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Full text of "Nature et faune : revue internationale pour la conservation de la nature en Afrique = Wildlife and nature : international journal on nature conservation in Africa"


lature et Faune 



REVUE INTERNATIONALE POUR LA CONSERVATION DE LA NATURE EN AFRIQUE 
Gastion de la Faune, Am^nagement d'aires prot^g^es, Conservation des ressources naturelles. 

INTERNATIONAL JOURNAL ON NATURE CONSERVATION IN AFRICA 
Wildlife and Protected Areas Management and Natural Resources Conservation. 

Volume 7, n'1 , Janvier - Mars 1991 . 
January - March 1 991 , 





Organisation des Nations Unies /A 

pour rAlimentation et I'Agriculture (/ ^TS^ ^ 
Food and Agriculture Organization ^ "^ ^" 

of tln' lIiiiftHl Nafinns ^V 



/C^<^^ ^^ Programme des Nations Unies pour 
'^» rEnvironnement 

United Nations Environment 
Programme 



i^fJ 



FAO Regional Office for Africa 

Bureau Regional de la F.A.O. pour FAfrique - Accra (Ghana) 



Nature et Faune 



Volume 7, n**! Janvier-Mars 1991. 
January-March 1991, 




iO) 



La revue Nature et Faune est une publication international e 
trimestrielle destin6e ci permettre un ^change d'informations 
et de connassainces scJentifiques concernant la gestion de 
la faune, I'amenagement des aires protegees et la conserva- 
tion des ressources natureiles sur le continent africain. 

"Nature et Faune" is a quarterly international publication de- 
dicated to the exchange of information and scientific data on 
wildlife and protected areas management and conservation 
of natural resources on the African continent. 

Editeur - Editor : J.J. Leroy 

Ass. Editeur - Ass. Editor : J. Aikins 

Conseillers - Advisers : J.D. Keita - G.S. Child 

Nature et Faune depend de vos contributions b6n6voles et 
volontaires sous la forme d'articles ou d'annonces dans le 
domaine de la conservation de la nature et de la faune sau- 
vage dans la Region. Pour la publication d'articles ou tout 
renseignement complementaire, ecrire k I'adresse suivante: 

"Nature et Faune" Is dependent upon your free and voluntary 
contributions in the form of articles and announcements in 
the field of wildlife and nature conservation in the Region. 
For publication of articles or any further Information, please 
contact: 

Revue NATURE ET FAUNE 

FA.O. Regional Ofllce for Africa 

P.O. BOX 1628 

ACCRA (Ghana) 



Sommaire - Contents 

Editorial 3 

JLe sort des rhinoceros d'Afrique: trag6die k I'^chelle d'un continent 4 
African solutions to wildlife problems in Africa: insights from a community-based 

project In Zambia 10 

Notes on the duikers of Sierra Leone 24 

HprWildlife management for rural development in sub-Saharan Africa 36 

TRADUCTIONS -TRANSLATIONS 48 

Conservation, Reunions k venir / Upcoming events , Books / Livres 79 



Le contenu des articles de cette revue exprime les opinions de leurs auteurs et ne reflete pas necessairement celles de la FAO, du PNUE ou de la redaction. 11 n'exprime 
done pas une prise de position officielle, ni de I'Organisation des Nations Unies pour I'Alimentation et I' Agriculture, ni du Programme des Nations Unies pour I'Environne- 
ment. En particulier les appellations employees dans cette publication et la presentation des donnees qui y figurent n'impliquent de la part de ces Organisations aucune 
prise de position quant au statut juridique des pays, territoires, villes ou zones ou de leurs autorites, ni quant aux traces de leurs frontiires ou llmites. 

The opinions expressed by contributing authors are not necessarily those of FAO, UNEP or the editorial board. Thus, they do not express the official position of the Food 
and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations, nor that of the United Nations Environment Programme. The designations employed and the presentation of material in 
this publication do not imply the position of these organisations concerning the legal status of any country, territory, city or area or of its authorities, or corKeming the deli- 
mitation of its frontiers or boundaries. 



Printed by The Advent Press — Accra 



EDITORIAL 



Chers lecteurs, votre courrier le prouve, la 
version bilingue est arrivee a point nomme 
pour renforcer les contacts inter-africains et 
favoriser les echanges d'idees et de techni- 
ques entre pays francophones et pays anglo- 
phones au sein du continent et au-dela. 

Apres un an (quatre numeros) de version 
bilingue, et alors que le nombre de lecteurs 
n'a cesse d'augmenter, en particulier dans les 
pays anglophones, notre revue va renouer 
avec une habitude delaisse le temps de mettre 
en place la nouvelle version: il s'agit des nou- 
velles de la conservation et de la revue de li- 
vres et de reunions Internationales. Ce troi- 
sieme volet de "Nature et Faune" vient se gref- 
fer apres les pages vertes des traductions; il 
presente directement chaque information sui- 
vie de sa traduction, sauf la revue des livres et 
des reunions qui sera faite dans les langues 
d'origine. 

Comme dans le passe, "Nature et Faune" 
traite de sujets aussi varies et complemen- 
taires que possible : le sort tragique des rhino- 
ceros a travers le continent, les causes et les 
remedes appliques; I'exemple zambien de 
gestion de la faune par les communautes ru- 
rales elles-memes; un article plus scientifique 
sur les cephalophes de Sierra Leone et en 
particulier sur le rarissime cephalophe de Jen- 
tink, et enfin un document plus general mais 
non moins captivant sur I'importance de la 
faune et de son amenagement pour le deve- 
loppement rural en Afrique subsaharienne. 



Dear readers, your letters testify to the fact 
that the bilingual edition came in at the right 
time to help strengthen interafrican contacts 
and improve the exchange of Ideas and te- 
chniques between English and French-spea- 
king countries of the continent and beyond. 

After one year (four issues) of the bilingual 
version, and with an ever increasing rea- 
dership especially from the English-speaking 
countries, the magazine is introducing topics 
that were "abandoned" during the preparation 
of the bilingual edition : conservation news, 
book review and international meetings. This 
third section of the magazine will come after 
the green pages of translations; each item is 
presented with its translation, except the book 
review and meetings which are presented in 
their original language. 

As with past issues, the present edition of 
"Nature et Faune" covers subjects that are as 
broad and complementary as possible: the 
tragic fate of rhinoceros in Africa, causes and 
remedies; the Zambian example of local parti- 
cipation in wildlife management; a scientific 
article on the duikers of Sierra Leone, espe- 
cially the extremely rare Jentink's duiker, and 
finally, a more general but also captivating 
article on the importance of wildlife and its 
management for rural development in sub- 
Saharan Africa. 



Le sort des rhinoceros d'Afrique : 
tragedie a I'echelle 
d'un continent 



(see translation page 48) 

Violent, dangereux, agressif, vicieux : les 
qualifications ne manquent pas pour designer 
les rhinoceros. Une telle reputation, qui fut 
savamment entretenue pendant des dizaines 
d'annees par les recits des grands chasseurs, 
est cependant injustifiee. Certes, les rhinoce- 
ros ont leur caractere : lis sont quelquefois 
irascibles, et leurs reactions demeurent tou- 
jours impr6visibles. Mais ils n'ont cependant 
rien de ces monstres agressifs qui n'existent 
somme toute que dans I'esprit des hommes, 
lorsque ceux-ci accablent les animaux afin de 
mieux justifier leur propre penchant pour la 
cruaute et la violence... 

Les rhinoceros : animaux surprenants, 
anachroniques, bizarres, sont les derniers 
descendants d'une lignee ancienne, les seuls 
survivants d'une famille qui connut ses heures 
de gloire a une epoque ou Thomme n'existait 
pas encore. Fossiles vivants, rescapes de la 
prehistoire, temoins d'une epoque revolue, 
les rhinoceros ont, intacts, traverse les ages. 
L'evolution a fait d'eux des machines parfaite- 
ment adaptees au monde dans lequel ils vi- 
vent. Mais revolution n'a pu les mettre a I'abri 
de la convoitise des hommes. 

100 000 rhinoceros noirs vivaient encore 
en Afrique 11 y a quelques dizaines d'annees 
seulement : il en reste moins de 3 500 aujour- 



par Bernard de Wetter* 



d'hui, et le braconnage dementiel qui a defer- 
le sur la majorite du continent est peut-etre en 
train de leur porter I'estocade finale. Quant 
au rhinoceros blanc, I'autre espece presente 
en Afrique, ses effectifs actuels ne represen- 
ted plus que I'ombre de ce qu'ils etaient au 
siecle passe. 

Bien plus sans doute que le fait meme de 
leur declin, ce sont les causes profondes de 
celui-ci qui paraissent inacceptables. Les rhi- 
noceros n'entrent nullement en conflit avec 
les activites de I'homme, ne representent au- 
cune menace pour celle-ci. lis disposent par 
ailleurs de suffisamment d'espace encore 
pour pouvoir prosperer dans la plus grande 
partie de leur aire de repartition. S'ils dispa- 
raissent, c'est uniquement parce qu'ils sont 
massacres en grand nombre, et ceci pour des 
motifs particulierement futiles, puisqu'il s'agit 
ni plus ni moins que de perpetuer des tradi- 
tions, des croyances solidement incrustees 
dans la mentalite de certains peuples. 

La cause de tous les malheurs pour les rhi- 
noceros, ce sont les cornes qu'ils arborent 
sur le devant de la tete. Celles-ci ne sont pas 
soudees au squelette de I'animal : elles ne 
sont en fait rien de plus qu'un agglomerat de 
keratine, c'est-a-dire une matiere comparable 
aux ongles de nos doigts ou aux sabots des 



chevaux. Elles sont cependant pris^es en 
tant que medicament aux pouvoirs multiples 
et presque magiques (mais dont I'inefficacite 
reelle a aujourd'hui ete demontee scientifique- 
ment), tandis qu'au Yemen, on les utilise pour 
fabriquer les crosses des poignards tradition- 
nels, les "djambiahs", que se doit de porter 
tout Yemenite male qui se respecte. 

Les demeles des rhinoceros avec I'homme 
ne datent pas d'hier : depuis des milliers d'an- 
nees, ces animaux ont ete convoites par I'etre 
humain, qui lui a attribue des vertus surnatu- 
relles : au Moyen-Age en Europe, ne I'a-t-on 
pas confondu avec la licorne, cet animal my- 
thique ? L'interet de I'homme envers les rhi- 
noceros a laisse des traces tout au long de 
I'histoire. 

Les cornes des rhinoceros etaient large- 
ment utilisees au debut de I'ere chretienne 
dans la Chine imperiale : fagonnees par les 
artisans de renom, elles etaient transformees 
en objets ornamentaux, reserves aux nantis 
de la societe. La plupart des cornes travail- 
lees en Extreme-Orient a I'epoque etaient ce- 
pendant transformees en coupes sculptees, 
qui servaient uniquement de pieces de collec- 
tion. Par la suite, les coupes servirent princi- 
palement a detecter la presence de poison re- 
pandu dans un breuvage : la pratique de sou- 
mettre les boissons a I'epreuve de la corne se 
repandit en Extreme-Orient, en Europe, et 
meme dans certaines regions d'Afrique. Mais 
les cornes de rhinoceros furent de tout temps 
utilisees principalement dans le domaine de la 
medecine. Les Europeens leur attribuerent 
des vertus curatives pendant plusieurs cen- 
taines d'annees. Cependant, c'est en Asie 
que I'emploi de la corne de rhinceros dans la 
medecine traditionelle fut le plus repandu. 
Panacee universelle, ou presque, la corne 
etait consideree posseder (et posseder d'ail- 
leurs toujours) des effets curatifs contre une 



panoplie de maux aussi divers que la fidvre et 
les migraines, les Intoxications alimentaires 
ou les morsures de serpent I Seules les Guja- 
ratis de I'lnde orientale cependant attribuerent 
a la corne de rhinoceros des pouvoirs aphro- 
disiaques. 

Le commerce des cornes de rhinoceros 
etait deja une entreprise florissante dans une 
certaine partie de I'Afrique bien avant I'arrivee 
des Blancs. Deja dans les premiers siecles 
de I'ere chretienne, les arabes entretenaient 
des relations avec les ports africains de la Mer 
Rouge, et les cornes, collectees a I'interieur 
du continent, etaient exportees vers les ports 
arabes et indiens, d'ou elles continuaient en- 
suite vers la Chine. Les echanges commer- 
ciaux entre I'Afrique et {'Orient se perpetue- 
rent au cours des siecles, via les cites por- 
tuaires de la Mer Rouge et de I'Ocean Indien. 
Les Anglais et les Allemands, qui se partage- 
rent I'Afrique de I'Est au siecle passe, conti- 
nuerent le commerce des cornes de rhinoce- 
ros. On estime que durant la seconde moitie 
du 19e siecle, une moyenne de onze tonnes 
de cornes etaient exportees annuellement, ce 
qui represente la mort d'au moins 170 000 
animaux ! 

La valeur de la corne augmenta reguliere- 
ment tout au long du 20e siecle. La vente de 
cornes de rhinoceros et d'ivoire devint un 
monopole d'Etat en Afrique de I'Est et du Sud 
apres I'independance : a la fin des annees 
soixante, la corne se vendait 30£ le kilo. Mais 
ce chiffre allait deculper quelque dix annees 
plus tard, et ne cesserait par la suite de grim- 
per en fleche pour atteindre des sommes as- 
tronomiques. Plusieurs facteurs furent a I'ori- 
gine de cette flambee des prix, dont le princi- 
pal fut I'entree en scene d'un nouvel acheteur 
dans les annees soixante-dix : le Yemen. Le 
Yemen du Nord etait demeure pendant des 
decennies une nation particulierement pauvre 



et compldtement coupee du reste du monde; 
mais au terme d'une guerre civile sauvage qui 
le devasta pendant plus de huit ans, le pays 
s'ouvrit k I'aide Internationale. Parallelement, 
de tres nombreux Y6m6nites partirent travail- 
ler sur les champs petroliferes d'Arabie Saou- 
dite au debut des annees soixante-dix. Les 
sommes considerables de devises rapportees 
par ces travailleurs propulserent I'ecooomie 
du pays, et permit k des acheteurs toujours 
plus nombreux de s'offrir un luxe jusqu'alors 
reserve a I'elite de la society : un poignard au 
manche sculpte dans une corne de rhinoce- 
ros... A la fin des annees soixante-dix, un geo- 
graphe americain, Esmond Bradley Martin, 
mit en Evidence le role jou6 par le Y6men du 
Nord dans la disparition des rhinoceros en 
Afrlque : ce petit pays de moins de six mil- 
lions d'Smes absorbait k lui seul non moins 



de 50 % du volume total du trafic des cornes 
de rhinoceros afrlcains I 

Personne n'a jamais su et ne saura com- 
bien de rhinoceros peuplaient TAfrique au 
moment ou les premiers explorateurs blancs 
mirent pied sur cette terre jusqu'alors incon- 
nue. Mais les recits des premiers voyageurs 
abondent en rencontres avec des rhinoceros, 
et il n'etait pas rare d'en rencontrer 60 ou 80 
exemplaires en une seule journee de marche. 
Avec le developpement des structures colo- 
niales debuta I'age d'or des grands chasseurs 
: d6s la fin du siecle pass6, la faune d'Afrique 
exergait un attrait irresistible sur les porteurs 
de fusil de tous horizons. Les rhinoceros, 
grosses betes placides et peu m6fiantes, han- 
dicapes par leur vue mediocre, constituaient 
des cibles de premier choix. 




Groupe de jeunes rhinoceros deplac^s pour une meilleure protection vers le centre du Zimbabwe . Imire Game Ranch. 
Group of young rhinoceros translocated for a better protection to the central area of Zimbabwe. Imire Game Ranch 

(Photo J.-J. Leroy) 



L'homme blanc se livra k un veritable car- 
nage, particulierement en Afrique du Sud. Le 
rhinoceros blanc fut le premier a se ressentir 
des effets de cette chasse abusive : en 1 890, 
I'espece avait pour ainsi dire disparu dans le 
sud du continent. En 1 890, un groupe de six 
sujets fut cependant apergu au Natal, et pour 
la premiere fois, des mesures de protection 
allaient enfin etre prises en faveur de ces ani- 
maux : la chasse fut interdite, et une reserve 
ailait bientot etre creee en vue de leur protec- 
tion. Dans le centre de I'Afrique, le rhinoceros 
blanc faisait deja I'objet d'une exploitation 
bien avant I'arrivee des Blancs, mais "leux-ci 
s'associerent bientot aux marchands arabes a 
la recherche de rhinoceros, notamment au 
Tchad. 

Plus nombreux et moins facile k localiser 
que son cousin blanc, le rhinoceros noir par- 
vint a se maintenir plus longtemps; mais ses 
effectifs ne cesserent cependant de baisser 
pendant toute la premiere moitie du vingtieme 
siecle, et deja dans les annees quarante, I'es- 
pece etait devenue tres rare dans certains 
pays, tels le Tchad, I'Ethiopie et la Somalie. 
Ailleurs par contre, I'entre deux guerres mar- 
qua une periode de repit pour les rhinoceros, 
et ce fut bien plus la mise en culture de nou- 
velles terres que la chasse qui diminua leurs 
effectifs. 

Au debut des annees cinquante, si les rhi- 
noceros avaient done disparu dans une partie 
de leur aire de repartition, leur avenir en tant 
qu'especes n'etait cependant nullement me- 
nace. En Afrique du Sud, le rhinoceros blanc 
connaissait au contraire un renouveau spec- 
taculaire. Mais la fin des annees de repit ne 
devait plus tarder... Deja dans les annees cin- 
quante, on assista a une recrudescence du 
braconnage dirige contre les rhinoceros, une 
tendance qui ne fit que s'accentuer par la 
suite un peu partout en Afrique. Au debut des 



annees soixante-dix, les armes traditionnelles 
furent de plus remplac6es par un equipement 
moderne et redoutable : carabines de chasse 
et fusils automatiques. Une veritable vague 
de braconnage se mit k deferler sur TAfrique, 
eliminant sur son passage les rhinoceros d'un 
pays apres I'autre. Ceux-cl avaient pour ainsi 
dire disparu d'Ethiopie, de Somalie, du 
Tchad, du Soudan, d'Angola, du Mozambique 
et d'Ouganda k la fin des annees soixante- 
dix. 

L' Afrique de I'Est fut frapp6e de plein fouet 
egalement : le Kenya, qui comptait encore 20 
000 rhinoceros noirs en 1970, n'en abritait 
plus que 500 quinze annees plus tard. La le- 
pre du braconnage gagna ensuite la Tanzanie 
et la Zambie voisines, et les rhinoceros y fu- 
rent d^cimes en quelques annees. La Repu- 
blique Centrafricaine fut longtemps conside- 
ree comme un bastion sur pour les rhinoce- 
ros. Mais en 1983, des membres du gouver- 
nement Bokassa prirent soudain conscience 
du potentiel fabuleux que representaient les 
comes des quelque 3000 rhinoceros que 
comptait le pays : le massacre fut mene avec 
une efficacitd inouTe, et 99 % des rhinoceros 
de Centrafrique furent aneantis en quelques 
moisseulement... 

Un seul pays abritait encore plusieurs mil- 
liers de rhinoceros en 1984 : le Zimbabwe, 
I'ancienne Rhodesie du Sud de I'ere coloniale 
britannique. Mais cette annee, les tueurs de 
rhinoceros tournerent leurs regards vers cet 
uitime bastion : les premieres incursions de 
braconniers furent enregistrees en decembre 
1984, et le pays dut rapidement faire face a 
une veritable invasion de braconniers bien or- 
ganises, puissamment armes et particuliere- 
ment agressifs, operant de la Zambie voisine. 

La ou la situation politique le permettait, 
des efforts toujours plus intenses furent me- 
nes en vue d'assurer la protection des rhino- 



c^ros. Mais la lutte antibraconnage et le ren- 
forcement des moyens de surveillance ne pu- 
rent cependant empecher les tueurs de per- 
p6trer leurs m6faits, m§me dans les sites les 
plus frequentes. 

Le Kenya se vit bientot contraint de ras- 
sembler la majority de ses quelque 500 rhino- 
ceros rescap6s dans des sanctuaires sp6- 
ciaux cr66s k leur intention. D^s 1985 fut ap- 
plique un plan national de sauvetage des rhi- 
noceros, et des travaux d'amenagement fu- 
rent entrepris en vue de doter cinq pares na- 
tionaux de sanctuaires. Veritables forte- 
resses, ces sanctuaires sont entour^s d'une 
cloture haute de trois metres, eiectrifiee k 
5000 Volts, et munie de systemes d'alarme 
eiectroniques. lis sont surveilies en perma- 
nence par des gardes qui parcourent jour et 
nuit le perimetre de la cloture, le long de la- 
quelle sont Instalies des postes de patrouille k 
des intervalles de quelques kilometres. Cinq 
pares nationaux ont ete designes pour heber- 
ger un tel sanctuaire, dont la superficie varie 
de 2 500 k 22 000 hectares : Nakuru, Nairobi, 
Meru, Tsavo et Aberdares; quatre ranches 
prives, qui detiennent plus d'un tiers des rhi- 
noceros du Kenya k I'heure actuelle, ont ega- 
lement ete Indus dans la strategie nationale 
de sauvetage de ces animaux... 

Plus de 1000 rhinoceros blancs peuplaient 
le Pare national de la Garamba au Zaire a 
I'heure de I'independance; mais 11 n'en restait 
plus que 14 en tout et pour tout lorsque fut 
lance un ambitieux programme de sauvetage 
de ces animaux en 1984. Finance par rUICN, 
la Societe zoologique de Francfort et I'UNES- 
CO, le projet de rehabilitation du Pare natio- 
nal de la Garamba mene depuis 1984 une sur- 
veillance attentive autour des rhinoceros 
blancs, dont le nombre est remonte depuis a 
22 unites : les ultimes survivants d'une popu- 
lation jadis florissante qui comptait plusieurs 



dizaines de milliers d'animaux, repartis sur un 
vaste territoire couvrant le Tchad, la Republi- 
que Centrafricaine, le Soudan, le nord du 
Zaire et de I'Ouganda. 

Des les premieres attaques des bracon- 
niers dans la Valiee du Zambeze, au Zim- 
babwe, le gouvernement s'engagea dans une 
lutte de grande envergure pour sauver ses 
rhinoceros. Mais en depit des efforts absolu- 
ment remarquables consentis par ce pays, les 
rhinoceros noirs de la Valiee du Zambeze fu- 
rent decimes par centaines. En 1985, le De- 
partement des pares nationaux entreprit done 
de capturer un maximum de rhinoceros dans 
la Valiee du Zambeze, afin de les relacher 
dans d'autres sites situes loin des frontieres, 
ou lis demeurent a I'abri des tueurs. Plusieurs 
centaines de rhinoceros ont d'ores et dej^ fait 
I'objet de telles mesures, tandis que se pour- 
suivait dans la Valiee du Zambeze la guerre 
du rhinoceros, une guerre qui sacrifie chaque 
annee chez les gardes des dizaines de vies 
humaines... 

Les efforts entrepris au Kenya, au Zaire et 
au Zimbabwe constituent probablement la 
derniere chance de survie des rhinoceros en 
Afrique. Tant que durera le projet de rehabili- 
tation du Pare national de la Garamba, 11 est 
permis d'esperer que les derniers rhinoceros 
blancs d'Afrique Centrale survivront, et pour- 
ront se multiplier lentement. Si les forteresses 
du Kenya parviennent k remplir leur role, elles 
permettront k un important noyau de repro- 
duction du rhinoceros noir de se maintenir 
durant le temps necessaire. Aussi longtemps 
que la lutte anti-braconnage sera menee avec 
autant de vigueur dans la Valiee du Zambeze, 
les braconniers ne pourront s'attaquer aux 
populations de rhinoceros du sud de I'Afri- 
que, ou les deux especes jouissent aujour- 
d'hui encore d'une protection exemplaire. 
Quelques petites populations de ces pachy- 



dermes survivent au Botswana, en Namibie, 
au Malawi et au Swaziland. L'Afrique du Sud 
est desormais le dernier pays d'Afrique ou les 
rhinoceros des deux especes sont en aug- 
mentation constante. 

Les rhinoceros ont souffert de toutes les 
m^prises. lis ont occup6, ils occupent encore 
une place ambigue dans I'esprit et la culture 
de peuples aussi diff^rents les uns des autres 
que les Chinois, les Arabes, les Indiens ou les 
Zoulous. 

Depuis des miII6naires, les rhinoceros ont 
exerce une fascination melee de superstition 
et de crainte sur I'homme. L'homme, qui tout 
en leur conf6rant des qualitds surnaturelles, a 
de tout temps cherche a les eliminer. Comme 
si I'existence des rhinoceros lui paraissait in- 
supportable, parce que ces creatures 
etranges ont, peut-etre, le pouvoir de ramener 
I'espece humaine k sa juste dimension, a sa 
juste place. Les rhinoceros sont 1^ pour nous 
rappeler que la vie sur Terre n'a pas commen- 
ce avec I'apparition de l'homme... 

S'ils venaient k disparaitre, le monde n'en 
cesserait sans doute pas de tourner. Mais la 
nature d'Afrique, aves ses men/eilles de cou- 
leurs et de formes, serait-elle encore la meme 
sans les rhinoceros ? Quel espoir aurait-on 
encore de sauvegarder des communautes 
naturelles intactes et tous les etres qui les 
composent, mammiferes, oiseaux, poissons, 
insectes et autres invertebres, des plus visi- 
bles aux plus discrets, des plus imposants 



aux plus anodins, des plus populaires aux 
moins aimes, des plus ceidbres aux plus ridi- 
cules, et sur lesquels, sans aucune exception, 
reposent pourtant les fondements memes de 
la vie sur notre planete ? 

Dans quelques rares sanctuaires, les der- 
niers rhinoceros d'Afrique vivent encore leur 
vie paisible, insouciante, au rythme des jours 
et des nuits, des saisons et des annees, 
comme ils I'ont fait depuis toujours et pour- 
raient le faire encore jusqu'^ la fin des temps. 
A condition que l'homme leur en laisse la 
chance- 



Article extrait des cahiers d'Ethologie ap- 
pliquee. 1989, 9(1): 97-102 



* Adresse de I'auteur : 
rue Leys 35 
B-1040 BRUXELLES 
BELGIQUE 




10 



African solutions to wildlife problems in 
Africa: insights from a community-based 

project in Zambia 



(voir traduction page 52) 



by D.M. Lewis, A. Mwenya and G.B. Kaweclie* 



Today, rural coexistence with wildlife is 
precarious and heavily aid dependent. The 
magnitude of the challenge to make it once 
more self-sustainable in the longer term 
clearly requires more than a law enforcement 
response. As In former traditional times, rural 
community cooperation is indispensable. 



Historically, African societies had a stable 
coexistence witii wildlife, a function of tiie in- 
trinsic value attached to ecological conserva- 
tion in African culture (Hadley, 1985; l^arl<s, 
1976). However, the institution of colonial 
centralized governments undermined custo- 
mary laws as well as the authority of traditio- 
nal African leaders who enforced them (Swift, 
1982; Willis, 1985). As the colonial govern- 
ments were unable to provide an effective al- 
ternative means of wildlife conservation, the 
result was a poaching "gold rush" for the 
riches of rhino horn, elephant ivory and other 
short-term gains. 

Following independence, most African 
states maintained the colonial structure of 
centralized game departments and national 
parl<s systems. In most cases, wildlife mana- 
gement has been based on the adoption of 



punitive measures designed to maintain bar- 
riers between wildlife resources in protected 
areas and local residents living in or around 
such areas. 

Zambia has had more than a decade of ef- 
forts in dealing with wildlife managment, and 
specifically with a serious poaching problem 
(Lewis and Kaweche, 1985; Lewis, Kaweche 
and Mwenya, 1989; Leder-Williams, 1985). In- 
tensive law enforcement campaigns were wa- 
ged in selected parts of the country and fun- 
ded by large amounts of money. However, 
despite increased arrests, wildlife losses 
continued; in some cases they even increa- 
sed where such programmes operated (Le- 
wis, 1986). National losses of wildlife re- 
sources during this period included a near ex- 
tinction of the blacl< rhino and the reduction of 
over 50 percent of the elephant population. 
Similar trends have been documented in the 
United Republic of tanzania, Uganda, Namibia 
and Kenya. 

Although law enforcement measures conti- 
nued as an accepted deterrent to poaching, 
Zambia's National Pari<s and Wildlife Services 
undertook experimental studies (Lewis, 
Kaweche and Mwenya, 1989) and a technical 
worl<shop (Dalai-Clayton and Lewis, 1984) 



11 




Where the ADMADE programme has been implemented no rhinos have been poached in 3 years 
L^ ou le programme ADMADE a 6t6 r^lis^, aucun rhino n'a 6t6 braconn^ en 3 ans (photo J J. Leroy) 



during this period to help identify the under- 
lying causes of illegal hunting. As a result, a 
new national policy of wildlife management, 
called the Administrative management design 
(ADMADE) for game managment areas, was 
formulated to deal with these causes (Mwe- 
nya, Kaweche and Lewis, 1988). 

Based heavily on people's participation. In 
the areas where it has been implemented, AD- 
MADE has proved to be highly effective. For 
instance, In a three-year period, poaching of 
elephants declined by over 90 percent in one 
wildlife area in Zambia where local participa- 
tion was actively promoted (Lewis, Kaweche 
and Mwenya, 1989). Furthermore, a resident 
population of black rhino suffered not a single 
instance of poaching during this period des- 
pite adequate numbers to attract illegal hun- 
ters (Lewis, unpublished data). This was 
achieved at a fraction of the cost assumed ne- 
cessary to ensure adequate protection of wil- 



dlife in Africa on a per km basis by many wil- 
dlife experts (Parker, 1984; Bell and Clarke, 
1984). 

This article first focuses on selected quan- 
tifiable variables that the above-mentioned 
studies and the results thus far obtained from 
the ADMADE programme have identified as 
key determinants in helping to predict poa- 
ching levels and wildlife management pro- 
blems for a given area. Various methods or 
management treatments that can modify the 
value of these variables, and thus reduce the 
frequency and severity of poaching, are also 
discussed. Finally, a set of guiding principles 
are presented that government planners and 
wildlife authorities may find useful when 
considering options for dealing with wildlife 
management in Africa. 



12 



VARIABLES AND CAUSAL 
RELATIONSHIPS 



Availability of alternative pro- 
tein sources 



In rural societies where legal protein 
sources are limited, residents tend to adopt il- 
legal practices to secure at least a minimal 
per caput requirement. As such practices go 
unchecked, subsistence levels are often ex- 
ceeded. Under these circumstances villagers 
living outside and along the boundaries of 
protected areas with easy access to wildlife 
resources wHI resort to illegal hunting in these 
areas, despite the greater risks of being ap- 
prehended. 

A comparative study between two neigh- 
boring villages, both in a tsetse-fly infested 
area and therefore without domestic animals, 
suggested the significance of the availability 
of alternative protein sources in predicting 
poaching levels among village communities li- 
ving outside protected areas (Lewis, 1 988; Le- 
wis, unpublished data). One village was loca- 
ted along a major river with high availability of 
fish. The other had no significant alternative 
meat supply other than the depleted wildlife 
resources In its area. The village with acess 
to fish had far fewer traditional hunters and 
contributed much less to the area's poaching 
problems than the village with less acess to 
fish. 

Options for dealing with this variable may 
be limited, depending on the intrinsic features 
of the area concerned. One possibility is to 
promote alternative protein sources not dis- 
ruptive to wildlife (i.e. introduction of fish far- 
ming, more intensive farming of plant protein 



species, etc.). Another is to allot a sustaina- 
ble quota of animals to resident village hun- 
ters, and to employ their services to provide 
meat to the community. This would reduce 
pressures on the more threatened species 
and would also permit a more careful monito- 
ring of the off-takes. This may help to ensure 
a net positive growth rate In the harvested po- 
pulations, if such a growth rate Is desirable 
from a management point of view. 



Employment opportunities 

The growing need for income opportuni- 
ties in rural socieities Is becoming acute 
throughout Africa as the availability and ac- 
cessibility of natural resources diminish. Gi- 
ven the external market forces related to wil- 
dlife, principally meat and trophies (skins, 
horns, teeth, etc.), when the need for income 
Is great enough, local residents engage them- 
selves in paid services, legal or otherwise. 
Because of limited educational opportunities, 
local people often do not know the real mar- 
ket value of wildlife commodities sought by 
outside commercial interests and therefore 
exchange or sell them at prices far below their 
actual value. 

While employment opportunities and aval- 
lability of non-wildlife protein sources may va- 
ry between areas, it is relatively simple to de- 
termine what their respective levels are. With 
such information predictions about poaching 
levels can be made (see Figure 1). 

Wildlife management as Implemented by 
the governing authority can help to Increase 
local employment opportunities In a number 
of ways: 

Recruit and train local residents to pro- 
vide the major share of the required work- 



13 



force in the management of wildlife. Such a 
programme was initiated on a trial basis in 
1985 by Zambia's National Parl<s and Wildlife 
Service (Lewis, Kaweche and Mwenya, 1989). 
Results Included an Increased understanding 
and appreciation of wildlife resources, their 
economic values, and the need to prevent 
non-residents from entering their area to hunt 
illegally. Locally recruited perconnel em- 
ployed to protect their chiefdom's wildlife 
were shown to have a superior knowledge of 
the land and less absenteeism than civil ser- 
vant wildlife scouts, whose home areas were 
usually In a different part of the country. As a 
result, these locally recruited workers, called 
village scouts, contributed a significantly 
greater proportion of total arrests of illegal 
hunters. Furthermore, because the salary 
scales for the village scouts were based more 




Availability 

aiiernativ« 
protein 



Employment opportunities 



on expected local income earnings, the costs 
of maintaining them proved far less expensive 
than civil sen/ant scouts. 

Promote programmes that encourage lo- 
cal residents to engage in small, non-disrup- 
tive "cottage Industries" that depend on either 
consumptive (sustained-yield utilization) or 
non-consumptive uses of wildlife. Evidence 
suggests conservationist attitudes toward wil- 
dlife within a village area grow as the resi- 
dents' dependency on the sustained-yield use 
of wildlife increases. As this occurs there is 
also an increase in appreciation among the 
local residents for the law enforcement efforts 
by their own village scouts. Such apprecia- 
tion may take the form of volunteering infor- 
mation to village scouts when illegal hunters 
enter their area, as has been documented in 

Zambia (Lewis, 
1989). 

Encourage vil- 
lage meetings to 
solicit views and 
criticisms from lo- 
cal residents on 
the management 
of their wildlife re- 
sources. These 
have proved ins- 
trumental in mini- 
mizing misconcep- 
tions and promo- 



FIGURE 1: Poaching 
levels and characteri- 
stics as affected by alter- 
native protein sources 
and employment oppor- 
tunities. 



14 



ting self-imposed responsibilities in the mana- 
gement and protection of wildlife resources 
(Lewis, 1988 and unpublished data). This ap- 
proach is fundamental for establishing ties of 
joint cooperation between local residents and 
the technical government department respon- 
sible for providing legally sustainable benefits 
from wildlife for local communities (Mwenya, 
Kawecheand Lewis, 1988). 

Government acceptance of tradi- 
tional leadership on wildlife is- 
sues 

Chiefs and/or headmen are the corners- 
tones of African rural societies and the tradi- 
tional customs that bind and regulate village 
communities. Land tenure and acess to natu- 
ral resources were formerly determined by 
these chiefs in the common interest. Intefe- 
rence with or abolition of these powers during 
and after colonial administration has led to a 
situation where central governments are una- 
ble to sustain needs of adequate law enforce- 
ment to protect wildlife resources. The conti- 
nued misuse of these resources leads to the 
imposition of ineffective punitive measures 
which tend to further erode the influence of 
traditional rulers. 

A potentially acceptable approach for intef- 
grating traditional local leadership with mo- 
dern centralized governments in dealing with 
wildlife conservation issues is the formation of 
a partnership between the two authorities. 
The ADMADE policy (Mwenya, Kaweche and 
Lewis, 1988) effectively does this by the es- 
tablishment of Wildlife Management Authori- 
ties for each game management area. Chai- 
red by the District Governor, an Authority is 
composed of local, traditional rulers and se- 



nior-level wildlife officers. The members meet 
periodically to exchange views and adopt wil- 
dlife management policies for that particular 
area. Under this approach, direct technical 
and capital inputs may be directed through 
government channels while traditional rulers 
exert their influence to increase local support 
and cooperation in managing the wildlife re- 
sources in their area. 

In the Chikwa-Luelo area of the Luangwa 
Valley, for example, the two ruling chiefs ac- 
cepted the ADMADE policy, which by vitrue of 
their chieftainship gave them chairmanship of 
their own Wildlife Management sub-Authority. 
These sub-authorities bring proposals and 
funding requests to the Wildlife Management 
Authority. The chiefs asserted their leaders- 
hip by condemning illegal hunting with the un- 
derstanding that their community would re- 
ceive benefits through the sharing of wildlife 
revenues under the ADMADE programme. 
Within a year poaching was reduced in the 
Chil<wa-Luelo area. 

The chiefs achieved greater respect from 
their people for using their traditional powers 
of authority to bring improved benefits to the 
community from wildlife. Revenue benefits 
were shared, as promised by the National 
Parks and Wildlife Service, and local residents 
wfere made village scouts to manage and pro- 
tect the wildlife in their own chiefdoms while 
earning a livelihood. Because a significant re- 
duction in poaching was achieved well in ad- 
vance of the establishment of the village scout 
programme, the decline in illegal hunting was 
attributed to the influence of traditional lea- 
ders (personal communication with Pater 
Mwanza, Unit Leader of the Chikwa-Luelo 
area). 

Similar response to local traditional rulers 
is emerging in several other game manage- 
ment areas where ADMADE is being imple- 



15 



merited and where the revenue benefits being 
sustained by ADMADE have become more 
noticeable. The Wildlife Managment Authori- 
ties in most of the ADMADE areas, for exam- 
ple, have opened "Community Development 
Accounts" In which they deposit the commu- 
nity development shares of the ADMADE wil- 
dlife revenues. In 1988 these shares equalled 
US$230,000 for ten ADMADE units. To en- 
sure that projects accepted by the community 
are funded, only the sub-authorities, whose 
members are primarily village headmen, can 
recommend community projects to the Au- 
thority, and chiefs are made signatories to 
these acoounts so that funds are used as in- 
tended. 

The Importance of traditional leadership in 
wildlife managment has become very appa- 
rent under the ADMADE designs and is also 



proving to be far more cost-effective than di- 
rect implementation by a government authori- 
ty (see Figure 2). For example, an approach 
observed in Luano and Sichifula-Mulobezi 
Game Management Areas under the AD- 
MADE programme is the translocation of villa- 
gers who engage In illegal hunting to areas 
where there are no animals. When it is known 
that a certain person hunts animals illegally 
and Is setting a bad example to the local com- 
munity, that person is sentenced by the chief 
as being unable to live peacefully with wildlife 
and is ordered to live where there are no ani- 
mals and to take up some other occupation. 
Figure 3 presents a set of relationships be- 
tween traditional rulers and hunters as they 
may affect illegal hunting. 



Poaching 
mtd 




Management costs 



FIGURE 2: 

Changes in rates of 
illegal hunting as a 
function of Increa- 
sed expenditure of 
management effort 
using different ma- 
nagement designs; 

a) reliance on 
conventional civil 
servant scouts who 
enforce punitive 
measures without 
local involvement; 

b) greater reliance 
on local participa- 
tion with joint lea- 
dership between 
traditional rulers 
and civil authori- 
ties. 



16 




Aoc8ptanc8 of traditional rulers as a wildlife 
manao«<T>«nt authofity by Ihe government 



FIGURE 3: Poa- 
ching levels in a region 
as a function of go- 
vernment recognition 
of traditional rulers 



Revenue earning capacity of tlie 
resource 

Another variable in tlie poacliing picture is 
the revenue-earning capacity of the resource. 
First, the area must be capable of generating 
substantial revenue through local manage- 
ment of wildlife resources. Second, there 
must be an agreed arrangement for returning 
a major portion of these revenues to the local 
area for meeting programme costs. In order 
to increase local employment through wildlife 
management, develop alternative protein 
sources, or incorporate local ruling authorities 
in the governing of wildlife matters, revenue is 
required on an annual basis. Otherwise, 
continuity cannot be assured; frequent inter- 
ruptions of the programme will tend to dis- 
courage local participation in the wildlife ma- 
nagement effort. 



National development plans throughout 
Africa show, beyond any doubt, that wildlife is 
relatively low priority in government spending. 
Results of the Lupande Development Project 
(Lewis, Kaweche and Mwenya, 1 989) and the 
current ADMADE programme (ADMADE, 
1988), indicate that in order to achieve a com- 
mitment on the part of local people to partici- 
pate in wildlife management efforts on a sus- 
tained basis, wildlife revenues need to be 
available at the local level, and the people 
themselves must participate in the develop- 
ment as well as the implementation of mana- 
gement efforts. 

On a national scale this is being effectively 
demonstrated by the ADMADE programme. 
For the 1987 and 1988 financial years, 
US$260,000, representing 40 percent of the 
total revenue earned from the wildlife re- 
source in ten ADMADE units, were withheld 
for local wildlife management programmes (in 



17 



addition to the base level allocation of 
$230,000 referred to earlier). This sum was 
used to meet both recurrent and capital ex- 
penditures in these units. Recurrent expendi- 
tures included the maintenance and running 
costs of the seven ADMADE vehicles, wages 
and allowances for the village scouts and ge- 
neral workers, law enforcement costs, and sit- 
ting allowances for the members of the 
wildlife management authorities. As for the 
capital expenditures, ten new camps were es- 



• 

Maintain local 

vigilanoB of 

wiidlil* r»souro«ft, 

subsidized by 

QOv«rnm«nt rBvvniiet 



Promote 

oonsarvabonJst views 

vnong local residents 

by diraciino legally 

obtairted wlldiite 

revenues toward 

supporting community 

benefia 

• 

Promote social status 

of local residents 

employed in wikSife 

management 

• 

Salaor scale of legally 

employed scouu 

should be compebtive 

wi^ easing 

employment 

opportunities 



jrvestm 

profit-orienied 

wKdlite management 

to support 

local empioyment 

• 

Develop alternative 

protein sources 

• 

Employ traditional 

hunters (o harvest 

sustained- yield 

quotas kx 

local consumption 



• 

Maximize 

employment of 

viNage scouts from 

revenues derived 

from sustained- yield 

uses of wikSiis 

• 

Oerrxxtttrate to 

local residents the 

higher per caput 

earnings from 

legal uses of 

wildlte tan from 

illegaJuses 




Revenue earning capacity of wildlife 



tablished, 150 new huts for village scouts 
were built, three senior staff houses were re- 
novated, one unit headquarters was built and 
work on three others was Initiated. Both the 
recurrent and capital budgets were approved 
by each respective management authority. 

IN SEARCH OF SOME GUIDING 
PRINCIPLES 

Based on the experience of the ADMADE 
programme in Zambia, the fol- 
lowing are offered as a set of 
guiding principles that go- 
vernment planners and wildlife 
authorities may find useful 
when considering options for 
dealing with wildlife manage- 
ment in Africa. 

Employ predictive 
management in redu- 
cing illegal hunting 

Given that the various de- 
terminants of Illegal hunting 
are quantifiable, identification 
of those variables contributing 
to the problem, and the 
changes required to reduce it, 
provide a set of appropriate 
managment treatments. This 



FIGURE 4: 

Management treatments 
in response to three different 
determinants of poaching le- 
vels for a given area (see pre- 
sidctions in Figs 1 and 3) 



18 



Bene f its /Avantages 



Monetary (returns per kg for local residents) 
Binifices mon^talres (rentrSes d' argent pour les populations 

locales, par kilogramme) 



approach is a predictive managment tool; Fi- 
gure 4 provides a basis for evaluating the va- 
riables discussed in this article in order to de- 
termine an appropriate management ap- 
proach. 

Allow time and flexibility in in- 
troducing new programmes 

It is unreasonable to expect Immediate 
and universal acceptance of locally based wil- 
dlife management programmes. Initially, wil- 
dlife extension officers may face the handicap 
of being associated with past mistakes of the 
government de- 
partment re- 
sponsible for 
enforcing wil- 
dlife laws (Le- 
wis, 1989). This 
can result in 
strong initial re- 
sistance, des- 
pite the poten- 
tial benefits a 
programme 
may represent 
for the commu- 
nity. To facili- 
tate the accep- 
tance of whate- 
ver programme 
is being introdu- 
ced, the wildlife 
extension offi- 
cer must be 
sensitive to 
needs and aspi- 
rations of the lo- 
cal residents, 
and be know- 



ledgeable of past experiences and of local tri- 
bal customs. Persistence and patience are 
required simultaneously. Programmes that 
are forced into implmentation too quickly wi- 
thout full acceptance and understanding of 
how they can serve local needs will lack the 
necessary foundation of local involvement 
and commitment. 

Ensure economic incentives for 
legal uses of wildlife 

An obvious factor in determining relative 
poaching pressures on particular species of 



Legal/Chasse 
legale 



Illegal/Braconnage 



Meat 
Viande 



Skin 
Peaux 



Other trophies 
Autres trophies 



potentially high 
potentlellement 
^levds 

high 
Aleves 



high 
^lev^s 



moderate 
moderns 



low to nil 
de faibles k nul 



low 
faibles 



Employment (eraployment levels per animal harvested) 
Emplois (emplois par animal exploit^) 



1. Processing wildlife products 
Transformation 

2. Marketing 
Commercialisation 



high 
nombreux 

high 
nombreux 



low 
peu nombreux 

low 
peu nombreux 



Accountability of off-take 
Autres avantages 

1. Sustainability 
Durability 

2. Awareness by local leaders 
Sensibillsation des chefs 

locaux 



high 
Clevis 


low 
faibles 


high 


low to moderate 


eleves 


de faibles k mod^res 



Table 1 : Relative benefits available to the local community from 
the legal and illegal hunting of wildlife 



Tableau 1 



Chasse legale et braconnage: avantages comparatifs 
pour les communaut^s locales 



19 



wildlife is the economic benefit awarded to 
the illegal hunter. The sliding scale extends 
from the least commercially profitable spe- 
cies, such as duiker or grysbok, to the most 
profitable, elephant and rhino. While an effec- 
tive law enforcement programme involving lo- 
cal residents may reduce illegal hunting pres- 
sures, an Important complementary approach 
is to maximize the legally obtainable commer- 
cial values of the more "profitable" species, 
and to ensure that a portion of these revenues 
is channelled to local areas. This will increase 
cooperation with the law while sustaining the 
management costs of the area. This ap- 
proach has a greater chance of local accep- 
tance than community support of illegal uses 
for the simple reason that a larger economic 
return for the local community can be sustai- 
ned from legal uses (see Table). 

The manifestations of this approach in re- 
ducing poaching are far-reaching as seen in 
the Zambian ADMADE programme (Lewis, 
Kaweche and Mwenya, 1989; Mwenya, Ka- 
weche and Lewis. 1988; ADMADE. 1988). Wi- 
thin a three-year period in Lower Lupande 
Game Management Area, for example, local 
village leaders identified various ways of im- 
proving the management of their wildlife re- 
sources to increase the revenue potential. Vil- 
lage headmen volunteered their services as 
vigilantes to inform village scouts when illegal 
hunters entered their area. On another occa- 
sion village leaders raised their concern that 
safari hunters, who contribute the largest 
share of legally sustainable wildlife revenues, 
were hunting only male lions. Concerned that 
the trophy males were being overhunted, they 
urged that fewer males should be hunted, if 
necessary replaced with females. From a ma- 
nagement perspective, this was the appro- 
priate decision; it underlines the potential for 
improved management with local accpetance 



as the appreciation for the sustainability of re- 
venue earnings from wildlife increases among 
the indigenous residents. 

Another example serves to demonstrate 
how quickly a management problem can be 
solved through sustainable economic Incen- 
tives. Local traditional leaders were advised 
that late season bush fires were lowering the 
forage capacity to sustain wildlife. To main- 
tain hunting quotas that would generate local 
income and meat benefits, village leaders 
agreed to advise residents of the dangers of 
starting fires after forage conditions became 
too dry. 

Ensure threshold effect of wil- 
dlife management benefits 

Reduction of poaching levels through local 
employment in wildlife management Is a non- 
linear relationship for rural communities 
where employment opportunities are few (see 
Figure 5). Studies in Zambia suggest that if 
benefits are limited to too small a percentage 
of residents, residents who are not involved 
may resent the programme and conspire to 
frustrate the success of those who are em- 
ployed (Lewis, 1989 and unpublished data). 
However, once enough people in the commu- 
nity are receiving benefits, community peer 
pressure quickly shifts to local acceptance of 
the need to cooperate with the legal users of 
wildlife and poaching rates drop dramatically. 

In the ADMADE pilot programme, the Lu- 
pande Development Project, local employ- 
ment was initially comprised of only village 
scouts. As their efforts reduced poaching, a 
parallel effort was made to employ local resi- 
dents in the legal. sustainable uses of wildlife. 
By the end of the third year, there were ap- 
proximately three times more people em- 



20 



Poaching 
ievAls 




Pefcentafle of local residents rec»<vinfl bone^t• 
from a wildlife manaoe^wnf 



FIGURE 5: Changes in 
poaching levels in response 
to increasing percentage of 
local residents receiving 
benefits from a manage- 
ment programme that en- 
courages legal uses of wil- 
dlife only 



ployed in the legal uses of wildlife than as vil- 
lage scouts (Lewis, Kaweche and Mwenya, 
1989; Lewis, unpublished data). The level of 
Illegal hunting at the end of this period was 
negligible as compared to levels three years 
earlier. Attitude surveys indicated increased 
community interest in discouraging illegal 
hunters from entering the area, and greater 
support for village scouts (Lewis, 1988). 

Use successful efforts as exam- 
ples to stimulate programme ex- 
pansion 

If a programme is successful In reducing 
the effects of those variables contributing to 
poaching rates, it may also act as a catalyst 
for positive change in adjoining areas. Expe- 
rience In Zambia has shown that the ex- 
change of Information between neighbouring 



communities Is often rapid and can greatly fa- 
cilitate subsequent expansion of a pro- 
gramme if initial efforts are successful. Fur- 
thermore, this is achievable at no extra cost to 
the implementing agency of the programme. 
In 1989, only two years after the ADMADE 
programme was Instituted, two chiefs from 
outside the implementation area made formal 
requests to have their chiefdoms classified as 
Game Management Areas and adopted under 
the ADMADE policy. The significance of this 
is that only In a Game Management Area can 
the National Parks and Wildlife Service use 
public funds to assist with wildlife manage- 
ment and resource protection. 

To take full advantage of the "stepping- 
stone" effect, the initial implementation area 
should be where the potential sustainability of 
wildlife benefits Is relatively high and initial ef- 
forts should be persistent enough to bring the 
benefits Into full recognition by the communi- 



21 



ty. In this way the news travelling to neighbo- 
ring areas will be positive and convincing. 

Capitalize on the buffer effect of 
local participation 

A successful programme of local involve- 
ment in wildlife management in areas adjoi- 
ning protected or park areas may significantly 
reduce law enforcement costs within the pro- 
tected areas. As wildlife conservationist views 
evolve and grow, the probability of illegal hun- 
ters entering the protected area with the sup- 
port or acceptance of local residents dimi- 
nishes (Lewis, Kaweche and Mwenya, 1989; 
ADMADE, 1988). 

Arrange for protection of uninha- 
bited lands 

Resource requirements for human habita- 
tion may differ from those of wildlife re- 
sources. In many cases, therefore, an area 
endowed with important wildlife resources 
may be totally void of human habitation. Pro- 
tection of these areas can be achieved 
through maintaining or developing a sense of 
association or ownership by the nearest com- 
munities: this can offer the needed work-force 
for the area's management. This also helps to 
ensure the full potential revenues earned from 
the area, on a sustained-yield basis, thus pro- 
viding community benefits and easing manag- 
ment costs. 



Avoid overconserving wildlife at 
the expense of the indigenous 
conservationists 

It is recognized and appreciated that some 
wildlife enthusiasts in Africa often volunteer 
their services as non-professionals to aid in 
managing wildlife. The terms of reference for 
such non-government cooperation with the 
appointed legal wildlife managment authori- 
ties, however, are often vague. This can fos- 
ter a dangerous trend if well-funded, but un- 
coordinated non-government organizations 
assume roles that cause conflicts with go- 
vernment authorities. This may lead to divi- 
sive manoeuvrings between government and 
non-government authorities and a sub- 
sequent loss in cost-effectiveness for the use 
of funds available to wildlife conservation. 
Such conflicts may result in injudicious fun- 
ding distribution by outside donor agencies. 

An even more serious potential negative 
effect of these conflicts, however, is the ero- 
sion of confidence and morale among the 
professionally trained indigenous conservatio- 
nists serving as civil servants for the official 
wildlife management department. This can 
have profound influences on poaching rates. 
Symptoms may include slow responses to 
poaching problems, inadequate coordination 
with other government agencies, and failure 
to discipline junior staff effectively. As a result 
confusion reigns and more wildlife Is poa- 
ched. The irony, of course, is that such pro- 
blems arise from conservation efforts them- 
selves. 

Government authorities need full recogni- 
tion and support to strengthen their leader- 
ship and effectiveness in upholding the law 
and implementing wildlife management pro- 



22 



grammes. This recognition by both donor 
agencies and non-government organizations 
is essential. 

CONCLUSION 

Variables influencing rates of poaching 
and other wildlife managment problems in 
Africa are identifiable and modifiable. When 
guided by African values and traditions and 
in cooperation with a national parks' service 
sympathetic to the needs of local residents 
living with wildlife resources, these variables 
can be favourably adjusted more cost-effecti- 
vely than has been shown possible with 
conventional methods. This approach to 
conservation, successfully tested at the pilot 
level in Zambia, and recently applied nation- 
wide, has considerable potential for applica- 
tion in other areas of Africa. Key factors for 
success include the support of local leaders 
for legal uses of wildlife with their correspon- 
ding commercial benefits as opposed to ille- 
gal uses, and the level of local resident partici- 
pation in actual management efforts. 

Although this approach involving people's 
participation and the recycling of locally gene- 
rated wildlife revenues to support local deve- 
lopment and resource management costs is 
clearly pragmatic and cost-effective, expe- 
rience shows that most African wildlife 
conservation efforts still depend heavily on 
outside funding. Although well-intentioned 
and unquestionably needed, this funding and 
the dependence created has often frustrated 
efforts to make management more self-sup- 
portive through sustainable uses of wildlife. In 
many cases, project proposals seek funds 
that are large so as to be appealing to do- 
nors. However, in the face of such large fun- 
ding, locally generated resources are easily 



overlooked or not perceived as relevant to the 
overall financing of community-based pro- 
grammes in wildlife management. The irony 
is that projects based on large overseas 
grants generally do not lead to permanent so- 
lutions because such large funds are not sus- 
tained indefinitely. External inputs directed at 
wildlife management need to be linked closely 
with simultaneous efforts to develop sustaina- 
ble local involvement. 

References 

ADIVIADE. 1988. First Annual Planning Work- 
shop Proceedings, eds. Lewis, D.M., 
Mwenya, A.N. & Kaweche, G.B. Chilan- 
ga, Zambia, National Parks and Wildlife 
Service. 

Bell, R.H.V. & Clarke, J.E. 1984. Funding and 
financial control. In Bell, R.H.V. & 
McShane-Caluzi, E., eds. Conservation 
and wildlife management in Africa, p. 
534-536. US Peace Corps. 

Dala-Clayton, B. & Lewis, D.M. 1984. Proc. 
Lupande Development Workshop. Lu- 
saka, Zambia, Government Printers. 

Hadley, M. 1985. Comparative aspects of land 
use and resource management in sa- 
vannah environments. In Tothil, J.E. & 
Mott, J.J., eds. Ecology and manag- 
ment of the world's savannah's, p. 142- 
158. London, Commonwealth Agricul- 
tural Bureau. 

Leder-Williams, N. 1985. Black rhino in Luang- 
wa Valley National Park. Oryx, 19: 27- 
34. 

Lewis, D.M. 1986. The Luangwa Valley ele- 
phants: toward developing a manage- 
ment policy. Chilanga, Zambia, Natio- 
nal Parks and Wildlife Service. 



23 



Lewis, D.M. 1988. Survey of perceptions to- 
ward wildlife for two village communi- 
ties with different exposure to a wildlife 
conservation project. ADMADE/NPWS 
Research Report. Chilanga, Zambia, 
National Parl<s and Wildlife Service. 

Lewis, D.M. 1989. a promise worth keeping. 
Animal Kingdom, 92(4): 58-63. 

Lewis, D.M. & Kaweche, G.B. 1985. The 
Luangwa Valley of Zambia: preserving 
its future by integrated management. 
Ambio, 14(6): 362-365. 

Lewis, D.M., Kaweche, G.B. & Mwenya, A.N. 
1989. Wildlife conservation outside pro- 
tected areas ~ lessons from an experi- 
ment in Zambia. Consen/. Biol. (In 
press) 

Marks, S.A. 1976. Large mammals and a 
brave people. Seattle, Univ. of Was- 
hington Press. 

Mwenya, A.N., Kaweche, G.B. & Lewis, D.M. 
1 988. Administrative Management Des- 
ign for game management areas (AD- 
I^ADE). National Parks and Wildlife Ser- 
vices of Zambia. Lusaka Zambia, Go- 
vernment Printers. 

PARKER, I.S.C. 1984. Conservation of the 
African elephant. In Gumming, D.H.M. 
& Jackson, P., eds. The status and 
conservation of Africa's elephants and 
rhino's. Proc. Joint Meeting of 
lUCNISSC African Elephant and Rhino 
Specialist Groups at Hwange Safari 
Lodge, Zimbabwe, 30 July - 7 August 
1981. Gland, Switzerland. 

Swift, J. 1 982. The future of African hunter-ga- 
therer and pastoral peoples. Develop- 
ment and change, 13(2): 159-181. 

Willis, A.J. 1985. An introduction to the history 
of Central Africa. Fourth ed. Oxford, 
UK, Oxford Univ. Press. 



* Dale M. Lewis is technical adviser to the 
Zambia National Parks and Wildlife Service, 
and Coordinator of the Zambia Wildlands and 
Human Needs Programme. Ackim Mwenya 
is Deputy-Director of the Zambia National 
Parks and Wildlife Sen/ice, and Co-Adminis- 
trator of the Zambia Wildland Management 
and Human Needs Development Project. Gil- 
son B. Kaweche is Chief Wildlife research Of- 
ficer of the Zambia National Parks and Wildlife 
Service, and Co-Administrator of the Zambia 
Wildland Management and Human Needs 
Development Project. 



Article culled from Unasylva , Vol. 41 , 
n°161,pp. 11-20 




24 



NOTES ON THE DUIKERS OF 
SIERRA LEONE 



(voir traduction page 61) 



by V.J. Wilson and B.LP. Wilson^ 



ABSTRACT 



INTRODUCTION 



A brief expedition to Sierra Leone, West 
Africa, In December 1988 as part of the Pan 
African Decade of Duiker Research pro- 
gramme (1985-1994), produced very positive 
results. At the time our visit was planned, no 
scientific specimens of Jentink's duiker, Ce- 
phalophus jentinki had been obtained in the 
country and while there was some indication 
that the species still existed in Sierra Leone 
there was considerable doubt concerning its 
status. The survey confirmed the discovery 
by Davies and Birkenhager in September 
1988 of the presence of a viable population in 
the Western Area Forest Reserve on the Free- 
town Peninsula. A number of pairs of horns 
of Jentink's duiker were also obtained from a 
local hunter. This important discovery of 
such a rare and endangered species so close 
to the capital city of Freetown is of tremen- 
dous importance. The area also supports at 
least three and probably four other forest dui- 
ker species, plus other forest wildlife, and 
should now be considered for National Park 
status. Notes on the nine duiker species of 
Sierra Leone are also recorded. 

NDLR: The cover picture shows a Jentink's duiker photogra- 
phed by Mr VJ. Wilson at Gladys Porter Zoo, Brownsville, Texas 



One of the objectives of the Pan African 
Decade of Duiker Research (1985-1994) pro- 
gramme initiated by the Chipangali Wildlife 
Trust in Zimbabwe is to carry out detailed sur- 
veys in as many evergreen forests of Africa as 
possible, in order to establish as much as 
possible on the distribution and status of 
some of the rarer duikers on the continent. 

As Wilson (1987) has pointed out effective 
conservation plans for the preservation and 
utilisation of the rainforests and the fauna and 
flora found in them must first be preceeded 
by detailed surveys. 

The Chipangali Wildlife Trust in Zimbabwe 
is at present deeply committed to such sur- 
veys and as a result is involved in survey pro- 
jects in a number of countries in Africa. 

Tropical evergreen forests and other tropi- 
cal ecosystems will only be truly secure when 
the people who make a living from them are 
able to substantially produce more food and 
other goods than they themselves need. 
Sound information on critical areas is essen- 
tial while we still have moist tropical rainfo- 
rests left (Wilson 1987). It is with this objec- 
tive in mind that an Action Plan for Duiker 
Conservation was compiled in December 



25 



1987 by the senior author together with the 
lUCN in Gland, Switzerland. One of the coun- 
tries for which detailed information was requi- 
red was Sierra Leone. Wilson (1987) points 
out that Jentink's duiker and Ogilby's duiker 
were perhaps the rarest and least known of all 
the antelopes of the West African rainforests, 
and that their secretive habits and the dense 
habitats in which they lived, made them very 
difficult to study. These species could well 
disappear before we even know anything of 
their behaviour and ecology (Wilson 1987). 

The Red Data Book draft 3 (November 
1984) dealing with Jentink's duiker stated that 
"A survey is needed to more accurately deter- 
mine distribution and status with a view to re- 
commending conservation strategies". 

Several duiker species along with Jentink's 
duiker may be in danger of extinction. It is 
anticipated that the Pan African Decade of 
Duiker Research will provide new data neces- 
sary for the correct CITES and Red Data Book 
listings. However the primary goal of the sur- 
vey is to promote the conservation of the Afri- 
can duikers especially as commercial hunting 
for "bush-meat" is increasing and massive ha- 
bitat destruction is widespread. 

Wilson (1987) together with several au- 
thors, Jones (1966), Davies (1987), etc., have 
discussed the possibility of the occurrence of 
Jentink's duiker in Sierra Leone but as no ac- 
tual specimen records existed anywhere it 
was impossible to establish if they did in fact 
occur in the country. 

It was always the intention of the survey 
team to visit Sierra Leone (Wilson 1987) in or- 
der to establish if Jentink's duiker occurred in 
the country and the opportunity presented it- 
self in April 1988 when Mr. John Waugh of the 
Sierra Leone Conservation Society wrote to 
the senior author with the following informa- 
tion: "In the course of investigation of the re- 



sources of the Western Area Forest Reserve, 
I have found a strong indication that a popula- 
tion of Jentink's duiker still exists in the moun- 
tains of the Reserve". He went on to indicate 
that the "Rugged mountainous terrain makes 
this large area virtually inaccessible and this is 
where the Jentink's duiker are reported to 
live". 

Mr. Samuel Musa-Jambawai also of the 
Conservation Society of Sierra Leone then ar- 
ranged for the authors to visit Sierra Leone in 
December 1988 in order to establish if Jen- 
tink's duiker did in fact occur in the Western 
Area Forest Reserve on the Freetown Penin- 
sula. 

In the same letter Mr. S. Musa-Jambawai 
reported that he had personally shot and kil- 
led a male Jentik's duiker in the Gola Forest in 
1 960. It was one of two which he saw. This 
was therefore the first positive record of the 
presence of the species in Sierra Leone. The 
first conclusive evidence of Jentink's duiker in 
Sierra Leone was obtained by Davies and Bir- 
kenhager (in press) in the southern part of the 
Freetown Peninsula in September 1988. 

In the "Handbook of Sierra Leone" publis- 
hed by Goddard (1925) he states: In regard to 
antelopes, no less than fourteen different spe- 
cies are found in Sierra Leone, the duiker fa- 
mily (Cephalophus) being particularly well 
represented, as can be seen from the follo- 
wing list: 

Yellow-backed duiker (Cephalophus sylvicultor) 

Red-flanked duiker (Cephalophus rufilatus) 

Banded duiker (Cephalophus doriae) 
Maxwell's duiker (Cephalophus maxwelli) 

Jentink's duiker (Cephalophus jentinki) 

Black duiker (Cephalophus niger) 

Bay duiker (Cephalophus dorsaiis) 



26 



Ogilby's duiker 

Royal antelope 

Waterbuck 

Buff on 's kob 

Bongo 

Lesser bushbuck or 

harness antelope 

Water-chivrotain 



(Cephalophus ogilbyi) 
(Nectragus pygmoeus) 
(Cobus defassa unctuosus) 

(Cobus kob) 

(Tragelaphus euryceros) 

(Tragelaphus scrlptus typicus) 
(Dorcatherium aquatlcum) 



Of the eight representatives of the Cepha- 
lophine enumerated above by far the commo- 
nest are the Black duil<er and Maxwell's dui- 
ker (the "bush goat" and the fritambu of the 
Creoles), which are found everywhere in Sier- 
ra Leone where there is plenty of cover, prefe- 
rably forest undergrowth. The handsome little 
Red-flanked duiker is also common in most 
areas In the north of the country. The remai- 
ning five species are rare and are seldom 
seen by Europeans, skins however, occasio- 
nally come into their possession, the beautiful 
Banded duiker's skin being particularly pri- 
zed. 

Then Stanley (1928) copied word for word 
the data given by Goddard (1925) and even 
gave the same list of animals. However there 
is one important difference in that Goddard 
(1925) says: "By far the commonest are the 
Black duiker and the Maxwell's duiker", while 
Stanley (1928) says: "Of the eight repre- 
sentatives of the family Cephalophinae, Max- 
well's duiker and Jentink's duiker are quite 
common". 

Stanley (op. cit.), goes on to say: 'The shif- 
ting system of cultivation under which land, 
after being cleared for crops, is then allowed 
to lie fallow for five or six years until dense 
and almost impenetrable forest regrowth has 
become re-established, affords admirable 
protection for these two forest duiker. In fact 



the only way by which it Is possible to hunt 
them, and also some of the far rarer duikers 
mentioned above. Is by calling them, at which 
a few native hunters are adept". 

Thus from the data presented above It 
would appear that in the 1928 article by Stan- 
ley the word "Jentink's" should perhaps read 
"Black" and it Is possible that in the produc- 
tion of the paper the error occurred. 

Many years later Montague (1959) in a re- 
vised edition of 'The Sierra Leone Handbook", 
Chapter III (Mammals), says: "In the forest 
and farm bush Maxwell's Grey Duiker Cepha- 
lophus maxwelli, which is a greyish brown, is 
the commonest, and in the savannah and the 
farm bush on its edges the Red-flanked Dui- 
ker, C. rufilatus, which is rufous with a broad 
grey band down the back. The only other 
common duiker is the Black duiker, C. niger, 
locally called 'Bush goaf which is dark brown 
in colour and a forest Inhabitant. Amongst 
the several rarer duikers the Banded duiker, 
C. zebra, found only In the Goia forest area 
and neighbouring Liberia, is the most striking 
as it is pale rufous with about a dozen very 
distinct wide black bands across its back and 
down Its flanks". 

There Is no mention whatsoever of the 
Jentink's duiker in his paper. Jones (1966) in 
his "Notes on the Commoner Sierra Leone 
Mammals" gives again, word for word, the 
same data on duikers as given by Montague 
(1959). However he did give some additional 
data and again I quote him in full: "However, 
the writer has not been able to find any defi- 
nite records of, nor did he come across Jen- 
tink's Duiker, Cephalophus jentinkl or Ogil- 
gy's Duiker, Cephalophus ogilbyi, and no 
specimens exist from Sierra Leone in the Bri- 
tish Museum of Natural History in London". 

Jones (pers. comm.), who spent many 
years in Sierra Leone, never ever heard of or 



27 



came across Jentink's duiker. He also says In 
correspondence with tlie authors, "If Jentink's 
duiker had been common the army officers at 
Daru who did a lot of hunting in the West 
around Stanley's time and sent specimens to 
the British Museum (Natural History) would 
surely have come across it". 

Toboku-Metzger (1979) briefly mentions 
Jentink's duiker In Sierra Leone but no posi- 
tive or original data Is given. Robinson (1971) 
says: "Jentink's duiker {Cephalophus Jentin- 
ki) which has the most restricted range of all 
existing Cephalophinae is another West Afri- 
can species found only in Eastern Liberia and 
the Western Ivory Coast, where Its distribution 



is centred on the Cavally river". Again Robin- 
son (1971) was merely quoting Kuhn (1965). 
Wilkinson (1974) lists Abott's duiker {Cephalo- 
phus spadix) in his list of Sierra Leone mam- 
mals. This Is clearly erroneous and It should 
doubtless read Yellow-backed duiker (C. syl- 
vicultor) as presumably Wilkinson would not 
have had any reason to suppose that Jen- 
tink's duiker was present. 



STUDY AREA 



Sierra Leone (General) 




The Republic of 
Sierra Leone lies be- 
tween Guinea and Li- 
beria along the Atlan- 
tic Coast and is one 
of the smallest coun- 
tries in Africa. It Is 
the fifth most densely 
populated country 
south of the Sahara 
with a population of 
over four million inha- 
bitants. The country 
Is approximately 

28,000 sq. miles 
(72,600 sq km) 
consisting of plains 
and rolling hills, with 
over 50% of the 
country having clima- 
tic conditions which 
favour moist ever- 
green forests. Howe- 
ver today less than 
5% of Sierra Leone is 



28 



still covered with primary rainforest, while 
about 55% Is covered with farm bush (trees 
less than 10 metres tall) and there is another 
4% of secondary rainforest (Davies 1987). 
While much of the land is not arable, especial- 
ly in the Northern and Central areas, agricul- 
ture Is, and always was, a predominant activi- 
ty, with at least 80% of the population enga- 
ged in subsistence farming. The methods 
used are of the Swidden type - cut, burn and 
then move on. There are extensive mangrove 
swamps along the coast and in the river es- 
tuaries and creeks, while vast lowland plains 
cover almost half the country. In the East and 
North-east the plateau country rises to about 
1 ,220 metres above sea level with some areas 
in the Loma and Tingi Mountains rising to 
above 1 ,830 metres. 

About 200 years ago three quarters of 
Sierra Leone was covered with primary and 
derived forests, but by about 1 826 large areas 
were being felled to meet the timber needs of 
Britain. In addition the forests were being fel- 
led for cultivation by local farmers. 

Today there are very few large areas of 
Primary forest and the remaining high forest 
of the Gola extends into Liberia. 
There are also several large 
patches of high forest in the re- 
mote mountainous area of Loma 
and Tingi which are, fortunately, 
protected Forest Reserves. The 
Pygmy hippopotamus {Cheropsis 
liberiensis), one of West Africa's 
unique species, still occurs in se- 
veral areas in Sierra Leone. The 
beautiful Zebra (or Banded) duiker 
is present in the Gola forests and 
perhaps in a few other areas. Un- 
fortunately it Is often hunted for its 
skin and meat. Bongo {Boocerus 
eurycerus) is restricted to a few fo- 



rest areas and there are still large numbers of 
many species of monkeys. 

Chimpanzees still occur in many areas, 
but their numbers have been reduced consi- 
derably. Perhaps the duikers and monkeys 
form the bulk of the "bush-meat" trade, much 
of which is dried and exported to Liberia. 
Thousands of duikers and monkeys are killed 
each year. While it is known that the elephant 
and many other mammal species still occur in 
the country, there is no official checklist or at- 
las of the mammals of Sierra Leone. Howe- 
ver, more details of the mammals of Sierra 
Leone can be found in: Davies (1987), Grubb 
(1988), Happold (1973 &1987), Jones (1966), 
Lowes (1970), Teleki and Baldwin (1981) and 
Merz(1986). 



Western Area Forest Reserve 
(Freetown Peninsula) 

The Western Area Forest Reserve lies 
south of Freetown on the Peninsula and 
consists of a rugged majestic ridge of fores- 
ted mountains in some places up to 915 me- 




29 



ed majestic ridge of forested mountains in 
some places up to 915 metres above sea le- 
vel. These mountains are unique along the 
West African Coast, with the only other range 
being in Cameroon (Toboku-Metzger 1979). 

The forests of the Peninsula, which are es- 
sential for the protection of Freetown's water 
supply have been exploited for a great many 
years and the cutting of trees continues una- 
bated. 

This beautiful and accessible mountain 
range is of tremendous importance and unfor- 
tunately very little has ever been written 
concerning the Wildlife of the Area. (Map 
page 28). In addition to several species of 
duiker and the bush buck, {Tragelaphus 
scriptus) there is evidence of the presence of 
Diana monkeys {Cercopithecus diana), and 
the rare Yellow-headed Picathartes {Pica- 
thartes gymnocephalus). 

METHODS 

This preliminary survey of the duikers of 
Sierra Leone took place in December 1988. 
During the survey two trips were made to the 
Freetown Peninsula where a number of Afri- 
can hunters and forestry rangers were inter- 
viewed concerning the duikers in the area. 

Hunters found with fresh or dried duiker 
meat or with duiker skins were also questio- 
ned and a discussion with the owner of a lo- 
cal hotel at which a young Bay duiker was lo- 
cated also took place. Two field trips were 
made into the forest on the peninsula during 
which time details of duiker droppings and 
tracks were noted. 

In addition an extended vehicle journey 
was undertaken which took us to several fo- 
rest areas In Sierra Leone and duiker tracks 



and droppings which were seen during the 
trips were noted. 

A record was also kept of all dead duiker 
found being sold along the main roads or 
found in the possession of hunters. A detai- 
led discussion was also held with Dr. Sitter, 
an animal trapper, who has lived in Sierra 
Leone for many years. 

Finaly, a considerable amount of data on 
the distribution and status of the duikers of 
Sierra Leone was provided by Mr. Samuel 
Musa-Jambawai, our companion and guide 
for the entire period. Samuel had worked in 
the Forestry Department in a senior position 
for many years and was thoroughly familiar 
with the forests and wildlife of the country. 

RESULTS 

Maxwell's duiker {Cephalophus 
maxwelli) 

This species appeared to be the most 
common antelope in Sierra Leone and was 
positively recorded from all areas visited, i.e. 
Gola Forest, Tiwai Island, Western Area Fo- 
rest Reserve, Makali/Masingbi area, Bo area 
and the area between Yonibana and Water- 
loo. 

On one day in the Western Area Forest Re- 
serve fresh tracks were seen in several areas, 
four freshly dressed carcasses were exami- 
ned which were in the possession of a hunter 
on his way to sell the fresh meat at a holiday 
resort, and five flat dry skins were observed in 
the possession of another hunter. The hunter 
with the fresh carcasses also showed us the 
skulls of the animals and Indicated that all four 
had ben shot that morning. He also reported 
that he had shot another two the day before. 



30 



on his head contained eight Maxwell's duiker 
and about twenty monkeys of various spe- 
cies. 

Also on the road between Waterloo and 
Yonibana two approaching vehicles were 
seen to have unskinned Maxwell's duiker car- 
casses tied to the radiator grilles. Davies 
(1987) says that Maxwell's duikers is ubiqui- 
tous in the forested region of Sierra Leone 
where it is the commonest species. It is also 
very common on Tiwai Island in the Moa Ri- 
vfir. Fresh dressed Maxwell's duiker car- 
casses in the Freetown Peninsula area fet- 
ched a price which varied between Leones 
200 (US$2.5) and Leones 500 (US$6.25) 
each. The Mende name for Maxwell's duiker 
is tuwuolo, and the Creoles call it fritambu. 
The skins are also used to cover drums. 



Bay Duiker {Cephalophus dorsalis) 

Only a single positive record of the occur- 
rence of this duiker of Sierra Leone was obtai- 
ned during our visit. A sub-adult male was 
photographed in captivity at the Africana To- 
key Village on the Freetown Peninsula. It was 
in superb condition and the bright red coat 
was very glossy and silky. It had a broad 
black stripe on the back from the tail to the 
neck. The animal was apparently brought to 
the owners of the hotel as a tiny baby which 
was then reared. It had come from the Wes- 
tern Area Forest Reserve. 

Tracks of a duiker, which appeared to be 
of an immature Bay duiker, were seen on the 
Tiwai Island but could not be positively identi- 
fied. It is extremely difficult, if not impossible, 
to distinguish between the tracks of young 
and half grown duikers of the different spe- 
cies. According to the researchers working 
on the island, the Red-flanked aniker (C. rufi- 



latus) was also present, but again detailed 
examination of a specimen would be essential 
before any conclusion could be drawn. Ho- 
wever, the Bay duiker has been positively 
identified In the Gola Forest (Davies 1987). 



Black duiker {Cephalophus niger) 

Two dried feet of this species were seen in 
a market in Freetown and a large dried skin of 
a female was found in the possession of a 
hunter in the Western Area Forest Reserve. 
He was on his way to Waterloo to sell the 
skin. He claimed to have shot the animal on 
the Peninsula near the village of Kent. This 
species was reported by hunters to occur in 
the Gola Forest but none was actually seen 
(Davies 1987). While Jones (1966) recorded 
Black duiker as fairly common in Sierra 
Leone, it is thought that this information was 
not based on original data but merely extrac- 
ted from the paper by Montague (1959). 



Yellow-backed duiker 

(Cephalophus sylclcultor) 

Fresh tracks of a Yellow-backed duiker 
were seen in the forest near Makali/Masingbi 
and a skull of a very old female was shown to 
us on Tiwai Island where this species is appa- 
rently common. Dr Sitter, an animal dealer 
near Waterloo, indicated that the species was 
common in the Western Area Forest Reserve. 
However, we did not record the species from 
the area during our visit but a very large dui- 
ker spoor was seen on three occasions in the 
forests which could have been Yellow-backed 
duiker or perhaps Jentink's duiker. There was 
also evidence of the species in the TonkolikI 



31 



district and several otiier areas. The Mende 
name for the Yellow-backed duiker is ngulei. 



Jentink's duiker {Cephalophus 
jentinki) 

The main reason for our visit to Sierra 
Leone was to establish the positive presence 
of this duiker in the country. (This was in fact 
established shortly before our visit, by Davies 
and Birkenhager in press). We were taken di- 
rectly to a village in the Southern part of Free- 
town Peninsula where a hunter was reported 
to have shot three Jentink's duiker during 
1988. On being questioned about the species 
he explained exactly what it looked like, even 
though we did not prompt him to describe the 
animal to us. He then produced a pair of 
horns of an immature Jentink's duiker and a 
splendid horn of a large animal (possibly a 



HORNS/CORNES 


Specimen 


Specimen 


Specimen 


Specimen 




N'l 


^2 


N'S 


N''4 




I horn/ 


2 Horns/ 


1 Horn/ 


2 Horns/ 




Corne 


Cornes 


Corne 


Cornes 




mm 


mm 


mm 


mm 


Greatest Length 
Longeur Maximum 


202 


IA7 & 144 


182 


212 & 212 


Diameter at base 
Diamfetr* k la 


28 X 26 


29 X 26 


25 X 23 


30 X 28 


base 










HORN CORES 










PART IE CENTRALE 










Greatest Length 
Longeur maximum 


- 


- 


- 


154 X 159 


Diameter at base 

Diametre h la 
base 


- 


- 


- 


25 X 25 
25 X 25 



Table 1 : Measurements of Jentink's Duiker Horns from Sierra Leone 

Tableau 1 : Dimensions des cornes de Cephalophe de Jentink de 

Sierra Leone , , , . ^ 

: e Hijj b be>;* »iai>' bo f 



male). Details of horns are given in Table 1 
below, which includes the ones given to us by 
Dr. Davies. 

A couple of days later the same hunter 
produced a pile of Jenink's duiker droppfngs 
which he had collected that day in the forest 
and we are able to positively identify them. 
Droppings of captive Jentink's duiker from 
Brownsville Zoo In Texas were studied in de- 
tail, so we were thoroughly familiar with the 
droppings of the species. The hunter indica- 
ted that the species occurred in several 
places on the peninsula but they were not 
common. He also explained that neither he 
nor any other hunter in Sierra Leone knew the 
animal as Jentink's duiker. According to Mr. 
Samuel Musa-Jambawai the Mende name for 
the Jentink's duiker is Kaikulowulei (or Squir- 
rel Coloured duiker) and the Creole name is 
dikidiki, which is the name used In Freetown 
Peninsula. There is also an unconfirmed re- 
port of Jentink's 
duiker from near 
Songo which is 
only about 50 km 
from Freetown. 
The hunter who 
gave us the horns 
of the Jentink's 
duiker indicated 
that at night the 
species move 
down from the 
hills into the farm- 
bush where It is 
then shot. He al- 
so reported that it 
will go onto the 
beach at night 
and even right to 
the sea to lick the 
salt from the 



32 



sand. Tracks were often seen on the beach 
by hunters. The species is supposedly very 
nocturnal and in the Western Area Forest Re- 
serve all the specimens were shot at night. 
However Samuel Musa-Jambawai indicated 
that he had shot the one in Gola Forest in 
1960 in daylight, at about 10.00 a.m. Dr Sit- 
ter, the animal dealer near Freetown, said he 
reared a baby Jentink's duiker about fifteen 
years ago and later sold it to another animal 
dealer for export to the U.S.A. He Indicated 
that when he first obtained the animal he 
thought it was a baby Yellow-backed duiker. 
It was only when it matured that he realised it 
was a Jentink's duiker. 



Two additional pairs of horns of this spe- 
cies were given to us by Dr Glyn Davies from 
Kenema. The horns were also obtained in the 
Western Area Forest Reserve some months 
before our arrival and full credit should go to 
Dr Davies for being the first person to record 
the presence of the species in the Freetown 
Peninsula area. A much more detailed report 
of the distribution of the species in Sierra 
Leone has been written by Dr Davies (Davies 
and Birkenhager in press). One pair of horns 
given to us by Dr Davies is exceptionally long 
and measures 212 mm. (Plate 1) 



cm 
20 

"hs 

10 
5 

' 





Specimen No. 4 



Specimen 
No. I 



Specimen 
No. J 



Specimen No. 2 



PLATE 1 Jentink's duiker horns collected on Freetown Peninsula, Sierra Leone. 
PLANCHE 1 Cornes de cdphalophes de Jentink provenant de la P6ninsule de Freetown. 



33 



Zebra duiker {Cephalophus zebra) 

There was no sign of this animal during 
our visit to Sierra Leone but it has been positi- 
vely reported from the Gola Forest area (Da- 
vies 1987). Mr Sam Musa-Jambawai indica- 
ted that about ten years ago Zebra duiker 
skins were common in the villages in the East 
of Sierra Leone. He also felt the species was 
far less shy than Jentink's duiker and there is 
also the suggestion that it may still occur in 
the Western Area Forest Reserve (Sitter, 
pers.comm.). 



Grey (Crowned) duiker {Sylvicapra 
grimmia) 



Philipson (1978) reported the presence of 
the Grey duiker in the Outamba-Ducata area, 
on the Freetown Peninsula and also in the Lo- 
ma Mountains. While it most probably does 
exist in the Savannah Woodlands of the North 
of Sierra Leone and even in the montane 
grasslands of the Loma Mountains it is unlike- 
ly to occur on the Freetown Peninsula. 



Red-flanked duiker {Cephalophus 
rufilatus) 



DISCUSSION AND 
CONCLUSION 



No positive evidence of its occurrence in 
Sierra Leone was obtained during our visit but 
no doubt it still exists in Northern Savanna 
zone of Sierra Leone. It could also possibly 
occur on Tiwai Island (see data under Bay 
duiker). 



Ogilby's duiker {Cephalophus 
ogilby) 



There is Very little evidence of the pre- 
sence of this species in Sierra Leone and 
Jones (1966) was unable to obtain any defi- 
nite records of the species in the country. 
There is some suggestion that it occurs in the 
country (Phillipson 1978 and Honacki, et al 
1982). Positive proof of its existence in Sierra 
Leone is provided by a museum specimen 
(Groves, cited by Grubb 1988). 



The possible presence of the nine species 
of duiker in Sierra Leone gives some indica- 
tion of the importance of this groupe of ani- 
mals in the country. It is of great significance 
and importance that Jentink's duiker still 
exists in the Western Area Forest Reserve on 
the Freetown Peninsula together with the Bay, 
Black, Maxwell's and Yellow-backed duikers 
which makes the area one of incredible im- 
portance. While it is certain that at least four 
and probably five duiker species occur on the 
Peninsula there is still the possibility of Zebra 
and other duikers also occurring there. For 
such a small area, this is quite remarkable 
and consequently the area should be properly 
protected. The value of a single Jentink's dui- 
ker is extremely high and the fact that it still 
occurs in such a heavily populated area sug- 
gests that they have the ability to survive un- 
der great pressure or that it has moved into a 
most inacessible part of the mountains. Wha- 
tever the reason the Forestry Department of 
Sierra Leone and indeed the Government of 



34 



the country should look very seriously at the 
upgrading of the Western Area Forest Re- 
serve Into a National Park. 

To have a population of Jentlnk's duiker 
and possibly other rare duikers so close to 
Freetown could be of considerable benefit to 
the country. In addition to the rare duikers, 
the Diana monkey and possibly the yellow- 
headed Picathartes {Picathartes gymnoce- 
phalus) also occur in the Western Area Forest 
Reserve. 

Together with the beautiful white beaches, 
warm sea, closeness to Freetown, cool ever- 
green forests and the friendly people, the 
Western Area Forest Resen/e could well be- 
come an important "Wilderness Area National 
Park", where walking trails would be very po- 
pular and of great economic importance to 
Sierra Leone. 

A very detailed survey of the fauna and flo- 
ra of the area is now essential to provide a 
management plan. The area could become 
the first National Park in Sierra Leone, a status 
it well deserves. The authors intend returning 
to Sierra Leone in 1991 to carry out a detailed 
survey. With many rare species in the Wes- 
tern Area Forest Reserve and the fact that 
much hunting takes place in this non-hunting 
area rapid action is essential if the rare spe- 
cies and the forests in which they are found 
are to be preserved. 

ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS 

First and foremost our sincere thanks are 
due to Mr Samuel Musa-Jambawai for his 
friendliness and support for the entire period 
of our visit to Sierra Leone. Samuel attended 
to our transport requirements, accomodation, 
food etc., and also helped continually with the 
questioning of the locals about duikers. We 



could not have done as well as we did without 
his help and he above all located the jentlnk's 
duiker horns for us. Thanks are also due to 
Dr Glyn Davles for providing transport to the 
Gola Forest and for donating to us two pairs 
of Jentlnk's duiker horns. We owe special 
thanks to him for allowing us to use some of 
his data. Dr S.S. Banya, President of the Sier- 
ra Leone Conservation Society also helped a 
great deal as did the Hon. Edward Gbia, who 
helped arrange our trip to Sierra Leone and 
who introduced us to several cabinet minis- 
ters and also to His Excellency the President 
of Sierra Leone, Dr J.S. Momoh with whom 
we were able to discuss conservation mat- 
ters. 

Thanks are also due to Mr A.P. Koroma, 
the Chief Conservator of forests, for his sup- 
port and encouragement. 

Finally special thanks to Mrs Paddy Wil- 
son, wife of the senior author for the drawing 
of the maps. Mr Kevin Wilson and Mr Vau- 
ghan Southey kindly produced this paper on 
the computer. Kevin Wilson also kindly pho- 
tographed the duiker horns. 

The Trustees of the Chipangali Trust 
should also be thanked for providing funds for 
the entire programme and the cost of this 
publication. 



REFERENCES 

ANSELL, W.F.H. 1971. Order yA/t/odac/y/a. In 
the Mammals of Africa. An indentifica- 
tlon manual Part 15 (J. Meester & H.W. 
Setzer, eds.) Smithsonian Ins. Press 
Washington, D.C., 15: 1-84. 

DAVIES, A.G. 1987. The Gola Forest Re- 
serves, Sierra Leone. Wildlife Conser- 
vation and Forest Management. lUCN 



35 



Tropical Forest Programme. Cam- 
bridge University Press, U.K. 

DAViES. G & BIKENHAGER, B. Jentink's dui- 
ker in Sierra Leone: evidence from the 
Freetown Peninsuia. Oryx (in press). 

GODDARD, T.M. 1925. The Handbook of Sier- 
ra Leone. 

GRUBB, P. 1988. Some notes on West African 
antelopes. (IVIanuscript in preparation). 

HAPPOLD, D.C.D. 1973. The distribution of 
large Mammals in West Africa. Mam- 
malia 37: 88-93. 

HAPPOLD, D.C.D. 1987. The Mammals of Ni- 
geria. Oxford, Clarendon Press. 

HONACKI, J.H., KINMAN K.E. & KOEPPE, 
J.W. 1982. Mammal species of the 
World, Kansas Allen Press. 

JONES, T. S. 1966. Notes on the Commoner 
Sierra Leone Mammals. Nigerian field 
3(1): 4-17. 

KUHN, H.J. 1956. A provincial list of mam- 
mals of Liberia. Senckenbergiana Bio- 
log ica 46(5): 321-340. 

LOWES, R.H.G. 1970. Destruction in Sierra 
Leone. Oryx 10: 309-310. 

MERZ, G. 1986. The status of the forest ele- 
phant Loxondonta africana cyclotis, 
Matschie, 1900 in the Gola Forest Re- 
serves, Sierra Leone. Biological 
Conservation 36: 83-94. 

MONTAGUE, F.A. 1959. The Natural History 
of Sierra Leone (Mammals). In Revised 
edition of Sierra Leone Handbook 
pages 34-52. 

PHILLIPSON, J.A. 1978. Wildlife Conservation 
and management in Sierra Leone, pp. 
188 Special Report to MANRF, Free- 
town. 

ROBINSON, P.T. 1971. Wildlife trends in Libe- 
ria and Sierra Leone. Oryx II: 117-122. 



STANLEY, W.B. 1928. Game preservation in 
Sierra Leone. Sierra Leone Studies 1 1 : 
(2-15). 

TOBOKU-METZGER, D. 1979. Nature conser- 
vation in Sierra Leone. African Wildlife 
News 14 (3): 12-16. 

TELEKI. G. & BALDWIN, L 1981. Sierra 
Leone's Wildlife Legacy. Options for 
Sun^ival. Zoonoz 54 (10): 21-23. 

WILKINSON, A.F. 1974. Areas to preserve in 
Sierra Leone Oryx 12 (5): 596-597. 

WILSON, V.J. 1987. Pan African Decade of 
Duiker Research (1985-1994) and the 
Chipangali Wildlife Trust, Bulawayo, 
Zimbabwe. 



Article culled from Arnoldia Zimbabwe 
Vol. 9, n° 33, 1990, pp. 451-462 

*Author's address: 
Chipangali Wildlife Trust 
P.O. BOX 1057 
Bulawayo, Zimbabwe 

(NDLR: Mr B.LB. Wilson died accidentally 
on January 91). 




36 



Wildlife management for rural 
development in sub-Saharan Africa 



(voir traduction page 70) 



by E.O.A. Asibey and G.S. Child' 



The authors of this article present a criti- 
cal review of the status of wildlife manage- 
ment in the sub-Saharan countries of Africa, 
and suggest the approaches to ensure the 
sustainable utilization of this critical resource. 

More tiian 130 million hectares in sub- 
Saharan Africa have been set aside for wildlife 
conservation. Extensive areas have also 
been established in which the utilization of 
wildife resources is controlled. In addition, 
virtually every country in the region has hun- 
ting legislation in force, which is usually des- 
igned to manage recreational hunting, and as 
a mechanism for raising revenue, in the form 
of fees and taxes for hunting licences. Thus, 
wildlife management is recognized by govern- 
ments as a viable option in the designation of 
land for various uses. 

However, the actual and potential contri- 
butions of wildlife to rural economies and nu- 
trition as a source of food and an object of 
commerce are rarely recognized officially. In- 
deed, in many countries these aspects are, to 
a large extent, illegal by definition. 

The urgent requirement today is for a 
significant and sustained effort to include the 
evaluation, development, management and 
utilization of wild animals in national plans for 
socio-economic development. The involve- 



ment of national planning and financial institu- 
tions at all levels is essential and assistance 
may also be required from competent interna- 
tional agencies to ensure success. At the 
same time long-term sustained utilization of 
wildlife resources cannot succeed without lo- 
cal people participating in management and 
receiving a fair share of the benefits that ac- 
crue. 

Human and animal populations 

As a starting point for an examination of 
sub-Saharan wildlife, a brief review of human 
population trends and related environmental 
factors is appropriate, as these exert funda- 
mental infleunces on wildlife resources. 

Sustained high rates of population growth 
characterize almost every country in sub- 
Saharan Africa. The associated urgent de- 
mand for increased food production is lea- 
ding African farmers to shorten fallow periods, 
to try to obtain increased yields from low ferti- 
lity soils, and to grow crops on marginal land. 
The result is that arable land is steadily being 
degraded. And, where livestocl< populations 
are increasing as fast as and in some areas 
faster than the human population, Africa's 
vast grazing lands are undergoing similar des- 



37 



truction. This is especially true where the loss 
of traditional grazing land to crop production 
intensifies the pressure on the remaining area. 

in the drier parts of Africa, millions of hec- 
tares of grazing land and rangeland are threa- 
tened by overgrazing. Many of the perennial 
rangeland grasses are being replaced by nu- 
tritionally poorer annual ones, threatening to 
impair permanently the rangeland's potential 
for recovery, and decrease its carrying capa- 
city. As the vegetation has been removed or 
reduced, the wind has also wfnnowed out the 
small amount of silt that the soil contains, re- 
ducing its ability to retain moisture. 

Sub-Saharan Africa's forests and woo- 
dlands are also being depleted; an area of 
nearly four million ha is being deforested or 
degraded annually, largely in humid and 
sub-humid West Africa. The main cause of 
deforestation is clearing for agriculture, but 
uncontrolled logging, gathering for fuelwood, 
fire and overgrazing are also taking their toll. 
It was estimated that deforestation rates in 



tropical Africa exceeded planting rates by a 
factor of 29 to 1 in the period 1975-1980 (Lan- 
ly, 1982). 

Of course, these rangelands and forests 
are also the habitat for wild animals. Drastic 
changes in habitat such as those at present 
being experienced in Africa lead inexorably to 
changes in species composition and diversity 
and may have adverse effects on total popu- 
lations. Therefore, the major challenge for 
wildlife management in sub-Saharan Africa to- 
ward the twenty-first century is to coordinate 
the management of wild animals and their ha- 
bitat with overall socio-economic develop- 
ment efforts. 

Wildlife as food 

The first human beings depended comple- 
tely on wild animals for their protein supply. 
With domestication of animal stock and 
settled agriculture, humans have gradually 




Over grazing is threatening to impair permanently the carrying capacity of millions of hectares of diyland range in Africa 
Le surp^turage menace des millions d'hectares de pdturage en Afrique et risque de r^duire la capacity de charge des parcours 

(photo Y.MuIler,FAO) 



38 



moved from complete to partial dependence 
on wild animals for meat. Nontheless, in all 
cultures of the modern world, wherever peo- 
ple eat meat, there is still a singificant demand 
for wild meat. Wild animals of various forms 
and sizes, both vertebrates and invertebrates, 
form part of the diet of people across the 
globe. 

In sub-Saharan Africa the proportion of 
wild animal meat in total protein supplies is 
exceptionally high. For example, communi- 
ties living near a forest in Nigeria obtain 84 
percent of their animal protein from bush- 
meat. In Ghana, approximately 75 percent of 
the population consumes wild animals regu- 
larly; in Liberia, 70 percent; and in Botswana, 
60 percent (FAO, 1989). However, even these 
high figures may understate the reality of the 
situation as wildlife consumption is often un- 
recorded as part of the informal sector. 

Perhaps the most important measure of 
the local value of bushmeat comes from stu- 
dies that ask people what they value most 
from forests. In an evaluation of the Subri 
forestry project in Ghana, Korang (1986) 
found that 94 percent of those surveyed 
considered the worst Impact of forest conver- 
sion to be the loss of bushmeat in the area. 

In considering the role of wild animals as 
food, it is important to take a wide view rather 
than a limited perspective covering only large 
"game animals". In fact, small animals gene- 
rally provide the greatest amount of meat to 
the subsistence diet. Various types of snails, 
snakes and other reptiles and amphibians are 
also consumed. For example, in Ghana and 
several other parts of West Africa, residents of 
districts with high concentrations of snails are 
considered lucky by inhabitants of other 
areas. Insects also often make a singificant 
contribution to overall protein supplies. 



Nutritional value of bushmeat 

Available evidence indicates that fresh 
bushmeat compares favourably with dome- 
stic meat. In terms of both yield of lean meat 
per kg of live weight, and in mineral and pro- 
tein content (Asibey and Eyeson, 1975; Led- 
ger and Smith, 1964). Studies also indicate 
that the meat of wild animals has superior fat 
content (Hoogesteijn Reul, 1979). 

HIadik et al. (1987) argue that the caloric 
value of bushmeat is as important as the pro- 
tein it provides. They note that many highly 
prized bushmeat species are preferred for 
their fatty consistencies. 

Unfortunately, there is little information on 
the nutritional value of preserved bushmeat 
(smoked, salted, biltong). Methods of preser- 
vation vary according to locality and re- 
sources. The traditional method of smoking 
is widespread in use, suitability and accept- 
ability, despite Its limitations. Salting is re- 
stricted by the availability of salt. Biltong can 
be prepared where a combination of salt and 
sunshine is available. More systematic work 
in this area is necessary to cover the wide 
range of wild animals eaten, as well as the nu- 
tritional impact of prevailing methods of pre- 
paration and preservation. 

Factors influencing consumption 
of wild meat 

The deternlining factor influencing wild 
animal consumption appears to be the ade- 
quacy of supply. In fact, wherever it has been 
investigated in African countries, it has be- 
come evident that the majority of meat-eating 
people would eat bushmeat If it were readily 
available. Studies In Ghana and Nigeria have 



39 



demonstrated this to be true irrespective of 
ciass, income ievei, educational bacl<ground, 
religion or sex (Blaxter, 1975; Martin, 1983; 
Ntiamoa-Baidu, 1986). 

The demand for wild meat is in no way 
limited to rural areas. In fact, rapidly increa- 
sing urbanization has created a spiralling de- 
mand for wildmeat in the cities of Africa. 
Throughout sub-Saharan Africa and particu- 
larly in West Africa, there is a long tradition of 
bushmeat trade based on supplies from rural 
areas to markets In urban areas. There are 
well-established chains, from the hunter 
through retailers in the cities. This system 
provides employment and Income for large 
numbers of people. 

Bushmeat is by far the most expensive 
meat In many countries. For example. In Iba- 
dan, Nigeria In 1975, when market prices for 
mutton and beef were US$2.80 and $4.20 per 
kg respectively, grasscutter meat cost as 
much as $9.60 per kg and wild hare cost 
$7.20 per kg (Asibey, 1987). 

Often, the demand for bushmeat and the 
consequent bushmeat prices are increasing 
much more rapidly than those for domestic 
meat. For example, an analysis of market 
prices in Accra, Ghana revealed that in the 
period 1980-1986 bushmeat prices increased 
eightfold, while those for beef increased six- 
fold (Asibey, J 987). 

In many parts of Africa, the high demand 
for and cost of bushmeat, compared to other 
forms of animal protein, has created a situa- 
tion where the hunter finds It more profitable 
to sell his catch, rather than eat it. 

Wildlife as a source of income 

In most sub-Saharan countries, subsis- 
tence agriculture provides employment for 



the majority of people. Activities that gene- 
rate additional Income or reduce expenditure 
are invaluable, particularly where they en- 
hance the quality of rural life. The forest, 
forest products and wild animals provide such 
possibilities. Hunting activities generate 
considerable income in many parts of Africa 
(Asibey, 1978a,b, 1987). 

In the Bendel State of Nigeria, when 25 
percent of the population were earning an an- 
nual income of less than US$130 per annum, 
and 38 percent were earning between 
US$130 and US$600, a grasscutter {Thryono- 
mys swinderianus Temminck), a small rodent, 
was selling for US$7.61 . Therefore, a hunter 
who was able to kill four grasscutters per 
month, was very comfortably in the second- 
income bracket (Martin, 1983). 

In Ghana In January 1987 the official mini- 
mum daily wage was 90 cedis (Ed. note: cur- 
rency fluctuations make a US$ comparison 
impractical); at the same time, a grasscutter 
brought a minimum of 200 cedis in the rural 
areas, and from 700 to 3,400 cedis in Accra 
(Asibey, 1987). In an earlier study Asibey 
(1978b) found that farmers more than dou- 
bled their agricultural income by selling bush- 
meat to chop bars (traditional restaurants) in 
Sunyani, the regional capital. 

These examples are not isolated cases. 
Hunting and gathering of wild animals as food 
items provide substantial income directly or 
indirectly for large numbers of rural people 
across Africa (Asibey, 1978a). For many of 
them, income from hunting is an essential 
part of their subsistence economy: they must 
hunt to survive. 

The income derived from hunting is often 
spent on cheaper protein (usually poorly pre- 
served fish) with the savings used to meet 
other expenses (Asibey, 1974b, 1978a, b). 
Clearly this trend has the potential to affect 



40 



the diet of rural people adversely and to threa- 
ten their food security In terms of quality and 
nutritional status of diet. If the availability of 
bushmeat is not increased, rural consumption 
may decline, as the rate of exploitation and in- 
tensity of hunting to supply urban markets are 
increased by demand. The situation is com- 
pounded where domestic animal husbandry 
is unable to meet protein needs, for example 
in trypanosomiasis-infested areas. The socio- 
economic cost of this scenario to the rural 
communities requires critfcal examination. 

International trade in bushmeat 

Throughout the world, bushmeat has be- 
come increasingly important as an item of in- 
ternational trade. Yet despite the considera- 
ble production of bushmeat in Africa, no 
country stands out as an exporter. In part, 
this is because of the stringent standards de- 
manded by the principal importers, notably 
the Federal Republic of Germany and France. 
However, this is mainly due to the lack of sta- 
tistical information on bushmeat trade within 
Africa. Most countries of the region (except 
Ghana) still give no systematic consideration 
to bushmeat consumption or trade at national 
levels of planning, finance and development. 
The limited Information collected remains un- 
published and thus unavailable. 

This is a serious omission, with unfortu- 
nate consequences for those whose survival 
is closely linked to wild animals, as a source 
of food and Income, and also for efforts to 
conserve and manage wildlife resources. 



Conservation and management 
of wildlife 

In most countries of sub-Saharan Africa, 
wildlife conservation efforts have stemmed 
from concern over the severe depletion and in 
some cases near or complete extinction of 
selected large game species ~ lion, elephant, 
rhino, etc. ~ that represent significant poten- 
tial sources of national income. Given this 
orientation, the most common approach has 
been the application of stringent laws des- 
igned to prevent all exploitation of wildlife wi- 
thin protected areas, and to restrict utilization 
severely throughout the country. 

Where animals and their habitat are in jeo- 
pardy, this approach is often the only practi- 
cal first step available toward long-term sus- 
tained conservation and management. But it 
must be clearly recognized as a temporary 
and transitional phase. 

Various options are open for this. The 
simplest and often the most effective Is to pro- 
tect existing populations. Where viable popu- 
lations no longer remain, suitable parts of the 
former range of a species may be selected for 
reintroduction of wild animals. There is evi- 
dence that introduced species can multiply to 
economically exploitable levels (Teer, 1971). 
The technology is available but funding is a 
constraint. Attractive returns that have been 
demonstrated need to be further consolidated 
and better communicated to potential inves- 
tors. 

However, there is clear evidence that at- 
tempts to protect or re-establish wildlfe re- 
sources that do not take into consideration 
the socio-economic needs of local people are 
doomed. Preservation laws are often abused 
with Impunity. This is to be expected where 
resources are linked with survival. People 



41 



with very low incomes survive as best tiiey 
can. The temptation to break preservation 
laws is great, since wild animals can provide 
food and cash. Furthermore, the people who 
should enforce the law often receive inade- 
quate salaries and therefore may be tempted 
to turn a blind eye to or even aid rich exploi- 
ters such as illegal trophy hunters. 

If a wildlife management programme is to 
be effective in the long term, it must be based 




Bushmeat being sold in Kumasi central market (Ghana) 
Viande de brousse vendue au march^ central de Kumasi 
(photo J. Falconer) 

on the active involvement and participation of 
local people, and provide them with signifi- 
cant and sustainable benefits in terms of both 
food and income (see article on a successful 
effort in Zambia on p. 10). 



Management of wild animals to 
increase food resources 

Although the domestication of many spe- 
cies of wild animals is theoretically possible, 
relatively little progress has been made in this 
area. There is high potential for the taming 
and handling of many species of animals. For 
example, in Ghana it has been demonstrated 
that the grasscutter can be raised for quality 
meat in boxes in human dwellings (Asibey, 
1974b,c). 

Even without domestication, however, 
there are indications that wild animals could 
be successfully managed for food, either in 
isolation or integrated into existing agricultu- 
ral systems, i.e. livestock production, forestry, 
and crop production. 

Commercial production of bush- 
meat 

in some countries, besides subsistence 
captive breeding, attempts have been made 
at commercial farming or ranching of wild ani- 
mals for meat and by-products. Bushmeat is 
not a new commodity that needs to be adver- 
tised. None of the countries in which assess- 
ments have been made have sufficient wild 
animals to meet bushmeat demand. Any In- 
novation that increases productivity is there- 
fore desirable. Captive breeding and ran- 
ching could be key concepts in this connec- 
tion, and there are indications of a good fu- 
ture for the development of more such 
ranches (Jintanugool, 1978). 

Where it is desirable to create ranches or 
centres for bushmeat production, the estab- 
lishment of these facilities near consumer 
communities gives the advantages of a ready 



42 



market, mlnimai transport and possibilities for 
recreational use to generate additional in- 
come. 

Besides reducing pressures on wild popu- 
lations, ranching and captive breeding can al- 
so ease competition between urban and rural 
users. Non-consumptive use, I.e. game wat- 
ching, and sport hunting on wild animal 
ranches can generate additional employment, 
income and revenue. 

Integration of wild animal and 
livestock production 

Both wild and domestic animals convert 
vegetable matter into valuable meat; however, 
until recently Indigenous animals have been 
deliberately exterminated to allow exclusive 
use of rangelands by domestic stock. Limited 
narrow knowledge, and a fear of reduction In 
productivity resulting from competition be- 
tween wild and domestic animals, as well as 
the presumed transfer of diseases were 
among the root causes for this approach. 

Benchmark studies, however, have 
conclusively established that the meat-produ- 
cing potential of wild animals often compares 
favourably with livestock (Asibey, 1966; Blax- 
ter, 1975; King and Heath, 1975; Hoogesteijn 
Reul, 1979; Thresher, 1980). 

Moreover, the elimination of wild animals 
does not necessarily lead to maximum utliza- 
tion ot vegetation on rangelands. Domestic 
animals are selective in their feeding and not 
all plants on the range are utilized. A variety 
of comaptible animals, which do not compete 
for food resources, can thus be advantageous 
(Asibey and Asare, 1978). This is possible 
with a suitable mix of domestic and wild ani- 
mal species. For example, domestic cattle 
and kudu, impala and hartebeeste are mana- 



ged in combination in South Africa, resulting 
in an overall increase In yield per hectare 
(Hoogesteijn Reul, 1979). Systematic integra- 
tion of wild animals with domestic livestock is 
also practised in Zimt)abwe (Woodford, 1983; 
Worou, 1983). It should be observed that the 
plants consumed by the wild animals might 
otherwise have to be controlled manually or 
chemically. It is therefore more economical 
to combine livestock with wild animals on ran- 
gelands to maximize the use of vegetation 
and avoid the need for weed control. 

Given the potential for bushmeat produc- 
tion alongside livestock, it is important to fo- 
cus on the developing systems and technolo- 
gies to improve integration and increase meat 
production. There is a need to pull together 
information on the integration of wild animals 
and livestock and evaluate socio-economic 
returns. This should provide direction for fu- 
ture development and more rational utilization 
of rangelands. The additional revenue that 
can be derived from wild animals through 
sport hunting and recreation should also be 
borne in mind. 

Wild animals and forestry 

Wild animals are one of the most impor- 
tant direct contributions of the forests to the 
well-being of local people, yet in the past they 
have been regarded by foresters as "minor" 
products or even as pests. Forest manage- 
ment efforts have generally not included the 
deliberate application of techniques designed 
to increase the sustainable yield of bushmeat 
from forest-based wild animals. Further 
consideration of this possibility could lead to 
significant improvements in forestry develop- 
ment efforts, both those aimed at commercial 



43 



production as well as those concentrating on 
conservation of the resource base. 

Selective timber extraction enhances ve- 
getation growth and therefore favours in- 
creases in the populations of many forest ani- 
mals. For example, a recent study (Prins and 
Reitsma, 1989) found that in southwest Ga- 
bon the African buffalo {Syncerus caffer na- 
nus Sparrman) was absent in primary forest 
but present in secondary forest. Although the 
study did not produce conclusive evidence 
with regard to smaller animals, it is probable 
that the relationship holds for these as well. 
Allowing or even encouraging hunting of 
small animals in logging areas by local people 
could help them to achieve food security and 
therefore to ensure that the forest would be 
more valuable to them as forest than under 
any other form of land use. 

Similarly, in conservation areas local peo- 
ple could be allowed to hunt in exchange for 
assistance in reafforestation efforts. This 
would provide a motivated source of local la- 
bour, a serious constraint in many forestry ef- 
forts. 

On the other hand, monoculture tree plan- 
tations tend to result in reductions of both 
quantity and variety of wild animal species, 
particularly where exotic tree species are 
used. The alteration of the natural ground 
cover may create an inappropriate environ- 
ment for animal species. This, in turn, can re- 
sult in an increased risk of fire, as under- 
growth that was formerly eaten by animals is 
left untouched. Planting might be organized 
in such a way as to allow indigenous species 
of fodder value to remain in or along the bor- 
ders of the plantation area. The trade-off that 
would be socio-economically optimal has yet 
to be determined. 

Habitat manipulation techniques also may 
be developed and improved to enhance wild 



animal production in savannah forests. For 
example, the planting of indegenous trees of 
nutritional value would help to increase bush- 
meat yield potential where other interventions 
may be inadvisable. 

Wild animals in crop production 
systems 

In general, agricultural crops have been 
regarded as being in direct competition with 
wild animals, with the result that extensive 
efforts have been devoted toward their com- 
plete extermination. In fact, the origin of 
many of the national game departments in 
southern Africa can be traced to the percei- 
ved need for an organization with the respon- 
sibility for destroying wild animal "pests" that 
threatened government plantations. 

Wild animals can and do cause tremen- 
dous damage to agricultural crops. Some 
antelope species browse young trees and eat 
valuable agricultural crops. Birds, notably the 
quelea, are known to cause serious damage 
to grain crops and drastically reduce yield. 
Rodents cause untold millions of dollars 
worth of losses, both in the field and after har- 
vest. 

But the plantation system also creates an 
environment that is particularly favourable to 
the harvesting and utilization of wild animals 
as food. Unfortunately, the anxiety generated 
by the damage tends to be so ovenA/helming 
that possibilities to utilize pest species for 
nutritional purposes are rarely examined. In 
many situations the development of techni- 
ques for the sustainable exploitation of the 
animals concerned could control damage and 
provide an additional source of income and 
food. 

Ironically, in many situations effective tra- 



44 



ditional techniques already exist but are unu- 
sed because local people are often employed 
only as a source of labour in plantation sys- 
tems; their knowledge of local conditions is 
ignored. For example, in West Africa, various 
traditional methods exist to trap and utilize 
potential rodent pests, e.g. grasscutter 
{Thryonomys swinderianus Temmnick) in 
Ghana, Benin and Cote d'lvoire, and giant rat 
{Cricetomys gambianus) in Nigeria around 
agricultural crops. This both provides food 
and keeps the population of these animals be- 
low excessive levels. By including local peo- 
ple in plantation efforts, these methods could 
be applied cost-effectively on a large scale. 
In fact, on many cocoa and oil-palm planta- 
tions, local workers can be observed trapping 
so-called pests for food in their free time. 

Rice cultivation under irrigation in northern 
Ghana faced serious problems with grain- 
eating bird pests. Local workers were trained 
in using mist-nets, with the result that the da- 
mage was substantially reduced and the far- 
mers obtained a good source and regular 



supply of protein in what was previously a 
protein-deficient area (Ntiamoa-Baidu, 1986). 

Another approach to integrating wild ani- 
mal and crop production could be the mainte- 
nance or creation of patches of natural mixed 
vegetation alongside plantation areas, which 
will allow wild animals to survive. In many 
countries hedgerows and shelter-belts pro- 
vide a valuable habitat in areas that would 
otherwise be devoid of wild animals. Al- 
though not deliberately instituted for bush- 
meat production, systematic application 
could be valuable in many sub-Saharan coun- 
tries where large stretches of land are farmed. 

There has been no major deliberate effort 
to integrate wild animals into cropping sys- 
tems in sub-Saharan Africa. It is hoped that in 
the long run the renewed interest in the inte- 
gration of tree growing into agricultural sys- 
tems (agroforestry) will be followed by inte- 
gration with wild animals that will take advan- 
tage of the tree cover. 



Wildlife legislation 




Large game species have been depleted in many counties, leading to imposition of protective legilatioh 
La rarefaction du gros gibier dans de nombreux pays a amend a promulguer des lois scveres de protection 

(photo J.J. Leroy) 



Legislation 
has been a ma- 
jor constraint to 
the utilization of 
wild animals for 
food in subsis- 
tence econo- 
mies, because it 
is designed to 
protect endan- 
gered species 
and regulate tro- 
phy hunting. Le- 
gislation in tropi- 
cal countries of- 
ten seeks to es- 



45 



tablish sport hunting as perceived in Europe. 
Tlius, sucli concepts as game animals, liun- 
ting seasons, bag limits, trophies, hunting re- 
serves and royal game, have been freely 
adopted. Their biological validity under tropi- 
cal conditions does not appear to have been 
questioned. 

A serious defect of such legislation Is that 
traditional utilization is ignored or defined as 
poaching and the technologies used declared 
unlawful methods of hunting. Furthermore, 
possession, disposal and commercialization 
of wild animal meat or other products are ille- 
gal. To cater for conflicts with livestock and 
agriculture, the concept of vermin has been 
adopted. 

Thus, by focusing on endangered and tro- 
phy species, national legislation in many de- 
veloping countries has had a negative effect 
on the management of species that do not fall 
Into these categories. The institution of state 
ownership of wildlife, centrally imposed li- 
cences and restrictions on the sale of pro- 
ducts prevent landholders from considering 
wildlife management as a potentially profita- 
ble land use option. Thus, incentives to 
conserve wildlife are stiffled. 



Conclusioi\ 



Hitherto there has been little or no serious 
planning to develop the potential of wild ani- 
mals to contribute to rural economies. For 
over two decades in most of sub-Saharan 
Africa, wild animals have received relatively 
serious attention for their role in tourism. The 
role of wild animals as food, however, gene- 
rally Is taken for granted and ignored, or sim- 
ply not acknowledged as being of any signifi- 
cance. 



The management of wildlife resources for 
their meat-producing potential has remained 
essentially an academic exercise. An excep- 
tion is in Zimbabwe, where both commercial 
and communal landholders now show interest 
in developing their wild animal stocks for both 
economic benefits and for food. 

In most countries, however, the basic in- 
formation necessary to regulate and sustain 
the use of wildlife resources for food does not 
exist. Detailed work is necessary to survey 
wild animal resources, to ascertain the pre- 
sent level of dependence of subsistence eco- 
nomies on wild animals for food and income, 
and to develop options for management. 

In most cases, progress Is hindered by a 
shortage of adequately trained workers and a 
lack of resources. To date, wildlife conserva- 
tion and management have fallen on the 
shoulders of a dedicated few, although for- 
mally there has been official participation on a 
continuing basis. Lack of interest at national 
and international levels has been a chronic 
blockage to advancement from local or indivi- 
dual efforts to wide-ranging programmes. Al- 
though most African wildlife management 
programmes require an increase in funding to 
support the human and material resources 
and technology needed to turn overexploita- 
tion into sustained utilization, in many In- 
stances relatively modest resources, when di- 
rected to effective approaches, could yield 
substantial results. What is most required is a 
broad-based commitment to the sustainable 
utilization of wildlife resources for rural deve- 
lopment. 

In this context, it is noteworthy that in de- 
veloped countries wild animals continue to be 
managed and utilized as a food resource, as 
well as for sport and recreation. A similar, 
multiple-use approach should be strongly ad- 
vocated for sub-Saharan Africa. 



46 



The time Is ripe 
to focus critical 
eyes on the poten- 
tial role of wild ani- 
mals in food securi- 
ty, and particularly 
on possibilities for 
Incorporating these 
considerations In 
ongoing rural deve- 
lopment projects. 
The potential also 
exists for linkages 
between wildlife 
management ef- 
forts and nutrition 
projects in develo- 
ping countries. 

Forest reserves 
and forested land 
have important 
contributions to 
make in maintaining wild animal populations 
for sustained utilization. However, for forests 
to fulfil this potential, forest management 
plans must be re-evaluated to ensure that 
they consider all forest resources, including 
wildlife, as a source of local as well as natio- 
nal benefits. 




Bibliography 



Asibey, E.O.A. 1966. Why not bushmeat too? 

Ghana Farmer, 10: 165-170. 
Asibey, E.O.A. 1974a. Wildlife as a source of 

protein In Africa south of the Sahara. 

Bio-Consen/ation, 6(1): 32-39. 
Asibey, E.O.A. 1974b. Some ecological and 

economic aspects of the grasscutter 

(Thrynomys swinderianus Temminck), 



Tiypanosomiasis-resistant wildlife species (here a topi) could be ranched for food in tsetse- 
infested areas Les especes d'animaux sauvages resistant a la tiypanosoraiase (id un topi) pour- 
raient fitre elev^es dans les zones infest^es par la mouche ts^-ts^ (photo J J. Leroy) 



mammalia, rodenta {Hystricomorpha) 
In Ghana. Univ. of Aberdeen. (PH.D. 
thesis) 

Asibey, E.O.A. 1974c. The grasscutter, Tryo- 
nomys swinderianus Temminck, in 
Ghana. Symp.Zool. Sac. London, 34: 
161-170. 

Asibey, E.O.A. 1978a. Wildlife production as a 
means of protein supply In West Africa 
with particular reference to Ghana. 
Proc. 8th World Forestry Congr., Vol III, 
P. 869-881. 

Asibey, E.O.A. 1978b. An aspect of wildlife in 
the life of farmers in Ghana. Accra, De- 
partment of Game and Wildlife, (mi- 
meo) 

Asibey, E.O.A. & Asare, E.0. 1978. Range and 
wildlife management In Africa. Proc. 
AAASA 3rd General Conference, p. 83- 
115. Vol. II. Ibadan, Nigeria. 



47 



Asibey, E.O.A. & Eyeson, K.K. 1975. Additio- 
nal information on the importance of 
wiid animals as a food source in Africa 
south of Sahara. J. Ghana Wildlife Soc. 
Bongo. 1(2): 13-17. 

Asibey, E.O.A. 1987. The grasscutter. Accra, 
Ghana; FAO Regional Office for Africa. 

Blaxter, K.L 1975. Protein from non-domesti- 
cated herbivores. In Pirie, N.W., ed. 
Food protein sources, p. 147-1 56. Lon- 
don, Cambridge University Press. 

FAO. 1 989. Forestry and nutrition: a reference 
manual. Rome. 

HIadik, C. et al. 1987. Se nourrir en foret 
equatoriale: anthropologie alimentaire 
diff^rentielle des populations des re- 
gions forestidres humides d'Afrique. 
Research Team Report No. 263. Paris, 
CNRS. 

Hoogesteijn Reul, R. 1979. Productive poten- 
tial of wild animals in the tropics. WId 
Anim. Rev. 32: 18-24. 

Jintanugool, J. 1978. The integrated manage- 
ment of forest wildlife as a source of 
protein for the rural population of Thai- 
land. P roc. 8th World Forestry Congr., 
Vollll, p. 851-858. 

King, J.M. & Heath, B.R. 1975. Game domesti- 
cation for animal production in Africa. 
Experiences at the Galana ranch. WId 
Anim.Re^., 16:23-30. 

Korang, T. 1986. Impact of forest manage- 
ment on the rural population: a case- 
study of the Subri Project. Kumasi, 
Ghana, Institute of Renewable Natural 
Resources, Univ. of Science and Te- 
chnology. (Unpublished thesis) 

Lanly, J.P. 1982. Tropical forest resources. 
FAO Forestry Paper No.30. Rome, 
FAO. 

Ledger, H.P. & Smith, N.S. 1964. The carcass 



and body composition of Uganda kob. 
J. Wild. Mgmt, 28(4): 827-829. 

Martin, G.H.G. 1983. Bushmeat in Nigeria as a 
natural resource with environmental im- 
plications. Environ. Conserv. 2: 125- 
132. 

Ntiamoa-Baidu, Y. 1986. Research priorities 
for sustainable utilisation of wildlife re- 
serves in West Africa. Proc. 18th lUFRO 
World Congr., Vol. II, p. 687-698. 

Prins, H.H.T. & reitsma, J.IVI. 1989. Mamma- 
lian biomass in an African equatorial 
rain forest. J. Anim. Ecol., 58: 851 -861 . 

Teer, J.G. 1971. Game ranching in Texas, p. 
893-899. lUCN Pub. No. 24. 

Woodford, M.H. 1983. Wild animal meat and 
products utilisation at subsitence level 
in Africa. 7th session of the African Fo- 
restry Commission Working Party on 
Wildlife Management and National 
Parks. FO paper AFG/WL: 83/6.5. 

Worou, L 1983. The management of national 
parks and other conservation areas for 
rural development. 7th Session of the 
African Forestry Commission Working 
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tional Parks. FO paper AFC/WL:83/6.2. 



*E.O.A. Asibey, formerly Chief Administra- 
tor, Forestry Commission, Ghana, is currently 
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ton, D.C. 

*G.S. Child Is Senior Officer (Wildlife and 
Protected Area Management), FAO Forestry 
Department, Rome. 



Article culled from Unasylva, 
Vol. 41, n" 161, pp. 3-10 



48 



The fate of the 
African rhinoceros : 
tragedy on a 
continental scale* 

by Bernard de Wetter** 

Violent, dangerous, aggres- 
sive, vicious: there is no limit to 
adjectives to describe the rhince- 
ros. Such a reputation which was 
purposely maintained for dozens 
of years by the accounts of great 
hunters is, however, unjustified. 
Of course, the rhinoceros have 
then- character: they are some- 
times irritable and their reac- 
tions are always unpredictable. 
However they are not the aggres- 
sive monsters which exist only in 
the minds of men, when the lat- 
ter ovecome the animals in order 
to better justify their own ten- 
dency to crudeness and vio- 
lence- 
Surprising, anachronistic and 
strange, rhinoceros are the last 
descendants of an ancient line, 
the only survivors of a family 
which had its moments of glory 
in an era when man did not yet 
exist. As Uving fossils rescued 
from prehistory and proof of an 
ended era, rhinoceros have gone 
through the ages untouched. 
Evolution made them machines 
perfectly adapted to the world in 
which they live, but it was not 
able to protect them from the co- 
vetousness of man. 

A 100,000 black rhinoceros 
still Uved in Africa just a few do- 



zens of years ago. Today, there 
remain less than 3,500 and the 
poaching craze which broke out 
over most of the continent is per- 
haps in the process of giving 
them the final death-blow. As 
regarding the white rhinoceros, 
the other species present in Afri- 
ca, the current numbers repre- 
sent no more than a fraction of 
what they were in the last centu- 
ry- 

Although the fact remains 
that they are declining, it is the 
underlying causes of this decline 
which are unacceptable. The 
rhinoceros do not in any way 
come into conflict with man's ac- 
tivities, and pose no danger to 
the latter. Besides, they still have 
enough space to be able to live 
alright in most parts of their dis- 
tribution areas. If they disap- 
pear, it is only because they have 
been massacred in great num- 
bers and particularly for frivo- 
lous reasons, since it is purely 
more or less to sustain the tradi- 
tions and beliefs solidly entren- 
ched in the mentality of certain 
peoples. 

The rhinoceros suffer all 
these misfortunes because of the 
horns sticking out in front of 
their heads. These are not joi- 
ned to the skeleton of the animal. 
In fact, they are nothing more 
than a cluster of keratin, that is 
to say, a material comparable to 
our finger-nails or the hoofs of 
horses. However, they are gree- 
dily craved for in some parts of 
the world. In the Far East, they 



are taken as medication, and are 
supposed to have several powers, 
almost magical (but its actual 
ineffectiveness has now been 
scientifically proven). In Yemen, 
they are used to make the cross- 
heads of traditional daggers, 
"djambiahs", which every male 
Yemeni who respects himself 
must carry. 

The contentions between rhi- 
noceros and man date a long way 
back: for thousands of years 
these animals have been coveted 
by human beings who attributed 
supernatural virtues to them. In 
Europe in the Middle Ages, was 
it not mistaken for the Unicorn, 
that mystic animcil? Man's inter- 
est in the rhinoceros has left 
traces throughout history. 

The horns of the rhinoceros 
were greatly used at the begin- 
ning of the Christian era in impe- 
rial China. Shaped by renowned 
artisans, they were transformed 
into ornamental objects reserved 
for the affluent in society. Most 
of the horns used in the Far East 
in that era were however trans- 
formed into sculptured cups 
which only served as items of col- 
lection. Consequently, the cups 
mainly served to detect the pre- 
sence of poison in a drink. The 
practice of testing drinks with 
the horn spread in the Far East, 
Europe and even in some parts 
of Africa. But the rhinoceros 
horn was at all times used mainly 
in the field of medicine. Euro- 
peans attributed curative powers 
to it for several hundreds of 



49 



years. However, it was in Asia 
that the use of the rhinoceros 
horn in traditional medicine was 
widespread. As a universal pa- 
nacea, or almost, the horn was 
considered cis possessing (and 
still possesses) cures for a whole 
range of illnesses ranging from 
fevers and migraines, food poiso- 
ning to snake bites ! Only the 
Gujaratis of eastern Inida, howe- 
ver, attributed aphrodisiac po- 
wers to the rhinoceros horn. 

The trade in rhinoceros horn 
was already a flourishing busi- 
ness in some parts of Africa well 
before the arrival of the Whites. 
Already in the first centuries of 
the Christian era, the Arabs 
maintained relations with the 
African ports of the Red Sea and 
the horn collected on the conti- 
nent was exported to Arab and 
Indian ports, from where it then 
went on to China. The trade be- 
tween Africa and the East went 
on over the centuries, via the 
port cities of the Red Sea and 
the Indian Ocean. The English 
and Germans who divided up 
East Africa in the last century 
continued the trade in rhinoce- 
ros horn. It is estimated that du- 
ring the second half of the 19th 
century, an average of eleven 
tons of horn was exported an- 
nu£illy, which means the death of 
at least 170,000 animals ! 

The value of the horn increa- 
sed gradually thro^i^out the 
20th century. The sale of the rhi- 
noceros horn and ivory became 
the monopoly of the State in east 



and southern Africa after inde- 
pendence. At the end of the 
1960's, the horn was sold at £30 a 
kilo. But this figure was to in- 
crease tenfold some ten years la- 
ter and continued thereafter to 
soar to astronomic amounts. Se- 
veral factors are responsible for 
this rocketing of prices, the main 
one being the entry onto the 
scene of a new buyer in the 
1970's - Yemen. North Yemen 
for decades, remained a particu- 
larly poor nation and completely 
cut off from the rest of the world, 
but due to a terrible civil war 
which devastated it for more 
than eight years, the country 
opened up to international aid. 
At the same time, many Yemenis 
went to work in the oil fields of 
Saudi Arabia at the beginning of 
the 1970's. Considerable 

amounts of foreign exchange 
brought back by these workers 
propped up the economy of the 
country and allowed the buyers, 
who were still many, to obtain a 
luxury item, up till then reserved 
for the elite of the society: a dag- 
ger with the handle sculptured in 
rhinoceros horn. At the end of 
the 1970's, Esmond Bradley 
Martin, an American geogra- 
pher, threw light on the role 
played by North Yemen in the 
disappearance of the Africzm 
rhinoceros. This small country 
with a population of less than six 
million people, absorbed all by 
itself not less than 50% of the to- 
tal volume of trade in African 
rhinoceros. 



Nobody ever knew and nobo- 
dy will ever know how many rhi- 
noceros there were in Africa at 
the time the first white explorers 
set foot on this land which was 
up until then unknown. Indeed 
the accounts of the first travellers 
are full of encounters with rhino- 
ceros and it was not uncommon 
to come upon 60-80 rhinoceros 
in just one day of walking. With 
the development of colonial 
structures, the golden age of the 
great hunters started and since 
the end of the last century, Afri- 
can wildlife has had an irresisti- 
ble attraction for hunters from 
all horizons. Big, calm and har- 
dly suspicious beasts, the rhino- 
cerous, handicapped by their in- 
difference, constituted the first 
targets. 

The white man went on a real 
carnage, especially in South Afri- 
ca. The white rhinoceros was the 
first to be affected by this abusive 
hunting. In 1890, the species had 
disappeared from the south of 
the continent, so to speak. In 
1890, a group of six were howe- 
ver seen in Natal and for the first 
time, measures to protect these 
animals were taken; hunting was 
prohibited and a reserve was 
soon estabhshed for their protec- 
tion. In central Africa, the white 
rhinoceros was already the ob- 
ject of exploitation well before 
the arrival of the whites but the 
latter soon associated themselves 
with Arab traders in search of 
rhinoceros, especially in Chad. 



50 



The black rhinoceros which 
are more in number and less easy 
to locate than their white "cou- 
sins", managed to Uve much lon- 
ger, but their numbers continued 
to dwindle throughout the whole 
of the first half of the 20th centu- 
ry and already in the 1940's, the 
species became very rare in some 
countries such as Chad, Ethiopia 
and Somalia. Elsewhere on the 
contrary, the period between the 
two wars marked an era of reco- 
very for the rhinoceros, and it 
was rather the cultivation of new 
lands and not hunting which re- 
duced their numbers. 

At the beginning of the 
1950's, though the rhinoceros 
had thus disappeared from part 
of their distribution area, their 
future as a species was not threa- 
tened in any way. In South Afri- 
ca on the contrary, the white rhi- 
noceros had a remarkable 
growth. But the years of recove- 
ry did not continue for long... Al- 
ready in the 1950's, there was re- 
newed poaching of rhinoceros, a 
tendency which only increased 
thereafter almost everywhere in 
Africa. At the beginning of the 
1970's, traditional arms were re- 
placed by modern and dangerous 
equipment - automatic hunting 
guns and rifles. A real wave of 
poaching started to break out in 
Africa, eliminating along its way 
the rhinoceros in one coimtry af- 
ter another. The rhinoceros, so 
to speak, disappeared from 
Ethiopia, Somalia, Chad, Sudan, 



Angola Mozambique and Ugan- 
da at the end of the 1970s. 

East Africa was equally hard 
hit. Kenya, which still had 20,000 
black rhinoceros in 1970, had no 
more than 500 fifteen years later. 
The poaching disease then hit 
neighboring Tan2ania and Zam- 
bia and the rhinoceros were de- 
cimated within a few years. The 
Central African Republic was for 
a long time considered as a sure 
bastion for rhinoceros, but in 

1983, members of the Bokassa 
government suddenly became 
aware of the incredible potential 
of the country's 3,000 rhinoceros, 
so the massacre was carried out 
with unprecedented efficiency 
and 99% of the rhinoceros in the 
country were annihilated in a 
matter of months... 

Only one country, Zimbabwe 
(formerly Southern Rhodesia in 
the British colonial era), still had 
several thousand rhinoceros in 

1984, but in this very year, the 
rhinoceros killers turned theu- at- 
tention to this last bastion. The 
first incursions of poachers were 
recorded in December 1984 and 
the country had to quickly deal 
with a real invasion of well-orga- 
nised poachers who were power- 
fully armed and particularly ag- 
gressive, operating initially from 
neighbouring Zambia. 

Where the poUtical situation 
permitted, more intensive efforts 
were carried out to ensure the 
protection of the rhinoceros, but 
the anti-poaching fight and the 
reinforcement of the means of 



surveillance could however not 
prevent the killers from perpe- 
trating their misdeeds even in the 
most frequented sites. Kenya 
was soon forced to gather most 
of her 500 surviving rhinoceros 
into special sanctuaries built for 
them. From 1985, a national 
plan for the rescue of rhinoceros 
was implemented, and work was 
undertaken in order to provide 
sancutaries in five national parks. 
These sanctuaries are real for- 
tresses surrounded by a three 
meter high fence electrified with 
5,000 volts of current and fitted 
with electronic alarm systems. 
They are under permanent sur- 
veillance day and night by guards 
who walk round the fence along 
which patrol posts have been 
erected at intervals of a few kilo- 
meters. Five national parks were 
designated to possess such sanc- 
tuaries of areas varying from 
2,500 to 22,000 hectares, namely 
Nakuru, Nairobi, Meru, Tsavo 
and Aberdares. Four private 
ranches which currently keep 
more than one third of Kenya's 
rhinoceros were £ilso included in 
the national plan for the rescue 
of these animals... 

More than 1,000 white rhino- 
ceros were in the Garamba Na- 
tional Park in Zaire at the tune 
of independence, but only 14 re- 
mained in all, when an ambitious 
rescue programme for these ani- 
mals was launched in 1984. Fi- 
nanced by UICN, The Zoologi- 
cal Society of Frankfurt and 
UNESCO, the rehabihtation 



51 



programme for the Garamba Na- 
tional Park has since 1984 car- 
ried out careful surveillance on 
the white rhinoceros whose num- 
bers have since risen to 22. 
These are the last survivors of a 
formerly flourishing population 
of several tens of thousands of 
animals spread over a vast terri- 
tory covering Chad, Central Afri- 
can Republic, Sudan, and the 
north of Zaire and Uganda. 

From the moment of the first 
attacks by poachers in the Zam- 
bezi Valley in Zimbabwe, the go- 
vernment undertook a large- 
scale fight to save its rhinoceros, 
but in spite of the absolutely re- 
markable efforts made by this 
country, the black rhinoceros in 
the Zambezi Valley were deci- 
mated in hundreds. In 1985, the 
Department of National Parks 
consequently undertook to cap- 
ture as many rhinoceros as possi- 
ble in the Zambezi Valley so as 
to release them on the other sites 
situated fcir from the borders 
where they remaijied safe from 
the killers. Several hundreds of 
rhinoceros were already involved 
in this exercise, while in the 
Zambezi Valley a rhinoceros war 
continued, a war which sacrificed 
dozens of human lives, those of 
the wardens each year... 

The efforts made in Kenya, 
Zaire and Zimbabwe probably 
constitute the last chance of sur- 
vival for the rhinoceros in Africa. 
As long as the rehabilitation pro- 
gramme lasts in the Garamba 
National Park, one can hope that 



the white rhinoceros of central 
Africa will survive and slowly 
multiply. If the fortresses in Ke- 
nya manage to succeed in their 
role, they will make possible an 
important centre for reproduc- 
tion for black rhinoceros, lasting 
for as long as necessary. As long 
as the anti-poaching fight is car- 
ried out with as much vigor in the 
Zambezi Valley, the poachers 
cannot attack the rhinoceros po- 
pulations in South Africa, where 
today, the two species still enjoy 
exemplary protection. A few 
small populations of these pachy- 
derms are surviving in Botswana, 
Namibia, Malawi and Swaziland. 
South Africa is the last countury 
in Africa where the numbers of 
the two species are constantly in- 
creasing. 

The rhinoceros suffered from 
all these mistakes. They occu- 
pied and still occupy an ambi- 
guous place in the minds and 
cultures of peoples as different 
from one another as Chinese, 
Arabs, Indians and Zulus. 

For thousands of years the 
rhinoceros gave man a feeling of 
fascination mixed with supersti- 
tion and fear. While conferring 
supernatural qualities on them, 
man sought to eliminate them all 
along, as if the existence of the 
rhinoceros was unbearable for 
him because these strange crea- 
tures perhaps had the power to 
bring the human species to its 
right size and place. The rhino- 
ceros are there to remind us that 



life on earth did not begin with 
the appearance of man... 

If they disappeared, the 
world would no doubt continue 
to go on, but would nature in 
Africa, with its wonders of co- 
lours and shapes, still be the 
same without the rhinoceros ? If 
it proves impossible to save ani- 
mals as prestigious as these, what 
chances of survival would there 
be for the thousands of other en- 
dangered species elsewhere in 
the world, animals less known, 
even insignificant, not to mention 
plants ? What hope would there 
be of keeping the naturzil com- 
munities intact as well as all the 
creatures which constitute them; 
mammals, birds, fish, insects and 
other invertebrates from the 
most visible to the most discreet, 
the most imposing to the cal- 
mest, the most popular to the 
least liked, the most famous to 
the most absurd, and upon what, 
without exception, rests yet still 
the very foundation of life on our 
planet ? 

In a few exceptional sanctua- 
ries, the last African rhinoceros 
still live their peaceful life, hee- 
dless of the patterns of day and 
night, seasons and years as they 
have always done and could still 
do till the end of time. On 
condition that man gives them 
the chance to do so... 

* culled from: 

"Les Cahiers d'Ethologie Appliqui 

1989,9(1): 97-102 

** Author's address: 35,rue Leys 

B-1040 BRUSSELS (Belgium) 



52 



Les communautes 
africaines au 
secours de la faune: 
Texemple de la 
Zamble * 

D.M. Lewis, A. Mwenya et 
G.B. Kaweche 



A notre ipoque, la coexistence 
des ruraux avec la faune est tris 
pricaire et nicessite beaucoup 
d'assistance. Ritablir I'equilibre d 
long terme est une tdche enorme 
pour laquelle il ne suffira pas de 
l^giferer et de riprimer. La coope- 
ration des communautes rurales, 
comme dans les anciens temps, 
est essentielle. 



Les soci6t6s africaines tradi- 
tionnelles vivaient en 6quilibre 
avec la faune. En effet, la cul- 
ture africaine attache une grande 
importance ^ la conservation de 
Penvironnement (Hadley, 1985; 
Marks, 1976). Mais I'avenement 
des administrations coloniales 
centralis6es a sap6 le droit cou- 
tumier ainsi que I'autoritd des 
chefs traditionnels qui en 6taient 
les ddpositaires (Swift, 1982; Wil- 
lis, 1985). Les administrations 
coloniales n'ont pas pu mettre en 
place d'autres structures effi- 
caces pour la conservation de la 
faune, d'oii une course effr6n6e 
vers la corne de rhinoceros, I'i- 
voire et, d'une fa9on g6n6rale, le 
braconnage. 



Aprds I'inddpendance, la plu- 
part des Etats africains ont mai- 
tenu la structure coloniale cen- 
tralis6e des services de la faune 
et des pares nationaux. Dans la 
plupart des cas, l'am6nagement 
de la faune se limitait k des me- 
sures r6pressives, qui ont mainte- 
nu une barridre entre les habi- 
tants des zones prot6g6es ou du 
voisinage et la faune. 

Pendant plus de 10 ans, la 
2jambie s'est attach6e h. ram6na- 
gement de la faune et plus pr6ci- 
s6ment a la lutte contre le bra- 
connage, qui avait atteint des 
proportions alarmantes (Lewis et 
Kaweche, 1985; Lewis, Kaweche 
et Mwenya, 1989; Leder-Wil- 
Uams, 1985). De grandes cam- 
pagnes de r6pression ont tit lan- 
c6es dans certaines zones du 
pays avec des financements 
considerables. On avait beau 
mettre les braconniers en prison, 
la destruction de la faune se 
poursuivait; dans certains cas, 
elle s'aggravait meme (Lewis, 
1986). Les pertes ont tit consi- 
derables: quasi-extinction du rhi- 
noc6ros noir, rdduction de plus 
de 50% de la population d'616- 
phants. Des tendances analo- 
gues ont tit observ6es en R6pu- 
blique-Unie de Tanzanie, en Ou- 
ganda, en Namibie et au Kenya. 

Alors meme que la politique 
de rdpression continuait d'etre 
appliqu6e, le Service zambien 
des pares nationaux et de la 
faune a entrepris des 6tudes ex- 
pdrimentales (Lewis, Kaweche et 
Mwenya, 1889) et organise un 



atelier technique (Dalai-Clayton 
et Lewis, 1984) pour identifier 
les causes profondes de la chasse 
ill6gale. Ces efforts ont debou- 
ch6 sur une nouvelle politique 
d'amenagement de la faune: 
I'ADMADE, qui vise a combat- 
tre ces causes (Mwenya, Ka- 
weche et Lewis, 1988). 

L'ADMADE, qui repose sur 
la participation populaire, s'est 
xtvt\t& extremement efficace. 
Par exemple, dans une zone ou la 
participation populaire a tit ac- 
tive, le braconnage des 61ephants 
a 6te rdduit de plus de 90% en 
trois ans (Lewis, Kaweche et 
Mwenya, 1989), et aucun rhino- 
ceros noir n'a 6te tu6 alors qu'il 
en existait suffisamment pour at- 
tirer les braconniers (Lewis, don- 
n6es non publi6es). Ces r6sultats 
ont tit obtenus pour un cout au 
kilometre carr6 bien inferieur a 
ce que beaucoup d'experts esti- 
ment necessaire pour assurer 
une bonne protection de la faune 
en Afrique (Parker, 1984; Bell et 
Clarke, 1984). 

Cet article presente tout d'a- 
bord certaines variables quanti- 
fiables identifi6es h. la suite des 
6tudes ci-dessus et de I'applica- 
tion de I'ADMADE comme les 
principaux facteurs k prendre en 
compte pour pr6dire I'intensitd 
du braconnage et les problemes 
d'am6nagement de la faune dans 
une zone donnde. Diverses me- 
thodes ou formules d'amenage- 
ment capables de modifier la va- 
leur de ces variables, et done de 
r6duire la frequence et I'intensitd 



53 



du bracoimage, sont pr6sent6es 
ensuite. L'article se termine par 
un ensemble de principes direc- 
teurs qui pourraient aider les 
planificateurs et les responsables 
de la faune africains a choisir les 
options d'cimenagement de la 
faune 

VARIABLES ET 
RELATIONS CAUSALES 



Les ressources locales 
en proteines 

La ou il y a peu de sources 
"16gales" de proteines, les ruraux 
tendent k enfreindre la loi pour 
se procurer au moins une ration 
minimale. En I'absence de re- 
pression, ils ne se limitent pas a 
ce dont ils ont besoin pour I'au- 
toconsommation. Ainsi, les villa- 
geois vivzint a proximite des 
zones prot6g6es n'hesitent pas a 
y braconner malgre le risque d'e- 
tre pris. 

Une comparaison entre deux 
villages voisins, tous deux situes 
dans une zone infestee par la 
mouche tse-tse, et ou il n'y a 
done pas d'animaux domesti- 
ques, montre bien a quel point 
I'existence d'autres sources de 
proteines influe sur I'intensite du 
braconnage parmi les villageois 
vivant a proximite des zones pro- 
tegees (Lewis, 1988; Lewis, don- 
nces non publices). L'un de ces 
villages est situe en bordure 
d'une riviere tres poissonneuse. 



Dans I'autre, I'unique source de 
proteines d'une certaine impor- 
tance est constituee par la faune 
tres appauvrie de la zone. Le 
premier village compte beau- 
coup moins de chasseurs tradi- 
tionnels que le second, et le bra- 
connage y est beaucoup moins 
important. 

Les possibilites d'influer sur 
cette variable peuvent etre limi- 
tees et dependent des caracteris- 
tiques de la zone. Une option 
possible consiste a developper 
d'autres sources de proteines 
(pisciculture, cultures riches en 
prot6ines, etc.). Une autre serait 
d'allouer aux chasseurs de cha- 
que village des quotas raisonna- 
bles pour approvisionner en 
viande la communaute. Cela re- 
duirait la pression que subissent 
les especes tout en permettantde 
mieux controler le taux d'exploi- 
tation. On peut meme, si cela est 
souhaitable du point de vue de 
I'amenagement, fixer le quota de 
fagon a obtenir une augmenta- 
tion des populations visees. 



Emploi 

A mesure que les ressources 
naturelles s'amenuisent et de- 
viennent moins accessibles, les 
soci6tes rurales africaines ont de 
plus en plus besoin d'activitds r6- 
muneratrices. Comme il existe 
un marche exterieur tr^s porteur 
des produits tels que viande, tro- 
phees (peaux, cornes, dents), 
etc., I'exploitation de la faune, 16- 
gale ou ill^gale est bien tentante 
pour des populations qui man- 
quent terriblement d'argent. Peu 
instruites, elles ignorent bien 
souvent la valeur marchande 
reelle des produits de la faune 
recherch6s par la clientele etran- 
gere et les troquent ou les ven- 
dent a vil prix. 

Les possibilites d'emploi et 
les ressources en proteines va- 
rient d'une zone k I'autre, mais il 
est relativement facile de les me- 
surer. Ces informations permet- 
tent de predire I'intensite du bra- 
connage (voir figure 1). 
Les autorites responsables de Ta- 



Disponibilitc 
d'autres 
sources de 
proteines 




PEU NOMBREUX 



Emplois 



Figure 1 Intensite et 
caractere du bracon- 
nage en fonction des 
disponibilit^s de pro 
twines et d'emplois 



54 



menagement de la faune peuvent 
aider de plusieurs fagons a ac- 
croitre I'emploi. Elles peuvent 
notamment: 

Employer pour I'amenagement 
de la faune line majorite d'hahi- 
tants de la zone, apres leur avoir 
donne une fonnation appropriee. 
Un programme de ce genre a 6le 
lance a litre experimental en 
1985 par le Service zambien dcs 
pares nationaux et de la faune 
(Lewis, Kaweche et Mwenya, 
1989). Les habitants ont alors 
mieux compris et apprecie I'im- 
portance de la faune, sa valeur 
economique et la necessite d'em- 
pecher les non-residents de venir 
chasser illegalement dans leur 
zone. Les gardes recrutes loca- 
lement pour proteger la faune de 
leur chefferie connaissent beau- 
coup mieux la terre et sont moins 
enclins a I'absenteisme que les 
fonctionnaires, qui generalement 
proviennent d'une autre region. 
Ces gardes villageois ont reussi a 
arreter beaucoup plus de bra- 
conniers que les gardes fonction- 
naires, pour un cout bien moin- 
dre car ils sont remuncres selon 
un barcme local. 

Promouvoir des programmes 
encourageant les populations lo- 
cales a se lancer dans de petits ar- 
tisanat! bases sur I'exploitation 
viable ou Vohservation de la 
faune. L'experience prouve que 
les villageois s'interessent d'au- 
tant plus h. la conservation de la 
faune qu'ils en tirent un rende- 
ment soutenu. Dans ces condi- 



tions, ils comprennent mieux 
I'activite de prevention et de re- 
pression des gardes recrut6s lo- 
calement. Par exemple, ils peu- 
vent spontanement les informer 
quand des braconniers pcnetrent 
dans la zone, comme cela est ar- 
rive en Zambie (Lewis, 1989). 

Encourager les villageois a se 
reunir pour faire connaitre leur 
avis et eventuellement leurs criti- 
ques QonQQrnQtit Vammag^mmt 
de la faune locale. Ces reunions 
aident a combattre les prejuges 
et a promouvoir I'autodiscipline 
pour Tamenagement et la protec- 
tion de la faune (Lewis, 1988 et 
donnees non publiees). Cette 
approche est essentiellc pour 
etablir entre les services techni- 
ques du gouvernement et les po- 
pulations locales une coopera- 
tion permettant a ces dernieres 
de tirer legalement de la faune 
des avantages durables (Mwe- 
nya, Kaweche et Lewis, 1988). 

Reconnaissance du role 
des chefs coutumiers 

Les chefs coutumiers sont la 
pierre angulaire des societes ru- 
rales africaines et des traditions 
qui donnent aux villages leur uni- 
te et leur ordre. Autrefois, ces 
chef prenaient les decisions 
concernant la tenure des terres 
et I'acces aux ressources natu- 
relles dans Tinteret commun. Le 
regime colonial et les gouverne- 
ments qui lui ont succede ont al- 



ter6 ou supprim6 ces pouvoirs 
traditionnels sans que les admi- 
nistrations centrales soient en 
mesure de prendre la releve et 
de faire appliquer la loi pour 
proteger la faune. D'oii un cer- 
cle vicieux: comme les ressources 
continuent a etre utilisees de fa- 
9on abusive, la repression est 
maintenue, et cela tend a reduire 
encore I'influence des chefs cou- 
tumiers. 

II faudrait permettre aux 
chefs coutumiers de jouer un 
role dans les programmes de 
conservation de la faune des 
gouvernements modernes en 
constituant une veritable associa- 
tion entre ces deux autorites. 
C'est ce qu'a reussi a faire I'AD- 
MADE (Mwenya, Kaweche et 
Lewis, 1988) en creant des comi- 
tes de la faune dans chaque zone 
d'amenagement. Presides par le 
gouverneur de district, ces comi- 
tes sont composes de chefs cou- 
tumiers locaux et de fonction- 
naires specialistes de la faune. 
lis se reunissent periodiquement 
pour proceder a des echanges de 
vue et adopter des poUtiques d'a- 
menagement pour la zone 
concernee.Les apports techni- 
ques directs et les investisse- 
ments peuvent ainsi etre achemi- 
nes par les fiUeres gouvernemen- 
tales, tandis que les chefs coutu- 
miers exercent leur influence 
pour mobiliser I'appui et la co- 
operation des populations lo- 
cales. 

Dans la zone de Chikwa-Lue- 
lo, dans la vallee du Luangwa, les 



55 



deux chefs ont acceptd I'AD- 
MADE qui leur conferait ex offi- 
cio la presidence du Sous-Comi- 
ty de gestion de la faune dans 
leur chefferie. Les sous-comites 
transmettent les propositions et 
les demandes de financement au 
Comit6 de gestion de la faune. 
Les chefs ont renforce leur auto- 
rit6 en condamnant le bracon- 
nage, tout en assurant a leurs 
communautds qu'elles rece- 
vraient leur juste part des bene- 
fices provenant de la faune dans 
le cadre de I'ADMADE. II a 
suffi d'un an pour que le bracon- 
nage diminue beaucoup. 

Le prestige des chefs a aug- 
mente du fait qu'ils avaient utili- 
s6 leurs pouvoirs traditionnels au 
profit de leurs communautes: les 
recettes ont ete partag6es 
comme I'avait promis le Service 
des pares nationaux et de la 
faune, et des habitants de la zone 
nonmi6s gardes villageois ont pu 
gagner de I'argent en gerant et 
protdgeant la faune de la cheffe- 
rie. Comme le braconnage avait 
deja diminue avant I'entree en 
fonction des gardes villageois, ce 
resultat a ete attribue a I'in- 
fluence des chefs coutumiers 
(communication personnelle de 
Peter Mwanza, chef de rUnit6 
de la zone de Chikwa-Luelo). 

Les chefs coutumiers obtien- 
nent des resultats analogues dans 
plusieurs autres zones d'am6na- 
gement de la faune ou I'AD- 
MADE rapporte des recettes 
considerables. Ainsi, dans la 
plupart des zones visees par 



I'ADMADE, les comit6s de la 
faune ont ouvert des comptes de 
developpement communautaire 
ou est versee la part de recettes 
qui revient a la communaute. En 
1988, cette part a et6 de 230 000 
dollars U.S. pour un total de 10 
unitds de I'ADMADE. Afin de 
garantir que les fonds soient 
reellement utilises comme le sou- 
haitent les communautes, les 
projets ne peuvent etre recom- 
mandes au Comite que par les 
sous-comites, compos6s essen- 
tiellement des chefs de villages, 
lesquels ont la signature pour les 
comptes de developpement villa- 
geois. 



L'ADMADE a fait ressortir 
clairement le role des chefs cou- 
tumiers dans I'amenagement de 
la faune; cette formule est beau- 
coup plus rentable que la gestion 
directe par une administration 
nationale (voir figure 2). Par 
exemple, dans les zones d'ame- 
nagement de la faune de Luano 
et de Sichifula-Mulobezi, les 
chefs bannissent les villageois 
convaincus de braconnage parce 
qu'ils donnent le mauvais exem- 
ple et sont incapables de vivre en 
bonne harmonic avec la faune. 
La figure 3 illustre les relations 
entre les chefs coutumiers et les 
chasseurs et I'influence qu'elles 
peuvent avoir sur le braconnage. 



Intensit 

d 

Braconnage 




Interruption des apports 



Cout de i'amenagement 



figure 2 : reduction de I'intensit^ de braconnage en fonction de raccroissement 
des depenses d'amenagement; comparaison entre 2 types d'amenagement: 

a/ emploi de fonctionnaires charges d'appliquer des mesures de repression sans 
participation locale 

b/ participation des populations locales sous I'autorit^ conjonte des chefs coutu- 
miers et de {'administration 



56 



Nombre 
de chasseurs! 
traditionnels 




BRACONNAGE 
INTENSE 

d'especes de grande | 
valeur marchande par des ! 
chasseurs de I'exterieur j 
utilisant des methodes 
non traditionnelles 



BRACONNAGE 
MODERE 

consistant essentielle- 1 
ment en chasse de subsi- 
stance pratiquee par les 
residents; peu de complici- 
te avec les braconniers de | 
I'exterieur 



BRACONNAGE 
MODERE 

essentiellement par i 
des braconniers de I'exte- ] 
rieur; risque de participa- 
tion active des residents! 
payes en especes ou en | 
nature (viande) 



BRACONNAGE 
FAIBLE k MODERE 

Les residents sontl 
plus facilement complices | 
des braconniers de I'exte- 
rieur s'ils ne peuvent pas sel 
procurer de viande ou d'ar- 1 
gent de fagon legale 



IMPORTANT 



R61e reconnu par le gouvernement aux chefs 
traditionnels dans I'amenagement de la faune 



Figure 3 Intensity de braconnage en fonction du r61e reconnu par les 
gouvemements aux chefs traditionnels 



La faune comme source 
de recettes 

Les recettes que peut rappor- 
ter la faune sont un autre para- 
metre important pour la lutte 
centre le braconnage. Premiere- 
ment, I'amenagement local doit 
etre une source de recettes suffi- 
sante. Deuxiemement, il faut 
qu'une bonne partie de ces re- 
cettes soient r^investies sur 
place. Sans un budget annuel, 
tous les r6sultats, qu'il s'agisse de 
la cr6ation d'emplois, des nou- 
velles sources de prot6ines ou de 
la participation des autorites lo- 
cales resteront precaires. Com- 
ment mobiliser les populations 



locales pour un programme dont 
la continuite n'est pas assuree? 

II suffit de Jeter un coup 
d'oeil sur les plans de developpe- 
ment des pays africains pour 
constater que la faune ne b6nefi- 
cie pas d'une priorite trds elevee 
dans les budgets publics. Les t6- 
sultats du projet de developpe- 
ment du Lupande (Lewis, Ka- 
weche et Mwenya, 1989), ainsi 
que I'actuel programme AD- 
MADE (ADMADE, 1988), indi- 
quent que deux conditions sont 
essentielles pour que les popula- 
tions locales se mobilisent dura- 
blement en faveur de I'amenage- 
ment de la faune. Premierement, 
cet amdnagement doit rapporter 
des recettes a r6chelle locale. 



deuxiemement, les populations 
doivent participer non seulement 
k la mise en oeuvre mais aussi a 
I'elaboration du programme. 

La validite de ces principcs k 
I'echelle nationale est illustree 
par I'ADMADE. Pendant les 
exercices 1987 et 1988, 260 000 
dollars, representant 40% des re- 
cettes totales provenant de la 
faune dans 10 unites de I'AD- 
MADE (en plus de I'allocation 
de base de 230 000 dollars dont il 
est question plus haut), ont ete 
reserves pour fmancer les bud- 
gets de fonctionnement et d'e- 
quipement approuv6s par les co- 
mites de la faune de ces 10 uni- 
tes: exploitation et entretien de 7 
vehicules de I'ADMADE, traite- 
ments et indemnites des gardes 
villageois et des ouvriers, force 
publique, jetons de presence des 
membres des comites, construc- 
tion de 10 nouveaux campements 
et de 150 cases pour les gardes 
villageois, renovation de 3 mai- 
sons pour des cadres, construc- 
tion d'un bureau d'unite et mise 
en chantier de 3 autres. 



PRINCIPES 
DIRECTEURS 

On peut degager du pro- 
gramme de I'ADMADE en 
Zambie certains principes direc- 
teurs qui pourraient <iider les 
planificateurs et les responsables 
a choisir les meilleures options 
pour I'amenagement de la faune 
en Afrique. 



57 



Employer des n\ethodes 
de gestion previsionnelle 
pour reduire le bracon- 
nage 

Comme les divers paramctres 
qui conditionnent le braconnage 
sont quantifiables, on peut deter- 
miner la formule d'amenagement 
appropriee en identifiant les pa- 
ramctres pertinents et les modifi- 
cations h y apporter. La figure 4 
peut servir de base pour evaluer 



les variables examinees dans le 
present article afin de determi- 
ner un modele degestion appro- 
pride. 

Perseverance et sou- 
plesse 

II ne faut pas s'attendre que 
les programmes d'amenagement 
de la faune reposant sur la parti- 
cipation locale soient immcdiate- 
ment accept6s par tous. Au de- 



Dispoj 
nibilit^s 
d'autres 
sources dc 
proteines 



Organiser loca- 
lement la surveil- 
lanc« de la faune 
avec une subvention 
de I'Etat 



Sensibiliser les po 
pulations a Timporlance 
de la conservation er 
utilisant k leur profit le; 
recettes legales de la 

faune 

• 

Donner un certain 
prestige aux habitants 
travaillant k I'annenage- 
ment de la faune 

• 
Velller k assurer 

aux gardes des remu 

nerations competitives 



Emplois 
locaux 



Investir dans des 
formules lucratives 
d'amenagement pour 
developper i'emploi 
local 

Developper d'au 
tres sources de pro 
leines 

Etablir des quo 
tas viables et employe 
des chasseurs tradi 
tionnels pour e^^provi- 
sionner les consom 
mateurs locaux 



• 
Employer 
maximum des gardes 
villageois remuneres 
grace aux recettes pro- 
venant de la faune 

• 

Prouver aux po 
pulations locales qu 
I'exploitation legale de 
la faune rapporte plus 
que le braconnage 




Rentabiiit^ potentielle de la faune 



Figure 4 Mesures d'amenagement appropriees en fonction de trois 
parametres influant sur I'inlensit^ du braconnage (voir fig.! et 3 



but, les moniteurs locaux ris- 
quent d'etre mis sur le meme 
pied que les administrations pre- 
c6demment chargees d'appliquer 
les lois sur la faune et d'etre ren- 
dus responsables de leurs er- 
reurs (Lewis, 1989). Ainsi, 
meme s'il est potentiellement 
tres avantageux pour la commu- 
naute, le programme risque 
d'etre mal accueilli. Pour le faire 
accepter, le moniteur doit faire 
preuve de patience et de perse- 
v6rance. II doit etre sensible aux 
besoins et aux aspirations des 
populations locales et doit bien 
connaitre les antecedents et les 
coutumes tribales. Comment les 
populations se mobiliseraient- 
elles pour un programme qui 
leur est impose de but en blanc 
et dont elles ne comprennent pas 
les avantages? 

L'utilisation legale de la 
faune doit etre rentable 

La rentabilte du braconnage 
est un des facteurs les plus im- 
portants qui determinent, pour 
chaque esp5ce, I'intensite de la 
chasse illegale. Tous les animaux 
n'ont pas la meme valeur com- 
merciale; les cephalophes et les 
grysboks, par exemple, rappor- 
tent beaucoup moins que les ele- 
phants ou les rhinoceros. Un 
programme efficace de lutte 
contre le braconnage avec la par- 
ticipation des populations locales 
peut r6duire la chasse illegale, 
mais il est important qu'il soit 



58 



complete par des mesures pro- 
pres a maximiser les profits qui 
peuvent etre retires legalement 
des animaux les plus recherches, 
et a assurer qu'une partie suffi- 
sante de ces profits revienne aux 
coramunautes locales pour inci- 
ter celles-ci k appuycr la loi et 
pour financer le cout de I'amena- 
gement. Ce genre de formule a 
toutes chances d'etre bien accep- 
tee puisque I'utilisation legale de 
la faune rapportera plus que la 
complicite avec les braconniers 
(voir tableau page 18). 

Le succes de I'ADMADE en 
Zambie illustre bien les nom- 
breux avantages de cette me- 
thode (Lewis, Kaweche et Mwe- 
nya, 1989; Mwenya, Kaweche et 
Lewis, 1988; ADMADE, 1988). 
Par exemple, dans la zone d'a- 
mcnagement de la faune du Bas 
Lupande, les chefs de village ont 
identifie plusieurs moyens d'a- 
meliorer Tamenagement de la 
faune pour accroitre les recettes 
et spontanement offcrt d'infor- 
mer les gardes villageois si des 
braconniers penetraient dans la 
zone. Une autre fois, ils ont fait 
observe que les safaris de chasse, 
qui sont la plus importante 
source de recettes legales, 
tuaient trop de lions males et ont 
sugger6 qu'on reduise le nombre 
de lions chasses, les remplagant 
au besoin par des honnes. Du 
point de vue de I'amdnagement, 
c'6tait une excellente suggestion; 
cela montre a quel point I'ame- 
nagement est faciUte quand la 
population locale I'accepte et se 



rend compte qu'il peut etre pour 
elle une source durable de re- 
cettes. 

Un autre exemple montre 
que la perspective de gains dura- 
bles aide a resoudre tres rapide- 
ment les problemes d'amenage- 
ment. Les feux de brousse allu- 
mes en fin de saison, quand le 
fourrage est sec, reduisent la ca- 
pacite de charge en faune. II a 
suffi d'avertir les chefs que les 
quotas de chasse, et done les re- 
cettes locales et la production de 
viande, risquaient d'etre reduits, 
pour qu'ils conseillent aux villa- 
geois de ne pas allumer de feux 
trop tard dans la saison. 



Les avantages que rap- 
porte ramenagement doi- 
vent atteindre un certain 
seuil 

La relation entre I'emploi 
cree localement par I'amenage- 
ment de la faune et la reduction 
du braconnage n'est pas lineaire 
dans les zones oil il y a peu d'em- 
plois pour les ruraux (voir figure 
5). L'exemple de la Zambie 
montre que, quand I'amcnage- 
ment de la faune profite a un 
trop petit nombre d'habitants de 
la zone, les autres sont hostiles 
au programme et en entravent 
I'application (Lewis, 1989, don- 
nees non publiees). Mais quand 



Intensite 

de 

braconnage 




Reaction d'envie quand les b6n6fices 
sont r6serv6s k un petit nombre 



Seuil d'efficacit6: 
effet de pression 




Pourccntagc des habitants d'unc zone tirant ^^ 
des benefices de I'amcnagement de la faune ^ 



Figure 5 Modifications de I'intensite de braconnage en fonction du pourcentage 
des habitants de la zome qui tirent des benefices d'un programme d'am^na- 
gement encourageant I'utilisation legale de la faune 



59 



les b6n6ficiaires sont assez nom- 
breux, ils font pression en faveur 
d'une utilisation legale de la 
faune et Tintensitd du bracon- 
nage diminue rapidement. 

L'emploi local cr66 par le 
projet pilote du Lupande dans le 
cadre de I'ADMADE s'est limit6 
d'abord aux seuls gardes villa- 
geois. Peu a peu, le braconnage 
diminuant, on s'est efforc6 de 
cr6er d'autres emplois locaux en 
developpant I'utilisation viable et 
legale de la faune. Au bout de 
trois ans, il y avait il y avait trois 
foir plus de personnes gagnant 
ainsi leur vie que de gardes villa- 
geois (Lewis, Kaweche et Mwe- 
nya, 1989; Lewis, donn6es non 
publi6es), et le braconnage 6tait 
devenu ndgligeable. Les en- 
quetes ont r6v616 que les villa- 
geois 6taient d6sireux de dissua- 
der les braconniers d'entrer dans 
leur zone et prets h appuyer les 
gardes villageois (Lewis, 1988). 

Utiliser les exemples de 
succes 

Un programme qui r6ussit k 
r6duire les effets des variables 
influant sur le braconnage pent 
aussi servir de catalyseur pour 
amorcer des am61iorations dans 
les zones voisines. Ce qui s'est 
pass6 en ZLambie montre que 
I'information circule vite entre 
communaut6s voisines et que le 
succes est contagieux. Cela per- 
met d'61argir le programme sans 
ddpenses suppl6mentaires. Ainsi, 



en 1989, deux ans seulement 
apr5s le lancement de I'AD- 
MADE, deux chefs qui n'6taient 
pas compris dans le programme 
ont demand^ officiellement que 
leur chefferie soit classde comme 
zone d'am6nagement de la faune 
relevant de I'ADMADE. En ef- 
fet, le Service des Pares Natio- 
naux et de la Faune ne pent utili- 
ser des fonds publics que dans 
les zones d'am6nagement. 

Pour maximiser cet effet de 
contagion, il faut choisir, au d6- 
but, des zones oil le potentiel de 
la faune est relativement 61ev6 et 
pers6v6rer jusqu'^ ce que les 
avantages soient pleinement re- 
connus par la commaunaut6, afm 
que I'exemple soit convaincant 
pour les communautds voisines. 

La zone amenagee peut 
avoir un effet tampon 

La mobilisation des popula- 
tions locales pour I'am^nage- 
ment de la faune k proximit6 des 
zones prot6g6es et des pares na- 
tionaux peut r6duire consid6ra- 
blement le coiit de la surveillance 
de ces derniers. A mesure que le 
souci de conserver la faune se 
generalise, il devient de plus en 
plus difficile aux braconniers de 
trouver des complicit6s sur place 
(Lewis, Kaweche et Mwenya, 
1989; ADMADE, 1988). 



Organiser la protection 
des zones inhabitees 

Un habitat qui convient k la 
faune n'est pas n6cessairement 
propice au peuplement humain. 
II existe done beaucoup de zones 
riches en faune mais inhabit6es. 
Pour assurer leur protection, il 
est int6ressant de mobiliser les 
communaut6s les plus proches 
en leur donnant le sentiment que 
c'est leiu" propre richesse 
qu'elles protdgeront. II sera ainsi 
facile de trouver le personnel n6- 
cessaire pour am6nager la zone 
et aussi d'en tirer de fagon dura- 
ble un ma»mum de recettes 
pour financer les couts d'amdna- 
gement et rapporter des avan- 
tages k la communautd. 

Eviter les surencheres 

Beaucoup d'amis de la nature 
s'offrent k aider b6n6volement k 
am6nager la faune en Afrique. 
LeiU" aide est souvent pr6cieuse, 
mais les modalit6s de la collabo- 
ration de ces volontaires avec les 
autorit6s nati(Hiales sont rare- 
ment ddfinies de fa^on precise. 
Quand des organisations non 
gouvernementales riches pren- 
nent des initiatives non coordon- 
n6es, il risque d'y avoir des 
conflits avec I'administration lo- 
cale. D'oii le danger de rivalit6 
et d'utilisation inefficace des 
fonds disponibles pour la conser- 
vation de la faune. Ces conflits 
peuvent entrainer une mauvaise 



60 



allocation des ressources de la 
part des donateurs exterieurs. 

Bien plus, ils risquent de de- 
moraliser les 6cologistes profes- 
sioimels des service officiels d'a- 
menagement de la faune. Tout 
cela peut en definitive rendre 
inefficace la lutte contre le bra- 
connage a cause notamment de 
la lenteur des interventions, de la 
mauvaise coordination avec les 
autres organisations officielles et 
de la difficulte de controler le 
personnel subalterne. La confu- 
sion rcgne ct le braconnagc re- 
double. Comme quoi I'enfer est 
pav6 de bonnes intentions: c'est 
justement I'effort de conserva- 
tion qui provoque tous ces pro- 
blcmes. 

II est essentiel que les orga- 
nisraes donateurs et les organisa- 
tions non gouvernementales ap- 
puicnt sans reticence les autori- 
tes nationales, afin que cclles-ci 
puissent avoir toute Tautorile 
voulue pour faire respecter la loi 
et executer les programmes d'a- 
menagement de la faune. 



CONCLUSION 

Les parametres qui influent 
sur I'intensite du braconnage et 
sur I'intensite du braconnage et 
sur les autres problemes d'ame- 
nagement de la faune en Afrique 
sont identifiables et modifiables. 
Leur modification coute moins 
cher si les interventions sont gui- 
dees par les valeurs et traditions 
africaines et par un service des 



pares nationaux sensible aux be- 
soins des populations locales. 
Cette approche de la conserva- 
tion, dont I'efficacite a 6te prou- 
vee en Zambie par un projet pi- 
lote, et qui a ete ensuite appli- 
quee dans tout le pays, pourrait 
etre etcndue a d'autres pcirties 
de I'Afrique. Le succes depend 
avant tout de la mobilisation des 
chefs coutumiers a I'appui des 
utilisations legales de la faune 
qui rapportent des benefices 
commerciaux, ainsi que de la 
participation des populations lo- 
cales aux activites d'amenage- 
ment. 

Cette approche reposant sur 
la participation populaire et sur 
le recyclage des recettes tirees 
de la faune pour financer le d6- 
veloppemcnt local et I'amenage- 
ment meme de cette faune est 
pragmatique et rentable. Pour- 
tant, dans la majeure partie de 
I'Afrique, la conservation de la 
faune est encore essentiellement 
tributaire des financements exte- 
rieurs. Ces financements bien 
intentionnes, si indispensables 
soient-ils, ont pree une depen- 
dance qui a empeche d'adopter 
des formulcs d'amenagement ca- 
pables de s'autofinancer et repo- 
sant sur une utilisation viable de 
la faune. Souvent, les proposi- 
tions de projet comportent des 
budgets considerables afin d'in- 
teresser les donateurs. A cote de 
ces apports massifs de fonds, on 
a tendance a ne pas tenir compte 
de I'importance des ressources 
d'origine locale pour le finance- 



ment des programmes commu- 
nautaires d'amenagement de la 
faune. De plus, les projets finan- 
ces par des dons ext6rieurs im- 
portants ne permettent pas en 
general de resoudre definitive- 
ment les problemes, car les ap- 
ports ne sont pas maintenus in- 
definiment. II est essentiel que 
les apports exterieurs fournis 
pour I'amenagement de la faune 
soient etroitement coordonn6s 
avec les efforts visant a mobiliser 
durablement la participation 
locale. 

Article repris de Unasylva, 
Vol.41, n°161,pp 11-20 




61 



NOTES SUR LES 
CEPHALOPHES DE 
SIERRA LEONE 



par V J. Wilson 
et B.L.P. Wilson* 



RESUME 



En ddcembre 1988, une breve 
expedition effectuee en Sierra 
Leone (Afrique de I'Ouest) dans 
le cadre du programme de la D6- 
cennie Panafricaine pour la Re- 
cherche sur les Cephalophes a 
donn6 des rdsultats tr^s 
concluants. Jusqu'au moment oil 
la visite fut effectu6e, aucun sp6- 
cimen scientifique de c6pha- 
lophe de Jentink (Cephalophus 
jentinki) n'avait encore 6t6 enre- 
gistr6. Et meme s'il y avait des 
raisons de croire k I'existence de 
I'espdce en Sierra Leone, un s6- 
rieux doute planait encore sur 
son statut r6el. L'6tude men6e 
confirme la decouverte en sep- 
tembre 1988 par Davies et Bir- 
kenhagen de la presence d'une 
colonic viable de cette esp^ce 
sur la P6ninsule de Freetown, 
dans la Reserve Forestidre de la 
Region Occidentale de Sierra 
Leone. Dans un village, on a ob- 
tenu d'un chasseur quelques 
paires de cornes de c6phalophes 
de Jentink. La decouverte non 
loin de la capitale Freetown 
d'une espece aussi rare et de sur- 



croit menac6e d'extinction est 
d'une port6e considerable. Vu 
qu'on y trouve au moins trois si- 
non quatre esp6ces de cepha- 
lophes de foret, la region devrait 
pouvoir bdneficier du statut de 
Pare National. Des observations 
sur les neuf espdces de cepha- 
lophes de Sierra Leone ont ega- 
lement ete relevees. 



INTRODUCTION 



L'un des objectifs du Pro- 
gramme de la Decennie Panafri- 
caine pour la recherche sur les 
cephalophes initie par la Fonda- 
tion Chipangali pour la Faune 
(Zimbabwe) vise k etablir, h par- 
tir de recherches systematiques, 
le statut et la carte de repartition 
des espdces de cephalophes les 
plus rares vivant dans les zones 
forestieres du continent africain. 

Selon Wilson (1987), toute 
politique serieuse en matidre de 
conservation et d'utilisation des 
ressources forestieres et de leur 
faune et fltffe doit etre precedee 
d'enquetes minutieuses. 

C'est k ce genre de re- 
cherches que se hvre, k I'heure 
actuelle, la Fondation Chipangali 
pour la Faune au Zimbabwe qui 
s'impUque aussi activement dans 
des projets de recherche simi- 
laires dans d'autres pays afri- 
cains. 

L'avenir des forets tropicales 
humides et autres ecosyst^mes 
des zones tropicales ne sera as- 



sure que lorsque les populations 
qui vivent des ressources des fo- 
rets seront en mesure de pro- 
duire, plus qu'elles n'en ont be- 
soin pour leur survie, de la nour- 
riture et autres biens de consom- 
mation. Nous avons un grand 
besoin d'informations precises 
dans des domaines et zones criti- 
ques, pendant que nous dispo- 
sons encore de forets tropicales 
humides (Wilson 1987). Ayjmt 
cet objectif k I'esprit, le chef d'e- 
quipe de recherche a eiabore en 
decembre 1987, de concert avec 
I'UICN k Gland (Suisse), un plan 
d'action pour la Protection des 
cephalophes. II s'agissait d'ob- 
tenir des informations plus pre- 
cises sur un certain nombre de 
pays, dont la Sierra Leone. Wil- 
son (1987) a indique que les ce- 
phalophes de Jentink et de Ogil- 
by etaient probablement les es- 
pdces d'antilope les plus rares et 
les moins coimues vivant dans les 
forets denses de I'Afrique 
Occidentale. Selon I'auteur, ces 
espdces vivent cachees dans des 
endroits k habitat dense, ce qui 
rend difficile toute etude k ca- 
ractere scientifique. Or elles 
pourraient disparailre avant 
meme de Uvrer quelques infor- 
mations sur leurs habitudes, leur 
comportement et leur ecologie 
(WUson 1987). 

L'ebauche n*3 du Red Data 
Book (novembre 1984) consa- 
cree aux donnees relatives au ce- 
phalophe de Jentink stipulait 
"qu'une enquete s'av^re neces- 
saire pour determiner avec plus 



62 



de pr6cision la repartition et le 
statut de I'esp^ce dans la pers- 
pective de recommandations de 
strai6gies en matidre de conser- 
vation". 

Plusieurs especes de cepha- 
lophes, dont celle de Jentink, 
pourraient etre menac6es de dis- 
parition. II a 6t6 prevu que le 
Programme pour la D6cennie 
Panafricaine pour la Recherche 
sur les cephzilophes fournisse de 
nouvelles donn6es pour I'eta- 
bUssment de Ustes correctes dans 
les documents de references du 
CITES et le "Red Data Book". 
L'objectif premier du projet de- 
meure toutefois de proraouvoir 
la conservation des diverses es- 
peces d'antilopes d'Afrique, sur- 
tout que la chasse commerciale 
pour la "viande de brousse" s'in- 
tensifie et que la destruction 
massive de I'habitat se r6pand. 

Tant Wilson (1987) que d'au- 
tres auteurs tels que Jones 
(1966), Davies (1987), etc., ont 
6voque la possibility que le c6- 
phalophe de Jentink existe en 
Sierra Leone, mais aucune 
preuve n'a et6 avancee qui per- 
mettrait d'affirmer qu'on peut 
rencontrer I'espdce dans le pays. 

L'6quipe de recherche a tou- 
jours manifest6 le desir de se 
rendre en Sierra Leone pour 
confirmer ou infirmer I'existence 
de I'espdce de Jentink (Wilson 
1987). L'occasion lui 6tait of- 
ferte en avril 1988, lorsque Mr 
John Waugh de la Soci6t6 de 
Conservation de la Nature de 
Sierra Leone 6crivit au chef de 



r6quipe en ces termes: "Au cours 
de mes recherches sur les res- 
sources de la R6serve Foresti^re 
de la Region Occidentale, j'ai 
d6couvert des indices soUdes 
tendant k prouver I'existence de 
nos jours du c6phalophe de Jen- 
tink sur les montagnes de la r6- 
serve". Et I'auteur de la lettre 
d'aj outer que "le rehef accident6 
rend inaccessible cette vaste 
zone montagneuse ou I'espdce a 
et6 reper6e". 

En d6cembre 1988, une mis- 
sion de recherche se rendit en 
Sierra Leone, grace aux disposi- 
tions prises par Mr Samuel Mu- 
sa-Jcunbawai (un autre responsa- 
ble de la soci6t6 Sierra Leonaise 
pour la Conservation de la Na- 
ture. La mission avait pour but 
d'etabUr la preuve que I'espece 
de Jentink existe dans la Reserve 
Forestiere de la R6gion Occi- 
dentale sur la Peninsule de Free- 
town. 

Dans sa lettre d'invation, Mr 
Samuel Musa-Jambawai affirme 
avoir tu6 par balle un c6pha- 
lophe male de I'espdce de Jen- 
tink en 1960 dans la foret de Go- 
la. C'etait I'un des deux cepha- 
lophes qu'il vit personnellement 
et le premier signe positif de la 
pr6sence de cette espece en Sier- 
ra Leone. Mais la premiere 
preuve concluante de I'existence 
de cephalophe de Jentink en 
Sierra Leone fut 6tabUe en sep- 
tembre 1988 par Davies et Bir- 
kenhager (sous presse). Selon 
les auteurs, cette espece existe 



dans la partie mdridionale de la 
P6ninsule de Freetown. 

Dans son "Guide de la Sierra 
Leone" (1925), Goddard affir- 
mait: "En ce qui concerne les 
antilopes, il n'existe pas moins de 
quatorze espdces differentes r6- 
pertoriees en Sierra Leone. Par- 
mi elles, la famille des c6pha- 
lophes est fortement representee 
comme le montre la Uste sui- 
vante: 

c6ph. k dos jaune (C. sylvicultor) 
ceph. a flancs roux (C. rufilatus) 
ceph. zebre (C. doriae) 
ceph. de Maxwell (C. maxwelli) 
c6ph. de Jentink (C jentinki) 
c6ph. noir (C. niger) 

c6ph. bai (C. dorsalis) 

c^ph. d'Ogilby (C. Ogilbyi) 
antilope royale {Meet, pygmaeus) 
cobe defassa (Cobus defassa onc- 
tuosus) 

cobe de Buffon {Cobus Kob) 
bongo (Tragelaphus euryceros) 
guib harnach6 (Tragelaphus 
scriptus typicus) 

chevrotain aquatique (Dorcathe- 
rium aquaticum) 

Des huit especes de cepha- 
lophes ci-dessus mentionnees, 
les plus courantes sont le cepha- 
lophe noir et le c6phalophe de 
Maxwell (commun6ment appel6s 
"chevre de brousse" et "fritam- 
bou" par les Cr6oles) qu'on ren- 
contre partout en Sierra Leone 
dans des endroits oil pousse un 
couvert vegetal abondant, de 
preference dans les sous-bois des 
forets. Le magnifique cepha- 
lophe h. flancs roux, de petite 



63 



taille, se rencontre dans la plu- 
part des r6gions du nord du pays. 
Les cinq autres espdces sont 
rares et si de temps k autre les 
Europ6ens peuvent entrer en 
possession de leurs peaux (celle 
du c6phalophus z6br6 est parti- 
culidrement pris6e), il ne leur ar- 
rive pas souvent d'en rencontrer 
de vivant. 

Stanley (1928) reprit mot k 
mot les donn^es foumies par 
Goddard (1925); plus encore, il 
donna la meme liste d6]k 6tablie 
par Goddard. Toutefois, il existe 
une difference de taille dans les 
afHrmations de I'un et I'autre. 
Selon Goddard (1925), "les es- 
p^ces les plus courantes sont le 
c^phalophe noir et le c6pha- 
lophe de Maxwell", alors que 
Stanley (1928) 6crit: "Des huit es- 
pdces de c6phalopliin6s, le c6- 
phalophe de Maxwell et le c6- 
phalophe de Jentink sont les es- 
pdces les plus r6pandues." 

Et Stanley (op. cit) d'ajouter: 
"la pratique du syst6me de cul- 
ture par rotation, consistant en 
une mise en jach^re des terrains 
de culture pour une p6riode de 
cinq k six ans afin de favoriser la 
formation d'un convert v6g6tal 
dense et imp6n6trable, assure 
une admirable protection natu- 
relle de ces deux espdces de c6- 
phalophes de foret. Pour les 
chasses, les chasseurs indigenes 
utilisent une tedmique qui 
consiste k les attirer hors de leur 
refuge en imitant leur cri. La 
meme m6tliode est utilis6e pour 



chasser les autres espdces rares 
sus-mentionn6es. 

Sur la base de ce qui pr6c6de, 
il apparait done clairement 
qu'une erreur a bien pu se glisser 
dans Particle de Stanley (1928) et 
que, au lieu de "Jentink", Ton de- 
vrait lire "Noir". 

Quelques ann6es plus tard, 
Montague (1959) dcrit au chapi- 
tre III (Mammif^res) d'une 6di- 
tion revue et corrig6e du "Guide 
de la Sierra Leone" ce qui suit: 
"Dans les forets et les buissons 
des zones cultiv6es, I'espdce la 
plus couramment rencontr6e est 
le cdphalophe gris de Maxwell 
(Cephalophus maxwelli) alors 
que le cdphalophe k flancs roux 
(Cephalophus rufllatus) marqu6 
d'une large bande grise sur le 
dos vit dans la savanne et les 
zones de culture en bordure de 
foret. La seule esp6ce rencon- 
tr6e partout dans la r6gion est le 
c^phalophe noir (Cephalophus 
niger), appel6 localement "ch6- 
vre de brousse", qui vit en zone 
de foret et a un pelage marron 
sombre. Parmi les quelques es- 
pdces rares, on citera le c6pha- 
lophe z6br6 (Cephalophus zebra). 
Cette esp^ce, qu'on ne trouve 
que dans la zone foresti^re de 
Gola et au Liberia voisin, est trds 
remarquable par sa robe roux 
pale z6br6e d'une douzaine de 
large bandes noires traversant 
son dos de haut en bas. Aucune 
mention n'a €t6 faite de I'espdce 
de c6phalophe de Jentink par 
I'auteur de la communication. 



Dans ses "Notes sur les Mam- 
mif^res les plus courants en Sier- 
ra Leone", Jones (1966) foumit 
mot pour mot les memes infor- 
mations que celles d6}k donn6es 
par Montague. Mais il ajouta ce 
qui suit: "cependant I'auteur n'a 
pu ni ddcouvrir des indices pr6- 
ds pas plus qu'il n'est tomb6 sur 
des sp6cimens de c6phalophe de 
Jentink (Cephalophus jentinfd) 
ou de c6phalophe d'Ogilby (Ce- 
phalophus offlbyi). En outre, au- 
cun sp6cimen d'origine sierra 
leonaise n'existe au Mus6e 
d'Histoire Naturelle de Londres. 

Jones (conununication per- 
sonnelle), qui passa de longues 
ann6es en Sierra Leone, afHrmait 
n'avoir jamais entendu parler de 
I'existence du cephalophe de 
Jentink, ni en avoir rencontrd 
dans le pays. Dans ime lettre aux 
auteurs, il dcrivit: "Si I'espdce de 
Jentink avait 6t6 aussi r6pandue 
qu'on le dit, les officiers de I'ar- 
m6e k Daru, qui chassaient beau- 
coup dans la region de I'Ouest k 
r6poque de Stanley et en- 
voyaient les specimens trouves 
au Mus6e d'Histoire Naturelle 
de Londres, en auraient certai- 
nement rencontr6 un. 

Toboku-Metzger (1979) fit 
une mention brdve de I'existence 
du c6phalophe de Jentink en 
Sierra Leone, mais sans fournir 
de donn6e positive ou originale. 
Robinson (1971) declara: "Le ce- 
phalophe de Jentink (Cephalo- 
phus jentinki), dont la distribu- 
tion est la plus restrainte parmi 
toutes les espdces de c6phalophi- 



64 



n6s, ne se trouve qu'zl I'Est du Li- 
beria et k rOuest de la Cote d'l- 
voire, oii sa distribution est cen- 
tr6e sur la riviere Cavally". Une 
fois de plus, Robinson (1971) ci- 
tait Kuhn (1%5). De meme, 
Wilkinson (1974) inclut dans sa 
liste le c6phalophe d'Abott (Ce- 
phalophus spadix) parmi les 
mammifdres de Sierra Leone. 
Nous estimons que c'est \k une 
erreur de sa pait et que Ton de- 
vrait lire c6phalophe k dos jaune 
{Cephalophus sylvicultor) d^s 
lors que, selon toute vraisem- 
blance, Wilkinson n'aurait eu au- 
cune raison de supposer que le 
c^phalophe de Jentink existait. 



LA ZONE ETUDIEE 

Sierra Leone : Generali- 
tes (voir carte page27) 

La R6publique de Sierra 
Leone, un des plus petits pays 
d'Afrique, s'6tire entre la Guin6e 
et le Liberia et est limit^e au Sud 
par rOc6an Atlantique. Avec 
une population de plus de quatre 
millions d'habitants, la Sierra 
Leone est le cinqui6me pays le 
plus dens6ment peupl6 parmi les 
pays africains subsahariens. EUe 
couvre une superficie d'environ 
726 000 km^ (soit 28 000 mille^). 
C'est un pays de plaines et de 
collines, dont plus de la moiti6 
de la superficie jouit d'un climat 
favorable aux forets denses et 



humides. Et pourtant, k I'heure 
actuelle, moins de 5% du terri- 
toire est toujours couvert de fo- 
rets primaires, alors que les fo- 
rets constitu6es d'arbres de 
moins de 10 metres de haut re- 
couvrent environ 55% du pays. 
Les forets secondaires couvrent 
4% du pays (Davies 1987). 
Quoiqu'une portion consid6rable 
de la terre ne soit pas arable, 
surtout dans les r6gions du Nord 
et du Centre, I'agriculture 6tait 
et demeure I'activit^ pr6pond6- 
rante de la population dont 80% 
est engagee dans la pratique de 
Tagriculture de subsistence. Les 
methodes de culture utilis6es 
sont de type itindrante, a savoir 
abattage d'arbres, brulis, change- 
ment de terrain. De vastes man- 
groves existent le Jong de la cote 
et dans les estuaires des fleuves 
et les criques tandis que de 
vastes plaines couvrent presque 
la moitid dukpays. A I'Est et au 
Nord-Est s'616vent des plateaux 
d'environ 1220 mdtres d'altitude 
avec les montagnes Loma et Tin- 
gi dont I'altitude d6passe 1830 
m6tres.Il y a 200 ans les 3/4 de la 
Sierra Leone dtaient converts de 
forets primaires et secondaires 
mais dts 1826 de larges zones fu- 
rent abattues pour rdpondre aux 
besoins de bois tropicaux de la 
Grande Bretange et aussi pour la 
culture par les fermiers locaux. 

De nos jours il y a trds peu de 
grandes 6tendues de forets pri- 
maires et la seule foret k hauts 
arbres est celle de Gola qui se 
prolonge au Liberia. De vastes 



dtendues de forets hautes exis- 
tent encore dans les regions 
montagneuses 61oign6es de Lo- 
ma et Tingi qui sont heureuse- 
ment des R6serves Foresti6res 
prot6g6es. L'hippopotame nain 
(Choeropis liberiensis), une des 
esp^ces enddmiques d'Afrique 
de rOuest, existe encore en plu- 
sieurs endroits de Sierra Leone. 

Le splendide c6phalophe z6- 
br6 est pr6sent dans les forets de 
Gola - et sans doute dans d'au- 
tres r6gions aussi - mais est mal- 
heureusement souvent traque 
pour sa peau et sa chair. Le 
Bongo (Boocecus eurycerus) ne 
vit que dans un petit nombre de 
rdserves foresti6res, et il existe 
encore un grand nombre d'es- 
p6ces de singes. 

Les chimpanz6s se rencon- 
trent dans beaucoup de r6gions, 
mais leur nombre a consid6ra- 
blement baiss6. L'on est en droit 
de croire que les singes et les c6- 
phalophes forment le gros du gi- 
bier tu6 pour le commerce de 
"viande de brousse" dont une 
grande quantitd est sech6e et ex- 
port6e vers le Liberia voisin. 
Des milliers de singes et de c6- 
phalophes sont tu6s chaque an- 
n6e. Bien que l'on sache que V6- 
I6phant et d'autres mammif6res 
se rencontrent encore dans le 
pays, il n'existe ni liste officielle 
de controle, ni atlas des mammi- 
f^res de Sierra Leone. Toute- 
fois, des informations compl6- 
mentaires peuvent etre trouv6es 
dans les ouvrages de Davies 
(1987), Grubb (1988), Happold 



65 



(1973 et 1987), Jones (1966), 
Lowes (1970), Teleki et Baldwin 
(1981) et Merz (1986). 

Reserve Forestiere de la 
Region Occidentale (Pe- 
ninsule de Freetown) 

Cette r6serve se trouve sur la 
Peninsule au Sud de Freetown et 
comprend une crete majestueuse 
au relief accident6 fait de mon- 
tagnes couvertes de forets. Cer- 
taines de ces montagnes peuvent 
atteindre une altitude de 915 me- 
tres. Selon Toboku-Metzger 
(1079), ce sont des montagnes 
uniques en leur genre en Afrique 
de rOuest, et ne sont compara- 
bles qu'a la chaine des mon- 
tagnes que Ton trouve au Came- 
roun. 

Sexploitation des forets de la 
P6ninsule a commenc6 depuis de 
nombreuses anndes et continue* 
sans r6pit. Or ces forets sont im- 
portantes pour la protection de 
I'approvisionnement en eau de la 
ville de Freetown. 

L'importance de cette belle 
r6gion montagneuse au relief ac- 
cessible est consid6rable; et 
pourtant tr6s peu a et6 6crit 
concernant sa faune. Outre plu- 
sieurs esp^ces de c6phalophes et 
le guib harnach6 {Tragelaphus 
scriptus), il est prouv6 que les 
cercopithdques Diane (Cercopi- 
thecus diana) et le rare Pica- 
thartes k la tete jaune 
(Picathartes gymnocephalus) 
existent aussi.(voir carte page 28) 



METHODE 



Cette 6tude pr61iniinaire sur 
les cephalophes de Sierra Leone 
a ete menee en decembre 1988. 
Dans le cadre de Tdtude, deux 
sorties ont 6t6 organisees sur la 
P6ninsule de Freetown oii un 
certain nombre de chasseurs lo- 
caux et de guides ont et6 interro- 
ges sur les cephalophes de la r6- 
gion. 

Les chasseurs trouves en pos- 
session de viande de cephalophe 
fraiche ou scchee, ou de peaux 
ont 6galcment ete interrog6s. II 
y eut aussi une discussion avec le 
propietaire d'un hotel de la place 
oil fut reper6 un jeune cepha- 
lophe bai. Deux voyages de ter- 
rain furent organises en foret sur 
le P6ninsule pour enregistrer les 
details relatifs aux pistes suivies 
par les cephalophes et leurs ex- 
cr6ments. 

De plus, un voyage prolongd 
emmena r6quipe ^ travers plu- 
sieurs zones forestieres de Sierra 
Leone, voyage durant lequel des 
donndes sur les pistes de c6pha- 
lophes et leurs dejections furent 
notdes. 

Note a dgalement 6t6 prise de 
toutes les cephalophes mortes en 
vente le long des routes ou en 
possession des chasseurs. L'e- 
quipe eut aussi une discussion 
d6taill6e avec le Docteur Sitter, 
un trappeur qui vit en Sierra 
Leone depuis longtemps. 

Enfm, Mr Samuel Musa-Jam- 
bawai, notre compagnon et 
guide, nous a fourni une impor- 



tante documentation siu" la r6- 
partition et le statut des diverses 
espdces de cephalophes de Sier- 
ra Leone. II fut nagudre un ca- 
dre superieur du departement 
des Forets et avait une parfaite 
connaissance des forets et de la 
faune de Sierra Leone. 

RESULTATS 

Le Cephalophe de Max- 
well (Cephalophus maxwel- 
li) 

C'est I'espece d'antilope la 
plus repandue en Sierra Leone, 
et presente dans toutes les re- 
gions visitees, a savoir la Foret 
de Gola, I'lle de Twai, la Reserve 
Forestiere de la Zone Ouest, les 
Regions de Makali/Masingbi, de 
Bo et celle entre Yonibana et 
Waterloo. 

Un jour, dans la R6serve Fo- 
restiere de la R6gion Occiden- 
tale, nous avons relev6 des traces 
fraiches de cephalophe de Max- 
well en plusieurs endroits. Nous 
avons aussi examine quatre car- 
casses fraichement depouiliees 
appartenant ^ un chasseur qui 
s'en allait les vendre ^ un centre 
de viliegiature, II nous a exhibe 
les tetes des betes tuees le matin 
meme et dit avoir tue 2 autres ce- 
phalophes de Maxwell la veille. 
Un autre chasseur nous a montre 
cinq peaux sechees et aplaties 
provenant de cephalophes de 
Maxwell. 



66 



Sur le chemin qui passe pres 
de Bo, nous avons rencontr6 un 
chasseur portant sur la tete un 
grand panier de viande sechee. 
Selon lui, ce panier contenait la 
viande de huit c^phalophes de 
Maxwell et d'environ vingt singes 
d'especes diverses. 

Entre Waterloo et Yonibana, 
nous avons rencontr6 deux v6hi- 
cules portant attachees aux 
grilles de leur radiateur deux ce- 
phalophes de Maxwell non de- 
pouillees. Selon Davies (1987), 
le cephalophe de Maxwell est 
I'espece la plus repandue dans 
les zones forestieres de Sierra 
Leone. EUe est en abondance 
sur rile de Tiwai et aux abords 
du Fleuve Moa. Sur la Peninsule 
de Freetown le prbc des car- 
casses fraiches de cephalophes 
varie entre 200 Leones (soil 2,5 
dollars US) et 500 Leones (soit 
6,25 dollars US) piece. Les 
Mcnd6 I'appellent tuwiiolo, les 
Creoles fritambu. La peau sert 
aussi 21 faire des tambours. 

Le Cephalophe Bai {Ce- 
phalophus dorsalis) 

Nous n'avons obtenu qu'une 
seule et unique preuve de I'exis- 
tence de cette espece au cours 
de notre visite. Un male sub- 
adulte a et6 photographic en 
captivite dans le village Africana 
Tokey sur la P6ninsule de Free- 
town. 11 6tait en tres bonne 
condition physique et son pelage 
roux 6tait soyeux et luisant. Une 



large bande noire traverse son 
dos de la queue au cou. Le pro- 
pri6taire de I'hotel a prob- 
ablement du I'acquerir tout petit 
pour I'elever. II avait tit trouve 
dans la Reserve Forestiere de la 
R6gion Occidentale. 

Nous n'avons pu identifier 
avec certitude des traces d'un c6- 
phalophe apergues sur I'lle de 
Tiwai, mais tout portait a croire 
qu'il s'agissait de celles d'un 
jeune cephalophe bai. En effet, 
il est extremement difficile, sinon 
impossible, de faire la difference 
entre les traces d'un jeune ce- 
phalophe et celles d'un sub- 
adulte des diffcrentes especes. 
Selon les chercheurs qui travail- 
Icnt sur I'ile, le c6phalophe a 
flancs roux {Cephalophus rufila- 
his) serait aussi pr6sent; mais il 
faudraient un examen detaille 
d'un specimen avant toute 
conclusion. Cependant le cepha- 
lophe bai a et6 formellement 
identifie dans la Foret de Gola 
(Davies, 1987). 



Le Cephalophe 

(Cephalophus niger) 



noir 



Deux pattes sechees ont ete 
apergues au march6 de Free- 
town. Un chasseur de la Reserve 
Forestiere de la Region Occi- 
dentale fut trouve en possession 
d'une grandc peau s6chee de ce- 
phalophe noir femelle. II allait a 
Waterloo pour vendre la peau, et 
pretend avoir tu6 I'animal sur la 
peninsule, k edit du village de 



Kent. Bien que les chasseurs de 
la region soutiennent que I'es- 
pece existe dans la Foret du Go- 
la, aucun cephalophe noir n'y a 
ttt aper^u (Davies 1987). On 
pense done que I'affirmation de 
Jones (1966) de I'existence de 
cette esp5ce un peu partout en 
Sierra Leone n'est pas fondee 
sur des donn6es originales, mais 
basee sur des citations de I'arti- 
cle de Montague (1959). 

Le Cephalophe a dos 
jaune (Cephalophus sylvi- 
cultor) 

Des traces fraiches d'un ce- 
phalophe a dos jaune (Cephalo- 
phus sylicultor) ont ete apergues 
dans la foret situee pres de Ma- 
ka-Masingbi et le crane d'une 
tres vieille femelle nous a ete 
montr6 sur I'lle de Tiwai ou I'es- 
pece semble etre commune. Se- 
lon le Docteur Sitter, un mar- 
chand d'animaux r6sidant prbs 
de Waterloo, le cephalophe a 
dos jaune serait tres repandu 
dans la Reserve Forestiere de la 
Region Occidentale. Cependant 
nous n'avons pas enregistr6 cette 
esp5ce dans la zone pendant no- 
tre visite, meme si par trois fois 
nous avons aper^u de grandes 
traces qui auraient pu etre celles 
d'un cephalophe a dos jaune ou 
celles d'un cephalophe de Jen- 
tink. L'espece 6tait aussi signa- 
16e dans le district de Tonkoliki 
et dans plusieurs autres rdgions. 
Les Mend6 I'appellent ngulei. 



67 



Le Cephalophe de Jen- 
tink (Cephalophus jentiJd) 

La raison principale de notre 
mission en Sierra Leone 6tait 
d'apporter la preuve de la pr6- 
sence de cette espdce de c6pha- 
lophe dans le pays (ce qui, en 
fait, avait 6t6 dtabli peu avant no- 
tre visite par Davies et Birkenha- 
ger, sous pfcsse). Nous fumes 
conduits d6s notre arrivde dans 
un village du Sud de la P6ninsule 
de Freetown oil un chasseur af- 
firmait avoir tu6 par balle trois 
c6phalophes de Jentink au cours 
de rann6e 1988. R6pondant k 
nos questions sur I'esp^ce, cet 
homme se mit k decrire exacte- 
ment I'animal sans que r6quipe 
posat des questions de prdcision. 
Ensuite, il nous exhiba une paire 
de cornes d'un jeune cdphalophe 
de Jentink et une autre spendide 
corne d'un grand animal (proba- 
blement un male), dont la des- 
cription est donn6e au Tableau 1 
(voir page 31) y compris les 
cornes donn6es par Dr Davies. 

Quelques jours plus tard, le 
meme chasseur nous montra un 
amas d'excrements de cepha- 
lophe de jentink rapport6s de la 
foret ce jour-la. Ayant eu I'occa- 
sion d'etudier en detail les excr6- 
ments d'un cephalophe de la 
meme espece, en captivit6 au 
pare zoologique de Brownsville 
au Texas (USA), il nous a 6t6 fa- 
cile d'identifier ceux que le chas- 
seur avait exhib6s. Le chasseur 
affirma que Tesp^ce se rencontre 



dans plusieurs endroits de la re- 
gion mais qu'elle n'6tait pas com- 
mune. En outre, ni lui ni aucun 
autre chasseur de Sierra Leone 
ne connassait cet animal sous le 
nom de c6phalophe de Jentink. 
Selon Mr Samuel Musa-Jamba- 
wai, le nom Mend6 de Tanimal 
est le kmkulowulei (ou Antilope 
aux couleurs de I'dcureuil); les 
Creoles I'appellent dikidiki, nom 
utifis6 sur la p6ninsule. Des 
sources non confirm6es font 6tat 
de I'existence de cette espdce 
dans les environs de Songo, situ6 
k une cinquantaine de km seule- 
ment de la ville de Freetown. Le 
chasseur qui nous donna les 
cornes de c6phalophe de Jentink 
nous a expliqu6 que cet animal 
descend la nuit des collines vers 
les buissons dans les fermes ou il 
est abattu. Quelquefois, a-t-il 
dit, le c6phalophe de Jentink va 
la nuit sur la plage, meme au 
bord de la mer, pour 16cher le sel 
contenu dans le sable. Des 
traces ont souvent 6t6 vues sur la 
plage par des chasseurs. On 
pense que I'espdce est tr6s noc- 
turne; dans la Reserve Foresti^re 
de la Region Occidentale tous 
les specimens ont 6t6 abattus la 
nuit. Toutefois, Samuel Musa- 
Jambawai indique qu'il a tue son 
cephalophe dans la Foret de Go- 
la en 1960 k 10 heures du matin, 
c'est-^-dire en plein jour. Quant 
au Docteur Sitter, il dit avoir 61e- 
ve, il y a environ 15 ans, un bebe 
cephalophe de Jentink qu'il ven- 
dit plus tard a un autre mar- 
chand d'animaux qui I'exporta 



aux Etats-Unis. II indique que 
lorsqu'il obtint Tanimal il crut 
que c'6tait un jeune cephalophe 
k dos jaune, ce n'est que lorsque 
Tanimal arriva k maturite qu'il 
realisa qu'il s'agissait d'un ce- 
phalophe de Jentink. 

Deux autres paires de comes 
de la meme esp6ce (vivant dans 
la Reserve Forestiere de la Re- 
gion Occidentale) nous ont ete 
offertes par Dr Glyn Davies de 
Kenema, auquel revient tout le 
merite d'avoir ete le premier k 
enregistrer la presence de cette 
espece dans la region de la Pe- 
ninsule de Freetown. Un 
compte rendu plus detaiUe de la 
repartition des espdces k travers 
la Sierra Leone a ete ecrit par 
Davies (dans Davies & Burken- 
hager, sous presse). L'une des 
paires offertes par Davies est 
d'une longueur exceptionnelle : 
elle mesure 212 mm. (voir 
Planche 1, page 32) 

Le Cephalophe zebre 

(Cephalophus zebra) 

Aucun indice sur I'existence 
de cette espece de cephalophe 
n'a ete enregistre lors de notre 
visite en Sierrra Leone, mais il a 
ete etabli (Davies 1987) qu'elle 
existe dans la region de la foret 
de Gola. Mr Samuel Musa-Jam- 
bawai indique qu'il y a dix ans on 
trouvait facilement des peaux de 
cephalophes zebres dans les vil- 
lages situes k I'Est du pays. II 
pense que I'espece est beaucoup 



68 



moins timide que le c6phalophe 
de Jentink, et qu'il est toujours 
possible de la rencontrer dans la 
Reserve Forestidre de la R6gion 
Occidentale (Sitter, communica- 
tion personnelle). 

Le cephalophe a flancs 
roux iCephalophus rufila- 
tus) 

Durant notre visite, nous n'a- 
vons pas pu obtenir de preuve 
concluante de la pr6sence du ce- 
phalophe k flancs roux (Cepha- 
lophus rufilatus) en Sierra 
Leone, mais il n'y a aucun doute 
qu'il existe encore dans la zone 
de savane au Nord du pays. II 
est fort probable qu'on le trouve 
sur I'lle de Tiwai (voir notes sur 
Cephalophus dorsalis). 



Le cephalophe commun 
ou gris (Sylvicapra grim- 
mid) 

Phillipson (1978), rapporte la 
presence de cette espdce dans la 
region d'Outamba-Ducata, sur la 
P6ninsule de Freetown et les re- 
gions montagneuses de Loma. 
Bien qu'il existe trds prob- 
ablement dans les savanes boi- 
sees du Nord du pays et meme 
dans les prairies des montagnes 
de Loma, il est peu probable 
qu'on le trouve sur la peninsule 
de Freetown. 



marquable pour une si petite re- 
gion; par consequent, il faudrait 
lui assurer une protection appro- 
priee. La valeur d'un cepha- 
lophe de Jentink est extreme- 
ment eievee et le fait qu'ils se 
trouvent encore dans une zone 
aussi peupiee suggdre qu'ils ont 
une bonne capacite de survie en 
milieu perturbe ou qu'ils ont mi- 
gre vers la plus inaccessible zone 
des montagnes. Quoiqu'il en 
soit, le service des Eaux et Forets 
et le Gouvernement de Sierra 
Leone devraient tr^s serieuse- 
ment envisager d'eiever le statut 
de la Reserve k celui d'un Pare 
National. 



DISCUSSION ET 
CONCLUSION 



Le cephalophe d'Ogilby 

(Cephalophus ogilbyi) 

Trds peu d'indices permet- 
tent d'affirmer que cette espdce 
existe en Sierra Leone. Dej^ 
Jones (1966) ne fut pas en me- 
sure d'avoir le moindre releve 
defmitif sur son existence dans le 
pays. II y a quelques suggestions 
que le cephalophe d'Ogilby (Ce- 
phalophus ogilbyi) peut encore se 
rencontrer en Sierra Leone 
(Phillipson 1978, et Honacki et 
al. 1982). La preuve concrete de 
son existence en Sierra Leone est 
fournie par la presence d'un spe- 
cimen au musee (Groves, cite 
par Grubb, 1988). 



La presence possible de neuf 
espdces de cephalophes en Sier- 
ra Leone souligne I'importance 
de cette famiUe d'animaux dans 
le pays. La presence de cepha- 
lophe de Jentink dans la Reserve 
Forestiere de la Region Occi- 
dentale avec les espdces comme 
le cephalophe bai, le cephalophe 
noir, le cephalophe de Maxwell 
et le cephalophe k dos jaune, re- 
vet une signification et une im- 
portance particuliere. Cela 
confere k la region une valeur in- 
croyable. Alors qu'il est etabU 
que quatre (et probablement 
cinq) espdces de cephalophes 
existent sur la Peninsule, il y a 
aussi la possibilite que d'autres 
espdces dont le cephalophe zd- 
bre s'y trouvent. C'est assez re- 



La presence non loin de la 
capitale d'une colonic de cepha- 
lophes de Jentink et, prob- 
ablement, celle d'autres espdces 
rares pourrait profiter considdra- 
blement au pays. De plus, outre 
les espdces rares de cdpha- 
lophes, on trouve dans la reserve 
le cercopithdque Diana et peut- 
etre le Picathartes k tete jaune 
{Picathartes gymnocephalus). 

Lorsque I'on considdre les 
splendides plages blanches, la 
mer chaude, la proximite de 
Freetown, la fraicheur des forets 
humides ainsi que I'amitie qui 
caracterise les populations de la 
region, la Reserve Forestidre de 
la Region Occidentale a tons les 
atouts pour devenir un "Pare Na- 
tional de la jungle" oh les pistes 
amenagees pour la promenade 
seraient trds populaires et consti- 



69 



turaient un grand atout 6conomi- 
que poUf la Sierra Leone. 

Pour d6gager un bon plan de 
gestion, il est essentiel d'etudier 
en detail la flore et de la faune 
de la zone. La region pourrait 
devenir le premier Pare National 
du pays, un statut qu'il ne d6m6- 
rite pas. Les auteurs projettent 
d'effectuer une seconde visite en 
Sierra Leone en 1991 pour entre- 
prendre cette 6tude detaill6e. 
Compte tenu de I'existence de 
plusieurs espdces rares dans 
cette r6serve forestiere et en rai- 
son de la pratique importante de 
la chasse dans cette zone oil la 
chasse est interdite, une action 
rapide est essentielle si Ton veut 
pr6server ces especes rares et les 
forets qui les abritent. 



REMERCIEMENTS 

Nos remerciements vont en 
premier lieu a Mr Samuel Musa- 
Jambawai pour son amiti6 et le 
support qu'il nous a fourni du- 
rant tout notre s6jour en Sierra 
Leone. II s'dtait occupe de tous 
nos probl^mes de transport, lo- 
gement et nourriture et nous ai- 
da aussi continuellement en 
questionnant les autochtones au 
sujet des c^phalophes. Nous 
n'aurions pas atteint le resultat 
obtenu sans son aide, et par des- 
sus tout, il localisa pour nous les 
comes de cephalophe de Jen- 
tink. Nous remercions egale- 
ment le Dr Glyn Davies du don 
des deux paires de cornes de c6- 



phalophes de Jentink et du 
moyen de transport qu'il nous a 
fourni pour nous rendre k la fo- 
ret de Gola. Nous lui sommes 
egalement reconnaissants de 
nous avoir permis d'utiliser cer- 
taines de ses donn6es dans notre 
travail. Que le Dr S.S. Banya, 
President de la societ6 Sierra 
Leonaise de Protection de la Na- 
ture, qui nous a beaucoup aid6, 
ainsi que I'Honorable Edward 
Gbla resolvent I'expression de 
notre plus profonde gratitude. 
Hon. Edward Gbla nous a assis- 
tes dans I'organisation de ce 
voyage d'etude en Sierra Leone 
et a facilite nos contacts avec les 
autorites dans le pays: il nous a 
introduits auprds de plusieurs 
cabinets minist6riels et de Son 
Excellence Dr. J.S. Momoh, Pr6- 
sident de Sierra Leone, avec le- 
quel nous avons pu discuter des 
probldmes de conservation. Nos 
remerciements vont 6galement a 
Mr A.P. Koroma, Conservateur 
Principal des Forets de Sierra 
Leone, pour son aide et ses en- 
couragements. 

Enfin, que Mme Paddy Wil- 
son, 6pouse du chef de I'^quipe, 
trouve ici I'expression de nos re- 
merciements speciaux pour la 
realisation des cartes. De meme, 
nous remercions MM Kevin Wil- 
son et Vaughan Southey, qui ont 
bien voulu produire ce document 
sur ordinateur. Kevin Wilson a 
protographi6 les cornes des ce- 
phalophes. 

Nous remercions le conseil 
d'administration de la Fondation 



Chipangali pour avoir financ6 le 
programme et les frais de cette 
publication. 



* Article repris de Amoldia 
Zimbabwe 

9 (33): 451-462, July 90. 

Chipangali Wildlife Trust 
P.O.B0X 1057 Bulawayo (Zw) 



NDLR: Mr Barry Wilson est 
d6c6d6 des suites d'un accident 
de la route en Janvier 1991. 




La photo de couverture 
est un cephalophe de Jentink 
photographi6 par Mr VJ. 
Wilson au Gladys Porter 
Zoo, Brownsville, Texas 



70 



Amenagement de la 
faune pour le 
developpement 
rural en Afrique 

E.O A. Asibey et G.S. Child* 



En Afrique subsaharienne, il 
y a plus de 130 millions d'ha de 
r6serves de faune. II existe aussi 
de vastes zones dans lesquelles 
I'utiiisation de la faune est 
contr616e. En outre, presque 
tons les pays de la r6gion ont des 
lois qui rdglementent la chasse 
sportive et permettent de faire 
rentrer de I'argent dans les 
caisses de I'Etat sous forme de 
droits et redevances per9us sur 
les permis de chasse. Les gou- 
vernements reconnaissent done 
que Tamenagement de la faune 
est une option viable dans les 
plans d'utilisation des terres. 

Mais il est rare que les contri- 
butions que la faune, en tant que 
source d'aliments ou de biens 
marchands, apporte ou peut ap- 
porter k I'dconomie et a la nutri- 
tion en milieu rural, soient offi- 
ciellement reconnues. Bien plus, 
dans beaucoup de pays, ces utili- 
sations sont dans une grande me- 
sure ill6gales. 

n est maintenant urgent de 
s'efforcer par tous les moyens 
d'int6grer revaluation, la raise en 
valeur, I'amfnagement et I'utiii- 
sation des animaux sauvages 
dans les plans nationaux de deve- 



loppement socio-6conomique. II 
est essentiel que organismes na- 
tionaux responsables de la plani- 
fication et des finances partici- 
pent k cet effort k tous les ni- 
veaux; I'assistance d'organisa- 
tions Internationales compe- 
tentes pourra aussi etre neces- 
saire. D'un autre c6t6, ime utili- 
sation viable k long terme de la 
faune ne sera possible, que si les 
populations locales participent k 
Tam^nagement et regoivent leur 
juste part des b6n6fices. 



Populations 
et animates 



humaines 



Avant d'examiner la faune 
subsaharienne, il convient de 
dire quelques mots de revolution 
d6mographique et des pro- 
blames d'environnement 
connexes, qui influent profond6- 
ment sur les ressources en faune. 

Les taux de croissance d6mo- 
graphique sont 61ev6s dans pres- 
que tous les pays d' Afrique sub- 
saharienne, d'oil la n6cessit6 
d'accroitre d'urgence la produc- 
tion vivridre, qui pousse les agri- 
culteurs africains k raccourcir les 
jacheres, k essayer de produire 
davantage sur des sols peu fer- 
tiles et k cultiver des terres mar- 
ginales. Tout cela entraine inexo- 
rablement une degradation des 
terres arables. Quand le cheptel 
augmente aussi vite ou meme 
plus vite que les populations hu- 
maines, les vastes terres pasto- 
rales de I'Afrique se d6gradent 



de la meme fagon, surtout 1^ oii 
des parcours traditionnels ont 
6t6 mis en culture, ce qui fait 
croitre la pression sur le reste 
des zones pastorales. 

Dans les zones seches, de^ 
milUons d'hectares de paturages 
et de parcours sont menaces par 
le surpaturage. Beaucoup de 
gramin6es p6rennes sont rempla- 
c6es par des gramin6es annuelles 
de moins grande valeur nutri- 
tionnelle; cette deterioration ris- 
que d'etre irreversible et de re- 
duire la capacite de charge des 
parcours. L^ ou la vegetation a 
disparu ou s'est eclaircie, le vent 
emporte le peu de sediment que 
contient le sol, ce qui r6duit sa 
capacitd de retention d'eau. Les 
forets denses et claires d' Afrique 
subsahariennes sont elle aussi en 
danger; chaque annee, pres de 4 
milUons d'ha de forets disparais- 
sent ou se degradent, principale- 
ment en Afrique occidentale hu- 
mide et subhumide. La princi- 
pale cause du d6boisement est le 
defrichement pour I'agriculture; 
mais I'exploitation anarchique de 
la foret, la collecte de bois de 
chauffe, les feux et le surpatu- 
rage prelevent aussi de lourds 
tributs. On a estime qu'entre 
1975 et 1980, pour chaque ha 
plantd, 29 ha ont et6 deboises 
(Lanly, 1982). 

Les animaux sauvages ont 
leurs habitats dans ces parcours 
et ces forets. Lorsque ces habi- 
tats sont transform^s, comme 
c'est actuellement le cas en Afri- 
que, il est inevitable que la com- 



71 



position et diversitd de la faune 
soient modifi6es, et des popula- 
tions entidres peuvent etre mena- 
c6es. Pendant cette derni6re d6- 
cennie du 20e sidcle, il sera done 
essentiel d'intdgrer I'amdnage- 
ment de la faune et de son habi- 
tat dans les efforts de developpe- 
ment socio-6conomique g6n6ral. 

La faune comme source 
d'aliments 

L'homme prdhistorique n'a- 
vait d'autre source de proteines 
que les animaux sauvages. L'a- 
v^nement de I'dlevage et de I'a- 
griculture s^dentaire Ta en partie 
affranchi de cette d6pendance. 
Cependant, dans toutes les soci6- 
t6s modernes non v6g6tariennes, 
il reste une demande assez im- 
portante de viande d'animaux 
sauvages. Dans toutes les r6- 
gions du monde, des animaux 
sauvages de tous types et de 
toutes tallies, tant vert6br6s 
qu'invert6br6s, constituent une 
part de I'alimentation des 
honunes. 

En Afrique subsaharienne,les 
animaux sauvages fournissent 
ime proportion exceptionnelle- 
ment 61ev6e des prot6ines ali- 
mentaires. Au Nigdria, des com- 
munautds vivant k proximitd de 
la foret tirent de la chasse 84% 
de leurs prot6ines d'origine ani- 
male. Au Ghana, environ 75% 
de la population consomment t6- 
gulidrement des animaux sau- 
vages; au Liberia, cette propor- 



tion est de 70%, et au Botswana 
de 60% (FAO, 1989). 

Si 61ev6s qu'ils soient, ces 
chiffres sont peut-etre inf6rieurs 
a la r6alit6, car une bonne partie 
des animaux sauvages consom- 
m6s ne sont pas commercialisms 
et 6chappent aux statistiques. 

La meilleure fa^on de mesu- 
rer la valeur locale de la viande 
de chasse est peut-etre de de- 
mander aux gens pourquoi la fo- 
ret est importante pour eux. En 
6valuant le projet de forestriede 
Subri au Ghana, Korang (1986) a 
constat6 que, pour 94% des per- 
sonnes interrog6es, la conse- 
quence la plus grave de la 
conversion de la foret 6tait la dis- 
parition de la viande de chasse. 

Si Ton veut se faire une id6e 
du role que jouent les animaux 
sauvages dans I'alimentation, il 
ne faut pas se contenter de pren- 
dre en consideration le gros gi- 
bier. En g6n6ral, dans les r6- 
gimes de subsistance, la majeure 
partie de la viande provient des 
petits animaux. On consomme 
divers types d'escargots, de ser- 
pents et d'autres reptiles et 
d'amphibiens. Dans plusieurs 
rdgions d' Afrique occiden- 
tale,notamment au Ghana, les 
habitants des zones riches en es- 
cargots sont envi6s par leurs voi- 
sins. Les insectes constituent 
aussi souvent une part impor- 
tante des ressources totales en 
protdines. 



Valeur nutritionnelle de 
la viande de chasse 

Les donndes disponibles indi- 
quent que la viande de chasse 
fraiche soutient favorablement la 
comparaison avec la viande d'a- 
nimaux domestiques pour ce qui 
est du rendement en viande mai- 
gre par kilogramme de poids vif 
et de la teneur 616ments min6- 
raux et en protdines (Asibey et 
Eyeson, 1975; Ledger et Smith, 
1964). Des 6tudes ont montr6 
par ailleurs que la viande des 
animaux sauvages contient da- 
vantage de Upides (Hoogesteijn 
Reul, 1979). 

Selon Hladik et al. (1987), la 
valeur calorique de la viande de 
chasse est aussi importante que 
les proteines qu'elle fournit. 
Beaucoup d'animaux sauvages 
sont particuli6rement appr6ci6s 
parce que leur viande est bien 
grasse. 

Malheureusement, la valeur 
nutritionnelle de la viande de 
chasse conserv6e (fum6e, sal6e 
ou sech6e) est mal connue. Les 
m6thodes de conservation va- 
rient selon les endroits et les res- 
sources. Le fumage traditioimel, 
malgr6 ses inconv6nients, est en- 
core trbs r6pandu. La salaison 
est Umit6e par le manque de sel. 
La viande s6ch6e (biltong) peut 
etre prepar6e 1^ o^ le sel et le so- 
leil ne manquent pas. II faudrait 
6tudier plus systdmatiquement 
toute la gamme des animaux sau- 
vages consonmi6s, ainsi que les 



72 



aspects nutritionnels des diff6- 
rentes m6thodes courantes de 
pr6paration et de conservation. 

Facteurs influant sur la 
consommation de viande 
d'animaux sauvages 

La consommation d'animaux 
sauvages semble conditionn6e 
principalement par les disponibi- 
lit6s. Partout ou la question a 
6t6 6tudi6e dans les pays d'Afri- 
que, il est apparu que la majorit6 
des non-v6g6tariens sont prets h 
consommer de la viande de 
chasse s'ils peuvent s'en procu- 
rer. Selon des 6tudes effectu6es 
au Ghana et au Nigeria, cela est 
vrai quels que soient la classe so- 
ciale, le niveau de revenu, I'in- 
struction, la religion ou le sexe 
(Blaxter, 1975; Martin, 1983; 
Ntiamoa-Baidu, 1986). 

La demande de viande de 
chasse n'est nullement limit6e 
aux campagnes. L'urbanisation 
rapide a entramd une croissance 
exponentielle de la demande 
dans les villes zifricaines. Dans 
toute I'Afrique subsaharienne et 
en particulier en Afrique occi- 
dentale, la viande de chasse est 
depuis longtemps vendue sur les 
march6s urbains. II existe des fi- 
lidres bien 6tablies allant du 
chasseur au d6taillant. C'est 1^ 
une importante source d'emplois 
et de revenus. 

Dans beaucoup de pays, la 
viande de chasse est de loin la 
viande la plus chdre. Ainsi, k 



Ibadan (Nig6ria), en 1975, quand 
la viande de mouton et de boeuf 
se vendaient respectivement 2,80 
dollars et 4,20 dollars le kilo- 
gramme, la viande d'aulacode 
valait 9,60 dollars et le U6vre sau- 
vage 7,20 dollars (Asibey, 1987). 

Dans bien des cas, la de- 
mande et le prix de la viande de 
chasse augmentent beaucoup 
plus vite que ceux de la viande 
d'animaux domestiques. Ainsi, k 
Accra (Ghana), le prix de la 
viande de chasse a 6t6 multipli6 
par huit entre 1980 et 1986, tan- 
dis que la viande de boeuf a seu- 
lement sextuple (Asibey, 1987). 

Dans beaucoup de r6gions 
d' Afrique, il y a une telle de- 
mande pour la viande de chasse 
qu'il est plus avantageux pour les 
chasseur de la vendre que de la 
manger. 

La faune en tant que 
source de revenus 

Dans la plupart des pays d'A- 
frique subsaharienne, la majoritd 
de la population vit de Tagricul- 
ture de subsistance. Les activites 
capables de cr6er des revenus ou 
de reduire les d6penses sont 
done extremement importantes, 
surtout si en meme temps elles 
ameliorent la qualitd de la vie 
des ruraux. La foret, ses pro- 
duits et les animaux qui I'habi- 
tent offrent une base pour de 
telles activites. La chasse est une 
trds importante source de revenu 



dans beaucoup de parties de I'A- 
frique (Asibey,1978a,b,1987). 

Dans r6tat de Bendel, au Ni- 
g6ria, uu aulacode se vendait 
7,61 dollars, alors que 25% de la 
population gagnaient loins de 
130 dollars par an et 38% entre 
130 et 600 doUars. II suffisait 
done de tuer quatre aulacodes 
par mois pour se trouver au mi- 
lieu de cette deuxi^me classe de 
revenu (Martin, 1983). 

Au Ghana, en Janvier 1987, le 
salaire minimal journalier 6tait 
de 90 cedis.(NDLR: en raison 
des fluctuations des taux de 
change, la conversion en dollars 
U.S. n'aurait gudre de sens.) A 
la meme 6poque, un aulacode 
rapportait au moins 200 c6dis en 
milieu rural et de 700 k 3400 c6- 
dis k Accra (Asibey, 1987). Dans 
une 6tude pr6c6dente, Asibey 
(1978b) a observe qu'un paysan 
pouvait plus que doubler son re- 
venu en vendant de la viande de 
chasse aux petits restaurants tra- 
ditionnels de la capitale r6gio- 
nale, Sunyani. 

Ce ne sont pas 1^ des exeples 
isol6s. La chasse et la collecte 
d'animaux sauvages comestibles 
fournissent directement ou indi- 
rectement d'importants revenus 
k un grand nombre de ruraux un 
peupartout en Afrique (Asibey, 
1978a). Dans bien des cas, la 
chasse apporte k I'^conomie de 
subsistance im complement es- 
sentiel. 

L'argent que rapporte la 
chasse sert souvent k acheter des 
prot6ines moins couteuses (le 



73 



plus souvent du pcisson mal 
coiisorv6), la difference 6tant 
utilis6e pour financer d'autres 
d6peiises (Asibey, 1974b, 
1978a,b). D'une certaine fa^on, 
cette tendance compromet la s6- 
curit6 aUmentaire des ruraux en 
r6duisant la qualit6 et la valeur 
nutritionnelle de leur r6gime. A 
moins que les disponibilitds de 
viande de chasse n'augmentent, 
la consommation des ruraux 
pourrait diminuer k mesure que 
la demande croissante des villes 
incite k exploiter plus intensive- 
ment les ressources cyn6g6ti- 
ques. La situation est encore 
plus grave quand il est impossi- 
ble d'elever des animaux domes- 
tiques pour produire les pro- 
t6ines n6cessaires, par exemple 
dans les zones infest6es par la 
mouche ts6-tse. II faut 6tudier 
avec soin le cout socio-6conomi- 
que d'un tel sc6nario pour les 
communaut6s rurales. 

Commerce 
international 

Un peu partout dans le 
monde, la viande de chasse est 
devenue un important zirticle 
d'exportation. Pourtant, en Afri- 
que, malgr6 la production consi- 
derable, aucun pays ne figure sur 
la liste des exportateurs. Cela 
tient en partie aux normes rigou- 
reuses exig6es par les principaux 
importateurs, notamment la R6- 
publique F6d6rale d'Allemagne 
et la France, mms surtout au 



manque de statistiques sur le 
commerce de la viande de chasse 
k rint6rieur de I'Afrique. Dans 
presque aucun pays de la region 
(sauf au Ghana), la consomma- 
tion et le commerce de viande ne 
sont syst6matiquement pris en 
compte dans la planification, les 
comptes et les programmes de 
d6veloppement. Les informa- 
tions limit6es qui sont rassem- 
bl6es ne sont pas publi6es. C'est 
l^ une omission grave qui risque 
de nuire k ceux qui tirent de la 
faune sauvage des aliments etb 
des revenus indispensables k Iqui 
survie et de compromettre la 
conservation et I'amdnagement 
de la faune. 

Conservation et amena- 
gement de la faune sau- 
vage 

Dans la plupart des pays d'A- 
frique subsaharienne, les efforts 
de conservation de la faune ont 
6t6 motiv6s par la pr6occupation 
que suscitait la rar6faction ou la 
quasi-extinction de certains ani- 
maux -lions, 616phants, rhinoce- 
ros, etc- qui pourraient fournir 
un gros apport au revenu natio- 
nal. Etant donnecete motivation, 
la politique le plus couramment 
adoptee a consiste k promulguer 
des lois sev^res interdisant toute 
exploitation de la faune dans les 
zones protegees et limitant ri- 
goureusement son utilisation ail- 
leurs. 



Quand I'existence meme des 
animaux et de leur habitat est 
menacee, cette approche est sou- 
vent la seule possibledans I'im- 
mediat pour sauvegarder k long 
terme la possibilit6 de conserver 
et d'amenager la faune. Mais il 
faut etre bien conscient qu'elle 
n'est valable que pour une phase 
transitoire. 

Plusieurs options sont possi- 
bles. La plus simple et souvent 
la plus efficace consiste k prote- 
ger les populations existantes. 
Lorsqu'il ne reste plus de popu- 
lations viables, on pent reintro- 
duire des animaux sauvages dans 
certaines zones choisies de leur 
ancien habitat. L'experience 
prouve que des populations in- 
troduites peuvent se multiplier 
suffisamment pour que leur ex- 
ploitation devienne rentable 
(Teer, 1971). Cela ne pose pas 
de probiemes techniques, mais 
on doit trouver des finance- 
ments. II faut confirmer les re- 
sultats indiquant que I'operation 
est rentable et les commimiquer 
k des investisseurs potentiels. 

L'experience prouve que les 
efforts pour proteger ou recons- 
tituer la faune sans tenir compte 
des besoins socio-economiques 
des populations locales sont 
voues k rechec. Les lois de pro- 
tection de la faune sont souvent 
vioiees en toute impunite. Com- 
ment pourrait-il en etre autre- 
ment quand c'est une question 
de vie ou de mort? Les pauvres 
survivent comme ils peuvent; la 
tentation de violer laloi est 



74 



grande car les animaux sauvages 
peuvent etre une source de nour- 
riture et d'argent. De plus les re- 
pr6sentants de la loi sont souvent 
tr^s mal pay6s, et done assez en- 
clins k fermer les yeux, ou meme 
k etre complices des infractions 
des riches, par exemple de's 
chasseurs de troph6es. 

Un programme d'am6nage- 
ment de la faune sauvage ne peut 
etre efficace k long terme que s'il 
est bas6 sur la participation 
qctive des populations locales et 
s'il leur assure des avantages im- 
portzmts et durables sous forme 
d'aliments et de revenus (voir 
Particle sur la Zambie k la page 
52). 

Amenagement de la 
faune sauvage pour accroi- 
tre les ressources alimen- 
taires 

La domestication de beau- 
coup d'especes d'animaux sau- 
vages est th^oriquement possi- 
ble, mais il y a relativement peu 
de r6alisations dans ce domaine. 
Par exemple au Ghana, il a 6t6 
prouv6 qu'on peut 61ever des au- 
lacodes en cages dans les mai- 
sons pour produire de la viande 
de bonne quality (Asibey, 
1974b,c). 

Mais, meme sans domestica- 
tion; certaines experiences indi- 
quent qu'il est possible d'am6na- 
ger efficacement les populations 
d'animaux sauvages poiu- la pro- 
duction d'aliments, soit isol6- 



ment, soit en les intdgrant dans 
les systdmes agricoles (dlevage, 
foresterie, cultures). 

Production commer- 
ciale de gibier 

Dans certains pays, en plus 
des animaux 61ev6s en captivit6 
pour I'autoconsommation, il y a 
eu des tentatives d'elevage inten- 
sif ou extensif d'animaux sau- 
vages pour la production de 
viande et de produits secon- 
daires. Le gibier n'est pas un 
produit nouveau k lancer a coup 
de publicit6. Dans aucun pays 
oil des evaluations ont 6t6 faites, 
la population d'animaux sau- 
vages n'est suffisante pour r6- 
pondre a la demande. Toute in- 
novation capable d'accroitre la 
productivit6 est done souhaita- 
ble.L'61evage en captivit6 et I'ele- 
vage extensif sont done des op- 
tions trds prometteuses (Jintanu- 
gool, 1978). 

La cr6ation de ranches ou 
d'61evages intensifs a proximit6 
des centres de consommation 
pr6sente plusieurs avantages: de- 
bouches assures, transports r6- 
duits au minimum, possibilite 
d'accueillir des visiteurs qui sont 
une source de revenus suppie- 
mentaires. 

L'eievage, en captivite ou ex- 
tensif, permet non seulement de 
reduire les pressions qui s'exer- 
cent sur les populations sau- 
vages, mais aussi de rendre 
moins aigue la concurrence entre 



les consommateurs lu-bains et les 
consommateurs ruraux. L'obser- 
vation de la faune et la chasse 
sportive dans les eievages exten- 
sifs d'animaux sauvages peuvent 
etre des sources suppiementaires 
d'emplois et de revenus pour les 
populations et de recettes pour 
I'Etat. 

Integration de la faune 
sauvage et de Televage 

Les animaux sauvages, tout 
comme les animaux domesti- 
ques, transforment des vegetaux 
en viande. or, jusqu'^ tout r6- 
cemment, on a deiiberement ex- 
termine des animaux indigenes 
pour Uberer les parcours k I'u- 
sage exclusif des troupeaux do- 
mestiques, en partie par igno- 
rance et en partie parce que Ton 
craignait que la faune reduise la 
productivite du cheptel en lui fai- 
sant concurrence et ne lui trans- 
mette des maladies. 

Or, il a ete prouve que le po- 
tentiel de production de viande 
des animaux sauvages soutient 
souvent favorablement la compa- 
raison avec celui des animaux 
domestiques (Asibey, 1966; Blax- 
ter, 1975; King et Heath, 1975; 
Hoogesteijn Reul, 1975; Thres- 
her, 1980). 

En outre, I'eiimination des 
animaux sauvages ne permet pas 
necessairement de maximiser I'u- 
tilisationde la vegetation des par- 
cours. Les animaux domestiques 
ne consomment que certaines 



75 



plantes. La coexistence de di- 
vers types d'animaux compati- 
bles, qui ne sont pas en concur- 
rence pour la nourriture, peut 
done etre avantageuse (Asibey et 
Asare, 1978). Elle peut prendre 
la forme d'un assortiment appro- 
pri6 d'espdces domestiques et 
d'esp^ces sauvages. Ainsi, en 
Afrique du Sud, des bovins sont 
61ev6s avec des koudous, des im- 
palas et des bubales, ce qui per- 
met d'accroitre le rendement 
global du parcours (Hoogesteijn 
Reul, 1979). Au Zimbabwe aus- 
si, il y a une int6gration syst6ma- 
tique de la faune sauvage et de 
l'61evage (Woodford, 1983; Wo- 
rou, 1983). Cette formule est 
d'autant plus rentable qu'elle 
permet de maximiser I'utilisation 
de la v6g6tation et de se passer 
de desherbage manuel ou chimi- 
que, puisque les animaux sau- 
vages mangent les plantes delais- 
s6es par le cheptel domestique. 

Etant donn6 ce potentiel, il 
importe de travailler a mettre au 
point des systdmes et des techni- 
ques propres k ameliorer I'intd- 
gration et k accroitre la produc- 
tion de viande. II faut reunir des 
information sur I'integration des 
animaux sauvages et du betail 
domestique et evaluer sa rentabi- 
lit6 socio-6conomique afm d'o- 
rienter le d6veloppement futur et 
de permettre une utilisation plus 
rationnelle des parcours. Ce fai- 
sant, on tiendra compte aussi du 
surcroit de revenu que peuvent 
rapporter les animaux sauvages 



par le biais de la chasse sportive 
et du tourisme. 



Les animaux sauvages 
et la foresterie 

Les animaux sauvages sont 
parmi les produits de la foret qui 
contribuent le plus au bien-etre 
des populations locales. Or, les 
forestiers les consid6raient au- 
trefois comme des produits "se- 
condaires" ou meme comme des 
nuisances. Combien de plans 
d'amenagement forestier pr6- 
voient I'application syst6matique 
de techniques propres k accroi- 
tre durablement la production de 
viande d'animaux sauvages? Et 
pourtant, cela pourrait etre un 
puissant auxiliaire des efforts de 
deyeloppement forestier, qu'ils 
aient pour objectif la production 
commerciale ou la conservation 
des ressources. 

L'exploitation selective du 
bois stimule la croissance de la 
vegetation, favorisant ainsi I'aug- 
mentation de la population de 
beaucoup d'animaux. Ainsi, 
dans une 6tude recente, Prins et 
Reitsma (1989) ont constat6 que, 
dans le Sud-Ouest du Gabon, le 
buffle (Syncerus caffer nanus 
Sparrman), absent dans la foret 
primaire, est pr6sent dans la fo- 
ret secondaire. L'etude n'a pas 
donn6 de r6sultats probants pour 
les petits animaux, mais il est 
probable que revolution est 
comparable. Pourquoi ne pas 



autoriser ou meme encourager 
les habitants k chasser les petits 
animaux dans les forets de pro- 
duction? Cela ameliorerait leur 
securit6 alimentaire et leur don- 
nerait en meme temps de bonnes 
raisons de penser qu'il est avan- 
tageux pour eux de conserver la 
foret plutot que de convertir les 
terres k d'autres utilisations. 

Dans le meme esprit, dans les 
zones de protection, on pourrait 
autoriser les habitants a chasser 
en dchange de leur aide pour le 
reboisement. On aurait ainsi une 
main-d'oeuvre locale motivee, 
dont I'absence entrave serieuse- 
ment beaucoup de projets fores- 
tiers. 

D'un autre cot6, les planta- 
tions monosp6cifiques, surtout 
d'essences exotiques, ont en g6- 
n6ral pour effet de r€duire la 
quantity et la variety des popula- 
tions d'animaux sauvages. L'al- 
t^ration du convert naturel peut 
cr6er un environnement peu pro- 
pice aux animaux. D'ou in nou- 
veau danger: le sous-6tage n'est 
plus brout6, ce qui accroit les ris- 
ques d'incendie. 

On pourrait laisser dans les 
plantations ou en bordure, des 
arbres d'essences indigenes pro- 
duisant du fourrage. La formule 
permettant d'optimiser les avan- 
tages socio-6cononiiques reste k 
determiner. 

II est aussi possible de perfec- 
tionner les techniques de mani- 
pulation de I'habitat pour accroi- 
tre la production d'smimaux sau- 
vages dans la savane. Par exem- 



76 



pie, la plantation d'essences indi- 
genes ayant lAie valeur nutrition- 
nelle permettrait d'augmenter le 
potentiel de production de 
viande de chasse \k oh d'autres 
interventions ne seraient pas op- 
portunes. 

Les animaux sauvages 
et les systemes de produc- 
tion vegetale 

On consid^re en g6n6ral qu'il 
y a concurrence entre les cul- 
tures et la faune sauvage; c'est 
pourquoi beaucoup d'efforts ont 
6te faits pour exterminer cette 
dernidre. Ainsi, en Afrique aus- 
trale, les services de la faune ont 
bien souvent 6t6 cre6s h. Torigine 
pour detriure les animaux sau- 
vages, considerds comme des 
nuisances pour les plantations du 
secteur public. 

II est vrai que les animaux 
sauvages peuvent ravager les cul- 
tures. Certaines antilopes brou- 
tent les jeunes arbres et s'atta- 
quent aux plantes cultivdes. Les 
oiseaux, en particulier le qu616a, 
sont notoirement une grave me- 
nace pour les c6r6ales et font 
beaucoup baisser les rende- 
ments. Les pertes provoqu6es 
par les rongeurs, tant dans les 
champs qu'apr6s la recolte, se 
chlffrent par millions de dollars. 

Mais le syst6me des planta- 
tions cr6e par ailleurs un envi- 
ronnement particulidrement fa- 
vorable k I'exploitation et k I'uti- 
lisation des animaux sauvages 



pour I'alimentation. Malheureu- 
sement, la crainte des d6gats 
qu'ils peuvent causer fait trop 
souvent oublier la possibilit6 d'u- 
tiliser ces "ravageurs" k des fins 
nutritionnelles. DAns bien des 
cas, on pourrait a la fois limiter 
les d6gats et cr6er une source de 
revenus et d'aliments d*appoint 
en mettant au point des techni- 
ques viables d'exploitation de la 
faune. 

Pciradoxalement, il existe d6- 
j^, dans bien des endroits, des te- 
chniques traditionnelles efficaces 
qui ne sont pas appliquees parce 
qu'on ne tire aucun paiti de la 
connaissance du milieu local 
qu'ont les habitants, considdres 
simplement comme de la main- 
d'oeuvre pour les plantations. 
Par exemple en Afrique occiden- 
tale, diverses m6thodes tradition- 
nelles permettent de pi6ger au 
voisinage des cultures et d'utili- 
ser les rongeurs qui seraient des 
ravageurs, notamment I'aulacode 
(Thryonmys swinderianus Tem- 
minck) au Ghana, au B6nin et en 
Cote d'lvoire, et le rat de Gam- 
ble {Cricetomys gambianus) au 
Nigeria. C'est un moyen a la fois 
de se procurer de la nourriture 
et d'6viter que ces animaux ne 
prolif6rent. Si on mobilise les 
populations locales pour I'effort 
de plantation, ces mdthodes 
pourraient etre appliqu6es sur 
une grande echelle avec un bon 
rapport cout-efficacite. D'ail- 
leurs, dans beaucoup de planta- 
tions de cacaoyers et de palmiers 
a huile, les ouvriers attrapent. 



pendant leur temps libre, des 
animaux consid6r6s conmie des 
ravageurs pour les manger. 

Dans le Nord du Ghana, les 
rizi^res irrigudes dtaient d6vast6s 
par les oiseaux granivores. On a 
appris aux paysans k utiliser des 
filets de nylon presque invisibles 
pour les capturer, ce qui a per- 
mis de rdduire beaucoup les d6- 
gats et d'assurer un approvision- 
nement rdgulier en viande de 
bonne qualitd dans une zone oil 
les protdines manquaient (Ntia- 
moa-Baidu, 1986). 

Une autre fagon d'intdgrer 
les animaux sauvages et les cul- 
tures consiste k laisser ou k cr6er 
a cdt6 des plantations des zones 
de v6g6tation naturelle h6t6ro- 
gene ou la faune sauvage puisse 
survivre. Dans beaucoup de 
pays, les haies et les rideaux- 
abris constituent des habitats 
propices dans des zones ou il n'y 
aurait autrement pas d'animaux 
sauvages. Meme si cette formule 
n'a pas 6t6 con^ue sp6cifique- 
ment pour la production de 
viande, son application syst6ma- 
tique pourrait etre int6ressante 
dans beaucoup de pays d' Afri- 
que subsaharienne ou les cul- 
tures occupent de vastes zones. 

On n'a pas essay6 en Afrique 
subsaharienne d'int^grer syst6- 
matiquement et de fagon massive 
les animaux sauvages dans les 
systemes agricoles. II faut espe- 
rer qu'^ long terme I'int^gration 
des arbres dans les systdmes 
agricoles (agroforesterie), qui est 
considerde comme une option 



77 



valable depuis quelques temps, 
sera suivie de rint6gration des 
animaux sauvages capables de ti- 
rer parti du couvert forestier. 

Legislation sur la faune 

les lois ont beaucoup limit6 
Tutilisation des animaux sau- 
vages pour I'alimentation dans 
les 6conomies de subsistance, 
parce qu'elles visent k protdger 
les especes menacees et k 
controler la chasse au troph6e. 
Dans beaucoup de pays tropi- 
caux, elles sont congues dans 
I'optique de la chasse sportive de 
type europeen, d'ou la generali- 
sation de concepts, tels que ceux 
de gibier, de saisons de chasse, 
de troph6es, de reserves ou d'a- 
nimaux prot6g6s, transferes en 
Afrique sans que Ton se soit ap- 
paremment demand6 s'ils 6taient 
biologiquement valables en mi- 
lieu tropical. Un grave defaut de 
ce type de lois est qu'elles igno- 
rent les techniques tradition- 
nelles d'utilisation, assimilees au 
braconnage. La possession, I'uti- 
lisation et la commercialisation 
de la viande et des autres pro- 
duits des animaux sauvages sont 
illegales. A cause de conflits 
avec I'elevage et les cultures, ces 
animaux sont consider6s comme 
des nuisances. 

Ainsi, dans beaucoup de pays 
en developpement, les mesures 
legislatives sont axees unique- 
ment sur les especes menacees 
ou les especes produisant des 
trophees, ce qui a nui a I'amena- 



gement des autres animaux. Le 
principe que la faune appartient 
k I'Etat, I'obligation d'obtenir 
des permis de chasse d61ivr6s 
centralement et les restrictions 
frappant la vente des produits 
empechent les propri6taires 
d'envisager I'amdnagement de la 
faune comme une option renta- 
ble d'utilisation des terres. Tout 
cela n'encourage gudre la 
conservation. 



CONCLUSION 

Jusqu'^ present, il n'y a gudre 
eu d'efforts serieux pour plani- 
fier la mise en valeur du poten- 
tiel que represente la faune sau- 
vage au profit de I'economie ru- 
rale. Dans la majeure partie de 
4'Afrique subsaharienne, on s'oc- 
cupe beaucoup depuis plus de 20 
ans de I'interet touristique de la 
faune. Mais son role comme 
source d'aliments est g6nerale- 
ment ignore ou consid6r6 
comme n6gligeable. 

L'amenagement de la faune 
pour la production de viande est 
reste essentiellement un exercice 
thdorique, sauf au Zimbabwe oil 
les particuliers et les communau- 
t6s possedant des terres s'effor- 
cent maintenant de valoriser les 
populations d'animaux sauvages 
pour en tirer de I'argent et des 
aliments. 

Mais dans beaucoup de pays, 
on ne dispose pas des informa- 
tions de base necessaires pour 
reglementer de fagon viable I'uti- 



lisation de la faune pour Pali- 
mentation. Une 6tude d6taill6e 
des ressources en faune est indis- 
pensable. II faut recenser les po- 
pulations, determiner la place 
que les animaux et les revenus 
qu'ils produisent occupent dans 
I'dconomie de subsistance et 
mettre au point des formules d'a- 
m6nagement. 

Dans la plupart des cas, le 
progr6s est freind par le manque 
de personnel qualifie et de res- 
sources. Jusqu'a present, tout 
I'effort de conservation et d'ame- 
nagement de la faune reposait 
sur la bonne volonte de quelques 
passionn6s, les m6canismes offi- 
ciels 6tant purement formels. 
Faute d'appui national et inter- 
national, ces efforts locaux et in- 
dividuels n'ont pas debouche sur 
des programmes de grande 
6chelle. II est vrai que, dans la 
plupart des pays d' Afrique, des 
fmancements accrus seraient ne- 
cessaires pour mobiliser les res- 
sources humaines et materielles 
et les technologies indispensa- 
bles pour mettre fin a la surex- 
ploitation et 6tablir un systdme 
d'utilisation viable; mais dans 
bien des cas, on pourrait obtenir 
des resultats notables avec des 
ressources relativement mo- 
destes, a condition qu'elles 
soient utilis6es de fagon efficace. 
Ce qui manque le plus, c'est la 
volont6 de tous d'assurer une uti- 
Usation viable de la faune pour le 
developpement rural. 

Dans les pays d6veloppes, on 
continue a amenager et a utiliser 



78 



les animaux sauvages en tant que 
ressource alimentaire et pas seu- 
lement pour le sport et les loisirs. 
II faudrait encourager vivement 
une approche polyvalente de ce 
genre en Afrique subsaharienne. 

Le moment est venu de re- 
garder d'un oeil nouveau le role 
que pourraient jouer les animaux 
sauvages dans la securite alimen- 
taire et en particulier les possibi- 
lit6s d'integrer leur utilisation 
dans les projets de developpe- 
ment en cours. II y aurait 6gale- 
ment lieu d'etablir des liaisons 
entre les activit6s d'amenage- 
ment de la faune et les projets de 
nutrition dans les pays en deve- 
loppement. 

Les rdserves forestieres et les 
zones boisees devront jouer un 
role cl6 pour permettre de 
conserver et d'utiliser de fagon 
viable les populations d'animaux 
sauvages. Mais pour qu'elles 
puissent jouer ce role, il faudra 
reexaminer les plans d'amenage- 
ment afln qu'ils prennent en 
compte toutes les ressources fo- 
restieres, y compris la faune, et 
les avantages qu'elles peuvent 
apporter sur le plan local ainsi 
qu'a r^chelle nationale. 



*E.O.A. Asibey, ancien admi- 
nistrateur en chef de la Commis- 
sion des forets du Ghana, est ac- 
tuellement consultant en ecolo- 
gie a la Banque Mondiale (Was- 
hington). 

*G.S. Child est fonctionnaire 
principal (am6nagement de la 
faune et des zones proteg6es) au 
Departement des forets de la 
FAO, Rome. 



Article repris de Unasylva 
Vol. 41, n°161,pp3-10 




79 



CONSERVATION 



New Parks for Kenya 



During 1989, Kenya continued to improve 
its networks of protected areas by designa- 
ting two new national parks. Kora National 
Park, previously a nature reserve, is a semi- 
arid area of Acacia/Commiphora Bushland, 
on the south bank of the Tana river in Central 
Kenya. The Malka Mari National Park is in the 
Mandera District, in the far north-eastern cor- 
ner of the country. 



convention confie la gestion du pare k la Fon- 
dation pour une dur^e de 25 ans. Ce pare est 
situ6 au centre du Togo et s'6tend sur 200 
000 ha. 

An ageement was signed in May 1990 be- 
tween the Weber Foundation and the Togo- 
lese Ministry of Environment and Tourism, un- 
der which the management of the Park will be 
entrusted to the Foundation for a period of 25 
years. The Park is situated in the central part 
of Togo and covers an area of 200 000 ha. 



Nouveaux Pares au Kenya 

En 1989, le Kenya a encore amelior6 son 
reseau d'aires protegees en d^signant 2 nou- 
veaux pares nationaux. Le Pare National de 
Kora, auparavant reserve naturelie, est une 
zone sem\-ar\6ek Acacia/Commiphora, situee 
sur la rive Sud de la riviere Tana au centre du 
Kenya. Le Pare National de Molka Mari est 
dans le District Mandera ei I'extreme pointe 
Nord-Est du pays. 

(source : Parks vol 1, n°1, 1990) 
******************************* 

La fondation Franz Weber au Pare 
National Malfakossa-Fazao (Togo) 



Une convention a et6 sign6e en mai 90 en- 
tre la Fondation Weber et le ministere togolais 
de I'environnement et du Tourisme; cette 



(source: Ministere Togolais de I'environne- 
ment et du Tourisme) 

******************************* 

Bringing back the QUAGGA 

{Hippotiaris quaqqa quaaaa) 

South African scientists are engaged In a 
project to rebreed the extinct quagga within 3 
generations or 10 years. The last quagga 
died in Amsterdam Zoo on August 12, 1883. 
Scientists hope to recreate the quagga by in- 
terbreeding selected plain zebras, without stri- 
ping on their hind legs. Such specimens are 
occasionally seen in the Etosha Pan in Nami- 
bia and in Zululand (Natal). According to tis- 
sue shavings examination from preserved 
quagga in Cape Town Museum, there is evi- 
dence that quagga was a subspecies of the 
plain zebra. This means that the main gene 
pool is still available for recreation of the 



80 



quagga without the intrcxjuction of any extra 
specific genes. 8 zebras with greatly reduced 
striping were selected from about 2500 and 




are now in a breeding station. To speed up 
the process, artificial insemination could be 
used, if necessary. 

Recr6er le couaaaa {Hippotiaris 



posterieurs ont disparu. De tels specimens 
sont parfois apergus k Etosha Pan ou dans le 
Zululand (Natal). D'apr^s des examens de 
prelevements de tissus provenant de z^bres 
conserves au Musee du Cap, il est clair que le 
couagga ^tait une sous-espdce du z§bre de 
plaine. Cela signifie que le stock principal de 
g^nes est encore disponible pour reorder le 
couagga sans apport du moindre g^ne extra 
specifique. 8 zebres dont les rayures etaient 
fortement reduites ont 6t6 selectionnes parmi 
2500. lis sont maintenant dans une station 
d'elevage. Pour accelerer le processus, I'in- 
semination artificielle pourrait etre utilis^e, si 
cela s'av6re necessaire. 

(source: lUCN Veterinary group newsletter 
n°5, 1990) 

******************************* 



Des scientifiques sud africains ont entam6 
un projet pour recreer le couagga disparu, d'i- 
ci 3 generations ou 10 ans. Le dernier couag- 
ga mourut au zoo d'Amsterdam le 12 aoOt 




1 883. Les scientifiques esp^rent recreer cette 
espdce en croisant entre eux des z6bres se- 
lectionnes, dont les rayures des membres 



La fondation Cote d'Or aide le 
Pare National de Ruaha (Tanzanie) 



La societe chocolatiere Cote d'Or (Belgl- 
que) a cree debut 1990 une fondation pour la 
protection de reiephant qui consacrera an- 
nuellement et pendant 3 ans un montant de 
10 millions de francs ($300,000) k la protec- 
tion des elephants dans le Pare de Ruaha 
(Tanzanie) ou leur nombre est pass6 de 
44000 en 1977 k moins de 15000 dix ans plus 
tard. De son cote.le gouvernement tanzanien 
s'est engage k renforcer les effectifs de 
gardes du pare de 50 %. 

Cote d'Or, the chocolate manufacturing 
company In Belgium, set up a foundation ear- 
ly 1990 for elephant protection. It will vote an- 
nually 10 million francs ($300,000) for. three 



81 



years, toward elephant protection at the Rua- 
ha National Park in Tanzania, where their 
number has reduced from 44,000 in 1977 to 
less than 15,000 10 years later. On its part, 
the Tanzanian government has pledged to in- 
crease the number of wardens by 50 %. 

(source: WWF-Belgium Panda Press 
n- 34, 1990) 



<^ 







POUR LA PROTECTION 
DE L ELEPHANT 



f. 



******************************* 



Upcoming Events Reunions a venir 



* Breeding and Conservation of 
Endangered Species 

Jersey Wildlife Preservation Trust 
Summer School 
27th July to 1 7th August 1991 7 
The fee per person is £700 (including 
accomodation and meals) 
J.W.P.T., Trinity, Jersey JE3 5BF, 
Channel Islands, UK 



* International Symposium on 
human influences on Endangered 
Wildlife Species in Africa 



2-5 December 1991 Kampala 
info: Dr Edroma Uganda Institute 
of Zoology 
P.O. BOX 3530 KAMPALA Uganda 

******************************* 



******************************** 

* Symposium sur la sant6 et la 
gestion des mammiferes en liberte 

Symposium on health and 
management of free-ranging 
mammals 



15-17 Octobre 1 991 Nancy, France 
info: BP 9 F-54220 MALZEVILLE France 



*10th World Forestry Congress 
lOemc? Congr^s Forestier Mondiale 



Paris 17-26 Sept. 1991 

Info: CTFT 45b, avenue de la 

Belle-Gabrielle 

F- 94736 Nogent-sur-Marne CEDEX 

France 



82 



This congress is followed by optional stu- 
dy tours 

Netlierlands: forestry in a country with a 
high population density (6 days) 

Niger: the tree in the fight against desertifi- 
cation (9 days) 

Cote d'lvoire: Deforestation and Reforesta- 
tion (7 days) 

Gabon: Conservation and development of 
the equatorial forest (9 days) 



Ce congrds est suivi de voyages d'^tudes 
en option 

Pays-Bas: foresterie dans un pays ci forte 
densite humaine (6 jours) 

Niger: I'arbre dans la lutte centre la deser- 
tification 

Cote d'lvoire: Deforestation et reboise- 
ment (7 jours) 

Gabon: Conservation et mise en valeur de 
la foret 6quatoriale (9 jours) 



BOOKS - LIVRES 



"WWF Atlas of the Environment" 

by Geoffrey Lean, Don Hinrichsen and 
Adam Markham, arrow Books Ltd. London. 
192 pp. £10.99 

Unlike a conventional atlas, almost all the 
maps in this book are of the entire globe. This 
book is divided into 42 sections. All the major 
issues are there: the ozone hole, population 
growth, destruction of mangroves, damaged 
watersheds... with maps, diagrams and charts. 

(culled from WWF News) 

******************************* 



"Tropical Rain Forest Ecosystems" 

Biogeographical and Ecological Studies 
by H. Leith and M.J.A. Werger. 714 pp. 
US$ 243 

This volume presents a comprehensive re- 
view of the rain forest ecosystem structure 
and the ecological processes operating that 
system. General chapters on abiotic and bio- 
tic factors are followed by specific chapters on 
all major groups of organisms. The human 
exploitation of the system, its effects and its li- 
mits are discussed. The book is extensively il- 
lustrated by pictures, graphs and tables. 



"Elsevier's Dictionary of the 
World's Game and Wildlife" 

(in English, Latin, French, German, Dutch 

and Spanish with equivalents in Afrikaans and 
Kiswahili) 

by G.R. Ferlin 426 pp. US$ 153 
This multilingual dictionary, the first of its 
kind, provides information on animal species 
and terminology concerning hunting and wil- 
dlife management. The first part includes list 
of animal species and subspecies which can 
be considered "game" in a wide sense (1 800 
entries) including sea mammals and sea 
birds. The second part of the dictionary pre- 
sents equivalent game and hunting terms in 
five languages. 

Ce dictionnaire "polyglotte" (Frangais, An- 
glais, Allemand, Latin, Neerlandais et Espa- 
gnol avec equivalents en Swahili et Afrikaans) 
est le premier du genre. II est divis6 en deux 
parties : la premiere comprend une liste (1 800 
entries) d'esp^ces et de sous-esp6ces anl- 
males pouvant etre considerees comme gl- 
bier au sens large, y compris les mammifdres 
marins et les oiseaux de mer; la seconde 
partie pr6sente les termes de chasse et de gl- 
bier en 5 langues. 



Cover / couverture: c6phalophe de Jentink ( Cephalophus jentinki ) Jentink's duiker 

(photo Vivian J. Wilson) 
Back cover / couverture arridre: serval ( Felis serval ) (photo J.J. Leroy)