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Full text of "The naturalist of the Saint Croix. Memoir of George A. Boardman"

/^ 



FOR THE PEOPLE 


FOR EDVCATION 


FOR SCIENCE 



LIBRARY 

OF 

THE AMERICAN MUSEUM 

OF 

NATURAL HISTORY 



THE I^ATURALIST OF THE ST. CROIX 






THE 



NATURALIST ,f'?.nL'7¥.0 
OF THE SAINT CROIX 



MEMOIR OF 
GEOEGE A. BOARDMAN 



A SELECTION FROM HIS CORRESPONDENCE 

AND PUBLISHED WRITINGS, NOTICES OF 

FRIENDS AND CONTEMPORARIES WITH HIS 

LIST OF THE 



BIRDS OF MAINE AND NEW BRUNSWICK 



BY 

SAMUEL EANE BOARDMAN, M. S. 

University of Maine, Honorary, 1899 



BANGOR 

PRIVATELY PRINTED 
1903 



I AM delighted to know that you have shot that black aud 
golden winged woodpecker after which I have been searcli- 
ing so long. He has escaped me for about forty-eight years, but 
I am glad to get him noAV. I also do want that female pied duck. 
We do not possess either sex in tlie Smithsonian and want it very 
much. And please let me have that queer Labrador Duck with 
tlie bill that doesn't belong to it. We Avill immortalize Milltown. 
— Frof. Spencer F. Baird, Secretary of the Smithsonian Institution^ 
Washington^ D. C, in Letter to George A. Boairlman, June 22, 1871. 

Would it be possible to send the nest in a box so packed that 
it would be fit to paint from on arrival? I would employ Wolf to 
make a handsome painting of it with old and young birds, and 
you should have the first copy struck oft', colored by Wolf himself. 
Please do help me in tliis and I will do all I can to immortalize 
you as the first who has enabled us to give full particulars of the 
breeding of this bird. — Henry E. Dresser, London, Eng., author of 
History of the Birds of Europe, in Letter to George A. Boardman, 
May 27, 1872. 



TO THE ORNITHOIiOGISTS OF AMERICA: 

THIS Memoir of one of the Pioneer Field Naturalists 
of the United States, a plain man of business who 
traveled from the Atlantic to the Pacific and from the 
Mountains of the North to the Great Gulf of the South 
in his study of Birds ; who gathered the largest private 
collection in ornithology and natural history of any 
citizen in this country ; the accuracy of whose scientific 
knowledge was only exceeded by his noble character and 
beautiful life; Friend of Baird, Brewer, Cassin, Coues, 
I^awrence and Wood among the great ornithologists who 
have Passed and of Allen, Dresser, Elliot, Ridgway and 
Verrill among those who remain — is Respectfully and 
Lovingly Dedicated. 



INTRODUCTION 



THE present volume grew out of the belief on the 
part of members of Mr. Boardman's family, as well 
as that of his many friends, that a life so successful in 
business ; so largely devoted to a study of one of the 
leading branches of natural history ; so rich in personal 
experiences and so true and noble in character, should 
not end and leave no record of what had been accom- 
plished within the period of that life. 

When the work was contemplated its plan was simple. 
It was designed to republish Mr. Boardman's lists on the 
fauna of the St. Croix, for which there had been much 
call from scientists, especially for his list of birds and to 
accompany its reissue in a new form based upon the lat- 
est authoritative nomenclature, with a memorial sketch 
of Mr. Boardman which would give some account of his 
life and of his service to science. 

But when the material in hand had been examined it 
was found to be so extensive in volume, so rich and val- 
uable in character and so important to science that the 
original plan was changed. The scope of the work was 
enlarged ; a more careful memoir was decided upon ; the 
use of Mr. Boardman's large correspondence, including 
the many letters from leading ornithologists, was to be 
drawn upon as showing the importance and progress of 



viii. INTRODUCTION 

his studies ; as indicating the value which the great sci- 
entists of England and America placed upon his work, 
the high esteem in which his friendship was held, as well 
as his judgment consulted and depended upon by them. 

Thus the volume has grown as the material has been 
made use of. If it is larger than originally designed, the 
hope may be expressed that it is not too minute to satisfy 
Mr. Boardman's friends, while it would have been an 
eas}^ matter to have made it more comprehensive. 

There is yet a vast mass of unused material as enter- 
taining as any that has been made use of, or that appears 
in the work. Among this material are many letters 
from our greatest and best known naturalists of Mr. 
Boardman's day, with unpublished notes and chapters 
on natural history subjects. These record Mr. Board- 
man's observations with great carefulness and in a style 
extremely graphic and interesting. 

During the last few years of his life Mr. Boardman 
wrote much for the local newspapers of Calais and St. 
Stephen. While this was done as a matter of personal 
amusement the articles thus contributed were exceed- 
ingly entertaining. These extend to more than two 
hundred and are upon a wide range of subjects — those 
of current interest; relating to his own observations or 
the result of his wide reading ; upon natural history sub- 
jects and upon topics that were engaging the attention 
of people of the two cities. 

Of especial interest to residents of St. Stephen and 
Calais was a series of thirty articles or chapters, under 
the general heading: Early Times on the St. Croix. 
These consisted largely of Mr. Boardman's personal 
reminiscences. They embraced sketches of the early 



INTRODUCTION ix. 

settlers ; of the niills and shipping on the St. Croix ; of 
the churches, schools, merchants and professional men ; 
of the leading families and of the industries of the two 
cities. Although not sufficiently elaborate to be called 
history the}^ form a most important contribution to his- 
tory and must always be regarded when material for 
Calais and St. Stephen local history and biography is 
being collected. It was the original intention to repub- 
lish them in the present volume but the idea was aban- 
doned as one carrying the book far beyond its reasonable 
size. It became a question of including the historical 
sketches and excluding the rich correspondence or vice 
versa. To have included the sketches would have been 
gratifying to people in those two cities, although scien- 
tific readers would have regarded them of but little value. 
As the work progressed and became more especially a 
scientific memoir, it was deemed best to sacrifice the 
historical chapters for the sake of the letters to and from 
Mr. Boardman and his naturalist friends. In his quiet 
life; in his love for home and the locality in which he 
lived ; in his devotion to natural history and his interest 
in the antiquities, history and people of the St. Croix, 
Mr. Boardman was a genuine type of the naturalist of 
Selborne, and would have felt more satisfied to have 
been called the Gilbert White of Maine than that of 
any other title. 

It only remains for me to express my obligations to 
those who have assisted me in the preparation of this 
work and to whom I wish to return my grateful acknowl- 
edgments : 

First of all my thanks are due to the sons of George 
A. Boardman whose liberality has made possible the 



X. INTRODUCTION 

preparation of this memoir. They have not only borne 
the entire expense of its publication but have assisted 
me in many ways — given many suggestions, furnished 
numerous facts and also assisted me in obtaining much 
necessary information. They have greatly deferred to 
my judgment and seconded my every wish for making 
the volume the creditable work which it is hoped it will 
be found. To Mrs. J. Clark Taylor, Calais, Maine, the 
only daughter of Mr. Boardman, for the loan of the 
entire mass of his correspondence with naturalists, with- 
out which the preparation of this volume in its present 
form would have been impossible. To Prof. S. P. Lang- 
ley, secretary of the Smithsonian Institution, Washing- 
ton, D. C, for the loan of the collection of letters writ- 
ten by Mr. Boardman to Prof. S. F. Baird, now in the 
custody of the Institution; for the loan of the plate of 
portrait of Prof. Baird, as well as for many dates and facts 
and the kindly answer of numerous letters of inquiry. 
To lycwis Sperry, Esq., Hartford, Conn., and to Mrs. 
Mary Ellsworth Wood, East Windsor Hill, Conn., for the 
use of Mr. Boardman's letters to Dr. William Wood ; 
for the memoir and portrait of Dr. Wood and for other 
important material. To Hon. P. W. Fleweliing, of the 
Crown I^ands Department, Fredericton, N. B., for much 
information relating to the transfer of the Boardman col- 
lection of ornithology to the Provincial government of 
New Brunswick and for personal interest in the work. 
To Robert Ridgway, curator of birds in the Smithsonian 
Institution, Washington, D. C. ; to J. A. Allen of the 
American Museum of Natural History, Central Park, 
New York, and to Charles Hallock, Plainfield, Mass., 
for the use of letters of Mr. Boardman and to the latter 



INTRODUCTION xi. 

gentleman for permission to reprint from liis volume, 
Camp lyife in Florida, the chapter contributed to that 
work by Mr, Boardman, To Prof. lycslie A. Lee, Bow- 
doin College, Brunswick, Maine, for collating the vol- 
umes of the American Naturalist. To Charles G. Atkins, 
superintendent of the Gov^ernment Fish-hatching Station 
at Green I^ake, East Orland, Maine and to his sister. 
Miss Helen Atkins, for collating the volumes of Forest 
and Stream. To Prof. Ora W. Knight, ex-President of 
Maine Ornithological Union, Bangor, Maine, for his 
interest in the work and for revising the list of St. Croix 
Birds to make it conform to the present scientific nomen- 
clature. To the Forest and Stream Publishing Company, 
New York, for the use of the plate of portrait of Charles 
Hallock. Finally, I wish to acknowledge the assistance 
I have received from my wife, Mrs. Alma Staples Board- 
man. She has not only corrected the MS. but has col- 
lated and revised the scientific lists, read all the proofs, 
revised and re-revised the page proofs, made the index 
and had oversight of the typographical work involved, 
without which the volume could not have presented that 
freedom from errors which it is believed now character- 
izes it. 

Bangor, Maine, June 12, 1903. 



CONTENTS 



Dedication Page v. 

Introduction " vii. 

Chapter Page 

I. Boardman Family Ancestry 3 

II. Valley of the St. Croix 11 

III. Business and Domestic Life 16 

IV. Life Eecord of a Naturalist 31 

V. Closing Years at Calais 86 

VI. The Boardman Collection 98 

VII. Some Scientific Results 110 

VIII. Personal Characteristics 130 

IX. Appreciations and Honors 142 

X. Cori'espondence with Naturalists 152 

XI. Scientific Lists 298 

XII. Natural History Sketches 323 

Index 350 



LIST OF FJ.ATES 



Portrait of George A. Boardiuaii Froutispiece 

Page 

Portrait of George A. Boarduian 16 

Kesideuce of Mr. Boardmaa at Alilltowii, N. 15 23 

View from tlie Garden at Milltown, N. U 24 

Facsimile of Letter of Prof. S. F. Buird 68 

Portrait of George A. Boardmau 86 

Last Eesidence of George A. Boardinan 88 

Portrait of George A. Boardmau 95 

Boardman Family Monumeut 07 

Interior of Bird Museum at Calais ... OS 

Interior of Bird Museum at Calais 101 

Interior of Bird Museum at Calais 105 

Plan of Boardman Room 106 

Parliament House, Fredericton, N. B 109 

Group of Bear Cubs 127 

Portrait of Mrs. George A. Boardmau 132 

Portrait of Prof. S. F. Baird 154 

Facsimile of Letter of Prof. S. F. Baird 160 

Bird Museum at Calais 185 

Portrait of Dr. William Wood 213 

Portrait of Henry E. Dresser 249 

Facsimile of Letter of Henry E. Dresser 262 

P^'acsimile of Letter of George A. Boardman 272 

Portrait of Charles Hallock 281 

Facsimile of Letter of P. L. Sclater 293 



THE NATURALIST OF THE ST. CROIX 



THE I^ATURALIST OF THE ST. CROIX 



CHAPTER I 



BOARDMAN FAIVULY ANCESTRY 



THE family name of Boardman is one of much 
antiquity. Early forms of the name as found in 
records of both England and America are Boreman, 
Borman, Boarman, Burman, Burdman, Bodman, Boord- 
man and Bordman. The family originated in Oxford- 
shire, England, where the first of the name, William 
Boreman, was living as early as 1525, in Banbury, in 
that county. He had a son Thomas, called "the elder," 
who was living at Claydon, near Banbury, in 1546, 
whose wife's name was Isabelle. He died at Claydon in 
1579. Thomas had a son William who was married, 
but whose wife died about five years before her husband 
— her death having occurred in 1608 and that of her 
husband in 1613. Their son Thomas — called in the 
records "the younger" — was baptized at Claydon, 
October 18, 1601. He was the first of the name in New 
England. The earliest tax list of the Colony of New 
Plymouth that has ever been found, bearing date January 
2, 1632-33, contains his name. 



4 THE NATURALIST OF THE ST. CROIX 

In the Old Colony records of 1643, in a list of all the 
males of New Plymouth Colony, "able to beare armes 
from xvi years old to 60 years," the name of Thomas 
Boreman also appears. He is there put down as a resi- 
dent of Barnstable, Mass. Savage, in the Genealogical 
Dictionary of First Settlers of New England, says he 
was made a freeman March 4, 1635. He first appears 
on the records of Ipswich, Mass., in 1637. He was a 
cooper and carpenter by trade. The late Joseph B. 
Felt, one of the most learned and accurate antiquarians 
in New England, says he was first at Ipswich, that he 
moved from Ipswich to Barnstable but returned to 
Ipswich again. In his history of Ipswich Mr. Felt 
records that he died in that town in 1673 at an advanced 
age. His wife's name was Margaret. Some accounts 
say she died in November, 1679 ; but Mr. Felt gives her 
death as having taken place in 1680. Thomas Bore- 
man's estate was valued at his death at ;^523 6s. 6d. 

It may be interesting to give here the remarks of that 
learned antiquary, the late Rev. Eucius R. Page of 
Cambridge, Mass., in explanation of the different ways 
of spelling what is evidently the same name as found 
upon early New England colonial records, as a help to 
the understanding of the different forms of spelling the 
name Boardman as given at the beginning of this chap- 
ter. This author says : " It is not surprising that many 
of these names are incorrectly spelled. They are not 
autographs, but were written by the secretary or clerk 
according to the sound as the names were spoken to 
him. Moreover, it no doubt often occurred that the 
clerk did not catch the sound accurately and therefore 
mistook the true name." As many of the early settlers 



BOARDMAN FAMILY ANCESTRY 5 

to New England were unlettered men, could not write, 
perhaps could not spell, they gave their names to the 
town officers as thej^vere accustomed to be called, hence 
the various ways of spelling what is the same name, 
which appear upon the early records. 

Thomas Boreman, eldest son of Thomas and Margaret, 
was born in 1643 and married Elizabeth, daughter of 
Sargent Jacob Perkins, January 1, 1667-68. She was 
born April 1, 1650. This Thomas Boreman died Octo- 
ber 3, 1719, in his seventy-sixth j^ear and his wife died 
December 4, 1718, aged sixty-eight years, eight months 
and three days. 

Thomas and Elizabeth Boreman had a son Offin who 
was born at Ipswich, Mass., December 3, 1676 and 
married Sarah Hurd, February 28, 1698. Their son Offin 
was born December 16, 1698 and married Sarah Wood- 
man, January 17, 1722. He was master of a vessel that, 
according to the records, "was overset" September 8, 
1735, on a passage from Casco Bay to Boston and himself 
and twelve others were drowned. His wiie died July 
12, 1752. 

It should be stated here that Savage, in his Genea- 
logical Dictionary of First Settlers of New England, says 
that "after 1720 the early name of Boreman became 
permanently changed to Bordman and Boardman." 

Jonathan, son of Offin and Sarah (Woodman) Board- 
man, was born March 15, 1735 and married Rebecca 
Moody, November 12, 1761. They had a son William 
who married Mary Short, September 19, 1786. He was 
master of a vessel and was lost at sea. Two letters written 
by William Boardman to his father are in possession of a 
member of the family. The first is dated St. Eucia, 



6 THE NATURAI.IST OF THE ST. CROIX 

January 10, 1793 and the second at Wilmington, March 
10, 1793. Both letters are interesting and indicate the 
greatest respect for his father and devotion to his 
interests. 

In the first letter he writes : ' ' The 30th of December 
I arrived at Point Petre Saw Brother Chase. Markets 
Would Not Due from there I went to St Peires from 
There to St L,ucia And have Sold here. L,uniber at 15 
Dolars Beff at 8 Dollars Shingles at 1^ Dolars Mackrell 
at 4 Dollars. To Be payd one Third part in Cash 
The Other Two Thirds in Sugar Coffee Coaco Cotton 
At cash price. Sir I had Acounts from St Astaita 
lyumber Will not Answer there. Sir I expect to Sail by 
the 10 of february. If Any Thing Should happen That 
I Should Be Detained any Eonger I Shall prosead to 
Newbury port. If not I Shall go to Willmington. I 
had Very bad Weather on my pasage the 11 Decembr 
Scut Under 2 Rt forsail had my Quarter Boards Nock 
away my Chimney Nockd Down And my Eumber Shifted 
16 Inches Of Water for 2 Hours in The Hold By Baging 
the pump Boxes We freed her And fortingly Saved our 
Deck Eoad I Shall Due the Best I Can for your Intrist — 
So Conclude Remaining your Eoving Son." He then 
adds this P. S: "We are aU Well I have Eanded my 
Deck Eoad I have Sold to Mr Nervear and Company 
By What I Can hear they are Good men." This letter 
was directed to "Capt Jonathan Boardman in Newbury 
Port by favour of capt Spitfield." 

The second letter is as follows : "Eoving Sir I Write 
to let you now that after a passage of 13 Days 1 arrived 
here my Westingss Goods are not Wanted here Eumber 
and Navill Stores are too hy for me to purchas Atpresant 



BOARDMAN FAMILY ANCESTRY 7 

I Cannot Git no freight here for no plase. If nothing 
Offers Before to Morrow Noon I must Leave or Enter 
my Vesell. I Rather think I Shall Leave this port and 
prosede for Newbury Port. Sir I now I Shall make a 
Bad Voiage If I come home and I Shall make a Worse 
If I Stay here and It is one half to own it Sir I have 
Wrote to you By Capt Hollon and Capt. Yong of Port- 
land Before Sir So have nothing New to Inform you of 
more at Present Remember me to my Wife and the family 
And all Inquirings friends I Remain your Dutifull Son 
William Boardman." 

This is the last that was ever heard of Capt. William 
Boardman, his vessel and all on board having been lost 
at sea while on the passage from Wilmington, N. C, to 
Newburyport, Mass., in the spring of 1793. Mary, the 
wife of William Boardman, died April 27, 1847. 

William, the son of William and Mary (Short) Board- 
man, was born in Newburyport, Mass., May 30, 1789 
and married Esther W. Toppan March 12, 1815. She 
was born June 28, 1793 and was a daughter of Stephen 
Toppan who descended from Abraham Toppan who 
settled in Newburyport as early as 1637. Mr. Board- 
man was in business in Newburyport for a few years and 
moved to Portland in 1820. In 1824 he moved from 
Portland to Calais where he engaged in trade, bringing 
his family in 1828. Mr. Boardman was a Mason and 
was treasurer of St. Croix lodge, Calais, on its organiza- 
tion in 1844. Mr. George A. Boardman, writing in one 
of his delightful autobiographical sketches printed in 
the St. Croix Courier, tells of the anti-Masonic "mania," 
as he terms it, which prevailed in the early '30's and 
says : "So intense was the feeling at one time that 



8 THE NATURALIST OF THE ST. CROIX 

bloodshed was feared and the lodges ceased to hold 
meetings. From what I heard and read I should have 
thought all the Masons should have been hanged if my 
father had not been a Mason. But my father told me 
the institution was a good one and friendly to the best 
interests of humanity ; that bad men sometimes join the 
fraternity as unworthy men sometimes join the churches, 
but the influence of the lodge was for good and good 
only. Ever since then I have had great respect for the 
order." This incident shows the influence of a good 
man's life upon character. William Boardman was a 
good man ; his son believed in him and his good char- 
acter influenced that of the son to honor and respect not 
only the man, but any institution to which he belonged 
and endorsed. William Boardman joined the first tem- 
perance society which was organized in Calais, May 12, 
1828 — the very year in which he brought his family to 
that town. 

The children of William and Esther (Toppan) Board- 
man were Adeline who married F. H. Todd; William 
H.; George A.; Caroline M., who married Charles 
Hayden of Eastport ; Anna ly., who married Henry F. 
Eaton; Gorham, who resides in New York; Mary E., 
who married Rev. Henry V. Dexter, and Emily who 
married Elwell Eowell and resides in Calais. William 
Boardman died July 2, 1866 ; his wife Esther died May 
31, 1877. On the death of Mr. Boardman, the following 
notice appeared in the St. Croix Courier and was repub- 
lished in the Newburyport Herald of July 17, 1866 : 

"Perhaps no one has more generally endeared himself 
to the whole community than he, by his obliging quali- 
ties of character, his amiable and cheerful disposition, 



BOARDMAN FAMILY ANCESTRY 9 

his gentle and courteous manners. With a keen insight 
into human nature, he was yet so full of love and charity 
that no one living can remember of him an unjust or an 
unkind word. All, even the little child, were made 
happier and better by his loving, cheerful presence. To 
his large family his loss will be very great ; for his life 
to them has been a continual benediction. The same 
smile, the warm grasp of the hand, the loving words of 
welcome were never forgotten until strength and memory 
failed. Blessed beyond words has his pure life been to 
them. May the mantle of his charity and cheerful faith 
enwrap them all as thej^ leave him in repose and again 
mingle in the turmoil of life." 

Before closing this chapter it may be of interest to 
mention — although this memoir is in no sense a genea- 
logical history of the family — that Savage says that 
Daniel Bordman who was married at Ipswich, Mass., 
April 12, 1662, "was a brother of Thomas called Bore- 
man ; and also Samuel Boreman (Borman, Boardman) 
who was at Ipswich in 1639 and who went to Weathers- 
field, Conn., in 1642 and founded the Connecticut family 
of Boardmans, who was a brother of Thomas, who settled 
in Ipswich in 1634." It is the purpose of this memoir 
only to bring down the family branch from which the 
naturalist of the St. Croix descended, but the above is 
mentioned as an interesting fact in the family history. 

The parents of George A. Boardman lived to celebrate 
their golden wedding as did his brother William, who 
married Mary Quincy, who celebrated their golden 
wedding August 5, 1890. His sister Anna and husband, 
Henry F. Eaton, celebrated their golden wedding October 
17, 1892 and Mr. Boardman celebrated his December 19, 



10 THE NATURALIST OF THE ST. CROIX 

1893. His brother Gorham and wife, Mary L. Lord, 
celebrated their golden wedding October 23, 1901. This 
record shows that father and mother and four of their 
children lived to observe their golden weddings. This 
is a somewhat remarkable record for longevity in one 
family — a family remarkable for devotion and love to their 
own kindred, for interest in humanity and in all agencies 
and efforts making for the common good. 



CHAPTER II 



VAIil^EY OF THE ST. CKOIX 



THE St. Croix river — the natural valley of which 
Mr. Boardman did so much to develop, in which 
his great business abilities were so long employed for 
its advantage and the fauna of which he made so well 
known to the scientific world — forms the boundary 
between the province of New Brunswick, Dominion of 
Canada and the United States, from a point just south 
of latitude 46 degrees north to the bay of Fundy into 
which its waters discharge. At Quoddy Head the 
United States reaches its farthest eastern limit and the 
St. Croix system is the most southeastern river system 
in the State of Maine. The area drained by the river 
St. Croix and its affluent lake systems is 70 miles long 
by 50 miles broad, having a total surface of 1175 square 
miles, 800 of which are in the State of Maine and 375 
are in the province of New Brunswick. The St. Croix 
is formed by two branches, the lower of which receives 
the waters of the Grand lakes and the upper of which 
receives those of the Schoodic lakes — the connecting 
rivers being wide and voluminous. In the St. Croix 
system are 183 streams and 61 lakes represented upon 



12 THE NATURALIST OF THE ST. CROIX 

the state map — eleven of the lakes and ponds being 
located in New Brunswick. The Indian name Schoodic, 
which denotes in the native tongue "low, swampy 
ground" is applied to the St. Croix in general, includ- 
ing its chains of lakes and streams. The entire system 
of rivers, streams and lakes forming the St. Croix is, in 
fact, an attenuated combination of the lakes; while 
by some the St. Croix has been termed "a lake in 
motion." 

For about ten miles above tide water at Calais the 
river has an average width of 500 feet ; its annual dis- 
charge is estimated at 44, 800, 000, 000 cubic feet ; the aver- 
age fall to tide water is about 300 feet, or 6.5 to the mile 
and the land bordering the river and its tributaries is to 
a large extent low, preventing excessive rises upon the 
river itself — conditions which, according to the report 
on the Hydrographic Survey of the State, ' ' places the St. 
Croix at once and without controversy in the foremost 
position of the large rivers of Maine as a manufacturing 
stream." The same authority, in 1869, says that "four- 
fifths of the basin area of the St. Croix are covered with 
forests which consist largely of heavy, valuable timber." 

A region of country possessing so many natural advan- 
tages for business early attracted the attention of set- 
tlers. The forests of beautiful timber were waiting to 
be transformed into merchantable lumber; the numer- 
ous falls invited the erection of dams and the building 
of mills, while tide-water at the upper arm of Passama- 
quoddy bay, which has a rise and fall at Calais and St. 
Stephen of twenty-five feet, making the river navigable 
twice every twenty-four hours for the largest vessels, 
brought these crafts there from many parts of the world for 



VALLEY OF THE ST. CROIX 13 

the products of the forests. Fish and game abounded and 
the forests and waters were alive with singing birds, game 
birds and water fowl. St. Stephen, N. B., opposite 
Calais, Maine, was settled between 1776 and 1779 ; while 
in 1780 a settlement was made in the southern part of 
Calais. Some years previous to the above dates white 
men had located on the river, but it is probable that the 
first permanent settlements were made in the above years. 

Among the first things these early settlers did was to 
build saw miUs and lumbering soon became the most 
important industry. As early as 1790 a saw miU called 
the "brisk mill" was built by Peter Christie, Abner 
Hill and others. This was built at what is now called 
Milltown. It is an interesting fact that the lumber of 
which the old state house in Boston was built was sawn 
in this "brisk miU" and shipped from the St. Croix in 
1795. A large business was also done at these early 
mills in getting out masts and ton or square timber for 
the English market and for the West India trade. The 
entire river on both the English and American sides was 
lively with saw mills and there were no less than twenty- 
five firms engaged in the business of manufacturing and 
shipping lumber ; among them the great names of Chris- 
tie, HiU, Todd, McAUister, McAdam, Eaton, Boardman 
and Murchie take high rank. Indeed, no more remark- 
able group of business men have been produced in any 
section of the provinces or the states than those who rose 
to afiluence and power by virtue of their ability in devel- 
oping and gaining control of the vast lumbering inter- 
ests of the St. Croix valley during the last half century. 

St. Stephen, N. B., and Calais, U. S. A., lie on oppo- 
site sides of the St. Croix at "salt water" or the head of 



14 THE NATURALIST OF THE ST. CROIX 

navigation. Two miles up the river on the English side 
is the town of Milltown, parish of St. Stephen; while 
opposite on the American side is Milltown-Calais. On 
either side there is an almost continuous settlement the 
entire distance, while about midway is a bridge across 
the river and a number of mills which place is called the 
Union. The drive from Calais to Milltown on the Amer- 
ican side and down to St. Stephen on the English side, 
or a ride by the well-managed trolley line of street cars 
is one of the most picturesque and interesting in any 
part of the states or the provinces. The cities are busy, 
the wharves piled with lumber, the harbor gay with ves- 
sels bearing the flags of two nations, while the lumber 
mills, the big cotton mill, the Washington County rail- 
road and the belt line railroad connecting the Canadian 
Pacific railway with the former road give evidence of 
business prosperity and general content unsurpassed by 
almost any section of the country. The scenery is beau- 
tiful, there are fine residences all along the river banks, 
while the people of the two nations are really one. In 
business interests, social relations and all that makes for 
the public good, the residents of the two nations have a 
unity of spirit and interest that is indeed most friendly 
and serviceable. 

It was in this beautiful and favored section where Mr. 
Boardman began his business life at the age of thirteen 
years. During his active business career and his long 
life as a private gentleman of wealth, public spirit, culti- 
vated tastes and leisure, he became closely identified 
with the two communities in all their business, educa- 
tional, religious and social interests. He loved the 
place and the people. He had studied them, lived 



VALLEY OF THE ST. CROIX. 15 

among them and became a large part of them. He saw 
the towns become cities ; he planned and carried for- 
ward large enterprises ; he made his home in the beauti- 
ful valley and gave great study to its flora and its fauna. 
He knew the trees, the flowers, the song and game 
birds, the animals, the fishes. He numbered his friends 
at home by the populations of the towns in which he 
lived, while his correspondents were among the greatest 
scientists of the time. He spent here a long, joyous, 
active and successful life. It was the dearest spot of all 
the earth to him and his life was devoted to making it 
dearer and happier to those whom he loved. 



CHAPTER III 



BUSINESS AND DOMESTIC LIFE 



GEORGE AUGUSTUS BOARDMAN, son of 
William and Esther (Toppan) Boardman, was 
born in Newburyport, Mass., February 5, 1818 and came 
to Calais with his parents in 1828. All the education he 
ever received was the little in his early childhood and 
that obtained during the scanty terms of a Maine country 
school at that early date between the age of ten and thir- 
teen years, with one term at Newburyport. After the 
family had settled in Calais he went back to the place 
of their former home where he attended school during 
one winter, making his home with members of his 
mother's family. At the age of thirteen years he left 
school to go to work and after that never had but one 
term at school nor did he take a course of study in any 
branch of education. At that time he engaged as clerk 
for Mr. Henry Hoyt with whom he remained a year. He 
was faithful and worked constantly for the interests of 
his employer. This was one of the earliest characteristics 
developed in the business career of the young man. 
After this first year of work he went into the store of Mr. 
B. F. Waite, one of the early merchants of Calais and 







GEORGE A. BOARDMAN 

At tlie Aji'o of about Tliirtv->ix year: 



BUSINESS AND DOMESTIC LIFE 17 

an extensive lumberman, as a clerk, where lie remained 
for a period of five years. 

In an article describing early days on the St. Croix, 
written after Mr. Boardman had retired from business, 
in which he describes the ways of the people and the 
domestic customs of the times, he says: "The writer 
was 'put to a store' in 1832 to learn the business. The 
most of the business was to sell liquor. The West 
India rum was brought in hogsheads and I was ordered 
to draw off one-third the hogshead and fill it up with 
water. The New England rum was treated about the 
same way." He then gives an account of the early 
temperance reform, telling of a public meeting at which 
Mr. "William Todd, Jr., had made a speech closing with 
the words : "I have made up my mind to pledge myself 
to sell or use no more liquor and to use my influence to 
drive it out of the place and the world. Now who will 
join me and do likewise ? " 

The account then continues: "Mr. B. F. Waite, 
who, in the last year, had retailed twenty-three hogs- 
heads of West India rum said : ' I will go with you and 
sign that pledge.' " In another article written in after 
life, in which he says that it had been his study to mark 
boys who had started in any grade of life to see how 
they had developed and what success they had reached, 
he said : " If a boy does not follow the right path before 
he is of age, it is not likely he will ever travel therein. 
Every boy over ten or twelve years old is either making 
or losing money every day, whether he is receiving any 
cash payment or not." Following this with the words, 
"let me explain," Mr. Boardman then gives this most 
interesting account of his ow' n early life : 



18 THE NATURALIST OF THE ST. CROIX 

' ' I knew a boy, son of a poor man, who was faithful 
to his parents and did every task given him. When but 
thirteen years old a nearby merchant asked him if he 
would not like to come to his store as clerk, saying, 
' I have been watching you for a year or two and think 
you would suit me.' He was engaged for a j^ear which 
he served out faithfully. Another merchant had been 
watching this boy of fourteen years and engaged him in 
his employ, where he remained for five years at high 
wages. About this time a neighboring merchant, whose 
partner had retired, told this young man that he had 
been watching him for five years and if he could be 
spared by his present employer he would give him a 
good chance and perhaps make him a partner in his 
business as soon as he became of age. This was arranged 
and the next year, 1839, when he became twenty-one years 
old, he was made a partner in the best and largest lumber 
concern on the St. Croix river." Then, as was Mr. 
Boardman's way in all his entertaining writings, he 
enforced the moral of this incident by saying : ' ' Did not 
this boy make money every day when the rich men were 
watching him ? His faithfulness to little things — to all 
things that came in his way — was what made a fortune 
for him, as it would for any other boy who acted similarly. 
Somebody will tell other somebodies, until the boy's 
character is known as far as he is known." 

Such is a true picture of the starting in business life 
of George A. Boardman, from his own pen. The man 
who had watched the boy so closely and taken so deep 
an interest in him on account of his faithfulness to his 
employer's interests was Mr. William Todd, one of the 
early pioneers and business men on the St. Croix river. 



BUSINESS AND DOMESTIC LIFE 19 

Mr. Todd was born in North Yarmouth, Maine, July 10, 
1803, his father, Mr. WiUiam Todd, having been a 
native of Goffstown, N. H. The family came to St. 
Stephen in 1811 and, in early manhood, Mr. William 
Todd entered upon a business career in Milltown which 
he followed with great success for many years. He was 
chiefly engaged in the manufacture and exportation of 
lumber, but was active in every movement and enter- 
prise that had for its object the development and pros- 
perity^ of the country' in which his home and business 
were located. 

After the relinquishment of his business to his suc- 
cessors Mr. Todd largely gave his attention and money 
to the promotion of enterprises for the building up of the 
town. He was one of the first promoters of a railroad in 
the St. Croix valley ; was for nian}^ years president of 
the St. Croix and Penobscot railroad company, the first 
president of the St. Stephen branch railroad company 
and a director and president of the St. Stephen bank. 
He was much interested in Provincial politics and in 
1854 was appointed to a seat in the Legislative Council 
of New Brunswick and was an earnest advocate of pro- 
vincial confederation. Mr. Todd was one of the founders 
of the Congregational church at Milltown, for many 
years an office-bearer and superintendent of the Sunday 
school. He was also president of the Bible society and 
a firm temperance advocate. On August 5, 1873, Mr. 
Todd died, full of 5^ears and of honors. 

When Mr. Todd said to young George Boardman, 
after he had been in his employ for two years, " I want 
you to go into partnership with me," the reply was, "I 
have no monej^ I have given my money to my parents." 



20 THE NATURAUST OF THE ST. CROIX 

And it is a splendid illustration of his love and respect 
for his parents, as well as a tribute to his habits of thrift 
and economy, that previous to his becoming of age he 
had given his father the sum of $1500. Mr. William 
Boardman had lost his property in the eastern land specu- 
lation and had a large family to rear and educate. 
Beside paying his own board and expenses out of the 
small salary he had received — small at that early time 
in comparison with what young men receive now — 
young Boardman had saved and given to his father 
$1500 of his own earnings to help him in his time of 
need. Could there be any doubt that such a boy would 
make a successful business man, or is it any wonder that 
Mr. Todd wanted him for a partner? 

It was a most fortunate and happy beginning in busi- 
ness life when Mr. Boardman became a partner in the 
firm of William Todd, Jr. & Company. This firm had 
previously been Todd & McAllister, the members being 
William Todd and John H. McAllister, the latter of 
whom married Mr. Todd's sister who was Mrs. Board- 
man's aunt. The other member of the firm was Mr. 
Samuel Darling who had been in Mr. Todd's employ 
as book-keeper. Mr. Darling retired in a few years and 
went into business for himself. The firm of Todd & 
Company was one of the largest and richest lumber 
firms on the St. Croix river. 

On October 27, 1840, just after he had reached his 
majority, Mr. Boardman became a member of this large 
and wealthy firm and his future success was at once 
assured. 

During the period between the years 1840 and 1845 
the firm had a large and increasing business and enjoyed 



BUSINESS AND DOMESTIC LIFE 21 

great prosperity. New mills had been built, the sales 
of lumber had been extensive and prices were good. It 
was during the first years of the firm of William Todd, 
Jr. & Company that Mr. Boardman induced his partner 
to put in the first gang mill on the St. Croix. He had 
heard of such a mill near Bangor, went out to see it and 
induced the firm to put one in operation. This was at 
the same place as what was afterward known as the 
"big gang," in the outside mill sold by the C. F. Todd 
estate to H. F. Eaton & Sons. Before that all the mills 
in the Province were the old fashioned, slow, single-saw 
mills and the introduction of the gang saw revolutionized 
the manufacture of lumber on the St. Croix. In these 
improvements and the increased business Mr. Boardman 
had become an efficient factor in the firm's success. 
Now was to come another happy and important event in 
his life. 

On December 19, 1843,* Mr. Boardman was united in 
marriage with Miss Mary J. Hill and commenced house- 
keeping in a small cottage which he had built that year. 
For the lot of land upon which this cottage was built 
Mr. Boardman paid $700. It is a small story and a half 

*Among the papers found in Mr. Boardman's collection of MSS. is the following in 
pencil, apparently of a date but a short time previous to his own decease : " Names of 
persons attending the Wedding of George A. Boardman and Mary J. Hill, *Dec. 19, 1843, 
at Milltown, St. Stephen: Mr. Johnson Officiated;* Gorham Boardman, Groomsman; 
Eliza Ann Todd, Bridesmaid; Grandfather and Grandmother Todd ;** Grandfather and 
Grandmother Hill;** Father and Mother Boardman ;** Father and Mother Hill ; ** 
Mr. and Mrs. Darling ; * Mr. and Mrs. Dr. George ; * Mr. and Mrs. William Todd ;*» 
Aunt Laura and Elizabeth McAllister;** Mr. and Mrs. F. H. Todd;** Mr. and Mrs. 
William H. Boardman ; * Mr. and Mrs. Charles Hayden ; ** Mr. and Mrs. H. F. 
Eaton ;** Edwin, Mary and Emily Boardman ; Mrs. Amanda Hill ; * Alice Darling ;* 
Abner,* Laura and Charles E. Hill; Frank,* Eliza Ann,* Hester and Ada Hill; 
Robert Todd, Jr;* Monroe Hill;* Mary Hill (Tobin);* Aseneth Hill (Atwood)." 
The asterisks in this note indicate the persons who had died up to the time Mr. Board- 
man wrote the same. 



22 THE NATURALIST OF THE ST. CROIX 

house and is still standing on Main street, Milltown, N. 
B., though in a somewhat dilapidated condition. This 
house is nearly opposite the Congregational church 
which Mr. and Mrs. Boardman attended and into this 
cottage they moved the day of their marriage. Mr. 
Boardman had become a member of this church in 
early life and was constant and devoted in his ministra- 
tions upon its services. 

Mr. Boardman, by his own marriage and those of his 
sisters, became connected with most of the prominent 
and wealthy families of the St. Croix valley. His wife 
was the grand-daughter of Mr. Abner Hill, in his time 
the principal lumber manufacturer on the river, while 
his sons Abner, Daniel and Horatio were all at one time 
large lumber manufacturers and merchants. Another 
brother, Mr. George Stillman Hill, was said to be the 
ablest member of the Legislative Council of New Bruns- 
wick — he was a prominent lawyer and lived in St. 
Stephen. One of the earliest permanent settlers of 
Calais was Mr. Daniel Hill, a relative of Mrs. Board- 
man's grandfather. Her mother was a Todd and the 
Todds were all prominent, able business men and mer- 
chants. Mr. William Todd, as has been stated, was 
Mr. Boardman's partner in business. Mr. Freeman H. 
Todd, another brother, a man of great ability and force, 
who married Mr. Boardman's oldest sister Adeline, was 
a very successful merchant, president of St. Stephen 
bank and of the New Brunswick and Canada Railway 
Company. Mr. Todd at his death, left probably the 
largest estate of any man in the province of New Bruns- 
wick. Mr. Boardman's sister, Anna L., married Mr. 
Henry F. Eaton, respected for his integrity and who, 



mm 





RESIDENCE OF GEORGE A. BOARDMAN 

Milltowii, St. ytephi'ii, N. 1j. 



BUSINESS AND DOMESTIC IvIFE 23 

b}' his ability and close application to business, left one 
of the largest estates ever probated in Maine, among the 
assets being 586,000 acres in fee of unencumbered timber 
land. Mrs. Boardman was born in the old house at the 
foot of Todd mountain, or Boardman mountain in Mill- 
town, N. B., which house is now standing. 

The first store in which Mr. Boardman's firms did 
businesson Water street, Milltown, N. B., is yet standing, 
with the mills in the rear, next to the river, but the mill 
and buildings are much decayed and are now unoccupied. 
There have been many changes on the river and mills 
and bridges have been carried away by freshets or 
destroyed by fire. The last mill owned by Mr. Board- 
man stood on what is known as the upper dam, in the 
rear of the old store. 

Mr. Boardman remained in the firm of William Todd, 
Jr. & Company until the 3^ear 1855. Mr. Todd's son, 
Mr. Charles Frederick Todd, had graduated from Bow- 
doin college the year previous and the following year 
Mr. Todd transferred his interest to his son. The firm 
then became George A. Boardman & Company. As 
soon as Mr. Todd became acquainted with the business 
Mr. Boardman gradually gave the management of the 
firm to him. When he began to give less attention to it 
himself he paid the salary of Mr. Ezra Malloch who had 
been employed by them for several years. Mr. Board- 
man was then becoming greatly interested in the study 
of ornithology and was giving less attention to the busi- 
ness of the firm than formerly. 

During the continuance of the firm of George A. 
Boardman & Company its business increased greatly 
from year to year. More mills were erected, large tracts 



24 THE NATURALIST OF THE ST. CROIX 

of land and timber were purchased and great shipments 
of sawed lumber were made to ports in the United States, 
the West Indies, South America and other foreign parts. 
Business called him frequently to New York, Baltimore, 
Philadelphia, Boston and other places at which times 
he made many acquaintances among business and scien- 
tific men. He continued to reside in the cottage house 
which he built the year of his marriage, until 1860, 
when he built a new house at the corner of Main and 
Church streets, Milltown, N. B. This is a two-story 
house and its location is very pleasant. From its lawn 
a wide and beautiful view of the St. Croix valley is 
obtained, the outlook being upon the American side of 
the river in the state of Maine, directly opposite the 
famous salmon falls. As shown in the accompanying 
plate, the view is one across fine fields with their neat 
houses and beautiful trees. Mr. Boardman took great 
delight in this scenery, the near prospect of which was 
interesting as it included the pleasure grounds of his 
own home. 

The years spent in this house were among the best 
and happiest of Mr. Boardman's happy life. It was here 
that several of his children were born and where they 
developed to 3^ears of young maturity. When at board- 
ing school and college they came home at vacations 
bringing their college mates with them the house was 
the scene of great merry-making and good cheer. It 
was during his residence here that Mr. Boardman made 
the larger part of his collections and where the most 
active years of his business life were passed. He gave 
his time largely to natural history study and collecting, 
while Mrs. Boardman's time was devoted to her children, 
her home and her srarden. 





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B^j^W'r. ■■^^^tj^^ . ^^ 


** 


"^--^31 


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W^' 


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, . ,....■ .^ 


f 


*L'" 


^H 


X 


„.,»■■ 


\ m 


■•aMM»- 




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J^ 


f |H 


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^9 


■>^-v 


p-^ 




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VIEW FROM THE GARDEN 



At Mr. HoMrdiiiMirs Milltuwn IJcsidciiee 



BUSINESS AND DOMESTIC EIFE 25 

In Mr. Boardman's marriage he was most happy. No 
more noble woman ever lived than Mrs. Boardman. She 
was a person of great strength and loveliness of charac- 
ter, of fine presence, tall and commanding with a sweet 
face and a winning personality which drew to her friends 
from every station in life. As one who knew her inti- 
mately throughout life said : ' ' She was born an angel 
and always lived one" — which is but a just tribute to 
her sweet disposition and beautiful character. Her 
entire life was given up to her family, her children and 
her home duties. She loved flowers and had at this 
Milltown home the finest and best kept garden and col- 
lection of plants of any one in that section and spent 
much time in their care. In all her husband's business 
pursuits and nature studies she was deeply interested, 
and after an ideal married life of fifty years Mrs. Board- 
man passed away, leaving behind to husband, children 
and friends the memory of a loving and devoted wife and 
mother. Near this house Mr. Boardman owned large 
fields of productive land which extended back from the 
river, on which he raised good crops ; near here his mills 
were located, while he was interested in many of the 
dams and power privileges on the St. Croix. Water was 
brought to the buildings and grounds from a spring half 
a mile distant and every convenience possible was added 
to them that would make them desirable and pleasant. 

In 1867 Mr. Boardman's eldest son, Charles Augustus, 
then twenty-three years of age, entered the firm of 
George A. Boardman & Company. He had graduated 
from Bowdoin college the year previous. In 1870 his 
second son, Frederic Henry, who graduated from Bow- 
doin in 1869, was admitted, each taking one-half their 



26 THE NATURALIST OF THE ST. CROIX 

father's interest, the firm name remaining unchanged. 
But while giving up interest in and care of the business 
he always liked to be active and constant about the miUs 
and offices when not absent from home on his many visits. 

For ten years previous to the admission of his sons 
into the firm, Mr. Boardman had been giving more and 
more time to the study of natural history, especially to 
ornithology. He had several times visited Boston, New 
York and Washington to meet naturalists and to visit 
the museums and was also engaged in correspondence 
with eminent scientists. Consequently he was placing 
more of the cares of business upon other members of the 
firm, especially upon his two sons who had taken his 
interest in the business. But while relinquishing these 
details of private business that he might devote more 
time to scientific pursuits, Mr. Boardman retained an 
interest in all public affairs and in the directorate of 
many corporations in which he had large financial inter- 
ests. He was a director and president of the Ferry 
Point Bridge Company; of the International Steamboat 
Company; of the Frontier Steamboat Company, of 
which he was an original director and was president 
of the company at the time of his death; of the St. 
Stephen Bank and of the St. Stephen Rural Cemetery. 
He was also treasurer of St. Stephen academy from the 
time it was established till public schools were started in 
New Brunswick. These several corporations demanded 
much of his time and during a long business career it 
was very rarely that he was absent from any of their 
directors' meetings. 

Between the years 1868 and 1891, a period of twenty- 
three years, much time was spent by Mr. Boardman and 



BUSINESS AND DOMESTIC LIFE 27 

his wife in visits to different parts of the country. While 
in active business he always took his own vacations in 
the winter time. During the summer months he man- 
aged the large business interests of his firm, giving his 
partners opportunity to have their vacations in the 
summer. He gave oversight to the mills of the com- 
pany and made repeated visits to Boston, New York, 
Philadelphia and Baltimore to make sales of lumber 
and collections from buyers — such business being then 
done more personally than in later years. 

When Prof. Baird of Washington was spending the 
summer of 1869 at Eastport with his family, and was 
planning for Mr. Boardman to join him on a trip to 
Grand Manan to pass some days in examining shell- 
heaps and in hunting for Indian relics, Mr. Boardman 
explained why he could not accompany him. Writing 
to Prof. Baird under date of August 28 of that year he 
says : "I am very sorry I cannot get away to go with 
you, but we have so many men at work, our mills are 
being repaired, there are letters and telegrams to answer 
every day and it is impossible. My partner, Mr. Todd, 
has been away for some time with his family and as I 
take my vacations in the winter I cannot spare the time 
in summer to be absent from business." This attention 
to business, however, did not prevent him from having 
a great deal of company in summer and his house was 
full of scientific friends for weeks at a time. 

In the period covered bj^ the years 1868 and 1891 Mr. 
Boardman made seventeen visits to Florida, most of 
them embracing the entire winter months. On several 
of these visits Mrs. Boardman accompanied him. He 
also visited California and the west several times, spent 



28 THE NATURALIST OF THE ST. CROIX 

a number of winters in Minnesota and made some winter 
visits to Clifton Springs, N. Y., at the sanatorium in that 
place whose proprietor, Dr. Foster, was an intimate friend 
of Mr. Boardman. Mr. Charles A. Boardman, Mr. 
Boardman's eldest son, lived in Florida a number of 
years where he was largely interested in railroads, 
orange growing and hotels and it was there his parents 
spent several winters with him. In the course of busi- 
ness changes at St. Stephen four of the five living 
children of Mr. and Mrs. Boardman had gone to Minne- 
apolis and they were naturally anxious that their parents 
should make their home in that city. Mrs. Boardman 
was also desirous of living there as Mr. J. Clark Taylor, 
the husband of her only daughter, was in business in 
that city and it was very natural that Mrs. Boardman 
wished to be near her. 

Consequently, in 1881, Mr. Boardman sold his house 
and real estate in St. Stephen to the treasurer of the St. 
Stephen cotton mill company and spent the winter in 
Palatka, Florida, at the home of his son. The next 
spring they returned to Calais for a short time and then 
went to Minneapolis for a year, living with Mrs. Taylor. 
While in Minneapolis, although Mr. Boardman did not 
intend to make it his future home, he purchased the 
fine lot facing on Oak Grove street in that city, running 
through to Fifteenth street which was the line of Central 
Park, now called Eoring Park, which was about the 
choicest lot in Minneapolis at that time. 

On June 2, 1883, Mr. and Mrs. Boardman left the 
west on their return to Calais where they spent the 
summer, but in the autumn of that year they again 
went to Florida for the winter. In the spring of 1884 



BUSINESS AND DOMESTIC LIFE 29 

they returned to Calais and took possession of the house 
on Lafayette street in that city where Mr. Boardman 
later made his home. He had built this house in the 
year 1869 for his son, Charles A., before he went west to 
spend a few years with his children. The years between 
this period and the death of Mrs. Boardman were spent 
at home and in visits to the south and to Washington — 
the summers at the north and the winters in a more 
genial climate. 

In 1886 they went west; the years 1887-1888 were 
passed entirely at home with the exception of brief visits 
to Boston, New York and Washington. The winters of 
1889 and 1890 were again spent in Florida, the last for 
much of the time in company with Dr. and Mrs, Foster 
of New York. The winter of 1891 was the last which 
Mr. Boardman and his wife spent at the south. In that 
summer Gov. Burleigh and his staff on an official visit 
to Calais passed a day with the Boardmans and in 
leaving Mr. Boardman accompanied the party to East- 
port, In the fall of that j^ear Mr, and Mrs. Boardman 
spent three months at Clifton Springs, N. Y., where Mrs. 
Boardman received much benefit to her health from 
treatment at the Foster sanatorium at that place. In 
1892 they again spent the summer at Clifton Springs and 
in the west. The year 1893 was passed at Calais and on 
March 4, 1894, the death of Mrs. Boardman occurred in 
the house on Lafaj^ette street, their summer home for 
the ten years previous. 

The family of George Augustus and Mary Jane 
Boardman consisted of eleven children, viz. : Charles 
Augustus, born December 24, 1844 ; married Mercie F. 
Doane, October 20, 1868, who died March 28, 1891. 



30 THE NATURALIST OF THE ST. CROIX 

Georgiana A., born August 8, 1846; married J. Clark 
Taylor, October 20, 18G9. Frederic Henry, born April 
25, 1848 ; married Hattie Curtis Boutelle, June 8, 1870. 
George Toppan, born January 8, 1850, died June 28, 
1859. Albert J, born February 6, 1852; married Sarah 
Louise Toogood, September 6, 1876. Frank Edwin, 
born September 14, 1860, died November 16, 1861. 
William B., born March 1, 1862 ; married Jessie Prescott 
Wilbur, September 1, 1887. Lewis Hayden, born July 
29, 1863, died March 22, 1865. Three sons died in 
infancy. The living children of Mr. Boardman are : 
Charles A. Boardman, United States Consul, Rimouski, 
Quebec, Canada ; Mrs, J. Clark Taylor, Calais, Maine; 
FredH. Boardman, County Attorney, Minneapolis, Minn.; 
Albert J. Boardman, with United Gas and Improvement 
Company, Philadelphia, Pa. ; William B. Boardman, 
Real Estate and Insurance, Minneapolis, Minn. 

If the record of Mr. Boardman' s life between the years 
1869 and 1887, as given in the preceding pages, appears 
brief, it must be remembered that this was the period of 
his greatest activity and prominence as a naturalist, the 
events of which belong in a chapter by themselves. They 
are so disassociated from his business career and stand 
out in such prominence in his life as a distinguished 
ornithologist and the friend of the most eminent scien- 
tific men of his time, as to merit a more minute record 
than is given to his mere business activity. In sa3'ing 
this it is not forgotten that it was success in business 
due to his splendid abilities, industry and sterling char- 
acter, which enabled him in comparatively early life 
to relinquish business for the charms and pleasures of 
nature-study in which he won such eminence. 



CHAPTER IV 



LIFE RECORD OF A NATURALIST 



IN a paper written for the Maine Ornithological Union 
and which was read at its meeting held January 27, 
1898, Mr. Boardman gives an entertaining account of 
the incidents which led to his becoming a naturalist, in 
which he answers the question often asked, ' ' What gave 
him so great an interest in the study of birds while in 
the management of a large business." His reph^ in 
brief was that he believed every business man should 
have some favorite pursuit or hobby. "I think j^oung 
people," he saj'S, "should study natural history — incul- 
cate in the minds of the boys and girls a regard for the 
beautiful in nature, whether of flower, insect, fish or 
bird; awaken an interest in such studies as botany or 
ornithology. How often we meet those with idle brains 
who do not know how to kill time. Such investigations 
would be a great stimulus." He then relates that in 
December, 1840, he made a business trip to the South 
American coast and the West India islands. The firm 
of which he had been a partner but two years was 
largely engaged in sending lumber to those parts and it 
was thought best that Mr. Boardman should go there. 



32 THE NATURALIST OF THE ST. CROIX 

see the customers of the firm and spend the winter. He 
was then but twenty-three years of age and was a young 
man to be sent upon such a business mission. How well 
his evenings and odd moments during the day, when 
not at work, must have been spent in reading and useful 
studies, to have given this young man of twenty-three 
such mastery of his business that the older members of 
the firm could feel satisfied to send him on an important 
business trip to those foreign ports ! 

Mr. Boardman landed at Berbice in British Guiana in 
January, 1841 — a place only six degrees from the equa- 
tor. He seemed to have been transported to a new 
world. Everything was novel, strange and delightful ; 
the flowers, the trees, the fruits and foliage, the birds, 
animals and people were all new and interesting. He 
was captivated by the beauty of the birds in their gor- 
geous plumage ; while the rich flora, the orchids and the 
grandest of aU the lilies, the Victoria regia, the leaves of 
which were six and a half feet in diameter, which he saw 
growing in its native habitat, the Berbice river — all 
these gave unbounded delight. From Berbice Mr. 
Boardman went to Demerara, one hundred miles north 
of Berbice, where the firm had sold large quantities of 
lumber ; and from there to Barbados, then to St. Vin- 
cent, Guiana, Trinidad and the Windward Islands, in 
all of which places the firm had customers and in each 
of which he saw beautiful birds, interesting plants and 
strange animals. 

At Demerara, Mr. Boardman had letters to a gentleman 
having a large estate in the country, whom he found 
to be a good naturalist. Mr. Boardman enjoyed his 
acquaintance very much. He told him about the birds. 



A LIFE RECORD 33 

trees, flowers and animals of the island ; and sent his 
men with him in boats up the rivers of the forest where 
he saw "flocks of noisy parrots, scarlet and white ibis 
and heard the harsh scream of a bird called a horned 
screamer. ' ' These all produced in Mr. Boardman's mind 
such a love for birds and natural objects that he returned 
from his trip imbued with a new love of nature and 
determined to study and know something of our own 
birds and our own natural historj'-, of which, up to that 
time, he had possessed only the knowledge of any intel- 
ligent country boy. " For a naturalist it was a wonder- 
ful land under luminous skies, where summer and bloom 
last all the year" — were Mr. Boardman's words in con- 
cluding his paper. He believed, however, that there 
were many birds, plants, trees and animals in Maine 
about which it was every one's duty to know something 
and he resolved to spend some portion of each day in 
their study. What an authority in Maine ornithology 
he became and what knowledge he afterward acquired 
of the fauna of the St. Croix valley, the lists which he 
gave to science abundantly testify. It may be added 
here that Mr. Boardman's firm sent much lumber to the 
port of St. Pierre, Martinique, which entered into the 
construction of the buildings destroyed by the volcanic 
eruption of May 8-9, 1902. 

Mrs. Taylor, Mr. Boardman's daughter, relates an 
interesting instance of how, when a very small girl — she 
was born in 1846 — with her younger brother, she watched 
the movements of some birds for her father. A pair of 
yellow warblers had nested in a tree quite close to the 
house — the first cottage in which the family lived — and 
in a gale the wind had nearly torn the nest away, tip- 



34 THE NATURAI.IST OF THE ST. CROIX 

ping it almost bottom side up. The birds at once began 
to make repairs upon their home and Mr. Boardman 
set the little children at watching them. The branch 
of the tree on which the nest was fixed was quite near a 
chamber window and the children were stationed in the 
room to watch the progress and report. The birds 
rebuilt the nest and when it was occupied and the birds 
were engaged in hatching the eggs Mrs. Taylor 
remembers that they had a small clock in the room and 
were to note how long one bird would sit upon the nest 
before being relieved by its mate. The children were 
delighted to be a help to their father in this wa}^ and 
came, through such interesting incidents, to love to 
watch and study birds themselves. 

In the first letter which Mr. Boardman wrote to his 
correspondent. Dr. William Wood of East Windsor Hill, 
Conn., dated September 23, 1864 and referred to in that 
chapter of this volume which gives a resume of this 
interesting correspondence at some length, Mr. Board- 
man says: "Mr. Allen is mistaken in thinking me 
an ornithologist or oologist, as I do not pretend to be 
either. A person can have a love for flowers and not be 
a botanist, or have a love for birds and to observe their 
habits without being an ornithologist or oologist." It 
appears that Mr. J. A. Allen, then of Springfield, Mass., 
had mentioned Mr. Boardman to Dr. Wood and the 
latter gentleman had at once written to him, saying: 
"I trust that I need make no apology for addressing 
one engaged in the same pursuit as myself — in fact, I 
find naturalists, everywhere, belong to one brotherhood." 
This had brought out Mr. Boardman's most interesting 
letter from which the above extract has been given and 



A I.IFE RECORD 35 

thus began a most delightful correspondence which 
extended over a period of more than twenty years. 

In one of the earliest letters from Mr. Board man to 
Prof. Spencer F. Baird of the Smithsonian Institution, 
which has been examined, dated January 4, 1865, Mr. 
Boardman writes : "I have long been a close observer 
of the habits of many common birds in their northern 
distribution and for some time have been a collector of 
birds." In this same letter he says : " There has been 
considerable written about the Cliff Swallow migrating 
south. I came from Massachusetts to this part of the 
country in the year 1828. The Cliff Swallow was then 
very abundant, building the whole length of the eaves 
of barns, as much we see them now, which was not 
the case in Massachusetts." As Mr. Boardman was 
only ten years of age when he came to Milltown from 
Newbur3'port in 1828, his knowledge of the habits of 
birds, which this last extract from his letter shows he 
possessed as well as his observation of their habits, 
must have commenced at an earlier date than his cor- 
respondence or writings would show. But during the 
earlier years of his life his devotion to business was 
most intense. Nothing was allowed to interfere with 
his close application to the interests of his employers 
and of his firm. This was, however, no evidence that in 
his earlier years he did not love natural history. The 
passion for nature studies was only latent during his 
early business life. It was to be developed and enjoyed 
in after 5^ears when business success had made possible 
leisure and means for its fullest appreciation. All recol- 
lections of his conversation about beginning the study 
of birds, however, as well as his own statements in the 



36 THE NATURALIST OF THE ST. CROIX 

paper quoted at the opening of this chapter, show that 
it was his interest in the beautiful birds of the tropical 
islands which he visited in 1841 that led to his deter- 
mination to study and know the birds of his own locality. 

Mr. Boardman commenced keeping a private diary in 
1853, the first entry having been made on February 14 
of that year. Some of the earliest records relate to 
natural observations. He notes the first plum and apple 
blossoms ; the first dahlias in bloom ; while on August 20 
he " went up the road gunning." On April ^13, 1854, 
the record notes : " Saw robin this morning." On May 
22 he "saw the first blue violets." August 10 he 
records that he "went gunning up the road and got 
nothing ; " but on August 25 had better luck as he went 
fishing and caught trout, also shot eight partridges. 
Entries similar to the above appear throughout the fall 
months. He went shooting and fishing every week, fre- 
quently for days in succession and the entries show that 
he shot four, eleven and fifteen partridges on successive 
times out. But few entries in his diary for the year 
1855 relate to birds. He records the first robin April 10, 
the first martin April 26 and the first swallow May 2. 
During the autumn he went gunning and fishing — 
sports which he afterward followed all his life — often; 
frequently two or three times a week. 

On October 7, 1857, Mr. Boardman was, as he expresses 
it, " hung up" with a cold. He could not, however, be 
idle, it was so foreign to his nature and habits, so he 
"set up" a wood duck — the first entry in his diary 
which relates to taxidermy and it may be said that his 
magnificent collection of birds dates from that period. 
In September, 1858, Mr. Boardman was in Philadelphia 



A LIFE RECORD 37 

and made his first visit to the Academy of Natural Sci- 
ences. Being in Boston in April, 1859, he purchased of 
T. M. Brewer a copy of Wilson's American Ornithology, 
from which undoubtedly he commenced his first syste- 
matic study of birds. 

The year 1860 was one full of interest to Mr. Board- 
man. His diary notes the capture of his first Harlequin 
duck, February 7. The first robin appeared April 11, 
the first swallows April 20 and the first bobolinks May 
25. In March of that year he went to Philadelphia and 
Washington, In the former city he met John Krider 
and examined his birds. At Washington he visited the 
Capitol, the Patent Ofiice, the conservatory and the 
Smithsonian Institution. He spent the most of the time 
for three days at the Smithsonian and met Prof. Spencer 
F. Baird for the first time. In August Mr. Boardman 
was again in New York and saw the Prince of Wales 
land in that city on his visit to the United States. On 
September 22 he "set up" an eagle and on December 7 
mounted a grebe. 

Down to that year Mr. Boardman had resided in the 
small cottage which he built the 5'ear of his marriage 
and where he began keeping house in December, 1843. 
But on September 5 he moved into the new house which 
he had built in 1860 at the corner of Main and Church 
streets. It was in a special room of this house that he 
had the large case of mounted birds, which is now in the 
Parliament House, Fredericton, N. B., forming as it does 
one of the main features of interest as it is an original 
design by Mr. Boardman. It is the case marked A in 
the plan of the room given in this volume. It consists 
of a tree which forms the centre of the case, tbe branches 



38 THE NATURALIST OF THE ST. CROIX 

of which are full of mounted song birds disposed in their 
most characteristic attitudes. While living in this house 
Mr. Boardman kept his collection of mounted birds in 
the parlor until the building of the bird house in 1863. 

In November, 1861, Mr. Boardman attended a meet- 
ing of Naturalists at Cambridge Mass., where he met A. 
E. Verrill, Prof. Shaler, Alpheus Hyatt and D. G. Elliot. 

From Mr. Boardman's diary and correspondence it is 
evident that the year 1862 was a most active and 
interesting one in his studies, his collecting and his 
visits to naturalists. He was at the height of his great 
business enterprises and made frequent trips to Boston, 
New York and Philadelphia in the interests of his firm. 
But he was also making these visits opportunities to 
meet naturalists, visit the museums and attend meetings 
of scientific societies. In that year no less than twenty- 
six entries relating to birds are found in his diar3\ They 
extend from April 9 to December 16. He notes in that 
year robins, swallows, snowbirds, shelldrakes, grebes, 
bluejays, eagles, martins, fishhawk, ducks, warblers, 
gulls, .sea parrots, herons, j^ellow birds, sandpipers, gros- 
beaks, partridges, white owl, sea dove and banded wood- 
pecker. On July 16 he skinned a Northern Phalarope 
and a Sea Parrot. 

During the last of March and first of April Mr. Board- 
man went to Philadelphia and Washington. At Phil- 
adelphia he went to the rooms and meeting of the 
Academy of natural sciences. In Washington he spent 
several days at the Smithsonian Institution, visited the 
Botanic Garden of W. R. Smith, and called upon Sena- 
tor Hamlin and Hon. Fred'k A. Pike, representative to 
Congress from Calais. At Philadelphia he alwa3^s called 



A LIFE RECORD 39 

on John Krider and in New York on D. G. Elliot. In 
Boston, in October, he attended a meeting of the Natural 
Historj'^ Society. It was in that year that Mr. Boardman 
began correspondence with many eminent naturalists, 
among them D. G. Elliot, A. E. Verrill, Dr. T. M. 
Brewer, Elliot Coues, H. E. Dresser of Eondon, Eng. 
and John Krider, a commercial bird-man who was a 
well-informed ornithologist with whom Mr. Boardman 
exchanged birds and eggs for many years. On May 1*4, 
1862, Mr. H. E. Dresser, the eminent English ornitholo- 
gist, visited Mr. Boardman for the first time and remained 
some days. 

In 1862 the results of Mr. Boardman's observations and 
studies in the ornithology of the St. Croix valley were 
first published to the scientific world. Previous to this 
he had for ten years been carrying on his studies of the 
fauna of his locality with ever increasing interest and 
yet with so much privacy that it was only within a few 
years prior to 1862 that naturalists in other parts of the 
country had been aware of the extent and value of his 
notes. Entered upon wholly for his own enjoyment 
and as a pleasure and recreation from the cares of a large 
business, his observations in ornithology now attracted 
the attention of those engaged in similar studies who 
had acquired wide scientific reputation. Moreover, 
Mr. Boardman's correspondence with naturalists and his 
visits to the natural history societies of the various cities 
had brought him into prominence and accorded him 
welcome to their collections and their meetings. 

A "Catalogue of the Birds found in the Vicinity of 
Calais, Maine, and about the Islands at the Mouth of the 
Bay of Fundy, by George A. Boardman," was published 



40 THE NATURAI.IST OF THE ST. CROIX 

in the Proceedings of the Boston Society of Natural His- 
tory for September, 1862, Volume IX, pages 122-132. 
This was published with the following introductory note 
from A. E. Verrill : " The following list of birds was 
originally sent to me by Mr. Boardman for my own use 
and was not intended for publication ; but, finding that 
it was very complete and valuable for determining the 
geographical distribution of species, I requested him to 
publish it. This he could not attend to himself and I 
have, with his consent, re-written it in a systematic form, 
adding, in some cases, observations made by m3^self at 
Grand Manan in 1859." This note of Prof. Verrill 
shows plainly that Mr. Boardman was so closely engaged 
in business that he could not attend to the publication 
of the list, while Prof. Verrill gives it the just compli- 
ment of saying that it is "very complete and valuable." 
The list enumerates two hundred and twenty-five spe- 
cies. Regarding the Tufted Pufiin, Prof. Verrill says : 
"Mr. Boardman states that the fishermen say that a 
Tufted Puffin, or Sea Parrot, is occasionally seen about 
the islands in winter. This species is also said by 
Audubon to be sometimes found on the coast of Maine. 
A specimen in the Museum of Comparative Zoology was 
probably obtained at Grand Manan." 

A copy of this list had also been sent to Prof. Spencer 
F. Baird of the Smithsonian Institution, who, in acknowl- 
edging the same, wrote in a letter of December 2, 1862 : 
"I duly received your interesting catalogue of Calais 
birds ; it makes a fine show of species." 

On page 233 of Volume IX. of the Proceedings of the 
Boston Society is an additional list of twelve species 
of Maine birds described by Mr. Boardman. Of the 



A IvIFE RECORD 41 

Prothonotary Warbler Prof. Verrill says it was unknown 
in New England until Mr. Boardman obtained it — a 
single male specimen, " sliot the last day of October 
on a tree in the edge of a swamp." The Banded Three- 
toed Woodpecker found during a severe winter was 
recorded as a rare winter visitor. Mr. Boardman found 
the Magnolia Warbler breeding in the season of 1862. 

More records regarding Mr. Boardman' s studies upon 
birds appear in his diary throughout the year 1863 than 
in any year during which it was kept. He not only made 
collections of birds but of eggs and nests. Boxes of birds 
and eggs were sent to his naturalist friends and also 
received from them in exchange. Sixty-four entries 
relate to individual birds, to his collection and to his 
work among birds like the following : Skinning and 
mounting birds ; getting nests and eggs, sending off and 
receiving specimens and marking bird skins. In March 
Mr. Boardman visited Fredericton, went to the Parlia- 
ment building, library and university. He also went to 
New York and Boston in that month. In the latter 
place he attended a meeting of the Natural History 
Society and in Cambridge visited the Museum of Com- 
parative Zoology. Again in October he attended a meet- 
ing of the Natural History Society in Boston. 

Mr. Boardman's collection had during the past three 
or four years been increasing very rapidly. He had made 
large additions to it by his own collecting and by his 
extensive exchanges, while he had also had for several 
years men in the woods, at Grand Manan and other 
places along the river and bay who were constantly 
sending him specimens both common and rare — for 
lie wanted both, either for his own collection or for 



42 THE NATURAI.IST OF THE ST. CROIX 

exchanges with his large list of scientific correspondents. 
His collection had in fact outgrown the rooms of his 
dwelling assigned to it and in the fall of 1863 he built a 
special building into which his birds were moved from 
his house on September 14 of that year. This building 
was sixteen by twenty-six feet and ten feet posted, very 
pretty in its Swiss style of architecture and being sur- 
rounded by trees and shrubbery formed an attractive 
feature of the grounds. When his birds were installed 
in this house Mr. Boardman took great pleasure in being 
in it, arranging his collections and working among his 
birds, nests and eggs. 

In June, 1864, John Krider, the Philadelphia natural- 
ist and commercial bird-man, first visited Mr. Boardman 
and remained two weeks. They went to the Grand 
Lakes, to Maguerrawock and numerous other places of 
local note for birds, obtained many rare specimens and 
had a fine time together on shooting and collecting 
trips. A correspondence, exchange of specimens and 
friendship existed between them throughout life. On 
his business visits to New York, Philadelphia, Baltimore, 
Providence and Boston, which were very frequent, Mr. 
Boardman always called on his naturalist friends and no 
entries in his diary are made with more regularity than 
those in which he records his visits to them and that he 
looked over their collections. He was always intent on 
new or rare things and was glad to see what his friends 
possessed or had obtained since previous visits. 

In this year Mr. Boardman received from the Smith- 
sonian Institution a series of bird skins from the most 
northern portion of the continent of America, collected 
by the collaborators of the Institution in the Hudson's 



A LIFE RECORD 43 

Bay Compan3\ In transmitting them to Mr. Boardman, 
Prof. Joseph Henry, then secretary of the Smithsonian, 
said in his letter of June 17, 1864 : "They embrace vSkins 
of some of the rarest of American birds and we have 
thought proper, in accordance with our general policy, 
to make a distribution of the duplicates to such museums 
as would be most likely to value and make good use of 
them." It was a distinguished consideration on the 
part of officials of the Smithsonian to place these dupli- 
cates of rare specimens in a private rather than a public 
museum, and was a recognition of Mr. Boardman's stand- 
ing as a naturalist as well as a partial return for his ser- 
vices to the Smithsonian Institution. It was an honor, 
too, which Mr. Boardman highly appreciated. His 
studies of this collection of skins and his subsequent 
studies at the Smithsonian gave Mr. Boardman that 
knowledge of arctic ornithology which placed him in 
the front rank among naturalists familiar with arctic 
bird-life. 

Mr. Boardman had met Prof. Baird at Washington in 
the early spring of 1860 and also in 1862. In a letter to 
Mr. Boardman, dated November 19, 1862, Prof. Baird 
commences it by saying : "I look forward with much 
pleasure one day to meeting j'ou way up in New Bruns- 
wick ; when — I dare not say." This pleasure was not 
realized, however, until nearly three years later. Dur- 
ing the year 1865 Prof. Baird and his family spent the 
summer at Eastport, Maine — which was their summer 
home for many years afterward — and on August 10 he 
visited Mr. Boardman at St. Stephen, N. B., for the first 
time. It must have been a very happy meeting as it was 
the commencement of a close and intimate friendship 



44 THE NATURALIST OF THE ST. CROIX 

between the two naturalists which was only terminated 
by Prof. Baird's death. It was also doubly happ)^ to 
Mr. Boardman, for at that time he was enjoj-ing a sec- 
ond visit from Henry E. Dresser, the eminent English 
ornithologist and his brother Joseph — who is always 
referred to in Mr. Dresser's letters to Mr. Boardman as 
Joe. The Dressers reached St. Stephen on August 7 
and left on the day following Prof. Baird's arrival 
and the meeting of these famous naturalists must have 
been an event of great pleasure to each of them. After 
spending a day or two at St. Stephen, Prof. Baird 
went to Eastport but returned again with Mrs. Baird 
and his daughter Eucy. While their guests Mr. Board- 
man took Prof. Baird to the Grand Eakes and other 
interesting places for birds and fish and after a stay of 
some days Prof. Baird returned to Eastport, leaving 
Mrs. and Miss Baird with the Boardmans. This was 
also the beginning of a long friendship between the two 
families and many were the visits made to and from each 
in after years. On their return to Washington in Sep- 
tember Mr. Boardman accompanied the Bairds to Boston 
and New York where the two friends ' ' went around to 
see all the scientific folks " — as Mr. Boardman records 
in his diary. 

The years 1866 and 1867 were extremely busy years 
with Mr. Boardman so far as his business interests were 
concerned. During these 3^ears he went many times to 
Boston, Providence, Baltimore, New York, Philadelphia 
and Washington on business for his firm — selling 
cargoes of lumber, calling upon business friends, making 
collections and purchasing supplies for his lumbering 
camps and mills. But the interests of his dearest pursuit, 



A LIFE RECORD 45 

his studies of bird-life, were never forgotten. Often it 
is difficult to understand if they were not indeed pri- 
mary rather than secondary objects on many of these 
trips, for he always spent much time at the museums and 
in calling on his scientific friends. In Washington he 
invariably spent many days at the Smithsonian Institu- 
tion; while in Philadelphia he always called on Mr, 
Krider, in New York on Mr. Elliot and visited the 
Central Park, while in Boston the rooms of the Natural 
History Society were always a charmed place for him 
and where he met many naturalists. He also visited 
places nearer home. His visits to Fredericton were fre- 
quent where he enjoyed the collection of Mr. Sill. His 
own collection of birds was also becoming better known 
and was visited by many prominent people. In April, 

1866, his museum was visited by Admiral Sir James 
Hope, Governor Gordon, General Doil, Captain Hold- 
ness and other British oflScers. Several visits "to the 
west" — as Mr. Boardman then caUed his trips to places 
as far as Washington — were made in 1867. Four times 
at least he went to New York, spending from four days 
to a week at each visit. 

His eldest son, Charles A., having been admitted to 
the business firm in 1867, Mr. Boardman relinquished 
much of its care to him and made his first visit to Florida 
in the winter 1867-68, leaving home on December 26, 

1867. Several reasons led to his making this winter 
journey to Florida. Mr. Boardman had studied the 
birds of the St. Croix for many years, knew them all 
and wanted to know more about the birds of other parts 
of our own country. As has been stated in a previous 
chapter, the division of work with his firm was such that 



46 THE NATURAIvIST OF THE ST. CROIX 

Mr. Boardman took his vacations in winter while his 
partner had his in the summer. Moreover, Florida was 
at that time coming into notice as a winter sporting and 
pleasure resort and Mr. Boardman having abundance 
of leisure decided to spend the winter at the south. It 
was a month after leaving home before he reached Jack- 
sonville. He remained several da^^s in Philadelphia 
and spent four days in Washington where he studied at 
the Smithsonian Institution. His stay in Florida that 
first winter was not long, as he reached Fernandina on 
January 30, 1868 and left for the north on March 16, 1868. 
He reached home April 22 and the first thing Mr. Board- 
man did after his arrival was to go " all round and see 
the folks." Then he records in his diary, April 30: 
"Dull and rainy. Went after Mayflowers; got only 
buds." Could there be any doubt of his genuine love of 
nature when this busy man of affairs, after a winter in 
the land of birds and flowers, on reaching his northern 
home, would take a rainy day on which to go after 
Mayflowers ? 

On that first visit to Florida Mr. Boardman bore a letter 
addressed "To Correspondents of the Smithsonian Insti- 
tution and the Friends of Science Generally," from Joseph 
Henry, then secretary of the In.stitution. It was in these 
words : ' ' The bearer of this letter Mr. George A. Board- 
man visits the Southern States for the purpose of study- 
ing its Natural History and collecting specimens in part 
for the Smithsonian Institution, and I beg to commend 
him and his object to your kind consideration and assist- 
ance. Washington, D. C, January 18th, 1868." Pro- 
vided with such an introduction Mr. Boardman had 
exceptional advantages for making acquaintances and 



A LIFE RECORD 47 

for special facilities being placed at his disposal to make 
explorations and obtain specimens. 

There has been found among Mr. Boardman's papers, 
in pencil — the paper on which it is written being much 
worn and stained — a list of birds with this endorse- 
ment : " Birds observed in Florida by G. A. Boardman, 
1868-1869, winter." 

This list embraces one hundred and seventy species and 
notes on their occurrence are attached to many of them. 
It has been compared with a list sent by Mr. Boardman 
to Mr. J. A. Allen, then of the Museum of Comparative 
Zoology, Cambridge, Mass., and is here printed exactly 
as given by Mr. Boardman. It is interesting as stand- 
ing for just what it is — a field naturalist's list with no 
attempt at scientific nomenclature. His knowledge of 
bird-life and his close habits of observation are apparent 
throughout the list, which is a long one for a single 
observer to make in a locality in which he had not been 
previously acquainted and in the brief time stated. 

This list had been sent Mr. Allen in answer to his request 
for the same. Writing Mr. Boardman on October 23, 
1869, Mr. Allen solicited his aid in making up notes on 
Florida birds for publication by saying : "As you have 
had much experience in Floridian ornithology I have 
no doubt you have many facts not known by me. If 
you do not propose to publish your observations your- 
self, would you be willing to communicate some of them 
to me for incorporation in my proposed paper?" Again 
on October 29, Mr. Allen in writing Mr. Boardman 
says : "I am sure you must have many notes on Florida 
birds that will be very valuable to me, especially on the 
water birds since 5^ou have had so good an opportunity 



48 THE NATURALIST OF THE ST. CROIX 

to see them. I should be very much gratified to receive 
a summary of your observations with liberty to use them. 
I should of course give you the fullest credit therefor." 
In both letters Mr. Allen asks numerous questions upon 
which he wants information. The very day of the receipt 
of this last letter, Mr. Boardman sent his list and notes 
on Florida birds, accompanied by the followig letter : 

MiLLTOWN, Maine, Oct. 29. 
Friend Allen: 

I send you today a list of birds from ray notes and think 
I have taken them all off. I write them by the common name as I 
am troubled to spell the scientific names correctly. If I had time 
I would like to write you some observations about some of them 
but I find if I should begin, it would take too much time aud you 
would not perhaps care for it. I wish something could be done 
to keep the visitors from shooting every bird they come across. 
The little Paroquet must soon be exterminated. Some of our 
Enterprise party would sometimes shoot forty to fifty at a few 
discharges for sport, as they hover about when any are shot until 
whole flocks are destroyed. The White Egrets and Snowy Herons 
are so persecuted that many of their breeding places are destroyed. 
Where I saw them quite abundant in 1868, in 1869 they had all 
left ; they shoot them by hundreds, for their plumes. 

I have about made up my mind to go to Florida again this 
winter and shall j)robably leave ia December. 

I do not know as 1 answered your question about the breed- 
ing of the Crossbills. They breed all the season from February 
20 to May and perhaps later. The Canada Jay also breeds when 
the snow is quite deep in March and I think breeds again in 
summer as I have seen young birds in September. I have also 
found ravens' eggs when the snow was quite deep. Have seen 
the young of Mergus Americanus out with young the middle of 
May, which is unusually early. 

Yours very truly, 

Geo. a. Boardman. 



A LIFE RECORD 49 

List of Florida Birds, 1868—1869 

Butterball ; not very common. 

Euddy Duck ; not uncommon, river and coast. 

Hooded Merganser ; very abundant on the coast. 

AVhite Pelican ; seen in large flocks at mouth of St. Johns all 
winter. 

Brown Pelican ; abundant ; Feruandina and mouth of St. Johns 
river. 

Gannet ; very abundant on the coast in winter. 

Booby Gannet ; saw a few on the coast. 

Florida Cormorant ; very abundant on river and coast. 

Water Turkey ; very abundant on the river. 

Wilson's Petrel ; a few about the coast at Fernandina. 

Hagdon's Great Shearwater ; a few about the coast at Fernan- 
dina. 

Razorbill Shearwater, Skimmer; abundant on coast; large 
flocks. 

Herring Gull ; abundant all winter. 

Ring-billed Gull ; not very plenty. 

Laughing Gull ; abundant all winter. 

Bonaparte Gull ; not very plenty. 

Cayenne Tern; abundant about the coast. 

One or two small terns about the coast. 

Horned Grebe ; not uncommon on the St. Johns river. 

Pied-billed Dabchick ; not uncommon on the St. Johns. 

Great-White or VVliooping Crane. 

Wild Pigeon. 

Turkey Buzzard ; very common, St. Johns river. 

Black Vulture; quite rare about the St. Johns river. 

Duck Hawk ; St. Augustine, February, 1868 ; one instance. 

Pigeon Hawk ; St. Augustine ; frequent. 

Sparrow Hawk; common. 

Cooper's Hawk; common. 

Sharp-shinned Hawk ; common. 

Red-tailed Hawk; not common. 

Red-shouldered Hawk; most common hawk except fish-hawk. 

Broad-winged Hawk; common. 



50 THE NATURALIST OF THE ST. CROIX 

Swallow-tailed Hawk; saw none until February 20; rare in 
winter, I think. 

Marsh Hawk; common about St. Augustine. 

White-headed Eagle ; very abundant. 

Fish Hawk ; very abundant ; most common hawk breeding in 
January. 

Caracara Eagle; two specimens; only February and March; 
frequent at Enterprise. 

Great Horned Owl ; rare ; one specimen at Enterprise in 
February. 

Mottled Owl ; not uncommon. 

Short-eared Owl ; common about marshes. 

Barred Owl ; very abundant. 

Parrakeet ; very abundant, but will soon be destroyed if so 
many are shot. 

Ivory-billed Woodpecker; quite rare ; saw but few pairs. 

Hairy Woodpecker ; rare. 

Eed-cockaded Woodpecker; very abundant in pine woods. 

Yellow-bellied Woodpecker; common. 

Pileated Woodpecker ; very abundant, small size. 

Iled-bellied Woodpecker ; very abundant. 

Eed-headed Woodpecker; rare. 

Golden-winged Flicker ; very abundant. 

Ruby-throated Humming bird ; first February 20 ; common in 
March. 

Chimney Swallow ; March. 

Chuck-wiU's-widow ; March. 

Kingfisher ; abundant all winter. 

King-bird; first April. 

Great-crested Flycatcher ; first April. 

Pewee ; abundant all winter. 

Wood Pewee ; March ; rare. 

Least Flycatcher ; rare ; March. 

Hermit Thrush ; abundant all winter. 

Wilson's Thrush; not common; Greencove Springs, February 
20, 22. 

Olive-backed Thrush (Swainson's) ; rare ; one at Enterprise. 
February 18 ; one at St. Augustine, February. 



A I.IFE RECORD 51 

Eobin ; not abundant ; keeps to the woods and is quite wild. 

Blue-bird ; common and breeds, nesting last of February. 

Ruby-crowned Wren ; common all winter. 

Tit-Lark ; abundant all winter. 

Black and White Creeper ; rare ; Februaiy 15, first. 

Blue Yellow-backed Warbler; saw none in January ; common in 
February. 

Maryland Yellow-throated Warbler; all winter, common. 

Nashville Warbler; only one 13th March at Jacksonville. 

Orange-crowned Warbler; few 15th February, Enterprise, rare. 

Yellow-rumped Warbler; very abundant all winter. 

Pine-creeping \Varbler ; very abundant all winter. 

Black-and-yellow W^arbler ; one specimen February 27 at Green- 
cove Spi'ings. 

Yellow IJed-poll Warbler; abundant all winter. 

Yellow-throated Warbler ; common all winter. 

White-bellied Swallow ; abundant all winter ; flocks of thousands. 

Bank Swallow; first April. 

Rough-winged Swallow; first April. 

Purple Martin ; come to boxes 15th February ; think resident. 

Cedar-bird ; abundant all winter. 

Logger-head Shrike ; abundant all winter. 

Red-eyed Vireo ; rare ; Enterprise, a few all winter. 

White-eyed Vireo ; rare ; one specimen in Febi'uary. 

Mocking-bu'd ; abundant; breeds in March. 

Cat-bird; abundant; winter resident. 

Brown Thrush; abundant all winter. 

Great Carolina Wren ; March 20, at Jacksonville. 

Prairie Warbler ; common tlie last of February. 

House Wren ; not uncommon. 

Winter Wren ; .January and February ; rare. 

Short-billed Marsh Wren; rare; last of February at Enterprise. 

Brown -headed Nuthatch; very common all winter. 

Blue Gi'ay Flycatcher ; abundant all winter. 

Crested Chickadee ; common in February. 

Carolina Chickadee ; rare ; Greencove Springs. 

Thistle-bird — Yellow-bird; common all winter. 

Savanna Sparrow; common all winter. 



52 THE NATURALIST OF THE ST. CROIX 

Bay-winged Bunting ; common all winter. 

Sharp-tailed Finch ; common. 

Seaside Finch ; common. 

White-throated Sparrow ; common all winter. 

Black Snow-bird; common in January. 

Field Sparrow ; common all winter. 

Chipping Sparrow ; common all winter. 

Song Sparrow ; common all winter. 

Swamp Sparrow; common all winter. 

Bachman's Finch ; not uncommon. 

Fox-colored Sparrow ; rare; two instances only. 

Painted Bunting; April 1. 

Ground Robin; very abundant all winter; two varieties. 

Eed-winged Blackbird; very abundant all winter. 

Meadow Lark ; very abundant all winter. 

Rusty Blackbird ; rare ; saw a few scattering small flocks. 

Boat-tailed Grackle ; very abundant all winter. 

Crow Blackbird ; very abundant all winter. 

Crow ; abundant all -winter. 

Fish Crow : abundant all winter. 

Blue Jay ; abundant all winter. 

Florida Jay ; veiy local ; only found about Enterprise ; common. 

Common Dove ; abundant all winter. 

Ground Dove ; abundant about St. Augustine. 

Wild Turkey ; common at Enterprise. 

Quail; common; the bill appears a little larger but the bird 
smaller than at the north. 

Sand-hill Crane; quite common. 

Limpkin Crying-bird; not uncommon; Lake Dexter; Lake 
Henry. 

White Heron, or Egret : very abundant. 

Small White Heron, or Egret ; very abundant. 

Great Blue Heron; very abundant. 

Blue Heron ; very abundant. 

Louisiana Heron ; rare. 

Bittern or Stake Driver ; rare. 

Green Heron ; not rare. 

Night Heron ; not rare. 



A UFE RECORD 53 

Wood Ibis ; plenty. 
White Ibis; plenty. 

Roseate Spoonbill ; rare on St. Johns, more uucommou on Indiaa 
River. 
Killdee Plover; very common all winter. 
Wilson's Plover; all winter, St. Augustine. 
Ring Plover ; all winter common, St. Augustine. 
Golden Plover; rare, St. Augustine. 
Piping Plover ; all winter, St. Augustine. 
Black-necked Stilt ; common last March, Euterpi-ise. 
Woodcock; January and February; not rare. 
English Snipe ; abundant all winter, 
Oyster-catcher ; rare ; St. Augustine in winter. 
Turnstone; St. Augustine, rare. 

Telltale Tattler; common St, Augustine and St. Johns. 
Sanderliug; St. Augustine; common all winter. 
Willet; St. Augustine; common all winter. 
Great Marbled Godwit ; St. Augustine ; common all winter. 
Spotted Sandpiper ; St. Augustine ; common all winter. 
Red-backed Sandpiper; St. Augustine; common all winter. 
Long-billed Curlew ; very abundant on the coast. 
Marsh Hen ; not uncommon on St. Johns river. 
Clapper Rail; common on St. Johns river. 
Virginia Rail ; common all winter, St. Johns river. 
Common Rail ; saw none until March 25, St. Johns River. 
Yellow Rail; all winter, St. Johns. 
Coot; very abundant. 
Florida Gallinule ; abundant. 

Mallard Duck; common all winter in very large flocks. 
Pintail Duck ; not very common about St. Johns river. 
Green-winged Teal ; common all Aviuter. 
Blue-winged Teal ; common all -winter. 
Shoveller ; common all winter. 
Baldpate; common all winter. 

Wood Duck; abundant; breeds in February and March. 
Big Black Head; not very common. 

Little Black Head ; most abundant duck on St. Johns river. 
Red-head Duck ; very rare ; only a few seen. 



54 THE NATURALIST OF THE ST. CROIX 

Canvas-back Duck ; common. 

Golden-ej^ed Duck ; rare on coast. 

Surf Duck ; rare ; only one specimen ; (sea coast). 

White-winged Coot Duck ; very rare on the coast. 

Buflfle-head Duck; not uncommon river and coast. 

On receiving this letter and list of birds from Mr. 
Boardman, Mr. Allen acknowledged them as follows : 

Cambridge, Mass., Oct. 31, 1869. 
Friend Boardman: 

Yours of the 29th is at hand, together with your list of 
Florida birds, for which I am extremely obliged. It adds quite a 
number of species to my list which I should not otherwise have 
had, and valuable notes on others, all of which I shall be happy to 
use with due acknowledgements. In addition, if I may trouble 
you so much, I should like to know at what points you made 
most of your observations and during what months. I should 
like furtlier particulars in reference to the wholesale destruction 
of certain species by hunters, especially of the Egrets, and at 
what points they have been most persecuted. On the Avhole 
our notes rarely differ in respect to the abundance and time of 
occurrence of these species we both observed. In respect to the 
Vireos, however, I did not meet with the Ked-eyed till March, 
while the White-eyed was common all winter — the reverse of 
what you state. The great Carolina Wren I found more or less 
common all winter. You mention both the Sharp-tailed and Sea- 
side Finches? What were their peculiar haunts? The coast? As 
already remarked in a previous letter, any facts in respect to the 
weight and general appearance of the Wild Turkey are solicited. 

Very truly yours, 

J. A. Allen. 

In further explanation of the places where Mr. Board- 
man collected, with additional notes, he writes Mr. Allen : 

MiLLTOWN, Maine, Nov. 3, 1869. 
Friend Allen : 

I have yours of October 31. I made all of my observation 
about East Florida, January, February and March, with a week or 
two in April. Fernandiua 1 found a very good place for shore and 



A LIFE RECORD 55 

beach birds, also for Sharp-tailed and other finches. I was several 
times at the mouth of St. Johns river. I had some friends in Govern- 
ment employ who had nothing to do but to sail about, shooting. 
It was a very fine place for water birds, Waders, Egrets, 
Pelicans, Gannets, Skimmers, Oyster Catchers., etc., etc. I also 
spent considerable time about St. Augustine, here saw more 
Curlews, Godwits, Plovers, Terns and many Waders — they were 
about the bars by the thousand, large White and Blue Herons were 
abundant. I got eight large White and three Blue in one evening. 
The ladies wanted the phimes. You find the roosting places by 
observing the way the birds fly at night or morning ; conceal your- 
self about the trees and shoot the birds as fast as they come 
along; they come singly or nearly so and you can shoot any 
number, or go to the breeding places. One man bought a little 
schooner at Stevens where I boarded last spring to go down 
Indian river, for nothing, only to shoot the Egrets and Herons, 
for plumes, to send to Europe and the states, and says it is a 
capital business. The Paroquets have a way of hovering about, 
when one or two are shot, and the more that are wounded and 
shot, the more anxious they are to alight about them, and when in 
large flocks most every bird can be shot. Up at Enterprise last 
vsdnter, they would shoot whole flocks only for the sport of seeing 
how many they could shoot at a shot, and unless something can 
be done, and I do not know what, they will be exterminated. 

The breeding places at Lake Dexter, Lake Jessup, Avere entirely 
broken up as were others up at Salt Lake, by plume hunters, 
last spring. About half our living up at Enterprise Avas wild 
turkeys; I used both winters to weigh many of them. There was 
a very great difference between the cocks and hens, six to ten 
pounds was about the weight of hens ; cocks about twice as much, 
and often had them twenty-five to twenty-eight pounds but 
they were very fat. I saw one shot within one-half a mile of the 
Ferry house opposite Jacksonville a few days before I left there. 
I find many of the Florida birds are very local. I would see birds 
at Fernandiua not to be seen about Jacksonville ; at Jacksonville 
not to be found at Greencove Springs, and so on. Hardly a 
pleasant day I was not out to look and see if I could find any- 
thing new. 



56 THE NATURAUST OF THE ST. CROIX 

Do you make auy note of the animals and reptiles? I just 
received a paper from Eobert Kidgway about Thrush, etc. Have 
you seen it? He makes two kinds of Purple Grackle; he is quite 
a nice observer and scientific fellow. I should be pleased to see 
your paper upon the rarer birds of Massachusetts. Some of your 
rare birds are quite common here. Did you ever know the Purple 
Galinule in New England before I secured one last summer? I 
have also found the Blue Grosbeak, Prothonotary Warbler, and I 
believe I wrote you the Tennessee Warbler was quite a common 
warbler ; it breeds upon the ground. Many of your most common 
birds are never found here or very rarely. Chewink and Brown 
Thrush I never found; Bluebird, Oriole, Field Sparrow very rare, 
etc., etc. As ever yours, 

Geo. a. Boardman. 

In the summer of 1869 Mr. Boardman visited Boston, 
New York, Philadelphia and Washington several times 
and in September of that year Prof. Baird visited him at 
St. Stephen, remaining ten daj's. On this visit the two 
went to Oak Bay, lycwy's Island, St. Andrews and other 
places to dig for Indian relics in the collection of which 
Prof. Baird was greatly interested. 

As interesting to science, mention is here made of the 
great Saxby gale which visited the coast of Eastern Maine 
and New Brunswick in the autumn of 1869. It took 
place on the late afternoon and evening of October 4 of 
that year, taking its name from Eieut. S. M. Saxby of 
the royal navy of Great Britain, who had predicted its 
occurrence and it took place on the exact date which 
Lieut. Saxby had set for its coming. It was a cyclone 
and accompanying tidal wave. It struck the coast of 
Maine at Eastport, doing great damage at that place and 
at Calais, while at St. Stephen, Fredericton, St. John 
and Sackville, N. B., it caused great damage to the 
coast and did havoc in the forests of the interior. In his 



A LIFE RECORD 57 

diary for 1869, he records: " October 4, Saxby gale." 
From this it appears that Mr. Boardman had read of its 
prediction in the English newspapers which he received, 
as Lieut. Saxby had predicted its occurrence ten months 
before it took place. 

Sidney Perley of Salem, Mass., who published in 1891 
a volume on the Historic Storms of New England, 
embracing those from 1635 to 1890, gives a chapter to 
The Gale of September 8, 1869 but does not allude to 
the Saxby gale — a storm the like of which never occur- 
red in the section of countrj^ which it visited, for severit}^ 
and destruction. 

Writing to Prof. Baird on October 14, 1869, Mr. 
Boardman says : " Nothing like it ever took place here. 
It appeared like a whirlwind. It took the roof off my 
long woodshed, my old store and part of the roof from 
the barn on the hill. The Universalist church was a 
perfect wreck ; the railroad bridge over the falls in front 
of my house fell into the river ; also the covered bridge 
at Baring. More than one hundred buildings in St. 
Stephen were ruined, and in our cemetery more than 
one thousand trees were uprooted and broken. At East- 
port about forty buildings were destroyed or unroofed, 
several lives lost and most all the fishing crafts were 
wrecked. At Eastport and St. Andrews and about the 
islands the tide was verj^ high and damaged the wharves 
much. Sixty-seven vessels were ashore — those that went 
on to soft places came off, many went on to the rocks 
and were ruined. The blow did not last but about an 
hour and was heaviest at eight o'clock in the evening. 
There was very little wind at Bangor and not much at 
St. John." In a letter to Prof . Baird of October 29, 1869, 



58 THE NATURALIST OF THE ST. CROIX 

Mr. Boardman writes : " The great loss to this country 
from the Saxby gale will be to the woods. We have had 
some of our men up exploring and they say they can 
walk ten miles at a time on the trees that are down with- 
out stepping on the ground. In some places for half a 
mile about ever}^ tree is down. The bridges and build- 
ings can easily be put back, but the woods all down will 
soon get on fire and burn all over the down district. 
The wind did not reach very far up the river, only about 
thirty or forty miles — it was the heaviest about the 
shores." The Saxby gale has gone into history as one 
of the most destructive gales that ever visited the coast of 
this state and of New Brunswick. 

The years of 1869 to 1872 were very happy ones to 
Mr. Boardman. They were indeed among the happiest 
of his most happ}^ life. The summers were spent at home 
and in visits to the great cities where he loved to go to 
meet his scientific friends and stud}^ at the museums, 
while the winters were spent in Florida. On January 7, 
1869, he left for Florida, accompanied by Mrs. Board- 
man and his son William. They made stops of several 
days at Boston and New York where Mr. Boardman met 
his old friends and made many new acquaintances. In 
Washington, at a party at Prof. Baird's, he met Hon. 
George F. Edmunds, United States Senator from Ver- 
mont, Judge Hale, Mr. King and others. At the Smith- 
sonian Institution where he spent five days he met for the 
first time Robert Ridgway, Henry Banister, W. H. Dall, 
Prof. Gibb and other young naturalists. Townend 
Glover, Prof. Blake and Theodore Gill were also among 
those whose acquaintance he made at that time. Mr. 
and Mrs. Boardman arrived at Jacksonville, January 25 
and left on the return north, April 6. 



A I^IFE RECORD 59 

Mr. Boardman wrote most interesting letters to Prof. 
Baird during his winters in Florida. In a letter of March 
14, 1869, he says : " Florida of all places in the United 
States is most abundantly supplied with all kinds of 
game. There is more of animal life about Florida than 
in anyplace with which I am acquainted." Writing 
of the immense mounds and shell heaps he says : " You 
will have to come down and see for yourself. You can 
get a couple of weeks' vacation, come to Jacksonville, 
call for me and we can soon look over them. I want 
your opinion. I don't believe in Wymau, only Baird." 
In a letter written April 5, of this year, in which he 
described a box of skins he had sent to Prof. Baird, 
occurs this : " One poor little specimen of a warbler in 
the box I did not know ; he looked very like a Tennessee 
Warbler but I was not sure." Here is reference to a 
young naturalist who afterward became prominent. He 
is writing to Prof. Baird, April 1, 1869: " I saw Mr. 
Majmard of Massachusetts down collecting. Said he had 
found a new Chewink or Ground Robin — took fifty speci- 
mens, male, female and young, all with white eyes, 
smaller size, outer tail feathers not white. I did not see 
them as he had sent them north. He says he got a White 
Heron not described. He collected at Indian River." A 
single letter from Mr. Boardman to Prof. Baird is a good 
specimen of the many letters he sent to his correspondents 
while at the South : 

Enterprise, Feb. 28, 1869. 
Dear Baird : 

I received your letter some time since and for the most of the 
time have been running about, and have not had a very good chance 
to write, but have had a very good time boating, fishing, shooting, 
etc., etc. 



60 THE NATURALIST OF THE ST. CROIX 

We usually leave here in a small boat after breakfast, take 
dinner with us, and go off, up or down the river for the day, 
and since I have been in Florida have only had one-half day 
rainy weather to keep me in the house ; there has been a rainy 
night or two. The weather is splendid. Orange blossoms just 
going ofl' the trees. I •^^^ll give you our yesterday's boat cruise 
which will be something like most every day only we often get 
difierent game. Yesterday we shot two Alligators, two Wid- 
geons, Blue Wingteal, Ruddy Duck, Blackhead, six Quails, White 
Egret, White Ibis and a fish basket full of Yellow Legs, Killdee, 
Snipe, Woodpeckers and small fry geneially with half a dozen 
Paroquets. While speaking of the latter bird I think it must soon 
be almost exterminated. Everybody coming to Florida brings 
from one to three guns and they shoot every bird that comes 
within range and this bird when one is shot returns again and 
again, until almost every bird is shot down. One of our boarders 
last week shot forty in a few moments and knew nine shot at one 
discharge Friday. It is murder to destroy so prettj^ a bird for 
sport as they can do nothing with them. You know I told you 
last spring of flocks of birds with white bodies aud dark wings. 
When flying they show a pure white body and dark wings. I 
find they are an Ibis, in-obably the White Ibis in immature 
plumage. We shot one yesterday and I have had several ; they 
go in large flocks, most all in the dark wing plumage. I have made 
a couple of skins of this plumage as I don't I'emember seeing one 
in your case. 

I found Allen last week. He and two men are camping 
about seven miles below hei-e ; have been collecting all the way 
up the river and intend to remain where they are for ten days. 
They did not expect to go up any further, but I told them of a 
very interesting island in Lake Jessup where birds breed in large 
numbers, Egrets, Cranes, Herons, etc. I went up a couple of 
weeks ago and some expect to go again before I leave. Allen's 
party have about two hundred skins, nothing very rare. They 
have three Ivorybills and one Florida Jay. Mrs. B. and Willie 
returned to Jacksonville Wednesday. I shall probably be here 
another week, then go down river. I have made quite a good lot 
of skins for you hei-e that will please you. The ladies at the house 



A LIFE RECORD 61 

are crazy for birds, wings, etc. This is a large hotel, accommo- 
dates about one hundred and as nice a set as you find at any of the 
northern watering places. Half my time is taken up with mount- 
ing and fixing wings. We have no rainy or stormy days so have 
to go shooting days and work nights. Old Indian mounds and 
shell heaps in every direction often ten to fifteen feet deep. 
Come down and dig. With kind regards to Mrs. Baird and Lucy, 
I am as ever, Yours, 

G. A. BOARDMAN. 

]\Ir. Boardman had been very much interested in the 
effort which the Smithsonian ofl&cials had been making 
for a Congressional appropriation for a new building. 
Prof. Baird was foremost in this work before the com- 
mittee and on March 7, 1869, Mr. Boardman writes him 
to congratulate him upon ' ' getting your appropriation 
for the new museum. I thought at one time you would 
hardly get it through. Fortune always favors the brave. 
I thought all winter it was a mean Congress, but I like 
the members better now." 

In August and September of that year Prof. Baird and 
family spent several weeks with Mr. and Mrs. Boardman 
and together they visited the most attractive places for out- 
door excursions about St. Stephen and Calais. This 
visit of the Bairds was most enjoyable to all. Mr. Board- 
man and his wife were delightful hosts, were constant in 
their attentions to guests and did everything possible to 
make their visits occasions of happiness. On this visit 
of the Bairds, every pleasant day, rides, calls and excur- 
sions were planned and enjoyed. On dull or rainy days 
the two friends were delightfully employed. Mr. Board- 
man records: " September 6 — Very fine day. Went 
down to the Simpsons. Had a gay time — picnic and 
digging for Indian relics." Another day they went to 



62 THE NATURALIST OF THE ST. CROIX 

Conners' place at Oak Bay. September 8 was " a rainy, 
dull day; labelled some birds with Prof. Baird." The 
following day was one of very high wind and the two 
naturalists "numbered and labelled eggs all the after- 
noon." September 10 was dull and foggy and they 
' ' arranged the bird collection ' ' in the bird house. What 
happy days were those ! And so the brief records in the 
diary go on until the Bairds left for Washington ; the 
days became shorter and Mr. Boardman again made 
plans for visiting the south. 

On the last day of December, 1869, Mr. Boardman left 
home for Florida. Mrs. Boardman did not accompany 
him on this visit as, from a letter to Prof. Baird written 
from Boston, January 3, 1870, "Charley and his wife 
were to board with her" during the winter. While in 
Boston he purchased large quantities of supplies to take 
south with him. Reaching Washington he remained a 
week, working at the Smithsonian and visiting friends. 
One entry from his diar}^, that for Januar}^ 14, is a sample 
of many made at that time : " Worked assorting eggs 
all day at the Smithsonian." On his journey south 
he stopped at Richmond, Wilmington, Charleston and 
Savannah and reached Fernandina on January 20. Writ- 
ing to Prof. Baird from Charleston, January 17, he says : 
"Tell Mrs. Baird I hardly know how we should have 
got along without the sandwiches. They were just the 
thing. Yesterday a boy came into the cars to sell wine 
and on the seat we had the sandwiches and two kinds of 
wine. So you may be assured we drank to our friends' 
health." The winter wasspent at Jacksonville, Hibernia, 
Greencove Springs, Orange Bluff, Valusia and other 
places. In a letter to Prof. Baird, dated February 6, he 
writes : 



A IvIFE RECORD 63 

HiBERNiA, Fla., Feb. 6, 1870. 
Dear Baird : 

I want to tell you what an exceedingly good place I am in 
to collect common birds. It was many years ago an old planta- 
tion, now grown up scantily to trees ; no underbrush and very 
good walking. The trees are full of birds, nothing very rare, but 
you can hardly go half a mile from the house without seeing more 
than fifty different kinds of birds ; a good many Warblers and 
Woodpeckers, but not many water birds, except ducks about the 
river. I expect we shall go into camp in about ten days; are 
waiting for a New York man who is to go with us. 

I think this would be a nice place to collect eggs. I never 
saw such an abundance of old nests. I have engaged a young 
man to look after them. I see many woodpeckers' lioles and if 
the boy tries he can get some good eggs. One of the red-bellied 
kind is now digging a hole next the house and the red cockade 
must nest all about. He tells me that the Red Wing remains here 
all summer, also the Bluebird. One cuckoo and several kinds of 
blackbirds, also many of the hawks are found all summer. The 
only duck tliat remains is the Wood Duck, lie thinks. I will leave 
him my drills and blow-pipe and hope he may get some eggs new 
to your collection and I will collect some Florida birds for Eidg- 
way to compare with the northern. I have some blackbirds, I 
think of northern and southern, as they differ considerably in size. 
I am yours very truly, 

Geo. a. Boardman. 

Here is an extract from another letter of about the 
same date as the preceding : "I find birds are very local 
in their habits in Florida. I find different birds at Jack- 
sonville from even Greencove Springs, and then different 
at Palatka from what they are at St. Augustine; another 
kind at Enterprise." On March 30, Mr. Boardman 
writes to Prof. Baird that he intends to leave in a day or 
two for the north and ' ' be along toward Washington by 
Saturday or Sunday night unless detained on the way. 
If you have a spare bed for a night or two I will occupy 



64 THE NATURAI.IST OF THE ST. CROIX 

it; if not, all well." He left for home April 2, reaching 
Washington April 4 ; attended a party at Prof. Baird's 
April 5, reached Calais April 21 and the following day 
" called all round to see the folks." 

The summer of 1870 was passed quietly at home. 
Mr. Boardman did not at first intend to go south in the 
winter of 1870-71, but as cold weather approached he 
was anxious to get upon his favorite winter collecting 
ground. Even so late as October 16, 1870, he wrote to 
Prof. Baird : "I am not certain about going south again 
this winter but think perhaps I may. Mrs. Boardman 
and Willie will probably go with me if I go. I must try to 
go to some new locality as I am too much at home about 
Jacksonville. ' ' But on December 2, he writes his friend : 
" We hope to leave for the south the last day of this 
month if all is well," and they did, it being the same 
date on which they left the previous year. He adds : 
" I shall not want to make much of a stay in Washing- 
ton, having been there so often. We shall wear our 
welcome out and I shall not be a rare curiosity at the 
Smithsonian." On this trip to the south Mrs. Board- 
man and their son William B. who was then nine years 
old, accompanied Mr. Boardman. They reached Wash- 
ington January 11, 1871, remaining five or six days. 
Mr. Boardman spent the time at the Smithsonian and 
also attended receptions at Prof. Baird's and at Senator 
Edmunds'. Jacksonville was reached January 19. The 
winter was spent at Jacksonville, with visits to Palatka, 
St. Augustine, Hibernia and other places, where, accord- 
ing to entries in his diary, he "called all round to see 
friends." March 8 he "picked orange blossoms" and 
March 28 " shot eleven cedar birds at one shot." They 



A LIFE RECORD 65 

left for the north April 8 and, after brief visits at Wash- 
ington, New York and Boston, reached home April 21. 
The summer was spent at home and was exceedingly 
quiet. 

The winter of 1872 was spent in Florida, Mr. Boardman 
having left home January 8 and arrived at Jacksonville 
January 26. It was one of the busiest and happiest 
winters Mr. Boardman ever spent at the south. Among 
the places visited were Hibernia, Magnolia, Port Royal, 
Enterprise, Orange Bluff, Lemon Bluff and St. John 
Bluff. He went up the St. John river to Lake Jessup, 
Lake Widner and Lake Washington. There was hardly 
a day, Sunday excepted, when Mr. Boardman was not 
busy with his sport and collecting, down to the time he 
left for the north, April 12. 

His diary for this winter is full of most interesting 
records. Among the birds shot were : Snipe, Florida 
jays, ducks, wild turkeys, plover, white heron, blue 
cranes, gannets, night herons, pelicans, wood ibis ; while 
he also records shooting alligators and deer. March 8, 
he records: "Shot birds all day;" and March 9, he 
records : ' ' Shot birds all day ; deer, turkey and snipe 
plenty." Other records are: "Skinned birds all the 
forenoon." 

If the winter of this year was full of enjoyment to Mr. 
Boardman the summer was equally full of pleasure. 
Prof. Baird and his family made the Boardmans three or 
four visits and their house was full of guests much of 
the time. Prof. Baird was passing the summer at East- 
port and with his family he visited Mr. Boardman in 
June. Again in August the Bairds and the Boardmans 
made a visit to New Brunswick, Nova Scotia and Prince 



66 THE NATURAlvIST OF THE ST. CROIX 

Edward Island, going to St. John, Halifax, Annapolis, 
Cbarlottetown and Summerside, calling upon scientific 
friends and visiting at St. John the natural history 
museum. Again in September, before leaving for Wash- 
ington, Prof, and Mrs. Baird again visited the Board- 
mans. 

After having spent several weeks with friends in Boston 
and Brookline, Mass., in the early winter of 1872-73, Mr. 
and Mrs. Boardman left for Florida January 6 and, without 
stopping at Washington, reached Jacksonville January 
14. His diary shows that after arriving and having made 
calls upon all his friends Mr. Boardman at once com- 
menced his favorite pursuits of shooting, skinning birds 
and mounting specimens. This was his constant employ- 
ment and the records in his diary show what birds he 
shot and mounted each day. On February 10, 1873, the 
little steamer Clifton was launched. She was built in 
Philadelphia by a party of gentlemen from Clifton Springs, 
N. Y., among whom was Dr. Henrj'- Foster, head of the 
Sanatorium at that place, who was one of Mr. Board- 
man's intimate friends, the two having been together in 
Florida for two winters. The places on the upper St. 
Johns river were then comparatively wild and game was 
abundant. Mr. Boardman went farther up the river 
that winter in the Clifton than any sporting party had 
been previously. The Clifton only drew twenty inches 
of water ; she had a crew of three men and had accom- 
modations for a party of six. In a chapter contributed 
by Mr. Boardman to camp life in Florida, published at 
New York in 1876, he says he was on board of her for 
two winters and had a splendid time. " Such a boat," 
he says, " can go to the upper waters of the St. Johns 



A LIFE RECORD 67 

river, above where hunters generally go and where 
game is plenty. Such bird suppers as Reuben could get 
up I never expect to see again." After spending a very 
pleasant winter south, Mr. and Mrs. Boardman left for 
the north April 3 and arrived home May 2. The very 
next day, as was his usual custom, he " went all round 
to see friends" and also went to get Mayflowers. The 
summer was spent quietly at home and the diary records 
days of shooting, what birds were obtained and how 
many, with work in the bird house, mounting and send- 
ing away specimens to his friends and correspondents, 
labelling eggs and skins with other similar details of 
employments in which he delighted. 

That well-known sporting and natural history journal. 
Forest and Stream, was established by his friend and 
correspondent, Mr. Charles Hallock who was its editor 
for many years. The first number was dated August 11, 
1873 and Mr. Boardman's name was the second one placed 
upon its subscription books. In number five of that jour- 
nal, dated September 11, appears an article by Mr. Board- 
man, written in answer to a request from Mr. Hallock, 
entitled Attractions of Natural History, which is here 
given. It is signed George A. Boardman (Naturalist): 

I am more than pleased with tlie first two numbers of the 
Forest aud Stream. Such a paper, I think, is very nmch needed 
to educate our people to out-door exercises and sports and to the 
study of natural history in some of its branches. To the lover of 
the beautiful — to one wlio delights in the gay, bright beings of 
nature, ornithology is one of the most attractive branches of 
Natural Science. How little most people know of the number aud 
variety of birds that anuually visit everj'^ part of our extended 
clime, or are even aware how many spend the summer in our 
immediate vicinity. 



68 THE NATURAI.IST OF THE ST. CROIX 

We little think that any time we walk in our grounds and 
gardens we are intruding upon rare and elegant visitants from 
Mexico, Central South America, Florida and the islands of the 
sea, but such is the case, and one that passes through life with- 
out a knowledge of the feathered creatures constantly surround- 
ing him, in the fields and woods, rendered vocal with their songs, 
watching the patience and care in providing for tlieir young, loses 
one of tlie chief means by which his own existence miglit be made 
more cheerful, happy and contented and fails to understand one of 
the most pleasing and attractive of the creations of Omnipotence. 
How important for the sportsman to know the history and habits 
of his feathered friends so as not be let to slaughter them out of 
season. And the agriculturist, after failing crops and barren fields, 
only learns the errors he has committed in the destruction of his 
little help mates, by the life and vigor it has given to the grubs 
and insects that now overrun his fields. Our English friends 
I think are much in advance of us in their papers upon Natural 
Science. But now with the help of the Forest and Stream which 
I hope may go into every family, we may try to surpass our 
English friends in the study of natural science and know the 
benefits of out-door recreation and physical culture. 

lu the spring of 1874 Mr. Boardman made a trip to 
California, leaving home March 2, bearing an introduc- 
tion from Prof. Spencer F. Baird of the Smithsonian 
Institution. In sending this letter of introduction to Mr. 
Boardman, Prof. Baird writes : "I hope this will bring 
you in communication with the scientifics of that state. 
Dall is there, having just returned from the South coast 
and will be very glad to see you. I hope you will return 
by way of Washington so as to give us an account of 
your adventures. Please pick up whatever you can for 
us of rare birds and eggs, Indian relics and the like." 
Enclosed in the letter is a list of persons to whom the 
introduction was to be presented. Among them were : 
R. E. C. Stearns, I.W. Raymond, Prof. George Davidson, 







|r 



r 

^ 



\ 

^:j 



A LIFE RECORD 69 

Wm. H. Dal], Prof. J. D. Whitney, Dr. J. G. Cooper, 
Dr. Wm. O. Ayres, R. B. Woodward, Ferdinand Grieber 
and John Williamson. On this visit Mr. Boardman went 
to Sacramento, San Francisco and Oakland. He also 
visited St. Helena and the White Sulphur Springs, went 
to the petrified forest and the geysers where he ' ' took a 
steam bath and walked up the mountain." While in 
California he did some collecting and mounted some 
birds. He reached home on May 15 of that year. At 
the close of his diary for the year is the memorandum : 
"Game shot, 1874 — 19 duck, 48 partridge. 111 wood- 
cock, 78 snipe." 

Portions of the winters of 1875, 1876 and 1877 were 
spent, as had quite become Mr. Boardman's custom, in 
Florida. He did not leave home in 1875 until February 
10 and, returning on May 7, again left for the south 
December 20 of the same year. It was after his winter 
in Florida of that year that Mr. Boardman wrote that 
chapter of his experiences which appears in Mr. Hal- 
lock's Camp Ivife in Florida which gives so graphic an 
account of winter life in the land which he loved next to 
that of his own northern home. The winter of 1875-76 
he remained in Florida until the first of April, being 
nearly a month on the homeward journey, reaching St. 
Stephen May 5, 1876. Again on December 26, 1876, 
Mr. Boardman started for the south. In the early winter 
of 1875 he was in Florida but a few days more than two 
months, spending the time at Jacksonville, Arlington 
and Greencove Springs. On his return he made his usual 
visits to scientific friends at Washington, Philadelphia 
and New York, at the latter place always visiting the 



70 THE NATURALIST OF THE ST. CROIX 

Central Park and at Washington the Smithsonian Insti- 
tution. Mr. Boardman's visits south during 1876 and 
1877 were but a repetition of those of previous years. 
He vpas happy in meeting his many friends, happy in 
his collecting, being always on the watch for something 
new, packing and sending away boxes of specimens, 
while his ever genial temperament found many occasions 
for giving pleasure to those whom he met. Writing 
letters to friends was a pastime he much enjoyed and his 
correspondence took much of his time. In September 
and October, 1876, Mr. Boardman spent a week at the 
Centennial Exhibition at Philadelphia, for some days 
being in company with Prof. Baird. During his winter 
at the south this year he was joined by Prof. Baird and 
Dr. Foster and these friends had a fine time together 
for two weeks in the month of April. On Mr. Boardman's 
return north, while at Charleston, S. C, he " went up in 
a little steamer to Magnolia and Draton Hall to see the 
flowers; gone all day" — as he records in his diary. 
When in Washington he attended a dinner party at 
Senator Edmunds', accompanied by the Bairds. In the 
summer and fall of 1877 he visited Fredericton, St. John, 
Halifax, Pictou, Summerside and Shediac. 

Mr. Boardman had now spent eight winters in Florida. 
Splendid field naturalist that he was before he went 
there, he had added largely to his knowledge of birds by 
these visits and had by eight years' collecting and study 
of birds in their southern homes, become very familiar 
with the ornithology of the south and with the migratory 
habits and climatic range of our native birds. He had 
also spent one spring in California. During his journeys 
to and from his home and the south he had made visits 



A IvIFE RECORD 71 

of more or less duration at Washington where he had 
spent much time at the Smithsonian Institution and had 
become acquainted with many of its force of scientific 
workers. But in order to more thoroughly study the 
bird collections at the Smithsonian he had planned for 
some years to spend an entire winter in Washington, 
thus supplementing his keen and accurate knowledge 
obtained from field study by a careful comparison of 
specimens in the Smithsonian museum. 

Accordingly it was decided that the winter of 1878 
should be spent in Washington and on January 3 of that 
year, in company with Mrs. Boardman, he left for the 
national capital where they arrived January 5, taking 
rooms at 1217 I Street. They remained at Washington 
until April 5, when they started on the return home, 
reaching Milltown, N. B., April 16. 

The winter spent in Washington was a most delightful 
one to Mr. Boardman. He was at the Smithsonian nearly 
every day engaged in study or in work — in examining 
the collections for his own benefit and instruction or in 
assisting at naming and arranging the new things being 
constantly received. He also attended the scientific 
meetings — as he records in his diary — met the Institu- 
tion workers — Prof. Baird, Elliot, Henshaw, Ridgway, 
Hayden, Myers, Coues and others and enjoyed the soci- 
ety of his many friends at the national capital. He was 
often at Prof. Baird's to dinner, spent many of his even- 
ings there and made frequent visits to Senators Hamlin 
and Edmunds, Mr. Blaine and other prominent person- 
ages in Washington society. Mr. Boardman was widely 
known as the Maine naturalist and had entrance to the 
select scientific circle at that great centre of science, 



72 THE NATURALIST OF THK ST. CROIX 

while the charming manners of Mrs. Boardman endeared 
her to all and together they attended dinner parties and 
receptions at several places where they were always 
esteemed guests. Thus to the solid enjoyment of the 
study of science were added the charms of society of 
which Mr. Boardman was fond and to which he con- 
tributed so much of pleasure to both host and guests. 

During most of the winter which Mr. Boardman had 
spent in Washington, Prof. Joseph Henry, who had been 
secretary of the Smithsonian Institution for a period of 
thirty-two years, had been in failing health. On reach- 
ing his home in Milltown that spring, Mr. Boardman 
received a letter from Prof. Baird informing him of Prof. 
Henry's death which took place May 13, 1878 and also 
of his own election as Prof. Henry's successor. In a 
letter to Prof. Baird, dated May 22 of that year, Mr. 
Boardman wrote: "I am sorry to hear of the death of 
Prof. Henry ; although knowing how ill he was when we 
left Washington I was not at all surprised to read of his 
death. I was much pleased at the vote you received to 
make you the head of the institution — the ofl&ce that 
you have richly earned." This extract from Mr. Board- 
man's letter is most characteristic of the man — plain, 
straightforward and business-like, with no attempt at 
undue praise or eulogy, just the simple, sincere expres- 
sion of a true friend unused to the multiplication of words 
on any occasion, but making use of plain sentences full 
of meaning. A memorandum at the close of Mr. Board- 
man's diary for 1878 gives a list of fifty-six names of 
naturalists with whom he had been in correspondence 
during the year. The list embraces many names of 
persons eminent in science in this country, in New 
Brunswick, in Nova Scotia and in England. 



A LIFE RECORD 73 

The year 1879 was spent by Mr. Boardman at home. 
There was hardly a day down to the first of September 
that he did not go to his favorite shooting grounds, work 
in his bird house, send off a box of specimens to some 
friend or write several letters to some one of the many 
naturalists with whom he kept up a correspondence. 
His diary shows that during the winter he worked much 
in his bird house, drove out almost every day, visited 
friends and went skating — a sport of which he was fond. 
As the spring came on the entries in his diary become 
more interesting. April 22 he " saw a snake on the snow. ' ' 
The first martins came April 26, April 28 he went out 
after snipe and "got a few." He went often to the 
Maguerrawock and Mohannes streams — his favorite 
resorts for water birds. He records : "May 19 — went 
up to Uncle Steve's woods ; got warblers, several kinds ; 
named all when I got home." In June Mr. Boardman 
made a short visit to Boston and New York. Through 
June and July he w^as out shooting nearly every day and 
his diary records getting woodcock, young hermit thrush, 
wood duck, house wren, snipe and other birds. 

On September 4, while out shooting at Clark's, Mr. 
Boardman had the misfortune to injure one of his knees. 
How it occurred is not recalled but he records it in his 
diary as a "bad accident" — and it must have been a 
bad one, otherwise he would not have so written. In the 
same entry he says : " Saw many woodcock ; got two." 
The day following, however, finding himself greatly 
disabled, he sent for Doctor Knowles to attend him. 
The result was that, although Mr. Boardman drove out 
almost daily during the fall of 1879, worked in his bird 
house, mounted some specimens, was present at the 



74 THE NATURALIST OF THE ST. CROIX 

meetings of the directors of corporations of which he was 
a member and attended to his usual business duties, he 
was prevented from ordinary work and at the close of 
the year he records : ' ' Lame knee has kept me on 
crutches since 4 September." It did, in fact, keep him 
on crutches for nearly six months beyond the time at 
which that record was made. His list of correspondents 
for the year comprises forty-three names, nearly all of 
them those of leading naturalists of this country and 
abroad. 

Late in the spring of 1880 Mr. and Mrs. Boardman 
left for the west, arriving in Minneapolis where four of 
their children were then living, on May 7. Three days 
afterward, as he records in his diary, Mr. Boardman 
went for birds, getting grosbeaks, orioles, jays, etc. 
Almost every day for several weeks following he went 
birding every forenoon and in the afternoon worked at 
skinning and mounting birds. Among the entries in 
his diary are: "Got orioles, rose-breasted and scarlet 
tanagers;" "went to Minnesota bottoms — shot duck, 
quail, yellow headed blackbirds;" "got white king- 
bird ; " " went to Lake Calhoun ; seven black terns, two 
yellow heads, two orioles, larks, blackbirds ; " " dinner 
at Albert's — had mallard ducks ; " " went to Minnesota 
bottoms with Willie — shot yellow-head blackbirds, 
scarlet tanager, grosbeaks and larks." While on this 
visit he lost no time in becoming acquainted with the 
birds of the west, both in the field and at the collection 
of the University of Minnesota where he spent many 
days. A letter to Prof. Baird gives an interesting account 
of his impressions of the western fauna. He was yet 
suffering from the accident to his knee and was obliged 
to use crutches, as a reference in the letter will indicate : 



A LIFE RECORD 75 

Minneapolis, Minn., May 21, 1880. 
Mt Dear Professor: 

I know I owe you a letter and should have written before I 
left home ; had I had much of any news to communicate should 
have done so. 

We have been here two weeks to-day, found the boys and 
families all well and very glad to see us. 

I was very much surprised to see how much more forward 
vegetation was than with us in the same parallel. We found in 
the first week of May the trees nearly leaved out and trees in full 
bloom about the same as we see in southern Massachusetts or 
Connecticut. The boys at the University found thirty-four differ- 
ent kinds of wild flowers in the first week in May. We could 
hardly do that in New Brunswick. We are much pleased with 
the looks of the country ; it is quite warm but the air is delight- 
ful. Mrs. Boardman is in love with the country. We find very 
many of our old down east neighbors and we see about as manj- 
old acquaintances as at home, so many of the men that have been 
in my employ years ago come west. We are full of callers all the 
time. I have been riding all about. See lots of nice birds, many 
nearly new to me. Yellow-headed blackbirds are very abundant, 
black tern by the thousands, every little lake hovering about like 
swallows. Rose breasted grosbeaks very abundant as well as 
orioles and some scarlet tanagers. The warblers had mostly gone 
north. I got one Cape May and they apj^ear quite common. 
One lake near here there is an island where hundreds of blue 
heron are now breeding. Double crested cormorants breed on 
the same trees, and blackbirds in the foundation of same nests. 

If my locomotion Avas better 1 should enjoy being here in the 
spring collecting, but can walk but a little distance ; am getting 
better most every day. Hope to be well enough in a few weeks 
to go up to Fargo and perhaps up the Red River to Winnipeg. I 
should enjoy the sail up but hear mosquitoes are very plenty. 
The fish aie most of them new to a Bay of Fundy chap. The bass 
do not look like the Florida fish, and the Minneapolis folks get 
very good fish from Lake Superior, some very large and good eat- 
ing fish. 1 see reports of Prof. Goode and your fish exhibition. 
Have no doubt they will be a credit to the country. I expect you 



76 THE NATURALIST OF THE ST. CROIX 

are beginning to make a good show iu the new building by this 
time; hope to see it next fall. All join iu much love to you, 
Mrs. B., Lucy and all the friends. 

Sincerely yours, 

Geo. a. Boardman. 

On this visit west Mr. Boardman went to Fargo and 
returning, was active in his study of western birds in the 
few days before leaving for home. He went to Lake 
Minnetonka where he "saw swallow-tails, buzzards, 
cranes ; " he " went over the river to see German bird 
men;" he "went to the Academy of Sciences; " he "went 
out shooting, got nest and chick of gallinule, indigo 
birds, etc., and skinned birds," and " called at William 
Grimshaw's to see his eggs" — these are the entries in 
his diary down to the very day of leaving for the east, 
June 23, 1880. During that summer Mr. Boardman 
made visits to Boston, Fredericton, St. John and Wood- 
stock and in October attended the exhibition at St. John. 
Some entries in his diary will give an idea of how his 
days were spent in the autumn of that year : ' ' October 
9 : mounted hawk and blue birds ; afternoon out to 
Jones'; two woodcock, one snipe ; Jones shot golden eagle 
and one partridge. October 11 : Skinned golden eagle ; 
out to Jones' afternoon, got two snipe, one woodcock. 
October 12 : Went out to cemetery ; Mrs. Lovejoy and 
Ladd at tea ; had bird supper. October 13 : Went out 
to Chandler road with Osborn ; got five woodcock and 
barred owl. October 14 : Afternoon out to Tyler's ; got 
two woodcock, saw six ; mounted barred owl. October 
15 : Afternoon at Maguerrawock with Osborn ; no snipe 
on meadows ; got six woodcock, yellow rail, partridge. 
October 16 : Out to Jones' ; got one woodcock, one snipe, 



A LIFE RECORD 77 

six partridge. October 18 : Went out to the Mohannes 
with Everett Smith of Portland, game commissioner for 
Maine. October 19 : Mounted spruce partridge and 
barred owl. October 20 : Went to Clark's with Everett 
Smith, got two partridge, one woodcock ; afternoon 
worked in bird house. October 21 : Worked in bird 
house most all day . ' ' On November 24, 1880, Mr. Board- 
man " shut up the house for the winter" and left for Flor- 
ida, arriving at Jacksonville December 24. December 30, 
Mr. Boardman records: "Thermometer 17 — coldest 
for forty years; oranges all frozen on the trees." His 
list of correspondents for that year numbered fifty-eight. 
Three or four entries from Mr. Boardman's diary will 
show how the days were spent during the winter months 
in Florida : ' ' January 28 — Went out shooting with Mr. 
Page of New York ; got some snipe, plover, red birds, 
etc. February 1 — Made skin of fish crow ; got evening 
grosbeaks. February 24 — Mounted birds and trimmed 
orange trees. March 3 — Skinned two ivory-bill wood- 
peckers , mounted birds and trimmed trees. ' ' On Sunday, 
March 6, Mr. Boardman heard Bishop Whipple preach at 
Sanford, Fla., where he was passing a vacation. The 
two following days he went to Lake Jessup "fishing, 
shooting and picnicking with Bishop Whipple." How 
the two naturalists must have enjoyed each other's com- 
pany ! Devout Christian that he was, Mr. Boardman 
took pleasure in hearing the Bishop preach on Sunday, 
while Bishop Whipple, lover of nature and also a sports- 
man, enjoyed fishing and shooting with Mr. Boardman 
on Monday. Rev. Henry Benjamin Whipple was the 
first bishop of Minnesota and used to pass his winter 
vacations at various points in Florida. He died Sept. 16, 



78 THE NATURALIST OF THE ST. CROIX 

1901 and the memorial tower of the Episcopal cathedral 
at Faribault, Minn., has been consecrated to his memory. 

During that winter in Florida Mr. and Mrs. Boardman 
passed the time at Palatka, Enterprise, Sanford, St. 
Augustine and Jacksonville. His son Charles was then 
living at Palatka and they made their home with him, 
going to the other resorts for a longer or a shorter time 
as the inclination possessed them. Mr. Boardman did 
not do as much collecting that winter as formerly. Their 
friends, the Fosters from Clifton Springs, N. Y., were in 
Florida that winter and much time was spent with them 
in excursions and pleasuring parties. They left Florida 
April 11 and arrived in Washington April 14. A stay 
of only two daj^s was made in Washington when they 
left for the east, spending four days in Philadelphia, 
some time in New York and Boston, arriving at Calais 
on May 13. 

Reaching home Mr. Boardman immediately went to 
work in his bird house, according to entries in his diary, 
and also took up his excursions to the woods and waters 
of the Maguerrawock and Mohannes and almost every 
day throughout the month of May and June recorded 
getting warblers, blackbirds, lots of ducks, redwings and 
other birds which he skinned and mounted, also going 
on fishing trips. He continued to send specimens to the 
Smithsonian Institution as usual. Among his papers is 
an acknowledgement from Prof. Baird, dated June 25, 
1881, in which he says : 

The specimens anuounced by you ou the 19th came safely 
to hand and we are greatly indebted to you for the interesting 
contribution. The Florida hawk is extremely acceptable and I 
think Mr. Ridgway has written you for furtlier particulars. The ' 



A LIFE RECORD 79 

flounder is, I think, the same as one pi-eviouslj^ sent by you from 
Mr. Wilson's weir. It is known in New Jersey as the Window- 
pane, from its thinness (Lophopsetta Maculata). The sandpiper, 
with tlie musole attached is interesting and serves to illustrate the 
methods by \jrhich animals become distributed from one point to 
another. I shall be very glad to have good samples of the red 
granite, including a four-inch cube and one of a foot and any- 
thing else in the way of style or pattern. 

During the late summer and fall of that year Mr. Board- 
man records the trips to his favorite shooting grounds 
where he got young petrel, black gallinule, marsh hawk, 
reed bird, kingfisher, wood duck and partridge. On 
November 14, having closed his house for the winter, Mr. 
and Mrs. Boardman again left for the south. They made 
but brief calls on the way in Boston and New York, 
arriving at Jacksonville November 19. According to the 
records in his diary Mr. Boardman had corresponded 
during the year with seventy different persons, to more 
than thirty of whom he wrote frequent letters. On 
December 31 he received a letter from Prof. Baird telling 
of his disappointment at not having a visit from the Board- 
mans on their passage through Washington for the south. 
Prof. Baird writes : 

Washington, D. C, Dec. 29, 1881. 
Dear Mr. Boardman: 

We were quite surprised to get your letter from Palatka, 
when we were trying to intercept you on the way through Wash- 
ington, wishing you to pay us a visit. I hope you will take 
Washington on your return, and that Mrs. Baird will be well 
enough to have you and Mrs. Boardman come directly to our 
house. I cannot bear the idea of having you go off to the far 
west without our seeing you. One comfort, however, will be that 
you will continue to go to Florida as heretofore. 

I wish very much you would consider yourself a special agent 
of the Smithsonian and National Museum along the line of the 



80 THE NATURALIST OF THE ST. CROIX 

railroads. Can you not get the boys to take up the subject and 
see that the products of the mounds and graves dug through are 
secui-ed for us. There are so many outsiders at work in Florida 
and elsewhere, that we do not get anything like the share we 
ought to have of the good things going. 

Of course, any rare birds will be welcome. If I knew of 
some clever taxidermist to send down and make a good collection 
of birds I would send him. Perhaps Ridgway himself would like 
to go and spend a few weeks, at the proper season. What are the 
chances of getting what 1 want? 

We have nothing specially new here, excepting that Nelson 
and Turner are both back again from Alaska with immense col- 
lections. 

I am trying to arrange matters to have a meteorological estab- 
lishment at Ungava Bay and to send a good naturalist in charge. 
This will give us a first-rate show at the water birds of Hudson's 
Straits and Northern Labrador. Don't you want to go? 

With love to Mrs. Boardman from all of us, believe me, 
Sincerely Yours, 

S. F. Baird. 

The winter of 1882 was spent mostly in Palatka, Fla., 
although excursions were made to several other places. 
Under date of January 16 of that year Prof. Baird writes 
him : "I shall be very glad indeed if you can secure for 
us some of those fine specimens to which you refer. I 
hope you will constitute yourself a committee of six in 
the interest of the National museum. If you remain long 
enough in Florida in the spring I will see if I can not send 
Mr. Ridgway or some one else to collect specimens under 
your direction." This is one of the many evidences 
which Prof. Baird had in Mr. Boardman's accurate knowl- 
edge of natural history that occur in his correspondence. 
But little collecting was done by Mr. Boardman during 
that winter in the south, and on April 6 Mr. and Mrs. 
Boardman left for Washington where they arrived April 



A LIFE RKCORD 81 

8. A month was spent in Washington and although Mrs. 
Boardman's heahh was far from good it was one of the 
happiest months Mr. Boardman ever spent at the national 
capital. His diary records the happy days spent at the 
Smithsonian and with Prof, and Mrs. Baird where the 
Boardmans frequently took tea and spent the evening. 
Arriving in Washington at 9 o'clock a. m., on Saturday, 
April 8, Mr. Boardman at once went to the Smithsonian, 
and on Sunday evening, with Mrs. Boardman, he took 
tea with Prof, and Mrs. Baird. A few of the brief min- 
utes are given from Mr. Boardman's diary as showing 
how the days were spent : "April 10 — At Smithsonian 
to look over Nelson's arctic birds. April 11 — Called 
round to see all the friends at the Smithsonian. April 
17 — All day at the museum ; walked up to Prof. Baird 's. 
April 18 — Went over to museum; Academy of Science 
in session ; reception at museum. April 19 — At Smith- 
sonian; went about with Prof. J. W. P. Jenks, curator of 
museum. Brown University. April 22 — At museum with 
Mr. Walker and the ladies; Ball's lecture at museum. 
April 28 — Packed birds at Smithsonian. May 2 — Spent 
the day at the shad hatchery at the Smithsonian ; packed 
box of birds. May 4 — Over to Smithsonian and called 
with Prof. Baird to all the oSices and visited the carp 
ponds. May 5 — Over to Smithsonian ; got some birds 
of Mr. Nelson. May 6 — Over the Smithsonian to say 
good-by to the folks." On May 7, which was Sunday, 
the Boardmans spent the afternoon and evening at Prof. 
Baird's and on the next day left for the north. The 
summer of 1882 was passed at Calais. 

On September 4 Mr. and Mrs. Boardman left for the 
west. They had no sooner arrived at Minneapolis than 



82 THE NATURALIST OF THE ST. CROIX 

Mr. Boardman "went out to Great Marsli and shot 12 
snipe near Rice Lake." During that fall he went to 
Fargo, visiting a lai'ge farm in which his sons were 
interested and where he saw "lots of wild geese." He 
also shot ' ' hawks and black vulture, ' ' and at Sanderson 
" went out to see eagle's nest." On October 4, he went 
to the big marsh snipe shooting where he shot a red- 
tailed hawk, which was mounted the following day. 
This was a favorite place with Mr. Boardman where he 
often went shooting. On October 18 he records : " Shot 
two snipe on railroad near the house." 

The winter of 1882-83 was spent in Minneapolis. That 
Mr. Boardman kept up his interest in ornithology is 
shown by the many entries in his diary from which some 
extracts are given: "January 3, 1883 — Coldest of the 
season : 12 degrees below all daj' ; Shot two evening 
grosbeaks. January 11 — Skinned four evening gros- 
beaks. March 8 — Went over to see the old German 
bird man, afterward at rooms of Academy of Natural 
Science. March 25 — Skinned three^evening grosbeaks. 
March 27 — Over east side to see the old taxidermist. 
March 31 — Got two evening grosbeaks and skinned 
them. April 16 — Got one Hooded Merganser and 
skinned it ; in afternoon went shooting and got snipe and 
ducks. May 9 — Skinned pintail duck. May 21 — Went 
to Eake Harriet ; shot two horned grebes and one red 
throat all in good spring plumage." 

Mr. and Mrs. Boardman arrived in Calais from the 
west on Atigust 7, and the first of September had a visit 
of some days' duration from Gov. and Mrs. Robie. The 
last of October and first of November of that year Mr. 
Boardman was occupied in moving the contents of his 



A IvIFE RECORD 83 

bird house from St. Stephen to Calais and putting up his 
collection of birds, eggs and nests in his new museum. 
He records the number of loads and notes the days 
spent in " arranging his bird house." His diary for that 
year records the names of eighty-four persons with whom 
he had been in correspondence during the year, many of 
them those of well-known scientists — Prof. Baird, Geo. 
N. Lawrence, Mrs. T. M. Brewer, E. Coues, Everett 
Smith, I. Nesbitt, H. E. Dresser, W. T. Hornaday, N. 
Clifford Brown. The following letter may well close the 
record of the year 1883. It is one of the last received 
from Prof. Baird and shows conclusively that he regarded 
the work of Mr. Boardman upon the birds of Eastern 
North America as practically complete. The list enclosed 
in the letter is endorsed : "Additions to Mr. Boardman's 
Catalogue of the Birds of Calais, Maine, 1862, included 
in Prof. Baird's manuscript supplementary list; thirty- 
two species, nomenclature of 1859 catalogue; R. R." 
(Robert Ridgway) : 

Washington, D. C, Dec. 10, 1883. 
Dear Mr. Boaruman: 

Many years ago I undertook, during one of my visits to Mill- 
town, to help you with a catalogue of birds of eastern Maine and 
between us we made out about thirty-one species in addition to 
what you had previously reported upon. This list has been 
among my papers for probably fifteen j^ears or more, and coming 
across it a few days since, I spoke to Mr. Ridgwa}- about putting 
it iu form and arranging for its publication either in the proceed- 
ings of the Boston Society of Natural History, or of the National 
Museum — you to be the author of the paper. 

I now send you the names that I have, so that if you think 
proper you may make any additions thereto tliat occur to you. It 
would be well to add any paragraphs about dates, habits and con- 
ditions of discoverJ^ 



84 THE NATURALIST OF THE ST. CROIX 

If you will then send it to me, I will get Mr. Ridgway to 
complete it as proposed. It is not very likely that you will make 
many additions to the list ; at any rate, I do not think it is worth 
while to wait much longer. 

Yours truly, 

S. F. Baird. 

Mr. and Mrs. Boardman spent the winter of 1884 in 
Florida, although Mr. Boardman did but little collecting. 
Almost the only entries in his diary which refer to this 
are the following : ' ' February 4 — Went to ride out in 
the pine woods with Mrs. Boardman ; got a few birds ; 
afternoon, mounted three birds. February 5 — Went 
out in pine woods with ladies ; shot blue bird ; afternoon, 
mounted bird." They were then at Palatka. They 
arrived in Washington on their return east, April 7, 
where they remained ten days. It was the usual round 
of pleasure and study. They called upon members of 
the Maine delegation in Congress, attended receptions 
and visited friends. Mr. Boardman was at the Smith- 
sonian, at the National Museum and with Prof. Baird 
nearly every day and on different days he records in his 
diary : " Called all round to see the folks ; at the Smith- 
sonian saw Prof. Baird, Prof. Goode, Ridgway, Eliot, 
Capt. Bendire, Coues and Hornaday ; took over burrow- 
ing owl and lyimpkin eggs to museum ; went to fish 
hatching-house and museum, got birds of Ridgway and 
eggs of Capt. Bendire ; saw Prof. Verrill, Dall and 
others and went over to Academy of Science ; all day at 
museum, saw Dr. Hayden, Coues and others." Reach- 
ing New York on his journey home Mr. Boardman spent 
a few days at the Central Park museum where he saw 
Dr. Holden, Mr. Bickmore, Mr. Lawrence and others. 



A LIFE RECORD 85 

Calais was reached April 29. During the month of June 
Mr. Boardman was employed in moving from Milltown, 
St. Stephen, to the house on Lafayette Street, Calais, 
where he ever afterward resided and almost daily entries 
are made in his journal of work done in arranging the 
collections in the museum. Almost the only entry relat- 
ing to birds is : "June 10 — Afternoon went up to the 
old pasture and got four Loggerhead Shrikes, White 
Rump, first ever collected here." The diary records 
seventy-eight correspondents for the year. 

The years 1885 and 1886 were passed by Mr. Board- 
man at home with the exception of visits to Boston, New 
York and the west — the summer of 1886 having been 
spent in Minneapolis. The year 1887 was also spent 
quietly at home with visits to Boston and Fredericton. 
The death of Prof. Baird occurred in August of this 
year, Mr. Boardman making a brief entry of the event 
in his diary of August 19, 



CHAPTER V 



CLOSING YEARS AT CAXAIS. 



THE work of Mr. Boardman as a naturalist really 
ended with the death of Prof. Baird in 1887. 
Indeed, four years before Prof. Baird's death he had 
written Mr. Boardman that it was not likely he would 
make any additions to the list of Maine birds and sug- 
gested that the list should be revised and published as a 
final work as he thought it not advisable to wait longer 
for new species. Mr. Boardman's friendship and cor- 
respondence, his visits and exchanges with Prof. Baird 
had continued uninterruptedly for a period of twenty- 
seven years with the closest intimacy and delight. Now 
he had gone. His friend and correspondent, Dr. Wil- 
liam Wood of Connecticut, had died in 1885 and John 
Krider in 1886. The last letters from Mr. Dresser that 
have been found among Mr. Boardman's papers were 
written in 1874. Mr. Boardman still wrote occasionally 
to Mr. Charles HaUock and to Prof. Robert Ridgway 
for he loved to be in communication with his friends. 
On April 4, 1887, Mr. Boardman wrote to Prof. Ridgway : 
' ' I have received several letters through the winter from 
Prof. Baird. He writes me how poorly he has been in 




GEORGE A. BOARDMAN 



At the Age of about Eighty years 



CLOSING YEARS 87 

health ; has lost over twenty pounds of flesh. I cannot 
find out what the trouble is with him or really how badly 
off he is. In his last letter he wrote me he was going to 
Vermont to spend the first part of the summer and leave 
the sea air, I wish you would write me all about him ; 
how he has been and how he appears. I hope he is not 
going to break down." In reply to this Prof. Ridgway 
wrote : 

Smithsonian Institution, April 16, 1887. 
Dear Mr, Boardman: 

Since the receipt of yours of the 4th inst, I have been so busy 
with my new book (Manual of North American Birds), endeavor- 
ing to hasten its completion by the commencement of the collecting 
season, besides my otlier necessary occupations, that I iiave been 
obliged to defer an answer until today. 

I am very happy to tell you that Professor Baird's health 
seems much better, as he not only goes about more but tak( s his 
former interest iu various matters and appears altogether more 
cheerful than he did a few months ago. At one time he seemed 
to be very much discouraged and all his friends felt very appre- 
hensive, but I sincerely trust that the worst is over now, and that 
he will be spared to us for many years yet. His loss would be an 
irreparable one to his friends, for no one could replace liim. He 
is going to the Adirondacks about the first of June and the 
change, as well as freedom from the many cares, responsibilities 
and annoyances which beset him here, will no doubt do much to 
restore him to good health. 

There is nothing specially new here, birds coming iu fre- 
quently, but rarely anything of particular interest. We have had 
no very large collections since the Albatross collection came 
in. It will probably interest you to know that we have three 
additional specimens of Wurdemann's Heron, and I have exam- 
ined five more — eight altogether, iu addition to the type. They 
all came from the Keys near Cape Sable, where they were breed- 
ing in December. 



88 THE NATURAIvIST OF THE ST. CROIX 

Dr. Stejneger, who is busy as ever, working chiefly ou his 
review of Japanese birds, sends kind regards, as does also 
Yours truly, 

Egbert Ridgwat. 

Writing to Prof. Ridgway on December 13, 1887, 
Mr. Boardman says: " I have not written you for a 
long time, not since the death of our dear friend, the 
professor. Mrs. Baird has written me all the particulars 
of his sickness and death. Since then I have seen sev- 
eral notices and accounts of him, one I think by you at 
the meeting of the American Ornithological Union. If 
you have any papers or any duplicates of any memorials 
of him I would be glad to get them." In the same letter 
Mr. Boardman adds : " Our plans were to go to Char- 
lotte Harbor, Florida, this winter, but Mrs. Boardman 
is hardly well enough to go. We may take a run to 
Washington after a while." 

The "run to Washington" was made in the spring of 
1888, Mr. and Mrs. Boardman having left Calais on 
March 8 and arrived in Washington March 11, where 
they remained nearly a month. They made the usual 
calls at Mrs. Baird's ; Mr. Boardman was much at the 
Smithsonian where he met Mr. Hornaday, Prof. Goode 
and others and spent the time much as of old, although 
the entries in his diary are brief and show a want of 
interest. "Our dear old friend Prof. Baird," as he 
always called him in his letters of this period to his 
scientific friends, had gone and Washington and the 
Smithsonian were not the same places they had been to 
Mr. Boardman for nearly thirty years. Reaching Calais 
from this visit on April 17, the remainder of the year 
was spent at home. 



CLOSING YEARS 89 

After this it was not as a naturalist studying southern 
bird-life and making collections that Mr. Boardman 
visited Florida. He had now spent twelve winters in 
that State and knew its birds, its animals, its flowers 
and its people. He enjoyed its winter climate. He had 
made many friends at all the places where he had col- 
lected, but there was now little for him to learn of its 
flora or its fauna. Still, as he grew older and with the 
approach of the cold weather of our northern winter he 
liked to get away from the rigorous climate of the north 
into that of birds and flowers. So he went south, not 
with the same object as in former years, but as a gentle- 
man of leisure to visit scenes that had been those of 
pleasure to him in earlier years and to meet friends of 
long standing. 

In 1889 Mr. and Mrs. Boardman left for Florida on 
January 15 and spent the winter at Jacksonville, Punta 
Gorda, St. James City, Winter Park, Lake Charm, 
Palatka and St. Augustine. Leaving Florida the first 
of April they went directly west, arriving at Minneapolis 
April 13. Writing to Prof. Ridgway from that place on 
June 3, Mr. Boardman says : 

A few weeks ago I saw a very queer swan here and I think a 
trumpeter. It was shot up at Dakota. The feet were not the 
least webbed and there had never been the least sign of toes. It 
was mouQted here by an old taxidermist who would be glad to 
sell it cheap. It looks queer with its long crane-like toes without 
webs. If you would care for it, write me and I will get it for you. 
I like the spring in this country ; I see so many birds and they are 
so different from those we see in Maine. The woods about the 
city are full of scarlet tanagers, orioles, rose-breasted grosbeaks, 
redheaded woodpeckers, etc. After I arrived here there were a 
good many Evening grosbeaks and Bohemian chatterers but all 



90 THE NATURALIST OF THE ST. CROIX 

left about the last of April although some of them were here 
until May 10. I don't see much that is new but go out shooting a 
few days every week. 

His diary for the year gives a list of more than one 
hundred persons with whom Mr. Boardman had cor- 
responded during the year. 

In the early winter of 1890 Mr. and Mrs. Boardman 
left for the south and without stopping at Washington 
reached Jacksonville January 27. On their return early 
in April they spent four days in "Washington where visits 
were made at Mrs. Baird's and calls upon members of the 
Maine Congressional delegation. Mr. Boardman spent 
two days at the museum and botanic garden and on 
April 12, Mrs. Boardman attended the reception of Mrs. 
President Harrison. They reached home on April 26 
and in July of that year Dr. Henry Foster and wife of 
Clifton Springs, N. Y., whose acquaintance they had 
made in Florida, visited them for a week. On January 
5, 1891, the Boardmans left for the south, arriving at Jack- 
sonville on the tenth of that month. Their friends, the 
Fosters, were with them for several weeks and the winter 
though pleasant was uneventful. Mr, Boardman's diary 
contains no records of interest upon natural history for 
the entire winter. On April 16 they left for the north, 
spending but a single day in Washington and reaching 
home on April 23. This was the last of the many happy 
winters which the Boardmans passed in the south. 
Going there first in 1868 they had spent the whole or parts 
of seventeen winters in Florida during which time Mr. 
Boardman had become as familiar with its flora and its 
fauna as he was with that of his own St. Croix Valley. 
There was nothing more for him to learn, nothing new 



CLOSING YEARS 91 

to see and this ended his long series of visits to the land 
of birds and flowers. 

In the fall of 1891, Mr. and Mrs. Boardman spent several 
months at the Clifton Springs, N, Y., sanatorium, reach- 
ing there September 15 and remaining until December 
2. For some time Mr. Boardman had suffered from an 
affection of the throat and nose which proved to be 
caused by polypi and he went to Dr. Foster's sanatorium 
for treatment. They were removed on September 30 and 
31 and on the following day Mr. Boardman "went to 
walk and wrote letters. " On October 3, he records : ' ' Saw 
plovers and cow buntings' ' — which is almost the only 
entry about birds in the diary for that year. December 
23, Mr. Boardman received a telegram informing him of 
the death of Mrs. Baird. The diary for this year records 
the names of one hundred and sixty-four persons with 
whom Mr. Boardman had corresponded, among them 
those of his old scientific friends : Henry Osborn of 
London, Eng., George N. Lawrence, C. Hart Merriam, 
E. Coues, F. M. Chapman, Everett Smith, Robert Ridg- 
way, N. Clifford Brown, J. R. Krider, J. A. Allen, O. S. 
Bickmore, William Dutcher, Prof. T. H. Bean and many 
others. 

The spring of 1892 was spent by Mr. and Mrs. Board- 
man at Clifton Springs, N. Y., and in the west — the 
months of May and June in Minneapolis with their chil- 
dren. The spring in the west had been very cold and Mr. 
Boardman records : " May 7 — Martins almost frozen; 
May 20 — Humming birds on the snow." On June 9 
and 10 he attended the National convention at which 
Harrison was nominated for the Presidency. Calais 
was reached on July 7 and the remainder of that year 



92 THK NATURALIST OF THE ST. CROIX 

was spent at home. On August 9, writing to Prof. Ridg- 
way Mr. Boardman says: "We have just returned 
from the west. Did not go south last winter as Mrs. 
Boardman was not well enough to take the trip. I had 
a good letter from Mr. Goode in the spring. Should be 
pleased to hear from you sometime. Has Capt. Bendire's 
egg book been printed yet ? Have you had many new 
things of bird kind lately ? Do you know if Miss Lucy 
Baird sold her house after the death of her mother ? ' ' 

The year 1893 was quiet and uneventful. Mrs. Board- 
man was not in good health and the year was spent at 
home. October 6, Mr. Boardman wrote to Prof. Ridg- 
way : "I send the sandpiper bird by to-night's express 
and think it will not be much of a nondescript to you 
when you see it, but I cannot make it out to my satis- 
faction." 

Mrs. Boardman's health which had not been good 
throughout the previous year failed rapidly during the 
early months of the year 1894. Mr. Boardman had him- 
self been ill from a severe kidney trouble and during the 
last days of February little is recorded in his diary but 
that of his own and Mrs. Boardman's illness. The fol- 
lowing brief records teU the sad story : ' ' February 24 — 
Sick with bladder trouble. February 25 — Very poorly 
with bladder trouble. February 26 — Charles came from 
Fredericton ; sick, February 27 — Quite sick. March 
1 — Sick. March 2 — Sick. March 3 — Sick. March 4 
— My dear wife died this morning and I so sick could 
not see her or be with her. March 5 — Very fine day ; 
I very sick, March 6 — Very fine day; my dear wife 
buried this afternoon and I could not see her. March 
7— Sick." 



CLOSING YEARS 93 

Then there are many blank pages in the diary. For 
the long period of forty-one years it had been kept regu- 
larly and uninterruptedly and with only a single day's 
blank previous to this. Here was the second and for 
twenty days there are no entries. The long and happy 
married life had been broken and his beloved wife, com- 
panion, helpmate and counselor for fifty-one years had 
left him and he was sick. No wonder there were days 
when no record could be made and when life itself seemed 
a blank. On March 24, Mr. Boardman'sson, William B., 
reached Calais from the west and on March 28 his son 
Charles " took him down stairs to unlock the safe." 
William left for Minneapolis on March 30 and on April 
7, Mr. Boardman's daughter, Mrs. Taylor and her hus- 
band, left for the west. On April 8, Mr. Boardman ' ' went 
down stairs to dinner for the first time" since his illness. 
After this friends called to see him, he was soon able to ride 
out, the entries of daily events were resumed in the diary 
and life went on much in the old way, as life must go on, 
how great soever the losses and sorrows which it brings. 
One record in this year, that of July 15, is pathetic and 
touching: "Went to ride up to Maguerrewock and 
called at Bragg's." It was the scene of his old shooting 
and collecting days, where he always went two or three 
times a week and where he took his naturalist and sport- 
ing friends and he wanted to see it again. No other 
record for the year tells so much or is so full of sugges- 
tion. It is, indeed, almost the summing up of Mr. Board- 
man's life as a lover of out door life and sports, of his 
love for birds and nature study. 

The years which followed were happy and quiet. Not 
the old happiness nor the quiet of the earlier years when 



94 THE NATURALIST OF THE ST. CROIX 

the time was spent in scientific study — but they were 
very pleasant years. He wrote less letters to friends 
than in the active years — their number had grown 
smaller — but wrote much for the local newspapers and 
spent a great deal of time in reading. The following 
appeared in Forest and Stream on March 4, 1899 : 

Mr. Charles Hallock calls our attention to an interesting 
personal item in the Calais (Maine) Times, recording that " George 
A. Boardman, Esq., celebrated liis eighty-first birthday at his 
home on Lafayette street, Sunday, February 5. Callers tendered 
their most hearty congratulations and all expressed the wish that 
they might call upon him next year and find him enjoying good 
health and his usual cheerfulness." That which gives point to the 
paragraph is tlie fact, noted by Mr. Hallock, that Mr. Boardman 
was the second name on the list of subscribers among the patrons 
of Forest and Stream when it was begun in August, 1873. The 
first subscriber was Gov. Horatio Seymour; and Mr. Boardman 
therefore enjoys the unique distinction of being the nestor of 
Forest and Stream readers — and he may defend his claim to the 
record even against those correspondents who occasionally aver 
(either through lapse of memory or by fisherman's license) that 
they have been reading the paper for thirty or forty years. Mr. 
Boardman has been a frequent contributor to our columns and we 
print today some notes from his pen on the queer way of bears. 

A letter of about this date written by Mr. Boardman 
to Mr. Charles Hallock, founder and first editor of Forest 
and Stream, is one of interest : 

Calais, Maine, Feb. 12, 1899. 
My Dear Mr. Hallock : 

Your kind letter just received. Very glad you and Mrs. Hallock 
are so well and enjoying yourselves at the south. I often see your 
name in the Forest and Stream as I have read about every paper 
since you started it. When you wrote me about starting it, I told 
you to put me down as the first subscriber, and I believe you said I 




GEORGE A. BOARDMAN 

At Eigiity-oue'years of Age 



CIvOSING YEARS 95 

was the second. I used to enjoy the south, and California in win- 
ter where I spent twenty winters, but five years ago this winter, I 
lost my wife and since I have remained at home in winter, my 
daughter who lived in Minneapolis, Mrs. Taylor, broke up house- 
keeping there, and has been with me ever since. Out of eleven 
children, she was the only daughter, the other ten were boys. I 
am, and have been very well, and last Sunday was my eightj^-first 
birthday and according to the natural run of things I cannot 
expect to last very long. I begin to be quite a domestic man and 
like home life and to be with my family and friends, and it is one 
of my delights to gather the friends of my early days about me 
and discuss with them the happy events of by-gone days. My 
memory is good and faculties so keen that I can look over the 
picture of a long life like a panorama and live it over many times 
in a mental sense, and it pleases me to hear you expect you may 
come down east again next season, when I hope to see you and 
show you my museum of our local birds, etc., etc. 

I have for several years every week or two, been writing a 
paper for our local papers, sometimes for the St. Croix Courier 
and then for the Calais Times. The last one has just come in 
which I will send you : About Growing Old. 

My daughter says I have some photographs and will be glad 
to change with you. If they look too young, I will have some 
new ones taken. 

I think the last time I saw you and Mrs. Hallock was at the 
Smithsonian some time before our friend Prof. Baird died. I miss 
him very much and since, when I have been in Washington, made 
but a short stop. With manj' thanks for your kind letter and best 
regards to you and Mrs. Hallock, 

Sincerely yours, 

G. A. BOARDMAN. 

Two brief notes which Mr. Boardman wrote for Forest 
and Stream, the first dated March 10, 1900 and the 
second, May 12 of the same year are here given : 

I was pained to hear of the death of Mr. Risteen, and then 
so soon afterward of the death of Mr. Mather. I have known them 



96 THE NATURALIST OF THE ST. CROIX 

both ever since they began to write such interesting articles for 
the papers. They have solved the great problem which we are all 
approaching, but leave pleasant memories behind and those who 
knew them will say their farewells with a deep sense of personal 
loss. 

I see my subscription runs out the 18th. I enclose order 
for renewal. It is a magazine-paper of editorial genius and col- 
lects critically and appetizingly the things sportsmen, naturalists 
and ornithologists most want to know — a storehouse of good 
reading, nice pictures and bright bits of news. I have read every 
number from the first and will be a life subscriber. But I am 
getting old now — in ray eighty-third year — and am journeying 
into the shadow; the roar of the ultimate river is daily growing 
more distinct in my ears. 

The most important event of the year 1900 was the 
negotiations between Mr. Boardman and officials of the 
New Brunswick government for the transfer of Mr. Board- 
man's ornithological collection to that government. In 
May and also in July of that year Messrs. Todd, Tweedie, 
and Dunn visited Calais for that purpose and during the 
month of July an account of the birds and a catalogue of 
the eggs and nests in the museum were made. During 
the year Mr. Boardman spent much time in the museum 
and it was visited by more people than ever before in a 
single year. Its interest and value had become better 
known and among the visitors were scientific men from 
abroad, children from the schools and college students. 
Many articles were written that year by Mr. Boardman 
for the Calais and St. Stephen newspapers and on Novem- 
ber 6 he records in his diary : " Voted for McKinley." 
On December 5 the diary says: " Mr. Dunn, Mr. Hill 
and Mr. Todd closed trade for my collection, payment to 
be made in one, two and three years, with interest." 




o 






z 
< 

Q 
-^ 

o 



CLOSING YEARS 97 

Monday, December 10, Mr. Boardman records: "I 
called Dr. Black; no appetite and don't sleep well 
nights." Dr Black called to see Mr. Boardman nearly 
every day during the remainder of the month and on 
December 31 he records: "Had lots of callers; Dr. 
Black called here twice." 

But three entries appear in Mr. Boardman's diary for 
the year 1901. They are : " January 1 — Clear and fine; 
ther. 33 ; fine winter day ; Dr. Black here ; I had a bad 
day. January 2 — Clear and cold; good many callers. 
January 3 — Ther. 5 below zero ; windy and a cold night." 
This was the last. The diary that had been kept daily 
with hardly an interruption for nearly forty-nine years 
had received its closing memoranda. Mr. Boardman 
died at 12.40 o'clock, Friday morning, January 11, 1901. 

The funeral services were held from Mr. Boardman's 
late residence, No. 5 lyafayette street, Calais. They 
were attended by Rev. Dr. Charles G. McCully and Rev. 
Thomas D. McLean and the burial was in Rural Cem- 
etery, St. Stephen, N. B. Four nephews of Mr. Board- 
man acted as pall-bearers, viz. : William F. Boardman, 
Henry B. Eaton, William F. Todd and Charles E. Board- 
man. 



CHAPTER VI 



THE BOARDMAN COLIiECTION 



THE final disposition of his natural history collections 
must have been a subject of much thought during 
the latter years of Mr. Boardman's life. It had been 
built up during many years of constant and loving effort 
and at great cost, while it had reached such proportions 
that it was one of the largest private collections of 
ornithology in the United States, embracing not only the 
birds of all parts of our own country but many of those of 
the West Indies, of South America, of Alaska, of Europe 
and of the more arctic regions of Greenland, Lapland 
and Russia. Most of the individual specimens had been 
obtained by himself and skinned and mounted by his own 
hands, or by exchange with the most eminent naturalists. 
He knew the particular history of each one. In his 
exchanges with scientific friends in this country and 
abroad he had obtained many rare specimens and was 
familiar with every bird, nest and egg in the collection. 
His love for it was great and each specimen and object 
had a dear and warm place in his heart. It can readily 
be understood, therefore, that its ultimate resting place 
was a matter about which Mr. Boardman had given 



VI CI IWLST !^ll 



I.: f 








'^•-^mWMll \t ft m 




iMMMMWeMMiittiMM 




rvif ri/ 



:^T, 



THE BOARDMAN COLLECTION 99 

careful thought. He wanted it preserved in its entirety 
and kept in some place where it would serve the cause of 
science and be readily accessible to students of natural 
history. Hence the idea of its disposition excepting as a 
whole and to be in the custody of some public institution 
could not for a moment be thought of. It had been men- 
tioned in some of the public journals that it was to go to 
Bowdoin College, where three of his sons had grad- 
uated and an institution which he loved. It is believed, 
however, that his first plan was for it to be kept in 
Calais. To be sure Calais was but a small city and was 
in no sense an educational or scientific centre ; but its 
people were intelligent, many were wealthy and all held 
Mr. Boardman in the highest esteem. The town had long 
been his home, he had been successful in business there 
and it was in the St. Croix valley where the larger part 
of the collection had been made. Next to Calais, Mr. 
Boardman no doubt hoped that it might go to some 
institution in the Province of New Brunswick. 

During the summer of 1882, while Mr. Boardman was 
in Minneapolis, an effort was made by the Portland 
Society of Natural History to obtain his collection as it 
had come to the knowledge of the society that Mr. Board- 
man might make his future home in the west. On April 
14, 1882, Mr. N. Clifford Brown, curator of ornithology 
of that society addressed a letter to Mr. Boardman say- 
ing : 

Our Society has recently learned of your intended removal 
from Calais and the consequent probability that your well-linown 
superb collection of ]\l;vine birds may be obtained by purchase. 
I hardly need say that we would greatly like to see this collection 
in our own cabinets. You will doubtless agree that no more 



100 THE NATURALIST OF THE ST. CROIX 

suitable resting-place for it could be found. Being the largest if 
not the only incorporated society in the state, the Portland 
Society of Natural History feels a peculiar interest in so fine a 
representative collection as your own of Maine zoology. 

I am instructed by our president to inquire whether we may 
hope to secure this collection, provided that the price at which 
you value it is not beyond our means ; also, if it is indeed to 
be sold, to request you to state the amount you wish to receive 
for it. 

Several letters from Mr. Brown have been found 
among Mr. Boardman's MSS., but no formal action was 
ever taken by the Portland society for the purchase of 
the collection so far as appears from papers that have 
been accessible. 

In the year 1893, when plans for the erection of the 
public library building in Calais were being considered, 
Mr. Boardman made a free tender of his entire collection 
to the trustees of the library in behalf of the city, if they 
would make the building sufficiently large — by the 
addition of a second story where a hall could be provided 
for the housing of the collection, or by some other 
enlargement which would give it sufficient accommoda- 
tion. The answer of the trustees was that they had 
their plans, contracts and money for the erection of the 
building so arranged that they could not well make the 
necessary changes which would be needed for the suit- 
able display of the collection ; they did not know where 
to obtain the additional funds that would be required to 
erect the larger building and so the proffered offer was 
not accepted. About this time it was more than half 
intimated that one of the wealthy residents of Calais or 
St. Stephen had it in mind to erect a handsome build- 
ing in the public park of Calais, which is opposite Mr. 




INTERIOR OF THE MUSEUM, CALAIS 



THE BOARDMAN COLLECTION 101 

Boardman's residence, for the purpose of housing his 
collection, but such a plan was never made effective. 

While at the time this offer was made to the city 
thrQugh the library trustees, Mr. Boardman was much 
disappointed, if, indeed, he was not displeased, at its 
rejection — the gift was one of so marked a character 
and was so generous — he was afterward glad that it had 
not been accepted. This was because he realized the 
city could not afford to employ a proper person to take 
charge of the collection. In such want of care he fore- 
saw that the collection might suffer from neglect, that 
the most valuable specimens might disappear and that 
in consequence the collection would lose its value and 
be of little use to science. 

It was at this juncture that preliminary steps were 
taken toward transferring the collection to the Provincial 
Government of New Brunswick. It had been under- 
stood that next to the city of Calais possessing it Mr. 
Boardman had himself expressed a wish that it might 
finally go to New Brunswick. The collection repre- 
sented the fauna of the St. Croix valley, which was as 
distinctively Canadian as it was American ; it had been 
largely made up of specimens from the territory on both 
sides of the St. Croix river and the natural home of the 
collection should clearly be in the vicinity of the place 
where it was made. Hon. William F. Todd and Hon. 
George F. Hill, both of St. Stephen, N. B., and both 
members of the Provincial Parliament were interested in 
having the collection retained in New Brunswick and 
their efforts had much to do in influencing the govern- 
ment to its purchase. 

Speaking of the transfer of the Boardman collection to 



102 THE NATURALIST OF THE ST. CROIX 

the New Brunswick government The Calais Times of 
December 27, 1900, said : " It is a great acquisition to 
the government crown land office. New Brunswick's 
gain is an irremediable loss to Maine. A source of keen 
regret is the fact that Mr. Boardman once offered this 
priceless collection as a gift to the city of Calais on con- 
ditions that could have been met with ease ; but his 
offer was not accepted. It is too late now and the 
poignancy of the irreparable loss will long linger in the 
minds of all intelligent people who dwell in the towns 
on the Maine side of the St. Croix." 

From Mr. Boardman's diary it appears that on May 
30, 1900, the first effort toward making an inventory of 
the contents of the museum with a view to its sale was 
made. On July 4 of the same year the Provincial Pre- 
mier, Hon. L. J. Tweedie and the Surveyor-General, 
Hon. A. T. Dunn of Fredericton, visited Calais and made 
a thorough examination of the entire collection. The 
result of this visit was that Mr. Boardman at once com- 
menced to take an account of the specimens in the museum 
which work occupied him until July 31, while various 
entries in the diary between those dates tell of the prog- 
ress of the work. Finally, on December 8, 1900, the 
sale of the entire collection was made in accordance with 
the following indenture : 

Memorandum of Agreement, made this Eighth day of Decem- 
ber, A. D. 1900, between George A. Boardman of Calais, in the 
State of Maine, one of tlie United States of America, Gentle- 
man, of the first part, and Her Majesty the Queen, represented 
herein by the Honourable Albert T. Dunn, Surveyor General, of 
the second part ; — 

Witnesseth, First : — That the said George A. Boardman here- 
by sells to Her Majesty the whole collection of birds, eggs, 



THE BOARDMAN COLLECTION 103 

heads of animals, horus, &c., all as contained in tlie buildinj^- in 
Calais, used for the said collection and specified and described in 

a list furnished to the said surveyor-general, for the sum of 

, said amount to be i)aid, as hereinafter provided for. 

Second : — Her Majesty liereby agrees to pay to the said 

George A. Boardman, for the said collection, the said sum of 

in three equal payments in the manner and at the times 

following, viz : the first one-tliird portion thereof immediately 
after the close of the next ensuing session of the Legislative 
Assembly of New Brunswick, the second one-third portion tlaere- 
of immediately after the close of the Legislative Assembly to be 
held in the Year of our Lord, one thousand nine hundred and 
two, and the last one-third portion of said payment immediately 
after the close of the JjCgislative Assembly which will be held in 
the Year of our Lord one thousand nine hundred and three, the 
last two payments to bear interest at the rate of five per cent, per 
annum, from the time of delivery of the said collection to the 
said surveyor-general, or his agent. 

Third : — It is hereby understood and agreed that the said 
surveyor-general, on behalf of Her Majesty, may take delivery of 
the said collection immediately after the execution of these pi-es- 
ents, or at such time as may be most convenient to him. 

It is also understood that if the surveyor-general so desires, 
payments may be made at any time before the times above pro- 
vided for. 

In witness whereof the said party hereto of the first part and 
the said surveyoi'-general, on behalf of Her Majesty, have hereunto 
set their hands and seals the day and year first above written. 

Signed, Sealed and Delivered 1 (gigged) Geo. A. Boardman. 
in presence of | v o ^ 

(Signed) A. T. Dunn, 
(Signed) Wm. F. Todd. Surveyor General. 

Witness to signature of 
A. T. Dunn, 
(Signed) W. P. Flewelling. 

From the above indenture has been omitted the sum 
paid by the government of New Brunswick for the col- 
lection. But it may be mentioned that the same was 



104 THE NATURALIST OF THE ST. CROIX 

appraised by expert scientists as to its commercial cash 
value and in accordance with Mr. Boardman's own wish 
one half the amount was discounted by which he gave 
the Province several thousand dollars. 

At the time this document was drawn and signed Mr. 
Boardman was not at all well. From that date he was 
almost daily visited by his regular physician, Dr. W. T. 
Black and frequent entries in the diary made the record : 
"Had a bad day;" "had a bad night — did not sleep 
well," etc. By the terms of the sale the collection was 
liable to be immediately removed, but as Mr. Boardman 
rapidly grew worse, Mr. Todd, who was the agent of the 
Provincial government in charge of its transportation, 
wisely postponed doing so. It was very satisfactory and 
comforting to Mr. Boardman to know that his loved col- 
lection was not to be removed during his life and that 
finally it was to go to a government which would house 
it in a splendid manner, that it was to have appropriate 
care and always be open to the public and to the free 
use of scientific students. 

The preliminary contract for the transfer of the col- 
lection, dated December 8, 1900, was ratified by the Pro- 
vincial Parliament by an act passed April 3, 1901. This 
act is Chapter XX of First Edward VII, and is as follows : 
An Act relating to the Boardman Collection of Birds and Animals. 

Sec. Sec. 

1. Preamble setting out contract. Gov- 2. Duplicates may be placed in Im- 
emor in Council authorized to perial Institute in London ; pro- 
make payments as provided by vision for preserving collection, 
contract out of current revenues. Passed 3d April, 1901. 

Whereas by memorandum of agreement made on the eighth 
day of December, A. D. 1900, between George A. Boardman of 
Calais, in the State of Maine, of the first part, and Her Majesty 
the Queen, represented therein by the Honorable the Surveyor- 
General, of the second part, it was witnessed that the said 




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THE BOARDMAN COLI.ECTION 105 

George A. Boardman thereby sold to Her Majesty the whole 
collection of birds, eggs, heads of animals, horns, etc., all as 
contained in the building in Calais, used for the said collection, 
and specified and described in a list furnished to the said Surveyor- 
General, for the sura of , which amount was to be 

paid as follows, namely : a first one-third portion thereof imme- 
diately after the close of the present Session of the Legislative 
Assembly of the Province, the second one-third portion thereof 
immediately after the close of the Legislative Assembly to be held 
in the year of our Lord, one thousand nine hundred and two, and 
the last one-third portion of said payment immediately after the 
close of the Legislative Assembly which will be held in the year 
of our Lord one thousand nine hundred and three ; the said last 
two payments to bear interest at the rate of five per cent, per 
annum from the time of delivery of the said collection to the said 
Surveyor-General, or his agent; and it is desirable to make pi'o- 
vision for the payment of the said amounts, and also to make 
other provisions as hereinafter enacted ; 

Be it therefore enacted by the Lieutenant-Governor and Legisla- 
tive Assembly as follows : — 

1. The Lieutenant-Governor in Council is hereby authorized 
to pay the said amounts in the manner and at the times specified in 
the said agreement, the same to be paid out of the current 
revenues of the Province. 

2. The Lieutenant-Governor in Council is hereby authorized 
to place such portion of the said collection, being duplicates, as 
he may deem advisable, in the Imperial Institute in Loudon, and 
also to make necessary provision for the placing and keeping of 
the remainder of said collection within the Province, and for that 
purpose may expend a sum not exceeding fifteen hundred dollars, 
for the erection and equipment of a suitable building, or the 
equipment of a suitable room therefor ; the cost of such building 
to be paid out of the current revenues of the Province. 

Soon after the death of Mr. Boardman the collection 
was packed and shipped to Fredericton, N. B., under 
direction of Hon. William F. Todd of the Provincial 



106 THE NATURALIST OF THE ST. CROIX 

Parliament. It was comprised in seventy-four boxes 
which included the birds, nests, and eggs, together with 
the animals, skulls, heads, horns, corals, casts of fishes 
and other natural history specimens which made up the 
collection. The collection is now installed in the old 
supreme court room of the Parliament House at Fred- 
ericton, N. B. This room is twenty-eight by thirty-three 
feet and is rather imperfectly lighted. The cases, which 
are quite tall, so obstruct the light that it is impossible 
to obtain a satisfactory view of the interior, but the 
accomiDanjang plan will give a good idea of the arrange- 
ment of the room while the plate shows the beautiful 
Government House in which the collection is deposited. 
There are seven large cases in the room, each of which 
has several shelves, together with two octagon cases 
which are placed around pillars which support the ceiling. 
Against the wall opposite from the entrance to the room 
out of the main hall is the original case — marked A — 
which was in Mr. Boardman's Milltown, N. B., residence 
and in his Calais museum, while over it upon the wall in 
large letters is a tablet reading : The Boardman Collec- 
tion. This original case has in it from 140 to 150 species 
of song birds. Around the walls of the room are eleven 
cases, in an inclined position, for the nests and eggs, 
while upon the walls in various places are disposed the 
casts and paintings of fish, with heads and horns of 
animals. There is a fine pair of elk horns from Oregon 
and a pair of moose horns from Maine, the latter of 
which spread fifty-six inches, with eighteen points on 
each horn, having very wide palmations. It is one of the 
most elegant pairs of moose horns ever taken in this 
State. The mounted warblers are in the centre octagon 



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THE BOARDMAN COIvI.ECTlON 107 

cases ; there are three cases of water birds, with four 
smaller cases, not shown in the plan, the latter just as 
taken from Mr. Boardman's museum. The mounted 
birds, skins, animals, eggs, nests and other specimens all 
have attached to them the original labels written and 
numbered b)^ Mr. Boardman, 

As installed in its present home the collection was 
arranged by Mr. John F. Rogers who was for a number 
of years principal of the model school in connection with 
the Provincial Normal School at Fredericton. He was 
fond of natural history and had made quite a study of the 
habits of birds and animals and his work in setting up 
the collection was very satisfactory. It will be of interest 
to the friends of science to know that under section two 
of Act XX of First Edward VII, it is the design of the 
Provincial Government to erect a special building for 
the housing of the Boardman collection. It is under the 
custody of the Hon. W. P. Flewelling, Deputy Surveyor 
General, Crown I^ands Department, Province of New 
Brunswick. 

The following account of the collection, from the pen 
of Mr. Charles Hallock, appeared in Forest and Stream 
for February 2, 1901 : 

Henceforth the unique and valuable museum collection of the 
late George A. Boardman who passed away so recently at his 
quiet home in Calais, Me., will be located and housed at Frederic- 
ton, N. B., in one of the best Government buildings, where it will 
occupy a conspicuous place and receive the care and attention 
which it deserves. The Hon. Wm. F. Todd, a member of the Pro- 
vincial Government, who is a nephew of Mr. Boardman, has 
charge of the removal and installation of the collection. Indeed, 
he was about to ship it when Mr. Boardman was taken ill, but 
considerately postponed doing so, and consequently the ingather- 
ing of this eminent naturalist remained with him to the last, much 



108 THE NATURALIST OF THE ST. CROIX 

to his heart's comfort and content, for the momentary parting 
with it at such a juncture would have been like speaking a final 
farewell to his dearest and most intimate companions and friends. 

What a happy relief it must have been to his mind to have this 
collection so opportunely and desirably disposed of. Not less will 
his New Brunswick friends delight to do him honor. My own 
choice would have selected Fredericton next to Calais as his 
beneficiary. And Canadians are warm hearted, honest, faithful 
and unpretentious people, as I have always found them. Almost 
every week I receive epistolary testimony from some of them to 
this eftect. 

Perhaps it is better that Calais did not receive the gift. Years 
ago Mr. Boardman gave me his confidence, to a certain extent, as 
to the want of appreciation of his home people (" a prophet is not 
without honor except in his own country"), the municipality 
declining his repeated overtures, first, on the plea that the city 
had no suitable building for the collection, and afterwards declin- 
ing to erect one. And it serves the corporation right to be left 
out, though the body of the town's people will sympathize with 
us all in the regret that the home site and the center of his life 
work could not have been selected and appropriated for this dis- 
tinguished monument of his labors. It is a grand donation ! It 
repi'esents so much, not only of the local fauna of that interesting 
region, but so much persevering study, devotion and effort of 
pursuit. 

I have not been able to obtain a classified memorandum of the 
G. A. Boardman collection, but I have been told by the proprietor 
that there were more than 3,000 birds and perhaps half that number 
of mammals and miscellaneous subjects, including many marine 
curiosities. The world of science cannot well spare such con- 
tributors as George A. Boardman and Geoi'ge N. Lawrence ; both 
of them gone within a decade. 

The city of Fredericton, the home of the Boardman 
collection, is the capital of New Brunswick and is 
situated on a beautiful intervale on the west side of the 
St. John river, about eighty miles from its mouth, and 




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THE BOARDMAN COLLECTION 109 

twenty-two miles by rail from Fredericton Junction on 
the Canadian Pacific Railroad. Its population is some- 
thing over 7,000, and its public buildings include the 
Parliament House and public offices of the Provincial 
government ; eight churches ; an Episcopal cathedral ; 
a normal school for the training of teachers ; the Vic- 
toria Hospital ; city hall, and the University of New 
Brunswick. In the assembly chamber of the Parliament 
House are many historic portraits including those of 
George III. and of his amiable consort, Queen Charlotte, 
painted by Sir Joshua Reynolds, with those of Lord 
Sheffield and of Lord Glenelg. The Legislative Library 
embraces 14,000 volumes, one of the most highlj^ prized 
works which it contains being one of the original folio 
sets of Audubon's Birds of America which formerly 
belonged to King Louis Philippe of France, father of the 
Duke of Orleans, now valued at $15,000. As Mr. Board- 
man often visited Fredericton it is likely he knew of its 
possession by the Legislative Library and wanted his 
own birds to have a home with that magnificent work of 
Audubon's. It is certainly a happy coincidence that the 
two are housed in the same fine building and it would 
have been a dear satisfaction to Mr. Boardman had he 
known his collection was to have the company of Audu- 
bon's splendid work. 



CHAPTER VII 



SOME SCIENTinC RESULTS 



THE ornithological museum created by Mr. Boardman 
will always remain the great triumph of his life as a 
naturalist. It is indeed a sufl5cient monument to the 
exactness of his knowledge in that branch of science to 
which he was devoted, to his love for natural history, to 
his application and industry in its study throughout a 
long period. Other men devoted to science have left 
worthy memorials of their life-work in other ways — 
voluminous treatises, exact and learned monographs, 
published works which have ranked as authoritative in 
the great libraries of the world. It is Mr. Boardman's 
monument to have left to science one of the largest and 
most interesting collections in ornithology and natural 
history ever gathered by a private individual in this 
country, representing a life-time of active study and pre- 
serving to students of ornithology a collection showing 
the almost complete fauna of eastern North America. 
While this is indeed abundant fame for one individual 
much can be said for Mr. Boardman's contributions to 
the literature of ornithology and general natural history. 
It may be mentioned at the outset of such summary of 
results that Mr. Boardman was not in earlier life much 



SOME SCIENTIFIC RESULTS 111 

given to literary composition. He was so intensely 
engrossed in business and, after business cares had been 
largely given over to others, was so devoted to travel and 
collecting, making brief notes of his specimens and carry- 
ing on an extensive correspondence with naturalists, 
that he had little time for finished composition, or plac- 
ing in elaborate form the results of his observations and 
studies. It was rather his work to assist others, to study 
points of difference, to note peculiarities in species, to 
suggest lines of inquiry to other workers. When the 
first results of his studies were published through the 
Boston Society of Natural History as early as 1862, it 
was done at the solicitation of Prof. A. E. Verrill who 
edited the list of birds then printed, because, as he says, 
" Mr. Boardman could not attend to it himself." And so 
it was for many years. He was so much engaged in 
collecting and in field study that he had no time for 
extended literary composition. It was only in late life, 
after his ornithological field had been thoroughly 
explored that he found time for writing those delightful 
autobiographical and historical sketches which for two or 
three years appeared regularly in the Calais and St. 
Stephen newspapers. These show what interesting 
chapters he could have written on the fauna of the St. 
Croix, based upon his own collections and field studies, 
had he had the opportunity and set himself about it earlier 
in life. 

Mr. Boardman's habits of observation were very acute 
and his published statements noted for their accuracy and 
correctness. If there was anything which he could not 
tolerate it was a hasty, imperfect or misleading statement 
regarding natural history in any published work. These 



112 THE NATURALIST OF THE ST. CROIX 

gave him untold annoyance. When a certain work on 
the birds of New England and some of the adjacent states 
was published about 1867, after he had examined it he 
laid it down, exclaiming : " Oh ! the errors, the errors ! " 
— and seldom looked at it afterward although some of 
the errors were corrected in subsequent editions. 

One of his favorite literary exercises was the answer- 
ing of puzzling questions in natural history, asked by 
readers of the journals and magazines. In one of the 
earlier volumes of Forest and Stream an inquiry appeared 
from a correspondent wishing to know who that man 
was way down east who settled all the disputed points 
in ornithology — " whether the woodcock whistled with 
his bill or wing ? what was the bird known as fool-par- 
tridge in the west ? why was not the western black duck 
good to eat?" etc. He took delight in answering all 
such questions. It was done in few lines, yet with great 
clearness and his answers were always the final word 
upon the subject. The editor of Forest and Stream, in 
the issue for January 26, 1901, says that one of the last 
letters received from Mr. Boardman, only a short time 
before his death, was written in kindly response to the 
inquiry of a correspondent if he knew of a single authentic 
instance of the taking of the panther in Maine. His reply 
was in the negative and he added : "I have for fifty years 
been looking after the skull of a panther that was killed 
in this part of the state for my museum and have not been 
able to get one." 

The correctness of Mr. Boardman's statements and 
opinions upon subjects about which he was acquainted 
or in which he had made studies may well be illustrated 
by his views regarding the introduction and naturaliza- 
tion of European game birds into Maine. In 1894-1895 



SOME SCIENTIFIC RESULTS 113 

officers of the Maine Game and Protective Association 
were engaged in introducing into the state the Messina 
quail, Coturnix communis, the common migrator}- quail 
of Europe, as well as the Capercailzie or Wood-grouse, 
the largest of the gallinaceous birds of Europe. 

In one of the local newspapers Mr. Boardman had 
questioned the action of the association in inducing the 
State lyegislature to make an appropriation for the 
purpose of introducing these birds, on the ground that it 
would be a waste of effort and funds. To this Mr. 
Edward G. Gay, president of the association, replied in 
a lengthy article in the Phillips Phonograph of February 
27, 1895. The real substance of Mr. Boardman's state- 
ment was simply that the scheme would not be a success, 
the birds would not become naturalized and the matter 
would end in disappointment. Mr. Gay's criticism of 
Mr. Boardman's opinion was in these words : 

The Associatiou has been guided by some of tlie Ijest and most 
noted game bird experts of our own state, all sections of this union 
and of foreign countries, with all of whom I have been in constant 
correspondence. The i^ractical present day experience of these 
men ought certainly to count for as much as the theories of 
naturalists whose knowledge of what they are writing about is 
gleaned wholly from pedantic books of reference. Let me say to 
Mr. Boardman and to your readers that I have not sjient hundreds 
of dollars of my own money and months of ray time, nor have the 
other friends of this beneficent movement also sacrificed money 
and time to promote this object without knowing what we were 
doing and the people of this state will have no reason to regret 
any action the legislature of Maine may take in carrying to a 
successful conclusion the work already so auspiciously begun. 

It is sufficient answer to this criticism that Mr. Board- 
man's opinion was correct. Many of the quail were 



114 THE NATURAUST OF THE ST. CROIX 

liberated near Calais, but good hunters and woodsmen 
say they were never seen after the first or second season. 
Some bred but none were ever seen afterward. The best 
scientific authorities upon this point say : ' ' This quail 
— the Messina — has several times been imported into 
the United States, but has failed thus far to become 
naturalized." 

In the Bulletin of the Nuttall Ornithological Club, 
Volume VI., page 126, January, 1880, in a list of birds 
of Eong Island by De E. Berier, Fort Hamilton, E. I., 
occurs this note : " Falco gyrfalco absoletus ; Eabrador 
gyrfalcon. Mr. J. Wallace of New York informs me that 
a fine specimen of this bird, killed in the fall, two or 
three years ago, on the north shore of Eong Island in 
Queens county, passed through his hands. It is now in 
the collection of Mr. George A. Boardman." Without 
doubt this is the falcon which Mr. Boardman saw a 
hunter bring into the market in New York, when he was 
on one of his visits to that city and referred to in a note 
found among his papers. The note says Mr, Boardman 
bought the bird, had John Wallace skin it and took it 
to Washington with him. When in New York he gen- 
erally went around to the markets to see what he could 
find that was new and always took the rare or unusual 
specimens to Washington for identification. One of 
these was a strange duck which Mr. Boardman purchased 
at a market in New York in 1871, which he had Mr. 
Wallace skin. This was taken to Washington for identi- 
fication and caused something of a puzzle to the Smith- 
sonian experts, by whom it was at first thought to be a 
cross but afterward proved to be the Crested Duck of 
Europe, according to a letter from Prof. Baird dated at 



SOME SCIENTIFIC RESUI.TS 115 

Woods Holl, June 22, 1871. These incidents show how 
accurate Mr. Boardman was in his knowledge and how 
quick he was to detect anything new or to notice the 
slight variations in species which an ordinary sportsman 
would pass unnoticed. 

One of Mr, Boardman's sons tells the following interest- 
ing incident : ' ' Many years ago I was with my father 
and Prof. Baird in the garden at Milltown, N. B., when 
father said : ' I had a black buzzard, professor, the other 
day, killed near here.' Prof Baird replied, ' Oh no, Mr. 
Boardman, you must be mistaken ; they seldom come as 
far north as Washington, It must have been a turkey 
buzzard.' Father replied : ' I know a black buzzard as 
well as I know a crow.' The professor, however, was 
not satisfied. In a few minutes a man drove into the yard 
with a box. I opened it, took out the bird and carried 
it around where they were talking. Father said : ' Pro- 
fessor, what do you call that ? ' He replied, ' a black 
buzzard.' Then father took the bird to his bird house 
and the professor said to me : * I find your father is always 
correct in all our disputes about native birds. When we 
read the manuscript of our book at Peaks Island (Baird, 
Brewer and Ridgway's History of North American 
Birds), your father did not agree with Dr. Brewer in 
many of his statements, so I decided with your father. 
Dr. Brewer has great knowledge of birds and eggs and 
has long been a student in that line, but your father's 
knowledge came from association with the birds and the 
studies of their habits in the woods and his observations 
were correct.' " 

Pioneer field ornithologist in Maine that he was, Mr. 
Boardman made his studies and recorded his observa- 
tions upon the birds of eastern North America before the 



116 THE NATURAIvIST OF THK ST. CROIX 

present school of ornithologists had begun their work and 
all recent writers have been indebted to his results for 
much of their knowledge of Maine birds. He was the 
first to describe many species and found the first nests 
and recorded the nesting habits of man}^ birds then new 
to science. One of these was that of the large Sheldrake ; 
another that of the Canada Jay ; another that of the 
Crossbill ; another that of the American Merganser. 
Winfred A. Stearns, in his New England Bird Eife, 
acknowledges his indebtedness to Mr. Boardman for a 
description of the nest of the Canada Jay, while Mr. 
George Bird Grinnell, in his American Duck Shooting, 
New York, 1901, makes no less than six acknowledg- 
ments to Mr. Boardman for original information and 
prefaces his account of the nesting habits of the American 
Merganser, pages 227-228, by saying : ' ' Definite infor- 
mation as to the breeding habits of the American Mer- 
ganser were first given by Mr. George A. Boardman of 
Calais, Maine, to whom ornithology owes so much." 
The entire account appears in his paper on Tree Nest- 
ing Ducks, in this volume. 

Writing to Mr. Boardman under date of December 2, 
1862, Prof. Baird says : "I had not before known of the 
occurrence of the banded three-toed woodpecker so far 
south. Try and get us a good specimen." This and 
similar statements found in his correspondence show 
how constantly Mr. Boardman was finding out and record- 
ing new things about birds which information he was 
freely giving to the leading naturalists of the country as 
his contribution to science, seldom wishing to be known 
as the first to establish such facts if only science in 
general received the benefit of the same. Many instances 



SOME SCIENTIFIC RESULTS 117 

in the letters of Prof. Baird might be quoted to show the 
esteem in which_Mr. Boardman's acquirements in ornithol- 
ogy were held by that great naturalist. Writing to him 
on November 15, 1865, Prof. Baird says : " We were 
advised of thirty -two boxes of arctic eggs, etc., this fall 
— they will not be here, however, till May or June, not 
getting to St. Paul before winter. In the lot are 1200 
more Ptarmigan eggs ; I think when they come I will 
send for you to help catalogue them. A correspondent 
near I^ake Winnipeg advises of eggs of Franklin's gull, 
crested grebe, red head duck, etc., all new to us." 
Again writing Mr. Boardmau September 26, 1877, Prof. 
Baird says : " The discovery of a Pine Grosbeak on Mt. 
Victor is a curious fact. Can you not arrange to have 
some one go there in the spring after the eggs ?" These 
instances show the confidence placed in Mr. Boardman 
by America's great ornithologist. 

All writers upon New England bird life and generally 
upon the birds of eastern North America have been gen- 
erous in their acknowledgments to Mr. Boardman to 
whom they have been under obligation for many facts 
stated by no previous naturalist. Dr. T. M. Brewer, writ- 
ing of Lagopus albus, the Willow Ptarmigan, in Bulletin 
of the Nuttall Ornithological Club, Vol. II., page 46, 
says the statement he has made "rests on the high 
authority of Mr. G. A. Boardman." Regarding this 
Species Mr. Stearns says in New England Bird Eife, Part 
II., page 145: " Mr. G. A. Boardman assures me that he 
has been unable to satisfy himself that this Ptarmigan 
has ever been known to occur in New England." 

William Dutcher, in his monograph on The Eabrador 
Duck, in The Auk, Vol. VIII., page 201, April, 1891, 



118 THE NATURAUST OF THE ST. CROIX 

makes no less than seven quotations from notes by Mr. 
Boardman, who says the last one of this species he knows 
to have been taken at Grand Manan was shot in April, 
1871. " I sent the skin to John Wallace of New York 
to be mounted for Prof. S. F. Baird of the Smithsonian 
Institution. Not knowing its value, Wallace let some 
one get the skin from him and it was thus lost to the 
Smithsonian as he could not tell who had it." Writing 
to Mr. Dutcher, October 29, 1890, Mr. Boardman says : 

" I began to collect birds about fifty years ago and 
wanted to get a pair of each species — I did not care for 
more. The Labrador Duck I procured without much 
trouble and if I had any duplicates sent to me I did not 
save them any more than I should have saved duplicates 
of Scoters or Old Squaws. I have no doubt I may have 
had others. I had shooters all about the coast of Grand 
Manan and Bay of Fundy sending me anything new or 
odd. Anything they sent me that I already had mounted 
generally went to the manure heap. About twenty years 
since, Messrs. John G. Bell and D. G. Elliot of New 
York wrote to me to try and get them some Labrador 
Ducks. I wrote to all my collectors, but the ducks had 
all gone. It seems very strange that such a bird should 
become extinct as it was a good flier." 

Prof. Ora W. Knight, in his Birds of Maine, published 
in 1897, says: " George A. Boardman of Calais has 
observed and taken two hundred and fifty-seven species 
within Washington county. His list is copiously anno- 
tated and is the result of long years of careful observa- 
tion." 

Baird, Brewer and Ridgway who published their His- 
tory of North American Birds between 1874 and 1884, 



SOME SCIENTIFIC RESUI.TS 119 

refer frequently to the observations of Mr. Boardman and 
quote from information specially furnished by him. Upon 
page after page throughout the five noble volumes of that 
work acknowledgments are given to Mr. Boardman. Mr. 
Charles Hallock, in his Camp L,ife in Florida, gives 
acknowledgment to Mr. Boardman as " that well-known 
student of natural history whose writings have special 
value to the scientist . ' ' Other writers who have benefited 
from his studies and given due credit are Elliott Coues, 
D. H. Minot, Robert Ridgway, Everett Smith, E. A. 
Samuels, Ruthven Deane, N. Clifford Brown, J. A. Allen, 
A. E. Verrill and Charles Hallock, as well as the lesser 
known authors who have written about New England 
birds. 

In volume third of the American Naturalist, page 837 
— September, 1869 — Mr. Boardman has an interesting 
note on the collection and care of birds' eggs. He says : 
In collecting eggs the utmost importance is to be placed 
upon the proper identification of the specimens. To 
every bird's leg attach a label noting sex, date of cap- 
ture and locality. Blow the eggs with a blow-pipe. 
Make but one hole and that on the side. Above the 
hole write the initials of the collector and under it the 
number, also the Baird Smithsonian number. All the 
eggs in one nest should have the same number. Suppose 
I take my first nest, Canada Jay, March 15, with three 
eggs. I mark all three eggs, say No. 5, and keep a 
small note book, properly ruled, in which I record the 
date, name of bird and number of eggs, number of egg 
in Baird list, and remarks, as : "Taken by myself (or as 
the case may be) out of a small spruce, six feet from the 
ground, old bird shot," etc. A printed label with the 



120 THE NATURAIvIST OF THE ST. CROIX 

name of the bird looks very neatly. In the case of small 
birds always preserve the nests as they are often more 
interesting and valuable than the eggs themselves. All 
the eggs of the same nest, and the nest, being numbered 
the same, by a reference to the little note-book the 
identification of any eggs (even if they get mixed) is 
very eas)'^ and the history of any .specimen can be ascer- 
tained. If an egg has been set on very long this will be 
found a good process to clean out the embryo. Make a 
little larger hole than usual in the side, pick out as 
much of the young bird as you safely can and then blow 
water into the egg with a blow-pipe ; let it stand for 
some days in a dark drawer or box. Keep repeating 
this process about every third da}'-, graduall}^ blowing 
more water into the shell and picking a little out till the 
whole of the embryo has decayed and is removed. This 
is a safe and sure way for a rare and valuable egg. I 
often put large eggs where the cabinet-bug — Denuetes 
— can get into them and clean out any foreign matter 
adhering to the shell. 

Among the subjects in which Mr. Boardman was 
interested were those of albinism and melanism. These 
singular freaks in nature, the perfectly white bird with 
pink eyes, the parentage of which v/as of a different fixed 
type ; with the opposite of albinism, melanism, the 
abnormal development of black or dark pigment in the 
pelage of an animal or the plumage of a bird, interested 
Mr. Boardman greatly. He had the largest collection of 
albinos among his birds of any private collector in the 
United States. In his museum were the following — 
the list having been copied from the catalogue of birds 



SOME SCIRNTIFIC REvSULTS 121 

which went with his collection to the New Brunswick 
government : 

Mocking Bird, Common Crow, 

Bobolinli, IJufted Grouse (2), 

Snow Birds (2), Butter Ball, 

Barn Swallow, Robins (1 pair), 

Ked-wing Blackbird, Baltimore Oriole, 

Purple Finch, Bank Swallow, 

Song Sparrow, Kail, 

Cow Bunting, Wilson's Snipe (2), 

Savannah Sparrow, Woodcock, 

Chipping Sparrow, " Cedar Bird, 

Little Black-head Duck, Red-tail Hawk. 

In the Bulletin of the Nuttall Ornithological Club, 
Vol. III., page 47, January, 1878, appears the following 
note on the melanism of the Robin — Turdus migratorius 
— by Elliott Cones, which is very interesting : 

A case of melanism of Turdus migratorius, much less frequent 
(except in Falcouidae) than leucism, comes to my knowledge 
through the attention of Mr. G. A. Boardman, who desires me to 
make a note of it for the Bulletin. The young Robin, "as black 
as a Grackle," is still living in Mr. Boardman's possession. About 
two months ago this ornithologist heard of a nest of black Robins 
being taken at St. John, and wrote to the owner or collector about 
it. The person, however, lost his life in the great fire which 
occurred there, and Mr. Boardman, not liking to trouble the 
familj' by writing under such circumstances, went to St. John and 
inquired about the black Robins. The story proved true, and one 
of the birds was purchased. " When I first got the bird, " writes 
Mr. Boardman.'' he was in pretty good plumage, but his feathers 
are now half out, and I am hoping that he will not disappoint me 
by coming out red. Most of the feathers on his head and neck 
are new, I think, and jet black. His tail is now gone, but that was 
pure black too. I see no signs of the normal plumage." Mr. 
Boardman writes me later, under date of September 23, that he 
has been much interested in watching the moult of the black 



122 THE NATURALIST OF THE ST. CROIX 

Robin, and says : " He acts as if he were going to be an albino. 
His new tall is about half grown out, and is nearly white, with a 
black stripe down each feather. His breast, head, neck and back 
are jet black, but very much out of feather. He would now make 
a funny specimen — i^art albinic, part melanistic." The parents of 
these young were not peculiar in color. Since the above paragraph 
was penned, the bird has been killed, stuffed and sent to the 
Smithsonian where I have seen it. It is black, with white wings 
and tail. — December 15, 1877. 

Previous to writing to Prof. Coues about this black 
robin he had written to Prof. Baird, as appears from a 
letter to Mr. Boardnian, dated September 26, 1877, in 
which he says : "I would not interfere with the move- 
ments of the Black Robin. Let him turn himself into a 
white one if he chooses. Do not kill him until he has 
completed his vagaries. You must write out the whole 
subject in detail and publish it. It will be of very great 
interest." On December 5, 1877, Prof. Baird writes: 
" Much obliged to you for sending the robin and I shall 
probably be able to acknowledge its receipt before closing 
this letter. In your article about the bird give first its 
history ; how it came into your possession ; what its 
coloration was when you had it ; when it moulted ; what 
change took place then ; how long this was in operation ; 
whether the single feathers changed their color from 
white to colored, or the reverse ; whether the change was 
in new feathers coming out," etc. Writing on December 
12, of the same year, he says : " The Black Robin was 
received and is a great curiosity, greater than I antici- 
pated from your letter." What an interesting thing is a 
bird, especially if it be a black robin or a white crow. 

While Mr. Boardman's greatest love of natural history 
objects was for that of birds, he was well informed upon 



SOME SCIENTIFIC RESUIvTS 123 

all other branches of natural history and out-door life, 
was an experienced woodsman and a famous and enthusi- 
astic angler. The adjacent lakes, streams and salt water 
estuaries of the St. Croix system in the days when Mr. 
Boardman was in his prime, constantly furnished him 
with the best fish that ever graced a hook — not only the 
pelagic roamers of the ocean, but the landlocked salmon, 
togue, trout and salmon of the waters inland, the lakes 
and streams which he knew so well. Prof. P . W. Glover, 
for many years in the United States Agricultural Depart- 
ment at Washington, was a comrade of his in the days 
when landlocked salmon bore the name of Salmo gloveri ; 
and the two were the first to determine the species and 
class it accordingly. In an entertaining letter dated at 
Calais, May 1, 1887, to Mr. Charles Hallock, Mr. Board- 
man enumerates some of his earlier angling friends, from 
which an extract is made : 

There were Rev. Dr. George W. Bethune; Rev. James Smith, 
a Baptist minister of Philadelphia ; Geo. P. Trott of Philadelphia ; 
George Dyer, a lawyer of Washington, D. C. ; G. P. Whitney of 
Boston, a noted fisherman, with Ben French, Stephen Pineo, John 
Pollice and Frank Waite as river men and guides. Senator George 
F. Edmunds was up once or twice with one of my sons, and had 
great sport. Henry Ward Beecher and his father were up, and 
also Walter M. Brackett, the fish painter of Boston ; my brother, 
Wm. H. Boardman and Geo. M. Porter of St. Stephen. Mr. Bab- 
cock of Boston, died from snake bite in Florida at Pine Island 
two years ago. Frank Kennedy, also a fisherman, was with him. 
Stimpson H. Dennison, Boston ; Geo. H. Richards, Boston ; his 
father, Francis Richards, and Uncle Henry Richards used to come 
up years ago ; Judge Ritchie of New Brunswick ; Dr. Leith Adams, 
Prof. Bailey of Fredericton, N. B., and many others whom I do 
not now recall to mind. It is over fifty years ago since I began 
to go to the lakes, and I can see great changes. Fish then were 



124 THE NATURALIST OF THE ST. CROIX 

very abundant, but have now been killed by tanneries, pickerel, etc. 
Our St. Croix river used to be a great breeding place for water 
birds, but since pickerel were put in about thirtj' years ago they 
have most all left. Pickerel destroy the chicks, so that very few 
ducks or gre))e now breed Avith us. Year before last there was 
very good salmon fishing with fly Just above the toll bridge 
between Calais and Milltown. Some were taken last year, but not 
so many as in former years. 

One of Mr. Boardman's sons furnishes the following 
interesting incidents showing the exactness of his infor- 
mation regarding bird life and the estimation in which 
he was held by learned men in Great Britain : ' ' Father 
did not begin seriously his ornithological collection until 
he had been in business for nearly a quarter of a century. 
He therefore brought to it the trained instinct and exact 
knowledge of a thorough business man. He spent nearly 
twenty winters in the state of Florida, and while there, 
from 1868 to 1873, he made a collection of the birds of 
that state for the Smithsonian Institution. Prof. Spencer 
F. Baird, who succeeded Prof. Henry as Superintendent 
of the Smithsonian Institution and afterwards as Fish 
Commissioner of the United States, stated that father 
was the only one whose returns to the Institution needed 
no correction. Henry Osborne, who for a number of 
years was the president and general superintendent of 
the railroad running from St. Andrews to DeBeck Junc- 
tion was something of a naturalist and a great friend of 
my father. He now lives in Eondon, England. About 
four years ago I lunched with him in London at the 
Carlton Club. He kindly took me about to the London 
Society oi Natural History, the British Museum, the 
Zoological Gardens of London, and introduced me to the 
managers thereof, and I confess I was not a little 



SOME SCIENTIFIC RESULTS 125 

surprised at the acquaintance they had with father's writ- 
ings as an ornithologist and a man of exact knowledge 
on scientific matters. Mr. Osborne stated to me that he 
considered father the best friend he ever had ; that his 
advice and counsel, of which he availed himself con- 
tinually while in this country, saved him at least once 
from bankruptcy. I also visited Henry K. Dresser at 
Topclyffe Grange, Farnborough, Beckenham, Kent, 
England, who, together with the oldest son of Baron 
Rothschild, brought out the most elaborate and learned 
work on the Birds of Europe ever published, with life size 
portraits of the birds in colors. Mr. Dresser visited father 
at Calais in 1860 or 1861, and speaks not only all the 
European languages, Russian included, but also Chinese 
and was for many years in correspondence with father. 
Mr. Dresser informed me that in the comparison between 
the American and European birds of kindred species, in 
which there is quite a difference in size and coloring in 
many instances, he relied outside of his own experience 
more fully upon father's descriptions than that of any 
other collector." 

The formation of Mr. Boardman's large private col- 
lection in ornithology represents but a part of his work 
of this kind during the years in which he was engaged in 
active field stud}' and collecting. He carried on an 
extended correspondence with naturalists in all parts of 
this country, in New Brunswick, in Canada and in Eng- 
land. With many of his correspondents he also engaged 
in a regular and business-like system of exchanging 
specimens, his correspondence showing how extensive 
these exchanges were. He made many gifts to institu- 
tions and museums, including the Boston Society of 



126 THE NATURALIST OF THE ST. CROIX 

Natural History, Boston, Mass. ; Museum of Compara- 
tive Zoology, Harvard University, Cambridge, Mass. ; 
Essex Institute, Salem, Mass. ; Portland Society of Nat- 
ural History, Portland, Maine ; Natural History Society 
of New Brunswick, St. John, N. B.; Zoological Society 
of London, London, Eng., and the Smithsonian Institu- 
tion and Department of Agriculture, Washington, D. C. 
He also exchanged specimens with the commercial nat- 
uralists in New York and Philadelphia. 

On nearly every one of his vessels that carried lumber 
to foreign ports a box of specimens was sent by Mr. Board- 
man to some correspondent and often separate smaller 
boxes and parcels to other individuals were included. 
Naturalists were constantly writing to him for specimens 
and his response to their requests were always liberal and 
prompt. Mr, Boardman's largest contribution was to 
the Smithsonian Institution, Washington, D. C, regard- 
ing which the Secretary, Prof. S. P. Langley, says: 
' ' The records here show that Mr. Boardman contributed 
to the collections forty-eight accessions, consisting largely 
of birds and bird skins and comprising in all nearly two 
hundred specimens. The most noteworthy of Mr. Board- 
man's gifts to the Institution were several specimens of 
the now extinct Labrador Duck ( Caviptolaimus labrador- 
ius), which is very rare, a single skin being worth at the 
present time about $1,000." 

In reference to this very valuable contribution to the 
Smithsonian it is related that when in New York, on one 
of his visits to the South, he went to the museum in 
Central Park, which had some duplicates of these ducks 
and the director ordered an assistant to pack the ducks 
and send themto Mr. Boardman's address in Washing- 
ton. Upon his return from the south, in the spring, he 




I* 



SOME SCIENTIFIC RESULTS 127 

was surprised to learn from Prof. Baird that they had 
not come. When on reaching New York he went to the 
museum and told the director that he had not received 
the ducks. The director sent for his assistant and asked 
why he did not send the ducks to Mr. Boardman as 
instructed last fall. He replied that he did not think that 
the director knew how valuable they were, to which he 
replied that there were ' ' no duplicates in the museum 
too valuable for Mr. Boardman." 

Among the animals in which Mr. Boardman was much 
interested were our native bears. Writing in Forest and 
Stream of March 4, 1899, about the ways of bears, he 
says : "I have found great trouble in getting specimens 
of very young bears. The hunters, always in a hurry to 
get their bear bounties, take them to the treasurer for the 
money and he cuts off the nose from the skin of the old 
one and the whole head of the little ones. In my many 
winters in the south and in California, where bears do not 
den, I have never been able from the hunters to find one 
nor ever had seen one until it was old enough to follow 
the mother." Great was Mr. Boardman's delight, there- 
fore, when, in February, 1900, one of his woodsmen 
found a female bear in a den wdth three cubs — "queer 
little things," he says they were in an article published 
in Forest and Stream of March 17 of that year. " They 
weighed about twelve ounces each ; length from end of 
nose to end of hind toe, twelve inches — not much larger 
than a full grown red squirrel. They lived about a week 
after the old one was killed. From the umbilicus being 
entirely healed I should judge them about two weeks 
old." A photograph of these young cubs was published 
in Forest and Stream and is here reproduced. 



128 THE NATURALIST OF THE ST. CROIX 

Mr. Boardman sent a copy of this photograph to his 
grand-daughter, Marjorie Boardman at Minneapohs, 
Minn., writing her a pretty letter February 22, 1900, in 
which he said : "I wrote 3^our father about my woods- 
man who killed an old mother bear that had three little 
baby bears that did not have their eyes open. They 
only lived about a week after the mother was killed. It 
was too bad to kill the old mother bear, but, I suppose 
she had no business to have been a bear." No natural 
history specimens which Mr. Boardman ever had pleased 
him more than those cubs, as he considered them very 
rare. 

Mr. Boardman was a naturalist of the old school and 
employed the methods of the old field naturalists in his 
studies and his collecting — "first shoot your bird." 
But there was nothing wanton in his work. He was care- 
ful and humane. Even as early as 1869 he deplored the 
wholesale slaughter of the birds in Florida, killed by the 
hundreds for their plumes and at that time was anxious 
that laws should be enacted and enforced for their pro- 
tection before they should become exterminated. Eater 
our own laws for bird protection and the requirements of 
a license to take birds for scientific purposes met with his 
earnest and hearty support. Practical woodsman that he 
was, as well as naturalist, Mr. Boardman knew the whole 
art of woodcraft. He was used to camps and acquainted 
with camping outfits. He knew all the birds of the woods 
by their song, his favorite warbler being the Hermit 
Thrush. He knew all about guns and dogs. In one of 
his autobiographical sketches Mr. Boardman recalls that 
in his early life the brothers, Henry and Francis Richards, 
who came from England as agents of the rich Binghams 



SOME SCIENTIFIC RESUI.TS 129 

who owned large tracts of timber land on the St. Croix, 
were the first men he had ever seen to shoot snipe over 
trained dogs. He had made a study of guns and many- 
letters on the subject passed between himself and Prof. 
Baird, the latter recommending the Maynard gun which 
Mr. Boardman used to great satisfaction. He was known 
from Maine to Florida as the best wing shot of his day. 
Regarding dogs he had much correspondence with Mr. 
John Nesbit, Jr., of Cambridge, Mass., who was one of 
the most famous importers and breeders of setters of his 
time and Mr. Boardman used to say the reason his own 
dogs knew so much was because they came from the town 
where Harvard University was located. 

Throughout Mr. Boardman's long correspondence with 
naturalists, extending over many years and embracing 
hundreds of letters, only a single instance occurs in 
which he expresses any desire for personal recognition. 
This occurs in a letter to Prof. Robert Ridgway written 
from Calais, December 8, 1884, in which he presents 
that naturalist with a skin of Falco columbarius, from 
Florida. From that letter the following extract is made : 

I do not know as I should have written again so soon only 
you said you would return the skin ; but if it is so unique a speci- 
men and among your great numbers have none like it, the right 
place for it is the United States Museum, as you might want it for 
purposes of comi^arison. I did not suppose you could make a new 
race from one specimen and do not remember as I said anything 
about race. But I described this in such a way that if it should 
prove different when you get other skins with which to compare it 
before others may do so, as to be ahead and call it Boardman's 
Pigeon Hawk. I have been sending lots of queer specimens to 
Wasliiugton ever since Kennicott's time and if I have found one 
which you can call for me 1 shall be well paid. 



CHAPTER Vni 



PERSONAL CHARACTERISTICS 



ONE of the most prominent characteristics of Mr. 
Boardman's individuality was his intense devotion 
to that subject in which he was engaged. Whether it 
were business, science or recreation, he gave himself 
completely to whatsoever demands they made upon him 
for the time being. The conscientious devotion which he 
rendered to his employers' interests when a young man 
characterized him throughout his entire business career. 
An early riser all his life, he made a long day in the 
store, at the mill, in the business office. He expected 
his employes to be as faithful to his interests as he had 
been to the interests of his employers when a young 
man ; and many were the lessons of industry, economy 
and thrift which he gave to the men working for him in 
different capacities. As his business activities increased 
and their duties became more exacting he simply doubled 
his diligence and discharged most joyfully the added 
responsibilities. 

His habits of business were most exact and methodical 
and he performed every duty the moment it was required. 
He never put off till tomorrow what could be done 



PERSONAL CHARACTERISTICS 131 

today. Grasping a business proposition or meeting a 
business contingency he surveyed it rapidly, judging 
and acting promptly and almost invariably his decision 
was right. He rarely made mistakes in judgment or 
errors in acting. It is but one illustration of this to say 
that only ten days before his death he had balanced his 
books and brought forward an inventory of his estate — 
up to January 1, 1901 — everything being clearly stated 
and so complete that no mistake could possibly arise. 
Had this not been the case at each recurring year pre- 
viously, it might almost have seemed as though he was 
expecting death. 

In 1853, Mr. Boardman commenced a private diary, 
keeping the same in the small pocket form so well known, 
the little books being uniformly two and one-half by four 
inches in size and being printed and ruled to from six to 
ten lines under each day's date. The first entry was 
made Monday, January 14 and the record was continued 
for a period of forty-eight years. It is indeed remarkable 
that in this long time but two breaks occur in the daily 
record. The first was for a single day, March 1, 1884, 
when he was in Florida; the other from March 8 to 
March 23, inclusive, following the death of his wife and 
during his own severe illness. The records are neces- 
sarily brief, being made in Mr. Boardman's neat and 
uniform handwriting and generally with a pencil. They 
embrace items of personal expenses, state of the weather, 
where he was on each day, letters written, birds seen and 
shot, his occupations for the day, engagements, where 
he attended church and who preached, with other similar 
memoranda. More than anything else this diary attests 



132 THE NATURAI^IST OF THE ST. CROIX 

his methodical habits while its practice no doubt con- 
tributed to such habits, to his promptness and to his love 
of order. 

Mr. Boardman was a man of domestic tastes and social 
temperament. The centre of his life was his home and 
he ever believed in its abiding influence for good. He 
always remained young and among his friends was at 
seventy what he was at forty — simple, alert, frank, 
bright, full of wit and story, quick at repartee, or serious 
in conversation if the occasion demanded it. His force 
and purity of character, his genial disposition and his 
winning smile always created an atmosphere in what- 
soever company he entered. His presence never sup- 
pressed fun or light talk, while the gayest welcomed his 
coming and to the young he was a companion, while his 
tone was always pure, elevated and refined. At the same 
time he was sensitive to the feelings of others and to the 
conditions about him. To his wife he always turned 
with perfect confidence for sympathy and support. Speak- 
ing of his mother and of his recollections of home one of 
Mr. Boardman' s sons writes : 

My mother — the inseparable companion of my father for more 
than fifty years — was one of those sterling New England women 
of advanced ideas for her time, a model housewife, interested with 
father in the advancement of the educational facilities in the vil- 
lage, and perhaps no other person was more instrumental in the 
founding and maintenance of the beautiful cemetery at St. 
Stephen, in which lovely spot both she and father have a 
sepulchre. She was very fond of flowers and had for many years 
one of the most beautiful rose gardens in that part of the country. 
Unlike father she had none of the Celt in her composition, but 
always regarded life as a serious proposition. She lived at a time 
when lai-ge families were the rule instead of the exception. There 
were eleven of us children, ten boys and one girl, six of whom 




MRS. GEORGE A. BOARDMAN 



PERSONAL CHARACTERISTICS 133 

died in infancy. Our next door neighbor, Mr. Ed. Smith, had 
twelve children and on the other side the family of Mr. James 
Murchie, fourteen children, all of the latter save one, I believe, 
living to-day, and no finer family was ever raised in any commu- 
nity. Until the time of Mr. Murchie's death he was one of father's 
warmest and most intimate friends. Speaking of large families, 
1 attended my grandmother Boardman's golden wedding about my 
sophomore year in college, at which if my recollection serves me, 
there were seventy-two members of the family present, children, 
grand children and great grand children, none of whom had ever 
been accused of any wrong doing. And as I remember business 
men on the St. Croix river, " captains of industry" as they are now 
termed, I believe there were more men living on the St. Croix at 
that time who were fitted to be President of the United States and 
more women who were endowed with gifts entitling them to 
reign, than in any community in which I have since lived. 

Mr. Boardman was one of the few men who possessed 
the happy faculty of always remembering every one whom 
he ever met and being able to call them by name. When 
travelling he was always on the lookout for old acquaint- 
ances and enjoyed shaking hands and having a few 
words with them, generally ending with a hearty laugh. 
It made no difference whether it was a millionaire or one 
of his former workmen, a negro or a Chinaman — he 
treated them all as gentlemen and they all seemed 
equally pleased to see him. 

His excellent business judgment and always correct 
decision regarding investments were prominent traits in 
Mr. Boardman's character. This was shown all through 
his life but especially at the time the business revival 
came to Milltown, N. B., when the present cotton mill 
company located in that place. Beside his own home 
he owned four other pieces of property and a saw mill, 
including the water power and one-fourth interest in 



134 THE NATURALIST OF THE ST. CROIX 

the water power where the cotton mill is located. He gave 
his interest in that to the cotton mill company to induce 
them to locate there ; then sold them the land surround- 
ing their mill, his homestead and the saw mill (as they 
wanted the power to pump water), a tract of land for 
homes for the employes and the balance he sold to other 
parties. It was the only time in the history of the town 
when there was any demand for property and he was the 
only one that showed the good judgment to sell. Another 
instance of his good business judgment was shown in his 
never making investments in Florida, although he had 
spent many winters there when northern men were 
investing largely in business enterprises that promised 
large returns ; and when one of his sons also resided 
there, was himself largely interested in railroads, orange 
groves and hotels. None of them, however, could ever 
induce Mr. Boardman to invest in their enterprises to 
the extent of even one cent. 

His love of home was a very strong trait of his char- 
acter. His affection for the place in which he lived, had 
passed his active years and had made his money, was of 
a kind with his love of the domestic fireside and of his 
own family. 

To all the interests of the city where he lived he was 
devoted — the church, the schools, the streets, the town 
improvements. Connected with many large corporations, 
with banks, steamboats, railroads, shipping and mills, 
he realized their worth to the community and was always 
active and constant in the public duties they imposed. 
But when these had been attended to he entered into 
the social and home pleasures with all the vigor of 
youth. After having spent two or three winters with his 



PBRSONAI. CHARACTERISTICS 135 

children at the west, when it was not known but he 
might make that his future home, he returned to Calais 
with all the gladness of a boy returning after long 
absence to his childhood's home. 

When asked by his sister if he was not to live in 
Minnesota thereafter, he replied: "Emily, I'd rather 
live in Calais and go up to the cemetery and read the 
names of my dead friends on their gravestones than to 
live in Minnesota for all there is out there." Not long 
before his decease a consensus of the leading citizens of 
Calais and St. Stephen had been obtained as to whom 
they regarded the most successful man who had ever done 
business on the St. Croix and the unanimous opinion 
was that it was George A. Boardman. He had been 
happy in his domestic relations ; had been successful in 
business ; had retired with a competency at a compara- 
tively early period ; had devoted his life, most rationally, 
to the pursuit of science; had won the friendship and 
confidence of the leading naturalists of the country and 
had secured the love and respect of his fellow citizens to 
the extent that he was easily the first citizen of the two 
cities in which he had spent his entire life. Measured 
by the standard not alone of dollars or political promi- 
nence, but of personal enjoyment, the fame that comes 
of worthy service and the happiness following a well- 
spent life, Mr. Boardman had lived the simple, successful 
life and had won the palm of deserved honor at the hands 
of his peers. 

Because of his Massachusetts ancestry he possessed a 
large share of the Puritan conscience. If it ruled him 
to strict life and the performance of rigid duty it was, 
happily, a duty to which he willingly yielded, day by 



136 THK NATURALIST OF THE ST. CROIX 

day, throughout his long life. He was always a con- 
stant, prompt and loving attendant at the Congregational 
church in Milltown and in Calais. When absent from 
home he always attended church and no entries in his 
diary are more regular than those which record his 
attendance at church in Philadelphia, Boston, New York 
and Washington where he always went to hear the most 
eminent preachers of the time. At home, when enter- 
taining friends, he invariably went to church on Sunday, 
even if his guests did not ; and when Prof. Baird and his 
family were his guests he records going to meeting while 
Prof. Baird "kept house." Returning from the south 
in 1865, he reached Portland on Fast Day, April 20, 
where he remained for the day and attended the union 
service at one of the churches. But he was liberal and 
tolerant. An anecdote is related by one of his sons : — 
"While we lived in Milltown, in a house near the 
Catholic church, I noticed twice every year the priest 
came to the house to see father. In those days the 
Protestant churches imparted the impression that being 
a Roman Catholic was next to being entirely lost, so I 
inquired of him what the priest came for. After deliber- 
ating a few minutes he said, 'Albert, you know that 
within a year or two the Catholic parish here has con- 
structed a new church, school house and residence for 
the priest. I sold them the lumber for this operation 
and, being a little short of money, they came to me for a 
loan. The priest comes twice a year to pay the interest 
and always comes promptly on the day it is due.' " 

An extract from a letter to Prof. Baird written at 
Boston, May 23, 1869, shows the regard which he had 
for the observance of the Sabbath : ' ' Saw Doctor Brewer 



PERSONAL CHARACTERISTICS 137 

yesterday. Think I will go down and make him a call 
this afternoon. It being Sunday he might be at work 
with his eggs, stamps, etc., and I can keep his mind 
away from such things Sunday." 

While compelled to go out to service at the early age 
of thirteen years and being deprived of the advantages 
of an education in early life, he was determined that his 
sons should have a college education. Three were grad- 
uated from Bowdoin in the years 186G, 1869 and 1873, 
respectively, and the fourth, who preferred to go west, 
attended the University of Minnesota. " I do not think, 
however," says one of those who went to Bowdoin, "that 
all of his sons combined, with the advantages he gave 
them, ever acquired an education comparable with that 
which he himself assimilated through his most extensive 
reading and association with scientific and literary men." 
He continues : "Personally, about the only things of any 
service in life which I ever learned came from my asso- 
ciation with my father during our only too brief com- 
munion. The love of nature, which came to all of us 
boys from our father and mother, has been my chief 
treasure. From them we learned to love the secrets of 
the woods, the notes of the birds, the hiding places of 
the arbutus, the murmur of the pines, the pool beneath 
the alder shade where the trout lie hidden and to love 
our dumb companions. Their love of the beautiful was 
in contrast with many homes I can remember." 

Mr. Boardman's personal acquaintance with the lead- 
ing naturalists of the country was very extensive. In 
Boston, New York, Washington, Philadelphia and 
throughout the south he knew all the ornithologists of 
note, although he did not correspond with them as often 



138 THK NATURAI.IST OF THE ST. CROIX 

as he did with his more intimate friends. His brother 
Gorham, who resides in Brooklyn, writing in 1902, says : 
"I was, several summers ago, when at Nantucket, 
introduced to a gentleman who said, ' Mr. Boardman, 
what, Mr. George A. Boardman of Calais, the ornitholo- 
gist ? ' I replied 'no, but I am his brother.' 'Well/ 
he said, ' he is known by every lover of birds from Maine 
to Florida.' " In whatever place he was, from Maine to 
Florida or from Washington to the west and to Cali- 
fornia, there were those whom he knew. And he prized 
their friendship. It was his first duty at every place 
where he stopped on his many journeys from one state 
to another " to go all around and see the folks ' ' or call 
upon his scientific friends. He loved to do this and it 
was a duty as well as a pleasure that was never neglected. 
The same was true when Mr. Boardman returned to his 
home in Calais from winters spent in Florida or at the 
west. 

His good nature never forsook him. He was always 
cheerful and sunny. The apt story, the winning smile or 
the hearty laugh were evidences of his happy disposition. 
He was thoroughly unselfish. Nothing is more common 
in letters to his scientific friends, when describing any- 
thing new, rare or curious that he had obtained, than for 
him to say : ' ' This specimen I will send to the National 
Museum that it may be available for comparison ; it is 
too important to be kept in a private collection." When 
in Washington he was most attentive and helpful to per- 
sons in Maine who were interested in visiting the depart- 
ments or the museums. Many have been his acquaint- 
ances who tell of the pleasure they had in being conducted 
through the exclusive formalities of Washington life by 



PERSONAL CHARACTERISTICS 139 

Mr. Boardman, who, from his familiarity with the depart- 
ments and acquaintance with their chiefs, had the advan- 
tage of the inside knowledge of thinsg which he shared 
with his friends. 

Prof. lycslie A. lyce of Bowdoin College, Brunswick, 
who was chief of the Albatross scientific corps in its 
dredging work under the United States Fish Commis- 
sion in 1885 and 1886, tells how, in the evenings after 
work was over as they were seated upon the veranda at 
the headquarters building at Woods Holl, Prof. Baird 
for hour after hour, would talk about Mr. Boardman, of 
his rare attainments, his accurate knowledge, his keen 
observation and tell story after story of their experiences 
together in the Maine woods or in their studies at the 
Smithsonian at Washington. 

Mr. Boardman was very fond of reading. In fact, as 
his daughter Mrs. Taylor says, he "read everything" 
excepting novels and was very fond of the poetry of 
Browning. He took regularly seventeen magazines, 
journals and newspapers and read them all. In a letter 
to Prof. Baird written at Milltown, N. B., November 30, 
1879, he says: "I am hard up for reading matter. 
Have not seen a Smithsonian report for a long time ; 
should be glad of most anything." Again, writing to 
him from Minneapolis, March 6, 1883, he says : " Can- 
not you send me something to read. Have not seen a 
Smithsonian report for a couple of years, nor any of j^our 
bulletins. There are very few naturalist folks here, all 
are on a rush for business. I have found Chicago the 
same, no collectors of anything." He had a splendid 
memory, remembering everything he read and the names 
of all persons whom he ever met. He was very regular 



140 THE NATURALIST OF THE ST. CROIX 

in his habits, generally retiring at nine o'clock in the 
evening. He always looked on the bright side of things 
and remained a boy all his life. This cheerfulness and 
good nature, the optimistic view he always took of 
human affairs, was founded upon his belief in the Divine 
goodness and in the benevolent order of all things as 
directed by the Great Creator. A single passage from a 
letter written to Prof. Baird at his brother's office in 
New York, when Mr. Boardman was on his way south, 
is of deep interest in this connection. It is dated Janu- 
ary 12, 1869. " I was much surprised," he writes, "to 
hear of the sudden death of Mr. Cassin. Mr. Lawrence 
told me this morning. I hardly know what Philadelphia 
and all the naturalist people are to do without him. 
How many of our naturalist friends are being taken 
away. But it is just as natural to die, as to be born and 
all we can do is to be ready when we are called." No 
one who knew his life could ever have had a doubt but 
he was ready, always, for the final summons. 

How did this plain, unschooled man become the friend 
of the great scientists of the country ? What elements 
of character did he possess which made him their close 
and trusted companion and co-laborer in the paths of 
science ? It was because he possessed a union of the 
characteristics which have just been outlined. He was 
a true lover and devout worshiper of nature. He was 
endowed with an extraordinary natural gift for the 
acquisition of scientific knowledge ; few men living and 
few men who ever lived had the gift of knowing birds 
and bird ways in so generous a measure as did Mr. 
Boardman. His moral qualities were of the highest 
order and his frank, genial personality won friends to 



PERSONAI. CHARACTERISTICS 141 

him which his noble character, friendliness and unselfish- 
ness made sure and constant. His friends were friends 
for life. He never lost enthusiasm for his studies in 
ornithology and was always making some real and true 
additions to the sum of human knowledge in this inter- 
esting science. His words were those of truth and his life 
was simple, noble, honest. 

Among the articles which Mr. Boardman contributed 
to the Calais Times during the last few years of his life 
was a biographical sketch of his friend, the late James 
Murchie of St. Stephen. The closing paragraph of that 
fine article applies with great aptness to Mr. Boardman's 
own life : "There was manifested in him none of the 
decrepitude or petulance of old age. When last I saw 
him, his face was sunshiny, for his 86 years had always 
been maturing goodness. The length of his life is 
neither magical nor mysterious, when we consider cer- 
tain habits and dispositions which he possessed. He 
lived simply and loved simplicity ; he was unostentatious, 
industrious, frugal and democratic. Temperate in all 
things, he was a later day Puritan, an improvement on 
the old Puritan in that it adds cheer to a loyal devotion 
to the right. His great age was beautiful simply because 
his youth had been so ; his October was the natural 
result of his May. His latter days had a magnificent 
maturity because in his younger days he had always 
sought that which was good. He was like one of those 
glorious maples that we see in October, that nature 
crowns as the resplendent monarch of the surrounding 
forest." 



CHAPTER IX 



APPRECIATIONS AND HONORS 



AT Mr. Boardman's death the local, general and 
scientific press united in graceful tributes of respect 
and eulogy. A selection from those published with some 
extracts from private letters addressed to members of his 
family are given. An extract is also made from an article 
contributed to Forest and Stream of August 5, 1899, 
by his friend, Mr. Charles Hallock. In order to avoid 
unnecessary duplication biographical and business details 
have generally been omitted from the following appre- 
ciations : 

Charles Hallock^ in Forest and Stream, August 5, 1899 

The honored subject of this sketch seems to be one of those 
elect whose lives have been graciously prolonged because of their 
usefulness to men. Recognized for three-quarters of a century as 
a keen, discriminating naturalist, and possessing the most com- 
plete private museum of natural history extant, he is now in his 
eighty-second year, as painstaking as ever in his investigations, 
devoting himself with energy almost unimpaired by time to his 
favorite pursuit and study. Statedly, every week he contributes 
to the Calais Times an article on such natural history subjects as 
engage the interest of household readers and inform them of the 
peculiar places which our familiar creatures of the fields and 



APPRECIATIONS AND HONORS 148 

swamps and woods occupy in the animal kingdom. In this man- 
ner he does much to remove prejudices against insects, birds and 
reptiles deemed noxious, and this helps to preserve the biological 
balance among associated fauna. 

Now it happens that students and scientists who have become 
eminent in their profession are usually so segregated and intent 
on their transcendental pursuits that they often fail to become 
conspicuous among the world's honor men ; and hundreds of such 
are enrolled on the unpublished book of the immortals whom the 
general public has never heard of, simply because they occupy a 
superlatively higher plane. These have no time to exploit their 
achievements. Such a man, I may be peraiitted to say, is George A. 
Boardman of Calais, Maine, an ornithologist of highest repute 
among scientists, a contemporary and whilom associate and co- 
worker with Audubon, Agassiz, Downs, Todd, Baird and Bethuue, 
those studious observers of natural objects whose renown lingers 
after their departure like the afterglow of a midsummer sunset. 
Scores of his rarest specimens have gone into the Government 
collections at Washington, not without a transient pang, yet with 
heroic recognition begotten of a keen sense of Uncle Sam's 
priority and inherent right of possession. For example, he had 
in his museum at Calais (which is installed in a spacious two- story 
building devoted exclusively to the purpose) an incomparable lot 
of Indian stone implements of most every kind, including some 
fine spear heads found at the Grand Lake Stream while digging 
for the first dam in 1860, not far from Dr. Bethune's old camp. 
Prof. Baird, he remai'ks, ingenuously enough, "thought the Gov- 
ernment Museum had the best right to them and took them away." 

"When Prof. Baird used to visit me," he writes, " we used to 
go among the elderly people and pick up lots of trumpery such as 
spinning wheels, flax wheels, old canoes and Indian things. I had 
a queer old wooden anchor which was dragged up in the lake, 
such as Indians used to hold their canoes while fishing. Baird 
thought this a good find. There was a shell heap about twelve 
miles below here that we used frequently to visit and dig over. 
He was a very happy man when on the hunt for relics. Even 
after he was taken sick he used to write me that he wanted to 
come up and finish that shell heap." 



144 THE NATURALIST OF THE ST. CROIX 

The chief feature of Mr. Boardman's zoological collection is a 
complete presentation of the local fauna of Maine, including 278 
species or varieties of birds found in the eastern section. The 
museum in its entirety comprises some 2,500 specimens, mounted 
and in skins, with the young and eggs of the most of them ; also 
a good collection of horns — thirty-five different kinds. Among 
his rarer miscellaneous specimens are the skins of a black wolf 
and of a bay lynx {Lynx rufus)^ both obtained in Florida, where 
he passed no less than twenty winters. 

Mr. Boardmau has been prominent all his life in important 
business interests, and now is in banks, in steamboats, vessels, 
lumber and mills. In 1870 he retired with a competency, but his 
time is quite fully occupied in a variety of ways, the public for 
the most part being beneficiary. 

J. A. Allen, in The Auk for April, 1901, Vol. XVIIL, 
Pages 219-220 

Mr. George A. Boardman, an Associate Member of the Ameri- 
can Ornithologists' Union, died at his home at Calais, Maine, Jan. 
11, 1901, at the age of 83 years. He was born in Newburyport, 
Mass., Feb. 5, 1818, and went with his parents to Calais in 1828. 
His ancestors came from Yorkshire, England, and settled in 
Newbury, Mass., in 1637. Mr. Boardman, for over thirty years 
was engaged in the lumber business on the St. Croix river, retir- 
ing from active business in 1871. He was well known as an 
enthusiastic naturalist and sportsman and was a warm friend of 
the late Dr. T. M. Brewer and Professor Baird and of many later 
and less prominent naturalists. It was his habit for many years 
to spend his winters in Florida, stopping at Washington, New 
York, and other points on the journey to and from Maine to his 
winter home, to renew acquaintance with his many naturalist and 
other friends. 

The present writer first made his acquaintance at Jackson- 
ville, Florida, in December, 1868, and later the same winter passed 
a few days with him at Enterprise on Lake George. He had 
already become familiar with the bird life of Florida, where for 
many years it was his habit to collect specimens and take field 
notes, giving liberally of his specimens to Professor Baird of the 



APPRECIATIONS AND HONORS 145 

Smithsonian Institute, and sharing his field notes with other 
workers. As early as 1862 he published a Catalogue of the Birds 
Found in tlic XMcinity of Calais, Maine and about the Islands at 
the Mouth of the Bay of Fundy (Proc. Boston Soc. Nat. Hist., 
IX., pp. 122-1.'}2), an annotated list of 231 species. His collection 
of Maine birds is notably complete, numbering, it is said, 278 
species (cf. Forest and Stream, August 5, 1899) and comprising 
some 2,500 specimens, mounted and in skins, besides a large collec- 
tion of eggs. He was a frequent contributor to Forest and Stream 
and other natural history journals, including the American Natu- 
ralist and the Bulletin of the Nuttall Ornithological Club, and up 
to the last days of his life is said to have contributed, "statedly, 
every week," to the Calais Times, "an article on such natural 
history subjects as engage the interest of the household readers 
and inform them of the peculiar i^laces which familiar creatures 
of the fields and swamps and woods occupy in the animal king- 
dom." 

Mr. Boardmau was a man of genial and attractive personality, 
and after his retirement from business, some thirty years ago, 
devoted much of his leisure to travel and natural history pursuits, 
his interest in such matters having a wide scope. 

The Calais Times, January 17, 1901 

It is with profound grief that the Times records the decease 
of this eminent citizen. Mr. Boardman passed peacefully into 
l)leasant dreams, at his home on Lafayette Street, last Friday 
morning. In our sense of personal sorrow which the event 
brings, all readers will share. His Aveekly articles contributed to 
this paper during the past five years, on scientific, ethical, educa- 
tional and political subjects would fill a volume. His last article 
was published in the issue of December 20, on the subject of Wars 
of the Century. He was also a contributor to other papers and 
magazines, especially the Forest and Stream, for many years and 
until two weeks before his death, and the constant demand for 
his writings attested their merit and the interest they aroused. 

It will require more than a single article to portray Mr. 
Boardman's life, work, and qualities, all of which were of a kind 
to induce respect, confidence and friendship. His life was in the 



146 THE NATURALIST OF THE ST. CROIX 

daylight, and he was esteemed of all acquaintances. At an out- 
ing of prominent citizens, three years ago, it was decided by a 
unanimous vote that George A. Boardman, of all men who had 
resided in the St. Croix valley, had best enjoyed the blessings and 
fruition of human life. Successful in business, fortunate in family 
relations, contented in his studies, broad and keen in intellect, 
varied in accomplishments, stainless in character, observant of 
affairs, with ample wealth, he was passing his declining years 
with a happiness that befitted a naturalist. Christian and noble- 
man. He was the last of the aggregation of great business men 
of the last generation who won fortune from the lumbering indus- 
try here. 

He conducted the largest lumber business on the St. Croix 
river until 1871, when he retired from active business to enjoy the 
fruit of his labor in travel and in pursuit of his favorite study. 
He had been a noted naturalist and an authoritj' on ornithology 
for uearlj^ fifty years. His private museum comprised the finest 
collection of mounted birds in New England, if not on the conti- 
nent. 

He had studied the fauna of Maine as no other field naturalist 
has ever done, and passed twenty winters in Florida and other 
southern lands in pursuit of his favorite studies. He was a life 
member of the Natural History Societies of Boston, Mass., and 
Ijondon, England, a lifelong friend of Profs. Baird and Coues of 
the Smithsonian Institution at Washington, Dr. Brewer of 
Boston and Charles Hallock of New York. Among his other 
scientific and literary friends were Eev. Dr. Bethune, the eminent 
theologian, Senator Geo. F. Edmunds, Walter Brackett, the cele- 
brated painter of fishes, Eev. James Smith of Philadelphia, Prof. 
Bailey of Fredericton, N. B., Dr. Leith Adams, Judge Eitchie of 
New Brunswick, Henry Ward Beecher and scores of other eminent 
personages. 

St. Croix Courier, January 17, 1901 

By the death of George A. Boardman the valley of the St. 
Croix has lost one of the most aged and best known of its resi- 
dents. By reason of his extended life and the variety of interests 
which he touched, added to a genial and social disposition, he 



APPRKCIATIONwS AND HONORvS 147 

became known to an unusually large number of people. His 
departure creates a vacancy in many circles. 

Having acquired an ample competence in business Mr. Board- 
man exhibited a rare spirit of contentment with his acquisitions 
and in mid-life withdrew from active business that he might 
devote himself to other ioterests. 

He had become deeply interested in ornithology. The first 
impulse in this direction is believed to have been received when, 
on a visit to South America in charge of a cargo of lumber, he was 
struck with admiration by the birds of brilliant plumage there 
seen. He began to collect specimens and learn the art of mount- 
ing them. Thus was laid the foundation of the notable collec- 
tion which he has left, embracing representatives of all the land 
and water birds found in this section of the country, together 
with not a few from other localities. In the collection are to be 
found also the eggs of all the species and the nests of many. 
These specimens, by the completeness and the fine skill with which 
they have been prepared and mounted, form an ornithological 
cabinet which probably has no equal in New England, at least in 
private ownership. 

The pursuit of this branch of natural history brought Mr. 
Boardman into acquaintance with men of science in different parts 
of the country. The list of his distinguished friends would be a 
lengthy one, fi-ieuds who were attracted to him not only by a 
common taste, but also by his kindly disposition and warmth in 
friendship. He was a member of the natural history societies of 
Boston and of Loudon and was accustomed to contribute papers 
of value to the publications of these bodies. 

The Calais Advertiser., January 17, 1901 

In the death of George A. Boardman, who departed this life 
Friday morning, Calais loses the last of the old line of lumber 
manufacturers, who developed that industry on the St. Croix 
and turned the wilderness into a city of homes for a prosperous 
people. Having amassed a competency, Mr. Boardman retired 
from active business life, although retaining a lively interest in 
several companies in which he was a shareholder, and at the time 
of his death was president of the Frontier Steamboat Company, 



148 THE NATURALIST OF THE ST. CROIX 

having succeeded the late James Murchie. After his retirement 
Mr. Boardman gave the greater part of his time to the study of 
natural history, and especially to the fauna of Maine and New 
Brunswick, and was considered an authority in everything per- 
taining to ornithology. He possessed considerable literary ability, 
and was a valued contributor to several periodicals. Mr. Board- 
man's cheerful countenance and genial manner will be missed by 
old and young, rich and poor, for he had a kind word for all. 

Tlie Maine Sportsman^ February, 1901 

Sportsmen and naturalists everywhere, acquainted with Mr. 
George A. Boardman, of Calais, will keenly regret to leai'n of his 
death which took place on the morning of January 11. In spite 
of the fact that he was within two months of being eighty-three 
years old, his mind was clear and active and he kept in close 
touch with the progress of natural history study in New England 
and particularly in Maine, in which he was greatly interested. 
Mr. Boardman had a most genial disposition and, although the 
writer met him but once, yet he carried away such pleasant 
memories and anticipations of future meetings, that he feels as if 
he, as well as the ornithologists of New England, had met with a 
personal loss in the passing over of this kind, helpful, earnest 
man. 

Minneapolis Journal, January 12, 1901 

George A. Boardman, one of the most learned naturalists in 
the United States, died yesterday morning at his old home in 
Calais, Me., at the advanced age of eighty-three years. He was 
the father of County Attorney Fred H. Boardman and Mr. W. B. 
Boardman of this city, and Mr. A. J. Boardman, now of Phil- 
adelphia, but formerly a prominent Minneapolitan. The deceased 
had been a successful business man and was interested in banks, 
lumbering and other industries, as well as in shipping. He retired 
from the active alTairs with a competence in 1870 to occupy him- 
self with his favorite studies and public matters. His natural 
history museum is conceded to be the finest and largest private 
collection in America. In the Zoological collection alone there 
are 2,500 specimens mounted and in skin, with the young and eggs 



APPRECIATIONS AND HONORS 149 

of most of them. Not only was he a student and naturalist, but a 
keen sportsman as well and a famous and enthusiastic angler. 

Boston Journal^ January 13, 1901 

George A. Boardman, a prominent and wealthy citizen of 
Calais, Me., died at his home Friday morning, January 11, aged 
eighty-three years. He had been a noted naturalist and an author- 
ity on ornithology for nearly fifty years. His private museum 
comprised the finest local collection of mounted birds in New 
England, if not on the continent. It is to be placed in one of the 
Government buildings at Fredericton, N. B. and to be known as 
the George A. Boardman Collection. He contributed many inter- 
esting articles to Forest and Stream and other magazines and 
papers, up to within two weeks of his death. The last issue of 
Outing speaks of him (with others) as one of the noted sportsmen 
of the past century. 

Forest and Stream, January 26, 1901 

The death of Mr. George A. Boardman, recox'ded in another 
column, removes from the list of Forest and Stream's subscribers, 
contributors and readers one of the very oldest. Mr. Boardman 
was for a large imrt of his life an active business man, but like 
many of those who work hardest in the world's business, he made 
time to pursue what was his pleasure as energetically as he did 
his business. For more than fifty years he had been a naturalist, 
and had done work with and aided some of the most eminent of 
the naturalists of this country. Audubon, Agassiz, Baird, Downs 
and others were among the men with whom Mr. Boardman was 
associated, to whom he freely gave of the interesting facts that he 
had collected and among whom to some extent he distributed 
the collections which he had made. 

Notwithstanding this generosity, he was able to gather 
together a very large museum which, as might be supposed, 
represented with singular completeness the fauna of eastern 
Maine. Mr. Boai-dman was thus naturally one of the first author- 
ities on the fauna of the extreme Northeastern United States, and 
it was to him that application was first made for information on 
that subject. 



150 THE NATURALIST OF THE ST. CROIX 

Besides his fondness foi- nature, he was a keen sportsman, 
and above all, an enthusiastic salmon angler, and very many of 
the older and better known anglers of the Eastern United States 
used to visit him and tish with him. 

Mr. Boardman was, it is believed, the second subscriber on 
the list of Forest and Stream when it was started in 1873, and 
from that time to this he had taken it without a break. 

Hon. George F. Edmunds., TJyiited States Senator from 
Vermont 

I can say with sincere gratification that so far as my acquaint- 
ance with Mr. Boardman went, I was strongly impressed with 
the extent of his knowledge, the ijurity of his character and hia 
very agreeable manners. 

Mobert Ridgway., Curator Smithsonian Institution., Wash- 
ington., D. C. 

Although I saw Mr. Boardman but seldom, I nevertheless 
remember well his kindly face, his friendly and genial greeting 
and his bright and interesting conversation. 

D. G. Elliot, New York 

Mr. Boardman was a most careful observer and his statements 
of things he had seen were thoroughly reliable. Men like him are 
always rare and it is a pity that they are obliged to leave the scene 
of their labor. 

Prof. William H. Ball, National Museum, Washington, D. C. 

My knowledge of the late George A. Boardman was confined 
to personal intercourse with him at the Museum and at Prof. 
Baird's house on his way to and from Florida in the early years 
of my connection with the Museum. Like all who made his 
acquaintance I felt a sincere regard for him, his mild, kindly 
manner and consideration for those younger and less experienced 
being always manifest. 



APPRECIATIONS AND HONORS 151 

Henry E. Dresser^ London^ Eng. 

Mr. Boardman lived to a great age and lived an active and 
useful life and one cannot be sorry for his deiith hut only for those 
who have lost him. It is now nearly 40 years since I last saw him 
at Calais, but it seems but yesterday, and I have a most pleasing 
recollection of the time I spent in his company talking over bird 
matters. He was a most excellent field naturalist and a keen 
observer, and to me who then was but a young naturalist he was 
always most ready to lend a helping hand as he was to any young 
fellow who was interested in ornithology or oology. 

Among the honors conferred upon Mr. Boardman 
were the following : He was chosen a corresponding 
member of the Boston Society of Natural History, April 
16, 1862. On April 10, 1863, he was elected a cor- 
responding member of the Natural History Society of 
New Brunswick, St. John. At the first congress of the 
American Ornithologists' Union held at New York in 
September, 1883, he was elected an associate member of 
that body. He was also an honorary foreign member of 
the Zoological Society of lyondon, Kng. On the occa- 
sion of the dedication of the new building of the Ameri- 
can Museum of Natural History, New York, which was 
opened by President Rutherford B. Hayes, December 22, 
1877, Mr. Boardman was invited as a special guest. 



CHAPTER X 



CORRESPONDENCE WITH NATURALISTS 



MR. BOARDMAN was a voluminous letter writer. 
His list of correspondents embraced nearly every 
ornithologist of note in this country, of the period when 
he was most active in his ornithological collections and 
studies, together with many in New Brunswick and 
some in England. He not only spent a great deal of time 
when at his summer home on the St. Croix in cor- 
respondence with his naturalist friends, but when at 
Florida during the winter he was a constant and frequent 
letter-writer. Not only this, the letters which have been 
examined that were written by Mr. Boardman show that 
when stopping in Boston, New York or Philadelphia for 
a day or two on his journeys to or from the south, he 
wrote many letters to his correspondents when at his 
hotel. If he called upon his scientific friends or saw any- 
thing new at the museums he was always sure to write 
half a dozen letters to his correspondents, telling them 
whom he had met and what he had found that was new. 
This was especially the case when stopping at his brother 
Gorham's in New York. Even when on his trips to the 
west and to California, as well as during his visits at 



CORRESPONDENCE 153 

Clifton Springs he was devoted to his correspondents and 
many were the letters he sent them, detailing the incidents 
of his trips, telling them what he had seen and inquiring 
for their well-being. In one instance he wrote a long 
letter to Prof. Baird while remaining in the railway station 
at Boston, waiting for a train. It was on December 18, 
1875 and was in reference to obtaining a pair of moose 
for the Centennial Exposition at Philadelphia. He loved 
to remember his friends and was most happy to answer 
their inquiries or do them a favor. Moreover his letters 
were always familiar and interesting. He had the happy 
gift of saying pleasant things and writing about common 
experiences and observations in a most entertaining way, 
especially when writing to his most intimate friends. 

Systematic and careful as he was in all his business 
methods, Mr. • Boardman retained the letters that were 
addressed to him and always filed them in the most 
orderly manner. Between three and four hundred letters 
addressed to him by his scientific correspondents and 
friends have been examined in the preparation of this 
memoir. 

It has been diflBcult, however, except in few instances, 
to obtain many of Mr. Boardman's own letters. Those 
to Prof. Spencer F. Baird of the Smithsonian Institution; 
to Dr. William Wood of East Windsor Hill, Conn., to 
Robert Ridgway of the Smithsonion Institution, to Mr. 
J. A. Allen of the American Museum of Natural His- 
tory, New York, and to Mr. Charles Hallock of Jersey 
City, N. J., have, however, most fortunately, been 
obtained and made use of. A list of the naturalists with 
whom he was in correspondence and whose letters were 
preserved by Mr. Boardman other than those just named, 



154 THE NATURALIST OF THE ST. CROIX 

embraces the following well-known names: D. G. 
Elliot, A. E. Verrill, George N. Eawrence, T. M. 
Brewer, William Brewster, C. Hart Merriam, Charles J. 
Maynard, H. A. Ward, A. E- Heermann, Elliott Coues, 
H. A. Purdie, John Krider, A. Eeith Adams, N. Clif- 
ford Brown, Everett Smith, Ruthven Deane, J. B. Holder 
and E. W. Bailey. In addition to these scores of letters 
from lesser known naturalists as well as from local orni- 
thologists and observers in different parts of the country, 
are included and have been carefully examined. With 
many of these last named Mr. Boardman carried on a 
regular although occasional correspondence, while scores 
of other letters were addressed to him by young natur- 
alists who asked for instructions or by observers who 
wrote making inquiries upon interesting, but little under- 
stood, points in bird life, and upon which they knew Mr. 
Boardman possessed information. The letters of acknowl- 
edgment and thanks found among his papers are sufficient 
to show that all such inquiries were promptly and thor- 
oughly answered. His kindness and helpfulness to young 
naturalists were proverbial among all his scientific friends 
— a fact to which these letters give abundant testimony. 

Mr. Boardman's most constant correspondent in this 
country, as well as his dearest and most intimate friend, 
was the late Prof. Spencer F. Baird, for many years sec- 
retary of the Smithsonian Institution, Washington, D. C. 

Spencer Fullerton Baird was born in Reading, Pa., 
February 23, 1823, and graduated from Dickinson Col- 
lege in that state at the age of seventeen years. In 
1845, at the age of twenty-two, Mr. Baird was chosen 
professor of natural history in Dickinson College, and 
five years later when only twenty-seven years of age was 







SPENCER FULLERTON BAIRD 

Secretary of the Siuithsouiaii lustitution, Washington, D. C. 

1878—1887 



CORRESPONDENCE 155 

appointed assistant secretary of the Smithsonian Insti- 
tution. 

An outHne of the scientific career of this remarkable 
naturahst would embrace the following briefly stated but 
distinctive periods of scientific activity : A period of 
twenty-six years devoted to laborious investigation of 
the vertebrate fauna of North America, 1843-1869 ; forty 
years of continuous contribution to scientific literature 
of which at least ten were devoted to scientific editor- 
ship, 1840-1880; four years devoted to educational work, 
1846-1850 ; forty-one years devoted to the encourage- 
ment and promotion of scientific enterprises and the 
development of new workers among the young men with 
whom he was brought into contact, 1846-1887 ; thirty- 
seven years devoted to administrative work as an officer 
of the Smithsonian Institution and in charge of the 
scientific collections of the government, 1850-1887 ; 
twenty-eight years its principal executive officer, 1850- 
1887 ; nine years secretary and responsible head of the 
Smithsonian Institution, 1878-1887; sixteen years United 
States Commissioner of Fish and Fisheries, a philan- 
thropic labor for the increase of the food supply of the 
world and incidentally for the promotion of the interests 
of biology and physical investigation, 1871-1887. 

Prof. Baird's published works embrace his History 
of North American Birds, five volumes, 1874-1884 ; the 
reports of the Smithsonian Institution and of the United 
States Fish Commission, while a complete bibliography 
of his works would embrace over one thousand titles, two 
hundred of which are to be classed as formal and elaborate 
contributions to scientific literature. With the publica- 
tion of his quarto work of over two thousand pages on 



156 THE NATURALIST OF THE ST. CROIX 

the Birds of North America, as one of the volumes of 
the Pacific Railway reports began what has been most 
appropriately termed the Bairdian period of American 
ornithology and the beginning of the work of the Baird- 
ian school of naturalists — a period covering nearly thirty 
years, and one, says the late Dr. Elliott Coues, " char- 
acterized by an activity in ornithological research and a 
rapidity of advancement without a parallel in the history 
of science." 

Prof. Baird was a keen archaeologist and originator 
of the National Bureau of Ethnology. He designed the 
government vessels, the Fish Hawk and Albatross, used 
in the service of the United States Fish Commission and 
was instrumental in obtaining from Congress the appro- 
priation for the building of the east wing of the Smith- 
sonian Institution. Royal honors were bestowed upon 
him by the governments of Australia, of Sweden and 
Norway and of the Republic of France ; while he was 
elected to membership in ten foreign scientific societies of 
high renown. While in the discharge of his duties in 
connection with the Fish Commission, Prof. Baird died at 
Woods Holl, Mass., August 19, 1887. 

The correspondence between Prof. Baird and Mr. 
Boardman began in 1862. Among Mr. Boardman's 
papers have been preserved nearly one hundred letters 
from Prof. Baird ; while in the Baird collection in the 
Smithsonian Institution are one hundred and seventy 
letters from Mr. Boardman — all of which have been 
read with great care. The earliest letter from Prof. 
Baird bears date June 18, 1862 and the last, September 9, 
1886. The first from Mr. Boardman bears date January 
4, 1865 and the last, September 5, 1886, covering a 



CORRESPONDENCE 157 

period of twenty-four 5^ears. Between June 18, 1862 
and September 12, 1868, there are eight letters addressed 
to Mr. Boardman in Prof. Baird's own hand ; after that 
the letters are in the handwriting of his secretary, 
although signed by himself — except in case of one very 
brief letter dated at Eastport, Maine, June 26, 1872, and 
a somewhat lengthy postscript to a letter from Washing- 
ton, November 1, 1869. 

The first letter from Mr. Boardman to Prof. Baird 
found in the Smithsonian collection is dated at Milltown, 
January 4, 1865, which is in answer to a letter for 
information. But earlier letters than this from Mr. 
Boardman must have been written, as in his of June 18, 
1862, Prof. Baird begins by saying: "Yours of June 
13 is just to hand and I hasten to answ^er it." He says 
in this letter: "Any chicks of partridge, grouse and 
ducks will be very acceptable. Embryos in alcohol will 
also be desirable if well identified. I have never seen 
the egg of solitary sand piper (I want to very much !) but 
think it will be somewhat like that of spotted tattler, 
though larger." Writing from Carlisle, Pa., July 21, 
1862, Prof. Baird says: "The bird you send is the 
female of the Black Poll warbler ; possibly of the Bay- 
breasted ; but I think not. The females of the two can 
scarcely be told apart. I would like another dusky 
duck's Qgg very much indeed. Any certain eggs, how- 
ever common, are always welcome." 

In all the early letters to Mr. Boardman, Prof. Baird 
is telling him what they want at Washington and giving 
suggestions for collecting. November 19, 1862, he writes : 
' * If you have the sets of eggs and nest of the three kinds 
of thrushes, with parents, I wish very much that you 



158 THE NATURALIST OF THE ST. CROIX 

would send them in order that I may satisfy myself 
positively in regard to them, especially the spotted egg 
and bush or tree nests. We want very much a good 
specimen of the cinerous owl. A series of Jaegers, too, 
would be very acceptable as Mr. Coues is now preparing 
a monograph of this genus. A young white-wing gull, 
too, we would like. Can't you send us some of those 
northern eggs you speak of ? Where were they collected ? ' ' 
November 23, 1865: "I would much like a good lot 
of good skins of the three-toed woodpeckers ; good cross- 
bills ; Hudson Bay tits ; Canada Jays ; Hawk and Richard- 
son's owls ; Acadian owl ; Pine Grosbeaks ; Pine finches, 
spruce and common partridges and the like, for our 
exchanges. What you gave me last summer have 
answered a capital purpose." May 20, 1868: "I am 
glad you have the Pied duck and have got us a speci- 
men. Don't forget that it is the only North American 
duck not in our collection and next to Great Auk, perhaps 
our greatest desideratum among water birds. I can't 
ask you to send this one, but I speak for the next." 

Writing from Beverly, Mass., September 12, 1868, after 
a visit to Mr. Boardman at Milltown, Prof. Baird says : 
"I cannot tell you how I hated to leave with all the 
projected trips incompleted. I don't know when I have 
had so nice a time and shall always be grateful to you and 
Mrs. Boardman, to say nothing of Charley and Georgie, 
for your kind attentions." On this visit Prof. Baird had 
become much interested in the shell heaps of the St. 
Croix valley and the many Indian relics, which, on sub- 
sequent visits he gave much time in excavating and 
studying. In the same letter occurs the following : "I 
really must have Pollice's spear if I have to get the 



CORRESPONDENCE 159 

United States district attorney to seize it as smuggled 
from old Indians without paying duty ; or else as a 
Fenian weapon intended for invading New Brunswick. 
I will ask Prof. Henry to let me send you a lot of showy 
shells and birds to trade for this and other purposes. I 
hope you will find out all the shell heap localities and 
dig all you can ; there will be plenty left for me to do 
when I come up again. I intend to make a specialty of 
this subject and want to work it out thoroughly. Note 
all 3'ou can about thickness and succession of beds ; 
interpolation of gravel; position of best remains," etc. 

In a letter dated Washington, November 22, 1869, Prof. 
Baird writes : ' ' Ridgway is now hard at work upon the 
North American hawks and is doing a good work. He 
finds a species like the European Merlin, but differing 
both from that and from the Pigeon Hawk. I will show 
it to you when you come. Write soon and let me know 
when we may expect you. I hope you will arrange so as 
to pay us a good visit on your way south." Writing to 
Mr. Boardman, who was then in Florida, January 27, 
1871, Prof. Baird says: " The fish bill has passed the 
House and has a good chance of going through the 
Senate so that you may yet be called upon to furnish 
ofl&cial information of what you know about fishes and 
you will please be prepared." To this letter a postscript 
is added from Mrs. Baird : "I send a handkerchief left 
here, thinking you may want it. — M. H. C. B." 

" I would like very much," Prof. Baird writes from 
Woods Holl, Mass., July 25, 1871, "to 'knock off' 
work here and go with you up Princeton way to shoot 
young ducks ; but I rather think I had better stick to 
my business the present summer, hoping that perhaps I 



160 THE NATURALIST OF THE ST. CROIX 

may have the pleasure of the excursion next year." In 
a letter dated November 23, 1871, he writes: "I am 
much obliged to you for the potatoes and shall value 
them both for their own merits and for the kindness 
which prompted you to forward them. I onl}^ hope that 
you and Mrs. Boardman will help us eat some of them 
in Washington." This was after Mr. Boardman had sent 
Prof. Baird a barrel of potatoes as he had been in the habit 
of doing. He had, also, from time to time, sent firkins of 
butter and jars of raspberries. What a bond of union such 
gifts were between country and city friends in the good 
old days ! Writing to Mr. Boardman in Florida, Feb- 
ruary 2, 1872, Prof. Baird says : " You must not apolo- 
gize for routing us out so early on the day you left as it 
was by no means unnaturally early and was not of the 
slightest consequence. As an offset I shall claim the right 
of doing the same thing some day at your own house — but 
if you talk too much about this it may prevent me from 
exercising this privilege." Again writing to him while 
in Florida in the winter of 1873 he says : " I do not at 
present think of anything very special in the way of birds, 
although we would be glad to have some skins of the 
Florida Jay, the Ivor)^ Bill, the Red Cockade and Wood- 
peckers, Paroquet, etc. I hope, however, you will be 
able to secure some Limpkin eggs of which, as you 
know, we have only one and that from Cuba." 

The kindly personal interest expressed by Prof. Baird 
regarding young naturalists and in all his friends, is 
shown in many letters. "The young gentleman from 
New Bedford," he writes to Mr. Boardman, October 10, 
1870, "who wants to go with you next winter is William 




y/ 

J^ A..^. ^^V^ --1/1: 

h^ ^W- a,^1r c^^ J^^ ^ 

c/ A^ rt-^ '^ ^^ ^ 



v^ ^ ^w ^7t-v{ /.^^^ f-/---' 
^^,^-4" i^js-- 5*^ trr f I 



CORRESPONDENCE IGl 

Nye. You will find him an excellent companion, per- 
fectly able to look out for himself and to take his share 
of the hard work of the campaign." On May 3, 1872: 
" I am sorry that poor Krider has been so much afflicted 
in his family. I had heard nothing of his misfortunes." 
On May 21, 1874, he inquires: " Who is Mr. Whitney 
and what does he do for a living?" and on June 3 of 
the same year says: "Many thanks for the information 
respecting Mr. Whitney. Can you give me any idea how 
long he is likely to stay in California and whether a let- 
ter addressed to him would reach him in time to secure 
some specimens." In this letter he also adds: "I am 
glad to hear that you are able to give Willie Bryant some 
help in his researches. I trust he will follow in the foot- 
steps of his father so far as natural history is concerned." 
In a letter dated May 17, 1872, he says: "I am glad to 
find that you got home safely and that Mrs. Boardman is 
better. Perhaps if you will take her on your next excur- 
sion to Florida she will be less troubled with that heart 
complaint." In the very last letter that Prof. Baird wrote 
to Mr. Boardman, dated at Woods Holl, Mass., Septem- 
ber 9, 1886, occurs this sentence: "I am glad of the 
prospect of getting the skin of the black lynx ; it will be 
quite a novelty to us." 

Letters from Prof. Baird to Mr. Boardman 

Washington, D. C, Nov. 1, 1869. 
My Dear Mr. Boardman ; 

Yours of the 25 of October is duly at hand ; and for a letter 
that might be presumed to give au account of a wedding in the 
family, it has about as little reference to tliat subject as it waW 
could. You do not tell us how tlie bride looked, nor tlie bride- 
groom, nor any of the particulars that the ladies especially are so 



162 THE NATURALIST OF THE ST. CROIX 

anxious to learn ; and not the first bit of calie has, so far, come to 
hand. I suppose, however, you intend to bring your trunk full of 
it when you come. 

Is it not about time for you to tell us a little as to your plans 
for the future, and when we may arrange for killing the fatted 
calf for yourself and Mrs. Boardman aud Willie? Tell Willie that 
Mr. Elliot is expected back in a few days ; and he will have plenty 
of pictures to look at, as well as be making new ones all the time. 

The report you asked for, for Mr. Pollice, has already gone to 
him. Let me know if anybody else remains to be supplied. We 
have sent to Dr. Todd, to Simpson, and to Connor. Who else is 
to be remembered ? 

The skulls of the South African beasts are what we now 
want above everything else of that kind. Nothing would come 
amiss. Entire skeletons of course are most desirable ; but single 
skulls, with the teeth and horns as perfect as possible, including 
the lower jaws, will be very useful to us. We have one entire 
elephant skull, I think it is South African ; but other specimens, 
even single teeth, will be welcome. The rhinoceros we have not 
and want it very much. Nothing of the mammalian kind will 
fail to be acceptable. 

Ridgway has not reached Washington, but will probablj' be 
here before long. His collections are probably in our cellar, 
although I do not distinguish any box as his, among quite a large 
number sent in by Mr. King. 

I am glad you have the nest of the Goshawk, and hope it will 
reach us in safetj'. We want to procure such large specimens, as 
they can only be exhibited where there is an opportunity for 
giving them ample room, which can be done in our museum. 

We have already sent you three copies of the bird catalogue, 
printed only on one side ; but if you want more let me know. We 
expect Dr. Brewer with Mrs. Brewer and I^ucy to pay us a visit 
soon after Thanksgiving. The Dr. expects to make some big 
hauls in the way of eggs. I did not find much of special novelty 
here, on my return ; very few eggs of any account, and only one 
case of birds from Bishop, embracing nothing new, and nothing 
very rare. Our Arctic collections, when they reach us, which 
will be in the course of a few months, will doubtless be full of 



CORRESPONDENCE 163 

interest. We had fiom Willis the other day a box containing 350 
eggs of the Arctic 'J'ern, and about 50 of either Sheldrake or Black 
Duck; and I wait your coining to determine which. 
Yours truly, 

Spencek F. Caiku. 

How do you like the preceding experiment of phonographic 
reporting* or have 1 tried it on j'ou Ix^foreV 1 found Professor 
Henry quite ill on my return, and although better I have still to 
attend to most of his shares of correspondence so that 1 have been 
obliged to call in services of a reporter. It is very nice in some 
respects, as I gain a great deal of time, and sometimes work oft" 40 
or 50 letters iu a couple of hours. It is however not quite satis- 
factory as you cannot tell when you are repeating words or ideas 
unnecessarily and the chain of connection is not so clear. 

I am adding to the box for t'heney and have just put in some 
shells for his wife. 

Washington, D. C, Jan. 7, 1871. 
My Dear Mr. Boardman: 

Yours of the 4th came to hand yesterday, and 1 hasten to say 
how happy we shall be to see you and Mrs. Boardman here. Give us 
word by telegraph, the morning you start, iu order that we may 
be completely prepared for you. 

I am much interested in what you say about the African ani- 
mals. Please send on directly here all you can beg, borrow or 
steal, and we will decide iu regard to their preparation. We shall 
have all that are capable of it, suitably mounted for exhibition as 
specimens, making skulls of any that will not suit our purpose. 
We expect a first-rate taxidermist here in the course of the winter, 
who probably will be able to do full justice to them. We do not 
want anything set up in our museum looking pretty roell ; nothing 
but the very best taxidermy will suit us now. 

Cannot you get for us that big Wild Boar. It might serve to 
stare out of countenance some of our animals of a similar nature 

*TIiis addenda — in Prof. Baird's own hand — to the letter of November 1, 1869, 
refers to its having been dictated to a stenographer, or to a " reporter " as he terms it, a 
form of letter writing that was then new. 



164 THE NATURAUST OF THE ST. CROIX 

that now roam in Washington undisturbed. So do the best you 
can for us, "and your petitioner will ever pray." 

With much love to Mrs. Boardraan from all of us, believe me, 
Truly yours, 

Spencer F. Baird. 

Washington, D. C, May 9, 1871. 
My Dear Mr. Boardman : 

You may be sure that we shall look out for the barrel of 
potatoes, and hope it will come before we leave. Our plan is still 
to get away to Woods Holl as early in June as possible, although 
the precise date is a matter of some uncertainty. I had a very 
pleasant interview to-day with Mr. Whitcher, the Fish Commis- 
sioner of Canada, and he proposed a good deal of joint work. He 
says if I will go to the Bay of Fundy next year he will be present 
himself, or by deputy, and will furnish on the part of the gov- 
ernment, all necessary assistance in the way of vessels, etc., and 
we can have a good time overhauling the natural history of the 
fishes. This was what I had looked forward to, and was very 
glad to have him suggest it. 

We have agreed to take the Moose that your boy sent 
Wallace, and the Caribou, at $75 each, which he says was about the 
price of mounting; and 1 believe he has already been paid this 
amount, so that it will hardly be possible to have the one Brewster 
offers. 

I suppose you have not seen Wallace's specimens so as to 
judge of their excellence. He promises to keep them on hand 
until we want them, which will not be until next fall. 

Ridgway has painted up your Auk's egg and it will be sent on 
very soon. I will put it in the same box with that little duck 
that has been here so long, and forward it in a day or two to your 
brother Gorham. Eidgway has just returned from New York, 
where he has had a very good time. He is very much interested in 
the Central Park. 

I hope those Moose skeletons will be forthcoming, as we 
have lately had inquiry for Moose bones and were unable to 
exhibit them. Love to all. 

Very truly yours, 

S. F. Baird. 



CORRESPONDENCE 165 

Woods IIoll, Mass., July 17, 1871. 
My Dear Mr. Boaruman : 

I am delighted to hear that you have at last succeeded in 
getting for us a skeleton of the Moose ; and write to ask you to 
forward it by some vessel loaded with lumber and bound for Wash- 
ington. If you can send it to the care of our friend Mohun it will 
be well, as he is very clever in such matters. Please let me know 
the bill of expense, in older that I may send it to Washington and 
have it paid. It is of no consequence whether or not the skeleton 
reaches Washington before the middle of October, or even later. 

I am glad you sent the Labrador Duck to Wallace to be 
mounted for us. I enclose a letter received from Cheney in regard 
to a strange duck which I cannot make out ; can you give me any 
suggestion in regard to this? 

I am not at all astonished that Dresser was not satisfied with 
the California book, either as to the descriptions or the biographies. 

I flatter myself that the new work will be a totally diflerent 
affair, and that in it he will find all that is to be known in regard 
to the habits, as well as descriptions of our American species. I 
am glad to have information in regard to Allen's movements, 
which I have not previously known. He will undoubtedly make 
a magnificent collection of all sorts of things. Could you not get 
Capt. Treat to save for us the jaws of the sharks he takes and 
throws away this summer? That will give me a clue to the species, 
and should I get to Eastport next summer I shall then arrange to 
make a more complete collection. 

I am hard at work here, studying up the fish, and have already 
collected quite an amount of valuable information on the subject. 
If you come to Boston before September, I wish you would run 
down for a few days and see us here. 

Very truly yours, 

Spencer F. Baird. 

Washington, D. C, Feb. 17, 1872. 
My Dear Mr. Boardman : 

Yours of the 11th has just come to hand with its effectual 
disposition of the question of the Coontail cat. I am not at all 
surprised at the result, I am glad to find the question set at rest. 



166 THE NATURALIST OF THE ST. CROIX 

I envy you your trip up the St. John in the little steamer. 
Don't you think you ought to have a dredge along and do what 
you can in scraping the bottom on the way? I shall he glad to 
have you secure the alligators referred to ; and hope you will get 
at least one. Dr. Brewer came last night and will remain until 
some time next week. lie brought that undetermined nest and 
egg that you collected last year, the female parent of which was 
described as like a female Bobolink. We have been looking over 
the matter, however, and have come to the conclusion that it is a 
Pine grosbeak. 1 have, accordingly, confiscated the specimen, in 
the interest of the Smithsonian Institution, and intend to hold on 
to it. 

I wrote to Bickmore about tliat Labrador Duck and told him 
we would be very glad to have it for the Smithsonian. He writes 
in reply to know what we will ofter the Museum of Natural History 
for it. I then responded that if he chose to put the intercourse 
between the Smithsonian and the New York Museum on a strict 
exchange, quid pro quo, it was all right, but it was not exactly the 
way we were in the habit of treating such institutions ; that it had 
been our intention to give the Museum a first-rate series of our 
duplicates without any consideration of the question whether they 
could give any exchange; but if he preferred the other plan 1 
would send him a list from which to make a selection. This 
would be rather a poor way of doing business foi- the Museum, as 
we have so much more to give than they have to return. 

Give my kind regards to Prof. Wymau and tell him 1 hope 
he will stop in Washington on his return and see us. 
Very truly yours, 

Spencer F. Baird. 

Washington, D. C, March 9, 1872. 
My Dear Mr. Boardman: 

Yours of the 3d is safely at hand, and I envy you the nice 
time you are having in Florida. I hope you will come back full 
of treasures and ready to share them, as ever, with the Smith- 
sonian. 

I am happy to say that we are in possession of the I>abrador 
Duck, a very nice specimen which arrived yesterday. A week or 
two ago I wrote to Bickmore asking whether he wished the 



CORRESPONDENCE 107 

relations between the Smithsonian and the New York Museum to 
be put on a strictly comnxTcial basis; and I received a private 
letter from Mr. Haines, who in some way had heard of our cor- 
respondence and who disavowed any such ideas of a quid pro quo 
as Mr. Bickmore seemed disposed to establish, and said the 
Museum would be always happy to give the Institution whatever 
they had to spare. Shortly after Bickmore wrote stating that it 
gave him much pleasure to send the specimens ; so that I suppose 
he had received some sort of hint from tlie committee. 

We have nothing new since the date of your last letter except 
that collections of one kind and another are coming in ; and we 
are hard at work trying to keep matters in good condition. We 
shall send oft" Monday tlie Moose skeletons to Ward to have them 
mounted and prepared in his best style. 

Ridgway is here hard at work at the Water Birds, and we 
have about 120 pages of our new book in type, though the work 
goes on rather slowly. With much love from all our })eople I 
remain, 

Sincerely and truly yours, 

Spenceu F. Baird. 

Eastport, July 17, 1872. 
My Dear Mr. Boaruman: 

I want to come ui), before a great while, and pay you another 
short visit; but cannot quite see my way clear to do it just now. 
I write, however, to say that we hope, as soon as the lievenue 
Cutter is finished to make the long talked of trip to Grand Manan, 
and we shall be glad to have you and Mrs. Boardman ready to 
join us in the excursion. Mr. Cheney was over here yesterday, 
and I arranged to have him in readiness to take us around when 
we go. 

On Monday laet, the Senator, Mr. Paine, Capt. Treat and 
myself went up to visit the pond, not fur from Robbinstou, into 
which the captain had put a numl)er of salmon fifteen years ago, 
and where the fish had been reported visible on several occasions. 
We took with us a large salmon net and set it in the lake but 
caught no fish. Many of the neighbors, however, assured us that 
they had seen huge fish, of from ten to twenty pounds, jumping 



168 THE NATURALIST OF THE ST. CROIX 

out of the water. We had a delightful excursiou and returned 
yesterday in good condition. 

Please let me know the amount that you advanced to French 
for the Grand Lake Stream expedition. This, I presume, cost 
considerably more than the first estimate ; probably somewhere 
from twenty to tliirty dollars. Of course tliis is a matter of no 
consequence, and I only ask that I may not forget to pay you 
when I see you. 

Mayuard made liis appearance last week and went to Grand 
Manan the next day. Cheney says that he and Herrick are col- 
lecting a great many birds. Herrick, among others, has several 
hundred skins of Petrels. I wish j'ou would see Mr. Eaton again 
and find out whether he has sold the engine of his steamer, or 
whether she is available for ray use. If he proposes to rent her 
to me I would like to have him give me his terms in writing so as 
to form the basis of a regular contract. 

Verrill has not yet arrived, but I expect him every day, and 
presume that the steamer will be needed by the end of this week 
or the beginning of next. As I understood Eaton he would fur- 
nish the boat, with an engineer and attendant, and coal, for $10 a 
day, and that, possibly on carefully considering the matter, he 
might be able to put it at a somewhat lower figure. 
Very truly yours, 

Spencer F. Baird. 

Eastport, Aug. 29, 1872. 
My Dear Mr. Boardman : 

I went over to Grand Manan last Friday, and spending the 
night with Cheney, started Saturday morning for McLaughlin's, 
where we remained till yesterday morning. The object of my 
excursiou was especially to talk with McLaughlin about herring, 
and see for myself the spawning ground. I had a very pleasant 
visit, barring two days of fog and rain, and was accompanied by 
quite a number of young scieutifics. We did considerable dredg- 
ing and obtained numerous curious objects. 

On my return I find your letter of the 26th with its enclosure 
from Krider, and am much obliged to you for the opportunity of 
knowing what he is about. I hope he will send you the egg of 
the Solitary Sandpiper; as, if it is a genuine one, I will manage to 



CORRESPONDENCE 169 

steal it from you. He is rather shy now of giving anytliing to 
the Smithsonian. 

It is now so late in the season, and Verrill will leave so soon, 
that it is hardly worth while to do anything more with Mr. 
Eaton. I think that with the help of the tug we could have done 
a good deal more work. Still it would have cost three or four 
hundred dollars of my appropiiation, which I can use to better 
advantage. Mr. Gill has been here a week, and leaves today. He 
was with me at Grand Mauan, and saw a good deal that interested 
him. 

We are sorry to learu that Mrs. Boardman is being taxed so 
much by the sickness of your relatives, and hope she may soon be 
relieved by their recovery. Is it not almost time for some of you 
to come down to Eastport? It seems a great while since we were 
together. 

Very truly yours, 

S. F. Baied. 

Washington, D. C, Nov. 20, 1872. 
My Dear Mr. Boardman: 

Your letter of the 15th and the accompanying Chick of the 
Canada Grouse came safely to hand. The latter will be at once 
figured for the forthcoming book. 

I was glad to find from Dr. Brewer that he did not consider 
his loss irreparable, and hope he may soon recover all the old 
ground. I shall look to see you, according to your letter, towards 
the end of December ; and hope to be able to make your visit to 
us a pleasant one. 

I would be very glad indeed to have the first pair of Caribou 
skeletons, male and female, to be got and pay whatever thej^ are 
worth. I also would be glad to have a pair of skins, and would 
like a first-rate head with them ; also, if it is possible to get a good 
female moose skin, I would like it, so as to complete our series of 
large animals. We have just received from Prof. Ward the 
skeleton of the moose you sent, and it is perfectly magnificent in 
its general appearance. As we have the Irish Elk and common 
Elk, the three make a fine series. We have a man permanently 
employed who can beat Wallace all to pieces. He is the same 
person who mounted the head of the buttalo we have. 



170 THE NATURALIST OF THE ST. CROIX 

Mrs. Baird has just goue off" to make a visit at my sister's and 
would send love to Mrs. Boardman if she were here. 
Very truly yours, 

Spencer F. Baird. 

Washington, D. C, Jau. 16, 1873. 
My Dear Mr. Boardman: 

I was very sorry indeed that 1 did not have the pleasure of 
seeing you on your way South, and if I had had any idea of the 
train to look for I should have been at the station and seized you. 

Our smallpox scare is about over ; as, although our neighbors 
have been kept in strict quarantine, there has been no additional 
development of the disease. We have not had any apprehension 
of it for some days past. Your letter was delayed, reaching me 
too late for me to write or telegraph to Philadelphia ; otherwise I 
should have sent you a despatch asking you to stop. I hope, 
however, we shall not be cheated out of a visit from yourself and 
Mrs. Boardman on your return. 

I cannot imagine what Krider's hawks are unless they be the 
California Rough-Leg. Did you notice how much feathering 
there was on the feet? These are bare about as much as the com- 
mon partridge, the feathers not reaching down to the toes. I 
would endeavor to see the birds if 1 thought Krider would show 
them to me, but he has been so shy of showing anything to me 
that I have not cared to bother about it. 

We have received quite a number of nice things from Elliot 
and Dall, among them eggs of two species of Phaleris, the Red- 
Legged Kittiwake, the Gray Auk and some others, eight or nine 
in number. It is no small thing to get so many new water birds 
at one lot. Among the series was the egg of Steller's Duck. 

With love to Mrs. Boardman, believe me. 
Sincerely yours, 

Spencer F. Baird. 

Washington, March 8, 1873. 
My Dear Mr. Boardman: 

We were very glad to get your letter of the 3d and to know 
something of your whereabouts. I was beginning to feel quite 
uneasy about you, fearing that some snapping turtle or alligator 
had gobbled you up. 



CORRESPONDENCE 171 

You give us a very tempting account of a Southern Spring. 
This would have been iu greater contrast witli our own if we had 
received it on the day of Inauguration. This was excessively 
cold and bitter, and caused great disappointment to the thousands 
of strangers who came in from all parts of the country. There 
was a ball in the evening in a new building erected for the pur- 
pose, 350 feet by 150, and it was so cold that the guests wore all 
the wrappings they could gather together, and they had to chop 
up the chicken salad with hatchets to get a chance to eat it. it 
was so cold that it is said the breath as it rose into the air gave 
the appearance of a company engaged in smoking. 

If you will keep a sharp lookout for the time of blooming of 
the Cereus plant, and let me liuow when this comes off, I will 
come down and see the phenomenon. 

When I went througli Philadelphia a few weeks ago I stopped 
and tried to see Krider's hawks, but Hooper had them in West 
Philadelphia, and I could not get a sight at them. 

From the description I infer that they must be a variety of 
Swainson's Buzzard. I cannot believe iu the existence of a new 
species of so limited distribution. 

Very truly j'ours, 

Spencer F. Baird. 

We are beginning to looli forward to a visit from you on your 
way home. We feel as if the smallpox had cheated us out of our 
visit to whicii we had a right. 

M. H. C. B. 

Washington, Dec. 30, 1873. 
My Dear Mr. Boardman: 

Your letter of the 23d was duly received, together with the 
specimens therein advised, and we were especially pleased to get 
the Whitetish, as enabling us to form some idea of its character. 
It appears to be essentially the same as that common in the St. 
John Elver and known there as the Gizzaid fish, although it is 
quite difterent from the Whitefish of the western lakes. 

It is quite impossible to say whether the young fish are laud- 
locked salmon oi' sea salmon, especially as nobody has been able 
to point out a character sufiiciently marked to distinguish them. 



172 THE NATURAI.IST OF THE ST. CROIX 

The pigeon is one of the West Indian species, the name of 
which I have not identified. 

Any time that you have anything else to send please forward 
the Florida fish. 

With love to everybody, believe me, 

Yours truly, 

S. F. Baird. 

Washington, April 17, 1874. 
My Dear Mr. Boardman: 

I have been wondering very much what had become of you, 
and only learned incidentally from a gentleman who met you in 
San Francisco, that you had actually gone to California. I am 
glad to know that you are having so good a time, and I trust that 
you will come back in first-rate health, with lots of nice speci- 
mens and enough for your friends. I have nothing very novel to 
communicate in regard to our doings. We are progressing in the 
old humdrum manner, steadily adding to our collections, without 
anything very startling. I hope, however, that the coming sea- 
son will be equally prolific with the last in birds and their eggs, 
of which, by the way, you ought to be able to pick up some nice 
ones in California. 

The government expeditions are getting ready to go out 
although the appropriation bills have not yet passed. Dr. Coues 
will doubtless get into the east section of the country and will 
probably add largely to his lists. 

Mrs. Brj^ant's youngest sou, Willie, seems to inherit the 
zoological tastes of his father, the doctor ; and in reply to her 
inquiry as to a good locality for the spring, I have advised her 
sending Willie up to Princeton with his attendant, there to hire a 
couple of Indians and look up birds' nests. Mr. Frank Cari-yl 
of New Jersey proposes to follow quite a similar route. 

My approi^riation for the summer has not yet passed, but I 
hope to be able to go to Noank towards the end of June, where I 
trust I shall have the pleasure of a visit from you. 
Very truly yours, 

S. F. Baird. 



CORRESPONDENCE 173 

NOANK, Couu., July 25, 1874. 
My Deai; Mr. Boardman: 

Thanks for your clever letter. As to the uest of the Pileated 
Woodpecker, if you do not disturb it at all, nor the old birds, 
they will in all probability nest in tlie same place next season, 
and by a little judicious nianoeuveriug, by taking out one egg at 
a time with a spoon, they may yield a dozen eggs as the Red- 
headed Woodpt!ckers and the Golden-winged do under the same 
circumstances. It would be a grand thing if you could get about a 
dozen eggs from this one nest. 

We are having a very good time here, and our party has met 
with success quite equal to our expectations. The dredgers go out 
every day or two, and bring back lots of nice things. The fishes 
are also interesting. Dr. Palmer is still in Florida; but I have a 
very good substitute for him. Lucy is still at North Conway 
where she is having a good time. 

Very truly yours, 

S. F. Baird. 

West Philadelphia, Pa., Sept. 13, 1876. 
My Dear Mr. Boardman: 

Yours of the 10th is to hand. I am happy to say that the 
pleasant weather has greatly improved the comfort of the exhibi- 
tion and that we are all doing pretty well in consequence. I hope 
you will not fail to carry out your intention of coming on in 
October. 

If I were you I would not sell my pair of Labrador Ducks at 
any price. Sometime you will probably want to give or sell your 
collection to some institution and the including in it of a pair of 
Labrador Ducks will add gieatly to its value. Under any cir- 
cumstances do not hint at a less price than .f;200 or $250 in gold 
for the pair. There seems to be a fancy for Labrador Ducks, and 
you can get that as well as not. I would not sell them for a cent 
less. You may be able to get another female, but it is doubtful 
in regard to a male. 

Mind what I say about the price. Tell him that you do not 
want to part with them, but that they are worth the amount 
mentioned by me. 

Sincerely yours, 

S. F. Baird. 



174 THE NATURALIST OF THE ST. CROIX 

Washington, D. C, Nov. 27, 1878. 
Dear Mk. Boardman : 

Yours of the 24th is to hand. I was in hopes you would 
hegin to say somethiug about comiug south. Will it uot be a good 
idea for you to spend the next winter here as you did the last? 

I have a great deal to tell you about adventures and experi- 
ences at Gloucester during the summer, and of explorations, 
arctic and otherwise. One of the best things obtained on the 
Banks was the skin of the great Skua Gull. We obtained all the 
Jaegers, as also the Dusky Puttiu, etc. Send on the specimens 
whenever you are ready, and eggs as many as you please. 

With love from all of us to yourself and Mrs. Boardman, 
believe me. Sincerely j^ours, 

Spencer F. Baird. 

Washington, D. C, Dec, 1884. 
Dear Mr. Boardman : 

Your letter of the 18th is to hand. Mr. Kidgway was quite 
enthusiastic in regard to the Florida Pigeon Hawk, and is much 
obliged to you for saying that he might place it in the Museum. 
The next time you go, try and get some more. 

I hope Albert will be able to get one or more skins and 
skeletons of the Trumpeter Swan; they are apparently getting 
very scarce. 

Several white Whooping Cranes would also be very nice. 
They could easily be sent in the flesh in the cold weather; but 
if necessary they might be skinned and poisoned, and sent with 
the skins green to be mounted here. 

What is the latest Fish Connnission and Smithsonian Report 
you have received? Both volumes for 1882 have been published. 

None of Nelson's reports have appeared. 

Turner has got back from Labrador with some nice things, 
but nothing startling. 

We are just having a very severe cold snap. The thermometer 
was nine above zero, which we considered pretty sharp. I do 
not think we had such cold Aveather last year. 

With warmest regards from everybody to yourself and Mrs. 
Boardman, I remain. Sincerely yours, 

S. F. Baird. 



CORRESPONDENCE 175 

During the first year of their correspondence, 1805, 
fourteen letters were written by Mr. Boardman to Prof. 
Baird. The period of greatest activity in the correspond- 
ence between these friends was during the years 1868 
to 1880. In 18(J8 Mr. Boardman wrote eighteen letters 
to Prof. Baird ; in 1809, forty-two ; in 1870, twenty-six 
and in 1875, sixteen. These letters are in the most familiar 
language, all are interesting and nearly every one con- 
tains more or less notes about the birds he had observed 
and studied. There is not a letter within the range of 
the entire correspondence that does not close with 
remembrance to "our scientific friends" and "much 
love to Mrs. Baird and lyucy." Prof. Baird must have 
been happy to have received these entertaining letters. 
He made special request for them. As late as 1880 Mr. 
Boardman began a letter November 3, by saying : "I 
am afraid I have not come quite up to your order to write 
every month as it must be more than that since I have 
written;" while on December 29, 1882, writing from 
Minneapolis, Minn., he commences a letter with : "Some 
years ago you told me I must write you every month. I 
do not know how long that order was to last and think I 
have not observed it very well. ' ' This was seventeen years 
after their correspondence commenced and how dear and 
rich had been the intercourse and correspondence between 
these two friends! It was but two years before Prof. 
Baird's death and shows how intimate and constant had 
been their friendship and work even though the period 
of their activity was nearing its close. Its end only came 
with the death of the great scientist. 

While scores of entire letters are devoted to ornitho- 
logical matters there are in all the others references to his 



176 THE NATURALIST OF THE ST. CROIX 

favorite study which make aU Mr. Boardman's corre- 
spondence of value. From Milltown, N. B., he writes 
May 5, 1868 : "I got a nice nest of Goshawk's eggs yes- 
terday, with the old female — the first I ever found with 
the old parent. I am trying hard for the Saw-whet and 
Richardson's Owl eggs. They ought to be found as they 
are not uncommon all summer in the woods. I hope you 
may soon get your arctic boxes and find some new and 
good things. The warblers have got along and hundreds 
of birds have perished by the cold." On June 10, 1868, 
writing from Boston he says: "I brought up a Pine 
Finch nest and eggs, also a Canada Jay's to Dr. Brewer, 
as he wants to figure and describe them." ' ' If you have 
any northern skins that would help my collection," he 
writes October 12, 1868, " please put them in when send- 
ing the box — say a good summer plumaged Old Squaw, 
Bonaparte Gull, and that I may compare it, one of those 
Barred Three-toed Woodpeckers and Hawk Owl," etc. 

Mr. Boardman became an expert taxidermist and his 
mounted birds, skins and eggs always looked more 
artistic and in better condition than those of any other 
collector of his time. He always had better success in 
obtaining rare specimens than most other field natural- 
ists. Writing from Jacksonville, Fla., March 12, 1869, 
he says : "I worked hard to get the Florida Jay on the 
old Smyrna road where Dr. Bryant always found them. 
I managed to get about a dozen but no other collector 
got one except Allen, who had but one. I had to let a 
few of them go for friendship's sake. I have also about 
two dozen Mocking Birds and quite a good lot of Red- 
cockade Woodpeckers." 

Writing from Boston, May 28, 1869, he says: "I 
notice what you say about the Towhees. We do not 



CORRESPONDENCE 177 

have them at Calais so I was not acquainted with them. 
I shot several last winter and think their eyes were all 
very light. One shot at Jacksonville had light eyes. I 
am anxious to get home to look after birds' eggs as it 
will soon be time for Warblers to nest." " I am glad," 
he writes from St. Stephen, June 12, 18G9, "you have 
the Great Auk in your collection. You must try and 
get bones enough this season to set up a good skeleton. 
There .should be plenty of bones at Grand Manan." On 
August 1 of the same year he writes : "I got a new bird 
for my list last week, a Black Vulture, Abrata. I got C. 
Aura about eight years ago, but Atratus I never knew^ so 
far north as cold New Brunswdck before although I have 
known of several to be taken in Massachusetts." In 
this same letter he says : "I also got a duck I did not 
know this spring, but think it was the female Labrador 
Duck and nothing new only I did not have one, which 
helps out my collection. A week ago last evening after 
tea, we took a canoe and went up stream a mile or two 
and I shot six Black Ducks and one Wood Duck — pretty 
well for after tea with ladies in the boat talking." 

"Yesterday," he writes on September 21, 1869, "I 
shot some Sparrows, one of which I think was Lincoln's 
Finch but am not sure. It looked very much like a 
Savannah Sparrow except the yellow across the breast." 
On October 1, 1869, after Prof. Baird had written him 
about this specimen he again writes: "I cannot well 
send the Finch as it is mounted. It is a common Sparrow 
that I have always taken for nice specimens of Savannah 
Sparrow, with yellowish breast. If Savannah Sparrow 
does not have the yellowish breast it is probably the 
Lincoln Finch. I have one or two skins of the Savannah 



178 THE NATURAI.IST OF THE ST. CROIX 

Sparrow that were marked by you which do not appear 
to have the yellowish shade to the breast, but the 
feathers of the tail are alike. There are lots of those 
little Autumnal Warblers about the house. I suppose 
they are the young of Black Poll — they are very abun- 
dant. I have shot half a dozen to see if they were alike. ' ' 
" The Goshawk's nest is in very good condition and I 
wiU send it. I have no doubt Dr. Brewer will have a 
nice visit. Give him all the eggs he wants if he wiU 
only finish up another part of his Oology — ten or twelve 
years for a part is slow business. He must hurry up or 
we shall all be dead before we know anything about eggs. 
I am sending some things to Wallace. I want to get a 
few Deer or Caribou heads fixed to give away. I only 
want a few but I want good ones; I don't like so much 
trash." Writing December 18, 1869, he says : "I add 
three birds new to my list this year — Florida Gallinule, 
Purple Gallinule and Black Vulture. I also hope to add 
Lincoln's Finch, but I cannot tell till I see your speci- 
mens. These were taken at Grand Manan." Writing 
from Milltown, July 26, 1870, he gives this description of 
a new duck : 

I told, or wrote you, some years ago, of shooting several small 
ducks I could not understand ; I concluded they were in young 
plumage and did not save them. Saturday I shot one female in 
full plumage, as she had with her a flock of nine chicks. When I 
shot her, I thought it a Wood Duck or Teal, and only shot one 
chick, as I did not suppose it was anything new. I hare mounted 
the old duck and chick, and wish you could tell me its name ; I 
have not looked at any books for its name as I don't know where 
to look. Its size is about the Euddy Duck, perhaps a little smaller ; 
its back, sides and breast a very bright ruddy brown, its neck 
mottled a light white and brown and looks gray, head darker, 



CORRESPONDENCE 179 

throat light and lighter from the eyes to the bill ; bill wide like 
Ruddy, but not so wide, and no turn up to the end — feet not so 
large as the Ruddy, spot on wing about the size of Teal, dove 
color or lavender edged with white, the white very narrow, under 
wings white, tail dark, the under feathers white and brown, belly 
gray mottled with brown. I don't think it any cross as it had 
a flock of young and I have shot half a dozen years before ; its 
eyes light hazel. Now dear Professor 1 have not found a new 
bird for my list this year and I want this bird to be a red breasted 
Teal, or some rare stranger as I have no doubt you will call it, 
you are so clever; you will laugh at the description, but I don't 
know any little duck whose wife it should be. It is not a Ruddy 
Duck, or Ruffled Head, Green Wing or Blue Wing, and not larger 
than either. I must try to get the male, if I get time to go up 
again, which I hope to do before long. 

It is about this specimen of which he writes to Prof. 
Baird from Boston, August 29 of the same year, when he 
says : "I left the little stranger with Dr. Brewer. If 
it should be the Tufted Duck it will be something new 
to add to your book as breeding in Maine and I hope 
you may describe it better than it has been done in the 
ninth volume (Pacific Railroad Reports) or by Audubon." 
On May 1, 1875, writing from New York to Prof. Baird 
Mr. Boardman says : "I spent most of the day yesterday 
at Central Park to see the boxes of New Zealand bird 
skeletons opened. They were all mounted and we set 
up two — they are monsters. The legs of the largest 
were just at the top of Elliot's head. You must see 
them. They have several duplicates, not quite entire, 
which the Smithsonian should have. I asked for them 
for you but got no answer, only that they should not sell 
them to Ward or any other speculator. At Philadelphia, 
where I spent two days, I called on Krider who left for 
northern Minnesota for a couple of months' collecting, 



180 THE NATURALIST OF THE ST. CROIX 

the same day I left for here. He showed me his Soli- 
tary Sandpiper's eggs. I think they are not the eggs 
of the Spotted Sandpiper. They should be larger to be 
those, but instead were smaller and darker than those of 
the spotted. He said he had some for me but I did not 
get them." 

"I have not much to report so far this year in natural 
history," Mr. Boardman writes on June 14, 1875, "only 
that I shot one Cedar bird with the waxen tips and 
bright yellow instead of red. I have been on the look- 
out for more eggs of the Ring-necked Duck. There are 
four pairs breeding at Kendrick's lake but I cannot as 
yet find the eggs. I was also told of some large Plovers 
breeding at St. Andrews island and engaged a man to 
try and find the eggs, also to be sure and get the birds. 
He sent me a nice pair of Black-bellied Plovers which 
looked as if killed with a club. The female had laid 
but I have not heard whether the eggs were found. I 
have never known this bird to breed with us although 
Wilson and Audubon say some breed in the United 
States." Writing from Jacksonville, Fla., December 30, 
1875, he writes : ' ' When in Boston I heard of a Black 
Robin taken at Plymouth. I saw two persons who saw 
the bird in a cage. I at once wrote to Mr. Joyce, a 
bird shooter, who does considerable shooting winters and 
enclose his letter. I tried to follow this Mr. Baldwin, 
the owner of the bird, to see what became of it, but 
could not find where he went from Plymouth. Dr. 
Coues wanted me to make a record of any small birds I 
could hear about in black plumage." 

Notes found in letters of 1878 are : June 21 : "I got a 
crow with a very long, slender beak, fully three-fourths of 



CORRESPONDENCE 181 

an inch longer than usual. The boys reported a crow hav- 
ing quite a musical note — nothing like the old-fashioned 
croak — but a neat trumpet sound. After getting it I 
concluded the different note was caused by its beak in 
some way being of such an odd length. I have him now, 
mounted." July 27: "I found a queer looking eel at 
a fisherman's at Calais a short time ago, caught in the 
river near the ledge. Not having any good reference 
book on fish I do not know its name or if it is worth send- 
ing to you. It may be what is called the American 
Conger Eel, Auguilla oceanica, De Kay. It has a queer 
head and in color is very prettily spotted ; colors very 
bright and yellowish ; size about the same as the com- 
mon eel. I put it in alcohol and will send it if you can- 
not make it out from what I have said. It may be com- 
mon but I have never happened to see one like it." 
August 11 : " For the last two weeks the river and bay 
have been full of little Gulls. I have had lots of them 
killed but not one is Sabine ; perhaps they do not come 
along so early in the season. I will have some of my 
gunners looking after the Ross Gull this winter." 

" I have been at work in bad weather this winter," 
Mr. Boardman writes on January 22, 1879, " in the bird 
house — the first real clearing out for several years. I 
sent your big box away and put up parts of it so long 
ago I hardly know what is in the smaller boxes in it — 
but they are bird skins, eggs, etc. Have Mr. Ridgway 
examine the large white Goose that was shot flying with 
Canada Geese at Mace's bay near Point Eepreaux. 
I heard about it and sent to St. John for the bird, think- 
ing it must be an albino, but conclude it must be a 
tame white goose that went away with the wild birds. 



182 THE NATURAI.IST OF THE ST. CROIX 

Also look at the long-beaked Crow that made such a 
singular note." With this letter is a note asking Mr. 
Ridgway to ascertain the contents of the boxes that the 
gift may be properly entered. Mr. Ridgway's report is: 
Six mounted specimens; nineteen skins; eighteen eggs; 
one skin of fish from Florida and one Corvus americanus 
with malformed bill. April 26, 1879: "I was out in 
the pasture this week and found the snow quite deep. 
Saw a common striped snake sunning himself on the 
snow. It was very active and I ran it over the snow for 
some distance, when it went into a brook and after a 
moment or two went under the water and remained 
there apparently disgusted with the looks of things this 
time of year. Is it common for snakes to be out on 
snowshoes ? " September 8, 1879, Mr. Boardman writes : 
' ' We have had a great flight of new birds migrating of 
late — a large flock of Razor-billed Shearwaters, seven of 
which were killed ; also a black Tern, new to me and a 
very pretty White Heron. I also had a Black Vulture 
sent me and heard of a Turkey Buzzard having been 
killed at Grand Manan, but I do not know the species. 
The laughing gulls have been very numerous about the 
islands of late, most of them young ones." In a letter 
written September 16, 1879, he says: 

I noticed what you say about sending the skins of the Black 
Tern to Mr. Ridgway for identification. I don't think there is 
any trouble in making them out as they were all three old birds, 
one in full dark plumage, two in change, the white feathers all 
coming through about the lower parts ; but I had another bird 
sent me I could not make out, a new bird to me; it may be a 
Gull-billed Tern as its bill was more like a Gull's, tail forked and 
long wings like a Tern. None of my books described it so I could 
not be certain. I sent the skin to Mr, Ridgway to name about the 



CORRESPONDENCE 183 

time I wrote you, but have not heard from him. The bird was 
about the size of Sabine's Gull. 

I had the tail of a very large Thresher Shark sent me a few 
days ago, and heard of a very large shark being stranded at Campo- 
bello ; sent down word to know about it and heard it was a Bask- 
ing Shark, thirty feet long and as big around as a small schooner, 
so knew it was too large to send you in a can of alcohol. 

" I have heard from Mr. Ridgway," writes Mr. Board- 
man on September 26, 1879, "and he says the skin I 
sent was Gull-billed Tern as I expected. It makes a 
bird new to my list. I had a White Heron sent me last 
week that was killed at Grand Manan and yesterday I 
mounted a Black Guillemot in change of plumage — 
white and black. I also mounted a Coot which is quite 
rare with us." 

During the year 1880 Mr. Boardman wrote most 
interesting letters, extracts from some of which are repro- 
duced. February 2 : "Since I wrote you I have had 
some skins sent me from Indian Island, near Eastport, 
among which was that of a Stonechat shot August 25. I 
have heard of its being taken before but never got one, 
this making four birds new to my list last fall, viz : 
Little Black Tern, Marsh or Gull-billed Tern, the Razor- 
billed Shearwater and Stonechat." November 3: "I 
secured a nice specimen of Golden Eagle on the meadows 
at Milltown, week before last. I was out snipe shooting 
when a big Blue Heron rose and flew a short distance, 
then dropped as if it had been shot. In a moment the 
eagle came like a meteor, struck the heron so as to upset 
both birds and in the excitement I got the eagle with 
number six shot. They are very rare with us. I never 
got but one before this. I also got a couple of little 
Yellow Rails and heard of one having been killed at the 



184 THE NATURAI.IST OF THK ST. CROIX 

Grand Manan lighthouse." November 22 : "I had last 
week a very large Raven — twenty-seven and one-half 
inches long and four pounds in weight. I never had so 
heavy a one. I have only heard of one Snowy Owl being 
seen. I send you a little fish which Mr. Wilson got for 
us as he thought it a strange fish. I do not care to say 
what I think it is until I hear from you as G. A. B. is 
not a very good authority on fish and I want to get Mr. 
Wilson interested in saving anything strange so I can 
send it to you for identification." December 3 : "I am 
very glad I sent you a Down P^ast bluefish. I did not 
suppose they ev^er came so far east as this to breed. 
That, with the Transparent Flounder, will make two new 
eastern fish or fish not before recorded so far east. I 
hope when your new 1)uilding is completed you may 
have money enough left, or appropriated anew, to have 
a good nice set of the best southern birds well put up. 
Many of them are very showy, such as the White Egrets, 
Ibis, Swallow-tailed Hawks, etc. You have all of them 
now but they are not a credit to a National Museum." 

July 9, 1882, Mr. Boardman writes: " I want you to 
name a hawk for me as I have had one sent in that I 
cannot make out. I have it mounted. It is a small 
hawk and not like any we find this way. I have none 
in my collection that I can make it agree with. It is 
about the size of the South American Hawk which I got 
in Florida winter before last — not quite as large and not 
dark on the back. Its back looks like that of Cooper's 
Hawk. Head very light streaked with dark ; throat and 
whole under parts white ; sides streaked with dark ; feet 
and biU look more like a broad-winged ; tail banded, but 
bands much narrower than those of the broad-winged 
or Cooper's." 







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CORRESPONDENCE 185 

On August 30, 1.S83, he says : " We are getting our 
house at Calais in order to go housekeeping again next 
season if all is well. We shall make our future home 
here and visit west or go south as we like. Mrs. B. 
woxdd prefer to live in Minneapolis with the children, 
but I prefer the east. We hope to go south in the winter 
if Mrs. Boardman is strong enough for the trip." 

In the winter of 1884 Mr. Boardman was in Florida 
and wrote from Jacksonville under date of February IG : 
" I got a funny looking owl yesterday. The man says 
it is a Ground Owl ; probabl}^ one of the Burrowing Owls, 
but it does not look the color of those I have seen. 
Have you the eggs of the Burrowing Owl from Florida ? 
But there are so many cheats in such things you are 
never sure of what you have unless you get them your- 
self. I have seen three Everglade Kites shot near here 
of late — something new for this neighborhood." Writ- 
ing from Calais under date of May 2, 1885, he says : 

I started a letter to you wlieu I saw the report in the papers 
you was to leave VVashiiigtou but before I sent it I saw the 
report corrected and I will tell you one of the items in it, was, 
" You will now have more leisure so you can take Mrs. liaird 
and Lucy and come down and see us." I want you to see our 
new place in Calais, and the way I have fixed my new museum. 
I put on another story ; have a gallery around the second story 
and have all the light from above. It never looked half so well 
and at Calais I have so many more visitors. The little plaster 
cast of trout makes quite a show as our people have never seen 
any such. 1 wish you could give the museum another, some salt 
water fish like a mackerel or any that you have duplicates of. T 
have not much that is fish, and as my museum is all the one 
down east, want it a good one, and while I am begging, should 
like one of those little Ross Gull skins. 



186 THE NATURAIvIST OF THE ST. CROIX 

All through the letters of these two friends are not 
only repeated expressions of the deepest friendship and 
closest personal interest, but on Mr. Boardman's part 
he is always looking out for ways to please his friend, 
becoming interested in what he is interested in, planning 
how he can get things for the Smithsonian and always 
making inquiries about the scientific workers, what they 
are doing and what they are getting for the Institution. 
The personal allusions are always interesting. Writing 
to Prof. Baird from Boston, May 28, 1869, Mr. Boardman 
says : ' ' The box of plants came to hand all right before 
I left and were in very good order. Mrs. Boardman sent 
for Dr. Todd to help unpack them and she divided them 
with him. The ferns were first-rate and Mrs. Boardman 
wishes me to thank you for a box of the finest plants she 
ever received from Washington." Writing August 26, 
1869, he says : " Thanks for Mrs. Baird's letter of yes- 
terday ; glad to hear you are home again all right and 
had a good time. I was thinking of you yesterday in 
the blow and thought Mrs. Baird better have a little 
extra insurance upon you if you were at Grand Manan. 
I note what you say about future work and think you 
had better all come up Monday. Then we will see what is 
best to be done." Prof. Baird had written to Mr. Board- 
man about a wash or preparation to apply to the hands 
and face for preventing mosquito bites and Mr. Board- 
man says it will no doubt be a great thing. " Get the 
Smithsonian, ' ' he writes, " to go into its manufacture. If 
you cannot get the large hall for the purpose get the 
capital and fit up that. It is time those political chaps 
were sent home. I can't see any good they do ; most of 
them would be better employed at home making shoes, 



CORRESPONDENCE 187 

and can there be out of the way of the great mosquito 
poison manufacturing company. I think I should like 
one thousand shares of the stock." "I have been out 
twice this week," he writes July 14, 1870, "but each 
time was driven home by showers. I however got, each 
time, some Ducks and Woodcock ; four Ducks one time. 
I think you had better let Woods Holl slide and come 
down bird shooting and shell-heap hunting." In one 
letter he writes that he is glad Mrs. Baird was pleased 
with the raspberries which are plenty and he would send 
them oftener if he could only get the boys to pick them. 
In another letter he writes : "I was expecting to go to 
Kendrick lake this afternoon to get some of those young 
Grebes, but Mrs. Boardman is to have President Harris 
and a lot of company to tea and she is afraid I shall not 
be back in time or may tear my pants and besides, she 
says Saturday is no time to have dead birds about and 
that I shall not go — so for the love of woman I shall 
have no chick Grebes this week." He writes about 
Prof. Baird having left Eastport when he was there in 
the late summer of 1869, without having come up to 
Milltown to say good by, adding : "I was almost sure 
something awful would happen to you for it. You may 
think yourself very fortunate you were not all down to 
the bottom of the ocean ; I feel thankful that old Neptune 
was so easy as to let you off with only a long swell. I 
hope you have been forgiven for the way you left. You 
must all be sure to come back to Georgie's wedding as 
we are to have a gay old time. ' ' In July, 1870 he writes : 
" I have hardly skinned a bird since I came from Florida 
— instead of mounting them I have taken to eating them. 
I think Woodcock and Snipe are best broiled, Duck 



188 THE NATURAI.IST OF THE ST. CROIX 

roasted." In one letter written in July, Mr. Boardman 
says : "I see by the papers you have been having very 
warm weather and last Sunday read of a severe thunder 
shower at Gloucester. Georgie is like L,ucy, very much 
afraid of thunder and she was having lots of sympathy 
for Lucy." 

During the years of 1868 to 1872 Prof. Baird had been 
greatly interested in examining the shell heaps along the 
Eastern Maine coast for Indian relics. At first Mr. 
Boardman used to write him they were "a humbug," 
while on one occasion when Prof. Baird was planning to 
go up from Eastport and spend sometime in digging, he 
said : "I don't believe the few old bones you will get 
are worth the trouble. I think we had better go shoot- 
ing and get something good to eat." Eater, however, in 
his desire to aid Prof. Baird's researches, he gave much 
attention to these shell heaps, saying, in one letter, very 
frankly, "Since last summer they have more interest to 
me." 

One day Dan, one of Mr. Boardman 's workmen 
came from up river bringing one gouge, one chisel, two 
sinkers, a whetstone, a few other stones and some bones. 
He was gone four days, " which comes to $10.00," writes 
Mr. Boardman, " but I do not know the value of such 
things in money." Then he writes that he has found 
" some queer stone things in a mound over at St. 
George." Again that he has " found out by one of our 
pilots of a very big shell heap about three miles below 
the one we dug into at Simpson's last year and five times 
as large. I thought of going down but then concluded 
you had better come up (Prof. Baird was at Eastport) 
and make the new and great discoveries yourself. The 



CORRESPONDENCE 189 

pilot says he will have a look at Grand Manan as he 
knows of a heap on the point near Head Harbor light 
about ten miles east of Eastport where you can easily go 
from Eastport any pleasant day." Prof. Bailey of St. 
John and Prof. T. Sterry Hunt of Montreal visited Mr. 
Boardman in August, 1869 and as President Harris of 
Bowdoin College was then at Mr. Boardman 's, Dr. Todd 
took them out to see the Oak Bay shell heap, as they 
had never seen one and Mr. Boardman could not go. 
Prof. Baird was also going to Grand Manan to visit the 
heaps at lyCpreaux, Mr. Boardman writing: " I am so 
far away I cannot always get down in season for good 
weather so you had better not depend upon me as Cheney 
will show you all the places." Again he writes : ' ' The 
day Dr. Todd was down to the heaps with President 
Harris they found a large rib bone of some animal very 
much larger than the largest ox or moose. I will bring 
it down Monday and perhaps you can tell what creature 
formerly used it. Dr. Todd thinks the bay shell heap 
would pay to dig all up — we will see about that, how- 
ever, when we cannot find any new ones to dig that are 
more interesting." Finally, regarding these shell heaps 
Mr. Boardman writes : 

I went to St. Andrews last week by laud. I called to see 
Mrs. Simpson. Mr. Taylor was with me and we went down to 
see the old shell heap as I had heard nothing from it since the 
great October tide and gale. It was badly washed away. I think 
nearly ten feet must have been carried away since the first time 
we saw it. It is all away now up to a little above the fence. 
There was so much drift stuff all about that Mr. Simpson could 
find nothing of any account. He did, however, find one bone 
with a hole in the middle, sharp at each end and about five inches 
long, probably used for a needle, and also one or two stones not 



190 THE NATURALIST OF THE ST. CROIX 

amounting to much. I will try to go down when I have time and 
give the beach a good overhauling. I am glad you came when 
you did to see the heaps for it will not be very long before most 
of them will be washed away. The gales last fall probably 
destroyed dozens of them about the coast. But if you will go to 
Florida with me next winter we will go shell heap digging all 
winter as there are plenty of them there. 

Mr. Boardman's letters are full of interesting personal 
allusions showing his interest in people. Writing January 
3, 1869, he says : "I have often thought of your sick 
friend at Beverl)% I think his name was Swan. Did you 
ever hear from him after his arrival in Europe ?" October 
25 of the same year : ' ' Write me if Ridgway is with 
you and if he found much that was new. Give him my 
kind respects." November 29, writing of Dr. Brewer 
he says: " I have no doubt Dr. Brewer and family will 
find Washington much more pleasant when Congress is 
in session and know they will have a fine time. The 
doctor will be in clover when he gets at the eggs. I 
always like to look them over but I think I enjoy that 
chap's steamed oysters, down on the avenue, fully as 
much — better still your splendid library. ' ' After return- 
ing from Boston in November, 1872, where he went to 
witness the ruins of the great fire he writes: "You 
have heard by the papers all the particulars. Dr. Brewer 
looks as smiling as though he had found some new egg. 
Their stock was all burned, not a thing was got out. 
Many of our friends lost all." Writing from Jackson- 
ville, April 12, 1875, he says : "I have given Dr. Henry 
Foster, owner of the great sanitorium at Clifton Springs, 
a letter of introduction to you. He owns a splendid 
establishment up at Lake Jessup, twenty-five miles above 
Enterprise. He is one of the best men I ever met in 



CORRESPONDENCE 191 

Florida and I want you to know him. If you ever get 
time to come to Florida he wants you to visit him ; he is 
away in the woods where people cannot find him. He 
built the little steam yacht Clifton, which I was in several 
winters. He expects to be in Washington next vSunday. 
Mrs. Foster is a sister to Mr. Edwards, the butterfly man 
and a very fine lady." November 24, 1878: "When 
you wrote last you was about sending a man to Georges 
to collect sea birds and other natural history specimens. 
What did he get that was new or interesting ?" February 
6, 1879: "When I left Washington last iVpril Prof. 
Glover was quite ill. I have never heard from him since. 
Did he recover?" 

" I have not written you," says Mr. Boardman in a 
letter dated February 2, 1880, "since I heard of the 
death of Prof. Milner. The last you wrote me about 
him was in the spring, that it was thought his trouble 
was not with his lungs. I asked about him in some letters 
but as you did not mention him I supposed he had 
recovered and was with you at his work. I was very 
sorry to read of his death. He was a very nice fellow. 
And then so soon to read of the death of our dear old 
friend Dr. Brewer. It was a great shock to me. I had 
not heard of his being ill and having letters from him 
every little while did not realize he might be sick. I 
shall miss him very much. He was such a home body, 
too. I hardl}^ know how Mrs. Brewer and Luc}- will get 
along without him. But this must be the way very soon 
with all of us old fellows — our time will soon be up." 

Writing in reference to the Fisheries Exhibition in 
London in 1880, he says under date of April 5 of that 
year: "I expect you were very busy getting your 



192 THE NATURALIST OF THE ST. CROIX 

exhibition specimens away and expect before this you 
have heard of the safe arrival of Prof Goode. I feel quite 
an interest in how the show will take on the other side. 
If we do not get a good account on this side from the 
newspapers you must write me about it, or, better still, 
come down and tell us all about it. It is now our turn 
to have the fish commission down this way. Province- 
town, Gloucester and Woods Holl must be about worked 
out and I know there must be some new fish in Eastport 
waters that require looking after. * * * Do you ever 
hear anything from Henry E. Dresser? Did he ever 
finish his birds of Europe ? He sent me thirty-six num- 
bers and I have lately written him but as yet get no 
answer. I should be pleased to hear of his prosperity 
and that the book was finished and made to pay. You 
wrote me last year that there was a prospect of the 
Water Birds (Baird, Brewer and Ridgway) being pub- 
lished by the Cambridge people ; I hope they may do so. 
Is there anything new ? I have added another bird to 
my list taken at Grand Manan — a Fulmar Petrel. I 
expect they are often about the fishing grounds only not 
looked after and hence not discovered." 

" I called when in New York," Mr. Boardman says 
in a letter written at Boston under date of May 29, 1882, 
"to see Dr. Holden at the American Museum. He said 
they wanted a good taxidermist. I told him about Mr. 
Webster of Rochester ; that I had recommended him to 
you and that I thought he was partially engaged to you. 
I hope you may have him in Washington and from what 
I saw of his work at the meeting of taxidermists at Bos- 
ton last winter, think he is just the artist for the National 
Museum, who with Hornaday, Eucas and Marshall would 



CORRESPONDENCE 193 

make a team that would be hard to beat by any of the 
European museums." 

Writing at Milltovvn, July 23, 1882, he says: "I 
received your letter and think I should not have answered 
it so soon only to ask about Nelson who, you say, has 
gone away to Colorado, sick. When you write tell me 
what the matter is with him. I wish he had come this 
way for I think our summer climate very hard to beat. 
He wanted me to send him a few skins of our eastern 
birds from my duplicates. I sent him many and wrote 
him but did not receive an answer." Again on Decem- 
ber 29, of the same year, writing from Minneapolis, he 
says : "I have not been able to hear from Mr. Nelson. 
How is he ? Have you heard anything from Turner? 
Let me hear." In 1883, on March 6, he writes : " Have 
you anything new from Mr. Nelson, if so let me know. 
I hope to hear he is better." 

" I received a letter a few days ago," Mr. Boardman 
writes on September 8, 1885, "from a Mr. Wright 
which I enclose. I have nearly forgotten about the ring 
as it was fifteen years ago. It would be just like me to 
get the ring (I learned that trick from you) for the 
Smithsonian. If you have any book such as he describes, 
please have it sent him or send some other book. The 
ring, I think, is in the large room at the Smithsonian, 
It was dug from an Indian mound." And so the happy 
record goes on until the long and intimate friendship, 
uninterrupted for a period of nearly a quarter of a cen- 
tury, comes to an end. 



194 THE NATURAUST OF THE ST. CROIX 

Letters from Mr. Boardman to Prof. Baird 

MiLLTOWN, Maine, Jan. 4, 1865. 
Dear Baird: 

I received your last letter and should be glad if I could give 
you any information tliat would be new in the northern distribu- 
tion of many common birds. I have long been a close observer of 
the ha])its and for some time have been a collector of birds, and in 
my journeyings from Massachusetts to Western Maine, to this 
neighborhood, North Eastern Maine and New Brunswick there 
appears to be a diftereut fauna. We do accidentally find many 
more southei-n bii'ds but only as stragglers and in this neighbor- 
hood have found two hundred and forty species, and I think this 
is about the seutheru locality for the breeding in abundance of 
many northern birds, and too far north and east for the breeding 
grounds of many most common Massachusetts and Western Maine 
birds. Among the birds that breed common with us and are best 
known are the little blue Snow Biid, one of our most common 
summer birds. The White Throat .Sparrow very common. Yellow 
Kump very common. Black Poll Warbler, Hermit Thrush, Canada 
Jay, Pine Finch, both Eed and White Cross Bills, Spruce Par- 
tridge, Winter Wren, Black Back Three-toed Woodpecker, Yellow- 
bellied Woodpecker, Yellow Red Poll very common, as are the 
most of the above all summer. The Duck Hawk, Pigeon Hawk 
and Goshawk are not at all uncommon. I found the Plialarope 
breeding in two places last season ; Blue Wing Teal find breeding 
every year. The Golden Eye and Sheldrake (Mergus Ameri- 
canus) breed very common, both in trees and are common with 
us winter and summer, as does the Hooded Merganser ( ?) breed in 
trees but is rare in winter. The Eider Duck breeds common 
about the Islands and once found the King Eider at the Islands 
first of June, probably breeding. The Gannet and Cormorant, a few 
breed; Herring Gull are abundant all summer and also breed 
about the fresh water lakes. The great Black Back Gull also 
breed, but are getting rare. I also find through the forest in 
summer very many Warblers and think many of them breed in 
about this latitude but our forests are so extensive I seldom find 
the nest. I forgot to say the Pazor Bill, Puffin and Sea Pigeon, 



CORRESPONDENCE 195 

MuiT (?) were with us all suimncr, but not very abundaut. We 
also ol'teii find stragglers from the north in sumuier, but are so 
uncoiuniou are hardly worth nieutiouhig, sueh as llawk Owl, 
Snowy Owl, llit'hardsou's owl, etc. The most of the birds I have 
mentioned you will rarely find about Massachusetts or Western 
Maine in sununer and many of their conmion birds we never see, 
aud otliers very rarely. The Towhee Bunting and IJrown Thrush 
we never see. The Meadow Lark only one specimen, Blue Bird 
rare. Cooper Hawk and Mottled Owl very rare. Yellow Bill 
Cuckoo very rare. House Wren also rare. Have never found the 
Prairie Warbler, Worm Eating Warbler or Pine Warbler, but I 
believe I wrote you I found a nice male specimen of Prothonotary 
Warbler two falls ago. There has been considerable written 
about the ClitF Swallow migrating south. I came from Massa- 
chusetts to this part of the country in the year 1828 ; the Clili' 
Swallow was then very abundant, building the whole length the 
eaves of barns, as much we see them now, which was not the 
case in Massachusetts. 

1 have written in considerable hurry without any method or 
arrangement and if there is any idea new to you I shall be well 
repaid. I have for a long time been surprised there should be in 
so short a distance as about one hundred or two hundred miles so 
great a change in the breeding places of many liardy and caily 
birds as the Blue Bird and others of Massachusetts ami then that 
we should have so many that do not breed with them. I also find 
in Southern Nova Scotia, Massachusetts birds much more common. 
Having been so busy of late, I have not had time to attend to our 
favorite pursuit, but hope to be looking up something us soon as I 
go up to the logging camp. 

Wishing you the compliments of the season, I am 
Yours very truly, 

Geo. a. Boahdman. 

MiLLTOWN, 6 Sept., 18G5. 
Dear Baird: 

I have but just received your letter of the 4th, could not get 
it last night; Charley waited for the Eastport mail to open but 
somehow it did not get into the box. 



196 THE NATURALIST OF THE ST. CROIX 

I hope before this you have my letter written Monday. The 
stage man I have not seen since Monday. I intended going to 
Calais today but it is so rainy I ujaj' not go down. Let me know 
which way you prefer going and I will make the best trade I can. 
The air line man only asked $30, the Machias man $35 but said he 
would do it as low as any one. The air line would be one day 
shortest, and a very nice, romantic ride through the woods, of 45 
miles each day. The other way three days of 40 miles each day, 
and the former air line way would see, I think, i^lenty of birds 
to shoot, and I think the air line you would like best, but if you 
prefer to go by way of Machias, I think 1 can get you taken 
along at about the same price, f 30, and might possibly get the air 
line man to say $25 ; if the rain liolds up will go down to see. 
My cold is better but far from well. 

My brother and nephew I told you about up the river got 
down last night; shot fifteen ducks, one bear, some partridges 
and other game. I wish we had gone that cruise; they took 
an Indian and a canoe, went up Chepetnicook river and back, say 
the river was full of Ducks, Mergansers and Divers of one kind 
and another all the way. 

Charles goes back to Brunswick tomorrow. I think he will 
get this letter to you before the mail. 

I have just left ofi" writing. A man has brought me a Gos- 
hawk ; it flew into his barn after the hens and he killed it with a 
club. They are our most destructive Hawk, and will take hens 
from the doors of any country farm house. It is in young 
plumage, the eyes yellow ; the old birds have red eyes. This 
makes quite a variety of Hawks for a few days — Red Shouldered, 
Broad Winged, Cooper and Goshawk. 

I notice what you say about your Pacific letters, should be 
much pleased to read some of them. Why not send up by Capt. 
Spring all you care to have me read. I will have them kept safe 
until you come up, or return them next day, and should like very 
much to read some of the letters from your Hudson Bay Co. 
correspondent you was telling me about. There is no reading I 
like so well. I should like to have you look over Prof. Hinds' 
bird list for birds you think were never found in the province, or 
lend me the list as I want to write the man to know how he came 



CORREvSPONDENCE 197 

to heut iiH! in liiHlliij^ rare thiiiojs, and [)erli!i]>.s I can J4"0t. some of 
his specimens. Charley has just come from Mr. Spaulditig's who 
says he will take you (his i-oute is by way of Machias) for thirty 
dollars. It is so damp I have not been out much to-day. I am 
sorry you have to go so soon. I expected to have a good cruise 
somewhere but it doesn't look much like it now. You must come 
another year. Let me know the day you come up. 
Yours truly, 

BOARDMAN. 

Jacksonville, Florida, February 1, 1868. 
Dear Baird: 

I have been thinking of writing you for a day or two, but 
there are so many new things to look at I have not thought of 
hardly writing home. 

After I left your house we had a good passage to Richmond 
where I spent one day, then went to Wilmington, made a short 
visit. Next day went to Charleston, where I spent nearly a week, 
arrived here day before yesterday. The weather when in Charles- 
ton was very fine. I had a nice visit. I called to see Dr. Back- 
man ; he was very glad to meet me, full of talk about old collecting 
times. He is seventy-eight j^ears old, but quite active mentally. 
He has lost the use of one of his arms. His library and valuables 
were taken for safe keeping to Columbia, to his son's house, but 
when Sherman's men burned the place all his valuables were 
burned, which if they had been left at Charleston would have 
been safe ; all his specimens wei-e destroyed. The soldiers nearly 
killed him because he would not tell them where the plate of the 
officer with whom he boarded was buried. He admits he was a 
little saucy to them. He was glad to hear from you and sends 
his regards to you and Mr. Brewer. He had very many questions 
to ask about ornithology as he had hardly looked at a book or 
bird for eight years. Since I have arrived here we have had a 
cold norther. I have not had my gun out ; the place is so full I 
can hardly get a room, and if I do not do better shall go to St. 
Augustine to-morrow, and try to get a cliauce down the coast. 
There are no vessels here and the collector, Mr. Moody, says he 
does not think there are any vessels below Fernandiua belonging to 



198 THE NATURALIST OF THE ST. CROIX 

the service, but St. Augustiue is the better place to get clowu the 
coast. 

I see many birds new to me sucli as Cardinals, small Crows, 
Buzzards, different kinds of Gulls, Terns. Blue Jays are quite 
common, but have not seen one Florida Jay. I see many of our 
summer birds, Eobins, Crackles, Bed Poll Warblers, Sparrows, 
etc., etc. I saw in Carolina very large flocks of Doves, Meadow 
Larks and Blackbirds. I have agreed for some Pouched Eats if 
the boys can get them, also the Land Turtle. The negroes eat the 
latter. I have seen ice two mornings since I have been here, the 
first of the season. The orange trees are full, and some few in 
blossom. I find the express of a small box of oranges to New 
York will cost three dollars. Adams & Co. does not come here. 

With many thanks for your kind attention when I was in 
Washington, hoping you, Mrs. Baird and Lucy are all well, I am 
Very truly yours, 

Geo. a. Boardman. 

Jacksonville, 13 March, 18G8. 
Dear Baird : 

Since I Avrote you at G. C. Springs I have made up a box of 
about fifty birds and sent by express. I could not get them 
along with my baggage as I shall return by land. There are three 
Salamander skins, by the boys, not done very nicelj'. I sent 
another box in a trunk to Boston and can send back by 
Adams & Co. They were collected at St. Augustine. My collection 
made here I can't find, they were left with a friend until my 
return ; he has gone up river, may get them before I leave. I 
hope you may find some you may want. I had no arsenic to 
prepare large birds, and all the larger birds I did not skin. I did 
not shoot anything very rare ; there were some good White 
Herons and a few Hawks, nothing very rare. 1 shall probably 
leave for Savannah Tuesday next, from there go to Augusta, 
Aiken, and so along to Norfolk, and be in Baltimore the last of 
the mouth. Very few birds have begun to breed except the larger, 
as Fish ILawks, Eagles, etc., etc. 

I like this climate very nmch ; think I shall try to spend my 
winters here. I have the promise of some collectors down at 
Indian river, to get and send you some eggs ; hope they may do so. 



CORRESPONDENCE 199 

Another winter I hope to come prepared to go to the head of the 
river and camp out and have a regular hunt. I have been at most 
every place on the St. Johns river — enjoyed myself very nicely. 
Wish you could spend a month or two visiting this very interest- 
ing part of Uncle Sam's farm. Hoping Mrs. Baird is all well 
long before this and with kind regards to her and Lucy, 
I am very truly yours, 

Geo. a. Boardman. 
P. S. Please excuse the pencil letter as I have no ink. I could 
give Prof. Henry the standing of the thermometer at Greencove 
Springs every day since the 1st of January if wanted. Have not 
had a rainy day for three weeks, most beautiful weather, ther- 
mometer often up to 80° in the shade at noon. It was 84° at five 
o'clock this afternoon. 

MiLLTOVTN, 25 May, 1868. 
My Dear Baird : 

I received your letter of the 20th May. I have no one I care 
about in the egg collection and anything I get you can have. The 
Goshawk's egg you can have and I will try to get the nest ; it was 
built in a branch of a birch about thirty feet up, quite a large flat 
nest, outside of sticks, inside fine stuff and moss. I went near the 
same place for another but found it only a Broad-wing. I got 
three good eggs. It was a very rainy day and took me about all 
day — got well soaked. I also went up to the lake but it was so 
rainy it did not pay — glad to get home. It has rained all the time 
for two weeks ; if fine I shall try to go up again this week. I know 
where several Whistlers, Mergansers, Wood Ducks, etc., breed and 
I want to get them for you. I went to the nests when up but it 
rained so hard I could not get any one to go up ; they are very 
high and the trees are old and rotten. The Pine Finch eggs and 
nest you can have and, as I said before, any eggs and nests I get, 
also the Canada Jay's nest and eggs you can have until you get 
more and then you can return them. Brewer wants the nest and 
eggs to figure or compare all three — Goshawk, Pine Finch and 
Canada Jay — as he is at work for the egg book, suppose it will be 
right to send to him for a time with instructions to send to you. 
The Jay's nest is a very odd affair. I shall have to go to New 



200 THE NATURALIST OF THE ST. CROIX 

York the first of June or about that time ; will send them to you 
or leave them with him as you say. I will also send what Newton 
says is Pine Grosbeak ; they were sent to me for that by young 
Dresser, brother to Henry E. of London. I wrote H. E. about the 
Steller Duck egg, told him to send to you. I expected to do a 
good thing egging this Spring but the weather has been so bad I 
could not go in a canoe without getting wet tlirough. Hope this 
week will be better but it is now raining and I am writing very 
fast for the mail. How about the Pied Duck? What has become 
of the bird? it used to be common; can it be possible it will 
become extinct? A clumsy bird like Great Auk or Dodo might 
get run out but a good diver and flyer like this duck should take 
care of itself. I did not know it was so rare; supposed your 
northern folks would find it breeding ; I think they must have 
gone to some other parts ; you must look them up by your col- 
lectors ; they may be down to Newfoundland. 

I wish you were here to go up to the lakes fishing this week. 
We would have a good time. I am sorry to have to go west so 
soon as I prefer to be here this season. 

Kind regards to Mrs. Baird and Lucy. 

As ever, yours, 

Geo. A. BOARDMAN. 

MiLLTOWN, August 22, 1868. 
My Dear Professor : 

I have just received your letter of August 20th, sorry you are 
so long getting away. Was looking for you to-day. Come as 
soon as you can, Wednesday or Friday if possible. I think it would 
do Mrs. Baird and Lucy good to take a steamboat trip with you. 
Don't talk about must be back the ensuing Thursday or Saturday, 
but say, must be back the ensuing Thursday or Saturday, if God 
(and Geo. A. Boardman) are willing. I notice what you say 
about digging old clams. There is a large lot of old heaps near 
St. Andrews. I told Dr. Adams about digging into them, as he 
has been for two weeks attending court there. I do not know 
what has been found. There may be more of such shell heaps 
about the islands. I think if you dig them all over you will have 
to stay more than a week. There is also plenty of AVaders about 
and you can dig the old clams and I will shoot the birds. I think 



CORRESPONDENCE 201 

I sliould have a better time shooting than digging. 1 dnn"t have 
much of a fancy for digging, but can get some one to do the 
I'ough. ^Ve will see about tliis wlien j'ou get here. 1 will irKjuire 
if tliore are any otlier heaps. My friend, Mr. Osborn, may know 
of others. The St. Andrews people have hauled lots of this heap 
away for manure ; they may have found some good things. If so 
we possibly cau get them. 

I received a letter a day or two ago from Dr. Brewer saying 
among other things, that another book (not by Samuels) was 
possibly to come out, called Birds of New England, or a new 
edition of Nuttall. I should be pleased to see it. 

There is a Mr. Darling, a clergyman, spending the summer 
here from Kennebunk, whom I told I expected, some, a Mr. Swan 
from his place ; says he knows him very well, and that he is one 
of the best men in New England. 

Please excuse the haste with which I have written and 
remember us to Mrs. Baird and Lucy. Hoping to see you very 
soon I am 

Very truly yours, 

G. A. BOARDMAN. 

P. S. Fred and Albert were very sorry you could not be 
here before their retui*n to college. Albert left yesterday ; Fred 
leaves next Friday. 

MiLLTOWN, 29 October, 18G8. 
Dear Baird: 

I received your two letters and the money for Dan's bill. 

Glad to hear you had returned to Washington and got settled 
into your work again. I expect you must have found some new 
things among Dall's collection. If anything very rare let me 
know. 

I have just returned from Boston where all the family have 
been on a visit to see Charley married. He went away south for 
a short cruise and I do not know but he went as far as Washing- 
ton, if so he would go to the Smithsonian and you would be likely 
to see him. We expect him home Tuesday night. Georgie returned 
last night by way of Bangor, after a cold, windy ride. We are 
having very cold weather for the season, have had two hard snow 



202 THE NATURAUST OF THE ST. CROIX 

storms ; this morning the thermometer stood 18° above. Ice strong 
enough for boys to skate, something very rare for October. 

I have not had time to go shooting this fall, but hope if we 
have fine weather, to go away a few days. The winter birds have 
got along, and everything looks like winter ; our lumbering opera- 
tions will soon close. 

I am keeping a lookout for anything I can hear about the 
shell heaps. There have been several men here selling horses from 
Prince Edward Island. They say oystei-s are more abundant 
than clams and they think there are plenty of old heaps but don't 
know how ancient any of them may be. I have heard more about 
the stone profile found in the old mound at St. George, but am 
afraid we cannot get it as it has been sent to St. John; but next 
summer perhaps you may talk them out of it, at any rate you can 
get the loan of it, or perhaps exchange. I had a very ancient 
Indian anchor made of wood, hooked up out of the lake. I do 
not know as it would hardly pay to send, but is quite an oddity 
and looks very old. 

When I was home, I tried hard to find some butter that would 
answer you, and have it sent from up country but it is very poor 
and costs forty cents ; I have put it in the shop, and am expecting 
more. I shall not send anything Mrs. B. does not approve. I 
made a bargain with our butter maker for all he had or could 
make in the spring at thirty cents on the English side, but some 
butter speculators came along and offered him forty cents and I 
lost it or the most of it. I will keep a sharp lookout for a good 
firkin or two. The duty, twelve cents in gold, is very much against 
the English side butter. 

If you have a set to spare of antelope horns, also a bow and 
arrows such as the Western Indians use to shoot buffalo, I should 
like them. I want to show the latter to our Indians, also a pair of 
snow shoes that turn up at the front. I think if our Indians and 
moose hunters would make them like the lot I saw at the Institu- 
tion they would be much better than such as are used this way. 

With kind regards to Mrs. Baird and Lucy, believe me 
Yours as ever, 

Geo. a. Boardman. 



CORRESPONDENCE 203 

MiLLTOWN, 24 June, 1869. 
My Dear Professor: 

1 received your letter of the 20th to-day, glad to hear you are 
all well. Mrs. Boardman is some better part of the time. Most of 
the trouble is with her head. I keep her out riding all I can. 
Have just been out to the cemetery ; shot a new kind of Pewee. I 
will let you tell rae the name when you get here. If the short 
legged Pewee ever came here should call it that bird, as it is not 
large enough for Olive Sided. There were two but I could not 
find the nest and had to be contented with the bird. 

Your friend, Senator Edmunds from Vermont, has been down 
on his salmon fishing cruise, went home this morniug perfectly 
happy. I could not leave and Fred went up to the lakes with 
him. They were gone one week ; had a very nice time ; caught 
more of those little salmon than was necessary for sport. Caught 
two hundred ; some weighed four pounds, averaged two pounds. 
Fred told the Senator about the Indian things in the banks and he 
dug out a nice arrow head and part of a spear. I think the latter, 
i. e., Indian things, were on your permit, and the Senator had no 
right to anything but the fish. I believe I told you I got one of 
the lake salmon last fall tliat weighed over ten pounds. I have it 
nicely mounted. 

I am glad you are getting so many nice things from the other 
side; they are verj^ good to compare, and I am of the opiuion that 
many of the European birds that we have given a different name 
are not much diflerent from American. 

I notice what you say about making Eastport your head- 
quarters. The new hotel is not yet opened, don't know when 
it will be, but probably pretty soon. Tliey have been so tardy, 
not knowing who will keep the house, they have no boarders 
engaged. The air is very fine in summer at Eastport, but the 
company is ten times better at Milltown, and much better dig- 
gings of Indian remains. I have been looking for a good boarding 
place here, but cannot find anything that will do. It is almost 
impossible to get good lielp, but tliought we could take good care 
of you, and had Mrs. Boardman been as well as usual would not let 
you have gone to any other place, and at any rate, must be with 
VIS part of the time, and will have plenty of chance to look uj) a 



204 THE NATURALIST OF THE ST. CROIX 

place aud I can go to St. Andrews or Eastport if I can do any- 
thing. St. Andrews is a very quiet, pleasant place but don't like 
the company. We must try to go to Grand Manan and other 
places and hope Mrs. Boardman will be well enough and all the 
ladies go over. With much love to all. 

Yours truly, 

Geo. a. Boardman. 

MiLLTOWN, 4 Aug., 1870. 
Dear Baird : 

I have but just received your letter, very glad you are having 
such a nice time boating and fishing. I see by the papers the 
weather has been very warm west. I am glad you found a cool 
place. We have had a few warm days, but to-day is almost cool 
enough for a fire. Mrs. Boardman is very poorly, takes most of 
my time to see to her. I keep her out riding all I can, the doctor 
wants her to be kept free from care and excitement. She is very 
nervous ; last week, hardly left her room, but this week is better. 
I notice what you say about the duck. I don't know about the 
female Red Head, the bird has always been very rare with us. I 
don't know as I ever saw a female to know it, the male, I have got 
one or two of the gunners but a long time ago ; the size was so 
small I did not think of its being the female of the King Neck, as 
the male is quite a good sized duck, and this not larger than a 
lluddy or Teal. I have just been looking at the description of the 
female of the Ruddy, and it is so short I cannot make much out of 
it. I have also looked at Audubon's description and plate, which 
does not look anything like this bird, only the spot on the wing is 
the same. Audubon says its breast is white. This bird has a very 
dark ruddy, or chestnut brown breast, and belly about the same as 
the Ruddy. Audubon's description does not come near it, but he 
may not have seen it in breeding plumage if it changes, and he 
says the male has large tufts in breeding time. Should it be the 
Ring Neck, it would be something new to have it breeding in 
Maine. Frank Todd was up at the same place shooting, and I told 
him to keep a sharp lookout for this duck, and he found another 
brood and old one. The old one he missed but shot oue chick 
which was the same, so there were two broods. 



CORRESPONDENCE 205 

Is the Ring Neck a duck that breeds very far north? Have 

you the eggs? I may go to Boston soon and will take the old 

duck and chick, or if I do not go, -will send to the care of Dr. 

Brewer. I shall try to go up again and see if I cannot find the 

old male or at any rate get some good ducks to eat. Love to all 

the folks. 

Geo. a. Boardman. 

MiLLTOWN, Nov. 21, 1870. 
Dear Professor : 

I received your letter a few days since. I wrote you in my 
last about finding another black-red Squirrel ; since 1 have had a 
very pi'etty snow white one with pink eyes, so if you have a 
black one, I don't believe you have so pretty a white one, and I 
hear there are more at the same place and hope to get another for 
you. 

Since I wrote I received a letter from the moose man who says 
he will get the skeletons this winter but says I must give him 
more than I offered ; says the horns sell for five to ten dollars. I 
tell him if he gets good large ones I won't mind a few dollars ; 
we may have to give him $40 to $45 for two, but I want you to see 
them before I pay, as he might lose some of the small bones. 

I suppose the little duck could be no other than Felix Collaus 
but it was so small and so different from Audubon's figure I was 
not certain ; there were some at the shooting party at Princeton 
looking just like Audubon's figure, with white belly but all larger 
than the one I took in the summer. I must try another spring to 
look up the streams to see what ducks breed in New England that 
we have never found ; the Barrow I think does, and before you 
finish up your book I want to have some new things in it. You 
must note the red Phalarope as breeding with us. Hope Maynard 
may find some good things down on the Keys. I did not hear 
before anything of Stimpson's expedition. He might find you a 
skeleton of the Sea Cow along the coast. I think I shall try to go 
down Indian river this winter after I get settled; think I shall 
send my horse and carriage down for Mrs. Boardman to ride about 
the woods — she and Willie I think will go down with me. We 
shall try to go away about Christmas. Wish you could spend a 
few weeks to go down and see the country. Alligators, etc., etc. 
We are having nice warm weather for the season, mills all going 



206 THE NATURALIST OF THE ST. CROIX 

— lots winter birds about, such as Piue Grosbeaks, some pretty 
Chatterers down in Mr. Todd's garden; he doesn't want me to 
shoot the Wax Wings. Love to all your folks. 
As ever yours, 

Geo. a. Boardman. 

MiLLTOWN, 19 January, 1875. 
Mt Dear Professor : 

I received your letter a few days since ; sorry the postal car 
got burned. Don't think of much news to write, very cold 
weather is no news for us. We have had a very long cold snap, 
thermometer sometimes 25 below zero and hardly get up to zero 
all day, wind blowing a gale most all the time. 

This would be splendid weather for some of you people writ- 
ing up water birds for the other volumes. Such winters as this 
should bring down lots of new Arctic birds, such as Gulls, Divers, 
etc., etc., and a splendid place would be to go to the Wolves Island, 
up in the Bay of Fundy, out on some of the rocks ; it would be a 
very bad i^lace for boats, but a fellow might swim after the birds, 
if he shot any very rare ones, and he could skin them after he got 
home as they would not spoil, this weather, in two days. Joking 
aside, I believe for some good naturalist to go to such a place as 
the Wolves, and stop with a Mr. Paul, who lives there, would 
get more rare things than he would at most any other place. 
Many winter birds come no further than this. No one shoots this 
time of year, or only to shoot a duck and many good birds are 
overlooked ; no collectors go in winter. I was ten years trying 
to teach Cheney, but had to give it up. Audubon, Wilson, Nuttall, 
etc., etc., all went south in winter. A Mr. Stewart was over to the 
Wolves and told me he saw more than five hundred Harlequin 
ducks in one cove. A good chance for any young collector that 
wishes to make a martyr of himself and freeze to death here is a 
good chance. I think before long I shall go south again, probably 
to Florida ; if there are any particular birds Mr. Ridgway wants 
me to look after, let me know. I shall probably go south without 
much delay and stop on my return along by the way, as after I 
start want to get as soon as possible into warm weather. 

With kind regards to all the folks, I am 
Yours very truly, 

Geo. a. Boardman. 



CORRESPONDENCE 207 

]\[iLLTOWN, N. B., March 15, 1880. 
My Dear Professor: 

I have not written you for some time for the good reason I 
had uothiug very new to connnunicate. I have been on the look- 
out for anything worth sending you in the way of birds. Some 
good sea birds have beeu sent me but were not fit to send in the 
flesh so far. I have just had sent in a pair, male and female 
Barrows, just killed and thought 1 would send them to you and 
only sorry I have uot a good Labrador Hawk or some other good 
birds. Have only heard of one Gyrfalcon being shot this winter 
and that was in Massachusetts. I believe I wrote you I got a 
Stone Chat shot at Indian Island. 

So much for birds, now about fish. I suppose you are very busy 
getting things ready for Europe. I was glad to see Prof. Goode 
was to go away to represent you and have no doubt you will have 
a very fine show ; almost wish I was going myself. I see Prof. 
Bean is going up to Alaska. All your fish folks will be away 
except Prof. Gill and he is quite a team by himself. Hope you 
will have good success with the shad ; our river used to be a good 
shad river until the dam was put across at the tide mills and none 
have gone up since ; they were very abundant at St. John last year ; 
they were retailed at ten cents. The Porgies have left us entirely, 
beeu none for years. 

My lame knee is much better, can now walk about on two 
canes and hope by spring to go alone again. If I get so as to walk 
hope to go out to see the boys at Minneapolis in May as we lost 
our visit in the fall. We have had a nice winter, good sleighing 
since November. I expect your new Museum is done ; must try 
to go and see it as soon as you get it in order. 

Mrs. B. joius me in much love to you and Mrs. B. and Lucy. 
Sincerely yours, 

G. A. BOARDMAN. 

P. S. The birds will want to be looked after very soon by 
Mr. Marshall. 

MiLLTOWN, St. Stephen, N. B., Aug. 1, 1880. 
My Dear Professor: 

I have not, I believe, written you since my return from out 
west ; one reason I had not much news to write about, another 



208 THE NATURALIST OF THE ST. CROIX 

was I kuew you must be very busy getting ready to go to New- 
port and the folks away with so many tilings to the great fair in 
Europe. We arrived home four weeks ago; found everything in 
good order about our premises. Was sorry not to have been able 
to remain west until fall and had some fall shooting. I was sur- 
prised to see so many species of ducks breeding in the vicinity of 
Minneapolis ; I saw flocks of male Ruddy Ducks, Blue-wing Sliov- 
elers, Gadwalls, Blue-wing Teal, as well as Wood ducks, Mallard, 
Hooded Mergansers, etc. ; saw but few females as they were away 
breeding; saw some Franklin Rosy Gulls shot, real beauties. I 
believe I wrote you of seeing Blue Heron, Crested Cormorants 
and Blackbirds breeding all on the same trees at Lake Miunetonka, 
also Swallow-tail Hawk near the same place, but the eggs were 
hatched. On the way home at Chicago we were told of the 
marriage of Mr. Dall but did not hear who was the lady. I have 
been away a week with Mr. Hersey up St. John river to the 
Grand Falls. Had a nice trip. John Taylor and Georgie are 
with us and we expect Charles' wife and children next Thursday. 

We are having nice cool weather and hope you and Mrs. Baird 
will be able to come down to make us a visit. I know Newport 
to be a nice place but for cool, nice weather Eastport and Bay of 
Fundy are hard to beat this time of year. 

All join in much love to you, Mrs. B., Lucy and all the 
friends. Sincerely yours, 

Geo. a. Boakdman. 

MiLLTOWN, N. B., 19 Sept., 1880. 
My Dear Professou: 

I received the paper Republic you sent me. A very good 
picture of your house and a very good account of your dear self, 
written by some fellow that knew you pretty well, but some 
points he did not get in. He should speak of your love of nice 
kid gloves, and how good you always feel when you get on that 
swallow tail coat, etc. 

I also received your letter about a month ago ; hope you may 
all have a pleasant time in Newport tliis season. I know Mrs. Baird 
and Lucy must enjoy the place in summer and would be pleasant 
to be with Capt. Churchill's folks. We have had a tine cool sum- 
mer, Charles' wife and children, Georgie and Mr. Taylor have 



CORRESPONDENCE 209 

been with us most of the suiiiiiiei-, but have now s^oiie homo. We 
miss them very mucli. 

My lame leg is getting stronger :ill the time but get tin^l 
Avheii out woodcock shooting very easily. 

Have not found anything very new in the way of birds or 
fish ; was up to St. John last month and found a bird stufled with 
an Avoset, just mounted; said there had been three this season, 
and shot at luaco. I wrote to the shooter and he says he gets 
them every year or two. I had one sent me some years ago from 
Mace's Bay and have two in my collection. Dr. Brewer thought 
very strange they should be found in this neighborhood and 
never one recorded as being taken in New England. 

Mr. Wilson thought he had a new flounder and w'anted it sent 
you. I knew it was a connnon fish to you, but very rare here. 
Called by some Spotted Turbot, a very thin, transparent, spotted 
flounder, Lophopsetta maculata. How far north are they connnon ? 

I have written several letters to tlie fishermen to be on the 
lookout for a small size Basking Shark if one can be found, but 
the fishei'men say they never have seen a verj^ small one. 

1 expect the new building in Washington is about finished 
Hope I may not have any mishap to keep me from going south 
this fall so as to see what you have got new added to the Smith- 
sonian. 

I hope the Fish Commissioner may get down east next year. 
Vou would find Prince Edward Island quite interesting to look 
after new fish. The water is very nmch warmer than the Bay of 
Fundy. When there year before last the bathing was very com- 
fortable, but never in or about Bay of Fundy waters. 

Mrs. B. joins in much love to yourself, Mrs. Baird, Lucy and 
all the friends. Sincerely yours, 

Geo. a. Boardman. 

Palatka, Florida, S January, 1882, 
My Dear Professor : 

I received your letter some days since, glad to hear you are 
all so nicely. 

Charles has been very busy and I do not tliink he has tajien 
interest enough in looking after the diggings of his railroad. 
There was one mound, he says, there were a good many long stone 



210 THE NATURAI.IST OF THE ST. CROIX 

spear heads and knives, some I have seen that are very pretty, that 
I am in hopes to get. The young men in the road employ have 
them and 1 am mounting up some pretty bii'ds that I may exchange 
for the stone things. They were found last spring near Palatka and 
most of them have been taken north. I will now be on the look- 
out for auythiug they may find. The diggers are now ten miles 
south of Ocala; no track laid within fifteen miles of them, but 
hope to go down before very long. Have seen no new or very rare 
birds, only yesterday saw one of those white-tail, or black shoul- 
dered Kites brought in. 

Tliere is one very good taxidermist here ; he puts up Waders 
very life-like, the best I have seen anywhere. Sands is also at work 
and is doing very well ; lias a nice place near town but cannot do 
up the Waders so artistic as the man Hoyt, not the Hoyt you saw 
when you was in Jacksonville, H. H. Hoyt from Stamford, Conn. 
He can also draw or paint well and is a very good artist. He 
would be a good man to put up some Waders to replace those poor 
ones that have been in the Smithsonian so long. He would be a 
good man to go to Hudson Bay to take charge of the meteorological 
establishment as he is a man of brains, if he would go. Some of 
the white l)irds ai'e now just coming into good iilumage. I saw 
one yesterday with good plumes, but only one in a dozen. This 
is a nice place to collect, to go out on the cai-s in the morning, 
return in the evening. I am going out quail shooting tomorrow; 
was out twice last week. Should be pleased to see Pddgway 
down here ; it would be a much better place for his spring vacation 
than out at Illinois where he has been the last few years. A 
vacation for you would not hurt you as you have not been down 
here to look after the fish for some years. This State is full of 
little ponds and lakes, some large lakes, Init the small ones could 
be drained and fish killed out and carp could be raised by the 
million. The cars ran over an alligator a few days ago, that was 
trying to cross the track. One of my Florida friends, Win. Foster 
of Clifton Springs died last week. We may not go west to live ; 
go out next season to visit and then go back to Calais where we 
have a nice place. I think we would be more at home down east. 
Mrs. B. joins in much love to you and Mrs. Baird, Lucy and all 
the friends. Sincerely yours, 

6. A. BOARDMAN. 



CORRESPONDENCE 211 

10 Oak Gkove St., Minnkapolis, 28 June, 1S8G. 
Deak Puofessou: 

A good many j-ears a<:jo you told me to be sure and write you 
ever\' mouth niid now tliree or four months do not ajjpear longer 
than a month used to. 

I came out here with Mrs. B. the first of May and the children 
are determined not to let us go away, but we hope to l>e Iiome in 
about three weeks, 'i'his is a great country and growing very 
fast. The boys are all doing very well. Have nice places and 
keep good teams and we enjoy ourselves very much. 

Calais, Maine, July 23, 1886. 
Dear Professor: 

I thought I wrote you from Minneapolis, but upon my return 
home find a piece of a letter started for you among my papers. I 
was so busy doing nothing out west I did not attend to things 
very well. We left for home 12th July and arrived home last 
Tuesday. We spent a couple of days at Kenuebunkport and 
found (.'apt. Bendire there at the hotel. He appeared to be enjoj^- 
ing himself very much. He is on his way east and promises to 
make a visit at Calais and shall be very glad to see him. He is to 
spend a week or two at Mount Desert and then come east. 

I did not see much that was new in the way of natural his- 
tory. A taxidermist, F. L. Tappan of Minneapolis, had a black 
\Vild cat, I.ynx Eufus, that he got in Florida. It was black all 
over as much as any black fox, but you could see the spots a little 
on the sides. If it had been in any kind of order for mounting I 
would have got it for you, but the fool had cut ofl^ the feet to 
make a rug, also the head was goue. He has the skin, if of any 
use I could get it for you. 

Did you ever have one? 

We find everything all right at home. My man and woman 
took good care of everything. Frank Todd tells me salmon are 
very scarce this season, only about a dozen taken with fly. They 
cannot be expected plenty every year. 

There is a large crew at work putting water works in Calais, 
Milltown and St. Stephen. Have taken my farm upon the hill 
for a reservoir and things look quite lively about town. We 
expect Charles and family next week. He tells great stories 



212 THE NATURALIST OF THE ST. CROIX 

about his new city at Charlotte Harbor and says we must all oo 
down next winter. 

With kind regards to you, Mrs. B., lAicy, in which Mrs. B. 
joins. 

Sincerely j'ours, 

G. A. BOARDMAN. 

Calais, Maine, Sept. 5, 1886. 
Dear Professor : 

1 received a letter from Capt. Beudire, written August 12, say- 
ing he would be in Calais the next week and see me. It was 
written in Bar Harbor and I wrote him to be sure and come along. 
Have not heard anything from him since. Hope nothing has 
happened to him. 

My friend in Minneapolis wrote me he would send you the 
skin of the black Ijyux. He has had it tanned and will be a rare 
skin for your fur collection. I was very sorry he cut off the Iiead 
and feet to get it tanned Init it was poorly skinned and he did not 
know the rarity of it. 

I hope Capt. Bendire ma}'^ come along. 

A man by the name of Prof. S. F. Baird said, or wrote that he 
might be down east this season. If you see him please say to him 
to huri-y along as the season is fast going away. 

We are having nice weather. Charles" family are with us but 
he is now in Boston and is expected down in a few days. 

With kind regards to all the folks, I am 
Yours as ever, 

G. A. BOARDMAN. 

Letter from Mr. Boardman to Mrs. Baird. 

MiLLTOWN, 19 Sept., 1869. 
My Dear Mrs. Baird: 

I commenced to write to the Professor but I am so cross to 
think he should return home in such a way as not to come to see 
us again, I don't think I shall write him again, until I feel better 
natured about it. 

I remember those bad names he told you to call me, for not 
going over to Grand Manan with him, I wish you would multiply 
them by ten, and then put them all on him. 



CORRESPONDENCE 213 

We certainly expected anotlier visit, if only of a f(!w days. 
We expect Georgie will leave for home Monday ; she had a 
very nice trip on by land, enjoyed it very much, expect she will 
return by boat, if the weather should be good. Hope you may 
have a pleasant passage. 

With much love to Lucy and only a little to the L'rofessor this 
time, I am 

Yours very truly, 

Geo. a. Boardman. 

One of Mr. Boardman'.s most intimate correspondents 
was Dr. William Wood of East Windsor HiU, Connecti- 
cut, one of the most eminent naturalists which that state 
ever produced. 

William Wood, the son of Rev. L,uke Wood, was born 
in Waterbury, Conn., July 7, 1822. He received his 
early education at the academy at Old Killingworth, now 
Clinton in that state and under the private tutorship of 
Prof. Marsh and Prof. I^overin, in Vermont. He was 
qualified for the senior class at Yale, which he had hoped 
to enter and graduate at the age of seventeen, but failure 
of his eyes, which had been overtaxed in study, prevented 
the realization of this hope. He then engaged in teach- 
ing, studied medicine, attended lectures at the Berkshire 
Medical College, Pittsfield, Mass., and at the University 
Medical College of New York, from which he graduated 
in 1847. On November 9, 1848, Mr. Wood married 
Mary layman Ellsworth. She was a daughter of the late 
Dea. Erastus Ellsworth, member of one of the famous 
families of Connecticut and was hinivSelf one of the prin- 
cipal founders of the Theological Institute at East 
Windsor Hill. Immediately after his marriage Dr. Wood 
settled at East Windsor Hill where he continued to reside 



214 THE NATURALIST OF THE ST. CROIX 

throughout his long and active professional and scientific 
life. 

Dr. Wood was very enthusiastic in the study of natural 
history, giving special attention to the study of orni- 
thology and oology in which he made large collections. 
In taxidermy Dr. Wood had few .superiors and his collec- 
tion of mounted birds and their eggs was widely known 
— being the largest and choicest in private hands in the 
state of Connecticut and one of the largest in the country. 
In a special building upon his home grounds he had his 
office, while the larger part of it was used to house his 
extensive collections of natural history specimens, Indian 
relics and other curios. The collection was always freely 
shown to all visitors by some member of the family, 
without charge. Dr. Wood was an occasional contrib- 
utor to the American Naturalist and wrote a series of 
articles on the Rapacious Birds of New England, 
published in the Hartford Times in 1861. Upon this sub- 
ject he was the leading authority. He was an honorary 
member of the I^yceum of Natural History of Williams 
College and a corresponding member of the Nuttall Orni- 
thological Club of Cambridge, Mass. 

From a memoir of Dr. Wood contributed to the Report 
of the Connecticut Medical Society by Dr. S. R. Burnap 
of Windsor Locks, the following extract is taken : 

Dr. Wood was a man of a very genial and friendly nature, 
warm and hearty in his greetings, and especially enjoyed meeting 
liis pi-ofessional bretluen in the several medical societies with 
Avhicli he was connected, and would ))e at much pains and incon- 
venience rather than be absent on those occasions. He was one 
of the two or three organizers of the Hartford County Nortli 
Medical Association some twenty-eight years ago, of which he 
was secretary from the time of its organization till his death. 



CORRESPONDENCE 215 

Alllu)utj;li lie devoted imicli time to the study ol the natural 
seienees, for wliicli he had great taste, I thiuk he did not do this 
to the neglect of his medical reading. He was a man of great 
industry and activity, and an early riser; and by a systematic use 
of his time was able to gratify his tastes without neglecting his 
duties as a i)hysician. lie took a lively mterest in his patients, 
was prompt and faithful in his attendance, kind and gentle in his 
manner, warm in his sympathies, and evidently earnest in liis 
endeavor to do them good. In this way he merited and won the 
coutideuce and esteem of the many families who, in times of 
peril, were willing to trust their health and their lives in his 
hands. As a citizen, he was interested iu all that pertained to 
the best interests of the community in which he lived; was a 
member of the Congregational Church and for thirty years 
leader of its choir iu music, being rarely absent unless when 
compelled by urgent professional duties. He was a most agree- 
able j)erson to meet at his home or elsewhei*e. He was a good 
talker and had a large fund of anecdotes ; could tell a good stoiy 
and enjoy a hearty laugh. He was naturally domestic iu his 
tastes and was most happy in his domestic life. 

Dr. Wood died, after an illness of but three days' dura- 
tion, August 9, 1885, in the sixty-fourth year of his age. 
An obituary notice in the Hartford Daily Times of 
August 10, 1885, said: " He was a well-informed orni- 
thologist and quite an artistic taxidermist. His collec- 
tion of specimens of native and foreign birds is large. 
Dr. Wood's opinion was taken as authority by ornitholo- 
gists of distinction, and his writings on the birds of this 
region will beheld as valuable in the future." In an 
obituary notice in the editorial columns of the Ornitholo- 
gist and Oologist, for September, 1885, Volume X., No. 
9, occurs the following tribute : " Few names are better 
known in the ornithological world than that of Dr. 
Wood. A well-known physician in the state to which 



216 THE NATURALIST OF THE ST. CROIX 

he belonged, he was more widely known as an enthusi- 
astic naturalist, and especially as an ornithologist whose 
opinion was widely sought and universally respected. 
He was also a taxidermist of large experience and talent. 
His collection of birds and eggs both native and foreign 
is one of the largest in private hands in the country. A 
large proportion of them have been prepared by his own 
hands. His writings have consisted principally of com- 
munications to local and other papers mainly on the 
birds and fishes of New England. He also contributed 
to some of the earlier volumes of this Magazine, but of 
late he confined himself to occasional notes on subjects 
which were being discussed." 

In 1896 Mrs. Mary Ellsworth Wood, wddow of Dr. 
Wood, presented her husband's entire collection to the 
Hartford Scientific Society and it was deposited in the 
rooms of the Wadsworth Athenaeum. A full and most 
interesting description of the collection, with illustra- 
tions, was published in the columns of The Hartford 
Courant, November 18, 1896. In 1902, when the collec- 
tion was opened to the general public, an account of the 
same also appeared in the columns of The Hartford 
Times, July 7. The collection is under the care of 
Albert C. Bates, librarian of the Connecticut Historical 
Society. 

Mr. John H. Sage of Portland, Conn., writing to Mr. 
Boardman August 19, 1885, regarding Dr. Wood's 
death, says : " Yes — it is sad to think our good friend 
Dr. Wood has left us. I was thunder-struck when I 
took up the paper and read the notice of his death, hav- 
ing had a letter from him only a few days before. He 
died at six o'clock Sunday morning, August 9, aged 



CORRESPONDENCE 217 

sixty-three. He was out fishing the previous Thursday 
when he was attacked by severe intestinal trouble that 
had afflicted him for many years. His daughter told me 
that he said he should not live. He appeared to know 
what they were doing for him but spoke very little dur- 
ing his sickness. We were the best of friends and I 
shall miss his ever-welcome letters and the opportunity 
of consulting him occasionally as has been my habit for 
years. He had a large collection of birds and eggs> 
many Indian relics and fish. I hope his collection will be 
placed in Hartford. It was especially rich in local rapa- 
cious birds. His .series of rough-legs is very valuable." 
The correspondence between Mr. Boardman and Dr. 
Wood commenced September 20, 1864, and continued 
until September 30, 1885. Dr. Wood wrote the first 
letter at the suggestion of Mr. J. A. Allen, saying: 
"My object is to open an exchange with you of skins 
and eggs and I trust I need make no apology for address- 
ing one engaged in the same pursuit as myself." Dr. 
Wood particularly wants eggs and in this letter gives 
the numbers (according to the Baird Smithsonian list) 
of the eggs of one hundred and eleven species which he 
has, fifty of which are of foreign birds. Mr. Boardman 
answered this letter immediately upon its receipt, writing 
one of the most interesting autobiographical letters he ever 
penned, teUing how he began the study of birds and 
what he had, saying it was only within a few years that 
he had cared for birds' eggs. "I have found quite a 
number of good eggs this season," he writes, " but have 
had so many visitors they have taken the most of them 
away." Yet he writes that he has all but eight of the 
list enclosed by Dr. Wood. 



218 THE NATURALIST OF THE ST. CROIX 

During the continuance of this correspondence fifty- 
two letters were written by Dr. Wood and sixty-nine by 
Mr. Boardman. The collection is rich in natural history 
facts, for both were rare observers of the ways of birds 
and most entertaining letter-writers. Interesting per- 
sonal incidents also occur in nearly each one. Wher- 
ever Mr. Boardman was he kept up his correspondence 
with his friends. He wrote from his home in Milltown, 
from places in Florida where he spent the winters, from 
Boston, from New York, from Washington, from Minne- 
sota and from California. The letters are all original. 
There are no duplicates in Mr. Boardman's letters 
though written to so many different persons and gen- 
erally upon the same subjects. 

Dr. Wood writes in 1864 that he has not been able to 
get the eggs of the Duck Hawk ' ' although I visited the 
cliffs, some fifteen miles from here, four times last spring 
for that purpose. The birds that were described in 
chapter fifteen of my Rapacious Birds of New England, 
I kept alive two years, and when Prof. Baird was here 
I gave them to him. He took them to Washington to 
note the change in plumage but they soon died." Writ- 
ing to Mr. Boardman May 17, 1865, he tells of his collec- 
tors who climb trees after the nests of the Red-tailed 
Hawk, in this interesting extract. 

I expect to start on a trip of tliirty-two miles next Monday 
to collect the eggs of the Night Heron. One of my collectors 
accompanies me to climb the trees. They nest here in great 
numbers, 1,000 or more. I wish you were here to go with us. It 
is a sight worth seeing to go into that heavy timbered swamp and 
see it alive with them. Almost every tree has one or more nests 
upon it. I went there some four years since but found the youug 
so far advanced that I did not get but a few poor eggs. Hope to 



CORRESPONDENCE 219 

do better this season. My collectors have done well this spring 
and 1 expect to get a good many duplicates for exchanges. One 
of my hunters who lives some twenty miles from me sent me 
word when I was sick that he had found two nests of the Red- 
tailed Hawk, but could tind no cue who dared climb the trees. If 
I had been able I should have gone out with one of my climbers 
who says "he can climb any tree made of wood," and I believe he 
can. He makes no more eflort apparently than a squirrel. I have 
seen him go up sixty or eighty feet and swing ofl" with nothing 
but his feet to hold him — head down and then swing back. 

" The Wood Pewee," writes Dr. Wood on March 11, 
1867, " does not nest in the same spot when broken up, 
but very near it. There is a grove of one and one-half 
acres back of our garden and the pair would not leave 
that grove no matter how many times I took their eggs." 
May 7, 1868, Mr. Boardman writes him: "I told my 
friend Mr. Krider of Philadelphia, who is a great col- 
lector and a very nice man, to get acquainted with you. 
He has a good collection and time to pay attention to 
the egg business, and does not have two hundred work- 
men to keep employed. In about ten days, or after the 
lakes are open, I expect to go up country fishing and 
look after some tree ducks. The little BufHe Head Duck 
is with us all the season and breeds in holes in trees, 
but I have never been able to get the eggs. Baird has 
them but I prefer to get them here if possible." 

On May 18, 1868, Dr. Wood writes : "I have obtained 
one very singular set of eggs that I am unable to decipher 
— one of my collectors told me that he had found some 
very singular crows' eggs. He saw the crow building 
the nest in the top of a tall pine and after a week or so 
he obtained four eggs. They are the shape and size of 
rather smaU crows' eggs, but are marked like the eggs 



220 THE NATURALIST OF THE ST. CROIX 

of the Chewink, with reddish-brown spots, no green or 
bluish color about them. What are they? Does the 
Fish Crow lay such an egg ? ' ' Mr. Boardman answers 
by saying : ' ' The crows' eggs were marked very oddly 
but I have seen crows' eggs of most all colors, nearly 
white and also quite brown." 

Dr. Wood was a delegate to the Vermont State Medical 
Society at Brattleboro in July, 1868, and on his return in 
the train he saw a good looking man reading the American 
Naturalist. He writes Mr. Boardman : ' ' On the strength 
of that I ventured to ask him if he was a naturalist. 
He replied that he was fond of botany and that he had 
now been up into Vermont to collect a very rare plant 
which was only found on an island in the Connecticut 
river in the northern part of the state. I found he had 
travelled all over this continent as well as on the Atlantic 
and Pacific Coasts. After considerable yankeeing I 
found out that he was Prof. Alphonso Wood, author of 
Wood's Botany. We had quite a lively time after we 
found out each other's names and that we were distantly 
related." In a subsequent letter, under date of October 
9, 1868, Dr. Wood gives the conclusion of this interest- 
ing incident : 

I sent Prof. Wood, author of Wood's Botany, a box of 
botanical specimens last week. We have a plant, Lygodium 
palniatum, the clindiing fern, which is very abundant here but is 
not to be found auywhere else on the globe in any quantity. 
There is one place in Massachusetts where a little can be found. 
It is one of the rarest plants in the world. I was telling Prof. 
Wood of the abundance of it here, last summer, and he was 
anxious to have me send him not only some pressed specimens 
but some roots. He intends to transplant it. I sent him over 
tifty good roots and some twenty-five pressed specimens. Prof. 



CORRESPONDENCE 221 

Gray of Harvard sont for a box of specimens; Prof, riiadbourne 
also. Prof. Eaton of New Haven came np here to see it growin*? 
and gather some. lie had never seen it, althougli he was professor 
of botany. I took him into the woods where it was as thick as it 
could stand. When he saAV it, he took oil' his hat and swung it, 
exclaiming, " T am ready to die now ! " A little enthusiastic. 

" Have yoii seen the August Naturalist?" Dr. Wood 
inquires in the same letter. "When Allen was writing 
for the Instittite proceedings, he visited me and wanted 
a set of my articles on the Rapacious Birds of Connecti- 
cut, which I gave him. This month's number contains 
an article from him on the Screech Owl — the whole of 
which, almost, is copied from my article with a little 
change in phraseology but without giving me any credit 
for it. I would not care were it not that Putnam wrote 
me while the discussion was going on in the Naturalist 
regarding the Screech Owl, requesting an article from 
me. I forwarded him my article with slight alterations 
which he has accepted and the proof is corrected. The 
article will appear in the September or October number 
and to those not knowing the facts it will appear as 
though I had taken my facts from Allen without credit. 
I am very sorry on this account." In a letter to Dr. 
Wood on December 9, 18G8, Mr. Boardman writes : 

The Red Throat I wrote you about was brought into a taxi- 
dermist shop in North William Street, New York, when I was there ; 
Mr. Wallace mounted it. The man shot it in tlie sound, but did 
not say at what part. The red was not very good but would have 
been in a very few days. I think in winter they do not have the 
red-throat, but all I get as late as the last of April or first of May 
have the throat red. I never saw a white throat bird late in spring 
and never a red one in winter. I noticed what you say about 
trusting to the gunners for names of the different kinds of birds. 
They always see or shoot some wonderful birds, sucli as have never 



222 THE NATURALIST OF THE ST. CROIX 

been seeu, but they most always tui-n out some common affair. 
I wish you could spend time to go south with me this winter. I 
generally call to see all the naturalist folks in New York, Philadel- 
phia, Washington, Charleston, etc. You would enjoy Florida — 
there are so many new things to see at every place you go. 

Among the interesting things in Mr. Boardman's letters 
are the following : "I have never had much experience 
with the Red-tailed Buzzard or Hen Hawk. They are 
not plenty with us but I have seen them in all the 
plumages you name and have thought it took sev^eral 
years for them to mature. It is the same with most all 
hawks. It is also the same with eagles but owls appear 
always about the same. It takes three years for the 
Eider Ducks and about the same for the Herring Gull to 
get into full plumage. I do not know of any good 
description of its change of plumage." Writing from 
Jacksonville, January 17, 1881, he says : "After receiv- 
ing your letter telling me your friend thought there were 
but few birds in Florida, I took my gun and dog and 
was not gone from the hotel two hours but I brought in 
nine Wilson Snipe, one Quail, one Killdeer Plover, I^arks, 
Ground Doves, Carolina Doves, one Clapper Rail, 
Cardinal red bird; while I also saw Robins, Red-shouldered 
and Sparrow Hawks, Pewee, four kinds of Warblers, 
three of Woodpeckers, Tit-larks, Creepers, Buzzards and 
black Vultures, Bitterns, dozens of Sparrows, Shrike 
Mocking birds, several Terns and Gulls, lots of Ducks, 
Chuck Wills Widow, and all within a mile and a half of 
Jacksonville Centre. A few years ago I came down with 
my dog from up country to the hotel here and found 
half a dozen men with guns and dogs who said they had 
been here all winter and found no quail. Three of us 
went out the next day and brought home ninety-two 



CORRESPONDENCE 223 

quail and some other birds. I find birds and game 
plenty in Florida but they do not come into hotel parlors 
very often." On the habits of birds he writes : "I had 
not long since a live Goshawk in my barn chamber. 
When he was on the beams, if I threw a stick at him, 
instead of stretching out his neck like a goose or duck, 
he would draw down his head and throw up his shoulders 
or wings." About the Golden Eagle which Dr. Wood 
had reported having, he writes November 30, 1879 : ' ' You 
got a prize in your Golden Eagle. They are now very 
rare in anj^ part of New England. I have not heard of 
one being taken here for some years. The last two were 
caught in steel traps." 

" I cannot tell you much about the breeding of Rich- 
ardson's Owl," Mr. Boardman writes September 5, 1879. 
"They are not uncommon here late in fall and winter. 
The Arcadian Owl breeds. I have never found the eggs, 
but once I found the nest and young. The nest was in 
a hole in a stub not more than five feet high. It was 
the first of June and the birds were about half grown. 
I did not count them, only took out two birds, but there 
must have been five or six." 

One of the points upon which Dr. Wood wished 
information was the period of incubation of the Osprey. 
He was writing upon the subject and was searching 
everything of value in ornithological literature to find 
out, "in order to make my article perfectly reliable. 
But there is not a work extant, so far as I can learn, 
that gives the desired information. I have written to 
oological collectors without avail." In answer to a let- 
ter written to Dr. Brewer asking for the period of incu- 
bation of our rapacia, he replied : "I am very sorry to 



224 THE NATURALIST OF THK ST. CROIX 

have to confess to entire ignorance in regard to the time 
of incubation of all the .species." Dr. Wood quotes Mr. 
Gentry in his work on the Birds of Eastern Pennsylvania 
as making all the birds in the family occupy a different 
period, spending only one or two nights in building a 
nest, and writes: "I watched one this season which 
took five days. Perhaps Connecticut birds are not as 
smart as Pennsylvania birds. Gentry is very particular 
to have each of the six owls occupy a different period of 
incubation, from fifteen to twenty-four days." In answer 
to a request for Mr. Boardman's views he writes: 

In answer to your question about the time, or period of incuba- 
tion of our hawks and owls, I must say that T know but little 
about it, but most every set of eggs I take I find them in dirterent 
stages. The truth is, we have so many crows, black l)irds, jays, 
cuckoos, etc., etc., that as soon as the birds begin to lay one bird 
has to remain on the nest for i^rotection of the eggs and the first 
laid eggs are much more advanced than the last. I find this in the 
eggs of small birds as well as of the large. I took last night a 
nest of Eed-bellied Nuthatch made in a hole so small that nothing 
larger than a mouse could get in. Out of six eggs three were 
nearly fresh ; of the others one was quite hard set. I have found 
in a grebe's nest, fresh eggs and young birds. So to get at the 
period of incubation we should have to count from the first eggs 
in case of most of our birds. That may be the reason Mr. Gentry 
has so much difference. 

Another matter about which these naturalists had con- 
siderable correspondence was whether the Black and 
Rough-legged Hawk were one and the same species. As 
early in their correspondence as 18G8, Dr. Wood had 
asked Mr. Boardman's views upon this subject and in a 
letter dated October 12 of that year he writes : 

About the Black and the Eough-legged Hawk being the same 
bird, I would say I have some doubts and some of the reasons are 



CORRESPONDENCE 225 

these : The Rouf!;h-lej;j^e(l of Europe is thought to be the same 
as the American bird iu size, color, habits, eggs, uesting, etc., etc. 
Its liistory is well kiiowu from the time they breed in Lapland to 
their winter quarters in Central Europe. Never a blackbird has 
been found. At the Smithsonian at Washington they liave had at 
least a bushel of llough-legged Hawks' eggs, all sent with the 
parent birds. There was never one black hawk in the lot. Now 
if, as you think, the black is the adult, how does it happen that a 
black bird has never been seen in P^uropeV Or more strange, that 
all breeding birds sent to the .Smithsonian should be young, not 
one adult ? The Black Hawk is not at all unconnnon in Labrador 
iu summer. The llough-legged I cannot hear much about. The 
tishermen never bring me any, but up at Slave Lake and on the 
west coast the Kough-legged is abundant, more so than any other 
hawk, but the black is very rare. They are neither very common 
with us. I have good specimens, however, of each, and they 
appear to be of most all colors. Most of the black ones 1 have 
collected I have sent to a friend in Loudon for purposes of com- 
parison with their Rough-legged. They conclude it cannot be 
the same bird. As they have better ornithologists than I ever 
expect to be I must agree with them. I would be glad to see the 
list of species of birds much reduced, but the man who should 
undertake to do the thing must be prepared for the work or he 
would certainly have to back down. 

Ou December 14, 1874, Dr. Wood writes : 

Have you seen Baird's, Brewer's and Ridg way's new workV I 
see they consider the Rough-legged aud Black Hawk the same 
bird, but Baird makes no allusion to my being the first to positively 
settle that disputed point. Baird for years contended that they 
were distinct species as confidently as my friend down in Maine 
and letter after letter passed between us on that subject. Some 
years since when he was at my olHce I showed him the various 
changes in plumage from the young to the adult — still he would 
not own up. Allen came on at the request of Agassiz to see my 
series and was convinced I was right. I sent to the Cambridge 
Museum three specimens, young, immature and black Hawk. 
AUen wrote an article in the Naturalist giving me the credit of 



226 THE NATURALIST OF THE ST. CROIX 

settliug the identity. Baird came up here to see the Great-footed 
hawks which I was raising, settling the point of their nesting in 
Connecticut. I gave him two wliicli were kept alive in Washing- 
ton another year. My birds were ke[>t in Hartford by Mr. Moses 
as food could be more easily procured for them there. I took 
Prof. Baird down there where there were three alive and told him 
all about capturing them, etc. In his work he gives Moses the 
credit of being the douoj-. I hope others have got the credit due 
them, but perhaps he may be like Agassiz who claimed every new 
discovery by his ijupils as his, because they were pursuing inves- 
tigations under his directions. Ilis students made bitter complaints 
and had reason to. Every man ought to be credited with his own 
discoveries. 

In 1879, writing of this subject again Dr. Wood says : 
" I regret that I-have not a duplicate of the May number 
of Familiar Science to send you, containing that chapter 
of my work on the Rapacia where I take up the Rough- 
legged Falcon — a point on which my views were at 
variance with those of all the leading ornithologists of 
this country and now my views are endorsed by all with- 
out giving me credit. I do not claim to be the first 
ornithologist who considered the Rough-legged and the 
Black Falcon identical. I give Audubon and Wilson due 
credit, but I do claim to have settled beyond dispute that 
our later ornithologists were mistaken in making two 
species of them. It is a pity that some persons who 
know a little about birds — like your Portland man and 
other writers for the press whom I might name — should 
attempt to do what they know nothing about. It fills 
our ornithological literature with blunders which are 
credited as facts and copied all over the world and it 
takes ages to rectify their mistakes." 

The correspondence of these two friends is most 
intimate and confiding. Not only are their letters full of 



CORRESPONDENCE 227 

interest to bird-lovers, they are taken up to considerable 
extent with matters of friendship. They are always 
planning exchanges of birds and eggs which neither 
does not have and are ever on the lookout for rare things 
for each other. Dr. Wood is complaining of the Natur- 
alist because it does not contain more about real natural 
history and less of the hobbies of the editors ; while 
Mr. Boardman praises Forest and Stream, the Nuttall 
Bulletin, " no horse, dog or fish in it," and the English 
bird journal, The Ibis, saying ' ' it pays well and we should 
be able to support a bird paper on this side." His friend 
has many complaints of the Smithsonian people because 
they do not pay better in exchanges for good things sent 
them and for their tardiness in sending promised speci- 
mens, while Mr. Boardman is true in his friendship for 
them, always has good excuses and apologies, tells how 
much they have to do, what a hurry they are always in 
and that they will finally make exchanges satisfactorily, 
' ' but of course the large museums and the big collectors 
must be attended to first." Boxes of exchanges are con- 
stantly being sent between them. They tell each other 
of their losses, their unfortunate investments and their 
plans for the future. '.'If I ever get enough ahead to 
bid good-by to pills and physic and devote my time to 
natural history you will see one happy man who will 
some day turn up somewhere near Milltown, N. B.," 
writes Dr. Wood ; while in a letter of July 31, 1882, he 
says : "I wish I had the time and means to travel about 
and enjoy life as you do. I intended to give up practice 
at sixty and devote the remainder of my days to following 
my favorite pursuits and seeing my ornithological friends 
— a desire I have looked forward to with a great deal of 



228 THE NATURALIST OF THE ST. CROIX 

pleasure — but sixty has found me this month tied up 
closer than ever, cheated out of $40,000 by those I 
supposed honest men. It is ' no use to cry over spilled 
milk' but it does not make one feel particularly amiable 
to have his plans frustrated at my period of life by the 
acts of another." 

Notwithstanding their close friendship and long corre- 
spondence these friends never saw each other. Mr. Board- 
man was always writing Dr. Wood to visit him at Mill- 
town, to go to Florida with him, while the latter was 
constantly entreating the former to stop over on some of 
his trips from Boston to New York or from Maine to 
Florida and see him and his museum. He is telling him 
how to take a stage from Hartford for East Windsor Hill, 
and then of a railroad to be built which will have a 
station within half a mile of his house. In April, 1873, 
they had been in New York on the same day and had 
visited Wallace's within half an hour of each other and 
great was the disappointment of both when they found 
it out later. "Dr. Holder, superintendent of Central Park, 
spent an afternoon with me last week. He asked if I 
was acquainted with Geo. A. Boardman of Maine; I 
replied, ' yes, intimately for about sixteen or eighteen 
years, but never had the pleasure of seeing the gentle- 
man.' I explained when he said: 'You remind me of 
him every minute.' So I think it must be about time to 
see each other face to face. I did not understand him 
that there was any personal resemblance between us, 
but that our enthusiasm and manner of speaking were 
alike." 

In 1882 Dr. Wood writes: "I hope you will not go 
out west to live until you have been here. If you get 



CORRESPONDENCE 229 

so far away I shall give up all hope of ever seeing you 
this side of Jordan;" while in 1885 he says: "Now 
you are back from the south at your old home I hope to 
hear from you oftener, if I can't see you. But why in 
the world can't we see each other before we die ?" The 
main reason why Mr. Boardman did not visit Dr. Wood, 
was because his trips between Boston and New York 
were nearly always made by boat. He was an owner in 
the lines, a director in one of them and was always at 
home upon the boats, enjoying their freedom and pre- 
ferring them to the train. Moreover, in going by rail, 
as he occasionally did, Mrs. Boardman was generally 
with him, often some of the boys and, as he says in his 
letters, he had so much baggage, traps of one kind and 
another, and generally dogs on his journeys to and from 
Florida, that it was not convenient to stop over. The 
two friends ever lived with the hope of seeing each other 
sometime, a pleasure that was, however, never realized. 

Extracts of Letters from Dr. Wood to Mr. Boardman 

East Windsor Hill, March 4, 1868. 

I have been hoping all winter to see you hero and f!;ive you 
some eggs. I don't know what you wish, but if you will refer to 
my list that I sent you I will let you have anything of which I 
have duplicates or which I can replace if I have not duplicates. I 
keep the Barred Owl's egg sacred for you altliough urged strongly 
to part with it. One oologist told me that if I should live seventy- 
five years I should not probably find another about here. I hope 
you will visit me the coming season and we will look over things 
and have a good time genei-ally. 

I have done but little in the way of taxidermy this winter, 
everything in the way of birds has been scarce except Goshawks, 
the first time in twenty years that I have been able to get one. 
This winter I have received six and have known as many more 



230 THE NATURALIST OF THE ST. CROIX 

killed about here. They are the boldest and most daring of any 
of our rapacious birds. One of my patrons told me that he cut 
off the head of a fowl and threw it down and while fluttering 
within a few feet of him a hawk dove and picked it up, flying a 
few rods and then went to eating it. He shot it and it proved to 
be the Goshawk. Another told me that a hawk pursued one of 
his hens into the back part of his house, through the door that 
was open. ITis wife placed herself in the doorway and he ran to 
the rescue of his fowl with a stick. The hawk evading the blow 
attempted to fly out of the door and was seized by the good dame 
and dispatched without court or jury — regular lynch law. Have 
you duplicate eggs of them? 

I have obtained one Snowy Owl — the first in three seasons. 
This was killed some sixteen miles to the west of here and sent to 
me. I caught the young of the Crested Grebe (the adult never 
comes here) and hoped to keep him alive until in full plumage. 
There is a small stream some two miles above my oflice over 
which is built a blacksmith shop and at this pait of the brook are 
springs which never freeze. I made arrangements with the black- 
smith to tJike care of him. He fastened a cord some two rods 
long to his leg so that he could swim under the shop or outside at 
his pleasure. He became quite tame, but unfortunately one night 
he got hung by his cord and was found dead in the morning. I 
kept him about two weeks in this brook and if he had lived I 
should have made a fence along its bank for a few rods with a 
sieve at the outlet so that he could not get out. One very cold 
night the blacksmith carried him into his cellar and gave liira 
bread crumbs to eat. He said they were all gone in the morning. 
Did the grebe eat them? He used to throw corn in the brook and 
that would all be eaten up. He said the grebe ate it! Can that 
be so or did something else eat it up? I asked him if he was sure 
that the bird ate it? He said, " Yes, for there is nothing else to 
eat. I tlu'ow into the brook a handful of corn every morning and 
when I come out after a while it is all gone." H the bird had 
lived I should have satisfied myself upon that point. Perhaps 
you can give me positive information on the subject as no doubt 
the grebe is common with you but is seldom seen here. 



CORRKSPONDENCK 231 

November 0, 186S. 

Winter has begun in good earnest. We have had two snow- 
storms l)ut not much of depth. The winter birds have begun to 
make their appearance and some varieties that have not been 
seen for many years are here. The Goshawk is about again this 
year. I have just received a very fine specimen — this is the third 
taken within a short time near here. I have received two sjieci- 
mens of the White-winged Crossbill within a few days — a very 
rare bird here. I have not known one here before for fifteen 
years. That season they were very abundant. Two specimens of 
the Pine Grosbeak were shot on Talcott mountain this week, but 
fell into the hands of a naturalist in Hartford so I did not get hold 
of them. 

I notice what you say about the Rough-legged Falcon and 
Black Hawk. I have corresponded with several ornithologists 
upon the subject who have had the best opportunities to know. 
Wm. Cooper of Quebec, who is a thorough naturalist, says that he 
has been investigating the subject for years and is very positive 
that they are identical. IIo says if they arc distinct why has not 
some oologist been able to identify the eggs of the Black Hawk? 
I may be wrong in considering the black the adult — it may be 
the young. I think they are the same bird. The size, form, 
habits and everything pertaining to them are the same. The 
markings from light to dark or dark to light run into each other 
and are as noticeable as the changes of the Goshawk. The fact 
that the Rough-legged is abundant in some sections and no Black 
hawk and vice versa, is no proof against their being identical. We 
see the same thing in many varieties of l)irds. The young of the 
Red-throated Diver is very abundant in Long Island Sound, yet 
the adult bird is never seen there. The young of the Crested 
Grebe is found here; the adult never. 

February 4, 1869. 
I shot a splendid male Golden-eyed Duck last Friday but lost 
him under the ice. The Scantio river empties into Connecticut 
river a short way above here and being a quick stream and dirty, 
cuts quite a strij) open in the Connecticut long before the ice 
breaks up. Friday being a beautiful warm day I took my gun 
and went to this " ope." 1 found it open some three miles on the 



232 THE NATURAUST OF THE ST. CROIX 

Conuecticut and six rods wide. I saw a Golden-eye some way 
above and attempted to get up to it by running when it was under 
the water. At my second run tlie snow gave waj', throwing me 
headlong and running my gun barrel nearly its whole length iuto 
the snow. After getting my shooting iron in order my game was 
gone. Proceeding farther down I saw two more and after several 
hours I succeeded in shooting one. I took out my line (which I 
always carry to throw over game in the river) and attaching a 
club, threw it over the duck but it was not heavy enough to hold 
the specimen. Pulling in my cord I found it twisted and knotted 
into every conceivable "tie up" imaginable and before I could 
get my line in working order the bird was some one-half mile 
below. Overtaking it by a higli clay bank and seeing it near the 
shore I attempted to descend — slip, slip, and down I went into the 
mud and soft clay and did not stop until I fetched up in aqua 
fortis. Fortunately it was not deep enough to seriously wet me. 
Before I could extricate myself from the clay my bird was again 
below me and out of reach. 

Determined to have it as it was a splendid male specimen, I 
followed to the end of the "ope" (three miles), thinking I 
should certainly get it then, but what was my disappointment to 
see it disappear under the ic<^! The first male specimen I ever 
got I swam into the Connecticut river after in December when 
there was ice on the shore. 

July 15, 18G9. 
Last week I heard of a man in Massachusetts who had found 
the nest of the Great Horned Owl with two eggs. I thought I 
would see if I could not be as smart as some folks in Maine who 
go wading through swamps in a drenching rain to get the egg of 
the Broad-winged Hawk! I immediately dispatched a man for 
them so as to be sure of getting No. 48 for G. A. B. But judge of 
my disappointment after sending a man fifty miles, twenty in a 
wagon and thirty in the cars, to find that Amherst College had 
got the start of me and procured the eggs ! It is the most difiicult 
egg to get that is to be found in this section. I think I mentioned 
in one of my letters that one of my collectors found a nest with 
young in it this season. I told him not to disturb it, hoping to get 
the eggs next year. The first egg I get you shall have. I never 



CORRKSPONDKNCE 233 

have been able to get but ouc egg. The man who found the nest 
saw the old bird on and supposing it was a hawk whicli had made 
himself quite at home among liis chickens, fired into the nest and 
out came the owl, winged. IFe then climbed the tree and found 
five eggs, four of which were broken to pieces ; the good egg ho 
gave me. The nest I think must have been in quite an unusual 
place. It was in a cluster of small yellow pines not more than 
thirty or forty feet from the ground. The Duck-hawk's eggs 
which Allen told you about I have. They are all marked very 
much like the egg of the Fish-hawk and are considerably larger 
than the egg you let me have. 

I hope your son will secure a good lot of eggs in Vermont. 
The Hawk Owl nests there, I am told, abundantly, in some sections 
and the Bald Eagle nests about Lake Champlain. A gentleman 
who visited there told me that several pairs have nested there for 
many years. I want very much to get the Eagle's eggs. One of 
my hunters who went to Michigan some four years since found 
the nest of the Bald Eagle and climbed to it, and found three 
eggs in it. He said he thought he would let it be three or four 
days longer and get four or five eggs. He waited and went to it 
again and found the nest robbed and torn down. I think I should 
not have felt very badly if he had taken the three without waiting 
for more. So it is one disappointment after another. 

November 29, 1872. 
You ask why it is that most all naturalists are doctors. I 
have often asked myself the same question when looking over the 
Naturalist's directory and seeing who are the contributors to the 
Naturalist. I suppose it may be accounted for in two or three 
ways. In the first place our preliminary studies have a tendency 
to develop a taste for the sciences. Second, our rides through 
woods and by streams every day of our lives lead us to observe 
everything in the vegetable and animal world to relieve us from 
care and we soon become interested in some department of science ; 
and again, we can collect ourselves and being acquainted over a 
large circuit we can interest very many persons and get them to 
collect for us. Every Indian relic and every rare bird or animal 
or egg that is found within ten miles of me is surely brought to 
my office. I have just mounted a splendid otter that was killed 



234 THK NATURAUST OF THE ST. CROIX 

within one mile of my office. It is the only one that has been 
taken in this town within the memory of the oldest inhabitants. 
Are they common with you? We have been trying for the past 
three weeks to shoot a white crow which has been in our meadows 
but without success. 

I made quite an exchange of eggs with Ilerrick after his 
return from his northern trip. I liave lately made an exchange 
with Bendlre and hope to get his entire collection of about 3,000 
eggs. I have made him a liberal offer and am now expecting an 
answer. It takes over six weeks for a letter to go and return 
from his camp and that time will be up next week. 

November 18, 1879. 
The bird which I wrote you about at Bolton Reservoir which 
I guessed was the Black Vulture is no such bird. I went in com- 
pany with five of my hunters and succeeded in capturing him. It 
is a salt water bird, probably abundant in your section but entirely 
new to this locality. It was the Double-crested Cormorant. We 
had an exciting time in getting him. It had been shot at so often 
that it was very wild. We could not get within eighty rods of 
him. When he started, would fly the length of the reservoir — 
three miles. Four of us lay concealed while one in the boat kept 
the bird going to and fro, very high up. He was at last winged 
and I assure you he was equal to a Loon to dive. Last Monday a 
beautiful adult Golden Eagle was brought me, the first adult bird 
that ever I have known in this locality. I have seen only two 
immature birds killed in this vicinity in tliirty years. This bird 
captured himself. A gentleman was driving in the highway 
through a piece of woods within four miles of my office and 
discovered this bird sitting in the road. On approaching him he 
discovered that the bird could not fly; that his wing was broken 
near its body. I have mounted the bird. There was no shot, no 
blood about the bird. How came it so? I think the wing must 
have hit a limb. It had just been done. 



CORRESPONDENCE 235 

Letters from Mr. Boardman to Dr. Wood 

MiLLTOWN, 27 March, 18G6. 
Dear Doctor: 

I have just received your letter of March 20 and am glad to 
hear from you. 

I have just returned with my wife from quite a long trip down 
your way. We went as far as Washington, visited the bird men 
in Boston, New York, Philadelphia, Baltimore and Washington. 
Were absent about five weeks. I saw many fine collections of 
birds and eggs but since I have got homo I believe I like my own 
little local collection better than any I saw. I came very near 
making you a call, and had Mrs. Boardman not been with me, 
think I should have done so. But Mrs. Boardman said I had 
seen enough for one visit and I thought she was about right. It 
would not do to see everything in one visit. I hope, however, 
before very long to be New York way again. 

I saw quite a lot of new things at the Smithsonian which they 
had received from Kennicott's expedition since my last visit there 
a few years ago. Some of their eggs I think very good. The 
skins were poorly done up, about the whole value of them was 
the labels; as for specimens they were not worth fifty cents a 
bushel. 

I took tea with Dr. Brewer of Boston and looked over his 
collection. It is very large and nice. He is getting out a now 
work, the second part of his American Oology, to bo published by 
the Smithsonian. The drawings are very good, mostly of the 
smaller birds. I hope they will soon publish the work. It has 
been so long since they published the first part I should be afraid 
the first eggs would spoil, and the doctor told me they have found 
out that some plates in the first part were not correctly colored. 

I have just had a call to go up to Fredericton for about a 
week. Some of the English officers are quite good collectors. 
The governor of the Province is a good naturalist and is a pleas- 
ant correspondent. He goes in for live things and has quite a 
menagerie of bears, beavers, foxes, squii-rels, hedgehogs, etc. He 
sends live things to the public gardens in London. I have found 
nothing new in the way of birds or eggs this winter. I have had 



236 THE NATURAI^IST OF THE ST. CROIX 

some dispute with the bird men about the Black Guillemot chang- 
ing its plumage in winter. All the books say it does. Not long 
since Dr. Coues wrote a paper to the Academy of Natural Sciences 
in Philadelphia about the subject, which would be all very nice if 
true. I get the birds any time in winter in full black i>lumage. 
Hoping to liear from you always at your convenience, I am 
Yours truly, 

Geo. a. Boardman. 

MiLLTOWN, 28 January, 1867. 
Dear Dr. Wood: 

I last night received your letter of January 19 — one week 
on the passage. I am very glad you are all right again. I have 
been thinking about you for some time and was afraid you might 
have had more trouble with your head, but know it is all right 
when you can be interested in birds and eggs. 

I notice what you say about your collection of mounted birds. 
I have no doubt it is very line, but until I see it, I shall hardly 
believe it as good as mine. I think I can beat you upon water 
birds, rare ducks, grebes, geese, waders, etc. I have them in dif- 
ferent plumage, and of many of them the chicks. We have a good 
chance for water birds. My eagles, hawks and owls are hard 
to beat. I have fifteen different kinds of hawks and ten of owls, 
of our locality, all nicely mounted. Amongst them are three Gyr- 
falcons and five Duck Hawks, done up in different attitudes and 
plumage; seven very fine eagles, Golden and White-head, done the 
same way ; my small birds are very good. I have also some very 
fine horns, heads, etc. ; heads of deer, caribou, moose and some 
African horns, heads, etc. I only mention those to see if I can- 
not induce you some time to take a trip down East. Besides, I 
have some very good eggs, but I do not care so much for eggs as 
for birds. 1 think a good collection of horns very interesting. I 
have moose horns that weigh about fifty pounds, five feet wide 
with thirty-eight points upon them ; caribou horns with thirty- 
five points, etc. I think you must come! How about the snow 
storm V We can beat you at that. The first mail we have had 
since the 17th of January, a week ago Thursday, ten days, was 
yesterday. We get telegraph news every day, as the snow is not 
quite over the telegraph poles, but it is very deep. I want very 



CORRESPONDENCE 237 

iiiixch to go to tlic logging woods to spend a week or so, but am 
afraid to sleep in the camps, as I miglit take cold. Prof. Baird is 
a great fellow for sets of eggs. These big society folks will take 
all they can get, the most of them by sets or any otlier way and 
if we want any sets of them they come very slow. However, 
I suppose we private folks are not of so nmch couseciuence as big 
European and other societies. 1 get letters every few weeks from 
Prof. Baird. He luis a big lot of tilings from the Arctic regions, 
he says over 100,000 specimens. I am getting some winter birds' 
skins for them, also a lot of sternums (breast bones of birds) and 
hope we shall get a good lot of things from him when he has 
time to wait upon us. I got a good box, however, last spring and 
expect, if 1 get time, to go again, say the last of March and see 
what he has that is new. 

I notice what you sa}' about the Wood Pewee. They are very 
hard to find with us. They build in the deep woods. I never got 
but one or two. Do you keep nests as well as birds in any quan- 
tities? 1 think they are very interesting and some of them are 
very pretty, the Wood Pewee and Thistle-bird and many of the 
warblers. I had a nest and eggs sent me called the Golden- 
crowned Wren, with a very pretty nest, nearly one inch thick, 
made of pretty green moss. I used to throw away the nests, not 
having a good place in which to keep them and besides, they 
made a great deal of dirt; moths would eat the feathers and lining, 
but my glass top boxes keep them very close. 1 have only saved 
a very few and am very sorry 1 have no more. I must collect 
nests next year. I am sorry your Miss Pewee got killed. I did 
not kntjw they would build again in the same place when they 
were disturbed. Many birds, by taking all tlieir eggs but oue, 
will continue to lay a large number. The little lied Owl and 
Sparrow Hawk will do so, as well as many of the Woodpeckers. 

I did not go after the big Heron's eggs, 1 was very busy, and 
they build on so high trees I did not feel like undertaking the job. 
I had quite a task getting a Duck Hawk's eggs. 1 went about 
sixty miles, half the way in boats. There were two nests and I 
must try to get oue more this si)ring. Were it not for the fun of 
such an excursion they would cost more than they come to. 1 was 
gone over a week with quite an expensive crew. They breed very 



238 THE NATURALIST OF THE ST. CROIX 

early aud most other birds of their class, raven and eagles, breed 
at the same time. I did not get any small birds' eggs on that 
trip. Last year I did not try so liard as usual to get eggs. 1 think 
I am losing my interest for birds and eggs. I have the birds very 
vv^ell up, but somehow the eggs come slowly. Hawks' eggs I have 
got very well, but of owls 1 liave only five species, aud one of 
them does not belong here — Barn Owl. 

I notice what you say about exchanging. I think perhaps 
I might have some rare sea birds' eggs which you have not, as I 
have received some good ones fi'om Labrador most every year, 
but 1 have forgotten what you had on your list. If you will send 
the numbers you want, aud the numbers of your duplicates you 
have to spare, when you have time to look through them, I would 
like to have you do so. There are a number of the otlicers at 
Fredericton who make collections and do not get many eggs of 
some of your breeders. They always want hawks aud owls such 
as do not breed this way often. But I have been writing much 
longer than I intended and remain. 

Very truly yours, 

Geo. a. Boardman. 

MiLLTOWN, Nov. 17, 1868. 
My Dear Doctor: 

I received your welcome letter of November 6 and am always 
glad to hear from you. The eggs came along all right, but I have 
been away most of the time since I wrote you and have only 
opened the box. I hope to get time to send the Yellow lled-poll's, 
as 1 have a full nest. I can send them by mail. 

I did not go to New York on my last trip, so did not go by 
you. If I go south this winter I shall go the last of next month, 
shall probably take my family, in which case I should not care to 
stop. Besides, I should probably go by the Sound boats. 

We are having winter very early. The ponds are frozen so 
hard the boys have had good skating. We have now pretty fair 
sleighing with three to four inches of snow on the ground. White- 
winged Crossbills are quite common about my trees and I have 
seen a few Puie Grosbeaks. Those with Goshawks are our com- 
mon winter birds. 



CORRESPONDENCE 239 

I do not tliiuk we know all about the Black and l?ouj^h-k'gged 
Hawk yet. I do not sa}' they are not the same but 1 aiu a great 
way from being convinced and I have taken some pains to corre- 
spond with some good ornithologists, long ago, who I will not say 
have had the best opportunities for knowing, perhaps not so good 
as those of your friends. One of them lived north where they are 
common, where they were the most abundant hawk, and where it 
was not an uncommon thing to see a dozen flying about at the 
same time, for ten years. He said that in his locality in 18(52-63, 
sixty nests were taken. 1 have a very minute description of eggs, 
nests, birds young and old. They breed very late. He says this 
hawk varies more in tlie sliading of its coloring than any other 
hawk. The female is generally lightest, and a very old bird nearly 
gray. The young with backs light brown, dark baud across the 
belly, under parts white with a few spots, but he says he never 
saw a black hawk, young or old, in all his residence among them. 

Now I would like to ask your friends wlio have had the best 
of opportunities to know, this question : Tliat in taking this hawk 
from the nest in dozens of instances if they ever took a black 
one, young or oldv If they ever saw an old black hawk feeding a 
brood of young Rough Legs, or vice versa? You say the fact of 
the Rough-leg being abundant in some places, and no black hawks, 
is no proof of their being identical. I do not say it is positive, but 
it is good prima facie evidence. When a good collector has lived 
among them a long time, taken dozens of nests of old birds, of eggs 
and of young, and there was not one black in all the male, female, 
or young, what do you say V But this is no proof because, as Mr. 
Cooper asks: " Why has not some oologist found the eggsV" I 
suppose he would say Leach's and Wilson's petrels are the same 
because no oologist has ever found the eggs of the Wilson. 

You also instance the Red-throated Loon in adult plumage; 
also the Grebe as never being found in your latitude. The old 
birds are with you just as much as the young. They go south as 
regular as wild geese but not in breeding plumage except in 
spring. I saw one Red-throat killed in Long Island Sound last 
April, with the throat most changed to red. All ornithologists, 
European and American, say the American and European rough-leg 
are one and the same bird. I have sent black hawk skins to the 
best ornithologist in London, who says they have nothing like it 



240 THE NATURAUST OF THE ST. CROIX 

aud the Rough-leg uever has any such changes. I have fjuite an 
exchange of different kinds of birds for examiaation with my 
English friends. I can see no difference in the liough-legged, 
Duck Hawk, or Fish Hawk; the Goshawk has different markings, 
but its form, size, etc., are the same ; Mr. Audubon called them tlie 
same. He also called the Rough-legged aud lilack Hawk the same 
with the remark, that " the old bird grew very dark." 

Now my informant says the older the bird is the lighter is its 
color. They have the eggs of the Black Hawk at the Smitlisonian, 
said to be authenticated and taken by good collectors and natural- 
ists aud figured in the Smithsonian Oology by Brewer. But that 
would not prove them difl'erent as many birds breed in immature 
plumage ; many of the hawks, eagles, ducks, etc. So if it was the 
young it might do that. I am very sure from what information 1 
can get it is not the old, as many of the ornithologists have 
thouglit. Dr. Richardson found it breeding (the Black Hawk) 
on the Saskatchewau, but they are quite rare, while the common 
Rough-legged is quite plenty. The Labrador folks report the 
Black Hawk quite common, but one sent me was a young, very 
dark Gyrfalcon and might not be the bird we are talking about at 
all. 

Do not think I am wilting all this to make you believe they 
are two, only to give you some information why they have been 
considered distinct. I asked Prof. Baird a year or two ago and he 
would not commit himself. He was in doubt about their being 
two, as I thought at the time. Cassin thinks they are two. The 
young of all hawks are very much the most numerous. With the 
Marsh Hawk I get twenty young to one old, while the same is 
true of most Hawks. Now if the Black bird is the immature one 
how does it happen there are ten Rough-legged to one black, 
which I think is the case all through the eastern states. 

I have written in such a hurry I do not know as you will 
understand me. If you have any new ideas about this interesting 
subject I should like to have them. There have been Bohemian 
Chatterers or Winter Waxwings in my garden today. Tliey are a 
very pretty bird. My son saw them but did not shoot them. I 
think I had better close up as I know you will be tired of this long 
scrawl. So good night. Yours as ever, 

Gm. A- BOARDMAN. 



CORRESPONDENCE 241 

MiLLTOWN, 16 May, 1809. 
Friend Wood : 

I have only-beeu home a few days and have been so bns}^ I 
have had but little time to look after birds or eggs. I find after 
ray long absence everything right at my house. The mills are 
now sawing lumber so fast I find I shall be obliged to go west 
again this week to be gone a couple of weeks. I wrote my folks 
to be on the lookout for eggs, as I wanted a Broad-wing's nest for 
you. On one of the hottest days, almost, you ever sajv, an ludian 
came and said he had found the Broad-wing's nest, that he was 
going up river next day and I must go that day, or lose it. I was 
busy, the rain was a heavy one in which to ride five miles, then go 
into a swamp I did not know how far — it was almost too much 
for me. I would have sent the Indian back, but we have so many 
hawks I wanted to see the bird so we started. We were in a good 
covered carriage, had good rubbers and umbrellas. We rode as 
far as we could go with the horse and then started on foot. Found 
the tree in a thick swamp, after a long walk and were as wet as 
drowned rats. The Indian started up the tree and away flew the 
hawk. It was a Broad-winged. The gun, however, would not 
go, so we lost the bird, and after all our trouble there was only 
one egg. I concluded to take it as I do not think I could ever 
find the place again, and an egg in the hand is as good as three in 
the woods. So I hope you may get it in good oi'der and every 
time you see it, remember what a wetting we got for one hawk's 
egg. At any rate I shall not go egging again when it rains hard, 
if I can help it. 

I don't think of any other eggs I have that you want and I 
may take this one along with me and send it by express from Bos- 
ton or New York. Baird told me he had sent you a lot of eggs. 
Did he send you some good ones? He is coming down this way 
again to spend his vacation with me with his wife and daughter. 
He has, you know, a soft place in his heart that runs to birds and 
eggs, but a softer one still that runs to old Indian shell heaps 
and mounds and I suppose he will be into them all the time he is 
here. I think I wrote you I did not see your friend Dr. Wilson. 
He is doing well and is mayor of Darien. I saw Allen quite a 
number of times in Florida, also young Maynard and several 
other collectors. Yours very truly, 

Geo. a. Boardman. 



242 THE NATURAUST OF THE ST. CROIX 

Calais, Me., Aug. 25, 1869. 
Dear Doctor: 

I received your Indian historical epistle about a week ago 
for wliich I am much obliged. I have read the history of those 
old Indian chaps long ago but the dates are very interesting, as I 
had forgotten them. I hope that Prof. Baird may find all the 
places you mention with the relics all labeled and dated. 

Prof. Baird and myself have been around having a pretty good 
time. He is now over to Grand Manan. I expect him back in a 
day or two. I started twice to go over with him but the fog and 
head winds detained us. I left him at Eastport. He got a chance 
over in the revenue boat and went over without me. I gave him 
good letters to my friends and hope he may find some good 
things. He will probably find the bones of the Great Auk, also 
bones of the Walrus, as they were said to inhabit this coast a 
few hundred years ago. If he finds anything new or rare I will 
report when I write you again. 

I believe I wrote you I had added two new birds to my list 
since he has been here, a Black Vulture and a Purple Gallinule. 
I think they must have followed the Professor up, although he 
says he never knew either of them taken about Washington. We 
have a little muddy lake about two miles from where I live where 
several kinds of grebes breed. They breed very late — some of 
the small ones. I was out with the Professor to try to get some 
chicks. I got two that I don't think were over two days old. They 
are very cunningly marked little things when so young and look 
very prettily mounted. I also got a young loon about the size of a 
teal. I think those chicks look very pretty in collections and I 
have quite a number of them. I must try to get more of the young 
grebes, but the larger ones are hard to shoot. The Horned and 
Dab Chick are most common, while a few Eed-necked breed. We 
found some deserted nests, but no eggs. They build a floating 
nest among the rushes. To get to the nest we have to carry a 
canoe some distance over a bad road to the lake. 

I go out shooting almost every night after tea and most 
always get some ducks, pigeons or partridges. We had a nice 
dinner to-day of black ducks and pigeons. Snipe and woodcock 
are quite plenty, but I have no dog to find them that is good for 



CORRESPONDENCE 243 

auj'thiug. When the Professor returns we are to go to St. John, 
Prince Edward Island, Halifax, etc., so he says. Our mills are 
doing but little now and I can get away very easily. Prince 
Edward Island would be a good place to collect eggs in the 
spring as many northern birds breed there that do not go across 
the gulf. My paper is about out and I must close. 
Yours very truly, 

Geo. a. Boardman. 

MiLLTOWN, Me., 17 May, 1872. 
Friend Wood : 

I received your letter today and am always glad to hear from 
you. 

I have only been home from Florida a few days. The weather 
has been so backward I did not hurry much. Made quite a tarry 
all the way north and saw most all the naturalist folks excepting 
Dr. W. Wood, who should have been seen, but it is a little out of 
the way, when you have a lot of women and extra baggage. 

I had a very nice pleasant winter at the south. I spent seven 
weeks on board a little steam yacht shooting, fishing, etc., all the 
time. We went to the very head waters of the St. Johns river to 
lake Washington. We went above most of the settlements and a 
long way above where any hunters go. We found lots of bird- 
breeding places. One breeding place was nearly three miles long, 
composed of egrets, cranes, blue and white water turkeys, etc. 
I wish you had been with us, you would have had a nice time. We 
had a hard time to keep our birds away from the alligators and 
they took a good many. Sometimes we would shoot a bird with 
one barrel and the alligatoi- with the other so as to get to the 
bird before it was lost. I shot over fifty of the large White- 
Plumed Crane. We found ducks, turkey, deer, quail and snipe, 
quite abundant. I found on the Upper St. Johns many birds quite 
new to me, but got nothing very rare. I did not collect but a few 
eggs as they most all got broken. The party consisted of five. 
We made up quite a number of skins ; some of the gents are hav- 
ing them mounted in New York and they are going into a mounted 
collection. I shot in two hours, one afternoon, nineteen White 
Cranes, two big Blue Cranes, one Wood Ibis, two White Ibis, one 
Swallow-tailed Hawk, one Gray Squirrel and several small birds ; 



244 THE NATURALIST OF THE ST. CROIX 

so you can see we had some good shooting. But the great shoot- 
ing was at alligators ; they were not spared. 

I have not collected any eggs for a year or two as I have 
about all that are found here. I have nothing new of the bird 
kind except a White Red-tail, a very nice pure white albino 
without a dirty spot on him. 

The season is very backward, no leaves on the trees yet but 
warblers have all got along, and I shall go to collect a few if it is 
warm to-day. I made Baird a visit on the way up as usual. He is 
hard at work, will spend the summer down with us, or about 
Eastport. There are to be quite a lot of scientifics this way this 
summer and we hope to go among the Islands and have a good time. 
Yours as ever, 

G. A. BOARDMAN. 

MiLLTOWN, 20 Aug., 1872. 
Dear Doctor: 

I am glad to hear from you. I have to answer my letters as 
soon as I get them. 1 have so many if they are left over and filed 
away I might never see them again. 

I have just returned from quite a cruise do^vn east with Prof. 
Baird. We started with the ladies for St. John. Went from there 
to Digby, N. S., up the Aunaj)olis valley to Windsor, then to 
Halifax, then to Pictou, and over to Prince Edward Island ; back 
by way of Shediac to St. John, then up St. John river to Frederic- 
ton and thence back by rail home. We called to see all the bird 
and scientific folks. Had a nice company, very fine weather, and 
all enjoyed ourselves very much. I see by the papers the weather 
has been very hot west, when we were wearing overcoats 
down in the St. Lawrence and were comfortable. We found some 
very nice folks in Halifax and would like to ask you, doctor, how 
it is that most all the naturalists we found were doctors? We 
found Dr. Gilpin of Halifax very much interested in collections 
and paid us every attention. I had been over the route before 
and knew who to look after, so went to show the professor 
what a nice looking country there was down east in summer. You 
would be pleased to make the trip in hot weather. You would 
see many birds quite new to you for summer birds, and you 
would miss many of your old summer acquaintances. I hope you 
may soon have the railroad finished on your side of the river. 



CORRESPONDENCE 245 

I have never found the Pigeon Hawk's nest. I have no doubt 
it breeds, as I shoot it all summer and winter. It no doubt breeds 
in some thick trees not easily seen and besides, it is not a very 
common hawk with us. I was pleased with Allen's papers. I 
never knew of a sturgeon taking a hook ; they are not common 
with us, on our river. I have not been doing much fishing since 
May when I went up salmon fishing and two of us caught about 
sixty. I have been shooting considerably, before I went east — 
woodcock, ducks, etc., but nothing very new for my collection. 
Did I write you I shot a Vireo Philadelphius in the spring? As 
soon as I get over my hurry shall try to go up river on a little 
fishing and shooting excursion with the professor. Several of the 
egg collectors have been this way and over to Grand Manan. Do 
not think they found many new things. Young Herrick got some 
eagles' eggs ; Mayuai'd and his friend only found some common 
things. I have no duplicate eagles' eggs, only one nest of White- 
head, and one nest of Golden Eagle ; the egg of Horned Owl, and 
also Humming bird eggs I have had for a long time. I have 
collected very few this season. As my collection is about full I 
have not looked much after them. Hoping to hear from you 

often, BOARDMAN. 

Washington, D. C, 1211 1 St., Feby. 6, 1878. 
Dear Doctor: 

I believe I have not written you for some time to let you 
know of our doings. 

We left home for the South about Christmas but heard upon 
our arrival here that there was considerable sickness at Jackson- 
ville, so we took rooms here and have found the weather so very 
mild and everything so very pleasant we have about concluded to 
remain here for the winter, but if the weather gets too rough we 
may go along further south. We have spent so many winters in 
Florida the change for a \vinter north we think will be very 
agreeable. 

I would write you how T spend most of my time but you will 
know that where there are so many nice libraries and so very 
many naturalist folks here we can have our time well occupied 
and there is something all the time to interest me. We go to the 
Capitol very often when any of the great guns are to make 



246 THE NATURALIST OF THE ST. CROIX 

speeches. We heard your Mr. Eaton yesterday. He is quite a good 
speaker and took the right side of the question. This forenoon 
we go to visit the Treasury. There is a house full of down east 
people who board with us. Last evening they were at the Pi'esi- 
dent's reception and had a nice time. I do some work at the 
Smithsonian for Prof. Baird and spend considerable of my time 
over there. Don't you ever get down to Washington? Should 
be glad to see you here this winter. 

I saw a paper from you in a new Springfield little work and 
am always glad to see your papers. It is very singular you never 
get the Black Vulture as well as the Turkey Buzzard in your 
state or at your place. Since I have been collecting I have known 
of six being taken with us, besides several about the Nova Scotia 
shore — very many more than of the common Turkey Buzzard. I 
have the Black Robin I wrote you about at the Smithsonian, body 
black, wings and tail white. 

Before I left home there were some of the Bohemian Chat- 
terers about our gardens but I did not get any. Did not collect 
anything very new before 1 left although I got one little sparrow 
or Richardson's Owl. I am writing in a hurry as the ladies are 
hurrying me to go out with them. Let me hear how you prosper. 
Hope you did not lose the money you wrote about as being 
endorser for a scamp. I have lost the same way, to a very large 
amount and have a law suit for more, that I may have to pay, but 
hope I may beat the rascals that swear to anything. 
Sincerely yours, 

Geo. a. Boardman. 

Minneapolis, Minn., 23 South 13th St.. February 2, 1883. 
My Dear Doctor : 

I have not written you for a long time, and think it about 
time I gave you some account of my doings. 

I came out west in September to visit my children, expecting 
to go to California in the winter, but my wife has not been well 
enough to try the passage. She is now much better but we are 
so comfortably settled with my daughter that we may not get 
away. One of my sons is with us, and two others live very near, 
so we have all our children but one son here in Minneapolis and 
the children are trying all ways to make us live out here with 



CORRESPONDENCE 247 

them. I think we are too old to change. All our associations are 
east and to live here we should have to learn the people over 
again which would be hard to do. 

I have had some interest in looking up the new birds of this 
locality. Many are common here that we seldom or never see, 
such as Evening Grosbeaks and Bohemian Chatterers. We see 
them about the streets feeding on the mountain ash berries and 
high bush cranberries. Last fall I went up to Dakota for a time. 
One of my sons has a large wheat farm there and had a very 
nice time. The whole country seemed full of wild geese and 
ducks. We did not get many Prairie Chickens as we had no good 
dog. I saw great numbers of hawks ; they were about in great 
numbers and varieties, Rough-legged very common. Some very 
dark ones — Red-tailed, Swainson's, Rough-legged and Broad- 
winged were most numerous. Black Vultures and Swallow-tailed 
hawks were common in northern Dakota. If I do not go to 
California I hope to go up again in April and see what comes 
along in the spring. I did considerable shooting last fall but 
mostly ducks and snipe. I did not get any very rare birds for 
specimens. 

The winter has been tine but cold. I have been south so 
many winters I much prefer the orange groves to the snow banks 
of Maine or Minnesota. 

This is a very nice place for business. Everything goes with 
a rush — just the place for young folks. My sons like very much 
and they think they would hardly want to live east. The place 
has added forty thousand to its population since I was here three 
years ago and property has doubled in value. I think it a good 
place to invest. Twenty-five hundred buildings were put up last 
year at a cost of $8,500,000 and about the same in St. Paul. Every 
one is speculating in real estate and getting rich twice a week. I 
don't find much new in the way of natural history and very few 
that take any interest in such things. It is nothing but business. 
I hope you have something new to write me about that you have 
found in your section. There were three Evening Grosbeaks 
just on the trees near the house and they always keep where you 
are not allowed to shoot them. 

Sincerely yours, 

Geo. a. Boardman. 



248 THE NATURALIST OF THE ST. CROIX 

Calais, Maine, February 17, 1885. 
Friend Wood: 

I was glad to hear from you after so long a time and was 
quite interested in your paper about Mr. Fitch being the first 
steamboat builder. I remember of reading in some of my old 
books something of the kind. It was in the reports of the Com- 
missioner of Patents for the year 1859, with a picture of Fitch's 
steamboat. The account is from page 526 to 544, but I suppose 
in your researches you have seen all this. If you have not I 
should be glad to send you the book as it would be interesting to 
you. Poor Fitch had a hard time. He should have a good monu- 
ment to be remembered by, as he was a wonderful man and 
Robert Fulton has always had the credit for steamboat invention 
which belonged to Mr. Fitch. About the same thing was done by 
Morse in telegraphy. Prof. Henry was the inventor much more 
than Prof. Morse but Morse got all the credit and the money. 

1 am glad you have not lost your interest in Natural History 
and hope some time we may meet and talk over matters. I often 
go to see the folks at Central Park Museum. They are very nice 
people and I think they have about the nicest collection I see 
any where. I like it as well as the National Museum at Washing- 
ton. There is also a very fine collection at Cambridge. I am so 
often west and south I see them all most every year. I have not 
seen so much of the Academy folks at Philadelphia since Cassin's 
death and many of the young folks I do not know. I called to see 
Mr. Krider. He is a nice old fellow and used to have a good col- 
lection of skins and eggs but now is too old to go to his office to 
do much. He has a son who does part of his bird work. I always 
find a nice set of fellows at the Smithsonian, those who have been 
in government employ in most all parts of the country and are 
good collectors. They usually all get in in winter except the 
Alaskan or Hudson Bay folks who usually remain up for several 
years. 

Since I wrote you we have been having quite cold weather, 
snow now quite deej), but February has only about ten days more 
and in March we expect to have warm days once in a while. I 
like the orange groves much better than the snow banks and am 
beginning to wish I was in Florida or California where I could be 
out in the woods. 




^ 




-y .^ 



CORRESPONDENCE 249 

I have collected nothing of late but a few common gulls. All 
our rine Grosbeaks have left to go south and I hardly see a 
woodpecker or chickadee about the trees. 
Sincerely yours, 

Geo. a. Boardman. 

Among the foreign ornithologists with whom Mr. 
Boardman corresponded for many years is Henry E. 
Dresser of London, England. Among the papers of Mr. 
Boardman have been preserved seventy-one letters from 
Mr. Dresser, the first bearing date of 1862 and the latest 
of 1874. The period of greatest activity in this corre- 
spondence was during the years 1865 to 1867. There have 
been examined fourteen letters written by Mr. Dresser 
to Mr. Boardman in 1865 ; fifteen in 1866, and fourteen 
in 1867. In answer to a request for letters of Mr. Board- 
man Mr. Dresser writes from London, October 24, 1902 : 
" I have hunted high and low for letters from Mr. Board- 
man that might be of use to you in your memoir but can 
find none or I would send them with pleasure." It is 
matter for regret that no letters from Mr. Boardman to 
Mr. Dresser have been obtained but from the few from 
Mr. Dresser which are given in this memoir it is easy 
to infer the nature of their correspondence and the sub- 
jects upon which they were writing. 

Henry Ecles Dresser was brought up for the lumber 
business and after having been at school in Germany 
and then to the Swedish university at Upsala, where he 
^ earned that language, he went to Finland to learn the 
xumber business. After acquiring every detail of the 
business he was sent out to the Lancaster mills at Mus- 
quash, near St. John, N. B. It was while at Musquash 
that he formed the acquaintance of Mr. Boardman. "As 



250 THE NATURALIST OF THE ST. CROIX 

Mr. Boardman found," says Mr. Dresser in a letter of 
November 7, 1902, " that I was working at ornithology 
we became great friends and he helped me a great deal ; 
for though I knew European birds well, it was then my 
first experience with American birds." After having had 
the management of the Lancaster mills for a year, during 
which time Mr. Dresser installed the new local manager 
as a change in their operation was necessary, he returned 
to London. While at Musquash he made two visits to 
Mr. Boardman. In 1864 and 18G5 Mr. Dresser visited 
Texas and Mexico, studying the birds of southwestern 
America, since which time he has not been in this 
country. He has, however, traveled extensively in 
Russia, Sweden, Lapland, Greenland and in southern 
Europe. Mr. Dresser has a beautiful country house, 
Topclyffe Grange, at Farnborough, R. S. O., Kent, 
where he formerly resided and where Mr. A.J. Board- 
man, one of Mr. Boardman's sons, visited him a few years 
since. He now lives in London, however, where he is 
engaged in the steel trade, having changed from lumber 
to steel when he last moved to London — a fact which 
shows the change in the building trades during the last 
twenty-five years. In a recent letter Mr. Dresser writes : 
" In answer to your question I would say that I have 
no connection with our universities beyond that Prof. 
Newton of Cambridge is one of my oldest and best 
friends and we often work together. I am only an 
amateur ornithologist and, like the smith of Scott's Fair 
Maid of Perth, " I always fight for my own hand only 
and love my independence." Mr. Dresser's writings on 
ornithology have been very important and embrace the 
following : 



CORRESPONDENCE 251 

A History of the Birds of Europe (including all the species 
inhabitiug the Western Palajarctic region). 8 vols. 4to. Lon- 
don, 1871-81. Containing nearly 5,000 pages of letterpress aud 
633 hand-colored plates by Joseph Wolf, J. G. Keulemans, and 
E. Neale. 

A List of European Birds, including all species found in the 
Western Pala3arctic region. Svo. London, 1881. 

A Monograph of the Meropida?, or Family of the Bee-eaters. 
1 vol. Small folio, cloth. London, 1884-86. Containing 34 
hand-colored plates by J. G. Keulemans. 

A Monograph of the Coraciidfe, or Family of the Rollers. 1 
vol. Small folio, cloth. Farnborough, Kent, 1893. Containing 
27 hand-colored plates by J. G. Keulemans. 

Eversmann's Addenda ad Celeberrimi Pallasii Zoographiam 
Rosso-Asiaticam. Aves, Fasc. I.-III. 8vo. Kasani, 1835-42. 
Facsimile reprint, edited by H. E. Dresser. London, 1876. 

A supplement to the Birds of Europe. 1 vol. 1895. 

In addition to the above works Mr. Dresser's lesser 
writings and papers on ornithology are scattered through 
several scientific periodicals and, as Secretary I^anglej'^ 
of the Smithsonian Institution writes : " Are too numer- 
ous to designate by titles. Copies of all of them are in 
the library of the Institution. One of the most important 
of these is his monograph on The Birds of Texas published 
in The Ibis in 1865." Notwithstanding the fact that 
Mr. Dresser has written so much upon his favorite pur- 
suit — which he has made a study since he was fourteen 
years of age — and is closely devoted to business, he is 
now writing a Manual of Palaearctic Birds, half of which 
is printed and the remainder going through the press. 
It will make a work of about one thousand pages and 
will include nearly 1300 species. It gives full particulars 
of range, habits, nest and eggs of the species. "After 
this work is completed," Mr. Dresser writes, "I hope 



252 THE NATURALIST OF THE ST. CROIX 

to bring out a work on the Eggs of the Birds of Europe, 
as a companion work to the Birds of Europe." In 
the letter from Mr. Dresser from which extracts have 
already been made he says : "I have moved to Eondon 
as my wife disliked the country ; but I have kept the 
old place in Kent and hope some day to return there. 
Here I see all my naturalist friends and have just had 
Styan and Rechett, the explorers in China, and Selores 
the ' mighty hunter ' in Africa spending the afternoon 
with me, and to-morrow Eesse, the Abyssinian explorer 
and naturalist, is coming to stay for a few days with 
me." 

The more than seventy letters addressed to Mr. Board- 
man by Mr. Dresser during the ten years of their cor- 
respondence are most entertaining and important. They 
cover a wide range of subjects in bird life and all are 
worthy of publication. They are sufl&cient to make an 
entire volume which would be one of deep interest and of 
scientific value. The few printed show Mr. Dresser's 
charming style and his entertaining way of writing. 

Letters from Henry E. Dresser^ London, Eng., to Mr. 
Boardman 

liONDON, the 10th June, 1865. 
Dear Boardman : 

I received your kiud note of the 19th May and am delighted 
to see from it that the eggs of M. cucullatus have again been 
found by you. They are indeed a treasure for any collector as I 
don't know of any one who has thoroughly authentic specimens 
over here. I am still unable to find any vessel going to St. John 
or anywhere near you and don't want, if avoidable, to send to New 
York as the smashes might not be few sending that way. I look 
every week at our Lloj^ds list of ships leaving and don't see one 



CORRESPONDENCE 253 

advertised for before late in July. I am however in the meau- 
while picking up good things here and there and have secured a 
magnificent egg of the Golden Eagle, not as generally seen, 
nearly white, but richly clouded with reddish. It arrived with 
some African eggs from Paris last week and I am promised 
another before long which I will also keep for you. I have some 
more Eeeves, Gallinules, Coot and other eggs asked for by you, 
all in your drawer waiting a chance to pack them up and also 
another bird or two but these latter I get slower as I only want to 
get good mounted specimens if possible, as I know your collection 
is all mounted. I will send the quails you ask for out of my Texas 
duplicates. I have not many duplicates of anything, but whatever 
I have you may be sure you shall have willingly. I should have had 
more but the difficulty in bringing back skins is so great. Could 
you ever get me any skins of the Plumed or Mountain Quail 
(O. pictus) and Gambel's Quail, as I have all but these two in 
my collection and would like the lot complete. I think they would 
make a good case well mounted with rock work and under a big 
shade. As for the glass topped boxes, I don't see any reason why 
I should not pack eggs in them, for even if there is duty on them 
it would be a trifle and if sent to St. John my brother could easily 
settle that. Anyhow, if I send via St. John I will try it on for I 
feel sure no fuss could be made if one stated how many boxes 
tliere were and left one on the top as a sample. 

I think if you once began with this dodge you would never 
arrange your eggs otherwise. I have my cabinet arranged now 
and am pleased beyond my expectations. 

I would keep your Hooded Merganser's nest very close or you 
will have every person after you for the eggs. I will gladly give 
you anything you wish for in exchange for the eggs you can 
spare, Golden Eagle, Iceland Falcon or indeed anything I can 
procure here and have in anticipation written everywhere I can 
think of, asking for Golden Eagle's eggs — so must get some more. 

I was elected a member of the British Ornithologists' Union 
(the same that give out The Ibis) last week and am busy preparing 
notes on the Ornithology of Texas for the press and will send you 
a copy of it as it comes out if I can get the editor to have some 
loose copies struck off, which I don't doubt of doing. I give it 



254 THE NATURAIvIST OF THE ST. CROIX 

rather lengthily, as I have lots of notes taken during my stay 
there and I don't think much is known of the birds of those parts. 

I have had a lot of things sent me lately from different parts, 
but nothing that you w^ould care for. How would it do if, when 
sending a box to you, I included some things for Krider, for I have 
not enough in large things to make it worth while to send direct? 
I am saving some rare Texas skins for him that he asked me for, 
Milvulus forficatus, Melanospeza Lincolnii, etc., etc. I must now 
close up as my time is growing short. I remain, Dear Boardman, 
Yours sincerely, 

H. E. Dresser. 

P. S. I had another long letter from Heermann last week. 

London, 29 August, 1867. 
My Dear Boardman: 

I received your kind letter of the 8th August all right by last 
mail and am much obliged by the information respecting the 
expresses from Galveston. Unfortunately (as I see from a letter 
just received) my man in Texas did not get up to the place where 
the Swallow-tailed Hawk breeds, owing to continued rains and 
consequent floods and he has therefoi*e not done much for me. 
He promises faithfully to be there earlier next season so I must 
live in hope of getting these eggs then. I have heard nothing of 
the Glentill yet but have written to the owners to hear where she 
is and arrange about getting the box sent on to me. 

I know well who Dr. Leith Adams is that you write about 
and have seen some of his writings but don't know him person- 
ally. He is a great friend of Dr. Bree, through whom I have 
heard of him. I don't know what sort of a collector he is but do 
not think he has ever done much and don't think he knows much 
about American birds. I am glad I can oblige Dr. Brewer in the 
way of stamps and will pick up all I can for him and can often pick 
up rare ones. Some of the English ones he asks for will be hard 
to get but others I will send. Whenever I write you I will enclose 
what I can and he can send you eggs in return for them if he likes. 
To me stamps have no value whatever for the soft place in my 
head runs only on birds and eggs and I have often hard work to 
prevent my spending too much time over them. I should be very 
glad indeed to see bis work on American Oology for such works 



CORRESPONDENCE 255 

always interest me very much. I have at last got your and Krider's 
boxes off and will let you know what arrangements I have made 
respecting freight before closing tliis up. I forgot to say that I sent 
a mounted bird of our Fish-hawk to compare with yours. Both 
this and the Cormorant were amongst those that got slightly 
touched by moth during my journey to Mexico, but I found it so 
sliglit that I retained them and cured them with benzole and as I 
did not see any further sign I think you may trust them. I am 
vexed the King Eider skin was bad. I had just received it from 
Greenland and thouglit it was all right. Some of those skins one 
gets one cannot trust very much. 

The boxes have gone to the care of Wm. Thompson of St. 
John in the " Choice," which vessel will sail to-morrow. Instead 
of having them with the cargo the captain said he himself would 
take charge of them and put them in his own cabin so that they 
should not be knocked about and that when they were safely 
delivered the receiver could pay him a trifle. I don't like doing 
things in so loose a manner but perhaps they will be better taken 
charge of thus. They ai'e both addressed to you so will you 
kindly write to Mr. Thompson about them and get him to see to 
them, and as the freight would ordinarily be 7s. 6d. sterling each, 
if he gives the captain 15s. it would be fair. I don't want you to 
pay the expenses, so if you will write and tell me Avhat the whole 
sum is (and you arrange with Mr. Thompson) I will gladly refund 
it to you. I addressed them to Mr. Thompson and gave the cap- 
tain a letter to him to receive them as 1 see that the last things 
sent were sent to Mr. T. for you. Krider's box is marked J. K. 
and yours G. A. B. I have just received a nice long letter from 
Krider, from which I see that he is collecting pretty largely. I 
am rather anxious to see the latest American and particularly 
Mexican news. Did you see the particulars of the execution of 
General Vidauni? Poor fellow, I knew him well and have shared 
blankets with him on a journey through Texas. He was a very 
nice fellow although a regular Mexican and we got to be great 
friends. 1 must write but a short letter this time as I have sev- 
eral letters to write for to-day's mail. Joe joins in kind regards. 
Believe me, Youi-s sincerely, 

H. E. Dresser. 



256 THE NATURAUST OF THE ST. CROIX 

London, 12 May, 1869. 
Dear Boardman: 

I wrote you on the 8th iust. and as I am writing a few lines 
to Dr. Brewer I enclose a note to you also, though on the whole 
thei'e is but little to say. 

By the way, I forgot to ask you when I wrote the other day 
if you would care for a couple of handsome eggs of the Pine 
Grosbeak from Lapland. They are still rare and very dear with 
us, but in purchasing a small collection from Lapland I got four 
of these eggs cheaper than I expected and shall be very glad to 
give you two if you will take them. They are in first i"ate condi- 
tion. Did I tell you the other day that I had received (long ago) 
the eggs of Leache's Petrel all right and safe. They were left at 
the office without the bearer leaving word who had brought them. 
I wish Mr. Cullmen had called for I should have been very glad 
to have seen him at om* house for your sake. 

Our bird preservation bill has passed through Committee of 
the House of Lords and will soon be law. As soon as printed in 
regular form I will send you a copy of it as you will doubtless be 
interested in the matter. 

By the way, what do you think of the rumors of war between 
us and your country? I myself don't think there is any fear of a 
rupture, as there are on both sides plenty of people who have 
good sense enough to work against it. There is no doubt we 
sympathized with the South (I rather more I think) but at the 
same time the United States in taunting us with it rather reminds 
me of the Pot calling the Kettle black, for what did the very 
people who now sing out so loud do as regards the Fenians? I 
expect, however, the whole aflair is a mere outcry of demagogues 
on your side and sensible people will not mind what they say. 

Do you Imow of any one over here returning to your place, 
as I want to send you a water-colored painting by the new painter, 
Keulemans, who now is making himself such a name, and I dare 
not send it over in the regular way for fear of damage. I don't at 
the present moment know of any one. With kind regards in which 
Joe joins, believe me, 

Yours truly, 

H. E. Dresser. 



CORRESPONDENCE 257 

London, 2 October, 1869. 
Dear Boardman: 

Thanks for your nice lonoj letter of the 14th September 
received this week. I am afniid I liave not half as much to tell 
you in return as there is not much soin^^ on here Just now. 

I have had a first rate artist staying with me, a new man from 
Leydeu called Keulemans. He can paint many birds I think quite 
equal to Wolf and is a first rate ornithologist at the same time. I 
am trying to get him some of Elliot's work to do and am the 
more anxious to bring it about because I am fully convinced 
Elliot will be fully satisfied with his work, and he is a man who 
wants to push his way as a bird painter. I never saw any one but 
Wolf who could turn out such really artistic and true paintings of 
birds. He has done one painting of several of the rarest of my 
Texan birds, amongst others of Deudroica chrysopareia, and he is 
not dear in his prices. If you see Elliot please put in a word for 
him as he is a most deserving man. 

I should like to see the book they publish at the Smithsonian 
on the clam beds. Can it be bought, and at what price? I should 
like to buy many of the scientific publications in America if they 
are to be had and particularly those of the Smithsonian. I liave 
tried to do so here but without success. How can I get them? 

You will have a nice trip in Florida this winter and I wish I 
could make it with you for if we were together I expect we should 
do some big collecting. I will look after a mounted Greenland 
Falcon for you and can probably soon get one. I am glad you 
have some Petrel eggs for me as I am about out of them again 
and they are a good stock for exchanging. Thanks for the 
information you give me about your game laws ; we much need 
such a law here and it should be strictly enforced for in an over- 
peopled country the birds should be protected. I see you have 
your birds all arranged now — what a lot you have ! I have been 
getting my American eggs all in order and catalogued and will 
make you out a list of what I have when T have a spare evening 
to do so. I intend now to keep them apart from my European 
eggs and in fact to make quite a separate collection of them and 
shall have a large cabinet made on purpose. 



258 THE NATURALIST OF THE ST. CROIX 

I have Krider's box at last aud opened it but find the e^gs 
very badly blown and many broken. What a pity that he does 
not get decently prepared specimens for most of those he sends 
are quite useless for exchanging and moreover he gives no par- 
ticulars whatever with them. 

I wish you could put me in correspondence with some one 
from whom I could get good blown specimens of eggs v/ith par- 
ticulars of locality, etc. I would do a big exchanging trade and 
we should mutually benefit each other. There are so many eggs 
I want that are by no means rare in the United States and I can 
send lots of Greenland eggs in exchange. I get a few good eggs 
every now and again from Hepburn of San Francisco, but of 
course only of western birds. What a mess they are in in Spain at 
present I I was expecting a lot of birds' eggs from there but I 
suppose under existing circumstances they will not turn up. 
People over there have something else to do just now besides 
attending to birds" eggs. 

I see what you say about your sou's wedding, and though I 
don't know him please ofler hiiu my congratulations. There liave 
been lots of weddings over here also lately, quite an epidemic 
amongst my own friends and I have seen three " bird " men, 
friends of mine, turned off into matrimony during the last two 
mouths and two more intend to follow suit before the end of the 
year. I only hope their wives won't keep them from attending to 
ornithology. 

Speaking about horns, I am trying to get some from Bombay 
where my second brother is fixed for some years to come at least. 
He has a capital place, being now assistant engineer on the gov- 
ernment harbor works there, and as the climate agrees with him 
and he has prospect of quick promotion he has fixed to make his 
home out thei-e. It is a pity he cannot skin birds for as he has 
quite a large body of men under him he might often get good 
things, the more so as he is taking soundings ofl" the river aud has 
the entire use of a government yacht. 

Joe joins in kind regards and believe me. 
Yours truly, 

H. E. DUESSER. 



CORRESPONDENCE 259 

London, 28 August, 1868. 
Deak Boardman : 

I have just returned from Norwich where I have beeu to 
attend the meeting of the British Association for the Advancement 
of Science and have had a regular treat, as fully three thousand 
people, English and foreigners, were there. I went down with 
Professor Huxley on the 18th and the next day the proceedings 
opened by a grand speech by the President, D. Hooker, which 
touched chiefly on Darwin's theory and the relations now existing 
between science and religion. The daily lectures and discussions 
were carried on in some seven diftereut section rooms, each devoted 
to one branch of science and ruled by a sectional committee under 
the general one. I was of course in section D, Zoology, and was 
on the committee. Our president was Berkeley, a botanist, but we 
had a good many bird papers. We generally met in the recep- 
tion room, a large sort of club with all sorts of conveniences and 
at ten A. M. the various committees met, and at eleven the rooms 
were open for papers to be read, etc., which lasted till three, after 
which we dined at some of the residents (as every one threw 
their houses open to friends) and in the evening were soirees and 
that sort of thing for members of the association. The pleasantest 
evening was the Lion dinner day when all the celebrities of 
section D and all foreign naturalists at all well known and 
present meet together for a big spree and I can assure you that 
old men (and young) whose names are well known in the scientific 
world, such as Huxley, Lyudall, Xewton, Lubbock, Pengelly, 
Wallace, Gunther, etc., etc., were anything but the least noisy and 
least inclined to join in the fun. I spent eight days there 
altogether and was very sorry to leave as it was a very pleasant 
way of getting knowledge. 

There were a lot of foreign professors there and amongst 
them old Nilsson, the veteran Swedish naturalist and Lorell, the 
Spiztbergen explorer Avith lots of Germans. 

Most of our bird men Avere there, but both Salvin and God- 
man were unable to attend. However the "Ibis" brotherhood 
mustered pretty strong and made headquarters at the house of a 
brother "Ibis" resident there and the bird talk was, as you can 
imagine, rather strong in that quarter. 



260 THE NATURALIST OF THE ST. CROIX 

I spent a good deal of time in the Geographical section 
where some excellent papers were read by celebrated travellers 
and the men sent out by Government to Abyssiuia gave reports of 
the nature of the country, etc. Mr. Whymper, who has just 
returned from Greenland, read some very interesting papers he 
had written on that countrj^ cliiefly relating to natural history. 
I wish you had been there as it would have been the very thing to 
suit you. 

I don't know of much new to tell you in the way of natural 
history excepting tliat I have a box of eggs over from north- 
west Greenland and if you want any eggs from tliere I shall be 
glad to supply you. I heard from Liverpool to-day tliat a box was 
there for me which I suppose to be tlie one from Krider ; but they 
refuse to give it up unless I can produce endorsed bill of lading and 
it is now in a place where it will soon incur about its own value 
in expenses, so I am afraid it will turn out an expensive affair for 
nie. Krider never told me how it was sent nor did he send bill 
of lading or anything by which I can prove ownership so I am 
afraid I shall be bothered to get it. I shall write and grumble at 
him for not being more business like. By the way, I should like 
very much to know if with you there is a close time for game or 
birds, viz., a time when it is quite illegal to kill them, such being 
the breeding season, and if such a law exists liow it acts. 

They are now killing such quantities of sea birds for plumes 
that people are thinking of having a close time appointed by laAv 
and the British Association has appointed a committee (of which 
I am a member) to report on it. I should be glad to see some- 
tliing done as there are such lots of gunners who destroy so many 
birds in the breeding season, and one plume dealer on the coast 
brags that he averages five hundred gulls per day through his 
hands, and this in the middle of the breeding season, so you can 
imagine the wholesale destruction of life amongst the deserted 
young birds, and it is high time that in a closely inhabited country 
like ours the birds should be somewhat protected, at least during 
tlie breeding season. 

Hoping to hear from you again ere long, I remain 
Yours truly. 

H. E. Dresser. 



CORRESPONDENCE 261 

London, 15 Juno, 1871. 
Dear Boauuman: 

I am indeed an awful correspondent, but the fact is that I am 
so saddlod with work that 1 am about as badly off as IJaird, and I 
generall}^ manage to pile a bit more on. I am glad to liear that 
j'ou have had so nice a time down soutli, and wish I could liave 
been there with you. You will have found plenty in the way of 
birds. Some day when I grow rich and able to rest on my oars 
(I don't see when it will be, by the way) I will take a trip and 
see Florida. I quite long for it now for, would you believe it, we 
have had tires until last week, June, and have not seen the sun 
for about a fortnight, and then it winked at us and evidently did 
not like the look of us and consequently looked elsewhere. I have 
seen the work on the Birds of California and don't like it as well 
as I expected. They seem not to have kept with the times, and 
speak of the eggs, etc., as unknown of lots of birds, tlie eggs of 
which are in the Smithsonian. Besides they give such a little 
scrap of information as to habits, etc., and it makes such a drj^ 
book. I ho])e more particulars will be given with the Birds of the 
United States. Elliot has been here for the past week or two and 
I have seen him about half a dozen times. He is well and work- 
ing hard at his book on pheasants. He left for Geneva yesterday 
and returns again in a month. Our book is getting along Avell, 
but does not pay its way yet, which we could, however, scarcely 
expect as we do it with scai'cely any margin — fifty pages of 
letterpress, quarto, and eight or nine large plates hand colored 
and executed by a good artist, for 10s. 6d. requii-es a whole lot 
sold before it will pay. However, as matters go I hope we shall 
have enough subscribers to make it pay bj' the end of the year. 
It keeps all my spare time fully employed. Elliot Coues has been 
writing to me lately and helping us but I can't get Baird to do 
anything though 1 would gladly pay well for any skins we 
require for the work. 

Bj^ the way, if I send you a slight sketch of a Surf Scoter's 
head could you get any one to color it accurately from a fresh 
killed bird at a reasonal)le rate? There are many of these little 
details which one must look to. 



262 THK NATURALIST OF THE ST. CROIX 

I shall be glad to offer you a contributor's copj' of our book, 
but the expense in having plates colored will not allow me to 
offer you one with plates. These contributors' copies are twenty 
which we had struck off on thinner paper without plates and 
loose in the covers, for people who assist us on the continent in 
sending notes from time to time and a couple of copies are still 
unappropriated. Three parts are ready and the rest ob : 67 will 
be sent from time to time as they appear. The whole work will 
be of rather alarming size, say about 600 plates and about 3,500 
pages of letterpress. 

How can I send the copy to you? Shall I send it to the 
Smithsonian bookseller here, as the cost of book post would be 
awful. Do you know if I could get any one to pick out for me all 
information as to the breeding of the arctic birds common to 
America and EuropeV They have heaps of information at Wash- 
ington but Baird has not time to communicate it. 

I myself am (I am glad to say) in splendid health, and since 
the loss of my hair have never known what a touch of illness is. 
I can't make it out at all for though I was not really ill it seems 
to have carried off all traces of the feeling of illness I used to 
have if I did not get out of town every week or two ; but I have 
not a single trace of hair from my head to my heels. It would 
puzzle a Comanche to " raise my hair" now, but 1 kinder calculate 
that he might catch a Tartar if he tried, for all my bodily strength 
has returned to its fullest extent. 

I must, however, now close as I am hard up for time (a very 
general complaint with me) and with very kind regards believe me 
Yours truly, 

H. E. Dresser. 

The correspondence between Mr. Boardman and Robert 
Ridgway of the Smithsonian Institution extended over 
a period of twenty-two years, beginning in 1871 and 
ending in 1893, six years after the death of Prof. Baird 
and eight before Mr. Boardman' s own death. 

Robert Ridgway was born at Mt. Carmel, 111., Jitlj^ 
2, 1850. From studies in the common school he early 



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CORRESPONDENCE 263 

turned his attention to natural history and in 18G7-G9 
was zoologist to the United States exploring expedi- 
tion of the Fortieth Parallel of which the late Clarence 
King was chief. For the past twenty-three j^ears or 
since his first appointment to the position in 1880, Mr, 
Ridgway has been curator of the department of orni- 
thology in the United States National Museum of the 
Smithsonian Institution. He was one of the founders 
of the American Ornithologists Union and is an hon- 
orary member of several foreign scientific societies, 
among them of the Zoological Society of lyondon. His 
writings upon ornithological subjects have been numer- 
ous and important. With Prof. Baird and Dr. T. M. 
Brewer he was the author of that monumental work, 
A History of North American Birds, in five volumes. 
He is also sole author of A Manual of North American 
Birds ; A Nomenclature of Colors for Naturalists ; The 
Ornithology of Illinois, in two volumes, together with 
more than three hundred and fifty scientific papers pub- 
lished either separately or in transactions and proceed- 
ings of learned societies, most of them upon subjects 
connected with bird life. A great work upon which 
he is now engaged is : The Birds of North and Middle 
America, the publication of which is being carried 
forward by the Smithsonian Institution, Washington, 
D. C. Two volumes, only, have appeared, 1901-1902, 
of 748 and 854 pages, respectively ; while it is expected 
that eight volumes will be required to complete the 
work. 

Mr. Ridgway writes Mr. Boardman, April 20, 1871, 
sending him a copy of his treatise on the Falconidae and 
asking for the entire heads of each species of- owl that he 



2G4 THE NATURAI^IST OF THE ST. CROIX 

can secure and send him. He writes : " Any that you 
can procure would be a very valuable addition to my 
material for studying this family. The external structure 
of the ear appears to afford one of the most important 
characters among those available as a basis of classifica- 
tion and, of course, it is impossible to make any use of 
dried skins for the examination of this organ. Not 
recollecting just how complete was the list of desiderata 
that I gave you, I take the liberty to mention here, since 
you were so kind as to offer to obtain some of them for 
me — those which I desire." Then follows a list of 
fourteen New England and eight Florida species. To 
this request Mr. Boardman made immediate response. 
May 13, 1874, he tells Mr. Ridgway of a man who found 
a bird that was new to him, exhausted on the ground. 
He described the Sooty Tern exactly, and says: "It 
is a new place for this bird. I have never seen it north 
of Florida." In this letter Mr. Boardman wants to be 
remembered to Henshaw and to know where he is going ; 
to hear from Turner and what he got in Alaska ; from 
Prof. Goode, Bean, Elliot, Milner and "all the folks." 

August 10, 1874, Mr. Boardman writes, sending him a 
lark, "Very small and marked differently from any I have 
before seen;" also a queerly marked warbler, "which 
we call a yellow or red poll but in queer plumage," 
about which he wants information. He adds : "I wish 
you could come down here and see where lots of the 
warblers breed. We have several considered rare, as Bay- 
breasted, Chestnut-sided, Black-throated Blue, Golden- 
crested, etc." To this Mr. Ridgway replies: 



CORRESPONDENCE 265 

Washington, D. C, August 19, 1874. 
My Dear Mr. Boakdman: 

Your letter of the lOtli inst received several days ago, was a 
pleasant surprise to me since it has not often been my good for- 
tune to hear from you; I hope that you won't stop with this one. 

The birds came iu tlie same mail and alVorded me a great 
deal of pleasure — especially the young red-poll warbler (Den- 
droica pahnarnm), which is the first of the plumage that I have 
seen; the stage has not yet been described. Very likely you 
have the young of other warblers which are iu the same " fix." 
The young of D. cmrulescens^ D. virens, D. hlackburnki', D. cafitarea, 
D. maculosa and D. discolor, are also uudescribed. In view of the 
fact that you may be able to supply them, I make a list of the 
other warblers of your section whose young are desiderata — 
" non est come-at-able ;'' they are the following : Ilelminthophaga 
cUrysoptern, II. rnJicapiUu, II. 'peregrina., Myiodinctes canadensis., 
and the two species of Sciurus. Any of these which you can 
furnish will be gratefully received by the authors of the History 
of North American Birds. 

The lark which you sent is an adult (probably female) of the 
desert race recognized as E. alpestris var. chrysokema ( Wagl.) ; it 
is the small, dark southern form which is found in Central 
America (as far south as Bogota, N. G.) and breeds from southern 
Mexico to California and Utah. 

All of our wood-warblers are first clad in a plumage which 
they retain only a few weeks after being fully feathered ! This 
plumage diflers totally from that usually called "young" and 
which is in reality the first assumption of the adult dress in fall : 
the young plumage proper is never resumed and lasts only while 
they are being fed by their parents. Apparently, all the species 
but D. pinus are streaked, above and below, in this plumage ; at 
least D. striata, D. pahnarnm, and D. coronata (the only ones yet 
collected to my knowledge) are. Thus you see the importance of 
preserving specimens which you shoot Just at this season for 
some of those which you mention as in " bad plumage " may be 
the very ones so much desired. 

Many thanks for your kind invitation to visit your home ; I 
assure you that I would gladly avail myself of it were it possible 



266 THE NATURALIST OF THE ST. CROIX 

for me to get away. I know that 1 would find the woods of 
Maine a new field for me, and I have long looked forward to the 
time when I shall have a chance to shoot birds there. 
Hoping to hear from you soon, I remain 
Yours truly, 

Egbert Ridgway. 

Acknowledging the receipt of this letter September 
16, of the same year, Mr. Boardmau says : " I go out a 
few hours most every day woodcock or snipe shooting 
but do not find anything rare. Among the j'oung 
warblers I do not find any in nursing plumage — they 
are most all in good full plumage and all look like 
females. I hardly see a full plumaged male. I have had 
a nice visit from Dr. Brewer and wife since I wrote you. 
They were with us several days." Answering a letter 
from Mr. Boardman in which he says : "I suppose you 
and Mr. Brewster have returned from Illinois laden with 
spoils," Mr. Ridgway writes under date of June 13, 
1878: 

My trip was very successful in every respect. I think Mr. 
Brewster is also quite well satisfied. I got two hundred and 
sixty-five fine skins and about one hundred and fifty nests and 
eggs besides live snakes and turtles and a tank full of alcoholic 
specimens. Found the Duck Hawk breeding at Mount Carmel, 
and got at one nest by cutting down the tree — a huge sycamore, 
115 feet high (with nearly whole top broken off") and twenty-six 
feet in circumference, but, fortunately, a mere shell at the base, 
while the tree itself leaned a great deal, so that it required com- 
parativelj'^ little chopping to fell it. By measurement the nest 
was found to have been eighty-nine feet from the ground. Sev- 
eral other nests were found in similar situations, but none were 
accessil)le, while the trees were too large and solid to pay for 
cutting. In this case got four full-fledged young and the female 
parent. 



CORRESPONDENCE 267 

Mr. Boardman says in a letter to Mr. Ridgway of July 
1, 1878: "I was not surprised at what you say about 
the Duck Hawk breeding so far south for I have for 
some years been of the opinion that the Duck Hawk 
and Pigeon Hawk breed far south and perhaps in Florida ; 
for in my collecting I have found two forms of both those 
hawks, the size being very much smaller and the color 
darker, I have seen the northern as well as the southern 
birds in Florida. I have never seen but three Duck 
Hawks shot in Florida — two were much smaller than any 
I have collected north. But the difference in the Pigeon 
Hawk is greater. They are much darker than any I 
ever see this way and I have no doubt they are the 
southern breeding birds. Probably your Illinois Duck 
Hawks would be intermediate between the northern and 
the Florida specimens. I should like to see them. I 
have seven Duck Hawks in my collection, and all 
different from Florida birds. You were fortunate in 
getting such a haul from one nest. I have never heard, 
certainly, of their nesting so far south before." 

Under date of December 25, 1878, Mr. Ridgway writes 
that Henshaw has returned but had a very poor field for 
work, while a letter from Mr. Turner dated Unalaska, 
November 10, complains of being in rather a poor field 
affording no novelties and few desirable species. He also 
wants Mr. Boardman' s assistance in obtaining the downy 
young (chicks) of any of the swimming birds as " accept- 
able material" for the work on Water Birds in which he 
was then engaged. Mr. Boardman's reply tells of his 
wish to assist him but says: "We do not have one- 
fourth the swimming birds breed with us now that we 
did before the pickerel were put in our river, as they 



2G8 THE NATURALIST OF THE ST. CROIX 

catch most of the young birds as they swim about with 
the old ones. A few years ago most every flock of ducks 
or grebes would have from seven to twelve young ; now 
we hardly ever see more than from one to four : while 
many species of waders have left us entirely. ' ' Mr. Board- 
man adds ; "I am sorry Henshaw was sent to so poor 
a field ; he is such a good collector I should like to have 
him in a good place. As for Turner — I think a person 
going to Alaska should have something good in the 
way of specimens to interest him." 

On September 9, 1879, Mr. Boardman writes of a 
strange migration of southern birds at Milltown that he 
has never known to visit there before. Among them were 
Black Skimmers — a large flock ; Rhynchops Nigra and 
Laughing Gulls. Mr. Ridgway writes September 17, 
1879: "The remarkable influx of .southern birds to 
your New England shores is easy to understand. In 
the latter part of July and early part of August Henshaw 
and I visited Cobb's Island on the eastern shore of 
Virginia, where all these birds were breeding, and the 
cannonade we kept up there for over a week no doubt 
sent you the birds 3^ou rejoice over. So you should 
thank us for them. Brewster is down there now, and he 
reports birds of the kind you have with you as extremely 
scarce." 

Writing to Mr. Ridgway June 12, 1881, Mr. Board- 
man says : "I have had nothing very rare collected for 
me here the past winter except an Ivory Gull, which 
was not in very good plumage ; and a Black-necked 
Stilt, this spring. They very seldom come so far north ; 
I never got but one before. I hope you had a good time 
out in Illinois and collected a lot of good things. Last 



CORRESPONDENCE 269 

fall I bought six hundred and forty acres of land near 
Mt. Carmel. I shall have to go out and see it. There 
may be some birds on it." 

In 1882, when Mr. Boardman was in Minneapolis, he 
wrote Mr. Ridgway on September 15 : " The little 
hawk, if a Broad-winged, is in ver>' queer plumage. I 
have a good series of Broad-wings, yet nothing like it. 
If it had been taken in the fall I should have been less 
surprised ; but taken in the spring when those small 
hawks are in full plumage, appeared strange. You can 
keep it as my collection is so much shut up and seen by 
so few people it would never be seen by many naturalists 
and I want it to be in the Smithsonian." That same 
month, writing from Fargo, he says: "The hawk I 
sent you was a male from Calais, about June 15. The 
men on my son's farm told me of an eagle's nest on a 
little hillock. The entire foundation was Buffalo ribs put 
in with sods so as to make a very pretty shaped nest. 
There were no other bones but ribs. Black Vultures are 
quite plenty here. I shot one to make sure." In a letter 
dated Minneapolis, February 26, 1883, Mr. Boardman 
writes : "I notice your surprise at my seeing Buzzard — 
Black Vulture up in northern Dakota. It was a surprise 
to me, but I did not know but it was a place where they 
had been found and not hearing from you did not write 
to Forest and Stream but will do so now. I notice in 
one of the late numbers Mr. Byrne of Crockett's Bluff 
doubts about Buzzards being found in Maine, or so far 
north, as he has never, after living in Illinois half a 
century, ever seen one there. I have found them in 
Nova Scotia, at Grand Manan, in New Brunswick and 
in Maine." 



270 THE NATURALIST OF THE ST. CROIX 

In 1884, writing from Calais on December 1, Mr. Board- 
man sends a skin of Florida Pigeon Hawk and wants 
him to compare it with the pigeon hawks in the Smith- 
sonian as ' ' there is a very great difference in the bands 
of the tail from those of our northern birds." Again, 
January 8, 1885, he says : "One of my collecting friends 
in Minneapolis wrote me of going last spring up to Devil's 
Eake in Dakota and finding the large grebe — occidentalis 
— breeding there quite common. I have never heard of 
western grebe this side of the mountains and thought it 
must be a new thing. Write me if this large grebe has 
been found breeding so far east before." April 20, 1885, 
Mr. Boardman writes to Mr. Ridgway that " one of our 
Surf Ducks is a little different from those described in 
the books, but it may be common. Most of them have 
two white patches on the top of the head and back of 
the neck. We have them here with only one white 
patch, none on the top of the head. Do you have the 
Surf Duck with only one white patch?" On December 
26, 1887, Mr. Boardman sends Mr. Ridgway from Calais, 
" the little hawk for you to see if there is any difference 
between it and the common Pigeon Hawk. The bands 
on the tail look to me different. I was sorry I could not 
make out the sex ; but it was so shot through the back 
I could not. It appeared, however, more like a female, 
although the dark color would indicate a male." Writ- 
ing from Calais, November 10, 1870, Mr. Boardman says : 
" In looking over some of my old papers I see in Prof. 
Reinhardt's paper on the Birds of Greenland (18G0), 
he speaks of a duck called Fuligula cristata, taken there 
by Mr. Walker at Godhaven during the stay of the ship 
Fox at that place in 1857. I write to ask if this is the 



CORRESPONDENCE 271 

same as Fuligula rufina. I have no names of European 
birds but thought it might be the same duck as the one 
I sent the young of, got at the market in New York, 
which you thought the first one ever taken in North 
America. If it is the same the Greenland bird is ahead 
of it." 

These several extracts are a good indication of Mr. 
Boardman's accurate habits of observation in the slight 
differences of the markings of birds, and his desire for 
exact statement of facts regarding species. 

Letters from Mr. Ridgway to Mr. Bourdman 

Washington, D. C, June 23, 1881. 
Dear Mr. Boardman : 

The box arrived to-day and I derived much pleasure from an 
inspection of its contents, which were iu good condition — the 
tail of the hawk a little mussed, however. The liawk proves to 
be what I suspected — the Short-tailed Buzzard — Butesbradiyurus ; 
and unless it should prove ti'ue (as has been held by some authors) 
that it is identical with the small black hawk called B. fnliguiosiis^ 
or B. cabanisi, a specimen of which was obtained last winter at 
Oyster Bay, Fla., is an addition to the fauna. Perhaps the other 
hawk you saw may be the same bird in another state of plumage. 
Will you kindly send me particulars as to time and place of cap- 
ture? I will liave the owl put in good shape for Mrs. Baird. It 
is a fine specimen and will no doubt please her very much. 

As soon as I can spare the time 1 will investigate the hawk 
question and let you know the result. With many thanks for 
sending the specimens, I am 

Yours very sincerely, 

EOBERT KiDGWAY. 

Washington, Marcli 5, 1883. 
Dear Mr. Boardman: 

Your kind favor of the 26th ult. reached me a day or two ago. 
It certainly is true that the Black Vulture is not common in 



272 THE NATURALIST OF THE ST. CROIX 

Illinois. I have seen a few, but very few, near Mt. Carmel, where 
C au7-a is not only extremely abundant, but also a regular winter 
resident! Can't you send us a few Evening Grosbeaks? Our 
series is very meagre — about half a dozen altogether, including 
good, bad, and iudifterent. Of Bohelnian Was Wings we have 
plenty — that is, for our reserve series. 

Nelson, at last accounts, had gone to southern New Mexico, 
but his regular post office address is Santa Fe, N. M. His health 
is somewhat improved, but his physician has ordered him to 
remain west for another year. We have not heard from Turner 
lately. Stejneger (I believe you met him at the Smithsonian) has 
sent us some excellent things from the Commander Islands, sev- 
eral new species, including a fine large new Sea Eagle (Haliaetus 
hypoleucus). We have now a number of good collectors in the 
field: Nutting in Nicaragua; Belding in Lower California, etc.; 
and Professor Baird is going to send a man to McCloud Kiver, 
California, and also another to Madagascar, as well as one to 
northern Mexico. Well, I hope this letter will not be as long 
reaching you as my last was, and hoping also to hear from you 
again soon, I am 

Yours very truly, 

Egbert Ridgway. 

Washington, December 4, 1884. 
Dear Mr. Boardman: 

The Pigeon Hawk was received this morning and 1 have just 
concluded a careful examination and comparison of it with our 
collection. The specimens with which it was compared are from 
West Indies (including Bahamas), Long Island, District of 
Columbia, Hudson's Bay Terr., Alaska, California, Oregon, 
Mexico, and Nicaragua — a pretty good series altogether. I am 
sorry that we have no Florida examples with which to compare 
it, for your bird is certainly difterent from all of ours in the very 
dark coloi'ation of the lower parts, restricted white markings on 
the inner webs of the primaries, and very broad subterminal black 
baud on the tail. In the second feature a sj^ecimen from Santa 
Clara, California, is similar; but in the other characters men- 
tioned your specimen is unique. Still, while it may be that 
resident Florida birds of this species may be like yours, I should 




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CORRESPONDENCE 273 

hesitate to descrilic u new race on tlie stiengtli of the one speci- 
men. I would say, however, that should the diUcreuces men- 
tioned prove constant they would be sullicleut to warrant the 
separation of the Florida bird. 

Very truly yours, 

KOBEllT RiDGWAY, 

Curator, Dept. Birds. 
P. S. — I will keep the specimen for a few days, or until I can 
find time to prepare some notes on it. K. It. 

Washington, Jan. 23, 1885, 
Dear Mk. Boardman: 

I have been so busy since my return from New York that 
this is my first opportunity of answering your letter of the 8th 
inst. The Western Grebe (Podiceps occideutalis) breeds very 
abundant at Hhoal Lake, Manitoba, from whence we have numer- 
ous eggs. In fact, it breeds throughout the western country in 
suitable localities, (juite to the Pacific coast and east to the east- 
ern border of the Great Plains. Captain Beudire is stationed at 
Fort Custer, Montana, and is tlioroughly disgusted witli the place 
as a locality for collecting. Zeledon is here, and sends you his 
best regards. Heushaw has returned, bringing with him about 
eight hundred birds, among them two fine adult California Con- 
dors, the largest weighing twenty-three pounds and spreading over 
nine feet. Turner is busy writing up his notes. He got nothing 
new except the nest and eggs of Pine Grosbeak. One curiosity 
which he got in the way of nest and eggs was an old Robin's nest 
in which a Red-poll had built its nest and in which a White- 
crowned Sparrow laid its eggs ! He found the nest himself, so 
there can be no " trick " about it. 

Very truly yours, 

Robert Ridgway. 

Letters from Mr. Boardman to Mr. Ridgway 

Jacksonville, Fla., Dec. 24, 1880. 
Dear Ridgway : 

I have just arrived here and find your letter of December 16. 
I left home nearly five weeks ago and have been all the time on 



274 THE NATURAUST OF THE ST. CROIX 

the way down. I am sorry I did not get your letter before I left, 
and am now afraid I cannot tell you any thing that will be very 
satisfactory about the duck. 

I was in at Wallace's bird shop and he had just mounted the 
duck. He asked me if I knew what it was and I could not tell 
him, but got the bird to compare with my specimens, yet could 
not make it out, and sent it to you, and I believe it was thought 
to be some cross. I think Wallace said he got it from the market. 

If we had known it to have been a strange bird at the time 
we could have followed it, but Mr. Wallace only cares to sell 
birds, and the time has been so long he might not remember 
about it, for about the same time I sent him a female Labrador 
Duck to mount for your collection. When I went for the bird 
some one had got it away from him or he had sold it and did not 
appear to know what had become of the bird. So if this is a new 
bird to the United States I should not care to say too much about 
it upon the memory of Mr. Wallace. The bird appeared to have 
been just mounted and set with a lot of whistlers and mergansers 
and common market birds. Had I thought it to have been such a 
stranger would certainly, at the time, have got all its history. I 
have almost foi'gotten what the duck looked like, and the full 
plumaged bird I think I never saw. I think the bird had some 
kind of a ring about its neck, something as a young plumaged 
Labrador Duck might have, but its bill was nothing like that of 
the Labrador Duck. 

I intended to have made you a call when in Washington but 
was only there a short time, and did not go to the Smithsonian. 
I am expecting to make you a good call in the spring when we 
return, and hoi)e you may have the new building partly in order. 
I see by the paper Mr. Ingersoll of the Fish Commission arrived 
here to-day. If you think of anything I can do for you here let 
me know and I will be on the lookout. With kind regards to all 
the folks and wishing you the compliments of the season. 
Yours very truly, 

Geo. a. Boardman. 



CORRESPONDENCE 275 

Minneapolis, Minn., June 4, 1886. 
Friend IIidgway: 

I have not written you for u long time and now have not 
much that is new to write about. We are having a very nice time 
here and see so many birds that are rare with us and many we 
never see, I quite enjoy a spring in the west ; but in my shooting I 
get nothing new. I hope to get some chicks shortly and am try- 
ing to get you a Krider's Hawlt if possible. I write at this time 
to say that a friend of mine in Connecticut says he has just had 
sent to him a very odd looking warbler, and writes me to ask 
about it. lie saj's it is just like the Blue-winged yellow warbler 
except the black line that runs through the eye is larger and runs 
further back on the head. Then there is a clear black triangular 
patch on the throat reaching well down on the breast. As I am 
not very much acquainted with this warbler (it does not come 
with us) please write me if it is anything more than some abnor- 
mal plumage of the bird which it so closely resembles. If so I 
Avill write him to send it to you. I am going up to Winnipeg 
and shall be back in a few days. 

Sincerely yours, 

Geo. a. Boardman. 

Daniel G. Elliot, who was formerly superintendent of 
the Central Park, New York, was a personal friend 
and correspondent of Mr. Boardman, their correspond- 
ence extending over several years. Several of Mr. Elliot's 
letters appear among Mr. Boardman's papers, although 
none of Mr. Boardman's have been preserved, Mr. 
Elliot writing August 15, 1902, that his mass of letters 
from correspondents had become so cumbersome that 
with few exceptions they were destroyed. On Mr. Board- 
man's visits to New York he rarely missed an oppor- 
tunity of going to Central Park, examining their collec- 
tions and enjoying calls upon their scientific workers. 

Daniel Giraud Elliot was Ijorn in New York, March 
7, 1835, and is now curator of zoology, Field Columbian 



276 THE NATURALIST OF THE ST. CROIX 

Museum, Chicago, 111. Mr. Elliot has traveled exten- 
sively in this country and in Europe, Africa, Palestine, 
Asia Minor, Canada and South America. He has pub- 
lished much relating to zoology, his scientific papers 
and memoirs embracing more than one hundred separate 
works, the more important having been : North Ameri- 
can Shore Birds ; Gallinaceous Game Birds of North 
America ; Birds of North America ; Wild Fowl of the 
United States and British Possessions, together with 
several monographs in imperial folio, with hand-colored 
plates, on various families of birds as Grouse, Pheasants, 
Thrushes, Hornbills and Birds of Passage. Mr. Elliot 
is a fellow of the Royal Society of Edinburgh and has 
received many decorations from foreign governments for 
his work in ornithology. 

On October 23, 1862, Mr. FUliot writes: "I have 
procured for you lately a male Ruddy Duck in fine 
summer plumage. It is a skin, which I believe you 
prefer to having it mounted. I am just now putting the 
finishing touches to my work on The Pittas and shall be 
glad to get it out of the way that I may have more time 
for the Grouse." Mr. Boardman sent Mr. Elliot a copy 
of his list of birds of the St. Croix and in acknowledg- 
ing it under date of December 4, 1862, he says : 

I am obliged for the list of birds of your section which you 
sent me. Such coutributious to our science are always very 
important, as I consider that at some future time the geographical 
distribution and migrations of birds will be subjects of most 
serious consideration by ornithologists, and therefore any light 
that one may be able to throw upon them will always be valuable 
for future reference. 

I am glad to see you have obtained the banded Three-toed 
Woodpecker. I was satisfied myself that it visited you, and 



CORRKSPONDENCK 277 

recollect once asking you whethor you had ever obtained it. I 
am satisfied you will get more. It is a dillicult bird to get hero, 
aud I do not know of any one ol)tainin<i- it in tliis state, altliough 
the other commou species is sometimes met with in the nortlierii 
woods. 

Writing under date of March G, 18G3, Mr. Elliot says : 
"Mr. Krider is here and went over my collection last 
evening. He found a good many desirable birds, but 
also some of the commonest wanting. That is always 
the way, we try so hard to get the rare ones that we over- 
look those that fly before our eyes every da3^ Can you 
tell me if the Spruce Grouse become blacker upon the 
breast (I speak of the males) as they increase in age? 
It appears to me that such is the case, but I would like 
to have the opinion of one who has observed them in 
their accustomed hatmts." 

On August 13, 1803, Mr. Elliot received from Mr. 
Boardman a young Spruce Grouse with other skins, 
and sending his thanks says : "I was, as you may sup- 
pose, delighted to see the chick and I would congrattilate 
you upon your success in making up the skins for I 
think they are admirabl}^ done. I shall proceed immedi- 
ately to make a drawing of the Spruce Grotise and hope 
when you come to New York in the fall to be able to 
show 3^ou the plate." In this same letter Mr. Elliot 
continues : "I notice your list of European Grouse, 
etc. I should like to see your Lagopus Alpina in full 
summer plumage. Can you be sure of the locality from 
whence they come ? It appears to me from my researches 
so far, that there is no good species of that name, but it 
is only our L,. Albtis. Perhaps your specimens might 
throw some light on the subject, particularly if they are 
European. All the other species you mentioned I hav^e. ' ' 



278 TPIE NATURALIST OF THR vST. CROIX 

In describing Lagopus albus (Gm.), And., Cones 
edition of Stearnes' New England Bird Life, II., 145, 
says: "Mr. G. A. Boardnian, Calais, Maine, to whom 
we wrote for information, assures us that he has been 
unable to satisfy himself that the Ptarmigan has ever 
been known to occur in New England. With this 
explanation, which we trust will not leave us liable to the 
charge of improperly augmenting our list of New Eng- 
lang birds and calling special attention to the insufficienc}^ 
of the accredited records, we introduce the species 
hypothetically . " 

When writing upon the Duck Hawk in 18G6, Mr. 
Elliot writes Mr. Boardraan May 24 of that year: " I 
wish to obtain some reliable facts in regard to its mode 
of nesting. Have you ever observed its nest placed in 
trees or does it always have them on some cliff ? I 
believe you have taken the eggs and can give me the 
information I require." 

In September, 18GG, Mr. Elliot, with a party of friends 
including Mr. Newbold, a brother-in-law of Mr. Geo. N. 
Eawrence and Mr. W. J. Hays, came down to Nova 
Scotia on a shooting expedition for moose at which time 
he had hoped to visit Mr. Boardman at Calais. But the 
party went direct to Halifax from Boston by steamer, 
returning the same way, so that Mr. Elliot never saw 
Mr. Boardman's collection. Mr, Boardman made all the 
arrangements for his friend on this trip, and in a letter of 
October 8 Mr. Elliot writes : ' ' We have been most kindly 
received by both Mr. Whitney and Mr. McFarlane and 
everything was done to make us comfortable. I feel 
that we are much indebted to 5^ou for your assist5(ince in 
making our trip pleasant and successful. We had v^ery 



CORRESPONDENCE 279 

good sport, having killed seven moose, a caribou and a 
bear — a fair variety for a couple of weeks." 

Letters from D. O. Elliot to Mr. Boardman 

Oyster Bay, 4th Au<?., ISOG. 
My Dear Sir: 

Your favor of 3l9t July is roceivod aud I am much ()l)liged for 
the trouble that you are taking for me. Will j'ou tell me whether 
at either of the places you mentioned we are likely to have any fish- 
ing, and if we had better bring rods. I shall probably l)e accom- 
panied by two friends, Mr. Newbold, a brother-in-law of Mr. 
Lawrence whom you know, and W. J. Hays, the artist. We 
would like to know the best time to start and the route, and also 
any hints about the requisite amount of greenbacks to bring. 
Do they pass in Nova Scotia? Can you give me any account of 
the habits, nesting, etc., of the Goshawk and Broad-winged 
Hawk? I should like very much to meet you aud have a talk 
about birds, when neither of us would be in a hurry, which unfor- 
tunately has generally been the case in the city. I am somewhat 
surpi-ised about what you say of the change in plumage of the 
Black Guillemot. I have obtained them in the Orkney Islands in 
the black plumage, also in change and pure white, and they all 
seemed to be old birds, and I have never heard of the adults hav- 
ing been obtained jet black during the winter. If it is always 
the case in your vicinity it is certainly well worthy of l)eing 
recorded. Hoping to hear from you again shortly and seeing 
you at no distant time, believe me 

Yours very truly, 

D. G. Elliot. 

P. S. AVill it be advisable to bring any kind of provisions for 
the woods? I always take a box of knick-knacks along when I go 
after deer in the north of this state. 

Oyster Bay, L. I., 17th Aug., 1866. 
My Dear Boardman: 

Yours of the 9th inst. is at hand. I should like to have gone 
with you on your excursion after the ducks, etc., and hope you 
were successful. Can you not manage to get a specimen for me 



280 THE NATURALIST OF THE ST. CROIX 

of Bonaparte's Gull with the black head ; it does not often get down 
as far as our latitude, in summer plumage. When you write me 
when to go after moose, please to give me the route which I 
must take, and the time for me to start. I am going on Monday 
to shoot snipe on Squaw Beach, New Jersey, to be alisent about a 
week. Do you have any fliglit of these Bay Snipe near you? I 
should think they would come that way. I do not think anything 
I should carry on my woods trip would be subject to duty. They 
will consist principally of eatables and drinkables, for my expe- 
rience tells me it is always advisable to have some creature 
comforts along on such expeditions. I am now writing besides 
my large work on the Birds of Noith America, a smaller popular 
one, to be included probably in about three volumes, and I am 
going to try and get Wolf to illustrate it with wood-cuts. I include 
all the species known to inhabit North America with an account 
of their habits, nesting, etc., and hope to make it useful and 
entertaining to all ray countrymen. The volumes will not be any 
larger than Audubon's small work, easy to carry and handle. 
So any account which you can give of our birds, anecdotes, etc., 
will be very useful to me. Hoping to hear from you soon, believe 
me 

Yours very truly, 

D. G. Elliot. 

New York, 1st Nov., ISfiG. 
My Dear Sir; 

Your favor of the 13th was duly received but as I have been 
away from town I have been prevented from replying. I reached 
home safely after a rapid and pleasant run. Baird has been in 
the city, called upon me, but unfortunately I was not at home so 
missed him. I also did not have time to stop in Boston so lost 
the Cinereous Owl. 1 hope you may get it some time when you 
come through and will conclude to dispose of it to me. My 
recollections of the moose hunt are very pleasant and I feel much 
inclined to try it again another fall. Your moose horns are very 
fine and must make a good show. I should like to know what 
the other set you mention measures. A black red squirrel is cer- 
tainly a curiosity to say the least of it. I would like to see one. 
The White-headed Eagle doubtless nests on clifts at times, but I 




y 



CHARLES HALLOC^K 



Foumler and First Editor of Forest and Stream 



CORRESPONDENCE 281 

should judf^o it would only ho whon thoro wero no suitahle trees 
lor the purpose auywlieie in the vicinity. ISiids, like uiau, will 
adapt themselves to eircunistanoes, although at times they may 
he ohliged to act contrary to their nature. I have heeu thinking 
a good deal a])out the Guillemot. It would he a fact well worth 
ascertaining, if indeed it is a fact, that only the young change to 
white, or rather that the white plumage is an indication of imma- 
turity, and the hlack the livery of only the adult l)ird. I know no 
person in a better position to determine the question tlian your- 
self who have them about you so much of the time. Your 
remarks about naturalists copying from each other are perfectly 
correct, and it is from tliis l)ad lial)it that so many errors have 
been promulgated. I shall endeavor in my work to be as inde- 
licndent as i)0ssible. I am going to-morrow into the country to 
shoot quail, and shall trj' to have a sliot at the ducks before long. 
'J'hey are getting to be plenty now on the coast ; the cold weather 
at the north is driving them down here. 
Let me hear from you at your leisure. 
Yours very truly, 

D. G. Elliot. 

Charles Hallock is a native of New York city where 
he was born March 13, 1834. Previous to his establish- 
ment of Forest and Stream, the leading sportsmen's and 
naturalists' newspaper in this country, in 1873, Mr. 
Hallock had been at times editor of several leading 
journals in this country, Bermuda and New Brunswick. 
Since 1860 he has done much collecting and field work 
in zoology for the Smithsonian Institution. He is an 
authority upon ornithology, is the author of many 
treatises on sporting and natural history subjects, has 
traveled extensively and had charge of special exhibits 
at some of the great expositions. 



282 TI-IE NATURAI.IST OF THE ST. CROIX 

Letters From Mr. Boardman to Charles Ilallock 

Calais, Maine, Marclx 5, 1899. 
Dear IIaixock : 

I received your card, also a copj' of The Osprey some days 
ago. T had engaged the pliotograph man to take my pretty 
picture for you, but upon the day it stormed, and I did not go, 
and my daughter said she must go with me, I suppose to fix me, 
so I miglit look young as you used to see me. My daughter has 
been sick with grippe ever since, l)ut I hope to be able to send 
along the photograph soon. 

The Osprey paper is quite a good thitig ; T have taken it ever 
since it was started in California under anotlier name. Coues used 
to write some good things for it and now is head manager. Please 
accept my thanks for your compliments in the last Forest and 
Stream . 

There was a paper of a week or two before by Mr. A. E. 
Brown of New York asking for correspondence about young bears 
and I wTOte my experience with them to Forest and Stream. 
They are a queer lot. 

At Lake Jessup, in Florida, I made the acquaintance of Capt. 
Brock, a great hunter, who told me of bears in Florida as large as 
any north, but the skins I used to see were all of a small breed of 
bears. I wrote Prof. Baird about the large bears, as I w^as told 
by Mr. Brock, and he wanted a skin. Brock also told me of 
wolves in Florida as black as any bear and also but rarely a black 
Lynx rufus. I got good skins of the black wolf, and a poor skin 
of a l)lack Lynx rufus, but of good color, only the feet were cut off. 
I sent them to the Smithsonian for their skin collection. From 
my southern friends I leain that the cold snap destroyed many 
birds even in Middle Florida, besides every flower and most 
everj' green leaf. Here we have Imd quite a fine winter, not as 
much suow^ as usual. The great ))llzzard did not get up to us. We 
had quite a gale and about six inches of snow, but the weather 
was not as cold as in Washington, D. C. There have been only 
nine daj'S this winter when the steamboats could not get up to 
the upper part of the city to delivei- Boston freight. The sleigh- 
ing now is about gone. Sincerely j^ours, 

Geo. a. Boardman. 



CORRICSPONDKNCE 283 

Calais, Auj;. 11, 1899. 
My Dear IIallock: 

I received your note a few days since and notice what you 
say about remaining over at Dennysville for tlie remainder of the 
season. I know .Air. Allen keeps a better place tlian you could 
find here, and Dennysville is a j-ood place, only it is too far from 
Calais, as we " birds of a featlier " like to be together. 

In regard to the black hawk which you see in North Caro- 
lina, I would say I only know of one large black hawk (not steel 
blue) that we call the Rough-legged Archibuteo (lagopus sanct- 
johannis)— if I have spelled it right. We have it here rarely, a 
kind of browuisli black, and I have seen a few very black and 
think this must be the hawk j^ou see. It is a sluggish flyer about 
like a Red-tail or Marsh Hawk. I don't know how far south they 
go but they used to be common down about the Delaware, and 
about the best specimen T ever saw was at the Academy of Sci- 
ence at Philadelphia. I have seyeral in my collection, two 
mounted ones. I never saw one in Florida, but they may go 
south, and some of them may be' blue and be a Rough-higged. 
Last fall one of my sons was out duck shooting and said a lUack 
Marsh Hawk flew very near them. It was probably what we 
call a Dark Rough-leg. I once saw out at Dakota a Black 
Broad-wing. It was sent to the .Smithsonian I think. 

Not much of anything new over this way except picnicking 
up and down the river. All join in kind regards to j'ou and Mrs. 
IIallock. 

Yours as ever, 

Geo. a. Boardman. 

Calais, Sept. 8, 1899. 
My Dear IIallock : 

I am glad to hear you have been having so pleasant a time at 
Mount Desert. I have not been there for twenty years and used 
to think it was about the nicest place on the coast of Maine. I 
am also very glad to hear that Mrs. IIallock is feeling so nuu^h 
better. 

I was sorry to hear yesterday of the death of one of 5'our old 
Dennysville neighbors, Deacon Vose, who died verj^ suddonlj-. I 
have known him since my boyliood — a ver}^ nice man. I was 



284 THE NATURALIST OF THE ST. CROIX 

sorry to hoar of the death of old Mr. McTjellan, wliich I read an 
ac'C'oiiiit of ill the paper. And that old horse jocke}' of a fellow 
that you sent me the cutting about was a wouder. Those horse 
jockeys are a set who most always die joung, like the good cliil- 
dren we read about in the Sunday school books ; but this old fel- 
low is a wonder. 

I was much pleased with what you said about ^Ir. Downs. 
He was a nice man. I have been at liis place a number of times 
and he has visited me. I was in Halifax soon after the Prince of 
Wales was there in 1860 to liave his great reception and this is 
the story some of the people told me. 

The Prince had a long passage over and got to the back bay 
near Downs' place on Sunday. Tlieir commander in charge 
allowed the Prince and a couple of his j'oung friends and ofHcers 
to go on shore to have a ruu. They landed near Downs" place 
and went direct to his house. Mr. Downs was told by one of the 
young officers who they were and was introduced to the Prince. 
Then of course Downs entertained him like a prince — showed 
him all he had and gave him his best set of moose horns to be 
put over his mother's best door in the Royal Palace. 

The next morning Halifax was dressed up for the greatest 
reception it ever had. All the notables of Canada and other 
places were on the platform, also the Prince, waiting for the 
great performance to begin, when among the crowd upon the 
floor was an old rough customer by the name of Downs. The 
Prince saw him, knew him, ran down boy-like, and shook Mr. 
Downs with both hands, then led him up on the platform and 
introduced him to all Ills sliipmates, officers and members of the 
partJ^ The crowd was amazed to know how it could be that 
the Prince should shake hands with Downs before he did with 
any of the governors or the big officers of Canada and was 
also amazed to know how Mr. Downs and the Prince should 
appear such old cronies and when he got down from the platform 
everybody who could get a chance was shaking hands with Mr. 
Downs, while after the Prince Mr. Downs was the greatest man 
in Halifax for the day. Mr. Downs was paid $150 iu gold for 
the horns. 

My brother Goihani was in bed most of the four weeks he 
was here. He left me two weeks ago and I hear is much better 



CORRESPONDENCE 285 

now. He is at Chatham, Cape Cod. I Avill try to see what I can 
do with Mr. Downs' collection. The Cambridge collection is very 
full. Your legs must be good to allow you to climb the Mt. 
Desert mountains; my legs now are better for going down than 
up hill. We are all very well liere and the weather is fine and 
cool. All join in kind regards to you and Mrs. Hallock. 
Sincerely yours, 

Geo. a. Boardman. 

Dr. Thomas Mayo Brewer who, with Prof. Baird and 
Mr. Robert Ridgway, spent several years in bringing 
out the History of North American Birds in five volumes, 
was one of Mr. Boardmau's correspondents and visited 
him several times at his home in St. Stephen. He was 
a native of Boston where he was born November 21, 
1824, a graduate of Harvard tmiversity in the class of 
1835 and of the Harvard Medical School in 1857. He 
organized the publishing firm of Brewer & Tileston, 
which was in business for many years. He edited an 
edition of Wilson's American Ornithology and in 1859 
the Smithsonian Institution published his Oology of 
North America. His work on the History of North 
American Birds was in the biographies of the species, 
while the technical descriptions were written by Prof. 
Baird and Mr. Ridgway. During the years 1875 and 
1876 Dr. Brewer visited Great Britain and the European 
continent, spending mtich time in a personal examination 
and study of the great ornithological collections in those 
countries. 

Writing to Mr. Boardman under date of May 20, 1868, 
Dr. Brewer says : "I am glad you have the nest and 
eggs of the Canada Jay. It is a great prize. I^et me 
have the nest to describe before you let it go out of your 
hands. The same in regard to those of the Pine Finch 



286 THE NATURALIST OF THE ST. CROIX 

aud the Goshawk. I want very much to see the finches 
in order to determine whether either of the three 
pretenders I now have are genuine. If you ever part 
with any egg of either of these three please give me the 
first chance unless I find I have already one of the finch's 
eggs." 

In 1871 Mr. Boardman sent Dr. Brewer a nest and eggs 
of some unknown bird and the latter writes him November 
23 of that year that "it is a regular puzzler." Then 
he says that he has gone completely through the entire 
list of North American land birds " and there are but 
few of our known birds to which it can possibly be 
attributed. ' ' Giving the possibilities of the birds to which 
they may belong he says there are objections to all of 
them, concluding by saying : " When I go to Washing- 
ton this winter I will take it up and talk it over with 
Baird and let you know. But I doubt if he can see his 
way out of the fog. What an awful pity you could not 
have secured the bird." So far as the correspondence 
discloses, the identity of the nest was never established. 

In 1874 Dr. Brewer wants Mr. Boardman to come to 
Boston. " I want very much," he says, " to talk with 
you about some of our water birds" and he sees no 
opportunity to visit St. Stephen. In this same letter, 
date of June 23, he writes : "I am glad you have taken 
the nest and eggs of the collaris. It is a great prize — 
almost unknown. Where was the nest ? On the ground 
I presume. Please give me all the particulars. Shall 
you have an egg to spare for your humble servant?" 
Writing June 29, 1877, to Mr. Boardman, accompanying 
a package of about fifty rare eggs. Dr. Brewer closes a 
most interesting letter by saying : " How would you 



CORREvSPONDimCK 287 

like to have me next May drop down to the region of 
black flies and make an excursion with you ' up the 
creek ? ' Or shall we then be too old ? " It was the last 
letter from Dr. Brewer found among the papers of Mr. 
Boardman. He died at Boston, January 24, 1880. 

Mr. Joel Asaph Allen, now the curator of vertebrate 
zoology at the American Museum of Natural History, 
Central Park, New York city, was one of Mr. Board- 
man's correspondents. He was born in Springfield, 
Mass., July 19, 1838. He was a student under Agassiz 
at the lyawrence scientific school of Harvard University ; 
a member of several scientific expeditions, and assistant 
in ornithology in the Harvard Museum of Comparative 
Zoology. Mr. Allen was the first president of the 
American Ornithologists' Union, serving from 1883 to 
1890. He edited the Bulletin of the Nuttall Ornitholog- 
ical Club, and has for some years been editor of The 
Auk, the leading ornithological review in this country. 
He has occupied his present position since 1885. 

The correspondence between these friends began in 
1861:, and was continued at intervals until 188G. Writ- 
ing to Mr. Boardman December 3, 188G, Mr. Allen says: 
"In regard to the Messina Quail I can only say that 
none have ever returned to breed where they were 
turned out. It is the opinion of those who have watched 
most carefully the experiment of their introduction that 
it has been a complete failure. In several instances they 
reared young the first year after being turned out, but 
disappeared the following winter never to return. It is 
the general belief that in migrating they struck out to 
sea and were lost." On October 26, 1869, in writing 
Mr. Allen, Mr. Boardman tells of obtaining two birds 



288 THE NATURALIST OF THE ST. CROIX 

new to his list, the Black Vulture and Purple Gallinule, 
" both in very fine plumage and both taken while Prof. 
Baird was with me. The}' were a long ways north for 
such southern birds." Under date of November 12, 
18C4, Mr. Boardman writes Mr. Allen : 

lu answer to your question of how the Wliite-headed Eagle 
bleeds, I would say I have kuowu but one instauce of its breed- 
ing upon clifts, that was at the Wolves Island. 1 was told by the 
fishermen of an eagle breeding upon the clifts and supposed it 
was the Golden, so I sent a crew to get the eggs but they finding 
it the White-head did not go over the clifts, but amused themselves 
by rolling rocks down over the nest but did not drive the birds 
away. I do' not, however, know whether they returned next 
year or not. I got a nest of raven's eggs, seven in number, ou a 
clift" near tlie same place last spring on April 11, the snow then 
being nearly a foot deep. The Duck Hawks breed very early — 
they are flying about in June. I got one which I mounted but 
could see no pin feathers. It was shot this year in July, a this sea- 
son's bird. They are very quiet about breeding time and are sel- 
dom seen. I know of one place where they had been breeding for 
years and the fishermen living Avithin lialf a mile never saw or 
heard of the bird. I have many times wondered how they could 
feed tlieinselves and their young and never be seen, but when the 
young are half fledged they are at times very noisy, and when 
they first begin to fly more so than most hawks, but they leave 
tlie breeding places as soon as they can fly. I never knew them 
to breed upon trees. 1 once knew of a IJaven's nest witliin a hun- 
dred yards of tlie hawk, and do not think they troubled each 
other. 1 also found, last year, a Sparrow Hawk and Yellow 
Woodpecker breeding in the same tree, but they were uot very 
peaceable. The Hawk would dive after the Woodpecker when it 
left its nest. Mr. Jaimson, a fine old man of Deer Island, told 
me a story of seeing an eagle flying along the clift" and a Duck 
Hawk flew at the eagle in a very spiteful way, probably to drive 
it away from the nest, when the eagle caught the hawk, gave it a 
squeeze, and it dropped perfectly dead. It was seen by the whole 
boat's crew who were fishing. 



CORRESPONDENCE 289 

Elliott Coues was born in Portsmouth. N. H., Sep- 
tember 9, 1842, and became a very prominent naturalist 
and writer on ornithological subjects. Soon after gradu- 
ating from Columbian University, Washington, D. C, 
he entered the army as a medical cadet, ])ecame assistant 
surgeon in 1864, but resigned in 1881 to devote his life 
to science. He was naturalist to several exploring sur- 
veys of the government, as the Northern Boundary 
survey and the Survey of the Territories and was also a 
collaborator at the Smithsonian Institution. At different 
times he was editor of various scientific journals and 
magazines and the author of no less than fourteen elab- 
orate works on ornithology, together with several hun- 
dred monographs and scientific papers in reviews and 
other periodicals. Among the most important of his 
works are Key to North American Birds ; Field Orni- 
thology ; New England Bird Eife ; North American 
Rodentia, Birds of the Colorado Valley, and Ornitholo- 
gical Bibliography. Dr. Coues was a member of the 
National Academy of Sciences, of many American and 
foreign scientific societies and was one of the scientific 
editors of the Centurj^ Cyclopaedia and Dictionary. He 
died at Johns Hopkins Hospital, Baltimore, Md., Decem- 
ber 25, 1899. A Memorial, from the pen of D. G. Elliot, 
with portrait, appeared in the number of The Auk for 
January, 1901, Vol. XVIII., page 1. 

Many letters passed between Mr. Boardman and Dr. 
Elliott Coues relating to the Black Robin of which a 
history is given on pages 121-122 of this work. In one 
of those written by Dr. Coues on August 30, 1877, he 
says: "The case is one that should properly go on 
record and I hope you will make a note of this for the 



290 THE NATURAIvIST OF THE ST. CROIX 

Nuttall Bulletin. I hope the youngster may stay black 
and that, as live birds are 'mighty uncertain' you have 
him sacrificed to science in due time and sent to the 
Smithsonian where all good birds go — or ought to go — 
when they die." This letter was written at Oakland, 
Ind., and he adds: "I am taking a little 'vacation,' 
so called, by euphemism, though I don't see much 
difference. I seem condemned to the galley for life." 

Mr. Ruthven Deane, writing from Cambridge, Mass., 
to Mr. Boardman, July 16, 1872, says : "I was pleased 
to hear of your taking a specimen of Vireo Philadel- 
phicus. Mr. Brewster and myself took three females at 
Umbagog Lake in June. Your specimen now makes 
the fifth taken in New England." February 10, 1874, 
he writes : "I was much surprised to find that the 
Nyctale Richardsonii has been taken in your vicinity 
in spring, as it has generally been thought that only the 
coldest winters drove it into the limits of the United 
States." On November 11, 1876, Mr, Deane says: 

We have had a very early aud uncommonly large flight of 
Snowy Owls since the first of the mouth on our coast and it is 
hard to conjecture the probable cause, especially as they appeared 
in such mild weather and to my knowledge no other so northern 
a species has been driven south in numbers. My object in writing 
is to ask if you have had many in your section or if to your 
knowledge any have been taken on Grand Manan. I have learned 
of nearly two hundred specimens having been seen and shot 
between Saco, Me., and New Bedford, Mass., and the majority 
were shot. Most of them have been taken on the coast although 
numbers have been seen in country towns and a few have been 
seen perched on the housetops in Boston, Charlestown, etc. 



CORRESPONDENCE 291 

Letter from Lieut- Gov. Arthur II. Gordon to Mr. Boardman 

FiJEDEHiCTON, July 15, 1863. 
My Dear Sir : 

I was* much obliged to you for tlie trouble you took iu procur- 
ing me the sciuirrels. They arrived all safe and very pretty little 
creatures they were, but alas ! only two or three days after they 
came their cage was fouud empty some stupid porsou having 
allowed them to escajje or some ill-disposed person having stolen 
them I It was a great dis:ipi)ointnient to me as I had fully intended 
to take them with me to England for the Zoological Gardens. I 
cannot ask j-ou to take so much trouble again iu procuring me 
another jjair, but should you hear of one perhaps you will kindly 
remember that I am looking out for some and that I am quite 
ready to pay well for them. 

There is another animal which I am rather anxious to add to 
ray collection, the fisher or pecquan. It is, I believe, very rare. I 
have never seen even a dead specimen. 

We have been parched for want of raiu but it is falling now 
at last. 

Fray do not forget the list of birds and beasts you were good 
enough to promise that you would contribute to my lieport to the 
Queen. If a few words as to the habits, appearance, etc., of each 
species were added it would much increase its value. 
Yours very sincerely, 

Arthur II. Gordon. 

Letter from Prof. L. W. Bailey to Mr. Boardman 

Fredericton, June 5th, 1874. 
My Dear Sir: 

Many thanks for your kind letter of the 2Bt]i ult. and for 
your generous answer to my somewhat bold request. The birds 
you meutiou will be a very great addition to this part of our 
cabinet, and will, I trust, do much to awaken a more general 
interest in the whole. 

I dare say that our students could do something in the way of 
egg collecting, but I have felt a little reluctant to encourage them 
iu this direction, as I have somewhere read or heard (perhaps 



292 THE NATURALIST OF THE ST. CROIX 

from yourself) that eggs, unless thoroughly identifled at the time 
of collectiou as belonging to any particular species, are useless or 
worse than useless, being liable only to produce confusion. Our 
students at this season arc also too busy preparing for coming 
examinations to devote much attention to collecting. Unfortu- 
nately my most promising student in natural history, and one 
Avho had already done a good deal in the way of preparing skele- 
tons, etc., was suddenly carried oil" last winter by scarlet fever — 
the only deatli which has ever occurred among the students of 
the college. 

I am glad to hear that your California trip was such a pleas- 
ant one. I have always had a yearning to see some of the won- 
ders of the west, but am afraid that it will be long before I can 
get tliere. 

I hope you will not abandon your idea of a visit to Frederic- 
ton and the tit. John river this summer. I shall myself be away 
on the geological survey after July 1, but the family will be at 
home except during the first fortnight in July (when they pro- 
pose to go to Canipobello) and will be glad to see you. My own 
headquarters for a time at least after going from home will be at 
Hampstead Village near Long Island on the St. John river, not 
far from the place I told you of two or three seasons ago. Could 
you make it convenient to come there any time in the early part 
of July; I doubt not that you would find good sport on the hills 
and lakes which abound in that vicinity. 

As you speak of a number of birds as being already mounted, 
it has occurred to me that it might be as well to send them at 
once, if convenient, as they will thus serve to make a better dis- 
play at our coming commencement. By the way, have you any 
specimen of the little yellow canary-like bird here known as the 
Thistle-bird V 1 should like very much to get one. 

Please give my kind regards to Mrs. Boardman and believe 
me. Yours very truly, 

L. W. Bailey. 







CL^t-^ 






lte<^ ^2c^yu^ c^cy^^ 



CORRESPONDENCE 293 

Letter from Prof. P. L. Sclater, London, Enc/., to 
Mr. Boardman 

London, Jan. :M, 1SG5. 
Dear Sir : 

You must, I foar, consider me a very bad correspondent for not 
having previously replied to your letter of July last. We shall 
be olad to take advantage of your kind offer to supply some of 
the mammals of your country which are deficient in our series, 
but as you say, the dilliculty is the transport. 

The only plan, I think, is to place a few animals on board any 
ship you may find running into the Thames, under the charge of 
the ship's butcher, giving liim a letter to me requesting payment 
of 10s. or 20s. per head for such of them as he shall deliver alive 
in this country. It will be necessary to get the captain's permis- 
sion, of course, but this you will not find difficult with your con- 
nections. 

We receive a good many animals from the Australian col- 
onies which are sent over exactly in this way. 

As regards my own collection which you so kindly oiler to 
assist, what I now most want are the sterna of birds of which I 
am now forming a collection. If you could send me a few of 
these belonging to American genera not represented in Europe 
(such as Tyrannus, Tyranga, Podilymbus, etc.) I should be grate- 
ful. You might send them quite in the rough as I can get them 
polished up afterwards, but they should be correctly labelled. 

I shall soon be able to send you a new edition of our list of 
living animals. 

Very truly yours, 

P. L. Sclater. 

Letter from Charles E. Aiken to Mr. Boardman 

Colorado Springs, Colo., Oct. 9, 1877. 
Mr. Geo. A. Boardman: 

Dear Sir — I have just received your favor of the 3d inst. 
Your Robin is certainly a very interesting specimen. The 
transition of black to white in the plumage of birds I have never 
heard of before, and it indicates an analogy in the causes winch 



294 THK NATURALIST OF THE ST. CROIX 

produce those abnormal stages, which I did not su-ppose existed. 
As a caliinet specimen the bird would doubtless be more valuable 
in its i)resent plumage than it will be if it becomes entirely Avhite, 
but I should consider the loss compensated for by the interest 
you will take in observing developments. My suggestion is that 
you have the bird photograplied and spare his life a little longer 
at any rate. It would be interesting to observe what effect, if 
any, would be produced by plucking the old plumage from a cer- 
tain spot on the body — as the head — I believe that in all pure 
albiuos the skin, like the plumage, is colorless. I should sup- 
pose that in melanotic specimens the skin would be black or at 
least quite dark. If this was the case in your birds, does the skin 
lose color simultaneously witli the ajipearance of the white 
feathers ? 

I have obtained a perfect albino myself this fall — a gray 
wolf — wliich has even the nose and eyelids without color. I 
have heard of two albino Buteo borealis. 

If I succeed in getting an adult Golden Eagle this winter I 
will remember your want and shall be happy to exchange for 
some of your specimens. Eagles were formerly quite plentiful 
here but so many have been killed by hunters and sportsmen that 
they are not often obtained now. I leceived one about two weeks 
ago but in innnature plumage. 

I have been wanting to secure an Everglade Kite for a long 
time. There are a number of other Florida birds which I need 
but this one is the most important. 

Yovi speak of Sage Grouse — do you need any? I am think- 
ing some of taking a trip over the " Eange " this fall and if I do I 
expect to be able to get specimens of the Sage Grouse as well as 
Dusky Grouse and Ptarmigan. 

Yours truly, 

Chas. E. Aiken. 

Letter from Dr. Ezekiel Holmes to Mr. Boardman 

WiNTHROP, Dec. 30, 1862. 
Geo. a. Boardman, Esq. : 

My Dear Sir — Many tlianks to you for your catalogue of 
birds and also for your communication of the 23d inst. 



CORRESPONDENCE 295 

I am happy to lind j'ou still keeping your ornithological eye 
on the watch for new specimens and am glad that you are so 
successful in finding now comers. I feel a groat interest in this 
department of natural history, especially as it regards our own 
State. It is a pity that naturalists have made so many new names 
for l)irds long ago appropriately named. It loads the science 
with synonyms without corresponding benefit. Names are, in 
one sense, arbitrary and adopted merely to enable us to identify an 
individual, or individuals by the hearing of it, while that name 
should be descriptive ; but whether it be or not, when it has been 
promulgated that should be enough, and not sul)joct to change 
for light causes. 

I did not get down so far as Calais last summer, but hope to 
if the Scientific Survey of the State should be continued. I have 
just finished my preliminary report on the fishes of Maine, as far 
as investigated this past season. I have made no changes in classi- 
fication or nomenclature, but have taken my own mode of telling 
my story with a view of making it as familiar to " the masses," as 
the politicians say, as I could, or at least, as much so as the 
scientific phrases and technical terms w^ould let me. I will send 
you a copy when published. I suppose I have about a quarter 
part, or perhaps half of the fishes which are, or are to be found 
in our waters, on my list of this year. If we go on, I must come 
down into your section early to learn what I can of herrings and 
herring fisheries in Maine and neighborhood, and if I do, will be 
happy to call upon you. In the mean time T I'emain, 

Truly and cordially yours, 

E. Holmes. 

P. S. Any facts, or even " sailors" yarns " and '' fish stories'' 

that may come to your knowledge in regard to fish and fishing in 

Maine, will be interesting and valuable to me if you will send 

them. 

Letter from Dr. A. L. Heemann to Mr. Boardman 

Philadelphia, May, lS(i2. 
Dear Friend Boardman: 

I received your box three days ago for which I have many 
thanks to return as there were several new species to my collec- 
tion. The Kavens were certainly the largest sized ones I ever saw 



29G THE NATURAI.IST OF THE ST. CROIX 

and should not. wonder if Caird ou receiving his should make a 
new species of it. Your eggs were also all desirable, the owl 
new to uie ; the snipe finished out a series of four I have long been 
trj'ing for, and the Black ( 'aptit appears so diflerent from the eggs 
liere that 1 should feel obliged to you if j'ou can procure me one 
of the birds of which j^ou sent me the eggs. I am on the look- 
out for some birds' skins for you and will try to make an envoy 
before I leave here. Our spring has set in and we have now the 
warblers in abundance which are traveling on their northAvard 
course. Pay particular attention to them and their eggs as I am 
almost without any of them in my collection, but I hope one of 
these days to find them in that northei-n region which I most 
earnestly desire to visit. In your letter you say that among my 
duplicates there were several desirable birds and now I ask why 
you did not take them? Please send me a list of wliat you wish 
and you shall have all that I have among my duplicates, as tliey 
are intended for that pui'pose. 1 am now hard at work collecting 
what I can and some of our spring birds are already breeding. 
Mr. Krider is not perfectly well and finds it out of his power to 
come and pay you a visit as his affairs in the sutler business in 
our army are in such a condition that he cannot leave here for 
some time. 1 should like very much to see your supposed eagles' 
eggs and especially if the nest was found on the rocks. Our 
common Bald Eagle always builds on trees, our Golden Eagle on 
rocks, but the eggs are veiy much freckled with red and brown 
spots which does not appear to be the case with yours. Mr. 
Krider was much pleased to see the eggs of the English snipe, 
and if you get any more please send a pair to him. With regard 
to any warblers' eggs you may have I shall be very glad to have 
them even though not thoroughly identified as I might go to 
Washington and study them out with or from Prof. Baird's col- 
lection, lie has just sent me a set of eggs among which are manj' 
new species to my collection and I begin again to hope that some 
of these days I shall have a show of the North American species. 
Could you not obtain some of the Raven's eggs of which you 
sent me the Invd't The fact is, that I would like to impress ou 
your mind that even the commonest species breeding in your part 
of the country would be valuable both to John Krider and myself. 



CORRESPONDENCK 297 

I have not, lor Instanco, a well authenticated egg ol the Wood 
Duck or Dusky Duck, wliidi l)<)th appear to be common with jou. 
I want as soon as you can make out a list of desired birds to 
send it to me at once and I will see what I can do to fill it. 
Much obliged to you if you can get me the eggs marked on the 
English list, and I gave you at the same time a list of what Ameri- 
can eggs I could supply and if the gentleman desires any of them 
let me know it at once. Your friend, 

A. L. IIeemann. 

Among Mr. Boardman's papers have been found many 
letters from amateur and little known naturalists who 
wrote to make inquiries respecting puzzling matters in 
ornithology or to thank him for specimens sent or 
information given. Here is a specimen that is most 
gratifying. It was written by William H. Hoyt, Stam- 
ford, Conn., and bears date August 24, 1886, but only 
the opening paragraph of the long letter is given : 

Your letter came duly to hand and yesterday a. m. the 
box of eggs and skins arrived, and I think that during the half 
hour I took to unpack it I was as near the summit of human 
happiness as man ever attains. Being an enthusiastic naturalist 
yourself, if j'ou will call to mind some boxes you have perhaps 
received from the Smithsonian or elsewhere, and remember the 
delight of unpacking it, you will know how the treasures you 
sent aflected me. I think there is no pleasure so healthy, so full 
and so satisfactory as that which comes with the gratification of 
a naturalist's desire. I will of course make one exception — that 
of human love and friendship. I never was so pleased with a 
box before, because I never have had anytliiug so rare as the 
specimens it contained. 

Many letters of a similar nature are among the papers, 
showing to what a large extent Mr. Boardman was send- 
ing specimens to distant ornithologists and carrj'ing on 
a constant correspondence with lesser known naturalists 
as well as with those who were famous. 



CHAPTER XI 



SCIENTIFIC I.ISTS 



NEXT to his large collection in ornithology the 
work that gave Mr. Boardman great authority 
as a naturalist and brought him into correspondence 
with so many students who had never seen his collection 
were the lists of the fauna of the St. Croix valley which 
he published from time to time in the scientific journals. 
The basis of his list of birds were those first published 
in the Proceedings of the Boston Society of Natural 
History in 18G2, Vol. IX., pages 122-233. As his interest 
in the natural history of his locality widened Mr. Board- 
man studied all its branches and, as was his custom, 
made records of all his observations. The following lists 
embrace the results of his studies in the faunal distribu- 
tion of Maine and New Brunswick. 

These lists were finally revised by Mr. Boardman and 
published in the columns of the Calais Weekly Times 
between November 23, 1899 and February 5, 1900, the 
old scientific nomenclature being used. But owing to our 
increased knowledge of the relations which different fami- 
lies and species of birds bear to each other the generic 
names of many species have been changed since Mr. 
Boardman' s list was originally published. 



SCIENTIFIC I.ISTS 299 

Also in scientific nomenclature it is the custom to give 
the first scientific name applied to a species as its correct 
name and treating all subsequently applied names of 
that species as synonyms. In accordance with this lat- 
ter custom it has been found necessary to change the 
long-accepted names of many species for others which 
were applied by other scientists at earlier dates and 
which therefore had precedence. For these causes the 
nomenclature originally used in connection with Mr. 
Boardman's list differed quite essentially from that now 
accepted by science. To have published the list of birds 
with the old nomenclature would have perpetuated errors 
and employed a language obsolete to science. There- 
fore the list has been revised to correspond with that of 
the American Ornithologists' Union. In other particu- 
lars Mr. Boardman's list as published in the Calais Times 
remains unchanged. 

In the list of fishes the authority followed in nomen- 
clature has been The Fishes of North and Middle Amer- 
ica, by David Starr Jordan, president of Iceland Stanford 
Junior University and Barton Warren Evermann, Icthy- 
ologist to the United States Fish Commission, in four 
volumes, being Bulletin No. 47 of the United States 
National Museum, Washington, D. C, 189G-1900. In 
the list of mammals the authority has been American 
Animals : A Popular Guide to the Mammals of North 
America north of Mexico, with Intimate Biographies of 
the More Familiar Species, by Whitmer Stone and Wil- 
liam Everett Cram, New York,' 1902. In the list of 
reptiles the authority has been The Century Dictionary 
and Cyclopedia, New York, 1899. 



300 THE NATURAIvIST OF THE ST. CROIX 

St. Croix Birds ",•-; '' /"' 

Wilson's Thrush. Hylocichla fuscescens (Stcph.). 
Not uncommon ; breeds. 

Olive-backed Thrush. H3docichla ustulata swainsonii 
{Cab.). Not plentiful in summer ; some breed. 

Hermit Thrush. Hylocichla guttata pallasii {Cab.). 
Very abundant ; one of our best songsters. 

American Robin. Merulamigratoria (/,/««.). Abund- 
ant everywhere. 

Cat-bird. Galeoscoptes carolinensis {Linn.) . Not very 
abundant ; breeds. 

Stone chat. Saxicola cenanthe leucorhoa {Gmcl.). 
Accidental, only two specimens. 

Bluebird. Sialia sialis (/-/««.). Not common; few 
breed. 

Ruby-crowned Wren. Regulus calendula {Linn.). 
Rare ; may breed. 

Golden-crowned Wren. Regulus satrapa Licht. More 
common ; few remain all winter. 

Black-capped Chickadee. Parus atricapillus Linn. 
Common, winter and summer. 

Hudsonian Chickadee. Parus hudsonicus /<?r5/. Not 
very abundant ; few breed. 

White-bellied Nuthatch. Sitta carolinensis Lath. 
Rare ; breeds. 

Red-bellied Nuthatch. Sitta canadensis Z,7;z«. Abun- 
dant ; breeds. 

Brown Creeper. Certhia familiaris americana {Bonap.) . 
Not very common ; breeds. 

Winter Wren. Olbiorchilus hiemalis ( FzW//.). Resi- 
dent ; not abundant. 



SCIENTIFIC LISTS 301 

American Titlark. Anthus pensilvanicus {Lath.). 
Common in migrations. 

Black and White Creeper. Mniotilta varia (Linn.). 
Common ; arrives early in May. 

Prothonotary Warbler. Protonotaria citrea {Bodd.). 
Very rare, only a straggler. 

Nashville Warbler. Helminthophila rubricapilla 
( Wils.). Common ; breeds. 

Tennessee Warbler. Helminthophila peregrina( Wils.). 
Common ; breeds. 

Blue Yellow-backed Warbler. Compsothlypis ameri- 
cana usneae Bretvster. Not uncommon ; breeds. 

Cape May Warbler. Dendroica tigrina {Gmel. ) . Rare, 
some years common ; breeds. 

Summer Yellow Warbler. Dendroica aestiva {Gmel.). 
Abundant ; breeds. 

Black-throated Blue Warbler. Dendroica caerulescens 
{Gmel.). Not abundant all summer. 

Yellow-rump Warbler. Dendroica coronata {Linn.). 
Very abundant ; comes early. 

Black and Yellow Warbler. Dendroica maculosa 
{Gmel.). Abundant; breeds. 

Chestnut-sided Warbler. Dendroica pensylvanica 
{Linn.). Not uncommon ; breeds. 

Bay-breasted Warbler. Dendroica castanea {Wils.). 
Not uncommon ; breeds. 

Black-poll Warbler. Dendroica striata {Forst.). Not 
uncommon ; breeds. 

Blackburnian Warbler. Dendroica blackburnise 
{Gmel.). Not uncommon ; breeds. 

Black-throated Green Warbler. Dendroica virens 
{Gmel.). Abundant; breeds. 



302 THE NATURALIST OF THE ST. CROIX 

Pine-creeping Warbler. Dendroica vigorsii {And.). 
Very rare ; only one specimen. 

Yellow Red-poll Warbler. Dendroica palmarum liypo- 
chrysea Ridgiv. Very abundant ; breeds. 

Golden-crowned Thrush. Seiurus aurocapillus(Z,z;i?i . ) . 
Very abundant ; breeds. 

Small-billed Water Thrush. Seiurus noveboracensis 
{Gmel.). Common; breeds. 

Mourning Warbler. Geothlypis Philadelphia ( VVils.). 
Very rare. 

Maryland Yellow Throat. Geothlypis trichas brachi- 
dactyla (vSwam.). Abundant; breeds. 

Wilson's Black-capped Yellow Warbler. Wilsonia 
pusilla ( Wils.). Not very abundant; breeds. 

Canadian Flycatching Warbler. Wilsonia canadensis. 
{Linn.). Common ; breeds. 

American Red Start. Setophaga ruticilla {Linn.). 
Very abundant ; breeds. 

Red-eyed Vireo. Vireo olivaceus {Linn.). Very 
abundant ; breeds. 

Philadelphia Vireo. Vireo philadelphicus {Cass.). 
Rare. 

Warbling Vireo. Vireo gilvus ( Vicill.). Not plenty ; 
remains all summer. 

Blue-headed Vireo. Vireo solitarius {Wils,). Not 
plenty ; remains all winter. 

Great Northern Shrike. Lanius borealis ( Vieill. ) . Fall 
and winter; common. 

White-rump Shrike. Lanius ludovicianus^/««. Rare; 
breeds. 

Northern Wax Wing. Ampelis garrulus Linn. Rare ; 
some winters in large flocks. 



SCIENTIFIC LISTS 303 

Cedar Wax Wing. Ampelis cedrorum ( Vieill. ) . Com- 
mon, some in winter; breeds. 

Purple Martin. Progne subis {Linn.). Common; 
breeds. 

Cliff Swallow. Petrochelidon lunifrons (5«j/). Very 
abundant ; breeds. 

Barn Swallow. Hirundo erythrogaster Bodd. Very 
abundant ; breeds. 

White-bellied swallow. Tachyciueta bicolor ( Vieill.). 
Very abundant ; breeds. 

Bank Swallow. Riparia riparia {Linn.). Very 
abundant ; cheap. 

Scarlet Tanager. Piranga erythromelas Vieill. Rare ; 
breeds. 

Summer Red Bird. Piranga rubra {Li)m.). Grand 
Manan. Rare ; only two specimens. 

Pine Grosbeak. Pinicola enucleator leucura {Midler) . 
Common in winter ; a few in summer. 

Purple Finch. Carpodacus purpureus {Gmel.). 
Abundant ; breeds. 

American Crossbill. Loxia curvirostra minor {Brehni) . 
Uncertain, some winters abundant ; breeds in winter. 

White-winged Crossbill. Loxia leucoptera Gviel. Un- 
certain, some winters abundant ; breeds in winter. 

Common Red Poll. Acanthis linaria (Z,z;/;i.) . Win- 
ters common ; breeds. 

American Gold Finch (Thistle Bird). Astragalinus 
tristis (Zmw.). Abundant; breeds. 

Pine Finch. Spinus pinus ( Wils.) . Winter visitant ; 
some breed. 

Snow Bunting. Passerina nivalis {Linn.). Winter 
visitant. 



304 THE NATURALIST OF THE ST. CROIX 

Lapland Longspur. Calcarius lapponicus {Linn.). 
Very rare. 

Savannah Sparrow. Ammodramus sandwichensis 
savanna ( Wils. ) . Abundant ; breeds. 

Grass Finch. Pocecetes graniineus (6^w^(?/.). Abund- 
ant ; breeds. 

Yellow-wing Sparrow. Ammodramus savannarum 
passerinus (IVi'ls.). Very rare ; accidental. 

Sharp-tail Finch. Ammodramus nelsoni subvirgatus 
{Dwight). Not plenty. 

White-crowned Sparrow. Zonotrichia leucophrys 
{Forst.). Very rare. 

White-throat Sparrow. Zonotrichia albicollis {Gwcl.). 
Abundant. 

Tree Sparrow. Spizella monticola {Gmel.). Only in 
migrations. 

Clipping Sparrow. Spizella socialis {Wils.). Very 
abundant. 

Black Snow Bird. Junco hyemalis {Linn.). Very 
abundant. 

Song Sparrow. Melospiza melodia {Wilson). Very 
abundant. 

Swamp Sparrow. Melospiza georgiana (Z-a/A.). Not 
uncommon. 

Lincoln's Finch. Melospiza lincolnii {Aud.). Very 
rare. 

Fox-colored Sparrow. Passerella iliaca (^<?;'/'. ) . Fall 
and spring. 

Rose-breasted Grosbeak. Zamelodia ludoviciana 
{Linn.). Rare ; breeds. 

Blue Grosbeak. Guiraca cserulea {Linn.). Grand 
Manan ; accidental. 



SCIENTIFIC LISTS 305 

Iiidii^o 13untin<^. Cyanospiza cyaiiea {Linn.^. Not 
unconiinon ; breeds. 

Bobolink. Doliclionyx oryzivorus {Linn.). Very 
abundant. 

Cow Bird. Molothrus ater (/^^o^^/.). Rare. 

Red- winged Blackbird. Agelaius phoeniceus {Linn.). 
Abundant. 

Meadow Lark. Sturnella magna {Linn.). Very rare ; 
only accidental. 

Orchard Oriole. Icterus spurius (Z,?«?i.). Very rare ; 
only accidental. 

Baltimore Oriole. Icterus galbula (/-/V^w.) . Not com- 
mon ; rare. 

Rusty Blackbird. Scolecopliagus carolinus {Miill.). 
Common in migrations ; few in summer. 

Purple Crackle. Quiscalus quiscula oeneus {Ridgw.). 
Very abundant. 

American Raven. Corvus corax j^rincipalis Ridgw. 
Not abundant ; breeds. 

Common Crow. Corvus americanus And. Common, 
resident. 

Blue Jay. Cyanocitta cristata {Linn.). Common, 
resident. 

Canada Jay. Perisoreus canadensis {Lin?i.). Com- 
mon, resident. 

Shore Lark. Otocoris alpestris {Linn.). Very rare. 

King Bird. Tyrannus tyrannus {Linn.). Very 
abundant. 

Great Crested Flycatcher. Myiarchuscrinitus {Liim.). 
Very rare. 

Phcebe Bird Pewee. Sayornis phoebe {Lath.). Rare. 

Olive-sided Flycatcher. Contopus borealis {Swains. ) . 
N6t uncommon ; breeds. 



30G THE NATURALIST OF THE ST. CROIX 

Wood Pewee. Contopus virens {LiJin.) . Not uncom- 
mon ; breeds. 

Yellow-bellied Flycatcher. Empidonax flaviventris 
Baird. Not uncommon ; breeds. 

Traill's Flycatcher. Empidonax traillii alnorum 
Drewst. Not uncommon ; breeds. 

Ipswich Sparrow. Ammodramus princeps {Mayji.). 
St. Andrews; two. 

Least Flycatcher. Empidonax minimus Baird. Abun- 
dant. 

Ruby-throated Humming Bird. Trochilus colubris 
Linn. Abundant. 

Chimney Swift. Chaetura pelagica (Z.m«.). Abun- 
dant. 

Whippoorwill. Antrostomus vociferus ( W^a!7.ft7«). Not 
uncommon. 

Night-hawk. Chordeiles virginianus (C/;^^/.). Abun- 
dant. 

Hairy Woodpecker. Dryobates villosus {Limi.). 
Abundant. 

Downy Woodpecker. Dryobates pubescens {Linn.). 
Abundant. 

Black-backed Three-toed Woodpecker. Picoides 
arcticus {Swains.). Not uncommon ; few in summer. 

Banded Three-toed Woodpecker. Picoides ameri- 
canus Brehm. Not uncommon ; few in summer. 

Yellow-bellied Woodpecker. Sphyrapicus varius 
{Linn.). Common. 

Pileated Woodpecker. Ceophlceus pileatus abieticola 
Bangs. Not uncommon. 

Red-headed Woodpecker. Melanerpes erythroceph- 
alus (/,/««.). Very rare. 



SCIENTIFIC USTS 307 

Yellow-shafted Flicker. Colaptes auratus {Lhm.). 
Abundant. 

Belted Kingfisher. Ceryle alcyon (/.m«.). Abundant. 

Yellow-billed Cuckoo. Coccyzus americanus {Linji. ) . 
Very rare ; only accidental. 

Black-billed Cuckoo. Coccyzus erythropthalmus 
( Wilson ) . Com mon . 

American I^ong-eared Owl. Asio wilsonianus {Less.). 
Not unconnnon. 

Short-eared Owl. Asio accipitrinus {Pall.). Not un- 
common. 

Barred Owl. Syrnium uebulosum {Forst.). Abun- 
dant. 

Great Gray Owl. Scotiaptex cinerea {Gmel.). Very 
rare ; only in winter. 

Richardson's Owl. Nyctala tengmalmi richardsoni 
{Bonap.). Not uncommon ; winter. 

Saw- whet Owl. Nyctala acadia (Gw<?/.). Common. 

Little Screech Owl. Megascops asio {Linn.). Very 
rare ; accidental. 

Great Horned Owl. Bubo virginianus {Gmel.). Com- 
mon. 

Snowy Owl. Nyctea nyctea {Lijtn.). Some winters 
common ; uncertain. 

Hawk Owl. Surnia ulula caparoch {Mull.), some 
winters common. 

Gyrfalcon. Falco rusticolus gyrfalco {Lijin.). This 
falcon not uncommon in winter. 

White Gyrfalcon. VoXco \s\sind\xs Bru fin. Omlyone; 
lyincoln, Me. in Brewster's collection. 

Black Gyrfalcon. Falco rusticolus obsoletus {Gmel.). 
Winter visitant ; three specimens. 



308 THE N/VTURALIST OF THE ST. CROIX 

American Peregrine Falcon. Falco peregrinus anatuui 
{Douap.). Not uncommon ; breeds on cliffs. 

Pigeon Hawk. Falco columbarius Lhm. Not uncom- 
mon ; breeds on cliffs. 

Sparrow Hawk. Falco sparverius Linn. Not uncom- 
mon ; more plenty. 

Fish Hawk, Osprey. Pandion haliaetus carolinensis 
{Gmel.). Abundant. 

Marsh Hawk. Circus hudsonius (Z,/;m.). Abundant. 

Cooper's Hawk. Accipiter cooperi {Bonap.). Not 
common ; one of our rarest hawks. 

Sharp-shinned Hawk. Accipiter velox ( Wils.). 
Abundant. 

American Goshawk. Accipiter atricapillus {Wils.). 
Not uncommon ; breeds. 

Red-tailed Hawk. Buteo borealis {Gmel.). Not 
uncommon ; breeds. 

Swain.son's Hawk. Buteo swainsoni Bo?iap. Oct., 
1892, one specimen. 

Red-shouldered Hawk. Buteo lineatus ((^'^wc'/.). Not 
uncommon ; breeds. 

Broad- winged Hawk. Buteo platypterus ( Vieill.). 
Abundant. 

American Roughleg. Archibuteo lagopus sancti-johan- 
nis {Gmel.). Very rare. 

Golden Eagle. Aquila chrysaetos (Zmw.). Very rare; 
shot one in summer. 

Bald Eagle, Gray Eagle. Haliaeetus leucocephalus 
{Linn.). Common; breeds. 

Turkey Buzzard. Cathartes aura {Linn.). Very rare ; 
only one specimen. 

Black Vulture. Catharista urubu {Vieill.). Not 
uncommon some seasons. 



SCIKNTIFIC LISTS 309 

Passenger Pigeon. Kctopistcs migratorius {Linn.). 
Not uncommon ; all gone. 

Mourning Dove. Zenaidura macroura (Zmw.). Ver^^ 
rare ; accidental. 

Spruce Partridge. Canachites canadensis canace 
{Linn.). Common. 

Canadian Ruffed Grou.se. Bonasa umbellus togata,^ 
{LJnn.). Common. 

Great Blue Heron, Ardea herodias Linn. Common. 

American Egret. Ardea egretta Gmcl. Very rare ; 
Grand Manan. 

Snowy Heron. Ardea candidissima Gmel. Very rare ; 
Grand Manan. 

Green Heron. Ardea vircscens IJnn. Rare. 

Black-crowned Night-Heron. Nycticorax nycticorax 
naevius {Bodd.). Rare. 

American Bittern. Botaurus lentiginosus {Montag.). 
Very common. 

Iveast Bittern. Ardetta exilis (6'w<?/.). Rare. 

American Oyster-catcher. Haematopus palliatus 
Tcmm. Grand Manan ; accidental. 

Turnstone. Arenaria morinella (Z.m?/.). Fall; not rare. 

Black-bellied Plover. Squatarola squatarola {Lin7i.). 
Not very common. 

Golden Plover. Charadrius dominicus MUll. Not 
very common. 

Semipalmated Plover, ^gialitis semipalmata Do7iap. 
Common in sunmier. 

Piping Plover. /Egialitis meloda (Or^.). Rare; said 
to breed on the islands. 

American Woodcock. Philohcla minor {Gmcl.). 
Plenty ; breeds early. 



310 THE NATURAUST OF THE ST. CROIX 

Wilson's Snipe. Gallinago delicata (Oraf.). Plenty; 
some breed. 

Redbreasted Snipe. Macrorhamphus griseus {Gmel.). 
Rare. 

Greater Long-beak. Macrorhamphus scolopaceus 
{Say), Rare; St. Andrews. 

Stilt Sandpiper. Micropalama himantopus {Bo?iap.). 
Rare. 

Knot ; Robin Snipe. Tringa canutus ZzVz^z. Rare; in 
river. 

Purple Sandpiper. Tringa maritima Brunei. Abun- 
dant in winter ; islands. 

Pectoral Sandpiper. Tringa maculata Vieill. Com- 
mon in fall. 

Bonaparte's Sandpiper. Tringa fuscicollis Vieill. 
Rare. 

L,east Sandpiper. Tringa minutilla Vieill. Abundant 
in summer. 

Red-backed Sandpiper. Tringa alpina pacifica 
{Coues). Rare. 

Curlew Sandpiper. Tringa ferruginea Briinn. Acci- 
dental ; St. Andrews and Grand Manan. 

Semipalmated Sandpiper. Ereunetespusillus {Linyi.). 
Common. 

Sanderling. Calidris arenaria {Li7i7i.). Common. 

HudsonianGodwit. lyimosahaemastica (^m«.). Rare. 

Greater Yellow-legs. Totanus melanoleucus ( Gynel. ) . 
Common, spring and fall. 

Lesser Yellow-legs. Totanus fiavipes (Gw<f/.). Com- 
mon, only in fall. 

Solitary Sandpiper. Helodromas solitarius {IVils.). 
Common. 



SCIENTIFIC I.ISTS 311 

Willet. Symphenica semipalmata {G7nel.). Rare. 

Ruff. Pavoncella pugnax {Linn.). Grand Manan ; 
accidental. 

Bartram's Sandpiper. Bartramia longicauda {Bechst. ) . 
Accidental. 

Spotted Sandpiper. Actitismacularia (Zmw.). Abun- 
dant. 

lyong-billed Curlew. Numenius longirostris Wils. 
Very rare. 

Hudsonian Curlew. Numenius hudsonicus Lath. 
Very rare. 

Eskimo Curlew. Numenius borealis {Forst.). Very 
rare. 

Red Phalarope. Crymophilus fulicarius {Linn.). 
Not uncommon ; few breed. 

Northern Phalarope. Phalaropus lobatus {Linn.). 
Plenty in spring and fall ; islands. 

American Avoset. Recurvirostra americana Gmel. 
Accidental. 

Black-necked Stilt. Himantopus mexicanus {Midi.). 
Accidental ; St. Andrews. 

Virginia Rail. Rallus virginianus Linn. Common. 

Sora Rail. Porzana Carolina {Liiin.). Abundant. 

lyittle Yellow Rail. Porzana noveboracensis {Gmel.). 
Several ; rare. 

Purple Gallinule. lonornis martinica (Z,m«.). Acci- 
dental ; two. 

Florida Gallinule. Gallinula galeata {Licht.). Sev- 
eral. 

American Coot. Fulica americana Gmel. Not uncom- 
mon. 



312 THE NATURALIST OF THE ST. CROIX 

Snow Goose. Chen hyperborea (/'rt//. ). Rare; Grand 
Manan. 

Eesser Snow Goose. Chen hyperborea nivalis {Forst. ) . 
Accidental ; Grand Manan. 

American White-fronted Goose. Anser albifrons 
gambeli {Hartl.). Grand Manan. 

Canada Goose. Branta canadensis (/.?'««.). Common. 

Brant. Branta bernicla {Linyi.). Common. 

Mallard. Anas boschas vL/ww. Accidental ; very rare. 

Black Mallard. Anas obscura Gruel. Common. 

Gadwall. Chaulelasmus streperus {Linn.). Very 
rare ; accidental. 

Pin Tail. Dafila acuta {Linn.). Very rare ; accidental. 

Baldpate ; Widgeon. Mareca americana {GrncL). 
Very rare ; accidental. 

Shoveller. Spatula clypeata {Lirin.). Very rare; 
accidental. 

Blue-winged Teal. Querquedula discors {Linn.). 
Common ; breeds. 

Green-winged Teal. Nettion carolinensis {GrncL). 
Not common. 

Wood Duck. Aix sponsa {Linn.). Common. 

Scaup Duck. Aythya marila (/./«//.). Not common. 

Little Blackhead. Aythya affinis {Eyt.). Not com- 
mon. 

Ring-necked Duck. Aythya collaris {Donov.). Not 
uncommon ; breeds. 

Red-head. Aythya americana {Eyt.). Rare; breeds. 

Barrows' Golden Eye. Clangula islandica {Gmcl.). 
Common in winter. 

American Golden Eye ; Whistler. Clangula clangula 
americana {Bonap.). Common; resident. 



SCIENTIFIC LISTS 313 

Buffle Head ; Butter Ball. Charitonctta albeola 
{IJ7in.). Common spring and fall ; breeds. 

Harlequin Duck. Histrionicus histrionicus {Linn.). 
Islands ; fall and winter. 

I/Ongtail ; Old Squaw. Harelda hyemalis {Linn.). 
Abundant. 

Labrador Duck. Camptolaimus labradorius {Gmcl.). 
Grand Manan ; very rare, none of late. 

American Eider Duck. Somateria dresseri Sharpe. 
Dresser. Abundant in winter. 

King Eider. Somateria spectabilis (/,?>z;i.). Not rare 
in winter. 

American Scoter. Oidemia americana STcains. Com- 
mon. 

White-winged Scoter. Oidemia deglandi {Bonap.). 
Common. 

Surf Duck. Oidemia perspicillata (/-/ww.). Common. 

Ruddy Duck. Erismatura jamaicensis (C^w^*/.) . Not 
rare ; breeds. 

American Sheldrake. Merganser americanus {Cass.). 
Not rare ; breeds. 

Red-breasted Sheldrake. Merganser scrratov {Linn.). 
Not rare. 

Hooded Sheldrake. Eophodytes cucullatus {Li?in.). 
Not rare ; breeds. 

American White Pelican. Pelecanus erythrorhynchos 
Gmel. Accidental ; one seen in Calais. 

Common Cormorant. Phalacrocorax carbo {Linn.). 
Not abundant. 

Double-crested Cormorant. Phalacrocorax dilophus 
{Sicaiyi.). Common in migrations. 

Gannet. Sula bassana(Z,??zw.). Common down the bay. 



314 THK NATURALIST OF THE ST. CROIX 

Black Skimmer. Rhynchops nigra Linn. Accidental ; 
down the bay. 

Ivory Gull. Pagophila alba (Ckww.). Accidental; 
Grand Manan. 

Bonaparte's Gull. Larus Philadelphia (6>r</). Very 
abundant ; none breed. 

Sabine's Gull. Xema sabinii (^a/5.). Eastport ; acci- 
dental in bay. 

Gull-billed Tern. Sterna nilotica {Hasselq.). Acci- 
dental in bay. 

Caspian Tern. Sterna caspia Pallas. Seen in migra- 
tions; rare. 

Common Tern. Sterna hirundo Linn. Abundant. 

Arctic Tern. Sterna paradis8eai5r?V«n. Abundant. 

Least Tern. Sterna antillarum (Z,<?.y5.). Accidental; 
Grand Manan. 

Kittiwake Gull. Rissa tridactyla (ZzVzw.). Abundant 
fall and winter. 

Glaucous Gull. Larus glaucus {Bninn.). Rare; 
only found in winter. 

White-winged Gull. Larus leucopterus Faber. Rare ; 
only found in winter. 

Great Black-backed Gull. Larus marinusZmw. Win- 
ter bird ; few breed. 

Herring Gull. Larus argentatus i5r?<«w. Common; 
resident. 

Ring-billed Gull. Larus delawarensis Ord. Common 
in migration. 

Laughing Gull. Larus atricilla Linn. Few about 
islands in summer. 

Black Tern. Hydrochelidon nigra surinamensis 
{Gmel.). Accidental; Grand Manan. 



. SCIENTIFIC USTS 315 

Pomarine Jaeger. Stercorarius pomarinus {Tamn.). 
Not plenty. 

Richardson's Jaeger. Stercorarius parisiticus {Linn.). 
Rare. 

Long-tailed Jaeger. Stercorarius longicaudus Vieill. 
Common; fall. 

Greater Shearwater. Puffinus gravis (C>'i^<f?7(y). Com- 
mon. 

Sooty Shearwater. Puffinus fuliginosus Strickl. Rare. 

Stormy Petrel, Mother Carey's Chicken. Procellaria 
pelagica Linn. Accidental ; only Grand Manan. 

Wilson's Petrel. Oceanites oceanicus ( AW//) . Rare; 
only in summer. 

Leach's Petrel. Oceanodroma leucorhoa {Vieill.). 
Common ; breeds on islands. 

Red-necked Grebe. Colymbus holboellii {Reinh.). 
Common ; breeds on islands. 

Horned Grebe. Colymbus auritus ZzVz/e. Common; 
few breed. 

Thick-billed Grebe. Podilymbus podiceps {Liym.). 
Common ; breeds. 

Loon. Gavia imber ((7?mw.). Common; breeds. 

Red-throated Loon. Gavia lumme {Gtinn.). Com- 
mon. 

Razor-billed Auk. Alca torda Linn. Winter; few 
breed on Grand Manan. 

Common Puffin. Fratercula arctica {Linn.). Winter ; 
few breed on Grand Manan. 

Sea Dove. Alle alle (Z/;zw.). Winter onl3\ 

Black Guillemot. Cepphus grj'lle {Limi.). Resident ; 
breeds on islands. 



316 THE NATURALIST OF THE ST. CROIX 

Foolish Guillemot. Uria troile {Li7i?i.). Resident; 
few breed. 

Briinnich's Guillemot. Uria lomvia {Lmn.). Resi- 
dent ; few breed. 

Fulmar Petrel. Fulmarus glacialis {Li?m.). Winter 
sea bird ; Grand Manan. 

European Starling. Sturnus vulgaris Linn. Shot in 
Calais by Mr. Nichols. 

Fishes 

Yellow Perch. Perca fiave.scens {Mitch.). 

White Perch. Morone americana {Gmel.). 

Striped Bass. Roccus lineatus {Block.). 

Pumpkin Seed. Eupomotis gibbosus {Linn.). 

White Lake Bass. Roccus chrysops {Raf.). 

Saucer-eye Porgy. Calamus calamus {Cuv.). 

Weakfish. Cynoscion regalis {Block.). 

Common Mackerel. Scomber scombrus {Li7in.). 

Tunny, or Horse Mackerel. Thunnusthynnus {Linn.). 

Spanish Mackerel. Scomberomorus maculatus 
{Mitck.). 

Swordfish. Xiphias gladius {Linn.). 

Blunt-nose Shiner. Vomer setipinnis {Mitck.). 

Bluefish. Pomatomus saltatrix {Linn.). 

Bill-fish. Tylosurus marinus {Walb.). 

European Stickleback. Gastero.steus aculeatus(/./ww. ),. 

Many-spined Stickleback. Pygosteus Pungitius 
brachypoda {Bean). 

Silverside. Chirostoma bartoni {Jordan atid Ever- 
mann). 

Redfish. Sebastes marinus {Litin.). 

Sea Raven. Hemitripterus americanus {Gmel.). 



SCIENTIFIC LIvSTS 317 

Sculpiii, Greenland Bullhead. Cottus grcenlandicus 
{Girard). 

Common Sculpin, or Bullhead. Cottus octodecim 
spinosus {Gill). 

Ivabrador Northern Sculpin. Cottus labradoricus 
{Girard) . 

Sea Poacher. Aspidophoroidesmonopterygius(/)'^r/«. ) . 

Toad-fish. Batrachus Tau {Linn.). 

Shanny. Blennius laevis. 

Butter-fish. Pholis dolichogaster {Pa/las). 

Eel Pout. Zoarces anguillaris {Peck). 

Lump-fish. Cyclopterus lumpus {Linn.). 

Wolf-fish. Anarhichas lupus {Li7in.). 

Wrymouth. Cryptacanthodes maculatus {Storcr). 

Angler. Lophius piscatorius {Linn.). 

Bank Cod (doubtful). Gadus callarias {Linn.). 

Codfish. Gadus americanus {Gill). 

Tomcod. Microgadus tomcod ( Walb.). 

Haddock. Melanogrammus ceglefinus {Linn.). 

Pollock. Pollachius virens {Lin7i.). 

Silver Hake. Merluccius bilinearis {Mitch.). 

Burbot. Lota maculosa {Le Sueur). 

Cusk. Brosmius brosme. 

De Kay's Codling. Phycis de Kaii {Kaup.). 

Ophiodon. Ophiodon elongatus {Girard). 

Blackfish. Tautoga onitis {Linn.). 

Gunner. Ctenolabrus adspersus. 

Halibut. Hippoglossus hippoglossus {Linn.). 

Common Flatfish, Flounder. Pseudopleuronectes 
americanus ( Walb.). 

Spotted Flounder, Turbot, Window Pane. Para- 
lichthys oblongus {Mitch.). 



318 THE NATURAIvIST OF THE ST. CROIX 

Shiner. Notemigonus chrysoleucus. 
Redfin. Notropis cornutus {Mitch.). 
Dace. Rhinichthys cataractae {Ciiv. & Valeu.). 
Roach Dace. Leuciscus rutilus {Raf.). 
Creek Chub. Seraotilus atromaculatus {Mitch.). 
Red-sided Shiner. Leuciscus elongatus {Kirt.). 
Brook Minnow. Fundulus heterocHtus {Linn.). 
Common Sucker. Catostomus commersonii {Lacep.). 
White Sucker. Moxostoma aureolum {Le Sueur.). 
Chub-sucker. Erimyzon sucetta. 
Minnow Killifish. Fundulus magalis ( Walb.). 
Common Pickerel. Esox reticulatus {Lc Sueur.). 
Salmon. Salmo salar (Zm«.). 
Brook Trout. Salvelinus foutenalis {Mitch.). 
Sea Trout. Salmo canadensis {Smith). 
Landlocked Salmon. Salmo salar sebago {Girard) . 
Silver Salmon. Oncorhynchus kisutch ( Walb.). 
Togue. Cristivomer namaycush {Walb.). 
Blue-black Trout. Oncorhynchus nerka {Walb.). 
White or Gizzard Fish. Coregonus quadrilateralis 
{Rich.). 
Common Whitefish. Coregonus clupeiformis (^J/ZM.). 
Smelt, Fresh Water. Osmerus mordax {Mitch.). 
Sea Smelt. Hypomesus pretiosus {Girard). 
Capelin. Mallotus villosus {Muller). 
Herring. Clupea hareugus {Linn.). 
Thin-head. Ivcptocephalus gracilis {Storer) . 
Catfish. Amiurus melas. 
Sturgeon. Acipenser sturis {Linn.). 
Porbeagle. Lamna cornubica {Gmel.). 
Dogfish. Squalus canthias {Linn.). 
Basking Shark. Cetorhinus maximus {Gunner). 



SCIENTIFIC LISTS 319 

Thresher Shark. Alopias vulpes {Gi)iel.). 

Sleeper. Soiuiiiosus microcephahis. 

Skate . Raia laevis ( Alitch . ) . 

Hedgehog Ray. Raia erinace {Mitch.). 

LainiDrey. Petromyzon marinus. 

Common Shad. Alosa alabamoe {Jordan & Evcr- 
nianii) . 

Alewife or Gaspereau. Pomolobus pseudohareiigus 
( Wilsoii). 

Menhaden, Mossbanker. Brevoortia tyrannu.s {La- 
trobe) . 

Brit. Clupea minima {Peck). 

Autumnal Herring. Alosa niattonaca {De Kay) . 

Anchovy. Stolephorus encrasicholus. 

Balistes. Balistes capriscus. 

Sharp-nosed Kel. Anguilla vulgaris. 

Eel. Anguilla Bostoniensis {Le Sueur) . 

Conger Eel. Leptocephalus conger {Linn.). 

Sand Launce. Ammodytes americanus {De Kay). 

Mammals 

Shrew. Neosorex palustris {Verrill). 

Foster's Shrew. Sorex Fosteri {Rich). Very rare. 

Oared Shrew. Sorex platyrhincus ( H^o^w^r). Quite 
common . 

Cooper's Shrew. Sorex Cooperi {Bach.). 

Common Shrew. Sorex personatus {Gcoffray) . 

Mole Shrew, short-tailed. Blarina brevicauda {Say). 

Common Mole. Scalops aquaticus {Lin7i.). 

Star- nosed mole. Condylura cristata (Z,m«.). Com- 
mon. 

Wildcat. Lynx ruff us ( G"«/^. ) . Common. 



320 THE NATURALIST OF THE ST. CROIX 

L,oup-cervier. Ej'nx canadensis (Al^r;-). Common. 

Gray Wolf. Canis occidentalis (^/r/^.). Common. 

Red Fox. Vulpes fnlvus {Desniarest) . 

Fisher Marten. Mustela pennanti {Erxlcbcu) . 

Pine Marten or American Sable. Mustela americana 
( Tin ton ) . 

Least Weasel. Putoriiis rixosus {Bangs). 

Maine Weasel. Putorius noveboracensis occisor 
{Bangs). 

Northern Mink. Putorius vison {Schreber) . 

Northern Otter. Lutra canadensis {Schreber) . 

Skunk. Mephitis putida {Cuvicr) . 

Raccoon. Procyon lotor {Lhin.). 

Black Bear. Ursus Americanus {Pallas.). 

Common Seal. Phoca vitulina {Linn.). 

Harp Seal. Phoca groenlandica {Fabricicus). Saen 
in winter. 

Hooded Seal. Q:ys\.o^\\oxz. cxv~X.2X-d. {Erxlebcn) . Often 
seen on the rocks, Grand Manan and Murr ledges. 

Gray Squirrel. Sciurus carolinensis {Gmel.). 

Red Squirrel. Sciurus hudsonicus gymnicus {Bangs). 

Fox Squirrel. Sciurus rufiventer neglectus {Gray). 

Flying Squirrel. Sciuropterus volans (Zw;^.). 

Striped Squirrel. Tamias striatus {Linn.). 

Woodchuck. Arctomys monax {Linn.). 

Beaver. Castor canadensis {Kiihl). 

Brown Rat. Mus norvegicus {Erxleben). 

Black Rat. Mus rattus {Linn.). 

Common Mouse, Mus musculus {Linn.). 

Deer Mouse, Wood Mouse, White-footed Mouse. 
Peromyscus Cucopus {Raf.). 

Common Flamster. Cricetus frumentarius. 



SCIENTIFIC LISTS 321 

Red-backed Mouse. Hypudaeus gapped {Baird). 

Meadow Mouse. Microtus pennsylvanicus (Ord.). 

Northern Lemming Mouse. Synaptomys fatuus 
(Bangs). The northern representative of Cooper's 
lemming mouse. 

Muskrat. Fiber zibethicus (Lt'nn.). 

Porcupine. Erethizon dorsatus (Linn.). 

White-rabbit. Lepus americanus v\gimanus(//arla?t) . 

Moose. Alces americanus (Jardine). 

Woodland Caribou. Rangifer caribou (Gmel.). 

Deer. 

Hoary Bat. Lasiurus cinereus (Beauvois). 

Little Brown Bat. Myotis lucifugus (LeConte). 

Blunt-nosed Bat. Vespertilio subulatus. 

Panther. Felis couguar ( AVrr) . Well authenticated. 

Wolverine. Gulo luscus (Linne). Doubtful. 

Testudinata or Turtles 

Snapping Turtle. Chelydra serpentina. Common. 
Painted Turtle. Chrysemys picta ( Gray) . Rare. 
Sculptured Turtle. Glyptemys insculpta (Agassiz). 
Rare. 

Ophidia — Snakes 

Green Snake. Chlorosoma vermalis (Baird and 
Girard). Plent3^ 

Little Brown Snake. Haldea striatula. 

Ring-necked Snake. Diadophis punctatus (Baird and 
Girard) . 

Milk Snake. Ophibolus eximius. (Cope). 

Striped Snake. Eutsenia sirtalis. 



322 THE NATURAI.IST OF THE ST. CROIX 

Ribbon Snake. Eutaenia saurita. 
Water Snake. Nerodia sipedon. 

Batrachia, Anura — Toads and Frogs 

Common Toad. Bufo lentiginosus. 
Common Bull Frog. Rana catesbiana {Shaw). 
Green Frog. Rana clauntaus {Lee). 
Pickerel Frog. Rana Plustus {Lee). 
Leopard Frog, Rana balecina {Kalm). 
Wood Frog. Rana sylvatica {Lee). 
Tree Toad. Hyla versicolor (A^c.). 

Urodella — Lizards 

Yellow Spotted Salamander. Salamandridge maculoso 
{Baird) . 

Symmetrical Salamander. Diemictylus miniatus 
{Raf.). 

Water-Heat. Diemyctulus viridesceus {Raf.). 

Red-backed Salamander. Plethodon erythronotus 
{Baird). 

Painted Salamander, Desmognathus fusca {Baird). 



CHAPTER XII 



NATURAL HISTORY SKETCHES 



FROM among the many articles recording his obser- 
vations upon natural history subjects that were 
contributed by Mr. Boardman to the special journals and 
magazines devoted to ornithology and natural history as 
well as to the local newspapers, a few have been chosen 
as representing the minuteness of his descriptions and 
his graphic and interesting style. These published 
sketches extend to many scores, all of which are equally 
entertaining while but few can be used in this volume. 
The minor notes originally contributed to The American 
Naturalist and to Forest and Stream are reproduced 
with their dates of publication as forming a record of the 
time when such were made public. 

Winter Life in Florida 

The first consideration to the winter visitor to Florida 
is the climate, which is delightful. I do not think so 
agreeable a place can be found in the United States. I 
am not so good a judge of the winter climate of Cali- 
fornia, having spent but one winter there, and think the 



324 THE NATURALIST OF THE ST. CROIX 

climate of Florida much more dry, five days out of six 
bright and cloudless ; three, four and five weeks at a 
time, clear and bright, and of most agreeable tempera- 
ture, and even as far north as Palatka there are gener- 
ally but two or three nights in the whole winter that ice 
is formed. Rain rarely falls, and this is the great charm 
of winter climate and enables the sportsman to be com- 
fortable in his tent, when in Georgia, Texas or Cali- 
fornia, he would wish himself in the hotel. The whole 
coast, east and west, swarms with fish and of a very 
fine quality ; pompano, sheepshead, grouper, red-fish, 
king-fish, Spanish mackerel, mullet, turtle, and such 
oysters — for flavor and size they beat anything to be 
found North. The St. Johns river is also full of fish. 
Shad are plenty all winter and in the upper parts of the 
river black bass were so plenty as to often jump into our 
boats, and eight to ten pounders are very common. 
Game, except quail, is getting scarce about the larger 
places ; but you have only to go into the country to find 
abundance of deer and turkey. 

When I commenced, I intended from my experience 
to tell of a more pleasant way to spend winters in Florida 
than Mr. Beverly's (provided you have money enough), 
and without costing near as much as to live at the hotels, 
have a better table and lots of fine sport and withal, the 
most comfortable and pleasant way a company of gentle- 
men can spend winters in Florida. Let a half dozen 
good fellows get up a light-draft stern-wheel steamer, to 
draw about twenty inches of water — just such a boat as 
the little Clifton, so well known on the St. Johns river 
for several years. The writer was on board of her for 
two winters. She cost about $4,000, built and fitted up 



NATURAlv HISTORY SKETCHES 325 

at Philadelphia, was used four or five winters as a pleas- 
ure-boat and then sold for a ferry-boat without much 
loss. Three men made up the crew. The whole expense 
was about $15 each day, which, divided among six, was 
not high for such fishing and hunting as we used to get ; 
and such bird suppers as Reuben could get up I never 
expect to see again. This boat was built by a party of 
gentlemen from Clifton Springs, New York, and run 
down from Philadelphia. One could be got up much 
cheaper now, in Jacksonville. Such a boat can go to the 
upper waters of the St. Johns, above where hunters go, 
and where game is plenty. The St. Johns is a wonder- 
ful river, and one of great magnitude, and it has always 
been a wonder to me where so much fresh water comes 
from. It runs from south to north, is over 300 miles 
long and in many places is very near the coast. It 
appears more like a beautiful chain of lakes for more 
than a hundred miles from its mouth, and will average 
nearly two miles wide, for that distance. The tide is 
felt as far up as Palatka and, what appears singular, 
when it is high water at the mouth of the river it is 
low tide at Jacksonville. Visitors should always go up 
as far as Enterprise, to see the beautiful lakes and won- 
derful springs. We could not get the Clifton much above 
Lake Winder. A floating island covered with willows 
had drifted across the channel and we could only get 
up in small boats to Lake Washington. We found Lake 
Winder a fine place for game ; deer and turkeys were 
very abundant and more snipe than we had seen in 
Florida. We also found many birds which we did not 
see about Lakes Harney and Jessup. The carrocca eagle, 
in full, light plumage, was common ; also the purple 



326 THE NATURALIST OF THE ST. CROIX 

gallinule, coast bittern, yellow-crowned night heron ; 
and we found many extensive breeding places. This is 
the home of the alligators, and they used to trouble us 
by getting our birds as they fell into the water before 
we could get to them. Sport can be had with alligators 
by baiting a shark hook with a coot, or some other bird. 
Fasten the end of the rope to the top of a small tree that 
bends well and in the morning you are almost sure to 
find one hooked. If a large one, you can only pull him 
into the bank ; if a small one, keep away from his tail, 
or teeth, and to get your hook, after you are done play- 
ing with him, you must shoot him. In their stomachs 
you will most always find a roll of feathers, fish and 
often large moccasin snakes, and they sometimes eat one 
another. I have seen one eight feet long in a large 
one's mouth. Favorite birds for our party to shoot were 
the white-plumed cranes, egrets, snowy herons, for their 
plumes ; and we could make quite good collections of 
Florida bird skins. The steamer had two small boats, 
so we could go up the small creeks ; and we explored 
most every lake and stream on the river. Although we 
were so far south, we had no trouble with insects. All 
the windows had wire gauze and we were careful to 
keep the doors shut. Our sleeping accommodations and 
our dining room were very good. The boat would run 
about ten miles an hour and we would change our loca- 
tion very easily. We found moccasin snakes very abun- 
dant in the upper country, but had no trouble with 
them. We saw very few rattlesnakes. One of our 
party, Mr. Rice, at I,ake Jessup, shot a white heron that 
fell into the water near the shore. He saw a large alli- 
gator start for the bird and Rice thought he could get 



NATURAIv HISTORY SKETCHES 327 

the bird before the alligator, which he did, and threw 
the bird over his shoulder, the alligator following ; and 
as he reached the bank the alligator struck his legs, but 
did him no damage, I have made this paper too long, 
and can recommend for real comfort such a cruise. 
Such a steamer, after going up the St. Johns river could 
be taken around to St. Augustine, and so down to Indian 
river, and the expense less than to live at the hotels. 

The Woodcock's Whistle 

I have been much interested in all your woodcock bird 
whistle papers, and as my experience has extended over 
more than half a century of woodcock shooting (and 
many seasons' shooting I have bagged from 100 to 150 
birds) and the bird always interesting me, I have spent 
many pleasant hours in studying its habits in spring as 
well as in fall and summer shooting. I want you to put 
down my vote to the wing theory. 

I know the bird has a little mouth talk, or note, which 
I have often heard when the birds were mating and 
strutting on the ground in the spring, and the same note 
I have heard often from the old bird when I have been 
catching the young chicks ; but the sound or note is not 
the same as the whistle of the continuous-flying, fuU- 
plumaged bird, and I have so often had the slightly 
wounded bird in my hand, and held by the bill or feet, 
make, as I am sure, the same whistling with his wings, 
that I cannot be mistaken ; and the bird when not in 
plumage, held the same way, does not make the whistle. 
I know we do not all hear, see or think alike ; but any 
person who will take a fuU-plumaged woodcock that is 
lively, hold it by the bill or feet and let it have full use of 



328 THE NATURAIvIST OF THE ST. CROIX 

its wings, cannot but be convinced the whistle is made 
with the wings. 

Audubon should be pretty good authority, and he 
records the noise as made by the wings ; and among all 
my bird acquaintance I do not remember one bird that 
has a continuous mouth note when flying, but very many 
have a wing whistle when flying, such as the golden-eye 
duck, whistling swan and many others, that can be heard 
a long distance. The drumming ruffed grouse, noise of 
the wings of the flushed quail and many others talk with 
their wings as well as their mouths. 

Snakes in Florida 

I do not think your correspondent ' ' Anti Snake' ' need 
to be so much afraid of rattlesnakes in Florida. I have 
done considerable camping, tramping and hunting in the 
seventeen winters I have spent in Florida, but I have 
never lost a dog nor seen a live rattlesnake in the woods 
or swamps of this State. I walk through the swamps, 
scrub palmetto or grass without ever thinking of snakes ; 
and in the seventeen years have only known of two per- 
sons to have been bitten by rattlers ; one a Mr. Babcock, 
at Pine Island, Charlotte Harbor, and the young English- 
man killed this winter at Halifax River. He saw the 
snake and struck at it with a stick, when it struck back 
and hit him. It doesn't do to play with them. 

What is called the moccasin snake or cotton-mouth 
here, is very abundant in the water and swamps in the 
southern part of the State, but not much feared or con- 
sidered very dangerous like the rattlers. 

I was once shooting from a boat in south Florida when 
the bushes pulled out one of our rowlocks (quite a loss 



NATURAL HISTORY SKETCHES 329 

when we could get no other). I proposed to our colored 
man " Bill" that he take off his shoes and pantaloons and 
feel for it with his toes, in the water about three feet deep. 
He dropped out of the boat and stepped upon a big moc- 
casin snake. He gave an awful 5'ell, and as he came out 
had an enormous snake twined about his naked legs. As 
soon as he was out of the water it unwound and went 
away. Bill was sure he was bitten, and I thought he 
looked very pale for a black man, but I could find no bite 
or damage. It was several days before he got over the 
shock, and the rowlock was never found. The moccasin 
snake keeps in or near the water all the time, and the 
fires that run all over the country do not kill them, but 
the rattlesnake keeps most always upon the dry land, and 
most of them are burned up in the long grass and scrub 
palmetto. 

I only know of three poisonous snakes in Florida or 
United States : The rattlesnake, moccasin and coral 
snake. The last is a small, very pretty snake, and not 
dangerous unless you handle it. The rattlesnake of the 
Southern States is a very large and dangerous reptile, but, 
as I have said before, a very rare snake and seldom seen. 

Tree Nesting Ducks 

I have been interested in reading what Mr. Mather and 
others say about tree ducks, and thought perhaps the 
experience of an old bird and egg collector might inter- 
est the readers of your natural history column. Fifty 
years ago we used to have six different tree ducks breed- 
ing on our river : Barrows, golden eye and the bufHe 
head {albeola) rare, but the common golden eye, the 
American merganser, hooded merganser and wood duck 



330 THE NATURALIST OF THE ST. CROIX 

abundant. About fifty years ago pickerel were put into 
our waters, which soon put an end to most of our wild 
ducks breeding, as the pickerel eat up all the chick ducks 
except in the few lakes or ponds that were free from 
pickerel. Near to Calais are several ponds and lakes 
that are free from those fish, and the tree ducks bring 
their young to those lakes for safety. 

I was at the Kendrick Lake, and a lad that lived near 
by was with me. A duck (whistler) came flying low 
toward us, when the lad threw up his hat with a shout, 
when the old duck dropped a young one that fell near 
us that was at least ten days old. The old one went 
for it so quickly I almost lost it, but I got it and put 
it in my pocket for a specimen. We were near the 
lake and the old duck also, when we saw she had four 
others in the water. The boy said if we keep quiet 
she will go away and bring others, or if she is afraid 
of us very much she will take those across the lake or 
to the other lake. They were getting near to some 
water grass, when the old duck made a flutter, caught 
one and went across the lake ; it was hardly two minutes 
before she returned and took another. 

I don't think she took them by her mouth, and the 
one she dropped, if it had been in her mouth we should 
have seen it. Mr. Eastman, father of the lad, said they 
often took their young from one lake or river to another 
if they thought them in danger, and said he had seen 
them bring the young from the nest to the water and 
then in their bills, or to go any distance, or if they are 
any size carry them pressed to the body by the feet, 
and the boys often by a shout made them drop their 



NATURAL. HISTORY SKETCHES 331 

young. They brought me several different kinds after- 
ward, wood duck, whistlers and hooded mergansers, but 
no young of the large merganser. 

Many years ago I was up to Grand L,ake Stream 
salmon fishing, when I saw a large duck fly into a hole 
high up in a large birch tree. The log drivers said it 
was a sheldrake and had nested there many years. I 
was anxious to see what kind of a merganser it was. 
After the log drivers' day's work was done one of them 
by driving spikes managed to get up. The old bird flew 
out, and he brought down one egg and said there were 
seven more. I then got the man to arrange a noose 
over the hole and the next morning we had the old bird 
hung by the neck and the eight eggs were new to 
science. The log drivers said they had seen the old bird 
bring down the young in her bill to the water. Several 
years later Mr. John Krider of Philadelphia went with 
me to the same tree and collected the eggs. He was a 
well-known collector. Mr. Audubon was mistaken in 
his account of the nesting of this merganser since he 
describes it as nesting on the ground among rushes, in 
the manner of the serrator, having a large nest raised 
seven or eight inches above the surface. 

On one of my collecting trips my attention was called 
by the log drivers to a singular contest between two 
ducks ; it proved to be a female wood duck and a female 
hooded merganser, for the possession of a hollow tree. 
Two birds had been observed for several days contesting 
for the nest, neither permitting the other to remain in 
peaceful occupancy. The nest was found to contain 
eighteen fresh eggs, of which one-third belonged to the 
merganser and, as the nest was lined with the down of 



332 THE NATURALIST OF THE ST. CROIX 

the merganser it appeared probable this bird was the 
rightful owner of the premises. I once found a dusky 
duck's nest in a cavity of a leaning birch tree about 
thirty feet high. 

The Winninish of the Saguenay 

I have compared the winninish of the Saguenay with 
the landlocked salmon of Maine (salmo gloveri) and think 
them the same. Some years ago some of the Saguenay 
fish were sent to Cambridge. Prof. Agassiz, Mr. Putman 
and myself compared them and Agassiz thought them the 
same. I have no doubt that the salmo gloveri is quite 
common in most of the rivers about the Bay of Fundy, 
as well as along the state of Maine, and when taken 
have been called the young of the sea salmon. 

Unless you have both to compare, it is not easy to tell 
the difference. They have been examined as to all their 
measurements so scientifically, their markings, etc., 
which I have no doubt you have seen, that it is not hard 
to tell the S. gloveri from the true salmon. The number 
of vertebrae differ — fifty-nine in the salmon to fifty-seven 
in S. gloveri, a double row of small teeth in the vomer 
of the young salmon, a single row in the smolt of the 
gloveri. 

Some of our English fishermen thought our fish the 
same as the European S. Trutta aS. cambricas. Some 
specimens were sent to Dr. Gunther, F. R. S., of Eng- 
land, who pronounced them different and nothing to do 
with the sea salmon. I do not understand how they ever 
got the name land-locked salmon, as they always had 
access to the sea, and in my boy days S. gloveri was 



NATURAL HISTORY SKETCHES 333 

common to the tide waters and more often taken as far 
down as there were fish weirs. 

They have been identified in several of our Maine 
rivers, also in lyock Lomond and Mespeck, N. B., in Nova 
Scotia, in St. John's Lake, Grand Lake, Salmon River 
and Pockwock Lake, and I have no doubt it will be found 
in many of the rivers of clear water coming into the St. 
Lawrence, and when caught are called young salmon. 
I have seen specimens of S. gloveri caught on our rivers 
that weighed ten or twelve pounds. The large fish 
seldom take fly or bait, but keep in the deep water. 

Strange Ways of Bears 

Bears are queer animals and the ways of the wild 
female almost past finding out. There is an old expres- 
sion of Pliny's, "licked into shape." Walsh explains it 
as having arisen out of an early superstition that a bear's 
cub is born an amorphous mass and is licked into shape 
by the dam. The ancients took it as a serious state- 
ment of natural truth, Pliny giving the following account 
of the phenomenon : " Bears, when first born, are shape- 
less masses of white flesh, a little larger than mice, their 
claws alone being prominent. The mother then licks 
them gradually into proper shape." Shakespeare, in 
Henry VI., Part III., refers to this superstition in the 
following lines : 

To disproportion me in every part, 
Like to a chaos or an unlicked whelp 
That carries no impression like the dam. 

There is interesting bear reading by Pallas, Pennant, 
Godman and Richardson, but not much about the very 



334 THE NATURALIST OF THE ST. CROIX 

young bears. Here in Maine and New Brunswick, with 
our very cold weather, deep snows rarely fall before the 
last of November and bears usually take to their dens 
about that time for hibernation. The male bear is easily 
satisfied with any kind of a hole, behind the root of an 
upturned tree, a hollow cliff, or in the end of an old 
hollow log. But not so with the female if she is par- 
turient. She selects a very obscure place and makes, 
as the Indians say, " a soft feather bed of fir branches." 
Our bear hunters and Indians all attest to the truth of 
the deep privacy of the female in denning and it is not 
often that her den is found. It is a maxim with our bear 
hunters and woodsmen that no one has ever taken a 
she-bear with young, and it is said to be a fact that if 
disturbed she will always abort. Richardson, quoting 
from Pennant, and Godman, both attest to the deep 
privacy of the female and to the saying of the Indians 
that the female bears went like the wild geese south in 
winter. It is said that the female bear is always very 
fat in the fall, while the male is wasted by the September 
rut. It is said there is seen at times over a bear's den 
a kind of sweat or vapor that will conduct a dog or man 
to them. They are never entirely unconscious. If you 
poke them with a gun or stick they will growl, but 
relapse again into repose. 

The number of young is usually two, but often only 
one, very rarely three or four. The young cubs are 
queer, helpless little things when first born, which is 
about New Year's day. They are not much larger than a 
full grown red squirrel, weigh from eight to ten ounces 
and measure from tip of nose to end of hind toe about 
ten inches. They are covered by a fine, close black hair 



NATURAIv HISTORY SKETCHES 335 

upon the back and head, but bluish slate toward the 
belly and inside the limbs. The ears are naked, the eyes 
closed, the tongue exposed and jaws slightly open, no 
teeth, claws large, tail long for its size. After birth the 
cub receives but little food and passes the three or four 
months in semi -torpor and grows but little until the 
parent emerges, and then quite fast. It is singular that 
so large an animal, that often weighs four hundred 
pounds, should have so small cubs. 

In this bear hibernation destroys maternal instinct. 
She will always leave her cub to freeze when driven 
from her den ; but in April or May keep away from her. 
That an animal so highly organized as a bear should be 
able to retain not only its vitality, but its animal heat 
and its muscular strength for four months, without any 
food whatever, is well attested, knowing as we do that 
in this time, if there be no supply there is no waste save 
perhaps of animal heat. 

But when we consider the female, we find there is 
waste and no supply. The material for a second life and 
its growth must be taken from an accumulated fund. 
An atmosphere saved only by the animal heat of the 
mother from that without the den often down to zero and 
a torpid mother await this blind-born, feeble offspring. 
By some instinct it is led to the mamma, where, like 
certain marsupials, it retains a firm hold on the nipple, 
and now a change comes over the still torpid parent in 
the increase of the lacteal glands to secrete milk ; and a 
wonderful fact is that no food is taken by the parent 
during both operations. And how wonderful the polar 
bears, whose retreat must be doubled in length and 
severity by the arctic latitude and ice-formed den. 



33G THE NATURAUST OF THE ST. CROIX 

I have found great trouble in getting specimens of 
very young bears. The hunters, always in a hurry to 
get their bear bounties, take them to the trea.surer for 
the money and he cuts off the nose from the skin of the 
old one and the whole head of the little ones. In my 
many winters in the South and in California, where 
bears do not den, I have never been able from the 
hunters to find one, nor ever had seen one until it was 
old enough to follow the mother. 

The Big Woodpeckers 

"Red Wing" wishes some one having acquaintance 
with the ivory-billed woodpecker (Campe philus princi- 
palis) to send a note to the Forest and Stream. This 
bird, now quite rare, was not uncommon in all the large 
swamps in Florida, from Lake Washington to St. Mary's 
river. It was more abundant up the Wekiver, a small 
stream below Sanford, but used to be common about 
Lake Jessup and all the large swamps on the west coast, 
but of late so many shooters and bird collectors go south 
that they have nearly exterminated many very interest- 
ing birds. 

But a few years ago the little Carolina parrot or 
paroquet was very abundant all over Florida. Now they 
are not seen. The ivory-liilled woodpecker is easily 
found, if you know its note, which it utters continually 
as it ascends the tree, but I have never heard any sound 
when flying. As soon as it alights, at nearly every leap 
commences its loud, queer note, repeated three times — 
pate, pate, pate — and this can be heard a long way and 
often leads to its destruction. 



NATURAL HIvSTORY SKETCHES 337 

I have never taken tlieir eggs. They breed in large 
high trees and are not easily obtained. Capt. Brock, at 
Lake Jessup, a few j-ears since, told me of a pair he 
thought were breeding, but a look at the tree and hole 
was sufficient. We did not get the eggs, but both birds 
were secured. They were not inclined to leave the tree 
and we thought they must have eggs or young ; and this 
was early in March. Mr. Maynard of Boston collected 
seven or eight on the west coast of Florida in the winter 
of 1883-84 and I had two sent me from near Palatka. A 
smaller bird of this variety is found in the West Indies 
and a larger one in Mexico. 

Bird Study 

Interest in bird lore is being stimulated among Calais 
students, teachers and would-be natviralists, and I have 
been asked by a lady teacher to write a Bird Study paper 
for some preliminary work. As early spring is the time 
to begin watching the birds, while in their migrations, 
some hints on the subject may now seem quite apropos. 

Birding is a pastime akin to hunting. It affords entirely 
as much freedom, equal opportunities to draw near to 
nature, as many hazards to call into play nerve and 
fortitude, and chances for acquiring quite as much know- 
ledge. The chief difference is that one necessarily 
involves bird slaughter, the other must embrace the not- 
ing of facts. I might say it is essentially a pastime for 
woman. Her nature craves the recreation of hunting, 
but, on account of her delicate sympathies, not from lack 
of nerve, she shrinks, as a rule, from the use of the gun. 
She can, however, endure and even enjoy the hazards, 



338 THE NATURALIST OF THE ST. CROIX 

and can make her note book more than tally with any 
sportsman's gaming bag. 

Birds are now — May 25, 1899 — fast coming and 
leaves afford less chances for cover than later. Prepara- 
tory to setting out she might acquaint herself with certain 
facts pertaining to her field of investigation. Eists of 
the bird migrants she may expect to arrive, a bird manual 
of the birds of her locality or state, at the library, may 
be very helpful. Also, a few trips to a museum to 
familiarize herself with the lists. An opera glass and a 
note book, in the way of equipments, are quite indispen- 
sable, and she may, if she does not mind the extra 
luggage, take along some bird book, but this is not 
necessary. A small boy or a congenial companion, or a 
dog, if he be the right sort, as a bugbear to impudent 
vagrants or uncertain cattle which may cross her path. 

The next thing is a choice of a wood or field for activity, 
but this is sometimes quite a problem. Birds are erratic 
in their choice of stopping places, and the point to find 
out is where they hold forth. But, as this is the age of 
bicycle riding, distance does not count. One of my 
favorite woods used to be the St. Stephen rural cemetery, 
and Mr. Almond's smiling face was always ready to 
welcome me, however early I might get there. Hon. G. 
F. Hill's woods, out on the valley road, was another 
good place where I found birds to congregate. At Mill- 
town, St. Stephen, out back of Mr. Roy's, back of Todd's 
mountain, so called, and in the Butler pasture and up 
about ' ' burned hill' ' road. The more the beginner moves 
about, unless she is absolutely certain of her ground, 
the better is her chance of finding something. 



NATURAL HISTORY SKETCHES 339 

One of the most important things to learn is the note 
or song of the bird. It would be hard to imagine what 
a spring would be without the songs of birds; spring 
would lose one of her greatest charms if there were no 
song birds. The best part of a bird is its song. The 
cedar bird is beautiful, but has no song and is no favor- 
ite. One of the first June birds we hear in the woods is 
the red-eyed fly-catcher and you hear his note all day, 
rain or shine. Another quite common is called golden 
crown thrush, but which, I think, should be called a 
warbler. It has a sharp note that sounds like "teacher, 
teacher, teacher," and at times a far rarer song, like 
some of the finches. In the song of the robin there is 
something military ; in that of the bobolink, hilarity; in 
that of the cat bird, pride. 

But I enter the woods and, while listening to the lesser 
songsters, a strain has reached my ear from out of the 
depths of the forest that to me is the finest sound in 
nature — the divine soprano of the hermit thrush. The 
river drivers call it the nightingale, as it sings in the 
night. You often hear it a long way off, sometimes a 
quarter of a mile away, where only the stronger and 
more perfect parts of his music reach you and through 
the general chorus of warblers and finches you detect 
this sound, rising pure and serene as if a spirit from 
some remote height was slowly chanting a divine accom- 
paniment. The song appeals to the sentiment of the 
beautiful and suggests a serene, religious beatitude as 
no other sound in nature does. 

Although this bird sings at nearly all hours of the 
day, it best appears in the evening song. The note is 
very simple and sounds like this: "O spheral, .spheral. 



340 THE NATURALIST OF THE ST. CROIX 

O holy, holy, O clear away, clear away, O clear up, clear 
up ! " interspersed with the finest trills and most delicate 
preludes, as if the little creature were praying for the 
bright sunny days of midsummer. It has not a proud 
strain like the mocking bird or tanager, it suggests no 
passion or emotion ; but its note seems to be the voice 
of that calm, sweet solemnity one attains in his best 
moments. A bird collector, I am sorry to say it was I, 
shot one while singing. I opened its beak and found 
the inside yellow as gold. I was almost prepared to find 
it inlaid with pearls or diamonds, or to see an angel 
issue from it. All the thrush family are fine singers, but 
the hermit thrush the best of them all. 

During the last of May and early days in June is the 
time for the student of ornithology to study the birds. 
They are then nesting and in full song and plumage. 
We little suspect when we walk in the woods, or even 
under the large trees of our sidewalks, whose privacy we 
are intruding upon — that over our heads are rare and 
elegant visitants from Florida, Central America and the 
islands of the seas. 

The birds of the family Turdidae, the thrushes, belong 
to the highest rank of bird intelligence and to the first 
rank among song birds. Our common robin, though 
not a wonderful songster like the hermit thrush or the 
" veery," called the Wilson's thrush, the blue-bird, with 
its sweet warble and the brown thrush, in some parts 
called the mocking bird (the two last named seldom 
making their appearance so far north as Calais), is often 
classed with the thrushes. 

There are five species of thrushes listed among the 
birds of Eastern North America; but there are only 



NATURAI, HISTORY SKETCHES 341 

three species the ordinary observer will be likely to 
notice in this latitude and of these the robin is the only 
species that attracts general attention. The robin is 
well known from I^abrador to Mexico and by the same 
name. The other two of the five are not familiar in the 
haunts of man and seldom are heard in town. 

The Wilson thrush, or " veery," has queer unearthly 
notes to its song, which I cannot describe. It is thought 
by some to be the peer of all thrushes, but I do not think 
so. It is a little larger than the hermit and about the 
size of the largest English sparrow. The hermit is the 
smallest of all. All have brown backs and white breasts, 
speckled with dark brown spots. The hermit thrush is 
reddest on the tail, and his breast is finely spotted. The 
"veery" has a tawny or reddish brown back without 
any change of color at the head or tail, and is slightly 
spotted on the sides of his breast. The hermit builds a 
nest in the depth of the dark woods, on the ground, of 
moss, coarse grasses, pine needles and other materials of 
this kind that can be found in the woods ; the " veery" 
about the same. 

Birds are of inestimable value to mankind. Without 
their unremitting ser\nces our gardens and fields would 
be laid waste by insect pests. But we owe them a greater 
debt even than this, for the study of birds tends to 
develop some of the best attributes and impulses of our 
nature. Among them we find examples of generosity, 
unselfish devotion, of the love of mother for offspring 
and other estimable qualities. Their industrj^, patience 
and ingenuity excite our admiration ; their songs inspire 
us with love of music and poetry ; their beautiful plumage 
and graceful manners appeal to our esthetic sense ; their 



342 THE NATURALIST OF THE ST. CROIX 

long migrations to distant lands stimulate our imagina- 
tions. 

Some of the waders and phalaropes breed in northern 
Labrador and winter in Patagonia, going a hundred 
degrees of latitude, fall and spring ; and tempt us to 
inquire what are the causes of those wonderful periodic 
movements ; and, finally, the endless modifications of 
form and habits by which they are enabled to live under 
most diverse conditions of food and climate — on land 
and at sea — invite the student of nature into fields 
inexhaustible of pleasurable research. 

Minor Notes on Natural History 

I have lately obtained a black specimen of the common Red 
Squirrel. It was killed at Letaug, New Brunswick, where neither 
the Gray nor the common Black squirrel are known to occur. — 
American Naturalist, volume 1, page 53. 

How does it happen that we find the Black Guillemot, Uria 
grylle (Tiath.) in full black plumage all winter? All our works on 
Natural History tell us they change to white or gray in winter, 
but I often get specimens which are black in mid-winter. May it 
not be that only the young are light in w^inter? I can hardly 
think it possible some would remain black and others change ; I 
can see no difference between my dark winter and summer speci- 
mens. — American Naturalist, volume 1, page 53. 

A correspondent of the American Naturalist inquired in the 
number for November, 1867 : " Can you inform me what is the 
use of the comb-like formation on the inside of the middle claw of 
the Night-heron, the Night-hawk and Whippoorwill ? Is it peculiar 
to night-birds?" This inquiry was referred to Dr. T. M. Brewer 
who referred it to Mr. Boardman, who writes that Mr. Boardman 
answered it in a very satisfactory manner. The peculiar " forma- 
ation," says Mr. Boardman, is used by the birds to clean their 
heads and such portions of their neck, back, etc., as they cannot 



NATURAL HISTORY SKETCHES 343 

reach witli their bills. Ke often finds them containing feathers, 
down, dead skin, etc. — American Naturalist, volume 1, page 498. 

Mr. G. A. Boardman of Milltowu, Me., writes us (November, 
1868) that he collected the nests and eggs of the following birds 
in the spring of 1868: Goshawk, Canada Jay, White-winged 
Crossbill, Pine Finch and the Pine Grosbeak. — American Natural- 
ist, volume 3, page 222. 

In the June (1868) Naturalist, Mr. Tripp in his interesting 
article, states that the Tennessee warbler is not found in New 
England, or only as a straggler. With us it is one of our very 
common warblers, and I can collect half a dozen almost any 
morning about the twentieth of May. A few remain through the 
season. — American Naturalist, volume 3, page 222. 

In the August (1868) Naturalist you ask if, like Mr. Pope, 
any one has observed Wilson's Snipe on trees? This is not an 
uncommon habit of the bird, when you are taking its nest or 
catching its young ; but I have never observed it at any other time. 
Of our sixteen species of ducks, I have observed the same thing in 
all but two, when trying to catch their young. — American 
Naturalist, volume 3, page 222. 

In the American Naturalist, Vol. 3, page 331, Mr. II. A. Purdie, 
writing of Mr. Boardman's statement that the Tennessee warbler 
was very abundant in his locality, says : "This fact is very inter- 
esting. It shows how irregular is the distribution of some of our 
birds. This species seems to be one of a class of birds which, 
though quite rare in other parts of New England, are not at all so 
in southeastern Maine, reaching that region, I presume, by way of 
the St. Lawrence and central INlaiue water route." 

In the August (1868) Naturalist, A. R. Y. mentions that the 
Pied or Labrador duck was shot on Long Island last winter. I 
would be much obliged to A. R. Y. if he would let me know if the 
specimens shot were full-plumaged males and who has them. 
This is a very interesting bird to the naturalist, from the fact of 
its being so rare, and I had almost begun to think the bird had 
left us, as I had not heard of a full-plumaged male being taken 
for ten years. I have been shown two which were taken for the 



344 THK NATUUAIJST OF THE ST. CROIX 

youiio^, but one was a young albino Scoter and the other I did not 
know. Not many years ago it was a comniou bird all along our 
coast, from Delaware to Labrador; and iu the New York market 
there would at times be dozens of them ; and then for a few years 
not one. It would be very interesting to know where they have 
gone. Tliough so much has been learned of the distribution, 
summer and winter homes of birds witliiu a few years, their 
breeding habits, line of travel north and south, and from the 
numei'ous collectors who have gone to Labrador, the fur countries 
and across the continent; yet not one word is said about the 
Labrador duck, a conunou bird a few years ago. So good a flyer and 
diver cannot be extinct like the clumsy Alca ivipcnnis (Great Auk), 
and any collector who may take a fuU-plumaged bird, or knows 
where they have gone, by letting it be known in the Naturalist, 
would intei-est many of its readers. — American Naturalist, volume 
3, page 383. 

I had sent me (shot iu this neigiiborhood) a good specimen of 
the Black Vulture (Cathartes atratus), the first one I ever knew 
so far east; and also a fine specimen of the Purple Gallinule, 
Gallinula martinica. — American Naturalist, volume 3, page 498. 

Mr. G. A. Boaidman of Calais, Me., writes that he found 
several flocks of the IMng-neck Duck (Fulix collaii!<) breeding ou 
the rivei', near Calais, the past season and that he secured the old 
and " chicks." He states that he knows of no other instance of 
this duck breeding in New England. — American Naturalist, 
volume 5, page 121. 

I found a mocking bird (Minus pohjglottns) in the woods up 
the river this past season. This is the lirst time the bird has been 
found in Maine, to my knowledge, and I think it could not have 
been an escaped cage bird. — American Naturalist, volume 5, 
page 121. 

1 received in November last a very pretty black specimen of 
the Sclurus Hudsonius and also a pure white specimen of the same 
species. — American Naturalist, volume 5, page 121. 

Mr. G. A. Boardman of Calais, Me., writes us that he has a 
Florida Gallinule {Gallinula galeata) that was shot near Calais 



NATURAL HISTORY vSKKTCHKS 345 

this last spring'. Also a black Goldeu-wiiiged Woodpecker 
(Culaptes aiiratu.^), black as a grackle and breediiij^ with a wood- 
pecker of the usual color. An albino of the T.ittle l>lack-headed 
Duck (Fulix ajjlnis) lias also been added to his collection and he 
found a pair of lled-headed Ducks (Aythya Americana) breeding 
near Calais. This is the first time he has found the Red-head in 
summer. — American Naturalist, volume 5, page 062. 

Mr. Geo. A. IJoardman of Calais, has; liad presented to hiui a 
deer's hoof without the cleft which is sometliing of a curiosity, 
thougli how unusual we are not informed. — Forest and Stream, 
May 27, 1875. 

Ju answer to Prof. Le Conte's question al)out liybrids in 
ducks, I would say I have found the dusky and mallard cross 
quite often ; have now three or four mounted in my collection. I 
once found a cross between what looked like a red head and pin 
tail, and think perhaps such changes are now observed more than 
in former years. I have found no crosses within five or six j^ears. 
I would like to ask if the male mallard does not change its 
plumage in summer. They are not common with us. — Forest and 
Stream, Dec. 9, 1875. 

Woodcock have been more abundant than I have ever known 
them, some afternoons would get up a dozen ; very unusual for 
East Florida. I wing-tipped a snipe, Gallinago Wilsoiin; it fell 
into the water ; the dog going to retrieve it, it would dive like a 
grebe. I have known the spotted sandpiper to do this, but never 
a snipe. They are fast leaving for the north. A quail started to 
fly out on the St. John river and lighted in the water; ingoing 
for the bird with a boat, it flew from the water and saved itself; 
no stick or chip could be seen. My friend, Mr. Livingston, shot a 
large rattlesnake. It had a good sized rabbit in its throat all 
covered with saliva; on pulling the rabbit out of its mouth it soon 
ran away apparently uninjured. I saw the first purple martin, 
Frogne purpura, February 2d; have seen them come to the boxes 
in Jacksonville the 11th February; this year they are a little late. 
The only swallow we see here in winter is the white-bellied, 
Hirundo bicolor. — Forest and Stream, March 15, 1877. 



346 THE NATURAIvIST OF THK ST. CROIX 

Workmen cutting logs on Lee river, Vt., in February, 1878, 
found a nest and young of the Crossbill. This is not unusual as 
Mr. Boardmau has found them breeding in winter in the vicinity 
of Eastport, Maine. — Forest and Stream, March 7, 1878. 

On May 29, 1880, Mr. Gordon Plummer of Brookline, Mass., 
shot in that town a beautiful specimen of the adult male blue 
Grosbeak. This is believed to be the only specimen of this species 
ever taken in Massachusetts. None previous to this has ever 
been recorded. We have the record of one specimen only, taken 
in New England, which was shot in Maine nineteen years ago and 
is now in the possession of Mr. George A. Boardman, the eminent 
ornithologist. — Forest and Stream, June 24, 1880. 

When up in northern Dakota this fall, I was told by a herder 
of a very curious eagle's nest, composed largely of buffalo ribs, 
which I went to see. It was upon a hillock, and could be seen a 
long distance ofl". There were about forty ribs, one end of each 
turning up, then filled in with nearly a cart load of turf and 
rubbish. It had been used this year, and looked as if it had been 
used many years. Saw no birds as they had left, so could not tell 
the species, but the large bufl'alo ribs in the foundation of a bird's 
nest looked very strange. — Forest and Stream, Dec. 28, 1882. 

I saw a few weeks ago an interesting paper from Byrne about 
vultures, and perhaps it would interest him and others to know 
how far north tlie black vulture occurs. Last September, when 
shooting in northern Dakota, about twelve miles north of Sanborn, 
I saw quite a large number of birds I supposed to be the common 
turkey buzzard, aura, but, one coming near, I saw it to be the 
short tail species, atratns. Soon another came near, which I shot, 
as 1 wanted to be sure there was no mistalvc about its being a 
black vulture. The bird did not appear to have any of the strong 
smell I have found in the specimens taken in the South. I have 
also found the bird in the East, nearly the same parallel, in north- 
ern Maine, New Brunswick and Nova Scotia, where aura is very 
seldom found. The turkey buzzard is common about Lake Miuue- 
touka in summer, but I never have seen atratns in Minnesota and 
was nmch surprised to find the bird in Dakota. In regard to the 
way buzzards sustain a flight so long, soaring in the air without 



NATURAI^ HISTORY SKKTCHKS 347 

any visible inotiou of the wings, may it uot be on something of the 
principle of a kite? The string, of coui-se, holds the kite; but the 
bird has intelligence and by a certain curve of its wings and tail 
throws a weight upon the body and causes a purchase upon the 
air, as the string to the kite. Hawks were very abundant in 
Dakota in September. They appeared to be migrating by the 
hundreds. Marsh, rough-legs and Swainson's were most numer- 
ous. — Forest and Stream, March 8, 1883. 

The cold winter north sent to Florida great numbers of wood- 
cock, to the joy of the shooters. Quail have been quite numerous 
and the gardeners now complain that they take more strawberries 
than the robins north. The Everglade Kite has been making us a 
visit near Jacksonville this winter. Three are now in the taxider- 
mist's hands, taken near here. — Forest and Stream, April 10, 1884. 

When in Minneapolis, Minn., a short time since, I saw in Mr. 
Tappan's taxidermist shop the skin of a black lynx {Lynx riifus). 
It was killed in South Florida the winter of 1885. I have seen 
very dark and nearly black wolf skins in Florida, but never before 
saw or heard of a black lynx. It is to be sent to the National 
Museum, Washington. — Forest and Stream, Sej^t. 23, 1886. 

A boy has sent me an English starling shot here with some 
redwings. I saw some imported ones were let out at Central Park 
last spring. This may be one of them come north. — Forest and 
Stream, Aug. 22, 1889. 

After some years we are this summer having some of our old 
acquaintances in the way of wild pigeons. Several flocks have 
been about, and I hope they may again become abundant. — 
Forest and Stream, Sept. 5, 1889. 

As Mr. Seth Gerry of Eobbiuston (about twelve miles below 
Calais) was milking his cows in the yard on Wednesday evening, 
a large bull moose made its appearance among the cows. They 
did not appear the least alarmed. Mr. Gerry shot the creature 
from his house window. Not often does such large game come 
to a man's yard to be shot in such an old-settled neighborliood as 
liobbinston. The head will be sent to your neighbor, Jolin 
Wallace, to be mounted. — Forest and Stream, Oct. 31, 1889. 



348 THE NATURAIvIST OF THE ST. CROIX 

I thought perhaps some of your readers might like to kuow 
of a new way to study owls. Some friends went out shooting a 
day or two ago. One sliot at and wounded the wing of a big 
Virginia horned owl. He was advised to kill the bird but would 
not do so. He was going to study the bird alive, so he put the 
l)ig bird down behind him in the blind. Soon a duck came flying 
along and he stooped so low in shooting he sat on the owl. The 
owl not liking this way of being studied fastened its claws into 
his back and refused all attempts to make it let go, and the more 
they tried to get him off the harder he pinched, and from the 
howling of the man it would appear as if the owl was studying 
the man instead of the man studying the owl. The bird had to be 
killed before he would let go, and although the man's back may 
not be as smooth as usual, and it may be some time before he can 
sit down, he knows more about owls than he did. — Forest and 
Stream, Dec. 4, 1890. 

In writing you the other day the woodcock paper I intended 
to speak of the power curlews have of iuflexing the upper bill 
same as the woodcock, so as to run along the groove of the lower 
mandible and to clean out whatever may be adhering there. Prof. 
Baird told me this and a Jamaica man, a Mr. Hill, said the ibis 
also does the same. — Forest and Stream, Jan. 8, 1891. 

In answer to your or Mr. Chapman's note about wolves in 
Florida, I would say that I purchased winter before last the skin 
of a very large black wolf, as black as any bear, killed near Fort 
Mears, south Florida. I sent it to the National Museum, Washing- 
ton and last winter a skin dealer in Jacksonville had another one, 
very dark (but not black), killed down in Lee county, south 
Florida. — Forest and Stream, Dec. 3, 1891. 

Your cuts of the wild animals have all been very fine; the last 
Lynx canadensis, very life-like. This wildcat a few years ago 
was very common in our woods and Lynx rufus did hardly ever 
occur. Now it is much more abundant than canadensis. About 
five years ago a taxidermist, Mr. Tappan, secured a black Lynx 
rufus, a very pietty, glossy black animal. I wanted to procure it 
for the National Museum, Washington, but as a black Lynx was 
something very rare, he did not care to part with it. It was taken 



NATURAL HIvSTORY SKETCHES 349 

down into soutliwcst Florida. I aftorward saw Iiim in Minne- 
apolis and ho consented to send the skin, which Ik; had tanned, to 
Washington as a fur specimen. This wildcat {L. riifus) is very 
ahundant in Floiida, hut much smaller in si/e. Hair thin and 
coarse even in winter. — Forest and Stream, November 24, 1892. 

Woodcock arrive in Maine not long after the arrival of the 
robins, or as soon as the ground lias been softened by the sunny 
days. The female soon builds a poor little nest of leaves upon 
the ground, lays four eggs of a dull clay color covered with 
brownish spots. The eggs are large for the size of the bird, 
nearly as large as the eggs of the partridge. The male assists in 
incubation. The young are a funnj' little downy crowd and will 
quickly hide under a twig or leaf, while the old bird often takes 
them through the air to a place of safety. Twice I have found 
the chicks in Florida, so a few breed far south and a few have 
been found in winter as far south as Jamaica. I never iu my 
shooting found tliem iu California. — The Calais Times. 



INDEX 



Aiken, Charles E., letter of 293 

Albinism 120 

Albinos, list of 121 

Allen, J. A., 34, 47 ; letter of, 54 ; trib- 
ute to Mr. Boardman, 144 ; sketch 
of, 287. 

American Merganser IIG 

Backman, Dr 197 

Bailey, L. W., letter of 291 

Baird, Spencer F., 35, 37, 40, 43, 57, 
59, Gl, 65, G8, 70, 78, 79, 83, 136, 
153, 154 ; death of, 85, 156 ; note 
about black robin, 122 ; letters to 
Mr. Boardman, 161, 163-174. 

Bears, habits of, 127; ways of 333 

Birds, the Boardman collection, 96 ; of 
Calais, first list of , 39 ; of Florida, 
list of, 49 ; of St. Croix, list of, 300. 

BirdStudy 337 

Black Buzzard 115 

Black Robin 121, 180 

Black Vulture 177, 346 

Blue Grosbeak 346 

Boardman Family, history of 3 

Boardman, A. J. . 30 

Boardman, Charles A 25, 29, 45, 78 

Boardman, Frederick Henry 25, 30 

Boardman, George A., birth of, 16 ; 
marriage of, 21 ; children of, 29 ; 
visits West Indies, 32 ; first visit 
to Florida, 45 ; letter to J. A. 
Allen, 48, 54 ; letter to S. F. Baird, 
59, 63, 75 ; injury to knee, 73 ; let- 
ter to Hallock, 94 ; collection of 
birds, 96, 98, 106 ; death of, 97 ; 



sale of collection of birds to New 
Brunswick government, 102; mem- 
ber Congregational church, 136 ; 
personal characteristics, 130 ; fond- 
ness for reading, 139 ; tributes to, 
141 ; membership in learned soci- 
eties, 151. 
Boardman, Mrs. George A., 25, 132 ; 
death of, 92. 

Boardman, Georgianna A 30 

Boardman, Gorham 138 

Boardman, William B 30, 93 

Brewer, Thomas M 285 

Brown, N. Clifford, letter of 99 

Buffle Head Duck 219 

Calais, first settlers of, 13 ; birds of, 
list first published, 39. 

Capercailzie or Wood-grouse 113 

Cliff Swallow 35 

Cormorant, Double-crested 234 

Coues, Elliott 121,289 

Crossbill, breeding in winter 346 

Dall,William H., tribute to Mr.Board- 

man 150 

Dresser, Henry E., 44, 125, 192 ; trib- 
ute to Mr. Boardman, 151 ; sketch 
of, 249 ; works of, 251 ; letters of, 
252-262. 
Ducks, Crested European, 114 ; Gold- 
en-eyed, 231 ; Labrador, 117, 118, 

343 ; Pied, 200 ; Ring-necked, 205, 

344 ; Ruddy, 204 ; Tufted, 179. 

Duck Hawk 218, 266, 278 

Ducks, Tree Nesting 329 

Eaton, H,F 21 



INDEX 



351 



Edmunds, Hon. George F 203 

Eggs, collection and care of 119 

Elliot, D. G., 118, 275 ; tribute to Mr. 

Boaidman, 150. 

Everglade Kite 347 

Fishes, list o£ 31G 

Flewelling, W. P 103, 107 

Florida, list of birds of, 49 ; snakes in, 

228 ; winter life in, 324. 

Florida Gallinule 344 

Foster, Dr. Henry GO, 90, 91, 190 

Fredericton, N. B., city of lOS 

Frogs, list of 322 

Gale, the Saxby 5G 

Gay, Edward G 113 

Glover, P. W 123 

Gordon, Arthur H., letter of 291 

Grebe, Crested, 230 ; western 273 

Hallock, Charles, 67, 94, 119. 123; 

account of Boardman collection, 

107 ; sketch of, 281 ; tribute to Mr. 

Boardman, 142. 
Hawk, Black and Rough-legged, 224, 

225, 239 ; Broad-winged, 241. 

Heemann, A. L., letter of 295 

Henry, Joseph, 43, 4G ; death of 72 

Hill, George F 101 

Holmes, Ezekiel, letter of 294 

Hybrids in ducks 345 

Knight, Ora W 118 

Krider, John 37, 42 

Labrador Gy rfalcon 114 

Langley, S. P 12G 

Lee, Leslie A 139 

Library, New Brunswick legislative.. 109 

Lizards, list of 322 

Lynx Rufus 211, 282, 347 

Mammals, list of 319 

Marsh Hawk 238 

Melanism 120 

Messina Quail 113 

Minneapolis, birds of . . .74, 70, 77, 82, 247 

Moose, shot in farm yard 347 

Murchie, James 141 

Natural History, attractions of, G7 ; 

sketches, 323. 



224 
273 



107 
56 
332 
298 
293 
221 
202 



Night Heron 218, 342 

Osborne, Henry 124 

Owl, Acadian, 223 ; Great Homed, 
232; Virginia Horned, 348. 

Owls, period of incubation 

Pine Grosbeak 2.56, 

Ridgway, Robert, 8G, 119, 129 ; letter 
of, 87 ; tribute to Mr. Boardman, 
150 ; sketch of, 202. 

Rogers, John F 

Saxby Gale 

Saguenay, Winninish of 

Scientific lists 

Sclaier, P. L., letter of 

Screech Owl 

Shell Heap 188, 

Smithsonian Institution, 71, 81 ; Mr. 

Boardman's gifts to, 126. 
Snakes, list of, 321 ; in Florida, 328. 
St. Croix, birds of, 300 ; fishes of, 316 
frogs of, 322 ; lizards of, 322 
mammals of, 319 ; snakes of, 321 
toads of, 322 ; turtles of, 321 ; val- 
ley, 11. 

Tennessee Warbler 343 

Toads, list of 322 

Todd, William IS, 20 

Todd, William F 101, 103,105 

Tree Nesting Ducks 329 

Turtles, list of 321 

Tweedie, L. J 102 

Verrill, A. E Ill 

Vulture, Black 344 

Waite, B. F 17 

Wales, Prince of, in Halifax 284 

Whipple, Bishop Henry B 77 

Wilson's Snipe on Trees 343, 345 

Winninish of the Saguenay 332 

Winter Life in Florida 323 

Wood, Dr. Alphonso 220 

Wood, Dr. William, 34, 86, 213 ; col- 
lection in ornithology, 216 ; letters 
of, 224, 225, 229-234. 

Wood, Mrs. Mary Ellsworth 216 

Woodpecker, Three-toed 116, 336 

Wood Pewee 273 



FROM the press of Charles II. Ghiss & Compaiij^ Bangor, 
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