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Full text of "Naturalist's guide to the Americas"

NATURALIST'S GUIDE 
TO THE AMERICAS 



From the collection of the 
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o Prelinger 

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San Francisco, California 
2006 



THE NATURALIST'S GUIDE 
TO THE AMERICAS 



NATURALIST'S GUIDE 
TO THE AMERICAS 



PREPARED BY THE 

COMMITTEE on the PRESERVATION of NATURAL CONDITIONS 

of THE ECOLOGICAL SOCIETY OF AMERICA 
with assistance from numerous organizations and individuals 

ASSEMBLED AND EDITED BY THE CHAIRMAN 

VICTOR E. SHELFORD 

University of Illinois and Illinois State 
Natural History Survey 



PUBLICATION EDITOR 
FORREST SHREVE 

Desert Laboratory of the Carnegie Institution 

ASSOCIATES AND SPECIAL EDITORS 
E. LUCY BRAUN CLARENCE F. KORSTIAN 

University of Cincinnati Appalachian Forest Experiment Station 

Botany Forestry 

Assembled and Edited Assembled ana Edited 

parts on parts on 

National Parks and Monuments National Forests of the 

of the United States United States 

LEE R. DICE ROBERT B. MILLER 

Museum of Zoology, University of Michigan Illinois Natural History Survey 

Mammals Forestry 

LYNDS JONES HELEN T. GAIGE 

Oberlin College Museum of Zoology, University of Michigan 

Birds Reptiles 

FRANK C. BAKER 

Natural History Museum, University of Illinois 
Zoology 




BALTIMORE 

THE WILLIAMS & WILKINS COMPANY 
1926 



COPYRIGHT 1926 
THE WILLIAMS & WILKINS COMPANY 

Made in United States of America 

Published February, 1926 



COMPOSED AND PRINTED AT THE 

WAVERLY PRESS 

FOR 

THE WILLIAMS & WILKINS COMPANY 
BALTIMORE, MD., XJ. 8. A. 



CHAIRMAN'S PREFACE 

The Ecological Society of America is a national organization of approxi- 
mately 500 members, the majority of whom are connected with universities, 
colleges, and other educational or research institutions. The membership 
includes a larger proportion of persons interested in the preservation of 
natural conditions for research in pure science and for educational work 
than any other of our national scientific societies. It publishes the jour- 
nal Ecology, which is largely devoted to contributions on the original 
flora and fauna and on their conditions of existence. 

In 1917 a committee was charged with the listing of all preserved and 
preservable areas in North America in which natural conditions persist. 
The original committee included about twenty-five members, scattered 
throughout the United States and Canada. The first work was to make 
the list and when this had made some progress, to urge the reservation of 
such important areas as demanded immediate attention. The whole 
problem of securing the preservation of areas, which is one of the objects 
of the committee work, is very complex. At the outset the committee 
felt the lack of any definite guides in carrying on the work. The organiza- 
tion which produced the Naturalist's Guide has been a growth; committee 
membership is limited to those willing to do some kind of work, and 
includes about seventy-five members. It is a committee on the preserva- 
tion of nature. Its efforts are directed toward the preservation of natural 
areas with original flora and fauna (or as nearly so as may obtain) and the 
maintenance of the natural biotic balance in existing preserves. 

During the preparation of the present volume the committee aimed to 
have two members in each state (and province of Canada) . These mem- 
bers (1) supplied information relative to natural areas, etc. in their terri- 
tory and (2) undertook to interest one local organization concerned with 
pure science, e.g., a state academy or natural history society, in the preser- 
vation of natural areas, commonly indicated by the appointment of a 
committee. This constitutes a permanent organization charged, among 
other things, with the keeping of the guide up to date. Other members 
were engaged in investigating certain topics and writing reports, in interest- 
ing pure science organizations to support the work of publication and dis- 
tribution of information, and in selecting natural areas within existing 
public forests. 

The present volume has been prepared with the aid of various institu- 
tions and organizations. The National Research Council granted $300 
in 1921-1922 which aided greatly in financing the requests for manuscripts 



vi CHAIRMAN'S PREFACE 

and also increased the interest in the project. The American Society of 
Zoologists and the Botanical Society of America contributed $25.00 each 
toward the classification of areas as to degree of modification from the 
original condition. 

The establishment of cooperation with the United States Forest Service 
greatly reduced our financial and clerical burdens. 

Acknowledgments are due the following institutions for encouraging 
their staff members in editing or contributing to the work: United States 
Forest Service; United States Biological Survey; University of Michigan 
Museum; University of Illinois, Department of Zoology and Natural 
History Survey; University of Cincinnati, Department of Botany; Oberlin 
College, Department of Ecology; Northwestern University, Department of 
Botany; New Hampshire College, Department of Zoology; and the Car- 
negie Institution. 

The following rendered important service in reading and correcting 
manuscripts: 

H. A. Gleason, New York Botanic Garden 

H. Burrington Baker, University of Pennsylvania 

A. H. Wright, Cornell University 

C. C. Hamilton, University of Maryland 

Vernon Bailey, U. S. Biological Survey 

P. L. Kicker, U. S. Bureau of Plant Industry 

A. H. Howell, U. S. Biological Survey 

W. L. McAtee, U. S. Biological Survey 

H. P. Loding, Mobile, Alabama 

F. L. Mulford, U. S. Bureau of Plant Industry 

W. L. Bray, Syracuse University 

W. H. Osgood, Field Museum, Chicago 

E. A. Goldman, U. S. Biological Survey 

I. H. Blake, University of Maine 

Samuel Eddy, James Millikin University 

The associate editors did very much to improve the general character of 
the work, but credit should be especially given Dr. E. Lucy Braun who read 
the entire manuscript on states and provinces, making important general 
criticisms. She added greatly to the plant material and verified the 
scientific names. Dr. L. R. Dice made a similar careful study of the 
manuscript on states and provinces and contributed materially to the 
accounts of mammals. 

Several questionnaires regarding the nomenclature to be used for the 
various communities and concerning the mapping of natural regions were 
sent out. The names of the contributors of these subjects are in connec- 
tion with the lists of natural regions and maps of them. 

The taxonomic nomenclature for plants in the states and provinces 
is mainly according to Sudworth's Check List for trees, and for other 



CHAIRMAN'S PREFACE vii 

plants follows Britton and Brown's Illustrated Flora, Coulter and 
Nelson's Manual, Piper's Flora of Washington, and other state floras. 
Common usage has been deemed more important than adherence to 
supposedly universal codes of nomenclature. The nomenclature on am- 
phibians and reptiles in the states and provinces is after L. Stejneger and 
T. Barbour: Checklist of North American Amphibians and Reptiles, 
second edition. Names of mammals are from G. S. Miller, Jr. : List of 
North American Recent Mammals, 1923, U. S. National Museum Bulletin 
128; and those of the birds follow the American Ornithological Union 
check list. In the case of most animals and plants, scientific name and 
common name are used together the first time the name of the species 
appears in a state or provincial account, thereafter in the same article, the 
common name stands alone. The birds are an exception to this, as scientific 
names of species breeding or resident north of Mexico are used only in the 
list at the close of the volume. The common names of birds are fully as 
well established as the scientific ones. 

The absence of data on invertebrate or lower vertebrate life is, of course, 
striking all through the guide. This is perhaps unavoidable. The princi- 
pal users will be students of mammals, birds, or general ecology including 
plants. As a matter of fact, little work has been done on the invertebrates 
as regards ecology, excepting in aquatic work, which is seldom mentioned 
by the authors. As regards the Mollusca, F. C. Baker states that little 
work has been done except in certain states, state lists being usually syste- 
matic, and not ecologic. He has added here and there a note on inverte- 
brate life, but little can be done at present to strengthen this side of the 
zoology. 

The data included in the guide had been brought together in the form of 
manuscripts during seven years of more or less continuous effort, and when 
turned over to the Publication Editor, the principal task appeared to be 
rendering of nomenclature and organization somewhat more uniform. The 
extent and character of the Publication Editor's work is indicated in the 
second preface. 

V. E. SHELFORD. 

Champaign, May 7, 



PUBLICATION EDITOR'S PREFACE 

The manuscript of the Naturalist's Guide first came to my hands in an 
advanced stage of preparation, after the members of the compiling com- 
mittee had given several years and much hard work to the planning of its 
scope, the selection of contributors, and the arrangement of the material 
secured. 

My own part of the production of the Guide has been the small one 
of reading the manuscript with reference to the coordination of certain 
features of the treatment, and the unification of typographic style. While 
many minor changes have been made, it has seemed best to preserve in 
each chapter the individuality of style and treatment of each of the various 
authors, chosen for their recognized familiarity with the areas which had 
been assigned to them. Nothing has been done by way of attempting to 
recast into a uniform mould all of the chapters which relate to regions of 
such diverse character, known with such varying degrees of completeness. 

The latest work of incorporating rewritten and fresh material, as well as 
the final revision of the manuscript, has been in the hands of Dr. V. E. 
Shelf ord, by whom the project of such a guide was conceived, and to whom 
the major share of credit will belong for the hoped-for utility of this 
product of many hands. 

FORREST SHREVE. 

Tucson, January, 1925. 



IX 



CONTENTS 

I. INTRODUCTION. V. E. SHELFORD <4 

II. USES, VALUES, AND MANAGEMENT OF NATURAL AREAS 5 

A. Artistic and Literary Uses * 7 

1. The Value of Natural Areas to Literature and Art. S. L. WHIT- 

COMB, University of Kansas 7 

2. The Value of Natural Preserves to the Landscape Architect. 

S. H. WHITE, University of Illinois 8 

B. Scientific and Practical Uses and Values 10 

1. The Value to Silviculture of Reserved Areas of Natural Forest 

Types. W. W. ASHE, United States Forest Service 10 

2. The Value of Aquatic Preserves to Fisheries. A. S. PEARSE, 

University of Wisconsin 11 

3. The Importance to Geography of the Preservation of Natural 

Areas. S. S. VISHER, Indiana University 12 

4. The Importance of Natural Areas to Biology and Agriculture. 

V. E. SHELFORD, University of Illinois 13 

C. Forces Making for the Destruction or Preservation of Natural Areas. . 15 

1. Forest Laws and Regulations and the Preservation of Natural 

Conditions. R. B. MILLER, Illinois Natural History Survey. . 15 

2. The Preservation of Natural Conditions in the National Forests. 

C. F. KORSTIAN, United States Forest Service 17 

3. Permanent Sample Plots in the National Forests. C. F. KOR- 

STIAN, U. S. Forest Service 19 

4. National Parks and National Monuments. E. LUCY BRAUN, 

University of Cincinnati 20 

5. Museums and Nature. F. C. BAKER, University of Illinois.... 27 

6. Game Preserves as Illustrated by Pennsylvania's Experience. 

JOHN M. PHILLIPS, Pennsylvania Game Commission 28 

7. The Relation of Shrubs and Trees to Wild Birds (.Quoted). F. 

SMITH, University of Illinois 31 

8. Grazing in the National Forests. C. F. KORSTIAN, United 

States Forest Service 33 

9. Fires in Relation to the Biota. R. H. WOLCOTT, University of 

Nebraska 34 

10. The Effect of Pollution on Animal Life. F. C. BAKER, Uni- 
versity of Illinois 38 

D. Interests and Management 42 

1. Union of Interests and Management of Natural Areas. V. E. 

SHELFORD, University of Illinois 42 

E. Administration of Wild Life 45 

1. The Administration of Wild Life in State and National Parks 
(Quoted). CHAS. C. ADAMS, New York State College of 
Forestry 45 

F. Duty of Scientific Men 62 

1. The Duty of Scientific Men in Conservation. H. S. GRAVES, 

Yale University 52 

xi 



xii CONTENTS 

III. ORIGINAL BIOTA OP THE AMERICAS NORTH OF THE AMAZON ............... 55 

A. Introduction. V. E. SHELFORD, University of Illinois ............... 57 

B. Descriptive List of North American Biota. V. E. SHELFORD, Uni- 

versity of Illinois, L. JONES, Oberlin College, and L. R. DICE, Uni- 
versity of Michigan ............................................... 60 

C. Life Zones. V. E. SHELFORD, University of Illinois, and G. T. JONES, 

Oberlin College ................................................... 76 

D. Descriptive list of Middle American Biota. FORREST SHREVE, Desert 

Laboratory, and V. E. SHELFORD, University of Illinois ............ 77 

, E. Provisional Table of Landscape Aspect and Life Zone Equivalents. 

E. A. GOLDMAN, United States Biological Survey .................. 80 

F. Bibliography. V. E. SHELFORD, University of Illinois .............. 81 

IV. NATURAL AREAS AND REGIONS ........................................... 83 

A. General Plan. V. E. SHELFORD, University of Illinois .............. 85 

B. Natural Regions and Natural Areas ................................. 87 

Section 1. Northern North America: Ice Covered Areas, Tundra and 

Northern Coniferous Forest ......................................... 87 

1. Northwest Greenland. W. ELMER EKBLAW, Clark University. 87 

2. Danish Greenland. W. ELMER EKBLAW, Clark University ..... 90 

3. The American Arctic Archipelago. W. ELMER EKBLAW, Clark 

University ........................................ ' ........... 98 

4. Ungava and Labrador. W. ELMER EKBLAW, Clark University. . 102 

5. Newfoundland. W. ELMER EKBLAW ........................... Ill 

6. The Mackenzie Watershed; Northern Hudson Bay Region, 

Upper Yukon Region, and the Arctic Islands. E. A. PREBLE, 

U. S. Biological Survey ..................................... 115 

7. Alaska. W. H. OSGOOD, Field Museum ...................... 141 

8. The National Forests of the Alaskan District. JOHN D. 

GUTHRIE, United States Forest Service ..................... 147 

Section 2. Southern Canada and the United States ....................... 150 

A. States, Provinces and Forest Districts, Chiefly Coniferous Forest ____ 150 

1. British Columbia. JOHN DAVIDSON, University of British 

Columbia, P. Z. CAVERHILL, Provincial Forest Branch, 
EDWARD A. PREBLE, United States Biological Survey, and 
A. H. HUTCHINSON, University of British Columbia ........ 150 

2. Washington. G. B. RIGG, University of Washington, L. R. DICE, 

HELEN T. GAIGE, University of Michigan and HORACE GUN- 
THORP, University of Washington .......................... 168 

3. Oregon. THORNTON T. MUNGER, United States Forest Service, 

WILLIAM E. LAWRENCE, Oregon Agricultural College, and 
HOWARD M. WIGHT, Oregon Agricultural College ............ 181 

4. California. H. C. BRYANT, University of California ........... 193 

5. National Forests of the North Pacific District (6). J. V. HOF- 

MANN, Pennsylvania Forest School .......................... 202 

6.|National Forests of the Northern District (1). J. A. LARSEN, 

Iowa State College .......................................... 208 

7. National Forests of California. Vegetational Types. E. N. 

MUNNS, United States Forest Service ........................ 216 

8. National Forests of the Intermountain District (4). F. S. 

BAKER and S. B. LOCKE, United States Forest Service ........ |224 

9. National Forests of the Southwestern District (3). G. A. 

PEARSON, United States Forest Service ...................... 232 

10. National Forests of the Rocky Mountain District (2). C. G. 

BATES, United States Forest Service.. . 237 






CONTENTS xiii 

11. Idaho. R. A. MUTTKOWSKI, University of Idaho 249 

12. Alberta. A. B. CONNELL, Dominion Forestry Branch 253 

13. Saskatchewan. JOHN SMITH DEXTER, College of Porto Rico.. 258 

14. Manitoba. A. B. CONNELL, Dominion Forestry Branch 263 

15. Minnesota. C. O. ROSENDAHL, University of Minnesota 267 

16. Wisconsin. A. S. PEARSE, University of Wisconsin 284 

17. Ontario. C. D. HOWE and J. R. DYMOND, University of Toronto 288 

18. The Province of Quebec. G. D. FULLER, University of Chicago, 

and BRO. MARIE- VICTORIN, College de Longueuil 293 

19. New Brunswick. B. E. CLARIDGE, University of New Brunswick 299 

20. Prince Edward Island. Committee Notes 302 

21. Nova Scotia. A. H. MACKAY, Nova Scotia, Department of 

Education 303 

22. Maine. A. O. GROSS, Bowdoin College, and A. H. NORTON, 

Portland Society of Natural History 305 

B. States Chiefly Deciduous Forest 314 

1. New Hampshire. K. W. WOODWARD and C. F. JACKSON, New 

Hampshire College 314 

2. Vermont. GEO. P. BURNS, University of Vermont 316 

3. Massachusetts. ANNA M. STARR, Mount Holyoke College 318 

4. Connecticut. GEO. E. NICHOLS, Yale University 326 

5. Rhode Island. MARION D. WESTON, Rhode Island College of 

Education 330 

6. New York. W. L. BRAY, Syracuse University 332 

7. Pennsylvania. JOHN W. HARSHBERGER, University of Pennsyl- 

vania 338 

8. West Virginia. W. E. RUMSEY, West Virginia University 341 

9. Tennessee. R. S. MADDOX, Tennessee Bureau of Forestry 347 

10. Kentucky. A. R. MIDDLETON, University of Louisville, W. R. 

JILLSON, F. T. MCFARLAND and M. A. ANDERSON, JR., Uni- 
versity of Kentucky 349 

11. Ohio. E. LUCY BRAUN, University of Cincinnati, and LYNDS 

JONES, Oberlin College 354 

12. Indiana. WILL SCOTT, Indiana University 372 

13. Michigan. L. R. DICE, University of Michigan, LYNDS JONES 

and HELEN T. GAIGE, University of Michigan 377 

14.' National Forests of the Eastern District. E. H. FROTHINGHAM, 

r. : , j UnitedJStates Forest Service 387 

C. States with Deciduous Forest, Southeastern Coniferous Forest, and 

Large Swamp Areas 394 

1. New Jersey. T. C. NELSON, Rutgers College 394 

2. Delaware. FRANK MORTON JONES 398 

3. Maryland. C. C. HAMILTON, N. J. Agricultural Experiment 

Station 401 

4. Virginia. IVEY F. LEWIS, University of Virginia 410 

5. North Carolina. Z. P. METCALF and B. W. WELLS, North 

Carolina State College 413 

6. South Carolina. PHILIP LUGINBILL, United States Bureau of 

Entomology 418 

7. Georgia. HENRY Fox, U. S. Bureau of Entomology 422 

8. Florida. J. R. WATSON, University of Florida 427 

9. Alabama. R. M. HARPER, Alabama Geological Survey, M. S. 

JOHNSON, University of Minnesota, and A. H. Ho WELL, United 
States Biological Survey 440 



xiv CONTENTS 

10. Mississippi. GLADYS HOKB, Converse College 454 

11. Louisiana. G. W. GOLDSMITH, Carnegie Institution, LENTHALL 

WYMAN, United States Forest Service, and H. H. KOPMAN, 
Louisiana Department of Conservation 460 

12. Arkansas. JOHN T. BUCHHOLZ, University of Arkansas 464 

Texas. (See page 502.) 

D. States Chiefly Oak Grove Savanna 469 

1. Illinois. T. H. FRISON and R. B. MILLER, Illinois Natural 

History Survey 469 

2. Iowa. L. H. PAMMEL, Iowa State College 480 

3. Missouri. A. C. BURRILL, Missouri Resources Museum 485 

4. Oklahoma. H. H. LANE, University of Kansas 490 

Texas. (See page 502.) 

E. States Chiefly Grassland or Steppe 502 

1. Texas. A. R. CAHN, University of Illinois 502 

2. Kansas. J. W. McCoLLOCH, Kansas State Agricultural College. 515 

3. Nebraska. R. H. WOLCOTT, University of Nebraska 519 

4. Colorado. F. RAMALEY and W. W. ROBBINS, University of 

Colorado 524 

5. Wyoming. JOHN W. SCOTT, University of Wyoming 529 

6. Montana. M. J. ELROD, University of Montana 537 

7. North Dakota. J. T. SARVIS, United States Bureau of Plant 

Industry, and J. E. SWITZER, Indiana University 544 

8. South Dakota. E. J. PETRY, South Dakota State College, and 

S. S. VISHER, Indiana University 548 

F. States Chiefly Desert and Semi-Desert 556 

Oregon. (See under Coniferous Forest.) 
California. (See under Coniferous Forest.) 

1. Utah. C. F. KORSTIAN, United States Forest Service 557 

2. Nevada. C. F. KORSTIAN, U. S. Forest Service 560 

3. Arizona. G. A. PEARSON, U. S. Forest Service, E. A. GOLDMAN, 

United States Biological Survey, FORREST SHREVE, Carnegie 
Institution, and CHARLES T. Vorhies, University of Arizona 562 

4. New Mexico. A. O. WEESE, University of Oklahoma 570 

Section 8. The Tropics North of the Equator 574 

A. Mexico and Central America 574 

1. Mexico. E. W. NELSON and E. A. GOLDMAN, United States 

Biological Survey 574 

2. Guatemala. WILSON POPENOE, United States Department of 

Agriculture 596 

3. British Honduras. KARL P. SCHMIDT, Field Museum 600 

4. Honduras. KARL P. SCHMIDT, Field Museum 601 

5. The Republic of Salvador. PAUL C. STANDLEY, U. S. National 

Museum 602 

6. Nicaragua. LUDLOW GRISCOM, American Museum of Natural 

History 604 

7. Costa Rica. LUDLOW GRISCOM, American Museum of Natural 

History 607 

8. Panama. E. A. GOLDMAN, United States Biological Survey, and 

JAMES ZETEK, Custodian of the Barro Colorado Island Labo- 
ratory, United States Bureau of Entomology 612 

B. Northern South America 623 

1. Colombia. FRANCIS W. PENNELL, Academy of Natural Sciences 

of Philadelphia .623 



CONTENTS xv 

2. Venezuela. H. PITTIER, Caracas, Ven, and H. B. BAKEB, Uni- 

versity of Pennsylvania 637 

3. The Guianas. WM. BEEBE, New York Zoological Society, and 

H. A. GLEASON, New York Botanical Garden 649 

4. Ecuador. WILSON POPENOE, U. S. Department of Agriculture, 

and H. E. ANTHONY, American Museum of Natural History. . 662 

5. The Amazon Valley. ORLAND E. WHITE, Brooklyn, Botanic 

Garden 674 

C. Islands in the Atlantic and Adjacent Waters 681 

1. Bermudas. (Committee Notes.) 681 

2. Bahamas. (Committee Notes.) 682 

3. Cuba. BROTHER LEON, Colegio de la Salle, Havana 682 

4. Haiti and Santo Domingo. G. KINGSLEY NOBLE, American 

Museum of Natural History 695 

5. Jamaica. FORREST SHREVE, Carnegie Institution 698 

6. Porto Rico and the Virgin Islands. N. L. BRITTON, New York 

Botanical Garden, G. N. WOLCOTT, Porto Rico Experiment 
Station, and others 700 

7. Dutch West Indies. H. B. BAKER, University of Pennsylvania. 707 

D. Pacific Islands 709 

1. Galapagos Islands. (Committee Notes.) 709 

2. Philippine Islands. F. T. MCLEAN, Rhode Island College, 

Kingston, Rhode Island 709 

V. LIST OF ORGANIZATIONS INTERESTED IN THE PRESERVATION OP NATURAL 

CONDITIONS 721 

A. List of State and Territorial Representatives. W. G. WATERMAN, 

Northwestern University 723 

B. Local Organizations. W. G. WATERMAN, Northwestern University. . 727 

C. National Organizations. C. F. JACKSON, New Hampshire College... 736 
VI. Indices 741 

1. Index of Scientific and Common Names of Birds 743 

2. Index to Authors and Localities .. 759 



I. INTRODUCTION 



INTRODUCTION 



BY V. E. SHELFORD 



Biology has been characterized by 
waves of interest in special fields cor- 
responding to fads and similar phe- 
nomena in human activity generally. 
One of these fields of special interest 
is, or has been, evolution. One can 
hardly help agreeing with writers who 
state that it retarded the progress of 
biology (botany and zoology). This 
was due to the fact that it happened 
to turn attention to types of work that 
could be done in the museum and in the 
laboratory. The doctrine of the sur- 
vival of the fittest was accepted with, 
none but the crudest ideas of what 
constitutes fitness. Most backward of 
all was the knowledge of the environ- 
ment. This, together with the ease 
with which morphological features could 
be fitted into the doctrines set forth 
by Darwin, led to a period of empirical 
speculation concerning adaptation, 
coloration, mimicry, etc., which con- 
tributed so little of scientific value 
that much of it will be quite generally 
ignored or forgotten in the near future. 

In connection with this work observa- 
tions which would show the function 
or fitness of the parts of features specu- 
lated about, were rare if not wanting. 
The uses of the structures or colors were 
often entirely assumed. We perhaps 
know less about fitness than any other 
biological subject. The "survival of 
the fittest" as usually employed means 
merely the survival of the survivors. 
There can be no adequate knowledge of 
fitness to environment without knowl- 
edge of environment. 

Knowledge of habitats and the rela- 
tions of organisms to them cannot be 
said to have seriously reached the ears 
or constituted a part of the training of 
more than a few of those engaged in the 



older lines of botany and zoology. 
Studies of genetics, evolution, physi- 
ology, embryology, cytology, parasi- 
tology and entomology still proceed 
largely or at least far too often without 
reference to the habitat relations of 
the organisms studied. 

Warming, who studied the plants of 
the sanddunes of Denmark, discovered 
orderly sequences and established the 
fact that habitats and environment 
may be interpreted by putting the 
results of his studies into scientific 
order. He thus answered the epithet 
of a famous contemporary zoologist 
who closed a discussion of habitats with 
the words "developing hodge podge." 
Modern ecology has shown that the 
environment is orderly, proceeding in 
a particular direction for long periods. 
One of its outstanding and original 
features is the study and orderly inter- 
pretation of the habitats of organisms 
and the organisms themselves. Further 
experience has demonstrated what 
Warming indicated: That knowledge 
of habitats can be organized into science. 

A branch of biological science which 
obtains its inspiration in the natural 
order in original habitats must depend 
upon the preservation of natural areas 
for the solution of many problems. 

It was the conviction of many mem- 
bers of the Ecological Society soon 
after its organization, that the society 
should take steps to make available 
for study as much of the original biota 
of North America, as possible. An 
inventory of available areas and the 
extent to which they are modified is 
naturally one of the early steps in the 
preservation of suitable areas for eco- 
logical study. 



3 



II. USES, VALUES AND MANAGEMENT 
OF NATURAL AREAS 



A. ARTISTIC AND LITERARY USES 



1. THE VALUE OF NATURAL AREAS 
TO LITERATURE AND ART 

BY SELDEN LINCOLN WHITCOMB 

Some few early American poets wrote 
of the skylark and the nightingale. 
They followed the easy path of inherited 
literary tradition, and did not seem to 
realize the wealth of new natural ma- 
terial at their very doors. Other poets, 
however, very soon discovered the 
poetic values of the whippoorwill, the 
passenger pigeon, and the ruby-throated 
humming-bird. Freneau, poet of the 
American Revolution, has a well known 
poem on the honeysuckle. A little 
later Bryant's poem on the yellow violet 
almost marks an epoch in the poetic 
treatment of American flowers. Alex- 
ander Wilson may be considered, in a 
sense, as the last of the pioneers among 
the American writers on American 
nature. In his poetry, as well as in 
his letters and his American Ornithol- 
ogy, he has left wonderful records of 
his personal observations of birds, 
plants, and landscapes over a very 
large section of the region east of the 
Mississippi River. 1 

From the days of Wilson to the pres- 
ent time, there has been, on the part 
of American writers, an alert and 
continuous interest in the varied as- 
pects of American nature. Perhaps 
no literature is richer than ours in the 
literary presentation of local nature. 
The "nature essay" is a very charac- 
teristic and practically indigenous 
literary type in this country. As 
American territory expanded, our 
writers accompanied or soon followed 

1 For a fairly extended treatment of "Nature in 
Early American Literature," see the writer's article 
in The Sewanee Review, 1894. 



the pioneers of the new regions. Our 
literature now offers us entire volumes 
of nature lore from the region Where 
Rolls the Oregon (Dallas Lore Sharp) 
to that of A Florida Sketch-Book (Brad- 
ford Torrey) and from The Maine 
Woods (Thoreau) to The Land of Little 
Rain (Mary Austin). Dr. Neil E. 
Stevens has an interesting article in 
The Scientific Monthly for February, 
1921, on "The Botany of the New Eng- 
land Poets." There is abundance of 
material for analogous articles on the 
botany or the zoology of writers for 
every section, yes, for every state of 
the Union. 

The student of American literature 
welcomes any reasonable movement 
to preserve, in as nearly the original 
state as possible, as many as possible 
of the regions which have been observed, 
loved, and described by our authors. 
The present writer has visited the site 
of Thoreau's famous cabin at Walden 
Pond, and has followed the path of 
Thoreau, with Cape Cod in his hand, 
for miles and miles along the Cape. 
(Incidentally, as the writer lay on high 
land tracing the route from the book, 
an unsuspicious fox came trotting to 
within two yards or so of him.) Man- 
kato, Minnesota, is a typical and beau- 
tiful prairie town and it was the western 
limit of Thoreau's only western trip. 
Mankato has a wonderful system of 
natural parks. The student of litera- 
ture hopes that a section of prairie or 
woodland, known to have been visited 
by Thoreau, may yet be located and 
preserved. 

Among other places of somewhat 
similar interest in American literary 
biography, in the Middle West, these 
may be suggested : haunts in Wisconsin, 



8 



NATURALIST'S GUIDE TO THE AMERICAS 



which inspired James Gates Percival 
(poet as well as geologist) ; places in or 
near Fort Gibson, Oklahoma, which 
stimulated the pen of Washington 
Irving; certain environs of Osage and 
Clear Lake, Iowa, which were of notable 
significance in the development of 
Hamlin Garland, etc. 

Here and there in the prairie country, 
one finds small areas of open ground 
still in their natural state. This is 
sometimes the case with the railroad 
right-of-way. Here may be found 
plants, and, to a lesser extent, animals 
which seem to have passed from the 
neighboring regions. Such areas are 
especially welcome to the lover of 
literature. If their natural phenomena 
are not yet known to our literature 
proper, let us not destroy the oppor- 
tunity for the writers of the future. 
The natural forest edge also let us 
preserve as many sections of it as 
possible. Here, where the prairie 
meets the woods, were the original 
haunts of many of our familiar herbs 
and shrubs and birds spring migrants : 
white-throated sparrow, hermit thrush, 
etc.; summer residents: thrasher, cat- 
bird, Bell's vireo, etc. ; winter visitants : 
juncoes, tree sparrows, the great north- 
ern shrike, etc. 

We have already destroyed much 
which cannot be replaced. No sane 
student of literature will deny the 
national importance of the lumber 
industry or of the greatest possible ex- 
tension of grain producing land. But 
the same student is anxious to prove to 
himself and to the world that America 
is not entirely commercial in spirit. 
He hopes for and believes in the Ameri- 
can artist painters, musicians, and 
writers of the near and of the distant 
future. For these artists and for those 
thousands if not millions of citizens 
whose lives are to be enriched by these 
works of pen and brush, we should 
preserve, all over the country, carefully 
selected, representative areas, as nearly 
in the primitive condition as is now 
possible. 



2. THE VALUE OF NATURAL PRE- 
SERVES TO THE LANDSCAPE 
ARCHITECT 

BY STANLEY WHITE 

Inasmuch as one of the chief interests 
of landscape architecture is the pres- 
ervation of beautiful landscapes, noth- 
ing can be more evident than the im- 
portance to the profession and to those 
deriving benefits from its works of 
this movement to save various natural 
regions from possible injury or de- 
struction. Landscape architects have 
always maintained a keen interest in 
such movements: as private practi- 
tioners in urging the development of 
organizations interested in natural pre- 
serves, and through their national 
professional society in formally support- 
ing the movements in defence of our 
great national reservations against im- 
proper exploitation. 

Frederick Law Olmsted, in speaking 
of our national parks, says: 

The National Parks are set apart 
primarily in order to preserve to the 
people for all time the opportunity of a 
peculiar kind of enjoyment and recrea- 
tion, not measurable in economic terms 
and to be obtained only from the re- 
markable scenery which they contain 
scenery of these primeval types which 
are in most parts of the world rapidly 
vanishing for all eternity before the 
increased thoroughness of the economic 
use of land. In the National Parks 
direct economic returns, if any are 
wholly secondary to the one dominant 
purpose of preserving essential esthetic 
qualities of their scenery unimpaired as 
a heritage to the infinite numbers of the 
generations to come. 

One of the most notable achievements 
in this direction was the creation of the 
Boston Park system, with its rich 
natural and semi-natural preserves 
largely through the original idea and 
subsequently the active work of Mr. 
Charles Eliot, Landscape Architect, 
concerning which there is an excellent 
account in his biography. 1 Many other 
instances could be cited, as the design 

1 Charles Eliot, Landscape Architect, by C. W. 
Eliot. 



USES OF NATURAL AREAS 



of public areas is a considerable part 
of the regular work of the profession. 

President Emeritus Charles W. Eliot 
of Harvard University, at the meeting 
of the American Society of Landscape 
Architects, Boston, 1911, made the 
following remarks : 

If I were asked to mention the most 
important public movement of the last 
twenty years, I should say it was the 
movement to obtain for all classes of 
society indeed, for the entire popula- 
tion better means of health, rational 
enjoyment, and real happiness. Much 
sympathy has been expressed in these 
later years for the unhappy condition 
of large elements of the population. 
Something more than economic remedies 
must be found for the great evils which 
beset modern society, and particularly 
for the diseases, physical and moral, 
which are caused by congestion of popu- 
lation. This profession is called upon 
to deal with all these problems of con- 
gestion. You must take account of the 
desires and hopes, tastes and purposes 
of the population to be relieved; and 
these sentiments and emotions will all 
be found to be closely related to that 
pursuit of happiness in which a free 
people is always engaged in accordance 
with their tastes and inclinations. 
. . . The Declaration of Independ- 
ence declares that all men have a right 
to life, liberty, and the pursuit of 
happiness. Now it is the pursuit of 
public happiness which, I think, should 
be the main standby of this profession 
in urging the public to use the landscape 
art, to seek its benefits, and to employ 
its artists. 

But the preservation of natural 
beauty is not the only object sought 
in saving the untouched tracts. Not 
that their beauty is not a sufficient 
object in itself, but other factors, not 
less important but simply less apparent, 
can be justly ascribed. The training 
of the landscape architect begins not 
only with pictorial composition and 
practical design, but also with the 
study of plants, of soils, of bodies of 
water and of all the great natural forces 
and influences that have shaped and 



given character to the physiognomy 
of the land and its vegetation. Now 
the original sources of the literature in 
all these vast fields of special sciences 
have come from the many investigators 
who have utilized the natural areas 
not as an accessory to their mode of 
study but as the supreme fundamental 
basis of all determinations. Unlike the 
investigators in other than the so-called 
"Natural Sciences" whose laboratories 
are often merely specially equipped 
ordinary buildings, these workers 
must depend on all out-doors for their 
laboratories and particularly on the 
few portions of the earth's surface still 
remaining as an original record of the 
earth's history. The plea of this work 
is that these original tracts are so 
rapidly becoming modified that steps 
should be taken to save their destruc- 
tion before too late. From the stand- 
point of the landscape profession their 
loss would be not a mere sentimental 
misfortune, but a real catastrophe 
reaching into every branch of science 
which contributes to the development 
of landscape study. 

From these great sources of natural 
beauty comes all our inspiration; from 
them comes the unlimited store of fine 
examples teaching us the arrange- 
ment of our materials ; from them comes 
the lesson of growth, development and 
natural strife that shows the way to 
a permanent landscape; and finally, 
from them comes the suggestion to the 
layman of the value of beauty and the 
desire for it in the surroundings of 
human habitations. It is not enough 
that we grow fine floral displays, well- 
clipped hedges and smooth lawns. We 
must bring to the most humble cottage 
in all parts of the land at least a sug- 
gestion of nature's charm, power and 
delicacy, the inspiration for which, 
unless these natural preserves are 
secured, will disappear for all times in 
spirit and in fact. 



B. SCIENTIFIC AND PRACTICAL USES AND VALUES 



1. THE VALUE TO SILVICULTURE OF 

RESERVED AREAS OF NATURAL 

FOREST TYPES 

BY W. W. ASHE 

The setting aside of vestigial units 
of the various forest types has three 
important objects in view: First, to 
supply the means for studying the 
laws which control the distribution 
of different species of trees. Second, 
to ascertain the factors which deter- 
mine forest types. Third, to note the 
changes in such types induced by the 
artificial conditions which result from 
exploitation and silvicultural practice. 

The practical silviculturist is princi- 
pally concerned with the last named 
of these objects. It is his function to 
modify natural conditions, often to a 
profound degree, in the interest of 
increased yields of commercially de- 
sirable species. In this, however, he 
is constantly taking a chance, since his 
crop is a slow growing one and he is 
unable to wait for the results of the pains- 
taking research, extended through the 
life of a stand of timber, needed to sup- 
ply the accurate results under which he 
could proceed with complete confidence. 
By determining these factors of dis- 
tribution and using these vestigial 
units as check plots, however, it may be 
possible for him to prevent mistakes or 
to rectify errors which may be made 
through deviating too far from the 
normal. 

It is reasonable to suppose that each 
site, the biotic corollary 1 of which is 
the forest type, bears in its natural 
condition (unless modified by fires) 
the heaviest stand which the native 
species are capable of producing on 

lAshe, W. W. "Forest Types of the Appala- 
chians and White Mountains." Journal of the 
Elisha Mitchell Scientific Society, 37: 183-198. 1922. 



that site. That is, nature has already 
established that species or association 
of species which is best suited for grow- 
ing under the limiting edaphic and 
meteorological conditions which are 
termed site, among the most important 
of such conditions being soil acidity, 
rate of nitrification, maximum mois- 
ture content, number and length of 
critically dry periods, depth of soil, 
and available heat units and their 
distribution. The species forming the 
type reproduce themselves, not invaria- 
bly in a definite proportion, but definite 
within a certain latitude, the oscilla- 
tion of the type, 2 and utilize the full 
resources of the site, which is capable 
of producing annually (or on an average) 
a fixed amount of wood material (eel 
lulose). Silviculture seeks to modify 
or increase this natural yield by cul- 
tural methods. There may be an at- 
tempt to concentrate increment in a 
few select individuals or to simplify 
the composition of the natural stand 
by eliminating from it certain of the 
components which are economically 
or silviculturally less desirable; or to 
replace the native species in whole or 
in part with other species or by a single 
species which is regarded as more desir- 
able economically or silviculturally. 

The problems which arise in connec- 
tion with such changes can be met in 
two ways. They can be solved empir- 
ically for each site, as in connection 
with the introduction of foreign species, 
by experimental planting with a view 
to determining what species or combina- 
tion of species is more advantageous 
than those in the original type. The 
establishment of final conclusions by 
this method may require many dec- 
ades, during which time a portion of 
the land might not be producing to 

2 Op. cit. 



10 



USES OF NATURAL AREAS 



11 



its full capacity or many irreparable 
and costly errors may have been made. 
This was the method employed in 
testing the adaptability of certain 
species in the plantations on the Bilt- 
more Estate at Asheville, N. O. For 
example, wild black cherry (Prunus 
serotina) was planted with a view to 
its possibly becoming a timber tree. 
We now know from a careful study of 
the forest types within which this tree 
attains commercial proportions that 
there is no site on the Biltmore Estate 
on which this species can be expected 
to attain first size or to be more, in 
fact, than a straggling slow growing 
tree. 

The other method of meeting these 
problems is by a study of the funda- 
mental factors which control each 
forest type within the type itself. Some, 
if not all, of these factors should be 
determined on sites on which the type 
is unmodified or least modified, for 
whenever it has been materially modi- 
fied, especially for a long period, there 
has been an accompanying, though 
possibly slight and temporary, modifi- 
cation of the site. 

When types formed of mixed stands 
are cut over it is difficult and at times 
impossible to determine their original 
composition. For these reasons it is 
urgently desirable that such unmodified 
units of the different forest types be 
located before the silvical conditions 
are altered by repeated fellings and 
that they be reserved for the study of 
their controlling factors. In a few 
years such vestigial units purposely 
reserved will be the only unmodified 
remnants of many of the forest types. 
It will be only by the setting aside now 
of such unmodified areas that there 
can be any assurance of having these 
plots of the various forest types availa- 
ble for conducting such studies. 

As has been stated in a previous paper 
on this subject 3 it is eminently unde- 
sirable that there should be a possi- 

Ashe, W. W. "Reserved areas of principal 
forest types as a guide in developing an American 
silviculture." Journal of Forestry, 20: 276-283. 



bility of the development of American 
silviculture being hampered by the 
failure to reserve such vestigial units 
of the important forest types as fields 
for research, and as check plots by 
means of which it will be possible to 
note the changes which take place in 
the same types under the stress of ex- 
ploitation and silvical development. 
As a prerequisite for making the highest 
use of such reserved units and the 
studies which may be made in them, 
the areas of the different forests' types 
should be carefully mapped after the 
types have been standardized. Only 
this procedure will establish similarity 
of conditions and will permit the ex- 
tension to them of the laws which are 
found to control on the vestigial units. 
The study of the unmodified areas, 
in connection with those which are 
modified, will indicate the extent to 
which it will be possible to deviate from 
the normal and yet retain the equilib- 
rium necessary for maintaining the 
factors of the locality. Such studies 
will determine whether it will be pos- 
sible economically to replace one species 
by another; whether it will be advan- 
tageous to substitute a pure coniferous 
stand for one of mixed hardwoods, or 
if not, as to what proportion of the 
stand the conifers can occupy. The 
natural areas must in large measure 
serve as the means of developing our 
silviculture; their elimination from 
exploitation and their preservation is 
essential to that end. 



2. THE VALUE OF AQUATIC PRE- 
SERVES TO FISHERIES 

BY A. S. PEARSE 

There are few "natural" environ- 
ments for freshwater fishes in the 
United States. Artificially stocked 
streams, lakes, and ponds seldom pro- 
duce such desirable fishes as are found 
in localities where the wilderness has 
not been disturbed by man. Great 
natural preserves like the Great Lakes 
and the Mississippi River should be 



12 



NATURALIST'S GUIDE TO THE AMERICAS 



kept as near their original condition 
as possible. 

In general the larger a fish preserve 
is, the better. It is highly desirable 
to keep the environmental complexes 
furnished by great rivers and lakes as 
complete as possible. Variety of habi- 
tats is necessary because many species 
do not carry on their cycles of activities 
in the same habitat. The bass feed 
largely among plants, but require bare 
bottom for spawning. The cisco lives 
in the deep cool waters of lakes, but 
comes into shallow water on stony 
bottoms to breed. Many young fishes 
frequent shoals, even though they live 
elsewhere as adults. 

Attempts to rear fishes in small 
bodies of water are often without 
success. In general the ecological suc- 
cession in ponds eliminates the species 
most desirable for man. A pond left 
to "run" according to "nature" chokes 
with aquatic vegetation and becomes 
a swamp, populated by mud minnows, 
sticklebacks, and bullheads. If game 
fishes are desired, bare bottom is es- 
sential. Fishes confined year after 
year in a restricted area may be over- 
run by parasites. One of the trout 
hatcheries of the Wisconsin Conserva- 
tion Commission is situated in an ex- 
cellent locality and has an adequate 
supply of fine spring water, but is of 
little value because the trout are heavily 
infected with a parasitic copepod. 

Pollution may easily destroy the 
value of a fish preserve. Poisons may 
be introduced from natural sources or 
from the byproducts of the industries 
of man. Substances which use up oxy- 
gen or produce other injurious gases 
may be present. Minerals may be 
precipitated from or dissolved in the 
water by substances not in themselves 
injurious to fishes. 

If fishing is permitted in a preserve, 
it should not be so restricted as to catch 
certain fishes and allow others to in- 
crease unduly. If angling only is 
practised in a lake the game fishes 
are most often caught and undesirable 
species, like the carp, sucker, and dog- 



fish, which seldom take a hook, become 
too numerous. The restricted use of 
fyke nets or seins for the capture of 
the latter fishes is desirable in such a 
locality. 

It is doubtful if the suitability of a 
body of water as a fish preserve can 
ever be judged by any single criterion. 
Two lakes may be of the same size and 
depth. The one may be "plankton 
poor," have a scanty bottom fauna, 
contain undesirable mineral constit- 
uents, lack oxygen, and have barren 
shores, while the other furnishes a 
favorable environment in all these es- 
sentials. A river may change its whole 
character as a habitat for fishes on 
account of the introduction of factory 
wastes, the building of a dam, or some 
other apparently unimportant change 
in a locality. Rush Lake, Wisconsin, 
has abundant food and shelter and 
furnishes excellent breeding grounds, 
but is so shallow that its oxygen is 
used up when it is covered by ice in 
winter, hence it contains no large fishes. 

The important features for a fish pre- 
serve are: (1) sufficient size to permit 
variety in habitats and to lessen the 
dangers from contamination and rapid 
fluctuations in temperature, (2) ade- 
quate resources in the way of food, 
shelter, and breeding grounds to main- 
tain a sufficient number of fishes to 
make the preserve profitable. 

3. THE IMPORTANCE TO GEOG- 
RAPHY OF THE PRESERVATION 
OF NATURAL AREAS 

BY STEPHEN SARGENT VISHER 

At least four of Geography's several 
sub-divisions will be aided by the pres- 
ervation of natural areas. These are 
(1) Descriptive Geography, (2) His- 
torical Geography, (3) Ecological Geog- 
raphy, and (4) Economic Geography. 

Descriptive geography is concerned 
not alone with describing relief features 
and the cultural additions. It con- 
siders likewise the vegetation and 
the characteristic animals. Preserved 



USES OF NATURAL AREAS 



13 



areas, where natural conditions can 
be studied readily facilitate good geo- 
graphic descriptions in two ways. First 
they afford examples of natural con- 
ditions. Only after type areas have 
been studied can a really good descrip- 
tion of a region be written. Second, 
the setting aside of definite areas for 
preservation results indirectly in in- 
creased information about the location 
of typical areas, the methods of reaching 
them, and other significant facts con- 
cerning them. Fairly full information 
is gathered and made available con- 
cerning very few privately owned tracts 
partly because the work and expense 
entailed may soon have been in vain. 
The owner may decide to keep out 
even the most worthy scientists, or 
else the natural biota may be largely 
destroyed as by the cutting of the tim- 
ber or otherwise altering the conditions. 
Thus _ although many nearly natural 
areas still remain, few geographers 
know just where to go, how to get there, 
and what they will find when they 
arrive. 

Teachers of descriptive geography 
will benefit, also, from the presence 
of preserved areas especially near 
cities, for in such areas their students 
can learn much in a short time about 
natural conditions, the conditions the 
pioneers encountered. 

This leads to the advantage to his- 
torical geography of the preservation 
of natural areas. The specialists who 
interpret the historical development of 
any region must have a full appreciation 
of conditions as they were in earlier 
times. Carefully preserved natural 
areas will aid greatly in understanding 
primeval conditions. 

Ecological geography differs from 
plant and animal ecology chiefly in 
being more comprehensive, including 
both, and as the advantages to each 
have been discussed at length elsewhere, 
it is not necessary to consider the nu- 
merous advantages to this phase of geog- 
raphy which would result from the 
preservation of numerous typical natural 
areas. However, there are many prob- 



lems which special students of either 
plants or animals have not adequately 
investigated but which the geographer, 
with his more inclusive view wishes to 
study. For example, the influence of 
geographic factors which because of 
their rareness, have not been considered 
significant, such as the "free-air foehn," 
or the hurricane, need to be investi- 
gated. The native flora and fauna may 
show far plainer adjustments to such 
influences than do the recently intro- 
duced forms. Since it is probable that 
in the future there will be a great in- 
crease in the number of ecological 
studies carried on by geographers, it 
is advantageous to geography that 
many areas be preserved now before 
it is too late. 

Economic geography with its interest 
in all products of commercial impor- 
tance is interested in the preservation 
of natural areas especially because of 
the probability that in the future new 
uses will be found for native plants and 
animals not now very useful. If many 
are exterminated, as will surely result 
unless numerous natural areas are pre- 
served promptly, all possibility of their 
ever being of economic importance will 
have disappeared. After a form is 
extinct, or practically extinct, it will 
be very distressing to learn that it had 
potentialities of great value had they 
been taken advantage of. Until every 
living form is well known, none should 
be allowed to become extinct. Eco- 
nomic geographers join with agricultur- 
ists, physicians and students of many 
other sorts, therefore, in advocating the 
setting aside of areas where the native 
forms can continue to live and can be 
advantageously studied. 

4. THE IMPORTANCE OF NATURAL 

AREAS TO BIOLOGY AND 

AGRICULTURE 

BY V. E. SHELFORD 

Some biological subjects are of course 
only remotely related to habitat ques- 
tions; others can hardly proceed to 
certain conclusions without reference 



14 



NATURALIST'S GUIDE TO THE AMERICAS 



to habitat relations. An adequate in- 
terpretation of evolutionary relations 
can hardly be made without knowledge 
of environment. This is true even if 
natural selection operating on charac- 
ters which arise from internal causes, 
is assumed to be the only cause of the 
origin of new forms. The geneticists 
have rarely separated environmental 
effects from purely hereditary phenom- 
ena. It is safe to assume that a 
considerable part of the phenomena 
described as hereditary is some form of 
environmental effect. The results of 
genetical study can hardly have impor- 
tant evolutionary bearing until rela- 
tions to environment have been brought 
into it. 

The relations of physiology to ecology 
are more intimate under present condi- 
tions; the general physiologists are inter- 
ested in and are appreciative of ecological 
work. The interpretation of physiolog- 
ical characters in connection with en- 
vironmental relations is a growing field. 
Medical physiology is less intimately 
related to environmental subjects but is 
far from as remote as the present status 
of various other biological subjects. 

The purpose of pointing out the rela- 
tions of the various branches of biology 
to ecology and the study of natural 
habitats, and of calling attention to 
neglected relations is merely to indi- 
cate that present interest in the pres- 
ervation of natural habitats for scien- 
tific purposes is far less than it may be 
expected to be in the near future. It 
is safe to predict that when the neglected 
field of habitat relations comes to 
attention a little more, not merely 
ecologists, but all biologists will re- 
quire preserves of natural conditions 
in connection with their various scien- 
tific interests. The relations of the pure 



science of biology to natural conditions 
is believed to be much more important 
to future research than is generally 
recognized. 

Agricultural problems include the 
development of new kinds of cultivated 
plants and domestic animals, and the 
destruction of pests of all kinds. In 
understanding conditions which most 
favor pests a knowledge of their original 
habitat is often very important and 
will save years of work on the part of 
investigators. For example the chinch 
bug was originally found on grasses 
in waste places along the coast of the 
Carolinas. Rainy, hot seasons similar 
to those found in the original area are 
favorable to the chinch bug. Knowl- 
edge of the climate and other condi- 
tions in the original habitat would 
have saved much useless speculation 
and misinterpretation. Knowledge of 
the original conditions under which a 
pest lives is usually important. Ac- 
cordingly preserves of natural conditions 
are important from the standpoint of 
insect pests and equally important for 
other plant and animal pests. 

Domestic animals, especially sheep, 
have been studied in relation to climate. 
After thousands of years of domestica- 
tion sheep still require conditions simi- 
lar to those in which they are said to 
have originally occurred mountain 
grassland and failure to supply these 
conditions is one of the causes of diffi- 
culty in the sheep industry. A reserva- 
tion with sheep of the wild sort in their 
natural conditions would have facili- 
tated this study greatly. There are 
many species now in a wild state which 
may be utilized in the near future for 
domestication or crossing with domestic 
species and they should be preserved 
in their native haunts for this purpose. 



C. FORCES MAKING FOR THE DESTRUCTION OR PRESERVA- 
TION OF NATURAL AREAS 



1. FOREST LAWS AND REGULA- 
TIONS AND THE PRESERVATION 
OF NATURAL CONDITIONS 

BY R. B. MILLER 

I. POSSIBILITY OP PRESERVING NATURAL 
CONDITIONS UNDER PUBLIC AS COM- 
PARED WITH PRIVATE OWNERSHIP 

While perhaps no state or national 
forest laws deal directly with the pres- 
ervation of natural conditions, there 
are many forces working indirectly 
to that end. At least, natural condi- 
tions have a much better chance of 
being preserved under public than under 
private ownership, coupled as it is 
with the danger of changing policies, 
with fire, grazing and over-cutting. 
In fact, the failure of private initiative 
to properly protect its holdings is one 
of the main reasons given for increasing 
our acreage in national, state, county 
and municipal forests. 

Since the relation of fires to plant and 
animal life is discussed by Wolcott 
(page 34) and Korstian deals with 
grazing on the national forests, (page 
33) we may say just a word about 
cutting regulations and their effect 
upon the preservation of natural con- 
ditions. On state forests there are 
usually some restrictions as to the size 
of trees which may be cut and certain 
laws as to brush-disposal, leaving of 
seed trees or size of trees to be cut. 
Naturally, cutting by the shelterwood 
and selection methods do much less 
damage to soil and reproduction by too 
sudden exposure to the drying effects 
of the sun and wind than does clear 
cutting, which in some cases may be 
the wisest financial policy. 



On the national forests, cutting regu- 
lations are enforced by a workable 
policy- the requiring of the operator 
to pay an additional price for his timber 
when he does not conform to the pro- 
visions of the timber-sale contract, 
with the cancelling of the agreement 
in extreme cases of violation of the 
cutting regulations. 

If the purchaser of timber does not 
wish to follow Forest Service regula- 
tions, he has the choice of doing his 
logging elsewhere, probably paying 
more for his stumpage while he is not 
assured of a perpetual supply of timber 
for his mill as he is when he depends 
upon government owned timber. As 
Korstian 1 points out, the forester will 
soon be dealing almost wholly with cut- 
over timber lands and to him the great- 
est value of preserving natural condi- 
tions lies in setting aside the best of 
these tracts, which nature has left. 
The chief purpose of these natural 
areas will be for comparison and stand- 
ardization. The chance for having the 
greatest number of such tracts for 
object lessons lies in national and 
state ownership of timber in many 
typical regions. 

II. EXTENT TO WHICH FOREST LAWS 

MAKE POSSIBLE PERMANENT 

SAMPLE PLOTS 

It is generally recognized that per- 
manent sample plots are essential to 
good forestry practice, serving not only 
as places for carrying on certain lines 
of research such as experiments in cut- 

1 Korstian, C. F. "The preservation of natural 
conditions in the national forests." This volume, 
p. 17. 



15 



16 



NATURALIST'S GUIDE TO THE AMERICAS 



ting by different methods, the study of 
succession after fires and the study of 
reproduction and growth but also as 
demonstration areas having a certain 
educational value. 

Speaking of the use of school forests 
as research centers and the need of pro- 
tection Prof. James W. Tourney, of 
the Yale Forests School says: "Such 
forests cannot perform their best ser- 
vice as research stations unless they 
are under a management which will 
afford the greatest protection to per- 
manent sample plots and make it rea- 
sonably certain that investigations, 
once begun, can be carried through." 
The same may be said of private tracts. 

While no special provision is made 
for the protection of sample plots 
outside of the enforcement of the usual 
fire laws prevalent on state forests, 
the setting aside of certain tracts to 
serve as demonstration areas is a part 
of the forest policy of many states and 
is sometimes carried on in cooperation 
with private owners. It stands to 
reason that such cooperation under 
state control will be a valuable aid in 
protecting sample plots within such 
demonstration forests from destruction. 
These demonstration forests, says 
Secretary Wallace, "might be estab- 
lished in certain "key areas," where 
Federal or state ownership would be of 
special value in protecting stream 
sources and giving the local people 
a practical demonstration of fire pro- 
tection and good forest management." 

Korstian 2 discusses the permanent 
sample plots on the National Forests 
(page 17) and their value to the fores- 
ter, the biologist and the ecologist. He 
divides these into silvicultural plots, 
where succession and the effects of 
different grades of cutting and thinning 
can be studied; and plots which have 
been established in connection with 
range management to determine the ef- 
fect of severity of grazing both upon 

* Korstian, C. F. "The preservation of natural 
conditions in the national forests." This volume, 
page 17. 



herbaceous, shrubby and tree repro- 
duction. 

While the Conservation Commission 
of Canada has ceased to function, this 
organization must be given great credit 
for the establishment of sample plots 
in the various provinces under the 
leadership of their forester, Mr. Clyde 
N. Leavitt, assisted in the supervision 
of field parties by Dean C. D. Howe, 
of the Faculty of Forestry of the Uni- 
versity of Toronto. These plots were 
established in cooperation with some 
of the provinces, lumber and paper 
companies and on military reservations 
so that they still have a good chance of 
being perpetuated. It can be said 
that the Commission went into greater 
detail in measuring the individual 
trees on these plots and recording the 
data than any other organization which 
preceded it, affording a stimulus to the 
provinces and private companies in 
sample plot work which cannot be over- 
estimated. 

On such plots, by periodically measur- 
ing and recording the increase in size 
of all specimens, from small saplings up 
to mature individuals which have been 
numbered and measured, figures can 
be obtained which will be of great value 
in making yield tables for pure or mixed 
forests, while incidental changes taking 
place in the life-history of the stand 
can be accurately studied and recorded. 
It is true that these plots are more or 
less exposed to fires and windstorms 
but under the frequent inspection of 
foresters they stand a very good chance 
for permanency. 

III. EXTENT TO WHICH FOREST LAWS 
AFFECT THE ESTABLISHMENT AND 
MAINTENANCE OF GAME PRESERVES 

While excellent fishing and game pre- 
serves have been established by pri- 
vate individuals, such as the Whitney 
tract in the Adirondacks and the vari- 
ous fishing clubs and game clubs both 
in Canada and the United States where 
restrictions are made regarding fires 



USES OF NATURAL AREAS 



17 



and poaching, with the land and streams 
patrolled by guards and wardens, it 
stands to reason that the preservation 
of fish and game can best be accom- 
plished on a broad scale under state or 
national departments, with settled 
policies and greater power for law 
enforcement. 

To what extent game protection shall 
be connected with forestry is an unset- 
tled question. Foresters may object 
because where forests, fish and game 
are combined into a large department 
they feel that forestry is very likely to 
receive secondary consideration. In 
some of the states and Canadian prov- 
inces, however, forestry and game 
interests are associated under one de- 
partment, either merged into a large 
Department of Conservation, a Depart- 
ment of Lands and Mines, or a Forest, 
Fish and Game Commission as it was 
for a long time in the state of New York, 
this, however, having been superseded 
by a Conservation Commission. In 
the province of New Brunswick, for 
example, all registered guides under the 
Department of Lands and Mines are 
sworn in as deputy fire wardens while 
foresters and sealers also report viola- 
tions of the game laws of the province. 
New Brunswick has set aside about 
600 square miles of territory on the 
Nepisiguit River not only to serve as an 
experimental area where the effects of 
different methods of cutting may be 
studied but also to serve as an immense 
game refuge. Game preserves have 
also been established by the state of 
Pennsylvania and it has already been 
demonstrated that these tracts serve 
as breeding grounds whence game 
flows over into contiguous areas. The 
linking up of the state game preserves 
with state forests is of great impor- 
tance to lovers of wild life since the 
protection of such tracts from fire under 
the state forest fire laws will protect 
not only animals and birds but fish 
since it has been shown that fish have 
been killed in large numbers by ashes 
washed into streams by heavy rains. 



2. THE PRESERVATION OF NATU- 
RAL CONDITIONS IN THE 
NATIONAL FORESTS 

BY C. F. KORSTIAN 

No fact in connection with the devel- 
opment of our country is more evident 
than the tremendous change which has 
taken place in the original vegetation. 
Many areas once covered with virgin 
forests are now either productive farm 
lands or are waste and desolate as the 
result of lumbering and fire. We still 
have left vestiges of the original growth; 
but even these are threatened. 

It is a trait of mankind to preserve 
antiquities. Museums for their safe- 
keeping and display are liberally main- 
tained. Universities and scientific 
schools of today must have them for 
research in important fields. It is 
just as true of our original forest con- 
ditions, including all their biological 
implications, as of any other of the 
relics of the past, that science as well 
as human interest demands the pres- 
ervation of these samples. They can- 
not be brought to the museum; they 
must be their own living museums. 
They are as necessary for the sound and 
progressive development of the biolog- 
ical sciences as they are for the art 
and science of forestry. The education 
of future generations demands them. 

The forester will soon deal almost 
wholly with cutover timberlands, yet 
as has been clearly pointed out by 
Ashe 1 and Pearson 2 if the highest 
ideals of silviculture are to be attained 
the forester must not be deprived of 
the basic facts which Nature records 
in the virgin forest. The practicing 
forester, in the interest of the highest 
use to the public through increased 
production of the most valuable species, 
often profoundly changes the natural 
conditions and, as has been stated else- 
where in this volume, these conditions 
may also be readily modified by graz- 

1 Ashe, W. W. "The value to silviculture of 
reserved areas of natural forest types." This vol- 
ume, pp. 10. 

8 Pearson, G. A. "Preservation of natural areas 
in the National Forests." Ecology, 3: 284-287. 
1922. 



18 



NATURALIST'S GUIDE TO THE AMERICAS 



ing. 8 Timber exploitation also has a 
disturbing effect on the animal life of 
the forest, but under proper manage- 
ment and control of predatory animals 
the forester contends that the game 
animals will increase. So far as the 
forester is concerned, the main reason 
for preserving natural areas is to retain 
a standard of accomplishment of Nature 
alone, to serve as a guide by which the 
correctness of the forester's efforts to 
improve on Nature may be gauged. 

In addition to the justification of 
these natural areas as objects of re- 
search in forestry and other biological 
sciences, there is another valid reason 
for the preservation of representative 
natural conditions in the National 
Forests. This is the rapidly increasing 
appreciation of such areas for scenic 
and recreational purposes. It is the 
aim of the United States Forest Service 
in administering the National Forests 
to devote every tract of forest land to 
its highest use. It is not unduly 
stretching the spirit of this announced 
purpose to assume that it will embrace 
the appropriate treatment of areas 
which are chiefly valuable for scientific 
study, esthetics or recreation. 

For utilitarian reasons it is evident 
that the Forest Service cannot be ex- 
pected to satisfy every requirement 
with natural virgin forest conditions. 
The National Parks and National Monu- 
ments, on the contrary, do in many 
cases meet these requirements. The 
forests embraced in them will undoubt- 
edly be preserved, and the opportunity 
is presented for establishing in them 
definitely located study areas, subject 
to the policy of administration. A 
study of the accompanying map (figs. 1 
and 2) will show that the reserved areas 
are widely distributed over the country. 
Doubtless areas representative of widely 
prevailing natural conditions can be 
found in them. This will make it pos- 
sible to limit the number of such areas 
within the National Forests to a scale 
consistent with their administrative 

8 Korstian, C. F. "Grazing in the National 
Forests." This volume, pp. 33-34. 



policies, selecting only such locations 
as will preserve and maintain typical 
virgin conditions, and offer a home to 
all forms of wild life within the forest 
itself and yet not interfere materially 
with important timber sales or other 
large commercial developments. Be- 
cause of their diversity of conditions 
and types, National Forests offer to 
ecologists untold opportunities for study. 

Within the 157 million acres of 
National Forests there are many areas 
of wilderness of rugged and diversified 
topography which have no great eco- 
nomic importance for timber or forage, 
but which possess high value both 
for recreational and scientific purposes. 
The Forest Service policy of best and 
most appropriate use includes the 
building of trails through these areas, 
partly for fire protection and partly 
to make them more accessible for just 
such purposes as those mentioned. An 
important step toward adequate pro- 
tection of game would be the legisla- 
tion long urged by game conserva- 
tionists for the establishment, by 
Presidential action, of federal game 
refuges in the National Forests. Still 
another important list of areas, on 
which natural conditions are already 
being preserved, are the municipal 
watersheds, protected as sources of 
city water supply. Furthermore, be- 
cause of economic inaccessibility or 
other such factors, vestiges of virgin 
forest will doubtless remain untouched 
indefinitely, although they may not be 
formally incorporated in specifically 
reserved areas. 

With proper cooperation between the 
various "wild life" and "natural con- 
ditions" advocates the greater part of 
their needs could be adequately met 
without the reservation of a prohibi- 
tively large acreage. The present quota 
of National Parks, municipal water- 
sheds and other forest areas which are 
safeguarded against exploitation and 
depredation are not wholly adequate. 
There is still need for a few more areas 
in each forest region which must be 
carefully selected to insure a proper 





3FUHW 
G3VPL. 

I 






AREAS WITHIN NATIONAL FORESTS WHERE 

NATURAL CONDITIONS ARE PRESERVED 

OR ARE PROPOSED FOR PRESERVATION 



AREAS NOW IN NATURAL CONDITION UNDER PRESERVATION 



AREAS IN NATURAL CONDITION PROPOSED FOR PRESERVATION 




FIG. 1 




NATIONAL FORESTS 

ESS3 STATE. FORESTS 

E???3I INDIAN RESERVATIONS 

nrnrm NATIONAL PARKS 

o NATIONAL MONUMENTS 
2 DISTRICT BOUNDARIES 
AND NUMBERS 



MILELS 
100 



200 



FIG. 2 



USES OF NATURAL AREAS 



19 



representation of all important forest 
types. Such areas may now be found 
in the National Forests. The longer 
their economic use and development is 
continued, the further will they depart 
from a primeval condition. 

The descriptions of the National 
Forests in the following pages are 
grouped according to the eight adminis- 
trative districts. The forest types vary 
widely between districts and also within 
some of these districts. The accompany- 
ing map (figs. 1 and 2) gives a general 
idea of the location of the National 
Forests and the approximate number of 
areas on which the forest conditions are 
being preserved in their natural and 
semi-natural states. The areas within 
the National Forests which are being 
preserved in their natural condition are 
chiefly those closed to grazing, timber 
sales, and other commercial exploitation 
because they possess unusual scenic 
features, are the sources of important 
municipal water supplies, or are for- 
esters' permanent sample plots located 
in virgin timber as a check on some 
artificial cultural operation. The areas 
being preserved in a semi-natural con- 
dition comprise the federal and state 
game preserves, the majority of the 
permanent sample plots, experimental 
forests, and areas on which some forms 
of use are prohibited and others 
permitted. 

It is greatly to be regretted that, on 
account of the prohibitive cost, the 
Committee found it absolutely impos- 
sible to publish the excellent maps 
submitted by some of the contributors. 
The map accompanying this paper 
(figs. 1 and 2) is necessarily on too small a 
scale to show these areas with the pre- 
cision and detail of classification they 
deserve. Anyone desiring to visit any 
of the National Forest areas, whether 
for study or for pleasure, should com- 
municate with the nearest District 
Forester at the address given on the 
map, who will gladly supply the desired 
information in much more detail than 
it could possibly be given here. Many 
of the National Forests are reached by 



highways, while good mountain roads 
are available for extensive trips into 
the higher portions. For the regions 
inaccessible by automobile, trails are 
available which extend throughout the 
mountains in such a way as to bring the 
greater part of them within reach. 
Camping equipment is often necessary 
and always desirable. Information re- 
garding roads, means of transportaion 
and subsistence can always be secured 
at the office of the local Forest Super- 
visor or from the Forest Rangers at the 
ranger stations in the National Forests. 
Few restrictions are imposed upon natu- 
ralists in the National Forests and the 
local Forest Officers are always willing 
to give additional information as to 
routes and methods of travel. 

3. PERMANENT SAMPLE PLOTS IN 
THE NATIONAL FORESTS 

BY C. F. KORSTIAN 

Within a few decades a large part of 
our natural wild woods will be cut over 
and the forest products needed in every- 
day life will be supplied by second- 
growth forests. It is, therefore, im- 
portant to know what tree species these 
lands are capable of growing and how 
much timber they will yield. In order 
to answer these questions the forester 
must determine what kinds of trees are 
coming in naturally, how fast they are 
growing, the loss due to various causes, 
including natural shading out of the 
smaller and weaker trees, what may be 
expected from those which live, and 
whether the natural reproduction is 
adequate to insure satisfactory stands 
of valuable species of timber trees or 
whether it needs to be supplemented by 
artificial planting. 

Some of the first permanent sample 
plots in the National Forests were 
established on the Coconino and Tu- 
sayan Forests by the Fort Valley Forest 
Experiment Station, about 16 years ago, 
for the purpose of obtaining basic 
scientific data on these questions. 
There are now many such plots on the 
National Forests throughout the West, 



20 



NATURALIST'S GUIDE TO THE AMERICAS 



and also some on the less extensive 
eastern Forests. In addition to these 
silvicultural sample plots, hundreds of 
permanent sample plots have been estab- 
lished in the National Forests in con- 
nection with the study of range manage- 
ment. On these are being recorded the 
changes occurring in the herbaceous 
and shrubby vegetation and timber 
reproduction as a result of total pro- 
tection from grazing or the type of 
grazing management in practice. 

Relatively few of the permanent 
sample plots on the National Forests 
are in virgin forest and the silviculturist 
cannot imagine keeping all of them in 
such a condition, even if they are now. 
A few plots, however, will be retained 
in natural stands as a check on the 
cultural operations of the forester. 
Such plots in the virgin forest would be 
valuable chiefly from the standpoint of 
studying the natural succession of forest 
vegetation and competition in its broad- 
est sense, as between individuals, spe- 
cies, and associations. Thus, while 
permanent sample plots in the National 
Forests will be primarily for silvicultural 
purposes, there remains a huge problem 
which will require intensive study by 
the ecologist on areas left in a natural 
condition. 

Since the silviculturist is working in 
part on such utilitarian problems as 
the effects of different methods of 
cutting or thinning and slash disposal 
on the subsequent growth of the uncut 
trees and on natural regeneration, the 
reason why his permanent sample plots 
must be located largely outside of 
virgin forests is apparent. As a matter 
of fact, most of these plots are on culled 
or cutover lands where the conditions 
are at most only semi-natural. In many 
cases the original forest type is in time 
re-established and in others a sub-climax 
replaces it. These plots, however, will 
ultimately prove extremely interesting 
to the biologist because the forester 
maintains a detailed record, through the 
periodic measurement and examination 
of the trees and the vegetation on the 
areas, of all the changes taking place 



between the time of the cutting of the 
original stand and the maturity of the 
subsequent crop. Protection from other 
disturbing factors is usually provided. 
These plots will give the ecologist the 
complete history of the successional 
phenomena recorded, which will enable 
a more exact analysis and correlation 
of the results by eliminating the neces- 
sity for much interpolation and specula- 
tion concerning some of the intermediate 
phases. 

It is therefore evident that the per- 
manent sample plots in the National 
Forests, although they may not all be 
important from the standpoint of the 
preservation of natural conditions, will 
supply the forester, the ecologist, and the 
biologist with much valuable scientific 
information which cannot be secured in 
any other way. 

4. NATIONAL PARKS AND NA- 
TIONAL MONUMENTS 

BY E. LUCY BRAUN 

The United States government has, 
by the establishment of national parks 
and monuments, taken a foremost posi- 
tion in the preservation of one of our 
great economic and social assets 
unusual and superlative natural scenery. 
The establishment of Yellowstone Na- 
tional Park in 1872 marked the begin- 
ning of a project which has grown to 
great importance, and which has become 
a world-wide influence in the establish- 
ment of national reservations in other 
parts of the world. 

The first effort at conservation was 
made in 1832, when Congress set aside 
the Hot Springs Reservation, which has 
since (in 1921) been made a national 
park. From the establishment of Yel- 
lowstone to the present time, the na- 
tional park system has constantly 
grown. It was not, however, until 1916, 
that the National Park Service was 
established as a separate bureau of the 
Department of the Interior. There are 
now under its control, 19 parks having a 
total area of 11,372 sq. mi., and 29 
monuments with total area of about 



USES OF NATURAL AREAS 



21 



1820 sq. mi. In addition to these, 
there are 7 national military parks and 
3 monuments administered by the War 
Department, and 13 national monuments 
administered by the Department of 
Agriculture . 

A national park is created by act of 
Congress, and yearly appropriations 
made thereafter for its upkeep and 
development. A national monument is 
set aside by presidential proclamation; 
no direct provision is made for its 
development. Small yearly appropria- 
tions are now granted by Congress for 
protection and maintenance of the 
national monuments. National monu- 
ments are often, though not always, of 
lesser importance and smaller area than 
national parks. Areas of extreme im- 
portance in remote areas are sometimes 
set aside as monuments and later the 
status changed to park. This was true 
of the Grand Canyon and of Zion Can- 
yon. The desired object preservation 
is accomplished in the establishment of 
the monument. A number of the na- 
tional monuments have been established 
to preserve relics of archaeological and 
historical interest, as Montezuma Castle 
and Gran Quivira; others, as Muir 
Woods and Rainbow Bridge, preserve 
natural features. 

National monuments administered by 
the Department of Agriculture, as 
Mount Olympus, are situated in national 
forests. That is, they are reservations 
within national forests, where natural 
conditions are to be preserved. 

The integrity of the national parks 
has been attacked time and time again. 
Desire of commercial 'exploitation of 
water resources for power and irrigation 
projects, of grazing resources, and of 
timber, by local interests more con- 
cerned in their own financial advance- 
ment than in the interests of the Nation, 
must constantly be combated. 

The act of Congress in 1916 establish- 
ing the National Park Service, was a 
distinct step in advance. In this act is 
contained the following statement: 

The service thus established shall 
promote and regulate the use of the 



Federal areas known as national parks, 
monuments, and reservations herein- 
after specified by such means and meas- 
ures as conform to the fundamental 
purpose of the said parks, monuments, 
and reservations, which purpose is to 
conserve the scenery and the natural 
and historic objects and the wild life 
therein and to provide for the enjoy- 
ment of the same in such manner and by 
such means as will leave them unim- 
paired for the enjoyment of future 
generations. 

As Congress still has the power to 
modify park boundaries, and to grant 
easements within the park boundaries, 
it behooves the citizens of the United 
States, to whom the parks belong, to 
take an interested part in all questions 
relating to our national parks, and to 
express their disapproval of any plan 
violating the purpose for which the 
parks and monuments were created. 

Irrigation and water power interests 
have made the most insistent demands 
for utilization of park resources. Yel- 
lowstone, Glacier, and Yosemite have 
been attacked. The Sherburne irriga- 
tion reservoir at Glacier and the de- 
struction of the Hetch Hetchy Valley in 
Yosemite, should be an object lesson in 
the results of irrigation and water power 
developments. The amendment of the 
Federal water-power act (March, 1921), 
which removed the national parks and 
monuments already established from the 
operation of the provisions of the water- 
power act, makes difficult but not im- 
possible, future projects of this sort. 
A bill now pending calls for the erection 
of a dam across the Yellowstone River, 
which will raise the level of Lake Yel- 
lowstone, thus flooding surrounding 
land. 

Grazing concessions present a question 
of great importance. While damage 
inflicted by grazing is not as irreparable 
as that produced by the building of 
dams, it is nevertheless very serious. 
Natural reproduction of trees and other 
plants is hindered or prevented; erosion 
is favored. Herbaceous growth is most 
affected, which means that the flower 
display is curtailed or entirely wiped 
out. The fodder of native grazing 



22 



NATURALIST'S GUIDE TO THE AMERICAS 



animals, as deer and elk, may be reduced 
to the point where survival in periods of 
extreme drought or in severe winters 
may be difficult. And last, but not 
least, sanitation is affected and the 
water supply may be impaired. That 
grazing has affected the appearance of 
the Grand Canyon National Park is 
evident from the report of the Director 
of National Park Service for 1923. 
"The park floral display below the 
rims of the canyon is extremely varied 
and beautiful in successive seasons, but 
the lack of such display on the rims is 
largely due to cattle grazing." Sheep 
grazing is prohibited in all national 
parks; cattle grazing is permitted in 
some areas. 

The national parks and monuments 
comprise only one-third of one per cent 
of the total area of our country. "Cer- 
tainly as a Nation we are rich enough to 
preserve from spoliation such a small 
amount of native America intact for the 
enjoyment of posterity.' 1 

National parks and monuments differ 
radically from national forests. The 
parks and monuments are intended to be 
true preserves, where every effort should 
be made to maintain natural conditions. 
Timber cutting and grazing are not 
permitted except in certain instances 
and should be wholly prohibited. Hunt- 
ing, except predatory animals, and 
removal of any natural object by visitors 
is prohibited, except that a certain 
amount of angling is permitted. The 
addition to any national park of plants 
or animals which are not native should 
not be permitted, for the addition of 
foreign plants or animals would cer- 
tainly not be in keeping with one of the 
established purposes of the parks and 
monuments the conserving of the wild 
life therein- which should be inter- 
preted to mean native wild life. This 
question has been considered by the 
Ecological Society of America (see 
"Resolutions," Ecology, vol. Ill: 170). 
The national forests, on the other hand, 
are a valuable measure toward con- 
servation, not complete preservation, 
except in limited areas. Cutting of 



mature timber is permitted, and thus the 
composition of the forest is changed. 
Tree planting is resorted to improve the 
stands, or to increase the percentage of 
commercially desirable trees; hunting 
is permitted; grazing is general, even to 
the point of over grazing. Outside 
activities in the national forests are 
regulated by the Forest Service. Thus, 
while the national forests are great 
conservers of our national resources, 
it is in our national parks and monu- 
ments that natural conditions are best 
maintained at present. 

The national parks policy, as an- 
nounced in 1918, and reaffirmed recently 
by Secretary Work, should maintain 
our parks as the preserves of wild life 
that they now are. Its three funda- 
mental prnciples are: "First, that the 
national parks must be maintained in 
absolutely unimpaired form for the use 
of future generations as well as those of 
our own time; second, that they are set 
apart for the use, observation, health, 
and pleasure of the people; and third, 
that the national interest must dictate all 
decisions affecting public or private en- 
terprise in the parks." 

Following is a list of national parks 
and monuments, arranged in order of 
date of establishment. Descriptions of 
most of these will be found in the state 
accounts; the distinctive features of the 
less important are given here. 1 

NATIONAL PARKS ADMINISTERED BY THE 
NATIONAL PARK SERVICE 

Hot Springs, Arkansas; 1832; 1| sq. mi.; 

46 hot springs. 
Yellowstone, Wyoming, Montana, and 

Idaho; 1872; 3348 sq. mi.; Wyo., 

page 532. 
Sequoia, California; 1890; 252 sq. mi.; 

Calif., page 197. 
Yosemite, California; 1890; 1125 sq. mi.; 

Calif., page 197. 
General Grant, California; 1890; 4 sq. 

mi.; Calif., page 197. 
Mount Rainier. Washington; 1899; 324 

sq. mi. ; Calil., page 175. 
Crater Lake, Oregon; 1902; 249 sq. 

mi.; Ore., page 191. 

1 All quotations from Seventh Annual Report of 
Director of National Park Service. 1923. 



USES OF NATURAL AREAS 



23 



Wind Cave, South Dakota, 1903; 17 sq. 

mi.; S. D., page 555. 
Platt, Oklahoma; 1902, 1904; H sq. mi. 

Contains sulphur and other springs 

of medicinal value; wooded area with 

wild flowers and birds. 
Sullys Hill, North Dakota; 1904; H 

sq. mi.; N. D., page 547. 
Mesa Verde, Colorado; 1906, 1913; 77 

sq. mi.; Colo., page 527. 
Glacier, Montana; 1910; 1534 sq. mi.; 

Mont., page 539. 
Rocky Mountain, Colorado; 1915, 1917; 

397 sq. mi.; Colo., page 527. 
Hawaii, Hawaiian Islands; 1916, 1922; 

186 sq. mi., in three separate areas. 
Lassen Volcanic, California; 1916; 124 

sq. mi.; Calif., page 198. 
Mount McKinley, Alaska; 1917, 1922; 

2645 sq. mi. 
Grand Canyon, Arizona; 1908, 1919; 958 

sq. mi.; Ariz., page 568. 
Lafayette. Maine; 1916, 1919; 8 sq. mi.; 

Me., page 310. 
Zion, Utah; 1909, 1918, 1919; 120 sq. mi.; 

includes former Mukuntuweap Na- 
tional Monument; Utah, page 559. 



NATIONAL MILITARY AND OTHER PARKS 

ADMINISTERED BY THE WAR 

DEPARTMENT 

Chickamauga and Chattanooga, Georgia 
and Tennessee; 1890; 6543 acres. 
"Beautiful natural park. Embraces 
battle fields of Chickamauga and 
Missionary Ridge and scenes of other 
conflicts of the Civil War fought in 
the vicinity of Chattanooga during 
1863." 

Antietam Battle Field, Maryland; 1890; 
50 acres. "Scene of one of the greatest 
battles of the Civil War." 

Shiloh, Tennessee; 1894; 3546 acres. 
"Natural park embracing the battle 
field of Shiloh near Pittsburg Land- 
ing." 

Gettysburg, Pennsylvania; 1895; 2451 
acres. "Beautiful natural park. 
Scene of Civil War combat. Probably 
better marked than any other battle- 
field in the world." 

Vicksburg, Mississippi; 1899; 1323 acres. 
"Beautiful natural park. Scene of 
the siege and surrender of Vicksburg 
in 1863 during the Civil War." 

Lincoln's Birthplace, Kentucky; 1916; 
"Contains the log cabin and part of 
the farm where Lincoln was born." 

Guilford Courthouse, North Carolina; 
1917; 125 acres. "Near Greensboro. 
Scene of one of the great battles of 
the Revolution; fought in 1781." 



NATIONAL MONUMENTS ADMINISTERED 
BY THE NATIONAL PARK SERVICE 

Devils Tower, Wyoming; 1906; 1152 
acres. "Remarkable natural rock 
tower, of volcanic origin, 1200 ft. in 
height." 

Montezuma Castle, Arizona; 1906; 160 
acres. "Prehistoric cliff-dwelling 
ruin ... of scenic and ethnologic 
interest." 

El Morro, New Mexico; 1906, 1917; 240 
acres. "Enormous sandstone rock 
eroded in form of a castle, upon which 
inscriptions have been placed by 
early Spanish explorers. Contains 
cliff-dweller ruins. Of great historic 
scenic, and ethnologic interest." 

Petrified Forest, Arizona; 1906, 1911; 
25, 625 acres. "Abundance of petrified 
coniferous trees, one of which forms 
a small natural bridge." 

Chaco Canyon, New Mexico; 1907; 
20,629 acres. "Numerous cliff-dweller 
ruins." 

Muir Woods, California; 1908, 1921; 
426.43 acres. (See Calif.) 

Pinnacles, California; 1908, 1923; 2653.46 
acres. (See Calif.) 

Natural Bridges, Utah; 1908, 1909, 1916; 
2740 acres. (See Utah.) 

Lewis and Clark Cavern, Montana; 
1908, 1911; 160 acres. Temporarily 
closed to the public. "Immense lime- 
stone cavern of great scientific in- 
terest, magnificently decorated with 
stalactite formations." 

Tumacacori, Arizona; 1908; 10 acres. 
Ruin of Franciscan mission. 

Navajo, Arizona; 1909, 1912; 360 acres. 
"Numerous pueblo or cliff-dweller 
ruins, in good preservation." 

Shoshone Cavern, Wyoming; 1909; 210 
acres. "Cavern of considerable ex- 
tent, near Cody." 

Gran Quivira, New Mexico; 1909, 1919, 
560 acres. Early Spanish mission 
ruins and pueblo ruins. 

Sitka, Alaska; 1910; 57 acres. "Park of 
great natural beauty and historic 
interest as scene of massacre of 
Russians by Indians. Contains 16 
totem poles of best native workman- 
ship." 

Rainbow Bridge, Utah; 1910; 160 acres. 
"Unique natural bridge of great 
scientific interest and symmetry. 
Height 309 feet above water, and span 
is 278 feet, in shape of rainbow." 

Colorado, Colorado; 1911; 13,883 acres; 
"Many lofty monoliths, and is won- 
derful example of erosion, and of 
great scenic beauty and interest." 



24 



NATURALIST'S GUIDE TO THE AMERICAS 



Papago Saguaro, Arizona; 1914, 1922; 
1940.43 acres. "Splendid collection 
of characteristic desert flora and 
numerous pictographs. Interesting 
rock formations." 

Dinosaur, Utah; 1915; 80 acres. (See 
Utah.) 

Capulin Mountain, New Mexico; 1916; 
681 acres. "Cinder cone of geologi- 
cally recent formation. 

Verendrye, North Dakota; 1917; 253.04 
acres. Includes Crowhigh Butte 
SeeN.D. 

Casa Grande, Arizona; 1889, 1909, 1918; 
480 acres. "These ruins are one of 
the most noteworthy relics of a pre- 
historic age and people within the 
limits of the United States. Dis- 
covered in ruinous condition in 1694." 

Katmai, Alaska; 1918; 1,088,000 acres. 
"Valley of Ten Thousand Smokes." 

Scotts Bluff, Nebraska; 1919; 2053.83 
acres. "Region of historic and sci- 
entific interest. Many famous old 
trails traversed by the early pioneers 
in the winning of the West passed over 
and through this monument." 

Yucca House, Colorado; 1919; 9.6 acres. 
"Relic of prehistoric inhabitants." 

Fossil Cycad. South Dakota; 1922; 
320 acres. "Area containing deposits 
of plant fossils." 

Aztec Ruin, New Mexico; 1923; 4.6 
acres. "Prehistoric ruin of pueblo 
type containing 500 rooms." 

Hovenweep, Utah-Colorado; 1923; 285.8 
acres. "Four groups of prehistoric 
towers, pueblos and cliff dwellings." 

Pipe Spring, Arizona; 1923; 40 acres. 
"Old stone fort and spring of pure 
water in desert region." 

Carlsbad Cave, New Mexico; 1923; 
719.22 acres. Immense cavern; see 
Nat. Geog. Mag., January, 1924. 

NATIONAL MONUMENTS ADMINISTERED 

BY THE DEPARTMENT OF 

AGRICULTURE 

Gila Cliff Dwellings, New Mexico; 1907; 
160 acres. "Numerous cliff-dweller 
ruins of much interest and in good 
preservation." In Gila National 
Forest. 

Tonto, Arizona; 1907; 640 acres; similar 
to Gila Cliff Dwellings. In Tonto 
National Forest. 

Jewel Cave, South Dakota; 1908; 1280 
acres. "Limestone cavern of much 
beauty and considerable extent, limits 
of which are as yet unknown." In 
Harney National Forest. 

Wheeler, Colorado ; 1908 ; 300 acres. ' 'Of 
much interest from geological stand- 
point as example of eccentric erosion 



and extinct volcanic action. Of much 
scenic beauty." In Cochetopa and 
Rio Grande National Forests. 

Mount Olympus, Washington; 1909, 
1912, 1915; 299,370 acres. Contains 
many objects of great and unusual 
scientific interest, including many 
glaciers. Is summer range and breed- 
ing ground of the Olympic elk." In 
Olympic National Forest. 

Oregon Caves, Oregon; 1909; 480 acres. 
"Extensive caves in limestone of 
much beauty; magnitude not entirely 
ascertained." In Siskiyou National 
Forest. 

Devil Postpile, California; 1911; 800 
acres. "Spectacular mass of hexag- 
onal basaltic columns, like an immense 
pile of posts. Said to rank with 
famous Giant's Causeway in Ireland." 
In Sierra National Forest. 

Walnut Canyon, Arizona; 1915; 960 
acres. "Contains cliff-dwellings of 
much scientific and popular interest." 
In Coconino National Forest. 

Bandelier, New Mexico; 1916; 22,075 
acres. "Vast number of cliff-dweller 
ruins, with artificial caves, stone 
sculpture, and other relics of pre- 
historic life." In Santa Fe National 
Forest. 

Old Kasaan, Alaska; 1916; 38.3 acres. 
"Abandoned Indian village in which 
there are numerous remarkable totem 
poles and other objects of historical 
interest." In Tongass National 
Forest, 

Lehman Caves, Nevada; 1922; 593.03 
acres. "Limestone caverns of much 
beauty and of scientific interest and 
importance." In Nevada National 
Forest. 

Timpanogos Cave, Utah; 1922; 250 
acres. Limestone cavern. In Wa- 
satch National Forest. 

Bryce Canyon, Utah; 1923; 7440 acres. 
"Box canyon filled with countless 
array of fantastically eroded pin- 
nacles. Best exhibit of vivid coloring 
of earth's materials." In Powell 
National Forest. 

Extensions of a number of parks are 
advocated by the Director of the Na- 
tional Park Service: Crater Lake to 
include Diamond Lake; Yellowstone to 
include the Teton Country to the south; 
Rainier to include Ohanapecosh Hot 
Springs, to the southeast ; and the much 
discussed extensions of Yosemite and 
Sequoia, which involve elimination of 
land now park territory, and inclu- 



USES OF NATURAL AREAS 



25 



sion of scenic areas now outside park 
limits. 

The enlargement of Sequoia National 
Park by the creation of Roosevelt- 
Sequoia National Park, involves not 
alone addition of desirable territory, 
but exclusion from the park boundary of 
parts of park territory. The addition 
includes some of the finest Sierra coun- 
try Mt. Whitney, the Kings and Kern 
Canyons and Tehipite Valley. The bill, 
as it now stands, retains all but a small 
part of the 3 southern townships whose 
exclusion met with so much opposition 
among naturalists. Most of the Sequoia 
groves are retained. The inclusion of 
the headwaters and canyons of the 
Kings River, one of the finest valleys 
of the Sierras, is meeting with strong 
opposition from local irrigation districts. 

The proposed change in Yosemite 
National Park also involves the acquir- 
ing of a section of the High Sierras, and 
the exclusion of certain private lands 
(10,959.89 acres) along the western 
boundary. These private holdings cause 
administrative difficulties, because of 
grazing problems and the cutting of the 
timber. In both cases, the territory 
(not now privately owned) excluded 
from the parks comes under the control 
of the Forest Service. 

Proposals for new parks and monu- 
ments are constantly being made. All 
must be investigated for availability and 
desirability. The area must be one of 
national, not merely local interest. 
Areas of great local interest should be 
taken care of as State parks. Only one 
national park, Lafayette, is situated 
east of the Mississippi River. It seems 
desirable that the park system be in- 
creased in this section of the country if 
suitable areas can be secured. Among 
proposals here, are Sand Dunes, 2 Mis- 
sissippi Valley, Appalachia, Everglades, 
Mount Katahdin, and Mammoth Cave. 
In the West, where scenic features of 
merit are more numerous, many propo- 

2 "Report on the Proposed Sand Dunes National 
Park, Indiana." Stephen T. Mather, Director of 
the National Park Service. 1917. 113 pp. 



sals have been made prominent among 
which is the Glacier Bay region of 
Alaska. Many worthy areas have also 
been proposed as national monuments. 
Proposals presented to the Sixty- 
eighth Congress, include the following: 

Mount Katahdin (Maine). 

Killdeer Mountain (North Dakota). 

Roosevelt (North Dakota). 

Mammoth Cave (Kentucky). 

Mississippi Valley (Wisconsin, Iowa). 

Utah (Utah). 

Appalachia (Virginia) to include sum- 
mit of High Knob Mountain. 

Wonderland (South Dakota). 

Lincoln (Virginia, Kentucky, Tennessee) 
to include High Pinnacle Moun- 
tain and Cumberland Gap. 

Nicolet (Wisconsin) an abandoned 
military reservation; 1046 acres. 

Battle of Bear's Paw (Montana) as a 
national monument. 

Grand Coulee (Washington). 

Yakima (Washington) to include Mt. 
Adams and surrounding territory. 

Blue Knob (Pennsylvania). 

An area in a National Forest reservation 
in Georgia. 

Many other bills to establish national 
parks and monuments have been pre- 
sented. All such areas have been or are 
being investigated. 

There has recently been appointed by 
Secretary Work, a Southern Appalachian 
Park Committee. This committee is 
"to undertake a thorough study of the 
Southern Appalachian Mountains for 
the purpose of selecting the most worthy 
site in that range as a national park, 
in order to conserve the scenery and the 
plant and animal life under established 
national park policies for the use and 
education of our people." They have 
since recommended two areas, the 
Shenandoah in Virginia and the Great 
Smokies in Tennessee and North Caro- 
lina. 

The national park system will doubt- 
less continue to expand, and to increase 
in value as its parks and monuments 
become increasingly popular as rec- 
reational areas, and as natural areas 
in which the study of native fauna and 
flora may be carried on to advantage. 



26 



NATURALIST'S GUIDE TO THE AMERICAS 



LITERATURE 

Almost every periodical dealing with 
travel or nature contains articles on one 
or more of our national parks. The 
following are of a more general nature : 

A Guide to the National Parks of 
America. Edited by Edward Frank 
Allen. Robert McBride and Co., 
New York, revised edition, 1918. 
338 pp., map and illustrations. 

The National Parks Portfolio. Robert 
Sterling Yard. 248 pp., 306 ill. 
Gov. Pr. Office. 

Your National Parks. Enos A Mills. 

Glimpses of our National Parks. R. S. 
Yard. 72 pp., 31 ill. Gov. Pr. Office. 

General Information regarding the 
National Monuments. (Contains 
descriptions of all national monu- 
ments administered by the Depart- 
ment of the Interior, the Depart- 
ment of Agriculture, and the War 
Department.) Gov. Pr. Office. 
(Out of print.) 

Information Circulars for individual 
parks. Free on request to Director, 
National Park Service. (Available 
for Crater Lake, Grand Canyon, 
Hawaii, Hot Springs, Mesa Verde, 
Mount Rainier, Rocky Mountain, 
Sequoia and General Grant, Wind 
Cave, Yellowstone, and Yosemite. 

Automobile Road and Trail Maps. 
Director, National Park Service. 

Annual Reports of the Department of 
the Interior and of the National 
Park Service. 

The Relation of Wild Life to the Public in 
National and State Parks. Charles 
C. Adams, Proc. 2nd Nat. Conf., 
State Parks, 1922. 

Glacier National Park 

Flora of Glacier National Park. Paul 

C. Standley. Contr. U. S. Natl. 

Herb., vol. 22, pt. 5. 1921. 
Wild Animals of Glacier National Park. 

The Mammals. Vernon Bailey ; The 

Birds. Florence Merriam Bailey. 

210 pp., 94 fig., 37 pi., 1 map. 1918. 
Origin of the Scenic Features of Glacier 

National Park. M. R. Campbell. 

42pp., 25 ill. 1914. Gov. Pr. Office. 
Glaciers of Glacier National Park. W. 

C. Alden. 48 pp., 30 ill. 1914. 

Gov. Pr. Office. 
Some Lakes of Glacier National Park. 

M. J. Elrod. 32 pp., 19 ill. 1912. 

Gov. Pr. Office. 
Glacier National Park. A Popular 

Guide to Its Geology and Scenery. 



M. R. Campbell. U. S. Geol. Surv., 
Bull. 600. 54 pp., 13 pi., map. 
1914. Gov. Pr. Office. 

Glacier National Park, Its Trails and 
Treasures. Mathilde Edith Holz 
and Katherine Isabel Bemis. 

Tenting Tonight. Mary Roberts Rine- 
hart. Houghton Mifflin Co. 1918. 

Yellowstone National Park 

Geological History of Yellowstone 
National Park. Arnold Hague. 24 
pp., 10 ill. 1912. Gov. Pr. Office. 

Geysers. Walter Harvey Weed. 32 pp., 
23 ill. 1912. Gov. Pr. Office. 

Fossil Forests of Yellowstone National 
Park. F. H. Knowlton. 32 pp., 15 
ill. 1914. Gov. Pr. Office. 

Fishes of the Yellowstone National 
Park. W. C. Kendall. 28 pp., 17 
ill. 1915. 

The Big'Game^Animals T of Yellowstone 
National Park. Edmund Heller. 
Roosevelt Wild Life Bulletin, vol. 2, 
no. 4: 405-467. 1925. 

The Food of Trout in Yellowstone Na- 
tional Park. Richard A. Muttkow- 
ski. Roosevelt Wild Life Bulletin, 
vol. 2, no. 4: 471-497. 1925. 

The Birds of the Yellowstone National 
Park. Milton P. Skinner. Roosevelt 
Wild Life Bulletin, vol. 3, no. 1. 
192 pp. 1925. 

Grand Canyon National Park 

The Shinumo Quadrangle, Grand 
Canyon district, Arizona. L. F. 
Noble, U. S. Geol. Surv., Bull. 549. 
1914. 

Rocky Mountain National Park 

Geologic Story of Rocky Mountain 

National Park. Willis T. Lee. 

Mountaineering in Rocky Mountain 

National Park. Roger W. Toll. 

Lafayette National Park 

The Sieur de Monts National Monu- 
ment as a Bird Sanctuary. 

The Coastal Setting, Rocks and Woods 
of the Sieur de Monts National 
Monument. 

An Acadian Plant Sanctuary. 

The Sieur de Monts National Monument 
as commemorating Acadia and early 
French influences of Race and Set- 
tlement in the United States. 

Natural Bird Gardens on Mount Desert 

Island. 
(All the above from Director of N. P. 

Service.) 



USES OF NATURAL AREAS 



27 



Yosemite National Park j 

A Yosemite Fora. Hall. 

Sketch of Yosemite National Park and 
an Account of the Origin of Yose- 
mite and Hetch Hetchy Valleys. 
F. E. Matthes. Gov. Pr. Office. 

Forests of Yosemite, Sequoia, and 
General Grant National Parks. C. 
L. Hill. Gov. Pr. Office. 

The Secret of the Big Trees Yosemite. 
Sequoia, and General Grant National 
Parks. Ellsworth Huntington. 

Mount Rainier National Park 

Features of the Flora of Mount Rainier 
National Park. J. B. Flett. Gov. 
Pr. Office. 

Forests of Mount Rainier National 
Park. G. F. Allen. Gov. Pr. Office. 

Mount Rainier and Its Glaciers. F. E. 
Matthes. Gov. Pr. Office. 

Mount Rainier, a Record of Explora- 
tions. Edmond S. Meany. ^ 

Crater Lake National Park 

Geological History of Crater Lake. J. 

S. Diller. Gov. Pr. Office. 
Forests of Crater Lake National Park. 

J. F. Pernot. Gov. Pr. Office. 

5. MUSEUMS AND NATURE 
BY FRANK COLLINS BAKER 

Many well informed people have 
thought that the elaborate habitat 
groups in the modern museum can take 
the place of first hand contact with the 
animals in their natural environment. 
These groups are indeed wonderfully 
life-like, and in many cases faithfully 
portray the life as it may be seen in 
nature, and when scientifically accurate 
and constructed with due regard to the 
psychology of the museum visitor they 
have both a value to ecology and an 
interest for the visitor. But these 
groups, good as they are, only interpret 
certain phases of the life of the animals, 
giving the average person a birds-eye 
view of some of the phenomena which 
go to make up the every-day occupation 
of wild life. Such groups as the Vir- 
ginia deer in the four seasons, on exhibi- 
tion in the Field Museum of Natural 
History, give the student a good idea 
of the changes that take place in the 
form and fur of these common animals: 



'but this simply interprets these phe- 
nomena and cannot take the place of the 
wild deer in their native haunts. 

These museum groups, however, have 
a real ecological value, not only in- 
terpreting nature to those who may be 
fortunate enough to be able to visit the 
national parks and other wild places of 
nature, and so make these visits of 
more profit and pleasure, but they also 
give to those individuals (who unfor- 
tunately are in the majority) who cannot 
leave the big centers of population and 
enjoy wild life at first hand, a glimpse 
of wild animal life as it is, or more 
often, as it has been, before man took 
complete possession of the land, lake, 
and forest for his personal, and too often, 
selfish use. 

The preservation of natural areas for 
the maintenance of wild life is emphati- 
cally desired by, and necessary for, 
the modern museum, for only by a 
study of these natural areas can these 
wonderful groups be made. It is be- 
coming increasingly difficult to find 
places near the cities where even the 
smaller life can be studied for such 
purposes. Lakes and streams adjacent 
to towns and small cities (to say nothing 
of these near the large metropolitan 
cities, where almost everything is de- 
spoiled) are either heavily polluted and 
the fauna and flora killed or so changed 
by modern life of the suburbanite as to 
completely destroy all vestiges of origi- 
nal wild life. The preservation of small 
natural, more or less virgin, areas near 
small towns and cities is imperative 
and must be accomplished soon, or all 
such places will be lost forever. 

The large museums of the big cities 
as well as the smaller museums of towns, 
small cities, and those connected with 
universities, are in a position to aid 
the movement for the preservation of 
wild life sanctuaries by the intelligent 
display of their material so that visitors 
may become interested in wild life, and 
thus be led to add their influence when 
constructive legislation is urged by the 
many societies fostering this subject. 



28 



NATURALIST'S GUIDE TO THE AMERICAS 



The museum habitat group has now 
become one of the chief features of in- 
terest in all museums, and many very 
good examples of this new art are scat- 
tered over the country from the Atlantic 
to the Pacific, notably at New York, 
Pittsburg, Chicago, Milwaukee, Denver, 
San Francisco, and other places, and 
the tourist may happily visit these 
places and later visit the native haunts 
of the animals exhibited. The auto- 
mobile has brought the city and the 
wild places closer together, and one may 
often pass in a few hours from the 
museum halls to the wilds of a national 
or state park. The modern museum 
seeks to interpret the lives of wild 
animals for the benefit of all people, 
rather than to simply store up vast 
hordes of material for the specialist, 
though the latter work must be carried 
on also for the advancement of our 
knowledge of life in general. The 
museum is now, and always has been, 
the champion of the conservation of 
wild life. 

6. THE GAME REFUGES AND 

PUBLIC SHOOTING GROUNDS 

OF PENNSYLVANIA 

BY JOHN M. PHILLIPS 
Member of the Board of Game Commis- 
sioners of Pennsylvania, 1905 to 1924 

Some 30 years ago, the thinking sports- 
men of the State of Pennsylvania be- 
coming alarmed at the rapid disap- 
pearance of wild game generally in this 
State, awoke suddenly to a realization 
of the fact that if it was to be saved for 
posterity immediate action was neces- 
sary to secure its protection and pres- 
ervation. It was recognized that in 
order to attain results, a head to direct 
and guide the efforts of the sportsmen 
was necessary. After considerable agi- 
tation, in 1895, by an Act of Legislature, 
the Game Commission was created, 
empowered to collect data and to recom- 
mend legislation relating to the subject 
of game and wild bird preservation, and 
to enforce such laws as might be enacted. 



The Commission was to consist of six 
sportsmen, appointed by the Governor, 
without regard to their political affilia- 
tions, as it was intended to keep the 
Game Commission a non-partisan body 
and out of politics; the Commissioners 
were to serve for love of the work and 
without remuneration. 

The cause was particularly fortunate 
in the first Commission, as the men 
appointed were enthusiasts on the 
subject of wild game conservation; 
besides, they had had considerable ex- 
perience in protecting birds and animals 
upon lands under their control. Soon 
after taking office, the Commissioners 
realized that in order to accomplish 
results something more than good game 
laws and their enforcement was neces- 
sary, for while this might take care of 
the game left in the State, no provision 
was made for increasing the supply. 

Having in mind the magnificent results 
achieved by the Federal Government 
through the establishment of National 
Parks and Game Refuges in various 
parts of the United States, and the 
experiences of those in our State who 
owned private game preserves, the Com- 
missioners, some years later, hit upon 
the idea of establishing in various parts 
of the State, refuges or sanctuaries 
into which game of all kinds and song 
and insectivorous birds could retreat 
and find safety when harassed by ene- 
mies. It was thought that freedom from 
disturbance, especially during the breed- 
ing season, in an area where predatory 
animals and birds could be extermi- 
nated, and where a closed season would 
be maintained perpetually, would result 
in a marked increase in the birds and 
animals in those sanctuaries. 

A careful investigation of the subject 
of game propagation satisfied the Com- 
missioners that efforts to raise in cap- 
tivity our native game birds, such as wild 
turkey, ruffed grouse and quail had not 
as yet met with material success. An- 
other point that was seriously con- 
sidered was that just as the introduction 
of the English Sparrow and the German 



USES OF NATURAL AREAS 



29 



Carp had resulted disastrously to the 
Nation, so might the importation of 
foreign game birds and animals result 
in more injury than good to the State. 

After considering all phases of the 
question, the idea of a game farm was 
abandoned, and the Commissioners 
turned with renewed conviction to the 
refuge or sanctuary idea, by which 
our native game birds and game could 
multiply without assistance from man, 
other than the systematic extermination 
of predatory forms and the absolute 
protection afforded by a perpetual closed 
season. 

Happily for the purpose of the Com- 
mission, the movement for the conserva- 
tion of our forests and water-supply was 
well under way. Our State Department 
of Forestry had already acquired large 
tracts of land, located almost without 
exception in our mountain counties, 
at the head-waters of streams, consti- 
tuting a forest reserve area and rec- 
reation ground for our people, which, 
at the present time, aggregates over a 
million acres distributed over almost half 
of the 67 Counties of the State. The 
area of these forest reserves vary, ranging 
from 1176 acres in Wyoming County to 
128,085 acres in Clinton County. 

By an Act of Legislature of May 11, 
1905, the Game Commission was au- 
thorized, with the consent of the Com- 
missioner of Forestry, to establish Game 
Refuges or sanctuaries upon the State 
forest lands. The Legislature of 1907 
limited the area of these Preserves to 9 
mi. in circumference, while those of 
1911 and 1915 increased their size and 
provided that the greatest transverse*, 
dimension should not exceed 10 mi. nor 
should the area of the preserve exceed 
| of the total area of the tract of land 
of the forestry reservation upon which 
the preserve was located. In 1919, an 
Act was passed, backed by the sports- 
men, authorizing the Game Commission 
to purchase with the surplus from the 
Resident Hunters License Fund, lands 
near our large centers of population, 
where the Forestry Commission did not 
already possess lands, for the purpose of 



establishing game sanctuaries and hunt- 
ing grounds, similar to those on State 
lands. Also, an Act allowing the Game 
Commission to provide auxiliary game 
preserves of not less than 250 acres or 
more than 4000 acres through the con- 
sent of the owners or by lease. These 
auxiliary preserves may consist of farm 
lands. 

These wild cut over and burnt over 
lands, although, in the main, unsuit- 
able for agriculture, are the natural 
homes of the game it was desired to 
attract and propagate and possess 
the necessary summer and winter 
feed, streams and cover for our birds, 
bear, deer, squirrels, rabbits, etc. 
Chestnuts, beech-nuts, acorns and many 
other nuts, wild-grapes, haws and other 
fruits, are abundant, together with an 
almost endless variety of berries. So 
long as the ground remained bare feed 
would be plentiful, and with the coming 
of the snows and ice many of the birds 
could feed upon the buds of the beech, 
birch and other trees, and, if necessary, 
could be fed by the Preserve keepers. 
Besides, some of the tracts possessed 
waters upon which wild water-fowl 
might find a resting place, at least in 
their migratory flight. 

Rather than establish a few Refuges 
of large dimensions, it was deemed 
advisable to create numerous small ones 
of about 3000 acres each in extent, and 
to locate them, as nearly as possible, in 
the center of the forest reserves in 
different counties. The purpose of so 
locating the sanctuaries was to make 
sure that the game propagated therein 
would first spread to the State land 
or land purchased with the sportsmen's 
funds rather than to the property of any 
individual or organization which might 
be posted to prohibit hunting. In this 
way, the game refuges would produce 
an unending supply of game which would 
naturally and inevitably spread to the 
public forest lands from which no hunter 
is barred. 

It is thought wise to locate the ref- 
uges in sections where the game had 
formerly been plentiful but had been 



30 



NATURALIST'S GUIDE TO THE AMERICAS 



practically exterminated, to gain by 
such action the support and assistance 
of the hunters in that region, rather 
than to locate in territory containing 
plenty of game, thereby incurring the 
resentment of the hunters who would 
feel that their best hunting grounds 
has been taken away. 

When the location of the Refuge has 
been decided upon, the first thing nec- 
essary is to exterminate the predatory 
species, which destroy more game than 
the hunters. The wildcat, weasel, fox, 
skunk, mink, crow, hawk, owl, and the 
prowling house-cat are, through the care- 
ful use of strychnine, and by other 
means, killed off. The next step is to 
guard against the danger from fire, and 
the brush is cleared from a strip of land 
15 to 20 ft. wide around the outside of 
the Preserve. In some instances, where 
the danger from fire is pronounced, it is 
also crossed with fire lines, thus creating 
open roads where fires may be met and 
extinguished. 

Predatory animals having been ex- 
terminated and provision made for 
fighting forest fires, we next surround the 
refuge with a single marking wire, 
fastened to trees or posts, about waist 
high on a man, the object being not to 
enclose the game but to define the limits 
of the refuge. This wire is usually 
nine miles long and is placed inside the 
fire lines surrounding the Refuge. At 
frequent intervals, notices printed upon 
muslin are tacked up along the line of 
wire, fastened to trees or posts, calling 
attention to the fact that the lands 
inside the wire are a State refuge for 
game, and asking for the cooperation 
of all in seeing that the game is not 
disturbed. The sanctity of these Pre- 
serves, in almost 15 years, has only been 
violated once, and then, it was claimed, 
by mistake, showing that our sportsmen 
appreciate their value. 

The Refuge is now ready for the 
game, and if it is not already, sufficiently 
stocked, game of various kinds, such as 
deer, elk, wild turkeys, fox squirrels, 
etc., are purchased and placed in it. A 
State Game Keeper is in charge of each 



Refuge. His duties are to fight fires, 
see that the Game is not molested, keep 
the Refuge free from predatory ani- 
mals, on which, as an incentive, he is 
paid the regular bounties. In order to 
supplement the natural feed in the 
Refuges and attract and maintain wild 
life, he is instructed to plant walnuts, 
hickory nuts, mulberries, wild cherries, 
mountain ash, apples, wild grapes and 
other nut, fruit and berry producing 
trees and shrubbery, buckwheat and 
other grains. In addition to this, he 
plants barberries, spruces, pines, etc. 
for shelter and winter cover. 

There are no fences around the Pre- 
serves and, as stated above, the wire is 
intended only as a marker, so that the 
game is not confined in any way, but 
can enter and leave the Refuge at will, 
it being intended to reproduce as nearly 
as possible the conditions under which 
animals and birds thrive in a wild state. 
Naturally, the herds and flocks inter- 
mingle at pleasure and there is no in- 
breeding with the consequent loss in 
stamina that would occur in a fenced 
enclosure. 

Provided dogs and guns are left out- 
side the wire, our Refuges are open to 
the public except during the open season 
for game when no person, save the officer 
in charge, is allowed within the wire, 
the purpose of this provision being to 
prevent the driving of deer and other 
game outside the Preserve onto the 
Forest Reserve, where it may be killed 
in the open season. 

We now have 33 Game Refuges of 
about 3000 acres each with a large area 
^urrounding them upon which men may 
hunt. Ten of these Refuges were pur- 
chased by the sportsmen's funds. Owing 
to the almost universal posting of farms 
against hunting and the hunter being a 
tenant-at-will on State lands, the for- 
ward-looking sportsmen of Pennsylvania 
are now asking for an increase in the 
Resident Hunters License Fee. This 
increase to be used exclusively for 
purchase of Game Refuges and Pub- 
lic Shooting Grounds, preferably in 
10,000 acre tracts, scattered throughout 



USES OF NATURAL AREAS 



31 



the State, and to be under the absolute 
control of the Game Commission, for 
the purpose of propagating wild life and 
bringing back our forests and waters. 
The results attained have been so 
evident and so uniformly successful 
in all our Refuges as to demonstrate 
beyond any question the value of this 
idea. Our Preserves are no longer an 
experiment. The steady increase in the 
supply of game in them, on the large 
public hunting-grounds surrounding 
them, and in their neighborhood, has 
been remarkable. The large northern 
deer imported from other States and 
placed in these Refuges have thrived 
and multiplied so that localities in which 
they were formerly plentiful but had 
been exterminated are again populated 
with these beautiful and useful creatures 
of the woods. 

Many stories are told regarding the 
instinct or sagacity of the deer, espe- 
cially old bucks, in eluding their pur- 
suers by seeking safety in these refugees. 
The grouse and turkeys are quick to 
take advantage of these sanctuaries, 
especially the former. 

To our minds, this system of game 
propagation in its habitat and environ- 
ment under absolutely natural condi- 
tions with protection from hunters and 
predatory animals, is infinitely superior 
to any plan which involves the breeding 
of game in confinement. In fact, the 
Pennsylvania Game Commission con- 
siders it a patriotic duty to bend all its 
energies and apply all its resources to the 
conservation and perpetuation of our 
native and useful wild life rather than 
to import from foreign countries at 
great expense birds and animals of 
doubtful values. 

Through the adoption of Pennsyl- 
vania's constructive Game Refuge 
policy, the million acres of State Forest 
Reserve, on which a few years ago wild 
life was almost extinct, are being gradu- 
ally made into the greatest hunting 
and recreation grounds ever contem- 
plated for the benefit of the people of 
any State. 



7. THE RELATION OF OUR SHRUBS 

AND TREES TO OUR WILD 

BIRDS 1 

BY F. SMITH 

Anyone who pays even slight attention 
to the citizens of our bird world knows 
that they show preferences for certain 
kinds of surroundings. For some kinds 
of birds one must go to the open fields; 
for others, to the woodlands; while 
many shore and water birds must be 
sought along the water courses and in the 
swamps. A somewhat further acquain- 
tance leads to the knowledge that birds 
of a given species may frequent very 
different kinds of situations for feeding, 
for nesting, and for refuge. Some spe- 
cies, as the robins and grackles which 
feed in the open fields, seek refuge and 
nesting sites in the woodlands and in 
shade trees. Still others, which may 
feed and nest on the ground in open 
fields, do not get very far from some 
protecting shrubbery or hedge to which 
they fly when disturbed. 

Although certain kinds of birds are 
ready to adapt themselves to quite 
extensive changes in their surroundings, 
others will simply disappear when such 
changes occur. The cutting away of 
the forests of several northern states is 
known to have been followed by a 
decrease of some of the forest-loving 
species and an increase of those that 
prefer the open fields or the shrubby 
areas incident to new clearings. Re- 
ports on the birds of several different 
states are confirmatory of this statement. 

When one learns the habits of all the 
birds which are to be found during the 
year in any one of our ordinary Illinois 
localities and then makes a list of those 
which are not dependent in any way on 
trees or shrubs for food, nesting sites, 

1 From "Arbor and Bird Days," Illinois Cir. 
No. 83, Springfield, 1915. 

W. L. McAtee states that there exists in most parts 
of the United States either a superstition, a con- 
viction, or a legal requirement that roadsides be 
shorn of their vegetation at least once a year. So 
far as the effect upon birds is concerned, there can 
be no doubt that suppression of roadside vegeta- 
tion is a potent factor in restricting their numbers. 
"Attracting Birds to Public and Semi-public Reser- 
vations," U. S. D. A. Bull. 715. 



32 



NATURALIST'S GUIDE TO THE AMERICAS 



or refuge, the list is found to be rela- 
tively short, especially if the locality is 
distant from a river or lake. From 
several locality lists available to the 
writer, each including from 85 to 170 
species, it is evident that about 75 per 
cent of the species listed are in one way 
or another dependent on trees or shrubs. 
Since, of course, the same ratio may not 
hold for the number of individual birds 
found, it is desirable to ascertain, if 
possible, what share of the bird popula- 
tion of an average Illinois locality is 
independent in every way of trees and 
shrubs. Fortunately a pretty close ap- 
proximation to such knowledge is ob- 
tainable from the very extensive and 
useful data accumulated by Prof. S. A. 
Forbes from the work of expert ornitho- 
logical assistants in 1906, 1907 and 1909. 
Two such observers, traveling in 
straight lines and always 30 yards 
apart, recorded all the birds flushed on 
a strip of land 50 yards wide and those 
that crossed the strip within 100 yards 
ahead. They recorded also the char- 
acter of the fields traversed and the 
distances in each. Heavy timber in 
which there was little chance of a com- 
plete count was disregarded/and the 
record was, of course, deficient for water 
birds. This work was carried on during 
all seasons of the year and was nearly 
equally distributed between the north- 
ern, central and southern parts of the 
state. The results show the numbers 
and kinds of birds in samples of the 
various sorts of environment in the 
state, equivalent to a strip of land fifty 
yards wide and over two thousand miles 
long. Among these results we have 
record of 48,558 birds from 39,940 acres. 
There were 9199 English sparrows and 
546 birds were not positively identified. 
Deducting these latter two classes, we 
have record of the identity of 38,813 wild 
birds as distributed over farm lands, 
orchards, and shrubby areas and open 
woodlands. One hundred and seventy 
species were represented, 44 of which 
may be regarded as independent of 
trees and shrubs able, apparently, to 
get along perfectly well without them. 



Of these latter 24 species are birds of the 
open field and the others are shore birds 
or water birds. Of the remaining 126 
species many will eventually disappear 
altogether, and the others will be rep- 
resented in reduced numbers in locali- 
ties where trees and shrubs are de- 
stroyed. About 69 per cent of the 
individual wild birds recorded by the 
foregoing observers belong to this group. 
These ratios correspond very closely 
with those from other available records 
based on more limited data. Fully two- 
thirds of the wild birds of ordinary 
Illinois localities are in some way de- 
pendent on trees and shrubbery. The 
reasons for this dependence differ 
greatly for various species. Many, in- 
cluding some of the woodpeckers, are 
wholly dependent on trees for food, 
nesting sites and places of refuge. In 
most cases the insects associated with 
the trees supply the food, although to 
some extent the seeds, buds and even 
the cambium layer (in case of trees 
visited by the yellow-bellied sapsucker) 
may be eaten. Numerous other species, 
while getting their food from the ground 
or from the flying insects of the air, 
depend on trees or shrubbery for nesting 
sites or refuge or for lookout stations. 
Here, again, there is great diversity, 
since some kinds frequent mostly the 
upper parts of the trees, others prefer 
the lower parts, while still others are 
limited to those woods in which the 
ground is more or less covered with a 
thick undergrowth. Comparatively few 
species prefer the interior of the heavy 
forest, but many more frequent the 
forest margins or open woodlands, es- 
pecially those with thickets. Shrubby 
fields and hedges are preferred by a 
number of species. 

A large majority of the birds that pass 
the winter with us and of those that 
come from the south in the early part 
of the spring migration are of the 
thicket-and shrubbery-loving kinds. To 
find them we must seek them in the 
environment they prefer along hedges, 
in neglected berry patches, in shrubby 
pastures, or in woods with plenty of 



USES OF NATURAL AREAS 



33 



under growth. When such places are 
all "cleaned up" the majority of the 
winter birds and early spring migrants 
disappear. 

8. GRAZING IN THE NATIONAL 
FORESTS 

BY O. F. KOKSTIAN 

The policy which governs the adminis- 
tration of the National Forests includes 
not only the insurance of a perpetual 
supply of timber and the preservation 
of a forest cover to regulate the flow 
of streams, but also the development 
of the other resources contained in the 
Forests for the greatest permanent good 
to the general public. Of all these the 
production and harvesting .of the timber 
crop is the most important primary 
purpose denned by Congress. The for- 
age resource, however, is of such im- 
portance in many parts of the West that 
its development through regulated graz- 
ing is one of the necessary functions of 
administration of the National Forests. 
Its extent is determined by the other 
objects of administration. The general 
policy therefore involves the develop- 
ment of the grazing resource to the 
extent compatible with that of the other 
National Forest resources and with a 
view to maximum production of meat 
and other animal products and maximum 
stabilization of the livestock industry. 

The grazing of livestock obviously 
cannot be practiced without some modi- 
fication of natural conditions. It may 
either retard or promote the develop- 
ment of the vegetative cover and cause 
either retrogression or progression, but 
in any case it tends to modify the types, 
depending chiefly upon the closeness 
with which the herbage is kept grazed 
annually and upon the time of grazing. 
In some instances unregulated grazing 
has seriously interfered with the regener- 
ation of the forests by consuming tree 
reproduction along with the shrubby and 
associated species. Continued grazing 
of the range too early in the season or to 
too great an extent not only favors 



degeneration of the cover and ultimately 
the destruction of the vegetation, but 
also tends to impair the fertility of the 
soil by favoring erosion. These extreme 
adverse modifications of natural con- 
ditions, however, are the results of the 
abuse of the range. 

Under scientific range management 
these abuses will be practically elimi- 
nated through the proper regulation of 
grazing. The writer has reviewed else- 
where 1 in some detail the consensus of 
opinion of range management specialists 
on the trend of grazing practice on the 
National Forests in relation to the 
preservation of natural conditions. The 
composition of the herbaceous plant 
associations will not, of course, be quite 
the same as though no grazing had 
occurred. The effects of grazing upon 
plant succession depend not only on the 
character and intensity of grazing, but 
also upon the type of vegetation. Pro- 
gressive succession is favored by the 
system known as "deferred-and-rota- 
tion" grazing; that is, the grazing of 
parts of the depleted range only after 
the maturity of the better forage and 
the eventual extension of this practice 
in rotation to all parts of the range. 
This system is practiced in order to 
maintain the ranges at their highest 
producing capacity, as well as to revege- 
tate the depleted ranges, since ordinar- 
ily by its use more ready establishment 
of valuable vegetation is secured than 
by total protection from grazing. The 
regulated grazing policy of the Forest 
Service is to keep the areas in the climax 
type of vegetation from the standpoint 
of maximum meat production consistent 
with the protection of watersheds and 
timber reproduction. This may mean 
occasionally a sub-climax ecological 
stage of the shrubby and herbaceous 
vegetation. Usually in the West, how- 
ever, it will mean a climax ecological 
stage of the shrubby and herbaceous 
vegetation. This should offer little or 
no hindrance to the development of the 

1 Korstian, C. F. "Grazing practice on the 
National Forests and its effect on natural condi- 
tions." Scientific Monthly, 13: 275-281. 1921. 



34 



NATURALIST'S GUIDE TO THE AMERICAS 



climax forest type or association since, 
when necessary, cut-over forest areas 
are closed to grazing during the regener- 
ation period. Further, grazing has in 
many cases aided regeneration of the 
forest by improving the seed bed, 
trampling the seed into the soil, and 
lessening the competition through crop- 
ping of associated species. The aid to 
more rapid revegetation by properly 
regulated grazing has assisted in les- 
sening erosion and in improving water- 
shed protection. 

Regulated grazing in the National 
Forests is further supported by the 
strong argument that it is beneficial in 
the control of forest fires. The value 
of grazing as a means of fire protection 
is realized in the utilization of the annual 
growth of grass which, if not so disposed 
of, becomes dry and inflammable and a 
serious fire hazard. The extensive work 
in forest fire prevention and suppression 
on the National Forests is a very im- 
portant factor in promoting and main- 
taining climax types of forest vegetation. 

In rendering the secondary uses com- 
patible with the primary uses of the 
National Forests, and in harmonizing 
the secondary uses, it frequently be- 
comes necessary to close areas to graz- 
ing as, for example, watersheds which 
comprise important sources of munic- 
ipal water supply; recreational areas 
and those of unusual scenic attractive- 
ness, such as the National Monuments; 
areas on which the forage on the range 
is needed for important game animals; 
and some forest areas in the course of 
regeneration. Many of the areas shown 
on the map of the National Forests 
(figs. 1 and 2) are in a semi-natural condi- 
tion and fall within this category. 

9. FIRES IN RELATION TO THE 
BIOTA 

BY R. H. WOLCOTT 

For a long time previous to the de- 
velopment of ecology as a science fires 
have been recognized as an important 
ecological factor. Many scattered ref- 
erences to their effects upon animal 



and plant life are found in all kinds of 
literature, but few of these are based 
upon exact data or represent the results 
of continued observations. 

A very full discussion of forest fires 
as to their kind, occurrence, causes, 
and methods of prevention will be 
found in Chapter VII of Graves' Prin- 
ciples of Handling Woodlands or in Chap- 
ter XV of R. C. Hawley's The Practice 
of Silviculture. At the end of these 
chapters there is given a very excellent 
bibliography on forest fires so that an 
enumeration of these points seems out 
of place here. 

The damage caused by forest fires on 
this continent is enormous. Plummer 1 
makes the statement that 

Forest fires in the United States have 
caused an annual loss of about seventy 
human lives, the destruction of trees 
worth at the very least $25,000,000 and 
the loss of stock, crops, buildings and 
other improvements to the amount of 
many millions more. To these must be 
added enormous losses from the destruc- 
tion of young tree growth, deterioration 
of the soil, damage to water courses and 
adjacent property by low water and 
flood, interruption of business and de- 
preciation of property. 

When to the loss by forest fires is 
added the loss from prairie and other 
fires it is seen that the total loss to this 
continent from fires up to the present 
time amounts to several billions of 
dollars. 

As to the injuries due to fires, we may 
mention first, the destruction of the 
plants themselves with whatever loss 
that entails; second, the destruction of 
the humus in the soil with the resulting 
loss of fertility; third, the destruction 
of lumber or other valuable products; 
and fourth, the accumulation of dry 
material which may serve to feed suc- 
ceeding fires. In many of the forested 
parts of the country the debris which 
has accumulated from one fire after 
another has resulted in the periodical 
burning over of areas for long periods of 
time. 

1 Plummer, Fred G. Forest Fires, Bull. 117, 
U. S. Forest Service, Washington, 1912. 



USES OF NATURAL AREAS 



35 



There are certain benefits which may 
be attributed to fires including: first, 
favorable effects upon certain plants 
which find a greater abundance of 
nutrients in burned over tracts, such as 
blueberries and huckleberries; second, 
the improvement of forage by the re- 
moval of the stiff stems of the previous 
year's growth, permitting grazing ani- 
mals to get at the young and succulent 
herbage; and third, improvement of 
reproduction by burning off grass or 
heavy leaf litter, thus giving a better 
chance for the germination of tree seeds. 

Even "light burning" which has been 
advocated by some in order to keep the 
forest floor clean of litter, as a safeguard 
against more serious fires, upon investi- 
gation has been shown to bring about 
injury due to removal of nitrogen from 
the soil, change in soil texture, in- 
creased evaporation, and the scarring 
of trees, which paves the way for the 
attacks of fungi and wood-boring in- 
sects. It is decidedly a question if 
fires can serve any useful purpose in 
forestry, while on the other hand they 
constitute an ever-present menace. 

The relation of fires to plant succession 
is obvious, but varies according to many 
conditions. If the fire has been such 
that the destruction of the vegetative 
cover is complete there may occur 
stages in its replacement corresponding 
to a complete succession beginning with 
the pioneer plants, but these are much 
condensed if the soil is not destroyed. 
This is most often observed after a gen- 
eral and a very destructive forest fire. 
In the destruction of bogs the soil may 
be largely consumed. 

Invasion from the adjacent areas may 
occur and if the vegetation of these is 
similar to that destroyed the result may 
be the reestablishment of the former 
conditions in a relatively short time. But 
actually it must be understood that 
any replacement takes many years. If 
the destruction is not complete and roots 
and seeds remain from which to develop 
a new growth, the invaders from sur- 
rounding areas may take possession at 
first, but these are gradually replaced 



by the species which were destroyed 
until finally the vegetation assumes the 
character which it possessed before the 
fire. In the case of forests, these in- 
vaders serve to protect the more tender 
forest vegetation until it has become 
established, when they are replaced 
by it. 

If the fire affects only the secondary 
species such as herbs and shrubs in a 
forest in any plant formation then the 
succession operates only within those 
forms, and as a result the stages are 
short and not well defined. 

It is possible for the fire to do so little 
damage, especially in grassland, as to 
destroy none of the members of the 
formation and give rise to no succession. 

It has been remarked by others that 
succession after fires usually operates 
within water-content groups, due to 
the fact that the alterations of the soil 
are slight, except on slopes where the 
burning of the vegetation allows erosion 
to occur. Grasslands are replaced in 
most cases by grasslands and forest 
usually by forest. 

The immediate effect of fires upon 
animal life, as well as upon plant life, 
is always destructive. Only those forms 
escape that are of large size and have 
effective means of rapid locomotion. 
Before the advancing flames is driven a 
horde of larger animals which under the 
influence of terror lose all fear of man 
and even invade towns and cities, while 
the smaller and weaker forms perish if 
exposed to the fire. Aquatic animals 
are not exempt from destruction for it 
is stated that in the great Miramichi 
fire in New Brunswick in 1825 fish in the 
streams were killed in such numbers as 
to be afterward found in heaps on the 
river banks. 

The completeness of this destruction 
of animal life varies with the character 
of the fire. Since fires usually occur 
when the soil is dry, earthworms and 
moisture-loving forms will have re- 
treated below the level affected or will 
have resorted to wet places where the 
fire is less severe. The numerous forms, 
especially insects, which live in the sur- 



NATURALIST'S GUIDE TO THE AMERICAS 



face stratum will be affected in propor- 
tion as this stratum is involved, while 
those that hide beneath the trash which 
litters the ground are almost sure to be 
destroyed. In less severe fires, how- 
ever, many species and numerous in- 
dividuals escape by being hidden within 
and beneath fallen logs, where neither 
the flames, the heat, nor the poisonous 
gases generated in the fire reaches them. 
In the case of surface fires these three 
agencies (heat, etc.) destroy many forms 
in the forest canopy above but also 
spare many, especially if these are pro- 
tected by being in the crevices of the 
bark, beneath it, or in cavities within 
the trees. 

Fires also affect animal life by remov- 
ing the cover behind which they find 
concealment, by destroying their nests 
and young, or the animals themselves 
in early stages of development, and by 
eliminating their food supply. At the 
same time a limited number of forms 
that live upon dead organic matter may 
find their opportunity in the half- 
destroyed remains of animals killed by 
the fire. 

Succession operates among animals, 
as among plants, and corresponding 
invasion occurs. The succession is very 
short in the case of grassland, where the 
original conditions are more speedily 
restored, but in the case of woodland 
the succession is more extended and 
occurs by several stages. First, in 
forest regions, animals of open ground 
may invade the burned area, later those 
resorting to thickets find congenial sur- 
roundings, and last the forest forms 
themselves return. Here again, how- 
ever, certain of the original species may 
have disappeared never to return. For 
a short time after a forest fire a fauna 
flourishes, the existence of which is due 
to the presence of dead standing timber. 
This includes wood-boring insects and 
the predaceous forms which prey upon 
them. Woodpeckers find now both food 
and nesting places in the dead trees, 
while raptorial birds find the devastated 
area a favorable hunting ground. 

Not only is animal succession after a 



fire dependent upon plant succession, 
but in certain respects the latter is 
affected by the former. For instance 
forest-dwelling mammals such as squir- 
rels, and also certain woodland birds, 
which feed upon the seeds of coniferous 
trees, being excluded, the cones within 
the area which have escaped destruction 
may open and reproduction begin by 
means of the seeds which they have 
enclosed and protected, whereas in the 
undisturbed forest these would have 
been found opened, and the seeds eaten 
by the animals. In other cases seeds 
buried by rodents are the only ones 
left. 

To one interested in the conservation 
of wild life, forest and prairie fires are 
sources of profound regret, not alone 
because of the destruction of life, but 
also because of the fact that the areas 
burned over are rendered incapable for 
some time of supporting an abundant 
and varied fauna and flora. To the 
ecologist fires mean the destruction of 
the evidence upon which may be based 
conclusions as to the history of the past 
succession of both plant and animal 
life, and the creation of new conditions, 
which, though they present many in- 
teresting problems, do not yield data of 
general or fundamental value in the 
determination of the principles of 
ecology. 

Fires due to natural causes are un- 
avoidable and unpreventable but these 
may be limited by constant watchfulness 
especially on the part of fire wardens. 
Those which are incendiary can only be 
reduced in number by the faithful co- 
operation of all the members of a com- 
munity in the detection and bringing 
to punishment of the persons responsible 
for them. Those due to carelessness, 
which constitute by far the largest 
number, can be avoided in the degree 
to which the public generally is aroused 
to a realization of the damage resulting 
from fires and educated to the need of 
legislation and of care on the part of 
every individual. 

It is absolutely essential, if bird and 
game refuges and all tracts set aside for 



USES OF NATURAL AREAS 



37 



wild life conservation or for ecological 
study are to fulfil the aims of those who 
have established them, that fires be 
entirely prevented. Aside from the ac- 
tual loss of game animals which attends 
a fire of any extent, if even a small fire 
occur during the breeding season, there 
is the destruction of nesting birds, 
their eggs and young, the removal of 
the grassy or shrubby "cover" upon 
which they depend for concealment, and 
the elimination of the carpet of decaying 
leaves and rotting fallen logs which 
create conditions favorable for the 
development of a myriad of insects and 
lower forms upon which birds and other 
higher animals depend more or less 
directly for food. Those who resort to 
these preserves to satisfy their love of 
nature or for scientific investigation 
neither need nor desire the construction 
of roads, paths, and clearings within the 
tract, and such areas should be free from 
the intrusions of all others and carefully 
safeguarded from the danger of fires. 
For the pleasure-loving public gener- 
ally which desires opportunity for field 
sports and games, picnicking, etc., 
numerous and well distributed parks 
should be provided. The National Gov- 
ernment is doing a service of inestimable 
value to our citizens and of far greater 
significance to future generations in the 
establishment of large national parks so 
situated as to include and preserve areas 
of great scenic interest. The states 
should supplement this effort by the 
establishment of state parks so disposed 
as to be accessible to the greatest num- 
ber of people. Cities have long since 
come to appreciate the economic and 
social value of parks and every pro- 
gressive community has a system of 
public parks with carefully devised plans 
for future expansion. Interest in birds, 
wild flowers, and all wild life is aroused 
and rapidly increasing and all such 
parks, whether national, state, county 
or municipal should offer opportunities 
for the exercise of that interest. All 
parks should, therefore, contain a cer- 
tain proportion of wild land, which may 
well include hill slopes, ravines, creek 



valleys, and other tracts difficult to 
cultivate. This part should be left in 
a strictly natural state, with the native 
vegetation, shrubbery, fallen leaves, rot- 
ting logs, etc. , undisturbed. With proper 
care in landscaping, such areas could be 
made very attractive, and would fur- 
nish a refuge and breeding place for 
birds which are most valuable in the 
destruction of tree pests. The more 
open portions of parks should never be 
burned over and the greatest care should 
be taken that fires made for the burning 
of refuse or by picnickers be kept at a 
safe distance from growing forests. 
Liberal posting of notices and constant 
watchfulness on the part of attendants 
in local parks and by fire wardens in the 
state and national parks will be neces- 
sary to reduce the number of fires to 
the minimum. -. 

Earnest and continued efforts should 
be made by all persons and associations 
interested to educate the public gener- 
ally, and especially campers and hunters, 
in regard to the destructive results of 
fires and the necessity of always ex- 
tinguishing camp fires before leaving 
them. The Boy Scout organizations can 
do effective work here. In any region, 
where there are extensive areas of public 
lands or lands in a wild state, wise and 
effective legislation is necessary, in- 
cluding the enactment of proper regula- 
tions, the posting of notices and the 
development of an efficient fire warden 
service. 

All citizens should be urged to limit 
the burning over of land and to dis- 
courage unnecessary burning off of road- 
sides, waste areas, groves, and wood- 
lands, because of the injury done to 
bird life and the damage to the soil 
due to the destruction of humus and 
consequent exposure to drying. It is 
sometimes necessary to burn over grass- 
land to destroy pests but in very many 
cases at least the result may be more 
perfectly attained by ploughing. From 
the standpoint of the farmer it would 
be well if every bit of the land not 
under cultivation were occupied by 
grassland, shrubbery, or woodland. 



NATURALIST'S GUIDE TO THE AMERICAS 



While the burning over of land may be 
the only practical method of cleaning 
it under some circumstances, it should 
be recognized that this involves a re- 
duction in the future fertility of the 
soil and is a method to be avoided so 
far as possible. Unless scattering of 
brush is necessary to prevent drying 
out of the soil or to favor reproduction 
it should be collected in piles and burned 
in the late fall or winter. Railroads in 
timbered country, operators of portable 
saw mills and men using power logging 
should be induced to adopt such safe- 
guards as would prevent the occurrence 
of fires or restrict the damage caused by 
those which may occur from their 
negligence. If necessary the aid of the 
law should be invoked to these ends. 
In conclusion, attention should be 
called to the desirability of careful in- 
vestigations on the precise changes in 
the ecological conditions due to fires in 
various types of habitat; to the need of 
exact quantitative as well as qualitative 
studies on succession in such habitats; 
and especially to the almost untouched 
field afforded by studies upon the fauna 
in these tracts. Every student of 
ecology who has available for study a 
burned over area has in it an opportunity 
which should not be neglected. 

10. THE EFFECT OF POLLUTION ON 
ANIMAL LIFE* 

BY FRANK COLLINS BAKER 

Stream pollution may be broadly 
divided into two main divisions: con- 
tamination by organic sewage from 
cities and towns and by chemical wastes 
from factories and mines. Both are 
inimical to life but the latter is espe- 
cially fatal to animal life, causing wide 
stretches of otherwise fertile streams 
to become veritable deserts. Organic 
sewage, in a crude or highly concen- 
trated form, is also very injurious, 
effectually eliminating most forms of 
life from the polluted body of water. 

1 The greater part of this topic is condensed from 
a paper read before the Illinois State Academy of 
Science, and published in Vol. XIII, of the T.rans- 
actions of that Society, pp. 271-279, 1920. 



The importance and seriousness of 
the problem of stream pollution in its 
effect on the life of the rivers and 
streams into which the contaminating 
material is discharged has not, until 
very recently, been given the attention 
the subject demands. The diminishing 
fish supply, and in many places the 
very objectionable physical character 
of the polluted waters, have caused the 
authorities of several states to pass 
laws governing the discharge of these 
wastes into streams and the establish- 
ment of penalties for disregarding these 
laws. New York and Massachusetts 
have led in the framing of these laws 
and other states are following the good 
example set by these two older com- 
monwealths, where the conditions seem 
to have reached a maximum of harm- 
fulness (see Ward, 1918, 1919). 

During recent years stream pollution 
has enormously increased and the prob- 
lems arising from this condition have 
been investigated by many biologists 
and sanitary engineers. The former 
have studied the problem from the 
viewpoint of its effect on the useful 
animal life, especially fishes and river 
mussels, and this phase probably bears 
as close a relation to human welfare as 
any other. Of course, from the stand- 
point of health, the polution problem 
is of paramount importance because of 
its bearing on such diseases as typhoid 
fever which may be caused by a pol- 
luted water supply. 

Perhaps the worst effect of chemical 
pollution is to be found in the streams 
of western Pennsylvania, where mine 
water heavily loaded with oil or acid 
water from coal mines is permitted to 
flow into the rivers and streams of this 
part of the state. Studies by Ortmann 
(1909) show that whole stretches of 
the Allegheny, Ohio, and Monongahela 
rivers have been made into deserts, 
as far as the animal life is concerned, by 
the large amount of poisonous sub- 
stances discharged into these streams 
by the mines, oil industries, and chemi- 
cal and other factories that border 
these rivers. In the Susquehanna 



USES OF NATURAL AREAS 



River the same condition prevails in 
many places (Leighton, 1904). Such 
pollution causes a complete extermina- 
tion of the fauna (and largely of the 
chlorophyl-bearing flora) and leaves 
the stream in such condition that re- 
stocking by either natural or artificial 
means is practically impossible, and 
if attempted is a waste of money. 

Pollution by sewage, when the pol- 
luting material is of small percentage 
as compared with the pure water of 
the stream (as 200 to 1), causes little 
inconvenience to the animal life and 
is doubtless of some benefit because of 
the additional food material that is 
added (Forbes and Richardson, 1919, 
p. 146). But the streams seldom remain 
long in this innoxious condition, the 
sewage becoming more and more concen- 
trated and- less diluted until the whole 
stream may be supersaturated with 
noxious substances, the amount of 
oxygen in saturation reduced, and 
the biota finally driven out or killed. 

Pollution is worst and usually most 
deadly to animal life during periods of 
low .water and in winter when the 
amount of water in the stream is small 
and the decomposing organic material 
has less water to deprive of its dis- 
solved oxygen. During times of floods 
the putrescent material is also carried 
down stream for many miles and con- 
taminates areas not previously af- 
fected. 

While all clean-water forms of ani- 
mal life are more or less affected by 
sewage pollution, the decomposition of 
the organic matter abstracting dissolved 
oxygen from the water and rendering 
it unsuitable for aquatic life, the fish, 
river mussels, and crayfish are partic- 
ularly affected, most fish being es- 
pecially sensitive to contaminated water. 
Some fish (as the brook silversides, 
Labidesthes sicculus] are notably sensi- 
tive, while others (as the black bull- 
head, Ameiurus melas) will endure 
water that is badly polluted (Shelford, 
1918, p. 27; Wells, 1918, pp. 562-567). 
Young fish are relatively more sensitive 
than adult fish. It is noteworthy that 



the more resistant species of fish are 
inhabitants of sluggish bodies of water, 
as ponds and shallow lakes, while the 
least resistant species live in running 
streams. It seems to be a question 
of the amount of oxygen necessary for 
the well being of the fish. 

The ill effect of sewage pollution is 
most marked on the bottom of bodies 
of water, where a sludge is formed, 
often of great thickness (as much as 
10 ft. in several cases), consisting of 
a mass of soft, black, sediment, with 
a high content of organic matter, in 
which only a few organisms, normally 
inhabitants of polluted streams, can 
live (e.g., septic Protozoa and Rotifera, 
foul-water algae, and slime-worms, 
Tubificidae). This effect on the bot- 
tom is perhaps the most serious phase 
of stream pollution because the septic 
condition of this area continues in 
operation long after the original source 
of contamination ceases to operate. 
This sludge formation renders the 
bottom unfit for clean-water life upon 
which many fish depend for food. The 
time necessary for the recovery of the 
normal biota of such a stream will in 
most cases be of long duration, and in 
the case of a stream polluted with 
wastes from mines and chemical manu- 
facturies, there may never be a return 
to the original condition. 

In the case of the Genesee River at 
Rochester, N. Y., we have a striking 
example of the history of a polluted 
stream and its effect on one group of 
the animal life. Previous to the stage 
of great pollution there is a varied 
fauna of mollusks very numerous in 
individuals. In the course of 11 
years the gill-bearing species are forced 
out and after a lapse of 14 years 
all molluscan life ceases to live in this 
part of the river. Seven years later 
the greater amount of sewage is diverted 
to another outlet. Two years after 
this change we find that the mollusks 
have returned in as great numbers as 
before the maximum stage of pollution. 
The significance of all this lies in the 
fact of the early return of this life, and 



40 



NATURALIST'S GUIDE TO THE AMERICAS 



strikingly indicates that streams may 
become restocked with life in a short 
period after pollution has ceased to be 
of an unfavorable character. At the 
present time the sturgeon, which for- 
merly resorted to the river to feed and 
breed, and had been driven out by the 
polluted condition of the stream, has 
returned, which is another indication 
of improved conditions. It is quite 
probable that the large fall in the river, 
some 60 feet in height, has had a marked 
effect in the return of these favorable 
conditions. 

A study of the Salt Fork of the Big 
Vermilion River, indicates that all 
clean water life, including mussels and 
crayfishes, has been excluded from this 
stream for a distance of fourteen miles, 
and a normal fauna of these animals is 
not encountered until a distance of 
twenty miles has been traversed. The 
shallowness of this stream has evidently 
provided a sufficient supply of dissolved 
oxygen and it is apparent that in a 
deeper stream the ill effects of sewage 
pollution would be experienced for a 
much greater distance. 

Ecological reports from different 
states show that wherever towns, cities, 
mines, or manufacturing plants are 
located near a stream, that body of 
water sooner or later becomes polluted. 
Little definite work has been done to 
bring together all of the data concerning 
river and stream pollution. That which 
is available indicates a truly alarming 
condition of affairs. 

In South Carolina the fertilizer fac- 
tories discharge wastes of many kinds, 
including sulphuric acid, into the 
streams, and oil-burning steamers per- 
mit oil to run into the water of harbors 
and bays. The State is taking action 
against this practise. 

In Idaho and Montana mine water 
pollutes some of the streams. In West 
Virginia, as in Pennsylvania, the lower 
parts of the streams are polluted by 
refuse from coal mines, pulp and paper 
mills, chemical plants, and sewage 
from cities and towns. In Ohio, large 
streams are polluted by sewage and 



mine wastes. Iowa and Missouri 
streams are reported as badly polluted. 
In Arkansas, in the Poteau River, fish 
are being killed by mine wastes charged 
with iron salts, whose rapid oxidation 
suffocates the fish. In Minnesota, the 
large streams are polluted by sewage 
from the large cities. In Wisconsin, 
sewage is polluting Lake Winnebago 
from which the water supply of Osh- 
kosh is derived. Manufacturing wastes 
.from match factories and paper mills 
also pollute the waters of the Fox River. 
These examples might be indefinitely 
extended. The survey of present con- 
ditions indicates that wherever stream 
pollution occurs the clean-water ani- 
mals are sooner or later driven out or 
killed. Such a condition seriously af- 
fects our food and game fishes, which 
form so large a part of the meat of our 
population, and the situation demands 
immediate attention and early remedy. 
It is a matter of great satisfaction to 
scientific men that the authorities are 
awakened to the seriousness of such 
conditions and that in many cases they 
are providing remedial measures. 

LIST OF REFERENCES IN THE TEXT 

Baker, Frank Collins 

1920. Animal Life and Sewage in the 
Genessee River, New York. 
American Naturalist, LIV, pp. 
152-161. 

1922. The Molluscan Fauna of the Big 
Vermilion River, Illinois. 
With Special Reference to its 
Modification as the Result of 
Pollution 1 by Sewage and 
Manufacturing Wastes. Illi- 
nois Biological Monographs. 
VII, pp. 1-126, 6 pi. 
Forbes, S. A., and Richardson, R. A. 

1913. Studies on the Biology of the 
Upper Illinois River. Bull. 
III. State Lab. Nat. Hist., 
IX, pp. 481-574. 

1919. Some recent changes in Illinois 
River Biology. Bull. Ill Nat. 
Hist. Survey, XIII, pp. 137-156. 
Leighton, Marshall O. 

1904. Quality of Water in the Susque- 
hanna River Drainage Basin. 
Water Supply and Irrigation 
Paper, No. 108, U. S. Geol. 
Surv., pp. 1-76. 



USES OF NATURAL AREAS 



41 



Ortmann, Arnold E. 
1909. The Destruction of the Fresh- 
water Fauna in Western Penn- 
sylvania. Proc. Amer. Phil, 
Soc., XLVIII, pp. 90-110. 

Shelford, Victor E. 
1918. Ways and Means of Measuring 
the Dangers of Pollution to 
Fisheries. Bull III. Nat. 
Hist. Surv., XIII, pp. 23-42. 

Ward, Henry B. 

1918. The Elimination of Stream Pol- 

lution in New York State. 
Trans. Amer. Fisheries Soc.. 
XLVIII, pp. 1-25. 

1919. Stream Pollution in New York 

State. A Preliminary In- 



vestigation of the Problem 
from the Standpoint of a 
Biologist. Report to N. Y. 
Conservation Commission, pp. 
1-79. 
Whipple, George C. 

1913. Report on the Sewage Disposal 

System of Rochester, N. Y. 

By Edwin A. Fisher, City 

Engineer, pp. 179-200. 

Wilson, Charles B., and Clark H. Walton, 

1912. The Mussel Fauna of the Mau- 
mee River. Bureau of Fisher- 
ies. Document No. 757. 

1912. The Mussel Fauna of the Kan- 
kakee River. Bureau of Fish- 
eries, Document No. 758. 



D. INTERESTS AND MANAGEMENT 



1. UNION OF INTERESTS AND 

MANAGEMENT OF NATURAL 

AREAS 

BY V. E. SHELFORD 

With the growth of population, the 
destruction of forest and other original 
types of vegetation, and the modifica- 
tion of streams and lakes progresses 
rapidly. We have no royalty or nobil- 
ity whose hunting and fishing pre- 
serves are being withheld from exploita- 
tion. Many more reserves are needed, 
but each year it becomes more difficult 
to secure them. Such reserves as are 
already created are continuously threat- 
ened with partial exploitation. 

Probably the only effective way to 
retain all the features of existing re- 
serves and secure an adequate number 
of new ones is to create and maintain 
a public interest in each reserve as well 
as in reserves in general. The public's 
knowledge of the uses of preserves is 
scanty. The interests which may com- 
bine in one reserve have been too little 
emphasized and may be classified as 
follows : 

A. INTERESTS IN PRIMEVAL AREAS 

7. Scientific interests 

1. Biology. There is a growing 
tendency to make use of reserves of 
original character as a check on various 
laboratory operations, and in the study 
of ecology, as well as in the older taxo- 
nomic and natural history work. 

2. Forestry. Natural areas will be 
valuable to foresters as object lessons, 
for comparison and standardization of 
forestry practice. They will serve as 
a standard of accomplishment of Nature 
alone and as a guide by which the cor- 
rectness of the foresters' efforts to 
improve on Nature may be gauged. 



Permanent sample plots, corresponding 
to the "quadrats" of the ecologist, are 
left in their original conditions for 
comparison with adjacent plots vari- 
ously treated, so that changes in the 
composition, growth, and history of 
natural forest stands, as compared 
with modified stands, may be noted. 
On some of the National Forests a 
number of permanent plots are also 
maintained for the study of herbaceous 
vegetation and principles of range 
management in order to compare con- 
ditions on grazed and ungrazed areas. 

3. Geography. Geographers require 
a knowledge of original vegetation 
and animals to interpret existing cul- 
tures, to generalize on various climatic 
and economic questions. 

4. History. Historians require in- 
formation similar to that sought by 
the geographer, in the interpretation 
of historical facts, and especially in 
interpreting the events of pioneer 
days. 

II. Literary and artistic interest 

1. Many pieces of literature cannot 
be interpreted without a knowledge of 
the original vegetation. Bryant's poem 
"The Prairies" is an example. Not a 
few teachers of literature make use of 
preserves. 

2. Many artists who are students of 
nature use natural subjects. 

777. Recreational interests 

I. Sportsmen desire to increase the 
amount of game and in many states 
certain areas are set aside as game 
sanctuaries. In Pennsylvania a game 
sanctuary has a single wire stretched 
around it and is kept carefully guarded 
by wardens. No hunting is allowed 
inside the wire. The game is allowed 



42 



USES OF NATURAL AREAS 



43 



to reproduce unmolested and overflows 
into the surrounding territory where 
hunting is permitted. The game in 
the area is not likely to become very 
much more numerous under such condi- 
tions than it was originally with its 
natural enemies, such as wolves, etc., 
roaming about. Thus perhaps within 
the sanctuary the conditions of balance 
of animal life is as nearly like the 
original one as could be hoped. 

2. Ornithologists are interested in 
areas which afford protected nesting 
places for birds. 

3. Wild flower lovers desire to see 
the flowers preserved and accordingly 
are interested in natural areas, which 
may act as seeding centers. 

B. INTERESTS IN MODIFIED AREAS 

("SECOND GROWTH" OF 

ALL KINDS) 

1. Camping and related recreation. 

2. Hunting. 

3. Forestry operations leading to 
the production of lumber and other 
forest products. 

4. Bird and game refuges. 

5. Scientific study of succession of 
organisms with the development of a 
new biota (e.g., natural reforestation). 

C. ECONOMIC INTERESTS 

There are often watersheds which 
supply water to cities and water for 
irrigation purposes which will always 
be maintained and are available for 
scientific study, sample plots, bird 
preserves and perhaps game sanctuaries. 
Forestry practice retains some of the 
natural features. It is often possible 
for several interested groups to combine 
and make a strong plea for the setting 
aside of areas bounded by natural 
topographic features as preserves of 
natural conditions to serve all the eight 
or more purposes enumerated. The 
diversity of interest is an asset which 
makes the creation of preserves a far 
less hopeless task than many of those 
interested think. 



/. Management of preserves 

1. Subdivision. Areas should be sub- 
divided into (a) public park, always 
open to the public but kept as nearly 
natural as possible, (6) tree growing 
areas which if large enough may serve 
for hunting and fishing, (c) natural 
areas which will serve for the study 
of biology, geography, history and art 
and as wild life sanctuaries. 

The accompanying plan (fig. 1) shows 
a 60 acre tract designed primarily for 
a preserve of natural conditions. The 
entire tract is surrounded by a drive 
to prevent fires. The drive margin is 
set with native shrubs such as grow at 
the edges of woods, etc., designed to at- 
tract a maximum number of birds. 
The front portion adjacent to the public 
highway containing about 14 acres, is a 
public forest park with 3 circular drive- 
ways within which fires may be built. 
Behind is the preserve and this is an 
area (with the keeper's house at the 
center) surrounding it, designed for 
silviculture, the chief object of which 
is the demonstration of farm woodlot 
forestry. This is open to the public 
with some restrictions. The central 
area is a preserve open only to those with 
special interests and designed as a 
game sanctuary, center of seeding, 
for wild flowers, a bird sanctuary, etc. 
Larger tracts may be similarly divided 
following topographic features (fig. 2) 
and even small city parts may maintain 
natural areas. 

2. Rotation and policing. Natural 
parks are most easily obtained when 
the recreational interests support the 
project strongly. Two natural parks 
in two different states illustrate this 
point. The movement to secure them 
in each case was started by artists and 
nature lovers and only when the recrea- 
tional possibilities were realized by 
politicians was the project pushed 
through the legislature. No plans of 
management were suggested and the 
parks were practically turned over to 
hotel and amusement concessionaires 
and naturalists now maintain that the 



44 



NATURALIST'S GUIDE TO THE AMERICAS 



original beauty will soon be ruined. 
Granting that most reserved areas must 
serve either for tree growing or recrea- 
tion, or both, all proposed legislation 
should provide for management. This 
includes subdivision, coupled with a 



complete scheme of rotation of natural 
areas . 

There should be a resident officer 
charged with caring for and guarding 
the park and instructing the public in 
the prevention of fires. 





Natural Area B 




<4 




O 


Tree 
Growing 


5 

1 


Natural 
Area 


2 

<3 

la 

c 

3 


Tree 
Growing 




j 




i 




><l 


Public Natural Park 
Building 





PLAN FOR PARK SUBDIVISION INTO TREE 

GROWING, RECREATIONAL AND 

NATURAL AREAS 

A, Open to the public for the year 

1920, closed in 1921 and 1922. 

B, Open 1921, closed 1922 and 1923. 

C, Open 1922, closed 1923 and 1924. 



E. ADMINISTRATION OF WILD LIFE 



1. THE ADMINISTRATION OF WILD 

LIFE IN STATE AND NATIONAL 

PARKS 1 

BY CHAS. 0. ADAMS 

The administrative aspect of the 
wild life in our parks is a large and im- 
portant subject. The problem of prop- 
erly caring for and using wild life to 
the best advantage in our parks is be- 
coming increasingly more serious and 
difficult. With the increasing number 
of park visitors new problems are com- 
ing up all the time. By decreasing the 
congestion by enlarging the parks 
or by temporarily closing other parts 
as intensive use threatens to wear them 
out recovery can be secured, but the 
general drift, with increasing popula- 
tion, is always to encroach upon the 
wilderness. Thus we see that to main- 
tain park wildernesses can only be 
accomplished by a struggle, and the 
eternal vigilance needed to preserve our 
liberty is the same price which must 
be paid for the free wild nature of the 
wilderness. The wilderness, like the 
forest, was once a great hindrance to 
our civilization, but now the tide has 
turned and wildernesses and forests 
must be maintained, even at much 
expense, because human society needs 
them. Not infrequently have I talked 
with enthusiastic friends of our parks, 
who feel that in this struggle the odds 
are so much against the parks and their 
wild life, that there is perhaps no use 
to continue what they feel to be a losing 
fight. But it seems to me that this 
is only another aspect of that constant 
struggle for any high ideal the only 
kind worth striving for; this is not at 

1 Extracted from "The Relation of Wild Life to 
the Public in National and State Parks." Pro- 
ceedings of the Second National Conference of State 
Parks. 1922, pp. 129-147, 1923. Revised edition, 
Roosevelt Wild Life Bull., Vol. 2, pp. 371-402. 1925. 



all a peculiar feature of our park prob- 
lems. 

European experience furnishes us 
with a number of examples of the value 
of wild areas because so little of the 
original conditions now remain there. 
But in spite of the unfavorable condi- 
tions the appreciation of these original 
conditions has not yet died out. This 
is worthy of special mention because 
of the fear one hears expressed that this 
is a hopeless cause. In several Euro- 
pean countries there are active organi- 
zations, endowments devoted to this 
cause, and even governmental bureaus 
devoted exclusively to it (cf. Ahrens, 
1921; Conwentz, 1909). 

Some of the main administrative prob- 
lems concerned with wild life are, the 
maintenance of this resource, including 
all protective aspects of vegetation and 
its animals, the formulation of policies, 
the education of the public on wild 
life, and the perpetuation of its ideals. 

MAINTENANCE 

The maintenance of wild life in the 
park, in a normal, healthy state, is a 
relatively new art in America. This 
involves proper protection, by rules, 
rangers or police, and by all educational 
devices available. But this protection 
is not all a question of restrictions, for 
there is the productive and construc- 
tive aspect. Favorable conditions must 
be maintained, so that the animals 
will breed normally. If fishing is 
permitted, the maintenance of the 
stock in the streams must be looked 
after continuously, and the supply 
maintained. Careful supervision of all 
this must be given and definite policies 
followed or great blunders will be made, 
and much damage will be done. A 
competent park official should super- 
vise all this fish work. 



45 



46 



NATURALIST'S GUIDE TO THE AMERICAS 



At present, administrators are in a 
difficult position because of the lack of 
definite ideas, policies, and public 
sentiment to support definite programs, 
and the frequent changes of officials 
favor a lack of continuity in policies ; and 
furthermore, with such a wobbling 
policy little is learned from experience. 

EDUCATION OF PARK OFFICIALS 

At present parks suffer to a large 
degree because they are necessarily 
in the hands of administrators who, 
because of their lack of special training, 
we must consider as amateurs. We 
have had no profession for this line 
of work, and some who have had the 
most training are feared to a correspond- 
ing degree, because of preconceived, 
formal ideals, which they with almost 
religious zeal slip into the wilderness 
parks. The ideal of a wilderness park 
is beyond their ken, because their 
approach has been from another 
angle. These persons are welcomed 
in formal city parks but in our large 
National and State parks they are 
liable to be a menace. In the training 
of such men there has been no adequate 
recognition of the wild life problems. 

Another source of difficulty is the 
lack of trained rangers, and nature 
guides in our parks. These men are 
needed not only with a special famil- 
iarity with a special subject matter, 
but as well with the ideals of parks. 
Until very recently we have had no 
provision for such a training in our 
educational system, and not until 
adequate provision has been made 
can we expect the detailed work in the 
parks to be wholly satisfactory. A 
whole technical staff is needed for our 
parks, but this fact must be generally 
appreciated before men will devote 
themselves to it, and the public ap- 
preciate it fully enough to provide for 
it in the appropriations. 

NEED OF FORMULATING POLICIES 

At present our parks are in great need 
of definitely formulated policies, even 



if they are of a provisional nature 
(cf. Waugh, '18). A broad, general 
policy is not enough; it should be com- 
prehensive but as well, it should be 
worked out in as much detail as is 
possible, so that in time we will have 
for our National Parks, a manual cor- 
responding to the Use Book of the 
Forest Service. Each State Park or 
park administration should have a 
similar policy, which should be pub- 
lished and made a part of the educa- 
tional data available to the public. 
It will then be available for criticism 
and improvement. Of course, as many 
park executives are without adequate 
help, are liable to political interference, 
and their tenure short, they are fre- 
quently liable to neglect the formula- 
tion of these policies, and depend solely 
upon the laws establishing these parks. 
Without general policies we can not 
expect detailed, well-worked-out plans 
for wild life. Today we have no such 
published program for the wild life of 
our National Parks, not even for the 
fish, which might be expected to pre- 
cede that of other kinds of animals. 
The attitude of the U. S. Fish Com- 
mission, in the early days, had no con- 
ception whatever of the Yellowstone 
as a wilderness park, with the fish life 
maintained as nature left it and for 
this reason the Commission was favor- 
able to stocking the waters with a 
variety of exotic fish, and of stocking 
the streams thoroughly above all falls 
uninhabited by fish, and likewise the 
isolated lakes. The idea that forests 
with big game animals should be main- 
tained as a wilderness, and that there 
was an advantage in natural wild waters 
was beyond their conception. The 
attitude o the present U. S. Bureau of 
Fisheries, and of the Park Service itself 
has improved somewhat, but still it 
has in the main adhered to the older 
policies and standards of making 
angling available everywhere, rather 
than to maintaining a wild preserve. I 
have no doubt that this has come about 
or grown up without much deliberation, 
and certainly not after considering the 



USES OF NATURAL AREAS 



47 



value, in the remote future, of large 
areas for the educational and scientific 
value of true wilderness waters. Some 
of the same persons who are very eager 
to maintain a wilderness forest about 
their homes have never realized that 
others are equally interested in an 
aquatic wilderness untouched by man. 

THE WILDERNESS POLICY 

The Council of the American Asso- 
ciation for the Advancement of Science, 
at the Toronto meeting, December, 
1921, passed the following resolutions, 
which have a very direct bearing on 
the policy of our National and State 
Parks in maintaining their native 
plants and animals in natural condi- 
tions. These resolutions read (Science, 
N. S., Vol. 55, p. 63, 1922): 

Whereas, One of the primary duties 
of the National Park Service is to pass 
on to future generations for scientific 
study and education, natural areas on 
which the native flora and fauna may be 
found undisturbed by outside agencies; 
and 

Whereas, the planting of non-native 
trees, shrubs or other plants, the stocking 
of waters with non-native fish, or the 
liberating of game animals not native 
to the region, impairs or destroys the 
natural conditions and native wilderness 
of the parks; 

Be It Resolved, That the American 
Association for the Advancement of 
Science strongly opposes the introduc- 
tion of non-native plants and animals 
into the national parks and all other 
unessential interference with natural 
conditions, and urges the National Park 
Service to prohibit all such introduction 
and interferences. 

If parks are to be managed so as to 
pass them on to future generations un- 
harmed, they must in the main remain 
wild. No one can safely assume that 
he is able to tell how valuable these 
regions, when properly stocked, will 
become in the future. When once a 
plant or an animal becomes extinct 
it is beyond human power to restore 
it. 

Although there are considerable areas 
of the National Forests which are likely 
to remain virgin wilderness this is not 



a sufficient guarantee that we will have 
all that we need. The chances are that 
in the near future foresters will, with 
increasing emphasis, strive to retain 
valuable examples of representative 
virgin forests within our National 
Forests and State Forests, in a virgin 
condition for special study. These 
areas will also act as preserves for 
many animals but they will not neces- 
sarily provide for the larger animals 
unless they coincide, as they well 
might, with wild life preserves. Some 
foresters have already observed the 
need of the forest "wilderness" as a 
part of the recreational policy of the 
National Forests (Leopold, 1921), and 
others for the purpose of teaching and 
investigation (Ashe, 1922), and if such 
areas give complete protection to both 
plants and animals great progress will 
be made. The grazing of domestic 
animals must be restricted or excluded 
from such preserve areas or the her- 
baceous vegetation will soon be greatly 
modified (Korstian, 1921). The ex- 
periences in the National Forests clearly 
show just what will certainly happen 
in our National Parks if they are not 
strictly guarded, from the wilderness 
point of view. These experiences also 
clearly show the great caution that 
must be exerted even with the present 
customary grazing in our National 
Parks. No doubt this should now be 
under the closest supervision of a 
forage ecologist. The same ideas apply 
even to living and dead trees, that at 
any time may be cut in these parks. 
At present we have only one official park 
forester in any of these great National 
Parks, and very few connected with 
State Parks and not all of these are 
fully alert to the value of virgin forests. 
European experience (Oonwentz, 1909, 
pp. 118, 131), has clearly shown that 
clear cutting of the forests is very harm- 
ful to many kinds of native plants, 
and this is equally true for many ani- 
mals, for we know that the vegetation 
exerts a powerful influence upon most 
forest animals. (Of. Pearson, 1922.) 
In certain State Parks commercial 



48 



NATURALIST'S GUIDE TO THE AMERICAS 



forest management is conducted, and 
this is very desirable under certain 
circumstances, which properly limits 
the commercial forests and the pre- 
serves, and provides for a corresponding 
management. At present great caution 
will be needed not to confuse the 
management of these two types of for- 
ests. A proper balance should be 
secured and then the income from the 
commercial forest might well be made 
a source of revenue for the maintenance 
of the whole park. In time the pre- 
serves themselves may find it necessary 
to charge a small fee for their use, and 
a forest park with funds from the tim- 
ber and from a fee or license for the 
use of the preserve, might secure enough 
revenue to do much more constructive 
work than one depending solely upon 
taxation and gifts. This possibility 
is so important that it deserves more 
attention than it has received in the 
past. The new Allegany State Park 
in New York was planned upon such a 
program. 

The time has come when we must 
begin an educational campaign for 
large endowments for the educational 
and scientific work in our National and 
State Parks. Of course, much can be 
done by cooperation with various in- 
dividuals, the colleges, universities, 
and scientific societies, particularly 
with some of the State universities, 
especially if urgent requests are made 
to them for cooperation. They are 
likely to respond best when sought. 
But it is likely to take some time for 
these institutions to become acquainted 
with this phase of work, as most of them, 
even today, have but a faint realization 
of outdoor biological problems, and their 
application to parks. Fortunately there 
are a few marked exceptions. 

The parks need these funds primarily 
for three purposes: 

1. They need a technical scientific 
staff to solve their own scientific prob- 
lems as much as they need lawyers and 
engineers. The need exists but it is 
only slightly realized and in the main 
only those who are taking a broad view 



of the situation are aware of the con- 
ditions. 

2. They need an educational staff to 
build up their local museum-library, 
as nature guides, and to supplement 
and aid in the training of rangers 
who should also be trained men. This 
staff should be the mainstay for popu- 
lar lectures, lantern and moving picture 
lecturers who will arouse intelligent 
appreciation of the resources of the 
parks. 

In general, the scientific and educa- 
tional staffs must be distinct because 
the two kinds of work can not be done 
at the same time and the staff can not 
be expected to divide its attention suc- 
cessfully. An executive does not expect 
his lawyers or engineers to drop their 
work at any moment and give a popu- 
lar talk or to conduct other extraneous 
work, and the same applies to the scien- 
tific staff. 

The educational and scientific staff 
should be large enough to include cer- 
tain men who could devote their whole 
time to the practical and technical 
problems that demand immediate at- 
tention, closely related to the adminis- 
trative, rather than to the educational 
aspects of park work. The only reason 
for advocating this as a distinct group 
is that in practice it is rarely that suffi- 
cient funds can be obtained to secure 
men who are versatile enough to cover 
so large a field; it is therefore safer to 
plan for a larger staff. 

It is generally difficult in adminis- 
trative circles to appreciate that first- 
class research men can only rarely be 
secured, who are willing to have their 
work continually interrupted by all 
sorts of administrative breaks. These 
men must, to get the results, be pro- 
tected from such interruptions. 

3. The wild life of the parks requires 
constant, all-year-round attention. A 
great number of our parks will be- 
come more and more patronized the 
year 'round when the people are edu- 
cated to it. With this increasing pat- 
ronage there will constantly develop 
new problems for solution and supervi- 



USES OF NATURAL AREAS 



sion. It is only such a staff that can 
be expected to present, in the best popu- 
lar form, the natural history resources 
of the parks. These popular accounts 
must be presented from many angles of 
approach, if a large public is reached 
to advantage. It is a common error 
to assume that there is only one popular 
form of approach; a multiple approach 
should be carefully cultivated by dif- 
ferent types of students and authors. 

There are certain problems of ad- 
ministration that must first be solved 
as scientific problems, and then executed 
under technical supervision, such as 
care of fish, game, birds, mosquito 
control and the management of the 
forests. These are examples of the 
problems, which, with increasing use, 
the natural resources will require. This 
is a kind of supervision which the 
average executive can not be expected 
to know, and yet these are just the 
points that a special staff will know 
about, and their advice and help are 
thus necessary. 

In concluding these remarks on the 
need of endowments it is important 
to emphasize that wild life is a more 
or less elusive subject for the public 
and the administrator to understand, 
and cannot be understood merely by 
inspection it must be known inti- 
mately, and therefore great damage 
can be done before it is realized. 

The real difficulty is that wild life 
suffers just as the human animal does 
in our democratic system of environ- 
ment. As Walter Lippmann has re- 
cently said: "For the troubles of the 
press, like the troubles of representative 
government, be it territorial or func- 
tional, ... go back to a com- 
mon source: to the failure of self- 
governing people to transcend their 
casual experience and their prejudice, 
by inventing, creating, and organizing 
a machinery of knowledge. 

SUMMARY 

In concluding this discussion, I wish 

to summarize my main points as follows : 

1. We will derive benefit from wild 



life in our parks in a direct relation to 
what we devote to them. We need to 
recall that they are living organisms 
and respond readily to fair treatment. 

2. In general, wild life can only pros- 
per with the parks as a whole. 

3. Wild life is a very valuable re- 
source in any wild park and is generally 
so recognized by the public. 

4. The National Parks should remain 
a virgin wilderness for educational and 
scientific purposes. 

5. State parks should retain wilder- 
ness areas, as well as contain commer- 
cial forests, depending somewhat on 
local conditions. 

6. In relating the wild life to the 
public a variety of experimental popu- 
lar publications is advocated. Techni- 
cal reports are needed for Park officials. 
We need a distinctive park literature. 

7. Field excursions conducted by 
trained guides are advocated, to de- 
velop trails and a trail literature. 

8. A museum-library, devoted ex- 
clusively to the particular park, should 
be equipped for exhibits, lectures, dem- 
onstrations, lantern slides and moving 
pictures, to arouse interest primarily 
in the local park. This should be the 
headquarters for the guide service. 

9. A local zoological garden of the 
park animals only should stimulate 
interest in those in the park. 

10. The maintenance of a virgin 
wilderness park is very difficult, but 
not a hopeless problem, if proper public 
sentiment is developed in its behalf. 

11. The education and training of 
park officials of all kinds is urgently 
emphasized. As a means to this end 
park policies should be formulated and 
published with a full explanation of 
park ideals. 

12. The far-reaching importance of 
preserving original habitat conditions 
for plants and animals from an educa- 
tional aesthetic and scientific standpoint 
is strongly emphasized. The value of 
State Parks in this plan is very impor- 
tant. 

13. To develop public appreciation 
and utilization of parks, large endow- 



50 



NATURALIST'S GUIDE TO THE AMERICAS 



ments are needed to supplement public 
support. The greatest progress is made 
where public and private aid is com- 
bined with high and practical idealism. 
A movement should be started for en- 
dowments for educational and scientific 
work in both National and State Parks. 

14. Park endowments are perhaps 
one of the best means of developing a 
technical staff for our parks. The 
preservation of wild life requires such 
supervision by specialists. 

15. The wild life problem suffers 
from the major defects of our democratic 
system of control, and its welfare de- 
pends fundamentally upon improve- 
ments in this. 

REFERENCES TO LITERATURE 

Adams, Charles C. 

1908: The Ecological Succession of 
Birds. The Auk, Vol. 25, pp. 
109-153. 

1908a. Some of the Advantages of an 
Ecological Organization of a 
Natural History Museum. 
Proc. Assoc. Museums, Vol. 1, 
pp. 170-177. 

1910. The Relation of Field Excur- 
sions to the Activities of 
Local Museums. Proc. Amer. 
Assoc. Museums, Vol. 4. pp. 
112-124. 

1913. "The Value and Method of 
Ecological Surveys." Guide 
to the Study of Animal Ecol- 
ogy, pp. 23-35. N. Y. 

1919. An Ecological Survey of the 

Palisades Interstate Park. 
Empire Forester, N. Y. State 
College of Forestry, Syracuse. 
Vol. 5, pp. 12-18. 

1920. The Relation of Natural History 

and Ecology to Public Forest 
Parks. N. Y. State College 
of Forestry, Syracuse, Bull. 
No. 10, pp. 11-14. 

1921. Delights of the Wild Forest 

Trail. State Service (Maga- 
zine), Vol. 5. pp. 100-103. 

1921a. Suggestions for the Manage- 
ment of Forest Wild Life in 
the Allegany State Park, New 
York. Roosevelt Wild Life 
Bull., Vol. 1, pp. 62-74. 
Adams, Charles C., Hankinson, T. L., 
and Kendall, W. C. 

1919. A Preliminary Report on a 
Fish Cultural Policy for the 
Palisades if Interstate Park. 
Trans. Amer. Fish Soc. } Vol. 
48, pp. 193-04. 



Ahrens, Theodor G. 

1921. Aims and Status of Plant and 

Animal Preserve Work in Eur- 
ope, with Special Reference to 
Germany including a List of 
the Most Important Publica- 
tions on These Preserves. 
Roosevelt Wild Life Bull., 
Vol. 1, pp. 83-94. * 
Ashe, W. W. 

1922. Reserved Areas of Principal 

Forest Types as a Guide in 
Developing an American Silvi- 
culture. Jour. Forestry, Vol. 
20, pp. 276-283. 
Brown, Edward F. 

1920. Social Aspects of Park Admin- 
istration. N. Y. State College 
of Forestry, Syracuse, Bull. 
No. 10, pp. 47-66. 

1920a. Camping Facilities in the Pali- 
sades Interstate Park. N. Y. 
State College of Forestry, 
Syracuse, Bull. No. 10, pp. 
67-79. 

Buxton, Edward North 
1884. Epping Forest. Pp. 1-147. 

London. 
Conwentz, H. 

1909. The Care of Natural Monuments 
with Special Reference to 
Great Britain and Germany. 
Pp. 1-185. Cambridge, Eng- 
land. 

Graves, C. Edward 
1919. A Plan for a Nature Library. 
Library Journal, Vol. 44, pp. 
707-710. 

Grinnell, Joseph 

1914. Bird Life as a Community Asset. 
Calif. Fish and Game, Vol. 1, 
pp. 1-3. 

Grinnell, Joseph, and Storer, Tracy I. 
1916. Animal Life as an Asset of 
National Parks. Science, N. 
S., Vol. 44, pp. 375-380. 
Hahn, Walter L. 

1913. The Future of the North 
American Fauna. Pop. Sci. 
Monthly, Vol. 83, pp. 169-177. 
Haddon, A. C. 

1903. The Saving of Vanishing Data. 
Pop. Sci. Monthly, Vol. 62, pp. 
222-229. 
Heller, Edmund 

1925. The Big Game Animals 'of 
Yellowstone National Park. 
Roosevelt Wild Life Bull, Vol. 
3, pp. 405-467. 
Jessup, Elon fl 

1919. The /Strangest Camp in the 
World. Outing, Vol. 75, pp. 
155-160. 



USES OF NATURAL AREAS 



51 



Korstian, Clarence F. 
1921. Grazing Practice on the Na- 
tional Forests and its Effect 
on Natural Conditions. Sci. 
Monthly, Vol. 13, pp. 275-281. 

Leopold, Aldo 

1921. The Wilderness and its Place in 

Forest Recreational Policy. 

Jour. Forestry, Vol. 19, pp. 

718-721. 
Mills, Enos A. 
1920. The Adventures of a Nature 

Guide. Pp. 1-271. New York. 
Pearson, G. A. 

1922. Preservation of Natural Areas 

in the National Forests. 
Ecology, Vol. 3, pp. 284-287. 
Safford, W. E. 

1919. Natural History of Paradise Key 

and the Near-by Everglades 
of Florida. Smithsonian 
Report for 1917, pp. 377-434. 
Shelford, Victor E. 

1920. Preserves of Natural Conditions. 

Trans. III. State Acad Sci.. 
Vol. 13, pp. 37-58. 
Silloway, P. M. 

1920. Guide to the Summer Birds of 
the Bear Mountain and Harri- 
man Park Sections of the Pali- 
sades Interstate Park. N. 
Y. State College of Forestry, 
Syracuse, Bull. No. 11, pp. 
1-105. 



1920a. The Palisades Interstate Park: 
A Study in Recreational For- 
estry. The N. Y. State Col- 
lege of Forestry, Syracuse, 
Bull. No. 10, pp. 15-45. 

Skinner, M. P. 

1925. The Birds of Yellowstone Na- 
tional Park. Roosevelt Wild 
Life Bull, Vol. 3, pp. 1-189. 

Smith, Harlan I. 

1914. Handbook of the Rocky Moun- 
tains Park Museum, Dept. of 
Interior, Canada, Dominion 
Parks Branch. Pp. 1-126. 

Sumner, Francis B. 

1920. The Need for a More Serious 

Effort to Rescue a Few Frag- 
ments of Vanishing Nature. 
Sci. Monthly, Vol. 10, pp. 236- 

1921. The Responsibility of the Biol- 

ogist in the Matter of Pre- 
serving Natural Conditions. 
Science, N. S., Vol. 54, pp. 
o9 4o. 

Waugh, Frank A. 

1918. A National Park Policy. Sci. 
Monthly, Vol. 6, pp. 305-318. 

1922. What is a Forest? Jour. For- 

estry, Vol. 20, pp. 209-214. 



F. DUTY OF SCIENTIFIC MEN 



1. THE DUTY OF SCIENTIFIC MEN 
IN CONSERVATION 

BYH. S. GRAVES 

The conservation movement of a 
few years ago crystallized and brought 
to public attention a great principle, 
one so far reaching that its real sig- 
nificance and scope are even today not 
generally grasped. Regardless of how 
the term may be defined, the problem 
of conservation involves the whole 
question of the relation of our natural 
resources to the economic life and up- 
building of the country. We have to 
do not merely with the prevention of 
waste and economical use of our re- 
sources, but also with the problem of 
how these resources may render their 
highest service in building up local com- 
munities, maintaining our industries, 
and contributing to a strong civiliza- 
tion. 

We can point to considerable progress 
in certain features of conservation 
during the past decade. Scientific men 
have conducted research of great value 
that already is resulting in new uses of 
various raw materials, in more eco- 
nomical methods of handling them, and 
in improved methods of perpetuating 
those resources which are renewable; 
engineers are giving more attention 
than formerly to the problem of pre- 
venting unnecessary losses in the ex- 
ploitation of raw resources; the more 
far-sighted leaders of industry have an 
increasing appreciation of the relation 
of natural resources to the permanence 
of their own enterprises. And yet, the 
conservation principle is making very 
slow headway, when viewed from the 
larger aspects of the economic needs of 
the country. The loss through un- 
necessary waste is still appalling, un- 
economic methods in the use and de- 



velopment of various of the resources 
continue, and the interests of industries 
and communities are already in many 
cases jeopardized by the depletion of 
local sources of raw material. 

Among the obstacles to the more 
rapid application of the principles of 
conservation are ignorance and indif- 
ference on the part of those engaged 
in developing natural resources, un- 
willingness to change old methods, and 
selfishness of individuals who are will- 
ing to sacrifice even the interests of 
their own industry to immediate gains. 
But there are also obstacles of an 
economic and public character, that 
are retarding progress. These relate 
to the character of ownership and con- 
trol of natural resources, to the existing 
organization of certain of the industries 
to problems of transportation, and in 
some cases to questions of taxation 
and the relation of the public to 
industry. 

Scientific research furnishes the foun- 
dation of conservation. Education will 
solve the problem of ignorance and indif- 
ference. The economic and political 
obstacles, however, can usually be 
overcome only through action by the 
public. Thus it is that those who are 
engaged in promoting the principles of 
conservation in their respective fields 
are urging legislation in the federal 
Congress and in state legislatures, 
seeking public aid for private owners of 
resources and for the industries, public 
cooperation in marketing and distri- 
bution, public action in road building 
and other transportation problems, 
and in some instances public control 
over the basic resources themselves, 
over their exploitation, or over the 
distribution of their products. 

The efforts in conservation today are 
scattered among a large number of 



52 



USES OF NATURAL AREAS 



53 



institutions, organizations, and in- 
dividuals. There is a lack of unified 
purpose and direction in the movement. 
Workers in separate fields fail to give 
adequate consideration to the bearing 
of the problems of other resources upon 
their own. Oftentimes there is an 
actual conflict of interests in the use 
and development of two or more re- 
sources that is not being adjusted and 
is leading to public injury. In the 
field of public policy many proposals 
are being made, each perhaps with a 
good purpose, which are not in harmony 
as to principle and often are in conflict, 
with resulting confusion to the public 
and frequent failure to secure the legis- 
lation requested. 

Today there is no central agency, 
governmental or otherwise, that is 
considering our natural resources as a 
whole in their relation to our economic, 
industrial, and social development. 
There is no leadership in conservation in 
its larger aspects, that defines objectives, 
assembles and interprets | the basic 
data regarding our resources, works out 
the principles of harmonizing conflict- 
ing interests in resource development; 
that furnishes, in short, the economic 
background for conservation and the 
principles that must underlie the public 
action necessary to make our natural 
resources render their best service, and 
there is no agency equipped to organize 
the educational work that should be 
introduced into our colleges and schools 
aside from popular education in conser- 
vation. 

It must be clear to every student of 
the natural resource problem that there 
is an undertaking in conservation of 
great magnitude awaiting leadership 
and organized effort. There is an op- 
portunity and, in my opinion, a duty 
for the great national organizations of 
scientific men to join hands in assuming 



this leadership. They are in a position 
to bring into harmony the objectives, 
the policies, and the efforts of those 
working in the several branches of 
natural resources. Under their guid- 
ance and inspiration there could be 
assembled the available information 
regarding our natural resources, and 
the interpretation of the problems of 
conservation from the broad view- 
point of the relation of all resources 
to our national development. The 
scientific organization would thus be 
able to contribute to the formulation 
of public policies, and to aid in bringing 
about their adoption, and finally it 
would be possible for them through 
existing agencies to carry out an edu- 
cational plan for the introduction of 
appropriate studies in conservation in 
our schools and colleges, and to for- 
ward a far-reaching campaign of popu- 
lar education. 

The appointment of conservation 
committees by the National Academy 
of Sciences, the National Research 
Council, and the American Association 
for the Advancement of Science, and 
the meeting of these committees for 
the consideration of joint action, should 
prove to be the first step in a new leader- 
ship that will give power to the con- 
servation movement, with the promise 
of very large achievement. 

In my opinion a very great responsi- 
bility rests upon scientific men. We 
have an opportunity to organize the 
intellectual forces of the country in a 
movement that will have a profound 
influence upon the future well-being 
of the country. Our action may de- 
termine the direction of that movement, 
and whether it will be effective or lag 
behind for lack of leadership. A great 
public interest depends upon our fore- 
sight and vision, upon our ability to 
plan with wisdom. 



III. ORIGINAL BIOTA OF THE AMERICAS 
NORTH OF THE AMAZON 



A. INTRODUCTION 



BY V. E. SHELFORD 



The early naturalist travellers de- 
scribed the regions which they visited 
in terms of the vegetation landscape 
aspect. Brehm and others wrote on 
tundra, steppe, desert coniferous forest, 
etc., and described the behavior charac- 
teristics and mode of life of their larger 
animals. Of the Arctic fox Brehm 
says: "Of the slyness and ingenuity, 
the calculating craft, the never failing 
presence of mind of his congeners he 
evinces hardly a trace. His disposi- 
tion is bold and forward, his manner 
officious, his behavior foolish." Many 
other naturalists made observations 
of this type relative to the animals of 
natural vegetation landscape aspect 
regions. 

With the acceptance of evolutionary 
doctrine attention turned to the seeking 
of facts which supported doctrines of 
origin, migration, modification, and 
adaptation, and naturalistic observa- 
tions relative to behavior, mode of life, 
etc., of animals received little attention 
from travellers, naturalists, and col- 
lectors. The description of vegetation 
in relation to climate, etc., however, 
received a less serious check. In recog- 
nizing natural regions these landscape 
aspects still serve as a general guide in 
modern ecology but the limits of areas 
may be made on the basis of climax 
communities whenever investigations 
have demonstrated the facts. A cli- 
max community may occur only locally, 
for example within the coniferous forest 
of southeastern United States, which 
is commonly regarded as giving way to 
a deciduous climax. In this case there 
are two landscape aspects and only one 
climatic climax. The nature of the 
climax communities has been deter- 
mined only for a few regions in tem- 
perate latitude. Accordingly landscape 



aspect must serve as the chief guide 
and plant ecologists of necessity ap- 
proach the subject of plant geography 
from the standpoint of the landscape 
aspects and physiological characters 
of the plants of the larger plant com- 
munities. Animal ecologists recognize 
the value of such a viewpoint as applied 
to animals, but so far they have made 
little progress with it largely because 
little investigation has been done. As 
a rule zoogeographical discussions have 
proceeded along the line of refinements 
of Wallace's faunistic ideas, of tracing 
paths of migration for particular groups 
of species or genera, etc. The point 
of view of those using life zones based 
largely on temperature is largely de- 
scriptive, but has been related to fau- 
nistic (i.e., evolutionary) work rather 
than physiology. They have made 
few or no attempts to find differences 
in physiological life histories, habits, 
etc., between animals in different re- 
gions, or similarities of those in like 
regions. The ideas of modern ecologi- 
cal geography are known to but few 
zoological investigators. 

The ecology of animal communities 
which is the basis of modern animal 
ecology has received little attention. 
While much zoological work is referred 
to as "ecology," especially among 
economic entomologists, analysis shows 
that it is largely the ecology of par- 
ticular species and individuals (aute- 
cology). In other words it is a con- 
tinuation of the old natural history 
under the new name. Where com- 
munity studies are made, too often only 
a part of the animals are considered so 
that we find such misnomers as "Insect 
Associations," etc. Though the es- 
sential principles were recognized by 
a few early zoologists (Mobius, 1877 



57 



58 



NATURALIST'S GUIDE TO THE AMERICAS 



and 1880) there is nothing in zoological 
literature representing the essence of 
modern synecology as do Clements' 
two works on plants. (Succession, 1916, 
and Plant Indicators, 1920.) Clements 
has for some time recognized the im- 
portance of considering animals in 
plant ecology. Plant ecologists in gen- 
eral are prone to describe formations 
and associations, often without giving 
a comprehensive idea of the nature of 
an area as an animal habitat. For 
example the combination grassland and 
streamside and grove forest of the 
Mississippi Valley which, on account 
of animal movement, seems best named 
savanna, was referred to in several 
manuscripts as deciduous forest and 
prairie without any statement as to 
arrangement and relative area of the 
two. Many of the original large and 
small animals of this region, charac- 
teristically divided their time (usually 
seasonally) between the two plant 
communities or lived at the shrubby 
border between them. Plant ecologists 
appear to have recognized the symbiotic 
relation of plants and animals in com- 
munities only to a small degree. Ani- 
mal ecologists have of course not con- 
tributed their share of knowledge for 
reasons already noted. Movement of 
animals from one small plant community 
to another may be as important to the 
general biota as is number of dominants 
or at least secondary considerations 
concerning plants in communities. 

While faunistic zones agree with 
vegetation in some cases, those who use 
life zones often divide regions with 
similar climate and uniform vegetation 
into two or more zones because the 
species are different, though physiolog- 
ical relations may be supposed to be 
similar (Chapman, 1917). It may be 
said that floristic and faunistic geog- 
raphy including life zone work rests 
on a background of evolution and migra- 
tion, while ecological plant and animal 
geography have a similar relation to 
(climatic) conditions and physiology. 

No one doubts that the life zones as 
used mainly by zoologists are a correct 



representation of certain facts of rela- 
tionship, and are worthy of scientific 
recognition. They do, however, vio- 
late two important principles or methods 
of modern ecology. In the first place 
they fail to separate the local communi- 
ties determined by soil, water, etc., 
from the extensive communities which 
are commonly regarded as determined 
by climate. Life zone index organisms 
are as likely to belong to local areas 
such as stream margins or other early 
stages in succession as otherwise. 
Second, the life zones sometimes divide 
a uniform climax association into two 
or three parts as in the case with de- 
ciduous forest and mixed prairie. In 
much of the United States life zones 
are separated by east and west lines 
and plant communities by north and 
south lines. To the north in Canada 
the two appear to be in better agree- 
ment. In the Rocky Mountains they 
are sometimes in agreement and some- 
times not. In the tropics most of the 
life zone studies have been carried on 
in mountainous regions. While the 
work is largely descriptive, the expres- 
sion of the viewpoint is found in Chap- 
man's introduction, in which he states 
that "To determine the boundaries of 
zones and faunas as they are manifest 
by birds and mammals is our first aim 
. . . and trust that we may throw 
some light on laws governing the origin 
of species. . . ." This is not the 
object of modern ecology, which is on 
the contrary concerned with symbiosis 
(sense broad) succession, climax types, 
and physiological relations to the 
physical environment and its rhythmic 
phenomena, etc. 

However, it is true that the life zones 
pointed out by investigators in Central 
and South America do consist of one 
or more landscape aspect areas. The 
investigators along this line possess an 
excellent knowledge of the landscape 
aspect types. Accordingly, a measure 
of agreement has been reached for the 
tropics; though starting from two quite 
different viewpoints, it is evident that 
agreement cannot be general. Parallel 



ORIGINAL BIOTA OF THE AMERICAS 



tables have been developed to show the 
relations of the two kinds of regions. 

I. NORTH AMERICA NORTH OP MEXICO 

The accompanying maps (figs. 1, 2, 
and 3) show the more important exten- 
sive habitats drawn so far as practicable 
on the basis of dominant landscape 
aspect conditions. In differentiating 
the areas, plants, animals, and climate 
were considered. 

a. Plants and animals 

From the standpoint of the larger 
animals the following are of much im- 
portance and should tend to outweigh 
minor botanical considerations: 

Is the forest evergreen or do the 
leaves fall, thus accentuating the sever- 
ity of adverse seasons? 

Are grasses or other plants present 
which afford dry food in cold or dry 
seasons? 

Is the vegetation of such height and 
density as to afford shelter for larger 
animals, or is it short-stemmed and 



inconspicuous, or scattered and non- 
shade producing? 

b. Climate 

The most important question about 
climate is probably the character of 
the annual march of rainfall, of tem- 
perature, and of other factors. 

The accompanying maps 1 are very 
generalized. Figure 1 is based largely 
on Shreve's map for the United States, 
on the maps of Schimper and of Hardy 
on Koppen's Classification of climate, 
and Bartholomew's Atlas. The de- 
scriptions of vegetation are modifica- 
tions of Shreve's. Some modifications 
of the plant regions have been made 
because of facts about animals. For 
instance, an area like the Snake River 
Plains which once supported herds of 
bison should hardly be called desert. 

1 Submitted to the members of the committee. 
Suggestions by B. E. Livingston, F. Shreve, W. E. 
Lawrence, H. C. Cowles, G. B. Rigg, G. E. Nichols, 
C. D. Howe, E. N. Transeau, J. W. Harshberger, 
G. P. Burns, C. O. Rosendahl, E. Lucy Braun, R. 
M. Harper (botanists) and J. R. Watson, W. G. 
Van Name, A. S. Pearse (zoologists) were adopted 
and are as represented in figure 3 and those parts 
of the United States shown in figure 4. 



B. DESCRIPTIVE LIST OF NORTH AMERICAN BIOTA (SOUTH TO 

CENTRAL MEXICO) 

BY V. E. SHELFORD, L. JONES AND L. R. DICE 



1. ARCTIC TUNDRA, OR BARREN GROUND 

BIOTA (ARCTIC TUNDRA OP 

CLEMENTS) 

Extensive areas in the northern part 
of the continent have long cold winters 
and little rainfall. In the more north- 
ern localities the ground thaws only 
at the surface and a growth of herba- 
ceous plants springs up in the summer. 
There are dense growths of grass, many 
miniature shrubs, shown in black on 
the map, considerable areas of high 
tundra, especially in Alaska. Large 
areas of perpetual snow are included. 

It supports muskoxen (Ovibos mos- 
chatus subspp.), barren ground caribou 
(Rangifer spp.), arctic hare (Lepus 
arcticus group), arctic fox (Alopex spp.). 
The chief local conditions are swamps 
and ponds, which support hordes of 
mosquitoes. 

The breeding birds 1 include the fol- 
lowing: willow ptarmigan, rock ptar- 
migan, white gyrfalcon, gray gyrfalcon, 
gyrfalcon, black gyrfalcon, snowy owl, 
horned lark, pallid horned lark, Green- 
land redpoll, hoary redpoll, greater 
redpoll, snow bunting, Lapland long- 
spur, Alaska longspur, Smith's longspur, 
Alaska yellow wagtail, and pipit. 

Breeding birds whose habitat is 
limited to the presence of water, gen- 
erally a local condition, include the 
following: yellow-billed loon, Pacific 
loon, red-throated loon, pomarine jae- 
ger, parasitic jaeger, long-tailed jaeger, 
red-breasted merganser, old-squaw, 
Harlequin duck, Steller's eider, spec- 
tacled eider, King eider, Pacific eider, 
scoter, white winged scoter, snow goose, 
white-fronted goose, whistling swan, 

1 English names conform strictly to the A. O. U. 
Check-list, unless otherwise specifically noted. 



red phalarope, northern phalarope, 
long-billed dowitcher, stilt sandpiper, 
knot, purple sandpiper, pectoral sand- 
piper, white-rumped sandpiper, Baird's 
sandpiper, least sandpiper, red-backed 
sandpiper, semipalmated sandpiper, 
western sandpiper, sanderling, Hud- 
sonian godwit, yellow-legs, buff- 
breasted sandpiper, Hudsonian curlew, 
Eskimo curlew, black-bellied plover, 
golden plover, Pacific golden plover, 
semipalmated plover, turnstone, ruddy 
turnstone, and black turnstone. 

la. ALPINE STEPPE OR HIGH TUNDRA 
(PARAMOS OP PENNELL) (APLINE SUM- 
MITS, SHREVE) (APLINE MEADOW CLI- 
MAX, CLEMENTS) 

Sedge, grass, and herb covered areas 
in high mountains. The large mam- 
mals include bighorn sheep (Ovis cana- 
densis subspp.), and Rocky Mountain 
goat (Oreamnos americanus subspp.). 
Rosy finches and white-tailed ptarmigan 
are characteristic birds. 

2. NORTHERN CONIFEROUS FOREST BIOTA 
(NORTHERN MESOPHYTIC EVERGREEN 
FOREST, SHREVE) 

"This extensive region is characterized 
throughout by a pure or nearly pure 
stand of needle-leaved evergreen trees, 
among which deciduous trees are often 
present either as minor components of 
the forest or else as trees of lower 
stature. Virgin stands of this forest 
range from 60 to 125 ft. in height and 
vary from open park-like formations to 
heavy forest with a completely shaded 
floor. The heaviest stands are almost 
devoid of shrubby undergrowth, but the 
more open ones are accompanied by 
deciduous shrubs and under-trees. In 



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ORIGINAL BIOTA OF THE AMERICAS 



61 



spite of the essential identity of this 
forest from the Pacific to the Atlantic 
it is nevertheless made up of a large 
number of tree species. Very many 
extensive areas are formed by a single 
species and many others by an admixture 
in which not more than three or four 
species are involved. In the eastern 
portion of the area the white pine 
(P. strobus), the hemlock (Tsuga can- 
adensis}, the jack pine (P. divaricata} , 
and the balsam fir (Abies balsamea), 
are the most common species." 

Northern localities with cold wet 
winters and usually as much as 50 in. 
of snow in winter. 

The open marshes and margins of 
lakes are the favorite haunts of the 
moose. The chief local conditions are 
ponds and marshes of various types, 
which are important to migratory birds. 

The mammals include the moose 
(Alces spp.), woodland caribou (Rangi- 
fer spp.), elk (Cervus canadensis subspp.), 
black bear (Ursus americanus group), 
wolverine (Gulo luscus), Canada lynx 
(Lynx canadensis group), Canada wood- 
chuck (Marmota monax canadensis}, 
and red squirrel (Sciurus hudsonicus 



The breeding birds include the fol- 
lowing: Hudsonian spruce partridge, 
Canada spruce partridge, Canada ruffed 
grouse, Nova Scotia ruffed grouse, 
passenger pigeon (extinct), turkey vul- 
ture (southern), swallow-tailed kite 
(formerly), marsh hawk, sharp-shinned 
hawk, Cooper's hawk, goshawk, red- 
tailed hawk, red-shouldered hawk, 
broad-winged hawk, rough-legged hawk, 
golden eagle, duck hawk, pigeon hawk, 
sparrow hawk, long-eared owl, barred 
owl, great gray owl, Richardson's 
owl, saw-whet owl, screech owl, great 
horned owl (eastern), western horned 
owl (central, northerly), arctic horned 
owl (northern), pale horned owl (cen- 
tral, southerly), Newfoundland horned 
owl (Newfoundland, Nova Scotia, Lab- 
rador), hawk owl, yellow-billed cuckoo 
(south part), black-billed cuckoo (south 
part), northern hairy woodpecker, New- 
foundland woodpecker, downy wood- 



pecker, Newfoundland downy wood- 
pecker, Arctic three-toed woodpecker, 
American three-toed woodpecker, yel- 
low-bellied sapsucker, northern pileated 
woodpecker, red-headed woodpecker, 
northern flicker, whippoorwill, night- 
hawk, chimney swift, ruby-throated 
hummingbird, kingbird, crested fly- 
catcher, phoebe, olive-sided flycatcher, 
wood pewee, yellow-bellied flycatcher, 
least flycatcher, black-billed magpie, 
blue jay, Canada jay, Labrador jay, 
crow, cowbird, Baltimore oriole, 
bronzed grackle, evening grosbeak, 
pine grosbeak, Newfoundland pine gros- 
beak, purple finch, crossbill, white-winged 
crossbill, white-throated sparrow, chip- 
ping sparrow, clay-colored sparrow, 
goldfinch, pine siskin, Harris' sparrow, 
white-crowned sparrow, slate-colored 
junco, song sparrow, Lincoln's sparrow, 
fox sparrow, towhee, rose-breasted gros- 
beak, black-headed grosbeak, scarlet 
tanager, purple martin, cliff swallow, 
barn swallow, Bohemian waxwing, cedar 
waxwing, red-eyed vireo. Philadelphia 
vireo, warbling vireo, yellow-throated 
vireo, blue-headed vireo, black and 
white warbler, golden-winged warbler, 
Nashville warbler, orange-crowned 
warbler, Tennessee warbler, northern 
parula warbler, Cape May warbler, 
black-throated blue warbler, Cairn's 
warbler, myrtle warbler, magnolia war- 
bler, chestnut-sided warbler,bay-breasted 
warbler, black-poll warbler, Black- 
burnian warbler, black-throated green 
warbler, Kirtland's warbler (central 
Michigan), pine warbler, oven-bird, 
mourning warbler, Wilson's warbler, 
Canada warbler, redstart, catbird, 
brown thrasher, house wren, winter 
wren, brown creeper, white-breasted 
nuthatch, red-breasted nuthatch, chick- 
adee, Hudsonian chickadee, Acadian 
chickadee (eastern) ,golden-crowned king- 
let, ruby-crowned kinglet, wood thrush 
(south part),, veery, gray-checked thrush 
(western), Bicknell's thrush (east), 
olive-backed thrush, hermit thrush, 
robin, and bluebird. 

Breeding birds whose habitat is 
generally limited to the pre-forest or 



62 



NATURALIST'S GUIDE TO THE AMERICAS 



other early stages of succession include 
the following: tree sparrow, field spar- 
row, swamp sparrow, indigo bunting, 
northern shrike, white-rumped shrike, 
migrant shrike, yellow warbler, pine 
warbler, palm warbler, and yellow 
palm warbler. 

Breeding birds preferring a moist 
habitat, generally near a stream or swamp, 
include the following: tree swallow, 
bank swallow, rough-winged swallow, 
northern water-thrush, GrinnelFs water- 
thrush, Connecticut warbler, and north- 
ern yellow-throat. 

Breeding birds whose habitat is 
limited to the presence of water, 
generally a local condition, include the 
following: bald eagle, osprey, belted 
kingfisher, and northern raven. 

2a. MOUNTAIN CONIFEROUS FOREST 

(MONTANE FOREST CLIMAX, THE ROCKY 
MOUNTAIN MONTANE FOREST, THE 
SIERRAN MONTANE FOREST, CLEMENTS, 
(HUDSONIAN AND CANADIAN ZONES) 
In the western half of the area the 
yellow pine (Pinus ponderosa), the 
lodgepole pine (P. murrayana), and the 
red fir (Pseudotsuga mucronata) are the 
trees which dominate the most exten- 
sive stands. 

In the montane forests are found such 
characteristic mammals as the yellow- 
bellied marmot (Marmota flaviventris 
subspp.), red squirrel (Subgenus Tamia- 
sciurus), deer-mouse (Peromyscus spp.), 
red-backed vole (Evotomys), chipmunk 
(Eutamias), and flying-squirrel (Glau- 
comys sabrinus subspp.). 

The breeding birds include the fol- 
lowing: dusky grouse (Utah and south), 
Richardson's grouse (Wyoming and 
north), Alaska spruce grouse (Mt. 
McKinley range), Franklin's grouse 
(Idaho and north), gray ruffed grouse 
(Utah and north), band-tailed pigeon 
(Utah and south), sharp-shinned hawk, 
Cooper's hawk, western goshawk, western 
red-tail, golden eagle, pigeon hawk, 
Richardson's pigeon hawk, desert 
sparrow hawk (lower mountains), long- 
eared owl, Richardson's owl, saw-whet 
owl, MacFarlane's screech owl (west 



mountain slope), Rocky Mountain 
screech owl (east mountain slope), 
flammulated screech owl (Colorado 
and south), dusky horned owl, hawk 
owl, Rocky Mountain pygmy owl, 
Rocky Mountain hairy woodpecker, 
Batchelder's woodpecker (British Co- 
lumbia and south), Nelson's downy 
woodpecker (Alberta and north), Arctic 
three-toed woodpecker, Alaska three- 
toed woodpecker (northerly), Alpine 
three-toed woodpecker (southerly), red- 
naped sapsucker, Williamson's sap- 
sucker, northern pileated woodpecker, 
Lewis' woodpecker, red-shafter flicker, 
Stephens' whippoorwill (Arizona and 
south), western nighthawk, black swift, 
white-throated swift, black-chinned 
hummingbird, Rivoli's hummingbird 
(Arizona and south), blue-throated 
hummingbird (Arizona and south), 
broad-tailed hummingbird (Idaho and 
south), rufous hummingbird, calliope 
hummingbird, white-eared humming- 
bird (Arizona and south), broad-billed 
hummingbird (Arizona and south), 
sulphur-bellied flycatcher (Arizona and 
south) olivaceous flycatcher (Arizona 
and south), olive-sided flycatcher 
(Arizona and south), Coues' flycatcher, 
western wood pewee, western flycatcher, 
Hammond's flycatcher, Wright's fly- 
catcher, gray flycatcher (Arizona 
and south), buff -breasted flycatcher 
(Arizona and south), magpie, long- 
crested jay (Wyoming and south), 
black-headed jay (Wyoming and north), 
Rocky Mountain jay, western crow, 
Clarke's nutcracker, pinyon jay, western 
evening grosbeak, Rocky Mountain pine 
grosbeak, Cassin's purple finch, cross- 
bill, white-winged crossbill, pine siskin, 
white-crowned sparrow, Gambel's spar- 
row, western chipping sparrow, white- 
winged junco (Rocky Mountain 
region), Shufeldt's junco (northerly), 
Montana junco (northerly), pink- 
sided junco (southerly), Ridgway's junco 
(Wyoming, Colorado, Arizona, New 
Mexico), Arizona junco (Arizona and 
south), red-backed junco (Arizona and 
south), gray-headed junco (Wyoming 
and south), mountain song sparrow, 



ORIGINAL BIOTA OF THE AMERICAS 



Lincoln's sparrow, slate-colored fox 
sparrow, Arctic towhee, green-tailed 
towhee, black-headed grosbeak, Lazuli 
bunting, western tanager, hepatic 
tanager (Arizona and south), purple 
martin, cliff swallow, barn swallow, 
Bohemian waxwing (northerly), cedar 
waxwing (southerly), red-eyed vireo, 
(low elevations), western warbling vireo, 
Cassin's vireo (north and west), plum- 
beous vireo (east and south), Virginia's 
warbler (southern), orange-crowned 
warbler, Tennessee warbler, olive war- 
bler, Hoover's warbler, Audubon's warb- 
ler, black-fronted warbler, Grace's 
warbler, black-throated gray warbler, 
Townsend's warbler, Macgillivray's war- 
bler, long-tailed chat, pileolated war- 
bler, redstart, painted redstart, red- 
faced warbler (Arizona and south), cat- 
bird, rock wren, western house wren, 
western winter wren, Rocky Mountain 
creeper, Rocky Mountain nuthatch, red- 
breasted nuthatch, pygmy nuthatch, 
gray titmouse, long-tailed chickadee, 
Mexican chickadee, mountain chickadee, 
Hudsonian chickadee, chestnut-backed 
chickadee, lead-colored bush-tit, western 
golden-crowned kinglet, ruby-crowned 
kinglet, Townsend's solitaire, willow 
thrush, olive-backed thrush, Audubon's 
hermit thrush, western robin, northern 
varied thrush, western bluebird, azure 
bluebird, chestnut-backed bluebird, 
mountain bluebird. 

Breeding birds whose habitat is 
generally limited to the preforest or 
other early stages of succession include 
the following: pale goldfinch, western 
tree sparrow, northern shrike (north- 
erly), white-rum ped shrike (low eleva- 
tions), and yellow warbler. 

Breeding birds preferring a moist 
habitat, generally near a stream or 
swamp, include the following : tree swal- 
low, northern violet-green swallow, 
bank swallow, rough-winged swallow, 
Grinnell water-thrush, and western 
yellow-throat. 

Breeding birds whose habitat is 
limited to the presence of water, gener- 
ally a local condition, include the fol- 
lowing: nothern bald eagle, duck hawk, 
osprey, and dipper. 



3. NORTHWESTERN MOIST CONIFEROUS 
FOREST BIOTA (NORTHWESTERN HYDRO- 
PHYTIC EVERGREEN FOREST, SHREVE) 
(INCLUDES THE LARCH-PINE FOREST 
AND THE CEDAR-HEMLOCK FOREST; 
CLEMENTS) (THE COAST FOREST CLI- 
MAX, CLEMENTS) 

The climate is mild with some rain in 
all seasons but especially in winter. 

This is "a well-marked type of forest 
characterized by density of stand and 
by the size of its trees, which commonly 
reach 100 to 125 ft. in height and are 
often in excess of this. The floor of the 
forest is heavily shaded and supports 
relatively few deciduous under-trees, 
although there is usually a rich growth 
of shrubs and of ferns, mosses, and other 
herbaceous plants. The trees which 
characterize this area are the Douglas 
fir (Pseudotsuga mucronata), redwood 
(Sequoia sempervirens), western hem- 
lock (Tsuga heterophylla) , canoe cedar 
(Thuja plicata), grand fir (Abies grandis) 
and others." 

The mammals include the elk (Cervus 
canadensis occidentalism black bear 
(Ursus americanus group), bob cat 
(Lynx fasciatus group), and black- 
tailed deer (Odocoileus columbianus 
subspp.). 

The breeding birds include the fol- 
lowing : mountain quail, California quail, 
sooty grouse, Oregon ruffed grouse, 
band-tailed pigeon, dusky mourning 
dove, marsh hawk, sharp-shinned hawk, 
Cooper hawk, western goshawk, western 
red-tailed hawk, Alaska red-tail (South- 
east Alaska), golden eagle, Peale's 
falcon, black pigeon hawk, sparrow 
hawk, spotted owl, saw-whet owl (ex- 
cept Queen Charlotte), island saw-whet 
owl (except Queen Charlotte), Ken- 
nicott's screech owl (Oregon and north), 
Brewster's screech owl (Oregon and 
south), dusky horned owl, Vancouver 
pygmy owl (Vancouver Islands), coast 
pygmy owl (Washington and south), 
California pygmy owl (Montery, etc.), 
California cuckoo (Washington and 
south), Harris' woodpecker (north), 
white-breasted woodpecker (south), 
Sitka hairy woodpecker (Southeast Al- 



64 



NATURALIST'S GUIDE TO THE AMERICAS 



aska), Gairdner's woodpecker (British 
Columbia and south), Valdez downy 
woodpecker (British Columbia and 
north), red-breasted woodpecker (Cali- 
fornia), northern red-breasted sapsucker 
(California and north), western pileated 
woodpecker, California woodpecker 
(Oregon and south), northwestern flicker, 
Pacific nighthawk, black swift, Vaux's 
swift, white-throated swift, rufous hum- 
mingbird, Allen's hummingbird, olive- 
sided flycatcher, western flycatcher, 
Traill's flycatcher, Hammond's fly- 
catcher, Steller's jay (Washington and 
north), coast jay (Oregon and south), 
California jay (south), Oregon jay, 
western crow (Washington and south), 
northwestern crow (Washington and 
north), Bullock's oriole, Brewer's black- 
bird, western evening grosbeak, Kadiak 
pine grosbeak, California purple finch, 
crossbill, pine siskin, Oregon vesper 
sparrow, Nuttall's sparrow (British 
Columbia and north), golden-crowned 
sparrow (British Columbia and north), 
western chipping sparrow, Oregon junco, 
Point Pinos junco (Monterey district), 
rusty song sparrow (Washington and 
north), sooty song sparrow (Alaska 
coast), San Diego song sparrow (Mon- 
terey region), mendocino song sparrow 
(Oregon to San Francisco), Forbush's 
sparrow (Alaska coast), sooty fox spar- 
row (British Columbia and Washington), 
Kadiak fox sparrow (Cross Sound and 
north), Townsend's fox sparrow (Cross 
Sound and south), Oregon towhee 
(British Columbia, Washington, Oregon), 
San Francisco towhee (California), black 
headed grosbeak, western martin, cliff 
swallow, barn swallow, western warbling 
vireo, Cassin's vireo, Anthony's vireo, 
Calaveras warbler, lutescent warbler, 
Alaska yellow warbler (Vancouver 
Islands and north), California yellow 
warbler (Washington and south), Audu- 
bon's warbler, Townsend's warbler 
(northerly), hermit warbler (southerly), 
Macgillivray's warbler, golden pileo- 
lated warbler, rock wren (Oregon to 
Vancouver Islands), western house wren, 
western winter wren, California creeper, 
slender-billed nuthatch, red-breasted 



nuthatch, Oregon chickadee, chestnut- 
backed chickadee (Sonoma County, 
California and north), California chicka- 
dee (Sonoma and Marin Counties), 
Barlow's chickadee (Monterey region), 
bush-tit, coast wren-tit (Oregon to 
Humboldt Bay, California), ruddy wren- 
tit (Humboldt County and south), 
western golden-crowned kinglet, sitka 
kinglet (British Columbia and north), 
Townsend's solitaire, russet-backed 
thrush, Alaska hermit thrush, dwarf 
hermit thrush, Monterey hermit thrush, 
western robin, varied thrush, northern 
varied thrush, western bluebird, moun- 
tain bluebird. 

Breeding birds whose habitat is 
generally limited to the preforest or 
other early stages of succession include 
the following : western meadowlark, wil- 
low goldfinch, and western tree sparrow 
(north). 

Breeding birds preferring a moist 
habitat, generally near a stream or 
swamp, include the following: north- 
western red-wing, bicolored red-wing, 
tree swallow, northern violet-green 
swallow, bank swallow, rough-winged 
swallow, and Pacific yellow-throat 
(British Columbia and south'). 

Breeding birds whose habitat is 
limited to the presence of water, gener- 
ally local condition, include the fol- 
lowing : northwestern coast heron (Wash- 
ington and north), California heron 
(Washington and south), spotted sand- 
piper, bald eagle, northern bald eagle 
(north), osprey, northern belted king- 
fisher, northern raven, and dipper. 

4. XEROPHYTIC CONIFEROUS FOREST 
BIOTA (NOT INDICATED ON THE MAP) 
(WESTERN XEROPHYTIC EVERGREEN 
FOREST, SHREVE) (THE WOODLAND 
CLIMAX : PINE JUNIPER FORMATION, CLE- 
MENTS) (INCLUDES PINYON CEDAR WOOD- 
LAND; OAK-CEDAR WOODLAND ', PINE- 
OAK WOODLAND IN PART, CLEMENTS) 

This type lies between the northern 
coniferous forest and the desert and 
semi-desert areas in the United States 
and northern Mexico. It does not 
cover an extensive area. 



ORIGINAL BIOTA OF THE AMERICAS 



65 



It is "an open forest of low stature, the 
trees seldom exceeding 40 ft. in height. 
The needle-leaved and scale-leaved 
evergreens are the dominant trees, but 
the forest is everywhere accompanied by 
shrubbery and by some succulent or 
semi-succulent plants, and is carpeted in 
many localities by an open growth of 
perennial grasses. Along the Mexican 
boundary this forest merges into the 
encinal, or evergreen oak type. The 
dominant species of the Xerophytic 
Evergreen Forest vary from state to 
state but are in almost all cases either 
junipers or pinyons." 

Among the characteristic mammals 
are the woodrats (Neotoma spp.), deer- 
mice (Peromyscus spp.), and cottontail 
rabbit (Sylvilagus audubonii subspp.). 

The breeding birds include the fol- 
lowing: white-checked goose, plumed 
quail (Ventura County and north), 
San Pedro quail (San Ber. and San Gab. 
Mountains), Sierra grouse, band-tailed 
pigeon, western mourning dove, Cali- 
fornia vulture (Santa Clara County, 
south), turkey vulture, sharp-shinned 
hawk, Cooper's hawk, western goshawk, 
western red-tailed hawk, golden eagle, 
desert sparrow hawk, spotted owl, 
Pasadena screech owl, Pacific horned 
owl, pygmy owl, Sierra woodpecker, 
Cabanis woodpecker, Nuttall's wood- 
pecker, white-headed woodpecker, Si- 
erra three-toed woodpecker, red-naped 
sapsucker, red-breasted sapsucker, Wil- 
liamson's sapsucker, northern pileated 
woodpecker, Lewis' woodpecker, red- 
shafted flicker, western nighthawk, 
black swift, white-throated swift, black- 
chinned hummingbird, broad-tailed hum- 
mingbird, rufous hummingbird, cal- 
liope hummingbird, ash-throated fly- 
catcher, olive-sided flycatcher, western 
wood pewee, Hammond's flycatcher, 
Wright's flycatcher, gray flycatcher, 
blue-fronted jay, California jay, gray 
jay, Clark's nutcracker, pinyon jay, 
tricolored blackbird, Bullock's oriole, 
Brewer's blackbird, western evening 
grosbeak, California pine grosbeak, 
Cassin's purple finch, Mexican crossbill, 
green-backed goldfinch, pine siskin, 



white-crowned sparrow, Thurber's junco, 
western chipping sparrow, black-chinned 
sparrow, mountain song sparrow, Lin- 
coln's sparrow, thick-billed fox spar- 
row (northerly), Stephens 1 fox sparrow 
(southerly), spurred towhee, green- 
tailed towhee, black-headed grosbeak, 
Lazule bunting, western tanager, west- 
ern martin, western warbling vireo, 
Cassin's vireo, gray vireo (Cajon Pass 
and south), Calaveras warbler, hermit 
warbler, lutescent warbler, Audubon's 
warbler, black-throated gray warbler, 
Townsend's warbler, Macgillivray's war- 
bler, golden pileolated warbler, Cali- 
fornia thrasher, rock wren, dotted 
canyon wren, western house wren, 
western winter wren, Sierra creeper, 
slender-billed nuthatch, red-breasted 
nuthatch, pygmy nuthatch, gray tit- 
mouse, mountain chickadee, lead-col- 
ered bush-tit, western golden-crowned 
kinglet, ruby-crowned kinglet, Town- 
send's solitaire, Sierra hermit thrush, 
western robin, western bluebird, moun- 
tain bluebird. 

Breeding birds whose habitat is gener- 
ally limited to the preforest or other 
early stages of succession include the 
western vesper sparrow and the Cali- 
fornia yellow warbler. 

Breeding birds whose habitat is 
limited to the presence of water, gener- 
ally a local condition, include the follow- 
ing : merganser, hooded merganser, wood 
duck, Harlequin duck, spotted sand- 
piper, and dipper. 

5. POPLAR GROVE SAVANNA BIOTA 

("PARK STEPPE" OF HARDY) 

A narrow strip skirting the coniferous 
forest on the west and south in Min- 
nesota, Wisconsin, Manitoba, Saskat- 
chewan and Alberta. It consists of 
groves of poplar or low shrubs, the 
former with characteristic forest edge 
lying in a mesophytic prairie. In 
some localities the grassland forms 
islands. The mammals include forest 
bison (Bison bison athabascae), mule 
deer (Odocoileus hemionus*), skunk (Me- 
phitis hudsonica), raccoon (Procyon I. 
lotor), and red fox (Vulpes fulva). 



66 



NATURALIST'S GUIDE TO THE AMERICAS 



6. DECIDUOUS FOREST BIOTA 

Occupies areas with rainfall through- 
out the year, especially in spring. 

"The extensive area chiefly east of the 
Mississippi and south of the Great 
Lakes, which was formerly occupied by 
an almost unbroken forest of a score or 
more of deciduous trees. A few prairies 
occur in the southern portion of the area 
and evergreen needle-leaved trees occupy 
bluffs and shallow soil in the mountains. 
The commonest trees are species of 
oak (Quercus), hickory (Hicoria), chest- 
nut (Castanet, beech (Fagus), maple 
(Acer), walnut (Juglans), tulip (Lirio- 
dendron], and ash (Fraxinus) ." 

The mammals include the Virginia 
deer (Odocoileus virginianus subspp.), 
black bear (Ursus a. americanus) , bob- 
cat (Lynx r. ruffus), gray fox (Urocyon c. 
cinereoargenteus) , red fox (Vulpes fulva), 
opossum (Didelphis v. virginiana), cot- 
tontail rabbit (Sylvilagus floridanus 
subspp.), and gray squirrel (Sciurus 
carolinensis subspp.). 

Breeding birds include the following: 
ruffed grouse, wild turkey, passenger 
pigeon (extinct), mourning dove, turkey 
vulture, black vulture (south), swallow- 
tailed kite, white-tailed kite, Mississippi 
kite (south), marsh hawk, sharp- 
shinned hawk, Cooper's hawk, red-tailed 
hawk, red-shouldered hawk, broad- 
winged hawk, pigeon hawk, sparrow 
hawk, barn owl, long-eared owl, barred 
owl, saw-whet owl, screech owl, great 
horned owl, Carolina paroquet (for- 
merly), yellow-billed cuckoo, black- 
billed cuckoo, ivory-billed woodpecker 
(south), hairy woodpecker (north), 
southern hairy woodpecker (south), 
southern downy woodpecker (south), 
downy woodpecker (north), red-cock- 
aded woodpecker, pileated woodpecker 
(south), northern pileated woodpecker 
(north), red-headed woodpecker, red- 
bellied woodpecker, flicker (south), 
northern flicker (north), Chuck-will's- 
widow (south), whip-poor-will, night- 
hawk, chimney swift, ruby-throated 
hummingbird, kingbird, crested fly- 
catcher, phoebe, wood pewee, Acadian. 



flycatcher, blue jay, crow, fish crow 
(southeastern), cowbird, orchard oriole, 
Baltimore oriole, purple grackle (Atlan- 
tic Coast south), chipping sparrow, 
Bachman's sparrow, song sparrow, tow- 
hee, cardinal, rose-breasted grosbeak, 
blue grosbeak (south), painted bunting 
(south), scarlet tanager, summer tanager 
(southerly), purple martin, cliff swallow, 
cedar waxwing, red-eyed vireo, warbling 
vireo, yellow-throated vireo, white- 
eyed vireo, black and white warbler, 
worm-eating warbler, Bachman's war- 
bler (south), blue-winged warbler, 
golden-winged warbler, parula warbler 
(south), northern parula warbler (north) 
pine warbler, oven-bird, Kentucky war- 
bler, yellow-breasted chat, redstart, 
mockingbird, catbird, brown thrasher, 
Carolina wren, Bewick's wren, house 
wren, white-breasted nuthatch, brown- 
headed nuthatch (south), tufted tit- 
mouse, chickadee, Carolina chickadee 
(south), blue-gray gnatcatcher, wood 
thrush, robin, southern robin, and 
bluebird. 

Breeding birds whose habitat is gener- 
ally limited to pre-forest or other early 
stages of succession include the follow- 
ing: upland plover, killdeer, bob-white, 
goldfinch, vesper sparrow, field sparrow, 
indigo bunting, loggerhead shrike 
(south), migrant shrike (north), yellow- 
throated warbler, and prairie warbler. 

Breeding birds preferring a moist 
habitat, generally near a stream or 
swamp, include the following: boat- 
tailed grackle (southeast), swamp spar- 
row, tree swallow, bank swallow, rough- 
winged swallow, prothonotary warbler, 
Swainson's warbler (south), sycamore 
warbler, Louisiana water-thrush, Mary- 
land yellow-throat, northern yellow- 
throat, hooded warbler, and short- 
billed marsh wren. 

Breeding birds whose habitat is 
limited to the presence of water, gener- 
ally a local condition, include the follow- 
ing: merganser, wood duck, great blue 
heron, egret (south), snowy egret 
(south), little blue heron (south), green 
heron, black-crowned night heron, yel- 
low-crowned night heron (south), sand- 



ORIGINAL BIOTA OF THE AMERICAS 



67 



hill crane, king rail, Virginia rail, sora, 
yellow rail, black rail, purple gallinule 
(south), Florida gallinule, coot, wood- 
cock, Wilson's snipe, solitary sandpiper, 
spotted sandpiper, piping plover, duck 
hawk, osprey northern raven, red- 
winged blackbird, and long-billed marsh 
wren. 

7. OAK GROVE SAVANNA BIOTA (PARK 
STEPPE OF HARDY IN PART) GRASSLAND- 
DECIDUOUS FOREST TRANSITION, 
SHREVE; SUBCLIMAX PRAIRIE, CLE- 
MENTS) 

An area with little rainfall in winter 
and late summer and heavy rainfall 
in June. 

The rather ill-defined belt in which 
the Deciduous Forest emerges from the 
flood-plains and river margins and 
occupies a portion of the upland. On 
the western edge of the belt there is a 
high percentage of grassland, while in 
the eastern portion the deciduous forest 
becomes nearly continuous. The prin- 
cipal trees of this region are the bur, 
white, and black oaks (Quercus macro- 
carpa, Q. alba, Q. velutina); the principal 
grasses, beard grass (Andropogen fur- 
catus), Indian grass (Sorghastrum 
nutans}. and dropseed (Sporobolus cryp- 
tandrus). 

The forest edge is a very important 
habitat for a few mammals, birds and 
many insects ranging eastward. The 
Franklin ground-squirrel (Citellus frank- 
linii}, and many birds and insects are 
restricted to it. Steppe animals in- 
vaded the grass covered areas while 
the wooded parts supported the Vir- 
ginia deer (Odocoileus virginanus mac- 
rourus), elk (Cervus c. canadensis} , 
raccoon (Procyon I. lotor), gray squirrel 
(Sciurus carolinensis leucotis), and cot- 
tontail rabbit (Sylvilagus floridanus 
mearnsii). 

The species that occur in the decidu- 
ous forest are, for the most part, also 
found in the oak grove savannas. But 
a few species that are confined to the 
southeastern part and the northeastern 
part of the deciduous forest do not find 
their way into the oak grove savannas. 
The oak grove savanna thus become a 
westward extension of the deciduou* 



forest like arms into the grasslands. 
Breeding birds that occur in the oak 
grove savannas are as follows: upland 
plover, turkey vulture, black vulture, 
swallow-tailed kite, Mississippi kite, 
sharp-shinned hawk, Cooper's hawk, 
red-tailed hawk, red-shouldered hawk, 
broad-winged hawk, bald eagle, duck 
hawk, sparrow hawk, great horned owl, 
barn owl, long-eared owl, barred owl, 
saw-whet owl, screech owl, Carolina 
paroquet (formerly), yellow-billed 
cuckoo, black-billed cuckoo, hairy 
woodpecker, downy woodpecker, yellow- 
bellied sapsucker, red-headed wood- 
pecker, red-bellied woodpecker, north- 
ern flicker, whip-poor-will, nighthawk, 
chimney swift, ruby-throated hum- 
mingbird, kingbird, Arkansas kingbird 
(west), crested flycatcher, wood pewee, 
yellow-bellied flycatcher (north), Aca- 
dian flycatcher, least flycatcher, blue 
jay, raven, crow, cowbird, orchard 
oriole, Baltimore oriole, bronzed grackle, 
goldfinch, vesper sparrow, chipping 
sparrow, field sparrow, song sparrow, 
towhee, cardinal, rose-breasted gros- 
beak, painted bunting (south), scar- 
let tanager, summer tauager, purple 
martin, cliff swallow, barn swallow, 
cedar waxwing, loggerhead shrike 
(south), white-rumped shrike, red-eyed 
vireo, warbling vireo, yellow-throated 
vireo, black and white warbler (oc- 
casionally), worm-eating warbler, blue- 
winged warbler (occasionally), cerulean 
warbler, chestnut-sided warbler (oc- 
casionally), prairie warbler, oven-bird, 
yellow-breasted chat, redstart (north), 
mockingbird, catbird, brown thrasher, 
Carolina wren, Bewick's wren, brown 
creeper, white-breasted nuthatch, tufted 
titmouse, chickadee, blue-gray gnat- 
catcher, woodthrush, veery (east), willow 
thrush, robin, and bluebird. 

Breeding birds whose habitat is 
generally limited to the pre-forest or 
other early stages of succession include 
the following: prairie chicken, bob- 
white, short-eared owl, prairie horned 
lark, bobolink, meadowlark, grasshopper 
sparrow, Henslow's sparrow, lark spar- 
row, dickcissel, and indigo bunting. 



68 



NATURALIST'S GUIDE TO THE AMERICAS 



Breeding birds preferring a moist 
habitat, generally near a stream or 
swamp, include the following: green 
heron, black-crowned night heron, sand- 
hill crane, king rail, Virginia rail, sora, 
yellow rail, black rail, purple gallinule 
(south), Florida gallinule, marbled god- 
wit (north), spotted sandpiper, marsh 
hawk, osprey, belted kingfisher, phoebe, 
Traill's flycatcher, savanna sparrow, 
Nelson's sparrow, swamp sparrow, tree 
swallow, bank swallow, rough-winged 
swallow, prothonotary warbler, Swain- 
son's warbler (south), yellow warbler, 
sycamore warbler, Louisiana water- 
thrush, Maryland yellow-throat, hooded 
warbler, short-billed marsh wren. 

Breeding birds whose habitat is 
limited to the presence of water, gener- 
ally a local condition, include the follow- 
ing: bittern, least bittern, great blue 
heron, snowy egret, little blue heron, 
yellow-headed blackbird, red-winged 
blackbird, and long-billed marsh wren. 

8. SOUTHEASTERN CONIFEROUS FOREST 
(SOUTHEASTERN MESOPHYTIC EVER- 
GREEN FOREST, SHREVE) (PROBABLY 
INCLUDES THE SOUTHEASTERN EVER- 
GREEN-DECIDUOUS TRANSITION, SHREVE) 

Copious rain in summer. Frequent 
fires an important environmental factor. 
The coastal plain forest is of evergreen 
needle-leaved trees, with a subordinate 
admixture of evergreen broad-leaved 
and deciduous species. "Extensive 
areas of this forest are pure stands of 
longleaf pine (Pinus palustris), or 
Cuban pine (P. caribaea} in open forma- 
tion, with a clear floor nearly devoid of 
shrubs and carpeted with grasses and 
herbaceous plants." The mammals are 
in part similar to those of the deciduous 
forest, which is probably the climax 
type over most of the region. For a 
list of mammals and reptiles see account 
of Alabama. 

Breeding birds include the following: 
wild turkey, passenger pigeon (extinct), 
mourning dove, ground dove, black 
vulture, swallow-tailed kite, Mississippi 
kite, Cooper's hawk, Florida red- 
shouldered hawk, red-tailed hawk, broad 
winged hawk, sparrow hawk, barn owl, 



Florida barred owl, Florida screech owl, 
great horned owl, Carolina paroquet, 
yellow-billed cuckoo, southern hairy 
woodpecker, southern downy wood- 
pecker, red-cockaded woodpecker, pile- 
ated woodpecker, red-headed wood- 
pecker, red-bellied woodpecker, chuck- 
will's widow, flicker, Florida night- 
hawk, chimney swift, ruby-throated 
hummingbird, kingbird, crested fly- 
catcher, wood pewee, blue jay, southern 
crow, fish crow, cowbird, orchard oriole, 
Baltimore oriole, purple grackle, pine- 
woods sparrow, Bachman's sparrow, 
chipping sparrow, Alabama towhee, 
cardinal, blue grosbeak, summer tana- 
ger, purple martin, red-eyed vireo, 
warbling vireo, yellow-throated vireo, 
white-eyed vireo, black and white 
warbler, black-throated green warbler, 
pine warbler, Florida yellow-throat, 
yellow-breasted chat, Kentucky war- 
bler, mockingbird, catbird, brown 
thrasher, Carolina wren, Bewick's 
wren, Florida white-breasted nuthatch, 
brown-headed nuthatch, tufted titmouse, 
Carolina chickadee, blue-gray gnat- 
catcher, wood thrush, southern robin 
and bluebird. 

Breeding birds whose habitat is gener- 
ally limited to the pre-forest or other 
early stages of succession include the 
following: bob-white, goldfinch, logger- 
head shrike, and prairie warbler. 

Breeding birds preferring a moist 
habitat, generally near a stream or 
swamp include the following: indigo 
bunting, prothonotary warbler, Swain- 
son's warbler, sycamore warbler, Loui- 
siana water-thrush, and hooded warbler. 

Breeding bird whose habitat is limited 
to the presence of water, generally a 
local condition, is the bald eagle. 

9. GRASSLAND BIOTA (GRASSLAND, 

SHREVE) (GRASSLAND CLIMAX, CLE- 
MENTS) (INCLUDES TRUE PRAIRIE; 
MIXED PRAIRIE; SHORT-GRASS PLAINS; 
BUNCH-GRASS PRAIRIE OF THE NORTH- 
WEST, CLEMENTS) 

Areas with rain chiefly in spring and 
early summer. Dry season late in 
summer. Winters cold and dry. 

The vast plains area, covered ' by a 



ORIGINAL BIOTA OF THE AMERICAS 



more or less closed sod of perennial 
grasses, distributed as follows: 

Tall grass prairie west to central 
Dakotas, eastern third of Nebraska 
and central Kansas; tall and short 
grasses forming sod in all of grassland 
north of central Kansas and Colorado, 
west to Rockies, except in sand or where 
overgrazed. South of this is mostly 
scattered grass steppe; west of it mostly 
bunch-grass steppe. Bunch-grass oc- 
curs regularly in sand. A scattering 
representation of desert forms is present, 
particularly in the "bad lands," shrubs 
are locally present, in portions of the 
area (bush steppe) and the evergreen 
forests advance from the west onto 
hills and rocky soil, while the Deciduous 
Forest encroaches from the east through 
the valleys of the largest streams. A 
number of species of herbaceous peren- 
nials are found in all parts of the Grass- 
land, being chiefly Composities. The 
leading grasses are the gramas (Boute- 
loua), buffalo grass (Bulbilis dacty- 
loides], and prairie grass (Koeleria 
cristata) . 

The mammals included immense herds 
of bison, large herds of pronghorn 
antelope (Antilocapra americana), wolf 
(Canis spp.), coyote (Cam's spp.), 
white-tailed jackrabbit (Lepus town- 
sendii subspp.), kit fox (Vulpes velox}, 
and "towns" of prairie-dogs (Cynomys). 

Breeding birds include the following: 
upland plover, killdeer, bob-white, Flor- 
ida bob-white (Florida prairies), prairie 
chicken, lesser prairie chicken, prairie 
sharp-tailed grouse, western mourning 
dove, turkey vulture, marsh hawk, 
Swainson's hawk, ferruginous rough-leg, 
prairie falcon, duck hawk, sparrow 
hawk, desert sparrow hawk, burrowing 
owl, poor-will, western nighthawk, Sen- 
nett's nighthawk, scissor-tailed fly- 
catcher, kingbird, Arkansas kingbird, 
phoebe, Say's phoebe, prairie horned 
lark, desert horned lark, dusky horned 
lark, magpie, cowbird, meadowlark, 
western meadowlark, southern meadow- 
lark, Bullock's oriole, Brewer's black- 
bird, goldfinch, chestnut-collared long- 
spur, McCown's longspur, vesper 



sparrow, western vesper sparrow, Oregon 
vesper sparrow, savanna sparrow, west- 
ern savanna sparrow, Baird's sparrow, 
grasshopper sparrow, western grass- 
hopper sparrow, Florida grasshopper 
sparrow, Henslow's sparrow, western 
Henslow's sparrow, Leconte's sparrow, 
Nelson's sparrow, lark sparrow, western 
lark sparrow, western field sparrow, 
western chipping sparrow, clay-colored 
sparrow, Brewer's sparrow, song spar- 
row, Dakota song sparrow, dickcissel, 
lark bunting, purple martin, cliff swal- 
low, barn swallow, white-rumped shrike, 
migrant shrike, Sprague's pipit, western 
house wren, robin, western robin, and 
bluebird. 

Breeding birds preferring a moist 
habitat, generally near a stream, in- 
clude the following: tree swallow, bank 
swallow, rough-winged swallow, Mary- 
land yellow-throat, western yellow- 
throat, northern yellow-throat, and 
short-billed marsh wren. 

Breeding birds whose habitat is 
limited to the presence of water, gener- 
ally a local condition, include the follow- 
ing: sandhill crane, Wilson's phalarope, 
avocet, Wilson's snipe, marbled godwit, 
solitary sandpiper, western willet, spot- 
ted sandpiper, and long-billed curlew, 
prairie marsh wren. 

10. TEMPERATE DESERT-GRASSLAND 

BIOTA (INCLUDES DESERT- GRASS 
LAND TRANSITION, SHREVEJ DES- 
ERT PLAINS, CLEMENTS; THE NORTH- 
ERNMOST EXTENSION OF THE GREAT 
BASIN MICROPHYLL DESERT, SHREVE) 

A region intermediate in character 
between the grassland and the deserts 
of Texas, New Mexico, Arizona and 
Idaho. 

An open carpet of perennial grasses 
and ephemeral or root-perennial her- 
baceous plants, with a more or less 
sparing representation of succulent and 
semi-succulent forms. The leading 
Grassland plants (in southern localities) 
are the gramas (Bouteloua) and galleta 
grass (Hilaria), and the chief desert 
plants are p%lmilla, amole, and a small 
group of cacti. 



70 



NATURALIST'S GUIDE TO THE AMERICAS 



The Snake River plain with sage- 
brush among which grasses grow up in 
spring and with local areas of grass, 
is included here. 

The mammals originally included 
bison, pronghorn antelope, badger 
(Taxidea taxus subspp.), ground-squir- 
rels (Citellus spp.), black-tailed jack- 
rabbit (Lepus californicus group), 
pocket-mouse (Perognathus), and kan- 
garoo-rat (Dipodomys). 

Breeding birds include the following: 
sage hen, western mourning dove, turkey 
vulture, marsh hawk, Swainson's hawk, 
ferruginous rough-leg, prairie falcon, 
desert sparrow hawk, short-eared owl, 
MacFarlane's screech owl, burrowing 
owl, California cuckoo, Sierra wood- 
pecker, Batchelder's woodpecker, red- 
shafted flicker, poor-will, western night- 
hawk, black-chinned hummingbird, 
broad-tailed hummingbird, kingbird, 
Arkansas kingbird, Say's phoebe, west- 
ern wood pewee, western flycatcher, 
desert horned lark, magpie, Woodhouse's 
jay, western crow, cowbird, western 
meadowlark, Bullock's oriole, Brewer's 
blackbird, house finch, green-backed 
goldfinch, western vesper sparrow, Ne- 
vada savanna sparrow, western grass- 
hopper sparrow, western lark sparrow, 
western chipping sparrow, Brewer's 
sparrow, desert sparrow, sage sparrow, 
MerilPs song sparrow, spurred towhee, 
black-headed grosbeak, lazuli bunting, 
purple martin, cliff swallow, barn 
swallow, California shrike, yellow war- 
bler, long-tailed chat, and sage thrasher. 

Breeding birds preferring a moist 
habitat, generally near a stream or 
swamp, include the following: raven, 
bobolink, northern violet-green swallow, 
bank swallow, western yellow-throat, 
and tule wren. 

11. EXTREME DESERT (CALIFORNIA MI- 
CROPHYLL DESERT, SHREVE) (THE 
WESTERN DESERT SCRUB IN PART, 

CLEMENTS) 

"An extremely low and open stand of 
microphyllous (small-leafed) shrubs, 
chiefly evergreen but partly deciduous; 
very poor in grasses and in succulent 



plants. The dominant plants are creo- 
sote bush (Covillea tridentata), and sand 
bur (Franseria dumosa)." 

Mammals, small burrowing forms and 
diurnal reptiles are present. 

For list of mammals see account of 
Mexico (Sonoran District) page 592. 

Breeding birds 2 include the following: 
Gambel's quail, western mourning dove, 
desert sparrow hawk, prairie falcon, 
road-runner, Texas woodpecker, Gila 
woodpecker, poor-will, western night- 
hawk, Texas nighthawk, Costa hum- 
mingbird, Say's phoebe, vermilion fly- 
catcher, Sonora horned lark, western 
raven, Sonora red-winged blackbird, 
western meadowlark, Scott's oriole, 
California purple finch, black-throated 
sparrow, desert song sparrow, Abert's 
towhee, western blue grosbeak, phaino- 
pepla, white-rumped shrike, least vireo, 
Lucy's warbler, western mockingbird, 
Bendire's thrasher, Leconte's thrasher, 
crissal thrasher, cactus wren, rock wren, 
verdin, and plumbeous gnatcatcher. 

12. SAGEBRUSH DESERT BIOTA (GREAT 
BASIN MICROPHYLL DESERT, SHREVE) 
(THE SAGEBRUSH CLIMAX, AND IN- 
CLUDES THE BASIN SAGEBRUSH AND 

POSSIBLY THE COASTAL SAGEBRUSH, 
CLEMENTS) 

(The northern portion is classed under 
$ 10 on account of desert grassland 
animals present.) 

"An open stand of shrubs, sometimes 
nearly closed; varying from place to 
place in stature; usually poor in grasses 
and succulents. The dominant plant 
is sagebrush (Artemisia tridentata), 
locally accompanied by other forms." 

Among characteristic mammals are 
the pronghorn antelope (Antilocapra 
americana), black-tailed jackrabbit (Le- 
pus californicus subspp.), pygmy rabbit 
(Brachylagus idahoensis), cottontail rab- 
bits (Sylvilagus spp.), ground-squirrels 

2 Aquatic birds have been omitted from the desert 
list because of the extreme scarcity of their habitat 
in such regions. Many of these birds do not nest 
on the ground but in the thinly forested areas along 
streams, in canyons, among the rocks, in mesquite 
or cacti. No effort is made to distinguish ground 
nesting birds from others. 



ORIGINAL BIOTA OF THE AMERICAS 



71 



(Citellus spp.), kangaroo-rats (Dido- 
domys spp.), and pocket-mice (Perog- 
nathus spp.). 

Breeding birds include the follow- 
ing: upland plover, killdeer, Columbian 
sharp-tailed grouse, sage hen, western 
mourning dove, turkey vulture, sharp- 
shinned hawk, Cooper's hawk, western 
red-tail, red-bellied hawk, Swainson's 
hawk, ferruginous rough-leg, prairie 
falcon, Richardson's pigeon hawk, des- 
ert sparrow hawk, short-eared owl, 
spotted owl, burrowing owl, California 
cuckoo, Sierra woodpecker, Batchelder's 
woodpecker, red-shafted flicker, poor- 
will, western nighthawk, black-chinned 
hummingbird, broad-tailed humming- 
bird, kingbird, Arkansas kingbird, cas- 
sin kingbird, ash-throated flycatcher, 
Say's phoebe, western wood pewee, west- 
ern flycatcher, TrailPs flycatcher, desert 
horned lark, dusky horned lark, black- 
billed magpie, woodhouse jay, raven, 
western crow, bobolink, cowbird, yellow- 
headed blackbird, San Diego red-wing, 
Nevada red-wing, western meadowlark, 
Bullock's oriole, Brewer's blackbird, 
house finch, green-backed goldfinch, 
western vesper sparrow, western sa- 
vanna sparrow, western grasshopper 
sparrow, western lark sparrow, western 
chipping sparrow, desert sparrow, sage 
sparrow, mountain song sparrow, Ne- 
vada towhee, black-headed grosbeak, 
lazuli bunting, western tanager, purple 
martin, cliff swallow, barn swallow, 
white-rumped shrike, western warbling 
vireo, yellow warbler, long-tailed chat, 
sage thrasher, western mockingbird, 
rock wren, canyon wren, western house 
wren, lead-colored bush-tit, western 
gnatcatcher, western robin, and western 
bluebird. 

Breeding birds preferring a moist 
habitat, generally near a stream or 
swamp, include the following: spotted 
sandpiper, long-billed curlew, snowy 
plover, marsh hawk, belted kingfisher, 
tree swallow, bank swallow, northern 
violet-green swallow, rough-winged 
swallow, western yellow-throat, and 
western marsh wren. 



13. EASTERN (RIO GRANDE) SUCCULENT 
DESERT BIOTA (TEXAS SUCCULENT 
DESERT, SHREVE) (EASTERN DESERT 
SCRUB, CLEMENTS) 

"A mixed stand of microphyllous 
shrubs and succulent and semi-succulent 
plants. The shrubs are either evergreen 
(Cavilled) or deciduous (Acacia, Flour- 
ensia). The stem-succulents comprise 
many species of cacti, chiefly low in 
growth; the commonest leaf-succulent is 
lechuguilla (Agave lechuguilla) ; the semi- 
succulents include sotol (Dasylirion 
texanum), amole, andpalmilla (Yucca)." 
For list of mammals see Texas account, 
page 502. 

Breeding birds include the following: 
killdeer, snowy plover, Texas bob-white, 
Arizona scaled quail, western mourning 
dove, white-winged dove, Mexican 
ground dove, Inca dove, black vulture, 
turkey vulture, white-tailed kite, Har- 
ris' hawk, western red-tail, Texas red- 
shouldered hawk, zone-tailed hawk, 
Swainson's hawk, Mexican black hawk, 
Mexican goshawk, prairie falcon, Aplo- 
mado falcon, desert sparrow hawk, 
Audubon's caracara, spotted owl, Sa- 
haura screech owl, flammulated screech 
owl, western horned owl, burrowing 
owl, road-runner, California cuckoo, 
Texas woodpecker, cactus woodpecker, 
Stephens' poor-will, Texas nighthawk, 
broad-tailed hummingbird, Cassin's king- 
bird, ash-throated flycatcher, dwarf cow- 
bird, Rio Grande meadowlark, thick- 
billed red-wing, Scott's oriole, Bullock's 
oriole, housefinch, Arkansas goldfinch 
western lark sparrow, desert sparrow, 
rufous-winged sparrow, Scott's sparrow, 
Arizona pyrrhuloxia, western blue gros- 
beak, varied bunting, barn swallow, 
phainopepla, white-rumped shrike, black- 
capped vireo, Stephens' vireo, least vireo, 
Sonora yellow warbler, western yellow- 
throat, long-tailed chat, western mock- 
ingbird, curve-billed thrasher, crissal 
thrasher, cactus wren, canyon wren, 
Texas wren, Sennett's titmouse, verdin, 
and plumbeous gnatcatcher. 

Breeding birds preferring a moist 
habitat, generally near a stream or 



72 



NATURALIST'S GUIDE TO THE AMERICAS 



swamp, include the following: marsh 
hawk, duck hawk, white-necked raven, 
rough-winged swallow, and bank 
swallow. 

14. WESTERN SMALL TREE AND SUC- 
CULENT DESERT BIOTA (ARIZONA SUC- 
CULENT DESERT, SHREVE) (WESTERN 

DESERT SCRUB, IN PART, CLEMENTS) 

"A mixed stand of microphyllous 
shrubs or small trees, either evergreen 
or deciduous, and of succulent forms, 
chiefly the stem succulent cacti. The 
leading shrubs are creosote bush and 
cat-claw (Acacia) ; the commonest small 
trees are palo verde (Parkinsonia) and 
palo fierro (Olneya). The succulents 
comprise large columnar forms (Car- 
negiea), branching aborescent forms 
(Opuntia), and many smaller types." 

Mammals include the black-tailed 
deer (Ododoileus), black-tailed jack- 
rabbit (Lepus californicus group), cot- 
tontail rabbit (Sylvilagus audubonii 
group), coyotes (Cam's spp.), badger 
(Taxidea), and many species of rodents. 

Breeding birds include the following: 
killdeer, snowy plover, masked bob- 
white, GambeFs quail, western mourn- 
ing dove, white-winged dove, Mexican 
ground dove, Inca dove, turkey vulture, 
Harris' hawk, western red-tail, zone- 
tailed hawk, Swainson's hawk, Mexican 
black hawk, Mexican goshawk, prairie 
falcon, Aplomado falcon, desert sparrow 
hawk, Audubon's caracara, Arizona 
spotted owl, Mexican screech owl, spot- 
ted screech owl, western horned owl, 
burrowing owl, road-runner, California 
cuckoo, Chihuahua woodpecker, cactus 
woodpecker, Gila woodpecker, gilded 
flicker, Stephens' poor-will, Texas night- 
hawk, Costa hummingbird, broad-billed 
hummingbird, Arizona crested fly- 
catcher, ash-throated flycatcher, oliva- 
ceous flycatcher, buff-breasted fly- 
catcher, vermilion flycatcher, beard- 
less flycatcher, scorched horned lark, 
bronzed cowbird, Sonora red-wing, Rio 
Grande meadowlark, Scott's oriole, 
orchard oriole, house finch, Arkansas 
goldfinch, western lark sparrow, desert 



sparrow, botteri sparrow, rufous-winged 
sparrow, Scott's sparrow, desert song 
sparrow, Arizona cardinal, Arizona 
pyrrhuloxia, western blue grosbeak, 
beautiful bunting, Mexican cliff swallow, 
barn swallow, phainopepla, white- 
rumped shrike, Stephens' vireo, least 
vireo, Lucy's warbler, Sonora yellow war- 
bler, western yellow-throat, western 
mockingbird, Palmer's thrasher, Ben- 
dire's thrasher, Leconte's thrasher, 
crissal thrasher, cactus wren, Baird's 
wren, verdin, and plumbeous gnat-- 
catcher. 

Breeding birds preferring a moist 
habitat, generally near a stream or 
swamp, include the following: marsh 
hawk, duck hawk, white-necked raven, 
rough-winged swallow, and bank 
swallow. 

15. MESQUITE SEMI-DESERT BIOTA 

(TEXAS SEMI-DESERT, SHREVE) 

"An open or closed stand of small trees 
and shrubs, chiefly deciduous, with 
local areas of grassland and a represen- 
tation of succulents. The dominant 
tree is mesquite (Prosopis glandulosd) ; 
the principal shrub, huisache (Acacia 
farnesiana)." 

Mammals include white-tailed deer 
(Odocoileus texanus}, wolf (Cam's rufus~), 
opossum (Didelphis marsupialis texen- 
szs), peccary (Tayassu), and armadillo 
(Dasypus novemcinctus texanus}. 

Breeding birds include the following: 
killdeer, Mexican jacana, chestnut- 
bellied scaled quail, Attwater's prairie 
chicken, Rio Grande turkey, chachalaca, 
red-billed pigeon, western mourning 
dove, white-winged dove, Mexican 
ground dove, Inca dove, white-fronted 
dove, black vulture, turkey vulture, 
Harris' hawk, western red-tail, zone- 
tailed hawk, Swainson's hawk, Sennet's 
white-tailed hawk, Mexican black hawk, 
Mexican goshawk, prairie falcon, Aplo- 
mado falcon, desert sparrow hawk, 
Audubon's caracara, spotted owl, Texas 
screech owl, burrowing owl, groove- 
billed ani, road-runner, California 
cuckoo, coppery-tailed trogon, Texas 



ORIGINAL BIOTA OF THE AMERICAS 



73 



kingfisher, Texas woodpecker, cactus 
woodpecker, golden-fronted woodpecker, 
Stephens' poor-will, MerriPs parauque, 
Texas nighthawk, Reiffer's humming- 
bird, buff-bellied hummingbird, Couch's 
kingbird, scissor-tailed flycatcher, Mex- 
ican crested flycatcher, Derby fly- 
catcher, vermilion flycatcher, beardless 
flycatcher, Texas horned lark, green 
jay, white-necked raven, red-eyed cow- 
bird, Vera Cruz red-wing, Rio Grande 
meadowlark, Audubon's oriole, Sen- 
nett's oriole, Bullock's oriole, great- 
tailed grackle, house finch, Arkansas 
goldfinch, Texas seaside sparrow, west- 
ern lark sparrow, black-throated spar- 
row, botteri sparrow, Cassin's sparrow, 
Texas sparrow, gray-tailed cardinal, 
Texas pyrrhuloxia, western blue gros- 
beak, varied bunting, painted bunting, 
Sharpe's seedeater, lesser cliff swallow, 
gray-breasted martin, rough-winged 
swallow, phainopepla, white-rumped 
shrike, small white-eyed vireo, Texas 
vireo, Sennett's warbler, Florida yellow- 
throat, Rio Grande yellow-throat, west- 
ern mockingbird, Sennett's thrasher, 
curve-billed thrasher, cactus wren, lo- 
mita wren, black-crested tit-mouse, 
verdin. and plumbeous gnatcatcher. 

Breeding birds preferring a moist 
habitat, generally near a stream or 
swamp, include the following: snowy 
plover, Wilson's plover, and marsh 
hawk. 

16. BROAD THICK-LEAVED EVERGREEN 
SEMI-DESERT BIOTA (WINTER RAIN 
REGION) (PACIFIC SEMI-DESERT, 
SHREVE; CALIFORNIA CHAPARRAL, AND 
WOODLANDS OF MEDITERRANEAN TYPE, 
HARDY; COASTAL CHAPARRAL AND PINE- 
OAK WOODLAND IN PART, CLEMENTS) 

"A region of great topographic diversi- 
ty in which the vegetation varies locally 
from encinal (open oak forest, chiefly 
evergreen), through chaparral (a closed 
scrub of evergreen shrubs), to desert 
(ephemeral herbaceous plants, small 
perennials, local succulents). . . . 
The principal chaparral plants are 
chamiso (Adenostoma fasciculatum) and 
species of manzanita (Arctostaphylos)." 



The mammals include black-tailed 
deer (Odocoileus columbianus scaphiotus), 
coyote (Canis ochropus), and black- 
tailed jackrabbit (Lepus californicus 
subspp.). 

17. MAGNOLIA, BAY, HOLLY, "HAM- 
MOCKS* (TEMPERATE 
RAIN FOREST) 

Various correspondents contend that 
there is no forest of this type in the 
Americas. Various others have mapped 
the areas in the states adjacent to the 
Gulf of Mexico, especially Florida, as 
of this type. Pittier is inclined to con- 
sider some of the South American 
forests in high altitude as coming under 
Schimper's definition. From diagrams 
of the distribution of temperature and 
rainfall in the Australian and Asiatic 
areas commonly called temperate rain 
forest localities, there is evidently no 
climatic reason why this type should not 
occur in some localities in the southern 
states. The botanical objections to 
considering the magnolia, bay, holly 
"hammocks" temperate rain forest 
seems to be the sclerophyll character 
of the leaves. This may be another 
case where more consideration of the 
animals and lower plants should be 
allowed to dictate. So far as the ani- 
mals living under the forest cover are 
concerned the failure of the leaves to 
fall is more important than the char- 
acter of their covering. For lists of 
animals see under the Florida account, 
page 427. 

18. TROPICAL HAMMOCKS (SUBTROPICAL 
RAIN FOREST) 

Some small areas in southeastern 
Florida have sufficient rainfall correctly 
distributed to give a tropical rain forest. 
Some areas of this type have reached a 
climax which may be considered as a 
less luxuriant type of rain forest. Their 
small size does not permit them to 
afford shelter to the larger tropical 
animals but the biota is generally taxo- 
nomically related to the biota of the 
West Indies. 



74 NATURALIST'S GUIDE TO THE AMERICAS 

For lists of animals and further dis- The swamps composed of evergreen 
cussion see the Florida account page 427. and deciduous trees in great variety, 

the bald cypress and tupelo gum being 

19. LOCAL AND EDAPHic BIOTA tne commonest species. The marshes 

are widely varying areas of grasses, 

All the waters, sand areas, rock slides, sedges, and immersed aquatic plants, 
etc., belong here but swamps and Mangrove swamps border shores in 
marshes cover most extensive areas. southern Florida. 



C. LIFE ZONES 



BY V. E. SHELFORD AND G. T. JONES 



In this book an attempt has been made 
to use natural features: climate, land- 
scape aspects, and the characteristic 
plants in designating and describing 
areas. Various authors of local ac- 
counts use "afe zones" to designate 
areas. Without a glossary the names 
do not suggest the landscape aspect 



types. It is necessary in such a work 
that natural features be used in order 
that the traveler may identify his loca- 
tion. The characteristic plants were 
substituted by the compilers for "life 
zones" wherever mentioned by contrib- 
utors in temperate America. This was 
done in accord with the table below. 



Approximate correspondence of Vegetation and Merriam's Life Zones 



(Prepared by George T. Jones) 



Vegetation type 



I. Tundra and Alpine Sum- 
mits 

A. Arctic Tundra 

B. Paramos or Alpine 

Meadow 
II. Coniferous Forest 

A. Northern Coniferous 

Forest 

B. Mountain Coniferous 

Forest 

1. Rocky Mountain 

Forest 

2. Sierran Sub-al- 

pine Forest 

3. Rocky Mountain 

Montane For- 
est 

4. Sierran Montane 

Forest 



5. Larch-Pine For- 
est of North- 
west 

C. Northwest Moist 
Coniferous Forest 

III. Eastern Forests 

A. Mixed Coniferous and 

Deciduous 

B. Temperate Deciduous 

C. Southeast Coniferous 

Forest 



D. Gulf Coast Forest 



Composition 



Lichens and herbs 

Sedges, grasses and 
herbs, dwarf willows 

Red, black and white 
spruces, balsam fir 



Engelmann spruce and 
alpine fir 

Mountain hemlock, firs, 
white-bark pine 

Western yellow pine, 
Douglas fir, white fir, 
lodgepole pine 

Sugar pine, western 
yellow pine, incense 
cedar, white fir, Doug- 
las fir 

Western white pine, 
western larch, western 
hemlock, Engelmann 
spruce, giant cedar 

Redwood, douglas fir, 
western hemlock, giant 
cedar, Sitka spruce 

Beech, birch, maple, 
hemlock, white pine 

Beech, maple, oaks, 
hickories, tulip tree, 
sassafras 

Longleaf pine, loblolly 
pine, slash pine, mag- 
nolia, live oak, bald 
cypress 

Southeast Coniferous 
Forest with under- 
growth of Palmetto 

75 



Merriam's Life 
Zone 



Arctic-Alpine 

Zone 
Arctic-Alpine 

Zone 

Hudsonian 
Canadian 



and 



Hudsonian and 
upper Canadian 

Hudsonian and 
upper Canadian 

Canadian and 
upper Transition 



Canadian 
Transition 



and 



Canadian and 
Transition 



Canadian and 

Humid Transi- 
tion 

Alleghanian 
Carolinian 

Austroriparian 



Sabalian or Gulf 
Strip 



76 



NATURALIST'S GUIDE TO THE AMERICAS 



IV. Temperate Rain Forest 
V. Sub-tropical Rain Forest 
VI. Poplar Savanna 
VII. Oak Savanna 



VIII. Rocky Mountain Forest 
Margin 
A. Chaparral 



B. Woodland 

IX. California region of various 
vegetation with Summer 
drouth and Winter Rain 

A. Chaparral 

B. Woodland 

C. Coastal sagebrush or 

"chaparral" 

D. Bunch-grass plains in 

valleys (cultivated) 
X. Grassland 

A. Prairie 

B. Steppe (Brush grass- 

land in part) 



XI. Bush-Steppe 

1. Semi-desert 

west 

2. Semi-desert 

west 
XII. Temperate Desert 



North- 
South- 



XIII. Subtropical Desert 

A. California Microphyll 

Desert 

B. Succulent Desert 

XIV. Thorn Savanna 



"Hammock" Country, 

Florida 
Very rare frost, south tip 

of Florida 
Mixture of poplars and 

tall grasses 
Mixture of oaks and tall 

grasses 



Brush, as dwarf oak 
(Quercus undulatus) 
and Mountain mahog- 
any (Sercocarpus par- 
vifolius) 

Pinyons and junipers 



Brush, as Manzanita and 
Buck brush 

Evergreen oaks, jun- 
ipers, etc. 

"Old Man" (Artemisia 
californica) and Salvia 

Tall grass in bunches 



Largely included in 
Savanna VI and VII 

Grasses in open sod. 
Bare ground between 
plants, or rather short 
grasses forming sod 

Mixed grass and sage- 
brush 

Mixed Grass and desert 
shrub 

Sagebrush -Atriplex- 
rabbit brush 

Creosote bush and Sand- 
bur 

Cacti, mesquite, etc. 
Thorn bushes and grass 



Sabalian Zone 
Tropical Zone 

Transition and Al- 
leghanian 

Alleghanian, Car- 
olinian and 
Austroriparian 

Arid Transition 



Upper Sonoran 

Arid Transition 
Upper Sonoran 
Upper Sonoran 

Upper and Lower 
Sonoran 



Arid Transition 
and Upper Son- 
oran 



Upper Sonoran 
Upper Sonoran 
Upper Sonoran 

Lower Sonoran 

Lower Sonoran 
Lower Sonoran 



The maps of Southern North America 
and Northern South America are the 
results of the circulation of three pre- 
liminary maps. The earlier maps were 
criticized by T. Barbour, L. Griscom, 
G. K. Noble, A. G. Ruthven and others. 
A much larger scale map was then 
planned with the aid of Dr. W. H. Os- 
good, drawn and circulated. Most of 
the contributors of tropical accounts 
made important suggestions and Mr. 
E. P. Killip of the National Museum 
added his knowledge of several countries. 

Florida may be used to illustrate diffi- 
culties in mapping^ the vegetation of 
areas. It is covered largely by long- 



leaf pine, and is commonly mapped as 
coniferous forest. Detailed study 
shows, however, that on well-developed 
soils in stable physiographic situations 
such as the highest terraces of flood 
plains, other types occur which indicate 
future dominants. Thus Professor Wat- 
son shows northwestern Florida to be 
deciduous forest, much of central 
Florida to be temperate rainforest 
(evergreen), southeastern Florida to 
be tropical rainforest, and the remain- 
ing parts are represented according 
to present dominants because neither 
the knowledge nor conditions make 
possible prediction of the coming type. 



1 






' 






































TEMPERATE Deciouous FOREST 
;|:|il:li|i|i|!|l S.E CONIFEROUS FOREST 

ARID CONIFEROUS FOREST 

CONIFEROUS FOREST 

MOIST CONIFEROUS FOREST 

PARAMOS AMD HIGH MT FOREST 
*e* e @ SuceuLtNT DE SERT 



ffifiHl SH^TREE SEMI-DESERT 



LUXURIANT TROPICAL 
RAIN FOREST 



SUB ALPINE 
EVERGREEN FOREST 




TROPICAL RAIN FtRtsT 
CLIMAX 



Y//////\ DRIER IROPICAL 1 o o \ | A/o DECIDUOUS \ f !':' : >1 ,, 

^^ ^^r l:^^d ^r fcgimd ^^*^o 

W-/fy%/ty)( M NTAH E M k.* ...'|^| DECIDUOUS THORN I V *o *o* * 

Yy^Xy/WA CLOUD FOREST FV. oovol FOREST |^ 4^0/0*0*^ 



GRASS SWAMP 



BROAD-LEAFED 

EVERGREEN SEMI-DESERT OF\A!INTER RAIN REGIONS 



FIG. 4. BIOTIC AREAS OP SOUTHERN NORTH AMERICA, MEXICO AND 
CENTRAL AMERICA 



D. DESCRIPTIVE LIST OF MIDDLE AMERICAN BIOTA (CENTRAL 
MEXICO TO THE AMAZON) 

BY FORREST SHRBVE AND V. E. SHELFORD 

(Names in parenthesis are synonyms used in published works or in the manu- 
scripts submitted) 



1. LUXURIANT TROPICAL RAIN-FOREST 
BIOTA (RAIN-FOREST; LOWLAND TROP- 
ICAL FOREST; HEAVY FOREST; HEAVY 
HUMID FOREST) 

This forest occupies regions with 
uniform mean monthly temperature and 
a heavy and well distributed rainfall. 
The forest is composed of a great number 
of different species and genera of trees 
of different stature and of shrubs and 
vines. The dominant trees are ever- 
green, or nearly so, and their leaves are 
relatively small and thick, while those 
of the subordinate trees are broad and 
thin. 

The animal life is also represented by 
a vast number of species. Termites 
which build nests on trees, leaf carrying 
ants, military ants and gaudy butter- 
flies characterize the insect population. 
Frogs and lizards are numerous. The 
snakes include some of the constrictors 
and poisonous coraline and crotaline 
species. Most of the birds are of com- 
mon neotropical types, many being large, 
grotesque or gaudy. Monkeys are most 
numerous here many rarely coming to 
the ground. Cats large and small, 
squirrels, and opossums are plentiful, 
Arboreal anteaters and sloths are char- 
acteristic. Tapirs are nearly always 
present. 

2. DRIER TROPICAL RAIN-FOREST BIOTA 

(LOWLAND RAIN-FOREST) 

This type of forest is similar to the 
luxuriant tropical Rain-Forest, but is 
not so heavy, the trees are not usually so 
tall nor so numerous in species, and the 



abundance of epiphytes and lianas 
depends upon local conditions, tending 
to be less numerous than in the Luxu- 
riant Tropical Rain-Forest. The ani- 
mal life is similar to that of the luxuriant 
forest but poorer in species and with 
many species different. 

3. ARID DECIDUOUS FOREST BIOTA 
(MONSOON FOREST; SEMI- 
DECIDUOUS FOREST) 

This forest is similar to the drier rain 
forest in the wet season, but exhibits 
partial leaf fall in the dry season. It 
is rich in epiphytes of bromeliad type, 
but relatively poor in lianas. The 
shrubs are chiefly evergreen. 

The monkeys, opossums, and ar- 
boreal anteaters drop out or become 
much less numerous than in the tropical 
rain forest. Peccaries, forest rabbits, 
foxes, and deer are more numerous. It 
must be borne in mind, however, that 
trees adjacent to streams often retain 
their leaves and that monkeys, tapirs, 
etc., ordinarily found in rain forest 
may occur here. In general, however, 
the species in the deciduous forest 
proper are quite different in the case of 
animals. 

4. DECIDUOUS THORN FOREST BIOTA 

(XEROPHYLOUS FOREST; THORN 
FOREST; CAATINGA) 

Deciduous Thorn Forest occupies 
some of the more arid portions of South 
America. It consists of a more or less 
close stand of large shrubs, small trees 
and succulents. The majority of the 
dominant plants are leafless in the dry 



77 



78 



NATURALIST'S GUIDE TO THE AMERICAS 



season. The animal life is scanty, Rats, mice, and ground-squirrels are 
armadillos, forest rabbits, and foxes the dominant animals, though pec- 
being dominant mammalian types. caries, deer, and coyotes also occur. 



5. GBASSLAND BIOTA (PRAIRIES; LLANOS ; 
CAMPOS; PAMPAS; PAJONALES) 

The diverse grassland areas of tropi- 
cal America are alike in the tall coarse, 
character of the grasses and in the 
occurrence with them of numerous 
shrubs and perennial herbaceous plants. 
In some localities the vegetation is low 
and open, as on the limestone mesas of 
Venezuela ; in others it is more luxuriant 
and more nearly perennial in its activity. 
Only restricted areas of grassland are 
without trees. Little distinction can 
be made between the animal life of the 
Grassland and Savanna due to the lack 
of information, particularly as to the 
smaller forms. 

6. SAVANNA BIOTA (ARID GRASSLAND; 
GALLERY SAVANNA) 

The Savannas are tropical grasslands 
occupied by greater or less numbers of 
trees or shrubs, growing singly or in 
groups, and being chiefly deciduous ex- 
cept in the case of the palms. The 
grasses vary in density and stature, up 
to 1 m. in height. 

The Savannas of South America are 
characterized by two or three species of 
savanna deer and brocket, tayra, skunks, 
savanna foxes, peccaries, etc. Monkeys 
live in groves of trees in some localities 
and may move from grove to grove 
through bushes when they occur. 

7. SEMI-DESERT BIOTA 

The principal area of Semi-desert is in 
the lower valley of the Rio Grande and 
in the Mexican state of Tamaulipas 
others occurring on the coast of South 
America. Thorny deciduous shrubs and 
small trees make up the principal part 
of the open vegetation together with 
evergreen shrubs, cacti, scattered bunch 
grasses, and herbaceous plants of sea- 
sonal activity. 



8. DESERT BIOTA 

The Desert areas of Tropical America 
are chiefly in northern Mexico and on 
the Pacific Coast of South America. 
They are alike in the low stature and 
open stand of the vegetation and in the 
restriction of its activity to the rainy 
seasons. They differ in the density of 
their shrubbery and in the relative 
abundance of succulent and non-succu- 
lent plants. There are both deciduous 
and evergreen shrubs; grasses are of 
local occurrence. 

The Deserts are characterized by 
numerous reptiles, usually diurnal and 
conspicuous and numerous nocturnal 
rodents, particularly small ones able to 
hide. Jack-rabbits and coyotes are 
common except in extreme deserts. 

The following birds breed in the 
Mexican Plateau desert: Mearn's quail, 
Merriam's turkey, chachalaca, black 
vulture, zone-tailed hawk, Sennett's 
white-tailed hawk, Mexican black hawk, 
Mexican goshawk, flammulated screech 
owl. prairie falcon, Aplomado falcon, 
Audubon's caracara, Mexican screech 
owl, burrowing owl, ferruginous pygmy 
owl, thick-billed parrot, grooved-billed 
ani, road-runner, California cuckoo, 
cactus woodpecker, Arizona woodpecker, 
ant-eating woodpecker, Stephen's poor- 
will, Texas nighthawk, Rivoli hum- 
mingbird, blue-throated hummingbird, 
black-chinned hummingbird, Lucifer 
hummingbird, white-eared humming- 
bird, broad-billed hummingbird, scissor- 
tailed flycatcher, Cassin's kingbird, 
Derby, flycatcher, sulphur-bellied fly- 
catcher, Mexican crested flycatcher, ash- 
throated flycatcher. Coues' flycatcher, 
gray flycatcher, buff-breasted flycatcher, 
vermilion flycatcher, scorched horned 
lark, blue-eared jay, Arizona jay, white- 
necked raven, San Diego red-wing, 
Scott's oriole, Arkansas goldfinch, Wor- 
then's sparrow, black-chinned sparrow, 
desert sparrow, Cassin's sparrow, Scott's 
sparrow, canyon towhee, Abert's towhee, 
western blue grosbeak, hepatic tanager, 
Cooper's tanager, Mexican cliff swallow, 
phainopepla, Stephen's vireo, least vireo, 
gray vireo. olive warbler, Sonora yellow 
warbler, black-fronted warbler, long- 



hlMlililii -S-E CONIFEROUS FOREST 




O O + O t o * * I -I 

.Vso" ^! TREE 

PARAMOS AND HIGH Mr FOREST 





LUXURIANT TROPICAL ^y^^J^^-^/ 
RAIH FOBF.IT W-fr/tf/'.-S.Z' 


SUB ALPINE 

fvFflffff/V F<ifte$T ::': 


MAST GRASSLAND 










w///, 


DRIER JROPICAL to 0o / o0 o 

RAIklFoRFST EOO O O?OO 


ARID DECIDUOUS .. '. r. ; . ;-;. > 
FOREST '?;' '';".;" 


DRY GRASSLAND 


$%m!> 


MONTANE OR k^o^v"o ?o * 

CLDUH FqarsT P.o?o'c- *.o^. 


DECIDUOUS THORN B^^- ^ o-s^ 

p/jf;T I^'.'P-?^-':-'* '-J? ; :;;0 


MOIST SAVANNA 










' f 


EXTREME DESER T ' .* '.* ." . ' : 


/?5F/?r ^^/.V 


ARID TREE oa 
BUSH SAVANNA 











Fia. 5. BIOTIC AREAS OF FLORIDA AND NORTHERN SOUTH AMERICA 



ORIGINAL BIOTA OF THE AMERICAS 



79 



tailed chat, western mockingbird, Pal- 
mer's thrasher, Bendire's thrasher, cris- 
sal thrasher, white-throated wren, 
bridled titmouse, lead-colored bush-tit, 
Lloyd's bush-tit, verdin, plumbeous 
gnatcatcher, L. Jones. 

9. MONTANE FORESTS BIOTA (CLOUD 

FOREST; TEMPERATE RAIN FOREST; 
LOWER MOUNTAIN FOREST) 

This forest occurs at various eleva- 
tions in tropical mountains where 
clouds, fog, and heavy rainfall produce 
very moist conditions. The trees are 
not so tall as in the Luxuriant Tropical 
Rain-Forest, but in other respects the 
Montaine Forests rival the luxuriance 
of the former. Ferns form a conspic- 
uous element in the vegetation as 
epiphytes, lianes and terrestrial plants, 
while tree ferns are conspicuous among 
the subordinate trees. The trees are 
evergreen, mostly with small leaves; 
but solid stands of conifers are also 
found, depending upon soil conditions. 

In Central America the fauna of 
the Montane forest is in part highly 
peculiar. Endemic genera of birds are 
numerous. North American temperate 
zone plants and animals here reach 
their limit also. In parts of South 
American the conspicuous animals are 
about the same as in the rain forest. 

10. SUBALPINE EVERGREEN FOREST 
BIOTA (UPPER MONTANE FOREST) 

The mountains rising above 9000 ft. 
are clothed with a temperate and de- 
ciduous broad-leaved forest of ever- 
green trees or conifers. Monkeys and 
other tropical rain forest species are 
excluded from this belt. Numerous 
small rodents characterize it, however. 



11. ANDINE BUSHLAND BIOTA (AN- 
DINE BRUSHWOOD) 

The Andine Bushlands are just below 
timber-line, being frequently broken 
by small areas of grassland (paramillos). 
Tree shrubs and dwarfed trees form a 
low but compact stand, which becomes 
lower and more open at still higher 
altitudes. Deer, wild-cats, wolves, 
bear, and forest rabbit occur in this 
belt. 

12. ANDINE MEADOW BIOTA (PARAMOSJ 
ALPINE MEADOW) 

Lying above the uppermost shrubby 
vegetation, chiefly over 12,000 ft. ele- 
vation, are the Andine Meadows, which 
are composed of grasses, sedges, many 
species of composites, notably of the 
genus Espeletia, and scattering repre- 
sentatives of various genera of tem- 
perate relationship. Plants with hoary 
tomentum are conspicuous in this 
vegetation, as are also areas of sphag- 
num. Deer, wild-cats, forest rabbit, 
and numerous small rodents occur in 
this belt. 

13. MANGROVE SWAMP BIOTA 

The Mangrove Swamps of tropical 
America consist of nearly pure stands 
of Rhizophora mangle, Avicennia nitida 
or A. tomentosa, occupying the coast, 
the shallow saline or brackish waters 
of bays and lagoons. The interlocking 
prop-roots of these trees make the 
Mangrove Swamps very difficult to 
penetrate from either land or water. 
There are characteristic insects, birds, 
etc., but the fauna of the swamps varies 
in different regions on account of their 
wide geographical range. 



E. PROVISIONAL TABLE OF LANDSCAPE ASPECTS AND LIFE 
ZONE EQUIVALENTS 

BY E. A. GOLDMAN 



Mangrove Swamps (Tropical Zone as 
a whole, but as mangrove swamps are 
not dependent upon rainfall, they occur 
within the arid or humid divisions of 
the Lower Tropical section). 

Flood Plain Forest (low altitudes) 

Lower Tropical Zone. 
Luxuriant Tropical Rain Forest 

Humid Lower Tropical Zone. 
Drier Tropical Rain Forest Humid 

Lower Tropical Zone. 
Montane or Cloud Forest Humid 
Upper Tropical Zone. It includes 
conifers and oaks in Central 
America. 

Subalpine Evergreen Forest 
Temperate Zone. (In Central 
America.) 

Ecuador and British Honduras, rang- 
ing in altitudes from 6000 to 7000 ft. in 
the former country and to 1000 to 4000 
ft. in the latter. 

The areas in British Honduras ex- 
tending from 1000 to 4000 ft. altitude 
would be within the Lower Tropical 
Zone, associated with an immense num- 
ber of tropical species. Areas at 6000 
to 7000 ft. altitude in Ecuador would 



probably be assigned to Sub-tropical 
or Upper Tropical. 

Partially Deciduous Forest Arid 
Lower Tropical Zone. 

Deciduous Thorn Forest Arid 
Lower Tropical Zone. In Mexico 
and in Panama this can not satis- 
factorily be separated from the 
preceding, as the regions are 
coastal plains crossed by streams; 
and along the streams the vege- 
tation may be only partially 
deciduous, or near the water line 
evergreen, while it is completely 
deciduous away from the water. 

(Shrub) Desert Sonora and Lower 
California. Lower Austral Zone. 

Semi Desert Lower Austral Zone. 

Extreme Desert Lower Austral 
Zone. Desert District Vizcaino. 

Gallery Savanna Arid Lower Trop- 
ical Zone. A mixture of mon- 
soon forest and savanna. Arid 
sometimes corresponds to the 
Lower Tropical Zone. 

Grassland, Dry Grassland Arid 
Lower Tropical Zone. 

Andine bushland Paramillos 
Paramo Zone. 



80 



F. BIBLIOGRAPHY 



BY V. E. SHELFORD 



Adams, O. C. 

1920 Zoogeography of Northeastern- 
most South America (after 
Chapman) . Geog. Rev. , 10 :101- 
107. 
Brehn, A. E. 

1890 North Pole to Equator, London 
Batholomew, J. G. 

1917 Advanced Atlas of Physical and 
Political Geography (Oxford 
Press). 
Clements, F. E. 

1916 Plant Succession. Carnegie Inst. 

of Wash., Pub. 242. 
1920 Plant Indicators, Cam. Inst. 

Wash. Pub. 290. 
Chapman, F. M. 

1917 Distribution of Bird Life in 

Colombia. Bull. Am. Mus. 

Nat. Hist., 36: 1-729. 
Goldman, E. A. 

1920 Mammals of Panama. Smith- 

sonian Misc. Coll., Vol. 69, 

No. 50: 1-309. 
Hall, H. M., and Grinnell, J. 

1919 Life Zone Indicators in Califor- 

nia. Proc. Cal. Am. Sci., 9: 
37-67. 
Hardy, M. E. 

1920 The Geography of Plants. (Ox- 

ford Press) 

1913 An introduction to Plant Geog- 
raphy. (Oxford Press.) 
Livingston, B. E. and Shreve, F. 

1921 Distribution of Vegetation in 

the U. S. as related to Climatic 
Conditions. Carnegie Inst. of 
Wash., Pub. 284. 



Mobius, K. 

1880 The Oyster and Oyster Culture. 
U. S. Com. Fisheries Report 
1880 (Part VIII): 683-751. 
Merriam, C. H. 

1898 Life Zone and Crop Zones. 
U.S. Dept. Agr. Bur. Biol. Surv., 
Bull. 10. 
Sanders, E. M. 

1921 The Natural Regions of Mexico. 

Geog. Rev., 11: 212-26. 
Schimper, A. W. 

1903 (Translation by W. R. Fisher. 
Plant Geography on a Physio- 
logical Basis. Oxford. 
Shreve, F. 

1917 A Map of the Vegetation of the 
United States. Geog. Rev. 3: 
119-125. 
Ward, R. DeC. 

1919 A New Classification of Climates 
(Koppen's). Geog. Rev., 8: 
188-199. 
Van Dyke 

1919 Distribution of Insects in West- 
ern North America. Ann. 
Ent. Soc. of America, 12 : 1-12. 
Shelford, V. E. 

1911 Physiological Animal Geo- 
graphy. Jour. Morph., 22: 
551-618. 
Strohl, J. 

1921 Physiologische Gesichtpunkte 
in der Tiergeographi. Vier- 
teljahresschrift der Naturforsch. 
Ges., Zur. 46: 1-22. 



81 



IV. NATURAL AREAS AND REGIONS 



A. GENERAL PLAN 

BY V. E. SHELFORD 



The primary object of this volume is 
to locate natural areas so as to make 
them available to naturalists. Every- 
one who learns the location of a natural 
area through this volume should realize 
the moral obligation to keep the area 
as it is. Using an area described in 
this book to satisfy one's selfish desires 
for possession is a violation of a trust 
placed in the nature-loving public. 

Convenience of treatment divided 
the territory covered into three sec- 
tions: (1) Northern tundra and ice- 
covered regions; (2) Temperate America 
including the southern tier of Canadian 
provinces and the whole of the United 
States; (3) Tropical America, including 
the areas between the southern bound- 
aries of the United States and the 
Amazon River and adjacent islands. 
In the first and last divisions the great- 
est latitude was permitted the authors 
and no attempt to map or classify areas 
was made. The meagre character of 
the available knowledge forbade at- 
tempting anything of the kind. The 
name of the person preparing the ac- 
count for each territory stands at its 
head as the one responsible for the 
completeness and accuracy. 

The materials on the States and 
southern tier of Canadian provinces 
are divided into (1) a general account 
of biotic conditions of the territory, 
and (2) specific descriptions of natural 
areas. 

The general account describes the 
territory as it was before modified by 
civilization. General physiographic 
features are described and geographic 
and local plant and animal communities 
briefly outlined. The names of Mer- 
riam's life zones are used only in paren- 
theses following the names of the 



plants commonly used to designate 
them. The original conditions of the 
biota are then contrasted with the 
present modified condition; the com- 
munities and conspicuous plants and 
animals which have been destroyed 
are enumerated. Some authors have 
enumerated polluted and unpolluted 
waters. 

In specific descriptions, the existing 
natural areas are in part arranged ac- 
cording to the natural subdivision 
recognized in the general account. All 
preserved areas and areas available for 
study, in natural condition, preserved 
areas in a semi-natural condition, such 
as forest preserves, bird and game 
sanctuaries, and second growth areas 
undergoing succession, are as a rule 
included and properly designated in so 
far as they were known to the authors. 

The National Forest were treated 
separately by members of the United 
States Forest Service. The National 
Parks and Monuments are included in 
the state accounts. 

ABBREVIATION AND SYMBOLS 

a. In locations of areas which appear 
abbreviated, words in brackets have 
been omitted: 

[From] Chicago, [111. go] 12 mi. 
west [via] C. B. & Q. R. R. or La Grange 
Electric, to Riverside [and walk] (W) 
$ mi. N. W. [From] Riverside, III. 

b. Modification of areas. As com- 
pared with their condition at the time 
of the discovery by America by Euro- 
peans in the fifteenth century all areas 
have doubtless suffered considerable 
modification. The degree of modifica- 
tion varies greatly in the various natural 
reservations, and in those areas avail- 



85 



NATURALIST'S GUIDE TO THE AMERICAS 



able for study and proposed for pres- 
ervation. It was the opinion of the 
committee, that to publish an extensive 
list without at least an estimate of the 
degree of modification would give an 
entirely erroneous idea of what is 
available for scientific study and of 
desirable policies relative to the im- 
provement and maintenance of existing 
preserves and the acquirement of more. 

The conditions of the vegetation are 
indicated by capital letters. The orig- 
inal conditions are indicated by A, 
and degrees of modification by C, D, 
etc. 

The conditions of the fauna are in- 
dicated by Arabic numerals. The orig- 
inal natural conditions are indicated 
by 1 (one) and degrees of modification 
by other figures, 2, 3, 4, etc.; 10 would 
indicate a cultivated field, though the 
plan is only carried to H8, e.g., single 
trees in parks or pastures. 



Symbols, etc. 

* (in front of the name of an area) : 

Preserved that is, areas held in 

a natural state as parks, forest 

preserves, etc. 

** Preserved for scientific purposes 
p (in front of the name of an area) 

indicates that it is proposed for 

preservation. 
Areas not designated by either of 

these symbols are available for 

study. 

J Hotel or boarding-house facilities. 
|| Hotel or boarding-house during 

tourist season only. 
f Especially important; should be 

preserved unmodified. 
Camp outfit desirable; necessary. 
Figures in ft. indicate elevation above 

sea level. 

Letters in parentheses indicate desir- 
able means of reaching the area 
as follows: (w) on foot; (a) by 
automobile; (h) horseback; (c) 
canoe. 





















M 




























FIG. 6. PBESEBVED AND AVAILABLE ABEAS IN WESTEBN NOBTH AMEBICA 



'fa AREAS 

TO SCALE 
4- SMALL AVAILABLE 

AREAS 

AVAILABLE AREAS 

TO SCALE 
m DOMINION FORESTS 



PROPOSED DOMIHIOH 
FOREST 
p DOMINION PARKS 



NATURAL ARID AREA 
;'.".'.'.* SAND AREAS 

'*** in Mexict 




FIG. 7. PRESERVED AND AVAILABLE AREAS IN EASTERN NORTH AMERICA 




eM*,JU*A J"- 









I 




















B. NATURAL REGIONS AND NATURAL AREAS 



Section 1. Northern North America; Ice Covered Areas, Tundra, 
and Northern Coniferous Forest 1 



1. NORTHWEST GREENLAND 
BY W. ELMER EKBLAW 

PHYSIOGRAPHY 

Northwest Greenland embraces the 
broad peninsular region fronting west- 
ward upon Kane Basin, Smith Sound, 
and Baffin Bay, between Humboldt 
Glacier on the north and Melville Bay 
on the south. This peninsular region 
extends over 3 latitude, from about 
76 to 79 N. and over 8 of longitude, 
from about 64 to 72 W. 

The high narrow plateau between 
the ice-cap and the sea is bisected by 
Inglefield Gulf, a deep indentation with 
several tributary fjords. Wolstenholme 
Sound again bisects the southern half 
and Foulke Fjord bisects the northern 
half. The northern portion from Foulke 
Fjord northward, and the southern 
portion from Wolstenholme Sound 
southward are Laurentian gneiss and 
granite, in places capped by later 
sedimentaries; the area between Wol- 
stenholme Sound and Foulke Fjord is 
Huronian sandstones, limestones, and 
shales, intersected by dark traps and 
diabases. 

The Huronian coastline is much 
indented, with narrow beaches at the 
mouths of the valleys and along the 
gentler slopes; the land-surface is 
varied, with high sharp mountains and 
deep canyon-like valleys in places, and 
lower, rounded hills and broad valleys 
in other places. The Laurentian coast 
line is smoother, with very few beaches; 
the land-surface is more uniformly high 

1 This section was not edited as the others were. 
All accounts were read by Messrs. Preble and Ek- 
blaw and a part by Dr. Osgood. F. C. Baker read 
the zoology of the entire section. 



and deeply dissected. Everywhere the 
topography is comparatively rugged. 

The coastal belt between the ice- 
cap and the sea which becomes free of 
ice and snow in summer is from 2 to 40 
mi. wide. It is intersected by numerous 
glaciers, most of which reach the sea, 
though some do not. Areas separated 
by these glaciers vary in size from small 
tracts of a few acres, to large regions 
several hundred square miles in extent. 

CLIMATE 

With the large extent of open water 
along the coast even in midwinter, the 
temperature rarely drops down to more 
than 50F. below zero, much higher 
than extreme winter temperatures in 
Siberia or Canada. Even with an 
extensive ice-lay the temperature is 
modified by the water, through crevices 
and open pools, though if the ice be 
deeply and generally covered by heavy 
snow the temperature is lowered. The 
highest summer temperature is 55 to 
60 above zero Fahrenheit. Along some 
of the high cliffs the temperature is 
raised adiabatically when the air drops 
down from the ice-cap, so that in cer- 
tain favorable localities the temperature 
never falls below 40 below zero Fahren- 
heit. 

The temperature rises high enough 
about mid-June to melt the ice and 
snow; melting ceases about mid-August. 
By mid-September the sea-ice begins 
to form permanently in the fjords and 
deeper bays. The bays and fjords are 
generally occupied throughout the sum- 
mer by drifting fields of ice; rarely 
are they free of icebergs. 

Snow falls in every month of the 
year, but the first snows of summer 



87 



NATURALIST'S GUIDE TO THE AMERICAS 



that do not melt are those of late August 
or early September. The depth of snow, 
even after a winter's accumulation, 
is rarely over 2 or 3 ft., because the 
relative humidity is frequently so low 
that a great deal of snow evaporates 
even in the coldest weather. When the 
snow begins melting in June under the 
continuous sunlight, every canyon and 
valley holds a roaring torrential moun- 
tain stream which flows with heavy 
volume until melting ceases. Rain 
rarely falls; yet when the chinook comes 
down off the ice-cap, rain may fall 
even in January. The region is one of 
general low humidity. 

The winds are cyclonic in character. 
The heaviest storms come from the 
southwest with destructive on-shore 
winds. In the bays and fjords the 
winds invariably blow down to the sea 
from the ice-cap, no matter what the 
wind may be above the plateau. Sud- 
den winds sometimes sweep down off 
the plateau or from the ice-cap and 
drive the shore-ice out to sea even in 
mid-winter. 

The period of continuous night be- 
gins about mid-October and ends about 
mid-February. Continuous sunlight 
begins about mid-April and lasts until 
mid-August. Between mid-February 
and mid-April the days lengthen and 
the nights shorten; between mid- August 
and mid-October the days shorten 
and the nights lengthen. The night 
is rarely so dark as to stop traveling 
or sledging entirely, and throughout 
the moon-lighted periods during which 
the moonlight is continuous, all activ- 
ities can be carried on without diffi- 
culty. During the period of continuous 
sunshine, noon and midnight do not 
differ greatly in temperature or inten- 
sity of light. The air is always fresh 
and clean. 

BIOTA 

Because of the short growing season 
and the long dry cold period no trees or 
shrubs grow in the homeland of the 
Polar Eskimo. The tallest tree is the 
Arctic willow, a scant three inches in 



height. Over a hundred species of 
vascular plants grow in the region. 
The sedges, blue grasses, and similar 
grassy plants grow luxuriantly. Two 
are particularly abundant Poa pra- 
tensis and Alopecurus alpinus. On 
some of the talus slopes manured by 
nesting birds, the mat of grasses is 
thick and heavy. Mushrooms are com- 
mon and lichens clothe the rocks. 
Flowering plants, though small and 
relatively inconspicuous, grow in dense 
mats on favorable slopes where the sun 
shines warmly, and moisture is ample. 

Due in large measure to the rich 
carbon dioxide content of the water 
and the continuous sunlight, the plank- 
ton development in the sea is incredibly 
rich throughout the summer, and the 
heavy growths of laminaria and other 
sea weeds on every shoal ledge are 
particularly luxuriant. 

The bird life is incredibly abundant, 
not in species but in individuals. Of 
the land birds the ptarmigan and snow- 
bunting are the most common. Shore- 
birds, ravens, snowy owls and falcons 
are rather numerous. The redpolls, 
wheat-ear, and Lapland longspur all 
nest in the area. The ptarmigan, 
ravens, and snowy owls are permanent 
residents. Of the sea-birds the dove- 
kies are the most numerous. They 
nest in suitable slopes of easy gradient 
along the entire coast in such numbers 
that they cover the sea when feeding 
and darken the sky when in flight. 
Almost as numerous as the dovekies 
are the murres, that nest on the ledges 
of the steeper shore cliffs along the 
coast. The old squaw is common, the 
red-throated loon frequents the inland 
pools, and the merganser and green- 
winged teal are occasionally seen along 
the coast. The eider duck frequents 
the coast in thousands, and the black 
brant is common. Kittiwakes, guille- 
mots, gulls, jaegers and the fulmars are 
numerous. All the seabirds find an 
abundant supply of food in the small 
life of the cold, well-lighted waters off 
the shore. 

Animal life on land is relatively scarce . 



NATURAL AREAS AND REGIONS 



The muskox (Ovibos moschatus wardi) 
is extinct along the Greenland shores 
of Smith Sound though still common 
in Ellesmereland, Grantland, and west- 
ward. The caribou (Rangifer groelandi- 
cus), though still fairly abundant, is 
generally restricted to a few isolated 
areas not readily accessible. The fact 
seems fairly well established that the 
caribou migrate across the ice-cap to 
Northwest Greenland from the east 
coast and the regions to the north. 
The Arctic hare (Lepus groenlandicus) 
is widely distributed and common. 
The blue fox and the white fox (Alopex 
groenlandicus') are abundant in the 
bird-cliff localities where they feed 
upon both the eggs and the birds. They 
are color phases of one species, both 
occasionally being littered by the same 
dam. The Arctic wolf (Cam's tundrarum 
is almost extinct, and the lemming and 
the ermine do not frequent this part 
of the Greenland Coast. Ti e muskox, 
caribou and hare feed upon the willows, 
grasses, and small herbs; the wolf and 
fox feed upon the muskox and the 
caribou. 

The sea animals, because of the ample 
supply of food, are very numerous. 
Four species of seal- the ringed seal, 
the bearded seal, the hooded seal, and 
the harp seal are all rather common, 
though the ringed seal is by far the 
most abundant. The walrus frequents 
the coast during the whole year, es- 
pecially when the mussel-shoals furnish 
good feeding grounds. The narwhal 
and the white whale are numerous. 
The killer whale and the bowhead, and 
occasionally the right whale, visit the 
coast. The sleeper shark feeds over 
the deeper bottom. Fish are few. 
Salmon are caught along shore and in 
some of the inland lakes. 

Mollusks are particularly abundant 
and number upwards of 72 species. 
These are all marine, no land or fresh 
water species having been reported from 
this part of Greenland. These are all 
of Arctic forms, including Buccinum, 
Astarte, and Saxicava as leading types. 

The polar bear (Thalarctos m. mari- 



timus), an animal of both land and 
sea, is as much at home out on the 
open sea among the icebergs as along 
the shore. He avoids all habitations 
of man, particularly when, there are 
dogs about. Keen of scent and of all 
perceptions, as well as of intelligence, 
the polar bear is certainly the most 
superb animal of the North, though 
not nearly so dangerous as the walrus. 

NOTES 

Northwest Greenland is accessible 
almost every year between July 20 and 
September 10. The outermost capes 
and islands may be reached by ships 
as early as July 1, but the innermost 
bays and fjords do not open up before 
August 1. 

The plant life may best be studied 
from Etah on Foulke Fjord; Kangerd 
luksuah deep within Ingle field Gulf; 
Keatek on Northumberland Island at 
the mouth of Inglefield Gulf; and at 
Umanak on North Star Bay, in Wol- 
stenholme Sound. 

Of these places Umanak is probably 
best, though because of the very loca- 
lized occurrence of many species, a 
complete collection is impossible from 
any one point. For a critical study of 
the Arctic Drabae in the field, Umanak 
is unexcelled, since nearly every species 
of far northern distribution is found 
there in abundance. For a study of 
the immigration of American species, 
Etah is probably most favorably situ- 
ated. It is interesting that at Etah, 
Pedicularis hirsuta and Pedicularis 
capitata are abundant; but Pedicularis 
lanata is entirely lacking; at Lifeboat 
Cove only 5 mi. north, Pedicularis 
hirsuta and Pedicularis lanata are num- 
erous, but Pedicularis capitata is quite 
absent. The carices may be best 
studied at Kangerdluksuah. 

The sea-animals may be best studied 
from Akpat on Saunders Island or from 
Keatek on Northumberland Island. 
The land animals may be best studied 
from Etah. Umanak affords the most 
favorable base for the ornithologist 
to study both land- and sea-birds; 



90 



NATURALIST'S GUIDE TO THE AMERICAS 



but Etah is better for the study of 
the dovekies, the eider, the ptarmigan, 
and the snow-bunting. Foulke Fjord, 
Inglefield Gulf, and its tributaries, and 
Wolstenholme Sound all offer fascina- 
ting fields for dredging the bottom life 
of the sea. 

The entire region offers an interesting 
field for the physiographer, but two 
tracts are particularly promising; the 
shores of Grenville Bay, a tributary 
of Wolstenholme Sound, for a com- 
parative study of glacier forms and 
phenomena; and Prudhoe Land, lying 
north of Etah, for a study of the possi- 
ble relationships between the oscilla- 
tion of the sea level, as shown by coastal 
terraces, the recession and advance of 
glaciers as indicated by serial terminal 
moraine, and the development of the 
drainage systems. A careful study of 
these two areas might throw much 
light on the phenomena and history 
of glaciation. 

ROUTES OF TRAVEL 

Except in rare years of exceptionally 
heavy ice-lay, the Northwest Greenland 
may readily be reached by well-built 
ships with dependable motive power. 
The route lies across the lower reaches 
of Baffin Bay from the Labrador Coast 
to the vicinity of Sukkertoppen, or 
Godthaab, Greenland, and thence north- 
ward fairly close into shore to avoid the 
heavy pack which occupies the middle 
portion of Baffin Bay, as far as Uper- 
nivik; thence the route must be deter- 
mined by the situation of the middle 
pack if it lies off-shore the course may 
be laid northward inshore to Cape 
Seddon, thence northwestward to Cape 
York and thence along the coast around 
Conical Rock, and Northward; if the 
ice lies inshore the course must be 
laid out beyond the pack. 

The ice is generally not open enough 
for navigation in those far northern 
waters before mid-July, though the 
mid-western Danish Greenland coast 
is accessible even in early May. The 
southern portion of the west-Greenland 
coast is almost continuously barred 



by the heavy ice that comes out of the 
Arctic Ocean, drifts down along the 
east coast, and swings around Cape 
Farewell, then sweeps up along the 
west coast for some 500 to 600 mi. 

By mid-September the ice is again 
freezing thick and heavy in the bays 
and fjords and along the shores of 
Northwest Greeland, so that a ship 
may find herself frozen in for the winter 
if she remains beyond that time. Navi- 
gation is frequently open along the mid- 
west Danish Greenland coast until 
mid-November. 

Northwest Greenland constitutes a 
readily accessible, fruitful field for 
study of far arctic life and habitats, 
and will richly repay further research. 

2. DANISH GREENLAND 

BY W. ELMER EKBLAW 

INTRODUCTION 

Greenland, the earth's largest island, 
lies just to the northeast of the North 
American continent, of which it is a 
detached part. North and south it 
extends from 60 N. at Cape Farewell, 
to 83 37 N. at Cape Bridgeman, about 
24 of latitude, or 1650 mi. East and 
west it is roughly 650 mi. wide over its 
northern three-fifth of extent; its south- 
ern two-fifth gradually narrows to a 
point at Cape Farewell. 

The area of Greenland is 850,000 sq. 
mi., of which about three-fourths is 
occupied by the ice-cap, a frozen desert 
of age-old ice, thousands of feet thick; 
while the other one-fourth is comprised 
in the narrow coastal belt which becomes 
generally free of ice and snow every 
summer, so that the terrain itself is 
there exposed. 

The north coast is washed by Kane 
Basin, Kennedy Channel, Hall Basin, 
and Robeson Channel, constituting the 
straits between Ellesmereland and Green- 
land, and the ice-bound Arctic Ocean; 
the east coast is washed by the Arctic 
Ocean, the Greenland Sea, Denmark 
Strait, and the Atlantic Ocean, in all 
of which the cold Greenland current 



NATURAL AREAS AND REGIONS 



91 



with its continuous sheet of ice- floes 
and bergs sweeps the Greenland coast; 
and the west by Davis Strait, Baffin 
Bay, and Smith Sound a branch of 
the Greenland current sweeps around 
Cape Farewell and northward as far 
as the Arctic Circle. All these waters 
are studded with bergs from the glaciers 
and covered with vast fields of pan-ice 
from the multitudinous fjords and bays 
of the coast. 

GEOLOGY 

The portion of Greenland lying south 
of the seventieth parallel, so far as 
known, is composed of pre-Cambrian 
granites, gneisses, and schists of which 
the gneisses are most widely distrib- 
uted with later intrusives, both acidic 
and basic, and a few isolated areas of 
sedimentaries of doubtful geologic age. 

Along both the mid-eastern and mid- 
western coasts are widespread areas of 
Tertiary basalt, which have locally 
preserved from erosion the fossiliferous 
Tertiary and Cretaceous sedimentaries 
of the west coast, and the Tertiary 
sedimentaried of the east coast. This 
belt of basalts separates the pre-Cam- 
brian area of the south from the north- 
ern extent of similar gneisses, granites, 
and schists. 

This northern area of pre-Cambrian 
rocks, like the southern, is the north- 
eastward extension of the old Canadian 
shield, and though locally affected by 
tectonic disturbances at various periods, 
is generally quite similar throughout 
its extent. It slopes toward the north 
and west. Along its northern and north- 
western boundaries it is overlapped by 
Paleozoic sedimentaries from the Cam- 
brian to the Carboniferous, some of 
the formations being richly fossiliferous. 

PHYSIOGRAPHY 

Outline 

Throughout its entire length of thou- 
sands of miles, the coast-line of Green- 
land is almost a continuous series of 
long, deep, narrow fjords and bays 
separated by long, narrow, peninsulas 



and headlands, and bordered by innum- 
erable skerries, islets, and islands 
probably the most extensive develop- 
ment of fjords and skerries in the world. 

Generally, these fjords and the sounds 
between the islets are bordered by such 
high steep cliffs that landing upon them 
is impossible, but in some localities the 
shore is a low, sloping foreland that in 
most places leads rapidly up to steep 
slopes or cliffs. Many of the fjords are 
so narrow and cliff-walled as to be 
veritable canyons, into which the sun can 
shine only when they open out toward it. 

A barrier of ice lies along most of the 
coast of Greenland. The heavy ice of 
the Arctic Ocean is swept along the north 
and east shores of the island and even 
around Cape Farewell, and northward 
hundreds of miles along the west coast. 
This Arctic ice-pack is of heavy solid 
fields and floes, and numerous great 
bergs. The Smith Sound Region be- 
comes relatively open in summer. 
Baffin Bay holds three great fields known 
as the south pack, the middle pack, and 
the north pack respectively, which bear 
in upon the Greenland shore whenever 
the wind so drives them. 

For ten months of the year, from 
September first to July first, practically 
the entire coast of Greenland is inac- 
cessible because of the ice that freezes 
over the sea throughout the entire 
extent of the coast. Only for a few 
hundred miles along the mid-west coast, 
from Godthaab northward to Proven, 
is the open season longer, but here it 
sometimes begins in May and continues 
to November. The entire east coast, 
except for a small extent about Sermilik 
Fjord, at the mouth of which is situated 
the Eskimo village, Angmagssalik, is 
often icebound even in summer. From 
Cape Farewell northward almost to 
Godthaab, and from Upernivik north- 
ward to Cape York, the coast is more or 
less icebound also, much of the summer. 
The Smith Sound region is relatively 
free of ice for the two summer months, 
and some of the outermost headlands 
like Cape Alexander are free of ice 
throughout the year. 



92 



NATURALIST'S GUIDE TO THE AMERICAS 



Four kinds of ice form the barrier 
to the coast the Great Ice from the 
Arctic Ocean; the West Ice from the 
Arctic Archipelago ; the Winter Ice formed 
in the fjords, bays and sounds of the 
Greenland coast itself; and the ice-bergs, 
the discharge of the glaciers debouching 
upon the sea from the ice-cap. 

Relief 

Greenland considered as a whole, 
is essentially a plateau, the elevated 
surface of an old peneplain, with two 
central points of maximum elevation, 
from which the ice-cap slopes away on 
all sides. The northern center of eleva- 
tion, over 9000 ft., lies on the seventy- 
third parallel, approximately half-way 
between the east and west coasts; the 
southern center, 7500 ft., is an elongated 
divide half-way between the coasts, 
from 64 N. to 68 N. latitude. Both the 
northern and the southern portion of the 
plateau tilt toward the north, so that 
the southern slopes are steeper and 
shorter than the northern slopes. The 
northern slope of the northern block 
extends roughly over ten degrees lati- 
tude. Isolated peaks, and tracts of 
considerable size, rise above the general 
level of the interior plateau, and along 
the coast at several points, cordilleran 
areas rise far above the average marginal 
elevation. 

Because the general level of the coastal 
belt of ice-free land is very high, except 
along the northern shore, and deeply 
dissected, the scenery along most of the 
coast is exceedingly wild and pictur- 
esque. Precipitous cliffs and headlands 
rise sheer out of the sea thousands of 
feet to form the entrances and walls of 
fjords and bays and gulfs of exceeding 
grandeur. Deep cleft-like valleys; low 
narrow forelands; small deltas at the 
mouths of streams; majestic snowcapped 
peaks and domes rising above the pla- 
teaus; picturesque, rocky skerries and 
islets innumerable; satin-white glaciers 
discharging colossal bergs into the sky- 
blue sea in summer these are the 
elements of a landscape^that surpasses 



in wild beauty the most scenic spots 
of the rest of the world. 

The coastal belt is generally rugged 
and rough with steep slopes of angular 
scree, or precipitous cliffs with narrow 
ledges. At places, even where the relief 
is highest, broad valleys, probably 
carved out by active glaciers when the 
ice mantle was more extended than at 
present, lie between the table-lands of 
the headlands, and along considerable 
stretches of coast, forelands of varying 
width lie between the sea and the higher 
lands behind. 

Drainage 

Though Greenland is a large land, it 
has no streams of any size, and such 
streams as there are, are frozen for 
almost ten months of the year. In the 
short summer every gulch and valley 
bears a torrential rushing streamlet, fed 
by the rapidly melting snows of the 
coastal land-belt, and by the marginal 
ice of the ice-cap. The ice-cap does 
not melt very far back from its edge, 
generally not within the 4500 ft. eleva- 
tion in the northern part, and the 6000 
ft. contour in the southern part; as a 
consequence no great rivers are formed. 

The many brooks and smaller stream- 
lets are turbulent and impassable after 
the summer melting begins, and the 
freshets sweep before them great vol- 
umes of detritus. Those streams that 
have their sources in the ice-cap, and 
flow considerable distances across the 
coastal border-land, often augmented 
by tributaries from local neve on the 
marginal plateau-tracts, or from snow- 
beds along the valley, may become river- 
like in volume and burden of material 
carried, and sweep torrentially seaward 
the sand, gravel, and boulders that fall 
or roll into their currents. 

The Ice-cap 

The ice-cap, the dominant feature of 
the Greenland landscape, as well as the 
dominant factor in the environmental 
complex, is the largest remnant of the 
great mantle of ice that lay over the 
northern part of the northern hemi- 



NATURAL AREAS AND REGIONS 



93 



sphere during the maximum develop- 
ment of the Pleistocene glaciation. 
Here the balance between precipitation 
and refrigeration on the one hand, and 
evaporation and melting and run-off 
on the other, is so nice that in the cen- 
turies that the ice-cap has been under 
observation, little change in its extent 
or volume has been noticed. 

The interior of the ice-cap is relatively 
level, conforming to the general slope 
and elevation of the plateau on which 
it lies, but cast into drifts and domes 
like sand-dunes by the prevailing winds. 
Thus the highest places on the ice-cap 
are the two centers of elevation, on the 
seventy-third para lei and the sixty- 
fifth parallel. The ice-cap in the in- 
terior portion is composed of thousands 
of feet of thicknesses of ice in the lower 
strata, and of recrystaliized snow near 
the surface. The surface snow of the 
interior portion of the ice-cap does not 
melt and become running water, and 
then freeze to ice, but recrystallizes 
slowly into ice. 

Along the margin of the ice-cap, where 
the ice annually melts, and forms water 
that either freezes again, or runs off 
the surface in the thousands of brooks 
and streamlets that flow turbulently 
and torrentially to the sea in the short 
summer season, the surface is exceed- 
ingly broken and rough, and isolated 
peaks and tracts of bare rock, called 
"nunataks" project from the ice. The 
very edge of the ice itself may be a 
perpendicular wall, revealing the strati- 
fication of the ice-mass; a gentle slope 
that spreads out over the plateau on the 
bed of a valley; or it may be concealed 
under some of the local neve of the 
outer headlands. 

Glaciers, varying in width from a few 
hundred feet to hundreds of miles, move 
forward from the ice-cap itself along 
every valley and cleft. Some of these 
glaciers reach the sea and discharge 
vast and numerous ice-bergs; others 
move so slowly that they melt back as 
fast as they advance, and so do not 
yield any bergs; others do not reach the 
sea at all, and melt away back from the 
coast, the so-called "dead" glaciers 



Climate 

The climate of Greenland is char- 
acteristically arctic not only because of 
the high latitude, but also because of 
the pronounced influence of the ex- 
tensive inland ice-cap and the ice- 
burdened waters that border the entire 
island. The great masses of ice tend 
to lower the temperature in both sum- 
mer and winter, but along the coast the 
tempering influence of open leads and 
pools of water in relative proximity to 
most of the coast modifies the rigor of 
the climate in winter and makes it 
more equable in summer. 

The seasonal variations in tempera- 
ture are not so wide as in a great un- 
glaciated land mass like Siberia, but 
sudden fluctuations due to varying 
winds, and to the combined effect of 
wind-direction and topography, are as 
great in range as anywhere in the world. 

Winds 

Whenever the wind blows off the ice- 
fields and the cold waters from the north, 
west, or east, the temperature falls; 
whenever it blows from the south and 
southwest off the warm waters of the 
Gulf Stream the temperature rises fast. 
Whenever the "fohn," that wind pecu- 
liar to certain alpine or plateau regions 
like Alpine Europe or the western part 
of the United States begins to come 
down off the plateau heights of Green- 
land, the temperature rises incredibly 
fast and suddenly; and since both the 
east and west coasts of the island are 
topographically favorable to the de- 
velopment of the "fohn," its char- 
acteristic occurrence is frequent and 
effective. The "fohn" may continue 
for only .a few hours, but it may prevail 
for several days. Under the influence 
of this warm, drying wind, the tempera- 
ture may rise as much as 80 in a day, 
or as much as 45 in an hour, sometimes 
evaporating several inches of snow 
during its continuance. 

Temperature 

The mean temperature in southern 
Greenland is only a half degree above 



94 



NATURALIST'S GUIDE TO THE AMERICAS 



freezing; at Umanak, about halfway 
between the southernmost and north- 
ernmost points, it is 11 below, and 
along the northern coast it is probably 
35 below freezing. The mean winter 
temperature is successively lower along 
the coast as the latitude increases, but 
this is not true of the mean temperature 
of summer. Due to increasing effect of 
the continuous sunlight the mid-west 
Greenland coast in summer has a higher 
mean temperature than Cape Farewell; 
thus Holsteinsborg, lying along the 
coast in latitude 76 N. has a mean 
summer temperature of 45 while Nanor- 
talik, on the sixtieth parallel, 7 farther 
south, has a mean summer temperature 
of 42. 

The lowest temperature reported from 
the neighborhood of Cape Farewell is 
20; from the mid- west coast, 45; 
and from the northern portion, 70; 
the highest temperature reported from 
the southern portion is 75; from the 
mid-west coast, 70; and from the 
northernmost portion, 65. From year 
to year the temperature in any period 
may vary widely; for instance the highest 
temperature for February, 1891, at Uper- 
nivik, in 72 54' was -4; for February, 
1892, 57; for February, 1894, 2; and 
for February, 1895, 60. 

The average number of days below 
freezing increases from north to south 
successively at Cape Farewell 208; at 
the sixty-fifth parallel, 244, at the 
seventieth parallel, 257; at the seventy- 
fifth parallel, 300. Except in the south- 
ernmost portions and at the heads of 
the deep fjords between the sixty- 
fifth and the seventieth parallels, frost is 
likely even in midsummer. 

Precipitation 

The precipitation varies considerably 
in character and amount. The northern 
portion has a relatively small precipita- 
tion, almost all of which falls as snow, 
rain being very exceptional; snow falls 
every month of the year. Along the 
western coast the precipitation de- 
creases from Cape Farewell northward. 



At Cape Farewell with about one 
hundred days of precipitation, it is 
over 45 in. annually; at the sixty-fifth 
parallel it is 27 in. in one hundred 
seventy days of precipitation; at the 
seventieth parallel it is 10 in. in one 
hundred days; and thence decreases 
slowly northward. The precipitation is 
heaviest in summer, next in fall, then in 
spring, and least in winter. Snow con- 
stitutes about half the precipitation in 
the southern portion, about two-thirds 
in latitude 73 N. Fog is rather com- 
mon, especially along the coast in sum- 
mer. In some localities along the 
southern coast almost a third of the 
days are foggy. 

Pressure 

The mean barometer for the southern 
point of Greenland is 754.7 mm.; for 
the mid-western part 759 mm. The 
pressure may vary greatly and rapidly. 
At Ivigtuk along the southern coast, 
the lowest barometer is 709.2 mm.; the 
highest is 758.8 mm. The average wind- 
velocities are small and calm weather is 
frequent. In summer the prevailing 
winds along the west coast are souther- 
lies and westerlies; in winter easterlies 
prevail. In the fjords the winds usually 
blow strong from the ice-cap to the sea, 
even though at right angles to the 
direction of the wind on the plateau 
above. Except along the southernmost 
stretches of coast the southerly winds 
bring the worst storms, from seven to 
ten a year; in the southern portion the 
north and west winds bring storms, as 
many as twenty a year. 

The inner reaches of the fjords differ 
from the coastal headlands and the 
skerries in having a higher summer 
temperature and lower winter tempera- 
ture; the humidity is considerably less, 
so that bright, clear weather often 
prevails while the coast is cloudy or 
foggy; the days are more often calm; 
and the snow melts away earlier. 

Day and night 

One of the most important factors in 
the climate of Greenland is the sue- 



NATURAL AREAS AND REGIONS 



95 



cession of day and night. This factor 
is equally important in the character, 
distribution, and development of the 
plant and animal life. Since all except 
the southernmost point of the island 
lies within the Arctic Circle, nearly its 
whole extent has periods of continuous 
sunshine and continuous nighfc. The 
period without sunlight is six weeks 
long in latitude 70 N.; thirteen weeks 
in latitude 75 N.; and eighteen weeks 
in 80 N. The period of continuous 
sunlight is slightly longer. The sudden 
development of the plant life, and the 
rich life of the sea are in considerable 
measure due, to this period of continuous 
light. 

BIOTA 

Plant life 

The plant life of Greenland includes 
some 400 species of vascular plants, 
600 mosses, 700 fungi, 300 lichens, 500 
algae, and 600 diatoms. More of the 
lower species will doubtless be dis- 
covered, but the list of vascular plants 
is probably almost complete. The long 
stretch of Greenland coast, through 
varying physiographic and climatic con- 
ditions, would suggest a richer flora than 
that represented by only a few more than 
400 species, even with the rigorous 
arctic climate; but the flora is quite 
post-glacial in origin, and since Green- 
land is an island swept almost exclu- 
sively by polar currents, and having its 
nearest point of approach to other 
lands at its northern extremity, where 
conditions for plant migration are most 
unfavorable, the immigration of plants 
since the dispersal of the ice-sheet has 
been exceedingly slow. 

The flora of Greenland offers some 
interesting problems in distribution and 
immigration. Some species are highly 
localized. Some are European in rela- 
tionship, some are American, and a 
very few are endemic. Some are cir- 
cumpolar high latitude species, some 
are from the Canadian zone. How have 
they come to Greenland, and how have 
they established themselves? The an- 
swer has been only partially given, and 



many a controversy has raged over the 
solution of these problems. 

Fifty families of vascular plants are 
represented in the Greenland flora, of 
which the Cyperaceae, Graminae, Ca- 
ryophyllaceae, Cruciferae, and Com- 
positae are the largest. The genera 
richest in species are Carex, Saxifraga, 
Pedicularis, and Draba. Many of the 
genera are represented by one species, 
the average ratio of genera to species 
being 2:5. The southernmost part of 
the island about Cape Farewell has a 
flora of almost 300 species; the Smith 
Sound region almost 20 farther north 
and within 15 of the pole, has almost 
150 species. 

The entire island is beyond the north- 
ern limit of true trees, and though 
isolated small tracts far within the land 
near the head of the fjords of the south- 
ern west coast may bear a tree-like 
growth of birch, willow, alder, and 
conifers, the entire land is unforested, 
Even well developed shrubbery is rare. 
Generally all tree-growth and shrubbery 
are dwarfed to creeping or prostrate 
form alder, willow, juniper, vaccinium, 
and birch. Even the arctic and alpine 
forms are pauperate or dwarfed as the 
northern reaches of the coast are 
approached. 

The "Feldmark" is the most widely 
distributed type of vegetation, the 
first to appear on moraines from which 
the ice has retreated, or wherever new 
land appears to afford opportunity for 
new plant growth. In this association 
the plants are so far apart that the 
spaces between are much larger than 
the spaces occupied. The struggle is 
not among one another, but against the 
rigorous conditions. Among the plants 
taking their place thus as pioneers are 
the arctic poppy, a number of the saxi- 
frages and cresses, dryas, some of the 
cinquefoils, a number of the cresses, 
and a few others. 

Where the soil is relatively dry the 
heath-association covers the terrain. 
It is composed of the small shrubs 
junipers, Vaccinium, Salix, Betula, Cas- 
siope, Empetrum, Dryas, Rhododendron, 



NATURALIST'S GUIDE TO THE AMERICAS 



and others, and numerous herbs, grasses, 
and sedges. Potentilla, Draba, Pyrola, 
Arnica, Pedicularis, Campanula, Anten- 
naria, Festuca, Poa, Carex, and nu- 
merous others belong in this group. 

In the moister, damper places a moor- 
vegetation frequently establishes itself, 
with wet-soil grasses, sedges, cotton- 
grasses, and rushes, forming hummocky 
turf with mosses, and liverworts grow- 
ing all over the soil between. Here 
grow Montia, several species of Ranun- 
culus, Oxyria, Tofieldia, Licopodium, 
Equisetum, and others. 

Though almost no high trees or heavy 
growth of shrubbery are found, the land 
seems rich in plant growth during the 
short summer, and wherever a plant can 
establish itself on cliff or slope or rocky 
ledge, one is usually found. 

The plant life of the sea is well de- 
veloped, and Laminaria, Agarum, Ala- 
ria, and others form a rather rich sea- 
growth wherever conditions permit. 
The cold seas with their high content of 
gases support an incredibly rich plank- 
ton life, so dense at times during the 
continuous summer sunshine as to color 
the water. It is from this abundant 
plankton life that the multitudinous 
bird and animal life of the Greenland 
seas derive their ultimate sustenance. 

Animal life 

Three thousand species of animal life 
have been reported from Greenland and 
its adjacent waters of which all except a 
very few are lower forms. Of the higher 
forms 30 are mammals; 150 are birds, 
and 100 are fish.- 

The land mammals are the muskox, 
" confined to the northern and north- 
eastern coasts; the caribou, which, 
though once distributed throughout the 
coastal lands, is. now rather limited to 
certain favorable stretches of coast; 
the arctic hare, common along the 
entire coast; the lemming, occupying 
approximately the same range as the 
muskox; these 4 are herbivores, feeding 
upon the low, hard vegetation. The 
carnivores are 3 in number- the arctic 
wolf, now almost extinct except in the 



northernmost tracts; the polar fox, both 
white and blue phases, rather common 
among the whole coast, particularly 
where the seabirds nest most numer- 
rously; and the ermine, restricted to the 
range of the lemming, upon which it 
feeds. 

The polar bear, frequenting the whole 
coast, may be classed as both land- 
animal and sea-animal, since he is 
equally at home on both, and may bear 
his young either on land, or in snow- 
drift burrows beside the grounded bergs. 
He is generally carnivorous, feeding 
chiefly upon the seals that he catches 
on the ice or in the sea, but he may, in 
times of hunger, feed upon berries 
where they are available. 

The land-birds nesting in Greenland 
are Reinhardt's ptarmigan, common on 
every hillside; the Lapland longspur, 
frequenting the willow and alder copses; 
the snow-bunting, ubiquitous as to 
habitat; the Greenland wheat-ear, at 
home on the drier, rockier, sunnier 
hillsides; the American pipit; the red- 
polls (Acanthis hornemanni hornemanni 
and Acanthis linaria rostrata) ; the snowy 
owl, most common about the haunts of 
the lemming; the raven, the gyrfalcon, 
and the peregrine falcon, frequenting 
the bird-cliffs and the coastal heights. 
The ptarmigan, the owl, the raven, may 
and often do, remain all year, even in 
the northernmost parts of Greenland, 
even through the long, dark night. 

The gray sea-eagle nests along the 
coast; like the polar bear, he frequents 
both land and sea, and though preying 
largely on the inland salmon, often 
captures young seals and sea-birds. 

No reptiles are found. Only two 
freshwater fish are common Salmo al- 
pinus L., and Gasterosteus aculeatus L. 

Insects are not numerous, considered 
as a group. Four hundred species are 
known, of which many have been .in- 
troduced. Coleoptera are represented 
by about 40 species; Hymenoptera, by 
about 70 species, including two bumble- 
bees; Lepidoptera, by 50 species, mostly 
moths; and the Diptera by about 200 
species. Mosquitoes are numerous and 



NATURAL AREAS AND REGIONS 



97 



swarm over both coasts as far north as 
75 N. Culex nigripes and Simulium 
viltatum swarm over the copses, moors, 
and moss-grown slopes and flats; in a 
few localities the tiny Ceratopogon 
sordidellus is a plague. Six species of 
fleas are found. Pediculus capitis, Pedi- 
culus corporisj and Phthirius pubis are 
probably native, while Pulex irritans 
and Cimex lectularius have been in- 
troduced. The fur-clad Eskimos are a 
paradise for parasites. 

The marine fauna is relatively richer 
than the land life, and it is largely from 
these marine fields that the Eskimos in 
large part garner their sustenance 
their food from the flesh, their clothing 
from the skins and furs, and their fuel 
from the blubber of the large sea 
animals. 

Twenty-two species of mammals fre- 
quent the Greenland coastal waters, 
not including the polar bear. Of these 
the walrus and the seals are most im- 
portant. The walrus is found all along 
the coast, but is abundant only in a 
few restricted localities. Five species 
of seal the bearded seal (Erignathus 
barbatus), the ringed seal (Phoca foe- 
tida), the harbor seal (Phoca vitulina), 
the harp seal (Phoca cristata), and the 
hooded seal (Cystophora cristata} fre- 
quent the coast, the 3 latter being most 
common along the southern coast, the 
two former along the northern shores. 
Of the whale and porpoise families 
sixteen species are found in considerable 
numbers; the right whale (Balaena 
glacialis), and the Greenland whale or 
bowhead (Balaena mysticetus), are still 
seen along the coast, but are practically 
extinct; the humpbacked whale (Megap- 
tera nodosa), once fairly common, is no 
longer seen; the bottlenose whale, 
(Hyperodon restrains) is a rather fre- 
quent visitor. The killer whale (Orca 
gladiator) is common; the narwhal 
(Monodon monoceras) is numerous, and 
the beluga (Delphinapterus leucas) mi- 
grates up and down the coast in huge 
schools, often of many thousands. 

Though 150 birds have been recorded 
from Greenland, only 52 are known to 



nest on the island. Of these, 41 species 
are shore-birds or sea-birds, frequenting 
either the coastal waters or the sea, or 
less frequently the pools of the interior. 
The loons, eiders, phalaropes, old- 
squaws, snow-geese, and mergansers 
are often found in these inland pools; 
and the sandpipers, knots, plovers, 
sanderlings, turnstones, and others of 
the shore-bird group frequent the val- 
leys and lowlands as well as the coastal 
forelands. The barnacle goose and the 
black brent are locally common. 

But the wealth of bird-life for which 
the Greenland coasts are famous is 
made up chiefly of the sea-birds. Most 
numerous of these are the dovekies 
(Alle alle), which nest along the north- 
western coasts in incredible numbers; 
the murres (Uria troille troille, and 
Uria lomvia lomvia) populating nearly 
all the high, precipitous forelands; and 
the guillemots (Cepphus grylle and C. 
mandtii), the latter most common north- 
ward, the former abundant southward. 
The cormorant (Phalacrocorax carbo) 
is found locally along the western coast 
from 73 N. southward; the puffins, 
(Fratercula arctica arctica and F. a. 
naumanni), are fairly common; and the 
razor-billed auk is locally abundant. 

The gulls are numerous the glaucous 
gull, the ivory gull, the black-backed 
gull, the herring gull, Kumliens gull, 
the kittiwake, and Sabine's gull, are all 
native to the coast. The Arctic tern 
is common along most of the coast. 
The fulmars are likewise common. The 
jaegers are all found along the Green- 
land coast. 

The fish fauna is relatively rich in the 
south Greenland waters. The sleeping 
shark is generally common; the cod and 
rock-cod are found off the southern 
coast; the halibut, dab, and the related 
"hellefisk" (Reinhardtius hippoglossoides 
Watt)} are also common along the south- 
ern portion of the coast. The sculpin is 
found everywhere. The caplin, as on 
the coast of the Labrador, fills the 
coastal waters early in summer. 

The lower forms of sea-life are locally 
so numerous in the ice-free, sunlighted 



98 



NATURALIST'S GUIDE TO THE AMERICAS 



summer seas as to color the water. 
They furnish food to the myriads of 
bird-life, fish, and sea-animals. 

THE DANISH AKCTTC SCIENTIFIC STATION 
AND THE PORSILD NATURE RESERVE 

Morten P. Porsild, Danish geographer 
and naturalist, with more than usual 
vision and determination, has secured 
governmental support for a scientific 
station and base for exploration, at 
Godhavn on Disko Island. This sta- 
tion, of which he is director, is well 
equipped with library, laboratory, and 
study supplies, the most advantageously 
located base for Arctic research in the 
world. Here investigators from all 
lands are welcome; here young explorers 
are trained in the Arctic technique; and 
here Science finds its well-guarded 
Arctic frontier. 

Porsild has also established a preserve 
which includes the areas watered by the 
warm springs of Disko Island, where an 
exceptionally rich and varied flora and 
an unusual invertebrate fauna are 
preserved from destruction. This pre- 
serve, like the warm spring area itself, is 
unique. It is the northernmost station 
of many plants, like some of the orchis 
family, and a number of invertebrates, 
among them two species of earthworms. 

ROUTES OF TRAVEL 

Greenland is maintained by the 
Danish Government as a trade monopoly 
for the Danish Royal Trading Company, 
and stern restrictions are imposed upon 
visitors to the country, discouraging 
travel to the land. 

The mid-west Greenland coast is 
readily accessible by means of the 
Danish vessels that ply back and forth 
from Copenhagen in the summer 
months from May to October. Less 
frequently, vessels visit the north- 
western coast, and the southern coasts. 
Occasionally, a vessel from America 
goes to Greenland for a cargo of cryolite, 
to fish in the southern waters, or to take 
an expedition to the Far North. 

The monopoly maintained by the 
Danish government and the restrictions 



imposed upon travelers are wise, and 
beneficial to the Eskimo, who are cared 
for in a most paternal and unselfish 
manner by the Danish authorities; as 
a consequence, the Eskimo population 
of Danish Greenland has doubled in the 
last century. The Danes, by virtue of 
their kindly administration of the affairs 
of these primitive people, deserve an 
undisputed right to the land. 

3. THE AMERICAN ARCTIC 
ARCHIPELAGO 

BY W. ELMER EKBLAW 

INTRODUCTION 

The American Arctic Archipelago 
comprises that island group or polynia 
lying to the northward of the American 
continent, of which it forms a part in 
that it lies on the same portion of the 
earth's continental shelf. It does not 
include Greenland. Possible islands 
northwestward in the Arctic Ocean, as 
yet undiscovered, may be included. 
North and South it extends from the 
south end of Baffin Land in latitude 
62 N. to the north end of Ellesmere 
Land in latitude 82 N., a latitudinal 
extent of 20, or 1400 mi. It is widest 
in the south where it extends from the 
sixtieth to the one hundred twenty- 
fifth meridian, west longitude. It forms 
a rough triangle with its east side almost 
due north and south from the northeast 
point of Ellesmere Land to the southeast 
corner of Baffin Land, and its apex at the 
westernmost cape of Banks Land. 

GEOLOGY 

The geology of the entire archipelago 
is only imperfectly known, and merely a 
general statement of the areal distribu- 
tion of the outcropping formations may 
be made. 

The southeastern portion of the 
triangle, and most of the eastern coasts 
throughout, are pre-Cambrian, with 
scattered patches of sedimentaries, 
mostly Silurian. The Silurian lime- 
stones, in many places fossiliferous, 
are dominant over the southern portion 
of the western corner, principally on 



NATURAL AREAS AND REGIONS 



99 



Victoria Island, Prince of Wales Island, 
North Somerset Island, and northwest 
part of Baffin Land. 

On Banks Land and in the Parry 
Islands in the northwest part of the 
archipelago, the Carboniferous is the 
chief formation comprising the terrane. 
The Devonian, so far as known, is 
restricted to the northwest corner of 
North Devon, and the west part of 
Ellesmere Land. Triassic formations 
constitute the dominant outcrops in the 
Sverdrup Islands and, if the so-called 
Cape Raws on series are included with 
the Triassic, in a belt across the north 
part of Ellesmere Land. A few scat- 
tered Tertiary deposits have thus far 
been noted. 

PHYSIOGRAPHY 

Outline 

The Arctic Archipelago is made up of 
numerous large and small islands, sepa- 
rated by sounds and straits of varying 
size. The land surface exceeds con- 
siderably the water surface of the area. 
The larger islands, like Baffin Land 
and Victoria Land, and Ellesmere Land, 
are cut by a number of deep bays and, in 
general, the coast lines of all are rather 
irregular. All are continuously bor- 
dered by heavy ice for ten months of the 
year, and many of the sounds and straits 
are always unnavigable, because of 
heavy ice, or heavy ice and rapid cur- 
rents. Some are open for the passage 
of a ship some years, closed others. 
Navigation is always hazardous and 
doubtful. 

Relief 

The relief is highest at the north, in 
the north part of Ellesmere Land and 
gradually decreases southward and 
southwestward, being generally lowest 
toward the southwest corner of the area. 
The United States and Grant Mountains 
in Ellesmere Land rise high and sharp, 
probably 9000 ft. or even more. Elles- 
mere Land and Axel Heiberg land are 
both high and rugged lands, and the 
eastern part of Baffin Land is relatively 
high. Westward the topography be- 



comes gradually smoother and more 
mature. The shores of the eastern 
islands are generally steep and high, 
but cut by valleys, and bordered by 
forelands, both of which are wider and 
flatter toward the south. The general 
contour of the islands becomes more 
rounded and subdued toward the west; 
the hills are not so high nor so steep, 
and the valleys are wider and flatter. 
Relic ice-caps with projecting gla- 
ciers, some of which reach the sea and 
discharge icebergs, occupy considerable 
portions of the Ellesmere Land, North 
Devon, and Baffin Land plateaus. 
Practically the entire area of the Archi- 
pelago was probably heavily covered 
during the Pleistocene glaciation, 
though most of the evidence has in 
places been obliterated. 

Drainage 

Throughout the archipelago the drain- 
age has been profoundly modified by the 
morainal deposits of the glacial period. 
In the western portion the drainage has 
been fairly well restored, or an adequate 
new system developed, but in the east- 
ern portions the drainage is still un- 
developed. A number of large lakes lie 
in the interior of Baffin Land; Lake 
Hazen in the north part of Ellesmere 
Land is a considerable body of water; 
and smaller lakes are found on most of 
the islands. Many lakes have probably 
not yet been discovered or mapped. No 
large rivers are found in any of the 
islands, though in the melting season 
many of the streams are swollen by the 
freshets to turbulent, riverlike torrents. 

CLIMATE 

The climate of the Arctic Archipelago 
can be described only in a general way. 
The few definite data available are so 
scattered in point of time and locality, 
that they can be used only as general 
indices of the character of the climate. 

The entire archipelago is a region of 
long, cold winter, and very short sum- 
mer, beginning with mid-June and 
ending with the first of September. 
The climate in winter is almost con- 



100 



NATURALIST'S GUIDE TO THE AMERICAS 



tinental since all the water is frozen 
over and its modifying effect is negli- 
gible; but in summer the climate is 
arctic-oceanic, and even with twenty- 
four hour sunlight during the summer 
months, the temperature does not rise 
high because of the depressing chill 
off the cold shore waters with their 
masses of ice. In northern Ellesmere 
Land the lowest winter temperature is 
probably 70; the highest tempera- 
ture in the interior dales and valleys 
sheltered from the sea-winds, probably 
rises to + 70. In the southern portion 
the temperature does not often drop 
below 40, while the interior summer 
temperatures do not rise far above +75. 
The precipitation is uniformly light. 
The rains of summer in the southern 
portion and the summer snows of the 
northern part are relatively light. The 
snowfall over the entire group is not 
heavy for the entire winter, but the 
accumulation remains until late May or 
June, and then the melting furnishes 
ample moisture for the rapid growth of 
the vegetation through the short, 
sunlighted summer. The western coast, 
facing the prevalent winds receive the 
maximum precipitation. The first frost 
comes late in August in the southern 
portion, earlier in the same month in the 
northern portion. The ground is frozen 
throughout the year, except for a thin 
surface layer a few inches thick that 
opens up for the short summer. Be- 
cause of the effect of the twenty-four 
hour sunlight, and the protracted inso- 
lation, the "summer" period is approxi- 
mately the same throughout the whole 
north and south extent of the archipel- 
ago. 

BIOTA 
Plant life 

The plant life of the Arctic Archi- 
pelago has never been thoroughly in- 
vestigated. The collections are few, 
far scattered, and incomplete. From 
none of the islands, except Ellesmere 
Land perhaps, has even an approach 
been made to an exhaustive and rep- 
resentative collection. 



The character of the vegetation is 
similar to that of Western Greenland, 
though in the lower, flatter western 
portions of the archipelago, the bog and 
moor, or tundra, vegetation spreads 
over much greater areas, and the "Feld- 
mark" is relatively more restricted. 
There are no trees, and few shrubs of 
any size, most of the vegetation being 
confined to creeping or dwarfed shrubs 
and vascular plants particularly grasses 
and sedges. 

The paucity of the flora of the Silurian 
siliceous limestone areas is character- 
istic, and seems due principally to the 
lack of fine particles in the detritus 
resulting from the disintegration of the 
limestone. There is no true soil; even 
in the flatter expanses of the Silurian 
the limestone is riven by frost into sharp 
angular fragments that do not afford 
proper foothold for plants or for the 
absorption and capillary retention of the 
necessary water supply. The purer or 
more argillaceous limestones of the 
other sedimentaries give rise to a more 
favorable soil, and on this, as on the 
soil derived from the pre-Cambrian, the 
vegetation is abundant and more gener- 
ally distributed, apparently little 
affected by the composition of the soil. 

The flora, so far as known, is made up 
of slightly more than 200 species, repre- 
senting 31 families, of which the largest 
are the Graminae, Cyperaceae, Cruci- 
ferae, and Compositae, in the order 
named. The genera richest in species 
are Carex with 12, Saxifraga with 12, Salix 
with 10, and Pedicularis with 7. Sixty- 
two species are distributed throughout the 
archipelago; 18 species extend over the 
southern portion; 35 are confined to the 
south-western islands; 28 species are 
decidedly western in origin and range; 
and 23 are distinctively eastern. The 
proportion of monocotyledonae increases 
northward. The distribution of these 
genera and species over the archipelago 
raises interesting questions of origin, 
migration, and relationship which have 
been the cause of much controversy, 
involving the extent and continuity of 
the Pleistocene glaciation; former land 



NATURAL AREAS AND REGIONS 



101 



connections now submerged, among the 
islands themselves and with the main- 
land, Asia, and Europe; variations of 
the climate in the past; the rise of 
endemic species, and modifications of 
immigrants; and the effect of trans- 
porting agencies. 

In the warmer, drier niches of the 
rockier slopes where sufficient soil has 
accumulated, small heath-growths of 
Campanula uniflora, Pyrola rotundifolia, 
Arnica alpina, Antennaria alpina, Fes- 
tuca alpina, Trisetum spicatum, Carex 
incurva, Potentilla Vahliana, and Cala- 
magrostis purpurascens are set among 
a basic growth of Cassiope tetragona and 
Dryas integrifolia, which are distributed 
over all the drier tracts. 

The seepage-swales along the moss- 
grown streamlets of ice-cold water from 
melting streamlets are well carpeted 
with grasses, sedges, Luzula and Juncus, 
with here and there patches of white- 
furred Eriophorum and timothy-like 
Alopecurus alpinus. In these seepage- 
swales the drier margins have scattered 
beds of Rhododendron lapponicum, Saxi- 
fraga oppositifolia, Oxyria digyna, Ceras- 
tium alpinum, the several species of 
Draba, Ranunculus nivalis, and Melan- 
drium affine. 

Silene acaulis, Bray a purpurascens, 
Papaver radicatum, Poa, Salix arctica, 
Potentilla nivea, Statice maritima, Erige- 
ron compositus, Taraxacum, Lesquerella 
arctica, and Stellaria longipes, grow over 
the windswept, gravely reaches, not 
too dry. 

The grass- and sedge-grown moors 
with an "undergrowth" of moss and 
marchantia, hold scattered plants of 
Pedicularis hirsuta, Eriophorum Poly- 
stachium, Ranunculus sulfureus, Carda- 
mine bellidofolia, Equisetum arvense, 
Eutrema edwardsii, Ranunculus hyper- 
boreus and R. pygmaeus, Tofieldia palus- 
tris, and many other moisture-loving 
plants. 

Cystopteris fragilis, Woodsia, and 
Aspidium fragrans are among the ferns 
of the archipelago. Hippuris vulgaris, 
Dupontia fischeri, Pleuropogon sabinei, 
Batrachium paucistamineus, and several 



carices grow in the pools or long the 
margins. 

These are but part of the species that 
go to make up the vegetation of the 
islands. 

Animal life 

Except for the mammals and the birds, 
the animal life of the archipelago is 
most imperfectly known. The lower 
forms have been relatively neglected by 
the explorers and investigators who have 
collected in the polynia. 

The muskox (Ovibos moschatus) finds 
on the more remote lands of these 
islands, notably in Banks Land, Axel 
Heiberg Land, and Ellesmere Land, his 
last extensive range. Here the last 
large herds have thus far been preserved; 
on the broad valley-pastures and slopes 
of Ellesmere Land, several thousand 
still persist, finding there food and safety 
from slaughter. 

The barren-ground caribou (Rangifer 
spp.) ranges over the southern islands, 
while in Axel Heiberg Land and in 
Ellesmere Land a small species, Rangifer 
pearyi finds its home. These small 
northern caribou do not gather in large 
herds, nor do they migrate extensively. 

Along all the coastal stretches and 
far out upon the frozen reaches of the 
Arctic Sea the polar bear (Thalarctos) , 
the arctic wolf (Cam's tundrarum), 
and the polar fox (Alopex spp.) wander 
restlessly about, still relatively numer- 
ous. The Arctic hare (Lepus arcticus 
group) is rather widely distributed. 
The lemmings (Lemmus and Dicrostonyx) 
and the weasel (Mustela a. arctica} 
frequent the grassgrown plains and 
moors. 

The sea-life is relatively abundant. 
Walrus, ring-seal, bearded seal, harp 
seal, hooded seal, and harbor seal are 
found in the sounds and off the islands. 
Narwhal and beluga are common. In 
places, several species of whale are 
found. The Big Finner, the Little 
Finner, the Humpback, the Right 
whale, the Greenland whale, and the 
Killer are found locally. 

The bird-life is numerous, but little 



102 



NATURALIST'S GUIDE TO THE AMERICAS 



is definitely known about the distribu- 
tion and northern habits of some of the 
species. 

The pipit and the horned lark are 
common among the southern islands. 
The lapland longspur, the snow-bunting, 
and the redpolls are widely distributed. 
The northern raven, the snowy owl, 
Reinhardt's ptarmigan, the duck hawk 
and the gyrfalcon are rather common 
throughout the archipelago. 

The Greenland and American eiders 
are common toward the east, the Pacific 
and Steller's eiders toward the west, 
and the king-eider is found in small 
numbers throughout the polynia. The 
Hutchin's goose, the blue goose, the 
Canada goose, the swans, and the snow 
geese probably nest on the islands 
bordering Hudson Bay on the north. 
The hooded merganser, the green- 
winged teal, the old squaws, and casu- 
ally, other ducks, frequent these islands. 
The black-throated loon toward the 
west, and the red-throated loon through- 
out the archipelago, are rather common. 

Shorebirds are numerous. At least 
two species of phalaropes breed in the 
islands. A number of the sandpipers 
and the plovers, the sanderJings and 
turnstones, all these frequent the low, 
flat valleys, the damp plateaus, with 
myriad pools and ponds, and the broad, 
shingly shore-land. Even the little 
brown crane is found on the southern 
islands. 

The sea-birds are numerous. Ful- 
mars, terns, kittiwakes, Sabine's gull, 
Ross's gull, the herring gull, the great 
black-backed gull, the glaucous gull, 
and the ivory gull nest in the archi- 
pelago. Three jaegers course over the 
islands and the sounds. The dovekies 
are found in the North. Brunnick's 
murre, Mandt's guillemot, the puffin, 
and the razor-billed auk are other 
representatives of the sea-bird group. 

Both the plant-life and the animal- 
life of the archipelago are relatively 
little known. These islands offer a 
fascinating field for exploration and 
study. 



ROUTES OF TRAVEL 

The arctic archipelago is generally 
difficult of approach. The entire east- 
ern coast from Hudson Strait to the 
Arctic Ocean is more or less barred by 
ice, and accessible only with favorable 
ice-conditions, winds, and tides. A 
rare fur-trading ship or whaler may 
afford passage, but generally a special 
ship is necessary for transportation to 
the region. 

The south side of the archipelago is 
more easily accessible in summer by way 
of Hudson Bay. The west side is even 
more difficult of approach than the east 
side. A special ship must be engaged 
for the trip, unless a whaler or fur- 
trader happens to be bound for those 
far arctic waters. 



4. UNGAVA AND LABRADOR 

BY W. ELMER EKBLAW 

INTRODUCTION 

Because the great peninsula of Labra- 
dor and Ungava offers to the naturalist 
one of the most promising fields for 
exploration and study, considerable 
attention to the geography of the area 
is well worth while. 

It comprises a great triangular, penin- 
sular territory forming the major north- 
eastern portion of the North American 
Continent. This triangle, broken only 
by Ungava Bay, is bounded roughly on 
the west by James Bay and Hudson Bay; 
on the northeast by Ungava Bay, Hud- 
son Strait, and the Atlantic Ocean; 
on the south by the Rupert River and 
its tributaries to Lake Mistassini, the 
Saguenay and its tributaries to the 
St. Lawrence, and the St. Lawrence 
River and Gulf, and the straits of Belle 
Isle. Only that portion lying north of 
the 52nd parallel is included within this 
account, and in general it does not include 
any of the territory drained by the 
rivers that flow into the St. Lawrence 
system. 



NATURAL AREAS AND REGIONS 



103 



GEOLOGY 

Over the greater part of the Labrador 
Peninsula, probably nine-tenths the 
area, the Laurentian gneisses and 
schists form the country rock. These 
consist of highly metamorphosed and 
foliated clastic and igneous rocks of 
great geologic age, all, with a few ex- 
ceptions, Pre-Cambrian. More or less 
interfolded with these aged Laurentian 
rocks are several widely separated areas 
of Huronian clastic and volcanic rocks, 
and many basic eruptives schists, con- 
glomerates, breccias, and others. Rest- 
ing unconformably upon these aged 
Laurentian and Huronian rocks, sand- 
stones, argillites, shales, and lime- 
stones, of doubtful age, with bedded 
traps and other basic or volcanic rocks, 
may constitute an early Cambrian 
deposition. 

In the long period between the folding 
of the Laurentian and Huronian rocks 
and the submergence when these sedi- 
ments were laid down, the peninsula was 
profoundly sculptured and denuded to 
the fundamental basic form and physi- 
ography it has today the great central 
plateau, the lake and valley basins, 
and the fjords and inlets. 

In relatively recent geologic times this 
old original land surface has been con- 
siderably modified by glaciation through- 
out its entire extent except the highest 
mountain areas along the northeastern 
coast of the peninsula. The central 
neve" from which this glaciation pro- 
ceeded, moved progressively northward 
in three distinct successive periods of 
ice accumulation, with intervening pe- 
riods of diminished glaciation. The 
earliest ice-flow radiated from a central 
gathering-ground between the 50th and 
51st parallels near the center of the 
peninsula; the second from a point to 
the northwest beyond the 54th parallel; 
and the latest from a center about a 
hundred miles inland from the east coast 
of Hudson Bay, between the 55th and 
56th parallels. 

In the areas of these central neve 
the rocks and boulders rest upon rocks 



of the same kind and evidently have not 
been transported far. As the distance 
from these central areas of neve in- 
creases, the sculpturing by the ice 
becomes more distinct; but in general 
the amounts of erosion and change 
wrought upon the general surfaces have 
not been so great as is generally thought. 
Though the ice certainly did erode in 
one place and deposit in another to 
reduce the surface to a general uniform 
level over the most of the plateau, the 
evidence does not show that it ever 
trenched or plucked out such deep 
depressions as it apparently did farther 
south along the peripheral edges and 
lobes of the ice-sheet. 

PHYSIOGRAPHY 

Outline 

The west coast of the peninsula, 
running nearly due north and south for 
800 mi. is remarkably straight and un- 
broken by any deep indentations,though 
bordered by numbers of long groups of 
low narrow islands paralleling the shore- 
line; the south side of the area covered 
in this report corresponds roughly to the 
divide between the rivers flowing into 
the St. Lawrence and those emptying 
westward, eastward, and northward to 
Hudson Bay, Ungava Bay, and the 
Atlantic. The Atlantic coast is ex- 
ceedingly irregular, cut by many deep, 
narrow fjords and bays, of which Hamil- 
ton Inlet, the southernmost, is the 
largest and deepest; and bordered by 
islets and skerries innumerable. The 
coast of Hudson Strait and Ungava 
Bay are relatively regular, bordered by 
many islets. The passages between the 
islets and the mainland, and between 
the islets themselves are locally des- 
ignated as "tickles." 

Relief 

The Labrador peninsula is a gently 
undulating plateau which rises abruptly 
within a short distance from the coast 
line to a general elevation of about 
2000 ft., and which slopes rather gently 
westward, northward, and eastward to 



104 



NATURALIST'S GUIDE TO THE AMERICAS 



the rim of the plateau, from a central 
crest lying approximately along the 
53rd parallel between the 65th and 
70th meridians, west longitude. The 
plateau is bordered in the northeastern 
portion, along the Atlantic seaboard by 
ranges of sharp, unglaciated mountains, 
beginning about latitude 55 N. and 
extending northward to Cape Chidley, 
with maximum altitudes of 6000 ft. 
inland from Saglek Bay; but elsewhere 
the rim of the plateau does not rise 
above the general level of the plateau. 
The entire inland area of the plateau is 
comparatively level, traversed only by 
low, rounded, roughly parallel ridges of 
crystalline rocks, so that except for a 
very few places, there is not in the entire 
plateau area 200,000 sq. mi., a difference 
of level of more than 400 ft. The general 
surface is further modified by low 
moraines extending in a general way the 
same direction as the slope of the 
country, yet appreciably modifying the 
preglacial drainage system of the terrain. 

Soil 

Most of the soil of the peninsula is a 
boulder-studded, infertile, glacial till, 
derived from the Archean rocks. Over 
wide areas it is very sandy. The soil 
along the river valleys has been modified 
and enriched by redeposition and with a 
consequent heavier growth of vegeta- 
tion. The richest soils bearing the 
best development of vegetation are the 
alluvial-topped soils along the coast 
and the inlets, and the areas of limestone 
and shale outcrops of the supposed early 
Cambrian rocks. 

Drainage 

As a consequence of the damming of 
the valleys and basins of the streams 
of the Labrador plateau by the masses 
of glacial till and moraines, the whole 
area is dotted with myriads of lakes and 
pools, that occupy at least a fourth of 
the entire area. They vary in size from 
small narrow ponds to large extensive 
lakes hundreds of square miles in area, 
most of them relatively shallow, some 
deep. In addition to the great lake 



areas, large portions of the plateau 
are occupied by damp, boggy, tundra 
with defective drainage, almost lake- 
like in character. 

A perfect network of streams connects 
these lakes and ponds, all interlocking so 
closely that no great distances separate 
the headwaters; and since above the 
rapids near the coast, the streams and 
lakes are generally navigable by canoes, 
water travel is relatively easy through- 
out the plateau, with few portages more 
than 2 or 3 mi. long. 

Three principal watersheds comprise 
the peninsular north of the Height of 
Land. The eastern is drained prin- 
cipally by the tributaries of Hamilton 
Inlet' the northern is drained by the 
Koksoak, the largest and longest river 
of Labrador, the George, the Whale, 
and the Leaf; the western, the most 
extensive of the peninsula, is drained 
by the Nastapoka to the north, the 
Little Whale and the Great Whale about 
the middle, and the Big and East Main 
to the south. 

The water in the pools, lakes, and 
streams is remarkably clear, quite 
different from the dark-brown waters 
of the Laurentian basin. Because the 
summer season is short, the swamps and 
tundra from which most of the streams 
and lakes drain their water are thawed 
only to a depth of 12 to 18 in., and 
vegetable decomposition, particularly of 
the sphagnum mosses, is negligible. 

CLIMATE 

The climate of the plateau of Labrador 
is generally and distinctly Arctic. Ex- 
cept at the heads of the deeper fjords 
and inlets of the southern portion of the 
east coast, where the diurnal range of 
temperature is from 45 to 90, and the 
average temperature in summer is 
above 50, the temperatures for the 
year are characteristically sub-Arctic. 

Though situated in the same latitude 
as some of the most pleasant and most 
productive lands of Europe, Labrador 
is chilled by the cold waters of the 
Greenland current along its eastern 
shore, and^by the prevailing westerly 



NATURAL AREAS AND REGIONS 



105 



winds which come off the cold expanses 
of Hudson Bay, and the frigid, icebound 
islands of the Arctic Archipelago, 
instead of being warmed by the balmy 
winds that blow off the temperate Gulf 
Stream, as in northwestern Europe. 

Temperature 

The temperature depends greatly on 
the direction of the winds. During the 
summer the prevailing winds in the 
interior are southerly and southwesterly, 
bringing higher temperature and cloudy 
skies, often with drizzling rain. The 
prevailing westerly and northwesterly 
winds of winter are accompanied by 
lower temperatures and clear skies. 
The northerly and northeasterly winds 
accompany heavy storms of rain and 
snow, with damp, chilly weather. Clear, 
pleasant weather usually comes with 
easterly and southeasterly winds, though 
fogs along the coast are then most 
common. 

The temperature in the interior, 
even in the southern part of the area, 
rarely rises above 80 during the middle 
of the day, on more than a few days 
during the warm season. The summer 
temperature of the Atlantic coast 
region is considerably lower than inland, 
or along the western coast. The lowest 
winter temperatures inland are 55; 
along the coast 45, at the head of 
Ungava Bay; and at the mouth of 
Hamilton Inlet -40. 

The interior plateau has but two 
seasons, winter from mid-September to 
mid-June, and summer rather spring 
from mid-June to mid-September. The 
summer season begins almost simulta- 
neously throughout the interior, with 
a suddenness that is surprising. In 
the first two weeks of June the snow 
disappears, the ice melts off all the 
lakes except the larger, the temperature 
rises rapidly every day, the trees and 
shrubs burst into leaf and early bloom, 
and the birds arrive to mate, and to 
begin nesting almost immediately. Un- 
til the first of July frosf/s are likely to 
occur every night and flurries of snow 
may come even later. Summer ends 



about the middle of September when the 
first fall snow falls and the ice forms in 
the small lakes. From early in October 
the snow remains permanently, and all 
the smaller lakes are solidly frozen. 

Precipitation 

The precipitation over the interior is 
relatively light. The summer precipi- 
tation is fairly constant though very 
light, with few days without drizzles or 
thunder-showers. The winter snowfall 
varies from 3 to 6 ft., of which the most 
is brought by the north and notheast 
winds. Three-fourths of the winter 
season is clear and crisp with brisk 
northwest winds blowing. 

BIOTA 
Plant life 

The vegetation along the coast of the 
Labrador Peninsula is distinctly tundra, 
with no trace of forests except at the 
heads of the deeper inlets, while the 
interior is more or less forested according 
to the latitude and topography. 

The tundra of the coast is almost 
continuous over the islands, capes, prom- 
ontories, and forelands, being broken 
only by ledges of outcropping rock 
with no soil covering; pools and lakes; 
the low depressions which form moors; 
the high rocky summits of the coastal 
mountains where broken masses of rock 
(typical "Felsenmeer") constitute the 
surface; and scattered moist sunny 
slopes and protected niches where the 
same plants as those of the less favored 
localities attain a most luxuriant growth. 

In these coastal tundras, the essential 
element is the sphagnum moss which 
grows in all the damper portions. 
Arctic grasse, sedges, rushes, and cot- 
ton-grasses form turfy patches where 
conditions are favorable. Northern Sa- 
liceae and Ericaceae are the common 
shrubs, all low-growing Empetrum nig- 
rum, Vaccinium uliginosum and V. 
Vitis-Idaea, Betula nana, Rubus cha- 
maemorus and R. arctica, Ledum, Loise- 
luria, Bryanthus that grow in the 
tundra and tundra moor. Viola palus- 
tris, Diapensia lapponica, Cerastium, 



106 



NATURALIST'S GUIDE TO THE AMERICAS 



Draba, Saxifraga, Papaver, Epilobium, 
Drosera, Pinguicula, Silene, Pedicularis, 
and numerous other arctic vascular 
plants constitute the more prominent 
flowers. On the drier slopes Linnaea 
borealis, Rhododendron lapponicum, Py- 
rola grandiflora, Campanula, Arnica, 
Antennaria, Festuca, Trisetum, and 
Calamagrostis characterize an almost 
heath-like association of plants. 

The interior plateau as a whole is 
quite different from the coastal belt, 
though large areas within the limit of 
the plateau are composed of similar 
tundra and tundra-moor vegetation. 

The forest is practically continuous 
over the southernmost edge of the area 
described in this report, only the sum- 
mits of the highest, rockiest hills being 
bare; but from the 53rd parallel north- 
ward, all the higher hills are treeless, 
the size and number of barren areas 
rapidly increase, and the trees them- 
selves grow smaller. In latitude 55 
N. more than half the surface is without 
trees, forested areas being found only 
in narrow belts along the streams and 
lakes, and in moist, sheltered recesses 
among the hills. The northern limit 
of trees extends from the mouth of the 
Nastapoka River on Hudson Bay, to 
the mouth of Leaf River on Ungava 
Bay, thence along the south shore of 
Ungava Bay to the mouth of the George 
River, thence along the foothills of the 
Atlantic coast range to Hebron, just 
north of Cape Mugford and south of 
Saglek Bay. 

The arborescent flora comprises the 
following species: 

1. Black spruce (Picea mariana'), the 
most widely distributed and abundant 
tree of Labrador, extends to the northern 
limit of trees and constitutes nine- 
tenths of the forest. It flourishes on the 
sandy soils of the Archean complex and 
grows equally as well on the dry hills 
of the southern portion as in the boggy 
land between the ridges. Farther north 
it grows rank and slim in the valleys, 
btit on the uplands where it forms open 
glades, it spreads out like the white 
spruce. 



2. Balsam fir (Abies balsamea} is a 
more southerly tree than the black 
spruce. It grows only along the edges 
of the waterways and the shores of the 
larger lakes. Its northern limit is the 
Great Whale River, and then roughly 
eastward across the plateau to Hamilton 
Inlet. 

3. White spruce (Picea alba} is dis- 
tributed throughout the wooded area 
but is not so abundant. It is confined 
to the scattered areas of rearranged 
drift of the river valleys, the marine 
deposits of the coast, and to the heavier 
soils of the interior. Its size and num- 
ber are thus more dependent upon the 
soil factor than upon the climate, lati- 
tude, or altitude. Its northern limit 
approximates the forest limit. 

4. Tamarack (Larix laricina], the 
largest and the hardiest tree of the sub- 
arctic forest belt, grows everywhere 
over the Labrador Peninsula, next in 
abundance to black spruce. It fre- 
quents all the cold bogs; and even to the 
northern limit of the forest, where the 
black spruce is a mere shrub, the tama- 
rack retains its arboreal form and size, 
though somewhat diminished. 

5. Banksian pine (Pinus divaricata] 
occupies the southwestern portion of 
the Labrador Peninsula, south of the 
Great Whale River and west of a line 
that roughly corresponds with the 
seventy-first meridian. It grows on dry 
sandy ridges and hills, where it is often 
combined with black spruce to form the 
second growth on fire-swept reaches. 

6. Canoe birch (Betula papyrifera) 
grows commonly over the southern 
portion of the peninsula but is rare and 
small toward the north. Its northern 
limit lies to the south of the forest 
limit, though scattered groups of the 
trees are found even in the valley of the 
Koksoak river a few miles above its 
mouth. 

7. Aspen (Populustremuloides^is found 
in clumps in the original coniferous 
forest, and in company with white birch, 
as second growth in many burned-over 
areas. It seems most abundant and 
widely distributed in the western portion 



NATURAL AREAS AND REGIONS 



107 



of the peninsula on the undisturbed 
original till of the drift ridges. Its 
northern limit approximates the fifty- 
fourth parallel. 

8. Balsam poplar (Populus balsami- 
fera) grows farther north than the 
aspen but it thrives only on the heavy 
clay soil of the river valleys or that 
derived from limestone and shale rocks. 
Its extreme northern limit is near the 
head of Ungava Bay, thence south- 
eastward to the mouth of Hamilton 
Inlet, and southwestward to Bishop 
Roggan river on the shore of Hudson 
Bay. 

At least one-half of the original forest 
cover has been burned off, and a second- 
ary growth of black spruce, Banksian 
pine, aspen, and white birch replaces 
the former forest. In many places 
only blackened stumps and small second 
growth extend for miles over the plateau 
and up the river valleys, with here and 
there a large thrifty tract of the original 
forest to indicate the character of the 
former pristine forest covering. 

Throughout the forest belt, the low- 
lands fringing the streams are covered 
over with thickets of low willows and 
alders. Toward the semi-barrens north- 
ward, these fringes of shrubbery become 
wider, and with dwarf birch occupy 
much of the open glades. The willows 
and birches grow on the hillsides above 
the tree-line up to the "Felsenmeer" 
and its patches of Sphagnum or Cla- 
donia tundra, and form low thickets 
through which it is difficult to pass. 
North of the tree-limit similar thickets 
of Arctic willow, birch, and alder grow 
over the lower reaches, but on the hills 
they attain only a carpet-like form. 
Ledum and Kalmia in tangled masses 
form the undergrowth of the southern 
forest region, but die out in the semi- 
barrens. Sphagnum is the ground car- 
pet of the southern regions, being re- 
placed by Cladonia to the north, a rich 
growth everywhere throughout the 
semi-barrens and barren regions. 

The semi-barrens and barren moun- 
tain-tops and northern tracts are either 
areas of "Felsenmeer" with little vegeta- 



tion, or tundra or tundra-moor vegeta- 
tion such as is found along the coast. 
Over 450 species of vascular plants have 
been reported, including about 35 Com- 
positae, 30 Ericaceae, 30 Cruciferae, 
30 Rosaceae, 30 Cyperaceae, 30 Gra- 
mineae, 25 Caryophyllace; 20 Saliceae, 
20 Saxifragaceae, 20 Ranunculaceae, 
and 15 Scrophulariaceae. 

During the short summer season the 
open places of the peninsula become 
dotted with the blossoms of berry- 
bearing shrubs and flowering plants. 
Nearly all vernal in character, they 
burst into bloom abruptly, just as breaks 
the summer. Their flowering and grow- 
ing season is brief, and they hasten 
through their vegetative and reproduc- 
tive processes in a rapid, continuous 
succession by which the aspect of the 
landscape seems often to change over 
night. Grassy, sedgy, swales are dotted 
with the plants of the moor; gravelly, 
clayey slopes become colored with the 
heath-plants in every warm sheltered 
nook; and every niche and ledge among 
the rocks bears a flower, or a bit of fern, 
or sedge, or grass. The subarctic land- 
scape during the all too brief summer 
is far from monotonous. 

ANIMAL LIFE 

Mammals 

Of the land-mammals the barren- 
ground caribou is the most significant 
form in the whole fauna of the peninsula. 
The woodland caribou once abundant, 
and the chief reliance for food of the 
Nascaupee and Montaignais Indians, 
has been almost exterminated, with the 
result that a large portion of these 
tribes has perished from starvation. 

The barren-ground caribou ranges 
immense herds over the barren and 
semi-barren grounds. These animals 
spend the summer season on the barren 
highlands near the coast where the 
strong winds reduce the number of 
flies and mosquitoes that plague all 
life. In the autumn they migrate in- 
land and southward into the semi- 
barrens of the lower lands, * and [re- 



108 



NATURALIST'S GUIDE TO THE AMERICAS 



turn to the high barrens in April and 
May. 

Three distinct herds browse over the 
north part of the peninsula. One, on 
the Atlantic coast occupies in summer 
the mountainous area between the 
56th and 59th parallels, and migrates 
almost as a unit southwestward toward 
the semi-barrens of the inland valleys 
and forested lowlands beyond Lake 
Michikimau. Hundreds are killed by 
the Indians while crossing the George 
River about 100 mi. below the lake. 
The spring migration is more desultory 
in small bands. Another of the herds 
frequents in summer the point of the 
peninsula between Ungava Bay and the 
Atlantic, and migrates to the point 
west of Ungava Bay and Hudson Strait, 
crossing the lower regions of Koksoak 
River. The third herd winters about 
Clearwater Lake, and migrates north- 
ward for summer pasturage to the high- 
lands along the divide of the north- 
western part of the peninsula. 

With irregular periodicity the caribou 
remain on the barrens throughout the 
winter, not migrating back to the for- 
ested inland valleys and lake shore 
tracts. Whenever this happens the 
Indians are likely to face stress and 
starvation and death. 

With diminution in number of the 
Indian hunters, there is a corresponding 
increase in the number of furbearing 
animals. Of these the most abundant 
are the pine marten (Maries) ranging 
through the forested regions, but not 
found on the semi-barrens of the high- 
lands, or north of the tree-limit; the 
wolverine (Gulo) common throughout 
the entire extent of Labrador to its 
northernmost point; the otter (Lutra) 
common throughout the wooded regions 
and ranging northward into the barren 
grounds; the beaver (Castor), numerous 
throughout the forested lands, and rang- 
ing into the semi-barrens wherever 
the food-supply permits; the weasel 
(Mustela), distributed throughout the 
wooded regions; the mink (Mustela 
vison), rare even in the southernmost 
portion of the peninsula; the red fox 



(Vulpes) and its variant color phases, 
relatively abundant throughout the 
peninsula; and the arctic fox (Alopex) 
both blue and white forms found most 
abundantly in the barren ground to the 
north, and ranging farther south along 
the coast to the 52nd parallel. 

The arctic hare (Lepus arcticus) is 
confined to the barren and semi-barren 
lands, but the common rabbit (Lepus 
americanus) is found in great numbers 
throughout the wooded regions, except 
that periodically it is almost extermi- 
nated by an epidemic infection that 
rages through the species. This rabbit 
is an essential element in the Labrador 
fauna, for many of the carnivoran species 
depend upon it for their basic food 
supply. The Canada lynx (Lynx cana- 
densis), the gray wolf, and many of the 
fur-bearing carnivores find the rabbit 
the ultimate source of sustenance. It 
is said that whenever the rabbits die 
from disease, the lynx faces such difficult 
food conditions that it does not breed 
during the shortage of rabbits. The 
gray wolf (Cam's lycaon) preys chiefly 
upon the caribou (Rangifer spp.), and 
since the woodland form has become 
almost extinct, the range of the gray 
wolf has been largely limited to the 
barrens and semi-barrens, the haunts 
of the barren-ground caribou. The 
arctic wolf (Cam's tundrarum) is rare, 
and found only in the barrens and along 
the coast. 

Three species of bears are found in 
Labrador, the barren-ground bear, the 
black bear, and the polar bear. The 
barren-ground bear (Ursus sp.), as its 
name implies, is northerly in its range, 
and is very rare. The black bear (Ursus 
americanus group) is common through- 
out the wooded country, frequenting 
the coast when the great shoals of caplin 
are swept in on the beaches; the rapids 
and falls of the streams when the salmon 
and other fish are "shoaling;" and the 
burnt-over areas in the fall when the 
berries are ripe. The polar bear (77m- 
larctos) is common along all the coast 
of Labrador, but most abundant in the 
northern portion where it finds seals in 



NATURAL AREAS AND REGIONS 



109 



abundance. It frequents the ice-fields 
and bergs, and rarely travels inland 
except in winter when the fjord and 
inlets are frozen over. The polar bear 
is essentially a shore-loving animal, 
spending much of its time at sea. 

The smaller mammals that frequent 
the northern barrens and semi-barrens 
include the Labrador deer-mouse (Pero- 
myscus} common as far south as the 
52nd parallel, particularly about build- 
ings and huts; the small and large yel- 
low-faced Phenacomys of rather far 
northern distribution; the Ungava red- 
backed mouse (Euvotomys ungava) re- 
stricted to these northern barren and 
semi-barren areas; the small Labrador 
vole (Microtus); two species of lem- 
ming (Lemmus and Dicrostonyx), most 
common about the grassy, sedgy moors 
and bogs; and the Labrador shrew (So- 
rex), found from Fort Chimo 'south. 

The small mammals that are of more 
southern range, found principa llyin 
the wooded lands are as follows: the 
porcupine (Erethizon), ranging north- 
ward into the semi-barrens; the north- 
ern red squirrel (Sciurus hudsonicus) 
of the same range; the Labrador flying 
squirrel (Glaucomys sabrinus makkovi- 
kensis), rare even in the southernmost 
portions; the large Labrador vole com- 
mon throughout the wooded regions and 
penetrating into the semi-barrens; the 
Labrador rock vole and Labrador jump- 
ing mouse (Zapus), rare along the 
coast; the Hamilton Inlet red-backed 
mouse and the northern jumping mouse, 
common in the woodlands to the edge 
of the semi-barrens; the Labrador musk- 
rat (Ondatra) becoming progressively 
less numerous from the heavily-wooded 
tracts in the south to the semi-barrens 
as far north as Fort Chimo, where it is 
very rare; and the little brown bat and 
Say's bat (Myotis L. Lucifugus and 
M. subulatus), that may occasionally 
be found in the extreme southern 
portion. 

In the waters off the coast the walrus 
is found along the whole coast, its former 
usual range, but now it is common only 
along the northern reaches. Six species 



of seal frequent the coast; the harbor 
seal, common to the coast and low parts 
of the rivers all around Labrador, and 
plentiful in a number of northern fresh- 
water lakes in which they breed and rear 
their young, and from which apparently 
they never go, having acquired a fresh- 
water habit; the ringed seal and harp- 
seal, common along the whole coast; 
the bearded seal, the gray seal, and the 
hooded seal, everywhere and always 
rare. The white porpoise or beluga, 
and the narwhal, are fairly common. 
The humpbacked, the little-piked, the 
finback, the sulphur bottom, the killer, 
and the bottle-nosed whales are locally 
relatively common; while the right 
whale, the bowhead, the Pollock whale, 
and the sperm whale are rare. The 
porpoises and dolphins are common. 

Birds 

The bird life of Labrador, both inland 
and coastal, is numerous and varied, 
the number of species of the seabirds 
being relatively small, though the num- 
ber of individuals in many cases is in- 
credibly large; while of the land birds 
the number of species is relatively large, 
the number of individuals relatively 
small. 

Of the sea-birds, two species once 
common, the great auk and the Labrador 
duck, have been quite exterminated. 
The puffin, the black, guillemot, and 
the Mandt's guillemot, the common 
murre and the Brunnich's murre, and the 
razor-billed auk, are common summer 
residents in the waters off the coasts, 
and the dovekies are numerous during 
the winter. The skuas, and jaegers, 
many gulls and terns, petrels and shear- 
waters, fulmars, gannets and cormorants 
frequent the coast. The mergansers 
and many species of ducks and geese 
including the eiders, brant, and the 
whistling swan populate the coastal 
inlets, fjords, and lagoons. 

Along the shores, the fast vanishing 
curlew may still be found, though the 
oyster-catcher has been exterminated; 
the sandpipers, the phalaropes, the 
plovers, the ruddy turnstone, the sand- 



110 



NATURALIST'S GUIDE TO THE AMERICAS 



erling, and the godwit, all help to make 
the coastal skerries and lowlands along 
the inlets interesting and lively. 

On the inland plateau the loons, the 
grebes, the coots, and the Canada geese 
nest in numbers about the lakes and 
pools, a few herons and rails, harlequin 
ducks, and sandpipers frequent the 
shores of the streams and ponds, some- 
times nesting. In the woods and timber 
lands of the interior the northern rang- 
ing species of woodpeckers hairy, 
downy, black-backed, three-toed, and 
the yellow-shafted flicker; the Canada 
blue jay, and the Labrador jay; the 
yellow-bellied fly-catcher, the raven, 
the pine grosbeak, the white-winged 
crossbill; the tree sparrow, the waxwing, 
the warblers Tennessee, yellow, myrtle 
magnolia, black-poll, black-capped yel- 
low, the water-thrush, and rarely, a 
few others; the northern shrike; the 
Hudsonian chickadee; the kinglets; 
the live-backed and hermit thrushes; 
the American robin; the ruffed grouse 
and the Canada grouse; and transient 
or casual visitors of other species; all 
these form the interior woodland 
avifauna. 

In the more open glades and on the 
barrens and semi-barrens, the willow 
ptarmigan and Reinhardt's ptarmigan 
are common, the latter migrating north- 
ward about mid-April to the northern 
barrens, and the islands to the north of 
Labrador; the yellow-legs, Wilson's 
snipe, and the inland sandpipers are 
found on the moorlands; the cow-birds 
and rusty blackbirds frequent the 
shrubby fringes of the open places; the 
red-polls, the longspur, the savannah 
sparrow, Lincoln's sparrow, the white- 
sparrow, the white-crowned and white- 
throated sparrow, the junco, the pipit, 
and the horned lark, flit about the 
semi-barrens, and the shrub-carpeted 
stretches of the barrens; while the snow- 
bunting commonly, and the rare wheat- 
war, occasionally, make their home 
among the rocky ledges and Felsenmeer 
of the whole region of barrens and semi- 
barrens. The gyrfalcon, the duck hawk, 
the bald eagle, and the American gos- 



hawk course over the plateau; the osprey 
frequents the waters of the southern 
portion; the kingfisher darts along the 
wooded streams; a number of owls 
short-eared, saw-whet, dusky, horned, 
and American hawk owls prey on the 
small life; and the snowy owl sweeps 
down over the plateau in winter, 
coming from the high-arctic lands to 
the north. 

Insects 

About 300 species of insects are known 
from Labrador. The diptera, many 
circumpolar in distribution, and an 
almost intolerable feature of the short 
Labrador summer, include two species 
of botfly that infest the caribou; deer- 
flies and horseflies of 10 or 12 species of 
which the larvae are aquatic or sub- 
aquatic and of which the adult flies are 
the torment of the larger land life of 
the peninsula; mosquitoes, beyond cred- 
ible enumeration, that rise in cloudlike 
swarms from the moors and tundra 
and hover about the woodlands equally 
densely; the minute midges, that help 
to make human existence during summer 
almost worthless in the woods; and a 
few other species "that do not bite." 

The hymenoptera number less than 
30 species, of which 11 or 12 are leaf- 
eaters or saw-flies; two are ants, con- 
fined to the southernmost wooded 
valleys; two are wasps; and 5 are bum- 
ble bees. The bumblebees are far north- 
ern species. 

One hundred and fifteen species of 
lepidoptera have been listed; 18 butter- 
flies, including 4 small Fritillaries; 
Argynnis atlantis; Papilio turnus; Pon- 
tia napi v. frigida; 4 Eurymus; Eugonia 
j-album; Oeneis norma v. semidea; 
Agriades aquilo; and Lycaena ladon. 
Two species of skippers, Pamphila 
comma and Hesperia centaureae, have 
been collected. Of the moths the 
Arctiidae include 4 species; the Noc- 
tuidae, 40 species; the Geometridae, 20 
species; the Lipariidae one species; 
the Hepialidae, two species; the Pyral- 
idae, 8 species; the Crambidae, 6 species; 
the Tortricidae, 20 species; the Tineidae, 



NATURAL AREAS AND REGIONS 



111 



10 species; and the Trichoptera (caddis- 
flies) 5 species. 

The Hemiptera include only 4 species; 
the Orthoptera number one. Eight On- 
donata (dragon-flies) have been found in 
Labrador; one Ephemeris, or May-fly; 
3 Plecopterids ; several Thysanura or 
spingtails; and the snow-flea; all these 
have been recorded. Sixty species of 
beetles and 11 spiders have been de- 
scribed from the peninsula. 

fish 

The inland waters of Labrador are well 
stocked with fish. The sturgeon is 
common in many streams; the northern 
sucker and the red sucker are common 
throughout the peninsula in all the lakes 
and streams; the whitefish is everywhere 
abundant; the Atlantic salmon enter 
all the streams opening on the Atlantic 
and Hudson Straits watersheds; the 
Great Lake trout, the brook trout, and 
the pike are found in most of the 
streams; the ling, an important fish 
for the Indians because it will take bait 
freely during the winter months when 
other fish can not be caught and food is 
scarce, is abundant in all the deeper 
lakes. 

The most important fish of the coastal 
salt-water is the cod, which comes to the 
coast to feed on the immense schools 
of caplin that run inshore to feed. The 
cod comes to the Labrador coast about 
June twentieth, and moves northward 
along the coast at the rate of about a 
degree of latitude a week, but from 
August to September they are spread 
along the entire coast. The smaller 
cod begin leaving the coast about the 
first of October, but the larger remain 
until well into November. 

The mackerel left the Labrador coast 
about the middle of the nineteenth 
century and is rarely found there now. 
The herring is again abundant after a 
long period of relative absence. The 
halibut, dab, and rock-cod are common. 
The sleeper shark is abundant in all the 
inlets and near the coast, a scavenger of 
the sea-floor. 

Crustacea of many species frequent 



the Labrador coast. Crabs, lobsters, 
shrimps, amphipods, isopods, copepods, 
and barnacles are numerous. The mol- 
luscan fauna is distinctly Arctic, largely 
of circumpolar species, both lacustrine 
and littoral. Land molluscs are rare. 
The plankton life, seasonally, is ex- 
ceedingly rich. 

CONCLUSION 

The Labrador is relatively unexplored. 
It offers one of the most promising 
fields for the explorer and the pioneer 
naturalist. The coast may be readily 
visited during the summer months by 
mail-steamers from St. Johns and by 
fishing vessels from Gloucester, Pro- 
vincetown, and the Atlantic coastal 
fishing towns, where the cod-fleets 
have their bases. The interior may be 
traversed only by well-organized and 
well-equipped expeditions with expe- 
rienced guides and leaders. 

5. NEWFOUNDLAND 
BY W. ELMER EKBLAW 

INTRODUCTION 

Newfoundland, an island of some 
42,000 sq. mi. off the mouth of the Gulf of 
St. Lawrence, lies between the parallels 
of 46 36' 50" and 51 39' north latitude, 
and between the meridians 53 37' and 
59 24' 50" west longitude. It forms 
an equilateral triangle, the distances 
between Cape Bauld at the north angle, 
Cape Spear at the southeast angle, and 
Cape Ray at the southwest angle, being 
each approximately 320 mi. 

GEOLOGY 

Except for a belt composed of the 
highest portion of the Long Range 
Hills, the entire island has been glac- 
iated. Possibly two-thirds of the area 
is occupied by Laurentian granites and 
gneisses, with considerable tracts of 
serpentine; Huronian gneisses and 
schists predominate in the eastern 
portion; considerable belts of Carboni- 
ferous sandstones and shales and scat- 
tered tracts of Silurian and Devonian 



112 



NATURALIST'S GUIDE TO THE AMERICAS 



limestones are found along the western 
coast and in a few places over the pla- 
teau. The distribution of the soils 
resulting from the disintegration of 
these different rocks influences to a 
considerable degree the flora and vege- 
tation of the island. 

PHYSIOGRAPHY 

Outline 

The northwest coast of the island, 
paralleling the fold known as the Long 
Range, is fairly regular; the south coast 
is much more broken by bays and fjords, 
particularly toward the east end; and the 
northeast coast is exceedingly broken 
and irregular throughout its entire 
extent, like the west coast of Norway, 
or Greenland. These bays and fjords 
occupy the valleys and lowlands of a 
peninsular continuation of the eastern 
Canadian coast prior to the post-glacial 
submergence which left Newfoundland 
an island. Numerous islets and islands 
occupy the bays and gulfs. Avalon 
Peninsula, almost detached from the 
main island by Trinity Bay and Pla- 
centia Bay, is connected only by a 
narrow isthmus. 

Relief 

The relief, like the shore line, is an 
expression of the geologic structure of 
the terrain, the ridges and valleys 
paralleling the direction of the folds, 
N.N.E. to S.S.W. Seen from the sea, 
the coast rises steep, 200 to 300 ft. or 
even more, like a broad rocky wall, 
bleak and apparently barren, to a 
plateau dissected to form a rugged 
hilly landscape. 

Back of this dissected coastal belt, 
the plateau is extensive and undulating, 
with parallel ranges of hills and moun- 
tains, of which the Long Range along 
the west coast, with heights of 2000 ft. 
or more, is the most important. Avalon 
peninsula is rather rugged and rough, 
but the highest hills here are not over 
1200 ft. in height. Throughout the 
region of the interior rolling plateau, 



scattered sharp peaks called "tolts," 
serve to identify the various localities 
of the island. 

Drainage 

Consequent upon the disturbance of 
the original drainage system by the 
general glaciation of the area, New- 
foundland is characterized by innu- 
merable lakes, pools, ponds, and 
marshes, of such extent that one-third 
the island is thus occupied by small 
bodies of water, lying along the flood 
plains of the streams, in hollows along 
the slopes of the valleys, in depressions 
between the moraines and ridges, and 
even in hollows in the tops of the hills. 

Three rivers of considerable size 
the Humber running west into the Bay 
of Islands; and the Gander and Exploits 
running northeast into the Hamilton 
Sound and Notre Dame Bay respec- 
tively and a number of smaller streams 
drain the island; but because of nu- 
merous falls and rapids, and shallow 
riffles they are unnavigable except for 
canoes. Extensive bogs occupy much 
of the valley areas and the plateau 
slopes and levels. 

CLIMATE 

The climate of Newfoundland does 
not merit designation as an oceanic 
climate, but it is so modified by the 
waters bathing its shores that it is 
distinctly more equable and uniform 
than that of the neighboring mainland. 
The temperature rarely falls below 
zero even in mid-winter, and rarely rises 
above 80 in summer. The mean tem- 
perature for the year, except in the 
extreme northern portion where it is 
lower, is from 40 to 45. The average 
precipitation, about evenly divided 
between rain and snow, is less than 
60 in. 

The average barometer is 29.37 in. 
The storms are mildly cyclonic, with 
winds varying with the seasons in 
general direction and velocity. Winter 
sets in late in November and continues 
until mid-April. During this period 



NATURAL AREAS AND REGIONS 



113 



a general covering of snow keeps the 
frost from penetrating deep. The first 
frosts are rather early in places as 
early as mid-August and spring is 
often tardy, particularly when the ice- 
floes and ice-bergs have accumulated 
unduly off the coast. July in New- 
foundland is like May in New York. 

The north, east, and south coasts are 
chilly and damp and foggy, because of 
the meeting of the cold Greenland- 
Labrador current with the warm air 
and water of the Gulf stream. There 
where the warm, moisture-laden air 
off the Gulf stream encounters the 
chill air off the cold waters of the Green- 
land current, with its fleets of floes and 
bergs, the vapor is condensed into 
clouds and fogs and mists that charac- 
terize the region. The interior and the 
west coast, however, have a pleasant, 
relatively mild and equable climate, 
generally clear and invigorating. 

BIOTA 

Plant life 

The vegetation of the island varies 
with the topography of the soil, and the 
drainage. The greater part of the 
island has been heavily forested, the 
dominant type of forest being coni- 
ferous, with interspersed areas of decid- 
uous woods but great tracts have 
been destroyed by fire. 

The white pine, once abundant over 
the island, has been almost all cut, 
surviving only in isolated groves where 
it has been intentionally preserved, or 
in small tracts remote or difficult of 
access. The most abundant coniferous 
tree is black spruce, though the balsam 
fir or spruce is also common; the tama- 
rack is abundant in the bog or tundra; 
and white spruce and cedar (low-growing 
juniper) are widely distributed. Arbor- 
vitae, rather common in New Brunswick 
and Nova Scotia, is absent. 

Scattered about among the coniferous 
woods are large tracts of rather pure 
growths of deciduous trees, balsam, 
poplar, aspen, white and red maple, 
birch, elm, mountain ash, alder and a 



few others. In places, particularly on 
the burned tracts, these are also scat- 
tered promiscuously among the new 
stands of coniferous trees. 

As a rule the forests are found in belts 
from two to 10 mi. wide along the 
streams and about the shores of the 
lakes. The most extensive areas of 
timber left standing are in the basins 
of the Exploits, Gander, and Humber 
Rivers. It is estimated that the acreage 
of marketable timber left standing in 
Newfoundland is 6,500,000, of which no 
small portion is well established second 
growth on cut-over or fire-swept areas. 

The forests rarely extend above the 
1000 ft. elevation and generally cease 
considerably lower. The crests and the 
rolling tops of the hills are bare of trees, 
in many places quite destitute of vegeta- 
tion the so-called barrens; in others, 
where the soil and moisture are more 
favorable the barrens are covered with 
scrub willow, alder, and birch and low 
evergreens. Thus from east to west, 
Newfoundland is a succession of parallel 
barren ridges, and forested valleys. 

On the plateaus and in the valleys 
where the drainage is incomplete, lie 
extensive bogs; some of them are for- 
ested with black spruce, tamarack, 
willow, and alder as dominant trees, 
and Labrador tea, dwarf birch, an- 
dromeda, kalmia and other low shrubs 
forming a rather dense undergrowth on 
the wet floor of sphagnum, sedge, and 
cotton grass; others are shrubby; but 
many of them are open, grassy, and 
sedgy moors, with a wealth of flowering 
plants and ferns. 

The vascular plants of Newfoundland 
are many and varied, comprising over 
1000 species, some of general distribu- 
tion, others confined to certain limited 
types of soil, or physiographic divisions. 
Berry-bearing plants Rubus, V actinium 
Empetrum, and Viburnum are numer- 
ous. Flowering plants, both shrubs, 
and herbs, and ferns grow in profusion, 
except in the driest, windswept portions 
of the barrens. Grasses, sedges and 
mosses carpet the wet open places. 
Reindeer moss (Cladonia) clothes the 



114 



NATURALIST'S GUIDE TO THE AMERICAS 



rockier slopes and crests, particularly 
in the northwest part. 

The flora seems to possess definite 
affinity with the sub-alpine life of 
Labrador, and with the flora of New 
England and New Jersey, but forms 
related to those of New Brunswick, 
Quebec, and Nova Scotia, are rela- 
tively few, probably due to a barrier of 
unfavorable soils prior to the post- 
glacial submergence of the connecting 
lands. 

Animal life 

The most important feature of the 
fauna of Newfoundland is the woodland 
caribou, which migrates in March from 
the valleys and the more wooded por- 
tions of the southern half of the island, 
to the Cladonia-covered barrens of the 
northwest, there to bear rts young in 
May and June, and to browse through 
the summer until the first heavy frosts 
of October, when it again moves south- 
ward. The large herds of this animal 
thus moving annually back and forth 
over the island are the dominant feature 
in the animal life of the land, as the cod 
is of the sea. 

The gray wolf (Cam's ly'caori), now 
very scarce, and the black bear (Ursus 
americanus group), frequent the interior. 
The red fox and its variants are common. 
Beaver, otter, weasel, arctic hare, musk- 
rat and bats abound. No reptiles are 
indigenous. Frogs have been intro- 
duced and thrive well. The moose and 
porcupine of the neighboring Canadian 
coast are absent. Salmon and trout, 
but no pike or pickerel, or other pre- 
daceous fish, are found in the inland 
streams or lakes. 

Bird life, both on land and sea, is rich 
and varied. Over 300 species have been 
recorded eagles, hawks, owls, wood- 
peckers, swallows, king fishers, fly 
catchers, thrushes, warblers, ravens, 
jays, sparrows, and others inland; 
golden plover, sandpipers, curlews and 
other shore-birds, but no woodcock; 
ducks, geese, loons, coot and others 
frequent the many lakes and the coast; 
dovekies, gannets, gulls, guillemots, 



puffins, murres, and razorbill auks 
are abundant in the waters that wash 
the shore; on the lower lands the willow 
ptarmigan is one of the most distinctive 
birds and on the uplands, the rock 
ptarmigan. The great auk once fre- 
quented the shores and the outlying 
islands but has been extinct these many 
years. 

Insect life is abundant. Mosquitoes 
and deerflies are apparently omnipresent 
throughout much of the summer. Gay 
butterflies flit over the open vales and 
barrens; moths of many species frequent 
both open and woodland. 

And in the sea adjacent to Newfound- 
land, particularly on the Grand Banks 
to the south and southeast, the aquatic 
fauna is one of the richest in the world. 
In this meeting ground of the Green- 
land current with the Gulf Stream, both 
bearing heavy loads of pelagic algae 
and other minute forms, sea life is most 
abundant. Echinoderms, molluscs, an- 
nelids, and coelenterates innumerable, 
feed upon this rich plankton growth, 
and in turn yield sustenance to the fish 
and larger forms. 

About the first of June the caplin, 
a small fish, appears on the banks in 
incredible millions, and preying upon 
them appear the cod. When the caplin 
disappear, the squid comes to take its 
place as cod-food, and when the squid 
leaves the herring appear, thus furnish- 
ing the cod with an abundance of food 
until mid-October, when it too leaves. 
Lobsters are abundant in the off-shore 
waters. Mackerel once frequented the 
coast in large numbers but disappeared 
about the middle of the nineteenth 
century, and have not returned. 

In spring thousands of harp and a few 
hooded seal float south from the Arctic 
regions on pan-ice borne by the Green- 
land Current, to bear their young on the 
floes. They are killed by hundreds of 
thousands, both young and old, during 
the month of April. Hundreds of whales 
are also killed annually, many of them 
sulphur-bottoms, finbacks, and hump- 
backs. The white whale, or beluga, 
one of the porpoises, is occasionally 



NATURAL AREAS AND REGIONS 



115 



common. The narwhal once abundant 
along the coast is now disappearing. 
The killer whale is abundant, as are the 
grampus and porpoise. 

ROUTES OF TRAVEL 

Newfoundland is readily accessible 
as a field for study, either by the Inter- 
Colonial Railway or by steamers from 
America and Europe. The island itself 
is difficult of traverse, particularly 
toward the northwest, because of the 
bogs, rocky hills, and barrens, without 
roads or even trails. The rivers are 
navigable only by canoes. Most parts 
of the island are accessible only by boat 
from the sea; the southern half may be 
studied fairly well from the main railway 
and the spurs built out from it. Mos- 
quitoes and deerflies are so annoying 
as to hinder field work and special pre- 
cautions for comfort and relief are 
necessary. 

6. THE MACKENZIE WATERSHED; 
NORTHERN HUDSON BAY REGION, 
UPPER YUKON REGION, AND THE 
ARCTIC ISLANDS 

BY EDWARD A. PREBLE 

I. GENERAL CONDITIONS 

1. General topography of the entire region 
The region treated in the present 
sketch includes a vast area in the north- 
ern interior of North America, between 
latitude 50 and 78 N., and extending 
from longitude 85 west to 115 at the 
south, and from 80 west to 141 at the 
north. The Arctic Ocean washes its 
northern shores and islands; Hudson 
Bay marks its eastern limit, and its 
western border includes the headwaters 
of streams which enter the Pacific from 
middle British Columbia to Bering Sea. 
Its physiography is very much varied. 
At the south grassy plains, interspersed 
with small patches and tongues of forest, 
are succeeded as one goes northward by 
a forest that is almost unbroken save 
by the rivers and the lakes, which are 
numerous and sometimes very large. 
Because of differences in geology, the 



lakes are more numerous in the eastern 
portion. North of the great forest lies 
a large area which for climatic reasons is 
treeless, but still has a rich and varied 
flora. The southern and eastern parts 
of the region are rolling, with only a few 
hilly areas. At the extreme northwest, 
however, it includes the northern part 
of the Rocky Mountain chain, here lower 
than farther south, and its foothill 
ranges. These are forested on their 
lower slopes but hold large alpine areas, 
the flora and fauna of which have close 
affinities with the treeless Arctic. 

North and northeast of the continen- 
tal portion of the region, above briefly 
described, lies the Arctic Archipelago, 
including a number of large islands 
similar in topography, flora, and fauna 
to the treeless part of the mainland. 

The region is exceptionally well- 
watered, mainly by the great Mackenzie, 
which ranks second in size of basin, and 
third in actual volume, among North 
American rivers. Northwestwardly, the 
region includes areas watered by streams 
which enter the Pacific Ocean and Bering 
Sea, this lying, of course, west of the 
Continental divide. 

For transportation, the naturalist 
must depend largely on boats of some 
kind, supplemented by dog sled if it is 
desired to enter the region before the 
opening of navigation, or if the freeze- 
up should overtake him en route. To 
reach the northward flowing streams 
several rail routes are possible. For 
most direct access to the lower Atha- 
baska and the Mackenzie, the Alberta 
and Great Waterways Railway, running 
north-northeastward from Edmonton, 
Alberta, takes one to navigable water 
on the lower Clearwater. From here 
steamboat travel, interrupted only at 
one point, the 16-mi. Smith portage, is 
afforded to the mouth of the Mackenzie. 
From many points on this 1500-mi. 
route a great number of canoe routes 
lead to all parts of the immense region 
now treated, to thousands of lakes, 
streams, and mountains unknown ex- 
cept to the wandering native. Alter- 
native railroad lines leading to the north 



116 



NATURALIST'S GUIDE TO THE AMERICAS 



are the Athabaska Landing branch of the 
Canadian Northern, running 100 mi. 
northward from Edmonton, and the E. 
D. and B. C. railway running to Peace 
River by way of Lesser Slave Lake. 
The latter line affords access to the 
Mackenzie by way of the lower Peace 
and Slave River, or to the upper tribu- 
taries of Peace River, in the interior of 
northern British Columbia. Another 
route to the latter section is by canoe 
northward from various points on the 
Canadian National railway, which 
crosses central British Columbia from 
the head of Fraser River to the Pacific 
in about latitude 54. 

2. Climate of entire region 

The climate of a region of such magni- 
tude as the one under discussion is so 
varied that it seems best to take up this 
subject in the account of the various 
areas. In general it may be said that 
the winters are long and cold, and the 
summers short and comparatively warm. 
There is a very wide yearly range of 
temperature especially over the Conti- 
nental portion of the region, the greatly 
increased number of hours of sunlight 
enjoyed in summers in high latitudes 
making up in a measure for the increase 
in latitude. This enables the smaller 
shrubs and other plants to complete 
their reproductive processes within a 
comparatively short time. 

8. Original biotic divisions 

A. Poplar forest and savanna of south- 
ern portion (Canadian Zone). This 
division occupies most of a broad strip 
extending north-northwestward from 
Edmonton, passing west of Athabaska 
(on the river), thence, including the 
basin of Lesser Slave Lake, on to Peace 
River, northward down its valley on 
either side, and northward nearly to 
Great Slave Lake. In a modified form, 
it stretches westward to include much 
of the Peace River valley, in northeast- 
ern British Columbia. 

This is the region of transition from 
the grassy and treeless Great Plains to 



the great northern Forest. Its principal 
tree is the aspen poplar (Populus tremu- 
loides) which forms groves of greater 
or lesser extent on the slopes of the rol- 
ling hills. In low areas where the 
drainage is imperfect, mossy swamps or 
muskegs where the black spruce (Picea 
mariana} is dominant are frequent. 
Farther north these become more 
numerous and become a dominant 
feature. 

Originally this area was the habitat 
of the bison (Bison b. athabascae) and 
the elk (Cervus canadensis), but the 
latter is long since extirpated here, and 
the bison remains only in small numbers 
near its northern part. Other mammals 
presumably here were the moose (Alces 
americanus), Franklin ground squirrel 
(Citellus franklinii), thirteen-lined 
ground-squirrel (C. tridecemlineatus) 
(these two not north of Athabaska 
River), Saskatchewan pocket-gopher 
(Thomomys talpoides) (southerly), nor- 
thern plains skunk (Mephitis hudsonica), 
and several mice and voles. Birds are 
numerous; a few notable breeders in- 
clude the sharp-tailed grouse, upland 
plover, and the western solitary sand- 
piper. 

The only reptile, the northern garter 
snake (Thamnophis sirtalis parietalis), 
which enters any part of the region is 
confined mainly to the savannas of this 
subdivision. Scarcely less strictly con- 
fined to it are the western toad (Bufo 
lentiginosus woodhousei), and the leopard 
frog (Rana pipiens). The northern 
wood frog (Rana cantabrigensis latire- 
mis) and the northern chorophilus (Cho- 
rophilus septentrionalis) also are found 
in it, but extend their ranges far be- 
yond to the limit of trees. 

B. Transcontinental coniferous area. 
1. Southern heavy timber (Canadian 
Zone): Covering most of the region 
under discussion is the great transcon- 
tinental conifer forest. Its principal 
trees are the white and black spruces 
(Picea alba and P. mariana), whose 
ranges are coextensive with its limits, 
and the canoe birch (Betula papyrifera), 
tamarack (Larix laricina), aspen and 



NATURAL AREAS AND REGIONS 



117 



balsam poplars (Populus tremuloides 
and P. balsamifera), Banksian pine 
(Pinus divaricata) (replaced in British 
Columbia and Yukon by lodge-pole 
pine (Pinus contorta)), and balsam fir 
(Abies balsamea), which are common in 
the southern part of the belt, and which 
terminate, counting from the north, 
in about the order given. With these 
are associated, generally in the form of 
undergrowth, a variety of shrubs, some 
of which, also, have a continuous dis- 
tribution through the forest zone, while 
others are more or less restricted in 
range. Some of the more conspicuous 
of these are the following: creeping 
juniper (Juniperus sabina), low juniper 
(J. nana), a large variety of willows 
(Salix), one (S. bebbiana) attaining the 
dignity of a tree, but most being creeping 
shrubs or low bushes, sweet gale (Myrica 
gale), two hazels (Corylus americana 
and C. rostrata) (southerly), dwarf 
birches (Betula glandulosa and B. nana), 
alders (Alnus), several currants and 
gooseberies (Ribes), red raspberry (Rubus 
strigosus), shrubby cinquefoil (Dasi- 
phora fruticosa), wild rose (Rosa acicu- 
laris), service berry (Amelanchier alni- 
folia), cherries (Prunus pennsylvanica 
and P. virginiana) crowberry (Empet- 
rum nigrum), silverberry (Elaeagnus 
argentea) buffalo berry (Lepargyrea 
canadensis), dwarf cornel (Cornus cana- 
densis), red-osier cornel (Cornus stolo- 
nifera), Labrador tea (Ledum groenlandi- 
cum), swamp laurel (Kalmia glauca), 
wild rosemary (Andromeda polifolia), 
leatherleaf (Chamaedaphne calyculata), 
red bearberry (Arctostaphylos uvaursi), 
mountain cranberry (Vitisidaea vitisi- 
daea), small cranberry (Oxy coccus oxy- 
coccus), bog blueberry (Vaccinium uligi- 
nosum), cranberry tree (Vivurnum 
americanuni) (southerly), few-flowered 
viburnum (V. pauciflorum), and 
snowberry (Symphoricarpos racemosus) 
(southerly). With these are associated 
a great variety of herbaceous plants, 
many of which bear flowers of great 
beauty, a number of ferns, and a great 
variety of mosses and lichens. 
The more common and characteristic 



mammals of the great forest include 
the following: 1 

Eastern moose (Alces americanus} 
Eastern woodland caribou (Rangifer 

caribou) 

Wood bison (Bison bison athabascae) 
Canadian woodchuck (Marmota monax 

canadensis) 
Liard River chipmunk (Eutamias 

borealis) 
Hudson Bay red squirrel (Sciurus hud- 

sonicus) 
Hudson Bay flying squirrel (Glaucomys 

sabrinus) 
Arctic white-footed mouse (Peromyscus 

m. borealis) 
Mackenzie phenacomys (Phenacomys 

mackenzii) 
Athabaska red-backed mouse (Evotomys 

gapperi athabascae) 
Northern lemming vole (Synaptomys 

borealis) 

Drummond vole (Microtus drummondi) 
Chestnut-cheeked vole (Microtus xan- 

thognathus) 
Northwest muskrat (Fiber zibethicus 

spatulatus) 

Canadian beaver (Castor canadensis) 
Hudson Bay jumping mouse (Zapus 

hudsonius) 

Canada porcupine (Erethizon dorsatum) 
Hudson Bay snowshoe hare (Lepus 

americanus) 

Canada lynx (Lynx canadensis) 
Gray wolf (Canis occidentalis) 
British Columbia red fox (Vulpes 

alascensis abietorum) 
Black bear (Ursus americanus) 
Canadian otter (Lutra canadensis) 
Western mink (Lutreola vison energu- 

menos) 
Richardson weasel (Mustela cicognanii 

richardsoni) 

Least weasel (Mustela rixosa) 
Alaska marten (Martes americana ac- 

tuosa) 

Fisher (Martes pennantii) 
Hudson Bay wolverene (Gulo luscus) 
Common eastern shrew (Sorex per- 

sonatus) 

Richardson shrew (Sorex richardsoni) 
Marsh shrew (Neosorex palustris) 
Alaska microsores (Microsorex eximius) 
Little brown bat (Myotis lucifugus) 
Hoary bat (Nycteris cinereus) 

Among birds the following may be 
noted: 

Horned grebe 
Loon 

1 These lists do not include certain West Coast 
and Rocky Mountain species occurring in British 
Columbia and Yukon, and which are listed under 
those subdivisions. 



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NATURALIST'S GUIDE TO THE AMERICAS 



Pacific loon 

Herring gull 

California gull 

Short-billed gull 

Bonaparte gull 

Common tern 

American merganser 

Mallard 

Baldpate 

Green-winged teal 

Pintail 

Lesser scaup duck 

Ring-necked duck 

American golden-eye 

Bufflehead 

Canada goose 

Little brown crane 

Sora rail 

Yellow rail 

American coot 

Wilson snipe 

Greater yellowlegs 

Yellowlegs 

Western solitary sandpiper 

Spotted sandpiper 

Hudsonian spruce grouse 

Gray ruffed grouse 

Sharp-tailed grouse 

Marsh hawk 

Sharp-skinned hawk 

Goshawk 

Western red-tailed hawk 

Golden eagle 

Bald eagle 

Duck hawk 

Pigeon hawk 

American sparrow hawk 

American osprey 

Long-eared owl 

Short-eared owl 

Great gray owl 

Richardson owl 

Arctic horned owl 

American hawk owl 

Belted kingfisher 

Northern hairy woodpecker 

Nelson downy woodpecker 

Arctic three-toed*woodpecker 

Banded-backed three-toed woodpecker 

Yellow-bellied sapsucker 

Northern flicker 

Nighthawk 

Kingbird 

Phoebe 

Olive-sided flycatcher 

Western wood pewee 

Alder flycatcher 

Least flycatcher 

Canada jay 

Northern raven 

Crow 

Cowbird 

Northern redwing 

Rusty blackbird 

Bronzed grackle 

Eastern pine grosbeak 



White-winged crossbill 
Redpoll 

Western Savanna sparrow 
Intermediate sparrow 
White-throated sparrow 
Western chipping sparrow 
Slate-colored junco 
Lincoln sparrow 
Swamp sparrow 
Fox sparrow 
Louisiana tanager 
Cliff swallow 
Tree swallow 
Bank swallow 
Bohemian waxwing 
Northern shrike 
Red-eyed vireo 
Western warbling viree 
Blue-headed vireo 
Black and white warbler 
Orange-crowned warbler 
Tennessee warbler 
Yellow warbler 
Myrtle warbler 
Magnolia warbler 
Bay-breasted warbler 
Black-poll warbler 
Palm warbler 
Ovenbird 

Grinnell water-thrush 
Wilson warbler 
Redstart 

Red-breasted nuthatch 
Long-tailed chickadee 
Hudsonian chickadee 
Golden-crowned kinglet 
Ruby-crowned kinglet 
Olive-backed thrush 
Eastern hermit thrush 
Robin 

2. Northern stunted timber (Hudso- 
nian Zone) : Included in the great coni- 
ferous forest and bordered on the north 
by the Barren Grounds, there is a strip 
of country from 100 to 200 mi. wide, 
which is covered by forest somewhat 
stunted and dwarfed (Hudsonian Zone). 
In some places, where areas of fertile 
soil, usually the valleys of northward- 
flowing rivers, impinge closely on more 
exposed areas of rocky ground, the tran- 
sition from one type to another is well- 
marked, while in others the change is 
more gradual. 

In the Mackenzie region this belt has 
no strictly characteristic mammals, 
though the range of a red-backed vole 
(Evotomys dawsoni) is practically con- 
fined within its limits. Most of the 
woodland mammals necessarily have 



NATURAL AREAS AND REGIONS 



119 



their northern limit within it. Such 
comprise the following: Rangifer cari- 
bou, Alces, Sciuropterus, Sciurus, Castor, 
Evotomys, Fiber, Erethizon, Lepus ameri- 
canus, Lynx, Lutra, Lutreola, Mustela, 
and others. Among birds, the pigeon 
hawk, great gray owl, hawk owl, pine 
grosbeak, Harris sparrow, tree sparrow 
and gray-cheeked thrush breed princi- 
pally within it. Its trees are not pecu- 
liar, though the Banksian pine (Pinus 
divaricata) and balsam poplar (Populus 
balsamifera) barely enter its borders. 
Its shrubs are mainly species that over- 
lap from the adjoining zones. Among 
those which seem to reach their greatest 
perfection in the belt of stunted trees 
may be mentioned Empetrum nigrum, 
Ledum palustre, Vaccinium uliginosum, 
Vitisidaea vitisidaea, Oxycoccus oxycoc- 
cus, Arctous alpina, and Betula nana. 

On the southwest shores of Hudson 
Bay this zone occupies a strip about 200 
mi. in width. Thence its southern 
boundary extends inland, passing 
through Athabaska Lake, and then 
bending northward crosses Great Slave 
Lake just east of the mouth of Slave 
River. Practically all of the northern 
shore of Great Slave Lake lies within 
its limits. Beyond here its lower boun- 
dary is very uncertain. It is bounded 
by a strip of well wooded country, 
probably only a few miles in width, 
extending northward along the Macken- 
zie. This southern influence ceases .to 
be effective near the mouth of Bear 
River, and the southern limit of the 
zone may be considered to cross the 
Mackenzie near latitude 65. Thence 
it bends southward, following the west- 
ern border of the Canadian strip. Here, 
as on the eastern side, the position of 
the boundary is unknown, but because 
of the great altitude of most of the 
country west of the Mackenzie and north 
of the Liard the southern heavy timber 
(Canadian Zone) can not extend far 
from the river and the stunted timber 
(Hudsonian) must cover nearly the 
entire area, exclusive of the alpine sum- 
mits of the mountains. A large area 
to the south of the Liard, including most 



of the country drained by its southern 
tributaries, and practically all the 
country about its headwaters in north- 
eastern British Columbia and south- 
eastern Yukon below the timberline, 
are also in this class. The latter area 
will be considered more fully later. 

C. Barren grounds (Arctic Zone}. 
North of the Trans-continental Forest 
lies an immense area usually called the 
Barren Grounds, from its treeless con- 
dition, which results from a summer so 
short that reproduction can not be 
effected. This condition, however, does 
not prevent the perpetuation of many 
species of shrubby and herbaceous plants 
and a rich insect fauna, which together 
support a great variety of vertebrate 
life. 

Shrubby plants are common, Rhodo- 
dendron lapponicum, Cassiope tetragona, 
Dryas integrifolia, and several dwarf 
willows being perhaps the most charac- 
teristic. Many other less strictly rep- 
resentative plants also are abundant. 
The area is further characterized by the 
presence of certain mammals, as the 
lemmings of the genera Lemmus and 
Dicrostonyx, the Arctic fox (Alopex 
lagopus innuitus), musk-ox (Ovibos mo- 
schatus), Barren Ground caribou (Ran- 
gifer arcticus), and Arctic hare (Lepus 
arcticus canus). Most of the birds 
which characterize this area are mi- 
gratory, spending only the breeding 
season within its boundaries. They 
comprise, among the Anatidae, the 
various species of the genus Chen, the 
brent geese, and one or two genera of 
maritime ducks; and among the Limi- 
colae, the genera Lobipes, Phalaropus, 
Macrorhamphus, Pisobia and related 
genera, Crocethia, Tryngites, Numenius 
(hudsonicus and borealis), Squatarola, 
Pluvialis and Arenaria. The Gallinae 
are represented by willow and rock 
ptarmigans, the Raptores by the gyr- 
falcons, and the Passeres by the Snow- 
flakes, Lapland and painted longspurs 
and the pipits. 

D. Local conditions. 1. The larger 
rivers, the Athabaska, Peace, Slave, 
Mackenzie, and Liard, have a moder- 



120 



NATURALIST'S GUIDE TO THE AMERICAS 



ately swift current and are usually 
muddy, especially in spring and at times 
of high water, when the clay banks are 
cut down by the flood. Their courses 
are characterized by a series of long 
alternating curves, with cut banks on 
the concave sides, and gravel bars 
opposite. Spruce trees usually line 
the high banks, and willows, alders and 
poplars the lower younger shores. 
Many islands usually wooded, occur. 

2. Lakes are numerous especially in 
the area of primitive rocks, and are of 
course bordered by rocky and sandy 
shores, and contain many islands. 
The principal ones form a more or less 
connected system, part of a series 
extending from Lake Superior to the 
Arctic Sea. These lie along the junction 
of the primitive or granitic and the 
newer limestone formations, usually 
heading in the primitive belt and out- 
letting in the limestone district. They 
are of irregular shape, usually sending 
long arms eastward into the primitive 
formation and north and south along 
the junction of the two systems, though 
in some cases the southern arms have 
been filled by the sediment-bearing 
streams which enter them. In addition 
to the large lakes thousands of smaller 
ones are scattered over the entire region. 

3. Marshes are numerous and in 
several cases very extensive. The more 
important of these will receive detailed 
attention in the proper places. 

4. Fire-swept areas are all too com- 
mon. In the case of coniferous woods, 
a growth of deciduous woods usually 
succeeds. 

II. PRESENT BIOTA 

Apart from the general reduction in 
numbers of the game and fur bearing 
animals, and the game birds, due to 
partial settlement, the changes in the 
fauna of the wooded parts of the region 
are mainly chargeable to fire, which has 
profoundly changed large areas. Some 
sections have been reburned, sometimes 
repeatedly, and in such the forest cover- 
ing may be entirely destroyed, and 
grassy prairie may succeed. Coniferous 



areas which are burned usually change 
to the deciduous type, and this change 
in type of forest is of course accompanied 
by the ingression of certain birds and 
mammals which were originally absent. 
The most conspicuous mammalian ex- 
amples are the mule deer (Odocoileus 
hemionus}, which, within the past 
century, has extended its range north- 
ward for several hundred miles. The 
coyote also (Cam's latrans), aided per- 
haps by partial settlement within its 
former habitat, has effected an extension 
of its range even more notable. Among 
birds, it is certain that the rose-breasted 
grosbeak (Hedymeles ludoviciana) , has 
traveled northwestward upwards of 500 
mi., and there is reason to suspect that 
several other species of small birds 
have entered the region of the lower 
Athabaska within historic times. This 
ingression, probably caused in part at 
least, by the changes referred to, has 
not been accompanied by the loss of 
any species excepting the elk (Cervus 
canadensis), although many mammals, 
notably the larger game animals and 
especially the fur-bearers, have suffered 
great reduction in numbers, and two 
others, the northern bison (Bison b. 
athabascae} , and the musk-ox (Ovibos 
moschatus}, have had their ranges 
greatly reduced. These reductions and 
losses, however, it should be emphasized, 
can not be charged to changes in the 
character of the forest cover, but are 
rather in line with the usual reduction 
of the large animals which follow partial 
settlement and the exploitation of the 
natural resources of a region. 

Along the Arctic coast of Alaska and 
Canada, the presence of whaling and 
trading ships has resulted in great 
diminution of the game animals. Since 
about 1896, when the whalers begun to 
winter at Herschel Island and Baillie 
Island, and a few years later at Langton 
Bay and in Coronation Gulf, the effect 
has been serious. These vessels depend 
largely on the game resources of the 
country for subsistence, hiring the 
natives as hunters. This has resulted 
in the practical extermination of the 



NATURAL AREAS AND REGIONS 



121 



caribou along the entire coast of north- 
ern Alaska and Yukon, and great reduc- 
tion in their numbers east to the region 
of the Coppermine. During the same 
period the musk-ox has been extirpated 
from most of its former range from Coro- 
nation Gulf westward. 

III. NATURAL DRAINAGE AREAS AND 
PHYSIOGRAPHIC REGIONS 

1. The Mackenzie and Upper Yukon 
Basins 

In any description of northern North 
America from the standpoint of the 
traveler one must be guided in his 
method of treatment by its waterways, 
which now, and which probably will for 
many years to come, afford almost the 
only means available for visiting its most 
interesting sections. Thus considered, 
the valley of the Mackenzie is by far 
the largest and most important of the 
natural divisions. Broadened to in- 
clude certain areas not actually drained 
by this great river system, but which can 
most readily be reached by its help, it 
comprises a vast region in the northern 
part of Canada, with an area of nearly 
700,000 sq. mi., bounded roughly as 
follows: On the north by the Arctic 
Ocean; on the east by the valleys of the 
Great Fish, Thelon, Telzoa, and 
Churchill rivers; on the south by the 
Churchill and Saskatchewan valleys; 
and on the west by the main range of 
the Rocky Mountains. 

For convenience of reference the 
Mackenzie basin may be divided into 
several areas: The Athabaska Valley; 
the basin of Athabaska Lake; the Peace 
River Valley, including the Slave; the 
basin of Great Slave Lake; the Macken- 
zie Valley proper; the basin of Great 
Bear Lake; the region to the north of 
that body of water, and drained *by the 
Anderson and smaller rivers which enter 
the Arctic Ocean, and the Liard River 
Valley. The areas will be considered in 
the order given. These accounts will 
be followed by a description of north- 
eastern British Columbia and Yukon, 
comprising the drainage areas of the 



Upper Liard and Yukon rivers, and of 
the Stikine and other rivers which reach 
the Pacific in middle British Columbia. 

A. The Athabaska Valley. The Atha- 
baska River rises in the Rocky Moun- 
tains near Mount Brown, at an altitude 
of about 5700 ft., and pursues a north- 
easterly and northerly course for nearly 
600 mi. to Athabaska Lake, falling in this 
distance some 5000 ft., and being in- 
terrupted by several series of rapids. 
In the first 300 mi. of its course it falls 
about 4000 ft., and receives in succession 
Baptiste River from the west, the Mc- 
Leod and Pembina from the south, and 
the Lesser Slave from the west. Below 
its confluence with the last-named stream 
the Athabaska turns southeastward for 
some 50 mi. and then resumes its north- 
erly course. In the course of the next 150 
mi. it receives in succession La Biche 
River, Quito or Calling River; Big 
Mouth Brook; Pelican River; and House 
River. Just below the mouth of the last 
river the Athabaska strikes a range of 
low hills, and in forcing a passage 
through them is deflected eastward, and 
for a distance of about 75 mi. contains 
many rapids, falling in this distance 
some 400 ft. At the lower end of this 
stretch it receives the waters of Clear- 
water River, its principal tributary below 
Lesser Slave River. The Clearwater 
rises on the height of land between 
the Churchill and the Athabaska, and 
30 or 40 mi. above its mouth it is joined 
by the Pembina, a stream of about equal 
volume. 

The country drained by the Athabaska 
is mainly a rolling plain, and with the 
exception of a few areas of semiprairie 
land is well wooded with a forest com- 
posed mainly of spruce, fir, pine, tama- 
rack, poplar, birch, and willow. A large 
part of its surface is occupied by mossy 
swamps, called muskegs, and hundreds 
of lakes, of which Lesser Slave, 70 mi. 
in length is by far the largest, occupy its 
shallow valleys. 

The country lying between the Atha- 
baska and Peace rivers, and drained in 
part by the latter stream, may be best 
characterized by quoting in part the 



122 



NATURALIST'S GUIDE TO THE AMERICAS 



account by McConnell, who examined it 
in the summer of 1889 : 

The country between the Peace and 
Athabasca rivers north of Lesser Slave 
Lake, comprising an area of about 
44,000 sq. mi., . . . may be de- 
scribed as a gently undulating wooded 
plain, diversified with numerous shallow 
lakes, muskegs and marshes. Small 

Erairie patches, manifestly due to forest 
res, occur north of the west end of 
Lesser Slave Lake, at several points 
along the Loon and Wabiscaw rivers, 
. . . but their total area is relatively 
insignificant. 

The rolling plains between Peace 
River and the Athabasca are relieved 
by several high ridges or plateaus, all 
of which owe their origin to a differential 
denudation of the soft rocks on which 
the plains are based. Of these Marten 
Mountain is situated northeast of Lesser 
Slave Lake, above which it rises to the 
height of about 1000 ft. The Buffalo 
Head Hills commence abruptly about 
50 mi. above the mouth of the Loon 
River, with an elevation of about 2500 
ft. above the Sea, and running in a 
south-southwesterly direction die away 
opposite the mouth of Battle River, 
while Birch Mountain extends for nearly 
90 mi. along the lower part of the 
Athabasca, from which it is separated 
by a plain 15 to 20 mi. wide. Among 
the smaller elevations are Trout Moun- 
tain, which is situated north of the 
Wabiscaw River, and the Thickwood 
Hills, which lie south of Birch Moun- 
tain. The uplands of the district, like 
the lowlands, are all wooded, and are 
dotted everywhere with lakes and 
marshes. (Ann. Rept. Geol. Surv. 
Canada, V, pp. 6D, 7D, 1893.) 

Climatology: The climate of the 
Athabaska Valley in common with most 
of the country included in the Mackenzie 
basin, is characterized by a wide range 
of temperature. In winter the mercury 
frequently reaches 40, while summer 
temperatures of between 80 and 90 are 
not infrequent. Its western portion is 
subject to Chinook winds, which periodi- 
cally temper the climate. 

Of vital interest to the traveler, who 
must depend so largely on water trans- 
portation, are data on the freezing and 
breaking up of the rivers. In all 
northern rivers navigation is inter- 
rupted, before the actual closing of the 
stream, by drift ice. This is mainly ice 



which has formed in the eddies and 
which, by a slight rise of water, the 
usual result of its formation, or from the 
accumulation of snow upon it, becomes 
detached and descends the current, con- 
tinually adding to its own volume. This 
continues until the increasing cold causes 
the mass to jam and become solidly 
cemented. After the breaking up of 
the rivers in spring the ice, of course, 
continues to run for a longer or shorter 
period. 

The following table shows the dates of 
the opening and closing of the Athabaska 
at Fort McMurray during a series of 
years: 

Table showing condition of Athabaska at 
Fort McMurray 



YEAR 


RIVER 
OPENED 


ICE DRIFTING 


RIVER CLOSED 


1878 


Apr. 18 


Oct. 27 




1879 




Oct. 26 


Nov. 1 


1880 


May 2 


Nov. 14 




1881 


Apr. 21 


Oct. 14 


Nov. 12 


1882 


Apr. 24 


Nov. 1 


Nov. 8 


1883 


Apr. 25 


Oct. 30 


Nov. 10 


1884 


Apr. 27 


Oct. 18 


Oct. 28 


1885 


Apr. 9 


Oct. 23 


Nov. 13 


1886 


Apr. 16 


Nov. 4 


Nov. 14 


1887 
1888 


Apr. 27 
May 4 


Oct. 22 
Nov. 3 


Oct. 24 
Nov. 9 



B. Athabaska Lake Region. Atha- 
baska Lake is long and narrow and lies 
in a general easterly and westerly direc- 
tion. Its greatest length is about 195 
mi.; greatest width, 35 mi.; and area, 
approximately 2850 sq. mi. Its eleva- 
tion above the sea is about 690 ft. 

The principal tributary of Athabaska 
Lake is the river of the same name, just 
described. Its capacity for deposition 
is so great that, assisted by the Peace, 
it has filled up a large portion of what 
was originally the western part of 
Athabaska Lake, and has isolated several 
good-sized sheets of water, the largest of 
which, Lake Claire, is some 35 mi. in 
length. 

The north shore of Athabaska Lake is 
mainly rocky and sparsely wooded, and 
is broken by the mouths of a number of 
insignificant streams, which help to 
drain the unexplored country to the 



NATURAL AREAS AND REGIONS 



123 



northward. On its southern side, whose 
shores are mainly low and sandy, Atha- 
baska Lake receives the waters of Wil- 
liam, Grand Rapid, and several smaller 
rivers. 

Black River, draining a very large area 
of rocky, sparsely wooded country, 
flows into the extreme eastern end of 
Athabaska Lake. Black Lake, the 
principal expansion in its lower portion, 
receives the waters of Chipman and 
Cree Rivers. 

The climate of Athabaska Lake is not 
radically different from that of other 
parts of the Mackenzie region which are 
practically removed from the influence 
of the warm Pacific winds. Though it 
lies at a low altitude, the proximity of 
the lake to the Barren Grounds, from 
which winds are frequent, keeps its 
average temperature rather low. An 
occasional warm west wind slightly 
tempers the winter climate. The Peace 
and Athabaska break up at their mouths 
about the 1st of May, but the neigh- 
boring part of the lake usually does not 
open until about the middle of May, and 
the eastern part probably not before 
June. The lake usually closes at Fort 
Chipewyan some time in November. 

C. The Peace River Valley. Peace 
River is the largest of the affluents of 
the Athabaska-Mackenzie system, and 
being in fact much larger than the 
Athabaska, may be considered the main 
river. It rises on the western side of 
the Rocky Mountains and is already a 
a good-sized stream when it breaks 
through that range. 

From the confluence of the Finlay and 
the Parsnip, the Peace flows in a general 
easterly direction for some 300 mi. to its 
junction with the Smoky, falling in this 
distance a little less than 800 ft. The 
country through which it flows east of 
the mountains may be considered as a 
plateau, in which it has excavated a 
rather deep valley. Back from the 
river the country is mainly level or 
rolling, and is thinly wooded. 

Smoky River is the largest tributary 
of the Peace. Its principal branches 
rise on the eastern slope of the Rocky 



Mountains, and it drains a large extent 
of thinly wooded and prairie country. 

Below the mouth of the Smoky, the 
Peace turns and pursues a winding 
though general northerly course nearly 
to Fort Vermilion. It is bordered at first 
by steep sandstone cliffs, but its valley 
gradually becomes wider and shallower. 
Extensive plains, comparatively level 
and clothed with grass or a sparse growth 
of poplars, border it on both sides. 
North of Fort Vermilion this character 
of country is said to extend to the valleys 
of Hay and Buffalo rivers. 

Between Fort Vermilion and the 
Peace-Athabaska Delta the Peace is 
very broad and contains many wooded 
islands. Vermilion Falls, a formidable 
rapid, interrupts navigation a short 
distance above the mouth of Red 
River, and another, usually called the 
"Little Rapid," occurs at some distance 
below. 

The Quatre Fourches, an offshoot of 
the Peace, connects that stream with 
Athabaska Lake, and few miles below, 
Rocher River also joins the Peace. 
These streams traverse the Peace-Atha- 
baska Delta, and their currents run to or 
from Peace River, being dependent on 
the relative heights of the water in 
Peace River and Athabaska Lake. The 
delta is a vast marsh, partially wooded 
with poplars and willows and studded 
with hundreds of reedy lakes. This 
marsh is one of the most important 
breeding areas of waterfowl in North 
America, and is also one of the principal 
resting and feeding places for migratory 
wildfowl on their semi-annual journeys. 
Of the breeding birds, the following 
may be noted: Holboells grebe, horned 
grebe, black tern, American merganser, 
mallard, baldpate, green-winged teal, 
shoveler, pintail, canvasback, lesser 
scaup, ringneck, American goldeneye, 
bufflehead, Canada goose, little brown 
crane, sora, Wilson snipe, yellowlegs, 
alder flycatcher, yellow-headed black- 
bird, northern redwing, rusty grackle, 
Leconte's sparrow, Nelson's sparrow, 
Lincoln's sparrow, swamp sparrow, 
Alaska yellow warbler, Grinnell's water 



124 



NATURALIST'S GUIDE TO THE AMERICAS 



thrush, redstart, and olive-backed 
thrush. 

Below the delta the combined stream, 
here called the Slave, turns abruptly 
northward and flows for a distance of 
about 70 mi. in a general northerly direc- 
tion to the Smith Rapids. It is a broad, 
rather deep stream with a moderate cur- 
rent, and its low banks are well wooded. 
In latitude 60 it cuts through "a gneissic 
spur from the Luarentian district to the 
east," forming the Smith Rapids, some 
16 mi. in length. Below here it flows in a 
rather irregular manner for about 175 
mi. in a general northwesterly direc- 
tion to Great Slave Lake. In this 
stretch it has an average width of about 
half a mile, and its banks are high at 
first, but gradually diminish. The coun- 
try bordering it is level and mainly 
well wooded, but to the west are exten- 
sive tracts of prairie, especially in the 
region of Salt River, its principal tribu- 
tary. Slave River enters Great Slave 
Lake through an extensive delta, in 
forming which it has silted up an ex- 
tensive arm of the lake. Its breeding 
birds are practically the same as those - 
of the Athabaska delta. 

The Peace River Valley, as here con- 
sidered, exhibits the greatest diversity 
of climatic conditions at the same 
season of any of the regions now under 
discussion. Its extreme upper portion, 
lying at a comparatively low altitude 
and near the Pacific, has a relatively 
mild winter climate, while its lower 
part at the same season is surrounded by 
almost Arctic conditions. Its middle 
part, just east of the mountains, seems 
to be characterized by violent extremes 
of temperature. 

Preserved areas: Wood Buffalo Park: 
An area lying west of Slave River, partly 
in Alberta and partly in Mackenzie, 
known by this name, was set aside in 
December, 1922, as a Preserve for the 
resident herds of the northern race, 
known as the wood buffalo, which now 
constitute the only wild specimens of 
this race in existence. This area, which 
includes the entire ranges of the two 
aggregations of herds, covers an area of 



about 10,000 sq. mi. It covers that part 
of the primitive range of this northern 
race, formerly much more wide-spread, 
on which it has been able longest to 
maintain itself against the persecution 
attendant on the partial settlement of 
the country, and which therefore may be 
considered as the most favorable portion 
of that range under modern conditions. 
It contains considerable wooded and 
swampy country, but is mainly charac- 
terized by its areas of meadow and 
prairie and sparsely-wooded glades. 
The number of the animals now remain- 
ing is not definitely known, but prob- 
ably numbers several hundred. Many 
moose, a few woodland caribou, and 
many fur-bearers, besides grouse, ducks, 
and the usual birds of the country, 
abound on this area. These may still be 
hunted by the natives. 

The buffalo has been protected on this 
area for about 20 years, but the estab- 
lishment of this preserve, with its attend- 
ant warden service, should ensure the 
continued increase of these unique 
herds, which under the inadequate 
protection which has heretofore been 
possible, have not increased as they 
should. 

Slave River Preserve : This area, which 
contains about 2200 sq. mi., includes a 
broad strip of country bordering the 
lower part of Slave River, and adjoining 
the Wood Buffalo Park for some dis- 
tance. The country is mostly low and 
swampy, and comprises the delta of 
Slave River and the area between that 
and the Taltson, and is the breeding 
ground of thousands of geese, ducks, 
rails, cranes, and other water birds, and 
is also the resort in spring and autumn 
of vast numbers of the same and other 
species, where they linger to rest and 
feed while on their migrations to and 
from their more northern breeding 
grounds. Natives only are allowed to 
hunt on this area. 

D. Great Slave Lake. Great Slave 
Lake is said by McConnell to have a 
superficial area, including islands, of 
about 10,400 sq. mi., and thus to 
rank fifth among the great lakes of the 



NATURAL AREAS AND REGIONS 



125 



continent. 2 It has a total length of 
nearly 300 mi., and is over 60 mi. wide 
in its broadest part. Its shore lines 
have remained unexplored, especially 
as regards its eastern arm, until recent 
years. Maps issued in 1923 by the Topo- 
graphical Surveys branch show details 
of this portion, excepting a few com- 
paratively short stretches. 

The eastern part of the lake is much 
deeper than the western part, and its 
water is very clear, as is also that of the 
northern arm. The main or western 
part of the lake, which receives the 
sediment-laden flood of Slave River, 
never becomes so clear, although it is 
fairly so at its outlet. Its southern 
shores are very low; its northern borders 
higher. It has few islands, and the rocks 
on its shores are largely limestone. 

Great Slave Lake lies wholly within 
the forested region, though some of its 
eastern affluents drain large areas of 
treeless country. Its southwestern 
shores are well wooded, while the 
northern shores, exposed for most of 
the year to cold winds from the north 
and watered by colder streams, are 
poorly wooded. The soil conditions 
are more favorable on the southern side 
of the lake, exerting a marked influence 
on the foresting. In general it divides 
the southern heavy timber from the 
northern stunted forest. 

On the Eastern Arm of the lake, how- 
ever, the conditions in this respect are 
more nearly uniform. Several streams, 
the courses of some of which are practi- 
cally unknown, enter this arm on the 
southern side. Hoarfrost River, drain- 
ing Walmsley Lake, and Lockhart 
River, carrying the waters of Mackay, 
Aylmer, Clinton-Golden, and Artillery 
lakes, which lie almost wholly in the 
Barren Grounds, fall into this arm near 
its eastern extremity. The country 
bordering its northern shore is rocky and 
sparsely wooded, and contains a great 
many lakes. 

The Northern Arm of Great Slave Lake 

* It is exceeded in size by Superior (31,500), Huron 
(23,000), Michigan (22,300), and Great Bear (11,400). 
IMcConnell.] 



lies along the junction of the primitive 
and the newer formations. Its eastern 
shore, therefore, is mainly composed of 
granite, while its western border is of 
limestone. Yellowknife River enters 
this arm on its eastern side. At the head 
of the Northern Arm, in an expansion 
named Lake Marian, or Lac du Brochet, 
Grandin River discharges its waters. 
To the westward of the Northern Arm 
and north of the main body of Great 
Slave Lake lies a low, broad plateau, 
dotted with many lakes and muskegs. 
It contains no rivers of consequence and 
is mainly rather thinly wooded, though 
a number of large prairies occur in the 
western part, north of the outlet of 
Great Slave Lake. 

The country south of the main part of 
Great Slave Lake is mainly flat and 
swampy. Eagle Mountain, a low, iso- 
lated range, lies a short distance south 
of the extreme western end of the lake. 
The principal stream is Hay River, 
which rises close to the height of land 
between the Nelson and the Peace, far 
to the southwest. The region drained by 
it is practically unknown, but is reported 
to be low and swampy and mainly well 
wooded, though it contains much grassy 
prairie, Hay River being said to mark 
the northern limit of this character of 
country. 

Ice forms in the bays and along the 
shores of Great Slave Lake in late 
October, and the whole lake, though 
kept open later by the violent winds, is 
usually closed by mid-November. The 
ice, which attains a thickness of 6 or 
8 ft., usually breaks up in the main or 
western part about the first of July, 
but sometimes remains in the eastern 
part until late July. 

Yellow Knife Preserve: An immense 
area estimated to contain 70,000 sq. mi., 
extending from Great Bear Lake and the 
Coppermile River, south to Great Slave 
Lake and Marten Lake, and thus in- 
cluding much of the hunting grounds of 
the Yellow Knife and the Dogrib In- 
dians, is now closed to hunting by others 
than natives. Its principal large game 
are the moose and caribou. Formerly 



126 



NATURALIST'S GUIDE TO THE AMERICAS 



large numbers of musk oxen inhabited 
the northern and eastern part of this 
area, but few, if any, of this notable 
species now remain. Large numbers 
of a few species of geese and ducks breed 
within this area, but it does not abound 
in large marshy tracts which form the 
favorite nesting places of waterfowl. 

E. The Mackenzie Valley proper. The 
Mackenzie (taken in a restricted sense 
as comprehending only that part of the 
river known under this name) has a 
course of over 900 mi. from Great Slave 
Lake to the Arctic Sea. It averages 
over a mile in width and is usually deep, 
with a current of from 2 to 6 mi. an hour. 
Its general course is to the northwest. 
It is bordered mainly by sandy or grav- 
elly beaches and occupies a narrow, com- 
paratively shallow valley, through which 
it flows in a succession of gentle curves. 
Many low islands, usually well wooded, 
occur throughout its course. Its rocks 
are chiefly Devonian. 

Issuing from Great Slave Lake, the 
Mackenzie first follows a general west- 
erly course for nearly 300 mi. The tribu- 
taries which it receives in this stretch, 
with the exception of the Liard, are of 
minor importance. The Horn Moun- 
tains, a long low ridge lie at some dis- 
tance north of the middle of the stretch. 
To the southward occur other lower 
ranges, the principal one being Trout 
Mountain. These mountains are very 
imperfectly known, but they are too low 
to support a fauna and flora differing 
appreciably from that of the surrounding 
country. A large part of the country 
bordering this part of the Mackenzie is 
swampy, and it is all well wooded. 
Nearly all the species of trees of the 
great subarctic forest are represented. 

A short distance north of latitude 62 
the Mackenzie strikes a spur of the 
Rocky Mountain system, the Nahanni 
Mountains, is deflected toward the 
north, and for some distance flows close 
to their bases. At the point where the 
Mackenzie first approaches them the 
nearest peaks are from 200 to 2500 ft. 
in height and are sparsely wooded to 
their summits. Farther back they rise 



much higher, and above an altitude of 
2500 ft. are treeless. In early summer 
these mountains are capped with snow, 
but this disappears entirely beneath the 
almost continuous sunlight of mid- 
summer. 

Near this point the fauna receives an 
infusion of Rocky Mountain types. 
Among mammals, these include a chip- 
munk (Eutamias borealis caniceps) com- 
mon in northern British Columbia and 
southern Yukon. The Rocky Mountain 
shrew (Sorex obscurus] also occurs, but 
has reached also the middle Athabaska 
and Great Slave Lake, farther south. 
The white mountain sheep (Ovis dalli] 
occurs in the Nahanni Mountains at 
some distance back from the river and 
also farther north, but is not found near 
the Mackenzie. Among birds the blue 
grouse (Dendragapus obscurus), and the 
Townsend solitaire (Myadestes town- 
sendi) seem to reach their northeastern 
limit on the mountains near the mouth 
of the North Nahanni. The northern 
varied thrush (Ixoreus naeviusmeruloides) 
also reaches the Mackenzie near this 
point, and follows its valley to the delta. 

Continuing northward, the Mackenzie 
is bordered on the west by a broad ex- 
panse of mountain country, mainly un- 
explored. A few low spurs of the same 
system cross the river and appear in 
the form of isolated peaks or discon- 
nected ranges to the eastward of its 
valley. The principal western tribu- 
taries between latitude 62 and 65 are 
the Red Rock and Gravel rivers. In the 
same interval the Mackenzie received 
several small streams which drain the 
country east of the river. One of the 
largest of these is the Blackwater 
Mount Clark, which is visible from the 
river at some distance below the mouth 
of this stream, has an estimated altitude 
of 3500 ft., and is the highest of the 
mountains east of the Mackenzie. The 
most conspicuous landmark in the im- 
mediate valley is Roche Trempe-Peau, 
a limestone mass which rises abruptly 
from the water's edge a short distance 
north of latitude 63. Bear River, 
the principal eastern tributary of the 



NATURAL AREAS AND REGIONS 



127 



Mackenzie, joins it just south of latitude 
65. Below its mouth, on the north side 
of the Mackenzie, is Bear Rock, 1400 
ft. in height. 

Below here the Mackenzie resumes 
its general northwesterly course. Wol- 
verene Rock, 100 mi. below Bear Rock, 
is formed, like that eminence, by an 
uplight of the Devonian limestone, 
and is about 1000 ft. in height. Twenty- 
five miles below here a rocky ridge 
crosses the river, forming the Sans 
Sault Rapid. The next important fea- 
ture in the valley of the Mackenzie is 
the defile called the "Ramparts." 
Here the river contracts from a width 
of 2 mi. to about 500 yds., and flows for 
about 7 mi. between precipitous lime- 
stone cliffs, which in places rise to a 
height of 250 ft. 

Below Sans Sault Rapid the Mac- 
kenzie recedes from the mountains, 
and they are not again visible until the 
delta is reached. Hareskin River enters 
the Mackenzie from the east a short 
distance north of the Ramparts. It 
drains a large extent of rocky wooded 
country between- Great Bear Lake and 
the Mackenzie. For a long distance 
below here the Mackenzie maintains a 
general northwesterly course. In about 
latitude 67 40' it turns rather abruptly 
at right angles, and for about 50 mi. 
follows a course considerably south of 
west. It is here bordered, especially 
on the north, by high clay banks, 
through which several good-sized 
streams cut their way. The river then 
turns northward again and maintains a 
northwesterly direction to the delta. 
The defile called the "Narrows" or 
"Lower Ramparts" is encountered near 
67 40', and at its lower end Arctic Red 
River, from the south, discharges its 
muddy waters. As far as known the 
country bordering this part of the 
Mackenzie on both sides is rolling, well 
watered, and fairly well wooded. A 
few miles below Arctic Red River the 
high banks of the Mackenzie gradually 
become lower and the river spreads 
out into the delta. 

The Mackenzie Delta occupies a 



triangular area nearly 100 mi. in length 
and 50 mi. broad at its widest part. 
To the westward of the delta lies a 
range of high hills, the northern ex- 
tremity of the Rocky Mountains. They 
rise to a height of from 1200 to 1500 ft., 
and their lower slopes only are wooded. 
The Caribou Mountains, apparently a 
continuation of the ridge which crosses 
the Mackenzie at the Lower Ramparts, 
lie to the eastward of the delta. They 
rise to a height of 700 to 800 ft. and are 
less rugged than the mountains west 
of the delta. 

Climatology : The climate of the Mac- 
kenzie Valley is fairly indicated by the 
tables of temperature which follow. 
They were taken in 1900, which seems 
to have been a year of about average 
conditions. 

Summaries of temperatures taken at Fort 

Simpson, Mackenzie, during 

the year 1900 









EXTK 


EMES 


IB 

a 


MONTH 


3 
P 5 


*l 


a 


| 


s 

a 




fc* 




a 


s 


B 




^ 


w S 


i 


1 


o 




S 


a 




X 


i 


January 


-16.2 


-33 5 


5 


-51.0 


-24.8 


February 


-9.2 


-33 5 


14 


-50.5 


-21 4 


March 


12.8 


-17.4 


39 


-50 


-2 3 


r'l 


41.2 
52 6 


17 8 
35.2 


60 
66 


5.0 

27 


29 5 
43.9 


... 
June 


69.3 


45 3 


80 


27.0 


57.3 


July 


69 4 


45.7 


79 5 


31.5 


57.6 


August 


65.0 


44.1 


78.0 


27.0 


54.5 


September 
October 


56.8 
29.0 


34.7 
19.2 


71.0 
40.0 


23.0 
3.0 


45.7 
24.1 




5 4 


8 7 


23 


-29 


1.7 


December 


-7.3 


-20.1 


13.0 


-48.0 


-13.7 


Year 






80 


-51 


20.7 



The temperatures of the extreme 
upper Mackenzie are undoubtedly 
slightly lower than those recorded for 
Fort Simpson, but comparable data are 
not at hand. 

Comparable figures for points in the 
valley of the lower Mackenzie and for 
Herschel Island show that the winter 
climate of the upper and lower Macken- 
zie varies but slightly, while the summer 
climate is considerably cooler to the 
northward. 

As has been stated, the warm winds 



128 



NATURALIST'S GUIDE TO THE AMERICAS 



from the Pacific sometimes exert a 
decided though temporary influence 
on the climate of the Mackenzie, and 
the Liard, opening early, disrupts the 
Mackenzie ice below the confluence. 
The removal of the icy covering of an 
immense river and the blending with its 
flood of the waters of a warmer tributary 
necessarily affect conditions along its 
banks. The ice in the Liard, having 
broken its bonds, is forced against that 
of the Mackenzie, through which it 
opens a passage, and urged on by the 
immense pressure behind it breaks its 
way seaward, occasionally becoming 
dammed and raising the level of the 
water until the increased pressure again 
clears a channel. At Fort Simpson, 
near latitude 62, the ice continues to 
drift in quantity for some days after 
its disruption. About ten days, on 
the average, after the Mackenzie opens 
at this point, or about the time that the 
breaking ice has reached latitude 65, 
the upper Mackenzie opens and the 
channel is filled again with floating ice. 
Sometimes a third consignment of 
floes, from the "Little Lake" or from 
Great Slave Lake, fills its current. 

Records of the opening and closing 
of the Mackenzie at Fort Simpson, kept 
between 1876 and 1906 (but not con- 
tinuously) show that the river usually 
broke up between May 5 and 10 (ex- 
treme dates April 29 and May 14), 
and closed usually about November 20 
v extreme dates November 17 and No- 
vember 28). At the mouth of Bear 
River the Mackenzie usuall}' opens 
between May 15 and 20 (extreme dates 
May 9 and May 28;, and closes about 
November 10 (extreme dates November 
2 and November 18). 

Seasonal phenomena in Mackenzie 
Valley, 1903-1904: Following is a brief 
account of the progress of the seasons 
and attendant phenomena as observed 
by the writer from October 1, 1903, 
to July, 1904. The first three weeks in 
October were spent in ascending the 
Mackenzie from Fort Norman, at the 
mouth of Bear River, to Fort Simpson, 
at the mouth of the Liard. The fact 



that these notes were taken while the 
party was traveling detracts but little 
from their value, since the conditions 
in different parts of this stretch of river 
were nearly uniform at that time. The 
period from October 20, 1903, to June 1, 
1904, was spent at Fort Simpson, and 
the month of June in descending the 
Mackenzie to its delta. 

When the Mackenzie was reached, on 
September 30, 1903, by descending Bear 
River, a marked contrast was noted 
between the conditions left behind at 
Great Bear Lake and those encountered 
on the Mackenzie. The temperature 
was considerably higher, and several 
species of small birds which had practi- 
cally disappeared from Great Bear Lake 
were common. The high mountains to 
the west of the Mackenzie were covered 
with snow. 

During the first few days of October, 
as we were ascending the Mackenzie, 
the weather was mostly fine, with south- 
erly winds part of the time. The nights 
were frosty and ice formed on still 
water. The blue flowers of a gentian 
(apparently Gentiana acuta\ the latest 
flowers observed, were seen on October 
3. During the night of October 7 (above 
Blackwater River) a little snow fell, 
but it disappeared during the following 
day. On the night of October 12 (above 
Fort Wrigley) 4 in. of snow fell, and on 
the night of October 14 another fall of 
snow occurred. Some ice was seen 
drifting on the west side of the Mac- 
kenzie on October 15 (above mouth 
Nahanni River). 3 On the following day 
the drifting ice had greatly increased in 
quantity, and on October 17 our progress 
by canoe was arrested. At this time 
the last of the tree sparrows and a few 
other hardy species left for the South. 

Fort Simpson: The Liard was par- 
tially closed at its mouth on October 
21, but broke away once or twice before 
it finally set fast. The weather from 
October 21 to 25 was considerably milder 
than it had been during the previous 



8 It should be noted that the appearance of 
drifting ice at this early date was almost unprece- 
dented. 



NATURAL AREAS AND REGIONS 



129 



week, and on the 26th and 27th it became 
still warmer and the ice practically 
ceased running. On October 28, how- 
ever, the weather became colder and the 
ice again appeared. From this date it 
continued to run and the snow steadily 
accumulated. The thermometer did not 
rise above the freezing point, and con- 
sequently there was no thawing, except 
to a very slight extent in sheltered 
spots directly exposed to the sun. While 
the river remained open its expanse of 
ice-laden water added greatly to the 
intensity of the cold. From the same 
cause the trees and shrubs were nightly 
loaded with ice crystals. On the night 
of November 7 the minimum tempera- 
ture recorded was 10, and on the 
night of November 15 a temperature of 
27 was registered. 

During the night of November 18 the 
river finally set fast. In this process 
the drifting ice accumulates until it 
has so filled the river that it jams in 
some place where it has partially bridged 
the channel. Against this barrier the 
oncoming floes, laden with saturated 
snow, are pushed by the current, and 
becoming lodged in all possible positions 
are almost instantly cemented together 
by the intense cold. This process con- 
tinues upstream, usually without inter- 
ruption, until the whole river is closed. 

During November and December the 
cold steadily increased in intensity and 
the snow gradually accumulated. When 
no thaw occurs the snow remains so 
light and powdery that it does not settle 
appreciably. On the shortest days the 
sun rose in the southeast about 9.30 
a.m. and, after describing a low arc 
over the tree tops, set about 2.30 p.m. 
Even at midday its heat was scarcely 
appreciable. After the middle of De- 
cember the thermometer scarcely ever 
rose above zero. From January 1 to 
March 12, 1904, it rose above zero on 
only eight occasions. The lowest tem- 
perature recorded was 54, on January 
20 and 21. During the third week in 
January the average daily maximum 
was 30; the average daily minimum 
-45. 



A grave which was dug on February 
26, 1904, afforded an opportunity to 
ascertain the depth to which frost had 
penetrated. The location was a sandy 
knoll somewhat sheltered on the north 
by a thick growth of young trees and 
open to the south. Snow lay to a depth 
of about 3 ft. The frost had reached a 
depth of only 20 in., but the excavation 
was not carried to a sufficient depth to 
reach the permanently frozen sub- 
stratum. 

On March 26 the temperature first 
rose above the freezing point and from 
that date did not descend below zero. 
When the spring thaw set in the snow 
had attained a depth of nearly 4 ft. 

The progress of the season at Fort 
Simpson from March to June, 1904, as 
indicated by the temperatures of suc- 
cessive weeks, is shown in the following 
table: 

Temperatures of successive weeks, spring 

of 1904, at Fort Simpson, 

Mackenzie River 





*g 

s 


P 


M 
H 

H 


FOURTH 
WEEK* 


Average of daily maxima: 
March 


-2.8 


-2.7 


9.5 


30.7 


April 


39.4 


42.7 


46 4 


57.9 


Mav 


46.0 


50.8 


59.7 


53 2 


June 
Average of daily minima: 
March 


62.1 
25.4 


63.1 
-26.8 


60.0 
-16.0 


70.4 
3 3 


April 
May 


11.8 
30.6 


23.4 
33.2 


23.4 

38.8 


33.5 
34 5 


June 


39.7 


44.4 


43.8 


48.6 



*The "fourth week" includes the last nine or 
ten days of the month. 

On March 19 a flock of white-winged 
crossbills, evidently migrants, was seen. 
On March 28 the first hawk owl of the 
spring was observed, and snow fleas 
(Achorutes) appeared. About the same 
time several species of small birds, 
which had been seen rarely during the 
winter, appeared in larger numbers. 
On March 30 the buds and catkins on 
the willows and alders imparted a 
brown tinge to the hillsides where these 
shrubs were common . On the same date 
snow buntings, which had been absent 
since the middle of December, reap- 



130 



NATURALIST'S GUIDE TO THE AMERICAS 



peared. On April 2 many small grayish 
moths were seen in the woods. On 
April 17 a mourning-cloak butterfly 
(Euvanessa) was seen. By April 18 the 
snow had nearly disappeared from the 
fields. Mosquitoes (Culex annulatus) 
first appeared on April 20, and were 
biting on April 24, but did not become 
troublesome until over a month later. 
The sap of the white birches began to 
flow freely on April 20. On April 23 a 
small space of open water was seen near 
the mouth of the Liard. Frogs (Rana 
cantabrigensis latiremis) were first ob- 
served on April 28. 

On April 29 Liard River broke up. Its 
advancing flood first opened a channel 
nearly straight across the Mackenzie, 
forcing the ice with irresistible power 
up on the opposite bank in immense 
piles. At the same time a mound 60 
or 70 ft. in height was formed at the 
mouth of one of the channels of the 
Liard, several immense cracks opened 
in the white expanse before the post, 
and the huge sheets were soon broken 
up. The stupendous amount of force 
exerted by the river upon the broad 
expanse of ice, 5 ft. in thickness, as with 
a grinding roar it folds and crushes the 
mighty sheets like cardboard, reducing 
them to powder and forcing them aloft 
in great mounds, impresses the beholder, 
who is likewise occupied in considering 
the possibility of the river being dammed 
sufficiently to overflow the ground on 
which he stands. Such a catastrophe 
has destroyed more than one post on 
the Mackenzie in years past. 

At this time a few ducks appeared in 
open places on the river. On May 6 a 
small quantity of snow fell. The leaves 
of Ribes oxyacanthoides began to appear 
on May 8. By this time the river was 
nearly clear of ice below the mouth of 
the Liard, but above its mouth the ice 
in the Mackenzie was still intact. On 
May 10 large sheets of the Mackenzie 
ice broke away and floated down, but 
the river did not open from above until 
May 13. The water then rose and 
became filled with ice, but on the fol- 
lowing day was nearly clear again and 



had fallen. On May 10 the leaves on 
aspens and birches were half an inch in 
length. About the middle of May blue 
violets (Viola albertina) blossomed. 
The weather continued warm and vege- 
tation advanced steadily. On May 18 
Virburnum pauciflorum and Populus 
balsamifera put forth their leaves, 
and mountain cranberry (Vitisidaea) 
was in flower. Birds were now coming 
fast and additional species were noted 
daily, but on May 21 the weather turned 
cold and stormy. This had the effect 
of retarding the advance of vegetation 
and the tide of bird migration. On May 
22 Ribes oxycanthoides and Calypso 
bulbosa were in flower. The weather 
remained cold and stormy during the 
remainder of the month and the condi- 
tions of vegetation and of bird migration 
remained almost at a standstill. On 
May 29 several inches of snow fell. 

Mackenzie below Fort Simpson: On 
June 1, 1904, 1 left Fort Simpson, and 
spent the remainder of the month de- 
scending the Mackenzie, my rate of 
travel keeping pace in general with the 
advance of spring. The weather during 
the first few days of June was favorable 
and vegetation made good progess. 
On June 2, a few miles below Fort Simp- 
son, the leaves of the tamaracks were 
just coming out. All along the river 
more or less ice still lay on the banks, 
but a few miles above Fort -Norman 
the quantity was astounding. Many of 
the stranded cakes were upward of 20 
ft. in thickness. On June 17, below 
Fort Norman, a small quantity of snow 
fell. On June 21, at Fort Good Hope, 
the leaves on most of the trees were 
about half grown. On the same date 
the sun was visible at midnight from a 
low hill near the post, and many birds 
were in full song at that hour. For 
the next three weeks, north of this 
point, the sun was continually above 
the horizon. Vegetation now advanced 
rather faster than our rate of travel 
northward, but was not at its height 
when we reached the delta of the Mac- 
kenzie on June 30. 

Preserved areas: Peel River Preserve: 






NATURAL AREAS AND REGIONS 



131 



This recently established preserve, on 
which natives only are allowed to hunt, 
includes a rather long and narrow area 
lying between Arctic Red River and the 
Peel River divide north to the Mackenzie 
delta, being entirely in the Mackenzie 
district. It contains about 3300 sq.mi. 
Its principal game animal is the moose. 
Many ducks of several species nest 
here, but the area is not especially nota- 
ble as a wild fowl resort. 

F. The Basin of Great Bear Lake. 
A short account of Great Bear Lake may 
begin with a portion of the description 
by Richardson, who examined most of 
its shore line in 1825 and 1826. He says: 

Great Bear Lake is an extensive sheet 
of water, of a very irregular shape, 
being formed by the union of five arms 
or bays in a common center. The 
greatest diameter of the lake, measuring 
about 150 mi., runs from the bottom of 
Dease Bay, which receives the principal 
feeding stream, to the bottom of Keith 
Bay, from whence the Bear Lake River 
issues, and has a direction of N.E. to 
S.W. The transverse diameter has a 
direction from N.W. by W. to S.E. by 
E., and is upwards of 120 mi. in length. 
The light bluish-coloured water of Great 
Bear Lake is everywhere transparent, 
and is particularly clear near some 
primitive mountains, which exist in 
M'Tavish Bay. A piece of white rag, 
let down there, did not disappear until 
it descended fifteen fathoms. The depth 
of water, in the center of the lake, was 
not ascertained; but it is known to be 
very considerable. Near the shore, in 
M'Tavish Bay, forty-five fathoms of 
line did not reach the bottom. (Narr. 
Second Exp'd to Polar Sea, Appendix, 
p. ii, 1828.) 

Great Bear Lake, according to the 
Canadian Geological Survey, has an 
area of approximately 11,400 sq. mi. 
and lies 391 ft. above the level of the sea. 
Its shores, with the exception of parts of 
MacTavish Bay, are rather low. Its 
southern and western shores are well 
wooded, while its northern and eastern 
borders are more thinly forested. The 
immediate shores are mainly of sand or 
gravel and are usually devoid of trees, 
but are well clothed with willows and 
various ericaceous shrubs and herba- 
ceous plants. In most places along the 



south shore this treeless stretch is only 
a few hundred yards in width, and in the 
bays the forest extends to the water's 
edge. In the vicinity of Leith Point, 
however, a treeless area stretches from 
near MacTavish Bay to Me Vicar Bay, 
and extends inland for several miles. 
On this area the faunal and floral con- 
ditions are practically those of the 
Barren Grounds. 

The junction between the primitive 
or granitic rocks and the limestone 
formation crosses Great Bear Lake 
near its eastern extremity. To the 
eastward of the dividing line the shores 
are higher, especially around Mac- 
Tavish Bay, where the mountains ap- 
proach closely to the shore. The Griz- 
zly Bear Mountain, which occupies the 
peninsula between Keith and McVicar 
bays, is upwards of 900 ft. high and 
several hundred feet of its upper portion 
are devoid of trees. On the opposite 
side of the lake, between Smith and 
Keith bays, a broad peninsula is oc- 
cupied by the Scented Grass Hills, of 
about the same height and similar in 
structure to the Grizzly Bear Mountain. 
The mountains which border Mac- 
Tavish Bay are so rocky that it is diffi- 
cult to trace the limit of timber on their 
sides. 

The northern shores of Great Bear 
Lake are described as mainly low and 
thinly forested, although the country 
at some distance inland is better 
wooded. 

The tributaries of Great Bear Lake 
are comparatively few in number. 
Dease River, which discharges into the 
northeastern extremity of the lake, is 
probably the best known of its feeders. 
It rises on the treeless height of land 
between Dease Bay and the lower Cop- 
permine. Several important streams 
enter the lake from the north. Several 
others, draining a very large extent of 
country to the southward, enter Mac- 
Tavish and McVicar bays. The latter 
receives also the waters of a chain of 
large lakes lying north of Marten Lake 
(which discharges into Great Slave 
Lake). The country drained by the 



132 



NATURALIST'S GUIDE TO THE AMERICAS 



southern tributaries is very rough and 
rocky, though fairly well wooded, and is 
traversed in various directions by 
ranges of low mountains. 

G. Region north of Great Bear Lake. 
North of Great Bear Lake lies an area 
of considerable size bounded on the 
west by the Mackenzie, on the east by 
the lower Coppermine and Coronation 
Gulf, and on the north by the Arctic 
Ocean, into which flow most of its 
rivers. Its southern portion is sparsely 
wooded; its barren northern part re- 
ceives narrow tongues of forest along 
the northward flowing rivers. Its fauna 
and flora, therefore, are those of the 
northern stunted forest and the Barren 
Grounds, about equally divided. Its 
surface is mainly rolling with some 
ranges of low hills, and many lakes. 
Its climate is essentially Arctic. 

H. The Liard River Valley. TheLiard 
River has its sources west of the Rocky 
Mountains, one of its branches rising 
within 150 mi. of the Pacific. 

In its upper portion the Liard bears a 
strong superficial resemblance to the 
upper Peace, being formed by large 
north and south trending branches which 
unite west of the mountains and, like 
the Peace, cut eastward through the 
main range of the Rocky Mountains. 
Fort Nelson River, entering the Liard 
from the south, is its principal branch 
east of the mountains. It rises near 
the headwaters of Pine River (north), 
and pursues a very tortuous northerly 
course to the Liard. Below the junction 
the Liard flows northerly and then 
northeasterly, still being bordered on 
the western side by spurs of the Rocky 
Mountain range. The country east of 
the lower Liard is mainly low and 
swampy in character. The valley of 
the lower Liard is heavily wooded, the 
largest tree being the balsam poplar 
(Populus balsamifera), which here attains 
perfection of habit, and from which the 
river is said to take its name. The 
other forest trees also are those common 
to the whole region. 

The upper reaches of the Liard are 
most readily reached from the Pacific 



side, by ascending the Stikine, and 
crossing the low height of land. 

The climate of the Liard River Valley, 
like that of the Peace, varies widely in 
the different sections. The upper part 
of the river, lying west of the main 
divide, enjoys a climate much tempered 
by the warm Pacific winds. The upper 
Nelson River also, the principal tribu- 
tary of the Liard east of the mountains, 
lies far to the southward and sufficiently 
near the Pacific to come within its 
modifying influence. Unfortunately no 
exact data regarding the temperature 
of the upper Liard or the Nelson are at 
hand; hence the conditions there can not 
be compared directly with those on its 
lower course. The average temperature 
conditions on the lower Liard may be 
fairly represented by those taken at 
Fort Simpson in 1900. The warm west- 
erly winds which reach the valley of the 
Liard extend their influence as far as 
its mouth and have been known to cause 
a pronounced thaw there even in Janu- 
ary, the coldest month. This modifying 
influence is apparent in the character 
and progress of vegetation, the migra- 
tion of birds, and in other phenomena. 
It is especially manifest, however, in 
its relation to the breaking up of the 
river and the attendant effect on the 
conditions along the banks. Further- 
more, the disruption of the Liard ice 
starts that in the Mackenzie also, which 
thus opens considerably earlier than 
would be the case were it not affected 
by its warmer tributary. This, of 
course, has its natural effect in accelerat- 
ing the progress of vegetation on the 
banks of the Mackenzie below the Liard. 

At Fort Liard, the river freezes up 
between the last of October and the 
middle of November and usually opens 
about the first of May. 

/. Northeastern British Columbia and 
Yukon. Reference has already been 
made to the fact that both Peace and 
Liard rivers rise west of the main ranges 
of the Rocky Mountains which farther 
south form a strict watershed, but which 
are here traversed by these great 
streams. There results a large area in 



NATURAL AREAS AND REGIONS 



133 



British Columbia which faunally and 
florally resembles the Mackenzie Basin, 
but which naturally has derived many 
of its species from the Pacific slope and 
the Rocky Mountains. Northwest- 
wardly this area extends to include the 
valley of the Upper Yukon, whose upper 
branches interlock with those of the 
Liard. 

The valleys of the Parsnip and the 
Finlay, which unite to form the Peace, 
lie in the valley referred to in another 
account as the Rocky Mountain Trench, 
which extends in a general north-north- 
west direction from near the northern 
boundary of the United States to Yukon 
Territory. This great valley was 
plainly formed at a time when the 
drainage of the region was very different 
from the present system. The various 
northward and southward flowing 
streams which now occupy it are long 
and comparatively slow-flowing, so that 
one may travel from latitude 49 north- 
ward to the Yukon without encountering 
any extraordinary differences in alti- 
tude. Most of the side tributaries of 
these streams, however, are compara- 
tively short and swift. Farther north 
the ancient valley holds tributaries of 
the Liard and the Yukon. 

To the west of these rivers lies an 
elevated region which besides forming 
a nursery for these eastward-flowing 
rivers, gives rise to several others enter- 
ing the Pacific. The mountains of this 
area comprise many single mountain 
masses and short ranges disposed in 
irregular systems, and the numerous 
streams which drain them flow in all 
directions. The principal ones on the 
upper courses occupy broad valleys 
through which they meander over shal- 
low gravelly beds, but lower down they 
cut canyons as they approach the main 
rivers, which occupy deep valleys, some- 
times gorge-like in character. This 
region, lying between the Rocky Moun- 
tains and the coast ranges, is considered 
by Dawson (1891) to be an ancient 
plateau which has been dissected by 
glacial action into a region traversed 
by broad level valleys flanked by moun- 



tains which are often steep and craggy. 
It is evident to the most casual observer 
that these wide flat valleys must have 
been excavated by some more formidable 
forces than the comparatively small 
and shallow streams which now meander 
through thtm. 

The trees and shrubs of this region are 
largely those common to the great 
transcontinental conifer forest, enumer- 
ated on earlier pages. The lodge-pole 
pine here replaces the Banksian pine, 
however, and certain other trees and 
shrubs characteristic of the coast region 
or of the Rocky Mountains are present. 
Some of these will be noted in the de- 
scriptions of the various topographic 
features. These may best be considered 
under the several river valleys. 

Stikine River Valley: The Stikine 
River rises in a large irregular mountain 
mass in about latitude 57 from which 
flow also head tributaries of the Finlay, 
flowing to Peace River and the Arctic, 
and the Skeena, flowing to the Pacific. 
Disregarding its smaller head feeders, 
the Stikine may be considered as rising 
from a string of three lakes, from which 
it flows eastward, or directly away from 
its final destination. Traversing valleys 
flanked by high mountains it is soon 
joined by numbers of small branches, 
and in the first one hundred miles of its 
course has attained a considerable size, 
has turned a half-circle northward and 
westward, and is now started fairly 
toward its final goal. Here it joins 
the Ispatseeza which has risen near 
the same place and has flowed north- 
ward and eastward. These streams are 
of about equal size and divide honors as 
the head tributary. From their junc- 
tion the combined river turns to the 
westward, and receives in succession 
the Ketatsil or Pitman from the east, 
the Kilicho from the north, the Klappan 
from the south, the Tanzilla from the 
north, and the Klastline or Second 
South Fork and the Mestua, or First 
South Fork, from the south. The north- 
erly streams mentioned take their rise 
close to tributaries of the Liard, while 
those from the south rise in ranges which 



134 



NATURALIST'S GUIDE TO THE AMERICAS 



give birth also to branches of the Nass, 
the Skeena, and the Finlay. 

A typical valley, that of the Upper 
Ispatseeza, may be described in some 
detail. It varies from a mile or less to 
several miles in width. Long stretches, 
perfectly level, having a gipvelly soil 
covered with a good growth of grass, 
are frequent, and these often succeed 
each other as terraces, with altitudinal 
differences of only a few feet, or may 
alternate with gently undulating mea- 
dows clothed with patches of willows 
and dwarf birches, or with stunted white 
spruces, which merge gradually into the 
fairly well grown forest which covers 
the sides of the bordering mountains. 

These valleys though largely treeless 
correspond to the stunted forest belt 
of the Mackenzie and most of their 
woody plants are the same. With them 
are found also certain Rocky Mountain 
plants, including the large blue larkspur 
(Delphinium menziesii), western ane- 
mone (Pulsatilla occidentalis] , and the 
yellow paint brush (Castilleja pallida). 
Mammals more or less characteristic 
of these broad valleys are the Osborn 
caribou (Rangifer osborni), the hoary 
marmot (Marmota caligata oxytona], 
the Yukon ground squirrel (Citellus 
plesius), and the British Columbia 
lemming (Lemmus helvolus). The most 
characteristic birds are the willow 
ptarmigan (Lagopus lagopus) which 
breeds almost entirely on these brushy 
meadows, the golden-crowned sparrow 
(Zonotrichia coronata), and the western 
tree sparrow (Spizella monticola 
ochracea). 

In these valleys, usually at the sources 
of streams, sometimes in the forest, and 
sometimes above the timberline, lakes 
of clear water occur. About these nest 
Barrow's goldeneye. 

Bordering the valleys a zone of spruce 
usually covers the lower slopes of the 
mountains, which are treeless above an 
altitude of about 5000 ft. The summits 
of the mountains are usually rocky, 
sometimes craggy and precipitous, but 
hold many gently sloping meadows and 
hanging valleys, well-watered and sup- 



porting an alpine flora of great beauty. 
The fauna of the peaks include the 
mountain sheep (Ovis d. stonei) and 
the mountain goat (Oreamnos m. colum- 
bianus} which usually, but not in- 
variably, choose different mountains, 
the hoary marmot, the white-tailed and 
rock ptarmigan, the pipit, the Alaska 
horned lark, and the Hepburn rosy 
finch. 

Below the level of these broad valley 
meadows, where the streams cut their 
way down to the deeper canyons of the 
main valleys, the trees are those of the 
main transcontinental forest, with an 
infusion of west coast types. Populus 
trichocarpa replaces Populus balsami- 
fera, and the red-berried elder is occa- 
sional in the damper situations. The 
plants, however, are virtually the same 
as those of the great interior forest as 
far down the Stikine as the Little Can- 
yon, below which the flora and fauna 
changes abruptly to that characteristic 
of the coast region, elsewhere con- 
sidered. In these lower valleys and the 
adjacent slopes up to about 2000 ft. 
(Canadian Zone), certain birds of the 
Athabaska-Mackenzie region are com- 
mon, including gray ruffed grouse, yel- 
low-bellied sapsucker, eastern night- 
hawk, Say's phoebe, alder flycatcher, 
rusty grackle, Gambel's sparrow, west- 
ern chipping sparrow, junco, cliff swal- 
low, barn swallow, western warbling 
vireo, Tennessee warbler, redstart, olive- 
backed thrush, hermit thrush, with 
many others. With these are found the 
following which are mainly confined to 
the Rocky Mountain region: Hammond 
flycatcher, Wright flycatcher, violet- 
green swallow, Macgillivray warbler, 
Myadestes towns endi, and Ixoreus naevius 
meruloides. 

Yukon: Yukon, stretching through 
nearly ten degrees of latitude, and 
extending from the Arctic Ocean nearly 
the Pacific, lies between Mackenzie, 
British Columbia, and Alaska, and sends 
rivers of considerable size to all of these 
adjacent regions. Its affinities are close 
to Alaska, owing to its contributions 
to the Yukon, Alaska's main waterway. 



NATURAL AREAS AND REGIONS 



135 



All of the main head tributaries of this 
great stream, the Stewart, Pelly, Lewes, 
and White, together with the Porcupine, 
rise either within Yukon's borders, or 
close to them, and drain about four- 
fifths of its territory. Most of the area 
remaining contributes to the Liard and 
Peel. 

As might be inferred from the fore- 
going discussion of its drainage, the 
Yukon River affords the principal 
means of access to most parts of Yukon 
Territory. From Skagway, at the head 
of navigation on Lynn Canal, the White 
Pass and Yukon Railway takes one to 
Whitehorse at the head of steamboat 
navigation on the Yukon, which may, of 
course, be easily descended with or 
without power. From their junctions 
with the Yukon, the Pelly, Stewart, 
and many smaller streams may be 
ascended by small power boats or by 
tracking well toward the main divide, 
affording access to alpine areas of large 
extent. The Frances Lake region, which 
is drained by Frances River and other- 
tributaries of the Liard, may be reached 
by canoe from the upper Pelly, or from 
the Dease Lake region of British 
Columbia. 

Faunally and florally, Yukon has close 
affinities with both Mackenzie and 
Alaska. Comparison of lists of plants 
of the three sections show very few 
differences. Their mammal and bird 
faunas are also strikingly alike. 

Of the large game animals of Yukon 
the mountain sheep, found on both the 
eastern (Mackenzie) and the western 
slopes of the main Rocky Mountain 
range, here generally referred to as the 
Mackenzie Mountains, as well as in many 
of the ranges to the westward, from 
southern Yukon north to the Arctic 
watershed, is probably the most interest- 
ing. This animal (Ovis dalli), is found 
in its typical form in many of the ranges 
of northern Yukon. To the south it 
gradually becomes darker, finally merg- 
ing into the dark race named Ovis stonei 
of northern British Columbia. Moose, 
caribou, black and grizzly bears, and 
(in extreme southeastern Yukon) moun- 



tain goats, are also found in some 
numbers. 

Most of the small mammals show 
affinities with both Mackenzie and 
British Columbia, in varying degrees. 
The chestnut-cheeked meadow mouse 
(Microtus xanthognathus) , the Hudson 
Bay jumping mouse (Zapus hudsonius), 
the Rocky Mountain shrew (Sorex 
obscurus), and the Yukon chipmunk 
(Eutamias b. caniceps) are found in both 
the Mackenzie and Yukon regions. 
The British Columbia wood rat (Neo- 
toma c. saxamans) is a Rocky Mountain 
type, extending northward from British 
Columbia into southern Yukon. 

The avifauna of Yukon, especially as 
regards the smaller land birds, shows 
close affinities with the Mackenzie 
Valley. Conspicuous are the following 
species, most of which probably have a 
breeding range which is continuous from 
Mackenzie to Yukon by way of the low 
valleys tributary to the upper Liard 
and thus including northeastern British 
Columbia. A partial list follows: Co- 
laptes a. borealis, Chordeiles virginianus, 
Empidonax trailli alnorum, Euphagus 
carolinus, Passerculus sandwichensis al- 
audinus, Zonotrichia leucophrys gambeli, 
Junco hyemalis, Petrochelidon lunifrons, 
Hirundo erythrog aster, Tachycineta bi- 
color, Vermivora celata orestera, V. 
peregrina, Dendroica aestiva rubiginosa, 
D. coronata, D. striata, Seiurus auroca- 
pillus, S. noveboracensis notabilis, Wil- 
sonia pusilla, Sitta canadensis, Pen- 
thestes atricapillus septentrionalis, Hylo- 
cichla aliciae, H. ustulata swainsoni, H. 
a. pallasi, and Ixoreus n. meruloides. 
Species which extend northward from 
western British Columbia include the 
following: Selasphorus rufus, Pica p. 
hudsonica, Dendroica townsendi, Empi- 
donax hammondi, Zonotrichia coronata, 
and Tachycineta thalassina lepida. 
Most of these reach the upper Yukon 
(Canadian Zone) only. 

2. The Barren Grounds (Arctic Zone) 

Under this heading will be considered 
the great area lying to the north and 
northeast of Great Bear and Great 



136 



NATURALIST'S GUIDE TO THE AMERICAS 



Slave lakes. It is watered by the 
Anderson, Coppermine, Great Fish, 
Thelon or Ark-i-linik, and many smaller 
rivers. With the exception of Great 
Fish River all those named are wooded 
to some extent on their upper portions, 
but by far the greater part of the area 
drained by them is treeless. It may be 
well to trace the northern boundary of 
the great transcontinental forest from 
the western shore of Hudson Bay to the 
mouth of the Mackenzie. 

Starting from the mouth of Churchill 
River, Hudson Bay, the tree line follows 
the shore closely for a few miles and 
then curves gently inland. Thence it 
extends northwesterly, crossing Nueltin, 
or Island Lake; Ennadai Lake on Kazan 
River; and Boyd Lake on the Dubawnt. 
Just north of 60 on Artillery Lake is 
the next point where we have a definite 
dividing line. Between the Dubawnt 
and Artillery Lake is the valley of the 
upper Thelon, or Ark-i-linik, along 
whose banks the forest extends in a 
narrow line far into the general treeless 
area. This northward extending tongue 
of forest will be more fully described 
beyond. 

From Artillery Lake the line extends 
northwestward to Point Lake, curving 
toward the southwest in the interval 
and crossing Lake Mackay south of 
latitude 64. From Point Lake, whose 
shores are practically devoid of trees, 
nearly to latitude 67, the banks of the 
Coppermine are so thinly wooded that 
the river may be taken as the approxi- 
mate boundary of the woods. Spruces 
occur on the Coppermine as far north 
as the mouth of Kendall River, but are 
absent from the summit of the divide 
between there and Great Bear Lake and 
reappear on lower Dease River. The 
north shore of Great Bear Lake is thinly 
wooded and tongues of timber follow 
the northward-flowing rivers well into 
the Barren Grounds, on the Wilmot 
Horton to latitude 69. The tree line 
crosses the Anderson north of the same 
parallel, and thence extends northwest 
to the mouth of the Mackenzie, probably 
dipping to the south in the interval, as 



is usually the case in the areas between 
rivers. West of the timbered delta of 
the Mackenzie a considerable area ot 
treeless country occurs. 

In general the surface of the Barren 
Grounds may be described as rolling. 
The greater part of its area lies within 
the region of the primitive rocks, and 
many low granitic hills, some of them 
with precipitous cliffs, are found. 
Thousand of lakes, many of consider- 
able extent, and abounding in lake 
trout, dot its surface. There are vast 
areas of grassy plains and gentle slopes, 
on which, during the short summer, the 
bright flowers of a profusion of shrubby 
and herbaceous plants lend their beauty 
to the landscape, and prove the appella- 
tion "Barren Grounds" to be a mis- 
nomer, though in many parts, from the 
nature of the soil, there is little plant 
life. Alders (Alnus alnobetula) occur 
in a more or less dwarfed condition in 
favorable places well into the treeless 
area, and several species of willows, 
some of which here attain a height of 
5 or 6 ft., border some of the streams 
as far north as the Arctic Ocean. These 
are the only trees which occur even in a 
dwarfed state on the Barren Grounds 
proper. 

The northward extension of the coni- 
ferous forest along the banks of north- 
ward-flowing rivers has already been 
referred to. The most remarkable ex- 
ample of this phenomenon is found on 
the Thelon, or Ark-i-linik, a stream 
tributary to Hudson Bay. From a 
point near latitude 62|, which is as far 
south as the river has been explored, 
and is within the main area of the Bar- 
ren Grounds, a more or less continuous 
belt of spruce borders the river as far 
north as latitude 64|, a distance of 
over 200 mi. by the river. A few species 
of woodland-breeding birds follow these 
extensions of the forest to their limits. 

Climatology: No tables of tempera- 
ture taken throughout the year at any 
point in the Barren Grounds are avail- 
able. The winters are, of course, very 
long and the summers short, with the 
intervening seasons practically wanting. 



NATURAL AREAS AND REGIONS 



137 



Winter sets in soon after the 1st of 
September and persists until May, 
with only a short season of spring. 
During the short summer the progress 
of vegetation is very rapid, but the 
seeds and berries are scarcely ripened 
before winter again asserts its sway. 

Owing to the great thickness of their 
icy covering, some of the lakes of the 
Barren Grounds are not clear of ice in 
backward seasons until July, or even 
August, when new ice has usually begun 
to form in still water. They generally 
break up in late June or early July. 
The rivers, having the advantage of a 
current, open earlier than the lakes. 

During a residence of about five years 
at Fort Anderson, on Anderson River, 
MacFarlane observed the river to set 
fast on two occasions as early as Sep- 
tember 10, though once it remained open 
until October 10. In 1857 the Anderson 
broke up at the mouth of the Lockhart 
on June 12. At Fort Anderson the 
dates of the opening of the river were 
as follows: 1861, about May 15; 1862, 
May 19; 1863, May 30; 1864, May 31; 
1865, June 2. During the last days of 
June, 1864, MacFarlane found nearly all 
the lakes on the Barren Grounds still 
covered with ice, though the rivers 
were open. 

In 1821, when Franklin's party started 
to descend the Coppermine on July 1, 
the lakes on its upper course were still 
covered with ice. Apparently the river 
had opened only a short time before. 
In 1849 Doctor Rae noted the breaking 
up of the same river near its mouth on 
June 28. At this time the leaves of the 
dwarf birches were out, and the leaf 
buds of the willows had begun to de- 
velop. The lower part of the river 
remained blocked with ice until July 13. 

Preserved areas: Backs River Pre- 
serve: This great area containing up- 
wards of 65,000 sq. mi., includes most of 
the valley of Backs River and north to 
the Arctic Coast, from Bathurst Inlet 
east to Backs Inlet. Its natives, chiefly 
Eskimo, retain the sole right to hunt. 
This area is the breeding ground of great 
numbers of the Barren Ground caribou, 



some of which remain in winter, though 
many migrate southward at that sea- 
son. Many musk oxen also are found 
here, this being the only one of the 
several preserves recently established 
which harbors this notable species in 
any numbers. 

S. The region northwest of Hudson Bay 

This section of country has already 
been described, in effect, in the account 
of the Barren Grounds of the Mackenzie 
region. Its rivers excepting those emp- 
tying into Chesterfield Inlet, are not 
readily navigable. Those parts border- 
ing on Hudson Bay can be reached, of 
course, most readily by means of that 
great inland sea, which is itself reached 
either by way of Hudson Strait, or by 
means of the several rivers, navigable by 
canoes only, which enter it from the 
south and southwest. Railroads, 
branches of the Canadian National, now 
take the traveler several hundred miles 
nearer Hudson Bay than formerly, and 
as projected will ultimately reach its 
shores, but at present the journey must 
be completed by canoe or dog-sled. The 
waters of Hudson Bay, furthermore, are 
scarcely nagivable by means of the frail 
canoes by which the passage of these 
rapid and shallow streams must be 
effected, so that access to the region is 
very difficult. Parts of the country 
draining into northwestern Hudson Bay, 
however, can be reached by canoe from 
Great Slave Lake, though the shortness 
of the season of open water makes such 
a journey a very hurried one. 

4. The Arctic Islands (Arctic Zone} 

The Arctic Islands, lying to the north- 
ward of the continent of North America, 
are closely related faunally and florally 
to the neighboring mainland. Being 
more northerly and surrounded by an 
ocean which is frozen over from 6 to 9 
months of the year, it follows that both 
animal and vegetable life include fewer 
species. They are of course treeless, 
and their shrubs comprise only a few 
creeping species, some indeed, the same 
that inhabit more favorable habitats to 



138 



NATURALIST'S GUIDE TO THE AMERICAS 



the southward, but which here, in defer- 
ence to the influence of the chilling winds 
and hard-packed snow against which 
they must struggle, cling closely to their 
parent earth. 

The mammalian inhabitants of the 
Arctic Islands are few in number. The 
musk-ox (Ovibos moschatus) occurs only 
on certain ones, the reasons for its choice 
being in many cases difficult or impossi- 
ble of explanation. Its habitat includes 
the peninsulas and islands northward 
from the eastern part of its main conti- 
nental range northeastward to northern 
Greenland. Another island area com- 
prises Banks Land, the adjacent part of 
Victoria Island, and the southern part of 
Melville Island, this aggregate area 
being isolated from the remainder of its 
present range . The only other ruminant 
is the Barren Ground caribou (Rangifer 
arcticus and related forms), which 
inhabits practically all the islands, for- 
saking some of them in winter, but being 
a year-long inhabitant of most of the 
area in question. The other land mam- 
mals include the polar bear (Thalarctos 
maritimus], Arctic fox (Alopex lagopus 
innuitus), Arctic weasel (Mustela 
arctica), an occasional wolverene (Gulo 
luscus), the Arctic hare (Lepus arcticus}, 
pied lemming (Dicrostonyx} , and the 
brown lemming (Lemmus). All these 
are either circumpolar species, or close 
relatives of such. 

The birds of the Arctic Islands are 
more numerous in species, including 
most of the genera already listed as 
breeding on the continental Barren 
Grounds, and a few which are practically 
confined as breeders to these uttermost 
insular lands. 

Most of the Arctic Islands are accessi- 
ble only by sea-going vessels, and can 
be reached practicably only by way of 
Baffin Bay and Lancaster Sound, and its 
various connecting channels. In this 
category may be included all the islands 
and peninsulas lying to the north and 
east of McClintock Channel and McClure 
Strait, and the northern and eastern 
shores of Victoria Land and Banks Land. 
The southern and western shores of these 



latter insular masses may be reached in 
ordinary seasons from the west by way of 
the Arctic Ocean, and Dolphin and Union 
Strait. The reason for this strict divi- 
sion is the drift ice that usually chokes 
the western entrance to McClure Strait, 
which prevented the accomplishment of 
the Northwest passage when it was first 
attempted in 1819, and has since almost 
invariably forbidden the passage of 
vessels in either direction. In winter 
and early spring, by Eskimo methods of 
traveling, these islands are accessible 
from the west and south, but this method 
is seldom practicable for expeditions 
having for their main objective the 
collecting of natural history specimens. 
Plants. Excluding the ferns, grasses, 
and sedges, the plants of the Arctic 
Islands include the following: 

Tofieldia palustris 
Salix arctica 
Salix glauca 
Salix richardsonii 
Salix alaxensis 
Salix reticulata 
Polygonum viv parum 
Oxyria digyna 
Silene acaulis 
Lychnis apetala 
Lychnis affinis 
Stellaria longipes 
Stellaria humifusa 
Cerastium alpinum 
Helianthus peploides 
A isine verna rubella 
Caltha palustris radicans 
Anemone richardsonii 
Ranunculus hyperboreus 
Ranunculus pygmaeus 
Ranunculus sulphureus 
Ranunculus nivalis 
Ranunculus affinis 
Ranunculus sabinii 
Papaver nudicaule 
Draba alpina 
Draba nivalis 
Draba fladnizensis 
Draba hirta 
Braya purpurascens 
Eutrema edwardsii 
Hesperis pallasii 
Cardamine digitata 
Cardamine pratensis 
Parrya arctica 
Chrysosplenium tetrandrum 
Saxifraga rivularis 
Saxifraga cernua 
Saxifraga hirculus 
Saxifraga nivalis 
Saxifraga hieraciifolia 



NATURAL AREAS AND REGIONS 



Saxifraga decipiens groenlandica 

Saxifraga tricuspidata 

Saxifraga aizoides 

Saxifraga flagellaris 

Saxifraga oppositifolia 

Dryas octopetala 

Dry as integrifolia 

Potentilla pulchella 

Potentilla nivea 

Potentilla rubricaulis 

Potentilla vahliana 

Potentilla emarginata 

Rubus chamaemorus 

Lupinus arcticus 

Astragalus alpinus 

Astragalus aboriginorum 

Oxytropis campestris 

Oxytropis nigrescens 

Oxytropis arctobia 

Hedysarum mackenzii 

Hedysarum alpinum 

Empetrum nigrum 

Epilobium latifolium 

Epilobium angustifolium 

Hippuris vulgaris 

Pyrola grandi 'flora 

Ledum palustre 

Rhododendron lapponicum 

Loiseleuria procumbens 

Cassiope tetragona 

Arctostaphylos alpina 

Vaccinium uliginosum microphylla 

Primula borealis 

Androsace chamaejasme 

Androsace septentrionalis 

Statice armeria sibirica 

Phlox richardsonii 

Polemonium boreale 

Mertensia maritima 

Castilleja pallida 

Pedicularis lapponica 

Pedicularis hirsuta 

Pedicularis sudetica 

Pedicularis arctica 

Pedicularis lanata 

Pedicularis capitata 

Campanula uniflora 

Erigeron uniflorus 

Erigeron compositus 

Artennaria alpina 

Matricaria inodora grandijlora 

Chrysanthemum integrifolium 

Petasites frigida 

Arnica alpina 

Senecio palustris 

Senecio frigidus 

Taraxacum ceratophorum 

Crepis nana 

Preserved areas. Within the area here 
classed under the term Arctic Islands, 
two preserved areas have recently been 
created by the Canadian Government. 
These cover the entire areas of Banks 
Island and Victoria Island respectively. 



Like the areas established at the same 
time in the Mackenzie Basin and along 
Backs River, hunting and trapping by 
natives is allowed, but the areas are 
closed against hunting by white men. 
This will exclude sportsmen but will 
still allow the natives to make legitimate 
use of the game, a vital necessity since 
the areas in question comprise the 
hereditary hunting grounds of either 
Indians or Eskimo, who are almost 
entirely dependent on the chase for their 
subsistence, clothing, and equipment. 

Banks Island: Banks Island contains 
an area of about 26,000 sq. mi. It was 
formerly the home of large numbers of 
musk oxen, but these are believed to be 
now extirpated. Many caribou are still 
found, while the Arctic fox is the only 
fur bearer of importance. The island 
is also the breeding ground of large 
numbers of geese, principally snow geese, 
several species of the more northerly- 
breeding ducks, large numbers of shore- 
birds of several species, and ptarmigan. 

Victoria Island: The principal large 
game of Victoria Island is the caribou. 
The muskox appears not to have inhab- 
ited the island, at least within historic 
times, excepting limited areas near its 
northern shores where it is still found. 
Victoria Island has an area of over 74,000 
sq. mi., and like Banks Island is the 
summer home of great numbers of geese, 
ducks, and shorebirds. 

BIBLIOGRAPHY 

The following list includes a few of the 
more important titles referring to 
northern North America, excluding 
Alaska, Greenland, eastern Franklin, 
and the Ungava Peninsula, with special 
reference to topography and natural 
history. In titles by the author here 
listed (1902, 1908), may be found fuller 
lists of publications relating to most of 
the areas therein treated. 

1795. HEARNE, SAMUEL. A Journey 
from Prince of Wales's Fort in 
Hudson's Bay to the Northern 
Ocean. Undertaken by Order 
of the Hudson's Bay Company, 
for the Discovery of Copper 



140 



NATURALIST'S GUIDE TO THE AMERICAS 



Mines, a North West Passage, 
etc., in the years 1769, 1770, 
1771 and 1772. 4to, pp. i-xliv, 
1-458. London, 1795. There is 
also a Dublin edition, 8vo, 1796, 
and another London edition, 
1807. 

Contains, scattered through- 
out the narrative, many notes 
on the mammals and birds of 
the region; Chapter X, pp. 358- 
458, treats exclusively of the 
natural history of the Barren 
Grounds, and the Great Slave 
Lake and Hudson Bay regions. 

1801 MACKENZIE, ALEXANDER. Voy- 
ages from Montreal, on the 
River St. Laurence, through 
the Continent of North Amer- 
ica, to the Frozen and Pacific 
Oceans; in the years 1789 and 
1793. With a preliminary ac- 
count of the rise, progress and 
present state of the Fur Trade 
of that country. 4to, pp. 412. 
London. 

Mackenzie was the first trav- 
eler to descend the Mackenzie 
River; and the first to cross 
the continent north of Mex- 
ico, which he accomplished by 
ascending the Peace and de- 
scending the rivers west of the 
divide. His narratives of these 
voyages contain many notes 
on natural history. 

1826 PARRY, WILLIAM EDWARD; AND 
Ross, JAMES CLARK. Journal 
of a Third Voyage for the Dis- 
covery of a Northwest Passage 
from the Atlantic to the Pacific ; 
performed in the years 1924r-25, 
in His Majesty's Ships Hecla 
and Fury, under the orders of 
Captain William Edward Parry. 
4to, pp. i-xxvii, 1-186; 1-151. 
(Appendix on Zoology, Ross, 
pp. 1-151.) 

The zoological appendix 
refers mainly to the natural 
history of Port Bowen, where 
the expedition wintered, and 
other points about Prince 
Regent Inlet. A few notes on 
natural history occur in the 
narrative. 

1829 RICHARDSON, J. Fauna Boreali- 
Americana. Part First. Quad- 
rupeds. 4to, pp. i-xlvi, 1-300. 
London. 

This work, in which the 
material accumulated on the 
first two journeys of Franklin 
and the early voyages of Ross 
and Parry is elaborated, con- 
tains a great deal of informa- 



tion on the mammals of the 
Athabaska and Mackenzie 
region. 

1831 SWAINSON, W., AND RlCHARDSON, 

J. Fauna Boreali-Amencana. 
Part Sec9nd. The Birds. 4to, 
pp. i-lxvi, 1-524. London. 

This publication was for many 
years the standard work on the 
birds of British America. 

1875 PETITOT, E. Geographic de 
L' Athabaskaw-Mackenzie et des 
Grands Lacs du Bassin Arctique. 
Bulletin de la Societe de Geog- 
raphic. Pp. 5-42 (July); pp. 
126-183 (August); pp. 242-290 
(September) ; with a map of the 
region from Great Slave Lake 
northward. 

A geographical and general 
description of the region , based 
mainly on the explorations of 
the author, for many years a 
missionary in the Mackenzie 
region. Traveling mainly on 
snowshoes, he visited many 
remote districts never before 
explored. The present account 
and map may be considered the 
official announcement of some 
of his geographical discoveries. 

1888 GREELY, ADOLPHUS W. Report 
on the Proceedings of the 
United States Expedition to 
Lady Franklin Bay, Grinnell 
Land. [Report of International 
Polar Expedition.] 2 vols.; 
pp. 545, 738. Washington. 

This expedition left the 
United States in the Proteus in 
the summer of 1881 and returned 
in 1884. Headquarters were 
established at Fort Conger. 
In Appendix 129 (Vol. II, pp. 
1-10) and App. 131 (Vol. II, 
pp. 19-37, are given the reports 
on mammals and birds, respec- 
tively. In connection with the 
notes recorded on this expedi- 
tion, many recorded by other 
northern expeditions are given. 
This is particularly true in the 
case of birds (Vol. II, pp. 30-37) 
where the principal notes made 
by several Arctic observers 
are summarized in tabular form. 

1890 MACFARLANE, RODERICK Ross. 
Land and Sea Birds nesting 
within the Arctic Circle in the 
Lower Mackenzie District. 
Transaction 39, Historical and 
Scientific Society of Manitoba, 
season 1888-9 (1890). 

An annotated list of the birds 
observed and taken in the 
Anderson River region, from 



NATURAL AREAS AND REGIONS 



141 



April, 1862, to June, 1865, in- 
clusive; annotations mainly in 
reference to nesting habits, 
nests, and eggs. 

1893 WICKHAM, H. F. Report on an 
Entomological Reconnaissance 
of Southern Alaska and adjacent 
portions of British Columbia. 
Bulletin from the Laboratories 
of Natural History, Univ. of 
Iowa, Vol. 2, No. 3, pp. 202-233 
with 2 maps. 

Comparison of the lists of 
Coleoptera of the Little Canyon, 
and Glenora, on the Stikine, 
with those found at the mouth 
of the river, and at Fort Simp- 
son on the Mackenzie and other 
interior points. 

1900 OSGOOD, W. H., AND BISHOP, L. B. 
Results of a Biological Recon- 
naissance of the Yukon River 
Region (North American Fauna 
No. 19, 100 pages). General 
Account of the Region; Anno- 
tated List of Mammals, by 
Wilfred H. Osgood; Annotated 
List of Birds, by Louis B. 
Bishop. 

Relates to a natural history 
expedition made along the 
Yukon in 1899. 

1902 PREBLE, EDWARD A. A Biological 
Investigation of the Hudson 
Bay Region (North American 
Fauna No. 22, 140 pages). 

Annotated lists of the mam- 
mals, birds, and reptiles and 
batrachians of the country bor- 
dering Hudson Bay on the west 
and northwest. Account of a 
natural history expedition con- 
ducted in 1900. Bibliography. 

1908 PREBLE, EDWARD A. A Biological 
Investigation of the Athabaska- 
Mackenzie Region (North 
American Fauna, No. 27, 574 
pages). 

Topographic and historic 
description of the region, with 
special reference to its natural 
history. Annotated lists of 
mammals, birds, reptiles, and 
amphibians, fishes, and trees 
and shrubs; extensive bibli- 
ography. Bibliography. 

1922 HOLM, THEODOR. Contributions 
to the Morphology, Synonymy, 
and Geographical Distribution 
of Arctic Plants. Report of the 
Canadian Arctic Expedition, 
1913-18, part B, vol. 5, pp. 4B- 
139B. 

Includes list of species found 
in Arctic North America with 
distribution indicated. 



1922 SWARTH, H. S. Birds and mam- 

mals of the Stikine River region 
of northern British Columbia 
and southeastern Alaska. 
Univ. of Calif. Pub. in Zool., 
Vol. 24, No. 2, pp. 125-314. 

Results of a somewhat in- 
tensive study of the fauna of 
the Stikine Valley from its 
mouth to Telegraph Creek, 
including discussion of zooge- 
ography. 

1923 DALL, WILLIAM H. Land and 

Fresh water Mollusks. Harri- 
man Alaska Expedition. Vol. 
XIII. 

List of land and fresh water 
mollusks of Mackenzie, Alaska, 
and whole northern part of 
British America. 



7. ALASKA 
BY W. H. OSGOOD 

I. GENERAL 

Alaska has an area of 590,000 sq. mi. 
or about one-fifth that of the United 
States. The main part of it lies between 
the same parallels of latitude as the 
Scandinavian Peninsula. Its shores are 
washed on the north by the Arctic Ocean 
on the west by Bering Sea, and on the 
south by the Pacific. Its coastline is 
very long and much indented, and there 
are many outlying islands. It is largely 
a mountainous region, although flat- 
lands of considerable area are found on 
its northern coast and about the deltas 
and in parts of the valleys of its larger 
rivers. In general, the mountains are 
in two series, northerly extensions of 
the main continental systems. The 
Pacific or Coast system follows the coast 
and curves southward to include the 
Aleutian Islands . The Rocky Mountain 
system, continuous from Canadian terri- 
tory, is parallel in general trend with the 
coast system but separated from it by 
a wide plateau through which course 
Alaska's two greatest rivers, the Yukon 
and the Kuskokwim. 

Notwithstanding its great area and 
its complex topographic features, in- 
cluding the highest mountains in North 
America, the greatest glaciers, and 
some of the largest rivers and forests, 



142 



NATURALIST'S GUIDE TO THE AMERICAS 



it is easily divisible into a few general 
regions in which biological conditions 
are broadly similar. At least four 
primary divisions are necessary: (1) the 
humid and relatively warm southeastern 
or Sitkan region; (2) the intermediate 
glacial region lying next to the coast 
just northwestward; (3) the wooded 
plateau and mountains of the interior, 
and (4) the treeless coast of the Arctic 
and Bering Sea. 

II. REGIONAL ACCOUNTS 

1. Southeastern region 

A. Topography. This is the so-called 
panhandle of Alaska extending from the 
British Columbian boundary to the 
vicinity of Lynn Canal and including 
a narrow strip of wholly mountainous 
coast and numerous adjacent islands, 
some of considerable size and also moun- 
tainous. The mainland is only 20 mi. 
in average width and is much dissected 
by long fjords bounded on either side by 
mountains rising sheer from the water. 
These fjords and smaller channels are 
very deep and usually navigable for large 
vessels. The mountains rise to heights 
from 5000 to 8000 ft . with timberlines from 
2000 to 3000 ft., the higher elevations 
mostly to the northward. One large navi- 
gable river, the Stikine, breaks through 
the mountain wall. In the northern part 
of the region, another river of consider- 
able size is the Taku, but although other 
streams are numerous, they are all of 
small size. At the head of some of the 
inlets and on the higher slopes are gla- 
ciers of some size, although small as 
compared to those found farther north. 
The evergreen forests, snow-crowned 
mountains and narrow waterways com- 
bine to make the region exceedingly 
picturesque. The islands of the Alex- 
ander Archipelago lie close to the main- 
land and are similar to it in character, 
but the relief is generally lower and in 
many cases the mountains are fully 
timbered. Some of the islands are 
quite large, Prince of Wales, the largest, 
being about 140 mi. long and 40 mi. wide. 

B. Climate. The climate of south- 



eastern Alaska is relatively mild and, 
in general, is similar to that of the Puget 
Sound region. In ordinary winters but 
little snow falls, and severe cold is 
almost unknown. At Sitka, the mean 
for February, the coldest month, is 33 
and for August, the warmest, it is 57.2. 
The region is subject to much rain and 
cloudy weather. At Sitka and Juneau, 
the annual precipitation is about 90 in. 
and at stations farther southeast, annual 
rainfall may be as much as 130 in. The 
greatest fall is during the months from 
September to January and the pleasant- 
est months as well as the warmest are 
May, June and July. The rains are 
usually of the soft gentle variety but 
often continuous for many days and 
nights at a time. 

C. Original biota. Vegetation: Al- 
though the region has been inhabited for 
many years and has been exploited to 
some extent, its general biological condi- 
tions are not greatly changed. The 
forests are so vast that the consumption 
of lumber for local purposes has had 
little effect and no great amount of 
exporting has yet taken place. This is 
partly due to the bringing of over 1000 
sq. mi. under federal control in the 
Tongass National Forest. The entire 
region below an altitude of 2000 ft. is 
heavily grown with coniferous forest. 
This consists of the giant cedar (Thuja] , 
which is generally distributed; the yel- 
low cedar (Chamaecyparis}, mostly scat- 
tered except in a few fine stands; the 
Sitka Spruce (Picea sitchensis} , com- 
mon throughout; the western hemlock 
(Tsuga heterophylla] , very abundant; 
the yew (Taxus vrevifolia), locally abun- 
dant; and the mountain hemlock (Tsuga 
mertensiana) , scarce and local. The 
important timber tree, the Douglas 
Spruce (Pseudotsuga'), does not occur, 
its northern limit being reached in 
British Columbia. Underbrush and her- 
baceous plants are everywhere very 
luxuriant, The principal shrubs are 
Alnus, Ribes, V actinium, Viburnum, 
Menziezia, Gaultheria, and Echinopanax. 
At higher elevations on the mountains 
is an alpine flora. 



NATURAL AREAS AND REGIONS 



143 



Animals: A characteristic large mam- 
mal is the Sitka deer, generally distrib- 
uted and very abundant except where 
reduced by market hunting. Other 
mammals are brown and black bears, 
timber wolves, beaver, otters, mink, red 
squirrels, voles, white-footed mice and 
shrews. The mountain goat is common 
on the heights of the mountains of the 
mainland, but not on the islands. 
Moose, caribou, mountain sheep, and 
typical grizzly bears do not occur in this 
part of Alaska. The sea otter, formerly 
abundant, is now practically extinct and 
is the only important element of the 
fauna of which this can be said. A 
conspicuous and characteristic bird is 
the Alaskan bald eagle, recently much 
reduced in numbers through a bounty 
directed against it. Water birds, loons, 
gulls, ducks, and shorebirds are well 
represented, and among common land 
birds are the rufous hummingbird, the 
varied thrush, sooty grouse, Steller's 
jay, northern raven, pine siskin, rusty 
song sparrow, and golden-crowned spar- 
row. Ptarmigan occur in the mainland 
mountains but only rarely on the islands. 
Fish are abundant in the waters, and 
besides several varieties of salmon, there 
are important fisheries of halibut, her- 
ring, candlefish and others. Marine 
invertebrates abound and in much 
greater variety than in similar latitudes 
on the Atlantic coast. 

D. Travel conditions. Southeastern 
Alaska is easily reached by comfortable 
steamers from Seattle, operating on 
regular schedules and calling at the 
ports of Ketchikan, Juneau and Skagway 
from which connections are often possi- 
ble with small steamers running to vari- 
ous points among the islands. Inde- 
pendent excursions are made best with 
power launches or with canoes as sailing 
is impractical on account of tidal cur- 
rents. There are no roads and few 
trails, so all but foot travel is by water. 

2. Glacial coast region 

A. Topography. This region em- 
braces the coast and seaward slopes of 
the mountains from Lynn Canal to the 



Kenai Peninsula. The dominating fea- 
ture is found in the numerous live 
glaciers debouching directly into the 
sea, and numbering nearly 200, including 
some of very large size, as the Malaspina 
Glacier which has an ice area of some 
1200 sq. mi. with a front of not less than 
60 mi. Behind these glaciers and the 
plain of some 20 mi. width on which they 
lie, rise some of the highest peaks on the 
continent, Mt. St. Elias (about 18,000 
ft.) and Mt. Logan (about 19,500 ft.), 
being the best known. The eastern 
coast is mostly icebound and forbidding, 
but there are harbors and settlements in 
Yakutat Bay and at Katalla where there 
is petroleum in Controller Bay. The 
Copper River, a very large and impor- 
tant stream, has its delta in the western 
part where the higher mountains recede 
from the coast. Beyond this is Prince 
William Sound, an irregular bay of great 
beauty with several large islands guard- 
ing its entrance and the Kenai Peninsula 
forming its western boundary. 

B. Climate. In this region, which also 
has a relatively equable but colder 
climate, there is a greater precipitation 
and more cloudy weather even than in 
southeastern Alaska. Cold mists or 
steady downpours are the rule, and 
bright fine weather is not long sus- 
tained at any season. At stations about 
Prince William Sound, the annual rain- 
fall is from 130 to 190 in. In summer, the 
temperature is moderate, usually ranging 
from 40 to 70 and scarcely reaching a 
maximum of 90; while in winter, the 
recorded minimum is 0. 

C. Biota. The biological features of 
this region are mainly negative and it 
is to some extent connectant between 
the southeastern region and the Arctic 
region. Some of the southern forms of 
life do not continue into it and others 
which were found in the south on the 
mountains, are here found coming to the 
coast. 

Vegetation : At altitudes below 1500 ft. 
where soil conditions permit, there is 
heavy forest growth largely consisting 
of Sitka Spruce (Picea sitchensis) , but 
also including giant cedar (Thuja), 



144 



NATURALIST'S GUIDE TO THE AMERICAS 



and considerable quantities of Alpine 
hemlock (Tsuga mertensiana) , Alders, 
willows, and cottonwoods also occur and 
the Devil's Club (Echinopanax) and 
some of the Salmon berries and other 
small shrubs persist in diminishing num- 
bers as one proceeds westward. In the 
eastern part of the region, these forests 
grow in close juxtaposition to the 
glaciers and are frequently uprooted and 
displaced by the slow moving ice. 
About Prince William Sound, there is con- 
siderable good forest consisting mainly, 
of Sitka Spruce and Alpine Hemlock. 
Non-arborescent alpine vegetation occu- 
pies its usual place above the coniferous, 
but in much of the heights among the 
great glaciers there are vast areas with- 
out the slightest vegetable growth, only 
rocks and ice fields. 

Animals: The Sitka deer does not ex- 
tend to the glacial region nor do any of 
the large game animals of the interior. 
The only important large mammals are 
the mountain goat, the great brown bear, 
and the black and glacier bears. The 
last is peculiar to the region but is possi- 
bly not a true species but only a color 
phase of the black bear. Small mam- 
mals are principally the red squirrel, 
meadow voles (Microtus), red-backed 
voles (Evotomys) and shrews (Sorex}. 
Birds include some Arctic types of water- 
birds, as murrelets, puffins, etc. Land 
birds include sooty grouse, ptarmigan, 
Steller's jay, northern raven, golden- 
crowned sparrow, and representative 
subspecies of the song sparrow and fox 
sparrow. There are no reptiles nor 
amphibians. 

D. Travel Conditions. Regular 
steamers from Seattle touch at Yakutat, 
Katulla, Cordova and various points in 
Prince William Sound. A railroad runs 
inward from Cordova to mines on the 
Copper River and a government trail 
for pack horses leads to the interior from 
Valdez. The government railroad to 
the interior has its terminus at Seward on 
the south side of the Kenai Peninsula. 

3. Interior region 

A. Topography. This region embraces 
the vast territory lying beyond the coast 



barrier ranges, being too irregular for 
exact measurement but probably cover- 
ing at least two-thirds of the total area of 
Alaska. It comprises mountain, plateau 
and valley. The great Yukon River 
with its important tributaries, the 
Tanana and the Koyukuk, course 
through it and three other large rivers, 
the Copper, the Sushitna and the 
Kuskokwim belong mainly to it. Be- 
tween the rivers are more or less defined 
mountain ranges, the most important 
being the so-called Alaskan Range in 
which Mt. McKinley rises to the height 
of 20,464 ft. North of the Yukon is 
another range, the Endicott Mountains, 
bordering on the Arctic Region, while 
east of the Copper River is the group 
known as the Nutzotin Mountains. 
Elsewhere there are many lower less- 
defined ranges and much rolling or 
broken relief. The principal extensive 
areas of relatively flat surface are found 
in the central Copper River valley, the 
south side of the Tanana River along the 
base of the Alaskan Range, and about 
the great bend of the Yukon where it 
touches the Arctic Circle in the region 
of the Yukon Flats. In other parts, 
level land is easily found but not in 
great uninterrupted areas. In all this 
region there are scarcely any large lakes 
although countless ponds and small 
swamps are found. The large lakes, 
Iliamna and Clark are too near the edge 
of the region to be classified as properly 
belonging to it. 

B. Climate. The climate of the in- 
terior is relatively dry with great annual 
extremes of temperature a long cold 
winter and a short hot summer. The 
annual precipitation may be no more 
than 12 in. and as much as 25 in. is 
exceptional. Much of this is in showers 
coming principally in August and 
September. Snowfall during the winter 
is not heavy and February, one of the 
coldest months, is also one of those of 
least precipitation. The summer cli- 
mate is delightful, although in certain 
seasons there may be two or three weeks 
when it is very hot. Official records, 
however, indicate that temperatures 
above 90 are very rare. From Octo- 



NATURAL AREAS AND REGIONS 



145 



her to May, there is no month in 
which temperatures below zero are not 
recorded. The minimum recorded 
is 80, and temperatures from 40 
to 60 are frequent. For the month 
of January, the mean for a typical 
northerly interior station is about 30. 
For the same station the mean for July 
would be about 65. 

C. Biota. Practically the whole re- 
gion is in virgin condition. About the 
small settlements and the few larger 
towns, the timber has been cut, but in 
comparison with the whole, these areas 
are infinitesimal. The game and es- 
pecially the fur-bearing animals, as 
beaver and marten, have been much re- 
duced in some parts, but is not seriously 
threatened while federal regulations 
are enforced. 

Vegetation: Along all watercourses 
in the interior, there is practically con- 
tinuous forest consisting of a very small 
number of species of trees, none of which 
grow to large size . The principal conifer 
is the white spruce (Picea canadensis) 
which is generally distributed, some- 
times in pure stands, but frequently 
associated with deciduous trees which 
nearly or quite equal the conifers in 
numbers. The black spruce (Picea 
mariana] is abundant, but confined 
mainly to swampy ground. These are 
the only conifers in the entire region, 
except the larch (Larix) which has been 
recorded at a few stations. The balsam 
poplar (Populus balsamifera) and the 
aspen (Populus tremuloides) are the 
common deciduous trees, but the paper 
birch (Betula papyrifera) is numerous. 
Alders and willows also are abundant. 
This forest usually extends only a short 
distance away from the water courses 
and the small divides are but sparsely 
timbered and especially to the north- 
ward the timber is restricted to a thin 
line of trees on the actual banks of the 
rivers. In the mountains, timber as- 
cends to 1500 ft. or more in central 
Alaska and gradually drops down as it 
goes northward until finally it dwindles 
to its limit at practical sea-level. The 
areas above timber have Alpine floras 



including plants not found in the low- 
lands and these areas gradually merge 
with the Arctic tundra. 

Animals: Large mammals include the 
moose, caribou, white mountain sheep, 
grizzly bear, black bear, lynx, gray wolf, 
red fox, marten, mink, weasel, wolverine. 
Small mammals are mostly Palaearctic 
types, as voles (Microtus, Evotomys, 
Synaptomys), lemmings (Lemmus) and 
ground squirrels (Citellus}. The num- 
ber of species is small, but individuals 
are often excessively abundant. The 
birds, likewise, are largely of genera and 
frequently of species which have a 
transcontinental range from Labrador to 
Alaska. They include as breeders the 
common ducks, geese and shorebirds 
which pass through the United States 
as migrants. Northern forms of the 
ruffed grouse and the Canada grouse 
are generally distributed and smaller 
birds include Canada jay, three-toed 
woodpecker, pine siskin, slate-colored 
junco, fox sparrow, hermit thrush, and 
robin. The fauna is almost entirely 
distinct from that of the coast region 
although in one place (Cook Inlet), the 
interior fauna extends to the coast. 

D. Travel conditions. The interior is 
accessible by regular rail and steamship 
transportation from three principal 
points. From Skagway, there is rail 
connection with navigable waters of the 
upper Yukon in Canadian territory 
whence the whole Yukon system can be 
traversed. From Cordova, by rail, and 
from Valdez, by government trail, the 
Copper River valley is reached. From 
Seward on the Kenai Peninsula there is 
rail connection with Fairbanks and the 
Tanana Valley. 

Flat-bottomed river steamers ply on 
the Yukon and at least to certain points 
on its larger tributaries. Canoe travel 
is largely practiced, and for downstream 
work, rafts and roughly made wooden 
boats are successful. There are some 
trails, but no roads, and overland travel 
in summer is done with horses or on foot 
with Indian packers who are available 
in some places. Winter travel is by 
dog sled and, aside from other considera- 



146 



NATURALIST'S GUIDE TO THE AMERICAS 



tions, this method is preferred for con- 
venience, economy and speed. 

4. Arctic coast region 

A. Topography. This is the treeless 
coast region of northern and western 
Alaska, including the Alaska Peninsula 
and the Aleutian Islands which, at least 
biologically, belong with it. For practi- 
cal purposes, it may be denned on the 
east and south by the irregular line 
formed by the extreme limit of tree 
growth, but its general conditions ex- 
tend, with interruptions, throughout 
much of the interior region in the ele- 
vated areas above timber and in scat- 
tered parts of the interior lowlands 
which, for local reasons, are without 
trees. It is flat or slightly rolling 
ground, including the deltas of the 
Yukon, Kuskokwim, Kobuk and some 
other rivers of fair size. Elsewhere it 
is traversed by small meandering 
streams and dotted with lagoons and 
small ponds. Its average width is 
scarcely more than 100 mi., but in the 
north it is continuous with treeless 
mountains which lie between it and the 
timbered interior. The Alaska Penin- 
sula and Aleutian Islands consist largely 
of volcanic mountains. 

B. Climate. From the Arctic coast 
at Point Barrow to the Aleutian Islands, 
there is considerable range in climatic 
conditions. The Arctic coast proper is 
not so warm in summer and not so cold 
in winter as the interior forested region. 
The maximum for July and August is 
about 65 and the minimum for January 
and February is about 55. Neverthe- 
less, nearly every month in the year may 
be subject to light frost, and in early 
June or late August frost is usual. 
Temperatures on the coast of Bering 
Sea average somewhat higher, and on 
the Alaska Peninsula and the Aleutian 
Islands they never go to extremes. 
Nevertheless, the means for the four 
warmest months, effective in controlling 



the distribution of life, are substantially 
the same at Unalaska in the Aleutian 
Islands and at St. Michael on the cen- 
tral coast of Bering Sea. 

The precipitation on the Arctic coast 
is the least of any part of Alaska, averag- 
ing only 6 to 8 in. per annum, almost 
comparable to that of a desert region. 
The Bering Sea coast has more, 20 to 30 
in., and the Aleutian Islands still more, 
perhaps 80 in., and more rainy daj^s 
(250) than any other part of the terri- 
tory. 

C. Biota. Vegetation: Although en- 
tirely non-arborescent and including 
relatively few species, the vegetation is 
profuse. It forms a thick continuous 
mat over the surface of the ground, in- 
cluding depauperate willows, Vaccinium, 
Cassiope, Ledum, Arctos, Dryas, and 
Empetrum. With these are mixed a few 
grasses and sedges and various mosses 
and lichens. There are many saxifrages 
and bright flowered poppies and butter- 
cups. 

Animals: The animals are strictly 
Arctic types. Mammals include the 
Arctic fox, wolverine, weasel, polar 
bear, barren-ground caribou, lemming, 
Arctic hare, walrus, and various seals. 
The birds comprise many migrating 
shorebirds, ducks and geese, including 
the eider ducks. Ptarmigan are gen- 
erally distributed, and small land birds 
are reduced to few species, as snow 
bunting, redpolls, and longspurs. The 
invertebrate marine fauna is Arctic in 
character, but quite varied and em- 
braces at least 200 species. 

D. Travel conditions. Regular steamers 
during the summer season from June to 
September run to Unalaska and Nome. 
Yukon River steamers also come to the 
coast at St. Michael, but the Arctic 
coast northward is reached only by 
chartered vessel or by special arrange- 
ment with a trading or whaling ship or 
with the government revenue cutter 
which makes one trip per annum to 
Point Barrow. 



NATURAL AREAS AND REGIONS 



147 



8. THE NATIONAL FORESTS OF THE 
ALASKAN DISTRICT 

BY JOHN D. GUTHRIE 

Although there are over 20,000,000 
acres of National Forest land within the 
Alaskan District, it is at present divided 
between only two National Forests, the 
Tongass and the Chugach. 

*TONGASS NATIONAL FOREST 

Area 15,443,000 acres of coniferous 
forest, in southeastern Alaska, con- 
sisting of a bewildering assortment of 
islands, surrounded by channels, straits, 
canals and bays. These islands vary 
from those containing thousands of 
acres, whose interiors have never been 
explored, much less surveyed and map- 
ped, such as Prince of Wales, Baranoff, 
Chicagof, down to mere green specks 
projecting above high tide. Generally 
speaking, the land rises abruptly from 
the water's edge up to elevations of 
several thousand feet, timber line being 
approximately at 2000 ft. and the 
heaviest stands of timber being found 
near sea level. The country is charac- 
terized by a very heavy rainfall but with 
general climatic conditions similar to 
the Puget Sound region. The forest 
consists of approximately 60% western 
hemlock (Tsugaheterophylla'), 20% Sitka 
spruce (Picea sitchensis), the other 20% 
being made up of western red cedar, 
(Thuja plicata}, yellow cypress (Chamae- 
cyparis nootkatensis} , some lodgepole 
pine (Pinuscontorta] and a small amount 
of cottonwood and white birch (Betula 
alaskana) . There are glacier-fed lakes on 
these islands, the outlets of which drop 
in many cases almost precipitously into 
the sea. The higher peaks are usually 
snow covered from about October until 
May; the lower elevations in the forest, 
however, have a comparatively light 
snowfall. Navigation is open through- 
out the year. The conditions prevailing 
on the Tongass Forest, located as it is 
in extreme southeastern Alaska, must 
not be confused with conditions to be 
found elsewhere within Alaska. The 



region is one of great interest to the 
ecologist, to scientists generally, and 
to travelers. Copper mines, canneries 
(salmon, shrimp, crab, etc.), lumbering 
operations, whaling stations, totem 
poles, water power plants, marble quar- 
ries, are abundant and are of extreme 
interest in addition to the very large 
number of readily accessible glaciers 
as well as the interesting relics of the 
Russian occupation and of the earlier 
Indian inhabitants. The surface condi- 
tions of the Tongass region are charac- 
terized by abundant rock, with little 
or no soil but a vast amount of moss and 
very heavy undergrowth, with a very 
dense stand of coniferous forest with 
swamps or muskegs on bench lands. 
Magnificent scenery characterizes this 
entire "pan handle" of Alaska. 

The forest is reached by regular boat 
lines from Seattle and Prince Rupert 
and has a number of thriving towns in 
which comfortable hotel accommoda- 
tions can be found. Supervisor's head- 
quarters at Ketchikan.f 

*CHUGACH NATIONAL FOREST 

Area 5,129,544 acres, lying in the 
Prince William Sound, Cook Inlet and 
Kenai Peninsula. This forest has not the 
timber resources of the Tongass and is 
broken up into several distinct units. 
Its forest types are practically the same 
as found on the Tongass although the 
climatic conditions are somewhat differ- 
ent. The rainfall, however, is some- 
what less. On the northern edge of the 
Chugach are found several species which 
do not occur on the Tongass namely, 
white spruce (Picea canadensis) , black 
spruce (Picea mariana) and white birch, 
species characteristic of the great in- 
terior basins of Alaska. Scenically, 
the Chugach is characterized by tre- 
mendous mountain masses, glaciers, 
large rivers, many lakes and especially 
on the Kenai Peninsula abundant big 
game. 

The Chugach Forest is reached by 
regular steamers from either Seattle or 
Prince Rupert and its principal towns 
are Cordova, | Sewardf and Anchorage. { 



148 



NATURALIST'S GUIDE TO THE AMERICAS 



The new government railroad also 
traverses a portion of the Forest. Su- 
pervisor's headquarters at Cordova. J 

*MOUNT MCKINLEY NATIONAL PARK 

Situated in South Central Alaska. 
Reached from the Cook Inlet country. 
Area 2200 sq. mi. A snow-clad 
mountain 20,300 ft. high, rising from 
a rolling plateau peopled with cari- 
bou and mountain sheep. Glaciers 
on southern and eastern slopes. North 
and west sides drop abruptly to 
grassy valleys only 3000 ft. in altitude. 
Park created principally to protect 
wild animals. 

The park includes treeless plateaus 
rich in mosses and grasses, and fertile 
valleys rich in flowers. 

For more complete information apply 
to director of National Park Service, 
Washington, D. C., or to Chamber of 
Commerce, Seattle, Wash. G. B. Rigg. 

*THE KATMAI NATIONAL MONUMENT 

More than a million acres at the base 
of the Alaska peninsula, largely devasted 
by the eruption of 1912, presenting un- 
paralleled opportunity for study of 
colonization of volcanic areas by plants 
and animals (a) the invasion of ordinary 
pumice plains at air temperature, (6) 
colonization of hot deposits around 
fumaroles. 

Around the devasted areas are many 
square miles of undisturbed country. 

The reservation is located at the 
geographical edge of the forest. Such 
animals as the moose, elk, lynx and wolf 
reach the edge of their range in this 
district. The northern end of the park 
is heavily covered with a forest domi- 
nated by white spruce (Picea canadensis) , 
with alder, birch, poplar and willow as 
subordinate trees. Beyond the forest 
is typical tundra. 

It is a lake country with several large 
and very deep lakes and many small 
ponds and swamps. These are the 
breeding grounds of innumerable water- 
fowl such as ducks, geese, swans, 
gulls, cormorants, and so forth. The 
lakes are among the most famous 



spawning grounds for sockeye salmon 
in the world. 

Reached at present either from 
Kodiak, 100 mi. southeast, or from 
Naknek, 75 mi. northwest. 

At present it is necessary to outfit 
one's own expedition, which involves 
considerable expense. The whole coun- 
try can, however, be made readily 
accessible by the construction of about 
60 mi. of automobile road from Geo- 
graphic Harbor, which lies in the middle 
of the reservation at the head of Ama- 
lik Bay. Robert F. Griggs. 

AVAILABLE AREAS 

The Copper River Valley (available). 
Including Arctican and Alpine lands, ice 
fields, lakes, ponds, streams, conifer 
forest, inland from the rivers. One 
finds active and decadent glacier 
tongues, new made lands and all stages 
of incoming vegetation from that to the 
fully established conditions. Most of 
the large game is gone. Lake Klutina 
region has splendid beaver colonies. 
We put a canoe over 20 beaver dams in 
one-half day. The Copper Valley is 
easily reached from Cordova by the 
Copper River and Northwestern Rail- 
way. This line runs along the coastal 
plain 30,1m. east from Cordova, follows 
the river north with frequent crossings 
to Chitina and then a branch river of 
the same name to the east 60 mi. to 
Kennicott. Stops can be made almost 
anywhere. Henry B. Ward. 

Glacier Bay\ p. Many-branched fjord 
60 mi. long, surrounded by lofty ice- 
covered mountains. Nine tidewater 
glaciers discharging icebergs (the Muir 
being the largest) and hundreds of 
others. Extensive areas laid bare by 
retreat of ice, the history of which is 
accurately known ; every stage in plant 
succession from pioneers through alder 
thicket to spruce-hemlock forest; also 
areas of very old forest which antedate 
last glacial advance. Valuable relics 
(stumps, trunks, lower vegetation) of 
interglacial forest exposed by erosion 
of gravels. Subarctic fauna well de- 
veloped: goat, bear, ptarmigan; abun- 
dant salmon in streams. ' See John Muir : 
Travels in Alaska. 

JuneauJlf, 70 mi. west, gas-boat. 
William S. Cooper. 

Holkham Bay. Typical narrow fiord, 
with two branches, Endicott Arm and 
Tracy Arm, each 25 mi. long and termi- 
nated by glaciers discharging icebergs. 
Mountains 600 ft. high immediately 



NATURAL AREAS AND REGIONS 



149 



adjacent; many fine waterfalls. Ford's 
Terror, a branch of Endicott Arm, five 
miles long, a quarter-mile wide, with 
entrance 300 ft. wide; at its head a 
glacier, recently tidal, now ending on 
land, also several fine cataracts. Shores 
of lower bay densely clothed with 
spruce-hemlock forest; upper portions, 
especially Ford's Terror, show all 
successipnal stages. See John Muir: 
Travels in Alaska, chapter on "Sum Dum 
Bay." 

JuneautlF, 45 mi. south, gas-boat. 
William S. Cooper. 

Knyg Lake. Lake, H nii. long, mi. 
wide, draining into Stikine River by 
outlet stream 3 mi. long; surrounded by 
cliffs 3000 ft. high, with several water- 
falls; a glacier enters upper end and dis- 
charges very large icebergs. All stages 
in plant succession following glacial 
retreat; fine display of wild flowers 
around lower end in early summer. 
Along outlet stream may be seen all 
stages of flood-plain succession, from 
willow-cottonwood. through alder 
thicket to spruce-nemlock forest. 

WrangellJ IT, 25 mi. up Stikine River, 



gas-boat and row-boat. William S. 
Cooper. 

BIBLIOGRAPHY 

Cooper, W. S. The recent ecological 
history of Glacier Bay, Alaska. I. 
The interglacial forests of Glacier 
Bay. Ecology, Vol. 4, pp. 93-128, 
1923. II. The present vegetation 
cycle, Ecology, Vol. 4, pp. 223-245. 
III. Permanent quadrants at Glacier 
Bay : An initial report upon a long- 
study period. Ecology, Vol. 4, 
pp. 355-365, 1923. (The first paper 
cites papers dealing with the geology 
of the Glacier Bay region.) 

Dice, L. R. The land vertebrate com- 
munities of Interior Alaska. Univ. 
of Mich., occ. papers Mus. Zool., 
no. 86, 1920. 

Osgood, W. H. 1909 Biological in- 
vestigations in Alaska and Yukon 
Territory (North American Fauna 
No. 30, 96 pages). I. East Central 
Alaska; II. The Ogilvie Range, 
Yukon; III. The MacMillan River, 
Yukon. With special reference to 
explorations made in 1903 and 1904. 



Section 2. Southern Canada and the United States 

A. States, Provinces and Forest Districts, Chiefly Coniferous Forest 



Few or none of the states or provinces 
are covered exclusively by coniferous 
forest, and classification is accordingly 
difficult on any basis. Several types of 
coniferous forest are included; northern, 
northwestern mesophytic, southwestern 
xerophytic, and the montane of the 
Rockies, Sierras, and Cascades. In 
addition to coniferous forests Idaho, 
Oregon, and California include a desert, 
sage brush, semi-desert, grassland, and 
considerable areas above timber line; 
Washington and British Columbia, sage- 
brush, semi-desert, and grassland, and 
large areas above timber line, Alberta, 
Saskatchewan, Manitoba, and Minne- 
sota include popular savanna, and 
steppe; Ontario, deciduous forest and 
tundra; Quebec, tundra. The state, 
national, provincial, and dominion for- 
ests included in this section are almost 
entirely coniferous. V. E. S. 

1. BRITISH COLUMBIA 1 

BY JOHN DAVIDSON, P. Z. CAVERHILL, 

EDWARD A. PREBLE AND A. H. 

HUTCHINSON 

I. GENERAL CONDITIONS (P. Z. C.) 

A. TOPOGRAPHY 

British Columbia occupies the north- 
central portion of the Pacific slope of 
North America, which is regarded as the 
greatest forest region of the continent 
and the greatest coniferous forest of the 
world. The Province is a quadrangle 
about 760 mi. long and 470 mi. wide. It 
extends from the 49th to the 60th 
parallels of latitude and from the crest 
of the Rocky Mountains westward to 

1 Where there was no cooperation between the 
authors their names are given in the order of the 
receipt of their manuscripts and parts written by 
each are indicated in the body of the text. 



the Pacific. Its eastern boundary fol- 
lows the axis of the Rockies north from 
49 to 54, and from there to latitude 60 
it follows longitude 120. On the west 
between latitudes 55 and 60 it is shut 
off from the Coast by the long narrow 
strip sometimes called the "Pan-handle" 
of Alaska. 

The topography is prevailingly moun- 
tainous except in the northeast corner, 
which includes a triangular area of the 
eastern foot-hills and the great plains 
east of the Rocky Mountains. The 
main physiographic features are the 
series of parallel mountain ranges and 
intermontane trenches or valleys which 
extend with a general northwest trend 
along both the east and west sides of the 
Province, separated by a central belt of 
plateau and minor mountain ranges. 

The Rocky Mountains on the east are 
the northern end of the Cordilleran belt 
which forms the backbone of the con- 
tinent from Mexico to Alaska. It con- 
sists of the upturned edges of the strata 
underlying the Great Plains on the east, 
chiefly alluvial and carboniferous lime- 
stone. In the southern half of the 
Province the average height of the peaks 
is around 8000 ft., and the higher peaks 
range from 10,000 to 13,500 ft.; north- 
ward the mountains become progres- 
sively lower. The average width of the 
range is 60 mi. 

Along the western base of the Rockies 
is the Rocky Mountain trench, a large 
U-shaped trough from 2 to 15 mi. wide, 
extending 900 mi. through the whole 
length of the Province. 

Forming the western rim of the trench 
is the Columbia system of mountains ex- 
tending from the United States bound- 
ary north to the Fraser River, latitude 
53 45', with an average width of 80 mi. 



150 




FIG. 8. GRASSLANDS OF BRITISH COLUMBIA 



NATURAL AREAS AND REGIONS 



151 



In the south it includes the Purcell and 
the Selkirk Trenches, each of which is 
threaded by large rivers and lakes 
North of these are the Cariboo Range, 
the Peace and the Stikine Mountains. 
Geologically the Columbia system repre- 
sents an earlier upheaval and is formed 
of an entirely different series of rocks 
than the Rockies. The average height 
is almost that of the Rockies. 

Within the Rocky Mountain Trench is 
found the headwaters of most of our im- 
portant river systems. The Kootenay, 
Columbia, Fraser; the Parsnip, and 
Finlay, which unite to form the Peace; 
and the Kachika and Frances, which 
form (with the Dease) the Liard, either 
rise in or flow for some distance through 
this trench. These streams are mostly 
glacier-fed and therefore subject to 
rapid variations in run-off, while their 
tributaries flowing from the stepper 
side-valleys are turbulent mountain 
torrents. These systems, therefore, 
are not important for log transporta- 
tion except when diverted and used in 
conjunction with log flumes. In the 
lower courses, however, numerous lake 
expansions become of prime importance 
for transportation. 

The central regions of the plateau and 
low mountains, 200 mi. wide, merge into 
the Columbia and Rocky Mountain sys- 
tems on the east and Coast Mountains 
on the west. Originally it was a table- 
land elevated about 3500 ft. above sea- 
level, but it has been so dissected and 
eroded that from the valley-bottoms it 
now appears mountainous. Much of the 
soil is composed of disintegrated lava, 
which once overflowed large areas, and 
glacial drift. This plateau is largely 
drained by the central portion of the 
Fraser River system. The Skeena and 
Stikine Rivers drain the northern sec- 
tion, while the south-eastern section is 
drained by the Okanagan and Kettle 
Rivers. The characteristic topography 
is of two types: First, the deep-cut U- 
shaped valleys with elevation ranging 
from, 1000 to 2000 ft. above sea-level and 
occupying one-third of the area; second, 



the rolling upland plateau, 3500 to 5000 
ft. in elevation, dissected with V-shaped 
valleys where the rivers debouch from 
the uplands into the main valleys. The 
plateau is generally found covered with 
glacial drift, while the valleys show dis- 
tinct evidence of glaciation. The fauna 
and flora of the greater part of this 
region resembles closely that of the 
interior of Canada to the eastward and 
is discussed in connection with that 
area. (See pp. 288, 293.) 

The coast range forms a barrier between 
the Interior Plateau and the ocean, 6000 
to 7000 ft. high and averaging about 100 
mi. in width. The mountains are com- 
posed of massive crystalline rocks of 
an ancient period. Lying to the west of 
the Mainland is a partially submerged 
mountain range the Island Range or 
insular system now represented by an 
archipelago of islands, of which Van- 
couver and Queen Charlotte are the 
largest. Between this system and the 
Mainland is the deep submerged Coastal 
Trench. 

The Coastal Trench, like the Rocky 
Mountain Trench, extends the entire 
length of the Province. It was formerly 
a land trench and still appears as such 
south from Puget Sound. Pre-glacial 
submergence, however,, sunk the main 
trench and the lower reaches of its tribu- 
tary valleys far below sea-level, thus 
forming that remarkable system of 
straits and fiords which penetrate into 
the very heart of the Coast Range and 
which characterizes the British Colum- 
bia Coast.. Twelve per cent of produc- 
tive timber area of the Province, con- 
taining 65 per cent of the standing 
timber, is tributary to this trench, which 
becomes of the greatest economic im- 
portance because these submerged val- 
leys form navigable sheltered waterways 
for the transportation of this timber to 
mills. Eighty per cent of the timber 
cut of the Province is derived from tim- 
ber tributary to the Coast Trench. 

During the glacial period the whole 
Province, except the highest peaks, was 
covered by a continuous ice-sheet. The 



152 



NATURALIST'S GUIDE TO THE AMERICAS 



glaciation and subsequent stream ero- 
sion has considerably modified the 
topography. Valleys were enlarged and 
lowered, soil deposited, and lakes formed 
all matters of importance to forestry, 
agriculture, and transportation today. 
The soil is largely formed of these 
deposits of glacial drift. It is estimated 
that of the total area about 47 per cent 
is suitable for agriculture, grazing or 
the production of timber, while 53 per 
cent is above merchantable timber-line, 
is water surface or swamp land, or is 
incapable of growing timber of any com- 
mercial value on account of ruggedness. 

B. CLIMATE 

The chief factors for consideration in 
relation to climate area: Influence of 
Japan Current; the 11 degrees of latitude 
through which the Province extends; the 
extremes of altitude from sea level to 
13,500 feet (Mount Robson). 

The principal topographic features 
have a general trend at right angles to 
the prevailing winds. Warm moisture- 
laden air-currents sweep inland from 
across the Japan Current, to be chilled 
as they ascend the western slope of the 
mountain ranges and are forced to 
deposit their moisture. As they cross 
the summit to the warm eastern slope 
they become comparatively dry, to be 
again chilled as they cross the next 
range. The result is alternating wet and 
dry belts, the wet belts occurring again 
and again on the main Rockies, while 
the Interior plateau and the east slope 
of the Selkirks are comparatively dry. 
These winds also moderate extremes of 
temperature. The main climatic re- 
gions are as below: 

Lower Coast Belt. Characterized by 
mild, even temperature and a variation 
of only 30 between summer and winter 
mean. The summer isotherm on which 
the region is situated would pass through 
Quebec, Edinburgh, and Southern 
Norway; the winter through New York 
and London. The precipitation aver- 
ages 60 to 70 in., of which one third 



occurs during the summer season; the 
record of bright sunshine averaging 
about 2000 hours per year. 

North Coast Belt. Averages some 5 
lower in mean temperature throughout 
the year and has an increased precipita- 
tion, this being 110 in., one-quarter of 
which falls during the summer season. 
A part of the winter precipitation falls 
in the form of snow. 

Interior Plateau or Dry Belt. Charac- 
terized by greater variations of tempera- 
ture and a relatively limited precipita- 
tion. Typical Stations show: 



STATION 


MEAN JANUARY 
TEMPERATURE 




tf 

g 

gg 

n p, 
55 S 

< w 

W H 

a 


& 
o 

ll 

U 

inches 
11 
11 

15 


Penticton 


degrees 

26 
22 
14 


degrees 

67 
69 
62 


Kamloops 


Quesnel 





This region is on the same isotherm as 
Toronto and Central Europe, Warsaw, 
during January; New York or Paris 
during July. The record of bright sun- 
shine is 200 and 2200 hrs. 

Second Wet Belt. This has relatively 
the same temperature range as the Dry 
Belt, but greater precipitation. 





gg 


8 


o 











STATION 


< w 


II 


rh ^ 




5 S 

* H 






S M 




W^ 


w ^ 






8 


s 


< 




degrees 


degrees 


inches 


Nelson 


25 


66 


27 


Revelstoke 


20 


64 


43 


Barkerville 


18 


57 


35 


Glacier 


14 


52 


60 











The first two stations are valley sta- 
tions and the last two hill stations; the 
elevation of Barkerville being 4180 ft. 
and Glacier 3778 ft. 

Second or Columbia Dry Belt. This 



NATURAL AREAS AND REGIONS 



153 



forms the western rim of the Rocky 
Mountain Trench: 





MS 


H 


g 




p 


p 


^ 






&H 


2 


STATION 


fc 


II 


i 

O w 












II 


58 

W H 


s 




a 


1 






degrees 


degrees 


inches 


Cranbrook 


18 


62 


16 


Wilmer 


12 


62 


13 


Golden 


12 


64 


17 





Northern Belt. This is subject 
to greater extremes, but less data are 
available. Liard varies from 40 to 
50 below zero during extreme winter 
weather to 90 and above, during the 
summer. These periods, however, are 
of short duration, and generally it may 
be stated that this region is in the same 
isotherm as Quebec or Central European 
Russia during January and that of 
Edinburgh or Christiana, Norway, dur- 
ing summer. The precipitation is from 
16 to 20 in., nearly half of which falls 
during the growing season. 

II. ORIGINAL BIOTA 

A. NORTHWESTERN MOIST CONIFEROUS 
FOREST (COAST FORESTS) 

1. General 

The coast forests are characterized by 
the giant size of the trees. These tower 
200 to 300 ft. high and often reach 25 to 
30 ft. in girth. The underbrush consists 
chiefly of salal (Gaultheria shallon), in 
drier situations, especially in Douglas 
fir (Pseudotsuga taxifolia), with devil- 
club (Echinopanaxhorridum), and salmon 
berry (Rubus spectabilis} in the lower 
and wetter situations. P. Z. C. 

Here the humid atmosphere favors a 
luxuriant growth of ferns including 
sword fern (Polystichum munitwri), 
maiden hair fern (Adiantum pedatum), 
oak fern (Phegopteris dryopteris), the 
latter often carpeting large areas of the 
forest floor; while the western polypody 
(Polypodium vulgare, var. occidentale) , 
clothes the large trunks and branches 
of the soft maples (Acer macrophyllum) . 
The combined effect of these ferns, to- 



gether with an abundance of mosses and 
lichens hanging in festoons from the 
branches, is to impart to the coast forest 
a close resemblance to a tropical jungle. 

Near the margin of such an environ- 
ment the cascara tree (Rhamnus pur- 
shiana), is found at its best. The bark 
of this tree is the Cascara Sagrada of 
commerce, and in recent years British 
Columbia has been called on to furnish a 
very large proportion of the world's 
needs of this valuable medicine. /. D. 

Mammals and birds 2 E. A. P. The 
mammals include the coast long-tailed 
shrew (Sorex obscurus longicauda] ; 
Rhoads deer-mouse (Peromyscus manicu- 
latus macrophinus) northerly; Bangs 
deer-mouse (P. m. oreas) southerly; 
Wrangell lernming-vole (Synaptomys 
borealis wrangeli) northerly; Wrangell 
red-backed vole (Evotomys wrangeli} 
northerly; coast red-backed vole (Evot- 
omys caurinus] southerly; long-tailed 
vole (Microtus mordax macrurus), Sitka 
deer (Odocoileus columbianus sitkensis) ; 
elk (Cervus canadensis roosevelti] south- 
erly; black bear (Ursus americanus). 
The so-called white bear (Ursus ker- 
modei} from Gribble Island, is probably 
only an instance of albinism. Several 
forms of brown and grizzly bears (Ursus 
chelidonias, U. atnarko, U. quakiutl, U. 
warburtoni, and U. pervagor) are de- 
scribed from the coast forests, but their 
ranges are not well defined. The 
northwest wolf (Canis occidentalis gigas}, 
preys on the deer. The northwest coast 
skunk (Mephitis o. spissigrada] , and the 
Pacific raccoon (Procyon psora pacified}, 
and the British Columbia Seweelek 
(Apoldontia v. columbiana) , extend only 
a short distance northward along the 
coast; while the British Columbia mink 
(Mustela v. energumenos} , and the north- 
west marten (Martes a. caurina} range 
farther north and into the interior. 

B'f ds more or less characteristic of the 
crast forests include the following: 
Sika grouse, red-breasted sapsucker, 
Oregon junco, lutescent warbler, Stellers 
jay, Townsend's warbler, piliolated 
warbler, chestnut-backed chickadee, 
russet-backed thrush, varied thrush. 

* See page 181 (Oregon) for note on Mollusc*. 



154 



NATURALIST'S GUIDE TO THE AMERICAS 



The northwest painted turtle 
(Chrysemys marginiata belli}, and the 
northwest garter snake (Thamnophis 
sirtalis concinnus}, inhabit southeastern 
British Columbia near the coast. 

2. Forest types (P. Z. C.) 

The climatic factors previously de- 
scribed largely determine the main forest 
types, of which a brief description fol- 
lows : 

a. Lower coast or Douglas fir-cedar type. 
This is the prevalent type at the lower 
altitude in southern, eastern, and 
central portions of Vancouver Island 
and along the Mainland and adjacent 
islands to Knight Inlet. In general it 
may be said that this type occurs in 
sections where the annual precipitation 
is less than 75 in., reaching its best 
development when precipitation is be- 
tween 50 and 60 in. The type extends 
from sea-level up to 2000 ft. and occa- 
sionally to 3000 ft. This is one of our 
chief commercial types. Stands of 
50,000 ft. B.M. per acre extend over 
large areas and sometimes stands reach 
200,000 or even 300,000 ft. B.M. per acre. 
Typical stands show in south and east 
Vancouver Island: Douglas fir 70%; 
giant cedar (Thuja plicata} 17%; western 
hemlock (Tsuga heterophylla} 6%; and 
white fir or "balsam" (Abies amabilis} 
2%. Other species, including western 
white pine (Pinus monticola}, Sitka- 
spruce, etc., 5%. 

b. Giant cedar-hemlock type. This 
type occupies a zone immediately above 
or just north of the lower coast type. 
The mean temperature is slightly lower 
and rainfall heavier, ranging from 90 
to 100 in., where optimum growth is 
obtained. This type centres around 
Broughton Island, Smith and Seymour 
Inlets, but also extends down the Coast 
where it forms a belt above the Douglas 
fir-cedar type up to an elevation of some- 
times 4000 ft. Commercially giant 
cedar is the most important species 
and forms the principal part of the stand. 
Associated therewith are western hem- 
lock, white fir, sitka spruce and yellow 
cypress (Chamaecyparis nootkatensis) . 
The species run in percentages: 



Giant cedar 60%; western hemlock 
22%; white fir 11%; sitka spruce (Picea 
sitchensis) 4%; others 3% at Seymour 
Inlet; while typical stands on slopes at 
Capilano give 31,000 ft. per acre; giant 
cedar 57%; western hemlock 17%; white 
fir 9%; Douglas fir 8%; yellow cedar 
(Chamaecyparis nootkatensis} 8%; and 
western white pine (Pinus monticola) 1%. 

c. Western hemlock-sitka spruce type. 
This type centres on Queen Charlotte 
Islands where Sitka spruce attains its 
maximum growth. On the Mainland 
the type occupies the lower slopes of the 
North Coast and especially the valley- 
bottoms, being found in isolated stands 
at the head of inlets as far south as 
Vancouver. 

The temperature averages 5 colder 
than in the Douglas fir type and rain- 
fall varies from 45 to 120 in. On the 
Queen Charlottes, where the best spruce 
is found, the rainfall averages 52 in. 
In this type hemlock represents 25 to 
40% of the stand. Sitka spruce averages 
about 30%, associated species being 
giant cedar, yellow cypress and white 
fir, except on Queen Charlotte Islands 
where white fir is not found. 

d. Hemlock-white fir type. This type 
occupies the more exposed sites and 
higher altitudes. It is the prevailing 
type on Vancouver Island around 
Quatsino Sound and generally extends 
in a belt along western slopes just 
below the sub-alpine type reaching 
an elevation of 4000 ft. on the lower 
coast. The species are chiefly western 
hemlock and white fir. Associated with 
these, however, are Sitka spruce, giant 
cedar and lodgepole pine (Pinus con- 
torta}. Typical stands of this type run 
at Quatsino Sound: hemlock 50%; white 
fir 23%; giant cedar 17%; sitka spruce 
10%. At Kitimat, at an elevation of 
1700 ft: hemlock 60%; white fir 39%; 
the stand averaging 2,000 to 15,000 ft. 
B.M. per acre. On the Naas River 
this is the prevailing type. Species 
represented are: hemlock 45% or over; 
white fir 15 to 20%; sitka spruce 15 to 
30%, giant cedar 2 to 15%. Stands 
average 15,000 to 20,000 ft. per acre, 
reaching 40,000 to 50,000 ft. per acre. 



NATURAL AREAS AND REGIONS 



155 



Above the hemlock-white fir type and 
below cold timber-line is the sub-alpine 
type of no commercial value, the species 
consisting of mountain hemlock (Tsuga 
Mertensiana), alpine fir (Abies lasio- 
carpa), lodgepole pine, and with some 
spruce and western hemlock. As a 
rule a considerable portion of this type is 
treeless and tundra in character, the 
soil being wet and covered with a thick 
growth of moss. 

B. TEMPERATE SEMI-DESERT BROKEN AND 
BUSH COVERED GRASSLAND (DRY- 
BELT) (J. D.) 

1. General 

The semi-desert regions of British 
Columbia are characterized by the 
scarcity or absence of trees and the pre- 
dominance of sagebrush (Artemisia 
tridentala and A. frigida} ; rayless golden 
rod (Bigelovia dracunculoides}', balsam 
root (Balsamorhiza sagittata) ; and other 
white-pubescent xerophytic plants. 
(For a discussion of grasses, etc., see 
page 156.) 

There are three main drybelt regions: 
(1) the Columbia-Kootenay semi-arid 
area, in the valley between the Rocky 
Mountains and the Purcell Range, com- 
prising the Windermere Valley and the 
region to the south; (2) the Okanagan- 
Similkameen area; between the Gold 
Range and the Cascade or Coast Range ; 
(3) The Fraser area including the 
Thompson Valley, extending north 
through the Interior plateau to latitude 
53. In each of these areas may be 
found noteworthy variations in the 
flora which may be summarized by se- 
lecting two characteristic drybelt genera 
Purshia tridentata (locally known as 
"Greasewood")? and Opuntia poly a- 
cantha, (Cactus) and noting their 
distribution: 



AREAS 


PURSHIA 


OPUNTIA 


1. Columbia. 
Kootenay 
2. Okanagan- 
Similkameen.. . 
3. Fraser- 
Thompson 


Present 
Present 
Absent 


Absent 
Present 
Present 



As Purshia is one of the characteristic 
members of the Sonoran life zone, it is 
interesting to note its presence in the 
southern valleys which ultimately drain 
into the Columbia River. 

Taken as a whole, the semi-desert 
flora is found only in the valleys and 
adjacent benches; although Artemisia 
tridentata is most frequently given as 
the characteristic sage brush, Artemisia 
frigida is the species most widely dis- 
tributed in the drybelt regions of this 
Province. Where Artemisia tridentata 
is found, the Cactus (Opuntia polya- 
cantha var. borealis) is usually very 
prolific. Associated with these may 
be found large clumps of milkweed 
(Asclepias speciosa), and stickweed 
(Mentzelia laevicaulis ) . 

The flora of such a region in spring and 
early summer differs greatly from that 
found later in the year. For a short 
season after the melting of the winter's 
snow, when the soil is warm and moist, 
the desert region is ablaze with many 
annuals and perennials which send up 
their flowers and hurry through with 
the production and dispersal of seeds 
before the soil becomes hot and dry. 
Spring flowers include the yellow fritil- 
lary (Fritillaria pudica)', Mariposa lily 
(Calochortus macrocarpus) ; Menzies Pha- 
celia (Phacelia Menziesii)', balsam root 
(Balsamorhiza sagittata) ; clematis (C. 
ligusticifolia) ; bitter-root (Lewisia re- 
diviva). The fritillary, Mariposa lily, 
balsam-root, and bitter-root grow in 
such abundance that the bulbs or roots 
are dug and used as food by the Indians 
of these regions. 

In the numerous gulches caused by 
erosion, may be found thickets of June- 
berry (Amelanchier alnifolia), moun- 
tain maple (Acer glabrum), and sumach 
(Rhus glabra). 

Mammals, birds, and reptiles (E.A.P.). 
Mammals of the sagebrush area include 
a pocket gopher (Thomomys fuscus), 
Lord's pocket mouse (Perognathus lordi), 
and western white-tailed jackrabbit 
(Lepus townsendii townsendii). These 
enter British Columbia only in this 
area. 

Birds found almost exclusively in this 



156 



NATURALIST'S GUIDE TO THE AMERICAS 



area include: Sage grouse, Arkansas 
kingbird, western lark sparrow, Brewer 
sparrow, Lazuli bunting, poorwill and 
rock wren. 

According to Fannin, the western 
spadefoot toad (Scaphiopus hammondii) 
is found in southern British Columbia. 
The northwestern rattlesnake (Crotalus 
oreganus) also inhabits its sagebrush 
areas. 

*. Grasslands (A. H. H.) 

The natural grasslands of British 
Columbia are limited to the Dry Belt 
areas; where the precipitation is abun- 
dant, particularly in the coast region, 
the tree growth is so dense that grasses 
are eliminated, because of insufficient 
sunlight. The principal natural grass- 
lands or grazing areas are: The Fraser 
valley, and the plateau neighboring 
thereon from its confluence with the 
Nicola River northward to its confluence 
with the Quesnel River, particularly 
in the regions about the Nicola, Bridge, 
Thompson, and Chilcotin basins; the 
Okanagan and Similkameen basins from 
the United States border northward 
toward the extremity of Okanagan 
Lake; the lowlands bordering the south- 
ern part of the Kettle River. In the 
valleys of the southern parts of the 
Arrow and Kootenay Lakes, to a limited 
extent; and the Columbia basin north- 
ward to Lake Windermere particularly 
in the region of the St. Mary's River. 

Natural grasslands occur to a com- 
paratively limited extent along the 
southeastern coast of Vancouver Island. 
In addition, undoubtedly, there are 
large unexplored areas, particularly in 
the north; the regions mentioned con- 
stitute the better known and more 
generally used grazing lands of the 
Province. 

Although one kind of grazing area 
merges into another, several rather 
distinct types of grasslands may be 
distinguished, namely: the open grass- 
land including those areas where grasses 
predominate (indicated on fig. 1 by 
the mark "o"), also those areas where 
the sagebrush is predominant and the 



wooded grasslands including those areas 
where western yellow pine (indicated 
by "X"), jack pine (indicated by 
"P"), poplars and willows (indicated 
by "W"); Douglas fir (indicated by 
"D"); or oaks (indicated by "T")j 
are the respective dominant tree forms 
associated with the forage plants of 
the region. 

Open grasslands may be classified 
as: first, those where grasses predomi- 
nate, and second, those where sagebrush 
is predominant. The two types are not 
strictly separable by any hard and 
fast line; ordinarily however the latter 
occupies the comparatively level low- 
lands particularly where the yearly 
precipitation is very low ordinarily 
not exceeding 3.5 in., and where the 
temperature is high the average sum- 
mer temperature approximating 70F.; 
in contrast, the open grassland domi- 
nated by grasses is found on the slopes 
where there is more available water, 
due to seepage; where the yearly pre- 
cipitation may be greater, from 3 to 
10 in., and where the temperature may 
be considerably lower. 

The so-called "meadows" may also 
be included among the open grasslands. 
They occur in the undrained basins 
where water stands at least during the 
earlier part of the growing season. 
Although included under grasslands, 
sedges are the dominant forage plant 
belonging to this plant association. 

Many of the plants found in the sage- 
brush areas have stout rootstocks in 
which food is stored during the early 
growing season in provision for the dry 
summer months and they obtain suffi- 
cient water by means of an extensive 
root system which penetrates the soil 
to a great depth and not infrequently 
to the lowest water level. Most con- 
spicuous among the number are the 
sagebrush (Artemisia frigida)', balsam- 
root or wild sunflower (Balsamorhiza 
sagittata}; and southward from Dog 
Lake "Greasewood" (Purshia triden- 
tata). The broad leaves of the balsam- 
root afford good forage until the latter 
part of June. These plants are not 



NATURAL AREAS AND REGIONS 



157 



only drought resistant but also, be- 
cause of their underground food supply 
and deep roots, are able to withstand 
the ravages of over-grazing and fires. 
When conditions are adverse they are 
often the sole survivors. 

Annual plants which grow early in the 
spring and which produce large quanti- 
ties of seeds early in the season are also 
associated with the sagebrush, namely; 
stickseed (Lappula occidentalis and L. 
echinata) ; fleabane or wild aster (Erige- 
ron linearis, or E. caespitosus and E. 
peucophyllus) ; tumbling mustard (Si- 
symbrium altissimum, S. incisum var. 
Hartwegianum) ; everlasting (Antenna- 
ria microphylla) . 

Grasses even in the sagebrush areas 
constitute the most stable forage; they 
are mostly of the tufted, perennial 
deep rooted varieties such as: Tufted 
wheat grass, or bunch grass (Agropyron 
biflorum and A. tenerum)', big bunch 
grass (Agropyron spicatum); shining 
spike grass (Koeleria crislata), tufted 
(Festuca hallii, and F. ovina}; needle 
grass, (Stipa viridula and S. comatd); 
triple awned grass (Aristida purpurea), 
and little blue grass (Poa Sandbergi). 

On the open grazing lands where 
grasses predominate the forms enumer- 
ated above make up the greater propor- 
tion of the covers ; associated with them 
are short-awned brome grass (Bromus 
marginatus) ; tall bunch grass (Agropy- 
ron caninum and A. richardsonii) , and 
tufted lyme or wild rye (Elymus con- 
densatus), also annual leguminous 
plants; lupine (Lupinus argenteus}] 
hairy milk vetch (Astragalus stenophyl- 
lus), and other plants of little or no 
forage value as wild geranium or crane- 
bill (Geranium viscosissimum) ; woolly 
plantain (Plantago purshii) and rushes 
(Juncus spp.). 

Many of the plants named above as 
belonging to the open grasslands are 
also found in the yellow pine grasslands, 
especially in the more open stands; to 
this list may be added a number of the 
grasses known as "Pine Grass" such 
as narrow-leaved pine grass (Calama- 
grostis Suksdorfii), shining spike grass 



(Koeleria cristala}; tall wheat grass 
(Agropyron Occident ale] ; spear grass 
(Poa glauca) little blue grass (Poa 
sandbergii), and Nevada spear grass 
(Poa nevadensis) . Many of these grasses, 
in contrast with the bunch grasses 
characteristic of the open grasslands, 
have creeping rootstocks sending up a 
number of shoots from buds which ap- 
pear at intervals along the rootstock. 
Because of this character the grass 
cover has a matted appearance. The 
possession of these budding rootstocks 
make the production of seeds less im- 
perative in order that the grass may 
be maintained. 

Leguminous plants, of considerable 
forage value, are also more abundant: 
Milk vetch (Astragalus campestris) ; 
bird-foot clover (Hosackia denticulata) ; 
and so-called loco-weed (Oxytropis mon- 
ticola), are among the most common. 

Poisonous plants, however, are more 
numerous also; for instance poison 
camas (Zygademus venenosus)', larkspur 
(Delphinium bicolor} ; lupines (L. argen- 
teus). It is doubtful however, whether 
Oxytropis may justly be called Loco- 
weed in this region since evidence is 
wanting to prove that it has poisoned 
stock while grazing on British Columbia 
grasslands. 

The plants growing on the Douglas 
fir grassland areas include those already 
indicated as belonging to the forage 
plants of wooded regions. The bunch 
grasses become still less conspicuous and 
the pine grasses more predominant. 
To the list may be added another wheat 
grass (Agropyron caninum); fescue 
grass (Festuca ovina, and F. octiflora) ; 
melick or sweet grass (Melica striata); 
brome grass (Bromus Pumpellianus) , 
also such legumes as milk vetches 
(Astragalus americanus), and pea- 
vine (Lathyrus Nuttallii, and L. 
ochroleucus) . 

With jack pines are found plants whose 
palatability and food value are gener- 
ally lower especially where the stand is 
closed as the result of frequent burns: 
Pine grass and shining spike grass are 
the chief forms, while in more open 



158 



NATURALIST'S GUIDE TO THE AMERICAS 



stands needle grass (Stipa spp.), is of 
common occurrence. 

The cottonwood grassland plants do 
not differ essentially from those of the 
Douglas fir or jack pine grasslands, when 
the region is arid. In the transition 
region, however, the common pine grass 
gives place to marsh pine grass (Calama- 
groslis canadensis), and the following 
become conspicuous forms; foul meadow 
grass (Poa triflora), short awned brome 
grass (Bromus marginatus), and wheat 
grass (Agropyron caninum). In the 
same region leguminous forage plants 
are abundant and grow to great size. 
In the "Pea- vine Country" masses of 
pea-vine associated with milk vetches 
grow to a height of 5 ft. or more. 

There is abundant evidence that the 
grasses, at least of the dry belt regions, 
are pioneer forms; that they constitute 
the first cover of the soil; that they pre- 
cede trees in the succession of plant 
associations. In the wooded regions 
bordering upon open grasslands, areas 
are common where the undeveloped 
soil of a recently formed ridge is covered 
with grasses while the surrounding 
country is wooded. It is also significant 
that in British Columbia the largest 
open grassland areas are located upon 
the most recent geological formations 
(Miocene) . 

Dry Belt and mountain forests 

1. Yellow pine. On the slopes of the 
benches, which rise to an altitude of 
2000 or 3000 ft. one may see a gradual 
transition from the semi-desert to the 
plateau flora, passing through the west- 
ern yellow pine zone to Douglas fir, 
lodgepole pine and in places Engelmann 
spruce. Red cedar (Juniperus scopulo- 
rum) and buckbush (Ceanolhus velutinus 
and C. sanguineus) and the shrubby 
Pentstemon (P. scoulerii) are sometimes 
found in great masses at approximately 
2500 ft. altitude. J. D. 

The western yellow pine (Pinus 
ponderosa) type is found in almost pure 
stands on lower benches within its 
range, but mixed with Douglas fir as 
it approaches the upper limit at 3000 



ft. These species come much lower 
down on northern slopes to where soil- 
moisture is more readily available. 
The commercial stands in this type 
average 5000 to 10,000 ft. per acre; 
occasionally more. As a type western 
yellow pine in British Columbia is con- 
fined to dry, well-drained sites where 
the precipitation is from 10 to 15 in. 
and in a belt between 1500 and 3000 ft. 
in elevation. P. Z. C. 

2. Mixed forest. In the Kootenay 
district western larch (Larix occidenta- 
lis) is a common tree in mixture with 
Douglas fir, the Douglas fir-western 
larch forming a type between the west- 
ern yellow pine on the one hand and the 
spruce-lodgepole on the other in the 
same relation as the Douglas fir type 
in the Dry Belt. Apparently climatic 
requirements are about the same as 
described for the latter. P. Z. C. 

3. Montane forest. On the open park- 
like slopes, at an altitude of from 3000 
feet to 6000 ft. within the dry belt 
area, may be seen a most gorgeous array 
of color; yellows contributed by mil- 
lions of Dog-tooth lilies (Erythronium 
grandiflorum) , balsam-root, Arnica (A. 
cordifolia), tiger lilies (Liliwn par- 
viflorum); stonecrop (Sedum stenope- 
talum) ; fleabane (Erigeron aureus) ; blues 
by tall ''forget-me-nots" (Lappula flori- 
bunda) ; larkspur (Delphinum bicolor) ; 
Jacob's ladder (Polemonium humile}; 
Pentstemon (P. confertus var. coerulea 
purpureus), Brodieas (B. Douglasii), 
reds by Indian paint-brush (Castilleja 
spp), columbine (Aquilegia formosa)', 
whites by tall specimens of cow-parsnip 
(Heracleum lanatum) ; death camas (Zy- 
gadenus venenosus)} Indian Tatuan 
(Claytonia lanceolata) ; Spiraea (S. lu- 
cida), with many other colored flowers 
in profusion. The field botanist who 
visits the semi-desert regions of British 
Columbia in the months of May and 
June will reap a rich harvest in the 
great variety of species to be obtained 
then. J. D. 

4. Subalpine forest and meadow. The 
timber line subalpine forest here con- 
sists of mountain meadows interspersed 



NATURAL AREAS AND REGIONS 



159 



with stunted tree growth of lodgepole 
pine, white-bark pine (Pinus albicaulis] 
and alpine fir. Among the grasses are 
Agrostis humilis, Phleum alpinum, Dan- 
thonia intermedia, Trisetum spicatum, 
Koeleria cristata, and several species of 
Fescues, while in the moister meadows 
and swales Valeriana sitchensis, Castil- 
lejas, Senecios and other herbaceous 
plants occur. P. Z. C. 

C. NORTHERN AND MOUNTAIN 
CONIFEROUS FOREST 

1. Second Wet Belt 

The forests in the second wet belt 
resemble those on the coast and we have 
the same transition in types. Giant 
cedar and hemlock ranging from almost 
pure cedar on the river-bottoms, where 
the water-table is near the surface, 
to a mixture of cedar and western hem- 
lock on the lower mountain slopes, and 
finally changing into hemlock-spruce 
(here Engelmann) cedar type on the 
higher benches or into the subalpine 
(or spruce-lodgepole) type, which occurs 
on the mountains at an elevation of 
4000 and 6000 ft. Stands in the Second 
Wet Belt will reach 20,000 to 30,000 ft. 
B.M. per acre over considerable areas. 
Much, however, depends on the age of 
the stand and defect, which is sometimes 
conspicuous, especially in cedar and 
hemlock throughout the type. 

2. Northern sub-arctic or spruce-pine 
type 

This is a continuation of the great 
forest area that sweeps across Canada, 
lying between the tundra on the one 
hand and the plains or the pine-hard- 
wood forests on the south. 

In British Columbia pine is repre- 
sented by lodgepole. In the north both 
white spruce (Picea canadensis) and 
black spruce (Picea mariana) occur, 
but farther south they are replaced by 
the Engelmann spruce. This type occu- 
pies the northern plateau, spreads over 
the Rocky Mountains, and out across the 
foot hills to the north-east corner of the 
Province, where it joins the sub-arctic 



forests of Alberta. Extending northward 
along the mountains it forms a belt, just 
below the sub-alpine type, usually 
occuring between the 4000 and 6000 ft. 
contours. The type has been greatly 
modified by fire and in many cases con- 
verted into pure lodgepole pine, which 
acts as an intermediary or nurse crop 
for the spruce which subsequently comes 
in under the pine. Islands of black 
spruce swamp are frequently encoun- 
tered or stands of pure cottonwood on 
southern exposures. The average stand 
per acre in mature forest is from 5000 
to 10,000 ft., occasionally reaching 20,000 
ft. or over near the lower limits of its 
range. 

Typical cruises show. Elk River, 
elevation 4500 to 6000 ft., average stand 
20,000 ft. per acre: Engelmann spruce 
75%; lodgepole pine 15%; alpine fir 
10% ; Douglas fir 2%. Clearwater River, 
plateau 4000 to 6000 ft. above sea-level; 
average stand 8500 ft. per acre: spruce 
65%; balsam 20%; lodgepole pine 5%. 
While stands in Northern British Co- 
lumbia, elevation 1000 to 2000 ft. will 
run: spruce 70%; lodgepole pine 25%; 
fir 5%. This type is of great commercial 
importance from the standpoint of pulp- 
manufacturing. P. Z. C. 

Fauna (E. A. P.). The northern part 
of the area covered with this type of 
forest is considered in the discussion of 
the transcontinental coniferous forest 
of central Canada of which it forms a 
part. 

The commoner and more characteris- 
tic mammals of its southern portion in- 
clude the following : Dusky shrew (Sorex 
obscurus obscurus)', Rocky Mountain 
marsh shrew (Neosorex palustris navi- 
gator] ; northwestern bat (Myotis longic- 
rus) ; black and grizzly bears of several 
races (distribution not worked out); 
northwest marten (Martes a. caurina); 
British Columbia mink (Mustela v. 
energumenos) ; Bonaparte weasel (Mus- 
tela cicognanii cicognanii); northern 
deer mouse (Peromyscus m. borealis"); 
western bushy-tailed wood rat (Neotoma 
c. occidentalis); heather vole (Phena- 
comys intermedius intermedius) ; British 



160 



NATURALIST'S GUIDE TO THE AMERICAS 



Columbia red-backed vole (Evotomys 
g. saturatus} ; Rocky Mountain vole 
(Microtus mordax mordax}', British Co- 
lumbia muskrat (Fiber z. osoyoosensis) ; 
Rocky Mountain jumping-mouse (Zapus 
princeps) ; Okanagan marmot (Marmota 
c. okanagana) ; northern mantled ground- 
squirrel (Callospermophilus I. tescorum) ; 
Canadian mountain chipmunk (Euta- 
mias amoenus ludibundus) ; Streator's 
red squirrel (Sciurus h. streatori); 
British Columbia snowshoe hare (Lepus 
a. columbiensis) ; Rocky Mountain pika 
(Ochotona princeps} ; bighorn sheep (Om 
canadensis}] Rocky Mountain goat 
(Oreamnos montanus}} mule deer (Odo- 
coileus hemionus')', mountain caribou 
(Rangifer montanus) . Some of the more 
notable of the birds are the following: 
dusky grouse, Franklin's grouse, Canada 
ruffed grouse, red-necked sapsucker, 
western piliated woodpecker, Rocky 
Mountain jay, Clark's nutcracker, long- 
tailed chickadee, Louisiana tanager, 
red-eyed vivio, Audubon's waibler, 
mountain chickadee, Hudsonian chick- 
adee, willow thrush, olive-backed 
thrush, and mountain bluebird. 

D. ALPINE REGIONS 

Alpine conditions are to be found on 
most of the British Columbia moun- 
tains above an altitude of 5500 ft., 
especially on those mountains situated 
within the "wet belts" where the pre- 
cipitation ensures an abundant snowfall 
during winter. 

At an altitude of 4500 ft., is found 
moist meadow-like land containing much 
humus, and abounding in ericaceous 
shrubs such as White Rhododendron 
(R. albiflorum) ; red heather (Phyllodoce 
empetriformis") ; creamy yellow heather 
(P. glanduliflorus) } white heather (Cas- 
siope Mertensiana}} copper-bush (Cla- 
dothamnus pyrolceflorus) , blue-berries 
(V actinium, various species). Much 
of the moist land is carpeted with the 
beautiful alpine Spiraea (Eriogynia 
pectinata) so frequently mistaken for 
a saxifrage, associated with marsh mari- 
gold (Caltha leptosepala} ; globe flower 
(Trollius albiflorus), and numerous 



saxifragaceous plants. In this zone 
small subalpine lakes are abundant. 
These are frequently stocked with yel- 
low water lilies (Nuphar polysepalum) ; 
while spongy Sphagnum areas in the 
vicinity have mountain laurel (Kalmia 
polifolia) ; gentians (G. sceptrum) ; grass 
of Parnassus (Parnassia palustris}\ 
deer cabbage, and bogbean (Menyanthes 
crista-galli and M. trifoliata) . This 
subalpine association ranges, according 
to locality, from 4000 ft. altitude to 
approximately 6000 ft. At the former 
elevation the supply of moisture is 
maintained by seepage from the melting 
snow in the adjacent wooded slopes; 
at the latter elevation, seepage is from 
the snowfields or glaciers on the exposed 
mountain sides, timber line ranging in 
the "wet belts" from 5500 ft. to approxi- 
mately 6500 ft. altitude. Here, the 
last trees are alpine fir, white bark pine 
(Pinus albicaulis') , and mountain hem- 
lock, all of which are low and stunted, 
forming dense tangle thickets from 1 
to 3 ft. high, the older trees often spread- 
ing over a large area, due chiefly to the 
great weight of snow which buries 
them for the greater part of the year. 
The snowfall during the winter, at that 
altitude varies from 30 to 50 ft. in depth. 

The soil of the Arctic Alpine belt 
(Arctic-alpine zone) contains little 
humus, and is largely composed of silt 
from the weathered rocks. The type 
of vegetation varies in accordance with 
this soil, whether formed from rocks 
of sedimentary or volcanic origin; the 
latter, as a rule, producing the greatest 
variety of species. 

The characteristic plants of this belt 
are moss campion (Silene acaulis}} 
northern wormwood (Artemisia norve- 
gica var. pacifica) ; silky phacelia (P. 
serica); Douglas' Phlox (P. Douglasii); 
crowberry (Empetrum nigrum) ; creeping 
Azalea (Loiseleuria procumbens) ; blue- 
green gentian (Gentiana glauca); west- 
ern Anemone (A. occidentalis) ; Tolmie's 
saxifrage (S. Tolmiea'), often growing 
within a few feet of glaciers, and many 
other low growing tufted flowering 
plants. 



NATURAL AREAS AND REGIONS 



161 



Between this Alpine belt and the sub- 
alpine vegetation is found a great 
variety of habitats bearing different 
associations of plants. On Rock slides 
are stone crop (Sedum divergens) ; juniper 
(/. communis) ; lupine (L. arcticus)', 
Jacob's ladder (Polemonium confertum). 
Cold gravelly creek banks bear great 
masses of dark crimson Mimulus (M. 
Lewisii), while sand bars or islands in 
the middle of shallow streams are 
covered with the golden yellow alpine 
Mimulus (M. alpinus} ; butter-bur (P eta- 
sites frigidus)] or fireweed (Epilobium 
latifolium) . 

Alpine slopes are bedecked with lu- 
pines, Indian paint-brush, of all shades 
from pale pink to fiery scarlet, moun- 
tain heliotrope (Valeriana sitchensis), 
louseworts (Pedicularis bracteosa, and 
others), columbines, alpine speedwell 
(Veronica alpina), numerous tall sedges, 
and rushes, but compartively few species 
of grasses. 

To see the vegetation of alpine regions 
in British Columbia as above described 
one should visit them sometime between 
the latter part of July and the end of 
August. (J. D.) 

Mammals and birds (E. A. P.). The 
hoary marmots (Marmota c. okanagana 
and M. c. cascadensis] , races of a species 
which farther north ranges down to 
sea level, are confined in southern 
British Columbia practically to the 
treeless mountain summits. Rangifer 
montanus and Ovis canadensis are also 
generally found there. 

Birds breeding on the Alpine summits 
include the following: Rock ptarmigan, 
white-tailed ptarmigan, pallid horned 
lark, Hepburn's rosy finch, and pipit. 

E. LOCAL OR EDAPHIC COMMUNITIES 
(j. D. AND E. A. P.) 

1. Muskeg and ^peatbogs 

The principal muskeg and bog areas 
are to be found in the northern parts 
of the Province, especially in the Liard 
and Peace River basins, others occur at 
various points along the Grand Trunk 
Railway system in central British Co- 



lumbia, Prince Rupert, Queen Charlotte 
Islands, the northern part of Vancouver 
Island, and in the southwest part of 
the mainland. 

In the north-eastern regions tamarack 
(Larix laricina), and black spruce 
encroach on these areas, whereas in the 
southern and western bog areas these 
are replaced by the coast form of lodge- 
pole pine (Pinus contorta) which is also 
found on rocky bluffs and on well drained 
sandy soil along the coast. 

Excellent opportunities for the study 
of bog evolution are found within a few 
miles of Vancouver, B. C., where one 
may find every transition from the open 
lake to the mature bog. The margin 
flora of yellow water lilies, cat-tails 
(Typha latifolia); bogbean (Menyanthes 
trifoliata) ; cinquefoil (Comarum pa- 
lustre'), is followed by a floating Sphag- 
num layer with approximately ten or 
twelve feet of water or liquid muck 
underneath. On this sphagnum layer 
the bog flora develops somewhat in the 
following order: Sedges and rushes, 
clumps of sweet gate (Myrica gale), and 
Spiraea (S. Douglasii), followed by the 
usual western bog association : Labrador 
tea (Ledum groenlandicum) , mountain 
or bog laurel (Kalmia polifolia), and 
cranberry (Vaccinium Oxycoccus). Into 
this ericaceous association the lodgepole 
pine encroaches, and sometimes succeeds 
in establishing a dense stand of low 
stunted trees, often badly affected by 
mistletoe (Arceuthobium americanum), 
and lodgepole pine blister rust. 

One interesting feature is the frequent 
occurrence of stranded or isolated 
pioneers, water lilies which have sur- 
vived for ages, cut off from their con- 
freres in the lakes, and separated from 
them by several hundreds of yards of 
bog. These stranded lilies have suc- 
cessfully competed with the Sphagnum 
and ericaceous shrubs by sending up 
their leaves on long petioles thus mo- 
nopolizing the light over an area 6 or 8 
ft. in diameter. This results in a kind 
of "pot-hole" in the bog, and in some 
places, where the water lilies have 
succumbed, these "pot-holes" take the 



162 



NATURALIST'S GUIDE TO THE AMERICAS 



unwary traveller by surprise. Tests 
made in the vicinity of these isolated 
pioneers, showed a depth of 22 ft. of 
muck with blue clay underlying. 

In the spring, the bogs are ablaze 
with the flowers of the laurel and Labra- 
dor tea, the latter being considered by 
apiarists as a useful bee plant. Later 
in the year such bogs yield great crops 
of cranberries, blueberries (Vaccinium 
canadensis, V. uliginosum being the most 
common species here), and cloud berries 
(Rubus chamcemorus) . 

Although bog land is generally clas- 
sified as agricultural land, little has 
been done in this Province to raise crops 
suited for cultivation on this type of 
soil. Promising results have been ob- 
tained by ranchers on Queen Charlotte 
Islands where experimental plantations 
of spearmint and peppermint have 
yielded luxuriant crops, but the absence 
of an oil distillation outfit to handle the 
crop hinders the development of what 
might prove a profitable industry. 

Mammals and birds. While the peat 
bogs, usually referred to in the north as 
muskegs, offer advantageous habitats 
for many species of mammals and birds, 
no species inhabit them to the exclusion 
of other areas. The moose finds in the 
willow thickets which border many of 
them a favorite food, and the bears 
feast in autumn on the berries which 
grow in their drier parts. Within its 
range the Dall lemming-vole (Synapto- 
mys borealis dalli) is perhaps as charac- 
teristic as any species. Long-tailed 
shrews (Sorex obscurus and S. personatus) 
also find congenial homes in such bogs. 

The birds which especially favor 
muskegs as breeding places include the 
lesser yellow legs, and in south-central 
British Columbia the greater yellow 
legs; Holboell's grebe northerly; pied- 
billed grebe southerly; and the Virginia 
rail southerly. In places where ponds 
of sufficient size occur the loon often 
nests on their borders. 

2. Seashores 

It has been estimated that British 
Columbia has approximately 7000 ffii, 



of coast line, most of this is rocky but 
there are a few good stretches of beauti- 
ful sandy sea-shore the most note- 
worthy being found near Barkley Sound 
on the west coast of Vancouver Island, 
at Qualicum on the east coast, and at 
Savary Island. Smaller beaches are 
scattered here and there along the coast 
but from an ecological point of view, 
the above offer the best facilities for 
the study of the sandy sea-shore 
vegetation. 

A. Sand areas. Sand-dune regions, 
such as occur on the eastern part of 
the continent, are rare here; but where 
they do exist, Lyme grass (Elymus 
mollis\ and the large headed sedge 
(Car ex macrocephala) , associated with 
sea purslane (Arenaria peploides var. 
major), and sea pea- vine (Lathyrus 
maritimus) are the pioneers; lupine 
(L. littoralis] } wormwood (Artemisia 
canadensis}] and sand-bur (Franseria 
bipinnatifida) , often take a conspicuous 
place in the sandy sea-shore association. 

Amongst the noteworthy pants of the 
Sandy Sea-Shores here, may be found 
the beautiful sand Convolvulus (Con- 
volvulus soldanella] ; the yellow and pink 
Abronias (A. latifolia, and umbellata), 
with their sweet scented flowers. The 
Abronias frequently have large mangel- 
like roots whose food store is protected 
by cells containing needle shaped crys- 
tals or raphides. When a small portion 
of the root is chewed, these raphides 
painlessly pierce the mucous membranes 
of the mouth and produce the same 
numbness or loss of sensation as is pro- 
duced by several members of the Aracese 
which possess similar raphides. 

A species of broom-rape (Orobanche 
fasciculata) is often found parasitic on 
the roots of the wormwood. This is 
also found on roots of Artemisia on sand 
hills in the interior of British Columbia. 

6. Rocky shores. The Madrona tree 
(Arbutus Menziesii) reaches its northern 
limit in this Province and many beauti- 
ful specimens may be seen on the margin 
of the sand dune areas, as well as on the 
rocky bluffs of the southern part of the 
mainland and on the adjacent islands. 



NATURAL AREAS AND REGIONS 



163 



These rocky bluffs near the sea generally 
have their ledges covered with a layer 
of mossy soil which supports a wealth 
of spring flowering species mostly 
annuals and bulbous plants, including 
banks of lobelia-like Collinsia (C. 
grandiflora) ; sea-blush (Valerianella con- 
gesta); Bongard's saxifrage (Saxifraga 
Bongardi) ; and other saxifrages, white 
dog-tooth lilies, Indian camas (Camas- 
sia quamash}] (Brodiea grandiflora) , 
brown fritillary, (Fritillaria lanceolata) ; 
wild onions (Allium cernuum and A. 
acuminatum) and where sufficient soil 
has accumulated in crevices or pockets 
in the rocks are found flowering shrubs 
such as flowering currant (Ribes sangui- 
neum)\ mock orange (Philadelphus Le- 
wisii), Saskatoon (Amelanchier alni- 
folia); barberries (Berberis aquifolium 
and B. nervosa), manzanita (Arctos- 
taphylos tomentosa) ; with flowering trees 
such as western dogwood (Cornus 
Nuttallii); and wild cherry (Prunus 
emarginata), so that although much 
of the coast line is rocky it is by no 
means barren, especially in spring when 
all the above species come into flower. 
Later on, however, the ledges become 
brown and dried up, and the visitor to 
this Province in the summer or autumn 
gets no conception of the floral wealth 
of the land adjacent to the sea. 

Mammals and birds (E. A. P.). The 
only mammals which are especially 
characteristic of the shores are the seals 
and sea lions, listed under marine mam- 
mals, which have their young on rocky 
ledges just above the surf, usually on 
islands. 

The more common sea birds which 
breed on cliffs include the following: 
tufted puffin; horned puffin; rhinoceros 
auklet; California murre; and violet- 
green cormorant. 

During migration many species of 
shore birds and plovers use the beaches 
as migration routes, and a few hardy 
species spend the winter there. 

3. Salt marshes 
On the south west coast of British 



salt marshes probably the best on the 
Pacific Coast, if not on this continent. 
In area they extend over many square 
miles and may be seen in all stages from 
their origin at the edge of the water, 
where eel grass, ditch grass (Ruppia 
maritima) ; samphire or glasswort (Sali- 
cornia ambigua) and sea blite (Suseda 
maritima) are the pioneers, until they 
"come under the plow" and become 
fertile agricultural land. 

As the salt marsh develops one finds 
the usual association of halophytes: 
sea milkwort (Glaux maritima); sea 
plantain (Plantago maritima). In most 
of the salt marshes here dodder (Cuscuta 
salina) may be found primarily attack- 
ing Salicornia but spreading to other 
members of this association. 

Later on, salt grass (Distichlis spi- 
cata), makes its appearance, and aids 
greatly in retaining the accumulated 
silt. It is quite a common occurrence 
to see cattle and even horses grazing 
on salt marshes, and the owners of the 
stock consider salt grass good fodder. 
Naturally, as a result of grazing, many 
weeds are introduced and we soon find, 
yarrow (Achillea millefolium) ; velvet 
grass or Yorkshire fog (Holcus lanatus) ; 
and other weeds overrunning the grazed 
areas. 

Through the growth of countless gener- 
ations of halophytic plants the soil 
becomes very rich in humus, forming a 
kind of peat and, by ditching and dyk- 
ing, parts of this land have been sepa- 
rated from the main marsh areas and 
cultivated. On this reclaimed land 
farmers have to contend with the same 
weeds as prevail on newly reclaimed 
bogs, namely lesser sorrel (Rumex aceto- 
sella), and several species of smart weed 
(Polygonum) together with the dainty 
little mud-button (Cotula coronopifolia) . 
The abundant rainfall during the winter 
soon leaches out the salt, and in a short 
time good crops can be raised on this 
rich, dark brown silt. 

4. Marine areas 
The marine flora along the coast of 



Columbia may be seen some very fine the Gulf of Georgia between Vancouver 



164 



NATURALIST'S GUIDE TO THE AMERICAS 



Island and the mainland differs in many 
respects from that found on the West 
Coast of Vancouver Island, and on the 
northern part of the mainland. The 
Gulf receives great quantities of fresh 
water from many rivers draining the 
western slopes of the Coast Range. 
The mighty Fraser River, which drains 
the largest river basin in the Interior of 
British Columbia, debouches here, car- 
rying thousands of tons of sand and silt, 
discoloring the sea water for miles, and 
leaving a deposit of fine silty mud on 
the adjacent sea-shores. This muddy 
deposit is absent from the shores of the 
west coast of Vancouver Island and 
northern mainland; these shores, facing 
the Ocean, are frequently lashed by 
the full force of gales and storms of the 
Pacific. 

The rocky parts of the coast abound 
with a great variety of brown and red 
seaweeds, giant kelps occasionally oc- 
cupying large areas. The most con- 
spicuous kelp in these waters is the 
"Sea-pear" (Nereocystis luetkeana) 
whose huge thalli, each with a large 
pear-shaped float attached to a stipe 
often more than forty feet in length, 
may be seen in great profusion. This 
kelp, and Macrocystis which is not so 
abundant here, was collected on a com- 
mercial scale during the period of the 
"world war," and prepared as a ferti- 
lizer to overcome the shortage of potash 
for agricultural purposes. 

In shallow brackish bays, the inter- 
tidal area is often covered with eel grass 
(Zostera marina) ; while on rocky shores, 
this is replaced by its larger relative 
false eel grass (Phyllospadix scouleri). 
The sheltered waters of the Gulf, the 
diminished salinity, and the deposition 
of beds of silt in bays and at the estuaries 
of rivers, are all conducive to the building 
up of salt marshes with their characteris- 
tic halophytic flora. 

Marine mammals (E. A. P.). The 
sea otter (Latax lutris] formerly common 
along the entire coast is now nearly 
extirpated. The fur seal (Callorhinus 
alascanus), which breeds only on the 
Pribilof Islands, Alaska, is found in 



migration along the entire coast, but is 
not known to land. The spotted harbor 
seal (Phoca richardii) is rather common 
and breeds in certain favorable places. 
The southern sea lion (Zalophus calif or- 
nianus) barely enters our southern coast 
waters, while the northern sea lion 
(Eumetopias jubata) breeds in consid- 
erable colonies in many places along 
the coast. 

The cetaceans known to inhabit the 
coast waters include the killer whale 
(Orcinus rectipinna); Pacific right whale 
(Balaena seiboldii)', California gray 
whale (Rhachianectes glaucus) ; Pacific 
humpback whale (Megaptera versabilis) ; 
Davidson's finback whale (Balaenoptera 
davidsoni) ; Pacific sulphur-bottom whale 
(Balaenoptera sulfur eus) ; Pacific finback 
whale (Balaenoptera velifera) ; sperm 
whale (Physeter macrocephalus] ; Pacific 
blackfish (Globiocephala scammoni], and 
common porpoise (Phocaena phocaena). 

III. PRESENT BIOTA (E. A. P.) 

Data regarding changes in the dis- 
tribution of British Columbia birds and 
mammals within historic times concern 
mainly the larger game and predatory 
mammals. These may be given under 
species. 

The moose (Alces americanus), within 
the past 50 years has made a notable 
addition to its range, extending west- 
ward and southwestward several hun- 
dred miles. In the Stikine region it 
has moved its frontier from the region 
of Dease Lake to the mouths of the 
Stikine and Taku rivers. Farther south 
it has reached the vicinity of Chilcotin 
River and 83 mi. House only during 
recent years. 

The elk or wapiti (Cervus canadensis 
occidentalis} originally ranged over that 
portion of the Province east of the Rocky 
Mountains north nearly to Liard River. 
Here it is now entirely extirpated. In 
southern British Columbia also, where 
it formerly ranged practically across 
the Province, it has suffered great loss 
in range, and is now confined mostly to 
the Kootenay District and to Vancouver 
Island. 



NATURAL AREAS AND REGIONS 



165 



The caribou' (Rangifer montanus and 
related forms) originally occupied suita- 
ble areas, including the barren summits 
and more sparsely wooded elevated 
sections, and excepting the humid coast 
region, practically over the entir% 
Province. Excessive pursuit has practi- 
cally extirpated it from most of its range 
in the southern half of the Province, 
but it remains in numbers in most of 
the country drained by the Stikine and 
Peace rivers, and northward. A few 
still persist, apparently, on Graham 
Island, the largest of the Queen Char- 
lotte group, which furnishes a number of 
examples of mammalian distribution 
which are difficult to understand. 

The mule deer (Odocoileus hemionus) 
confined to the dry interior forests, has 
extended its range northward several 
hundred miles during recent years, being 
now frequently seen in the Skeena and 
Peace River, and occasionally in the 
upper Stikine valleys. 

The mountain goat is found in suitable 
places practically all over British Colum- 
bia, barring the islands, on which, ex- 
cepting Pitt Island, it was never known. 

The coyote (Canis lestes) originally 
found only in the southern part of the 
Province, has pushed northward through 
the central valleys nearly to the north- 
ern boundary within the past 25 years. 

IV. AREAS AVAILABLE FOR BIOLOGICAL 
STUDY 

A. PROVINCIAL FORESTS (P. Z. C.) 

The officials of both the Dominion 
and Provincial Forest Branches en- 
courage proper use of the forest and are 
always prepared to give advice on how 
best to reach any locality, equipment 
necessary, etc., to anyone entering any 
region. Definite boundaries have not 
been established for the forests. 

*Coast Forest South. Area 23,000,000 
acres. A region of mountain and forest 
intersected by deep sheltered fjords. 
Game is plentiful in woods. 

Vancouver, } C.N.R., G.N.R. 

Headquarters, District Forester. 

Victoria t (80 mi. south west) C.P.R. 



* Provincial Headquarters. Forest Ser- 
vice, Auto service to most points Van- 
couver Island, south, Nanaimo J 40 
mi. west C.P.R. 

Supervisor, Nanaimo, headquarters 
for Vancouver Island. 

*North Coast. Area 22,000,000 acres. 
Interesting region of coniferous forests, 
mountains and inlets. Here Sitka 
spruce reaches its best development. 

Prince Rupert, { C.N.R., U.S.S. Co. 

Headquarters, District Forester. 

Gasoline launches available to visit 
many interesting spots or for more 
extended cruises along the Coast. 

*East Kootenay Area. Area 7,500,000 
acres. Embraces southern end of main 
Rocky Mountains and Rocky Moun- 
tain Trench. Altitude 3000 to 9000 ft. 
Vegetation zone changes from Dry Belt 
types to Alpine type as we ascend the 
mountains. Western larch attains its 
best development here. 

Cranbrook, J C.P.R. 

Headquarters, District Forester. 

Outfits may be obtained at Cranbrook 
for visiting any section of district. 

*West Kootenay Area. Area 7,950,000 
acres. A region of lakes and mountains. 
Very interesting since it embraces 
changes from Dry to Wet Belt vegeta- 
tion. Lakes abound in fish and forest 
in game. 

Nelson, } C.P.R, & G.N.R. 

Headquarters, District Forester. 

*0kanagan. Area 6,000,000 acres. 
The typical Dry Belt region. 

Vernon, J C.P.R. 

Headquarters, District Forester. 

Penticton, C.P.R., K.V.R., Princeton, 
t K.V.R., G.N.R., Merrit, J C.P.R. 

* Thompson Region. The area em- 
braces northern border of Dry Belt 
and the western slope of Gold Range. 

Kamloops, t C.P.R., C.N.R. 

Headquarters, Dominion Forest 
Branch for British Columbia, and 
District Forester. 

*Big Bend. Central part of Rocky 
Mountain Trench and Selkirk Moun- 
tains, a region of rigid mountains and 
steep wooded slopes and especially 
noted for its bear hunting. 



166 



NATURALIST'S GUIDE TO THE AMERICAS 



*Revelstoke. | C.P.R. 

Outfitting points for trips into ad- 
joining district which can be made 
readily with pack animals. 

*Cariboo. Area 14,000,000 acres, Cen- 
tral section of Interior plateau. Good 
hunting and fishing. Forests have 
suffered extremely from fires original 
Douglas fir has been converted into 
lodgepole pine. 

Williams Lake, J P.G.E. Railway. 

Headquarters, District Forester. 

Quesnel, t P.G.E. Railway, outfitting 
point for prospectors and others. 

*Northern. The great northern hin- 
terland, including the valleys of Parsnip, 
Peace, Nelson, Liard rivers, has been 
scarcely explored except by prospectors 
and trappers, and offers an attractive 
opportunity for naturalists. 

*Prince George. J C.N.R. Railway. 

Headquarters, District Forester. 

Outfitting point for parties going 
further north. 

B. DOMINION FORESTS (p. Z. C. AND . 
D. G. CAMERON) 

The Dominion Government owns and 
controls what is known as the Railway 
Belt. This Belt was granted to the 
Dominion by the Province to aid in the 
building of the Canadian Pacific Railway 
through British Columbia, the title of 
conveyance being executed in 1883. It 
includes the land within 20 mi. on each 
side of the Canadian Pacific Railway 
from the Alberta Boundary to a western 
limit bounded by the Meslilloet River 
and the North Arm of Burrard Inlet. 
To compensate for lands within this 
Belt which the Province had disposed of 
prior to the transfer the Dominion 
Government was also granted some 
3| million acres which was selected by 
them in 1907 in a block comprising 
73| sq. mi. adjoining the Alberta Bound- 
ary in the Peace River Valley. 

As the Railway Belt stretches east 
and west across the Province it is subject 
to all the changes in forest types as 
described for the Province, that is, 
The Coast or Wet Belt, Dry Belt, The 
Second Wet Belt and the Rocky Moun- 



tain section. Of the 16,700 sq. mi. 
in the Belt it is estimated that 10,000 
is forest land but only 3000 bears timber 
of commercial quantity which is esti- 
mated at 22 billion feet. 
A number of small forest reserves 
have been created on the headwaters of 
the streams throughout the Dry Belt. 
These reserves including the Yoho and 
Glacier parks by the same names are 
representative of the Rocky Mountain 
District. 

The reserves of the drybelt district 
are: Larch Hills, Mount Ida, Fly Hill, 
Martin Mountain, Monte Hills, Niskon- 
lith, Long Lake, Tranquille, Nicola, 
Arrowstone, and Hat Creek cover about 
If million acres. They serve more as 
watershed protection than for the 
production of timber, although some 82 
sq. mi. is held under timber berth within 
these reserves. The timber types on 
the reserves are typical of those of the 
Dry Belt and the Lodgepole Pine result- 
ing from burn on the higher mountains. 

The timber conditions on these forest 
reserves are similar to those described 
in detail in the book entitled "The 
Forests of British Columbia," published 
by the Conservation Commission of 
Canada, 1918, authors H. N. Whitford 
and R. D. Craig. See particularly 
pages 63 to 68. The bulk of the forest 
reserve area is in the Dry Belt proper 
where the timber on the lower slopes is 
western yellow pine and Douglas fir. 
The plateau areas above are largely 
covered by lodgepole pine. This lodge- 
pole type is temporarj' as a result of 
forest fires. The climax type will be 
Engelmann spruce and Alpine fir. 
There is, of course, an altitudinal 
progression toward these types, the 
yellow pine merging into the Douglas 
fir and the latter into the Engelmann 
spruce as altitude increases. The timber 
line type is pure Alpine fir. 

The reserves bordering on Shuswap 
Lake are in a transition area between 
the Dry Belt proper and the interior 
Wet Belt of the Columbia valley. The 
south and southwestern slopes exhibit 
Dry Belt characteristics and the opposite 



NATURAL AREAS AND REGIONS 



167 



slopes verge to Wet Belt species. The 
climax forest growth in the lower eleva- 
tions is Douglas fir, western larch (L. 
occidentalis), western white pine, giant 
cedar, western hemlock. Higher up 
there is Engelmann spruce, Alpine fir 
and white bark pine. The westerly 
reserves have been largely fire swept, 
particularly on the elevated plateaus. 
Fair stands of Douglas fir and yellow 
pine remain on the lower slopes. The 
summits of the Fly Hills and Niskonlith 
Forest Reserves have large areas of the 
original climax type spruce-alpine fir 
forests. The Fly Hills particularly is 
very accessible by Forest Service trails. 
The Larch Hills Reserve has also large 
areas of second growth and mature 
mixed forest. 

These reserves are readily accessible 
from any point along the line of the 
Canadian Pacific Railway, but particu- 
larly as follows: 

Larch Hills Reserve Sicamous 



Niskonlith east side Chase, west side 

Kamloops 
Martin Mountain ) 



Tranquille 

Nicola 

Hat Creek Ashcroft 

Arrowstone 

The administrative headquarters of 
the reserves is at Kamloops where the 
Forest Supervisor is located, while 
New Westminster is the headquarters 
of the Timber Branch for the coast 
section. 

c. PARKS 

*Mt. Robson Park. (A3.) About 
409,600 acres of alpine peaks ranging 
up to 13,000 ft. in the Rocky Mountains 
of British Columbia. Lower slopes clad 
with sub-alpine forests and associated 
flora, grading upwards through alpine 
belt to regions of perpetual snow. Open 
country with talus slopes, ravines and 
canyons. 

Mt. Robson Station, British Columbia 
(G. T. P. R.), near Yellow Head Pass. 
John Davidson. 



*Strathcona Park. (A 3.) Area 
530,566 acres. Situated in the center 
of Vancouver Island, a provincial Park 
Reserve; comprising mountain ranges 
up to between 6000 and 7000 ft. altitude. 
Slopes under 5000 ft. altitude timbered 
with northwestern and subalpine trees; 
subalpine plateaus, ravines and canyons. 
Buttle Lake, a large freshwater Lake, 
drains the central part of the Park, 
flows north and east to Campbell Lake, 
thence via Campbell River to the East 
Coast of the Island. 

Campbell River, B.C., 30 mi. walk. 
Good trail through western mesophytic 
forest. Camp outfit necessary. John 
Davidson. 

*Yoho Park, B. C. Dominion Park 
Reserve 560 sq. mi. of peaks and passes 
in the Canadian Rockies, with charac- 
teristic northwestern arctic-alpine flora 
on mountain slopes and meadows. 
Canyons, glaciers, fossil-beds 2000 ft. 
thick. Deer, big-horn sheep and Rocky 
Mountain goats. 

Passes 6000 to 7000 ft. altitude. 

Peaks up to 11,000 ft. 

Field, J(4060 ft.) or Yoho Park, B.C. 
(C. P. R.). Coaches and saddle ponies 
for hire. John Davidson, and Dominion 
Park Branch. 

*Glacier Park, B. C. (A3.) Domin- 
ion Park Reserve of 460 sq. mi. of moun- 
tains and valleys in the heart of the 
Selkirk Range. Peaks up to 10,808 ft. 
Northwestern mountain forest, subal- 
pine meadows with rich flora. Glaciers, 
caves. 

Glacier, B. C. (C. P. R.) t4086 ft. 
Ponies and alpine guides to hire. 
John Davidson, and Dominion Park 
Branch. 

*Revelstoke Park, B. C. (A2 I.) 
Dominion Park Reserve of 9559 sq. mi. 
of coniferous and northwestern moun- 
tain forest. Rainbow, Dolly Varden, 
cut-throat, gray and "Nipigon" trout 
in streams in vicinity. Rocky and 
glacial situations. 

Revelstoke (C. P. R.), (1492 ft. alti- 
tude) 18 mi. (a) . Pack horses for hire. 
John Davidson. 

*(Stanley Park. (B3.) Near City of 



168 



NATURALIST'S GUIDE TO THE AMERICAS 



Vancouver, B. C., Dominion Militia 
Reserve, 1000 acres of northwestern, 
mesophytic, semi-natural, coniferous 
forest; cedar, fir and hemlock formation 
with great variety of thallophytes and 
bryophytes. Marsh and pond with 
natural hygrophytic and hydrophytic 
flora. 

Vancouver, B. C. Electric Car 1 mi. 
west. John Davidson. 

*Garibaldi Park. (A3.) Provincial 
Park Reserve of approximately 360 sq. 
mi. of mountains of volcanic origin (to 
9000 ft.). Several young lakes of which 
Garibaldi Lake 3 mi. long by 1 mi. wide 
is the largest. Many torrential and 
swift creeks, splendid facilities to study 
the movement and action of several 
large glaciers. 

Extensive subalpine slopes and mea- 
dows, rich and varied arctic-alpine flora, 
great variety of habitats and corre- 
sponding plant associations. 

Grizzly bear, timber wolves, goats, 
marmots, grouse ptarmigan. 

Vancouver, B. C., 45 mi. north, 
steamer to Squamish, P. G. E. R. R. to 
Brew Station, walk 10 mi. mountain 
trail to good camping grounds on Black 
Tusk Meadows (5100 ft.). Mountain- 
eering outfit desirable. John Davidson. 

Savary Island. (A3.) Five and one- 
half miles by approximately one mile of 
lowland coniferous forest and semi- 
desert flora, broad-leaved evergreen 
forest, sand dunes at west, and sandy 
and rocky bluffs at east end. Beautiful 
illustration of succession, in transition 
from sandy sea-shore to luxuriant meso- 
phytic forest. Many western sapro- 
phytic and parasitic spermatophytes 
(Monotropaceae, Orobanchaceae, and 
Loranthaceae,'. Marine Littoral (Zos- 
tera). 

Vancouver, B. C., by steamer 82 mi. 
north to Savary Island. Hotel accom- 
modation during season. John David- 
son, and R. S. Sherman. 

BIBLIOGRAPHY 

Whitford, H. N., and Craig, Roland D. 
Forests of British Columbia. Com- 
mission of Conservation, Canada. 
Ottawa, 1918. (A book of 409 pp. 
with pictures and distribution 
maps.) 



2. WASHINGTON 

BY GEO. B. RIGG 

(ACCOUNTS OF ANIMALS BY L. R. DICE, 

HELEN T. GAIGE, AND HORACE 

GUNTHORP) 

I. GENERAL DESCRIPTION 

A. PHYSIOGRAPHIC REGIONS 

The State of Washington has a great 
variety of conditions as to topography 
and climate, resulting in a great diversity 
of plant and animal communities. The 
state is divided north and south by the 
Cascade Mountains. They form a 
general elevation 100 mi. wide in places, 
and throughout much of their extent 
they are 5000 ft. or more in elevation. 
In or near this range are 5 notable moun- 
tains: Rainier (14,526ft.), Adams (12,470 
ft.), Baker (10,827 ft.), Glacier Peak 
(10,436 ft.) and St. Helens (9750 ft.). 
The area of perpetual snow is extensive 
on all of these and glaciers are numerous 
on most of them. At the south side of 
the state along the Columbia River, the 
lowlands of western Washington are 
continuous with those of eastern Wash- 
ington. 

A good many places in the Cascades 
are accessible by train, stage and private 
conveyance. Other portions are acces- 
sible only by horse trail, while still others 
can be reached only by rather strenuous 
trips on foot. 

East of the mountains the region tends 
to be semi-arid, while on the west the 
conditions are much more humid. West 
of the mountains the climate tends to be 
equable, while on the east side the differ- 
ences between the summer temperatures 
and those of the winter are greater. 
East of the mountains there are elevated 
plains of considerable area, the soil of 
which is in some places of volcanic ash 
and in other places is of basaltic origin. 
West of the mountains the characteristic 
soil is largely glacial till or gravelly out- 
wash. The Blue Mountains in the 
southeastern portion of the state have 
an elevation of 5000 ft. The north- 
eastern portion of the state is also some- 
what mountainous. 



NATURAL AREAS AND REGIONS 



The Pacific Ocean borders the state on 
the west, forming in many places, long, 
straight beaches of sand behind which 
sand dunes are often extensive. Such 
dune areas are found in the vicinity of 
Willapa Bay and Grays Harbor. These 
dune regions may be reached from Aber- 
deen, Hoquiam, South Bend or Ilwaco. 
The mouth of the Columbia River 
forms a broad navigable indentation 
between Washington and Oregon. A 
little north of this river is Willapa Bay 
which forms an extensive harbor, largely 
enclosed by a long peninsula of sand 
extending north from the rocks at the 
north side of the mouth of the Columbia 
River. There are extensive sand dunes 
on' this peninsula. Grays Harbor, also 
enclosed partially by sandy peninsulas, 
lies to the north of Willapa Bay. 

In some places, notably toward the 
north the coast of this state is rocky. 
There is a considerable extent of rocky 
coast in the vicinity of Cape Flattery. 

The most extensive indentation of the 
coast is that formed by Puget Sound and 
the Strait of Juan de Fuca. This 
indentation begins with the Strait, which 
forms the northern boundary of the state 
for about 100 mi. and is extended by the 
Sound, which continues south about 80 
mi. The shores of Puget Sound as well 
as those of the numerous islands that it 
contains are very irregular. High bluffs 
of glacial till and of rock are common 
along these shores, though in some places 
there are sandy beaches and in others 
salt marshes are common. 

The Olympic peninsula lies between 
Puget Sound and the Pacific Ocean. It 
is largely mountainous. Mount Olym- 
pus (8150 ft.) has extensive glaciers. 
The peninsula contains several large 
lakes. 

The San Juan Islands lying between 
the Strait of Juan de Fuca and the Gulf 
of Georgia are so attractive from the 
standpoint of their natural features as 
to deserve special mention. The rain 
fall in these islands is scanty usually 
about 20 inches contrasting with an 
average of about 34 inches in Seattle and 



over 100 at Cape Flattery and other points 
on the west coast of the state. There 
are considerable exposures of bare rock 
on these islands, and the soil where 
present is usually thin. There is glacial 
till in some depressions and on some 
slopes, especially on north slopes. Lime 
is abundant at several places on San 
Juan Island. Some of the smaller 
islands of the group are flat topped and 
extremely dry. Mount Constitution 
(2500 ft.) is situated on Orcas Island and 
is the highest point in the islands. It 
commands a view of the whole group of 
the San Juan Islands as well as of some 
of the mainland and Vancouver 
Island. 

B. LAND AND FRESHWATER PLANT AND 
ANIMAL COMMUNITIES 

The plant communities of the state, 
considered in the larger sense, may be 
grouped under seven heads. In prepar- 
ing the following account of them free 
use has been made of the chapter on 
Zonal Distribution of Washington Plants 
in Piper's Flora of Washington. The 
names of the Merriam life zones are 
used in parentheses. (The section on 
sagebrush vegetation was written by 
Ellis B. Harris.) 

1. Northwestern moist coniferous forest 

(see also British Columbia, page 

153, and Oregon, page 181 ) 

A. Plants. 1 The great luxuriant for- 
ests of Douglas fir (Humid Transition 
zone), are continuous over all of western 
Washington that is not included in the 
following belts. Characteristic trees in 
addition to the Douglas fir, which often 
forms 90% of the forest, are giant cedar 
western hemlock (Tsuga heterophylla), 
red alder (Alnus oregona), broadleaf 
maple (Acer macrophyllum) , and vine 
maple (A. circinatum). Large areas of 
virgin forest are still found in this belt. 
They are extremely damp and their 

i Scientific names of plants and animals men- 
tioned in the British Columbia account do not 
occur here. (See page 150.) 



170 



NATURALIST'S GUIDE TO THE AMERICAS 



undergrowth is luxuriant. The ground 
is in many places covered with fallen, 
partially decayed tree trunks overgrown 
with mosses, lichens and liverworts. 
Ferns and large-leaved herbs are com- 
mon. This zone is composed largely of 
evergreens. The large trees are mostly 
evergreen conifers, the number of decid- 
uous trees being relatively small. 
Broad-leaved evergreens are common. 
The madrona (Arbutus menziesii) is a 
tree. Among the shrubs are salal, two 
species of Oregon grape (Berberis nervosa 
and B. aquifolium), the sticky balm 
(Ceanothus velutinus), the rhododendron 
(Rhododendron calif ornicum) , a manza- 
nita and Kinnikinnick (A. uva-ursi}. 
Many herbs such as wild ginger (Asarum 
caudatum) and others remain green all 
winter. 

B. Animals. 1 The notable mammals 
are the shrews (Sorex trowbridgii) , Ben- 
dire water shrew (Neosorex bendirii), 
black bear, bob-cat, deer-mouse, chip- 
munk (Eutamias townsendii), Douglas 
squirrel, silver-gray squirrel (Sciurus 
griseus), flying-squirrel (Glaucomys sa- 
brinus oregonensis) , sewellel (Aplodontia 
rufa), Washington hare (Lepus washing- 
tonii), black-tailed deer, and wolf 
(Cam's gig as}. L. R. D. 

In this forest salamanders abound 
(Triturus torosus, Ambystoma macrodac- 
tylum, A. paroticum, Dicamptodon ensa- 
tus, Rhyacolriton olympicus, Plethodon 
intermedius , P. vandykei, and Ensatina 
eschscholtzii) and the tree-frog (Hyla re- 
gilla.) The two frogs, Rana aurora and 
R. pretiosa, are common, as also is the 
western toad. The discoglossoid toad 
(Ascaphus truei) is numerous locally in 
streams. Of snakes the garter-snakes 
(Thamnophis sirtalis concinnus and T. o. 
ordinoides) are common; the lizard 
(Gerrhonolus principis) is fairly numer- 
ous, especially in clearings. 

Seven rather distinct associations are 
obvious in this area. 

a. Uplands, characterized by salal, 
Oregon grape (Berberis nervosa), the 
Scouler willow (Salix scouleriana) , red 
huckle berry (Vaccinium parvifolium) , 
thimble berry (Rubus parviflorus), red- 
flowered currant (Ribes sanguineum), 



sword fern and bracken fern (Pteris 
aquiliana) . 

b. Bottom lands in which are found 
grand fir broadleaf maple, Oregon ash 
(Fraxinus oregona), cotton wood (Populus 
trichocarpa) , western dogwood (Cornus 
occidentalism, crab apple (Pyrus rivu- 
Zan's), vine maple, devil's club (Fatsia 
horrida), salmon berry and red-berried 
elder (Sambucus callicarpa) . 

c. Gravelly prairies (see also Oregon 
account) on which are found scattered 
oaks (Quercus garryana) mixed with 
Douglas fir at the borders of the areas. 
Western yellow pine is also found. 
These areas are found between Tacoma 
and Olympia and southward. In spring 
and early summer they are carpeted with 
flowers among which are violets, lupines, 
dog-tooth violet (Erythroniumgiganteum) 
shooting star (Dodecatheon latifolium) , 
and many others. In late summer these 
areas are dry and appear very barren. 

d. Sphagnum bogs, whose surface is 
composed mainly of living sphagnum, 
which is underlaid with soft, partially 
decayed organic matter. They occur in 
undrained places frequently bordering 
swamps or lakes. Their most charac- 
teristic flora is Labrador tea, swamp 
laurel (Kalmia polifolia), cranberry 
(Vaccinum) sundew (Drosera rotundi- 

folid) and cotton grass (Eriophorum 
russeolum). Sweet gale is common on 
the borders of these bogs in the interior, 
and the wax myrtle (Myrica californica) 
is found around those near the coast. 
Dwarf birch (Betula glandulosa) also 
occurs around these bogs in the vicinity 
of Seattle and elsewhere. The bunch- 
berry and crow-berry are found in some. 
In the later stages of succession these 
bogs are invaded by trees, usually 
stunted. The western hemlock is usu- 
ally the first invader and grows best in 
them, though almost pure stands of 
western white pine or of lodgepole 
pine are found in some. Cedar is com- 
mon. Douglas fir invades these bogs 
last and grows most poorly in them. 
Deciduous trees are rare in these bogs, 
though the aspen (Populus tremuloides), 
the crab apple (Pyrus rivularis) and some 
willows are common in the very wet 



NATURAL AREAS AND REGIONS 



171 



zone (marginal ditch), found around 
nearly all spha'gnum bogs. 

e. Salt marshes are common along the 
shores of Puget Sound and elsewhere 
along salt water. Many of them are lo- 
cated near the mouths of streams or 
behind high sea beaches. Nearly all of 
them are inundated by salt water at ex- 
treme high tide, and many of them are 
under water at even ordinary high tides. 
Glass-wort and saltgrass are the most 
abundant species. The former is com- 
monly infested with dodder (Cuscuta 
squamigera). Other species frequently 
found in these marshes are seaside 
atriplex (Atriplix littoralis), a fleshy 
composite (Jaumea carnosa), black slat 
wort (Glaux maritima), and seaside ar- 
row grass (Triglochin maritima). The 
higher sea beaches fronting many of 
these marshes commonly have a charac- 
teristic seaside flora which does not 
extend much into the salt marsh proper. 
Among the plants occurring on these 
beaches are the beach pea (Lathyrus 
maritimus), sand spurry (Tissa marina), 
sand-bur and a hog-fennel (Lomatium 
nudicaule) . 

f. Sand dunes are abundant on the 
ocean coast but do not occur on Puget 
Sound. They shift rapidly, over- 
whelming forests, many of which are 
almost pure stands of lodgepole pine. 
Among the plants characteristic of these 
dunes and other shifting sand along the 
shore are two abronias (Abronia acuta- 
lata, and shaggy pea (Lathyrus littoralis), 
a lupine (Lupinus littoralis), a sedge 
(Car ex macropcephala) , Glehnia littoralis 
and many others. 

g. There may also be distinguished a 
coastal strip of forest in which Sitka 
spruce largely replaces Douglas fir. 
Lodgepole pine is also common in places, 
especially around sand dunes and bogs. 
Among the other plants characteristic of 
this strip are fool's huckleberry, a currant 
and the single beauty (Moneses uniflora) . 

#. Arid coniferous forest (western yellow 
pine forest] 

a. Plants. These forests occupy the 
lower portion of the eastern slope of 



the Cascades, the lower levels of the 
Blue mountains, and nearly all of the 
northern portion of eastern Washing- 
ton, including considerable portions of 
Okanogan, Ferry, Stevens and Pend 
Oreille counties. Western yellow pine 
is the dominant tree, though some 
Douglas fir occurs. Among its shrubs 
are nine bark (Opulaster pauciflorus) , 
buck brush (Ceanothus sanguineus) and 
rose (Rosa gymnocarpa) . In the higher 
altitudes huckleberry (V actinium macro- 
phyllum) and pine grass are common in 
these forests. 

b. Animals. The mammals of the 
yellow pine forests of eastern Washing- 
ton are to a considerable extent an 
admixture of elements from the montane 
forests and from the bunch grass. 
Among the more conspicuous forms are 
the coyote (Canis lestes), deer-mouse, 
pocket-gopher, ground-squirrel (Citel- 
lus), chipmunk (Eutamias), golden- 
mantled ground-squirrel (Callospermo- 
philus), and pine squirrel. 

In the yellow pine forests of the 
eastern part of the state the bull-snake 
(Pituophis catenifer catenifer) and the 
racer both occur while garter-snakes 
are found chiefly along streams and the 
rattle-snake (Crotalus or eg anus) chiefly 
in rocky places. 

3. Mixed mountain forest (Canadian 
Zone) 

This ecotone type extends upward 
from the dense mesophytic coniferous 
forest to about 6000 ft. This belt is 
poorly defined, since few species are 
confined to it alone. It forms a continu- 
ous area in the Olympics and the Cas- 
cades and is also found adjacent to the 
subalpine belt where it occurs in eastern 
Washington, as well as in a considerably 
area in Ferry County. Among the 
trees found in this belt in western 
Washington are western white pine 
lodgepole pine (murrayana), grand fir, 
western hemlock, Douglas fir, silver 
fir (Abies amabalis) and noble fir (A. 
nobilis), while in eastern Washington. 
Engelmann spruce and western larch 
replace the last two species. Among the 



172 



NATURALIST'S GUIDE TO THE AMERICAS 



shrubs of this belt are blue huckleberry 
(Vaccinum ovalifolium) , fool's huckle- 
berry (Menziesia ferruginea), mountain 
box (Pachistima myrsinites), blackberry 
(Rubus nivalis), and dwarf cornel or 
bunch-berry, (Cornus canadensis). 
Among the herbs are Clintonia (C. 
uniflora), fairy-bells (Disporum ore- 
ganum) and two species of wood-sorrel 
(Oxalis oregana and 0. trillifolia) . 

Mammals. The following species of 
mammals occur more or less generally 
in the montane forests over the state: 
raccoon (Procyon psora pacifica), marten 
(Martes americana group), black bear, 
cougar (Felis concolor group), bob-cat 
(Lynx fasciatus group), Cascade redfox 
(Vulpes cascadensis, in Cascades), yel- 
low-haired porcupine (Erethizon epixan- 
thum), deer-mouse (Peromyscus manicu- 
latus group), woodrat (Neotoma cinerea 
occidentalis), red-backed vole (Evotomys), 
jumping-mouse (Zapus), chipmunk 
(Eutamias towns endii) , snowshoe hare 
(Lepus bairdii group), black-tailed deer 
(Odocoileus columbianus) , and elk (Cer- 
vus canadensis occidentalis) . In the 
Cascade and Olympic mountains the 
Douglas squirrel (Sciurus douglasii) 
is common, while in the mountains of 
eastern Washington it is replaced by the 
pine squirrel (Sciurus hudsonicus 
richardsonii) . L. R. D. 
^ Among the characteristic reptiles 
and amphibians of the montane forests 
in the eastern parts of the state are the 
rubber-snake (Charina bottae), the racer 
(Coluber constrictor mormon}, and 
especially along streams the garter-snake 
(Thamnophis ordinoides ordinoides), the 
western toad (Bufo boreas boreas) and 
the western frog (Rana pretiosa). 

4. Sub alpine forest (Hudsonian Zone) 

The Hudsonian Zone is characterized 
by alpine trees tending to become pros- 
trate at their extreme limitst This is found 
largely in the Cascades and the Olym- 
pics, though there is a considerable area 
of it in the Blue Mountains in the south- 
eastern corner of the state, and a line 
of it in the extreme northeastern corner 



in the Kaniksu National Forest. There 
are also five isolated patches of it on 
mountain peaks of the northeast- 
ern portion of the state (Bonaparte, 
Tonk, Baldy, Calispell, and Chewaiah). 
The trees found in it are alpine fir, 
Alaska cedar, Chamaecyparis-nootka- 
tensis, mountain hemlock, white-bark 
pine. Among the shrubs of this zone 
are a juniper (Juniperus communis si- 
berica), the white rhododendron, a cur- 
rant, and the western mountain ash. 
Bear grass is conspicuous and abundant 
in places. 

5. Alpine meadow (Arctic Zone) 

a. Plants. This belt is sharply de- 
fined and is similar in conditions and to 
a certain extent in species to the arctic 
meadows of the extreme northern regions 
of North America, many of the species 
found in this belt in Washington being 
common at or near sea level in western 
and northern Alaska. This belt is 
confined to the higher portions of the 
Cascades and the Olympics, and is not 
continuous, consisting largely of isolated 
patches. Among the plants charateris- 
tic of this region are a low bush huckle 
berry (Vaccinum deliciosum) producing 
delicious fruit in late summer, a butter- 
cup (Ranunculus suksdorfii), a marsh 
marigold, a shooting star (Dodecatheon 
jefferyi), a pasque flower (Pulsatilla 
occidentalis) , two lupines (Lupinus sub- 
alpinus and L. Lyallii), a painted cup 
(Castillejaoreopola), a cinquefoil (Poten- 
tilla flabellifolia), red heather, white 
heather, a blue gentian (Gentiana caly- 
cosa), a crimson monkey flower (Minulus 
lewisii), several arnicas (Arnica spp.), 
a saxifrage, partridge foot (Lutkea 
pectinata) and three grasses (Festuca 
viridula, Poa arctica, and Argosteris 
rossae). 

b. Animals. Alpine summits. Char- 
acteristic mammals of the treeless 
alpine summits of the Cascade Moun- 
tains are the hoary marmot (Marmota 
caligata cascadensis), pika (Ochotona 
princeps brunnescens) , bighorn sheep 
(Ovis canadensis calif orniana) , and 



NATURAL AREAS AND REGIONS 



173 



Rocky Mountain goat (Oreamnos ameri- 
canus). The extensive talus slopes are 
the habitat of the marmot and pika. 
The marmot (Marmota olympus) is also 
found in the higher altitudes of the 
Olympic Mountains. 

6. BUNCH GRASS PRAIRIE 

(The bunch grass community with 
the western yellow pine community 
makes up Merriam's Arid Transition 
Zone.) 

a. Plants. The bunch grass area is 
quite extensive and is bordered above 
by the western yellow pine forest and 
below by the sagebrush area. It oc- 
cupies portions of Okanogan, Douglas, 
Lincoln, Spokane, Adams, Whitman, 
Walla Walla, Columbia, Garfield and 
Asotin counties. It is grass covered 
and mostly treeless. Willows (Salix 
spp.), haw (Crataegus brevispina), aspen 
and cottonwood (Populus trichocarpa) 
are the principal trees and are found 
mostly along streams and around 
springs. Undershrubs are snowberry 
(Symphoricarpos racemosus), roses (Rosa 
nutkana and R. pisocarpa), gooseberries 
(Ribes inerma and R. irriguum} and 
a low birch (Betula microphylla) . 
Bunch grass (Agropyron spicatum) is 
the most characteristic plant of this 
community. Other plants are June 
grass (Poa sandbergii), lupines (Lupinus 
ornatus, L. sericeus and L. wyethii), 
sunflowers (Helianthella douglasii and 
Balsamorhiza sagittatd), and Indian 
paint brush (Castilleja miniota). The 
vegetation in this area is frequently 
more luxuriant on north slopes than on 
south. 

6. Animals. Some of the characteris- 
tic forms of the bunch-grass of eastern 
Washington are the coyote, mountain 
weasel (Mustela arizonensis) , skunk 
(Mephitis occidentalis major), badger 
(Taxidea taxus neglecta), pocket-mouse 
(Perognathus), pocket-gopher, ground- 
squirrels, and white-tailed jackrabbit 
(Lepus townsendii). In the willow and 
cottonwood timber along the streams 
occur a number of other forms, such as 
the shrew (Sorex vagrans dobsoni), 



mink (Mustela vison energumenos) , har- 
vest-mouse (Reithrodontomys megalotis 
nigrescens), deer-mouse, muskrat (Onda- 
tra zibethica osoyoosensis), and beaver 
(Castor) L.R.D. 

The bull-snake is the most conspicuous 
reptile of the bunch grass areas. Here 
also occur the racer and the skink 
(Eumeces skiltonianus) . The garter- 
snake (Thamnophis o. ordinoides) the 
western toad, the leopard-frog (Rana 
pipiens), the western tree-frog (Hyla 
regilla), and the pond-turtle (Chrysemys 
bellii bellii) occur chiefly along streams. 
H. T. G. 

7. Sagebrush semi desert (see also in 
British Columbia and Oregon 
accounts) (Upper Sonoran Zone) 

a. Plants. This community is almost 
wholly included within a line surround- 
ing the Columbia basin below an eleva- 
tion varying from 1200 to 1700 ft. depend- 
ing upon slope and precipitation. 
Where the elevation exceeds 1700 ft. 
or the rainfall about 12 in. sagebrush 
gives way to bunch grass. The annual 
precipitation of this basin, as is typical 
of such districts, is low, ranging from 
6 to 12 in. 

Sagebrush is the most conspicuous 
plant of the area, though according to 
Piper, there are frequently found rabbit 
brush, hop sage (Grayia spinosa), 
antelope brush (Kunzia tridentata), and 
in alkaline situations, greasewood. 
There also occur frequent and character- 
istic patches of prickly pear (Opuntia 
polycantha). The sagebrush often 
reaches a height of from 8 to 12 ft., and 
becomes a veritable thicket, though in 
some localities it does not become more 
than a few inches high. The appearance 
of an extensive sagebrush plain is that 
of a desert waste. Another feature of 
the sagebrush district is the occurrence 
here and there of dunes of drifting sand. 
In some places these dunes practically 
wipe out all forms of vegetation as they 
march on their age-long journey. In 
their march, however, they are closely 
followed by the ever-present sagebrush. 
Along the coulees, on the hills which 



174 



NATURALIST'S GUIDE TO THE AMERICAS 



reach an elevation too great to be ir- 
rigated, on the basalt stab lands and 
along the bluffs bordering the Columbia 
river are extensive tracts which must 
remain permanently sagebrush. 

b. Animals. In the sagebrush of the 
Columbia River basin occur such typical 
forms as the coyote, badger, pocket- 
mouse, kangaroo-rat (Dipodomys ordii 
columbianus) , ground-squirrel, black- 
tailed jackrabbit (Lepus californicus 
waJlawalla) , and cottontail rabbit. In 
the willows along the smaller streams 
are found the shrew, harvest-mouse, 
deer-mouse, muskrat, beaver and o+her 
riparian species. L. R. D. 

In the sagebrush occur the rattlesnake, 
bull-snake, racer, two small lizards 
(Scelopors occidentalis occidentalis and 
S. graciosus gracilis), the horned toad 
(Phrynosoma d. douglassii] and spade- 
foot toad (Scaphiopus hammondii). 
Along streams occur the garter-snake 
and the leopard-frog. 

C. MARINE VEGETATION 

The bladder kelp (Nereocystisluetke- 
ana] forms the most conspicuous feature 
of the marine vegetation of Puget 
Sound. The huge size of the individual 
plants, the fact that the bladder-like 
float is always at the surface of the 
water, and the fact that it forms such 
dense beds covering large areas, bring 
it to the attention of every observer 
who crosses the waters of Puget Sound. 
A good bed may be seen at Lincoln 
Beach, Seattle, and another at Point 
Defiance, Tacoma. Especially good 
beds are found in the vicinity of the 
Puget Sound Biological Station (Friday 
Harbor) and at other points in the San 
Juan Islands. 

Another kelp (Macrocystis pyrifera) 
forms beds of considerable size near 
Neah Bay and Cape Flattery. The 
sea palm (Postelsia palmaeformis) grows 
in the same region, forming dense clus- 
ters in the littoral zone on rocks that 
are exposed to violent waves. Ptery- 
gophora californica, a perennial kelp 
with thick, stout stems, grows in the 
same region and is commonly washed up 



on the beaches. The feather boa kelp 
(Egregia menziesii) is also common in 
this region and also around San Juan 
Island. 

Leaf-like kelps of the following genera 
are common in the waters of Puget 
Sound : Laminaria, Cymathaere, Agarum 
Alaria and Costaria. Several other 
kelps are also found in certain places. 
Rockweed (Fucus sp.) is common along 
many of the rocky shores. 

The sea lettuce (Ulva sp.) and other 
green algae are also common in the lit- 
toral zone. Red algae, both filamentous 
and thalloid, are found in the littoral 
zone and are also commonly dredged at 
the Biological Station at Friday Harbor. 
Many of the filamentous forms are 
unusually beautiful. Some blue-green 
algae (e.g. Nostoc) are also found. 
Mineral-encrusted red algae (Ampiroa 
and Corallina) are abundant in some 
places. 

Three species of seed plants are found 
in salt water along the shores of this 
state, especially in Puget Sound. Eel- 
grass forms dense growths in shallow 
waters, and two species of sea basket- 
grass (Phyllospadix scouleri and P. 
torreyi) grow on rocks exposed to wave 
action. 

Pollution 

In general the waters of the Pacific 
Ocean, the Strait of Juan de Fuca, 
and Puget Sound, where they border 
the State of Washington, are not badly 
polluted. There is considerable pol- 
lution, however, in the vicinity of the 
salmon canneries during the summer. 
The sewage from some of the cities 
(e.g. Seattle) is also discharged into the 
Sound. At times oil from boats covers 
the surface of the water in places, and 
there is more or less of general refuse 
near cities and along lines of travel of 
boats. Fortunately the sea gulls act 
as scavengers and take care of a good 
deal of the refuse. 

Many of the fresh water lakes are 
practically free from pollution, though 
those in or near the cities are commonly 
more or less polluted. For example, 
Green Lake in Seattle is badly polluted, 



NATURAL AREAS AND REGIONS 



175 



but measures have now been taken to 
stop pollution and improve conditions 
by running pure water through the lake. 
Some small lakes are badly polluted with 
saw mill waste. 

Mountain streams in their upper 
courses are mostly unpolluted except 
occasional instances where concentrator 
water or other material from mines is 
allowed to run into a small stream. In 
their lower courses many of them receive 
the sewage from the towns along their 
banks, and considerable refuse is also 
thrown into them. The amount of this 
sewage, however, is small relative to 
the volume of flow in the rivers and the 
pollution is so soon taken care of that 
the water supply for some of the towns 
is taken from the rivers. The Skyko- 
mish River is an illustration of the con- 
ditions mentioned. 

II. NATIONAL PARK 

*MOUNT RAINIER NATIONAL PARK (A3) 

Area 207,360 acres. Elevation of 
summit 14,526 ft. Has 28 glaciers, 6 of 
which appear to originate at the very 
summit of the mountain. The glaciers 
and snow fields give rise to numerous 
precipitous mountain streams. Fairly 
dense forest, mostly coniferous, up to 
4000 ft. Among the conifers are Doug- 
las fir, western red cedar, hemlock, grand 
fir, silver fir, noble fir, and western white 
pine. Among the deciduous trees are 
maple, alder, and cotton wood. Gradual 
decrease in density of forest up to 
5000 ft. At and above that elevation 
the trees are scattered and stunted. 
Many rocky ridges and pumice fields 
above timber line. Large meadows 
above forests, characterized by rich 
subalpine flower gardens, containing 
heathers, daisies, anemones, columbines, 
Erythroniums, larkspurs, lupines and 
other flowers. The park has 150 mi. 
of trail including one encircling the 
mountain. 

Tacoma Seattle. Distance by auto 
road from Tacoma 58 miles, from 
Seattle 88 miles. Daily stages from 
both places to south side of mountain. 
Tacoma Eastern R. R. from Tacoma to 



Ashford. Stage from Ashford (6 mi.) 
to south side of park. Guides and pack 
animals also available. 

Auto road to north side of mountain 
from Enumclaw. North side also 
reached by trail from Fairfax (R. R 
station). Pack animals available at 
Fairfax. Automobile road from Fairfax 
up the Carbon River extending several 
miles within the park. 

III. STATE PARKS AND RESERVED PARK 
SITES 

A. PARKS 

1. *Chuckanut State Park. (B4.) A 
tract of 20 acres situated 6 mi. south of 
Bellingham on Chuckanut Drive. It 
fronts on salt water, part of the shore 
being sandy beach and part rocky. It 
has some virgin timber, mostly fir, 
with some alder. Bellmghamt, 6 mi. 
south (a). 

2. Jackson State Park. (D4.) A half 
acre not in a state of nature, preserved 
for historical reasons. Toledo. Also 
reached from WinlockJ, which is on 
Nor. Pacific Ry. 5 mi. s.e. (a). 

5. *M or an State Park. (B3.) A tract 
of 2600 acres on the south side of Mount 
Constitution on Orcas Island in San 
Juan County. The elevation of the 
summit of the mountain is 2400 ft. 
and the park extends almost to the 
summit. This park includes some fine 
stands of Douglas fir and of western 
hemlock, as well as some lodgepole 
pine. Practically all has been burned 
over within the last 25 years, and in 
places a pure stand of lodgepole pine 
has occupied the burns. The large 
firs and hemlocks were not killed by 
these fires. Some untimbered rather 
xerophytic areas in this park will be 
valued by naturalists on account of their 
flora of ferns, Selaginella and other 
plants. The park includes a lake li mi. 
long and | mi. wide. Deer are numer- 
ous. A careful estimate puts the num- 
ber in the park and the 2000 acre game 
preserve adjoining it, at 1500. 

Seattle!, 75 mi. north by Steamer; 5 
mi. north (h) or (w) from OlgaJ or East 
SoundJ. 

It is hoped and expected that the 



176 



NATURALIST'S GUIDE TO THE AMERICAS 



State Parks committee may secure also 
the tract including the summit of the 
mountain, a sphagnum bog and some 
water-front on salt water. 

4. *Deception Pass State Park. (D3.) 
This comprises 2000 acres lying on both 
sides of Deception Pass. The park 
includes four islands two in the pass 
and two east of it. There is a very 
strong tide through the pass and it 
changes suddenly. It is passable for 
small boats at slack tide only. Large 
beds of bladder kelp occur in the tide- 
ways around the pass. There are several 
fine sandy beaches and numerous rocky 
cliffs with sparse timber and other vege- 
tation in the crevices. The timber of 
this park is mostly fir, of the stunted 
and distorted sort commonly found in 
poor soil in exposed situations along 
salt water. 

Seattle!, 70 mi. north (or Everett! 50 
mi. north) Great Northern Ry. 14 mi. 
south (a) from AnacortesJ. Ferry ser- 
vice across the pass. 

5. *Crawford State Park. (A4.) A tract 
of 40 acres including the entrance to 
Gardner Cave. The cave is extensive and 
is not fully explored. The park is hilly 
and is in the western yellow pine zone. 

Spokane!, 40 mi. n.e. to Newport!, 
thence 50 mi. n. to Metaline Falls! from 
which the park is 6 mi. n.e. by trail. 

6. Money Creek Park. (D4.) A tract 
of 18 acres near the Skykomish River 
among the Cascade mountains. It is on 
the Cascade Scenic Highway, and is 
privately owned. Heavily timbered, 
tall, beautiful Douglas firs and some fine 
cedar, plenty of vine maple; devil's club 
and other plants of rich coniferous forest. 

Everett!, 50 mi. east by Gr. Nor. Ry. 
or stage, 1 mi. s.e. (w) or (a) from Miller 
River!. 

7. *Lewis and Clark State Park. (A4.) 
An area of 520 acres of virgin coniferous 
timber with the undergrowth practically 
undisturbed. The smaller animals are 
also practically undisturbed. The tract 
is nearly level and has a small stream 
flowing through it. On Pacific Highway 
between Chehalis and Toledo (12 mi. 



north of Chehalis). Chehalis is 50 mi. 
by rail or auto south of Tacoma. 

B. RESERVED PARK SITES 

The following park sites have been 
selected, although formal reservation 
has not, in all cases, been made. These 
areas are of interest at present, mainly 
to automobile tourists only. Local 
inquiries will be necessary in most cases 
in order to find them. 

*Clarke County. (B4.) Five acres, 
located just north of Amboy. Portland, 
Oregon! 30 mi. north Nor. Pac-Ry. to 
Woodland! Wash., thence 15 mi. east (a). 

Grays Harbor County. (B4.) (Sec- 
tion 36, township 19 north, range 7 west.) 
South and east of the county road. 
Montesano! or Satsop!. 

*Five acres bordering on Boone Street, 
Aberdeen. On Westport Highway Aber- 
deen!, or Hoquiam!. 

*King County. (B4.) Five acres on 
the Sunset Highway, east of Issaquah. 

*Five acres bordering road on east side 
of tract. Vashon Island. Seattle! 15 
mi. southwest by stage and ferry to 
Vashon Heights!. 

3.92 acres, on south side of main 
traveled highway from Seattle! to North 
Bend!, near Redmond!. 

Mason County. (B4.) Located east 
of the state road and including all tide 
lands in front of lot 1. On Olympic 
Highway. Lilliwaup!. 

*Three acres bordering on Hood Canal 
and on the Navy Yard Highway. 
Union!. 

Okanogan County. (B4.) Located in 
lot 3, on Whitestone Lake. Sixteen 
miles s.w. of Oroville!. 

*Pierce County. (B4.) Section 36, 
township 18 north, range 3 east. A 
strip of land lying on each side of the 
county road (now National Park High- 
way). Twenty-five miles south of 
Tacoma!. 

Spokane County. (B4.) Section 16, 
township 24 north, range 45 east; on a 
county road and creek. On paved high- 
way 22 mi. from Spokane!. 



NATURAL AREAS AND REGIONS 



177 



IV. BIRD AND GAME SANCTUARIES 

A. FEDERAL 

All islands on the west coast of the 
state from Cape Flattery to the mouth 
of the Columbia River are federal bird 
reservations. The birds on these islands 
are mostly sea birds. No game birds 
nest on these islands. 

B. STATE 

A game preserve one mi. wide is estab- 
lished all around Lake Washington. 
This closes an area of about 75 sq. mi. 
Mercer Island in the lake is also closed 
to hunting. The island is about 6 mi. 
long and two miles wide. There are 
deer on the island. Lake Washington 
is over 20 mi. long and has an irregular 
shore line. 

c. COUNTIES 
1. King County 

a. Foss River Valley. (B2.) Sno- 
qualmie National Forest, virgin except 
trails. Skykomisht (w), Tonga (w). 

6. Lake Dorothy. (Al.) Closed to 
fishing. It is about two mi. long and f 
mi. wide. It is in the Cascade moun- 
tains south of Skykomish. Inquire at 
office of King County Game Commission, 
Court House, Seattle, for method of 
reaching the lake. 

8. Chelan County. (H8) 

a. Four areas aggregating 151,000 
acres on which no mammals or birds can 
be killed for an indefinite period, and 
no grazing permits can be issued. Set 
aside by county Game Commissioner 
with assistance of forest officials. 

V. OTHER PRESERVED AREAS 
A. SPOKANE J 

1. *Up River Park. (B3.) Area 464 
acres. Situated along both sides of 
Spokane River. On north side, rugged 
hills whose southern slopes are barren 
except scattering western yellow pine. 
Many vernal plants such as Ranunculus 
glaberrimus, Olsynium grandiflorum, 



Frittilaria pudica, Tellima tenella, and 
Draba verna; later Balsamorhiza sagit- 
tata, Sedum douglasii, Piperia sp., and 
various lupines and composites are 
found. This park is characteristic of 
the semi-arid region in which Spokane is 
situated. Ellis B. Harris. 

2. *Hangman Park. (B3.) Area 294 
acres. Situated in a deep canyon in 
Hangman Creek valley. Bordered on 
both sides by high, sandy hills or rocky 
cliffs. More moist than Up River Park 
because subirrigated from the creek. 
Has much the same flora as Up River 
Park, but has also willows, dogwoods 
(Corn-its stolonifera and C. occidentalis), 
alder, elderberry roses (Rosa nutkana 
and R. pisocarpa). The park is in a 
totally wild state and is likely to remain 
so for several years. Ellis B. Harris. 

3. *Indian Canyon Park. (B3.) Is 
in a deep gorge. Besides the plants 
mentioned in the preceding descriptions 
it has also Philadelphus lewisii, Ber- 
beris aquifolium, B. repens, Holodiscus 
discolor, Spiraea mensiesii, S. corym- 
bosa, Opulaster pauciflorus, amelanchier 
florida, A. cusickii, Rubus pauciflorus, 
R. leucodermis, Arctostaphylos uvu- 
ursi, Vagnera amplexicaulis, V. stellata, 
and Veratrum calif ornicum. Ellis B. 
Harris. 

4. *Mount Spokane. (B4.) A tract 
of 220 acres, including the summit of the 
mountain and a 60 ft. roadway from its 
base. The conifers on this tract include 
grand fir, alpine fir, Engelmann spruce, 
western larch, western white pine, lodge- 
pole pine, giant cedar, Rocky Mountain 
juniper (Juniperus scopulorum), and 
Pacific yew (Taxus brevifolia). The 
orchids include Cypripedium parvi- 
folium, Corallorhiza striata, and Pera- 
mium decipiens. Many of the plants 
listed under the city parks of Spokane 
are also found on this tract. Ellis B. 
Harris. 

B. TACOMAt 

1. * Point Defiance Park. (B3.) Area 
over 600 acres. Largely coniferous 
forest with some deciduous trees. 



178 



NATURALIST'S GUIDE TO THE AMERICAS 



Broad-leaved evergreens, native shrubs, 
flowers, ferns, and mosses, marine water 
front. Good kelp bed (Nereocystis) 
easily accessible by rowboat. 

8. *Spanaway Park. (B4.) Area 477 
acres. Borders on Spanaway Lake, 
about 20 miles south of the city. Prairie 
vegetation. Oak trees. Reached by 
electric car. 

8. *Green River Water Shed. (B3.) 
A tract 27 miles long and 13 miles wide 
along the Green River in King County. 
Hunting and fishing prohibited. Confer 
with city officials of Tacoma before 
visiting. 

4. * Little Nisqually Watershed. (B3.) 
Area 24,000 acres. Located in Pierce 
County. 

5. *Lake Cushman Power Site. (B3.) 
Area 7500 acres. Situated at Lake 
Cushman, Mason County. Part of it 
will be flooded, but the rest will be left 
in a state of nature. 

C. BELLINGHAMt 

1. *Whatcom Falls Park. (B4.) Area 
about 100 acres. Coniferous forest with 
ravine and creek. 

2. Cornwall Park. (B4.) Area 150 
acres. Coniferous trees, natural water- 
fall, ravine and meandering creek. 

3. *Pairhaven Park. (B4.) Area 10 
acres. Coniferous trees, ravine and 
small creek. 

D. SEATTLE! 

1. *Roosevelt Park. Area 50 acres. 
A deep ravine with some level, higher 
land on each side. Fir, hemlock and 
cedar predominate. Alder, maple and 
yew also found. Undergrowth of salal, 
Oregon grape and huckleberry. Flow- 
ers, ferns and mosses abundant. Some 
liverworts. Situated f mile north of 
campus of University of Washington. 
Trails. 

2. *Schmitz Park. (B4.) Area 45 
acres. Native forest with dense under- 
growth. Ravines and brook. Natural 
vegetation undisturbed. Trails. 

8. *Seward Park. (B4.) Area 193 
acres. Consists of a peninsula extend- 



ing into Lake Washington. Native for- 
est with dense undergrowth. Trails. 

4. "Lincoln Beach Park. (B4.) Area 
2.8 acres. Consists of about 500 feet of 
water front on Puget Sound and a 
wooded ravine extending up the steep 
slope to the street car line. Abundance 
of marine algae accessible at low tide. 
Good kelp bed (Nereocystis} about 100 
ft. from shore. 

5. * Cedar River Watershed. (C2.) A 
tract 25 mi. long and 8 mi. wide in- 
cluding the Cedar River, its valley and 
Cedar Lake, located in King County. 
Hunting and fishing prohibited. Log- 
ging has been carried on, but much natu- 
ral vegetation is still undisturbed. Con- 
fer with city authorities before visiting. 

6. *The Skagit Power Site. (C2.) 
When the upper dam is completed the 
Skagit River as far back as the Canadian 
boundary (some 25 mi. or more) will 
become a lake. This will be an oppor- 
tunity to study the colonization of 
plants at a new water level. The entire 
drainage basin tributary to this power 
site is about 1200 sq. mi., the northern 
portion of it being in Canada. 

E. KITSAP LODGE (C2) 

Area 70 acres. Located in Kitsap 
County. Owned by the Mountaineers. 
Coniferous forest with some deciduous 
trees. Hills, ravines and stream. Soil 
of hills very gravelly, supporting xero- 
phytic vegetation. Pine trees, rho- 
dodendron, manzanita, kinnikinnick, 
mountain box, flowers, ferns, and 
mosses. Confer with officers of the 
Mountaineers in Seattle in regard to 
visiting. 

*P. BUNCH GRASS VEGETATION (B4) 

Area 3 acres. On the farm of the 
Washington State College, PullmanJ. 
Splendidly representative of the condi- 
tions that are rapidly disappearing from 
Eastern Washington. F. L. Pickett. 

*G. QUINATJLT LAKE AREA (A3) 

Seven thousand acres bordering on 
Lake Quinault in the Olympic peninsula. 



NATURAL AREAS AND REGIONS 



179 



It includes about three-fourths of the 
shore line of the lake (though the lake 
itself is a part of the Quinault Indian 
Reservation) and extends to the moun- 
tain summits on the north and east. 
It lies entirely in the Olympic National 
Forest, except that 40 acres of privately 
owned land is included. It has been set 
aside by the district forester as a recrea- 
tion area whose scenic features are not 
to be disturbed. It is under the super- 
vision of the United States Forest Serv- 
ice. A summer cottage area has been 
established along the lake where a 
limited amount of cutting is permitted 
under supervision. 

A large part of the 7000 acres is covered 
with virgin forest, much of it very dense 
and consisting largely of enormous trees 
of Douglas fir. There is also some cedar. 
Ferns and other undergrowth are abun- 
dant, and lichens and moss cover many 
of the tree trunks and branches pro- 
fusely. The original animal communi- 
ties are practically undisturbed. Deer, 
bear, cougars and bob-cats are common. 

TacomaJ, 60 mi. west, Nort. Pac. Ry. 
to HoquiamJ, State 35 mi. north from 
there to Olsonf, on Lake Quinault. 
Roads (a) to some parts. Trails (w) or 
(h) to some others. Guides usually 
available. 

Marine preserve 

A marine preserve was created by the 
1923 legislature of the State of Washing- 
ton. It is composed entirely of the 
shores of certain islands and the waters 
lying between these islands. It com- 
prises San Juan County and also Cypress 
Island which is in Skagit County. The 
act provides that with the exception of 
bladder kelp (Nereocystis Luetkena) 
and of articles used for food, there shall 
be no collecting of plants or animals 
below the high tide line, except by per- 
mission of the director of the Puget 
Sound Biological Station. The object 
is to prevent the depletion of the plants 
and animals of the sea in the region 
about the Station. The reason for 
excepting the bladder kelp is that it 



often interferes with fish traps. The 
station has 485 acres of land mostly 
cutover timber land which is held as a 
wild life preserve. One mile northeast 
from Friday Harbor, Wash. G. B. R. 

VI. OTHER AREAS THAT SHOULD BE 
PRESERVED 

1. Wooded area. (H8.) Area 3 acres; 
deciduous trees ; includes a flooded plain; 
has typical vegetation of a stream mar- 
gin of the region. Much frequented by 
birds. Walla Walla. H. S. Brode. 

2. Steppe area. (B3.) Of 160 acres 
or more in Walla Walla County. Hills 
and river; cottonwood and willow; 
native grass land. Prescottt, Waits- 
burg:}:. Lee R. Dice. 

S. Area along Snake River. (C3.) In 
Walla Walla County; area two square 
miles or more, extends one mile along 
the river, including the river bank, and 
south two miles; includes river valley, 
high basaltic cliff, canyon walls, and a 
good area of bunch grass on top of hill. 
Utilized at present for grazing only. 
Lyon's Ferry. Lee R. Dice. 

4. Sage Brush. (C3.) An area of one 
square mile about two miles east of 
Wallulaf and extending north from the 
Walla Walla River. Typical sagebrush. 
Area should include a small portion of 
the Walla Walla River in order to preserve 
the native willow conditions along the 
stream. Walla Walla*, Walla Walla 
County, 30 mi. west via O. W. Ry. to 
Wallula. Lee. R. Dice. 

5. A forested area of about 50 acres 
around Baker Lake in Whatcom County. 
Coniferous and deciduous trees; flood 
plains; talus slopes and swamps; moun- 
tains, canyons and lake shore; beaver, 
deer. Seattle. Great Northern Ry. 
100 mi. NE. to Concrete!, thence 20 mi. 
north by trail (w) or (h). H. B. Ward. 

6. A sphagnum bog (cranberry marsh), 
including a bog lake. One hundred and 
sixty acres should be preserved. This 
includes about 50 acres of typical 
sphagnum bog with lake in center; in- 
cludes also about 30 acres of hard hack 



180 



NATURALIST'S GUIDE TO THE AMERICAS 



swamp, some logged off land and a large 
portion of Graham Lake which borders 
the bog. Bog flora: Labrador tea, 
swamp laurel, cranberry, sundew, lodge- 
pole pine. Seattlef, 20 miles N. E., 
N.P.R.R., 1 mi. south (w) Maltbyt 

7. Salt Marsh. (B4.) Central por- 
tion covered with such salt marsh plants 
as Salicornia, Atriplex, Distichlis, Tri- 
glochin and Glaux. Dodder is parasitic 
on several of these. Along each shore is 
a gravelly, wave-built ridge with a flora 
of Gaertneria, Lomatium and grasses. 
Vegetation not likely to be disturbed at 
present. There are numerous other salt 
marshes in the region. One outside of 
the city could be obtained much cheaper, 
but no others seen show all of the plant 
communities found in and around this 
one. Situated in the Gity of Seattle 
between Fort Lawton and the West 
Point Light house. 

8. Wooded ravines on the campus of the 
University of Washington, Seattle. (B4.) 
About 10 acres of forest. Conifers, 
deciduous trees, broadleaf evergreens, 
native flowers, ferns (7 species), mosses, 
liverworts. 

9. Swamp and ravine on the south side 
of Liberty Lake in Spokane County. This 
includes very characteristic swamp and 
ravine vegetation. The ravine is deep, 
and has a mountain stream in it. Ellis 
B. Harris. 

VII. LITERATURE LIST 
Botany 

1. Allen. Forests of Mount Rainier 

National Park, 1916, 32 pages, in- 
cluding 27 illustrations, 20 cents. 
Contains descriptions of the forest 
cover and of the principal species. 

2. Document 190, Sixty-second Con- 

gress, second session, Washington, 
D. C., 1912. Contains several 
papers on kelps of this region. 

3. Flett. Features of the flora of 

Mount Rainier National Park. 
1916, 48 pages, including 40 illus- 
trations, 25 cents. Contains de- 
scriptions of the flowers, trees 
and shrubs in the park. 

4. Frye and Rigg. Northwest Flora, 

University Book Store, Seattle, 
(Out of print, but may be con- 
sulted at libraries.) 

5. Frye, Rigg and Crandall. The size 

of kelps on the Pacific Coast of 
North America. Bot. Gaz. Vol. 
60, pp. 473-482, 1915. 



6. Hotson. Sphagnum as a Surgical 

Dressing. Northwest Division 
Red Cross. Copies of this may be 
had free, from Prof. Hotson, 
Univ. of Wash., Seattle. 

7. Piper and Beattie. Flora of the 

Northwest Coast. State College, 
Pullman, Wash. 

8. Publications of the Puget Sound 

Biological Station, Friday Harbor, 
Wash. Dr. T. C. Frye, Director, 
Univ. of Wash., Seattle. Many 
of the papers in these volumes deal 
with plants and animals of the 
Puget Sound region. 

9. Report 100, U. S. Dept. of Agricul- 

ture. Contains papers on kelp of 
the West Coast and Alaska. 
10. Weaver. A study of the root sys- 
tems of prairie plants of south- 
eastern Washington. PI. World, 
Vol. 14, pp. 227. 1915. 



Fauna 

Bovard, J. F., and Osterud, H. L. 
Partial list of the animals yielding 
embryological material at the 
Puget Sound Biological Station. 
Publ. Puget Sound Biol. Sta., 
2: 127-137. 1918. 

Bush, Mildred. Key to the Echino- 
derms of Friday Harbor, Wash- 
ington. Publ. Puget Sound Biol. 
Sta., 2: 17-44, 58 figs. 1918. 

Dawson, William Leon, and Bowles, 
John Hooper. The birds of Wash- 
ington. 2 vols., 997 pp., numerous 
illust. Seattle, 1909. 

Dice, Lee Raymond. The Mammals of 
Southeastern Washington. Jour. 
Mamm., 1: 10-22, pis. 1-2. 1919. 

Johnson, Herbert Perlin. The P9ly- 
chaeta of the Puget Sound region. 
Proc. Bost. Soc. Nat. Hist., 29: 
381-437. 1901. 

Jordan, David Starr, and Starks, Ed- 
ward Chapin. The fishes of Puget 
Sound. Proc. Calif. Acad. Sci., 
2nd- ser., 5: 785-855, pis. 74-104. 
1896. 

Kincaid, Trevor. An annotated list of 
Puget Sound fishes. Dept. of 
Fisheries, State of Wash., 51 pp., 
114 figs. 1919. 

Oldroyd, Ida S. The marine shells 
of Puget Sound and vicinity. 
Publ. Puget Sound Biol. Sta., 
4:1, illus. 1924. 

Taylor, Walter P. A distributional and 
ecological study of Mount Rainier, 
Washington. Ecology, 3 : 214-236, 
4 figs. 1922. 

Way, Evelyn. Brachyura and crab-like 
Anomura of Friday Harbor, Wash- 
ington. Publ. Puget Sound Biol. 
Sta., 1: 349-382, 28 figs. 1917. 



NATURAL AREAS AND REGIONS 



181 



3. OREGON' 

BY THORNTON T. MUNGER, WILLIAM E. 

LAWRENCE AND HOWARD M. 

WIGHT 

I. GENERAL CONDITIONS (T. T. M.) 
1. Topography 

The state borders on the Pacific 
Ocean, it is traversed by coast ranges of 
mountains near the ocean, and by a much 
higher range, the Cascade Range, far- 
ther inland, between which is a trough- 
like series of valleys of low altitude and 
less humidity than the westward slopes of 
each range. East of the Cascade Range 
is a plateau of arid or semi-arid condition 
intersected by deep canyons on which are 
scattered detached mountain masses. 
The altitudes in Oregon range from sea 
level on the west to 11,253 ft. on Mt. 
Hood. The prevailing altitude of most 
of eastern Oregon is over 3500 ft. 

The ocean strip has salt marshes, and 
sand dunes; the interior has every type 
of flood plain, valley floor, ravine, can- 
yon, swamp, hillside and bluff; the high 
mountains have talus slopes, old and 
fresh moraines, alpine meadows and 
wastes, mountain meadows or bogs, re- 
cent and old lava flows, waterfalls, 
natural lakes and uncontaminated 
streams; and the Eastern Oregon plateau 
has deserts, alkali and fresh lakes and 
swamps, and mountains and valleys of 
every description. 

Soils. There is a wide range in soils 
over the state. Pure sand on the dunes 
of the Coast and Columbia River, great 
areas of loess in eastern Oregon, glacial 
deposits in the mountains, river de- 
posits, peats, and of special interest, 
great areas of fresh volcanic ash and 
pumice which blanket parts of the 
Cascade Range and eastern Oregon, to- 
gether with lava flows upon which soil 
formation has hardly started. 

2. Climate 

Precipitation. West of the Coast 
Range and on the western slopes of the 

1 Where there was no Cooperation between the 
authors their names stand in the order of the receipt 
of their manuscripts and the authorship of the 
different parts is indicated. 



Cascades the annual precipitation is 
over 100 in. The valleys between the 
Coast and Cascade Ranges have about 40 
in. per year, well distributed except dur- 
ing a two months' summer drought. 
East of the Cascade Range the climate is 
dry, ranging as low as 7 in. and averaging 
perhaps 20 in. 

Temperature. West of the Cascade 
Range the climate is very equable, ex- 
treme heat and cold being rare. The 
diurnal range is small. It is an insular 
climate. Along the ocean strip a mini- 
mum winter temperature as cold as 20F. 
is uncommon. East of the Cascade 
Range the climate is continental and 
extremes of both heat and cold are ex- 
perienced. Cold nights (frosts at the 
higher altitudes) are the rule throughout 
the year. Much cloudy weather is 
usual west of the Cascades while clear 
skies and considerable wind are the rule 
east of the mountains. On the moun- 
tains an alpine climate prevails. 

8. Original biota 

A. Plant* communties (W. E. L.}. A 
summary of the plant associations of 
western Oregon follows: 

Douglas fir forest (Hygrophytic conif- 
erous forest) 

Spruce forest (Hygrophytic coniferous 
forest) 

Cedar-hemlock forest (Hygrophytic 
coniferous forest) 

Redwood forest 

Siskiyou chaparral 

Hill prairie (or grassland) 

Valley prairie (or grassland) 

The Cascade Range of Mountains ex- 
tending from the California line to the 
Columbia river, divides the state of Ore- 
gon into an eastern dry and a western 
humid section. This long mountain 
range serves as an effective barrier to the 
moisture laden winds from the ocean. 
The natural flora of the two sections, 
therefore, differs in the principal species 
of plants and the landscape aspect. 

Western Oregon. Western Oregon is 
characterized by a moister climate due to 
the Cascade barrier. The Coast Range 

2 Scientific names of plants mentioned in British 
Columbia and Washington do not occur here. 



182 



NATURALIST'S GUIDE TO THE AMERICAS 



in the western half also serves as a 
secondary barrier, producing a still 
more humid coastal strip. In south- 
western Oregon the Cascade and Coast 
ranges merge into the Siskiyou moun- 
tains. This region is somewhat drier. 
The Willamette, Umpqua, and Rogue 
River valleys are the principal low 
areas between the two mountain ranges. 
Elsewhere the western part of Oregon is 
broken into numerous mountain peaks 
and ridges with small and often long, 
narrow valleys between. 

The bulk of the mountain and foothill 
area is covered by a heavy forest of 
Douglas fir (Pseudotsuga mucronatd). 
Western cedar (Thuja plicata), and 
western hemlock Tsuga heterophylla may 
replace the Douglas fir on the moister 
slopes and in the v-shaped valleys. The 
lowland white fir (Abies grandis) on the 
low lands, the noble fir (Abies nobilis) 
silver fir (Abies amabilis), and mountain 
hemlock (Tsuga mertensiana) on the 
higher elevations, and Sitka spruce 
(Picea silchensis) near the coast may 
occur as conspicuous associates if not 
occasional dominants in the Douglas fir 
forest. The Sitka spruce characterizes 
the moist coastal strip along the north- 
ern half of the state, while the Port 
Orford Cedar, Chamaecyparis lawsoniana 
is an important Coastal species in the 
southwestern part of Oregon. A small 
stand of very fine redwood (Sequoia 
sempervirens) is found in the fog belt 
in the extreme southwestern corner of 
the state. Elsewhere the lodgepole 
pine (Pinus contortd) occupies the sandy 
coastal area. 

In the drier mountains of southwestern 
Oregon, the western yellow pine, 
Douglas fir, and incense cedar (Liboce- 
drus decurrens) make, up the coniferous 
forest. 

A dense undergrowth occurs through- 
out much of the humid coniferous forest 
in western Oregon. Salal, vine maple 
(Acer circinatum), salmon berry (Rubus 
spectabilis) , Devil's club (Fatsia horrida) 
and other shrubs often grow so profusely 
that it is difficult to travel on foot. 
Along the forested streams in the 



northern part of western Oregon nu- 
merous species of deciduous shrubs 
and trees are always seen. Oregon ash 
(Fraxinus oregona), broadleaf maple 
(Acer macrophyllum) , choke cherry 
(Prunus demissa), western flowering 
dogwood, and alders (Alnus oregona) are 
common. Willows, black cottonwood 
(Populus trichocarpa), hazel (Corylus 
calif arnica) , chittim or cascara (Rham- 
nus purshiana), and Oregon grape 
(Berberis aquifolium) are more common 
along the more open streams. 

The original forest was composed of 
Douglas fir, but in the more mature 
stands western cedar and western 
hemlock will take the place of Douglas 
fir. Extensive lumbering operations, 
and great fires in the past have destroyed 
large stands of this one time magnificient 
and valuable timber. It is a real fight 
to preserve these forests from fire, and 
the United States Forest Service is doing 
a great work in preserving the remainder 
of this wonderful national asset. Ore- 
gon has more standing merchantable 
timber than any other state in the Union, 
and it behooves every citizen to assume 
personal responsibility for his part in the 
prevention of fire and to further re- 
forestation. 

Fires have probably been recurrent 
for an indefinite period in the past so 
that the bulk of the forest has probably 
always been composed of the Douglas fir. 
Under normal conditions these burned 
areas will reforest. On the west slope 
of the Coast mountains and elsewhere 
are large areas that are not reforesting. 
These old burns are covered by a dense 
growth of the bracken fern (Pteris 
aquilinum pubescens) and the accom- 
panying herbaceous flora. The bracken 
fern is also common on burns and cut 
over lands that are restocking. How- 
ever in the latter situations the fern is 
quickly overtopped by the vine maple, 
service berry (Amelanchier florida), 
thimble berry (Rubus parviflorus) , red 
flowering currant (Ribes sanguineum), 
blue elder berry (Sambucus glauca), 
ocean spray (Holodiscus discolor) and 
young Douglas fir. 



NATURAL AREAS AND REGIONS 



183 



Wherever this western mesophytic 
coniferous forest borders on the prairie 
it is bounded by the Garry or Oregon oak 
(Quercus garryana), in the northern part 
of the state and by the black oak (Quer- 
cus calif ornica) , madrona and manzanita 
in the southern portion. 

The Willamette valley is the largest 
of the important valley sections in 
western Oregon. It differs from the 
Umpqua and Rogue river valleys chiefly 
in its size and the more northerly loca- 
tion. It is therefore a cooler valley. 
A study of the floras of these valleys 
shows that the southern floras extend 
northward into the Rogue and Umpqua 
valleys, while the northern plants may 
be found southward into these sec- 
tions. Intercepting transverse mountain 
divides serve in part as climatic barriers 
to the northward and southward migra- 
tion of plants. These intercepting 
ranges are neither high enough nor com- 
plete enough to serve as effective bar- 
riers in themselves. Their true signifi- 
cance seems to be in the alteration of 
the temperature and moisture condi- 
tions, which in turn controls the charac- 
ter of the vegetation. The numerous 
smaller valleys take on the character of 
the larger valleys. The Coos Bay, and 
Tillamook sections are more humid, 
whereas the Hood River Valley which 
drains into the Columbia on the north 
is more like the Willamette Valley. 

The floor of the Rogue river valley was 
originally a sagebrush desert surrounded 
by grassland. The prairie may be seen 
on the higher ground and lower slopes. 
Between the hill-prairie and the forest 
is a zone of chaparral. There may be a 
question regarding the occurrence of 
typical chaparral, in Oregon. The name 
Siskiyou chaparral may be used to 
distinguish the brush lands of South- 
western Oregon from chaparral of Cali- 
fornia and elsewhere in the Southwest. 
However, at present, there is much 
ground occupied by manzanita (Arcto- 
staphylos spp.), antelope bush (Purshia 
tridentata} , young madrona, scrub oaks, 
and young yellow pine. 

In the Umpqua valley and corre- 



sponding situations the black oak is 
intermixed with the Garry or Oregon 
oak and replaces it to some extent on the 
exposed hill slopes. Alder, broadleaf 
maple, service berry, chinquapin (Cas- 
tanopsis chrysophylla) , Oregon or Coos 
Bay myrtle (Umbellularia calif ornica) , 
and black cottonwood are characteristic 
hardwoods. The Oregon or Coos Bay 
myrtle is found more abundantly in the 
coast sections of southern Oregon. 

There are two types of prairie in the 
Willamette, Umpqua, and other north- 
ern valleys in western Oregon hill 
prairie and valley prairie. These are 
not always distinct. The hill slopes 
are drier early in the season. At present 
weedy bromes and fescues are the 
dominant hill prairie grasses. The 
grasses of the valley are almost all 
introduced. One of the original grasses 
(Deschampsia caespitosa) may still be 
seen along the roadside places. 

Eastern Oregon. The eastern section 
is a high plateau that rises rapidly from 
the Columbia river southward to 4000 and 
5000 ft. in altitude on the interior high 
desert. Deep canyons are cut through 
the plateau and in the mountains. 
Rising above the plateaus are numerous 
buttes and mountain ranges varying in 
altitude from a few hundred feet above 
the plateau to over 9000 ft., above sea 
level in the Blue Mountains. 

All of the area lies in the Cool Zone of 
Livingston and Shreve, 3 so that the 
character of the flora is determined by 
this and the low average rainfall, which 
is especially true during the growing 
season. Local differences are affected 
chiefly by slope exposure and altitude. 

The eastern plant communities may 
be given as follows: 

Sagebrush desert, or (Great Basin Micro- 
phyll desert) 

Bunch grass prairie, or grassland 

Juniper forest, or (Xerophytic Conif- 
erous forest) 

Yellow pine forest, or (Xerophytic 
Coniferous forest) 

Mesophytic coniferous forest 

'Livingston, B. E., and Shreve, Forrest. "The 
distribution of vegetation in the United States, as 
related to climate conditions." Carnegie Inst. 
Publ.284; 



184 



NATURALIST'S GUIDE TO THE AMERICAS 



Sub-Alpine forest 
Alpine meadow 

The largest single area is known 
locally as the ''high desert." This area 
is characterized by the sagebrush and 
the rabbit brush (Chrysothamnus spp.) 
on the slopes and well drained bottom 
lands. Extensive alkaline lake beds, 
river bottoms, and poorly drained flats 
are characterized by the dominance of 
the greasewood (Sarcobatus vermicula- 
tus) and saltgrass (Distichlis spicata). 
Sage brush may be associated with the 
above plants in the transition zone. 
Originally the western wheat grass 
(Agropyron spicatum) and other bunch 
grasses grew abundantly throughout the 
entire desert area. The overstocking of 
this sagebrush desert has largely de- 
stroyed the grass as an abundant associ- 
ate plant. The main desert area lies 
south of the Blue Mountains and east of 
the Cascade timbered slopes. It ex- 
tends northward to the bunchgrass 
prairie on the upper reaches and down 
the river canyons to the Columbia. 
Extensive desert lands also lie along 
the Columbia in Gilliam and Umatilla 
counties and in Baker county. The 
sagebrush desert is called the Great 
Basin Microphyll desert by Livingston 
and Shreve although it extends beyond 
the physiographic limits of the Great 
Basin. Lava outcrops as "rim rock" in 
frequent places where erosion has cut 
through the great lava outpourings. 
Along streams and under the rim rock 
may be found various herbs and shrubs 
that require more soil moisture. Con- 
spicuous among these plants are the 
western choke cherry (Prunus demissa), 
service berry (Amelanchier) , squaw cur- 
rant (Ribes cereum], golden currant 
(Ribes aureum), mock orange (Phila- 
delphus lewisii), willows and others. 
Within the area of the desert plateau 
and in Klamath County are large lakes 
and marshes, which range from fresh to 
alkaline. The lake borders and marshes 
of the fresher waters are characterized 
by the tule (Scirpus validus), cattail 
(Typha latifolia), water hemlock (Cicuta 
occidentalis) and others. 



Between the high desert and the tim- 
bered area on the south slope of the Blue 
Mountains and other similar climatic 
situations is a transition belt of western 
juniper (Juniperus occidentalis} , moun- 
tain mahogany (Cercocarpus ledifolius}, 
and antelope bush. 

Perhaps the largest juniper forest in 
the world is found as a transition be- 
tween the sagebrush desert on the south 
and the bunchgrass prairie on the north, 
and lying between the Cascade and Blue 
Mountains. Sagebrush and also an- 
telope bush, are abundantly associated 
with the juniper. Originally the west- 
ern wheat grass and other grasses were 
abundantly found in this area. 

The present wheat growing sections 
of eastern Oregon were originally bunch- 
grass prairie. It lies mainly on the high 
rolling lands to the north of the Blue 
Mountains. Small remnants of this one 
time extensive prairie may be seen in 
protected places. Western wheat grass 
is the dominant grass. More or less 
abundantly associated with it are the 
prairie June grass (Koeleria cristata}, 
and other species of Agropyron, lupines, 
prairie sunflower (Balsamorrhiza 
sagittata), geranium, and others. 
Stream borders are characterized by the 
alder (Alnus tenuifolia), hawthorn 
(Crataegus brevispina}, snowberry, sym- 
phoricarpos and clematis. 

Within the Blue Mountains proper and 
on isolated peaks and small chains, 
where the altitude may be responsible 
for the supply of sufficient moisture, the 
slopes are timbered. Western yellow 
pine is the dominant tree throughout all 
of the lower mountain slopes. The 
same may be said for the east slope of 
the Cascade Range and the Mountains of 
Klamath county. Yellow pine may be 
intermixed with sugar pine (Pinus 
lambertiana) and a few other scattered 
conifers to the south and with western 
larch (Larix occidentalism, and Douglas 
fir to the north. Western white pine, 
lodgepole pine, Engelmann spruce, 
white fir, alpine fir (Abies lasiocarpa), 
and other conifers are found in increas- 
ing abundance with the rise in altitude 



NATURAL AREAS AND REGIONS 



185 



and the corresponding increase in 
moisture. 

The yellow pine forest is the semi- 
desert or xerophytic coniferous forest. 
The forest floor is characterized by 
snow bush (Ceanothus velutinus), ante- 
lope bush, manzanita, and Idaho fescue 
(Festuca idahoense). 

It is well known that the herbaceous 
and shrubby vegetation varies with the 
type of forest. On account of the large 
territorial area and the varying climatic 
and soil conditions, it is impossible to 
accurately picture the smaller vegeta- 
tion that accompanies the larger. The 
mesophytic coniferous forest is the 
habitat of the following: Snowbush, 
thimble berry, huckleberries (V ac- 
tinium), naked rose (Rosa gymnocarpa), 
twin berry (Lonicera involucrata) , 
Prince's pine (Chimaphila umbellata), 
twin flower (Linnaea americana), colum- 
bine (Aquilegia formosa), false bugbane 
(Trautvetteria grandis) and species of 
currants and gooseberries. 

Alpine meadows in both the Blue and 
Cascade Mountains may be found at or 
near timber line on the gentle slopes 
and valleys. But the rocky ridges and 
peaks are more or less covered with 
scattered white bark pine (Pinus albi- 
caulis), mountain hemlock, and various 
shrubs. Following the recession of 
snow, alpine erythroniums, and anem- 
ones may be found. 

B. Animal communities illustrated by 
mammals (H. M. W.). The divide of 
the Cascade Mountains separates Oregon 
into two areas, Western and Eastern 
Oregon. Western Oregon is again cut 
by the Coast Range Mountains leaving 
the big valleys of the Willamette, the 
Umpqua and Rogue Rivers, lying be- 
tween the two ranges. 

The areas of Western Oregon recog- 
nized in this paper are, the Moist coni- 
ferous forests of two slopes of the Coast 
Range Mountains; the Valley prairie 
areas of the Willamette, Umpqua and 
the Rogue River, the Hill prairie areas 
comprising the foothills of the two 
mountain ranges rising out of the val- 
leys; and the moist coniferous forests 



situated throughout the west slope of 
the Cascade Mountains. 

The areas of Eastern Oregon con- 
sidered are, the Semi-desert coniferous 
forests of the Eastern slope of the 
Cascades; the Coniferous forests of the 
Blue Mountains; the Bunch grass prairie 
lying between the Blue Mountains and 
the Cascades in the North, and drained 
by the Deschutes, John Day and Umatilla 
rivers; and the big Sage brush desert 
lying south of the Blue Mountains and 
Bunch grass prairie. 

The flora of Oregon is not as greatly 
changed from its original condition as 
is its fauna. Few mammals 4 have been 
entirely exterminated, but the distribu- 
tion of many has become restricted, and 
the numbers of nearly all show evidence 
of decrease. Within the great conifer- 
ous forests of Oregon and throughout the 
arid section of the Sagebrush desert in 
the southeastern corner of the state, and 
extending into Idaho and Nevada, the 
biota has been remarkably well preserved. 

The west slope of the Coast Range 
Mountains. Luxuriant open valleys 
within this stand of timber furnished 
forage for thousands of western wapiti 
or elk (Cervus c. occidentalis) . The 
black-tailed deer (Odocoileus columbi- 
anus) fed within the jungles of Salal, 
which carpeted this virgin forest. The 
black bear stripped the huckleberry, and 
the chittim (Cascara) berries, and 
caught the fish from the numerous 
streams which drain the west slope into 
the Pacific Ocean. These streams were 
followed by the western raccoon 
(Procyon psora pacifica), the Pacific 
mink, the Pacific otter (Lutra canadensis 
pacifica). The Pacific beaver (Castor 
canadensis pacifica) were abundant as 
were in some sections, the Oregon coast 
muskrat (Fiber zibethica occipitalis) . 
The Puget Sound skunk and the spotted 
skunk (Spilogale phenax latifrons) were 
present. The hillsides were pentrated 
by the mountain beaver (Aplodontia 
rufa pacifica). 

4 Scientific names of mammals mentioned in Brit- 
ish Columbia and Washington do not occur in 
Oregon account. 



186 



NATURALIST'S GUIDE TO THE AMERICAS 



Throughout the entire area the cougar 
(Felis o. oregonensis} preyed upon the 
young elk and deer. The Douglas pine- 
squirrel (Sciurus douglassii}, the fuscus 
bushy-tailed woodrat (Neotoma cinerea 
fusca) and the deer-mouse (Peromyscus 
maniculatus rubidus), were constantly 
pursued by the bobcat (Lynx fasciatus 
pallescens} the Pacific fisher (mustela 
pennonti pasific) and the Pacific marten. 
This area is also inhabited by the 
Bachman flying-squirrel (glaucomys sa- 
brinus oregonensis) . The bald eagle and 
the band-tailed pigeon nested within 
this region, while the coast wren built 
its home in no other place. 

All of these species are still present 
in varying degrees of abundance. The 
elk is no longer, however, a game animal 
and the bear are becoming limited. 

The east slope of the Coast Range Moun- 
tains. The East slope of the Coast 
Range Mountains, characterized by the 
Douglas fir, meets the Hill prairie area 
in its foothills rising out of the valleys 
on the eastern side. 

The fauna of the west slope is quite 
generally carried to the east slope, and 
while several species are now mapped 
for the west side, a more detailed study 
might show that their range could be 
extended. 

The western bushy-tailed woodrat was 
found throughout this area. The Cali- 
fornia skunk (Mephitis occidentalis} 
probably extended his range well into 
the valleys of the east slope, as did the 
timber wolf (Canis gigas) as he pursued 
both the black-tailed deer and the 
western white-tailed deer (Odocoileus 
leucurus) . 

The Hill Prairie area. The Hill 
Prairie area was characterized by open 
grass land and Oregon oak which covered 
the foothills on either side of the 
Willamette Valley. These groves of 
Garry oak afford a natural home for the 
beautiful silver-gray squirrel (SciuriifS 
griseus griseus} which, however, extends 
its range far back into the coniferous 
forest on both sides of the valley and in 
the southern section to the Coast. 
Especially numerous in this area were 



the Douglas ground squirrel (Citellus 
beecheyi douglasii), the white-tailed deer 
formerly bedded among these hills, and 
the sooty grouse were numerous. 

The Valley Prairie area. This was 
the original home of the western white- 
tailed deer. The main streams and their 
many tributaries wooded by Douglas fir, 
maple, oak, willow and numerous shrubs, 
afforded an ideal home for the mink, 
otter, raccoon and skunk. Especially 
numerous were the beaver of this area, 
feeding upon the cottonwood and willow 
which grew close to the water's edge. 
The Puget Sound muskrat found an 
ideal habitat in the numerous sloughs 
caused by the annual flooding. Along 
these streams the abundant thorn- 
bearing shrubs formed an excellent 
location for the dusky-footed woodrat 
(Neotoma fuscipes] to build its nest. 
The wild rose, Spiraea, and snowberry 
associations afforded covers for the 
Pacific Coast brush rabbit (Sylvilagus 
bachmani ubericolor) and the California 
black-tailed jackrabbit (Lepus calif orni- 
cus) fed upon the luxuriant vegetation of 
the open grass land. In the wooded 
areas of this section were found the silver 
gray and Douglas pine-squirrels and 
Bachman flying-squirrel. The gray fox 
(Urocyon californicus townsendi) and 
the coyote made their dens within the 
foothills and sought their prey through- 
out the valleys, as did the cougar and 
bobcat. The covers along the streams 
of service berry, red-twigged dogwood, 
hawthorn, and numerous other fruit and 
seed bearing shrubs, furnished feeding 
grounds for the Oregon ruffed grouse. 
The numerous sloughs and streams 
furnished natural breeding conditions 
for many duck and shore birds. 

Probably no section of Oregon has lost 
a greater share of its abundant wild life 
than the Willamette valley. This has 
been brought about through rather in- 
tensive grazing and cultivation, but 
factors of greater importance have been 
the rifle and trap. 

The wolf, coyote, and white-tailed 
deer have practically disappeared. The 
beaver, under protection showed indica- 



NATURAL AREAS AND REGIONS 



187 



tions of reestablishing themselves in 
their old haunts, but the open trapping 
season of 1923 and 1924 has reduced 
their numbers to such an extent that 
their extermination seems imminent. 

The introduction of the ring-necked 
pheasant and bob-white (quail) has 
replaced the other game birds which 
have become too scarce to any longer be 
considered game. 

The west slope of the Cascades. This 
great area lies entirely within the moist 
coniferous forest. It is composed 
largely of magnificent stands of Douglas 
fir. At higher altitudes are found areas 
of lodge pole pine, noble fir and Engle- 
mann spruce. Interspersed among these 
trees are beautiful mountain meadows 
filled with a luxuriant growth of flower- 
ing plants. The highest sections of the 
timbered areas are marked by the pres- 
ence of the mountain hemlock and white- 
bark pine, above which the bare moun- 
tain peaks rise. 

About the numerous rock tumbles 
could be heard the cry of the little cony, 
or pika (Ochotona), and within these 
tumbles the western bushy-tailed wood- 
rat, mountain beaver, Apoldontia rufa, 
and the yellow-bellied marmot (Marmota 
ftaviventris) whistled from his mound. 
The black bear extended throughout 
the area while the grizzly remained in 
the south. 

The Cascade flying-squirrel (Sciu- 
ropterus alpinus fuliginosus) and the 
Cascade tree squirrel (Sciurus douglasii 
cascadensis] were typical of the west 
slope, while the silver gray squirrel was 
present in the lower elevations. 

Both the Washington snowshoe hare 
(Lepus w. washingtonii) in the north and 
the Oregon snowshoe hare (Lepus w. 
klamathensis} in the south were pursued 
by the timber wolf, the coyote, and the 
Cascade fox (Vulpes cascadensis) . The 
bobcat and the Canada lynx (Lynx 
canadensis) reluctantly shared their 
hunting area with the marten, fisher 
(Mustela pennanti) and the wolverine 
(Gulo luscus] . The cougar ranged freely 
from the side of the divide to the other 
in pursuit of the deer. Below, the otter 



and mink shared the stream with the 
beaver; the former probably the first to 
enjoy the excellent fishing of the Cascade 
streams. The porcupine, more at home 
on the eastern slope, nevertheless fre- 
quented the western slope as well, and 
in the south the basserisk or ringtail cat 
(Bassariscus astutus oregonus) made his 
home. The pacific elk crossed the 
valley and entered the valleys of the 
west slope of the Cascades. 

The mountain chicadee, red-breasted 
nuthatch, mountain blue-bird and Ore- 
gon jay are found breeding at an eleva- 
tion of 3700 to 6000 ft. From this eleva- 
tion to timber line is the breeding area 
of Clarke nutcracker, the arctic three- 
toed woodpecker and the alpine three- 
toed woodpecker. 

Above timber line the Hepburn rosy 
finch has been observed, feeding its 
young at an elevation of 9000 to 10,000 ft. 

The eastern slope of the Cascade Moun- 
tains. The eastern slope of the Cascades 
lies within the semi-desert coniferous 
forest. The predominant tree of this 
area is the western yellow pine which 
extends throughout the entire length 
of this slope of the Cascades and follows 
the higher cliffs o the rivers well into 
the floor of the plateau below. 

Many of the western forms were pres- 
ent on this eastern slope but of very 
great interest is the rather marked 
tendency of the black-tailed deer to 
remain on the western slope and of the 
mule deer to remain on the eastern slope 
of the Cascades. 

Among those animals present upon 
both sides of the divide are the bobcat, 
Canada lynx, coyote, wolf, porcupine, 
pika, gray fox, mink, beaver, wolverine, 
fisher, marten, otter, basserisk, and 
snowshoe hare. 

The porcupine was exceptionally 
abundant within the yellow pine forests 
of the eastern slope, and the limit of 
the badger's (Taxidea taxus neglecta) 
western distribution is here reached. 
In the north occurred the Cascade 
skunk (Mephitis occidentalis notata). 
The two jackrabbits of eastern Oregon, 
the western white-tailed and the Wash- 



188 



NATURALIST'S GUIDE TO THE AMERICAS 



ington black-tailed (Lepus californicus 
wallawalla) probably made the limit 
of their westward distribution in the 
lower areas of the east slope of the 
Cascades. The black bear was present 
throughout this area, while the grizzly 
bear inhabited the southern section 
only. The bobcat, coyote and cougar 
were present in large numbers, and while 
the Canada lynx occurred here, its 
abundance is uncertain. Undoubtedly 
the prong horn antelope (Antilocapra 
americana) made this the limit of its 
westward migrations. 

The bunchgrass prairies. This was 
the typical coyote and sharp-tailed 
grouse country. The many rivers which 
drained the interior of this area coupled 
with the rugged foothill country of the 
Cascade and Blue Mountain ranges, 
transformed this otherwise monotonous 
country of bunchgrass prairie into a 
rugged and interesting area. 

In the south it overlapped and inter- 
mingled with the sagebrush country in 
such a way as to make any definite 
southern boundary impossible. 

While there was a marked difference 
between this bunchgrass prairie and the 
forests of the eastern slope of the Cas- 
cades, nevertheless the fauna of each 
was very similar; however, due to the 
difference in the animals upon which 
they preyed, their habits varied con- 
siderably. The following were present 
throughout the range mentioned: ante- 
lope, mule deer, coyote, cougar, Cascade 
skunk, mink, otter, beaver, and the 
Rocky Mountain muskrat (Fiber z 
osoyoosensis) . The black bear, cougar 
and both lynxes inhabited the timbered 
areas. The badger was numerous within 
the big fertile areas, now turned into 
wheat ranches, where he dug for the 
plentiful pocket-gophers, mice, and 
ground-squirrels. The most numerous 
animals were the jackrabbits, the more 
common at that time being the white- 
tailed. 

The Blue Mountains. The Blue Moun- 
tains are a rather extensive range massed 
in the north-eastern section of the 



state. It was the home of the mule 
deer, the marten (Martes pennantii 
pacifica), the fisher, the wolverine, the 
coyote, the grizzly and black bears, 
and Great Basin skunk. (Mephitis occiden- 
talis major} were probably common 
mammals within this section, while 
the pika (Ochotona schisticeps jewetti) 
is typical of the talus slopes. 

The sagebrush desert. The sagebrush 
desert of eastern Oregon comprises 
that area extending from the Blue 
Mountains and bunch grass prairie to 
the California and Nevada line and lying 
between Idaho in the east and the Cas- 
cade Mountains in the west. 

This big area affords a great variety 
in types of conditions. It possesses 
mountains, deeply worn and treeless 
gulches, rolling sagebrush plains, lakes, 
swamps, and timbered areas. 

It is the home of several animals that 
have with difficulty survived, among 
which the most interesting, owing to its 
present pending extinction, is the prong- 
horn antelope, which originally num- 
bered into the thousands and moved in 
immense bands instead of the few flocks 
of today. 

The bighorn sheep (Ovis) was a very 
abundant animal and probably before 
being molested ranged considerably 
throughout the higher areas. The mule 
deer inhabited this entire area, as did 
both the white-tailed and black-tailed 
jackrabbits, the badger, the bobcat, 
cougar, Great Basin skunk, and spotted 
skunk (Spilogale gracilis saxatalis}. 

Within the hills were found the pallid- 
bellied marmot (Marmota flaviventris 
avara), the western bushy-tailed wood- 
rat, the Washington cottontail rabbit 
(Sylvilagus nuttallii) and the Idaho 
pigmy rabbit (Brachylagus idahoensis). 

The lakes and streams were the homes 
and hunting grounds of the otter, mink, 
beaver and Nevada muskrat (Ondatra z. 
mergens}. The cougar probably preyed 
upon the jackrabbits, deer, and antelope, 
and the bobcats and coyotes pursued 
the jackrabbits and smaller game 
throughout this area. The grizzly and 



NATURAL AREAS AND REGIONS 



189 



black bear were both inhabitants of 
this country and the American bison 
(Bison bison} penetrated well into its 
interior from the east. 

The Great Sagebrush Desert was and 
is today a paradise for birds and bird 
lovers. Birds too abundant to attempt 
any enumeration nested within and 
around the many lakes and marshes of 
this section. The number of species 
and individuals found in this area are 
beyond all comprehension of the average 
nature student. Among those of special 
interest are the egret, white-faced glossy 
ibis, black-necked stilt, white pelican, 
sandhill crane, and many species of 
duck; grebes, gulls, terns, herons, 
bitterns, cranes, sandpipers and other 
shore birds. 

A discussion of the mammals of Oregon 
would not be complete without mention 
of the islands lying within the Pacific 
and off the coast of Oregon. Some of 
these islands are notable as breeding 
grounds for thousands of sea birds. 
It furnished also a resting place for the 
Pribilof fur seal, and was the breeding 
grounds of the Steller sea lion and the 
harbor seal. 

Mention should be made particularly 
of the south-western section of Oregon, 
comprising the Rogue River Valley 
and its surrounding hills and mountains. 
It is apparently the meeting grounds 
of species from the east and west and 
the north and south. Present knowl- 
edge will not permit an accurate state- 
ment regarding this area. 

Mollusca (F. C. .). Binney divided 
the United States into regions and 
gave the name Pacific Province to that 
territory lying between the Cascade 
and the Sierra Nevada mountains on the 
east and the Pacific Ocean on the west. 
The great majority of the land snails 
are peculiar to this region and are 
largely distinct, even as to genera, from 
those of eastern North America. Of 
about 100 species 65 per cent are peculiar 
to this region. The region is further 
divided into the Oregonian W. Meso- 
phytic coniferous forest extending from 



Humboldt Bay northward to Alaska, 
and containing some 15 peculiar species. 
The dominant groups are Ephiphragmo- 
phora, Glyptostona, Binneya, Hemphil- 
lia, Ariolimax, Hesperarion. There are 
features of vertical distribution which 
coincide with distribution of vegetation, 
subalpine, alpine, arctic, etc. 

II. PRESENT BIOTA (SEE "NATIONAL 

FORESTS OF THE PACIFIC 

DISTRICT") 

Hofmann's account of forests of District 6 
Most of western Oregon was originally 
all timbered with northwestern co- 
niferous type of forest. Patches of 
deciduous forest occurred here and there. 
In the valleys a considerable acreage 
of the original forest has been cut and 
the land cleared. In western Oregon 
there still remains in practically its 
virgin forested condition an enormous 
area, about half of which is in the 
National Forests. Here the plant life 
is practically undisturbed except as 
fires have increased in severity since the 
advent of man. The animal life has 
been somewhat affected by the proximity 
to settlement and hunters, but not 
fundamentally changed. In Eastern 
Oregon the semi-desert coniferous forest 
occupied originally only a small per- 
centage of that part of the state and was 
confined to the east slope of the Cas- 
cades and to such independent moun- 
tain groups as the Blue Mountains. It 
is still practically in its virgin condition 
as the area logged is small, though 
affected so far as its lesser vegetation and 
fauna are concerned by man through 
fires, hunters and stock grazing. There 
is here a large acreage of sagebrush 
desert, some alkali country and a 
variety of plant and animal com- 
munities about such local formations 
as springs, lakes, swamps, hot low 
altitude canyons and cold high altitude 
mesas. T. T. M. 

The forests have encroached upon 
the original prairie lands throughout 
western Oregon. This is due to the 
stopping of extensive prairie fires since 



190 



NATURALIST'S GUIDE TO THE AMERICAS 



the advent of the white man. The 
prairie areas were burned by the Indian 
as a part of his system of hunting the 
larger game animals. 

Except as specifically mentioned the 
flora as described in this paper is today 
much the same as originally found by the 
early settlers. However, it has not 
been practicable to discuss all of the 
floristic changes in the state due to 
settlement. W. E. L. 

III. NATURAL AREAS 

1. Federal Preserves (T. T. M.} 

A large part of the state is likely to 
remain in its present virgin condition 
for many years to come. The virgin 
forest both east and west of the Cascades 
is being cut relatively slowly, and much 
of the desert and semi-arid country will 
remain in its natural state for an in- 
definite time. It may be said that every 
type of natural condition that originally 
occurred in the state is still to be found. 
In certain types, definite steps to 
preserve natural conditions are now de- 
sirable. Certain areas are now ade- 
quately safeguarded, such as the Bull 
Run division of the Mount Hood Na- 
tional Forest, and Crater Lake National 
Park; and there may easily be segre- 
gated for preservation by administrative 
action as much more of the National 
Forests as it may be deemed best to 
leave in a natural condition. 

There are in Oregon 13,178,023 acres 
of National Forest land distributed 
over the mountainous timbered portions 
of the state. Most of these lands are 
in their natural condition, except in so 
far as accidental fires, stock grazing 
and the slight occupancy of man have 
changed them. They are subject to 
timber cutting, as the economic demand 
requires, except that where conditions 
of such scientific interest exist that they 
should be left in their natural condition 
action can readily be secured to preserve 
such areas. Several such areas have 
already been preserved when timber 
sales were being made in the neigh- 



borhood, primarily because of their 
aesthetic or recreational value. Fur- 
thermore, at least half the National 
Forest acreage of the state is so inac- 
cessible on the high mountains that 
commercial exploitation (except for 
stock grazing) is practically out of the 
question. It seems assured, therefore, 
that every set of natural conditions 
which occurs within the timbered por- 
tions of the state may be perpetuated 
under Government control on the 
National Forests. 

Federal game and bird refuges in Oregon 

*Cold Springs of 2520 acres, created 
in 1909 on a Reclamation Service project 
to protect waterfowl. 

*Klamath Lake of 81,619 acres in 
Klamath County created in 1908 on a 
Reclamation Service project to protect 
waterfowl, pelicans, gulls, waders and 
shorebirds. 

*Lake Malheur of 88,960 acres in 
Harney County created in 1908 on 
federal land to protect waterfowl and 
marsh birds. This is recognized as 
one of the most remarkable places in 
the United States for study of water 
and marsh bird life. 

*Three Arch Rocks off the coast of 
northwestern Oregon reserved in 1907 
as a breeding place for seabirds and 
regarded as a very wonderful place for 
ornithologists' study. 

*A dune region on the Oregon coast. 
(In the Sinslaw National Forest.) 
Sand dunes border the ocean continu- 
ously for a distance of about 50 mi. 
from Marshfield on Coos Bay northward. 
The area of most active dunes is from 
one to four miles wide, and the transition 
is gradual through less active dunes to 
the very old inactive ones now covered 
with forest. On the newer dunes the 
following plants were found: A rush 
that holds small areas of sand by means 
of its abundant rhizomes and roots, a 
wild strawberry, a beach pea, and 
scattered willows and lodge pole pine. 
The willows grow fast enough to keep 
their tips above the incoming sand, 
and the pines live even when almost 



NATURAL AREAS AND REGIONS 



191 



covered. Sand loving plants observed 
in the vicinity of Marshfield are: Poly- 
gonum paronycia, Abronia latifolia, 
Cakile californica, Fragaria chiloensis, 
Lupinus littoralis, Glehnia littoralis, 
Godetia quadrivulnera, Gaertneria bipin- 
natifida, Anaphalis occidentalis, Arcto- 
staphylos uva-ursi. 

Dunes which represent a stage inter- 
mediate between the very young active 
stage and the very old inactive stage 
are usually occupied by lodgepole pine 
(Pinus contorta), Douglas fir (Pseudo- 
tsuga taxifolia), manzanita (Arctostaphy- 
los tomentosa), rhododendron (Rhododen- 
dron calif ornicum) , salal (Gaultheria 
shallori), kinnikinnick (Arctostaphylos 
uva-ursi), common brake (Pteris aqui- 
lina), mosses (Polytrichum juniperinum, 
Hylocomnium splendens). 

The forest that covers the very old 
dunes is the ordinary coniferous forest 
of the region. The following trees 
make up the forest in the vicinity of 
Marshfield: Douglas fir, western hem- 
lock, Sitka spruce (Picea sitchensis), 
lowland white fir (Abies grandis), west- 
ern red cedar, and Port Orford cedar 
(Chamaecyparis Lawsoniana) . Under- 
growth includes Myrica californica, 
Ribes sanguineum, and Gaultheria 
shallon. 

Plants occurring in dune meadows 
in the vicinity of Marshfield are: Lyco- 
podium inundatum, Eriophorum chamis- 
sonis, Carex pausa, C. mirata, C. magni- 
fica, C. Hindsii, Juncus falcatus, J. 
oreganus, Hookera pulchella, Hydostylus 
brachypus, Spiranthes stricta, Ranuncu- 
lus flammula unalaskensis, Argentina 
(Potentilla) anserina, Hosackia parvi- 
flora, Trifolium fimbriatum, Viola adunca, 
Gentiana sceptrum, Mimulus Langsdorfii, 
Plantago maritima, Orthocarpus castil- 
leoides, Aster Douglasii. 

Sphagnum bogs occur in or adjacent 
to the dune area at Florence, Westlake, 
Clear Lake, and Houser. Their flora 
comprises peat mosses (Sphagnum spp.), 
Labrador tea (Ledum columbianum and 
L. groenlandicum) , sundew (Drosera 
rotundifolia) , cotton grass (Eriophorum 
sp.), buck bean (Menyanthes trifoliata). 



The government had put in large 
areas of grass on the dunes near the 
mouth of the Siuslaw River about 1917 
in an effort to keep the sand from blow- 
ing into the river. Some of this grass 
still flourishes, but much of it has been 
blown out and the sand still blows into 
the river. The Forest Service has 
stopped the grazing and the sand move- 
ment has been slowed up. 

Near Florence, Glenada, Clear Lake, 
West Lake, Houser, and Marshfield on 
the S. P. R. R. G. B. Rigg and T. T. 
Munger. 

*Summit and upper slopes of Straw- 
berry Butte. (Malheur National Forest, 
Grant County.) Shows typical altitu- 
dinal succession in Blue Mountains of 
Oregon. Forest of western yellow pine, 
Douglas fir and spruce, with species of 
Abie near top, alpine meadows, and 
scattered white-bark pine, characteris- 
tic rock and alpine flora as well as flora 
of the lower forest. See sonnet by C. 
H. Sholes on "The White-bark pine" 
in Mazama, vol. 3, p. 30, March, 1907. 
The mountain has been grazed but 
not over grazed. Characteristic Blue 
Mountain fauna. 

Take John Day Highway east from 
Prairie to Blue Mountain Hot Springs. 
W . E. L. 

*Crater Lake National Park (A3). 
This area of about 249 sq. mi. lies on the 
summit of the Cascade Range, about the 
wonderful lake of that name. It is 
surrounded by National Forest lands. 
It is covered chiefly with the type of 
forest characteristic of the upper slopes 
in the Cascades. A few exposed peaks 
have alpine conditions. Much of the 
Park is in its absolutely virgin condition 
and is likely to remain so. Trapping, 
timber cutting, hunting and grazing of 
stock are forbidden. 

It may be reached during the summer 
months by stage from Medford or 
Klamath Falls, Ore. T 7 . T. M. 

2. State reserves and available natural 
areas 

*Reed College Reserve. One-half sq. 
mi. deciduous and northwestern conif- 



192 



NATURALIST'S GUIDE TO THE AMERICAS 



erous forest with ravine, canyons, 
hills, swamps, marshes, ponds, plains. 
Original vegetation and animals. Lo- 
cated in Mulnomah Co., Portland, 
Ore. H. B. Torrey. 

Rock Creek Forest. A long stretch of 
Douglas fir forest. Along Rock Creek, a 
branch of the North Umpqua River in 
the central part of Douglas County, 
northeast of Hoaglin. W. G. Van Name. 

Spencer Creek Forest. A long stretch 
of unlogged forest, with quite large trees 
in many places. Along the highway 
between Klamath Falls and Ashland 
(Klamath and Jackson Counties), from 
Spencer Creek (some miles west of Kla- 
math Falls) to Pinehurst. W. G. Van 
Name. 

Juniper Forest. (Deschutes County.) 
Typical mature juniper forest with 
sagebrush, and antelope bush as the 
desert underscrub. About 10 mi. north- 
east of Be,nd, and lying to the east of 
the Besnd-Powell Butte road. W. E. L. 

High Desert and Sagebrush Desert. 
(Lake County.) Large area of typical 
sagebrush desert lying east of Butte; 
has been grazed for many years. The 
traveler ant hills are common, other 
animals are the jackrabbit and other 
desert associates. 

On road between Burns and Silver 
Lake via Wagontire mountain, no 
water except at distant ranch wells. 
W. E. L. 

Yellow Pine Forest and Forest Floor 
Vegetation. (Northern Lake County.) 
(Deschutes National Forest.) Typical 
yellow pine forest with undisturbed 
shrub associations also shows lodge- 
pole pine areas. Location almost any- 
where around China Hat or north of it 
or on Sand Spring road. About 30 mi. 
north of Fort Rock. W. E. L. 

Fort Rock Crater. A large amphi- 
theatre shaped volcanic cylinder the 
south side of which is open allowing 
typical desert vegetation and rock bor- 
der vegetation to come in. Has been 
grazed. Situated about two mi. north 
of town of Fort Rock in Lake County. 
W. E. L. 

Forest and Desert Tension Areas. 
(Lake County.) Typical desert and 
forest border shows succession from 
sagebrush to yellow pine and Cerco- 
carpus. About one mi. south of town of 
Silver Lake just outside of the Fremont 
National Forest. W. E. L. 

Sycan Marsh. (Lake County.) Typi- 
cal central Oregon marsh of Typha, 
Scirpus, etc., shows succession from 
marsh to meadow to desert to scrub to 
forest of yellow pine, also Cercocarpus 



and Juniperus. About 20 mi. south of 
town of Silver Lake. W. E. L. 

Silver Creek Falls and mountain stream, 
glens and canyons in Marion County, Ore. 
There are four beautiful falls ranging 
from 65 to 180 ft. high on north and south 
forks of Silver Creek. Typical mesophy- 
tic canon and stream flora to the hill top. 
Douglas fir forest. 

About 32 mi. east of Salem via Silver- 
ton. See "Silver Creek Falls as seen 
by the Mazamas" by W. P. Hardestyin 
Mazama, vol. 4: 32-33, December. 1915. 
W. E. L. 

Climax Forest in Clatsop County. 
Typical climax forest of cedar hemlock 
Douglas fir Thuja Tsuga Pseudo- 
tsuga, undisturbed, situated on Inland 
Double Loop Highway about 15 mi. 
southeast of Astoria, Clatsop County, 
Ore. IP. E. L. 

Clear Lake and Big Spring, formed by 
the filling in of lower end of valley by a 
lava flow submerging the forest. Tree 
trunks are still standing on the lake 
bottom. Lake surrounded by a typical 
Douglas fir forest of the Cascades. 

About two mi. from Fish Lake on the 
Santiam Road over the Cascade Moun- 
tains. W. E. L. 

"Hanging Valley." A beautiful 
mountain valley on north slope of Mt. 
Jefferson. Shows typical mountain 
meadow and forest border, with groups 
of trees throughout the park. Located 
in Santiam National Forest. Hanging 
Valley is partially protected by the 
United States Forest Service. 

Reached by pack trail about 24 mi. 
from Detroit. W. E. L. 

Mary's Peak in western Benton County, 
Ore. Highest peak in the Coast Range, 
typical coast range sub-climax forest of 
Douglas fir and Noble fir. Shows forest 
edge succession from alpine prairie, 
protected and exposed slopes. The 
alpine meadow has been grazed for a 
long time and timber cutting is in prog- 
ress, altitude ranges from 570 to 4097 
ft. Pure mountain streams. 

Take autos for 12 mi. south of Philo- 
math, thence trail west to base of peak. 
W. E. L. 

Lost Falls in Coast Range of Coos 
County, Ore. Typical primitive Coast 
forest of fir and cedar along Lost River. 
See Scientific American, vol. 130, page 1, 
4 figs., January 4, 1919, for further in- 
formation and reference to Cape Horn 
Falls on the Coquille River, where grows 
the myrtle and the "Toe Head Falls" 
on Camas Creek, all in Coos County, 
Ore. W. E. L. 



NATURAL AREAS AND REGIONS 



193 



Sphagnum bog and typical sub-climax 
forest. In Lincoln County south of 
Yaquina Bay and about one-half mi. 
from the ocean; typical sphagnum bog 
and lodgepole pine forest with salal, 
huckleberries and rhododendron, shows 
succession from water level to sub- 
climax forest. 

Take ferry from Newport to South 
Beach, walk down railroad for about 
one mi. W. E. L. 

Sand dunes. The sand dunes of Coos 
County are the most extensive. See 
"The sand dunes of Coos Bay, Oregon" 
by H. D. House, Plant World, 17: 238- 
243, August, 1914. W. E. L. 

State game and bird refuges in Oregon 
(T. T. M.) 

Multnomah County Pheasant Reserva- 
tion of 80,640 acres in Multnomah and 
Clackamas counties. 

Deschutes Game Reservation of 829,440 
acres in Crook and Lake counties. 

Steens Mt. Game Reservation of 414,720 
acres in Harney County. 

Sturgeon Lakes Game Reservation of 
22,000 acres in Multnomah and Colum- 
bia Counties. 

Grass Mt. Reservation of 34,560 acres 
in Lane County. 

Umatilla Bird Reservation of 500 acres 
in Umatilla County. 

Antelope reserve 

(From information furnished by Mr. 
George Orr, Jordan Valley, Ore.) 

"The estimated number of antelope 
in this locality, at present, is about 300." 
The land is owned by the United States 
government. "The sheep are crowding 
out the ante:lope very fast. It is also 
reported that there is a band of about 30 
bighorn sheep in this locality." 

Note: This is in a section little fre- 
quented by man. The traveler almost 
never goes in this section. The automo- 
bile is the best method of travel on 
account of the great distance. Gasoline 
and other supplies should be procured 
at Jordan Valley. 

' 'Southeastern end of Malheur County, 
Ore., south of Jordan Valley, Ore." 
W. E. L. 

Antelope reserve no. 2 

"Northeast of Jordan Valley, Ore., 
near the Cow Lakes." This is about 
15 mi. from Jordan Valley. The land 
and antelope are "owned by Sam Scott, 
postmaster at Jordan Valley, Ore." 
I believe Mr. Orr said this man was 
doing all he could to preserve this band 
of antelope. W. E. L. 



4. CALIFORNIA 
BY H. C. BRYANT 

I. GENERAL FEATURES AND ORIGINAL 
BIOTA 

Physiographic regions 

California is a state of unusual clima- 
tic and topographic diversity. The 
northern two-thirds of the state is 
characterized by mountains on the 
coast and mountains near the eastern 
border. These come together in the 
extreme northern part of the state 
and again in the southern third of the 
state enclosing a great central valley 
which opens to the west centrally 
through San Francisco Bay to the 
Pacific Ocean. Southeast of this wall 
lie the Mohave and Colorado deserts 
and those arid portions which require 
the use of such guides to watering places 
as have been published by the Depart- 
ment of Interior. The west coast of 
the southern third of the state is a plain 
with low hills; this leads back to a series 
of mountain ranges some 50 mi. east of 
the coast. The paths across these 
mountains lie to the east of Los Angeles. 

II. GEOGRAPHIC AND LOCAL PLANT AND 
ANIMAL COMMUNITIES 

1. Vegetation 

The vegetation is very diversified. 
The moist Pacific Coast coniferous 
forest which is a luxuriant growth of 
conifers with deciduous trees beneath 
extends southward to a short distance 
south of San Francisco along the western 
portion of the Coast Range. The 
Great Central Valley (Sacramento-San 
Joaquin) was originally grass land, 
probably similar to the Russian steppes. 
The southern coastal plain is charac- 
terized by a type of vegetation similar 
to that in the region of the Mediter- 
ranean, which is called broad-leafed 
Schlerophyll forest. In central Califor- 
nia the foothill country appears to have 
been a scattered tree savanna, the trees 
being live oaks. In the higher portions 
the evergreen oaks and associated 



194 



NATURALIST'S GUIDE TO THE AMERICAS 



trees (broadleaf sclerophyll) origi- 
nally occurred in rather dense stands. 
Farther south this type of vegetation 
is found at a higher altitude. About 
San Diego the country is commonly 
classed as semi-desert. Farther back 
the live oaks occur at higher altitudes. 
The southeastern desert portion of 
California includes the Mohave and 
Colorado deserts, the former including 
Death Valley. Here are some of the 
most arid areas in the West, charac- 
terized by moving sand dunes, almost 
barren tracts covered largely with 
creosote bush (Covillea tridentata) and 
with only occasional watering places. 
Characteristic trees of the various 
timber belts of the Sierra are a.s follows: 1 

1. Foothill belt, 500 to 3000 ft.: digger 

pine (Pinus sabiniana), blue oak 
(Quercus douglasii), interior live 
oak (Quercus wislizenii). 

2. Main timber belt, 3000 to 6500 ft.: 

yellow pine (Pinus ponderosa), 
black oak (Quercus kelloggii), sugar 
pine (Pinus lamb erti ana) , white fir 
(Abies concolor), incense cedar 
(Libocedrus decurrens), big tree 
(Sequoia gigantea}. 

3. Upper portion of main timber belt, 

6500 to 9000 ft.: red fir (Abies 
magnified], tamarac pine (Pinus 
murrayana}, Jeffrey pine (Pinus 
Jeffrey i). 

4. Timber-line belt, 9000 to 11,000 ft.: 

white-bark pine (Pinus albicaulis), 
Sierra juniper (Juniperus occiden- 
talis), mountain hemlock (Tsuga 
mertensiana) , tamarac pine, foxtail 
pine (Pinus balfouriapia) . 

The southern and eastern portion of 
California is geographically separated 
from the northern two-thirds by differ- 
ences in climate and location of moun- 
tains. This area includes the semi- 
desert low country south of Bakersfield, 
the Mohave Desert, and Death Valley, 
and the Colorado Desert (including 
Coachella Valley and Imperial Valley) 
and the low mountains which separate 
the two areas. These mountains are 
characterized by the broad leaf sclero- 
phyll type of vegetation in the upper 

1 From Jepson, W. L., 1909, The Trees of Cali- 
fornia (Cunningham, Curtis and Welch, S. F.), 
228 pp. 



reach of the western slopes and conifers 
on their highest peaks. Numerous 
valleys, very nearly enclosed, with a 
flat floor covered with scattered live 
oaks and characterized by grasslands, 
are common in the foothills. The 
east slope of the mountains is quite 
different in the character of the vegeta- 
tion and these differences have been 
used by Shreve to suggest the inade- 
quacy of the theory of temperature 
control and distribution. 

2. Fauna, especially larger vertebrates* 

The broken topography, lofty eleva- 
tions, and the long coast line extending 
from the latitude of Sitka, to the lower 
latitudes of Lower California, constitute 
some of the important factors which 
lead to great diversification locally in 
temperature and humidity. Within the 
single state of California the effects of 
this climatic diversity on the animal 
life are abundantly illustrated. Terres- 
trial vertebrate animals at home within 
the boundaries of the state are represen- 
tative of the life of the far North and 
of that of portions of Mexico. Marine 
life, of both cold and warm waters, is also 
abundantly represented. The result is a 
very large number of species and higher 
groups in proportion to the size of the 
area. Within this state alone there 
have been detected up to 1915 a total of 
361 species of mammals, 539 of birds, 76 
of reptiles, and 24 species of amphibians. 
It may be stated with confidence that no 
other state in the Union, or even a 
contiguous pair of states, possesses so 
many species as California, unless Texas 
proves more prolific than present knowl- 
edge indicates. 

Dr. Grinnell states that the plants, 
most of the birds and some of the mam- 
mals which are found restricted to the 
chaparral belt "are of relatively ancient 
origin and that they are quite certainly 
indigenous." He continues: 

Among these are to be counted the 
huge grizzly bear of California, now 
exterminated, and the nearly extinct 
condor. Of the smaller mammals pecu- 
liar to the same belt we may mention the 
diminutive brush rabbit, the parasitic 
white-footed mouse, . . . and cer- 

1 From Grinnell, Joseph, 1915, "The vertebrate 
fauna of the Pacific Coast," (pp. 104-112) in Nature 
and Science on the Pacific Coast (Paul Elder & Co., 
S. F.), 302 pp. 



NATURAL AREAS AND REGIONS 



195 



tain species of 5-toed kangaroo rats. 
Of the birds, we must call particular 
attention to the California thrasher, 
. . . the California brown towhee, 
the California bush-tit, the rufous- 
crowned sparrow, the Bell sparrow, the 
California jay, and the wren-tit. . . . 

Birds and mammals in the northern 
coast belt are, relatively to adjacent 
districts, more plentiful in individuals 
than they are in species. Of the more 
interesting kinds may be mentioned the 
Columbian black-tailed deer, . . . 
the Roosevelt elk. . . . The strange 
rodent called Aplodontia or mountain 
beaver, which lives in burrows in wet 
hillsides overgrown with rank clumps of 
sword fern; the peculiar shrewmole; 
. . . the varied thrush, . . . 
south even to the Humboldt redwoods 
and in winter generally over west-central 
and southern California; and the diminu- 
tive western winter wren whose creaking 
song greets one from dense tangles in 
ravine bottoms or from mossy logs in the 
deepest shade of the redwoods. There 
are, in addition, a number of other mam- 
mals and birds, of more or less wide 
general range elsewhere, though pre- 
senting local species or subspecies in 
different parts of the humid coast belt. 

While reptiles are very few in species 
and individuals in the coast belt, amphib- 
ians are correspondingly numerous in 
both respects, and include some species 
of exclusively Pacific distribution. The 
big, slug-eating salamander (Chrondro- 
tus) is one of these. 

The author calls attention to the fact 
that the mammals are nearly all of 
nocturnal habits whereas the reptiles 
are more active during daylight hours. 
This accounts for the fact that the rep- 
tiles are the most conspicuous of the 
vertebrates on the desert. Few reptiles 
can be seen abroad during the cool days 
of the midwinter season on the western 
deserts, but by April they appear in 
considerable numbers. Of the poison- 
ous reptiles found on the deserts of the 
Southwest, only the rattlesnakes occur 
in California. Several lizards are com- 
mon, including the chuckwalla (Sauro- 
malus), the fleet-footed lizards (Scelopo- 
rus) and the whiptails (Cnemidophorus) . 
Of these, the chuckwalla (S. ater) of 
black and orange coloring is the largest, 
attaining a length of 15 in. and having a 
proportionately stout body. The desert 
tortoise (Gopherus agassizii) is found 



excavating its burrows in sandy places 
and wandering about over the great 
stretches of the Mohave. That there is 
a sufficient food supply for the numerous 
reptiles of the deserts is accounted for 
by the fact that nearly all parts of the 
southwestern deserts are visited at 
irregular intervals by heavy rains fol- 
lowed by luxuriant growths of herbs 
which produce an abundance of seeds. 
These seeds, lasting over periods of 
drouth, support great numbers of in- 
sects and rodents, and these in turn 
furnish the food supply of the reptiles. 

Notwithstanding that reptiles are 
more conspicuous, due to their daylight 
habits, Grinnell believes that indi- 
vidually, mammals outnumber the com- 
bined birds and reptile population on 
many parts of the Mohave and Colorado 
deserts. Among these the seed-gather- 
ing rodents, Dipodomys and Perogna- 
thuS) known as the kangaroo-rats and 
pocket-mice are the commonest. The 
deer-mice, the carnivorous grasshopper- 
mice (Onychomys) and the desert wood- 
rats are other night-roaming rodents. 
Three species, the antelope ground- 
squirrel (Ammospermophilus leucurus), 
the round-tailed ground-squirrel (Citel- 
lus tereticaudus), and the desert jack- 
rabbit (Lepus californicus deserticola), 
are found abroad during the early morn- 
ing and evening hours of daylight. 
Two carnivorous mammals are present: 
the big-eared kit fox (Vulpes arsipus) 
and a species of coyote (Cam's ochropus 
estor), small and pale in color. There 
are also quite a large number of different 
kinds of bats which feed upon the abun- 
dant insect life of these deserts. 

Birds of the deserts 

are few in individuals save on the bot- 
tomlands along such streams as the Gila, 
Colorado and Mohave. Here, where the 
deciduous mesquite, cottonwood and 
willow furnish directly or indirectly 
abundance of food and shelter, birds are 
plentiful. . . . The tit-mouse-like 
verdin, Abert towhee and crissal 
thrasher are resident the year through, 
while the Lucy warbler, plumbeous 
gnatcatcher, Cooper tanager, white- 
winged dove, Sonora yellow warbler, 
and a score of other species are but 



196 



NATURALIST'S GUIDE TO THE AMERICAS 



summer visitants. Out on the desert 
proper, far from water, one may find 
here and there a pair of Say phoebes 
nesting in some rocky ravine or mine 
tunnel; rock wrens associate with the 
chuckwallas in the bare broken rock 
masses; cactus wrens build their con- 
spicuous covered nests in clumps of the 
most prickly cactus. . . . 

The Le Conte thrasher which, owing 
to his wary nature and sand-toned color 
was formerly "considered the rarest of 
southwestern birds," is heard in the 
cool morning hours on the desert, while 
pairs of ravens and several species of 
woodpeckers are also to be noted. 

Very few typical animals of the 
chaparral belt extend their range above 
an elevation of 4000 ft. in the Sierras. 
At this altitude one finds blue-fronted 
jays, western robins, the sierra junco 
and several species of woodpeckers. 
In the red fir forests above elevations 
of 7000 ft. will be found ruby-crowned 
and golden-crowned kinglets, nuthatches 
of three species, two species of sap- 
suckers, the Townsend solitaire and near 
timberline, the famous Clarke nut- 
cracker. Characteristic mammals in- 
clude certain species of chipmunks 
(Eutamias), the Sierra red squirrel 
(Sciurus douglasii albolimbatus), Sierra 
marmot (Marmota flaviventris subsp.), 
porcupine (Erethizon epixanthum} and 
bushy-tailed wood-rat (Neotoma cinerea 
subsp.). 

Above timberline, at about 10,000 ft. 
altitude and for some 1000 or 2000 ft. 
farther, plant life of dwarfed types con- 
tinues, and here the rosy finch and rab- 
bit-like cony find their permanent 
abode. They, with other similarly 
restricted species characterize the Al- 
pine-Arctic Zone. 

III. PRESENT BIOTIC CONDITIONS 

Much of the Pacific Coast mesophytic 
forest of which the redwood (Sequoia 
semper vir ens) is the characteristic tree, 
is still in its natural state though there 
has been much cutting. As the redwood 
stump sprouts, a second growth rapidly 
appears. 

The great central valleys which were 
once steppe or grassland areas are now 



largely under cultivation. Much is now 
irrigated farm land and the remainder 
is heavily grazed. 

The great chaparral belt of the foot- 
hills of the Sierras is little disturbed 
except for areas cleared for fruit land 
and the modification due to extensive 
grazing. 

There has been extensive lumbering 
in the main forest belt, inroads having 
been made especially on the sugar pine 
and western yellow pine, the trees of 
greatest commercial value. Most of 
the mountain districts have been grazed 
by cattle and many mountain meadows 
have been modified due to extensive 
grazing of sheep. Exotic forage plants 
are to be found in unlocked for places. 
Perhaps the least modified areas in the 
northern part of the state are to be found 
in Del Norte County and in eastern 
Siskiyou and western Modoc counties 
in the area known as the "lava beds" 
or "devils garden." Even these areas 
are frequented by hunters and cattle- 
men. 

The streams of the southern and 
eastern portions of the Sierras and of 
southern California have been diverted 
for irrigation purposes. Pollution of 
many streams by sawdust and mine 
refuse and to some extent by sewerage 
is only partly checked by laws. As 
a consequence the fauna of some of 
them is quite completely changed. 

The Pacific slope of southern Califor- 
nia is largely under cultivation and 
fauna and flora greatly modified. The 
deserts of the southwest are cultivated 
wherever water is available. How- 
ever, large areas of the desert are still 
unmodified except as the result of 
grazing. 

The grizzly bear, burro deer, Colum- 
bian sharp-tailed grouse, and trumpeter 
swan are now extinct in California and 
the elk, pronghorn antelope and bighorn 
sheep are candidates for extinction. 
The sturgeon has practically disap- 
peared from streams, and many game 
species are greatly reduced in numbers. 

There has been extensive planting of 
exotic plants and trees in southern 



NATURAL AREAS AND REGIONS 



197 



California. Perhaps the most con- 
spicuous trees are various species of 
Eucalyptus and Acacia from Australia 
and the pepper tree (Schoenus molle) 
from South America. A wide variety 
of forage plants have been introduced 
and many of them are now considered 
weed pests, for example Johnson grass 
(Sorghum halapense) and Bermuda grass 
(Cynodon dactylon), 

Among exotic vertebrates now thor- 
oughly acclimated are three species of 
rats, the house mouse, Tennessee opos- 
sum, English sparrow, and ring-necked 
pheasant, the latter purposely intro- 
duced as a game bird. The opossum 
introduced by accident in both south- 
ern and central California is already 
becoming a serious pest. Many at- 
tempted introductions of game species 
have proved failures. 

In the streams and lakes are to be 
found many introduced species of 
fishes, including two kinds of black bass, 
the striped bass, calico bass, crappie, 
ringed perch, blue-gilled sunfish, shad, 
carp, two kinds of catfish and four kinds 
of trout eastern brook, mackinaw, 
lock leven and brown. Topminnows 
have been widely distributed in recent 
years as a means of controlling mos- 
quitos. Many predatory insects have 
been introduced as controls on insect 
pests of citrus groves. The accidentally 
introduced Argentine ant is proving 
one of the worst of pests. 

The areas within the national parks 
probably come nearest to being pre- 
served in a natural state for no hunting 
is allowed, grazing and flower picking is 
restricted and there is but a slight 
amount of timber cut. 

The National Forests of the State 
furnish considerable protection to fauna 
and flora. (See accounts in National 
Forests of California, page 216.) 

IV. NATURAL AREAS 

Middle Eastern California 

*Yosemite National Park (B2 I). 
Area, 1125 sq. mi.; elevations 2000 to 
13,090 ft.; includes granite-walled Yo- 



semite Valley of world-famed beauty; 
lofty cliffs; romantic vistas; many water- 
falls of extraordinary height; glacial 
evidences; ravines, canyons, mountains; 
coniferous and mountain forest, chapar- 
ral; three groves of big trees (Sequoia 
gigantea), including the Mariposa Grove. 
Mule deer and black bear commonly 
seen. Includes type locality of Yo- 
semite toad (Bufo canorus}, Mt. Lyell 
salamander (Hydromantes platycephala) , 
Yosemite pocket gopher (Thomomys 
alpinus awahnee), Yosemite vole (Micro- 
tus montanus yosemite), Yosemite cony, 
Yosemite mole, High Sierra bat, Yo- 
semite fox sparrow. 

190 mi. east of San Francisco by Big 
Oak Flat Road and 225 mi. east of San 
Francisco by Wawona Road. Southern 
Pacific R. R. or Sante Fe R. R. to 
Merced; Yosemite R. R. to El Portal 
and Yosemite Transportation Company 
stages to Yosemite Valley. W. F. 
Bade. 

* Devil Post Pile National Monument 
(B2) . Area of 800 acres at the upper end 
of the San Joaquin canyon containing a 
spectacular mass of hexagonal basaltic 
columns like an immense pile of posts. 
Administered by the United States 
Forest Service. Madera County, South- 
ern Pacific R. R. to Laws thence by 
stage to Mammoth, thence by trail. 
Also reached by trail from Yosemite 
Valley. E. N. Munns. 

* Sequoia National Park (B2). Cre- 
ated 1890. Area, 252 sq. mi. 12,000 
sequoia trees over 10 ft. in diameter, 
some 25 to 36 ft. in diameter; towering 
mountain ranges; steep precipices; cave 
of considerable size. 

72 mi. east of Visalia, California, 
Southern Pacific R. R. Good auto- 
mobile roads. 

*General Grant National Park (B2). 
Area, 4 sq. mi. Created to preserve 
the celebrated General Grant Tree, 35 
ft. in diameter 6 mi. from Sequoia 
National Park. 

71 mi. east of Fresno, California, 
Southern Pacific R. R. 

49 mi. east of Visalia, California, 
Southern Pacific R. R. 



198 



NATURALIST'S GUIDE TO THE AMERICAS 



*Lassen Volcanic National Park (B2). 
Area, 124 sq. mi. Only active volcano 
in United States proper Lassen Peak 
10,465 ft.; Cinder Cone 6879 ft.; Hot 
Springs; mud geysers. Lakes, streams, 
forests of western yellow and white 
pine and lodgepole pine. 

Southern Pacific R. R. to Red Bluff 
or Western Pacific R. R. to Paxton. 

West Central California 

*Pinnacles National Monument (B2). 
Area, 2080 acres; mountain coniferous 
forest, chaparral; waterfall, mountain- 
ous and rocky conditions; caves, spring, 
excellent canyon. Deer present. In- 
cluded in State Game Refuge 3 B. 

Entrance via Hollister, California, 
91 mi. south of San Francisco, or Sole- 
dad, Monterey Co., 140 mi. south of 
San Francisco. Eliot Blackwelder. 

*Mount Diablo State Park (B2). 
Mountain 4000 ft. high giving a com- 
manding view of the entire center of the 
state, embracing mountains, rivers, 
valleys, bays and cities. 320 acres have 
been set aside ; the purchase of 4000 more 
is contemplated. Typical sample of 
California foothill country including 
groves of live oak, California laurel, 
chaparral, and so forth. The region 
and fauna little disturbed by civilizing 
influences save that deer and other 
larger mammals are less abundant than 
under original conditions. 

West base of mountain reached by 
branch of San Francisco-Sacramento 
R. R. at Walwood, or by Southern Pacific 
Railroad at Walnut Creek. San Fran- 
cisco 35 mi. west. Reached by auto 
over paved roads. E. N. Munns. 

Spring Valley Water Company Proper- 
ties (C3). Typical humid coast flora 
and fauna, including redwoods; modified 
by storage reservoirs and predatory 
mammal control with some grazing. 
No hunting allowed. 

San Mateo County. 30 mi. south of 
San Francisco. Southern Pacific R. R. 
or over good roads. 

Redwood Preserves. 3 (The Redwood 

3 Information from N. B. Drury, Sec., Save the 
Redwoods League, July, 1923, Annual Report of the 
League for 1922 and publicity material issued by the 
League in July, 1923. 



Belt is a strip of forest which averages 
20 mi. in width and extends some 450 
mi. from Monterey County, California, 
to just above the Oregon line.) 

California State Redwood Park (B2). 
An area of 2500 acres of redwood in the 
region known as "The Big Basin." 
In addition to the redwood forest, 
scattered areas surrounding the park 
have been purchased by the state and 
set aside by the National Government, 
making a total of some 9000 acres in the 
entire reservation. Facilities have been 
provided for campers in the park, and a 
central dining hall and cabins have been 
erected which are run as a hotel. As 
far as possible, the park is to be main- 
tained in a state of nature. Santa 
Cruz County. 

33 mi. southwest of San Jose on high- 
way. Stages from Boulder Creek, 11 mi. 

25 mi. northwest of Santa Cruz on 
highway. 

*Muir Woods National Monument 
(B2). Area, 295 acres. Virgin stand of 
Sequoia sempervirens and associated 
vegetation. The whole Mt. Tamalpais 
region is a game refuge and all life is 
protected inside the monument. 

Marin County. 8 mi. north of San 
Francisco; reached by Northwestern 
Pacific R. R. and Mt. Tamalpais R. R. 

*Armstrong Grove. An area of 419 
acres of Sequoia sempervirens, located 
near Guerneville and owned and ad- 
ministered by Sonoma County. A care- 
taker is in charge and all life is 
preserved. 

Guerneville, 3 mi. south on county 
road. Guerneville reached by North- 
western Pacific R. R. from San Francisco. 

* Bohemian Grove (B2). A stand of 
redwoods preserved and owned by the 
Bohemian Club of California. 

Sonoma County. 85 mi. north of 
San Francisco on N. W. P. R. R. 

* Edward R. Rickey Memorial Grove 
(B2). An area of 40 acres of redwoods. 
Mendocino County. 

On State Highway, north of Willits. 
N. W. P. R. R. 

*Humboldt State Redwood Park (B2) 
An area of 2216 acres of virgin redwood 
in Humboldt County bordering the 



NATURAL AREAS AND REGIONS 



199 



State Highway for 14 mi. between 
Miranda and Dyerville in the basin of 
the South Fork of the Eel River. The 
park is administered by the State Board 
of Forestry. Camp facilities are pro- 
vided at various points. 

230 mi. north of San Francisco. 
Reached either by automobile via the 
main State Highway to Eureka, or via 
Northwestern Pacific Railroad to South 
Fork Station or to Eureka, and thence 
to the park by automobile. 

*Humboldt County Pioneer Memorial 
(B2). An area of 166 acres of giant 
erdwoods on the California State High- 
way near Orick, Humboldt Co. Some 
of the largest trees in the redwood belt 
are found in this tract; these with the 
massive firs, maples, spruce, and oaks ; 
together with the giant ferns and other 
undergrowth, make it an area of unusual 
beauty. It is still in a primeval state 
and the deed stipulates that it shall be 
kept in a natural condition. The grove 
is crossed by Prairie Creek which adds 
to the beauty of the grove and its ad- 
vantages from a park and recreational 
standpoint. 

About 60 mi. north of Eureka on the 
California State Highway. 

V. PEOPOSED AREAS 

Proposed Redwood National Park 

1. It is hoped that eventually a Red- 
wood National Park, consisting of a 
tract of primeval forest possessing the 
scenic features most characteristic of the 
region, will be established in the north- 
ern limit of the redwood belt (Del Norte 
County). It should be truly represen- 
tative of the redwoods in their maturity, 
and should be of adequate size prob- 
ably not less than 20,000 acres, should be 
accessible, and should present adequate 
opportunities for recreation. In accord- 
ance with a resolution passed by Con- 
gress in 1920 , surveys have been made 
and the problem studied extensively. 
The groves along the approach to this 
national park will be preserved through 
private donation and through state and 
county appropriations, ultimately mak- 
ing a "Highway of the Giants/' extend- 
ing from their southernmost limit to 
their northernmost, and connecting the 
various groves and parks. 



2. The redwood region of Humboldt 
and Del Norte Counties (along and near 
the Trinidad-Crescent City Highways). 

In view of the efforts being made to 
save areas of the coast redwoods and of 
the good information that is available 
regarding them from other sources, 
attention is called merely to the impor- 
tance, from an ecological point of view, 
of preserving not only areas of pure 
stands of redwoods (to which the efforts 
of the Save the Redwoods League 
will doubtless be chiefly directed), but 
also of the several very different types of 
mixed forest of redwoods and other trees, 
and especially of the covering forest 
(largely Sitka spruce and lowland white 
fir) which intervenes between the red- 
wood belt and the ocean shore, and is 
necessary to protect the redwoods from 
the ocean winds unless hills intervene. 
Along the old Trinidad-Crescent City 
Highway, much of the forest is of the 
mixed type and contains magnificent 
examples of Douglas firs, hemlocks and 
white firs. Firs 250 to 260 ft. high are 
common in these forests. 

The forest consists in some places of 
almost pure Sitka spruce, sometimes of 
large size and great height. Much of it 
has already been destroyed. It is easily 
killed by fire and exposure to wind and 
sun. Prompt efforts should be made 
for the permanent protection of some 
of this tract of spruce and lowland 
fir. 

There are magnificent stands of Sitka 
spruce in the vicinity of Requa, Del 
Norte County, and Orick, Humboldt 
County (some of them are probably 280 
ft. tall). The finest lowland white fir 
along the highway is in two rather small 
tracts of mixed redwood forest between 
Orick and Trinidad. There is little 
forest anywhere in the United States 
more worth saving from a scientific 
and aesthetic point of view than some 
of the tracts along this highway and in 
its immediate vicinity, especially from 
the Del Norte-Humboldt County line 
to near Orick, although so far as the red- 
woods themselves are concerned, better 
stands can be found elsewhere, especially 
near Smith River and South Fork. 

3. Monterey Coniferous Forest. 
Northwestern coniferous forest, sand 
areas, ravines, canyons, sand and rocky 
shores, and marshes. Fine stand of 
Monterey pine and coast redwood. 
Monterey cypress along the shore 
line. 

Monterey County. Pacific Grove or 
Monterey, California, 3 to 10 mi. north. 
Prof. Lynds Jones, Oberlin College, 
Oberl'in, Ohio. 



200 



NATURALIST'S GUIDE TO THE AMERICAS 



Northeastern California 

*The Me Arthur Burney Falls Park 
(B2). An area of 160 acres in Shasta 
County, including original forests of 
pine with various species of game pres- 
ent. Includes Burney Falls and Burney 
Creek, the falls being 187 ft. high. Five 
mi. from the highway between Redding 
and Alturas. 

Redding 75 mi. southwest. Stephen 
Mather, Memorandum on State Parks. 

Southwestern California 

*Torrey Pines Park (B3). An area 
of about 700 acres in San Diego 
Co. including the rare Torrey pines 
(Pinus torreyana) and an association of 
typical semi-desert vegetation. Owned 
by the city of San Diego and set aside 
as a wild life reservation. Important as 
the habitat of the mainland group of 
Torrey pines, a prostrate form of Arcto- 
staphylos, and other shrubs of botanical 
interest and of certain birds and small 
animals. Guy Fleming. 

San Diego 22 mi. south on State 
Highway. 

Los Angeles Summer Camp (B3). 
Los Angeles County has purchased 
property with Jeffrey pine and pinon 
timber west of Cajon Pass, San 
Bernardino County for summer camp 
ground. It will be kept in a semi- 
natural state. For further particulars, 
address County Forester, Los Angeles, 
California. H. C. Bryant. 

Mt. Pisgah Lava Field. A very irregu- 
lar area covering about 15 sq. mi. An 
old lava field, or rather a series of fields 
of varying ages, but without evidences of 
very recent volcanic activity. Is ex- 
tremely rugged and difficult of passage; 
crossed by jagged ridges and yawning 
fissures; sand has drifted in from the sur- 
rounding desert and become deposited 
in the cracks and depressions afford- 
ing soil for the support of scattered 
shrubs and annuals for a mile or more 
from its nearest border. Area for obser- 
vation of white-footed mice, by Scripps 
Institution. 

San Bernardino County. Adjacent 
to (south of) the main line of Santa Fe 



R. R. at Lavic and Pisgah stations. 
Ludlow 12 mi. east. F. B. Sumner (see 
Journal of Mammalogy, vol. II). 

Southeastern California 

Lankershim Semi-Desert. Twelve 
acres semi-desert, San Fernando Valley 
in Los Angeles County, with cacti and 
level plain and with sand areas. Mam- 
mals: pocket-mice, kangaroo-rats and 
grasshopper mice; such birds as: black- 
tailed gnatcatcher, cactus wren, Bell 
sparrow, and rufous sparrow. 

Lankershim, California, is 6 mi. north- 
west direction from Hollywood. 

Near "Toluca," on Santa Monica 
Quadrangle, U. S. G. S. J. Grinnell. 

Tujunga Wash. Five square miles of 
semi-desert, chaparral and cacti, flood 
wash, and sand area. Few spots of wild 
desert left in the rapidly developing 
San Fernando Valley. 

Los Angeles County. Burbank, Cali- 
fornia, 5 mi. northwest; north of 
Newhall Division of S. P. R. R. /. E. 
Law. 

Los Angeles Live Oak. Two acres of 
deciduous forest, chaparral, mountain 
ravine, and canyon; a narrow strip 
between Los Angeles River and steep 
slope of mountains just south contain- 
ing a magnificent grove of gigantic live 
oak, fern-filled, well-wooded, steep 
canyon. 

Los Angeles County. Los Angeles, 
adjacent to Griffith Park. J. E. Law. 

Big Prospector Meadow. An area of 
500 acres of steppe, 10,500 ft. altitude, 
sagebrush, alpine meadow on the moun- 
tain top. Threatened by sheep; almost 
tramped out now. Home of Merrill 
horned lark, sage grouse, sage thrasher, 
Brewer sparrow, short-tailed meadow 
mouse, and white-tailed jackrabbit. 

Inyo County in White Mountains. 
Laws, California, 13 mi. northeast. 
Shown on U. S. G. S. map of "Bishop" 
Quadrangle. /. Grinnell. 

Oro Grande Rock Area. Consisting of 
hills, covered with large masses of igne- 
ous rock of pale buff and pinkish hues, 
interspersed with sand and gravel. 
The vegetation is of the usual type of 
the western Mohave desert region. Se- 
lected as a trapping station for white- 
footed mice, as control for Pisgah Lava 
Field (see above), the object being to 
test the alleged effect of color of back- 
ground upon color of these rodents. 
Altitude 2700 ft. 

Barstow 31 mi. north, San Bernardino 
50 mi. south on Santa Fe R. R. San 
Bernardino County. F. B. Sumner. 

Kelso Desert. Hundreds of square 



NATURAL AREAS AND REGIONS 



201 



miles of creosote bush desert showing a 
scattered stand under extreme arid 
conditions, the brush supporting two 
species of grasshoppers that are common 
in autumn; scorpions and lizards numer- 
ous; horned rattler present. Providence 
Mountains 10 mi. southeast with moun- 
tain sheep present. Kelso, California, 
immediate environs; Salt Lake Route 
Railway; water station with a restaurant 
for railroad men and probability of 
lodgings among the few residents. Con- 
venient points for study of Mohave 
Desert. V. E. Shelf ord. 

Desert Moving Dunes. An area of 25 
sq. mi. of desert moving dunes just south 
of the L. A. & S. L. R. R., between Flynn 
and Kerrens. Kelso. California; 5 mi. 
west to Flynn, California. V. E. 
Shelford. 

Mohave Yucca Forest. An area of 
about 720 sq. mi. including one of the 
finest of tree yucca forests and the un- 
settled parts of the Tehachapi Moun- 
tains, Antelope Valley, and the Sierra 
de la Liebre, the pine-clad slopes of Mt. 
Frazier, and finally, the arid desert at 
the mouth of Jawbone Canyon. The 
fauna includes a few antelope (1914), 
black-tailed deer, black bear, cougar, 
and bighorn sheep together with the 
smaller mammals, birds, and reptiles, 
commonly associated with these animals. 
The geological features are interesting. 
The San Francisco earthquake rift with 
springs and lakes along it, runs through 
Fort Tejon, Elizabeth Lake, and Palm- 
dale. There are important fossil beds 
at Ricardo, in Red Rock Canyon. 

Los Angeles and Kern counties. Teha- 
chapi, adjacent to the mountains. S. F. & 
S.P.R.R. Mohave-Inyo R.R. gives access 
to northeastern portions in the regions 
of Jawbone Canyon and El Paso Moun- 
tains. Saugus, Southern Pacific, adja- 
cent to the southern portion. Bakers- 
field-Los Angeles Highway crosses 
through Tejon Pass near the base of Mt. 
Frazier. Chas. L. Camp (1922). 

California's game sanctuaries 

California is assured a perpetual sup- 
ply of game by having set aside areas 
where no hunting is allowed and where 
game is allowed to breed unmolested. 
The state is responsible for the creation 
of most of them, the Federal Govern- 
ment for others. Certain areas known 
as Game Refuges have been set aside by 
legislative enactment. Others known 
as State Game Preserves have been 
created by the Fish and Game Com- 
mission after the owner of the property 
has ceded all hunting privileges to the 
state for a period of not less than ten 



years. The Federal Government has set 
aside three Bird Reservations and pro- 
tects all of the wild life within the Na- 
tional Parks and National Monuments. 
As a consequence, game is now abso- 
lutely protected on nearly 3,000,000 
acres within the State of California, an 
area roughly equivalent to three per cent 
of the total area of the state. On these 
areas fishing is allowed. 

Game refuges (C3) 









Q 








W 








8 


NAME 


COUNTY 


AREA 


m 








i 






acres 




1 A 


Siskiyou 


22,540 


1917 


1 B 


Modoc 


83,060 


1917 


1C 


Modoc 


21, 760 


1917 


1 D 


Trinity 


82, 560 


1915 


1 E 


Shasta 


37, 760 


1917 


1 F 


Lassen 


46, 720 


1917 


1 G 


Tehama 


33, 920 


1917 


1 H 


Plumas 


37, 760 


1917 


1 I 


El Dorado, Cala- 


67, 840 


1917 




veras 






1 J 


Amador 


58, 320 


1917 


1 K 


Fresno 


34,240 


1917 


1 L 


Tulare and Kern 


35, 520 


1917 


1 M 


Kern 


81,920 


1919 


2 A 


Mendocino, Lake 


35, 200 


1917 




and Butte 






3 A 


Santa Cruz 


4,480 


1915 


3 B 


San Bani to and Mon- 


14, 080 


1909 




terey 






3 C 


Santa Barbara 


41, 600 


1917 


3 D 


Ventura 


125, 760 


1917 


3 E 


Santa Clara 


3,600 


1919 


3 F 


Contra Costa 


10, 240 


1921 


4 A 


Los Angeles 


293, 120 


1915 


4B 
4C 


Los Angeles 
Orange 


325, 120 
99. 840 


1915 
1913 


4 D 


Riverside 


69, 120 


1917 


4E 
4 F 


San Diego 
Los Angeles and 


51, 840 
46,080 


1917 
1919 




Kern 






Mount 


Marin 


28,000 


1917 


Tamalpais 
Lake Merritt 


Alameda County 




1869 




(Oakland) 










1, 792, 000 





State game preserves (G7) 



No. 5 


Monterey and San 


8,570 


1916 




Benito 






No. 6 
No. 7 


Santa Barbara! 
Santa Barbara/ 


42,000 


1918 






50,570 





Federal bird reservations (H8) 



Klamath 
Lake 
Clear Lake 
Farallon 
Islands 


Siskiyou 

Modoc 
Pacific Ocean, near 
San Francisco 


22, 400 
1,600 


1908 

1911 
1909 






24, 000 





Approximate. 



H. C. Bryant. 



202 



NATURALIST'S GUIDE TO THE AMERICAS 



BIBLIOGRAPHY 

Grinnell, J. 

1908. The Biota of the San Bernardino 

Mountains. Univ. Calif. Publ., 
vol. 5, pp. 1-170, pis. 1-24. 

1913. A Distributional List of the 

Mammals of California. Proc. 
Calif. A cad. Sci., 4th ser., vol. 
3, pp. 265-390 pis. 15, 16. 

1914. An account of the Mammals and 

Birds of the Lower Colorado 
Valley, with Especial Refer- 
ence to the Distributional 
Problems Presented. Univ. 
Calif. Publ. Zool., vol. 12, pp. 
51-294, pis. 3-13, 9 figs, in 
text. 

1914. Barriers to Distribution as Re- 

gards Birds and Mammals. 
American Naturalist, vol. 
xlviii, April, 1914. 

1915. A Distributional List of the 

Birds of California. Pac. 
Coast Avifauna (Cooper Or- 
nithological Club), no. 11, 
217 pp., 3 pis. (maps). 
1917. Field Tests of Theories Concern- 
ing Distributional Control. 
American Naturalist, vol. li, 
Feb., 1917. 

Grinnell, J., and Storer, T. I. 

1924. Animal Life in the Yosemite. 
An account of the mammals, 
birds, reptiles and amphibians 
in a cross section of the Sierra 
Nevada. (Univ. Calif. Press), 
750 pp., 12 colored pis., 48 
pis.. 2 maps. 65 figs, in text. 

Hall, H. M. 

1902. A Botanical Survey of San 
Jacinto Mountain. Univ. 
Calif. Publ. Bot., vol. 1, pp. 
1-140, pis. 1-14. ' 

Hall, H. M., and Grinnell, J. 
1919. Life-zone Indicators in Cali- 
fornia. Proc. Calif. Acad. 
Sci., 4th ser., vol. ix, no. 2, 
pp. 37-67, June, 1919. 

Jepson, Willis Linn 

1909. The Trees of California. (Cun- 

ningham, Curtis & Welch, 
San Francisco), 228 pp., 125 
figs, in text. 
Merriam, C. Hart 

1898. Life Zones and Crop Zones of the 

United States. U. S. Dept. 
Agric., Div. Biol. Surv., Bull, 
no. 10, 79 pp., 1 map (colored). 

1899. Results of a Biological Survey 

of Mount Shasta, California. 
U. S. Dept. Agric., Div. Biol. 
Surv., N. Amer. Fauna, no. 
16, 179 pp., 5 pis., 46 figs, in 
text. 



Smiley, F. J. 

1921. A report upon the boreal flora 
of the Sierra Nevada of Cali- 
fornia. Univ. Calif. Publ. Bot. 
9, pp. 1-423, pis. 1-7. 

1915. Nature and Science on the 
Pacific Coast. Edited under 
auspices of the Pacific Coast 
Comm. of the A. A. A. S. 
(Paul Elder & Co., San Fran- 
cisco), 302 pp., 19 figs, in text, 
29 pis., 14 maps. 

5. NATIONAL FORESTS OF THE 
NORTH PACIFIC DISTRICT (6) 

BY J. V. HOFMANN 

The National Forests of Oregon and 
Washington include large areas of moun- 
tainous country and some of the most 
gigantic forests of the world. The total 
National Forest area covers nearly 
52,000,000 acres of which about 15,000,000 
are in Oregon, and 10,000,000 acres in 
Washington. 1 

The wide variety of conditions exist- 
ing in these forests affords a mecca for 
the nature lover and scientist alike. 
These regions provide fertile fields for 
the pursuit of studies in biology, geology 
and any of the botanical sciences. 

The preservation of natural conditions 
in the Pacific Northwest for purely 
ecological or biological purposes, or for 
keeping intact some of the forest forma- 
tions that exist at the present time and 
which will not be reproduced under 
forest management, can best be served 
by considering the region as a whole. 

The present economic conditions are 
such that there will undoubtedly be 
regions left untouched in this section 
for several decades, and large areas of 
types will be preserved without any 
special effort. This will apply to this 
region more than to various other 
sections because the National Forest 
land covers practically all the types and 
conditions of the region, and portions 
of these forests will be left untouched 
until the lumber industry advances to 
the stage where the last areas of the 
present mature stands of timber are 

1 The national forest areas mentioned in this and 
the following accounts are as of July 1, 1923. 



NATURAL AREAS AND REGIONS 



203 



logged. For these reasons types that 
are included in such forests need not be 
designated at the present time because 
the future development of these large 
bodies of timber can not be foreseen, 
and the selection of the areas should be 
made in accordance with conditions at 
the time any special type is being cut. 
Conditions arise under which areas can 
be set aside very easily during the prog- 
ress of logging without any special 
effort or inconvenience to the operators 
or any great financial sacrifice by the 
Government. 

To consider the different types of the 
Pacific Northwest, it appears best to 
divide the region into its natural areas 
or types. This would divide Washington 
and Oregon into three distinct areas; 
namely, the Eastern Oregon or Blue 
Mountain division, the Cascade Moun- 
tain division and the Coast division 
including the Olympic Peninsula. The 
range of elevation in each division 
divides it again into forest types. The 
species in the Coast and Cascade divi- 
sions are similar at similar elevations 
and form the following types: 

1. Lower slope type, sea level to about 
3500 ft. forms the Douglas fir-hemlock- 
cedar type, including Douglas fir; 
western red cedar; western hemlock, 
sitka spruce, in the coast region; sugar 
pine in southern Oregon; Port Orford 
cedar, in southwestern Oregon; western 
yellow pine, in the Willamette Valley 
and the east side of the Cascade Moun- 
tains; western white pine, lowland white 
fir, lodgepole pine, in isolated occur- 
rence; western larch, on the east side 
of the Cascade Mountains, and Alaska 
cedar in northern Washington. Minor 
hardwood species are scattered through- 
out the region. 

2. Upper slope type, 3500 to 4500 ft., 
forms the true fir type including noble 
fir, silver fir, Englemann spruce, white 
fir, Douglas fir, western hemlock, west- 
ern red cedar, lodgepole pine, western 
yellow pine, western white pine, Alaska 
cedar in northern Washington, and 
sugar pine, knobcone pine, and Shasta 
red fir in southern Oregon. 



3. Subalpine type, 4500 ft. to timber 
line at 5000 to 6000 ft., including moun- 
tain hemlock, alpine fir, white-bark pine, 
dwarf juniper, Rocky Mountain juniper, 
western juniper, lodgepole pine, white 
fir, noble fir, silver fir, Englemann 
spruce, western white pine, Shasta red 
fir in southern Oregon, and Alaska cedar 
in northern Washington. 

The Blue Mountain group of forests 
consists largely of western yellow pine 
and includes also Douglas fir, western 
hemlock, white fir, lodgepole pine, and 
western larch. 

The conditions included within each 
of these regions are so similar that any 
convenient locality may be selected to 
preserve a representative area of the 
general type of vegetation. The selec- 
tion of any area for ecological or scien- 
tific purposes should contain the optimum 
conditions for the type of vegetation 
concerned, consequently such mixtures 
as occur in eastern Washington, where 
the loogepole pine, western larch, 
western white pine, Douglas fir, white 
fir and other species are in mixture, 
would not be representative of any one 
species. The same condition prevails 
in southern Oregon where the sugar 
pine, knobcone pine, and the Shasta 
red fir occur in mixture with the typical 
species of Oregon. In other words, 
areas should be selected in the region 
in which the species develops not neces- 
sarily to its optimum growth, but at 
least the average or better, and where it 
forms the greatest per cent of the stand. 

At present there are no areas in the 
western yellow pine type of Oregon and 
Washington that are more permanently 
preserved than that they are a part of a 
National Forest. The large areas of 
yellow pine within the National Forests 
gives adequate assurance of the preser- 
vation of the western yellow pine type 
for a long time to come. The only 
factor concerned is grazing, and there 
are extensive ungrazed areas on which 
studies may be made where natural 
conditions are desired. 

The Cascade forests vary in elevation 
from 100 ft. to timber line at between 



204 



NATURALIST'S GUIDE TO THE AMERICAS 



5000 and 6000 ft. Vegetation does not 
extend far above timber line, although 
at the higher elevations the beautiful 
mountain meadows occur among the 
scattered stands of the subalpine species. 
The next lower zone is occupied by the 
noble and silver firs, some alpine fir and 
mountain hemlock, below which occurs 
the Douglas fir forest, which is the pre- 
dominating forest of the region. The 
Douglas fir forest varies from a pure 
stand to a mixture with western hem- 
lock, western red cedar, lowland white 
fir, and some other minor species. In 
these various zones of the Cascade 
Mountains the greater per cent of the 
area is in its natural condition. All 
stages of the forest may be found in 
various localities. 

Where the forest has been reburned 
several times the large huckleberry 
fields occur, and where two or more fires 
have occurred at varying intervals, or 
in patches, the mixed succession forest 
occurs, and on areas where single forest 
fires have destroyed mature forests the 
typical succession forest consisting of the 
species of the original forest is present. 

The Olympic Peninsula is of special 
interest because it contains some of the 
largest Douglas fir in mixture with 
Sitka spruce, western hemlock and 
western red cedar. This is probably the 
best region for preserving some of the 
largest timber of the Pacific Northwest. 
At present, very little logging is being 
done in regions that would destroy the 
last remnants of this type, and it will 
probably be a long time before this area 
is opened up for general logging. It 
would be difficult at this time to desig- 
nate any special area that would be 
suitable for preservation because the 
development of the peninsula is uncer- 
tain, and during the process of cutting 
it will be more feasible to determine 
what areas should be selected. 

The situation on the southwestern 
coast of Oregon is somewhat different. 
In this region the Port Orford cedar 
occurs in a very limited range. The 
Port Orford cedar is at present the most 
valuable individual tree of the entire 



region, and it is being cut in regions 
where logging was not considered even 
a few years ago. The selective logging, 
by which Port Orford cedar is being cut, 
is threatening the extinction of this 
species. This calls for action if this 
type of forest is to be preserved. For- 
tunately, some of the best stands of 
Port Orford cedar are included in the 
Siskiyou National Forest on the Sixes 
River watershed. This region possibly 
may be cut, at least in part, in the near 
future, and some definite action should 
be taken to preserve a part of this type 
of forest. The Port Orford cedar merits 
attention and preservation equally as 
much as the redwoods. It appears that 
this species is a remnant of the forests 
of the bygone ages. The Port Orford 
cedar is re-producing very well, and 
various age classes may be found. The 
area mentioned ranges from sea level to 
about 2000 ft. and is located from 10 
to 15 mi. from Port Orford, Oregon. 
The Port Orford cedar is the only species 
of this region that is in immediate danger 
of being exploited to the point that will 
leave none of the mature forests. 

In the Cascade Mountains there are 
at present several areas that are per- 
manently preserved, and no doubt there 
will be future selections for various 
purposes that will add to these areas. 
Areas already preserved are : The Crater 
Lake National Park, The Rainier Na- 
tional Park, The Bull Run Water- 
Shed on the Oregon National Forest 
which supplies the water for the city of 
Portland, The Sultan River Water- 
Shed on the Snoqualmie National Forest 
which supplies the water to the city of 
Everett, and the game preserve on the 
Stilaguamish River above Silverton, 
Washington on the Snoqualmie National 
Forest and a similar preserve around 
Lake Chelan on the Chelan National 
Forest. There is also a reservation 
surrounding the Government Mineral 
Springs in the Wind River Valley on the 
Columbia National Forest. 

Areas that are set aside for such 
purposes as these are usually left intact. 
Such areas are also valuable for the 



NATURAL AREAS AND REGIONS 



205 



study of natural conditions, for scien- 
tific research, and for biological purposes. 
There are other mineral springs, natural 
camp sites, recreation grounds, and 
other localities that will undoubtedly 
be set aside in the near future. This 
selection of areas is distributed along 
the Cascade Range and includes practi- 
cally all of the types of vegetation of 
the region. 

The sagebrush region in eastern 
Oregon and Washington may not receive 
attention, although no doubt there 
always will be sections available for 
study if left as it is. It includes the 
region on the east side of the Cascade 
Mountains. This is a border type 
between the forest and desert and is an 
interesting type from both ecological 
and biological standpoints. 

Wild animal life abounds throughout 
this northwestern region and varies 
very little in the different sections. 
The black bear and grizzly bear are 
found throughout the region. Timber 
wolf and coyote are found throughout 
the region, especially on the east side 
of the Cascades. Deer are plentiful 
throughout the region, and elk are also 
found. Bands of elk are known at 
present around Mt. St. Helens in North- 
ern Washington; on the Siskiyou Na- 
tional Forest; in the Southern Cascades 
of Oregon, and in the Olympic Peninsula. 
Cougar, fox, marten, fisher, and numer- 
ous smaller animals are found through- 
out these forests. Good fishing is 
found in all of the streams, many of 
them being restocked periodically. 

NATIONAL FORESTS 

Cascade National Forest (Oregon}. 
The Cascade National Forest has an 
area of 1,022,312 acres. It ranges in 
elevation from 1000 ft. along the Mc- 
Kenzie River to over 10,000 ft. where the 
boundary reaches the Three Sisters 
Mountains. These three peaks are 
covered with perpetual snow, and the 
melting snow from the Cascade Range 
feeds the many scenic waterfalls and 
cascades from which the forest derives 
its name. Most noted among the falls 



are the Salt Creek Falls with a perpen- 
dicular drop of over 275 ft., and the 
McKenzie Falls. 

The forest consists of a dense stand of 
Douglas fir estimated to contain 20 
billion board feet of merchantable 
timber. The higher ridges contain the 
upper slope and the alpine species. 

The headquarters of the forest are at 
Eugene on the Southern Pacific Railway. 
The southern part of the forest is reached 
on the branch to Oak Ridge, and the 
northern part of the forest is reached 
over the McKenzie Highway. 

Chelan National Forest (Washington}. 
The Chelan Forest covers an area of 
1,997,988 acres and ranges in elevation 
from about 3000 to nearly 7000 ft. This 
forest includes the famous Lake Chelan 
which is a rival of the world famed Lake 
Brienz of Switzerland. This forest 
contains western yellow pine on dry soil 
at lower altitudes good stands of Doug- 
las fir at the lower elevation, and has 
the typical upper slope and subalpine 
types at the higher, also the beautiful 
mountain meadows near timber line. 

An area around Lake Chelan has been 
set aside as a game preserve and this 
area harbors the mountain goat and 
sheep as well as deer, bear and other 
game. 

The headquarters are at OkanoganJ 
and the forest is accessible by stage and 
boat on Lake Chelan. 

Columbia National Forest (Washing- 
ton). Includes an area of 785,224 acres. 
It lies in the southcentral part of the 
state and includes the Cascade Range. 
The elevation varies from 100 to over 
12,000 ft. at Mt. Adams. 

The forest includes Mt. Adams and 
Mt. St. Helens; the latter is the youngest 
of the glacier peaks of the Cascade 
Range. The range in elevation makes it 
possible for all forest types to be found 
on the Columbia Forest. In the low- 
lands are the heavy, mature stands of 
Douglas fir and associated species. 
On the higher slopes is the upper slope 
type of true firs, above which is the 
true subalpine type which adjoins the 
mountain meadows at timber line. 



206 



NATURALIST'S GUIDE TO THE AMERICAS 



On the Columbia National Forest 
the Wind River Forest Experiment 
Station is located in the Wind River 
Valley, eleven miles from Carson on the 
S. P. & S. Ry. This Station is the head- 
quarters for research on the forests of 
the Pacific Northwest. 

The headquarters of the Columbia 
Forest are at Portland, i and the forest 
is reached by the S. P. & S. Ry. to points 
along the Columbia River. 

Colville National Forest (Washington). 
The Colville Forest covers an area of 
754,737 acres and ranges in elevation 
from 950 to over 7000 ft. Within the 
Colville Forest are the Kettle Falls 
at which point the Columbia River 
falls nearly 100 ft. 

The forest type ranges from the 
Douglas fir type in the lower elevation 
to the subalpine type and mountain 
meadows. It also includes large areas 
of lodgepole pine forests. 

The headquarters are at Republic 
from which point the forest is reached 
by stage. 

Crater National Forest (Oregon). The 
Crater Forest is divided into two sepa- 
rate tracts aggregating 852,158 acres. 
The larger tract includes the southern 
slope of the Umpqua Range of mountains 
and the other is in the Siskiyou Moun- 
tains. The elevation ranges from 1500 
ft. to over 9000 ft. on Mt. McLoughlin. 

On the Crater Forest the traveller 
will see 5 forest types: western yellow 
pine, lodgepole pine, Douglas fir, white 
fir, and the alpine species. 

Within the Crater Forest lies Crater 
National Park which includes Crater 
Lake. 

The headquarters of the forest are at 
Medford, J and the Cascade division of 
the forest is reached over the highway 
to Crater Lake. The Siskiyou division 
is also accessible by auto road from 
Medford. 

Deschutes National Forest (Oregon). 
The Deschutes National Forest is 
located entirely on the east side of the 
Cascade Range in central Oregon. It 
includes 1,283,808 acres and ranges 
from about 4000 ft. in elevation to over 



10,000 ft. The boundary of the Deschu- 
tes joins the Cascade and includes a 
part of the Three Sisters. This forest 
contains Mt. Jefferson which is one of 
the picturesque peaks of the Cascade 
Range and, due to its almost perpendicu- 
lar summit, is a peak that is of special 
interest to mountain climbers. 

The forest is typical western yellow 
pine and lodgepole with some of the 
subalpine species. , . 

The headquarters are at BendJ which 
is reached by a branch of the O. S. L. 
R. R. 

Fremont National Forest (Oregon). 
The Fremont National Forest is located 
in south central Oregon and is on the 
east side of the Cascade Range. It is 
a typical western yellow pine forest. 
It includes 849,526 acres and ranges in 
elevation from 4200 to 7000 ft. 

The headquarters are at LakeviewJ 
which is reached by stage from Bend or 
Klamath Falls. 

Malheur National Forest (Oregon). 
The Malheur Forest is one of the group 
of forests located in the Blue Mountain 
region of Eastern Oregon. It has a total 
area of 1,043,777 acres. Its elevation 
ranges from 200 to 8000 ft. The forest 
surrounds Strawberry Mountain which 
is one of the highest peaks in the Blue 
Mountains. 

The forest is like all of the Blue Moun- 
tain group of forests and contains 
western yellow pine on the south slopes 
and white fir, larch and Douglas fir on 
the north slopes. Areas of lodgepole 
pine also occur in places that have 
been burned several times. 

The headquarters are at John DayJ 
which is reached by stage from Burns. J 

Ochoco National Forest (Oregon). The 
Ochoco Forest is another of the Blue 
Mountain group. It contains 717,994 
acres and ranges in elevation from 3000 
to 7400 ft. It is a typical western yellow 
pine forest with the white fir-larch- 
Douglas fir type on the north slopes. 

The supervisor's headquarters are at 
PrinevilleJ which is reached by the 
O. S. L. R. R. 

Olympic National Forest (Washington). 



NATURAL AREAS AND REGIONS 



207 



The Olympic Forest covers an area of 
1,535,503 acres and ranges in elevation 
from near sea level to over 8000 ft. at 
Mt. Olympus. The Olympic Forest con- 
tains some of the heaviest stands of Doug- 
las fir, Sitka spruce and western hemlock 
of any of the north Pacific forests. Al- 
most pure stands of Sitka spruce may be 
found, and large areas of western hem- 
lock, as well as Douglas fir. On the 
higher altitudes are the upper slope 
types merging into the subalpine types 
and mountain meadows. Within the 
forest are found Quiniault and Crescent 
lakes. 

The headquarters are at OlympiaJ 
and the forest may be reached by stage 
or by boat on Puget Sound. 

Oregon National Forest (Oregon) . The 
Oregon Forest ir eludes the famous 
Columbia Gorge on the Oregon side and 
is traversed by the Columbia Highway 
which makes it very accessible from 
Portland.! It contains 1,053,820 acres 
and ranges in elevation from about 100 
ft. at Cascade Locks to over 11,000 ft. at 
the summit of Mt. Hood. 

The Eagle Creek Camp Ground along 
the Columbia Highway is a large camp 
site maintained by the Forest Service. 

The Oregon Forest contains heavy 
stands of Douglas fir in the lower alti- 
tudes and includes some of the best 
upper slope types of the true firs, and 
also the subalpine stands. 

The headquarters are at Portland! and 
the forest is reached principally by stage, 
although the north end is very accessible 
by the O. W. R. & N. R. R. and Columbia 
River boats. 

Rainier National Forest (Washington). 
The Rainier Forest covers an area of 
1,316,517 acres. It is located in south- 
central Washington along the Cascade 
Range, and the elevation varies from 
200 ft. to over 14,000 ft. on Mt. Rainier. 

On the Rainier may be found all of the 
forest types from the heavy timber 
types of the lowlands to the subalpine 
species and the extensive mountain 
meadows. 

The headquarters are at TacomaJ and 
the forest is reached over the Tacoma & 



Eastern R. R. to Morton or by stage line 
to various points. 

Santiam National Forest (Oregon). 
The Santiam Forest covers an area of 
607,097 acres and ranges in elevation 
from 1500 to over 10,000 ft. on Mt. Jeffer- 
son. The lower slopes are covered by 
heavy Douglas fir forests, and there are 
also large areas of the upper slope types. 

The headquarters of the forest are at 
AlbanyJ on the S. P. R. R., and a branch- 
line to Detroit! takes one into the heart 
of the forest. 

Siskiyou National Forest (Oregon}. 
The Siskiyou Forest is one of the coast 
forests in southwestern Oregon and 
northwestern California covering an 
area of 1,346,901 acres. It ranges in 
elevation from sea level to about 6000 ft. 
On this forest are a variety of types 
changing from the Port Orford cedar 
of the northern and the redwoods of the 
southern lowlands, to the Douglas fir- 
hemlock types at the higher elevations. 
On this forest are located the Oregon 
Caves which are the most beautiful caves 
in the western United States. These caves 
are reached by stage from Grants Pass!. 

The headquarters of the forest are at 
Grants Pass!, from which point any part 
of the forest may be reached by stage. 

Siuslaw National Forest (Oregon}. 
The Siuslaw is another of the coast for- 
ests, covering an area of 545,750 acres. 
It ranges in elevation from sea level to 
about 4000 ft. 

On the Siuslaw, Forest the Douglas 
fir produces very heavy timber, and 
some of the best young stands of this 
species may be found there. 

The headquarters of the forest are at 
Eugene!, from which point the forest 
may be reached by stage. 

Snoqualmie National Forest (Washing- 
ton). The Snoqualmie Forest includes 
693,733 acres. It is located in the cen- 
tral part of the state along the Cascade 
Mountains and varies in elevation from 
300 ft. in the foot hills to over 10,000 ft. 
Some of the most scenic areas of the 
Cascades may be found within the forest 
because of its perpendicular canyons and 
picturesque mountain peaks. 



208 



NATURALIST'S GUIDE TO THE AMERICAS 



All of the types of forest typical of the 
Cascade Range may be found. The Sun- 
set Highway is the main channel of 
travel from the Puget Sound region to 
Spokane and makes this forest accessi- 
ble. Along the Highway is the Denny 
Creek Camp ground. 

The headquarters are at Seattle! from 
which point the forest is accessible by 
stage or over the N. P. R. R. to Darring- 
ton or Monte Cristo, also points on the 
main line of the G. N. R. R. 

Umatilla National Forest (Oregon and 
Washington). The Umatilla is another 
of the Blue Mountain group which covers 
an area of 1,228,793 acres and ranges in 
elevation from 3000 to 7000 ft. This 
is a typical western yellow pine forest. 

The headquarters are at Pendleton, 
Oregon! and the forest is accessible by 
stage from this point. 

Umpqua National Forest (Oregon). 
The Umpqua Forest is one of the west 
side forests in the Cascade Range and 
includes 1,229,060 acres. The elevation 
ranges from about 1000 to nearly 9000 ft. 
on the summit of Diamond Peak. 

This is one of the heaviest timbered 
forests and contains large, untouched 
tracts of mature Douglas fir. 

The headquarters are at Roseburg! 
and the forest may be reached by stage. 

Wallowa National Forest (Oregon). 
The Wallowa is one of the Blue Mountain 
group comprising 957,419 acres. The 
forest contains some of the finest scenery 
in Oregon along the Snake and Imnaha 
Rivers. The elevation ranges from 1000 
ft. in the canyons to nearly 10,000 ft. in 
the peaks. 

The timber is typical of the Blue 
Mountain group of western yellow pine 
forests. 

The headquarters are at Wallowa! and 
the forest is reached from there by stage. 

Washington National Forest (Washing- 
ton). The Washington Forest includes 
and area of 1,461,193 acres. It covers 
the Cascade Range along the Canadian 
boundary and ranges in elevation from 
500 to over 10,000 ft. on the summit of 
Mt. Baker. The rugged country and the 
wide range in elevation makes possible 



all of the forest types and combines them 
with the scenic beauty of the country. 

The headquarters are at Bellingham! 
and the forest is reached by stage. 

Wenatchee National Forest (Washing- 
ton). The Wenatchee Forest includes 
an area of 818,334 acres. The elevation 
varies from about 1000 ft. to over 10,000 
ft. on Glacier Peak, consequently all of 
the forest types and mountain meadows 
are included within the forest. 

Three transcontinental railroads, the 
G. N., the C. M. & St. P., and the N. P. 
cross the forest, and the remainder of 
the forest is accessible by stage. 

The headquarters are at Wenatchee.! 

Whitman National Forest (Oregon). 
The Whitman Forest completes the Blue 
Mountain group. It contains an area 
of 1,313,523 acres and ranges in elevation 
from about 3000 to over 8000 ft. 

On the high plateaus are some of the 
best western yellow pine forests of the 
Blue Mountain region, and the north 
slopes contain the typical white fir-larch- 
Douglas fir type. 

The headquarters are at Baker! and 
the forest is accessible by stage. 

6. NATIONAL FORESTS OF THE 
NORTHERN DISTRICT (1) 

BY J. A. LARSEN 

In Montana and Idaho north of the 
Salmon River, the natural forest types 
fall into altitudinal belts, the boundaries 
of which vary according to aspect, de- 
gree of slope and drainage courses. The 
same forest type does not always occupy 
corresponding elevations east and west 
of the main mountain chains or principal 
divides. It is therefore necessary to 
treat this subject according to the differ- 
ent topographic divisions, as follows: 

(1) The section west of the Bitterroot 
mountains in Washington and Idaho; 

(2) Flathead and Bitterroot valleys 
lying between the Bitterroot Divide and 
the Continental range; (3) the Montana 
section of the Great Plains culminating 
in the high Yellowstone Plateau and the 
main Rocky mountains. 

The lower forest line borders on the 



NATURAL AREAS AND REGIONS 



209 



prairies in each of these sections, at 
2000 ft. in altitude on the western, at 
3000 ft. in the central and 4000 to 4500 ft. 
in the eastern section. The high points 
along the Bitterroot range and in south- 
western Montana reach 8000 ft. while the 
principal high ridges vary between 6000 
and 7000 ft. Ridge elevations in the 
northern Rockies on the Flathead Na- 
tional Forest and in Glacier National 
Park vary between 8000 and 9000 ft. in 
altitude, the peaks frequently rise to 
10,000 and 11,000 ft. and have permanent 
glaciers. This is also true of the forests 
bordering the Yellowstone Park on the 
northeast and east. Topography in 
western Montana and northern Idaho is 
characterized by very steep canyon 
slopes and easier grades at the higher 
levels, indicating a recent uplift. Else- 
where the general slopes from mountain 
tops to creek bottoms are more regular 
and uniform. The southeastern Mon- 
tana forests center around remnants of 
an old tableland which rises 1000 to 
3000 ft. above the rolling plains. 

Aside from the occasional grassland 
and upper barrens six broad natural 
forests types exist. These are in their 
order of altitudinal occurrence, begin- 
ning with the lowest; western yellow 
pine ; cedar-hemlock-grand fir-white pine 
in Idaho; replaced by Douglas fir-western 
larch in western Montana; Douglas-fir- 
lodgepole pine in central and eastern 
Montana; isolated bodies of Englemann 
spruce in northwestern Montana; and 
subalpine forests of mountain hemlock- 
white bark pine, alpine fir and lodgepole 
pine. 

GRASSLANDS AND PRAIRIES 

The prairies or natural grasslands oc- 
cur generally below 2000 ft. elevation 
in Idaho, below 3000 ft. in western 
Montana and below 4000 ft. in central 
Montana. The vegetative communities 
on different 'parts of the Palouse plain 
in Idaho have been well described by 
Piper 1 and by Weaver. 2 For description 

1 Piper, Chas. V. "Flora of the State of Washing- 
ton." Contributions U. S. National Herbarium, XI: 
38-40. 1906. 



of plant communities in Montana see 
Harshberger's Phytogeography of the 
United States. The air temperature over 
the prairies in summer averages higher 
than for the lowest forest type. The 
mean annual temperature for the former 
in Washington-Idaho is 49.7 and that 
for the western yellow pine type 47.3. 
At the same time the prairies show 
greater extremes of air temperature, 
lower snowfall, and lower relative 
humidity than the western yellow pine 
forests. Precipitation in the western 
yellow pine type varies between 15 and 
22 in. per year while that for the prairies 
averages below 15 in. The total snowfall 
on the prairies is 17 in. while in the 
western yellow pine type it is 52 in. 

FOREST TYPES 

Yellow pine type (Transition Zone) 

Western yellow pine (Pinus ponderosa) 
grows in pure stands at the lower eleva- 
tion border of the forest: from 1000 ft. 
altitude up to 4500 ft. in the Clearwater 
drainage; from 2000 to 4000 ft. in North 
Idaho generally; and from 3000 to 4000 
ft. in western Montana. In central 
Montana the elevations are generally 
too high for the development of this 
species. The characteristic open stands, 
the clear trunks and sparse undergrowth 
give this forest a park-like appearance. 
There is more air movement, more sun- 
light, more heat and less precipitation 
in yellow pine forests than in the other 
forest types and therefore more evapora- 
tion. These conditions, combined with 
scant humus and litter, result in a soil 
poor in loam and water-holding capacity. 
There is invariably more rock and gravel 
in the soil which causes it to heat by day 
and cool at night in much greater degree 
than in other forest types. Deer, coy- 
otes, squirrels, ground squirrels, pocket 
gophers, rabbits, pack rats and pheasants 
are found in this type. 8 

2 Weaver, J. E. "A study of the Vegetation of 
Southeastern Washington and Adjacent Idaho." 
Univ. ofNebr. Studies, 17, No. 1, 1917. 

3 For some of the more common plants see: Lar- 
sen, J. A., "Association of Trees, Shrubs and other 
Vegetation in the Northern Idaho Forests." Ecol- 
ogy 4: 63-67, 1923. 



210 



NATURALIST'S GUIDE TO THE AMERICAS 



It is not possible to give with any 
degree of certainty a distinct bird life 
for the various forest types since most 
of the birds inhabit several types. A list 
of these is given under the cedar-hem- 
lock-grand fir type. 

Western yellow pine, Pinus ponderosa 
scopulorum, is the only coniferous tree 
occurring in southeastern Montana on 
the Sioux and Custer National Forests. 
This type represents outposts of the 
Black Hills Yellow Pine type. 

The western yellow pine occurs in 
largest bodies on the following National 
Forests : 



NATIONAL 
FOREST 


SUPERVISOR'S 
HEADQUARTERS 


RAILROAD 


Bitterroot 


Missoula, Mont. 


N. P. 


Missoula 


Missoula, Mont. 


N. P. 


Kootenai 


Libby, Mont. 


G. N. 


Selway 
Nexperze 
Sioux 


Kooskia, Mont. 
Grange ville, Mont. 
Miles City, Mont. 


N. P. 
N. P. 
N. P. 



Cedar -hemlock grand fir-western white 
pine type 

The Thuja plicata-Tsuga heterophylla- 
Abies grandis-Pinus monticola type 
occurs chiefly in northern Idaho be- 
tween 2000 and 4500 ft. elevation. 
This type is not necessarily confined to 
higher elevations than the western yel- 
low pine but marks a region of much 
heavier rainfall. Air temperatures are 
lower than those observed in the western 
yellow pine forests. The cedar-hem- 
lock-white pine forests have a mean 
annual air temperature of 42.4 and an 
annual precipitation up to 40 in. Snow- 
fall, which is 112 in. per year is also 
much heavier and the humidity greater 
here than in the western yellow pine 
type. This type is found on more 
protected slopes and aspects over 
broken topography where the extremes 
of climate are tempered by greater pre- 
cipitation and cloudiness, and where the 
texture and moisture holding qualities 
of the soil are improved and maintained 
by a dense stand, deep shade and rapid 
accumulation of humus. This type of 
forest, therefore, shows a wealth of 
herbaceous species, shrubs and conifers. 



The fauna is also rich in species of 
birds and of fur-bearing mammals. The 
following birds and animals have been 
observed: Woodpeckers (pileated, flicker, 
red-headed, hairy, downy, andsapsucker), 
screech owl and great horned owl, mourn- 
ing dove, swallow, kingbird, ruby-throat- 
ed humming bird, bronzed grackle, junco, 
winter wren, chickadee, songsparrow, 
vesper sparrow, ruffed grouse, occasional 
quail, pine grosbeak, American crossbill, 
varied thrush, Steller's jay, and Canada 
jay. 4 

Among the important animals may be 
mentioned the mule and white-tailed 
deer (Odocoileus hemionus and 0. sp.), 
elk (Cervus canadensis occidentalis) , 
black bear (Ursus americanus), cougar 
(Felis concolor group), lynx and bob-cat 
(Lynx spp.), coyote and timber wolf 
(Cam's spp.), skunk (Mephitis), weasel 
(Mustela), porcupine (Erethizon), pine 
squirrel (Sciurus hudsonicus rich- 
ardsoni), snowshoe hare (Lepus bairdii), 
flying squirrel (Glaucomys sabrinus 
subspp.), pack rat (Neotoma cinerea 
subspp.), jumping-mouse (Zapus), beaver 
(Castor), muskrat (Ondatra zibethica 
osoyoosensis) , mink (Mustela vison ener- 
gumenos), and rarely otter (Lutra) 
occur along the streams. 

Forest fires have been frequent and 
destructive in this t} r pe of forest and 
have greatly limited the distribution 
of the species, which are moisture- 
loving, tolerant of shade and less fire 
resistant than larch and Douglas fir. 
Because of prolific seeding and the ease 
with which lodgepole pine and western 
white pine reproduces on burns these 
species, particularly the latter, are much 
in evidence. In fact the Idaho forests 
are known for areas of stately virgin 
forests of almost pure white pine. These 
trees reach 180 and 200 ft. in height and 
are found up to 50 and occasionally 60 in. 
in diameter. The highest cut on record is 
one million board feet of lumber on 10 
acres. This type, therefore, marks the 
greatest activity of the lumbering indus- 
try in the Inland Empire. Virgin stands 

* I am indebted to Ranger G. Kempff for help in 
preparing the list of birds. 



NATURAL AREAS AND REGIONS 



211 



of this species are rapidly yielding to 
lumbering and not a few to fire. 

The cedar-hemlock-grand-firwhite 
pine type occurs on the following 
National Forests in Idaho : 



NATIONAL 
FOREST 


SUPERVISOR'S 
HEADQUARTERS 


RAILROAD 


Kaniksu 


Sandpoint, 


G. N. 




Idaho 




Pend O'Reille 


Sandpoint, 


G. N. 




Idaho 




Couer d'Alene 


Couer d'Alene, 


C. M. & St. P., 




Idaho 


N. P., G. N. 






via Spokane 


St. Joe 


Couer d'Alene, 


C. M. & St. P., 




Idaho 


N. P., G. N. 






via Spokane 


Clearwater 


Orofino, Idaho 


N. P. via Spo- 






kane 



Douglas fir western larch type 

This type prevails in Flathead and 
Bitterroot valleys in western Montana. 
The larch (Larix occidentalism is really 
not a climax species but since it is so 
prevalent everywhere, having gained by 
repeated fires, its name has become 
linked with Douglas fir in the designa- 
tion of this association. These species 
are of much less commercial value and 
have therefore been less exploited than 
western yellow pine and western white 
pine. The larch grows on moist soils 
from the lower edge of the forest up to 
an altitude of 5000 ft. Douglas fir has a 
much wider altitudinal range. The 
mean annual air temperature in this type 
is 40.9F., and the annual precipitation 
is 18 to 25 in., snowfall 70 in. and over. 
Bird and animal life is similar to that of 
the cedar-hemlock-grand fir type but 
less varied and not so plentiful. 

The Douglas fir western larch type 
occurs on the following National 
Forests : 



NATIONAL 
FOREST 


SUPERVISOR'S 

HEADQUARTERS 


RAILROAD 


Kootenai 
Blackfeet 
Flathead 
Cabinet 

Lolo 
Missoula 


Libby, Mont. 
Kalispell, Mont. 
Kalispell, Mont. 
Thompson Falls, 
Mont. 
Missoula, Mont. 

Missoula, Mont. 


G. N. 
G. N. 
G. N. 
N. P. 

N. P., C. M. & 
St. P. 
N. P., C. M. & 
St. P. 



THE ENGELMANN SPRUCE TYPE 

This is characterized by Picea Engle- 
manii. Solid areas of this type are 
relatively rare in Montana and northern 
Idaho. This species is not plentiful 
around the headwaters of the Clearwater 
drainage nor generally in Montana. It 
is confined to the cool northern aspects 
and canyons where the snow is deep and 
lingers late in summer, particularly in 
northeastern Montana on the Blackfeet 
and Kootenai National Forests. In- 
dividuals or grouped specimens line all 
the principal mountain streams. There 
is also considerable spruce at higher 
elevations on the forests surrounding 
Yellowstone Park. Repeated forest 
fires in the past have no doubt greatly 
restricted the spruce type. This forest 
has not been exploited. Bird and 
animal life is much the same as that 
noted in the Cedar-Hemlock-Grand fir 
type. Grizzly bear and moose (Alecs') 
should be added for northwestern 
Montana. 

The Engelmann spruce type may be 
studied in the following National forests ; 



NATIONAL 
FOREST 


SUPERVISOR'S 

HEADQUARTERS 


RAILROAD 


Pend O'Reille 
Kootenai 
Blackfeet 
Flathead 


Sandpoint, Idaho 
Libby, Mont. 
Kalispell, Mont. 
Kalispell, Mont. 


G. N. 
G. N. 
G. N. 
G. N. 



(Also Glacier National Park, Belton, Montana.) 

Douglas fir Lodgepole Pine Type 

Douglas fir (Pseudotsuga taxifolia) and 
Lodgepole pine (Pinus contorta) occur 
on all of the National forests in Montana 
and northern Idaho. It is however in 
the higher forests of central and southern 
Montana, where climatic conditions are 
unsuitable for the previously described 
types, that these two species occur in 
greatest abundance. These species are 
invariably found at the lower tree line 
at 2000 ft. in Idaho, 3000 ft. in western 
Montana and 4000 ft. in central and 
southern Montana. In Idaho this type 
attains an elevation from 7000 to SOOO ft. 

Repeated fires greatly increase the 
proportion of lodgepole pine, often 



212 



NATURALISTS GUIDE TO THE AMERICAS 



resulting in dense impenetrable thickets 
which show very slow growth. This 
forest is composed of trees of small 
diameter and has a low volume produc- 
tion compared with the Idaho forests, 
thereby reflecting the lesser annual 
precipitation in Montana than in Idaho. 
This type grows under a mean annual 
air temperature ranging from 35 to 40 
and annual precipitation of 20 in., while 
the snowfall is about 150 in. The flora 
and fauna are quite similar to those 
found in the Douglas fir-western larch 
type. Since this type embraces the 
major portions of the forests of central 
and southern Montana there is quite a 
local demand for the timber for mines, 
railroads and for building material, but 
there is no immediate danger of excessive 
cutting such as would eliminate natural 
virgin areas. Grazing is very important 
in this part of the state, especially on 
the open grasslands at lower elevations. 
The Douglas fir-lodgepole pine type 
occurs on most of the National Forests 
in northern Idaho and Montana but 
may be studied to best advantage on the 
following : 



NATIONAL 
FOREST 


SUPERVISOR'S 
HEADQUARTERS 


RAILROAD 


Deerlodge 

Helena 
Jefferson 
Madison 
Beartooth 
Gallatin 


Anaconda, Mont. 

Helena, Mont. 
Helena, Mont. 
Sheridan, Mont. 
Billings 
Bozeman 


C.M.&St. 
P., N.P. 
N. P. 
N.P. 

N. P. 
N. P. 
N. P. 



SUBALPINE FORESTS 

Above 5500 ft. in altitude in Idaho 
most of the forest trees mentioned in 
the cedar-hemlock-grand fir type give 
way to mountain hemlock (Tsuga merten- 
siana), whitebark pine (Pinus albicaulis), 
alpine fir (Abies lasiocarpa) } Douglas fir 
and lodgepole pine continue upward 
above 5500 ft. Engelmann spruce 
usually lines the water courses on north 
aspects. Alpine fir is more generally 
distributed but prefers northern and 
eastern aspects. Mountain hemlock is 
the climax species on the broad ridge 
tops in the Clearwater basin while white- 



bark pine and lodgepole pine are most 
abundant on the upper sunny aspects. 

At these elevations the summer is 
short but warm and much clear weather 
prevails. The mean annual air tempera- 
ture at Roosevelt in the Thunder Moun- 
tains of Idaho at 7000 ft. averages 36.4; 
the annual precipitation is 26.5 in. 

Wherever the mountain hemlock holds 
sway on high ridges, as in the Clearwater 
drainage, Engelmann spruce is largely 
wanting. Perhaps the dry summer 
winds coming from the Snake River 
desert limits it to the more northern 
and eastern forests. In the subalpine 
forest to the east of the Bitterroot 
range, limber pine (Pinus flexilis} 
replaces whitebark pine (Pinus albi- 
caulis) . 

In this type or belt the vegetation 
varies greatly according to soil moisture 
and aspect. The fauna does not differ 
greatly from that of the cedar-hemlock- 
grand-fir type. Blue grouse, fool hen, 
grosbeak, hawk are found, in addition. 

This type of forest may be studied to 
advantage on the following National 
forests : 



NATIONAL 
FOREST 


SUPERVISOR'S 

HEADQUARTERS 


RAILROAD 


Clearwater 
Selway 
Bitterroot 
Lolo 


Orofino, Idaho 
Kooskia, Idaho 
Hamilton 
Missoula 


N. P. 
N. P. 
N. P. 
N. P. 



ALPINE FORESTS AND BARRENS 

Points above 8000 ft. elevation repre- 
sent alpine conditions. Such areas are 
marked by permanent glaciers and bar- 
rens and are found in the northern sec- 
tion of the main Rocky mountains, and 
on the Beartooth National Forest. The 
forest at these high elevations is repre- 
sented by more or less dwarfed Engel- 
mann spruce and Lyall larch (Larix 
Lyallii), the latter not occurring east of 
the main Continental Divide in northern 
Montana. The alpine flora of the 
Yellowstone National Park has been 
listed by F. Tweedy. This list shows 
several species also found in similar 
situations in Europe and Asia. The 



NATURAL AREAS AJND REGIONS 



213 



highest weather station from which 
records are available is Yellowstone 
Park, 7733 ft. which shows a mean annual 
air temperature of 31.4, an annual pre- 
cipitation of 24.5 in. and an average 
snowfall of 178 in. 

The alpine conditions may be studied 
on the following National Forests: 



NATIONAL FOREST 


SUPERVISOR'S 
HEADQUARTERS 


RAIL- 
ROAD 


Flathead 
Glacier National Park 
Beartooth 


Kalispell, Mont. 
Kalispell, Mont. 
Billings, Mont. 


G. N. 

G. N. 
N. P. 



In different places within these forest 
areas are smaller units of considerable 
interest for study of characteristic flora 
and fauna under natural conditions. 
The Yellowstone and Glacier National 
Parks offer a great variety of typical 
conditions from low prairie to alpine and 
glaciers with a great variety of lakes and 
streams. These two parks contain typi- 
cal forests of western yellow pine, 
Douglas fir, Engelmann spruce, white- 
bark pine, limber pine, lodgepole pine 
and juniper. The fauna within these 
two parks is rich, embracing many 
species of bear, goat, sheep, elk, moose, 
and fur-bearing mammals, as well as 
birds, and fishes. 6 

The future may demand the preserva- 
tion of additional natural areas within 
Montana and northern Idaho. Areas 
are desirable for the study of the hydro- 
phytic and mesophytic forests of western 
white pine, western red cedar, western 
hemlock and grand fir in Idaho. For 
this purpose three areas are listed in 
northern Idaho in the Priest Lake region, 
one of which, the Roosevelt Grove of 
Giant cedar, has already been preserved. 
The other two represent some of the best 
and oldest stands of the rapidly vanish- 
ing western white pine and associates. 

In addition to these three areas which 
lie outside the National Parks another 
area of western white pine occurs in the 
Capt. Mullan park near Coeur d'Alene 

5 For Glacier National Park, see: Wild Animals of 
Glacier National Park; U. S. Department of the 
Interior, National Park Service (1918); and Flora of 
Glacier National Park; Contr. U. S. Nat. Herb. 22: 
Pt. 5 (1921). 



and a mesophytic formation is repre- 
sented by the Heyburn park on Coeur 
d'Alene Lake. The Rocky Mountain 
National Monument near Helena should 
also prove valuable. Some action will 
be needed to have this last one preserved. 

The area near Anaconda where the 
trees and vegetation for many miles 
around have been killed by smelter 
fumes is listed; also an area in western 
yellow pine representative of the Black 
Hills type in the Ouster National Forest 
in southeastern Montana. 

The region generally is rich in al- 
pine and subalpine conditions. These 
abound within the two national parks. 
There are listed a few places at high 
elevations lying in the Clearwater Na- 
tional Forest along the Lolo trail be- 
cause it is doubtful whether similar 
areas can be found within the parks. 
These are flat alpine meadows like the 
one near Cook Mountain. The old 
mountain hemlock stands and the 
heavy burns of 1910 and 1919 may also 
be studied along the Lolo Trail and near 
Cook Mountain in the Clearwater 
National Forest. Alpine larch occurs 
on the Kootenai-Priest River Divide in 
northern Idaho. Alpine larch occurs 
also within Glacier National Park but 
mountain hemlock may be seen to best 
advantage and best development along 
the Bitterroot Divide and the Clear- 
water Mountains in Idaho. 

In Carbon County, Montana, are 
typical high altitude forests, timberline 
conditions, glacial lakes and glaciers. 
One of these glaciers has numerous grass- 
hoppers imbedded in the ice. Elevations 
5000 to 10,000 ft., precipitous. 

The burned areas near Cook Mountain 
and the older burns near Upper Priest 
Lake, will probably remain undisturbed 
for many years, and the alpine areas will 
remain in a natural state indefinitely. 

NATURAL AREAS 

Roosevelt Grove of Giant Red Cedar 

^[Coniferous Forests, Northwestern. In 
Bonner Co., northern Idaho, within 
Kaniksu National Forest. About 100 



214 



NATURALIST'S GUIDE TO THE AMERICAS 



acres on Forks of Granite Creek. Typi- 
cal hydrophytic forest of western red 
cedar up to 12 ft. in diameter said to be 
over 1000 years old. Characteristic 
flora of mosses, lycopods, ferns, ever- 
greens. 4000 ft. 

Priest Rivert G. N. Ry. CoolinJ (auto), 
motor boat to Reeder Creek, trail (h) 12 
mi. 

Priest Lake 

\Fresh Water Lake surrounded by north- 
western coniferous forests. Fresh water 
vegetation, swamps, marshes and ponds. 
In Bonner Co., Idaho, within the 
Kaniksu National Forest. On govern- 
ment land a strip along this lake will 
be preserved or at least cut very spar- 
ingly. 

Priest Rivert, G. N. Ry. Coolin| on 
Priest Lake (a) . Motor boats and Evin- 
rudes. See more particularly "The 
Thoroughfare." 
"The Thoroughfare" Priest Lake, Idaho 

^Coniferous Forest, Northwestern. 
About 640 acres in Bonner County, 
northern Idaho, within Kaniksu Na- 
tional Forest in Sees. 4 and 9 T. 62 and 
Sec. 33 T. 63 N. R. 4 W. Boise M. 
along "Thoroughfare," a channel which 
connects upper and lower Priest Lake; 
typical mesophytic mature forest of 
western white pine, western red cedar, 
western hemlock, western larch, lowland 
grand fir, alpine fir, Engelmann spruce, 
with characteristic northern Idaho vege- 
tation of shrubs, grasses, evergreens and 
annuals. 2300 ft. Recommendation to 
preserve in a natural state will be made 
by the U. S. Forest Service. 

Priest River| G. N. Ry. CoolinJ 25 
miles by auto; motor boat on lake 20 mi. 
to Forest Lodge hotel| close by area. 

Grove of Virgin White Pine Forest 6 

t Coniferous Forest, Northwestern. 120 
acres in Bonner Co., Idaho, in Sec. 22 T. 
64 N. R. 5 W. B. Mer. within Kaniksu 
National Forest in northern Idaho, 

6 Name tentatively given; not yet approved; will 
be recommended as such; name for E. C. Rogers, 
deceased, one of the first Forest Research men in 
this region./. A. L. 



north of upper Priest Lake. Typical 
mesophytic virgin forest of western 
white pine, western red cedar, western 
hemlock, grand fir, alpine fir, western 
larch, Engelmann spruce, and charac- 
teristic northern Idaho vegetation. 
3000ft. 

Priest River J G. N. Ry. CoolinJ (a) ; 
motor boat to Forest Lodge; to area (h) 
20 mi. 

Mullan Park 

Coniferous Forest, Northwestern. 
About 50 acres in Kootenai Co., Idaho, 
Sec. 6, T. 49 N., R. 1 W. within Coeur 
d'Alene National Forest. Burns sum- 
mit 20 mi. from Coeur d'Alene, 40 mi. 
from Wallace on Yellowstone Trail. 
Typical forest of western white pine, 
Douglas fir, western larch, some western 
red cedar, western hemlock, characteris- 
tic vegetation. 3000 ft. 

Coeur d'Alene J N. P. Ry. (a) 20 mi. 

Wallace! N. P. (a) 40 mi. 

Heyburn Park (Idaho) 

Coniferous Forest, Northwestern. In 
Kootenai Co., Idaho, on southern end of 
Coeur d'Alene Lake about 2 sections. 
Typical mesophytic forest of western 
larch, Douglas fir, some western j^ellow 
pine, riverside and hillside flora. 2000- 
3000 ft. 

Coeur d'AleneJ N. P. Ry. and C. M. 
& St. P. Ry. via Spokane. 

Steamer to hotel j| in park. 

"Montana State Game Preserve" 
(Northern Rockies) 

Coniferous Forest Prairie and Aspen. 
In Lewis and Clark Co., Mont., within 
Lewis and Clark National Forest and 
Montana State Game Preserve. Also 
valuable for study of forest succession 
after fires. Forests of Douglas fir, 
lodgepole pine, Engelmann spruce, west- 
ern yellow pine, aspen, zerophytic 
prairie, open range and forest border. 
Fauna-elk, deer, moose, grizzly bear, 
black bear, beaver, otter, mink, marten, 
muskrat, squirrels, gophers. 5000- 
10,000 ft. 



NATURAL AREAS AND REGIONS 



215 



Great Falls! G. N. Ry. local to Cho- 
teauf, 20 mi. (a) to Allen's hotel! 5 mi. 
from game preserve. 

' "Rocky Mountain National Monument" 
(near Helena, Mont.} 

Coniferous Forest, Northwestern. In 
Teton Co., in T. 12 and 13 N., R. 3 W., 
Montana P. Meridian, within Helena 
National Forest, Montana, along Hauser 
Lake and the upper Missouri River. 
Typical xerophytic forest, Douglas fir, 
western yellow pine and lodgepole pine 
and xerophytic vegetation. Principally 
limestone rock which in places is jagged 
and pinnacled with sheer cliffs. 4500 ft. 

HelenaJ. N. P. Ry. and C. M. & St. 
P. Ry. Electric to lake, 18-20 mi. 

Recommendation made for a preserve 
by U. S. Forest Service, and by Montana 
Legislature. See Substitute for House 
Bill No. 3 introduced by committee on 
Federal Relations, 1921. Proclamation 
pending. Depends also upon purchase 
of additional land by government. 

Bear tooth National Forest (Mont.) 

Ice Caves and Glaciers Timberline 
Lakes. In Carbon Co., Mont., within 
Beartooth National Forest. The ice 
caves are on Pryor Mountain division, 
the glaciers on the main part of the 
forest. Typical high altitude forests; 
vegetation and fauna not much different 
from Yellowstone National Park. In- 
teresting from standpoint of small 
glaciers, glacial lakes, timberline condi- 
tions. 5000-1 1,000 ft. 

Billings!, N. P. Ry. Burlington Ry. 

Local train to Bridger for Pryor 
Mountain. 

Local train to Redlodge for main part 
of forest (h). 

Along Lolo Trail 

Coniferous Forest, Northwestern, 
heavily burned. In Clearwater Co., 
Idaho, within Clearwater National For- 
est. Typical single and double burn by 
two of the worst forest fires known in 
the Northwest, 1910 and 1919. One may 



observe the effects of the 1910 fire alone, 
both fires or only the 1919 fire. Excel- 
lent chance for study of succession of 
forest vegetation and influence of fire on 
site. 

Elev. 5000-7000 ft., mountainous. 

Missoula, Mont.f N. P. Ry., C. M. & 
St. P. Ry. 35 miles; to Lolo Hot Springs 
(a) Lolo Trail to Cook Mountain 30 mi. 
(&)**. 

Alpine Meadow. In Clearwater Co., 
Idaho, within Clearwater National For- 
est along Lolo Trail. Typical hydro- 
phytic alpine meadow; alpine and sub- 
alpine vegetation, and fauna at 6575 ft. 
level. 

Missoula, Mont.t, N. P. Ry., C. M. St. 
P. Ry. Lolo Hot Springs 35 mi. || . Cook 
Mountain 30 mi. (h)**. 

Subalpine Forest, Northwestern. In 
Clearwater Co., Idaho, within Clear- 
water National Forest along Lolo Trail 
near Cook Mountain. Typical sub- 
alpine forest of mountain hemlock, very 
old climax stand, and characteristic 
subalpine vegetation; xerophytic, meso- 
phytic and hydrophytic. 7000 ft. 

Missoula!, N. P. Ry. and C. M. & St. 
P. Ry. Lolo Hot Springs, (a) 35 mi. (h)**. 

Smelter Fume'Damage 

Coniferous Forest, Northwestern. In 
Deerlodge Co., Mont., within Deerlodge 
National Forest. Typical mesophytic 
lodgepole pine forest. Excellent oppor- 
tunity to observe effect of smelter fumes 
on forest and vegetation. 

Anaconda!, Mont., N. P. Ry., C. M. & 
St. P. Ry., (a) 5 to 10 mi. 

Alpine Forest, Northwestern 

Alpine Larch, Larix Lyallii. In Bon- 
ner County, northern Idaho, within 
Kaniksu National Forest. About 200 
acres of alpine larch, mature trees and 
reproduction on summit of divide be- 
tween Kootenai and Priest Rivers at 
Roman Nose Lookout. Subalpine flora 
of alpine fir, Engelmann spruce, white- 
bark pine, heather, sedges and grasses. 
6000-7000 ft. Precipitous. 



216 



NATURALIST'S GUIDE TO THE AMERICAS 



Priest River}, G. N. Ry. 25 mi. to 
Coolin} 12 mi. by trail to Lookout (h). 

Old Burns 

Coniferous Forest, Northwestern. In 
Bonner Co., Idaho, north end of upper 
Priest Lake in Kaniksu National Forest. 

About one township of forestland 
burned over at different times now show- 
ing succession of vegetation and amount 
of restocking of the forest trees after the 
fires. Flora shows great variety of 
evergreens, deciduous shrubs and an- 
nuals, mosses, lichens, lycopods. 3000- 
4000 ft. 

Priest River}. G. N. Ry. Cooling 
motor boat to Forest Lodge!. Evin- 
rudes. 

Priest River Experimental Forest 

Subalpine Meadow. In Bonner Co., 
northern Idaho, within Kaniksu Na- 
tional Forest. About 45,000 acres on 
west slopes of Selkirk Range. Typical 
subalpine meadow, and associated vege- 
tation, the result of repeated fires. 
Forest extending from 2300 to 6000 ft. 
elevation. Subalpine meadow and for- 
est of alpine fir, whitebark pine, and 
Engelmann sprutfe. 6000 ft. 

Priest River}, G. N. Ry., (a) 15 mi. to 
Priest River Forest Experiment Sta- 
tion^ 

7. NATIONAL FORESTS OF CALI- 
FORNIA. VEGETATIONAL 
TYPES 

BY E. N. MUNNS 

The vegetation of California is prob- 
ably more diverse than that to be found 
in any other state, ranging from the 
deserts of the southeastern part to the 
rich mesophytic forests of redwood 
and spruce along the northwest coast 
through various kinds of brushland 
growths, woodlands, pine, fir and sub- 
alpine forests. Because of the range in 
latitude, the forests have different alti- 
tudinal levels, and the lower tree limit 
of 6500 ft. near the Mexican boundary is 



reduced to 1000 near the Oregon line. 
' 'Deserts" occur in the northeast at 
elevations of 3000 ft. while in the south, 
they run below sea-level; the optimum 
of the redwood region is reached but a 
few feet above sea-level along the north- 
west coast. 

Such a bewildering complexity of 
plant life is due to the great variation in 
climate brought about by latitude, 
altitude and topography. The state is 
characterized by a wet cold winter and a 
hot dry summer, the winter storms us- 
ually descending down the Pacific Coast, 
the farther south the path of the storm, 
the heavier the precipitation. Con- 
versely, during the summer, the farther 
north the storm crosses the coast-line, 
the hotter and drier is the summer, the 
convectional thunderstorm is common 
in the high mountains during the sum- 
mer. The southern part of the state 
receives less precipitation than the 
northern, and having a greater insola- 
tion, is much warmer. The storm 
clouds passing over the region deposit 
most of their moisture on the mountains, 
leaving the bulk of it on the seaward 
slopes, the inland slopes and high 
plateaus receiving comparatively very 
little moisture. Precipitation increases 
with altitude to an optimum in the 
Sierras and then tapers off, but because 
of lower temperatures, snow banks last 
longer giving the appearance of greater 
moisture. Along the northern coast, 
summer fogs are frequent and result in 
a rather even temperature and a general 
high atmospheric moisture. 

The principal vegetative types of the 
state include the desert, grassland, 
chaparral, oak and juniper woodlands, 
western yellow pine, mixed conifer, fir, 
alpine, Douglas fir, and redwood forests. 
In addition, there are minor types such 
as the Torrey pine, localized on the 
southern coast, the Monterey pine of the 
central coast, and the big cone spruce of 
the southern mountains. These types 
are all influenced by the climate, and 
altitudinal limits vary greatly with soil 
and exposure. 



NATURAL AREAS AND REGIONS 



217 



DESERT (LOWER SONORAN) 

The desert region embraces the eastern 
side of the major mountain masses in the 
south and includes the local deserts of 
the Colorado River, Mojave Desert and 
Death Valley. Vegetation is scanty or 
absent and is usually simple. The 
Yucca and palm are the largest plants, 
with the cacti and creosote bush as 
typical. Rainfall varies from practically 
nothing to 10 in., with temperatures from 
20 to 132, the summer maximum run- 
ning well above 100. Evaporation is 
tremendous and winds blow more or 
less constantly. The humidity often 
remains around 5 per cent during the 
summer season. 

The fauna of the desert region exclud- 
ing reptiles is as scanty as the vegeta- 
tion but includes the desert coyote, the 
Kit fox, Arizona fox, Arizona skunk, 
grasshopper mouse, desert jack-rabbit, 
Arizona cottontail, desert bighorn sheep 
and burro deer. Bird life is represented 
by the Gambel partridge, white-winged 
dove, elf owl, cactus woodpecker, west- 
ern nighthawk, Abert towhee, hooded 
oriole, LeConte thrasher, cactus wren. 

GRASSLAND (SONORAN) 

The former grassland region of Cali- 
fornia is now practically under cultiva- 
tion except for those areas too rough or 
dry for agriculture. Over-grazing has 
resulted in the practical extermination 
of the native grasses which formerly 
covered the plains of the Sacramento and 
San Joaquin River valleys which form 
a trough between the Coast Ranges and 
the Sierras proper. Rainfall varies from 
10 to 20 in. with no rain for 3 to 7 months 
during the summer. The temperature 
varies between an average summer 
maximum of 90 and an average winter 
minimum of about 40. 

In the grassland region, the demands 
of agriculture have forced the animal life 
to inhabit other life zones, or caused 
them to change their mode of life or to 
disappear. The most typical of the 
larger animals are the dwarf elk, San 
Joaquin fox, Valley coyote, Fisher 



ground squirrel, San Joaquin jack and 
cottontail rabbits. Bird life includes 
the prairie falcon, the Swain son hawk, 
ferruginous rough-leg, towhee, yellow 
warbler, road-runner, burrowing owl, 
Texas nighthawk, crow, bicolored black- 
bird and San Joaquin wren. 

CHAPARRAL (UPPER SONORAN) 

The chaparral is found as a climax 
type with a great variety of sub-types 
below the lower limit of the forests. It 
forms a practical cover for all areas 
where tree growth is unable to exist, or 
in the forest belt where poor soil condi- 
tions make local "islands." On the 
poorer sites, chamise or greasewood 
(Adenostema fasciculatum) takes full 
possession, giving way under better con- 
ditions of soil or climate to the scrub 
oaks (Quercus dumosa, Q. wislizenii'), 
ceanothi (Ceanothus cuneatus, C. cordu- 
latus and C. divericatus] and manzanitas 
(Arctostaphyllos patula, A. manzanita 
and A. glauca}. Along the coast, under 
the influence of fogs, chaparral growth 
becomes ranker, and stands where the 
brush reaches 30 ft. or more are not un- 
common. Here other species enter the 
stand, which still retains its brushy 
characteristic. On moister sites, tree 
growth such as the laurel (Umbellularia 
Calif ornica), madrona (Arbutus men- 
ziesii) and the woodland oaks, enters 
the stands. In the transition to grass- 
land, the digger pine (Pinus sabiniana] 
is found, while in the transition to forest, 
the Coulter pine (Pinus coulteri) occurs 
in southern California and the knobcone 
pine (Pinus attenuata) in the north. In 
the moister and cooler canyons, of south- 
ern California, the big cone spruce (Pseud- 
otsuga macrocarpa) occurs as a pure type. 
None of these trees are of commercial 
value except the Coulter pine, because of 
the lack of large stands, of large size, or 
of good form. Along the streams is a for- 
est of alder (Alnus rhombifolia) , syca- 
more (Platanus californica) and poplar 
(Populus fremontii). 

As a type, the chaparral is of little 
economic value except as a soil cover in 
preventing erosion and retarding floods. 



218 



NATURALIST'S GUIDE TO THE AMERICAS 



In this field it is of primary importance 
and to protect the watersheds of south- 
ern California, large areas of chaparral 
are included in three National Forests. 
Most of species sprout readily and there 
is little danger of the stands being 
obliterated. Some grazing occurs in the 
chaparral and the larger stems are cut 
locally for fuel. 

In the chaparral region proper, which 
may extend from sea-level to 7000 ft. in 
southern California, the precipitation 
varies from 10 to 25 in. annually, most of 
it being received in the period from 
December to March, inclusive. Snow 
falls occasionally but seldom lasts. 
The temperature extremes vary from 10 
to 120, the mean summer maximum 
temperature being about 85, with a 
mean minimum temperature for the win- 
ter of about 35. The mean annual 
temperature is around 50. 

The mammals of the chaparral region 
include the California ring-tailed cat 
(Bassariscus astutus raptor), California 
raccoon (Procyon psora), California 
weasel (Mustela xanthogenys), California 
spotted skunk (Spilogale phenax), Cali- 
fornia jackrabbit (Lepus calif ornicas) , 
brush rabbit (Sylvilagus bachmani 
group), and wood rat (Neotoma spp.). 
Among the bird life in this region are 
the owl, sparrow, hawk, California 
towhee, spurred towhee, black-headed 
grosbeak, titmouse, grasshopper spar- 
row, several song sparrows, while many 
birds of the transition zone and from 
farther north, winter in this belt. 

WOODLAND (UPPER SONORAN) 

The woodland types include the oaks 
and the juniper. The oaks are charac- 
teristic of the better sites and moister 
soils in the valley region and the rolling 
hills in the grassland and chaparral belt 
along the coast where the precipitation 
ranges from 10 to 20 in. and the maximum 
temperatures in summer do not exceed 
110 but average about 85. In this 
belt, the mean temperatures do not fall 
low enough to preclude growth the year 
round. Three species of oaks are usually 
found (Quercus douglasii, Quercus lobata 



and Quercus agrifolia). Because of 
their presence near the agricultural and 
urban population, these oaks, which 
reach heights of 60 ft. and diameters of 
36 in. are being rapidly cut for firewood 
and it is but a question of time till the 
old stands are completely cut out. 
Many places which once boasted exten- 
sive areas of this type can now show only 
scattered trees and pasture land. City 
parks in various places will preserve 
some usually ragged and open remnants 
of a once continuous woodland. 

The juniper woodland is found in the 
northeastern part of the state with a 
similar rainfall, but lower winter and 
summer temperatures on the lava soils. 
The juniper (Juniperus occidentalis and 
Juniperus utahensis) merges into pure 
western yellow pine on better soils and 
at higher elevations, while at lower 
elevations and on poorer soils this type 
merges into the Nevada desert. The 
stands are more or less open and are 
now being cut for fence posts and pencil 
stocks. Along with this juniper wood- 
land type on the edge of the desert re- 
gion is also the piny on pine (Pinus mono- 
phylld) which in places forms extensive 
stands. It is not now being exploited 
commercially except locally and many 
stands will remain in a virgin condition 
for a long time. 

In the woodland type, bird life is 
similar to that of the chaparral and 
grassland and many mammals use one 
locality as their home while foraging 
over the adjacent region. The Cali- 
fornia jay, red-shafted nicker, Lewis 
woodpecker, road-runner,cuckoo, screech 
owl, California thrasher, western mock- 
ingbird, western bluebird, and California 
towhee are often seen in this belt. 

YELLOW PINE (TRANSITION) 

The western yellow pine (Pinus pon- 
derosa) and Jeffrey pine (Pinus jeffreyi) 
form extensive forests at the lower eleva- 
tions in the Sierra and Coast Mountains 
and on the extensive plateau lands of the 
lava flows of the northeastern part of the 
state. At the lower limits 7000 ft. in 
the extreme south and 1000 ft. in the 



NATURAL AREAS AND REGIONS 



219 



north the yellow pine forest merges 
with the chaparral growth, and at the 
upper limit, mingles with the firs and 
cedars in a complex coniferous forest. 
The yellow pine type covers a greater 
area than any other in the state and 
furnishes a large amount of the pine 
lumber manufactured. The forests are 
utilized as far as desirable as a sum- 
mer pasture for sheep and cattle. The 
precipitation varies from 18 to 30 in. 
Temperatures in summer reach a maxi- 
mum of 95F. with an average summer 
maximum of 85F. and an average winter 
minimum of 30F. The average annual 
temperature is about 45F. The period 
of rest ranges from two weeks to four 
months, and up to 30 per cent of the 
precipitation occurs as rain. 

MIXED CONIFEROUS TYPE (TRANSITION) 

The yellow pine type merges gradually 
at higher elevations into a mixed conif- 
erous type which includes the western 
yellow pine as a dominant member but 
with the sugar pine (Pinus lambertiana) 
as its companion. With these white fir 
(Abies concolor), Douglas fir (Pseudo- 
tsuga taxifolia) and incense cedar (Liloce- 
drus decurrens) are also found. In 
scattered groves, occurs also the big 
tree (Sequoia giganted) famous because 
of its tremendous size. In the central 
part of the Sierras, the pines, cedar and 
Sequoia reach their optimum develop- 
ment, and the forest, without the gloom 
that usually characterizes dense forests, 
are light and airy, and offer excellent 
recreational possibilities. The bulk of 
this type, as the preceding, lies inside 
the boundaries of the National Forests. 
In addition, several National parks are 
maintained in this type, chief of which is 
the Yosemite. 

These pine forests include the really 
valuable commercial pine forests of the 
state and are being exploited to the ut- 
most. On private lands, natural con- 
ditions are quite often badly upset 
through destructive lumbering and fire, 
and too often become brushfields until 
succession can reestablish a forest. On 
government lands, exploitation is possi- 



ble, but under restrictions that do not 
permit the destruction of the stand 
through careful marking of trees for 
cutting, fire protection, and supervised 
lumbering. All of this forest area is not 
accessible now for logging so that small 
patches will exist for a long time in a 
virgin condition, but these areas are 
quite often not typical stands, and are 
being grazed by both sheep and cattle. 
The Forest Service is now setting aside 
small areas of timber which will not be 
cut or touched in so far as is possible, to 
serve as miniature virgin forests, as 
demonstration and experimental areas. 
Several have already been established 
and more will be set aside from time to 
time. In addition, the National Parks 
maintain natural conditions in forest 
types typical of those being lumbered. 

Precipitation varies from 30 to 70 in. 
mostly coming as snow, which remains 
on the ground from November to April 
or May. The mean annual tempera- 
ture is around 45 with a mean sum- 
mer temperature of 65. In this belt, 
which runs up to an average elevation of 
6000 ft., is the zone of maximum precipi- 
tation in the Sierra region. 

DOUGLAS FIR (TRANSITION OR CANADIAN) 

The Douglas fir type is characterized 
by almost pure stands of the Douglas 
fir (Pseudotsuga taxifolia} associated 
with the white fir (Abies concolor) in- 
cense cedar (Libocedrus decurrens), and 
occasionally with other species. The 
Douglas fir forms rather dense pure 
stands in the northern part of the state 
particularly along the coast range at 
elevations from 1000 to 4000 ft. In the 
Sierras proper it is a tree of the mixed 
forest. Pure stands are confined to 
north slopes, and cool moist bottom 
lands, and the coast ranges. The 
average monthly temperatures do not 
vary greatly from winter to midsummer. 
The precipitation is heavy, occurring 
mainly as rain, though some areas 
receive considerable snow. Atmos- 
pheric moisture is high and often forms 
fogs. The average summer temperature 



220 



NATURALIST'S GUIDE TO THE AMERICAS 



is about 80 and the average winter 
temperature is around 30. 

Cutting is not extensive because of 
the rather poor quality of the timber. 
Grazing is not an important factor. 
Fire is the only seriously damaging 
agent. 

FAUNA OF THE YELLOW PINE AND 

DOUGLAS FIR FORESTS 
(TRANSITION ZONE) 

In the yellow pine and Douglas fir 
forests the fauna is so intermingled that 
it is impossible to separate out those 
species characteristic of one locality. 
This region is the home of the black and 
grizzly bears, mountain coyote (Cams 
lestes), mountain weasel (Mustela arizo- 
nensis), pine marten (Martes caurina), 
Pacific raccoon (Pyocyon psora}, Cali- 
fornia gray fox (Urocyon cinereoargen- 
teus group), bushy-tailed wood rat 
(Neotoma cinerea subspp.). Douglas 
ground squirrel (Citellus beecheyi group), 
many chipmunks (Eutamias) , Sierra 
flying squirrel (Glaucomys sabrinus 
group), mule deer (Odocoileus hemionus), 
black-tailed deer (0. columbianus 
subspp.). Bird life in this region in- 
cludes the western red-tailed hawk, 
golden eagle, Pacific horned owl, spotted 
owl, California woodpecker, nighthawk, 
Sierra woodpecker, Lewis woodpecker, 
flicker, blue-fronted jay, western and 
mountain bluebird, Sierra cross-bill, 
sierra junco, tree swallow, dipper, 
mountain chickadee, mountain quail 
and Sabine ruffed grouse. 

FIR TYPE (CANADIAN) 

Altitudinally, the true fir type is just 
above the mixed coniferous. It includes 
the forests of white fir (Abies concolor) 
and red fir (Abies magnified] , both pure 
and in mixture. The altitudinal limits 
vary widely with the latitude, but 
average from 6000 to 8000 ft. The stands 
are often dense and few annuals or 
grasses prevail except in meadows 
where heavy grazing by sheep and cattle 
is permitted. The stands, because of 
their relative inaccessibility, and low 
value for commercial lumber, are not 



being exploited to any extent and proba- 
bly will not be for some time to come. 

The precipitation is chiefly in the 
form of snow, and varies between 30 
and 50 in. annually. Average minimum 
temperatures during the winter do not 
exceed 25, and the mean summer tem- 
perature is not over 65, the average 
annual temperature is not above 40. 
Because of low temperature and depth 
of snowfall, the snow lasts till late in 
the summer season. The growing season 
is from June to October. 

In the fir type are found the mountain 
weasel, Cascade red fox and high Sierra 
red fox (Vulpes cascadensis and V. 
necator), Pacific fisher, bob-cat (Lynx 
rufus calif or nicus), bushy-tailed wood- 
rat (Neotoma cinerea subspp.), alpine 
chipmunk (Eutamias alpinus), golden- 
mantled ground squirrel (Callospermo- 
philus chrysodeirus) , yellow-haired por- 
cupine, chickadee. In this region is 
also the Sierra sooty grouse, the gos- 
hawk, Sierra nighthawk, Hammond 
flycatcher, Lincoln sparrow, and varied 
thrush. 

SUBALPINE (HUDSONIAN) 

The sub-alpine forests include a 
variety of species at elevations where 
the growing season is short and tem- 
peratures are not excessive even in 
summer. Included in this forest are 
the mountain hemlock (Tsuga merten- 
siana*), white bark pine (Pinus albicau- 
lis), foxtail pine (Pinus balfouriana) , 
western white pine (Pinus monticola} 
and lodgepole pine (Pinus contorta). 
The forests are not extensive, and are 
utilized to some extent by grazing. No 
lumbering of consequence will be carried 
on in this region because of the relatively 
poor quality and inaccessibility of the 
stands. The trees of this zone exist 
chiefly only on the higher mountain- 
peaks and ridges. 

Climatic conditions are usually severe; 
the minimum temperature during the 
winter is not known, but probably is 
not below that of the fir type, while the 
precipitation is probably not over 30 
or 40 in. annually, practically all coming 



NATURAL AREAS AND REGIONS 



221 



in the form of snow. The average sum- 
mer temperature is about 53, maximum 
temperatures do not exceed 70, while 
the average maximum is probably not 
over 63. The daily range is slight, not 
over 30, and frosts occur throughout 
the summer. 

This high mountain country is the 
home of the wolverine (Gulo luscus 
luteus), Belding ground-squirrel (Citel- 
lus beldingi), alpine chipmunk, pika 
(Ochotona) and the rare Sierra sheep 
(Ovis canadensis sierrae). In addition 
to the visitors from the lower zones, 
occur also the Arctic three-toed wood- 
pecker, Clark nutcracker, western even- 
ing grosbeak, pine grosbeak, white- 
crowned sparrow and Sierra hermit 
thrush. 

REDWOOD TYPE (HUMID TRANSITION) 

The redwood region is restricted to the 
coastal area of northern California and 
is characterized by the coast redwood 
(Sequoia sempervirens) , and the Sitka 
spruce (Picea sitchensis). Douglas fir, 
white fir, and the prickle-cone pine 
(Pinus muricata) are found in certain 
areas. The redwood is rapidly being 
exploited. All of the forests are pri- 
vately owned, though there are small 
areas being set aside as parks in which 
the type will be preserved in its virgin 
condition. As redwood sprouts readily, 
there is little chance of the area remain- 
ing unforested. Some of the region 
after being cut over has been badly 
burned, but a dense undergrowth soon 
springs up and forest reappears. 

In the redwoods, the annual march 
of the temperature is even, the average 
annual temperature being about 50 
with a heavy rainfall during the six 
coldest months of the year. Freezing 
temperatures are unusual, and though 
snows are occasional the snow seldom 
lies long on the ground. Fogs are heavy 
and frequent and keep the forests more 
or less moist throughout the year. 

The redwood region, because of its 
very humid climate, has a characteristic 
fauna of its own, differing from the 
Sierra transition. Many of the Sierra 



species are found in this belt and many 
similar species occur as sub-species. 
Native to this region is the Columbia 
black-tailed deer (Odocoileus columbi- 
anus), redwood chipmunk (Eutamias 
townsendii ochrogenys} (redwood brush 
rabbit (Sylvilagus bachmani ubericolor), 
redwood weasel (Mustela xanthogeny 
munda), redwood gray fox (Urocyon 
calif ornicus sequoiensis) , and coast 
flying-squirrel (Glaucomys sabrinus 
stephensi). Among the bird life are 
the Harris woodpecker, dusky horned 
owl, California pigmy owl, varied thrush, 
northwest flicker, red-breasted sap- 
sucker, and coast jay. 

The National Forests of California 
are chiefly in the pine and fir region of 
the state and include practically every 
vegetational type except the redwood, 
though there are large private holdings 
within the exterior boundaries of the 
National Forests. 

The tremendous increase in the uti- 
lization of the forest lands of the state 
and of the National Forests in the past 
few years should be emphasized as in- 
dicating the necessity for at once setting 
aside some natural areas. The in- 
dividual descriptions of the National 
Forests follow. 

NATURAL AREAS 

Angeles National Forest 

1. Area 826,331 acres. 

2. Present condition approximately 
one-fifth of total area has been burned 
within the last 20 years. Large numbers 
of campers and recreationists use the 
forest annually. Some portions of the 
area are inaccessible and will probably 
remain so for many years. The Forest 
Service will probably set aside between 
600 and 1000 acres in the timber type 
as an experimental area. 

3. Succession is shown to good 
advantage. 

4. Very little grazing except in the 
higher elevations and that by cattle. 

5. Forest types include low and high 
chaparral, western yellow pine, Jeffrey 



222 



NATURALIST'S GUIDE TO THE AMERICAS 



pine, mixed conifers, lodgepole pine, 
pinyon and desert. 

6. Two game refuges in the Forest 
cover practically the entire area. Pred- 
atory animal work carried on by the 
Biological Survey. The chief wild mam- 
mals are deer, cougar, wild-cat, fox. 

7. Elevation from 500 to 11,500 ft. 
average elevation 6000 ft. 

8. Supervisor's office at Los Angelest 
is 15 mi. from Forest. Other important 
towns are PasadenaJ, 8 mi.; Pomona!, 
8 mi.; San Bernardino!, 6 mi. 

California National Forest 

1. Area 818,459 acres. 

2. Present condition much of area 
natural state. Area to be set aside 
by the Forest service about 1200 acres. 

3. Forest heavily grazed, especially 
by sheep. 

4. Types low and high chaparral, 
yellow pine, mixed conifers, fir. 

5. Small game refuge on forest. Deer 
very abundant, cougar, coyote, fox, 
bear. 

6. Elevation from 1200 to 8000 ft. 
average elevation about 5500 ft. 

7. Distance from Willows!, 30 mi. 

Cleveland National Forest 

1. Area 549,271 acres. 

2. Present condition many recrea- 
tionists visiting forest annually and in 
increasing numbers. Most of the forest 
readily accessible to large centers of 
population. About 600 acres to be set 
aside as experimental forest. 

3. Slight amount of grazing cattle, 
sheep and horses. 

4. Types low and high chaparral, 
yellow pine, mixed coniferous forest. 

5. Three game refuges on the Forest 
cover approximately one-tenth the area. 
Deer plentiful. 

6. Elevation from 200 to 10,500 ft. 
average about 4000 ft. 

7. Distance from San Diego f, about 
8 mi.; from Riverside!, 12 mi. 

Eldorado National Forest 

1. Area 552,918 acres. 

2. Forest being heavily cut; it is 



doubtful if any experimental areas 
will be set aside on the Forest. 

3. Moderate grazing by sheep and 
cattle. 

4. Forest types yellow and sugar 
pine, sugar pine and fir, mixed fir, sub- 
alpine. 

5. Small game refuge on the Forest 

6. Elevation from 3000-9000 ft. 
average 6200 ft. 

7. Distance from Placervillet, 12 mi. 

Klamath National Forest 

1. Area 1,533,980 acres. 

2. The forest has been very little 
known and is practically inaccessible. 
No forest activities at the present time. 
1000 or more acres will be set aside as 
an experimental area. 

3. Grazing to a moderate degree by 
sheep and cattle. 

4. Types Douglas fir, yellow pine, 
mixed conifers, brushfields. 

5. Small game refuge on the forest. 

6. Elevation ranges from 500 to 7500 
ft. average 4000 ft. 

7. Distance from Yreka|, 6 mi. 

Lassen National Forest 

1. Area 943,197 acres. 

2. Present condition semi-natural 
state, large cutting operations now in 
progress. Small areas will be set aside 
as experimental areas. 

3. Forest is heavily grazed by sheep. 

4. Important types yellow pine, 
mixed conifers, lodgepole pine. 

5. Elevation ranges from 2500 to 
10,000 ft., average elevation about 
4500 ft. 

6. Distance from Red Bluff, 25 mi. 

Modoc National Forest 

1. Area 1,461,599 acres. 

2. Present condition semi-natural, 
some cutting now in progress; heavy 
grazing. 

3. Forest grazed by sheep, cattle and 
horses. 

4. Types sagebrush, desert, pinyon, 
juniper, western yellow pine and mixed 
conifers. 



NATURAL AREAS AND REGIONS 



223 



5. Elevation from 3500 to 8000 ft., 
average elevation 6500 ft. 

6. Distance from AlturasJ, 10 mi. 

Plumas National Forest 

1. Area 1,153,044 acres. 

2. Present condition semi-natural; 
forest being very heavily cut. Several 
areas will be set aside for experimental 
purposes. 

3. Moderate amount of grazing by 
cattle and sheep. 

4. Types include brushfields, western 
yellow pine, yellow and sugar pine, 
mixed conifers, fir. 

5. Elevation from 3000 to 8000 ft. 
average elevation 4500 ft. 

6. Distance from QuincyJ, 3 mi. 

Santa Barbara National Forest 

1. Area 2,017,398 acres. 

2. Present condition semi-natural; 
area has been badly burned in the last 
ten years approximately one-fourth of 
area has been burned since 1910. 

3. Area is grazed by sheep, cattle 
and goats to a moderate amount. 

4. Forest types include chaparral, 
western yellow pine, Jeffrey pine, mixed 
conifers. 

5. Wild animals include deer, cougar, 
wild-cat, coyote. 

6. Elevation ranges from 500 to 8000 
ft. average elevation about 4000 ft. 

7. Distance from Santa Barbara^, 
4 mi. 

Sequoia National Forest 

1. Area 1,879,779 acres. 

2. Area very largely natural, rela- 
tively inaccessible. Includes within its 
boundaries National Parks and Monu- 
ments. 

3. Forest grazed, by sheep and cattle. 

4. The important types are sugar 
pine and yellow pine, sugar pine and fir, 
and fir. 

5. Elevation from 300 to 15,000 ft. 
average elevation about 7000 ft. 

6. Distance from Portervillef, 30 mi. 



Shasta National Forest 

1. Area 849,656 acres. 

2. Present condition forest badly 
burned and heavily cut. Some areas 
will be withdrawn for experimental 
purposes, probably 2000 acres in all. 

3. Forest grazed by sheep and cattle; 
in places heavily. 

4. Types brushfields, western yellow 
pine, mixed conifers, fir, alpine. 

5. Elevation from 2500 to 14,500 ft.; 
average elevation 4000 ft. 

6. Distance from Sissonf, 5 mi. 

Sierra National Forest 

1. Area 1,493,400 acres. 

2. Forest in a semi-natural condition; 
much of the area obligated to timber 
operators and being logged at a rapid 
rate. Some areas to be preserved for 
experimental purposes. 

3. Grazing to a moderate amount by 
sheep and cattle. 

4. Important types are sugar and 
yellow pine, sugar pine and fir, and fir. 

5. Range in elevation about 3000 to 
10,000 ft. average elevation 6500 ft. 

6. Distance from FresnoJ, 40 mi. 
Supervisor's headquarters at North- 
forkj. 

Stanislaus National Forest 

1. Area 810,802 acres. 

2. Forest being rapidly cut over or 
obligated to timber operators. Areas 
to be set aside for experimental purposes. 

3. Moderate amount of grazing by 
cattle, sheep and horses. 

4. Types yellow and sugar pine, 
sugar pine and fir, and fir. 

5. Range in elevation from 3000 to 
10,000 ft. average 6000 ft. 

6. Distance from Sonorat, about 12 
mi., Stockton 50 mi. 

Tahoe National Forest 

1. Area 512,748 acres. 

2. Present condition very badly cut 
and burned over. Some areas will be 
withdrawn for experimental purposes. 

3. Heavy grazing by cattle and sheep. 



224 



NATURALIST'S GUIDE TO THE AMERICAS 



4. Important types yellow pine, yel- 
low and sugar pine, Jeffrey pine, red 
fir, and sugar pine and fir. 

5. Elevation from 3000 to 8000 ft. 
average 4500 ft. 

6. Distance from Nevada Cityf, 10 mi. 

Trinity National Forest 

1. Area 1,409,490 acres. 

2. Present condition practically in- 
accessible. Experimental area will be 
established. 

3. Forest heavily grazed by sheep, 
and to moderate extent by cattle. 

4. Important types include yellow 
pine, mixed conifers. 

5. Elevation from 2500 to 7500 ft. 
average 4000 ft. 

6. Distance from Reddingf, 30 mi. 
Supervisor's headquarters at Weaver- 
villet 

8. NATIONAL FORESTS OF THE 
INTERMOUNTAIN DISTRICT (4) 

BY F. S. BAKER AND S. B. LOCKE 

The national forests of the Inter- 
mountain Region (Utah, Nevada and 
Southern Idaho) cover practically all 
the forested land which bears tree 
growth other than pinyon (Pinus edulis), 
juniper (Juniperus utahensis and J. 
monosperma) , within the states of Utah, 
Nevada and the portion of Idaho south 
of the Salmon River. The only notable 
exception in western Idaho is where 
considerable areas of western yellow 
pine (Pinus ponderosa and Pinus pon- 
derosa scopulorum) timber land are held 
in private ownership. Ecologically, 
however, this area contains nothing not 
found within the national forests ad- 
joining. These forests lie within an 
area of varying climatic conditions and 
present very different appearances in 
different portions. In every region 
there is a typical altitudinal zonation of 
forest types on the mountains, but 
within the Intermountain Region the 
zonation is quite variable from north 
to south, while in many places it is 
further modified by the fact that the 



high plains of the Snake River valley 
further modify the lower lying alti- 
tudinal types on account of the 
topography. 

In western and southwestern Idaho 
the plains are covered with sagebrush 
(Artemisia tridentata} and present nearly 
unmodified ecological conditions, and 
will do so for a great many years to come 
as irrigation at best is only a local 
possibility and vast areas of this land 
will remain in a virgin condition. Win- 
ter grazing of sheep is practiced to 
a certain extent and has modified the 
herbaceous vegetation (to that degree). 

The lower slopes of the foothills are 
usually covered with grasses, largely 6 
weeks grass (Bromus tectorvm) which is 
in itself evidence of greatly modified 
vegetational conditions. It is safe to 
say that the flora and fauna in this 
zone have been very greatly modified 
by grazing and fires. 

This grassy belt extends into the 
yellow pine type which in the mountain 
valleys usually extends directly to the 
agricultural lands, although in the main 
Snake River valley it is separated by 
the grass land on the foothills mentioned 
above. At elevations almost as low as 
where the yellow pine first appears, 
Douglas fir (Pseudotsuga taxifolia), is 
found on north slopes. As altitude in- 
creases the Douglas fir increases in 
proportion to the yellow pine, becoming 
more extensive on the north slopes 
than on the flats, finally occupying all 
the ground except rugged knobs and 
ridge tops. This occurs at fairly high 
elevations, however, where the potential 
Douglas fir type is covered very largely 
with the temporary lodgepole pine type 
(Pinus murrayand) which has come in 
as a result of fires. 

Still higher, lodgepole pine, alpine 
fir (Abies lasiocarpa}, and Engelmann 
spruce (Picea engelmannii) predomi- 
nate. Through all the timber types, 
fairly natural conditions exist, except 
around the outermost edges of the 
National forests, and around mining 
camps. Grazing is and has been gener- 
ally moderate and the herbaceous flora 



NATURAL AREAS AND REGIONS 



225 



is only moderately affected. Absolutely 
virgin conditions in this respect can be 
found on the more remote parts of the 
Idaho, Salmon, and Challis National 
Forests. Hunting and trapping have 
gone on for many decades and game 
conditions are consequently below nor- 
mal. The same is true of fishing. 

The foregoing description applies to 
the region west of the Sawtooth Range 
and along the Salmon River eastward as 
far as Salmon City. To the west of 
the Salmon Mountains in the region 
covered by the greater part of the 
Salmon, Challis, and Lemhi National 
Forests the western yellow pine type 
disappears, its place being taken by a 
grass formation. Farther eastward the 
Snake River plains become more and 
more elevated and carry their sagebrush 
formation directly to the lodgepole 
pine and aspen (Populus tremuloides) 
types in the mountains, virtually crowd- 
ing out the grass type which appears 
farther west. In the Targhee National 
Forest of Idaho as well as in the Teton 
and Wyoming National Forests of 
Wyoming, virgin stands of lodgepole 
pine characterize the mountains. These 
extend to the lowest slopes of the moun- 
tains. The higher elevations are cov- 
ered with stands of alpine fir and Engel- 
mann spruce, the same being true indeed 
of all the forests throughout this region. 
Very little cutting has been done in any 
of these and grazing is generally light to 
moderate. In the Teton National for- 
est especially in the neighborhood of 
the Yellowstone National Park game 
conditions are practically unaffected 
by the activities of man. In the Cari- 
bou National Forest a change begins 
to appear. The timber types become 
broken and scattered, interspersed with 
large areas of open country and the 
aspen begins to assume a prominent 
place. The valleys between the ranges 
are high, so that lodgepole pine and 
aspen extend to the foot of the moun- 
tains. The higher summits and north- 
ern slopes bear stands of alpine fir and 
Engelmann spruce. Conditions are 
similar on the Cache National Forest in 



Utah, although here in main valleys 
become lower and a brush type made up 
largely of mountain mahogany (Cer co- 
carpus partifolius} , dwarf oak (Quercus 
utahensis), skunk-bush (Rhus trilobata) 
and chokecherry (Prunus demissa), is 
found between the lower parts of the 
lodgepole pine and Douglas fir types and 
the agricultural valleys. Farther south 
this brush belt becomes wider, and is 
largely dominated by scrub oak (Quercus 
utahensis). Lodgepole pine is less prom- 
inent and aspen becomes more con- 
spicuous. South of the headwaters of 
the Provo River on the Uinta National 
Forest lodgepole pine drops out entirely. 
On the Manti National Forest the 
altitudinal succession of types is ex- 
tended by the appearance of a well 
developed pinyon-juniper type below 
the brush belt and above the agricul- 
tural valleys, making the succession; 
sagebrush (largely under cultivation), 
pinyon-juniper, brush, aspen-Douglas 
fir, and lastly spruce-fir. On the higher 
elevations are many open grassy mea- 
dows. Eastward from the Wasatch 
and Uinta National Forests, on the 
Uinta Mountains conditions again be- 
come somewhat different. On the Ash- 
ley and parts of the Uinta National 
Forest, lodgepole pine is prominent at 
high elevations. Toward the east end 
of the Ashley National Forest at lower 
elevations, adjoining the sagebrush, the 
western yellow pine type reappears. 
Southward from the Manti National 
Forest in Utah, the Fishlake and Fill- 
more National Forests present similar 
aspects. On the Powell and Dixie 
National Forests, the western yellow 
pine again reappears taking the place 
of the brush type farther north. The 
pinyon-juniper type is very well de- 
veloped at the lower elevations. The 
Kaibab National Forest in northern 
Arizona consists of a plateau covered 
primarily with western yellow pine 
encircled by an escarpment bearing an 
open stand of pinyon and juniper. On 
the National Forests of Nevada the 
pinyon-juniper and brush types are 
common and the arborescent flora is 



226 



NATURALIST'S GUIDE TO THE AMERICAS 



generally scattering, both as to numbers 
and species. Throughout Utah and 
Nevada the wild life is decidedly below 
normal and herbaceous vegetation has 
been considerably affected by grazing 
in many places by decided over-grazing. 

NATURAL AREAS 

Ashley National Forest (Utah and 
Wyoming} 

The Ashley Forest (980,135 acres) 
is located upon the east end of the Uinta 
Range and consists of a broad mountain 
range with a high barren east and west 
backbone. The whole central part is 
in a nearly virgin condition due to 
light grazing that results from very 
dense timber and the high barren alpine 
region. The leading types in order of 
extent are: Lodgepole pine 45%, Engel- 
mann spruce 14%, barren 13%, grass 
6%, western yellow pine 5%, sagebrush 
5%. 

Deer, elk, and bighorn sheep range in 
the northeastern part of the Forest. 
At high elevations there are many 
glacial lakes of considerable interest 
from a geological standpoint. The 
streams in the high mountains contain 
a pure stock of native trout. 
' Vernal, Utahf. Supervisor's head- 
quarters. 

Boise National Forest (Idaho) 

The Boise Forest (1,062,698 acres) 
lies in central Idaho upon a granite 
uplift deeply cut by canyons. It is 
largely a virgin Forest. Grazing is 
general although not heavy. Timber 
cutting is mostly around the edges and 
in the vicinity of several mining camps 
on the Forest. The chief types are: 
subalpine 37%, Douglas fir 24%, western 
yellow pine 19%, grass 10%, lodgepole 
pine 4%. 

The game preserve in the northeastern 
part of the Forest on the South Fork 
of the Payette River is well stocked with 
deer, mountain goat, and elk. 

BoiseJ. O. S. L. R. R. Supervisor's 
headquarters. 



Bridger National Forest (Wyoming) 

The Bridger Forest (698,325 acres) 
lies upon the west slope of the Wind 
River Range, which is high and rugged 
and is largely virgin. At the south tip 
of the Forest and also at the north end 
are State Game Preserves. Grazing is 
general. Timber cutting is very limited. 

There are considerable numbers of 
big game such as bighorn sheep, elk, 
and grizzly bear well distributed over 
the Forest. Geologically this area is 
very interesting, containing fully 500 
lakes formed principally by glacial 
action. At the head of the streams 
rising in the Wind River Range there 
are a few living glaciers. 

KemmererJ. O. S. L. R. R. Super- 
visor's headquarters. 

Cache National Forest (Utah and Idaho) 

The Cache Forest (770,131 acres) 
lies mainly on the north extension of the 
Wasatch Mountains with minor divi- 
sions upon other small north and south 
ranges in northern Utah and southern 
Idaho. The Forest has an absolutely 
protected area of about 15 sq. mi. in 
the lower part of Logan Canyon. The 
Forest is completely grazed, except 
for about 25 sq. mi. in the Pocatello 
Division where grazing is prohibited 
upon the Pocatello municipal water- 
shed; and is all cut over except for a 
small area at the north end now under 
sale. In this Forest are three 5-acre per- 
manent sample plots one of which is to 
be maintained in its natural condition 
except that grazing is not restricted. 
The south end of the Forest is within 
a State Game Preserve. The major 
types are: brush 34%, sage 20%, aspen 
18%, Douglas fir 11%, subalpine 5%, 
lodgepole pine 4%, Engelmann spruce 
3%, juniper 3%. The northern limit 
of the range of Abies concolor is on this 
Forest. 

Logan, Utah|. O. S. L. R. R. and 
U. I. C. R. R. Supervisor's head- 
quarters. 



NATURAL AREAS AND REGIONS 



227 



Caribou National Forest (Idaho and 
Wyoming) 

The Caribou Forest (703,858 acres) 
lies upon a series of mountain ranges of 
moderate elevation in eastern Idaho. 
Timber bodies are not extensive and 
are largely limited to north slopes. 
Cutting has been general especially 
toward the south end of the Forest. 
Grazing is general throughout the 
Forest. The major types in order of 
abundance are: sagebrush 29%, aspen 
26%, lodgepole pine 14%, brush 11%, 
Douglas fir 10%, grass 9%. 

Montpelier, Idahot O. S. L. R. R. 
Supervisor's headquarters. 

Challis National Forest (Idaho) 

The Challis Forest (1,253,856 acres) 
is located upon a broken mountainous 
uplift marked by high rugged major 
ridges, which are barren and rocky. 
There is a state game preserve on the 
Middle Fork of Salmon River and one 
area in the north part of the Forest is 
protected from grazing by domestic 
stock in order to furnish fall and winter 
game range. A larger area adjoining is 
virtually ungrazed because of the den- 
sity of the timber. High ridges are 
barren and not grazed. Timber cutting 
is unrestricted, but is limited so far 
chiefly to one area around Bonanza. 
The major types in order of abundance 
are: lodgepole pine 50%, subalpine 28%, 
Douglas fir 7%, sagebrush 6%. 

Inaccessible parts of this Forest con- 
tain many deer, mountain goats, and 
bighorn sheep. There are abundant 
spawning grounds for migratory fish 
within the Forest, several species com- 
ing from the Pacific Ocean to these 
grounds. 

Challis|. Supervisor's headquarters. 

Dixie National Forest (Arizona, Nevada 
and Utah) 

The Dixie Forest (795,000 acres) lies 
in southern Utah upon two uplifts, 
the Markagunt Plateau and the Pine 
Mountains, both largely composed of 



igneous rocks in their higher forested 
parts. Small isolated units occur in 
Arizona and Nevada. Grazing is un- 
restricted and fairly heavy, the only 
ungrazed parts are the extensive lava 
beds of the Sevier Forest proper. Much 
of the timber in the upper mountains is 
virgin. Cutting is nowhere prohibited. 
The entire Dixie division is a game 
preserve together with a small area in 
the north part of the Sevier division. 
On the Dixie division the main types are: 
pinyon-juniper 57%, brush 25%, western 
yellow pine 9%, sage 7%. On the Sevier 
division they are: western yellow pine 
39%, pinyon-juniper 19%, brush 9%, 
Engelmann spruce 8%, barren 8%. 

Navajo or Duck Lake is interesting, 
since it discharges through sinks and 
is probably a solution lake. Occa- 
sionally the water becomes sufficiently 
low that the sinks are exposed. 

Cedar City, Utahf. Supervisor's 
headquarters. 

Fillmore National Forest (Utah) 

The Fillmore Forest (701,696 acres) 
lies upon the Tushar Range (high, 
volcanic) and the Pahavnt Plateau 
(lower, sedimentary). It is not ex- 
ceptionally well forested and is all cut- 
over to some degree, except three virgin 
areas, two in Beaver Creek drainage and 
one in Chalk Creek drainage. The 
major types in order are: pinyon- 
juniper 35%, Douglas fir 26%, brush 
19%, Engelmann spruce 8%, sage 5%. 

Richfieldt D. & R. G. R. R. 
Supervisor's headquarters. 

Fishlake National Forest (Utah) 

The Fishlake Forest (665,275 acres) 
lies upon the Fishlake Plateau and a 
part of the Sevier Plateau in central 
Utah. The Forest has been heavily 
culled and grazing is general throughout 
its area. There are no permanently 
protected areas on the Forest, although 
there is one area of virgin timber on 
Thousand Lake Mountain. A small 
area at Fish Lake has almost complete 
protection from grazing. Nearly the 



228 



NATURALIST'S GUIDE TO THE AMERICAS 



whole forest lies within a State Game 
Preserve, and in the lower Salina Canyon 
watershed a small herd of elk has been 
introduced. Fish Lake has a remark- 
able growth of vegetation and accom- 
paning water life. It has a large pro- 
duction of trout maintained principally 
by fish cultural activities. The major 
types of vegetation are pinyon-juniper 
31%, brush 23%, aspen 15%, sage 9%, 
grass 7%, Engelmann spruce 7%. 

Richfieldf . D. & R. G. R. R. Super- 
visor's headquarters. 

Humboldt National Forest (Nevada) 

The Humboldt Forest (1,332,450 acres) 
is located upon three widely separate 
mountain ranges in Nevada. Many 
portions are slightly forested, but rep- 
resent interesting conditions. There 
is one limited area with absolute per- 
manent protection near Jarbidge, but 
a more general policy is now in effect 
on the Santa Rosa division whereby 
periodic protection is practiced to 
secure aspen reproduction and range 
revegetation. Elsewhere, grazing is 
generally heavy. Cutting is limited in 
extent. Upon the Ruby Division of 
this Forest, is an unexplored cave of 
apparently large dimensions. The 
major types are: grass 48%, aspen 12%, 
pinyon-juniper 10%, sage 7%, subalpine 
3%, barren 3%. 

Elkot So. Pac. R. R. Supervisor's 
headquarters. 

Idaho National Forest (Idaho) 

The Idaho Forest (1,864,321 acres) 
lies upon a deeply eroded broad granite 
uplift characterized by deep canyons 
and a generally level horizon seen in 
looking across the ridgetops. On ac- 
count of its general inaccessibility it 
will remain virgin for a long time. 
Although grazing is unrestricted about 
\ of the area is virtually ungrazed due 
to inaccessibility. There is almost no 
logging done upon the Forest. Forest 
fires are frequent and there are many 



burned over areas. The major types 
in order of abundance are (excluding 
Thunder Mountain region): lodgepole 
pine 54%, western yellow pine 15%, 
Engelmann spruce 13%, subalpine 11%. 

A few specimens of the western red 
cedar (Thuya plicata) are found along 
the main tributaries to the Salmon 
River. 

McCallJ. O. S. L. R. R. Supervisor's 
headquarters. 

Kaibab National Forest (Arizona} 

This Forest (752,217 acres) is located 
upon the Kaibab Plateau just north of 
the Grand Canyon. The entire Na- 
tional Forest is a National Game Pre- 
serve and faunal conditions are not 
greatly disturbed, although predatory 
animals are hunted diligently. It is 
the home of the Kaibab squirrel. The 
grazing of game and domestic stock is 
general and heavy and the herbaceous 
cover is not generally in a virgin state. 
The grazing of domestic stock has been 
greatly restricted. Game animals are 
heavily overgrazing certain forage 
classes and action has been necessary to 
reduce the number of deer to the capac- 
ity of the range. The timber is virgin. 
Cuttings are small at present, but the 
whole area is open to sale. All natural 
conditions as represented within this 
Forest are found also within the Grand 
Canyon National Park under complete 
protection. The major types are west- 
ern yellow pine 32% i , barren 33%, pinyon- 
juniper 20%, grass 7%. 

Kanab, Utah. Supervisor's head- 
quarters. The Forest may be reached 
from the south with a pack outfit by 
crossing the Colorado River and gorge 
at the town of Grand Canyon (A. T. & 
S. F. R. R.), or by automobile from 
Flagstaff, Arizona, crossing the river at 
Lees Ferry. It may also be reached 
from the north by way of Marysvale 
or Cedar City, Utah. For description of 
the Kaibab Forest, see Hough, Emer- 
son. The President's Forest. Saturday 
Evening Post, January 14 and 21, 1922. 



NATURAL AREAS AND REGIONS 



229 



La Sal National Forest (Colorado and 
Utah} 

The La Sal Forest (538,717 acres) 
lies upon two isolated mountain masses 
in southeast Utah. They are generally 
poorly timbered, although local bodies 
of considerable extent may be found. 
Three areas (unforested) are being 
protected from grazing as a measure of 
watershed protection upon overgrazed 
range. There are also two areas of 
considerable extent in the Abajo Moun- 
tains inaccessible to stock together with 
local areas of cliff and slide rock in 
many parts of the Forest. The major 
types are: brush 45%, pinyon-juniper 
32%, western yellow pine 16%, Engel- 
mann spruce 3%. 

Moab, Utah|. Supervisor's head- 
quarters. 

Lemhi National Forest (Idaho} 

The Lemhi Forest (1,109,779 acres) 
is located mainly upon the Lost River 
Mountains of south central Idaho, high 
rugged narrow ranges. Natural con- 
ditions obtain in many places on account 
of natural obstacles. Considerable 
areas in both the Lost River and Lemhi 
Ranges are inaccessible to stock (about 
60 sq. mi. in three main areas). Else- 
where, grazing is general. Timber cut- 
ting is very local, largely in the vicinity 
of Mackay. The Big Lost River State 
Game Preserve covers the southwest 
portion of the Forest. The major types 
are: grass 34%, subalpine 24%, Douglas 
fir 19%, barren 16%, lodgepole pine 6%. 

One of the few remaining bands of 
antelope range on the Lost River and 
Pahsimroi River. 

Mackeyt O. S. L. R. R. Super- 
visor's headquarters. 

Manti National Forest (Utah) 

The Manti Forest (778,651 acres) is 
located upon a plateau of sedimentary 
rocks (Wasatch Plateau) in central 
Utah. The whole Forest has been cut 
over with the exception of a few scat- 
tered areas rather difficult of access 
located mostly in the heads of tributaries 



of Huntington Canyon. Grazing is 
general and heavy. The only inacces- 
sible areas being the "breaks" of cliffs 
and talus slopes on the east edge. Such 
areas are usually barren or covered with 
the pinyon-juniper type. There are a 
number of permanent sample plots 
established by the Forest Service on this 
Forest in the aspen type. They are not 
absolutely protected, as normal grazing 
is allowed upon them. Cutting, how- 
ever, is prohibited. The major types 
are: aspen 26%, sage 17%, brush 16%, 
grass 14%, Engelmann spruce 11%, 
pinyon-juniper 11%. Fish and game 
are rare. 

Ephraim}. D. & R. G. R. R. Super- 
visor's headquarters. 

Minidoka National Forest (Utah and 
Idaho] 

The Minidoka Forest (590,485 acres) 
lies in southern Idaho and northern 
Utah upon a number of small mountain 
ranges. It is not heavily timbered. It 
is generally grazed. There are practi- 
cally no areas of virgin timber, the whole 
Forest being cut over. The chief types 
are: sage 65%, aspen 15%, pinyon- 
juniper 15%, Douglas fir 4%. 

Burley, Idaho}. O. S. L: R. R. 
Supervisor's headquarters. 

Nevada National Forest (Nevada) 

The Nevada Forest (1,175,355 acres) 
is located upon several mountains 
ranges in east central Nevada. These 
ranges are generally poorly timbered, 
although locally there are considerable 
bodies of several types. A considerable 
area upon the rocky range crests and in 
localities without water which are 
inaccessible to stock and are ungrazed 
so that botanically, these areas are 
natural. Tree growth is rare on these 
sites. There have been extensive cut- 
tings upon this Forest, but in the higher 
country there are still many limited 
areas representing natural timber con- 
ditions. The major types are: pinyon- 
juniper 55%, sage 27% subalpine 6%, 
Engelmann spruce 5%. 



230 



NATURALIST'S GUIDE TO THE AMERICAS 



Elyf. Nev. Nor. R. R. Supervisor's 
headquarters. 

Payette National Forest (Idaho) 

The Payette Forest (1,202,451 acres) 
lies upon an extensive granite uplift 
in central Idaho. There is no general 
structural trend to the ridges which 
are products of erosion. The canyons 
are steep sided and frequently very rock} 1 -. 
Much of the Forest lies in a country 
difficult of access and is practically 
virgin in every respect. There are 
practically no areas closed to stock or 
inaccessible to them, although grazing 
is very light on the Middle Fork of the 
Salmon River and will probably be 
entirely stopped within a few years, 
the State having established a game 
preserve there. Timber cutting is light. 
The major types in order of abundance 
are: western yellow pine 29%, Douglas 
fir 20%, subalpine 20%, lodgepole pine 
16%, brush 8%, grass 6%. 

Permanent sample plots in the yellow 
pine type have been established by the 
Forest Service on this Forest. These 
plots are grazed, and are to be cut over 
under different methods (check plots 
reserved). Abies grandis and Larix 
occidentdlis find their southern limits 
on this Forest. 

There are extensive game areas within 
the Payette Forest where deer, bighorn 
sheep and mountain goats are abundant. 
There is a great variety of fish and con- 
siderable numbers of migratory species 
spawn within the boundaries of the 
Forest. In some of the inaccessible 
regions practically virgin conditions 
are found in the streams. The introduc- 
tion of various fish species will, within 
a few years bring about an adjustment 
.of the native species. 

Emmettt O. S. L. R. R. Super- 
visor's headquarters. 

Powell National Forest (Utah) 

The Powell Forest (about 1,046,000 
acres) lies upon the Aquarius, Sevier 
and Paunsagunt Plateaus, which bear 
on their tops, stands of spruce, fir, 



and pine, breaking off into pine and 
juniper slopes. Grazing is heavy and 
general, except where the topography is 
locally precipitous. Little logging has 
been done in the yellow pine type. 
Forest conditions are essentially virgin. 
The major types (Powell Division only) 
run: western yellow pine 28%, Engel- 
mann spruce 27%, pinyon-juniper 27%, 
aspen 8%, grass 7%. 

Widtsoef. Supervisor's headquar- 
ters. 

Salmon National Forest (Idaho) 

The Salmon Forest (1,620,265 acres) 
lies in central Idaho upon several moun- 
tain ranges. It is generally rough and 
in the higher and more remote sections 
natural conditions are generally found. 
There are no completely protected areas 
on the Forest. Grazing is general, but 
a large area on the Middle Fork of the 
Salmon River and the northwest corner 
of the Forest is too rocky and steep to 
be accessible to domestic stock, while 
an area near Salmon City is protected on 
account of the municipal watershed and 
a small area in the north end (Ditch 
Creek) is preserved from grazing as a 
huckleberry patch. A State Game Pre- 
serve occupies a part of the area inac- 
cessible to domestic stock and about two 
townships of the accessible area ad- 
joining. Cut-over areas are small. The 
major types are: lodgepole pine 37%, 
Douglas fir 31%, western yellow pine 
10%, sage 6%, subalpine 6%. The 
southeastern limits of western yellow 
pine in Idaho are found on this Forest. 
Salmon!. Gilmore and Pittsburg R. 
R. Supervisor's headquarters. 

Sawtooth National Forest (Idaho) 

The Sawtooth Forest (1,159,339 acres) 
consists of a broken mountainous coun- 
try characterized by main ridges of 
great height and ruggedness. The types 
in order of extent are grass 41%, Douglas 
fir 23%, brush 8%, barren 8%, lodgepole 
pine 6%, subalpine 6%, aspen 2%, west- 
ern yellow pine 2%, miscellaneous small 
types making up the balance. Graz- 



NATURAL AREAS AND REGIONS 



231 



ing is general all over the Forest except 
in areas around the Redfish and Alturas 
Lakes region where there is full protec- 
tion. This preserved area is covered 
largely with virgin lodgepole pine. 
Interesting experiments in fish stocking 
and fish food productions are being 
undertaken. Logging is permitted 
except in this region. Cut-over areas 
are limited largely to the Wood River 
drainage. 

Haileyt O. S. L. R. R. Supervisor's 
headquarters. 

Targhee National Forest (Idaho and 
Wyoming) 

The Targhee Forest (1,357,297 acres) 
lies largely upon a lava plateau in east- 
ern Idaho and western Wyoming. The 
Forest consists principally of lodgepole 
pine. The whole Forest is naturally 
ecologically similar to the Yellowstone 
National Park adjoining. Grazing is 
general but not heavy. Both cut-over 
and virgin areas of timber are well 
represented. The major forest types 
in order of importance are: lodgepole 
pine 34%, grass 21%, Douglas fir 15%, 
brush (incl. sage) 14%, subalpine 8%. 

St. Anthony, Idahot O. S. L. R. R. 
Supervisor's headquarters. 

Teton National Forest (Wyoming) 

The Teton Forest (1,880,825 acres) 
is located in a mountainous country 
immediately to the south of Yellowstone 
National Park. The Forest as a whole 
is slightly used. It contains large areas 
of virgin lodgepole pine type which is 
slightly grazed and although there are 
no protected areas there are large areas 
in a natural condition. The Grand 
Teton peak, 13,747 ft. high, extends far 
above timberline. There is a great deal 
of game on this Forest and the north 
part above the latitude of Jackson Lake 
is a State Game Preserve. The major 
types are: lodgepole pine 29%, grass 
21%, barren (high rocky) 21%, sub- 
alpine 16%, brush 5%, Engelmann 
spruce 5%. 

JacksonJ. Supervisor's headquarters. 



Toyabe National Forest (Nevada) 

The Toyabe Forest (1,883,837 acres) 
lies upon several mountain ranges in 
central Nevada. These are generally 
poorly timbered. Grazing is unre- 
stricted. There are, however, certain 
high rocky areas inaccessible to domestic 
stock used primarily by mountain sheep 
and deer. Cutting has been heavy 
locally (in the vicinity of old mining 
camps), but most of the Forest is virgin 
as to timber. The major types are: 
pinyon-juniper 51%, brush 36%, aspen 
10%, subalpine 3%. 

Austin!. Nevada Cent. R. R. Super- 
visor's headquarters. 

Wasatch National Forest (Utah) 

The Wasatch Forest (609,576 acres) 
lies mainly upon the Wasatch and 
Uinta Mountain Ranges of central Utah, 
although two minor divisions lie farther 
west upon small isolated ranges. 
Nearly the whole Forest has been cut 
over and is generally grazed. Several 
watersheds near Salt Lake City are 
closed to grazing. There is also a 
State Game Preserve in this region. In 
the most easterly part of the Forest is 
a considerable area (about 35 sq. mi.) 
of virgin lodgepole pine forest. The 
major types in order of abundance are: 
lodgepole pine 23%, barren 13%, sub- 
alpine 11%,, brush 11%, grass 11%, sage 
10%, aspen 8%, Douglas fir 6%, pinyon- 
juniper 4%, Engelmann spruce 3%. The 
northern limit of Pinus ponderosa 
scopolorum in Utah is on this Forest. 

Salt Lake Cityt D. & R. G. R. R., 
O. S. L. R. R. and W. Pac. R. R. Super- 
visor's headquarters. 

Weiser National Forest (Idaho) 

The Weiser Forest (566,002 acres) is 
located in western Idaho upon a moun- 
tainous highland which becomes very 
rugged in the northwestern part. Two 
burns (Sec. 3 and 4, T. 21 N., R. 1 W. 
and Sec. 8 and 9, T. 20 N., R. 1 W., 
Boise Mer.) of about one sq. mi. each 
are protected from grazing. In the 



232 



NATURALIST'S GUIDE TO THE AMERICAS 



northwest corner about three townships 
lie in a State Game Preserve. Graz- 
ing is general. Timber cutting is very 
localized and the greater part of the 
Forest is virgin. The major types are: 
western yellow pine 30%, grass 24%, 
Douglas fir 17%, larch-fir 12%, sub- 
alpine 10%. 

WeiserJ. O. S. L. R. R. Supervisor's 
headquarters. 

Wyoming National Forest (Wyoming) 

The Wyoming Forest (966,954 acres) 
lies upon a mountain range of a plateau- 
like character, becoming more rugged 
northward. This Forest contains large 
areas of lodgepole pine which are being 
widely cut over at the present time. 
The Swift Creek watershed near Afton 
is closed to sheep, however, as a protec- 
tion to the Afton water supply. At the 
north end of the Forest in high moun- 
tainous country is a game refuge. Graz- 
ing is general and timber cutting is not 
restricted on any areas. The major 
types in order of abundance are: brush 
25%, lodgepole pine 21%, Douglas fir 
15%, aspen 9%, sage 8%, grass 6%. 

Kemmerer, WyomingJ. O. S. L. R. 
R. Supervisor's headquarters. 

9. NATIONAL FORESTS OF THE 
SOUTHWESTERN DISTRICT (3) 

BY G. A. PEARSON 

The National Forests of Arizona and 
New Mexico cover about 22 million 
acres and comprise approximately 65% 
of the forest area in the two States. 
They are situated in high mountain 
regions ranging from 2000 to 13,000 ft. 
in altitude. Although the forest boun- 
daries occasionally take in desert and 
brush lands down to 2000 ft. in elevation, 
the true forests, as distinguished from 
brush and woodland, rarely occur below 
7000 ft. The upper altitudinal limit 
of tree growth is around 11,500 ft. Four 
distinct forest associations or forest 
types are recognized. They are, in 
order of altitudinal occurrence, begin- 
ning with the lowest, the woodlands, 



the yellow pine type, the Douglas fir 
type and the Engelmann spruce type. 
The altitudinal limits vary with soil, 
climate, aspect and other local condi- 
tions. Other factors being equal, any 
given forest type occurs roughly 1000 
ft. higher on southerly than on north- 
erly aspects. Since the same forest 
type varies but little on different Na- 
tional Forests in the Southwest, the 
following descriptions will apply in a 
general way over the entire region. 

WOODLANDS (UPPER SONORAN ZONE) 

Woodland areas are not, strictly 
speaking, classed as forests because the 
trees do not attain saw timber size. 
The woodlands occur mostly between 
the altitudinal limits of 5000 and 7000 
ft., though in some localities they extend 
above or below these extremes. The 
average annual precipitation seldom 
exceeds 17 in. and falls as low as 12 in. 
Mean annual temperatures range from 
50 to 55. 

Two distinct types of woodland occur. 
In the one most commonly encountered, 
the dominant trees are the junipers 
(Juniperus monosperma, J. utahensis, 
J. pachyphloea and /. scopulorum), 
and the pinon, (Pinus edulis}. In 
southern Arizona, notably the Coronado 
National Forest, is a woodland composed 
mainly of oaks, (Quercus emoryi and Q. 
arizonica). 

Woodland stands are usually open 
and the space between the trees is 
generally occupied by short grasses. 
Cutting for fuel and posts removes 
most of the mature and overmature 
trees, but provision is always made for 
seed trees to restock cut-over areas. 
Because of the accessibility of the wood- 
lands to settled communities and the 
demand for their wood and grazing 
resources, it is probable that they will 
be exploited to the limit of their capac- 
ity. The pinon jay, scaled partridge, 
Woodhouse's jay, wild turkey, white- 
tailed deer (Odocoileus), mule deer 
(Odocoileus hemionus group), coyote 
(Canis sp.), rock squirrel (Otospermo- 
philus), prairie dog (Cynomys), cotton- 



NATURAL AREAS AND REGIONS 



233 



tail rabbit (Sylvilagus audubonii group), 
and black-tailed jackrabbit (Lepus cali- 
fornicus group) and woodrat (Neotoma 
sp.) inhabit this zone, but are not 
confined to it. 

YELLOW PINE TYPE (TRANSITION ZONE) 

Western yellow pine (Pinus ponderosa 
scopulorum) forms stately forests on the 
tablelands and lower mountain slopes 
between altitudes of 7000 and 8500 ft. 
The park] ike character of the stands, 
the ease with which travel is accom- 
plished, the delightful summer climate 
and the wealth of plant and animal life, 
give these forests a peculiar charm. 
The mean annual precipitation totals 
between 20 and 25 in. and the mean 
annual temperature is around 45. 
Grasses dominate the herbaceous vege- 
tation, but brilliant flowered plants lend 
color to the landscape during the sum- 
mer rainy period of July and August. 
Birds are represented by the pigmy 
nuthatch, long-crested jay, western 
robin, chestnut -backed bluebird, Mearns 
quail and wild turkey. Among the 
characteristic mammals are Abert squir- 
rel (Sciurus aberti group), white-tailed 
deer, mule deer, coyote, wolf (Canis 
mexicanus), and black bear (Ursus 
americanus group). Since this forest 
is the main source of saw timber in the 
Southwest, natural conditions will be 
disturbed by lumbering, though not to 
the extent of destroying forest con- 
ditions. Extensive areas exist which, 
because of the lack of transportation 
facilities, will probably remain unex- 
ploited for fifty years. Grazing inter- 
feres with the normal development of 
herbaceous vegetation, but this in turn 
aids in the control of fires which other- 
wise would endanger the forest itself. 

DOUGLAS FIR TYPE (CANADIAN ZONE) 

Douglas fir (Pseudotsuga taxifolia), 
associated with white fir (Abies con- 
color}, limber pine (Pinus flexilis), and 
several minor species, forms dense stands 
on cool slopes between altitudes of 
8000 and 10,000 ft. Undergrowth is 



usually light and consists mainly of 
shrubs and broad-leaved herbs. Natu- 
ral reproduction of forest trees is usually 
abundant. Extensive areas in this 
forest type have been burned over and 
have grown up to aspen. In many cases 
the aspen thickets are being invaded by 
conifers which will eventually replace 
the aspen. The mean annual tempera- 
ture is about four degrees lower, and the 
precipitation about five inches higher 
than in the yellow pine type. Cutting 
is progressing rapidly in certain locali- 
ties; in others rugged topography or 
distance from lines of transportation 
will bar the lumberman for many years 
to come. Grazing is less intensive than 
in the Yellow Pine type. Characteris- 
tic birds and mammals are the Clarke 
nutcracker, blue grouse, wild turkey, 
porcupine (Erethizon epixanthum) , red 
fox (Vulpes fulva group), and spruce 
squirrel (Sciurus fremonti group). 

ENGELMANN SPRUCE TYPE (UPPER 

CANADIAN AND LOWER HUD- 

SONIAN ZONES) 

The densest forests of this region are 
composed of Engelmann spruce (Picea 
engelmanni), associated in varying de- 
grees with alpine fir (Abies lasiocarpa), 
corkbark fir (Abies arizonica), and 
bristle-cone pine (Pinus aristata). As 
in the Douglas fir type, extensive areas 
have been burned and have grown up to 
aspen which will eventually give way to 
the conifers. Since the highest slopes 
are above the range of aspen, burns in 
such situations remain bare until re- 
stocked by coniferous trees. Exploita- 
tion has been limited usually to the re- 
moval of ties and poles. Much of this 
forest will remain undisturbed by cut- 
ting for an indefinite period because of 
the difficulties encountered in transport- 
ing the timber to market. The Engel- 
mann spruce type extends to the upper 
limit of tree growth which is encountered 
at around 11,500 ft. Precipitation is 
little, if any, higher than in the Douglas 
fir type, but the temperature is lower. 
Snow lies on north exposures until 
July. Undergrowth is usually sparse, 



234 



NATURALIST'S GUIDE TO THE AMERICAS 



but forest reproduction is often dense. 
The fauna is very similar to that of the 
Douglas fir type. 

ALPINE ZONE 

This term is applied to the areas lying 
above the upper limit of normal tree 
growth, which is not, strictly speaking, a 
forest type. Engelmann spruce, bristle- 
cone pine and alpine fir, where present, 
assume a bushy or trailing posture. The 
trailing juniper (Juniperus communis) 
is characteristic. Some of the grasses 
and other herbs whose usual habitat is 
several thousand feet below, occur here 
in a dwarfed form. This is the home of 
the ptarmigan, the pipit, the marmot 
(Marmota flaviventris group) and the 
pika (Ochotona}. 

PARKS 

Within all of the forest types are tree- 
less areas known as parks, prairies and 
mountain meadows. The parks and 
prairies occur mainly within the yellow 
pine forests, and their existence is at- 
tributed to various causes. They are 
occupied by grama grass (Bouteloua) 
or bunch grass (Muhlenbergia), or in 
some cases by shrubs such as sagebrush 
(Artemisiatridentata) or shadscale (Atri- 
plex canescens). The term mountain 
meadow as usually understood applies 
to wet valleys or other comparatively 
flat lands in the high mountains. They 
bear a luxuriant growth of grasses, 
sedges, and often of showy flowering 
plants such as the iris and gentian. 

FOREST RESEARCH 

A research organization is maintained 
by the Forest Service for the purpose of 
solving problems in forest and range 
management. Forest research is con- 
centrated to a large extent at the South- 
western Forest Experiment Station lo- 
cated near Flagstaff, Arizona, but 
studies are being conducted on a number 
of National Forests. Permanent sta- 
tions for the study of range problems are 
maintained on the Santa Rita Range 



Reserve near Tucson, Arizona, and the 
Jornado Range Reserve near Las Cruces, 
New Mexico. So-called permanent sam- 
ple plots for the study of forest reproduc- 
tion and growth are being maintained on 
several National Forests. They vary 
in size from 5 to 480 acres. On all but 
one of these plots, cutting has removed 
from 40 to 75% of the original stand of 
timber, and all are subject to further 
cutting in from 50 to 75 years. Some of 
the plots are fenced against all grazing, 
but present plans do not contemplate 
exclusion of grazing more than from 20 to 
25 years, or until natural restocking is 
completed. In short, the purpose of 
the sample plots is not to create natural 
conditions, but rather to demonstrate 
various methods of forest management. 
Similar plots are maintained for the 
study of herbaceous vegetation and 
methods of range management. Fur- 
ther information regarding these plots 
can be obtained from the District Fores- 
ter, Albuquerque, New Mexico. 

The present administration of Na- 
tional Forests, though safeguarding 
against devastation, does not insure the 
preservation of any areas in a natural 
state. Extensive tracts, because of 
inaccessibility, will remain relatively 
free from industrial development for 
many years, but this status cannot be 
regarded as permanent. From the for- 
ester's point of view, as well as that of 
the botanist and zoologist, the reserva- 
tion of typical forest areas under dis- 
tinct provisions for keeping them in a 
natural state is desirable. 

The Forest Service invites scientific 
workers to avail themselves of the 
opportunities for research afforded by 
the National Forests. It is possible in 
summer to travel by automobile over 
considerable portions of all the Forests. 
Sections which are inaccessible by 
automobile can usually be reached by 
wagon roads or trails. Camping equip- 
ment is often necessary and always 
desirable. Information regarding roads, 
means of transportation and subsistence 
can always be secured at the office of 
the local Forest Supervisor. 



NATURAL AREAS AND REGIONS 



235 



NATURAL AREAS 

Apache National Forest (Arizona) 

Area 1,185,512 acres, mainly coniferous 
forest representing the woodland, yellow 
pine, Douglas fir and Engelmann spruce 
types, almost entirely in the virgin state. 
The topography varies from level table- 
lands to rugged peaks, and altitudes 
range from 4000 to 12,000 ft. 

Holbrookt, 100 mi. north, A. T. & S. 
F. R. R.; auto stage to SpringervilleJ, 
Supervisor's headquarters. 

Carson National Forest (New Mexico) 

Area 869,320 acres. All of the conifer- 
ous forest types of the Southwest are 
represented; altitudes 5000 to 13,000 ft.; 
fine streams, numerous prehistoric ruins. 

Taosf, Supervisor's headquarters. 
Reached by way of Santa Fe and Taos 
Junction, D. &. R. G. R. R. ; auto stage, 
25 mi. to Taos. 

Coconino National Forest (Arizona) 

Area 1,637,052 acres, mainly conif- 
erous forest representing all the forest 
types. Altitudes range from 3000 ft. on 
the Verde River to 12,700 ft. on the San 
Francisco Mountains. The topography 
is mostly level or gently rolling mesas 
intersected by occasional deep canyons 
and dotted by volcanic cones. Prehis- 
toric ruins occur in several localities. 
This Forest and the Tusayan which 
adjoins it on the west, are the scene of 
the most extensive lumbering operations 
in the Southwest. Five permanent 
sample plots, three fenced. 

Flagstaff}:, A. T. & S. F. R. R., Super- 
visor's headquarters. 

Coronado National Forest, Arizona and 
New Mexico) 

Area 1,430,043 acres. This Forest is 
made up of several "islands" rising out 
of the desert. Altitudes range from 3000 
to 9000 ft., and vegetation zones from the 
scrub and woodland to the Douglas fir 
forest. Emory oak and Arizona oak 
attain their best development here. 
Desert mountain sheep have been re- 
ported in the woodlands. 



Tucson, Arizonaf, E. P. &. S. W. and 
S. P. railroads, Supervisor's head- 
quarters. 

Crook National Forest (Arizona) 

Area 889,939 acres. This Forest con- 
sists of four small units or separate 
mountain masses which rise to a suffi- 
cient height above the desert to support 
coniferous forests. The forest types 
range from the woodland to Engelmann 
spruce. Altitudes range from about 
4000 to 10,500 ft. 

Saffordf, A. E. R. R., Supervisor's 
headquarters. 

Datil National Forest (New Mexico) 

Area 2,641,521 acres, coniferous forest, 
woodland to spruce type; altitudes 4000 
to 10,000 ft. ; little cutting. A large por- 
tion of the timbered area will probably 
remain inaccessible for many years. 
Ten game refuges, averaging 21,000 acres 
each are located within this Forest. 

MagdalenaJ, Supervisor's headquar- 
ters, A. T. &. S. F. R. R. 

Gila National Forest (New Mexico) 

Area 1,596,296 acres; coniferous forest, 
woodland to spruce; altitudes 5000 to 
11,000 ft.; little cutting; large areas 
relatively inaccessible. Two permanent 
sample plots; four small game refuges. 

Silver CityJ, Supervisor's headquar- 
ters. A. T. & S. F. R. R. 

Lincoln National Forest (New Mexico) 

Area 1,123,868 acres; desert, scrub and 
coniferous forest, the latter representing 
all forest types, including the alpine 
above 11,000 ft. The forest is made up 
of several small mountain masses rising 
abruptly out of the desert. A fine sum- 
mer resort is located in the heart of the 
fir forest at CloudcroftJ, 9000 ft. Desert 
Mountain sheep have been reported on 
this Forest. 

Alamogordot, Supervisor's headquar- 
ters, E. P. &. S. W. R. R. 



236 



NATURALIST'S GUIDE TO THE AMERICAS 



Manzano National Forest (New Mexico} 

Area 702,208 acres. Coniferous for- 
est, including woodland, yellow pine, 
Douglas fir and Engelmann spruce, up 
to 11,000 ft. ; small lumbering operations. 

AlbuquerqueJ, Supervisor's headquar- 
ters, A. T. & S. F. R. R. 

Prescott National Forest (Arizona} 

Area 1,447,024 acres, coniferous forest 
with some oak woodland. Only the 
forest types below the Engelmann 
spruce are represented. Altitudes 
range from 2000 to 8000 ft. 

Prescottt, A. T. & S. F. R. R., Super- 
visor's headquarters. 

Santa Fe National Forest (New Mexico} 

Area 1,364,585 acres. Coniferous for- 
est, including all forest types to timber 
line; altitudes 6000 to 13,000 ft.; very 
rugged topography, 'well watered; six 
small sample plots. Famous prehistoric 
ruins of Rito de los Frijoles near Santa 
Fe. 

Santa FeJ, Supervisor's headquarters, 
A. T. & S. F. and D. & R. G. Railroads. 

Sitgreaves National Forest (Arizona} 

Area 631,474 acres, mainly virgin 
western yellow pine, though small areas 
of Douglas fir may be found. Alti- 
tudes range between 5000 and 9000 ft. 
The topography is characterized by 
high, comparatively level tablelands 
dissected by deep, precipitous canyons. 

Holbrookt, A. T. & S. F. R. R. Super- 
visor's headquarters, 35 mi. by automo- 
bile stage. 

Tonto National Forest (Arizona} 

Area 2,112,888 acres. Relatively small 
areas bear a true forest, the greater 
portion being desert brush or woodland, 
which are included because of their 
watershed value. The famous Roose- 
velt Dam and Reservoir and the Natural 
Bridge are located on this Forest. 
Roosevelt Lake is a game preserve. 

Roosevelt!, 38 mi. from Globe, A. E. 



R. R., and 60 mi. from Phoenix, A. E. 
and A. T. & S. F. R. R., reached from 
either place by automobile stage. Super- 
visor's headquarters, Phoenix. 

Tusayan National Forest (Arizona) 

Area 1,289,351 acres. This Forest is 
generally similar to the Coconino which 
it adjoins on the west. To the north 
lies the Grand Canyon National Park. 
One permanent sample plot. 

Williamsf, A. T. & S. F. R. R., Super- 
visor's headquarters. 

Jornada Range Reserve (New Mexico) 

Area about 200,000 acres; desert 
plains and foothill country, ranging 
from 4000 to 7000 ft. in altitude. No 
forest occurs within the reserve. The 
prevailing vegetation includes grama 
grasses, tobosa (Hilaria mutica), drop 
seed (Sporobolus), creosote bush (Covil- 
lea tridentata) and mesquite (Prosopis 
glandulosa). The area is maintained 
for the purpose of carrying on experi- 
ments and demonstrations in range 
management. 

Las Crucesf, headquarters of Grazing 
Examiner in charge; A. T. & S. F. R. R. 

Santa Rita Range Reserve (Arizona) 

About 49 sq. mi. of desert and semi- 
desert, fenced against cattle from 1903 
to 1915. Since the latter year it has 
been handled by the Forest Service as an 
experimental range for livestock. Much 
research work has been done on the 
succession of natural types of vegeta- 
tion. Altitudes 3000 to 5000 ft. 

TucsonJ, S. P. R. R., headquarters 
of Grazing Examiner in charge. 

Sample plots within National Forests 
(Arizona) 

Coconino and Tusayan National For- 
ests. Sample plots S-l to S-6 inclusive. 
The areas vary from 120 to 480 acres. 
All are in pure yellow pine stands at 
altitudes around 7000 ft. All but plot 
S-6 have been cut, removing 40 to 70% 
of the timber. Topography: gently roll- 
ing; soil clay loam derived from basalt. 



NATURAL AREAS AND REGIONS 



237 



Within each area are several plots of 
from 4 to 12 acres on which all trees are 
numbered and located on a map. 
Diameter and height measurements 
are made every 5 years. Progress of 
reproduction is checked annually. A 
few of these small plots are fenced 
against all grazing, but this condition 
will be maintained only until reproduc- 
tion is established. All but S-6 are 
subject to future cutting in 50 to 75 
years. Established 1909-1913. 

Flagstaff*, A. T. & S. F. R. R., 10 
to 30 mi. Detailed information at 
Southwestern Forest Experiment Sta- 
tion. G. A. Pearson. 

Sample plots wilhin National Forests 
(New Mexico} 

Datil National Poorest. Sample plots 
S1A, SIB, S2A. Area about 10 acres 
each. S1A and SIB are in a canyon at 
about 8300 ft. elevation. The composi- 
tion is western yellow pine, Douglas 
fir and limber pine. Plot S2A is com- 
paratively level, pure western yellow 
pine. All plots logged and established 
1910; all are grazed. Trees numbered 
and mapped, diameters and heights 
measured every 5 years. 

MagdalenaJ, A. T. & S. F. R. R., 
Supervisor's headquarters. 

Gilo, National Forest. Sample plots 
S1A and S2B. Area 6 acres each, practi- 
cally pure western yellow pine, about 
70% cut. Plots established 1911. Trees 
measured every 5 years. Both plots 
are grazed. 

Silver CityJ, A. T. & S. F. R R., 
Supervisor's headquarters. 



Santa Fe National Forest. Sample 
plots, Pecos S1A and SIB and Jemez 
S1A and S2A and S3A. Area 6 acres 
each; western yellow pine with varying 
mixture of Douglas fir and limber pine. 
Altitudes around 7500 ft. All plots cut, 
removing 60 to 70%, and all grazed. 
Established 1911. 

Santa Fe}, A. T. & S. F. and D. & 
R. G., Supervisor's headquarters. 
G. A. Pearson. 

10. NATIONAL FORESTS OF THE 

ROCKY MOUNTAIN 

DISTRICT (2) 

BY C. G. BATES 

There are 26 National forests in this 
district, Colorado having 15, Wyoming 
5, South Dakota 2, Nebraska 1, Michigan 
1 and Minnesota 2. 

Owing to the extremely diverse clima- 
tic conditions found in going from South 
Dakota to the Rocky mountains, from 
the southern border of Colorado to Min- 
nesota, and from the western to the 
eastern slope of the Rockies it has been 
thought best to give a detailed account 
of each forest rather than to attempt 
a general description for the entire 
district. 

For the sake of brevity and to avoid 
monotony, a tabulation is given be- 
low showing the name and area of 
the forest, the supervisor's headquarters 
and the directions for reaching it. 
Under each description there is given a 
brief account of the plant and animal 
life, the special physiographic features 
and the natural areas reserved or suita- 
ble for reservation. 



NATIONAL FOREST 


HEADQUARTERS TOWN 


DIRECTIONS FOR REACHING HEADQUARTERS 


ACREAGE 
OF THE 
FOREST 



Colorado (15) 



Arapaho 


Hot Sulphur 


D. & S. L. R. R. from Denver 


634,284 




Springs 






Cochetopa 


Salida 


D. & R. G. W. R. R. 


907,000 


Colorado 


Ft. Collins 


C. & S. R. R. and U. P. R. R. from 


853,641 






Denver or Cheyenne 




Grand Mesa 


Grand Junction 


D. & R. G. W. R. R. 


660,823 


Gunnison 


Gunnison 


D. & R. G. W. R. R. (narrow gauge 


905,382 






from Grand Junction or Salida) 





238 



NATURALIST'S GUIDE TO THE AMERICAS 



NATIONAL, FORESTS 


HEADQUARTERS TOWN 


DIRECTIONS FOR REACHING HEADQUARTERS 


ACREAGE 
OF THE 
FOREST 



Colorado (15) 



Holy Cross 


Glenwood 


D &R G. W. R. R. 


1,171,921 


Leadville 


Springs 
Leadville 


D. & R. G. W. R. R. and C. & S. 


930,568 






R.R. 




Montezuma 


Mancos 


R. G. S. R. R. from Durango or 


697,742 






Montrose 




Pike 


Colorado 


R. I. : D. & R. G. W. R. R. ; Sante Fe ; 


1,093,073 


Rio Grande 


Springs 
Monte Vista 


C.&S.R.R. 
D.&R.G.W.R.R. 


1,135,728 


Routt 


Steamboat 


D. & S. L. R. R. from Denver 


744,856 


San Isabel 


Springs 
Pueblo 


D. & R. G. W. R. R.; Sante Fe; 


599,096 






M. P. R. R. 




San Juan 


Durango 


D. & R. G. W. R. R. from Alamosa 


1,240,141 






or Denver and R. G. So. Ry. from 








Montrose 




Uncompahgre 


Delta 


D. & R. G. W. R. R. (narrow gauge 


778,291 






from Grand Junction or Salida) 




White River 


Glenwood 


D. & R. G. W. R. R. 


845,104 




Springs 







Wyoming (5) 



Medicine Bow 
Shoshone 

Washakie 


Laramie 
Cody 

Lander 


TT T> T> T> 

C.' B*. & Q.' R. R. from Frannie on 
Billings-Casper Line 
C.&N.W.R.R. 


477,701 
1,583,489 

852,315 


South Dakota (2). 


Black Hills 
Harney 


Deadwood 
Custer 


C. B. & Q. and C. & N. W. R. R. 
C. B.&Q.Ry. 


620,556 
508,514 


Minnesota (2) 


Superior 
Minnesota 


Ely 
Cass Lake 


D. & I. R. R. from Duluth 
G. N. R.R. ;Soo Line 


857,339 
190,602 


Michigan 


Michigan 


East Tawas 


D.&M.R.R. 


123,647 


Nebraska 


Nebraska 


Halsey or Nenzil 


C. B. &Q. orC. &N.W. R. R. 


205,944 



NATURAL AREAS 

Arapaho National Forest (Colorado) 

The forest forms the headwaters of 
the Colorado River and also North 
Platte River, with numerous small 
lakes at heads of streams. 

514,653 acres of lodgepole pine (Pinus 



contorta) and Engelmann spruce (Picea 
engelmannii] ; small amount of Douglas 
fir (Pseudotsuga tarifolia) ; two small 
isolated areas of Western yellow pine 
(Pinus ponder osa Scopulorum); nu- 
merous open un-timbered land above 
areas of aspen. There are 120,202 acres 
timber-line, and sagebrush. 



NATURAL AREAS AND REGIONS 



Deer, elk, and black bear are found 
over a large portion of the forest. Cou- 
gar occur in small numbers and bighorn 
sheep occasionally. Trout are found 
in most streams and lakes. 

Fraser, D. & S. L. R. R., is center of 
lodgepole pine and Engelmann spruce 
areas and several sawmill operations. 
Ranger at Idlewild R. S., 5 mi. SE. 
Small hotel at Fraser. 

Grand Lake is one of largest in state; 
reached by stage from Granby, 20 mi., 
or from Estes Park. Summer resort; 
ample accommodations. Center for num- 
ber small mountain lakes and peaks. 

Monarch Lake, 20 mi. from Granby 
by auto road or 12 mi. from Tabernash 
by trail. 

Plots 20 ft. square have been fenced 
against grazing to study effect of grazing 
on forage species. One is near Gilsonite 
R. S., auto from Granby and two more 
near Hot Sulphur Springs, walk. 

Winter range of deer and elk near Hot 
Sulphur Springs. Williams Fork State 
Game Refuge (1923) lies back of this 
and extends to timber-line. 400 deer 
and 400 elk in vicinity. 

Cochetopa National Forest (Colorado) 

Contains extensive areas of lodgepole 
pine in northern portion, which is the 
southern limit of lodgepole pine; Engel- 
mann spruce at high elevations; mixed 
stands of Douglas fir and yellow pine 
at lower altitudes. Extensive burns in 
spruce type on Saguache, Mineral and 
Spring Creek drainages, 1893. Typical 
burns may be seen at Marshall Pass 
(D. & R. G. W. narrow-gauge) as well 
as anywhere. Burns also in the lodge- 
pole pine type during the last 35 or 40 
years; probably entire type has followed 
fires which occurred in the last 200 years, 
and original type on northerly slopes in 
present lodgepole pine stands was 
largely Douglas fir. 

Bighorn sheep range, an area of 3200 
acres, lies between the cattle range on 
Spring and Mineral Creeks and the high 
sheep range, so rough and inaccessible 
that it is not grazed by domestic stock. 
Reached by few miles on foot, snow- 



shoes, or horseback from Cathedral 
after 40-mile stage from Gunnison. 
(D. & R. G. W. R. R.) Ranger at Cathe- 
dral entire year. 

Poncha Pass State Game Refuge 
(1923) lies near Salida and is bounded on 
the north by the transcontinental auto- 
highway over Monarch Pass. Similarly 
the Cochetopa State Game Refuge 
(1923) may be reached from Salida or 
Saguache over the Cochetopa Pass high- 
way, the area lying to the south of this 
road and east of the Continental Divide. 
Both highways are main routes of travel 
to Gunnison and the west. 

Sargents (D. & R. G. W. R. R. from 
Salida) is in the center of the lodgepole 
pine forest. Eight sample plots have 
been established in this vicinity, 7 of 
which are f acre and one 1 acre in area. 
Designed to show the results of thin- 
nings in lodgepole pine timber which 
matures at mine-prop size. For further 
details of location see ranger stationed 
either at Sargent's or at Long Branch 
ranger station 3 mi. distant. 

Sample plot of acre on overgrazed 
range badly infested with pingue (Hy- 
menoxys). The original grama-grass 
type has been largely replaced by pingue. 
Grazing has been excluded from the 
sample area by fence to determine 
whether grama grass will recover and 
dominate the pingue. Reached from 
Moffat (D. & R. G. W. R. R.) by an 18- 
mi. stage trip to Saguache, thence 17 
mi. by auto to the area. Ranger at 
Carnero R. S. can be reached by phone 
from Saguache. 

Colorado National Forest (Colorado) 

The Forest covers portions of the 
North and South Platte watersheds and 
bounds the Rocky Mt. Nat. Park on 
3 sides. Forests of lodgepole pine, 
Engelmann spruce and alpine fir (Abies 
lasiocaria) cover large areas in the higher 
elevations. The type in the foothills 
embraces yellow pine, with an admixture 
of Douglas fir. About 20% burred and 
cut-over. 

The Colorado State Game Refuge 
(1921) covers a large part of the Forest. 



240 



NATURALIST'S GUIDE TO THE AMERICAS 



Portions of the area are accessible by 
auto from Boulder, Loveland, Long- 
mont, Lyons, Ft. Collins and other 
R. R. points. The NW. portion may 
be approached via mail stage from 
Laramie, Wyo. (U. P. R. R.) to Glen- 
devey P. O., 55 mi., thence about 10 
miles to Refuge. Rangers at Boulder, 
Bellvue (near Ft. Collins) and 2 miles 
from Glendevey. At west edge of 
Refuge in Boulder district are Arapaho, 
Isabel and St. Vrain glaciers. 

Trail End. A licensed game preserve 
of 200 acres for the propogation of west- 
ern animals. Reached by auto from 
Ft. Collins, 43 mi., or Tie Siding Wyo. 
(U. P. R. R.) 33 mi. 

West Lakes. A reserve of 2560 acres 
containing lakes which are used by State 
for trout-spawning purposes. Reached 
via stage from Ft. Collins to Log Cabin, 
thence 7 mi. west. 

Proposed Red Rock Lake botanical 
area, of about 20 acres, should be fenced 
to exclude stock and perpetuate the 
great variety of plants to be found in a 
restricted area. Reached by auto stage, 
Boulder to Ward, thence distant 1\ mi. 

Grand Mesa National Forest (Colorado) 

Grand Mesa, which forms the main 
unit of the Forest, is a table-like moun- 
tain with a top area of 53 sq. mi. and a 
perimeter of 60 mi . The sides are abrupt 
and rise over 6000 ft. above the floor of 
the valley, the top being comparatively 
level meadow-land interspersed with 
groves of spruce and fir. The moun- 
tain owes its existence to a huge lava 
flow which capped the soft sedimentary 
formations. Erosion has exposed large 
cross-sections of the underlying strata, 
making over 100 lakes just under the 
volcanic rim or on top of the mesa. 

The flora and fauna characteristic 
of the altitudinal zones can be very 
conveniently studied as good roads 
have been built from the floor of the 
Colorado and Gunnison Rivers to the 
top of Grand Mesa, and a range in 
altitude from 4500 ft. to 10,500 can be 
traversed in less than three hours. The 
characteristic vegetation of the desert 



extends to the base of the Grand Mesa; 
from there up timber is present from the 
pinyon type up through the oak and 
aspen to the spruce-balsam. The aspen 
and spruce belts are rich in plant growth 
and elk, deer and bear are plentiful, 
besides a variety of smaller mammals. 
Beaver are found in every stream upon 
the Mesa; bird life is abundant; the 
lily-pad lakes furnish nesting places 
for waterfowl. 

Forty lakes have been made accessible 
to automobiles. 

Hotels have been built at three prin- 
cipal groups. Horses, boats and private 
cabins are available. Grand Mesa 
reached by 25-mi. stage from Delta, 
56 mi. from Grand Junction and 28 
mi. from Debeque. (All on D. & R. 
G. W. R. R.) 

Gunnison National Forest (Colorado) 

The forest consists of 43% productive 
timberland, 19% woodland, chiefly as- 
pen, 6% brushland, 14% grass or sage- 
brush, 1% burn not restocking, 17% 
barren and above timber-line. It is 
further characterized by extensive burns 
and large areas of lodgepole pine. 

Crater Lake, an unstocked fresh- 
water lake lies near the summit of Mt. 
Gunnison at an elevation of approxi- 
mately 10,500 ft. Area 40 acres. Sur- 
rounded on the east, south and west by 
dense stands of Engelmann spruce and 
alpine fir. Approached by saddle and 
pack 17 mi. from Paonia, Colo. (D. & 
R. G. W. R. R. from Delta) where are 
good accommodations and ranger. Four 
miles from end of pack trip to Lake. 

Storm Range Game Refuge is an area 
of 21 sq. mi. from which grazing is 
excluded by Forest Service policy. 
Mostly barren of timber, on a high mesa, 
bounded on three sides by high cliffs. 
Forage on the mesa is of alpine type. 
Reached by horse or on foot, 6 mi. 
from Baldwin, Colo. (C. & S. R. R. 
from Gunnison) where there is a 
ranger. 

Gunnison State Game Refuge (1923) 
a large area to the north of Sapinero 
and west of Crested Butte, may be 



NATURAL AREAS AND REGIONS 



241 



reached from either of these towns or 
from Gunnison. 

About 100 acres permanent sample 
plots in lodgepole pine illustrating re- 
production after clear-cutting and vari- 
ous degrees of thinning, established in 
1911. Reached from Pitkin (D. & R. 
G. W. R. R.) or from Gunnison (a), 
thence one mi. S.W. ranger at PitkinJ. 

Holy Cross National Forest (Colorado) 

The greater part of this forest was 
burned over in connection with early 
settlement and mining operations. It 
is characterized by extensive areas of 
rugged mountainous country, support- 
ing scattered bodies of Engelmann 
spruce and lodgepole pine. Douglas 
fir and an occasional yellow pine occur 
along the lower reaches of several 
streams. 

Two Elk and Battle Mountain Game 
Protection Area. 7680 acres closed to 
grazing of domestic stock and used by 
game animals for winter range, mainly 
on south slopes along Eagle River Canyon 
adjoining an extremely rugged range 
country. Reached by leaving D. & 
R. G. train at Minturn or Red Cliff, 
whence Eagle River Canyon may be 
traversed by auto in a few miles. 
Ranger at Red Cliff, hotels at either 
place. 

Woody Game Refuge. An area of 
11,600 acres in high country between 
Roaring Fork and Frying Pan Rivers, 
characterized by scattered stands of 
Engelmann spruce with open grassy 
parks. Not used for grazing domestic 
stock and has become a sanctuary for 
game animals during the summer. 
Reached from Aspen (D. & R. G. W. 
R. R. from Glenwood) 10 mi. by saddle 
horse. Hotel and ranger at Aspen. 

Capitol Peak Game Refuge. (By 
Colo, statute, 1923, this area included in 
Snowmass State Game Refuge.) An 
area of 12,120 acres, including Avalanch. 
Comprises extremely rough high moun- 
tains between Crystal River and Roar- 
ing Fork. Serves the same purpose as 
the Woody Refuge. Reached (h) from 



either Aspen or Carbondale (D. & R. 
G. W. R. R.) distance 15 mi. Ranger at 
Carbondale. 

Permanent sample plots of 3 acres 
established 1914 in heavy spruce forest, 
illustrating different weights of cutting 
with resultant growth and reproduction. 
No virgin area retained. Two other 
plots established 1924. Both areas 
reached from Red Cliff (D. & R. G. 
W. R. R.) (h) about 7 mi. up Wearyman 
Creek. Ranger at Red CliffJ. 

Leadville National Forest (Colorado) 

Approximately 2590 acres have been 
burned and 1590 cut-over. Extensive 
areas of lodgepole pine and Engelmann 
spruce at high elevations, Douglas fir 
and yellow pine remnants on border of 
Arkansas valley. 

Gore Range, 12,000 acres (higher 
portions on east side) is of special in- 
terest because so rugged and precipitous 
that along its higher portion no cattle 
or domestic sheep graze, and it is almost 
inaccessible even on foot. Deer, elk, 
and bighorn sheep; small, clear lakes; 
abundant trout. Reached from Dillon 
(C. & S. Ry.) by horse, finally reverting 
to foot travel. Ranger 1^ mi. south of 
Dillon. Hotel at Dillon 

Twin Lakes, 2000 acres. Two fresh- 
water lakes joined by narrow neck 
at an altitude of 9000 are set back in 
rugged mountains with spruce and pine 
timber along their shores. Reached by 
Ocean-to-Ocean highway, 20 mi. by 
auto from Leadville, or 9 mi. by stage 
from Granite (D. & R. G. W. R. R.). 

Proposed Game Preserve. 189,000 
acres in Buffalo Peaks and adjoining 
country down to Arkansas River. All 
forest types; comparatively low; parts 
free of snow year round; small portion 
above timberline; mountain grasses, 
herbs and shrubs; ideal summer and 
winter range. Adjacent to Buena Vista 
(D. & R. G. W. R. R.) Hotel and ranger. 

Montezuma National Forest (Colorado) 

Most of the southern and western 
parts of the forest support yellow pine 



242 



NATURALIST'S GUIDE TO THE AMERICAS 



timber. The north and east parts sup- 
port mixed Engelmann spruce and alpine 
fir timber. About 10% burned over 
and many burned areas support aspen. 

There are a few deer and elk and many 
bear and also a few bighorn sheep. 

Silver Creek Watershed for town of 
Rico is closed to grazing. Area 6 sq. 
mi. Timber growth consists of aspen, 
Engelmann spruce and alpine fir. 

Pike National Forest (Colorado} 

Practically all parts of the Forest, 
including some areas above timberline 
are accessible by good auto roads, and 
during summer fair accommodations may 
be had at nearly all towns and resorts. 
The land is 78% timbered, 2% aspen, 
1% brush lands (oak), 2% grassland, 
5% burns not restocking and 12% bar- 
ren and grassland above timber-line. 
Elevations below 9000 ft., characterized 
by open stands of western yellow pine 
and Douglas fir. Limber pine occurs 
on the ridge crests and exposed sites. 
From 9000 ft. to timber-line, Engel- 
mann spruce is the principal species, 
with a mixture of Douglas fir and limber 
pine at the lower elevations, and on the 
exposed ridges, bristle-cone pine (Pinus 
aristata}. The spruce forms stands with 
an unusually light mixture of alpine ' 
fir. In the north half of the Forest, 
lodgepole pine occurs, the southern 
limits of lodgepole east of the Continen- 
tal Divide being near the South Platte 
River. 

Successful elk plants were made in 
1916 in the vicinity of Idaho Springs 
and Pikes Peak. 

Sample plots 4 acres in extent estab- 
lished 1920 for study of thinning in a 
40-year Douglas fir sapling stand 
through commercial sales of Christmas 
trees, to shorten the rotation for tie and 
saw-timber production. Accessible (a) 
from Denver or Sedalia; 8 mi. from 
Sedalia over Decker Springs road. 
Auto service and fair accommodations at 
Sedalia. 

Grazing Planting Erosion Sample 
Plots, involves 30 acres of fenced land 



from which grazing is excluded with 
similar area adjacent and unfenced 
and subject to usual grazing by cattle 
and horses. Planted and implanted 
areas both within and without enclosure. 
Vegetation quadrats for the study of 
effects of erosion are established on each 
plot. Forest type is essentially yellow 
pine. Vegetation characterized by 
mountain mahogony, deer bush and 
grama grass. Reached from Denver 
via C. & S. Ry. to South Platte. Thence 
two mi. SW. via old abandoned wood 
road. Local residents familiar. 

Planted areas of several thousand 
acres in vicinity of Pikes Peak, Cascade 
and Monument, some dating from 1909, 
illustrate possibilities of artificial re- 
forestation. Forest Service Nursery for 
production of tree stock at Monument. 
Leave any local train between Denver 
and Colorado Springs; or auto from 
Colorado Springs. 

The Denver Mountain Parks State 
Game Refuge, 500,000 acres, ranging in 
elevation from 6000 to 14,000 ft. Vege- 
tative types very diverse. Accessible 
from Denver (a). 

Pikes Peak State Game Refuge, 
129,000 acres, covers a range of from 
6250 to 14,000 ft. Deer, elk, bighorn 
sheep, beaver, coyote, bear, cougar, 
ptarmigan, and grouse are found. 
Accessible from Colo. Springs and Mani- 
tou by rail and (a). Towns on all 
sides, Rangers at Colo. Springs and 
Cascade. 

Watershed, City of Colorado Springs 
and Town of Manitou. This area 
includes some 60,000 acres, closed to 
grazing, and mostly within the game 
preserve described above. One of the 
most readily accessible spots of the 
United States in which to gain an in- 
timate knowledge of practically all 
forms of plant and animal life character- 
istic of the region. Within the area are 
the Fremont Forest Experiment Station 
of the U. S. Forest Service, and the 
Alpine Laboratory of the Carnegie 
Institution. 
The City of Denver Watershed, con- 



NATURAL AREAS AND REGIONS 



243 



sists of Lake Cheesman and 10,000 acres 
of land. The area is fenced to exclude 
stock and owned by the City of Denver. 
Forests of yellow pine and Douglas 
fir. Accessible (a) from Denver, via 
Sedalia-Decker Springs Road. Fair ac- 
commodations at Decker's. 

Rio Grande National Forest (Colorado) 

This is an enormous basin forming the 
headwaters of the Rio Grande river and 
including vegetative types from practi- 
cally desert at the edge of the San Luis 
Valley to vast areas of almost perpetual 
snow-fields and alpine meadows above 
the line of spruce timber. A very large 
part of the area is used for grazing, 
especially of sheep, which winter on 
ranches in the Valley. The yellow pine 
type is sparsely represented in the foot- 
hills, while lodgepole pine is entirely 
absent. A peculiar feature of the 
forest is the occurrence of blue spruce 
(Picea pungens) in mixture with Douglas 
fir, far removed from the usual stream- 
bed habitat. 

Pole Mtn. Bighorn Sheep Breeding 
Ground. About 3000 acres closed to 
sheep-grazing to permit development of 
bighorn sheep. Reached by pack trip 
of about 50 mi. from Creede (D. & R. 
G. W.). 

Elk Mountain and Goose Creek Elk 
Ranges. These two separate areas 
cover about 10,000 acres, and are closed 
to grazing of domestic stock. Several 
hundred elk range here. Both are 
reached from Wagon Wheel Gap. (D. & 
R. G. W.) by saddle horse, about 15 
mi. Summer hotel only at Wagon 
Wheel Gap. 

Wheeler National Monument. An 
area of 400 acres containing unusual 
"toad-stools" and other peculiar erosion 
forms of interest to geologists. Reached 
by saddle-horse from Creede (D. & 
R. G. W. R. R.) about 15 mi. 

Wagon Wheel Gap Streamflow Ex- 
perimental Area. The two watersheds 
which have been under study since 1910 
comprise 400 acres. After preliminary 
study one was denuded in 1919-20 to 



determine the effect of forest removal 
on streamflow. This will also present 
excellent opportunity for the study of 
plant succession. Only limited sheep 
grazing is to be permitted on denuded 
watershed; none on other. Expected 
visitors may usually be cared for at 
Station headquarters, 2 mi. from Wagon 
Wheel Gap. (D. & R. G. W.) Ref: 
"First Results in Streamflow Experi- 
ment, Wagon Wheel Gap. Colo., Carlos 
G. Bates, Jour. Forestry, Vol. XIX, 
No. 4, pp. 402 to 408. 

Routt National Forest (Colorado] 

Comprises a forest of which the lower 
portions, once occupied by Douglas fir, 
have been so badly ravaged by fire as 
to result in extensive stands of aspen. 
Large areas at higher elevations are 
covered by lodgepole pine and Engel- 
mann spruce which has been little ex- 
ploited. The herbaceous and shrubby 
vegetation is very diverse and charac- 
teristic of western slope conditions. 

Deer, bear, elk and bighorn sheep 
occur in unusual numbers, owing to the 
undeveloped nature of the country. 
Elk winter within a few miles of Steam- 
boat Springs. Whitefish are found in all 
branches of Bear River. 

San Isabel National Forest (Colorado] 

The accessible timber was cut in the 
early days. Fires have left scars over 
the entire forest. A large part of the 
Sangre de Cristo Range contains virgin 
timber types, as well as remarkable 
alpine lakes and rugged scenery. 

Most lakes are stocked with fish. 
Good accommodations can be found at 
various towns adjacent and several 
summer hotels located within the For- 
est. The D. & R. G. W. R. R. passes 
along the north end, with branches into 
Wet Mountain Valley and on the west 
and south sides into San Luis Valley. 
Rangers at Wetmore, Rye, Gardner, 
Westcliffe, Mirage and La Veta. 

Reserved areas: City of Florence 
Watershed, 8000 acres on Newlin Creek, 



244 



NATURALIST'S GUIDE TO THE AMERICAS 



extending from yellow pine to Engel- 
mann spruce. Grazing is limited upon 
the area. Reached by auto from Flor- 
ence. (D. & R. G. W. R. R.) 10 mi. 

Spanish Peaks State Game Refuge. 
Contains 75,416 acres, extending from 
the foothills type up to the Spanish Peaks 
elevation 13,600 ft. Game is also being 
protected upon the Sangre de Cristo 
Grant just west of the Refuge; large 
herd of bison under enclosure. Reached 
from La Veta by auto. * Summer hotels 
within the Refuge. 

City of Trinidad Watershed. 10,000 
acres on North Fork of the Purgatory, 
and within the Spanish Peaks Game 
Refuge. Heavy fires occurred in early 
days. Wild turkeys are found. Graz- 
ing limited. Reached from La Veta (a) 
25 mi. Summer hotel 5 mi. from 
watershed. 

San Juan National Forest (Colorado') 

The forest is 5% burned and 5% cut- 
over. The pine timber near Pagosa 
Springs has for years been the center 
of an important lumber industry. 

Animals consist of deer, bear, bighorn 
sheep; grouse are fairly plentiful; 
native trout in nearly all streams. 

The Needle Mountains are very rough 
and inaccessible. The summits of four 
of the peaks are over 14,000 ft. in eleva- 
tion, while 6000 ft. below Animas River 
rushes through a canyon which separates 
the West Needles from the main group. 
A large portion of these mountains is 
above timber-line. The area is so 
broken that domestic stock cannot be 
profitably grazed on it, and the timber, 
consisting principally of Engelmann 
spruce, may be preserved in its natural 
condition without sacrifice or expense. 
Reached from Needleton, a station 35 
mi. north of Durango on Silverton 
branch of D. & R. G. W. All arrange- 
ments should be completed before 
leaving Durango. 

The Durango Reservoir Grant, 3050 
acres of natural forest land is approxi- 
mately 32 mi. northeast of Durango 



on the headwaters of the Florida River. 
This area can be reached only by saddle 
horse or on foot, this inaccessibility 
comprising its principal virtue for 
purposes of nature study. Information 
should be obtained and arrangements 
made at Durango. 

Uncompahgre National Forest (Colorado} 

The larger part of the forest is on the 
Uncompahgre Plateau, which rises 
gently to the south from the Uncom- 
pahgre-Gunnison valley, then breaks 
off more abruptly to the San Miguel- 
Dolores valley on the south. 

The plateau changes gradually from a 
pinyon-juniper or desert type on the 
north edge to a fair yellow pine forest 
with increasing elevation, then through 
Douglas fir to very excellent spruce. 
The fir forest, however, is represented 
only by remnants and occupied largely 
by aspen. A striking characteristic 
of the middle-lower zone, especially on 
the south escarpment, is the prevalence 
of oak-brush. 

The Ouray Mountain Sheep and Elk 
Refuge (1923) covers 40 sq. mi. Several 
hundred mountain sheep are fed by the 
people of Ouray each winter. Arrange- 
ments made to plant elk during 1922-23. 
Ouray (D. & R. G. W. R. R.) from 
Montrose, is in center of area. Travel 
from Ouray by horseback; stables, 
hotels, ranger. 

White River National Forest (Colorado} 

The forest is 1% cut-over and 5% 
burned. There is a heavy belt of 
Engelmann spruce under rim of flat- 
tops, with some lodgepole pine at lower 
elevations. Small bodies of Douglas 
fir are found in gulches and a body of 
yellow pine on South Derby Mesa. 

The following game refuges are such 
only by exclusion of domestic stock: 

Elk range of about 5000 acres around 
Sleepy Cat Peak. Elk on this range 
throughout the summer. Reached via 
Yampa, also from Meeker, inland town, 
45 mi. from Rifle (D. & R. G. W. R. R.) 



NATURAL AREAS AND REGIONS 



245 



daily stage or Craig (D. & S. L. Ry.) 
tri-weekly stage. 

Deer refuge areas, in Trapper's Lake 
region, four of about 1000 acres each. 
Black-tailed deer during July, August 
and September. Best seen July 15 to 
August 15. Best areas west of Trapper's 
Lake. Reached by saddle and pack, 
30 mi. from Yampa (D. & S. L. Ry.). 
Outfit at Yampa; hotel, ranger. 

Mountain sheep refuge of about 2000 
acres on Sheep Mountain. Bighorn 
sheep can be easily seen throughout 
summer. Big open country surrounded 
by rim rock. Can be connected with 
trip to deer refuges. Outfit at Yampa. 

Bighorn National Forest (Wyoming) 

This forest covers the Bighorn Moun- 
tains in north central Wyoming. The 
lower portions of the uplift are mainly 
sedimentary rocks, while the upper 
belongs to the Archean. 

The forest on the slopes up to 7500 ft. 
is western yellow pine, Douglas fir, 
limber pine and some juniper in mixed 
stands. The upper portions are covered 
with extensive bodies of lodgepole pine 
and Engelmann spruce. Open grass and 
sagebrush parks are extensive and are 
grazed by domestic stock. Grassy 
meadows and willow thickets are 
frequent. 

Game animals are elk, deer, bighorn 
sheep, black and grizzly bear. Original 
elk herd reinforced by artificial stocking 
in 1912; have increased so that they are 
again plentiful on north end of Forest. 
Bighorn sheep scarce; only few bands 
remain around the peaks in central 
part of Forest. A few grizzly bear on 
the north end. Fur-bearing animals 
include coyote, beaver, lynx, fox, mar- 
ten, and weasel. Wolf and cougar are 
scarce. 

Winter Elk Range on Horse Creek in 
Tongue River Canyon. Includes approx- 
imately 1600 acres. Domestic stock is 
excluded by natural barriers and fenc- 
ing. 500 elk use it as a winter feeding- 
ground. Reached by (a) from Sheridan 
to Dayton, 25 mi. thence 8 mi. (w) or (h). 



Hayden National Forest (Wyoming} 

The Forest lies astride the Sierra 
Madre Range in southern Wyoming, 
extending a few miles into Colorado. 
The formation is almost wholly granitic. 

It is estimated that lodgepole pine 
occupies 135,000 acres, Engelmann 
spruce 30,000 acres and aspen 100,000 
acres of this forest, the last on the west 
slope. During the mining boom most 
of the north end was burned and cut- 
over. A large part of this area is re- 
stocking naturally with lodgepole pine. 
On Big Creek watershed some virgin 
lodgepole is to be found. 

Native trout in streams on west side 
of the Forest. Elk and black-tail deer 
are present but not abundant. Big- 
horn sheep not seen in recent years. 
Antelope present on sheep range north 
of Forest. Black bear, coyotes, bob- 
cats, cougar, beaver, marten, mink and 
fox are fairly abundant. Sheep and 
cattle graze almost the entire Forest. 

In 1924 small fenced areas have been 
set aside to determine effect of grazing 
on the forage types and on progress of 
pine reproduction. Obtain details of 
location from Supervisor. 

Between the Hayden and Medicine 
Bow Forest lies the broad and beautiful 
valley of the North Platte, abandoned 
ages ago when that stream found a new 
channel well back in the mountains to 
the east. The remarkable situation can 
best be viewed on the Rocky Mt. high- 
way from Laramia, by which Encamp- 
ment may also be reached. 

Medicine Bow National Forest (Wyoming] 

Nearly this entire area is accessible 
to stock and is grazed by cattle and 
sheep. 85% of entire area is timber- 
producing, and of this 95% is lodgepole 
forest, mostly virgin though this Forest 
has been center of tie-producing region 
for many years. 9% of area has been 
burned within 30 to 50 years and bears 
dense stands lodgepole reproduction. 
Forpark is center of tie industry, on 
C. W. & E. Ry. from Laramie, which 
reaches other points within Forest. 



246 



NATURALIST'S GUIDE TO THE AMERICAS 



Cinnabar Park Range Rotation Area. 
A semi-permanent fenced area of 160 
acres in which for several years the 
development of the forage plants by 
natural reseeding has been assisted by 
careful study of the proper season for 
grazing. A dry grassy park at 9600 ft. 
surrounded by timber. Reached by 
stage from Albany (C. W. & E. Ry.) 
to Holmes, where Forest Ranger will 
furnish accommodations and directions. 

Foxpark Permanent Sample Plots, 
an area of 5 acres in lodgepole forest on 
which various methods of cutting were 
practiced in 1909, one-fourth also being 
left in virgin condition. Permanently 
fenced. Presents interesting reproduc- 
tion study. On outskirts of Foxpark 
where ranger and fair accommodations 
may be had. Within a mile are also 
thinning experiments in lodgepole sap- 
ling stands. 

Shoshone National Forests (Wyoming) 

The elevation is 7000 to 13,000 ft.; 
rock formations are granite, limestone 
and conglomerate. Extensive areas of 
open grassland, mountain meadows, 
lodgepole pine, Engelmann spruce, lim- 
ber pine and Douglas fir forests. 

Common animals are elk, deer, big- 
horn sheep, pronghorn antelope, moose, 
bear (grizzly and black), cougar, coyote, 
lynx, and bobcat. Very large areas are 
closed to or inaccessible to domestic 
stock. Practically all points of interest 
are reached from Cody but a number 
may be approached from the Yellow- 
stone National Park, which adjoins on 
the west. 

Hoodoo State Game Preserve, 120,000 
acres, used as summer range for deer, 
elk and bison. Reached from Cody; 
15 miles auto to Two Dot ranch, thence 
30 mi. by horse or wagon to Painter 
Ranch or Sunlight R. S., thence by pack 
outfit up North Fork Shoshone River. 
Can also be reached by pack outfit from 
Cooke, Montana or through Yellow- 
stone Park. 

Shoshone Game Preserve. 500,000 
acres of summer and winter range for 
elk and deer. (Elk Fork is main winter 



elk range.) Accessible from Cody via 
auto. Good auto road to Wapiti, 
Canyon Cr. R. S., Wapiti R. S., Holm 
Lodge and Pahaska Tepee. From these 
places pack outfit is necessary. Also 
reached from Cody to Valley by fair auto 
road and pack outfit from that place. 

Carter Mountain Game Preserve, 
150,000 acres of summer and winter 
range for elk, deer, and bighorn sheep. 
From Cody by auto and pack outfit via 
Valley, Wyoming, Belknap R. S., South 
Fork R. S. and Ishawooa. 

U. S. Bird Refuge, 10,000 acres, in- 
cluding Shoshone Reservoir and a nar- 
row fringe of shore. Reached from 
Cody (a) 9 mi. 

Washakie National Forest (Wyoming) 

Two blocks of land east of Continental 
Divide at headwaters of Popo Agie and 
Wind Rivers, the latter forming a large 
basin. 

The prevailing forest type is lodgepole 
pine, yellow pine being only poorly 
developed at low elevations, the Douglas 
fir forest represented by remnants only, 
while at high elevations are large bodies 
of spruce almost wholly inaccessible. 
Very large lodgepole cutting operations 
on Wind River, using river for transport 
to the railroad. 

There are no reserves of interest but 
three trios of sample plots have been 
established in lodgepole cutting areas, 
to show effects of thinning. Near 
Sheridan Creek and Dunoir ranger 
stations 20 mi. (a) from Dubois, 100 mi. 
from Riverton, 100 mi. from Lander. 
Dubois is on Rocky Mt. Highway to 
southern entrance of Yellowstone. 

Black Hills and Harney National Forests 
(South Dakota) 

An isolated range of mountains ap- 
proximately 100 mi. long by 60 mi. 
wide, rising to 7000 ft., surrounded by 
semi-arid plains. Intensely interesting 
geological structure. Within a range 
of a few miles one may pass from fossil- 
iferous sedimentary deposits through 
gypsum, limestone, sandstone, con- 
glomerate, quartzite, porphyries, 



NATURAL AREAS AND REGIONS 



247 



schists, and slates to the igneous granite 
core of the Black Hills uplift. Nearly 
all parts of Forests are accessible by 
auto from towns on the two railroads 
and good accommodations may be had. 
Rangers scattered throughout the Hills 

Western yellow pine constitutes 95% 
of the forest. Has a habit of growth 
resembling lodgepole pine in the char- 
acter and density of stands. Forest 
50% cut-over and 15% burned. Meeting 
ground of eastern and western floral 
and faunal species. 

Mt. Roosevelt State Game Refuge of 
approximately 50,000 acres is easily 
reached from Deadwood. Affords abun- 
dant food for deer, elk, and game birds, 
good cover and also open feeding 
grounds. Contains the beautiful Spear- 
fish Canyon summer resort, where the 
game is seen by tourists. Beaver 
colonies are numerous in Canyon and 
other fur-bearing animals present (musk- 
rat, mink, marten, skunk), are all 
protected. 

Several small permanent sample plots 
representing natural and thinned yellow 
pine 25 to 200 years old, in vicinity of 
Nemo, Merritt and Benchmark, furnish 
examples of forestry practice. All 
reached most quickly by auto from 
Deadwood. 

The So. Dakota State Park represents 
one of the best State Forest properties 
and game preserves in the country. A 
portion has been fenced as a game pre- 
serve in which are herds of deer, elk, 
buffalo and antelope; an attempt is 
being made to stock it with moose. 
Topography and forest cover similar 
to rest of Black Hills region: a well 
timbered and very picturesque locality 
developed by the State for recreational 
purposes as well as a game preserve. 
An extension of its boundaries takes in 
Harney Peak and the Sylvan Lake 
region, the latter purchased by the 
State and run as a summer resort. 
Reached from C. & N. W. R. R. at 
Fairburn, or C. B. & Q. R. R. at Custer. 
Most accessible from Custer. Excel- 
lent hotel facilities at State Park lodge 
and at Sylvan Lake||. 



Custer Federal Game Sanctuary, an 
area of 30,000 acres around Harney Peak 
and Sylvan Lake. Practically entire 
area covered by virgin forest. Most of 
it inaccessible to lumber operations 
owing to the roughness of the country. 

Wind Cave National Monument, ap- 
proximately 11,000 acres, adjoins Harney 
Forest on the southeast corner. Princi- 
pal feature is Wind Cave, containing 
over 100 mi. of cavern. The park con- 
tains bison, elk, pronghorn antelope 
and deer. Very little timber, most of 
the area being prairie. Nearest town 
Hot Springs, good hotel accommodation 
(Branch lines of C. B. & and C. & N. 
W. R. R., from Minnekahta and Buffalo 
Gap, respectively). Auto roads to Cave 
from Hot Springs, passenger bus twice 
daily in the summer months. 

Jewel Cave National Monument. 
Limestone caves of large extent; un- 
developed. Forests of western yellow 
pine and an occasional limber pine. 
Reached (a) from Custer over passable 
road. 

Nebraska National Forest (Nebraska} 

The two divisions are the Bessey and 
the Niobrara. The Bessey Division is 
in very rough sandhills with scant 
vegetation. Niobrara Division more 
rolling with better soil and vegetation. 

There are some native hardwoods, 
also yellow pine and red cedar; largely 
grassland. 10,000 acres have been artifi- 
cially afforested, principally with jack 
and western yellow pines. 

Small number of native deer on Bessey 
Division. Prairie chickens, sharp-tailed 
grouse, and quail. Entire Forest set 
aside as a State Bird and Game refuge. 

The following reserves in Nebraska 
have no connection with the National 
Forest: 

Niobrara Game Preserve, 20,000 acres, 
along scenic Niobrara River, 4 mi. 
east of Valentine, a city of 2000 popula- 
tion on C. & N. W. R. R. Preserve 
formerly Fort Niobrara, U. S. Biological 
Survey protecting native birds and 
animals and breeding herds of elk and 
bison numbering about fifty of each. 



248 



NATURALIST'S GUIDE TO THE AMERICAS 



Native yellow pine and hardwood timber 
in canyons; balance grass-covered sand- 
hills and tableland. 

Scottsbluff National Monument, ap- 
proximately 1900 acres. Central attrac- 
tion is mountain 4667 ft. above the sea 
and 800 ft. above the river. Most of 
area is of rugged nature. "The bad 
lands" consist of twisted and corrugated 
rocks of the White River period, several 
hundred acres lying between the moun- 
tain and the river. Fossils of the 
Eocene and Oligocene are quite abun- 
dant. Historically the mountain has 
great interest. Reached from Scotts- 
bluff (C. B. & Q. Ry. from Sterling or 
Alliance or Gering) (U. P. R. R. from 
No. Platte) approximately 2 mi. 

Fontenelle Forest, about 2000 acres, 
5 mi. south of Omaha. Native hard- 
wood timberland, oaks, hickory, elm, 
sycamore, etc. About the only native 
hardwood forest being preserved in its 
natural state for use of nature lovers 
and citizens of the state. A rich field 
for botanists and also has interesting 
archeological history. Fontenelle For- 
est Association, Omaha, owner. Reached 
(a) or trolley from Omaha. 

Minnesota National Forest (Minnesota} 

The characteristics of the area are 
best shown by the following typical 
reserves : 

Star Island Game Refuge, 1200 acres 
(entire island). Lake Helen about 200 
acres in extent, lies within this island. 
Virgin stand of timber, chiefly white and 
Norway pine, with some jack pine and 
hardwoods. Reached from Cass Lake 
by motor boat. 

Ten sections of virgin forest, com- 
prising the shore line of Cass Lake, 
Pike Bay and connecting lakes. A 
virgin stand of timber 200 years old, to 
be cut only as it dies or is blown down; 
consists of chiefly white and Norway 
pine, some jack pine and hardwoods, and 
swamp species. 

Itasca State Park (Game Refuge) 
20,000 acres, a virgin stand of timber, 
chiefly white and Norway pine, some 
jack pine and hardwoods. Lake Itasca 
is the accepted source of the Mississippi 



River. Reached from Arago by bus 
from Park Rapids (G. N. Ry.) or Bemidji 
(G. N. R., Soo Line and N. P.). 

Superior National Forest (Minnesota] 

Ely, centrally located for western 
half of Forest. Grand Marais, port on 
Lake Superior (east or Lake Superior 
entrance), good accommodations, no 
railroad on North Shore Drive (auto 
road). Forest ranger. Travel after 
leaving railroad mainly by boat, canoe or 
launch, or by auto and boat. Boats 
necessary for all or parts of every trip. 
80% burned, 10% cut-over. 

Characterized by a network of thou- 
sands of lakes and streams, mixed conif- 
erous and broad-leaved forests, swamps 
and rock ridges. The forest consists 
of white, Norway and jack pines, white 
and black spruce, tamarack, cedar, 
birch, poplar and maples. Game 
Refuges. 

Superior Game Preserve covers a 
large part of the Forest and extends 
beyond its boundaries, with acreage of 
1,290,000. Principal game animals are 
moose, caribou, white tailed deer, black 
bear, snowshoe hare, red, gray, and 
flying squirrels, and grouse (ruffed, 
pin-tailed, spruce hens). Fur-bearing 
animals are marten, fisher, weasel, 
muskrat, mink, wolf (timber), coyote, 
red fox, beaver, lynx, and bobcat. 
Principal fish are pike, pickerel, bass, 
and trout (lake and brook) . 

Michigan National Forest (Michigan] 

An extensive area, mostly of sand 
"plains" 100 to 200 ft. above Lake level, 
once bearing excellent forests of Norway 
pine (Pinus resinosa) and some white 
pine (Pinus strobus). 

It has been cut-over and repeatedly 
burned in past years so that there 
remains only a few scattered clumps of 
Norway pine, largely failing to re- 
produce, but with much of the ground 
occupied by jack pine (Pinus divaricata) 
and scrub oak. Ecologically most in- 
teresting for observations of vegeta- 
tional succession following establish- 
ment of forests by planting. 



NATURAL AREAS AND REGIONS 



249 



11. IDAHO 

BY R. A. MUTTKOWSKI 

I. GENERAL FEATURES AND ORIGINAL 
BIOTA 

1. Physiographic regions 

Idaho might be compared to a chair, 
the back and seat of which consist of 
mountain ranges along the eastern 
border. The area between the upper 
and lower rung of the chair is occupied 
by a great plateau, the Snake River 
Plains. 

In the northern panhandle the moun- 
tains are relatively low, chiefly of the 
round top type. Toward the middle 
of the state, the "seat of the chair," 
the mountains grow very rugged and 
precipitous. 

Throughout the state the bases of the 
mountains lie in volcanic lava, upon 
which are heaped the aeolian soils. 
This is seen in the Snake River Plain 
which is a built-up plain formed by out- 
pouring sheets of tertiary lava inter- 
bedded with accumulated sediments of 
the tertiary Lake Payette, which two 
processes of upbuilding were contem- 
poraneous within the basin, out of which 
this plain was formed. Through this 
plain the Snake River eroded a canyon, 
and finally drained this geologic lake. 
Except for the extreme southeastern 
part. 

2. Plant and animal communities 

All of the original types of communi- 
ties are still available for study. Orig- 
inally, two-fifths of Idaho comprised 
the forests and mountains, two-fifths 
the arid plains, and one-fifth the fer- 
tile prairies. These proportions have 
changed somewhat in regard to the 
extent of the forests and the arid plains, 
due to lumbering, grazing, irrigation 
and reclamation. 

a. Forests. There are two types of 
forests in Idaho, the western white pine 
forests of the north (see page 210) ex- 
tending from the Canadian boundary 
to the Clearwater Preserve; and the 



western yellow pine forests in the central 
and southern parts of the state. In 
central and southern Idaho especially 
the forests were interspersed with great 
fertile prairies, called Camas Prairies, 
by the early travellers, from their con- 
tinuous Camas blue. 

In the montane forests of the northern 
part of the state are found character- 
istically the black bear (Ursus america- 
nus group), grizzly bear, wolverine 
(Gulo luscus), marten (Martes americana 
group), fisher (Martes pennanti group), 
weasel (Mustela sp.), marsh shrew 
(Neosorex), masked shrew (Sorex per- 
sonatus group), red-backed vole (Evoto- 
mys), mountain lemming-vole (Phena- 
comys orophilus], chipmunks (Eutamias 
spp.), pine squirrel (Sciurus hudsonicus 
richardsoni), flying squirrel (Glaucomys 
sabrinus group), yellow-haired porcu- 
pine (Erethizon epixanlhum group), 
snowshoe hare (Lepus bairdii), moose 
(alces americana group), and black- 
tailed deer (Odocoileus}.L. R. D. 

Among the reptiles and amphibians 
occurring in the Montane are the rubber- 
snake (Charina bottae], a garter-snake 
(Thamnophis), the western frog (Rana 
pretiosa), the western toad (Bufo b. 
boreas), and a salamander (Ambystoma 
macrodactylum) . H. T. G. 

Idaho and Utah are filled with small 
mountain ranges which are for the most 
part isolated by stretches of arid ter- 
ritory. Each range usually contains a 
group of species peculiar to itself and 
in many cases certain species are 
apparently confined to some one of 
these ranges. The genus Oreohelix here 
reaches its greatest development in 
species. While little study has been 
given to the ecological features of dis- 
tribution, a good idea of the distri- 
bution of the genus Oreohelix among 
the mountain ranges may be obtained 
from the paper by Henderson and 
Daniels, Proc. Acad. Nat. Sci. Phil, 
1916, pp. 315-339. F. C. B. 

b. Yellow pine forests. (See page 209.) 

c. Alpine tundra. The central peaks 
carry snow and ice fields the year round. 
The vegetation is typically alpine. 



250 



NATURALIST'S GUIDE TO THE AMERICAS 



The principal mammals of the Alpine 
summits above timbeiiine are the Rockly 
Mountain goat (Oreamnos americanus 
subsp.), bighorn sheep (Ovis canadensis 
group), hoary marmot (Marmota caligata 
group), and pika (Ochotona). 

d. Prairies. (See under Oregon.) 

e. Sagebrush semi desert. The great 
sagebrush region of Idaho is traversed 
by the Snake river. It is a lava desert, 
with great extinct craters, solidified lava 
flows, canyons, crevices, caves with ice, 
super-chilled springs. 

They have as characteristic mammals 
the coyote (Cams lestes), grasshopper- 
mouse (Onychomys leucogaster subspp.), 
pocket-mouse (Perognathus), kangaroo- 
rat (Dipodomys*) , ground-squirrel (Citel- 
lus spp.), sage chipmunk (Eutemias 
minimus pictus)> pigmy rabbit (Brachy- 
lagus idahoensis), white-tailed jack- 
rabbit (Lepus townsendii), black-tailed 
jackrabbit (Lepus californicus group), 
cottontail rabbit (Sylvilagus muttallii 
group), and pronghom antelope (Anti- 
locapra americana). L. R. D. 

Reptiles include the collar lizard 
(Crotaphytus collaris baileyi), the leop- 
ard-lizard (Crotophytus wislizenii), the 
swifts (Sceloporus graciosus gracilis 
and S. occidentalis biseriatus), the 
rattle-snakes (Crotolus oreganus and C. 
confluentus), the bull-snake (Pituophis C. 
catenifer), the racer (Coluber constrictor 
mormon), and the horned toad (Phyrn- 
osoma d. douglassii and P. platyrhi- 
nos).H. T. G. 

In the mountains there are innumer- 
able small lakes, cascades, and falls. 
Along these streams there are springs 
both hot and cold, notably so in the 
central and southern regions. Larger 
lakes are Payette, Coeur d'Alene, Pend 
Oreille, Priest and Bose. Idaho grows 
higher from north to south, with an ele- 
vation of about 1800 ft., in the north to 
about 5000 ft., in the south. The only 
"low" spot is at Lewiston (west- 
central, near the Washington boundary), 
lying in a canyon of 700 ft. elevation. 
The Snake River Plains also slope down 
from east to west, so that Idaho slopes 



down from southeast to northwest, 
from 5000 to 1800 ft. 

/. Aquatic communities. The aquatic 
communities present perhaps the great- 
est variety of all. In the mountains 
there are innumerable alpine lakes which 
form the headwaters of precipitous 
creeks. The creeks have dug deep 
canyons, through which they tumble 
in rapids, falls, cascades, with occasional 
placid stretches. Such lakes and 
streams are most numerous in the 
Salmon River and Clearwater River 
drainage. Swamps are found in a 
number of the valleys throughout Idaho, 
although none of them occupy more 
than a few square miles of area. 

The fresh water mollusca are abun- 
dant, especially in the northern part of 
Idaho, in Lake Pend Oreille, and the 
rivers and streams flowing into and from 
this lake. Nearly all are related to 
those of eastern North America, and 
include the genera Lymnaea, Planorbis, 
Rhysa, Amnicola, Valvata, Fluminicola, 
Ferrissia, Hydrobia, Pisidium, Sphae- 
rium. Only a few Naiades are found nor 
are the Pleuroceridae abundant, as both 
of these groups are in the central part 
of the United States. A few species are 
peculiar to the region. For the ecologi- 
cal distribution of the Lymnaediae, see 
Baker, Monograph of Lymnaediae, 
1911. F. C. B. 

II. PRESENT BIOTIC CONDITIONS 

Except for the American bison and 
perhaps the prong-horned antelope, 
the original biota of Idaho are found in 
at least a part of Idaho, chiefly in the 
mountain fastnesses and the Snake 
River Desert. 

Along the border of Washington and 
in the central valleys of northern Idaho 
three factors have tended to alter the 
biota, or at least to diminish their 
extent. These are, first, the great 
fires which from time to time have swept 
over millions of acres and left barren 
wastes which are slow in reforesting 
themselves. The second factor was the 
discovery of gold and other precious 



NATURAL AREAS AND REGIONS 



251 



ores. This, with its need for clearings 
for the settlements, timber for build- 
ings, fuel, and the mines, has thinned 
the forests, while the sewage from the 
settlements, the wastes from the mines 
and the fumes of the smelters polluted 
land and stream and killed plant and 
animal life for miles around. Lumbering 
has been the third factor in the with- 
drawal of the biota in the north. In the 
wake of cutting has followed agriculture 
which has still further restricted the 
natural areas. In the same areas in 
central and southern Idaho irrigation 
and reclamation have gone hand in hand 
and turned many arid sage-brush prai- 
ries into fertile farms and orchards. 

III. POLLUTION 

On the whole Idaho streams have 
suffered relatively a slight pollution. 
There are streams, notably in the mining 
regions of the north, east and southwest, 
that receive considerable waste and 
refuse from the mines. Thus, the Coeur 
d'Alene and Clearwater Rivers of 
noirthern Idaho, before they pass into 
Washington, receive both sewage and 
mine refuse from the small cities along 
the lower stretches of the streams. 

IV. NATURAL AREAS 

1. Idaho State Game Preserves 

The Idaho State Game Preserves are 7 
in number and cover an area of over 2000 
sq. mi. or approximately 1,500,000 acres. 
In these preserves all game animals are 
protected. Hunting is prohibited ex- 
cept by the game wardens and duly 
authorized persons. 

*Preserve on South Fork of Payette 
River. (B2.) About 456 sq. mi. 
292,000 acres. Located in northern 
portion of the Boise National Forest 
at the base of the Saw tooth Range. 
All hunting, trapping, and killing of 
any species of game and birds is for- 
bidden. 

Game animals protected: bear, lynx, 
wolverine, fox, otter, beaver, marten, 
mink, and fisher. 



Predatory animals permitted to be 
destroyed by game wardens: mountain 
lion, timber wolf, coyote, wild cat. 

* Black Lake Game Preserve. (A3.) 
About 350 sq. mi. 225,000 acres. Lo- 
cated in north portion of Snake River 
Section of the Nez Perce National 
Forest. Since it is very inaccessible, 
this promises to continue as a perma- 
nent preserve. All animals protected 
here. Beaver, otter, marten, fisher, fox, 
mink, wolverine. 

Predatory animals; cougar, bear, lynx, 
wolf, coyote, and wild cat may be 
destroyed by game wardens only. 

*Lewiston Orchards Preserve. (C3.) 
About 19 sq. mi. 12,000 acres. Located 
in Nez Perce, and covering the depres- 
sion in which the Lewiston Orchards lie. 

In this preserve birds of all kinds are 
protected, including game birds, water 
fowl, and song birds. 

*Big Lost River Game Preserve. (B2.) 
About 432 sq. mi. 290,000 acres. Lo- 
cated in north and northeastern portion 
of Sawtooth National Forest. 

Birds include grouse, wild geese, wild 
ducks, pheasant, partridges, quail, 
prairie chicken, sage hen, swan, snipe, 
plover, eagle, mourning dove, hawks, 
crow, and magpy. 

Mammals include: deer, elk, caribou, 
moose, mountain goat, bighorn sheep, 
pronghorn antelope, beaver, otter, mar- 
ten, fisher, fox, and mink, cougar, black 
bear, lynx, wolverine, wolf, coyote, wild 
cat, rabbits, badger, weasel, and skunk. 

*Selway State Game Preserve. (A2.) 
About 725 sq. mi. 460,000 acres. Lo- 
cated in northern part of Selway Na- 
tional Forest. 

*Big Creek Game Preserve. (B2.) 
About 192 sq. mi. 125,000 acres. Lo- 
cated in Salmon National Forest. 

*Pocatello Game Preserve. (B2.) 49.5 
sq. mi. 61,680 acres. Located south- 
east of Pocatello in Cache National 
Forest. 

Owyhee County. (Cl.) (Bl.) An 
available Game Preserve, of about 5000 
sq. mi. 

This county constitutes the south- 
western corner of Idaho, comprising 



252 



NATURALIST'S GUIDE TO THE AMERICAS 



nearly 8000 sq. mi. It has recently been 
much mentioned as a possible game 
preserve, especially for antelopes. Ore- 
gon Short Line to Nampa, a spur to 
Silver City, then by wagon road to Rid- 
dle, near the Indian Reservation, or by 
road along Bruneau River. 

2. Springs 

Idaho has literally hundreds of thou- 
sands of springs. 

Thousand Springs Valley. (B4.) Lie 
in East Fork Basin of East Fork of 
Salmon River. Innumerable hot and 
cold springs here. There are several 
"Warm Springs Creek." On road from 
Ketchum to Stanley, then Salmon 
River Highway to Springs. 

Guyer Hot Springs. (D5.) Huge 
mineral springs, and Warm Springs 
Creek near Ketchum Springs commer- 
cialized. Piped to houses for heat. 
Oregon Short Line R. R. to Ketchum. 
Scenery here marvelous, the "saw 
teeth" of the Sawtooth Range con- 
spicuous. 

H ailey Hot Springs. (D5.) Near 
Hailey, Blaine County. Somewhat com- 
mercialized. Piped to Hailey for heat. 

Hot Springs in Elmore County. (B4.) 
Within 8 mi. northeast of Moun- 
tain Home. 103 to 167F. Mud spring 
northwest of Mountain Home. Fairly 
large. Also natural cave of consider- 
able size. Near good auto roads. E. F. 
Mason. 

South Fork of Boise River between Pine 
and Featherbille has half a dozen large 
hot springs along road (D4). One piped 
for a large outdoor bathing pool. Fish 
spring flows hot from small islet in Boise 
River. 

Soda Springs and Vicinity. (B5.) 
Originally famous for its Soda springs, 
has been commercialized to a large ex- 
tent. The region "was a miniature 
Yellowstone Park." 

Lava Hot Springs. (B5.) In Bannock 
County, a state reserve. On Oregon 
Short Line R. R. 

3. Caves 

Among other attractions, Idaho has a 
large number of caves. Unfortunately, 
very little is known of most of them, as 
they have been little explored. A 
number of caves are found in Caribou 
County, in Franklin County (perpetual 
ice), Elmore County. Gooding County 
(perpetual ice), and Valley of the Moon 
in Blaine County. 



4- Sand dunes 

Sand dunes covering considerable 
area are found in Freemont County north 
of St. Anthony. These adjoin some old 
lava fields and craters, and are inter- 
mingled with good grazing prairie. At 
least 20 sq. mi. Local roads from St. 
Anthony north. 

5. Lava flows 

a. The Sinks. (B4.) The lava flow 
in the region of the Snake River Desert 
has produced a phenomenon called the 
"Sinks" where considerable streams 
appear from the surface and continue 
their way underground to the Snake 
River miles away. Located in Butte 
County some miles below and east of the 
Howe at the edge of Snake River desert. 
There the Big Lost River and Little 
Lost River disappear into the ground , to 
reappear at intervals. Further up the 
Birch Creek Sinks can be found. These 
streams here go under the lava to the 
depth of hundreds of feet and emerge 
finally as gigantic springs on the sides 
and bottom of the Snake River Canyon 
60 mi. away. Reached best from Arco 
on the Oregon Short Line, then by auto 
road through Howe to the various sinks. 

6. Lava Fields. (B2.) Fields of roll- 
ing or broken lava are found in a number 
of places in southern Idaho; in Free- 
mont, Minidoka, Bingham, Owyhee, 
Bonneville Counties. 

c. Craters. (A3.) May be found in 
most of the southern counties, also in 
the central counties northward to 
Idaho County. 

d. Buffalo Hump. (A3.) A lone 
butte in the middle of Idaho County, 
active in 1866, with lava flow accom- 

anied by tremors. Active in August- 
eptember, 1881. Reached from 
Grangeville, then by road to Concord. 

e. Snake River Desert. (B3.) (B2.) 
About 3400 sq. mi. Available. Occu- 
pies middle center of Idaho, particularly 
the region north of the Snake River 
extending from Wood River northeast 
past the Sinks of the Big Lost River. 

Lava fields partly covered with sage- 
brush, with patches of small trees. 
Sagebrush fauna most abundant. Big 
Lost River, Little Lost River, Camas 
Creek and Birth Creek enter the desert 
in the north, but soon become lost in the 
"sinks;" these are fissured areas where 
shallow lakes form in spring, which later 
disappear. According to geologists 
there is a subterranean bed in which the 
streams flow hundreds of miles south- 
west and west and reappear as gigantic 
springs from the north wall of the Snake 
River Canyon, in the 18 mi. between 



NATURAL AREAS AND REGIONS 



253 



Shoshone Falls and Bliss. Smaller 
streams than those mentioned also dis- 
appear. 

A particular feature are the crevices 
which interline the lava fields in the 
desert, from two to fifty feet wide, from 
thirty to hundreds of feet in depth, and 
extending for long distances. In the 
larger crevices there is a distinct fauna of 
snakes, lizards, insects, and other 
animals. 

Between Blackf oot and Big Lost River 
there is a Juniper forest of 175 sq. mi. 
From Arco south a belt 15 mi. wide and 
50 long, at least 800 sq. miles of pine and 
fir, extends to Cinder Buttes. Smaller 
patches at many points. Area adj oining 
forest with bunch grass, not sagebrush, 
forming splendid pasture land. 

Sand dunes occur in a great many 
places and great stretches of recent flows 
of lava in many parts of Plains. 

/. Big Butte, 5600 ft., and Pillar Butte, 
5300 ft., are famous land-marks on the 
plains and rise directly from rolling 
plain. Big Butte is unscalable. Ap- 
proach from many points. Short trips 
inward easily arranged by automobile, 
but better with pack-horses. (See ' 'Val- 
ley of the Moon.") 

''The latest evidence shows molten 
rocks in recent historical times, perhaps 
not over one hundred years ago. It 
came up through volcanic cones, out of 
which highly liquid lava in vast quanti- 
ties flowed away in all directions where 
it hardened in a horizontal position. 
There are scores of vents, cones, and 
craters within this area, Big, Middle, 
and East Buttes being conspicuous 
examples." Russell. 

6. "Valley of the Moon" 

t About 100 sq. mi. a proposed Na- 
tional Monument. Comprises a portion 
of the western end of the Snake River 
Desert, named "Valley of the Moon," 
especially the northwest region known 
as the "Craters," because of its marked 
resemblance to the conventional as- 
tronomers pictures of the moonscape. 

Topography of barren lava fields, 
canyons, hills, craters. Area is exceed- 
ingly rough, in places utterly depressing 
through its somber coloration, in others 
startling, through the brilliant blues and 
vermilions. One crater known as Echo 
crater 700 ft. deep. Close by 63 craters 
can be seen from one spot. An extinct 
volcanic and lava flow. Ice caves plen- 
tiful, icy springs, and short streams. 

A dwarf bear of special interest. 
Pines, some sagebrush, and a nearly 
white "pigmy buckwheat." 

This region has never been explored 
and was virtually rediscovered by R. W. 



Limbert, of Boise. After a trip into the 
desert in 1917 he made several expedi- 
tions. Reported that in Summer, 1921, 
an expedition of the National Geo- 
graphic Society entered the desert. It 
is proposed to create a national monu- 
ment of the whole or a portion of this 
area. 

Approach from many points : from the 
south from a number of towns between 
Idaho Falls and Minidoka on the Oregon 
Short Line R. R. west from Shoshone to 
Hailey, north from Arco. The highway 
from Hailey to Arco passes within four 
miles of the lava fields, where some of the 
craters can be seen. R. A. M., after 
R. W. Limbert. 

V. REFERENCES 

Bancroft, H. H. History of Washington, 
Idaho, and Montana. In Vol. 10 
of Collected works, Idaho, pp. 393- 
588, 1889. 

Bailey, F. M. Handbook of the Birds 
of the Western United States. Hough- 
ton, Mifflin Co., 1921, pp. 590, 33 
plates, 601 text figures. 

Fountain, Paul. The Eleven Eaglets of 
the West. New York (Dutton & 
Co. ) . 1906. Snake or ' 'Mad' ' River, 
pp. 91-99. Idaho, pp. 125-153. De- 
scription of journey made in late 
seventies. 

Rees, John E. Idaho: Chronology, No- 
menclature, Bibliography, pp. 125. 
Published by the author, Salmon, 
Idaho. 

Merriman, C. H., and Stejineger, L. 
Biological Reconnoissance of South 
Central Idaho. W. A. Fauna, no. 5, 
1891. 

Limbert, R. W. The Valley of the Moon, 
in Nat. Geogr. Mag., 1924. 



12. ALBERTA 
BY A. B. CONNELL 

I. GENERAL 

The Province of Alberta, the western- 
most of the prairie provinces of Canada, 
extends from the Montana boundary 
north to the 60th parallel of north 
latitude. The 110th meridian of longi- 
tude forms the eastern boundary and 
the province extends west from this 
line to the crest of the Rocky Mountains 
in the south and to the 120th meridian 
in the north. The area is approximately 
260,000 sq. mi. 



254 



NATURALIST'S GUIDE TO THE AMERICAS 



II. PHYSIOGRAPHY 

The province may be divided into 
four physiographic regions. 

1. The Rocky Mountain region: In 
the south of the province the mountains 
occupy a narrow zone some 25 mi. in 
width extending from the front ranges 
westward to the British Columbia 
boundary upon the Continental divide. 
The mountains trend sharply to the 
northwest until the 120th meridian is 
reached near the 54th parallel of lati- 
tude. At this point the provincial 
boundary turns northward and the 
Rockies continue northwesterly into 
British Columbia. The montane region 
of Alberta broadens to the north with 
a decrease in elevation. The higher 
peaks reach an elevation of over 11,000 
ft. The passes vary from 7000 ft. at 
the South Kootenay pass in the south 
to 3700 ft. at the Yellowhead pass in 
the north. 

2. The Foothill region: The foothills 
are extremely narrow or almost lacking 
near the International boundary in 
the south. As they follow the moun- 
tains northward, however, they broaden 
out forming an extensive area of low 
rolling ridges with a general northwest 
and southeast trend. 

S. The Alberta plateau: The Cretace- 
ous plains extend eastward from the 
foothills forming a high shelf-like pla- 
teau which sinks gradually from an 
elevation of 3500 ft. in the southwest 
to 1500 ft. in the northeast. Along 
the eastern boundary of the province 
south of the North Saskatchewan River 
the elevation averages 2000 ft. The 
larger rivers have cut broad and deep 
valleys in crossing the plateau eastward 
from the mountains. The valley of the 
Peace River in the north of the prov- 
ince is in places upwards of 700 ft. 
in depth and over two miles in width 
from rim to rim. 

4. The northeastern portion of the 
province: This is occupied by a com- 
paratively low flat plain having an 
average elevation of 800 ft. above sea 
level. The western portion of Lake 



Athabaska and the lower course of the 
Peace River lie within this area. 

III. BIOTIC CONDITIONS 

The vegetation of Alberta may be 
divided broadly into five climatic 
formations. 

1. The Alpine belt extends along the 
higher mountains above timber line. 
Climatic conditions are severe with low 
temperatures, a short growing season, 
high and dry winter winds and low 
atmospheric pressure. The climatic cli- 
max is meadow-like and characterized 
by heaths and saxifrages. 

2. The Montane belt occupies the 
slopes of the mountains from timber 
line to the eastern border of the foot- 
hills. The precipitation varies between 
20 and 30 in. and occurs mainly in the 
spring and summer. The climatic cli- 
max is a xeromesophytic coniferous 
forest characterized by Engelmann 
spruce (Picea Engelmannii) , western 
larch (Larix Lyallii], lodgepole pine 
(Pinus murrayana), white spruce (Picea 
canadensis) and Douglas fir (Pseudot- 
suga mucronatd). Limber pine (Pinus 
Hexilis} and whitebark pine (Pinus 
albicaulis] are found on the upper slopes 
of the higher foothills and outer ranges 
in the south. 

Engelmann spruce gives place to the 
white spruce toward the north. West- 
ern larch occurs well up to timber line 
south of the Crow's Nest pass. Lodge- 
pole pine in pure stands is very 
extensive. 

3. The great plains in the south of the 
province are occupied by a xerophytic 
grassland climax which is an extension 
northwards of the mixed Prairie Asso- 
ciation of Montana. The precipitation 
is in the neighborhood of 15 in., mainly 
in the summer. The winters are dry 
with little snow and marked by many 
"Chinook winds." This condition ex- 
tends north from the Montana boundary 
to and beyond the Red Deer River. 
Buffalo grass, grama grass and wire 
grass are present, together with tumble 
weed and sage brush. (The northern 



NATURAL AREAS AND REGIONS 



255 



portion of the grassland becomes a 
more mesophytic turf grass prairie 
association in which wheat grass, wild 
rye and red top are dominant. G. D. 
Fuller.} 

4. A transition belt of poplar-savanna 
fringes the northern border of the grass- 
land region. This belt extends from 
the foothills eastward across the south 
central portion of the province to the 
Saskatchewan boundary. The south 
boundary of this region runs eastward 
from a point a short distance south of 
the town of Red Deer on the C. P. 
railway between Calgary ancl Edmonton. 
The north boundary extends from 
Whitecourt west of Edmonton north- 
easterly to the great bend of the Atha- 
basca river some ten miles north of the 
town of Athabasca, thence southeast- 
erly south of Lake La Biche to the 
Saskatchewan boundary line a few miles 
north of the Saskatchewan river. This 
region has a width north and south of 
from 100 to 150 mi. The characteristic 
trees are the aspen and balsam poplar. 
(In the south the trees become smaller 
and the small aspens in turn give way 
to willows from 3 to 12 ft. in height. 
This aspen and willow scrub occurs 
continuously over considerable areas 
but more frequently exists as scattered 
clumps and groves in the rather meso- 
phytic prairie. G. D. F.) 

Northwards the trees become more 
dense and as the southern boundary 
of the northern coniferous forest is 
approached more or less dense forests 
of poplar occur with occasional large 
areas of meadow and prairie land. 

5. The northern coniferous forest 
extends from the transition region 
northward to the northern boundaries 
of the province. The climax is a meso- 
phytic coniferous type. The precipita- 
tion is not high but the summers are 
short and cool and the saturation deficit 
low. The predominant trees are the 
white spruce, balsam (Abies balsamea), 
poplar, paper birch (Betula papyri/era), 
jack pine (Pinus banksiana), and tama- 
rack (Larix laricina). An interesting 
condition occurs along the southwestern 



border of the coniferous forest where it 
approaches the foothills of the Rockies 
in the region of the Peace River Valley. 
Large areas of open prairie land are 
found here together with a preponder- 
ance of poplar in the surrounding for- 
ested areas. Some of these openings, 
such as that known as Grande Prairie, 
contain upwards of 1000 sq. mi. 

The fauna of the province has been 
modified considerably in the south but 
comparatively little in the north. Bison 
(Bison bison), once very plentiful, are 
extinct in the southern portion of the 
province with the exception of a large 
herd in the Buffalo Park Reserve near 
Wainwright. Several herds of wild 
wood bison (Bison bison athabascae) , 
however, are still in existence in north- 
ern Alberta and have been reported 
west and south of Fort Smith. Prong- 
horn antelope (Antilocapra americana) 
are in existence on some of the smaller 
preserves. Coyotes are numerous on 
the open plains. In the northern forest 
fur-bearing animals and moose (Alces 
americana) are plentiful. Bighorn 
sheep (Oviscanadensis), goats (Oreamnos 
montanus group), grizzly and black 
bear are found in the mountains. 1 

IV. PRESERVED NATURAL AREAS 

*Rocky Mountain National Park (A2) 

Area 2750 sq. mi. This area extends 
along the eastern slopes of the Rockies 
from the Kananaskis Lakes on the 
south to the Clearwater river on the 
north. It includes the Sawback, Ver- 
million, Palliser, Goat and Kananaskis 
ranges. The peaks range from 9000 to 
12,000 ft. in altitude. The forest is of 
the Rocky Mountain coniferous type. 
Bison, deer, elk, bear, sheep, and goat 
are found. The main line of the C. P. 
R. R. west from Calgary traverses the 
Park. Banfff is the central outfitting 
point. Guides, ponies and camp equip- 
ment can be obtained there. 

1 For further information on the fauna of the for- 
ested part of the province, see under MacKenzie 
Watershed, page 116, 



256 



NATURALIST'S GUIDE TO THE AMERICAS 



"Jasper National Park (A2) 

Area 4400 sq. mi. Eastern slope of 
the Rocky Mountains. Extends from 
the Brazeau River on the south north 
to the Smoky river divide and from the 
Continental divide on the west to the 
foothills on the east. The main trans- 
continental line of the Canadian Na- 
tional Railway passes through the park. 

Jasper is the central outfitting point. 
Good hotel accommodation, camp equip- 
ment and supplies can be obtained 
there. C. N. R. R. from Edmonton. 
For information and maps write Superin- 
tendent, Jasper Park, Jasper, Alberta. 

*Waterton Lake National Park (A2) 

Area 423 sq. mi. Adjoins Glacier 
National Park at extreme southwestern 
extremity of the province. Eastern 
slope of the Rocky Mountains. Reached 
from CardstonJ on the C. P. Ry. 20 
mi. by motor. 

Buffalo Park (A2) 

Area 150 sq. mi. Located in the 
plains in the eastern portion of the 
province. Poplar-savanna with much 
open rolling grassland. The largest 
herd of bison in Canada is located here. 
One mi. from WainwrightJ on the C. N. 
Ry. east from Edmonton. 

*Rocky Mountains Forest Reserve (B2) 

Area 12,000 sq. mi. This Dominion 
Forest extends along the entire eastern 
slope of the Rockies from Waterton 
Lake National Park in the south to the 
54th meridian in the north. The eastern 
boundary coincides approximately with 
the eastern limits of the foothills. 
Both the Rocky Mountains National 
Park and Jasper National Park are 
within the boundaries of this forest. 
The southern portion of the forest 
south of the main line of the C. P. Ry. 
is easily accessible from any point 
along the MacLeod branch of the C. P. 
Ry. south from Calgary, notably High 
River, Nanton and Claresholm. Along 
the Crow's Nest branch Pincher Creek 
and Coleman are excellent outfitting 



centers. There is hotel accommodation 
at all of these points and wagon or motor 
roads lead to the forest. Travel by 
wagon along the outskirts of the forest 
in the south is quite feasible. The 
interior trails are usually open for 
pack and saddle animals only. North 
of the main line of the C. P. Ry. travel 
is generally by means of pack ponies 
only. A branch of the C. N. Ry. from 
Red Deer penetrates the forest along 
the valley of the Saskatchewan river 
to Brazeau. Rocky Mountain House 
is the most suitable outfitting center 
in this part. The Coal Spur branch of 
the C. N. Ry. from the main line near 
Edson enters the northern part of the 
reserve. The portion of the reserve 
lying north of the main line of the C. 
N. Ry. may be easily reached with pack 
ponies from Entrance. In this case 
supplies should be taken from Edmonton 
and ponies obtained locally. The forest 
is administered by the Dominion 
Forestry Branch from Calgary. Super- 
visors' offices are located at Pincher 
Creek, Rocky Mountain House and 
Entrance. 

*Lesser Slave Forest Reserve (A2) 

Area 4000 sq. mi. The Lesser Slave 
Reserve lies northwest from Edmonton. 
It is upon the Alberta plateau beyond 
the foothill zone. It is a rough residual 
elevation rising some 2000 ft. above the 
general level of the plains to elevations 
of 4000 ft. or more. It is underlain by 
soft shale and heavily mantled with 
drift. The northern coniferous forest 
extends over these hills. There is a 
considerable amount of lodgepole pine 
with scattered areas of muskeg in the 
depressions. The bulk of the area is 
well drained and supports an association 
of spruce and poplar. Lesser Slave 
Lake at the northern base of this high- 
land supports a considerable fishing 
industry. Camp outfit required. Out- 
fit at Edmonton. C. P. Ry. to Sawridge. 
Pack trails over which pack animals 
can be taken extend into the hills from 
this point. A detached portion of this 
forest lies northeast of the lake and 



NATURAL AREAS AND REGIONS 



257 



may be reached from Sawridge whence 
a pack trail runs north to Wabiscaw. 
Hotel at Sawridge. The Forest is ad- 
ministered by the Dominion Forestry 
Branch from Calgary. 

*Cooking Lake Forest Reserve (B3) 

Area 40 sq. mi. The Cooking Lake 
Forest is a small area of wasteland 20 
mi. east from Edmonton. It is acces- 
sible by motor from Edmonton and is 
a popular resort. 

*Cypress Hills Forest Reserve (C3) 

Area 50 sq. mi. This area lies in the 
southeastern portion of the province 
upon the boundary between Alberta 
and Saskatchewan. It is a rough 
elevated tract rising to a considerable 
elevation above the surrounding plains. 
The hills are covered with a forest of 
lodgepole pine and surrounded by the 
short grass plains. This is the most 
easterly point reached by the lodgepole 
pine in western Canada. The hills are 
20 mi. south of Walsh on the C. P. Ry. 
and southeast from Medicine Hat which 
is the nearest large outfitting center. 
They may be reached by motor and 
camp outfit is desirable. 

*Foremost Antelope Reserve (A3) 

Area 9 sq. mi. A small area in the 
short grass plains of southeastern 
Alberta. The topography is rough and 
the soil sandy in places. Sagebrush is 
common. Both pronghorn antelope and 
bison are reported on this area. The 
altitude is 2900 ft. The reserve lies 
west of the Cypress Hills and is 3 mi. 
north of Nemiskam on the C. P. Ry. 
Hotel at Foremost 10 mi. west. Roads 
are good and the reserve is easily reached 
by automobile. 

*Elk Island Park (A3) 

This small area of 16 sq. mi. lies north- 
east from Edmonton and adjoins the 
Cooking Lake Forest on the north. 
Spruce swamps and bogs are frequent 
with poplar on the higher ground. 
Bison, beaver, elk, deer, moose and 
pronghorn antelope are reported here. 



Altitude 2196 ft. Lamontt on the 
C. N. Ry. 30 mi. from Edmonton is 
close to the Park. Hotel accommoda- 
tion and equipment may be obtained 
there. 

*Buffalo Lake Bird Sanctuary (B3) 

Area 51 sq. mi. Altitude 2536 ft. 
Located close to BashawJ on the C. N. 
Ry. between Calgary and Edmonton. 

*Pakoiwki Lake Bird Sanctuary (B3) 

Area 44 sq. mi. Altitude 2,893 ft. 
Located in southeastern Alberta 8 
mi. southeast from EtzikomJ on the 
C. P. Ry. Pronghorn antelope is 
reported here. 

*Birch Lake Bird Sanctuary (B3) 

Area 15 sq. mi. Altitude 2228 ft. 
Located two mi. from Innisfreet on 
the C. N. Ry. east from Edmonton. 

*Lac La Biche Bird Sanctuary (B3) 

Area 92 sq. mi. Altitude 1788 ft. 
Lac La BicheJ station on C. P. Ry. north- 
east from Edmonton. 

*Ministik Lake Bird Sanctuary (B3) 

Area 25 sq. mi. Located 25 mi. 
southeast from Edmonton near TofieldJ 
on the C. N. Ry. Reserve 12 mi. dis- 
tant may be reached (a). 

*Miquelon Lake Bird Sanctuary (B3) 

Area 11 sq. mi. Altitude 2427 ft. 
Located 14 mi. north from Camrose.t 
on the C. N. Ry. May be reached (a). 

*Many Islands Lake Bird Sanctuary (B3) 

Area 21 sq. mi. Altitude 2448 ft. 
Located in the plains of southeastern 
Alberta 12 mi. north of WalshJ on the 
C. P. Ry. 

Proposed Forest Reservations 

Proposed Athabasca Forest Reserve. 
(B2.) Area 7000 sq. mi. This area 
forms an extension of the Rocky Moun- 
tains Forest upon the north. It lies 
between the present boundary of the 
Forest and the Grande Prairie settle- 
ments to the north and the Lesser Slave 
Forest to the northeast. The average 
elevation is over 2000 ft. The surface 



258 



NATURALIST'S GUIDE TO THE AMERICAS 



is undulating. The forest cover is 
fairly open with many p'atches of prairie 
and meadow land. The forest is an 
extension of the Rocky Mountains 
coniferous forest but is mingled to a 
certain extent with the Northern Conif- 
erous forest which extends southwards 
from the Lesser Slave Lake region. 
May be reached from Edsonf or En- 
trance on the C. N. Ry. west from 
Edmonton** (h). 

Proposed Embarras Forest Reserve. 
(B2.) Area 700 sq. mi. A proposed 
extension to the Rocky Mountains 
Forest in the Coal Spur district south 
of Edson on the main line of the C. N. 
Ry. west of Edmonton. Rocky Moun- 
tain coniferous forest. Outfit at Edson. J 

Proposed Lac La Biche Forest Reserve. 
(B2.) Area 1400 sq. mi. This area lies 
northeast from Lac La Biche and is 
traversed by the A. & G. W. Ry. from 
Edmonton to McMurray. The country 
is rolling with an average elevation of 
1800 ft. Northern coniferous forest. 
Good hotel at Lac La Biche. Camp 
outfit and pack ponies required. 

Proposed Pelican Mountain Forest 
Reserve. (B2.) Area 700 sq. mi. Situ- 
ated at the east end of the north block 
of the Lesser Slave Forest. A rough 
highland reaching elevations of 3000 ft. 
Northern coniferous forest. May be 
reached by pack trail from Athabasca! or 
by canoe by means of the Athabasca and 
Pelican rivers. The canoe route is 
very interesting and not difficult with 
the exception of the portage at Pelican 
Settlement. 

Proposed Peace River Forest Reserve. 
(B2.) Area approximately 1000 sq. mi. 
This tract is in three blocks which lie 
immediately south of the Peace River 
at the western boundary of Alberta. 
The country is a high rolling plateau 
averaging 2500 ft. in elevation. North- 
ern coniferous forest. May be reached 
from Spirit Riverf on the Grande Prairie 
branch of the C. P. Ry. from Edmon- 
ton** (h) or (c). Also by boat up the 
Peace River from Peace River Crossing:}:. 

Proposed Clear Hills Forest Reserve. 
(A2.) This is a large area comprising 
over 1000 sq. mi. lying north of the 
Peace River at the western boundary of 
the Province. The hills form a rough 
rolling elevation rising to 3500 ft. 
Northern coniferous forest with patches 
of open country. Peace River Crossing! 
C. P. Ry. from Edmonton. Pack ponies 
and camp outfit required. Trails are 
rough and poor. Little travel in this 
region. 

Proposed Wapiti River Forest Reserve 
(B2.) Area 200 sq. mi. A small area 
of northern coniferous forest at the junc- 



tion of the Wapiti and Smoky Rivers 
and south of the Grande Prairie settle- 
ment. Four miles south of the town of 
Grande Prairie! on the C. P. Ry. north 
from Edmonton. The northern bound- 
ary of the area may be reached by(w) 
or (a), but the interior is accessible with 
pack ponies only. 

Available areas 

North of the Athabasca River and Lac 
La Biche Alberta is very thinly settled 
with the exception of the Peace River 
settlements west from Peace River 
Crossing, f The bulk of this immense 
area is little travelled except along the 
main waterways. 

Lake Athabasca is easily reached from 
Edmonton to McMurray over the A. & 
G. W. Ry. and thence by boat down the 
river to Fort Chipewyan. The country 
about the western end of Lake Atha- 
basca is very low and marshy. It is 
one of the notable localities for water- 
fowl in the north. The eastern portion 
of the lake lies within the boundaries 
of the Laurentian plateau. 

The Peace River is reached from 
Edmonton via C. P. Ry. to Peace River 
Crossing!. Regular steamboat service 
down the river to Fort Vermilion, Lake 
Athabasca and Fort Smith on the Slave 
river. Hay River may be reached with 
pack ponies north from Vermilion. 
Fort Vermilion may also be reached 
from Athabasca by way of the Wabisca 
and Loon rivers. 



13. SASKATCHEWAN 
BY JOHN SMITH DEXTER 

Saskatchewan, the middle one of the 
three "Prairie Provinces" of Canada, 
lies between the 49th and the 60th 
parallels of latitude, and between ap- 
proximately the 102nd and the 110th 
meridians west of Greenwich. It is 
more than 750 mi. from north to south; 
and along the southern boundary, its 
width from east to west is some 388 mi. 

The surface is comparatively level, 
though gently rolling. The altitude is 
markedly higher in the southwest 
corner, where the Province approaches 
the foothills of the Rockies. In that 
region (the Cypress Hills) its highest 
elevation is 4243 ft. Wood Mountain, 
150 mi. farther east, reaches 3371 ft. 
The average elevation in the southwest 
part of the province is above 3000 ft., 



NATURAL AREAS AND REGIONS 



259 



and this region is a portion of the Mis- 
souri Coteau. 

At the southeastern corner of the 
province, and north along the eastern 
boundary to the 52nd parallel, the 
average elevation is 1700 ft., and ascends 
to about 2500 ft. in the Porcupine Hills 
between the 52nd and 53d parallels. 
From this point the descent is fairly 
rapid until a low point of 870 ft. is 
reached where the Saskatchewan River 
crosses the boundary. North of this 
point, the ascent is gradual to about 
1250 ft. at the northeast corner. Lake 
Athabasca, in the northwest corner, 
has a level of 700 ft., the lowest point 
in the province. Numerous hills of 
glacial origin occur in various parts of 
the province, and rise in some cases 
nearly a thousand feet above the sur- 
rounding territory. 

The chief rivers drain into Hudson 
Bay. The Qu'Appelle, running east- 
ward at about 50 30' north latitude, is 
a tributary of the Assiniboine River 
which joins the Red at Winnipeg. The 
Saskatchewan has two great branches 
which rise in the Rocky Mountains 
west of Alberta. The Churchill River, 
crossing the Province still farther north, 
drains a great part of the northern 
forest, and has its source in central 
Alberta. Among the lesser rivers, two 
of special interest are (1) Frenchman 
River, arising in the Cypress Hills, 
which empties into the Gulf of Mexico, 
via the Missouri; and (2) Clearwater, a 
strong tributary of the Athabasca, 
that drains to the Arctic Ocean. 

The direction of the isothermal lines 
shows markedly the influences of the 
Rocky Mts., and of Hudson Bay, for 
they have a well-defined dip from north- 
east to southwest. The range of tem- 
perature is great, occasionally reaching 
above 90 in summer, and below -50 in 
winter. 

The annual rainfall in the southwest 
is from 10 to 13 in. in the forested north- 
ern half, it is frequently more than 20 in. 

South of a line drawn across the 
Province from 52 30' on the western 
boundary to 51 45' on the eastern, the 



vegetation is typically that of the 
prairies, with few trees or none, and with 
grasses predominating. (In its western 
part, a continuation of the plains of 
Alberta, page 254; toward the east, 
passes into the true prairie. North of 
this line, a belt perhaps 50 to 75 mi. 
wide is called "the park country," and 
in this belt, dense thickets of aspen and 
willow are interspersed with typical 
grassy plains.) (The transition zone 
of poplar-savanna; see Alberta, page 
255, and Manitoba, page 263.) 

The forested area includes the rest 
of the Province (for description, see 
northern coniferous forest of Alberta, 
page 255, and Manitoba, page 264). 
North of a line drawn through the south- 
west extremities of Athabasca, Cree, 
Reindeer Lakes, the forest becomes 
thin, and at the extreme northeast 
corner of the Province, almost vanishes 
into the Barren Grounds (see Manitoba, 
page 264). 

Aside from considerable collecting of 
plants, insects, and birds in the prairie 
region, a very little collecting of birds 
in the north by numerous naturalists, 
and some work on life histories of 
insects by Prof. A. E. Cameron of the 
University of Saskatchewan, the prov- 
ince is virgin territory to the naturalist. 
As for bird life, the southwest corner 
has been described by F. M. Chapman 
in Camps and Cruises, and by A. C. Bent 
in the Auk for 1907 and 1908. P. A. 
Taverner of the Victoria Museum, 
Ottawa, Mr. H. H. Mitchell, Provincial 
Naturalist, Regina, Sask. and others, 
have collected birds in many parts of 
the prairies. Still earlier work in this 
field is well digested in Macoun's Cata- 
logue of Canadian Birds. Cap't, Angus 
Buchanan, whose book on his 1914 trip 
through northern Saskatchewan has 
been published by John Lane, collected 
birds as he travelled, and his collection 
has been described by J. H. Fleming 
in the Canadian Field-Naturalist. 

A rich hunting-ground for the natural- 
ist is offered in the prairie pools. At 
Saskatoon, within 5-minute walk of the 
biological laboratories of the University, 



260 



NATURALIST'S GUIDE TO THE AMERICAS 



the evanescent pools still standing in 
May from the melted snows of April 
swarm with all sorts of invertebrates. 
There are various tiny turbellarians, 
some of which are filled with Zoochlorel- 
lae. Especially abundant are the small 
Crustacea ns. including Branchipus, 
Lepidurus, Estheria, and countless 
daphnids. Some of the pools are tinged 
red by myriads of Canthocamptus sp. 
and by the huge Diaptomus shoshone. 
Forest reserves and game sanctuaries 
have been set aside to a fairly satisfying 
extent. These regions are almost un- 
touched by civilization, except in the 
form of local forest fires. They cannot 
be advantageously studied without a full 
camp equipment. They are, naturally, 
located on land ill-suited to agriculture 
in regions of hills or of marshes or both, 
and all of them have abundant supplies 
of water in the form of sloughs or lakes. 
(For information regarding animals of 
the northern part of the province see 
index account of Mackenzie Watershed 
page 116, and Seton's Life Histories of 
Northern Animals (Scribner's).) 

NATURAL AREAS 

The Forest Reserves 

The Dominion Government has set 
aside in Saskatchewan, Forest Reserves 
totalling in area some 9000 sq. mi. 
In the following descriptions, the areas 
are only approximately estimated in 
most cases. Two parallel lines, thus ||, 
indicate "camp outfit necessary." 

*Cypress Hills, No. 1. (A4, 1.) 54 
sq. mi. (Described with *Cypress Hills, 
No. 2. 3200-3700 ft.) 

Maple Creeki, on the C. P. R., with 
Post Office, stores, is 25 mi. (a). 

Cypress Hills, No. 2. (A4.) 18 sq. 
mi. The two Cypress Hills Reserves 
are rather- inaccessible, being in the arid 
sandhills of southwestern Sask. Lodge- 
pole pine, white spruce, birch, aspen, 
black poplars make up the forest. 
Small cacti occur. Antelope, cougar, 
elk, lynx, and timber wolves are found, 
though not abundantly. The first two 
named, are found nowhere else in the 



Province save in this corner. Hawks, 
coyote, beaver, ground-squirrel, badger, 
rabbit, prairie chicken, and water- 
fowl are common. 3200-3700 ft. 

Maple CreekJ, on the C. P. R., with 
Post Office, stores, is 15 mi. (a). 

*Moose Mountain. (B2.) 156 sq. mi. 
Poplars, willows, birch, box elders and 
ash are the principal trees. Hawks, 
weasel, coyote, beaver, owls, and water- 
fowl, are the chief animals. Large 
game are rare. 2000 ft. 

Carlylel, on the C. P. R., with Post 
Office, stores, is 12 mi. (a). 

*Beaver Hills. (B2.) ** 99 sq. mi. 
Poplars and willows are the chief trees. 
Large game are rare. "Moose Mountain 
and Beaver Hills are two small Reserves 
with much slough land. . . . Both 
have the usual history stripped of 
timber and overrun by fire, and now 
carrying a reproduction of poplar, 
mostly immature." (1915 Report of 
Canadian Commission of Conservation) 
1800 ft. 

Itunat, on the G. T. P., with Post 
Office and stores, is 6 miles (a). 

*Elbow. (B2.) 115 sq. mi. In two 
parts, one along the west shore of the 
South Saskatchewan River at the 
"Elbow;" the other among the head 
waters of the Qu'Appelle River, ten 
miles further east. 1800 ft. 

ElbowJ, on the C. P. R., with Post 
Office and stores, is two mi. (a). 

*Dundurn. (B2.) 63 sq. mi. Sandy 
soil, drifting in some localities. 1750 ft. 

DundurnJ, on the C. N. R., with Post 
Office and stores, is 5 mi. (a). 

*Duck Mountain, No. 2. (B2.) 81 
sq. mi. A rolling country on the eastern 
boundary line of the Province. Jack 
pine, tamarack, balsam fir, black spruce, 
white spruce, aspen, balsam poplar, 
and birch are common. Skunk, coyote, 
weasel, muskrat, beaver, ground-squir- 
rel, moose, deer, and bear, are charac- 
teristic of the fauna. 1400-2500 ft. 

Kamsacki, on the C. N. R., with Post 
Office and stores, is 8 mi. (a). 

Porcupine, No. 2. (A4.) 3220 sq. 
mi. This is another large area of waste 
land, very similar to that of the Duck 



NATURAL AREAS AND REGIONS 



261 



Mountain Reserve, and with a similar 
fauna and flora. Its eastern end has 
been set aside as a Game Preserve. 
1000-2500 ft. 

Hudson Bay Junction^, on the C. N. R., 
with Post Office and stores, is 3 mi. 
distant by wagon,' (h), or (w). 

*Pasquia Hills. (A4.) 2592 sq. mi. 
Similar in character to the last two 
described. All three contain elevations 
of land rising to approximately 2500 ft., 
which with Riding Mountain and Turtle 
Mountain in Manitoba, make up a range, 
of which Pembina Mountain at the 
boundary of Manitoba, Minnesota, and 
North Dakota, is the southern member. 
900-2500 ft. 

Hudson Bay Junction!, on the C. 
N. R., with Post Office and stores, 
is two mi. distant (h) or (w), over a 
muskeg trail . 

*Manitou Lake. (B2.) 180 sq. mi. 
On the western border of the Province, 
south and west of the alkali lake of the 
same name. It lies in the so-called 
"park country" in which prairie and 
aspen associations alternate. Coyote, 
ground-squirrel, and crane, abound. 
The Reserve contains many small 
lakes, many without outlet. 2000 ft. 

Yonker, on the G. T. P., with Post 
Office and stores, but no hotel, is one- 
half mi. (a) from the Reserve . 

*Keppel. (B2.)** Some 85 sq. mi. 
in three small patches of brush-covered 
country in the prairies south of Battle- 
ford. Hawks, ground-squirrel, and coy- 
ote are plentiful. 1700 ft. 

Perduet, on the C. P. R., with Post 
Office and stores, is seven miles (a) from 
the Reserve. 

*The Pines. (B2.) 165 sq. mi. A 
particularly interesting Reserve, being 
readily accessible and on the * very 
boundary between park country and 
dense northern forest. It is heavily 
forested on its northern parts with 
spruce-aspen associations, while in the 
southern portion aspen thickets alter- 
nate with typical prairie grass-lands. 
It touches both the north and south 
branches of the Saskatchewan River, 



and contains numerous sloughs and 
lakes. 1500 ft. 

Duck Laket, on the C. N. R, with 
Post Office and stores, is 6 mi. (a). 

*Nisbet. (B2.) 150 sq. mi. A re- 
serve of irregular outline, north of the 
North Saskatchewan River at Prince 
Albert, which is two miles distant by 
auto. There is a good deal of spruce 
bog, and the forest is extremely dense. 
The winter wrens and Canada jay 
("whiskey jack") are common, and the 
pine siskin, ruby-crowned kinglet and 
olive-sided flycatcher are not rare. 

Prince Albert, which may be reached 
by various branches of the C. N. R., 
is one of the chief commercial centers 
of the Province. 

*Steep Creek. (B2.) 7 sq. mi. A 
spruce bog 16 mi. distant (a) east from 
Prince Albert, and situated on the south 
shore of the North Saskatchewan.! 

*Fort a la Corne. (A4, 1.) 506 sq. mi. 
At the juncture of the two main branches 
of the Saskatchewan, and lying chiefly 
on the north shore. Not notably 
different in character from the Nisbet 
Reserve at Prince Albert. 1200 ft. 

(a), 30 mi. from Prince Albert, or 
20 mi. from Kinistinot, on the C. N. R., 
where there are stores and Post Office . 

*Big River. (A4.) 1250 sq. mi. A 
large tract of densely forested land, with 
much spruce-poplar vegetation, and a 
good deal of large game, as well as 
water-fowl in abundance. Some areas 
have been forested, some have been 
burned over, but much is still primitive. 
1600 ft. 

Big Rivert, on the C. N. R., with 
Post Office and stores, is one-half mi. 
by road from the Reserve . 

*Sturgeon River. (A4.) 708 sq. mi. 
A little-known tract, (a) by a 30-mi. 
ride either from Prince Albert, or from 
Canwoodi (C. N. R., Post Office, stores). 
This Reserve is heavily forested and its 
sand hills rise to a height of over 2300 ft. 
The Sturgeon River is a tributary of the 
North Saskatchewan. Waskesiu Lake, 
in the northeast corner of the Reserve 
is more than fifteen miles long, and is 



262 



NATURALIST'S GUIDE TO THE AMERICAS 



more than five miles broad at its widest 
place. 1600-2300 ft.. 

Bird Sanctuaries in Saskatchewan 

Cabri Lake. Covers 3^ sq. mi. of 
prairie, sagebrush, cactus, and alkali 
area with a ravine and rocky situations, 
lake and spring. Altitude 2300 ft. 
Located 5 mi. south of Mantario,t 
Saskatchewan on the Canadian National 
Railroad. Canadian National Parks 
J. B. H.-L. H. 

Crane Lake. Covers 23 sq. mi. of lake 
and islands with prairie, sagebrush and 
cactus, marshes. Located 5 mi. east of 
PiopotJ Station on the Canadian Pacific 
Railroad. Canadian National Parks, 
J. B. H.-L. H. 

Lenore Lake. Includes 37^ sq. mi. of 
lake, shore and islands, deciduous forest, 

Erairie and swamp. Altitude 1865 ft. 
ocated 18 mi. north of HumboldtJ on 
the Canadian National Railway. 
Canadian National Parks. J. B. H.- 
L.H. 

*Last Mountains Lake. Embraces 92 
sq. mi. of lake with marshes, shores, and 
some prairie. Located 10 mi. west of 
Govan| on the Canadian Pacific Rail- 
way. This is probably the first bird 
sanctuary in North America. It was 
reserved in 1887. Canadian National 
Parks. J. B. H.-L. H. 

Quill Lake. Covers 250 sq. mi. of 
shore, water and islands. Deciduous 
forest, prairie, marsh. Located at Quill 
LakeJ Station on the Canadian National 
8 mi. north of Wynyard| on the Cana- 
dian Pacific. Canadian National 
Parks, J. B. H.-L. H. 

Big Stick Lake. Includes 20 sq. mi. of 
prairie, sage brush, sand areas, marshes 
with antelope present. Altitude 2500 
ft. Located 20 mi. north of Maple 
Creek on the Canadian Pacific Rail- 
road. Canadian National Parks. J. B. 
H.-L. H. 

White Bear Lake. This is 3 sq. mi. OJL 
steppe, semi-desert, sage brush, and 
cactus, with some ravines. Valuable 
duck breeding ground. Altitude 2050 
ft., located 5 mi. south of Elrose. 
Canadian National Parks. J. B. H- 
L.H. 

Chapin Lake. Includes 73 sq. mi. of 
which 18 are water, prairie, sagebrush, 
and cactus, sand areas, shore, marsh, and 
lake. Located at Chapin, Canadian 
Pacific Railway. The lake is strongly 
alkaline. Canadian National Parks, J. 
B. H.-L. H. 

Redberry Lake. Embraces 30 sq. 
mi. chiefly water, but with deciduous 
forest, prairie, marsh, and shore. Alti- 
tude is 1700 it. Located at ^Redberry 
Station, Canadian National Railway. 



No hotels available.** Canadian Na- 
tional Parks, J. B. H.-L. H. 

Basin Lake. Includes 28 sq. mi. of 
water and island, deciduous forest, 
prairie, some marsh. Altitude 1865 ft. 
Is 24 mi. northwest of Humboldt J on the 
Canadian National Railway. Cana- 
dian National Parks, J. B. H.-L. H. 

Johnston Lake. Covers 125 sq. mi. 
with prairie, sagebrush, cactus, marsh 
and the lake. Altitude 2189 ft. Located 2 
mi. north of Expanse} on the Canadian 
Pacific Railway, 25 mi. south of Moose 
Jaw, Canadian Pacific Railway, can be 
reached from Moose Jaw by automobile. 
Canadian National Parks, J. B. H.- 
L.H. 

Game preserves set aside by the provincial 
Government 

The Provincial Government has set 
aside as Game Preserves the three 
following areas: 

The water and shores of the north and 
south branches of the Saskatchewan 
River from the Alberta boundary to the 
point where the two branches unite at 
Fort a la Corne. 

The water and shores of Wascana 
Lake, in the city of Regina, Sask. 

The Isle of Bays, a small rocky island 
in Lake Johnston, 25 mi. south of Moose 
Jaw, Sask. (See account of Lake Johnston 
Bird Sanctuary.) On this island, white 
pelicans, double-crested cormorants, and 
other birds breed. John Smith Dexter. 

Miscellaneous areas not elsewhere 
described 

The Churchill River Basin. Includes 
1000 mi. of river, wet spruce forest, and 
broad, marshy hay -meadows. Birds 
abundant, including grebes, ducks, 
cranes, rails, herons, pelicans, cormo- 
rants, gulls, terns, snipe, etc. Bear, 
moose, and smaller mammals abound, 
with muskrat and porcupine prominent 
among them. The breeding season for 
birds begins in May. Ducks hatch in 
June and July. In spite of many forest 
fires in various portions of it, the country 
could hardly be more primitive. Alti- 
tude, 1200-1500 ft. 

The region may be entered by the 
Canadian National Railway to Big 
River Sask., Prince Albert Sask., or 



NATURAL AREAS AND REGIONS 



263 



The Pas, Man. Camp outfit necessary, 
but may be obtained at any of the three 
towns named. Indian guides are ad- 
visable, Cree Indians being probably 
preferable to Chipewyan. (The Angli- 
can or Catholic Missionaries are excel- 
lent advisers with reference to the 
selection of a guide.) John Smith 
Dexter. 

14. MANITOBA 
BY A. B. CONNELL 

I. GENERAL 

The province of Manitoba is the 
easternmost of the three prairie prov- 
inces of Canada. It extends from the 
northern boundary of Minnesota and 
North Dakota north to -the 60th parallel 
of latitude a distance of 750 mi. The 
west boundary follows the 102nd merid- 
ian of longitude. The Ontario bound- 
ary on the east runs northwards near 
the 95th meridian for a distance of 275 
mi. and then swings northeast to the 
shore of Hudson Bay. The width of the 
province in the south is approximately 
300 mi. 

II. PHYSIOGRAPHY 

Manitoba is divided into four distinct 
physiographic regions. 

1. The Cretaceous plains, entering 
the Province from the west, terminate 
abruptly in an escarpment which ex- 
tends from the Pembina Mountain upon 
the International boundary northwest- 
erly to the Porcupine Hills. The surface 
of this region is rolling and the elevation 
averages 1400 ft. above sea level. The 
line of the escarpment is marked by a 
series of drift-covered elevations rising 
in places to 2500 ft . The most important 
of these are the Duck and Riding Moun- 
tains. The Cretaceous plains occupy 
the southwestern portion of the 
Province. 

2. A relatively narrow structural plain 
of undisturbed Paleozoic strata extends 
eastwards from the line of the escarp- 
ment to Lake Winnipeg. This plain 
has an average elevation of 800 ft. above 
sea level. It is upwards of 100 mi. in 



width east and west and extends from 
the international boundary north 
beyond the Saskatchewan river. The 
Winnipeg system of lakes, the residue 
of the glacial Lake Agassiz, occupies a 
portion of this area. Soils are deep and 
drainage in the northern part is poor. 

3. East and north of Lake Winnipeg 
the Laurentian Peneplain stretches to 
within 100 mi. of Hudson Bay. The 
surface is rolling and the soils thin. 
The rocks are of a disorganized crystal- 
line character. The elevation is gener- 
ally less than 1000 ft. especially in the 
valleys of the Nelson and Churchill 
rivers. The region is one of low relief, 
disorganized drainage and innumerable 
lakes. The general slope of the plains 
from the Rocky Mountains to Hudson 
Bay seems to be continuous across this 
Laurentian section of Northern Mani- 
toba. 

4. A level plain underlain by lime- 
stone borders the shore of Hudson Bay 
in the vicinity of York Factory. 

III. BIOTA 

The vegetation of the Province may 
be separated into four climatic for- 
mations. 

1. The Prairies 

The extreme southwestern portion of 
the Province is characterized by a grass- 
land formation composed of tall, deep- 
rooted mesophytic grasses. Typical 
flood plain forests of ash, Manitoba 
maple, poplar and willow occur along 
the stream courses. Alkali sloughs are 
frequent. 

Antelope (Antilocapra americana) and 
bison (Bison bison), once plentiful, 
are now extinct. The region is well 
developed agriculturally. 

2. The transition zone of grassland and 
deciduous forest (poplar-savanna) 

This condition covers an area varying 
in width from 50 to over 100 mi. It 
extends eastwards from the prairie 
country to the vicinity of South Junction 
on the C. N. R. near the south boundary 



264 



NATURALIST'S GUIDE TO THE AMERICAS 



of the province. Thence the boundary 
with the northern coniferous forest 
follows roughly a line north through 
Molson on the C. P. R. to Ft. Alexander 
at the mouth of the Winnipeg river. 
From this point the line crosses Lake 
Winnipeg to Washow Bay on the west 
shore and continues north and west 
around the north of Lake St. Martin to 
the foot of Lake Winnipegosis. Cross- 
ing Winnipegosis near Red Deer Point 
the base of the Porcupine highland is 
reached near Norva on the C. N. R. 
The trees are mainly aspen and balsam 
poplar. Scrub white oak is sometimes 
found. This area together with the 
prairies is the agricultural section of the 
Province and contains the bulk of the 
population. 

8. The Northern Coniferous Forest 

North of the transitional area the 
northern coniferous forest formation 
appears and occupies the northern part 
of the province practically to Hudson 
Bay. The climax trees are the white 
spruce (Picea canadensis), black spruce 
(Picia mariana), balsam (Abies bal- 
samia), paper birch (Betula papyrifera), 
aspen (Populus tremuloides), and balsam 
poplar (Populus balsamifera) . Along 
the southern border flood plains are 
characterized by the green ash (Fraxinus 
lanceolata), Manitoba maple, American 
elm (Ulmus americana), and willows. 
Jack pine (Pinus divaricata), is found 
on sand plains and areas of poor soils. 
Larch (Larix laricina), and black spruce 
occur in the swamps. Outlying areas 
of this forest occur along the Manitoba 
escarpment upon the Riding, Duck, and 
Porcupine Mountains. These areas 
have been incorporated into forest 
reserves and are easily accessible. 

The characteristic mammals of the 
northern forest are the moose (Alces 
americana), black and cinnamon bear 
(Ursus americanus) , timber wolf (Cam's 
occidentalis), red fox (Vulpes fulva), 
beaver (Castor canadensis), muskrat 
(Ondatra zibethica), mink (Mustela vison 
group), lynx (Lynx canadensis), otter 
(Lutra canadensis), -fisher (M dries pen- 



nanti), marten (Maries americana), 
snowshoe hare (Lepus americanus), red 
squirrel (Sciurus hudsonicus), skunk 
(Mephitis hudsonica), and weasel (Mus- 
tela cicognanii). For further informa- 
tion see Seton's Life Histories of North- 
ern Animals (Scribner's). Waterfowl 
are still plentiful in the valley of the 
lower Saskatchewan river and in the 
level plain about the Winnipeg system 
of lakes. Hawks, owls, and partridge 
are numerous. Deer are not numerous 
except along the south border of the 
forest country. Whitefish and lake 
trout occur in most of the larger lakes. 
Sturgeon are fairly plentiful. Pike, 
pickerel, and suckers abound. 

4. Tundras 

The extreme northern portion of the 
province extends beyond the coniferous 
forest into the Arctic tundra. The 
barren ground caribou (Rangifer) are 
plentiful, ranging south to Reindeer, 
South Indian and Split lakes. 

IV. NATURAL AREAS 

* Riding Mountain Forest Reserve. 
(B2.) Area 1000 sq. mi. A rolling 
drift-covered plateau. The sharply dis- 
sected eastern slopes rise steeply from 
the Agassiz plain at 900 ft. to elevations 
of 2500 ft. The western slopes fall 
gently to the level of the Cretaceous 
plain at 1400 ft. The elevation is 
covered by northern coniferous forest 
and is surrounded at the base by poplar 
savanna. In addition to the climax 
trees mountain maple (Acer spicatum), 
hazel (Corylus americana), alder, pin 
cherry (Prunus pennsylvanica) and 
mountain ash ({Sorbus sp.) are found 
as an understory usually in the poplar 
and spruce association. Glacial pot- 
holes and poorly drained depressions 
are occupied by sphagnum swamps. 
Meadows and sloughs are frequent. 
Elk are present in this area in addition 
to moose, deer, and bear. Natural 
conditions have been interfered with to 
some extent by fire and lumbering. 

The reserve is administered by the 
Dominion Forestry Branch with office 



NATURAL AREAS AND REGIONS 



265 



at Dauphin. There have been set aside 
1161 sq. mi. as a game preserve by the 
Manitoba provincial government. 

Dauphin!. Canadian National Rail- 
way from Winnipeg. Outskirts of 
reserve can be reached by motor car, 
interior by wagon. Flies are bad in 
June and July normally. 

*Duck Mountain Forest Reserve. (B2.) 
Area 1500 sq. mi. This elevation is 
similar to the Riding Mountain from 
which it is separated by a broad valley 
upon the south. Elevations reach ap- 
proximately 2500 ft. Eastern slopes 
are steep and sharply dissected while 
the western slope is long and gentle. 
The plateau is covered by northern 
coniferous forest and is surrounded by 
poplar savanna. Elk, moose, and deer 
are present. Madge lake in the west 
of the reserve is a popular summer 
resort. 432 sq. mi. have been estab- 
lished by the Provincial Government 
as a game preserve. Wagon trails have 
been opened through the reserve and the 
outskirts can be reached by motor car. 
Administration is by the Dominion 
Forestry Branch from the Dauphin! 
office. C. N. R. from Winnipeg. 

*Porcupine Forest Reserve. (B2.) 
Area 1000 sq. mi. The Porcupine hills 
extend across the western boundary of 
Manitoba from Saskatchewan just south 
of the 53rd parallel of latitude. They 
are separated from the Duck Mountain 
on the south by a broad valley 20 mi. 
in width through which the Preeceville 
branch of the C. N. R. runs. The 
Prince Albert branch of the C. N. R. 
skirts their eastern base from Swan 
river to Westgate. 

The highland is similar to the Duck 
and Riding Mountains but is higher and 
rougher. The eastern slopes rise steeply 
some 2000 ft. from the level of the 
Agassiz plain, to a total elevation of 
nearly 3000 ft. Westward in Saskatche- 
wan the fall is gentle. The plateau 
is underlain by soft shales and is heavily 
mantled with drift. A series of beach 
lines can be traced around the eastern 
base. The area lies upon the south- 
western border of the northern conif- 



erous forest. The forest extends with- 
out a break from the north and east 
over these hills but ends abruptly upon 
the south slopes where it gives way to 
poplar savanna. The deep well drained 
soils of the upland are occupied by a 
typical climax association of spruce, 
balsam fir, poplar and white birch. 
Muskegs are not extensive. Lumbering 
and fires have interfered to some extent 
with natural conditions. 

Bison which formerly ranged into 
these hills are now extinct. Woodland 
caribou and elk have been noted. 
Moose and deer are plentiful. 

Swan RiverJ is the nearest outfitting 
center. C. N. R. from Winnipeg. 
Wagon trails extend to the boundary 
of the reserve from Bowsman and 
Birch river. Interior accessible (h) 
only. No hotel accommodation at flag 
stops upon the railway between Bows- 
man and Hudson Bay Junction. Ad- 
ministration by Dominion Forestry 
Branch. 

* Spruce Woods Forest Reserve. (C3.) 
108 sq. mi., southwestern Manitoba. 
An area of sand dunes and light soils 
surrounded by developed agricultural 
lands. Scattered natural spruce. 
Some artificial plantations. Game 
Preserve. 

Reached from Carberry, C. P. R. (a). 
The Canadian National railway crosses 
the tract. Administered by Dominion 
Forestry Branch, Customs Building, 
Winnipeg. 

* Turtle Mountain Forest Reserve. 
(B3.) Area 100 sq. mi. Located on the 
International Boundary in southwestern 
Manitoba. A low rolling drift-covered 
upland surrounded by agricultural 
prairie land. Covered with small poplar 
with many areas of typical mesophytic 
prairie. Sloughs and ponds are numer- 
ous. Game Preserve. Administered by 
Federal Forestry Branch, Winnipeg. 
Reached from Waukopa or Adepha, 
C. N. R. Boisevain or Deloraine 
nearest outfitting center. Accessible 
by wagon. 

*Cedar Lake and Winnipegosis Game 
Preserves. (A2.) Area 3600 sq. mi. 



266 



NATURALIST'S GUIDE TO THE AMERICAS 



These two adjacent areas are in north- 
ern Manitoba extending from the head 
of Lake Winnipegosis north to the 
Hudson Bay railway. The tract lies 
upon the level plain of Paleozoic lime- 
stones which stretches from the Mani- 
toba escarpment to Lake Winnipeg. 
The soils are stratified lake clays mainly 
with scattered areas of drift deposits. 
The elevation averages 800 ft. The 
Saskatchewan river flows through Cedar 
lake in the southern part of the preserve. 

The tract is typical of the northern 
coniferous forest formation as modified 
by a low terrain and lack of drainage. 
Open muskegs and black spruce and 
tamarack swamps occupy the bulk of 
the area. Upon ridges and well drained 
areas the climax association of white 
spruce, balsam fir, birch and poplar 
appears but is greatly restricted in 
extent and has often suffered from fire. 
The lakes are shallow and surrounded 
by broad zones of carex and willow. 
They are filling rapidly. An opportu- 
nity is offered upon this area for study- 
ing the successional relationships of 
drained and undrained swamps and 
flood plains. The area has been slightly 
modified by fire but not by lumbering. 
Occasional woodland caribou are found 
here. Moose are fairly plentiful. Deer 
few. Wolves, foxes, mink, muskrat 
and beaver are numerous. Ducks, geese 
and other waterfowl are exceptionally 
plentiful especially during the fall. 
White fish, lake trout, sturgeon, pike 
and pickerel are caught in the lakes. 

The Pas on the Canadian National 
railway 400 mi. north of Winnipeg is 
the most convenient outfitting center. 
Cedar or Moose lake can be reached 
down the Saskatchewan river by steam- 
boat, (c). They may also be reached 
from Winnipeg by steamer to Grand 
Rapids over Lake Winnipeg . Take 
supplies from Winnipeg or The Pas for 
duration of trip. Maps can be obtained 
from the Game Branch at Winnipeg or 
Natural Resources Intelligence Branch 
at Ottawa. 

Birch Island Game Preserve. (A3.) 
Area 57 sq. mi. An island in Lake 



Winnipegosis underlain by limestone. 
Northern coniferous forest. Outfit at 
Winnipegosis, C. N. R. (c). 

Red Deer Point Game Preserve. (A3.) 
Area 39 sq. mi. In Lake Winnipegosis 
15 mi. north of Winnipegosis, C. N. R. 
(c). Northern coniferous forest. 

Peonan Point Game Preserve. (A3.) 
Area 72 sq. mi. Northern end of Lake 
Manitoba. Northern coniferous forest 
Outfit at Winnipeg. C. N. Ry. Gypsum- 
ville branch, to Fairford. (c). 

Lake St. Martin Game Preserve. (A3.) 
Area 240 sq. mi. Northern coniferous 
forest. Much muskeg. Outfit at Winni- 
peg. C. N. Ry. to Fairford. This area 
has also been set aside as a proposed 
forest reserve. 

Grindstone Point Game Preserve. (A3.) 
Area 42 sq. mi. Southern part of Lake 
Winnipeg. Drift underlain by un- 
disturbed limestones. Northern coni- 
ferous forest. Outfit at Winnipeg. 
Steamer from Selkirk. (c). 

Dog Head Point Game Preserve. (A3.) 
Area 225 sq. mi. Narrows of Lake 
Winnipeg. Level limestone strata over- 
lain by drift and lake clays. Northern 
coniferous forest. Much muskeg. Out- 
fit at Winnipeg. Steamer from Sel- 
kirk.! (c). This is also a proposed 
forest reserve. 

Reindeer Island Game Preserve. (A3) 
Area 65 sq. mi. Island in Lake Winni- 
peg. Northern coniferous forest. Out- 
fit at Winnipeg. Steamer from Selkirk . 
(c). 

Whitemouth Proposed Forest Reserve. 
(A2.) Area 200 sq. mi. Southeastern 
Manitoba. Northern coniferous forest. 
Large proportion is muskeg. Outfit in 
Winnipeg. Go to Bedford or Sandilands 
on C. N. Ry. Wagon (c). 

Manigotagan Proposed Forest Reserve. 
(A2.) Area 2000 sq. mi. This area lies 
east of Lake Winnipeg between the 
Wanipigou River on the north and the 
English River on the south. It extends 
eastwards to the Ontario boundary and 
is within the Laurentian area of eastern 
Manitoba. The country is rolling and 
rocky with thin soils. Lakes and 
streams are numerous. The forest is of 
the northern coniferous type with con- 
siderable muskeg and burn. 

C. P. Ry. from Winnipeg to Lac du 
Bonnet; also by steamboat from Selkirk 
to Manigotagon. Outfit at Winnipeg. 
Camp outfit and canoes required. Small 
hotel at Lac du Bonnet. 

Available areas 

The settled area of Manitoba is re- 
stricted largely to the south. Northern 
Manitoba, comprising the bulk of the 
province, is still very largely in a virgin 




:,* 















\ / / __S.W. Boundary of 
coniferous forest 



Boundary between decld 
uous forest &' prairie 



...... ....*.. Boundary of groves 

mostly oaks & poplars 



State Parks, State and 
National Forests. 



Areas which should 
be preserved 




FIG. 9. MAP OF MINNESOTA 

Showing original distribution of forest and grassland; location of National and 
state forests and state parks, and game and wild life refuges. (The latter from State 
Game and Fish Commission.) 



NATURAL AREAS AND REGIONS 



267 



condition. It lies mainly within the 
boundaries of the Laurentian plateau 
and is covered with the northern coni- 
ferous forest. Travel is by canoe in 
summer and dog team in winter. The 
Pas, a town of 2000 people, is the usual 
outfitting center for travel in the north. 
Hotel accommodations are good and 
camp equipment, canoes and supplies can 
be obtained there. C. N. R. from Win- 
nipeg. The Hudson Bay Railway has 
been completed from The Pas to within 
90 mi. of Port Nelson on Hudson Bay. 
Regular boat service is available from 
The Pas up the Saskatchewan River to 
Cumberland House and Sturgeon Lake. 
Thence the Churchill River can be 
reached easily (c) . Northeastern Mani- 
toba is generally reached by steamer 
from Winnipeg to Norway House at the 
north of Lake Winnipeg. From here 
the old Hudson Bay canoe route runs 
to York Factory on Hudson Bay by 
way of the Hayes River. 

16. MINNESOTA 

BY CARL OTTO ROSENDAHL 

I. GENERAL FEATURES 

1. Physiography 

The whole state of Minnesota with the 
exception of the extreme southeastern 
corner has been heavily glaciated and 
a typical glacial topography is therefore 
characteristic of most of the state. 
The glacial soil or drift varies from a 
few feet to 300 ft. in thickness and occurs 
mainly as unmodified till plains or 
ground moraines, as gravelly and sandy 
outwash plains, and as terminal mo- 
raines. The generally level surface of 
the main body of the state is due to the 
predominance of the two first mentioned 
types of drift. The four corners of the 
state, drained each in its own direction 
from the central portion, exhibit con- 
siderable variations from the typical 
sheet of till which covers the rest. 

The southeast corner is characterized 
by a broken and hilly surface where high 
uplands alternate with numerous deeply 
eroded valleys running in various direc- 
tions. These valleys have been cut in 
the generally level strata to a depth of 
300 to 500 ft. through the bygone ages 
and have undergone very little sub- 
sequent disturbance by the glacial 



period. Both the glaciated and un- 
glaciated portions of this part of the 
state are overlaid with a sheet of loess, 
varying in thickness from a few inches 
to 30 ft . or more. In general this deposit 
shows the greatest depth on the uplands 
but in some valleys, where subsequent 
erosion has not been too extensive, a 
depth of twenty feet is not uncommon. 
From some areas the loess has been 
completely washed away. 

The northeast corner of the state is 
rough and rugged and may be said to be 
semi-mountainous in places. Eleva- 
tions of 1200 to 1500 ft. above Lake 
Superior are attained in the Sawteeth, 
Mesabi, and Giant's Ranges. This 
part of the state was heavily glaciated 
and much of the area is covered with 
an uneven deposit of drift. In the 
region north and east of Vermillion 
Lake the rocks for the most part are 
bare or only thinly mantled with soil 
formed in situ. 

In the northwest part of Minnesota, 
embracing part of the Red River Valley 
of the North, the surface is very flat and 
even. Over this part of the state once 
stood glacial Lake Agassiz and the level 
nature of the land is due to lacustrine 
deposits laid down evenly and to a 
considerable depth over the till sheet. 
The southwest corner has a gently 
rolling to flat surface but the plain is 
interrupted by a height of land known as 
the Coteau des Prairies, running from 
northwest to southeast and rising 400 
to 500 ft. above the general level. Near 
the extreme corner occur large outcrops 
of quartzite rocks. 

Extensive moraines, marking either 
the limits of advance of the various ice 
sheets or places where they rested in 
their retreats, form belts of low hills, 
isolated knobs, or ranges which rise 
above the general plain. These mo- 
raines are found in many parts of the 
state but the most extensive are those 
which occur in the west-central portion 
through Kandiyohi, Pope, Douglas, 
Otter Tail and Becker counties, the 
region of the upper Mississippi River 
and the region surrounding Minneapolis 



268 



NATURALIST'S GUIDE TO THE AMERICAS 



and St. Paul. They give to these 
portions of the state a rolling or even 
hilly aspect. 

A very striking feature of the Minne- 
sota landscape is the numerous glacial 
lakes estimated to number about 10,000 
and ranging in size from a few acres in 
area to large bodies of water 15 to 35 
mi. in expanse. Together with the 
streams and rivers these lakes give 
Minnesota a greater fresh water area 
than any other state in the Union, 
amounting to approximately 5637 sq. 
mi., without including Lake Superior. 
These lakes can be divided into three 
classes as follows, depending upon the 
nature of the topography of the region 
in which they are situated: 

1. Lakes of morainic till areas. 

2. Lakes of modified drift areas. 

3. Lakes of bare rock areas. 

The first class is the most numerous 
embracing about three-fourths of the 
total number. The most remarkable 
of these areas is that of the Leaf Hills 
of Becker and Otter Tail counties 
where nearly half of the surface is cov- 
ered by water. This area extends in a 
southerly direction to Douglas, Carver, 
Hennepin and Le Sueur counties and 
northward to Clearwater, Beltrami, and 
Itasca counties. The second class em- 
braces the largest lakes of the state 
including Red, Mille Lacs, Leech, 
Winnibigoshish, and Cass Lakes. They 
are for the most part shallow and are 
situated on extensive outwash plains or 
otherwise modified drift. The third 
class embraces the lakes of rocky basins 
and are mostly confined to the north- 
east corner of the state which was 
subjected to the severest glaciation. 
These lakes are very numerous. They 
are usually long and narrow with tor- 
tuous and bold shores. Many are of 
considerable depth and they are fre- 
quently connected by swift flowing 
streams. 

Drainage systems and elevations 

It is a remarkable fact that the state 
of Minnesota, although possessing no 
great elevation above sea-level, gives 



rise to three of the great drainage sys- 
tems of the North American continent. 
Within its borders arise the Mississippi 
River system, draining about 45,000 sq. 
mi. of the area of the state; the St. 
Lawrence system, arising in the north- 
east and draining approximately 8500 
sq. mi.; the Red River of the North 
system, arising in the northwest and 
draining 15,000 sq. mi. The remaining 
area of the state is drained by four other 
rivers which reach the three main 
systems beyond the borders of the state. 
Approximately 4730 sq. mi. of the south- 
western and south-central parts are 
drained by the Rock, the Des Moines, 
and Cedar Rivers into the Mississippi; 
and 10,300 sq. mi. of the northeastern 
part by the Rainy River into the Hudson 
Bay outlet. 

Relative elevations of different parts of 
the state 

The lowest part of the state is the 
land bordering on Lake Superior whose 
elevation is 602 ft. Where the Missis- 
sippi River leaves the state it has an 
elevation of 620 ft. and the lowlands 
bordering the main stream and its 
tributaries in this region rise only a few 
feet above that level. The flat land 
adjoining the Red River of the North 
where it enters Manitoba is approxi- 
mately 770 ft. The highest elevation in 
the state is attained in the Mesabi Range 
north of Lake Superior which rises 2200 
ft. above sea level. It is thus seen that 
the lowest and the highest elevations 
are in close proximity to each other. 

2. Geographic and local plant and animal 
communities 

Minnesota occupies a strategic posi- 
tion in a biological sense since diagonally 
across it from northwest to southeast 
runs the dividing line between the 
coniferous forest type (Canadian Zone 
of the Boreal Region) on the one hand 
and the grassland and deciduous forest 
(Transition Zone of the Austral Region), 
on the other. The northeastern part of 
the state is occupied by the Coniferous 
Forest Formation which originally ex- 



NATURAL AREAS AND REGIONS 



tended in a somewhat irregular line from 
about longitude 96 W., near the north- 
west corner, to about latitude 45 45' N. 
on the eastern border. All of the south- 
western part, and including the Red 
River valley of the North, belongs to the 
Grassland Formation, all of which was 
originally treeless except for fringes of 
forest along certain lake shores and 
stream borders. Between these two 
great formations stretched a belt of 
varying width of deciduous forest which 
might properly be designated the Decid- 
uous Forest Formation since it is fairly 
sharply marked out from the other two. 
Originally the state had about 31,800 
sq. mi. of prairie and 52,200 sq. mi. of 
forest. 

The nature and extent of the five main 
vegetation areas of Minnesota are deter- 
mined mainly by climatic factors. It 
is probable, however, that the original 
border line between the forest and the 
grassland was to some extent determined 
by prairie fires periodically started by 
the Sioux Indians, partly to increase the 
extent of their hunting grounds, and 
partly to keep back their woods enemies 
the Ojibwas or Chippewa Indians. 

The five plant formations, deciduous 
forest, coniferous forest, oak grove 
savanna, poplar savanna and grassland 
or steppe, although in the main well 
delimited naturally showed considerably 
overlapping along their borders. Thus 
in the coniferous forest area numerous 
outposts of hardwood timber, mostly 
hard maple, oak and elm occurred and 
in the southeast irregular tongues of the 
prairie extend into the deciduous forest 
formation. Similarly in the southwest 
and the west hardwood timber formed 
scattered groves oat on the prairie, and 
followed up along some of the main river 
valleys like the Minnesota, the Cedar, 
the Des Moines and the Rock. In each 
of the five areas the climax stages, of 
development had probably been reached 
and each one was characterized by a 
goodly host of important species. 

1. Coniferous forest. Thus in the 
coniferous forest area the principal 
species of trees were white pine (Pinus 



strobus}, Norway pine (Pinus resinosa}, 
Jack pine (Pinus banksiana}, white 
spruce (Picea canadensis], black spruce 
(Picea mariana), tamarack (Larix lari- 
cina}, balsam fir (Abies balsamea), 
white cedar (Thyja occidentalis), to- 
gether with some intermixture of paper 
birch (Betula papyrifera}, aspen (Populus 
tremuloides) , red oak (Quercus rubra), 
bur oak (Quercus macrocarpa}, black 
ash (Fraxinus nigra}, green ash (Fraxi- 
nus lanceolata), yellow birch (Betula 
lutea) and mountain ash (Pyrus ameri- 
cana). The characteristic shrubs are: 
yew (Taxus canadensis}, juniper (Juni- 
perus communis), willow (Salix dis- 
color, S. lucida, S. balsamifera, S. 
Candida}, beaked hazel (Corylus ro- 
strata), dwarf birch (Betula pumila var. 
glandulifera') , hoary alder (Alnus incana], 
meadow sweet (Spiraea salicifolia), 
red raspberry (Rubus idaeus aculeatis- 
simus), pin cherry (Prunus pennsylva- 
nica), choke cherry (Prunus virginiana}, 
wild rose (Rosa acicularis), northern 
gooseberry (Ribes oxyacanthoides}, wild 
black currant (Ribes floridum}, leather- 
wood (Dirca palustris), mountain maple 
(Acer spicatum}, red osier dogwood 
(Cornus stolonifera}, Labrador tea 
(Ledum groenlandicum), leather leaf 
(Chamaedaphne calyculata) , bearberry 
(Arctostaphylos Uva-ursi), trailing arbu- 
tus (Epigaearepens), wintergreen (Gaul- 
theria procumbens), bog rosemary 
(Andromeda polifolia), blueberry (Vac- 
cinium pennsylvanicum, V. canadense}, 
cranberry (Vaccinium Oxy coccus, V. 
macrocarpon] , pipsissewa (Chimapbila 
umbellata), snowberry (Symphoricarpos 
racemosus), bush honeysuckle (Diervilla 
Lonicera}, mountain fly honeysuckle 
(Lonicera caerulea}, swamp fly honey- 
suckle (Lonicera oblongifolia} , red 
berried elder (Sambucus racemosa}, 
downy arrow- wood (Viburnum pubes- 
cens}, highbush cranberry (Viburnum 
americanum} . 

The predominant herbaceous plants of 
the coniferous forest of the state aside 
from numerous species of grasses, sedges 
and rushes, are bracken fern (Pteris 
aquilina), shield fern (Aspidium spin- 



270 



NATURALIST'S GUIDE TO THE AMERICAS 



ulosum, A. cristatum), beech fern 
(Phegopteris Dryopteris), club moss 
(Lycopodium obscurum, L. clavatum, L. 
annotinum, L. complanatum} , horsetail 
(Equisetum pratense, E. sylvaticum), 
Clintonia (Clintonia borealis), false 
lily-of-the-valley (Maianthemum cana- 
dense), lady's slipper (Cypripedium 
hirsutum, C. parviflorum C. acaule), rein 
orchis (Habenaria hyperborea, H. obtu- 
sata, H. dilatata, H. Hookeri, H. orbicu- 
lata), coral root (Corallorrhiza trifida, 
C. maculata), ladies' tresses (Spiranthes 
gracilis S. cernua), Hepatica (Hepatica 
triloba), northern strawberry (Frag aria 
americana}, running swamp blackberry 
(Rubue triflorus}, sundew (Drosera ro- 
tundifolia), pitcher plant (Sarracenia 
purpurea), dwarf cornel (Cornus cana- 
densis), wild sarsaparilla (Aralia nudi- 
caulis), shin leaf (Pyrola secunda, P. 
minor, P. chlorantha, P. asarifolia, P. 
americana}, lungwort (Mertensia pani- 
culata), twin flower (Linnaea borealis), 
bedstraw (Galium trifidum, G. boreale, 
G. triflorum}, Aster (Aster macrophyllus, 
A. puniceus, A. junceus, etc.), golden- 
rod (Solidago juncea, S. bicolor, S. 
nemoralis etc.) and sweet coltsfoot 
(Petasites palmatus, P. sagittatus). 

Within this formation soil factors 
determined largely the plant communi- 
ties. On the clayey moraines, which 
constitute the best soil of the region, 
were developed either pure stands of 
white pine or mixed communities of 
white pine with a few species of decidu- 
ous trees like hard maple, bur oak, red 
oak and occasionally basswood. Where 
the soil is gravelly or sandy occurred 
forests of Norway pine, while over all 
the sandy barrens Jack pine held un- 
disputed sway. All the low areas which 
had reached the tree stage of their 
succession, were either muskegs with 
Sphagnum and heath undergrowth or 
characteristic tamarack and spruce 
swamps. 

In a similar way the distribution of 
the shrubby and herbaceous under- 
growth was largely determined by soil 
and moisture conditions except in the 
case of a few species like the dwarf 



cornel, twin flower, wild sarsaparilla, 
the northern strawberry and the running 
swamp blackberry, all of which seem to 
grow equally well in the spruce-tamarack 
swamps, and in the pine forests of the 
moraines and gravelly outwash plains. 

A study of the fauna of the different 
parts of Minnesota reveals a rather 
striking correlation in regard to the 
distribution of its various elements and 
the principal vegetation areas. Aside 
from a number of adaptable and wide 
ranging species, belonging to several of 
the major classes of the animal kingdom, 
there are numerous forms which are 
mainly and in some cases wholly con- 
fined to the principal plant formations. 

Within the coniferous forest area 
there occurred originally the following 
species of mammals : Canada lynx (Lynx 
canadensis), wolverine (Gulo luscus}, 
marten (Martes americana}, fisher 
(Martes pennanti}, least weasel (Mustela 
rixosa}, short-tailed weasel (Mustela 
cicognanii}, skunk (Mephitis mephitis}, 
woodland caribou (Rangifer caribou) 
moose (A Ices americana), northern, 
Virginia deer (Odocoileus virginianus 
borealis), long-tailed chipmunk 
(Eutamias minimus neglectus}, Canada 
woodchuck (Marmota monax cana- 
densis), deer-mouse (Peromyscus 
maniculatus gracilis}, Canada porcupine 
(Erithizon dorsatum), snowshoe hare 
(Lepus americanus phaeonotus}. 

The following northern birds occurred 
as permanent residents of the coniferous 
formation although straying further 
south as winter visitants: Canada 
spruce partridge, Richardson's owl, 
Arctic three-toed woodpecker, American 
three-toed woodpecker, Canada jay 
northern raven, purple finch, red 
crossbill, pine siskin, and Hudsonian 
chickadee. 

Most of the following species are 
mainly summer residents of the northern 
wooded area of the state : Loon or great 
northern diver, herring gull, red- 
breasted merganser, golden-eye, north- 
ern hairy woodpecker, Nelson's downy 
woodpecker, northern pileated wood- 
pecker, white-winged crossbill, white- 



NATURAL AREAS AND REGIONS 



271 



throated sparrow, slate colored junco, 
Bohemian waxwing, Philadelphia vireo, 
blue-headed vireo, northern parula war- 
bler, Tennessee warbler, pine warbler, 
myrtle warbler, mourning warbler, 
magnolia warbler, black-throated blue 
warbler, Blackburnian warbler, palm 
warbler, Grinnell's water-thrush, Con- 
necticut warbler, Wilson's warbler, 
Canada warbler, Louisiana water- 
thrush, olive-backed thrush, hermit 
thrush, winter wren, brown creeper, 
red-breasted nuthatch, Hudsonian 
chickadee, and golden-crowned kinglet. 

A considerable number of animal 
species were not so strictly confined to 
the Coniferous area but ranged farther 
southward and westward into the ad- 
joining deciduous forest formation. Of 
these the principal ones were: elk 
(Cervus canadensis], northern flying- 
squirrel (Glaucomys sabrinus), Min- 
nesota red squirrel (Sciurus hudsonicus 
minnesota) , red-backed vole (Evotomys 
gapperi), bog-lemming (Synaptomys co- 
open'), black bear (Ursus americanus) , 
eastern cougar (Felis couguar), red fox 
(Vulpes fulva), timber wolf (Cam's 
nubilus], short-tailed weasel (Mustela 
cicognanii), marsh shrew (Neosorex 
palustris), Canada beaver (Castor cana- 
densis}, and the muskrat (Ondatra 
zibethica). 

Among the more notable fishes of this 
region might be mentioned the fol- 
lowing: Lake sturgeon (Acipenser rubi- 
cundus), common whitefish (Coregonus 
clupeiformis), lake herring (Argyroso- 
mus artedi), tullibee (Argyrasomus tulbi- 
bee), Great Lake trout (Cristimover 
namaycush), brook trout (Salvelinus 
fontinalis), muskallunge (Lucius 
masquinonqy) . 

2. Deciduous forest. The deciduous 
forest formation, interposed between 
the coniferous forest and the western 
grassland formed an almost continuous 
belt from the southeastern to north- 
western corner of the state except for 
an irregular tongue of prairie extend- 
ing from middle northern Iowa north- 
eastward almost to the Mississippi river 
through Freeborn, Mower, Steele, Dodge, 



Rice, Dakota and part of Goodhue coun- 
ties. The portion of this formation 
stretching northward from the big bend 
of the Minnesota River as far as Otter 
Tail County was named the "Big 
Woods" by the early explorers and was 
a hardwood forest of imposing propor- 
tions. Along the 45 parallel of latitude 
it was nearly 100 mi. in width but from 
the 46 parallel northwestward it nar- 
rowed down to an average width of 
about 25 mi. with frequent deep indenta- 
tions of the prairie formation. 

The dominant trees of this forest 
were hard maple (Acer saccharum), 
slippery elm (Ulmus fulva}, white elm 
(Ulmus, americana), basswood (Tilia 
americana), bur oak (Quercus macro- 
car pa}, red oak (Quercus rubra) and 
ironwood (Ostrya virginiana). Other 
species occurring less typically were 
coarse toothed aspen (Populus grandi- 
dentata), black cherry (Prunus serotina'), 
green ash, black ash, hackberry (Celtis 
occidentalis), pignut hickory (C'arya 
cordiformis) and butternut (Juglans 
cinered} . 

The characteristic shrubs of this 
formation were: prickly gooseberry 
(Ribes Cynosbati}, Missouri gooseberry 
(Ribes gracile}, thorn apple (Crataegus 
punctata}, choke cherry, juneberry 
(Amelanchier canadensis), prickly ash 
(Xanthoxylum americanum}, stag-horn 
sumac (Rhus typhina}, alternate-leaved 
dogwood (Cornus alternifolia) , round- 
leaved dogwood (Cornus circinata}, 
black haw (Viburnum lentaga} and 
honeysuckle (Lonicera dioica). A few 
climbers occurred in this forest such as 
bitter sweet (Celastrus scandens), wild 
grapevine (Vitis vulpina), Virginia 
creeper (Psedera quinquefolia) and 
moonseed (Menispetrmum canadense). 

In the southeastern corner of the 
state along the Mississippi River and 
the lower portions of its tributaries 
existed originally a deciduous forest of 
very similar nature to the "Big Woods." 
This forest, being rather sharply sepa- 
rated from the latter by the above men- 
tioned extension of the prairie formation 
differed in some important respects and 



272 



NATURALIST'S GUIDE TO THE AMERICAS 



was very interesting as marking the 
northern limits of some of the character- 
istic species of the Ohio-Kentucky- 
Tennessee forest. Prominent among 
these are honey locust (Gleditsia Iria 
canthos), black oak (Quercus velutina), 
shell-bark hickory (Carya ovata), river 
birch (Betula nigra), chinquapin oak 
(Quercus prinoides) and black maple 
(Acer saccharum var. nigrum). A few 
other species, occurring typically in 
this southeastern hardwood forest of 
the state, had migrated up the main 
Mississippi Valley and had established 
outposts as far northwestward as the 
vicinity of Minneapolis. These are: 
black walnut (Juglans nigra), swamp 
white oak (Quercus bicolor), Kentucky 
coffee tree (Gymnocladus dioica), wild 
crab apple (Pyrus ioensis), red mulberry 
(Morus rubra), and lastly the white oak 
(Quercus alba} which apparently found 
congenial conditions in the sour soil 
of the red Wisconsin drift and penetrated 
as far as the eastern shores of Lake 
Mille Lacs. 

A few shrubs and vines also occurred 
in this forest which did not reach the 
Big Woods. They were witch hazel 
(Hamamelis virginiana), Sullivant's 
honeysuckle (Lonicera Sullivantii), but- 
ton bush (Cephalanthus occidentalis) , 
and blue grape (Vitis bicolor) 

The herbaceous undergrowth of the 
deciduous forest formation was so rich 
and varied that only a few of the more 
striking and characteristic species can 
be enumerated here. In the rich soil 
of densely shaded slopes occurred 
Virginia grape fern (Botrychium vir- 
ginianum), interrupted fern (Osmunda 
clay toni ana) , maiden-hair fern (Adian- 
tum pedatum), Jack-in-the-pulpit (Ari- 
saema triphyllum) , bellwort (Uvularia 
grandiflora), Solomon's seal (Polygona- 
tum commutatum) , false Solomon's seal 
(Smilacina racemosa), wake robin (Tril- 
lium cernuum, T. declinatum), showy 
orchis (Orchis spectabilis), wild ginger 
(Asarum canadense), Hepatica (Hepa- 
tica acutiloba), baneberry (Actaea rubra, 
A. alba), blue cohosh (Caulophyllum 
thalictroides), May apple (Podophyllum 



peltalum), bloodroot (Sanguinaria cana- 
densis), Dutchman's breeches (Dicentra 
Cucullaria), mitrewort (Mitella diphylla), 
ginseng, (Panax quinquefolia) , wild 
spikenard (Aralia racemosa) and Greek 
valerian (Polemonium reptans). 

On the rich wooded bottomlands 
and in the lower portions of ravines 
abounded ostrich fern (Onoclea struthi- 
opteris), shield fern (Aspidium spinu- 
losum), lady fern (Asplenium augus- 
tum), green dragon (Arisaema dracon- 
tium), dog's-tooth violet (Erythronium 
albidum), water leaf (Hydrophyllum 
virginianum) , touch-me-not (Impatiens 
pallida, I. biflora), golden glow (Rud- 
beckia laciniata) and others. In the 
upland portions of the forests the species 
more commonly met with are yellow 
lady's slipper (Cypripedium pubescens), 
rattlesnake plantain (Epipactis pubes- 
cens), rein orchis (Habenaria bracteata), 
columbine (Aquilegia canadensis), en- 
thanter's nightshade (Circaea lutetiana), 
snakeroot (Sanicula marilandica S. 
gregaria), shin leaf (Pyrola elliptica), 
lopseed (Phryma leptostachya) . 

The deciduous forest formation in 
Minnesota is embraced within the 
Alleghanian Faunal area and as is the 
case with many plant species a con- 
siderable number of animals reached the 
northwestern limits of their range in 
this formation. Some of the typical 
species are: southern flying squirrel 
(Glaucomysvolans), fox squirrel (Sciurus 
niger rufiventer), gray squirrel (Sciurus 
carolinensis hypophaeus), rufescent 
woodchuck (Marmota monax rufescens), 
Mearns cottontail rabbit (Sylvilagus 
floridanus mearnsii), long-tailed weasel 
(Mustela longicauda spadix), Wisconsin 
gray fox (Urocoyon cinereoargenteus ocy- 
thous), prairie mole (Scalopus aquaticus 
machrinus). Some species like the rac- 
coon (Procyon lotor) and the eastern 
red fox (Vulpes fulva), although most 
typical of this area, ranged considerably 
beyond the hardwood forest, while 
others belonging to the coniferous and 
prairie areas were, and are, fairly com- 
mon in parts of the hardwoed forest. 
Representatives of this class are the 



NATURAL AREAS AND REGIONS 



273 



coyote (Cam's latrans}, mink (Mustela 
vison letifera}, otter (Lutra canadensis}, 
wild cat (Lynx rufus}, Hudsonian skunk 
(Mephitis hudsonicus}, badger (Taxidea 
taxus), Missouri Valley mole (Scalopus 
aquaticus machrinoides} . 

Since the area of Minnesota under 
discussion lies mainly within the path 
of the great mid-continental spring and 
fall migrations and furthermore because 
of the great numbers of fresh water lakes 
and streams, it is obvious that numerous 
species and vast hordes of birds fre- 
quented the region for longer or shorter 
periods. To enumerate only a small 
portion of the species which originally 
were encountered would require too 
much space in this brief survey and it 
must suffice to list only such as are more 
or less permanent or summer residents 
of the main natural areas already out- 
lined. Accordingly the avian fauna 
more strictly limited to the southeast- 
ern deciduous forest area embraced 
the following species : Red-bellied wood- 
pecker, field sparrow, prothonotary 
warbler, blue-winged warbler, and Louis- 
iana water-thrush. The egret (Hero- 
dias egretta} and snowy egret (Egretta 
candidissima candidissima} have both 
been recorded from the extreme south- 
eastern corner of the state. Among 
species which ranged somewhat farther 
north (up to Lat. 46N.) are to be men- 
tioned the king rail and the Florida 
gallinule. 

Fishes of southeastern Minnesota; 
mainly occurring in the Mississippi 
River and its principal tributaries: 
Spoonhill (Polyodon spathulata}, shovel 
nosed sturgeon (Scaphirhynchus plaio- 
rynchus), gar pike (Lepiosteus osseus}, 
great cat fish (Ameiurus lacustris}, 
common buffalo fish (Ictichus cypri- 
nella}, carp sucker (Carpioides carpio}, 
eel (Anguilla chrysypa}, hickory shad 
(Dorosonia cepedianum} . Many other 
species also abound in this area but 
they range much farther northward and 
westward. 

Of the large classes of animals the 
Reptilia show the smallest representa- 
tion in the Minnesota fauna. A few 



species like the garter-snake (Thamno- 
phis s. sirtalis and T. radix}, the snap- 
ping turtle (Chelydra serpentina}, and 
the painted turtle (Chrysemys marginata 
bellii) range pretty well over the entire 
state. The southeastern and southern 
parts have in addition the timber rattler 
(Crotalus horridus), bull-snake (Pituo- 
phis sayi), blue racer (Coluber c. constric- 
tor}, water-snake (Natrix s. sipedon}, 
hog-nose (Heterodon contortrix}, black- 
snake (Elaphe o. obsoleta}, fox-snake 
(E. vulpina}, red-bellied snake (Storeria 
occipitomaculata) and possibly a few 
other species. Records on the occur- 
rence and the distribution of reptiles 
of the state are largely wanting. 

3. Oak grove and (4} poplar savanna. 
The latter is poorly developed except 
in the two extreme northwestern coun- 
ties, hence the two are treated together. 
(See map, unshaded portion.) With 
the exception of narrow strips of timber 
along the streams or on the north slopes 
of protected bluffs or in the ravines 
leading down into the main river valleys 
all of western and southwestern Min- 
nesota is typical prairie and steppe or 
dry grassland. 

a. Where timber occurred it was made 
up of the following species of trees: 
American elm, slippery elm, bur oak, 
cottonwood (Populus deltoides}, hack- 
berry, ironwood, box elder (Acer ne- 
gundo}, silver maple (Acer sacchariuum} , 
basswood, green ash and willow (Salix 
amygdaloides) . Occurring with the trees 
or more often along the borders of 
thickets were found the following 
shrubs: wild plum (Prunus americana}, 
choke cherry, black haw, .downy arrow- 
wood, burning bush (Evonymus atropur- 
pureus}, red osier dogwood, June berry 
(Amelanchier oblongifolia} , smooth rose 
(Rosa blanda}, shining willow (Salix 
lucida}, heart-leaved willow, buffalo 
berry (Shepherdia argentea} and wolf- 
berry (Symphoricarpos occidentalis} . 

Most of these trees and shrubs are 
typically eastern and are an important 
constituent of the deciduous forest 
formation already described. They suc- 
ceeded in penetrating the prairie region 



274 



NATURALIST'S GUIDE TO THE AMERICAS 



only along the principal water courses 
where sufficient moisture was present 
the year around for them to maintain a 
foothold. 

The characteristic grassland vegeta- 
tion of this savanna region may best be 
considered under a few sub-headings 
as follows: 

(a) High Rolling Grassland Flora: 
The principal species of this association 
were: slender wheat grass (Agropyron 
tenerum), awned wheat grass (A. cani- 
num), western wheat grass (A. Smithii), 
rye grass (Elymus canadensis), crested 
hair grass (Koeleria cristata), porcupine 
grass (Stipa spaitea), forked beard grass 
(Andropogon furcatus), brown "beard- 
grass (A. scoparius), Indian grass 
(Sorghastrum nutans), purple love-grass 
(Eragrostis pectinacea) , Pursh's love- 
grass (Eragrostis Purshii), switch grass 
(Panicum virgatum), hairy mes quite 
grass (Bouteloua hirsuta), grama grass 
(B. oligostachya), tall grama grass (B. 
curtipendula) , buffalo grass (Buchloe 
dactyloides) , sedges (Car ex pennsylvanica 
C. festucacea) , blue-eyed grass (Sisyrin- 
chium campestre), yellow star grass 
(Hypoxis hirsuta), Pasque flower (Anem- 
one patens var. Wolfgangiana), Anem- 
one (Anemone cylindrical, prairie 
larkspur (Delphinium Penardi), prairie 
crowfoot (Ranunculus rhomboideus) , 
prairie rose (Rosa arkansana), tall 
cinquefoil (Potentilla arguta), alum root 
(Heuchera hispida), ground plum (Astra- 
galus caryocarpus) , milk vetch (Astra- 
galus canadensis) , prairie apple (Psoralea 
escunlenta), prairie clover (Petalostemum 
purpureum, P. candidum, P. villosum), 
lead plant (Amorpha canescens), tick- 
trefoil (Desmodium canadense), prairie 
violet (Viola pedatifida), birdsfoot violet 
(Viola pedata), flowering spurge (Euphor- 
bia corollata), Phlox (Phlox pilosa), 
ground cherry (Physalis longifolia), 
puccoon (Lithospermum canescens}, 
lady's tobacco (Antennaria plantagini- 
folia), ox-eye (Heliopsis scabra), sun- 
flower (Helianthus scaberrimus), blazing 
star (Liatris scariosa), golden-rods (Soli- 
dago missouriensis, S. nemoralis, S. 



rigida, S. canadensis), Asters (Aster 
multiflorus, A. commutatus, A. azureus). 

(b) The prairie meadow: In these 
situations occurred a limited number of 
species, mostly grasses, demanding a 
moister habitat than that of the high 
rolling prairie. The characteristic 
plants were: holy grass (Hierochloe 
odorata), Scribner's panicum (Panicum 
Scribnerianum) , red top (Agrostis alba), 
Canada blue grass (Poa compressa), 
fowl meadow grass (Poa tri/lora), tall 
marsh grass (Spartina cynosuroides) 
and wild onion (Allium canadense). 

(c) Wet meadow and marsh flora: 
In the wet meadows, marshes and 
sloughs flourished sedges, rushes, and 
bulrushes, together with a considerable 
number of other hydrophytic species 
and shallow water forms of which the 
principal ones were: arrowhead (Sagit- 
taria latifolia), cat-tail (Typha lati- 
folia), bur-reed (Sparganium eurycar- 
pum), reed (Phragmites communis), 
sedges (Carex vulpinoidea, C. gravida, 
C. cephaloidea) , bulrushes (Scirpus 
fluviatiiis, S. polyphullus, S. americanus, 
etc.), spike-rush (Eleocharis palustris, 
E. acicularis), yellow water crowfoot 
(Ranunculus delphinifolius) , white water 
crowfoot (R. aquatilis), water persicaria 
(Polygonum amphibium), yellow water 
cress (Radicula palustris), swamp milk- 
weed (Asclepias incarnata), water hem- 
lock (Cicuta maculata), water parsnip 
(Sium cicutaefolium) , tufted loosestrife 
(Lysimachia thrysiftora), mare's tail 
(Hippurus vulgaris), begger-ticks 
(Bidens frondosa), and stick-tight 
(Bidens cernua). 

(d) Fauna of the Savannas: Forest 
animals frequenting small groves, open 
spaces, and stream skirting forest: elk, 
mule deer (Odocoilus hemionus) (extreme 
western part only, now wanting), rac- 
coon, chipmunk, skunk, red fox. 

Forest edge (thicket) species. 

Franklin ground squirrel (Citellus 
franklinii), jumping-mouse (Zapus hud- 
sonius), rose-breasted grosbeak, yellow 
warbler, indigo bunting, yellow-billed 
cuckoo, house wren, mourning dove, 



NATURAL AREAS AND REGIONS 



275 



song sparrow, migrant shrike, catbird, 
goldfinch, and many insects. 

Mesophytic grassland species. 

Prairie chicken, prairie jumping- 
mouse (Zapus hudsonius campestris) , 
badger (occasionally). 

4- Grassland or Steppe. For a short 
distance east of the western border, 
especially in the S.W. over what is 
known as the Coteau des prairies and 
to a lesser extent on dry slopes and 
along the bluffs of the river valleys 
the flora assumed a more typical western 
aspect since it was in these habitats 
that many of representatives of the 
great plains flora found congenial sur- 
roundings. Here flourished beard- 
tongues (Pentstemon grandiflorus, P. 
albidus, P. gracilis}, puccoons (Lithos- 
permum canescens, L. Gmelini, L. 
augustifolium) , purple avens (Geum 
triflorum), several milk vetches (Astraga- 
lus adsurgens, A. lotiflorus, A. mis- 
souriensis, A. flexuosus}, loco weed 
(Oxytropis Lambertii), evening prim- 
roses (Oenthera serrulata, Oe. pallida, 
Oe. rhombipetala) , yellow flax (linum 
rigidum, L. sulcaium), blazing stars 
(Liatris scariosa, L. cylindracaea, L. 
punctata), cone flowers (Lepachys pin- 
nata, L. columnaris, Brauneria pur- 
purea), numerous wormwoods (Artemisia 
longifolia, A. dracunculoides,A.frigida\ 
golden aster (Chrysopsis villosa) and 
several others. 

The pronghorn antelope (Antilocapra 
americana) was a characteristic form; 
vast herds of Bison (Bison bison} ex- 
ceeded in size the eastward extension; 
ground-squirrel (Citellus richardsonii) , 
pocket-gopher (Geomys bursarius), 
badger, white-tailed jackrabbit (Lepus 
townsendii campanius}. Even the griz- 
zly bear is reported to have extended as 
far east as the Red River in the region 
of the Pembina Hills. Other species 
which were common throughout the 
greater extent of this area were : prairie 
red fox (Vulpes regalis), coyote (Cam's 
latrans), badger, pocket-gopher, white- 
tailed jackrabbit (Lepus townsendii 
companius). 

The avian fauna of the prairie region 



in the early days was even more impres- 
sive than the mammalian. The in- 
numerable lakes, ponds, sloughs, and 
marshes offered ideal feeding and nest- 
ing grounds to a large number of water 
birds. No less than 25 species of ducks 
are known to have occurred and 17 of 
these used to breed in the state. Most 
of these occurred in greatest abundance 
in the prairie region. Four species of 
geese, the snow goose, the blue goose, 
the white-fronted goose and the Canada 
goose, used to be very common and the 
whistling and trumpeter swans alighted 
on the lakes and streams in great num- 
bers during their migrations. 

Among the bird species more strictly 
confined to the grassland region of 
Minnesota should be mentioned the 
western grebe, eared grebe, Swainsons 
hawk, burrowing owl, Arkansas king- 
bird, Brewers blackbird, chestnut-col- 
lared longspur, McCown's longspur, 
Baird's sparrow, lark bunting and 
Spragues pipit, while the following had 
a somewhat more extended range: 
Forster's tern, Franklin's gull, black- 
crowned night heron, Krider's Hawk, 
prairie chicken and prairie sharp-tailed 
grouse. 

For notes on Mollusca see under 
Wisconsin. 

II. PRESENT BIOTIC CONDITIONS 

Most of the original prairie area of 
Minnesota has been converted into 
farm lands and only such portions as 
are either too low and swampy or too 
alkaline or in other ways unsuited for 
growing crops have remained undis- 
turbed. Of the original prairie vegeta- 
tion there are only remnants to be found 
along old highways, along the railroad 
rights-of-way, and on tracts of untillable 
soil. Fortunately several of the smaller 
state parks are located in this part of the 
state and help to preserve original 
conditions. 

The fauna inhabiting the prairie part 
of the state has suffered the greatest 
des