrs. Jack before the firm was 
taken over by Messrs. Nelson. Dr. Dwerryhouse is well known to 
our readers ; and in this book, after deploring the fact that ' most people 
are content to go on living in this world without attempting to find out 
anything about the world itself,' he gives four chapters on the Earth and 
its Early History, the Atmosphere, the Hydrosphere, and the Lithosphere. 
These contain a useful summary of geology. The remaining fourteen 
chapters have the general heading ' A Geological Reconnaissance.' In 
these the author invents a country ' Geologica' which he explores — dealing 
in turn with the coast, rivers, mountains, lakes, volcanoes, hot springs, 
valleys, glaciers, minerals, etc. In this way Hutton River, Lyell, Coal 
Hill and many other places bearing names familiar to geologists, are visited, 
and in imagination, the country is thoroughly explored, mapped, examined 
for minerals and ores. Almost everything that a geologist could wish for 
occurs in ' Geologica ' ; plans and sections are also given, as well as photo- 
graphs of tjrpical Geologica- al scenery, which, in many cases, bear a striking 
resemblance to geological scenery in Yorkshire and other places from which 
Dr. Dwerryhouse no doubt obtained ' colour ' for his story. 

Modern Whaling and Bear Hunting, by W. G. B. Murdoch. London, 
Seeley, Service & Co., 320 pp., 21/- net. To most people the whaling 
days are past history ; yet the narratives of the somewhat primitive 
methods of capturing our largest mammals, and the dangers attendant 
thereto, have always had a fascination. We had looked upon such stories 
as relics of the good old times, but Mr. Murdoch has produced a volume 
with all the charm and adventure of the old ones, relating experiences 
quite as weird and wonderful, with the additional advantages of more 
reliable scientific information, more modern appliances, and better methods 
of illustration. Mr. Murdoch took part as artist and historian in the 
expedition to the Weddell Sea in 1892-3 — the first of its kind since Sir 
James Ross's expedition in 1842. The expedition of 1892-3 led to the 
development of the present large southern whale fishing industry. The 
book also contains an account of bear hunting in the Arctic, and catching 
narwhals after the old style, by harpooning from small boats. Mr. 
Murdoch has the style of a practised lecturer — he keeps one's interest 
from first to last — his descriptions are clear, and enlivened by many a 
good anecdote. He also tells much of great value to a naturalist, while 
his sketches and photographs are admirable. ' Modern Whaling and Bear 
Hunting ' is one of the finest books we have read for some time. 

1918 April 1. 



144 



NEWS FROM THE MAGAZINES, Etc. 



On account of the large quantity of papers and reports in hand we are 
printing more than usual in the smaller type, in order to prevent delay. 

The Museums Journal for March contains an account of William 
Bullock's London Museum. 

The Annual meeting of the British Association, which was to have 
taken place this year at Cardiff, has been cancelled, for the second year 
in succession. 

Mr. A. E. Trueman writes on ' The Lias of South Lincolnshire ' in 
The Geological Magazine for February, and Mr. J. Wilfred Jackson writes 
on ' The New Brachiopod Genus, Liothyrella, of Thomson.' 

British Birds for March contains Notes on the Kingfisher, by W. 
Rowan ; A Note on the Nesting of the Swallow, by J. H. Owen ; and 
Records of the Common Buzzard in Derbyshire, and of the Red Throated 
Diver Inland in Lincolnshire. 

The Sunderland Library Circular, No. 6i, records that important 
additions have been made to the collection of local Magnesian Limestone 
Concretions, by Dr. G. Abbott, and that the blind were the first to ' see ' 
the ' tank ' on its arrival at Sunderland. 

Mr. A. H. Paterson has presented his manuscript notebooks from 1878- 
19 1 6, a complete set of his published works relating to the Natural History 
of Norfolk, and about a thousand of his well-known cartoons of local 
interest, to the Norwich Public Library. 

The Entomologist for February contains the following items : ' Notes 
on New and Little Known British Aphides,' by Fred V. Theobald ; ' On 
a Cure for Entomological Specimens affected by Verdigris,' by W. G. 
Sheldon ; ' Facts about Eustrcma reticulata,' by Rev. Euston Nurse ; 
' The Abundance of White Butterflies in 191 7,' by Robert Adkin. 

In The Entomologist's Monthly Magazine for March, Mr. G. C. Champion 
writes : ' Sysciophthalmus craivshayi Champ . . . the remarkable Curculionid 
described in the February number of this magazine . . . under the above 
name, proves to be synonymous with Anomophthalmus insolitus Fairm. 
(1884).' It is a pity this was not found out before describing the new 
species. 

Dr. F. A. Bather, writing in The Museums Journal, states ' Museums, 
I confess, weary me. Perhaps I have seen too many. And of all kinds 
of Museums those devoted to Art seem least to yield the mental refreshment 
which it should be their first aim to offer.' We would recommend Dr. 
Bather to spend a few hours in the Victoria and Albert Museum and 
other institutions at South Kensington. 

Among the contents of Science Progress, No. 47, in addition to the 
valuable reports by specialists on recent advances in science in its various 
sections, are the following : — The Density of Liquids, by J. Reilly ; The 
Age and Area Law, A Fundamental Law of Geographical Distribution by 
James Small, The Hypopyhsis Cerebri : Its Structure and Development, 
by K. M. Parker, and the inevitable Pre-Pal r olithic Man in England, by 
Mr. J. Reid Moir. Referring to the Piltdown remains, Mr. Moir considers 
these have been so extraordinarily misinterpreted that he feels it necessary 
that he should comment upon them. He informs us that as a practical 
flaker of flint, if he had been asked what sort of implements were used by 
a man having the features of the Piltdown skull he would have replied : 
' The very primitive edge-trimmed flints generally known as Eoliths,' but 
precisely how his experience as a flint knapper enables him to define the 
nature of implements made by a man whose 'only remains' known consist 
of very fragmentary portions of skull, it is difficult to understand. We 
cannot find that, notwithstanding all his quotations and footnotes, Mr. 
Moir advances things very much, and in looking for something entirely 
new on the subject we think we have found it, for on page 473 we are 
informed that ' Piltdown is not in Asia.' 

^Naturalist, 



WATKINS & DONOASTER 

NATURALISTS, 
36, STRAND, LONDON, W.C. 

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FELLOWSHIP 

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THIS little book is an attempt to help young people 
to realise the vital importance of fellowship, and 
to show how man is slowly and painfully learningf 
to live in association with his fellows. 

The characteristics of the good citizen are discussed, 
and also some of the problems that he will meet — in the 
home, the market and the State. 

The gradual development of justice and law ; our life 
in the State ; the claims of our nation, and our relations 
with other nations, are examined, and some opportunities 
of working for the future are suggested. 

CONTENTS : 

Introductory. — Mutual Aid. 

The Citizen Himself. — Honour. The Ancient Mariner's 
Message. The Pillars of Society. A Knight's Oath. 
A Prince's Motto. Habit. 

Ihe Citizen's Health and Surroundings. — A Serviceable 
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April 1st, 1918. 



MAY 1918. 



No. 736 

(No, 510 0/ current «(r/(«. 




A MONTHLY ILLUSTRATED JOURNAL OF 

NATURAL HISTORY FOR THE NORTH OF ENGLAND. 

EDITED BY 

T. SHEPPARD, M.Sc, F.G.^., F.R.G.S., F.S.A.Scot.. 

The Museums, Hull ; 

AND ' 

T. W. WOODHEAD, Ph.D., M. 

Technical College, Huddersfi^w''^ 
with the assistance as referees in spkct/l. departments op 
J. QILBBRT BAKBR, P.R.S. P.L.S., QBO. t( PO^klN'.2p4492€B. 

JOHN \^ TAYLOR, M.Sc, 



Prof. P. P. KENDALL, M.Sc, P.Q.S., 



RILEY FORTUNE. P.Z. 



:*tj 



onal M 




Contents : — 

PAOB 

Notes and Comments :— Lake District Rocks ; Vulcanity ; Prof. W. Boyd Dawkins ; Dr. 
A. Marker's Address ; Recrystallization in a Solid Environment ; Conditions Governing 
Metamorphism ; Anophelines ; Dr. 'WiUia.m G. Smith; Palmatn qui meruit ferat 145-149 

Northern Breeding Sites of QuHs—F. (". R./oiirrfain 149-150 

Th« Woodilce of the Hull District— 2nd Lieut. T.Stainforth.E.R.R.G. A 151-15J 

Ttie Geographical Distribution of Moths of the Sub-family Bistoninae-/. IK. 

Heslup Harrison, B.Sc 155-157 

Ornithological Observations and Reflections in Shetland— Edmund Selous 158-160 

Remarks upon 'The Post-Pliocene Non-Marine Mollusca of Ireland'— /. IT. Taylor, 

M.Sc 161-165 

Plant Qalls of the Huddersfleld District — fKw.FaifOJicr 166-168 

Bibliography: — Papers and Records relating to the Geology and Palaeontology of the North 

of England (Yorkshire c^icepted) published during 1917— r. Sheppard, M.Sc, F.G.S. ... 1C9-171 
In Memoriam: J. H. Howarth, J. P., F.G.S. (illustrated)— r.S 172-173 

Field Notes : — Scarcity of Fieldfares ; Vtricularia intermedia, etb., near York ; Mollusca 

near Louth ; Cuckoos' Eggs and Foster Parents ; Flocks of Magpies 157, 160,174 

Reviews and Book Notices 148 

Proceedings of Provincial Scientific Societies 150 

News from the Magazines _ I75 

Northern News 173, 176 

illustration 172 



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Geological Maps, Early. 

Geol. Soc, London, Trans. 4to. 2nd series. Vols. IV.-VII. (1836-56). 

Geol. Soc. Quart. Journ. Vols. I.-XIV. 

Goole Scientific Society, First Report. 

Huddersfield Arch, and Topog. Society. 4 Reports. (1865-1869). 

Illustrated Scientific News. 1902-4. (Set). 

Journ. Micrology and Nat. Hist. Mirror. 1914- 

Keighiey Naturalists' Society Journal. 4to. Part i. 

Lanes, and Cheshire Antiq. Soc, Vols. IV„ V.. VIII., XXVI. 

Liverpool ■ 'eol. Association Proc. Parts i, 3, 7, i6. 

Liverpool Nat. Journ. Parts i, 3, 7, 9, 18, 20 (or set). 

Louth Ant. and Nat. Soc Reports, i 14, 17-19. 

Manchester Geol. Soc. Trans Vols. XV., XVI., XIX.-XXIII. 

Marine Biological Assoc. Journal. Vols. I. -IV. 

Naturalists' v_ruide (Hudderstield). Parts 1-38. 

Naturalists' Journal. Vol. I., and part 44. 

Naturalists' Record. Srt. 

Newbury District Field Club Transactions. Vols. III. and on. 

Norfolk and Norwich Nat. Soc. Trans. Vol. IV., Pt 3. 

North Staffordshire Field Club Reports for 1869, 187 1-2, 1876. 

Peterborough Natural History Society. Reports, 1-8, 11-12, 14-26. 

Quarterly Journal ol Science. 187S-9, 1882-3, and 1885. 

Reliquary (Jewitt's 8vo. Series). Vol. XXII 

Reports on State of ^griculture of Counties (1790-1810K 

Royal Cornwall Geological Society Trans. Vol. V. to date. 

Salisbury Field Club. Transactions, Vol. II. 

S'-ottish Natiirali.-t. t88i 18^1 

Simpson's Guide to Whitby, ist ed. [before 1881]. 

Smith''- New • reologirai Alias of England and Wales. 1819-21. 

Soc of Antiquaries Proc ist Series, Vols. I. and II. 

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Apply:— Dipt C, c/o A. BROWN & SONS, Ltd., Hull. 

The Farne Islands' Association is finding difficulty (through the scarcity of 
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The chief qualifications are trustworthinpss and in being able to row a small 
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NOTES AND COMMENTS 

LAKE DISTRICT ROCKS. 

At a recent meeting of the Geological Society of London, 
Mr. J. F. N. Green delivered a lecture on thq Igneous Rocks 
of the Lake District. He first drew attention-to softie of the 
manuscript 6-inch maps of the Lake District, prepared nearly 
fifty years ago, by the Geological Survey, and pointed out that, 
although undoubtedly most accurate, they differed greatly 
in the volcanic area from his own. He suggested that the 
reason was that there was a fundamental difference in the 
classification of tuffs and lavas. A large proportion of the 
Lake- District rocks was brecciated, and had been supposed to 
be altered tuffs. With the unbrecciated rocks into which they 
passed they had been mapped as ashes. Several specimens 
and photographs were shown, indicating that the brecciation 
and apparent bedding were due to flow. Specimens were also 
shown of explosion- breccias, of the normal tuffs (which the 
lecturer believed to be mainly the result of erosion between 
eruptions), and of rocks simulating true tuffs, but actually 
Sandstones and conglomerates, composed of detrital igneous 
material. Attention was drawn to the criteria for distinguishing 
the various types. Recently, manuscripts had been found in 
the possession of the Geological Survey proving that Aveline, 
whose maps were extraordinarily accurate and detailed, had 
anticipated by thirty years the lecturer's Separation from the 
volcanic rocks of the basal beds of the Coniston Limestone Series. 

VULCANICITY. 

When re-mapped on this basis, the Borrowdale Series 
appeared as a simple and regular Sequence, Strongly folded and 
cropping out in long bands. An interesting history of Vul- 
canity was revealed, beginning in many places with explosion- 
tuffs followed by a great Series of pyroxene- andesites over the 
whole district. Then there was a pause during which fine- 
grained andesite-tuffs, with a tendency to produce true slates, 
accumulated. This was succeeded by a vast outpouring of 
andesites, of great thickness in the central mountain region, 
but dying out southwards and eastwards. Next a series of 
peculiar mixed tuffs, of special value in mapping, was covered 
by another mass of andesites dying out south-westwards. After 
this, soda-rhyolites covered the whole district, nothing later 
being preserved — with one possible known exception. These 
volcanic rocks were intersected by a varied series of intrusions. 

PROF. W. BOYD DAWKINS. 

In presenting the Prestwich Medal, awarded to Prof. W. 
Boyd Dawkins, at the anniversary meeting of the Geological 
Society of London, the President stated : ' During fifty-six 
years Prof. Dawkins has contributed nearly thirty papers to 

1918 May 1. 



146 Notes and Comments. 

the Quarterly Journal of this Society, in addition to numerous 
works published elsewhere. His researches in British cave- 
deposits and in mammalian palaeontology have long been well 
known and highly valued. He has shown that mammalian 
remains can be used in the classification of the Tertiary strata, 
and in many ways has cast light upon some interesting chapters 
in the later geological history of Europe. In another direction 
he has made important additions to our knowledge of the geol- 
ogy of the Isle of Man. His long connexion with the Victoria 
University and the support which he has given to the Manches- 
ter Geological Society have done much to promote the study 
of geology in Lancashire; and his well-known publications 
" Cave Hunting " and " Early Man in Britain " met the needs 
of a wide circle of readers. Even more, perhaps, will the name 
of Prof. Dawkins be always associated with the discovery of the 
Kentish Coalfield, in which he guided to a successful issue an 
enterprise that had already exercised the mind of Prestwich 
himself. The site of the boring at Dover was selected after a 
careful survey of the district, and much patient labour was 
expended on the examination of the cores and the identifica- 
tion by their fossils of the several geological horizons pierced. 
Apart from the material success realized, there was in this way 
accumulated a body of information, which has important ap- 
plications to the stratigraphy and tectonics of South-Eastern 
England.' 

DR. A. HARKER'S address. 

At the same meeting the President, Dr. Harker, in his 
address, discussed the present position and outlook of the 
study of metamorphism. The rapid development of physical 
chemistry and the successful application of experimental 
methods to petrological questions have greatly changed the 
situation during recent years, and for the first time it seems 
possible to approach the subject of metamorphism systematically 
from the genetic standpoint. For the geologist this implies 
the critical study, not only of the great tracts of crystalline 
schists and gneisses, but equally of metamorphic aureoles, of 
pneumatolysis and other contact- effects, and of the phenomena, 
mechanical and mineralogical, related to faults and overthrusts. 
It implies, moreover, the recognition that these are all parts of 
one general problem, that of the reconstruction of rocks under 
varying conditions of temperature and stress. In practice, 
this problem is complicated by the fact that perfect adjustment 
of chemical equilibrium cannot be assumed, either in the rocks 
prior to metamorphism, or during the process of metamorphism 
itself. 

recrystallization in a solid environment. 

Some consideration was devoted to the solvents which play 
an essential part in metamorphism and to the limits of migra- 

Naturalitt, 



Notes and Comments. 147 

tion of dibsolved material within a rock-mass. The Address 
proceeded to the discussion of what is the most fundamental 
characteristic of metamorphism : namely, that recrystallization 
takes place in a solid environment, and so may be profoundly 
affected by the existence of shearing stress. Stress of this 
type, on the one hand, arises from the crystal growth itself, 
and on the other hand is called into play by external forces. 
The automatic adjustment of the internally created stress to 
neutralize that provoked from without affords the key to all 
structures of the nature of foliation. The mineralogical pecu- 
liarities characteristic of the crystalline schists must find their 
explanation in kindred considerations ; for it can be shown 
that the chemistry of bodies under shearing stress differs in 
important respects from the chemistry of unstressed bodies. 
The result is seen in the appearance of a certain class of ' stress- 
minerals ' where the dynamic element has figured largely in 
metamorphism, while in the same circumstances the formation 
of minerals of another class seems to have been inhibited. But, 
while some of the general principles governing the effects can 
be formulated, the explanation on these lines of the observed 
associations of minerals is a task for the future. It may be 
that many of the particular problems involved will in time be 
brought within the scope of laboratory experiment. 

CONDITIONS GOVERNING METAMORPHISM. 

The conditions governing metamorphism are temperature 
and shearing stress, with uniform pressure as a factor of less 
general importance. If the orogenic forces are sufficient to 
maintain shearing stress everywhere at its maximum, the stress 
itself becomes a function of temperature, since this determines 
the elastic limit, and the principal conditions of metamorphism 
come to depend upon a single variable. This degree of sim- 
plification, however, is not to be expected universally. One 
disturbing factor is the local rise of temperature sometimes 
caused by the mechanical generation of heat in the crushing of 
rock-masses. 

ANOPHELINES. 

Referring to the note in The Naturalist for November last, 
page 339, a further circular has now been issued by Mr. D. J. 
Grove, c/o Medical Officer, Lccal Government Board, Whitehall, 
S.W. I., in which he states that anopheline mosquitos may 
be distinguished from culicines by the following characters : — 
{a) The attitude : An anopheline mosquito resting on a wall, 
holds itself so that its body (which forms almost a straight line 
with the head and proboscis) projects so as to form a distinct 
angle with the substratum. In the case of the culicine mos- 
quito, the body (which is hump-backed in appearance) is held 
parallel to the supporting surface, (b) The length of the palpi 

igi8 May 1. 



148 Notes and Comments. 

in the female : The palpi cf male mosquitos both anopheline 
and culicine are long and furnished with long hairs which 
together with the plumose antennae give the head of the male 
mosquito a feathery appearance. The palpi in the female 
anopheline are simple slender rod-like structures and are 
as long as the proboscis whilst in the female culicine they are 
short, insignificant appendages. There are three species of 
anophelines found in the British Isles, viz., A. maciilipennis, 
A. hifurcatus and A. plumbetis (nigripes). Copies of a circular 
giving details of the various species may be had free from Mr. 
Grove, who asks for the help of our readers in the investigations. 

DR. WILLIAM G. SMITH. 

We are pleased to learn that Dr. William G. Smith, B.Sc, 
Lecturer in Botany in the East of Scotland Agricultural College, 
has accepted the presidency of the Yorkshire Naturalists' 
Union for 191 9. Dr. Smith is a native of Dundee, and after 
taking his B.Sc. degree at St. Andrew's University, went to 
Munich to study plant diseases under Hartig and Tubeuf. 
Here he made investigations on the deformation of stems and 
leaves caused by species of Exoascus, and in 1894 obtained the 
degree of Ph.D. A year or two later he was appointed head 
of the Botanical Department at the University of Leeds, where 
he remained 10 years, during which time he was an active 
member of the Yorkshire Naturalists' Union, and not only did 
much to develop the department under his charge, but by his 
hard work and enthusiasm made a lasting impression on all 
who came under his influence. Soon after coming to Leeds, 
his brother, Robert Smith, died, ending a career of exceptional 
promise. Bringing to this country the inspiration of Prof. 
Flabault of Montpellier, under whom he studied, Robert Smith 
commenced a Botanical Survey of the Edinburgh District and 
Northern Perthshire, and in 1900 published the first maps of 
British Vegetation. Dr. Smith, recognising the importance of 
this work, at once took it up, and commenced studies on similar 
lines in West Yorkshire, and Vegetation Maps and memoirs 
dealing with these areas, were prepared in co-operation with 
his students C. E. Moss and W. M. Rankin. These publications 
served to firmly establish the Study Ecology in this country, 
and at a little meeting attended by four botanists at the house 
of Dr. Smith, the British Vegetation Committee was founded, 
which, after many years of active work, developed into the 
present British Ecological Society, whose Journal is the leading 
publication in this branch of Botany. For several years Dr. 
Smith acted as Secretary and did much to secure the success 
of the Society, and last year he was elected its President. The 
Executive of the Union has made a wise and popular choice, 
for Dr. Smith has not only made many important contributions 

Naturalist, 



Northern Breeding Sites of Gulls. 149 

to our knowledge of British Vegetation, but has given a new 
outlook and a renewed incentive to outdoor work. 

PALMAM QUI MERUIT FERAT. 

Salix caprea. 

False ' palm ' ! but what matters the name 
When the wand that we bear in our hand 

Is jewelled with topazes, lambent with flame, 
And the symbol we all understand ? 

This year on your sabbath you failed : 
Both sun and your bees were a-shroud ; 

But now with each tassel unsealed 

They have come to your call in a cloud ! 

Now by day a fair buzz-tree you make ! 

And by beam of a moon that is ' new,' 
A glamoursome, luminous brake. 

Moths better than I know it's you ! 

May-day, 1917. F. Arnold Lees. 



NORTHERN BREEDING SITES OF GULLS. 

The paper in the Journal of the Board of Agriculture on ' Wild Birds' 
Eggs 'was submitted to the authorities of the British Museum for correction 
and revision before publication. Unfortunately the standard of accuracy 
is what one might have expected from the Ornithological Department of 
the British Museum, and as you have quoted some passages relating to 
the Northern counties, it is perhaps best to correct some of the more 
glaring errors at once. The statements that ' probably every seaboard 
county of England and Wales except Suffolk, has gnlleries, but of the 
inland counties it is believed that there is a gullery only in Staffordshire ' 
are both erroneous. The two Staffordshire gulleries referred to (Norbury 
and Aqualate Mere) were alternative sites occupied by the same colony, 
but as no birds have bred at either place since 1794, our food supplies 
are not likely to be increased from this source ! This information is to 
be found in both of the more recent works on Staffordshire birds, Mc- 
Aldowies' Birds of Staffordshire (1893) and Masetield's paper in the Victoria 
History of the County of Stafford (1908), but apparently the researches of 
the British Museum authorities do not cover the last hundred and twenty 
years. The eggs of the Great Black-backed Gull (L. mannus) are not to 
be found in any part of England or Wales in numbers sufficient to have 
any value as a source of food. Under the head of Lancashire, you quote : 
' Walney Island and Winmarleigh Moss ' as breeding places. Winmarleigh 
Moss was long ago abandoned for Cockerham INIoss and I believe the Gulls 
have ceased to breed even at the latter place for some years. 

Under Lincolnshire ' Brigg and Twigmoor ' are quoted. There are 
two colonies in Lincolnshire : neither is at Brigg, Twigmoor being about 
three miles distant, while Scotton Common is about ten miles away as the 
crow flies. While five comparatively small Yorkshire colonies are specified, 
only one of the many large breeding stations in Northumberland is men- 
tioned, and only four for Cumberland. 

Were it not for the fact that the general inaccuracy of the list discredits 

1918 May 1. 



150 Proceedings of Provincial Scientific Societies. 

it altogether, one would be disposed to ask for details of the colonies 
on the Durham Moors. Tristram in 1905 stated that there was no breed- 
ing place in the county. The statements with regard to the Southern 
counties are equally unreliable, and it is rather surprising that the Editors 
of The Naturalist should have thought a paper so full of misleading in- 
formation worthy of quotation. — F. C. R. JOURDAIN. 

We are not quire sure whether our valued contributor, who is the 
present editor of British Birds, is using his ornithological knowledge in 
order to teach us how to extract the contents of eggs by means of suction, 
or not ; but we can assure him that, when quoting from the Journal of 
the Board of Agriculture, or from British Birds, or other publications, we 
are always very careful to make it clear that we merely quote ; we give 
no guarantee as to the accuracy of the statements quoted ; and we usually 
assume that our readers are able to see the reasons for the particular ex- 
tracts we make. — Ed. 

: o : 

The Proceedings of the Cheltenham Natural Science Society, N.S., 
Vol. III., Part 3, contains the presidential address of Mr. C. I. Gardiner on 
' The Natural History of Coal.' The publication is sold at one shilling. 

In the Transactions of the Devonshire Association for the Advancement 
of Science, etc., Vol. XLIX., 1917, is an interesting paper on ' Parasitical 
Hymenoptera ; Ichneumonidae and Braconidre, type species in the Bignell 
Collection,' by T. V. Hodgson. In this Mr. Hodgson describes the Bignell 
Collection, which is now in the Plymouth Museum and contains specimens 
from various parts of the country, including Yorkshire. 

The Transactions and Journal of the Eastbourne Natural History, 
Photographic and Literary Society, No. 19, contains papers on the Flint 
Nodules of Beachy Head, The Mote at Eastbourne, Natural History 
Legends, and other items of local interest. Referring to the New ' Geo- 
logical Physics Society,' we notice that the editor considers that ' the new 
Society promises to be a veritable Hercules in the way of strangling the 
snakes of geological difficulties in its cradle.' 

In The Transactions of the London and Middlesex Archcpological 
Society, N.S., Vol. III., part 4, 1917, Mr. P. M. Johnston figures and 
describes a ' Roman Water Vessel found in Grove Lane, Camberwell, 191 3-' 
and mentions that the ' Hull Museum has other examples ' (p. 334). 
But the Hull examples have been figured and described as modern 
Egyptian, as the Camberwell example certainly is ; consequently any 
deductions based on the evidence it gives of Roman occupation are hardly 
trustworthy. 

The Proceedings of the Coventry Natural History and Scientific Society 
for 1917, are edited by Mr. J. H. Wheldon, and contain a record of the 
Society's eighth year of work, as well as an account of the summer excur- 
sions, the annual Soiree, Nature Study competitions, and summaries of 
the various addresses given before the Society. There are a number of 
illustrations from excellent photographs, one of which represents ' A 
Fungus {Onygena equina) growing on the horns of a dead Ram, found in 
Over Wyresdale.' This skull was presented to the British Museum 
where it is exhibited. 

The Report of the Corresponding Societies Committee and of the Confer- 
ence of Delegates, held in London last July, has been issued by the British 
Association (54 pp., i/-) and contains the address of the President (Mr. 
John Hopkinson) on the ' Work and Aims of our Corresponding Societies ' ; 
a paper on ' Regional Surveys, ' by Mr. Fagg ; ' Money Scales and Weights,* 
by Mr. Sheppard, and one on ' The part to be played by Local Societies 
after the War in the Application of Science to the Needs of the Country,' 
by Mr. Mark Webb. There is also the usual useful index to the contents 
of the publications of the various Scientific Societies connected with 
the Association. 

Naturalist, 



151 
THE WOODLICE OF THE HULL DISTRICT. 

2nd Lieut. T. STAINFORTH. E.R.R.G.A. 

For some time previous to and duiing the early part of the 
present war I made systematic collections of the terrestrial 
isopods of the neighbourhood of Hull, and gave an account of 
the results in a lecture to the Hull Scientific and Field Natura- 
lists' Club. Since then a list of Yorkshire species by Mr. F. 
Rhodes* has appeared, but as the present notes, confessedly 
incomplete, are supplementary to his interesting paper, and 
contain references noi only to new localities, but also to four 
species and several varieties not included in Mr. Rhodes' list, 
I offer no apology in publishing them. 

The British species of Woodlice are greater in num- 
ber than is suspected by the casual observer, and I was 
surprised to find that in the city of Hull itself I had taken 
fourteen species, many of them in the very heart of the city. 
Woodlice of one kind or another are ubiquitous, and this 
seems somewhat remarkable since comparatively so few 
forms of Crastacea have successfully exchanged an aquatic 
for a terrestrial existence. To many species the presence of 
free water is a nne qua non for their life's conditions, others 
merely require damp situations, while a few species are tolerant 
of dry conditions. Our largest species, the common Ligia 
oceanica, in its mode of life at any rate, links the more typical 
marine isopods with the terrestrial forms. It is one of the 
most characteristic members of the littoral fauna of the Humber, 
and in my own experience is never found away from salt or 
brackish water. On the Humber shore it invariably lives near 
high-water mark, in such positions that it must be submerged 
at high water. During the present month (March), for example, 
I have found it common on the shore at Sunk Island living 
under chalk blocks upon which is a growth of Fitcus. In a 
paper on ' Changes in the branchial lamellae of Ligia oceanica, 
after prolonged immersion in fresh and salt water,' Miss 
Dorothy A. Stewart f gives an account of some experiments 
tending to prove that Ligia is able to withstand at least 24 
hours of submergence in fresh water and for several (as many 
as nine) days in salt water. She found that fresh water acted 
much more rapidly than sea water in bringing about a fatal 
result, and concludes that this seems ' to indicate that Ligia, 
although it spends most time in terrestrial surroundings, 
possesses a consideiable adaptability in regard to immersion 
in sea-water, which is probably indispensable in an animal 

* ' The Terrestrial Isopoda (Woodlice) of Yorkshire.' The Naturalist, 
1916. pp. 99-102, 121-123. 

t Mem. and Proc. Maiich. Lit. and Phil. Soc, Vol. 58, Part, i (i), 
1913-14. 

1918 May 1. 



152 The Woodlice of the Hull District, 

whose habitat so closely adjoins the sea.' Even such a typical 
terrestrial form as Porcellio scaher can live for some time under 
salt water, for Mr. R. S. Bagnall* records a colony of a form 
of this species living under stones in a marine pool. 

As fc.r as my own observations carry weight, a large pro- 
portion of the species found owe their distribution in the Hull 
area to commercial, agricultural and horticultural agencies. I 
have not found the following species away from the immediate 
vicinity of houses or gardens : — 

Trichoniscus roseus. Metoponorthtis pruinosus. 

E apinphthalmus danicus. Cylisticus convexns. 

Porcellio loevis. Armadillidium nasaitim. 

P. dilatatus. 

In the paper already referred to, Bagnall holds the opinion 
that four of the above species, namely, T. roseus, H. danicus, 
M. pruinosus and C. convexu^j, are truly endemic, but I should 
be inclined to doubt this myself, judging from my own collecting 
in the East Riding. It is quite probable that in the course of 
time introduced species will spread from the ports and other 
inhabited areas into the open country, and from the usual 
habitat of the above-named species I should believe this to be 
more probable than that they had migrated from the open 
country and found the rich soil of gardens more suited to their 
needs. This is a question, however, which can only be settled 
by more extended observations over larger areas, or better by 
the discovery of subfossil forms, as, for instance, in peat deposits 
or eld lake beds. 

If a careful search is made in cool greenhouses, in hothouses, 
and on waste ground near the docks, to the list here given will 
undoubtedly be added a number of species, such as IJaploph- 
thalmus mengii, Trichonisc^is pygmceus, Trichoniscoides alhidus 
and Phihscia patiencei 

The following sixteen species have been found in the East 
Riding, most of I hem in or near Hull. New records for York- 
shire are Trichoniscus stehbingi, Porrellio Icsvis and P. ratkei. 
Including Porcellio raizehuvgii which, though not included in 
Mr. Rhodes' Yorkshire Tist, is recorded fcr the Scarborough 
district by Mr. E. A Wallis.f the total number of species 
recorded for Yorkshire is now 23, abont 65 per cent, cf the 
total British species. 

Ligia oceanica Linne. 

This fine species occurs everywhere along the Humber 
shore and many of its tidal affluents, as well as on the sea 
coast wherever the conditions are suitable. In a paper on 

♦ ' The Woodlice (Terrestrial Isopoda) of Northumberland and Dur- 
ham," Vale af Derwent, N.H.S. Tvans, 1913, p. 13. 

t See Ann. Rep. Scarb. Phil and Arch. Soc. for 1909. ' Report on the 
Terrestrial Isopoda 1909/ pp. 23-4. 

Natuva'ist, 



The Woodlice of the Hull District. 153 

* The Marine Fauna of the Humber District and the Holderness 
Coast,' Mr. T. Fetch, B.A., B.Sc* says it occurs ' in all the chalk 
banks along the Humber.' Farticularly large examples occur in 
crevices among piles and revetting at Saltend Common near 
Hull, and under chalk lumps used for repairing the banks near 
the same place. It is usually most abundant on the chalk 
cranches which jut out into the Humber mudflats as at Hessle, 
Paull, Cheiry Cob Sands, Sunk Island, et ceteris locis. I have 
found it on the River Hull banks near Stoneferry, but the 
specimens were strikingly smaller in average size than those 
found on the more exposed shore of the estuary. It would be 
interesting to determ.ine the range of this species along the tidal 
rivers which enter the Humber., such as the Ouse, Trent and 
Hull. At Saltend and nearer Hull I have often found it in 
company with the estuarine aquatic isopod, Sphceroma nigi- 
caiida Leach, reminiscent in its habit of rolling itself into a 
ball of its terrestrial relatives, the Armadillidia. 

Trichoniscus piisillus Brandt. 

This species is common everywhere in dampish places, 
among grass, moss, rubbish, etc., both in gardens, as in Hull, 
and in the open country. I have collected it in all the sub- 
divisions of the East Riding. 

Trichoniscus roseiis Koch. 

In Hull gardens and greenhouses this pretty pink species is 
common. Examples can be found under stones, pieces of 
wood, plant pots, etc., near the greenhouses in the Hull parks. 
I have also found it in garden refuse at Hessle. 

Trichoniscus stebbingi Patience. 

One example among hothouse refuse at Hessle. 

Haplophthalmus danicus Budde-Lund. 

Common in heaps of leaf mould at the Pearson Park, Hull, 
and in garden refuse at Cottingham. 

Oniscus asellits Linne. 

As commonly distributed as Porcellio scaber, and as common 
in the centre of Hull among rubbish in outhouses as in the 
wilder parts of the country as say Hotham Carrs or Houghton 
Woods. It would serve no useful purpose to enumerate 
localities. 

Philoscia muscorum Scopoli. 

A rather pretty species, variable in colour, and common 
everywhere in gardens, fields and woods, and invariably 
to be found among the refuse under hedges. It is abundant 
among the grass on the Sunk Island embankment. I have 
specimens from every part of the East Riding, including Hull. 

Platyarthrus hojfmannseggii Brandt. 

I have dealt with the distribution of this myrmecophile in 

* Tvans. Hull Sci. and Field Naturalists' Club, Vol. III., pp. 27-41. 
1918 Mayl. 



154 The Woodlice of the Hull District. 

a paper on ' The Guests of Yorkshire Ants'.* It is found in 
many places in the southern part of the riding, even in the 
suburbs of Hull, but has not yet, I believe, been recorded for 
the northern part, though doubtless it occurs there. A pale 
yellowish brown variety lives in the nests of Donisthorpea flava 
at Brantingham Dale. Dr. W. E. Colling e calls this variety 
flavohrunnea. 

Porcellio scaher Latreille. 

Common everywhere, especially under loose bark in Hull 
timber yards or in the country districts. Several varieties 
occur. 

Var. marmorata Brandt, Houghton Woods, Weedley 

Springs. 
Var. flavomaculata Collinge. Houghton Woods, 
Var. marginata Brandt. Rowley. 
Var. rufa Bagnall. Houghton Woods. 

Porcellio laevis Latreille. 

Very abundant in manure. North Street, and under bones 
of whale in the garden at Wilber force House, Hull. I have 
also found it in garden refuse at Cottingham. 

Porcellio dilatatus Brandt. 

Among manure in company with the preceding, and in 
outhouses at Wilberforce House. Among leaf mould, Pearson 
Park, Hull. 

Porcellio ratkei Brandt. 

Cottingham Marsh. Identified by Dr. Collinge. 

Metoponorthus pruinosus Brandt. 

This species is almost always to be found in old straw and 
manure, or at the base of hay and straw stacks. Hull, Hessle, 
South Cave, Hornsea, Bridlington, Cottingham. 

Cylisticus convexus De Geer. 

In refuse and under rotting bags near the fish curing sheds, 
Humber shore, west of Hull ; and among straw thrown over 
the cliffs south of Bridlington. 

Armadilliditim vulgar e Latreille. 

Extensively distributed in the East Riding. Gardens in 
Hull, beech woods at South Cave, Houghton Woods, Weedley 
Springs, Cottingham, Boynton Woods, Bridlington, Hornsea, 
Hessle, Sunk Island. 

Var. variegata Lereb. 

Rowley, Brantingham Dale. 

Armadillidium nasatum Budde-Lund. 

I have as yet only found this species in the greenhouses at 
the West Park, Hull. 

The specimens referred to above are in the collections at the 
Hull Museum. 

* See The Naturalist, 1915, p. 388. 

Naturalist, 



155 

THE GEOGRAPHICAL DISTRIBUTION OF THE 
MOTHS OF THE SUBFAMILY BISTONINAE. 



J. W. HESLOP HARRISON. D.Sc. 

XVII.— THE GENERA NACOPHORA (HULST), 
PH.EOURA (HULST), AND THYRINTEINA (MOSCHL). 

Nacophora quernaria (Abbot and Smith). Distribution : — 
The Atlantic States. 

Nacophora phigaliaria (Guen). Atlantic States. 

Nacophora ypsilon (Forbes). Atlantic States. 

Nacophora cupidaria (Grote). Florida. 

Nacophora minima (Hulst). Colorado. 

PhcBoura mexicanaria (Grote). Mexico. 

Thyrinteina arnohia (Cramer). Intertropical North, Central 
and South America. 

Nacophora and its immediate allies, whilst undeniably 
Bistonine in all essentials, nevertheless carry what ma}- be 
regarded as a distinctively Boarmiine structure in the fovea — 
a peculiar depression on the underside of the forewings which 
is very likely an alluring gland for sexual purposes. In it 
can be perceived a token bespeaking the fons ct origo of the 
true Boarmiince, known from their wide distribution to be an 
enterprising assemblage of extreme age, for there is not a 
hole or corner of the whole globe to which it has not penetrated. 
Whilst many of the Bistonines give unmistakeable indications 
of their Boarmiine trend — as I have emphasised by terming 
them the Boarmioid Bistonines— none ever carried their 
tendencies further than certain genital structures, exhibited 
particularly in the valves. 

Nacophora, however, combines the two features of the 
Boarmioid genitalia and a veritable Boarmiine foveal depression 
and, by so doing, puts us in possession of the necessary tran- 
sition between the two subfamilies. 

But the range of these equivocal genera is purely American 
and so, therefore, is inevitably its origin, and consequently 
the centre of the whole of the wide-spread Boarmiince must 
be localised in the New World. Still we must not bind ourselves 
to the idea that this Nacophora group is without its allies 
elsewhere, even if not very near ones, for in its lack of the 
second pair of posterior tibial spurs and its superficial — nay 
its more delicate characters— it approaches Biston as typified 
by the primitive B. straiaria. Likewise, this approach is 
much more than coincidence, it is genetic. In spite of this, 
the remarkable fact emerges that, whilst Biston is confined to 
the Palaearctic and Indian regions, the Nacophora trio is a 
development of the Nearctic and Neotropical Zoogeographical 

1918 May 1. 



156 Distrihution of Moths of the Sub-family Bistonincs. 

divisions. Therefore, although disunited now, they must 
have been connected in the past by some common ancestral 
form. 

In other words, in the old Tertiary continent, some long- 
lost insect linked them up ; and this species (or it may be a 
group of species), under the stress of progress, has vanished 
irrevocably as in the case of the forms linking up the Llama 
and Alpaca with their old-world relatives the Camel and 
Dromedary. 

An observation has been made in many families of plants, 
animals, insects and the rest, that, when identical or derived 
genera appear to be the common property of both subdivisions 
of the Holarctic Realm, the fossils almost invariably, but not 
always, tell us that the Palaearctic form is the older and to the 
general rule the present is no exception ; Biston is the earlier 
genus, and this view is borne out by its non-possession of a 
fovea. 

Nevertheless, one must lay particular stress on the remark 
that it is not quite universally true that the Palaearctic is the 
older species, genus, or family. Just as when a wave dashing 
on the shore recoils, so a spent impulse of a migratory host 
throws back a counterwave, and this is very probably what 
has happened to the earlier dog forms entering America ; they 
have hurled back as a return wave, the true dogs of the genus 
Canis. Such, too, has been the fate of the first Bistonines 
passing into the Western Hemisphere, their backwash via 
the genus Nacophora has been the subfamily BoarmiincB. 
Returning to the transition between the Bistons and the 
Nacophoras, from its total disappearance we must consider it 
to have been a creature of limited distribution in the old 
Northern Continent or one needing more tropical climates than 
the Holarctic region of to-day can offer. That the latter is 
the more correct view we glean from the preference all the 
Nacophora tribe display for warmer areas— as Biston does when 
it gets the chance. 

After the separation and final disappearance of the link, 
Nacophora, acting under the influence of climate, worked its 
way southward if, indeed, a branch had not already struck 
out thither in the genus Phceoura and, moreover, other move- 
ments occurred of which more exact knowledge can be gained 
from the study of other groups, represented in fossiliferous 
deposits, which are attached to an arboreal environment like 
N acophora. 

The coincidence of the range of the subjects of our present 
essay and that of the Spotted Felicia like the Jaguar {Felis 
onca), the Puma {F. concolor), Margay {F. tigrina), and the 
Ocelot {F. pardalis) which, like the Nacophoras, have lost the 
form connecting them with their Palaearctic relatives may be 

Naturalist, 



Field Notes. 157 

utilised as the source of the required information ; not merely 
because of this coincidence, but because, for very diverse 
reasons, the movements of both groups depend on their definite 
attachment to the same forest-clad regions, and are thus put 
in motion by the same impulses. 

A very slight consideration of the fossil Felid(B of America 
reveals the significant truth that, whilst in North America, 
deposits of lower Miocene age produce very freely the fossil 
remains of the primitive Felid genera Dinictis and Pogonodon, 
and such genera or their known descendants continue to the 
strata of Pleistocene times, on the contrary, in South America, 
the earliest Felidce appear in late Pliocene or Pleistocene beds 
of South Brazil and the Argentine Republic in the form of the 
genus Smilodon which occurs in older Texan deposits. Here 
we see no uncertain indication that for countless ages access 
to South America from the North was harried, only to become 
feasible in late Pliocene times ; from this it is evident that the 
seismic disturbances ending in the appearance of the Isthmus 
of Panama were events of the Pliocene Epoch. 

Organisms of widely separated affinities from the Felidce, 
availing themselves also of the newly erected land-bridge, 
passed down ; amongst them was the most specialised of the 
Nacophora allies, the species Thyrinteina arnobia, which, like 
the Jaguar; has colonised and holds the whole of the Inter- 
tropical territories of North, Central, and South America. 
[To he continued). 



Scarcity of Fieldfares.— Is the scarcity of these birds 
this winter general or local only ? Can any explanation of 
their diminution be given ? In the Colne Valley, bird ob- 
servers — one at least with forty years' records, — have never 
before noticed such a dearth of blue-tails, as they are locally 
known. Only once has a meagre flight of six birds been seen 
wheie ordinarily hundreds and thousands may be met with. 
In the Fenay Beck Valley, also near Huddersfield, not a single 
example has been noted. — Wm. Falconer, Slaithwaite, March 
2nd, 1918. 

There is an almost complete absence of Fieldfares and 
Redwngs in the British Isles this winter. Observers from all 
parts are recording this unaccountable dearth, for which it 
seems impossible to find an explanation. The severe weather 
experienced during the winter of 1916-17 can hardly have 
wiped them out altogether. Can it be that they have missed 
these islands and passed down the coast of continent ? It would 
be interesting to learn if many have been seen in the fighting 
area. A small party of about fifteen fieldfares frequented the 
fields behind my house for a few days in November but I 
have neither seen nor heard of any since that month. — R.F. 

1918 May 1. 



158 

ORNITHOLOGICAL OBSERVATIONS 
AND REFLECTIONS IN SHETLAND. 



EDMUND SELOUS. 



[Continued from page ijj). 

October i8th.— Four Whimbrels are now walking about 
on the wet, and, sometimes, on the dry, sand, thrusting their 
long bill into the former, mostly, or into any httle tuft of 
sea-weed, lying about, which the tide has brought in. One 
of them seemed to extract some round-looking object from a 
hole (a worm-hole ?) in the wet sand, and then carefully replaced 
it. Then a bravo of the party drives, by turns, each of the others 
away, advancing upon them with head held a little down, and 
long bill, presented like a rapier, in spite of its scimitar curve. 
He makes little mincing steps— the set opening — and looks a 
professed duellist. The others take him at his own valuation, 
and retreat for the required distance — -so many yards from a 
protit-bearing seaweed-heap, for such was the cause of aggres- 
sion in the lirst instance, after which, as though whetted by 
success, the demands of the bully seemed to grow. But now 
it's all over, and they bathe together on the beach, in peace 
and friendship. At the end they give their wings a most 
vigorous flapping, during which they sometimes rise a foot or 
two into the air, and then drop back, and sometimes stand 
firm, all the while. Why they do not rise, when they do not, 
and why, when they do, they do not fly away altogether, I try 
in vain to imagine. No such strength — to all outward seeming, 
at least — is put forth when they really do fly. What is it, 
within the bird's volition, which either checks the efficacy of 
the wing-stroke, though seeming so powerful, or makes the 
body as lead ? 

The Turnstone, ' though native here and to the manner 
born,' is anxious about the waves, coming carefully down on 
the wet surface of the rock, when one recedes from it, and run- 
ning up again, out of its reach, as it comes in. Does not like 
the spray, thinks there should be a hniit to spray. When, on 
the narrow-edged top of a rock, cleft in angles, like a crystal, 
the sea just comes over, and wets him, a little, he retreats 
down the safer side of it, and holds his ground ; but when, a 
little afterwards, a shower of this vile spray is flung broadcast, 
over it and him, the limit has been reached, and he flies away. 

About a score of Hooded Crows — which, it would seem, are 
no more than a variety of our southern Carrion Crow — are 
gathered together, near the shores of a loch. After watching 
them, some time, walking about and flying here and there, I 
see one — they are all now on foot — give a sort of start, and 
as he takes wing, all the rest do too, and they fly, all together, 
across a corner of the small loch, to a wire fence running along 

Naturalist, 



Oynithological Observations and Reflections in Shetlar.d. 159 

the liill-side, enclosing a sheep-peirk. Some old posts that once 
helped in the scheme, are lying about, and whilst some of the 
Crows perch on the ones still supporting the wires, others go 
to these, and I can see some pieces broken oil by them. One 
flies, with a piece, on to one of the upright posts, and there 
commences to hack at it, but he is constantly overbalanced by 
the wind, and has to drop to the ground. Almost immediately 
he flies up again, and so persevering is he, that, having watched 
him about a dozen times, I begin to count, and, from this 
point, he is blown off and flies up again, thirteen times more, 
the last time onto the next post. I then walk up and examine 
the wood. It is soft and rotten, but all I can find in it are 
some very small maggots and the eggs of some insects, appar- 
ently. The Crows, it would seem, find these worth the trouble 
of getting — or did they eat the soft wood ? 

The Crow who first gave the start, and flew, stood last — not 
first — of the band, going by the direction in which all their 
heads were turned. He followed — did not lead — the flight, 
and soon got mixed up in it. He was no leader, in my opinion — - 
I have seen no evidence of leadership in birds — but his sudden 
resolve to fly to the post seemed to communicate itself, in- 
stantaneously, to the rest. I counted twenty-one Crows at 
the posts. 

As I came back over the hills, a Raven, on his silent wings 
of darkness, was ghding, widely, over the landscape. He 
never flapped them once, and never croaked, but passed hke 
a shadow of night, upon the air, from hill-top to hill-top, over 
desolate places, with a lightness to which his sable plumage 
gave a weird, contrasting effect. Evidently he was scanning 
all beneath him for any windfall of offal or prey, and he looked 
now most impressive, seeming to brood on the landscape, to 
which, by his presence, a deeper gloom was imparted — for 
it was darkening, now, on barren moor and silent, lonely hill. 
There was no apparent effort, the air seemed to buoy him, as 
if he were but one black feather of himself, and so he gloomed 
and glided on, not seeming now to regard me, though generally 
hurrying away, with croaking note, the moment I come into 
view. But I had an impression of being silently taken in, 
by his downward glance, with every other detail, and grimly 
reckoned with. The Eagle himself could hardly have been 
more master of the air than this grim black bird,* and majesty 
was his, too, of a sort, not that of Jove indeed, but of Pluto's 
gloomy brow. This Raven was alone, but it is much more usual 
to see them in pairs. As in the spring, they often sit on some 

* So, indeed, I thought then, having only once, long ago, and not very 
advantageously, seen Eagles, except in miserable cages. I do not endorse 
it now, since going to Iceland ; in fact, it seems nonsense, but one should 
let one's impressions remain, 

1»18 May 1 



i6o Ornithological Observations and Reflections in Shetland. 

cliff or hill-top, from which, on your passing over any neigh- 
bouring one, they instantly descry you, and rise with a disap- 
proving croak. After beating about, for a little, in a manner 
strongly expressive of a desire to be rid of you, which, without 
a doubt, is what they feel, they pass over the nearest elevated 
point, and for a long time, are not seen again. Thus it is almost 
impossible to surprise them. You see them just a moment 
after they have seen you, which, for all strategic purposes, on 
your part, is a moment too late. The nest is usually in the 
neighbourhood of where the birds — or one of them — rise, and 
thus, though in the spring their idea may be to distract attention 
from it, it is, in fact, betrayed by their action. For myself, 
however, I doubt if this be their motive, or, rather, the philos- 
ophy of their action, for the nest of a Raven is so huge and 
conspicuous that, if visible at all, it is easily seen when attention 
is thus directed to it. More probably it is to guard the young, 
who appear on the scene very early, that its owners keep this 
outlook, and their strategy, as in the case of birds generally — 
so at least I imagine — has probably no special relation to man — 
from whom, in early times, most birds would have been fairly 
secure — but rather to such predatory species, whose habits 
make, or once made them, an every day source of danger or 
annoyance. Most of these would find it difficult to contend 
against a pair of Ravens animated by the a-ropyi] — to adopt 
(through Aristotle) Gilbert White's phraseology — so that these 
demonstrations would cause them immediately to take flight, 
in such a state of mind, and with such harassment, as would 
leave them scant leisure for making discoveries. 

The note which I have, during this autumn visit, heard 
Ravens utter, is quite different from those constantly on their 
beaks, during the springtime, nor have they once rolled over 
on their backs, in aerial tumble, a fact which confirms me in 
the impression that this last is a nuptial antic, as the note then 
used is, no doubt, the love-call or love-song. 
fTo he contijiued) 
: o : 

Utricularia intermedia, etc., near York. — In The 
Naturalist, January, 1913, No. 672, page 19, there is a very 
interesting note by Mr. Arthur Bennett of Croydon on Utricu- 
laria ochroleuca Hartm., from Strensall Common, Yorkshire, 
V.C. 62, collected by the late George Stabler in 1881. I 
have much pleasure in recording the discovery of Utricularia 
intermedia Hayne., on Strensall Common, August, 1916, by my 
dear friend. Corporal Andrew Templeman (Royal Scots Greys). 
Mr. Bennett considers this to be a new record for Yorkshire. 
Mr. Templeman also found a colony of the Bee Orchis, 
Ophrys apifera Huds., on Strensall Common in July, 1916.— 
Henry J. Wilkinson, 

Naturalist, 



i6i 



REMARKS UPON 'THE POST-PLIOCENE NON- 
MARINE MOLLUSCA OF IRELAND.' * 



J. W. TAYLOR, M.Sc. 

In this paper the authors have brought together a very useful 
series of results, derived from the examination of numerous 
deposits of Post-Pliocene age, discovered in Caves, Chara-marl 
deposits, Kitchen-middens, etc., in various parts of Ireland. 
Eighty-one species of Land and Freshwater shells are listed, 
of which forty-five are land and thirty-six freshwater species, 
in addition to several marine and brackish-water species. 

In addition the authors discuss at some length, certain 
of the problems and difficulties which are not yet entirely solved, 
as the origin and distribution of the Irish non-marine mollusca, 
remarks on some of the molluscan genera and species, nomen- 
clature, etc., terminating the work with a tabular exposition 
of the geological distribution of the species and a series of 
seven conclusions embodying the opinions at which they have 
arrived on the various problems discussed. 

As my workf is very frequently alluded to, criticised and 
dissented from in its pages, I propose to examine some of the 
statements and endeavour to ascertain how far the remarks 
made are justified by the available evidence. 

The first chapter I propose to discuss is entitled ' Remarks 
on the Genera and Species,' etc., and under the heading of 
Vitrina Drap. the authors again revert to the consideration of 
Vitrina pyrenaica Fer., which name they illogically persist in 
applying to my Vitrina hibernica though I have shown else- 
where + that they are not identical, and any attempts to confuse 
the crucial points of the subject are to be deplored, and I again 
point out that the only and final authority in this matter is 
Ferussac's own figures, as the statement by Kennard and Wood- 
ward that Ferussac did describe this species is not correct. 

Also, as no figure nor any information whatever regarding 
the internal structure of V. pyrenaica Fer. has ever been pub- 
lished, we are in absolute ignorance thereof, and nothing can 
be gained by the examination of the anatomy of any specimens 
named V . pyrenaica by others, unless it can be shown that 
their shells strictly conform to Ferussac's type figures. 

The species of Vitrina are not well differentiated by their 
shells, and it is not unlikely that Vitrinca have been found 
from time to time, which their finders have named V. pyrenaica, 
but this is of no account, unless the shells really agree with 

* On 'The Post Pliocene Non-Marine Mollusca of Ireland.' A. S. 
Kennard and B. B. Woodward (Proc. Geologists' Association, 19 17, Vol. 
XXVIII., Part 3, pp. icg-igo). 

t Monograph of British Land and Fresh-water Mollusca. 

I Op. cit.. Vol. III., pp. 449, et seq. 

1918 May K 



i62 ' The Post-Pliocene Non-Marine Mollusca of Ireland.' 

Ferussac's illustrations. If the shells do thus agree, then 
they are not V. hihernica, and if they do not, the name pyrenaica 
cannot be used for such shells. If the anatomy and shells of 
Mr. Bowell's so-caUed V . pyrenaica agree with the anatomy 
and shells of V. hihernica, as Kennard and Woodward imply, 
then they are not the V . pyrenaica Fer., and the V . pyrenaica 
of Bowell merges into the synonymy of V. hihernica Taylor. 

Further, Moquin-Tandon's figure of the animal does not, as 
stated by Kennard and Woodward, agree either with my figures 
or description, and in addition the confirmatory sign ( !) is 
not used by him for the purpose erroneously stated by them, 
for he expressly explains that the sign is used to indicate when 
he has himself seen specimens from the actual authors of the 
various statements of localities, etc. This mark nowhere 
appears in his account of V. pyrenaica, and he gives no localities 
therefor, except those of Partiot and Ferussac, and both lack 
his mark of verification. 

Under the heading of Helix aspersa, Kennard and Woodward 
say ' Mr. Taylor remarks that Helix aspersa tends to produce 
a thicker shell than usual when living near the sea shore.' In 
reference to this, I may say that this is not, as erroneously 
stated by them, a personal observation, but a summary of the 
experience of others, and gives the station where incrassation 
has been observed, without prejudging the precise cause to 
which shell-thickening was due. The authors, however, say 
that ' the proximity of the sea has no direct bearing on the 
thickness of the shell,' though acknowledging that ' extremely 
heavy shells do occur near the sea,' which they ascribe to the 
presence of foraminiferous sand. The incrassation of the shell 
is, however, primarily dependent on the selective physiological 
action of the organs of the animal, the secretion of shell sub- 
stance being a common property of the Mollusca, varying in 
efficiency in different species, as well as to some extent among 
individuals of the same species ; thus Unio margaritifer secretes 
a thick and heavy calcareous shell when living in granitic 
streams, where lime is not plentiful and where LimncecB and 
Ancyli produce thin and fragile ones. Further, although we 
may naturally expect to find thick and heavy shells where 
lime IS plentiful, and fragile ones where it is scarce, yet the 
heaviest specimen of Helix aspersa in my collection, which, 
though of ordinary size, weighs 129 grains, was found by Mr! 
J. Davy Dean, of the National Museum of Wales, upon Mill- 
stone-grit at Caton, Lancaster, where lime was very deficient. 

For the purpose of studying Geographical Distribution, 
the authors divide the species into three groups : (i) a Western 
or ancient group ; (2) a Germanic or modern group, and (3) a 
group of uncertain origin but probably Holarctic. The Ger- 
manic group the authors restrict to comparatively few — about 

Naturali.'t, 



' The Post-Pliocene Non-Marine Mollusca of Ireland.' 163 

nine species — and remark that ' it would thus appear that the 
German species are not so dominant as Mr. Taylor has assumed.' 

The Western or older group is stated to comprise ' those 
species which had their origin in Western Europe and have 
spread eastward,' and these are given as seventy-seven in 
number. To present date the ' Monograph ' has accurately 
charted and published the known range of 39 of the yy species 
mentioned, and from an examination of these distributional 
maps, it is seen that of these thirty-nine species, only about 
seven can justly be called strictly Western. None of the 
remaining thirty-two species are really western, but prepon- 
deratingly Eastern, Northern or Southern in their tendencies. 

Arion, Limax and Agriolimax, which they state have a 
decidedly Western distribution, do not show such a character 
as the published charts will demonstrate. The nine species of 
Polita are not Western, with the exception of the three species 
of very doubtful value created by the authors themselves. The 
two Zonitoides are also not Western, neither can Pyramidula 
rotundata, P. rupestris, or even Hygromia fusca be claimed as 
as predominatingly Western. Helix nemoralis and H. hortensis 
are certainly not Western, nor are Helicigona lapicida and H. 
arbustorum or Hygromia hispida and H. striolata, while Theba 
cantiana, T. cartusiana and Helix pisana are preponderatingly 
Southern. 

None of the remaining thirty-two species are preponderat- 
ingly Western, and it is not unreasonable to suppose that the 
distribution of the remaining British species when accurately 
mapped will show similar proportional results. 

The authors in treating upon the origin of the Irish Mollusca, 
remark that three theories have been propounded to account 
for their presence. The first, which the authors term the 
' Edward Forbes' theory,' is the belief to which they give their 
support — with modifications. This theory, propounded by 
Prof. Forbes, was based upon a study of the Flora and Fauna 
and of the Palaeontological evidence. 

The second theory, which Kennard and Woodward have 
dubbed the ' Pan-Germanic theory,' is based upon the study 
of the Non-Marine Mollusca, and is propounded by the present 
writer in the ' Monograph of the Land and Freshwater Mollusca 
of the British Isles.' 

The third theory is characterised as the ' Glacial Exter- 
mination theory,' and is based upon botanical, palaeo -botanical 
and geological evidence, and teaches the almost total destruction 
of the flora and fauna by the climatal severity of the Glacial 
period. This theory was strongly supported by the late 
Clement Reid, but is rejected as quite untenable by the authors. 
i. The second, or as the authors term it, the ' Pan-Germanic 
theory,' according to them, teaches that the Non-Marine Mol- 

1918 May l.) 



164 ' The Post- Pliocene Non-Marine Mollusca of Ireland.' 

lusca of Ireland ' originated in Germany, the earlier evolved and 
therefore more primitive types being gradually driven farther 
and farther away from the evolutionary centre.' The grave 
misconception of those authors as shown by their arguments 
that every species is believed to arise in North-central Europe, 
a region by no means synonymous with Germany, as Kennard 
and Woodward persistently phrase it. 

If Kennard and Woodward will more carefully peruse the 
original, they will learn that all that is claimed is, that the 
chief types of life originated in the North-central European 
region,* and that evolution in a lesser degree is a characteristic 
of every region, f and it is nowhere denied that species and 
varieties do become evolved in every country by the influence 
of the special organic and inorganic environment to which they 
are subjected. 

Even Australia, + though so evolutionary feeble, has de- 
veloped a rich variety of species, but with little or no material 
advance in structure. In this connection it is to be noted that 
even Kennard and Woodward allow that in Oligocene and 
Miocene times a varied Molluscan fauna existed in Western 
Germany and Bohemia, containing probably the ancestral 
forms of some of our living species and though they state that 
these forms have also been found in Switzerland and France, 
and especially in the South-west of France, they give no 
information as to the geological age of the deposits there. 

With the view of upholding their own erroneous interpreta- 
tion of my theory, the authors classify the Molluscan fauna 
into several groups. The first is based upon the presence of 
eighteen Gastropods and several Pisidia in earlier strata in 
this country, than in Germany. A second list shows twenty- 
two species now living in England which are not known in 
Germany, living or fossil. A third list enumerates eight 
species formerly resident here, quite unknown in Germany. 

These lists, though not perfectly accurate, agree in the 
m.ain with the present imperfect palaeontological knowledge, 
but are published with the special purpose of showing by the 
evidence they offer that species have or may have originated 
in this country, a statement which has not been disputed. 

The geological record and our knowledge of it is too frag- 
mentary and incomplete for final conclusions, and cannot in 
its present stage overthrow decisions based upon the solid 
facts of structure and distribution by the merely negative 
evidence it may offer, evidence also peculiarly liable to con- 
tinual alteration and correction by the results of future dis- 

* Monograph, Vol. I. p. 387. 
t Monograph, Vol. I., p. 401. 
+ Monograph, Vol. I., p. 388. 

Naturalist, 



' The Post-Pliocene Non-Marine Mollusca of Ireland.' 165 

CO very and research, and surely it is rash and quite unwarranted 
to claim more than tentative value for palaeontological evidence, 
when even in the present paper, the authors assure us that 
they, with all the lavish assistance they have had, ' have only 
been able just to touch the fringe of the subject,' but when 
still more workers are avilable ' many more important discov- 
eries will be made, new light will be thrown on problems at 
present obscure, whilst not impossibly some of our most 
cherished conclusions will be modified.' 

In the Hght of the foregoing confession of our ignorance of 
the subject by the authors themselves, it is quite illogical to 
so confidently declare, as they have done, the conclusions to 
which they have been led. 

There are many other debatable points which the limited 
space at my disposal will not allow me at present to touch 
upon, but it will be useful to reproduce some of Kennard and 
Woodward's declared convictions which guide them in their 
scientific work. In the first place, they ' entirely reject the 
reality of the struggle for existence,' and secondly deny the 
' Dominancy or Superiority of the recently evolved or modern 
species over their more ancient predecessors,' and affirm that 
it is at variance with the facts ' that the earlier evolved and 
therefore weaker species have been driven away from the 
evolutionary centre by the later evolved or dominant species,' 
contending that it ' is certain that over the greater part of the 
British Isles, there is no competition between the various species 
of Mollusca,' and that it is totally at variance with ascertained 
geological evidence, that 'certain species have driven out others,' 
and that ' it does not follow that because a species is higher in 
the evolutionary scale, it is therefore stronger in the struggle 
for existence with a lower one,' giving, among other instances, 
that Man occasionally succumbs to Bacterial diseases. 

The reality, however, of the existence of Dominancy, which 
is intimately bound up with the Unity of plan of Evolution, 
though challenged from time to time by the still numerous 
adherents to the more or less modified Forbesian and other 
theories, has never been successfully controverted, and there- 
fore still holds the field as a very important factor in the 
progress and advancement of organic life and its dispersal 
over the globe. 

May I, in conclusion, express my regret at the disingenuous 
spirit which has apparently animated the authors of the ' Post- 
Pliocene Non-Marine Mollusca of Ireland ' as shown more 
especially in the unwarranted use of names and terms quite 
out of place in a scientific discussion, and which in the present 
state of feeling in this country are objectionable and tend to 
excite a spirit of animosity which is not in the interest of 
friendly intercourse and therefore regrettable in its results. 

1918 May 1. 



i66 
PLANT GALLS OF THE HUDDERSFIELD DISTRICT. 



WM. FALCONER, 

Slaithwaite, Huddet^fitld. 



The following is a list of all the plant galls which have been 
found to occur, up to the present, in the Huddersfield drainage 
area — the basins of the Colne, Holme and Fenay Beck. Most 
of them have been collected since May 1917, but many were 
already known from the same localities to Mr. S. L. Mosley. 
Additional records were also obtained verbally from him 
or extracted from his little work ' British Galls," reprinted 
from The Naturalists' Journal in 1903, all distinguished by his 
initials. The journeys to Armitage Bridge and Ellen Springs 
were undertaken in company with him and Mr. B. Langrick, 
and those to lower Butternab Wood, Sun Dean and Lepton 
with him and two ladies. 68 kinds of galls are recorded, but 
their full distribution in the district still requires working out. 

HYMENOPTERA. 

Pontania proxima Lepel. Long leaved willows, Ellen Springs, Slaith- 
waite, Linthwaite ; abundant and probably in other localities. 

Biorhiza pallida Oliv. Holme Moss plantation, S.L.M. ; Butternab 
Wood, on a tree near the kennels ; Whitley Woods. 

B. aptera Bosc. Oak roots, Lepton Great Wood. 

Andricus pilosus Adlr., form fecundator. Holme Moss plantation, 
S.L.M. ; Ellen Springs, Butternab Wood, several places about Slaithwaite, 
Drop Clough (Marsden), abundant. In Butternab Wood, several galls 
were still ' cone-like,' and the internal woody gall of one cut through 
still contained the larva in February ; also in Drop Clough on March 2nd, 
but the inner gall was empty ; MoUicar Woods, Lepton Great Wood, 
Whitley Woods. 

A. inflator Htg. Drop Clough, Lepton Great Wood. 

A. autumnalis Htg. MoUicar Woods. 

A. trilineatus Htg., form radicis Fabr. Butternab Wood and Lepton 
Great Wood, S.L.M. 

Neuroierns baccarum Linn. Hagg Wood, Honley, S.L.M. ; Bottoms 
Wood, Slaithwaite, known for 13 years. 

N. baccarum Linn, form lenticularis Oliv. Bottoms Wood, Slaithwaite, 
known for 18 years. 

Dryaphanta tischenbergi Schl. form folii Linn. Holme Moss plantation, 
S.L.M. ; Ellen Springs, Butternab Wood, Ainley Place, Holmfirth. Mr. 
I. Oldroyd of Scholes, an ardent fisherman, collects these galls, and fishes 
with the flies which breed out of them, finding them more ' killing ' than 
any other he has used for the purpose. 

Trigonaspis megaptera Panz. Huddersfield, S.L.M. 

Cynips knllari Htg. MoUicar Woods, S.L.M., great tits were busily 
engaged in digging the galls open to devour the contained larvae, fully 
three-quarters being so treated ; Bottoms Wood, Slaithwaite, known for 18 
years. 

Andricus solitarius Fonsc. Lepton and Shrogg Lane, Kirkheaton, 
S.L.M. ; lower Butternab Wood, Drop Clough, Cockatoo Wood, Honley. 

Andricus ostreus Gir. Butternab Wood, two examples. 

Andricus lucidus Htg. Whitley Woods, Huddersfield, S.L.M. 

Dryophanta, disticha Htg. Lower Butternab Wood, fairly numerous. 
Connold states 'nowhere common.' 

Naturalist, 



Plant Galls of the Huddersfield District. 167 

Rhodites rosae Linn. Ellen Springs, Lepton, Ainley Place, Rowley 
Hill and Lepton Great Wood, Blue-tits were seen pulling the ' bedeguar ' 
to pieces to get at the larvae inside them. 

Rhodites eglanteriae Htg. Lepton, Butternab Wood, Ainley Place, 
where a somewhat rough-coated variety occurs, but not at all with the long 
spines of R. rosarum Gir. Exariiples have been kept to see if the imago 
will emerge. 

Xestophanes brevitarsis Thoms. Lepton, ' British Galls,' p. 23, S.L.M. 
Dr. Harrison appears to have overlooked this record and another in the 
same place (Redcar), in stating that this gall had not previously been 
recorded for the north of England {Entomologist. Nov. 1916, p. 242). 

Aulacidea pilosellae Kief. One example in a field at Wilberlee, Slaith- 
waite, July, 1917 : — lately recorded from near Leeds {The Naturalist, 
November, 191 7). 

DIPTERA. 

Perrisia filicina Kief. Near Huddersfield, S.L.M. Ellen Springs, 
Sun Dean. 

Perrisia marginem-torquens Winn. Common in various places about 
Slaithwaite and Linthwaite. 

Rhabdophaga rosaria H. Low. Armitage Bridge, Dogley Mill Dam. 

Massalongia rubra Kief. Sun Dean. 

Oligotrophies betulae Winn. Beaumont Park, Huddersfield. 

Microdiplosis volvens Kief. Thurstonland and Ellen Springs, S.L.M. ; 
Brockholes, Butternab Wood. 

Perrisia crataegi Winn. Wherever there are hawthorns — abundant. 

Perrisia urticae Perr. Brockholes, Sun Dean, Almondbury, Lepton. 

Perrisia persicariae Linn. Near Huddersfield, S.L.M. — Gawthorpe 
Mill goit. 

Perrisia ulmariae Bremi. Ellen Springs, Sun Dean, Lepton. 

Perrisia rosarum Hardy. Huddersfield, S.L.M., Armitage Bridge, 
Lepton, Ainley Place. 

Perrisia anglica Kief. Syke's plantation near top of Wholestone 
Moor, Outlane, S.L.M. 

Stictodiplosis corylina F. Low. Lepton Great Wood. 

Contarinia tiliarum Kief. Lockwood, S.L.M., Slaithwaite. 

Perrisia epilobii F. Low. Beaumont Park, Huddersfield, S.L.M. 

Perrisia fraxini Kief. Ellen Springs, Armitage Bridge, Sun Dean, 
Butternab Wood, Ainley Place. 

Perrisia trachelii (?) Wachtl. A pale loose, bud-like gall near base of 
stem, in a field at Wilberlee, Slaithwaite. 

Rhopalomyia millefolii H. Low. Lepton, S.L.M., fields at Wilberlee, 
common. 

Rhopalomyia ptarmicae Vallot. Near Huddersfield, S.L.M. 
Urophora solstitialis Linn. Near Huddersfield, S.L.M. — Kirkheaton. 

LEPIDOPTERA. 

Argyresthia goedartella Linn. On alder catkins near canal, Slaithwaite. 

HOMOPTERA. 

Pemphigus bursarius Linn. Armitage Bridge, Ponty Gardens, Hall 
Ings, S.L.M., Brockholes. 

P. affinis Kalt. Beaumont Park, Ponty Gardens, S.L.M. 

Aphis atriplicis K. On Atriplex patula L., Lepton. 

Rhopalosiphum ribis Linn. On black currant, Lepton. 

Aphis pyri Fonsc. On crab apple, Lepton, near the Church. 

Psylla crataegi Schrk. Beaumont Park, Huddersfield, S.L.M. 

Psyllopsis fraxini Linn. Armitage Bridge, Sun Dean, Ainley Place, 
abundant. 

1918 May 1. 



i68 Plant Galls of the Huddersfield District. 

Psylla buxi Linn. Beaumont Park, Kirkheaton. 

Brachycolns stellariae Hardy. Abundant about Slaithwaite, Lepton.- 
Almondbury, on Agrostis tenuis Sib. 

ACARI. 

Eriophyes psilaspis Nal. Fixby, S.L.M., Armitage Bridge. 

Eriophyes salicis Nal. Sun Dean, Armitage Bridge (Mag Wood), Lep- 
ton, Drop Clough (Marsden). 

Eriophyes rudis Can. Brockholes, solitary tree by roadside. Drop 
Clough, Lepton Great Wood. 

Eriophyes rudis Can. var. longiseta Nal. Sun Dean, S.L.M. 

Eriophyes (?) species. Birch trunks near the footpath, Butternab 
Wood — massed buds on a woody boss ; some fine examples. 

Eriophyes nalepai Fock. Longwood (Miss Blackburn), Ellen Springs 
Sun Dean, Lepton. 

Eriophyes Icsvis Nal. Ellen Springs, S.L.M. 

Eriophyes avellanae Nal. Ellen Springs Berry Brow, Kirkheaton. 

Eriophyes ribis Nal. Merridale, Slaithwaite. Mr. Mosley says it is 
abundant in the Huddersfield district. 

Eriophyes pyri Pagenst. On blackthorn, Shrogg Lane. Kirkheaton 
S.L.M. ; on mountain ash. Sun Dean. 

Eriophyes macrorrhyncus Nal. On sycamore ; Beaumont Park, 
Huddersfield, S.L.M. ; Ellen Springs, Clough House, Slaithwaite. 

Eriophyes rosae Swant. Mollicar Woods, Cockatoo Wood (Honley), 
Fenay Bridge, Lepton Great Wood. 

Eriophyes tiliae Pagn. var. liosnma Nal. Bottom of Storthes Hall Lane, 
Kirkburton on left hand ; apparently the only tree in the district so galled. 

FUNGI. 

Exoascus deformans Fiick. Witches broom, cherry, Griniescar Wood, 
Whitley Woods, Birks Mill Lane (Almondbury) Storthes Hall Wood. 

E. turgidus Sdbk. Witches broom. Birch ; Wooldale, Storthes Hall 
Wood, Mollicar Wood, Lepton Great Wood ; Elm ; Toothill, Mollicar 
Wood, Lepton Great Wood. 

? on oak. Witches broom, Storthes Hall Wood, Rowley Hill in a 
field. 

Frankiella alni R. Maire. Mollicar Wood, Dogley Mill Dam, Clough 
House. 

Undetermined Dipterous Gall: On couch grass {Triticum repens L.) 
at the top of the haulm, arresting development and bunching the leaves 
and spikelets. Attempts have previously been made, but without success, 
to discover the agent concerned. Other examples are now under observa- 
tion. Lepton. 



Agriculture and the Land, by G. F. Bosworth. Cambridge University 
Press : 93 pp., 1/6 net. The sub-title of this volume, viz., ' with some 
account of Building Societies, Garden Cities, Our Water Supply and 
Internal Communication ' defines its scope. It deals with the rise and 
progress of Agriculture, 'our most important industr}'.' Several suitable 
illustrations add to the attractions of this readable volume. 

Coleoptera Illustrata, Vol. I., No. 3 (Carabids), by Howard Notman. 
Brooklyn : 136 Joralemon Street (Price One Dollar). The author is to 
be congratulated on the third part of this publication. As in the previous 
numbers, the drawings are good and give in simple lines the facies of the 
species depicted. The fifty plates illustrate members of the genera Abax, 
Amara, Anisodactylus, Anophthalmus, Bembidium, Cillenus, Elaphrus, 
Pterostichus, Zabrus and some others. The species are European, includ- 
ing British forms. 

Naturalist 



169 
BIBLIOGRAPHY: 

Papers and Records relating to the Geology and Palaeontology of the 
North of England (Yorkshire excepted), published during 1917. 



T. SHEPPARD, M.Sc, F.G.S. 



19X4. 



[D.] WooLACOTT, C. T. Trechmann, [J. A.] Smythe. 

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1916. 

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Fuel Economy from a National Standpoint [with discussion]. Proc. 
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William George Fearnsides. Derby, Notts., West Yorks. 

Some effects of earth-movement on the Coal- Measures of the Sheffield 
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71-117 of reprint). See also Naturalist, 1917, pp. 178-9. 

[George Hickling]. Lanes., S. 

Discussion of Dr. George Hickling's Papers on ' The Coal Measures of the 
Croxteth Park Inlier ' and ' The Geological Structure of the South 
Lancashire Coalfield.' Trans. Manch. Geol. and Min. Soc, Vol. 
XXXIV., Part 9, pp. 329-336, and Part X., p. 428. 

X. Stainer. Northern Counties. 

The Connexion between the North- Western European Coalfields. Trans. 
Manch. Geol. and Min. Soc, Vol. XXXIV., Part 9, pp. 337-391. 
Discussion in Part 10, pp. 429-430. 

191'7. 

Anon. Yorks., Lines. 

A Coalfield in the Fenland [notice of Prof. Fearnside's paper]. Naturalist, 
June, pp. 178-179. 

Anon. Yorks., Lines., Cumberland. 

The Supply of Iron Ore [notice of Prof. Fearnside's paper]. Naturalist, 
June, p. 179. 

Anon. Northern Counties. 

Geological Photographs [see under W. W. Watts]. Naturalist, June, pp. 
179-180. 

Anon. Yorks., Isle of Man. 

Aelisina [notice of Mrs. LongstafE's paper]. Naturalist, June, p. 182. 

Anon. Northern Counties. 

Evolution of Geological Maps ; Early References to Geology ; Soil Maps ; 
The First Geological Map ; Later Maps [see also under T. Sheppard]. 
Naturalist, July, pp. 213-214. 

Anon. Northern Counties. 

Sands for Glass Making [notice of P. G. H. Boswell's Memoir ; see under 
Boswell, 1916]. Naturalist, May, p. 148. 

1918 May 1. 



170 Bibliography : Geology and, Palceontology, 

Anon. Derbyshire. 

Derbyshire Carboniferous Lavas [notice of H. C. Sargent's paper]. Natura- 
list, May, pp. 148-9. 

Anon. Yorks., Northumberland. 

Carboniferous Corals ; Diagnoses; Discussion [E.J.Garwood] [notice of 
Stanley Smith's paper on AuUnia rotiformis, etc.]. Naturalist, 
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Anon. Lanes. 

Facetted Pebbles from Lancashire [notice of J. W. Jackson's paper]. 
Naturalist, February, pp. 53-54. See also Lanes, and Cheshire Nat., 
December, 1916 (published, 1917), p. 227. 

Anon. Yorks., Durham, Notts., Cheshire. 

Glass Sands, British and Foreign [review of P. G. H. Boswell's book]. 
Quarry, February, pp. 25-27. See also under P. G. H. Boswell, 191 6. 

Anon. Yorks., Lanes., Cumberland. 

Richard Hill Tiddeman, M.A. (Oxon.), F.G.S., etc. Born February nth, 
1842 ; Died February 20th, 1917. Geol. Mag., May, pp. 238-239. 

Anon. Notts., Derbyshire. 

Microscopic Material of the Bunter [notice of T. H. Burton's paper]. 
Naturalist, June, p. 182. 

Anon. Lanes. S. 

Secondary Rutile in Millstone Grit [notice of H. W. Greenwood's paper]. 
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Anon. Northern Counties. 

Eminent Living Geologists : Alfred Marker, M.A., LL.D. (McGill), F.R.S., 

[etc]. Geol. Mag., July, pp. 289-294. 

Anon. Yorks., Lines. 
The Interglacial Problem ; The Kirmington Deposit ; Correlation of 

Deposits [notice of W. B. Wright's paper]. Naturalist, November, 
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The Pliocene Cave at Dove Holes. Geol. Mag., October, p. 480. 

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Manchester Geological and Mining Society [notice of Dr. G. HickUng's 

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The Ingleton Slates [notice of J. F. N. Green's paper]. Naturalist, Dec, 
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George Abbott. Durham. 

Forms of Weathering in Magnesian Limestone. Nature, February 8th, 

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F. A. Bather. Isle of Man. 

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[L. L. Belinfante, edited by]. Northern Counties. 

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Some Uses of Sands [extract from ' A Memoir on British Resources of 
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(To be continued). 

^918 May I. . ' 



172 



3n (TDemoriatn. 



J. H. HOWARTH, J.P., F.G.S. 

Yorkshire naturalists have received a further loss in the 
death of John Henry Howarth, at the age of 64 years. He 
was born at Kirkby Malham and educated at the Giggleswith 
Grammar School, of which he was subsequently a governor. 




He was a quiet, earnest, conscientious and enthusiastic worker, 
and before his numerous public appointments occupied so 
much of his time, frequently took part in the meetings and 
excursions of the Yorkshire Naturalists' Union and Yorkshire 
Geological Society, for some years occupying the position of 
hon. treasurer of the former and hon. secretary of the latter. 
He was a valued member of the Council of these two societies, 
where his business abiUty was of great assistance. He was 
an admirable guide on excursions to the north-west corner 
of our county, the geology of which he knew thoroughly. He 

Naturab'st, 



Northern News. 173 

took part in the investigations of the underground waters of the 
Ingleborough area, and was of much assistance in connection 
with the pubUcation of the scientific results obtained. He was 
also greatly interested in the erratic boulders of the county, and 
for several years was the secretary of the Yorkshire Boulder 
Committee and compiled the annual reports ; finally summar- 
ising the whole of the Yorkshire records in a valuable paper 
on " The Ice- borne Boulders of Yorkshire,' which appeared 
in The Naturalist for 1908. In connection with this he pre- 
pared a large map upon which he indicated all the far-travelled 
boulders recorded in Yorkshire. This is now framed and hung 
in the Geological Gallery at the Hull Museum. In the ' Biblio- 
graphy of Yorkshire Geology ' are particulars of about thirty 
contributions from his pen — many of which appeared in 
The Naturalist between 1894 and 1910, though the Proceedings 
of the Yorkshire Geological Society, The Halifax Naturalist, 
and the publications of the British Association, also preserve 
some of his scientific work. 

During recent years his work as Chairman and General 
Manager of the West Yorkshire Bank, as a Justice of the 
Peace, as President and Treasurer of the Halifax Chamber of 
Commerce, as a prominent Churchman and Freemason, and 
in many other positions which he occupied, prevented him 
from devoting much time to scientific pursuits, and, to the 
regret of his fellow naturalists and geologists, his visits among 
them became very few, though he was always interested in 
their work. Many of us will miss this genial and straightfor- 
ward man, and our sympathies go to his daughter, Mrs. V. W. 
Wanklyn.— T. S. 

: o : 

We regret to hear of the death of Mr. S. Maples, President of the 
Spalding Gentlemen's Society. 

The death is announced of Miss B. Lindsay, well known for her Zoo- 
logical work in the Isle of Man and other districts. 

Mrs. and Miss Holt have given ;^2.ooo towards the equipment of the 
new department of Geology, at the University of Liverpool. 

Some of the inhabitants of Darlington are taking steps to have a 
Municipal Museum for the borough as soon as the war is over. 

We regret to record the death of Dr. L. Moysey of Nottingham, who 
was on the hospital ship ' Glenart Castle,' when torpedoed, and was not 
among the rescued. He was keenly interested in palaeontology, and the 
Reports of the British Association contain details of his contributions on 
the subject. A few weeks before his death he had given his fossil plants 
to the University of Cambridge, and the fossil animal remains to the 
Geological Survey. 

We much regret to notice the announcement of the death of George 
Jennings Hinde, Ph.D., F.R.S., F.G.S. Dr. Hinde was born at Norwich 
in 1839. He was an authority on Fossil Sponges, Radiolaria and Corals, 
and was the author of many papers on these subjects. In 1883 he wrote 
a Catalogue of Fossil Sponges in the British Museum, a large 4to volume, 
which contains many excellent illustrations of specimens from the York- 
shire Chalk, principally near Bridlington. 

1918 May 1. 



174 

FIELD NOTES. 

MOLLUSCA, 
Mollusca near Louth. — Mr. C. S. Carter (see page 121, 
ante), will be interested to know that to Mr. V. Howard 
and myself Helicigona lapicida, var. nigrescens Tay., living, 
occurred freely in Welton-le-Marsh Wood, six miles south- 
east of Gt. Thoresby, on August 27th, 1907, and again in 1908 
in company with living examples of Cyclostoma elegans var. 
pallida Moq. — J. F. Musham. 

BIRDS. 

Cuckoos' Eggs and Foster Parents. — Referring to Mr. 
W. Hewitt's remarks ( The Naturalist, p. 140), that Mr. Massey 
disputed the statements ' that one Cuckoo sometimes deposits 
t\Vo or three eggs in the same nest, holding that where there 
were two or more Cuckoo eggs in any nest they were deposited 
by different birds,' I cannot help thinking that Mr. Massey's 
contention is much too sweeping, since I have at least found 
one nest with two Cuckoo eggs, and, I think, there were over- 
whelming reasons to convince anyone that both eggs were 
laid by one Cuckoo. — E, P. Butterfield. 

Flocks of Magpies. — Referring to The Naturalist, pages 
26 and 138, it has been my privilege to see two flocks of Magpies, 
if parties of between twenty to thirty, scattered within a 
radius of a hundred yards or so can be called ' flocks.' I saw 
a flock of this kind about last Christmas in the fields within 
a mile of this place, but the birds appeared to be quite restless, 
flying from one hedge to another, without any apparent 
reason whatever, and left the locality altogether within quite 
a short time, and gave me the impression they were on migra- 
tion. The other flock was on a tract of land up to the Crimean 
War covered with bilberry and heather, but now well under 
cultivation, but is still called Cottingley Moor ; this flock also 
gave me the impression of its being a migratory movement. 
In neither of these flocks could it be said that with any reason 
food had induced them to visit the localities where I saw them. 
Referring to Mr. Welch's notes ; some time ago, near the Allerton 
car terminus, near a farm house, I saw a cat, almost certainly 
belonging to the farm house, and two or three Magpies, having 
an encounter. The cat was in a big bush — either Elder or 
Whitethorn — but I think the Magpies were more frightened 
than otherwise. I have heard, however, of them — at least 
one — of a Magpie killing a rabbit. Last year on the highway 
near Gilstead, I noticed a dead hedgehog, and on returning 
later, I saw a Magpie feeding upon the carcase. Magpies are 
more common here than they have been for forty years. This I 
attribute to the fact that nearly all our gamekeepers have been 
drafted into other occupations. — E. P. Butferfield, Wilsden. 

Naturalist, 



175 
NEWS FROM THE MAGAZINES. 

The price of The Lancashire and Cheshire Naturalist has been increased 
to 6d. a month. 

' Agricultural Damage by Vermin and Birds ' is the title of a paper 
by Mr. H. S. Gladstone in The Scottish Naturalist for April. 

New Chalk Polyzoa, Lincolnshire Lias, Mountain Building, Datum- 
lines in English Keuper, and Isostasy, are among the subjects discussed 
in The Geological Magazine for March. 

Two parts of the Essex Naturalist have recently appeared covering the 
period July, 1915-March, 1917 ; each is filled with valuable papers and 
reports upon the Natural History and Archaeology of the county. 

In The Quarterly Journal of the Geological Society, No. 288, Dr. Stanley 
Smith has a paper on ' Aulina rotiformis, gen. et. sp. nov., PhillipsastrcBa 
hennahi (Lonsdale) and Orionastrcea, gen. nov.', which is well illustrated. 

British Birds for April records two Great Skuas, near Flamborough, 
in November last, and the appearance of a Swallow near Blackpool on 
March 5th of this year. There is also a coloured plate of the Marsh 
Warbler. 

In The Entomologist for April, Mr. T. H. Taylor gives some ' Observa- 
tions on the Habits of the Turnip Flea-Beetle,' made at Garforth and Leeds. 
The same journal contains a note on the ' Abundance of Black Phigalia 
pilosaria at Burnley.' 

In The Irish Naturalist for March, Messrs. R. A. Phillips and A. W. 
Stelfox have an illustrated paper on ' Recent Extensions of the Range of 
Pisidium hibernicum,' in which they record its presence in Lancashire, 
Cheshire and the Isle of Man. 

In The Entomologist's Record for March, Capt. Bowater describes 
' Inbreeding Amphidasis betularia ' to the seventh generation, and Mr 
T. A. Chapman describes a specimen of an Ant, Myramica scabrinodis, 
which lived over 50 days without a head and part of the time also without 
some of its legs. 

A few days ago (says The Field) a very large eel, 43 in. long, and 5 lb. 
8^ oz. in weight, was captured as it was making its way through the grass 
from a large pond to an old mill sluice some little distance away. The pond 
is situated close to the railway near Horsforth. The old mill sluice is 
indirectly connected with the River Aire. 

The Lancashire and Cheshire Naturalist for February contains reports 
of the Fauna Committee for the two counties, dealing with Birds, Chelifers, 
Rhynchota, Odonata, Neuroptera, Orthoptera and Protozoa. In the same 
journal it is recorded that in two fields near Warrington recently there were 
at least 10,000 mole-hills of various sizes. 

Wild Life for February contains the following articles, most of which 
are well illustrated : — ' Guillemots and Razorbills,' by F. B. Kirkman ; 
' Wild Cats of the Double-Normal Colouration,' by F. D. Welch ; ' Some 
Observations on Birds' Songs and Calls,' by C. W. Colthrup ; and ' Some 
Birds of North-west Surrey,' by E. Pettitt. 

A writer in Nature complains of the fact that the British Association 
meeting has been postponed, and suggests that a shorter meeting might 
be held in London, for which he certainly gives good reasons. It does 
seem strange that at present, of all times, the British Association for the 
Advancement of Science should be practically dormant for two years ! 

Some very important criticisms on the suggested National Union of 
Scientific Workers occur in The New Phytologist published on March 
nth. They should be read by all interested in the subject. In the same 
journal are some remarks on 'The Reconstruction of Elementary Botanical 
Teaching,' one line of which, on page 6, reads : ' a perusal of ecological 
iterature; as Huxley said of holastic philosophy ' ; evidently the subject 
has been too much for the compositor ! 

1918 Mayl. 



176 

NORTHERN NEWS. 

' Potato Growing ' is the title of Leaflet, No. 173, distributed free by 
the Board of Agriculture and Fisheries, 3 St. James' Square, London, 
S.W. I. 

In an obituary notice in The Entomologist's Record for March, we learn 

that ' Mr. L. leaves a widow and one daughter, who is married to the 

Rev. , with whom all his friends will feel the deepest sympathy ' ! 

We notice the Belfast Museum is paying particular attention to Food 
Economy and other matters which are being brought to the fore at the 
present time, and in addition is issuing useful leaflets for distribution, 
bearing on these subjects. 

Food Production leaflet No. 3^1, issued free by the Board of Agriculture 
and Fisheries, deals with the Canning of Fruit and Vegetables. We 
should evidently follow our American friends' advice and eat what we 
can and can what we can't. 

The Darlington Evening Despatch for March 9th, contains an account 
of some neolithic flint weapons found while digging allotments at Darling- 
ton. We have since had these specimens submitted to us ; they are not 
neolithic and not implements. 

The presidential address of Mr. William Pickup, entitled ' Mining 
Education and Research in Lancashire : An Appeal for Wider Interest 
and Greater Support,' appears in The Transactions of the Manchester 
Geological and Mining Society, Vol. XXXV., Part 6. 

At the Anniversary Meeting of the Geological Society of London, the 
Lyell Medal, together with a sum of £2$ was awarded to Mr. Henry Woods, 
as an acknowledgement of the value of his researches in Palaeontology, 
more particularly on the Fauna of the Cretaceous Period. 

The Council of the Geological Society of London has made the sixteenth 
annual award of the Daniel Pidgeon Fund to James Arthur Butterfield, 
M.Sc, F.G.S., Demonstrator in Geology in the University of Leeds, who 
proposes to conduct researches in connection with the Conglomerates and 
Sandstones underlying the Carbcniferous Limestone Series of the N.W. 
of England. 

Messrs. Longman, Green & Co. have published a second edition of 
Thorburn's beautiful volumes on ' British Birds,' the first edition of 
which was noticed in these columns at the time. The remarkable series 
of ' additions to the British Fauna,' principally made in Sussex, as well 
as one or two records of a more reliable nature, have necessited two ad- 
ditional plates, 80a and Sob, in order to bring the work up to date. These 
plates, together with the accompanying letterpress, are also printed 
separately as a supplementary part and can be obtained at 6/- net by 
those requiring them in order to keep their volumes up to date. 

At the Annual Meeting of the British Ornithologists' Union, 
Dr. W. Eagle Clarke, keeper of the Natural History Department of the 
Royal Scottish Museum, was unanimously elected president for the 
ensuing term of five years. One Northern naturalist has thus succeeded 
another. Colonel Wardlaw Ramsay, in election to this honour, the blue 
ribbon of British ornithology. Dr. Eagle Clarke's studies of bird-life, and 
in particular of bird migration are well known, and his services to the 
cause of ornithology are evidenced by the position he held on the British 
Association Committee on Bird migration, for which he prepared the 
final reports, as well as by his selection to serve on the Government 
Departmental Committee, of the Home Office, which has at present under 
revision the Wild Birds' Protection Acts. As an editor of The Scottish 
Naturalist he is well known, and under his care the exhibited collection of 
British birds in the Royal Scottish Museum has gained the reputation of 
being the finest in existence. He has served in the capacity of Hon. 
Secretary and President of the Yorkshire Naturalists' Union. 

Naturalist, 



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May 1st, 1918. 



JUNE 1918. 



No. 737 

(No, 511 of currant torln. 




A MONTHLY ILLUSTRATED JOURNAL OF 

NATURAL HISTORY FOR THE NORTH OF ENGLAND. 

EDITED BY 

T. SHEPPARD, M.Sc, F.Q.S.. F.R.Q.S.. F.S.A.Scot. 

The Museums, Hull ; 

AND 

T. W. WOODHEAD, Ph.D., M.Sc, F./l.S 

Technical College, Huddersfield. 
with the assistance as referees in special departmen 
J. aiLBBRT BAKBR, P.R.S. P.L.S., QEO. T. PORRITF, P. 

Prof. P. P. KBNDALL, M.Sc. P.fl.S., JOHN W. TAYLOR, M.ScTT 

RILEY PORTUNB. P.Z.S. 




Contents :■ 



Notes and Comments: — Museums and Learning; Labelling; Classification; Catalogues; 
Publicity; A Voracious Marine Pest ; The Mortimer Collection ; Ammonite Nomenclature ; 
New Genera ; Mr. S. S. Buckman's opinion; The Field Geologist ; The Glacial Period; 
The Glacial Question; Deep Gorges; Interglacial Conditions; One Ice Age ; Balby 
Boulder Clay 177-184 

Apterygota from Derbyshire and Yorkshire— /a»«es Meikle Brown, B.Sc, F.L.S., F.C.S. 185-187 

Astatus stigma Panz. in \ork.aMrt— W.J. Fordham, M.R.C.S., L.R.C.P., F.E.S. ... 188 

Westmorland Coleoptera—F. H. Daj, F.E.S 189-191 

The Geographical Distribution of Moths of the Sub-family Bistoninae-/. W. 

Hcslop Harrison, D.Sc 192-194 

The Spiders of Yorkshire— l^m. Falconer 195-197 

Bibiioeraphy:— Papers and Records relating to the Geology and Palaeontology of the North 

of England (Yorkshire excepted) published during lill—T.^Shcppard, M.Sc, F.G.S. ... 198 201 

Pleld Notes: — Nidification of the Spotted Flycatcher; Fatality to a Sparrowhawk; Varia- 
tion of the Colour of Sparrows' Eggs (illustrated) ; Bitterns in the West ; Cirl Bunting, 
etc., near Whitby; Jackdaws i/. Starlings; Lancashire and Cheshire Entomology ; Fungi 
of the Don District 184,202-204 

Cuckoos' Eggs— E. E. Pettitt 204 

Northern News £04 

Reviews and Book Notices 205-207 

Proceedings of Provincial Scientific Societies 207 

News from the Magazines 208 

Illustration 202 



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BOOKS WANTED. 

Alford Nat. Hist. Soc. Reports. 

Arcbseologia Cantiana. Vol. I. 

Barrow Nat. Field Club. Trans. Vol. VII. 

Bath Field Nat. and Arch. Soc. Vols. VIII.-XI, 

Bedfordshire Natural History Society Proceedings. Set. 

Burnley Lit. and Sci. Soc. Parts i, 3, 3, 6, 8, 12, 13, 16-27, 29- 

Chester Soc. Nat. Science : Ann. Reports, i,-iv. 

Cleveland Lit. & Phil. Soc. Trans, hcience Section or others. 

Croydon Nat. Soc. 6th Report, and Trans, for 1887-8. 

Derby Arch, and Nat. Hist. Soc. Parts 20, 21. 

Discovery. (Liverpool, 4to). 1891. 

Dudley and Midland Geol. etc., Soc. 1862-80 (14 parts). 

Entomological Monthly Mag. Part 121. 

Eastbourne Naturalist ( i part) . 

Eastbourne Nat. Hist. Soc. Vols. II. -III. (or parts), and part 6 of new series. 

Frizinghall Naturalist. (Lithographed). Vol. I,, and part i of Vol. II. 

Garner, Nos. 4, 8, 12, 60. 

Geol. and Nat. Hist. Repository, Mackie's Vols. II., III. 

Geol. Assoc. Proc. Vol. I. Part i. 

Geological Magazine, 1890-1-2-4. 

Geological Maps, Early. 

Geol. Soc, London, Trans. 4to. 2nd series, Vols. IV.-VII. (1836-56). 

Huddersfield Arch, and Topog. Society. 4 Reports. (1865- 1869). 

Illustrated Scientific News. 1902-4. (Set). 

Journ. Micrology and Nat. Hist. Mirror. 1914- 

Keighley Naturalists' Society Journal. 4to. Part i. 

Lanes, and Cheshire Antiq. Soc. Vols. IV., V., VIII.. XXVI. 

Manchester Geol. Soc. Trans. Vols. XV., XVI., XIX. -XXIII. 

Marine Biological Assoc. Journal. Vols. I. -IV. 

Naturalists' wiiide (Huddt-rsfield). Parts T-38. 

Peterborough Natural History Society. Reports, 1-8, 11-12, 14-26. 

Quarterly Journal of Science. 1878-9, 1882-3, ^^^ 1885. 

Reliquary (Jewitt's 8vo. Series). Vol. XXII. 

Sussex and Hants. Naturalist. 17 parts. 

Tweddell's Bards and Authors of Cleveland. Parts 9-12. 

Walford's Antiquarian Mag. and Bibliographer for July-Dec, 1883. 

Yorks. Ramblers' Club Journal. No. 8. 

Young England. Set. 

^j!,^/y_Editor, The Museum, Hull. 

BOOKS FOR SALE. 

Annals Scott. Nat. Hist., 1896-1904. Bound (new), 3/- per vol. 

Engineering Geology. Reis and Watson. 10/- 

HiTCHCocK Religion of Geology. 2/-. 

British Organic Remains (Geol Survey). Decades I., II., VII., 2/- each. 

Highways and Byways in Derbyshire. Firth. 4/6 

Outdoor Common Birds. Stannard. 2/- 

Vertebrate Fauna of North Wales. Forrest. 12/6 

Hunting in British East Africa. Madeira. 15/- 

Natural History Essays. Renshaw. 4/- 

Final Natural History Essays. Renshaw. 4/ 

How TO Teach Nature Study. Hoare. 2/6 

The Nature Study Idea. Bailey. 3/- 

MossEs AND Liverworts, (plates.) Russell. 3/G 

Birds of Britain. Evans. 2/6 

Genetalia of GEOMETRiDiE. f4S plates.) Pierce. 6/6 

Whi te's Natural History of Selborne. Coloured Illustrations by Collins, 6/- 

Published Records of Land and Fresh -Water Mollusca, East Riding. 

(Maps). T. Petrh, B.Sc, B.A. 1/6 
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'r^i»*\*iinfii^ 



JUN24 1920 



NOTES AND COMMENTS. 

MUSEUMS AND LEARNING^ 

In The Ahiseimis Journal for May, Dr. F. A. Bather has a 
timely essay on ' Museums and the Advancement of Learning.' 
In the February number of that journal he had already re- 
counted numerous forms of help given to the nation at war by 
its national museum. His object in the present article is to 
show that all such forms of economic aid are rendered possible 
only by the accumulation and arrangement of reference 
collections. Indeed he claims that the systematic study and 
classification, which is peculiarly the task of the museum man, 
is the ultimate basis of all the natural sciences and of many 
other branches of learning. From the admirable paper we 
extract the following :— ' The first business of the museum is 
to afford a safe and permanent home for collections of material 
objects. These may be acquired through others, or the museum 
may with advantage send out its own collectors. That is a 
question of administration : the essential duty of the museum 
official is the preservation of the specimens entrusted to him.' 

LABELLING. 

The next business is to see that every specimen is furnished 
with an indication of its original locality, mode of occurrence, 
and any historical facts concerning it. Many ways of doing 
this are familiar to curators. Then the specimens must be 
arranged in such a manner as to be readily accessible for 
reference by accredited students. To accomplish this is 
required, first, a logical scheme of classification. This scheme 
must be practicable for the curator, who is inevitably governed 
by the mode of preservation of his specimens {e.g., in spirit, or 
skins, or fossils). On the other hand it must be in relation 
with the scheme adopted by the majority of students- -what 
they would admit as a ' scientific ' classification. 

CLASSIFICATION, 

The curator therefore must be familiar with scientific studies, 
and he must have such knowledge as will enable him to perform 
the necessary preliminaries of identifying and sorting. Since 
no museum in the world has a staff large enough to permit of 
its officials having the detailed knowledge required, every 
museum in greater or less degree is obliged to call in the aid 
of specialists. The modes of obtaining this outside help are 
various, but there is no need here to reveal the secrets of 
diplomacy. However they be persuaded, such namers and 
sorters are for the nonce museum workers. The official 
curator has to gather up and apply the results of their labours. 

CATALOGUES. 

Next, for the museum to be of its full value to the scientific 
public, especially to workers in other countries, it is necessary 

1918 June 1. 

M 



178 Notes and Comments. 

to publish catalogues. These need not always rival the 
monographic volumes issued by the British Museum, but they 
must follow the scientific classification and must be something 
more than mere lists. Their compilation requires critical 
judgment and thorough knowledge, so that here also the 
services of outside helpers are needed 

PUBLICITY. 

We must no longer pretend that the more or less intellectual 
gratification of the man in the street is our chief aim. Let us 
dare to be frank with the people, neither deceiving them as to 
our objects, nor leaving them ignorant. The popular articles 
being issued by the United vStates National Museum, and 
largely intended for use by the press, are an example of judicious 
and dignified advertisement most worthy of our imitation. 
It sounds a truism to say that the greatest enemy of knowledge 
is ignorance, but for all that the remark will bear some pondering 
over. If we cannot justify and explain our particular bits of 
work to the men of ordinary education, we may find possibly 
that we cannot justify them to ourselves. That, at any rats, 
would be a gain. I believe that the most esoteric branches of 
museum work can be justified, to ourselves, to our scientific 
colleagues, and to the public ; and that it is our bounden duty 
to do so without delay. 

A VORACIOUS MARINE PEST. 

At the annual meeting of the Eastern Sea Fisheries Board, 
held at Spalding recently, the Inspector (Mr. H. Donnison) 
stated that star-fish, mostly small in size, and some not as big 
as a three-penny piece, had been very abundant, and constant 
attention on the part of the staff had been necessary to prevent 
them doing serious damage to the shell-fish beds. In the 
channels and on some low-lying ground which seldom bares, 
star-fish congregated and devoured every mussel and cockle 
around them, gradually working up the sides of the sands for 
more. A small special trawl, designed by the crew of the 
Protector, was very useful in obtaining about 37 tons (which 
meant some millions) of the pest. 

THE MORTIMER COLLECTION. 

We learn from Nature that ' Hull is probably one of the 
few places in this country which are extending their Museums in 
these times. It will be remembered that during the Museums 
Conference at Hull, in 1913, Col. G. H. Clarke purchased 
for £1,000 the Mortimer collection of Yorkshire archaeological 
and geological specimens, which the members had an oppor- 
tunity of visiting at Drifiield, and as the building is now 
required for other purposes, the collections have been removed. 
The Hull Corporation has taken some temporary premises in 
Albion Street, in the centre of the city, and in these the entire 

Naturalist, 



Notes and Comments. 179 

'Collection has recently been placed, and steps have been taken 
to prepare the Museum for public inspection. When it is 
remembered that in the archctological collection alone there 
are the entire contents of nearly four hundred barrows of the 
bronze age, as well as several hundred skulls of Prehistoric, 
Roman and Saxon date, and there are about 1,000 Prehistoric, 
Roman, Saxon and Mediaival vases, some of large size, and 
the contents of several Anglo-Saxon and Roman cemeteries, 
it will be understood that the removal of the collection 
has been an undertaking of some magnitude. Nearly 20 
van-loads were required to remove the specimens, and we 
imderstand the entire collection, consisting of about 60,000 
objects, has reached its new quarters without damage.' 

AMMONITE NOMENCLATURE. 

At a recent meeting of tlie Geological Society of London, 
Mr. A. E. Trueman read a paper on ' The Evolution of the 
Liparoceratidae.' The Ammonites considered included several 
sub-parallel series, of which four genera were indicated by 
Mr. S. S. Buckman in ' Yorkshire Type Ammonites.' The 
details of ontogeny and the sutures, which had not hitherto 
been compared, have been employed in constructing tables 
showing both the biological and the stratigraphical relations of 
the various species ; a revision of the existing classification is 
proposed. The early members of each series are similar 
' Capricorn ' forms with slender whorls and stout ribs (for in- 
stance, A. capricorfiiis, A. latecosta, A. macnlatus). In some- 
what later examples the outer whorl is swollen, and has paired 
tubercles (for instance, A. heterogcnes). From this stage the 
tendency is to shorten the period with slender Capricorn 
whorls by accelerating the development of bituberculation and 
prolonging the period of pre-costate globose whorls ; thus the 
most advanced members of each series are stout bituberculate 
forms (for instance, A. striatus, A. hechei), which do not pass 
in development through a Capricorn stage. 

NEW GENERA. 

The following genera may be recognized ; each includes 
ammonites of the three types mentioned above : — 

1. An earlier group, with tubercles paired in the involute 
stages ; Radstock (Somerset) is the only British locality 
where these ammonites have been found. 

Parinodiceras. gen. nov. Elevated whorl, paired tubercles, the 
inner and outer rows widely separated. Gcnoholotype. Am- 
monites striatus parinodits Quen.stedt (18S4, pi. xxviii,, fig. 6). 

Gen. nov. Round whorl, with the rows of tubercles placed close 
together. Genoholotype, a specimen to be figured as a new 
species. 

2. A later group, with unpaired tubercles in the involute 
stage. These genera are most readily distinguished by sutural 
characters, namely, the relative depths of the external lobe 

1918 June 1. 



i8o Notes and Comments. 

(EL) and the first lateral lobe (IL), and by the ,vidth of the 
external saddle (ES). 

(a) With narrow ES (not reaching to the outer tubercles). 
Lipavoceras Hyatt. IL and EL about equal in depth. Genolectotype 

Ammonites striatus Bronn. 
Becheiceras, gen. nov. IL deeper than EL. Genoholotype, Ammon- 
ites bechei Wright (' Lias Ammonites ' pi. xli., fig. i). 
Anisoloboceras, gen. nov. IL much deeper than EL. the ventral 
lobules of IL almost meeting under EL. Genoholotype Am- 
monites nautiliformis J. Buckman. 
[h) With wide ES, reaching to the outer tubercles. 
yEgoceras Waagen. EL and IL about equal in depth, IL symmetrical 

Genolectotype, Ammonites planicostus d'Orbigny. 
Androgynoceras, Hyatt. IL and EL about equal in depth, IL asym- 
metrical. Genolectotype, Ammonites hybrida d'Orbigny. 
Oistoceras S. S. Buckman. Ribs with sharp peripheral curve. Suture 
similar to Androgynoceras. Genoholotype, Ammonites figulinus 
Simpson. 
A mblycoceras Hyatt. Ribs with slight peripheral curve. IL shallower 

than EL. Genoholotype, A. capricorniis Hyatt, igoo. 
These ammonites generally occur in the upper part of the 
Lower Lias, where it has been usual to recognize a capricornus 
zone overlying a striattis zone. Careful collecting has shown, 
however, that there are several horizons with Capricorn am- 
monites of different series and several with the involute forms 
evolved from them. 

MR. S. S. BUCKMAN'S OPINION. 

A letter was read from Mr. S. S. Buckman, in which he states : 
' The family Liparoceratidae is very interesting. In its geolog- 
ical distribution it illustrates the principle of faunal repetition 
alluded to in my last paper communicated to the Society. In 
its mophology, showing successive waves of capricorns devel- 
oping into bituberculate sphserocones, which may perhaps 
unduly hearten the protagonists of orthogenesis, it shows the 
difficulties that confront the field-geologist until a study like 
the author's places facts in a clear light. In its biological 
development it illustrates the various phases of palingenesis 
which in " Yorkshire Type Ammonites " I have called saltative, 
cunctative, precedentive. In the last, the hastening in devel- 
opment of one feature faster than another, we seem to have 
the clue to the origin of species — it miakes for diversity of general 
while tachgenesis, or the earlier acqtiirement of characters, 
gives the differences of species. What was the cause of pre- 
cedentive palingenesis touches the debatable ground between 
Weismannism and Neo-Lamarckism. I confess to a predi- 
lection for the latter — that the variations of the germ-plasm 
were not fortuitous, but, in some v/ay, reflect modifications of 
the somatic cells induced by their responses to differences of 
environment. Data for solving this problem are required, 
and evolutionary studies such as those given by the author 
may be of great assistance.' 

Naturalist, 



Notes and Comments. i8i 

THE FIELD GEOLOGIST. 

Notwithstanding the undoubted merit of the paper, we 
must say we sympathise with the president, Mr. G. W. Lamp- 
lugh, F.R.S., who commented on the high importance, both to 
biologists and to stratigraphers, of intensive paLieontological 
studies of this kind. He wished, at the same time, to call 
attention to the difficulties felt by the field geologist, when 
robbed of his crude nomenclature of the commoner fossils by 
the precise definition and complicated analysis now attempted 
by the palaeontologists. For general service some kind of 
name was essential, but was becoming increasingly difficult 
to acquire or retain. For example, it was most desirable to 
be able to express, as proof that certain beds were Upper Lias, 
that they yielded Ammonites communis, hifrons and serpentimis, 
for every geologist would understand the statement. It might 
be based, quite soundly, on material so poor that no palaeon- 
tologist could name the specimens, or so good that only a very 
small number of specialists in these particular forms v/ould 
dare to do so. The growing difficult}^ would have to be met 
by some means, even if it entailed a duplication of nomenclature. 
We might have to continue to use indispensable names in a 
general sense, perhaps with some indication by type or symbol 
to warn the specialist.* 

THE GLACI.'^L PERIOD. 

A quarter of a century ago Prof. Kendall had much to do 
with the formation of the new school of Glacialists, which 
endeavoured to interpret the drift phenomena of this country 
on the basis of one Ice vSheet with an oscillating ice-front. 
This theory simplified the complicated evidences supplied by the 
newer deposits in this country, though for a time the upholders 
of the ' submergence ' theory, and those who held the belief 
that there were numbers of different glacial periods, held sway. 
But since that time, the submergers having become submerged, 
and the ' many glacial periods '-men having left us or having 
been converted, the new school practically holds the field. 
Prof. Kendall, hke Jupiter, had a number of attendant 
satellites, some of whom in recent years had feared that the 
planet showed traces of wobbling in its orbit, though as true 
satellites they were perforce destined to dance round the 
chief whatever course he took, yet perhaps wondering 
whither the path might lead. This question is now settled, 
however, oddly enough by a German publication (already 

* The Author, in reply to the President, pointed out that, while it 
was undesirable to use the names Ammonites stviatits and A. capricoruus 
with the wide meaning formerly given to them by stratigraphical workers, 
yet such terms as ' Capricorn ammonite ' and ' stviatits-hke ammonite ' 
could be so used. 

•1918 June 1. 



i82 Notes and Comments. 

noticed in these pages, see ante p. 55) in which Prof. Kendall 
clearly gives, for the first time, his views of the question 
based on recent researches. 

THE GLACIAL QUESTION. 

In the Handbuch der regionaten Geologie Prof. Kendall 
was entrusted with the section devoted to ' Carboniferous, 
Permian and Quaternary of Great Britain,' a reprint of which 
has recently come into" our hands. It is the last section of 
this which is of such value on the Glacial question ; the author 
reviews the evidence of the Glacial Period in Britain, and a 
perusal of the pages brings back to mind the heated con- 
troversies of years ago, in which Reade, Reid, Bell, Jamieson, 
Howorth, James Geikie, Lamplugh, Bonney, H. C. Lewis, 
Tiddeman and many others took part. 

DEEP GORGES. 

After dealing with the question of the raised beaches. 
Prof. Kendall states ' In apparent conflict with the evidence 
of pre-glacial raised beaches is that of a deep-sunken series 
of river-valleys found in many parts of the glacial regions, 
of which a few examples must suffice.' After referring to 
these he continues ' three explanations of this common 
phenomenon may be offered — (i) That there was another 
outlet for the pre-glacial drainage — this is highly improbable 
in the case of the Mersey and impossible in those of the Tyne 
and the Humber : (2) That there has been a depression of the 
interior of the countr}^ in consequence of the imposition of the 
ice-load, from which the recovery is not yet complete — this 
is highly improbable, for in the cases of the Tyne, Humber and 
Mersey, the greater load was at the seaward end and therefore 
the depression should have been greater there : (3) The last 
is that the interior regions have suffered great glacial erosion. 
This view, to which the writer has been brought with some 
reluctance, has much to commend it. The existence of thick 
deposits of boulder clay, consisting very largely of the ground-up 
materials of the subjacent rock-floor, is proof of very drastic 
local erosion. The floor of the Vale of York is a good illustra- 
tion of this fact. It consists of the soft sandstones and marls 
of the Trias, and, not only do these materials occur in recog- 
nisable fragments in the drift, but the boulder-clays owe their 
strong red colouration to triturated marl and to the presence 
of large quantities of Triassic sand grains still retaining the 
characteristic pellicle of iron oxide.' 

INTERGLACIAL CONDITIONS. 

With regard to the interglacial conditions we learn ' The 
British evidence of Interglacial Conditions ' is indecisive. 
While Prof. James Geikie (1894) argues for an extensive 
series of Glacial and Interglacial periods, Clement Reid recog- 

Naturalist, 



Notes and Comments. 183 

nises no more than one interruption of the continuity of the 
Ice Age. Lamplugh (1914) speaking from an intimate know- 
ledge of many large areas of glacial deposits in Ireland, the 
Isle of Man, Derbyshire, and the East Coast of England, 
declares himself unable to recognise any break in the succession 
of more then local value. The present writer has for 25 years 
held the same opinion, but long reflection upon a series of 
facts, quite other than those heretofore considered, have con- 
vinced him of the existence of a very early glaciation in 
Yorkshire that is separated by an immense interval of time 
from the stage represented by the York moraines. At the 
same time he is not prepared to say, or to suggest, that during 
that interval there was a disappearance of the ice from the 
regions to the north or that there was anything more than a 
wide oscillation of the ice margin. The evidence adduced in 
the preceding section seems indeed to show that, once the 
Scandinavian ice began to exercise an influence upon the 
British shores, it never wholly withdrew until the final liberation 
of the coast of Aberdeenshire.' 

ONE ICE AGE. 

Prof. Kendall concludes, ' The physical evidence of great 
fluctuations of the ice-margins in England is clear and con- 
vincing, but the present writer is not prepared to assent to the 
proposition that these fluctuations were more than local, or 
that between the successive retreats and readvances of the ice, 
there was a complete withdrawal of the ice-sheets back to the 
very sources. At one time it was considered sulficient to 
point to a bed of sand or gravel interpolated between two 
sheets of boulder-clay to demonstrate an interglacial period ; 
now, however, only very large sheets are accepted as proof, 
yet they do but prove oscillations relatively larger, and not 
complete withdrawal. Much more of the nature of the proof 
demanded is, however, available in Yorkshire. While the 
drift phenomena are preserved in wonderful freshness and 
completeness in the Cleveland area and the Vale of York — 
little lake-channels, small but sharp moraines, kettle-holes and 
like evidences of recent glaciation retaining their features 
almost unimpaired — outside {;i.e. south of) the great moraine 
at Escrick the Drift deposits are reduced to a series of small 
and disconnected patches.' 

BALBY BOULDER CLAY. 

' One of the most remarkable for its situation is that at 
Crosspool, Sheffield, 223 m. (730 ft.) above sea level, but as 
evidence of severe and prolonged glaciation, perhaps the patch 
of boulder-clay at Balby, near Doncaster (53° 42' N.), is the 
most remarkable. It is about 800 m. (-|-mile) in length and 
12 m. (40 ft.) thick, and presents the finest nnland section of 

1918 June 1. 



i84 Field Note. 

boulder-clay in the county, hard and very tough and closely 
packed with well-scratched stones, mostly local, but with a fair 
number of rocks from the Lake District, such as Shap granite 
and the micro-granite of Threlkeld. It is evident that these 
ate relics of a great and extensive glaciation separated from 
the stage represented by the York and Escrick moraines by 
an interval many times greater than that separating the later 
glacial phase from the present day, even though a generous 
allowance must be made for the greater activity of sub-cerial 
denudation during the Ice Age.' 

: o : 



Nidification of the Spotted Flycatcher. — Many bird- 
men will be overhauling their nesting boxes at this time of 
year ; great-tits, blue-tits, coal-tits, marsh-tits, redstarts, will, 
no doubt, be catered for ; but not many naturahsts think of 
assisting that true little friend of the gardener — the Spotted 
Flycatcher ; it is true this bird can generally find a niche in a 
creeper or wall in which to fix a neSt, but it does appreciate a 
little human assistance as the following instance shows. In 
the late spring of 1916 a pair of Spotted Flycatchers took up 
its abode in the garden of my house at Ripon, which stood at 
the end of a row of houses ; they searched eagerly for a suitable 
nesting site, and could find nothing better than the top of a 
spout under the eaves ; I watched them trying to fix a grass 
foundation in the perforated zinc which covered the spout, and 
realized that it would be a poor situation in wet weather ; so 
I made a small box with a roof over it, and fixed it on the wall 
of the house about six feet below the spout ; I then swept off 
the beginnings of the nest from the spout. The very next 
day, the flycatchers commenced a nest in the box, and within 
a week the first egg was laid ; on June 2nd the hen began 
incubating five eggs ; unfortunately (I believe through the 
interference of sparrows) one egg was broken on June 3rd, 
and the neSt and eggs were deserted. After two days, as the 
birds did not return to the nest, I cleared out the box ; then 
the flycatchers, unable perhaps to find another suitable site, 
visited the box, and finding it ' swept and garnished ' straight- 
way began to build in it again, and on June 20th the hen was 
sitting on four eggs ; this time all went well and four young 
birds were brought off. The following year, when I moved 
into Bolton Abbey Rectory, I brought the box with me and 
set it up six feet from the ground on the outside of the beautiful 
old porch ; a pair of spotted flycatchers at once took possession 
and hatched off their brood in it successfully, and this in spite 
of the fact that there are several creepers growing up the front 
of the house with many possible nesting sites. — Cecil F. 
ToMLiNSON, Rector of Bolton Abbey. 



Naturalist, 



185 

APTERYGOTA FROM YORKSHIRE AND 
DERBYSHIRE. 

JAMES MEIKLE BROWN, B.Sc, F.L.S., F.C.S. 

Sheffield. 

Since the pioneer work carried out by Lubbock (1862-70), 
culminating in the pubhcation of his ' Monograph ' by the 
Ray Society in 1873, the groups of insects included under the 
term ' Apterygota ' have been rather neglected in this country, 
A considerable amount of systematic work has been done by 
continental naturalists such as Tullberg, Renter, Schott, 
Schaffer, Borner, Linnaniemi and others, but until Prof. 
Carpenter of Dublin took up the group, few important papers 
dealing with the distribution of Collembola and Thysanura in 
the British Isles appear to have been published. A number of 
writers of late years, however, have partially made up for 
this deficiency. Carpenter has published records for Ireland, 
Carpenter and Evans for parts of Scotland, Collinge and 
Shoebotham for the Midlands., Bagnall for the North of England 
and Carr for Nottinghamshire. In these papers, except for 
two casual notices (referred to below), I find no records of York- 
shire or Derbyshire species, and hence the list given in this 
paper, including though it does, many common species, may 
be of interest. 

Most of the species enumerated here were collected last 
year during (i) a short visit to Wharf edale and Wensleydale in 
late July, (2) a longer stay in the Bakewell district during 
August, and (3) at various times in the more immediate 
neighbourhood of Sheffield. 

The nomenclature used is in most cases that of Linnaniemi 
(Axelson) in ' Die Apterygotenfauna Finlands,' igi2. 

Order: COLLEMBOLA. 
Family : Podurid.^. 

Podura aquatica L. Common on stagnant cattle ponds, etc. Hackfall 
Wood, Beauchief, Over Haddon.* 

Achorutes armatus (Nic). Common under bark and fallen branches. 
Ecclesall Woods, Haddon Meadows,* Dore*, Holmesfield,* Cord- 
well,* 
var. ineymis Axels. Ecclesall Woods. 

A. longispinus Tullh. Under bark. Ryecroft Glen.* 

A. purpurescens Lubb. Bakewell.* 

Xenylla grisea Axels. Under bark of fallen trees. Ecclesall Woods. 

X. humicola (O. Fabr.) Tullb. Reported by Bagnall from Saltburn.f 

X. maritima Tullb. Ryecroft Glen*, Grindleford,* Bakewell.* 

Pseiidachoriites subcvassus Tullb. Cordwell.* 

Onychiurus armatus (Tullb). Very plentiful under fallen branches, etc. 
Beauchief, Ecclesall Woods, Bolton Woods, Hassop,* Haddon,* 
Monsal Dale,* Dore,* Cordwell.* 

O.fimetarius (L. Lubb.). Under stones. Bolton Woods. 

* Localities starred * are in Derbyshire, the remainder are in Yorkshire. 
t In Trans. Nat. Hist. Soc. of Northumberland, etc., 1910. 

1918 June 1. 



i86 Apierygota from Yorkshire and Derbyshire. 

Onychiurus ambulans (L. Nic). Under stones. Ecclesall, Dronfield.* 
Neanura muscorum (Tempi.). Very common under bark, etc. Beauchief^ 
Ecclesall Woods, Dora.* Cord well,* Bakewell.* 

Family : Entomobryidae. 

[Archisotoma (Proisotoma) besselsi (Pack) Axels. Reported by Bagnall 
from Saltburn].t 

Folsomia fimetaria (L.) Tullb. Under flower-pots in a garden. Millhouses. 

F . quadrioculata (Tullb). Under bark. Ryecroft Glen.* 
Jsotoma viridis Bourl, Schott. Plentiful everywhere under stones, bark, 
etc. Ecclesall Woods, Beauchief, Kettlewell, Dore,* Cordwell,* 
Barlow,* Bakewell,* etc. 
var. riparia (Nic). In a garden. Millhouses. 
I, cinerea (Nic). Tullb. Under bark. Ecclesall Woods, Grassington, 

Bakewell.* Froggat,* Grindleford,* Ryecroft Glen.* 
I. sensibilis Tullb. Bakewell.* 

/. arborea (L.) Agr. Ecclesall, Totley, * Bakewell,* Grindleford.* 

/. grisescens Schaff. Fulwood, Totley,* Cordwell.* 

Tomocerus minor (Lubb.). Very common under stones, bark, etc. Eccle- 
sall Woods, Redmires, Hackfall Woods, Grassington, Totley,* 
Dore,* Cordwell,* Barlow,* Bakewell,* etc. 

T. vulgaris (Tullb.). Less common than the preceding species. Grassing- 
ton, Totley.* 

Isotomurus palusiris (Miiller). Common in damp places under fallen 
branches and on the surface of weedy ponds. Redmires, Hack Fall 
Woods, Millhouses, Dore,* Barlow,* Cordwell,* Ashford,* etc. 
var. prasina Reut. Ashford.* 

Entomobrya nivalis (L.). Ecclesall Woods, Bakewell,* Ashford.* 

E. albocincta (Tempi.). Frequent under bark, etc. Grassington, Stake- 
pass, Haddon,* Alport,* Bakewell,* Lathkil,* Hassop.* 

E. nicoleti (Lubb.). Common. Beauchief, Ecclesall Woods, Grassington, 
Bakewell,* Monsal-dalc,* Lathkil,* Hassop,* Calver,* Dore,* 
Cordwell.* 

E. muscorum (Tullb.). Cordwell,* Bakewell,* Over Haddon.* 

E. multifasciata (Tullb.). Haddon,* Bakewell,* Barlow,* Dore,* Cordwell* 

E. lanuginosa (Nic). Bakewell.* 

Seira nigromaculata Lubb. Common on window-sills, doorsteps, woodwork 
in conservatories, etc. Ecclesall, Millhouses, Bakewell.* 

Sinella curviseta Brook. Ashford.* 

Lepidocyrtus lannginosus (Gmel.) Tullb. Very common under bark, 
stones, etc. Ecclesall Woods, Millhouses, Beauchief, Bakewell,* 
Barlow,* Dore,* Cordwell.* 

L. cyaneus Tullb. Less common. Ecclesall Woods, Beauchief, Stake- 
pass, Bakewell,* Haddon.* 

L. curvicollis Bourl. Ecclesall Woods, Bakewell.* 

Orchesella cincta (L.) Lubb. Very common (it was especially plentiful 
on limestone walls after rain at Alport). Grassington, Stakepass. 
Hack Fall Woods, Redmires, Ecclesall, Bakewell,* Lathkil,* 
Alport,* Monsal Dale,* Barlow.* 
var. vaga (L.). Grassington, Ecclesall Woods, Alport,* Calver.* 

O.rufescens Tullb. {=flavescens (Bourl)). Millhouses, in a garden; 
Bakewell.* 

Heteromurus nitidus Tempi. Occasionally under stones. Grassington, 
Bakewell,* Over Haddon.* 

Cyphoderus albinus Nic). Occasionally in ants' nests. Lathkil Dale,* 
Ashford.* 

Family ; Sminthurid.e. 

Sminihurides aquaticus (Bourl). On the surface of ponds. Heeley ;: 
Wensley, Hack Fall Wood. 



Apterygola from Yorkshire and Derbyshire. 187 

Sminthurides malmgreni (Tullb.). var. elegantida (Reut). On the surface 
of ponds. Hack Fall Wood, Haddon-meadows,* Lathkil Dale.* 

Bourletiella lutea (Lubb.). Common on grass and flowering plants. Ays- 
garth, Grassington, Dore,* Cordwell,* Lathkil Dale. 

B. sulphurea (Koch) Born. On plants. Aysgarth, Grassington, Mill- 
houses (garden), Dore,* Cordwell,* Calver,* Lathkil,* Bakewell.* 
var. pallipes (Bourl.). Frequently with the type form. Millhouses 
(garden), Cordwell* (on oats, etc.), Lathkil,* Monsal Dale.* 

B. hortensis (Fitch.). On plants. Millhouses (garden). 

B. insignis (Reut.). On plants. Lathkil,* Haddon.* 

Sminthurus viridis (L.) I^ubb. Common on grass. Grassington, Cord- 
well,* Grindleford,* Lathkil,* Monsal Dale,* Haddon Meadows.* 

Dicyrtoma fiisca (Luc. Lubb.). Under fallen trunks. Very plentiful in 
Winter. Ecclesall Woods. Totley,* Cordwell,* Haddon Meadows* 

Dicyrtomina minuta (O. Fabr.). Under fallen branches. Totley,* Cord- 
well,* Bakewell,* Ashford,* Haddon,* Lathkil Dale.* 
var. ornata (Lubb.). Rather more plentiful than the type, especially 
so in winter. Ecclesall Woods, Haddon,* Cordwell,* Totley.* 

Order 2 : THYSANURA. 

Family : Campodeadae. 

Campodea staphylintis Westw. Frequent and widespread, under stones. 

It appears to be scarce in limestone districts. Ecclesall Woods, 

Redmires, Fulwood, etc., Hassop,* Bakewell.* 

Family : Machilidae. 

Machilis polypoda (L.). Fairly common under pieces of limestone and 

about limestone walls. Hassop,* Bakewell.* 
Petrobiiis maritimits Leach. Common on the rocks at Robin Hood's 
Bay. Specimens of this species were kindly supplied by Prof. 
Denny. 

Family ; Lepismidae. 

Lepisma saccharina L. Occurs in houses, Sheffield. It appears to be 
lesson common than formerly. 

Selection of Literature dealing with British Apterygota. 

Bagnall, R. S. — ' Short notes on some new and rare British CoUembola ' 

in Trans. Nat. Hist. Soc. of Northumberland and Durham, HL, 

1910. 
Brook, G. — ' Notes on some little-known CoUembola, etc' in Journ, 

Linn. Soc, XVII., 1884. 
Carr, J. W., in ' Invertebrate Fauna of Nottinghamshire,' 1916. 
Carpenter, G. H. — Various papers in Irish Naturalist for 1897, 1907, 

1908, 1911, 1913, etc. 
Carpenter, G. H. — Clare Island Survey, ' Apterygota ' in Proc. Roy. 

Irish Acad., XXXI., 191 3. 
Carpenter, G. H. and Evans, W. — ' CoUembola and Thysanura of the 

Edinburgh District ' in Proc. Roy. Phys. Soc. Edin., XIV., 1899. 
Carpenter, G. H. and Evans, W. — Some Springtails new to the British 

Fauna ' in Proc. Roy. Phys. Soc. Edin., XV., 1904. 
Collinge, W. E., and Shoebotham, J. W. — 'The Apterygota of Hert- 
fordshire,' in Journ. Econ. Biol. V., 1910. 
Evans, W. — ' Records of CoUembola and Thysanura from the Clyde 

Area' in Ann. Scot. Nat. Hist., 1901. 
Lubbock, J. — ' Notes on Thysanura ' in Trans. Linn. Soc, Vol. XXIII. 

(1862), XXVI. (1868), XXVIII. (1870) ; ' Monograph of the 

CoUembola and Thysanura,' Ray Soc, 1873. 
Templeton, R. — ' Irish Thysanura' in Trans. Eni. Soc, Vol. I., 1834. 

1918 June 1. 



i88 
ASTATUS STIGMA PANZ. IN YORKSHIRE. 



W. J. FORDHAM, M.R.C.S., L.R.C.P., F.E.S. 

Among some Hymenoptera (mainly Ichneumonidce) recently 
determined for me by Mr. Claude Morley, F.Z.S., is a specimen 
of A status stigma Panz $, which was captured in flight on 
August I2th, 1917, in a sandy field on Brayton Barff. near 
Selby (V.C. 64). Saunders {Hymen. Acul. pp. 78-79) says ' on 
sandy commons, etc., July, August; very rare,' and gives 
nine localities, all in the South of England except Wallasey 
and Southport. He notes that the species is so rare that 
nothing is known of its habits. Smith and Shuckard both 
record the prey of the allied A. boops Schr. (which is not rare, 
but local) for the sustenance of its larvae to be the larva of a 
species of Pentatoma, but Smith has also observed it carrying 
home specimens of Oxybelus. Since Saunders' work was 
published in i8g6, the species has been found in a few other 
places and Mr. Rosse Butterfield possesses specimens from the 
New Forest, but the range has not been extended, as the most 
northerly new stations recorded are North Wales* on the West 
and Skegnessf on the East. 

Nothing definite has been ascertained as to its life history 
by these recent observations, but on two occasions (Wallasey, 
1891J and Criccieth, 1900), || Mr. Willoughby Gardner has 
found it in proximity to Pompilus phimbeus colonies and sug- 
gests that there may be some connection between the two 
species and it may be noted that the specimen taken by Pro- 
fessor Carr at Skegnessf was in a patch of sandy ground where 
P. plumbeus swarmed, together with a few P. gibbiis. 

On the other hand Saunders records it in numbers at Little- 
hampton§ (the ^ most numerous), but he could not observe 
it to prey on anything, though the larvae of several species of 
Lygceidce were present. A fly Scopolia carbonana Pz. also 
occurred with it and resembled the Fossor greatly at first sight. 
At present therefore the prey is in doubt, but bearing in mind 
that A. boops captures both bug larvae [P entatomida) and a 
fossor [Oxybelus) it is quite possible that our species may do 
the same with Lygceidce and Pompihis. Several of the new 
records extend the time of appearance of the species to include 
June. It is to be hoped that Yorkshire hj^menopterists will 
keep a sharp look-out for this interesting species during the 
coming season, from June to August. Pompilus plumbeus is 
recorded for the county and several species of Lygceidce are 
commonly obtained. 

* Nevinson, Ent. Mon. Mag., 1900, 62. 

t j- W. Carr, Ent. Mon. Mag., 1900, 15. 

I Willoughby Gardener, Ent. Mon. Mag., 1892, 23. 

II Willoughby Gardner, Ent. Mon. Mag., 1900, 242. 
§ E. Saunders, Ent. Mon. Mag., 1898, 213. 



189. 
WESTMORLAND COLEOPTERA. 



F. H. DAY, F.E.S. 



Hitherto, I believe, no list of the beetles of Westmorland 
has been published, although at various times a few notes of 
captures by visiting coleopterists have appeared in the 
entomological magazines. 

In and about the year 1905, Mr. T. Bowman, of Tebay, 
collected extensively in that district, submitting his captuies 
to Mr. H. Britten, then resident at Great Salkeld, for names. 
On his removal to Oxford, Mr. Britten placed in my hands the 
records so obtained, supplementing them later with numerous 
notes from his own observations in various Westmorland 
localities. I have also done a little collecting in the county, 
and think that the accumulated notes now in my possession 
are of sufficient interest for publication as the basis of a more 
complete county list. 

I have added a few records on the authority of Rev. T. 
Blackburn {E.M.M., 1864-5, PP- 145" i47. and 1865-6, pp. 
87-88) ; of Rev. T. Wood {E.M.M., 1899, p. 213) ; of J. E. 
Black {Ent. Record, 1904, p. 246) ; and of M. L. Thompson 
( The Naturalist, 1913, p. 235) and Mr. Thompson has favoured 
me with a few additional notes in Hit. I have also used the 
Westmorland records in Fowler's Coleopteva of the British Isles, 
which, however, are not numerous, but probabh' include all 
the information available at the time. With regard to Mr. 
Black's paper mentioned above, it should be pointed out that 
the localities referred to are in Westmorland and not Cumber 
land as stated. 

I shall be glad to hear from any coleopterists who have done 
any collecting in the county, with a view to incorporating their 
captures in the list as its publication proceeds. The nomen- 
clature and arrangement is that of Newbery and Sharp's 
recently published ' Exchange List,' which is based on the 
European Catalogue of 1906. 

Geodephaga. 
Cicindela campestris L. Shap (Day). 
Cychnis rostratus L. Tebay (Bowman), Witherslack (Day), 

Melkinthorpe (Britten). 
Carabus violaceus L. var. exasperatns Duft. Tebay (Bowman), 

Kirkby Stephen (Thompson). 
C. catenulatus Scop. High Str.et (S. Gordon) Ulleswater 

district (Rev. T. Wood). 
C. nitens L. Tebay, common on the moors (Bowman), 

Brack enber Moor (Day), Kirkby Stephen 

(Thompson). 

1918 June 1. 



igo Day : W estmorland Coleoptera. 

Carabus glabratus Pk.* Hills above Lang dale (Fowler. Col. 
Brit. Isles, Vol. I., p. 8). 

C. arvensis Hbst. Helvellyn (Rev. T. Wood), Rydal (Black). 
Leistus fulvibarbis DI. Tebay (Bowman), Melkinthorpe 

(Britten). 
Nebria brevicollis F. Tebay (Bowman), Melkinthorpe, Cliburn 

(Britten). 
N. gyllenhali Sch. Kirkby Stephen (Thompson), Shap 

(Britten). 
Notiophilus palustris Dutt. Tebay (Bowman), Melkinthorpe 

(Britten). 
N. substriatus Wat. Tebay (Bowman), Witherslack (Day), 

Melkinthorpe (Britten). 
N. biguttatus F. Tebay (Bowman), Shap (Day), Melkinthorpe 

(Britten). 
Elaphrus cupreus Duft. Tebay (Bowman), Cliburn Moss 

(Britten). 
E. riparhis L. Tebay (Bowman), Melkinthorpe (Britten). 
Loricera pilicornis F. Tebay (Bowman), Melkinthorpe 

(Britten). 
Clivina fossor L. Tebay (Bowman), Shap (Day), Melkin- 
thorpe (Britten). 
Dyschirius politus Dj. Witherslack (Day). 

D. globosus Hbst. Tebay (Bowman), Shap (Day), Kirkby 

Stephen (Thompson). 
Bembidion lampros Hbst. Tebay (Bowman), Melkinthorpe, 

Cliburn (Britten). 
B. bipunctatum L. Kirkby Stephen (Day). 
B. atrocceruleiim Steph. Tebay (Bowman), Kirkby Stephen 

(Thompson), Lowther Park (Day). 
B. tibiale Duft. Tebay (Bowman). 
B. ustulatum L. (littorale Brit. Cat.). Tebay (Bowman), 

Kirkby Stephen (Day), Melkinthorpe, Ask- 

ham (Britten). 
B. bruxellense Wesm. Tebay (Bowman). 
B decorum Pz. Tebay (Bowman), Lowther Park (Day). 
B. guttula F. Tebay (Bowman), Melkinthorpe (Britten). 
B. mannerheimi Sahl. Tebay (Bowman). 
Ocys harpaloides Serv. [mfescens Guer.) Rydal (Black). 
Trechus ^-striatus Schrnk. [minuUis F.) Tebay (Bowman), 

Kirkby Stephen (Thompson), Melkinthorpe, 

Cliburn (Britten). 
T. obtusus Er Tebay (Bowman), Melkinthorpe (Britten). 



* We have in the Hull Museum collection specimens of Carabus glabratus 
taken on Helvellyn, and C. arvensis taken on 111 Bell b)^ me. I also found 
Nebria gyllenhali common near Ambleside and in wet places on Helvellyn ; 
also Dianoiis ccendescens under stones by stream sides near Ambleside. — 
T. Stainforth. 

Natuialist, 



Day : Westmorland Coleopfera. 191 

Patrobus assimilis Chaud. Ulleswater District (Rev. T. Wood), 

Rydal (Black), Askham Fell (Britten). 
P. excavatus Pk. Tebay (Bowman), Melkinthcrpe (Britten). 
Badister hipustulatus F. Tebay (Bowman), Melkinthorpe 

(Britten). 
Ophonus pubescens Miill. {ruficornis F.). Witherslack (Day). 
Harpalus latus L. Tebay (Bowman), Melkinthorpe (Britten). 
Tetraplatypus similis Dj. Tebay (Bowman), Melkinthorpe 

(Britten). 
Bradycellus coUaris Pk. Tebay (Bowman) Langdale Pikes 

(Fowler, Col. Brit. Isles, vol. I., p. 42). 
Amara ovata F. Tebay (Bowman). 
A. trivialis Gyll. Melkinthorpe (Britten). 
A. communis Pz. Tebay (Bowman), Witherslack (Day). 
A. lunic olli s Schiod. Tebay (Bowman), Melkinthorpe (Britten). 
A. apricaria Pk. Tebay (Bowman). 

A. aulica Pz. Tebay (Bowman), Pendragon Castle (Day). 
Stomis pumicatus Pz. Tebay (Bowman). 

Abax ater Vill. {striola F.). Tebay (Bowman), Clifton (Britten). 
Pterostichus cupreus L. Tebay (Bowman). 
P. versicolor Stm. Melkinthorpe, Strickland, Cliburn (Britten). 
P. vernalis Pz. Tebay (Bowman). 
P. adstrictus Esch. {vitreits Dj.) Ulleswater District (Rev. 

T. Wood), Rydal (Black), Kirkby Stephen 

(Thompson), Tebay (Bowman). 
P. niger Schal. Tebay (Bowman), Melkinthorpe (Britten). 
P. vulgaris L. Tebay (Bowman), Melkinthorpe (Britten). 
P. nigrita F. Tebay (Bowman), Kirkby Stephen (Thompson). 
P. minor Gyll. Witherslack (Day) 
P. strenuus Pz. Tebay (Bowman), Rydal (Black), \\'ither- 

slack (Day), Melkinthorpe (Britten). 
P. diligens Stm. Tebay (Bowman), Kirkby Stephen (Thomp- 
son), Cliburn, Melkinthorpe (Britten). 
P. madidus F. Tebay (Bowman), Kirkby Stephen (Thompson), 

Gaisgill, Shap (Day), Lowther, Clifton, 

Melkinthorpe (Britten), 
Calathus fuscipes Goeze {cisteloides Pz.). Tebay (Bowman), 

Shap (Day), Melkinthorpe, Cliburn Moss 

(Britten). 
C. melanocephalus L. Tebay (Bowman), Kirkby Stephen 

(Thompson), Witherslack, Shap (Day), 

Lowther, Great Strickland, etc. (Britten). 
C. microptenis Duft. Kirkby Stephen (Thompson). 
C. piceits Marsh. Melkinthorpe, Cliburn (Britten). 
Agonum ruficorne Goeze [albipes F.). Tebay (Bowman), 

Kirkby Stephen (Thompson), Lowther Park 

(Day). 

(To be coiihiiiicdj. 

1918 June 1 . 



192 

THE GEOGRAPHICAL DISTRIBUTION OF THE 
MOTHS OF THE SUBFAMILY BISTONINAE. 



J. W. HESLOP HARRISON, D,Sc. 

{Conttmied from page fSg). 

I 
XVIIL— THE GENUS LOPHODES (GUENEE). 

Lophodes sinistraria (Guenee). Distribution : — South East 
Australia and Tasmania. 

The distribution of the Bistonincs has, in its study, raised 
a crowd of more or less difficult problems of extreme interest, 
but none are more attractive than the appearance of Lophodes 
sinistraria in Australia and Tasmania. Its occurrence in the 
Island Continent brings up a host of questions as to the origin 
of the Flora and Fauna of the Australian and New Zealand 
subregions. 

Both plants and animals of the two areas show signs of 
long isolation from the rest of the world. In fact, no country- 
has been separated from other quarters of the globe longer 
than New Zealand as the continued survival of those curious 
birds of the Ratite families, the Immanes (the Moas) and the 
Apteryges (the Kiwis) and the complete absence of mammals 
suggest ; these features betoken a lack of constant or reliable 
communications with the outer world for periods appalhng 
in their length, for they thrust us back into Secondary Times. 

Nor in Australia are things much better ; whilst it shows 
signs in its more lowly forms of an interchange of living beings 
with New Zealand, the peculiarities of its restricted Fauna 
and Flora, its marsupials, its weird looking monotremes of the 
families Ornithorhynchidcs and EchidnidcB, the persistence of 
its unique Ceratodus amongst those primitive fishes the Ganoids, 
its anomalous birds of the groups Casuariidce (the Cassowaries), 
the Dromceidce (the Emeus), Cactiatidce (the Cockatoos), its 
plant orders and suborders, like the Goodenoughiacece and 
BoroniecB, all contrive to give us a picture of long separation 
and non-interference from outside sources. 

When, however, any assemblages of undeniably southern 
tendencies like those birds of the sub-class Ratitce, the Ostrich 
{Struthio camelus), the Rhea {Rhea americana), the genera 
Xyleutes, Diptychophora, and Heliostibes amongst the lepidop- 
tera, the orders MyrohalanacecB and Stylidiacece of flowering 
plants, showing unmistakable alhances with forms typically 
Australian, do crop elsewhere, they combine to demonstrate 
that there were, at some remote period, far-flung connections 
with lands beyond, but that the land-bridges lay in directions 
with which modern geography has no concern. They refer us 
to the days when the old Gondwanaland or its greater form the 

Naturalistr 



Distribution of Moths of the Sub-family Bistonincs. 193 

Brazilo-Africano-Malagasco- Australian continent, and likewise 
that across the Pacific were yet in their prime. Once again we 
are thrown far back through Tertiary times to the mists of the 
Secondary Epoch. Nevertheless, the universal occurrence of 
fossil marsupials tells us in no uncertain voice that the last link 
to vanish was the old Eocene connexion with Eastern Asia. 

We have thus a ready explanation of the Tropical and 
Sub-tropical endemic forms, but in it there is nothing explica- 
tory of the thin — very thin — veneer of Palaearctic forms found 
both in Australia and New Zealand. It is very easy to say 
that, if such exist, the Palaearctic representatives are outliers 
and the Australian the original stock. Such is undoubtedly 
the case with very many groups as was to be expected, in 
view of the small dilution and the extreme age of the Australian 
and New Zealand Flora and Fauna, contrasted with the 
mixed association of sturdy virile forms which have effectually 
stamped out and replaced the majority of the Secondary and 
early Eocene genera, families and even orders in other zoo- 
geographical regions. Vastly different is the case here ; from 
its attachment to the Holarctic Realm, as betrayed by all of 
its present stations and migrations, and from its emphatically 
temperate inclinations, the Bistonine Subfamily must be of 
Boreal origin, and, to use a homely but expressive colloquialism, 
here ' the boot is on the other leg.' It is the Australian insect, 
Lophodes sinistraria, which is the outlier. Nothing proclaims 
this more strongly than the huge spine on the vesica of the 
male genitalia and the close approach of the whole genital and 
antennal structures to those of the early transition forms 
between the Boarmioid and Non-Boarmioid Bistonince. 

Still, this problem of its eccentric distribution must have a 
solution, and this solution it is our business to find. ' It might 
be put forward that, in the consideration of the non-endemic 
temperate element of Australia and New Zealand, we are face 
to face with relics of the Flora and Fauna of the old Antarctic 
Continent rather than with organisms of northern origin, and, 
at first sight, indeed, some countenance is apparently given 
to such an opinion by the appearance of Alpine genera like 
Erelia (as Erebia patagonica) in Tierra del Fuego, and, in 
its modified guise of Perenodaimon [Erebia) brdleri and P. 
pluio, in New Zealand. But it was said advisedly ' at first 
sight,' for Erebia is again a purely Palaearctic genus, and it 
attains a tremendous development in that region. Its presence 
in Patagonia and Tierra del Fuego, as well as that of our 
familiar little Durham speciahty the Birds-eye Primrose 
{Primula farinosa) admit of the easy explanation that both 
passed down the lofty and continuous Rocky Mountains and 
Andes, for both are familiar objects in suitable portions of the 
Canadian Subregion. Perenodaimon, in New Zealand, belongs 

T918Junel. 



194 Distribution of MotJis of the Siib-jainily Bistonince. 

to the little band of which our Lophodes sinistraria is a repre- 
sentative, and when the problem of .one is solved so is that 
of the other. Here, however, let lis make ourselves clear — 
there must be no mistake — whilst our insect is assuredly 
Palaearctic, there are a few — a very few — forms of temperate 
habit which have been handed down through the ages from 
the once fertile Antarctic continent. 

But it might be urged that the very reason given for the 
rejection of a remote southern origin of our element is precisely 
the explanation we require ; it may be that such animals and 
plants passed down the mountain ranges which form the 
backbone of North and South America and thence across the 
Pacific by some narrow belt of land in temperate latitudes. 
Alas, however, this conjecture, whilst falling in beautifully 
with the nature of the Holarctic element of South America, 
Australia, and New Zealand which, as we have seen, comprises 
only Alpine and Subalpine forms, practically demolishes itself. 
It necessarily demands that such forms should be alike in the 
two areas or one the derivative of the other, the Australian and 
New Zealand contingent being the derived one. What do we 
find ? Behold the common British Alpine and Subalpine 
grasses found in Patagonia and Tierra del Fuego : — Phleum 
alpinnm, Deschampia flexnosa and Agropyyum repens. Contrast 
it with the following list of similar British species represented 
in Australia and New Zealand : — Alopecurus genicidaius, 
Hierochloe borealis, Agrostis canina, Deschampia caespilosa, 
Koeleria cristata and Festitca duriuscula. Not one is common 
to the two continents. Besides, many widespread genera in 
other groups are found in the one and are lacking in the other, 
e.g., the Jepidopterous genera, Argynnis and C alias, occur in 
Patagonia and Tierra del Fuego alone, whilst the genus Chyso- 
pkanus, common enough in New Zealand and elsewhere in the 
globe, fails in the South American area in question. 

Clearly, neither region obtained this feature of its Flora 
and Fauna from the other, and once more our dictum the 
elements common to South America, Australia, and New 
Zealand are of Secondary and early Tertiary age is confirmed. 

We have incidentally elucidated the history of the Holarctic 
part of the plants and animals of South America without 
difficulty, but still no light has been thrown on that of our 
special quest. 

The similarity of certain forms in Australia and South 
Africa, e.g., the temperate grasses, suggests that it might be 
profitable to look there for a solution, but such a search fails 
even more disastrously than the previous one. Not a single 
grass appears in both areas ; we are driven to look elsewhere. 

{To be continued). 

Naturalist, 



195 
THE SPIDERS OF YORKSHIRE. 



WM. FALCONER, 
Slaithwaite, Huddersfield. 



The material for the following catalogue of spiders has been 
drawn from various sources. The first, of whom there is any 
record, to make observations on Yorkshire spiders was Dr. 
Martin Lister* (1638-1712), but this was in pre-Linnean days 
before the introduction of binomial nomenclature. Blackwall's 
' Spiders of Great Britain and Ireland ' f contains references to 
29 Yorkshire species, 17 of which are localised, and stated with 
two exceptions to have been collected by Dr. R. H. Meade. 
The rest have neither definite locality nor collector's name 
assigned to them, but presumably were also taken by him 
around Bradford, in which city he practised ; indeed the Rev. 
O. Pickard Cambridge has recently in the Victoria County 
History (1907) attributed to him and so localised 10 of them. 
With the exception of Diaea dorsata and Porrhomma errans Bl., 
all these old records have after a considerable interval been 
confirmed. With respect to two others, the types and other 
examples of which have been lost and their identity thereby 
obscured, but which Mr. Cambridge believes to be 'good species,' J 
there can be no doubt, I think, that Neriene montana Bl. = 
Centromerus prudens Camb., the former name being of prior 
publication, and that Linyphia meadii 'Bl. = Oreonetides 
ahnormis Bl., the latter name having the priority. In the 
next comprehensive English work, Cambridge's ' Spiders of 
Dorset ' (1879- 1882), which includes all the then known British 
species, there are very few specific Yorkshire records (none of 
them new), for Dr. Meade apparently neither made nor pub- 
lished a list of his captures, § which are stated to have included 
' all the commoner and generally distributed species,' % 24 
therein named having his initials attached. The next to 
resume the work of investigation was the present writer in 
1894, whose efforts, at first merely local, extended in course of 
time in a greater or less degree to AX the divisions of the county. 
Although no doubt other factors are also largely involved, 
the geological structure of any area has much to do with the 
number, kinds and distribution of its spiders. Each formation 
has its own lithological peculia'-ities and particular attributes 
of elevation, aspect, moisture, temperature and soil, which 
determine the surface features and the amount and character 
of the covering vegetation which jointly have much influence 

* De Araneis. 
f Ray Society, 1861-4. 

\ Victoria County History of Yorkshire, p. 286 (1907). 
§ Some of Dr. Meade's spiders are in the Leeds University Biological 
Museum, but unlocalised, and probably not all collected in Yorkshire. 

1918 June 1. 



196 Falconer : The Spiders of Yorkshire. 

on the insect and spider life. V.C. 63, 64 — Certain spiders find 
a congenial home only on high mountains. Of these Diplo- 
cephalus castaneipes Sim., and Walckenaera capito Westr. have 
been taken on the Craven hills, but the latter are apparently 
not lofty enough to furnish any more of the rare Alpine forms, 
which have occurred in more elevated and rugged regions of 
more ancient formations in Scotland, Cumberland and Wales. 
In most of the hillier districts in the west of the county also, 
woods are generally speaking few in number, small in extent, 
and with little undergrowth, stone walls take the place of 
hedges, and there is a scantiness in the general vegetation as 
compared with more favoured localities at a lower elevation. 
The vegetal poverty is reflected in the spider population, many 
of the larger and more conspicuous species, which frequent 
ranker growths, being absent, especially in the families Thom- 
isidae, Epeiridas, Lycosidae and Attidge. On the other hand, 
the constantly moist condition of much of the ground, especially 
in the millstone grit areas, is particularly adapted to the welfare 
of very many others, while the numerous stones and the 
abundant heather, grass and moss shelter a large number of the 
smaller kinds, a considerable proportion of which are still 
looked upon as rare in Britain. The species which have not 
yet been taken in the county outside V.C. 63 are Diplocephalus 
pYotuherans Camb., Tigellinus jurcillatus Menge, Gongylidielhim 
latehricola Camb., Maro minntus Camb., M. humicola Falcr., 
M. jalconerii Jacks., Eboria caliginosa Falcr., Thyreosthenius 
hiovatus Camb., Walckenaera obtusa BL, Scotina celans Bl., 
Micariosoma festivum C. L. Koch, Euophrys erraticus Walck. 

In 1905 Dr. G. H. Oliver forwarded a number of spiders 
from the neighbourhood of Bradford to the Rev. O. Pickard 
Cambridge for identification. These I am given to understand 
were not more definitely localised, and the names of 47 species 
he had collected, together with 10 taken by Mr. C. Mosley and 
my own captures up to date, were added to those recorded in 
the ' Spiders of Great Britain and Ireland,' and published in 
the Victoria County History of Yorkshire, a total of 221 species, 
but of these Drassus cttpretis Bl., Leptyphantes inconspicua 
Camb., Tmeticus neglectus Camb., serratus and adeptus Camb., 
Microneta territa and passiva Camb., and Susarion neglechtm 
Camb., must be expunged as they were already on the list 
under other names. 

V.C. 61. In the autumn of 1905 Mr. T. Stainforth and a 
few other Hull naturahsts with the occasional assistance of 
outside collectors, began the investigation of the East Riding, 
which has proved to be very rich in rare spiders. In particular, 
(i) the sand dune area in the S.E. corner ; (2) the Humber ; 
and (3) the uncultivated areas in Derwentland (Riccall, Skip- 
with and AUerthorpe Commons, Houghton Woods and moors, 

'Naturalist 



Falconer : The Spiders of Yorkshire. 197 

etc.) have produced many species, which are found nowhere else 
in the county, e.g., (i) Prosthesima electa C. L. KocJi, Protadia 
suhnigra Camb., Heliophaniis flavipes C. L. Koch, Hyctia 
nivoyi Luc, Euophrys ceqitipes Camb. ; (2) Erigone spinosa 
Camb., Cnephalocotes citrtus Sim. ; (3) Scotina gracilipes Bl., 
Cnistulina guttata Camb., Epdra patagiata Clerck., Bathy- 
phantes setiger F.O.P. Cb., while Prosopotheca incisa Camb., 
Pirata latitans Bl., Hasarius adamsonii Sav., have been taken 
only in other parts of the division. 

V.C. 62. The Scarborough area was worked throughout 
1905-6 by Mr. R. Gilchrist, and during the summers ofi904-5 
by the writer, and in 1913-14 by the Rev. R. A. Taylor, the 
result being the addition of Coelotes terrestris Wid., Dysdera 
crocota C. L. Koch., Xystictis pini Hahn and Syedra pholcom- 
moides Camb. to the County list, besides other valuable records. 
Early in 1909, Mr. G. B. Walsh also furnished a short list for 
this vice-county (teste competent authorities) , and the Cleveland 
district has since been extensively investigated by Dr. J. W. H. 
Harrison, and for two summers by the writer. It was found 
that its many dales and wide moors, especially the outlier, 
Eston Nab, were very favourable to spider life, amongst the 
species met with being two then new to Britain, Hypselistes 
florens Camb. (known previously from N. America) and Notio- 
scopiis sarcinatus Camb. (previously in Central Europe and 
since in V.C. 64) and several others not yet recorded for any 
other part of the county, viz., Theridion simile C. L. Koch, 
Ceratinella scabrosa Camb., Cnephalocotes ambiguus Camb., 
Troxochnts ignobilis Camb., Hypselistes jacksonii Camb., Era 
cambridgii Kulcz, Xystictis sahilosus Hahn, Trochosa robusta 
Sim., T. cinerea Fabr. 

V.C. 63*, 64.* Since September 1908, Mr. W. P. Winter 
of the Bradford Society has forwarded spiders for identification 
or verification, and supplied me with particulars of his own and 
fellow members' captures, which rest upon the authority of 
Messrs. O. P. Cambridge, Jackson and F. P. Smith. The writer 
has also paid many visits to different parts of these vice-counties. 
The most noteworthy species obtained were Clubiona jacilis 
Camb. (F. Rhodes), new to science and a unique female, the 
only Yorkshire Walckenacra obtiisa BL, (^, (S. Margerison) and 
the southern species Micrommata virescens Clerck, while the 
following have not occurred in the county outside V.C. 64 ; 
Episinus truncatus Walck, Diplocephaliis castaneipes Sim., 
ArcBoncns crassiceps Westr., Walckenaera nodosa Camb., 
W. capito Westr., Agyncta subtilis Camb., Leptyphantes angula- 
tns Camb., Epeira pyramidata Clerck, Oxyptila flexa Camb. 
(To be continued). 

* See ante, p. 2. 
1918 June 1. 



igS 

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North of England (Yorkshire excepted), published during 1917. 



T. SHEPPARD, M.Sc, F.G.S. 

( Contimied from page lyij, 

A. A. Eldridge. See P. G. H. Boswell. 

David Ellis. Lines., N. 

On the Jurassic Fossil Fungus, Phycomycites Frodinghamii (Ellis). Geol. 
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T. B. F. Eminson. Lines. 

The River Trent. Lines. Notes and Queries, January, pp. 152-160. 

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J. F. N. Green. Lake District. 

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J. F. N. Green. Lake District, Yorks. 

Note on the Correlation of the Ingleton Slates. Proc Geol. Assoc, Vol. 
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H. W. Greenwood. Cheshire. 

On an Interesting Occurrence of Secondary rutile in the Millstone Grit 

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J. Walter Gregory. See P. G. H. Boswell. 

Robert Hadfield. Northern Counties. 

Introductory Address on ' Refractory Materials,' Trans. Faraday Society, 
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J. E. Hall. Northumberland, Durham. 

Natural Features in Local Place-names. Vasculum, March, pp. 6-12. 

Alfred Harker. See P. G. H. Boswell. 

H. F. Harwood. See P. G. H. Boswell. 

H. F. Harwood. See Arthur Holmes. 

H. Frank Heath. Northern Counties. 

Report on the Resources and Production of Iron Ores and other Principal 
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Naturalist, 



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Kingdom. Dept. of Scientific and Industrial Research Advisory 
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George Hickling. Northumberland, Lanes, S. Yorks. 

A Contribution to the Micro-petrology of Coal. Trans. Manch. Geol. and 
Mi)i. Soc, \'o\. XXX\'., Pt. 4, pp. 117-138. See also Naturalist, 
Dec, pp. 370-371- 

Arthur Holmes. Lake District. 

Albite-Granophyre and Quartz-Porphyry from Brandy Gill, Carrock Fell. 

With an Analysis by H. F. Harwood. Geol. Mag., September, pp. 
403-407. 

J. Allen Howe. Northumberland, Durham, Lanes, Cumberland. 
The Recent Work of the Geological Survey on Refractory Materials. Trans. 
Faraday Snc, \'ol. XII. ipp. 75-77 of reprint). 

J. W. Jackson. See Axon. 

Owen Thomas Jones. See P. G. H. Boswell. 

T. A. Jones. Lanes. S., Cheshire. 

The Pebbles of the Middle Bunter Sandstones of the Neighbourhood of 
Liverpool [abstract]. Geol. Mag., January, p. 45. 

Percy Fry Kendall. See P. G. H. Boswell. 

P. F. Kendal. See D. H. Scott. 

W. D. Lang. Lines. 

New Cenomanian and Turonian Polyzoa , includes Tylopora lorea from South 
Elkington]. Geol. Mag., June, pp. 256-258. 

J. H. Lister and J. T. Stobbs. 

Lanes., Durham, Yorks.. Derby, Northd. 
Erratics in Coal-seams, with special reference to new discoveries in North 
Staffordshire. Trans. North Staffs. Field Club, Vol. LI., pp. 33-47. 

James Lomax. See D. H. Scott. 

Jane Longstaff {n(<e Donald). Northern Counties. 

Supplementary Notes on AcUsina De Koninck and Aclisoides Donald, 
with Descriptions of New Species [abstract]. Geol. Mag., June, 
p. 287-2S8. See also Naturalist, June, p. 182. 

T. H. Mottram. Yorks., Derbyshire, Notts. 

Report on the York and North Midland Division; (1) Report under the 
Metalliferous Mines Acts. Quarry, October, pp. 146-147. 

A. D. Nicholson. Lanes. 

Report on the Lancashire, North Wales and Ireland Division : (1) Report 
Under the Metalliferous Mines Acts. Quarry, October, pp. 147-14S. 

H. Preston. Lines. 

Geology [report on, principally borings]. Trans. Lines. Nat. Union iov 
1916, pp. 19-21. 

H. Preston and A. E. Trueman. Lines. 

Oolite Grains in the Upper Lias of Grantham. Naturalist, July, pp. 217-218. 

R. H. Rastall and W. H. Wilcockson. Lake District. 

The Accessory Minerals of the Granitic Rocks of the English Lake District. 

Quart. Journ. Geol. Soc., Vol. LXXL, Part 4 (No. 284), pp. 592-622. 

A. B. Rendle. See Seward, A. C. 
1918 June 1. 



200 Bibliography : Geology and Palceontology. 

S. H. Reynolds. See under W. W. Watts. 
LiNSDALL Richardson. See P. G. H. Boswell. 

D. H. Scott. Yorks., Lanes. S. 

The Heterangiuras of the British Coal Measures [describes Heterangium 
shorense, sp. nov., H. tilioeoides, H. Lomaxi, form cylindricum, H. 
minimum sp. nov. etc.]. Joiirn. Linn. Soc. Botany, Vol. XLIV., 
November, pp. 59-105. See Naturalist, February, 1918, pp. 57-58. 

D. H. Scott. Lanes., S. Derbyshire, Yorks. 

The Forests of the Coal Age. Trans. Inst. Min. Eng., Vol. LIV., pt. 2, 
PP- 33-63 [includes discussion by W. G. Fearnsides, G. Blake Walker, 
P. F. Kendall, James Lomaxi. 

D. H. S[cott]. Northern Counties. 

' Fossil Plants,' by A. C. Seward, F.R.S., Vol. III. [review of]. New 

Phytologist, Vol. XVL, Nos. 8 and 9, pp. 230-235 ; see also under 
A. C. Seward. 

Alfred B. Searle. Northern Counties. 

Refractory Materials : their Manufacture and Uses. London : pp. xii. + 444. 

A. C. Seward. Northern Counties. 

Fossil Plants a Text-Book for Students of Botany and Geology, Vol. III., 
Pteridospermeae, Cycadofilices, Cordaitales, Palaeozoic Seeds, Cyca- 
dophyta (Cycadales and Bennettitales). Cambridge, pp. xviii. -f 656. 
See notice in Naturalist, September, pp. 273-274 ; also New Phytolo- 
gist [review by D. H. S[cott]], Vol. XVL, Nos. 8 and 9, pp. 230-235, 
and Geol. Mag. [review by A. B. Rendle] in Geol. Mag., November, 
pp. 516-518. 

T. Sheppard. Northern Counties. 

William Smith ; His Maps and Memoirs. Proc. Yorks. Geol. Soc, Vol. 
XIX. Part III., pp. 75-253- 

Thomas Sheppard. Lines. N., Yorks. 

Illustrated Catalogue to the Museum of Fisheries and Shipping, Pickering 
Park, Hull. Fifth Edition, 56 pp. ; 6th edition, 56 pp. 

T. Sheppard. Northern Counties. 

Bibliography : Papers and Records relating to the Geology and Palaeontology 
of the North of England (Yorkshire excepted), published during 1916. 

Naturalist, March, pp. 106-119; May, pp. 171-175. 

Thomas Sheppard. Northern Counties. 

British Geological Maps as a Record of the Advance of Geology. Abs. 

Proc. Geol. Soc, No. 1008, May 24th, pp. 77-79 ; See also Naturalist, 
July, pp. 213-214, and Geol. Mag., July, pp. 330-331, and Museums 
Journal, July, p. 16. 

T. S[heppard]. Yorks., Cumberland, Lanes. 

In Memoriam — R. H. Tiddeman, M.A., F.G.S. (1842-1917). Naturalist, 
April, pp. 142-143. 

T. S[heppard]. Yorks., Westmorland. 

In Memoriam — T. McKenny Hughes, M.A., F.R.S., F.G.S. , F.S.A., Natur- 
alist. July, pp. 237-238. 

Stanley Smith. Yorks., Derbyshire, Northumberland, Cumber- 
land, Westmorland. 
Aulinia rotiforinis gen. et. sp, nov., Phillipsastrcea hennahi (Lonsdale), 

and Orionastrcea gen. nov. Quart. Jour 11. Geol. Soc, Vol. LXXIL, 
pt. 4, pp. 2S0-308. 

Naturalist, 



Bibliography : Geology and Pala-ontology. 2or 

Stanley Smith. Sec under Anon. 

J. A. Smythe. Northumberland. 

The Erosion of Rocks. Vasculion. Vol. III., No. 3, September, pp. 

73-77' 

R. Standex. Lanes. 

[Record of ' Calcareous Eggs of Snails occurring fossil ' at Dog Holes]. 

Lanes, and Cheshire Nat., March, p. 316. 

[H. C. Ste\vardson\ Northern Counties. 

Catalogue of the more important papers, especially those referring to 
Local Scientific Investigations, published by the Corresponding 
Societies during the year ending May 31st, 191 6. Report Covres. 
Soc. Brit. Assoc, 1916, published 191 7. 

J. T. Stobbs. See J. H. Lister. 

A. Strahan [and others]. Northern Counties. 

Summary of Progress of the Geological Survey for 1916 [refers to 

field work in the northern counties]. 56 pp. Reviewed in Geol. 
Mag, January, 1918, pp. 28-29. 

P. W. Taylor. Northern Counties. 

Observations on the Local Distribution of Glacial Boulders. Trans. 
North Staffs. Field Club, Vol. LI., pp. 71-75. 

C. B. Travis. Lanes. S. 

Note on a Terminal Curvature at Billinge Hill [Abstract]. Geol. Mag., 
January, p. 46. 

A. E. Trueman. Lines. 

The Lias Brickyards of South-West Lincolnshire. Trans. Lines. Nat. 
Union for 1916, pp. 4S-53. 

A. E. Trueman. See H. Preston. 

G. Blake Walker. See D. H. Scott. 

W. W. Watts and S. H. Reynolds. Northern Counties. 

Photographs of Geological Interest — Eighteenth Report of the Committee. 

Rep. Brit. Assoc, for 1916 (Newcastle), pp. 218-237 '. see also Natura- 
list, June, pp. 179-180. 

William Whitehead Watts. See P. C. H. Boswell. 

H. J. Osborne White. See P. G. H. Boswell. 

W. H. WiLcocKsoN. See R. H. Rastall. 

A. WiLMORE. Northern Counties. 

The Physical Geography and Geology of the Northern Pennines. Rep. 
Brit. Assoc, for -1916 (Newcastle), pp. 398-400. 

E. Adrian Woodruffe-Peacock. Lines. 

The Flora of Lincolnshire, Sequence- Selections. The Presidential Address 

for 1916 [geological notes]. Trans. Lines. Nat. U)iion for 1916, pp. 
22-40. 

W. B. Wright. Yorks., Lines. 

The Interglacial Problem. Scientia (Bologna), \o\. XNII. (August), pp. 
87-94 ; see also Naturalist, November, pp. 343-34G. 

W. B. Wright. See P. G. H. Boswell. 

l'.)18 June 1.' 



202 

FIELD NOTES. 

BIRDS. 

Fatality to a Sparrowhawk. — On the 28th February, 
during a snowstorn, a beautiful little male Sparrowhawk 
killed itself by dashing against one of the windows of my house 
at Bayston Hill, near vShrewsbury. This is the third incident 
of the kind that has come to my notice. — H. E. Forrest. 

Variation of the Colour of Sparrows' Eggs — A few 

years ago I fitted up a row of six or seven nesting boxes under 




the headstone of a window, near which my daily occupation 
at that time kept me. They were very readily appropriated 
by House Sparrows, and I had good opportunities of observing 
the habits of the birds. The boxes were made with a ' back 
door ' so that I could investigate the contents from the inside 
of the room without disturbing the nests, and I took care to 
examine every nest that was made and every egg that was 
laid. From one of these nests I obtained the unusually-marked 
eggs here illustrated — taking one egg at a time at intervals, 
and replacing them by normal eggs taken from one or other 
of the neighbouring nests. In this way I got the whole clutch 
without inflicting any unnecessary discomfort upon the birds. — 
Charles Mosley, Lockwood. 

Naturalist, 



Fie!d Notes. 203 

Bitterns in tlie West.— During January and February, 
two or three Bitterns were seen — not shot ! — in the west of 
Anglesey ; while another of these fine birds was shot on the 
Montgomeryshire border of Shropshire. — H. E. Forrest. 

Bitterns have been met with in many parts of the country 
during the winter. Numbers have been shot, despite the 
Protection Acts. It is indeed a pleasure to be able to record 
that ' two or three have been seen — not shot ! ' — R. F. 

Ctrl Bunting:, etc., near Whitby. — A specimen of this 
species was seen on the road at Upgang near Whitby, on the 
morning of Thursday, January loth, 1918.* It seemed only 
able to make short flights, but although we got very near, 
it always evaded capture. It has previously been recorded 
from this district in Birds of Yorkshire, p. 205. Geo. Kitchin 
shot a female at Fen Bogs, 28th February, 1882. Two Snow 
Buntings were shot at Sleights in March. — J. T. Sewell. 

Jackdaws v. Starling's — A pair of starlings had made 
a nest in rather a large hole in a beech tree in the Church 
wood in the centre of Harrogate. A pair of thieving jackdaws, 
prospecting for a nesting site, ' hun-like ' proceeded to take 
possession of the starlings' home. The rightful owners re- 
sisted and a battle, lasting with fluctuating fortunes on and 
off for two hours, resulted in the jackdaws annexing the site 
and ejecting the eggs. The starlings, after a valiant defence, 
having to retire defeated, but certainly not disgraced. — R. 
Fortune. 



ENTOMOLOGY. 

Lancashire and Cheshire Entomolosry — At a meeting 
of the Lancashire and Cheshire Entomological Society held on 
February i8th, Mr. Pierce exhibited a specimen of Oinophila 
var. flavum captured in the heart of Liverpool, Cedestis 
jarinatella and Epihlema solandriana var. sinuana, from 
Delamere ; Depressaria nervosa from Sales Wood ; Eupce- 
cilia alismana \udana) and Schcenobius forfjcellus from Tansor, 
Northants. Mr. R. Wilding exhibited and contributed notes 
upon the following species of Coleoptera all taken in his 
garden at Walton on the outskirts of Liverpool, viz., Notio- 
philiis biguttatus, Harpahis aeneiis, Pristonychiis terricola, 
Creophilus maxillosus, Philonthus laminatus, P. varians, 
Telephorus rustica, Afriotes spiitator, and Coccinella biptmctata ; 
he further shewed specimens of Ptinus tedus from the neigh- 
bourhood of the Liverpool Docks. — Wm. Mansbridge, Hon. 
Sec. 

* Heavy snowstorm next day. 
1918 June 1. 



204 Pettitt : Cuckoos' Eggs. 

FUNGI. 

Fungi of the Don District. — During the past season, 
within two miles of home, I have observed amongst others, 
the following : — Amanita mappa, A. muscaria, A. ruhescens, 
Lepiota procera, Tricholoma portentosa, T. jlavohrunnea, T. 
gamhosa, T. nuda, Riissula azurea, R. rnbra, Collybia radicata, 
abundant in grass over tree roots ; C. velutipes, Marasmius 
oreades, Hygrophorus ohrusseus, H. conicus, H. psittacinus, 
Clitocybe nehilaris, scarce ; C. phyUophilus, frequent in oak 
woods. C. flaccidus, a group of six, a pretty species. Plenr- 
otus lignatilis, on beech, eaten off by cattle attracted, no doubt, 
by the strong mealy odour ; P. yevoluHts var. anglicus, on willow, 
Paxillus panuoides, Pholiota aiirea, a group of seven, conspic- 
uous by size and rich hue ; P. radicosa, Galera hypnorum, 
Tubaria furfuracea, Psilocybe spadicea, Coprinus comatus, 
scarce ; C. atramentarms, Fistulina hepatica, frequent on oak ; 
Porta vulgaris, Tremella mesenterica, Sphcerobohis stellatus, 
Lycoperdon pyriforme, Arcyria punicea. — J. H. Payne, New- 
hill, West Melton, Rotherham, 2nd April, 1918. 

: o : 

CUCKOOS' EQQS. 

In the May number, Mr. E. P. Butterfield says that he has at least found one 
nest with two cuckoo eggs, and there were overwhelming reasons to 
convince anyone that both eggs were laid by one cuckoo. It would be 
interesting to know what these overwhelming reasons may be, for although 
I have seen hundreds of cuckoos' eggs in situ, and many instances of two 
in one nest, I have never known a case of the same cuckoo twice making 
use of the same nest. 

Each female cuckoo confines her activities to a given area as I (and 
others) have proved by carefully noting and comparing the types of eggs 
laid in each area. Two cuckoo eggs are sometimes found in one nest on 
the border line of two areas. It is but very rarely that two contiguous 
cuckoos lay eggs which resemble each other so closely that they can be 
taken for eggs of the same bird. I have so found them, and it needed a 
comparison of several eggs of both cuckoo ' clutches ' to show the difference 
in an almost identical type — possibly a case of mother and daughter, which 
was what almost certainly happened to Ray when he gave as his opinion 
that cuckoos might lay as many as twenty eggs from his experience with 
shrike dupes. The average cuckoo ' clutch ' is very difficult to determine, 
for one can never be certain that every egg has been discovered. I have 
found a ' clutch ' of twelve, and others of nine and ten. Laying will take 
place from the end of May to the end of July, and is curiously irregular. 
It is possible that in large ' clurches ' there is much that is akin to the 
' double-broodedness ' of other species. 

I have used the word ' clutch ' in inverted commas for no real reason. 
The cuckoo lays a clutch as other birds do, but scatters it about. 

E. E. Pettitt. 



The authorities of the Natural History Museum sent the Lord Mayor 
of Hull a portion of whale flesh from the whale stranded at Battersea 
recently, and have drawn the attention of the Ministry of Food to the value 
of whale flesh as food. The Lord Mayor remarked, ' The whale steak we 
had for lunch was delicious. We all enjoyed it very much." 



Naturalist 



205 

REVIEWS AND BOOK NOTICES. 

Memorials of a Yorkshire Parish, by J. S. Fletcher. London : John 
Lane, 22-, pp., 7/6 net. ISlr. Fletcher has put a powerful microscope 
upon the village of his boyhood, and after a careful search reads a summarj^ 
of the history of the country, illustrated by a few buildings and records 
of this particular place. He tells us what the village was probably like 
during the various periods of English history, and makes the most of the 
relics remaining relating to the parish. He seems so have ransacked 
every likely source of information, with the result that we learn from 
the publisher's announcement, that ' This is an historical sketch of the 
parish of Darrington, dating from the time of Edward the Confessor. The 
immediate surroundings of this parish are full of historical and romantic 
interest, and the author gives us the outstanding historical figures and 
epoch-making events of each centurj-. The narrative is of absorbing 
interest, and highly instructive.' There are reproductions of thirteen 
drawings of the Church, etc., by G. P. Rhodes, who has attempted to 
copy the style of the well-known sketches of Herbert Railton. 

My Life as a Naturalist, by W. P. Westell. London : Cecil Palmer 
and Hayward, 26S pp., 7/6 net. When we received a volume with a 
gaudily-coloured cover, upon which was a frog on its hind legs, in a ' Come- 
sing-to-me ' attitude, ' making eyes ' at a ' painted lady ' with bright 
blue eyes, and with a monstrous grub standing erect on its head — or tail — 
and headed ' My Life as a Naturalist,' we feared a mistake had been made 
in sending the book to this staid journal ; that it really related to a ' bird,' 
and was intended for one of the frivolous weeklies. The title-page, 
however, showed that the volume was an account of W. P. Westell, written 
by W. P. Westell, and with W. P. Westell's portrait and signature as 
frontispiece. Then follows an ' Introduction ' by the Earl of Lytton, a 
reprint of a poem by Rudyard Kipling, another by C. S. Frethey, and 
then the ' Life ' itself. But who on earth, in these times, wants to know 
anything of the life of W. P. Westell ? Personally we should much prefer 
to read an obituary notice of him ; it would be shorter, and from a different 
point of view. We have perused the book in the hope of finding some scien- 
tific achievement worthy of record, but in vain. However, as he informs 
us that Darwin was an undergraduate, and Franklin was ' a misfit in his 
father's shop ' (and both Darwin and Franklin became great men), appar- 
ently Mr. Westell thinks the world is thirsting to know what moulded his 
career. He considers that his ' inherited character is directly traceable ' 
to two previous Westalls, or Westells, one a great artist and the other a 
great poet. W. P. Westell has certainly written a ' poem,' which begins 
with the original observation ' Hark to the joyous lark.' This he gives 
us again, though we had seen it previously ; and evidently one person 
' appreciated ' it, and we are given the appreciation. We hope, however, 
that his poetic ancestor is in no way responsible for ' Hark to the joyous 
lark.' As to W. P. Westell's ' literary activities,' he tells us that at the 
age of 14 he pubUshed his first article in a newspaper, and that recently, 
at 43, he has pubUshed his ' 50th book.' We fear Mr. Westell's opinion 
as to what a ' book ' is differs from our own ; at any rate in Mr. Westell's 
own lists of Mr. Westell's own books, which should be reliable, we can find 
nothing like that number. Briefly his life as a Naturalist consists of the 
fact that at first he loved birds ; later, almost anything that he could 
write about in his books ; that he has played cricket and football (he 
doesn't say whether he ever played ' rounders ') ; that a relative taught 
Queen Victoria painting ; that he has had a letter from ' Queen Mary ' 
about his Uncle, and one from the Town Clerk at Oxford on a similar 
subject ; he once showed some photographs at a Royal Society Conver- 
sazione ; in 191 1 natural history saved him from a permanent mental 
breakdown (we are sorry to hear of this) and so on. The book is illustrated 

1918 June 1. 



2o6 Reviews and Book Notices, 

by some very third-rate sketches, one of which, entitled ' Daisies are — 
daisies' tempts us to add ' except when illustrated in Mr. Westell's book.' 
The volume is dedicated to ' the Dowager Countess of Lytton as a token of 
affection and regard,' and to her he says : ' A look — and lo, our natures 
meet ! A word — our minds make one reply ! A touch — our hearts have 
but one beat ! ' Our sympathies go with the Dowager Countess of 
Lytton, though it must be nice to know that her heart ' beats as one ' 
with that of an 'author ' with ' literary attainments,' such as W. P. 
Westell. Thank heaven her heart has not to keep time with the beating 
of his drum or the blowing of his trumpet. 

An Elementary Textbook of Entomology, by Dean E. Dwight Sanderson 
and L. M. Pearis. New York : John Wiley, and Sons, Inc. ; London : 
Chapman and Hall, Ltd., price, 7/-. This is one of the American Technical 
Series of Books, and as the Introduction tells us, is intended as a textbook 
for Secondary Schools. It is a good book, and the first thought that strikes 
us on going through it is, that if there is a sufficient demand among Sec- 
ondary Schools to make such a book pay. Entomological Science in 
American schools is far ahead of what it is in England. Any student, 
having studied this book thoroughly, could not fail to be possessed with 
an excellent ground knowledge of entomological science generally, and 
with any inclination in that direction could pass on at once to a deeper 
study of any special branch of the subject. We know of no entomological 
textbook in our English schools at all comparable to it, though botanical 
students do perhaps fare better. The publishers evidently contemplate 
a demand for the book in the United Kingdom, so is it too much to hope 
that our Educational authority will sometime wake up to the necessity 
for a far better groundwork in natural history science than they have 
hitherto had any idea of ? From a hygienic point of view alone it would 
be worth while, as no study takes one so much into the open air, and 
induces such recreative thought, as does that of natural history science. 
The book is divided into two pa,rts of almost equal size, the first treating 
of ' General Entomology,' the other of ' Economic Entomology.' In the 
first we have simple but clear and concise accounts of the Structure and 
Development of Insects, followed by separate chapters on each of the 
orders contained in Class Insecta, written in an interesting and fascinating 
way for students, and in which accuracy has evidently been made a 
special feature. We do not care for the arrangement of the various 
orders in their relation to each other, as it differs from generally accepted 
English notions, but that is a matter of sentiment and we are by no 
means at one on the matter at home. The table for the separation 
of the Orders is very good. A statement at the beginning of the 
chapter on Coleoptera was a surprise to us. We read that ' En- 
tomologists have, almost since the beginning of the science, shown a 
decided preference for the beetles.' This may be because the American 
beetles are often so much larger and showier than British species, but 
here the lepidopterists have certainly always largely preponderated in 
numbers over the coleopterists. The second part, ' Economic Entomo- 
logy * contains six chapters devoted to ' Insects affecting Man and Domestic 
Animals,' ' Insects affecting Man and Stored Food Products,' ' Field Crop 
Insects,' 'Garden Insects,' 'Orchard Insects,' 'Insect Control.' These 
contain the life histories of the numerous insect enemies of Man, Domestic 
Animals and Plants, with the necessary information to prevent their 
attacks ; and when attack has already been made, the remedies to be applied 
to get effectually rid of it. If every young farmer and horticulturalist 
had to make a study of this course alone, it is impossible to estimate the 
enormous saving which would be effected, especially in grain crops, and 
very largely also in cattle and vegetables. We are told that the Cattle 
Tick alone is responsible for the loss of over 63 milUon dollars annually 
in the Southern States, and that the Hessian Fly reduces the wheat crop 
10 per cent, every year, and that 25 to 50 per cent, is frequently lost in 

Naturalist, 



Proceedings of Provincial Scientific Societies 207 

restricted localities. The extent of insect injuries in the United States 
has been carefully estimated by the U.S. Department of Agriculture at 
the stupendous annual total of one billion dollars. Of these, grain and 
forest crops are the heaviest sufferers, bearing about one third of the total, 
though the live stock injury amounts to almost as much. The book is 
well and numerously illustrated, and the paper, printing and binding, 
neat and good. There are a very few errors in spelling, etc., which ought 
to have been avoided in a book for schools. On page 48 we find ' typi- 
ically ' for ' typically ; ' on page 68 ' rivaled ' for ' rivalled ' ; ' the ' 
occurs in duplicate on the top line of page 51, etc. Besides these there 
are a number of common words which are by the Americans ordinarily 
spelled differently from our method. There ought to be a big demand 
for the book, not only by Schools, but by farmers and agriculturalists 
of every kind. — G. T. P. 

The elaborate catalogue of Roman Pottery in the Carlisle Museum, 
prepared by Thomas May and Linnaeus E. Hope, reprinted from the 
Transactions of the Cumberland and Westmorland Antiquarian and 
Archcsological Society, is on sale at the Museum at i/-. 

In The Journal of the Board of Agriculture for April are the following 
papers : — ' Bracken as a Source of Potash,' by R. A. Berry, G. W. Robinson 
and E. J. Russell ; ' Rats : How to exterminate them,' by R. Sharpe ; 
and ' The Control of Pests of Fruit Trees in Gardens and small Orchards.' 

The Transactions of the Cumberland and Westmorland Antiquarian 
and Archaeological Society, Vol. XVII., recently issued, contain a paper 
on the Lancaster Canal (with contoured map) by J. F. Curwen, and a 
valuable ' Catalogue of the Roman Pottery in the Museum, Tullie House, 
Carlisle,' by T. May and L. E. Hope. It is illustrated by 19 plates. 

The Quarterly Journal of the Geological Society, No. 2S9, recently issued, 
is gradually bringing the Proceedings of this important Society up to date. 
It records the Society's work between November, 1916, and June, 1917. 
Besides Dr. A. Harker's presidential address, there are three very important 
papers, namely, ' On a Second Skull from the Piltdown Gravel,' by Dr. 
A. Smith Woodward, with an appendix by Prof. G. Elliot Smith ; 'Lower 
Carboniferous Spilites from Derbyshire,' by Mr. H. C. Sargent ; and 
' Morphology and Development of the Ammonite Septum,' by Prof. H. H. 
Swinnerton. 

We have received part i of Volume XVII. of the Transactions of the 
Hertfordshire Natural History Society and Field Club (64 pp., 2/6). The 
editor, Mr. John Hopkinson, contributes three papers on Meterological 
and Phenological Observations. Other items are the American Poison- 
Vine, Rhus toxicodendron at Bushey by L. P. Shadbolt ; Botanical Ob- 
servations in Hertfordshire during the year 19 16, by E. J. Salisbury ; 
Pisidium parvulitm in Hertfordshire, by Charles Oldham ; Notes on Birds 
observed in Hertfordshire during the year 19 16, by William Bickerton ; 
and The Ecology of Scrub in Hertfordshire : a study in Colonization, by 
E. J. Salisbury, as well as entomological and ornithological notes. 

The Transactions of the Geological Physics Society, 1915-17 (16 pp., 
i/-), are rather meagre, possibly on account of the war. They contain a 
list of the officers and members (37) and the balance sheet shows that the 
Society has 5id. in hand. There is an account of a General Meeting held 
in London on May 25th, 191 7 (4 pages) the remainder of the publication 
being occupied by reprints of articles appearing in Nature on the Origin 
of Flint. Seeing that the Society's publication is so small we think it is 
a pity that so much of it should have been occupied by information which 
can be readily obtained by every member from Nature. As the list of 
members contain such names as George Abbott, E. K. Robinson, J. V. 
Elsden, W. F. Gwinnell, C. Carus- Wilson and Lord Clifford of Chudleigh, 
it can hardly be that the Society was short of contributors. 

1918 June 1. 



208 

NEWS FROM THE MAGAZINES. 

Belfast Museum Publication No. 68 deals with ' The Seed and the 
Young Plant,' and is sold at id. 

'Notes on the British Species of Sphceriestes Steph,' by K. G. Blair, 
appear in The Entomologist's Monthly Magazine for April. 

A Short History of the Study of Mycetozoa in Britain, by Miss G. 
Lister, appears in The Essex Naturalist, Vol. XVIII., parts x.-xi. 

The New Phytologist issued on May 6th contains an illustrated paper 
on ' The Origin and Development of the Compositae,' by James Small. 

The Journal of Conchology for May contains ' Researches into the 
Hereditary Characters of some of our British MoUusca,' by A. W. Stelfox. 

The A nimal World for April contains notes on ' The Mysteries of 
Migration ' by Donald Payler, with an illustration of Bird Rests on Light- 
houses. 

Records and descriptions of some British Campodeidce, including 
many northern examples, by R. S. Bagnall, appear in The Entomologist' s 
Monthly Magazine for May. 

The Irish Naturalist for May contains ' Irish Fossil Mollusks,' by R. 
Lloyd Praeger, and ' Linincea glabra in Ireland ? ' by J. Wilfred Jackson, 
with a note by R. A. Phillips. 

Mr. J. de W. Hinch, in his Presidential Address to the Dublin Natura- 
lists' Field Club, dealt with the ' Development and Decay of the Irish 
Sea Glacier,' and his paper appears in The Irish Naturalist for April. 

In The Scottish Naturalist for May, Dr. W. E. Collinge writes ' On the 
Value of the Different methods of estimating the Stomach Contents of 
Wild Birds,' and Mr. W. Denison Roebuck on ' Limncs a glabra as a Scottish 
Mollusc' 

The Journal of the Manchester Geographical Society issued in April 
contains Prof. G. Elliot Smith's addresses on ' Ancient Mariners,' and Mr. 
Harry Sowerbutts's report on the Conference of Corresponding Societies, 
British Association, held in London last year. 

Mr. C. W. Colthrup concludes his ' Observations on Birds' Songs and 
Calls ' in Wild Life for March ; Mr. E. E. Pettitt, the Editor, continues 
his notes on ' Birds of North-west Surrey ' ; Mr. C. R. Brown gives ' An 
Episode in the Life of a Green Woodpecker,' and there are short notes on 
various Cats by Dr. F. D. Welch. 

Country Life recently has had some papers by Mr. Riley Fortune, 
illustrated by his inimitable photographs, some of which have a distinct 
bearing upon Yorkshire. The issue for February 2nd contained his notes 
on ' St. Cuthbert's Duck ' ; February i6th, ' The Roseate Tern ' ; March 
gth. The Guillemot on the North East Coast ; and April 6th, the ' Otter.' 
The Badminton Magazine for February also contained an illustrated 
article of his on ' The Avocet in Holland.' 

British Birds for May contains a paper on ' The Effect of the Winter 
of 1916-1917 on our Resident Birds,' by F. C. R. Jourdain and H. F. 
Witherby ; a report on the ' British Birds Marking Scheme ' ; ' Some 
Manx Notes,' by P. G. Ralfe ; also records of Yellow-browed and Barred 
Warblers in Lincolnshire in 19 15 and 191 6, and large numbers of Red- 
throated Divers in North Lancashire. 

The Journal of the East Africa and Uganda Natural History Society 
for February (Longmans, Green & Co., 5/4) contains a coloured plate of 
Francolinus nahani, and a number of short notes, as well as the following 
papers of more general interest, the first of which is well illustrated and 
exceptionally interesting : Some Notes on the Early Hominidae, by Dr. 
E. Wynstone- Waters ; The Migration of Birds, by Dr. V. G. L. van 
Someren ; The Game Fish of Mombasa, by E. K. Boileau ; Geological 
Exploration, North frontier district, by the editor, C. W. Hobley ; On a 
Collection of Birds from Lamu and District, made by Mr. H. J. Allen- 
Turner, Dr. van Someren ; Kikuyu Ithathi, by H. R. Tate ; Another 
Rare Forest Francolin, by Dr. van Someren. 

Naturalist, 



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BIBLIOGRAPHY 

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YORKSHIRE GEOLOGY 

1534-1914. 

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BROWNS' 

ENEMIES OF THE GARDEN 

Reproduced in the very best style of Lithography from special designs by 
H. W. BRUTZER, M.A., F.E.S. 

THE 12 ILLUSTRATIONS ARE AS FOLLOWS : 

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2. LACKEY MOTH.— Egg,, Caterpillar, Nest, Cocoons, Female Lackey 

Moth, Egg Cluster. 

3. SMALL ERMINE MOTH.— Eggs, Caterpillar, Cocoons, Ermine Moth,. 

Nest in Apple Tree. 

4. GOOSEBERRY SAWFLY.— Egg, Larva, Larva (last stage). Leaf, 

Sawfly, Branch, Cocoon. 

5. ASPARAGUS BEETLE.— Eggs, Larva, Beetle, Pupa, Asparagus 

stripped of leaves. Cocoon. 

6. BLACK CURRANT MITE.— Mite, Big Bud on Branch, Section of 

Bud with Mites. 

7. RASPBERRY STEM BUD CATERPILLAR.— Caterpillar, Chrysalis, 

Moth (enlarged), Raspberry Cane. 

8. MILLIPEDES and CENTIPEDES.— Three destructive Millipedes and 

two useful Centipedes. 

9. SCALE. — Currant Scale, Scale on Aralia and Mjrrtle Leaves and Mussed 

Scale. 

10. WIREWORMS. — Click Beetle and Skip Jack showing details. 

11. PEA THRIPS, COCKCHAFER, DADDY LONGLEGS, WOOD- 

LOUSE and EARWIG, showing sections and details. 

12. SOME USEFUL INSECTS.— Dragon Fly, Ichneumon Fly, Lady Bird, 

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There are other insects, however, that are our Allies, as they live on the 
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London : A. BROWN & SONS, Ltd., 5 Farringdon Avenue, E.G. 4. 
AND AT Hull & York. 

rinted at Browns' Savilb Press, 40, George Street, Hull, and published by 
A. Brown & Sons, Limited, at 5 Farringdon Avenue, in the City of London. 

June 1st, 1918. 



JULY 1918. 



No. 738 

(No. 512 of eurrtnt itrl$i. 




A MONTHLY ILLUSTRATED JOURNAL OF 

NATURAL HISTORY FOR THE NQRTH OF ENGLAND. 



T. SHEPPARD, 



EDITED BY 

M.Sc, F.Q.S., F.R.Q.S., F.S.A.Scot., 

The Museums, Hull ; 

AND /-s^"""'"" """//; 



T. W. WOODHEAD, Ph.D., M.Sc, 

Tbchnical Collsgr, Huddersfield. 

WITH THE ASSISTANCE AS REFEREES IN SPECIAL DBFARXMBNTS 

J. aiLBBRT BAKBR, P.R.S. P.L.S., QBO. T. PORRI 

Prof. P. P. KENDALL, M.Sc, P.O.S., JOHN W. TAYLOR,' 
RILEY PORTUNB. P.Z.S. 




Contents : — 

FAaa 

Notes and Comment* :— The British Association, and its Report; Earthly v. Heavenly 

Wisdom ; Societies and their Management ; Gilbert White Societies ; The Selborne 

Society ; The Gilbert White Fellowship ; Publications ; South-Eastern Naturalists and 

their Excursions; Literature; Bulletins; Woman: Past and Present; and Man; 

Cheiranths— a Parable 209-2U 

Neolithic Settlement near Scunthorpe. Lincolnshire (illustrated)— //a> 0/1/ E. Dudley, 



Hon. Curatot, Scunthorpe Conncil Muteum 

Bronze-Age Weapons In the Doncaster Museum (illustrated)— 7". Slieppani, M.Sc 
F.G.S 



215-218 



219-223 
224-226 
227-231 
232-233 



Westmorland Coleoptera— F. //. Da>', F.£.S 

Yorkshire Naturalists at Barnard Castle— W.F.L. If 

In Memoriam:—W. Lower Carter, M. A., F.G.S. (illustrated)— r.S 

Pield Notes:— Food of Tawny Owl; Rare Ducks in Upper Nidderdale; Fieldfares near 
Harrogate ; Pine Marten in Shropshire ; Ring Plover Nesting in Nidderdale ; Diplophyllum 
taxifolium Wahlenb. in Westmorland ; The Pairing of Hepialus lupulinus ; Eupithecia 
coronata at Wakefield 218, 231, 234-285 

Correspondence: — A Magpie Flock ; ' Dimorphic Coloration ' in the Cuckoo ; Cuckoos' 

Eggs; Steeton Rookeries near Keighley : Report on Egg Collecting, April 1918 236-238 

News from the Magazines 239 

Northern News 2S6, 233, 235, 238, 240 

illustrations 215,232 

Plates III., IV., v., VI. 



LONDON : 
A. Brown & Sons, Limited, 5, Farringdon Avenue, E.G. 4. 
And at Hull and York. 
Printers and Publishers to the Y.N. U. 



Prepaid Subscription 6/6 par annum, post free. 



BOOKS WANTED. 

Alford Nat. Hist. Soc. Reports. 

Archaeologia Cantiana. Vol. I. 

Birmingham Nat. Hist, and Phil. Soc. Proc. Vol. I., part a. 

Brighton and Sussex Natural History Society Reports, 1855-1870; 187a-]. 

Cleveland Lit. & Phil. Soc. Trans. Science Section or others. 

Croydon Nat. Soc. 6th Report, and Trans, for 1887-8, 

Discovery. (Liverpool, 4to). 1891. 

Derby Arch, and Nat. Hist. Soc. Parts 20, 21. 

Devonshire Assoc. Adv. Science. Vols. I., H., IH., XXXV.- 

Entomological Monthly Mag. Part 121. 

Eastbourne Naturalist (i part). 

Eastbourne Nat. Hist. Soc, Vols. II. -HI. (or parts), and part 6 of new series, 

Frizinghall Naturalist. (Lithographed). Vol. I., and part i of Vol. 11. 

Geol. Soc. Quart. Journ. Vols. I.-XIV, 

Goole Scientific Society, First Report. 

Huddersfield Arch, and Topog. Society, ist Report, 1865-1866. (38 pp.). 

Liverpool Geol. Association Proc. Parts 1,3, 16. 

Liverpool Nat. Journ. Parts i, 3, 7, 9, 18, 20 (or set). 

Louth Ant. and Nat. Soc. Reports, 1-14, 17-19. 

Naturalists' Journal. Vol. 1., and part 44. 

Naturalists' Record. Set. 

Newbury District Field Club Transactions. Vols. III. and on. 

Norfolk and Norwich Nat. Soc. Trans. Vol, IV., Pt. 3. 

North Staffordshire Field Club Reports for 1869, 1871-2, 1876. 

Reports on State of Agriculture ot Counties Uygo-iSiol 

Royal Cornwall Geological Society Trans. Vol. V. to date. 

Salisbury Field Club. Transactions, Vol. II. 

Scottish Naturalist. 1881-1891. 

Simpson's Guide to Whitby. 1st ed, [before 1881], 

Smith's New Geological Atlas of England and Walrn. 1819-21. 

Soc. of Antiquaries Proc. ist Series, Vols. I. and II. 

Union Jack Naturalist, Any. 

Vale of Derwent Nat Field Club. Old Series, Vols. I. -III. 

Wakefield Lit. and Phil. Soc. Reports. Set. 

Woolhope Club Trans. 1866-80. 

York Museum. Keeping's Handbook to Nat. Hist. Collections, 

Yorks. Nat. Club Proc. (York). Set, 1867-70, 

Yorks. Nat. Union Trans. Parti, 

Apply — Editor, The Museum, Hull. 

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Natural History of some Common Animals. Latter. 3/- 

HoME Life of Osi'REY. Abbott. 2/6 

Animal Life. Gamble 4/- 

The Scientific Enquiker. Cloth. Vols. I. and III. 2/- each. 

Trans. Manchester Geol. Soc. Vol. I., 5/-. 

Jewitt's Reliquary. Vol. III., 3/6. 

Lee's Note Book of an Amateur Geologist. 4/6. 

Correspondence of Richardson of Bierley. 4/6. 

The Making of Species. Dewar and Finn. 4/- 

The Greatest Life. Leighton. 3/- 

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JUN2 4 1920 



NOTES AND COMMENTS. 

THE BRITISH ASSOf~I ATION, 

It is perhaps some indiceition of the siejns of the times that 
the Annual Report, which is just to hand, of the British Asso- 
ciation for the Advancement of Science for the year 1917, is by 
far the smallest report that has been published since the 
Society was founded in 1831. Probably at no period in the 
histcy of this country has the necessity arisen for the en- 
couragement and advancement of Science as during the past 
year or two, and for the ftrst time in its history the one import- 
ant Association, with the Advancement of Science for its sole 
object, has cancelled its Annual Meeting, resulting in the 
publication of the brief report which contains an account of 
the work of some of the Committees which still carry on, not- 
withstanding the bad example set b}^ the Association itself. 
Of course, it is understood that in these times there are difficult- 
ies in the way of railway travel, hotel accommodation, and 
what would seem necessary, entertainment for the members, but 
there is no reason whatever why a few days should not be devoted 
to solid Scientific work at one or other of the homes of the 
various Scientific Societies in London, any or all of which would 
have gladty been placed at the disposal of the Association. We 
believe that every other important Scientific Society in the 
country has ' carried on ' since the war ; many have unquest- 
ionably been of great service in the present crisis. It is not 
flattering to the members of the British Association for the 
Advancement of Science to be told that no meetings are 
taking place. 

AND ITS REPORT. 

The volume contains the Twenty-second Report on Seis- 
mclogical Observations ; a Preliminary Report on Terrestrial 
Magnetism, the First Report on Colloid Chemistry and its 
Industrial Applications, Report on the Nomenclature of the 
Carboniferous Rocks, etc., of the Southern Hemisphere (part of 
which is headed ' Engineering Problems'), a brief summary of 
' Engineering Problems affecting the Future Prosperity of the 
County,' the full report of which is not printed, but placed 
in the offices of the Association ; brief reports on a Palaeolithic 
site in Jersey and the Mammalian heart respectively ; and a 
lengthly report on Science in Secondary Schools. There is 
also the Report of the Corresponding Societies' Committee, 
already recently referred to in these pages. 

EARTHLY V. HEAVENLY WISDOM. 

We are not regular readers of TJie Bible Students' Monthly, 
but somehow No. i of Vol. IX. of this journal has reached us. 
On the front page, under the above heading, is the following 

1918 July 1. 



210 Notes and Comments. 

extraordinary effusion --' According to Evolutionists, Nature 
is a great impersonal God, whose first production of life on the 
earth was in the form of protoplasm. After thousands of 
years, they say an ambitious family of protoplasm evoluted 
and became tadpoles. For some thousands of years the 
tadpoles reigned as an aristocracy of the earth ; and then an 
ambitious family of tadpoles concluded to evolute and become 
frogs. Thousands of years Ister there arose an aristocracy 
among the frogs, which evoluted and became monkeys. After 
other thousands of years an aristocracy among the monkeys 
evoluted and became college professors ; and that is the 
attainment of our day. In answer to our queries they boast 
of their ancestry and also of their posterity, telling us that, in 
perhaps a million years in the future they will live everlastingly 
in a representative sense in that their children will have 
evoluted to a condition of wisdom and discretion wherein they 
will not need to die.' The writer then blandly adds : — ' Con- 
trast this nonsense {sic) the wisdom of this world, with the 
Wisdom from Above, which tells us the opposite.' We are 
not aware of the source of the writer's ' wisdom of the world,' 
but we have never read such blithering piffle for some time. 
It may do for the ' International Bible Students' Association,' 
and if thev are satisfied that this is a sample of worldly wisdom, 
they are no doubt glad to fl}^ to the ' Wisdom from Above,' 
whatever that may mean. The author gives a sample, but 
we dare not read it lest his ignorance of Wisdom from Above 
may be on a par with that of his conception of earthl}' wisdom, 
in which case we might be profane. 

SOCIETIES AND THEIR MANAGEMENT. 

We have a way of doing things in Yorkshire which is 
happily different from that which obtains in the south. When 
a particularly prominent member of any important society 
feels that he has ' done his bit,' or if he thinks his colleagues 
have that impression, he retires ; and such a change is often 
good for a society. If, as has happened, an official refuses 
to take a hint, another is appointed ; the official may leave in 
disgust, but the society still goes on, perhaps better than before. 
But something very drastic would have to happen to enable a 
new County naturalists' society to be formed in these times ; 
yet this is practically what has happened, for some cause or 
another, in the south. 

GILBERT WHITE SOCIETIES. 

We do not, of course, know that the cause is anomosity 
towards any particular official, and we can hardly believe that 
there is anything against the energetic Secretary of the Sel- 
borne Society, who has done more than most people, even 
the members themselves, are aware, to further the Society's 

. .Matura.ist, 



Notes an.i Comments. 2ii 

aims. Nor can we believe that desire for greater prominence 
in a new society than was possible in the old could be the 
cause of any ladies and gentlemen deserting one society to 
form another with apparently identical aims. But the fact is 
that two societies now exist to perpetuate the name and work 
of Gilbert White of Selborne, and, with all due respect to that 
great naturalist, we consider that one society is sufficient for 
the purpose, and think that the two organisations would be 
more likely to carry on his excellent work were they to join 
forces. 

THE SELBORNE SOCIETY. 

The Selborne Society, founded in 1885, has carried out its 
work and published its little magazine with great regularity 
ever since. Last year it adopted the Companies' Act, became 
' The Selborne Society, Limited,' the elaborate Memorandum 
and Articles of Association of which are before us. Apparently 
the membership is considerable, and the lists of vice-presidents, 
etc., contain the names of many well-known scientific workers. 
Recently the Society has taken an interest in popularising 
scientific lectures. 

THE GILBERT WHITE FELLOWSHIP. 

On April 20th last the ' inaugural meeting ' of the Gilbert 
White Fellowship was held, and judging from the wealth of 
printed matter the society has issued it is at present ' going 
strong.' Before the ' inaugural meeting' a printed list of pro- 
posed officers, honorary members, rules, etc., was issued, so 
that the status and character of the Society and its members 
were fairly well defined before its inception. Among the 
names we notice several which already appear in the lists of 
the Selborne Society, so that the new ' Fellowship ' cannot 
have been formed in ignorance of the existence of the old one. 
The ' objects ' of the Fellowship are ' To continue the work of 
Gilbert >A'^hite in the study of Natural History and Antiquities' ; 
the objects of the Selborne Society are to ' perpetuate the mem- 
ory of Gilbert White ' and ' to promote the study of Natural 
History and Antiquities.* But there is not room for two 
societies having practically one object, and sooner or later 
one, if not both, must suffer. 

PUBLICATIONS. 

The new Fellowship has elected an ' Hon. Editor ' so that 
presumably another Selborne Magazine — or some such publica- 
tion — is on the way. W^ith regard to this it is of moment to 
notice that in view of the extra cost of printing and scarcity 
of paper the organ of the Selborne Society will appear less 
frequently, of smaller size and without a cover. Long articles 
are to be dispensed with and the detailed programme of ramb- 
les will be issued as a supplement. This is announced in 

1918 July 1. 



212 Notes and Comments. 

the twenty-ninth vohime. No. 339, recently to hand, is for 
March-i\pril, contains eight pages, and is sold at 3d. ; three- 
half-pennyworth of which is occupied by a paper on ' Means of 
Seed Dispersal, Direct, Colateral and Secondary Bird Carriage,' 
by the Rev. E. Adrian Woodruffe-Peacock. 

SOUTH-EASTERN NATURALISTS 

We were privileged to attend the twenty-third Annual 
Congress of the South Eastern Unioji of Scientific Societies, 
which was held in London daring the four daj^s ending June 
ist. It was well attended, interest in the meetings and 
jaunts was well maintained, and the Union once more demon- 
strated the advisability of ' carrving on ' during the present 
war. Besides the Presidential address of Sir Daniel Morris on 
' \ Chapter on the Geographical Distribution of Plants,' there 
were papers on ' Roman Mints in So nth-Eastern England ' by 
P. H. Webb ; ' Mosqiii'oes in England,' by Sir Ronald Ross ; 
' Meteorolog'cal Instrumejits, and how to read them.' by R. 
Corless ; 'The Geology of Flint Implements,' by Reginald A. 
Smith ; ' Allotment Pests,' by R. W. Ascroft. 

AND THEIR EXCURSIONS. 

There were some delightful ' outings.' These included a 
visit to St. Bartholomew's Church ; the admirable and well- 
arranged Horniman Museum at Forest Hill, where the Curator 
Dr. H. S. Harrison, gave an address ; to the Charlton Pits and. 
ancient Camp (conductor, Mr. W. Whitaker, F.R.S.) ; to the 
New Transport Co's Works ; Kew Gardens and Herbarium, 
under the direction of Prof. G. S. Boulger; and to Messrs. vSiebe 
Gorman & Co's works to examine Diving and Mine-Rescue 
apparatus. 

LITERATURE. 

There was an abundance of literature. Besides the circular 
convening the meeting, there was the Daily Bulletin {4 or 
8 pp.), five of which were issued ; tickets and admission cards 
galore. In addition each member was presented with a bundle 
of reprints containing a Prospectus of ' A Survey of Woolwich,' 
issued ten years ago ; a review of Prof. J. W.. Carr's Inverte- 
brate Fauna of Notts, published in 1916 ; Catalogue of the 
South-eastern Union's Library in 1912, with lists of additions 
since made ; the Report of the Botanical Section, reprinted for 
the Society's Transactions for 1917, etc. The charge of i/- 
which was made for each excursion was a little difficult to 
understand seeing that each visitor paid for his own refresh- 
ments and railway fare, and the guides gave their services ; 
possibly the money went towards the printers' bills. On one 
occasion a check was made and the number of persons present 
who had not obtained tickets resulted in a nice little sum being 
added to the funds ! 

Naturalift, 



Notes and Comments. 213 

THE BULLETIN. 

The idea of a daily Bulletin, after the manner of the pro- 
grammes issued by the British Association, was a good one ; 
but sometimes the apparent necessity for filling the four or 
tiight pages seemed to result in irrelevant matter being intro- 
duced. From these we learn that the newl^^ formed Gilbert 
White Fellowship is ' vigorous ' ; that ' Regional Surveys will 
undoubtedly loom very prominently in the public eye when 
the war is over,' ' What is a Controller ? One who tries to 
Control, and sometimes succeeds. We want a Controller of 
Weather. But it would not be an enviable post, and the 
Editor would not be a candidate for it.' [Perhaps he can't 
control]. ' The Lord Mayor regaled himself on eight pounds 
of the flesh [of a stranded whale] and pronounced it to taste 
like tender beef steak. We wonder how many coupons he 
surrendered for it.' ' What peace has failed to do the war has 
perforce necessitated. Shall we ever return to pre-war con- 
ditions ? In manj^ respects we trust not.' 

WOMAN : PAST AND PRESENT ; 

The following extract from this Bulletin makes us assume 
that the editor, who is admittedly only an ' Asst. Commander,' 
is a married man : — ' That much in the future depends on 
how woman uses the power which has lately become hers, 
will be admitted by all, but will she retain her ' womanishness ' 
whilst taking part in so many walks of life from which she 
had hitherto been excluded ? In achieving her independence, 
is there not too much imitation of the man she is supplanting ? 
Is she using her power to transplant into social life her own way 
of doing things, and so to introduce novel methods to reform 
the chaos made by man ? Slavish imitations must cease. In 
the new times ahead we must cast off our swaddling clothes 
and our misfits. The woman in power must not become the 
tyrant which man in power has proved himself to be. Much 
depends on whether woman in power becomes a slavish imita- 
tion of man, or remains a psychic centre of power transferred 
to a new and promising centre of activity. In spite of all the 
efforts of reformers and the dreams of poets, might is still too 
■often right. The animal side of humanity too frequently still 
prevails over the ps^'chic side. When one would do good, too 
often evil is still present. Mankind's lowly origin still betrays 
itself as frequently as ever. Will human nature never change ? 
Why not ? What an opportunity there is for womankind in 
the future ! Animal passions can never be wholly suppressed, 
otherwise a nation will commit suicide. But there is room for 
more of the psychic element, and we can drop much of the 
animal element without loss.' 

J918Julyl. 



214 Notes and Comments. 

AND MAN. 

In another Bulletin the editor informs us : ' Many people 
stand aghast at the havoc of the present war. and ask is it 
this to which civilisation has been tending during the centuries 
that have gone ? Progress has been so ra]iid that they regard 
this war as something which is Hkely to destroy civilisation. 
Are they not short-sighted ? The war is a set-back, a terrific 
one, certainly. But is it not better to regard it only as a 
temporary set-back ? Think of the 400,000 years of paleolithic 
times during which progress was so slight, and during which, 
as we know, there were such serious cultural set-backs. And 
yet the sum -total has been progress. The human race takes 
two steps forward for every one backward ■ we can never 
again become in the condition of primitive man. Let the 
faint-hearted take courage. Backward though we seem to be 
going just now, and it will be admitted that civilisation is 
checked for a time, there can be but little doubt that the 
recovery will be rapid, and that there will be giant-strides in 
the evolution of civilisation in the near future. Man's evolution 
is still incomplete. He is being weighed in the balances, but 
we can never admit for a moment that he is being lound 
wanting.' 

CHEIRANTHS— A PARABLE. 

Ineffable magic of Perfume blent 

In butter-blake petal or dyed as with blood, 

To pile up a posy that blesses through scent, 
While spread like a Carpet of Ind on the rood ! 
' Wall-flowers ' homely !— no trove from afar, — 
But ' Warriors '* waging a year-long War 
With Winter that ever Spring routs completely, 
As Hope — heart's lark ! — mounts high and sweetly. 

Aught beyond this shall our fancy say. 

To be true to the fact and the feeling ? No, 

All's told in a term — 'Tis the Season's ' Way," 
Earth's comfort conveyed in an Odour, so ! 
Hand-flowers ! f badge of the Quick and the Brave f 
Plant, an' you will, on the Soldiers' grave ; 
But, look to it — keep you the Home plot aflower 
For who'll stand by it with you in Victory's Hour. 

No more than the skies, at a country's Call, 
Are all in ' the good fight ' known to fall : 
Look forward in trust through the perfumed portal, 
And know that a God made Hope's Immortal. 

F. Arnold Lees. 

* The rustic's name all over the south of England, and Blake is the 
yellow ' lake ' of dye used in cheese and butter making. 
•j- The generic term, englished. 

Naturalist. 



THE NATURALIST, 1918. 



Plate III. 




\< 



V 



4aa 



^ 






if'- 



(1 « 



Neolithic Flint Implements from Scunthorpe. 



i 



215 

NEOLITHIC SETTLEMENT NEAR SCUNTHORPE, 
LINCOLNSHIRE. 

(With Plate ill.) 

JIAROLD E. DUDLEY, Hon. Curator. 
Scunthorpe Council Museum. 

For a number of years the flint implements of the Scunthorpe 
district have been well known, especially the so-called ' Pygmy ' 
flints. The publicity given to this small type of implement 
has attracted various scientific societies and collectors of note 
to the Neolithic settlement on Risby Warren, resulting in the 
publication of some information regarding the encampment and 



o 




o 
o 



z-f- 



•Sinall circles : —Sites of hearths. Black circle :— Rubbish heap. 

Shaded portion :— Strewn with fragments of pottery. 

its flints. As the present writer has been constantly visiting 
the Warren during the past fifteen years, and has there picked 
up many hundreds of worked flints, it may be that these present 
notes will add something to what has already been recorded. 

This settlement, known locally as the ' Camp,' part of 
which is shown on the plan given herewith, is situated on the 
brow of the ' Cliff,' a prominent OoHtic ridge dipping steeply 
down on the western side and sloping gently towards the 
valley of the Ancholme on the east. The summit of the hill 
is covered with a considerable depth of blown sand, which. 

1918 July 1. 



2i6 Neolithic Settlement near Scunthorpe, Lincolnshire. 

being driven hither and thither by the varying winds, has 
been heaped into hummocky hillocks and hollows, somewhat 
resembling the sand dunes of the sea coast. A few scattered 
trees, chiefly elder, maintain a precarious existence before 
eventually succumbing to the undermining of their roots by 
the wind and rain, which are gradually removing the loose, 
sandy surface to the valleys below. Bracken is the chief 
cover of the higher ground, where rabbits abound. Lower 
down, thick with rushes and mosses, are marshy levels and 
shallow pools, the haunt of the moor hen and black-headed 
gull. 

Underneath the yellow svirface sand of the ' Camp ' is a 
layer of dark peaty sand, from which most of the flint imple- 
ments are obtained, and when this in its turn is removed in 
the general denudation, patches of loose Oohtic rubble are 
exposed. 

Crossing the plan is a long bank or wall. This earthwork 
is composed mainly of Oolitic debris, and considerable numbers 
of implements have been picked up from its sloping sides. 
The large circular mould just outside the wall is roughly about 
seventeen yards in diameter by about five feet high. It is 
remarkable for the quantities of rough implements of white 
flint which are from time to time exposed, and these are of 
quite a different character from any found elsewhere on this 
settlement, being of an altogether rougher type. Both the 
earthworks in question are undoubtedly of artificial origin, 
but the writer prefers not to speculate as to the time or nature 
of their construction. 

The outlook, from a defensive point of view, could not be 
much better. On the one hand are extensive views of the 
Ancholme Valley as far as .South Ferriby and Brough on the 
Humber, and on the other is an uninterrupted view right across 
the shelving plain formed by the Frodingham Ironstone to its 
outcrop above the river Trent. The steep hill on the western 
side would be an important factor in the successful defence of 
the place. 

The whole district for several miles around Scunthorpe is 
fairly rich in Neolithic implements, but these occur chieflj^ 
as isolated, finished flints, whereas the Risby Warren site is 
notable for the large numbers of cores and flakes which are 
obtained. There can be little doubt that this settlement was 
to all intents and purposes a factory which supplied the sur- 
rounding country with warlike and domestic implements, and 
evidently each man, or group of men, specialised in a particular 
t\'-pe of implement. One individual was apparently a veritable 
artist in the manufacture .;f ' Thumb-flints,' another turned 
out quantities of delicate, pointed borers, and yet another 
fashioned rough scrapers of quite a different type. The writer 

Naturalist, 



'Neolithic Settlement near Scuntliorpe, Lincolnshire. 217 

formed this opinion some years ago, and his view has been 
confirmed on subsequent visits. Each locaUty has its own 
particular class of implement. Here, on a little patch of ground 
a few feet in extent, scores of shouldered borers have been 
picked up ; there, have been gathered large numbers of small 
scrapers, and j^onder ; quantities of flaked knives, ft may be 
argued that these are simply hoards, but against this theory 
may be placed the fact that together v^ith these implements are 
also found cores and flakes d the same flint, in addition to 
partly finished implements, which appear to have been broken 
or spoiled in the making, and then discarded. 

The sites of a number of hearths are shewn on the plan. 
These were in some cases discovered by the writer immediately 
after the overlying sand was removed by the wind, and in others 
during the actual process of being uncovered. Traces of 
charred wood were observed, and numerous fragments of early 
British pottery, many of them ornamented, were found in 
close proximity to the hearths, together with numbers of 
scrapers, knives, etc., and occasionally arrow or lance-heads, 
hammer-stones and rough celts. The ground underneath the 
fires was in each case baked quite hard, remaining as a small 
hillock or cone long after the surrounding and more loose 
material had disappeared. 

The black circle to the north of the plan is a small mound 
consisting almost entirely of fragments of pottery, intermingled 
with blown sand. The pieces of earthenware are so numerous 
as to suggest a rubbish heap. 

The chief characteristic of the Scunthorpe flints is their 
beauty of execution and finish. They are in most cases small, 
some of the arrow-heads, in particular, being very diminutive. 
The largest implement which the writer has yet found is a 
flint knife three inches long. Small semi-circular scrapers or 
' Thumb-flints ' abound. The conchoidal depression to be 
found on many of them fits the thumb, allowing the user to 
get a firm grip of these workmanlike little implements. It is 
not unusual to carry home fifteen or twenty ' Thumb-fl-ints,' 
provided the searcher knows where to look ! 

Arrow and lance-heads are rare, but the majority found are 
■beautifully made. The type shown on the top right-hand 
of the plate seems unusual. * Many other types of implements 
are obtained, such as hollow scrapers, ' fabricators ' and rough 
^pear-heads, together with forms which it is not easy to classify. 

The so-called ' Pygmy ' flints have been diminishing greatly 
in number during recent years, until at the present time one 
or two specimens is a good average ' find ' for each visit. These 
tiny implements are manufactured from small flakes, the 

* It is represented in the Mortimer collection, now at Hull. — Ed. 
1918 July 1. 



2iS Field Note. 

thicker edges of which are minutely worked, the natural edges 
being left untouched. Most of the various well-known forms 
have been found on the Risby Warren, the tapering, shouldered 
variety predominating. 

The hammer-stones previously referred to are improvised 
from small glacial erratics, which are strewn in quantities over 
the surface of the Ironstone area. Several of these small 
boulders, flat and elongated, have been ground at the ends to 
a cutting edge, forming implements which have characteristics 
belonging to both the hammer-stone and the finished celt. 
Some polished celts have also been found, and may be seen in 
the Scunthorpe Museum, together with a large collection of 
flint implements. 

Tt will be seen from the foregoing notes what a ' Happy 
hunting ground ' Risby Warren is. The fascination of flint 
hunting on its wind-scarred slopes is heightened by the spice 
of uncertainty which surrounds the place. A little patch of 
ground, discovered by some lucky chance, may continue to 
yield its implements for some time, when, with a sudden turn 
of the wind, it is gone, buried inches deep in the driven sand. 



Food of Tawny Owl. — I have been to-day to look at the 
nest of a Tawny Owl built on the ground in the Gait Stock 
Valley, which contained two young ones. They were lying 
just outside the nest, the hindquarter of a young Mistle Thrush, 
the hindquarter of an adult Song Thrush, the hindquarter of 
a young rabbit, two Common Shrews, three Wood Mice, two 
of which were headless, two Field Voles, and one which I 
take to be a Bank Vole. It may be, however, a variety of the 
Field Vole, but it has a relatively longer tail, and the colour 
of the buck is redder than the typical Field Vole and is somewhat 
smaller. It used to be thought that Owls would not eat the 
Common Shrew, but I can hardly bring myself to believe that 
these had been brought to the nest, presumably by the male 
bird, other than for a utilitarian purpose. I suggested that 
the Food Controller ought to be sent to limit its prey, at least 
to the furred tribes. It will take a number of years — and 
favourable years — before we can hope to see many of our 
resident birds — especially the Song Thrush (the hardest hit 
bird in this district by the winter of 1916-17 in their normal 
numbers. The only other instance of the Tawny Owls' nesting 
on the ground in this neighbourhood was in a rabbit burrow, 
but this was over twenty years ago. One could not have 
wondered at this, had there being a lack of more natural 
breeding places. — E. P. Butterfield, Bank House, Wilsden, 
May i6th, 1918. 

Naturalist, 



THE NATURALIST, 1918, 




Bronze-Age Weapons in the Doncaster Museum. 



219 

BRONZE-AGE WEAPONS 
IN THE DONCASTER MUSEUM. 

(With Plates IV.-Vl.i 



T. SHEPPARD, M.Sc, F.G.S. 

The Museum at Doncaster contains twenty weapons of the 
Bronze Age, most of which were purchased many years ago 
by the Doncaster Corporation, in order to keep in the district 
the collection of antiquities formed by the late Cotterill Clark, 
and this formed an excellent beginning for the town's Museum 
which was subsequently formed. Through the kindness of the 
Doncaster Corporation, and Dr. Corbett, who has charge of the 
collections during the Curator's absence in the army, I am able 
to illustrate and describe this small but representative series. 
The specimens include a rapier-shaped blade, 6 spears, one flat 
axe, 8 palstaves, 3 socketed axes, and a chisel. It is worthy 
of note that with the exception of Dane's Hill, a place of 
doubtful localization, the implements are nearly all from the 
eastern side of Doncaster, e.p., Hatfield, Bawtry, Scrooby, 
Finningley, Misson, Rossington, Tickhill. Possibly this is due 
to the former prevalence of fen bogs on this side, where such 
objects would be more likely to get lost. 

Fig. I. — Is a broad rapier-like blade, in excellent condition, 
to the base of which two massive bronze rivets are still attached. 
It is 14 ins. in length. 3 ins. across at the widest part, and 2 ins. 
at the base. It is decorated at each side by a sloping ridge, 
I in. from the edge, and from the junction of these, at a distance 
of ^ in. from the point, a medial ridge commences and remains 
sharply defined for 4 inches, and then gradually disappears 
into a curved lidge. The two rivets are cylindrical, f ins. in 
length and J in. in diameter. The specimen is similar in shape 
to Fig. 311 in Evans's ' Ancient Bronze Implements of Great 
Britain,' but is shaped at the base more after the pattern of 
his No. 313. It was dug up between Misson and Finningley in 
1826. Weight, 13 oz. 

No. 2 is a typical Irish flat axe, the cutting edge of which 
has been roughly used, and the opposite end is slightly flattened 
and protrudes over the sides of the axe, through having been 
hammered when used as a wedge. It measures 5! in.-, in 
length, is if ins. at the top, 3+ ins. at the widest part, the cutting 
edge being 4 ins. in length. The axe is of unequal thickness, 
measuring h in. on one side, and only ^- in. on the other. In 
type it is somewhat similar to Evans's No. ig, from Drumlanrig, 
and from its primitive form and resemblance to the early 
stone celts it is evidently a very early type of Bronze-Age 
weapon. There are a number of marks on the face of the 
axe, which seem to be the result of blows with some sharp 
instrument, and are not for decoration. It was found at 
Killarney in 1838. Weight i lb., 3 oz. 

1918 July 1. 



220 Bronze-Age Weapons in the Doncaster Museum. 

Fig 3 is a short winged celt, and is as originally cast, the 
cutting edge not having been hammered out ; otherwise it 
would have somewhat resembled Evans's No. 53 from Burwell 
Fen. It is 4 ins. in length, i| ins. across the cutting edge, 

1 in. across the wings, the depression on each side for the shaft 
extending for i| ins. At the base of this depression on both 
sides of the axe is a semi-lunar decoration. Weight y\ oz. 

Fig. 4.— A winged celt, 5^- ins. in length, 2 ins. in greatest 
width, the cutting edge being 2| ins. long, and the wings i in. 
in width ; the depression for the shaft 2 ins. in length, below 
which, on each side, is a large semi-lunar decoration, containing 
three raised ridges, very much after the pattern of the ridges 
which frequently occur on socketed axes. In this case the 
bronze was hardly sufficiently molten when put into the mould, 
resulting in the surface being considerably wrinkled. It is 
from Ashby, Lines. Weight 9^ oz. 

No. 5. — An axe of somewhat similar type to the preceding 
which has suffered by the use of a file. There is a broad medial 
ridge along the blade, and a narrow raised ridge, to assist in 
secure shafting, in the hollows for the handle. This axe 
resembles Evans's No. 63, from Sunningwell. It is 5] ins. long, 

2 ins. wide, length of cutting edge 2\ ins., wings | in. across, 
but were originally slightly more. The hollows for the shaft 
extend for i\ ins. It is from Scrooby, Notts. Weight gj oz. 

No. 6. — A plain winged celt with cutting edge well formed 
and sharpened ; length 6^ ins., greatest width 2\ ins., cutting 
edge 3 ins., width of wings i in., hollows for shaft 2| ins., 
though these are more shallow than usual. Found at Tickhill. 
Weight 14^ oz. 

No. 7. — A palstave provided wth a loop for secure shafting, 
decorated by a prominent medial ridge, as well as by a smaller 
ridge on each side of the blade, these three gradually disap- 
pearing towards the cutting edge. The top of the axe has been 
hammered flat, Length 6\ ins., width 2| ins., wings i in. 
wide. This specimen was found on the bank of the River Idle 
at Misson, Notts., in 1864. Weight \2l oz. A very similar 
example to this is in the Hull Museum. 

No. 8. — A long-bladed, narrow, but massive palstave, 
provided with a loop, its characteristic being its small cutting 
edge compared with its length, and the wings triangular in 
shape. A broad ridge occurs on each side of the blade, which 
disappears towards the cutting edge. Length, 6| ins., greatest 
width 1 1 ins., cutting edge 2 ins. ; width of wings at base, 
i\ ins., length of hollows for shaft 2f ins. It bears a label 
to the effect that it was found at Dane's Hill near Adwick-le- 
Street. Weight i6| oz. 

No. 9. — An axe similar in type to the last, but more massive, 
.and better formed. It is almost as turned out from the mould, 

Natiir.ilist, 



THE NATURALIST, 1918. 

9 




S lo ir 13 

Bronze-Age Weapons in the Doncaster Museum. 



THE NATURALIST, 1918. 
17 



16 



19 




10 20 15 

Bronze-Age Weapons in the Doncaster Museum. 




Bronze-Age Weapons in the Doncaster Museum. 221 

the cutting edge being only slightly hammered out. The 
blade is decorated with a roof-like ridge which gradually 
disappears abot i\ ins. from the cutting edge. Measurements : 
Length, 7^ ins., greatest width, 2| ins., cutting edge 2f ins., 
width of wings at base, i in., length of hollows for shaft 3 ins. 
Weight I lb. 5 ozs. Found in Catherine Street, Doncaster, 
with No. II. 

No. 10 is an implement of somewhat uncommon pattern, 
of the type classified by Evans as ' palstaves with transverse 
edge.' Of these Evans says : ' Palstaves of the Adze form, 
or having the blade at right angles to the septum between 
the flanges, are but very seldom found in Britain.' He figures 
one from Cumberland and one from Lincolnshire, and mentions 
other examples found in other countries. The specimen 
figured herewith, however, is different from any of those 
engraved by Evans, though more resembles the Lincolnshire 
example. The centre of the instrument is square in section, 
the sides and eges are flat, the hollow for the handle being 
intensified by the edges standing out from the rest of the 
implement. The cutting edge is hammered out more than in 
the case of those figured by Evans. Length of specimen 
4| in. width and thickness \ in., greatest width | in., cutting 
edge when complete i in., hollows for the shaft extend for i| in. 
The specimen was found at Sandtoft in 1816. Weight 4 ozs. 

No. II is a chisel, provided with a tang for driving into a 
wooden handle. It is more slender in form than the chisel of a 
similar type figured by Evans. The blade is somewhat tri- 
angular in shape, and there is a broad collar to keep the handle 
in position. Measurements : length 4^ ins., width at cutting 
edge I in., thickness averages y\ in., length of tang (which is 
square in section) i| ins., diameter of top, which is circular, 
f in. Found in Doncaster with No. 10. W'eight i-| ozs. 

We now come to the socketed axes, which are later in type : 

No. 12 is quite a typical example similar to those in the hoard 
recently found at Scarborough (see The Naturalist, Ma}^ 1917). 
It is devoid of ornamentation, except for a slight collar, and 
the merest suspicion of a ridge on each side of the blade. The 
hollow for the shaft is almost circular and quite plain ; the 
cutting edge is slightly damaged, and a piece is broken out 
from one side of the collar. Length, 3I ins., width if in., 
measurement across the socket, which is only sHghtly squared, 
i\ ins. The collar is a little more than | in. from the top. 
The marks formed on the sides from the two valves of the 
mould are prominent, and the cutting edge does not seem to 
have been hammered out very much. Found at Finningley. 
Weight, 6 1 ozs. 

No. 13 is also very plain, the only decoration being the 
merest suspicion of a collar about \ in. from the top. It is 

1918 Julyl. 



222 Byonze-Age Weapons in the Doncaster Museum. 

somewhat similar to the type figured by Evans (No. 151) from 
Newham, Northumberland. Length 3f ins., width 2 ins., 
cutting edge 2| in. measurement around socket, which is 
almost circular if ins ; the hollow for the handle being perfectly 
plain. This specimen was found at Hatfield Woodhouse. 
Weight 5 ozs. 

No. 14. — A fine wedge-shaped inplement, much after the 
type of Evans's No. 150, from Wallingford, Berkshire, though 
the specimen here figured is more elaborately decorated. The 
sides of the blade are ornamented by prominent ridges, the 
second ridge occuring between the flat part of the axe and the 
two edges of the mould, which are formed into still another 
ridge. In this way there are five ridges on each side of the 
axe, extending to within i| ins. of the cutting edge, which 
is almost straight, due to repeated sharpening. There is a 
well defined collar at a distance of | ins. from the top, from 
which the ridges start. Length 4f ins., greatest width 2f ins., 
cutting edge 2h ins., width across the top, which is only roughly 
squared, if ins., the hollow for the shaft being plain. The 
specimen was found at Scrooby. Notts. Weight 7 ozs. 

The Doncaster collection contains half-a-dozen spears, 
interesting types being represented. 

The first. No. 15, is a massive plain implement, with short 
shaft, the outside of which extends towards the point of the 
implement in the form of a rounded ridge. The edges are 
sharpened in the same way as the rapier-blade already described 
(No. i). The socket extends to a distance of 5| ins. within 
the spear, and on each side is a small circular hole for a rivet, 
at a distance of | ins. from the bottom. Length 8 ins., greatest 
width, i| ins., length of shaft i| ins., greatest width of ditto 
ii ins. It was found between Finningley and Blaxton in 
A.D. 1826. Weight 6 ozs. 

No. 16 is a somewhat rare type for Yorkshire, the sides 
of the spear being unusually broad for their length. The shaft 
is fairly long, and hke other portions of the implement, slightly 
damaged, and there are two circular holes for rivets i in. from 
the bottom. Length 7 ins., length of blade 4J ins., greatest 
width 1 1 ins., width across shaft when complete i in. The 
socket extends for slightly over 4 ins. along the blade. It was 
found at Finningley. Weight 4\ ozs. 

No. 17. — A spear with two holes at the base of the blade, 
evidently to assist in the shafting, being somewhat similar in 
type to Evans's No. 410 from Lincolnshire. There are no 
holes for rivets as in the spear heads already described, and 
the shaft is continued towards the point. Length 6^ ins., 
greatest width if ins., width across the socket | in., length of 
the socket 4 ins. This specimen was found at Hatfield. Weigh 
5 ozs. 

Naturalist, 



Bronze-Age Weapons in the Doncaster Museum. 223 

No. 18. — A well made spear head with lozenge-shaped 
loops at the sides, | ins. in length, to assist in the shafting, 
and at a distance of i|- ins. from the bottom, though one of 
these is broken. It somewhat resembles Evans's No. 394 
from Thetford, Suffolk, but the example figured herewith us 
almost devoid of ornamentation, though there are just traces 
of two slight grooves running round the edge of the blade, and 
two clearl}^ marked narrow grooves round the edge of the 
socket. Measurements : Length 7I ins., greatest width i| ins., 
length of shaft, 3 ins. The socket extends into the spear for 
at least 5i ins. This specimen was found at Bawtry. Weight 
4 ozs. 

No. 19. — A well made spear head with side loops of some- 
what primitive pattern, at a distance of | in. from the bottom. 
The blade is slightly decorated by a ridge on each side of the 
medial ridge, and marks of the mould are clearly shown. 
Measurements : Length, 5| ins., greatest width of blade, 
lA ins., length of shaft 2} ins., length of socket 3 ins., width 
across neck, which is damaged, | in. This was found at Ross- 
ington in 1842. Weight 2 oz. 

No. 20 is a well patinated example, which has a shght 
flaw on one side of the blade. There are well-formed loops at 
a distance of i in. from the bottom, and a shght hollow around 
the base of the socket, which still shows the original file markings 
made in sharpening. Length, 5]- in., greatest width, i in., 
length of shaft 2\ ins., length of socket 3I ins., possibly more. 
This was found at Doncaster. Weight 2 ozs. The specimen 
is similar to that from Hutton Cranswick (tig. 26) in The 
Naturalist for Maj^ 1897. 

In reference to these last-named implements, a valuable 
paper on ' The Origin, Evolution, and Classification of the 
Bronze Spear-head in Great Britain and Ireland,' by W. 
Greenwell and W. P. Brewis, appears in Archaeolo^ia, Vol. 
LXL, pt. 2, 1909, pp. 439-472. In this it is pointed out 
(p. 458) that ' the leaf-shaped socketed form, if we may judge 
from the relative number of the type which have been dis- 
covered, appears to have been in use during a longer time than 
any other. It is, moreover, essentially the type which almost 
exclusively prevailed in all other countries where a bronze 
spear-head existed. It was not, however, in those countries 
the product of an evolution through other forms, but seems 
to have made its appearance there when in a perfected state. 
This fact, which cannot be controverted, may perhaps claim 
for Great Britain and Ireland that not only did the socketed 
head originate there independently, but further, that from 
thence it passed into those countries of Europe and elsewhere 
where it has been found.' 

1918 July 1. 



224 

WESTMORLAND COLEOPTERA. 



F. H. DAY, F.E.S. 



{Contimied fro7n page igi). 

Olisthopus rotundatiis Pk. Tebay (Bowman). 

Agonurn assimile Pk [iunceus Scop.). Melkintliorpe, Gt. 

Strickland (Britten). 
A. mulleri Hbst. [parumpunctatus F.). Tebay (Bowman), 

Melkinthorpe Clibrrn (Britten) 
A gnicile Gyll. T-'^bay (BowmTn). 
A. fitliginosum Pz. Kirkby Stephen (Thompson), Melkin- 

thorpt' (Britten). 
Dromius linearis 01. Tebay (Bowman), Melkinthorpe (Britten). 
D. guadrinotatus Pz. Tebay (Bowman), Melkinthorpe (Britten). 
D. meridionalis Dj. Melkinthorpe (Britten). 
D. 4- maculatiis L. Melkinthorpe, Cliburn (Britten). 
D. melanocephahis Dj. Melkinthorpe, Great Strickland, 

Cliburn (Britten). 

Hydradephaga. 

Brychius glahratiis Villa, [elevatus Pz.). Tebay (Bowman). 

Haliplus ohliqiius F. Tebay (Bowman). 

H. fulvus F. Tebay (Bowman). 

H. ruficollis De G. Shap (Day), Melkinthorpe, Cliburn Moss 
(Britten). 

H. lineatocollis Marsh. Tebay (Bowman), Melkintnorpe, 
Cliburn Moss (Britten). 

Hydroponis 12-pustulatus F. Melkinthorpe (Britten). 

H. elegans Sturm, {depressus F.). Tebay (Bowman), Melkin- 
thorpe (Britten). 

H^ borealis Gyll. [davisi Curt.). Tebay (Bowman). 

H. sanmarki var. rivalis Gyll. Tebay (Bowman), Melkin- 
thorpe (Britten). 

H. erythrocephalus L. Tebay (Bowman), Kirkby Stephen 
(Thompson), Melkinthorpe, Cliburn Moss 
(Britten). 

//. palustfis L. Tebay (Bowman), Kirkby Stephen (Thomp- 
son), Melkinthorpe, Cliburn Moss, Great 
Strickland (Britten), Shap (Day). 

//. tristis Pk. Rydal (Black). 

H. piceus Steph. {gyllenhali Schiod.) Rydal (Black), Kirkby 
Stephen (Thompson). 

H. melanocephalus Gyll. (morio, Brit. Cat.). Rydal (Black), 
Kirkby Stephen (Thompson). 

H. obscurus Sturm. Rydal (Black), Kirkby Stephen (Thomp- 
son). 

Naturaljft^ 



Day : Westmorland Coleoptcra. 225 

HydrophoYus planus F. Melkinthorpc, Cliburn Moss (Britten). 
H. pubescens Gyll. Tebay (Bowman), Rydal (Black) Cliburn 

Moss, Melkinthorpe (Britten), Shap, Wither- 

slack (Day). 
H. discretus Fair. Tebay (Bowman), Melkinthorpe (Britten), 

Kirkby Stephen (Thompson). 
H. nigrita F. Kirkby Stephen (Thompson), Melkinthorpe 

(Brit^en). 
H. memnonius Nic. Tebay (Bowman), Cliburn Moss (Britten). 
Agabus guttatus Pk. Kirkby Stephen (Thompson), Melkin- 
thorpe (Britten). 
A. bipustulatus L. Tebay (Bowman), Rydal (Black), Kirkby 

Stephen (Thompson), Melkinthorpe, Cliburn 

Moss (Britten), Shap (Day). 
A. paludosus F. Tebay (Bowman). 

A. chalconotus Pz. Melkinthorpe, Cliburn Moss (Britten). 
A. congener Pk. Patterdale (Britten). 
A. nebulosus Forst. Tebay (Bowman). 
A. sturmi Gyll. Cliburn Moss, Melkinthorpe, Patterdale 

(Britten). 
Platambus maculatus L. Tebay (Bowman), Melkinthorpe 

(Britten), 
var. immaculatus Donis. Patterdale, in U lies water 

(Britten). 
Ilybius fuliginosus F. Tebay (Bowman), Cliburn Mos? (Britten). 
Rhantus exoletus Forst. Cliburn Moss (Britten). 
Colymbetes fuscus L. Cliburn Moss, Melkinthorpe, Patterdale 

(Britten). 
Acilius sulcatus L. Chburn Moss, Patterdale (Britten). 
Dytiscus marginalis L. Patterdale (Britten). 
D. punctulatus F. Cliburn Moss (Britten). 
Gyrinus natator Scop. Tebay (Bowman), Melkinthorpe, 

Cliburn Moss (Britten). 

Palpicornia 

Helophorus aquaticus L. Tebay (Bowman), Melkinthorpe, 
Cliburn Moss (Britten), Witherslack (Day). 

H. cequalis Th. Tebay (Bowman), Melkinthorpe (Britten). 

H . brevipalpis Bed. Tebay (Bowman), Melkinthorpe, Cliburn 
Moss, Patterdale (Britten), Lowther Park 
(Day). 

H ytenensis Shp. Witherslack (Day). 

H. viridicoUis Steph. {ceneipennis Th.). Tebay (Bowman), 
Melkinthorpe. Cliburn Moss, Patterdale, 
Appleby (Britten), Shap, Witherslack (Day). 

Ochthebius exsculptus Germ. Tebay (Bowman). 

Hydrcsna gracilis Germ. Tebay (Bowman). 

H. riparia Kug. Melkinthorpe, Cliburn Moss (Britten). 

1918 July 1. 



226 t)ay : Westmorland Coleoptera. 

Hydrohius juscipes L. MelkinthorpCj Cliburn Moss (Biitten), 

Witherslack (Day). 

var. subrotundatus Steph. {picicrus Th.). Tebay 

(Bowman); Melkinthorpe (Britten), Shap 

(Day). 

Anaccena globulus Pk. Tebay (Bowman), Melkinthorpe, 

Cliburn Moss (Britten), Shap (Day). 
A. ovata Reiche. Shap (Day), Melkinthorpe (Britten). 
Philydnis fuscipennis Th. Shap (Day). 
Lacabius minutus L. Melkinthorpe (Britten). 
L. alutaceus Th. Melkinthorpe (Britten). 
L. nigriceps Th. Shap (Day). 

Lininebhts trnncatellus Thunb. Tebay (Bowman), Melkin- 
thorpe, Patterdale (Britten), Shap (Day). 
Coelostoma {Cyclonotum) orbicular e F. Tebay (Bowman). 
Sphrsridium scarabceoides L. Tebay (Bowman), Melkinthorpe, 
Great Strickland, Patterdale (Britten), 
Pendragon Castle (Daj^). 
S. bipustulatum F. Tebay (Bowman^, Melkinthorpe, Cliburn^ 

Lowther (Britten). 
Cercyon impressus Sturm, (hcsmorrhoidalis Hbst.). Tebay 

(Bowman), Melkinthorpe (Britten). 
C. ustulatusV leys, (hcemorrhous GyW.) . Cliburn Moss (Bntt en). 
C. hcBmorrkoidalis F. {f.arnpe<- ¥.). Tebay (Bowman), Melkin- 
thorpe (Britten). Witherslack (Day). 
C. melan -icephalus T. Tebay (Bowman), Melkinthorpe 
(Britten), Kirkb}' Stephen (Thompson), 
Witherslack, Pendragon Castle (Day). 
C. lateralis Marsh. Tebay (Bowman), Melkinthorpe (Britten), 

Wirherslack (Day). 
C. unipunctatus L. Tebay (Bowman).. Melkinthorpe, Lowther 

(Britten). 
C. quisquilius L. Tebay (Bowman), Melkinthorpe (Britten). 
C. analis Pk. Mr.lkinthorpe (Britten). 
C. PygmcBus 111. Tebay (Bowman), Melkinthorpe, Cliburn 

Moss (Britten), Wild Boar Fell (Day). 
Megasternum boletophagum Marsh. Tebay (Bowman), Kirkby 
Stephen (Thompson), Melkinthorpe, Great 
Strickland, Lowther (Britten). 
Cryptopieurum atomarium 01. Cliburn, Melkinthorpe (Brit- 
ten). 

(To be continued J. 



All alien enemy members have been removed from membership of the 
British Ornithological Union. 

Dr. T. F. Sibly, Professor of Geology at Cardiff, has been appointed 
Professor of Geology at Armstrong College, Newcastle, in succession to 
the late Prof. Lebour. 



Naturalist, 



227 

YORKSHIRE NATURALISTS AT BARNARD CASTLE. 

Magnificent weather favoured the gathering of the Union at the old- 
world town of Barnard Castle during the Whitsuntide recess, and, although 
the party was not a large one, the increased cost of travelling and restricted 
service of trains doubtless accounting for this, those who found themselves 
at liberty to attend the excursion had ample recompense. Military duties 
prevented the attendance of the President. Several members of the 
Darlington and Teesdale Naturalists' Field Club attended the excursions. 

Headquarters were at the King's Head Hotel, which is reputed to be 
the hostel where Dickens stayed while working up his famous book, 
' Nicholas Nickleby.' 

Immediately behind the hotel are the remains of the twelfth century 
castle founded by Bernard Baliol. The most conspicuous feature is the 
Keep, or Baliol 's Tower, which is in a good state of preservation ; a great 
portion of the grounds are under cultivation. Opportunity was taken to 
inspect the Norman doorway of the Parish Church, which doorway shows 
toothed ornamentation. An interesting time was also spent in an in- 
spection of a portion of the contents of the Bowes Museum, an ornate and 
imposing building in the French Renaissance style. Housed in the 
museum are valuable oil paintings, in which the English, French, Spanish 
and Italian schools are well represented. There is also a magnificent 
collection of china, porcelain, glassware, ivories, crystals, brass-work, and 
old coins. 

On Saturday, the party was under the guidance of Mr. J. P. Robson. 
Taking the path along the south side of the river an inspection was made 
of the remains of Egglestone Abbey, a picturesquely situate ruin, which 
dates from the early part of the thirteenth centur}^, being then inhabited 
by monks of the Premonstratentian order. The views from the Abbey 
Bridge, with its battlemented parapets, were delightful, as was the walk 
along the riverside to the meeting of Greta with Tees. The charms of 
Rokeby Park were likewise enjoyed, the arboreal features being especially 
satisfying. The day's excursion was brought to a close with a walk along 
Brignall Banks, where the beauty of the woodland and wealth of wild 
flowers recalled the verse of Sir Walter Scott's poem : 
' Oh, Brignall banks are fresh and fair 

And Greta woods are green ; 
And maid may gather garlands there 
Would grace a summer queen.' 

The site of the Roman Camp was inspected, the outline of which was 
well defined, especially the vallum and double ditch on the north side 
The remains of old Brignall Church mark a peaceful spot, and it was noted 
that the oldest tombstone dated back to the year 1693. 

On the following day opportunity was taken to revisit a portion of 
Upper Teesdale, Mr. F. S. Hare acting as guide. From Middleton-in- 
Teesdale the party drove to Langdon Beck, crossed the rough pastures in 
the vicinity of Cronkley Scars, and there saw to perfection the exquisite 
beauty of Blue Gentian {Gentiana verna). The walk was continued 
along the beck to its junction with the Tees, the scramble amongst the huge 
boulders and rocks which intersect a portion of the path calling for care 
and agility ; thence through the Juniper scrub to High Force, where the 
scenic charms were greatly appreciated. 

The whole of Monday was spent in an investigation of Deepdale, a 
beautiful wooded valley, through which runs the Deepdale beck, the waters 
of which at the head of the valley fall in picturesque fashion over the rocks. 
Mr. Bailey acted as guide. 

The usual meeting was held at the close of the excursion in the Castle 
grounds, Mr. W. N. Cheesman, J. P., F.L.S., presiding. Three gentleman 
and the Whitby Literary and Philosophical Society were elected to the 
membership of the Union. Sectional reports were given, concluding 

1918 July 1. 



228 Yorkshire Naturalists at Barnard Castle. 

with a vote of thanks to the landowners and the guides, and to the divisionaf 
Secretary, Mr. J. Hartshorn, for his valuable services in connection with 
the local arrangements. W.E.L.W. 

CoNCHOLOGY.— Mr. J. W. Taylor, M.Sc, writes: — The collections 
made by Mr. Greevz Fysher have been sent to me for determination. 
From Deepdale he has sent Helix hortensis var. lutea (12345), immature ; 
Helicigonum arbustorum, Hyalinia alliaria, Arion subfuscus var. nigricans 
Pollonera, Agrioliniax agrestis, Succinea pfeifferi Bourg., Zua lubrica, 
Limncsa peregra and var. acuta Gray, and Ancylus fluviatilis. From 
Rokeby there is Helix hortensis var. lutea 00000, 12345 ; Hygromia 
hispida, Hyalinia nitidula, Pyramidula rotundata, Clausilia laminata 
and Agrioliniax agrestis. 

In county Durham, from Barnard Castle gardens, are Helix aspersa. 
Helix hortensis var. lutea 12345, Hygromia hispida and Hyalinia cellaria. 
From Langdon Beck, Helix nemoralis var. carnea 12345, ^^^ from 
Romaldkirk, Helix hortensis var. lutea 00000, 12345, Helicigonum arbus- 
torum and vars. trochoidalis and niarmorata ; a total result of 15 species 
and six varieties. 

CoLEOPTERA. — Mr. M. L. Thompson, F.E.S., writes that more than 
60 species of beetles were met with along the route through Deepdale, 
and by the roadside on the return journey from Bowes to Barnard Castle. 
Of these, Quedius attenuatus Gyll., Lathrobium boreale Hoch., Trogo- 
phlcBUS elongatulus Er., Eusphalerum primula! Steph., Anthobium. sorbi 
Gyll., Melanophthalma fuscula Hum., Athous vittatus F., Phytodecta 
pallida L., Magdalis armigera Fauv., Hylastes ater Payk. may be recorded 
for this division of the county. The fine sunny day was favourable to- 
insect life, but the recent prolonged cold weather had considerably delayed 
the appearance of many coleoptera usually to be seen at this time of the year 
in this district. 

Lepidoptera. — Mr. Wattam had the opportunity of inspecting 
a portion of the very fine collection of Lepidoptera collected and bred 
by Mr. J. P. Robson, of Barnard Castle. The collection is rich in local 
forms, of which latter may be noted A. atropos (one specimen), S. populi, 
C. plantaginis (a fine series), A. fuliginosa (of the true ruby type), B. 
quercus and var. callunce, P. cassinea, D. cceruleocephala, T. batis, A. 
menyanthidis, L.pallens, L.impura, N.fulva, H . tnicacea {good -vansition) , 
two specimens of X. polyodon with black forewings, X. hepatica, X. 
lithoxylea, P. cytherea, N. depuncta, N. c-nigrum, some good woodland 
and moorland forms of N. festiva, T. gothica, T. instabilis and T. siabilis, 
a very fine series showing much variation, X. gilvago, D. cucubali, P. chi 
and var. olivacea, D.templi, E.viminalis, A. aprilina {hea.ntiiwls'pecimens, 
many with melanic underwings), H. glauca, H. protea (showing nice 
variation), A. niyriilli (a fine series) and G. libatrix. Mr. Robson states 
that he took, near the Greta, a specimen of the rare Anesychia funerella. 

DiPTERA. — Messrs. C. A Cheetham and W. H. Burrell write : — On the 
homeward journey, on Stake Fell we were interested to see a small black 
fly, Hemerodromia melanocephala Hal., very busy on the flowers of Rubus 
Chamcemorus L., the number and lack of other insects pointing to this 
species being here responsible for the polination of the Rubus which is a 
dioecious plant. The fly has been verified by Mr. A. R. Sanderson. 

Hymenoptera. — In the fields on the sunny banks beyond Egglestone 
Abbey the bees Andrena fulva Schr. and A. albicans were busy, and also 
the parasitic or cuckoo bee, probably Nomada ruficornis L. The bees 
were kindly verified by Mr. Rosse Butterfield. 

Botany. — Mr. Wattam writes : — The charms of the walk along the 
gorge-like valley of the Tees, to the meeting of the waters with those of 
the Greta, and then along the valley through which runs the latter river, 
as far as the ruins of Brignall Old Church, cannot be adequately described, 
so exquisite was the intermingled wealth of the ground carpet of blossom, 
and the leafage of the trees, especially that of the Lime, Beech, Horse 

Naturalist, 



Yorkshire Naturalists at Barnard Casue. 229 

■Chestnut and Mountain Ash, of which there were numerous fine examples. 
Helleborus viridis in fruit, Geum intermedhtm, Adoxa Moschatellina, 
Chrysosplenuini a terni folium, Pyimula elatior and Cystopteris fragilis were 
noted. 

The first thing to attract, at the entrance to Deepdale valley, was a 
typical Alder-Willow swamp, developed on the alluvial flat with its 
association of Ranunculus Ficaria, Caltha palustris, Nasturtium officinale, 
Cardamine hirsuta, C. pratensis, C. amara. Lychnis Floscuculi, Stellaria 
nemorum (in great abundance), Spircaa Ulmaria, Geum rivale, Galium 
Aparine, G. Witheringii, Angelica sylvestris, Petasites vulgaris., Veronica 
Beccabunga, Iris Pseudo-acorus, Poa trivialis, Equisetum limosum and 
E. palustre. 

The aroboreal features of the dale are most marked, the dominance 
of certain types differing throughout. At the commencement the prevail- 
ing trees are Sessile-fruited Oak, Sycamore, Mountain Elm and Beech ; 
many excellent examples of the latter. This phase continues until merged 
into an almost pure zone of Spruce Fir. Then follows an Oak-Birch- 
Sycamore association, with Mountain Elm, Bird Cherry, Goat Willow 
and Beech intermingled, continuing as far as the railway viaduct. For 
the next three hundred yards to the right of the river. Birch zones are 
common throughout. The dominancy however lies with Oak and Mountain 
Elm, with sundry Ash, Goat Willow, Hazel, Elder, Blackthorn and Moun- 
tain Ash, Scot's Pine and Spruce. The cliffs on the left are crowned 
with a broad band of Spruce, Scot's Pine and Larch, with Hazel, Birch 
and Goat Willow on the ledges and slopes. Between the lower and 
upper falls, the conifers before mentioned, with Birch, are the dominant 
species on the left side, and on the right. Oak, Sycamore, Mountain Elm 
and Ash are the most noticeable, with Black Poplar, Bird Cherry , Hawthorn 
Hazel, Alder and Geulder Rose. To the left of the lower fall a great 
area has been cut down and is awaiting clearance. 

The most interesting plants noted were Geranium sylvaticum just 
coming into bloom, Hypericum dubimn, Veronica moniana, V . serpylli folia, 
Asperula odorata, Ranunculus auricomus, Geum intermedium, Paris 
quadrifolia and Melica uniflora. Lathrcea squamavia was found growing 
on the roots of Hazel, Mountain Elm, Hawthorn and Black Poplar. 
Epilobium angustifolium is well established on the site of the old work- 
shops. Seedlings of Ranunculus Ficaria were noted in great abundance, 
as well as the axillary tubers. Fine specimens of Polystichitm acitleatum 
were found between the viaduct and the lower fall, and above the upper 
fall two stunted specimens of Juniperus communis. 

Among the ruins of the old Castle Cheiranthus Cheiri is abundant, 
and Linaria Cymbalaria, Antirrhinum majits and Parietaria officinalis 
also occur. 

Mycology. — Mr. W. N. Cheesman writes : — The number of fungi 
observed and collected was quite up to expectation considering the time of 
the year. The larger fungi were not numerous, the exceptions being the 
St. George's Mushroom, which was abundant at the side of a grassy lane 
near the ' Meeting of the Waters,' at Rokeby. These, together with 
gatherings of Morels brought in by Dr. Woodhead and Mr. R. Fowler 
Jones, amply supplied the proteins for the next morning's breakfast, and 
were much appreciated. 

Armillarea mellea was responsible for the destruction of much coni- 
ferous and deciduous timber in Deepdale, the black rhizomorph mycelium 
between bark and wood bearing witness to the guilt of the accused. 
Dasyscypha calycina was also causing injury to the Larches at both Deep- 
dale and Rokeby. Of the eighteen species of Mycetozoa gathered, about 
two-thirds were weathered specimens of last year's growth. The most 
notable species was Diderma hemisphericum springing from creamy white 
Plasmodium. 

1918 July 1. 



230 



Yorkshire Naturalists at Barnard Castle. 



G.B. = Greta Bridge; H.F. = High Force ; D.=Deepdale 



Mycetozoa. 
Badhamia utricularis Berk., D. 
Physarum nutans Pers., G.B.D. 
P. vernum Somm., G.B. 
Diderma hemisphericum Hornm., 

G.B. 
Craterium minutum Fries., D. 
Didymium difforme Duby., G.B. 
D. squamulosiim Fries., G.B., D. 
Comatricha nigra Sch., H.F. 
Amaurochaete fuliginosa McB., D. 
Lycogala epidendrum Fries., 

G.B., D. 
Reticularia Lycoperdon Bull., G.B. 
Trichia afftnis De Bary, D. 
T. persimilis Karst., H.F. 
T. scabra Rost., G.B. 
T. varia Pers., H.F., D. 
T. decipiens McB., D. 
T. Botrytis Pers., G.B. 
Arcyria ferruginea Saut., H.F. 
Perichaena corticalis Rost., 

G.B., D. 
Gastromycetes. 
Lycoperdon perlatum, D. 
Bovista nigrescens, H.F. 
Agaricace^. 
Armillaria mellea, H.F., GB.., D. 
Tricholoma gambosum, G.B. 
Collybia velutipes, D. 
Mycena ammoniaca, H.F. 
Omphalia umbellifera, H.F. 
O. stellata, D. 
Nolanea pascua, G.B. 
Galera tenera, D. 
A nellaria separata, H.F. 
Coprinus niveus, H.F. 
Marasmius oreades, G.B. 

POLYPORACE^. 

Polyporus betuliniis, D. 
P. brunialis, D. 



P. nidulans, D. 
Polystictus versicolor, G.B., D. 
Paria vaporaria, G.B., D. 
Fomes ferruginosus, D. 
Daedalea quercina, G.B. 

THELEPHORACEiE. 

Stereum hirsutum, G.B., H.F., D. 
Corticium calcium, D. 
C comedens, D. 
Odontia farinacea, G.B. 
Hymenochoete rubiginosa, D, 
H. tabacina, D. 
Grandinia granulosa, G.B. 

Tremellaceje. 
Calocera cornea, G.B., D. 
Tremella mesenterica, D. 
Dacryomyces stillatus, H.F. 

Uredinace^. 
(Determined by Mr. T. B. Roe.) 
Uromyces ficarics Lev., on 

pilewort, D. 
U. alchemillcB Lev., on Lady's 

Mantle, G.B. 

Puccinia saniculcp Grev., on Wood 

Sanicle, G.B. 

Phycomycetes. 

(Determined by Mr. T. B. Roe.) 

Synchytrium anemones Waron., 

on Wood Anemone, D. 
Septaria anemones, on Wood 

Anemone, D. 

DlSCOMYCETES. 

(Determined by Mr. Thos. Gibbs.) 

Dasyscypha virginea, D. 

D. nivea, G.B. 

D. calycina, G.B., D. 

D. clandestina, D. 

Mollisia cinerea, H.F., D. 

M. dilutella, G.B. 

Helotium lutescens, D. 

Morchella esculenta, G.B. 



Mosses and Hepatics. — Mr. C. A. Cheetham and Mr. W. H. Burrell 
write : — The bryology of the Tees district has been too well worked in the 
past to allow many additions to the published lists, but a little moss on 
the walls near Egglestone Abbey, Seligeria recurvata B. and S. (S. setacea 
Lindb.), does not appear to be included. 

A growth of Ceratodon purpureus Brid. was seen with the excurrent 
nerve of C. conicus Lindb., but not distinct enough to place under the 
latter species. 

The next addition was on Widdybank, where Thuidimn Philiberti 
Limpr. was gathered, it was the tripinnate form known as var. pseudo- 
tamarisci. 

On the peat above, a patch of the very rare Tetraplodon Wormskjoldii 
Lindb. provided the bryological thrill of the excursion ; it was in the best 
possible condition of fruit. This moss was first gathered in Britain in 
this locality by Mr. M. Slater in 1870, but considered to be a form of 
T. mniodes B. and S. (T. bryoides Lindb.) ; later, in 1901, Messrs. Horrell 
and Jones, whilst working at sphagna here, gathered and recognised it. 

Naturalist, 



Field Notes. 231 

and on seeing their announcement, Mr. Slater looked his specimen up 
and found it to be the same species ; since then it has been gathered in 
Scotland. The plant was growing on bare peat and no trace of bones could 
be found ; with it was Webera nutans and Cephalozia bicuspidata Dum., 
the whole patch covering some i5"xio''. The books state it to be a 
monoicous species, but the distinct areas of male plants seemed to point 
to a dioicous state. A succession of male and female inflorescences on 
separate stems, having no apparent structural union, showed a segregation 
of sex of several years' duration, but careful examination of the material 
gave no clue to the origin of the male stems, whether from the leaf axils 
of a monoicous plant or from male producing spores. 

: o : 

Rare Ducks in Upper Nidderdale. — On May 8th, a 
friend of mine picked up a male Ferruginous Duck {Fuligula 
nyroca) in Upper Nidderdale. It had been killed by flying 
against the telephone wires ; and on May gth near the same 
place a male Gadwall {Anas streperera) was captured. It had 
been shot at and its wing broken. — R. Fortune. 

Fieldfares near Harrog-ate. — After practically a com- 
plete absence of these birds during the winter, a large flock 
consisting of at least 100 birds, put in an appearance in the 
fields between Ripley and Hampsthwaite. They were first 
seen on April 28th, and remained in the neighbourhood until 
May 3rd. An unusually late stay in this neighbourhood is 
worth recording ; a friend of mine, a good observer, saw 
a flock of about thirty fieldfares on Masham Common on 
June 17th, igi6. — R. Fortune. 

Pine Marten in Shropshire — I recently had shown to 
me the skull of a Marten that had been trapped near Wellington, 
Shropshire, about 27th May. It was a female and, judging 
by the worn state of the teeth, an old one. In The Zoo'lopist, 
1908, I wrote a paper on the Marten in England and Wales, 
summarizing all the known records up to that year, and 
showing that the onl}/ districts in which the species still exists 
in any numbers are the Lake District and the west of North 
and Central Wales. In spite of this fact the animal now and 
then turns up in places many miles distant from these districts 
— places in which it has been long extinct. In Shropshire it 
became extinct in 1862, yet in April-May, 1907, two females 
were taken in localities near the Welsh border a few miles 
apart, while in 1891 one was taken in Eaton Park, Chester. 
It is inconceivable that the animals were resident in these 
locahties, or that they could have been there for any length 
of time without being noticed by keepers, etc. I attribute 
these occurrences to an innate propensity for roving in this 
species, and in my paper give manj^ other instances in confirma- 
tion. This fresh occurrence at Wellington can only be ac- 
counted for on the same assumption, as it is a populous locality 
and most of the country preserved. — H. E. Forrest, Shrews- 
bury. 

1918 July -1. 



832 

3n flDemoriam. 

W. LOWER CARTER. M.A., F.G.S. 
1855— 1918. 
We much regret to record another serious gap in the ranks 
of our prominent Yorkshire naturalists. On June 21st, the 
Rev. W. Lower Carter passed away at his residence at Watford, 
a few days after a seizure, which from the first was evidently 
serious. ' Lower Carter,' as he was usually known in the north, 
was a familiar figure at the meetings and excursions of the 
Yorkshire Scientific Societies, especially during the time he 




was living at Mirfield. In the Yorkshire Naturalists' Union 
he held many positions on various geological committees and on 
the Council for many years, and his name was familiar to 
readers of The Naturalist. He was best known for his work 
in connexion with the Yorkshire Geological Society where for a 
considerable period he served in the capacity of Hon. Treasurer, 
Secretary, and Editor of the Society's Proceedings, which reached 
a leading place among provincial publications while under his 
charge, and which contained most important contributions to 
the geology of the county by some of our most prominent 
geologists. His services were especially valuable with regard 
to the business side of the work of Scientific Societies, and the 
excursions of the Yorkshire Geological Society which he ar- 
ranged were triumphs of organisation. In more recent years 
he did good service as Recorder of Section C. (Geology) of the 

Naturalist, 



Northern News. 233 

British Association. Previously he took a keen interest in the 
work of the Leeds Geological Society. 

When he left Yorkshire in order to take charge of a church 
in Birkenhead, Mrs. Carter and he were the recipients of 
valuable presents which had been subscribed for by his 
colleagues in the Yorkshire Geological Society, though he 
continued for several years to render good service to the 
society. 

Lower Carter was not so well known for his original investi- 
gations in geology as he was for the able way in which he 
summarised and followed up the work of others. He was of 
considerable assistance in connexion with the work of recording 
the erratic blocks of the county, with regard to the investiga- 
tions on underground waters, and he also followed the work of 
Prof. Kendall and others relating to old river courses, and wrote 
some papers on the old channels of the Don and district. He 
■compiled a useful Classified Index of the first fourteen volumes 
of the Proceedings of the Yorkshire Geological Society (1839- 
1902), and for many years contributed useful summaries of 
the work of the Geological Section of the British Association, 
to Nature and The Naturalist. In ' The Bibliography of 
Yorkshire Geology' by the present writer, published by the 
Yorkshire Geological Society in 1915, Lower Carter is respon- 
sible for forty-one items, mostly short notes, between 1889 and 
1914 ; these may be said to represent his contributions to 
geological literature. 

For several years he was the minister at the Congregational 
Church at Mirfield : he then went to a more important church 
at Birkenhead, but after a short stay he went to London as 
a teacher of geology, and as such was at the East London 
College until he died. — T. S. 



The collection of Reptilian Footprints in Triassic Rocks made by Mr. 
H. C. Beasley have found a permanent home in the Liverpool Museum. 

We have received from Charles Janet, a paper on ' Le Volvox,' pub- 
lished at Limoges (149 pp.), which contains some remarkable diagrams ; 
also a ' Note Preliminaire sur I'oeuf du Volvox globator ' (12 pp.), and a 
paper on ' Sur la Phylogenese de I'orthobionte ' (72 pp.), with six tables 
and eight plates ; as well as other matter. 

The University of Leeds has gratefully accepted a gift by Mr. W. 
Denison Roebuck of a collection of microscopic slides and a library of books 
upon the subject of Freshwater Alga\ as the nucleus of a specialist library 
and collection of algje in general. These were the property of William 
Harwell Turner, who died twelve months ago, and who, since his coming 
to Leeds in 1877, had been one of the most active scientific workers in 
the city until laid aside by a serious illness. The value of the gift is en- 
hanced by the fact that many of the books are illustrated by coloured 
drawings by Mr. Turner himself, he having been a talented natural 
history draughtsman. The collections will be known as the ' Barwell 
Turner Memorial,' and will be available for the use of students of 
a.lgological science. 

1918 July 1. 



234 

FIELD NOTES. 

BIRDS. 

Ring Plover Nesting in Nidderdale. — The Ring Plover 
has for the last few years nested in a certain place in Upper 
Nidderdale and has successfully reared young. They are 
again nesting this year, but only one pair. The female is- 
sitting and the male spends his time with a party of Dunlin. 
The Dunlin, in full summer plumage, at the time of writing 
May i6th, have not yet departed for their breeding ground on 
an adjacent moor. — R. Fortune. 

— : o : — 
HEPATICS. 

Diplophyllum taxifolium Wahlenb. in Westmorland. 
— In July, 1900, Mr. LI. J. Cocks sent me specimens of the 
above species, collected on Hart Crag, Westmorland, in August, 
i8q8. In going through some old letters I find Mr. Cock's 
specimen and letter, which had never been answered. The 
specimen is correctly named and is an addition to Mr. Stabler's 
' List of Westmorland Hepatics,' published in The Naturalist. 
Mr. Cocks writes : — ' April 30th, 1918. I was amused to 
have a letter from you answering one which must have been 
written nearly twenty years ago, am very interested to know 
that you confirmed my specimen of Diplophyllwn taxifolium 
from Westmorland {it is surely worthy of specific rank). Hart 
Crag, where T gathered it, is an eastern spur of Fairfield, 
looking down on Brothers' Water (height 2,698 ft.).' The 
specimen is deposited in the Manchester Museum. — W. H. 
Pearson, A.L.S. 

-: o : — 
LEPIDOPTERA. 

The Pairing of tiepialus lupulinus. — On June 2nd, at 
9-10 p.m. (summer-time), I noticed a female Hepialiis lupulinus 
resting on grass commence ' calling ' by vibrating her wings. 
Presently a number of males ' assembled ' to the place, flying 
about very quickly and in great excitement. Three minutes 
elapsed before one of the males found the female and copulated. 
This delay was evidently caused by the fitful way the female 
' called.' The wing vibrations were only continued for a few 
moments at a time with short rests between. When the pair 
united I immediately boxed them, and placed the box a few 
yards away on the ground. None of the flying moths ever flew 
near the box, conclusively proving that the cause of the at- 
traction had ended. However, the immediate space around 
where the female ' called,' that is a circle of about two yards 
across, was still the centre of much commotion. Five minutes 
after the pair was boxed at least twenty males were eagerly 
searching about for the female. Individuals were continually 
leaving, while others kept arriving, the numbers present at 

Naturalist, 



Field Notes. 235 

any time now seemed to be diminishing, until twenty minutes 
after the boxing the attraction completely ceased, for males 
flew past the place in the swift jerky manner charactertistic 
of the species, but none lingered. Most of the moths undoubt- 
edly came against the wind to the attraction, and it would 
seem that the vibrations travelled very slowly, and probably 
not very far before they were lost in space, for if they travelled 
far and over a wide area the assembled moths must have far 
exceeded the number present, for the males on that evening 
were flying in great abundance. — Ben Morley. 

We do not believe that the vibrations of the wings of the female H. 
lupulinus have anything to do with attracting the males, beyond diffusing 
the scent, and possibly aiding the sight of the male, notwithstanding the 
' fairy tales ' about wireless telegraphy in moths which have recently 
appeared in one of our leading county newspapers. But, that some of the 
species in this genus do act very abnormally in their love making is cer- 
tain, as it has been demonstrated beyond doubt that the female of 
Hepialus hiimuli seeks the male, and it is almost equally certain also that 
the female of H . liectus acts in the same way. — G.T.P. 

Eupithecia coronata at Wakefield.— On June 15th, in 
company with a few friends, a few hours were spent in Walton 
Hall Park near Wakefield. The most interesting ' find ' was 
the capture of ten specimens of EupUhecia coronata, the pretty 
dull-green V. pug. Until recent years this species was a 
great rarity in our county. A few years ago Mr. L. S. Brady 
took it commonly near Sheffield, and four years ago a specimen 
was taken in Edlington Wood. The capture of the species at 
Walton Hall Park raises the important question of food plant, 
as every moth taken was found at rest on the trunks of chestnut, 
Casianea vulgaris. In the south of England the larva; feed on 
the flowers of golden-rod, clematis, purple-loosestrife and hemp- 
agrimony, but at Walton none of these plants grow ; the wood 
has an undergrowth of bracken and grass only, wild flowers 
seemingly excluded by the bracken. Under the park wall near 
by where the moths were found a few straggling brambles 
grow, but nowhere plentifully. Can it be that the larva; fed 
on the flowers of these bushes ? but why should the moths 
prefer to rest on chestnut trees growing amongst an abundance 
of oak and birch ? Have the larv?e ever been found feeding on 
the leaves of any forest tree ? — Ben Morley, Skelmanthorpe. 

In the current number of the Entomologist's Record (June 1918, p. 109), 
Mr. W. Daws records Eupithecia coronata as swarming on sweet chestnut 
near Mansfield, and says the larvae must feed on the flowers of that tree 
nothing else suitable occurring in that part of the wood. — G.T.P. 



In the Joiirn. Inst. Petroleum Technologists for February Mr. W. H. 
Dalton writes on the ' Periodicity in Spouters'. He begins ' Mental 
indolence, and the impotence arising from ignorance combined with false 
pride, which endeavour to conceal both, too often lead men ' ; let us hasten 
to add however, that his note has no political significance, but relates to 
pumps and oilfields. 

1918J«lyl. 



336 

CORRESPONDENCE. 

A MAGPIE FLOCK. 

■Referring to my remarks on p. 138, might I make it quite clear that 
when I used the word ' flock ' as apphed to magpies, this word meant only 
cases where the birds were close together, and not birds which might be 
visible to an observer looking north, south, east and west, or wide apart ? 
Although never having to my knowledge spoken to Mr. Fortune, I was of 
the opinion he used the word in the same meaning. I never intended to 
suggest that every collection of magpies came together in order to mob a 
cat — such would have been absurd. When exploring the neighbourhood 
of that magnificent ruin, Rievaulx Abbey in Yorkshire, in 1903, I 
witnessed a pair of magpies chasing a wild rabbit as it ran, attacking it 
(so far as I could see) at the back of its head with their beaks. On seeing 
me, the birds fled, the rabbit escaping. 

Fred D. Welch, M.R.C.S. 

'DIMORPHIC COLORATION' IN THE CUCKOO. 

What one appreciates (amongst other points) in Mr. Butterfield's 
' Romance of the Cuckoo ' is the distinction drawn between ' fact ' and 
' speculation ' (p. 130), in which he improves on some writers of mammals, 
birds, etc. As he refers to ' Dimorphism,' the following may be of interest, 
in two birds, both young, since his cases are presumably based on northern 
experience. During the summer of 191 1, when staying at Rudgwick in 
Sussex, two young birds were caught on a fruit farm owned by Admiral 
Goodrich ; one by myself in a glass-house into which it wandered after 
insects (on a Monday), the other by a boy who was weeding, in some netting 
where it got entangled (the following Wednesday). These were of the 
same size, caught within thirty yards of each other in the same summer, 
and yet quite different in coloration, as proved by a long and thorough 
investigation when in my hands. One was of a darkish grey, the other a 
rich rufous red. What sex they were I cannot say, as I let both go free 
after noting their coloration, because they were very frightened after the 
long examination — cuckoos are useful birds. 

When one comes across cases like the above, and notices Dimorphic 
Coloration in such mammals as apes, mungooses and wildcats, either within 
or near the tropical parts of Asia, Africa and South America, they confirm 
the words ' without such cause being in any way traceable to local in- 
fluences ' (p. 130, 1. 21). 'Dimorphic Coloration' is of course different 
from seasonal change. A third young one (rather larger), found about 
10 days before, gave a very peculiar exhibition of behaviour ; it, also, was 
rich rufous red. 

There is one other point I should like to confirm, that being the remarks 
at bottom of p. 93 and top of p. 94. On May 14th of this year (1918), 
when watching a pair which frequent this locality, one was in a clump of 
forest-trees calling ' cuckoo ' as loud as it could, the other flew across a 
field behind my house (within about 70 yards of me) making the bubbling 
peculiar noise, and ' cuckoo,' one rapidly after the other, the two sounds 
being repeated alternately about fifteen times each. Fact is more valuable 
than opinion. I never found cuckoos so frequent in Kent and Sussex as 
in the west — in Herefordshire. Frederick D. Welch. 

O 

CUCKOOS' EGGS. 

Referring to Mr. E. E. Pettitt's note on page 204 of The Naturalist, 
for June, I might in the first place state that cuckoos' eggs in this district, 
and perhaps this may apply to the Pennine Range generally, are, with very 
few exceptions, true to one type, which approaches that of the skylark 
more nearly than any other British bird. Indeed, the cuckoo occasionally 
lays its egg in the nest of this species, at least I have found it once in a nest 
which was built on a heathy waste. 



Correspondence, 23/- 

From this type tlie cuckoo's egg here rarely deviates, but a considerable 
number of years ago I found the nest of a titlark on Marley Brow, near 
Bingley, which contained two cuckoos' eggs, both of which had evidently 
been laid by one cuckoo, since, though exactly alike, they were altogether 
different from any which I have ever seen in this district either before 
or since. Perhaps this may not be a usual occurrence. I have found 
several nests of the titlark containing two eggs of the cuckoo, but never 
could be certain they were both laid by one cuckoo. 

In The Naturalist for i8g8, page 224, Mr. Joseph Armitage records 
the finding of the nest of a Meadow Pipit containing three eggs of the dupe, 
and a fourth Pipit's egg lying a few inches from the nest, and also two eggs 
of the cuckoo, and further states that the two cuckoo's eggs were of exactly the 
same size, shape and colour and possibly they were deposited in the nest of 
one bird. 

In The Zoologist for 1878, page 256,, Mr. Arthur Beale states that 
he once found the nest of a Hedge Sparrow which contained two cuckoo's 
eggs, ' both apparently laid by one bird, as neither was similar to any other 
cuckoo's egg I have ever taken, but more resembled the Reed Wagtail's egg 
in colour.' 

Mr. Pettitt gives the la3'ing period of the cuckoo from the end of May 
to the end of July, which I take to be very late for any part of England. 
At any rate his remarks cannot apply to this district, since hereabouts 
most — I may say nearly all — cuckoo's eggs are laid not much earlier than 
the middle of May to the end of June. Very few cuckoo's eggs are laid 
here after July sets in. 

E. P. BuTTERFiELD, Bank House, Wilsden. 



STEETON ROOKERIES NEAR KEIGHLEY : REPORT ON EGG 

COLLECTING, APRIL 191 8. 
In March I received a circular from the West Riding County Council 
asking me to try to reduce the number of Rooks, as farmers complained 
of their doing much damage to crops. Shooting them was suggested, 
but it is no easy matter to shoot flying Rooks, and the result of a day's 
shoot on Easter Monday only produced three birds. Someone suggested 
taking the eggs before they were hatched out, so as a result of a careful 
two rounds of the nests we got 1,617 ^ggs or young ones from 359 nests. 
The young ones are from nests that were missed in the first round. 

The task is quite easy for anyone exercising care and accustomed to 
working up ladders, and I was fortunate in interesting a firm of painters 
(Messrs. John Holmes & Sons, of Steeton) to do the work. There was no 
hitch or accident. Our trees are very tall and full grown — Beech, Syca- 
more, Ash and Elm — and the evenings selected for the work were fine and 
calm. 

This is one of the largest Rookeries in England, and congregated in 
hve places within a short distance. 

First collection Second collection 
Place. begun Ap.gth. begun Ap. igth. Total. 

Nests. Eggs. Voting. Eggs. Young. 



Woodlands 


45 


III 


— _ 


124 


19 


254 


Elmsley House 


18 


48 


— 


31 




79 


East Nurseries 


106 


176 


_— 


221 


47 
42. 




West Nurseries 


75 


130 


— - 


171 


787 


Shroggs Wood 


115 


221 


4 


238 


34 


497 




359 


686 


4 


785 


142 


1,617 


1918 July!. 





238 Correspondence. 

One nest contained 6 eggs ; many nests contained 5 eggs ; a few were 
empty ; most nests had 5 eggs in the two collections. If each nest had 
contained 5 eggs, there would have been 1,795. A few nests, but not more 
than ^o, were missed as they were very difficult to get at. 

The eggs varied much in colour, shape and size. 

In a few the young were hatched. These were mostly nests that had 
been missed during the first collection. One nest, 49 feet from the ground, 
contained a Common Fowl's egg, unbroken. Some people affirm it is an 
owl's egg, but it is bigger than an owl's egg — and Rooks have been seen 
to fly off with hen's eggs. 

It is quite evident the birds did not lay a second lot of eggs in the same 
nest, because the total is not more than five to a nest, which is the usual 
number, and on May 5th we looked at several nests a third time, and found 
nothing in them. A few nests, not more than 24, were built later, but 
whether they were the same or late birds is difficult to say. Eggs were 
laid in the newly-made nests. 

After the nests had been robbed, the birds flattened the nests down, 
but in a few cases a new nest was built on the top of the old one. 

Another year I should recommend waiting until after they had finished 
laying, say the 15th of April, before taking any eggs, because it could be 
done at one collection, and I don't think any would lay a second time. 

It is much easier taking eggs than young birds. It is not a pleasant 
job taking the young just hatched. 

As a rule we did not average shooting more than 200 at our Annual 
Rook Shoot in May, so if every one of the 1,617 eggs had become a rook, 
and we only shot 200, what becomes of the other 1,400 ? It is obvious 
that very many die yearly either from disease, fighting or stress of weather. 

Our Rookeries do not vary in numbers very much from year to year, 
as the following record shows > — 1914, 3f'3 nests ; 1915. 35^ '• 1916, 355 ; 

1917. 344 ; 1918, 359- 

We hold a record for many years, and I find that the year 1832 = 208 
nests; 1842=^186; 1852 = 344; 1862 = 193. No record was kept from 
1864 to 1906. 

It remains to be seen if the birds will desert the Rookery, and I hope 
they will not. Personally I don't think rooks do the amount of harm 
that farmers imagine ; but I believe they do a lot of good by killing 
slugs and other vermin. Jackdaws and Wood Pigeons do far more harm 
and are a real nusiance. But if they are to be reduced taking the eggs is 
the easiest way, and the least cruel ; if, however, young rooks are considered 
a good thing as food, it would be best to wait until about the first week 
in May, when the young could all be taken from the nests before thay can 
fly. If, say, 1,200 young could be got in this way, it is obvious there would 
be more food than the old way of shooting. But it would require a butcher, 
or some person accustomed to taking life ; I should not care for the job ! 

As regards damage to newly-planted corn, we tried the experiment 
of planting li; acres of oats and letting it take its chance ; then two weeks 
later we planted 7 acres more, and had it carefully watched, and as far as 
I can see the crop from the former is going to be as good as from the latter. 
It seems to me that if farmers plant corn it should be their duty to watch 
it for a few weeks until it has begun to grow, and not blame nature, and 
it could easily be done by a man or a boy going round a few times a day with 
a gun. 

Anyone disposed to grumble at birds should read one of Longfellow's 
Tales of a Wayside Inn, called ' The Birds of Killingworth.' 

Samuel Clough, Steeton Hall, near Keighley, May 23rd, 191 8 

Mr. Edward Sandeman has an interesting paper on ' The Derwent 
Valley Waterworks ' in the Minutes of the Proceedings of the Institution 
cf Civil Engineers. 

Natuialist, 



239 
NEWS FROM THE MAGAZIlSiES. 

We regret to learn that the publication of Wild Life is suspended for 
the time being. 

' The Convolvulus Hawk-moth in Ireland ' is the title of a paper in 
The Irish Naturalist for June. 

Mr. J. Davy Dean favours us with a copy of his paper on ' The Clausium 
in Alopia, a Sub-Genus of Clausilia,' reprinted from The Journal of Con- 
chology. 

The Entomologist for June contains an illustrated article on ' Contri- 
butions to our Knowledge of the British Braconidae,' by G. T. Lyle, and 
' Notes on the Spring Appearance of Some Insects in Yorkshire.' 

Dugald Macintyre gives ' Some New Facts about Grit,' in British Birds 
for June. There are also notes on the Reappearance of Fieldfares ; 
Black-necked Grebe in Westmorland, and Black Grouse in North Lincoln- 
shire. 

Prof. G. Elliott Smith has a paper on ' The Teaching of Anatomy ' 
in The Edinburgh Medical Journal ' for March, 1918, in which he appeals 
for a revision of the old forms of teaching, and points out lines on which 
improvements might be made. 

In Man for June, Prof. Boyd Dawkins draws attention to an illustrated 
article on Maltese Cart Ruts, in which certain deep furrows are described 
as having been made by vehicles during the Neolithic Age. Prof. Dawkins 
states that without doubt these grooves are not artificial, but caused by 
the weathering of the rocks, under perfectly natural conditions, and that 
they have no archaeological significance. 

The Journal of the Marine Biological Association for May contains 
■' The Food of Post-Larval Fish,' and ' Trematode Larva from Buccinum 
undatum, and Notes on Trematodes from Post-Larval Fish,' both by 
Marie V. Lebour ; ' A Prehminary Account of the Production of Annual 
Rings in the Scales of Plaice and Flounders,' by D. Ward Cutler ; ' A List 
of the Maritime, Sub-Maritime and Coast-frequenting Coleoptera of South 
Devon and South Cornwall, with especial reference to the Plymouth 
District,' by James H. Keys, as well as the report of the Council for 1917. 

Science Progress for April, helps us with the usual summaries of recent 
Scientific research. Dr. J. W. Evans writes on ' The Fluviatile Theory of 
the Origin of the Old Red Sandstone,' and there is a remarkable illustrated 
paper by Major R. A. Marriott on ' The Downs and the Escarpments of 
the Weald : a New View of their Geological History,' in which he states 
that a better explanation than that usually adopted lies in the by no means 
improbable fact that this mountainous mass of chalk [over the Weald] had 
never any existence. This explanation has the merit of providing a 
simpler and perfectly intelligible stage-setting to begin with, while it 
affords a clear grasp of the probable changes throughout the history of 
the Weald.' The idea is not new, and we don't think Major Marriott will 
get many converts. 

The Journal of the Northants Natural History Society and Field Club 
for 191 7 is rather thinner than usual, as might be expected from the times 
we live in, extra cost of printing, etc. ; nevertheless the four parts pub- 
lished contain many valuable papers bearing upon the natural history of 
the County, among which we notice ' Early Man in Northamptonshire,' 
' The River System of Northamptonshire,' and reports on Meteorology 
and other subjects. The Magazine now has a new cover, upon which is 
a design showing a typical piece of Northamptonshire, ' embracing nearly 
all the sections of the Society's work — archaeology, botany, entomology, 
geology, meteorology and ornithology ; as well as illustrating sky, land 
and water ; hill, valley and river ; wood, field and lane ; village, church 
and mansion ; and industry by ricks, a smoking chimney and canal 
transport.' 

. 1918 July 1. 



240 

NORTHERN NEWS. 

The British Museum (Natural History) has issued a series ot eleveni 
leaflets dealing with various Food F.conomy Plants, etc. 

Dr. David Forsyth, the president of the Yorkshire Geological Society, 
has retired from the headmastership of the Leeds Central High School, 
a position he has held for twenty-eight years. 

The Report of the Norwich Castle Museum, recently issued, contains 
an excellent account of the work accomplished at that well-known In- 
stitution, notwithstanding the fact that the staff has been considerably 
depleted. 

Part 15 of Yorkshire Type Ammonites, by S. S. Buckman, has recently 
appeared, price 3s. 6d., and contains figures and descriptions of 
A . clevelandicus, A . elegans, A . ovatus, Bifericeras biferum, A . sedgwickii and 
Beaniceras senile. 

Our readers will regret to hear of the sudden death of the wife of Dr. 
H. H. Corbett, of Doncaster. Mrs. Corbett took a prominent part in the 
work of the Doncaster Scientific Society and did a considerable amount 
of good work in the town of her adoption. 

Notwithstanding the difficult times. The National Trust for Places of 
Historic Interest or Natural Beauty, in its report recently issued, indicates 
that the Society is still capable of carrying on its excellent work, and during 
the year has made many valuable additions to this National collection. 

Prof. George Hickling's paper on ' The Geology of Manchester as 
Revealed by Borings,' illustrated by a map, appears in The Transactions 
of the Manchester Geological and Mining Society, Vol. XXXV., Parts 7 and 
8. The same publication contains a record of the presentation of two 
portraits of Prof. Boyd Dawkins, the ' father ' of the Society, and of 
Mr. John Gerrard, who is an old and valuable member of the Yorkshire 
Naturalists' Union. 

Mr. E. E. Lowe, Curator of the Museum and Art Gallery, Leicester, 
has been appointed Director of the Libraries there, in addition to his 
other work. Recently the Art collections at Leeds and Worthing have 
been put under the charge of the Librarian at each of these places, so that 
Mr. Lowe's appointment over the important Libraries at Leicester some- 
what balances matters. 

The Forty-seventh Annual Report of the Rochdale Public Libraries, 
Art Gallery and Museum Committee records that practically nothing but 
the ordinary necessary work has been done in the Museum for the year. 
The Committee approve of the formation of a War Museum, and acknow- 
ledge the receipt of the Geological collection, formed by the late W. H. 
Sutcliffe, and also of 179 cases of British Birds and Animals (query mam- 
mals) from Mr. Arnold Schofield. 

The Reprints from the Smithsonian Reports for 1916 consist of the 
following interesting papers : — ' Pirates of the Deep — Stories of the Squid 
and Octopus," by P. Bartsch ; ' The Economic Importance of the Diatoms,' 
by A. Mann ; ' Theodore Nicholas Gill,' by W. H. Dall ; ' The Life and 
Work of J. H. Fabre,' by E. L. Bouvier ; 'The Present State of the 
Problem of Evolution,' by M. Caullery ; ' Some considerations on Sight 
in Birds,' by J. C. Lewis; and ' Narcotic Plants and Stimulants of the 
Ancient Americans,' by W. E. Safford. 

At a recent meeting of the Lancashire and Cheshire Entomological 
Society, Mr. F. N. Pierce exhibited living larvae of Solenobia melanella and 
Diplodoma ferchaultella from Northants., and pointed out that no male 
of the latter species was known ; he drew attention to the differences in 
the form of the larval case in each instance and the method of the feeding 
of the larvae. Mr. W. Mansbridge shewed a long series of Lobophora 
carpinata (lobulata) from Delamere parents, much suffused with fuscous 
and green in both sexes, but more strongly in the females ; also a series 
of ddontopera bidentata showing a continuous pale transverse line formed 
by the joining up of the second series of spots. 

Naturalist, 



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The characteristics of the good citizen are discussed, 
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Introductory. — Mutual Aid. 

The Citizen Himself. — Honour. The Ancient Mariner's 

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July 1st, 1918. 



AUG. 1918. 



No. 739 

(N», S13 •/ ourrtnt frit*. 




A MONTHLY ILLUSTRATED JOURNAL OF 

NATURAL HISTORY FOR THE NORTH OF ENGLAND. 

EDITED BY 

T. SMEPPARD, M.Sc, F.Q.S., F.R.O.S., 

The Museums, Hull ; 

AND 

T. W. WOODHEAD, Ph.D., M.Sc, 

Technical College, Huddersfield. 
with the assistance as referees in special departments^ 
J. QILBBRT BAKBR, P.R.S. P.L.S., QEO. T. PORRITF, P.L7^J!i[«dif§.,l^ai'^'^ 

Prof. P. P. KENDALL, M.Sc, P.Q.S.. JOHN W. TAYLOR, M.Sc.,^^ 

RILEY FORTUNE. F.Z.S. 




Contents : — 

PAOB 

Notes and Comments (illustrated) : — The Whitby Museum ; An Aviator ; Martin Simpson ; 

The Museums' Association ; Local Papers ; Papers Read ; A Story : A Sheffield Effort ; 

A Circular ; The Report ; The ' Association ' (?) ; A Suggestion ; Contents of Report ; 

Conference of Delegates ; A Yorkshire Experience ; Afforestation, etc '241-2J8 

Conchological Classification, Variation and Nomenclature—/. IF. Taylor, M.Se. ... 249-25.f 

Tlie Spiders of Yorkshire— Win. Falconer 253-257 

Notes on tlie Nesting, Singing:, and some otiier Habits of tlie Common Wild 

Birds of the Scarborough District— IF. Gyngdl 258-261 

Doncaster Natural History Notes for 1917—//. H.Corbett 262-263 

Yorkshire Naturalists at Market Weighton—H'.£./..tr 264-26(> 

Field Notes: — A Corncrake Puzzle; The Bempton Peregrines; Mason Bee r.t Whitby; 
Mutilia eutofcca ; Food of the Tawny Owl ; Goldcrests iRcgulus regulus) in the Lake 
District ; Greater Spotted Woodpecker {Dryobates major) in Westmorland ; Cucullia 
vtrbasci at Huddersfield; Euthciiionia russula near Skipton ; Coretlira pallida, etc., in 
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NOTES AND COMMENTS. 

THE WHITBY MUSEUM. 

The Ninety-fifth Report of the Whitby Literary and 
Philosophical Society gives evidence of unusual zeal on behalf 
of the Officers of the Society during the past twelve months. 
Besides the usual report on the year's work, there are valuable 
local Natural History and Meteorological records, and a 
reprint of Mr. Sheppard's paper on the ' Implements of the 
Bronze Age in the Whitby Museum,' which appeared in The 
Natiiyalird for February last. For the frontispiece is an 





The Whitby Museum. 



illustration of the W^hitby Museum, which we are kindly 
permitted to reproduce. 

AN AVIATOR. 

We notice the following in The Yorkshire Post of June 
20th : — ' I should like to voice a grievance felt by the village 
of Bempton near Flamborough. At this time of the year, 
there are many thousands of Guillemots and Razorbills (Guille- 
mots in particular) nesting on Bempton Qiffs, and some 
thousand of eggs are annually gathered by the Bempton Cliff 
Climbers for food for the village and surrounding districts. 
Yesterday, in the middle of the afternoon, a seaplane traversed 
the cliffs from one end to the other (some three miles) firing a 
machine gun over the entire distance into the chffs, which had 
the effect of bringing birds hurriedly off their eggs, creating a 
wild avian panic. In the act of hastily leaving the cliff, 
hundreds of eggs would be carried off the cliff and wasted 



1918 Aug, 1. 



Q 



242 



Notes and Commenis. 



to Guillemot and man posterity in the sea. Again, the exposure 
of the eggs left them at the mercy of those avian felons the 
Jackdaw and Herring Gull, who were not slow to avail them- 
selves of so tempting a dainty, and got their beaks busy among 
the eggs,' Some time ago the Yorkshire Naturalists' Union 
was successful in preventing the pleasure steamers from 
Bridlington and Scarborough from firing guns as they passed 
the Speeton CUffs in order to let the trippers see the clouds 
of birds ; now we have an adjectival aviator playing the same 
game, presumably to amuse himself. 

MARTIN SIMPSON. 

Through the kindness of Mr, J. T. Sewell, J. P., we are able 




to reproduce a portrait of Martin Simpson, who was for many 
years the Curator of the Whitby Museum. He was known 
for his early work among the Ammonites of the Yorkshire 
Lias, and was the author of several pamphlets on the Geology 
of the Whitby District and on Yorkshire Coast. The Yorkshire 
Geological Society is publishing a Memoir on Simpson in the 
next part of its Proceedings. 

' Naturalist, 



Notes and Comments, 243 

THE museums' association.* 

The excellent results achieved at the Annual Conference of 
the Museums' Association held at the Town Hall, Manchester, 
on July Qth, loth and nth are some evidence of the desirability 
of our Educational Institutions ' carrying on ' in War Time. 
In view of the difficulty of entertainment, etc., the Conference 
was curtailed to three days, but as a result of the lengthy 
sessions each morning and afternoon, and on one evening, 
probably more actual work was crowded in the three days than 
during any previous Conference. It was remarkably well 
attended, there being about 80 Delegates from England, 
Scotland, Wales and Ireland. To the great regret of the mem- 
bers, the President, Mr. E. Rimbault Dibdin, was prevented 
through illness from attending and giving his address. This 
was particularly unfortunate in view of the recent efforts of the 
Association to give more prominence to matters connected 
with the Art side of Museum work, an aspect which has been 
rather neglected by the Association in years gone by. However, 
by the efforts of the Local Secretary, Mr. Haward, and the 
General Secretary, Mr. J. Grant Murray, this aspect of the 
Association's work was well to the fore. 

LOCAL PAPERS. 

The members had their usual experience of hearing a few 
papers on elementary Museum matters, mostly by local 
authors, one result of its propaganda during the last quarter of 
a century being rather amusing. For years the Museums' Asso- 
ciation has endeavoured to make the Education Committees 
interested in the Museums, and has advocated the appoint- 
ment of special teachers to devote their time entirely to giving 
lectures to pupils in Museums and Art Galleries. This has 
at last been accomplished at Manchester, and possibly through 
being unaware of the Association's efforts, the various teachers 
concerned gave details of the nature of their work. The value 
of Museums in War Time was brought prominently forward, 
and no doubt impressed the various chairmen and members 
of committees who were present. 

PAPERS READ. 

Bearing more particularly upon the war were papers on : 
* The Aims and Objects of the Imperial War Museum,' by Lieut. 
Charles ffoulkes ; and ' Local War Museums,' by Charles 
Madeley. Dealing with educational aspects of museums were 
' The Art Museum and the School,' by J. Ernest Phythian ; 
' The Museum in Relation to the School,' by {a) R. Saunsbury ; 
{b) Mrs. B. Bell ; (c) Miss B. Hindshaw ; the Art side of 
Museum work being represented by : ' The Preservation, 

* From Nature, July iSth. 
1918 Aug. 1. 



244 Notes and Comments. 

Cataloguing, and Educational Value of Print Collections,' by 
Isaac J. Williams ; ' The Museum in relation to Art and 
Industry,' by {a) Henry Cadness, {b) -H. Barrett Carpenter ; 
'The application of Art to Industry, and its relation to Museum 
work,' by S. E. Harrison ; ' Art Museums,' by Fitzgerald 
Falkner ; ' Material and Design in relation to Craftsmanship,' 
by Joseph Burton. The more general subjects dealt with 
were : ' The Museum and Trade,' by Thos. Midgley ; ' A Plea 
for the District Federation of Museums and Art Galleries,' by 
Robert Bateman ; ' Arrangement of an Ethnographical 
Collection,' by Ben H. Mullen ; ' Local Museums and their 
Role in National Life,' by Louis P. W. Renouf ; ' Museum and 
Art Galleries Finances,' by E. E. Lowe ; a little relief being 
given to the somewhat serious proceedings by a humorous 
paper on ' Packing and Removing a Museum of Geology and 
Antiquities in War Time,' by Thomas Sheppard. Before and 
after the meetings many members visited the Museums and 
Art Galleries for which Manchester is so famous. There was 
an informal dinner at the headquarters at the Grand Hotel on 
Wednesday evening, which was quite successful, under the 
chairmanship of Dr. W. E. Hoyle. The Lord Mayor of Man- 
chester provided tea for the members at the Town Hall each 
day. The President for next year is Sir Henry H. Howorth, 
K.C.I.E., M.P., etc., and the Hon. Secretary, Mr. W. Grant 
Murray of Swansea. At the council meeting held at the close 
of the Conference it was agreed that the Association should 
meet again next year. 

A STORY. 

There is a story of a scientific man of a somewhat peculiar 
temperament, who went to heaven. He was not at all satisfied 
with things as they were there, so he went elsewhere. Still 
dissatisfied, he gathered a few cinders together and made a 
little place for himself, and when last heard of he was frizzling 
away ' on his own.' Charlie Chaplins and Pemberton Billings 
exist in all communities, and help to cheer us. 

A SHEFFIELD EFFORT. 

At a conference of the Museums' Association held some time 
ago, two or three of the members did not quite have the 
' innings ' which they apparently considered their position and 
importance warranted, so they held a little conference ' on their 
own.' One of these became an ' editor,' another an ' Hon. 
Treasurer,' and still another read a paper and took part in 
discussions, and referred to ' future conferences ' ; thus 
amidst a ' milky way ' a discontented trio shone as stars of the 
first magnitude. The services of the Lord Mayor of Sheffield, 
and of the Chairman of the Sheffield Museums Committee were 
requisitioned, there was a ' Conference Dinner,' and papers on 

Naturalist, 



Notes and Comments. 245 

the somewhat original subjects, ' Museums and Education,' 
and ' War Museums,' were read and discussed. But as to the 
results of this Conference the daily press (except for a brief 
report in a Sheffield paper), the scientific, technical and museum 
journals, remained silent. Consequently it looked as if the 
world was not to benefit from the deUberations of these wise 
men. 

A CIRCULAR. 

But, on February 19th, we received a circular to say that 
a ' Report ' of the Conference held at Sheffield in October, 1917, 
would be ready for distribution in March, 1918, and from the 
number of copies said to have been already subscribed for, 
it was evident that each person present at the Conference 
was liable to be guilty of paper-hoarding. However, we 
read : — ' in order to decide the extent of the issue which is 
likely to be required for the British Empire and America the 
Editor would be obliged if you would kindly let him know 
before the end of February how many copies you may wish to 
take.' How our friends in America, Cape Colony, India and 
Australia were to receive their circulars and reply to them 
within 9 days, we do not know, neither can we understand 
why the Esquimaux, the Chinese and the South Sea Islanders 
should have been debarred from the Sheffield feast of wisdom 
and flow of soul. Anyway, we ran the risk of immediately 
ordering our copy, and then, with the patience of a man 
fasting in a wilderness for forty days and forty nights, only 
three times as long, we waited for the Report. We next 
received a printed form bearing the names of the Editor and 
Treasurer, dated Jjine 2yth, to the effect that the Report was 
now ready, price 2/6* and would be sent ' immediately on 
receipt of remittance.' We at once arranged an overdraft 
at our bankers, forwarded the money, and by July ist, the 
Report, in a quite ordinary wrapper, and not registered, was 
received. And on the evening of July ist, we had read, 
marked, learned and inwardly digested its contents, and yet 
live. 

THE REPORT. 

By the aid of occasional blank pages, half-page blanks, 
ample spaces between each paragraph, well-spaced lines, lists of 
towns represented, and of delegates, a reprint of ' an Abridged 
Catalogue of Loan Collections of Museum Cabinets .... and 
the conditions under which they are issued ' (presumably at 
Sheffield), letters and lists of persons who were ' unfortunately 
unable to be present,' and verbatim reports of the papers and 
the talks thereon, the Report extends to 103 pages, though in 

* A welcome surprise, as the first circular stated the price would be 
3/- after March ist. 

1938 Aug. 1. 



246 Notes and Comments. 

these days of paper shortage much paper might have been 
saved, without detracting from its value ; and we must express 
surprise that the editor considers a brown-paper cover sufficient 
as a shrine, whatever the opinion of its readers may be. 

THE ' ASSOCIATION ' (?) 

An examination of the List of Delegates shows that there 
were eighteen curators present, principally from small places 
near Sheffield, and we must admit that some of them are 
unknown to us, and rarely, if ever, had previously shown 
sufficient interest in Museum work to attend the Annual 
Conferences of the Museums' Association, even during the many 
years that the editor of the present Report was the Hon. 
Secretary of that Association. This might perhaps not be of 
much moment but, on the first page of the Report it states 
that ' A Conference of Members of the Museums Association ' 
was held. The Lord Mayor very carefully stated : ' The 
notification I have in my hand represents that this is a Conference 
of the members of the Museums' Association,' and from his 
remarks it is evident that the Chairman of the Sheffield Museum 
Committee was under the same impression. We contend that 
it was not in any way a meeting of the Museums' Association, 
any more than it was a meeting of golfers or masonic brethren. 
True, some of those present happened to be members of the 
Museums' Association, just as some happened to be golfers, and 
others masons. With the few exceptions — already explained — 
the members of the Museums' Association, although aware of 
the existence, but apparently not impressed with the importance 
of the Conference — were conspicuous by their absence. With 
about one possible exception, not a single person holding any 
position in the Museums' Association, as constituted to-day, 
was present. Nor were Curators there from any of the 
National Museums and Art Galleries in England, Wales, Ireland 
or Scotland, nor from the museums at Liverpool, Manchester, 
Norwich, Glasgow, Leicester, York, Hull, Nottingham, New- 
castle, Ipswich, Swansea, Chester, Exeter, Sunderland, Maid- 
stone, Cardiff, Brighton, Stoke, Carlisle, Worcester, Hastings, 
Aberdeen, Dundee, Perth, Rochdale, a few places mentioned at 
random, whose Curators are familiar figures at the Annual 
Conferences of the Museums' Association. 

A SUGGESTION. 

If the Sheffield meeting really was a Conference of the 
Museums' Association, it is rather surprising to find, on a neatly 
printed programme issued in connexion with the recent Con- 
ference of that Association at Manchester, the Editor of the 
Sheffield Report — naively suggesting that the Association's 
Conferences should be discontinued until after the war, and 
that its organ. The Museums Journal, be issued quarterly 

Naturalist, 



Notes and Comments. 247 

instead of monthly. Needless to say the suggestions received 
no support, but one wonders why they were made, as on page 
70 of the Sheffield report, one of the three largely responsible 
for that Conference, states ' It has been a pleasure to have the 
inspectors here, and we hope we shall have them at subsequent 
conferences.' It wotild have been so nice if the Museums' 
Association proper had ceased its work, so that the Pretender 
could have been alone in the field. No, we have not room for 
two Museums' Associations in this country, and if the best 
aims of museums and art galleries are to be served — and 
presumably these are the reasons for the existence of such an 
Association, we must put our individual feelings on one side 
and work for the common good. Everybody cannot be the 
president, or editor, or secretary, and if any particular person 
does not achieve greatness so soon as he would wish, he must 
wait patiently, and work, and greatness may possibly be thrust 
upon him. 

CONTENTS OF REPORT. 

To come to the Report itself. Mr. E. Howarth has an 
introductory paper on ' The Co-ordination of Museums with 
direct General Education ' (8 pp.), with the 'Abridged Catalogue' 
(6 pp.) already referred to ; ' Scheme for Scholars visiting the 
Salford Museums,' (5 pp.), by Ben H. Mullen, ' Report on 
School Picture Collections in Aberdeen,' (3 pp.), by Robert F. 
Martin ; ' The Workshop and the School,' (4 pp.), by Henry 
Cadness, read in the author's absence by R. F, Martin ; ' War 
Museums' (7 pp.), by H. Bolton, and 'Village War Museums' 
(4 pp.) by Robert P. Martin (is this still another member of the 
Martin family, or evidence of faulty editing ?). We have thus 
accounted for 31 pages actually occupied by the papers read 
at the Conference — the remainder come mostly under the head 
of talk. 

CONFERENCE OF DELEGATES.* 

The annual conference of Delegates of Corresponding 
Societies of the British Association was held in the Geological 
Society's rooms, Burlington House, on Thursday, July 4th. 
At the morning session Dr. F. A. Bather gave his presidential 
address entitled ' The Contribution of Local Societies to Adult 
Education.' In this Dr. Bather endeavoured to summarise 
the membership, and estimate the strength of the various scien- 
tific societies in Great Britain, show the part they were playing 
in the adult education of the country, and make suggestions for 
the further usefulness of these societies. His statistics had 
been difficult to compile and were admittedly incomplete, but 
it was demonstrated that while some centres were well provided 
for, in the way of natural history and allied science societies, 

* From Nature, July nth, pp. 376-6. 
1918 Aug. 1. 



248 Notes and Comments. 

there were many large areas which appeared not to be served 
by any societies of the kind. Discussion was invited, which 
lasted for the remainder of the morning. 

A YORKSHIRE EXPERIENCE. 

The general feeling was that, desirable as it is that every- 
thing should be done to increase the popularity and work of 
our scientific societies, the present time was inopportune, seeing 
that so many of the young and vigorous men were occupied 
with more important duties. In his reply to the discussion 
the president attached particular importance to the remarks 
made by the delegate from Hull, in reference to the excellent 
work being accomplished in Yorkshire, where there are far 
more important societies than in any other county. It was 
pointed out that, notwithstanding the elaborate and systematic 
instruction in Nature-study in the schools, and the formation 
of Nature-study societies for teachers, the result unquestion- 
ably was that there was less apparent interest taken in natural 
history by young men and women after leaving school, and 
even before the war the membership of the societies had shown 
an apparent decrease. The conference decided to endeavour 
to prepare a list of all the scientific societies in the country. 

AFFORESTATION, ETC. 

At the afternoon session Mr. Martin C. Duchesne read an 
admirable paper on ' Afforestation,' Sir Charles Bathurst and 
many of the delegates taking part in the discussion. The 
lecturer dealt at length with the urgent question of the increase 
of our home forests, and made many excellent suggestions 
towards the accomplishment of this. It was felt that the 
delegates could get the societies they represented to use their 
influence to further the growth of timber throughout the 
country, and one practical proposition was made, namely, to 
form an Arbor Day throughout the country. Such a suggeston, 
made on July 4th, was also complimentary to our American 
friends, who have had an Arbor Day for many years. A short 
note from Mr. P. Westell, who was not present, was read, the 
gist of which seemed to be that some authority should make 
grants to local museums, but how and by whom these grants 
should be made the author did not seem to know, and the 
delegates did not appear to be able to help him. On behalf 
of Mr. B. B. Woodward a ' typomap ' of the British Isles was 
exhibited, upon which naturahsts may record the distribution 
of species. This will probably be circulated among the various 
societies. More than one member commented on the fact that 
this year, when the necessity for directing attenton to the 
national value of science seemed so great, the British Association 
for the advancement of science had decided to have no general 
meeting. 

Naturalist, 



249 



CONCHOLOQICAL CLASSIFICATION, VARIATION 
AND NOMENCLATURE. 



J. W. TAYLOR, M.Sc. 

Identification. — In The Journal of Conchology (Vol. X., p. 
365), Mr. B. B. Woodward has essayed to clear up several 
doubtful conchological subjects and amongst others he has 
attempted to clarify the conception of the species of British 
Viviparce. He gives an unsatisfactory and entirely misleading 
resume of Mr. Sylvanus Hanley's observations upon the 
Linnean specimens of the genus (Ipsa Linnsei Conchylia, 1855, 
pp. 376-7) inaccurately stating that Mr. Hanley. finding the 
Linnean specimens to consist solely of Vivipara contecta, 
thereupon assumed that species to be the Linnean Helix 
vivipara, and that he had then very ingeniously attempted to 
explain away Linne's descriptive term ' imperforata,' presum- 
ably to make it fit the V. contecta which Mr. Woodward 
erroneously affirms to be the only species of Vivipara in the 
Linnean Collection. 

All this and more is quite incorrect, as Mr. Hanley gives a 
very excellent account of the species to which little exception 
can be taken. 

Some time ago, Mr. Roebuck and I were authorised by the 
Council of the Linnean Society of London to overhaul the land 
and fr»shwater shells contained in the Linnean collections in 
their possession and we found the specimens of Vivipara to be 
chiefly Vivipara vivipara (L.), and that two of them bore in 
Linne's own handwriting the significant numerals ' 603,' the 
serial number distinguishing this species {Helix vivipara) in 
the loth edition of the Systema Natiirce, and therefore are 
without doubt the true Linnean types. 

Classification. — Mr. Woodward [op. cit., p. 353), and 
again in conjunction with Mr. Kennard (Post Pliocene Non- 
Marine Mollusca of Ireland, 1918, p. 161) essays to improve 
the classification of the Hyalinice, by uniting under the genus 
Polita Held the various species which I have separated under 
the headings of Euhyalinia and Polita (Monograph, Vol. III., pp. 
18 and 67) ; but as I shall now endeavour to show, this suggested 
grouping is such an incongruous medley of species as to render 
their proposal not merely useless, but positively retrogressive 
in its influence, for it should be borne in mind that the Zonitoid 
shells are probably not monophyletic, but composed of diverse 
groups, whose history and lineage have yet to be elucidated, 
but which have arrived at a similar stage of shell degeneration, 
and therefore exhibit a superficial similarity misleading to 
those who have not closely studied the subject. 

The genus Polita is said to be especially typified by P. 
nitidula, and represents a group markedly different in numerous 

1918 Aug. 1. 



250 Conchological Classification, Variation & Nomenclature. 

respects from Hyalinia cellaria and its close allies, which I have 
classified as Etihyalinia, but which Kennard and Woodward 
propose to unite with Polita. 

The group Polita, as represented by P. nitidula, has a shell 
with a comparatively dull and waxen aspect, usually somewhat 
loosely coiled and more widely umbilicated, while Euhyalinia 
has typically a brilliantly glossy shell, usually more compactly 
coiled and with a more contracted umbilicus. 

The animal inhabitant also presents more or less constant 
differences ; in Euhyalinia the lateral furrow on the right side 
of the body is distinctly present, whereas in Polita this groove 
(which is probably a vestige of the formerly external spermatic 
channel of the ancestral form) is not perceptible, and in addition 
there are differences in the character of the pallial lobulation 
in the species of the two groups. 

Internally the differences between Polita and Euhyalinia 
are even more decisive and entirely preclude the feasibility of 
the union which Kennard and Woodward propose. 

In Euhyalinia the sexual system shows a well developed 
glandular pad, which envelops the upper part of the vagina 
and represents the digitate glands of Helix ; there is also a 
remarkable and peculiarly looped epiphallial expansion of the 
vas deferens and the penis is innervated from the right cerebral 
ganglion; while in Polita the two first characters are quite 
deficient and the penis is stated to receive its innervation from 
the pedal ganglia. 

In Euhyalinia also, the retractor of the right ommatophor 
passes between and separates the male and female organs of 
the sexual system as in the typical Helices, whereas in Polita 
as properly restricted, the retractor is quite free from the 
sexual complex as in the Xerophiloid Helices. 

In Euhyalinia too, the median teeth of the radula are smaller, 
and in some cases conspicuously smaller than the neighbouring 
laterals, which are usually tricuspid in plan, while the marginal 
teeth are typically few in number ; whereas in Polita the 
median teeth are quite as large as the adjacent laterals, which 
in this group are usually bicuspidate, while the aculeate mar- 
ginals are more numerous. 

Nomenclature. — Kennard and Woodward (Post Pliocene 
Non-Marine Mollusca of Ireland, 1918, p. iii, et seq.) are quite 
ruthless in their condemnation of Varietal nomenclature as 
adopted by those who are striving to study intensively the 
range of variation in the various species of mollusca, and need 
a full and accurate nomenclature adapted to their requirements. 
Messrs. Kennard and Woodward, however, chng to ancient 
methods, which though ample enough for the modest require- 
ments of science in former times, or for the general student of 
the present day, are quite out of harmony with the minutely 

Naturalist, 



Conchological Classification, Variation & Nomenclature. 251 

accurate and strictly precise modern methods of investigation 
and are not supported by the great leaders of scientific thought, 
for Prof. Huxley held the conviction that sooner or later we 
should possibly give up even attempting to define species and 
be compelled by stress of circumstances to adopt the principle 
of recording the varieties which cluster round definable types. 
Darwin and Wallace, our greatest authorities on Evolution, 
considered varietal differences to be of the greatest importance ; 
while Prof. E. von Martens, the famous conchologist, was of 
opinion that it was desirable that every local form well marked 
zoologically or geographically should have a distinct name ; and 
I am also quite in accord with the venerable geologist, Rev. 
Prof. Bonney, who advocates the use of varietal names in 
preference to those of specific rank for forms of doubtful status, 
such nomenclature while being expressive of the differences, 
keeps prominent the relationship of the doubtful forms, and 
remarks that the tendency to individualism evidenced by the 
leaning to specific names tends to promote a mental habit very 
fatal to real scientific progress. 

However, in the light of the unsparing condemnation of 
varietal nomenclature expressed by Kennard and Woodward, 
and their bold assertion that there is no scientific utility in 
applying names even to the culminating points of any line of 
variation, and that such action is merely wasted energy, we 
may instructively examine the Lists of British Non-Marine 
MoUusca prepared and published by those gentlemen for the 
guidance and help of collectors and other interested persons, 
which presumably only include names which in the opinion 
of the authors are worthy of attention and record, for if the 
strong condemnatory opinions they have so vigorously ex- 
pressed are consistently and honestly held, we should naturally 
expect few or no varietal names to appear in a list compiled by 
themselves and over which they had full authority and control. 
In 1903, Mr. B. B. Woodward compiled a list which, 
strange to say, comprised the names of fourteen varieties, 
chiefly slugs ; but in the new and revised edition (1914), 
prepared in collaboration with Mr. Kennard and presumably 
embodying all the fruits of the eleven years additional experi- 
ence and study, we find that instead of a decrease, there is an 
enormous increase in the number of accepted and adopted 
varieties, as more than three hundred additional names have 
been approved and included therein, including one described 
and named by Mr. Woodward himself, which appertains to 
Pisidium, a group of shells to which he has devoted considerable 
attention, the results being published in the form of a Mono- 
graph, and although this work has been and is still subjected 
to very severe criticism, and its reliability and accuracy very 
strongly impugned by competent and experienced authorities, 

1918 Aug. 1. 



252 Field Note. 

yet it undoubtedly contains much meritorious matter and adds 
considerably to our knowledge of the group ; it also demon- 
strates that the author has found that as his studies are more 
closely pursued a varietal nomenclature becomes increasingly 
desirable and there can be httle doubt that as knowledge of the 
subject accumulates, a precise varietal nomenclature will 
become increasingly imperative and helpful. It is therefore of 
some interest to learn that the able and well-known scientists 
now actively engaged upon the study, rectification and revision 
of the British Pisidia have adopted the principle of varietal 
nomenclature to distinguish noteworthy specific modifications 
in preference to the cumbrous and impracticable methods of 
treating variations advocated by Mr, Woodward. 

: o : 

A Corncrake Puzzle. — On July loth, a neighbour asked 
me to look at a strange bird that had been caught in his garden 
that afternoon. To my great surprise it was a young Corn- 
crake, about half fledged, but not quite able to fly. Its prim- 
aries and secondaries were about half in and about half out 
of the pen quills, and little bits of the black nestling down were 
interspersed among the budding upper wing coverts. It was 
apparently quite well and active, and took quick advantage 
when given its liberty to run for cover and to make the chance 
of catching it again almost an impossibility. That a young 
Corncrake should be in a garden when haymaking was pro- 
ceeding in the surrounding fields, would not occasion a moment's 
surprise, excepting that we were not aware that there were 
any Corncrakes in, or near, the village. The nearest ' craking ' 
bird this season would be quite three-quarters of a mile from 
where the young bird was caught, and on the other side of the 
river. The young bird could not have crossed the river 
excepting by a circuitous route over a bridge — which is out 
of the question. I have questioned the tenants of the adjoining 
fields and they have not heard a Corncrake this year, and it is 
quite six years since I heard one in the village. That a young 
half-fledged and flightless bird should be taken within a 
hundred yards of my house, not only caused me great surprise, 
but has been a puzzle to me ever since. Are some male Corn- 
crakes dumb ? (Judging from various conversations I have 
heard at sundry times I believe many people wish they all 
were). On the other hand it may throw a little light on an- 
other Corncrake problem. For years we have been recording 
the continual decrease of Corncrakes over very wide areas, 
and relying almost entirely on our ears for the observations — 
at least, I have. Then, as if to mock me, this young bird, 
which has undoubtedly been bred in the near neighbourhood, 
reports itself almost at my front door. — H. B. Booth, Ben 
Rhydding. 

Naturalist, 



253 
THE SPIDERS OF YORKSHIRE. 



WM. FALCONER, 
Slaithwaite, Huddersfield. 



{Continued from page igi). 

V.C. 65., has been very little worked, the few records which 
have accrued being the result of visits paid by the Yorkshire 
Naturalists' Union. 

The captures made in recent years by naturalists in the 
county have been noted from 1901 onwards, at first infrequently 
but since 1908 more commonly, in The Naturalist and the 
transactions of certain societies. For all these the bibliography 
on p. 257 should be consulted. 

Of the 579 species which are known to inhabit the British 
Isles, 320 have up to the present time been found in Yorkshire. 
Tabulating them according to different areas, the E. Riding 
(V.C. 61) has 237 ; the N. Riding 244 (V.C. 62-243, V.C. 65-67) 
and the W. i Riding 274 (V.C. 63-240, V.C. 64-234). Much, 
however, still lemains to be done before the total spider popu- 
lation of the county and its distribution can be ascertained. A 
great deal of its area (and that the most promising) is still in 
an arachnological sense virgin ground. Its large size, diversi- 
fied surface, varied geological formation, extensive wild uncul- 
tivated districts and heather clad tracts, woods, commons and 
long seacoast present a vast variety of habitats, ranging from 
high hills to the sea level, each contributing its quota ol 
forms peculiar to itself, so that search anywhere, especially 
on the littoral and higher altitudes, would probably result in 
additions to the present list, some possibly new even to science 
or to Britain. The best results, however, are to be obtained 
in one's own neighbourhood, familiarity with the surface 
features of a district being an essential element of success by 
directing the attention to those special circumstances of envir- 
onment, in which alone so many of our spiders can be found. 

It has already been seen that the number of rarities in the 
county is very large, and at the time of their capture the 
following were : — 

(i) New to Science and still peculiar to Yorkshire — Clubiona 
facilis Camb. (F. Rhodes) ; Maro mimttus Camb., M. humicola 
Falcr. 

(2) New to Science — Micrypkantes beatiis Camb.. Maro falconerii 
Jacks., Eboria caliginosa Falcr. 

(3) New to the British Isles — Erigone spinosa Camb. (T. 
Stainforth), Hypselistes florens Camb., Notioscopus sarcinatus 
Camb. (J. W. H. Harrison), Gongylidiellum paganum Sim., 
Diplocephalus protuberans Camb., 5- 

(4) Unnamed and Undescribed — Oreontides firmus Camb. (taken 
about same time in Northumberland), Diplocentria rivalis 
Camb. (some months before in Staffordshire), by Dr. Jackson. 

(5) Unrecorded as British — Tapinocyba insecta L. Koch (pre- 
viously taken in Northumberland by Dr. Jackson). 

1918 Aug. 1. 



254 Falconer : The Spiders of Yorkshire. 

There are others also, which from their county or general 
scarcity or distributional range are worthy of special mention : 

V.C. 6i, 62. Entelecara thorellii Westr., Mengea warburtonii 
Camb., Xysticus erraticus Bl., Hahnia nava Bl. 

V.C. 61, 63. Theridion impressum L.K., Prosopotheca 
monoceros Wid., Tmetictts af finis Bl. 

V.C. 61, 64. Entelecara trifons CdLinh., Baryphyma pratensis 
Bl., Cercidia prominens Westr. 

V.C. 62, 63. Porrhomma egeria Sim., Wideria fugax Camb. 

V.C. 62, 64. Syedra innotahilis Camb., Coelotes terrestris 
Wid. 

V.C. 63, 64. Theridion vittaUim C.L.K., Gongylidiellum 
pagamtm Sim., Hahnia pusilla C.L.K. 

Less restricted but still few in number are Lophomma 
subaequale Westr., Typhochrestus digitatus Camb., Hillhousia 
miser a Camb., Sintula cornigera BL, Coryphceus distinctus 
Sim., Hahnia helveola Sim., Panamomops bicuspis Camb. 

The arrangement and nomenclature of the families and 
genera here adopted are mainly those of Simon's ' Histoire 
Naturelle des Araignees,' 2nd edition. For the synonymy of 
the various species reference may be made to the Rev. 0. 
Pickard Cambridge's ' List of British and Irish Spiders,' 
November, 1900, any departure from it being noted in the 
text, so that any spider may be readily traced. With the ex- 
ception of eleven, which, however, rest on fully recognized 
authority, I have either collected or seen examples of all the 
Yorkshire species, but in a matter of this kind, accuracy being 
absolutely essential, I have not always relied on my own 
knowledge and acumen, but when occasion arose, submitted 
specimens for attestation or confirmation, and, in my novitiate, 
for identification, to the Rev. O. Pickard Cambridge and Dr. 
Jackson, to whom my very best thanks are therefore due, as 
well as to the following for authenticated records or collections 
or both : Messrs. Stainforth and Parsons, Hull ; W. P. Winter, 
vShipley ; G. B. Walsh, Linthorpe ; J. W. H. Harrison, Middles- 
borough ; Rev. R. A. Taylor, now of Burnley ; S. Margerison ; 
and to the Right Hon. the Earl of Dartmouth, J. J. Burton 
Esq., Nunthorpe, Sir. J. M. Spencer-Stanhope, Cannon Hall, 
for access, freely granted, to woods owned by them in various 
parts of the county. 

BIBLIOGRAPHY 

OF BOOKS AND PAPERS CONTAINING REFERENCES TO 
YORKSHIRE SPIDERS: — 
J. Blackwall. 

1861-4. — The Spiders of Britain and Ireland. Ray Society, 2 vols. ; 
273 species, figures and descriptions. 
Rev. O. Pickard Cambridge. 

1879-82. — The Spiders of Dorset, with Descriptions of other Species 

Naturalist, 



Falconer : The Spiders of Yorkshire. 255 

not found in that County. Proc. Dorset Field Club, 2 vols. ; 

518 species, figures few. 
1900. — List of British and Irish Spiders (pubUshed for the author). 
1902-1914. — On New and Rare British Arachnida. Proc. Dorset 

Field Club— Vol. XXIII., 1902 ; Vol. XXIV., 1903 ; Vol. 

XXVI., 1905; Vol. XXVII., 1906; Vol. XXVIII., 1907; 

Vol. XXIX., 1908 ; Vol. XXX., 1909 ; Vol. XXXI. 1910 ; 

Vol. XXXV., 1914. 
1907. — Victoria County History of Yorkshire, Vol. I., pp. 286-293 ; 

Section Arachnida, 221 species. 
1908. — Erigone spinosa Camb. at Saltend Common, Hull. The 

Naturalist, pp. 378-9. 

Dr. a. Randell Jackson. 

1905. — The Genus Tapinocyba. Trans. Nat. Hist. Sac. of Northum- 
berland Durham and Newcastle-upon-Tyne (New Series), 

Vol. I., Part 2, plates and descriptions. 
1912. — On British Spiders of the Genus Microneta. Ibid. (New Series). 

Vol. IV., Ap., pp. 1 17-142 ; plates. 
1 91 3. — On some New and Obscure British Spiders and Genus 

Porrhomma. Trans, of Notts. Nat. Soc. for 1911-12 ; plates, 2 ; 

figures, 34. 
1916. — On the Nomenclature and Identity of some little-known 

British Spiders Ann. and Mag. N.H. (Series 8), Vol. XVII., 

Feb., pp. 163-17 1. 

W. Falconer. 

1901. — Caledonia evansii Camb. in England. Science Gossip (New 

Series), Oct. and Nov. 
1901. — Tigellinus fiircillatus Menge in the Wessenden Valley, S.W. 

Yorks. The Naturalist, September. 
1905-1910. — Papers on the Arachnida of the N.E. Coast of Yorkshire. 

The Naturalist, 1905 (Feb.) ; 1906 (Jan.) ; 1910 (Jan. and Dec). 
1908. — Diplocephalus beckii Camb. near Huddersfield. The Naturalist, 

April. 
1909. — Cornicularia kochii Camb. : With a Key to the British Corni- 

culariae. The Naturalist, August (pp. 295-8) and September 

(pp. 332-3) ; plate and figures in text. 
In the Arachnida of the following places ( The Naturalist) : — 

1909. — Cawthorn, November. 

1910. — Upper Teesdale, July; Malham, September. 

1911. — Harewood, June; Meltham, October. 

1912. — Riccal, June ; Tanfield, August. 

191 3. — Roche Abbey, May. 

1914. — Knaresborough, June. 

191 5. — Bishop "Wood, September ; Hebden Bridge, September ; 
Sawley, November. 
1916. — Bolton Woods, September. 
1910. — A New Genus and Species of Spider {Eboria caliginosa). The 

Naturalist, Feb., pp. 83-8 ; plate. 
1910. — Note on Eboria caliginosa Falcr. : Stridulating Apparatus, etc. 

The Naturalist, July, pp. 293-4. 
1910. — Agroeca celans Bl., a Spider new to Yorkshire, and Pachygnatha 

listevi Sund. in Yorkshire. The Naturalist, March. 
1910. — Abnormality in Spiders. The Naturalist, May, pp. 199-203, 

and June, pp. 229-232 : Figs, in text. 
1910. Keys to the Families and Genera of British Spiders and to the 

Families, Genera and Species of British Harvestmen and 

Pseudoscorpions, The Naturalist, June, September and Decem- 
ber. Afterwards revised, indexed and issued in book form, 

February, 191 i. 

1918 Aug. 1. 



256 Falconer : The Spiders of Yorkshire. 

1911-1918. In Annual Reports on Yorkshire Arachnida The 
Naturalist, January — 191 1, 1912, 1913, 1914, 1915, 1916, 1917. 

191 1. New and Rare Yorkshire Spiders, The Naturalist, August, 
pp. 283-8, figs, in text. 

1912. Yorkshire Arachnida in 191 1, The Naturalist, February, pp. 

52-4- 

1913. On the Origin of the Yorkshire Araneidal Fauna, The Naturalist, 
February, pp. 111-114 ; and March, pp. 131-8. 

1914. Yorkshire Arachnida in 1912-13, The Naturalist, March, pp. 
84-89. 

1916. Foreign Spiders in Yorkshire, The Naturalist, Nov., pp. 350-1. 
R. Gilchrist. 

1906. New Yorkshire Spider Records, The Naturalist, June, p. 200. 
T. Stainforth. 

1908. Arachnida of Yorkshire Naturalists' Union Excursion to Horn- 
sea Mere, The Naturalist, p. 307. 
1908. Notes on Erigone spinosa Camb. from Saltend Common, Hull, 
The Naturalist, October, p. 385. 

1908. A Preliminary List of the Spiders of the East Riding, Trans. 
Hull Sci. and F. Nat. Club, Vol .IV., part i (93 species). 

1909. Spiders, etc., of the East Riding, Hull Museum Publications, 
No. 59 (177 species). 

1911. Notes on some Scarborough Arachnida, Trans. Hull Sci. and 
F. Nat. Club, Vol. IV., part 3, p. 146. 

1915. In The Guests of Yorkshire Ants, The Naturalist, December. 

1916. Distribution of Spiders in the East Riding, The Naturalist, 
September and December. 

H. C. Drake. 

1908. Spiders New to the Scarborough District, The Naturalist, 
August, p. 299. 

E. A. Parsons and T. Stainforth. 

1909. Notes on East Riding Spiders in 1909, The Naturalist, Dec, 
pp. 438-440. 

191 1. Additions to the List of East Riding Spiders, Trans. Hull Sci. 
and F. Nat. Club, Vol. IV., part 3, pp. 162-5. 
E. A. Parsons. 

1910. List of East Yorkshire Spiders, Harvestmen and Pseudo- 
scorpions collected during 1909 (89 species). Trans. Hull 
Junior F. Nat. Soc, pp. 18-22. 

W. P. Winter. 

1909. Spiders of the Bradford Area, Bradford Scientific Journal, April. 

1911. Spiders of the Airedale and Wharf edale Area, The Naturalist, 
January, pp. 70-74 ; also 191 2, February, p. 54. 

1912. In The Arachnida of Tebay, The Naturalist, October. 

1915. In The Arachnida of Sawley, The Naturalist, July ; also Settle, 
September. 
Dr. J. W. H. Harrison. 

1909. Spiders of the Middlesbrough District, Alag. of the Middles- 
brough High School, April and December. 

1910. Paper with same Title, Trans. Cleveland Nat. Hist. Soc, 
pp. 224-240 (Plate). 

1914. Cleveland Spiders. The Naturalist, August, pp. 24.5-8. 

1915. New and Rare Yorkshire Spiders, The Naturalist, January, 
pp. 26-7. 

Rev. J. E. Hull. 

1910. Papers on Spiders : I. — The Genus Tmeticus and some Allied 
Genera ; II. — Some Northern Records for 1909 (Plate), Trans. 
Nat. Hist. Soc. of Northumberland, Durham and Newcastle- 
upon-Tyne, New Series, Vol. III., part 3, pp. 573-590. 

Naturalist, 



Falconer : The Spiders of Yorkshire. 257 

In many cases in the following list the absence or paucity 
of records will probably be found to be due to the areas in 
quest on having been imperfectly investigated. As some 
indication of the wealth or poverty of the county's araneidal 
fauna, the numbers placed after the names of families and 
genera {e.g., Fam. Drassidce, 7-22; genus Drassus, 4-8), denote 
the proportion of Yorkshire to British species. All entries 
other than my own, except where necessary, are distinguished 
by the collector's initials, or their source indicated, the abbrevia- 
tions employed being : — 

E.B.=Mr. Bilton. E.A.P. = Mr. Parsons. 

F.B.=Mr. Booth. P.P. = Mr. Perry. 

J.A.B. = Mr. J. A. Butterfield. F.R. = Mr. Rhodes. 

R.B. =Mr. Rosse Butterfield. T.S. =Mr. Stainforth. 

W.R.B. = Mr. W. R. Butterfield. T.St. = Mr. Stringer. 

C. = Dr.Corbett. R.A.T. = Rev. R. A. Taylor. 

H.V.C. = Mr. H. V. Corbett. G.B.W.=Mr. Walsh. 

H.C.D. = Mr. Drake. W.E.L.W.=Mr. Wattam. 

J.F. = Dr. Fordham. W.P.W.=Mr. Winter. 

F. = Mr. H. E. Forrest. S.G.B.I.=Spiders of Great 

H.M.F. =Mr. Foster. Britain and Ireland. 

R.G.=Mr. Gilchrist. H.M.P. = Hull Museum Publi- 

J.G.= Mr. Greenwood. cations. 

J.W.H. = Mr. Harrison. V.C.H. = Victoria County His- 

C.H.=Mr. Hastings. tory of Yorkshire. 

S.M. = Mr. Margerison. V.C. = Watsonian Vice 

R.H.M. = Dr. Meade. County. 

CM. Mr. Mosley. Y.N.U. = Union meeting at the 

G.H.O. = Dr. Oliver. particular place mentioned. 

ITo be continued) 



The Bempton Peregrines. — On May 13th, when climbing 
commenced at Bempton, the Peregrine Falcons had two eggs 
in the old eyrie. John Hodgson, who went down to look at 
them, reports that they looked old and dirty. There was no 
more climbing at that end of the cliffs and when the eyrie was 
again looked at on 24th June the young had flown. Whether 
both got safely away it is impossible to say, as the climbers 
purposely left the place absolutely quiet, and their ordinary 
climbing did not extend beyond Hartley Shoot. — E. W. Wade. 

Mason Bee at Whitby.— During early June I frequently 
noticed a specimen of this bee in my garden, and later in the 
month found a cluster of mud cells built between the window 
frame and sash of a room, the window of which facing south, 
having been left slightly open. There were 25 or 30 cells in 
two layers all closely sealed, and each containing a ball of 
honey and pollen, on the top of which a small grub attached 
by its posterior claspers was feeding. Being obliged to remove 
the colony they were placed on a wa^l under a plant pot, but 
enemies were evidently attracted, perhaps by the strong odour 
of the honey, and have prevented any further observation. — 
J. T. Sewell. Whitby, July 6th, igi8. 

1918 Aug. I. 



258 

NOTES ON THE NESTING, SINGING AND SOME 

OTHER HABITS OF THE COMMON WILD BIRDS 

OF THE SCARBOROUGH DISTRICT. 

W. GYNGELL. 



What is here called the Scarborough district is included within a twelve- 
mile radius of the town. It embraces heather-covered moors with their 
slopes clothed with furze or bracken, more barren or cultivated chalk 
hills, wooded ravines and lowland woods of deciduous or fir trees, corn 
and grass fields, lanes bordered with brambles and coarse herbage, peaty 
carrs, rugged cliffs, rapid running moorland streams and — within the 
Borough — a mere of several acres. 

It would be difficult to find a patch of land of equal size elsewhere in 
Britain providing suitable breeding haunts for so many kinds of birds. 
It is noteworthy too that several species here reach the eastern boundary 
of their breeding haunts in Britain. 

Within the Borough boundaries are provided suitable nesting haunts 
for field, woodland, hedge-row and garden-loving birds, as well as those 
resorting to cliffs, tall buildings and reedy ineres, whilst the protection 
afforded by town restrictions upon shooting adds very materially to the 
safety of any species taking up a town residence here. The wooded 
Olivers Mount, the Spa Grounds, the Cemetery, the Castle Cliff, the 
recently extended Mere, together with grass and corn fields that are within 
the urban district are annually resorted to for nesting purposes by more 
tlian fifty different species of wild birds (these are indicated by an asterisk 
before the name of each). Whilst another dozen species might be added 
as occasionally nesting in this circumscribed area. 

The following notes, each written down when the observation was made, 
are now put together after twenty-nine years' residence in the borough, 
the writer having previously resided and made bird notes for some years 
in the County of Somerset. Summer holidays spent in south-eastern and 
northern Britain have also helped him to compare the Avifauna of this 
neighbourhood with that of Britain taken generally. A note of every 
bird's egg found froin the year 187 1 to the present date has been made 
at the time of finding. 

Even in a long experience it is not easy to make many really unusual 
observations. The anatomy, morphology and physiolog}' of the house 
sparrow or the herring-gull may be found in any really good book on 
birds, but such records as the weight of a sparrow's egg or the date when 
the Chaffinch ceases its summer song have been rarely if ever noted. 
Such notes have a very bald look when appearing in print and rather 
give the impression that their author is a ' soulless ' sort of person. I 
hope it is not so. Only the commoner species of birds are here dealt 
with. The full and complete local avifauna, including accounts of the 
rarer species and accidental visitors may be found in that magnificent 
work Nelson's ' Birds of Yorkshire.' 

*The Mistletoe Thrush ( Turdus viscivorus L.). By some people locally 
called ' Mistletoe,' and by them and others often confounded with the 
fieldfare when seen in the spring and autumn migratory flocks. This is 
a very common bird in our town and district throughout the year. 

Tyrannous here, as elsewhere in spring, it drives crows, jackdaws and 
other birds larger than itself from its ' claim,' whilst in autumn a single 
bird will sometimes take possession of a garden rowan or service tree until 
it has been entirely stripped of its red berries in which probably no other 
bird has been allowed any share. 

Commencing to sing almost immediately the days begin to lengthen 
{ I have actually heard it on December 21st), its loud song may be heard 

Naturalist, 



Common Wild Birds of the Scarborough Dixtrict. 259 

daily until May -3tli, when it ceases, not to be resumed again until scnne 
bright mid- winter day. 

The large nest, usually of grass and perhaps some moss, I have found 
on occasion to contain many other substances, the full list being as follows ; 
grass, dead or green, moss, lichen, bark, sticks, leaves, dead or living, 
roots, wool, feathers, scraps of newspaper, string and rags. Almost 
invariably placed in the strong fork of a fair-sized tree, the height varying 
from four to forty feet I have also found it, but very rarely, in a hedge. 
April 5th is my earliest date for finding eggs. Four is the number found 
in 78% of the nests examined after the bird had commenced sitting. The 
other Z2% of nests contained Jive eggs. I have never found one containing 
more. In 28% of Song-thrush's nests and 37% of the Blackbird's nests 
examined the number of eggs has been five. The average weight of an 
egg of this bird is -31 oz. 

I have observed that in spring time the Mistletoe-thrush is more 
addicted to flying about in pairs than is any other member of the thrush 
tribe. 

All who have studied any wild animals must have noticed how different 
even xmder the same circumstances may be the behaviour of members of 
the same species ; and here are two cases. A Mistle-thrush sitting upon 
her nest on a broken spruce-fir branch allowed me to climb the tree and 
stroke her back with my hand before she left the nest. Another bird, 
whose nest contained but two eggs, flew at me again and again most 
menacingly when I approached her possessions. 

*The Song Thrush (Turdiis m-iisicus L.). Known to the natives here 
as the throstle, is resident and common enough nearly all through the 
year, although there are times when this and some other resident birds 
may be sought in vain. In the winter months, when it is less common 
than the blackbird, the Song Thrush leaves the woods and seeks more 
open country, occasionally feeding upon haws. Individual birds of this 
species may on rare occasions be heard singing on any mild autumn or 
winter's day. As spring approaches the number of singing birds steadily 
increases, but few may be heard after the end of June. A very free 
singer its voice may be heard from 2-9 a.m. until 9-30 p.m., often 
after stars have begun to shine. In early summer days, on bush or tall 
tree tops. Once I saw one singing on the roof of a tall town house. The 
Song Thrush uses a greater variety of nest materials than any bird that 
I know. Here is a list of them : grass in abundance ; and in less quantity, 
moss, twigs, dead fern, dead herbage, ivy stems, rushes, wool, strips of 
bark,* roots, dead leaves, straw, string and feathers. Inside, the smooth, 
basin-like hollow is usually lined with rotten wood. The four eggs that 
usually make a clutch weigh together a trifle under one ounce, actually 
•94 oz. Rarely much concealed, the nest, usually placed in a hedge, bush 
or low tree, may not infrequently be found on a rock ledge in cliff or 
quarry. I have seen one in a garden tool-shed. Another that I found in 
a spruce fir, was so badly placed that all but one of the callow young had 
fallen out and died. I cannot really say that of the several hundred nests 
that I have observed any one of them was actually on the ground ; the 
only doubtful case was one found in a wood and this mav have been placed 
there by wood cutters who, working near, had disturbed and placed it on 
the level for safety. Eighteen feet above ground in a tree is the greatest 
height at which I have found one built. The Song Thrush moves on the 
ground by hopping and running. Often one movement is alternated with 
the other. 

The Redwing [Turdns iliacus). Locally called the felfer or small 
felfer. This bird is only known here as a winter visitor and just as the 
winter of 1906-7 was the severest that I have known here, so it was also 
our biggest redwing winter. Hundreds must have died in the town alone, 
and thousands in the immediate neighbourhood. They were in every 
garden and they haunted the harbour here and also at Bridlington, feeding 

1918 Aug. 1, 



26o Common Wild Birds of the Scarborough District. 

on the refuse of fishermens' bait. 'As weak as a winnel ' (it's West Country 
local name) is an old Somerset saying, and the bird seems to lack the 
power of accommodating itself to circumstances and is quite unable to 
dig out snails from a snowed up hedgerow as the Song Thrush can. When 
the severe weather breaks, all the birds that have survived disappear, and 
I have never known them to remain later than March igth. 

The Fieldfare (Turdus pilaris L.). The ' felfer ' and the 'blue-tail' 
of the natives sometimes turns up in autumn as early as September 20th, 
and sometimes remains in large or small chattering flocks until May loth, 
when I once saw as many as a hundred together. They haunt the fields 
in scattered flocks or feed on berries in woods and hedges, but like the 
redwings they always seem to be aliens, and v^^e never know them as we do 
our blackbirds and thrushes and that is why this is so short a paragraph. 

*The Blackbird {Turdus merula L.). Resident and abundant through- 
out the year. In the autumn their numbers are greatly increased by 
immigration, the new arrivals haunting low bushes on the sea cliffs for 
some days before spreading inland. At such times cock birds seem to 
predominate. Here the blackbird does not commence its spring song so 
early as either the Song or Mistle-thrush. Only once have I heard it in 
January and that was on the thirty-first of the month. But in April, 
May and June, its rich voice is more noticeable than the throstles. The 
song is sung with many pauses and in the slowest of bird time. It may be 
heard in early summer from 2-15 a.m. till 9 p.m. It becomes silent by 
about July 13th. 

The Blackbird's nest is usually placed low down in hedges, banks, 
bushes and on tree trunks, sometimes quite on the level, though occasionally 
as much as twenty-five feet above ground in a tree. Occasionally in 
cow-sheds, often on a heap of sticks and sometimes stuffed into a tree 
hole open to the sky. The materials used, most frequently grass, include 
also green and dead herbage, roots, moss, straw, twigs, strips of bark, 
fern, feathers, wool and paper, the nest walls being lined with mud. I 
have not found eggs in the nest before April nth, nor after July 12th. 
Usually only four eggs are laid — 63%, and in my experience never more 
than five — 37%. Almost always characteristically speckled, on very 
rare occasions I have found all four eggs in a nest practically spotless. 
In weight they about equal those of the Song Thrush. One of the most 
abnormally large wild bird's eggs that I have seen is a blackbird's, now 
before me. Howard Saunders says: 'average measurements i-i by 
•85 in. This egg, one of a clutch of five, measures 1-35 by i in., exactly 
equal to the above-named author's average measurements for a magpie's 

egg- 
As fond of worms as the Thrush is of snails, it is no friend of the gar- 
dener in strawberry time. In autumn it may be seen feeding on rowan 
and other wild berries, but in severe weather it is not dainty and will 
pick undigested grain from horse-dung. That it hunts the ground very 
closely may be proved by my finding one caught in a game-keeper's trap 
set under stones for weazels, etc. 

The blackbird's alarm note is very aggressive, i.e., ' kick, kick, kick, 
kick,' or ' chuck it, chuck it, chuck it,' and often betrays the presence of 
an owl abroad in the daylight whilst at roosting time it makes more 
noise than all the other birds in the wood put together. 

The Ring-Ousel [Turdus torquatus L.). Sparingly distributed over the 
wilder parts of the moors this is not a common bird, even in its favoured 
haunts here or indeed anywhere in Britain. Here it reaches the most 
easterly portion of its range, but is confined to the North Riding portion 
of our district. Its earliest recorded arrival in our neighbourhood is 
April 8th, and it has been known to remain until October ist. The nest, 
like the Blackbird's, but without the mud lining and consequently less 
substantial, is usually placed in the bank of a stream or dry ditch well out 
on the open moors, although I have found it in a rowan tree 10 feet up. 

Naturalist, 



Common Wild Birds of the Scarborough District. 261 

I have not found more than 4 eggs in the nest which in this district has 
been known to contain young birds as early as May 6th. Although not in 
any sense gregerious in the breeding season I have found two pairs nesting 
within fifty yards of each other with four eggs in each nest. 

The Wheatear {Saxicola oenanthe L.). Never arriving here before the 
i:wenty-first of March, it has not been known to remain later than October 
i6th. Nowhere abundant it is most noticeable about rabbit warrens, 
small and large, on sandy soil where it usuallj^ nests in the small or 
' blind ' burrows, but when the young are well fledged and quite able to 
fly they often retire into any of these dug-outs when alarmed. The nest 
is made of grass, roots, herbage-stems, wool, hair and feathers. The eggs 
which are the palest of pale blue, weigh from -i to -12 oz. May 13th is the 
earliest date on which I have found them. 

*The Whin-chat {Pratincola rubetra L.). Locally called the grass-chat, 
comes into summer residence in our district in varying numbers annually 
and remains with us from April i8th till September 19th. The song, 
somewhat like the robin's in style, but rather quicker, may be heard at 
midsummer from 3-12 a.m. till 8-45 p.m. After July it says nothing but 
' U Tick,' very aggressively if you approach its now fledged young. It 
sings usually whilst perched on the top of a fence of hedge, but I have 
seen it singing on the top of a 40-foot ash tree. Its nest, composed of 
grass stems, herbage, hair and moss is not usually difficult to find on 
road-side banks, in meadows or on furze covered hill sides but never with 
eggs before May 28th. Usually six eggs are laid, varying much in the 
depth of their bright green ground colour ; some being practically spotless 
and others well covered with markings. Six eggs is the usual number, 
each weighing about -06 oz. 

The Stone-chat {Pratincola rnbicola L.). This bird is very scarce, of 
local distribution, and as likely to be seen in winter as in summer. Odd 
pairs nest occasionally on the Moors and more regularly on the cliffs 
between Filey and Speeton. One of the most difficult of bird's nests to 
find, those that I have examined have been composed of dead grass, moss, 
fine roots and hair. 

*The Redstart {Ruticilla phoenicurus L.). Locally called the ' firetail,' 
a common, well distributed and very beautiful bird, to be seen from April 
1st to September 20th in woods and about gardens throughout the district. 
It commences to sing on arrival and at Midsummer may be heard at 2-10 
a.m., but it is silent except for its call note after June 24th. Nests with 
eggs may be found as early as May 7th, the materials used being moss, 
dead grass, leaves and feathers. Any hole of suitable size is adopted, 
in tree or wall, it may be close to the ground or 15 feet above it. This bird 
lays more eggs than any other bird of the family turdince, seven in a nest 
being quite a common number. Weighing from -05 to -07 oz., they are 
usually unicolorous pale blue, but, although this has been disputed, I 
know from personal experience that all the eggs in a full clutch are oc- 
casionally faintly but regularly spotted. 

{To he continued). 



In The Quarry for July, Dr. J. Scott Haldane writes on ' The Effects 
of Dust Inhalation.' 

In addition to the usual reviews of recent Progress in Science, Science 
Progress for July contains the following papers, among others : ' Some 
Aspects of Animal Colouration from the Point of View of Colour Vision,' 
by J. C. Mottram and F. W. Edridge Green ; ' The Food Requirements 
of a " Normal " Working-Class Family,' by Sir Henry Thompson ; and 
' Science and Industry," by Prof. R. A. Gregory. 

1918 Aug. 1. 



262 

DONCASTER NATURAL HISTORY NOTES FOR 1917. 

The following is a summary of the records made in the Doncaster 
District by the members of the Doncaster Scientific Society, during 1917. 

Birds. — There was a marked diminution in number in many species 
owing to the severe and prolonged winter of 1916-1917. All the Turdidae, 
with perhaps the exception of the Missel Thrush, were greatly decreased. 
The summer migrants were few in number with the exception of the House 
Martins, these were more abundant than usual. Starlings were greatly 
reduced, but perhaps the most marked case was with the Winter Thrushes, 
Redwings and Fieldfares ; the former were far from common, and the 
latter almost completely absent. 

CoNCHOLOGY. — Mr. Moat has discovered an extraordinary abundance 
of the larger Helices near Blaxton. This is a district of peat, sand and 
gravel ; the class of soil on which shelled molluscs are usually rare. But 
here they were found literally in thousands. The species included Arianta 
arhiistorum, abundant, fine and varied, including one specimen of a pale 
colour intermediate between v. flavescens and v. albina ; Helix aspersa, 
fine, but not much varied ; Cepcsa nemoralis in great profusion, their 
colour and banding is much varied and some are of a remarkably large 
size ; among them is a very fine specimen of v. conica ; C. hortensis, also 
in abundance and great variety, the v. liitea without bands being the 
commonest ; Theba cantiana, very abundant. Four species have been 
found in the district that are new to our local lists, namely, Hygroniia 
granidata at Wadworth, Jaminia niuscorum at Little Smeaton, Segmentina 
nitida at Askern, and Vivipara coniecta near Blaxton and Bentley. 

Lepidoptera. — -The most interesting facts noted were the great 
abundance of many species usually rare or absent here. Among these 
Vanessa io, Sphinx convolvuli and Pygcera biicephala were specially 
abundant. Other species taken include Argynnis cydippe at Martin Beck, 
Satynis (ggevia at Brock-o-dale, S. hyperantus at Martin Beck, Manduca 
atropos at Doncaster, Chcprocampa elpenor (larva;) feeding on Goodetia at 
Doncaster, Zeuzera pyrini at Doncaster, Amphydasis strataria in Wheatley 
and Wadworth Woods, Cymatoplwva dtiplaris, Stigmonota nitidana and 
Choreutes scintillunana, all at Martin Beck. 

CoLEOPTERA. — The following sj)ecies among others have been taken : — 
Ips ^-guttata in Wheatley Wood, new to v.c. 63 ; Cryptocephaliis pusillus 
at Martin Beck, new to Yorkshire ; Tacyphloeus olivieri and Orthochcstes 
setiger at Little Smeaton, both new to v.c. 63 ; and Malthinus frontalis, 
new to v.c. 63, at Martin Beck. 

Hymenoptera. — The following species have been collected, all of them 
new to the county list: — Tenthredopsis inornata, Martin Beck; Ten- 
thredella colon, Wheatley Wood ; Pferomts oligospitus, Rossington ; 
Rhodogaster viridis. Martin Beck and Edlington Wood ; Bethylus 
cephalotes, Little Smeaton ; and Ichneumon gracilentus, Wheatley Wood. 

Odonata. — Sympetrum striolatuni. West Moor ; Libelhtla 4-maculata, 
Martin Beck ; Aeschna juncea, Doncaster ; and Lestes sponsa, Martin 
Beck. 

Hemiptera. — Among those that have been diagnosed are Acanihosoma 
dentatmn, Wheatley Wood ; A. interstinciiim, Martin Beck and Wheatley 
Wood ; Scoloposthetus affinis, Wheatley Wood ; Lopiis goihicus, Martin 
Beck ; Phytocoris longipennis and Ph. pini, Wheatley Wood ; Ph. populi, 
Cyllocoris histvionicus, Meconima ambulans and Psallus betuleti, Martin 
Beck ; Ps. ambiguus and Ps. falleni, Wheatley Wood. 

Microscopy. — Special attention has been paid to the Diatoms of 
Martin Beck. So far 106 spp. and vars. have been found, 23 of which are 
not included in ' West's Alga Flora of Yorkshire,' and 40 have not been 
recorded for v.c. 63. No fewer than 37 sp. and vars. of the genus Navicula 
were found, of which the more notable were Navicula americana, a very 
rare diatom, new to Yorkshire if not to England. The two specimens 

Naturalist, 



Reviezvs and Book Notices. 263 

found differ very slightly from the type form, described and figured by 
Van Heurck, the margin of the valves being parallel, instead of having a 
median constriction. In other details they are true to the type, though 
somewhat shorter. Navicula alpina, the only diatom in West's book 
endorsed raye. As its specific name implies it is usually found at a much 
greater altitude than Martin Beck, which is only about 100 ft. above 
sea-level. Navicula (sp. nov.) ; this is not given in Van Heurck's 
Diatomacese, nor in Clue's Nat. Diat. It is, however, in Schmidt's Atlas 
43/24, without a name, although the stauras (central vacant space) is 
there shown slightly more distinctly than in Mr. M. H. Stiles' photograph 
of it. This species will shortly be described in The Naturalist. Navicula 
pusilla, a very beautiful diatom not previously recorded for v.c. 63. Only 
specimen was met with — a complete frustule, the upper valve of which one 
is slightly broken, though the lower is perfect. The genus Eunotia is 
represented by 15 spp., next to Navicula the most numerous. 

H. H. CoRBETT Hon. Sec. 



Tommy Smith at the Zoo, by Edmund Selous. London : Methuen 
& Co., 183 pp., price 2/3 net. "This book is by our contributor, who is 
the author of ' Tommy Smith's Animals ' and ' Tommy Smith's Other 
Animals,' each of which has been published in several editions. It is 
written in a happy conversational style, and deals with the lion, bear, 
boar, kangaroo, elephant, orang-outang, penguin and ostrich. It is well 
illustrated, and the book is likely to be as popular as its predecessors. 

Glossary and Notes on Vertebrate Palaeontology,* by S. A. Pelly. 
London: Methuen & Co., 113 pp., Sh riet. During frequent visits to the 
Natural History Museum, South Kensington, the author made notes on 
the names of the various vertebrate remains there exhibited ; these he 
extended by the aid of well-known text books, and the present volume is 
the result. It contains about 700 scientific names of vertebrates, with 
details of their origin and notes on the species described, and their geological 
history. The notes have apparently been carefully compiled and will 
doubtless be of great service to the visitors to the Natural History Museum, 
to whom the names attached to the fossils are often anything but in- 
telligible. The glossary will also prove valuable to the student of geology. 
So far as we have tested the glossary we have found it quite good and re- 
liable. 

The Herring : its Effect on the History of Britain, by Arthur Michael 
Samuel. London : John IMurray, 200 pp., 10/6 net. We learn from 
the publisher's announcement that ' This is not a Natural History book, 
or a treatise on the Herring trade. It tells the story of an ancient industry 
over a period of a thousand years. In the early jNIiddle Ages the Herring 
created the wealth of the Hansa League, and, later, of the Dutch ; it was 
for centuries the pivot of trade in Northern Europe. Out of the Dutch 
Herring Fishing Fleet grew their mercantile marine, to be superseded by 
ours in and after Cromwell's days. This was followed by the development 
of the British Colonial Empire and the expansion of our sea-carrying trade. 
The book deals with the 17th Century disputes around the Herring Fishery 
and the Dominion of the Seas, and endeavours to throw light on what 
Germany means by the phrase " The Freedom of the Seas." It contains 
a number of curious and forgotten recipes for cooking the Herring.' The 
author, at one time Lord Mayor of Norwich, has done his work thoroughly, 
and makes an interesting contribution to British economical history. 
The volume is well illustrated by reproductions of medals and old prints, 
and there is a good Bibliography. There is naturally a strong Norwich 
flavour to the work. 

* ' Faleontology ' on the wrapper. 
1918 Aug, \. 



264 

YORKSHIRE NATURALISTS AT MARKET WEIQHTON. 

Quite a representative gathering of members of the Union assembled 
at Market Weighton on Saturday, 15th June. Owing to the restricted 
train service the time at the visitors' disposal was curtailed and only a 
limited area was traversed. Under the guidance of Mr. J. F. Robinson 
the botanical party proceeded to the old Canal and spent their time in 
an examination of the flora of a portion of this disused waterway, the return 
journey being made over the cultivated Common. The geologists, led 
by Mr. J. W. Stather, explored the Goodmanham Valley, and walked 
over the Wolds to Arras and Hesslekew, returning by the Beverley Road. 
At the meeting held at the close of the Excursion, Mr. Thomas Sheppard, 
M.Sc, presiding, thanks were accorded to Mr. Stather for making the 
local arrangements. It was also resolved that a vote of condolence 
be sent to Dr. H. H. Corbett in the loss he had sustained by the death 
of Mrs. Corbett. W.E.L.W. 

CoNCHOLOGY. — Mr. J. A. Hargreaves reports that he obtained the 
following species from the old Canal, viz., Limncea peregra, Planorbis 
carinatus, P. fontanus, P. vortex, P. albus, Physa foniinalis, Bithynia 
tentaculata, Valvata piscinalis and SphcBriimi cornenm. 

Mr. Greevz Fysher reported that varioiis localities had been examined. 
In the stagnant end of the Canal on the Selby road were found several 
Limncea auricularia var. acuta, L. peregra, one Physa foniinalis, a few 
Planorbis carinatus, one PI. spirorbis var. rotundata, one Valvata piscinalis, 
Bithynia tentaculata and Sphcerium corneum — and a caddis-case was cov- 
ered with V. piscinalis and Planorbis fontanus. In the stream which 
feeds the Canal near the Reformatory were L. peregra, Ancylus flitviatilis, 
and on a caddis-case numerous Planorbis crista and one Pyramidula 
rotundata. In the same neighbourhood were found a few Zua lubrica, 
small examples of Hyalinia nitidula, and one Hygroinia rufescens. In 
the Goodmanham valley, mostly from nettle-beds, were collected Helix 
nemoralis (dead), H. hortensis var. lutea 12345 and 00000 (one each), 
a few Helicellavirgata (three), H. caperata (a few), a few Hygromia hispida 
var. riibens, Hyalinia cellaria (a few), H. nitidula (a few), one Zua lubrica 
and several Limvcsa peregra. 

Flowering Plants. — Mr. J. F. Robinson writes : — Although brilliant 
sunshine for the most part, tempered bj'' fairly strong breezes from the 
west, favoured the meeting, three or four hours were all too short a time 
to do justice even to the small circuit made by the botanical contingent. 
From the rendezvous a walk towards Holme-on-Spalding Moor took us 
to Canal Head, thence to the first old lock and River Head ; after which, 
the bank of the chalk-gravel beck across Market Weighton Common 
brought us back to the starting place. Wild roses (all canina) and elder 
blossoms made the high road not an unpleasant path between great 
fields of rye, just now on the ear ; and of carrot and of peas in blossom, as 
well as, of course, a huge cultivation of wheat and other cereals. It was 
observed on the occasion of our visit that the ' great sand-field ' required 
much rain. 

The bit of old Canal from the Head to the first lock is now very shallow 
and almost dried up in places. Much overgrown, too, is it by jungles of 
the reeds Phragmites and Poa aquatica. In the shallow water t±iere was 
abundance of the water crowfoot Ranunculus circinatus, 'flowering 
profusely, and also submerged species of duckweed (notably Lemna 
trisulca) and an evil-smelling cryptogam — Chara fragilis (? sp.). 

Myosotis ccespitosa seemed to be commoner in the wet places than 
M. palustris, the true forget-me-not. Gipsywort (Lycopus) and Rumex 
Hydrolapathum, the tallest of our docks, with its fine upright, lanceolate 
leaves invested with a bluish bloom, were also in evidence ; the latter very 
much so. Orchis latifolia was common. 

Perhaps nothing very rare was found along the length of the chalk- 
Naturalist 



I 

Yorkshire 'Naturalists at Market Wetghton. 265 

gravel stream that intersects Market Weighton Common and finally fills 
the Canal, but vegetation was lush and varied, and intensely interesting. 
So also proved the investigation of the wild denizens of a blossoming 
pea field through which lay our pathway. 

If the list of species formerly recorded by Mr. J. J. Marshall was 
scarcely verified, that must be put down to the limited circuit made, and 
to the high state of cultivation of the land. But it was a delightful and 
profitable ramble for all that. 

Mosses and Hepatics. — Mr. C. A. Cheetham writes : — Mr. J. J. 
Marshall's work at the mosses of this district was rewarded by many 
interesting species, but without his leadership it was unlikely that all 
could be seen, a previous excursion with him had, however, given an in- 
sight and a good list results. 

The most interesting ground was in the woodland. Amongst the 
heather were two species of fork-mosses, Dicranum spuriiim Hed. and 
D. undnlatum Ehr., the latter being known nowhere else in the county ; 
the most frequent mosses were Dicranum scoparium Hed., Hypmim 
Schreberi Willd. and H. parieiinum Lindb. in the heathery places, Hyloco- 
mium squarrosum Br. Sch. amongst grass, and Dicranella heteronialla Schp. 
and Webera nutans Hed. [Pohlia nutans Lindb.) on the sides of ditches ; 
with these latter were two hepatics, Alicularia scalaris Corda. and CephU' 
lozia bicuspidata Dum. A more uncommon hepatic, Ptlidium ciliare 
Hampe, was growing with the fork-mosses. Aulacomnium androgynum 
Schw. {Orthopyxis androgyna P. Beauv.) was seen on old tree stumps, and 
Webera carnea Schimp. {Pohlia carnea Lindb.) on the sides of the stream. 
A walk up the railway bank by Goodmanham gave some poor but recog- 
nisable gatherings of the two seligerias, S. calcarea B. and S. and S. paiici- 
folia Carr., which grow on the blocks of chalk used in constructing the line. 

Geology. — Mr. T. Sheppard reports that the geologists first visited 
the well-known section near the rifle-butts on the railway-line side, in the 
Goodmanham valley, where the feather-edges of various beds rest against 
the Market Weighton articline, so well described years ago by John 
Phillips. In the target-pits traces of the Lower Lias beds could be de- 
tected. A few feet above was the Red Chalk, yielding Terebratula biplicata 
and Belemnites minimus. The beds here also contained a quantity of 
very ferruginous nodules, reminding one of the Carstone of Lincolnshire. 
There was also a good section in the Lower or Grey Chalk. The 
party then crossed over the Wolds, where many excellent views of 
dry chalk-valley formation were seen, and on the hill near Goodmanham 
Church were the large earthen mounds said by some authorities to 
represent the site of the heathen temple where the idols of wood were 
profaned, as described in Bede's ' Ecclesiastical History.' A visit was 
next paid to a farm house where was said to have been an ancient temple, 
but all the party could discover was a carved head from some fourteenth 
century church, built into a wall, and the occupant knew no more of a 
' temple ' than the visitors found. A visit was then paid to a small 
circular depression at Hessleskew, now almost hidden by trees, which for 
generations of ' historians ' and writers has been described as a ' Roman 
amphitheatre.' A careful examination, aided by numerous rabbit 
burrows, showed that there was no justification for the ' Roman amphi- 
theatre ' theory^in fact the depression was far too small and in all pro- 
bability is one of the numerous circular pits sunk in various parts of the 
Wolds for the purpose of obtaining chalk. The hill-top on the opposite 
side of the road was then examined in order to investigate a ' Roman 
camp.' From this field — almost bare as a result of the ravages of the 
turnip-fly (though the farmer had wisely sown turnips and mangolds 
together, and as the fly doesn't eat the latter he still had a crop) — large 
quantities of stone, some ' worked,' had been removed. The party v/as 
told of a large square ' Roman camp ' on the hill-top — certainly a good 
site — and this was carefully examined under favourable conditions. 

1918 Aug. 1. 



266 Field Note. 

There were certainly traces of a large quadrangular enclosure, from the 
remaining ridges of which about 20 tons of stone had been removed to 
the adjoining farm-yard. An examination of these showed that they 
were mainly of Millepore Oolite, some of which had clearly been dressed. 
The field was also well strewn with ' Roman tiles,' and these proved to be 
roof tiles of probably sixteenth century date. Towards the centre of the 
' camp ' was a deep well, protected by brushwood. The farmer informed 
us that this was 11 1 yards deep, and that the well was lined with dressed 
stones. The only coins known to have been found on the site were two 
silver sixpences issued at York by Cattle & Barber in 181 1. A careful 
review of the evidence, therefore, seemed to point to the fact that a farm- 
stead occupied this site in the sixteenth century, and that, like the 
' amphitheatre ' close by, the evidence of Roman date was not forth- 
coming. Thus the long-cherished evidences of Roman occupation in 
this district vanished. An adjoining field had years ago yielded the remains 
of a chariot burial — and other interesting relics of the Early Iron Age — 
now in the York Museum. The party ' dropped ' into Market Weighton, 
the said ' drop ' being a little jaunt of about six miles ; consequently the 
geologists are hardly able to quite agree with the reference to the ' limited 
area ' referred to at the beginning of this report by our more youthful and 
energetic secretary. 



Mutilia europaea. — A specimen of the Solitary Ant found 
during the latter part of May at Keys beck, Goathland, and 
now in the collection of Mr. I. L. Rowland, appears to have 
only recently emerged from the pupa state. The captor 
suggests that the insect emitted a low buzzing when first 
handled, if this is characteristic of the Mutillida;, it shows, 
considering their habits, a species of camouflage rather re- 
markable ! The following is a description of this specimen : — 
Thorax, both above and below dull red, shiney ; Legs, black, 
covered with short bristles ; Eyes, large and black ; Antennce, 
thick at base, tapering, slate colour ; Abdomen, black and 
heavy, having a narrow gold band near the junction with the 
thorax and two other bands near the extremity ; the latter are 
broken above and appear as a double row of gold spots with 
their convex side towards the head ; below, all three bands are 
continuous as narrow gold lines. Length, 11 to 12 mm. Two 
more specimens were taken on June 22nd on the Moor near the 
head waters of the River Derwent. One of these is in the 
possession of the writer and is much smaller than the insect 
above described, the single band does not appear below the 
abdomen, its colour and that of the spots is silvery rather than 
golden, the spots apparently having parallel edges ; as the 
abdomen is almost denuded of hair it has possibly suffered 
from wear and tear during its short life. There is a patch of 
yellow pollen on one side of the thorax near the base of the 
legs. A fourth specimen was found by me many years ago near 
this latter locality. Further information as to the appearance 
of this insect on our local moors may be found in Frank Elgee's 
' Moorlands of North East Yorkshire,' page 268. — Joseph T. 
Sewell, Whitby. 

Naturalist, 



267 
FIELD NOTES. 
BIRDS. 

Food of the Tawny Owl. — Mr. Butterfield in his letter 
in The Naturalist for July, remarks that " It used to be thought 
that owls would not eat the Common Shrew.' Far from this 
being the case I believe the Barn Owl takes more shrews than 
anything else. I found in 28 castings picked at random from 
beneath the roosting place of one of these owls the remains of 
no fewer than 44 common shrews, and 2 pigmy shrews. In 
addition there were the bones of 18 common mice, 7 young 
brown rats, 9 field mice (M. sylvaticus) 27 field voles, 5 Bank 
Voles, and 2 small birds, of the latter the exact identity was 
doubtful. I have also noticed that a tame Tawny Owl ate 
shrews with relish, bolting them whole like mice. It certainly 
liked them and had no antipathy to them such as is exhibited 
by cats and dogs. — (Miss) Frances Pitt, Bridgnorth. 

Qoldcrests (Regulus regulus) in the Lake District. — 
Many birds suffered during the terrible winter of 1916-17, and 
the Goldcrest was hit so hard that in many parts of the country 
it was extirpated. Here in North-west Hertfordshire, where 
prior to 1917 it was a common resident, I have neither seen nor 
heard one for eighteen months, and I sought in vain for the 
bird in many of its haunts in Carnarvon, Denbigh and Merioneth 
in the summer of that year. It was therefore with very lively 
pleasure that I heard about half-a-dozen singing in mid-June 
this year in the woods of Patterdale and the lower part of 
Grisedale, and a like number a week later about Rosthwaite 
in Borrowdale. That some Goldcrests survive in these shel- 
tered valleys is good augury for their ultimate re-occupation of 
bleaker regions. — Chas. Oldham, Berkhamsted, Herts. 

Greater Spotted Woodpecker (Dryobates major) in 
Westmorland. — The Greater Spotted Woodpecker is perhaps 
sufficiently rare in Westmorland to justify a note of its occur- 
rence during the nesting season. I came across a pair in Naddle 
Forest, close to the shore of Haweswater, on June 13th, my 
attention being attracted to the birds by their loud, staccato 
notes of alarm, tcheck, tcheck. Time pressed, and I was unable 
to locate the nest-hole, but the behaviour of the birds left no 
doubt in my mind that they were interested in a brood. Many 
of the trees about the spot bore evidence of the birds' search 
for insects, and I noticed many hazel nuts which had been 
wedged into crevices and hacked open, Nuthatch-fashion, a 
habit perhaps more common than is generally supposed. Not 
only are hazel nuts treated in this way, but, as I noticed twenty 
years ago, when living at Alderly Edge in Cheshire, oak-apple 
galls were sometimes wedged into crevices of tree trunks for 
convenience in hacking out the contained larvae. — Chas. 
Oldham, Berkhamsted, Herts. 

1918 Aug. 1 . 



268 Field Notes. 

ENTOMOLOaV. 

CucutUa verbasci at Huddersfield. — On July 8th, I 
collected from a large cultivated Verhascum plant, in my 
neighbour, Mr, Whiteley Tolson's garden, about two dozen 
full-fed larvae of Cucullia verbasci. On another large plant, in 
a different part of the garden, and at a fair distance from 
the first, was another considerable brood of the same species, 
but in that case the larvae were only about half grown, some even 
much smaller than that, so that there must have been at least 
two female moths in the garden this year. The species has 
never been recorded from this district before, so far as I know, 
and it is scarcely likely that so conspicuous and striking a larva 
feeding exposed and almost gregariously, could have been 
missed had it been here. The species is common enough in 
some parts of the county. — Geo. T, Porritt, Elm Lea, Dalton, 
Huddersfield, July 15th, 1918. 

Euthemonia russula near Skipton. — On the first of 
July last I took a specimen of Eidhetnonia russula at the foot 
of Embsay Crag near Skipton, which was a male flying lazily 
in the sunshine b}^ the side of the boundary wall of the moor. 
I believe this insect has not previously been recorded for North 
West Yorks. I also took two specimens of Scoparia atomalis 
on the 3rd on Blackhills, near Wilsden, which is not included 
in the list of Yorkshire Lepidoptera by Mr. Porritt, 2nd edition, 
published in 1904. In most years it is quite common — in 
some years abundant — in this locality, and it may have been 
overlooked in many other localities in Yorkshire. Hitherto, 
or up to recently, it has been considered a Scotch insect only. — 

E. P. BUTTERFIELD. 

Scoparia atonmlis has for a very long time been regarded as a small 
dark variety of the common S. ambigitalis. We have for many years 
known it as common in South-west Yorkshire, and are much surprised to 
find no allusion to the form in the ' Yorkshire List,' as there ought to have 
been.— G.T.P. 

Corethrn pallida, etc., in Yorkshire. — Whilst unsuccess- 
fully searching for Anopheline mosquitoes on Austwick Moss 
during June and July, I saw some pale coloured gnats which on 
examination turn out to be Corethra pallida F., the most un- 
common of the genus and easily identified by the brown dots 
on the legs ; they were in fair numbers but confined to definite 
pools and had a weaker flight than the Chironomus species, 
their pale wings in movement giving an impression of a narrow 
isosceles triangular shape. I also got Corethra plimiicornis 
F., and at the same time the curious daddy-long-legs Dolicho- 
peza sylvicola Curt. {Chirothecata Scop.), most difficult to see, 
save for the long white tarsi. This Mr. A. R. Sanderson first 
showed to me at Austwick and we also found it in Ravensgill, 
Pateley Bridge ; he has also taken Corethra larvae many times 
from the Austwick Moss pools but the perfect insect does not 

Nattiralist 



Field Notes, 269 

appear to have been identified. None of the above are in the 
list of Yorkshire diptera in the Victoria County History, nor 
does Wingate include them in his hst of Durham diptera ; the 
last two are given in Cooke's list of Cheshire and South Lanes, 
diptera in The Naturalist, 1880. I have spare specimens of 
C. pallida if any one would care to have them. — Chris. A. 
Cheetham, Farnley, Leeds. 

— : o : — 
The Pairing of the Genus Hepialus. — The interesting 
observation of Mr. Morley on p. 234 of the current volume of 
The Naturalist and Mr. Porritt's comment thereon, lead me to 
hope that my views on the subject of Hepialid pairing may be 
of interest, if not of much value. I have always been interested 
in the alleged unmaidenly conduct of the females of H. humuli 
and H. hectus. Collecting recently in a wood where the latter 
species is unusually common (and unusually variable), I have 
tried to get an accurate view of what takes place when the 
insect is making love. I have seen the complete series of 
events twice only, but on each occasion affairs were conducted 
in the same way. We start with a row of hectus ^ along the 
edge of the path, flying over the bracken in their characteristic 
way. Each one flies in an irregular, curved orbit of very small 
extent and the orbits of two insects rarely cross. If undis- 
turbed a male hectus will fly for a long time without moving a 
yard from the spot where he first settled into his evening flight. 
After a time the female appears. She is not very visible in the 
growing dusk and I am not at all certain where she comes from. 
My impression, however, is that she rises from the bracken under 
the male. In neither of the cases observed did she appear to 
arrive from the outside world, nor did she when over sighted 
pay any attention to any male but the nearest. When once on 
the scene, she flies in an orbit like that of the male, her orbit 
mingling with his. The male flight becomes at once more 
jerky and agitated. They fly together thus for several minutes, 
jostling each other once or twice, though this appears to be due 
to the nature of their flight and not to the intention of either 
of them. A few minutes after the female's first appearance 
she settles rather abruptly on the under side of a bracken 
frond. The male almost instantly flies to her. Copulation 
takes place at once and the male hangs head downwards, his 
entire weight supported by the combined genital organs. 
While all this is going on there are several other males flying 
within a few feet, who take not the least notice of the pro- 
ceedings. It seems to me that the female does not so much 
seek the male as accost the first one she comes across. Where 
the species is common he does not require much seeking. Al- 
though the males are apparently in great numerical superiority, 
she seems to have no attraction except for the one to whom she 

918 Aug. 1. 



270 Field Notes. 

has made the first advances. A detail that I cannot explain 
is that females taken in cop. are nearly always very wasted. 
Possibly they are on the wing for some time before copulation 
takes place, though this is not the custom with most moths. 
In my experience one never sees the female except in cop. or 
during the preliminary overtures. Perhaps she pairs more 
than once and between times flies out of sight among the 
bracken, while depositing the fertilized ova. Thus she would 
come to subsequent pairings with damaged wings. I have 
observed the pairing of no other species of Hepialus except 
H. lupiilinns, the males of which seek the females in the normal 
way, as described by Mr. Morley. Judging from character of 
flight alone, I should say that H. sylvinus and //. fusco- 
nehulosa follow the example of lupulinus ; H. hiimuli that of 
hectus.—'U.. Douglas Smart, Major, R.A.M.C. 

— : o : — 
AMPHIBIANS. 
Palmated Newt {Aiolge palmata) in Westmorland — 
Little seems to be known of the distribution of this Newt in the 
Lake District, and it may be well to record its occurrence in 
Patterdale. It was abundant last June in a shallow reservoir 
choked with Myriophyllum on the wooded hill behind Patterdale 
Hall. — Chas. Oldham, Berkhamsted, Herts. 

— : o : — 

FUNGI. 
Polyporus Rostkovii in S E. Yorks. — I have just received 
from Mr. John Foxton, Benningholme Hall, Hull, a tine specimen 
of Polyporus Rostkovii, 12 ins. high and 10 ins. diam. across 
top of pileus, this plant differs from P. squamosus in having 
a central stem. The pileus usually infundibuliform, thin and 
smooth [i.e., not covered with scales), larger spores (i6/a X ^p) 
and the stem abruptly black. The spores measured I4-I5|W x 
5/^., but as Mr. A. D. Cotton of Kew has recently pointed out, 
the later shed spores in the basidiomycetes are slightly smaller 
than the earlier ones, and this should be borne in mind when 
spore measurement is a deciding factor. The spores of P. 
squamosus measure ii-12{j. x 5/^. I do not think P. Rostkovii has 
been previously recorded for vice-county S.E. — W. N. Cheesman. 

The Fisheries of the North Sea, by Neal Green. London : Methuen 
& Co., 1 78 pp., 4/6 net. The publishers say : ' This Httle book is important 
on account of the increasing value and potentialities of the fishing industry 
in the North Sea. The author also describes the fisheries of Great Britain, 
Scandinavia, Germany, France, Russia and America." The author is 
practical and has made good use of the work of Sir John Murray, the Re- 
ports of the Fishery Board of Scotland, the French work on Fisheries by 
M. Herubel, and James Johnstone's Marine Biological Investigations. 
There is an interesting chapter on ' The Migration of Fish,' and an ex- 
cellent map. 

Naturalist, 



271 

CORRESPONDENCE. 

SAME CUCKOO TWICE MAKING USE OF SAME NEST. 
I AM sorry that Mr. Butterfield considers my assertion too sweeping. I 
have been collecting cuckoos' eggs for over fifty years and have examined 
772 sets (a fair number having two eggs of cuckoo in same set), and in no 
instance where there were two eggs had the eggs been laid by the same bird, 
nor had I ever heard of a case until the one mentioned by Mr. Butterfield. 
I have many series of clutches of the same variety, each containing a 
cuckoo's egg, obviously laid by the same bird, and taken at short intervals 
within a small radius, and it strikes one as singular why the cuckoo should 
trouble to find six, seven, or eight separate nests, when she could easily 
return to one that she had already adopted. I take it that instinct tells 
her there would be no room for two young in the same nest. The most 
interesting series I have is that of four nests of Garden Warbler — two 
nests containing two eggs each of cuckoo, and two one egg each, the pro- 
duct of two birds ; No. i nest one small egg. No. 2 nest one small egg and 
one large egg. No. 3 nest one small egg and one large egg, and No. 4 nest 
one large egg, three eggs of each. I should be glad if Mr. Butterfield would 
give us the weight of the two eggs he mentions. 

Herbert Massey, Ivy Lea, Burnage, Didsbury, June 21st, 1918. 

THE LATE G. KNOTT. 

I REGRET to have to record the death of Mr. G. Knott, of Heckmondwike, 
on March 14th. Mr. Knott has left a valuable collection of Palseo- 
botanical structure blocks and microscopic sections. These have been 
handed over to me for investigation and disposal in order to provide some 
funds for his widow, who is left in rather straightened circumstances. 
I have opened a fund, with the approval and assistance of Dr. Scott, 
F.R.S., and several other friends, to meet the case. The collection he 
has left has taken many years to get together and is of great value to 
science, embodying some of the rarest and most valuable structure plants 
known. Mr. Knott discovered Sigillaria elegans. This was followed 
by 5. mamillaris and 5. scutellata, all figured and described by Dr. Kidston, 
F.R.S. Later still he discovered a second example of S. elegans — this the 
finest example of a structural sigillaria yet known to science, is as yet 
uninvestigated. It shows a complete cylinder of outer corte.x with the 
characteristic leaf bases — portions of inner cortex crowded with outgoing 
leaf and cone traces, and in the centre the beautiful arrangement of primary 
and secondary zylem zones, the cells themselves throughout being in a 
unique state of perfection, hitting off the specific name ' elegans ' divinely. 
Mr. Knott got no pecuniary assistance during his life, and as his valuable 
work has been placed at the service of science, I beg to appeal to interested 
friends for financial aid for his widow. Contributions should be sent to 
my address and made payable to me for the Mrs. Knott Fund. 

W. Hemingway, i Seale Street, Chester Green, Derby. 



An illustrated article on Rat-Trapping appears in The Journal of the 
Board of Agriculture for March. 

Report No. 66 of the Marlborough College Natural History Society 
contains 56 numbered (mostly wrongly) pages, and 28 un-numbered. 
The society has had a successful year and we must say the notes and 
observations have been carefully and thoroughly drawn up. They appear 
under various headings ; attention is drawn to remarkable and unusual 
occurrences and note made of additions to the local lists. Besides the 
usual headings we notice the Diptera are dealt with and there are 
meteorological and anthropometrical reports. 

1918 Aug 1, 



272 

NEWS FROM THE MAGAZINES, etc. 

Nature for June 6th contains notes on ' The Position of Natural 
Science in the Educational System of Great Britain.' 

Dr. J. S. Flett, F.R.S., and Capt. P. Chalmers Mitchell, F.R.S., have 
been elected Officers of the British Empire, for service in France. 

The Scottish Naturalist for June contains a paper on the ' Occurrence 
of a Giant Squid (A re hits lit his) on the Scottish Coast,' by James Ritchie. 

Under the head of ' Gleanings from my Note-book,' Dr. J. W, H. 
Harrison describes many northern county records in The Entomologist 
for July. 

The collections formed by the late George J . Hinde have been presented 
to the Geological Department of the British Museum (Natural History) by 
the family. 

Now that The Zoologist is dead, we are prepared to place our pages 
at the disposal of writers of short notes on Mammals, Fishes and Reptiles 
of this country. 

We should like to congratulate Mr. Albert Gilligan, the Secretary of 
the Yorkshire Geological Society, on receiving the D.Sc. Degree of the 
Leeds University. 

Our contributor, Mr. A. E. Trueman, has received the D.Sc. degree 
of the University of London for a thesis entitled ' The Evolution of the 
LiparoceratidcB ,' and other papers. 

An excellent account of the ' Cowling Ramble ' held jointly with the 
Yorkshire Naturalists' Union, has been prepared by Mr. J. Bradley, for 
the benefit of the Haworth Ramblers. 

We regret to notice the announcement of the death of Dr. E. A. Newell 
Arber, at the age of 47. He was an authority on Fossil Plants, and the 
author of a number of books and papers on the subject. - ^ 

We notice that Civil List pensions have been granted to the Widows of 
the late Prof. J. W. Judd, R. F. H. Rippon, Dr. Arthur Vaughan and 
George Coffey, and also to the daughter of the late Dr. Jonathan Couch. -* 

Mr. Claude Morley gives some ' Awkward Incidents in an Entomological 
Career ' in The Entomologist for July. His notes include a record of the 
fact that he once rolled upon three ' hard-boiled ' eggs which were in his 
pocket, but which proved not to be ' hard-boiled.' 

We learn from Nature that some human bones found on an alleged 
ancient level, near Ipswich, by Mr. J. Reid Moir, are pronounced by 
Prof. Keith to be ' essentailly identical with those of modern man.' 
Judging from the results of some of Mr. Moir's previous researches we can 
believe this is quite possible. 

The Report of the Yorkshire Philosophical Society for 191 7, recently 
to hand, shows steady progress in the various branches of the Society's 
work. It includes a report of the Field Naturalists' section. Meteoro- 
logical notes, additions of the Museum and Library, and an article on 
' John Browne, the Historian of York Minster,' by George Benson. 

In The Entomologist's Monthly Magazine for July, Mr. P. H. Grimshaw 
records ' Chortophila pilipyga Villeneuve ' for Nottinghamshire, and Mr. 
R. S. Bagnall records ' Campodea meinerti sp. n.' at Manchester, Durham, 
etc., and ' C. wallacei sp. n.' from Heaton, near Newcastle. In the same 
journal, Mr. G. B. Walsh records ' Silpha nigrita Creutz. in Co. Durham.' 

The British Musem (Natural History) has just issued ' A map showing 
the known Distribution in England and Wales of the Anopheline Mosquitoes, 
with explanatory text and notes by William Dickson Lang, M.A.' (63 pp., 
2S. 6d.). The distribution of A. maculipennis , A. bifurcatus and A. 
plumbeus are indicated, but judging from the localities given we should 
assume that the map more really represents the areas in which naturalists 
have collected anophelines than the actual distribution of the species. 
Most of the Yorkshire records are centred round the Filey district, whereas 
large areas in other parts of the shire, as well as in other northern counties, 
seem to be without any records at all. 

NaturklitI, 



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BROWNS' 

ENEMIES OF THE GARDEN 

Reproduced in the very best style of Lithography from special designs by 
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THE 12 ILLUSTRATIONS ARE AS FOLLOWS : 

1. OUTLINE OF INSECT LIFE.— Hymenoptera, Coleoptera, Lepi- 

doptera, details. 

2. LACKEY MOTH.— Egg, Caterpillar, Nest, Cocoons, Female Lackey 

Moth, Egg Cluster. 

3. SMALL ERMINE MOTH.— Eggs, Caterpillar, Cocoons, Ermine Moth, 

Nest in Apple Tree. 

4. GOOSEBERRY SAWFLY.— Egg, Larva, Larva (last stage). Leaf, 

Sawfly, Branch, Cocoon. 

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stripped of leaves, Cocoon. 

6. BLACK CURRANT MITE.— Mite, Big Bud on Branch, Section of 

Bud with Mites. 

7. RASPBERRY STEM BUD CATERPILLAR.— Caterpillar, Chrysalis, 

Moth (enlarged). Raspberry Cane. 

8. MILLIPEDES and CENTIPEDES.— Three destructive Millipedes and 

two useful Centipedes. 

9. SCALE. — Currant Scale, Scale on Aralia and Myrtle Leaves and Mussel 

Scale. 

10. WIREWORMS.— CUck Beetle and Skip Jack showing details. 

11. PEA THRIPS, COCKCHAFER, DADDY LONGLEGS, WOOD- 

LOUSE and EARWIG, showing sections and details. 

12. SOME USEFUL INSECTS.— Dragon Fly, Ichneumon Fly, Lady Bird, 

Tiger Beetle, Hover Fly, Glow Worm, Cocktail Beetle, Lacewing Fly. 

All the designs are printed on appropriately tinted backgrounds, devoid of 

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We always have enemies within our garden-gates, and would-be 
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There are other insects, however, that are our Allies, as they live on the 
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is, therefore, most necessary to be able to distinguish between useful and 
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August 1st, 1918. 



SEPT. 1 918. 



No. 740 

(No. 514 of current itrltt. 




A MONTHLY ILLUSTRATED JOURNAL OP 

NATURAL HISTORY FOR THE NORTH OF ENGLAND. 



EDITED BY 



T. SHEPPARD, 



M.Sc, F.Q.S.if F.R.G.S. 

Thb Museums, iIull ; 



F. S.A.Scot. 



T. W. WOODHEAD, Ph.D., M.Sq 

Technical College, Huddbrsfibl 
with the assistance as referees in special 
J. QILBBRT BAKBR, P.R.S. P.L.S., QBO. T. 

Prof. P. P. KENDALL, M.Sc, P.Q.S.. JOHN W. 

RILEY PORTUNE, P.Z.S 




Contents : — 

FACE 

Notes and Comments (illust.) : — Science and the War; Natural Science and Education ; 
Products of Yorkshire Coals ; A River of the Coal Agej The British Association : Keles- 
tominae: Cretaceous Cribrimorph Polyzoa ; The Palaeontographical Society; The 
Tax— idermist 273-276 

A New Marine Departure— /o/t» Irving, M.D. 277-279 

More Bronze-Age Relics from Scarborough (illustrated)— T. S/;«/i^rttrf, M.Sc, F.G.S. 280 

The Diatom-Flora of Martin Beck, Yorks. (illustrated)— A/. /f. S/jVm, F.i?. A/. S. ... 281-283 

Irish PUIdia from Windermere— /?ei'. C. £. r. A'«m/n//, B.^ 284 

Westmorland Coleoptera—F. H. Daj',F.£.S. 285-288 

The Geographical Distribution of Moths of the Sub-family Bistoninae— /. W. 

Hestop Harrison, D.Sc 289-291 

The Cause of the Attraction in the Pairing of Lepidoptera— £. Morley 292-293 

Ornithological Observations and Reflections in Shetland— £ff»!un^ Selous 294-296 

Yorkshire Naturalists at Crosshills 297-299 

Field Notes :— Same Cuckoo twice making use of same nest ; Cucullia vcrbasci at Bradford ; 
Lebidozia trichoctados K. Mvill. in Cumberland ; Eccentric Nests of Humble Bees ; Winter 
Habit of the Larva of Zeuzera pyrini (lescuH) ; The Corncrake Puzzle ; Thrush with White 
Tail-tip: Kestrel ' flying-down ' a Song Thrush ; Conioptcryx aUyrodiformis at Hudders- 
field ; Euchelia jacobaa in North West Yorkshire ; Euchelia jacobma near Bradford ; 
Zeuzera oesciili in North West Yorkshire ; Hemiptera-Homoptera in East Yorkshire; 
Pine Marten 279, 288, 299, 300-303 

Book Notice 



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News from the Magazines 
Illustrations 



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... e03, 304 

304 

276, 280, 281 



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Burnley Lit. and Sci. Soc. Parts i, 3, 5, 6, 8, 12, 13, 16-27, 29-. 

Chester Soc. Nat. Science • Ann. Reports, i.-iv. 

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Discovery. (Liverpool, 4to). 1891. 

Derby Arch, and Nat. Hist. Soc. Parts 20, 21. 

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JUN2 4 19^ 

NOTES AND COMMENT:*, ^<o, 

SCIENCE AND THE WAR. ---^,imi_M_n :i^ 

' If there be one lesson more than another which the war 
is going to teach us, it is the lesson as to the future place of 
Natural Science in our education. It is true that there are 
still military authorities coming forward to say that we do 
not want science in the education of offtcers. But the military 
authorities have exhausted their power of surprising us ; and, 
after all, some rational voices are beginning to be heard even 
in military circles. Science is coming to be recognised as part 
of the necessary equipment for modern life. The world is 
more and more coming to turn on exact knowledge, and 
science is simply exact knowledge applied to concrete things. 
As Bacon said, we can only command Nature by obeying 
her laws. These laws are the rules of the universe in which we 
live.' 

NATURAL SCIENCE AND EDUCATION. 

The above paragraph may be taken as the key-note of a 
little volume entitled ' Natural Science and the Classical Sys- 
tem of Education : Essays New and Old,' edited for the 
Committee on the Neglect of Science by Sir Ray Lankester.* 
Its appearance is most opportune ; we only wish it were 
possible for some superhuman to make every Member of 
Parliament read it. There are nine essays, some old, some new, 
but all good, by A. L. Smith, C. S. Parker, E. E. Bowen, 
Lord Houghton, W. Johnson, H. G. Wells, F. W. Sanderson, 
and the Editor. 

PRODUCTS OF YORKSHIRE COALS. 

In the recently issued Journal of the Institution of Petroleum 
Technologists are given the following examples of the products 
obtained from Yorkshire coals, carbonised at low temperatures : 

Yorkshire Coal (washed smalls). 

17.5 gallons of crude oil per ton of coal carbonised was obtained. 

Yield of sulphate of ammonia — 22 lb. 

The oil 3'ielded, on fractionation : 

Oil distilling up to 150° C... 3.0 gallons. 

Fuel-oil ... ... ... ... ... ii.o 

Paraffin wax ... ... ... ... 8 lb. 

Yorkshire Cannel. 
Yield of crude oil — 70 gallons per ton of coal carbonised. 
Yield of sulphate of ammonia — 3.2 lb. 
The oil yielded, on fractionation : 

Oil distilling to 170° C 7.4 gallons. 

Fuel-oil ... ... ... ... ... 49.3 ,, 

The first fraction was taken up to 170°, instead of 150°, for a 
special purpose. There was only a small portion of paraffin wax, 
which was not estimated. 



* London : W. Heinemann. 268 pp., price 2/6 net. 
1918 Sept. 1 . 



274 Notes and Comments. 

Slack from Bituminous Yorkshire Coal. 

Yield of crude oil — 24 gallons per ton of coal carbonised. 

Yield of sulphate of ammonia — 22 lb. 

The oil on fractionation yielded : 

Oil distilling to 170° C 2.8 gallons 

Fuel-oil 12.0 

Paraffin wax ... ... ... ... not determined. 

A RIVER OF THE COAL AGE. 

During the winter, Professor P. F. Kendall, in a lecture to 
the Leeds Philosophical Society on ' Rivers of the Coal Age.' 
described the courses of some of the streams fertilising the 
great deltaic plain on which were accumulated the materials 
of the coal seams of the Yorkshire coalfield. Recently the 
members of the Yorkshire Geological Society had an opportun- 
ity under Professor Kendall's guidance, of visiting and examin- 
ing the traces of some of these streams in the workings of the 
Ackton Hall Colliery, Featherstone. When the shaft of the 
pit was originally sunk, 24 years ago, the important Silkstone 
seam (as that which is elsewhere called the Middleton Main 
seam is locally called) was passed through without recognition. 
It was subsequently found that the shaft was situated in an 
area in which the coal had been seriously thinned by stream 
action of Coal Measure times. With the development of the 
workings it has been shown that throughout the length of the 
Actkon Hall estate — about three miles — there is a tract of a 
quarter of a mile wide, evidently the bed of a stream, where the 
Silkstone seam is altogether removed, and its place filled with a 
valueless sandstones and mudstones. Besides the great ' wash- 
out ' (which was no doubt the effect of a river of a phase a 
httle later than the deposition of the seam), relics were examined 
of a river which was strictly contemporary with the seam itself. 
This smaller river is marked, not by the total removal of the 
coal, but by the intercalation in the midst of the seam of a 
mass of river sands and muds. The intrusion is several times 
as thick as the complete seam, this being due to the great 
compression which the coal has undergone, and to the relative 
incompressibility of the sands. Other curious features which 
threw light on the physical condition prevailing in Coal-Measure 
times were examined. In one part of the mine, in an air- 
passage unfrequented by the miners, was a very beautiful 
display of ' stalactites,' formed mostly of common salt. 

THE BRITISH ASSOCIATION. 

Referring to our remarks respecting the postponed meeting 
of the British Association, which were also voiced at the 
recent Conference of Delegates in London, we understand that 
there is a possibility of a meeting of the British Association 
being held during 1919. The invitation to visit Bournemouth 
which was made last year still holds good, but if that place is 

Naturalist, 



Notes and Comments. 275 

inconvenient the council will probably consider the possibility 
of a meeting in or near London. 

KEI.ESTOMIN.E : CRETACEOUS CRIBrilMORPH POLYZOA. 

At a recent meeting of the Geological Society of London, a 
paper on ' The Kelestominae, a Sub-Family of Cretaceous 
Cribrimorph Polyzoa ' was read by WiUiam Dickson Lang. 
He stated : — ' The Kelestominse are a sub-family of Pelma- 
toporidas. The latter are a family of Cretaceous Cribrimorph 
Polyzoa, whose costae are prolonged upwards as hollow spines 
from the median area of fusion of the intraterminal front-wall. 
The broken ends of these spines form a row of pelmata for, if 
small, pelmatidia) on the intraterminal front-wall. The 
Kelestominae are Pelmatoporidse with an apertural bar each 
half of which is bifid ; and the proximal and distal forks of 
each half are fused with the corresponding forks of the other 
half. The fused distal forks are also fused with the proximal 
pair of apertural spines, which are greatly enlarged. The 
simplest known form of this arrangement is seen in the genus 
Kelestoma Marsson. Kelestoma is characterised among the 
Kelestomime by its great oecial length, and bj' the great number 
of costee. Kelestoma has the following three species, which 
form a single lineage : — (i) Kelestoma elongatuni Marsson, 
with an incrusting asty ; (2) a new species, with a bilaminar, 
erect asty ; (;^) K. scalere Lang, with an erect, cylindrical 
asty. There is, in this series, a slight catagenetic decrease in 
the number of costa;, and the avicularian aperture becomes 
somewhat more pointed. The genus occurs in the Senonian 
zouQ of Belemniiella m 11 arena! a, in the island of Riigen.' We 
are quite prepared to accept his statements, though we are 
relieved to see that Dr. S. F. Harmer objected to some of the 
new words employed. 

THE PAL.EONTOGRAPHICAL SOCIETY. 

We are glad to see that Vol. LXX. of the Palseontographical 
Society's Report just to hand is of the size and importance of 
the Society's pre-war publications. The present issue contains 
The Wealden and Purbeck Fishes, part 2, The Piocene Mollusca, 
part 3, The Paleozoic Asterozoa, part 3 ; by Dr. A, Smith 
Woodward, Mr. F. W. Harmer, and Mr. W. K. Spencer res- 
pectively. There is also a title page and index as well as a 
' History of Research ' to Part 11 of British Graptolites by 
Gertrude L. Files, and Ethel M. R. Wood. Dr. Smith Wood- 
ward's contribution is a continuation of his work on the Fossil 
Fishes, and includes descriptions and illustrations of many 
important south country examples. Mr. Harmer's monograph 
is practically a supplement to S, V. Wood's Monograph of the 
Crag Mollusca, and includes particulars of many important 
additions to that well-known work, several being from York- 

1918 Sept. 1. ^ 



276 



Notes and Comments. 



shire, Lancashire, Cheshire, and the Isle of Man. We notice 
that Mr. Harmer continues to use the somewhat archaic method 
of using capital letters for specific names. We are also sorry 
to find that a specimen which he himself formerly considered 
to be Trophon Fahricii is now considered to be a new species, 
to which he gives the name Trophon {Trophonopsis) Kitchini. 
Mr. Spencer's contribution deals with an exceptionally difficult 
branch of Palaeontology. 

THE TAX — IDERMIST. 

By the courtesy of the editor of the Daily News we are able 




to reproduce one of Poy's cartoons. It represents a well-known 
Cabinet Minister endeavouring to play the part of a naturalist ; 
if we may judge by his surroundings But naturalists are 
born, not made, and we fear our honourable friend may not be 
quite a success in his new vocation. 



Natural'st,, 



277 
A NEW MARINE DEPARTURE. 

JOHN IRVING, M.D., 

Scarborough. 

Singularly little shore work has been done on our coast 
since the war commenced. We have almost forgotten how 
to trip over the slippery rocks without stumbling, or plunging 
into some camouflaged pool. Like a bolt from the blue, while 
the Scarborough season is at its height, when every man, 
woman and child has barely time enough to sleep, the authori- 
ties at the Food Production Department call upon us to 
denude the rocks, for miles, of certain sea-weeds, popularly 
known as Irish, or Carrageen, moss ; to wash, bleach, dry, 
and forward them to London, adding the characteristic remark 
that it is essentially a labour of love. Those who are acquainted 
with our rocks and know, by experience, the height of the 
cliffs, will appreciate the word " labour." A prominent 
official of the Yorkshire Naturalists' Union, in commending 
this work, said he thought it was one wa}^ in which a naturalist 
could do his ' bit.' If we had him here, we should certainly 
give him the chance, and would, with much pleasure, watch 
him careering over the outer rocks of Carnelian Bay 
judiciously picking clumps of weeds, cramming them into a 
sack till the sack becomes a firm cylinder measuring approxi- 
mately a yard in length and half a yard in diameter. On a 
fine sunny day the process so far might be to him a labour of 
love, but he has to return with a burden, progressively growing 
more burdensome, oozing slimy sea-water, now into one 
shoulder, now into the other, and by the time he has negotiated 
awkw'ard rocks, boulders, and pools, climbed a two hundred 
and fifty foot cliff, and walked three miles to the nearest dump, 
■" labour ' consciously takes the precedence of ' love,' and the 
" bit ' looms large. Let him repeat this performance day after 
day, and he will assuredly come to the conclusion that the 
"labour " is somewhat outside the scope of a naturalist, what- 
ever his speciality may be. A lawn has been suggested as 
a satisfactor}^ dumping-ground where the weeds — and there 
are tons of them — are to be spread out thinly, exposed to sun 
and rain, fenced by netting (if necessary) against winds which 
blow, and, as weeds only bleach when kept thoroughly wet, 
if rains cease to deluge them, a hose or watering-can must be 
called into play. They are to be regularly turned over, watched 
till ivory white, then cleansed, dried, packed, and sent by rail. 
If anyone does all this he accomplishes a labour of love, and 
is worthy of thanks ! 

Given groups of willing workers, with leisure to take ad- 
vantage of daily varying low-tides, each group responsible 
for one day's labour per week, much may be done, but a first- 

1918 Sept. 1. 



278 Irving : A New Marine Departure. 

■» 
day's trial is usually quite enough to satisfy curiosity and damp 
the ardour of the majority of gushing volunteers. For instance, 
despite obstacles, Scarborough actually made a start the other 
day. Twenty collectors, including naturalists of both sexes 
and children, turned up with a variety of receptacles such as 
paper-bags, fish-bags, small flower-baskets and long sacks. 
The man with the sacks did most of the work ! Next day 
there was only one collector, the man with the sacks, a keen 
naturalist undauntedly doing his ' bit.' He had secured the 
services of five or six stranger boys and girls to help him to 
pick and fill his bags. Where were the so-called enthusiasts ? 
The Chairman of the Yorkshire Marine Biology Committee 
is expected to serve as a Divisional Secretary, find collectors, 
and organize them, not for scientific research, but to produce 
jelly ! It is a new departure ! Needs must. Invalid soldiers 
and sailors in our Red Cross hospitals require comforts in the 
shape of jellies. Apparently the dried swimming bladders of 
sturgeons are non-existent for preparing isinglass. Animal 
skins, bones, hoofs, etc., are otherwise engaged, so there is no 
gelatine, and Russian glue, for obvious reasons, is not forth- 
coming. The alternative for these is bleached Carrageen, 
which makes excellent jellies at a ridiculously low cost ! 
The results of war cause strange revivals. This is one of them. 
The Food Production Department hold out the bait of ' re- 
vived industry after war ' as a stimulus to exertion, as if Scar- 
borough would ever be inclined to M-rest this monopoly from 
Ireland. Many of us would prefer purchasing the prepared 
moss, even at present prices — double the pre-war rate — than 
personally collect and prepare it. It would come cheaper 
in the end. This is evidently a war economy ; Carrageen, 
voluntarily supplied f.o.b., should be a great gain on isinglass 
and gelatine at present fancy prices. Our fighting men, 
however, must not suffer, and, as far as possible, we accom- 
modate ourselves to departures from custom. Any Yorkshire 
Naturalists' Union members visiting Scarborough up to the 
end of October will be given work to do, if they are discovered ! 
What is Carrageen '* Two allied sea-weeds, Chondrus crispus 
and Gigartina mamillosa, which grow, often together, on rocks 
near low-tide level. They are of a gristly consistence, four to 
six inches high, of a purple-brown (almost black from iodine) 
colour, often crowded with tiny mussels, stems frequently 
covered with polyzoa, sertularia and other zoophytes, and 
may occasionally harbour isopods, amphipods, and the 
nudibranch Goniodorus. Apart from an iridescent play of 
colours in sunlight under water the Chondrus, with its bifur- 
cations, is unmistakeable, while Gigartina, with its mamillated 
fronds and fluted stems, is equally distinctive and need not be 
confounded with other weeds. Having removed the colouring. 

Nalur.-ilist. 



Field Notes. 279 

matter by bleaching, the white weeds are practically vegetable 
gelatine which, when boiled for ten minutes in twenty or 
thirty times their weight of water, produces a solidified jelly 
upon cooling. It is decidedly nutritive, and by digestion may 
furnish the system with a modicum of sugar. 

Same Cuckoo twice making use of same Nest. Re- 
ferring to Mr. Massey's note {The Naturalist, August, p. 271), 
with which I quite agree in the main ; where we differ is, that 
he considers no instance can be proved of a Cuckoo having 
laid twice in one nest. I gave an instance which was satis- 
factory to me, and I quoted several others, and I think I 
could quote more of a similar character. Mr. Massey asks if I 
would give him the weight of the two eggs I mentioned in my 
previous note (p. 237), but as this occurrence must be nearly 
forty years since, and I did not retain the eggs, never having 
had a passion for collections, I am sorry I cannot furnish the 
necessary particulars ; and even if I had the eggs, I question 
whether this would clear the matter up. 1, however, gave 
one of the eggs to Mr. J. W. Carter, 15 Westfield Road, Heaton, 
Bradford. He was with me when I found the nest. I cannot 
remember what became of the other egg, but I never entertained 
the least doubt but that I was right in my identification of the 
eggs. However, if I were wrong, can Mr. Massey be absolutely 
sure that when he says in his note that he has examined seveH 
hundred and seventy-two sets of Cuckoo's eggs (and I am not 
in the least calling his statement into question) that after 
all they were Cuckoo's eggs beyond the possibility of a doubt ? 
I am not quite sure, if all the sets of eggs he mentions 
had been weighed, there may not, after all, be an element of 
doubt in the matter. Mr. Massey says that he takes it that the 
instinct of the Cuckoo tells her there would be no room for two 
young in the same nest, with which I quite agree, if taken in 
a general sense, but the vagaries of some individual Cuckoos 
admit of no limit. Individual Cuckoos often violate true 
instinct much more violent^ than the}^ do M"hen they lay 
twice in one nest. In support of this, innumerable instances 
could be quoted, but this does not disprove that Cuckoos are 
not guilty of such misdemeanour.. — E. P. Butterfield, 
Wilsden. 

Note. — I have twice in my lifetime found two Cuckoo's 
eggs in one nest, once at Tanfield, in the nest of a Hedge 
Sparrow, and once on Dartford Heath, Kent, in the nest of a 
Tree Pipit. There was no possibility of a mistake in either case, 
but in each it was perfectly obvious that the eggs w^ere laid by 
different birds. — R.F. 

1918 Sept. 1. 



28o 

MORE BRONZE-AGE RELICS FROM SCARBORO'. 



T. SHEPPARD, M.Sc, F.G.S. 



We have already described a large series of Bronze-age 
relics found in the Cliffs near Scarborough (see The Naturalist 
for May, 1917). At first we thought we had secured the whole 
of the collection, but others came to light. (See Naturalist, 
September, 1917). Recently two further interesting specimens, 
figured herewith, have been secured, and now rest with the 
remainder of the collection. The first is a typical wedge-shaped 




socketed axe of similar type to those already described from 
this hoard. It is in the rough state as it came from the mould, 
and the cutting edge has not been hammered out nor sharpened. 
It is square-shaped at the opening ; there is a slight medial ridge 
©n each side in the socket, the joints of the moulds are clearly 
indicated on the sides, and each half is decorated with the 
usual collar and three ridges — the middle one being the largest— 
and reaching about half way down the blade. The specimen 
is 2| ins. long, ih ins. across the cutting edge, and if ins. x ly 
ins. across the socket ; weight, 5 oz. 

The second specimen is a lump of bronze from the bottom 
of a crucible. It is flat and somewhat pear-shaped ; 2 ins. 
XiJ ins. x^ in. ; weight, 2 oz. 

Natura ist, 



28l 



THE DIATOM-FLORA OF MARTIN BECK, YORKS. 



M. H. STIL.ES, F.R.M.S. 



For some time the Doncaster Scientific Society has been 
engaged in investigating the Natural History of Martin Beck, 
a district lying about midway between Bawtry and Tickhill, 
and about nine miles by road from Doncaster. Our first 
visit was paid in 1910, and I then made gatherings of diatom- 
aceous material, and, from time to time, as leisure permitted, 
worked upon them. 

The results were extremely interesting, but in anticipation 
of a more thorough examination, the publication of the details 
was suspended. Last year, hoM^ever, the investigation was 




resumed, and very useful work was done by several of our mem" 
bers and friends. On my part, the old slides were more 
thoroughly gone over, additional gatherings were made and 
examined, and I now have the pleasure of submitting a fairly 
complete record of the Diatom-Flora of a district which has 
yielded so far 106 species and varieties, 23 of which are not 
included in West's Alga-Flora of Yorkshire, and 40 have not 
been previously recorded for the South-west division of the West 
Riding. 



798 Amphora ovalis Kutz. 
A. ovalis var. affinis. 

802 Cymbella ciispidata Kutz. 

803 C. siibaeqiialis Grun. 
805 C. affinis Kutz. 

*C. aequalis Wm. Sm. 

*C. pusilla Grun. 
8n fC. Helvetica Kutz. 
812 \C.laevis Naegeli. [Ehr. 

820 Stauroneis Fhoenicenteron 



*Stauroneis Gregorii Raits. 
821 S. gracilis Ehr. 
824 S. anceps Ehr. 

t5. anceps var. linearis. 

826 Navicula nobilis Ehr. 

t N. nobilis var. dactylus. 

827 A'^. major Kutz. 

828 N . viridis Kutz. 

N. viridis var. commutata. 
* N. Danensis. 



1918 Sept. I. 



282 



The Diatom-Flora of Martin Beck., Yorks. 



832 Navicula alpina Ralfs (rare). 

833 t ^ ■ borealis Ehr. 
835 t N. divergens Ralfs. 

837 N. Brebissonii Kutz. 

* N . stauroptera Grun. 
*N. stauroptera var. parva. 

838 t A'. Tabellaria Kutz. 

839 N. gibba Kutz. 

840 N . bicapitata Lagerstedt. 

* N . subcapitata Greg. 

841 N. appendiculata Kutz. 

842 N. mesolepta Ehr. 

* N. mesolepta var. termes. 

843 A''. Legiimen Ehr. 

844 N . obloriga Kutz. 

849 N . radiosa Kutz. 

850 N. cryptocephala Kutz. 
852 N . rhyncocephala Kutz. 
854 A'^, humilis Donk. 

876 t N. pusilla Wm. Sm. 

882 Ai^. serians Kutz. 

887 N. Amphisboena Borg. 

889 t N. ventricosa Donk. 

890 N. Iridis Ehr. [V.H. 
N. Iridis v. AmpJiigomphus 
N. Iridis v. Amphirhynchus 

Dc Toni. 
N . Iridis v. affinis V. H. 
A^. Iridis v. proditcta V. H. 

* N. Americana 'Ehr . (very 

891 t -^^ Bacillum Ehr. [rare) 
893 N . Pupula Kutz. 

897 Van Heurckia rhomboides 

Breb. 
var. crassinervis V. H. 

898 F. H. vulgaris Thw. 

* Gomphonema constrictum 

var. ciirta Ehr. 
910 G. acitminatuni Ehr. 
G. acuminatum 

var. coronatuin. Ehr. 

914 ^ G. gracile Ehr. 

915 G. intricatum Kutz. 

G. intricatum v. vibrio V.H. 
923 Adnanthidium flexellum 

Breb. 
925 Achnanthes microcephala 

Kutz. 
932 Cocconeis Placentula Ehr. 
940 Eunotia A reus Ehr. 



941 



942 



945 

949 
953 



956 
958 

959 



* Eunotia A reus var. plicata 
Br. and Herib. 

E. Arcus var. minor V. H. 

E. Arcus var. bidens. 

E. major Rabenh. 
*E. major var. bidens Rabenh. 

E. gracilis Rabenh. 
*E. pectinalis forma ciirta 

Rabenh. 
*E. pechinalis forma elongata 
Rabenh. 

E. Faba Grun. 
*E. praerupta var. curta Ehr. 

E. robusta v. tetraodon V.H. 

E. lunaris Grun. 
'[E. lunaris var. bilunaris. 
*E. lunaris var. subarcuata. 

Synedra pulchella Kutz. 
*S. pulchella forma major. 

S. Ulna. 
*S. Ulna var. lanceolata. 
t5. Ulna var. aequalis. 

S. Ulna var. subaequalis. 

S. Acus Grun. 
964 \S. amphicephala Kutz. 

966 Fragilaria virescens Ralfs. 

967 *F. capucina var. 

acuminata Desmaz. 

968 *F. construens var. venter 

Grun. 

F. muiabilis (Wm. Sm.) 
Grun. 

* F. undata Wm. Sm. 
Diatoma elongatum Ag. 
Tabellaria flocculosa Kutz. 
Surirella biseriata Breb. 
5. linearis Wm. Sm. 

987 t5. robusta Ehr. [V.H. 

5. robusta var. splendida 
989 S. ovalis var. ovata V. H. 
993 H antzschia amphioxys Grun. 
1008 ^Nitzschia dissipata 

var. media Grun. 
*A^. commiitata Grun. 
loio A'^. vermicularis Grun. 
1016 A'^. linearis Wm. Sm. 
1019 A^. Palea Kutz. 
1029 *Melosira distans Kutz. 
1037 f Cvclotella Meneghiniana 

Kutz. 



970 



973 
979 
984 

15 



In the above list the numbers refer to West's records in 
the Alga-Flora. A ' * ' indicates new Yorkshire records, and 
a ' f ' new records for the South-west division. 

The most noteworthy finds are the following : — 

Navicula americana (Fig. 3). Van Heurck mentions this 

as very rare ; he gives two British records — -Ireland (O'Meara) 

and Loch Kinnord (Davidson). In Schmidt's Atlas 312/15 

his illustration of it is endorsed ' England.' There are several 



Book Notice. 283 

Continental and United States records. It was an unexpected 
and gratifying occurrence to meet with it at Martin Beck. It 
should be mentioned that the two specimens found there 
differ somewhat from the type form described by Van Heurck, 
the margins of the vah^es in each case being parallel instead of 
having a median constriction. In other details they are true 
to type but not so long, their lengths being respectively 4.2 
and 7.5 c.d.m. instead of 9.5 as indicated by Van Heurck. 
One c.d.m. = 10 mikrons. Mere length in a diatom is, however, 
by no means a constant character. The illustration represents- 
the longer of the two. 

Navicula Alpina (Fig. 2). The only Diatom in the Alga- 
Flora endorsed ' rare.' As its specific name implies, it is 
usually met with at a much greater elevation than Martin Beck, 
which is only about 100 feet above sea-level. 

Navicula ignota (Fig. 4). Of this, Mr. F. W. Mills, who has 
rendered me signal service with regard to several doubtful 
points in this paper, states : — ' The Navicula does not appear 
to be named, as it is not, I think, mentioned in Clun's Nav. Diat. 
It is shown, however, in Schmidt's Atlas 43/24, without name, 
although the stauros is there shown slightly more distinctly 
than in the photo.' I propose to name this provisionally 
Navicula Danensis. 

Navicula pusilla (Fig. i). The first record for the South- 
west division of Yorkshire. Although the illustration has been 
photographed from an imperfect valve, it is, perhaps, on that 
account the more interesting. During the process of cleaning, 
the two valves of the frustule had not been separated— this 
often happens with Diatoms. In this case, one of the apices 
of the upper valve was broken away and the line of separation 
distinctly passes through the dots and not between them, show- 
ing what is known as the ' postage-stamp fracture.' A careful 
examination of the illustration will clearly show this and assist 
in the elucidation of an important fact in Diatom structure, 
although this feature was evident in the original photo-micro- 
graph, it has been lost owing to the method of reproduction. 



Common British Beetles and Spiders and how to identify them 
by S. N. Sedgwick, M.A, London ; Charles H. Kelly (62 pp., price 
1/6 net). This book attempts too much at once. In -13 pages, even with 
the aid of 13 plates, it is obviously impossible to describe adequately the 
Beetles and Spiders commonly found in Great Britain, and the publishers 
would have been well advised to have issued a separate volume for each. 
The illustrations of beetles are reproduced from photographs of carded 
specimens, and while this treatment gives a fairly good likeness of the 
larger, it renders the smaller species as hopeless blurs. The book is 
lightened by a ' General Description ' containing the information usually 
repeated in books of this nature, though we do not remember previously 
reading that ' the glow-worm, like one of the girl-guides, learns "lamp- 
signalling " in the dark whether to summon a husband or a partner to a 
rich juicy snail supper.' This seems rather hard on the girl guides ! 

1918 Sept.l. 



284 

IRISH PISIDIA FROM WINDERMERE. 



Rev. C. E. Y. KKNDALL, B,A. 
Oundlc. 



Among a quantity of shells of the genus Pisidium, which I 
lately sent to Mr. A. W. Stelfox for identification, are a number 
from Windermere, which he pronounces to be Pisidium 
hiberniciim Westerlund and P. liUjeborgi Clessin. The shells 
were afterwards passed on to Mr. R. A. Phillips and Mr. Charles 
Oldham, both of whom confirmed his identification. I collected 
them in October, 1913, from the western (Lancashire) shore of 
the lake, in shallow water, near Sawrey-on-Windermere, 
where they were present together, associated with Pisidium 
pulchelhim Jenyns and P. subtruncatum Malm. Neither of 
the species has, I believe, been hitherto recorded for North 
Lancashire. 

Pisidium hiberniciim, though regarded as an Irish mollusk, 
seems to have a very wide range of distribution in England 
and Wales. It has been found at many stations in eight of 
the Midland and two of the Southern counties.* In Wales 
it is very prevalent in the mountain tarns. It has, however, 
onl}' been recorded so far for the North of England from one 
locality in the Isle of Man, and from Hawes Water, Silverdale, 
in Mid-Lancashire ; but it is almost certain that, if northern 
naturalists would collect this genus freely, this species would 
be found to be as universally distributed in England as in 
Ireland. 

, Pisidium liUjeborgi, which was the more abundant shell of 
the two, is also a species with an extensive range in Ireland, 
but seems to be distinctly rare in Great Britain. Mr. B. B. 
Woodward, in his British Museum publication, ' A Catalogue 
of British Species of Pisidium ' (1913), gives one locality for 
it in Mid-Lancashire, viz., Hawes Water, Silverdale, and records 
it from three stations in Carnarvonshire and from four in 
Scotland. Mr. Stelfox tells me that he has recently seen it 
from Malham Tarn in Yorkshire, and I have just received some 
specimens from Mr. Oldham, from Patterdale, in Westmorland. 
P. liUjeborgi is probably a Northern and Alpine species, and 
shows a strong preference for clear water with a clean gravelly 
or sandy bottom, so it is probable that this species, too, will 
be found before long in many more localities in the Lake 
District and Scotland. 

Mr. Stelfox, Ballymagee, Bangor, co. Down, asks me to say 
that he will be glad to receive for purposes of study collections 
of Pisidia, and will return the same after identifying them. 

* See 'The Range of Pisidium hiberniciim,' by Messrs. Phillips and 
Stelfox in The Irish Naturalist of March, 191 8. 

Naturalist, 



285 
WESTMORLAND COLEOPTERA. 



F. H. DAY, F.E.S. 



{Coiittfiiied from page 226). 

Brachelytra. 

Aleochara curtula Goeze {fiiscipes Gr.). Melkinthorpe (Britten). 

A. bipunciata Ol. Witherslack (Day). 

A. lanuginosa Gr. Melkinthorpe (Britten), Kirkby Stephen, Witherslack 

(Day). 
A . sparsa Heer. {succicola Th.). Tebay (Bowman), Melkinthorpe (Britten). 
A. bipustulata L. [nitida Gr.). Melkinthorpe, Ormside (Britten), Withers- 
lack (Day). 
Exaleochava morion Gr. Melkinthorpe (Britten), Witherslack (Day). 
Oxypoda lividipennis Man. Tebay (Bowman). 
O. opaca Gr. Melkinthorpe (Britten). 
Ocynsa dejecta Rey. Witherslack (Day). 
Asiilbiis canalicitlatus F. Tebay (Bowman), Melkinthorpe, Cliburn 

(Britten), W^ild Boar Fell (Day). 
Atheta (Homaloia) gregaria Er. Witherslack (Day). 
A. tomlini Joy. Melkinthorpe (Britten). 
A. elongatula Gr. Melkinthorpe, Cliburn (Britten), Witherslack, Kirkby 

Stephen (Day). 
A. indubia Slip. Witherslack (Day). 

A. sodalis Er. Tebay (Bowman), Melkinthorpe (Britten). 
A. iiigritula Gr. [boletobia Th.). Witherslack (Daj'). 
A. inoptata Shp. Melkinthorpe (Britten). 
A. reperta Shp. Melkinthorpe, Cliburn (Britten). 

A. irinotata Kr. Tebay (Bowman), Melkinthorpe, Cliburn (Britten). 
A. euryptera Steph. Witherslack (Day). 
A. aquatica Th. Tebay (Bowman). 

A. castanoptera Man. (xanthoptera Steph.). Melkinthorpe (Britten). 
A. pagana Er. Tebay (Bowman). 
A. longiusciila Gr. (vidua Steph.). Tebay (Bowman), Melkinthorpe 

(Britten), Witherslack (Day). 
A. airamentaria Gyll. Kirkby Stephen (Thompson), Melkinthorpe 

(Britten). 
A. macroceva Th. Witherslack (Day). 

A. zostercB Th. [nigra Kr.). Tebay (Bowman), Melkinthorpe (Britten). 
A. longicornis Gr. Melkinthorpe (Britten), Witherslack (Day). 
A. aierrima Gr. Melkinthorpe, Cliburn (Britten). 
A. niuscorum Bris. Melkinthorpe (Britten). 

A. fungi Gr. Tebay (Bowman), Witherslack, Lowther Park (Day). 
A. dubia Shp. Tebay (Bowman), Melkinthorpe (Britten). 
A. clientula Er. Melkinthorpe (Britten). 
A. analis Gr. Tebay (Bowman), Melkinthorpe, Cliburn Moss (Britten), 

Witherslack, Lowther Park (Day). 
A . cavifrons Shp. Tebay (Bowman), Melkinthorpe, Cliburn Moss (Britten). 
Sipalia (Homalota) circellaris Gr. Tebay (Bowman), Melkinthorpe 

(Britten), Witherslack, Wild Boar Fell (Day). 
Gnypeta coerulea Sahl. Tebay (Bowman), Ullswater district (Rev. 

T. Wood). 
Bolitochara lucida Gr. Rydal (Black). 
B obliqita Er. Tebay (Bowman). 
Oligota inflaia Man. Melkinthorpe (Britten). 
Hypocyptus longicornis Pk. Melkinthorpe (Britten). 
H. laeviusculus Man. Melkinthorpe (Britten). 
H. seminultim Er. Melkinthorpe (Britten). 

1918 Sept. 1. 



286 Day : Westmorland Coleoptera. 

Tachinus humeralis Gr. Tebay (Bowman), Witherslack (Day). 

T. subterraneus I.. Tebay (Bowman), Melkinthorpe, Cliburn Moss 

(Britten), 
vai'. bicolor Gr. Tebay (Bowman), Melkinthorpe (Britten). 
T. rufipes De G. Tebay (Bowman), Melkinthorpe (Britten), Shap (Day). 
T. laticollis Gr. Tebay (Bowman), Melkinthorpe (Britten). 
T. niarginellus F. Tebay (Bowman), Kirkby Stephen (Thompson), 

Melkinthorpe (Britten). 
T coUaris Gr. Tebay (Bowman), Melkinthorpe (Britten). 
T. elongaius Gyll. Ullswater district (Rev. T. Wood). 
Tachyporus nitidnlus F. [brunneus F.). Tebaj' (Bowman). 
T. piisillus Gr. Tebay (Bowman), Witherslack, Shap (Day). 
T. chrysomelinus L. Tebay (Bowman), Melkinthorpe, Cliburn Moss 

(Britten), Witherslack, Ravenstonedale, Lowther Park (Day). 
T. hypnonim F. Tebay (Bowman), Melkinthorpe, Cliburn Moss, Pooley 

Bridge (Britten), Witherslack (Day). 
T. solutus Er. Witherslack (Day). 
T. obtiisiis L. Tebay (Bowman), Melkinthorpe, Cliburn Moss (Britten), 

Witherslack, Lowther Park (Day). 
var. nitidicollis Steph. Tebay (Bowman), Melkinthorpe (Britten). 
Conosoma pubescens Gr. Melkinthorpe (Britten). 
Bryocharis (Megacronus) analis Pk. Tebay (Bowman). 
Bolitobius pygmcBHS F. Tebaj' (Bowman). 
B. lumdatus L. Melkinthorpe (Britten). 
Mycetoporus splendidus Gr. Tebay (Bowman). 
M. longidiis Man. Lowther Park (Daj'). 
M. clavicornis Steph. Tebay (Bowman). 
Qiiedius longicornis Kr. Tebay (Bowman). 

Q. mesomelinus Marsh. Tebay (Bowman), Melkinthorpe (Britten). 
Q. maurus Sahl. {fageti Th.). Melkinthorpe (Britten). 
Q. cinctus Pk. Melkinthorpe (Britten), Witherslack (Day). 
Q. fuliginosus Gr. Tebay (Bowman), Kirkby Stephen (Thompson), 

Melkinthorpe (Britten). 
Q. tristis Gr. Melkinthorpe (Britten). 

Q. molochiniis Gr. Tebay (Bowman), Melkinthorpe, Cliburn (Britten). 
Q. nigriceps Kr. Tebay (Bowman). 

Q. jnaurorufus Gr. Tebay (Bowman), Melkinthorpe (Britten). 
Q. scintillans Gr. Tebay (Bowman). 
Q. auricomus Kies. Tebay (Bowman). 
Q. rufipes Gr. Tebay (Bowman), Melkinthorpe (Britten). 
Q. fulvicollis Steph. Tebay (Bowman) _ 

Q.' boops Gr. Tebay (Bowman), Melkinthorpe, Cliburn Moss (Britten). 
Creophilus maxillosus L. Tebay (Bowman), Melkinthorpe (Britten). 
Staphylinus pubescens De G. Tebay (Bowman). 
S. erythropterus L. Tebay (Bowman), Ullswater district (Rev. T. Wood), 

Brough (Thompson). 
5. globulifer Geoff, {morio Gr.). Melkinthorpe (Britten). 
Philonthus splendens F. Tebay (Bowman), Melkinthorpe (Britten). 
P. laminatiis Creutz. Tebay (Bowman), Melkinthorpe (Britten), Raven- 
stonedale (Day). 
'.P. esneus Ross. Tebay (Bowman), Melkinthorpe (Britten). 
P. chalceus Steph. {proxinms Kr.). Tebay (Bowman), Witherslack (Day). 
P. carbonarhis Gyll. Tebay (Bowman). 
P. decor us Gr. Tebay (Bowman), Melkinthorpe (Britten). 
P. varius Gyll. Tebay (Bowman), Melkinthorpe (Britten), Witherslack 

(Day). 
P. marginatus F. Melkinthorpe (Britten). 
P. varians Pk. Tebay (Bowman), Witherslack (Day). 
P. albipes Gr. Tebay (Bowman). 
P. fimetayius Gr. Tebay (Bowman), Melkinthorpe, Cliburn (Britten). 

Naturalist, 



Day : Westmorland Coleoptera. 287 

Philonthus cephalotes Gr. Tebay (Bowman), Melkinthorpe (Britten). 
P. umbratilis Gr. Tebay (Bowman), Melkinthorpe (Britten). 
P. nigrita Nor. Tebay (Bowman). 
P. micans Gr. Cliburn Moss (Britten). 
P. fulvipes F. Tebay (Bowman). 
P. puella Nor. Tebay (Bowman). 

Othius punctulahis Goeze. {fulvipennis F.). Tebay (Bowman), Melkin- 
thorpe (Britten). 
O. melanocephalus Gr. Tebay (Bowman), Melkinthorpe (Britten). 
0. myrmecophilus Kies. Tebay (Bowman), Melkinthorpe, Cliburn Moss 

(Britten). 
Baptolinus affinis Pk. {aliernans Gr.). Cliburn (Britten). 
Xantholinns punctulatus Pk. Tebay (Bowman), Melkinthorpe (Britten). 
X. ochraceus Gyll. Melkinthorpe (Britten). 
X. linearis Ol. Tebay (Bowman), Melkinthorpe (Britten). 
X. longiventris Heer. Melkinthorpe (Britten). 

Lathrobiurn geminnm Kr. {boreale Brit. Cat.). Tebay (Bowman), Melkin- 
thorpe (Britten). 
L. fulvipenne Gr. Tebay (Bowman), Kirkby Stephen (Thompson), 

Melkinthorpe (Britten). 
L. brunnipes F. Tebay (Bowman), Melkinthorpe (Britten). 
Stilicus orbiculatus Pk. {affinis Er.). Melkinthorpe (Britten). 
S ericsoni Fauv. [oybicidatus Er.). Melkinthorpe (Britten). 
Dianous ccentlescens Gyll. Tebay (Bowman). 

Stenus clavicornis Scop, {speculator Lac.). Tebay (Bowman), Melkin- 
thorpe (Britten). 
S. nanus Steph. {declaratus Er.). Tebay (Bowman), Melkinthorpe 

(Britten). 
S. brunnipes Steph. Tebay (Bowman), Melkinthorpe, Cliburn, Shap 

(Britten). 
S. similis Hbst. Tebay (Bowman), Melkinthorpe (Britten), Witherslack, 

Kirkby Stephen (Day). 
S. picipes Steph. Melkinthorpe (Britten). 
5. nitidiuscuhis Steph. Lowther Park (Day). 
S. flavipes Steph. Melkinthorpe (Britten), Witherslack (Day). 
S. impressus Germ. Tebay (Bowman), Melkinthorpe (Britten), Wither- 
slack (Day). 
Platystethus arenarius Fourc. Melkinthorpe (Britten), Witherslack, 

Gaisgill (Day). 
Oxytelus riigosus F. Tebay (Bowman), Melkinthorpe (Britten). 
0. laqueaius Marsh. Tebay (Bowman), Melkinthorpe (Britten), Kirkby 

Stephen (Day) . 
O. sculptus Gr. Tebay (Bowman). 
O. sculpturatus Gr. Witherslack (Day). 

O. nitidulus Gr. Tebay (Bowman), Melkinthorpe (Britten). 
O. tetracarinatus Block. Tebay (Bowman), Kirkby Stephen (Thompson), 

Melkinthorpe (Britten), Witherslack, Lowther Park (Day). 
TrogophlcBus arcuatus Steph. Melkinthorpe (Britten). 
T. bilineatus Steph. Melkinthorpe (Britten). 
T. rivularis Mots. Melkinthorpe (Britten). 
T. pusillus Gr. Melkinthorpe (Britten). 
Coprophilus striatulus F. Melkinthorpe (Britten). 
Anihophagus caraboides L. {testaceus Gr.). Tebay (Bowman). 
Lesteva pubescens Man. Tebay (Bowman), Melkinthorpe (Britten). 
L. longelytrata Goeze. Tebay (Bowman), Melkinthorpe (Britten). 
L. heeri Fauv. {sicula Brit. Cat.). Tebay (Bowman), Rydal (Black), 

Cliburn, Askham Fell (Britten), Witherslack (Day). 
-Olophrum piceum Gyll. Tebay (Bowman), Kirkby Stephen (Thompson), 

Melkinthorpe, Cliburn (Britten). 
O. fuscum Gr. Tebay (Bowman), Melkinthorpe, Chburn (Britten).. 

^918 Sepl. 1. 



288 Field Notes. 

Lathrimesum unicolor Steph. Tebay (Bowman), Melkinthorpe, Cliburn 
(Britten). 

Deliphrum tectum Pk. Tebay (Bowman). 

Philorinum sordidum Steph. Cliburn (IBritten), Witherslack (Day). 

Xylodromus concinnus Marsh. Tebay (Bowman), Melkinthorpe (Britten). 

PhlcBonomus pusillus Gr. Tebay (Bowman). 

Homalium rivulare Pk. Tebay (Bowman), Melkinthorpe (Britten). 

H. oxyacanthcB Gr. Tebay (Bowman), Melkinthorpe (Britten). 

Phyllodrepa ioptera Steph. Tebay (Bowman), Melkinthorpe (Britten). 

P. vilis Er. Tebay (Bowman). 

Anthobium ophthalmicuni Pk. Melkinthorpe (Britten). 

A. sorbi Gyll. Tebay (Bowman), Melkinthorpe (Britten), Lowther Park, 
Witherslack (Day). 

A. minutum F. Witherslack, Lowther Park (Day). 

A. torquatum Marsh. Tebay (Bowman), Witherslack, Lowther Park (Day). 

Proteinus ovalis Steph. Tebay (Bowman), Melkinthorpe, Cliburn (Britten). 

P. brachypterus F. Tebay (Bowman), Melkinthorpe (Britten). 

A. limbatus Makl. {cvenulatus Pand.). Melkinthorpe (Britten), Wither- 
slack (Day). 

Megarthrus depvessus Pk. Tebay (Bowman), Melkinthorpe (Britten). 

M. sinuatocollis Lac. Tebay (Bowman), Melkinthorpe (Britten). 
{To be continued). 



ENTOMOLOGY. 

CucuUia verbasci at Bradford. — Respecting Mr. Porritt's 
note on July gth, when in the Botanical Gardens in Lister Park, 
I saw three very large specimens of V erbascum in close prox- 
imity, and at once approached them to look more particularly 
for Ciomis, but when three or four yards away was surprised 
to see, resting at full length on the stems, several full-grown 
larvae of CucuUia verbasci. There were several more not quite 
half-grown, and on August ist were several not yet full-fed. 
Another species of Verbascum about half a dozen yards away 
was quite free from them. C. verbasci is not new to this 
district ; it has been found in gardens on two or three different 
occasions. The imago, however, so far as I know, has never 
been seen in the district.— J. W. Carter, Bradford. 

— : o : — 
BOTANY. 

Lepidozia trichoclados K. Miill. in Cumberland. — In 
February last, I found this minute plant growing freely among 
other Hepaticse (chiefly Aplozia cremtlata (Sm.) Dum.) on 
Orton Common, about four miles west of Carlisle. They were 
covering the sides of one of the numerous drains which intersect 
this piece of Common, the soil of which is moist and peaty. 
It is apparently not common in England, being recorded 
from only five other English counties, but it is more widely 
known from Scotland. It may be that it is overlooked as a 
small form of the commoner L. setacea (Web.) Mitt. It is 
new to vice-county 70. Mr. W. Ingham has kindly verified 
my gathering. — Jas. Murray, 2 Balfour Road, Carlisle. 

Naturaust, 



289 

THE GEOGRAPHICAL DISTRIBUTION OF THE 
MOTHS OF THE SUBFAMILY BISTONINAE. 



J. W. HESLOP HARRISON, D.Sc. 



{Continued from page 194). 

And the only direction left for consideration is that toward 
Asia. Very tempting is the configuration of the long chain 
of islands, hinting at continuity at no remote geological period. 
But between Asia and Australia, almost gossamer-like in its 
outward appearance, is that narrow strait just east of Java 
between Bali and Lombok. It is in truth a ' great gulf fixed ' 
almost impassable for bird, beast, and insect. So few are the 
forms (they exist of course) which have transgressed this 
boundary line that the few which did, and now appear as 
an Indo-Malayan leaven of the Flora and Fauna of New 
Guinea, Australia, and the Celebes are explicable on the basis 
of the many accidents that time produces. None are flagrant 
breaches of our expectations. 

The strait between Bali and I-ombok must be of extra- 
ordinary age, for it brings back once again to our eyes those 
early days when Australia was as well off in its plants and 
animals as the rest of the world. No form is more emphatic 
in asserting this than the Secondary Cossid genus, Xyleutes, 
mentioned before, as to it the barrier was non-existent, it 
occurring in Borneo, India, Ceylon, and the Philipine Islands. 
Thus nothing can be gained from the East Indies. 

Our search for the desired passage must be directed elsewhere. 
But where shall we look ? Suggestive land bridges simply 
do not exist. Still what do the soundings tell ? We see an 
interesting series of shallows stretcliing from New Zealand, 
extpnding up to and including New Caledonia where similar 
shallows, striking tangentially from the coast of New South 
Wales, meet them. Further, without significant break, these 
shallows are prolonged via the Caroline, Ladrone and Bonin 
Islands to the South East of Japan, and we are brought up 
exactly in the area with which our linkages must be made. 

Note the significance of this line ; it coincides with the 
Western Pacific Belt of volcanic action, and in addition these 
islands, in sharp contradistinction with most Pacific Islands, 
are composed of volcanic rocks in many cases of immense age. 

Of volcanic origin, then, and lying on the line of perpetual 
volcanic action and seismic disturbances, they must have been 
prone at any time to excessive uplifting which would produce 
peninsulas or isthmuses of the Panama or Malay type, down 
which would pass, as in America, a backbone of lofty mountains 
of which the rudiments attaining a height of 2,000 feet or even 
3,000 feet persist to this day. ■ 

1918 Sept. 1. 



290 Distribution of MotJis oj the Sub-family Bistonince. 

Evidently', if this were the route, other species of varying 
relationships should exist at different points of the broken 
fragments of the bridge, and, fortunately, such can be produced. 
The former connection of the Ladrones and Carolines with the 
Palnsarctic region needs no better example than that afforded 
by their possessing one of our ordinary Fritillary Butterflies 
of the genus Argynnis, and we shall, in consequence, not 
linger here. 

So, too, the linking up with New Zealand is not a tedious 
undertaking, so many instances of various values and types 
being procurable. Take, for example, the very characteris- 
tically Palaearctic plant subfamily Capnfolica. Look at this 
selection of its contents : — 

Genus Caprifolium. Distribution : — Holarctic. 

Genus Weigalia. Distribution : — North East America and 
Eastern Asia (note the valuable hint as to its age and origin 
provided by its discontinuity). 

Genus Aleuosmia. Distribution : — New Zealand. 

Genus Abelia. Distribution : — China and Japan. 

Comment is superfluous ; the areas cited must have been 
joined up in a manner allowing of the migration of temperate 
forms. 

Further, consider the whole of the Natural Order ElcBo- 
carpacecB, in particular the type genus Elceocarpus, found in 
New Zealand, E. Asia, Japan, and the Sandwich Islands. 
Examine it in conjunction with the closely related Antholoma 
and Duboutzia from New Caledonia, and again the old path 
available between Japan and New Zealand is clearly indicated. 
If still further examples are needed, many may be quoted, but 
we shall content ourselves with the mention of two more, one 
the Composite genus Lageniphora, found in the East Indies, 
Japan, and New Zealand, useful as driving home the lessons 
of the preceeding, and, lastly, the Natural Order, the Araliaccce, 
which occurs in all moods and tenses at all parts of the suggested 
route and its surroundings. Moreover, the case of this order 
presents us with a curious and forceful fact, and that is the 
enormous number of endemic genera evolved within its limits 
in New Caledonia, implying that this important island was 
much more extensive in past epochs than now, and that, there- 
fore, in the New Caledonian neighbourhood, the land connex- 
ions we have postulated attained their maximum breadth ; 
this statement the soundings confirm. 

To forge the last link of the chain is our next task, and 
that is to adduce examples bringing New Caledonia, Australia 
and New Zealand into contact. Of all the admirable examples 
to be used, none will stand us in better stead than the plant 
Natural. Order, Epacridaccce, for its whole tendencies are 
temperate. No better choice from it can be chosen than the 

Naturalist, 



Dhtribiition of Moths of the Suh-jamily Bistonince . 291 

genus Epacris itself ; it may be found in New Caledonia, 
Australia, and New Zealand, as is also the case with the allied 
genus Dracophyllum. And these two are not isolated examples ; 
scores of genera equally satisfactory will serve to weld this 
chain. 

Thus, in the plethora of instances quoted, we have abundant 
proof that a passage from Japan to New Zealand existed via 
New Caledonia, whence a branch struck off to Australia. 

Obviously, the continued existence of a route of this type 
midst volcanic surroundings would be very precarious and 
always unstable, never probably quite continuous at one 
time, and thus presenting to creatures attempting to use it 
enormous difficulties. Nevertheless, the bridge afforded similar 
facilities, to a less extent, but still parallel to those offered by 
the Central Plateau of Africa and by the Rocky Mountains and 
Andes of America. Furthermore, the opportunities were to 
all intents and purposes restricted to organisms of the same 
physiological character, i.e., those delighting in cold, temperate, 
Alpine, or Subalpine habitats. 

By this attenuated basaltic chain, therefore, the Coppers of 
the genus Chrysophanus passed to Australia, Tasmania, and 
New Zealand, as did likewise the Erebice, the Water Crowfoot 
{Ranunciilns aquatilis) and the various grasses named above 
(than which no better hall-mark of the quality of the passage 
can be obtained). Lastly, by its means Lophodes sinistraria, 
typically and purely Bistonine in its antennae and genitalia — 
nay, evidencing in both a close affinity with the base of the 
Lycia-Palceonyssia stem — colonised Australia when as yet that 
continent was united to Tasmania, for as a peninsula the 
latter had been occupied before the rollers of the Pacific had 
carved for themselves the Bass Straits. 

That few representatives of the temperate forms find a 
place in New Caledonia and the adjoining islands cannot be 
wondered at. Relativelv lower now, and situated only 20° 
from the Equator what forms have managed to prolong their 
existence there have long since by transformations of diverse 
degrees and types resulted in species helping to swell the huge 
masses of endemic genera, species and even orders that the 
island possesses ; and in an analogous way, but to a less 
extent, like forces have been at work in Australia. 

Evolution of this nature, added to the narrow and upland 
character of the bridge, tells us with no uncertain voice why 
the remnants of the migrating forms are now so few in number 
and further, from the latter feature, we gather why the higher 
groups of both animals and plants are not included, although 
the isolated Australian Bustard [Otis australis) may indi- 
cate a successful attempt of one such organism to force the 
passage. 

1918 Sept. 1. 



?92 



THE CAUSE OF THE ATTRACTION IN THE 
PAIRING OF LEPIDOPTERA. 



B. MORLEY. 



To Major Smart's interesting note on the pairing of Hepialus hectus, in 
The Naturalist, p. 269, I should hke to make an observation. The species 
in question pairs about sunset, and the couples hang from the underside 
of the bracken fronds, but although they are fairly well concealed, the 
quick eyes of the night-jar detect the easily obtained food supply, and by 
gliding under the ferns, takes the unsuspecting moths into its spacious 
gape as it flies along and procures a good meal without much trouble. 
Although this takes place while it is still quite light, I have never noticed 
the birds hawk after the flying moths of this species. 

With regard to the cause of attraction in the pairing of moths, in The 
Naturalist for July, pp. 234-5, is a note of mine on the pairing of Hepialus 
lupuliniis, where a suggestion is made that the wing vibrations of the 
female are the means used for attracting the male to her. Anent this 
suggestion is an editorial note unceremoniously sweeping it aside as a 
fairy tale. Fairies, like ghosts and mermaids, are creatures that only 
exist outside the hmits of cognition, and are the creation of minds which 
think irrational thoughts, but why communication by means of vibration 
should be classed with such mythical creatures is hard to understand. 
Surely communication by means of the human voice and the various forms 
of telegraphy are only possible by reason of vibrations. As regards sound 
vibrations, they travel much further and more freely with the wind than 
against it. Much research has recently been made into biological structure 
of the various interior organs, and especially the genitalia of Moths, but 
by the published accounts of the discoveries made scent glands are not 
present in the bodies of the females, or if they are nothing is said about 
them, \^'hy then, should the wing vibrations, which we know by ob- 
servation are actually made, be discounted, and primary importance be 
given to a scent which we cannot detect. Experience teaches us that 
where scent is present in animals it is exuded from a gland, and the only 
logical way of reasoning is by experience, otherwise it is mere speculation : 
consequently, until such times as scent glands are proved to exist the scent 
theory of attraction must be banished into the region where fairies dwell, 
and in the meantime it may not be altogether profitless to work out the 
possibilities of communication by vibrations as a necessary preliminary to 
moth copulation. 

For a number of years the writer has been sceptical as to the generally 
accepted theory of the cause of moths being attracted to light. One 
fully realizes the gravity of attacking an old established theory and 
expects much unreasonable condemnation for his temerity. Nevertheless, 
for the sake of truth, risks are worth taking. The reason given as the 
cause of this attraction is that all the facets composing the eyes become 
filled or flooded with the rays of light, thus rendering the insect totally in- 
capable of seeing anything except the light ; therefore, if it flies at all, it is 
bound to fly to the light, because it is the only object it can see. Strange to 
say, however, it is a fact that most of the moths thus attracted are males, 
indeed, the extreme rarity of a female being found at light may safely be 
dismissed as accidental. One has never seen a convincing explanation of 
this well-known fact. Now, the females of each species of night-flying 
moths have eyes identical in structure with those of the males, and so 
far as one knows, they can see just as well as the males ; that they also fly 
freely is manifest, for they visit the ' sugar ' patches in about the same 
numbers as the males. While in the act of flying it is supposed that they 
are just as liable to fly into the region near a light as the males are, and if 
the illuminated facet theory is correct they should be just as liable as the 
males are to light attraction, but the truth is that they are not so, and one 

Natu.au:>tr 



Field Notes. 293 

suspects speculation as the origin of the theory as a consequence. Even 
the males are spasmodic in their visits to light. On some nights there is 
no attraction for any species ; on others, certain species come freely, 
while at other times still other species ai^e the only visitors. Thus, on 
Wicken Fen, where light is the principal mode of collecting, the terms are 
'a bad night,' or 'an albovenosa night,' or 'a quercifolia night,' and so on. 
It would seem therefore that certain atmospheric conditions are against 
the attraction altogether, while other conditions are suitable to other 
species. Yet again there are still other problems ; geometrid species like 
Scotosia vetulata and 5. rhamnata, which were both common on the fen in 
early July, 191 2, both at the sugar posts and flying around buckthorn 
bushes, contrary to the expectations of the writer never put in an ap- 
pearance at light at all. 

It is a fact that there cannot be a light without heat and the consequent 
vibrations, and possibly with the proper atmospheric condition to give the 
exact tone to the vibrations it is probable that the males of every species 
of night-flying moth in existence could be attracted, while on the other 
hand the females are not responsive to the vibrations because there is 
not the least reason why they should be. 

[Surely Mr. Morley's first note (pp. 234-5) is ample proof that scent is 
the attraction. He tells us that after he had boxed the pair of moths, 
and placed the box a few yards away on the ground, none of the flying 
males ever flew near it, but that in the immediate space around where the 
female had been, the males eagerly searched for her for towards twenty 
minutes. There could be no vibration then, but the scent evidently 
remained for that time before it completely evaporated. Besides, many 
female moths, probably the vast majority indeed, do not vibrate their 
wings at such a time. After the wings are fully dry, except that their 
position is changed as darkness approaches in the evening, they remain 
apparently absolutely quiescent until pairing occurs. Moreover, some 
female moths have no wings, and so cannot vibrate them. I have known 
a female Nyssia hispidaria, a perfectly wingless moth, caged up in Epping 
Forest, attract a large number of males. There is practically no doubt 
that scent is the attraction. — G.T.P.] 

: o : 



Eccentric Nests of Humble Bee. — Early in August 
my attention was called to two nests of Humble Bees on Kings- 
land, Shrewsbury. The first was on the flagged floor of a cup- 
board in a disused stable, and was a domed mass about twelve 
inches in diameter, composed entirely of bits of hay and paper 
which the bees {B. lapidarms) had bitten off the larger pieces 
which littered the adjacent floor. The other nest was that of 
the Common Humble Bee {B. terrestris) and was not remarkable 
in itself, but from its juxtaposition to a Wasp's nest. A friend 
of mine had destroyed a Wasp's nest in a hedge-bank, and went 
to dig it out. As soon as he began to do so he was astonished 
to see a number of Humble Bees about it. On opening the bank 
he discovered that the entrance hole was common to two nests ; 
from this hole two passages branched — that to the left leading 
to a Wasp's nest, in which all the insects were dead ; while 
that to the right led to a Humble Bees' nest, the insects in 
which were all ' alive and kicking.' It seems strange that bees 
and wasps should thus dwell together amicably, and both use 
the same vestibule. — H. E. Forrest. 

1918 Sept. 1. 



294 

ORNITHOLOGICAL OBSERVATIONS 
AND REFLECTIONS IN SHETLAND. 



EDMUND SELOIIS. 

[Covtintied from page i6o), 

October igTH.^The Heron, here, stalks along the steep 
and sea-weed-slippery rocks, as he does along the mud and 
reedy verge of his more familiar surroundings. I see him, 
after a short stroll of this description, descend into the water, 
and stand, with neck held straight and rigid, the head and 
long beak projecting in one line, at right angles from the end 
of it, like the spike of a pickaxe. One moment, the whole 
implement, without any flexuous curve in it, approaches 
nearer to the water — as a pickaxe itself would, if stood on its 
handle and pivoted forward — retires again, again approaches, 
and then the pick — now a spear — is, with its shaft, darted in — 
the direction being, now, more horizontal — and returns with 
a small fish transfixed, so it appears, upon its point- — held, at 
least, by the very point, from whence it is gulped hastily down. 
After this, there is a little more waiting, but, nothing resulting 
from it, the bird becomes impatient, and resumes its advance. 
At first he wades through the water, but soon remounts the 
rocks, and from first one and then another that stands at some 
height above it, he cranes and peers into the sea, thus, as it 
would seem, purposely adding to the vantage of his height. 
At length, having made his dispositions, he comes cautiously 
down, and standing amidst a flux of brown seaweed, he, in a 
moment or two, lances into it, and again secures something, 
though still quite small. But this time, the motions are 
different, and the neck, though never as represented in pictorial 
fiction, is more curved, to meet new exigences of circumstance. 

When a little band of Ring Plovers are put up, they fly 
out very gracefully, over the sea, keeping all in a cluster 
together, the inner surface of their wings shining out, like 
morning light, all at once, for a little, and then eclipsed in 
brown twilight. They are beaten continually, and, slenderly 
pointed as they are, with a graceful backward curve, this has 
a very pretty effect. A special point, both of beauty and 
interest, in their flight, is the way in which they all suddenly 
turn and curve off at a tangent to the curve — for they abhor a 
straight line — in which they have, till then, been proceeding. 
How do they all choose, exactly the same moment, to do this ? 
Why do they never fly against each other or float upon each 
other's toes — or tails ? A little before alighting — over the 
water still, but nearing the shore — they cease beating their 
wings, and glide in on them, holding them rigidly, sometimes 
with the same backward curve, sometimes straight out, or 

Naturalist, 



Ornithological Observations and Reflections in Shetland. 295 

more nearly so. What it is they pick up off the wet sand, as 
they appear to do — something — continually, it is difficult to 
make out, except that it is very minute. After-examination of 
the spot detects nothing, nor do the glasses reveal anything 
held in the bill. The sand is covered with the castings of 
sea-worms, and, every now and again, one of these creatures 
shoots up a miniature geysir, from his burrow which causes a 
mild degree of surprise, sometimes, in a bird that happens to 
be near it. But in sea- worms the Ring Plover does not seem 
interested. He pecks and pecks up, elsewhere, where there 
seems to be nothing, and it is nothing that he would seem to 
get, though doubtless, he knows his own affairs. The little 
piping note that these birds make, along the shore, is like 
" piffany, piffany, piffany, piffany," or " tiffany, tiffany, 
tiffany, tiffany," or " tiffany, piffany, piffany, tiffany,' — for 
now it sounds like one, and now the other. They also cry, 
dwelling more than we do on the last syllable : ' Cheery, 
cheery, cheery, cheery,' and all their ways and actions are an 
eloquent discourse on this theme. 

A Starling perched on a lamb's back, but he soon flies off 
it, on to the ground, near one of its feet. But he does not search 
the foot, and is soon feeding, with another Starling, farther 
off. The little flock, on the sheep, the other daj^ never 
searched or pecked into its wool — did not seem to think of it. 
They certainly^ I think, use the sheep as perches merely — often 
at least — and may like their warm wool. On the occasion 
referred to, it was towards evening, and the Starlings were on 
their way to roost, I think. Sheep and cows, here, take, for 
the Starlings, the place of trees or bushes, elsewhere. They 
may search them, too, sometimes. Certainly they would, one 
would think, being there, if it were worth their while — but 
that is the point. They come down on to the rocks, now, and 
search the seaweed, but not very profoundly, uttering their 
pleasant sing-song, the while. 

Have just seen a Herring Gull attacked by a Shag. I was 
watching the Shag, as it swam, through the glasses, and, out 
of the corner of them, caught sight of the Herring Gull, not 
far off it. Just as I did so, the Shag dived, and coming up, 
near the intruder (so considered), passed towards him over the 
water, snapping his bill. As he arrived, the Herring Gull 
flew a little way, and came down on the water, again, whether 
after receiving a bite or two — for that, with his hooked bill, 
was the Shag's method — I cannot say, but think he just avoided 
this. The Shag then dived again, and, a moment or two 
afterwards, the Gull uttered a sudden, short cry, evidently of 
pain, and flew right away. As he rose, so did the Shag, just 
beneath him. This time he had exactly measured the distance, 
and attacked the Gull from below. No doubt, though this 

1918 Sept- 1 



296 Ornithological Observations and Reflections in Shetland. 

was lost to me, he used his bill as he had threatened with it, 
and, in doing that, he opened and shut the mandibles, not 
widely, but quickly and continuously. Were the bill pointed, 
it would, no doubt, be used to thrust with, as is that of the 
Grebes and Divers. The hook, though it makes this imprac- 
ticable, must be a formidable implement for seizing, grappling 
and biting, as I suppose is the mode of procedure. Probably 
the opening and shutting of the mandibles makes a clattering 
noise, but I was not near enough to hear this, either to-day or 
some days previously, when I also witnessed the action. Later, 
this afternoon, on a certain rock, at the entrance of the voe, 
which is a regular shag gathering place, a young bird was most 
importunate with its mother (presumably) to feed it, pursuing 
her about over the rock, shaking and spreading out its wings. 
The mother's only remedy against this — for she would not 
comply with the demand — was to retreat and, at last, fly 
down upon the water, where, being followed and pursued by her 
child, she dived. I do not know why this strategy should 
have been successful, considering the species, but it was. 

A fleet of Shags swam right up the voe, this morning. I 
saw them on first looking out of my little window, at about 
8 o'clock — for there is no special advantage in early rising, at 
this time of the year. A little after I had come down and had 
breakfast, they began to swim back again. I counted seventy- 
six, and do not think I was far out, though they all leapt and 
dived, from time to time. At any rate, if I erred at all, it was 
on the side of moderation, and Mr. Hay thought that there 
were many more. This is a very different kind of fleet from 
that of the Swans on the eleven-miles-long strip of water behind 
the Chesil Bank — itself the Fleet, whether therefore so named I 
know not. A dark pirate flotilla they looked, as against that 
silver, fairy one. Still they had a very pleasing appearance, 
and if less graceful and stately — what bird could compete 
here ? — on the other hand, were more their craft's masters, as 
was particularly apparent in their diving. Schools of Purpoises 
were also playing (as daily) in the perfectly still water ; yet 
no calmer here, in the voe, now, than in the open sea outside. 
Every now and again, one or other of these Porpoises makes a 
violent rush through the water, which foams about him, and 
I saw one resting upon it, straight out, at full length, so that 
his head and muzzle were plainly visible, having a porcine 
appearance. These are pleasing interludes from the perpetual 
monotonous roll. 

And to crown all (as they might think) two male Eider 
Ducks have come far up, and now begin to swim out, again, 
side by side, but with a yard or so between them, in a very 
regal manner—' two households, both alike in dignity.' 
{To be continued). 

Naturalist, 



297 

YORKSHIRE NATURALISTS AT CROSSHILLS. 

The two hundred and seventy-third gathering of the Union at Crosshills, 
on Saturday, July 13th, was a pronounced success, due in no small degree 
to the excellent local arrangements made by Mr. John Holmes and his 
enthusiastic colleagues of the Crosshills Naturalists' Society. The Ha- 
worth Ramblers' Association also took part in the excursion, thus swelling 
the attendance, which was close upon eighty. The weather being ideal, 
the selected routes gave ample recompense to those who took ad- 
vantage of the many natural delights which the valleys of Glusburn and 
Lothersdale afforded. The geologists were under the guidance of Mr. John 
Holmes and the naturalists were led by Mr. H. Cowling. The latter 
party had also the company of the local historian, Mr. John Stell, who gave 
valuable and interesting information concerning the residences at Malsis 
and Carr Head and other places of interest along the route traversed. 

The meeting at the close of the excursion was held in the Glusburn 
Institute. Dr. A. Gilligan, F.G.S., presiding. Excellent sectional reports 
were given by Mr. J. Holmes on geology ; Mr. G. Fysher on conchology ; 
Mr. H. Cowling on flowering plants ; Mr. C. A. Cheetham on mosses ; 
Mr. R. F. Jones on fungi ; Mr. H. B. Booth on vertebrate zoology ; Mr. 
R. Butterfield on entomology. A vote of thanks to the landowners for 
the privileges so kindly granted to visit their estates, to the guides, and 
to the members of the Crosshills Naturalists' Society for the local arrange- 
ments, was heartily carried on the motion of Mr. W. P. Winter, B.Sc, 
seconded by Dr. Woodhead, M.Sc. — W.E.L.W. 

Vertebrate Zoology. — Mr. H. B. Booth writes : — Perhaps the most 
interesting birds noticed were two separate parties of Bullfinches and a 
Kestrel. Spotted Flycatchers and Magpies were numerous. But the 
number of birds seen was scarcely up to expectations in such a charming 
district, even in July. The scantiness of undergrowth in the woods 
would no doubt chiefly account for the scarcity of the Warblers in the 
district investigated. Many species, usually generally distributed, such as 
Yellow and Pied Wagtails, Skylarks, Tree and Meadow Pipits, etc., were 
either absent or uncommon. 

CoNCHOLOGY. — Mr. Greevz Fysher writes : — The Conchologists 
traversed the Glusburn Valley, and noted Vitrina pellucida, Hyalinia 
alliaria, Succinea putris, Planorbis albiis, Liinncea peregra, Valvata 
piscinalis, Palitdestrina jenkinsi, Sphcerium corneum, S. lacustre, Pisidium 
subtruncatiDn. 

Hymenoptera, Diptera and Hemiptera. — Mr. R. Butterfield 
reports : — On the heads of thistles the inquiline bees Psithyrus qiiadricolor 
Lep., P. canipestris Panz., and a variety of P. vestalis Fourc, were seen. 
During sunshine the handsome flies Vohtcella pelhisens L., and Chrysoioxum 
arcuatmn L. were seen in the gardens at Carr Head. By sweeping near 
Carr Head I captured a number of Hemiptera, the Psyllidae being partic- 
ularly abundant. 

Botany : Alg.e. — Mr. Alfred Wilman reports that he found Melosira 
rarians Aq. in Gill Beck together with three species of Spirogyra in 
conjugation. 

Flowering Plants. — Mr. Wattam writes : — Charming indeed is the 
wooded valley of Glusburn, and the typical flora of the grits and boulder 
clay was ever pleasing. Portions of the waters of the lake in the grounds 
at Malsis were gay with the blooms of Nuphar litteum and alongside the 
borders Menyanthes trifoliaia, still displaying a few blossoms, thrives 
wonderfully well, and there are some well established clumps of Lythrwm 
salicaria. On leaving these grounds the route traversed lay alongside the 
beck as far as the ruined mill at Cowling Head. Lactuca niuralis, Crepis 
pa'udosa, Campanula laiifolia, and Orchis macitlata were not uncommon 
plants, and just beyond the inill there is an abundance of Equisetum 
maximum ; Polypodium vulgare was also noted. The Bird Cherry is a 

1918 Sept. I. 



298 Yorkshire Naturalists at Crosshills. 

common tree, but bearing little fruit ; seedlings of Beech' and Mountain 
Elm were gathered. The old fish pond near to Carr Head Hall was 
tenanted by Nasturtium officinale, Epilobium palustre, Scrophularia 
aquatica, Alopecurus geniculatus and Glyceria fluitans. The arboreal 
features of the grounds at Carr Head are very fine, especially conspicuous 
being magnificent examples of Beech and Mountain Elm. Close to the 
Hall are examples of uncommon trees, chief of which are the Redwood, 
Cedar of Lebanon, Fern-leaved Beech, Magnolia, Tilia platyphyllus var. 
asplenifolia, variegated Oak and Sycamore. Particularly noticeable was 
a young branch on the bole of a Mountain Elm, the leafage of such branch 
being of a uniform cream tint. The gardener (Mr. Fisher) stated that 
this particular branch had borne this phase of foliage for many years, 
but the branch itself did not seem to increase in size. On the route taken 
by the geologists the vegetation was entirely that of silicious soil. The 
limestones were so extensively covered by boulder clay that the calcareous 
beds had no perceptible influence on the vegetation. Mr. J. Bradley 
showed specimens of Miniulns litteus found on this route. 

Bryology. — iSIr. C. A. Cheetham writes : — Along the stream side in 
the Malsis grounds the mosses were not the type expected, large masses 
of Hypyium conimittatnm and Weisia verticillata, both tufa-loving species, 
showed that a considerable amount of lime was present in the sandstone, 
and with them was well-grown Dichodontiiim pelliicidum, etc. On boulders 
in the stream there was a delicate form of Eiirhynchiuni nisei forme. The 
mosses of the stream sides and rocks were very different from those of a 
rough gritstone .stream such as at Sawley or the Upper Washburn where 
.Hepatics are the prevailing type of plant. Here the Hepatics were few, 
or missing, and such plants as Cafhaririea cvispa, which delight in the coarse 
sand debris, were absent. 

On the walls Dicranoweisia cirrhata was plentiful, with Webera nutans, 
the latter producing the attenuated growths which so easily break off and 
reproduce the plant vegetatively, and in the fields under trees, a nice growth 
of Dicranum Bonjeani was noted. 

The somewhat uncommon Dicranella cerviculata grew on the shale when 
exposed on the stream sides. After crossing over the hill and coming to 
the limestone quarries the change was striking. Gririniiia apocarpa, with 
a little Encalypta streptocarpa, Br yum cappillare and Bafbula rubella 
being the mosses on the rocks, with Hypnum molluscum, H . stellare and 
H. cnspidatum on the slopes and floor, giving an interesting study in 
ecology on a small scale. 

Geology. — Mr. John Holmes writes ; — The party for the geological 
excursion to Raygill Avalked up the banks of the stream for about four 
miles, crossed the ridge to Raygill, and returned down the Lothersdale 
valley. From its source, just over the county boundary, to its confluence 
with the .\ire, the Glusburn Beck'follows the strike of the Sabden Shales. 
The Kinderscout Grit occupies the slopes of Glusburn Moor and Cowling 
Hill, while the Middle Grits form the bold escarpment of Earl Crag. 
Between Glusburn and Cowling, thick deposits of glacial drift occupy the 
middle of the valley, and the vmderlying rocks are not seen between 
Malsis and Gill Bottom. The six-inch map, surveyed in 1848, shows 
eighteen limekilns on the banks of the streams above Glusburn. All 
these kilns must have burnt boulders from the drift, as no outcrop of 
limestone occurs in this valley. 

At Glusburn Bridge, a bed of gravel in the middle of the stream was 
examined and the large proportion of limestone boulders noted. A 
piece of conglomerate from the basement bed of the Carboniferous Lime- 
stone, has recently been found here. Near Malsis, a mass of tufa on the 
side of the stream was pointed out. These deposits occur in several places, 
usually in close proximity to boulder clay. Below the junction of Ickorn- 
shaw and Gill Becks, a fine series of terraces in the drift indicates the 
greater power of the former stream. An unusual feature was noticed in 

Naturalist,. 



Field Notes. 299 

Gill Beck, where a bluish-grey mud was seen oozing up between the 
boulders in the bed of the stream. A stick was thrust down into this 
mud to a depth of several feet without meeting with any resistance. Simi- 
lar places are found in adjoining streams and arc known locally as ' quick- 
sands.' At Gill Bottom was the refuse-heap of an old lead working in 
the Kinderscout Grit. Higher up the stream are sections of shale 
containing septarian nodules. Near Westfield a fossiliferous bed was 
found which yielded Posidoniella laevis, P. sulcata and Glyphioceras 
diadema, the zone fossil of the Sabden Shales. Above Stone Head several 
other fossiliferous beds were pointed out before the party left the stream 
to ascend Hawshaw. From the top of the ridge a line view of the sur- 
rounding country was obtained, the glacial overflow channel on Combe 
Hill being clearly seen on the southern skyline. Descending into Lothers- 
dale, the full thickness of the Pendleside Limestone was seen at Hawshaw 
Delf, where the beds dip south at a high angle. On the opposite side of the 
quarry a fine section of the apex of an anticlinal fold was seen. Raygill 
Quarries were approached by the old road along the top of the anticlinal, 
where were some old workings. When the party assembled within the 
quarries, the leader pointed out the position of the bone-cave, the barytes 
mine and other features. Owing to the absence of weathered surfaces, 
the effects of pressure, and the detrital matter contained in the limestone, 
fossils are not easy to find in these beds. After a short time had been 
devoted to collecting specimens of fluor spar, calcite, barytes and other 
minerals, the return journey was resumed through the village of Lothers- 
dale and down the right bank of the stream. About half-a-mile below 
Dale End, and near the junction of Lothersdale and Surgill becks, a large 
Silurian boulder measuring approximately 9 ft. by 5 ft. by 4 ft. 6 ins., 
attracted attention. From here, the party crossed the fields to Norwood 
Lane, and back to headquarters. 



Winter Habit of the larva of Zeuzera pyrini (sesculi). — 

As Zeuzera pyrini is mentioned among the Lepidoptera in 
the Doncaster Natural History Notes for 1917 {see p. 262), 
I should be interested to hear the experiences of readers of The 
Naturalist, especially from the North, about the habits of the 
larva during the winter months. During the first week in 
January, 1917, I found a burrow in some ash wood, which a 
man was sawing up for me, and on cutting it open and by 
splitting the wood exposed the larva, rather over one inch 
long, which was so completely still that I thought it was dead, 
as it remained so for more than five days although removed to 
the house and kept in a warm room in its wooden home. Then 
it began to wake up, and knowing the activity of the species 
in woodwork, I thought it wisest to end its existence ; the 
wood and burrow I still have. From the appearance of its 
burrow at the time, I was inclined to think it had been active 
up to about a month before ; but one cannot, of course, lay 
down any dogma on such a case. It would be interesting to 
know from others who have found larvae in winter, whether 
they were active or not, and whether the winter at the time 
was severe or mild. I cannot find any information in books 
about these last-mentioned points. — F. D. Welch, M.R.C.S., 
Hartley, Kent. 

191S Sept. 1 



300 

FIELD NOTES. 

BIRDS. 

The Corncrake Puzzle. — With regard to Mr. Booth's 
note on the Corncrake, can it be that the species has altered 
its habits as regards voice ? The continual craking must 
attract its enemies, mammalian and avine, and the modern 
hay-cutting machines must disturb birds at nesting time 
much more than in the former centuries, and it seems therefore 
possible that the ' instinct of self-preservation ' has suggested 
to these birds to alter their behaviour. If so, perhaps it is as 
well ! When living in Herefordshire in 1902, a nest was found 
just at hatching-out stage, in a field at Burghill, one egg being 
cut into by the scythe, and although I and others used to pass 
along a path through the field it was never suspected that a 
pair of Corncrakes was nesting so close. Although left, both 
birds deserted the nest. — Fred. D. Welch, M.R.C.S., Hartley, 
Kent. 

The Corncrake Puzzle. — Mr. Booth's note was of ex- 
treme interest, and bearing upon it and Mr. Welch's query, 
it may not be uninteresting to record the behaviour of a pair 
of birds at Harrogate, this season. The birds took up their 
abode in a meadow, about two hundred yards north of my 
house, were first heard on the 14th May, and for about a week 
the craking was continuous. After a week had elapsed the 
bird was seldom heard, only once or twice, when I wandered 
about on the outside edges of the meadow and apparently un- 
expectedly approached one, when it appeared to give, to me, a 
few warning ' crakes.' Owing to an acute attack of sciatica, 
I have been unable to walk much this summer, and consequently 
paid more attention to these birds than I probably otherwise 
should have done. As a result of my observations, I came to 
the conclusion that when nesting commenced, the calling 
practically ceased. From the middle of June to the middle of 
July I did not hear the birds at all, though constantly walking 
round the field ; I did not attempt to seek the nest, except 
on the outskirts. I therefore thought that, for some reason or 
other, the birds had left the neighbourhood, but on July i6th, 
the ' craking ' re-commenced, but in a rough field at the back 
of my house, direct east. Subsequent investigation showed that 
a brood had been hatched in the first field, and they were no 
doubt taken, before any signs of grass-cutting, into the other 
field. To reach there they had to be taken across a brook 
and three fields, this was quite evidently the case, as there 
had been no signs of the birds in this field previous to July i6th. 
The ' craking ' continued for about a fortnight and then ceased 
altogether, and I have not since heard them. This behaviour 
is quite at variance with the experience I have previously 

Naturalist, 



Field Notes. 301 

had with birds nesting near my house. The birds would no 
doubt desert the nest referred to by Mr. Welch, owing to one 
of the eggs being broken, as otherwise, especially if a little 
cover was left, the probabilities are that they would not have 
done so. Several cases have come under my own observation 
when birds have stuck to the nest and brought off their brood 
after the reaper had laid bare the surrounding ground. — R. 
Fortune. 

Thrush with White Tail -tip. — On August 12th, I 
noticed a white variety of Song Thrush, with a peculiar 
distribution of the abnormal white which completely covered 
the tip of its tail (for about an inch), all other parts of the 
plumage being normal. It was fully adult, judging from its size, 
and was very wary, presumably having been shot at by some- 
one ; but after some difficulty I got several good views of it. 
The white tail-tip looked very curious when flying. The only 
other case I can remember to have seen ' in the flesh ' was one 
which lived from about 1897 to 1903, in North Cheshire, 
and was usually midway between Mottram and Broadbottom 
villages. This latter bird had several white primaries on 
each wing, and they always returned the same after each 
moult. White varieties and complete albinism are un- 
doubtedly due to defective developments ; but why so much 
commoner in Blackbird than Thrush ? — Fred. D. Welch, 
Hartley, Kent. 

Kestrel ' flying-down ' a Song Thrush. — In June, 
1914, a case in which a Kestrel deliberately ' fiew-down ' a Song 
Thrush was observed by me, the chase being carried out at a 
level of from four to five feet from the ground the whole time ; 
the distance covered was about forty yards by each bird, but 
as both were travelling at top speed when first seen by me, 
it is probable that they had flown much further, but a hedge 
prevented me seeing the first part of the flight. The pace of 
the Kestrel can only be described as terrific. Comparing this 
with two cases of the usual downward dash or stoop, seen near, 
one a Sparrow Hawk in North Cheshire about 1902, the other 
a Kestrel seen here on July 7th of this year (possibly the same 
bird), it seemed to me that when ' flying-down ' a bird, a Hawk 
travels considerably faster. I am quite certain it was a Kestrel, 
because, after catching the unfortunate Thrush, it dashed head- 
long into some wire netting round a fowl run, unable to stop 
owing to the speed it was going, and presumably got partly 
stunned judging by the way it clambered up the netting with 
difficulty, and finally sat on the top for several minutes. As I 
approached to within fifteen feet of it, its whole plumage was 
easily seen in the broad sunshine. It was the most extra- 
ordinary bird episode I have yet seen. — Fred. D. Welch. 

1918 Sept. 1. 



302 Field Notes. 

NEUROPTERA. 

Coniopteryx aleyrodiformis at Huddersfield. — On June 

nth last, I was pleased to beat out of an oak in Lepton Wood, 
Huddersfield, a few specimens of the pretty little Coniopteryx 
aleyrodiformis, and on the 29th of the same month, more 
specimens from both oak and hawthorn in Farnley Mill Wood, 
in the same district. In Yorkshire the species has only pre- 
viously been recorded from the Cleveland district, by Dr. J. W. 
H. Harrison. — Geo. T. Porritt, Dalton, Huddersfield. 

ENTOMOLOGY. 

Euchelia jacobaae in North West Yorkshire.— On the 

30th July I was surprised to find one larva of Euchelia jacobcscp 
feeding upon ragwort on Blackhills. I subsequently examined 
more ragwort in this locality, but found no more larvae. I 
have never met with the imago yet in this district, and I believe 
it has not been recorded for North West Yorkshire. — E. P. 

BUTTERFIELD. 

Euchelia jacobseae near Bradford. — An imago of this 
species was taken at Shipley Cilen in June 1910, by Mr. F. 
Booth, who kindly gave the specimen to me. — J. W. Carter. 

Zeuzera sesculi in North West Yorkshire. — On the 3rd 

August an insect was brought to me which had been picked up 
in our Council School playground, and had evidently been 
trodden upon by the children, as its body was quite flat and in 
a very mutilated condition. It was a Wood Leopard Moth, 
which has not, I believe, been recorded previously for North 
West Yorkshire, according to Porritt's list, 2nd edition, 1904. 

— E. P. BUTTERFIELD. 

Hemiptera-Homoptera in East Yorkshire. — On August 
ist, I had the pleasure of a couple of hours' collecting on 
Skipwith Common in company with Dr. W. J. Fordham, of 
Bubwith, and made a search for two fairly recent additions to 
our British list of heath-frequenting species. The scale-insect 
Eriococcus devoniensis Green was fairly common on Erica 
tetralix ; this was originally described from South Devon, 
but has been recorded from other localities also, among which 
we may note North Yorkshire (Dr. J. W. H. Harrison). A 
more interesting discovery was the Aleyrodid Tetralicia ericae 
Harrison. This has, so far as I know, been taken only in a 
very limited area in county Durham, where, with its discoverer, 
I have taken it. At Skipwith it occurred in smaller or larger 
numbers on every tuft of Erica on which search was made, 
in one case over a score being seen in one spider-web. This is 
a new county record, and the former is a new record for vice- 
county 61. — Geo. B. Walsh. 



Field Notes. 303 

MAMMALS. 
Pine Marten.— Tt may interest Mr. Forrest and others 
to know that when looking through the Pine Marten skins in 
the British Museum about eighteen months ago, I found one 
labelled ' probably Northern Norway ' (the exact locality 
from which it came being never known with certainty, so I 
understood). It was of a dirty- whitish coloration, and at a 
distance of a few feet it looked like a ' white variety ' (abnormal), 
but on careful examination the tips of some hairs were seen to 
be brownish, and it therefore seemed to me to point to a well- 
marked seasonal change of coloration in the locality it came from. 
It was far paler than any other European Marten I have seen. 
In expressing the above opinion, I should make it clear that I 
have no idea what Mr. O. Thomas's opinion may be about its 
coloration. A specimen of Marten which lived in the London 
Gardens about 1904 to 1907, and which got finally named 
Beech Marten (from Arctic Russia according to the last label 
I saw), grew paler in its long winter coat, but whether its 
species name was confirmed after it died by its cranial and 
dental characters I cannot say. When it first arrived its 
throat seemed to me to have a yellowish tinge (but it lost this 
as it grew older), and when young it looked like a Pine. It was 
bolder than most Beech Martens ; not so shv. Pine Martens 
from North of England, exhibited in London, grew rather paler 
in the throat at the beginning of winter, but as only two were 
kept under observation regularly, I cannot sa\^ whether this 
applies to British specimens as a whole. I am inchned to think 
a mammal I saw in a wood near here in the spring of 1912 was 
a Marten (Pine), but as it disappeared quickly am not certain, 
but its run was similar. — Fred. D. Welch, M.R.C.S Hartley 
Kent. 



We have received the following letter from Mr. Johnson Wilkinson, of 
the Yorkshire Wild Birds and Eggs Protection Committee ; — ' In reply 
to the remarks in your " Notes and Comments " for August, on the des- 
truction of Sea Birds' Eggs on Bempton Cliffs, notice was at once taken 
in the matter with the result that the Commanding Officer of the district 
went thoroughly into the question and finds that no Officer of the Hornsea 
Seaplane Station was guilty of doing such an insane thing. There are other 
units with machine guns fitted to their aeroplanes. The shooting will not 
occur again. Since writing we find the culprit was not an Englishman.' 

Mary Hungerford writes to one of the London dailies, in the hope that 
her letter will help the cuckoo ' to retrieve his character of a callous 
parent,' though we fancy ' the tiniest thing in baby birds ' was anything 
but a child affectionately following its papa. She says : — ' As I was sit- 
ting quietly [!] in a garden I saw one flying from tree top to tree top with 

the tiniest thing in baby birds "in tow," the two flying a few inches apart 

baby doing its best with its tinj' wings to keep pace with father. The 
parent bird was cuckooing wildly as it ffew, and it also made a hissing noise 
which no doubt is the correct baby language used in cuckoo-land. I was 
very interested in the parental devotion shown by this much-libelled bird.' 

1018 Sept. 1. 



304 

NEWS FROM THE MAGAZINES, etc. 

Dr. W. E. Collinge writes on ' The Value of Insectivorous Birds ' in 
Nature for July 25th. 

The death is announced of Dr. R. O. Cunningham, Professor of Geology 
and Natural History, Belfast. 

A recent number of Country Life contains an interesting article on 
Duck Decoys in Holland, by Mr. Riley Fortune. 

The grants made for scientific research during 1919, by the British 
Association for the Advancement of Science, amount to ;^268. 

' Uronema elongatuni : a new freshwater member of the Ulotrichaceae,' 
by William J. Hodgetts, appears in The New Phytologist for July. 

R. S. Bagnall and J. W. H. Harrison write ' On some Cynipid Oak-Galls 
new to the British Fauna ' in the Entomologist' s Monthly Magazine for 
August. 

The Lancashire and Cheshire Naturalist for July contains an account 
of the Fungus Flora of Lancashire, by H. J. Wheldon, and notes on 
Myriapoda, etc. 

The Transactions and Journal of the Eastbourne Natural History, etc., 
Society, No. 21, Vol. VIH., contain ' Notes Towards a History of the 
Society,' 1 867-191 7. 

The Annual Report and Proceedings of the Belfast Naturalists' Field 
Club, Vol. VII., part 5, contains an appendix dealing with ' The Wood-Lice 
of Ulster,' by H. N. Foster. 

Mr. W. R. Butterfield, of the Hastings Museum, who is evidently an 
authority on the subject, writes on Love-spoons, Spooning and Symbols 
of Affection, in The Connoisseur for August. 

Prof. J. W. Gregory's address on ' The Geology of Phosphates and 
their Bearing on the Conservation of Mineral Resources ' appears in the 
Transactions of the Geological Society of Glasgoiv, Vol. XVI., part 2. 

In The Geological Magazine for August, in the ' Eminent Living Geol- 
ogists ' series, is an account of the work of G. W. Lamplugh, a past 
President of the Yorkshire Naturalists' Union, together with a Portrait 
and a list of his books and memoirs. 

Ignorance fortunately is always dispelled by steady pressure. Mr. 
Owen Seaman's scathing verses on the Treasury, aided by colonial protests, 
has at last succeeded in forcing open the doors of the British Museum, and 
the treasures of the nation will no longer be locked from the children of 
the empire, by official stupidity. 

British Birds for August contains a paper on ' the Heather and Grouse 
Disease,' by J. Dugald Macintire. The same journal contains notes on 
Snow Finches in Sussex ; ' only three specimens of these species have 
previously been obtained [!], one from Sussex and two from Kent ' ; Large 
Wall-Creeper, from Sussex, which is the sixth specimen from England 
and the fourth from Sussex. All the specimens were duly shot and 
' examined in the flesh.' 

Among the additions recently made to the Manchester Museum are 
the valuable collections of British butterflies, moths and beetles, and a 
number of important entomological books which belonged to the late 
Joseph Sidebotham, presented by Mr. J. W. Sidebotham ; a number of 
rare insects and other animals collected when on military duty in German 
East Africa, presented by Captain A. G. Wilkins, R.A.M.C. Mr. Edward 
Melland has handed over his specimens of New Zealand birds and their 
eggs, many of which ai'e now rare or extinct. This collection includes a 
good range of Kiwis and most of the native ducks. The Committee has 
acquired the ' Fred Enock ' myramids, a large number of beautifully 
mounted typical specimens of a group of the hymenop.era that are para- 
sitic upon the eggs of leaf-hoppers, plant bugs and apnids, insects destruc- 
tive to food plants, and a valuable collection of ammonites from Mr. 
S. S. Buckman, many of which are type specimens. 

, Natu^a»I^t, 



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BIBLIOGRAPHY 

OF 

YORKSHIRE GEOLOGY 

1534-1914. 

By T. SHEPPARD, m.sc, f.g.s,, f.r.g.s., f.s.a.(scot.) 

8vo, xxxvi. + 62^ pp. 15/- net. 

This forms Volume XVIII. of the Proceedings of the Yorkshire 
Geological Society. It contains full references to more than 6,300 
books, monographs and papers relating to the geology and physical 
.geography of Yorkshire, and to more than 400 geological maps and 
sections, published between 1534 and 1914. In its preparation over 
700 sets of Scientific Journals, Reports, Transactions and Magazines 
have been examined. There is an elaborate index containing over 
26,500 references to subjects, authors and localities. 



THE HON. LIBRARIAN, YORKSHIRE GEOLOGICAL SOCIETY. 
THE UNIVERSITY, LEEDS. 



The 5tory of the 
East Riding of Yorkshire 

By HORACE B. BROWNE, M.A. 

368 pages Crozvn 8vo, printed on Art Paper and hotmd hi Art Cloth 
Boards toith j'jo illustrations. 3/- net. 

A BOOK OF GREAT INTEREST TO YORKSHIRE PEOPLE 

showing the wealth of Archaeological, Architectural, Civic and 
Commercial matter which lies in their midst. 
A work which aims at stimulating mental comparison between 
the conditions of life of our forefathers and those enjoyed by 
ourselves. 

/orkshire rioors and Dales 

A Description of the Nortli Yorkshire Moors 
together with Essays and Tales, 

By ALFRED P. WILSON. 

248 pages, size 8| by 6J inches, and 12 julUpage plates on Art Paper, tastejully 
bound in cloth boards, lettered in gold, -with gilt top, T/C net. 

The district covered by the North Yorkshire Moors is one of the most interesting- 
parts of Yorkshire, and this book ably portrays the charms of a visit to the 
neighbourhood. There is no other place in England so rich in antiquities, and 
most of these are herein described. 

Part I. serves as a guide to the visitor, and brings to his notice the objects of 
interest throughout the district. 

Part II< forms a series of Essays, and, besides other subjects, deals with the 
following : — 

The Dalesfolk. Old Customs. Local History. 

Moorland Roads. Wild Nature. Dialect, etc., etc. 

Part III. consists of a number of stories which further describe the character- 
istics of the dalesfolk. 

The rioorlands of 
North Eastern Yorkshire: 

Their Natural History and Origin. 

By FRANK ELGEE, F.G.S. 

777 pages Demy 8vo, Cloth Boards, Gilt Top, with two large coloured maps^ 

numerous text diagrams and maps, 39 photographic plates, i coloured plate, and 

folding geological section. 15/- net. 

This work is the first of its kind in the English language, and deals not only 
with the various problems presented by the special area of which it treats, but also 
with the origin of moors, of the Red GrOuse, of moorland floras, and other subjects 
of interest to naturalists and sportsmen. 

London : A. BROWN & SONS, Ltd., 5 Farringdon Avenue, E.G. 4. 
AND AT Hull & York. 



Printed at Browns' Savile Press, 40, George Street, Hull, and published by 
A. Brown & Sons, Limited, at 5 Farringdon Avenue, in the City of LondoQ. 

September ist, 1918. 



OCT. 1918. 



No. 741 

(No, 515 of current itrlti. 




A MONTHLY ILLUSTRATED JOURNAL OF 

NATURAL HISTORY FOR THE NORTH OF ENGLAND. 



KOITKD BY 

T. SHEPPARD, M.Sc, F.Q.S., F.R.Q.S 

Thk Museums, Hull ; 

AND 

T. W. WOODHEAD, Ph.D., M.Sc. 

Technical College, Huddersfield. 
with thk assistance as referees in special dkpartm 
J. aiLBBRT BAKBR, P.R.S. P.L.S., QEO. T. PORRIT 

Prof. P. P. KBNDALL, M.Sc, P.Q.S.. JOHN W. TAYLOR 

RILBY FORTUNE, P.Z.S. 



F.S.A.Scot.. 




Contents : — 

PAGE 

Notes and Comments (illustrated) :— Rats and Mice; Yorkshire Type Ammonites ; Nature 
A-Musings ; Huddersfield Naturalists : Natural Gas ; Red-breasted Flycatcher Nesting ; 
Lancashire Naturalists ; British Birds ; Old Scientific Magazines :— The Ornithologist', 
Animal World, Scientific Inquirer, The Scientific News .. ' 805-308 

Note on the Soil below the Peat on Moughton Fell— ^. Gilltgan, D.Sc, F.G.S. ... 309 311 

Former Status of the Common Starling in Britain— E. P. Bntterfielcl 311-313 

Scent aiands in Lepidoptera: their Character and Functions-/. W. Taylor, M.Sc. 313-315 

... 816-317 

... 317-320 

... 321-324 

... 325-328 

... 829-332 



Notes on the Spiders of North Yorkshire—/. W. Hcslop Harrison, D.Sc 

Ornithological Observations and Reflections in Shetland— £ifmiiH(f Selous 

The Spiders of Yorkshire— PFm. Falconer 

Common Wild Birds of the Scarborough D\%trif:t—\V. Gyngell 

Yorkshire Naturalists at Settle 

Field Notes:— Large Wasp's Nest at Huddersfield ; Cicindela campesiris (L.) in Derbyshire- 
Scoparia aiomalis ; Cloantha solidaginis (K.) at Bingley ; Malaxis paludosa (Sw.) and Salix 

/i£rtoc«a(L.) in North- West Yorkshire; Pied Redwing 320,334-335 

News from the Magazines 33g 

Northern News 328,383,336 

Illustration 305 



LONDON : 
A. Brown & Sons, Limited, 5, Farringdon Avbnub, E.G. 4. 

And at Hull and York. 

Printers and Publishers to the Y.N. U. 



Prepaid Subscription 6/6 per annum, post free. 



YORKSHIRE NATURALISTS' UNION. 



ANNUAL MEETING OF THE ENTOMOLOGICAL SECTION. 

President : G. T. PORRITT. Esq., F.L.S., F.E.S. 

Two meetings will be held in the Museum, York, on Saturday, October 26th, 1918. 

Afternoon meeting at 3-15 p.m., to consider and pass the Sectional Reports for 1918, and 
to elect officers for 1919. 

At 6 p.m. a further meeting will be held, at which entomological topics will be 
discussed. 

Exhibits of all orders of insects are invited, and it is important that exhibitors should 
attach their names to their exhibits and label specimens with names and data. The 
secretaries earnestly solicit notes and records made during the season on entomological 
subjects in the county. 

Members and associates of the Union are cordially invited. 

Secretaries — 

Lepidoptera. — H. H. Corbett, M.R.C.S., Doncaster, and B. Morley, Skelmanthorpe. 
Hymenoptera, Hemiptera and Diptera. — J. F. Musham, Selby. 
Neuroptera, Orthoptera and Trichoptera. — G. T. Porritt, F.L.S., Huddersfield. 
Coleoptera. — W. J. Fordham, M.R.C.S., Bubwith. 

B. MORLEY, 

Sectional Secretary, 

Skelmanthorpe. 



BOTANICAL SECTION. 

The Botancial Section will meet on October 5th, at 3-30 p.m., at the Co-operative 
Naturalists' Room, Leeds Co-operative Society, Albion Street, Leeds. 

Business. — Appointment of Officials and Committees, and to discuss reports of 
Botanical, Bryological and Survey Committees. 

Papers of botanical interest, including one on " Distribution of Pinus in Yorkshire 
Peats," by Miss Elsie D. Whitaker, will be read ; and members are asked to bring 
any interesting exhibits. 

C. A. CHEETHAM, Hon. Sec. 



GEOLOGICAL SECTION. 

President: E. HAWKESWORTH. Esq. 

A Meeting will be held in the Library of the Museum, York (by kind permission of 
the Yorkshire Philosophical Society), on Saturday, October 19TH, 1918, at 3-30 p.m. 

Business. — To consider and pass sectional reports for 191 8, and to elect officers for 
1919. 

To discuss the future work of the various Committees and other matters. 

Short papers will be given by several members of the Section. 

Any Member or Associate of the Yorkshire Naturalists' Union is invited to attend and 
to bring notes, specimens, etc., and is requested to bring forward matters of interest 
connected with the work of the Section and to take part in any discussion. Will officials 
of Affihated Societies kindly notify their Members ? 

Any further particulars from 

J. HOLMES {Hon. Sec), 

Crossbills, Keighley. 




NOTES AND COMMENTS. 

RATS AND MICE. 

For the low price of is. the British Museum (Natural 
History) has issued No. 8 of its Economic Series, dealing with 
' Rats and Mice as Enemies of Mankind ' (63 pp.). As the 
author is M. A. C. Hinton we are not likely to be able to find 
anything but of the best. There are excellent plates showing 
the characteristic features of the Black Rat and Brown Rat, 
and illustrations of parts of voles and mice, etc. Our readers 
will find the pamphlet most useful. 

YORKSHIRE TYPE AMMONITES. 

We are glad to observe the re-appearance of Mr. Buckman's 
Monograph on Yorkshire Type Ammonites, two parts of which 




A. semicostatus. 

have recently been published, and we trust that this valuable 
work will soon be completed. Part 16, just to hand, contains 
a description of A. semicostatus, A. rotifer, A. bifrons, A. rugosus 
and A. vertnmnus, which are admirably illustrated by plates 
from photographs by Mr. J. W. Tutcher. We are able to 
reproduce one of the smaller illustrations herewith. 

NATURE A-MUSINGS. 

Punch gives some ' Nature Musings ' in his impression of 
August 2ist : — ' August 15th. This is a halcyon day, and tQ 
measure its charms aright one should spend it on the banks of 
a river . . . Suddenly a kingfisher shoots across the pool, like 
a living jewel, snaps an insect from the glassy surface and shoots 
on . . . No trout are rising, but a water-rat plops into the 
stream, and at intervals the scuffle of dab-chicks is heard . . . 
We miss the cuckoo's ' two-fold shout/ but cuckoos are rarely, 

1918 Oci 1. 



3o6 Notes and Comments. 

if ever, heard in August, even by writers of Nature Notes. A 
cow moos gently in an adjoining field. The day is built up 
of just such little incidents, not exactly soul-shaking, but 
none the less infinitely helpful in supplying useful grist to the 
mill of the Summer Diarist.' 

HUDDERSFIELD NATURALISTS. 

We are glad to find that some of our Yorkshire scientific 
societies are not only able to carry on their work under the 
present conditions, but are also able to publish the results of 
their work. One of the oldest of these, the Huddersfield 
Naturalist, etc.. Society, has just issued its 67th Annual Report 
(14 pp.), which contains a useful record of the Society's manv 
activities. We notice that the valuable relics from a British 
tumulus on Pule Hill have been presented to the town, as have 
also the geological specimens and books collected by the late 
Wm. Simpson, of Catterall Hall, Settle. There are reports 
(general) and photography, by M. C. Whiteley ; Natural History 
and Entomology, by C. Mosley ; Antiquities, by C. Wood ; 
Library and Ornithology, by E. Fisher ; Botany, by W. E. 
L. Wattam ; Microscopy, by G. H. Charlesworth ; and 
Geology, by T. W. Woodhead. 

NATURAL GAS. 

From the last-named report we learn that : ' While boring 
for water at Prospect Mills, Longwood, owned by Messrs. 
Joseph Hoyle and Son, a large supply of marsh gas was dis- 
covered. The boring commenced in the sandy shales below 
the Rough Rock, and in these shales excellent specimens of 
the leaves of Cordaites were found. On June 8th, igi8, while 
boring through the compact grit below, at a depth of 186 feet, 
the gas escaped under great pressure, and taking fire, did 
serious damage to the roof of the shed covering the boring 
apparatus. Only after considerable effort was the flame 
extinguished by plugging the bore hole with soil. The boring 
operations were suspended and the gas was conducted to the 
boilerhouse by means of pipes, and for three weeks two fires 
were fed with the supply before any considerable diminution 
of pressure was observed. Since then the supply has fallen 
off very much and instructions were given to continue boring, 
though on August ist the gas was still escaping. A large 
supply of gas was not expected in these beds, as the coal 
seams and carbonaceous shales are insignificent. So far as 
I can ascertain, this is the largest supply of gas met with in 
this country in the Millstone Grit Series.' 

RED-BREASTED FLYCATCHER NESTING. 

The Right Rev. Arnold H. Mathew writes to Bird Notes 
and News (Vol. VIII., No. 2) from Walmer, May 12th : ' A 
rare visitor to England has successfully brought off a nest of 

Naturalist, 



Azotes and Comments. 307 

young in my garden this spring, \-iz., the Red-breasted Fly- 
catcher (Muscicarpa parva). I have not previously heard of 
the nesting of this species in this country, and I think the 
specimens that have been shot by collectors have usually 
appeared at the end of summer. The bird is very like an 
undersized Robin, but the breast feathers are of a much 
brighter orange-chestnut and the outer tail-feathers are 
white tipped with black. The nest, which is said to be found 
usually in beech-trees, and to be placed on a branch against 
the trunk or in a hole, was in this instance at the end of the 
branch of a fir-tree, farthest from the trunk, and appeared to 
be an old nest relined and repaired. Unfortunately, after the 
young birds had flown, a strong wing blew the nest into the 
adjoining road, where it was destroyed before I could recover 
it.' To this the editor adds ; ' This very Robin-like little 
Flycatcher is scarcely bigger than the Blue Tit, and its song 
is said by Dresser to resemble that of the Wood- Wren. Its 
young are not generally hatched until June, but there is no 
previous record for Great Britain.' The last sentence seems 
sufficient to draw attention to the record in our pages, but 
if the 3^oung were hatched and away by May 12th, it makes 
us wish that an ornithologist of some standing had confirmed 
the record. 

LANCASHIRE NATURALISTS. 

The Lancashire and Cheshire Naturalist for August is an ex- 
ceptionally good number, and the contents principally refer 
to the two counties named in the title. Among the papers 
referring to these counties are ' Oligochaet Worms,' by Rev. 
H. Friend ; Aphidae,' by A. W. R. Roberts ; ' Fungus 
Flora,' by H. J. Wheldon ; ' Moorland Hepatics,' by W. H. 
Pearson ; ' Plant Parasites,' by W. A. Lee ; Galls on Carex 
stricta,' by A. A. Dallman ; and ' Notes on Manx Flora,' by 
J. A. Wheldon. 

BRITISH BIRDS. 

Besides ' Some Breeding Habits of the Sparrow-Hawk ' 
(illustrated), by J. H. Owen, British Birds for September 
contains a record of a Meadow-Bunting shot in Sussex in 
April, 1915, duly ' examined in the flesh,' and is the sixth 
record for England (five being in Sussex !) ; and a solitary 
Sandpiper, shot in Sussex in May, 1916, duly ' examined in the 
flesh,' and is the seventh recorded British specimen and the 
second for Sussex. What we cannot understand is why these 
presumably valuable details should have been withheld from 
the scientific world for all these years. If the author of these 
rare Sussex records has a sheaf of them to trot out at 
respectable intervals, one would suggest that the editor of 
British Birds gives us a special ' shot in Sussex and examined 
in the flesh ' supplement, and let us get it over in one dose. 

1918 Oct. 1. 



3o8 Notes and Comments. 

OLD SCIENTIFIC MAGAZINES* : THE ORNITHOLOGIST. 

In March, 1896 appeared No. i of ' The Ornithologist, a 
monthly Magazine of Ornithology and Oology. Edited by H. 
Kirke Swann,' with six assistants well known in the Ornithol- 
ogical world. It was printed by John Bale and Sons, published 
by Eliot Stock ; 8vo, 20 pages, and was sold at 6d. The 
publication was illustrated, and in many ways it had characters 
in common with the later publication covering the same ground, 
namely British Birds. The Magazine appeared monthly until 
October, occasionally with extra pages, and then the part 
' Nos. 9-12,' covering the period November to February, 1899, 
appeared, price 2/-, which seems to have been the last 
of this interesting periodical that was pubhshed, as in the 
Preface the editors ' regret that with the completion of the 
first volume the publication of the Ornithologist is suspended.' 
I am indebted to Mr. Kirke Swann for a set of this interesting 
Magazine. 

ANIMAL WORLD. 

In addition to the series described in The Naturalist for 
1917, p. 355, the Royal Society of Prevention of Cruelty to 
Animals published an earlier series entitled ' The Animal 
World, a Monthly Advocate of Humanity.' This measured 
10 in. X 14I in., consisted of 16 pages, and was sold at 2d. It 
commenced in 1869 in this form, and was published without 
interruption till the end of 1905, when the new series com- 
menced. The Magazine was well illustrated, and printed in 
double columns. 

SCIENTIFIC ENQUIRER. 

Referring to the note in The Naturalist for December, 
p. 390, through the kindness of Mr. F. W. Mills, I have now 
obtained a complete set of this publication, from which it is 
evident that the editor had originally decided to cease publica- 
tion from the second volume, which consisted of 242 pages. 

THE SCIENTIFIC NEWS. 

No. I, Vol. I. (New Series)! of The Scientific News for 
General Readers was published on January 6th, 1888, was 
printed in double columns, 4to, and sold at 3d. weekly, each 
part containing 24 pages. The first Volume was completed in 
June, 1888, with a total of 624 pages. Vol. II., from July to 
December 28th, 1888 (664 pages) completed this series, as we 
read on page 641 that ' A year's experience has shown that, 
though the number of readers has increased, the rate of increase 
has not been sufficient to justify the continuance of the Journal.' 

* Continued from The Naturalist for Dec. 1917, p. 391 • 
■j- In the ' Notices' at the end of each issue of the New Series, ' Vol. I., 
First Series,' bound in cloth, is offered for sale at 7/6 ; the title-page, 
index, and binding cases for this Vol. I. are also offered. 

Naturalist, 



309 

NOTE ON THE SOIL BELOW THE PEAT ON 
MOUGHTON FELL. 

A. GILLIGAN, D.Sc, F.G.S. 

The source of origin of the siliceous soil which occurs below 
this peat is discussed in the report of the excursion of the 
Yorkshire Naturalists' Union to the Settle district, and is 
attributed to ice-borne material washed in by melt-water. 
I propose here to give the results of the mineralogical analysis. 
Immediately beneath the peat the soil is grey in colour, 
full of rootlets and about two inches in thickness. Next 
comes a layer of ' iron pan 'about a quarter of an inch in thick- 
ness, and below this is a very ferruginous sandy bed which 
has been proved to a depth of four feet and is possibly much 
greater in the hollows. Some of this sandy bed was taken 
and after being broken up between the fingers, was dried for 
twelve hours at 105° C. Of this, 200 grams were taken and 
thoroughly sieved with the following results : — - 

> yVin-=i*6oo grms. ; < Jyin. >^\y in. =2-850 grms. 
< TiVin- > bV in. =5-850 gms. ; < ^V in. > ^ in. =12-255 grms. 
< T,V in. =177-490 grms. (by difference). 

All the separations were highly ferruginous and had to be 
treated with hot dilute hydrochloric acid to remove the iron 
oxide. The addition of the acid produced not the slightest 
trace of effervescence, proving the absence of carbonates. 
The cleaned separations of the coarser material were examined 
in bulk with a binocular mineralogical microscope, when the 
rock fragments and minerals in the various grades were found 
to be as follows : — 

>yVin- — felspathic sandstone and grit, ironstone, chert, 
with some fragments of slaty appearance. 

< yV in- >ir?T in. — felspathic sandstone, quartz, chert, with 
a few fragments of ironstone. 

< ^}jj in. > Jjj in. — quartz (greatly preponderating) felspar, 
mica. Very few chert and ironstone fragments. 

Some of the cleaned material < JL in. was mounted in 
Canada balsam and examined in the usual way with ordinary 
and polarised light. 

That which was < J^ in. > y^^ in. was almost entirely 
quartz with a little felspar, mica and a few grains of chert. 
Heavy minerals (given later) were also present in fair quantity. 

The quartz was subangular, having numerous inclusions 
of regular, irregular and acicular types. The regular inclusions 
noted include tourmaline, zircon and rutile. 

The irregular inclusions appear frequently arranged in 
rows and some of them contain liquid with moveable bubbles. 

Inclusions of the acicular type, probably rittile, were not 

1918 Oct. 1. 



310 Note on the Soil below the Peat on Moughton Fell. 

so common as the others. Many of the grains showed clear 
secondary quartz on the borders. No perfectly clear grains 
have been seen. 

The felspar was clouded and the type could not be de- 
termined. The mica was almost entirely muscovite, though 
a few flakes of green mica also occur. 

Material < -jj in. only differs from that described above in 
having a much greater proportion of heavy minerals present 
and the somewhat more pronounced angularity of the quartz 
grains. 

Heavy Minerals. — These were separated with a SoUas 
bottle and Thoulet's Solution having a specific gravity of 2-8o. 

Zircons make up over go per cent, of the separation, with 
tourmaline and rutile next in order and about equal in quantity. 
The rest was made up of ilmenite, limonite, magnetite, anatase, 
epidote, garnet, green }iornbleiide, sphene and monazite. 

The whole assemblage of rock fragments and mineral 
species is such as could have been derived from the grits, 
sandstones and shales of the Carboniferous System, with 
some additions from the older rocks of the district, the slaty 
fragments being evidence of this. It is not such as could have 
been yielded by the decomposition of limestones. Some of 
the separation < 77V i^^- was washed by decantation to free it 
from the still finer particles and the washings allowed to settle 
for 24 hours, in which time the liquid had almost cleared itself 
being only slightly turbid. An examination of these washings 
in the same manner as that described above proved it to be 
simply a case of finer sub-division — in short it was rock flour not 
clay, the mineral species being readily determined with a high 
magnification. For comparison with this, some of the material 
found in the crevices of the limestone round Moughton Fell^ 
which I have elsewhere suggested had been washed out of the 
coarser sand — was examined. This also proved, as expected, 
to be rock flour, with onl}/ a slight admixture of clayey 
particles. 

Another interesting comparison was also made. In some of 
the chambers which open out from the bottom of Gaping Ghyll 
large accumulations of a fine earthy substance are found. 
Some of this I obtained when down the Ghyll some years ago. 
and subjecting this to the same treatment as that described 
above found it to be similar in all respects (except that it 
contained very little ferruginous material) to that in the 
crevices and the washings. Now the surface of the land round 
Gaping Ghyll is covered with glacial drift, and it would seem 
that the rock flour found in these chambers has been yielded 
by the resorting and washing of such drift which is chiefly of a 
gravelly or sandy nature. 

The explanation of the layer of ' iron pan ' is not difficult 

Naturalist, 



Formcy Status of the Common Starling in Britain. 311 

when it was seen how very ferruginous is the sandy deposit 
below it. The iron, in whatever form it was originally present, 
would be converted into soluble salts by waters containing 
organic acids, carbon dioxide, etc., and these iron-bearing 
solutions rising from below by capillary action would eventually 
reach the zone where they would meet free oxygen, and so be 
converted into the insoluble hydrated oxides such as limonite 
or some closely allied mineral. 

It would appear that the ' pan ' commenced to form as soon 
as conditions were favourable for establishment of the earliest 
vegetation in the swamp and has not been penetrated to any 
extent by the rootlets of the later vegetation. The soil above 
the pan is of the same mineralogical constitution as that below 
but, as would be expected, it has been bleached by organic 
acids from the peat above. 

My thanks are due to Mr. C. Cheetham, under whose 
guidance I examined the area and who kindly provided me 
with the sample for this analysis. 



FORMER STATUS OF THE COMMON STARLING 
IN BRITAIN. 



E. P. BUTTERFIELD. 



Whatever differences of opinion there may be among natur- 
alists regarding the status of the Starling in the earlier decades 
of the last century, more especially between the years 1835 
and 1845, it is quite certain that many, if indeed any, could be 
found to deny its great increase as a breeding species as com- 
pared with former years. In this district (Wilsden), ever 
since my boyhood days, covering a period from the sixties 
down to the present time, the Starling has been a common, 
if not an abundant species ; although like many other birds, 
it has varied in its numbers in certain years. It is when nar- 
uralists begin to discuss its status in the above-mentioned years 
that differences of opinion begin to develope. Many assert 
that the Starling was unknown in many parts of Britain 
either as a breeding species or even as an immigrant prior to 
the thirties of the last century. It may be that the Starling 
formerly was more local than it is at the present, but many 
statements regarding its first appearance in certain localities 
should not be accepted without further authentication. An 
old man died in Wilsden a few years ago, who used to assert 
most positively that he remembered the first appearance of the 
Starling in Wilsden, which was regarded by the inhabitants 
with much curiosity. This incident he would often recite 
with much circumstantiality to his friends ; nevertheless, 
I have always thought there might have been some element 

1918 Oct. 1. 



312 Former Status of the Common Starling in Britain. 

of doubt in the matter, not that I would insinuate that the 
man was untruthful, but that he might have been mistaken — 
and it is somewhat singular that this observation is not con- 
firmed by many other old men in this or other adjoining towns. 
In ' The Birds of Yorkshire/ page 217, it is stated that a Mr. 
Ford, of Caistor, writing in The Field, 20th October, 1888, 
remarks that a friend of his told him he recollected the first 
pair of Starlings that came to Swaledale, at Low Row, a 
few years after they made their way to Summerside, then to 
Muker, Keld and the head of the dale. If the Starling was so 
local in its distribution in Yorkshire, it is somewhat curious 
that Thomas Alhs, writing of this species in 1844, should make 
the statement that it was ' universally common ' — and the 
Rev. L. Jenyns, in his work published in 1835, mentions the 
Starling as a ' plentiful and widely-dispersed species.' Robert 
Mudie, in his ' Feathered Tribes of the British Islands ' (1834), 
states that the Starling is found ' abundantly in all the lower 
parts of Britain and in the most northerly of the Island.' In 
Charles Waterton's Essays (1845), sixth edition, he gives 
twenty-four pairs of Starlings as having built in his old ivy- 
covered tower. Many other records could be given if necessary, 
to prove that the Starling was a widely-breeding species in 
England during the years 1835-50. A letter written to the late 
J. A. Harvie Brown by the late Duke of Argyle, dated 19th 
January, 1894, states : ' I never saw a Starling till I went to 
England in 1836. I still recollect the great interest with which 
I saw the bird for the hrst time at the Posting Inn, at North- 
allerton, in Yorkshire.' We must not, however, infer from this 
letter that the Starling was then an unknown or even a rare 
bird in Scotland. Indeed, I am not quite sure whether the 
same mistake has not been made regarding the status of the 
Starling in former years in Scotland as in England. It is said 
that the bird first appeared in East Ross in 1865, and another 
observer has stated that between the years 1845 and 1848, a 
most curious bird which was taken to be a Starling visited his 
stack-yard at Inverurie, this being the first appearance of this 
bird in that district. Many Highlanders even now assert that 
the Starling has only within comparatively recent years made 
its appearance in the Highlands, but St. John, in his ' Tour in 
Sutherland,' in 1849, writes : — ' The Common Starling is 
widely distributed. The greatest number that I saw in any 
one place was on the Island of Kanda ' ; and writing in The 
Zoologist, in 1848, on the birds of the Northern Districts of 
Inverness-shire, A. Hepburn says, ' The Starling was widely 
distributed over the cultivated grounds.' In The Naturalist 
for July, 1853 (p. 220), Mr. John Longmuir writes, ' From the 
statement with regard to the occurrence of the bird (Starhng) 
in our county, one would be led to suppose that it is a rare 

Naturalist, 



Scent Glands in Lepidoptcra. 313 

visitor in Aberdeenshire. This is, however, not the case. At 
certain seasons of the year it is very common in the neighbour- 
hood of this city, where it frequently congregates in large num- 
bers, especially about the pools on the links of Old Aberdeen, 
and Mr. Mitchell mentions to me, that on more than one occasion 
he has observed immense ilocks near the same locality. It 
breeds in great numbers in various parts of our county.' On 
the other hand, Mr. James Taylor, in The Naturalist for 1853, 
writes : — ' Although common in the Outer Hebrides and other 
parts of Scotland, it is rather rare with us (Aberdeenshire), 
I only remember seeing a pair in 1845, which I shot ' ' As 
regards Ireland, the Starhng, according to some ornithologists, 
is to be regarded as a comparatively recent addition to its 
avifauna, but how is this to be reconciled with the fact that 
in The Zoologist for 1848 is a record of the finding of a singular 
nesting-place of the Starhng in or near Belfast ; and in 
The Naturalist a correspondent records, in 1852, seeing half 
a dozen nests within a radius of twenty yards in Dublin. 
Many other quotations might be given of the distribution of the 
Starling about the time when this species was said to be rare 
or unknown in certain locahties in Britain, all of which point 
t o the fact of it being much more widely dispersed a species 
than would be inferred from traditional statements. It would 
indeed be a singular feature in the economy of the Starling 
if this localism in its distribution could be clearly established, 
and it is to be feared, as far as the district is concerned, the 
traditional belief that this species first made its appearance 
here (Wilsden) about the decade between 1835 and 1845, is, 
to say the least, very doubtful. It is somewhat singular 
that White does not more frequently allude to this species in 
his letters to his friends. He speaks of Lapwings and Starhngs 
sometimes associating together, but beyond this he is very 
reticent. 



SCENT GLANDS IN LEPIDOPTERA : THEIR 
CHARACTER AND FUNCTIONS. 



]. W. TAYLOR, M.Sc. 

I have perused with considerable interest the recent com- 
munications of your valued correspondents, Mr. B. Morley 
and Mr. G. T. Porritt, on the nature and methods of Sexual 
Allurements in Lepidoptcra, and although much light has been 
shed upon the subject, yet, as the topic is an interesting one, 
I trust I ma}^ be allowed to add a few comments thereto. 

I gather from Mr. Morley's remarks that he doubts the 
presence of the scent glands in Lepidoptcra and consequently 
the existence of any sexually attractive emanations there- 

1918 Oct. 1. 



314 Scent Glands in Lepidopteva. 

from, but possibly it has escaped his notice that Dr. Dixey. 
of Oxford, one of our most distinguished Lepidopterists and 
the possessor of one of the finest collections of PicridcB extant, 
contributed an excellent report upon this particular subject to 
the Meeting of the British Association in 1914, an abstract 
of which appeared in the issue of Nature for December loth, 
1914. 

In this communication Dr. Dixey lays special stress on 
the undoubted presence and glandular character of certain 
specialized scales found on the bodies, limbs and wings of 
butterflies in both sexes, but certain forms of them, as the 
' Plume Scales ' of the Pieridce and Nymphalidce, which often 
afford valuable specific characters, have been found onl}^ in 
the male sex. In some groups a special adaptation exists (as 
is the case with the costal folds of the forewing in many 
Hesperidce or Skippers) to conserve and control the odoriferous 
emanations which can thus be emitted at pleasure for sexual 
attraction and recognition, or the scent-distributing scales may 
become aggregated together and placed on that part of the 
fore or hind wings which is covered in the resting position, 
as in many Pierids, and certain Satyrids and Nytnphalids. 

This diffusion of scent or pleasant odours by butterflies 
was first observed in Brazil, where certain species were 
remarked to be as fragrant as the choicest flowers, the fragrance 
resembling that of the Stephanotis, Gorse, Sandal-wood and 
other natural perfumes. These enticing odours were eventually 
found to be not confined to South American species, but to be 
a wide-spread feature in the biology of the group and to 
emanate from certain glandular scales which, though occurring 
in other positions, are very frequently placed at the anterior 
margin of the wings, and usually, though far from invariably, 
confined to the male sex. 

A distinctive and characteristic perfume is probably 
secreted by each species, and that this is so is supported by the 
records that the males of the Large Garden White Butterfly, 
Pieris brassicce, diffuse a faint yet delicious scent of Balsam or 
Lemon ; those of the Small White Pieris rapce shed an aroma 
of Thyme, and from the Green-Reined White Pieris napi there 
emanates a faint but delightfully odoriferous perfume resembling 
that of the Lemon-Verbena. Other butterflies, according to 
their kind, secrete other odours as Sweetbrier, Honeysuckle, 
and other choice perfumes, which are sometimes so strong 
as to be perceptible to the blunter senses of mankind. 

The faculty of secreting and diffusing attractive odours is, 
however, not confined to butterflies, but is also shared by moths, 
and the odours they emit are probably as pleasant, and the 
position of the glandular areas as diverse as in butterflies, 
for we find that in the primitive group Hepialidce or Ghost 

Naturalist, 



Scent Glands in Lcpidopttva. 315 

Moths these scent glands arc developed upon the hind legs, 
though more generally they are placed upon the wings, and 
sometimes covered with brightly-coloured tufts or little pa-ches 
of hair, while the odour exhaled by the Convolvulus Hawk 
Moth, Sphinx convolvuli, is of a pleasantly fragrant musky 
character. 

Although in butterflies it is usually the male which supplies 
the attractive force, it is otherwise in those species or genera 
of moths in which the females are apterous or large-bodied 
and lethargic. In such cases it is the females which secrete 
and exhale the alluring emanations which so powerfully 
attract the males, as is established by the well-known method 
of obtaining male specimens of the Emperor Moth, the 
Vapourers, etc., by exposing a virgin female in the known 
haunts of the particular species. The stimulating emanations 
are probably perceived by the males through the medium of 
their beautifully plumose antennae, which are so characteristic 
a feature in the males of those forms in which the function of 
attraction is transferred to the female. 

In addition to these pleasing perfumes, secreted and 
diffused for the purpose of attracting and stimulating the 
opposite sex to conjugal union, there are in many butterflies 
and moths, others of a repellant and defensive character, 
which emanate from certain minute glands upon the body, 
whose function is to secrete a somewhat oleaginous substance 
and shed, when necessary, its repulsive and nauseous effluvia, 
which recall various disagreeable substances, such as acetylene, 
stale tobacco smoke, decaying animal refuse and other dis- 
tasteful and offensive substances, and therefore constituting 
a protective device against lizards, birds and other enemies. 

These glands are in many cases practically restricted to 
the female sex, but where present in both sexes, the secretions 
are stated to be invariably much more pungent and penetrative 
in the females, and this is believed to be due to the greater 
importance of the female to the welfare and continuance of 
the race. — North Grange, Horsforth, Leeds, Sept. 9th, 1918. 

[Apart from the scents alluded to by Mr. Taylor, it is 
probable that in most lepidoptera the scent is far too subtle 
to be appreciated by man at all, but is evident enough to the 
insects. Nor does it follow that because a scent is obnoxious 
to human beings it is so to moths ; often, likely enough, quite 
the reverse is the case. As an instance, we know that the 
Purple Emperor Butterfly {Af)afitra iris) feeds with avidity 
on carrion and other putrid substances, and such substances 
are sometimes used as a lure to tempt the butterfly down from 
the high oaks, that it may be the more easy of capture. — 
G.T.P.l. 

1918 Oct. 1. 



3i6 

NOTES ON THE SPIDERS OF NORTH YORKSHIRE. 



J. W. HESLOP HARRISON, D.Sc. 



The following notes may be regarded as a continuation of 
those contained in my papers published in this Journal in 
August, 1914, and January, 1915, and probably represent the 
fruits of my last Arachnid hunts in the county, as I have now 
left the Middlesbrough district. 

Dysdera crocata (C.L.K.). Sparingly, near Middlesbrough, and at 
Yarm. I have very great doubts as to whether this spider has any real 
claim to be considered a genuine native of the county. 

Agroeca brunnea (Bl.). Thinly distributed over all the Cleveland 
Moors. 

Oxyptila praficola (Koch.). Two or three females in scattered localities 
at the base of the Cleveland Hills, between Broughtoir and Stokesley. 

Tarentida andrenivora (Walck.). A few on Easby Moor. 

Lycosa agricola (Thor.). Common on the Yorkshire side of the Tees 
near Middleton-in-Teesdale (vice-county 65). 

Lycosa nigriceps (Thor.). As previously, abundant everywhere in 
Cleveland ; much scarcer on the heather not far from the locality recorded 
for the previous species. 

Lycosa amentata (Clerck.). ) All very abundant on the Yorkshire side 

L. pullata (Clerck.). - of the Tees, near Middleton-in- 

L. higubris (Walck.). ) Teesdale. 

Theridion denticulatum (Walck.). Singly, under bark, near Middles- 
brough. 

Ceratinella brevis (Wid.). Not uncommon near Middleton-in-Teesdale, 
but in vice-county 65. 

Lophomma herbigraditni (Bl). With the preceding. 

Evavsia merens (Cb.). Abundant everywhere in Cleveland ; only 
noticed here because I have recently seen it with Lasiits umbratus near 
Great Ayton. I have now taken it with four species of ant, viz., Formica 
fusca, Lasiiis niger, L. umbratus and Myrmeca rubra. 

Notioscopus sarcinatiis (Cb.). The SpJiagnuni having vanished in 
the original station owing to drainage, the spider no longer exists there ; 
nevertheless, it is as common as ever elsewhere on Eston Moor. Its other 
habitats on the remoter moors are quite undisturbed. 

Hypselistes jacksonii (Cb.). Still common at Eston in spite of the 
drastic drainage operations initiated there a year or two ago. It occurs 
everywhere in the Juncus effitsus tufts which line the runner draining the 
main central Eriophorum bog. I have also captured it whilst examining 
Comarum pahtstre roots for Coccids. It is always to be found low down 
in the plants. For two or three years the drainage seemed to affect it 
considerably, but now that matters are stabilised, it has resumed and 
maintains its usual numbers. Its congener, H. florens, has occurred 
with it, but was originally found in boggy spots on the site of old jet 
workings on the northern slopes of the hill at a height of over 550 feet. 

Maso sundevallii (Westr.). In a little wood near Middleton-in-Tees- 
dale. (65), 

Hilaira uncata (Cb.). Very rare opposite Middleton, thereby con- 
trasting greatly with its abundance throughout the Cleveland area. 

Leptyphantes lerricola (Koch.). Not really rare in the various woods 
a few miles out from Middlesbrough, but far from being as plentiful as it 
would be in similar spots in North Durham. 

Tetragnatha extensa (L.). In watery places, Yarm, Gunnergate, 
Broughton. 

T. solandri (Scop.). Beaten from spruce in Marton Gill — is probably 
not rare. 

Naturalist, 



Ornithological Observations and Reflections in Shetland. 317 

Epeiva Iviguttata (Fab.). Karc on various conifers in the Gunnergate 
Woods. 

E. qitadvata (Clerck.). Brought to me from Whitby. 

E. citctirbitina (Clerck.). Inexphcably overlooked by me previously 
but now recorded as very common on various shrubs throughout the 
lowlying grounds at the northern base of the hills. 

[In addition to the above I have taken a single male of a third species 
of Philodro)nus which was unfortunately mislaid before its specific iden- 
tity had been determined]. 



O 



ORNITHOLOGICAL OBSERVATIONS AND 
REFLECTIONS IN SHETLAND. 



EDMUND SELOUS. 

{Continued frotit page 2g6). 

October 20th. — When the Turnstone takes flight, all sorts 
of white and dark-hued markings become visible, bannering 
above it, as it lifts its wings, making it a very conspicuous 
pied bird, which was by no means the case before. The habits 
of these birds are those of their kind, set to the appropriate 
surroundings. They come down, usually, in a little flock on 
the wet rocks, and search about amongst the newly exposed 
seaweed, not staying very long in one place, and objecting 
to the play of the waves, if too rough — play should be play and 
not earnest. Whilst thus walking about, feeding, they keep 
constantly pecking at something, in a quite satisfied manner, 
but what it is I cannot say. No laboured action of picking, 
pulling, knocking off or otherwise dislodging shell-fish, is 
discernible. As said before, they fly up, all pied and conspic- 
uous, but disappear as they settle, again, on the rocky platform, 
in a w^onderful manner. The pursuing Hawk, baffled according 
to plan, desists instantly, and, turning short round, flies off, 
with murmurs unjustly directed against Darwin, whom he 
doubtless considers responsible for the whole affair — for a 
purely impersonal concept must be held to be beyond the 
limits of avine intelligence. The exodus is often in consequence 
of too boisterous a wave, inconsiderately dashing them with 
its spray. Still more often, however, this is not the case, nor 
is there any other apparent reason except that it seems to 
occur to all of them, and all in a flash, that they have been there 
long enough, and can do better elsewhere. In either case — 
always I believe — as they take wing, they utter their note, 
which is a little, hard querulous chirp, repeated several times, 
in a little burst. So at one do they seem, so all at once is 
the flash-out of their flight, that one might think they must 
always act together, that in leaving the rock, at any rate, it 
must always be one and ah. But this is not the case. Any 
individual bird, in the little band, is quite capable of resisting 

1918 Oct. ]. 



3i8 Ovnithological Observations and Reflections in Shetland. 

the example — the incentive — strong though it may be — of 
that sudden quick cry, and ail-off, and of staying behind ; 
and will do so, as I have just seen, if sufficiently interested in 
any research it may be making, or it may simply stand still — 
interested in nothing apparently — and e'en let them go. 

I also thought, this morning, that I saw a Golden Plover 
feeding on the rocks in this way, but may have been mistaken. 

Starlings and Rock Doves fly about and feed, together, 
here, over the cultivated parts of the land. When they all go 
up, at once, the large light blue flashes, with the smaller brown 
dots amongst them, look very pretty. 

Starlings pay much attention to cow-dung, and are often 
very near to the cows. I have seen a bird close against the 
foot of one, and pecking, but whether at the foot I cannot 
say — I hardly think so. 

I have now seen Eider Ducks of both sexes swimming 
together, like any other Ducks, at this time of the year. Each 
seemed equally indifferent to the other, but there may be no 
such indifference really. I counted twelve males on the 
water, and one feeding on the rocks (it was off some rocky 
islets, not too far out for the glasses) and the females may have 
been as many or more, but were not so easy to make out, and 
also seemed to dive oftener. 

There is now, at 3 or 3-15 p.m. (as far as I can judge, 
through my watch going fast) a great congregation of Kittiwakes 
off the east coast. The birds all seem to be in a state of pleas- 
urable excitement. Their harsh, but not unpleasing throats 
are in continual exercise, so that, softened by the numbers — 
each individual cry being merged in every other, and thus 
losing some of its acrimony — it becomes a sort of clangorous 
susurrus. The number of the birds, I should imagine, must 
be, at least, three hundred, but it may be many more. They 
are gathered closely together, the space covered by their 
bodies having, roughly, the form of a circle, and whilst the 
great mass of them, at any one time, are on the water, small 
parties keep rising and flitting, a little, over the assemblage, 
to come down within it, again; or, by ones, two and threes, 
birds will change their places, the effect being as of a constant 
clustering, so that the scene is full of animation as well as 
beauty, for the birds, as they float on the wave, are all grace 
and delicacy, whilst the light mauve of their backs and wings, 
and whiteness of their tails, as they rise, and float above it, 
add a charm more fay-like and unique. Then, all at once, 
single-thoughtedly, and for no other conceivable reason than 
the will to do so, the whole great concourse, rising in a thick 
cloud, and with a wonderful effect of pinions and tails, as 
aforesaid, sweep outwards to all sides, so that the cloud becomes 
thinner, and having wheeled, flitted and hovered, for a little. 

Naturalist, 



Ornithological Observations and Reflections in Shetland. J19 

sweep together, again, and go down where they were before. 
There is then the same scene of clamour and excitement, for 
some ten or fifteen more minutes, when about a third of all 
the birds flit up, and hover, for a little, over the main host on 
the water. Then again, in one instant, with the most absolute 
unanimity, as far as the eye can pronounce, these, too, rise, 
and mingle with their brethren — absorb them, rather — after 
which there is the same graceful flitting and circling, and 
again all go down, but not on quite the same spot of the sea. 

And now, another strange thing happens, for, at once, 
as though some fear had oppressed them, the voices of the 
birds all sink, and, for clamour and jangle, which, till now, has 
been increasing, there is entire silence through the whole of 
them. Why some three hundred birds, or so, that have all, 
up till now, been excitedly vociferating, should all cease to do 
so, at just the same time, it is hard to imagine. There was 
certainly no cause for alarm, no bird of prey in the air, no seal 
or porpoise from beneath. The sea is open,* and, under such 
conditions of nearness and clearness, mistake or non-observance 
impossible. Nor had any sudden wind sprung up, to end the 
calm stillness of to-day and many days previously. Yet so 
it is — full conversazione up to a certain moment, and then as 
though a silence spoke. It lasts for many minutes, then gradu- 
ally the clamour recommences, but does not, for some time, 
regain its full volume. Now, however, it is, again, normal, 
and has even been beyond it, having risen, at one time, to a 
verv high pitch. Then, once more, there is that strangely 
sudden lull — a silence almost total, broken only by a suppressed 
individual sound, now and again. Some ten minutes have 
gone by, but the clamour has not been renewed. The birds 
are now riding, all clustered together, in an extended oval 
formation, quite close in shore. I try to count them and 
have got to nearly the first hundred, when, as though threaded 
on rows of strings which had all been suddenly jerked upwards, 
the whole of them, in one instant, rise as one, and speed swiftly 
away, southwards, down the coastline. No more than in the 
first instance, as narrated, or on the occasion of either of the 
strange, sudden silences, was there any perceivable cause for 
this instantaneous out-flight en masse. 

There may be those to whom such facts as the above 
present no difficulty ; nor do they, indeed, to me, insofar as 
their existence is concerned, for, after all, not much would 

* I mean beyond the gathering ; but supposing such an animal to 
have approached invisibly and passed beneath it, it is not eas}^ to imagine 
such an effect as this resulting. Had it emerged, at one point, or broken 
the surface in a continuous line, localised confusion and flight up would 
have answered to this, and I must then have seen something of the cause. 
There is nothing relevant to it in the fact noted. 

1918 Oct. 1. 



320 Ornithological Observations and Reflections in Shetland. 

happen were it dependent on my understanding it, and I 
include others — in fact everybody — in this modest view. A 
point is soon reached, as we proceed backwards in the chain 
of cause and effect, where the human intellect is quite baffled, 
nor can we really be said to understand what is consequential, 
only, when what is causal to it cannot be grasped, or even 
dimly conceived of by us — we are acquainted with such things, 
and that is all. Essentially, therefore, the nature and origin 
of the sense-organs is not less obscure than that of any feeling 
or faculty — assuming such to exist — that does not manifest 
through these. Do such feelings and faculties exist ? It is a 
question of evidence. The only possible cause, that I can see, 
for such sudden unanimous movements, or cessations of 
movement, amongst numbers of birds, as I am here considering, 
is an inward impulse, collective or transfused — in the latter 
case with extreme rapidity — not originating in or dependent 
upon any extraneous influence cognisable by those senses 
which we share with birds and other animals. By cessations 
of movement, I mean the sudden silences — since sound here 
represents muscular action — and of this I have recorded an 
instance more surprising even than those here given, because 
extending over a wider area, whilst an independent observation, 
made by two witnesses, is still more remarkable, both in this 
respect and, also, perhaps, by reason of the combination of 
the two forms of simultaneous action.* I will quote both 
cases, for I confess I think the subject more important — at 
least more fascinating — than much in ornithology which is 
much more reported on, as, for instance, the period of gestation, 
in any species, and the size, colour and markings of (so far as 
procurable) all its eggs. 

{To he continued). 



Large Wasp's Nest at Huddersfield. — Recently my 
friend Mr. Whiteley Tolson, of Oaklands, Dalton, sent me 
an enormous wasp's nest, which had been built on the floor 
of his disused pigeon loft. It is forty inches in circumference, 
fourteen inches in diameter, and seven inches in depth. In 
shape and appearance it is very much like one of the old- 
fashioned straw beehives, but is of a slaty earth colour. Mr. 
Tolson's gardener says it was built during the summer of 1916, 
so probably it has become somewhat sullied in appearance. 
Perhaps some hymenopterist will be able to tell me whether 
wasps' nests of this size are of frequent occurrence, and also 
what species of wasp is hkely to have made it. — Geo. T. 
PoRRiTT, Elm Lea, Dalton, Huddersfield, September 9th, 1918. 

* See, however, post. 

Naturalist, 



321 

THE SPIDERS OF YORKSHIRE. 



WM. FALCONER, 
Slaithwaite, Huddersfitld. 



(^Continued from page 257). 

CLASS— ARACHNIDA. ORDER— ARANEIDEA. 

Fam. DicTYNiDAE, 7-14. 

Gen. Dictyna Sund., 3-7. 
D. arundinacea Linn. 

Very widely distributed in the British Isles and on the Continent, 
and usually common ; mainly binds together heather shoots and 
grass spikelets ; the ^ is often found wandering. Adult May and 
June. First occurrence — the author, Slaithwaite, Sep., 1899. 

V.C. 61. — Spurn, Houghton Woods (Market Weighton), T. S. ; near 
Selby, Skipwith and Riccall Commons, W. P. W., W. F. ; 
Rillington. 

V.C. 62. — Eston and Ay ton, ' very plentiful in the immature condition,' 
Cleveland, ' common,' J. W. H. ; Langdale Moors, R. A. T, ; Ring- 
ingkeld Bog ; Levisham. 

V.C. 63.— Wilsden, R. B. ; Martin Beck Wood, C. ; near Windsor 
Castle (Slaithwaite), Butternab Wood, Honley Wood (Huddersfield), 
scarce in these localities. 

V.C. 64.— Burley-in-Wharfedale, Morton, Kildwick Moors, W. P. W. ; 
Sawley district, many, S. M., W. F. ; Adel Moor, Moor AUerton, 
Stubbing Moor and Dalton Lane in the Leeds district. 

D. uncinata Westr. 

British and Continental range wide ; on bushes, especially furze, 
and occasionally on the ground. Adult May to July. First 
occurrence — the author, E. Keswick, June, 1903. Abundant in 
many parts of the county. 

V.C. 61. — Noted for a score of widely separated localities, mostly in 
the southern half of the division. 

V.C. 62. — Marton, Gunnergate and Nunthorpe, not uncommon, 
J. W. H. ; Scarborough, R. A. T. ; Upleatham ; Lazenby. 

V.C. 63.— Maltby, Y. N. U. ; Askern ; Coxley Valley. 

V.C. 64.— Cocket Moss, Settle, W. P. W. ; Wharfedale. from Burley 
to Collingham, especially plentiful on furze in lanes about East 
Keswick, Dalton Lane and Stubbing Moor ; Adel Moor, Leeds ; 
Grimbold's Crag (Knaresborough) ; Chandler's Whin (York). 

D. laiens Fabr. 

Common in the south of England, some of the northern counties, 
and in Ireland, but absent from Scotland ; occurring also in several 
European countries as far east as Russia ; often on furze. Adult 
May to July. First occurrence — the author, Linton Common, 
June, 1903. 

V.C. 61. — Skipwith Common, adults of both sexes. 

V.C. 62. — Staithes, ' common on sea banks,' and Runswick Bay, 
J. W. H. ; Thornton Dale, R. A. T. ; Levisham ; Kilton Woods. 

V.C. 64. — Linton Common, both sexes plentiful. 

Gen. Protadia Sim , 1-2. 
P. subnigra Camb. 

A rare spider on record for 8 widely separated localities in the south 
of England, and for Wallasey (Cheshire). 
V.C. 61. — Spurn, one 9. June, 1908 ; Humber shore at Patrington, i^J, 
June, 1910, T. S. 

l9l8 0ct.l. 



322 Falconer : The Spiders of Yorkshire. 

Gen. AmaitrohiHS C. L. Koch., 3-3. 
A. jsrox Walck. 

Common in the south of England and in parts of Ireland, becoming 
much rarer the farther north and in Scotland ; abroad noted for 
Sweden, West, South-west and Central Europe, Italy and United 
States. Adults most months of the year. First record — R. H. 
Meade, Bradford, S. G. B. I. 

V.C. 61. — Beverley, several examples. Miss W. A. Lockyear [Trans. 
Hull Field Club, 1908) ; Easington, W. C. England (H. M. P. 
No. 59). 

V.C. 62.— Scarborough, i $, H. C. D. ; Cayton Bay, 2 $'s, R. A. T. 

V.C. 63. — Bradford, cellars and neglected buildings, R. H. M. ; Shipley, 
W. P. W. ; Askern, $, T. S. ; Saltaire, $, P. K. Winter ; Heeley 
(Sheffield), ^, T. W. Wilshaw ; Almondbury, $, in a cellar. 

V.C. 64.— Kildwick, W. P. W. ; Wetherby J. G. 
A . similis Bl. 

Very common and widely dispersed in the British Isles ; abroad — 
France, Hamburg and North-west Spain ; usually, though not 
always, an inhabitant of cellars and outhouses ; often in old walls. 
Adults throughout the year. First occurrence — the author, Slaith- 
waite, October, 1898. Probably generally distributed throughout 
the county, having been noted for all the vice-counties, and in 
the first four extensively and commonly. 
A. fenestralis Stroem. 

One of the most abundant spiders in Ireland, Scotland and the north 
of England, but rare in the south of England ; becoming common 
again on the Continent ; in a great variety of situations, under 
stones, amongst fallen leaves, debris and grass roots, beneath 
the bark and in the cracks of trees, etc. ; sometimes in cellars of 
houses and in outhouses. Adults throughout the year. First 
occurrence — the author, Slaithwaite, May, 1S98. As in the last 
named, but recorded stations more numerous still. 

Fam. OONOPID.A.E, i-i. 
Gen. Oonops Tempi., i-i. 
O. pulchev Tempi. 

Widespread and not uncommon in many parts of the British Isles 
and the Continent (except Central Europe) and extending to 
Madeira ; beneath stones or amongst fallen leaves, debris and at 
»rass roots. AduJt in June and July mainly, but immature examples 
most months of the year. First occurrence — the author, Slaith- 
waite, May, 1897. 
V.C. 61. — Burton Constable, Houghton Woods (Market Weighton), 

T. S. 
V.C. 62. — Very widelv distributed and recorded from many localities 

in the Cleveland district, and about Scarborough. 
V.C. 63.— Bradford and Shipley districts, G. H. O., W. P. W. ; EdUng- 
ton Wood, H. V. C. ; noted for a wide area around Huddersfield 
and in some of the localities fairly common ; Thornhill Lees. 
V.C. 64. — Giggleswick, Saltaire and Bingley, W. P. W. ; Knares- 
borough and Malham, Y. N. U. ; Sawley district, S. M., W. F. ; 
several locahties about Leeds and Wharfedale from Barden Tower 
to Collingham ; Washburn Valley. 
V.C. 65.— Tanfield. 

Fam. Dysderidae, 3-6. 
Gen. Dysdera Latr., 1-2. 

D. crocota C. L. Koch. 

Widely distributed abroad, extending to South Africa and North 
and South America, general and not uncommon in Ireland, but 

Natuialist' 



Falconer : The Spiders of Yorkshire. 323 

rarer in Great Britain, especially in the north. Adult from May 
to August. First record — R. Gilchrist, Scarborough, Naturalist, 
June, igof). 

V.C. 61. — Hull, cupboard of a house, one o", fairly common amongst 
loose lumps of chalk on an embankment on the Humber shore be- 
tween the New Joint Dock and Saltend Common, Thorngumbald, 
in an outhouse. Rye Hill, one ?, T. S. ; other houses in Hull, 
Messrs. Bartley and Sutcliffe ; Southfield Pits, near Hessle, one $, 
and Spurn, two $'s, E. A. P. 

V.C. 62. — Scarborough, 3 $'s from a garden, R. G. ; Middlesbrough, 
one ?. J. W. H. 

V.C. 64. — Bolton Abbey, one $, I\Ir. Roose. 

Gen. Harpacles Tempi., i-i. 
H. hoiiibergii Scop. 

Widely distributed in the British Isles and on the Continent ; 

beneath the loose bark of trees or amongst fallen leaves, grass 

and heather. Adiili throughout the year. First record — S. G. B. I., 

1861-64. 
V.C. 61. — Y. N. U., Hornsea Mere, Selby, Houghton Woods, Holme- 

on-Spalding Moor, Meaux, T. S. ; Hessle, E. A. P. 
V.C. 62. — Scarborough and high moors near Whitby, R. A. T. ; 

Cock Mill (Whitby) ; Boulby; Kilton Woods. 
V.C. 6^.— Collyer's Wood (Shipley), W\ P. W. ; Thornhill Lees; 

Grimescar Wood, Honley Old Wood, Woodsome, Almondbury 

(Huddersfield). 
V.C. 64.— Howden Ghyll, W. P. W. ; Bishop Wood, T. S. ; Adel ; 

East Keswick ; Woodhall ; Linton Common ; Boston Spa ; Birk- 

ham Wood (Knaresborough) ; Risplith House (Ripon) ; Hackfall ; 

Giggleswick Scar ; Malham Cove ; Ingleton. 
V.C. 65.— Tantield. 

Gen. Segestria Latr.. 1-3. 
S. senocidata Linn. 

Widely distributed in the British Isles and on the Continent, 

especially North and Central Europe ; beneath stones, under loose 

bark of trees and fences or in wall crevices. Adults most months 

of the year. First occurrence — the author, Slaithwaite, June, 1897. 
V.C. 61. — Found in most parts of the division and in many places 

very common beneath the bark of trees and fences, T. S., E. A. P., 

W. F. 
V.C. 62. — Middlesbrough district, ' common everwhere,' J. W. H., 

G. B. W. ; Beast Underchff, Staintondale. T. S. ; Hackness, R. A. T. 
V.C. 63.— Bradford district, G. H. O., W. P. W., J. A. B. ; Earby, F. R., 

YN.U., Cusworth (T. S.), and Cawthorn. Wilberlee, Tiding Field, 

Lane and Tanners' (Slaithwaite) ; Cop Hill (Meltham) ; Wilshaw ; 

Lepton Great Wood ; Almondbury ; Woodsome ; Armitage Bridge ; 

Marton Wood (Holmfirth) ; Denby Dale. 
V.C. 64.— Arncliffe, T. St. ; Grassington and Austwick, W. P. W. ; 

Ingleton and Gargrave, F. R. ; Bingley and Winterburn, R. B. ; 

Bishop Wood, T. S. ; Menston ; Harewood ; Woodhall ; Compton 

Bank Tou. 
V.C. 65.— Coverham, W. E. L. W. 

Fam. Drassidae, 7-22. 

Gen. Prosthesima L. Koch., 3-9. 

P. apricorum L. Koch, (petiverii Scop.). 

Not a common spider in Great Britain, where it has been observed 
in various places as far north as Edinburgh and in St. Kilda ; rare 
in Ireland, but commoner and with a wide range on the Continent. 

1918 Oct. 1. 



324 Falconer : The Spiders of Yorkshire. 

extending to Siberia and North America. Adult June and July. 
First occurrence — T. Stainforth, Staintondale, July, 1910. 

V.C. 61. — Skipwith Common, $. 

V.C. 62. — Beast Undercliffe, Staintondale, two adult and two im- 
mature O's, one immature ^. T. S. 

V.C. 64.— Malham, $, F. B. 
P. Jatreillei C. L. Koch. 

Rare in Great Britain, it has been met with in several English 
counties from Dorset to Northumberland and the Isle of Man ; 
widespread and not uncommon in Ireland ; on the Continent in 
France (north and east), Germany, Austria-Hungary. Adult June 
and July. First occurrence — T. Stainforth, Spurn, June, 1909. 

V.C. 61. — Spurn, one adult $, four immature $'s. one immature ^, 
T. S. ; later E. A. P. ; Humber shore at Welwick, adult ?, T. S, 
Probably also at Kelsey Hill, as both Mr. Stainforth and Mr. 
Parsons have sent me immature examples from that place. 

V.C. 64. — Grassincfton, scrub adjoining Grass Woods, one <^, several 9's, 
W. P. W. " 
P. electa C. I-. Koch. 

A very rare British spider, only to be met with on sandhills on the 
coast ; sparingly on Largo Links and near Edinburgh. Scotland ; 
Kent, Sussex, Suffolk, Glamorgan and Cumberland ; at Southport 
and Deal. Adult, May and June. First occurrence — T. Stainforth 
as below. 

V.C. 61. — Spurn, one §, May, 1908 ; one ^, 1909, T. S. 

Gen. Drassus Walck., 3-7. 
D. lapidosus Walck. (includes D. cupreus Bl.). 

Common and widely distributed at home and abroad (Holarctic 
Regions). Adult, ^ May and June, $ April to November. First 
occurrence — the author, Slaithwaite, July, 1897. Very widely 
distributed in the county, but most plentiful in localities towards 
or on the coast, e.g., Cleveland, ' in all the localities visited,' J. W. H., 
and ' very common in East Riding under stones, logs, etc.,' T. S. ; 
becoming scarcer proceeding inland to the western hills. Lapi- 
dosus is the commoner form near the coast, and cupreus inland. 

V.C. 65.— Cautley, W. P. W. 
D. troglodytes C. L. Koch. 

Widely distributed in the British Isles and the whole Palsearctic 
Region ; under stones and low plants, vegetable debris, etc. 
Adult, June and July. First occurrence — the author, Slaithwaite, 
June, 1S97. 

V.C. 61. — Spurn, Sandholme, Snake Hall Moor (North Cave), Houghton 
Woods (Market Weighton), T. S. 

V.C 62. — Eston Nab, G. B. W. ; Middlesbrough district, ' common on 
all the moors,' Cleveland, ' every locality visited,' J. W. H. Ring- 
ingkeld bog, R. A. T. 

V.C. 63. — Cupwith Reservoir, Bottoms Wood, and Windsor Castle 
near Slaithwaite ; below Dean Head Church, Scammonden ; 
Crosland Moor ; Upper Harden Clough, Meltham. 

V.C. 64. — Alwoodley, near Leeds. 
D. sylvnstris Bl. 

Only a few examples of the immature form ' crimivalis Camb.', 
which were named by the Rev. O. P. Cambridge, have been taken ; 
an adult, therefore, of this southern spider is needed to establish 
it as a Yorkshire species. It has been, however, taken in Lines., 
Staffs, and Berwickshire, in similar situations to the other species. 

V.C. 63. — Pole Moor, Lane, and near Jerusalem farm, Slaithwaite ; 
\Vessenden Valley ; Crosland Moor. 

{To be continued). 



325 

COMMON WILD BIRDS OF THE SCARBOROUGH 

DISTRICT. 



W. GYNGELL. 



( Co?i/iniicd fr()t)i page 261), 

*The Robin Redbreast {Erithctciis rubecula L.). Although I have given 
the bird's second name 1 can scarcely ever remember here or elsewhere 
having heard the word ' redbreast ' used. As common here as anywhere 
else in Britain year in and year out, its cheering and encouraging song I 
have heard on every day of the year ; once on Christmas eve in the Market 
Hall, Scarborough. Once on the building of a dirty back street in Bolton, 
Lancashire, at 8 a.m. on January i6th. At Midsummer, I have heard it 
from 2-7 a.m. till 8-^0 p.m. A roadside bank is the favourite nesting site, 
but, like the Redstart, it often occupies a hole in tree or wall or discarded 
pot or kettle. Sometimes right on the ground ; never more than six feet 
above it. Moss, grass, hair, dead leaves, wool and herbage stems comprise 
the materials that I have seen used. Eggs may be found in the nest from 
April 1 6th till June 29th. Five is the usual set, though not unfrequently 
six are laid, average weight -09 to one-tenth of an ounce. The usual 
colour and markings are well enough known, often there is one egg in the 
set much lighter in colour than the others. I have found them pure 
white. The Robin seems loth to retire at night and when it is so dark 
that one can scarcely identify the bird it will flit out before one's feet 
whilst one is homeward bound through a country lane and snatch some 
insect for supper, repeating the performance several times at great risk 
of being trodden upon. Generally distributed throughout the district 
in anything like congenial haunts, I have seen it occasionally on the rocks 
of the sea shore. Once a Robin visited and pecked at some hawthorn 
berries that had been placed in a vase of water on my outside window sill. 

*The Common Whitethroat [Sylvia cinerea Bechstein). A common 
summer visitor here from Api'il 24th to September 15th and locally called 
' Peggy.' Usually haunting hedge-rows and woods, but on more than 
one occasion I have come across it in small isolated bushes on the wildest 
parts of the moors. Not a very free singer it may be heard in full song 
until July 26th and I have heard it utter a few feeble farewell notes as 
late as September 3rd. At midsummer it may be heard from 2-58 a.m. 
till 8-50 p.m. 

It usually sings in hedges or low bushes or during one of its characteristic 
short jerky ffights up into the air, but I have heard it in a tree 25 feet up 
and sometimes whilst it was perching on a telegraph wire. I have found 
its nest in brambles, furze and other bushes, hedges, honeysuckle and 
nettles as low as 6 ins. and as high as 4 feet above the ground. The nest 
composed of dry grass, fine rushes, roots and hair is always in my experience 
of nests examined, finished off with a decoration of spiders' nests and is 
in this respect unlike any other bird's nest that I know. The five eggs — 
once only have I found six in a nest — vary most remarkably in ground 
colour and marking, more so, I think, than any other small bird's eggs in 
Britain, not excepting the very variable eggs of the Tree Pipit ; a rare 
variety somewhat resembles the well-known pink variety of the eggs of 
the Blackcap. I have a clutch of these and have heard of another York- 
shire set, but have seen no note of this variety in any work on British 
birds. The egg weighs -07 oz. 

*The Lesser Whitethroat [Sylvia curruca L.). Since I became familiar 
with the somewhat feeble but very distinct song of this little bird I have 
been surprised to find how much more common it is than is generally 
supposed. One week in summer, having business in Bridlington, Driffield, 
Beverley and Hull, I heard its voice in each of these towns. It nests within 

1918 Oct. 1- 



326 Common Wild Birds of the Scarborough District. 

the borough and is fairly common about the Scarborough district. From 
April 26th until July 8th it sings continuously in hedges, bushes and trees, 
rising higher amongst the foliage than the last-named species and in this 
habit seeming to belong more to the Willow Wren tribe. Its nest, usually 
built from 3 feet to 7 feet above the ground in hedges, bushes or low 
herbage — one that I found was in a thin, young larch — is I think, the 
smallest and lightest nest, properly so called, made by any British bird. 
I have weighed one and found that it did not exceed the eighth of an 
ounce. Made of the finest dead grasses and hei^bage stems, roots, hair, 
wool and spiders' web it is the merest ghost of a nest. Five eggs are laid 
each weighing but -05 oz. I copy the following from my bird note book, 
written at the time of occurrence : ' when I found one nest in a hedge and 
containing only three fresh eggs, the female left the nest and with a 
shivering motion of the wings fluttered along the ground for thirtj' to forty 
yards, the action which is supposed to be one of a bird's devices for enticing 
an intruder away from the nest. I have never before or since seen any 
bird continue this action for so long. These eggs were hatched thirteen 
days after laying. 

The Blackcap [Sylvia airicapilla L.). A fairly common bird in our 
most sheltered woods from April 24th, singing freely until June 21st and 
on that day from 2-26 a.m. till 8-48 p.m. Amongst its full rich notes it 
sometimes introduces some rather harsh and squeeky sounds. Then and 
at other times I find it most difficult to tell whether I am listening to a 
blackcap or a garden warbler, a scarcely inferior songster. Its thin nest 
is made of roots, grasses, vegetable down, wool, horse-hair and rarely a 
little moss. It is placed in brambles and herbage, low bushes or honey- 
suckle from 18 ins. to 5 feet above ground. Usually five eggs, I have found 
six in a nest all more or less of the typical colouring ; once only a nest 
containing five of the distinctly rare and beautiful pink variety. Weight 
of an egg -06 oz. Twice I have seen the cock bird sitting. 

*The Garden Warbler {Sylvia hortensis Bechstein). I think I am 
justified in saying that twice as many Garden Warblers as Blackcaps 
come to this district every summer. In most other parts of England 
their comparative numbers are, I should say, reversed. I have heard it 
singing from May nth to July 12th and from 2-20 a.m. till 8-25 p.m. 
In nesting habits it much resembles the last-named species though often 
choosing more open situations, and from i foot up to 7 feet above ground — 
higher than the Blackcap builds — in brambles, herbage, bushes and 
honeysuckle. The nest is usually of lighter construction than that of the 
Blackcap, dead grasses, fine roots and hair being the only materials used 
in the nests that I have examined. Usually five eggs, I have found seven 
in a nest. Weight, -07 oz. He is a very cocksure ornithologist who says 
that he can always distinguish these from the Blackcap's eggs. The usual 
alarm note is a harsh ' Chur, chur, chur, chur,' rapidly uttered, but one 
I heard uttered a shrill loud cry like the call of a young thrush when 
caught, whilst its mate uttered a faint ^ee-eep like the alarm note of the 
Willow Wren. The former of the two birds came within a yard of me 
and displayed intense agitation, although its nest contained only two eggs. 

Respect for the editor's difficulty in finding space forbids me here to 
dwell on the subject of individual character in wild animals, but long 
experience has led me to the conclusion that one individual of a wild 
species may differ as much in character from other members of its own 
species as one domestic cat or goose may do from other members of its 
fraternity. 

The Golden-Crested Wren (i?eg'M;MS cristatus Koch). A resident bird, 
not uncommon in most sheltered woods, especially where spruce and 
silver firs occur, though in hunting for food they do not confine their 
attention to these trees. In autumn large numbers are added to the 
residential population. I have heard its faint and very rapid song as 
early as February 14th and as late as August 19th. The host of autumn 

Naturalist, 



Common Wild Birds of the Scarborough District. 327 

migrants soon lireak up into little parties and joining Cole, Marsh and 
Blue Titmice haunt the woods for insect food, constantly calling to each 
other as they flit about. At this time they may sometimes be seen to leave 
the upper branches of trees and flutter butterfly-like down to the ground, 
apparently chasing small insects or to retrieve a fallen morsel of food. 
Tame as these real woodland fairies become sometimes, one can rarely 
get near enough or in the right position to see during their incessant 
restlessness the very beautiful golden crest. The nest, composed mainly 
of moss is lined with abundant feathers and some hair, decorated with 
lichens and spiders' webs, always, in my experience, woven into and 
suspended from a lateral branch of a spruce or silver fir, spiders' webs being 
the sole support. It is placed from 5 to 16 feet above ground and often 
contains as many as ten eggs. It would take about thrirty-three of these 
to weigh one ounce. 

*The Chiff Chaff {PJiylloscopus rnfiis Bechstein). This is the first of 
our Summer visitors, sometimes arriving as eai'ly as March 24th. Conse- 
quently all bird lovers who know birds and do not merely read about them 
in more or less inaccurate ' popular ' books look and listen for it as Lady 
Day approaches and accord it as hearty a welcome as they do the Cuckoo 
or Swallow. Fairly common in woods of fair size it remains with us 
sometimes as late as September 20th, whilst there is positive evidence 
that this or the next species — which very closely resembles it — sometimes 
remains here through the winter. 

Its bright little song, which on June 21st, one may hear from 3 a.m. 
till 8 p.m., becomes very faint and sad-sounding in September. Though 
arriving so early I have not found eggs in the nest before May 19th. 

With one exception only all nests that I have found have been built 
from I to 25 feet above ground, in herbage, furze or other bushes, the 
exceptional case was a nest in a hawthorn g feet up. Dead grasses, dead 
leaves and fern and sometimes strips of bark are used as building materials. 
Usually five, sometimes as many as seven eggs are laid, their weight being 
•04 oz. The alarm note is somewhat like the ' weet ' of the Chaffinch 
and much louder than the Willow-Wrens call. 

*The Willow-Wren {Phylloscopiis trochilus L.). This species, as well 
as the last-named, are locally known as feather-pokes, from the nest that 
both species make and which is really a sort of pocket full of feathers. 
It has not been known to arrive here before April 8th, nor have we any 
positive evidence of its remaining after September 26th. Its delightfully 
sweet little song may usually be heard all the time that it remains with us,, 
though its notes become feeble towards the end of its visit. From 2-25 
a.m. till 8-45 p.m. at midsummer it may be heard in every wood, plantation 
or grove in the district. The nest, composed of dead grasses and herbage, 
moss, leaves, bark, feathers, is usually built close down in the ground in 
a wood or on a road-side bank, but sometimes it is raised 18 inches above 
ground. Six is usually the number of eggs laid, not uncommonly seven, 
and I have found as many as eight young birds in the nest. The eggs 
vary in weight from -03 to -05 oz. I once saw in autumn a variety of this 
species (or possibly, but less likely of the last named) with cream-coloured 
plumage. 

The Wood-Wren {Phylloscopus sibilalrix Bechstein). Much less 
generall}' distributed than the two last-named species, this bird is quite 
as common in its own particular haunts, i.e. the fine old woods of deciduous 
trees such as those of Raincliff and Forge Valley. Arriving sometimes as 
early as April 23rd, I have not heard it sing after July loth. The nest, 
strangely difficult to find, is, however, not always well concealed and 
sometimes, as when raised only a few inches above the bare ground in 
a beech wood, may be seen fifty yards away. Dead grasses, straw, dead 
leaves, but nevey any feathers enter into its composition. Six eggs usually, 
but I have found seven. 

*The Sedge Warbler {Acrocephalus phragmilis Bechstein). Less 

1918 Oct. 1. 



328 Common Wild Birds of the Scarborough District. 

common than most of the other small warblers this noisy and aggressive 
little songster makes himself heard in the district from April 17th until 
August 7th, singing at all hours of the day and occasionally at any hour 
of the night. Here as elsewhere imaginative listeners have been known 
to luistake it for the Nightingale, which has only visited us once in the 
last thirty years. Its nesting haunts, though not confined to, are most 
frequently amongst low bushes and herbage by river side or swampy mere, 
but its nest may also be found in a furze bush or pollard willow stump, 
and sometimes in rushes actually growing in the water. From i to 7 
feet is the range of height above ground. The nest, measuring 5 ins. in 
height and 2 ins. in depth inside is made of grass, moss, vegetable-down, 
feathers, hair, seeds of rushes, roots and herbage stems. Usually five ; 
sometimes six eggs are laid. Weight, -06 oz. Occasionally a nest is 
made that somewhat resembles that of the Reed Warbler, having single 
reeds passing up close to the nest sides though not actually through the 
nest walls, and I once found a nest with two nettle stems actually passing 
up through it. 

The Grasshopper Warbler [Lociistella nacvia Boddaert). Heard as 
early in the year as April i6th, it has not been known to sing later than 
June 29th. I have no early morning record of its curious note which, 
however, I have often heard near midnight. The following notes are 
copied direct from my bird memo' book just as written : ' the song of 
this bird closely resembles the call of a large grasshopper, but is much 
more continuous ; it also somewhat resembles a faint pea whistle or the 
wind blowing through a telegraph wire. The note certainly does rise and 
fall.' Although often described as being very shy and difficult of approach, 
that is not my experience. Once, near Scarborough, having heard and 
seen the bird from a distance of thirty yards, I ver}^ cautiously and slowly 
crept up to within iwo paces of it whilst it still continued singing or altern- 
ately preening its feathers and now and again creeping about the low 
briar bush in which it sat. On a previous occasion in Somerset, under 
similar circumstances. T crept up quite close to one. Although nesting 
more or less frequently within the borough boundaries, I have not had 
the good fortune to find a nest myself. 

*The Hedge-Sparrow {Accentor modiilaris L.). Local name ' Cuddy.' 
Resident, very common, and an almost daily songster, singing more or 
less freely in every month of the year. Though its favoured haunts are 
gardens, shrubberies, hedge-rows and woodland, here it may frequently 
be seen and heard on the house-tops. I have found its nest containing 
eggs as early as April nth and young in the nest as late as September 
5th, but whether these were a first, second or third brood I could i\ot say. 
Sometimes quite on the ground the nest, more frequently found in a hedge 
than elsewhere may be placed in furze or other low bushes, brambles or 
herbage, one was noticed amongst fine moor riishes, another seven feet 
above ground in a spruce lir. The variety of materials used embraces 
moss, twigs, wool, dead grass and herbage stems, dead leaves, roots, 
bark, straw, feathers, f»r and hair. Never more than 6 eggs in a nest, 
usual weight -07 oz., I have found one weighing as miich as one tenth of 
an ounce and big enough though not heavy enough to pass for a Cuckoo's. 
I don't know when the Hedge Sparrow rises, but I have heard his song as 
late as 8-40 p.m. 

{To be continued). 



o 



We have only just heard that John Waddington, the well-known 
printer, of Leeds, died some little time ago. At one time he was keenly 
interested in the work of the Yorkshire Naturalists' Union, acted as its 
librarian, and had a seat on the Executive and other Committees. He 
was especially interested in the lepidoptera. 



Naturalist 



329 

YORKSHIRE NATURALISTS AT SETTLE. 

The 274th Meeting of the Yorkshire NaturaHsts' Union was held at Settle 
on Bank Holiday, August 5th. The Union was joined by members of 
the British Ecological Society, among whom were the President (Dr. 
Wm. G. Smith), Mr. A. G. Tansley, F.R.S., the Secretary (Dr. E. J. 
Salisbury), and a more ambitious programme than usual (under existing 
conditions) was arranged. The members assembled in goodly numbers 
at Huddersfield on Thursday, August 1st, when a meeting was held in 
the evening in the Biological Department of the Technical College, to 
consider some of the chief geological and vegetation features of the districts 
to be visited. The following four papers were given, illustrated b}' maps 
and lantern slides : — Dr. Wm. G. Smith, ' Plant Communities of Hills and 
Valleys ' ; Dr. T. W. Woodhead, ' Vegetation of the Pennine Moors ' ; 
Dr. A. Gilligan, ' Geolog}^ and Topography of Ingleborough ' ; and 
Mr. C. A. Cheetham, ' Vegetation of the Settle and Ingleborough District.' 
The members found good accommodation at the George Hotel, and early 
the following morning made an excursion from Marsden to Saddleworth 
via Wessendcn and Bills o' Jacks, where typical plant associations of the 
Southern Pennines were seen. The journey was then continued to Settle, 
which was to be the headquarters for the four following days. Good and 
reasonable accommodation was provided at the Golden Lion Hotel, and 
the weather on the whole being very favourable, an interesting and profit- 
able time was spent. Details of the excursions are given in the following 
reports. At a meeting held on Monday evening, August 5th, over which 
Dr. Wm. G. Smith presided, votes of thanks were accorded to Messrs. 
J. A. Farrah and Alric Watkins for permission to visit Keasden Beck and 
the moors at Dovenanter ; also to Mr. C. A .Cheetham and the o.^ncers 
responsible for arranging the details of the excursion. Mr. A. A. Pearson 
F.L.S., London, was elected a member of the Union. — T.W.W. 

Geology. — Albert Gilligan, D.Sc, F.G.S., reports : — At the pre- 
liminary meeting held at Huddersfield, the writer gave a short sketch of 
the geological history and structure of the Pennine Chain, noting especially 
those features which would be encountered in the field and had a special 
significance for the ecologists. On the Friday, starting from Huddersfield, 
which is situated in the Lower Coal Measures, the route up the Wessenden 
Valley and across the moors to Saddleworth carried us through the whole 
succession of the Millstone Grit Series to the Yoredales of the Saddleworth 
Anticline. Fine sections of the Middle Grits were seen in stream sections 
and road cuttings, and splendid scars and bluffs of the Kinderscout Grit 
were well exposed above Bills o' Jacks and on the way to Pots and Pans. 
Attention was paid to the large hog-backed mounds in the Wessenden 
valley which had been conjectured to be due either to landslips or glacial 
action, but the better explanation suggested by ob.serving the courses 
of the present lateral streams was that they were due to these streams 
changing their courses from time to time, first joining the main stream 
almost at right angles, and later damming their outlet and flowing parallel 
to the main stream for some distance before joining it, forming a shallow 
valley and leaving the mound between the main stream and the lateral. 
Later the lateral streams may resume their old courses, one such case 
being very evident. ' Pots and Pans ' is the local name for the curious 
pot holes in the Kinderscout Grit above Greenfield. These circular de- 
pressions are similar to those found in the Millstone Grit in many other 
districts where the resistant beds occur in exposed positions, and have 
been popularly ascribed to human agency or to the combined action of 
wind and rain. The large pothole around which the party gathered on 
an isolated block of grit had all the attributes of those which occur along 
river courses and formed by running water. Very noticeable was the 
bilateral symmetry due to the inclination of the axis as in the case of 
river potholes, and running water seemed the most likely agent to account 

918 Oct. 1. 



330 Yorkshire Naturalists at Settle, 

for them. Descending to Saddleworth Station, exposures of the thinly 
bedded Yoredales were noted, but no time was available for a close ex- 
amination of the beds. The journey to Manchester was over the western 
limb of the anticline whose eastern limb the party had traversed in the 
morning, and the same rock sequence (but in the reverse order) was noted, 
and we were soon over the Permians, on to the boulder-clay which covers 
the Triassic plain. Leaving Manchester for Settle, our journey lay across 
the Burnley Coalfield, which is crossed by the line of the Caledonian folding 
in the Rossendale Anticline which brings up the Millstone Grit, evidence 
of which could be seen. Approaching Blackburn, the well-known form 
of Pendle Hill was seen on our right and formed a landmark for many miles. 
About Clitheroe the folding of the limestones and shales along the north- 
east — south-west axis (Caledonian) was splendidly displayed, while the 
limestone knolls, of which Pimlico Quarry (the name sounded familiar to the 
southerners in the party) shows a good example, made some of us wish for 
a halt. The fiat top of Ingleborough seen on our left excited some interest, 
as the scene of our labours for the next few days lay in its vicinity. 

Arriving at Giggleswick, the line of the South Craven Fault was 
traceable by Giggleswick Scar and turning eastward at Settle. The 
journey here, very briefly sketched, may indeed be described as one 
long feast of ' tectonics ' and difficult to surpass in this respect by any 
route of similar length in the country. 

Ingleborough was our objective on the following day, and travelling 
via Horton-in-Ribblesdale to Ribblehead Station, which was the com- 
mencement of our walk, both the South and North Craven Faults, with 
the intervening three miles of Carboniferous Limestone were passed. 
The quarry in the Horton Flags and the unconformity of the Carboniferous 
and Silurian beds at Arco Wood, under Moughton Fell, were well seen 
from the train, as were also Fountains Fell, Penyghent and Ingleborough. 
The ascent of Ingleborough was made across the Great Scar Limestone 
of Gauber Hill Pasture, Colt Park and Park Hill, the overgrown limestone 
pavements of Colt Park being of extreme interest to the ecologists, but 
somewhat impeded the progress of the party. Of the oft described 
geological features of Ingleborough, Chapel-le-dale, etc., it is unnecessary 
to say much here except that the geologists found the time all too short 
and the workers too few to attempt making any real contribution to our 
knowledge of this area. Descending Ingleborough on the south-east, 
some of the party visited Hellan Pot, others crossed to Crummack Dale to 
examine the double unconformity at Crummack Beck Head, where the 
Carboniferous Limestone rests on a denuded anticline in the Silurians, 
and these are again separated from the Ordovicians by a bed of con- 
glomerate marking an unconformity, as long ago pointed out by the late 
Professor McKenny Hughes in his work in this district. Sulber Nick 
proved an attraction to one of the party, who walked its length in solitude 
and traced it to its termination in the Scars above Horton-in-Ribblesdale 
Station. This depression is certainly the line of a fault or disturbance 
and is in the same straight line with the fault which had been seen on the 
north-west side of Ingleborough. Throughout its length the Nick is 
marked by large swallow holes, and thoiigh at a distance it appears like 
the fallen-in roof of a shallow mine, there is no evidence that minerals 
have ever been sought here. 

The official programme for Monday gave rather a late start for Keasden 
Beck, so a few of the more energetic members anticipated this by about 
two and a half hours, and arrived on the ground in good time. Striking 
the beck not far above its junction with the River Wenning, hammers were 
soon at work upon the fossiliferous shales which succeed the Kinderscout 
Grit and are therefore on the same horizon as the Sabden Shales of the 
Pendle area. Several splendid exposures were encountered and large 
numbers of Goniatites, Posidoniellae and Orthoceratites soon obtained. 

The fault which crosses the beck was traceable, though not actually 

Naturalist 



Yorkshive Naturalists at Settle. 331 

seen, by change of dip of the beds. An interesting find near Turnerford 
was a boulder of ' Brockram ' forming one of the stepping stones across 
the stream. It had all the characteristic features of the Lower Brockram 
of the Vale of Kden as exposed at Stenkrith, near Kirkby Stephen, about 
thirty miles to the north, and different from the Brockram of Mason Gill, 
near Ingleton, about ten miles to the north-west. This is the first time 
Brockram has been recorded here as far as the writer is aware, and no other 
trace of such a rock was seen in the three and a half miles of stream ex- 
plored. Higher up stream, the shales were replaced by strong grit which, 
while giving interesting scenic effects in the way of cascades, was relatively 
iniinteresting. 

The writer did not accompany the party on their visit to Moughton 
Fell to examine the peat which is here found growing in a depression in 
the limestone, but he had made an examination of it a month previously 
and is of the opinion that this seeming anomaly of a siliceous vegetation 
on a limestone area may be explained in the following way. As showm on 
another page the material upon which the peat is growing is non-calcareous 
and consists of sandy material which is highly ferruginous, and of such a 
nature that it could not have resulted from the solution of the pure Great 
Scar Limestone. Some of it may have been formed by the breaking up 
of the impure limestones and sandstones of the Yoredales, but the bulk of 
it must have certainly been derived from grit and sandstone. Patches of 
gravelly ice-borne drift occur plentifully in the neighbourhood and offer 
the solution to the problem. The depression or swallow hole was in 
existence in pre-glacial times and the melt-water from the ice carried into 
it detrital material, and this was subjected to a settling process, with 
many disturbances no doubt. The joints of the limestone acted like a 
sieve and allowed the finest material (which only differs from the larger in 
grade, being true rock flour) to pass into them and finally seal them up. 
This fine material, now hardened, is to be found in the cervices of the lime- 
stone round the steep scars of iNIoughton Fell in proximity to the peat. 
This sealing up would finally give rise to a pool in the depression, and this 
received further additions until the supply ceased. If any calcareous 
material was originally present, as doubtless it was, it has since been 
leached out. It seems that the analogy between the pool here postulated 
and the pools at the gravel pits into which the washings are conducted is 
complete. Three was no trace of lamination as is the case wdth the clay 
derived from ice-melt water seen so beautifully in Victoria Cave, but the 
penetrating rootlets of the vegetation would have destroyed this if it 
was ever present. 

Victoria Cave w'as visited during the excursion and the party thus had 
an opportunity of examining the thick deposit of laminated clay preserved 
there, which the writer has described elsewhere and of which a short ac- 
count was there given. Mr. Wroot added much to the pleasure of the visit 
to the cave by his interesting lecturette upon its history and the results of 
the exploration carried on during the years 1867- 18 70, under the auspices 
of the British Association for the Advancement of Science. 

Botany. — Dr. W. G. Smith writes : — Plant ecology was a prominent 
feature in the series of excursions arranged by the Yorkshire Naturalists' 
Union, but other aspects of botany were not neglected. No better 
programme could have been devised to show some of the many features 
of Yorkshire vegetation, because each district visited was familiar ground 
to the respective leaders, botanical and geological. The first day (Aug. 2nd) 
from Huddersfield to Saddleworth by Wessenden was an excellent epitome 
of the vegetation of the Grits and Shales of the Pennine w-atershed. Dr. 
Woodhead, on this area, which he has worked so thoroughly from every 
aspect bearing on plant life, demonstrated the succession from valley 
woods of Oak and Birch upwards to the Bracken and heath}^ slopes, and 
on to the Cotton Sedge moors so typical of the Pennines. The general 
impression left is a series of sombre types of vegetation, somewhat lacking 



332 Yorkshire Naturalists at Settle. 

in brightness, a defect natural to these valleys, and no doubt due in some 
degree to the proximity of so many busy towns. The excursions of the 
next four days (Aug. 3rd — 6th) from Settle centred round Ingleborough. 
The main object was to examine the contrast between the limestone 
vegetation and the adjoining types on non-limestone soils and rocks. 
Ingleborough, as a botanical centre, never fails to reveal something new. 
Its plant life depends so much on the geology that the itinerant demon- 
strations of Dr. Gilligan added much to the interest and enabled the party 
to appreciate the geological information amassed by a long race of York- 
shire geologists. Ingleborough has long been a shrine for the geologist, 
and these excursions will hasten the time when it will become a Mecca for 
the British ecologist. Under the guidance of Mr. Cheetham the party 
explored a wealth of vegetation rarely met with in such a small area. 
The limestone pavements were examined with keen interest, and from the 
bare pavement it was possible to trace the stages of filling up with denser 
plant growth, in one direction towards the scar woods, in another towards 
the grassy pastures. Colt Park and Oxenber Woods were past their 
best season, but the fruiting stages of most of the characteristic plants were 
seen. On the steeper limestone and grit crags, there are interesting 
arctic-alpine species, most of which were found. The vegetation with 
Ling, etc., on Moughton limestone was examined with interest, and M