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Full text of "Natural landscapes of the United States"

atural Landscapes 

of the 

United States 




*Vs 



UNITED SI* 

NATHM 

AMD OTHER ARtAS AD» 




MOLOKAI 
'"C?^-. ■ HAWAII 

q'^^'national park 



HAWAII NATIONAL PARX^^ 
HAWAIIAN ISLANDS 



Front Cover: Glacier National Park 

Inside Cover: The National Park System and Other Areas 
Administered by the National Park Service 




Ocotillo, sahuaro, and other succulents in a typical desert land- 
scape, Tucson Mountains Recreation Area, Arizona. 



Natural Landscapes 
of the United States 



BY 

J. FRANCIS MACBRIDE 

CURATOR OF PERUVIAN BOTANY 



CHICAGO NATURAL HISTORY MUSEUM 
POPULAR SERIES 

BOTANY. NUMBER 27 
1950 



PRINTED IN THE UNITED STATES OF AMERICA 
BY CHICAGO NATURAL HISTORY MUSEUM PRESS 



Copyright 1950 by Chicago Natural History Museum 




White pine 




Principal regions of natural vegetation in North America. 



6 . 



Natural Landscapes 

of the United States 



The great naturalist Darwin said that every traveler 
ought to be a botanist, because plants make up a large 
part of every landscape. Certainly if the traveler knows 
something about the vegetation of the scene he views, 
his interest and enjoyment are immeasurably increased. 

Principal Types of Vegetation 

As may be seen on the accompanying map (see map, 
p. 6), the botanical division of the United States, while 
not as simple as the political one of Gaul, can in the most 
general way be based on the three main types of natural 
vegetation which everyone recognizes: namely, woods, 
grassland, and desert. These vary greatly in appearance 
with the kinds of trees and other plants that predominate 
in any given area; furthermore, they often merge with one 
another. Some of the more conspicuous variations of the 
three types of vegetation will be characterized by naming 
a few, a very few, of the plants that comprise them — in 
the main only the trees or other plants so striking and 
large that they may be seen from a moving automobile. 

Originally a large portion of our country was covered 
with forests (see map, p. 8). Today these forests are much 
more limited and often protected by state or federal laws 
as part of our national heritage. A brief description of 
these forests may well serve as a starting point for our 
sightseeing trip through the eyes of a botanist. 




Caeh dot reprtsants 
10.000 ocrts 



Maps showing virgin forests (1620) and present forest areas. 

< 8 * 




Northern coniferous forest on Isle Royale, Lake Superior, Michigan. 



First, it may be noted that the forests consist of two 
principal kinds: coniferous (trees that bear cones and 
usually have needle-like evergreen leaves) and deciduous 
(trees that lose their broad leaves completely at some 
seasons, becoming entirely bare). Although the leafy or 
broad-leaved trees may be evergreen in the subtropical 
areas, coniferous and deciduous forests are in many places 
more or less mixed. 

Coniferous Forests 

Northern Coniferous Forest 

Let us begin our journey with a visit to the coniferous 
forests. Of these, three rather distinct geographical types 
are recognized. The largest area is occupied by the 
northern coniferous forest, known in frontier folk lore as 
having been the home of Paul Bunyan and his fabulous 
Blue Ox. This forest sweeps across Canada from Alaska 

- 10- 




Northern coniferous forest in Glacier National Park, Montana. 



11 



to the Atlantic, extending, a little west of the Great Lakes, 
into Minnesota and Wisconsin and as far south as central 
Michigan, thence eastward through Pennsylvania and 
upper New York to the St. Lawrence. South of this area 
it merges with the deciduous forest that originally clothed 
the Ohio and Mississippi river valleys, and together they 
form a distinctive, if narrow, belt of mixed timber (see 
map, p. 6). The chief components of this forest, except 
the jack pine, extend far down along the Appalachians. 

These northern coniferous forests (mostly Canadian) 
are striking in their uniformity. For hours on end one 
may journey across nearly pure stands of evergreens — 
white and red (or Norway) pine, hemlock, jack pine, and 
balsam fir — and often the trees grow so closely together 
that there is room only for small stands or isolated in- 
dividuals of other kinds, such as tamarack, alder, willow, 
or poplar and aspen. 

Atlantic and Gulf Coastal Plain Forests 

Similarly, the coastal plain that extends roughly from 
Long Island to Florida and along the Gulf of Mexico to 
a few hundred miles beyond the delta of the Mississippi, 
is characterized by nearly pure stands of pines, southward 
especially longleaf and slash pines. The pine forests of 
the southern states, well known for their yield of "naval 
stores," resin and turpentine, are now being exploited as 
a source of material for the manufacture of newsprint and 
kraft paper. Toward the interior, other species, such as 
the loblolly pine, are frequently associated with oaks and 
other deciduous trees and shrubs. 

In this area, rolling pine lands with little or no ground 
cover except grass (using the term broadly) extend for 
great distances and because of this barren appearance are 
commonly known as pine-barrens. On the other hand, 
southward and westward into Mississippi and Louisiana 
a rich flora of herbs may be present in such forests. The 
pine lands, varying in type from one region to another, 
may be wet or may contain swamps such as the Great 
Dismal Swamp of Virginia or the Okefenokee Swamp of 

. 12 - 




Stand of virgin longleaf pine in Choctawatchee National Forest, Florida, 
characteristic of the coastal plain. 



southern Georgia. They may also merge with deciduous 
forests, as in Florida, Louisiana, Arkansas, and Tennessee, 
or be found as isolated stands in areas where another type 
of vegetation predominates. 

Western Coniferous Forest 

But the greatest expanse of coniferous forests in this 
country is found in the West (see map, p. 6). Several 
pines and spruces, the hemlock, the great fir and the canoe 

. 13 . 




'Big trees" in Sequoia National Park, California. 



14 



cedar range from Alaska and western Canada southward 
nearly throughout the Rocky Mountains and along the 
coasts of Washington, Oregon, and California to the 
Sierras. In the California mountains they are over- 
shadowed by the redwood and by the "Big Tree," or giant 
Sequoia, known at least by picture throughout the civilized 
world. The visitor to the groves of the giant Sequoia in 
the well-watered Sierra Nevada will see dense coniferous 
forests composed, in part, of yellow pine, sugar pine, 
Douglas and red firs, and some hemlock. 

Throughout the coastal fogbelt of northern California 
and Oregon the redwood is often accompanied by the 
Douglas fir and the great fir. At lower levels the latter 
may be associated with other evergreens, like juniper or 
cypress trees. In the higher mountains one finds the white- 



Redwoods in Bull Creek Flat, near Dyerville, California. 



\ 




m> - 







Monterey cypress, well known along the California coast, in Monterey Bay. 



barked pine, and on Mount Shasta, above the yellow pine, 
is found a particularly noteworthy timber composed 
mostly of tall and stately fir. 

A well-known conifer of the California coast is the 
Monterey cypress. The wind-contorted trees, many 
seemingly clinging to the rocky bluffs of Monterey Bay, 
are confined to a narrow strip of territory only a few miles 
long. Also rare and interesting as a relic of an earlier 
age in southern California is the Torrey pine. 

But the heaviest coniferous timber occurs in the mild 
and rainy belt of Washington and western Oregon; that is, 
through the Olympic Mountains and the Cascades. 
Particularly in the region west of Puget Sound, the Douglas 
fir may attain a height of a hundred feet or more and the 
forest floor may be so dark that only mosses, ferns, and 
an occasional shade-loving shrub can live. With it, or 

. 16 - 



alone, are found the canoe cedar, the coast hemlock, near 
the coast a spruce, and the Lawson cypress, while on the 
mountains the firs flourish with some admixture of Engel- 
mann's spruce. In the western ranges of Oregon and 
Washington, the pines and the western larch are found. 
Although the character of these great forests of our ex- 
treme northwest must of necessity be described briefly 
and only the names of a few of their trees are listed, the 
reader may be assured that walking within them and 
acquainting himself with their grandeur and beauty will 
be a cherished experience. 

Less stupendous but often varied and, in their own 
setting always beautiful, are the vast coniferous forests 
of the Rocky Mountains that extend from the Panhandle 
of Idaho and western Montana nearly to the Mexican 
border, with an outlying area in the Black Hills of South 
Dakota. They are, however, confined to slopes high 
enough to acquire considerable moisture from the westerly 
winds, and vary greatly in degree of development and in 



Oak woodland in the Sierra foothills, near Mother Lode Highway. 





Mountain forest near Mount Shasta. 



the size of the trees, even for the same species. The 
juniper is often the last tree extending into the semi-desert 
conditions of the lower valleys and plains; in the South- 
west it is sometimes associated with a pretty, compact, 
one-needled pine, and together they form veritable forests 
many miles in extent. In the central Rockies, as in 
Colorado, the forests may be separated by open grassy 
areas which have been called "parks" and furnish succulent 
grazing for great flocks of sheep. 

Often these forests cover large areas with pure stands 
of well-grown trees. Whether adorning the high plains 
around the Grand Canyon, or climbing the hills among 
the mountains of Idaho, the yellow pine is easily recognized 
by its cinnamon-colored bark that breaks off in irregular 
plates of jigsaw-like shapes, its columnar trunk frequently 
rising 150-200 feet to the tufted branches, its habit of 
growing in scattered groups or patches, and also by its 

. 18 - 



"floor," often clean except for a covering of its own 
needles of years before. 

Almost a weed, the lodgepole pine often grows in dense 
patches and is spindly in shape, like our crowded weeds, 
as for example in Yellowstone Park. Yet it may be a 
stout tree if growing alone on some outcropping rock. 
A lover of cold atmosphere, it is thoroughly at home at 
lower levels in Canada, but recedes into the mountains 
southward, as far as southern California. 

Many other conifers are often mixed : the Douglas fir, 
the spruce (as Engelmann's) and several pines, partic- 
ularly the Idaho white pine. One of the most striking 
evergreens because of its gray-blue color — one often seen 
in contrast with other species along brooks or in ravines — 
is the Colorado blue spruce. Near the timber line occurs 
the gnarled and stunted white-stemmed pine, whereas the 
Douglas fir and the western larch predominate in wet 
lowlands at the base of the mountain. Larches and 



One of the open, grassy areas known as "parks," scattered among the 
forests of the Rockies. Gunsight Mountain in the background. 







! '•* "'IMS 


1 1 










Virgin lodgepole pine in Medicine Bow National Forest, Wyoming. 



spruce usually grow on low and moist ground, while pines 
prefer the mountain slopes. However, an alpine larch is 
found only at the timber line. 



Deciduous or Hardwood Forest 

Let us now leave the coniferous forests and continue 
our journey through the deciduous forest, especially the 
great hardwood forest of the east-central United States. 
As shown (map, p. 6), it extends approximately from the 
New England states to the Mississippi or slightly beyond, 
and southward to eastern Texas. It is best seen south 
of the Ohio River, in such places as the Cumberland and 
the Great Smoky Mountains of Kentucky, West Virginia 
and Tennessee. To the east and south, in northern 
Georgia, Alabama, Mississippi and Louisiana, it merges 
with the coastal plain pine forests and to the west with 

- 20 - 




Stand of Colorado blue spruce in the Colorado Rockies. 
. 21 • 




At the timber line, Long's Peak, Colorado. 



prairies along a line marked roughly in the north by the 
Mississippi River. In the south it extends into Ar- 
kansas, Texas and Oklahoma. Northward, many of its 
hardier elements, together with certain coniferous trees, 
form the mixed forest of the tier of states between New 
England and Wisconsin and south along the Appalachians. 
This mixed forest is characterized by white pine, hemlock, 
maple, beech, and birch. Elsewhere, as in the southern 
coastal plain, the pines sometimes are mixed with live 
oak, magnolia and cypress or, as in California, the live 
oak and the juniper meet. In the Rockies, poplars and 
alders may join clumps of spruces on lowland hummocks, 
while in other parts of the country the mixture of trees 
present varies with local conditions. 



Central and Eastern Region 

Although the deciduous forest was originally very 
extensive, it was later largely cut down to make room for 

. 22 ■ 



farming, except for some sizable tracts. The woods that 
most Americans probably know most intimately are the 
small remnants of this forest, most commonly seen as 
farm woodlots throughout the east and the midwest. 
The commonest trees are oak, hickory, pignut, maple, 
beech, walnut, ash, birch, red or sweet gum, locust, linden 



Typical Kentucky woodland bordering the Cumberland River, an area of 
maximum development of the deciduous forest. 



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Rhododendrons in Great Smoky 




tains National Park, Tennessee. 




Spruce, fir, white pine, and hardwoods on th' 




•pes of the Presidential Range in New Hampshire. 




Oaks and maples at Turkey Run State Park, Indiana. 



and sycamore, in former times the chestnut, and south- 
ward the tulip tree. Many ancestral homes were con- 
structed of the enduring walnut and oak; many hickory 
logs supplied the fireplace heat. Familiar and loved by 
many is the steep slope shaded by the gray-branched 
beech, a rolling sunny stretch of scattered oak or hickory, 
creeks bordered by maple, ash, walnut, and witch-hazel. 
If you have not yet seen these woods and the shrubs and 
wild flowers they harbor, a fresh and delightful travel 
experience awaits you. Over and over again these and 

- 28 - 



many other species are found with different shrubs in 
varying combinations throughout this vast area. 

Transition Zone to Grasslands 

In the states bordering the west bank of the Missis- 
sippi River, from Minnesota to Texas, the transition from 
the midwestern woods to the Great Plains and Prairies 
is marked by poplars and cottonwoods, especially along 
the streams, or by oaks interspersed with much grassland. 
Certain kinds of oak, red swamp maple, and hickory, as 
well as other trees, may meet the pine barrens in Georgia, 
Tennessee and Arkansas, or those along the Gulf of Mexico 
may contain an occasional magnolia or ash, and even 



Prickly pear, buffalo grass and side oats in a field near Dalhart, Texas. 







29 



reach into the swamp lands of cypress and white cedar. 
Here one can only hint at the almost endless variations 
in kinds and mixture of trees as the conditions of tempera- 
ture and moisture change, as for example in the sandhills 
between the Dakotas and Texas. 

Southern Region 

The traveler to Florida finds the predominantly sandy 
soil of the peninsula covered with a vegetation continuous 
with that of the southern coastal plains, consisting of 
southern pine, live oak, cypress, and cabbage palms, and 
frequently marked by Spanish moss growing on trees. 
Citrus groves and rows of planted casuarinas, so-called 
Australian pines, furnish an exotic touch. As the tip of 
the peninsula is approached, a different type of vegetation 
appears, consisting of West Indian elements, such as 
gumbo-limbo, satinwood, fiddle-wood, figs and stoppers, 
with royal and thatch palms on limestone soils, seagrape 
and sea lavender along the beaches, and mangrove swamps 
along muddy shores. The many tropical plants en- 
countered, such as the poinsettia or Christmas flower, the 
poinciana, the bougainvilleas, the so-called crotons, are, 
of course, introduced, as are the coconut and other exotic 
palms. 

The Everglades, a subtropical marsh in Florida, are 
dotted with low islands supporting broad-leaved trees and 
shrubs. In places the level stretches of sawgrass are 
interrupted by deep sloughs densely filled with water 
plants. In the hammocks, isolated clumps where accumu- 
lated humus supports hardwoods, the most magnificent 
tree is the live oak, with widely spreading, moss-covered 
branches harboring various climbing plants, ferns, and 
orchids. Oak, magnolia, yellow poplar, and redgum are 
usual components of the flora of the numerous hammocks, 
scattered from one end of Florida to the other. The great 
swamp formations are either pure stands of cypress or, 
farther north, mixed stands of cypress and tupelo gum. 

. 30 - 




* 



Cabbage palms and Caribbean pines in flatwoods, near Marco Junction, 
Collier County, Florida. 



Mangrove swamp in the Ten Thousand Islands, Florida. 



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Live oaks covered with Spanish moss along a creek in Florida. 



Grasslands 

As we journey across the country anywhere between 
Canada and Texas, from one forest area to the other, 
we must pass through a broad belt of open land. The 

. 32 - 




Bald cypress with "knees," Reelfoot Lake, Tennessee. 



Prairie and Great Plains states from the Dakotas to 
Texas are the natural grasslands of North America and 
represent a characteristic American landscape. Originally 
covered with grasses and herbs, they supported herds of 
antelope and buffalo, the latter in numbers that now seem 
fantastic. To the west, in Montana, Colorado, Wyoming, 

- 33 . 




Characteristic prairie landscape, a gulch near Rock River, Wyoming. 



and New Mexico, they merge, sometimes imperceptibly, 
into drier slopes that may be more or less covered with 
shrubs, the forerunners of the foothill vegetation of the 
Rocky Mountains. The true prairie lacked trees, except 
along the larger streams. Westward, these outposts of 
the deciduous forest consist of willows, cotton wood, and 
alder. 



Western or Sagebrush Regions 

In the basin west of the Rockies, the so-called steppes 
with which the prairie merged pass into semi-desert areas 
characterized by a mixture of low shrubs, grasses and 
other herbaceous plants. In the northern part of these 
valleys, between the mountain ranges, as from Idaho and 
Washington to Colorado, Utah, and northern Nevada, 
the characteristic shrub is sagebrush, sometimes mixed 
with or replaced by rabbit brush. Except in spring, when 
a small-grass-herb covering appears, the surface of the 
ground is quite bare. Cottonwoods and willows grow 

. 34 . 



along the rivers, and higher up the sagebrush often con- 
tinues into stands of timber, such as those of yellow pine. 
To the settlers, sagebrush was important, as often it was 
their only fuel. Many love its peculiar fragrance, which 
is particularly pungent after the spring rains. 

In some parts of the Great Basin, as the sagebrush 
area is called, stretches of bunch grass and many perennials 
cover the rolling slopes before the timber appears. On 
the salty flats characteristic of this region and extending 
for miles and miles, the sagebrush is replaced by several 
shrubs capable of enduring the saline quality of the soil. 
These are greasewood, Suaeda, and rabbit brush. Some- 
times saline pools appear and, as the season matures, they 
are bordered with dense mats of salicornia, bright red 
in color and visible from far away. 



Natural meadow near Rock River, Wyoming. 





Juniper trees on south-facing slope of valley in Utah, and chaparral of 
little sagebrush on the opposite side. 



Dry, steep hills in the Rockies and elsewhere are 
covered by another characteristic association of plants, 
known in California as "chaparral." It consists of a dense 
growth of "bush" chiefly of various broad-leaved ever- 
greens, such as species of manzanita and "mountain 
mahogany" in California, or of dwarf oaks and "mountain 
mahogany" in the Rockies. 



Southwestern Desert 

Although continuous with the sagebrush area of the 
Great Basin, the so-called deserts of the southwest, at 

> 36 - 



least in southern Texas, Arizona, and westward, are 
characterized by a totally different climate and a com- 
pletely different type of vegetation. There millions of 
plants appear in flower after the rainy season, and in 
reality most of the deserts harbor a rich plant-life. Three 
types of these subtropical deserts can conveniently be 
recognized: the California desert, marked by the creosote 
bush; the succulent desert, chiefly of Arizona and Cali- 
fornia, characterized by the abundance of cacti; and the 
thorn or small tree desert, of California, Nevada and 
Utah. The real appeal of the desert itself cannot be 
doubted, regardless of how it is divided according to the 
plants growing in the different areas. Whether the 
traveler is visiting the desert in northern Arizona, at the 



Chaparral near Anza, Riverside County, California. 




37 




Slopes with creosote bush in Death Valley, California. 



Sagebrush in northern Arizona. 





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edge of that vast eroded area of a thousand tints, appro- 
priately named the Painted Desert, or crossing a zone of 
the bizarre Joshua trees scattered sentinel-like down the 
long slopes of southwestern Nevada, or in a seemingly 
endless tract of mesquite and acacia, covering much of 
Arizona, California and other areas, or feeling lost in the 
fantastic atmosphere created by a forest of the great 
columnar cacti, the sahuaro, his sense of beauty will be 
quickened, his interest aroused! 

The more conspicuous plants that attract attention in 
traveling through some of the vast floor-like deserts of 
the southwest, especially through southern Arizona, are 
the resinous evergreen shrub, the creosote bush, the acacia 
or catclaw, "huishchu," the mesquite, agave and yucca, 
various cacti such as the barrel and columnar types, and 
the branched flat-pointed opuntias that are known as 
chollas. 

In certain areas some small trees occur, chiefly the palo 



Joshua trees In Arizona. 






The changed landscape; farms now occupy land once covered by forests. 
Scene near Palouse, Washington. 



verde, so called because of its green bark, and the iron- 
wood, palo hierro. 



Man-made Landscapes 

Although traveling across the country no longer im- 
plies real hardship, our forefathers often found it difficult, 
if not hazardous, to penetrate the unknown extensive 
areas then covered by dense virgin forest. Gradually 
large sections of these forests were cut and the land was 
made usable. Today much of this land is cultivated, 

. 40 * 





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presenting an entirely different appearance. Many native 
and introduced plants now grow here under the watchful 
eye of the farmer. While some farmland may support a 
variety of crops in certain areas, one crop may often be 
best suited to the local conditions. Thus we come to 
speak of the midwestern corn belt and the cotton belt of 
the south, although we know that both corn and cotton 
are also grown in other parts of the country. Conversely, 
the observant traveler will note that not all land in any 
one belt is planted to the principal crop. The uniformity 
of great forest expanses is never seen where agriculture 
has taken over the land. Rather, we see various patterns 
resulting from different kinds of farming (see map, p. 41). 
The landscape thus created by man in the wake of the 
original vegetation has become as much a part of our 
country as its large cities, towns, and farms. 

Here we may fittingly conclude our travelogue devoted 
to some of the more striking formations of plants, especially 
of forests, seen in the various parts of the country. It is 
scarcely necessary to remark that the picture presented is 
fleeting and impressionistic. But we hope that your 
interest has been aroused and that your future trips will 
thereby be enriched. 



I wish to acknowledge my indebtedness to Dr. B. E. 
Dahlgren and others, who helped me in preparing this 
leaflet. Dr. Theodor Just has generously shouldered most 
of the responsibility in the final selection of illustrations 
and the ultimate form of the text. 



42 



Acknowledgments 



The illustrations accompanying this travelogue were selected 
from among those contained in the files of the Department of Botany, 
Chicago Natural History Museum, and various published or private 
sources. Permission for the use of these, granted by the following 
individuals, governmental agencies and publishing companies, is 
herewith gratefully acknowledged. 

Chicago Natural History Museum: figure on page 13. 

B. E. Dahlgren, Chicago Natural History Museum: figures on page 31. 

Carl Epling, University of California at Los Angeles: figures on 
pages 15, 16, 17, 18, 37. 

Edward H. Graham, Soil Conservation Service, Washington, D.C.: 
figure on page 36. 

Elliot Lyman Fisher, Asheville, North Carolina: figure on pages 24, 25. 

Theodor Just, Chicago Natural History Museum: figures on pages 10, 
22, 33, 38. 

E. J. Kraus, University of Chicago: figures on cover and frontispiece, 
and on pages 11, 14, 21, 28, 32, 40. 

Susan Delano McKelvey, Boston, Massachusetts: figure on page 39. 

National Parks Service, Copyright Fred H. Kiser, Washington, D.C.: 
figure on page 19. 

Charles E. Olmsted, University of Chicago: figures on pages 29, 38. 

R. J. Pool, University of Nebraska: figure on page 6. 

State Board of Horticulture, Laramie, Wyoming: figures on pages 34, 
35. 

United States Department of Agriculture, Yearbook of Agriculture, 
1928: figure on page 42. 

United States Department of the Interior, National Parks Service: 
figure on inside cover. 

United States Forest Service: figures on pages 8, 9, 20, 23, 26, 27. 



. 43 



Helpful Books for the Traveler 



General 

Boerker, R. H. D. 1945. Behold Our Green Mansions. A Book 
about American Forests. University of North Carolina Press, 
Chapel Hill. 

Readable account of American forests and their importance 
in modern life and economy. Good illustrations. 

Graham, E. H. 1944. Natural Principles of Land Use. Oxford 
University Press, New York. 

Excellent explanation of the scientific principles and modern 
methods of land use. Profusely illustrated. 

Matoon, W. R. 1936. Forest Trees and Forest Regions of the United 
States. U. S. Dept. Agr., Misc. Publ. 217. 
Very useful and reliable guide. 

Van Dersal, W. R. 1943. The American Land: Its History and Its 
Uses. Oxford University Press, New York. 

Very informative and well-written book on the American scene, 
its history, development and future. 



Botanical 

Bowers, N. A. 1942. Cone Bearing Trees of the Pacific Coast. 
Whittlesey House Field Guide Series. 

Convenient pocket guide, well illustrated. 

Brown, H. P. 1937. Trees of the Northeastern States. Christopher 
Publishing House, Boston. 

Detailed descriptions accompanied by fine drawings. 

Eliot, W. A. 1938. Forest Trees of the Pacific Coast. G. P. Putnam's 
Sons, New York. 

Good descriptions and many illustrations. 

Harlow, W. M. 1942. Trees of the Eastern United States and Canada. 
Their Woodcraft and Wildlife Uses. McGraw-Hill, New York. 

Convenient pocket manual with brief descriptions and illus- 
trations. 

Harlow, W. M. and Harrar, E. S. 1941. Textbook of Dendrology 
Covering the Important Forest Trees of the United States and Canada. 
Second edition. McGraw-Hill, New York. 

Good descriptions and illustrations of the important species of 
trees. Detailed bibliography of the literature dealing with trees. 

- 44 - 



Harrar, E. S. and J. G. 1946. Guide to Southern Trees. Whittlesey 
House Field Guide Series. 

Convenient pocket guide, well illustrated. 

Jaeger, E. C. 1941. Desert Wild Flowers. Stanford University 
Press. 

Kirkwood, J. M. 1930. Rocky Mountain Trees and Shrubs. Stan- 
ford University Press. 

Good descriptions and illustrations of the woody plants grow- 
ing in this area. 

McMinn, H. E. and Maino, E. 1935. An Illustrated Manual of 
Pacific Coast Trees. University of California Press, Berkeley. 

Detailed descriptions and illustrations of the trees growing in 
the Pacific Coast Area. 

Peattie, D. C. 1934. Trees You Want to Know. Whitman Publish- 
ing Co., Racine, Wisconsin. 

Smallest pocket guide, beautifully illustrated with colored 
figures of the most common trees. 



- 45 



Ind 



ex 



Acacia, 39, 40 
Agave, 40 
Alder, 12, 22, 34 
Ash, 23, 28, 29 
Aspen, 12 

Beech, 22, 23, 28 
Birch, 22, 23 
Bougainvillea, 30 
Bunch grass, 34 

Cactus, barrel, 40 

Sahuaro, 39 
Casuarina, 30 
Catclaw, 40 
Cedar, canoe, 15, 17 

white, 29 
Chaparral, 36 
Chestnut, 28 
Cottonwood, 29, 34 
Creosote bush, 37, 40 
Croton, 30 
Cypress, 15, 22, 29, 30 

Lawson, 17 

Monterey, 16 

Desert, 36-40 

Ferns, 30 
Fiddle-wood, 30 
Figs, 30 
Fir, balsam, 12 

Douglas, 15, 16, 19 

great, 13, 15 

red, 15 
Forest, coniferous, 10-19 

deciduous or hardwood, 10, 20- 
28 

Grassland, 29, 32 

Greasewood, 35 

Gum, red or sweet, 23, 30 

tupelo, 30 
Gumbo-limbo, 30 

Hemlock, 12, 13, 15, 22 

coast, 17 
Hickory, 23, 28, 29 
Huishchu, 40 



Joshua tree, 39 
Juniper, 15, 18, 22 

Landscapes, man-made, 42 
Larch, alpine, 19 
western, 17, 19 
Linden, 23 
Locust, 23 

Magnolia, 22, 29, 30 
Mangroves, 30 
Manzanita, 36 
Maple, 22, 23, 28 

red or swamp, 29 
Mesquite, 39, 40 
Mountain mahogany, 36 

Oak, 12, 22, 23, 28, 29, 30 

dwarf, 36 

live, 22, 30 
Opuntia, 40 
Orchids, 30 

Palm, cabbage, 30 

coconut, 30 

royal, 30 

thatch, 30 
Palo hierro, 40 

verde, 40 
Pignut, 23 
Pine, Australian, 30 

Idaho white, 19 

jack, 12 

loblolly, 12 

lodgepole, 19 

longleaf, 12 

red (Norway), 12 

slash, 12 

southern, 30 

sugar, 15 

Torrey, 16 

white, 12, 15, 22 

yellow, 15, 16, 18, 35 
Plains, Great, 29 
Poinciana, 30 
Poinsettia, 12, 30 
Poplar, 22, 29 

yellow, 30 
Prairies, 29 



- 46 - 



Rabbit brush, 34, 35 Stoppers, 30 

Redwood, 15 Suaeda, 35 

Sycamore, 28 
Sagebrush, 34, 35 

SaRcornia 35 Tamarack, 12 

Satinwood 30 Transition zone, 29-30 

§£££2o Tulip tree, 28 

Spanish moss, 30 billow 12 ', 34 

Spruce, 13, 17, 22 Witch-hazel, 28 

Colorado blue, 19 

Engelmann, 17, 19 Yucca, 40 



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