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Full text of "Nature"

\Kf<(wAi-^^^ 



^ 

Nature 



■ --J 



A WEEKLY 



ILLUSTRATED JOURNAL OF SCIENCE 



^ 



7 



Nature 



A WEEKLY 



ILLUSTRATED JOURNAL OF SCIENCE 



VOLUME XL 

MAY 1889 to OCTOBER 1889 



" To the solid ground 
OJ Nature trusts the mind which builds for aye" — Wordsworth 



MACMILLAN AND CO. 
1889 



. V 



A^>' 






Richard Clay and Sons, Limited, 

LONDON and BUNGAY. 



Natiirey Nov. 28, 1SS9] 



INDEX 



Abbe (Prof. Cleveland) : Meteoritic Theory, 53 ; the Red 
Sunsets of 1884-85, 189 ; Observations of Twilight and 
Zodiacal Light during the Total Eclipse of the Sun, December 
21, 1889, 519; on the Determination of the Amount of Rain- 
fall, 585 
Abbo (Dr.), Colour of Eyes and Hair in Norway, 285 
Abercromby (Hon. Ralph) : Rain Clouds on Lake Titicaca, 12 ; 
Upper Wind Currents over the Equator in the Atlantic 
Ocean, loi ; Nitrate of Soda and the Nitrate Country, i86, 
308 ; Sun Water-Distilling Apparatus on Atacama Desert, 
211 ; the Circulation of the Atmosphere over the Equator, 
297 
Abney (Captain W. de W., C.B., F.R.S.): Opening Address 
in Section A (Mathematics and Physics) at the British Asso- 
ciation, 469 ; on the Quantity of Deposit of Silver produced 
by the Development on a Photographic Plate in Terms of the 
Intensity of Light acting, 584 
Abnormality in Tropseolum, Prof. Alfred Denny, 125 
Abrus precatorius, Toxic Action of Albumose from Seeds of, Dr. 

Sidney Martin, 117 
Accent, French, Researches with Phonautograph on, Dr. 

Pringsheim, 168 
Accra, Earthquake at, 61 

Acoustics : Dr. Rudolph Kcenig on an Important Discovery in 
the Theory of Music, 479 ; Mechanical Illustration of Propa- 
gation of Sound- Wave, F. J. Smith, 620 
Acquired Characters, on the supposed Transmission of, E. B. 

Poulton, F.R.S., 610 
Actiniae, British, Revision of the, Prof. A. C. Haddon, 390 
Actinometer : devised by Prof. Balfour Stewart, F.R.S., 556; 

a New Self-registering, Dr. Richardson, 587 
Adams (Prof. W. Grylls. F.R.S.), Fifth Report to the British 
Association on the Best Means of Comparing and Reducing 
Magnetic Observations, 554 
Adelsberg Stalactite Grotto, the New, 577 
Affinity, Chemical, M. M. Pattison Muir, 273 
Afghan Delimitation Commission, the Zoology of the, E. T. 

Aitchison, 413 
Afghanistan, Northern, Major C. E. Yate, 31 
Africa: Penetration of Kong Country by Captain Binger, 17; 
the Soil and Climate of German East Africa, Dr. K. W. 
Schmidt, 46 ; H. M. Stanley's Movements, 181, 539 ; African 
River Life, J. R. Werner, 241 ; Mites in Entomological Col- 
lections from South Africa, 283 ; African Farm Pests, Eleanor 
A. Ormerod, 385 ; Concession to British East Africa Com- 
pany of Lamu and Ben-Adir Coast, 449 ; Narrative of an 
Explorer in Tropical South Africa, Francis Galton, F. R. S., 
570 ; the Gold Deposits of the Gold Coast, Sir Brandford 
Griffith, 627 
Agassiz (Alexander), the Three Cruises of the Blake, Dr. John 

Murray, 361 
Agram, Earthquake at, 45 

Agriculture : Ravages of Cockchafer and its Larva, J. Reiset, 
23 ; Loss and Gain of Nitrogen in Soils, P. P. Deherain, 48 ; 
a Record of Progress in Agricultural Canada, W. Fream, 52 ; 
a Treatise on Manures, by Dr. A. B. Griffiths, 99 ; School 
of Practical Agriculture at Fabriano, 164 ; Proposed Chair of 
Agriculture at North Wales University College, 207 ; Inter- 
national Congress on, in Paris, 252 ; the Industrial Agri- 



cultii-al Educational Bill, 254 ; the Cost of Various Remedies 

against Vine-pests, 374 ; Agricultural Society of the Gironde, 

374 ; Agriculture in Colombia, 423, 596 ; an Italian's View of 

English Agricultural Education, Prof. John Wrightson, 428 ; 

Agricultural Experimental Stations in the United States, 455 ; 

Agricultural Laboratories in Belgium, 481 ; Prof. Wallace's 

Farm Live Stock of Great Britain, 619 
Ainos, Colour of Eyes and Hair of, Lefevre on, 68 
Air in the Soil, Th. Schloesing, yf/.f, 626 

Aitchison (E. J.), the Zoology of the Afghan Delimitation Com- 
mission, 413 
Aitken (John), the Dust-particles in Atmosphere at Ben Nevis 

Observatory, 356 
Albatross : Sailing Flight of the. A, C. Baines, 9 ; Lord Ray- 

leigh, F.R.S., 34; R. E. Froude, 102; the Wandering 

Albatross, A. Reischek, 306 
Albert Nyanza, Lake, Sir S. Baker and H. M. Stanley on, 65 
Aldehydes, M. Grimaux, 369 
Aldis (Prof. W. Steadman), Spherical Eggs, 417 
Alembert's (D') Principle, Centrifugal Force and. Prof. F. Guthrie, 

319 
Alexander (S.), Moral Order and Progress, an Analysis of 

Ethical Conceptions, 169 
Algebra : Key to Higher, H. S. Hall and S. R. Knight, 

460 
Algebra, Solutions of the Examples in a Treatise on, Charles 

Smith, 31 
Algebra, a Treatise on Elementary, and Algebraical Artifices, 

Saradaranjan Ray, 9 
Algeria, the Dangers of Viticulture in, Consul-General Playfair, 

423 

Algiers Observatory, 539 

Allen (Alfred H. ), Commercial Organic Analysis, Dr. C. R. 
Alder Wright, F.R.S., 289 

AUman (Prof. Geo., F. R.S.), Greek Geometry from Thales to 
Euclid, 172 ; the Theorem of the Bride, 299 

Alloys of Nickel and Steel, James Riley, 58 

Alloys, Raoult's Method applied to, C. T. Heycock and F. H. 
Neville on, 587, 628 

Alloys, Strength of, at Different Temperatures, W, C. Unwin, 
F.R.S., 631 

Allport (S.), Contact Metamorphism in Silurian Rocks near 
New Galloway, 190 

Aluminium : Sir Henry Roscoe, M.P., F.R.S., 182 ; Dr. Nello's 
Process for the Manufacture of, from Cryolite, Prof. Bedson, 
587 . 

Aluminium Chloride, the Vapour-density of, Profs. Nilson and 
Pettersson, 596 , 

Amagat (E. H.), the Elasticity of Solids, 192 

Amateurs, Cactus Culture for, W. Watson, 123 

America: American Journal of Science, 21, 67, 189, 310, 404, 
562 ; American National Academy of Science, 44 ; American 
Meteorological Society, 117; Paleolithic Man in America, 
W. J. McGee, 163 ; Remains of Lake-dwellings in North 
America, 180 ; American Meteorological Journal, 189, 262, 
311, 383, 445, 611 ; Long-time Weather Predictions in Ame- 
rica, 208 ; American Association for Advancement of Science, 
228, 556 ; American Journal of Mathematics, 334 ; Two 
American Institutions, J. Taylor Kay, 346 ; Count Loubat's 



VI 



INDEX 



[Nature, Nov. 28, I J 



Prize for Encouragement of North American Studies, 372; 
the Fruit Pest, Curcnlio, in America, Riley and Howard, 
373 ; Colonel Labre's E-cpIorations of Regions between Beni 
and Madre de Dios and Piirus Rivers, 353 ; the A nerican 
Association, 372; Americin Phil )sophical Society, 373; 
American Antiquities, W. H Holmes, 437 ; Decay of the 
Reading Habit in America, W. C. Wilkinson, 548 ; Cent- 
enary of the American Philosophical Society at Philadelphia, 
576 ; the Sparrow in America, 627 
Ames (Joseph S. ), Dr. Griinwald's Mathematical Spectrum 

Analysis, 19 
Amia, Lateral Line System in, Minot and Allis on, 419 
Amine, a New, Drs. Sknup and VViesmann, 14 
Amnion (O.). Results of Observations of Skulls of 5000 Baden 

Soldiers, 653 
Ammonia, the Nitrification of, Th. Schlcesing, 539 
Amsterdam Royal Academy of Sciences, 120, 216, 312 
Amylo-dextrin, Brown and Morris on, 214 
Analysis, Commercial Organic, Alfred H. Allen, Dr. C. R. 

Alder Wright, F.R.S., 289 
Anapophyses, Dr. St. George Mivart, F. R.S., 394 
Anatomy, Comparative, the Large B )nes of the Anthropoid 

Apes, Etienne Rollet, 287 
Anatomy, Comparative, Lehrbuch der Vergleichenden Anatomic 
zum Gebrauche bei vergleichend anatomischen and zoolo- 
gischen Vorlesungen, Dr. Arnold Lang, 124 
Anatomy of the Humpback Whale {Megapter.i longimana), 

John Struther=, 592 
Ancient Art of the Province of Chiriqui, W. H. Holmes, 436 
Ancient Civilization, the History of. Rev. J. Verschoyle, 7 
Anderson (J. W. ), the Prospector's Hand-book, 293 
Anderson (Prof. R. J.), Apparatus to illustrate Crystal Forms, 

71 

Anderson (William), Opening Address in Section G (Mecha- 
nical Science) at the British Association, 509 

Andersonian Naturalists' Society of Glasgow, 653 

Andree (Richard), Ethnological Parallels, 229 

Andrews (General), Ship Railways, 108 

Andries (Dr. B.), the Cold Period of May, 286 

Andromedse, Spectrum of R, Espin, 656 

Anemometer Comparison^, Prof. H. A. Hazen, 117 

Anemometer Experiments, Prof. C. F. Marvin on, 189, 383 

Angot (M.), Paris Central Meteorological Office, 421 

Animals, do they Count?, Dr. H. A. Hagen, 319 

Animals, the Force of Example in, 461 

Annenkoff (General), Colonization of Transcasoian Region, 
230 

Annuaire de I'Observatoire Municipal de Montsouris, 654 

Ansaloni (.A..), on the Eiffel Tower, 261 

Antherozoids of Cryptogams, Alfred W. Bennett on the, 610 

Anthony's Photographic Bulletin, the International Annual of, 
245 

Anthrax Virus in Subcutaneous Tissues of Rabbits, Destruction 
of, M. Pekelharing, 312 

Anthropology : Colour of Eyes and Hair of the Ainos, Lefevre, 
68 ; Osteology of Veddahs of Ceylon, Arthur Thompson, 
118 ; the Anthropological Institute, no, 287; the Anthropo- 
lugical Society, 215; Colour of Eyes and ^ Hair in Norway, 
Abbo and Faye, 285 ; Introduction a I'Etude des Races 
Humaines, A. De Quatrefages, 407 ; the German Congress 
on Anthropology, 479 ; Anthropological Society of Bombay, 
480 ; Prof. Sir William Turner's Opening Address in Section 
H at the British Association, 526 ; the Huron- Iroquois of 
E\stern Canada, Sir Daniel Wilson, 557 ; Lake-dwellings in 
Northern Italy, P. Castelfranco, 562 ; Pagan Practices among 
Modern Provencals, Dr. Ferand, 562 ; Prof. Haddon's Torres 
Straits Collection. 626 ; W. K. Sibley, on Left-leggedness, 
652 ; Prof. D. J. Cunningham, on the Occasional Eighth True 
Rib in Man, 632 ; Paul B. du Chaillu, on the Vikings as the 
Direct Ancestors of the English-speaking Nations, 632 ; 
Canon Isaac Taylor, on the Origin of the Aryans, 632 ; 
Canon Isaac Taylor, on the Ethnological Significance of the 
Beech, 632 ; Hyde Clarke, on the Right of Property in Trees 
on Another's Land, 635 ; Dr.Garson, on an Anthropometric 
Instrument for Travellers, 633; Francis Galton, F.R. S., on 
an Instrument for measuring the Reaction Time to Sight and 
Sound Signals, 633 ; Dr. MacLaurin, on the British Race in 
Australia, 633 ; H. H. Risley, on the Study of Ethnology in 
India, 633 ; Prof. A. C. Haddon, on the Custom-; and Beliefs 
of the Torres Straits Islanders, 633 ; Dr. J. Beddoe, F. R. S., 



on the Natural Colour of Skin in Certain Oriental Races, 
633 ; Dr. Fridtjof Nansen, on the Esquimaux, 633 ; Rev. G. 
Rome Hall, on Northumberland in Prehistoric Times, 633 ; 
Sir William Turner, F. R.S., on Implements of Stags' Horns 
associated with Whales' Skeletons found in the Carse Lands 
of Stirling, 634 ; on the Principles and Methods of Assign- 
ing Marks f^r Bodily Efficiency in the Examination of 
Candidates for Public Service, Francis Galton, F. R. ^., 631, 
649 ; A. A. Somerville, 652 ; Anthropometric Instrument 
for Travellers, Dr. Garson on an, 633 : Anthropometric Mea- 
surements at Cambridge, 593 ; Scientific Anthropometry a id 
Artistic Pr >portion^. Colonel Duhousset and TopinarJ, 562 

AnthropopiiJie-tis calvus, the Mental Faculties of, Prof. Geo. J. 
Romanes, F. R. S., 160 

Antiparallel, on the Use of the Word, E. M. Langley, 460 

Antiquities discovered in Gothland, 254 

Antoine (Ch.), Dilatation and Compression of Carbonic Acid, 
48 

Apes, the Large Bones of the Anthropoid, Etienne Rollet, 287 

Apple and Pear Conference, the, 577 

Apiilied Mechanics, Ur. A. Low, 31 

April Meteors, 15 

Aquatic Habits of certain Land Tortoises, R. W. Shufeldt, ^\\ 

Arc, the Peruvian, 558 

Arcangeli (Prof.), Heat due to Respira*^ion of Fungi, 334 

Archaeology in Mexico : Governmental Measures for Study and 
Preservation of Ancient Monuments and Historical Remains, 
283 

Archae ilogy : the Burying-grounds and Civilization of Hallstatt, 
Dr. Homes, 286 

Arctic Expedition, Return of the Bremen, 539 

Arctic Exploration : Dr. Nansen's Journey across Greenland, 
i>33 

Argentine Republic, Hibernation of Martins in the, Tommaso 
Salvadori, 223 

Argus, Variable tj. Dr. Thome, 550 

Argyll (the Duke of, F. R.S.), an Unusual Geological Sequence, 
642 

Arithmetic : a Course of Easy Arithmetical Examples for Be- 
ginners, J. G. Bradshaw, 293 

Armstrong (Prof. H. E., F. R.S.) : the Hydration of Cyanides 
335 ; Report to the British Association of the Committee o\\ 
the Teaching of Science in Schools, 554 ; Suggestions for a 
Course of Elementary Instruction in Physical Science, 600; 
the Teaching of Science, 645 

Arnold (Sir Edv\'in) upon Icebergs, 536 

Artesian Wells in Australia, 3t)5 

Aryans, the, De Lapouge, 68 

Aryans, the Origin of the, Canon Isaac Taylor on, 632 

Ashe (Dr. Isaac), Dimidium, an Attempt to represent the 
Chemical Elements by Physical Forms, 588 

Asia, Central : M. Bonvalot's Tour in, 483 ; Return of Yad- 
rintzeft"s Expedition, 551 

Aspinall (Rev. «J.), the Inhabitants of Tierra del Fuego, 374 

Assmann (Dr. R. ), the Structure of Hoar-frost, 285 ; Meteoro- 
logical Experiences in the Sentis, 66o 

Association for Improvement of Geometrical Teachin;r, 326 

Astrarchia stepliania;. Dr. A. B. Meyer, 461 

Astronomy: April Meteors, 15; the White Spot on Saturn's 
Ring, Prof. Holden, 15 ; the Variable X Cygni, Mr. Vendall, 
15 ; Photographic Determination of the Brightness of the 
Stars, 15 ; Astronomical Column, 15, 63, 109, 135, 164., iS'j, 
209, 231, 255, 284, 307, 32 <, 424, 448, 482, 538, 550, 597, 
655 ; Astronomical I'henomena for the Week, 16, 46, 64, 85, 
109, 135, 164, 181, 210, 231, 255, 284, 307, 329, 352, 374, 
403,424,448,482, 516, 538, 550, 578, 628, 656; the Re- 
siduals of Mercury, O. T. Sherman, 63 ; Right Ascensions of 
North Circumpolar Stars, Prof. T. H. Safiford, 63 ; Two 
Remarkable Solar Eruptions, F'ather Jules Feiiyi, 64; Comet 
1889 b (Barnard, March 31), 64 ; on the Determination of 
Masses in Astronomy, R. A. Gregory, 80; the Proposid 
Vatican Astronomical Observatory, 84; Meteor- Showars, 16, 
46, 86, 109, 136, 165, i8r, 231, 256, 285, 308, 329, 352, 375, 
403, 424, 448, 483, 516, 539, 551, 578, 598, 629, 655 ; Vari- 
able Stars, 16, 46, 64, 85, no, 135, 165, i8r, 210, 231, 255, 
284, 308, 329, 352, 375, 403. 424. 449, 4^3, 516, 539, 55^, 
578, 598, 629, 656 ; Barnard's Comet, 1888 e, 109 ; the 
Motion of Stars in the Line of Sight, Prof. H. C. V^ogel, 
109 ; the Latitude of Detroit, Dr. Ludovic Estes, 109 ; the 
Minor Planet Victoria, 109 ; Meridian Observations of Iris, 



Nature, Nov. 23, 1889] 



\1NDEX 



Vll 



109 ; Preliminary Report of the Newall Telesope Syndicate, 
114; Astronomical Society, 119; New Minor Planet, 135 ; 
the Spectrum of x Cygni, 135 ; Solar Phenomena for 1888 
and 1889, Tacchini, 144; Stonyhurst College Observatory, 
164; Stability of Solar Sy>tem, D. Eginitis, 167; Two Re- 
markable Conjunctions, Martb, 180 ; the General Relations 
of the Phenomena of Variable Stars, S. C. Chandler, 181 ; 
Stellar Evolution and its Relation to Geological Time, James 
Croll, F.R.S., A. Fowler, 199; Recent Determinations of 
the Amount of Lunar Radiation, Prof. C. C. Hutchins, 209 ; 
Astronomica' Society of the Pacific, 231 ; a New Comet, 
231 ; the Planet Uranus, R. A. Gregory, 235 ; Proposed 
New Telescope for Harvard University Observatory, 252 ; 
Death of Maria Mitchell, 253 ; Congress on Celestial Photo- 
graphy, 252 ; Obituary Notice of Prof. G. Cacciatore, 255 ; 
Comet 1S89 d (Swift), 255 ; Comet 1889 b (Barnard, March 
31), 255 ; Comet 1 889 r( Barnard, June 23), 255 ; Comet 1889^ 
(Barnard, September 2), 255 ; Comet 1889 r/ (Brooks, July 6), 
284 ; Babylonian Astronomy, G. Berlin, 237, 261, 285, 360 ; 
Celestial Motions, a Handy Book of Astronomy, William 
Thynne Lynn, 293 ; the Binary y Corona; Borealis, Prof. 
Celoria, 307 ; Eclipses and Transits in Future Years, Rev. S. 
J. Johnson, 307 ; the White Spot on Saturn's Ring, M. Terby, 
307 ; Comet i889<: (Barnard, June 23), Dr. R. Spitaler, 307 ; 
Discovery of a New Comet 1889 e, 328 ; Comet 1889 d 
(Brooks), Comets 1888 e (Barnard, September 2), and 1889 b 
(Barnard, March 31), 329; the Vienna Observatory, 329; 
Astronomy at Johns Hopkins University, 351 ; the Variations 
of Latitude in the Solar Spots, R. Wolf, 383 ; Another Photo- 
graphic Survey of the Heavens, 417; Comet 1889 rt? (Brooks, 
July 6), Herr Otto Knopf, 424 ; Comet 1889^ (Davidson), Dr. 
Becker, 424 ; New Minor Planets, 424 ; New Double Stars, 
Burnham, 424 ; Stars with Remarkable Spectra, 424 ; Telescopes 
for Stellar Photography, Sir Howard Grubb, F.R.S., 441, 645 ; 
International Congress at Liege, 445 ; Yale College Observa- 
tory, 448 ; New Minor Planet, Prof. Peters, 448 ; Comet 1889 d 
(BroDks, July 6), Dr. K. Zelbr, 448 ; Comet 1888^ (Barnard, 
September 2), and 1889 b (Barnard, March 31), 448 ; Reduc- 
tion of Rutherfurd's Photographs of the Pleiades and Praesepe, 
Dr. B. A. Gould, 448 ; the United States Eclipse Expedition, 
462 ; the Triple Star 2 2400, 482 ; Publications of the Pots- 
dam Observatory, 482 ; the Observation of Sudden Pheno- 
mena, 482 ; International Congress of Astronomy, 516 ; 
Observations of Twilight and Zodiacal Light during the Total 
Eclipse of the Sun, December 21, 1889, Prof. Cleveland 
Abbe, 519 ; Bishop's Ring; and Allied Phenomena, T. W. 
Backhouse, 519 ; Comet 1889 e (Davidson), 538 ; Observations 
at Algiers Observatory, Ch. Trepied, 539 ; Mr. Tebbutt's 
Observatory at Windsor, New South Wales, 550 ; the Variable 
7? Argus, Dr. Thome, 55° > Rotation Period of the Sun, 
Henry Crew ; Comet 1889 ^/(Brooks, July 6), Dr. Otto Knopf, 
550; Prof. A. W. Riicker, F.R.S, on Cometic Nebula;, 
583 ; Astronomical Observatorie-, Geo. H. Boehmer, 597 ; 
a Spectroscopic Survey of Southern Stars, R. L. J. Ellery, 
F.R. S., 597 ; Astro-photographic Conference, 597 ; Inter- 
national Congress on Celestial Photography, 597 ; the Natal 
Observatory, 655 ; Spectrum of R Andromeda;, Rev. T. H. 
E. C. Espin, 656 ; Comet 1889 d (Brooks, July 6), 656 {see 
also Stars and Meteors) 
Alhecse, Phenacodus and the, Lydekker on, Prof. E. D. Cope, 

298 
Atlantic, North : Pilot Chart for May, 107 ; Icebergs in, 133 ; 
Surface Currents of, Prince Albert of Monaco, 167 ; for May, 
Meteorology of, 179; Meteorology of, 305 ; Pilot Chart of, 
401 ; Currents of, G. Pouchet, 577 ; Pilot Charts of, 578, 595 1 
Atlantic Ocean, Upper Wind Currents over the Equator in the, 

Hon. Ralph Abercromby, loi ; E. Foulger, 224 i 

Atlas : Longmans' New, 148 ; W. and A. K. Johnston's the 

Unrivalled, 221 
Atlas, Travels in the, and Southern Morocco, Jos2ph Thomson, 

149 

Atmosphere, Circulation of the, over the Equator, Hon. Ralph 
Aberciomby, 297 

Atmospheric Electricity, C. A. C. Bowlker, 55 ; Daniel Pidgeon, 
77 ; C. Tomlinson, F. R.S., 102 ; R. T. Omond, 102 ; Mar- 
shall Hall, 125; Alexander McAdie, 223; Prof. C. Michie 
Smith, 585 

Atoms and Molecules, the Organization of, Prof. A. E. Dolbear, 
419 

Audubon Monument, the Proposed, 305 



August Perseids of 1889, 420 

Aurora, the. Dr. M. A. Vecder, 318 

Aurora, 01)servatioiis on Height of, 654 

Aurora, the Wavelength of Principal Line in Spectrum of, W. 
Huggins, F.R.S., 68 

Aus dem Archiv der Deutschen Seewarte, 401 

Auspitz (Rudolf) and Richard Lieben, Untersuchungen iiber die 
Tneorie des Preises, 242 

Austen (Dr. P. T.), Exp;riments on Combustion in Nitric Acid 
Vapour, 45 

Australia : Records of the Geological Survey of New South 
Wales, 254 ; Western Australia, Coal and Tin Discoveries in, 
H. P. Woodward, 304 ; Exploration of, Ernest Favenc, 353 ; 
Artesian Wells in Australia. 305 ; Proposed Kxploration of 
Central, 308 ; the Tertiary Flora of, C. von Ettingshausen, J. 
Starkie Gardner, 517 ; Tietken's Exploration of the Interior of 
South, 551 ; Dr. MacLaurin on the British Race in Australia, 

633 
Avalanche on Joser Fjord, 229 
Avarian Language, Baron Uslar, 283 
Avens, Martel and Gaupillat, 636 



Babylonian Astronomy, G. Bertin, 237, 261, 285, 360 

Babylonian the Language of Polite Society in the Fifteenth Cen- 
tury B.C., Prof. Sayce, 239 

Bacillus ethacetkus, a New Ferment, Prof. P. F, Frankland, 
588 

Backhouse (T. W. ): Bishop's Ring and Allied Phenomena, 
519 ; Shining Night Clouds — an Appeal for Observations, 

594 
Bacteria, the Ferment Action of, Drs. Lauder Brunton and 

Macfadyen, 21 
Bacteria, Influence of Salt on, Forster, 216 
Bailey (G. H.), Zirconium, 92 
Bailey Qames Blake), an Index to Science, 245 
Bailey (Prof. W. Whitman), Changed Environment, 297 
Baines (A. C. ), Sailing Flight of the Albatross, 9 
Ball (E. J.) and A. Wingham, Influence of Copper on the 

Tensile Strength of Steel, 59 
Ball (John, F.R.S.), Death of, 626 
Ball (V., F.R.S.), Japanese Clocks, 151 
Ball (W. W. Rouse), a History of the Study of Mathematics 

at Cambridge, 458 
Balloon Ascent, Barometrical Measurements tested by, 547 
Balls of almost Perfect Sphericity produced by Mechanical 

Movement, M. Mallett, 351 
Baltic Coasts, the Secular Rising of, ro8 
Baltic Currents, Measurement of, Herr Dinklage, 351 
Bambangala, Dr. P. L. Sclater, F.R.S., 54 
Bardeleben (Prof.), PraepoUex and Praehallux of Mammalian 

Skeleton, 95 
Barents Sea, the. Dr. Mohn, 598 
Barium, the Malonates of, 264 
Barnard's Comet, 1888 e, September 2, 109. 255, 448 ; Comet 

1889 b, 64, 255; Comet, March 31, 1889 b, 448; Comet 

1889 c, 255 
Barnes (Philip), the Founder of the Royal Botanic Society, 304 
Barometer, Diurnal and Annual Oscillations, H. H. Clayton, 

445 
Barometrical Measurements tested by Balloon Ascents, 547 
Barrande (Joachim), Systeme Silurien du Centre de la Boheme, 

267 
Barus (Carl), Electric Resistance of Stressed Glass, 67 
Basic Open-hearth Steel, J. H. Darby, 59 
Basset (A. B.), Treatise on Hydrodynamics, 412 
Bassett-Smith (P. W.), Coral Reefs, 223 
Bassot (M.), Difference of Longitude between Paris and Madrid, 

612 
Bate (C. S., F.R.S.), Death and Obituary Notice of, 350 
Bateman (J. F. La Trobe, F.R.S.), Death of, 162 
Baur (G.), Valuable Specimens of Vertebrates for Biological 

Laboratories, 644 
Beacon Lights and Fog Signals, Sir James N. Douglass, F.R.S., 

87, no 
Beale (E. Clifford), Board School Laryngitis, Greville Mac- 

donald, 8 
Beauregard, Egypt in Prehistoric Times, 92 
Becker (Dr.), Comet 1889 e (Davidson), 424 
Beddard (F. E.), on Fresh water Oligochseta, 611 



VIU 



INDEX 



[Nature, Nov. 28, 18S9 



Beddoe (Dr. J., F.R.S.), on the Natural Colour of Skin in 
certain Oriental Races, 633 

Bedson (Prof.) on Dr. Netto's Process for the Manufacture of 
Aluminium from Cryolite, 587 

Bee, Alimentary Apparatus of, A. J. Cook, 559 

Bee Mango, the, 654 

Beech, Ethnological Significahce of the. Canon Isaac Taylor on, 
632 

Beginners, Statics for, John Greaves, 77 

Behrend and Roosen (Dr.), Synthesization of Uric Acid, 62 

Belgium : Agricultural Laboratories in, 481 ; the Meteorological 
Service in, A. L. Rotch, 311 

Bell, a New Mountain of the, H. Carrington Bolton, 35 

Bell (Sir Lowthian, Bart., F.R.S.): Opening Address in Sec- 
tion B (Chemistry) at the British Association, 473 ; on Gaseous 
Fuel, 560 

Bells, Tones of, Lord Rayleigh, Sec.R. S., 584 

Beloochistan, Mr. Griesbach appointed Government Geologist 
in, 444 

Bennett (Alfred W.) and George Murray, a Hand-book of 
Cryptogamic Botany, 217 

Bennett (Alfred W.) : Systematic Position of the Characese, 
298 ; on the Antherozoids of Cryptogams, 610 

Bennett (Mrs. Lydia S.), Death of, 373 

Ben Nevi-; Observatory, 350, 351 ; St. Elmo's Fire on Ben 
Nevis, Angus Rankin, 439 ; Report of the Committee ap- 
pointed by the British Association for the Purpose of co- 
operating with ihe Scottish Meteorological Society in making 
Observations on, 535 

Benares, Native Opposition to Sanitary Reforms at, 44 

Bennie (James), the Cowdenglen Valley, 627 

Benzene, M. Combes on, 370 

Berkeley (Rev. M. J., F.R.S.): Death of, 326; Obituary 
Notice of, 371 

Berks, Yew-trees in, Rev. George Hendow, 621 

Berlin : Academy of Sciences, 372 ; Meteorological Society, 
660 ; Physical Society, 72, 96, 168, 240, 287 ; Physiological 
Society, 24, 119, 192, 288, 408 

Bernard ( Rev. Henry), Nose-blackening as a Preventive of 
Snow-Blindness, 438 

Bert (Paul), Statue of, 252 

Berthelot (Marcellin, F.R.S.): the Thionic Series, 23, 71, 95; 
the Origin of Bronze, 71 ; Heat of Combustion of Carbons, 
167 ; the Fixation of Atmospheric Nitrogen, 539 ; Observa- 
tions on Reciprocal Displacements between Oxygen and the 
Halogens, 612, 636 : Rafifinose, 612 

Bertin (G,), Babylonian Astronomy, 237, 261. 285, 360 

Besson(A.), on the Existence of Sulphate of Phosphonium, 659 

Bevan (E. J.), a Text-book of Paper making, 414 

Bevan (George Phillips), Death of, 373 

Bhils, the, and their Country, Sir Lepel Griffin, 116 

Bi- and Di-, the Use of the Prefixes, 370 

Bibliography of Meteorology, 107 

Bidwell (Shelford, F.R.S.), Effects of Heat on Magnetic Sus- 
ceptibility of Nickel, 70 

Bimetallism, Right Hon. Sir Lyon Playfair, F.R.S., 638 

Binary 7 Coronse Borealis, Prof. Celoria, 307 

Binet (Alfred), Psychic Life of Micro-organisms, 541 

Binger (Captain), Penetration of Kong Country by, 17 

Biology : Liverpool Marine Biology Committee's Easter Dredg- 
ing Cruise, Prof W. A. Herdman, 47 ; the Progress of 
Biology, Dr. Diising, 402 ; Prof. J. S. Burdon- Sanderson's 
Opening Address in Section D at the British Association, 
521 ; Alimentary Apparatus of Bee, A. J. Cook, 559 ; 
Fermentation of Ensilage, Prof Burrill, 559; Marine Bio- 
logical Association, S. F. Harmer, 593 ; Prof G. J. 
Romanes, F.R. S., on Specific Characters as Useful and 
Indifferent, 609 ; Alfred W. Bennett, on the Antherozoids of 
Cryptogams, 610 ; E. B. Poulton, F.R.S., the Supposed 
Transmission of Acquired Characters, 610; Francis Galton, 
F.R.S., on Feasible Experiments on the Possibility of Trans- 
mitting Acquired Habits by Means of Inheritance, 610 ; Prof. 
F. O. Bower, on the Meristems of Ferns as a Study in Phylo- 
geny, 610 ; Prof. Hartog, on the Structure of Saprolegnia, 
611; F. E. Beddard, on Fresh-water Oligochgeta, 611; 
Messrs. Robert Irvine and Dr. G. Sims Woodhead, on the 
Secretion of Carbonate of Lime by Animals, 611 ; Sir John 
Lubbock, F.R.S., on the Shape of the Oak Leaf and the 
Leaves of the Guelder Rose, 611 ; Sir W. Turner, F.R. S., 
on the Placentation of the Dugong, 611 ; Weismann's Essays 



on Heredity, &c., Poulton, Schonland, and Shipley, 618; 

Lamarck v. Weismann, Dr. A. R. Wallace, 619; Valuable 

Specimens of Vertebrates for Biological Laboratories, G. 

Baur, 644 
Biquartz, the Use of the, A. W. Ward, 191 
Bird-Life of the Borders, Abel Chapman, 147 
Birds, Effects of Pepper-feeding on. Dr. Sauermann, 192 
Birds, Large, Sailing Flight of, over Land, S. E. Peal, 518; 

Dr. R. Courtenay, 573 
Birds, Migration of. Report to the British Association on the 

Observations made at Lighthouses and Light-vessels, John 

Cordeaux, 556 
Birds and Seed-dispersion, 305 

Birhans (F. C.)i the Solidification of Nitrous Acid, 287 
Birmingham, Mason Science College, 13 
Birth-rate in France, the, Chervin, 92 
Bishop (Sereno E.), Sunset Glows at Honolulu, 415 
Bishop's Ring and Allied Phenomena, T. W. Backhouse, 519 
Bismuth, New Aromatic Compounds of, Michaelis and Mar- 

quardt, 134 
Black Rain, the Earl of Rosse, F.R. S., 202 
Blackley (Dr. C. H.), Improved Method of Preparing Ozone 

Paper, 94 
Bladder, Apparatus for Examining the. Dr. Nitze, 192 
Blair (Andrew Alexander), Chemical Analysis of Iron, 51 
Blake, Three Cruises of the, by Alexander Agassiz, Dr. John 

Murray, 361 
Blanc (Prof), Lake Trout reared at Champ de I'Air, 422 
Blanchard (Emile), the Natural History of the River-Eel, 383 
Blanford (Henry F., F. R. S.), a Practical Guide to the Climates 

and Weather of India, Ceylon, and Burmah, 221 
Blaschka (Dr.), Formation of Horny Layer of Skin, 119 
Blater (Joseph), the Method of Quarter Squares, J. W. L. 

Glaisher, F.K.S., 573 
Blindness, Colour-, Testing of, Rev. J. F. Heyes, 572 
Blindness, the Eyes of Young Children, Dr. Webster Fox, 305 
Blood, Quantity of Water in, Grehant and Quinquaud, 144 
Blue Hill Meteorological Observatory, 283 
Blythe (Prof Jas.), New Form of Current-Weigher, 586 
Board School Laryngitis, Greville Macdonald, Dr. E. CliflforJ 

Beale, 8 
Bodily Efficiency, on Weighing Marks for, in the Examination 

of Candidates for Public Service, Francis Galton, F.R. S., 

631, 649 ; A. A. Somerville, 652 
Boehmer (Geo. H.), Astronomical Observatories, 597 
Bohemia, Cystidea of, 267 
Boiler Incrustations, on the Formation of Marine, Prof. Vivian 

B. Lewes, 19 
Boilers, their Construction and Strength, Thomas W. Traill, 

414 
Boissier (Edmond), R. Buser's Supplement to h:s Flora 

Orientalis, W. B. Hemsley, 98 
Bolivia and Peru H. Guillaume on, 630 
Bolivia, the Population of, 482 

Bolton (H. Carrington), a New Mountain of the Bell, 35 
Bombay : Endowment by Framjee Dinshaw Petit of a Laboratory 

at, 44, 133 ; Opening of the Jubilee Technical Institute at, 60 ; 

Proposed Improved Zoological Collection for, 282 
Bonney (Prof. T. G., F. R. S. ), Columnar Structure in Ice, 55 ; 

Contact Metamorphism in Silurian Rocks, near New Galloway, 

190 ; Structure and Distribution of Coral Reefs, 77, 125, 222 ; 

a Lizard Swallowed by a Viper, 150 ; Ice Blocks on a Moraine, 

391 
Bonvalot's (M.) Tour in Central Asia, 483 
Borders, Bird-Life of the, Abel Chapman, 147 
Bore of the Tsien-Tang Kiang, the, Captain W. U. Brown, 

163 
Bored Stones in Boulder Clays, G. W. Lamplugh, 297 
Borelli (Giulio), Outflow of the River Omo, 165, 353 
Borneo, Dr. Theodor Posewitz's Explorations in, 49 
Borneo, the Old- Slate Formation of, Martin, 120 
Boscovich's Theory, on. Sir William Thomson, F. R.S., 545 
Bosnia, Earthquakes in, 84, 401 
Boston, Proposed Natural History Gardens in, 577 
Bostwick (A. E. ), Absorption Spectra of Mixed Liquids, 189 
Bosworth- Smith, Discovery of Old Mining Implements in India, 

229 
Botany: in India, J. F. Duthie, 13; Botany of the Cayman 

Islands, W. Fawcett, 15 ; Comparative Morphology of the 

Coniferse, Dr. Masters, 22 ; a New Conifer, Dr. Marion, 



Nature, Nov. 2I, 1889] 



INDEX 



IX 



61 ; the Origin of the Platanus Genus, 61 ; Obituary Notice of 
Heinrich Gustav Reichenbacb, 83 ; Botanical Ga/ette, 92, 
262 ; the Supplement to Edmond Boissier's Flora Orientalis, 
edited by R. Buser, W. B. 'Hemsley, 98 ; Presentation of 
Linnean Society's Gold Medal to M. Alphonse de Candolle, 
118 ; Cactus Culture for Amateurs, 123 ; Botany of River- 
Transformation into Marshes, TanfiliefTT, 163 ; Dr. M. C. 
Cooke's Herbarium of Fungi, 207 ; a Hand-book of Crypto- 
gamic Botany, Alfred W. Bennett and George Murray, 217 ; 
Sideroxylon dulcificuvi, D. Morris, 238 ; Congress of the 
Botanical Society of France, 252 ; at the Polytechnic School 
of Lisbon, 253 ; Guide to the Botanical Literature of the 
British Empire, 253 ; the Kew Bulletin for July 18S9, 253 ; 
Prof. H. Ci. Reichenbach's Collection of Orchids, 253 ; the 
Journal of Botany, 262 ; the Uses of Plants, G. S. Boulger, 292 ; 
Systematic Position of the Characeas, Alfred W. Bennett, 298 ; 
the Spiral Torsion in Wild Teasel, M. de Vries, 312 ; Ponte- 
dcra azuna, W. C. Sowerby, 327 ; Heat due to Respiration 
of Fungi, Prof. Arcangeli, 334 ; the Department of Public 
Gardens and Plantations in Jamaica, 352; Names and 
Synonyms of British Plants, G. Egerton-Warburton, 316; 
the Colouring-matter of the Spermoderm in Angiosperms, 
Louis Claudel, 384 ; the Forest Flora of New Zealand, T. 
Kirk, 388 ; Botanic Gardens at Tiinidad, 421 ; Prof, de 
Bary's Collection of Microscopic Slides, 479 ; Report of the 
British Association Committee on the Disappearance of Native 
Plants from their Local Habitats, 533 ; Flowers of Calligomwi 
polygonoides as Article of Food in N.W, India, Use of, Mr. 
Duthie, 537 ; Report to the British Association on the Botany 
of the West India Islands, D. Morris, 553 ; the Probable 
Cause of Frondal Bifu.'^cations of Ferns, Dom B. Rimelin, 
563; Alfred W. Bennett, on the Antherozoids of Cryptogams, 
610 ; Prof. F. O. Bower, on the Meristems of Ferns as a 
Study in Phylogeny, 610 ; Prof Hartog, on the Structure of 
Saprolegnia, 611 ; Sir John Lubbock, F.R.S., on the Shape 
of the Oak Leaf and the Leaves of the Guelder Rose, 611 ; 
Eucalyptus Kinos, J. H. Maiden, 635 ; Trimorphism in 
Scabiosa siiccisa, Arthur Turner, 643 ; the Uredineae and 
Ustilaginere, R. Turner, 653 
Hottomley (J. T., F. R.S.), Expansion with Rise of Temperature 

of Wires under Pulling Stress, 263 
Bouchon-Brandely (M.), the Natural Oyster-banks of Brittany, 

481 
Boulay (Henri), Statue to, 480 

Boulder Clay, Bored Stones in, G. W. Lamplugh, 297 
Boulder Clay Erratic, Saxicava Borings and Valves in a, T. 

Mellard Reade, 246 
Boulenger (G, A.), Catalogue of the Chelonians, Rhyncho- 
cephalians, and Crocodiles in the British Museum (Natural 
History, 5 
Boulger (G. S.), the Uses of Plants, 292 
Bower (Prof. F. 0.), on the Meristems of Ferns as a Study in 

Phylogeny, 610 
Bowlker (C. A. C), Atmospheric Electricity, 55 
Boys (C. v., F.R.S.) : Quartz as an Insulator, 71 ; Quartz 
Fibres, 247 ; Portable Cavendish Apparatus for demonstrating 
the Attraction of Gravitation, 65 
Brachistochrones and Ray-paths, on the Relation between. Prof. 

Everett, F.R.S., 584 
Bradshaw (J. G. ), a Course of Easy Arithmetical Examples for 

Beginners, 293 
Brady (Dr. G. S.) and Rev. A. M, Norman, Monograph of the 
Marine and Fresh-water Ostracoda of the North Atlantic and 
of North- Western Europe, 364 
Brauner (Dr. B.), Experimental Researches on the Periodic 

Law, 214 
Brauner (Dr.), Tellurium, 284 
Bremen Arctic Expedition, Return of, 539 
Brest, Earthquake at, 162 
Bride, the Theorem of the, 320; Prof. Geo. J. Allman, F.R.S., 

299 
Bridge : the Sukkur, Opening of, 13 ; the Channel, Schneider 

and Hersent, 536, 560 
Brinton (Dr. D. G.), the Ta Ki, the Svastika, and the Cross in 

America, 373 
Bristow (Henry William, F.R.S.), Death of, 178; Obituary 

Notice of, 206 
Britain, Mr. Ussher on the Devonian Rocks of, 608 
British Actiniae, Revision of the. Prof. A. C. Haddon, 390 



British Association :— Dinner to the President-Elect, 
106 ; Meeting at Newcastleon-Tyne, Preliminary Ar- 
rangements, 329, 349, 373, 462 ; Inaugural Address 
by Prof. W. H. Flower, F.R.S., President, 463; Social 
Arrangements, 485 ; the Secretaryship, 485 ; Places of 
Meeting for 1890, 1891, 1892, 485 ; Attendance at, 485 ; 
Grants, 485 ; Second Report of the Committee Appointed 
for Collecting Information as to the Disappearance of Native 
Plants from their Local Habitats, Prof Hillhouse, 533 ; 
Report of the Committee appointed for the Purpose of Co- 
operating with the Scottish Meteorological Society iu Making 
Meteorological Observations on Ben Nevis, A. Buchan, 
535 ; Prof. Sir. William Thom.son, F. U.S., on Boscovich's 
Theory, 545; Eighteenth Report of the Committee on the 
Rate of Increase of Underground Temperature downwards 
in Dry Land and under Water, Prof. Everett, 551 ; Report 
of the Committee for Investigating the Best Methods of 
Ascertaining and Measuring Variations in the Value of the 
Monetary Standards, Prof. F. V. Edgeworth, 553 ; Second 
Report of the Committee for Reporting on our Knowledge 
of the Zoology and Botany of the West India Islands, and for 
Taking Steps to Investigate Ascertained Utticiencies in the 
Fauna and Flora, D. Morris, 553 ; Fifth Report of the 
Committee for Considering the Best Means cf Comparing 
and Reducing Magnetic Observations, Pro/. W. Grylls 
Adams, F.R.S., 554; Fourth Report of the Committee 
Appointed for the Purpose of Promoting Tidal Observations 
in Canada, Prof. A. Johnson, 554; Report of the Committee 
on theTeaching of Science in Elementary Schools, Prof. H. E. 
Armstrong, F'.R.S., 554; Report of the Committee on Electri- 
cal Standards, R. T. Glazebrook, F. R..S., 555 ; Report on the 
Present State of our Knowledge in Electrolysis and Klectro- 
Che-mistry, W. N. Shaw, 555 ; Report of the Committee on 
the Observations on the Migration of Birds made at Light- 
houses and Light-vessels, John Cordeaux, 556 ; Report of 
the Committee on the Seasonal Variations of Temperature 
in Lakes, Rivers, and Estuaries, in the United Kingdom, 
Dr. H. R. Mills, 556 ; Report of the Committee on Solar 
Radiation, 556 ; Report of the Committee for the Investiga- 
tion of the Natural History of the Friendly Islands and 
other Islands in the Pacific, S. F. Harmer, 556 ; Physical 
Papers at the, 583 ; Section Work at the. Prof. Oliver J. 
Lodge, F.R.S., 593 
Section A (Afatheriiatics and Physics) — Opening Address by 
Captain W. de W. Abney, C.B., F.R.S., President of the 
Section, 469 ; Prof. Sir William Thomson, F. R.S., on 
Boscovich's Theory, 545 ; Prof. A. W. Riicker, F. R.S., on 
Cometic Nebula?, 583 ; Prof. C. Piazzi Smyth, on Re- 
examination of the Spectra of Twenty-three Gas- Vacuum 
End-on Tubes after Six to Ten Years of Existence and Use, 

584 ; Lord Rayleigh, SecT<.S., on the Ttne^ of Bells, 584 ; 
Captain Abney, F.R.S., on the Quantity of Deposit of 
Silver Produced by the Development on a Photographic 
Plate in Terms of the Intensity of Light Acting, 584 ; Lord 
Rayleigh, Sec. R.S., on Pin-hole Photography, 584; Prof. O. 
J. Lodge, F.R.S, and R. T. Glazebrook, F.RS., on the 
Determination of z^by Means of Electric O scillations, 584 ; 
Prof. A. W. Riicker, F.R.S., on the Inst uments Used in 
the Recent Magnetic Survey of France, 584 ; Prof. J. A. 
Ewing, F. K.S., on the Magnetic Viscosity of Iron, 584 ; 
Prof. Everett, F.R.S., on the Relation between Brachisto- 
chrones and Ray-paths, 584; Prof. J. A. Ewing, F.R.S., 
on Hysteresis in the Relation of Strain to Stress, 584 ; 
Prof. Henry Stroud, on the E.M.F. Produced by an Abrupt 
Variation of Temperature at the Point of Contact of Two 
Portions of the same Metal, 585; Prof. McLeod, F.R.S., 
on the Black-bulb Thermometer in vacuo, 585 ; Sir W. 
Thomson, F.R.S., on Electrification of Air by Combustion, 

585 ; Prof. C. Michie Smith, on Atmospheric Electricity 
and the Use of Sir W. Thomson's Portable Electrometer, 
585 ; A. W. Clayden, on Dark Flashes of Lightning, 585 ; 
Prof. Cleveland Abbe, on the Determination of the Amount 
of Rainfall, 585 ; Prof. C. Piazzi Smyth, on Hygrometry 
in the Meteorological Jonrnal, 585 ; F. T. Trouton, on 
some Experiments on Radiation with Prof. Hertz's 
Mirrors, 585; Profs. A. W. Riicker, F.R.S., and 
T. E. Ihorpe, F.R.S., on the Relation between the 
Geological Constitution and the Magnetic Slate of the 
United Kingdom, 5S5 ; Prof. Arthur Schuster, F.R.S., on 



INDEX 



[Nature, Nro. 28, 1885. 



"^[fife Passage of Electricity through Gases, 585 ; Prof. Oliver 
^-. Lodge, F.R.S., on the Failure of Metal Sheets to Screen 
'off the Electrostatic Effect of Moving or Varying Charges, 
5865 Prof. James Blyth, on a New Form of Current- Weigher, 
585 ; Prof. S. P. Thompson, on a Phenomenon in the 
Electro-Chemical Solution of Metals, 586 ; J. Wilson Swan, 
on Chromic Acid as a Depolarizer in Hansen's Battery, 586 ; 
Prof. Perry, F.R.S., on a Variable Standard of Self-induc- 
tion, 586; Prof. Perry, F.R.S., on a Hot Twisted Strip 
Voltmeter, 586 ; W. H. Preece, F. R. S , on the Relative 
Effects of Steady and Alternate Currents on Different 
Conductors, 586; Prof. G. Forbes, F.R.S., and W. H. 
Preece, F.R. S., on a New Thermometric Scale, 587 ; Prof. 
S. P. Thompson on Sparkless Electro- Magnets, 587 ; W. 
W. Haldane Gee and Dr. Ar'hur Harden on Stereometry, 

587 ; W. W. Haldane Gee and Hubert L. Terry, on the 
Specific Heat of Caoutchouc, 587 ; F. T. Trouton, on the 
Temporary Thermo-Currents in Iron, 587 

Sertion B {Chemistry) — Opening Address by Sir Lowthian 
Bell, Bart., F. R.S., President of the Section, 47? ; on the 
Influence of Silicon on the Properties of Steel, 587 ; J. W. 
Hogg, on the Volatilization of Lead Oxide and its Action 
upon Glass at Low Temperatures, 587 ; Prof. Liveing, on a 
New Developer, Eikonogen, 587 ; C. T. Heycock and F. 
H. Neville, on Raoult's Method Applied to Alloys, 587 ; 
Prof. Bedson, on Dr. Netto's Process for the Manufacture of 
Aluminium from Cryolite, 587 ; Dr. Richardson, on the 
Action of Light on the Hydracids, 587 ; Dr. Richardson, on 
a New Self- Registering Actinometer, 587 ; Prof. H. B. Dixon, 
F. R.S., on the Explosion of a Mixture of Hydrogen, Chlorine, 
and Oxygen, 587 ; Dr. Isaac Ashe, Dimidium, an Attempt 
to Represent the Chemical Elements by Physical Forms, 

588 ; Prof. P. F. Frankland, on a New Ferment, 588 
Se.tion C {Geology) — Opening Address by Prof. James 

Geikie, LL.D., F.R.S., President of the Section, 486; 
Prof. Milne's Ninth Report on the Earthquake and Volcanic 
Phenomena of Japan. 608 ; Dr. A. Geikie, F. R. S., on the 
Crystalline Schists of Norway, 608 ; Dr. Fridtjof Nansen, on 
the Geology of Greenland, 608 ; Prof. W. C. Williamson, 
F.R.S., on Coal and Mineral Charcoal, 608 ; Prof. E. Hull, 
F. R.S., on Coal-like Structures from the Limestone of Cul- 
daff, 608 ; Mr. Ussher on the Devonian R icks of Britain, 
608; Profs. Thorpe and Rucker, on the Relation between 
the Geological Constitution and Ma'ifnetic State of the 
British Isles, 609 ; Pleistocene Papers, 609; Mr. R. H. Tidde- 
man, on Concurrent Faulting and Deposit in Carboniferous 
Times, 609 
Section D {Biology)— O'^t'om^ Address by Prof. J. S. Burdon 
Sanderson, M.A., M.D., F.R.S., President of the Section, 
521; Prof. G. J. Romanes, F.R.S., on Specific Characters 
as Useful and Indifferent, 609 ; Alfred W. Bennett, on the 
Antherozoids of Cryptogams, 610 ; E. B. Ppulton, F.R.S., 
the Supposed Transmission of Acquired Characters, 610 ; 
Francis Gallon, F.R.S., on Feasible Experiments on the 
Possibility of Transmitting Acquired Habits by Means of 
Inheritance, 610; Prof. F. O. Bower, on the Meristems of 
Ferns as a Study in Phylogeny, 610 ; Prof. Hartog, on the 
Structure of Saprolegnia, 611 ; F. E. Beddard, on Fresh- 
water Oligochista, 6ri ; Messrs. Robert Iivine and Dr. G. 
Sims Woodhead, on the Secretion of Carbonate of Lime by 
Animals, 611 ; Sir John Lubbock, F.R.S., on the Shape 
of the Oak Leaf and the Leaves of the Guelder Ro'^e, 611 ; 
Sir W. Turner, F.R.S., on the Placentation of the Dugong, 

Section E (CcfT^-ra/Aj)— Opening Address by Colonel Sir 
Francis de Winton, President of the Section, 492 ; Dr. 
Hugh Robert Mill, on the Physical Basis of Commercial 
Geography, 629 ; Captain E. C. Hore, on Tanganyika, 629 ; 
W. M. Fhnders Petrie, on Wind Action in Egypt, 629 ; Dr. 
H. B. Guppy, on the South Coast of West Java, 630 ; H. 
Guillaume, on Peru and Bolivia, 630 

Section F {Economic Science and Statistics)— O^&mxvg Ad- 
dress by Prof. F. Y. Edgeworth, M.A., F.S.S., President 
of the Section, 496 

Section G {Mechanical .9t/V«r^)— Opening Address by William 
Anderson, M.Inst.C.E., 509; Alex. C.Humphreys, on 
Water-gas m the United States, 630; Killingworth Hedges, 
on Electric Lighting, 630; Prof. G. Forbes, F.R.S., on 
Electric Launches on the Thames, 630 ; Edward Manville, 
on Series Electric Traction (Northfleet Tramways), 630 ; 



W. H. Preece, F. R.S., on Telephonic Communication be- 
tween London and Paris, 631 ; W. Webster, on the Purifi- 
cation of Sewage by Electrolysis, 631 ; Prof. W. C. Unwin, 
F. R. S., on the Strength of All lys at Different Temperatures, 
631 ; W. W. Phipson, on Central Station Heating and Power 
Supply, 631 ; Alex. P. Trotter, on a Curve Ranger, 631 ; 
W. H. Wheeler, on the Transporting Power of Water in the 
Deepening of Rivers, 631 
Se.tion H {Anthropology) — Opening Address by Sir William 
Turner, M.B , F.K.S., President of the Section, 526; 
Francis Galton, F. R.S., on Assigning Marks for Bodily 
Efficiency in the Examination of Candidates for Public 
Service, 631, 649 ; VV, K. Sibley, on Left-leggedness, 632 ; 
Prof. D. J. Cunningham, on the Occasional Eighth True Rib 
in Man, 632 ; Paul B. du Chaillu, on the Vikings as the 
Direct Ancestors of the English-speaking Nations, 632 ; 
Canon Isaac Taylor, on the Origin of the Aryans, 632 ; 
Canon Isaac Taylor, on the Ethnological Significance of the 
Beech, 632 ; Hyde C'arke, on the Right of Property in Trees 
on Another's Land, 635 ; Dr. Garson, on an Anthropometric 
Instrument for Travellers, 633 ; Francis Galton, F. R.S., on 
an Instrument for measuring the Reaction Time to Sight and 
Sound Signals, 633 ; Dr. MacLaurin, on the British Race in 
Australia, 633 ; H. H. Risley, on the Study of Ethnology in 
India, 633 ; Prof. A. C. Haddon, on the Custom-; and Beliefs 
of the Torres Straits Islanders, 633 ; Dr. J. Beddoe, F. R.S., 
on the Natural Colour of Skin in certain Oriental Races, 
633 ; Dr. Fridtjof Nansen, on the Esquimaux, 633 ; Rev. G. 
Rome Hall, on Northumberland in Prehistoric Times, 633 ; 
Sir William Turner, F. R. S., on In:plements of Stags' Horns 
associated with Whales' Skeletons found in the Carse Lands 
of Stirling, 634 

British Medical Associfition, 350 

British Museum (Natural History), Catalogue of the Ch3- 
lonians, Rhynchocephalians, and Crocodiles in the, G. A. 
Boulenger, 5 

British Pharmaceutical Conference, 479 

British Plants, Names and Synonyms of, G. Egerton-Warburton, 
316 

British Race in Australia, Dr. MacLaurin on the, 633 

British Rainfall, 1888, G. J. Symons, F.R.S., 437 

Brittany, the Natural Oyster-banks of, Bouchon-Brandely, 481 

Bromide of Sulphur, Composiiion of, Dr. Buchka, 85 

Bromine, a New Test for, F. Swarts, 286 

Bronze, the Origin of, Marcellin Berihelot, F.R.S., 71 

Brooks, July 6, Comet 1889 d, 284, 656 ; Dr. H. Oppenheim, 
328 ; Herr Otto Knopf, 424 ; Dr. Otto Knopf, 550 ; Dr. K. 
Zelbr, 448 

Brown (Prof. A. Crum), our Sensations of Motion, 449 

Brown (A. E.), Iguanas in Philadelphia Zoological Garden, 
180 ; on some Effects of Lightning, 543 

Brown (H. T.) : Amylo dextrin, 214; Determination of 
Molecular Weights of Carbohydrates, 214 

Brown (Mary E.) and W. Adams Brown, Musical Instruments 
and their Homes, 436 

Brown (Mr., Registrar-General of New Zealand), the Maoris, 6^,% 

Bruce (E. S.), the Electro-Graphoscope, 67 

Brun (Et.), an Oxybromide of Copper analogous to Atacamite, 
287 

Briining (Dr. Gustav von). Isolation of Methyl Hydrazine, 628 

Brunton (Dr. Lauder, F. R.S. ), the Ferment Action of Bacteria, 
21 

Buchka (Dr.), Composition of Bromide of Sulphur, 85 

Biichner (E.), Absence of Squirrel in Caucasia, 286 

Buckley (T. E.), and J. Harvie-Brown, a Vertebrate Fauna of 
the Outer Hebrides, loi 

Bulgaria: Appearance of Pastor roseus in, 179; Pharmacy in, 
306 

Bulletin de 1' Academic Royale des Sciences de Belgique, 21, 
286,63s 

Bulletin de I'Academie des Sciences de St. Petersbourg, 286 

Bulletin de la Societe d' Anthropologic, 91 

Bunsen's Photometer, D. M. Lewis, 174 

Burgess (William), Death of, 653 

Burnham (S. W.), New Double Stars, 424 

Burrill (Prof.), Fermentation of Ensilage, 559 

Burton-on-Trent Natural History and Archaeological Society, 
Transactions of, 62 

Buser (R.), Supplement to Edmond Boissier's Flora Orientalis, 
W. B. Hemsley, 98 



Nature, Nov. 28, 1889] 



INDEX 



XI 



Butterflies : Note on Ragadia crisia, Sydney B. J. Skertchly, 

10 
Butterflies, Yellow Pigments in, F. G. Hopkins, 335 



Cacciatore (Prof. Signer G.), Death of, 208; Obituary Notice 

of, 255 
Cactus Culture for Amateurs, W. Watson, 123 
Cailletet (L.) and E. Colardeau, the Condition of Matter near 

the Critical Point, 239 
Calderon (M.), the Nomenclature of Unsaturated Hydrocarbons, 

369 

Californian Forestry, 176 

Callaway (Charles), the Production of Secondary Minerals at 
Shear-zones in Crystalline Rocks of Malvern Hills, 47 

Calhgomim folygonoides as Food in North-West India, Use 
of the Flowers of, Mr. Dulhie, 537 

Cambridge: Pi eliminary Report ol the Newall Telescope Syn- 
dicate, 114 ; Head-Growth in Students at the University of, 
Francis Gallon, F.R.S., 317 ; Head-Measurements of Stu- 
dents at the University of, 392, 642 ; Anihropometiic Mea- 
surements at, 593 ; a History of the Study of Cambridge 
Mathematics, W. W. Rouse I all, 458; the Sedgwick Prize 
Essay, 516 ; the State Medical Syndicate Examination, 516 

Camerano (Dr. L. ), the Private Laboratory of Marine Zoology 
at Rapallo, 302 

Can croons Interior, Lieutenant Kund on the, 353 

Campanology : Lord Rayleigh, Sec.R.S., on the Tones of 
Bells, 584 

Camphor, an Isomer of, Drs. Wallach and Otto, 655 

Canada : a Record of Agricultural Progress in, W. Fream, 52 ; 
the Indians of Canada, 231 ; Fourth Report to the British 
Association of the Committee appointed to promote Tidal 
Observations in, Piof A. Johnson in, 554 

Candolle (Alph. de), Presentation of Linnean Society's Gold 
Medal to, ri8 

Canoe, Ancient, Discovery of, in Jutland, 283 

Caoutchouc, on the Specific Heat of, W. W. Haldane Gee and 
Hubert I, . Terry, 587 

Cai^e of Good Hope : Meteorology of, for 1888, 401 ; Proposed 
Geol' gical Survey of, 547 

Cape de Verd Islands, Dust-Fogs of the, 327 

Caibohydrates, Determination of Molecular Weights of. Brown 
and Morris, 214 

Carbonate of Lime, the Stcretion of, by Animals, Robert Ir- 
vine and Dr. G. Sims Woodhead on, 611 

Carbonic Acid, Dilatation and Compression of, Ch. Antoine, 

48 . . 

Carboniferous Times, Concuirent Faulting and Deposit in, R. 

H. Tiddeman, 609 
Carbons, Heat of Combustion of, Berthtlot and Petit, 167 
Carhart (H. S.) : Magnetic Leakage in Dynamos, 559 ; Im- 
proved Clark Standard Cell with Low Temperature Coefficient, 

559 
Carpenter (Wm, Lant), Taming the Puma, 542 
Carr (Henry), Key to Lock's Elementary Trigonometry, 125 
Carruthers (Mr.), Portraits of Linnaeus, 106 
Cartailhac (M.), the Gold of Ancient Gaul, 285 
Cascade Mountains, Ascent of Mount Kigi in. Dr. Julius Roll, 

598 
Casey (Dr. J., F.R.S. ), a Treatise on Spherical Trigonometry, 

342 
Caslelfranco (P.) : Lake- Dwellings in Northern Italy, 562 ; the 

Stone Age in Italy, 659 
Cataloguing, Classified : W. M. Flinders Petrie, 392 ; Dr. Jas. 

Lewis Howe, 644 
Cats : Do they Count ?, J. T. Walker, 394 ; the Force of 

" Example " in Animals, 461 
Caucasia, Absence of Squirrels in, E. Biichner, 286 
CaveDwellers in Mexico, Discovery of, by Lieutenant Schwatka, 

2C8 
Cayman Islands, Botany of the, W. Fawcett, 15 
Celestial Motions: a Handy Book of Astronomy, William 

Thynne Lynn, 293 
Celestial 1 holograjihy, Congress on, 252, 597 
Celluloids, on the Explosiveness of the, Charles Munro, 558 
Celoria (Prof), the Binary 7 Coronae jBorealis, 307 
Census, the Swiss, 538 
Centtnarian Graduates of American Colleges, W. H. Tilling- 

hurst, 284 



Centrifugal Force and D'Alembert's Principle, Prof. F. Guthrie, 
320 

Ceylon, Entomological Tour in, by Herr Fiiihslorfer, 480 

Chaillu (Paul B. du), on the Vikings as the Direct Ancestors of 
tic Inglis-h- speaking Nations, 632 

ClialUngiT Expedition, Zoological Results of the, 171 

Chambers's Encycloj aedia, vol. iv., 619 

Champernowne (Arthur), the Ashj rington Volcanic Series of 
South Devon, 94 

Chandler (S. C), the General Relations of the Phenomena of 
Variable Stars, 181 

Changed Environment, Prof. W. Whitman Bailey, 297 

Channel Bridge, the Proposed, Schneider and Co., and Hersent, 
536, 560 

Chapman (Abel), Bird Life of the Borders, 147 

Characca?, Systematic Position of the, Alfred W. Bennett, 298 

Characters, Specific, as Useful and Indifferent, Prof. G. J. Ro- 
manes, F. R. S., on, 609 

Characters, on the Supposed Transmission of Acquired, E. B. 
Poulton, F.R.S., 610 

Charcoal, Mineral, Coal and, Prof. W. C. Williamson, F.R.S., 
on, 608 

Charleston, Earthquake at, 283 

Chartres (R.), Delambre's Analogies, 644 

Chatelier (II. Le), Expansion of Quartz, 118 

Chauveau (A.): Transformism in Micro-biology, 612 ; Trans- 
formism in Pathogenic Micro-biology, 636 

Chelonian Remains from Wcalden and Purbeck, R. Lydekker, 
238 

Chemistry : a New Amine, Drs. Skraup and Wiegmann, 14 ; 
the Rate of Dissolution of Metals in Acids, V. II. Veley, 22 ; 
the Chemical Society, 22, 94, 166, 214, 335 ; the Thionic 
Series, Researches on, Marcellin Berthelot, F.R.S., 23, 71, 
95 ; Combinations of Ruthenium with Nitric Oxide, A. Joly, 
23; a Treatise on Chemi-try (vol. iii. Part v.). Sir H. E. 
Roscoe, M.P., F.R.S., and C. Schorlemmer, F.R.S., 31 ; 
Experiments on Conibustions in Nitric Acid Vapour, Dr. 
P. T. Austen, 45; I ilaiation and Compression of Car- 
bonic Acid, Ch. Antoine, 48 ; the Formation of Nitrogenous 
Earths, Miintz and Marcano, 48 ; Chemical Analysis of Iron, 
Andrew Alexander Blair, 51 ; Synthetizafion of Uric Acid, 
Drs. Behrend and Roosen, 62 ; the New Element Gnomium, 
67 ; Chemical Action between Solids, William Hallock, 68 ; 
Application of Measurement of Rotatory Power to Study of 
Neutral Molybdate and Taitaric Acid Compounds, D. Gernez, 
71 ; the Accurate Determination of Carbonic Acid and 
Moisture in Air, J. S. Haldane and M. S. Pembrey, 70 ; 
Atomic Weight of Ruthenium, A. joly, 72 ; a-Oxycinchonine, 
Jungfleisch and Leger, 72 ; Chemistry of Ocean Currents, Dr. 
John Gibson, 84 ; Composition of Bromide of Sulphur, Dr. 
Buchka, 85 ; Heat-producing Powers of Different Coals com- 
pared with their Chemical Composition, W. Thompson, 86 ; 
Zirconium, G. H. Bailey, 92 ; Boiling-point of Sodium and 
Potassium, E. P. Perman, 94 ; Heat of Neutrali?ation of 
Sulphuric Acid, S. U. Pickering, 94 ; Thiophosphoryl 
Fluoride, Thorpe and Rodger, 94 ; Oxalomolyhdic Acid dis- 
covered by M. Cechard, 107 ; Proportion of Nitrates in Rains 
of Tropical Regions, Miintz and Marcano, 119; New Aro- 
matic Compounds of Bismuth, Michaelis and Marquardt, 134; 
Relation between Density and Refraction of Gaseous Ele- 
ments, Rev. T. P. Dale, 143 ; the Nature of Solutions, S. U. 
Pickering, 166 ; the Expansion of Liquids, S. U. Pickering, 
166 ; the Formation of Phenylindoles, Dr. W. H. Ince, 166; 
the Magnetic Rotation of Nitrogen Compounds, Dr. W. H. 
Perkin, F.R.S., 166 ; the Alleged New Element, Gnoraium, 
Dr. Fleitmann, 2c8 ; Amylo-dextrin, Brown and Morris, 
214; Experimental Researches on the Periodic Law, Dr. B. 
Brauner, 214 ; Deteimination of Molecular Weights of Carbo- 
hydrates, Brown and Morris, 214 ; Vapour Pressures, &c., of 
Similar Compounds of Elements in Relation to Periodic 
System, Prof S. Young, 215 ; Isomerism of Alkylderiva- 
tives and Mixed Diazoamido Compounds, Meldola and 
Streatfield, 215 ; the Atomic Weight of Zinc, Gladstone 
and Hibbert, 215 ; the Analysis of Kain Water, R. 
Warrington, 215 ; the Molecular Action of Dissolved 
Substances, Lorenz, 216; the Occlusion of Gases in 
Electrolysis of Sulphate of Copper, A. Soret, 239; 
Heat of Formation of Ilyponitrites, Berthelot, 239 ; the 
Condition of Matter near the Critical Point, Cailletet and 
Collardeau, 239 ; M. Leidie on a New Series of Double Oxa- 



Xll 



INDEX 



{Nature, Nov. 28, 1889 



lates of Rhodium, 254 ; Chemical Affinity, M. M. Pattison 
Muir, 273 ; Use or Abuse of Empirical Formulae, and of 
Differentiation, by Chemists, Prof. Oliver J. Lodge, F. R. S., 
273 ; Tellurium, Dr. Brauner, 284 ; a New Test for Bromine, 
F. Swarts, 286 ; the Solidification of Nitrous Acid, Fl. 
Birhans, 287 ; an Oxybromide of Copper analogous to Ata- 
camite, Et. Brun, 287 ; a New Reaction for Cholesterin, Dr. 
Obermiiller, 288 ; a New Dioxide of Cobalt, M. Rousseau, 
307 ; the Brounian Movement, M. Gouy, 311 ; an Extreme 
Case of "Mass" or "Catalytic" Action, Morse and White, 
328 ; Monobenzyl-derivatives of Phenylenediamines, Meldola 
and Coste, 335 ; Yellow Pigment in Butterflies, F. G. Hop- 
kins, 335 ; the Hydration of Cyanides, Prof. H. E. Arm- 
strong, 335 ; Quantitative Analysis of Bicarbonate of Soda in 
Milk, L. Pade, 336 ; Action of Propionyl and Butyryl Chlor- 
ide on Phenol, Dr. W. H. Perkin, F.R.S., 335; Melting- 
point of Salicylic and Anisic Compounds, Dr. W. H. 
Perkin, F. R.S., 335; Inorganic Chemistry, Ira Remsen, 
339 ; Use or Abuse of Empirical Formulae, and of Differ- 
entiation, by Chemists, Spencer Pickering, 343 ; an Attempt 
to apply to Chemistry one of the Principles of New- 
ton's Natural Philosophy, Prof. D. Mendeleeff, 354 ; the 
International Chemical Congress, 369, 394 ; the Use of 
the Prefixes bi- and di-, 370 ; the Use of the Suffix 
•ol, 370 ; Ketones and the Nomenclature of the Ace- 
tones, 370 ; the Nomenclature of Cyanogen, 370 ; M. 
Chabrie on Sulphur Compounds, 370 ; Ring- Formulae 
containing Nitrogen, 370 ; Nomenclature of Naphthalene, 
370 ; M. Combes on Benzene, 370 ; an Elementary Text- 
book of Chemistry, William G. Mixter, 389 ; Electrolysis of 
Potassium Iodide, E. F. Mondy, 417 ; Sir Lowthian Bell, 
F. R.S., on the Manufacture of Iron, 473 ; Agricultural 
Chemistry, Influence of Gypsum Soil on Fixation, &c., 
of Nitrogen, Pechard, 539 ; Agricultural Chemistry, Rela- 
tions between Physical Characters of Plants and Propor- 
tion of Elements of Fertility in Soil, G. Ville, 659 ; Agricul- 
tural Chemistry, the Fixation of Atmospheric Nitrogen, M. 
Berihelot, 539 ; Agricultural Chemistry, the Nitrification of 
Ammonia, Th. Schloesing, 539 ; Vice-Presidential Address 
of Prof. William L Dudley at the American Association, 558 ; 
the Life-work of a Chemist, Sir Henry E. Roscoe, F.R.S., 
578 ; Influence of Silicon on the Properties of Steel, 587 ; 
J, W. Hogg, on the Volatilization of Lead Oxide and its 
Action upon Glass at Lowr Temperatures, 587 ; Prof. Liveing, 
on a New Developer, Eikonogen, 587 ; C. T. Heycock and 
F. H. Neville, on Raoult's Method Applied to Alloys, 587 ; 
Prof. Bedson, on Dr. Netto's Process for the Manufacture 
of Aluminium from Cryolite, 587 ; Dr. Richardson, on the 
Action of Light on the Hydracids, 587 ; Dr. Richardson, on 
a New Self- Registering Actinometer, 587 ; Prof. H. B. Dixon, 
F.R.S., on the Explosion of a Mixture of Hydrogen, Chlorine, 
and Oxygen, 587 ; Dr. Isaac Ashe, Dimidium, an Attempt 
to Represent the Chemical Elements by Physical Forms, 
588 ; Prof. P. F. Frankland, on a New Ferment, 588 ; 
Combinations of Cupric Oxides into Amylaceous Matters, 
&c., C. E. Guignet, 588 ; Teaching of Chemistry in Public 
Schools, 589 ; the Vapour-density of Aluminium Chloride, 
Profs. Nilson and Pettersson, 596 ; Present Method of Teaching 
Chemistry, 599 ; Observations on Reciprocal Displacement 
between Oxygen and the Halogens, M. Berthelot, 612 ; Raffin- 
ose, M. Berthelot, 612; Air in the Soil, Th. Schloesing, Jils, 
626 ; Alloys, Heycock and Neville on, 628; Isolation of Methyl 
Hydrazine, Dr. Gustav von Briining, 628 ; Reciprocal Dis- 
placements between Halogen Elements and Oxygen, Berthelot, 
636 ; New Relations between Sugars and Furfuric Compounds, 
Maquenne, 636 ; Service Chemistry, Vivian B. Lewes, 639 ; 
Watts's Dictionary of Chemistry, Sir H. E. Roscoe, F. R.S., 
640 ; Pinol, an Isomer of Camphor, Drs. Wallach and Otto, 
65s ; on the Existence of Sulphate of Phosphonium, A. 
Besson, 659 ; Simultaneous Synthesis of Water and Hydro- 
chloric Acid, Hautefeuille and Margottet, 659 

Chervin, the Birth-rate in France, 92 

Chester Society of Natural Science and Literature, 421 

Chetham College, Technical Education at, 45 

Chevalier (Pere), Bulletin of the Sikawei Meteorological Ob- 
servatory, 253 

Chimpanzee's Humour, a, Harold Picton, 224 

Chicken Cholera, Experiments with Microbes of, Dr. O. Katz, 
401 



China: Inclement Weather in, 179; the Trade of, 493; 

Priority of Chinese Inventions, 165 
Chiriqui, Ancient Art of the Province of, W. H. Holmes, 437 
Cholesterin, a New Reaction for. Dr. Obermiiller, 288 
Christiania Museum, Plants from Yemen presented to, by Dr. 

Schweinfurth, 254 
Christie (Robert W. D.), Test of Divisibility by any Prime, 

247 
Chromic Acid as a Depolarizer in Bunsen's Battery, J. Wilson 

Swan, 586 
Chronograph for Measuring Velocity of Projectiles, &c., Captain 

H. C. L. Holden, R.A., 66 
Cidaris papillata. Dimorphism of Tentacles of, Prof. M. Duncan, 

237 
Circolo Matematico of Palermo, the, 316 
Circulation of the Atmosphere over the Equator, Hon. Ralph 

Abercromby, 297 
City of London College Science Society, 328 
Civilization, History of Ancient, Rev. J. Verschoyle, 7 
Clark (Richard), a Remarkable Meteor, 573 
Clarke (F. W.), a New Occurrence of Gyrolite, 404 
Clarke (Hyde), on the Right of Property in Trees on Another's 

Land, 633 
Classified Cataloguing, W. M. Flinders Petrie, 392 ; Dr. Jas. 

Lewis Howe, 644 
Claudel (Louis), the Colouring-Matter of the Spermoderm in 

Angiosperms, 384 
Clay, Boulder, Bored Stones in, G. W. Lamplugh, 297 
Clayden (A. W.) : the Formation of Ocean Currents, 66; on 

some Photographs of Lightning and " Black " Electric Sparks, 

262 ; on Dark Flashes of Lightning, 585 
Clayton (H. H.), Diurnal and Annual Oscillations of Barometer, 

445 
Gierke (A. M.) : Photographic Star-gauging, 344; GEuvres 

completes de Christiaan Huygens, 591 
Climate on Race, the Effect of, Dr. Alfredo da Luy, 423 
Climatological Table of British Empire, 654 
Clocks, Japanese, A. A. Rambaut, 86; V. Ball, F.R.S., 151 
Clouds, Luminous Night, D. J. Rowan, 151 
Clouds, Noctilucous, Prof. John Le Conte, 544 
Clouds, Rain, on Lake Titicaca, Hon. Ralph Abercromby, 12; 

Dr. Julius Hann, 78 
Clouds, Shining Night, an Appeal for Observations, T. W. 

Backhouse, 594 
Coa-l Districts in Victoria, Proposed Government Survey of, 

595 

Coal and Mineral Charcoal, Prof. W. C. Williamson, F.R.S., 
on, 608 

Coal and Tin Discoveries in Western Australia, H. P. Wood- 
ward, 304 

Coals compared with their Chemical Composition, Heat-produc- 
ing Powers of Different, W. Thompson, 86 

Cobalt, a New Dioxide of, M. Rousseau, 307 

Cobra in Indian and Chinese Folk- Lore, Alleged Avenging 
Habits of the. Dr. Macgowan, 423 

Cockshott (A.) and Rev. F. B. Walters, a Treatise on Geo- 
metrical Conies, 390 

Cod, Turtle-headed Rock, 77 

Cod-Fisheries on the Coast of Finland, 254 

Cod-Fishery, the Norwegian, 229 

Coffee-Rrot Disease, the Brazilian, Dr. Golde, 108 

Cogwood, Jamaica, 162 

Colardeau (E.) and L. Caillefet, the Condition of Matter near 
the Critical Point, 239 

Colenso (William), Maori Folk-Lore, 596 

College for Working Men and Women, Morley Memorial, 653 

Colombia, Agriculture in, 423, 596 

Colomes and Plumandon, Synoptic Table of Weather Predic- 
tion, 61 

Colour, C. T. Whitmell, 518 

Colour-Blindness and Defective Far- Sight among the Seamen 
of the Mercantile Marine, 438 

Colour-Blindness, Testing of. Rev. J. F. Heyes, 572 

Columbus, the Proposed Commemoration of the Work of, 548 

Columnar Structure in Ice, T. D. La Touche, 35 ; Prof. T. G. 
Bonney, F.R.S., 55 

Colymbosaurus, Structural Peculiarities of, Prof. H. G. Seeley, 

653 
Combustion of Carbons, Heat of, Berthelot and Petit, 167 



Nature, Nov. 28, i£i>9j 



INDEX 



XUl 



Comets : a New Comet, E. E. Barnard, 231 ; Comet, Discovery 
of a New, 1889 e, 329 ; Comet 1889 b (Barnard, March 31), 
64, 329, 448 ; Prof, Millosevich, 255 ; Comet 18894.- (Barnard, 
June 23), 307 ; Dr. H. Kreutz, 255 ; Comet 1888 e (Barnard, 
September 2), 109, 255, 329, 448 ; Comet 1889 d (Swift), 
Prof. Lewis Swift, 255 ; Comet 1S89 ^(Brooks, July 6), 284, 
656 ; Dr. H. Oppenheim, 328 ; Dr. K. Zelbr, 448 ; Dr. Otto 
Knopf, 424, 550 ; Comet 1889 e (Davidson), 384, 424, 538 ; 
Dr. Becker, 424 ; Cometic Nebulae, Prof. A. W. Riicker, 
F.R.S., on, 583 

Commercial Geography, Dr. Hugh Robert Mill on the Physical 
Basis of, 629 

Commercial Organic Analysis, Alfred H. Allen, Dr. C. R. 
Alder Wright, F.R.S., 289 

Commissioners for the Exhibition of 185 1, Proposals of the, 
265 ; the Estate at Kensington, 367 

Concurrent Faulting and Deposit in Carboniferous Times, 
R. H. Tiddeman, 609 

Conductors, on the Relative Effects of Steady and Alternate 
Currents on Different, W. H. Preece, F.R.S., 586 

Congo, Journeys of the Ngala and Aruwimi Tributaries of the, 
J. R. Werner, 65 

Congress on Education, the, 548 

Congress of Ethnographic Sciences, International, 547 

Congress on Hygiene, International, 326, 350, 372 

Congress, International, of Astronomy, 516 

Congress, the International Geodesic, 576 

Congress, the International Medical, 576 

Congress, the International Oriental, 556 

Congress of Physiological Psychology, the Paris, 304, 372 

Congress of Sanitary Institutes, 326 

Conies, Geometrical, a Treatise on, A. Cockshott and Rev. 

F. B. Walters, 390 
Conifer, a New, Dr. Marion, 61 

Coniferas, Comparative Morphology of the. Dr. Masters, 22 

Conjunctions, Two Remarkable, A. Marth, 180 

Connecticut Valley, Topographical Development of Triassic 

Formation of, W. M. Davis, 189 
Contejean (M.), Erosions due to Wind- Action, 192 
Cook (A. J.), Alimentary Apparatus of Bee, 559 
Cooke's (Dr. M. C.) Herbarium of Fungi, 207 
Cope (Prof. E. D.), Mr. Lydekker on Phenacodus and the 

Athecae, 298 
Copenhagen, Meteor at, 229 
Copper, Influence of, on the Tensile Strength of Steel, E. J. 

Ball and A. Wingham, 59 
Coral-like Structures from the Limestone of Culdaff, Prof. E. 

Hull, F.R.S., 608 
Coral-Reefs, Structure and Distribution of. Dr. H. B. Guppy, 53, 

102, 173, 222; Prof. T. G. Bonney, F.R.S., 77, 125, 222; 

W. Usborne Moore, 203, 271 ; Dr. John Murray, 222, 294; 

P. W. Bassett-Smith, 223 
Cordeaux (John), Report to the British Association on the 

Observations made at Lighthouses and Light-vessels on the 

Migration of Birds, 556 
Cornell University, Mr. H. W. Sage and, 179 
Cornu (A.), Elliptical Polarization by Reflection, 71 
Cornwall, Earthquake in, 576 
Coronse round a Light produced by a Peculiar Structure in the 

Eye, James C. McConnel, 342 
Correspondence of Christian Huygens, A. M. Gierke, 591 
Cossipore, Calcutta, on the Phenomena of the Lightning Dis- 
charge as illustrated by the Striking of a House in, Walter 

G. McMillan, 295 

Costa Rica, Earthquake in, 84 

Coste (J. H.), Monobenzyl-derivatives of Phenylenediamines, 

335 
Cotton-tree, the American, in Russian Turkestan, Culture of, 

A. Wilkins, 180 
Coudreau (H.), the Tumuc-Humac Mountains of Guiana, 353 
Couetoux, Intermittent Vision, 86 
Count, Do Animals, Dr. H. A. Hagen, 316 ; Do Cats, J, T. 

Walker, 394 
Courtenay(Dr. R.), Sailing Flight of Large Birds over Land, 573 
Courtney (W. L.), Kant's Critical Philosophy for English 

Readers, J. P. Mahaffy and J. H, Bernard, 362 
Cow-Disease, Scarlet Fever and, 55 
Cowl (Dr.), Experiments on Mechanical Latent Period of 

Muscle, 408 
Crab (Cocoa-nut), Lately Added to Zoological Gardens, 305 



Craniology : Cephalic Index of Proven9al Population, Fallot, 

285 ; Results of Observations on 5000 Baden Soldiers, P 

Ammon, 653 
" Crank," Prof, von, 244 
Creation, the Centre of, M. Lombard, 92 
Crew (Henry), Rotation Period of the Sun, 550 
Crimea, Winters of South Coast of, 286 
Criminals, the Senses of, 596 
Croajingolong, Trip through District of, Prof. Baldwin Spen 

and C. French, 421 
CroU (James, F.R.S.), Stellar Evolution and its Relation to 

Geological Time, A. Fowler, 199 
Cross (C. v.), a Text-book of Paper-making, 414 
Crouch (Arthur P.), Glimpses of Feverland, or a Cruise in West 

African Waters, 53 
Crova (M.), Analysis of the Light Diffused by the Sky, 563 
Crustacea;, the Phosphorescent Infection in, A. Giard, 563 
Cryolite, Dr. Netto's Process for the Manufacture of Aluminium 

from, Prof. Bedson, 587 
Cryptogamic Botany, a Hand-book of, Alfred W. Bennett and 

Geo. Murray, 217 
Cryptogams, on the Antherozoids of, Alfred W. Bennett, 610 
Crystalline Schists of Norway, on the. Dr. A. Geikie, F.R.S,, 

608 
Crystallography : Apparatus to Illustrate Crystal Forms, Prof, 

R. J. Anderson, 71 
Crystals, Iridescent, Lord Rayleigh, F.R.S., 227 
Cuckoo, the. Does it Ever Hatch its Own Eggs, 133 
Culdaff, Coral-like Structures from the Limestone of. Prof. E. 

Hull, F.R.S., 608 
Cumuli, the Formation of, Dr. M. A. Veeder, 203 
Cundill (Major J. P.), Dictionary of Explosives, 341 
Cunningham (Prof. D. J.), on the Occasional Eighth True Rib 

in Man, 632 
Cunningham (Howard), State of Stonehenge, 547 
Cunningham (J. T.), Lamarck versus Weismann, 297 
Current-weigher, New Form of. Prof. Jas. Blyth, 586 
Currents : Ocean, the Formation of, A. W. Clayden, 66 ; 

Chemistry of Ocean, Dr. John Gibson, 84 ; Surface Currents, 

of North Atlantic, Prince Albert of Monaco, 187 ; G. Pouchet, 

577 ; Upper Wind Currents over the Equator in the Atlantic 

Ocean, E. Foulger, 224 ; Measurement of the Baltic, Herr 

Dinklage, 351 
Curiosa Mathematica, Charles L, Dodgson, 148 
Curve Ranger, Alex. P. Trotter on a, 631 
Customs and Beliefs of the Torres Straits Islanders, Prof. A. C. 

Haddon, 633 
Cyanogen, the Nomenclature of, 370 
Cyclone of Jougne (July 13, 1889), C. Dufour, 540 
Cyclones and Anticyclones, Biological Considerations in. Dr. 

W. Koppen, 422 
Cyclones, Exceptional Deviations of some Tropical, H. Faye, 

191 . 
Cyclonic Storms in Various Regions, Movement of, H. Faye, 23 
Cygni, Variable X, Mr. Yendall, 15 
Cygni, Spectrum of X, I3S 
Cyslidea of Bohemia, 267 



Dale (Rev. T. P.), Relation between Density and Refraction of 
Gaseous Elements, 143 

Dalgleish (Mr. ), Erection of Monument to late, 595 

Damon (Robert), Obituary Notice of, 44 

Darbishire (Otto V.), Halo of the Moon and Formation of 
peculiarly-shaped Clouds at Oxford, 55 

Darby (J. H.), Basic Open-heanh Steel, 59 

Darwin (Prof Francis), Dinner to, 207 

Darwinism : Alfred Russel Wallace, Prof. E. Ray Lankestc, 
F.R.S., 566; Prof. Geo. J. Romanes, F.R.S., 645 

Das Wetter, 286, 334, 422 

Date-Palm, Egyptian, in India, Cultivation of, 595 

Davidson, Comet 1889 ^. 384, 538 ; Dr. Becker on, 424 

Davies (G,), Physiological Diagrams, 317 

Davis (W. M.), Topographical Development of Triassic Forma- 
tion of Connecticut Valley, 189 

Day (Dr. Francis), Death and Obituary Notice of, 282 

Deboutteville (M.), on Gas-Engines, 262 

Defective Far- Sight and Colour- Blindness among the Seamen of 
the Mercantile Marine, 438 

Deherain (P. P.), Loss and Gain of Nitrogen in Soils, 48 



XIV 



INDEX 



\Naturey Nov. 28, 1889 



De La Rue (Warren, F. R. S. ), Obituary Notice of, 26 

Delambre's Analogies, R. Chartres, 644 

Delcommune (A. ), Return of, 308 

Demography and Hygiene, Congress on, at Paris, 252 

Denmark, Earthquakes in, 229 

Denning (W. F.) : Remarkable Meteors, 150; the Fireball of 

May 29, 1889, 174: Fine Slow-moving Meteor, 594 
Denny (Prof. Alfred), Abnormality in Tropseolum, 125 
D'Entrecasteaux and Louisiade Islands, Basil H. Thomson on, 

256 
Denza (Prof P. F.), Sand Showers, 286 
Derwentwater, the Floating Island in, 290 
Deschamps (M.), Expedition to Laccadive Islands, 305 
Determination of Masses in Astronomy, on the, R. A. Gregory, 

80 
Detroit, the Latitude of. Dr. Ludovic Estes, 109 
Devonian Rocks of Britain, Mr. Ussher on the, 608 
Dewar (Prof., F.R. S.), the Absorption Spectra of Oxygen, 211, 

212 
Di- and Bi-, the Use of the Prefixes, 370 
Diagrams, Physiological, G. Davies, 317 
Dibdin (W. J.), Practical Photometry, a Guide to the Study 

of the Measurement of Light, 572 
Dickson (W. G. ), Gleanings from Japan, 76 
Dictionary of Chemistry, Watts's, Sir H. E. Roscoe, F.R.S., 

640 
Dictionary of Explosives, Major J. P. Cundill, 341 
Dieterici (Dr.), Determination of Specific Volume of Saturated 

Aqueous Vapour at o°C., 168 
Dimidium : an Attempt to Represent the Chemical Elements 

by Physical Forms, Dr. Isaac Ashe, 588 
Dines (W. H. ), Experiments on Connection between Pressure 

and Velocity of Wind, ('4 
Dinklage (Herr), ISIeasurement of Baltic Currents, 351 
Dinosaur, the Entire Skeleton of an English, 324 
Dinshaw (Framjee) Petit Laboratory, Laying the Foundation 

Stone, 133 
Diphtheria, the Virus of, C. H. II. Spronck, 407 
Disafforestation in Servia, 445 

Divisibility, Test of, by any Prime, Robert W^. D. Christie, 247 
Dixon (Prof. H. B. , F.R. S.), on the Explosion of a Mixture of 

Hydrogen, Chlorine, and Oxygen, 587 
Dogs and Fire, Prof. Marcus M. Hartog, 299 
Dolbear (Prof. A. E.), the Organization of Atoms and Molecules, 

419 
Double Stars, New, S. W. Burnham, 424 
Douglass (Sir James, F.R.S.), Beacon Lights and Fog Signals, 

87, no 
Douls (M. Camille), Death and Obituary Notice of, 353 
Draper (Henry) Memorial, 17 

Dried Plants, a Method of Mounting, Dr. John Wilson, 438 
Drummond (A. T.), Some Lake Ontario Temperatures, 416 
Dubois (Raphael), Mechanism of Photodermatc and Photogenic 

Functions in Siphon of Pholas dadylus, 384! 
Duckling, Inclusion of the Foot in the Abdominal Cavity of a, 

E. Waymouth Reid, 54 
Dudley (Prof. William J.), Vice- Presidential Address in the 

Sectionof Chemistry at the Meeting of the American Associa- 
tion, 558 
Dufour (C), Cyclone of Jougne (July 13, 1889), 540 
Dugong, the Placentation of the, SirW. Turner, F.R.S. on, 611 
Duhem (P.), Impossibility of Existence of Diamagnetic Bodies, 

118 
Duhousset (Colonel), Scientific Anthropometry and Artistic 

Proportions, 582 
Dumas (J. B.), Statue to, 627 

Dumont (M.), Sociology of Rural Communes in France, 402 
Duncan (Prof. M.), Dimorphism of Tentacles of Cidaris 

papillata, 237 
Dundee University College, proposed Chair of Physiology at, 

252 
Dunedin, Acclimatization of Salmon, 282 
Dunstable, Palaeolithic Implements from the Hills near, Worth- 

ington G. Smith, 151 
Dupuis (N. F.), Elementaiy and Synthetic Geometry of the 

Point, Line, and Circle in the Plane, ico 
Durham (E. Burton), a Brilliant Rainbow, 367 
Diising (Dr.), the Progress of Biology, 402 
Dust-f^ogs of the Cape de Verd Islands, 327 



Dusl-Particles in AtmoFphtre at Pen Nevis Cbtervatory, the, 

John Aitken, 350 
Dust- Whirl, Stationary, J. Lovel, 174 
Duthie (J. F. ): on Botany in India, 13; Use of Flowers of 

Calligonum polygonoides as Food in North West India, 537 
Duthiers (M. de Lacaze), State of Zoology a Hundred Years 

ago, 395 
Dyke (Sir W. H.), the Withdrawal of the New Education 

Code, 350 
Dynamics, an Elementary Treatise on, Benjamin Williamson, 

F.R.S., and Francis A. Tarleton, 437 



Earthquakes : at Agram, 45 ; at Accra, 61 ; in Turkestan, 61, 
327 ; at Costa Rica, 84 ; Plevlje (Bosnia), Schwyz, Schaff- 
hausen, and Wilchingen, 84; Earthquake in Norway, 133; 
over the English Channel, 140 ; the Recent Earthquakes in 
Japan, 162, 327, 461 ; Seismological Work in Japan, 656 ; 
J'rof. Milne's Ninth Report on the Earthquake and Volcanic 
Phenomena of Japan, 608 ; Earthquakes at Brest, in Massa- 
chusetts, 162; Remarkable Earthquake at Tokio, 162; Dr. 
E. von Rebeur-Paschwitz on, 294 ; Fifteen Years' Earthquakes 
in Tokio, 480 ; Earthquakes in Denmark, 229 ; in Guernsey, 
253 ; Earthquakes at Tashkend and Charleston, 283 ; Effect 
of the Tashkend Earthquake in Germany, 283 ; an Earth- 
quake at Lyme Regis, A. R. Sharpe, 294. ; Earthquakes at 
Memphis, U.S.A., 305 ; the Earlier Eruptions of Krakatab, 
Prof. John W. Judd, F.R. S., 365 ; Earthquake at Poitiers, 
373 ; the supposed Connection between Distant Earthquake- 
shocks, William White, 393 ; Earthquake in Bosnia, 401 ; in 
Greece, 421 ; in Cornwall, 576; at Mytilene, 653 

Eclectic Physical Geography, Kmsell Hinman, 149 

Eclipses : the Reports of the Eclipse Expedition of 1886, 626 ; 
Eclipses and Transits in Future Years, Rev. S. J. Johnson, 
307 ; the United States Expedition to Angola, 462 ; Obser- 
vations of Twilight and Zodiacal Light during the Total 
Eclipse of the Sun, December 21, 1889, Prof. Cleveland 
Abbe, 519 

Economic Science : Food Moulds the Race, N. S. Kedzie, 
558 ; Sociology of Protection and Free Trade, F. L. Ward, 
558 ; Forest Conservation, B. E. Fernow, 558 

Economic Science and Statistics, Prof. F. Y, Edgeworth's 
Opening Address in Section F at the British Association, 
496 

Edgevvorth (Prof. F. Y.) : Opening Address m Section F 
(Economic Science and Statistics) at the British Association, 
496 ; Report to the British Association on the Variations in 
the Value of Monetary Standards, 553 

Edinburgh : Reports from the Laboratory of the Royal College 
of Physicians, Edinburgh, 411 ; Physical Laboratory fitted 
up at Fettes College, 627 ; Proposed Inventions Exhibition 
in, 653 ; Royal Society of, 95, 143, 167, 335 ; Edinburgh 
University Extension Summer Vacation Course, 447 

Education : the Proposed Teaching University for London, 60; 
Intermediate Education in Wales, 97 ; the Vices of our 
Scientific Education, Pi of. Minchin, 126 ; Proposed National 
Home-reading Circle Union, 133 ; Industrial Education, Sir 
Philip Magnus, 245 ; the Industrial Agricultural Education 
];il], 254; the Welsh Intermediate Education Bill, 304 ; the 
Ntw Education Code, Sir W. Hart-DyKe on the Withdrawal 
of, 350 ; Education in Hong Kong, Dr. Eitei, 352 ; Indian 
Education Statistics, 402 ; an Italian's View of English Agri- 
cultural Education, Prof. John Wrightson, 428 ; the Technical 
Instruction Act, 457 ; the New Welsh Intermediate Education 
Act, 480; Guide to Technical and Commercial Education, 
538 ; the Congress on Education, 548 ; Report to the British 
Association of the Committee on the Teaching of Science in 
Elementary Schools, Prof. Armstrong, 554 ; Proposed Train- 
ing Schools for Surveyors in Straits Settlements, 595 ; a Bill 
to Provide Technical Education in England and V\ ales, 73, 
91 ; the Government and Technical Education, 304 ; School 
of Technical Education at Frankfort-on Maine, 350 ; Report 
of the National Association for the Promotion of Technical 
Education, 350 ; Technical Education in Japan, 479 ; Foreign 
Students at the Genran Technical Schools, 547 ; the Man- 
chester School of Technical Education, 445, 577 ; Technical 
Education in Central India, 595 ; Technical Education, Right 
Hon. Sir Lyon Playfair, F.R.S., on, 639 

Eel, the River, Emile Blanchard, 383 



Nature, Nov. 28, 1889] 



INDEX 



XV 



Effects of Lightning, on Some, Arthur E. Brown, 543 ; A. F. 

Griffith, 543 
Egerton-Warburton (G. ), Names and Synonyms of British 

Plants, 316 
Eggs: Spherical, Prof. A. G. Greenhill, F.R.S., 10; Prof. G. 

D. Liveing, F.R.S., 55 ; Prof. W. Steadman Aldis, 417 
Eginitis (D.), Stability of Solar System, 167 
Egypt in Prehistoric Times, Beauregard, 92 
Egypt, W. M. Flinders Petrie on Wind Action in, 629 
Egyptian Blue Artificially Prepared by Prof. Fouque, 67 
Egyptian Funeral Wreaths, Ancient, Discovered by W. M. 

Flinders Petrie, 2U 
Eider, the Preservation of the, in Sweden, 254 
Eiffel Tower, A. Ansaloni on the, 261 ; the Lifts in, 261 
Eikonogen, a New Developer, Prof. Liveing on, 587 
Eitel (Dr.), Education in Hong Kong, 352 

Electricity : the Electrical Organ of Torpedo, Prof Fritsch, 24 ; 
on an Electro-magnetic Interpretation of Turbulent Liquid 
Motion, Prof G. F. Fitzgerald, F.R.S., 32 ; Electro-magnets, 
Methods of Suppressing Sparking in, Prof. S. P. Thompson, 
190; Electro -magnets, Sparkless, Prof. S. P. Thompson on, 
587 ; Electro-magnetic Radiation, Experiments on, including 
some on the Phase of Secondary Waves, Fred. T. Trouton, 
398 ; the North fleet Series Electric Tramway, 39 ; Atmo- 
spheric Electricity, C. A. C. Bowlker, 55 ; Dan. Pidgeon, 
77 ; C. Tomlinson, 102 ; R. T. Omond, 102 ; Marshall Hall, 
125 ; Alexander McAdie, 223; Prof C. Michie Smith, 585 ; 
Electrical Resistance of Stressed Glass, Carl Barus, 67 ; the 
Electro-Graphoscope, E. S. Bruce, 67 ; Quartz as an Insulator, 
G. V. Boys, F.R.S., 71 ; Determination of Strength of 
Liquids by the Voltaic Balance, Dr. G. Gore, F.R.S., 93; 
the Electrostatic P'ield produced by Varying Magnetic 
Inductions, Dr. O. J. Lodge, F.R.S., 93; the Con- 
centration of Electric Radiation by Lenses, Prof O. J. 
Lodge, F.R.S., and Dr. J. L, Howard, 94; an Italian 
Precursor of Franklin on Electricity and Lightning, 108 ; 
the Eiffel Tower as a Lightning Conductor, 261 ; Note 
on Some Photographs of Lightning and "Black" Electric 
Sparks, A. W. Clayden, 262 ; Phenomena of the Lightning Dis- 
charge illustrated by the Striking of a House in Cossipore, Cal- 
cutta, Walter G. McMillan, 295 ;,^n Some Effects of Lightning, 
C. Tomlinson, F.R.S., 366; A. F. Griffith, 366; Captain 
J. P. Maclear, 437 ; Subdivision of the Electric Light, 152 ; 
Killingworth Hedges on Electric Lighting, 630 ; a Water- 
Spray Influence Machine, George Fuller, 143 ; a Shunt 
Transformer, E. W. Smith, 190 ; the Edison Effect, Prof. 
J. A. Fleming, 211 ; New Dry Gas Battery, Mond and 
Langer, 211 ; an Automatic Electric Railway Reading Lamp, 
373 ; Electrolytes, Conductibility of, 383 ; M. Leblanc on 
the Transmission of Power by Alternate Currents, 383 ; 
Electric Phenomena Produced by Solar Radiations, Albert 
Nodon, 384; Electrolysis of Potassium Iodide, E. F. 
Mondy, 417; Purification of Sewage by Electrolysis, W. 
AVebster, 631 ; Fifth Report to the British Association on the 
Best Means of Comparing and Reducing Magnetic Observa- 
tions, Prof. W. Grylls Adams, F. R.S., 554; Report to the 
British Association on the Present State of our Knowledge in 
Electrolysis and Electro-Chemistry, W. N. Shaw, 555 ; 
Report to the British Association of the Committee on 
Electrical Standards, R. T. Glazebrook, F.R.S., 555 ; 
Magnetic Leakage in Dynamos, H. S. Carhart, 559 ; Improved 
<31ark Standard Cell with Low Temperature Coefficient, 
H. S. Carhart, 559 ; the Thomson Electric Welding Process, 
W. C. Fish, 561 ; on the Determination of v by Means of 
Electric Oscillations, Prof. O. J. Lodge, F.R.S., and R. T. 
■Glazebrook, F.R.S., 584; on the Instruments used in the 
Recent Magnetic Sur.vey of France, Prof. A. W. RUcker, 
F. R. S., 584; on the Passage of Electricity through Gases, 
Prof. Arthur Schuster, F.R.S., 585 ; Electrification of Air by 
Combustion, 585 ; New Form of Current- Weigher, Prof. 
Jas. BIyth, 586 ; on the Failure of Metal Sheets to Screen off 
the Electrostatic Effect of Moving or Varying Charges, Prof 
Oliver J. Lodge, F. R. S., 586 ; a Phenomenon in the Electro- 
Chemical Solution of Metals, Prof S. P. Thompson, 586 ; 
Electricity and Magnetism, Error in Maxwell's, Herbert 
Tomlinson, F. R.S., 621 ; Edward Manvile on Series Elec- 
tric Traction (Northfleet Tramways), 630 ; Electric Launches 
on the Thames, Prof G. Forbes, "F.R.S., 630 
Elementary Schools, Report to the British Association of the 
Committee on Teaching of Science in, Prof Armstrong, 554 



Elements of Vital Statistics, A. Newsholme, 145 

Elephant, Death of a Remarkable, 549 

Elephant, Indian, Skeleton of the Largest known, 6i 

Elephants in Philadelphia Zoological Garden, 180 

Elephants, Wild, in Mysore, Capture by Superintendent Sander- 
son of Herd of 100, 282 

Eliot, Sun-spots and Weather in India, 230 

Eilery (R. L. J., F.R.S.), Spectroscopic Survey of Southern 
Stars, 597 

Embryology, Reflexes in the Embryo, Prof. Preyer, 24 

Empirical Formulae, Use or Abuse of, and of Differentiation by 
Chemists, Prof. Oliver J. Lodge, F. R.S., 273; Spencer 
Pickering, 343 

Empirical or Inductive Logic, the Principles of, John Venn, 
F.R.S., James Sully, 337 

Encyclopaedia, Chambers's, vol. iv., 619 

Engineering Laboratories, Walker, 653 

Engler's Jahrbiicher, 116 

English Agricultural Education, an Italian's View of, Prof. 
John Wrightson, 428 

English Dinosaur, the Entire Skeleton of an, 324 

English Railway, the Working and Management of an, Geo. 
Findlay, 219 

Ensilage, Fermentation of, Prof. Burrill, 559 

Entomology: Entomological Society, 71, 191, 286, 383, 562, 
635 ; the Leaf Insect at the Zoological Gardens, 105 ; the 
Zoological Society's Insect House, 105 ; Agriotypus armatus, 
Prof Franz Klapalek, 327 ; the Fruit Pest CurcuUo in 
America, Riley and Howard, 373 ; Catalogue of the Moths of 
India, 374 ; African Farm Pests, Eleanor A. Ormerod, 385 ; 
the Mango Weevil, Wray, 402 ; the Hessian Fly in England, 
Chas. Whitehead, 446 ; Herr Friihstorfer's Tour in Ceylon, 
480; Importation of Injurious Insects in Indian Wheat, Chas. 
Whitehead, 481 ; Metamorphosis and Migration of a Free 
Nematode, Moniez, 563 ; the Yellow Powder from Cocoon of 
Clisiocampa neustria under Microscope, E. B. Poulton, 
F.R. S., 635 ; Change of Colour in Living Larvae of Hemero- 
phila abrnptaria, E. B. Poulton, F. R. S. , 635 

Environment, Changed, Prof W. Whitman Bailey, 297 

Equations, Hertz's, Rev. H. W. Watson, F. R.S., il 

Equator, the Circulation of the Atmosphere over the, Hon. 
Ralph Abercromby, 297 

Equator, Upper Wind Currents over the, in the Atlantic Ocean, 
E. Foulger, 224 

Ericsson (Captain John) : the late, and his Funeral, 60 ; pro- 
posed Statue in Stockholm to, 133 

Erinus hispaniais (?) on the Roman Wall, Dr. Sydney IT. 
Vines, 544 

Erosions due to Wind Action, Contejean, 192 

Eruption of Vesuvius, the New, Dr. H. J. Johnston-Lavis, 34 

Eruptions of Krakatab, the Earlier, Prof John W. Judd, F. R. S., 

365 
Eruptions, Solar, in September 1888, Le Pere Jules Fenyi, 48, 64 
Erzeroum, Volcanic Eruption in, 479 
Eschenhagen (Dr.), Magnetic Survey of the Harz Mountains, 

182 
Espin (Rev. T. H. E. C), Spectrum of R Andromedae, 656 
Esquimaux, Dr. Fridtjof Nansen on the, 633 
Estate of Her Majesty's Commissioners of 1851, 25 
Esteban (M.), Difference of Longitude between Paris and 

Madrid, 612 
Estes (Dr. Ludovic), the Latitude of Detroit, 109 
Ethnographic Congress, the, 576 

Ethnographic Sciences, International Congress of, 547 
Ethnography of Venezuela, Prae-Columbian, Dr. Marcano, 142 
Ethnological Parallels, Richard Andree's, 229 
Ethnological Significance of the Beech, Canon Isaac Taylor on, 

632 
Ethnology : Chart of the Colour of Eyes and Hair in France, 

Topinard, 659 
Ethnology : the Effect of Climate on Race, Dr. Alfredo da 

Luy, 423 
Ethnology in India, on the Study of, H. H. Risley, 633 
Ethnology : the Maoris, Brown, 634 
Ethylene and Urea, Derivatives of, M. Graebe, 369 
Eton College, on Experiments made at, on the Principle and 

Methods of Assigning Marks for Bodily Efficiency, A. A. 

Somerville, 652 
Ettingshausen (C. Von), Contributions to the Tertiary Flora of 

Australia, J. Starkie Gardner, 517 



XVI 



INDEX 



\Nature, Nov. 28, l{ 



Eucalyptus Kinos, J. H. Maiden, 635 

Euclid, the Harpur, E. M. Langley and W. S. Phillips, 365 

Everett (Prof, J, D., F.R.S.) : on the Relation between Brachis- 

tochrones and Ray-paths, 584 ; Report to the British Associa- 
• tion on Underground Temperature, 551 
Evolution, Prof. Burdon Sanderson, F. R.S., on, 521 
Evolution Ethics, 1 69 
Ewart (Prof.), a Flat-fish Nursery, 13 
Ewing (Prof. J. A., F.R.S. ), on the Magnetic Viscosity of 

Iron, 584 ; on Hysteresis in the Relation of Strain to Stress, 

584 

Examination of Water for Sanitary and Technical Purposes, 
Henry Leffmann, 293 

Examinations for Woolwich arid Sandhurst, 43 

" Example," the Force of, in Animals, 461 

Excursion to the Volcanoes of Italy, the. Dr. H. J. Johnston- 
Lavis, 294 

Excursions et Reconnaissances, 628 

Exhibition in Edinburgh, proposed Inventions, 653 

Exhibition of 1851 : the Estate of, 25 ; Proposals of the Com- 
missioners for the, 265 

Exhibition, Paris, Opening of the, 44 

Exhibition, South London Entomological and Natural History 
Society, 653 

Experirriental Physics : Portable Cavendish Apparatus for de- 
monstrating the Attraction of Gravitation, C. V. Boys, 
F.R.S., 65; on making Flames non-luminous, Prof. Rosen- 
thal, 72 ; Experiment with Water-Hammer, Dr. Reichel, 
72 ; Determination of Specific Volume of Saturated Aqueous 
Vapour at 0° C, Dr. Dieterici, 168 

Explosives, Dictionary of, Major J. P, Cundill, 341 

Extinct Starling of Reunion {Fregihiptis varius), R. Boydler 

. Sharpe, 177 '.'':4 

Eye, Coronse round a Light produced by a Peculiar Structure in 
the, James C. McConnel, 342 



Fabre (Charles), Traite Encyclopedique de Photographic, 244 
Fabriano, School of Practical Agriculture at, 164 ^ 

Fallot (M.), Cephalic Index of Proven9al Population, 285 
Falsan (A.), La Periode Glaciare : 6tudiee principalement en 

France et en Suisse, 317 
Far-Sight, Defective, among the Seamen of the Mercantile 

Marine, Colour-Blindness and, 438 
Farm Crops, a New Pest of, Allen Harker, li 
Fauna, Vertebrate, of the Outer Hebrides, J. A. Harvie-Brown 

and T. E. Buckley, loi 
Favenc's (Ernest) West Australian Explorations, 353 
Fawcett (W.), Botany of the Cayman Islands, 15 
Faye (Dr.), Colour of Eyes and Hair in Norway, 285 
Faye (H.) : Cyclonic Storms in various Regions, 23; Excep- 
tional Development of some Tropical Cyclones, 191 ; the 
' Glacial Epoch, 432 
Fenyi (Le Pere Jules), Solar Eruptions in September 1888, 48, 

64 
Ferand (Dr. ), Pagan Practices among Modern Provencals, 562 
Ferment, a New, Bacillus ethaceticus, Prof. P. F. Frankland, 

588 
Fernow (B. E.), Foest Conservation, 558 
Ferns, the Meristems of, as a Study in Phylogeny, Pfdfi F. O. 

Bower, 610 
Ferns, the Probable Cause of Froridal Bifurcations of, Dom B. 

Rimelin, 563 
Ferrel (Prof. Wm.) : the Law of Thermal Relation, 310 ; De- 
■ crease of Temperature with Increase of Altitude, 446 
Fettes College, Edinburgh, Physical Laboratory fitted up at, 

627 
Feverland, Glimpses of, or a Cruise in West African Waters, 

Arthur P. Crouch, 53 
Fibres, Quartz, C. V. Boys, F.R.S., 247 
Fibrous Plant, /%<?;-;«?«;« /^wffx as a, 390 
Findlay (Geo.), the Working and Management of an English 

Railway, 219 
Fire, Dogs and. Prof. Marcus M. Hartog, 299 
Fireball of May 29, 1889, W. F. Denning, 174 
Firedamp Meter, Pitkin and Niblett's, 66 
Fish (W. C), the Thomson Electric Welding Process, 561 
Fish : a Flat-fish Nursery, Prof. Ewart, 13 ; Scotch Fisheries 

Board, 106 ; the Life-History of a Marine Food- Fish, Prof. 

W. C. Mcintosh, F.R.S., 130, 156 ; Pearl Fishery, Tuticorin, 



Edgar Thurston, 174 ; Poison in Cured Fish, Prize offered by 
Russian Academy of Sciences for Inquiry into, 178 ; Proposed 
Intelligence Department of Fisheries at Halifax, N.S., 179; 
the Hatchery of the Sun-fish, Prof. William L. Stone, 202 ; 
the Fertilization of the Ova of the Lemon Sole with the Milt 
of the Turbot, 253 ; Whales and the Cod Fisheries on the 
Coast of Finland, 254 ; the Natural History of the River-Eel, 
Emile Blanchard, 383 ; the Oceanic Sardine, 384 ; Habits of 
Sea-Trout, 384 ; Experiments in Storing Live Fish, Captain 
R, von Muhlenfels, 402 ; the Protection of Fishermen against 
Porpoises, Prof. E. Perrier, 402 ; the Destruction of Small 
Fish by Shrimp Trawls, 422 ; Sewage and Fish, Willis Bund, 
548 

Fitzgerald (Prof. Geo. Eras., F.R.S.), on an Electro-magnetic 
Interpretation of Turbulent Liquid Motion, 32 

Flame, the Radiating Power of. Dr. R. von Helmholtz, 240 

Flat-fish Nursery, Prof. Ewart, 13 

Fleitmann (Dr.), the Alleged New Element, Gnomium, 208 

Fleming (Prof. J. A.), the Edison Effect, 211 

Flight, Sailing, of Large Birds over Land, Dr. R. Courtenay, 

573 

Flint (Dr. Austin), a Text-book of Human Physiology, 74 

Floating Island in Derwentwater, the, 290 

Flora of Australia, Contributions to the Tertiary, C. Von 
Ettingshausen, J. Starkie Gardner, 517 

Flora, the Forest, of New Zealand, T. Kirk, W. Botting 
Hemsley, F.R.S., 388 

Flora Orientalis, by Edmond Boissier, Supplement by R. 
Buser, W. B. Hemsley, 98 

Flora of Sweden, on the Geological History of the Prehistoric, 
Dr. A. G. Nathorst, 453 

Flower (Prof. W. H., C.B., F.R.S.), Inaugural Address to 
the British Association at Newcastle-on-Tyne, 463 

Fly, the Hessian, in England, Chas. Whitehead, 446 

Fog-Signals, Beacon Lights and. Sir James Douglass, F.R.S., 
87, no 

Fog-Signals, Priestman's Oil-Engines for Blowing, 351 

Folk, Sylvan, John Watson, 221 

Folk-Lore, the Alleged Avenging Habits of the Cobra in Indian 
and Chinese, Dr. Macgowan, 423 

Folk-Lore Journal, 62 

Folk-Lore, Maori, William Colenso, 596 

Food Moulds the Race, Nellie S. Kedzie, 558 

Foot, Inclusion of the, in the Abdominal Cavity of a Duckling, 
E. Waymouth Reid, 54 

Forbes (Prof G., F.R.S.), on Electric Launches on the Thames, 
630 

Forbes (Prof. G. F.R.S.) and W. H. Preece, F.R.S., on a 
New Thermometric Scale, 587 

Forest Conservation, B. E. Fernow, 558 

Forest Flora of New Zealand, T. Kirk, W. Botting Hemsley, 
F.R.S., 388 

Forestry, Californian, 176 

Forests of North-East Italy, 537 

Form of Hailstones, on the Remarkable, J. Shearson Hyland, 544 

Formaldehyde, Synthesization of. Prof. Jahn, 85 

Formation of Marine Boiler Incrustations, on the, Prof. Vivian 
B. Lewes, 19 

Foster (M.), Influence of Common Salt on Bacteria, 216 

Fortuitous Variation, Lester F. Ward, 310 

Foster (Prof. G. Carey, F.R.S.), the Method of Quarter- 
Squares, 593 

Foulger (E.), Upper Wind Currents over the Equator in the 
Atlantic Ocean, 224 

Fouque (Prof.), Egyptian Blue Artificially Prepared by, 67 

Fowler (A.), Stellar Evolution and its Relation to Geological 
Time, James Croll, F.R.S., 199 

Fox (Dr. Webster), the Eyes of Young Children, 305 

Framjee Dinshaw Petii; Laboratory, Laying foundation Stone 
of, 133 

France : French Coast by Swallows, Desertion of, 85 ; the 
Birth-rate in, 92 ; French Accent, Researches with Phon- 
autographon. Dr. Pringsheim, 168 ; French Association for the 
Advancement of Science, 252, 394 ; Sociology of Rural Com- 
munes in France, M. Dumont, 402 ; Treatment of Vine 
Diseases in, G. W. Roosevelt, 446 ; French Government 
Scientific Missions, 479 ; on the Instruments used in the 
lecent Magnetic Survey of. Prof. A. W. Riicker, F.R.S., 
584 ; Chart of Colour of Eyes and Hair in, Topinard, 659 
{sec also Paris) 



Nature, Nov. 28, 1S89] 



INDEX 



xvu 



Francis (Prof. E. E. H.), Death of, 576 

Frankfort-on-Maine, Technical School at, 350 

Frankland (Prof, P. F.), on a New Ferment, Bacillus etha- 

cctictis, 588 
Franklin (W. S.), Spectro- Photometric Comparison of Sjurces 

of Artificial Illumination, 404 
Fream (W.), Agricultural Canada, a Record of Progress, 52 
Free Trade, Sociology of Protection and, F. L. Ward, 558 
Fregilupus varius, the Extinct Starling of Reunion, R. 

bowdler Sharpe, 177 
Freire (Dr.), Toxic Property of Meteoric Waters, 168 
French (C), Trip through District of Croajingolong, 421 
Friendly Islands and other Islands in the Pacific, Report to the 

British Association on the Natural History of, 556 
Fritsch (Prof.), the Electrical Organ of Torpedo, 24 
Frog, Penetration of Spermatozoids into Egg of, Mascart, 635 
Frohlich Charity, the, 305 
Frohlich's (Dr.) New Method of Objective Demonstration of 

Vibrations of Telephone Disk, 72 ; New Method of Recording 

Vibrations, 287 
Froude (R. E. ), Sailing Flight of the Albatross, 102 
Friihstorfer (Herr), Entomological Tour in Ceylon, 480 
Fruit-trees against Winter Moths, Protection of, Wilson, 85 
Fuel, Gaseous, B. H. Thwaite, 342 
Fuel, Gaseous, Sir Lowthian Bell, 560 
Fuller (Geo.), a Water-'^pray Influence Machine, 143 
Funeral Wreaths, Ancient Egyptian, discovered by W. M. F. 

Petrie, 21 1 
Fungi, Dr. M. C. Cooke's Herbarium of, 207 
Fungi, Microscopic, the Uredinese and Ustilaginese, R. Turner, 

653 
Furnace, a New Form of Siemens, Head and Pouff, 561 
Furnace-heating, the Application of Gas to, Fred. Siemens, 

576 
Future Years Eclipses and Transits in, Rev. S. J. Johnson, 307 



Gad (Prof.), Influence of Temperature upon Working Power ot 
Muscles, 288 

Galton (Francis, F.R. S.) : Head Growth in Students at the 
University of Cambridge, 317; Head Measures at Cambridge, 
642; Narrative of an Explorer in South Africa, 570; on 
Assigning Marks for Bodily Efficiency in the Examination of 
Candidates for Public Service, 631 ; on the Principle and 
Methods of Assigning Marks for Bodily Efficiency, 649 ; 
on Feasible Experiments on the Possibility of Transmitting 
Acquired Habits by Means of Inheritance, 610 ; on Natural 
Inheritance, Hiram M. Stanley, 642 ; on an Instrument for 
Measuring the Reaction Time to Sight and Sound Signals, 

633 
Galvanometer, New Pocket, 627 
Gardner (J. Starkie), Contributions to the Tertiary Flora of 

Australia, C. Von Ettingshausen, 517 
Garson (Dr.), on an Anthropometric Instrument for Travellers, 

633 
Gas-Engines, M. Deboutteville on, 262 
Gas to Furnace- Heating, the Application of, Fred. Siemens, 

576 
Gas- Lamp, a New Form of Regenerative, 82 
Gas- Vacuum End-on Tubes after .Six to Ten Years of Existence ; 

Prof C, Piazzi Smyth, on the Re-examination of the Spectra 

of Twenty-three, 584 
Gas, Water, in the United States, Alex. C. Humphreys, 630 
Gaseous Elements, Relation between Density and Refraction of. 

Rev. T. P. Dale, 143 
Gaseous Fuel, B. H. Thwaite, 342 
Gases, on the Passage of Electricity through, Prof. Arthur 

Schuster, F.R.S., 585 
Gaudry (A.), Mastodons found at Tournan, 239 
Gaul, the Gold of Ancient, Cartailhac, 285 
Gaupillat (G.), Avens, 636 
Gee ( W. W. Haldane) : and Dr. Arthur Harden, on Stereometry, 

587; and Hubert L. Terry, on the Specific Heat of Caout- 
chouc, 587 
Geikie (Dr. Archibald, F. R.S.): Recent Researches into the 

Origin and Age of the Highlands of Scotland and the West 

of Ireland, 299, 320 ; on the Crystalline Schists of Norway, 

608 
Geikie (Prof James, F. R. S.), Opening Address in Section C 

(Geology) at the British Association, 486 



Genevan Society of Physics and Natural History, 351 

Geodesic Congress, the International, 576 

Geography : Discovery of New Mouth of Zambesi, 16 ; Ma- 
shona Land, F. C. Selous, 16 ; Oklahoma, 16 ; Geographical 
Notes, 16, 46, 64, 165, 181, 210, 256, 308, 353, 449, 483. 539f 
55*. 598; Exploration of the Lower Laos Country, 17; 
Penetration of Kong Country by Captain Binger, 17 ; 
Northern Afghanistan, Major C. E. Yates, 31 : the Soil and 
Climate of German East Africa, Dr. K. W. Schmidt, 46 ; 
the Snowfall on the Summit of Kilimanjaro, Dr. H. Meyer, 

46 ; Recent Danish Researches in Greenland, Dr. Rink, 64 ; 
J. R. Werner's Journeys up the Ngala and Aruwimi Tribu- 
taries of the Congo, 65 ; Expeditions projected by the Rus- 
sian Geographical Society, 65 ; the Russian Expedition to 
Tibet, 65 ; Exploration of the Eastern Tian-Shan, Brothers 
Grum-Grzimailo, 65 ; Sir S. Baker and H. M. Stanley on the 
Albert Nyanza Lake, 65 ; Geography in Germany, H. J. 
Mackinder, 75 ; Beitrage zur Geophysik. Abhandlungen ans 
dem eeographischen Seminar der Universitat Strassburg, 
Prof Dr. Georg Gerland, 75 ; Bericht uber die Entwickelung 
der Methodik und des Studiums der Erdkunde, Prof. Dr. 
Hermann Wagner, H. J. Mackinder, 75; Dr. Nansen's 
Journey across Greenland, 103 ; the Royal Geographical 
Society, no; the Hesults of European Contact with other 
Parts of the World, General Strachey, no ; Eclectic Physical 
Geography, Russell Hinman, 149 ; the South Usuri Region, 
Colonel Nadarofl", 165 ; Outflow of the River Omo, Giulio 
Borelli, 165 ; Mr. Stanley's Movements in Africa, 181, 539 ; 
Dr. Schweinfurth's Journey to Hodeida, 182 ; the Vinland 
Voyages of Norse Colonists of Greenland, 182 ; Proposed 
Exploration of Interior of New South Wales, 182 ; Magnetic 
Survey of the Harz Mountains, Dr. Eschenhagen, 182 ; Dr. 
Nansen's Account of his Journey across Greenland, 210; 
Ascent of Summii of Owen Stanley Range, by Dr. Mac^regor, 
308 ; Sir William Macgregor's Ascent of Mount Owen 
Stanley, 449, 551 ; Dr. A. Hettner's Observations on Lake 
Titicaca, 308 ; Proposed Exploration of Northern Greenland, 
by Mr. A. Weston, 308 ; Proposed Exploration of Central 
Australia, 308 : Taupin's Exploration of the Laos States, 352 ; 
Ernest Favenc's West Australian Explorations, 353 ; Lieutenant 
Kund on the Cameroons Interior, 353 ; the Tumuc-Humac 
Mountains of Guiana, 353; the River Omo, Borelli, 353 ; 
Colonel Labre's Explorations of Regions between Beni and 
Madre de Diosand Purus Rivers, 353 ; Prof, Wichmann's Ex- 
plorations of Dutch East Indies, 353 ; Trip through District of 
Croajingolong, Baldwin and French, 421 ; Concession to British 
East Africa Company of Lamu and ;Ben Adir Coast, 449 ; 
Government Survey Map of India, 483 ; British Annexation of 
Humphrey and Rierson Islands, 483 ; Captain Grombchevsky's 
Expedition to Kafiristan, 483 ; M. Bonvalot's Tour in Central 
Asia, 483 ; Death of W, W, McNair, 483 ; Safety of Dr. 
Kukenthal, 483 ; Colonel Sir Francis de Winton's Opening 
Address in Section E at the British Association, 492 ; Return 
of Bremen Arctic Expedition, 539 ; New Map of Transvaal, 
Frederick Jeppe, 539 ; Tietken's Exploration ot the Inten >r of 
South Australia, 551 ; Return of Yadrintzefifs Central Asian 
Expedition, 551 ; Travels in South Africa. Francis Galton, 570; 
the Barents Sea, Dr. Mohn, 598 ; Ascent of Mount Rigi m 
Cascade Mountains, Dr, Julius Roll, 598 ; Influence of Wind 
and Rain in Valley Formation, Herr Rucktaschel, 599 ; 
Rosset's Exploration of Indo-China, 599 ; Dr. Hugh Robert 
Mill, on the Physical Basis of Commercial Geography, 629 ; 
Captain E. C, Hore. on Tanganyika, 629 ; W. M, Flinders 
Petrie, on Wind Action in Egypt, 629 ; Dr. H. B. Guppy, on 
the South Coast of West Java, 630 ; H. Guillaume, on Peru 
and Bolivia, 630 . 

Geology : London Geological Field Class, 13 ; Geological Photo- 
graphy, Osmund W. Jeffs, 34 ; Geological Society, 47. 94. 
167, 238 ; the Production of Secondary Minerals at Shear- 
zones in Crystalline Rocks of Malvern Hills, Charles Callaway, 

47 ; the Sigillaria, Grand Eury, 48 ; a Cause of Contortions 
of Strata, Dr, Charies Ricketts, 67 ; the Formation of Sili- 
ceous Sinter by Vegetation of ihermal Springs, W. H. 
Weed, 68 ; Marine Shells in the Till near Boston, Warren 
Upham, 68 ; Stratigraphic Position ofOlenellus Fauna, C. D. 
Walcott, 68 ; the Ashprington Volcanic Series of South Devon, 
Arthur Champemowne, 94 ; the Structure and Distribution of 
Coral Reefs, Dr. H, B. Gupr>y, 53, 102, 173. 222 ; Prof. T. G. 
Bonney, F.R.S., 77. 125, 222; W. Usborne Moore, 203, 
271 ; Dr. John Murray, 222, 294 ; P, W. Bassett-Smith, 223 ; 

«3 



XVIU 



INDEX 



[Nature, Nov. 28, 1889 



the Old-Slate Formation of Borneo, Martin, 120; Systematic 
Account of the Geology of Tasmania, Robert M. Johnston, 
Prof. John W. JudH, F. R.S., 122 ; the Occurrence of Spines 
within Spines on Shells of Carboniferous Productidse, John 
Young, 134; the Upper Jurassic Clays of Lincolnshire, Thos. 
Roberts, 167 ; Topographical Development of Triassic For- 
mation of Connecticut Valley, W. M. Davis, 189 ; Contact 
Metamorphi'sm in Silurian Rocks near New Galloway, S. 
Allport and Prof Bonney, F. K.S., 190; Stellar Evolution and 
its Relation to Geological Time, lames Croll, F. R. S., A. Fow- 
ler, 199 ; Zur Geologic der Schweizeralpen, Dr. Carl Schmidt, 
220 ; the Westleton Beds of the East Anglian Coast, Prof. 
Joseph Prestwich, F. R.S., 238; on Certain Chelonian Re- 
mains from the Wealden and Purbeck, R. Lydekker, 238 ; 
Saxicava Borings and Valves in a Boulder Clay Erratic, T. 
Mellard Reade, 246 ; Records of the Geological Survey of 
New South Wales, 254 ; Recent Researches into the Origin 
and Age of the Highlands of Scotland and the West of 
Ireland, Dr. Archibald Geikie, F. R.S., 299, 320: the Ole- 
nellus Fauna in North America and Europe, 310 : Geology in 
Systematic Notes and Tables for the Use of Teachers and of 
Taught, W. F. Gwinnell, 316 ; Geological and Natural 
History Survey of Minnesota, 373 ; Geology in Russia, 403 ; 
Mr. Griesbach appointed Government Geologist in Beloo- 
chistan, 444 ; on the Geological History of the Prehistoric 
Flora of Sweden, Dr. A. G. Nathorst, 453 : Prof. James 
Geikie'.s Opening Address in Section C at the British Associa- 
tion, 486 ; Geology in India, 536 ; Proposed Geological 
Survey of Cape of Good Hope, 547 ; the Mesozoic Division 
of the Geological Record as seen in America, Charles White, 
557 ; the Glacial Phenomena of North- East Illinois and North 
Indiana, Frank Leverett, 557 ; Cis- and Trans- Atlantic For- 
mations Compared, Prof. H. S. Williams, 557 ; on the Rela- 
tion between the Geological Constitution and the Magnetic 
State of the United Kingdom, Profs. A. W. Riicker, F.R.S., 
and T. E. Thorpe. F.R.S., 585, 609; Prof. Milne's Ninth 
Report on the Earthquake and Volcanic Phenomena of lapan, 
608; Dr. A. Geikie, F.R.S., on the Crystalline Schists of 
Norway, 608 ; Dr. Fridjtof Nansen, on the Geology of Green- 
land, 608; Prof. W. C. Williamson, F.R.S., on Coal and 
Mineral Charcoal, 608 ; Prof. E. Hull, F. K.S., on Coal-like 
Structures from the Limestone of Culdaff, 608 ; Mr. Ussher, 
on the Devonian Rocks of Britain, 608 ; Pleistocene Papers, 
609 ; Mr. R. H. Tiddeman, on Concurrent Faulting and 
Deposit in Carboniferous Times, 609 ; Polyzoa and Monticuli- 
grora Discovered at Kirktonhelm, John Young, 627 ; the 
Cowdenglen Valley, James Rennie, 627 ; the Formation of 
Avens, Martel and GaupiUat, 636 ; an Unusual Geological 
Sequence, the Duke of Argyll, F.R.S., 642 

Geometry : Elementary and Synthetic Geometry of the Point, 
Line, and Circle in the Plane, N. F. Dupuis, 100; a Manual 
of Practical Solid Geometry, W. Gordon Ross, 125 ; (ireek 
Geometry from Thales to Euclid, Dr. G. J. Allman, F.R.S., 
172 ; Association for the Improvement of Geometrical 
Teaching, 326 ; a Treatise on Geometrical Conies, A. 
Cockshott, Rev. F. B. Walters, 390 ; on the Use of the Word 
Antiparallel, E. M. Langley, 460; Solid Geometry, Prof. 
Kikuchi, 627 

Germany : Anthropological Congress, 479 ; German Meteoro- 
logical Society, 283 ; Meeting at Heidelberg of German 
Naturalists and Physicians, 252, 375 ; Foreign Students at 
the German Technical High Schools, 347 ; Geography in Ger- 
many, H. J. Mackinder, 75 ; Effect of the Tashkend Earth- 
quake in, 283 ; Velocity of Propagation of Thunderstorms 
in South Germany, Dr. Lang, 283 

Gernez (D.), Application of Measurement of Rotatory Power 
■ to the Study of Neutral Molybdate and Tartaric Acid Com- 
pounds, 71 

Giard (A.), Phosphorescent Infection in Crustacea, 563 

Gibier (Paul), the Vitality of Trichinae, 588 

Giglioli { Prof. ), and Ornithology in Italy, 549 

Gill (Thos.), the Hatchery of the Sun-fish, 319 

Giphantia, Sir J. D. Hooker, F.R.S., 34 

Glacial Action on Thomasberg, Traces of, 163 

Glacial Epoch, the, H. Faye, 432 

Glacial Geology, Prof. James Geikie, F.R.S., on, 486 

Glaciers : La Periode Glaciare : 6tudiee principalement en 
France et en Suisse, A. Falsan, 317 

Gladstone (Dr. J. H., F.R.S.) : the New Code and Science 
Teaching, i ; the Atomic Weight of Zinc, 215 



Glaisher(J. W. L., F.R.S.), the Method of Quarter- Squares, 

Joseph Blater, 573 
Glasgow : Geological Society of, 627 ; the Mitchell Library, 62 
Glass, Molten, and Volcanic Lavas, 263 
Glasses, Red, for Windows, Manufacture of Old, Guignet and 

Magne, 539 
Glazehrook (R. T., F.R.S.) : Report to the British Association 

on Electrical Standards, 555 ; and Prof O. J. Lodge, F.R.S., 

on the Determination of v by Means of Electric Oscillations, 

584 

Gleanings from Japan, W. G. Dickson, 76 

Globe, Terrestrial, at the Paris Exhibition, 278 

Globular Lightning, A. T. Hare, 415 

Globus, 374 

Glories, James C. McConnel, 594 

Glows, Sunset : Dr. M. A. Veeder, 645 ; at Honolulu, Sereno 
E. Bishop, 415 

Gnomium : the New Element, 67 ; Dr. Fleitmann, 208 

Goat, the Rocky Mountain, Dr. Grinnell, 62 

Gold of Ancient Gaul, the, Cartailhac, 285 

Gold Deposits of the Gold Coasts, the. Sir Brandford Griffith, 
627 

Golde (Dr. E. ), the Brazilian Coffee-Root Disease, 108 

Goldschneider (Dr. ), the Muscular Sense, 119 

Goniometer, a Refraction, A. P. Trotter, 71 

Gore (Dr. G., F.R.S.), Determination of Strength of Liquids 
by Voltaic Balance, 93 

Gothenburg, Legacy by Mr. Wilson to, 254 

Gothland, Antiquities Discovered in, 254 

Gould (Dr. B. A.), Reduction of Rutherfurd's Photographs of 
the Pleiades and Prsesepe, 448 

Gourdon, the Fossil Human Bones at, Dr. Hamy, 285 

Gouy (M.) : Enlargement of Spectral Rays of Metals, 216 ; the 
Brownian Movement, 311 

Government Technical Instruction Bill, 330 

Grablovitz (Prof Giulio), Seismology in Italy, 246 

Graebe (M.), Derivatives of Ethylene and Urea, 369 

Grand'Eury, the Sigillaria, 48 

Graphics, or the Art of Calculation by Drawing Lines Applied 
especially to Mechanical Engineering, Robert H. Smith, Prof. 
A. G. Greenhill. F.R.S., 50 

Graphophone, Tainter's, G. R. Ostheimer, 167 

Graves (R. P.), Life of Sir W. R. Hamilton (vol. iii.), 614 

Gravitation. Portable Cavendish Apparatus for Demonstrating 
the Attraction of, C. V. Boys, F.R.S., 65 

Gray (Prof. A.), the Telephone, William Henry Preece, F.R.S., 
and Dr. Julius Maier, 200 

Greaves (John), Statics for Beginners, 77 

Greek Geometry from Thales to Euclid, Dr. G. J. Allman, 
F.R.S., 172 

Green (Rev. W. S.\ and W. de Vismes Kane, Trawling Expe- 
dition off the Irish Coast, 253 

Greenhill (Prof. A. G., F.R.S.): Spherical Eggs, 10; 
Graphics, or the Art of Calculation by Drawing Lines, 
Applied especially to Mechanical Engineering, Robert H. 
Smith, 50 

Greenland : Recent Danish Researches in, Dr. Rink, 64 ; Dr. 
Nansen's Journey across, 84, 103, 210, 479; Meteorology in, 
578 ; Geology of. Dr. Nansen, 608 

Greenwich Observatory, the Annual Visitation of the, 139 

Gregory (James R.), Collection of Meteorites, 654 

Gregory (R. A.) : on the Determination of Masses in Astro- 
nomy, 80 ; the Planet Uranus, 235 ; Mr. Stranger's Sealed 
Packet, Hugh MacColl, 291 ; Prof Loomis on Rainfall, 330 

Grehant (M.), Quantity of Water in Blood, 144 

Griesbach (Mr.), appointed Government Geologist in Belooch 
istan, 444 

Griffin (Sir Lepel), on the Bhils and their Country, 116 

Griffith (A. F.), on some Effects of Lightning, 366, 543 

Griffith (Sir Brandford), the Gold Deposits of the Gold Coast, 
627 

Griffiths (Dr. A. B.), a Treatise on Manures, 99 

Grimaux (M.), Aldehydes, 369 

Grinnell (G. B.), the Rocky Mountain Goat, 62 

Grombchevsky (Captain), Expedition to Kafiristan, 483 

Grotto, the New Adelsberg Stalactite, 577 

Grubb (Sir Howard, F.R.S.), Telescopes for Stellar Photo- 
graphy, 441, 645 

Grum-Grzimailo (Brothers), Exploration of the Eastern Tian- 
Shan, 65 



Nature, Nov. 28, 1889] 



INDEX 



XIX 



Griinwald (Dr.), Mathematical Spectrum Analysis, Joseph S. 
Ames, 19 

Gubb (Alfred S.), Curious Effects of Lightning on a Tree, 203 

Guelder Rose, Leaves of the, the Shape of the Oak Leaf and 
the, Sir John Lubbock, F. R.S., 6n 

Guernsey, Earthquake in, 253 

Guiana, H. Coudreau's Expedition to Tumuc-Humac Moun- 
tains, 353 

Guignet (C. E.), Manufacture of Old Red Glasses for Windows, 
539 ; Combinations of Cupric Oxides with Amylaceous Matters, 
&c., 588 

Guillaume (H.), on Peru and Bolivia, 630 

Gulf Stream, the Course of the, 229 

Gulick (Mr.), Darwinism, Prof. George J. Romanes, F.R. S., 

645 
Giinther (Dr. Siegmund), Die Meteorologie ihrem Neuesten 

Standpunkte Gemiiss unci mit besonderer Berucksichtigung 

Geogtaphischer Fragen dargestellt, 173 
Guppy (Dr. H. B. ): the Structure and Distribution of Coral 

Reefs, 53, 102, 173, 222 ; on the South Coast of West Java, 

630 
Guthrie (Prof. F.), Centrifugal Force and D'Alembert's 

Principle, 320 
Gwinnell (W. F.), Geology in Systematic Notes and Tables for 

the Use of Teachers and of Taught, 316 
Gyrolite, a New Occurrence of, F. W. Clarke, 404 



Haddon (Prof. A. C), Return of, 178 ; Revision of the British 
Actiniae, 390 ; his Torres Straits Collection, 626 ; on the 
Customs and Beliefs of the Torres Straits Isiand<'rs, 633 

HaHfieid (Mr.), on the Influence of Silicon on the Properties of 
Steel, 587 

Hagen (Dr. H. A.), Do Animals Count? 319 

Hail: Unusually Large, Prof. W. A. Herdman, 126; on the 
Theory of, C. Tomlinson, F. R. S., 203 ; Unusually Large 
Hailstones at Rock Ferry, 133 ; Note on some Hailstones 
that Fell at Liverpo >1 on Sunday, June 2, 1889, Edward E, 
Robinson, 151 ; Miss C. D, Holt, 272; on the Remarkable 
Form of Hailstones, J. Shearson Hyland, 544 

Haldane (J. S.), the Accurate Determination of Carbonic Acid 
and Moisture in Air, 70 

Halifax, Proposed Fishery Intelligence Department at, 179 

Hall (Rev. G. Rome), Northumberland in Prehistoric Times, 

633 
Hall (H. S.), and S. R. Knight, Key to Higher Algebra, 460 
Hall (Marshall), Atmospheric Electricity, 125 
Hallick (William), Chemical Action between Solids, 68 
Hallstatt in Austria, its Burying-grounds and Civilization, Dr. 

Homes, 286 
Halo of the Moon and Formation of Peculiarly-shaped Clouds at 

Oxford, Otto V, Darbishire, 55 
Hamilton, Life of Sir W. R. (vol. iii.), R. P. Graves, 614 
Hamilton (Prof. D. J.), Text-book of Pathology, 270 
Hamy (Dr ), the Fos-il Human Bones at Gourdon, 285 
Hann (Dr. Julius), Rain-Clouds, 78 
Harden (Dr. Arthur) and W. W. Haldane Gee, on Stereometry, 

587 

Hare (A. T.), Globular Lightning, 415 

Harker (Allen), a New Pest of Farm Crops, II 

Harkness (Dr. William), the Progress of Science as Exemplified 
in the Art of Measuring and Weighing, 376 

Harmer (S. F.) : Report to the British Association on the Natural 
History of the Friendly Islands, -end other Islands in the 
Pacific, 556 ; Marine Biological Association, 593 

Harpur Euclid, E. M. Langley and W. S. Phillips, 365 

Hartog (Prof. Marcus M.) : Make-Believe, 299 ; Dogs and Fire, 
299 ; on the Structure of Saprolegnia, 61 1 

Hartog (M. P. J.), Researches on the Sulphites, 383, 384 

Harvard College Observatory, Proposed New Telescope ior, 252 

Harveian Oration for 1889, 547 

Harvie-Brown (J. A.), and T. E. Buckley, a Vertebrate Fauna 
of the Outer Hebrides, loi 

Harz Mountains, Magnetic Survey of the, Dr. Eschenhagen, 
182 

Hatchery of the Sun- fish, Prof. William L. Stone, 202 ; Theo. 
Gill, 319 

Haunts of Nature, H. W. S. Worsley-Benison, 173 

Hautefeuille (P.), Simultaneous Synthesis of Water and Hydro- 
chloric Acid. 6';q 



Hazen(Prof. H. A.), Anemometer Comparison, 117 ; Storms an'l 

a Central Ascending Current, 383 
Head (John), a New Form of Siemens Furnace, 561 
Head Growth in -Students at the University of Cambridge 

Francis Galton, F.R.S., 317, 392, 642 
Heat, H. G. Madan, 436 
Heat-regulaiion in Man, Prof. Zuntz, 408 
Heating, Central Station and Power Supply, W, W. Phipson, 

631 

Heavens, another Photographic Survey of the, 417 

Hebrides, the Outer, a Vertebrate Fauna of the, J. A. Harvie- 
Brown and T. E. Buckley, loi 

Hedges (Killingworth), on Electric Lighting, 630 

Helmholtz (Dr. R. von), the Radiating Power of Flame, 240 

Helmholtz's Theory of Timbre, 479 

Hemsley (W. Bolting, F. R.S.), the Forest Flora of New Zea- 
land, T. Kirk, 388 

Henslow (George), Yew-Trees in Berks, 621 

Herdman (Prof. W. A.). Liverpool Marine Biology Commit- 
tee's Easter Dredging Cruise, 47 

Herdman (Prof. W. A.). Unusually Large Hail, 126 

Heredity: Sir William Turner, F.R.S., on, 526 ; Alfred Rus- 
sel Wallace, 566 ; Weismann's Essays on, Poulton, Schcin- 
land, and Shipley, 618 ; Examination of Points in Prof. 
Weismann's Theory of. Dr. S. H. Vines, F.R..S., 621 

Her>chel. the late Sir John, Reminiscences of, Maria Mitchell, 

548 
Hersent (H.), the Proposed Channel Bridge, 536, 560 
Hertz's Equations, Rev. H. W. Watson, F.R.S., il 
Hertz's (Prof.) Mirrors, Experiments on Radiation with, F. 

T. Trouton, 585 
Hettner (Dr. A.), Observations on Lake Titicaca. 308 
Heycock (C. T.) and F. H. Neville, on Raoult's Method applied 

to Alloys, 587, 628 
Heyes (Rev. J. F.), Testing of Colour-Blindness, 572 
Hibbert (W.), the Atomic Weight of Zinc, 215 
Hibernation of Martins in the Argentine Republic, Tommaso 

Salvadori, 223 
Hillhouse (Prof.), Report of the British Association Committee 
on the Disappearance of Native Plants from their Local 
Habitats, 533 
Himmel una Erde, 62 

Hinman (Russell), Eclectic Physical Geography, 149 
Hirudinea, some New Facts about the, 419 
History of Ancient Civilization, Rev. J. Verschoyle, 7 
Hitchcock (R. ), Japanese Lacquer, 655 
Hoar-frost, the Structure of. Dr. R. Assmann, 286 
Hodeida, Dr. Schweinfurth's Journey to, 182 
Hogg (J. W. ), on the Volatilization of Lead Oxide and its 

Action upon Glass at Low Temperatures, 587 
Holden (Captain H. C. L., R.A.), Chronograph for Measuring 

Velocity of Projectiles, 66 
Holden (Prof.): White Spot on Saturn's Ring, 15 ; the Work' 

of an Astronomical Society, 231 
Holland, A. L. Rotch on the Meteorological Service in, 383 
Holland, Walks in, Percy Lindley, 254 

Holmes (W. H.), Ancient Art of the Province of Chiriqui, 436 
Holt (Miss C. D ), Hailstorm in Liverpool, 272 
Home-reading Circle Union, Proposed National, 133 
Homeyer (E. F. von). Death of, 162 

Hong Kong Observatory, 3SI ; Education in. Dr. Eitel, 351 
Hbnnethal, Discovery of Stalactite Cave at, 45 
Honolulu, Sunset Glows at, Sereno E. Bishop, 415 
Hooker (Sir J. D., F.R.S.), Giphantia, 34 
Hopkins (F. G. ), Yellow Pigment in Butterflies, 335 
Hore (Captain E. C), on Tanganyika, 629 
Homes (Dr.), the Burying- Grounds and Civilization of Hallstatt, 

286 
Hornsey, Discovery of Supposed Fossils at, 14 
Horse Power, a Proposed Standard, 515 

Horticulture at the Paris Exhibition, 60 ; Protection of Fruit- 
trees against Winter Moths, Wilson, 85 ; the Apple and Pear 
Conference, 577 ; Cultivation of Egyptian Date Palm in 
India, 595 
Hospital, Johns Hopkins, Opening of, 107 
Howard (Dr. J. L.), the Concentration of Electric Radiation Uy 

Lenses, 94 
Howard (L. O.), the Fruit Pest Curculio in America, 373 
Howe (Dr. Jas. Lewis), Classified Cataloguing, 644 
Huffert (Dr.), Photographs of Lightning, 190 



XX 



INDEX 



[Natun; Nov. 28, 18S9 



Huggins (Dr. W., F.R.S.) : the Wave-length of Principal Line 
in Spectrum of Aurora, 68 ; the Photographic Spectrum of 
Great Nebula of Orion, 95 ; Spectrum of the Great Nebula 
in Orion, 405, 429 

Hugo (W.), a Brilliant Meteor, 594 

Hull (Prof. E., F.R.S. ), on Coral like Structures from the 
Limestone of Culdaff, 608 

Human Physiology, a Text-book of, Dr. Austin Flint, 74 

Humour, a Chimpanzee's, Harold Picton, 224 

Humpback Whale, Anatomy of the Megaptera longimana, 
Tohn Struthers, 592 

Humphreys (Alex. C), on Water-gas in the United States, 630 

Hunter (H. St. J.), Key to Todhunter's Integral Calculus. 593 

Huron- Iroquois of Eastern Canada, the, Sir Daniel Wilson, 

557 
Hutchins (Prof. C. C), Recent Determinations of the Amount 

of Lunar Radiations, 209 
Huxley (Prof. T. H., F.K.S.), and M. Pasteur on Hydrophobia, 

224 
Huygens (Christiaan), Oiluvres Completes de, A. M. Clerke, 

591 
Hydracids, the Action of Light on the, Dr. Richardson, 587 
Hydrazine, Methyl, Isolation of, Dr. Gustav von Briining, 628 
Hydrocarbons, Nomenclature of Unsaturated, M. Calderon, 

369 
Hydrodynamics : on an Electro-magnetic Interpretation of 

Turbulent Liquid Motion, Prof. Geo. F. Fitzgerald, F.R.S., 

32 ; Treatise on, A. B. Basset, 412 
Hydrogen, Chlorine, and Oxygen, on the Explosion of a Mixture 

of, Prof. H. B. Dixon, 587 
Hydrophobia: the Prevention of, 197, 204; Prof. Huxlev and 

M. Pasteur on, 224 ; the Mansion House Fund tor the P.isieur 

Institute, 537 
Hygiene of Japanese Houses, the, Dr. Seymour, 15 
Hygiene and Demography, Congress on, at Paris, 252, 326, 350, 

372 
Hygrometry in the Meteorological Journal, Prof. C. Piazzi 

Smyth, 585 
Hyland (J. Shearson), on the Remarkable Form of Hailstones, 

544 
Hyponitrites, Heat of Formation of, Berthelot, 239 
Hysteresis in the Relation of Strain to Stress, Prof. J. A. 

Ewing, F.R.S., on, 584 



Jce Blocks on a Moraine, Prof. T. G. Bonney, F.R S., 391 
Ice, Columnar Structure in, T. D. La Touche, 35 ; Prof. T. G. 

Bonney, F.R.S., 55 
Ice Growth, Dr. Stelan, 400, 447 
Icebergs in North Atlantic, 133 
Icebergs, Sir Edwin Arnold upon, 536 
Icelandic Naturalist's Society, 516 

Iguanas in Philadelphia Zoological Garden, A. E. Brown, 180 
Ikosahedron, Lectures on the. Dr. Felix Klein, 35 
Imperial Institute, School of Oriental Studies, 251 
Implements, Palaeolithic, from the Hills near Dunstable, Worth- 

ington G. Smith, 151 
Implements of Stags' Horns Associated with Whales' Skeletons 

found in the Carse Lands of Stirling, Sir William Turner, 

F.R.S., on, 634 
Ince (Dr. W. H.), the Formation of Phenylindoles, 166 
Incrustations, on the Formation of Marine Boiler, Prof. Vivian 

B. Lewes, 19 
Index to Science, an, J. Taylor Kay, 226 ; James Blake Bailey, 

245 
Index of Spectra, W. Marshall Watts, 641 
Indexing : Classified Cataloguing, W. M. Flinders Petrie, 392 
India: Botany in, J. F. Duthie, 13; the Bhils and their 
Country, Sir Lepel Griffin, 1 16 ; a Practical Guide to the 
Climates and Weather of India, Ceylon, and Burmah, Henry 
F. Blanford, F.R.S., 221 ; Discovery of Old Mining Imple- 
ments in, Bosworth-Smith, 229 ; Neolithic Objects Discovered 
at Ranchi, 230; Sun-spots and Weather in India, 230 ; Deaths 
by Snake-bites in, 283 ; Statistics of Education Department 
in, 402 ; Technical Education in Central, 595 ; the Survey of 
India, Colonel Thuillier, 444 ; Atlas of Meteorological Obser- 
vations in the Indian Ocean, 447 ; the Early History of India, 
Mr. Kitts, 480 ; Importation of Injurious Insects in Indian 
Wheat, Charles Whitehead, 481 ; Government Survey Map 
of, 483 ; Use of Flowers of Calligomtm folygonoides as Food 



in North-West India, J. F. Duthie, 537 ; Proposed Meteoro- 
logical Observatory at Verawal, 547 ; Cultivation of Egyptian 
Date-Palm in, 595 ; Geology in, 536 ; on the Study of Ethno- 
logy in, H. H. Risley, 633 

Indians, the Canadian, 231 

Indies, Dutch East, Prof. Wichmann's Exploration of, 353 

Indo-China, Rosset's Exploration of, 599 

Industrial Education, Sir Philip Magnus, 245 

Industries, Curious, Dr. A. H. Japp's Days with Industrials, 619 

" Infernito," 429 

Inheritance, on Feasible Experiments on the Possibility of 
transm.itting Acquired Habits by Means of, Francis Gallon, 
F.R.S., 610 

Inheritance of Injuries, 327 ; Dr. August Weismann on, 303 ; 
C. Pitfield Mitchell, 391 

Inheritance, Natural, Francis Galton on, Hiram M. Stanley, 
642 

Inorganic Chemistry, Ira Remsen, 339 

Insanity. Annual Report of the Commissioners in Lunacy, 253 
' Insect House at the Zoological Gardens, 105 

Insects, Scarce, lately added to the Zoological Gardens, 305 

Insects of South Africa, Notes and Descriptions of a Few In- 
jurious Farm and Fruit, Eleanor A. Ormerod, 385 

Instinct, Bird-, a Cordial Recognition, W. J. Stillman, 245 

Institution of Civil Engineers, 166 

Institution of Mechanical Engineers, 207, 261, 595 

Instruments, Musical, and their Homes, Mary E. Brown and 
W. Adams Brown, 436 

Integral Calculus, Key to Todhunter's, H. St. J. Hunter, 593 

Intermittent Sensations, Thos. Reid, 318 

International Chemical Congress, a Correction, 394 

International Congress of Celestial Photography, 597 

International Medical Congress, the, 576 

Internationales Archiv fiir Ethnographic, 15, 254, 548 

Inventions, Chinese, Priority of, 165 

Inventions Exhibition in Edinburgh, Proposed, 653 

Ireland, Recent Researches into the Origin and Age of the 
Highlands of Scotland and the West of, Dr. Archibald Geikie, 
F.R.S., 299,320 

Iridescent Crystals, Lord Rayleigh, F.R.S., 227 

Iris, the Minor Planet, Meridian Observations of, 109 

Iron Age : Swedish Antiquities from, 163 ; Discovery in Norway 
of Objects belonging to, 283 

Iron, Chemical Analysis of, Andrew Alexander Blair, 51 

Iron Founding, Practical, 390 

Iron, the Magnetic Viscosity of. Prof. J. A. Ewing on, 584 

Iron, Sir Lowthian Bell, Bart., F.R.S., on the Manufacture of, 

473 

Iron and Steel Institute, 58, 421, 536, 560, 576 

Iron and Steel, International Standards for the Analysis of, John 
W. Langley, 558 

Iron, Temporary Thermo- currents in, F. T. Trouton, 587 

Irvine (Robert), and Dr. G. Sims Woodhead, on the Secretion 
of Carbonate of Lime by Animals, 611 

Island, the Floating, in Derwentwatcr, 290 

Italy : Italian Meteorological Society, 85 ; Seismology in. Prof. 
Giulio Grablovitz, 246 ; Dr. H. J. Johnston-Lavis, 294 ; the 
Excursion to the Volcanoes of, Dr. H. J. Johnston-Lavis, 
294 ; an Italian's View of English Agricultural Education, 
Prof. John Wrightson, 428 ; Forests of North- East Italy, 
537 ; Scientific Excursion to Volcanic Regions of, 537 ; 
Ornithology in. Prof, Giglioli, 549 ; Lake Dwellings in 
Northern, P. Castelfranco, 562 ; the Stone Age in, P. Castel- 
franco, 659 

tzvestia of Moscow Society of Friends of Natural Science, 352 



Jahn (Prof.), Synthesization of Formaldehyde, 85 

Jahrbuch der Naturwissenschaften, 163 

Jamaica, the Department of Public Gardens and Plantations in, 

352 

Jamaica, Handbook of, for 1889-90, A. C. Sinclair, 593 

Jamieson ( Prof. Andrew), a Text-book on Steam and Steam- 
Engines, 642 

Janssen (I.), on the Telluric Origin of the Oxygen Lines in the 
Solar S ectrum, 104 

Japan : the Hvgiene of Japanese Houses, Dr. Seymour, 15 ; 
Gleanings from Japan, "W. G. Dickson, 76 ; Japanese Clocks, 
A. A. R.mbaut, 86; V. Ball, F.K.S., 151 ; the Recent 
Great Kaithquakes iin Japan, 162,327,461; Prof. Milne's 



Nature, Nov. 28, 1S89] 



INDEX 



XXI 



Ninth Report on the Earthquake and Volcanic Phenomena 

of, 608 ; Seismological Work in, Prof. John Milne, 656 ; the 

Miharaizan \'olcano, 179 ; Japanese Vocabulary of Physical 

Terms, 306 ; Technical Education in, 479 ; Japanese Lacquer, 

R. Hitchcock, 655 
Japp (Dr. A. H.), Days with Industrials, 619 
Java, West, Dr. H. B. Guppy on the South Coast of, 630 
Jeffs (Osmund W.), Geological Photography, 34 
Jeppe (Fred.), New Map of Transvaal, 539 
Jessen (Dr. C.), Death of, 162 
Jodrell (T. J. P.), Death of, 538 
Johns Hopkins : Opening of the Hospital, 107 ; Account of 

the University, Baltimore, 347 ; Astronomy at, 351 ; Important 

Be juest to, 627 
Johnson (Prof. A.), Report to the British Association of the 

Committee appointed to promote Tidal Observations in 

Canada, 554 
Johnson (Rev. .S. J.), Eclipses and Transits in Future Years, 

307 
Johnson (W. E.), Treatise on Trigonometry, 542 
Johnston (Robert M.), Systematic Account of the Geology of 

Tasmania, Prof. John W. Judd, F. R. S., 122 
Johnston (W. and A. K.), the " Unrivalled Atlas," 221 
Johnston (W. P.), Death and Obituary Notice of, 84 
Johnston-Lavis (Dr. H. J.) : the New Eruption of Vesuvius, 34 ; 

the Excursion to the Volcanoes of Italy, 294 ; Seismology in 

Italy, 294 
Joly (A.), Combinations of Ruthenium with Nitric Oxide, 23 ; 

Atomic Weight of Ruthenium, 72 
Joule (James Prescott, F.R. S.): Death of, 594; Obituary Notice 

of, 613 ; Proposed Memorial to, 653 
Journal of Anthropologic 1 Institute, 134 
Journal of Bombay Nat...-1 History Society, 327 
Journal of Botany, 92, 262 
Journal of College of Science of the Imperial University of 

Japan, 351 
Journal of Morphology, a Reord of Progress, 419 
Journal of Russian Chemical and Physical Society, 117 
Judd (Prof John W., F. R. S.) : Systematic Account of the 

Geology of Tasmania, Robert M. Johnston, 122; Petro- 

graphical Tables, an Aid to the Microscopical Determination 

of Rock-forming Minerals, Prof H. Rosenbusch, 313 ; the 

Earlier Eruptions of Krakata~o, 365 
jungfleisch (E. ), o-oxycinchonine, 72 
Jutland Middens, the. Captain Madsen, 108 
Jutland, Discovery of an Ancient Canoe in, 283 



Kafiristan, Capt. Grombchevsky's Expedition to, 483 

Kane (W. de Vismes), and the Rev. W. S. Green, Trawling 

Expedition off the Irish Coast, 253 
Kangaroo in Danger of Extinction, 133 
Kant's Critical Philosophy for English Readers, J. P, Mahaffy 

and J. H. Bernard, W. L. Courtney, 362 
Katz (Dr. O.), Experiments with Microbes of Chicken Cholera, 

401 
Kay (J. Taylor) : an Index to Science, 226 ; two American 

Institutions, 346 
Kedzie (Nellie S.), Food Moulds the Race, 558 
Kennedy (Prof.), Tcbtimonial to, 304 
Kensington, the 185 1 Commissioners' Estate at, 367 
Ketones and the Nomenclature of the Acetones, 370 
Kew Bulletin, 61, 162, 253, 402, 537, 595 
Kew Gardens^ 207 

Kikuchi (Prof), Solid Geometry (iii.), 627 

Kilimanjaro, the Snowfall on the Summit of. Dr. H. Meyer, 46 
Kilogramme, the Alloy of the Standard International, J. Violle, 

48 
Kinos, Eucalyptus, J. H. Maiden, 635 
Kirk (T.), the Forest Flora of New Zealand, W. Botting 

Hemsley, F.R.S., 388 
Kirschmann, Indirect Vision, 373 
Kite Trapped in .Surrey, Fine, 45 
Kitts (Mr. ), the Early History of India, 480 
Klapdlek (Prof. Franz), Agriotypus armatus, 327 
Klaproth, on the Metal Uranium, 462 

Klein (Dr. Felix), Lectures on the Ikosahedron and the Solu- 
tion of Equations of the Fifth Degree, 35 
Knight (Francis A.), By Leafy Ways, 32 
Knight (S. R.) and H. S. Hall, Key to Higher Algebra, 460 



Knopf (Dr. Otto), Comet 1889 rt' (Brooks, July 6), 424, 550 
Kcenig (Dr. Rudolph), Important Discovery in the Theory of 

Music, 479 
Kong Country, Penetration by Captain Binger of, 1 7 
Koppen (Dr. W.), Biological Considerations on Cyclones and 

Anticyclones, 422 
Kossel (Prof.), Nuclein, 119 
Krakatrfb, the Earlier Eruptions of. Prof. John W. Judd, 

F.R.S.. 365 
Kreutz (Dr. H.), Comet 1889 c (Barnard, June 23 , 255 
Kukenthal (Dr.), Safety of, 483 
Kukenthal and Walter (Messrs.), Arrival of, 539 
Kund (Lieutenant), on the Cameroons Interior, 353 
Kundt (Prof), Recent Researches on Electro magnetic Rotatory 

Polarization, 96 
Kymoscope, Modification of, Prof. A. Stuart, 432 



La Nature, 42 1 

La Touche (T. D.), Columnar Structure in Ice, 35 

Laboratory, Physical, fitted up at Fettes College, Edinburgh, 

627 
Laboratory, Private, of Marine Zoology at Rapallo, Dr. L. 

Camerano, M. G. Peracca, and D. Rosa, 302 
Laboratory of the Royal College of Physicians, Edinburgh, 

Reports from the, 411 
Laboratories, Agricultural, in Belgium, 481 
Laboratories, Walker Engineering, 653 
Labour, Displacement of, by Modern Inventions, Right Hon. 

Sir Lyon Playfair, F. R.S. , 638 
Labre's (Colonel) Explorations of Region between Beni and 

Madre de Dios and Purus Rivers, 353 
Laccadive Islands, M. Deschamp's Expedition to, 305 
Lacquer, Japanese, R. Hitchcock, 655 
Ladies' Conversazione of the Royal Society, 210 
Lake Ontario Temperatures, some, A. T. Drummond, 416 
Lake Titicaca, Rain Clouds on, Hon. Ralph Abercromby, 12 
Lake-Dwelling, Ancient, discovered at Lochavullin, iSo 
Lake-Dwellings in North America, Remains of, iSo 
Lake-Dwellings in Northern Italy, P. Castelfranco, 562 
Lakes, Rivers, and Estuaries of the United Kingdom, ReiMrt to 

the British Association on the Seasonal Variations in the 

Temperature of. Dr. H. R. Mills, 556 
Lamarck -^'ersus Weismann, J. T. Cunningham, 297 ; Dr. A. 

R. W^illace, 619 
Lamp, an Automatic Electric Railway Reading, 373 
Lamp, a New Form of Regenerative Gas, 82 
I,amplugh (G. W. ), Bored Stones in Boulder Clay, 297 
Land of Manfred, Janet Ross, 413 
Land, Sailing Flight of Large Birds over, Dr. R. Courtenay, 

573 
Landerer (M,), the Closed Eye in Microscopic Vision, 282 
Lang (Dr. Arnold), Lehrbuch der vergleichenden anatomic zum 

Gebrauche bei vergleichend anatomischen und zoologischeh 

Vorlesungen, 124 
Lang (Dr.), Velocity of Propagation of Thunderstorms in South 

Germany, 283 
Langer (Dr. Carl), New Dry Gas Battery, 211 
Langiey (E. M.) : and W. S. Phillips, the liarpur Euclid, 365 ; 

on the Use of the Word Antiparallel, 460 
Langiey (John W.), on International Standards for the Analysis 

of Iron and Steel, 558 
Langiey (S. P.), the Observation of Sudden Phenomena, 404 
Lankester (Prof. E. Ray, F.R.S.): the Muy bridge Photographs, 

78, 126; Ampkioxus lanceolalus, 116; Mithradatism, 149; 

Darwinism, Alfred Russel Wallace, 566 
i.aos Country, M. Taupin's Exploration of the Lower, 17, 352 
Lapouge (De), the Aryans, 68 
Lapparent (A. de), Cours de Mineralogie, 460 
Laryngitis, Board School, Greville Macdonald, E. Clifford 

Beale, 8 
Launches, Electric, on the Thames, Prof. G. Forbes, F. R.S., 

630 
Le Bon (Dr. Gustave), Les Levers Photographiques et la Photo- 
graphic en Voyage, 245 
Le Conte (Prof. John) Noctilucous Clouds, 544 
Lea (M. C), Action of Light on Allotropic Silver, 404 
Lead Oxide, Volatilization of, and its Action upon Glass at 

Low Temperatures, J. W. Hogg, 587 
Leaf Insect of the Seychelles at the Zoological Gardens, 105 



XXll 



INDEX 



[raiure, Nov. ;8, i{ 



teafy Ways, by, Francis A, Knight, 32 

I^eblanc (M.), the Transmission of Power by Alternate Currents, 

383 
Leblanc (Nicolas), Statue of, 653 
JLectures and Addresses, Popular, Sir William Thomson, 

F.R.S., Prof. Oliver J. Lodge, F.R.S., 433 
Lectures, Victoria Hall Science, 653 
Lefevre, Colour of Eyes and Hair of Amos, 68 
Leffmann (Henry), Examination of Water for Sanitaiy and 

Technical Purposes, 293 
Eeft-leggednes, W. K. Sibley on, 632 
Leger (E.), o-oxycinchonine, 72 
Leidie (M.), on a New Series of Double Oxalates of Rhodium, 

254 
Leverett (Frank), the Glacial Phenomena of North East Illinois 

and North Indiana, 557 
Lewes (Prof. Vivian B. ):on the Formation of Marine Boiler 

Incrustations, 19 ; Service Chemistry, 639 
Lewis ([). M.), Bunsen's Photometer, 174 
Lias, Middle of Norihamptonshire, Beeby Thompson, 341 
Lieben (Richard), and Rudolf Auspilz, Untersuchungen iiber 

die Theorie des Preises, 242 
Life-history of a Marine Food Fish, Prof. W. C. Mcintosh, 

F.R.S., 156 
Light : in Doubly Refracting Bodies, the Magnetic Rotation of 
Plane of Polarization of, A. W. Ward, 117; Notes on 
Polarized Light, Prof. S. P. Thompson, 143 ; Patches of 
Prismatic Light, C. S. Scott, 224 ; Corona; round a Light, 
produced by a Peculiar Structure in the Eye, James Ci 
McConnel, 342 ; Action of Light on Allotropic Silver, M. C. 
Lea, 404 ; a Guide to the StuHy of the Measurement of Light, 
Practical Photometry, W. J. Dibdin, 572 ; the Action of 
Light on the Hydracids, Dr. Richardson, 587 
Lightning : and Electricity, an Italian Precursor of Franklin, 
108 ; Photographs of Lightning, Dr. Huffert, 190 ; Curious 
Effects of Lightning on a Tree, Alfred S. Gubb, 203 ; Photo- 
graphs of Lightning and " Black " Electric Sparks, A. W. 
Clayden, 262 ; the Eiffel Tower as a Lightning Conductor, 
261 ; the Duration of Lightning Flashes, 264 ; on the Pheno- 
mena of the Lightning Discharge as Illustrated by the Striking 
of a House in Cossipore, Calcutta, Walter G. McMillan, 295 ; 
on Some Effects of Lightning, C. Tomlinson, F. R.S., A. 
F. Griffith, 366, 543; Spencer Pickering, 415, 620 ; Captain 
J. P. Maclear, 437 ; Arthur E. Brown, 543 ; Globular 
Lightning, A. T. Hare, 415 ; Electric Figures Produced by I 
Lightning, Ch. V. Zenger, 432 ; on Dark Flashes of Light- 
ning, A. W. Clayden, 585 
Lights, Beacon, and Fog Signals, Sir James N. Douglass, F.R.S., 

87, no 
Limestone of Culdaff, Coral-like Structures from the, Prof. E. 

Hull, F.R.S., 608 
Linnieus, Portraits of, Carruthers, 106 

Lincolnshire, the Upper Jurassic Clays of, Thos. Roberts, 167 
Lindley (Percy), Walks in Holland, 254 
Linnenn Society, 22, 47, 118, 237, 263 
Linnean Society of New South Wales, 305, 401, 595, 635 
Lippmann ((J.), Chromatic Photography by Use of Coloured 

Glasses, 48 
Liquid Motion, on an Electro-magnetic Interpretation of Turbu- 
lent, Prof. Geo. Eras. Fitzgerald, F. R. S., 32 
Liquids, the Expansion of, S. U. Pickering, 166 
Lisbon Geographical Society, 182 

Liveing (Prof. G. D., F.R.S.,) Spherical Eggs, 55 ; the Ab- 
sorption Specira of Oxygen, 211, 212 ; on " Eikonogen," a 
New Developer, 587 
Liverpool Marine Biology Committee's Easter Dredging Cruise, 

Prof. W. A. Herdman, 47 
Liverpool, Note on some Hailstones that Fell at, on Sunday, 
June 2, 1889, Edward C. Robinson, 151 ; Miss C. D. Holt, 
272 
Liverpool Physical Society, Proposed, 627 
Lizard Swallowed by a Viper, Prof. T. G. Bonney, F.R.S., 

134, 150 
Lochavullin, Ancient Lake-Dwelling Discovered at, 180 
Lock's Elementary Trigonometry, Key to, Henry Carr, 125 
.Lockyer (J. Norman, F. k.S.), Notes on Meteorites, 136 
Lodge(Pror. Oliver J., F. R. S. ) : Name for Unit of Self-Induction, 
.11 ; an Electrostatic Field Produced by Varying Ma.jpetic 
Induction, 93 ; the Concentration of Electric Radiation by 
Lenses, 94 ; Use or Abuse of Empirical Formula, and of 



Differentiation by Chemists, 273 ; Popular Lectures and 
Addresses, Sir William Thomson, F.R.S., 433; on the 
Failure of Metal Sheets to Screen off the Electrostatic Effect 
of Moving or Varying Charges, 586 ; Section Work at the 
British Association, 593; and R. T. Glazebrook, F.R.S., on 
the Determination of v by Means of Electric Oscillations, 
584 . . 

Loewy (Benjamin), a Graduated Course of Natural Science, 271 
Lombard, the Centre of Creation, 92 
London Geological Field Class, 13 
London Mathematical Society, 626 
London and Paris, Telephonic Communication between, W. H. 

Preece, F. R.S., on, 631 
London, Proposed Teaching University for, 60 
London, Report of the Royal Commission on the University of, 

121, 149 
London Teacher, a. Report of the Royal Commission on the 

University of London, 149 
Longitude between Paris and Madrid, Difference of, Esteban 

and Bassot, 612 
Longmans' New Atlas, 148 
Longmans' School Arithmetic, F. E. Marshall and J. W. Wels- 

ford, 52 
Loomis (Prof. Elias) : Contributions to Meteorology, 21 ; on 
Rainfall, R. A. Gregory, 330 ; Death and Obituary Notice 
of, 401 
Lord Howe Island, its Zoology, Geology, and Physical Cha- 
racters, 414 
Lorenz (M.), the Molecular Action of Dissolved Substances, 

216 
Lorie (Signor), Investigations in New Guinea, 4^5 
Loubat (Count), Prize for Encourage ent of North American 

Studies, 372 
Louisiade Archipelago, the. Dr. Macgregor, 61 
Louisiade and D'Enirecasteaux Islands, Basil H. Thomson on, 

256 
Lovel (J.), Stationary Dust-Whirl, 174 
Low (D. A.), Applied Mechanics, 31 
Lubbock (Sir John, F. R.S.), on the Shape of the Oak Leaf and 

the Leaves of the Guelder Rose, 611 
Luminous Night Clouds, D. J. Rowan, 151 
Lunacy, Annual Report of the Commissioners in, 253 
Lunar Radiation, Recenc Determinations of the Amount of. 

Prof. C. C. Hutchins, 209 
Luy (Dr. Alfredo de), the Effect of Climate on Race. 423 
Lydekker (R.) : Chelonian Remains from Wealden and Purbeck, 
238 ; on Phenacodus and the Athecje, Prof. E. D. Cope, 298 
Lynn (William Thynne), Celestial Motions, a Handy Book of 
Astronomy, 293 



McAdie (Alexander), Atmospheric Electricity, 223 

MacColl (Hugh), Mr. Stranger's Sealed Packet, R. A. Gregory, 

291 
MacConnel (James C.) : Corona round a Light produced by a 

Peculiar Structure in the Eye, 342 ; Glories, 594 
Macdonald (Greville), Board School Laryngitis, E. Clifford 

Beale, 8 
Macfadyen (Dr. A.), the Ferment Action of Bacteria, 21 
McGee (W. ].), Palaeolithic Man in America, 163 
Macgowan (Dr.), Alleged Avenging Habits of the Cobra in 

Indian and Chinese Folk-Lore, 423 
Macgregor (Sir William): the Louisiade Archipelago, 61; 

Ascent of Summit of Owen Stanley Range by, 308 ; Ascent 

of Mount Owen Stanley, 449 ; Ascent of the Owen Stanley 

Range, 551 
Mcintosh (Prof. W. C, F.R.S.), the Life-history of a Marine 

Food Fish, 11, 130, 156 
Mackinder (H. J.) : Beitrage zur Geophysik, Abhandlungen aus 

dem geographischen Seminar der Universitat Strassburg, 75 ; 

Bericht iiber die Entwickelung der Methodik und des Studiums 

der Erdkulide, Dr. Hermann Wagner, 75 
MacLaurin (Dr.), on the British Race in Australia, 62,2 
Maclear (Capt. J. P.), on some Effects of Lightning, 437 
McLeod (Prof., F.R.S.), on the Black-bulb Thermometer /« 

vacuo, 585 
McMillan (Walter G.), on the Phenomena of the Lightning 

Dischargeas Illustrated by the Striking of a House inCossipore, 

Calcutta, 295 
McNair (W. W.), Death of, 483 



Nature, Nov. 2?-, i8 5] 



INDEX 



XXlll 



Madan (H. G.), "Heat," 436 

Madras Journal of Literature and Science, 374 

Madsen (Captain), the Jutland Midden>, 108 

Magne (L.), Manufacture of Old Red Glasses for Windows, 
539 

Magnetism : the Magnetic Disturbing Forces in British Isles, 
Riicker and Thorpe, 66 ; on the lustruments used in the 
Recent Magnetic Survey of France, Prof. A. W. Riicker, 
F. R.S. , 584; on the Relation between the Geological Con- 
stitution and the Magnetic State of the United Kingdom, 
Profs. A. W. Riicker, F.R.S., and T, E. Thorpe, F.R.S., 
585, 609 ; Effect of Heat on Magnetic Susceptibility of 
Nickel, Shelford Bidwell, F.R.S., 70; on the Magnetic 
Viscosity of Iron, Prof. J. A. Ewing, F.R.S., 584; Fifth 
Report to the British Association on the Best Means of Com- 
paring and Reducing Magnetic Observation?, Prof. W. Grylls 
Adams, F.R.S., 554 

Magnus (Sir Philip), Industrial Education, 245 

Mahaffy (J. P.) and J. H. Bernard, Kant's Critical Philosophy 
for English Readers, W. L. Courtney, 362 

Maiden (J. II.) : Spinifex Resin, 595 ; Eucalyptus Kinos, 635 

Maier (Julius) and William Henry Preece, the Telephone, Prof. 

A. Gray, 200 

Major's (Dr. C. Forsyth) Discoveries in the Isle of Samos, 400 

Make-believe, Prof. Marcus M. Hartog, 299 

Malarce (De), Extension of the Metric System of Weights and 
Mi-a-ures, 164 

Malltt (M.), Balls of almost Perfect Sphericity produced by 
Mechanical Movement, 351 

Mammoth Deposit in Moravia, the Great, Prof. Steenstrun, 229 

Man, on the Occasional Eighth True Rib in. Prof. D. J. 
Cunningham, 632 

Manchester : Owens College, 207 ; Local Lectures of the 
Victoria University, 253 ; Manchester Technical School, 445, 
577 

Manfred, the Land of, Janet Ross, 413 

Mango Bee, the, 654 

Mansion House Meeting in Aid of the Pasteur Institute, 177 

Manures, a Treatise on, by Dr. A. B. Griffiths, 99 

Manville (Edward) Series Electric Traction, Norlhfleet Tram- 
ways, 630 

Maori Folk-Lore, William Colenso, 596 

Maoris, the. Brown, 634 

Maquenne (M.), New Relations between Sugars and Furfuric 
Compounds, 636 

Marcano (Dr. V.) : the Formation of Nitrogenous Earths, 48 ; 
Proportion of Nitrates in Tropical Rains, 119; Pre- 
Columbian Ethnography of Venezuela, 142 

Marey (M.), Effects of an Intermittent Wind in Sor^ring, 612 

Marijottet (J.), Simultaneous Synthesis of Water and Hydro- 
chloric Acid, 659 

Marine Biological Association, i28 ; S. F. Harmer, 593 

Marine Biology, Liverpool, Committee's Easter Dredging Cruise, 
Prof. \V. A. Herdman, 47 

Marine Biology in the United States, 281 

Marine Boiler Incrustations, on the Formation of. Prof. Vivian 

B. Lewes, 19 

Marine Food Fish, the Life- History of a, Prof. W. C. Mcintosh, 

F.R.S., 130, 156 
Marine and Fresh-water Ostracoda of the North Atlantic and 

of North-Western Europe, Monograph of the, Dr. G. S. 

Brady and Rev. A. M. Norman, 364 
Marine Zoology, the Private Laboratory of, at Rapallo, Dr. L. 

Camerano, M. G. Peracca, and D. Rosa, 302 
Marion (Dr.), a New Conifer, 61 

Marquardt (Dr. ), New Aromatic Compounds of Bismuth, 134 
Marriott (W.), the Recent Thunderstorms; 238 
Mars, a Journey to the Planet, Hugh MacColl, R. A. Gregory, 

291 
Marshall (F. E.), and J. W. Welsford, Longmans' School 

Arithmetic, 52 
Mart el (E. A.), Avens, 636 

Marth (Albert), Two Remarkable Conjunctions, 180 
Martin (M.). the Old-Slate Formation of Borneo, 120 
Martin (Dr. Sidney), Toxic Action of Albumose from Seeds of 

Ahriis prccatorius, Wj 
Martiniere (H. M. P. de la), Morocco, 202 
Martin?, Hibernation of, in the Argentine Republic, Tommaso 

Salvador!, 223 



Marvin (Prof. C. F.) : Anemometry, 189 ; on Anemometer Ex- 
periments, 383 

Mashonaland, F. C. Selous, 16 

Mason Science College, Birmingham, 13 

Massachusetts, Earthquake in, 162 

Ma^sart (M.), Penetration of Sperm atozoids into Egg of Frog^ 
635 

Masses in Astronomy, on the Determination of, R, A. Gregory, 
80 

Masters (Dr.), Comparative Morphology of the Coniferse, 22 

Mastodons found at Tournan, A. Gaudry, 239 

Mathematics and Physics : Dr. Griin wald's Mathematical 3pectrun> 
Analysis, J seph S. Ames, 19 ; Solutions of the Examples in a 
Treatise on Algebra, by Chas. Smith, 31 ; Klein's Ikosahedron, 
35 ; Mathematical Society, 95, 191 ; Dupuis' Elementary and 
Synthetic Geometry, 100 ; the Va'ue of a Finite Continuous 
and Purely Periodical Fraction, Prof. Sylvester, 192 ; Mathe- 
matical Method in Political Economy, Rudolf Auspiiz and 
Richard Lieben, 242 ; Woolwich Mathematical Papers, 
J 880-88, 317 ; Mathematical Theory of Political Economy, 
Leon Walras, 434 ; on the Use of the Word Anliparallel, E. 
M. Langley, 4610; Key to Higher Algebra, H. S. Hall and 
S. R. Knight, 460 ; a History of the Study of Mathematics 
at Cambridge, W. W. Rouse Ball, 458 ; Opening Address 
by Captain W. de W. Abney, C.B., F. R. S., President of 
Section A at the British Association, 469 ; Prof. Sir 
William Thomson, F. R. S , on Boscovich's Theory, 545; 
Prof. A. W. Riicker, F.R.S., on Cometic Nebula, 583; 
Prof. C. Piazzi Smyth, on Re-examination of the Spectra 
of Twenty-three (ias-Vacuum End-on Tubes after Six 
to Ten Years of Existence and Use, 548 ; Lord Ray- 
leigh, Sec.R. S., on the Tones of Bells, 584; Captain 
Abney, F. K.S., on the Quantity of Deposit of Silver 
Produced by the Development on a Photographic Plate in 
Terms of the Intensity of Light Acting, 584 ; Lord Ray- 
Icigh, Sec. R.S. , on Pin-hole Photography, 584; Prof. O. 
J. Lodge, F.R.S., and R. T. Glazebrook, F.R.S., on the 
Determination of v by Means of Electric Oscillations, 584 ; 
Prof. A. W. Riicker, F. R. S., on the Instruments Used in 
the Recent Magnetic Survey of France, 584 ; Prof. J. A. 
Ewing, F.R.S., on the Magnetic Viscosity of Iron, 584; 
Prof. Everett, F. R.S., on the Relation between Brachisto- 
chrones and Ray-paths, 584; Prof. J. A. Ewing, F. R. S., 
on Hysteresis in the Relation of St ain to Stress, 584 ; 
Prof. Henry Stroud, on the E.M. P". Pioduced by an Abrupt 
Variation of Temperature at the Point of Contact of Two 
Portions of the same Metal, 585; Prof. McLeod, F. R. S., 
on the Black-bulb Thermometer in vacuo, 585 ; Sir \V. 
Thomson, F. R.S., on Electrification of Air by Combustion, 
585 ; Prof. C. Michie Smith, on Atmospheric Electricity, 
and the Use of Sir W. Thomson's Portable Electrometer, 
585 ; A. W. Clayden, on Dark Flashes of Lightning, 585 ;. 
Pruf. Cleveland Abbe, on the Determination of the Amount 
of Rainfall, 585 ; Prof. C. Piazzi Smyth, on Hygrometry 
in the Meteorological Journal, 585 ; F. T. Trouton, on 
some Experiments on Radiation with Prof. Hertz's- 
Mirrors, 585; Profs. A. W. Riicker, F.R.S., and 
T. E. Thorpe, F. R.S., on the Relation between the 
Geological Constitution and the Magnetic State of the United' 
Kingdom, 585 ; Prof. Arthur Schuster, F. R. S., on the 
Passage of Electricity through Gases, 585 ; Prof. Oliver J. 
Lodge, F.R.S., on the Failure of Metal Sheets to Screen off 
the Electrostatic Effect of Moving or Varying Charges, 586 ; 
Prof. James Blyih, on a New Form of Current- Weigher, 586; 
Prof. S. P. 'I hompson, on a Phenomenon in the Electro- 
Chemical Solution of Metals, 586 ; J. Wilson Swan, on 
Chromic Acid as a Depolarizer in Bunsen's Battery, 586 ; 
Prof. Perry, F. R.S., on a Variable Standard of Self-induc- 
tion, 586; Prof. Perry, F.R.S., on a Hot Twisted Strip- 
Voltmeter, 586; W. H. Preece, F.R.S., on the Relative 
Effects of Steady and Alternate Currents on Different Con- 
ductors, 586; Prof. G. Forbes, F.R.S., and W. H. Preece, 
F.R.S. on a New Thermometric Scale, 587; Prof. S. P. 
Thomjison on Sparkless Electro-Magnets, 587 ; W. W. Hal- 
dane Gee and Dr. Arthur Harden on Stereometry, 587 ; W. 
W. Haldane Gee and Hubert L. Terry, on the Specific Heat 
of Caoutchouc, 587 ; Y. T. Trouton, on the Temporary 
1 hermo-Currents in Iron, 587 ; the Peruvian Arc, 558 ; 
the Method of C^uarter Squares, Joseph Blater, J. W. L. 



XXIV 



INDEX 



[Nature, Nov. 28, 1889 



Glaisher, F.R.S., 573 ; First Mathematical Course, 592 ; the 
Method of Quarter Squares, Prof. G, Carey Foster, F.R.S., 
593 ; Key to Todhunter's Integral Calculus, by H. St. J. 
Hunter, 593 ; Delambre's Analogies, R. Chartres, 644 (see 
also Physics) 

Matter, Constitution of, Sir William Thomson, F.R. S., 433 

Mauritius Observatory, 230 

Maxwell's Electricity and Magnetism, Error in, Herbert Tomlin- 
son, F.R.S., 621 

Measuring and Weighing, the Progress of Science as Exempli- 
fied in the Art of, Dr. William Harkness, 376 

Mechanical Engineers, the Institution of, 261 

Mechanical Science, William Anderson's Opening Address in 
Section G at the British Association, 509 ; Alex. C. Hum- 
phreys, on Water-gas in the United States, 630 ; Killingworth 
Hedges, on Electric Lighting, 630 ; Prof. G. Forbes, F.R. S. , 
on Electric Launches on the Thames, 630 ; Edward Manville, 
on Series Electric Traction (Northfleet Tramways), 630 ; W. 
H. Preece, F. R. S., on Telegraphic Communication between 
London and Paris, 631 ; W. Webster, on the Purification of 
Sewage by Electrolysis, 631 ; Prof. W. C. Unwin, F.R.S., 
on the Strength of Alloys at Different Temperatures, 631 ; 
W. W. Phipson, on Central Station Heating and Power 
Supply, 631 ; Alex. P. Trotter, on a Curve Ranger, 631 ; W. 
H. Wheeler, on the Transporting Power of Water in the 
Deepening of Rivers, 631 

Mechanics, Applied, Dr. A. Low, 31 

Mechanics, an Elementary Treatise on, Rev. J. Warren, 365 

Medical Congress, the International, 576 

Medicine, the Advancement of, 411 

Mcgaptera longimana, the Anatomy of the Humpback Whale, 
John Struthers, 592 

Meldola (Prof. R., F.R.S.) : Isomerism of Alkyl-derivatives of 
Mixed Diazoamido-compounds, 215 ; Monobenzyl-derivatives 
of Phenylenediamines, 335 

Memoires de la Societe d' Anthropologic de Paris, 142 

Memorial, the Henry Draper, 17 

Memphis, U.S.A., Earthquakes at, 305 

Mendeleeff (Dmitri Ivanovitch) : Scientific Worthies, Prof. T. 
E. Thorpe, F.R.S., 193 ; an Attempt to Apply to Chemistry 
one of the Principles of Newton's Natural Philosophy, 354 

Mental Faculties of Anthropopithecus calvtis, Prof. Geo. J. 
Romanes, F.R.S., 160 

Mercantile Marine, Colour-Blindness and Defective Far-Sight 
among the Seamen of the, 438 

Mercury, Residuals of, O. T. Sherman, 6t, 

Meridian Observations of the Minor Planet Iris, 109 

Meristems of Ferns as a Study in Phylogeny, Prof. F. O. Bower, 
610 

Metallurgy : Uranium, 462 ; Sir Lowthian Bell, Bart., F.R. S. on 
the Manufacture of Iron, 473 ; a New Form of Siemens 
Furnace, Head and PoufT, 561 ; the Thomson Electric Welding 
Process, W. C. Fish, 561 

Meteorology : Rain Clouds on Lake Titicaca, Hon. Ralph Aber- 
cromby, 12; Meteorological Report (1883-84) for New Zea- 
land, 14; Temperature and Sunshine Notes for 1889, 14; 
Contributions to Meteorology, Elias Loomis, 21 ; Movement 
of Cyclonic Storms in Various Regions, H. Faye, 23 ; Synop- 
tic Table of Weather Prediction, Plumandon and Colomes, 
61 ; Rain Clouds, Dr. Julius Hann, 78 ; San Jose Meteoro- 
logical Institute, 84 ; Experiments on the Connection between 
Wind Pressure and Velocity, W. H, Dines, 94 ; Upper Wind 
Currents over the Equator in the Atlantic Ocean, Hon. Ralph 
Abercromby, loi ; Bibliography of Meteorology, 107 ; Pilot 
Charts of North Atlantic Ocean, 107 ; Pilot Chart of North 
Atlantic, 305, 401, 578, 595 ; the Meteorological Services 
in Europe, A. L. Rotch, 117; the Formation of Atmo- 
spheric Precipitates, Dr. Vettin, 119; the Meteoro- 
logical Society, 119; Synoptic Weather Maps Published by 
St. Petersburg Observatory, 133 ; Meteorological Observatory, 
Rousdon, 163 ; Die Meteorologie ihrem Neuesten Standpunkte 
gemass und mit besonderer Beriicksichtigung geographischer 
Fragen dargestellt. Dr. Siegmund Gunther, 173; Meteorology 
of North Atlantic for May, 179 ; Exceptional Development of 
some Tropical Cyclones, 191; Long-time Weather Predictions in 
America, 208 ; a Practical Guide to the Climates and Weather 
of India, Ceylon, and Burmah, Henry F. Blanford, 221 ; Sun- 
spots and Weather in India, 230 ; Meteorology of Mauritius, 
230 ; the Recent Thunderstorms, W. Marriott, 238 ; Intense 



Heat in Russia, 253 ; Sudden Depression of the Deutsche See- 
warte Barometer, 253 ; Bulletin of the Sikawei Meteorological 
Observatory, 253 ; the Eiffel Tower as a Lightning Conductor, 
261 ; the American Meteorological Journal, 262, 383 ; 
Meteorologische Zeitschrift, 262, 482, 61 1 ; Velocity of Propa- 
gation of Thunderstorms in South Germany, Dr. Lang, 283 ; 
Blue Hill Meteorological Observatory, 283 ; Sand-showers, 
Prof. P. F. Denza, 286; Winters of South Crimean Coast, 286 ; 
the Cold Period of May, Dr. B. Andries, 286 ; Meteorology 
of the North Atlantic, 305 ; the Meteorological Service in 
Belgium, A. L. Rotch, 311 ; Meteorology in Scotland, 326 ; 
Dust-fogs off the Cape de Verd Islands, 327 ; Discussion of 
Instructions for Observers of Prussian Meteorological Insti- 
tute, Dr. Wagner, 334 ; Ben Nevis Observatory, 350, 
351 ; Report of Hong Kong Observatory, 351 ; Meteoro- 
logical Committee Meeting at Zurich, International, 373 ; 
Storms and a Central Ascending Current, Prof H. A. Hazen, 
383 ; Prof. II. A. Hazen on Storms, 383 ; A. L. Rotch on 
the Meteorological Service in Holland, 383 ; Prof. C. F. 
Marvin on Anemometer Experiments, 383 ; the Meteorologi- 
cal Service in Holland, A. L. Rotch, 383 ; Meteorology of 
the Cape of Good Hope for 1888, 401 ; Paris Central Me- 
teorological Office, M. Anger, 421 ; Biological Considerations 
upon Cyclones and Anticyclones, Dr. W. Koppen, 422 ; Bri- 
tish Rainfall, 1888, G. J. Symons, F.R.S., 437; St. Elmo's 
Fire on Ben Nevis, 439 ; Decrease of Temperature with In- 
crease of Altitude, Prof. W. Ferrel, 445 ; Diurnal and An- 
nual Oscillations of Barometer, H. H. Clayton, 445 ; Atlas 
of Observations in Indian Ocean, 447 ; Storms, and Geyser 
Outbreak in United States, 516 ; Proposed Meteorological 
Observatory at Perim, 516 ; Report of the Committee ap- 
pointed by the British Association for the purpose of co- 
operating with the Scottish Meteorological Society in making 
Observations on Ben Nevis, 535 ; Cyclone of Jougne (July 
13, 1889), C. Dufour, 540 ; Noctilucous Clouds, Prof. John 
Le Conte, 544 > Proposed Meteorological Observatory at 
Verawal, in India, 547 ; Meteorology in Greenland, 578 ; 
on the Determination of the Amount of Rainfall, Prof. Cleve- 
land Abbe, 585 ; Hygrometry in the Meteorological yournal. 
Prof C. Piazzi Smyth, 585 ; Prof C. Michie Smith on At- 
mospheric Electricity, 585 ; Shining Night Clouds, an Ap. 
peal for Observations, 594 ; Meteorology in New England, 
595 ; Determination of Height of Aurora, 654 ; Proposed 
Meteorological Observations at Tiberias, Palestine, Dr. Tor- 
rance, 654 ; Meteorological Experiences on the Sentis, Dr. 
Assmann, 660 

Meteors: April, 15 ; Meteor Showers, 16, 46, 86,109, 136, 165, 
181, 231, 256, 285, 308, 329, 352, 375, 403, 424, 448, 483, 516, 
539. 55i> 578, 598, 629, 656 ; Brilliant Meteor, Capt. T. Herbert 
Clarke, 35 ; Remarkable Meteors, W.F. Denning, 150 ; Meteor, 
F. T. Mott, 174 ; Meteoric Waters, the Toxic Properties of. 
Dr. Freire, 168 ; Brilliant Meteor in Ljungby, 179 ; Meteor at 
Copenhagen, 229 ; a Remarkable Meteor, Richard Clark, 
573 ; Fine Slow-moving Meteor, W. F. Denning, 594 ; a 
Brilliant Meteor, W. Hugo, 594 ; Meteorites, Notes on, J. 
Norman Lockyer, F.R. S., 136; Meteorites found at Scania, 
229 ; Mr. Gregory's Collection of Meteorites, 654 ; Meteoritic 
Theory, Prof. Cleveland Abbe, 53 

Methyl Ethylamine, Drs. Skraup and Wiegmann on, 14 

Methyl Hydrazine, Isolation of. Dr. Gustav von Briining, 628 

Metric System of Weights and Measures, Extension of the, De 
Malarce, 164 

Mexican Monuments and Historical Remains, Governmental 
Measures for Study and Preservation of, 283 

Meyer (Dr. A. B.), Astrarchia stephanice, 461 

Meyer (Dr. H. ), the Snow-fall on the Summit of Kilimanjaro, 
46 

Michaelis (Dr.), New Aromatic Compounds of Bismuth, 134 

Micro-biology: Transformism in, A. Chauveau, 612; Pathogenic, 
Transformism in, A. Chauveau, 636 

Micro-organisms, Psychic Life of, Alfred Binet, 541 

Microbes and Infection, 384 

Microbes of Chicken-Cholera, Experiments with. Dr. O. Katz, 
401 

Microscopic Vision, the Closed Eye in, M. Landerer, 282 

Microscopical Mineralogy, Prof. H, Rosenbusch, Prof. John W. 
Judd, F.R.S., 313 

Microscopy : Amphioxiis lanceolatus. Prof. E. Ray Lankester, 
F.R.S. , 116 ; Maturation of Ovum in Cape and New Zealand 



Nature, Nov. 28, 1889] 



INDEX 



XXV 



Peripatus, Lilian Sheldon, 116; Cidaris papillata, Vxoi. III. 
Duncan, 237 
Middens, the Jutland, Captain Madsen, 108 
Middle Lias of Northamptonshire, Beeby Thompson, 34I 
Midland Union of Natural History Societies, 372, 549 
Migration of Birds, Report to the British Association on the 
Observations made at Lighthouses and Light-vessels, John 
Cordeaux, 556 
Milk, Quantitative Analysis of Bicarbonate of Soda in, L, Fade, 

336 
Mill (Dr. Hugh Robert) : Report to the British Association on 
the Seasonal Variations in the Temperature in Lakes, Rivers, 
and Estuaries of the United Kingdom, 556 ; on the Physical 
Basis of Commercial Geography, 629 
Miller-Hauenfels (Albert R. von), Richtigstellung der in 
bisheriger Fassung unrichtigen Mechanischen "Wiirmetheorie 
und Grundziige einer Allgemeinen Theorie der Aether- 
bewegungen, 244 
Millosevich(Prof.) Comet 1889 /^ (Barnard, March 31), 255 
Milne (Prof. John) : Ninth Report on the Earthquake and Vol- 
canic Phenomena of Japan, 608 ; Seismological Work in 
Japan, 656 
Minchin (Prof.), the Vices of our Scientific Education, 126 
Mineralogy .- the Mineralogical Magazine, 230 ; Cours de 
Mineralogie, A. de Lapparent, 460 ; Petrographical Tables of 
Rock-forming Minerals, an Aid to the Microscopic Determin- 
ation of, Prof. II. Rosenbusch, Prof. John W. Judd, F.R.S., 
313 
Mming Appliances, Improvements in, Ralph Moore, 61 
Mining Implements, Old, in India, Bosworth-Smith, 229 
Minor Planet, New, 135, 424 ; Prof. Peters, 448 
Minot and Allison the Mammalian Placenta and the Lateral 

Line System in Amia respectively, 419 
Missions, French Government Scientific, 479 
Mitchell Library, Glasgow, 62 
Mitchell (C. Pitfield), Inheritance of Injuries, 391 
Mitchell (Maria) : Death of, 253 ; Reminiscences of the late Sir 

John Herschel, 548 
Mitchell (Prof O. H.), Death of, 208 
Mites, F. T. Mott, 572 

Mites in South African Entomological Collections, 283 
Mithradatism, Prof. E. Ray Lankester, F.R.S., 149 
Mivart (Dr. St. George), Anapophyses, 394 
Mixter (William G.), an Elementary Text-book of Chemistry, 

389 
Mohn (Dr.), the Barents Sea, 598 
Molecules, Atoms and, the Organization of, Prof. A. E. Dol- 

bear, 419 
Monaco Exhibit at the Paris Exhibition, 61 
Monaco (Prince Albert of), Surface Currents of North Atlantic, 

167 
Mond (Ludwig), New Dry Gas Battery, 211 
Mondy (E. F.), Electrolysis of Potassium Iodide, 417 
Monetary Standards, Report to the British Association on the 

Variations in the Value of. Prof. F. Y. Edgeworth, 553 
Moniez (M.), Metamorphosis and Migration of a Free Nema- 
tode, 563 
Monument to late Mr. Dalgleish, Erection of, 595 
Moon, Halo of the, and Formation of Peculiarly-shaped Clouds 

at Oxford, Otto V, Darbishire, 55 
Moore (Ralph), Improvements in Mining Appliances, 61 
Moore (Capf. W. U.), the Bore of the Tsien-Tang Kiang, 163 
Moore (W. Usborne), Coral Reefs, 203, 271 
Moraine, Ice-Blocks on a, Prof. T. G. Bonney, F.R.S., 391 
Moral Order and Progress, an Analysis of Ethical Conceptions, 

S. Alexander, 169 
Moravia, the Great Mammoth Deposit in, Prof. Steenstrup, 229 
Morley Memorial College for Working Men and Women, 653 
Morocco, H. M. P. de la Martiniere, 202 

Morphology : Some New Facts about the Hirudinea, 419 ; the 
Organization of Atoms and Molecules, Prof A. E, Dolbear, 
419 ; Minot and Allis on the Mammalian Placenta and the 
Lateral Line in Amia respectively, 419 ; the Journal of 
Morphology, a Record of Progress, 419 ; Prof Burdon- Sander- 
son, F. R.S., on Morphology, 521 
Morris (D.): Sideroxylon dulcijicum, 238; Report to the 
British Association on the Zoology and Botany of the West 
India I--lands, 553 
Morris (Dr. G. H.) : Amylo-dextrin, 214; Determination of 
Molecular Weights of Carbohydrates, 214 



Morse and White, an Extreme Case of "Mass" or Catalytic 

Action, 328 
Motion, our Sensations of. Prof. A. Crum Brown, 449 
Mott (F. T.) : Meteor, 174 ; on Mites, 572 
Mountain of the Bell, a New, H, Carrington Bolton, 35 
Mounting Dried Plants, Method of. Dr. John Wilson, 438 
MUhlenfels (Captain R. von). Experiments on Storing Fish, 

402 
Munro (Charles), on the Explosiveness of the Celluloids, 558 
Miintz (A.) : the Formation of Nitrogenous Earths, 48 ; Propor- 
tion of Nitrates in Tropical Rains, 119 
Murray (Geo.) and Alfred W. Bennett, a Hand-book of Crypto- 

gamic Botany, 217 
Murray (Dr. John) : Coral Reefs, 222, 294 ; the Three Cruises 

of the Blake, Alexander Agassiz, 361 
Muscle, Experiments on Mechanical Latent Period of, Dr. 

Cowl, 408 
Muscles, Influence of Temperature upon Working Power of. 

Prof Gad, 288 
Muscular Sense, the. Dr. Goldschneider, 119 
Museum, National Science, 3 
Museum, Paris Natural History, 326 
Museums, Prof. W. H. Flower, C.B., F.R.S., on, 463 
Music, Important Discovery in the Theory of, Rudolph Koenig, 

479 
Musical Instruments and their Homes, Mary E. Brown and W. 

Adams Brown, 436 
Mussel-poiboning, French Report on, 178 
Muy bridge Photographs, Prof E. Ray Lankester, F.R.S., 78, 

126 
Mysore, Capture by Superintendent Sanderson of Herd of 100 

Wild Elephants in, 282 
Mysticism, Philosophy of, Carl du Prel, 28 
Mytilene, Earthquake at, 653 



Nadaroff (Colonel), the South Usuri Region, 165 

Name for Unit of Self-induction, Prof Oliver J. Lodge, F. R.S., 

II 
Nansen (Dr. Fridtjof) : Return of, 84; his Journey across 

Greenland, 103, 210, 479 ; on the Geology of Greenland, 

608 ; on the Esquimaux, 633 
Naphtha as Fuel in Middle Russia, 163 
Naphthalene, Nomenclature of, 370 
Natal Observatory, 655 
Nathorst(Dr. A. G.), on the Geological History of the Prehistoric 

Flora of Sweden, 453 
National Home- Reading Union, 421 
National Science Museum, 3 

Natural History : Bird Life of the Borders, Abel Chapman, 147 
Natural History of the Friendly Islands and other Islands in the 

Pacific, Report to the British Association on, 556 
Natural History Gardens in Boston, Proposed, 577 
Natural History Museum : South Kensington, 13 ; Paris, 326 
Natural Inheritance, Francis Galton on, Hiram M. Stanley, 642 
Natural Philosophy, an Attempt to Apply to Chemistry one of 

the Principles of Newton's, Prof D. Mendeleeff, 354 
Natural Science, a Graduated Course of, Benjamin Loewy, 271 
Nature, Haunts of, H. W. S. Worsley-Benison, 173 
Nebulae, Cometic, Prof. A. W. Riicker, F.R.S., on, 583 
Nematode, Metamorphosis and Migration of a Free, Moniez, 

563 
Neolithic Objects discovered at Ranchi, 230 
; Netto's (Dr.) Process for the Manufacture of Aluminium from 
j CryoHte, Prof. Bedson, 587 

I Neville (F. H.) and C. T. Heycockon Raoult's Method applied 
I to Alloys, 587 

! Neville and Heycock on Alloys, 628 
New Code and Science Teaching, the, Dr. J. H. Gladstone, 

F.R.S., I 
New England, Meteorology in, 595 

New Guinea : Ascent of Summits of Owen Stanley Range by 
Dr. Macgregor, 308, 449, 551 ; Signor Lorie's Scientific 
Investigations in, 445 
New South Wales : Proposed Exploration of Interior of, 182 ; 
Records of the Geological Survey of, 254 ; Royal Society of, 
263 
New Zealand : Meteorological Report for, 14 ; Volcanic Activity 
in. Mount Ruapehu, 179; the Forest Flora of, T. Kirk, 
W, Botting Hemsley, F.K.S., 388 



XXVI 



INDEX 



{Nature, Nov. 28, iJ 



Newall (Robert Stirling, F.R.S.), Death of, 13; Obituary Notice 

cr, 59 
Newall Telescope Syndicate, Preliminary Report of the, 114 
Newcastle and District, Hand-book of, 479 
Newcastle-on-Tyne, Meeting of the British Association at, 349 
Newsholme (A.), Elements of Vital Statistics, 145 
Newton's Natural Philosophy, an Attempt to apply to Chemistry 

one of Ihe Principles of. Prof. D. Mendeleeff, 354 
Nicaise (M.), Physiology of the Trachea, 612 
Nichols (E. L. ), Spectro-Photometric Comparison of Sources of 

Artificial Illumination, 404 
Nicholson (Sir Arthur), Primary Technical Education in 

Hungary, 164 
Nickel and Steel, Alloys of, James Riley, 58 
Night-Clouds, Luminous, D.J. Rowan, 151 
Night-Clouds, Shining, an Appeal for Observations, T. W. 

Backhouse, 594 
Nilson (Prof), the Vapour-Density of Aluminium Chloride, 596 
Nitrate of Soda and the Nitiate Country, Hon. Ralph Aber- 

cromby, 186, 308 
Nitric Acid Vapour, Experiments on Combustion in, Dr. P. T. 

Austen, 45 
Nitrogen Compounds, the Magnetic Rotation of, Dr. W. H. 

Perkin, F.R.S., 166 
Nitrogen, the Fixation of Atmospheric, M. Berthelot, 539 
Nitrogen, the Formation of Earths containing, Miintz and 

Marcano, 48 
Nitrogen, Influence of Gypsum ar.d Clay on Fixation, &€., of, 

Pechard, 539 
Nitrogen, Ring Formula containing, 370 
Nitrogen in Soils, Loss and Gain in, P. P. Deherain, 48 
Nitrogen in Vegetation, Sources of, 332 ; W. Mattieu Williams, 

394 

Nitroso- Camphor, the Oxidizing Action of, under the Influence 
of Light, 384 

Noctilucous Clouds, Prof John Le Conte, 544 

Nodon (Albert), Electric Phenomena Produced by Solar Radia- 
tion, 384 

Nomenclature of Unsaturated Hydrocarbons, M. Calderon, 369 

Norman (Rev. A. M.) and Dr. G. S. Brady, Monograph of the 
Marine and Fresh-water Ostracoda of the North Atlantic and 
of North-Western Europe, 364 

Northauiptonshire, the Middle Lias of, Beeby Thompson, 341 

Northfleet Series Electric Tramway, 39 

Northumberland in Prehistoric Times, Rev. G. Rome Hall on, 
633 

Norway : Earthquake in, 133 ; the Norwegian Cod Fishery, 
229 ; Avalanche on Josen Fjord, 229 ; Discovery of Iron 
Age Objects in, 283 ; Colour of Eyes and Hair in, Abbo and 
Faye, 285 ; on the Crystalline Schists of, Dr. A. Geikie, 
F.R.S., 608 

Nose-blackening as a Preventive of Snow-Blindness, Rev. 
Henry Bernard, 438 

Nova Zembla, Dr. J. Kinunen's Exploration of, 254 

Nuclein, Prof Kossel, 119 

Number Seven, some Properties of the, R. Tucker, 115 

Nuovo Giornale Botanico Italiano, 92, 334 

Oak Leaf, on the Shape of the, and the Leaves of the Guelder 
Rose, Sir John Lubbock, F.R.S., 611 

Obermiiller (Dr.), a New Reaction for Cholesterin, 288 

Observatories : the Proposed Vatican Astronomical Observatory, 
84 ; the Annual Visitation of the Greenwich Observatoiy, 
139; Stonyhurst College Observatory, 164; Oxford Univer- 
sity Observatory, 205 ; Mauritius Observatory, 230 ; Vienna 
Observatory, 329; Hong Kong Observatory, 351; Jubilee 
Observatory at Pulkowa, 401 ; Publications of the Potsdam 
Observatory, 482 ; Yale College Observatory, 448 ; Algiers 
Observatory, 539 ; Mr. Tebbutt's Observatory, Windsor, 
New South Wales, 550; Astronomical Observatories, Geo. 

' H. Boehmer, 597 ; Natal Observatory, 655 ; Rousdon Me- 
teorological Observatory, 163 ; Blue Hill Meteorological Ob- 
servatory, 283 ; Ben Nevis Observatory, 350, 35 1 ; i'roposed 
Meteorological Observatory at Perim, 516 

Ocean Currents, the Chemistry of, Dr. John Gib£on, 84 

Oklahoma, 16 

01, the Use of the Suffix, 370 

Olenellus Fauna in North America and Europe, the, C. D. 
Walcott, 310 



Oligcclaela, Freshwater, F. E. Ecddard, 611 

Omo, the River, Outflow of the, Giulio Borelli, 165, 353 

Omond (R. T.), Atmospheric Electricity, 102 

Cpenchows^ki (Dr.), the Movement and Innervation of the 
Stomach, 240 

Oppenheim (Ir. H.), Comet 1S89 ^ (Brooks), 328 

Optics: a Refracticn Goniometer, A. P. Trotter. 71 ; Inter- 
mittent Vision, Ccueloux, 86; the Magnetic Rotation of 
Plane of Polarization of Light in Doubly- Refracting Bodies, 
A. W. Ward, 117 ; Geometrical Optics, Prof. S. P. Thomp- 
son, 190 ; the Use of the Biquaitz, A. W. Waid, 191 ; 
Optical Torque, Prof Silvanus P. Thompson, 232, 257 ; the 
Closed Eye in Microscopic Vision, M. Landerer, 282 ; Indi- 
rect Vision, Kirscbmann, 373 ; Mechanism of Photodermatic 
and Photogenic Functions in Siphon of Pholas dadylus, 
Raphael Dubois, 384; Analysis of the Light diffused by the 
Sky, Crova, 563 ; on the Relation between Brachistochrones 
and Ray-Paths, Prof I'.vtrett, F.R.S., 584 

Orchids, Prof H. G. Reichenbach's Collection of, 253 

Organic Analysis, Commercial, Alfred H. Allen, Dr. C. R. 
Alder Wright, F.R.S., 289 

Oriental Congress, the International, 536 

Oriental Races, on the Natural Colour of Skin in certain. Dr. J. 
Beddoe, F.R.S., 633 

Oriental Studies, a New School of, 251 

Origin ard Age of the Highlands of Scotland and the West of 
Ireland, Recent Researches into the. Dr. Archibald Geikie, 
F.R.S., 299, 320 

Orion, Spectrum of Great Nebula in, William Huggins, 
F R.S., and Mrs. Huggins, 405, 429 

Ormerod (Eleanor A."), Notes and Descriptions of a Few In- 
jurious Farm and Fruit Insects of South Africa, 385 

Ornithology : Sailing Flight of the Albatross, R. E. Froude, 
102 ; Sailing Flight of Large 1 irds over Lard, 518 ; Dr. R. 
Courtenay, 573 ; Does the Cuckoo ever Hatch its own Eggs?, 
133 ; Appearance of Pastor rosats in Bulgaria, i 79 ; a Cordial 
Recognition, W. J. Stillman, 245 ; the Presenation of the 
Eider in Sweden, 254; Frionodtaa tuwtoniaim 2iTid Acantk:za 
sqvaviata, De Vis, 327 ; Omithclogy in Italy, Pi of. Giglioli, 
549 ; Report to the British Association en the Ol seivations 
made at Lighthouses and Light-^essels en the Migration of 
Birds, John Cordeaux, 556 ; Ornithological Obsenatories in 
Saxony 577 

Oshima, the Volcanic Island of, 179 

Cs:heimer(G. R.), Tainter's Graphophone, 167 - - 

Ostracoda, Monograph of the Marine and Fresh-water, of the 
North Atlantic and of North-W^estern Europe, Dr. G. S. 
Brady and Rtv. A. M. Norman, 364 

Otto (Dr.), Pinol, an Tomer of Camphor, 655 

Owens College, Manchester, 207 

Oxalomolybdic Acid Discovered by M. Pechard, 107 

Oxford, Halo of the Moon and I'ormation of Peculiarly-shaped 
Cloud., at. Otto V. Darbishire, 55 

Oxford and its Professors, 637 

Oxford, University Extension, Programme of Second Summer 
Meeting, 281 

Oxford University Observatory, 205 

Ox)gtn Lii.es in the Solar Spectrum, on the Telluric Origin of,. 
J. Janssen, 104 

Oyster Culture, Swedish, 229 

Ozone Paper, Improved Method of Preparing, Dr. C. IL 
Black] ey, 94 



Pacific, Astronomical .Society of the, 231 

Pacific, Eastern, British Annexation of Humphrey and Pvierson 
Islands, 483 

Bade (L.), Quantitative Analysis of Bicarbonate of Soda in 
Milk, 336 

Palaeolithic Age in Italy, the, P. Castelfranco, 659 

Palseoliihic Implements from the Hills near Dunstable, Worth- 
ington G. Smith, 151 

Palaeolithic Man in America, W^. J. McGee, 163 

Palaeontology : Discovery of Supposed Fossils at Ilornsey, 14 ; 
Discovery of Antediluvian Possil Mammals at Ixelles, Michel 
Mourlon, 21 ; Palacntolcgy of Sturgeons, A. Smith Wood- 
ward, 186 ; Chelonian Remains from Wealden and Purbeck,. 
R. Lydekker, 238; Mastodons found at Tournan, 239; Sys- 
teme Silurien du Centre de la Boheme, Joachim Barrande, 
267 ; the Fossil Human Bones at Gourdon, Dr. Hamy, 285 ; 



Nature f Nov. 28, if 



INDEX 



XXV 11 



Structural Peculiarities of Colymbosaurus, Prof. H. G. Seeley, 
F.R.S.,653 

Talermo, the Circolo Matematico of, 316 

Palestine, Meteorology of, Proposed Observations at Tiberias, 
Dr. Torrance, 654 

Panmixia, Prof. Weismann's Use of the Word, 610 

Paper-making, a Textbook of, C. F. Cross and E. J. Sevan, 
414 

iParis : Academy of Sciences, 23,48, 71, 95, 118, 144, 167, 191, 
215, 239, 263, 287, 311, 336, 383, 407, 432. 456, 484, 539, 
563, 588, 612, 636, 659; Paris Exhibition, Opening of, 44 ; 
Horticulture at the Exhibition, 60 ; Monaco Exhibit at the 
Exhibition, 61 ; the Lifts in the Eiffel Tower, 261 ; the 
Terrestrial Globe at the Paris Exhibition, 278 ; Congress on 
Celestial Photography, 252 ; Congress of the Botanical Society 
of France, 252 ; Zoological Congress in, 252 ; Congress 
on Hygiene and Demography a% 252, 372 ; International 
Agricultural Congress at, 252 ; Congress of Physiological 
Psychology, 304 ; Paris Natural History Museum, 326 ; the 
•Fetes in Connection with Opening of Sorbonne, 372 ; the 
fleeting of the Iron and Steel Institute at, 421 ; Central 
"Meteorological Office, M. Anger, 421 ; W. H. Preece, 
IF.R. S., on Telephonic Communication between London 
and Paris, 631 

Pasteur (M.) and Prof. Huxley, on Hydrophobia, 224 

Pasteur (M.), Sir Henry Roscoe, F.R.S., and, 578 

Pasteur Institute : Mansion House Fund for, 177, 537; at Rio 
Janeiro, 208; Letter from M. Pasteur, 278; at Rome, Pro- 
posed, 326 

Pastor rosetis in Bulgaria, Appearance of, 179 

Patches of Prismatic Light, C. S. Scott, 224 

Pathology, Text-book of. Prof. D. J. Hamilton, 270 

Peal (S. E.), Sailing Flight of Large Birds over Land, 518 

Pearl Fishery, Tuticorin, Edgar Thurston, 174 

Ptfchard (M. ): Oxalomolybdic Acid Discovered by, 107; In- 
fluence of Gypsum and Clay on Fixation, &c., of Nitrogen, 
539 

Pekelharing(M. ), Destruction of Anthrax Virus in Subcutaneous 
Tissues of Rabbits, 312 

Pembrey (M. S.), the Accurate Determination of Carbonic Acid 
and Moisture in Air, 70 

Pepper-feeding on Birds, Effects of, Dr. Sauermann, 192 

Peracca (M. G. ), the Private Laboratory of Marine Zoology at 
Rapall >, 302 

Percy (Dr. John, F.R.S.), Obituary Notice of, Prof W. C. 
Roberts Austen, F. R.S , 206 

Perim, Proposed Meteorological Observatory at, 516 

Periodical Press Index, 107 

Perkin (Dr. W. H., F.R.S.) : the Magnetic Rotation of Nitrogen 
Compounds, 166 ; Melting-points of Salicylic and Anisic 
Compounds, 335 ; Action of Propionyl and Butyryl Chloride 
on Phenol, 335 

Perman (E. P.), Boiling-points of Sodium and Potassium, 94 

Perrier (Prof. E.), the Protection of Fishermen against Porpoises, 
402 

Perry (Prof F.R.S.) : on a Variable Standard of Self-induction, 
586 ; on a Hot Twisted Strip Voltmeter, 586 

Perseids, August, of 1889, 420 

Peru and Bolivia, H. Guillaume on, 630 

Peruvian Arc, the, 558 

Pest, a New, of Farm Crops, Allen Harker, 1 1 

Petermann's Mitteilungen, 64, 65, 182, 353, 446 

Peters (Prof.), New Minor Planet, 448 

Petit (Framjee Dinshaw) : Endowment of Laboratory for 
Scientific Research by, 44 , 133 

Petit, Heats of Combustion of Carbons, 167 

Petrie (W. M. Flinders) : Ancient Egyptian Funeral Wreaths, 
211 ; Classified Cataloguing, 392 ; on Wind Action in Egypt, 
629 

Petrographical Tables, an Aid to the Microscopical Determina- 
tion of Rock-forming Minerals, Prof. H. Rosenbusch, Prof. 
John W. JudH, F.R.S., 313 

Petroleum, William Anderson on, 512 

Petlersson (Prof), the Vapour-Density of Aluminium Chloride, 
595 

Pharmaceutical Conference at Durham, 479 

Pharmacy in Bulgaria, 306 

Phenacodus and the Athecse, Lydekker on, Pro*". E. D. Cope, 
298 



Phenacodus, Skeleton of, 57 

Phenomena, Sudden, the Observation of, S. P. Langley, 404 

Phenylindoles, the I'ormation of. Dr. W. H. Ince, 166 

Philadelphia, Centenary of American Philosophical Society at, 
576 

Philology, the Avarian Language, Baron Uslar, 283 

Philosophy of Mysticism, Carl du Prel, 28 

Phipson (W. W.), on Central Station Heating and Power 
Supply, 631 

Phisalix (C), Experiments on Poison of Terrestrial Salamander, 
484 

Phonautograph, Researches on French Accent with, Dr. Prings- 
heim, 168 

Phormium tenax as a Fibrous Plant, 390 

Phoronis, a New Species of, 384 

Phosphonium, on the Existence of Sulphate of, A. Besson, 659 

Photography : Photographic Determination of the Brightness of 
the Stars, 15 ; Photographic .Study of the Stellar Spectra 
Conducted at the Harvard College Observatory, 17; Geo- 
logical Photography, Osmund W. Jeffs, 34 ; Mr. J. Gale's 
Photographs at Camera Club, 44. ; Chromatic Photo,;raphy 
by Use of Coloured Glasses, G. Lippmann, 48 ; the Dark Flash 
in Lightning Photographs, G. M. Whipple, 70 ; Muybridge 
Photographs, Prof. E. Ray Lankester, F.R.S., 78, 126; 
Dictionary of Photography, E. J. Wall, lOl ; Photography 
of Lightning, Dr. Hoffert, 190; Traite Encyclopcdique de 
Photographic, Charles Fabre, 244 ; Les Levers Photogra- 
phiques et la Photographic en Voyage, Dr. Gustave Le Bon, 
245 ; the International Annual of Anthony's Photographic 
Bulletin, 245 ; Photographic Society of Japan, 327 ; Photo- 
graphic Star gauging, A. M Gierke, 344 ; Photographic Con- 
vention of the United Kingdom, 401 ; Another Photographic 
Survey of the Heavens, 417 ; Reduction of Rutherfurd's 
Photographs of the Pleiades and Proesepe, 448 ; Telescopes 
for Stellar Photography, Sir Howard Grubb, F.R.S., 441, 
645; Captain Abney, C.B., F. R S., on Photography, 469 ; 
Use of the Carrier Piger-n in Photography, 537 ; on the 
Quantity of Deposit of Silver produced by the Development 
on a Photographic Plate in Terms of the Intensity of Light 
acting, Captain W. de W. Abney, F.R.S., 584; Lord 
Rayleigh on Pin-hole Photography, 584 ; the Photographic 
Quarterly, 595 ; Astro-photographic Conference, 597 ; Inter- 
national Congress of Celestial Photography, 597 ; Prof. 
Liveing on Eikonogen, a New Developer, 587 

Photometer, Bunsen's, D. M. Lewis, 174 

Photometry, Practical, a Guide to the Study of the Measure- 
ment of Light, W. J. Dibdin, 572 

Photometry, Spectro- Photometric Comparison of Sources of 
Artificial Illumination, Nichols and Franklin, 404 

Phylogeny, on the Meristems of Ferns as a Study in. Prof F. O. 
Bower, 6io 

Physical Geography : the Secular Rising of the Baltic Coasts, 
108 ; Mean Altitude of Continents and Mean Depth of 
Oceans, A. de Tillo, 239 

Physical Laboratory fitted up at Fettes College, Edinburgh, 
627 

Physical Science, Suggestions for a Course of Elementary In- 
struction in. Prof tl. E. Armstrong, F.R.S., 600 

Physical Science, Teaching of, in Putilic Schools, 589 

Physical Society, 70, 93, 143, 190, 262 

Physical Society, Proposed Liverpool, 627 

Physical Terms, Japanese Vocabulary of, 306 

Physics : the Science and Art Examination in, 102 ; Prof von 
"Crank," 244; Magnetic Leakage in Dynamos, H. S. 
Carhart, 559 ; Improved Clark Standard Cell with Low 
Temperature Coefficients, H. S. Carhart, 559 ; Mercurial 
Thermometers, Rogers and Woodward, 559 

Physiology : Influence of Digestive Juices in Virus of Tetanus, 
Prof G. Sormani, 21 ; the Ferment Action of Bacteria, Drs. 
Lauder Brunton and Macfadyen, 21 ; a Text-book of Human 
Physiology, Dr. Austin Flint, 74 ; Nuclein, Prof Kossel, 119 ; 
Formation of Horny Layer of Skin, Dr. Blaschko, 119; the 
Muscular Sense, Dr. Goldscheider, 119; Apparatus lor Ex- 
amining the Bladder, Dr. Nitze, 192 ; the Movement and 
Innervation of the Stomach, Dr. Openchowski, 240 ; Physio- 
logical Society, 240 ; Proposed Chair of Physiology at Uni- 
versity College, Dundee, 252 ; Influence of Temperature 
upon Working Power of Muscles, Prof Gad, 288 ; Destruc- 
tion of Anthrax Virus in Subcutaneous Tissues of Rabbits, 



XXV 111 



INDEX 



, [Nature, Nov. 28, 1 5 



M. Pekelharing, 312; Physiological Diagrams, G. Davies, 
317 ; Heat-Regulation in Man, Prof. Ziintz, 408; Darwinism, 
Alfred Russel Wallace, Prof. E. Ray Lankester, F.R.S., 566 ; 
the Senses of Criminals, 596 ; Physiology of the Trachea, 
M. Nicaise, 612; Penetration of Spermatozoids into Egg 
of Frog, M. Massart, 635 

Pickering (S. U.): Heat of Neutralization of Sulphuric Acid, 
94 ; the Expansion of Liquids, 166 ; the Nature of Solutions, 
166; Use or Abuse of Empirical Formulae and of Differentia- 
tion by Chemists, 343 ; on Some Effects of Lightning, 415 

Picton (Harold), a Chimpanzee's Humour, 224 

Pidgeon (Daniel), Atmospheric Electricity, 77 

Pigeon, Carrier, in Photography, Use of, 537 

Pilot Charts of Noith Atlantic Ocean, 107, 305, 401, 578, 595 

Pin-hole Photography, Lord Rayleigh, F. R.S., on, 584 

Pinol, Drs. Wallach and Otto, 655 

Pisciculture : Artificial Fertilization of Ova, Thomas Scott, 163 ; 
Acclimatization of Salmon, 282; Lake Trout Reared at 
Champ de I'Air, Prof. Blanc, 422 ; the Natural Oyster Banks 
of Brittany, Bouchon-Brandely, 481 

Pitkin (James) and Niblett's Fire-damp Meter, 66 

Placenta, Mammalian, Minot and Allis on, 419 

Placentation of the Dugong, Sir W. Turner, F.R.S., 611 

Planets : New Minor Planets, 135, 424 ; Prof. Peters, 448 ; the 
Minor Planet Victoria, 109 ; the Planet Uranus, R. A. 
Gregory, 235 

Plants, the Uses of, G. S. Boulger, 292 

Plants, Dried, a Method of Mounting, Dr. John Wilson, 438 

Plants, Report of the British Association Committee on the 
Disappearance of Native Plants from their Local Habitats, 

533 

Platanus Genus, the Origin of the, 61 > • v . 

Playfair (Consul-General), the Dangers of Viticulture '^ in 
Algeria, 423 

Playfair (Right Hon. Sir Lyon, F.R. S. ) ; on Universities, 204 ; 
Subjects of Social Welfare, 637 ; I3imetallism, 638 ; Dis- 
placement of Labour by Modern Inventions, 638 ; Technical 
Education, 639 

Pleiades and Praesepe, Reduction of Rutherfurd's Photpgraphs 
of the, 448 

Pleistocene Papers, 609 

Plumandon and Colonies, Synoptic Table of Weather Predic- 
tion, 61 

Poison in Cured Fish, Prize offered by Russian Academy of 
Sciences for Inquiring into, 178 

Poison of Terrestrial Salamander, Experiments on, C. Phisalix, 
484 

Polarization, Elliptical, by Reflection. A. Cornu, 71 

Polarization, Recent Researches on, Electro-ma;jnetic Rotatory, 
Prof. Kundt, 96 

Polarized Light, Notes on, Prof. S. P. Thompson, 143 

Political Economy : Mathematical Method in, Rudolf Auspitz 
and Richard Lieben, 242 ; Mathematical Theory of, Leon 
Walras, 434 ; Prof. F. Y. Edgeworth's Address in Section F 
at the iiritish Association, 496 

Pont eder a azures, W. C. Sowerby, 327 

Porpoises, the Protection of Fishermen against. Prof. E. Perrier, 
402 

Portugal, Botany in, 253 

Posewitz (Dr. Theodor), Borneo, 49 

Potassium Iodide, Electrolysis of, E. F. Mondy, 417 

Potsdam Ob-ervatory, Publications of the, 482 

Pouchet (Georges), the Oceanic Sardine, 384 ; Currents of 
North Atlantic, 577 

Pouff (P. ), a New Form of Siemens Furnace, 561 

Poulton (E. B., F.R.S.) : on the Supposed Transmission of Ac- 
quired Characters, 610; Weismann's Essays on Heredity, &c., 
618 ; the Yellow Powder from Cocoon of C/isiocampa netistria 
under Microscope, 635 ; Change of Colour in Living Larvae 
of Henicrophila abrtiptaria, 635 

Preece (William Henry, F.R.S.) : and Julius Maier, the Tele- 
phone, Prof. A. Gray, 200 ; on the Relative Effects of Steady 
and Alternate Currents on Different Conductors, 586 ; and 
Prof. G. Forbes, F.R.S., on a New Thermometric Scale, 
587 ; on Telephonic Communication between London and 
Paris, 631 

Prefixes bi- and di-, the Use of the, 370 

Prehistoric Flora of Swe.lcn, on the Geological History of the, 
Dr. A. G. Nathorst, 433 



Prehistoric Times in Northumberland, Rev. G. Rome Hall on, 

633 
Prel (Carl du), Philosophy of Mysticism, 28 
Prestwich (Prof. Joseph, F.R.S.), the Westleton Beds of the 

East Anglian Coast, 238 
Preyer (Prof.), Reflexes in the Embryo, 24. 
Priestman's Oil engines for Blowing Fog-signals, 351 
Prime, Test of Divisibility by any, Robt. W. D. Christie, 247 
Pringsheim (Dr.), Researches with Phonautograph on French 

Accent, 168 
Priority of Chinese Inventions, 165 
Prismatic Light, Patches of, C. S. S^ott, 224 
Prjevalsky Memorial, the Proposed, 547 
Proceedings of Linnean Society of New South Wales, 135 
Professors, Oxford and its, 637 
Projectiles, Chronograph for Measuring Velocity of, Captain 

Holden, R.A.,66 
Proposals of the Commissioners for the Exhibition of 185 1, 265 
Prospector's Hand-book, the, J. W. Anderson, 293 
Protection and Free Trade, Sociology of, F. L. Ward, 558 
Protozoa, Psychology of. Prof. Geo. J. Romanes, F.R.S., 541 
Provencal Population, Cephalic Index of, Fallot, 285 
Provencals, Pagan Practices among Modern, Dr. Ferand, 562 
Prussia, Meteorology in. Discus-ion of Instructions for Obser- 
vers of Prussian Meteorological Institute, Dr. Wagner, 334 
Psychic Life of Micro-organisms, Alfred Binet, 541 
Psychology, Physiological, the Paris Congress of, 304, 372 
Psychology of Protozoa, Prof. Geo. J. Romanes, F.R.S., 541 
Pulkowa Observatory lubilee, 401 
Puma, Taming the, Wm. Lant Carpenter, 542 
Purification of Sewage by Electrolysis, W. Webster, 631 



Quarter Squares, the Method of, Joseph Blater, J. W. L. 

Glaisher, F.R.S., 573; Prof. G. Carey Foster, F.R.S., 593 
Quarterly Journal of Microscopical Science, 116 
Quartz, Expansion of, H. Le Chatelier, 118 
Quartz Fibres, C. V. Boys, F.R.S., 247 
Quartz as an Insulator, 0. V. Boys, F.R.S., 71 
Quatrefages (A. de), Introduction a I'Etude des Races Humaines, 

407 
Queen, the, and Her Majesty's Commissioners of the Exhibition 

of 1851, 25 
Queensland, Northern, Proposed Exploration of, by Mr. A. 

Weston, 308 
Quinquaud (M.), Quantity of Water in Blood, 144 



Radiation, Experiments on Electro-magnetic, including some on 
the Phase of Secondary Waves, Fred. T. Trouton, 398 

Raffinose, M. Berthelot, 612 

Kagadia crisia, Note on, Sydney B, J. Skertchly, 10 

Railway Reading Lamp, an Automatic Electric, 373 

Railway, the Working and Management of an English, Geo. 
Findlay, 219 

Railways, Ship, General Andrews, 108 

Rain, Black, the Earl of Rosse, F.R.S., 202 

Rain Clouds on Lake Titicaca. Hon. Ralph Abercromby, 12 ; 
Dr. Julius Hann, 78 

Rainbow, a Brilliant, E. Burton Durham, 367 

Rainfall, British, 1888, G. J. Symons, F.R.S., 437 

Rainfall, on the Determination of the Amount of, Prof. Cleve- 
land Abbe, 585 

Rainfall, Prof. Loomis on, R. A. Gregory, 330 

Kambaut (Arthur A.) : Japanese Clocks, 86 ; Meridian Observa- 
tions of the Minor Planet Iris, 109 

Rankin (Angus), St. Elmo's Fire on Ben Nevis, 439 

Rankine (William J. M.), Useful Rules and Tables, 517 

Raoult's Method Applied to Alloys, C. T. Heycock and F. H. 
Neville on, 587 

Rapallo, the Private Laboratory of Marine Zoology at. Dr. L. 
Camerano, M. G. Peracca, and D. Rosa, 302 

Ray (Saradaranjan), a Treatise on Elementary Algebra and 
Algebraical Artifices, 9 

Rayleigh (Lord, F.R.S.) : the Sailing Flight of the Albatross, 
34 ; Iridescent Crystals, 227 ; on Pin-hole Photography, 584 ; 
on Tones of Bells, 584 

Reade (T. Mellard), .Saxicava Borings and Valves in a Boulder 
Clay Erratic, 246 



Nature, Nov. 28, 1889] 



INDEX 



XXIX 



Reading Habit in America, Decay of the, W. C. Wilkinson, 

548 
Reale Istituto Lombardo, 21, 92, 282, 635 
Rebeur-Paschwitz (Dr. E. von), the Earthquake of Tokio, 

April 18, 1889, 294 
Recognition, a Cordial, W. J. Stillmann, 245 
Reefs, Coral, the Structure and Distribution of : Dr. H. B. 

Guppy, 53, 102, 222; W. Usborne Moore, 203,271; Dr. 
■ John Murray, 222, 294; Prof. T. G. Bonney, F.R.S., 222; 

P. W. Bassett-Smith, 223 
Rees (Dr. G. O., F.R.S.), Death of, 133 
Regenerative Gas Lamp, a Nevir Form of, 82 
Reichel (Dr.), Experiment with Water- Hammer, 72 
Reichenbach (Prof. Heinrich Gustav) : Obituary Notice of, 83 ; 

his Collection of Orchids, 253 
Reid (E. Weymouth), Inclusion of the Foot in the Abdominal 

Cavity of a Duckling, 54 
Reid (Thos.), Intermittent Sensations, 318 
Reinach (Salomon), the Writings and Opinions of Samuel 

Zarza, 68 
Reischek (A.), the Wandering Albatross, 306 
Reiset (J.), Ravages of Cockchafer and its Larva, 23 
Remsen (Ira), Inorganic Chemistry, 339 

Renard (A. F. ), A. de Lapparent's Cours de Mineralogie, 460 
Rendiconti del R. Accademia dei Lincei, 108 
Rendiconti del Real Istituto Lombardo, 21, 92, 282, 635 
Reptilian Orders, G. A. Boulenger, 5 

Research, Endowment of, the Framjee Dinshaw Petit Labora- 
tory at Bombay, 44 
Research, Scientific, Danish Academy Prizes offered for, 372 
Research, Scientific, the Elizabeth Thompson Science Fund, 

209 
Residuals of Mercury, O. T. Sherman, 63 
Resin, Spinifex, J. H. Maiden, 595 
Reunion, the Extinct Starling of {Fregilupus varius), R. 

Bowdler Sharpe, 177 
Revue d'AnthropoIogie, 68, 285, 362, 659 
Rhodium, New .'!',eries of Double Oxalates of, M. Leidie on a, 

254 

Rib, on the Occasional Eighth True, in Man, Prof. D. J. Cun- 
ningham, 632 

Richardson (Dr.) : on the Action of Light on the Hydracids, 
587 ; on a New Self- Registering Actinometer, 587 

Ricketts (Dr. Chas. ), a Cause of Contortions of Strata, 67 

Riley (C. V.), the Fruit Pest Curculio in America, 373 

Riley (James), Alloys of Nickel and Steel, 58 

Rimelin (Dom B.), the Probable Cause of Frondal Bifurcations 
in Ferns, 563 

Ring Formulae containing Nitrogen, 370 

Rink (Dr.), Recent Danish Researches in Greenland, 64 

Rio Janeiro, the Pasteur Institute at, 208 

Risley (H. H.), on the Study of Ethnology in India, 633 

Rittaikikagaku (iii.). Prof. Kikuchi, 627 

River-Eel, the Natural History of the, !]fe(ni!e Blanchard, 383 

Rivers, Process of Transformation into Marshes of, M. Tanfilieff, 

Rivers, on the Transporting Power of Water in the Deepening 

of, W. H. Wheeler, 631 
Rivista Scientifico-Industriale, 286 

Roberts (Thos.), the Upper Jurassic Clays of Lincolnshire, 167 
Roberts- Austen (Prof. W. C, F.R.S.), Obituary Notice of 

Dr. John Percy, F.R.S., 206 
Robinson (Edward E.), Note on some Hailstones that fell at 

Liverpool on Sunday, June 2, 1889, 151 
Robinson (Admiral Sir Spencer), Death of, 326 
Rock Cod, Turtle-headed, 77 
Rock Ferry, Unusually Large Hailstones at, 133 
Rocky Mountain Goat, Dr. Grinnell, 62 
Rodger (W. J.), Thiophosphoryl Fluoride, 94 
Rogers (W. A.), Mercurial Thermometers, 559 
Roll (Dr. Julius), Ascent of Mount Rigi in Cascade Mountains, 

598 
Rollet (Etienne), the Large Bones of the Anthropoid Apes, 287 
Roman Wall, Erimts hispanicus (?), on the. Dr. Sydney H. 

Vines, 544 
Romanes (Prof. Geo. J., F.R.S.): on the Mental Faculties of 

Anthropopithecus calvus, 160 ; Psychology of Protozoa, 541 ; 

on Specific Characters as Useful and Indifferent, 609 ; 

Darwinism, 645 



Romanes (Dr. Robert), Death of, 60 

Rome, Proposed Pasteur Institute at, 326 

Roosen and Behrend (Drs.), Synthesizalion of Uric Acid, 62 

Roosevelt (G. W.), Treatment of Vine-diseases in France, 446 

Rosa (D.), the Private Laboratory of Marine Zoology at Rapallo, 

302 
Roscoe (Sir H. E., M.P., F.R.S.): and C. Schorlemmer, a 
Treatise on Chemistry, Vol. iii. Part v., 31 ; on the Relations 
between Science and Art, 44 ; the New Technical Education 
Bill, 73, 91 ; Aluminium, 182 ; the Life Work of a Chemist, 
578 ; Watts's Dictionary of Chemistry, 640 

Rosenbusch (Prof. H.), Petrographical Tables, an Aid to the 
Microscopical Determination of Rock-forming Minerals, i'rof. 
John W. Judd, F.R.S., 313 

Rosenthal (Prof.), on making Flames non-Luminous, 72 

Ross (Janet), the Land of Manfred, 413 

Ross {W. Gordon), a Manual of Practical Solid Geometry, 125 

Rosse (the Earl of, F.R.S.), Black Rain, 202 

Rosset's Explorations of Indo-Chino, 599 

Rotation Period of the Sun, Henry Crew, 550 

Rotch (A. L.) : the Meteorological Services in Europe, 117 ; the 
Meteorological Service in Belgium, 311 ; on the Meteoro- 
logical Service in Holland, 383 

Rousdon Meteorological Observatory, 163 

Rousseau (M.), a New Dioxide of Cobalt, 307 

Rowan (D. J.), Luminous Night Clouds, 151 

Royal Academy Banquet, Sir Henry Roscoe on the Relations 
between Science and Art, 44 

Royal Botanic Society, 327 

Royal Botanic Society, the Founder of the, 304 

Royal College of Physicians, Edinburgh, Reports from Ihe 
Laboratory of the, 411 

Royal Commission on a University for London, I2I, 149 

Royal Danish Academy of Sciences, 372 

Royal Geographical Society, 210, 353 

Royal Horticultural Society, 162, 577 

Royal Meteorological Institution at Utrecht, 447 

Royal Meteorological Society, 94, 238 

Royal Physical Society of Edinburgh, 306 

Royal Society, 21, 68, 92, 117, 189, 212, 405, 653 ; Conversa- 
zione, 65 ; New Fellows of, 162 ; the Ladies' Conversazione of 
the, 210 

Royal Society of Edinburgh, 304, 655 

Royal Society of New South Wales, 336, 351, 432, 563 

Royal Society of Queensland, 327 

Ruapehu (Mount), Volcanic Activity in, 179 

RUcker(Prof. A. W., F.R.S.): the Magnetic Disturbing Forces of 
British Isles, 66 ; on Cometic Nebulae, 583 ; on the Instruments 
used in the Recent Magnetic Survey of France, 584 ; and Prof. 
T. E. Thorpe, F.R.b., on the Relation between the Geo- 
logical Constitution and the Magnetic State of the United 
Kingdom, 585, 609 

Russia: Expeditions Projected by the Russian Geographical 
Society, 65, 165, 230 ; Naphtha as Fuel in Middle Russia, 163 ; 
Russian Academy of Science', 178: Intensity of Heat in 
Russia, 253 ; Russian Chemical and Physical Society, 326 ; 
Geology in, 403 

Rustic Walking Tours in the London Vicinity, 254 

Ruthenium, Atomic Weight of, A. Joly, 72 

Rutherfurd's Photographs of the Pleiades and Prsesepe, Reduc- 
tion of, 448 



Safford (Prof. T. H.), Right Ascensions of North Circumpolar 

Stars, 63 
Sage (H. W.), and Cornell University, 179 
Sailing Flight of the Albatross, A. C. Baines, 9 ; Lord Rayleigh, 

F.R.S., 34 
Sailing Flight of Large Birds over Land, S. E. Peal, 518 ; Dr. 

R. Courtenay, 573 
St. Andrews University, 547 

St. Elmo's Fire on Ben Nevis, Angus Rankin, 439 
Salamander, Experiments on Poison of Terrestrial, C. Phisalix, 

484 
Salmon, Acclimatization of, 282 
Salmon Smolts, Illegal Sale of, 45 
Salvadori (Tommaso), Hibernation of Martins in the Argentine 

Republic, 223 
Samos, Dr. C. Forsyth Major's Discoveries in the Isle of, 400^ 



XXX 



INDEX 



[Natttre, Nov. 28, 1889 



San Jose Meteorological Institute, 84 

Sand Showers, Prof. P. F. Denza, 286 

Sanderson (Prof. Burdon, F.R.S.): Opening Address in Section 

1) (Biology) at the British Association, 521 ; on Evolution 

and Morphology, 521 
Sandhurst and VVoolwich, Examinations for, 43 
Sanitary Conference at Worcester, 548 
Sanitary Institute, 536, 537 ; Congress of, 326 
Sanitary Reform at Benares, Native Opposition to, 44 
Sanitary Science, Diplomas in Public Health, 516 
Sanitary and Technical Purposes, Examination of Water for, 

Henry Leffmann, 293 
Saprolegnia, Prof. Hartog on the Structure of, 6n 
Sardine Fisheries on the Coast of Brittany, 264 ; the Oceanic 

Sardine, 384 
Saturn's Ring, White Spot on. Prof. Holden, 15 ; M. Terby, 

307 
Sauermann (Dr.), Effects of Pepper-feeding on Birds, 192 
Saxicava Borings and Valves in a Boulder Clay Erratic, T. 

Mellard Reade, 246 
Saxony, Waterspout in, 84 ; Ornithological Observatories in, 

577 
Sayce (Prof A. H.), Babylonian the Language of Polite Society 

in the Fifteenth Century B.C., 239 
Scabiosa succissa, Trimorphism in, Arthur Turner, 643 
Scania, Meteorite found at, 229 
Scarlet Fever and Cow Disease, 55 

Schists, Crystalline, of Norway, Dr. A. Geikie, F.R. S., 608 
Schlagintweit (Adolph), Memorial to, 326 
Sclater (Dr. P. L., F.R.S.), Bambangala, 54 
Schlcesing (Th.) : Nitrification of Ammonia, 539; Air in the 

Soil, 636 
Schmidt (Dr. Carl), Zur Geologie der Schweizeralpen, 220 
Schmidt (Dr. K. W. ), the Soil and Climate of German East 

Africa, 46 
Schneider (M.) : the Channel Bridge, 536 ; the Proposed Chan- 
nel Bridge, 560 
Schonland (Selmar), Weismann's Essays on Heredity, &c., 618 
School of Oriental Studies, a New, 251 
Schorlemmer (C, F.R.S.) and Sir H. E. Roscoe, F.R.S., a 

Treatise on Chemistry, Vol. iii.. Part v., 31 
Schuster (Prof Arthur, F.R.S. ), on the Passage of Electricity 

through Gases, 585 
Schwatka (Lieutenant), Cave-dwellers in Mexico, 208 
Schweinfurth (Dr.), Journey to Hodeida, 182 
Schweizeralpen, zur Geologie der. Dr. Carl Schmidt, 220 
Science and Art Examination in Physics, 102 
Science and Art, Sir Henry Roscoe on the Relations between, 

44 
Science Collections at South Kensington, 425, 565 
Science^ Elementary Teaching of, 589, 599 
Science in Elementary Schools, Report to the British Association 

of the Committee on the Teaching of, Prof. Armstrong, 554 
Science Examination Papers, R. Elliot Steel, 293 
Science, French Association for the Advancement of, 394 
Science, an Index to, J. Taylor Kay, 226 ; James Blake Bailey, 

245 

Science Lectures, Victoria Hall, 653 

Science as She is Wrote, 556 

Science Teaching, the New Code and, Dr. J. H. Gladstone, 
F.R.S., I 

Science, the Teaching of, Prof. Henry E. Armstrong, F.R.S., 
645 

Scientia, Dinner to Prof. Eras. Darwin, 207 

Scientific Education, the Vices of our, Prof. Minchin, 126 

Scientific Research, Endowment of, the Framjee Dinshaw Petit 
Laboratory at Bombay, 133 

Scientific Works of Sir William Siemens, 409 

Scientific Worthies, Dmitri Ivanowilsh Mendeleeff, Prof. 
T. E. Thorpe, F.R.S., 193 

Scotland : Scotch Fisheries Board, 106 ; Scottish Geographical 
Magazine, 181, 598; Recent Researches into the Origin and 
Age of the Highlands of, and the West of Ireland, Dr. 
Archibald Geikie, F.R.S , 299, 320 ; Scottish Meteorological 
Observatory, 304 ; Meteorology in, 326 ; Scottish Meteoro- 
logical Society, 326 ; Report of the Committee appointed 
by the British Association for the Purpose of co-operating 
with, in making Meteorological Observations on Ben Nevis, 

535 
Scott (C. S. ), Patches of Prismatic Light, 224 



Scott (Thomas), Artificial Fertilization of Ova, 163 ; the- 

Fertilization of the Ova of the Lemon Sole with the Milt of 

the Turbot, 253 
Seamen of the Merantile Marine, Colour-Blindness and Defective 

Far-Sight among the, 438 
Section Work at the British Association, Prof. Oliver J. Lodge, 

F.R.S., 593 
Sedgwick Prize Essay at Cambridge, 516 tf 

Seed-Di«persion, Birds and, 305 I 

Seeley (Prof H. G., F.R.S.): in Russia, 13; Structural Peca-* 

liarities of Colymbosaurus, 653 
Seismography : the Earlier Eruptions of Krakatab, Prof. John' 

W. Judd, F.R.S., 365 ; the Supposed Connection between 

Distant Earthquake Shocks, William White, 393 
Seismology : in Italy, Prof Giulio Grablovitz, 246 ; Dr. H. J. 

Johnston-Lavis, 294; an Earthquake, A. B. Sharpe, 294 

the Recent Great Earthquake in Japan, 461 ; Prof. John 

Milne's Ninth Report on the Earthquake and Volcanic 

Phenomena of Japan, 608 ; Seismological Work in Japan, 

Prof. John Milne, 656 
Self Induction, Name for Unit of, Prof. Oliver J. Lodge, F.R.S.,. 

II 
Self-induction, on a Valuable Standard of, Prof. Perry, F.R.S.,. 

586 
Selous (F. C), Mashona Land, 16 
Sensations, Intermittent, Thos. Reid, 318 
Sensations of Motion, our. Prof. A. Crum Brown, 449 
Senses of Criminals, the, 596 

Sentis, Meteorological Experiences on the, Dr. Assmann, 660 
Sequence, an Unusual Geological, the Duke of Ariiyll, 642 
Series Electric Traction, Northfleet Tramways, Edward Man- 

ville, 630 
Servia, Disafforestation in, 445 
Service Chemistry, Vivian B. Lewes, 639 
Seven, some Properties of the Number, R. Tucker, 115 
Sewage and Fish, Willis Bund, 548 

Sewage, Purification of, by Electrolysis, W. Webster, 631 
Seymour (Dr.), the Hygiene of the Japanese House, 15 
Sguario (Eusebio), an Italian Precursor of Franklin, 108 
Shark off Ventnor, Capture of Large, 163 
Sharpe (A. R. ), an Earthquake, 294 
Sharpe (R. Bowdler), the Extinct Starling of Reunion [Freg/'- 

lupus vai'ius), 177 
Shaw (W. N.), Report to the British Association on the Present 

State of our Knowledge in Electrolysis and Electro-chemistry, 

555 

Sheldon (Lilian), Maturation of Ovum in Cape and New Zea- 
land Peripatus, 1 16 

Sherman (O. T.), the Residuals of Mercury, 63 

Shining Night Clouds, an Appeal for Observations, T. W. 
Backhouse, 594 

Ship Railways, General Andiews, 108 

Shipley (A. E.), Weismann's Essays on Heredity, 6i8 

Shufeldt (R. W.), on the Aquatic Habits of certain Land Tor- 
toises, 644 

Sibley (W. K.), on Left-leggedness, 632 

Sideroxylon dulcifictim, D. Morris, 238 

Siemens (Fredk.), the Application of Gas to Furnace-heating,. 
.576 

Siemens Furnace, a New Form of. Head and Pouff, 561 

Siemens (Sir William, F.R.S.), the Scientific Works of, 409 

Sigillaria, the, Grand'Eury, 48 

Signals, on an Instrument for Measuring the Reaction Time to- 
Sight and Sound, Francis Galton, F.R.S., 633 

Sikawei Meteorological Observatory, Bulletin of, 253 

Silicon, the Influence of, on the Properties of Steel, Hadfield,. 

.587 
Silks, Wild, in the East, Treatment of, 4!i.7 
Silver, Action of Light on Allotropic, M. C. Lea, 404 
Silver, on the Quantity of Deposit of. Produced by the Develop- 
ment on a Photographic Plate in terms of the Intensity of 
Light Acting, Captain W. de W. Abney, F.R.S., 584 
Sinclair (A. C), Hand-book of Jamaica for 1889-90, 593 
Skeleton of an English Dinosaur, the Entire, 324 
Skeleton of Phenacodus, 57 

Skertchley (Sydney B. J.), Note on Ragadia crisia, 10 
Skin: Formation of Horny Layer of. Dr. Blaschko, 119 ; on 
the Natural Colour of, in certain Oriental Races, 'Dr. J. 
Beddoe, F.R.S., 633 
Skraup and Wiegmann (Drs.), a New Amine, 14 



Mature, Nov. 28, 1889] 



INDEX 



XXXI 



11, Relation between Heiijht and Shape of, P, An n )n, 653 
v-movin^ Meteor, Fine, W. F. DanninT, 5^^ 
.:h (Charles), Solutions of the E'cmples in a Treatise on 
Algebra, 31 

Smith (Prof. C. M'chie), on Atmospheric Electricity, 5S5 

Smith (K. W.). a Shunt Transformer, 190 

Smith (F. J.), Mechanical Illustration of Propagation of Soini- 
wave, 620 

Smith (Robert H.), Graphics, or the Art of Cilcalitioi by 
Drawing Lines applied especially to Mechanical Engineering, 
Prof. A. G. Greenhill. F.R.S., 50 

Smith (Worthington G. ), PaljcDlithic Implemsnts from the 
Hills near Dunstable, 151 

Smithsonian Institution, the. 346, 421 

Smyth (Prof. C. Piazzi), Re-examination of the Spectra of 
Twenty-three Gas- Vacuum End-on Tubes after Six to Ten 
Years of Existence and Use, 584 

Smyth (Prof. C. Piazzi), Hygrometry in the Meteorological 
younial, 585 

Snake-bites, Death in India by, 283 

Snow, the Influence of, on the Soil and Atmosphere, A, 
Woeikof, 314 

Snow-blindness, Nose-blackening as a Preventive of, Rev. 
Henry Bernard, 438 

Snowdon Summit, Purchase of, by Sir E. Watkin, 282 

Soaring, Effects of an Interinittent Wind in, M. Marey, 612 

Sociology of Rural Communes in France, M. Dumont, 402 

S )da, Nitrate of, and the Nitrate Country, Hon. Ralph Aber- 
cromby, i85, 308 

Solar Eruptions in September 188S, Le Pare Jules Fenyi, 48, 64 

Solar Phenomena for 188S an I 1889, M. Tacchini, 144 

Solar Physics, on the Variation of Latitude in the Solar Spots, 
M. R. Wolf, 383 

Solar Radiation : Electric Phenomena produced by, 384 ; Re- 
port to the British Association on. 556 

Solar Spectrum, on the Telluric Origin of the Oxygen Lines in, 
J. Janssen, 104 

Solar System, Stability of, D E^initis. 167 

Sole, the Lemon, Fertilization of the Ova of the, with the Milt 
of the Turbot, Thomas Scott, 253 

Solids, the Elasticity of, E. H. Ami^at, 192 

Solutions, the Nature of, S. U. Pickering, i65 

Somerville (A. A.), on the Principle and Meth>is of Assigning 
Marks for Bodily Efficiency, 652 

Sorbonne : the New Buildings of the, 349 ; the Fetes in Con- 
nection with Opening of, 372 

Soret (A.), the Occlusion of Gases in Electrolysis of Sulphate of 
Copper, 239 

Sormani (Prof. G. ) : Influence of Digestive Juices on Virus of 
Tetanus, 21 ; Tetanus, 635 

Sound- Wave, Mechanical Illustration of Propagation of, F. J. 
Smith, 620 

Sources of Nitrogen in Vegetation, W. Mattieu Williams, 394 

South Kensington, National Science Museum, 3 

South Kensington, Natural History Museum, 13 

South Kensington, Science Collections at, 425, 565 

South London Entomological and Natural History Society's 
Exhibition, 653 

South Usuri Region, Colonel Nadaroff, 165 

Sowerby (W. C), Pontedera azitrea, 327 

Sparkless Electro- Magnets, Prof. S. P. Thompson on, 587 

Sparrow in America, the, 627 

Species in a State of Nature, Variability of, Alfred Russel 
Wallace, 566 

Specific Characters as Useful and Indifferent, Prjf. G. J. 
Romanes, F. R. S., on, 609 

Spectrum Analysis : Dr. Griinwald's Mathematical, Joseph S. 
Ames, 19 ; the Wave-length of Principal Line in Spectrum of 
Aurora, Dr, W. Huggins, F. R. S., 68; the Photographic Spec- 
trum of Great Nebula of Orion, Dr. W. Huggins, F. R.S., 
95 ; on the Telluric Origin of the Oxygen Lines in the Solar 
Spectrum, J. Janssen, 104 ; Spectrum of x Cygni, 135 ; 
Absorption Spectra of Mixed Liquids, A. E. Bostwick, 189 ; 
the Absorption Spectra of Oxygen, Liveing and Dewar, 211, 
212 ; Enlargement of Spectral Rays of Metals, Gouy, 216 ; 
the Spectrum of Great Nebula in Orion, Dr. Williari Huggins, 
F. R.S., and Mrs. Huggins, 405, 429; Stars with Remarkable 
Spectra, 424 ; Prof. C. Piazzi Smyth on the Re-examination 
■of the Spectra of Twenty-three Gas- Vacuum ^End-on Tubes 
after Six to Ten Years of Existence and Use, 584.; Spectro- 



scopic Survey of Southern Stars, R. L. J. Ellery, F.R.S. 
597 : Spectro- Photography of Invisible Parts of Solar Spectrum, 
C. V. Zenger, 539 ; ludex of Spectra, W. Marshall Watts, 
641 ; Spectrum of R Andromeda, Espin, 656 

Spencer(Prof. Baldwin), Trip through District of Croajlngolonj, 
421 

Spherical Eggs, Prof. A. G. Greenhill. F.R.S., 10 ; Prof. G. D. 
Liveing, F. R.S., 55; Prof. W. Steadman Aldis, 417 

Spherical Trigonometry, a Treatise on, and its Application to 
Geodesy and Astronomy, Dr. J. Casey, F. R. S., 342 

Spronck (C. li. H ), the Virus of Diphtheria, 407 

Squirrel in Caucasia, Absence of, E. Biichner, 285 

Stags' Horns, Implements of. Associated with Whales' Skele- 
tons, found i'l the Carse Lands of Stirling, Sir William 
Turner, P'.R.S-, 634 

.Stalactite Cave at Hiinnethal, Discovery of, 45 

Stalactite Grotto, the New, at Adelsberg, 577 

Stanley (H M.) : a Visit to Stanley's Rear Guard, at Major 
Barttelot's Camp on the Ariwimi, with an Account of River 
Life on the Congo, J. R. Werner, 241 ; Movements of, 18 1 ; 
News of. 539 

Stanley (Hiram M.), Francis Galton, F.R.S., on Natural In- 
heritance, 642 

Starling, Extinct, of Reuiion, Fregilupiis varius, R. Bowdler 
Sharpe, 177 

Stars : Photographic Determination of the Brightness of the, 
15 ; Variable Stars, 16, 46, 64, 86, no, 135, 165, 181, 210, 
231, 256, 284, 308, 329, 352. 375, 403, 424, 449, 483. 516, 
539. 550> 578, 598, 629, 656 ; Photographic Study of Stellar 
Spectra conducted at the Harvard College Observatory, 17 ; 
Right Ascen-ions of North Circumpolar Stars, Prof. T. H. 
Safford, 63 ; on the Motion of, in the Line of Sight, Prof. H. 
C. Vogel, 109 ; Photographic Star-gauging, A. M. Gierke, 
344 ; Stars with Remarkable Spectra, 424 ; New Double 
Stars, Burnham, 424 ; the Triple Stir 2 2400, 482 ; Spectro- 
scopic Survey of Southern Stars, R. L. J. Ellery, F. R.S., 

597 
State Medicine Syndicate, Annual Examination at Cambridge, 

516 
Statics for Beginners, John Greaves, 77 
Stationary Dust-whirl, J. Lovel, 174 
Statistics, Vital, Elements of, A. Newsholme, 145 
Steam and Steam-engines, a Text-book on. Prof. Andrew 

Jamieson, 642 
Steel, Alloys of Nickel and, James Riley, 58 
Steel, Basic Open-hearth, J. H. Darby, 59 
Steel, Influence of Copper on the Tensile Strength of, E. J. 

Ball and A, Wingham, 59 
Steel and Iron, International Standards far the Analysis of, 

John W. Langley, 558 
Steel, on the Influence of Silicon on the Properties of, Had- 

field, 587 
Steel (K. Elliot), Science Examination Papers, 293 
Steenstrup (Prof.), the Great Mammoth Deposit in Moravia, 

229 
Stefan (Dr.): Ice-growth, 400; Erratum in Paper on Ice- 
growth, 447 
Stellar Evolution, and its Relation to Geological Time, James 

Croll, ?".R.S., A. Fowler, 199 
Stellar Photography, Telescopes for, Sir Howard Grubb, 

F.R.S., 441, 645 
Stereometry, W. W. Haldane Gee and Dr. Arthur Harden on, 

587 
Stewart (Prof. Balfour, F.R.S.), the Actinometer Devised by, 

556 
Stillman (W. J.), a Cordial Recognition, 245 
Stockholm: Royal Academy of Sciences, 96, 120, 264, 54° 5 

Proposed Statue to late John Ericsson in, 133 
Stomach, the Movement and Innervation of the. Dr. Open- 

chowski, 240 
Stone Age in Italy, the, P. Castelfranco, 659 
Stone (Prof. William L.), the Hatchery of the Sun-fish, 202 
Stonehenge, State of, Howard Cunningham, 547 
Stones, Bored, in Boulder Clay, G. W. Lamplugh, 297 
Stonyhurst College Observatory, 164 
Storm (Prof. Gustav), the Vinland Voyages of Norse Colonists 

of Greenland, 182 
Storms, Prof. H. A. Hazen on, 383 
Strachey (General), the Results of European Contact with other 

Paits of the World, no 



XXXll 



INDEX 



\Nature, Nov. 28, 1889 



Strain to Stress, on Hysteresis in the Relation of, Prof. J. A. 

Ewing, F.R.S., 584 
Straits Settlements, Proposed Training Schools for Surveyors in, 

595 
Stranger's Sealed Packet, Mr., Hugh MacColl, R, A. Gregory, 

291 
Streatfield (F. W.), Isomerism of Alkyl-derivatives of Mixed 

Diazoamido-compounds, 215 
Stress, on Hysteresis in the Relation of Strain to, Prof. J. A. 

Ewing, F.R.S., 584 
Stroud (Prof. Henry), on the E.M. F. produced by an Abrupt 

Variation of Temperature at the Point of Contact of Two 

Portions of the same Metal, 585 
Structure and Distribution of Coral Reefs, Dr. H. B. Guppy, 

53. 173 ; Prof T. G. Bonney, F.R. S., 77, 125 
Structure in Ice, Columnar, T. D. La Touche, 35 
Strathers ( lohn), the Anatomy of the Humpback Whale 

[Megaptera longiviana), 592 
Stuart (Prof. A.), Modification of Kymoscope, 432 
Sturgeons, Palaeontology of, A. Smith Woodward, 186 
Subdivision of the Electric Light, 152 
Subjects of Social Welfare, Right Hon. Sir Lyon Playfair, 

F.R.S., 637 
Sudden Phenomena, the Observation of, 482 
Sukkur Bridge, Opening of the, 13 
Sully (James), the Principles of Empirical or Inductive Logic, 

John Venn, F. R. S., 337 
Sulphites, Researches on the, M. P. J. Hartog, 383 
Sulphur Compounds, M. Chabrie on, 370 

Sun : the Total Eclipse of the, December 22, 1889, 462 ; Ob- 
servations of Twilight and Zodiacal Light during the Total 

Eclipse of the, December 21, 1889, Prof Cleveland Abbe, 

519 ; Rotation Period of the, Henry Crew, 550 ; Report to 

the British Association on Solar Radiation, 556 ; Electric 

Phenomena Produced by Solar Radiations, Albert Nodon, 

384 
Sun-distilling Apparatus on Atacama Desert, Hon. Ralph 

Abercromby, 211 
Sun-fish, the Hatcherv of the. Prof. William L. Stone, 202 ; 

Theo. Gill, 319 
Sunday Lecture Society, the, 576 
Sunset-glows, Dr. M. A. Veeder, 645 ; at Honolulu, Sereno 

E. Bishop, 415 
Sunsets, the Red, of 1884-85, Prof. Abbe, 189 
Sunspots and Weather in India, 230 
Survey of the Heavens, Another Photographic, 417 
Survey, the Indian, Colonel Thuillier, 444 
Surveyors in Straits Settlements, Proposed Training Schools for, 

595 
Swallows, Desertion of French Coast by, 85 
Swan (J. Wilson), on Chromic Acid as a Depolarizer in Bunsen's 

Battery, 586 
Swarts (F. ), a New Test for Bromine, 286 
Sweden : Antiquities from Iron Age found in, 163 ; on the 

Geological History of the Prehistoric Flora of. Dr. A. G. 

Nathorst, 453 ; the Preservation of the Eider in, 254 ; Culture 

of Swedish Oyster, 229 
Swift (Prof. Lewis), Comet 1889 ^ (Swift), 255 
Swiss Census, the, 538 
Switzerland, Earthquakes in, 84 
Sydney, N.S.W. : Records of the Geological Survey of New 

South Wales, 254 ; Royal Society of, 263 
" Sylvan Folk," John Watson, 221 
Sylvester (Prof., F.R.S.), the Value of a Finite Continuous and 

Purely Periodical Fraction, 192 
Symbols, Graphic, the Ta Ki, the Svastika, and the Cross in 

America, Dr. D. G. Brinton, 373 
Symons (G. J., F.R.S.) : British Rainfall, 1S88, 437 ; Monthly 

Meteorological Magazine, 654 

Tables, Useful Rules and, William J. M. Rankine, 517 

Tacchini (M.), Solar Phenomena for 1888 and 1889, 144 

Tainter's Graphophone, G. R. Ostheimer, 167 

Taming the Puma, Wm. Lant Carpenter, 542 

Tanfilieff (M.), the Process of Transformation of Rivers into 

Marshes, 163 
Tanganyika, Captain E. C. Hore on, 629 
Tappenbeck (Lieutenant), Death of, 353 
Tashkend, Earthquake at, 283 



Tasmania : Systematic Account of the Geology of, Robert M. 
Johnston, Prof. John W. Judd, F.R.S., 122 ; Proposed Tas- 
manian University, 446 

Taupin (J.), Exploration of the Lower Laos Country by, 17, 
352 

Taylor (Canon Isaac) : on the Origin of the Aryans, 632 ; on the 
Ethnological Significance of the Beech, 632 

Teaching of Science, Elementary, 589, 599 ; Prof Henry E. 
Armstrong, F.R.S,, on, 645 

Teaching University for London, the Proposed, 60 

Teasel, the Spiral Torsion in, M. de Vries, 312 

Tebbutt's (Mr.) Observatory, Windsor, New South Wales, 550 

Technical Education : at Chetham College, 45 ; Opening of the 
Jubilee Technical Institute at Bombay, 60 ; the New Tech- 
nical Education Bill, 330, 350,457 ; Sir Henry Roscoe, M. P., 
F. R. S., 73, 91 ; Primary Technical Education in Hungary, 
Sir Arthur Nicholson, 164, the Government and Technical 
Education, 304 ; Report of the National Association for the 
Promotion of, 350 ; Technical Education in Central India, 
595 ; Right Hon. Sir Lyon Playfair, F.R.S., on Technical 
Education, 639 ; Guide to Technical and Commercial Educa- 
tion, 538 ; Technical School at Frank fort-on- Maine, 350 ; 
Technical School, Manchester, 445, 577 

Telephone Disk, Dr. Frohlich's New Method of Objective 
Demonstration of Vibrations of, 72 

Telephone, the, William Henry Preece, F. R. S., and Julius 
Maier, Prof A. Gray, 200 

Telephonic Communication between London and Paris, W. 
Preece, F.R.S., 631 

Telescope, the Newall, 114 

Telescopes for Stellar Photcgraphy, Sir Howard Grubb, F.R. S., 
441, 645 

Telluric Origin of the Oxygen Lines in the Solar Spectrum, J. 
Janssen, 104 

Tellurium, Dr. B. Brauner on, 214, 284 

Temperature, Decrease of, with Increase of Altitude, Prof W, 
Ferrel, 446 

Temperature, Report to the British Association on the Seasonal 
Variations of, in Lakes, Rivers, and Estuaries in the United 
Kingdom, Dr. H. R. Mills, 556 

Temperature, Underground, Report to the British Association 
on. Prof. Everett, F.R.S., 551 

Temperatures, some Lake Ontario, A. T. Drummond, 416 

Temperatures, Strength of Alloys at Difterent, W. C. Unwin, 
F.R.S., 631 

Terby (M.), White Spot on Saturn's Ring, 307 

Terrestrial Globe at the Paris Exhibition, 278 

Terry (Hubert L.) and W. W. Haldane Gee, on the Specific 
Heat of Caoutchouc, 587 

Tertiary Flora of Australia, Contributions to the, C. von 
Ettingshausen, J. Starkie Gardner, 517 

Test of Divisibility by a Prime, Robt. W. D. Christie, 247 

Testing of Colour-blindness, Rev. J. F. Heyes, 572 

Tetanus, Influence of Digestive Juices on Virus of, Prof G. 
Sormani, 21, 635 

Thames, Electric Launches on the, Prof. G. Forbes. F. R. S.,'630 

"Theorem of the Bride," Prof George J. Allman, F. R.S.,299, 
320 

Thermal Relations, the Law of, Wm. Ferrel, 310 

Thermodynamics : Impossibility of Existence of Diamagnetic 
Bodies, P. Duhem, 118 

Thermometer, on the Black-bulb, in vacuo, Prof. McLeod, 
F.R.S., 585 

Thermometer, Six's, for Soil Temperature, Modification of, 
Prof Milton Whitney, 230 

Thermometers, Mercurial, Rogers and Woodward, 559 

Thermometric Scale, a New, Prof G. Forbes. F.R. S., and 
W. H. Preece, F.R.S., on, 587 

Thionic Series, the, Marcellin Berthelot, F. R.S., 23, 95 

Thiophosphoryl Fluoride, Thorpe and Rodger, 94 

Thomasberg, Traces of Glacial Action on, 163 

Thome (Dr.), Variable 7? Argus, 550 

Thompson (Arthur), Osteology of Veddahs of Ceylon, 118 

Thompson (Beeby), Middle Lias of Northamptonshire, 341 

Thompson (Elizabeth) Science Fund, the, 209 

Thompson (Prof Silvanus P.) : Notes on Polarized Light, 143 ; 
Methods of Suppressing Sparking in Electro- Magnets, 190 ; 
Geometrical Optics, 190; Optical Torque, 232, 257; a Phe- 
nomenon in the Electro-Chemical Solution of Metals, 586 ; on 
Sparkless Electro-Magnets, 587 



H Nature, Nov. 28, 1889] 



INDEX 



XXXlll 



Thomson (Basil H.), on the Louisiade and D'Entrecasteaux 

Islands, 256 
Thomson (Joseph), Travels in the Atlas and Southern Morocco, 

149 
Thomson (Sir William, F.R. S.): Popular Lectures and Ad- 
dresses, Prof. Oliver J. Lodge, F.R.S., 433 ; on Boscovich's 
Theory, 545 
Thorpe (Prof. T. E.. F.R.S. ) : the Majjnetic Disturbing Forces 
of British Isles, 66 ; Thiophosphoryl Fluoride, 94 ; Dmitri 
Ivanowitsh Mendeleeff, 193 ; and Prof. A. W. Riicker, 
F.R.S. , on the Relation between the Geological Constitution 
and the Magnetic State of the United Kingdom, 585, 609 
Three Cruises of the Blake, Alexander Agassiz, Dr. John 
Murray, 361 

Thuillier (Colonel), the Survey of India, 444 

Thunderstorms, the Recent, W. Marriott, 238 

Thunderstorms in South Germany, Velocity of Propagation of, 
Dr. Lang, 283 

Thurston (Edgar), Tuticorin Pearl Fishery, 174 

Thwaite (B. H.), Gaseous Fuel, 342 

Tian-Slian, Exploration of the Eastern, Brothers Grum- 
Grzimailo, 65 

Tiberias, Proposed Meteorological Observations at. Dr. Tor- 
rance, 654 

Tibet, the Russian Expedition to, 65 

Tidal Observations in Canada, Fourth Report to the British 
Association of the Committee appointed to Promote, Prof. A. 
Johnson, 554 

Tiddeman (R. H.), on Concurrent Faulting and Deposit in Car- 
boniferous Times, 609 

Tierra del Fuego, the Inhabitants of. Rev. C. Aspinall, 374 

Tietken's Proposed Exploration of Interior of South Australia, 
.308, 551 

Tillinghurst (W. H.), Centenarian Graduates of American Col- 
leges, 284 

Tillo (A. de), Mean Altitude of Continents and Mean Depth of 
Oceans, 239 

Timber- Parasites, Prof. H. M. Ward, F.R.S., 67 

Timbre, Helmholtz's Theory of, 479 

Tin, Coal and. Discoveries in Western Australia, H. P. Wood- 
ward, 304 

Titicaca, Lake, Dr. Alfred Hettner's Observations on, 308 

Todd (Prof.), the United States Eclipse Expedition, 462 

Todhunter's Integral Calculus, Key to, H. St. J. Hunter, 593 

Tokio, Remarkable Earthquake at, 162 

Tokio : the Earthquake of April 18, 1889, Dr. E. von Rebeur- 
Paschwitz, 294 ; Fifteen Years' Earthquakes in, 480 

Tomlinson (C, F.R.S.) : Atmospheric Electricity, 102 ; on the 
Theory of Hail, 203 ; on some Effects of Lightning, 366 

Tomlinson (Herbert, F.R.S.), Error in Maxwell's "Electricity 
and Magnetism, 621 

Tomsk University, the, 578 

Topinard (M. ) : Differences between Methods of Anthropo- 
metry followed by the Artist and the Anthropologist, 562 ; 
Chart of Colour of Eyes and Hair in France, 659 

Torpedo, the Electrical Organ of. Prof. Fritsch, 24 

Torque, Optical, Prof. Silvanus P. Thompson, 232, 257 

Torrance (Dr.), Proposed Meteorological Observatories at 
Tiberias, 654 

Torres Straits Collection, Prof. Haddon's, 626 

Torres Straits Islanders, the Customs and Beliefs of the. Prof. 
A. C. Haddon on, 633 

Tortoises, Land, on the Aquatic Habits of Certain, R. W. 
Shufeklt, 644 

Toxicology : Toxic Action of Albumose from Seeds of Abrus 
precatorius, Dr. Sidney Martin, 117 

Trachea, Physiology of the, M. Nicaise, 612 

Traill (Thos. W.), Boilers, their Construction and Strength, 
414 

Tramway, Northfleet Series Electric, 39 

Transcaspian Region, Colonization of. General Annenkoff, 230 

Transformism in Micro-biology, A. Chauveau, 612 

Transformism in Pathogenic Micro-biology, A. Chauveau, 636 

Transvaal, New Map of, Fred. Jeppe, 539 

Travellers, an Anthropometric Instrument for. Dr. Garson on, 
633 

I ravels in the Atlas and Southern Morocco, Joseph Thomson, 
149 

Travels in South Africa, Francis Galton, 570 



Trawling Expedition off the Irish Coast, by the Rev. W. S. 

Green and W. de Vismes Kane, 253 
Tree, Curious Effects of Lightning on a, Alfred S. Gubb, 203 
Trees on Another's Land, on the Right of Property in, Hyde 

Clarke, 63? 
Trepied (Ch. ), Observations at Algiers Observatory, 539 
Triangle, the Recent Geometry of the, 460 
Trichina, the Vitality of, Paul Gibier, 588 
Trigonometry, Key to Lock's Elementary, Henry Carr, 125 
Trigonometry, Spherical : a Treatise on. Dr. J. Casey, F.R.S., 

342 ; Delambre's Analogies, R. Chartres, 644 
Trigonome try. Treatise on, W. E. Johnson, 542 
Trimorphism in Scahiosa succisa, Arthur Turner, 646 
Trinidad Botanic Garden, 421 

Trognitz (Herr), Areas of South American .States, 446 
Tropaeolum, Abnormality in. Prof. Alfred Denny, 125 
Trotter (Alex. P.) : a Refraction Goniometer, 71 ; on a Curve 

Ranger, 631 
Trout, Lake, Reared at Champ de I'Air, Prof. Blanc, 422 
Troulon (Fred. T.) : Experiments on Electro-magnetic Radia- 
tion, including some on the Phase of Secondary Waves, 398 ; 
Experiments on Radiation with Prof. Hertz's Mirrors, 585 ; 
Temporary Thermo-Currents in Iron, 587 
Tsien-Tang Kiang, the Bore of the. Captain W. U. Moore, 163 
Tucker (R.) some Properties of the Number Seven, 115 
Turbot, the Fertilization of the Milt of, with the Ova of the 

Lemon Sole, Thomas Scott, 253 
Turbulent Liquid Motion, on an Electro-magnetic Interpretation 

of. Prof. Geo. Fras. Fitzgerald, F.R.S., 32 
Turkestan, Earthquake in, 61, 327 
Turkestan, Russian, Culture of American Cotton-Tree in, A. 

Wilkins, 180 
Turner (Arthur), Trimorphism in Scabiosa succisa, 643 
Turner (R.), the Uredinese and Ustilaginese, 653 
Turner (Sir William, M.B., F.R.S.) : Opening Address, Sec- 
tion H (Anthropology), at the Meeting of the British Asso- 
ciation, 526; on the Placentation of the Dugong, 611 ; on 
Implements of Stags' Horns associated with Whales' Skele- 
tons found in the Carse Lands of Stirling, 634 
Turtle-headed Rock Cod, 77 
Tuticorin Pearl Fishery, Edgar Thurston, 174 
Twilight and Zodiacal Light, Observations of, during the Tota 
Eclipse of the Sun, December 21, 1889, Prof. Cleveland 
Abbe, 519 



Unit of Self-induction, Name for. Prof. Oliver J. Lodge, 

F.R.S., II 
United States : Proposed New Telescope for Harvard Uni- 
versity Observatory, 252 ; Agricultural Experimental Stations 
in the, 455; Stones and Geyser Outbreak in, 516; Water- 
Gas in the, Alex. C. Humphreys, 630 
Universities : University Intelligence, 20, 142, 166, 189, 212, 
237, 334, 483, 611, 659; Proposed Teaching University for 
London, 60 ; Report of the Royal Commission on a Uni- 
versity for London, 121, 149 ; Sir Lyon Play fair on Universi- 
ties, 204 ; University Extension, the Second Summer 
Meeting, 281, 447, 549; the Grant for University Colleges, 
304 ; Astronomy at Johns Hopkins University, 351 ; Important 
Bequest to, 627 ; the Tomsk University, 578 ; Proposed Tas- 
manian University, 446 
Unwin (W. C, F.R.S.), on the Strength of Alloys at Different 

Temperatures, 631 
Upham (Warren), Marine Shells in the Till near Boston, 68 
Uranium, the Metal, 462 
Uranus, the Planet, R. A. Gregory, 235 
Urea, Derivatives of Ethylene and, M. Graebe, 369 
Uric Acid, Synthesizalion of, Drs. Behrend and Roosen, 62 
Urinary Bladder, Dr. Nitze's Apparatus for Observing the, 192 
Useful Rules and Tables, William J. M. Rankine, 517 
Uslar (Baron), the Avarian Language, 283 
Ussher (Mr.), on the Devonian Rocks of Britain, 608 



Valley Formation, Influence of Wind and Rain in, Herr 

Rucktiischel, 599 
Vapour, Saturated Aqueous, at 0° C, Determination of 

Specific Volume of, Dr. Dieterici, 168 
Variability, Sir William Turner, F.R.S., on, 526 



XXXIV 



INDEX 



[Nature, Nov. 28, 1S89 



Variability of a Species in a State of Nature, Alfred Russel 
Wallace, 566 

Variable Stars : 16, 46, 64, 86, no, 135, 165, i8r, 210, 231, 
256, 284, 308, 329, 352, 375, 403, 424. 449, 483, 516, 539, 
550, 578, 598, 629, 656 ; the General Relations of the Phe- 
nomena of, S. C. Chandler, 181 ; Variable X Cygni, Mr. 
Yendall, 15 ; Variable tj Argus, Dr. Thome, 550 

Variation, Fortuitous, Lester F. Ward, 3 to 

Vatican, Astronomical Observatory, the Proposed, 84 

Veddahs of Ceylon, Osteology of, Arthur Thompson, 1 18 

Veeder (Dr. M. A.): the Formation of Cumuli, 203; the 
Aurora, 318 ; Sunset Glows, 645 

Vegetation, Sources of the Nitrogen of, 332 ; W. Mattieu 
Williams, 394 

Veley (V. H.), the Rate of Dissolution of Metals in Acids, 22 

Venezuela, Pre-Columbian Ethnography of, Dr. Marcano, 142 

Venn (John, F.R.S.), the Principles of Empirical or Inductive 
Logic, James Sully, 337 

Ventnor, Capture of Large Shark off, 163 

Veroffentlichungen of Berlin Museum fiir Volkerkunde, 163 

Verschoyle (Rev. J.), the History of Ancient Civilization, 7 

Vertebrate Fauna of the Outer Hebrides, J. A. Harvie-Brown 
and T. E. Buckley, loi 

Vertebrates, Valuable Specimens of, for Biological Laboratories, 
G. Baur, 644 

Verworm (Dr. Max), Psycho-physiologische Protisten-Studien, 
experimentelle Untersuchungen, 541 

Vesuvius, the New Eruption of, Dr. H. J. Johnston-Lavis, 34 

Vettin (Dr.), the Formation of Atmospheric Precipitate*, 119 

Vibrations, New Method of Recording, Dr. Friihlich, 287 

Vices of our Scientific Education, the, Prof. Minchin, 126 

Victoria Hall Science Lectures, 653 

Victoria Institute, 239 

Victoria, the Minor Planet, Meridian Observations of, in July 
1889, 169 

Victoria : Viticulture in, 445 ; Proposed Government Survey of 
Coal Districts in, 595 

Victoria University of Manchester, Local Lectures, 253 

Victorian Naturalist, 421 

Vidal ',Don Sebastian), Death and Obituary Notice of, 547 

Vienna Geographical Society, 182 

Vienna : Imperial Academy of Sciences, 120, 144, 288 ; Im- 
perial Museum and Prof. H. G. Reichenbach's Collection of 
Orchids, 253 ; British and American Graduates at the Vienna 
Medical School, 44 ; Vienna Observatory, 329 

Vikings as the Direct Ancestors of the English-speaking Na- 
tions, Paul B. du Chaillu on the, 632 

Ville (G. ), Relations between Physical Characters of Plants and 
Proportion of Elements of Fertility in Soil, 659 

Vine-Diseases in France, Treatment of, G. W. Roosevelt, 446 

Vine-Pests, the Cost of various Remedies against, 374 

Vines (Dr. Sydney H., F. R.S.): Eritnis liispanicusi^) on the 
Roman Wall, 544 ; Examination of Points in Prof. Weis- 
riann's Theory of Heredity, 621 

Vinland Voyages of Norse Colonists of Greenland, the. Prof. 
Gustav Storm, 182 

Violle (J.), the Alloy of the Standard International Kilogramme, 
48 

Viper : and Lizard, 134 ; a Lizard Swallowed by a, Prof. T. G. 
Bonney, F.R. S., 150 

Vis (De), Prionodura newtoniana and Acanthiza squamata, 

Vision, Indirect, Kirschmann, 373 

Vital Statistics, Elements of, A. Newsholme, 145 

Viticulture in Algeria, the Dangers of, Consul-General Playfair, 

Viticulture in Victoria, 445 

Vogan (A. L), Intended Exploration of Interior of New South 
Wales, 182 

Vogel (Prof. H. C), on the Motion of Stars in the Line of 
Sight, 109 

Volatilization of Lead Oxide and its Action upon Glass at Low 
Temperatures, J. W. Hogg, 587 

Volcanic Activity in Mount Ruapehu, 179 

Volcanic Eruption in Erzeroum, 479 

Volcanic Lavas and the Action of Molten Glass, 263 

Volcanic Regions of Italy, Scientific Excursions to, 537 

Volcano, the Miharaizan, 179 

Volcanoes of Italy, the Excursion to the, Dr. H. J. Johnston- 
Lavis, 294 



Volcanoes : the Earlier Eruptions of Krakata"b, Prof. John W. 

Judd, F.R.S., 365 
Voltmeter, a Hot Twisted Strip, Prof. Perry, F. R.S., on, 5S6 
Volumetric .Analysis for Silver, &c., 38^ 
Vries (M. de), the Spiral Torsion in Wild Teasel, 312 
Vulcano, the Recent Eruption on, 384 



Wagner (Dr. Hermann) : Bericht iiber die Entwickelung der 

Methodik und des S'udiums der Erdkunde, 75 ; Discussion 

of Instructions for Observers of Prussian Meteorological 

Institute. 334 
W^agner (Moriz), Die Entstehung der Arten durch raumliohc 

Sonderung Gesammelte Aufsatze von, 220 
Walcott (C. D.) : Stratigraphic Position of Olenellus Fauna, 68 ; 

the Olenellus Fauna in North America and Europe, 310 
Wales, Intermediate Education in, q7, 480 
Walker Engineering Laboratories, 653 
Walker (J. T.), Do Cats Count?, 394 
Wall (E. J.), Dictionary of Photography, loi 
Wallach (Dr.), Pinol, an Isomer of Camphor, 655 
Wallace (Alfred Russel), Darwinism, Prof. E. Ray Lankester, 

F.R.S., 566; Variability of Species in a State of Nature, 

566 ; on the Origin and Uses of Colour in Animals, 566 ; 

Lamarck versus Weismann, 619 
Wallace (Prof. Robert), Farm Live Stock of Great Britain, 619 
Walras (Leon), Elements d' Economic Politique Pure, 434 
Walters (Rev. F. B. ) and A. Cockshott, a Treatise on Geo- 
metrical Conies, 390 
Ward (A. W.) : the Magnetic Rotation of Plane of Polarization 

of Light in Doubly Refracting Bodies, 117 ; the Use of the 

Biquartz, 191 
Ward (F. L.), Sociology of Protection and Free Trade, 558 
Ward (Prof. H. Marshall, F.R.S.), Timber Parasites, 67 
Ward (Lester F.), Fortuitous Variation, 310 
Warren (Rev. J.), an Elementary Treatise on Mechanics, 365 
Warrington (R.), the Analysis of Rain Water, 215 
Water- Distilling Apparatus, Sun, on Atacama Desert, Hon. 

Ralph Abercromhy, 211 
Water, Examination of, for Sanitary and Technical Purposes, 

Henry Leffmann, 293 
Water, on the Transporting Power of, in the Deepening of 

Rivers, W. II. Wheeler, 631 
Water-Gas in the United States, Alex. C. Humphreys, 630 
Water- Hammer, Experiment with, Dr. Reichel, 72 
Waterspout in Saxony, 84 

Waikin (Sir E.), Purchase of Snowdon Summit by, 282 
Watson (Rev. H. W., F.R.S.), Hertz's Equations, u 
Watson (John), Sylvan Folk, 221 
Watson (W.), Cactus Culture for Amateurs, 123 
Watts Town, Earthquake at, 208 
Watts (W. Marshall), Index of Spectra. 641 
Watts's Dictionary of Chemistry, Sir H. E. Roscoe, F.R. S., 

640 
Weather, Inclement, in China, 179 
Weather Maps, Synoptic, Ru-sian, 133 
Weather Prediction, Synoptic Table of, Plumandon and Colomes, 

61 
Webster (W.), on the Purification of Sewage by Electrolysis, 

631 

Weed (W. H), the Formation of Siliceous Sinter by Vegetation 
of Thermal Springs, 68 

Weevil, the Mango, Wray, 402 

Weighing and Measuring, the Progress of Science as Exemplified 
in the Art of. Dr. William Harkness, 376 

W^eismann (T~)r. August) : Lamarck versus, J. T. Cunningham, 
297 ; Pr. A. R. Wallace, 619 ; on the Inheritance of In- 
juries, 303 ; Essays on Heredity and Kindred Biological 
Problems, edited bv E. B. Poulton, Selmar Schonland, and 
A. E. Shipley, 6i8 ; Theory of Heredity, Examination of 
Points in. Dr. S. H. Vines, F.R.S., 621 ; Use of Panmixia, 
610 

Weis'cnborn (Dr. Bernhard), Death of, 162 

Wells in Australia, Artesian, 305 

Welsford (J. W.) and F. E. Marshall, Longmans' School Arith- 
metic, 52 

Welsh Intermediate Education Bill, the, 304 

Werner (J. R.): Journeys up the Ngala and Aruwimi Tribu- 
taries of the Congo, 65 ; a Visit to Stanley's Rear Guard at 



Nature, Nov. 28, il 



INDEX 



XXXV 



Major Barttelol's Camp on the Aruwimi, with an Account 

of River Life on the Congo, 241 
West India Islands, Report to the British Association on the 

Zoology and Botany of the, D. Morris, 553 
Weston (A.), Proposed Exploration of Northern Queensland by, 

308 
Whale, Anatomy of the Humpback {Megaptcra longimana), 

John Struthers, 592 
Whales and the Cod Fisheries on the Coast of Finland, 254 
Whales' Skeletons found in the Carse L^nds of Stirling, Imple- 
ments of Stags' Horns associated with, Sir William Turner, 

F.R.S., 634 
Wheat, Indian, Importation of Injurious Insects in, Chas. 

Whitehead, 481 
Wheeler (W. H.). on the Transporting Power of Water in the 

Deepening of Rivers, 631 
Whipple (G. M.), the Dark Flash in Lightning Photographs, 

70 
White (Chas.), the Mesozoic Division of the Geological Record 

as seen in America, 557 
White Spot on Saturn's Ring: Prof. Holden, 15 ; M. Terby, 

307 
White (William), the Supposed Connection between Distant 

Earthquake Shocks, 393 
Whitehead (Chas.): the Hessian Fly in England, 446; Im- 
portation of Injurious Insects in Indian Wheat, 481 
Whitmell (C. T.), Colour, 51S 
Whitney (Prof. Milton), Modification of Six's Thermometer for 

Soil Temperature, 230 
Wichniann (Prof. A.), Return of, from Dutch East Indies, 353 
Wiegmann and Skraup (Drs.), a New Amine, 14 
Williams (Prof. H. S.), Cis- and Trans- Atlantic Formations 

Compared, 557 
Williams (W. Mattieu), the Sources of Nitrogen in Vegetation, 

394 
Williamson (Benjamin, F.R.S.) and Francis A. Tarleton, an 

Elementary Treatise on Dynamics, 437 
Williamson (Prof. W. C, F.R.S. ), on Coal and Mineral Char- 
coal, 608 
Wilson (Dr. John), a Method of Mounting Dried Plants, 438 
Wilson, legacy to the City of Gothenburg, 254 
Wilson, Protection of Fruit-Trees against'Winter-Moths, 85 
Wilson (Sir Daniel), the Huron -Iroquois of Eastern Canada, 

557 
Wind Action, Erosions due to, Contejean, IQ2 
Wind Currents, Upper, over the Equator in the Atlantic Ocean, 

Hon. Ralph Abercromby, loi ; E. Foulger, 224 
^^ iiid, Experiment-; on Connection between Pressure and 

Velocitv of, W. H. Dines, 94 
Winton (Colonel Sir Francis de). Opening Address in Section 

E (Geography), at the British Association, 492 
Wires, Expansion of, with Rise of Temperature under Pulling 

Stress. J. T. Bottomley, F.R.S., 263 
Woeikof (A.), Der Einfluss einer Schneedecke auf Boden, Klima 

und Wetter, 314 
Wolf (M, R.), on the Variation of Latitude in the Solar Spots, 

383 
Woodhead (Dr. G. Sims) and Robert Irvine on the Secretion of 

Carbonate of Lime by Animals, 614 
Woodward (A. Smith), Palaeontology of Sturgeons, 186 
Woodward (H. P.), Coal and Tin Discoveries in Western 

Australia, 304 
Woodward (R. T.), Mercurial Thermometers, 559 
\\ oolwich Mathematical Papers, 1880-88, 317 
\\ oolwich and Sandhurst, Examinations for, 43 
^Vc)rcester, Sanitary Conference at, 548 
Worsley-Benison (H. W, S.), Haunts of Nature, 173 



Wray, on the Mango Weevil, 402 

Wreaths, Ancient Egyptian Funeral, Discovered by W. M. 
Flinders Petrie, 211 

Wright (Dr. C. R. Alder, F.R.S.), Commercial Organic 
Analysis, Alfred H. Allen, 289 

Wright-^on (Prof. John), an Italian's View of English Agri- 
cultural Education, 428 



Yadrintzeff's Central Asian Expedition, Return of, 551 

Yahgan, the, 416 

Yale College Observatory, 448 

Vate (Major C. E.), Northern Afghanistan, 31 

Yendall (Mr.), Variable X Cygni, 15 

Yew Trees in Berks, George Henslow, 621 

Yorkshire College of Science, 547 

Young (John) : the Occurrence of Spines within Spines or> 

Shells of Carboniferous Productida?, 134 ; Polyzoa and Mon- 

ticuligrora Discovered at Kirktonhelm, 627 
Young (Prof. S. ), Vapour- Pressures, &c., of Similar Compounds- 

of Elements in Relation to Periodic System, 215 



Zambesi, Discovery of New Mouth of, 16 

Zarza (Samuel), the Writings and Opinions of, Salomon Reinach,. 
68 

Zelbr (Dr. K.), Comet 1889 d (Brooks, July 6), 448 

Zenger (Ch. V.) : Electric Figures Produced by Lightning, 432 - 
Spectro- Photography of Invisible Parts of Solar Spe:trum» 
539 

Zinc, the Atomic Weight of. Dr. J. H. Gladstone and W. Hib- 
bert, 215 

Zirconium, G. H. Bailey, 92 

Zodiacal Light, Observations of Twilight and, during the Tota> 
Eclipse of the Sun, December 21, 1889, Prof. Cleveland 
Abbe, 519 

Zoological Collection for Bombay, Proposed Improved, 282 

Zoological Gardens, Additions to, 15,46, 63, 86, 109, 135, 164, 
180, 209, 231, 255, 284, 305, 307, 328, 352, 374, 403, 423,. 
447, 482, 516, 538, 549, 578, 597, 628, 655 

Zoological Results of the Challenger Expedition, 171 

Zoological Society, 22, 95, 167, 191, 239 

Zoology : the Rocky Mountain Goat, Dr. Grinnell, 62 ;: 
Praepollex and Pra^haliux of Mammalian Skeleton, Prof. 
Bardeleben, 95 ; a Vertebrate Fauna of the Outer Hebrides, 
J. A. Harvie-Brown, loi : the Leaf-Insect of the Seychelles^ 
at the Zoological Giirdens, 105 ; the Kangaroo in Danger of 
Extinction, 133 ; Viper and Lizard, 134, 150 ; Iguanas and 
Elephant in Philadelphia Zoological Garden, i8o ; Die 
Entstehungder Arten durch riiumliche Sonderung Gesammelte 
Aufsiiize von MorizWagnei, 220; Zoological Congress in Paris, 
252 ; Trawling Expedition by the Rev. W. S. Green and W. de 
Vismes Kane off ;he Irish Coast, 253 ; New Apparatus for 
Marine Exploration, 264 ; the Private Laboratory of Marine 
Zoology at Rapallo, Dr. L. Camerano, M. G. Peracca, and 
D. Rosa, 302 ; M. Deschamps' Expedition to Laccadive 
Islands, 305 ; a New Species of Phoronis, 384 ; State of 
Zoology a Hundred Years ago, M. de Lacaze Duihiers, 395 ; 
the Zoology of the Afghan Delimitation Commission, E. T. 
Aitchison, 413 ; Zoology, Geology, and Physical Characters 
of Lord Howe Island, 414 ; the Morals of the Lower Animals, 
422 ; the Force of Example in Animals, 461 ; Report to the 
British Association on the Zoology and Botany of the West 
India Islands, D. Morris, 553 
Zuntz (Prof.), Heat-Regulation in Man, 408 
Zurich, International Meteorological Committee Meeting at, 375 



p 




A WEEKLY ILLUSTRATED JOURNAL OF SCIENCE. 

' ' To the solid ground 
Of Nature trusts the mind which builds for aye." — Wordsworth. 



THURSDAY, MAY 2, iJ 



THE NEW CODE AND SCIENCE TEACHING. 

THE new Code of the Education Department ^ is now 
lying on the table of the House of Commons, and 
never, since the famous proposals of Mr. Mundella, has 
there been so much stir among those interested in primary 
instruction as at the present moment. The reason is not 
far to seek. For some years a Royal Commission has 
been sitting and taking evidence, and it has produced 
several bulky Blue-books during the course of the past 
year. It was known that the Commission was divided 
into a majority and minority who were strongly opposed 
to one another on certain questions of policy. This has 
found expression in lengthy reports and contradictory 
recommendations ; but, to the satisfaction, if not to the 
surprise, of educationists it is found that on purely edu- 
cational matters there is an almost perfect unanimity 
between the two sections. It was therefore a matter of 
deep interest to see how, and to what extent, these 
recommendations, signed by every member of the Com- 
mission, would be embodied in the proposed Code 
of 1889. 

At the outset it may be well to remar'i that there are 
several alterations in this Code which are almost uni- 
versally allowed to be improvements. But it is conceived 
in a spirit of compromise, and perhaps no party is entirely 
satisfied with it. The only point we have to consider is 
the aspect of the Code towards the teaching of natural 
science. 

It may be convenient to group our observations under 
different headings. 

I. The direct changes proposed in the teaching of 
science. These are almost confined to one or two modi- 
fications in the geographical schedule, and to a provision 
that " Scholars of any public elementary school may 
attend science classes held at any place approved by the 
inspectors." This may be very useful in towns, espe- 
cially as it will admit of the formation of central 

' "Code of Regulations, with Schedules, by the Right Honourable the 
Lords of the Committee of the Privy Council on Education." (Eyre and 
Spottiswoode ) 

Vol. XL.— No. 1018. 



laboratories or work-rooms similar to the present 
cookery centres. 

II. The proposed changes which will tend to facilitate 
the teaching of science. There are four subjects of in- 
struction which are termed '• class-subjects " : English 
(including grammar, composition, and repetition of poetry), 
Geography, Elementary Science (a progressive course of 
object-lessons), and History ; together with Needle-work 
for girls. Only two of these class-subjects can be taken 
for examination, and, under the old Code, " English " 
must necessarily be one of those chosen. The conse- 
quence of this is, that " Elementary Science " has never 
got a footing in our schools, for even where two class- 
subjects are taken, they are nearly always English and 
Geography, or English and Needle-work. The supre- 
macy of English is now to be put an end to, so that any 
teacher may now take Elementary Science, if he or she 
should prefer it, and earn a grant. 

The enormous waste of time and patience in making 
little children, even in our infant-schools, learn the spell- 
ing of common words, is to be reduced. The inspector 
is to give no dictation exercises to boys and girls under 
the second standard. This will give more time for 
object-lessons and other valuable modes of instruction. 

Some relaxation of the literary requirements are also 
made in the case of evening schools. 

The present system of payment by results is to be so 
modified that the cramming in the three R.'s will not be 
so profitable, and there will be more chance for intelligent 
teaching. One of the matters also to be taken into 
account by the inspector in assessing a school, is the 
provision of " apparatus," though this need not necessarily 
have anything to do with what scientific men would call 
by that name. 

These proposed changes are in the right direction, but 
the value of many of them will largely depend upon how 
they are understood. There is a singular want of clear- 
ness in some of the clauses. The annual " Instructions 
to inspectors " have not been yet drawn up, and indeed it 
is very improbable that they will make their appearance 
until after the Code has become law. It is quite possible 
to take away with one hand what is given with the other. 
The present agitation is therefore of great importance 

B 



NATURE 



{May 2, 1889 



not merely in getting modifications of the Code when 
discussed in Parhament, but in inducing the Education 
Department to give their inspectors such instructions as 
shall secure that the greater liberty of teaching should be 
a reality ; that the ominous word " repetition," introduced 
into one or two paragraphs may not become " English " 
in disguise ; and that the spelling of the second standard 
should not involve a laborious preparation of the younger 
children. 

III. These alterations bearing on the teaching of 
science fall far short of what the Royal Commissioners 
unanimously recommend. The report of the majority 
states that " some elementary instruction in science is 
only second in importance to the three elementary 
subjects : "—namely, reading, writing, and arithmetic, 
and it places among subjects regarded as essential, 
"geography (especially of the British Empire) ; lessons 
on common objects in the lower standards leading up to 
a knowledge of elementary science in the higher stand- 
ards." It adds, " That geography, if properly taught, is a 
branch of elementary science, which should not be 
separated from the other branches, and might well be 
taught along with object lessons, in accordance with the 
recommendations of the Royal Commission on Technical 
Instruction"; "that the curriculum in the ordinary ele- 
mentary schools might often include not only instruction 
in the elementary principles of science, but also, in certain 
standards, elementary manual instruction in the use of 
tools, and in higher schools and evening schools this 
work might be carried still further " ; " that, in making 
future appointments to the office of inspector, it would be 
desirable, in regard to a larger proportion of them than 
at present, to give special weight to the possession of an 
adequate knowledge of natural science." The members of 
the minority express themselves, if possible, more 
strongly ; and make such additional remarks as, " We are 
of opinion that, after the children have left the infant 
school, transitional methods should be adopted, which 
will develop their activity and train their powers by 
drawing in all cases, and by such other means as, for 
instance, modelling, or the collection and mounting of bo- 
tanical specimens." ..." If science is to be well taught, care 
should be taken, that where the ordinary teachers are not 
qualified, specially trained teachers should be employed." 
In respect to technical schools they say, " These schools, 
which should be the crown and development of elementary 
education, should be in touch and close sympathy through 
their management with our elementary school system." 

IV. The proposals of the new Code also fall far short 
of what the principal School Boards are attempting. 
Spirited eff"orts are made in Birmingham, Manchester, 
Sheffield, Brighton, and other provincial towns, in estab- 
lishing higher elementary schools with useful scientific 
teaching. The London Board determined from the com- 
mencement that object-lessons leading up to science sub- 
jects should be given in all its schools. It has repeatedly 
contended for the official recognition of such lessons ; 
and it has lately sent a memorial to the Education Depart- 
ment asking that the regulation, at present in force in the 
infant schools, that, in assessing the grant, regard should 
be had " to the provision made for simple lessons on ob- 
jects and on the phenomena of Nature and of common life," 
should be extended to the boys' and girls' departments. 



The reforms decided upon by the London Board last year 
with the view of making the teaching "more experimental 
and practical, and not so much a matter of book-learn- 
ing as a development of intelligence and skill (see 
Nature, vol. xxxvii. p. 577), are being gradually put 
into operation. 

It has also for some years carried on a few classes for 
manual instruction in the use of tools with good success, 
but its efforts in that direction have been nearly paralyzed 
by the disfavour of the Legislature. This seems a neces- 
sary step towards the technical education which is now 
loudly called for (see Sir Henry Roscoe's lecture. Nature, 
vol. xxxviii. p. 186) ; jbut in the new Code we look in vain 
for a word of encouragement. 

Some of the larger Boards have carefully provided good 
instruction in natural history, and in the fundamental 
principles underlying mechanical, physical, and chemical 
science, for their pupil-teachers, though that does not 
appear upon the Government schedule. 

V. What is wanted is afar more liberal recognition of the 
claims of science in elementary education. At present, 
object-lessons or certain sciences are, no doubt, recognized 
by the Code ; but it is merely as an additional subject of in- 
struction not comparable with the literary subjects which 
are considered essential, and which occupy the great bulk 
of the scholars' time. The knowledge of Nature is, in 
fact, totally neglected in hundreds or thousands of ele- 
mentary schools, especially in country districts, where it 
would appear to be even more important than in towns. 
A boys' or girls' school can obtain the highest credit in 
the inspector's report, and the highest possible grant of 
money, without its scholars having ever heard of animal 
or plant, or of those materials of the world, or of those 
natural forces, with which the scholars will have to deal 
all through their lives. And what is perhaps still more 
anomalous, those pupil-teachers who are possibly expected 
to give object-lessons in their schools are never examined 
in natural history by the Department, and may gain 
a high place in their examinations without the least 
knowledge of any kind of natural science. 

It seems most desirable that every little child who 
enters our schools should be led to observe and inquire ; 
its curiosity and activity should be encouraged and 
directed; only when its senses have been made ac- 
quainted with things should it be introduced to the words 
by which they are called, first orally, then in writing or 
print. It should proceed from the concrete to the abstract. 
The works of the Creator are as worthy to be studied as 
the words of men, and should hold as high a place in any 
school curriculum. 

The reply of the Department to such requests as these 
will probably be, We cannot assume that the teachers 
are capable of teaching or the inspectors of examining 
science. No doubt there is that difficulty. But many of 
them are capable, and they are all presumably intelligent 
men, who would easily learn what might be required of 
them. Special teachers of science also exist, and special 
examiners might be appointed. It may not be possible 
to insist on all these reforms at once, but at least en- 
couragement should be held out to them, instead of 
the disappointing uncertainties of the Code now before 
Parliament. 

J. H. Gladstone. 



May 2, 1889J 



NA TURE 



THE NATIONAL SCIENCE MUSEUM. 

IT is now fifteen years since the Duke of Devonshire's 
Commission, in its fourth Report, made the following 
recommendations : — 

" With regard to t/ie Scientific Collections of the South 
Kensington Museum, we recommend : 

" 9. The formation of a collection of physical and 
mechanical instruments ; and we submit for consideration 
whether it may not be expedient that this collection, the 
collection of the Patent Museum, and that of the Scientific 
and Educational Department of the South Kensington 
Museum, should be united and placed under the author ty 
of a Minister of State. 

" With regard to Provincial Museums, we recommend : 

" 10. That, in connection with the Science and Art 
section of the Education Department, qualified naturalists 
be appointed to direct the collection of specimens in order 
to supply whatever deficiencies exist in the more import- 
ant Provincial Museums ; and also in order to organize 
typical museums, to be sent by the Department of Science 
and Art into the provinces to such science schools as may 
be reported to be likely to make them efficient instruments 
of scientific instruction. 

" II. That a system of inspection of Provincial Museums 
be organized with a view of reporting on their condition, 
and on the extent to which they are usefully employed, 
and whether the conditions of the loan or grant from the 
Department of Science and Art have been fulfilled." 

It is quite in accordance with the general way in which 
scientific matters are treated by the British Government 
that practically nothing has been done to give effect to 
these recommendations. Committee after Committee has 
been appointed, but it would seem more to give an excuse 
for delay than anything else. But the apathy of the Govern- 
ment was not shared by H.M. Commissioners for the Exhi- 
bition of 1 85 1, for some time afterwards they offered a large 
site on their estate, and a building to be erected at a cost 
of ^ioc,ooo, if the Government would undertake its main- 
tenance for the purposes named in the recommendations. 
Even this munificent offer was declined. 

Again we hear that another Committee has been ap- 
pointed. Its saiUng orders are not known, but whatever 
they may be, it seems desirable to again place on record 
after an interval of fifteen years that part of the Report in 
question which relates to the inquiry intrusted to the Com- 
mittee. The Report was the result of much and patient 
inquiry and deliberation (the Commission worked for five 
years), and that the competence of the Commission may not 
be doubted after this lapse of time, we give the names of the 
Royal Commissioners : the Duke of Devonshire, Sir John 
Lubbock, Sir James P. Kay-Shuttleworth, Dr. W. Sharpey, 
Prof. T. H. Huxley, Prof. G. G. Stokes, Prof. Henry 
J. S. Smith, and Mr., now Sir, Bernhard Samuelson. Mr. 
J. Norman Lockyer was the secretary of the Commission. 

The Collections at South Kensington. 

64. The South Kensington Museum is administered 
by a Director who is responsible to the Lords of the 
Committee of Privy Council on Education. 

65. Though, from special circumstances, the art col- 
lections of this Museum have been, up to the present 
time, most developed, it has contained, from its earliest 
days, several collections of a scientific nature. Those at 
oresent existing are :— 



(i) The food collection. 

(2) The animal products collection. 

(3) The structure and building materials collection. 

(4) Models of machinery, ships, and military and naval 
appliances. 

(5) Collections illustrating economic entomology and 
forestry. 

(6) Collections illustrating fish culture. 

(7) The educational collections. 

(8) The Patent Museum. 

66. The Food Collection. — This collection, which was 
commerced in 185S, has been formed with a view to 
showing, first, the chemical composition of the various 
substances used as food ; secondly, the sources from 
which all varieties of food are obtained ; and, thirdly, 
the various substances used for adulteration, and the best 
methods of detecting them. 

A duplicate collection of the chemical analyses of food 
is used for circulation among country schools, and large 
descriptive labels are supplied to the managers of country- 
museums who may apply for them. 

67. The Animal Products Collection. — This collection 
was established by the Commissioners for the Exhibition 
of 185 1, who observed that, whilst the puWic possessed, 
in the Museums of Kew and Jermyn Street, collections 
illustrative of the economic apphcations of mineral and 
vegetable substances, there was no representation of the 
uses of the animal kingdom. The collection consists of 
animal substances employed in textile manufactures and 
clothing ; substances used for domestic and ornamental 
purposes ; pigments and dyes yielded by animals ; ani- 
mal substances used in pharmacy and in perfumery ; and 
the application of waste matters, together with illustrations 
of the processes of manufacture. 

We have been informed that, for want of space, this 
collection has been but little developed of late years. 

68. Construction a7id But I ding Materials Collection. — 
This collection had its origin in a large number of models 
and specimens which were presented to the Commis- 
sioners for the Exhibition of 1851 at its close. In 1859 
the collection had become so extensive from gifts, es- 
pecially from the Exhibitions in London and Paris, that 
the classified Catalogue formed a most useful book of 
reference on the subject, and was largely sold as such. 

The collection consists of the following objects : — 
building stones ; marbles and slates ; cements and 
plasters ; bricks of every description ; tiles for roofing, 
flooring, and wall decoration ; terra-cottas ; drain-pipes ; 
asphalte and bitumen ; iron and metal work ; woods 
applicable to building purf oses ; glass, and its applica- 
tion ; models of buildings and construction ; paper- 
hangings ; papicr-mdche work ; architectural drawings 
and plans. 

69. In connection with this Museum, numerous experi- 
ments on the strength of materials have been carried 
on, the results of which have been published in the 
Catalogues. 

10, Models of Machinery, Ships, and Military and 
Naval Appliances. — This collection consists principally 
of models of marine engines, ships, and guns. But there 
are also specimens and models of machinery of a 
different character, such as the Jacquard loom, the Whit- 
worth measuring machine, and the Babbage calculating 
machine. 

7 1 . Collections illustrating Economic Entomology and 
Forestry. — A collection of economic entomology is now 
in course of formation. It is intended to enable the 
public to distinguish insects injurious to man from those 
that work to his advantage, and to illustrate the best 
means of destroying those which are injurious, or 0/ 
mitigating the ravages committed by them. 

This collection, in its relation to forestry, contains 
sfecimens of the various kinds of timber attacked by 
insects, the insects themselves in various stages of 



NATURE 



[May 2, 1889 



growth, and the appearance of the foliage and bark when 
attacked. The best known means of destroying the 
insects are also indicated. 

72. Collection illustrating Fish Culture.' — This collec- 
tion illustrates the artificial breeding of fish, the protec- 
tion of rivers, methods of capture of fish, &c. All or 
nearly all the collection belongs to Mr. Buckland 
(Inspector of Salmon Fisheries). It is on loan to the 
Museum. 

73. The Educational Collectiofis. — These collections 
comprise : (i) a library of books bearing on education in 
which education in science is largely represented ; and 
(2) a collection of school furniture and fittings, philo- 
sophical instruments, apparatus for scientific and other 
instruction, specimens and diagrams of natural history, 
including mineralogy and geology, and other educational 
appliances, such as drawing materials, &c. 

74. The origin of the library and collections is due to 
an Educational Exhibition formed by the Society of 
Arts, and held in St. Martin's Hall in the summer of 
1854. When this Exhibition closed, many of the con- 
tents, English and foreign, were placed by the exhibitors 
at the disposal of the Society, and a strong desire was 
expressed that it should become a permanent institution. 
The collection thus formed was offered to and accepted 
by the Government. 

75. The chief manufacturers of educational appliances 
and publishers of school books have largely contributed, 
and numerous gifts have been received from foreign 
Governments, especially at the close of the Exhibitions 
of 1862 and 1871. In consequence of the great demand 
for educational wo^ks on scientific subjects, the vote for 
purchases has of late years been largely expended in 
strengthening the library and collections in this direction. 

76. Special collections of apparatus for teaching the 
various branches of science have lately been formed. 
Duplicate sets of these are circulated in the country. 

77. The total number of books and pamphlets in the 
library exceeds 30,000. 

78. A reading-room, ill-adapted and much too small 
for the purpose, as it has been stated in evidence, is at- 
tached to the library. It is open during the same hours 
as the Museum, and is chiefly frequented by students, 
teachers, clergymen, school-managers, and others who 
wish to consult special books, or to become acquainted 
with the best educational works on the various subjects. 

79. The Patent Mtcseum. — In connection with the 
South Kensington Museum, but under the control of the 
Commissioners of Patents, there is also a Patent Museum, 
consisting of a collection of patented and other inven- 
tions, ill-accommodated in a building which is much too 
small for the proper display of the objects. The col- 
lection belongs partly to the Commissioners of Patents, 
partly to the Commissioners for the Exhibition of 3851, 
and partly to private persons : it contains many most in- 
teresting specimens, especially a series illustrating the 
history of the steam-engine from its earliest days. 

Proposed Additions to the Scientific Collections 
OF THE South Kensington Museum. 

80. We consider it our duty to point out the striking 
contrast afforded by the British Museum collections, 
dealing with biology, geology, and mineralogy ; the Jer- 
myn Street collections, dealing with geology (scientific 
and economic), mineralogy, mining, and metallurgy ; the 
Kew collections, dealing with botany, on the one hand ; 
and, on the other hand, the collections in the Scientific 
Department of the South Kensington Museum (including 
the Patent Museum), where alone has any attempt been 
made to collect together, in a Museum, objects illustrating 
the experimental sciences. 

8r. While it is a matter of congratulation that the 
British Museum contains one of the finest and largest 



collections in existence illustrative of biological science, 
it is to be regretted that there is at present no national 
collection of the instruments used in the investigation of 
mechanical, chemical, or physical laws ; although such 
collections are of great importance to persons interested 
in the experimental sciences. 

82. We consider that the recent progress in these 
sciences, and the daily increasing demand for knowledge 
concerning them, make it desirable that the national col- 
lections should be extended in this direction, so as to 
meet a great scientific requirement which cannot be 
provided for in any other way. 

83. The defect in our collections to which we have 
referred is, indeed, already keenly felt by teachers of 
science, if a teacher of any branch of experimental 
science wishes to inspect any physical instrument not in 
his possession, as a teacher of literature would a book, or 
a teacher of biology would a specimen, there is no place 
in the country where he can do it. 

84. We are assured by high authorities that, on the 
Continent, collections of scientific apparatus, when Com- 
bined with lectures accessible to workmen, have exerted 
a very beneficial influence on the development of the 
skill of artisans employed in making such instruments. 

85. Lord Salisbury, in evidence before us, has stated : — 
" There is another point in which I think that the 

Government might give an advantage of an educational 
kind to scientific research. It would be desirable, if it 
were possible, to provide the means of giving scientific 
instruction to instrument makers. My impression is that 
their importance to the conduct of scientific research is 
scarcely sufficiently recognized by the public, and that it 
is, I will not say quite, but almost of equal importance, to 
have highly educated and cultivated scientific instrument 
makers, as to have highly educated scientific thinkers." 

86. A valuable part of the instruction to which Lord 
SaHsbury refers would be derived from the examination 
of collections in which the history and latest develop- 
ments of each instrument could be studied with a view 
to its improvement or modification in any particular 
direction. 

87. On this point we have received interesting evidence 
from Colonel Strange : — 

" What is your opinion as to the need of a museum of 
scientific instruments, and apparatus, and machines, and 
tools used in the arts.'' — I think that that is a very im- 
portant branch of the subject indeed. I need scarcely 
allude to the great importance that is attached to that on 
the Continent. The name of the Conservatoire des Arts 
et Metiers will suggest it at once, which is the very best 
evidence indeed that I could produce. I have often 
visited it with great interest and profit. Moreover, I 
believe there are several others in Paris, some of more 
recent establishment, of the same kirki ; I look upon that 
as a most necessary part of any scientific system. No 
scientific system can be complete without examples of the 
apparatus that are being used in all branches of science, 
both in England and abroad, and on that point I speak 
from experience of the great use that such a museum 
would be. ... If there were a great museum, such as I 
suggest, containing all the new developments in instru- 
ments, and in machines and tools, to which I could 
resort, I should be able to introduce modifications with 
far greater confidence, and it would be an enormous 
assistance to me individually. I find very few persons 
who have really studied what I will venture to call the 
physiology of instruments and apparatus, and such persons 
would derive very great advantage, I think, from being 
able to go to an establishment where large collections of 
apparatus of different dates and the products of different 
minds were collected together in one view, some of which 
would contain some desideratum of which they were in 
search. I think, if they had such a collection to go to, 
it would materially aid them in the choice of the apparatus 



May 2, 1889] 



NATURE 



that they required, and would tend enormously to advance 
exact experiments. There is no doubt that some years 
ago there was no nation that could compete at all with 
England in such matters, but we have taught the rest of 
the world, and the pupil has now become somewhat in 
advance, in many directions, of his master. Also the 
spread of scientific education on the Continent has 
tended to the application of more sound principles of 
construction in such things than with us." 

88. Although the question of the establishment of a 
Museum of Scientific Apparatus is more closely allied to 
the objects of our Commission than that of a Museum of 
Mechanical Inventions, we think it right to call attention 
to the proposals made by a Committee of the House of 
Commons appointed to report on the Patent Office 
Library and Museum. 

89. That Committee gave, in the following terms, their 
conception of the nature of the "General Museum of 
Mechanical Inventions," the establishment of which they 
contemplated: — 

" It appears to your Committee that the chief purpose 
of a General Museum is to illustrate and explain the 
commencement, progress, and present position of the 
most important branches of mechanical invention ; to 
show the chief steps by which the most remarkable 
machines have reached their present degree of excel- 
lence ; to convey interesting and useful information, and 
to stimulate invention." 

90. With regard to the funds which would be necessary 
for the establishment of such a Museum on an adequate 
scale, the Committee, referring to a large sum which had 
accumulated from the fees paid by inventors (which fund, at 
the end of the year 1 871, amounted to j/^923,741 is. iid.), 
stated that — 

" Your Committee consider that the principal object of 
the fees payable under the provisions of the Patent Law 
Amendment Act, was to provide for the proper working 
of that measure, and not for the purpose of increasing 
the general revenue of the country. Without entering 
upon the question whether or not a claim exists to have 
the surplus exclusively devoted to the purposes of the Act 
of 1852, your Committee are of opinion that for the 
future the annual surplus revenue accruing from the 
operation of that Act should be so applied to the 
extent which may be necessary." 

91. We agree with the Committee as to the general 
character of the objects to which the fund in question 
should be appropriated. 

92. We consider that this fund, which is derived in 
great part from the applications of scientific principles 
to various uses in the arts and industries of the country, 
would be very properly spent in bettering some of the 
conditions on which invention and discovery depend : 
and we are of opinion that, among the uses to which such 
a fund could be most advantageously applied, the esta- 
blishment of such a Museum of Scientific Apparatus as 
that which we contemplate would rank among the most 
important ; and we are convinced that such a Museum 
would have a material influence upon the spread of 
scientific instruction throughout the country, and would 
therefore largely foster invention and discovery. 

93. We accordingly recommend the formation of a 
collection of physical and mechanical instruments ; and 
we submit for consideration whether it may not be expe- 
dient that this collection, the collection of the Patent 
Museum, and of the Scientific and Educational Depart- 
ment of the South Kensington Museun, should be united 
and placed under the authority of a Minister of State. 

94. Whether this union be effected or not, we are of 
opinion that it is desirable that the scientific collections 
now placed at South Kensington should be subjected to 
a critical revision, with a view to restricting them to such 
objects as are of national interest or utility. 



REPTILIAN ORDERS. 

Catalogue of the Che/onians, Rhynchocephalians, and 
Crocodiles in the British Museum [Natural History). 
By G. A. Boulenger. New Edition. Pp. 311, Illus- 
trated. (London : Published by the Trustees of the 
Museum, 1889.) 

T^HE handsome volume before us deals, as its name 
-»- implies, with all known existing forms of the three 
Reptilian orders of the Chelonians, Rhynchocephalians, 
and Crocodilians ; but since the second group is repre- 
sented only by a single species, while the number 
of Crocodilians comprises little more than a score of 
forms, the great bulk of the book is devoted to the 
Chelonians, and it will, therefore, mainly be this group to 
which our remarks will apply. 

Previously to the appearance of this volume, the last 
systematic "Catalogue of Crocodilians and Rhyncho- 
cephalians " issued by the Museum was the quarto volume 
by the late Dr. Gray,* published in 1872 ; the next year 
having seen the publication of the revised list of 
Chelonians by the same author."^ Without in any way 
wishing to disparage the labours of the late Keeper of the 
Zoological Department, to whose untiring energy the 
British Museum is so greatly indebted for its magnificent 
series of Reptiles, it is at once inanifest that the present 
work is enormously in advance of any hitherto published, 
this advance being especially noticeable in the case of 
the Chelonians. Although in that order Dr. Gray figured 
a large number of skulls, yet the distinctive features 
afforded by this part of the skeleton were not accurately 
gauged from a taxonomic point of view, while the cha- 
racters of the bony carapace, so far as they relate to the 
connections of the component bones with one another, 
were practically ignored. In this respect Mr. Boulenger 
has conferred a great boon, not only on the students of 
the Chelonia of the present day, but still more especially 
on those engagqd in the studv of fossil forms, who 
generally have to deal only with the more or less imper- 
fect carapace and plastron. In almost every genus the 
author has caused at least one specimen to be stripped of 
its epidermal horny shields, so as to exhibit not only the 
impressions formed by the borders of these shields, but 
also the form and relations of the underlying bones which 
constitute the solid shell. And he has found that generic 
characters can be to a very large extent based on the 
structure of the skull, taken together with the form and 
relations of the bones of the shell ; the contour of the 
neural bones of the carapace, and the relations of the 
suture between the humeral and pectoral shields of 
the plastron to the entoplastral bone being of especial 
importance. No less than seventy-three admirably-exe- 
cuted woodcuts serve to illustrate these osteological 
features, on which the taxonomy is so largely based ; and 
by their aid the palaeontologist may hope to clear up to 
some extent the affinities of the host of fossil Chelonians 
at present described under the vague terms of Eniys and 
Clemniys. 

The author proposes to divide the Reptiles treated of 

' '■ Catalogue of Shield-Reptilia. Part 2. Emydosaurians, Rhyncho- 
cephalia. and Amphisbsenians." (1872.) 

^ " Hand-List of the Specimens of Shield-Reptiles." (1873.) 



NATURE 



[May 2, 1889 



in this volume into the following groups of higher than 
generic rank, viz. : — 

Order Rhynchocephalia. 

Fam. Hatteriidx. 

Order Chelonia. 

Sub-order I. AtheC/E. 

Fam. I. Sphargidas. 
Sub-order 11. THEOCorHORA. 
Super- fam. A. Cryptodira. 
Fam, 2. Chelydridse. 





3- 
4- 
5 
6. 

7- 


Dermatemydidse. 

Cinoslernidx. 

Platysiernidiie. 

Testudinidse. 

Chelonidoe. 


Super- fair 


1. B 


. Pleurodira. 


Fam. 


8. 

9- 
10. 


Pelomedusidae. 
Chelydidoe. 
Carett ichelydidae 


Super-fam. C 
Fam. II. 


. Trionychoidea. 
Trionychidse. 



Order Emydosauria. 

Fam. Crocodilidne. 

There are a few points in regard to the nomenclature of 
£0 ne of these groups where the author's views are at 
least open to question. This is especially the case with 
regard to the selection of the name Emydosauria to 
replace the almost universally accepted Crocodilia. The 
reason for the selection of ihis term appears to be, that 
it is the earliest. In common, however, with a large 
number of English zoologists, we (while deprecating 
the needless introduction of new ordinal names) hold 
that, although the enforcement of the rule of priority 
is, unfortunately, in most cases, obligatory as regards 
generic and specific names in order to avoid endless 
confusion, yet no such rule is necessary in respect to 
higher groups, where the name that has come to be gener- 
ally used ought to be maintained. Then, again, the un- 
grammatically formed name Athecns, for which Prof. E. 
D. Cope is responsible, should clearly have been amended 
to Athecata ; while, since the name Thecophora — or, more 
correctly, Thecaphora — clashes with the same term em- 
ployed for a group of Hydroid Zoophytes, we think the 
author would have been better advised had he followed 
his own article on Tortoises in the latest edition of the 
" Encyclopaedia Britannica," and employed the term 
Testudinata in this sense. Finally, since the generic 
names Hatteria and Sphargis are rejected in place of 
the earlier Sphe77odo7i and Dcnnochelys (which, by the 
way, should clearly be amended to Dennaiochelys), we 
cannot follow the author in retaining the names Haiteriida 
and SphiV'gidcE for the families respectively represented 
by these two genera. If a family name means anything 
at all, it means a group of animals more or less nearly 
allied to a certain genus selected as the type, and it is 
therefore clearly illogical to call the Sphmodon-\\Vt 
reptiles JlaHeriida: when no such genus, as Hatteria 
exists. Further, to show t'.ie absurdity to which this ad- 
herence to the rule of priority, in place of that of com- 
mon-sense, in the case of family names might lead us, 
we have only to suppose that the name Hatteria, in place 
of being rejected as later than Sphenodon, had been re- 



jected on account of being preoccupied by another form 
belonging to, but not the type of, a distinct family. In 
such case, we should have the family name Hatteriida 
for a group of animals which did not include the genus 
Hatteria! On these grounds we hold that the names 
Sphenodotitidce and Derinatochclydidce should certainly 
replace Hatteriidce and Sphargidce. 

In regard to the Rhynchocephalia, the author considers 
that its one existing representative indicates an extremely 
generalized type of reptile, of which the relations appear 
to be at least as close to the Chelonia as to the Lacer- 
tilia. In this respect, Mr. Boulenger departs very widely 
from the views of Prof. Huxley ; and although we think 
he is undoubtedly justified in maintaining the Rhyncho- 
cephalia as a distinct order, yet we cannot overlook the 
circumstance that the Homaiosaurian lizards of the Litho- 
graphic stone, which appear to be Rhynchocephalians, 
are most probably closely related to the ancestors of the 
Lacertilia. 

The whole of the existing Crocodilians are included in a 
single family — against the three families adopted by Dr. 
Gray. The true Crocodiles are divided into CrocodiluszxiA. 
Osteolamus, according to the absence or presence of a 
forward prolongation of the nasals to divide the anterior 
nares ; while among the Alligators a similar feature 
serves to distinguish Alligator axi^ Caiman. The Croco- 
dilus po7idiceriantis of Gray is considered to be based 
upon a young specimen of C. porosus. The Gharial skull 
mentioned on p. 276 as having been obtained at Poonah 
would appear to be incorrectly labelled, as this reptile is 
unknown in Bombay. 

Taking a brief general survey of the Chelonia, we 
think the author is fully justified in adopting Prof Cope's 
division of the order into the two primary groups of 
Atheca-' and Thecophora ; the great difference in the 
structure of the skull, as exemplified by the absence of 
descending parietal plates in the former, being a charac- 
ter which is of itself apparently sufficient to uphold this 
division. We are aware, indeed, that Dr. G. Baur, of 
Newhaven, Conn., holds a precisely opposite view, and, 
in place of regarding the Athcac as the most generalized 
type of existing Chelonians, looks upon them as an ex- 
tremely specialized branch derived from the Cryptodiran 
Chelonidcc. There are, indeed, certain superficial, and 
probably adaptive, resemblances between these two types 
of marine turtles, but the fundamental differences are so 
great as apparently to render Dr. Baur's views untenable. 
And we should much like to ask that authority how he 
would explain the appearance of transverse processes to 
the dorsal vertebra of one of the extinct Athecit on his 
own hypothesis of their phylogeny. 

The three " super-families " into which the Thecophora 
are divided are, to a great extent, distinguished by the 
mode of flexure of the neck, by cranial characters, and 
by the relations of the pelvis to the shell. Certain very 
peculiar features in relation to the mandibular articula- 
tion, the tympanic ring, and the arrangement of the bones 
of the palate serve to distinguish the existing Cryptodira 
of the southern, from the Pleurodira of the northern hemi- 
sphere ; but we have considerable doubts whether these 
characters will be found to obtain in the Mesozoic repre- 
sentatives of the group, and whether they are not rather 
acquired than arcaaic features. We should, indeed, 



May 2, 1889] 



NA TURE 



have been glad to have an expression of the author's 
views as to the mutual relations from a phylogenetic 
point of view of the three groups of the Thecophora ; 
because, if the separate nasals and parieto-squamosal 
arch of some of the Pleurodira be indicative of their 
more primitive organization, it would be pretty clear that 
the peculiar specialized character of the mandibular 
articulation can only be diagnostic of the later forms. 

The Trionychoidea, or soft Tortoises, appear to show 
affinities to the Pleurodira in the structure of the palate ; 
and here again we miss an expression of opinion as to 
the nature of this relationship. The peculiar chevron- 
shaped entoplastron, which is regarded as an important 
diagnostic feature of the group, was, we believe, first 
brought prominently to notice by Dr. Baur. 

In regard to the families of the Cryptodira, the 
author follows Dr. Gray in regarding Staurotypus as 
nearly related to the Chelydridce, but places it in a 
distinct family, of which Dermatemys, placed by Dr. 
Gray next the Batagurs, is taken as the type. Ctno- 
sternum, likewise placed by Dr. Gray in the Chelydrida, 
is regarded as the type of another family, readily cha- 
racterized by the absence of the entoplastral bone ; 
while the Platysternidce is likewise a family of which but 
one genus is known. The widest departure from the 
arrangement of Dr. Gray is, however, found in the case 
of the TestudinidcB, which is a very extensive family, 
embracing the EmydidcB of other writers, and no less 
than four other families of Dr. Gray's " Hand-List." The 
transition from one genus to another is, however, so 
gradual, as apparently to afford full justification for the 
new departure. Twenty genera of this family are 
recognized, all of which can be defined by cha- 
racters of the skull and shell. We would especially 
note the disappearance of the well-known Pangshura of 
India in the genus Kachuga; and would also remark 
that, after its complex synonymy, the common European 
Pond Tortoise is finally to be known as Einys orbicularis. 
The genus Testudo is the largest in the whole order, 
comprising no less than forty-one species. Here it has 
been found that the division of the pygal, or supra-caudal, 
shield is a character commonly occurring in the typical 
Testudo grcEca, and consequently Testudo einys, which, 
on this account was made the type of the genus Manuria, 
and has attained an unfortunate notoriety owing to the 
controversy regarding Scapia, is included in the type 
genus. The Chelonidce, or Turtles, are divided into the 
genera Chelone and Thalassochelys, each of which is 
represented by two species. And here we may notice 
the wise discretion of the author in refusing to recognize 
a host of so-called species based on features which may 
well be regarded as merely indicative of varieties. The 
members of this family, it may be remarked, are the only 
existing Thecophora in which the temporal fossae are 
completely roofed over by bone ; and since a more or less 
complete approximation to this feature occurs in many 
Mesozoic types, this bony roof may perhips be regarded 
as indicative of direct affinity with some of these early 
types. In the Pleurodira the first two families are dis- 
tinguished from one another by the presence or absence 
of a mesoplastral bone, as well as by well-marked cranial 
features, while the third family, represented only by the 
aquatic Carettochelys of New Guinea, has no epidermal 



shields on the shell. This remarkable form, it may be 
observed, is one of the ^t'^ desiderata in the collection of 
the Museum. 

In the Trionychoidea, all of which are included in the 
family Trionychida, the author has, we believe for the 
first time, pointed out characters by which the skull of 
the typical forms, in which the hyoplastral remains dis- 
tinct from the hypoplastral, can be readily distinguished 
from that of the group typically represented by Einyda, 
and characterized by the fusion of the above-mentioned 
bones. In the diagnosis of the genera Triouyx, Pelochclys, 
and C/iitra on p. 241, we meet with the following sentence, 
viz. "outer extremities of the nuchal bone overlying the 
second dorsal rib." This sentence, when contrasted with 
the corresponding diagnosis of the three following genera, 
strikes us as liable to lead to confusion ; and the sentence 
would be better if it read " outer extremities of the nuchal 
bone overlying the rib supporting the first costal bone." 
It appears, indeed, that the first dorsal rib of Chelonians 
is aborted, and carries no costal bone, or plate, so that 
the first costal bone is supported by what is really the 
second rib. We may perhaps be pardoned for pointing 
out that the term " straight angle," mentioned in the fifth 
line from the bottom of p. 251 does not, at first sight, 
suggest the idea of a •' right angle," for which, we presume, 
it is meant. 

Scarcely any systematic work can nowadays escape 
criticism, but in our judgment the system adopted in 
the present volume appears to be one which in the 
main ought to meet with very general acceptation, and 
we heartily congratulate the author on the completion 
of a very laborious task in a manner which deserves 
the thanks of the students both of recent and fossil 
Chelonians. R. L. 



THE HISTORY OF ANCIENT CIVILIZATION. 

The History of Ancient Civilization. By the Rev. J. 
Verschoyle, M.A. (London : Chapman and Hall, 



THE title of this book is somewhat misleading. One 
is led to expect from it a history of the growth < f 
civilization from its earliest stages to its v.rious develop- 
ments among different nations or races, and of the relation 
of one form to another. But instead of this we have an 
account of the characteristic civilization of certain selected 
nations when at their best, with very little to indicate any 
relation between them. The nations whose civilization 
is described are the Egyptians, the Babylonians, and 
Assyrians ; the Jews, Phoenicians, Aryans, and Persians ; 
the Greeks and the Romans. The two latter are treated 
very fully, occupying about three-fifths of the whole. 
There can be no question that the information con- 
veyed would be very useful to a student of ancient 
civilization, but he would immediately ask for more. 
If he had any intention of studying the question from 
a scientific point of view, he would not be content with 
isolated facts, but ask for the conne:tion between them. 
Indeed, one of the most conspicuous features of the book 
is the complete absence of any scientific method ; i:s 
merits must be appreciated entirely from the literary 



NATURE 



{May 2, 1889 



standpoint, especially in connection with the history and 
literature of Greece and Rome. 

In any scientific history of civilization, the first stages, 
in which from rough stone implements men passed to 
the arts of drawing, sculpture, and the manufacture of 
pottery, and so to the invention of bronze and the erec- 
tion of megalithic buildings, are surely of too much 
interest to be dismissed in a sentence or two, with an 
illustration of a "flint spearhead" of very peculiar ap- 
pearance. To. what races these men might belong we 
do not learn from our author, who, after observing that 
"modern science has also directed its attention to the sub- 
ject of races and anthropology, and has issued in studies 
which have not, however, yet resulted in a decisive con- 
clusion," dismisses all other races in eighteen lines, and 
springs on us the " white race," " whose first habitation 
was the highlands of Asia." " It was there that, after 
the deluge chronicled in the legends of all Eastern nations, 
mankind dispersed, and formed the three chief branches 
of the white race — the families of Ham, Shem, and 
Japhet." Thus we learn nothing about the remarkable 
and early civilization of the Chinese, on the ground that 
" the information respecting it is not sufficient.'' We are 
not, therefore, surprised that the author dismisses America 
with the single sentence, " In America, the copper or red 
race has continually receded before the Europeans, and 
cannot be counted amongst the civilized races." He ap- 
parently thinks there has never been but one race in 
America, and forgets the ancient civilization of the Aztecs, 
and that of the race which they themselves succeeded ; and 
we cannot therefore hope that he will throw any light on 
the home of that remarkable people who carved the 
idols of Easter Island, or erected the megaliths of Tonga. 
In the chapter on Egypt there is much interesting 
though somewhat disconnected information ; but those 
who think that the arts and sciences are amongst the 
most important parts of civilization, will perhaps scarcely 
be satisfied with the statement that " the scientific theory, 
which would consider the pyramid a kind of observatory, 
is quite unfounded." 

The materials for the description of the civilization of 
the cities of Mesopotamia are so rich that the chapter 
which deals with it cannot fail to be interesting ; it is 
only to be desired that the relations of the Accadians, 
Babylonians, and Assyrians, and their several conditions, 
had been made more clear, and the great length of time, 
as in the case of the Egyptians, over which the same type 
of civilization continued, pointed out. Indeed, one of 
the remarkable features of ancient civihzation, which has 
an important bearing on the antiquity of man, is its slow 
progress. 

The account of Eastern civilization, or that of the 
Aryans and Hindus, is very defective. Indeed, we have 
little more than a short account of the tenets of Brah- 
manism and Buddhism, and no mention of their art, 
though many of the Hindu stupas and topes date back 
before the Christian era. There is some fair description 
of Persian and Phoenician civilization, but there is nothing 
about the Phrygians. The rock tombs of Asia Minor 
are unnoticed, and Troy is only mentioned in relation to 
the Greeks. 

In contradistinction to this, the treatment of Grecian and 
Roman history is superabundantly full, as one sentence 



will show. " The * epithalamium ' of Malhus is probably 
his best work, always excepting his charming lyrics to 
Lesbia." If a notice of so little known a poet forms part 
of the history of ancient civihzation, it is difficult to see 
why the omissions above enumerated should occur. 

In a word, the whole subject is unequally treated ; 
there is a bias towards classical learning, which, in spite 
of the useful information given, prevents the book from 
being in any sense a scientific history. 



OUR BOOK SHELF. 
Board School Laryngitis. By Greville Macdonald, M.D. 
Lond., Physician to the Throat Hospital, Golden Square 
Pp. 31. (London : A. P. Watt, 1889.) 

Numerous as are the evils to which the Board School 
system is alleged to have given rise, we have before us 
yet another indictment to add to the list. This time, 
however, it is the teachers, and not the scholars, who compel 
our interest. Dr. Macdonald claims to have identified 
certain changes in the vocal apparatus of Board School 
teachers, of both sexes, of so definite a character as to 
enable him to state with certainty from the appearance of 
the throat that the patient belongs to that long-suffering 
class. 

A varicose condition of the superficial vessels of the 
vocal cords and a nodular hypertrophy of the free margins 
are the conditions to which he calls special attention. Of 
the latter condition he notes that it may occur without 
obvious inflammatory surroundings, and quotes Stoerk's 
reference to it under the name of " singers' nodules." 
He does not, however, mention the Viennese laryngo- 
logist's explanation of them, which, in the present con- 
nection, is interesting. Stoerk claimed that these nodules 
were the direct result of an improper use of the voice 
whereby a part only of the vocal cords was set in vibra- 
tfon. The nodules made their appearance at the spot 
intervening between the vibrating and the motionless 
parts of the cords, usually the junction of the anterior 
third with the posterior two-thirds. 

Board School teachers, uninstructed for the most part 
as to the use of the voice, depressed by the close and 
often foul atmosphere of a crowded schoolroom, choked 
with the chalk from their blackboards, and often com- 
pelled to scream to make themselves heard above the din 
of an unruly class, are beset with every condition which 
predisposes to inflammation and over-straining of their 
vocal apparatus. 

Dr. Macdonald suggests remedies for such a state of 
things, for the consideration of the ruling powers, and 
intimates that local treatment alone is of any avail in 
dealing with the changes to which he calls special atten- 
tion. The varicose vessels he would destroy with the 
galvano cautery, and the nodules with the forceps. The 
monograph is written in a fluent and readable style, and 
treats of a subject which deserves the serious attention 
both of lay and professional readers. Possibly the interest 
of the latter class would have been more keenly aroused 
had the author appended a little more information as to 
the extent of his experience. He tells us that the Board 
School teachers consult him in increasing numbers, and 
that his success in treatment has been remarkable, but he 
does not quote cases, or offer any statistical record, 
by which his professional brethren may compare his 
experiences with their own in the same line of practice. 

The pathological conditions to which he would affix 
such an attractive title are not by any means unknown 
as a consequence of chronic laryngitis in other walks of 
life, and something more than mere assertion must be 
offered before they can be generally accepted as the 
peculiar product of the Board School system. 

E. Clifford Beale. 



May 2, 1889 I 



NATURE 



A Treatise on Elementary Algebra and Algebraical 
Artifices. By Saradaranjan Ray, M.A. Two Vols. 
(Calcutta : S. K. Lahiri and Co., 1888.) 

The work under review is also Part II. of "A Course 
of Elementary Mathematics." Vol. I. comprises those 
portions of elementary algebra usually to be found in 
modern text-books up to the chapter on proportion. 
Vol. II. includes chapters on variation, theory of equa- 
tions, elimination, binomial theorem, and properties of 
logarithms, as well as many others ; but those mentioned 
will suffice to show the general scope. The author gives 
the object he has had in view : " To create in beginners 
a taste for algebra, and to show them the utility and 
application of algebraical artifices." In achieving this 
desire he has met with some degree of success. The 
.anguage employed is simple and clear. The proofs in 
many instances are interesting. We question the advisa- 
bility of placing the binomial theorem and properties of 
logarithms at the conclusion of a work which contains 
biquadratic equations. At least an elementary chapter 
upon the former subject should precede the theory of 
equations, while a discussion of logarithms would be of 
great use in its development. 

We notice one very important omission : the multi- 
nomial theorem finds no place in these volumes. This 
is much to be regretted, for the chapter on permutation 
could have introduced it in an elegant and suggestive 
manner. Again, we notice that the subject of series is 
scarcely touched upon. One would hope in a work 
of this scope to find a short chapter which would in- 
clude reversion of series. However, there are many ex- 
cellent features in the book. Chapters on " Consistency 
and Sufficiency," and on " Identities and Equalities," are 
novel and gratifying. The pages concerning arith- 
metical and geometrical progressions are original and 
inspiring ; for example, the student is taught the mean- 
ing of the sum of n terms of a progression when n is 
negative, and is shown that both arithmetical and geo- 
metrical progressions possess the common property that 
two successive terms are connected by a linear relation ; 
from this point of view the series are then further 
examined. 

There are many examples, as a rule well selected, with 
occasional hints to show the learner that a little ingenuity 
will often overcome particular difficulties. There are a 
few occurrences of faulty printing, and some misprints 
which do not appear in the errata. 

The students of our Eastern dependency are in pos- 
session of a book by one of their own countrymen who 
is a thorough master of his subject. 



LETTERS TO THE EDITOR. 

[ The Editor does not hold himself responsible for opinions ex- 
pressed by his correspondents . Neither can he undertake 
to return, of to correspond with the writers of. rejected 
manuscripts intended for this or any other part of NATURE. 
No notice is taken of anonymous communications. ] 

The Sailing Flight of the Albatross. 

In Nature, vol. xxxix. p. 230, the late Mr. William Froude, 
in a letter to Sir William Thomson, on the subject of the 
"Soaring of Birds," gives a short account of the well-knowa 
and often discussed sailing flight of the albatross ; and says 
that after long consideration the only explanation which pre- 
sented itself to his mind was, that the birds use the upward 
current caused by the lifting of the air from the bottom of the 
trough to the level of the crest of an advancing wave. Mr. 
Froude by a rough calculation — the waves being supposed 10 
feet from hollow ■ to crest — concludes that an upward current of 
3 feet per second may be caused in this manner, and stales that 
the bird's movements were often in accordance with this ex- 
planation, though it was often impossible to affirm or deny the 
accordance. 



Having had many opportur.ities of observing the flight of the 

albatross, I cannot think this explanation the true one. I have 
often seen albatrosses sailing when the sea appeared as flat as a 
table, with the exception of the small w aves caused by a light wind. 
This seems fatal to Mr. Froude's explanation, which requires 
waves of considerable size. As Mr. Froude observed, the birds 
often sail along the crests of waves. It seemed to me that they 
were sometimes using the current diverted upwards by the wave, 
just as on land birds use that diverted by hedges, river-terraces, &c, 
I will first give a description of the flight of these birds, as I 
observed it when on board steamers running between Australia 
and New Zealand, which are nearly always followed by numbers 
of birds ; and then attempt an explanation. The sailing flight is 
never to my knowledge done in a calm. I once observed the 
effect of a gradually diminishing \\ind on their flight. The 
steamer was going about nine knots. When the wind, which 
was very nearly aft, became one or two knots slower than the 
steamer, the birds, which had hitherto kept their wings perfectly 
steady, began to flap at intervals which became shorter as the 
wind lessened, and when it ceased they flapped almost without 
intermission, and soon ceased to follow the vessel. 

The birds go through a series of movements which are related 
to the direction of the wind. Starting from near the surface, 
they rise in a slanting direction against the wind, to a height 
which varies with the strength and direction of the wind. The 
average seemed to me about 20 feet. Then comes immediately 
a turn half round in a rather large circle, followed at once by a 
rapid descent down the wind. They then take a longer or 
shorter flight in various directions, almost touching the water. 
After that another ascent in the same manner, and so on, 
repeating the series of movements aJ libitum. The interval of 
time between the ascents evidently depends on the direction of 
the wind with regard to the course of the vessel. When the 
wind is ahead, and the birds' velocity througii the air great, 
being necessarily greater than the wind's velocity plus that of 
the steamer, the interval is short. When the wind is abaft the 
beam, and the birds' velocity much less, the interval is usually 
much longer. As a general rule, there is a rough proportion as 
to the favourableness of the wind and the length of time between 
successive ascents. Also, when the wind is favourable and not 
strong they do not rise so high as in a strong and adverse wind. 

The explanation I have to give of the movements above 
described depends upon the well-known fact that the velocity 
of the wind at the surface is diminished by friction, so that its 
velocity increases with the height, the rate of increase being 
greatest near the surface. Prof. Osborne Reynolds found by 
experiment that the wind's velocity over a grass meadow at a 
height of 8 feet was double that at i foot.^ Over the sea, when 
there is enough wind to roughen the surface, the drag on the 
lowest stratum is probably greater than over a grass meadow, 
on account of the motion communicated to the water. This effect 
of friction makes clear the object of the ascents against, and the 
descents with, the wind. For, as a bird rises, he enters currents 
of wind which increase in velocity with the height, in a direction 
contrary to his own motion, so that the loss of velocity conse- 
quent on rising, and which would take place in still air, is partly 
— or perhaps, when the wind is strong, wholly — made good. The 
bird thus gains energy of position, which is converted into 
energy of motion by descending. A bird's ascent against the 
wind may be compared with the ascent of a particle up an 
incline, while the incline itself is accelerated in a horizontal 
direction opposite to that of the particle's motion, thereby 
enabling it to reach a height greater than that due to the initial 
velocity. The albatross does not go on rising until his velocity 
is nearly exhausted, but makes a half-turn at great speed pre- 
vious to his descent. Thus the quickness of the ascent, with, 
as Mr. Froude says, scarcely if any apparent loss of speed, is 
explained. By making a slanting dcbcent with the wind, the 
bird carries with him the velocity of the faster-moving wind of 
the high level into the slower-moving wind near the surface ; 
and thus increases his velocity through the air, to which is to be 
added that due to his fall. Thus, if resistance is left out of 
account, the bird's velocity since he began to ascend would have 
been increased by twice the difference in the velocity of the wind 
near the surface, and at the height to which he rises. And as 
the power of overcoming resistance varies as the square of the 
velocity, the addition of several feet per second to the bird's 
already high velocity is equivalent to much more energy than 
is lost in the few seconds occupied by the rise, turn, and fall ; 

' "On the Refraction of Sound by the .\tm.isphere," by Prof. Osborne 
Reynolds. Kead before the Royal Society, Apiil aj, 1874. 



lO 



NA TURE 



[May 2, 1889 



so that there is a dcarga'n, which may be expended in flight 
until the speed is so much reduced that it is necessary to increase 
it by another ascent. 

The reason is clear why, when following a steamer against the 
wind, the birds are compelled to repeat at short intervals the 
movements by which speed through the air is gained, and why, 
when the wind is favourable, the intervals are longer. The 
great 1< ngth of there intervals just mentioned seems to me the 
difficult point in the theory. It cannot be proved that the speed 
acquired by the movements described is sufficient for such long 
flights between the ascents as are sometimes seen, under conditions 
where there is no suspicion of upward ci rrents near the surface. 
Our knowledge of the resistance of the air to such complex 
surfaces as the wings of birds is, I believe, almost nothing ; and 
even if we knew, without doubt, the true explanation of the 
manner in which the energy lost by resistance is renewed, we 
might find it hard to apply it to all cases, unless we had some 
real knowledge cf the supporting power of the air, and the 
horizontal resistance at different velocities. 

I have sometimes seen a number of albatrosses sailing in a 
peculiar manner, the wind being at right angles to the course of 
the steamer. They ascend against and descend with the wind, 
turning alternately right and left, so as to describe an undulating 
line, not far behind the stern. A number of them sometimes 
do this for hours, whi'e others are sailing in various directions 
farther off. It is curious that the common sea-gulls of New 
Zealand {Larus doniinicamis), which have become (o a great 
extent 'and-birds since the country was colonized, may be 
sometimes seen iraking their way over flat country in the same 
manner as the albatrosses just described — that i=, at right angles 
to the wind, and turning alternately right and left, and nearly 
touching the ground at each descent. Their success in doing 
the sailing flight is, however, imperfect, as they seem compelled 
to flap their wings a few times during the se( ond half of each 
ascent. Perhaps future generations of gulls may improve. No 
doubt !^ome muscular exertion is saved by this mode of progres- 
sion. The foregoing theory of the sailing flight of the albatross 
shows, I think, the action of a vera causa, which, as far as I 
know, has not been noticed before. A. C. Baines. 

Christchurch, New Zealand. 



Note on Ragadia crisia. 

Mr. W. L. Distant, in his admirable " Rhopalocera 
Malayana," calls attention to the recent appearance of Kagadia 
crisia in the Malay peninsula. As I have had opportunities of 
studying the habits of the species in what seems to be one of its 
head-quarters, it may be desirable to record the facts. 

Mr. Distant writes as follows : — "One of the most peculiar 
facts in relation to this butterfly seems to be its almost recent 
appearance in the Malay peninsula, or at all events its first 
capture there by collectors. I did not meet with it myself when 
collecting at Province Wellesley, nor did I subsequently receive 
it in numerous collections derived from the peninsula. In 1883, 
however, the species seems to have been common from Penang 
to Singapore. I first received two specimens captured on 
Penang Hill, and sent to me as a new species; others shortly 
follov\ed from Province Wellesley, with the remark of an ex- 
perienced collector that the species was quite new to the locality ; 
and almost simultaneously the Indian mail brought me more 
examples from Sungti Ujong, Malacca, and Singapore. My 
friend Mr. Logan also sent me an example with the comment, 
'a very rare butterfly not known to collectors here.' 

" Capt. Godfrey, who also captured the species at Sungei 
Ujong, described it as being found in low undergrowth in the 
forest, where, especially in the early morning, I several times 
met with it. Its flight is weak and feeble, but it cleverly 
eludes pursuit by threading its way through tangled brushwood " 
(" Rhop. Mai.," p. 421). 

Mr. W. B. Pryer, in his joint paper with Mr. Distant ("Rhop. 
Northern Borneo," Ann. Mag. Nat. Hist., January 1887. 
p. 49), describes it as "rare, under almost thick forest shade." 
In ten years' collecting in North Borneo he has only met with a 
few specimens, not more than a dozen, nearly all of which he 
saw at Silam, on the coast of the district I write about. 

I find it to be the very commonest butterfly in the dense forest 
of the centre of Darvel Bay Peninsula, on the east coast of 
British North Borneo. 

I first saw the insect in the deep forest between Lamag on the 
River Kinabatangan and Itok Batu on the River Segama, about 



120 miles in'and. It was not common, but I always saw one or 
two daily. Since then Mr. Pryer has taken it higher up the 
River Kinabatangan, some 250 miles up stream. The butterfly 
is still quite rare on the coast, the only specimens having fallen 
to Mr. Pryer's net. 

Last year I made an exploration through the forest from the 
River Tinkyo in Darvel Bay to the head-waters of the River 
Sfgama. Within four miles of the coast, in the alluvial flat of 
the River Tinl<yo, the species was seen daily, but was far from 
common. As soon as we touched the mountain country it began 
to grow common, and from 600 feet to 2500 feet above sea-level 
it was the commonest butterfly in the deep forest. 

Capt. Godfrey's description of its hal i;s agrees with mine, 
except in one particular. He found it most plentiful in early 
morning. I was always in the jungle from soon after dawn to- 
near dusk, and found it appeared about 9 o'clock in the morning, 
and was on the wing till about 4 o'clock in the afternoon. 

It has the feeblest (and wickedest) flight of any butterfly 
known to me. I never saw it rise six feet above the ground, 
and it flaps slowly along, apparently with eff rt, its wings not 
stiff but bending with each stroke. It looks a certain capture ; 
but this, as Capt. Godfrey found, is delusive and elusive. It 
keeps just above the low bushes from two to three feet high, and; 
sneaks in among them most exasperatingly. It seems to do this 
deliberately, and will rather circuit round an opening made by a 
fallen tree than cress the small opening. It is often seen flying 
in rain. 

As a rule it is quite solitary, it being rare to see two at once, 
and it is not at all bold or pugnacious. 

Its wings are so soft that it often crumples in the wet, and it 
is almost impossible to set it during the rainy season, the wings^ 
relaxing in a few hours, though it may have been a week on- 
the setting- board. 

From February to October it was equally common. I then 
came out of the forest. It probably flies all the year round. 

It is one of the few true forest species, and avoids the sunshine. 

I do not know whether the insect is common elsewhere, and 
can offer no suggestion as to why it should be spreading from 
this part, though it is undoubtedly creeping coastwards. The 
eastern part of North Borneo is untouched primaeval forest, the 
cnly clearings being on the coast and river-l anks, and these are 
small. The country where Kagadia abounds is quite uninhabited, 
and it is difficult to see how the food-plant (unknown) could 
have been taken thence to the Straits Settlements. Then too, 
in Borneo at any rate, it would avoid clearings. 

Leaving this question for future observers to solve, we now 
know that in one part of the interior of North Borneo Kagadia- 
crisia is very common, and it is extending its area. 

Sydney B. J. Skertchi.y. 



Spherical Eggs. 

Prof. Aldis will find references to the history of this ancient 
question in an article by Mr. W. Walton in the Quarterly 
Journal of Mathematics, vol. ix. p. 79, where it appears as 
Leslie Ellis's problem of the thirsty crow, "A thirsty crow 
flew to a pitcher and found there was water in it, but so near 
the bottom he could not reach it. Seeing, however, plenty of 
small, equal spherical pebbles near the place, he cast them one 
by one into the pitcher, and thus by degrees raised the water up 
to the very brim and satisfied his thirst. Prove that the volume 
of water must have been to that of the pitcher in a ratio not less 
than 3 fjz - ■"■ : 3 sj^.''^ References are supplied in the article by 
the Rev. Dr. Luard to Pliny's "Natural History," book x. 
chapter 43, "De Corvorum Intelligenlia" ; Plutarch, " De 
Solertia Animalium ; and .-Elian, " De Natuva Animalium." 
Consult also Tail's " Properties oi^ Matter." 

Thus in an aggregation of closely- packed equal spherules the 
unoccupied space is i - j7r^/2 of the whole volume. 

We may verify this experimentally by comparing the weight 
of a given volume of small lead shot with the weight of an 
equal volume of lead ; theoretically the densities should be as ir, 
to 3 ^2. 

On a larger scale, the question may be studied in the piles of 
spherical shot form.erly to be seen in our forts and arsenals. 
Whether we begin piling the shot in horizontal layers, in tri- 
angular order, or in square order, the internal molecular arrange- 
ment of the spheres is the same ; but the square order in the 
horizontal layers is preferred, as it is then possible to build the 
pile on a rectangular ba=-e, fini^hing off at the top with a ridge 



May 2, 1889] 



NATURE 



II 



of halls in sinjjle file, the sloping faces all showing the sph;res 
in triangular orJer. 

Suppose a bag, impermeable to water, i> filled with le id shot, 
placed in an hydraulic press, and subjecled to great pressure. 
The lead spheres will ba flattened ajainst each o'.har in regular 
•cell structure into a solid ma>s, each sphere being chxnged into 
a rhombic dodoahcdron ; and in this manner the form of tha 
•cell of the bee has been considered as arising in a natural manner 
by Mrs. Bryant, D. Sc, in a paper read before the Lond)n 
Mathematical Society, vol. xvi.. " O 1 the Ideal Geometrical 
Form of Natural Cell- Structure." The plane surfaces of separa- 
tion al-o form a possible arrangement of the films of a mass of 
soap-bubbles; but the instability of the corners where six 
edges meet modifies the soap bubble arrangement to the form 
investigated by Sir W. Thomson in the Ac^a Mdthemalica. 

April 27. A. G. Greenhill. 

Name for Unit of Self-induction. 

A NAME for the unit ciefificient of self-induction is much 
Avanted. No one is satisfied with secohm, and yet it seems 
■making its way ; by reason, no doubt, of Ayrton and Perry's 
ingenious commutating arrangement for helping to measure it. 
It is an unpleasing name, and it is too big a unit. The name 
■quad, which I formerly suggested, is on further consideration still 
less satisfactory for permanent use, becau-e it emphasizes unduly 
the accid*nt that in electro- mxgmtic measure self-ind action 
liappens to be a length. One 1 )oks forward to the time when 
till distinction between electrostatic and electro-magnetic measures 
shall vanish by both ceasing to be ; and at that not far-distant 
time, names e nphasizing the present arbitrary state of things 
will be anachronism-;, as well as s'.u nbling-blocks to beginners. 
I beg to suggest that a milli secohm shall be called a vo. It is a 
short and harmless unmeaning syllable not yet appropriated. It 
should be its own plural. The unit of conductivity is already 
style! a W(»;and 8 vo will look well alongside 12 mo. " Vo- 
meter" is short and satisfactory. A unit of magnetic induction 
Avill then be tlie vo-ampere ; and this, bein j of a size convenient 
for dynamo makers, may be hoped to replace their abominable 
fnongrel unit " Kapp-lines." 

The vo in electro-magnetic measure is 10 kilometres, and 
hence a vo ampere per square decimetre is a magnetic field of 
a thousand C.G. S. units, and might be called a "Gauss." For 
Jightning-conductor work the natural unit of self-induction will 
t)e a n:;illi-vo, or 10 metres of electro-magnetic measure. 

Grasmere, April 16. Oliver J. Lodge, 

Hertz's Equations. 

Permit me to add a line of explanation of my letter on this 
subject, printed in Nature, vjI. xxxix. p. 558. I intended no 
•criticism of Hertz's general result, bat merely to draw attention 
to the neces-ity of reje :ting all solutions of the equation in n 
which made the fore (Z) infinite for points on the vibrator. 

Berkswell, April 24. H. W. Watson. 



A NEW PEST OF FARM CROPS. 

DURING the past three or four years, in the exaini- 
nation of plants affected by various injurious 
vorms and Arthropods, and of the soils in which such 
plants grew, I have from time to time been led to suspect 
that certain small species of Oligochceta were concerned 
in damaging, if not ultimately destroying, several species 
of cultivated plants. With a view to converting sus- 
picion into proof, experiments on isolated growing pot- 
plants have been carried on. 

Within the past few weeks I have received, through 
the kindness of Miss E. A. Ormerod, additional evidence 
•of a striking character, which induces me to place the 
main facts on record. 

In the spring of 1885, Miss Ormerod forwarded to me 
for inspection two small white Oligochce/a, i\ inch lon^--, 
received by her in soils from the roots of plants. In 
reporting on them I replied that it did not seem very 
probable that they could seriously injure the plants. 



In April 1888, an inquiry reached mc as to the natur-? 
and means of prevention of a serious attack of "small 
white worms" destructive to pot and green-house plants. 
On being placed in communication with the observer, th:; 
Rev. William Lockett, Rector of Littlede.in, I receiveii 
from him a box of soil taken from his affected flower- 
pots, and much valuable information in answer to a series 
of questions put by me. The soil itself contained some 
hundreds of the white worms described ; and the detailed 
information all pointed to these worms as the cause of 
many serious losses which had been sustained. 

Th'j worms were Enchytraeidae, of the genus 
Ettchytrcstis, apparently near to E. Buchholzii, Vejd 
I took three plants, a sunflower, a geranium, and a 
tradescantia, and had them re-potted in carefully examine 1 
sifted earth ; when they were well established, I put fifteen 
of the worms into each pot, and left them to be tended by 
the gardener. I kept a number of the worms in soil 
which was alternately wetted and dried at regular 
intervals. They all kept alive and vigorous ; when wet 
to complete immersion they were most active, when 
dried they remained quiescent, apparently dried up, and 
difficult to discover. 

After two months, the sunflower drooped and bent over, 
and examination showed the roots and rootlets dead and 
the stem rotting. Within the decaying stem some of the 
Enchytrtfidiie were found alive and active. The other two 
plants are still living, but it will be shown that the 
number of worms supplied them was too small. Mr. 
Lockett lost spiraeas, vegetable marrows, fuchsias, 
gloxinias, and many other plants, and the dead roots often 
contained in and around them many hundreds of worms 
to each plant. Both in his garden and a neighbouring 
ash-heap he found an abundance of them. 

I was on the point of repeating my experiments this 
spring with various seedlings, when I received by the kind- 
ness of Dr. Gilbert, of Rothamsted (at the suggestion of 
Miss Ormerod), a quill with two or three specimens of 
worms of the same genus. Mr. John J. Willis, the 
superintendent of the field experiments at Rothamsted, 
in sending them described them as obtained from a field 
of clover " with a good plant except across one portion of 
the field, where all the plants were dying off," the small 
worms occurring at the roots of the clover along with 
larvae of Sitones z.x\A wire-worm. "There is scarcely a 
plant that has not one or more of these creatures 
attached." Mr. Willis has been good enough to send me 
several communications on the subject, and a supply of 
the worms, living and in spirit. Much of his informa- 
tion is interesting, as that the more decayed the root, the 
larger the number of worms ; that even healthy plants 
harbour a few specimens ; that the worms seem some- 
times to enwrap the rootlets with their coiled body. 
He hears of other fields of clover in a similar condition 
apparently to those at Rothamsted. I have a quantity of 
detailed information, but to sumnarize it, there appears 
to be but little room for doubt that these small OlIgochcBta 
are one cause of the decay of the clover at Rothamsted, 
as they were of the many varieties of garden plants at 
Littledean. 

The Enchytraeidas have not hitherto, so far as I can 
learn, been accused of causing serious injury to plants. 
Vejdovsky, in his " Monographie der Enchytraeiden," says, 
" Die Enchytrasiden bewohnen trockene und feuchte 
Erde, susses und salziges Wasser, Siimpfe und morsches 
Holz." In what manner they directly injure the plant 
remains to be observed— probably by sucking the fine 
root-hairs. Under observation the pharynx is rapidly 
everted and withdrawn in the act of feeding. 1 have so 
far recognized two species. If, as seems not improbable, 
further corroboration should be forthcoming, we may find 
that we have to add to the list of enemies of the clover 
plant from which it so mysteriously suffers, these un- 
suspected Oligocheetes. The discovery, though fraught 



12 



NATURE 



{May 2, 1889 



with so little satisfaction to the already burdened agri- 
culturist, can hardly fail to prove of interest to the 
zoological student of farm pests. 

Allen Harker. 
Royal Agricultural College, Cirencester, April 10. 



RAIN CLOUDS ON LAKE TI TIC AC A. 

THE cloud system here, 12,500 feet above sea-level, is 
so beautiful, and seems to throw so much light on 
the formation of one particular type of shower, that I 
venture to send diagrammatic sketches of two excellent 
specimens of cloud-building over rain. 



I have never seen cumuloform clouds so perfectly 
developed as on this lake. Whether the height above the 
dust and haze of lower levels makes the blue sky darker 
than usual, or whether the temperature is such that the 
cumulus is composed of snow-flakes instead of water- 
drops, the contrast between the sky and cloud is much 
greater than usual. 

The sketches were taken on a showery day, and the 
clouds were visible simultaneously in different directions. 
The type of shower is not unknown at home, but there 
much complication arises from the almost constant 
existence of cyclonic cloud systems. 

Certain features are common to both pictures. Nearest 
the earth, appears a more or less conical-shaped space r. 




Fig. I. — /', blue sky ; c, flat-topped mass of dark cloui, rounded components ; r, rain ; iv, white cloud, tending to flatter, out and to cirrify. 




Fig. 2. — b, blue sky ; c, dark cumuloform cloud, flat-topped at edges; d, dark belt ; r, rain ; 7t', white cloud, tending to fl itten and to cirrify. 



of uniform inky blackness, where rain is falling. Above, 
and stretching laterally some distance beyond the rain, is 
a belt of dark cloud, c, curiously flattened at the top ; but 
the outhnes are always rounded, and there is no trace of 
linear or hairy structure. In Fig. 2 a mountainous rocky 
cumulus rises above the flat dark mass c ; and as the rain 
could be seen falling, I have indicated that appearance in 
the sketch. 

In both, a white cloud, w, of remarkable shape and 
structure, rises above the dark mass c. Sometimes, as in 
Fig. I, this cloud is nearly uniform in structure, but exhibits 
a tendency towards hairy structure at the edges. Other 
times, as in Fig, 2, the white clood iv shows traces of 



cumuloform structure of a very peculiar type. Instead of 
round, rocky lumps, the white cloud is composed of long, 
straight, fingery masses of cumulus, with a tendency to 
fibrous or hairy structure, and radiating slighUy outwards 
from the base, like the head of a cauliflower. I have en- 
deavoured to suggest this appearance by the straight 
hnes, drawn through w, in Fig. 2 ; for the real structure 
defies delineation with pen or pencil. 

In all cases, the top of iv is more or less flat, and the 
whole diffuses outwards, sideways, or edgeways, rather 
than upwards. As the shower breaks up, w seems tb be 
left as a middle-level layer of strato-cirrus. 

The whole shower is surrounded by blue sky, there is 



May 2, 1889] 



NATURE 



13 



no cirrus at a higher level ; and while the low cloud c 

moves from north-east, the white cloud w may be coming 
either from north-east or more probably from north-west. 

The puzzling nature of cloud perspective makes it very 
difficult to interpret the appearance of these clouds. There 
can be little doubt that the lower clouds, c, are the product 
of the condensation of rising columns of air ; but while 
the somewhat cumuloform structure of %a ought also to 
indicate an upward motion, the flat top, and outward 
diffusion, would suggest a more horizontal motion. 
I cannot therefore suggest any rational explanation of 
the building of these shower clouds ; and the true nature 
of this phenomenon will only be discovered when the 
theodolite is used to determine whether w lies vertically 
or horizontally in the blue sky. 

Ralph Abercromby. 

Lake Titicaca, February 28. 



A FLA T FISH NURSER Y. 

PROF. EWART submitted the following report at a 
recent meeting of the Scotch Fishery Board : — 

" I have to report that I recently discovered in the in- 
shore waters what might best be described as a flat fish 
nursery. This nursery, which is about five miles in length, 
and from two to four miles in width, stretches along an ex- 
posed and only slightly indented shore, where the sea rises 
during spring tides from sixteen to twenty feet. The 
bottom of this area consists chiefly of fine sand, covered 
here and there with large patches of the common sea-mat 
(Flusfra) ; the average depth is about four fathoms. 
When a small beam-trawl (with a net having meshes small 
enough to capture all the fish over two inches in length) 
was carried over the bottom parallel to and at a distance 
of about half a mile from the shore, large numbers of 
small flat fish were invariably secured. On one occasion 
as many as five hundred and sixty of these small fish were 
taken in less than an hour, and at all times the Stake ' 
was large, and usually from 80 to 85 per cent, of the 
small flat fish were under two and a half inches in length. 
Some distance from the shore the takes were smaller, and 
on one occasion the trawl only secured twenty-three small 
fish, when used in about ten fathoms of water, some 
seven miles from shore. Along with the small flat fish, there 
were usually a few small round fish, a number of shrimps 
— sometimes over, sometimes considerably under one pint 
— numerous hermit and other crabs, and large quantities of 
Flustra. As it may be possible to materially increase the 
fish supply by affording protection to the young fish, I 
hope to be able ere long to report that other similar 
nurseries have been found, and also as to whether flat fish 
during their earlier stages of growth frequent the inshore 
in preference to the offshore waters. 

" I have also to report that Mr. Scott (who in January 
last secured many thousands of plaice eggs floating in 
the open sea over a shoal of spawning plaice) has recently 
come across a large shoal of spawning haddocks which 
were apparently resting on the bottom at a depth of 
about 30 fathoms some fifteen miles off the coast of Banff. 
The surface waters over the shoal were crowded with 
haddock and cod eggs at nearly all stages of develop- 
ment. At a single sweep Mr. Scott with his tow-net 
secured nearly half a million eggs, while the trawlers 
were capturing hundreds of the spawning fish that were 
resting on or moving about near the bottom." 



NOTES. 
The annual conversazione of the Royal Society will be held 
on Wednesday, May 8. 

At a meeting of the American Academy of Arts and Sciences 
on April 10, in Boston, t(he Rumford Medals were presented to 
Prof. Albert A. Michelson. 



We regret to have to record the death of Mr, R. Stirling 
Newall, F. R.S., at the age of seventy-seven. Mr. Newall's 
name was well known in connection with the invention and 
manufacture of wire rope and telegraphic cables. Just before his 
deathheofferedasagifi to the University of Cambridge the 25-incb 
refracting telescope which he had constructed some years ago. 

The Civil Service Estimates for the year ending March 31, 
1890, show that a sum of £^\,T.z\ will be required for the 
maintenance of the Natural History Museum, South Kensington, 
for the present financial year. The corresponding sum in the Votes 
last year was ;^40,934. The principal increase is under the head 
of " Purchases and Acquisitions," for which the sum asked is 
;C47oo instead of ;^3700. On the other hand, there is a decrease 
of £>9^S under the head of "Furniture and Fittings." The 
remaining heads do not show any material variation. 

Dr. Lendenfeld's "Monograph of the Horny Sponges," 
which the Royal Society are about to publish, is now nearly 
through the press. It will consist of about 950 pages of text and 
over 50 plates. 

We have received the Report of the Mason Science Colleger 
Birmingham, for the year ended February 23, 1889. It is 
hardly creditable to Birmingham that the authorities of such an 
institution as this should still have to complain of a deficiency of 
income. Although the amount of the deficiency compares very 
favourably with those in former years, the Council feel that the 
economies they have been forced to adopt in order to decrease 
the difference between income and expenditure seriously impair 
the College work by hampering the Professors, especially those 
who have laboratories under their charge and require costly 
apparatus to illustrate their teaching. 

Prof. H. G. Seeley, to whom a sum was assigned from the 
Government Grant for a research on the Permian or Trias Rep- 
tilia, has been spending his Easter recess in St. Petersburg and 
Moscow. The officers and professors of the Academy, the Uni- 
versity, and the School of Mines at St. Petersburg have shown 
him every attention, and his work in the museums appears likely 
to lead to important results. 

Much excellent work has been done by the London Geological 
Field Class, which is carried on under the direction of Prof 
H. G. Seeley. The Report relating to the excursions during 
the summer of 1888 shows that the work is conceived in a 
thoroughly scientific spirit, and that it cannot fail to exercise a 
most wholesome intellectual influence on all who take part it. 
This year, on account of Prof. Seeley's projected visit to South 
Africa in July, the class will begin its labours earlier than usual. 
The first excursion will take place on May 4. Many persons 
interested in geology ought to take advantage of this opportunity 
for the study of the country around London, and we are glad to 
learn that the secretaries have received the names of more sub- 
scribers than they have received at the same date in any previous 
year. 

Mr. Duthie, the Government Botanist for Northern India, 
who has been at work with Dr. King, of the Howrah Botanical 
Gardens, in classifying the plants collected by him when attached 
to the Black Mountain Expedition, has now been directed by 
the Government to make a special study of the grasses and 
fodders of Upper India. • 

The Times of India says that the Sukkur Bridge, which has 
been constructed over the Indus, has now been opened. At 
Sukkur the river is very rapid, but the large island of Bukkur, 
standing about midway in the stream, was of great assistance in 
carrying out the plans. There are thus two bridges, one from 
Bukkur to the left bank, the other from Bukkur to the right 
bank. The latter consists of three spans, the longest of which is 
278 feet ; the former, known as the Sukkur Bridge, is in length 
between the abutments no less than 790 feet. Two cantilevers. 



H 



NATURE 



{May 2, 1889 



310 feet long, one from each side, were erected, and the inter- 
vening space of 200 feet was crossed by a girder. There was 
4hus a space between the pillars of 820 feet, which is said to be 
the largest span of any rigid bridge in the world. The weight of 
the span is 3300 tons. The bridge was sent out in pieces from the 
•works of Messrs. Westwood, of Poplar, and now, sixteen months 
«fter the arrival of the materials from England, it is practically 
complete. 

A CORRESPONDENT writes to us about a "find " which, he 
thinks, may prove to hz of some interes'. At Hornsey, near 
Turnpike Lane, an excavation— about 18 or 20 feet wide, and 
:about 20 feet deep — is being made in connection with a new 
pumping-station. In cutting into the clay, the men have come 
iipon large fragments of a white substance, in the inside of which 
:are what appear to hz "the vertebrce of some animal." Our 
-correspondent expresses a hope that some one competent to form 
an opinion about the matter will "take a run down to Turn- 
pike Lane " (near the Great Northern station at Hornsey), and 
-examine the objects which he believes to be fossils. After the 
present week, he says, there will probably be no opportunity of 
■seeing the clay in the state in which it was when the objects were 
removed from it. 

At the meeting of the Scientific Committee of the Royal 
Ho ticultural Society, on April 23, Mr. W. T. Thiselton Dyer 
presented a note from Mr. Scott, the Director of the Meteoro- 
logical Office, relating to the " useful " temperature as r.'ckoned 
in " day degrees," and to the amount of sunshine since January 
I of the present year, a? compared with recent years. The 
present season, it seem^, has been much better than the last, 
•except as regards t'le amount of sunshine, in which there is not 
much improvement. 

Sir James Hector has issued the Meteorologlcil Report for 
New Zealand, contiiining observations for the years 1883 and 
1884. Returns have been published since 1853, but since the 
year 1880 the number of stations has been greatly reduced, in 
favour of current weather reports ; the principal stations are now 
■only four in number. With the view of enabling daily weather 
a-eports to be issued by the press throughout the colony, with the 
ieast possible expense, a series of twenty typical isobaric charts 
-were prepared and are shown in the Report. Each represents 
^ certain type of weather and bears a distinguishing number, 
which is telegraphed to the leading journals, so that when the 
•number for the day is quoted, the diagram can be printed, and, 
although not absolutely correct, it is of great assistance in making 
I'cnown the general condition of the weather. The Report also 
contains some valuable returns from stations in the Fiji group of 
islands. 

A NEW amine, methyl-ethylamine, CoH3(CFIa)NH, has been 
■obtained by Drs. Skraup and Wiegmann, by the action of 
.alcoholic potash upon m Drphine. Not only is the actual pre- 
paration of this hitherto unknown amine of importance in itself 
as completing a series of isomers of the fjrmula CjHaN, but the 
•fact of its derivation from morphine also throws considerable 
light upon the constitution of that alkaloid. It has been shown 
tiy several chemists that morphine, Cj^H^gNOa, is a derivative of 
phenanthrene, CnHi„. As a methyl and an ethyl group have 
now been extracted in the form of an amine, it appears very 
liikely that these groups are present in-mor^jhine, replacing two 
hydrogen atoms of phenanthrene and piobably attached to 
Jiitrogen. If this be so, morphine may turn out to be the iso- 
•nilrile of a substituted phenanthrene, and it remains now for 
future work to test the truth of this, and to determine the 
positions and functions of the oxygen atoms. In the latter con- 
nection, it was found in the course of this investigation that, in 
addition to the volatile amine, ase:o.nd substance of phenol-like 
properties was also formed, but great difficulties were met with 
in its purification. In the actual experiments, morphine was 



heated for about five hours at 180° C. with ten times as much of 
a twenty per cent, solution of potash in alcohol. A volatile sub- 
stance of amine-like odour was evolved, and was driven over by 
means of a current of coal gas into dilute sulphuric acid. The 
filtered acid solution was then supersaturated with soda and the 
purified amine distilled over in steam into a standard solution of 
hydrochloric acid. It was only found possible to eliminate 
from the morphine in this way about 50 per cent', of its 
nitrogen. The concentrated hydrochloric acid solution deposited 
crystals of a hydrochloride, and the solution also gave with 
platinum chloride crystals of a platinochloride melting at 208°. 
Analysis of this latter salt showed that the amine present pos- 
sessed the empirical formula C3H9N. There are four possible 
isomers of this formula, three of which, trimethylamine, propyl- 
amine, and isopropylamine, have been prepared ; and methyl 
ethylamine, which has hitherto been unknown. The hydro- 
chloride yielded the ba e itself, by action of the strongest potash, 
in the form of a clear liquid of intense amine odour, unlike, how- 
ever, that of trimethylamine. The properties of its salts were 
also found to exclude the possibility of its being propyl- or iso- 
propylamine, so an attempt was ma-le to prepare synthetically 
the only other possible isomer, methyl-ethylamine. This was 
successfully accomplished by heating methyl iodide with a 
mixture of 30 per cent, ethylamine solution and alcohol in a 
sealed tube at 100° for three hours. The product was distilled as 
far as possible in steam, the residue decomposed with potash, and 
the remainder of the volatile amines driven over in steam. The 
aqueous solution of the mixed distillate was then shaken with 
ethyl oxalate, and successive products were obtained, on con- 
centration, of diethyl oxamide, acid ethylamine oxalate, and, 
lastly, the oxa'ate of the sought for base, methyl-ethylamine. 
This salt, when recrystallized, melted at 154°, like the oxalate 
prepared from the amine derived from morphine; and from it 
the hydrochloride, platinochloride, gold chloride, and free base 
were prepared, in every case the products being identical with 
those prepared from the base of morphine. 

Messrs. Smith, Elder, and Co. have issued a third 
edition of Darwin's work on "Coral Reefs." To this edi- 
tion Prof. Bonney contributes an appendix, giving an account 
of recent speculations — about which there was lately so much 
discussion in Nature — as to the origin of coral reefs. 

A CHEAP edition of Darwin's "Journal of Researches into the 
Natural History and Geology of the Countries visited during the 
Voyage of H.M. S. Beadle round the World," has been 
published by Mr. Murray. The portrait of Darwin which ap- 
peared in the Nature series of " Scientific Worthies " is 
prefixed to this edition. 

Messrs. Charles Grikfn and Co. have published a sixth 
edition of " A Pocket-book of Electrical Rules and Tables for the 
use of Electricians and Engineers," by John Munro and Andrew 
Jamieson. The work has been thoroughly revised, and enlarged 
by about I20 pages and 60 new figures. 

SoMt valuable contributions towards a Flora of Caithness, by 
J. F. Grant and Arthur Bennett, have been reprinted from the 
Scottish Naturalist. The number of species and varieties that 
are admitted for the county of Caithness is over 600, a fair num- 
ber, the authors think, considering the physical features of the 
county. Caithness has about 80 species that have not yet been 
found in Sutherland, and about the same number not yet found 
in the Orkneys. 

The Smithsonian Institution has issue I six lithographs illustra- 
tive of the anatomy of Astrangla Dj'tae. The plates were 
drawn by Mr. Sonrel, in 1849, under the direction of Prof. 
Agassiz, who intended to prepare a complete memoir on the 
subject. Mr. J. Walter Fewkes has written an explanation of 
the plates to m.ake them available to students of marine in- 
vertebrates. 



May 2, 1889] 



NATURE 



15 



A NEW number of the Internationales Archiv fur Ethno- 
graphic has been issued. It consists of Parts I. and II. of the 
second vohinie ; and the contents, as in every preceding number 
of this excellent periodical, are full of interest for students of 
ethnography. There are three long articles — all in German. 
In the first, Dr. F. von Fuschan gives an instalment, carefully 
illustrated, of a paper on an amusement popular in Turkey, 
corresponding to the magic lantern. The second is an elaborate 
essay, also illustrated, by Dr. II. Schurtz, on knives made in 
various parts of Africa for the purpose of being thrown. In the 
third article, Mr. R. Parkinson, of New Britain, brings together 
many valuable ethnological facts relating to the inhabitants 
of the Gilbert Islands. 

The "Uses of Plants," by Prof. G. S. Boulger, which is 
about to be published by Messrs. Roper and Drowley, is a 
manual of economic botany, having special reference to 
vegetable products introduced during the last fifty years. It 
enumerates all vegetable substances in use in England as food, 
materia medica, oil«, gums, rubbers, dyeing, tanning, and 
paper- making materials, fibres, timber, &c., both home-grown 
and imported ; and there are short essays on the recent progress 
of vegetable technology in its various branches. 

In a Report lately received, Mr. W. Fawcett, Director of 
Public Gardens and Plantations, Jamaica, gives an interesting 
account of a visit of a few days to the Cayman Islands during 
May 1888. In an appendix he gives a list of the plan's he col- 
lected, for the determination of which he expresses indebtedness 
to the authorities at Kew. " From this list," says Mr. Fawcett, 
"it will be seen that about 20 per cent, of the species are found 
more or less throughout the tropics. They are such as one 
might expect to find on any tropical island. It is interesting to 
note that one of the ferns {Acrostichum aureuvi) which is found 
growing to a height of 6 to 10 feet in swamps in Jamaica and 
throughout the tropics, was one of the first plants to establish 
itself on the Island of Krakatab, where the terrible volcanic dis- 
turbance completely destroyed every vestige of plant life. On 
its shore was also found the fruit of another plant occurring in 
the Cayman Islands, viz. the almond tree ( Terminalia Catappa)." 

At a recent meeting of the Royal Asiatic Society of Japan, a 
paper wa.s read by Dr. Seymour on the hygiene of Japanese 
houses, in which he disproves the common idea that dwelling- 
houses in that country are very unhealthy. A Japanese house, 
is, on the whole, suited to Jai anese life. The extreme airiness 
of the structure prevents the charcoal fires doing the inhabitants 
any injury. Its chief defects can be easily remedied. The 
boarding of the floor can be made more close-fitting ; ventilating 
panels should be used ; the ceilings could with advantage 
be higher, and the drainage ihould be well looked af er. 
Amongst foreigners there is distinctly more illness in brick and 
stone houses than in the wood or frame houses, on account of 
the damp remaining in the walls of the brick houses while it dries 
up almost immediately in the others. The remarkably small 
infant mortality'amongst the Japanese shows that their houses are 
healthy and suited to iheir modes of life. 

Mr. F. a. Heron has been appointed an Assistant in the 
Zoological Department of the British Museum, not in the 
Geological Department, as ■ stated (by a printer's error) in 
Nature, vol, xxxix. p. 590. 

The additions to the Zoological Society's Gardens during the 
past week include two Macaque Monkeys {Macacus cynomolgus 
<? ? ), from India, presented by Mr. J. G. Mackie ; two Caracals 
{Fclis caracal) from Bechuanaland, presented by Captain Treville 
Cookson ; a Ring-tailed Coati {Nasua riifu) from South America, 
presented by Mr. William Shiell ; a Lmgeared Owl {Asiootus), 
P^uropean, presented by Mr. Thomas B. Butler; three Orbicular 
Horned Lizards [Fhrynosoma orbicularc) from Mexico, pre- 
sented by Mr. T. H. Collins; a Rhesus Monkey {Ma,cacm 



rhesus 9 ), four Concave- casqued Hombills {Dichoceros bicornis 
c5 (5 9 9 ) from India, a Crowned Ilornbill [Anthracoceros 
coronatiis) from Malabar, a Nepalese Ilornbill {Accros ncpa- 
lensis) from Nepal, deposited ; a Peacock Pheasant {Polyplec- 
tron chinqtiis 6 ) from British Burmah, a Squacco Heron {Ardect 
ralloides) from Southern Europe, purchased ; a Yellow-footed 
Rock Kangaroo {Petrogale xanlhopus 9 ). a Derbian Wallaby 
[Halmaturus derbianus 9 ), born in the Menagerie. 



OUR ASTRONOMICAL COLUMN. 

The April Meteors. — Few of the April meteors appear 
to have been visible this year. They were watched for by Prof. 
Herschel at Croydon, Mr. Denning at Bristol, Mr. Backhouse- 
at Hurwoith (near Darlington), Mr. Monck at Dublin, and 
other observers. The shower of Lyrids was but weakly repre- 
sented, and meteors generally were scarce. Several conspicuous 
ones were, however, recorded from the secondary streams of the 
April epoch. On April 20, at loh. i6m., a meteor equal to- 
Sirius was seen between Corvus and Virgo by Mr. Backhouse, 
and at the same time Prof. Herschel recorded a second-mag- 
nitude in Perseus. A comparison of the two paths shows the 
objects to have been identical, .and the heights of the meteor at 
its beginning and end points, as computed by Prof. Herschel^ 
were 50 and 46 miles respectively (over Derbyshire), which is- 
much lower than usual. The radiant-point was at 301° + 34°. 
Another brightish meteor was seen on April 21, at loh. i6m., 
by Prof. Herschel and Mr. Denning, and its heights were from* 
76 miles above a point near Newport, Monmouthshire, to 60 
miles near Brecon. The radiant was at 217" - 2°, near fi Virginis. 
A fine meteor, quite equal to \^enus, was observed at Bristol on 
April 27, at 8h. 51m., slowly descending in Hercules. Its path 
was from about 218° -)- 49^° to 249° + 32^°. It^left a trail of 
sparks as it fell, and its lustre fluctuated in a remarkable manner. 

The White Sfot on Saturn's Ring. — Prof. Holdea 
reports that a careful examination of the ring of the planet with 
the great Lick equatorial on several evenings from March 2 to 
March 24 has resulted in the detection of no abnormal appearince 
in it. A kind of yellowish deformation or lump was indeed! 
noticed close to the shadow on two or three occasions, but it 
proved to be due partly to bad definition, for it was only seer» 
when the air was unsteady, and partly to contrast, for a similar 
appearance was produced in any part of the ring by the use of 
an occulting bar. 

The Variable X Cygnl — Mr. Yendall gives a new deter- 
mination of the elements of this variable in Gould's Astionomica^ 
Journal, No. 191. Discovered by Mr. Chandler in 1886, it 
has proved a variable of very interesting character, and its light 
changes still require much stu<"y. The rise from minimum to 
maximum is generally sharp, but the interval varies much in 
length, the range being from 3'3 days to 87 days ; the mean 
interval being 6'9 days. The curve is flat at minimum, and fron> 
these two circumstances Mr. Yendall has confined himself to the 
use of the maxima alone in the determination of his new ele- 
ments. The decrease from maximum to minimum shows a. 
remarkable halt, sometimes a positive rise, almost important 
enou{,h to be considered a secondary maximum. Lastly, the 
magnitude touched at the extreme points of the curve varies- 
from epoch to epoch, but with a general correspondence between 
the two phases, a bright maximum being accompanied by a 
bright minimum, and the contrary. A connection between the- 
duration of the rise and the brightness at maximum has not yet 
been established. The elements given by Mr. Yendall are — 
1886 October lod. 6h. irSm. Camb. M.T. ± 52 sm. -I- 
i6d. gh. 36m. 51S. ± 23s. E. 

Photographic Determination of the Brightness of 
THE Stars. — No. 7 of vol. xviii. of the Annals of the Harrarct 
College Obse> vatory details the progress of the researches in stellar 
photography carried on at that institution by the assistance of 
the Bache fund, the particular direction in which the inquiry is 
being carried on being the determination of stellar magnitudes- 
by means of photography. The present work is concerned with 
the dcterminatii n of the brightness of the stars in three par- 
ticular regions, each with special qualifications for the functions 
of standard stars ; viz. icoo close circumpolar >tar«, 420 stars itt 
the Pleiades, and over i lOO equatorial stars. These three cata- 
logues have been prepared with great care ; the errors of the 
different photographic plates fully CNamined, and the relation of 
photometric to photographic magnitude investigated. The work 



i6 



NATURE 



[May 2, 1889 



therefore forms a most necessary and valuable introduction to a 
complete survey of the heavens on the same method. The instru- 
ment used was the Voigtlander photographic doublet, of 8 inches 
aperture and 44 inches focal length, so that the scale of the 
photographs was that of the atlas of the Dmchmiisteriin^, 2 
centimetres to a degree. The images of the stars obtained on 
the plates were of different kinds, the clock sometimes being em- 
ployed to drive the telescope when the stellar images were points 
or disks, sometimes the clock was stopped when trails were 
obtained, sometimes the clock was used but trails produced 
through the polar axis of the telescope not being parallel 
to that of the earth ; indeed the adjustment of the polar 
axis was made in this way. The standard for measuring 
the stellar points was a photograph of the Hyades, the 
plate being exposed six times with exposures of 3 seconds, 
and 3-, 3'', to 3" seconds respectively. For measuring trails 
a plate was exposed to the polar region, and the aperture 
of the telescope varied to correspond to successive differences of 
a magnitude. The result of the careful and independent 
measurements of the plates showed that the measures of a 
skilled observer of the same star disk or trail did not vary on the 
average by so much as a tenth of a magnitude ; so that if the 
errors due to the photographs themselves can be eliminated the 
photographic method of determining stellar magnitudes is at 
least as efficient as the best photometric methods. The com- 
parison of the diurnal with the clock trails showed that the cor- 
rection for declination to be applied to the former was only half 
2 "5 log cos 5, the value it should have had if the chemical action 
due to a certain amount of energy was independent of the time 
during which it acted. 

The first of the three catalogues given in this work is that of 
the stars within 1° of the pole. Rectangular co-ordinates are 
given with the stars, instead of R.A. and declination. Of the 
IC09 stars included, 947 are within one degree radius from the 
pole, and nearly all are above the fifteenth magnitude. The cata- 
logue of the Pleiades includes all of Wolf's stars between 3m. 
preceding, and 2m. following .Alcyone, and 30'north and 15' south 
of that star with a few apparently overlooked by Wolf. The 
equatorial catalogue contains the stars within 2° of the equator. 
Ten different fields were photographed on each plate, one 
being exposed on the meridian, eight others right and left at in- 
tervals of 40m. hour angle, and the tenth on the polar region. 
A comparison of the results obtained brings out some interesting 
points. Tempel, at Marseilles, observing the Pleiades with a 
4-inch telescope, reached fainter stars than Wolf at Paris with 
12 inches aperture. The behaviour of photographic lenses 
of different apertures shows that to double the aperture is to 
command two additional magnitudes ; to treble it, two and a 
half. A 24-inch aperture should, therefore, grasp stars below 
the seventeenth magnitude. A comparison t»f the photographic 
magnitudes with the Cordoba Catalogue, and the Durchmusterung 
gives distinct maxima for the residuals in the Milky Way, 
showing that the Catalogue magnitudes are too faint near the 
Galactic stream where stars are numerous. 



ASTRONOMICAL PHENOMENA FOR THE 

WEEK 1889 MA F 5-1 1. 

/"POR the reckoning of time the civil day, commencing at 

^ Greenwich mean midnight, counting the hours on to 24, 

is here employed.) 

At Greenwich on May 5 
Sun rises. 4h. 26m. ; souths, iih. 56m. 32*03.; daily decrease 
of southing, S'ls. ; sets, igh 27m. : right asc. on meridian, 
2h. 507ni. ; decl, i6° 23' N. Sidereal Time at Sunset, 
loh. 22m. 
Moon (at First Quarter on May 8, 
souths. i6h. 17m. ; sets, oh 35m.*: 
7h. 117m. ; decl. 22° 41' N. 



7h.) rises, 7h. 57m. ; 
right asc. on meridian, 





Right asc. and declination 


Planet. Rises. Souths. 


Sets. on meridian. 


h. m. h. m. 


h. m. h. m. , / 


Mercury.. 4 44. ... 12 43 . 


. 20 42 ... 3 37-5 ... 20 51 N. 


Venus ... 3 44 ... II 24 . 


. 19 4 ... 2 17-8 ... 17 59 N. 


Mars ... 4 52 .. 12 44 . 


• 20 36 ... 3 38-2 ... 19 47 N. 


Jupiter ... 23 46*... 3 42 . 


. 7 38 ... 18 35-2 ... 22 57 S. 


Saturn ... 10 32 ... 18 11 . 


. I 50*... 9 6-6 ... 17 47 N. 


Uranus... 16 46 ... 22 15 . 


. 3 44*... 13 J07 ... 6 48 S. 


Neptune.. 5 18 .. 13 4 .. 


. 20 50 ... 3 58-3 ... 18 52 N. 


* Indicates that the rising is that of the preceding evening and the setting 


at of the following morning. 





May. 
5 • 



h. 
17 



Mercury in conjunction with and 1° 9' north 
of Mars. 

7 ... 22 ... Saturn in conjunction with and 1° 28' south 
of the Moon. 

Saturn, May 5. — Outer major axis of outer ring = 4i"'0: 
outer minor axis of outer ring = ii"*6 : southern surface visible. 





Varia 


ble Stars, 










Star. 


R.A. 
h. m. 


Dec'. 






h. 


m. 


U Cephei ... 


.. 52-5 .. 


81 17 N. 


.. May 


6, 
ii> 


I 
I 


52 m 
31 m 


X Bootis ... . 


.. 14 18-9 .. 


16 50 N. 




10. 




m 


5 Librae 


.. 14 551 •• 


8 5S. 




6, 


23 


51 m 


W Herculis... 


.. 16 31-3 .. 


37 34 N. 




6, 




m 


U Ophiuchi... 


.. 17 10-9 .. 


I 20 N. 




6. 
6, 


2 
22 


50 m 

38 m 


U Aquilse ... 


.. 19 23-4 .. 


7 16 S. 




1 1> 


I 


M 


S Vulpeculae 


.. 19 43-8 .. 


27 I N. . 




8, 




VI 


i\ Aquilae 


.. 19 46-8 .. 


43 N. 




q. 


I 


M 


S Sagittas ... 


.. 19 5i"o •• 


16 20 N, 




6, 


22 


oAf 


S Aquilaa ... . 


.. 20 6*5 .. 


15 18 N. 




10, 




m 


XCygni ... . 


.. 20 390 ... 


35 II N. . 




7. 


2 


oAf 


T Vulpeculae 


.. 20 46'8 .. 


27 50 N. . 




1 1, 


23 


m 


5 Cephei 


.. 22 25"I .. 


57 51 N. 




8, 


21 


ni 




M signifies maximum ; ;« minimum. 










Meteor-Showers. 












R.A. 


Decl. 










Near € Crateris 


170' 


... 10° S. .. 


. Very 


slow. 




,, 7] Ophiuchi 


255 


... 20 S. .. 


. Slow 


; long. 




,, i Draconis 


260 


... 64 N. . 


. Slow 









GEOGRAPHICAL NOTES. 

The discovery is announced of a new mouth of the Zambesi, 
forty-five miles south of the Quaqua, on which Quillimane is situ- 
ated. The name of the river is Chinde. As we know already of a 
Chinde River which joins two of the principal mouths of the 
Zambesi, the probability is, not that a new mouth has been dis- 
covered, but that an already known mouth has been more 
completely explored. The Chinde, it seems, has a channel 
some 500 yards wide, with three fathoms of water at the lowest, 
and is therefore expected to afford a clear waterway to the main 
Zambesi. 

For the last few years Baron Nordenskiold has been engaged 
on a work of great importance in the history of geography, and 
especially of cartography. He has been collecting from the 
archives of various European countries speci i.ens of the earliest 
printed (as distinguished from manu>cript) map^, and some of his 
finds are really original discoveries. These he intends to repro- 
duce in a great atlas with accompanying text, in which, among 
other things, he will describe and discuss the various editions of 
Ptolemy ; of these he has formed a unique collection. The 
work will appear both in a Swedish and an English edition. 

The country of Oklahoma, about which we have heard so 
much during the past fortnight, is in the very heart of what is 
known as the Indian Territory, which lies between Kansas on 
the north and Texas on the south. Although on the Survey 
maps of the United States it seems to be well watered, the 
actual results would show that the water is not well distributed. 
It is traversed by the Canadian and Cimarron rivers, and between 
them are found on the map a perfect network of streams. The 
area of Oklahoma is a little over 3000 square miles, equal to 
about one-twentieth of the total area of the Indian Territory ; 
the number of Indians in the latter is about 80,000. 

In an article in the May number of the Fortni-yhtly Review, 
by Mr. F. C. Selous, the well-known South African hunter and 
explorer, we find a useful account of Mashonaland, around which 
at present there is so much interest. No man knows the 
country so well as Mr. Selous, who during the past ten years has 
traversed it in all directions. Mashonaland lies to the north-east 
of the Matabele country, and is described as a land of perennial 
streams, where thirst is an unknown quantity. The high plateau, 
which is of very great extent, forms the watershed between the 
Zambesi to the north and east, and the Limpopo and the babi 



May 2, 1889] 



NATURE 



17 



to 'the south; it is from 4000 to 4600 feet above sea-level. 
Nearly the whole of it is magnificently watered by a net- 
work of running stream?, the springs supplying which well out 
from the highest portions of the downs, so that an enormous 
area of land could be put under irrigation. The whole year 
round a cool wind blows almost continuously from the south-east, 
a wind which in the winter months becomes so cold that it may 
well have its origin among the icebergs of the Antarctic sea>. 
The country, Mr. Selous assures us from his own experience, is 
admirably adapted for European occupation and labour. The 
soil is rich and fertile, and from the facilities for irrigation 
enormous quantities of wheat could be grown. Although the 
highest and healthiest parts of the country are very open, still 
one is never out of sight of patches of trees. Be^ides the high 
plateau of Mashonaland, the whole of which is over 4000 feet 
above sea-level, extending along the watershed for a distance of 
over 200 miles from the Matabele country to the source of the 
Hanyane and Mazoe Rivers, with a breadth of from sixty to one 
hundred miles, there is a vast extent of country lying to the south, 
east, and north-east of the plateau, well-watered and fertile, 
having an altitude of from 3000 to 4000 feet. These plateaus 
are of much ethnological interest, as giving shelter to the very 
few remnants of the peaceful Mashonas that have escaped 
extermination at the hands of the bloodthirsty intruders, the 
Matabele. 

Mr. Selous leaves England for the Cape to-morrow. It is 
possible that he may be compelled to lead a prospecting party 
up .the Zambesi. Should this not be the case, he is likely to 
proceed northwards bevond the Zambesi to the Garenganze 
country, west of Lake Bangweolo, and thence make either for 
the source of the Lualaba, which he will endeavour to follow 
down until it broadens out into the Congo. 

M. J. Taupin, Professor in the College of Interpreteis at 
Saigon, has completed an important exploration in the lower Laos 
cotintry. Starting from Saigon in October 1887, M. Taupin, after 
visiting the Siamese province of Siem-Reap, and photographing 
the numerous Khmer remains in that province, notably those of 
Angkor, crossed the forests of the lower Laos, to Ubon, where 
he resided several months. Among other things he has obtained 
a knowledge, at least summary, of the Laotian language and 
writing, the only graphic-alphabetic system, it is stated, on which 
we have no positive information. The language, M. Taupin 
states, is spoken by four million people. He has surveyed about 
looo kilometres of rivers and watercourses not found on any 
map, besides making many important corrections. He has made 
many notes on natural history, and experimented with the culture 
of European plants. The meteorology and anthropology of the 
country, moreover, received much attention at his hands. 

At the next meeting of the Geographical Society, on May 13, 
the evening will be mainly occupied with a discussion of Mr. 
Stanley's letters, in which several well-known African authorities 
are likely to take part. 

Captain Binger, a French explorer, has succeeded in filling 
up one of the blanks on the map of Africa. Starting from the 
banks of the Niger, he penetrated the country of Kong, amid 
many dangers and sufferings. 



THE HENRY DRAPER MEMORIAL.^ 
nr HE researches which constitute the Henry Draper Memorial 
have consisted for the last three years in the photographic 
study of the spectra of the stars. While this subject will con- 
tinue to be the principal one under investigation, Mrs. Draper 
has decided to extend the field of work undertaken, so as to 
include the study of the other physical properties of the stars by 
photography. As will be seen from the detailed statement 
below, the first research undertaken is now rapidly approaching 
completion, the plans for the study of the bouthern stars have 
been matured, and this study will soon be begun ; the detailed 
study of the spectra of the brighter stars is making progress, and 
a large piece of photometric work will soon be undertaken with 
a new telescope. The progress made in each investigation will 
now be described, as in previous Reports. 

I. Catalogue of Spectra of Bright Stars. — The Bache tele- 
scope, which has an 8-inch photographic doublet as an objective, 
is used for this work. The photographs cover the entire sky 

^ " Third Annual Report of the Photographic .Study of Stellar Spectr.i 
conducted at the Harvard College Observatory," Edward C. Pickering, 
Director. (Cambridge : John Wilson and Son, University Press i88j.) 



north of -25°, with exposures of about five or ten minutes. 
About 28,000 spectra of 10,800 stars have been examined, in- 
cluding nearly all stars visible in Cambridge of the seventh 
magnitude or brighter. The Catalogue is now nearly ready for the 
printer, the final copy having been prepared as far as I4h. in right 
ascension. 

Nearly the entire time of three or four computers has been 
devoted during the past year to this work. The intensity of 
about 15,000 of the spectra has been measured, completing this 
part of the research. Much lime has been spent in checking and 
verifying the results. All the positions have been checked and 
brought forward to 1900 two or more times independently. All 
discordant measures have been re-examined, and a search has 
been made for possible error when bright stars are omitted or 
very faint ones inserted. Seven thousand two hundred notes 
have been made on the various stars in the Catalogue. Each 
note has an appropriate number which permits it to be entered 
in its proper place. Most of these notes relate to additional lines 
contained in these spectra besides those by which the type is 
determined. The position and intensity of these lines is 
estimated. A portion of them have been reduced to wave- 
lengths. The printing of the Catalogue might have been already 
begun but for the difficulty of deciding how the different types 
of spectra should be distinguished. The classification used for 
visual observations fails to indicate many differences obvious in 
the photographs. On the other hand, the photographic portions 
of spectra of Types H. and HL are nearly identical. The photo- 
graphs also show many stars whose spectra are intermediate 
between those of the typical stars which have determined the 
usual classification. A system has, however, been adopted 
which permits all differences detected in the photographs to be 
described in the printed volume. 

Thirteen spectra were found on these plates which could not 
be identified with stars. Three of these proved to be due to 
Mars, one to Vesta, three to Jupiter, four to Saturn, and two to 
Uranus. Accordingly all the exterior planets bright enough to 
be detected in this way appear on these plates. 

The measures of the intensity of the spectra form a very 
important portion of this work. Since the same part of the 
spectrum is measured in each case, the true relative energy is 
determined. That is, the same result is obtained as if the 
measures of rays of the same wave-length were made by any 
other method, as photometrically by the eye, by the thermopile, 
or by the bolometer. The colour of the star will be indicated 
by the extent of the spectrum, which is also noted. For the 
first time, therefore, we shall have a photometric Catalogue in 
which the error due to the colour of the star is eliminated. A 
preliminary determination of the accordance of the results de- 
rived from different photographs of the same star shows that the 
average value of the residuals will be about o'l6, which is the 
same as the corresponding quantity for the Harvard Photometry. 
The number of stars is more than twice that contained in the 
latter Catalogue. 

2. Catalogue of Spectra of Faint Stars.— li\ November 1888, 
the photographs required to cover the sky north of the equator 
were nearly finished. It was expected that in two months the 
observations would be completed. The telescope, which was 
the same as that used in the previous research, was, however, 
wanted for photographing the Solar Eclipse of January I, 1889. 
It was accordingly sent to Willows, California, where it was 
mounted, and the greater portion of the remaining photographs 
were taken there, it was then sent to Peru, as will be described 
below. The few remaining photographs, including the repeti- 
tion of those found on further examination to be unsatisfactory, 
will be taken in Peru. 

3. Detailed Study of the Spectra of the Brighter Stars.— T\\q 
1 1 -inch refractor with one, two, or four large prisms over its 
objective h^s been employed in this work throughout nearly 
every clear night, until stopped by the morning twilight ; 686 
photographs have been taken, mo.-.t of them with an exposure of 
two hours. With cur prestnt photographic plates about 570 
stars north of -30° are bright enough to be photographed with 
one prism, 170 of them with two prisms, and 87 of them with 
four prisms. To obtain the best possible result some of the 
photographs must be repeated many limes. The difficulty is 
increased by the invariably hazy appearance of the lines in 
some spectra, like that of o Aquiia;, which was at first attributed 
to poor definition of the photograph. It is expected that the 
work will be completed during the next year by original or 
repeated photographs of 228 stars with one prism, of 64 with 
two, and of 12 with four. In general, stars as bright as the 



i8 



NATURE 



{May 2, 1889 



fourth magnitude can be satisfactorily photographed with one 
prism, the spectra obtained being about an inch long. Fainter 
stars, if of a bkiish colour, give sufficiently distinct images, in 
some cases good results being obtained with stars of the seventh 
magnitude. For example, fourteen stars in the Pleiades are 
well photographed with this apparatus. With four prisms 
much lons;er spectra are obtained and many more lines are 
visible. But certain differences in the character of the spectra 
are better shown with the smaller dispersion. Numerous 
photographs have been taken of the variable stars Ceti and )3 
Lyrse. The changes in the spectrum of the latter star seem 
to be undoubted, those of o Ceti, if any, to be slight. Various 
peculiarities in the spectra of individual stars have been detected. 
One photograph of i' Ursoe Majoris shows the K line distinctly 
double, and others show it single. Many photographs will be 
required to determine the law of its variation, if this is due to 
changes in the star itself. Bright lines were detected in the 
spectrum of <^ I'ersei, putting it in a class in which only two or 
three other stars are known to fall. In the double star ,8 Cygni 
the two components have spectra of different types, an important 
consideration in the theories regarding their formation. The 
brighter component is of the second type, the fainter of the first. 

Ordinary photographic plates are not sensitive to rays of much 
greater wave-length than the F line, or 486. By staining the 
plates with various coal-tar produc's the range of sensitiveness 
may be greatly extended. With erythrosin the spectrum extends 
to the wave-length 590. The sodium line D is distinctly seen 
to be double in the photographs of o Bootis and a Aurigge. 
Various experiments were also made with cyanin, but the plates 
were not sufficiently sensitive to give good results. The entire 
length of the spectrum with four prisms, including the portion 
obtained by erythrosin, is about six inches and a half. 

A beginning has been made of the measures of the positions 
of the lines in the spectrum. A scale of fortieths of an inch has 
been ruled on glass, and the positions of the lines read off with 
the aid of a magnifying-glass. Twelve of the photographs of a 
Canis Majoris have been studied in this way. The spectrum of 
this star is traversed by the hydrogen line-^, which are strong, 
and by other lines which are so faint that they are only visible 
when the dispersion is la-ge and the definition good. The 
catalogue thus formed contains about 320 lines. The average 
deviation of the measures of the same line on different plates is 
about 0-05 of a millionth of a millimetre, or 0-05 cm. on the 
scale of Angsti om's map. If the line occurs in the solar spectrum 
these measures will generally identify it. In other cases the 
exact position must be determined by a dividing engine. If a 
line can he distinctly seen, its wave-length can probably be thus 
determined with as great accuracy as that of the po-ition of the 
solar lines on the map of Angstrom. In the spectrum of o 
Bootis 140 lines are visible between the D and F lines. 

The classification of this large number of spectra is a matter of 
no little difficulty. .Slight differences exist in many stars, and 
certain stars apprar to hold an intermediate position, so as to 
render a rigorous division into classes impossible. On the other 
hand, many stars appear to have identical spectra. The first 
step will be to arrange the stars in groups, and then compare the 
best defined spectra of different groups. A minute discussion 
and the measurement of wave-lengths will be necessary only in 
the investigation of a comparatively small number of spectra. 

4. Faint SteUar Spcclra. — The 28-inch reflecting telescope 
constructed by Dr. Draper was assigned to this work. During 
the first six months of the year a careful study was made of this 
problem, and the difficulties encountered bore evidence of the 
skill of Dr. Draper in obtaining good results with this telescope. 
'I he best method of using this instrument seemed to be a modi- 
fication of the form first tried by Dr. Draper, — a slit spectro- 
scope from which the slit had been removed. The rays from 
the mirror were rendered parallel by a concave- lens which 
replaced the o' jeclive of the collimator. As this lens had the 
same focal distance as the objective of the observing telescope, 
it was not necessary that either should be achromatic. After 
long trials with this and other forms of apparatus, a spectrum 
was at length obtained showing good definition. As the 
results were not better than those described above, ard the 
instrument, from its size, was slow in operation, the experiments 
have not been carried further. 

5. Catalogue of Spectra of Bright Southern i'/arj.— The 8-inch 
Bache telescope remained in California until February 2, 1889, 
and was then sent to Peru to continue research No. i on the 
southern stars. The sky from - 25° to the south pole will be 
covered, and the resulting photographs sent to Cambridge and 



reduced, as in the case of the northern stars. The advantages 
of discussing all stars from the north to the south pole according 
to one system are very great, and are here secured for the first 
time in so extensive an investigation. If no unforeseen difficulty 
arises, the photographs will all be completed during the next 
two years. 

6. Catalogue of Spectra of Faint Southern Stars. — Research 
No. 2 will also be extended to the south pole simultaneously with 
the observations required for No. 5. It is expected that these 
photographs also will be completed in two years. 

The Bache telescope described above has proved an extremely 
convenient instrument for various purposes. Besides the spectro- 
scopic researches already mentioned, several other investigations 
have been undertaken with it, some of which will be found in 
the Memoirs of the American Academy, vol. xi. p. 179, and 
the Harvard Observatory Annals, vol. xviii. Nos. iv. , vi., and 
vii. Owing to its short focal lengih it possesses many advant- 
ages over pho'ographic telescopes of the usual form. With 
exposures of an hour and a half more stars were photographed 
in the Pleiades than are given in the engraving accompanying 
the Annual Report of the Paris Observatory for 1886, although 
that work was ba^ed on photographs taken by the MM. Henry 
with exposures of three hours and a telescope having an 
aperture of 13 inches. Nearly twice as many stars were 
photographed in this region as were visible with the 15-inch 
telescope of the Harvard College Observatory. The short focus 
of the telescope also gives it especial advantages for photo- 
graphing nebula.'. Twelve new nebulae were thus discovered 
in a region where but eighteen were known before. Various 
other investigations, such as a determination of the law of 
atmospheric absorption, have been undertaken with the aid of this 
telescope. It has been so persistently used in spectroscopic work 
that the other researches have been neglected, especially those in 
which very long exposures were required. Its removal to Peru 
now cuts it off for .'ome time from such use on the northern 
stars. Acco'dingly, Mrs. Draper has procured a similar len«, 
which is now in the hands of the firm of Alvan Clark and Sons 
for retouching and mounting. Several important researches will 
be undertaken with this instrument. Photography is now used 
in so many departments of astronomy that a general investigation 
of the photographic brightness of the stars seems desirable. A 
plan has been proposed by which a single plate will contain 
photographs of a number of regions one degree square, but in 
different portions of the sky. Thus a series of standard faint 
stars will be photographed, which can all be measured, and re- 
duced to the same scale. One or more photographs of the 
vicinity of the north pole will be taken on each plate, and thus 
serve to correct the results obtained on different plate-. It is 
proposed in this way to secure a series of standards of stellar 
magnitude at intervals of about five degrees. A third lens of 
similar form, having an aperture of four inches, will be attached 
to the telescope, with which photographs on a smaller .'cale, but 
five degrees square, will betaken simultaneously. These photo- 
graphs w ill cover the entire sky, and it is proposed to measure 
the photographic brightness of all stars of the seventh mag- 
nitude, or brighter, which are represented on them. This 
investigation will have a special value in connection with the 
photometric measures of the spectra described above. It is 
hoped also to photograph the entire northern sky by means of 
the 8-inch telescope, with exposures of an hour. Each plate 
covers a region nearly ten degrees square, of which the images 
in the central five degrees square are satisfac'orily in focus. One 
of the regions containing standard stars will appear in the centre 
of each plate. By such a series of plates the photographic bright- 
ness of any stars brighter than the fifteenth magnitude can be deter- 
mined on a uniform scale. The faintest stars photographed will 
be nearly a magnitude fainter than the limit proposed by the 
.\strophotographic Congress, so that all plates included in that 
work can 1 e reduced to a uniform system. The advantages of 
such plates for studies of the distribution of the stars and other 
similar investigations are obvious. 

From the ;.bove description it appears that the field of work 
of the Henry Draper Memorial, as now extended, is almost 
boundless. The problems to be investigated relate to the fun- 
damental laws rfgulating the formation of the stellar system. 
Questions of such importance should be discussed on a sufficiently 
large scale, or the results of the discussion will soon be super- 
seded by a repetition of the work. The liberal provisir n made 
for the Henry Draper Memorial permits the investigations to be 
planned on a scale which is likely to avoid such undesirable 
duplication of work. 



May 2. iSS^I 



NATURE 



v^ 



INWALDS MATHEMATICAL SPECTRUM 
ANALYSIS. 

'HE following interesting criticism of Dr. Griinwald's recent 
work on the mathematical spectrum analysis of various of 
the elements, by Joseph S. Ames, of the Johns Hopkins Uni- 
versity, appears in the February number of the American 
Chemical journal : — 

"Dr. Anton Grimwald, Professor of Mathematics in the 
Technical High School at Prague, has given his theory of spec- 
trum analysis in the following papers :— (i) ' Ueber das Wasser- 
spectrum, das Hydrogen-, und Oxygenspectrum,' Astronomische 
Nachrichten, No. 2797, 1887, and Phil. Mag., xxiv. 354, 
1887 ; (2) ' Math. Spertralanalyse des Magnesiums und der 
Kohie,' Monatshefte fiir Chemie, viii. 650, IVietier Sitz. 
Perichte, 2 Abth. xcvi., 1887; Phil. Mag., xxv. 343, 1888 
(abstract); and (3) 'Math. Spectralanalyse des Kadmiums,' 
Monatshefte fiir Chemie, ix. 956. 

"His aim is to discover relations between the elements by 
tracing connections between their spectra, and thus to arrive at 
simpler, if not fundamental, 'elements.' He considers the lines 
in the spectra of two substances, say A and B. If he finds a 
group of lines in the spectrum of A, which, on multiplication 
with a simple numerical factor, give line for line a group in the 
spectnim of B, he assumes that A and B have a common com- 
ponent. This factor, which transforms the one group into the 
other, is, he says, the ratio of the volumes occupied by the 
common constituent in unit volume of the two substances. 
Thus, let c be common to A and B, and" let it occupy the volume 
\a\ in unit volume of A, and \b\ in unit volume of B ; then the 
factor which transforms that part of the spectrum of A due to 
f into that of B, also due to c, is \bii{a\ It is not difficult 
to find relations between the spectra of different substances ; and, 
accepting Dr. Grimwald's hypothesis as to the transforming 
factor, we can deduce formulas for the elements. For exam[)le, 
in ihe hydrogen spectrum there are two groups of lines, [a] and 
[/'], which, when multiplied respectively by \% and \, give cor- 
responding groups in the spectrum of water, and, since in water 
hydrogen occupies § of the volume, we have the equations 

W + \l>\ = I 

which gives hydrogen the composition ba^. For reasons which 
depend' upon solar physics. Griinwald calls the substance a 
coronium, and /' helium. Further, he says that all the lines in 
Hasselberg's secondary spectrum of hydrogen can be changed 
into water-line by multiplving by \ ; which shows, according to 
his theory, that the modified molecule H^ occupies in H2O half 
the volume it does in the free condition. He finds that oxygen 
has the composition Wb^b^Cr)^. where r is a new substance. In 
his last paper, however, Dr. Griinwald states that he has proved 
<■ to be nothing but a in a different state of compression. 

" He adopts the spectmm of water, i.e. of the o.xyhydrogen 
flame, as a standard, and is then able to give various criteria by 
means of which the primary elements;? and b may be recognized. 
Among them are the following: If A is the wavelength of any 
line produced by a as it exists in hydrogen, 1%K, \\, ^5 A. will each 
be the wave-lengths of any line of the water-spectrum, and if A is 
the wave-length of any line produced by b as it exists in hydrogen, 
^A will be the wave-length of a line of the water-spectrum. 
Applying his criteria to magnesium, carbon, and cadmium, he 
finds that they are made up entirely of « and b in various states 
of compression. For instance, one group of li .es in the cadmium 
spectrum is transformed into a group of b by the factor |, another 
group is identical with a group of b, and so on. But the group 
of lines of shortest wave length is transformed into a group of 
b by the factor \ ; and cidmium falls in the seventh row of 
Mendelejeffs table. Similarly, the group of lines of shirtest 
wave-length of zinc is transformed into a group of /^ by the factor 
\, and zinc is in the fifth row of the table. Dr. Griinwald findi 
in this a general law which he verifies in the cases of Al, Si, Fe, 
Cu, Zn, As, Sr, Ag, Cd, In, Sn, Sb, Te, Ba, Au, Hg. Tl, Pb, 
and Bi. He farther connects the lines of greater wave-length 
with the substance a ; and, as in all cases so far tried all th; lines 
can be deduced from the-ie two substances, he is leJ to believe 
that all the so called elenints are com'oun.ls of the priniry 
elements a and b. 

"It is unfortunate that D •. Griinwald has not published a 
complete list of the lines characteristic of a ani b, for until this 



is done his theory cannot be accurately tested. There are two 
distinct questions to be answered : (i) Are there any numerical 
relations connecting the spectra of the elements? and if so, (2) 
what is the meaning of the fact? Cornu, Deslandres, and 
others have long since answered the first question for us, but 
whether Dr. Griinwald's answer to the second is correct or not 
depends upon the completeness with which the numerical rela- 
tions hold for the entire spectra of the substances. It is here 
that Dr. Griinwald's work can be criticized. 

"As noted above, the spectrum of the oxyhydrogen flame is 
used to test the existence of lines belonging to a and /'. By far 
the most accurate and complete determination of this spectrum 
is that of Liveing and Dewar (Phil. Trans. 1888) ; but this does 
not always answer Dr. Griinwald's purposes. In the B. A. 
Report for 1886 there is a provisional list of lines of the water- 
spectrum, which he often uses, although the wave-lengths have 
since been corrected. Further, if other lines are necessary, they 
are found by halving the wavelengths of the secondary .spectrum 
of hydrogen. Many lines thus determined are actually present 
in the water-spectrum ; but why are not all there ? Dr. Griinwald 
says it is because the amplitude of vibrations of parts of the mole- 
cule can be so changed, owing to the presence of other substances, 
that the intensity may increase or diminish, or become too faint 
to be observed. To this argument there is absolutely no answer. 
In some ca es, too, the average of two wavelengths is used as a 
criterion of a wave-length of b which falls between them ! And 
as a last resort, if the necessary wave-length cannot be found in 
the water-spectrum by any of these means, it is put down as 
'new,' and is called an 'unobserved' line. As just shown, 
Dr. Griinwald ea-ily explains why the strongest lines in the 
spectrum of an element, cadmium for example, when ' trans- 
formed ' into water-lines, may be faint, and vice versii. But 
how does he account for the fact that double lines are not trans 
formed into double lines? This seems to me a fundamental 
objection. The concave-grating gives the only accurate method 
of determining the ultra-violet wave-lengths of the elements; 
and, as a consequence of not using it, most of the tables of 
wave-lengths so far published are not of much value. So 
Griinwald's en or tiere may be great. And, besides, when we 
consider that in the water-spectrum as given by Liveing ■ and 
Dewar, without the "help of the secondary spectrum of hydrogen, 
there is on the average one line for every two Angstrom units, 
it would be remarkable indeed if any law could not be verified. 
This is strikingly shown in the first group of the cadmium lines. 
Here 6742 and 6740 are two readings for the wave-lengths of the 
same hne, as made by two observers ; yet Griinwald finds a 
water-line for each of them ! 

"The fact that there are exact numerical relations connecting 
the spectra of different elements does not afford a proof of 
Griinwald's hypathesis ; and until the above difficulties are re- 
moved the evidence is against it. But, even granting it, how 
do we know that a and b are not themselves compounds? In 
the second group of cadmium lines there are nineteen hnes which 
can be tr.'^n^formed into b lines ; b has many other lines ; so at 
the most this only shows that cad nium and b have a common 
constituent unless, of course, the absence of the other cadmium 
lines is accounted for in Griinwald's own way of varying 
intensity. 

"The lines of the spectrum of any substance, as carbon or iron, 
seem to fall into definite series or gioups ; and the wave-lengths 
of the lines in these groups can be expresse 1 by formulas, as is 
well known. All that the fact of there being a connection 
between the spectra of different substances seems to show is, 
then, that there may be a formula common to many elements, 
as Kayser and Runge have recently found. And all that this 
means is that the molecules of those elements vibrate in general 
according to a similar law." 



ON THE FORMATION OF MARINE BOILER 
INCRUSTA TIONS.^ 

TN the older forms of marine boilers, sea waer uas almost 
universally employed ; but with the intrjduction of high- 
pressure tubular boilers t le amount of deposit was so serious, and 
the difficulty of removing it so great, that it became inperative to 
use distilled water. It is found, however, that the trouble has 

' A Piiper read at the thirtieth <!ession of the Institution of Naval Archi- 
tects, by Pr<f. Vivian B. Lewis, K.C.S., F.l.C, Royal Naval College, on 
April II, i8?9. 



20 



NATURE 



[May 2, 1889 



only been transferred from the steam boilers to the distilling ap- 
paratus, and that constant breakdowns of the latter necessitate 
the introduction of sea water into the boiler to eke out the supply 
of distilled water from the condensers. 

The waters at present in use in marine boilers may be classified 
as — 

(i) Sea water, (2) distilled water, (3) mixtures of sea water 
with distilled or fresh water. 

In this paper the nature and causes of the deposits are studied 
in each of these cases. 

Fresh water contains about twenty to fifty grains per gallon of 
dissolved solids, principally consisting of calcium carbonate, held 
in solution by carbonic acid present in the water, whilst sea 
water contains about 2300 grains per gallon, consisting prin- 
cipally of sodium chloride, together with magnesium salts and 
calcium sulphate. The wide difference in composition between 
fresh and sea water is also shown in the deposits formed by them. 
Analyses show that with fresh water the incrustation may be 
looked upon as consisting principally of calcium carbonate ; that 
with a mixture of fresh and salt water the deposit consists of 
nearly equal parts of calcium carbonate and calcium sulphate ; 
whilst the sea water gives, practically calcium sulphate. 

A deposit of calcium carbonate only, separates out as a soft 
powder, which remains suspended in the water for some time, 
and can fairly easily be removed from the boiler on cleaning ; 
whilst calcium sulphate as formed in the boiler separates out in a 
crystalline form, and binds the deposit into a hard mass, so hard 
in fact that it requires the aid of a chisel and hammer to detach 
it from the plates and tubes, an operation which is extremely 
injurious, and tends to shorten the life of the boiler. 

Calcium sulphate is much more soluble in a saline solution 
such as sea water than it is in fresh water, but its solubility rapidly 
decreases (i) on concentration of the saline solution, and (2) with 
increase of temperature and pressure. 

Sea water having a density of i'027 was evaporated, and 
analyses made at different densities with the following results: — 

Saline Cous'ituents per Cent, 

Density ... 1-029 1*05 I'og i"22=; 

Sodic chloride 2-6521 4-4201 7*9563 23-8689 

Calcic sulphate ... 0-1305 02175 0-3915 none 

Calcic carbonate ... 0-0103 0-0171 none none 

Magnesic carbonate ... 0-0065 0-0032 none none 

Magnesic chloride ... 0-2320 0-3865 06960 2-0880 

Magnesic sulphate ... 0-1890 0-3150 0-5670 1-7010 

So that on concentrating sea water at ordinary atmospheric 
pressure, three distinct stages may be traced :— 
(i) Deposition of basic magnesic carbonate ; 

(2) Deposition of calcic carbonate with remaining traces of 
the basic magnesic carbonate and hydrate ; and, finally, 

(3) Deposition of the calcic sulphate. 

If the sea water be heated and concentrated 'above a density 
of 1-225, the salt commences to crystallize out. ' 

These experiments show that if sea water be boiled merely 
under atmospheric conditions, it would be quite, possible, by 
taking care that its density does not rise above a certain point 
(1-09) to prevent the deposition of the calcium sulphate; but 
any such regulation of density is rendered abortive by the fact 
that pressure and consequent raising of the boiling-point acts 
upon the calcium sulphate in solution in exactly the same way 
as concentration, as it is found that this substance is perfectly 
insoluble in either sea or fresh water at a temperature of 150° C. 
In the present high-pressure boilers, even if the sea water be 
mixed with a hundred times its volume of distilled water, so as 
to reduce its den.sity very low, deposition of calcium sulphate 
still occurs. 

Analyses of several specimens of deposits from boilers where 
sea water was used, showed that in all cases there were two dis- 
tinct layers— (i) a hard crystalline deposit on the sides of the 
tubes, consisting of nearly pure calcium sulphate in the form of 
"anhydrite" ; {2) a softer portion resembling alabaster in the 
interior, coiisisting of calcium sulphate, with about 6 per cent, 
of magnesic hydrate. 

The presence of magnesic hydrate in boiler deposits is sup- 
posed to be due to the mutual decomposition of water and mag- 
nesic chloride, later experiments have shown, however, that 
when magnesic chloride and calcium carbonate mutually react 
upon each other, soluble calcium chloride and magnesium 
hydrate are formed ; this explains why calcium carbonate is 



never found, except in very small quantities in marine boiler 
deposits. 

When distilled water only is used, a slight coating is formed, 
practically consisting only of organic matter, whilst if at any 
time through a break-down in the distilling app.iratus sea water 
is mixed with the distilled water, a thin and very hard scale of 
calcic sulphate is formed. An ^incrustation of this character 
gave on analysis : — 

Calcic sulphate 90*84 

Magnesic hydrate 0-75 

Sodic chloride 1-41 

Silica 0-85 

Copper carbonate l-ri 

Oxides of iron and alumina 0-24 

Organic matter 2-96 

Moisture 1-84 



This scale is of great interest from the presence in it of the 
carbonate of copper. It is well known that distilled water has 
a far greater solvent effect upon metals than a water containing 
salts in solution, and it is quite conceivable that the distilled 
water from the surface condensers attacks the brass and copper 
tubes and fittings, and deposits the copper on the tubes of the 
boiler, although in only small quantities ; and it is interesting to 
note that the green spots due to the presence of the copper are 
all on the under side of the scale — that is, in contact with the 
metal of the boiler tubes,' showing that in all probability it had 
been deposited, as suggested, from the water in the boiler, and 
in contact with the iron would set up local galvanic action and 
tend to produce pitting. 

The importance of preventing boiler incrustation, and thereby 
saving the enormous waste of fuel and injury which it entails, 
has not been without influence on the minds of inventors, and 
almost every conceivable substance, from potato-parings to com- 
plex chemical reagents, have from time to time been patented 
for this purpose, but have failed more or less for marine boilers, 
because either they have had an injurious effect upon the metal 
of the plates, or else have produced an enormous bulk of loose 
deposit, which, although easily cleaned out if the various parts 
of the boiler were accessible, and if it were only being used 
intermittently, yet in a marine boiler continuously working, 
rapidly chokes the portions between the tubes. 

For these reasons, no treatment of the sea water in the boilers 
themselves is practically possible, and with high-pressure tubular 
marine boilers the water must be either condenser water, made 
up to the required bulk with distilled water, as is at present done, 
or else the condenser water must be augmented by sea water 
specially prepared for the purpose in a separate apparatus before 
being supplied to the boilers. 

If the engines of a vessel are in good condition, she will 
approximately require i ton of water per 1000 horse power per 
twenty-four hours, to make up the volume of the condenser 
water to the amount required for the boilers, so that, even sup- 
posing the engines not to be in good order, and considerable 
waste to take place, 10 tons per diem would be an outside 
allowance for even very large vessels. To obtain this amount 
of treated sea water the author proposes an arrangement, full 
details and diagram being given in the original paper. 

The sea water, containing 40 pounds of soda crystals to the 
ton is heated up under pressure in a separate apparatus by passing 
through the solution superheated steam. Under these conditions 
the precipitated mixture of calcium and magnesium carbonates 
becomes very dense and settles very quickly. The water is then 
forced through filtering frames into the hot well of the boiler 
and is then ready for use. The whole process is effective and 
rapid, and simple arrangements are made for flushing out the 
apparatus, after each batch of water. 



UNIVERSITY AND EDUCATIONAL 
INTELLIGENCE. 

Cambridge. — The courses of science lectures this term are as 
numerous as usual, but present few noteworthy features. Mr. 
Gardiner gives a general course of Botany, while Mr. Darwin 
is conducting the course of Elementary Biology (Plants), the 
lectures being given in the Archaeological Museum Lecture 
Room. Prof. Macalister is lecturing on the History of Human 



May 2, 1889] 



NA TURE 



21 



Anatomy, a subject on which a brief volume from his pen would 
be very acceptable. Prof. Foster's course is on the Physiology 
of the Senses this term. 

Among the numerous courses of demonstrations in the Caven- 
dish Laboratory we may note those of Mr. Wilberforce on 
Dynamo- Electric Machines (Alternating Current Generators and 
Transformers), 

Two lectures will be given in the Literary Schools on f une 4, 
and June 8 at 2.15 p.m., by Dr. Fiancis Warner, on the Study 
of Mental Action and the Classification of Pupils according to 
their Brain Po\\ er. 

London. — The following appointments of Examiners in 
various branches of Science in the University of London were 
made on Wednesday, April 24 : — Prof. Hill and Dr. Larmor as 
Examiners in Mathematics and Natural Philosophy ; Prof. Fitz- 
Gerald and Mr. Glazebrook as Examiners in Experimental 
Philosophy ; Dr. Pole and Sir John Stainer as Examiners in 
Music ; Prof Tilden as Examiner in Chemistry ; *Prof. H. E. 
Armstrong, F.R.S., as Examiner in Chemistry ; Prof Bower and 
Prof. Ward as Examiners in Botany and Vegetable Physiology ; 
Mr. Sedgwick as Examiner in Comparative Anatomy and 
Zoology ; *Sydney J. Hickson as Examiner in Comparative 
Anatomy and Zoology ; Prof. Boyd Dawkins as Examiner in 
Geology and PaI;\:ontology ; *Prof. Charles Lapworth, F.R.S. , 
as Examiner in Geology and Palceontology. The asterisks denote 
new appointments. The gentlemen to whose names no asterisks 
are prefixed held the same appointments last year. 



SCIENTIFIC SERIALS. 

American Journal of Science, April. — Contributions to 
meteorology, by Elias Loomis. In this paper, which was read 
before the National Academy of Sciences, November 14, 1888, 
the chief subjects discussed are the relations of rain areas to 
areas of high and low pressure. From these studies it appears 
generally that no great barometric depression with steep gra- 
dients ever occurs without considerable rain ; that in great 
rain-storms the barometric pressure usually diminishes while the 
rainfall increases ; that the greatest depression of the barometer 
generally occurs about twelve hours after the greatest rainfall ; 
that a great rainfall is favourable to a rapid progress of the 
centre of least pressure. It also appears that in Great Britain 
the amount of rain with a falling barometer is twice that with a 
rising barometer ; but this ratio diminishes rapidly eastwards, 
the precipitation in Central Europe being greater when the 
barometer is rising than when it is falling. — The sensitive flame 
as a means of research, by W. Le Conte Stevens. These ex- 
periments, which take as their stajting-point Lord Rayleigh's 
memoir on " Diffraction of Sound "(Proceedings of the R. Institu- 
tion, January 20, 1888), tend to show that the sensitive flame 
is not applicable for purposes of exact measurement, though it 
is much more nearly so than has been generally supposed. 
Without its aid it would have been impossible to establish the 
important analogies here shown to exist between light and 
sound. — The Denver Tertiary formation, by Whitman Cross. 
In this paper a succinct account is given of the newly determined 
Tertiary formation about the Denver district, Colorado, which 
had hitherto been assigned to the Laramie Cretaceous. Although 
of limited geographical extent, this formation possesses features of 
special importance in several respects. The vertebrate remains 
here occurring present some very remarkable associations, which 
appear to be in direct conflict with all past observations. — Events 
in Nortii American Cretaceous history illustrated in the Arkansas- 
Texas division of the south-western region of the United States, 
by Robert T, Hill. Here are embodied the results of the 
author's investigation of the stratigraphic and palseontological 
conditions in the northern and eastern termination of the Texas 
Cretaceous, which are brought into relation with the corresponding 
formations in the Gulf and Western States. — The distribution of 
phosphorus in the Luddington Mine, Iron Mountain, Michigan, 
by David H, Browne. The results are here given of some 3000 
analyses of ore from the Luddington Mine made during the 
last three years by the author while acting as chemist to the 
Lumberman Mining Company. Although no generalizations 
are attempted, these analyses tend to throw much light on one 
of the most diffictflt problems in the chemistry of iron ore — the 
distribution, throughout the vein, of Bessemer ore, and its 
relation to the formation of the deposit. — Papers were con- 
tributed by C. S. Hastings, on a general method for deteraiininjj 



the secondary chromatic aberration for a double telescope 
objective, with a description of a telescope sensibly free from 
this defect ; by G. Baur, on Palaeohatteria, Credner, and the 
Proganosauria ; and by O. C. Marsh, on some new .Vmerican 
Dinosauria, with a comparison of the principal forms of the 
Dinosauria of Europe and America. 

Bulletin ile V Acculemie Royale de Belgique, March.— On the 
discovery of some fossil remains of mammals anterior to the 
diluvium at Ixelles near Brussels, by Michael Mourlon. These 
deposits, brought to light in .August 18S8, were all found at a 
lower level than that of the rolled Quaternar)' gravels, and at 
some points were overlain by several beds of undisturbed shingle. 
They include remains of the cave bear, of Elephas antiquus, of 
Bison priscus. Bos privtigenius, the hare, Equus caballus, and a 
smaller equine species here described under the name of Equus 
intcrmcdius, altogether forty four individuals, representing five 
known and four not yet determined species, and presenting a 
general resemblance to the mammalian fauna of the English 
forest-bed. — On the physical properties of the free surface layer 
of a fluid, and on the contact layer of a fluid and a solid, by G. 
Van der Mensbrugghe. The experiments here described lead to 
results opposed to the capillary theories of Laplace and Poisson ; 
they further show that the theory of Gauss is intimately asso- 
ciated with the surface tension of fluids, one leading inevitably to 
the other, and confirming the author's previous conclusion that 
the demonstrated existence of tension justifies the theory of 
Gauss. — Note on a theory of the secidar variation of terrestrial 
magnetism deduced from experimental data, by Ch. Lagrange. 
Several arguments are advanced in support of the author's new 
hypothesis that the secular magnetism of the earth is due to a 
magnetic potential interior and not exterior to the surface of the 
globe. The solid globe itself is thus regarded as a magnet, or a 
solenoid — that is, as a magnetic body properly so called, or as a 
conductor traversed by circular currents. — A paper is contributed 
by P. De Ileen on the determination of the theoretic formula 
expressing the variations of volume experienced by mercury with 
the changes of temperature. 

Rendico7iti del Reale Istituto Lombardo, March 28. — -Influence 
of the digestive juices on the virus of tetanus, by Prof. G. 
Sormani. A series of experiments are described, which the 
author has carried out on rabbits, guinea-pigs, rats, and dogs, 
from which are drawn the following conclusions : (l) the flesh ot 
animals dying of tetanus may be consumed with impunity ; (2) 
the bacillus of tetanus swallowed by carnivorous and herbivorous 
animals passes through the system without causing death or any 
special disturbance ; (3) the gastric juices of herbivorous animals 
neither kill, nor diminish the virulence of, the bacillus ; (4) an 
animal may with impunity swallow a quantity of the virus ten 
thousand times more than would suftice to kill if introduced by 
hypodermic inoculation ; (5) the facts here determined throw 
some doubt on the accepted theory that the effects of tetanus are 
due to the absorption of poisonous alkaloids derived from the 
bacillus. — G. Somigliana contributes a paper on differential 
parameters, explaining a process by which they may be formed, 
and demonstrating the invariability of those of the first order. 
Certain relations, either new or more general than those hitherto 
studied, are also established between the parameters of the first 
and second orders. 



SOCIETIES AND ACADEMIES. 
London. 

Royal Society, April 4. — "The Ferment Action ct 
Bacteria.'" By T. Lauder Brunton, M.D., F.R.S., and A. 
Macfadyen, M.D., B.Sc. 

The chief objects of this research were, (A) to discover 
whether microbes act on the soil upon which they grow 
by means of a ferment ; and (B) whether such a ferment can 
be isolated, and its action demonstrated on albuminoid gelatine 
and carbohydrates, apart from the microbes which produce it, 
in the same way that the ferments of the stomach and pancreas 
can be obtained apart from the cells by which they were 
originally secreted. 

The microbes used were Koch's spirillum, Finkler's spirillum, 
a putrefactive micrococcus, scurf bacillus, and Welford milk 
bacillus (Klein). 

The results of the inquiry were as follows : — 

(i) The bacteria which liquefy gelatine do so by means of an 
enzyme. 



22 



NATURE 



{May 2, 1889 



(2) This enzyme can be isolates!, and its peptonizing action j 
demonstrated, apart from the microbes which produce it. j 

(3) The most active enzyme is that formed in meat broth. ! 

(4) Acidity hinders, alkalinity favours, its action. 

(5) The bacteria which form a peptonizing enzyme on proteid ; 
soil can also produce a dia^tatic enzyme on carbohydrate soil. 

(6) The action of the diastatic enzyme can be demonstrated 
apait from the microbes which produce it. 

(7) The diastatic enzyme has no effect on gelatine, and vice 
versa. 

(8) The microbes, for purposes of nutrition, can form a 
ferment adapted to the ^oil in which they grow. 

(9) The putrefactive micrococcus gave negative results. 

Linnean Society, April 18. — Mr. Carruthers, F. R.S., 
President, in the chair. — In view of the approaching anniversary 
meeting, the following wt re appointed auditors : — For the Coun- 
cil, Dr. John Anderson and Mr. Jenner Weir ; for the Fellows, 
Mr. T. Christy and Mr. D. Morris. — The President called at- 
tention to a valuable donation of books on fishes, including the 
celebrated work of Bloch, recently presented to the Society's 
library by Mr. Francis Day, who, he regretted to say, was lying 
seriously ill at Cheltenham ; upon which a cordial vote of sym- 
pathy and thanks was unanimously accorded. — Mr. J. R. Jack- 
son, Curator of the Museum, Kew Gardens, exhibited speci- 
mens illustrating the mode of collecting at Ichang, China, the 
varnish obtained from RJms Termicifcra, so largely used by the 
Chinese and Japanese for lacquering. He also exhibited some 
Chinese candles made from varnish seed-oil. — On behalf of Mr. 
Henry Hutton, of Kimberley, some photographs were exhibited, 
showing the singular parasitic growth of Ciiscuta appendicidata 
on Nicotiana glauca. — Dr. Cogswell exhibited specimens of 
vegetables belonging to four different families of plants, to illus- 
trate the symmetrical development of rootlets. — Prof. Martin 
Duncan exhibited, under the microscope, and made remarks 
upon, the splueridia of an Echinoderm. — Dr. Masters gave a 
summary of a paper on the comparative morphology and life- 
history of the Conifei'a?, a review of the general morphology of 
the order based upon the comparative examination of living 
specimens in various stages of development. These observa- 
tions, made in various public and private " pineta," supple- 
mented by an examination of herbarium specimens, demon- 
strated the utility of gardens in aid of botanical research. The 
mode of germination, the polymorphic foliage, its isolation or 
" concrescence," its internal structure, the arrangements of the 
buds, the direction and movements of the shoots, were all 
discussed. In reference to the male and female flowers, the 
author described their true nature, tracing them from their 
simplest to their most complex or most highly differentiated 
condition ; and showed that, so far as known, the histological 
structure and development were essentially the same thioughout 
the order. Various special forms, such as the needles of Pinus, 
the phylloid shoots of Sciadopitys, and the seed-scales of 
Abietincd, were described, and their significance pointed out. 
The phenomenon of enation with the correlative inversion of 
;he fibio- vascular bundles in such outgrowths was considered in 
relation to the light it throws upon certain contested points in 
the morphology of the order ; the chief teratological appear- 
ances noted in the order were detailed, and their significance dis- 
cussed ; the various modifications were shown to be purely 
hereditary or partly adaptive, and dependent on permanent or 
intermittent arrest, excess, or perversion of growth and deve- 
lopment, and to various correlative changes ; lastly, the poly- 
morphic forms of the so-called genus Ketinospora, suggested 
that in studying them we might be watching the development 
and fixation of new specific types. 

Chemical Society, April 4.— Dr. W.J. Russell, F.R.S., 
President, in the chair. — The following papers were read : — 
The rate of dissolution of metals in acids, by Mr. V. H. Veley. 
The dissolution of copper in a solution of potassium bichromate 
acidified with sulphuric acid was investigated as affording a case 
in which no gas was evolved as such. The copper was 
employed in the form of metallic spheres which by various 
mechanical devices were rolled about continuously and regularly 
in the acid liquid, and the products of the changes continuously 
removed from the immediate neighbourhood of the metal. The 
author finds (i) that if the temperature be varied between 21^ 
and 41° in an arithmetical proportion the amount of chemical 
action varies in a geometrical proportion ; (2) that if the 
amount of sulphuric acid be varied in an arithmetical proportion 



between the limits of 41 "3 and 23 '5 grammes per litre, the amount 
of ch.nnge also varies in an arithmetical proportion ; and (3) 
that the amount of change is at first considerably increased by 
increase of proportion of potassium bichromate, but the effect 
afterwards gradually diminishes to nil, at which point the 
bichromate can be considered to be so much inert material : 
the amounts used varied from 22'i to66'3 grammes per litre. — 
Note on the interaction of metals and acids, by Prof, H. E. 
Armstrong. When a metal forming an element in a voltaic 
couple is dissolved, the rate of dissolution is in accordance with 
Ohm's law, C = E/R : and this should apply also to the case in 
which a metal is dissolved without any precaution being taken 
to arrange it as an element of a couple, as the action is con- 
ditioned by the formation of, and takes place within, "local 
circuits." The changes attending the dissolution of metals may, 
therefore, in a certain sense be said to be purely electrical in the 
first instance ; yet within recent years it has been argued by 
various chemists that the phenomena are only in part electrical 
and in part chemical — whatever this may mean. The author 
discussed the various phases of such changes, anl criticized the 
conclusions arrived at by Spring and Aubel and others. 
Referring to Mr. Veley's experiments Prof. Armstrong expressed 
the opinion that the results were in no way commensurate with 
the labour expended in obtaining them : although by introduc- 
ing bichromate polarization by hydrogen had been prevented, 
its use had introduced complications which made the analysis of 
the results impossible; in fact the information likely to be 
obtained from such experiments was not of the kind required in 
the present state of chemical science. Thus the proof obtainetl 
that a copper sphere dissolved uniformly in a mixture of 
sulphuric acid and bichromate was but a proof of the efficiency 
of the stirring apparatus : such would necessarily be the case, as 
the values of E and R remained almost unchanged throughout 
the experiment owing to the relatively small proportion of the 
agents used up. In the course of his reply Mr. Veley mentioned 
that he had had occasion to verify Dr. Russell's observation that 
silver is not dissolved by nitric acid free from nitrous acid, to- 
which reference had been made, and stated that in experiments 
with copper and nitric acid he had observed that the action took 
place at first more slowly, and only attained a maximum rate 
when a certain small amount of nitrate was formed. Prof. 
Armstrong remarked that this was a really important observa«^ 
tion, proving that the dissolution of copper in nitric acid was 
dependent on the presence of a third substance — perhnps cupric 
nitrate. — A zinc mineral from a blast furnace, by Mr. J. T. 
Cundall. 

Zoological Society, April 29. — Sixtieth Anniversary 
Meeting.— Prof Mower, C.B., F.R.S., President, in the chair. 
— In the Report of the Coundlon the proceedings of the Society 
during the year 1888, it was stated that the number of Fellows 
on January i, 1889, was 3076, showing a decrease of twenty- 
eight as compared with the corresponding period in 1888. The 
total receipts for 1888 had amounted to ^24,025 los. 8d., show- 
ing an increase oi £()2Z 15^-. zd., as compared with the previous 
year. The receipts from admissions to the Gardens had risen 
from ^12,138 to ^13,284. The ordinary expenditure for 188& 
had been ;^2i,439 165. a,d., which was ;^2436 les-s than the 
corresponding amount for 1887. Besides this, an extraordinary 
expenditure of ;^7oo had been incurred^ which had brought up 
the total expenditure for the year to ^22, 139. The sum of 
;^icoo had been employed in repayment of a temporary loan, 
from the bankers, and a further sum of ;^ 1000 had been devoted 
to the diminution by that amount of the debt on the Society's 
freehold premises, which now stood at ;^70C0. After deducting: 
these payments from the income of 1888, and adding to 
it the balance of ;^ii58, brought over from the previous year, 
a balance of ;^I043 was carried forward for the benefit 
of the present year. The usual .'•cientific meetings had 
been held during the session of 1888, and a large number of 
valuable communications had been received upon every branch 
of zoology. These had been published in the annual volume of 
Proceedings for 1888, which contained 717 pages, illustrated 
by thirty-two plates. Besides this, Part 7 of the twelfth volume 
of the Society's quarto Transactions, illustrated by eight plates,, 
had been issued. The volume of the "Zoological Record " for 
1888, containing a summary of the work done by British and! 
foreign zoologists in 1887, had been issued early in the present 
year. It had been edited, by Mr. F. E. Beddard, the Prosec- 
tor to the Society. An important event in connection with the 
Librr ry during the past jear had been the receipt from the 



May 2, 1889] 



NATURE 



n 



executors of the late Madame Comely, widow of the late M. 
(. M. Cornely, an old and valued corresponding member of the 
Society, of a valuable library of zoological books. The Cornely 
Library consisted of about 840 volumes, of which 256 were new 
to the Society's Library, and many of these were rare and diffi- 
cult of acquisition. In the (ladens in Regent's Park, the work 
during the past year had been entirely confined to repairs and 
renewals, which, however, had kept the staff of workmen busily 
engaged. The visitors to the Gardens during the year 188S had 
been altogether 608,402, the corresponding number in 1887 
having been 562,898. The number of animals in the Society's 
collection on Decenber3i last was 2290, of which 666 were 
Ma nmals, 1280 Birds, and 314 Reptiles. Amongst the additions 
during the past year nine were specially commented upon as of 
remarkable interest, and in most cases representing species new 
to the Society's collection. About thirty-one species of Mammals, 
seventeen of Birds, and two of Reptiles had bred in the Society's 
Gardens during the summer of 1888. — The Report having been 
adopted, the meeting proceeded to elect the new members of 
Council and the officers for the ensuing year. The usual 
ballot having been taken, it was announced that Lieut. -Colonel 
the Lord Abinger, C.B., Mr. Henry A. Brassey, Mr. Henry 
E. Dresser, Lieut.-General Sir H. B. Lumsden, K.C.S.L, and 
the Lord Arthur Russell, had been elected into the Council in 
place of the retiring members ; also that Mr. Walter Morrison, 
M.P. , elected into the Council since the last anniversary, had 
been re-elected in place of the late Surgeon- General L. C. 
Stewart (deceased) ; and that Prof. Flower, C.B., F. R. S., had 
been re-elected President ; Mr. Charles Drummond, Treasurer ; 
and Mr. Philip Lutley Sclater, F. R.S., Secretary to the Society 
for the ensuing year. 

Paris. 
Academy of Sciences, April 15. — M, Des Cloizeaux, 
President, in the chair. — Researches on the thionic series, by M. 
Berthelot. The author describes a new method recently discovered 
by him, by means of which he has succeeded in measuring the 
heat of formation of nearly all the terms in the thionic series, 
such as the dithionic, trithionic, tetrathionic, and pentathionic 
iicids. Ttie method consists in oxidizing the salts of the thionic 
acids, previously dissolved, by means of bromine dissolved 
either in water, or, better, in bromide of potassium. For acids 
formed by the union of the same element combined in multiple 
proportions of oxygen there is in most cases a certain proportion 
between the liberated heat and the combined oxygen, a law 
already indicated by Dulong. — Experiments on putrefaction and 
on the formation of manures, by M. J. Reiset. Detailed de- 
scriptions are given of the critical experiments briefly referred to 
by the author in his recent communication on. this subject. He 
also deals with a serious objection that has been raised against 
his general conclusion regarding the liberation of nitrogen during 
the process of putrefaction. — Movement of cyclonic storms in the 
various regions of the globe, by M. H. Faye. A general survey 
is given of the salient features of these phenomena in the North 
Atlantic, the Bay of Bengal, the Arabian Sea, the Indian Ocean, 
the China Sea, and Japan waters — that is, in the regions where 
they have been most carefully studied. The author insists on 
the essential identity of all their main characteristics ; everywhere 
the same rapid trajectory from the equator towards one or other 
of the poles ; the same manner of gyration narrowing towards the 
base round about vertical axes ; the same progressive expansion 
frequently developing phenomena of varied segmentation far 
from the equator ; the same independence of local climatic con- 
ditions pointing to their common origin in the upper atmospheric 
regions, and showing that these violent disturbances do not 
belong exclusively to the science of meteorology, but are the 
grandest terrestrial manifestations of the mechanics of fluids, 
acting in conformity with the simple theory already, on 
several occasions, announced by the author. — Observations 
of Barnard's new comet, March 31, made at the Observatory 
of Algiers with the 050 m. telescope for the period April 
4-10, by MM. Trepied, Ram baud, and Renaux. — On the 
specific heat of sea water at different degrees of dilution and 
concentration, by MM, Thoulet and Chevallier. The measure- 
ment of the specific heat has been executed according to M. 
Berthelot's - method with water taken on the Fecamp coast, 
sometimes pure, sometimes with distilled water added, and 
sometimes concentrated by evaporation, the determination both 
of the densities and of the specific heats being made at the 
temperature of I7°*5 C. The calculations here worked out 
explain the enormous influence exercised by the sea in regulating 



the climates of the globe, -^On the intensity of telephonic eflTccts, 
by M. E. Mercadier, In continuation of his previous note 
{Comptes rendttSf cviii. p. 737) the author here describes his 
further experiments with aluminium and copper diaphragms. 
The efft'cts produced with these are found, under like conditions, 
to be far less intense than with iron diaphragms, the chief 
cause of the difference being the very slight specific magnetism 
of the former as compared with the latter. On the other hand, 
the qtiaiity of the efTects produced by the aluminium and copper 
diaphragm-; is very remarkable, as they give the timbre of 
sounds and of articulate speech far better than iron, — Researches 
on some new metallic sulphides, by MM. Arm. Gautier and 
L. Hallopeau. In continuation of the already described studies 
{Comptes rendtis, cvii. p. 911) on the action of carbon-di 
sulphide on the argillaceous earths, the authors have been 
led to examine its action on various metals at a red heat. 
The sulphides thus produced include those of iron, manganese, 
and the silicate of manganese described in this paper, and 
of nickel, chromium, lead, and aluminium, which are reserved 
for a future communication, — On the heat of combustion of 
some organic substances, by M. Ossipoff. The author has 
undertaken a series of experiments for the purpose of determin- 
ing the heats of combustion of certain organic bodies not yet 
studied from the thermic standpoint. He has already com- 
pleted the study of cinnamic, atropic, and terebic acids, all 
of which are described in the present paper. — Bacteriological 
researches on the disinfection of hospitals, dwellings, &c., by 
gaseous substances, and especially by sulphurous acid, by MM. 
H. Dubief and I.Bruhl. From these experiments it appears 
that gaseous sulphurous acid has a destructive effect on germs 
contained in the air, especially when saturated by the vapour of 
water ; that it acis mainly on the germs of bacteria, and that 
when employed in the pure state for a prolonged period it may 
prove fatal to germs even in the dry state. 

April 23. — M. Des Cloizeaux, President, in the chair. — On 
the theory of the capture of periodical comets, by M. F, 
Tisserand, The object of this paper is to supply a rigorous 
proof of the theory, based on Laplace's study of Lexell's comet, 
that the influence of Jupiter, acting on a comet with parabolical 
orbit, may under certain conditions transform its course to an 
elliptical orbit analogous to those of the group of periodical 
comets. Some of the formulas here worked out agree very well 
for two of Tempel's comets and for that of Vico ; but full details 
are reserved for the next issue of the Bulletin Astronomique. — 
Mejioir on the ravages caused to agriculture by the cockchafer 
and its larva, by M. J, Reiset, Ttie results are described of the 
measures that have been taken in France for the destruction of 
this pest since the year 1866. A de. ailed account is appended 
of its remarkable biological transformations, and instances given 
of its surprising vitality, surviving complete immersion in water 
for over four days, and when buried to a depth of 040 metre in 
the earth remaining in a state of suspended animation for 150 
days. — Observations of Barnard's new comet, March 31, made at 
the Observatory of Paris (equatorial of the east tower), on April 
19, by Mdlle. D. Klumpke ; at the same Observatory (equatorial 
of the west tower), on April 18-19, by M. G, Bigourdan ; and 
at the Observatory of Bordeaux with the 38 cm. equatorial, on 
April 20, by M, G. Rayet, Daring these observations the comet 
generally presented the appearance of a slight nebula with a 
nucleus of the fourteenth magnitude. — On magnetic rotatory 
polarization, by M, Vaschy, It is shown that M, Potier's recent 
hypothesis {Comptes rendus, March 11, 1889) on the action of 
the ether on ponderable matter offers a remarkably simple ex- 
planation of this phenomenon. On the other hand, it lends no 
support to Ampere's theory regarding molecular currents. — On 
the initial mode of deformation of the ellipsoidal crust of the 
earth, by M, A, Romieux. M, Daubree's well-known experi- 
ments serve as the basis of a theory of the original crumpling 
and folding 'of the terrestrial crust, which is here worked out 
with illustrations, M. Romieux considers that, although now 
far removed from that initial deformation, the globe still retains 
many traces of its effects as here described. Thus, the Pacific 
Ocean, a vast and very ancient equatorial basin, acting in op- 
position to a continental mass with its more recent depression of 
the Central Mediterranean, is supposed to have impelled by suc- 
cessive spasmodic pressure-: three or four zones of folding against 
the resisting mass of the North Pole. — On the combinations of 
ruthenium with nitric oxide, by M. A, Joly, Continuing his 
investigations on this subject (see Comptes rendus, cvii, p. 
994), the author here adds a considerable number to the 



24 



NATURE 



{May 2, 1889 



compounds of ruthenium with nitric oxide. They comprise a 
compound of nitric oxide with the trichloride, RuCl3(N0) + 
H3O, and with the sesquioxide, RuoOsCNO)^ + aH^O, both 
remarkably stable bodies, resisting the action of water, of 
bases and acids, and decomposing only at a temperature 
above 300° C. It is suggested that analogous nitrous com- 
binations might be formed with rhodium, and with osmium. 
In a future communication M. Joly proposes to show that 
the substances described by Fritsche and Struve, under the 
names of osmanosmic or osmiamic acid and of o«miates, 
have a constitution similar to that of these compounds 
of ruthenium. — Researches on the richness of wheat in 
gluten, by MM. E. Gatellier and L. L'Hote. A series of ex- 
periments are described by which the same wheat (white Victoria) 
is made to yield increasing proportions of gluten. The increase 
largely depends on the rotation of crops and on the proportion of 
nitrogen to phosphoric acid contained in the manures. — Papers 
were contributed by M. J. Janssen and Colonel Gouraud on Mr. 
Edison's improved telephone, full details of which have already 
appeared in the English scientific journals. The proceedings 
concluded with the following phonographic message sent by the 
President to Mr. Edison : " M. le President et les Membres de 
1' Academic des Sciences adressent leurs fe'licitations a M. Edison 
pour les nouveaux perfectionnements qu'il a apportes a son 
phonographe, et esperent le voir bientot a Paris, a I'occasion de 
I'Exposition Universelle. " 

Berlin. 

Physiological Society, April 12. — Prof, du BoisReymond, 
President, in the chair. — Prof. Fritsch gave a brief account of 
the results he has obtained from the examination of the electrical 
organ of Torpedo which he has been carrying on for several 
years. Both Wagner and Remak had correctly made out that 
each plate consists of two layers, one dorsal and one ventral ; 
that the nerves are attached to the plate from the under side, and 
are distributed in branches over it ; and that the under surface 
of the plate is dotted. Very little further infofmation as to the 
structure of this o'gan has resulted from the many investigations 
subsequent to those of the above-named observers. Prof Fritsch 
then explained and set aside the views of the best-known ob- 
servers, and summed up his own conclusions as follows. The 
lowest or marginal layer is composed of a layer, which is here 
and there discontinuous, of globules, which refract light very 
strongly ; between these the terminal fibres of the nerves make 
their way into the plate. The pallisade-layer, which some pre- 
vious observers had described, has an existence in the form of a 
number of extremely fine filaments, which stand at right angles 
to the plate, but inasmuch as they are so fine as to be scarcely 
visible, nothing can for certain be made out as to their nature. 
Passing further in a ventral direction, globular structures are 
found in the lower plate, seated upon fibres which branch 
dichotomously ; these may perhaps be bulbous nerve-endings. 
Large nuclei lie between the ventral and dorsal layers. The 
dorsal or muscular layer contains extremely fine granules, ar- 
ranged in rows at right angles to the surface. The above results 
were obtained by the application of the modified treatment with 
nitric acid. A series of photographs and drawings was ex- 
hibited in explanation of that which was described, and several 
preparations were shown under the microscope.— Prof. Preyer 
spoke on reflexes in the embryo. His researches extended over 
many classes of animals. As representing Mammals, guinea- 
pigs were chiefly u=ed ; and for reptiles, snakes ; while in addition 
the embrj'os of fishes, frogs, mollusks, and other lower animals 
were also employed. But of all animals birds are most suitable 
for embryological observations, inasmuch as, with due precau- 
tions, the development of one and the same individual can be 
followed for a considerable time. Birds' eggs can be incubated 
in a warm chamber, and by removing a portion of the shell 
and replacing it by an unbroken piece from another egg, it 
becomes possible to follow the daily development of the chick 
and to experiment upon it. As early as the ninetieth hour of 
incubation, spontaneous "impulsive" movements may be ob- 
served, taking place apparently without any external stimulus as 
a cause, and at a time when no muscles or nerves have as yet 
been developed. After the occurrence of these spontaneous 
movements, and at the earliest on the fifth day of incubation, 
movements are observed to result from the application of 
mechanical, chemical, and electrical stimuli. In order to 
observe these the eggs must be allowed to cool down until all 
spontaneous movements have ceased. From the tenth to the 



thirteenth day more complicated and reflex actions occur on the 
application of stimuli, as, for instance, movements of the eye- 
lids, beak, and limbs : and if the stimuli are strong, reflex respira- 
tory movemenf:. These reflexes make their aopearance before 
any ganglia have become differentiated. Prof. Preyer considered 
himself justified in concluding from this that ganglia are not 
essential for the liberation of reflex actions. He intends, on 
some future occasion, to give a more detailed account of these 
experiments, and of the conclusions which may be drawn from 
them. In the discussion which ensued the conclusions of the 
speaker were contested from many sides. 



BOOKS, PAMPHLETS, and SERIALS RECEIVED. 

Year Book of the Scientific and Learned Societies of Great Britain and 
Ireland, sixth annual issue (Griffin) — Subjects of Sjcial Welfare : Sir Lyon 
Playfair (Cassell). — Eiologie der Pflanzen, init Einem Anhang ; Die 
Historische Entwickhing der Botanik : Dr. J. Wiesni^r (Wien, Holder). — 
The Theory of the Continuous Girder : M'. A. Howe (New York). — A Verte- 
brate Fauna of the Outer Hebrides : J. A. Harvie-Brown and T. E. Buckley 
(Edinburgh, Douglas). — Challenger Report, vol. xxx. Zoology, Text and 
Plates (Eyre and Spottiswoode). — Animal Locomotion, 1872-S5, Plates ; E. 
Muybridge (Philadelphia). — The Metallurgy of Gold, 2nd edition : M. Eissler 
(I^ockwood). — Himmel und Erde. Heft 8 (Berlin). — Journal of the Royal 
Agricultural Society of England, April (Murray). 



CONTENTS. PAGE 

The New Code and Science Teaching. By Dr. J. 

H. Gladstone, F.R.S i 

The National Science Museum 3 

Reptilian Orders 5 

The History of Ancient Civilization 7 

Our Book Shelf: — 

Macdonald : "Board S,;hool Laryn jiti-:. " — Dr. E. 

Clifford Beale 8 

Ray: "A Treatise on Elementary Algebra and Alge- 
braical Artifices " 9 

Letters to the Editor: — 

The Sailing Flight of the Albatross.— A. C. Baines . 9 

Note on Ra^^adia crisia. — Sydney B. J. Skertchly . 10 

Spherical Eggs.— Prof. A. G. Greenhill, F.R.S. . . 10 
Name for Unit of Self-induction. — Prof. Oliver J. 

Lodge, F.R.S 11 

Hertz's Equations.— Rev. H. W. Watson, F.R.S. . 11 

A New Pest of Farm Crops. By Allen Harker . . . ir 
Rain Clouds on Lake Titicaca. {Illustrated.) By Hon. 

Ralph Abercromby 12 

A Flat Fish Nursery 13 

Notes 13 

Our Astronomical Column : — 

The April Meteors 15 

The White Spot on Saturn's Ring 15 

The Variable X Cygni 15 

Photographic Determination of the Brightness of the 

Stars ■ • IS 

Astronomical Phenomena for the Week 1889 

May 5-1 1 16 

Geographical Notes . 16 

The Henry Draper Memorial 17 

Griinwald's Mathematical Spectrum Analysis. By 

Joseph S. Ames 19 

On the Formation of Marine Boiler Incrustations. 

By Prof. Vivian B. Lewes 19 

University and Educational Intelligence 20 

Scientific Serials 21 

Societies and Academies 21 

Books, Pamphlets, and Serials Received 24 



NA TURE 



25 



THURSDAY, MAY 9, 1889. 



THE ESTATE OF HER MAJESTY'S 
COMMISSIONERS OF 1851. 

UNDER this heading the Times has announced 
that "a Sub-Committee of the Commissioners, 
amongst the members of which are Lord Thring, Sir Lyon 
Playfair, Mr. Childers, M.P., and Mr. Mundella, M.P., 
held a meeting on Saturday last to adopt a final report 
upon the disposal of this Estate which should be sub- 
mitted for the approval of the Royal Commissioners them- 
selves." The Commissioners have determined to let out 
a considerable part of their Estate to house builders, and 
the Sub-Committee had before them, on Saturday last, 
tenders for building leases. If the Commissioners accept 
these tenders, they will add some ^10,000 a year to their 
income. This notion of sacrificing the Estate to builders 
of private houses has been known for some months ; and, 
with the view of demonstrating against so short-sighted, 
not to say utterly immoral, a poHcy, a Memorial has been 
framed and circulated. We have received a copy of it, 
and, entirely acquiescing in its object, we print it in extenso. 
It runs as follows : — 

To His Royal Highness the Prince of Wales, K.G., &*€., 
Gr^c. , President of Her Majesty's Commissioners for the 
Exhibition of 1 85 1. 

,-^. ^, • 1 i- .1 J • J [Here fill in name of 

The Memorial from the undersigned chamber of Commerce, 



on behalf of 



Corporation, (juild or 
Educational Institution. 

Sheweth 
(i) That in the year 1851 a large surplus profit accrued 
after the conclusion of the Exhibition of 1851. 

(2) That this surplus profit was for the most part 
expended by Her Majesty s Commissioners for the Exhi- 
bition of 1851 in the purchase of a considerable Estate of 
land at Kensington, for the erection of public institutions, 
and generally to benefit the country's Arts, Sciences, 
Manufactures, and Commerce. 

(3) That various public institutions, such as the South 
Kensington Museum, the Training School of Science and 
Art, the Natural History Museum, the Royal College of 
Music, the Royal Albert Hall, and the Imperial Institute, 
have been or are in course of being built upon this 
Estate. 

(4) That fine open spaces intervene between the various 
institutions, to provide for further extensions of them, and 
give them proper light and air. 

(5) That Sir Lyon Playfair, M.P., as Secretary to Her 
Majesty's Commissioners, recently stated in the House of 
Commons that a large portion of these fine open spaces 
between the public institutions already named was to be 
leased for the erection of private houses and mansions. 

(6) That, in the opinion of Your Royal Highness's 
Memorialists, this crowding upon the public institutions 
of private houses and mansions is adverse to the interests 
of Arts, Sciences, Manufactures, and Commerce, and 
foreign to the intentions of Her Majesty's Commissioners, 
publicly announced, when they purchased the land, and 
also subsequently. 

(7) That, in the opinion of Your Royal Highness's 
Memorialists, this crowding upon the public institutions 
to benefit Arts, Sciences, Manufactures, and Commerce, 
of private houses and mansions is in confiict with the last 
public announcement in respect of the future of the 
Estate which H.R.H. the late Prince Consort made 
within six months of his lamented death. 

Your Memorialists, therefore, respectfully pray that 
Vol. XL.— No. 1019. 



Your Royal Highness, as President of Her Majesty's 
Commissioners, will prevent the public institutions on the 
Estate of Her Majesty's Commissioners from being 
crowded upon by private ht)uses and mansions, and will 
induce Her Majesty's Commissoners to preserve intact 
those unalloted portions of their Estate in order that they 
may be placed to the great public uses for which the 
Estate was destined by Her Majesty's Commissioners and 
their President, Your Royal Highness's illustrious father, 
the lamented Prince Consort. 

The Times, commenting upon the effe:t of the Com- 
missioners' scheme for filling up their Estate with private 
houses, says that "the irregular blocks of variegated private 
houses " will more or less overwhelm and hedge in " such 
National Institutions for Science and Art as the Estate 
may ultimately contain." 

From time to time the Commissioners' various pro- 
posals for dealing with their Estate have been publicly 
criticized, with the useful result that such of the pro- 
posals as were in the nature of distinct departures from 
the original intentions set forth at the time the Estate 
passed into their keeping, have been modified or 
dropped. 

Twelve years or so ago, some representatives of the 
original subscribers, whose aid in 185 1 virtually placed a 
large portion of the surplus funds at the disposal of the 
Commissioners, urged that unallotted portions of the 
Estate should be sold to meet expenses in founding pro- 
vincial galleries or museums for science and art. For 
good reasons, the Commissioners did not give way to 
these plausible representations. They said at that time 
that, under the guidance of the Prince Consort, "we 
purchased the estate to provide an extensive site for 
the development of great institutions for the promotion 
of industrial art and science amongst the manufacturing 
populatioti'' At this very time, and, as was stated in 
Nature of May 2, p. 3, the Commissioners proposed 
certain conditions to the Government, under which they 
(the Commissioners) would raise ^100,000 as a contri- 
bution towards erecting a Museum of Scientific Instru- 
ments, a Science Library, and Laboratories of Scientific 
Research and Instruction. This proposal, which was not 
entertained however by the Government of the day, con- 
tained provisions for keeping the main parts of the 
Estate free for the development of national institutions. 
The reasons for keeping the main portions of the Estate 
at liberty in this way have since remained every whit as 
strong as they were then. Indeed they are stronger than 
ever, in the face of Government action now being taken 
in respect of the " National Science Museum." But a 
malign influence supervened. It was but a week before 
Christmas last year, when Mr. G. Samuelson asked a 
question in the House of Commons, that Sir Lyon 
Playfair stated that Her Majesty's Commissioners for 
the Exhibition of 185 1 were arranging to dispose of 
considerable plots of land on their Estate to house 
builders, in order that the Commissioners might in- 
crease their income by obtaining ground-rents from 
private houses, and that the Commissioners did not 
intend to publish their reasons for this. Is Sir Lyon 
Playfair's assurance in thus apparently setting public 
opinion at defiance to be ascribed to a sense of relief from 
further responsibility which he may have derived from his 
resignation of the secretaryship to the Commissioners ? 

c 



26 



NATURE 



{May 9, 1889 



There is no ambiguity in his statement as to the 
choking up of the Kensington Estate with private houses 
and mansions. The sites to be occupied by private 
houses are bounded on the north by the Albert Hall 
and the adjoining semicircular arcades or quadrants, 
on the east and west by portions of the galleries con- 
taining the Museum of Science and the India Museum, 
and on the south by the Imperial Institute. They 
form the gardens and terraces so well known to the 
public who flocked to the evening al fresco entertain- 
ments which were given in connection with the series 
of International Exhibitions recently held at South 
Kensington. The various public announcements issued 
by Her Majesty's Commissioners during the last thirty- 
five years conclusively show that this land was acquired 
for more useful and comprehensive purposes than those 
of speculative house builders. 

Let us briefly refer to those announcements. On 
the close of the Exhibition of 1851, H.M. Commis- 
sioners found themselves the possessors of some ^200,000. 
They were impressed with the fact that many public 
institutions founded to promote science and art had 
been " subject to the disadvantages of being placed 
in such a situation from the crowding of surrounding 
houses that they were without light or air, and had no 
convenient access." They therefore determined to pur- 
chase a large estate of unoccupied land, and in 1852 
became the landlords of what has since been commonly 
known as the South Kensington Estate. For the ulti- 
mate use of this large property they proposed to trust to 
the "voluntary efforts of individuals, corporations, and 
authorities, to carry out the promotion of the different 
interests with which they are themselves connected." In 
their Report for 1856, the Commissioners, alluding to 
" the question of the site that has been purchased by us," 
show that, d'lring the intervening years, "the great 
natural capabilities of the site have been properly deve- 
loped by means of the construction of important lines of 
communication and other improvements ; and that we 
are still occupied in taking the remaining steps requisite 
for perfecting the estate, and rendering it in all respects 
fit for the great national objects to which it is to be 
applied." Very shortly afterwards a large area of the 
Estate was leased to the Royal Horticultural Society. 
This was laid out as an ornamental garden surrounded 
by arcades and galleries. The late Prince Consort 
opened this garden in 1861. His Royal Highness 
made a speech on the occasion, in the course of which 
he said, " We may hope that at no distant day this 
garden will form the inner court of a vast quadrangle of 
PubHc Buildings rendered easily accessible by the broad 
roads which will surround them. Buildings where Science 
and Art may find space for development, with that 
light and air which are well-nigh banished from this 
overgrown metropolis." This was but six months 
before the death of the Prince. For some years 
the Prince Consort's superior policy in dealing with 
the Estate was respected and followed by Her Majesty's 
Commissioners. The Natural History Museum arose 
on the land at the south of the Horticultural Gardens. 
Galleries were built above and at the side of the 
long eastern and western arcades of the gardens ; 
other galleries were erected between these gardens and 



the Natural History Museum. The Government secured 
a tenuie of all these galleries as a temporary home 
in which the Government has placed the National 
Science Museum, the Collections of Historic Machinery, 
the India Museum, and the Collections of Modern In- 
dustrial Art. On the far north of the Estate was built 
the Royal Albert Hall : then followed the Royal Col- 
lege of Music. Later still sprang up the Technological 
Schools of the City and Guilds of London Institute. But 
with all this steady realization of the Prince Consort's far- 
seeing policy the Commissioners were not satisfied. 
Pleading necessity to find money for defraying the 
expenses of certain not over-wise experiments undertaken 
by them, they began to let land on the margins of their 
Estate for the erection of private dwellings. And the 
more prominent result of this is the beetling mass of 
mansions opposite Hyde Park, overshadowing the Albert 
Hall on one side, and frowning ominously upon the 
" inner court of the vast quadrangle " of the Estate. 
Then came the movement for an Imperial Institute. A 
great sHce out of the "inner court" was allocated for 
this mysterious Institute, which is rapidly asserting its 
architectural entity. At this point in the development of 
the Estate, the Commissioners, it would seem, succumbed 
to the hopeless temptation of washing their hands of 
further trouble. And, as we have already stated, their 
present intention is to block up the remaining portion 
of the " inner court " with private houses and mansions, 
and thus disencumber themselves of any responsibility 
for institutions for science and art. 

Now, an explanation, which has been offered, of 
this volte face on the part of the Commissioners 
is this. The subscriptions for the Imperial Institute 
are insufificient for its endowment. It must be re- 
membered that the Imperial Institute is the outcome 
of the "Jubilee" loyalty. The possible utility of this 
Institute has been debated without success. To lay the 
foundation-stone, and to pay for a staff of subscription- 
touters and what not, during two years, have exhausted 
some^25,ooo of its capital, which does not reach ^300,000. 
The ingenuity of Lord Thring and Sir Lyon Playfair has, 
it is said, been accordingly taxed. Their united wits are 
credited with having proposed the sale to private house 
builders of the unallotted land as well as of portions of 
land already occupied by galleries containing the Science 
Museum and India Museum. The money thus realized,, 
or most of it, is to go into the coffers of the Imperial 
Institute. Such are the statements made. If they are 
wrong, they should be contradicted. 

Another minor incident which further exemplifies the 
Commissioners' attitude is the projected removal of the 
monument raised twenty-five years ago on their estate to 
commemorate the Exhibition of 1851. This monument 
is surmounted by a statue of H.R.H. the late Prince 
Consort. This too is to be swept away to make room for 
private houses. 



WARREN DE LA RUE. 

A PROMINENT and representative figure has just 

"^^ disappeared fi-om scientific circles, whose absence 

will be deeply felt by the many eminent men with 

whom, for a long time, he had been associated. In the 



May 9, 1889] 



NATURE 



27 



Councils of our great Societies he was a man invaluable 
for his intelligence, for his persevering energy, for his 
promptness of resource, and for a generosity, princely, 
but discriminating. These words will at once suggest 
the regretted decease of Warren de la Rue. At the age 
of seventy-four, he can hardly be said to have died full 
of years ; but assuredly Warren de la Rue died full of 
honours. He was almost, but happily not quite, the last 
■of a generation or two, of men who, possessing ample 
pecuniary means in middle or early life, devoted the 
means and the life to the search for truth in Nature, 
each in his own line. The two Herschels, Wollaston, 
Babbage, Gassiot, Spottiswoode, and De la Rue are gone, 
and but few like to them still survive, linking us with 
the past. " The old order changeth ; " and now the 
endowed and professional student of Nature is fast 
displacing the amateur. Nor need we altogether deplore 
it ; for, after all, the Professor and the amateur belong to 
the same race of Englishmen ; they have the same love 
of the quest for truth ardent within them ; and in the 
case of the Professor there is now superadded the spur 
that comes from a sense of duty. 

Warren de la Rue was born in 1815, and was the son 
of Mr. Thomas de la Rue, the founder of that eminent 
firm of manufacturing stationers in Bunhill Row who have 
rendered well-known services to social life by the produc- 
tion of numerous articles, unsurpassed in excellence in 
their particular craft. He first became known to the world 
at large by his newly-invented machine for the manu- 
facture of envelopes, which was placed in the Great 
Exhibition of 1851, and formed one of the chief objects of 
attraction there. Not far from it lay a small photograph 
of the moon, taken by Bond with the Harvard refractor of 
15 inches. It was comparatively, and from the circum- 
stances of the times necessarily, but a poor performance, 
yet it held out the promise of future possibilities, and it 
certainly fired the hopes of De la Rue. It was to him 
what the itinerant telescope in the streets of Bath became 
to the elder Herschel, viz. the ^determining point of a future 
and illustrious career. Accordingly, we soon find him 
engaged in the construction of, what in the sequel has 
become, his historic reflecting telescope, having an 
aperture of 13 inches and a focal length of 10 feet. The 
mirror was figured and polished by his own hands, and the 
equatorial mounting of the telescope was completed in 
his manufactory at Bunhill Row, from his own designs. 
Here again our thoughts revert to the elder Herschel ; but 
that great astronomer never approached the perfection 
either of the De la Rue mirror, or of the mechanism 
by which it was mounted and by which it was moved. 
It is, however, only just to say that much of this notable 
improvement was the natural outcome of the lapse of time 
and of the progress that had been made in the working of 
metal. The instrument was mounted in the suburbs of 
London, at Canonbury, in a small garden surrounded by 
houses. It was hither, when the day's work was done at 
Bunhill Row, that De la Rue r etired at night ; and here, by 
patiently waiting for a clear and serene atmosphere, an 
event of rare occurrence, and then only during the small 
hours of the morning, he finally succeeded in taking 
telescopic pictures of the planets Jupiter and Saturn^ 
which it may not be too much to say remain still the 
equals of any subsequent delineations of the same planets. 



Of the Saturn picture, John Herschel was heard to say 
that he could die content if he could but once see the 
planet itself as beautifully defined. This great success 
at once placed him among the chief amateur practical 
astronomers of the day. . 

It was about this time that he associated himself with 
Owen, Quekett, Bowerbank, and others, in the formation 
of the Microscopical Society ; and such were the keenness 
and exactness of his eyes and hand, that he soon became 
a chief referee for the performance of the wonderful 
microscopic objectives which then for the first time were 
produced by the skill of Powell and Andrew Ross. 

His first essays in lunar photography were not so suc- 
cessful as he had anticipated : the collodion plates were 
deficient in rapidity, and his telescope, not being as yet 
provided with a clock movement, he was unable to keep 
the moon motionless in the field, even for the short ex- 
posure requisite to secure a photographic image. All this, 
however, was soon rectified. For, about the year 1857, 
he removed his residence and his telescope from Canon- 
bury to Cranford, a village distant from London by some 
twelve miles west. There he provided his instrument' 
with an admirable driving clock, and applied what leisure 
he could get, sedulously to celestial photography ; and 
there he secured the earliest substantial results of a 
method, which, at present, bids fair to revolutionize the 
processes of the most exact and refined astronomy. The 
photographs of the moon which he now obtained still re- 
main works of art, which even the most skilful of recent 
astronomers find it difficult to emulate with success. He 
also made many attempts to photograph the solar disk ; 
but owing to mechanical difficulties, connected with the 
necessarily infinitesimal duration of the exposure of the 
plates, his success was not great. He had hoped that, 
by treating the photographs stereoscopically, he might 
decide the true nature of sun-spots in respect of their 
being depressions or the reverse ; but, although the evi- 
dence seemed greatly in favour of depression, the ques- 
tion can hardly be considered as photographically 
settled. His efforts in this direction ended in the 
construction of a small telescope for the Royal 
Society, with an object-glass of 3.^ inches aperture 
properly corrected ; and, with this photo-heliograph, 
numberless pictures of the sun were successfully taken 
at the Kew Observatory. This instrument has proved 
the parent of many others established in various parts 
of the world, so that at present scarcely a day passes 
without a record of the condition of the sun's disk. 
The arrangements for these observations of sun-spots are 
now constituted under the advice of the Solar Committee 
at South Kensington, and in due time no doubt important 
facts will be brought to light. All this is traceable to 
the little inconspicuous photograph deposited not far 
from the envelope machine in 1851 ; and in this way De 
la Rue became, and will ever be remembered as, the 
Father of Lunar and Solar Photography. 

In i860, De la Rue took this photo-heliograph with him 
on board the Himalaya, in connection with the memor- 
able expedition to the Spanish Pyrenees, for the purpose 
of observing the total eclipse of the sun. He posted 
himself, with his whole battery of implements, at Riva 
Bellosa, in the valley of the Ebro, not far from Vittoria. 
He was successful in obtaining several photographs o{ 



28 



NATURE 



{May 9, 1889 



the eclipse during its totality, which gave the promise of 
settling, once for all, the hitherto much-mooted question 
as to whether the red prominences belonged to the sun, or 
were attributable to a different origin. On his return 
home he devised a micrometer -for the due measurement 
of these remarkable phenomena, and in conjunction with 
other photographs taken by Padre Secchi, at a station 
some 250 miles distant from Riva Bellosa, he succeeded 
in allocating these singular fiery prominences beyond 
question, in the gaseous envelope which surrounds the 
sun. The results of his researches were embodied in 
the Bakerian Lecture delivered before the Royal Society 
in 1862. Perhaps it is not too much to say that these 
efforts laid the foundation of that wonderful structure of 
solar physics which is daily enlarging our knowledge of 
the true nature of the sidereal universe. 

In 1873 the Observatory at Cranford was dismantled, 
on the occasion of De la Rue's removal from his com- 
parative seclusion there to his residence in London. The 
reflector, with all its numerous and valuable accessories, 
was presented to the University of Oxford, and by this 
noble gift it was enabled at length to establish an efficient 
Astronomical Observatory at a place of learning where 
H alley and Bradley had flourished and taught nearly two 
centuries before. The instrument was erected in com- 
pleteness at De la Rue's sole expense, and for several 
years he defrayed the cost of the additional assistant 
necessary for its utilization. 

Oxford has at no time been backward in acknowledg- 
ing-with gratitude all efficient services rendered in behalf 
of the studies of the place. Accordingly, on De la Rue 
was conferred the rare honour of the full degree of M.A., 
by which he became a member of Convocation, while 
New College also incorporated him among her Society of 
Wykehamists, and made him a member of their common 
room. 

We have occasion to know that it was a source 
of gratification to De la Rue to feel assured that his 
generous gift was utilized to the full by his old friend the 
present Professor of Astronomy, and specially in the 
direction which himself had inaugurated. Moreover 
when a few months ago he saw the marvellous results 
produced by Mr. Roberts in his photographic pictures of 
nebulae, secured by a four hours' exposure, he gave direc- 
tions for the additional mechanism requisite for the pro- 
duction, as he hoped and beheved, of similar pictures by 
his own now ancient instrument. Such is the solidity 
of the original mounting, that at this moment it is 
finally placed on a par, in respect of accurate move- 
ment, with any known instrument ; but he did not live 
long enough to watch the progress of the experiment. Nor 
does this end the catalogue of his gifts to the University. 
When he heard of the projected scheme inaugurated by 
Admiral Mouchez, the Director of the Paris Observatory, 
for completing a photographic chart of the entire sidereal 
heavens, he placed a considerable sum of money in the 
hands of the Vice-Chancellor in order to defray the cost 
of the large photographic telescope necessary for taking a 
part in this great enterprise. The University of Oxford 
is not an ephemeral institution, and De la Rue's acts of 
generosity will remain inscribed upon her annals. 

While he was thus watching with intense interest the 
uses:- made at Oxford of the work of his renovated instru- 



ment, he was himself engaged in a new enterprise of his 
own. Whether the recollection of what his friend Gassiot 
had done some twelve years before at Clapham — how, 
when he returned from his City work in the early evening 
he retreated down to his laboratory, furnished at incredible 
labour and expense, and there tried to investigate the 
nature and origin of the electric discharge, and especially 
the strangely beautiful luminous striae observed in tubes 
partially exhausted, visited now and then, while at work, 
by Faraday and other kindred spirits — whether or not 
this may have been the inducing cause, certain it is that 
De la Rue became fascinated by the same phenomena, 
and enamoured with the same pursuit. Possibly through 
a like scientific contagion, Spottiswoode also, in due 
course of time, endeavoured to wrest the same secret from 
Nature's hands. For years these three men worked and 
persevered in hope. None of them wholly succeeded, 
and yet none of them wholly failed ; each and all left 
finger-posts to guide some future and more fortunate 
research. 

The space which can be here afforded to the memoir 
even of an illustrious man precludes more than a passing 
allusion to the honours and social distinctions which 
always accompany the efforts of a life such as Warren 
de la Rue's ; and upon him they were accumulated in 
abundance. The abiding honour lies in the contem- 
plation of the man. A career like his dignifies the daily 
life of a manufacturer, giving it an aim and an object apart 
from the accumulation of wealth ; it humanizes, warms, 
and illuminates the absorbing abstraction of the solitary 
student ; and it illustrates the fact of an Aristocracy of 
Nature. 



THE PHILOSOPHY OF MYSTICISM. 
The Philosophy of Mysticism. By Carl du Prel, Dr. Phil, 
Translated from the German by C. C. Massey. 2 Vols. 
(London : George Red way, 1889.) 

WE own to a certain mistrust when we are asked to 
accept goods under a trade-mark of mysticism ; just 
as we have a most Levitical desire to pass by on the other 
side when we encounter the latest lucubrations of the circle- 
squarer, the absolute harmony of Genesis and geology, 
or when the last new theory of the soul is extended before 
us, "All Danae to the stars." Now the philosophy of mysti- 
cism contains the latest of soul theories, or rather it is an 
old theory — a very old theory indeed — which has been 
newly adapted and furbished up and fitted with the very 
latest adjuncts which the outskirts of modern science can 
supply, so that it is to all intents and purposes just as 
good as if it were altogether new and original. Do not 
let us be misunderstood : both author and translator act 
in the strictest good faith. There is no false pretence 
about the matter. The whole work is perfectly ingenuous. 
The antiquity of the central idea is not in dispute, but it 
is claimed for the author that he has essentially modified 
our conception of that idea, that he presents his matter 
from a new stand-point, which is enough in all conscience 
nowadays, and that he is the first to show, by systematic 
analysis and comparison, that somnambulism and its 
cognate states are not essentially abnormal or morbid, 
but are in truth a mere exaltation of ordinary sleep, 
that the faculties evinced in those states are incipiently 



May 9, 1889] 



NATURE 



29 



manifested also in dream, and are even indicated, though 
still more indefinitely, in waking life. It is contended 
that in this way the whole dream-life is reclaimed from 
its presumed worthlessness for scientific and philosophical 
purposes. 

A duality of person with a unity of essence is the theory 
which commends itself to Baron du Prel,and he has worked 
out with much skill and acumen the details of an hypothesis 
to which his evident earnestness induces us to accord a 
hearing even when we are compelled to dissent from his 
conclusions. This hypothesis will have none of science, 
falsely so called ; it sets at nought the accepted views of 
the physiologist and the materialist, and is a new, if 
nebulous, gospel of transcendental existence and appar- 
ently limitless progression, Man's life is moulded by his 
conception of his relation to the world, and that concep- 
tion the present work is to radically revise. Who can 
tell if in the twentieth century the acceptance of these 
mystical views may not transform the present eager, 
struggling, money-grubbing crowd into a fraternity of 
peaceful philosophers finding in the placid pleasures of 
catalepsy an efficient substitute for the excitement of a 
boom in copper and for the fevered gambling of the Stock 
Exchange .'' 

The author is very hard in his strictures upon the 
feeble physiologist, the wicked materialist, and indeed 
upon the modern professors of science generally, whom 
he abandons to their "exact amusements," whilst he 
seeks " the true theory in the bare analysis of the process 
which takes place in memory," and it is really wonderful 
what a superstructure he raises on the basis of that 
analysis. His preliminary dig at contemporary men of 
science he follows up with cuts and thrusts at intervals, but 
his salient grievance is that one and all fail to conceive 
progress otherwise than on their existing plane, whereas 
true progress must be inevitably vertical. With the 
advent of experimental methods, we learn, the world ot 
science believed itself to have discovered a means for the 
attainment of all available knowledge, but the belief is 
erroneous. Not only is science still very far from its 
goal, but with the completion of its existing tasks, new 
prospects will be opened in the vertical direction. Should 
science succeed in explaining the whole visible world, 
that explanation is only as to a represented universe, a 
secondary phenomenon, a mere product of our sense and 
understanding, leaving the true world untouched. The 
quality of our consciousness in its relation to that world 
has still to be considered, and by such a method alone 
can its true nature be in any degree discovered. The 
visible world undergoes qualitative changes in the gene- 
ration of consciousness, for, since the vibration of ether 
is in consciousness light and atmospheric vibration 
sound, it is evident that we are not truly cognizant of 
things, but only of the inodes in which our senses react 
upon them. Taking all which and much more besides 
into consideration, the author sums up the result of 
human thought on the world-problem by saying that 
" consciousness does not exhaust its object, the world," a 
remark somewhat analogous to that of the Danish prince 
who observed that " there are more things in heaven and 
earth than are dreamt of in our philosophy." 

As the world is the object of consciousness, so is the 
E^o that of self-consciousness ; and here, sa) s the Baron, 



materialism still flatters itself with the hope of reducing 
all psychology to physiology. It is deceived : self-con- 
sciousness does not exhaust its object, but is as inade- 
quate to the Ego as consciousness is to the world, and 
the Ego may as much exceed self-consciousness as con- 
sciousness is exceeded by the world. The degree of the 
excess, is, however, not absolutely constant, since, by 
the rise of consciousness in the biological process, the 
boundary between the conscious and transcendental worlds 
has been and will be continually displaced. Of being, 
other than representation, we know nothing, and spirit is 
the primary and the real, for were its perceptive faculty 
changed, the whole material world of representation 
would be transformed ; a clear demonstration that the 
represented world is a mere creature of the spirit. 
Behind consciousness is the ultimate being of which 
that consciousness is but the reflection, and as this ulti- 
mate being is beyond consciousness the Baron terms it the 
unconscious. This unconscious may either lie imme- 
diately behind the physically conditioned consciousness, 
or may be so indefinitely removed as to allow of an inter- 
mediate root of conscious individuality which is only 
relatively unconscious for the organism of sense. The 
author finds such an intermediary in his so-called psycho- 
physical threshold of sensibility, which is the shifting 
barrier between the unconscious and self-consciousness. 
He conceives a dualism of consciousness, the division 
of two " persons " in one subject, but his conception 
differs from the popular conception of the dualism of 
soul and body, of matter and spirit, of Nature and 
supernatural. This dualism of consciousness is, with 
him, an intelligence which emerges with clearness and 
power just in proportion to the cessation of the organic 
functions with which the consciousness of waking life is 
associated ; the two halves of our consciousness, divided 
by the movable threshold of sensibihty, forming the 
subject which is an organizing as well as a thinking 
principle. The hypothesis of transcendental individuality 
co-existent with the earthly life and constructive of the 
organism by which consciousness is (from the earthly 
stand-point) dualized, necessitates the doctrine of pre- 
existence. Transcendental individuality implies a dis- 
tinction from personal consciousness, and that the soul is 
not wholly plunged in the successive bodies which it 
constructs ; the personal consciousness with its Ego 
being the mere partial and temporary limitation of a 
larger self, the growth of many seasons of earthly life. 

The state of the individual after death is not precisely 
defined, but is suggested by the similitude of the smaller 
of two concentric circles expanding to the larger; the 
circumference of the inner circle being the organic 
threshold of sensibility, which death removes altogether, 
as it is already partially removed in such analogous 
states as sleep, somnambulism, &c. As in preoccupation 
the mind is concentrated to a focus, and subsequently 
expands to the limits of consciousness, so is earthly 
consciousness in death expanded to the boundary limits 
of the true Ego. 

Transcendental subjectivity provides for continuity of 
consciousness, but the experience and whole activity of 
one of our objective life-times will be assimilated for 
results independent of those proposed by the contracted 
Ego^ wh.ich bear but a minute proportion to the gradually 



NATURE 



[May 9, 1889 



accumulated content of the whole individual. The per- 
sonal Ego must be brought to the point of view of the 
transcendental subject to which the mere happiness of 
that Ego is indifferent. What to us as persons are but 
high ideal motives may be alone of interest to the larger 
self which only maintains the organic personality for its 
own purposes. Such is Mr. Massey's analysis of the 
master's views, and it must be obvious that on this 
showing matters are decidedly in favour of the higher 
Ego which has, so to speak, got it all its own way. But 
since that exalted essence is, according to its moral 
nature, a product of development, the greater morality is 
not always on its side, for were that the case, terrestrial 
existence would have no educational value, and it is 
comfortable, therefore, to learn that our moral conscious- 
ness in earth-life can erect itself against its larger self, 
and may thus enrich the latter by the moral fruits of 
mundane existence ; the struggle which takes place 
between the divisions of the subject being analogous to 
the process of Nature in its endeavour to expel disease, 
and drive whatever is morbid in an organism to the 
surface, or, to put it baldly, a species of spiritual measles. 
Such a theory, it is contended, fits the progress of the in- 
dividual into the progress of the race, avoiding the waste 
of energy involved in the conception that the former is 
sacrificed to the latter, and supplies a wondrous harmony 
in which pessimism is subordinated to optimism. 

The author is erudite, and he hails from the Father- 
land ; it is therefore not a matter for surprise that 
somewhat Shandean theories are exposed in sentences 
of wondrous construction. With these Mr. Massey has 
manfully wrestled ; but, in his commendable desire to 
play the part of a faithful translator, he has at times 
given us such specimens of Teutonic English "as she is 
wrote " as render the good Baron's mysticism ten times 
more mysterious. We have read and re-read a passage, 
and a dozen perusals have left us still in doubt whether 
the meaning which the author and translator intended to 
convey were really grasped. Fidelity may be carried 
too far. At other times he who runs may read, and the 
author expresses his sentiments with an ingenuous frank- 
ness, as when he writes that "every criticism will be 
welcome which is adapted to advance the subject and 
myself." 

Assuming that we have mastered the Baron's theory, 
an assumption we hesitate to make, we may place if 
before such of our readers as prefer a crude simile to 
the technicalities of metaphysics, in an illustration de- 
rived from natural history. Those who have visited the 
rock-pools of our coasts must have noticed the amusing 
little hermit crab {Pagurus ber?thardus), who ensconces 
his soft unarmoured tail in the temporary shelter of an 
empty shell. He wriggles into his self-chosen habitation, 
and holds on to it with the pinchers with which his tail is 
provided, until he voluntarily leaves it before the ap- 
proach of death. The hermit crab is the unconscious 
whole whose tail is tucked into the shell of self-conscious 
existence. As he emerges from it, or retires more com- 
pletely, the amount of crab within the shell varies, the 
threshold of sensibility is shifted, and the shell benefits 
or suffers accordingly. The development of the moral 
nature of the subject, and its fitness for higher re-incar- 
nation, are likewise shadowed forth in the fattening of 



the crab's tail, and his search for a roomy whelk-shell in 
place of the restricted covering of the modest periwinkle. 
Or, once again, the threshold of sensibility may be 
hkened to the lid of the box from which the Jack of 
memory leaps, and upon the closure of which forgetfulness 
ensues. 

It may be readily imagined that the author does not 
ask us to accept his theories unproven, and he has col- 
lected a mass of curious information from the most varied 
sources. Some of his anecdotes are oases of entertain- 
ment, which will, we fear, be missed by readers who do 
not, as we have done, peruse the volumes from cover to 
cover. As instances of our meaning, we may cite the 
case of a weak-minded youth upon whom all instruction 
in languages and science was thrown away, but who, 
after a fall on the head, became distinctly clever, intel- 
lectual, and highly cultivated, quickly seizing what he 
had been taught in vain before — a demonstration of the 
value of a box on the ears in the case of a stupid boy ; 
the girl who, in her waking life, was reminded of her 
self-imposed somnambulistic treatment by the vision of a 
squirt ; the military author who entered the barracks to 
take charge of the watch, in obedience to a dreamed 
order which he conceived to be a reality (had the case 
been one of neglect of a real order which he believed 
himself to have dreamt, we fear the court-martial would 
not have admitted the plea) ; or the wife who, subject to 
conditions of alternating consciousness, resented the 
presence of her husband, whom she treated with maid- 
enly reserve. To prove the existence of a transcendental 
measure of time which is totally different from the nor- 
mal, we are told of a flea-bite which occasioned a dream, 
concluding with a stab in the part of the body upon 
which the insect operated ; of a pinch on the thigh, 
which caused the sleeper to imagine himself bitten by a 
wild beast ; of De Quincey's opium dreams, which ap- 
peared to him to extend over vast periods of time ; and 
of Mahomet, who, having knocked over a pitcher of water 
when translated by the Archangel Gabriel, viewed all 
things in heaven and hell, and held ninety thousand con- 
ferences with the Deity, returning to his still warm couch 
before the contents of the pitcher were expended. A 
somnambulistic girl exclaimed, " Where am I ? I am not 
at home in the head. There is a strange struggle between 
the pit of the stomach and the head ; both would prevail, 
both see and feel." So you see that "transcendental physio- 
logical functions seem to be parallel with corresponding 
changes in the ganglionic system." Authorities jostle in 
kaleidoscopic confusion ; the " Novum Organum " stand- 
ing cheek by jowl with the Bhagavadgita and the Vedas ; 
whilst Aristotle and Proctor, Plato and Mrs. Crowe, 
Habakkuk, Galen, Plotinus, L. Oliphant, Daniel, Darwin, 
Kant, Olcott, and scores of others, jostle each other in 
ill-assorted series, but each with his contribution to the 
mosaic of marvels. On such a catena of evidence are 
based the two volumes ; and, in spite of their wayward- 
ness, there is a thread of argument running through 
them which it would be unfair to the author to sunder 
by attempting an imperfect precis of his work, had 
we even the heart to impose it upon our readers. It 
has been said that, sooner or later, all books come into 
the hands of those for whom they were written, and there 
is no special reason for an exception in this case because 



May 9, 1889J 



NA TURE 



31 



the evidence for what is really a very beautiful theory 
fails to carry conviction to us. Doubtless our " threshold 
of sensibility" has gone wrong in some unaccountable 
way, and we have not enough of the Subject on this 
side of it to estimate the pearls of transcendentalism at 
their true worth. To the true adept, the work will doubt- 
less prove wholly acceptable, and the author may take 
comfort in the reflection that " on this globe we serve an 
■end, the attainment of which cannot be hindered, though 
all mankind conspired against it." 



OUR BOOK SHELF. 

A Treatise on Chemistry. By Sir H. E. Roscoe, F.R.S., 
and C. Schorlemmcr, F.R S. Vol. III. The Chemistry 
of the Hydrocarbons and their Derivatives ; or. Organic 
Chemistry. Part V. (London : Macmillan and Co., 
1889.) 

The present and fifth part of the "Treatise on Organic 
Chemistry " is devoted to an account of the benzenoid 
compounds containing eight or more than eight atoms of 
carbon, and brings the subject down to the group of the 
terpenes and camphors, including india-rubber and gutta- 
percha. 

The various compounds are, as the title of the work 
denotes, grouped about the hydrocarbons from which 
they are derived. Thus we have the styrolene group, 
the cumene group, the cymene group, and so on. 

The present instalment of the work also describes 
numerous instances of the interesting class of benzenoid 
compounds containing closed lateral chains in the ortho- 
position, i.e. with the two ends of the chain attached to 
-carbon atoms which in their turn are directly united 
with one another. Such compounds are, for example, 
the indoles, the indazoles, isatin, carbostyril, and cou- 
marin. 

The subject of closed- chain compounds has of late 
years possessed a peculiar fascination for organic 
chemists, and the reason of this is not far to seek ; 
for, apart from the fact that many of the closed- 
chain derivatives of benzene, such as coumarin, isatin, 
and indole, either occur in nature or are the imme- 
diate derivatives of naturally occurring compounds, 
many chemists believe that various important problems 
in chemical statics may ultimately be solved by the 
study of these compounds. At present chemists do 
not altogether know why, for example, closed lateral 
chains of carbon atoms should occur only in the ortho- 
position, and never in the meta- or para position ; 
why such closed lateral chains never contain less than 
five or more than six carbon atoms ; and why it has 
never been found possible to unite any single polyad atom 
to two contiguous (ortho) carbon atoms in benzene, 
whilst in paraffinoid compounds such a union may be 
effected. But when these questions have been answered, 
something will be known concerning the local distribu- 
tion of the affinities of the ultimate atoms ; and mean- 
while the ingenious hypothesis of Van 't Hoft' with regard 
to the position of the affinities in the carbon atom is a 
step in the right direction, and affords what is possibly 
more than a merely provisional answer. 

The authors have also given a very full account of 
Wallach's interesting researches on the terpenes, and 
here, as elsewhere, the information is thoroughly up to 
date. 

The instructive historical introductions prefixed to the 
descriptions of important compounds and groups of com- 
pounds, referred to in our notices of previous portions of 
the work, are continued. 



Solutions 0/ the Examples in a Treatise on Algebra. By 
Charles Smith, M.A. (London : Macmillan, 1889.) 

The value of such a book is great both to teachers and 
students. The former, as we have often pointed out, have 
scant leisure for working out the more elaborate ques- 
tions which nowadays have place even in elementary 
treatises, or scarcely care to refer to their notes, which are 
never, unless they are exceptionally methodical men, to be 
found when wanted ; the latter are, by means of such a 
work as the one before us, in a great measure rendered 
independent of outside aid. Though Mr. Smith's solutions 
are marvels of compressed diction in many cases, they yet 
are, we can certify from an extended examination of all parts 
of the subject, expressed with all the clearness required. 
In a few cases two solutions are given ; this is an advant- 
age, for often we have found the second solution very sug- 
gestive. We have, then, here an excellent corpus of 
solutions of questions, which have been considered by 
many competent judges to be well arranged and well 
calculated to draw out a student's powers in this part of 
mathematics. We have come across a few typographical 
errors (there is one on the last page), but they are in most 
cases easily detected on following out the solution. 

Applied Mechanics. By D. A. Low. (London : Blackie 
and Son, 1889.) 

This is an excellent little text-book, treating of those parts 
of the subject which the Science and Art Department 
require for the elementary stage. There are, however, 
specially marked articles which may be read by advanced 
students. 

The author has taken, as the ground-work of the book, 
the notes which he has used for many years in his classes 
with much success. Much care has been taken with 
those pages relating to mechanism. The diagrams are 
especially good, and the descriptive portions accom- 
panying them are clear and concise. A striking and most 
useful feature will be found in the unusually large number 
of examples following each chapter, typical examples also 
being worked out between the articles. 

The last half-dozen chapters are devoted to the nature, 
use, and strength of materials used for purposes of con- 
struction, and the different kinds of stress to which they 
may be subjected. The syllabus issued by the Depart- 
ment for teachers in this subject, followed by the examina- 
tion papers of recent years, is appended. The book is 
one which can be recommended, and will no doubt be well 
received by teachers and students alike. G. A. B. 

Northern Afghanistan. By Major C. E. Yate, C.S.I., 
C.M.G. (Edinburgh and London: Blackwood, 1888.) 

In this volume the author has brought together a number of 
letters written from the Afghan Boundary Commission, and 
he explains that they are now published in a connected 
form as a sequel to his brother Captain A. C. Yate's book, 
entitled " England and Russia Face to Face in Asia." A 
large part of the work relates chiefly to matters of political 
interest ; but there are also excellent descriptions of the 
various places which Major Yate visited, and of the 
people with whom he came in contact. His account of 
Herat and the shrines in the neighbourhood is particularly 
good ; and Balkh, of which he gives a plan, he depicts 
concisely and clearly. Of the desert from Andkhui to the 
Oxus he says it is about as hot and wretched a country as 
he ever saw. In this desert, wherever a few inches of 
mud and water were left, he used to see the white-breasted 
pintail sand-grouse coming to drink in small numbers ; 
but with that exception he sav\f no sign of game. Lizards 
of all sizes and colours were to be seen. A lizard, some 
2 or 3 feet long — " of a yellowish colour with red stripes" 
— seems to have especially attracted Major Yate's atten- 



32 



NATURE 



tion. This animal "never tries to run away, but stands 
and hisses, distending its stomach to an abnormal size." 
The dog hates it cordially ; and very naturally, for, when 
the dog is approaching to the attack in front, " the lizard 
suddenly brings his tail round and gives the unwary dog 
a most tremendous wipe across the side of the head." 
" The first interview between a dog and one of these 
animals is very amusing — the dog is always so utterly as- 
tonished at this unexpected attack On the lizard's part, 
and also so hopelessly wroth." We may note that in a 
pocket at the end of the volume there are two maps — 
a map of the north-west frontier of Afghanistan, and a 
sketch-map showing the routes traversed by the Boundary 
Commission during 1884, 1885, and 1886. 



By Leafy Ways. 
Elliot Stock, 1 85 



By 



Francis A. Knight. (London : 



This volume is made up of " brief studies," which 
originally appeared as articles in the Daily News. The 
author's object is not to present scientific conclusions 
about Nature, but to convey some idea of the impressions 
which have been produced upon him by various elements 
of the external world. He is an ardent lover of every- 
thing in Nature that appeals to what may be called the 
artistic sense ; and he has the secret of suggesting, by 
means of brief and simple descriptions, very vivid pictures 
of scenes in which he himself has found delight. No one 
who wants to be intellectually instructed should trouble 
himself to read the volume ; but it will give much pleasure 
to persons who like to be reminded of some of the in- 
numerable aspects in which the country reveals itself to 
sympathetic observers. The volume is prettily illustrated 
by E. T. Compton. 



LETTERS TO THE EDITOR. 

[ The Editor does not hold himself responsible jor opinions ex- 
pressed by his correspondents . Neither can he undertake 
to return, or to correspond with the writers of, rejected 
manuscripts intended for this or any other part of NATURE. 
No notice is taken of anonymous communications. ] 

On an Electromagnetic Interpretation of Turbulent 
Liquid Motion. 

The equations of rate of increase of momentum F, com- 
ponents X, Y, Z, per unit volume of a liquid (density = l) 
are — 



X 



du 



du 



. au , du , du , dp 
dt dx dy dz dx 



and corresponding terms for Y and Z. If the liquid be 
incompressible, 

du , dv , d'cv 

-, + V- + — = O- 

dx dy dz 

Mulip ying this by u, and adding to X, we get — 

Xdu , d , ns , d , s , d , ^ , dp 
dt dx dy dz dx 

and similar ones for Y and Z. 

It is at once obvious that these could be written down at once, 
for t<", uv, and uiv are the momenta per second carried into the 
element through its faces as in the kinetic theory of gases ; and it 
is evident that the equation is the same as for a strained solid 
where these are the superficial normal and tangential forces. 

If we now take the average values of these throughout any 

small region, and write for 'the average of -7- = ,-, we 



have- 



X 



dx 



du , dii- duv , duw , dp 
+ , - -t- , - + - . — -i- ^ • 



dx' 



dt 



dx 



dz 



dx 



{May 9, 1889 



Comparing this with Maxwell's stress in the ether, we must 
take (" Electricity and Magnetism," vol. i. § 105) — 



dii- 
7x 



d 
dx 



(d^W 



d 

\fx 



___ K^-dx^'^^-^'^-d.^'-'^-^, 

dy dy \dx • dy) ^ dy ^^ ^ Ty • "^' 
duw _ d (d'i^ d^\ , ^ Tjr> , d 

if: - TzKjx • -dz) ^ dz ^^^ dz' «T'' 



adding these together, and comparing with the equation for X, 
we get — 

■v^ _ du _ dp 
ft dx 

- dx I \dxj \dy) \dz) ) dx( dx' dy- uz' ) 

IdP ^-dQ + ^\ . q/^Q _ dP\ ^^(<ll ^ dR\ 
\dx dy az ) ^ \dx dy ) \ dz dx ) 



+ P 



and 



J± + «'^ + dy\ _^/d0 _da\^ (da _ dy\ 
\dx dy az) \dx dy) \dz dx) 

Iving Y and Z. 



and two similar ones involving Y and Z 
Now, assuming 



we get — 
X - 



d-\\/ d-\j/ d-iii 

If'-^ff-^d^^^ °' 

d? dQ ^ d^ 

ax dy dz 

da , d^ , dy 

■ . + -7- -1- f = vi, 

ctx dy dz 



.^ Idq d?\ ^ ,. dV d\\\ 
^ \dx dy ) \ dz ay / 



-^ 



+ 7 



and two other similar ones. 

li vis now assume as the relations connecting P, Q, R and 
a, ff, y with a velocity V — 



\dy dz) dt \dy dz] 



dy 
and the corresponding others, we get — 



d? 
It' 



1' du _ 

X - = Pf + am + 

dt 



dt 



(Q7-R3), 
du 



which, if we suppose the motion steady, so that "" = o gives 

dt 
exactly the right expression for the mechanical force due to an 
electric charge, e, and a magnetic charge, m, and to an electric 

dP dO dK 
current with components - ,. ',,' A • 

In order to justify the assumed relation between c, fi, y and 
P, Q, R, compare with Sir ^Villiam Thomson's equations of 
propagation of disturbance in a turbulent liquid (Fhil. Mag., 
October 1887, p. 342). 

In his case everything is a function of y only, and in that case 
my equations become, when there is no mechanical force — 



= Q 



du 
dt 

dV 
dy 



V dt 



(R/3 



- R '^^^ + ;8 



da 

dy 



dy 
dy 



Now under the circumstances contemplated, R and 7 are not 

functions of j; — 

. du r\dP , ada 

. . - — ^ , + P , • 

dt dy dy 



May 9, 1889] 



NATURE 



33 



-Y — -r 

dx dy dz 



If we now assume that during the passage of a disturbance of 
the kind Q = .8 = constant, and they must be if 

'^^ + '^^ + '^ - o, 
dx dy dz 
we get — 

dt dy dy dy 

and consequently — 

^ (R)8 - Q-y) = V '/ (PQ + a^;. 
dt dy 

Comparing this with Sir William Thomson's equation (34) we 
see that — 

/= - 5^^-'^, xzav{uv) = PQ + aj3). 
Similarly, by calculating 

^^(PQ + «)3) = Q'^P+ 35« 
at at at 

= _ QV /')' + 8V '^,'^ = + V f (R8 - Q7), 
dy dy dy 

we reproduce Sir William Thomson's equation (49), if V- = |R-, 
i.e. be I of the average square of velocity of turbulency. This 
V is the velocity of propagation of the disturbance. 

If we wish to identify this laminar motion of Sir William 
Thomson's with a simple wave propagation such as light consists 
of, we must take Q = 3 = constant, and then the two equations 
are satisfied by — 



dV^ 
dt 



and 



= -X'^y and ^ = 
dy dt 



V 



dV 



dR _ Y "'« 



da 



dt 



1 iia. -.T dR 
and = V , 

dy dt dy 



no matter what Q and j8 are, and these are, of course. Maxwell's 
equations. There is nothing to settle which is the electric and 
which the magnetic disturbance, nor even which,/ or x3az'(M^'), is 
proportional to R^S - Q7, and which to PQ + o3, but the 
consideration that electric currents and electrification are pos- 
sible while magnetic currents do not exist, will probably decide 
a question of this kind. In Maxwell's simplest wave, P and 7 only 
exist, and in this case, as I have assumed above, xzav{tiv) would 
correspond to electric, and / to magnetic disturbance. In Sir 
William Thomson's representation, xzav[uv) is of the nature of 
a twist, andy"of a flow, contrary to the usual notion that mag- 
netic force is twisty. However, a flow cannot take place outwards 
continuously from a body, so that there seems a reasonableness 
in likening electrification to a twist. The fact that magnetism 
in matter rotates the plane of polarization sometimes to one side 
and sometimes to the other does not prove conclusively that it is 
a rotation : a flow might confer that property on matter. 

In order to include the general case of a variable state, an 
interpretation of X, Y, Z, is required. Where no matter is 
present, we must assume — 

- X = '^^L + i '^(P2 + qi + R2 + a2 + ^2 + ^is^ szc, 
dx ax 

and in the steady state — 

A = - i(P- + Q' + R- + a^ + )8= + -f-y 

When the state is not steady, we have, if 



d? 

dx 



- + 



dz 



da 



+ 



+ 



dy _ 



du 



X - «J^ = + p^ + am + 
dt 



dx ' dy ' dz 
djQy - R18) 
dt V 



, &c. 



We must assume that pi has no longer the above value ; but by 
differentiating the first of these with respect to x, the second 
with respect to>', and the third with respect to z, we get — 

a^X ^ rt'Y ^ ^Z _ d/dtt ^ dz! _j_ dw\ 
dx dy dz dt\ dx dy dz I 



= + 



{'•■ 



+ p J + Q^ + R'J 
dx dy dz 

. I d^. 



) + {„.' 



, dm , ad»i , dm\ 



dx 



= V2^^<P' + Q'+ R'^ + «^+S^ + 7-), 



which is satisfied by « = o, »; = o ; or if ^ and m exist, by — 



.de 



de 



t^ + ?~ + Q'^ + R 



and 



and 
and 

\c!X- 



111- + a 



dx 
dm 



dy 



^ adm 
dx dy 



+ r 



dz 
dm 



du 

dx 



dv , 
dy ^ 

dy' dz- 



dw d^p, 

dz dx- 



dz 

dy, 

dy' 



dz- 



1 

V3 



;>- 



+ Q- + R2 + a- + )3- + 7") = o. 



which means that energy is propagated with a velocity = V, 
and so the assumed relations connecting P, Q, R, and a, /3, 7, 
mean little more than that the initial state is stable. 

This, I think, shows that, so far, the ether may be a turbulent 
liquid. 

If we compare the dimensions of the quantities involved in 
the theory of motion of a turbulent liquid with those in the 
electro-magnetic theory, we find it convenient to put these latter 
dimensions into the following forms, as they are the same on the 
electro-magnetic and electrostatic systems. 

Calling [K-^i] = [V"'], and density [p] = [ML"'], we can 
write — 

Electric displacement = [K^p'V] 
Electric force = [K-ip^V] 

Magnetic displacement = [ju^piV] 
Magnetic force = [/u-ip^V]. 

It is at once evident that the products of the force and dis- 
placement are, in each case, of the dimensions of the P'^, Q*, 
R-, o^, ff-, 7-, involved in the theory I have already given. 

I think it would be well, perhaps, to introduce some new 
quantities of zero dimensions to define the polarization of the 
medium. It seems likely that the velocity involved in P must 
depend on how intensely the turbulency is polarized, and could 
therefore be measured by a quantity of zero dimensions multi- 
plied by a measure of the turbulency. This measure would be 
p^V, so that, for electrostatic energy — 



P- = VoHpY-), 



and for electro-magnetic — 



«o"(pV-), 



where P,, and a,, were of zero dimensions. 

In order to introduce the eff"ect of alterations in material, we 
may put these in the form — 





P 


! _ pPo-' 


a- = 


Km 


and then the electric 


displacement 


will be — 


and the electric 


force- 


= A 

= /" 


• Po, 

P«. 
■ K ' 





while the magnetic displacement will be — 

= ./" • «"' 
\^ K 

and the magnetic force will be — 

_ / p "0 
V K ' M 
If we call the six quantities iP, v-, vr, vw, wu, uv, a, h, f, 
/, g, li, they are connected with the six quantities P, Q, R, 
o, j8, 7, and the three undisturbed values of iP = A, z>- = B, 
w- = C, by the equations — 

rt = A -f P2 -t- aS &c., /= QR H- /37, &c. 

In order to examine how these are related, take an ellipsoid 
defined by — 

ax- + by- -I- cz- ■\- 2fyz + 2gzx + 2hxy = d. 



34 



NATURE 



{May 9, 1889 



and we see that, if A = B = C = R, as is the case except in a 
crystalline medium, the ellipsoid is — 

R(x2 + j2 + ^1) + (^^x + Qjf' + R-)' + («-^ + ^y + 7-)" = d ; 

so that, if Vx + Qj + Rz = L, ox + )8j/ + 72 = X. 

L + ?\ and L - /\ are the imaginary circular reactions of the 
ellipsoid,^ and consequently theintersection of Land A, whosedirec- 
tion cosine-; are proportional to Q7 - RyQ, &c., is the major axis of 
the ellipsoid, when the above signs are attributed to L- and A.'^. As 
any ellipsoid can be expressed in this form by referring it to its 
circumscribing sphere and the corresponding planes of circular 
section, it is apparent that any polarized state of the turbulent 
motion can be built up of P,Q,R, and a, 0, y, polarizations. The 
axis of the ellipsoid mentioned above represents the flow of 
energy in the medium during the propagation of a disturbance. 

I am inclined to think that Sir William Thomson's fear that 
diffusion would vitiate these investigations would be avoided 
either by supposing the turbulent liquid to consist of interlocked 
vortex rings, or of infinite intercrossing lines ; and in either 
case a natural hypothesis would be that matter consisted of free 
vortex rings. Geo. Fras. Fitzgerald. 

Trinity College, Dublin, April 26. 



The New Eruption of Vesuvius. 

On April 29, 30, and May i, a constant series of explosions 
{boati) and rumblings ace )mpanied by earthquakes, which shook 
the southern foot of Vesuvius, were very noticeable at Resina. 
About 2 a.m., on May 2, part of the new cone of eruption 
(formed during the last ten months) fell in, showing that the 
internal support of the lava column had been removed, in con- 
sequence of this filling the new dyke, the formation of which 
had given origin to the preceding sonorous and mechanical dis- 
turbances. On the same day at 3 p.m. the lava sank still lower 
in the conduit on account of the dyke reaching the surface at the 
upper part of the great cone. More of the eruptive cone crunbled 
in, and of course simultaneously a considerable outpour of lava 
took place from the dyke fissure which is situated on the south- 
east side of the great cone. This outflow soon formed a long 
tongue of lava reaching to the Pedimentina or lower. 

My friend Mr. George Bidder, Jan., who is studying at the 
Zoological Station here, was fortunately able to visit the moun- 
tain yesterday (May 3), and much of the information in this 
letter I have to thank him for. Unfortunately the extremely 
bad weather has prevented the upper part of the mountain being 
examined, so that accurate information as to the position and 
length of the fissure has not been obtainable ; I hope, however, to 
make the ascent to-morrow, and will then send a more detailed 
account for your next issue. So far as the facts at hand are 
available, it would appear that this eruption is of small im- 
portance, being an analogue of that of May 2, 1885, and that, 
therefore, the lava will hardly reach cultivated ground. 

A short glimpse of the summit of the mountain this evening 
shows that much of the eruptive cone still exists, whilst the re- 
flection from the flowing lava is much feebler than yesterday 
evening. Lastly, a single faint glimmer this evening at the vent 
demonstrates the fact that the lava has not sunk very deep in the 
chimney. The eruption, or more properly disruption, was 
coincident with a marked barometric depression. 

Naples, May 4. H. J. Johnston-Lavis. 



The Sailing Flight of the Albatross. 

I have been much interested by the letter of Mr. A. C. Baines 
(Nature, May 2, p. 9) upon this subject. In the year 1883 
("The Soaring of Birds," Nature, vol. xxvii. p. 534) I sug- 
gested that the explanation of these puzzling performances might 
be found in the increase of wind with height. To take advant- 
age of this, the bird must rise against the wind and fall with it ; 
but, at the time referred to, I had before me only the observa- 
tions of Mr. Peal, in Assam, on the flight of pelicans, in which 
this feature is not alluded to. In Mr. Baines's observations, 
the omission is supplied, and there seems little reason to doubt 
that the true explanation of the flight of the albatross has been 
arrived at. In the case of the pelican soaring to a great eleva- 

' This was remarked to me by Prof. Lyie, of Melbourne, while I was 
recently speaking to him upon this subject. 



tion, it is less easy to understand how the differences of horizontal 
velocity can be sufficient. 

Reference may be made to a paper by Mr. H. Airy (Nature, 
vol. xxvii. p. 590), in which the matter is further discussed. 
Similar views have also been put forward more recently by an 
American author, whose name I have, unfortunately, forgotten. 

Terling Place, Witham, May 6. Rayleigh. 



"Giphantia." 

In a curious little work, entitled " Giphantia," the full title 
of which I subjoin, there is, at pp. 95-98, a passage that may 
have some interest in connection with the early history of photo- 
graphy, and of which I therefore subjoin a copy. 

The Camp, Sunningdale, April 29. J. D. Hooker. 

"Giphantia: or, a View of what has passed, what is now 
passing, and, during the Present Century, what will pass, in 
the World." Translated from the Original French, with Ex- 
planatory Notes. (London : Printed for Robert Ilorsfield, in 
Ludgate Street, 1761.) 

" Thou knowest that the rays of light, reflected from different 
bodies, make a picture and paint the bodies upon all polished 
surfaces, on the retina of the eye, for instance, on water, on 
glass. The elementary spirits have studied to fix these transient 
images : they have composed a most subtile matter, very viscous, 
and proper to harden and dry, by the help of which a picture is 
made in the twinkle of an eye. They do over with this matter 
a piece of canvas, and hold it before the objects they have 
a mind to paint. The first effect of the canvas is that of a 
mirrour ; there are seen upon it all the bodies far and near, 
whose image the Vv^h.\. can transmit. But what the glass cannot 
do, the canvas, by means of the viscous matter, retains the 
images. The mirrour shows the objects exactly ; but keeps 
none ; our canvases show them with the same exactness, and 
retains them all. This impression of the images is made the 
first instant they are received on the canvas, which is imme- 
diately carried away into some dark place ; an hour after, the 
subtile matter dries, and you have a picture so much the more 
valuable, as it cannot be imitated by art nor damaged by time. 
We take, in their purest source, in the luminous bodies, the 
colours which painters extract from different materials, and 
which time never fails to alter. The justness of the design, the 
truth of the expression, the gradation of the shades, the stronger 
or weaker strokes, the rules of perspective, all these we leave 
to nature, who, with a sure and never-erring hand, draws upon 
our canvases images which deceive the eye and make reison to 
doubt, whether, what are called real objects, are not phantoms 
which impose upon the sight, the hearing, the feeling, and all 
the senses at once. 

"The Prefect then entered into some physical discussions, 
first, on the nature of the glutinous substance which intercepted 
and retained the rays ; secondly, upon the difficulties of preparing 
and using it ; thirdly, upon the struggle between the rays of 
light and the dried substance, three problem^ which I propose 
to the naturalists of our days, and leave to their sagacity." 



Geological Photography. 

In the report of the Annual Conference of Delegates of 
Corresponding Societies of the British Association {vide Nature, 
vol. xxxix. p. 187), reference is made to the proposed ap- 
pointment of a Committee to collect and register photographs 
of localities, sections, or other features of geological interest in 
the United Kingdom. Several Societies have already attempted 
local photographic surveys, but the need is felt to secure 
uniformity of action by all the Societies interested, and to arrange 
for the photographs to be available for teaching and other 
purposes when needed. In order that steps may be taken to 
arrange for the practical working of the proposed scheme at the 
forthcoming meeting of the British Association at Newcastle, I 
am desirous of invoking the kind aid of those of your readers 
who have interested themselves in the photography of local 
geological features (especially of typical and temporary sections) 
in favouring me with the following information : — 

(i) A list of photographs already taken, illustrating given 
localities or sections j and 



May 9, 1889] 



NATURE 



35 



(2) The names of local Societies, or persons who are willing 
to arrange for a photographic survey for geological purposes in 
their district. 

The information afforded me will be placed before the Geo- 
laical Section of the British Association at their next meeting, 
and I trust to receive many offers of valuable assistance from 
different parts of the country. If copies of photographs are 
sent me they will be carefully kept for exhibition at the meet- 
ing. Several geological friends have favoured me with sugges- 
tions in regard to size of photograph, scales of height, length, 
and other details, which will ail be carefully considered. Photo- 
graphy is now so popular and easy of accomplishment that 
there should be no difficulty in organizing local photographic 
surveys for the purpose I have indicated. 

It was arranged at Bath that the delegates should get their 
Societies to thinli the matter over, and that I should meanwhile 
endeavour to prepare a list of local geological photographs 
already available for study, 1 am communicating with the 
Societies with this object, but your insertion of this letter will 
further aid me in directing attention to the subject over a wider 
circle than I am able to reach. Osmund W. Jeffs. 

12 Queen's Road, Reck Ferry, Cheshire, April 23. 



Columnar Structure in Ice. 

I HAVE just read Mr. James McConnel's interesting and im- 
portant paper on the plasticity of ice (Nature, vol. xxxix. 
p. 203), and as he remarks that it would be interesting to know 
whether the columnar structure he describes as occurring in the 
ice of the St. Moritz Lake has been observed in England, I 
venture to ask you to record the fact that I recollect seeing a 
precisely similar structure in the ice of the lake in Kew Gardens 
in February 1880. The phenomenon occurred during a thaw 
that preceded by a day or two the memorable snowstorm of that 
month, and the aspect of the ice, where it had been broken 
through, recalled to my mind that uf the well-known fossil 
Lithostrotion basaltifor me, as it was budt up of vertical columns, 
irregularly hexagonal in section, about a quarter of an inch in 
diameter and of equal length with the thickness of the ice, 
about 4 or 5 inches. If I remember aright, bright sunshine had 
been thawing the ice during the day. I made a note on the 
occurrence at the time, but as I came to India shortly after I do 
not know what has become of it. 

T. D. La Touche, 
Geological Survey of India. 

Camp near Cherrapunji, Assam, March 4. 



Brilliant Meteor. 

I SEND you an account of a meteor I saw on Saturday evening 
last, thinking it may interest others as much as it has myself I 
was lamp-signalling at the time (8. 55 p. m. ), and saw far the largest 
meteor I have ever seen. It was far brighter than any planet, or 
even than a good rocket. It seemed to start from the Great 
Bear, and fall in a north-ea'-t direction half-way to the horizon. 
I immediately stopped my message, and asked my companion 
(a mile distant) if he had seen the meteor. He replied he had 
not, which surprised me, though he had the town lights not far 
behind him, and he was looking away from the north-east. I had 
not finished asking him about the meteor, when I heard a loud 
but distant report, which I can only put down to the same 
source. It sounded like distant artillery, or more particularly 
like a six-pounder at six miles distance on a still evening. The 
interval of time between the sight and the sound I should 
estimate at a minute. T. Herbert Clark, 

Wingfield, Trowbridge, April 30. 



A New Mountain of the Bell. 

Have the kindness to correct two typographical errors in my 
communication describing the "New Mountain of the Bell," 
printed in your issue of April 25. On p. 607, col. 2, line 7, 
an unfortunate superfluous comma after the word quartz should 
be expunged, so as to read quartz pebbles and veins. 

Near the bottom of the same column "modern gong" should 
read "v/ooden gong." As a matter of fact the Nagous is far 
from "modern." It consists of a heavy plank nearly 2 inches 



thick, 14 feet long, and sujpended by ropes at two points 4 feet 
from either end. When struck with a wooden mallet, this 
primitive gong emits a loud sound. At the Monastery of St. 
Catherine, three of these are in use, one small one to call ta 
their noonday meal the numerous cats which inhabit the 
rambling old building. H, Carrington Bolton. 

London, May i. 



KLEIN'S ''IKOSAHEDRONr^ 

IT has recently been said, with great truth, that pure 
mathematics is at the present moment the most 
progressive of all the sciences. It is, we must confess 
with sorrow, equally true, that the means at the disposal 
of English pure mathematical students for making them- 
selves familiar with the recent advances in their science 
are deplorably scanty. This is not the place to discuss 
the reasons why it has so long been the case in this 
island that the stars of our mathematical firmament have 
been 

' ' Etoilcs qui filent, filent et disparaient ! " 

and not fixed suns, with minor but still useful bodies 
around them, receiving their light and completing their 
systems. But it is obvious that this shortcoming has been 
closely associated with the backward state of our text- 
book literature in pure mathematics. There exist in the 
English language so few books through whose pages the 
reader can so much as descry the frontier land of pure 
mathematics that every addition is an event of import- 
ance. Such an addition is Mr. Morrice's translation of 
Klein's " Ikosahedron." Klein's book is in many respects 
the most charming piece of modern mathematical writing 
that has appeared for many a day. It is a rare combi- 
nation of great originality with wide and far-reaching 
views, Teutonic minuteness of scholarship, and a candour 
in dealing with the work of others which does not always 
accompany the other high qualities just mentioned. If 
we were asked to name a single book that would beyond 
others give the reader a comprehensive glance over the 
wide field of modern pure mathematics, and give him 
an introduction to this study which would at once both 
interest and instruct him, we should without hesitation 
name Klein's " Ikosahedron." The work interweaves, in a 
singularly felicitous and natural way, the most remote 
and apparently unconnected branches of higher pure 
mathematics. In the course of its perusal the reader 
will make acquaintance with the geometry of the re- 
gular solids, the theory of substitutions, the theory of 
functions of a complex variable, invariants, the theory of 
linear differential equations, Riemann's researches on the 
hypergeometric series, Galois's theory of the resolution 
of algebraic equations, elliptic functions, Pliicker's line 
geometry, and the special theory of quintic equations. 
This enumeration will sufficiently indicate the wide 
sweep of the work ; but let not the reader be alarmed. 
If he is ignorant of all these subjects, so much the more 
will he enjoy the p]ea5ure of Prof. Klein's introduction 
to them. He will find that he is led, by easy and 
pleasant ways, first to see the interest and importance of 
these subjects, then to panoramic aspects of them, and 
finally to just so much detail as will make him (if he be 
right-minded) thirst for more. Speaking from past 
experience, we should say that one of the greatest dis- 
advantages of modern specialism is the repulsive force 
which it establishes at every point to the entrant. Let 
an English student sit down, for example, to Jordan's 
" Thdorie des Substitutions." He is at once plunged into a 
sea of new terms and definitions. He is baffled by a 
kaleidoscopic array of subtle distinctions between con- 

' " Lectures on the Ikosahedron, and the Solution of Equations of the 
Fifth Degree." By Felix Klein. Translated by George Gavin Morrice, M. A., 
M.B. (London ; Trubner and Co., 1888.) 



36 



NA TURE 



[May 9, 1889 



ceptions that are unfamiliar to him. He toils through 
the solution of abstract problems whose formulation he 
imperfectly grasps, and whose interest and importance 
he has not been permitted to see beforehand. The very 
beauty and logical rigour of the work is a hindrance to 
him ; it entangles and suffocates him at the outset. And 
yet M. Jordan's work could not be otherwise, could not 
be better for its purpose, could not be dispensed with. 
But let the learner first read Klein's " Ikosahedron." He 
will there see the substitution theory first applied in 
simple cases with concrete illustration, and will then be 
led by degrees to see its all-embracing character. Then 
let him return to Jordan, and he will say of the theory of 
substitution, 

"Her loveliness I never knew, 
Until she smiled on me." 

Under ordinary circumstances, any detailed analysis of 
a mathematical work would be out of place in the pages 
of Nature. The appearance of the "Ikosahedron" 
in English is, however, an event of such importance that 
it would be wrong to miss the opportunity of giving the 




English mathematical world some account, however 
imperfect, of its contents. 

The proper subject of the work may be said to be the 
general theory and applications of functions which are 
transformable into themselves {i.e. are unaltered) by a 
finite group of substitutions. By a group of substitutions, 
or indeed of any operations whatsoever, is meant a 
complete set of operations of such a nature that the com- 
bination of any two or more of them is equivalent to 
some one of the set. The number of operations in a 
group is called its order, and the order may in general 
be finite or infinite. A leading feature of Klein's work, 
indicated by its title, is the geometrical connection which 
he establishes between certain groupsof substitutions, and 
the rotations which cause a regular solid to return into 
itself. It is obvious beforehand that the totality of such 
rotations for any given regular solid forms a group of 
finite order, for any two successive rotations of the kind 
may be replaced by a single one. The accompanying 
figure will make the connection plain. It represents the 
stereographic projection of the traces on a circumscribed 



sphere made by the planes of symmetry of a regular 
tetrahedron, A B c D, the vertex of projection being the 
antipodal point to A, and the plane of projection the 
diametral plane of which A is the pole. The spherical 
surface is obviously divided by the planes of symmetry 
into twelve (non-shaded) congruent triangles, and twelve 
other (shaded) congruent triangles, each of which is the 
image of one of the former in a plane of symmetry. 
These triangles lie in sets of v., = 2 about points such as 
F, which correspond to mid-edges of the tetrahedron, in 
sets of 1^2 = 3 about points such as E, which correspond 
to centroids of the faces, and in sets of 1^3 = 3 about the 
points which correspond to vertices of the tetrahedron. 
It is farther obvious that any one of the unshaded 
triangles can be transformed into each of the other twelve 
unshaded triangles by one of the group of N = 12 rotations 
which cause the tetrahedron to return into itself If we 
mark one of these by inscribing i, and if S denote a rota- 
tion of period 2 {i.e. of angular magnitude 27r/2) about G, 
T a rotation of period 2 about F, and U a rotation of period 
3 about A, then the rotations by which the region i is trans- 
formed into the other twelve are — 

I, U, U-, S, SU, SU2, T, TU, T\3-, ST, STU, STU^; 

and these give the twelve rotations of the tetrahedral 
group expressed succinctly in terms of three of them. 

The same holds for the shaded triangles. Hence, if we 
pair each non-shaded triangle with a shaded one, and 
thus form a fiiiidanienial domain, then we see that any 
point within such a domain (boundary and summit points 
excepted) is transformed by the N tetrahedral rotations 
into N other points, one of which lies in each of the 
N domains. (Here we count the transformation of the point 
into itself, viz. the rotation represented by the identical 
symbol i.) We pass over the questions that arise regard- 
ing the composition of a group and the conception of the 
extended group which embraces reflections in the planes 
of symmetry as well as rotations, and merely mention 
that a similar theory is established for the dihedron, i.e., 
the figure composed of a great circle of the sphere 
divided into n equal parts, the octahedron, and the 
ikosahedron, the characteristic numbers being given by 
the following table:- 





VI 


V', 


V2 


N 


Dihedron 


. 2 . 


. 2 .. 


n . 


. in 


Tetrahedron 


. 2 


• 3 ■• 


■ 3 


12 


Octahedron .. 


2 


■ 3 •■ 


• 4 


■ 24 


Ikosahedron . 


. 2 . 


• 3 • 


• 5 • 


. 60 



The next step is to connect each point on the sphere 
with the value of a complex variable ", or with the ratio 
of two complex variables z =. z-^lz.2. This is done, after 
the manner of Riemann, by representing z = x -\-yi in an 
Argand-diagram on the diametral plane of the sphere, 
and then projecting the point {x, y) stereographically 
upon the sphere. The point on the sphere is then spoken 
of as the point (z) or {z^, z^. 

It is next shown that every dihedral, tetrahedral, octa- 
hedral, or ikosahedral rotation is equivalent to a non- 
homogeneous linear substitution of the form — 

2'= (As + B)/(C= + D), 

or to one or other of two pairs of homogeneous substitu- 
tions of the form — 



As, + Be 



Csi -f Ds., ; 



and the proper values of A, B, C, D are calculated for 
each case. 

If we consider the values of z corresponding to a point, 
and the N — i other points into which it is transformed 
by the N polyhedral rotations, we see that they are the 
roots of an algebraical equation of the Nth degree, say 
Z =/(z) — c, the characteristic Z of which must have the 
property of remaining unaltered by every one of the N 



May 9, 1889 



NATURE 



Z7 






non-homogeneous substitutions. And there must likewise 
exist homogeneous integral functions of F(ji, z.^ of the Nth 
degree in the two variables z^, z.^, containing one arbitrary 
parameter, which remain unaltered, to a factor pres, for 
each of the group of 2N homogeneous polyhedral substitu- 
tions. The functions of the latter kind (" ground forms ") 
are first determined. First, a special function Fj (of 
degree N/vj is determined, such that Fj = o gives one 
of the vi summits on the sphere, and the N/i*! — i 
other points into which it is transformed by the poly- 
hedral rotation?. Then F/i is a particular function 
having the property sought for. By an elegant applica- 
tion of the theory of invariants, two other functions, 
F2 and F3, corresponding respectively to the v^ and v^ 
summits, are derived from Fj. We then have for the 
general invariant function required — 

AjFi"! + A0F./2 ^^■^■^■i, 

which contains only one arbitrary parameter, since there 
is in each case an identity of the form — 

XlC'Ei"! + Aj'^'F/i + A3<^)F3''3 = o, 

connecting Fi, Fg, F3. In the particular case of the 
ikosahedron we have — 

and Fi^ + Y^ - \12%Y^=:0. 

The non-homogeneous function Z is next discussed. It 
is shown that any form of Z, whatever, is a linear rational 
function, (aZ' +/3)/(7Z' -f 8) say, of any particular form 
Z^ ; so that it is sufficient to determine a special form Z 
subject to the conditions that Z assumes the values 1,0, cc, 
for the v,, Vo, 1/3 summits respectively. It is found that 
Z = cY»^-ii¥.^z, and thus the synthesis of the polyhedral 
functions is completed. 

In Chapters III. and IV. of his first part, Klein dis- 
cusses the inversion of the polyhedral functions. If, in the 
polyhedral equation cY^y-iiY^'A ■= Z, we suppose Z given 
and z required, z appears as an N-valued function of Z, 
whose properties it becomes our business to discuss. 
Parallel to this problem we have a " form-problem." There 
are for each of the five polyhedra a set of three forms 
which are absolutely invariant for the 2N homogeneous 
polyhedral substitutions ; thus, for the ikosahedron, these 
are the special forms Fj, Fo, F3, themselves. We may 
then suppose the values of these absolutely invariant 
forms given, subject to the identical relation which in all 
cases connects them ; and require the values of Zj and Zj. 
There are in each case 2N solutions of this " form-prob- 
lem," and it is shown that these can all be obtained from 
the N solutions of the corresponding polyhedral equation 
by adjoining an accessory square root. It is, of course, 
obvious that the N solutions of the polyhedral equation 
and the 2N solutions of the corresponding form-problem 
can all be derived from any one of them by the N non- 
homogeneous and the 2N homogeneous polyhedral 
substitutions respectively. 

A brief graphical discussion is given of the functions Z, 
Zj, Z2 ; and it is shown that Z satisfies the differential 
equation — 



Z' 2V Z'/ 2V(Z - I)-' 2v^''£' 



Z-i 



llv{- + I/Vg- - \lv{- - I 



2(Z - i)Z • • • ^^^ 

the left-hand side of which is the differential invariant 
which Cayley has called the Schwarzian derivative of z 



with respect to Z (see Forsyth's " Differential Equations," 
§ 61 and chapter vi.) ; and that Zi and Z2 each satisfy the 
linear differential equation— 



^ Z 4(Z - i)-L- \ 
+ Z 



^ 



+ I 



)-S}=°- 



Through the latter equations z-^ and z.-, are identified as 
particular cases of the Riemannian P-function, and thus 
connected with the theory of the hypergeometric series. 
Here Klein's work comes in contact with the well-known 
researches of Schwarz— " Ueber diejenigen Falle, in 
welchen die Gaussische Hypergeometrische Reihe eine 
Algebraische Function ihres vierten Eiementes darstellt " 
{Crelle, Bd. 75). 

The inversion of the polyhedral functions is next con- 
sidered from the standpoint of Galois's theory of the 
resolution of an algebraical equation. An attractive out- 
line of this theory is given, so far as it concerns the 
problem on hand. The starting-point may be said to be 
the famous theorem of Lagrange, which, in a generalized 

form, runs as follows: If R, Ri, Rj be rational 

functions of the variables .r„ jtj, . . . . .v«, and if R remain 
unchanged by all the substitutions of the x's which leave 
Rj, Rj simultaneously unaltered, then R can be ex- 
pressed as a rational function of Rj, Rj, . . . . and of the 
elementary symmetric functions of the -t^s. In particular, 
if we characterize all the functions which admit {i.e. are 
unaltered by) a given group of substitutions, G, as belong- 
ing to the family G, we see that all the functions of any 
family are rationally expressible in terms of one another. 

Suppose now that we have any algebraical equations, 
f{x) = o, whose roots are x^, x^, .... x„, and we " adjoin " 
thereto a group of asymmetric functions, Kj, Kg, . . . ., 
of its roots, whose values along with the coefficients 
of f{x) are supposed to be " known," then there exists 
a group of substitutions, G, that, viz., for which Kj, 
Ko, . . . . are unaltered, such that all functions of the 
family G and no others are rationally expressible in terms of 
the " known quantities." If R be a function of a-„ x^, .... 
Xn. not belonging to the family, but say to the family g 
where g is a sub-group in G of the order v = N/«^, then 
we can form an equation tor R, viz., 

(R - Ri)(R - Ro) . . . . (R - R,.i) = o, 

whose coefficients are rational functions of the known 
quantities. Such an equation is called a resolvent of 
f{x) = o. All the resolvents constructed by means of 
functions R which belong to the same family gx are 
identical in the sense that they are rationally transform- 
able into each other, and with these are also identical all 
resolvents arising from functions belonging to the families 
g», .0-3, . . . ., where ^2, ^3, are the sub-groups " associa- 
ted with ^1 " in the main group G of the original equation. 
There are therefore as many different kinds of resolvents, 
as there are different sets of associated sub-groups in G. 
The group r of every resolvent is isomorphous with the 
original group G ; that is to say, we can order the two 
groups so that to every substitution S in G corresponds one 
S' in r, and to every combination of substitutions STU 
in G corresponds SiT^U^ in r. If this corre- 
spondence be holohedric (one S for every S^), then the 
resolvent and the original equation are equivalent in the 
sense that every root of the one is rationally expressible 
in terms of the roots of the other and of the known quan- 
tities ; each is in fact a resolvent of the other. Pre-eminent 
among this species of resolvents stands the Galois 
resolvent, whose R is a perfectly asymmetric function as 
regards the substitutions G. The degree of this resolvent 
is the highest possible, viz. N. Since the sub-group ^1 
belonging to any root Ri of this equation reduces to the 
identical substitution, it follows that we can express each 



38 



NATURE 



{May 9, 1889 



of the x's in terms of Rj. In fact, all the roots of the 
Galois resolvent are rational functions of any one of them ; 
and it has the remarkable property of being transformable 
into itself by a group of N rational transformations, which 
stands in holohedric isomorphism with the group r. It 
is also established that an irreducible equation of the Nth 
degree which is transformable into itself by a group of N 
rational transformations is its own Galois resolvent ; and 
its group is holohedrically isomorphous with the group of 
the N transformations. We are now enabled to perceive 
a very important property of the polyhedral equations, 
viz. each of them is its own Galois resolvent ; the N 
rational transformations in question being simply the N 
linear polyhedral transformations. Every polyhedral 
equation therefore stands in a fundamentally simple rela- 
tion to any equation of which it can be shown to be a 
resolvent. 

If we consider the case where the isomorphism of the 
groups G and r is not holohedric— that is, where to each 
of the S^'s corresponds a group of the S's, we see that this 
necessitates the existence of a self- conjugate (jZi^z'-asso- 
ciate) group y in G to which belong the whole of the R's. 
If to the other known quantities we now adjoin the R's, the 
solution of the original equation fi^x) = o will be simpli- 
fied, because its group is now y, which is smaller than G. 
Moreover, the R's themselves are calculable in terms of 
the known quantities by means of an equation whose 
group r is also smaller than G. In this case, therefore, 
an essential simplification in the formal solution of the 
equation /(a-) =o can be effected. If the group y be 
either intransitive or composite, a further simplification 
would ensue, in the one case by the "reduction" of 
/{x) = o, in the other by the construction of another 
resolvent having a smaller group than y. 

The application of the latter part of the general theory 
in combination with the data regarding the groups of 
the polyhedral substitutions obtained in the earlier 
chapters, leads at once to important conclusions re- 
garding the polyhedral equations. It is found that the 
octahedral equation can be solved by extracting in 
succession a square root, a cube root, and finally two 
square roots ; the tetrahedral equation by the same 
series of operations, if we omit the first, and the di- 
hedral equation by extracting a square root and then an 
nth root. All these equations are therefore soluble by 
means of the ordinary elementary algebraical irration- 
alities. 

The ikosahedral equation stands by itself because the 
ikosahedral substitutions form a " simple " group ; its 
lowest resolvents correspond to the five associate tetra- 
hedral and the six associate dihedral sub-groups of the 
ikosahedral main group, and are of the fifth and sixth de- 
grees respectively. This is, from one point of view, the 
main part of the theory, for it leads us to see that the 
solution of the ikosahedral equation involves an irra- 
tionahty which exists independently of the ordinary 
algebraical irrationalities. 

Since Abel demonstrated the impossibility of solving 
general equations whose degree exceeds the fourth by 
means of elementary algebraical irrationalities, two, 
or perhaps we should say three, great classes of 
problems in the higher theory of equations have arisen : 
(i) to characterize and classify all those exceptional 
cases of equations of a degree exceeding the fourth which 
can be solved by elementary irrational operations ; 
(2) to circumscribe the domain of the higher algebraic 
irrationalities — that is, to characterize and, exhaustively 
classify all the essentially distinct irrational operations 
which are required for the solution of any algebraical 
equation of finite order,— this is not to be confounded 
with the interesting and practically important, but 
perfectly distinct, question regarding the solution of such 
equations by means of transcendental irrationalities, such 



as circular and elliptic functions ; (3) in connection with 
each distinct higher irrationality, there arises, of course, 
the question as to the characteristics of the various 
equations which can be solved by means of this 
irrationality and others of a lower order. 

Much has been done in the working out of the first 
problem by Abel, Kronecker, and others ; but compara- 
tively little progress has been made with the second 
class of problems. In Klein's work we have an 
important contribution to this new branch of the theory 
of equations ; and a sketch of a general method which 
seems to promise farther advance in the immediate future. 
The latter part of the book under review is almost en- 
tirely occupied with this subject. He there shows by two 
different methods that the solution of the general quintic 
equation can be effected by means of the ikosahedral 
irrationality combined with an accessory square root. A 
brief sketch of his first method will enable the reader to 
understand the general march of the investigation. If to 
the rational coefficients of the quintic equation we adjoin 
the square root of its discriminant, its Galois group be- 
comes the 60 even permutations of its roots. Now this 
is isomorphous with the group of the ikosahedral equa- 
tion, and therefore (since that group is simple) with the 
group of any of its resolvents. But it is shown that one 
of the ikosahedral resolvents (" the principal resolvent '') is 
an equation of the fifth degree of the form' j/^ + SQ/'' -f 
5R/-f- S, where O, R, S are rational functions of three 
arbitrary parameters ot, «, Z. The question then naturally 
arises. Can we rationally connect the roots of this re- 
solvent with the roots of the general quintic by properly 
determining the parameters ;«, «, Z ? By means of a 
Tchirnhausian transformation, we can reduce the general 
quintic to a " principal equation " of the formy -f ^oyj -\- 
Sl^y + 7=0; and it is shown that the necessary operations 
become rational after the adjunction of the square root 
of the discriminant of the quintic. We have thus two 
equations, each involving three arbitrary parameters ; an.d 
it is shown that the determination of ;//, n, Z in terms of 
a, /3, y so as to satisfy the equations 0=?a, R = ^, 8=7 
involve no farther irrational operations. The calculations 
in both methods are full of beautiful details, partly 
geometrical and partly analytical in character. 

In the last chapter of the first part a general survey of 
the theory of the polyhedral functions is given, wherein 
their relation to a variety of other functions is pointed 
out. In particular it is shown that the polyhedral 
functions virtually embrace all functions that "admit" a 
fijtite group of linear transformations. The proof of this 
depends essentially on the fact that the diophantine equa- 
tion, 2(1- i/i-z) = 2 — 2/N, where the vi's and N are 
all finite and positive, has only four solutions, viz. the 
values of i/j, v^, "3, N (given in the above table), which 
characterize the polyhedral functions. In these four cases 
i/"! + ^l^-i -f l/i's > I. If in the differential equation 
(A) we give to Vj, i/j, v^ other integral values for which 
i/i'i + i/j/g -f- i/i's = or < I, we get the Schvvarzian func- 
tions, which are transcendents admitting infinite groups 
of linear substitutions. Among these, as a limiting case 
corresponding to v^ =2, ^2 = 3, I's = 00 , are found the 
elliptic modular functions. This fact naturally leads to 
the attempt to solve the polyhedral equations by means of 
transcendentally irrational functions ; and it is shown 
that, just as the binomial equation, Z'^ = A, can be 
solved by means of logarithms, and the dihedral equa- 
tion, z"-Yz--^= - 4Z, -f 2, by means of circular 
functions, so the tetrahedral, octahedral, and ikosahedral 
equations can be solved by means of elliptic modular 
functions. 

The above imperfect sketch of Klein's " Ikosahedron '" 
will, we trust, be held sufficient to justify us in saying that 
Mr. Morris's hope that his translation " may contribute 
towards supplying the pressing need of text-books upon 



May 9, 1889] 



NATURE 



39 



the higher branches of mathematic " is not a vain hope. 
He could not, in our opinion, have made a better 
beginning. If our critical responsibility compels us to 
point out some defects in the execution of the work, we 
trust that this will be understood as indicating our desire 
to see the book made perfect ; and not construed into 
depreciation of a valuable service to the cause of pure 
mathematics. 

We strongly advise the author to have the translation 
read by some one who is familiar with both English and 
German idioms, and who possesses also some familiarity 
with the departments of mathematics concerned. In 
proof of the necessity for such a revision, we draw the 
author's attention to the following points, which are 
merely a few of tho?e that have attracted our attention. 
When Klein says (Pt. I. chap, iii., § 7), " Die Lineare 
Differentialgleichung zweiter Ordnung, verlangt also, 
. . ,, zu ihrer Losung nur noch eine einzige Quadratur ; " 
he does 7iot mean, "The linear differential equation of 
the second order, therefore, requires, . . . , only a single 
square root besides in order to solve it." Quadratur 
means simply quadrature {i.e., direct integration), it 
never means square root. Here a knowledge of the 
properties of the Schwarzian derivative might have helped 
the translator to divine the meaning of the German 
technical term. On p. 96, " But for this the determina- 
tion of the R's themselves is more easy to carry out," is 
not a good, but in fact a misleading translation of the 
German " Dafiir aber ist die Bestimmung . . ." Dafiir 
here means " in compensation for this." At the foot of 
the same page occurs a very common confusion between 
wenn eben and wenn gleich, which has the effect of 
■exactly reversing the meaning of the note. " Hierdurch 
kann/(jr)= o (wenn eben y, in den x geschrieben, nicht 
transitive ist) moglicherweise reducibel geworden sein," 
means, " Hereby /(.v) = o may possibly have become 
reducible (namely if (or precisely if) y, when expressed in 
terms of the jr's, is intransitive) " for, of course, an 
equation is reducible if, and not unless, its group be 
intransitive. A still more important error occurs on the 
following page, where, in the definition of the Galois 
resolvent, " ihre einzelne Wurzel bei jeder in G enthal- 
tenen Vertauschung der x umgeiindert wird" is trans- 
lated " its individual roots are unaltered, &c." First of 
all, this makes nonsense of the definition, as definite 
knowledge of the subject would have shown ; and farther, 
supposing the translator to have read un- by mistake for 
um-, a knowledge of German idiom would have shown 
him that " ungeandert wird" makes nonsense of the 
German. The error is deliberately repeated on the fol- 
lowing page, where " in umgeanderter Reihenfolge " is 
translated in " unaltered sequence," instead of " in 
altered sequence." These are vital errors, which should 
at once be corrected by means of an " errata-slip " ; for 
they would be a serious rock of offence for a tyro in 
reading the passages where they occur. There are many 
other cases, however, where loose translation somewhat 
obscures the crisp and lucid exposition of Klein, which is 
a pity, for this quality is not all too common among 
Klein's countrymen. There are a considerable number 
of misprints, many of them copied from the original. 
An amusing instance of this occurs in the first footnote 
on p. 73, where the title of Schwarz's well-known 
memoir begins " Ueber dienigen Falle, &c." ; this is in 
the original, but the transcriber should have known that 
dienigen is impossible German. Nevertheless, we declare, 
with all the sanction of our critical stool of infallibility, 
that Mr. Morris's translation is a notable piece of good 
work ; and he did well to publish it without waiting to 
perfect his knowledge of German idiom or of Galois's 
theory. The blemishes alluded to can be easily amended 
when another edition is called for, which will be speedily, 
if our good wishes avail. 

G. Ch. 



THE NORTHFLEET SERIES ELECTRIC 

TRAMWAY. 

C\^ Monday, April 29, there was opened for regular 
^^ passenger traffic an electric tramway at North- 
fleet, near Gravesend, which marks an era in the 
history of electric traction. This line has been run 
experimentally for the last month, but the seven years 
Board of Trade certificate having been received, this 
line now enters on the commercial stage of its exist- 
ence. Four tramways on which electricity is the motive 
power have been in regular use for the last few years in 
Great Britain : it is not, therefore, because the North- 
fleet line is the first electric tramway in this country 
that it has attracted considerable attention ; nor is it 
because it is the longest electric tramway, for two of the 
other four are of much greater length ; but it is because 
this Northfleet line has been constructed on a totally 
different principle from that hitherto adopted on this side 
of the Atlantic that it is worthy of special consideration. 

When a number of electric lamps or motors have to be 
supplied with power from a common centre, there are 
two well-known methods by which this can be done. 
They can either be joined " in parallel," as it is technic- 
ally called, or they can be coupled up " in series." In 
the parallel system, the one generally adopted with 
electric lighting, and hitherto the only method that has 
been employed with the electric tramways in Europe, the 
electric current that passes through any lamp or motor 
does not pass through any other, and the dynamo pro- 
duces a large current equal to the sum of all the currents 
passing through all the lamps or motors. In proceeding, 
therefore, from the dynamo end of the circuit to the 
distant end, there is a steady falling off in the current, but 
the electric pressure remains, or may remain, nearly 
constant. In the series system, on the other hand, the 
whole current produced by the dynamo passes through 
all the lamps or motors in succession, and therefore this 
current can be small. The initial electric pressure, on 
the other hand, must be large, since the energy imparted 
by the current to each lamp or motor is represented by a 
drop in the electric pressure. Since the energy furnished 
by the dynamo depends on the product of the current 
into the electric pressure it produces, while the waste of 
power in heating the conductor depends on the square of 
the current flowing through the conductor, it is clear that 
while any amount of energy can be supplied by either 
system, the use of high pressure and small current is by 
far the more economical as regards the power wasted in 
heating the conductor, this economy being the greater 
the greater the number of lamps or motors on the circuit. 

Until a few years ago, however, it was not clear how it 
was possible to run motors electrically in series when 
the motors were themselves in bodily motion, as they 
must be when employed to propel tramcars. In 1881, 
Profs. Ayrton and Perry, for the purpose of diminishing 
the loss of power through the leakage of the current that 
occurs from the insulated rail of an electric railway to 
the earth, and which becomes serious when the line is 
long, proposed a plan of electrically subdividing the 
railway track into sections so arranged that the electric 
current was only supplied to that section of the track on 
which a train happened to be at any moment. This 
system was described and shown in action at a lecture 
given by one of the inventors at the Royal Institution in 1882, 
and the late Prof. Fleeming Jenkin, on reading the account 
of this lecture, saw that the device of employing an elec- 
trically subdivided conductor supplied the means of 
running electrical trains in series. A combination was, 
therefore, brought about between these three Professors 
to develop electric traction. This combination resulted 
in the formation of the Telpherage Syndicate, and lastly 
in the Series Electrical Traction Syndicate, to whom is 
due the construction of the first series line in Europe, the 



40 



NATURE 



[May 9 1889 



one that was opened for public traffic at Northfleet, 
on April 29. 

The track itself does not at first sight appear to differ 
from an ordinary horse tramway track, there being no 
overhead wires as in the American electric tramways, 
nor auxiliary raised insulated rail, as at Portrush, nor 
central trough, as at Blackpool. A closer inspection. 



however, shows that one of the rails at Northfleet, instead 
of being simply grooved, is a double rail with a cavity or 
slot between the two portions. Fig. i shows the general 
cross-section of the line, the upper portion only of which is 
of course visible to the passer-by. In the cavity "the arrow," 
as it is called, glides, being drawn along by the moving 
car, the function of the arrow being to open the electrical 




FjG. I. 



conductor at successive points, and insert the electric 
motor carried by the moving car in the electrical circuit. 
This arrow is made of flexible leather with a kind of 
steel spear-head at each end ; it is coated with two 
flexible conducting strips, i, 2 (Fig. 2), insulated from 
one another, and permanently connected respectively 
with the two terminals of the motor. As this arrow 



glides along, it passes, as seen in Fig. 3, between the^two 
portions of each spring-jack, the spring-jack being shown 
in detail in Fig. 4. The arrow keeps open two spring- 
jacks at any one time, the portion of the cable joining 
them being either cut out of circuit or short-circuited, its 
place in the electric circuit being temporarily occupied by 
the motor on the car. This result is attained by the con- 




FiG. 2. — The Arrov. 



ducting-Strips i, 2 (Fig. 2) on the arrow, being each 
wrapped round one end, and by an insulated space, 3, 3, 
being left on each side, slightly longer than the surface 
of contact B of the spring-jack. When the sceptical 
Englishman, who, in the past, could not realize that rail- 
ways could ever succeed if the carriages were not shaped 
and painted like mail-coaches, reads a description of the 



Northfleet series tramway, he at once jumps to the con- 
clusion that stones must necessarily get wedged in the 
slot ; that the cavity will get filled up with mud ; that 
the arrow must stick ; and that the method is impossible 
in practice, though very pretty in theory. When he is 
told that a series electric tramway has been running 
successfully for some time in Denver, Colorado, and that 



^ 



^ I T^ I T j^ ^tppp^^ -^ >| 



DYNAMO 




MOTOR 



1 UNDERGROUND CABLE! 

Fig. 3.— Diagrammatical Illustration of Series Line. 



another ser/es line, twelve miles long, with forty cars on ! 
it, is completed, or on the verge of completion, in Colum- | 
bus, Ohio, he merely shrugs his shoulders and implies \ 
that such crude ideas may do for America, but that in 1 
this country we want time-honoured well-tried methods, I 
and not new-fangled notions. The Northfleet cars, how- i 
*^vp.r. seem to have a marked disregard for conse rvative I 



prejudices, since the arrow, with an ease and lofty contempt 
that makes one respect the silent power of the electric 
current, simply whisks out of its way any stone that has 
been intentionally jammed into the slot as tightly as any 
mischievous London urchin can fix it. 

The spring-jack (Fig. 4) consists of a pair of glazed 
earthenware blocks, 14 X 3 X 4 inches. To each block 



May 9, 1889] 



NATURE 



41 



is attached, by means of a double spiral spring, a gun- 
metal casting, curved at its ends to allow of the easy 
entrance of the arrow. The spring-jacks are arranged 
so that they can be taken out or replaced in the conduit 



in a few minutes in case of any failure. The electric 
resistance that they offer is much smaller than would have 
been anticipated, the total measured resistance of the 
entire line being but little higher than the calculated re- 




FiG. 4. — The Spring Jack. 



sistance of the insulated cable. This is probably due to 
the surfaces of the spring-jacks being kept bright and 
clean by the arrow constantly running through them. 



affected by the starting or stopping of any other, it is 
necessary, with series working, that a constant current 
should be supplied to the circuit. Now while it is pos- 



In order that the speed of any one car shall not be sible, by winding the field-magnets of a dynamo in a 




Fig. s.— The Statter Constant Current Dynamo, showing Regulator. 



particular way, known as "compounding," to cause it, 
when running at a fixed speed, to supply perfectly con- 
stant pressure to a circuit, no matter how the resistance 
of the circuit may vary, no such solution has yet been 



practically attained when the supply conditions are con- 
stant current. Hence some mechanical device is neces- 
sary in the latter case, and the one employed with the 
Northfleet dynamo is that due to Messrs. Statter, and 



42 



NATURE 



{May 9, 1889 



•seen in Fig. 5. A small pinion rotated by the dynamo 
shaft rocks a double ratchet by means of an eccentric. 
One or other of the ends of this ratchet is pulled down 
and made to engage with the ratchet wheel depending 
on whether the current is greater or less than 50 amperes, 
the normal current supplied to the line. The rotation of 
the ratchet wheel alters the positions of the brushes on 
the commutator, until the current is diminished or in- 
creased to 50 amperes, when the iron core attached to 
the ratchet, and which was previously sucked down below 
its normal position by the solenoid, or not sucked down 
so far, is now held in its normal position, and the ratchet 
kept free of the ratchet wheel. This mechanical con- 
stant current regulator works well, with a surprisingly 
small amount of sparking at the commutator. 

As constant current is supplied to the line, the speed 
■of the car could not be altered by introducing resistance 
into the circuit ; what is done therefore is to shunt the 
field magnets of the motor with a less and less resistance 
by moving a lever on the car, as less and less power is 
required to be developed by the motor. When the car 
is at rest at the end of the journey, the motor is entirely 
cut out of the circuit by the handle being pushed full 
home. With horse tramcars a mechanical brake must 
be employed, and the energy of the moving car wasted in 
friction ; indeed with the continuous vacuum brakes on 
the modern railway trains, not merely is the energy of the 
train wasted, but coal is actually burnt to stop the train. 
Some years ago, however, Profs. Ayrton and Perry pointed 
■out that when an electric train was running down hill, or 
when it was desired to stop the train, there was no 
necessity to apply a mechanical brake and waste the 
energy of the moving train in friction, because by turning 
a handle the electromotor could be converted into a 
dynamo, and the train could be slowed or stopped by its 
•energy being given up to all the other trains running on 
the same railway, so that trains going down hill could 
help the trains going up hill, and the stopping trains 
could help the starting trains. And at. that time they 
proposed detailed methods for carrying out this econo- 
mical mutual aid arrangement whether the trains were 
running in parallel or in series. But there is this great 
difference between the two systems, that whereas with 
motors in parallel it is only as long as a stopping train is 
still running fairly fast that it can help other trains ; on 
the other hand, when one of a group of motors in series 
has been temporarily converted into a dynamo by the 
reversal of the connection of its field-magnets, this motor 
can return energy to the system down to the very last 
rotation of its armature. This difference, which is greatly 
to the advantage of the series system, will be easily 
understood if it be remembered that a motor will help 
other motors in series with it if it supplies a forward 
■electromotive force, however small, whereas if the motors 
be in parallel it is necessary, in order that a motor should 
give energy to the system, that it should be able to 
reverse the direction of the current that was previously 
passing through it — in other words, produce an electro- 
motive force actually larger than the potential difference 
set up between the mains by the dynamo itself. • 

And not only is this form of brake very economical in 
that it acts by saving power instead of by wasting it, but in 
addition its application imposes no tax on the driver's 
strength, as is the case with mechanical brakes where the 
pressure of the brake blocks is actually exerted by the 
•driver's hand or foot — a consideration of considerable im- 
portance in these days of the natural revolt of the " tram 
slave." 

At each end of the Northfleet cars there are two 
handles, one of which regulates the resistance shunting 
the field-magnet of the motor, and which therefore replaces 
the handle working the throttle valve of a steam loco- 
motive, while the other handle reverses the terminals 
•of the field-magnet, or short-circuits them when it is in its 



middle position, and therefore replaces the handle which 
operates the link motion in the locomotive. During the 
several journeys we made in the cars, we had freciuent 
opportunity of seeing how perfectly they were under 
control, even when descending the steep hill near the 
Northfleet railway station. 

One defect of the parallel system of working electric 
tram-lines is that it is possible for a mischievous person 
to cut off the power from the whole line, while at 
the same time the constant potential difference dynamo 
is made to produce far more than its normal current, by 
his laying an iron crowbar so as to electrically connect 
the go'nj and return conductor. This result he may be 
able to accomplish without much difficulty, since both 
these conductors must be sufficiently exposed along their 
whole length that the passing train can maintain electrical 
contact with both of them. With the series system, on 
the other hand, such a catastrophe is impossible, since 
the return conductor, 3, marked "line" in Fig. 3, is 
completely buried out of sight. 

A considerable amount of ingenuity has been displayed 
in the mechanical details both on the cars themselves 
and on the track at Northfleet. The motor, for example, 
is geared directly to a spur wheel on the car wheel shaft 
by double helical gearing, which runs without biting, and 
at the same time without any chance of slip, since the 
axle of the motor and the axle of the car wheel driven by 
it are always maintained at exactly the same distance 
apart. The result is attained by supporting one end of 
the motor framework from two bearings on the axle of 
the car wheel, and the other end by stout springs from the 
car itself. The tram-line is for the greater portion a single 
track, hence several places where the up and down cars 
can pass, "turn-outs" as they are technically called, have 
been provided. As both the up and down lines at the 
turn-outs are electrically in series, special electrical 
devices which appear to work very well have been pro- 
vided for the facing points at the two ends of each turn- 
out. At one portion of the line the road is so narrow 
that it would have been very inconvenient to the ordinary 
horse traffic, had an up and a down tramcar gone along 
the same side of the road. An up car has therefore to 
pass the horse traffic by following the "near side," so 
also has a down car — in other words, the electric tramcar 
if it be going in one direction has to be on the opposite 
side of the road from that followed by an electric tramcar 
when going in the contrary direction. But as the road is 
too narrow for two sets of rails the track here consists of 
three rails, A B and C, A and B being used by the car when 
going in one direction, and C and B when it is returning ; 
the facing points at the ends of this section being fitted 
with special mechanical and electrical devices, which also 
appear to accomplish their aims with perfect satisfaction. 

A portion of the line has a long steep gradient of i in 
32, but instead of jaded horses having to tug the cars up 
this hill, they ascend it at a rate of about nine miles an 
hour, so that the whole journey, which is a little under 
one mile, is accomplished when desired in three minutes 
and a half. 

It is but a fcvv weeks ago that the first trial trip of the 
Northfleet line was made ; it is but now that it is opened 
for public use ; and yet already the passers-by and the 
shopkeepers along the route have ceased to wonder how 
it is that horseless cars full of people rush up hill without 
smoke, quickly start in either direction, and as quickly 
stop when directed by the passengers to do so. After 
the Englishman has been spending some time conclusively 
proving to himself that a series tram-line was a practical 
impossibility, while the American was engaged in carry- 
ing out the trite saying that " the best way to do a thing 
is just to go and do it," our countrymen now accept the 
regular daily running of the series tram-line at North- 
fleet as a matter of course, and have forgotten that its 
very marked success ought to astonish them. 



May 9, 1889] 



NATURE 



43 



THE EXAMINATIONS FOR WOOLWICH AND 
SANDHURST. 

'X'HE revised Code for these examinations has at 
-'■ length been published. It is to come into force 
after January i, 1891. There is to be a preliminary exami- 
nation in elementary Arithmetic, Euclid, Algebra, French 
or German, writing English from dictation, elementary 
Latin, Geometrical Drawing, and Geography, for which no 
marks are given. We regret that as this examination 
has now been extended till it includes nearly all the main 
subjects of a modern education, an elementary know- 
ledge of some branch of science is not also required. 
There is also to be a further examination for those who 
pass the preliminary, for which the following Code has 
been adopted : — 

Class I. — Obligatory. 

Mathematics (for Woolwich) ... 3000 Marks 

,, (for Sandhurst) ... 2500 ,, 

Latin ... ... ... ... 2000 ,, 

French or German ... ... 2000 ,, 

Class II. — Any two Subjects may be taken np. 

Higher Mathematics ... ... 2000 Marks 

German or French ... ... 2000 ,, 

Greek ... ... ... ... 2coo j ,. 

English History ... ... ... 2000 ,, 

Chemistry ... ... ... ... 2000 ,, 

Physics ... 2000 ,, 

Physical Geography and Geology 2000 ,, 



Class III. — All may he taken. 



English Composition 
Freehand Drawing 
Geometrical Drawing 



500 Marks 
500 ,, 
1000 ,, 



Notwithstanding the relative positions of science and 
Latin — which seem indefensible in regard to the 
Woolwich Cadets— this Code of marks is decidedly 
better than that which was the subject of so much 
adverse criticism in the early months of last year. In 
the first place, the allotment of marks which had such 
disastrous effects when adopted a few years ago in the 
Sandhurst competitions is at length abandoned, and 
candidates will no longer be at any disadvantage in this 
respect if they offer themselves for examination in such 
subjects as science, history, or Greek. 

In the second place, it will now be possible for candi- 
dates to offer Greek or history, together with a branch of 
science, or to offer both chemistry and physics. In the 
case of some candidates this may prove a considerable 
advantage ; though the fact that the obligatory and 
advanced mathematics can to some extent be studied 
concurrently may probably induce a large proportion to 
select the latter from Class II. 

Thirdly, the better position that was claimed for expe- 
rimental sciences in the Woolwich competition has now 
also been given to these subjects in the Sandhurst 
examination. 

At first sight it may appear, after all that has been said 
and done, that the position of the experimental sciences 
as members of Class 11. is not very splendid. It is 
therefore worth while to point out, lest it should be over- 
looked by teachers, that chemistry and physics are so 
important in the curriculum at the Royal Military Aca- 
demy, that it will be greatly to the advantage of candidates 
for the scientific branches to study and offer one of these 
subjects, now their prospects of success will no longer be 
diminished by doing so. Hence, as a whole, the scheme 
for selecting and educating cadets for the Engineers 
and Artillery is now reasonably favourable for those who 
exhibit an aptitude for the experimental branches of 



science. We think this will soon be recognized by the 
candidates themselves, and that those who are interested 
in the science of our public schools will also quickly per- 
ceive the importance of the changes that have been 
secured in the face of very considerable difficulties by the 
action of Sir Henry Roscoe and the other scientific 
members of the House of Commons. 

Altogether, therefore, it may decidedly be said that 
the authorities at the War Office are to be congratulated 
on the result of their consultations with Sir Henry Roscoe 
and other educational authorities. The new Code is not 
ideal. It does not fully recognize the importance of 
natural science in modern education, and it is to be 
feared that it will lengthen the examination to some 
extent. But, if it be fairly carried out, scientific candi- 
dates will not in future be placed at any great disadvant- 
age, as compared with those who have studied other 
subjects, in the examinations for admission to either 
branch of the Army. In regard to this last point, how- 
ever, it would be well if the Civil Service Commission 
took steps to remove the blot in their system of conduct- 
ing public competitive examinations to which attention 
was called, some years ago, by Sir Lyon Playfair, in his 
Presidential Address to the British Association. We 
allude to the irregularity with which marks are awarded 
for the various subjects at more than one of these exami- 
nations. These irregularities are still unduly large. We 
have before us an account of the marks given in six 
examinations for Woolwich, taken at random during the 
years 1884-88, and it appears that, at these examinations, 
successful candidates who have offered French, German, 
Greek, and experimental science have been given, on an 
average, 38, 35, 29, and 28 per cent, of the allotted maxi- 
mum marks. A successful candidate offering Greek and 
science would, on an average, have obtained 1154 out of 
the maximum of 2000 ; whilst one offering French and 
German would have been given 1491 out of the same 
maximum. A similar tale is told by the highest marks 
awarded in the respective subjects. It will scarcely be 
contended that, on the whole, the superior teaching of 
modern languages, as compared with that of Greek and 
science, justifies this. It is perhaps too much to hope 
for absolutely equal rates of marking, as between different 
subjects at each separate examination. But we do not 
think that during such considerable periods of time the 
variations should be so great as they have been, especially 
in the case of subjects taken up by fairly large proportions 
of the candidates. Such variations do real harm by 
encouraging the mark-hunter, who is ever on the alert, 
and by artificially stimulating the favoured subjects at the 
expense of others of importance. 

We understand that the examiners are not to be 
blamed for this state of things, but rather that the Civil 
Service Commissioners are directly responsible. For it 
is stated by Mr. Oscar Browning, in the Journal of 
Education for April, that the examiners *' receive a paper 
as a model which they are told to copy as exactly as 
possible. They are informed of the average of marks 
given at the last examination, and they are enjoined to 
adhere to the standard with special care." If this goes 
on year after year, as seems to be implied, it is difficult 
to see how any code of marks can secure a fair examina- 
tion. If the candidates who offered any subject were 
hardly treated in 1888, the chances are that those who 
offer the same subject in 1889 will also suffer hardness. 
For if the candidates in that subject be better in i88» 
than they were in 1888 they will be relatively still more 
hardly treated. If of similar calibre they will be treated 
equally badly. Only if they happen to be inferior will 
they stand at an advantage. 

If the system of examining be as it is represented, it is- 
high time that it should be revised by those who are- 
responsible for it. 



44 



NATURE 



{May 9, 1889 



NOTES. 
We regret to announce the death of Mr. Robert Damon, of 
"Weymouth, the well-known naturalist and geologist. He died 
suddenly on Saturday, the 4th instant, from heart disease. Mr. 
Damon was the author of an excellent work on the "Geology of 
Weymouth and the Isle of Portland," now in its second edition. 
He was a most extensive traveller and an assiduous collector. 
He obtained a marvellous series of fossil fishes from the Cretaceous 
beds of the Lebanon, Syria, now in the British Natural History 
Museum, also the most complete skeleton of that rare and extinct 
Sirenian, " Steller's Sea-cow, " from Behring Island. Although 
in his seventy-fifth year, he contemplated another trip to Siberia 
to procure an entire Mammoth's skeleton for the National 
Museum. Only a few years ago he took passage from Nijni 
Novgorod, down the Volga to Astrakhan, for the purpose of 
collecting a complete series of the fishes of the Caspian Sea, in 
which he was most successful. He lately purchased the celebrated 
zoological collections forming the " Godeffroy Museum" in 
Hamburg, and he had perhaps the largest collection of recent 
shells in this country. Mr. Damon's loss will be long felt by a 
wide circle of scientific friends in all parts of the world, by whom 
he was warmly esteemed and respected. 

The Paris Exhibition was opened on Monday by the Presi- 
dent of the French Republic. As usual on such occasions, there 
was a great display of empty spaces which ought to have been, 
and soon will be, filled with exhibits. The British Section was 
greatly in advance of the others. M. Carnot, in speaking of 
the general character of the Exhibition, referred emphatically 
to " the surprises reserved for our generation by the marvellous 
progress of science." 

At the Royal Academy banquet, on Saturday last. Sir Henry 
Roscoe responded to the toast for "Science." He spoke of the 
intimate relations between science and art, and, as an illustra- 
tion of the services rendered by the former to the latter, referred 
to the fact that this year we celebrate the jubilee of the dis- 
covery of photography. "In 1839," he said, "the power of 
the sun to draw in black and white was first indicated by 
Daguerre and Fox Talbot. In her infancy exhibiting but 
slight promise of artistic life, Photography, in her maturity, has 
developed true artistic power, so that she has now grown to be 
a trusted and valued ._helpmate to the artist, while she can pro- 
duce effects and catch expressions which might defy the brush 
of a Turner or a Reynolds." 

An International Congress of Photography will be held in 
Paris from August 6 to 17. If we may judge from the pro- 
gramme, which has been issued by the Organizing Committee, 
the proceedings are likely to be of great interest. Anyone may 
suggest subjects of discussion on condition that the suggestions 
are sent to the secretary (M. S. Pector, 9 rue Lincoln, Paris) 
at least fifteen days before the opening of the Congress. On 
August 20 there will be a public conference on the labours of 
the Congress. 

The third of the series of One-Man Photographic Exhibi- 
tions at the Camera Club is now open to visitors on presentation 
of card. The Exhibition will continue for about two months. 
The object of this series of exhibitions is to bring together, in 
turn, representative collections of the work of the best photo- 
graphic artists. The photographs shown on the present occasion 
are by Mr. J. Gale. They are chiefly photographs of land- 
scape, and landscape with figure, and are printed in platinum 
and in silver processes. 

Science gives the following as a complete list of the papers 
presented and read to the American National Academy of 
Science, at its meeting in April : on composite coronagraphy, 
by D. P. Todd ; additional experimental proof that the relative 



coefficient of expansion between Baily's metal and steel is con- 
stant between the limits zero and 95" F. (read by title), by W. 
A. Rogers ; notice on the method and results of a systematic 
study of the action of definitely related chemical compounds 
upon animals, by Wolcott Gibbs and Hobart Hare ; on sensa- 
tions of colour, and determinations of gravity, by C. S. Peirce ; 
on the Pliocene Vertebrate fauna of Western North America, 
and on the North American Proboscidea, by E. D. Cope ; on 
the mass of Saturn, by A. Hall, Jun. ; on the nature and com- 
position of double halides (read by title) ; on the rate of reduc- 
tion of nitro-compounds, and on some connection between taste 
and chemical composition, by Ira Remsen ; recent researches in 
atmospheric electricity, by T. C. Mendenhall ; measurement by 
light-waves, by A. A. Michelson ; on the feasibility of the 
establishment of a light-wave as the ultimate standard of 
length, by A. A. Michelson and E. W. Morley ; on the general 
laws pertaining to stellar variation, by S. C. Chandler ; review 
of the trivial names in Piazzi's Star Catalogue, by C. H. F. 
Peters ; on Cretaceous flora of North America, by J. S. New- 
berry ; terrestrial magnetism (read by title), Cleveland Abbe ; 
spectrum photography in the ultra-violet, by Romyn Hitchcock ; 
North American Pelagldce (read by title), and development of 
Crustacea (read by title), by W. K. Brooks ; the plane of de- 
marcation between the Cambrian and pre- Cambrian rocks, by 
C. D. Walcott ; report of the American Eclipse Expedition to 
Japan, 1887, by D. P. Todd. 

It is reported from India that Mr. Blanford, Meteorological 
Reporter to the Government of India, who retires at the end of 
his furlough, has been recommended for the special pension of 
6000 rupees per annum. 

The following "resolution" of the Government of Bombay, 
which has just been published, tells its own story, and adds 
another to the already numerous examples of the well-judged 
munificence of the Parsee community of Bombay. The resolu- 
tion is entitled " Scientific Medical Research." " (l) The sum 
of Rs. 75,000 having been placed at the disposal of his Excellency 
the Governor by Mr. Framjee Dinshaw Petit, for the purpose of 
erecting and fitting a laboratory for scientific medical research, on 
a site which has been approved by the donor, in the immediate 
vicinity of the Grant Medical College, the Governor in Council 
has much pleasure in accepting the offer, and, in doing so, 
desires publicly to thank Mr. Framjee Dinshaw Petit for his 
munificence in supplying an institution, the want of which has 
long been felt by those most interested in promoting the cause 
of higher medical education in this Presidency. (2) The 
Governor in Council is pleased to direct that the institution 
shall be called ' The Framjee Dinshaw Petit Laboratory for 
Scientific Research.' (3) Instructions for the preparation of 
the necessary plans and estimates for the proposed building have 
already b een given. " 

The native population of Benares cannot be said to have very 
advanced ideas as to the importance of sanitary science. The 
other day a monster meeting was held in that city to protest 
against certain proposed drainage and water supply schemes, and 
a petition to the Government condemning the entire action of 
the municipality in the matter is said to bear 100,000 signatures. 
According to the Calcutta Correspondent of the Times, the 
petitioners emphatically decline to pay by increased taxation for 
any new system. 

Last winter the Vienna Medical School was attended by 150 
British and American medical graduates, among whom were 
many Edinburgh men. As many medical students, on their 
arrival at Vienna, do not know German, the Vienna 
Weekly Neivs has opened a special " medical inquiry office " near 
the hospital, where information as to lectures, lodgings, &c., is 
given without charge to British and American medical men. 



May 9, 1889J 



NA TURE 



45 



The same journal publishes weekly a list of forthcoming courses 
of lectures at the Universities of Vienna and Berlin. 

The Times of Colombo announces the arrival in Ceylon of 
two naturalists, Herr Friihstorfer and Herr Kannegieter, the 
former a German, the latter a native of Amsterdam. Herr 
Friihstorfer has already travelled over a great part of the world 
making natural history collections, while his companion is travel- 
ling on behalf of the collection of Herr Van de Poll. Both 
were about to proceed to the southern part of Ceylon, and after 
a few weeks' exploration they intended going, one to Malacca 
and Borneo, the other to Sumatra and Java, for scientific 
purposes. 

A SEVERE earthquake lasting four seconds occurred at Agram 
on April 27 at 8.35 p.m. 

A NEW stalactite cave has been found at Honnethal, in Sauer- 
land, not far from the village of Sanssouci. It is not very large, 
but has many beautiful stalactites. 

Complaints having, on several occasions, been made to the 
Fishery Board for Scotland that salmon smolts are exposed for 
sale and sold, the Board have issued a notice to the effect that 
such sale, or exposing for sale, is illegal, and renders the seller 
or exposer liable to severe pecuniary penalties. The word 
"salmon" in the Salmon Fishery Acts of 1862 and 1868 means 
and includes " salmon, grilse, sea trout, bull trout, smolts, parr, 
and other migratory fish of the salmon kind." All offences 
under the Salmon Fishery Acts of 1862 and 1868 may be prose- 
cuted, and all penalties incurred may be recovered, " before any 
sheriff or any two or more justices acting together, and having 
jurisdiction in the place where the offence was committed, at 
the instance of the clerk of any District Board, or of any other 
person." 

With regard to Prof. Marker's article on a new farm 
pest, printed in Nature last week. Miss Ormerod writes that, 
" if, by any accident, readers should think that what her valued 
friend Prof. Harker meant only as a courteous acknowledg- 
ment of specimens was an expression of belief in the injurious 
powers of this worm, she would in such case like to be able 
to mention that up to the present Jtime she sees no reason for 
alarm." 

A SERIES of experiments upon combustions in nitric acid 
vapour have been made by Dr. P. T. Austen, of Rutger's 
College, U.S. The gaseous nitric acid is most conveniently 
obtained in the following manner. Into a large flask, whose 
neck is sufficiently wide to admit a good-sized deflagrating 
spoon, a quantity of sulphuric acid is poured, so as to form a layer 
about half an inch deep. About ten to twenty grammes of 
potassium nitrate, in crystals averaging a quarter of an inch in 
size, are then added. On careful heating, the air is rapidly ex- 
pelled, and the flask becomes filled with the clear vapour of 
nitric acid. A glowing chip of wood held in this vapour in- 
flames and burns energetically, something after the manner of 
combustion in oxygen ; but, as the red tetroxide of nitrogen, 
N2O4, is formed by the reduction of the nitric acid, a ruddy 
halo is seen to play around the flame. Charcoal, espe- 
cially bark- charcoal, burns brilliantly, the scintillations 
in the red tetroxide gas producing an unusually fine 
effect. In a similar manner a steel watch-spring may be 
burnt as in oxygen, the combustion being started with a 
little sulphur ; the effect, however, is quite different from that 
in oxygen, owing to the formation of a red halo around each 
melted globule of iron as it falls. A layer of sand should be 
placed in the bottom of the flask in this experiment, in order to 
prevent fracture. Phosphorus burns with great beauty, the 
dazzling white flame passing into a deep red at the edges. By 
far the most beautiful effects, however, are obtained by the 
combustion of readily oxidizable gases from jets suspended in 



the nitric acid vapour. Hydrogen burns with an intensely 
white flame, totally unlike that in oxygen, surrounded by a deep 
red envelope. Coal gas continues to burn with a white centre, 
enveloped as in case of hydrogen by a red halo ; when first intro- 
duced the flame becomes musical, then degenerates into a series of 
rapid slight explosions ; at length, after a certain amount of nitrogen 
tetroxide has formed, it burns quietly. Sulphuretted hydrogen 
gas burns with a bright yellow flame, and the flask becomes 
filled with a cloud of minute chamber-crystals, resulting from 
the action of the sulphur dioxide and water formed upon the 
tetroxide of nitrogen simultaneously produced. Ammonia gas 
burning in nitric acid vapour is perhaps the most beautiful case 
of simple combustion yet investigated. Success in this experi- 
ment appears to depend entirely upon the siz<; of the orifice of 
the jet, which should not be less than an eighth of an inch in 
diameter. As soon as the jet, which of course should be turned 
upwards, from which a good stream of ammonia is issuing, is 
lowered to a level with the mouth of the flask, it may be readily 
ignited. On lowering it into the centre of the flask, the flame is 
seen to consist of a bright yellow nucleus surrounded by a 
greenish-yellow envelope ; this, in turn, passes into an outer 
envelope of a carmine-red colour, which deepens as the amount 
of nitrogen tetroxide increases. 

According to the Manchester Guardian, a technical school 
has lately been added to the ancient Chetham College, "the 
most unique piece of antiquity " left in Manchester. It seems 
that a well-known employer of labour in Salford, and a strong 
supporter of technical education in Manchester and the neigh- 
bourhood, generously offered to fit up a workshop and supply it 
with all necessary tools for the use of Chetham College. The 
offer, which was regarded both as a very generous and a very 
happy one, was accepted by the authorities. The result was the 
erection of a building at the north-east rear of the College dor- 
mitories. The building, which is very well lighted and com- 
fortably heated, has been fitted up with lathes (for wood and 
iron) driven by a steam-engine ; also benches, drilling machines, 
grindstones, blacksmith's forge, vices, &c. The results so far 
are regarded as highly satisfactory. Some forty-five of the boys 
are now regularly engaged in the shop ; fifteen working in the 
morning, fifteen in the afternoon, another batch of fifteen the 
next morning, and so on. Each boy works nine hours in the 
shop every week. 

Mr. Rowland Ward writes to the Times that on Saturday, 
April 27, one of the keepers on the estate of Mr. Farnal Watson, 
in Surrey, trapped a fine specimen of the kite {Faico milvus) — 
"a grand bird," says Mr. Ward, " at one time common on our 
moors before men became so many in the land, and their 
hospitality, even to such visitors, so scant. " Mr. Ward notes 
that these birds are still sometimes encountered in Wales. 

Mr. Allan Hi;me proposes to issue a second edition of his 
" Nests and Eggs of Indian Birds." It will be edited by Mr. 
E. W. Oates, author of a " Hand-book to the Birds of British 
Burmah," and will incorporate all the notes which Mr. Hume's 
numerous correspondents in all parts of India have sent to him 
since 1873, as well as some notes from other sources. The work 
will be published in three volumes, 8vo, of 500 pa^es each ; but for 
the convenience of subscribers it will be issued in six parts, one 
of which will be completed every three months, beginning from 
an early date. The publisher will be Mr. R. H. Porter, 18 
Princes Street, Cavendish Square, London, W. 

A collection of Prof. Weismann's essays on heredity 
has been translated under the care of Mr. E. B. Poulton, of 
Oxford, and will form the second volume of the series of 
translations of foreign biological memoirs which the Clarendon 
Press are publishing. The volume is nearly ready, and may 
be expected shortly. 



46 



NATURE 



[May 9, 1889 



Messrs. Crosby Lockwood and Son have published a 
■second edition of M. Eissler's "Metallurgy of Gold." The 
work has been enlarged by about 150 pages and 40 additional 
illustration.s. 

We have received the seventh part of Cassell's "New 
Popular Educator," which will be completed in forty-eight parts. 
This part contains a lithograph presenting the constellations 
visible in Britain. 

Messrs. C. Griffin and Co. have published the sixth annual 
issue of the " Year-book of the Scientific and Learned Societies 
of Great Britain and Ireland." The work, which is compiled 
from official sources, comprises lists of the papers read during 
1888 before Societies engaged in fourteen departments of 
research. 

The additions to the Zoological Society's Gardens during the 
past week include an Indian Wolf {Cams pallipes $ ) from 
India, presented by Major C. S. Skipton, R.A. ; two Stone 
Curlews {CEdiaiemus scolopax), British, presented by Mr. 
Brunsden ; a Golden Eagle {Aquila chtysaettis) from Inverness- 
shire, presented by Mr. Thomas G. Henderson ; a Cape Mole- 
rat [Georychus capensis), a Geometric Tortoise {Testudo 
geometrica), four Tuberculated Tortoises {Homopus femoralis), 
six Narrow-headed Toads {Eh/o angusiiceps), thirty-four Gray's 
Frogs [Rana grayi), a Spotted Slowworm {Acontias meleagris), 
rom Cape Colony, South Africa, presented by the Rev. G. H. R. 
Fi'R., C.M.Z. S. ; a Puff Adder {Vipera arietans) from the Cape 
of Good Hope, presented by Mr. F. Streatfield ; six European 
Tree Frogs {Hyla arborea), European, presented Mr. H. Bende- 
lack Hewetson, F.Z. S. ; a Rhesus Monkey {Macacus rhesus $ ) 
rom India, deposited ; two White-eyed Ducks {Nyroca Jerni- 
ginea), European, two Black-necked Swans (C/^w^j nigricollis) 
from Antarctic America, two Lineated Kaleege {Euplocamus 
/i«^a^Mj) from Tenasserim, a Brazilian Tortoise {Testudo tabu- 
lata) from South America, a Blackish Sternothere {Sternothcerus 
subniger) from Madagascar, purchased ; a Persian Gazelle 
{Gazella subgutterosa), two Chinchillas {Chinchilla lanigera), 
four Long-fronted Gerbilles {Gerbillus longifj'ons), born in the 
Gardens. 



ASTRONOMICAL PHENOMENA FOR THE 
WEEK 1889 MAY 12-18. 

/■pOR the reckoning of time the civil day, commencing at 
_^ Greenwich mean midnight, counting the hours on to 24, 

is here employed.) 

At Greemvich on May 12 
Sunrises, 4h. 15m. ; souths, iih, 56m. lo'is. ; daily decrease of 

southing, I •2s. ; sets, iph. 38m. : right asc. on meridian, 

3h. ly-gm. ; decl. 18' 15' N. Sidereal Time at Sunset, 

iih. im. 
Moon (Full on May 15, 7h.) rises, I5h. 55m. ; souths, 

2ih. 57m.; sets, 3h. 4Sm.* : right asc. on meridian, 



I3h. 


20-im. ; 


decl. 2° 58' 


S. 


Right asc. and declination 


Planet. 


R;ses. 


Souths. 


Sets. 


on meridian. 




h. m. 


h. m. 


h. m. 


h. m. / 


Mercury . 


• 448 


... 13 10 .. 


21 32 .. 


. 4 32-4 ... 24 8 N. 


Venus.... 


. 3 21 


.. 10 45 •• 


18 9 .. 


. 2 6-3 ... 15 16 N. 


Mars 


• 4 38 


... 12 37 .. 


20 36 .. 


. 3 58-6 ... 20 55 N. 


Jupiter... 


. 23 18* 


... 3 14 .. 


7 10 .. 


. 18 34-0 ... 22 58 S. 


Saturn . . . 


. 10 7 


... 17 45 •• 


I 23*.. 


. 9 7'3 ... 17 42 N. 


Uranus . . 


. 16 17 


... 21 46 .. 


3 15*. 


. 13 9-8 ... 6 42 S. 


Neptune. 


. 4 50 


... 12 37 .. 


20 24 .. 


. 3 59-4 ... 18 56 N. 



•Indicates that the rising is that of the preceding evening and the 
setting that of the following morning. 

h. 



Star. 



May. 
i8 



Jupiter in conjunction with and 0° 15' south 
of the Moon. 



U Cephei ... . 


. 52-5 .. 


R Aurigse 


• 5 8-3.. 


W Leonis ... . 


. 10 47-8 .. 


T Ursas Majoris . 


. 12 3i'3 - 


5 Librae ... . 


• 14 55-1 •• 


U Ophiuchi... 


. 17 lO-q .. 


R Scuti ... . 


. 18 41-6 .. 


8 Lyrae 


. 18 46-0 .. 


U Aquilse 


■ 19 23-4 .. 


R Capricorni 


. 20 5-1 .. 


XCygni ... . 


. 20 39-1 .. 


T Vulpeculse 


. 20 46*8 .. 


S Cephei ... . 


. 22 25-1 .. 



Variable Stars. 

R.A. Decl. 

1. m. » / h. m. 

81 17 N. ... May 16, i 11 »x 

. 53 28 N. ... ,, 13, M 

14 18 N , 13, M 

60 6 N. ... ,, 15, m 

8 S S 13, 23 25 m 

I 20 N. ... ,, 17, o 10 m 

5 50 S , 13, M 

13 14 N 14, 22 30 M 

7 16 S. ... ,, 18, I o M 

14 36 S. ... „ 17, M 

35 II N. ... ,, 17, 2 DOT 

27 50 N , 13, I o M 

57 SI N. ... „ 15,21 oM 
M signifies maximum ; m minimum. 
Meteor-Showers. 



Near o Coronge 

,, 7j Aquilae 

From Delphinus 



R.A. 

232 
295 
313 



Decl. 

27° N. 
o 
15 N. 



Faint. Rather slow. 
May 1 5. Very slow. 
Swift. Streaks. 



GEOGRAPHICAL NOTES. 

Dr. H. Meyer, in a paper read before the Geographical 
Society of Leipzig, deals with the snowfall on the summit of 
Kilimanjaro. Having shown that the southern and south-eastern 
slopes of the mountain are exposed during summer to the south- 
eastern trade winds, while the summit rises in to the region of 
che anti-trades, and that local winds, sometimes of considerable 
force, ascend the mountain slope during the day, and descend 
during the night, he explains how these winds p'-oduce rain and 
snow. Dr. Meyer looks upon the wall of ice which stopped his 
further progress as the edge of a cap of neve which covers the 
summit, and which, owing to the combined influence of the wind 
and radiation, has melted away on its northern side. On the 
south, however, it seems to form a true glacier, which issues from 
the ancient crater-trough of Kibo. 

Some of the conclusions come to by Dr. K. W. Schmidt, in 
his paper on the soil and climate of German East Africa, in the 
current number of Petermann! s Mitteilungen, are worth giving 
in detail. The wooded and mountainous region of Usambara 
and the western part of Bondei, in consequence of the favour- 
able character of the soil, the copious rainfall, and extensive 
irrigation, may be truly described as fertile, and in the opinion 
of the author these countries have a great future before them. 
West of Usambara extend vast steppes, utterly unfit for cultiva- 
tion. The mountain mass of Kilimanjaro, composed of recent 
volcanic, basaltic, andtrachytic rocks, and clothed with a wealth 
of forests, should become of great importance. The physical 
condition of the country between the Pangani and the 
Wami are apparently not very favourable. Westwards the 
country of Nguru, in its geological formation, its mag- 
nificent forests, its numerous streams, and its meteorological 
conditions, resembles Usambara. Southern Useguha, as far as 
the Kingani and Gerengere, including the districts of Udoe and 
Ukewere, is nothing but a vast waterless steppe. Ukami, in its 
western part, abounds in lofty forest- clad mountains and rushing 
streams, and its soil is well adapted for cultivation ; the soil of 
the eastern part of Ukami is, on the other hand, composed 
almost exclusively of quartz pebbles and gravel. Immediately 
to the west of Ukami stretches the vast desolate M'Kata 
steppe, beyond which rises the mountainous country of Usagara, 
divided by the Mukondokwa River. The plain of Farhani, 
traversed by the river, is fertile and well populated. The 
mountainous district of Usagara itself suffers from a lack of 
streams, and also from the sparsely wooded character of its 
mountain slopes, at least in the eastern part. The country of 
Khutu, in its various river valleys, might furnish soil suitable for 
extensive cultivation. The general results of Dr. Schmidt's 
observations is to show that there is a great difference in the 
fertility and consequent value of the various countries comprised 
within the German protectorate in East Equatorial Africa, and 
that while there is a considerable extent of extremely fertile 
territory, the greater part does not appear to be capable of 
remunerative cultivation. 



P' May 9. 1889] 



NATURE 



47 



THE LIVERPOOL MARINE BIOLOGY 
COMMITTEE'S EASTER DREDGING CRUISE. 

'T'HE Liverpool Salvage Association's s.s. Hynsna left the 
^ Mersey on Thursday, April 18, on her fifth scientific 
cruise under the direction of the Liverpool Marine Biology 
Committee. The old gunboat had been generously placed 
at the disposal of the l^.M.B.C. for five days, and the pro- 
posed course was to cross to Port Erin, at the south end 
of the Isle of Man, and then dredge southwards to Holyhead 
through the deepest water to be found in this district ; then 
to work along the coast of Anglesey to Puffin Island, and 
from that back to Liverpool. Besides the ordinary dredging and 
tow- netting operations, it was hoped that two interesting new 
methods of collecting would be tried on this cruise : (i) the sub- 
marine electric light, which gave such good results in the Hyana 
expedition of last summer, was to be used as an attraction in the 
nets let down to the bottom at considerably greater depths than 
was the case in last year's experiments at Ramsey and Port Erin ; 
(2) Mr. W. E. Hoyle's new tow-net (recently described in the Proc. 
Biol. Soc. Liverpool, vol. iii.), which can be opened and closed 
at any required depth, so as to insure that the contents were 
captured in a particular stratum of water, was to be taken with 
the view of trying how it worked. 

After the first day, however, the weather although fine on land 
became very unfavourable for marine work, and the programme 
had to be considerably altered. Thursday was spent in crossing 
to Port Erin. On Friday morning we steamed south-west 
towards the deep water, but a strong wind was blowing, and 
after a haul of the dredge in 27 fathoms, about five miles out, 
some bottom and surface tow-netting, a sounding in 50 fathoms, 
and a further run to about nine miles from land, it was found 
that the heavy rolling of the vessel rendered dredging operations 
impossible out in the open sea ; so the Hyana was put about and 
returned to Port Erin, where tow-netting and other work was 
carried on in the bay. The following day the wind was still 
stronger, so it was decided to give up the Anglesey part of the 
cruise and devote the remaining days to shore and shallow-water 
work round the south end of the Isle of Man. Accordingly the 
rocks at Port Erin, Port St. Mary, Poyllvaaish Bay, and 
Fleshwick Bay were explored on the third day, while on the 
fourth most of the day was spent on board the Hyana, at anchor 
in Port Erin Bay. Tow-nets were let down, both on the surface 
and weighted so as to reach the bottom, and a small dredge with 
a long canvas net was taken out in a boat and used for obtaining 
samples of mud and sand to examine for small animals, such as 
Foraminifera, Copepoda, and Ostracoda. The strong wind 
blowing was utilized by Captain Young, who suggested floating 
tow-nets across the bay with life-buoys, and devised a sailing 
apparatus, consisting of an old life-buoy rigged up with a mast 
and sail, and having a tow- net suspended from it, which was let 
out carrying a long line to leeward and was then hauled in, the 
net keeping distended and working well during both the outward 
and the return journeys. Another surface-net was even rigged 
up attached to a large kite, but this did not work satisfactorily. 

In the afternoon the Hy(cna made two runs from Port Erin 
southwards to the Calf, dredging homewards with the wind, and 
got two excellent hauls, which contained amongst other things : 
Sarcodictyon catenata, Stichaster roseus, Palmipcs tnembranaceus, 
Porania pulvilhis, Adamsia palliati, and Fagurus pridcauxii, 
Ehalia sp., Lyonsia norvegica, Pectunculus glycimeris, and 
Ascidia venosa. 

After dark on two consecutive nights the electric light was 
used for a couple of hours in collecting bottom and surface free- 
swimming animals round the ship, in much the same way as 
during last summer's cruise. A pair of large arc lamps of 20CX) 
candle-power each were hoisted up in such a position as to 
illuminate the deck and cast a bright light on the water for some 
distance on each side of the ship. Three submarine incandescent 
lamps of ;o candle-power each were then fitted in the mouths of 
tow-nets and were let down, two of them to the bottom at a 
depth of 5 fathoms, and the third to a foot or so below the 
surface of the sea. Each of these nets was put out twice, so that 
we got four bottofn hauls and two surface hauls with the electric 
light tow-nets. Another tow-net, without any lamp, was let over 
the side of the Hyana, and lay in the brightly illuminated 
surface water. All these nets were stationary, but were kept 
fairly distended by the tide. At the same time Mr. I. C. 
Thompson was rowed round and round the ship dragging an 
ordinary tow-net in the bright area. Consequently all the nets 
were, on this occasion, used in water lighted up, the surface n°ts 



being in the glare of the 4000 candle-power lamps, while the 
bottom nets were further from this bright light, but had each 
their own smaller lamps. All gave, so far as we yet know, from 
a cursory examination, practically similar results which are 
markedly different from both the bottom and surface gatherings 
taken at the same place during the previous day, T he electric 
light gatherings contain chiefly Schizopoda, Cumacea, Amphi- 
poda, and a few Copepoda. The Cumacea are the most marked 
feature, they are veiy abundant, and form a conspicuous charac- 
teristic in t'le gathering whenever it is transferred from the net 
into a glass jar. In none of the daylight tow-nettings, either 
bottom or surface during the cruise, was a single Cumacean^ 
obtained, while every gathering on the two nights when we had' 
the electric light going contained Cumacea in abundance. I 
think there can be little doubt that those captured in the 
surface-nets had been attracted from the bottom by our brilliant 
deck-lights, which had been shining for fully half an hour before 
the nets were put over. 

On the fifth day the Hyana started in the morning from Port 
Erin and arrived at Liverpool at midnight. A little dredging 
and tow-netting was done on the way. A good haul was 
obtained from a stony and shelly bottom, at about 15 miles 
south-east of the Chicken Rock, depth 30 fathoms, which yielded 
large numbers of Polyzoa, chiefly incrusting forms. At this 
spot also, it being the deepest water on our track from Port Erin 
to Liverpool, we let the electric lamp down to the bottom in a 
tow-net twice, and got gatherings consisting mainly of Copepoda, 
Sagitla, Amphipoda, Zotias, and other larval forms. 

That free-swimming Crustaceans are attracted to a stationary 
net by the electric light may now be considered established beyond 
doubt ; and that the illuminated tow-net can be used in, at 
least, such moderately deep water as is commonly met with in^ 
dredging round our coasts was evident to all who saw the success 
with which the net was worked on board the Hyana in 30 
fathoms. 

The various tow-net gatherings and dredged collections were 
as usual preserved and brought home, and are now in the hands 
of the specialists who are working at the different groups of 
animals for the Liverpool Bay "Fauna." 

W. A. Herdman. 



SOCIETIES AND ACADEMIES. 

London. 

Linnean Society, May 2. — Mr. C. B. Clarke, F.R. S., m 
the chair. — With reference to a recent exhibition, by Mr. D. 
Morris, of leaves of different species, or varieties, of plants in- 
cluded under ErytJiroxylon Coca, Lamarck, Mr. Thomas Christy 
made some remarks on the leaves of a variety from Japan. 
These he described as brittle and thin, with hardly any trace of 
cocaine, though yielding 8 per cent, of crystallizable substance. 
The thicker leaves of the Peruvian plant yielded more cocaine, 
though at first rejected on account of their more glutinous- 
nature. — Mr. John Carruthers read a short paper on the 
Cystocarps, hitherto undescribed, of a well-known seaweed, 
Rliodymenia palmata, upon which remarks were made by Mr. 
G. Murray and Mr. A. W. Bennett. —The second part of a 
monograph of the Thelephorea was communicated by Mr. G. 
Massee. — Mr. Mitten contributed a paper on all the known 
species of Musci and Htpatica recorded from Janan. An in- 
teresting discussion followed on the character of the lapanese 
flora, in which Mr. J. G. Baker, Dr. Braithwaite, and Mr. G. 
Murray took part. 

Geological Society, April 17.— W. T. Blanford, F.R.S.,- 
President, in the chair. — The following communications were 
read : — On the production of secondary minerals at shear-zones 
in the crystalline rocks of the Malvern Hills, by Charles Calla- 
way. In a previous communication the author had contended 
that many of the schists of the Malvern Hills were of igneous- 
origin. Thus, mica-gneiss had been formed from granite, horn- 
blende-gneiss from diorite, mica-schist from felsite, and in- 
jection-schists from veined complexes which had been subjected 
to compression. As a further instalment towards the elucida- 
tion of the genesis of the Malvern schists, he discussed the 
changes which the respective minerals of the massive rocks had 
undergone in the process of schist- making. — The northern slopes 
of Cader Idris, by Grenville A. J. Cole and A. V. Jennings. 
From the publication of Mr. Aikin's paper in the Transactions 
of the Geological Society in 1829 lo the second edition of the- 



48 



NATURE 



{May 9, 1889 



Survey Memoir on North Wales, the relations of the geo- 
logical and physical features of Cader Idris have been pointed 
out in some detail. The present paper dealt with the nature of 
the eruptions that took place in this area, and the characters of 
their products at successive stratigraphical horizons. — Discussions 
followed the reading of both of these papers. 

Paris. 

Academy of Sciences, April 29. — M. Hermite in the 
chair. — On a means of obtaining photographs of true chromatic 
value by the use of coloured glasses, by M. G. Lippmann. By 
the judicious employment of green, yellow, and red glass in the 
way here explained, excellent results have been obtained even 
with present plates, notwithstanding their greater sensitiveness 
to blue. The impressions are described as clear and free from 
brown patches, the green foliage, the red or yellow draperies, 
instead of yielding brown tints, being reproduced in delicately 
modelled design as in a well-executed engraving. — Loss and gain 
of nitrogen as determined by the experiments carried on at 
Grignon from 1875-89, by M. P. P. Deherain. A general 
survey of the results of these experiments leads to the conclusion 
that all soils containing considerable quantities of nitrogen in 
combination, say two grammes to the kilogramme, lose, if culti- 
vated without manure, far more nitrogen than is absorbed by 
the crops, but in proportions varying according to the nature 
of those crops — more with beetroot, less with maize grown for 
fodder, still less with potatoes and wheat. But when the 
ground has thus been impoverished, no longer containing more 
than I '45 or i "50 grammes to the kilogramme, the losses ceases 
and the ground begins, on the contrary, to recover a certain 
proportion of nitrogen, the gain being much greater on grass- 
grown than on tilled lands. — Underground growth, seed, and 
affinities of the Sigillaria, by M. Grand'Eury. The author, who 
has had a favourable opportunity of studying these fossil plants 
in the Carboniferous formations of the Gard, confirms the view 
always held by Prof. Williamson, that they are true Cryptogams 
of the vascular order, despite the radiated structure of the wood. 
But they are not directly connected with any living type, and 
form a family of fossil plants which entirely disappeared towards 
the close of the Palaeozoic period. — Two eruptions observed on 
the sun in September 1888, by le Pere Jules Fenyi. These 
eruptions, observed on September 5 and 6, are described as of 
an extremely violent character, and as all the more remarkable 
because occurring at the epoch of minimum intensity. Both 
appear to have taken place about the same region of the solar 
■disk, and the protuberance accompanying the first contained 
the vapours of several metals, such as sodium, barium, and 
iron, besides two very bright red rays of an unknown 
■element, one between B and C, the other between B and 
.a. — On the alloy of the standard international kilogramme, 
by M. J. Violle. The alloy of platinum and iridium in 
the proportion of 10 per 100, prepared with the greatest care by 
M. Matthey, is here found to be still somewhat defective. M. 
Violle's researches show that an alloy of 9 parts platinum and i 
iridium yields more uniform and accurate results both as regards 
density and specific heat. The density thus obtained is an 
absolute constant, incapable of further modification under cold- 
hammering, annealing, or any other severe test. — Dilatation and 
compression of carbonic acid, by M. Ch. Antoine. In a previous 
note (January 21, 1889), the author showed that the reciprocal 
of the coefficient of dilatation under constant pressure is given 
by the relation — 

)8 = ^^ - /., 
5 

5 being a constant coefficient, ts and Vs the temperature and 
volume at saturation under the pressure /. Here he finds that 
more simple values may be obtained both for pVs and &. — On 
electrolytic polarization by metals, by M. N. Piltschikoff. A 
general result of these researches is that one metal may be polar- 
ized by another. — On the formation of earths containing nitrogen, 
by MM. A. Miintz and V. Marcano, The authors describe 
numerous caves in Venezuela, both on the coast ranges and on 
the slopes of the Andes, which contain vast deposits richly 
charged with nitrates and interspersed with the remains of large 
extinct animals. The bones are so friable that they crumble to 
dust at contact of the finger ; hence the difficulty of determining 
the species. They consist almost exclusively of phosphate of 
lime ; carbonate of lime is entirely absent, and there are but 
slight traces of organic matter. In these caves, sheltered from 



the action of rain-water, the nitrogen yielded by the nitrified 
organic remains was gradually accumulated. In some places the 
beds are over 30 feet thick, containing from 4 to 30 per 100 of 
nitrate of calcium, and from 5 to 60 of phosphate of calcium. — On 
the art of utilizing statistics, by M. Delauney. With a view to the 
better utilization of statistical returns, especially in the sphere of 
meteorology, the author here proposes a solution of the problem : 
Given the statistics of a phenomenon, to find a certain method 
by means of which the laws controlling that phenomenon may 
be discovered. 



BOOKS, PAMPHLETS, and SERIALS RECEIVED. 

Sylvan Folk: J. Watson (Unwin).— Moral Order and Progress: S- 
Alexander (Triibner). — Physiological Notes on Primary Education : M. P. 
Jacobi (Putnam).— Die Meteorologie Ihrem Neuesten Standpunkte Gemass 
und Mit Besonderer Berucksichtigung Geographischer Fragen : Dr. S. 
Giinther (Miinchen, Ackermann). — Report of Rainfall in Washington Terri- 
tory, &c., for two to forty years (Washington).— Haunts of Nature : H. W. 
S. Worsley-Benison (Stock).— A Table of Specific Gravity for Solids and 
Liquids (Constants of Nature, Part i) : F. W. Clarke (Macmillan).— Half a 
Century of Australian Progress : W. Westgarth (Low).— Electric Light for 
the Million : A. F. Guy (Simpkin).— A Syllabus of Modern Plane Geometry : 
(Macmillan). — Geological Magazine, May (Triibner).— Annalen der Physik 
und Chemie, 1889, No. 5 (Leipzig, Barth). — Quarterly Journal of Micro- 
scopical Science, May (Churchill).— Proceedings of the Royal Society of 
Edinburgh, vol. xv. No. 128. — Proceedingsof the Royal Society of Edinburgh, 
Session 1888-89, vol. xvi. pp. 65-128. — Journal of Physiology, April (Cam- 
bridge). — Meteorological Record, vol. viii. No. 31 (Stanford). — Quarterly 
Journal of the Royal Meteorological Society, January (Stanford).— Quarterly 
Weather Report, Part 4, October-December, 1879 (Eyre and Spottiswoode). 
— Hourly Readings, 1886 (Eyre and Spottiswoode). 



CONTENTS. PAGE 

The Estate of Her Majesty's Commissioners of 

1851 25 

Warren de la Rue 26 

The Philosophy of Mysticism 28 

Our Book Shelf:— 

Roscoe and Schorlemmer : " A Treatise on Chemistry " 31 
Smith : " Solutions of the Examples in a Treatise on 

Algebra " 31 

Low: " Applied Mechanics " 31 

Yate : " Northern Afghanistan " 31 

Knight: " By Leafy Ways" 32 

Letters to the Editor: — 

On an Electro-magnetic Interpretation of Turbulent 
Liquid Motion. — Prof. Geo. Fras. Fitzgerald, 

F.R.S 32 

The New Eruption of Vesuvius. — Dr. H. J. Johnston- 

Lavis 34 

The Sailing Flight of the Albatross. — Lord Rayleigh, 

F.R.S 34 

"Giphantia"— Sir J. D. Hooker, F.R.S 34 

Geological Photography. — Osmund W. Jeffs ... 34 
Columnar Structure in Ice. — T. D. La Touche ... 35 
Brilliant Meteor. — Captain T. Herbert Clarke, 

RV 35 

A New Mountain of the Bell. — H. Carrington 

Bolton 35 

Klein's " Ikosahedron " 35 

The Northfleet Series Electric Tramway. {Illus- 
trated.) . • , , 39 

The Examinations for Woolwich and Sandhurst . . 43 

Notes 44 

Astronomical Phenomena for the Week z88g 

May 12-18 46 

Geographical Notes 46 

The Liverpool Marine Biology Committee's Easter 

Dredging Cruise. By Prof. W. A. Herdman ... 47 

Societies and Academies 47 

Books, Pamphlets, and Serials Received 48 



NA TURE 



49 



THURSDAY, MAY i6, i{ 



BORNEO. 

Borneo : Etitdeckungsreisen iind Untersuchungen ; Gegen- 
wiir/iger Stand der Geologischen Kenntnisse ; Ver- 
breitung der Ntitzbaren Mineralien. Von Dr. Theodor 
Posewitz. (Berlin: Friedlander, 1889.) 

IN the work before us, Dr. Theodor Posewitz, of the 
Hungarian Geological Institute, gives the results of 
his three years' personal explorations in the Island of 
Borneo, with which he has incorporated the more im- 
portant observations which are recorded in the literature 
of the subject. The larger portion of this literature being 
in Dutch, it is, as a whole, not very widely known ; 
it is, accordingly, a matter of considerable importance to 
have it here summarized and critically examined by so 
competent an authority. 

The three parts into which the volume is divided are : 
(i) Political and Historical ; (2) Geological ; and (3) 
Economic Mineralogy. Each of these parts is further 
subdivided into a number of clearly-defined sections, so 
that there is no difficulty experienced in at once master- 
ing the range and contents of the work, which are further 
indicated by means of four excellent maps, showing re- 
spectively, (i) the routes of travellers, (2) the political 
divisions, (3) the geological structure, and (4) the 
distribution of useful minerals. 

We are told, in Part I., that two-thirds of the island 
belong to the Dutch, but that the States on the north 
coast are more or less under British influence. 

The history of exploration, as conducted by the Dutch, 
is treated separately from that which originated in con- 
nection with British colonial enterprise. During the 
last century, only one extensive journey was undertaken 
in Dutch Borneo, and scientific exploration was then 
altogether prohibited. 

The genuine exploration of the country did not begin 
till 1820-30, when a Natural History Commission was 
established in Batavia, and its members undertook to 
investigate artd describe various islands. Among others, 
Horner, G. Miiller, Dr. Schwaner, and Von Gafifron 
devoted themselves to Borneo, and to the two last we 
owe our knowledge of South Borneo. Between the years 
1850-60, systematic explorations for useful minerals were 
carried on by Dutch engineers in South-West Borneo, 
and these explorations have been recently resumed, after 
an interval of twenty years. 

To Alexander Dalrymple, who travelled in 1769, we 
are indebted for our first knowledge of North Borneo ; 
other early travellers were Burns, Hugh Low, and 
Spenser St. John, who visited Sarawak, Brunei, and the 
north-east coast, and ascended the Kina Balu Moun- 
tains. Among later travellers, Crocker and H. Everett 
merit special notice ; as also do the courageous pioneers 
in the British Ntsrth Borneo Company's territory — Dobree, 
Peltzer, Wetti, Von Donop, Pryer, and F. Hatton. 

With regard to the geological and physical structure, 

which are dealt with in Part II., we are told that there 

is no uninterrupted central mountain chain in Borneo, 

though such is represented on most maps. Isolated 

Vol. XL. — No. 1020. 



mountains occur at intervals, surmounting table-lands 
which extend in a north-east to south-west direction ; but 
it is not yet decided whether a regular chain exists in 
any part of the interior. The Kina Balu Mountains, 
which have a maximum elevation of 13,698 feet, are, so 
far as is at present known, the highest in the island ; they 
are situated in the territory of the British North Borneo 
Company. 

The largest rivers — the Barito, Kapuas, Redjang, and 
Mahakkam — rise in the centre of the island. 

The geological structure is remarkably free from com- 
plexity. The isolated mountains are of slate or schist 
penetrated by granite and diorite — conditions, it may be 
remarked, which are in many countries accompanied by 
the occurrence of mineral veins ; this also seems to be 
the case in Borneo. 

Succeeding these are rocks of Devonian age, in 
which auriferous veins occur. Till quite recently no 
formations had been recognized between them and the 
Tertiary deposits which have long been known, but Car- 
boniferous strata (mountain limestone), which it is be- 
lieved occur throughout a large area in Northern Borneo, 
have within the last few years been recognized, and 
Cretaceous rocks have been discovered in a single 
locality in West Borneo. 

Tertiary formations belonging to several subdivisions 
are distributed over considerable areas ; they form the 
plateaus through and above which the mountain chains 
rise. The older Tertiary strata were first studied by 
Verbeek and Pengaron in South Borneo. They are 
divisible into sandstone, marl, and limestone groups. 
The majority of the coral deposits occur in the sand- 
stone,, and the limestones consist mainly of wide-spread- 
ing coral reefs. These older Tertiary strata are often 
much disturbed and • broken by intrusive masses of 
andesite. Oligocene strata are only known in Eaist 
Borneo, where they include extensive deposits of coal. 

The diluvium of our author is of considerable economic 
importance. It spreads over wide undulating tracts sur- 
rounding the Tertiary hills. It includes the principal 
sources of the gold and diamonds which, together with 
coal, constitute the most valuable mineral resources of 
the island. From the diluvium to the alluvium which is 
in process of formation at present, there is a gradual 
transition. 

There are no evidences of any post-Tertiary volcanic 
energy in Borneo. The Kina Balu Mountains, at one 
time thought to be volcanic, are now known to consist of 
ancient eruptive masses. Earthquakes occur, but rarely, 
and so far as is known they originate in neighbouring 
islands. 

In West Borneo a deposit which appears to be identical 
with one form of Indian laterite, is described as resulting 
from the weathering of the rocks. A similar laterite 
occurs near Singapore. 

Taking a general survey of the probable geological 
history of Borneo, it appears that, up to the beginning of 
the Tertiary period, what now forms one united island 
consisted of an archipelago like that between Singapore 
and Banka. After the deposit of the Tertiary strata 
there followed a period when the island had the form of 
the Celebes. A tradition among the natives, that the sea 
formerly reached to the foot of the mountains, is referred 

D 



50 



NATURE 



[May 1 6, 1889 



to as confirming the view that the present form of the island 
has only been acquired recently. 

The useful minerals are described in Part III., and 
their distribution is indicated on the map already re- 
ferred to. Of most of them Dr. Posevvltz has previously 
published separate descriptive monographs. 

The rich coal-fields are first described. The seams 
are exposed in many river cuttings in Sarav.'ak and 
Brunei. Coal also occurs on the Island of Labuan and 
in Sabah. There are said to be rich and extensive deposits 
in East Borneo also, but they have not been worked. 

Gold is of the next importance to coal as a mineral 
product. Mining in the older formations has hitherto 
not proved remunerative, the best field being from the 
diluvial deposits, which are worked almost exclusively by 
Chinese. The richest gold regions are in the south- 
east, near Tanah Laut and Kusan, on both sides of the 
auriferous Meatus Mountains ; and in the north-east, in 
the Chinese districts of West Borneo and Sarawak. 
Recently, what jjromise to be rich gold deposits have 
been discovered in the Upper Segamah River in Sabah. 

The production of gold was much more considerable 
formerly than it is at present. In West Borneo it amounts 
annually to 120,000-150,000 kilogrammes, and in Sarawak 
it amounted to 28,281 kilogrammes in 1886. 

Diamonds are not, comparatively speaking, so abundant 
as gold, but they occur in the same deposits. They are 
searched for by Chinese. Since the introduction of the 
cheaper Cape diamonds, the production has fallen. In 
1884, 2727 carats were exported from West Borneo, and 
1200 carats from Sarawak in 1886. 

Dr. Posewitz refers to the late Prof Lewis's speculation 
as to the connection between diamonds and serpentine 
{Peridotite) (Nature, vol. xxxvi. p. 571), but states that 
it is not yet known how far his conclusion is correct, 
that diamonds and platinum are only found in Borneo 
in streams which traverse areas containing serpentine. 
Indeed, it may be added that serpentine is of rare occur- 
rence in the principal diamond regions of India, and in 
some of them none whatever has been observed. 

The famous "diamond" of 367 carats, known as the 
" Matan," from the territorial title of the Rajah to whom it 
belongs, has been estimated to be worth ^269,378 (Craw- 
furd). The Dutch made very large offers of money and 
warlike material for it early in the present century, but 
these were always refused. The stone, it now appears, 
was examined in 1868, and proved 10 be only a rock 
crystal with a specific gravity of 2 63, thus confirming 
doubts perviously expressed as to its being really a 
diamond. 

Platinum is of very local occurrence in Tanah Laut only. 

Antimony and quicksilver only occur, so far as is 
"known, in sufficient quantities to be regularly mined in 
Sarawak. 

Iron ores are widely distributed, but are of no present 
economic value. The introduction of cheap European 
iron has put an end to the native iron industry, as is the 
case, too, in many parts of India. 

Dr. Posewitz states that the condition of mining 
industries generally in Borneo is at present very poor. 
In the south, private coal-mme^ existed, but were put an 
end to by an insurrection. The well-known Government 
mines at Pengaron ceased working after thirty-six years' 



existence, as they were no longer remunerative. A private 
company has now commenced to work valuable mines on 
the east coast. In Sarawak, mines have been worked by 
the Government since 1881, and in 1886 produced 44,167 
tons. In Labuan, mines were also worked for some time, 
but are now closed. The principal source of supply at 
present is from Brunei (Muara coal). It is hoped that in 
the British North Borneo Company's territory extensive 
workings of gold and coal will be established. 

It is impossible to give here an adequate idea of the care- 
ful details with which each topic discussed in this work is 
illustrated. At the same time there is a highly meritorious 
conciseness of treatment which, together with the sound- 
ness of the author's views and his careful quotation of his 
authorities, makes the work a text-book for which it is to 
be hoped that a competent translator into English and an 
enterprising publisher will be found. It is emphatically a 
work which was much wanted, as our knowledge of the 
geology of this important island has hitherto been most 
fragmentary and imperfect, and we trust, therefore, thalt, 
ere long, steps may be taken to make Dr. Posewitz's 
labours better known to Enghsh readers. V. B. 



GRAPHICS. 

Graphics ; or, the Art of Calculation by drawing Lines, 
applied especially to Mechanical Engineering. With 
an Atlas of Diagrams. By Robert H. Smith, Professor 
of Engineering, Mason College, Birmingham. Part I. 
(London: Longmans, Green, and Co., 1889.) 

MAXWELL was the first, according to the Intro- 
duction of the present treatise, to state the 
principles in a very complete and general manner by 
which stress-diagrams are drawn, in the Phil. Mag., 
xxvii., 1864 ; and also in the Trans. Roy. Soc. Edinburgh, 
vol. xxvi. 

But Maxwell himself is careful to point out that he 
derived the original idea from Mr. W. P. Taylor, or at 
least was unaware of his previous use of the method. 

The method is of much greater antiquity, and can be 
traced through Moselej''s " Mechanical Principles of En- 
gineering and Architecture," 1843, to Mutton's " Course 
of Mathematics," 181 1, and probably still further back. 

It is, however, only of recent years that Maxwell's treat 
ment has been followed up and developed by Cremona, 
Culmann, von Ott, and others ; and now the method is 
considered indispensable in practice for the calculation 
of the stresses in bridges, roofs, and engineering and 
architectural structures generally. 

Two great advantages of the graphic method recom- 
mend it to the practical man — the first, that the diagram 
is itself a check upon the correctness of its construction ; 
and the second, that the numerical results of the diagram 
are read off on a scale only to the really practically signi- 
ficant number of figures, the very roughness and imper- 
fection of the draughtsman's work showing the margin of 
variation to be allowed for. 

As to the relative rapidity of the graphic method com- 
pared with ordinary numerical calculation by logarithms 
and arithmetical processes, the author points out that, while 
for a single isolated calculation the graphic method may 
easily be distanced, it is in the long-continued series of 



May 1 6, 1889] 



NATURE 



51 



operations of the same character required by the engineer, 
shipbuilder, or constructor in general, that the graphic 
method takes the lead once the calculator has got his 
mental operations thought out, and his instruments in good 
order; for which purpose Chapter I., on instruments, gives 
valuable hints and information. 

Chapter II. explains succinctly the plan of the book in 
its applications to graph-arithmetic. Chapter III. ; graph- 
algebra. Chapter IV. ; grapho-trigonometry and mensura- 
tion, Chapter V., &c., and lastly, grapho-dynamics, 
experimental and mathematical tabulation. 

It is in the later chapters that the full power of the 
graphic method is developed, but in the earlier chapters 
the student is exercised by well-chosen practical examples 
in the mental operations and manipulation required in 
the advanced processes. The student of ordinary mathe- 
matical processes will find here graphic solutions of geo- 
metrical loci, and the solution of quadratic, cubic, and 
other algebraical and trigonometrical equations, illus- 
trated by carefully-drawn diagrams in the atlas of 
plates. But the author appears to underrate the value 
of the planimeter on p. 63, in its application to the evalua- 
tion of the irregular areas encountered in indicator dia- 
grams, shipbuilding, and railway engineering. 

In Chrystal's " Algebra," the importance of the graphic 
solution in integers of the loci represented by indeter- 
minate equations of the first and second degree is pointed 
out ; and in the present work the graphic solution of the 
general quadratic and cubic equations by means of acare- 

fully-drawn curve, y = ' , or y = — .and its intersec- 
10 -^ 100' 

tions with a straight line, is also developed, and illustrated 

in the Atlas of Diagrams. • . 

■ The logarithmic curve, y = t", or lo>^^, would also be 

useful for the graphic solution of transcendental equations 

of the form — 

\a^ -\- D.v + F = o, 

required in the problem of the hydraulic buffer. 

Again, in trigonometry, the solution of the equation — 

a cos ^ + ^ sin ^ = ^, 

or the summations 2 cos (a -}- «/3) or 2' sin (a -f ;//3) by a 
graphical method, or drawing Lissajous's figures graphic- 
ally, would tend to impart freshness to a subject at 
present running in a narrow dry rut. Paper ruled into 
small squares of centimetres and millimetres, suitable for 
graphic methods, can be obtained in Germany, of Carl 
Schleicher and Schiill in Diiren, for instance. 

It is curious to notice that the fresh and original ideas 
and treatment of elementary mathemathical subjects due 
to Maxwell and Clifford are to be found embodied and 
adopted only in practical and technical treatises, such as 
the present work. Elementary mathematical treatises are 
in danger of becoming as dry and orthodox as a religious 
creed : examiners, on the one hand, are forbidden to set 
ideas out of the groove of a few antiquated text-books ; and 
examinees, on t'he other hand, dare not allow themselves 
to learn new ideas and methods, for fear of finding them- 
selves at a disadvantage with old-fashioned examiners. 

Some reflections on p. i8i of the present work on the 
radiant-energy-carrying ether show, however, that the 
author allows himself occasionally to indulge in the 



purely abstract speculations dear to SirW. Thomson and 
Mr. Macfarlane Gray. 

Chapter IX., on the " Kinematics of Mechanisms," 
covers much the same ground as Kennedy's " Mechanics 
of Machinery," and follows Reauleaux's treatment in his 
" Kinematik." Chapter X., on "Static Structures, Frames, 
or Linkages," and Chapter XI., on " Flat Static Structures, 
containing Beam-Links," contain the applications of the 
graphic method to problems most commonly encountered 
by the practical designer. 

The consideration of" Solid Static Structures" in Chap- 
ter XII. follows very usefully as a check upon the in piano 
treatment of the subject in the two preceding chapters. 
The failure of many very scientifically-designed bridges 
in America has shown that it is not sufficient to treat the 
beam in elevation only, as if it was a vertical plane struc- 
ture ; but that the torsional rigidity is of importance 
whenever the load is applied in the least degree 
eccentrically. 

A glossary of special terms and symbols is inserted 
at the beginning, containing without redundancy the 
new terminology useful in this subject ; and an index 
completes the work, in which we should like to have seen 
a complete list of books in English bearing on this and 
kindred subjects, such as Cotterill's " Applied Mechanics,' 
Eagles's " Constructive Geometry," Clarke's " Graphic 
Statics," Wormell's "Plotting, or Graphic Arithmetic"; 
also McLay's articles on " Geometrical Drawing," now 
appearing in the Practical Engineer. 

The author promises a second part dealing with "The 
Distribution of Stress and Strain," " The Strength, 
Stiffness, and Design of Beams and Struts," " Economy 
of Weight in Structures," " Stresses in Redundant Struc- 
tures," " Statics and Dynamics of Machines," " Frictional 
Efficiency," " Governors and Fly-wheels," " Valve Gears," 
" Practical Thermodynamics of Furnaces, Boilers, and 
Engines," " Hydrostatics and Hydrokinetics of Ships and 
Hydraulic Machines"— all subjects of great practical and 
theoretical interest, to which we shall look forward with 
much pleasure. A. G. Greenhill. 



THE CHEMICAL ANALYSIS OF IRON. 
The Chemical Analysis of Iron. By Andrew Alexander 
Blair. (London : .Whittaker and Co. Philadelphia : 
J. B. Lippincott, 1888.) 

OF all the branches of quantitative analysis practised 
for the control of industrial processes, none is of 
greater importance than that which concerns iron. The 
precise relationship of chemical composition to mechan- 
ical properties is by no means fully ascertained ; but a 
great deal of excellent work has been done in this 
direction, and we know in several cases the kind of 
variation in physical properties which is, cceteris paribus, 
to be expected to accompany a variation in the quantity 
of one constituent. We know, moreover, how extra- 
ordinarily great this physical change may be, com- 
pared with the change in composition. When we reflect 
that a quantity, which in most other technical analyses 
is within the error of experiment, may become the 
criterion by which an iron is appraised, we must recog- 
nize the necessity of accurate methods of analysis for 
this particular commodity. 



52 



NATURE 



{May 16, 1889 



The present work is stated to be a " complete account 
of all the best known methods for the analysis of iron, 
steel, pig-iron, iron-ore, limestone, slag, clay, sand, coal, 
coke, and furnace and producer gases," and we may say 
at once that the book realizes its title in a very admirable 
way. 

The author brings high credentials to his task, having 
— as chief chemist to the United States Board, appointed 
to test iron, steel, and other metals in 1875, and as chief 
chemist to the United States Geological Survey and 
tenth census 1880 — devoted many years to the subject. 
He records, he says, the results of his own experience, and 
there is a personal flavour about the work such as is too 
seldom found in modern hand-books. One feels in read- 
ing the descriptions of apparatus, processes, and pre- 
cautions, that they are not merely what the author has 
collated, but what he has seen and done and learned. 
There are many novel arrangements of apparatus de- 
scribed, many improvements of detail in various ana- 
lytical processes, and altogether the subject is handled 
in a thoroughly authoritative and practical manner. 

The most striking thing, however, is the elaborateness 
and refinement insisted upon in the performance of the 
more important operations. There is no attempt to com- 
promise unwisely between accuracy and rapidity — these 
two desiderata are treated separately. Thus there is a 
method described for determining silicon with elaborate 
precautions by volatilization in a current of chlorine, and 
another in which the amount of silicon in a pig-iron can 
be determined in twelve minutes from the time the ladle 
is put into the molten iron. 

The book begins with a description of apparatus and 
manipulation required for sampling, and subsequent 
analytical operations. This portion of the work will no 
doubt be found useful — but we regard it as sufficient 
rather than exhaustive. We can scarcely say as much of 
the following 20 pages, devoted to reagents. There seems 
to be some uncertainty as to the chemical knowledge 
expected from the operator. The information about 
chlorine that it is a yellowish gas, about two and a half 
times heavier than air, sparingly soluble in water, and the 
somewhat obvious truth which completes this description, 
that " when required it must be made," will probably 
fall flat upon a person who a few lines further on is 
expected to know that chromic acid should not be dried 
by filter-paper. And again, if one is to be told the 
equations which represent the preparation of ammonium 
sulphide, why should not one be told why it " becomes 
yellow by age, or on exposure to air " ? We think this 
portion needs revision ; superfluous information should 
be removed, and the descriptions should be made more 
complete. We think also that it would be much to 
the benefit of the very large number of half-informed 
persons engaged in the routine analysis of iron, if the 
theory of the analytical process were described always at 
the beginning of a chapter instead of being interspersed 
(and then often imperfectly) with the details of opera- 
tions. In these respects Mr. Blair's work might be 
improved, but in the main features there is no fault 
either of omission or commission. The book is beauti- 
fully printed, is supplied with full marginal notes and 
luxurious woodcuts, and is altogether a much more 
presentable volume than the British analyst is accustomed 



to have about him. We have no doubt it will be very 
cordially welcomed in the numerous iron and steel works 
laboratories of this country. 



OUR BOOK SHELF. 

Ai^riciilttiral Canada : a Record of Progress. By W. 
'Fream, B.Sc, LL.D., &c. (1889.) 

Last year. Dr. Fream, as Commissioner of the Canadian 
Government, visited Canada, for the purpose of reporting 
upon the position and prospects of agriculture in the 
Dominion, and his Report has now been published under 
the direction of the Government of Canada. The author, 
who was well fitted for the task by his previous know- 
ledge of Canada, appears to have visited every province 
in the Dominion, from Nova Scotia on the Atlantic sea- 
board to British Columbia on the Pacific. Numerous 
details concerning the climate, and the geological, bota- 
nical, and other natural features of the northern half of 
the North American continent, are interwoven with the 
more prosaic facts bearing upon the agricultural deve- 
lopment of an area as large as that of Europe. Some 
parts of the Dominion, little known even in Canada, are 
dealt with in special detail. The fine rolling prairie 
occupying North-Western Manitoba, and stretching away 
through Assiniboia to the banks of the North Saskat- 
chewan River, is selected for favourable notice, but this 
region has at present to be explored on horseback or on 
a " buckboard." Far away to the west, in Alberta, there 
appears to be another fertile and beautiful region await- 
ing development, in the Rosebud country, which includes 
the Red Deer Valley. The attempt to unravel the com- 
plicated surface features between the Rocky Mountains 
and the Pacific deserves notice, and some reference is 
made to the little-known Kootenay district. The Com- 
missioner extended his travels across an arm of the 
Pacific to Vancouver Island, the southern point of which 
is capable of considerable agricultural development. To 
the production of cattle, horses, grain, cheese, and fruit, 
the agricultural energies of the Dominion are chiefly 
directed, and the Report strongly urges the Government 
not to moderate one iota the stringency of the quarantine 
regulations, whereby alone Canadian cattle are kept free 
from contagious disease. The Report, as a whole, might 
advantageously take the place of nine-tenths of the school- 
books which profess to deal with Canada. 

Longmans" School Arithmetic. By F. E. Marshall, M.A., 
and J. W. Welsford, M.A. (London : Longmans, 
1889.) 

This work owes much of its value to its being drawn up 
on the lines laid down by De Morgan. This is shown 
by the importance attached by the authors to computation 
in the early part of the work, and by the copious use of 
diagrams in the chapters devoted to vulgar fractions. A 
moving cause to such a casting of the book is the import- 
ance which has been attached to De Morgan's methods in 
the recently issued report of the Arithmetic Committee of 
the Association for the Improvement of Geometrical 
Teaching. With such an admirer of the Professor as the 
late President of the Association is, on the said Committee, 
we should expect such a result. Much space is devoted 
to oral exercises ; this being so will account, in a measure, 
for the written explanations not being quite so full as we 
have seen them in other text-books. The treatment of 
recurring decimal fractions is thorough, the unitary method 
is employed in the solution of examples, and considerable 
care has been expended upon the commercial arithmetic. A 
large body of exercises is furnished in the text for solution, 
and very many specimens of examination papers as well as 
papers of miscellaneous exercises come at the end. There 
are a/ew small matters, in an appendix and elsewhere, . 



May 1 6, 1889] 



NATURE 



53 



which call for more careful and precise statement, but on 
the whole the work is calculated to be useful, and we can 
recommend it for school use. 

Glimpses of Feverland : of, A Cruise in West African 
Waters. By Archer P. Crouch, B.A. Oxon. (London: 
Sampson Low, 1889.) 

In this volume Mr. Crouch presents a record of the 
impressions made upon him by the land and people of 
certain portions of West Africa, which he visited in 
connection with the laying of a cable to put various 
places, principally French and Portuguese, in telegraphic 
communication with Europe. A large part of the book 
is devoted to an account of what he saw during his 
passage from Accra, on the Gold Coast, to the Portu- 
guese island of St. Thomd. Afterwards we have a full 
description of St. Thom(? and St. Paul de Loanda, and in 
several concluding chapters the author sums up the 
incidents of his voyage homewards. Mr. Crouch is so 
good an observer, and has so frank and lively a style, 
that his narrative, taken as a whole, is fresh and interest- 
ing, although his subject is often, apart from his treatment 
of it, dreary enough. He is particularly successful in those 
passages in which he seeks to give his readers glimpses 
of native customs and superstitions. It is worthy of note 
that he has formed a very unfavourable judgment as to 
the intellectual and moral qualities of the Negro race ; 
but on this question, with regard to which he differs 
widely from Mr. Stanley, he perhaps speaks rather more 
positively than the extent of his experience warrants. 



LETTERS TO THE EDITOR. 

I 77ie Editor does not hold himself responsible for opinions ex- 
pressed by his correspondents. Neither can he undertake 
to return, of to correspond with the writers of, rejected 
manuscripts intended for this or any other part of NATURE. 
No notice is taken of anonymous communications. ] 

The Meteoritic Theory. 

I H.WE during the past six months been led from the study 
of our own atmosphere to consider certain phenomena relatinc; 
on the one hand to the solar atmo-physics, and on the other hand 
to the evolution of our own globe and its atmosphere. There 
has thus arisen in my mind a system of cosmo{/ony which has 
led me, quite independent of Mr. Norman Lockyer's published 
course of reasoning, back to a meteoric theory that will, 
I hope, be acceptable to yourself and others. Awaiting 
'.he preparation of these views fjr publication, I have had 
occasion to look over the report on the total eclipse of the sun, 
July 1878 (Professional Papers of the Signal Service, No. i, 
Washington, 1881). I quote from pp. 49 and 50 some para- 
graphs to show the connection between views then held and 
those at which I have recently arrived. 

Washington, April 29. Clevfxand Abbe. 

" Under these circumstances, I could but regard the sugges- 
tion that occurred to me on July 29 as a slight but important 
extension and modification of the views previously held. . . . 
It amounted to saying that a large part of the phenomena of the 
outer corona is essentially non-solar, having to do with cold 
meteoric matter that is beyond the solar gaseous atmosphere and 
is shining by reflected light, . . . rushing on its way to plunge 
into the sun's atmosphere, where, within a few hours, it would be 
<lissipated. . . . That these lieams were due to wholly new 
meteor streams . . . now for the first time approachin<j the sun. 
... I am now inclined to extend this view to very many of the 
radiating dark artd bright lines observed during eclipses, and 
would explain most of them as due to brightly iduminated 
groups and streams of meteors and to large meteors followed by 
trains. . . . Those meteors that enter the solar atmosphere and 
become incandescent will of course shine with a greitly in- 
creased splendour, and thus constitute a portion of the inner 
corona ; these thus show us the limit of the gaseous atmosphere 
«f the sun, . . . The extreme limit may bo located at a distance 



of five minutes (of arc) above the sun's surface, and is very 
likely to be less than this. . . . Meteors glow as shooting-stars 
when tliey strike our atmosphere with a relative velocity of from 
twenty to forty miles per second, and at an altitude of about one 
hundred miles, where the density of the atmosphere may be 
about 3 X lo"" times that which prevails at the surface. Now 
these same meteors will, when they have approached to within 
130,000 miles of the sun's surface, have a momentum at least a 
hundred times greater than that with which they enter the outer 
limit of the earth's atmosphere ; therefore we are allowed to 
assume the density of the outer limit of the supposed solar 
atmosphere to be but the hun Jredth part of that of the earth, 
or 3 X io~" ; this gives us for the base of the solar atmo- 
sphere a density and a pressure quite within plausible bounds." 



The Structure and Distribution of Coral Reefs. 

Thosk who have read the additional appendix in the edition 
just published of Mr. Darwin's work on coral reefs will doubt- 
less have observed that whilst the recent evidence there pro- 
duced against the theory of subsidence lies chiefly in observations 
on living reefs in the Florida seas, in the Western Pacific, and in 
the Indian Ocean, the new testimony advanced on behalf of the 
theory is in the main indirect in bearing, and is based ou 
assumptions that have yet to be proved. 

Referring to the latter evidence in the order of mention, I come 
first to the 90-fathom neef off Socotra, a reef that is assumed to 
have been lowered by a movement of subsidence into its present 
position. So defective is our knowledge of the depths at which 
coral reefs may grow, and so incomplete is our acquaintance 
with the complex agencies that combine to produce a coral reef 
or to limit and prevent its growth, that the inference respecting 
tlie depth of the Socotra reef may be truly characterized as 
based on an unproved assumption. At present our acquaintance 
with the fauna of the submarine slopes of tropical islands in the 
Indian and Pacific Oceans, between the depths of 20 and 100 
fathoms, is of the scantiest description ; and we are not in a 
position to hazard even a guess on the subject, much less to 
assume that an island like Socotra has experienced a movement 
of subsidence because it possesses a reef "submerged in some 
places to a depth of over 90 fathoms." It is owing to our 
ignorance of the fauna in these depths that it has not been 
possible to identify the great numbers of minute molluscan shells, 
which occurred in the upraised post-Tertiary muds discovered 
by me in the Solomon Islands ; and it is of the lack of such know- 
ledge that Prof. K. Martin in his recent great work on the 
Tertiary formations of Java naturally complains. Surely, when 
the biologist is fain to acknowledge his want of acquaintance 
with the matter, and when as a consequence the palaeontologist 
and the geologist have to bring their labours to a standstill from 
the lack of comparative material, it seems rather dangerous for 
the coral reef speculator to assume what has never been properly 
examined. 

If, therefore, we have yet to determine the limit of depth of 
the growth of coral reefs, we are scarcely in a position to advance 
as evidence in behalf of subsidence the thickness of certain up- 
raised beds of coral limestone in the West Indies and in the 
Sandwich Islands. Even if such evidence should be ascertained 
to be valid in itself, it must be remembered that Mr. Murray in 
his theory places no limit to the possible thickness of coral reefs, 
and that in the outward growth of a reef a considerable thickness 
may be produced. There was, in truth, no circumstance more 
impressed on my mind in the Cocos-Keeling Islands than the 
seaward extension of ciral reefs. 

Once more, however, I would impress on future investigators 
the extent of our ignorance of the depths in which coral reefs 
may form. In one of my papers (Proc. Roy. Soc. Edin., 1885- 
86, p. 887) I have pointed out that the estimates of observers in 
different regions vary between 5 and 40 fathoms. It is also 
singular how different observers may vary in the conclusions they 
draw from the same lines of soundings. The soundings off 
Keeling Atnll were made by Captain Fitzroy himself, and he 
places the limit of depth at 7 fathoms ("Voy. Adventure and 
Beagle" ii. 634) ; whilst his companion, Mr. Darwin, judging 
from the same soundings, concluded that it lay between 12 and 
20 fathoms. In truth, as long since pointed out by Prof. 
.Semper, the whole question of the depth of the reef-coral zone 
has never been methodically investigated. It never occurred to 
Mr. Darwin or Prof. Dana that coral reefs might grow in depths 
beyond the belt of sand that apparently limited their growth. Yet 



54 



NATURE 



[May 16, 1889 



such I found to be actually the case on the slopes of Keeling 
Atoll, where Captain Fitzroy's soundings were taken. Few, in 
fact, who have read the work of the young naturalist of the 
Beagle, can sufficiently realize how scanty were the data on which 
the fundamental inference of the theory of subsidence was based ; 
and I may safely add that few must be the scientific questions 
that have been settled on a scantier basis of observation than 
that relating to the depths at which reef-corals grow. 

With regard to the sections exhibiting the submarine profile 
of the reef of Masamarhu Island, I was first at a loss to under- 
stand why their character should be advanced as favouring 
the idea of a movement of subsidence, since, when they 
first appeared in Nature (vol. xxxvi. p. 413), I regarded 
them as favouring Mr. Murray's views. However, it soon 
appeared that this opinion was based on our inextensive 
acquaintance with the habits of corals, especially with the limit- 
ing causes of their extension in depth. The "ditches" shown 
in these sections I look upon as indicating the formation of 
barrier-reefs at considerable depths, and as giving remarkable 
support to my views on the origin of these reefs. In the paper 
above quoted I have been led by the observations of Agassiz in 
the Florida seas, and by my own in the Solomon Islands, to the 
conclusion that the main determining condition of the depth in 
which reef-corals thrive is to be found in the injurious effect on 
coral growth of the sand and sediment produced by the breakers, 
and that the distribution of these materials is dependent on 
the angle of the seaward submarine slope and on other less 
important circumstances. 

It follows from this that in those localities where the sub- 
marine slope is moderate, a barrier-reef will f )rm beyond the 
belt of detritus derived from the shore-reef inside it. But when 
the slope is fairly steep, as in the case of Keeling Atoll, the 
reef debris will cover an area of much less horizontal extent, 
and, as at these islands, an off-lying line of coral shoals will 
spring up at a distance only of 150 or 200 yards from the inner 
reef. Should, however, the slope be precipitous, as at Masa- 
marhu Island, the reef debris will extend to considerable 
depths ; and beyond the area thus covered with sand and gravel, 
a line of reef will in the course of time grow upwards, giving 
rise to the so-called "ditches " of the sections. 

Reefs of all classes, as I hold, have a two-fold mode of 
growth seawards. There is first the advancement of the outer 
edge of a reef on its own talus, as dwelt upon by Mr. Murray. 
In the second place, they grow seaward by a reclaiming pro- 
cess, whether they be fringing, barrier, or circular reefs. The 
distribution of the sand and debris, guided by the angle of the 
submarine slope, determines, as above shown, this second mode 
of growth, which may result, as at Keeling Atoll, in a line of 
adjacent coral banks that ultimately reclaim a new strip and add 
it to the width of the reef, or a more distant barrier reef may 
appear at the surface, the lagoon of which silts up and is choked 
with coral in the course of ages, or, as at Masamarhu Island, 
there may occur a deeply-submerged barrier-reef that can be 
discovered only by methodical soundings. 

Let us take the instance of Keeling Atoll to illustrate the 
present condition of this controversy. In a series of papers on 
this celebrated atoll, that I am preparing for the Royal Scottish 
Geographical Society, I have shown that the direct evidence of 
subsidence adduced in its case by Mr. Darwin is, according to 
Mr. G. C. Ross, its present proprietor, founded in error. In 
- truth, Mr. H, O. Forbes, during his visit in 1878, observed 
evidence leading in his opinion towards a movement of upheaval. 
In default, then, of direct evidence, we have to look for the 
indirect proofs to certain a priori considerations, based on a 
few soundings that appeared to demonstrate once and for all the 
limit of depth of the reef-coral zone, a subject concerning which we 
still have very incomplete data. Then we are transported across 
the Indian Ocean to the go-fathom reef of Socotra, the origin of 
which, for the reason ju:t stated, is hidden in mystery. After- 

■ wards, appeal is made to the thickness of reef limestones in 
Cuba and in the Sandwich Islands, limestones which, it is 
alleged, could only have been formed during subsidence, not- 

■ withstanding that their exact nature has not yet been deter- 
mined, and in spite of the circumstance th?t reefs can attain a 
consideral)le thickness, as Mr. Murray rightly holds, solely by 
their outward growth. 

If a visitor from another planet, having thus fa- followed the 

discussion, were to inquire in an apologetic manner whether, 

instead of going to the other hemisphere for evidence wa had 

'methodically endeavoured to investigate the problem on the 



spot, by patiently studying the complex agencies at work on 
this atoll, by carefully inquiring into the changes of the past, 
and by interpreting through their aid the proce-ses of the 
present, we should be obliged to answer: " .Scarcely at all. A 
theory advanced on the very threshold of such an investigation 
explained so well our limited knowledge by a movement of 
subsidence, that it is only of late years that doubts have arisen 
and that a new theory has been advanced opening up the lines 
of research to which you refer." H. B. Guppy. 



" Bambangala." 

I SHALL be glad if you will allow me to call the attention of 
those who visit the Congo Free State to the curious antelope 
called " Bambangala," which is spoken of by Captain Bateman 
in his "The First Ascent of the Kasai," lately published by 
Messrs. George Philip and Son. Captain Bateman describes it 
as being " in size as large as a mule ; of a bright chestnut colour, 
striped with creamy white, much in the manner of a zebra, on 
the back and sides, and dappled on the neck and flanks." 




From the form of the horns shown in the figure (which, by 
the kind permission of Messrs. George Philip and Son, is here 
reproduced from Captain Bateman's book), it would appear that 
this antelope must belong to the genus Tragelaplms, but probably 
to a new species. 

I should be very glad to examine specimens of the head and 
horns of this antelope, in case any of your correspondents in the 
Congo should meet with it, or to have some further information 
on the subject from those who have visited that region. 

P. L. SCLATER. 

Zoological Society of London, 3 Hanover Square, 
London, W. , May 7. 

Inclusion of the Foot in the Abdominal Cavity of a 
Duckling. 

A DUCKLING, four days old, sent from Eastry in Kent, hatched 
on April 25, 1889, presented the above curious abnormality. 
The ngiit lower extremity was normal in every respect ; the left 
appeared on superficial examination to be absent. An incision 
made through the skin over the left flank at once disclosed the 
left limb, the joints being flexed to their utmost extent, and 
the thigh adducted, so that it lay in contact with the ab- 
dominal muscles of the left side ; at the tibio-tarsal joint the 
limb passed through the wall of the abdomen, a few millimetres 
above the symphysis pubis. A portion of the yolk-sac protruded 
at the aperture by which the foot penetrated tlie abdominal 
wall. Opening the abdomen showed the rennind.-rof the yolk- 
sac, its connection with the ileum, and the left foot lying upon 
the surface of the intestines. This included foot was fully 
developed, having a complete web, an 1 being covered with 
scales. An adhesion exi.sted between the outer surface of the 
yolk-sac and the left leg in the region of its tibio-tarsal joint, and 
there were also adhesions of the sac to the skin of the abdomen, 



May 16, 1889] 



NATURE 



55 



covering the lower part of the tibial muscles. This adhesion of 
the yolk-sac to the leg had apparently taken place after the full 
development of the limb ; and the yolk-sac, in the course of its 
w ilhdrawal into the cavity of the abdomen, had apparently 
drawn the foot in with it. The withdrawal of the yolk-sac is 
generally held to be brought about by the absorption of its con- 
tents ; if the above explanation of the existing condition be 
correct, a considerable force must be exerted by this act of 
absorption if it is capable of dragging the foot, from its normal 
position, into the cavity of the abdomen. 

E. Waymouth Reid. 
.St. Mary's Hospital, W., May 6. 



Atmospheric Electricity. 

I SEND you the following account of a curious, and, I believe, 
rare electrical phenomenon witnessed last week by a friend of 
mine and myself. 

We had, in the course of a long mountain ramble, reached the 
summit of Elidyr Fawr (3033 feet), a mountain lying to the north- 
east of Llanberis, and about four miles north of Snowdon. Being 
a short distance in front of my friend, I sat down and rested with 
my back to the cairn, sheltering myself from a cold south wind 
which was blowing with considerable velocity. In about two 
minutes I heard a curious buzzing sound commence, apparently 
proceeding from the top of the post set up not long ago by the 
Ordnance surveyors. I had heard the same noise about three 
years ago while descending the areU of the Weisshorn, and 
on that occasion, as on this, there was a south wind blowing, 
accompanied by snow — on the Weisshorn in large flakes, on 
Elidyr Fawr in fine powdery flakes. On the Weisshorn, for 
above an hour every rock seemed to emit the peculiar buzzing 
noise, and our ice-axes did the same. We were in too great a 
hurry, however, to pay much attention to the phenomenon. A 
day or two after, I related my experience to a gentleman, Mr. 
Powell — who, I tnist, will forgive me for mentioning his name — 
and learned from him that he had had a similar experience on 
the Unter-Gabelhorn, near Zermatt. The day was on that 
occasion, if I remember right, clear, when the noise was heard, 
followed in a short time by a flash, and a shout from two of the 
party that they were struck. No harm was done by the shock, 
but the sensation was described as being like that which would 
be felt if every hair of the head were caught hold of and 
violently twisted. Having heard the sound before, I readily 
recognized it on Elidyr Fawr, and resolved if possible to study 
the phenomenon more closely. I first climbed on to the cairn, 
and found that the sound proceeded from the whole surface of 
the wood for about two feet from the top of the post. I then 
raised my stick, which had an iron point, and found that the 
sound began to proceed from it directly a height of about six 
feet from the ground was reached. I then put my hand on the 
part emitting the sound, but could feel nothing. On putting my 
stick down, and keeping my hand up, the sound proceeded from 
my hand — from more or less of it according as I raised it higher 
or lower — and I imagined that on the back of my hand the 
sensation of being very slightly pricked in many places was 
perceptible. My friend was much impressed by the peculiarity 
and intensity of the sound, and agreed with me that it would 
not be wise to stay long. As_we proceeded along the ridge, 
after a slight drop, we rose again, and while standing on some 
rocks, the noise began in our caps, accompanied by such an 
agitation of the hair that it quite seemed as if we had literally a 
" bee in the bonnet." There was no sound of thunder, and in 
the course of about half an hour the srow-storm passed away, 
not however before we had descended far below the enchanted 
summit. C. A. C. liowLKEK. 



Halo of the Moon and Formation of Peculiarly Shaped 
Clouds at Oxford. 

I NOTICED the following very beautiful phenomenon on the 
night following May 8, aid it seems to me worth recording. At 
9.45 p.m. the moon was surrounded by a very large halo, tlie sky 
being quite clear in the immediate vicinity of the same, with the 
exception of a small accumulation of clouds at the lower part of 
the halo (to the left of the spectator). 

At 10,45 '^s h^'o ^^^ completely disappeared, and a large 
cloud was obscuring it and the moon. The margin of the 
cloud was split up into tongue-like protuberances. At U.20 



the halo had again appeared, but it was not so bright ; the moon 
was hidden from the spectator by some clouds. 

At 1 1. 30 the clouds had disappeared, and the moon was shining 
out brightly, but the halo was only very slightly visible, and that 
only at its highest point. Just before it began to disappear 
gradually, some of the clouds with the peculiar tongue-like pro- 
tuberances already mentioned were formed, but they disappeared 
again after a few minutes. As was to be expected, we had 
rain on the following day, and some already during the same 
night. 

I need only just mention that the halo is supposed to be pro- 
duced by the refraction of light by crystals of ice. Brewster 
proved this by viewing the sun through some plate-glass on 
which he had allowed some alum to crystallize out in a thin 
sheet, when he saw a number of rings closely resembling halos. 

Otto V. Darbishire. 

Balliol College, Oxford. 

Spherical Eggs. 

The problem of packing the greatest number of equal spheres 
into a given space, to which Prof. Aldis has drawn attention in 
your columns, is the simplest case of a more general problem 
which I have employed in my theory of crystallization (Cam. 
Phil. Trans., vol. xiv. part 3) — that is, the packing of the 
greatest number of equal and similar ellipsoids into a given space. 
The solution is that the ellipsoids should be arranged in a manner 
similar to that described for spheres by Profs. Aldis and Green - 
hill, so that every ellipsoid be touched by twelve others, and, 
further, that all the ellipsoids be similarly situated. The curious 
result comes out that so long as the ellipsoids are all similarly 
situated the orientation of the axes makes no difference in the 
number of them per unit volume. They may be turned about, 
provided they are all similarly turned, without affecting the ratio 
between the space filled by them and the unfilled space between 
them. 

In the case of spheres, if tangent planes be drawn through 
all the points where the spheres touch one another, they will cut 
up space into regular rhombic dodecahedrons, every sphere being 
circumscribedby such a dodecahedron. Now, of plane-faced figures 
which can be described about a sphere and which will exactly 
fill space, the smallest in volume is the rhombic dodecahedron ; 
hence the spheres arranged in the way described occupy the 
minimum volume. In like manner if tangent planes be drawn 
through all the points where the ellipsoids touch one another, they 
will divide space into dodecahedrons with quadrilate>-al faces, 
which will be unsymmetrical, but will be all similar and equal. 
If the ellipsoids be all turned in a similar manner the dodeca- 
hedrons will alter in form but not in volume. These dodeca- 
hedrons are the smallest which can be described about the 
ellipsoids consistently with the condition that they shall exactly 
fill space. The condition of similarity in the situation of the 
ellipsoids involves the consequence that, if we consider one 
ellipsoid and the twelve others which touch it, four planes can 
be drawn each passing through the centres of seven ellipsoids. 
The points of contact of the ellipsoids will lie in those planes, 
and the tangent planes through these points will be parallel to 
the diameters conjugate to those planes. Other geometrical 
properties follow which do not concern the present problem. 

Cambridge, May 10. G. D. Liveing. 

Columnar Structure in Ice. 

There are several notices in existence on the subject of the 
columnar structure of ice, to which attention has been called by 
Mr. La Touche (Nature, May 9, p. 35). For instance, a 
letter by myself in ihe first volume of Nature (p. 481), which 
contains references to sundry cases of the occurrence of the 
structure in Britain .ind in other parts of Europe, and offers a 
suggestion as to the cause. The structure may often be seen, 
if looked for, and is be t exhibited when a very gradual thaw 
follows a hard frost. T. G. Bonney. 



SCARLET FEVER AND COIV DISEASE. 

FEW questions have within recent years more en- 
grossed the attention of the veterinary and medical 
professions of this country, and have been the subject of 
greater or more acute controversy, than the relation of 



56 



NA TURE 



[May 1 6, 1889 



human scarlet fever to cow disease. As is well known, 
the Medical Department of the Local Government Board, 
through the Reports of Mr. Power, Dr. Cameron, and Dr. 
Klein (1886), have brought forward a formidable array of 
facts, by which it was established that, in an epidemic of 
scarlet fever prevailing towards the end of 1885 in the 
north of London, the contagium was distributed through 
a milk supply derived from particular milch cows at a 
dairy farm at Hendon, which cows were affected with 
ar specific eruptive and visceral disease — the Hendon 
disease. It was further shown (Report of the Medical 
Officer of the Local Government Board, 1887) that this 
cow disease is to be considered as cow scarlatina, and 
that both human and cow scarlatina are associated with 
and caused by a microbe, the Streptococcus scarlatince. 

The veterinary profession, headed by the Agricultural 
Department of the Privy Council, have been foremost in 
the opposition to these statements. In the Report " On 
Eruptive Diseases of the Teats and Udders of Cows," 
issued towards the end of 1888 by Prof Brown, the chief 
of the Agricultural Department, a superabundance of 
opinions were forthcoming, and, as often happens under 
the circumstances, fact has appeared for a while in danger 
of being smothered in the confusion engendered. But, 
happily, facts are stubborn things, and not easily stifled. 
However much trampled on, facts are ever prone to re- 
assert themselves and to multiply, and one result of the 
cow controversy has been that the recently issued Report 
of the Medical Officer of the Local Government Board 
gives promise of a new and abundant crop of them. The 
first subject bearing on this controversy and dealt with in 
the recent volume is the significance of the Streptococcus 
scarlatince. Many and various have been the assertions 
as to this microbe being an unessential concomitant of 
the disease. The experiments now made by Dr. Klein 
(Appendix B, No. i, Section A.), with artificial cultures of 
the Streptococcus scarlatina; on recently-calved milch 
cowf, show that an eruptive and visceral disease is pro- 
duced in these cows which closely resembles the Hendon 
disease, and consequently lend firm support to the view 
previously enunciated by the Medical Department that 
the Streptococcus scarlatince is the real microbe of scarlet 
fever. 

Amongst a further array of facts therein marshalled, 
some that are historical obtain, in view of the cow 
controversy, fresh interest and importance. It is pointed 
out (Section B.) that, before the time of Jenner, " cow- 
pox" was the familiar name given to every sort of 
sore on cows' teats ; that, with recognition by Jenner of a 
form of sore denominated by him variolce vaccina, one 
particular cow-pox obtained the distinctive name of 
" true," while all others became designated as "spurious " ; 
and that, except for Ceely's notable endeavours to obtain 
better knowledge, '■ spurious cow-pox," blister-pock, and 
the like vague terms continued to be used indifferently 
for all sores on the teats and udders that were not 
" true cow-pox." So the matter stood for eighty years, 
until at the Hendon farm a second definite member 
of this group was recognized by Mr. Power, when the 
old division into true and spurious cow-pox became 
manifestly insufficient. It was now seen that the name 
" spurious cow-pox " had in all probability been used to 
cover a variety of sores having essential differences in 
nature, just as, until the time of Jenner, the name " cow- 
pock " had covered along with various other things the 
disease which we know as vaccinia. But it is one thing 
to have learnt the essential nature of those sores of the 
cow that are concerned with vaccinia or scarlatina in 
the human subject, and quite another thing to affirm the 
distinguishing characters by which these may be recog- 
nized from other sores that once on a time laid claim to 
being equally with them "cow-pox "or" spurious cow-pox." 
It is very obvious, too, that our new discontent with the 
name " spurious cow-pox " does not at once give us know- 



ledge of those sores which remain on the list, while it is 
equally clear that there are many kinds of such sores. 

In these circumstances there was nothing to be done 
but to begin over again the study of cow-poxes with a view 
to learning of each one its complete natural history. And 
this has been the procedure of the Medical Department, 
with the result that a considerable instalment of positive 
knowledge respecting certain cow eruptions is afforded 
in the Report already referred to. When it is said that 
there was no alternative procedure to that adopted by 
the Medical Department, no more is meant than that from 
the scientific stand-point no alternative was possible. 
Other ways there were, of course, of dealing with the 
subject, as, for instance, in its " practical " or trade 
aspects, or from the sentimental point of view. That 
adopted by the Veterinary Department of the Privy 
Council is not easy of definition, but it may be described 
as a method of composite character by which uncertain 
science and excess of sentiment are oddly interjumbled. 

It has consisted in flat denial of the possibility of cow 
scarlatina, along with reversion in the matter of cow- 
po.xes to the attitude of the cow-man of pre-Jennerian days. 
Thus Prof. Brown, in the earlier pages of his Report in 
denial of cow scarlatina, speaks indifferently of " eruptive 
disease among cows," " udder disease among cows," 
'"outbreaks of udder disease common as usual," "a very 
common eruptive affection which is usually called cow- 
pox by dairymen," and the like. And throughout his 
Report Prof. Brown studiously avoids giving a name to 
any udder disease or diseases with which he is dealing. 
Only once does his reader, when referred to Plate 4, at 
the end of Prof. Brown's volume, obtain hope of some de- 
finite nomenclature ; but he turns to the plate in question 
only to be confronted with such terms as " blister-pock" 
and " blue-pock " — terms of the pre-Jennerian prototype. 
Having thus smoothed the way for discovery of a cow-pox 
(or "Hendon disease") not associated with scarlatina 
among consumers of the milk of the affected animals. 
Prof Brown would seem to exercise almost superfluous 
caution in his phrasing of the following passage at p. 
vii. of his Report : — " Leaving for the present the subject 
of the original Hendon cow disease in 1885-86, it is 
necessary to refer to outbreaks of the same or similar ' 
cow disease which occurred at Hendon and elsewhere in 
1887-88." Be this as it may, he had of course no difficulty 
whatever in finding instances of one or another cow malady, 
which it pleased him to call " Hendon disease," not as- 
sociated with scarlatina among persons consuming the 
implicated mill:. This sufficed for Prof Brown, and for 
a while, perhaps, he was altogether content. 

But Prof Brown's confidence in his own opinion, 
fortified as it had been by his failure in the early stage 
of his investigation to find any udder affection associated 
with illness t.f scarlatinal sort among consumers of the 
milk of the affected cows, was destined later on to re- 
ceive somewhat rude shocks. Prof McFadyean, a 
coadjutor of Prof. Brown's, having made discovery at 
Edinburgh of an udder malady associated with sore 
throat among persons consuming the milk of the cows 
affected by it, Prof Brown, on personal examination 
of the Edinburgh cows, was constrained to admit for 
this disease clinical characters distinguishing it from 
any that he himself had been investigating, and patho- 
logical features very similar to those of the original 
Hendon disease. 

Of this Edinburgh disease (the pathology and cetiology 
of which are described by Dr. Klein in Appendix B., No. 2) 
Prof McFadyean notes that it "differed in every im- 
portant respect from true cow-pox," and that (hke the 
Hendon disease) " it did not cause sores on the hands of 
the milkers." Here, then, on the evidence of the Veterinary 
Department, was a cow malady that was not cow-pox, 

' 1 he italics are curs. 



May 1 6, 1889] 



NATURE 



57 



that was not the " Hendon disease" of Prof. Brown, but 
which was associated with throat illness among consumers 
of the milk of the affected cows — ^just such a cow malady, 
in fact, as the Medical Department stated could have, 
and had, existed without recognition by veterinary 
surgeons. 



SKELETON OF PHENACODUS. 

A LL readers of the American Naturalist must be 
-^*- familiar with a striking woodcut of the entire 
skeleton of a peculiar fossil Ungulate, which occurs 
throughout a long series of numbers among the adver- 
tisements, and bears the following somewhat startling 
subscription, viz. " The five-toed horse — the ancestor of 
lemurs and man." This fisrure we are enabled, throuerh 



the courtesy of Prof Cope, to reproduce in the accom- 
panying woodcut. The name given by its describer. Prof. 
E. D. Cope, of Philadelphia, to the animal of which the 
skeleton is so marvellously preserved, is Phenacodtis 
primavits ; the genus forming one of the best-known 
representatives of that very curious extinct group of 
generalized Ungulates for which the Professor has 
proposed the name Condylarthra. 

Till quite recently those zoologists who have not enjoyed 
the good fortune of visiting the United States have been 
acquainted with this remarkable and unique fossil only 
by description and figures ; the largest figure being the 
fine plate in Prof Cope's magnificent quarto work on the 
" Tertiary Vertebrata of the West," published a few years 
ago by the United States Government among the Reports 
of the Geological Survey of the States. Some months 
ago, however, the Keeper of the Geological Department 




The Skeleton oi i'henacodus priinavns; from the Wasatch Eccene of Wyoming. One-seventh natural size. (After Cope.) 



of the British (Natural History) Museum entered into 
negotiations with Prof Cope, to whom this priceless 
specimen belongs, with a view to obtaining a plaster 
model for exhibition in the pateontological galleries of 
the Museum. Fortunately these negotiations have been 
attended with success, and all students of Mammalian 
osteology ought certainly to pay a visit to the Museum in 
order to see this beautiful cast, which is now mounted in 
its place, and is, we will venture to say, of far more value 
to the student than many of the real but fragmentary fossil 
specimens for which large prices have been paid. We 
may indeed congratulate the popular Keeper of the Geo- 
logical Department in not hesitating to pay what we 
believe was a somewhat heavy price for the acquisition of 
this cast. 

No figures could, indeed, possibly give an adequate 
idea of the marvellous state of preservation of the original 



specimen ; and we must confess that personally we totally 
failed to acquire a conception of the real size of the 
specimen till we were brought face to face with the cast. 

The original skib was obtained some years ago by Mr. 
J. L. Wortman from the Wasatch Eocene of the Big- 
Horn basin in Northern Wyoming, and was subsequently 
transferred to the collection of Prof Cope, of which it is 
one of the chief gems. The Wasatch beds, it may be 
observed, are low down in the Eocene, and when v.'e con- 
sider that so many of even the Upper Eocene Mammals 
of Europe are known only by isolated and often imperfect 
skulls, teeth, or limb-bones, we are struck with the mar- 
vellous preservation of the American form. The dimen- 
sions of the slab are about 49 by 28 inches ; and Prof. 
Cope describes the animal as intermediate in point of 
size between a sheep and a tapir. The animal lies on its 
right side, with the tail bent suddenly down behind the 



58- 



NATURE 



{May 1 6, 1889 



posterior limbs, and the shoulder-blades thrown up from 
their proper position some distance above the line of the 
vertebral column. The skull is almost entire, and although 
the scapulas are imperfect, and the right pectoral, limb 
has sustained some losses, all the bones of the skeleton are 
in their original juxtaposition, so that we may note the 
arrangement of the bones of the carpus or tarsus almost 
as well as in the skeleton of a recent type. It strikes us, 
indeed, that it would have been quite easy to have ex- 
tracted the skull and many of the bones of the limbs 
from the matrix, and made entire casts from them, which 
could have been placed in cavities in the cast from the 
original slab. 

The chief importance of this and other American 
specimens of fossil Mammals belonging to totally extinct 
types is their completeness, whereby we are enabled at 
once to gain a very fair idea of the affinities of the anirnals 
to which they belonged. In Europe, with the exception 
of the well-known Mammals of the Upper Eocene (or 
Lower Oligocene) of the Paris basin, our efforts are 
nearly always hampered by the imperfect nature of our 
specimens — as witness the question whether the limb- 
bones from Hordwell described, by Kowalewsky are or 
are not referable to the Dichodon of Owen, which was 
founded upon the evidence of .the skull — so that we can 
very rarely speak confidently and fully as to the affinities 
of any particular form. It may, indeed, be stated, without 
any fear of contradiction, that we could never have hoped 
to have attained anything like our present knowledge as 
to the mutual affinities of the various sub-orders (or 
orders) of Ungulate Mammals and their relations to 
other groups, had it not been for the fortunate dis- 
coveries of such a host of well-preserved specimens in 
the Tertiaries of the United States. And we may here 
express the obligations which all European students are 
under to those palaeontologists who, like Messrs. Cope, 
Leidy, Marsh, Osborn, Scott, and others, have laboured 
so indefatigably to collect and describe the Vertebrate 
faunas of past epochs in the so-called New World. In 
expressing thus briefly our obligations to these eminent 
exponents of the life-history of a former world, we must, 
however, not omit also to mention the enlightened 
liberality of the Government and of various learned 
Societies in the States, which have furnished the funds 
necessary to render these treasures available to the world, 
through the means of the magnificent publications in 
which they are described. 

In concluding this brief notice of the new treasure re- 
cently aquired by our National Museum, we may say a 
few words regarding some of the chief characters of the 
Condylarthrous Ungulates. One of their most essential 
features is the comparatively simple arrangement of the 
bones of the wrist and ankle joints (carpus and tarsus) ; 
the various rows preserving their original distinction, and 
having only very slight mutual interlocking. In this 
respect, this group agrees with the existing Hyracoidea so 
closely that Prof Cope has considered himself justified in 
brigading the two groups together under the common 
title of Taxeopoda. Usually ihe dentition comprises the 
full number of teeth found in those higher, or placental, 
Mammals in which the teeth are differentiated into 
groups ; and very generally the cheek-teeth have their 
crowns formed on what is known as the bunodont type. 
That is to say, their crowns are low, and carry three or 
more low and blunt tubercles, as exemplified in the pig 
and in man. Further, the eye or canine teeth are well 
developed, and recall those of the Carnivora. Again, the 
humerus, or bone of the upper arm, has a foramen at its 
lower extremity, which is totally unknown in all other 
Ungulates, and likewise recalls the Carnivora and some 
of the lower orders. The digits are nearly always five in 
number, and their terminal joints are so pointed as fre- 
quently to render it difficult to say whether their coverings 
should be termed nails or hoofs. The femur, or leg-bone. 



has a third trochanter, like that of existing Perissodactylate 
Ungulates ; and the ankle-bone, or astragalus, has its 
lower articular surface uniformly convex, instead of flat- 
tened or facetted as in all modern Ungulates. The astraga- 
lus and the wrist joint are, indeed, very similar to the same 
parts in the generalized Carnivora of the Eocene. The tail 
was larger and heavier than in any existing Ungulate, and 
was thus more like that of many Carnivora, such as the 
wolf In walking, it appears that the three middle toes 
of each foot touched the ground, whilst the first and fifth 
toes stuck out on the sides and behind, after the fashion 
obtaining with the second and fifth toes of the pigs. 

The curious approximation made in the osteology of 
this remarkable type of Mammal to the generalized Carni- 
vora of the Eocene, to which Prof Cope has applied the 
name of Creodonta, is so marked that Dr. Max Schlosser, 
of Munich, considers that we are now justified in regard- 
ing the Ungulates and the Carnivores as divergent 
branches of a single primitive stock. Phenacodiis is- 
regarded, moreover, by Prof Cope, as the ancestral type 
from which a number of the more specialized Ungulates 
have been derived ; and there appears every probability 
that this genus should be placed as one of the earlier 
links in the chain which culminates in the modern horse. 

Recently, however, the American Professor has 
proposed to include in the Taxeopoda not only the 
Hyracoidea and Condylarthra (which it was originally 
formed to receive), but also the Primates of English 
zoologists, which it is proposed to divide into the Dauben- 
toidea, represented by the existing aye-aye {C/iironiys) 
and the t.x\.mct Mtxodectes ; the Ouadrumana, embracing 
the other lemurs and monkeys ; and the Anthropo- 
morpha, which is taken to include the man-like apes and 
man. A complex genealogical tree is given, in which the 
Phc7tacodo7itidce are represented as not only the pro- 
genitors of the other Ungulates, but also as giving origin 
on the one hand to the so-called Daubentoidea, and on 
the other to the Quadrumana, from which the Anthropo- 
morpha are derived as a secondary branch from the 
Eocene Lemuroid Aticiptoinorphido' , which group is itself 
derived from the Adapidce, as represented by the well- 
known Adapts of the Upper Eocene cf Europe. 

Now, with all dua respect to Prof. Cope, we venture to 
say that no English zoologist will be inclined to accept 
a classification which includes in a single " order " such 
widely different forms as man and the hyrax, while the 
other Ungulates are apparently regarded as constituting a 
totally distinct order. Again, in regard to the genea- 
logical tree it appears to us to be incomprehensible how 
an order like the Primates, all the members of which are 
furnished with fully-developed clavicles, can have takers 
origin from an Ungulate type like Phenacodiis, in which 
it appears that those bones are totally wanting. While^ 
therefore, fully recognizing the great interest of Phena- 
codiis as an ancestral type, we totally fail to see how 
it can also be regarded as the " ancestor of lemurs and 
of man." R. L. 



THE IRON AND STEEL INSTITUTE. 

^pHE twentieth session of the Iron and Steel Institute 
-*- was opened on Wednesday, May 8, when the President^ 
Sir James Kitson, gave his inaugural address, which was 
of a technical character, and was devoted mainly to the 
consideration of the best Yorkshire iron as an industrial 
product ; but the subject of iron alloys, to which we shall 
refer again, the extending application of iron and steel for 
railways and ships, and other matters of interest, such 
as technical education and the revival of trade, were also- 
referred to. 

The first paper read was one on the alloys of nickel and 
steel, by Mr. James Riley. This led to a very lengthy and 
interesting discussion, from which it appeared, as has 



May 1 6, 1889] 



NATURE 



59 



often occurred in similar instances, that another metal- 
lurgist had been working in the same direction for a con- 
siderable time. The results obtained by Mr. F. J. Hall, of 
Messrs. Jessop'a, of Sheffield, and Mr. Riley are very 
similar in character, but whilst the former appears to have 
made what may be called industrial experiments, those 
of the latter have been mainly confined to the laboratory. 
Nickel can be made to form an alloy with steel, in 
quantities varying from a hardly appreciable amount up 
to as much as 50 per cent. ; the alloy does not require an 
excessively high temperature to melt it, special attention 
is not necessary in its production, the resulting metal is 
definite in character, and is easily worked both under the 
hammer and in the rolls. A very remarkable increase in 
the tensile strength and elasticity of steel is produced by 
alloying it with nickel. Among many tests given by Mr. 
Riley, the following specially referred to by him may be 
cited : — " In No. 6, the carbon present (o"22) is low enough 
to enable us to make comparison with ordinary mild 
steel, which would give (when annealed) results about as 
follows : elastic limit, 16 tons, breaking strain, 30 tons, 
extension 23 per cent, on 8 inches, and contraction of area 
48 per cent. Therefore, in this case the addition of 47 
per cent, of nickel has raised the elastic limit from 16 up 
to 28 tons, and the breaking strain from 30 up to 
40'6 tons, without impairing the elongation, or contrac- 
tion of area to any noticeable extent." In his remarks 
Mr. Hall referred to his applications of nickel steel to gun 
barrels, propeller blades, and other purposes during recent 
years, and concluded by observing that in an experiment 
he had made about twelve months ago, he had obtained 
with nickel steel a tensile strength of 97 tons per square 
inch, with an elongation of 7 per cent. Another im- 
portant point with regard to nickel steel referred to by 
Mr. Riley is its non-corrosibility when the alloy contains 
25 per cent, of nickel, for, with low proportions of nickel, 
ordinary mild steel and nickel steel appear to corrode in 
About the same proportion. In the discussion Mr. White 
(the Chief Constructor of the Navy) drew attention to the 
■question of cost, as affecting the application of materials 
in practice, and with nickel at ^224 a ton, or ^56 as the 
cost of the nickel in a ton of 25 per cent, nickel steel, it is 
a consideration. 

The next paper, on the manufacture of basic open- 
hearth steel, by Mr. J. H. Darby, also gave rise to an 
important discussion. From the paper and discussion it 
may be inferred that the basic steel industry has not made 
so much progress in this country as it has done in 
■Germany. This may be due to the circumstance that 
German ores are mainly phosphoric in character (Mr. 
Thielen, who spoke as to his experience in Germany, 
stating that of the steel no v produced in the Siemens 
furnace in Germany 70 or 80 per cent, was produced in 
the Siemens basic furnace), or to the " Batho type " of 
furnace used in this country being inapplicable to steel- 
fnaking, an opinion expressed as well by the author of 
the paper as by speakers who followed him. Mr. Windsor 
Richards could not understand why they had gone away 
from the rectangular furnace of Sir William Siemens, and 
was pleased to say that since he had returned to it his 
difficulties had come to an end ; Hvhilst Mr. John Head, 
Mr. Frederick Siemens's representative, spoke of a new 
form of regenerative gas furnace, recently built and tried, 
which consumed about 50 per cent, less coal than the 
original regenerative gas furnace, and promised a paper 
on the subject for the autumn Paris meeting of the Institute. 

A statistical paper on the progress made in the German 
iron industry since 1880 was read by Mr. R Schroedter. 

One on the influence of copper on the tensile strength of 
steel was read by Messrs. E. J. Ball and A. Wingham, in 
which the authors state that from a general consideration 
of the results of their experiments it would seem that 
within certain limits copper does not prejudicially affect 
the mechanical properties of steel. In this they agree 



with a theory brought by Prof. Roberts-Austen before the 
Royal Society last year to the effect that small quantities 
of a metallic impurity exert a deleterious effect on a large 
mass of another metal only if the atomic volume of the 
impurity is greater than that of the metal in which it is 
hidden. Mr. Bauerman, in discussion, expressed the 
opinion that it was not the copper, but the sulphur which 
generally came with the copper, that was injurious to iron. 
The papers on universal rolling-mills for the rolling of 
girders and cruciform sections, by Mr. H, Slack, and on 
the Thomasset testing-machine, by M. Gautier, were 
mainly of mechanical interest. M. A. Pourcel read a 
paper on the application of thermal chemistry to metal- 
lurgical reactions. 



ROBERT STIRLING NEW ALL, F.R.S. 

OBSERVANT travellers by the Great Northern Scotch 
express may see, as it nears Newcastle, the low 
dome of an astronomical observatory on the eastern side 
of the line. It is a spot which will be memorable in the 
history of astronomy, and it marks the home of a man 
who combined the practical sagacity and inventive skill 
which have made England the first industrial nation in 
the world, with the love of science which must be added 
to these if it is to hold its place. 

Mr. Newall, whose death we chronicled a fort- 
night ago, was a successful manufacturer. When he 
was still a young man, a friend who was studying mining 
in Saxony informed him that cables made of iron wires 
were largely used there, but that the process of making 
them was " unmechanical," and suggested that he should 
invent a machine for the purpose. This he did, and wire 
ropes of his construction are now used all over the woi'ld. 
From time to time he improved on the original design, 
and so lately as 1885 he devised a new machine by which 
the rope is made at one operation, the double process of 
first making the strands and then combining them being 
avoided. 

His interest in his business was not, however, confined 
to the gradual development of his earlier patents. He 
was quick to see that wire rope might help in solving the 
difficulties which had to be overcome before submarine 
telegraphy was an accomplished fact. 

Sir Charles Wheatstone had clearly conceived the 
possibility of electric communication between England 
and the Continent as early as 1837. In 1840 he gave 
evidence on the subject before a Committee of the House 
of Commons, and references were made to his suggestion 
in the public Press. His drawings and notes show, how- 
ever, how diffi:ult the problems of insulating and 
preserving the cables seemed to these early pioneers. 

The insulation was attained by the use of gutta-percha 
—of which Mr. Newall received a portion of the first 
sample transmitted to this country — but the cumbrous 
devices at first suggested for protecting the outer cover- 
ing of the cable were forgotten when Mr. Newall pro- 
posed that the " gutta-percha lines containing insulated 
wire should be surrounded with a strong wire rope " 
(pamphlet by Mr. R. McCalmont, dated September 
19, 1850). 

The first cable, laid between Dover and Cape Grisnez, 
in which this plan was not employed, broke after one 
day. The first successful cable, which was laid on Sep- 
tember 25, 1 85 1, by Mr. Crampton, was manufactured 
by Mr. Newall, and protected by wire. 

The submergence of cables in seas deeper than the 
English Channel presented greater difficulties, and the 
Newall drum-brake, which was introduced in 1853, and 
afterwards for a time abandoned, has since been again 
employed, so that, as Mr. F. C. Webb stated at the 
Institute of Telegraph Engineers in 1876, "we have come 
back to the old drum-brake of Newall." 



6o 



NATURE 



{May 1 6, 1889 



Mr. Newall took an active part in superintending the 
actual laying of many cables, and on these occasions he 
showed the qualities of a leader of men— cool in 
an emergency, confident in his own resources, and 
undismayed in disaster. " Gentlemen, it's over now ; 
ye may go to bed," was his only remark when a cable 
broke involving a loss of many thousands of pounds. 

During the Crimean War he laid a wire insu'ated in 
gutta-percha without sheathing of any kind from Varna 
to the Crimea. It was run out over the stern through 
hand leathers held by the cable men in turn. He formed 
one of the boat's crew that left to seek help for the pas- 
sengers of the P. and O. steamship Alma, wrecked in 
1859 in the Red Sea. 

But, during this busy life, Mr. Newall never allowed 
his love of pure science to be crushed by the weight of 
the practical affairs in which he was engaged. The suc- 
cess of submarine telegraphy was due to no one in- 
dividual only, but to Mr. Newall belongs the credit of 
inaugurating a new era in the construction of refracting 
telescopes. He had long wished to possess a refractor 
of large dimensions, and in the Exhibition of 1862 he 
discovered two large disks of crown and flint glass, 
manufactured by Mr. Chance, of Birmingham. He 
at once saw that his opportunity was come, secured 
the glass, and placed it in the hands of Mr. Cooke, of 
York. 

As the result of his boldness in risking a very large 
sum on an experiment the success of which was most 
uncertain, Mr. Newall carried, at one bound, the diame- 
ter of the largest object-glass from 15 to 25 inches. His 
observatory was a spot to which the most distinguished 
astronomers journeyed, and to which Profs. Newcomb, 
Holden, and Alvan Clark came as a deputation from 
the other side of the Atlantic. 

Mr. Newall's original idea was to mount the telescope 
in the Mauritius, and spend as much time as possible 
there himself This plan has never been carried out, and 
the great Newall refractor has never yet had a fair chance 
under the adverse skies of Newcastle. Almost his last 
act was to offer it as a gift to the University of Cam- 
bridge, and it is to be hoped that it may there add to the 
high scientific reputation that University has won. 

To have established a new industry, to have taken 
an active part in securing a triumph of applied science 
which will modify the history of the world, and to have 
led the way in the development of the refracting tele- 
scope, is a record of achievement to which few attain, 
but which does bare justice to the life-work of Robert 
Stirling Newall. 



NOTES. 

The Report of the Royal Commission appointed to consider 
the expediency of establishing a Teaching University for London, 
has been laid on the table of the House of Commons, and the 
Blue-book may be expected in the course of the next week. 
The Commissioners are agreed — first, that the petition of the 
Royal Colleges of Physicians and Surgeons to be authorized to 
grant degrees in medicine should not be entertained ; secondly, 
that it is desirable that London should have a Teaching Uni- 
versity. On the third point— whether a charter shall be granted 
to the associated Colleges of King's and University, constituting 
these Colleges the Teaching University of London — the Com- 
mission are divided. The three Commissioners connected with 
the teaching profession (Sir William Thomson, Prof. Stokes, 
and Mr. Welldon), are in favour of it ; the three lawyers (Lord 
Selbome, Sir James Hannen, and Dr. Ball), are opposed to it. 
The Report ends with a request that this question be referred 
back to the Commission for their further consideration, in order 
that they may determine whether it is not possible to devise 



a scheme of common action between the two Colleges and tP»e 
existing University of London. 

Prof. Stokes will deliver the Rede Lecture on Wednesday, 
June 12, at 2 p.m., in the Senate House, Cambridge, the sub- 
ject being, " Some Effects of the Action of Light on Ponderable 
Mattel-." 

The Museums and Lecture Rooms Syndicate, Cambridge, 
have been authorized to have quantities taken out and tenders 
invited for the proposed Anatomical and Physiological Buildings, 
in three distinct blocks. 

Mrs. de la Rue has presented to the Royal Institution the 
philosophical apparatus of the late Dr. Warren de la Rue. A 
fine portrait of Sir Humphry Davy has been presented to the 
.same Institution by Mr. James Young, grandson of the late 
Dr. James Young, F.R.S., of Kelly, the former owner of the 
portrait. 

The Swedish Government has decided to send a man-of-war 
to New York to bring home the body of Captain Ericsson, who 
expressed a .strong desire to be buried at Langbanshyttan, in 
Vermeland, the place of his birth. In his will no directions are 
given as to the disposal of his valuable collection of models, but 
Swedish journals state that the executors will present them to the 
Smithsonian Institution . 

The last mail from Bombay brings news of the formal open- 
ing, by Lord Reay, of the Jubilee Technical Institute in that 
city. The Times of India, commenting on this event, says it 
forms a notable landmark in the educational history of Bombay. 
That the Institute meets a public want is shown by the circum- 
stance that it already numbers two hundred and forty students, 
while nearly half as many are awaiting nomination. The origin of 
the Institute is this. When Lord Ripon was about to leave India, 
a movement was set on foot to signalize his Viceroyalty by a 
memorial of some kind, and subscriptions were collected for the 
purpose. Soon after Lord Reay's arrival in Bombay there arose 
suggestions for the formation of a technical school. The Govern- 
ment in January 1887 promised a grant of 25,000 rupees annually, 
and recommended to the Municipal Corporation of Bombay that 
80,000 rupees which they proposed to devote to commemorating 
the Jubilee of the Queen's reign should be devoted to the founding 
of a technical institute. The other funds were amalgamated with 
this, and a Board of management was formed ; but still the funds 
were found insufficient, until at last the munificence of Sir 
Dinshaw Petit came to the rescue. He presented the Board 
with a noble building, and work began at once, and the formal 
official opening took place recently, although, in fact, the 
Institute has been open for several months. The immediate and 
signal .'uccess of the Institute Lord Reay attributes in no small 
measure to the fact that in starting the movement its originators 
did not allow themselves to yield to the demand for a programme. 

The Upsala University and the Swe.iish Geographical Society 
have sent Dr. Carl Forsstrand to study the marine fauna of the 
West Indian Islands during the present summer. 

The Indian papers report the death from cholera, at Ran- 
goon, of Dr. Robert Romanes, Professor of Science in the 
Rangoon College, and Chemical Examiner to the Burmah 
Government. 

In the horticultural part of the Paris Exhibition there are 
some splendid beds of Darwin tulips in full bloom. The 
flowers are magnificent, and a sergent de ville keeps watch 
over them — an unusual proceeding in France, where flowers 
are never in ordinary circumstances stolen from public gardens. 
Unfortunately the presence of an unusual number of foreigners 
makes this precaution necessary. In the same part there is a 
very curious exhibit of Japanese horticulture. It consists of a 



May 1 6, 1889] 



NATURE 



61 



number of specimens of dwarfed trees — trees which are usually 

tall, but in the present case hardly attain the height of 2 or 3 
feet. This exhibit excites much interest among gardeners. 

Zoologists will be interested in the exhibit of the Principality 
of Monaco at the Paris Exhibition, as all the implements used 
by the Prince in his dredging experiments are to be shown, 
with numerous specimens of deep-sea fauna. The exhibit of 
the results of the Talisman researches will unfortunately be 
scanty. 

Last week, Mr. Ralf)h Moore, Inspector of Mines for the 
Eastern District of Scotland, on his retirement from that post, 
which he has held for t\venty-sev3n years, received a farewell 
present from a number of gentlemen connected with the Scottish 
coal and iron trades. In thanking the donors, Mr. Mooie gave 
some interesting details of the improvement in mining appliances 
since he first was a colliery manager, forty-eight years ago. At 
that date, he said, there were cages at two or three collieries in 
the county of Edinburgh, but there was none in Lanarkshire. 
The coals were all drawn in corbes. A few years after, there 
was not a single colliery without them. Pug engines were first 
introduced about 1845. Ventilating furnaces were of the most 
primitive description. Fans were unknown. The first fan in 
.Scotland was put up in 1868 ; now there were hundreds, and 
scarcely anyone thought of doing without a fan. The amount 
of ventilation in a colliery was from 8000 or 10,000 down to as 
low as 1000 cubic feet per minute, and now there were some 
collieries in the district with 250,000 cubic feet per minute. 
Last year he made the calculation that eight tons of air were 
sent into the mines for every ton of coals extracted. Wire ropes 
were not in use at the time of which he spoke ; now there was 
nothing else. Underground mechanical haulage was practically 
unknown ; now it was universal. Many large collieries had only 
one shaft, now all had two. A coal-owner putting out 100,000 
tons a year was a large coal-owner. There were coal-owners 
now putting out over 600,000 annually. As a consequence of 
all these improvements, the output of minerals in the district, 
which in 1856 was 4,500,000 tons, was now 17,000,000 tons, 
and the death-rate, which in 1853 was one for every 250 persons 
employed, is now about one in 800. 

In connection with the Congress of German Anthropological 
Societies, which is to meet this year at Vienna, a large exhibi- 
tion of prehistoric objects is being formed. All the smaller 
public collections and the most important private ones of 
Austria will be represented. 

Sir W. Brandford Griffith, Governor of the Gold 
Coast, has reported to Lord Knutsford the occurrence of 
a smart shock of earthquake at Accra on April 5, at 12.2 
noon. The seismic wave seemed to run from south to north, 
and was felt at Aburi, twenty-six miles to the northward of 
Accra. Sir W. B. Griffith had not heard of any serious damage 
being caused in the colony, nor, so far as he could hear, was 
the earthquake felt at sea or at Addah. Christ iansborg Castle, 
ihe Government House at Accra, was once laid in ruins by an 
earthquake. 

Earthquakes still continue in the neighbourhood of Vyernyi 
in Turkestan. On February 19, at 3 p.m., an earth-tremor was 
felt after a fortnight of absolute rest. The shock was quite 
isolated, and lasted but a few seconds. Another slight shock was 
felt during the night, at 2 a.m. On February 25, at 11 a.m., a 
noise like that of a discharge of a battery of guns was heard, and 
the soil was set in motion for about three seconds. Many houses 
cracked, but there was no loss of life. 

La Nature of April 27 contains a representation, by photo- 
lithography, of an interesting synoptic table of weather predic- 
tion, by MM. Plumandon and Colomes, whereby anyone may 



find mechanically the probable weather, by observing the 
direction of the wind, as based upon fourteen years' ob- 
servations at the Puy-de-Dume Observatory. The table 
from which the representation is reduced, is printed in 
six colours, and is divided into eight sectors correspond- 
ing to the principal directions of the wind, and comprising 
216 weather conditions. A m-vable indicator, with three 
arms, works upon a pivot ; one arm being moved to re- 
present the wind direction as shown by the clouds or a 
good wind-vane, the others then point to the region of 
lowest barometer, and to the probable weather, indicated by one 
of the cases referred to. These conditions are contained in a 
few words, and differ for each season of the year, and for 
different states of the barometer, e.g. high, low, &c. The prin- 
ciple involved is merely an application of the rule known as 
Buys Ballot's law ; " Stand with your back to the wind, and 
the barometer will be lower on your left hand than on your 
right," combined with the experience gained in weather predic- 
tion during the last thirty years. A card somewhat similar ir> 
principle was published some years ago by the late F. Pastorelli. 
Persons unable to consult daily weather charts may find the 
diagram very useful. 

In a private letter recently received from Dr. Macgregor, the 
Governor of British Guinea, an interesting account of his trip in 
the Hygeia through the Louisiade Archipelago and the adjacent 
groups of islands is given. He found them, he says, all thickly 
inhabited, the natives being in thousands, and in many cases 
very wild — so wild, in fact, that he thinks it probable they had 
never seen a white man before. On some of the islands he found 
hot mud-springs, some of them being strongly impregnated with 
sulphur. Gold was found on many of the islands, but in no 
instance was it in payable quantities. 

According to Allen s Indian Mail, the Madras Museum 
now possesses the skeleton of the largest elephant ever killed in 
India. This elephant was the source of great terror to the 
inhabitants of South Arcot, by whom it was killed and buried. 
The Museum authorities despatched a taxidermist to the spot 
to exhume the bones and transfer them to Madras. The skele- 
ton is exactly 10 feet 6 inches in height, being 8 inches higher 
than the highest hitherto measured in the flesh by Mr. 
Sanderson. 

Mr. Lester Ward has recently claimed an American origin 
for the entire genus Platanus, of which the plane and the syca- 
more are the best-known species. It occurs abundantly, how- 
ever, in these isles, in the Lower Eocenes of Mull, Reading, 
and the Middle Eocene of Lough Neagh, the former being 
probably at least as old as the beds in which it makes its earliest 
appearance in America. It probably came into existence in the 
Old World in late Cretaceous time=. 

Dr. Marion describes, in the Annales des Sciences Geolo- 
giqiies, a new conifer, having the foliage of Araucaria with the 
cones of Dammara, and therefore an essentially Australasian 
type, which only became extinct in France in the Miocene- 
The material is so perfect and ample that very little more would 
remain to be learnt about it, were it still living. The same, or 
a nearly allied, species abounded in the Isle of Wight in the 
Oligocene. In outward form the tree must have resembled 
Cryptoaieria. 

The May number of the Ke7v Bulletin opens with an inter- 
esting account (with plate) of the Persian dye plant Zalil, pre- 
pared by Sir Joseph Hooker for the April number of the 
Botanical Magazine. This is followed by an account of Tas- 
manian woods, some curious details as to lily flowers and bulbs 
used as food, a paper on Pu-erh tea, an account (with plate) of 
the short-podded yam-beam, and a list of the staffs of the Royal 



62 



NA TURE 



{May 1 6. 1889 



Gardens, Kew, and of botanical departments and establishments 
at home, in India, and in the Colonies, in correspondence with 
Kew. 

In his Report for 1888, just issued, the librarian of the 
Mitchell Library, Glasgow, notes, for the third year in succession, 
a decrease in the number of volumes issued to readers. This is 
believed to be mainly due to the fact that the rooms are not 
nearly large enough to provide accommodation for those who 
wish to use the library. Even now, notwithstanding the decrease 
of attendance, the rooms are often inconveniently crowded. It 
seems strange that in a wealthy and intelligent city like Glasgow 
there should be the slightest difficulty about the provision of a 
proper building for so good a collection of books — a collection 
■which, according to the librarian, "is becoming year by year 
richer in all departments of literature, better fitted to supply the 
wants of every student and every reader." 

The Burton-on-Trent Natural History and Archreological 
Society have begun to issue "Transactions"; and if we may 
judge from the first volume, which we have just received, suc- 
ceeding volumes are likely to contain a good deal of interesting 
work. The most important paper in the present volume is 
a Report, by Mr. John Heron, on certain explorations carried 
on at Staplehill in 1881, under the auspices of the Society. In the 
course of these explorations the remains of upwards of thirty-six 
human bodies were found, accompanied in some cases by personal 
ornaments, small iron knives, or weapons of a kind which showed 
that the ground had been a burial-place of the English in pagan 
limes. The various " finds " are clearly described by Mr. Heron, 
whose paper is admirably illustrated by a frontispiece and ten 
plates. 

The third chapter of the revised editi)n of D.-. Eiias Loomis's 
•"Contributions to Meteorology" has been issued. In this 
■chapter the author deals with the mean annual rainfall for 
■different countries of the globe ; describes the conditions favour- 
able, and the conditions unfavourable, to rainfall ; examines 
individual cases of rainfall in the United States, in Europe, 
and over the Atlantic Ocean ; and defines the areas of low 
pressure without rain. Many valuable plates accompany the 
text. 

The May number of Himmel ttnd Erde (Berlin) opens with 
an interesting description of the Lick Observatory, and an 
account of its foundation by the Director, Prof. Holden. The 
article is illustrated by a view of the giant refractor and the 
interior of the Observatory, the presence of three of the ob- 
servers serving to give an idea of the immense size of the 
instrument. Dr. Mohn continues his account of the Norwegian 
North Sea Expedition, and Dr. Wagner concludes his article 
on the Krakatab eruption. Other articles and astronomical data 
for the month are also given. 

The new number of the folk-lore Journal (vol. vii. part 2) 
■contains an interesting paper, by Mr. John Abercromby, 
on the beliefs and religious ceremonies of the Mordvins, a 
people of Finnish descent inhabiting parts of Central Russia, 
■who were pagans up to the beginning of the present cen- 
tury. The paper gives their conception of the Deity, a list of 
the various objects of worship, their account of the creation 
and the fall of man, and descriptions of their feasts and sacri- 
fices. The paper is one of considerable length. Mr. Edward 
Clodd follows up his recent paper on "The Philosophy of 
Punchkin" by a similar one called "The Philosophy of Rum- 
pelstiltskin," the latter being a generic title derived from the 
character in Grimm's well-known Miirchen. An interesting 
bibliography of variants of the tale is appended. Students of 
folk-lore anxious to aid the Society by practical work will be 



glad to have their attention attracted to the appeal of the 
Council for volunteers to tabulate certain works which are 
mentioned, the method of tabulation being shown at the end. 

Messrs. Smith, Elder, and Co. have issued a new edition 
of "Wild Life in a Southern County," one of the finest of 
the late Mr. Richard Jefferies's writings. 

At a recent meeting of the Linnean Society of New York 
City, Dr. G. B. Grinnell read an instructive paper upon the 
Rocky Mountain goat (Mazania inoniana). The limits of the 
range of this animal have never been fully defined by any one 
writer. It is a mammal belonging to the Arctic fauna, and 
only f.jund among the high and rug'ged mountains of the Rockies 
and Coast Range, where the snow lies all the year. The centre 
of its abundance seems to be in Western Montana, Idaho and 
Washington Territories, and British Columbia, and it has been 
found from about latitude 44" to about latitude 65° ; its southern- 
most records being on the highest peaks of the Sierra Nevada, 
near Mount Whitney. This goat is in no immediate danger 
of extermination, as it inhabits the most inaccessible localities, 
and has few natural enemies. 

Uric ACID has been synthesized by Drs. Behrend and Roosen, 
of Leipzig, in a manner which completely settles the question of 
its constitution. A few months ago a syntheds of this i nportant 
natural compound was effected by Horbaczewski, by fusing 

/NH2 
together glycocine, CH... NH.,. CODH, and urea, C0<^ 

\NHi, 
High temperature reactions, however, are never satisfactory as 
indicating the constitution of organic compounds, inasmuch as 
there is always a possibility of inter-molecular change. Hence 
a new mode of synthesis a*^ lower temperatures has been devised 
by the Leipzig chemists, and carried out in an admirable manner, 
every stage being most critically investigated so as to be 
absolutely certain of the constitution of the intermediate com- 
pounds. The process consists of seven stages : — (i) The substances 
started with are aceto-acetic ether, CH3.CO.CH.,. COOC2H5,and 

/NH, 
urea, COv^ . These two compounds combine logetherwith 

^NHo 
elimination of water, forming an ether of crotonic acid in which 
one of the hydrogen atoms is replaced by the radical of urea, 
CH3 

I • (2) This substance on 

NH2. CO.NH— C=CH— COOC^Hg 

saponification with caustic potash yields the potassium salt of 

the corresponding acid. The free acid itself readily splits off 

NH— C— CH., 

.11' 
water, forming the anhydride, CO CH , methyl uracil, as 

I i 

NH— CO 

it is termed. (3) On treatment with fuming nitric acid, the 

CH3 of methyl uracil becomes oxidized to the acid radical, 

COOH, a nitro-group, NOo, being simultaneously introduced, 

NH— C— COOH 

I !! 

CO C — NO2 . (4) On boiling this nitro acid with water, 

NH— CO 

a molecule of carbonic anhydride is eliminated, leaving 

NH-CII 

a substance termed nitro-uracil, CO C — NO^. (5) On re- 

I i 

NH— CO 

duction with zinc and hydrochloric acid, nitro-uracil yields 
iso-barbituric acid — a compound which has been shown 



May 1 6, 1889] 



NATURE 



63 



in a previous paper of Dr. IJehrend's to possess the consti- 

NH— CH 

I II 

tution CO COH. (6) By oxidation of iso-barbituric acid with 

I I 

NH— CO 

bromine water another acid is obtained, which is found to be 

isomeric with dialuric acid, but differs entirely from that acid in 

properties ; it is therefore termed iso-dialuric acid. From 

its reactions it is shown to correspond to the constitution 

NH-CHOH 

I I /OH 

CO ^"\ OH' It crystallizes in long rhombic prisms contaming 

NH— CO 

a molecule of water of crystallization, which it loses at 
ioo° C. The yield is very good, 80 per cent, or more 
of the theoretical. (7) It now only remains to mix this iso- 
dialuric acid with one equivalent of urea and six equivalents 
of sulphuric acid, the latter to take up three molecules of 
water which are eliminated in the reaction between the two 
former substances. The reaction is complete in the cold in twenty - 
four hours, or in five minutes if the mixture is gently warmed 
upon a water-bath. On cooling and adding water, uric acid is 
precipitated in small crystals, which, on purification, exactly 
resemble those of natural uric acid. The equation is very 
readily understood, there being a simple combination of iso- 
dialuric acid and urea with formation of uric acid and elimination 
of three molecules of water — 



-^ + 3II2O. 



NH-CHOH NH— C— NH 

! I /OH /NH2 I II 

CO C< + CO< = CO C— NH 

I I ^OH ^NH., I I 

NH— CO ' NH-CO . 

Iso-dialuric acid. Urea. Uric acid. 

Hence the formula of Medicas and Fischer for uric acid may 
now be considered as finally proved. 

The additions to the Zoological Society's Gardens during the 
past week include a Purple- faced Monkey {Seinnopithecus letico- 
prymnus) from Ceylon, presented by Mr. J. H. Taylor ; a Vervet 
Monkey {Cercopithecus lalaiidii i) from South Africa, pre- 
sented by Dr. W. K. Sibley ; an Otter {Lzttra vtilgaris) from 
Cornwall, presented by Mr. Basset ; a Long-eared Owl {Asio 
olus), Briti>h, presented by the Hon. Eric Thesiger ; a Herring 
Gull {Lanes argentalus), British, presented by Mrs. Gainsford ; 
a Yellow-billed Amazon {Chrysalis panatnensis) horn Panama, 
presented by Lord William Cecil ; two Common Kestrels 
(Tinnuncuhts alaudarius), captured at sea, presented by 
Captain Janes ; two Common Rheas {Rhea americana, juv.) 
from Uruguay, presented by Mr. J. D. Kennedy ; a Black 
Swan [Cygnus atratus i) from Australia, presented by Mrs. 
Siemens ; a Long-eared Owl {Asio otus), British, presented by 
the Rev. F. Hopkins ; two Natterjack Toads {Bufo calamita), 
British, presented by Master H. Millward ; two Natterjack Toads 
{Bufo calamita), British, presented by Master A. Smith ; a 
Bonte-bok {Alcelaphus pygargus i ) from South Africa, de- 
posited ; a Squacco Heron {Ardea raiioides) from South Europe, 
three Japanese Teal {Querqnedtila formosa 3 9 9), from North- 
East Asia, an Amherst Pheasant {Thaumaha amherstice i ), from 
Szechuen, China, purchased ; two Moor Harriers {Circus 
maurus) from South Africa, received in exchange. 



OUR ASTRONOMICAL COLUMN. 

The Residuals of Mercury. — In a recent discussion of the 
perturbations of Mercury {Astronomical Journal, No. 191, April 
15, 1889), Mr.' O. T. Sherman has arrived at some important 
and highly suggestive results relating to the residuals. His 
method ^of determining these appeared in No. 173 of the 



Astronomical Journal, and this process has been employed in 
obtaining the data given in the article referred to. The values 
arrived at show a remarkable relation to the heliocentric latitude 
of the planet, the maximum effect being nearer the solar equator, 
and the effect decreasing as the latitude increases. Since the lower 
latitudes correspond to maximum and the higher ones to mini- 
mum solar activity, the apparent connection of the disturbances 
of the planet with solar phenomena should also bear some rela- 
tion to the sun-spot period, and Mr. Sherman gives figures to 
show that this is the case. The chief disturbances occur in the 
years when I he sun-spots are increasing in frequency, and it is 
pointed out that this result is in strict ace )rdance with the 
retardations of Encke's Comet during perihelion passage. 

It is further stated that " the forces deflecting the planet are 
sunward when the planet is in that part of space towards which, 
the sun is travelling, and away from the sun when the planet 
follows in his path." This, taken in conjunction with the dis- 
turbances of Encke's Comet, seems to Mr. Sherman " to indicate 
a considerable amount of matter coming to the sun from space. 
If so, its place of meeting with the matter coming from the sun 
should abound in collisions, and display local spectra showing 
bright lines. Our knowledge of the zodiacal light is fully ii> 
accord with such a supposition." 

If the more detailed investigations of the residuals, which it 
is intended to make when more-observations have been collected^ 
confirm the results already obtained, we may look for a consider- 
able advance of our knowledge, especially of the nature of the 
solar surroundings. Already the residuals clearly admit of ex- 
planation by supposing that the sun, with its meteoritie 
surroundings, in the form of the corona and the zodiacal light, is 
moving with considerable velocity through a meteoritic plenum. 
In that case the planet would encounter most meteorites when 
on the advancing side of the sun, and it would obviously be more 
retarded there than elsewhere. 

The apparent relation to the sun-spot period is of great interest 
in connection with the meteoritic theory of the formation of sun- 
spots. According to this theory, there should be most meteorites- 
in the solar surroundings at maximum spot period, and greater 
disturbances of the planet at that period would therefore be ex- 
pected. The collisions between tlie two sets of meteorites would 
further produce the spectroscopic phenomena associated with the 
zodiacal light — namely, the appearance of a line near wave-length 
558, which has been ascribed to manganese. It seems probable 
that the variability of this spectrum which has been suspected by 
Mr. Sherman (letter to Mr. Lockyer, quoted in Roy. Soc. Proc.^ 
vol. xlv. p. 248) may also subsequently be shown to be connectedi 
with the sun-spot period. 

Right Ascensions of North Circumpolar Stars. — 
Prof. T. H. Safford, Field Memorial Professor of Astronomy at 
Williams College, Mass., has just published a very useful piece 
of woik in the shape of a Catalogue of North Polar Stars. 
This Catalogue, which is a first instalment of a more extensive 
one, the observations for which are now in progress, has beea 
constructed by Prof. Safford in order to strengthen what he felt 
to be the weak point of all the standard Catalogues, viz. the 
right ascensions of Polar stars. It was also a consideration with 
him that it would be easier to take account of instrumental cor- 
rections if a more extended list of Polars were generally used 
than has been the custom. These stars are also of importance 
in the study of proper motion?, since their early observations^ 
are accurate. 

The observations for this Catalogue were made at the Field 
Memorial Observatory, and not at the Hopkins Observatory of 
Williams College, and the meridian circle with which they were 
made was a fine one of 4^ inches (French) aperture, by Repsold. 
The observations were made at first by eye and ear, but a fillet 
chronograph was used in 1887 and 1888. Prof. Safford's inten- 
tion throughout was to make his Catalogue a differential one ; 
the stars he has relied upon for his instrumental corrections, 
being those of Publication 14 of the Astronomische Gesellschaft, 
which lie within 10° of the Pole. Besides the catalogue itself, 
which contains 261 stars, of which just 200 are within 10° of the 
Pole, a very important part of the work is the discussion of the 
right ascensions, with a view to clearing up certain points as to- 
mode of observation, as well as to find the weights and system- 
atic corrections necessary for combining this series with others. 
The result of this discussion is to show that it tends to greater 
accuracy to base a catalogue of Polar R.A.'s on standard places 
in all hours of right ascension rather than on double transits 
alone ; that the eye-and-ear method should be used as the stan- 



64 



NATURE 



{May 1 6, 1889 



•dard only near the Pole ; and that a thorough comparison of it 
with the chronographic method through a wide range of 
magnitude and declination is desirable ; that modern meridian 
instruments are subject to irregular small changes of position 
which are not direct functions of temperature ; and that, there- 
fore, it is well not to trust the instrumental zero points for more 
than two hours without re-determining the most essential. 

Prof Safford is at work on a paper, now well advanced, on 
the proper motions of the stars within io° of the Pole, and he 
hopes shortly to complete the comparison of the chronographic 
and eye-and-ear methods which the present discussion had 
■shown him to be needed. 

Two Remarkable Solar Eruptions. — Father Jules Fenyi, 
of the Kalocsa Observatory, records, in a note to the Paris 
Academy of Sciences, his observation of two remarkable solar 
■eruptions which he observed on September 5 and September 6, 
i888. Both eruptions would have been remarkable had they 
occurred at a time of maximum activity ; but, coming as they 
did nearly at dead minimum, they stand out as most unusual. 
The first prominence was seen to rise from a height of 25", as 
seen at 6h. 6m. (Kalocsa M.T. ), to 151" "4 at6h. 19m., its speed 
of movement attaining at one time 171 kilometres per second. 
A number of brilliant metallic lines were seen, some so bright 
that, with a wide slit, they showed as a small prominence, 
reaching 19" in height on 1474 K and 15' on the D lines. The 
second eruption was seen eighteen hours later, on September 6, 
at ilh. 45m., and was even more violent. In 6 J minutes it 
•mounted from 37" to 158", with a speed at one time of 296"8 
kilometres per second. It was of dazzling brilliance whilst it 
lasted, but passed away in about 14 minutes. The two eruptions 
were nearly but not quite in the same heliographic latitude. 
The first was on the east limb in S. lat. 18° ; the other was 
distant some 4^°, and, as the base of each was about 3° in 
length, they could not have overlapped, and if connected in 
origin, must have sprung from a deep-seated source. 

Comet 1889 <!> (Barnard. March 31). — This object is now 
too near the sun for observation, but accepting the elements of its 
orbit as hitherto determined, it will not travel far from its pre- 
sent position for some time to come. Dr. Krueger gives its 
position for Berlin midnight (Astr. Nnch., No. 2893) for the end 
of May and beginning of July as under, but with reserve from 
the uncertainty of the elements : — 

1889. R.A. Decl. 

h. in. s. o / 

May 28 ... 5 6 52 ... 14 I3'i N. 
July 3 ••• 5 9 8 ... 12 19 oN. 



Log .i. 



Bright- 
ness. 
05099 ... 071 
04944 ... 076 



5 i8-2 . 


25 27 N. 


2 1-5 . 


.13 8N. 


4 i9'2 . 


. 21 53 N. 


18 321 . 


. 23 S. 


9 93 • 


• 17 35 N- 


13 9-0 . 


. 6 38 S. 


4 0-4 . 


■ 18 59 N. 



ASTRONOMICAL PHENOMENA FOR THE 
WEEK 1889 MA V 19-25. 

/■pOR the reckoning of time the civil day, commencing at 
^ ■*■ Greenwich mean midnight, counting the hours on to 24, 
cs here employed. ) 

At Greenwich on May 19 

Sun rises, 4h. 4m. ; souths, lih. 56m. 15 8s. ; daily increase 
of southing, 2'8s. ; sets, igh 4Sm. : right asc. on meridian, 
3h. 45*6m. ; decl. 19° 52' N. Sidereal Time at Sunset, 
iih. 39m. 
Moon (at Last Quarter on May 21, 2 2h.) rises, 23h. 50m.* ; 
souths, 3h. 50m. : sets, 7h. 53m. : right asc. on meridian, 
igh. 37 ■9m. ; decl. 22° 25' S. 

Right asc and declination 
Planet. Rises. Souths. Sets. on meridian. 

h. m. h. m. h. m. h. m. . / 
Mercury.. 4 57 ... 13 29 . 22 i 
Venus ... 3 o ... 10 12 . 17 24 
Mars ... 4 25 .. 12 30 ... 20 35 
Jupiter ... 22 48*... 2 44 ... 6 40 
Saturn ... 9 42 ... 17 19 ... o 56' 
Uranus... 15 48 ... 21 18 ... 2 48' 
Neptune.. 4 24 .. 12 ii ... 19 58 

* Indicates that the rising is that of the preceding evening and the setting 
that of the following morning. 



May. 
20 
23 
24 



h. 

12 

3 

19 



Venus stationary. 

Neptune in conjunction with the Sun. 
Mercury at greatest elongation from the Sun, 
T.'C east. 





Variable Stars. 










Star. 


R.A. 

h. m. 


Decl. 






h. 


m 


U Cephei ... 


... 52-5 . 


. 8i 17 N. . 


. May 


21, 





50 y 


R Persei ... 


... 3 23-0 . 


• 35 '8 N. . 




•9, 




M 


U Monocerotis 


- 7 255 


• 9 33 »• • 




21, 




M 


S Leonis 


... II 51 . 


. 6 4 N. . 




22, 




M 


S Bootis 


... 14 19-2 . 


. 54 19 N. . 




21, 




M 


R Bootis ... 


... 14 32-3 . 


. 27 13 N. . 




23. 




vt 


5 Librae 


... 14 55-1 • 


.8 5 S. . 




20, 


22 


59 w 


U Coronae ... 


... !.■; 137 . 


.32 3 N. . 




19. 


I 


35 "' 


R Draconis ... 


... 16 324 . 


. 66 59 N. . 




24, 




M 


U Ophiuchi... 


... 17 10-9 . 


. I 20 N. . 




22, 





55 »' 










22, 


21 


3 w' 


T Herculis ... 


... 18 4-9 . 


. 31 N. . 




24, 




M 


R Lyrse 


... 18 52-0 . 


. 43 48 N, . 




21, 




m 


U Aquilse ... 


... 19 23-4 . 


. 7 16 S. . 




25. 


2 


M 


77 Aquilse 


... 19 468 . 


. 43 N. . 




21, 





rn 


T Vulpeculse 


... 20 46*8 . 


. 27 50 N. . 




21, 


22 


M 


T Cephei ... 


... 21 8-1 . 


.68 2 N. . 




19. 




M 


S Cephei 


... 22 25-1 . 


. 57 51 N. . 




25. 





oAf 




M signifies maximum ; m minimum. 









GEOGRAPHICAL NOTES. 

In the new number of Petermanri! s Mitleilungt'n, Dr. Rink 
describes the recent Danish researches in Greenland, especially 
those carried out in East Greenland under the leadership of 
Captain Holm. The aim of the expedition was mainly anti- 
quarian and ethnological ; at the same time the report of iis 
work contains valuable observations on the geology, geography, 
and especially the glacial conditions of the region visited. In 
the first volume of the Report, the first chapter, by Prof Steen- 
strup, is devoted to a discussion of the situation of Osterbygd. 
The second chapter contains the report of Captain Holm and 
Lieutenant Garde on the results of the expedition of 1883-85. 
The principal results may be thus summarized : — Graah's ma|) 
of the east coast of Greenland has been corrected and com- 
pleted ; a map has been prepared of a part not previously sur- 
veyed, and now named Christian IX. Land ; and, after sketches 
and information from the natives, the oudine of the coast has 
been continued from 66° to 68^° N. la^ It was found that 
the country called after Christian IX. was inhabited by a branch 
of the Eskimo which, before the arrival of the expedition, had 
not been in contact with Europeans. Detailed observations have 
been made on their mode of life, their customs, language, 
legends, &c., and a large collection made of articles of ethno- 
logical interest. During the various journeys of the expedition, 
and especially in their winter quarters, systematic researches 
were made in the physical geography of the country. Geological 
and botanical observations were made and specimens collected 
along the east coast. It was found that the east coast of Green- 
land is not so inaccessible as has hitherto been supposed. The 
expedition explored the east coast as far to the north as it was 
at all likely Osterbygd could have been located, without dis- 
covering the least trace of buildings which were not of 
P^skimo origin, and without finding anything in the physiognomy, 
the customs, mode of life, or legends of the natives that couUl 
furnish the slightest ground for inferring former relations witi 
Europeans. From this it is concluded that Osterbygd could not 
have been situated on the east coa-t of Greenland. The third 
chapter deals with the geography of Danish East Greenland, 
i.e. as far as 66° N. This part of the east coast is divided into 
five natural zones — (i) the most southerly part as far as Anarket ; 
(2) from Anarket to Ikermiut ; (3) from Ikermiut to Igdlol- 
narsuk ; (4) from Igdiolnarsuk to Inigsalik ; (5) the section 
which extends to the east of the last-named place. Zones i, 3, 
and 5 have strong resemblance.-; with each other, as also zones 2 
and 4. The three first-mentioned zones are cut by deep fjords, 
crowned with lofty serrated mountains, never covered by the 
o.ntinental ice. Some places are characterized by a vegetation 
comparatively rich. Beneath the mountains there are, in 
general, numerous glaciers, which often descend to the fjords, 
and towards the interior is found a mountainous region filled with 
large local glaciers. Zones 2 and 4 have a different aspect. The 
country is very barien, and the continental ice descends almo^t 
directly to the sea, or to the edge of the fjords, only a few moun- 
tains or rounded groups of mountains emerging from the ice. 
Another characteristic , of the east coast is the parallelism of 



May 1 6, 1889] 



NATURE 



65 



I 
I 



most of the fjords in an E. i S. direction, as compared with the 
south-west direction of the fjords on the west coast. 

The new number of the MitUilungen also contains a map of 
the flora of Schleswig-Holstein, with accompanying text by Dr. 
Ernest Krause, and an accounc of a journey to the sources of 
*.he Tigris by Prof. Wimsch. 

The paper read at Monday's meeting of the Royal Geo- 
graphical Society was by Mr. J. R. Werner, on his journeys up 
the Ngala and Aruwimi tributaries of the Congo. The Ngala 
enters the Congo a little south of 2° N. lat., coming from a 
generally north-east direction. A little above its junction with 
the Congo is a channel through which the waters of the latter 
flow into the Ngala. For a considerable distance the banks of 
the river are low, swampy, and forest-clad. Gradually hills ap- 
pear, and latterly bluffs, between which the channel narrows 
considerably. In May of last year, Mr. Werner accompanied 
the steamer to the Aruwimi, which was taking the men to 
Major Barttelot's camp at Yambuya. He was surprised at the 
number of sand-banks on the lower river, and the difficulties of 
navigation. After passing the town of Mokulu, the whole 
character of the country seemed to change, the islands stood 
higher out of the water and were covered with forest, which was 
crowded with palms, the crowns of which looked very pretty 
above the trees. The high banks on either side were lined with 
villages, or rather the sites of former villages, for the Arabs had 
been raiding here, and the natives were now living under roughly 
put-up sheds of leaves and sticks ; the conical huts described by 
Stanley had almost entirely disappeared, and during the time 
Mr. Werner was on this river he only saw s^ix, four of which were 
inside Major Barttelot's camp at Yambuya, and the other two 
in the village of Irungu. On the high bluff on which Stanley 
had found the large town of Yambumba, there was not a single 
hut on the vast clearing where the town had been, while on The 
opposite bank of the river such of the natives as had not been 
killed or carried into slavery were living under sheds and awn- 
ings of sticks and palm-leaves. On this side of the river the 
baiik was quite low, and offered a strange contrast to the pre- 
cipitous bluff on which the town had formerly stood. Above 
Yambumba the Aruwimi runs between two ridges of low hills, 
which are covered with magnificent timber. There are no more 
villages on its banks until Yambuya is reached. 

A.FTER the reading of Mr. Werner's paper at the Geographical 
Society, there was a discussion on the letter from Mr. Stanley 
which was read at the previous meeting. In this discussion Sir 
F. De Winton, Sir Samuel Baker, Colonel Grant, Rev. Horace 
Waller, and others took part. Sir Samuel Baker's statement 
was of considerable geographical interest. Against Mr. Stanley's 
doubts, Sir Samuel maintained the accuracy of his original ob- 
servations as to the southward extension of Lake Albert Nyanza. 
He pointed out that Mr. Stanley himself refers to the very 
marked decrease in the size of the lake in the last few years, a 
decrease quite analogous to that \\ hich has taken place in Lakes 
Tanganyika and Nyassa. This decrease has no doubt tended to 
diminish the southern extension of the lake, and bring to light 
the vast extent of Ambatch or Sud which Gessi and others 
refer to. Sir Samuel maintains, moreover, that it will most 
probably be found that the two lakes (Albert Nyanza and Muia 
Nzige) are really one, and are known among the natives by one 
name. The region which lies between them on our maps has 
never been visited by any European explorer. Sir Samuel 
pointed out the vast importance to Egypt of a precise know- 
ledge of the laws which govern the increase or decrease of water 
in the Albert Nyanza, which is really one of the great sources 
of supply for the regions on the lower river. 

In the May number of the Scottish Geographical Magazine 
will be found a very complete account of Samoa and its people 
by Dr. G. A. Turner, who has lived many years on the islands. 

The town Kara-kol, on Lake Issyk-kul, has received the official 
name of " Frjevalsk " in commemoration of the explorer of 
Central Asia. 

A GEOGRAPHICAL expedition, under the two brothers Grum- 
Grzimailo, has lately started for the exploration of the Eastern 
Tian-Shan. On April 19 it had reached Tchardjui, on the 
Trans-Caspian Railway. Its aim is to connect the explorations 
of M. Potanin in North- Western Mongolia with those of 



Prjevalsky. One of the two brothers is already well known for 
his explorations of the Pamir. 

The Russian Geographical Society is sending out the fol- 
lowing expeditions: — M. Vilkitzki, who has made pendulum- 
observations on Novaya Zemlya, will continue the same measure- 
ments in Central and South-Eastern Russia. M. Faussek is 
sent out to the shores of the White Sea in order to make zoo 
geographical explorations in the Kandalak Bay, as well as for 
observations upon the secular rising of the coasts of the White 
Sea. M. Andrusoff, whose interesting researches into the 
geological history of the Caspian Sea have attracted a good deal 
of attention, will continue the geological exploration of Daghestan 
and Kuban ; and M, Kuznetsoff will continue in the Caucasus 
hisywork upon the geography of plants. M. Antonoff is sent out 
to the Transcaspian region for the study of the conditions of 
animal and vegetable life in the desert ; and MM. A. P. Semenoff 
and Yaschenko will visit the same region for zoological and 
botanical researches. Of ethnographical expeditions that of M. 
Katanoff to North- Western Mongolia is worth noting. The 
investigation of the folk-lore of the White Russians (Byelorusses) 
will be continued by MM. Romanoff and Dobrovolsky. 

The expedition to Tibet, the departure of which was delayed 
by the death of Prjevalsky, is now at the town Prjevalsk 
(formerly Kara-kol), and it will start in a few days, via the Bedel 
Pass, to Kashgar. The original plan of reaching Lhassa has 
been abandoned, and the expedition will limit its explorations to 
Eastern Turkestan and North-Western Tibet. It is under the 
leadership of Colonel Pyevtsoff, who accompanied Prjevalsky in 
all his memorable journeys. It includes also two other travelling 
companions of Prjevalsky— MM, Roborovsky and Kozloff — and 
a geologist, M. Bogdanovitch, who is commissioned by the 
Russian Geographical Society. 



THE ROYAL SOCIETY CONVERSAZIONE. 

'T'HE annual conversazione, held by the Royal Society on 
May 8, was in every way brillianily successful. There was 
a numerous attendance, and the programme had been arranged 
with the greatest skill and care. We refer to some of the most 
novel and important objects exhibited. In addition to these, the 
results set forth in many recent papers to the Royal Society were 
illustrated by experiments. 

Mr. C. V. Boys, F.R.S., exhibited :— (i) Portable Cavendish 
apparatus for demonstrating the attraction of gravitation. This 
apparatus differs only from the well-known apparatus of Caven- 
dish in matters of detail. First, instead of the beam 6 feet long, 
carrying heavy weights, used by Cavendish, or half a metre long, 
used by Cornu, the beam consists of a piece of lead only i centi- 
metre long, and this is inclosed in a round tube of metal, outside 
which the attracting weights are placed. This reduction of size 
has been rendered possible by the use of quartz threads, the 
production of which was shown two years ago. The advantages 
gained by the reduced dimensions are increased sensibility, and 
almost perfect elimination of temperature disturbances. The 
particular apparatus exhibited is designed to show the effect, and 
that it is the same from time to time, rather than to determine 
the constant of gravitation absolutely. By arranging the two 
attracting weights and the two ends of the attracted body at 
different levels, the deflection is nearly doubled. — (2) Experi- 
ment showing the insulation of quartz. A pair of gold leaves 
are supported by a short rod of quartz which has been melted 
and drawn out about three-quarters of an inch. The atmosphere is 
kept moist by a dish of water. Under these circumstances a glass 
in^uIaling stem allows all the charge to escape in a second or 
two. With tthe quartz but little change is observed in four or 
five hours. The quartz may be dipped in water and put back in 
its place with the water upon it. It insulates apparently as well 
as btfore. — (3) Apparatus for testing the elasticity of fibres. One 
of these pieces of apparatus consists of a microscope cathetometer 
arranged vertically, and a gravity bob which is deflected by the 
vertical pull of the fibre on a side arm. The lower end of the 
fibre is made fast to a beam carried by the microscope. A scale, 
to which the upper end of the fibre is fixed, is viewed by the 
microscope, which thus shows the stretch of the thread ; the 
pulling force is found by subtracting the stretch from the vertical 
movement of the microscope and multiplying by a constant 
previously found. The second piece of apparatus is used to 
measure the fatigue of fibres after torsion. 



66 



NATURE 



{May 1 6, 1889 



Results of experimenls with working model of the tidal Seine, 
exhibited by Mr. L. F. Vernon Harcourt. These experiments 
were undertaken with the object of obtaining an indication of 
the effects which the various schemes proposed for the improve- 
ment of the estuary of the Seine, by the prolongation of the 
training walls below Berville, would have upon the estuary 
if carried out. After ascertaining, by experiments, that the 
former and present conditions of the Seine estuary could be 
reproduced in miniature in the model, the various schemes 
proposed were successively introduced in the model, with the 
results shown upon the diagrams exhibited. The method of 
working this model has since been applied to the model of 
another estuary, which may be seen in operation at 6 Queen 
Anne's Gate, Westminster. 

Profs. A. W. Riicker, F.R.S., and T. E. Thorpe, F.R.S , 
exhibited maps to illustrate the direction and magnitude of the 
regional magnetic disturbing forces in the Briti h Isles. The 
British Isles can be divided into a comparatively small number 
of districts, in each of which the horizontal disturbing forces 
tend towards centres or loci of attraction, which are also regions 
of large vertical force. The shaded portions of the maps are 
districts of high vertical force, and it will be seen that the 
arrows which represent the horizontal forces on the whole point 
towards them. In Scotland the forces indicated by tlie do'ted 
arrows were deduced from data collected in 1857-58 by Mr, 
Welsh. The five principal lines towards which the magnetic 
disturbing forces in Great Britain converge aie in the immediate 
neighbourhood of (i) the Caledonian Canal ; (2) the basalt of 
the Western Isles ; (3) the centre of the Scotch coal-field, in 
which basaltic crystalline rocks occur ; (4) the line in South- 
East Yorkshire, in which the Jurassic and Liassic strata thin 
out, and passing thence to the Lakes ; (5) the Palaeozoic ridge 
between London and the South Wales coal-field. There are 
well-marked centres of attraction, (i) between Reading and 
Windsor, (2) near the Wash, which have been specially studied. 
The disturbance which culminates in the first extends from 
Kenilworth to the Channel, and from Salisbury to the North 
Sea. The well-known anomaly in the difference of the declina- 
tions at Greenwich and Kew is thus accounted for. The maps 
also afford indications of other subsidiary centres. 

Captain H. Capel L. Holden, R. A., showed : — (i) Chrono- 
graph for measuring the velocity of projectiles and small periods 
of time. This chronograph, of which the latest form with 
Captain Holden's most recent improvements is exhibited, is of 
the gravity type, originally invented by M. Le Boulenge ; since 
its first introduction it has been improved by Captain Breger, 
of the French Marine Artillery. Broadly speaking, it consists 
of a heavy pillar, to which are affixed two electro-magnets (the 
circuits of which are arranged to be interrupted by the action of 
the body whose velocity it is required to measure) which can 
support two rods, the shorter one of which, in falling, strikes a 
trigger table and releases a knife, which marks the other as it 
falls. The time elapsing from the commencement of the fall of 
the short rod until the knife strikes the other rod is obtained 
mechanically by means'of the instrument called the disjunctor, 
which breaks both of the separate circuits simultaneously : a 
commutator in connection with this disjunctor enables errors 
due to the circuits not being broken simultaneously to be de- 
tected and corrected for. When an interval of time occurs 
between the two circuits being broken, the mark made on the 
rod by the knife will be more or less above that made when the | 
disjunctor is used, and the space between the two marks gives | 
the means of ascertaining the time, since the rod falls under the i 
influence of gravity. In ordinary use, the screens, where the 
interruption of the circuit takes place, are made of a continuous 
wire in circuit, each with its electromagnet and battery, and these 
screens are broken by the passage of the projectile through them. 
The disjunctor reading is arranged i-o as to be adjustable by 
altering the height of the magnet, so that, the screens being a 
fixed distance apart, a scale can be engraved on the micrometer 
bar of velocities in feet per second, thus saving time and avoid- 
ing frequent calculation. — (2) Holden hydrometer. This is 
intended more especially for use in connection with secondary 
batteries, for observing the density of the acid during charge 
and discharge. It consists of two parts — the hydrometer- float 
and the scale. In use, the scale is clipped to the battery plates 
or to the side of the containing vessel, the point being pushed 
down until it just touches the liquid, and the reading is then 
taken from the top of the hydrometer stem on the ebonite scale. 
The range of density and the size of the divisions can be varied 



according to the requirements. The advantages claimed for this 
form over the ordinary type of hydrometer are : greater sen- 
sitiveness, more open scale, and increased legibility owing to the 
reading being above the level of the liquid and side of the cell, 
freedom from adherence to the plates or side of the vessel, and 
the ready correction for temperature by means of a sliding scale. 

A model illustrating the formation of ocean currents, exhibited 
by Mr. A. W. Clayden. This is practically a map of the 
Atlantic in which the land surfaces are raised about half an inch 
above the portions occupied by the sea. The continents and 
larger islands are made of wood cut into the required shape, 
while the smaller islands are represented by pins or small pieces 
of sheet metal driven into the board which forms the basis of the 
whole. This raised map forms the bottom of a shallow tray 
which can be filled with water up to the level of the land sur- 
faces, thereby obtaining a map (on Mercator's projection) in 
which the seas are represented by the surface of water. Under- 
neath the tray a wind chest is fixed, and a number of tubes are 
brought up from it through the continents, and bent over so that 
the jets of air delivered from them may impinge upon the water. 
These jets are so arranged as to approximately reproduce on a 
small scale the actual circulation of the atmosphere as laid down 
on a chart of the prevalent winds for the year. Care is taken to 
have as few tubes as possible, and they are so placed as to hide 
the least possible amount of the sea. The strong and persistent 
trades are simulated by bringing the openings of the tubes near 
to the surface of the water, while the fitful and uncertain winds, 
of northern latitudes are imitated by allowing the jet to be con- 
siderably dis|.ersed before coming into contact with the water. 
A foot-blower is attached to supply the wind, and any movement 
of the water is rendered visible by scattering over it some 
Lycopodium powder. A few moments after the blast is turned 
on, the whole surface of the model sea is in motion. All the 
principal currents of the North Atlaiitic are shown, including the 
return current between the great equatorial currents, and the 
northward stream along the west coast of Greenland. If a 
narrow opening is made in the Isthmus of Panama all that 
happens is that some of the return stream round the Mosquito 
Bay and Gulf of Parien flows into the Pacific, leaving the North 
Atlantic practically unaffected. But if a large part of Central 
America is removed, almost the whole of the tropical water passes 
through the opening, and the currents from Baffin's Bay and the 
Arctic Ocean are drawn down to the Azores and the Canary 
Isles. There is an absence of evident connection between the 
slack water close to the New England coasts and the Labrador 
current, but the apparatus does not attenr.pt to imitate differences 
of temperature or differences of rotational velocity, hence any 
effect due to either of those causes must necessarily be absent. 
All that is attempted is to demonstrate the connection between 
the prevalent winds and general oceanic circulation, by showing 
that nearly all the movements of the water are determined by the 
direction of the winds and the contours of the coasts. 

Mr. James Pitkin exhibited :— (i) Pitkin and Niblelt's fire- 
damp meter. By means of these instruments it is possible to 
detect and estimate the percentage of oxygen or hydrogen in 
mixtures of these gases. In its simplest form it consists of two 
ordinary cylindrical bulbed mercurial thermometers. These are 
mounted on a suitable base, and are then graduated off in the ordi- 
nary v/ay to Fahrenheit or Centigrade scale. One tube registers 
the temperature of the mixed gases. The other, which is the gas 
indicator, has its bulb coated with one of those metals which 
when in a very finely divided state have the peculiar property of 
occluding and facilitating the chemical combination of certain 
gases. When placed in a gaseous mixture and during the 
combination of the gases due to the above property of the metal, a 
considerable amount of heat is developed. The heat generated 
thus produces a corresponding rise in the mercurial column. To 
read the instrument the difference between the two scale readings 
is taken, and then, by comparison with a table supplied with each 
instrument, the percentage of gas may be read off. In the case 
of fire-damp and air or coal-gas and air, the amount of heat 
developed appears to correspond approximately to the explosive 
activity of the mixed gases. A sliding scale may be fixed on the 
instrument, which can be graduated in terms of percentages of 
any particular gas. — (2) Pocket electric lamp. This lamp is 
constructed for astronomical and other scientific purposes where 
a steady and a safe light is occasionally required. Its total 
weight is i lb. 13 oz., and it gives a light of i candle-power for- 
a period of six hours. Its charging current is i ampere at a 
potential of 5 volts for four hours. 



May 1 6, 1889] 



NATURE 



67 



A series of ancient wreaths and plant remains from the 
cemetery of Hawara, Egypt, exhibited by Mr. Percy E. 
Newberry, by permission of the Director of the Royal 
Gardens, Kew. These wreaths and plant remains were dis- 
covered last year by Mr. P'linders Petrie, in coffins of the 
Ptolemaic period, and date from about the first century before 
Christ. They are fully described by Mr. Percy E. Newberry, in 
Mr. W. M. Flinders Petrie's "Hawara, Biahmu, and Arsinoii," 
and were presented to Kew some few month? since. 

Gramme ring, rotating under the influence of the magnetism 
of the earth, exhibited by Mr. J. Wilson Swan. It is a motor 
of the type of the ordinary dynamo-electric machine, but without 
field magnets other than the north and south magnetic poles of 
the earth. The current passing in the ring is about half an 
ampere. 

Preparations of the new element gnomium, recently discovered 
by Gerhard Kriiss and F. W. Schmidt, of Munich, exhibited 
by Dr. Hugo Miiller, F.R.S. Gnomium oxide ; gnomium 
chloride (in aqueous solution) ; nickel from which the gnomium, 
which up to the present always accompanied it, has been sepa- 
rated ;' nickel oxide free from gnomium. Gnomium is a metallic 
element which, according to the discovery of Kriiss and Schmidt, 
is always associated with cobalt and nickel, and consequently 
neither of these metals have up to the present been known in 
the pure state. 

Illustrations of the new and the old astronomy, exhibited by 
Mr. I>aac Roberts. Among these was the photograph of the 
nebula 51 M. Canum Venaticorum ; the original negative being 
shown under the microscope. 

Mr. H. J. Chaney showed a hollow cylinder and sphere, used 
in the re-determination of the weight of a cubic inch of distilled 
water, 1889. / — 62 , B = 30 inches. One cubic inch — 
252'286 grains. 

Voltaic balance, exhibited by Dr. G. Gore, F.R.S. Used for 
measuring voltaic energy in chemical analysis ; strength of 
aqueous solutions ; effect of light and heat on aqueous solutions ; 
detecting chemical changes in liquids and measuring their rates : 
<letecting chemical compounds and their combining proportions ; 
measuring losses of vol'aic energy during chemical combination ; 
measuring chemical energy. By means of it the influence of 
I part by weight of chlorine in 500,000 million parts by weight 
of water has been detected. 

Films of metals and metallic oxides 'deposited by electric 
sparks, exhibited by Prof \V. N. Hartley, F.R.S. 

Hair from the Yenisei Mammoth, obtained by F. Schmidt, of 
the Academy of Sciences, St. Petersburg, exhibited by Prof. 
G. H. Seeley, F.R.S. 

Drawings illustrating the feeding of Scrobicularino, exhibited 
by Dr. H. C. Sorby, F.R.S. The feeding of Scrobicularice, as 
also of Tellinte, is by actively taking in mud by the indraught 
syphon and afterwards discharging it by the same, unlike the 
quiet habit of most other Conchifera. 

Mr. J. Young showed— (i) a cluster of nests of a species of 
Ssvift (Collocalia) taken in one of the Society Islands ; (2) a 
specimen of Piuznaiielitis sociabilis, a plover obtained in South 
America, of which only two specimens (obtained fifty years ago) 
were previously known in Europe ; (3) the tail of a Japanese 
barndoor cock, 1 1 feet long. 

Mr. ^V. H. Preece, F.R.S., exhibited — (i) calcedonified 
tree-trunk, from Arizona, U.S.A. ; (2) transverse, tangential, 
and radial microscopical sections of the wood, to illustrate the 
original vegetable structures and the mineralogical changes which 
have taken place during and subsequently to the silicification of 
the woody tissues. 

EgyjJtian blue (" Vesterien ") artificially prepared by Prof. F. 
Fouque, of the College de France, Paris, exhibited by Prof. 
J. W. Judd, F.R.S. This substance is shown to have the for- 
mula CaO, CuO, 4SiO. It has been obtained, not only in a 
glassy form, but in crystals, which are remarkable for their in- 
tense pleochroism (dark blue to rose pink), as was shown in 
specimen under microscope. For comparison specimens of ancient 
objects (Scarabei and ornaments used in mosaic work) were ex- 
hibited by Mr. R. H. Soden Smith, to illustrate the method in 
which this blue enamel was employed by the Egyptians. Other 
specimens of antique ornaments glazed with the Egyptian blue, 
exhibited by Mr. John Evans, Treasurer of the Royal Society. 

A revolving stage for the microscope, exhibited by Prof R. J. 
Anderson. . 

Prof. H. Marshall Ward, F.R.S., exhibited various parasitic 
fungi, and specimens of diseased timber showing characteristic 



symptoms of injury caused by them. The chief of these 
are : — (i) piece of larch stem, aftected with the " larch 
disease," and exhibiting the cups of Pcziza (Hi-lotiitni) ivill- 
kominii on the cancerous cortex ; (2) specimen of fructification 
of Polyporiis stilplntreus ; (3) piece of larch timber attacked by 
Polyportis stdplnirctis, showing the characteristic symptoms of 
the injury ; (4) piece of oak timber, exhilMting the characteristic 
symptoms of disease due to the ravages of Stcrettm hirsjitiim ; 
(5) piece of oak attacked by Thelephora pcvdix, showing the very 
different mode of injury due to this fungus ; (6) piece of spruce fir, 
attacked by the mycelium of Tiainetes radiciprda, and exhibit- 
ing the very characteristic dark spots which serve to diagnose the 
disease ; (7) piece of pine injured by Agaricns mellctts, and show- 
ing the very different symptoms which betray the presence of this 
fungus ; (8) piece of deal with grey mycelium of Mcrtdhts 
lacrymans, causing the common " dry rot " of timber: and a 
similar piece of timber attacked by the white mycelium of 
Polyporus vaporarius, another and quite different fungus, which 
produces a form of " dry-rot " ; (9) portion of pine stem in- 
fected with Pcrider?nii(m pint, the TEcidium form of Coleosporiiim 
seneciottis, — the other form of this parasite is found on various 
species of groundsel (it does mu'^h damage to the pines in some 
fo-ests, producing so-called "cankers" as disastrous as those of 
the "larch disease"); (10) specimen of wheat infested by 
Ustilago carlo (U. segeium), showing the destruction of the ears 
by the fungus, the black spores of which completely occupy the 
interior of the grain; (11) specimen of grass attacked by 
Epichloe typhina, a destructive ascomycetous fungus which in- 
fests the flowering shoots of pasture grasses : (12) culture speci- 
mens of Sclero'ia developed from species of Botrytis, which 
destroy certain garden plants. Micro.-copic preparations of these 
are also exhibited. 

Models illustrating a cause of contortions of strata, exhibited 
by Dr. Charles Ricketts. To induce these flexures, dry and 
powdered clay of different colours is spread in consecutive layers 
in a trough, when by the access of water, the clay becomes 
plastic, sand is poured on some special part, its weight in the 
experiment being supplemented by extra pressure ; this causes 
the heavier substance to subside into the plastic mass ; at the 
same time the clay-beds are squeezed outwards, the layers 
underneath being formed into films still continuous with those at 
the sides, which are rendered considerably thicker than in their 
original state, and are curved into folds, representing on a small 
scale such as frequently occur in stratified rocks. The experi- 
ment so exactly coincides with natural phenomena that it is 
reasonable to expect it will afford a true explanation of a 
frequent cause of contortion, and also of cleavage of strata (see 
"On some Physical Changes in the Earth's Crust, Part 3," 
Geological Magazine, April 1889, p. 165). 

Amorphophalliis campanulatus, exhilsited by the Director of 
the Royal Gardens, Kew. 

New optical apparatus for lecture demonstration, invented and 
exhibited by Mr. Eric Stuart Bruce :— (i) Apparatus for project- 
ing Crookes's radiometer in action on the screen, so as to render 
its effects visible to large audiences. — (2) "The electro-grapho- 
scope." A striking method of showing the illusions produced 
by persistence of vision to large audiences. In this apparatus 
a narrow lathe of wood, about an inch wide, is made to revolve 
rapidly by means of an electric motor, the effect being an almost 
invisible haze, but when the revolving lathe is placed in the 
path of the rays of light proceeding from an oxybydrogen 
lantern, in which there is a transparent picture or photograph, 
the image is apparently cast upon the air, in the case of a 
statue giving the effect of bold relief. In reality minute portions 
only of the image are cast upon the revolving plane, in such rapid 
i-iiccession that they are united into the perfect whole by the 
retentive action of the retina of the human eye. 

Mr. Eadweard Muybridge exhibited projections by the electric 
lantern of automatic electro-photographs, exposed at regulated 
intervals of time, illustrating the consecutive jjhases of bipedal 
locomotion, as synchronously viewed from two or more points of 
."■itlht. 



SCIENTIFIC SERIALS. 

American Journal of Science, May. — The elcLirical resistance 
of stressed glass, by Carl Barus. Pollowing u|i Warburg's ex- 
periments, which have thrown so much new light on the thermal 
relations of the resistance of glass, the author here deals specially 



68 



NATURE 



[May 1 6, 1889 



with the effects of stress on electrolyzing glass kept as nearly as 
possible at different constant temperatures between ioo° and 
360°. He finds generally that a Folid electrolyte like glass is a 
better conductor of electricity when in a state of strain or torsion 
than when free from strain. The influence of temperature in 
changing the value of the electrolytic effect of stress is not 
marked ; the same pull per unit section does not apparently in- 
crease the conductivity of glass more at 350° than at roo°, if indeed 
it increases it as much. — On the formation of siliceous sinter by 
the vegetation of thermal springs, by Walter Harvey Weed. 
These researches on the origin of the deposits of siliceous sinter 
found in the basins of the Yellowstone National Park make it 
evident that such deposits are largely formed by the vegetation 
of the hot spring waters. Waters too poor in silica to form 
sinter deposits by any other cause may be accompanied by beds 
of siliceous sinter formed by plant life ; the extent and thickness 
of these deposits establish the importance of this form of life a; 
a geological agent. — -Marine shells and fragments of shells in the 
Till near Boston, by Warren Upham. These fossils, occurring 
ill drift deposits near Boston, are usually regarded as evidence of 
a marine submergence within the Pleistocene or Quaternary 
period. But Mr. Upham's observations made last year show 
that they were transported from the bed of the sea on the north 
by the ice-sheet in the same manner as the materials of the drift 
have been carried southwards and often deposited at higher 
elevations than the localities from which they were brought. 
Hence these shells afford no proof of the former presence of the 
sea at the level where they are now found. — A platiniferous 
nickel ore from Canada, by F. W. Clarke and Charles Catlett. 
']"he careful analysis here made of these ores from the mines at 
Sudbury, Ontario, places beyond all doubt the presence of 
platinum in appreciable quantities. It probably exists in the ore 
as sperrylite, though this point has not yet been determined. — 
Stratigraphic position of the Olenellus fauna in North America 
and Europe, by Chas. D. Walcott. The general result of these 
researches is to remove the Olenellus fauna both in the Old and 
New World from the Middle Cambrian to the base of the whole 
Cambrian system. The paper, which is not concluded, gives 
full tables of this fauna, with its areas of geographical distribu- 
tion east and west of the North Atlantic— Earthquakes in 
California, by Edward S. Holden. The statistics of seismic 
disturbances in this region with incidental remarks are brought 
down to the end of the year 1888. — Chemical action between 
solids, by William Hallock. In his recent note on a new 
method of forming alloys, the author undertook to carry out 
some additional experiments, the results of which are here given. 
He infers generally that chemical action may take place wherever 
the products are liquid or gaseous, even though the reagents 
are solid, with perhaps the added condition that one or both 
reagents be soluble in the liquid produced. 

Revtie d'' Anthropologic, troisieme serie, tome iv., deux<^. fasc. 
(Paris, 1889). — On the colour of the eyes and hair of the Ainos, 
by M. Lefevre. These no^es were drawn up at the suggestion 
of Dr. Colignon, while the author was acting as Professor at the 
Military College of Japan. The principal point commended to 
his notice was to determine whether there was any foundation for 
the statement, made by various traveller-, that many of the 
Ainos present the anomalous condition, that while the hair of 
the head is red, the beard, and the hair with which various parts 
of their bodies are profusely covered, are deep black, the skin 
being sallow, and the eyes light. This coloration is completely 
at variance with all known physiological relations, and it is 
obvious from the author's observations that the statement must 
have arisen from a misconception, due, perhaps, in part to the 
practice pursued by the .Ainos of colouring their heads a bright 
red, and tattooing the lip? in circular rings of black and blue. 
The interest of racial coloration is considerable when judged 
from an ethnological point of view, and special importance 
attaches to the subject in regard to the Ainos, who, although 
undoubtedly a white race, have undergone various modifications 
in accordance with the different parts of the empire in which 
they were settled. Thus, while in some districts the people have 
been forced to adopt the dress and habits of the Japanese, in the 
neighbourhood of Sapporo, the capital of the Island of Yesso, 
they have hitherto been enabled to retain their old customs, and 
keep themselves far more free than elsewhere from intermixture 
with the Japanese. It is, therefore, the more worthy of notice 
that in this district no blonde or blue-eyed Ainos are to be met 
with, while the people generally have absolutely black hair. It 
would, in fact, appear that the hair of the normal Ainos is of a 



jay-like blackness, coarse and stiff, but bright and lustrous, 
although in the case of a few of those who have long occupied 
the seacoast, the hair is of a dark brown, presenting almost the 
same softness as that of Europeans. In no section of the people 
is there the slightest evidence of any anomalous colouring of the 
hair, eyes, and con^plexion. M. Lefevre considers that the stature 
of the Ainos is somewhat higher than that of the normal Japanese, 
while their cranial index, which is found to range from the 
extremes of dolichocephalism to that of brachycephalism, 
would seem to give very strong weight to the assumption that 
these people are not a pure race, and that they differ in accord- 
ance with the extent to which Mongolian or other ethnic elements 
have modified their primitive character. — On the writings and 
opinions of Samuel Zarza, by M. Salomon Reinach. Consider- 
able interest was excited by a statement made in 1877 by Dr. 
Topinard, in one of his lectures, afterwards published in the 
Gazette Mcdicalc, according to which a Jew, named Samuel 
Zarza, was burnt alive in 1450, for having maintained the anti- 
quity of man. This statement excited much attention, and M, 
Cartailhac, who doubted its accuracy, appealed to his confreres 
for information in regard to the documents from which M. 
Topinard had quoted. This appeal remained unanswered until 
the question was lately taken up by M. Reinach, who associated 
with himself in the necessary investigations a learned Russian Jew, 
M. Salomon Fuchs. To the latter we are indebted for a com- 
mentary on the numerous works of Zarza, surnamed Ben S'ne, 
which, according to his own report, were undertaken in the hope 
of reviving among his coreligionists in Spain their interest in 
philosophical and theological inquiries, which had nearly died 
out amid the miseries they had endured during the civil wars 
between Peter the Cruel and his brother, Henry II. M. Fuchs 
has failed to find in these works any opinion expressed concerning 
the antiquity of man, although the writer appears to have adhered 
to the belief of the eternity of the world. It is, moreover, 
obvious from his reference to his age when he completed his 
second work, entitled " Mikhalal-Yophi," i.e. " Perfection of 
Beauty," in 1369, that he could not have survived until 1450, 
which is given by the commentators of the seventeenth century, 
from whom Dr. Topinard borrowed his references, as the date 
of his presumed martyrdom. While M. Fuchs thus supplies 
another proof of the inaccuracy of many of the earlier comment- 
ators, he at the same time shows by his summary of Zarza's 
writings that Hebraists might throw interesting light on the early 
dawn of scientific inquiry by a careful study of the numerous 
still unprinted remains of Zarza, and of his Spanish co-religionists, 
who undoubtedly exercised an active influence on the progress 
of learning in the Middle Ages. — On the belief in familiar 
household spirits and other forms of superstition, by Dr. Berenger- 
Feraud. The interest of this paper to the student of folk- 
lore depends upon the writer's detailed narratives of the local 
superstitions still prevailing, or only recently exploded, in the 
rural districts of France ; his elaborate exposition of the 
superstitions of other countries has little value for the English 
reader. — On questions regarding the Aryans, by M. de Lapouge. 
The author believes that, at the present stage of our knowledge, 
we are justified in assuming that in the ancient Aryans we have 
a blonde dolichocephalic race, whose cradle was in the north- 
west of Europe as it existed in the second half of the Qujiternary 
age. — On the steatopygia of the Hottentots in the Garden of 
Acclimatization by M. Topinard. 



SOCIETIES AND ACADEMIES. 
London. 

Royal Society, March 7. — "On the Wave-Length of the 
Principal Line in the Spectrum of the Aurora." By William 
Huggins, D.C.L., LL.D., F.R.S. 

I think it is very desirable that I should put on record some 
observations of the spectrum of the aurora which I made in the 
year 1874, but which, up to the present time, have remained 
unpublished. These observations were made with a powerful 
spectroscope, and under conditions v/hich enabled me to deter- 
mine the wave-length of the principal line within narrow limits 
of error. The spectroscope was made by Sir Howard Grubb, 
on the automatic principle of his father, Mr. Thomas Grubb. 
It is furnished with two " Grubb " compound prisms ; each has 
5 square inches of base, and gives nearly twice the dispersion 
of a single prism of 60° — namely, about 9° 6' from A to H. 



May 1 6, 1889J 



NATURE 



69 



The observations were made on February 4, 1874. There 
was a brilliant aurora, showing a whitish light ; a direct-vision 
spectroscope resolved this light into a brilliant line in the yellow 
and a faint continuous spectrum. 

The "Grubb" spectroscope was directed from the window of 
the Observatory upon the brightest part of the aurora. In the 
first instance, an estimation by eye was made of the position of 
the bright line by comparing it in the instrument with the spec- 
trum of a spirit-lamp. The bright line was seen to fall on the 
more refrangible side of the line for which Watts gives the wave- 
length 5582 {Phil. Mag., vol. xli., 1871, p. 14), Angstrom and 
Thalen 5583 ("Spectres des Metalloides," Nov. Act. Soc. Sci. 
Upsal., vol. ix,, 1875, P- 29), by from one-fifth to one-fourth 
of the distance of this line from the beginning of the band. If 
we take one-fourth, we have A 5569*6 ; one-fifth gives A 5572"3. 
The mean of these values gives for the 

Aurora line A 5570"9 (i) 

The cross-wires of the spectroscope were then brought upon 
the line, and the reading 3476 showed the line to fall about 
midway between two strong lines in the spectrum of tin, X 5564 
and A 5587 respectively, according to my measures (" Spectra of 
the Chemical Elements," Phil. Trans., 1864, p. 139). The 
position of the cross was thea compared directly with those lines 
in the spectrum of an induction spark taken between electrodes 
of tin. The further details of this comparison are not given in 
my note-book, but the result only, which placed the 

Aurora line at A 5571 (2) 

Consulting my map of the chemical elements, I found that 
there was a line of tellurium very near this place — namely, at 
A 5575 ; I therefore brought the spark from tellurium before the 
slit, when the cross appeared on the more refrangible side of the 
tellurium line. The measure of the distance of the cross from 
this line came out equal to A 0003. . The place given in my 
paper for this line of tellurium is 5575. Thalen gives for the 
same line 5574*1 (Brit. Assoc. Rep., 1885, p. 292). If we take 
the mean of these values and deduct 0003, we get for 

The line of the aurora A 5571*5 (3) 

There are strong lines of iron very near this position in the 
spectrum, and I made use of these also for a further determina- 
tion of the place of the aurora line. The cross, after having 
been placed upon the line of the aurora, was confronted with 
these lines in the spectrum of iron. 

The condensed account in my note-book does not give further 
particulars of this comparison, but states only that the place of 
the 

Aurora line came out A 5571 '5 (4) 

Summing up these determinations we have — 

(i) Eye-estimation A 5570*9 

(2) From tin 5571 'o 

(3) From tellurium 5571 '5 

(4) From iron 5571 5 

" From these values I think that we are justified in taking for 
the aurora line, as a position very near the truth, 

A 5571 ±0*5 (5) 

Among the numerous determinations of other observers, those 
of Prof. H. C. Vogel in 1872 [Lepzig Math. Phys. Berichtc, 
vol. xxii. p. 285) seem to me to have great weight. A direct- 
vision spectroscope with a set of five prisms was used. The 
reduction of the readings of the micrometer into wave-lengths 
was based upon the repeated measures of 100 lines of the solar 
spectrum. 

The screw had been thoroughly examined. After each ob- 
servation of the aurora line, readings were taken of the lines of 
sodium or of hydroj^en. The observations extended over four 
nights. On three nights four separate readings were obtained ; 
on the fourth night two only. Vogel gives as the mean result 
of the fourteen observations — 

Aurora line A 5571*3 ± 0*92 (6) 

The recent observations on the spectrum of the .-lurora by 
Gyllenskiold, at Cap Thordsen, in 1882, de;eive special 



mention.^ With a Hoffmann spectroscope, furnished with 
a scale, he obtained at Cap Thordsen in 1882 a mean result 
of A 5568 ± 1*6; later, in 1884, at Upsala, with a Wrede 
spectroscope furnished with a micrometer screw, a mean value 
for the aurora Ime, A 5569 ± 6*2.- Gyllenskiold discusses in 
detail nearly all the recorded observations of the spectrum of 
the aurora from 1867 to 1882, and then brings them together in 
a table, with such probable errors as the original statements of 
the observers enabled him to assign to them. 

Gyllenskiold then calculates by the method of least squares 
the mean value of all the determinations, and finds the following 
result : — ■' 

Mean value of the 23 observations, A 5570*0 ± 0*88 . . (7) 

The recent measures by C. C. Krafft,* depart largely from 
Gyllenskiold's mean value. Krafft found on 

1882 November 2 A 5595 

II 5586 

and measures with the same instrument made by Schroeter, on 
November 17, gave A 5587. 

Now, though Angstrom's original value, A 5567, may not be 
quite accurate, his observation fixed a limit towards the red 
beyond which the aurora line cannot lie. Angstrom says : " Sa 
lumiere etait presque monochromatique, et consistait d'une seule 
raie brillante situee a gauche " (on the more refrangible side) 
" du groupe connu des raies du calcium" ("Spectre Solaire," 
Upsal, 1868, p. 42). The position of the most refrangible line 
of this calcium group is accurately known ; according to (Brit. 
Assoc. Rep. 1884, p. 372) 



Kirchhoff 
Thalen .., 
Huggins . . 



A 5580*9 
5580*9 
5581-0 



It is certain therefore, from Angstrom's first observation in 
1867, alone that the aurora line lies well on the more refrangible 
side of wave-length 5580. This limit towards the red was con- 
firmed afterwards by Angstrom himself; he says later that the 
yellow line falls almost midway between the second and third 
line of the shaded carbon group (Nature, vol. x. p. 211), The 
positions of these lines of comparison are, according to Angstrom 
and Thalen, A 5538 and A 5583 {Acta Upsal., vol. ix. 1875, 
p. 29). 

It follows that Kraftt's values, A 5586, A 5587, and A 5595, 
must be from some cause inaccurate. A possible explanation 
may be found in the small number of solar lines employed by 
Krafft for the reduction of the measures into wave-lengths. The 
curve was drawn through the six Fraunhofer lines, B, C, a, D, 
E, and b. There was no control for the curve between D and 
E, and a very small deviation of the curve from its true position 
here would be sufficient to account for the position of less 
refrangibility of from A 0016 to A 0024, which his measures give 
for the aurora line. 

It should be stated that Krafft expresses regret that more at- 
tention could not be given to the spectroscopic observations. 
He says : — " Leider gestatteten die obligatorischen Beobacht- 
ungen nicht, den spectroscopischen Untersuchungen die gehorige 
Aufmerksamkeit angedeihen zu lassen. . . . Ich glaubte ausser- 
dem diese Messungen um so mehr auslassen zu konnen, als der 
Platz der gewohnlichen Nordlichtlinie oft und sehr genau 
bestimmt ist," 

To sum up, we have the following values for the principal line 
of the aurora : — 

(6) 1872, Vogel . . ; A 5571 '3 ± 0-92 

(5) 1874, Huggins 5571*0 ±0-5 

(7) Gyllenskiold's mean of twenty-three 

obser%'ers from 1867 to 1884 . . , 557o*o ± o*88 

These values agree closely, and fix within very narrow limits, 
the position in the spectrum where we have to seek the chemical 
origin of the line. 

Gyllenskiold, from his observations of the changes which 
occur in the spectrum of the aurora, comes to the conclusion 

» "Observations faites an Cap Thordsen, Spitzberg. par I'Expedition 
Surfdoise," vol. ii. part 1, "Aurores Bo.-ealss," par Carlheim-GyllenskiOld 
(Stockholm, 1886;. 

-- Ibid. p. 166. 3 Ibid. p. i5q. _ 

4 " Beobachtungs-Ergebnisse der^ Norwegischen Polarjtation, &c. 
A. S. Steen(Christiania, 1888). 



70 



NATURE 



{May 1 6, 1889 



that " le spectre de I'aurore boreale resulte de la superposition 
de plusieurs spectres differents," and that "la raie principale 
forme un de ces spectres elementaires ; elle apparait tres souvent 
seule." A similar view was taken many years ago by Angstrom 
(Nature, vol. x. p. 210) and by Vogel {Leipzig Math. Phys. 
Berichte, vol. xxiii. p. 298). 

[After consideration, I think that I ought to point out that 
Mr. Lockyer's recent statement (Roy. Soc. Proc, vol. xlv., 1889, 
p. 234), that "the characteristic line of the aurora is the remnant 
of the brightest manganese fluting at 558," is clearly inad- 
missible, considering the evidence we have of the position of 
this line. 

• In support of this statement Mr. Lockyer says : — "Angstrom 
gave tlie wave-length of the line as 5567, and since then many 
observers have given the same wave- length for it, but probably 
without making independent determinations. Piazzi Smyth, 
however, gives it as 558, which agrees exactly with the bright 
edge of the manganese, fluting. R. \l. Proctor also gives the 
line as a little less refrangible than Angstrom's determination. 
He says : ' My own measures give me a wave-lengih very 
slightly greater than those of Winlock and Angstrom ' (Nature, 
vol. iii. p. 468)." 

By reference to Gyllenskiold's table it will be seen that the 
probable errors of the determinations by Piazzi Smyth and 
Proctor, 5579 ±9'5 and 5595 ± 25-0 respectively,^ are too 
large to entitle these measures to special weight. 

Mr. Lockyer says, further : — " Gyllenskiold's measures with 
the Wrede spectroscope also give 5580 as the v\ ave-length of 
the characteristic line. I feel justified, therefore, in disregard- 
ing the difference between the wave-length of ihe edge of the 
manganese fluting and the generally accepted wave-length of the 
aurora line." 

GyllensUold's single measure of 5580, on which Mr. Lockyer 
relies, differs widely from the values which Gyllenskiold himself 
assigns to this line — namely, from observations at Cape Thord- 
sen in 1882, A 5568 ± i'6, and from observations at Upsala in 
1884, with the Wrede spectroscope, A. 5569 ± 6 '2. 

Speaking of Krafft's observations, Mr. Lockyer says (Roy. 
Soc. Proc, vol. xlv., 1889, p. 241): — "The wave-lengths ob- 
tained for the aurora line were 5595, 5586, and 5587. Unlike 
most observations, these place the aurora line on the Itss re- 
frangible side of the manganese fluting. Hence, we have an 
additional reason for neglecting the difference bet\^ een the wave- 
length of the brightest edge of the manganese fluting, and the 
commonly accepted wave-length of the aurora lin^, as given by 
Angstrom. . . . These observations are the latest which have 
been published, and were obviously made with a full knowledge 
of all previous work, so that their importance must be strongly 
insisted upon." 

I have already pointed out that Krafft's measures were not 
made under circumstances which sssurtd to them a high degree 
of accuracy ; and Krafft's own words, which I have quoted, 
disclaim expressly any special attempt on his part to redeter- 
mine the position of the principal line with a hijiher degree of 
accuracy than the observers who preceded him.^March 4.] 

May 2. — " The Accurate Determination of Caibonic Acid 
and Moisture in Air." By J. S. Haldane, M.A., M.B., and M. 
S. Pembrey (Physiological Laboratory, Oxford). Communicated 
by Prof. J. Burdon Sanderson, F. R.S. 

The authors show that, in spite of the efforts which have been 
made in recent years to improve the method of Pettenkofer for 
determining COo in free air, the results obtained by different 
observers still seriously disagree. They also point out the 
serious defect in the ordinary " chemical " method of determining 
moisture in air, that in spite of its superior accuracy it only gives 
accurate results over a long period, while the proportion of 
moisture in the air is constantly changing. 

A method is then described for determining simultaneously 
the CO2 and moisture in air. The method is gravimetric. The 
CO2 is estimated by the increase in weight of an apparatus of 
simple construction containing soda lime, through which a known 
volume of the air has been passed. The moisture is similarly 
estimated by means of an apparatus containing pumice soaked 
in sulphuric acid. The increased accuracy and convenience of 
the method depend on the facts : (i) that a very rapid current 
of air may be passed through the apparatus without fear of non- 
absorption of either COo or moisture ; (2) that by the method 
of counterpoising with a dummy apparatus during weighing the 

' Gyllenskiold's sta'.emer.t of Proctoi's valve is based on Natur", vol. iii. 
p 347 and p. 68. 



"errors of weighing" are reduced to about a tenth of what they 
would otherwise be. It is shown that with these two improve- 
ments the method for moisture gives in a period of experiment of 
one minute a result equal in accuracy to that obtained with the 
ordinary method in a period of two hours. 

Using their own method for CO.i as a standard, the authors 
have also tested the Pettenkofer method. They find that the 
latter method usually gives resuUs for free air about a fifth too 
high, but that the error is less in proportion with air containing 
larger amounts of CO2. 

As a number of sets of absorption apparatus can easily be 
carried about, the new method is well suited for experiments in 
hygiene, and especially for cases in which a series of experiments 
require to be made in rapid succession. Both kinds of absorption 
apparatus last over a large number of experiments without 
refilling. 

Physical Society, A] ril 13. — Prof. Reinold, President, in 
the chair.- — Mr. Sbelford Bid well, F.R. S., showed a lecture ex- 
periment illustrating the effect of heat en the magnetic suscepti- 
bility of nickel, and an experiment showing an effect of light on 
magnetism. In the first experiment a piece of nickel was 
attached to one side of a copper pendulum bob, which was held 
out of the vertical by bringing the nickel in contact with a fixed 
magnet. On placing a spirit-lamp flame below the nickel, the 
bob was, after a short time, released, and oscillated until the 
nickel had cooled, when it was again attracted and the operation 
repeated itself. The second experiment had been recently 
shown before the Royal Society. One end of an iron bar, which 
had been ^magnetized and then demagnetized, was placed near a 
magnetometer needle. On directing a beam of light on the bar 
an immediate deflection of the needle resultedj and on cutting 
off the light the needle promptly returned to near its initial 
position. The direction of magnetization induced by the light 
is the same as the previous magnetization, and the bar 
seems to be in an unstable magnetic state. That the effect is 
due to light and not heat, the author thinks is rendered probable 
by the suddenness of the action. The President said he had 
tried the experiment himself and failed to get any effect, but 
after seeing the arrangement of apparatus used, he believed his non- 
success due to the comparatively great distance between Ms bar 
and needle.- Mr.- C. Richardson asked if the results were different 
for different coloured rays, and Prof. S. P. Thompson inquired 
whether the magnitude of the effect varied with the intensity of 
illumination as in selenium, and also if any change was produced 
by altering the direction of vibration of the incident light. Mr. 
G. M. Whipple wished to know whether any difference was 
produced by blackening the bars, and as bearing somewhat on the 
same subject mentioned an induction magnetometer in which an 
iron bar used was demagnetized by plunging in hot water. The 
results obtained were very irregular after the first magnetization, 
and this may have been due to the instability shown to exist by 
Mr. Bidwell's experiment. In reply, Mr. Bidwell said red light 
produces most effect, and blackening the bar makes the action 
much slower. As regards . selenium, the character of the effect 
is similar, but he believes the causes to be different. Polarized 
light produces no change. . In answer to Prof. Herschel, he said 
that any part of the, bar. is, sensitive to light, and showed that 
illuminating both sides of the bar increased the effect. — Mr. 
G. M. Whipple read a note on the dark flash seen in some light- 
ning photographs. After expressing his dissent from the 
explanations offered in the report of the Lightning Flash Com- 
mittee oftbe Meteorolegicail Society and Prof. Stokes respecting 
ribbon lightning and dark flashes-, the author described some 
experiments he had made on the subject. Ribbon lightning he 
conceived to be an effect produced by taking the photographs 
through windows, and to test this, lines on a blackboard were 
photographed, (i) direct; (2) through good plate-glass placed 
obliquely ; and (3) through window-glass, the result being that 
the double, triple, and ribbon flashes -were closely imitated. As 
regards " dark flashes," the author believes the appearance due 
to the prints being taken in oblique light, and to be produced by 
successive reflection from the reduced silver forming the dark 
line on the negative and the upper surface of the glass of the 
negative. Prof. Perry suggested that this might be easily proved 
by examining a negative, the prints from which .'how the dark 
flash. Mr. Baily pointed out that, if the explanation given were 
correct, ih^ d,ark line should be parallel to the bright one, and 
this he understood was not always the case. Mr. Boys remarked 
that one dark flash exhibited minute wriggles not seen in the 
bright one, and Mr. C. V. Burton thought these might be due 



May .16, 1889] 



NATURE 



71 



to irregularities in the upper surface of the negative. Dr. Glad- 
stone said he was not satisfied with Prof. Stokes's nitrous oxide 
explanation, but thought the plienomenon may be due to some 
kind of reversion. He also mentioned that a negative might 
probably be obtained from Mr. Shephard, of Westbourne Grove. 
As regards multiple flashes, Mr. Boys said he had often seen 
seven or eight flashes traverse the same path in rapid succession. 
On the motion of the President, the discussion was adjourned 
until the next meeting, when Mr. Whipple hopes to exhibit the 
negative referred t >, together with photographs of his experi- 
mental dark flashes. — On quartz as an insulator, by Mr. 
C. V. Boys, F.R.S. In making quartz fibres the author ob- 
served that the ends of fibres broken during the shooting process 
coiled up into screws, and projected themselves against anything 
brought in their vicinity. After a short time they released them- 
selves and sprang back to their original position. This could be 
repeated indefinitely, and the only explanation he could think of 
was that the fibre was electrified. If so, then to exhibit such 
phenomena the insulating qualities of quartz must be very great, 
and experiments were shown to demonstrate this deduction. A 
small pair of charged gold leaves were suspended from a short 
quartz rod in a moistened atmosphere, and the deflection fell one- 
quarter the original amount in about five hours. A clean glass 
rod under the same conditions would discharge the leaves in a 
few seconds. Dipping the quartz into water did not seem to 
diminish its insulating properties, and ordinary chemicals pro- 
duced no permanent prejudicial effect. The author considers 
that quartz will be very useful in electrostatic apparatus, for the 
troublesome sulphuric acid may be dispensed with. — On a re- 
fraction goniometer, by Mr. A. P. Trotter. The goniometer, 
which was designed when determining the figure of a refracting 
surface to effect a special distribution of light, is practically a 
movable four-bar linkwork, representing the figure given in 
Deschanel (p. 924) ; two of the bars are parallel to the incident 
and emergent rays, and the other two normals to the faces of the 
prism. By its means the angle of a pri-m to jiroduce a given 
deviation, when the index of refraction and angle of incidence 
are known, can be readily found. A series of curves expressing 
the relation between incidence and deviation for prisms of various 
angles were shown, and the same curves show the minimum 
deviation and limiting angle for prisms of all angles represented. 
The author thinks the instrument will be useful in physical 
laboratories for adjusting optical apparatus and for the calculation 
of lighthouse and other polarized lenses, Fresnel pris us, &c. 
Prof. Herschel said he found a wooden model illustrating the 
relations between the angles of incidence and refraction very 
useful in teaching ; and Mr. Blakesley sketched an arrangement of 
links and cords devised for the same purpose. Mr. Boys con- 
sidered that all such relations were best seen on a slide rule. — 
A note on apparatus to illustrate crystal forms, by Prof. R. J. 
Anderson, was read by Prof. Perry. Th£ apparatus is con- 
structed of cords, pulleys, and weights arranged to produce the 
required figure when in equilibrium. By increasing or decreasing 
some of the weights the corresponding axes of the crystal forms 
can be lengthened or shortened, and the passage from one 
system to another effected. In one arrangement the forces may be 
divided or united, and the pulleys are carried by rings capable 
of rotating on different axes. By this apparatus the various 
conditions are said to be beautifully illustrated, and methods of 
deriving the oblique from the rectangular systems are shown in 
photographs which accompany the paper. 

Entomological Society, May i. — Mr. Frederick Du Cane- 
Godman, F.R.S., Vice-President, in the chair. — Mr. W. L. 
Distant announced the death of Dr. Signoret, of Paris, one of 
the Honorary Fellows of the Society. — Dr. Sharp exhibited 
male and female specimens of Rhomborhina japonica, in which 
the thorax was abnormal ; also, a specimen of Batoccra roylei, 
which he had kept in a relaxed condition in order to be able to 
demonstrate the power of stridulation possessed by this species. 
— Dr. N. Manders exhibited a small collection of Coleoptera, 
including several remarkable and very interesting species, re- 
cently made by him in the Shand States, Burmah. — Mr. C. O. 
Waterhouse exhibited, for Mr. Frohawk, a series of wings of 
British butterflies, prepared in accordance with a process (de- 
scribed by Mr. Waterhouse in the Proc. Ent. Soc, 1887, p. 
rxiii.'), by which they were denuded of their scales so as to 
pxjiose the neuration. — Dr. P. B. Mason exhibited cocoons of 
species of spider — Theridion pallens. Black., — from Cannock 
^hase, distinguished by the presence of large blunt processes on 
"leir surface.— Mr, H. Goss exhibited, for Mr. N. F. Dobree, 



a number of scales of Coccidce, picked off trees of Acacia melan- 
oxylon and Grevillea rohusta, growing in the Market Square, 
Natal. These scales had been referred to Mr. J. W. Douglas, 
who expressed an opinion that they belonged to the family 
Brachyscelidiv, and probably to the genus Brachyscelis, Schrader. 
He said that most of the species lived on Eucalyptus. — Captain 
H. J. Elwes exhibited a long and varied series of specimens of 
Terias hecabe. He remarked that all the specimens which had 
strongly defined markings were taken in the cold and dry season, 
and that those which were without, or almost without, markings, 
were taken in the hot and wet season ; further, that he believed 
that many specimens which had been described as distinct were 
merely seasonal forms of this variable species. Mr. W. L. 
Distant, Mr. F. D. Godman, F.R.S., Prof. Meldola, F.R.S., 
Mr. H. T. Stainlon, F. R. S., and Mr. G. Lewis took part in 
the discussion which ensued. — Mr. H. Burns exhibited, and 
made remarks on, a number of nests of living ants of the fol- 
lowing species, viz. Formica fusca, Lasius alienus, L. flavus 
L. niger, Mynnica ruginodis, M. scabrinodis, Sec. One of the 
nests contained a queen of L. flavus, which had been in the 
exhibitor's possession since September 1882. — Mr, W. Darinatt 
exhibited specimens of Thaumantis hoivqua, West., from Shang- 
hai. — Mr. G. C. Bignell communicated a paper entitled "De- 
scription of a New Species of British Ichneuvtonidce." — Mr. A, 
G. Butler communicated a paper entitled "A Few Words in 
reply to Mr. Elwes's statements respecting the incorporation 
of the Zeller Collection with the General Collection of Lepi- 
doptera in the Natural History Museum." Captain Elwes, Mr. 
Siainton, Mr, Godman, and others, took part in the discussion 
which ensued. 

Paris. 

Academy of Sciences, May 7. — M, Des Cloizeaux, 
President, in the chair. — On elliptical polarization by vitreoUs 
and metallic reflection ; extension of the methods of observation 
to the ultra-violet radiations, by M. A. Cornu. The principles 
on which Cauchy has established the theory of these two orders 
of phenomena and the form of the laws controlling them differ 
so greatly that most physicists regard them as essentially dis- 
tinct. But these experiments show that this is not the case, and 
that the same substance may present a continuous transition from 
one to the other according to the nature of the reflected radia- 
tion. It follows that the phenomena presented by transparent 
substances with metallic sheen (fuchsine, platinocyanides, &c.), 
far from being exceptional, merely constitute particular forms of 
the general phenomenon of reflection. — On the origin of bronze, 
by M. Berthelot. The author has analyzed specimens from a 
statuette from Tello in Mesopotamia, and from the sceptre of the 
Egyptian king Pepi I. (sixth dynasty), both dating back to 
about 4000 B.C., and both consisting of pure copper. From 
this he argues that, as in the New World, the Stone Age was 
followed by a Copper Age in the eastern hemisphere, anl that 
the bronze period cannot bs more than some fifty or sixty cen- 
turies old. — On the thionic series ; action of the alkalies, by M. 
Berthelot. Having already determined the heats of formation 
of the thionic compounds {Comptcs rendus, cviii. p, 773), the 
author here deals with the reciprocal transformations of these 
compounds under the influence of the alkalies. The penta- 
thionates, tetrathionates, an I trithionates are treated in detail, 
and it is concluded that these as well as other compound 
substances, such as metaphosphoric and pyrophosphonc acids, 
hitherto regarded as isolated and exceptional, all come within 
the same general theories as the organic acids. — Note on an iron 
meteorite discovered buried in the ground at Haniet-el-Beguel in 
Algeria, by M. Daubree. This meteorite, found at a depth of 
5 metres, while sinking a well in the Wed Mzab district, appears 
to be of great age, having fallen probably during the 
Quaternary epoch. It shows the Widmanstatten figures quite 
distinctly, and its other characteristics place its extra-terrestrial 
origin beyond all doubt. — Remarks accompanying the presenta- 
tion of the third part of the Bulletin international de la Carte du 
Ciel, by M, Mouchez. In these remarks special attention is 
called to Mr, Isaac Koherts's panto^raveur stellaire, an ingenious 
and valuable process, by means of which the photographic im- 
pressions of the stars can easily be transferred to metallic plates, 
and thus preserved from all danger of perishing. The method 
is simple and economical, and allows of an unlimited number of 
copies being taken for general use. By this invention all risk is 
removed of the labours of the International Association for photo- 
graphing the Heavens being lost to future generations, — Researches 
on the application of the measurement of rotatory power to 



72 



NATURE 



[May 1 6, 1889 



the study of the compounds formed by the action of the 
niagnesium and lithium molybdates on the solutions of tar- 
taric acid, by M. D. Gernez. The present series of experiments 
are analogous to those already described in previous communica- 
tions, demonstrating the great increase experienced by the 
rotatory force of certain active compounds when their solutions 
are placed in contact with various substances without proper 
action on polarized light. Here M. Gernez studies more parti- 
cularly the action of the neutral magnesium molybdate on solu- 
tions of tartaric acid, and the action of the neutral lithium 
molybdate on the same solutions. Combining these with 
the results already obtained, he is now able to formulate the 
following general conclusion : The simplest combinations which 
are produced in aqueous solution between tartaric acid and the 
neutral molybdates and tungstates hitherto studied, and which 
correspond to a maximum rotatory power, are formed by the 
union of the acid with the salt molecule for molecule. — On the 
atomic weight of ruthenium, by M. A. Joly. In a previous com- 
munication {Comptis rendus, cvii. p. 994) the author announced 
that the analysisof compounds of nitric oxide with rutheno-chlor- 
ides led to a reduction of about two units in the atomic weight of 
ruthenium (I04-I03'5) as determined by the latest researches of 
Glaus. He now finds this view confirmed by his own studies, 
and provisionally fixes the atomic weight of this element at 
loi •4. In its preliminary transformation into compounds contain • 
ing nitric oxide the ruthenium was completely freed ftom osmium, 
the atomic weight of which, according to Seubert's last determina- 
tions, is nearly double (191), and this would explain the consider- 
able reduction in the atomic weight of the ruthenium itself — On 
a-oxycinchonine, by MM. E. Jungfleisch and E. Leger. A de- 
tailed description is given of the preparation, properties, salts, 
and various derivatives of this substance, the formula of which is 
CggHgjNjOj. — On the alcoholic fermentation of the juice of 
the sugar-cane, by M. V. Marcano. The object of these studies 
has been to determine the agent of the alcoholic fermentation, 
as well as the nature of the products accompanying the alcohol 
yielded by the juice of the sugar-cane. — Action of zinc 
chloride on isobutylic alcohol in the presence of hydrochloric 
acid, by MM. H. Malbot and L. Gentil. The points here 
chiefly studied are the part played by the isobutyl chloride, and 
the properties of the polybutylenes. — On an artificial silk, by 
M. de Chardonnet. The author has prepared from a pure 
cellulose octonitrate a silk -like fabric of great elasticity and soft- 
ness, more lustrous than the silk of cocoons, and capable of being 
dyed by the ordinary processes. Specimens will be shown at 
the Universal Exhibition. — M. Daubree paid a tribute to the 
memory of ihe late M. Lory, Corresponding Member of the 
Section for Mineralogy, who died at Grenoble on May 3. 

Berlin. 

Physical Society, April 5. — Prof, von Helmholtz, President, 
in the chair. — Prof. Rosenthal, of Erlangen, described his 
calorimeter and the experiments he had made with it on the heat- 
production of the animal body. (See report of the Physiological 
Society in Nature of April 25, p. 624. ) He then showed a small 
experiment on making flames non-luminous. This result can be 
obtained either by means of a strong current of air or by con- 
siderable cooling. The speaker, however, produced the same 
effect in the following way. A small gas-flame is made to burn 
brightly inside a cylindrical chimney ; it becomes non-luminous 
as soon as a platinum crucible is placed on the chimney so a-; to 
incompletely close the upper end of the cylinder. Prof 
Rosenthal believes that in this case the current of air through 
the chimney is very considerably slowed, hence the gas issuing 
fiom the burner becomes disseminated throughout the whole 
mass of air, and as a result of this, the temperature being low, 
t burns without giving any light. Several other explanations of 
I he phenomenon were suggested by the members present at the 
meeting. — Dr. Frohlich made a further communication in 
connection with his older, resultless experiments on the objective | 
<lemonstration of the vibrations of a telephone-disk, in order to 
describe his new method by which positive results had beea 
obtained. In his earlier experiments he employed manometric \ 
flames, and endeavoured to photograph their movements with the i 
help of a rotating mirror; now, however, he attaches a small 
mirror to the iron plate of the telephone, and from this the light 
of an electric lamp is reflected on to a polygonal rotating mirror, 
irom which it falls upon a screen. The vibrations of the plate 
wtre thus made visible on the screen, and since each sidi of the 
polygonal mirror cast its own image, when the mirror was 
rotated the curves were seen moving over the screen. The more 



rapidly the mirror was rotated the slower did the curves move 
over the screen, and when the rotation was as rapid as the 
vibration of the plate, the curves became stationary and could 
thus be exactly observed and drawn. These luminous curves 
could also be photographed. The speaker had employed this 
method in a series of researches on certain electrical phenomena 
which might influence the efficiency of the telephone. Thus the 
action of alternating currents, of self-induction, of the rise and 
fall of the current en making and breaking, of the introduction 
of electro-magnets, and of other conditions, were studied by 
means of the altered mode of vibration of the telephone plate. 
The speaker had further obtained a graphic record of the 
vibrations of the telephone jilate when vowels and consonants 
are sung and spoken into it. Many other problems may, 
by the above method, be brought nearer to their solution. — 
Dr. Reichel showed a lecture-experiment with a water- 
hammer. When the bulb in which the fluid is contained is 
grasped in the warm hand, the fluid is driven over to the other 
side by means of the vapour which is then formed. When all 
the fluid has thus passed over, bubbles of vapour finally make 
their way through the fluid, and at this moment the hand which 
is grasping the bulb experiences a distinct sensation of cold. 



BOOKS, PAMPHLETS, and SERIALS RECEIVSD. 

Illustrations of Zoology : W. R. Smith and J. S. Norwe]l (Pentland). — 
South Alrica as a Health Resort, 2nd edition: A. Fuller (Whittingham). — 
A Dictionary of Explosives: Major J. P. Cundill (Mackey, Chatham). — 
Three Cruises of the Blake. 2 vols. ; Bulletin of the Museum of Compara- 
tive Zoology at Harvard College, in Cambridge, vols. xiv. and xv. : A. 
Agassiz (Cambridge, Mas'.). — hibliography of Meteorology— Part i, Tem- 
perature: edited by O. L. Fassig (Washington). — Mr. Stranger's Sealed 
Packet : H. MacCoU (Chatto and Windus).— Travels in the Atlas and 
.^■oinhern Morocco : J. Thomson (Philip). — A Treatise on 'trigonometry : 
W. E. Johnson (Macmillan). — Darwinism : A. R. Wal'ace (Macmillan). — 
Life ot Charles Blacker Vignoles : O. J. Vignoles (Longmans).— Gleanings 
from Japan: W. G. Dickson (Blackwood) —Celestial Motions, 6th edition : 
\V. T. Lynn (Stanford). — Our Fancy Pigeons, cheap edition : G. Ure (Stock). 
— Natural Science E.xamination Papers — Part 1, Inorganic Chemistry : R. 
E. Steel (Bell). 



CONTENTS. PAGE 

Borneo 49 

Graphics. By Prof. A. G. Gieenhill, F.R.S 50 

The Chemical Analysis of Iron 51 

Our Book Shelf: — 

Fream : "Agricultural Canada : a Record of Progress " 52 
Marshall and Welsford : " Longmans' School Arith- 
metic " . . •....• . . ' 52 

Crouch: " Glimpses of Feverland " 53 

Letters to the Editor: — 

The Meteoritic Theory.— Prof. Cleveland Abbe . . 53 
The Structure and Distribution of Coral Reefs. — Dr. 

H. B. Guppy 53 

" Bambangala." [Illustrated.)— Ht. P. L. Sclater, 

F.R.S 54 

Inclusion of the Foot in the Abdominal Cavity of a 

Duckling.— E. Waymouth Reid 54 

Atmospheric Electricity. — C A. C. Bowlker .... 55 
Halo of the Moon and Formation of Peculiarly Shaped 

Clouds at Oxford.— Otto V. Darbisnire .... 55 

Spherical Eggs.— Prof. «j. D. Liveing, F.R.S. . . 55 
Columnar Structure in Ice. — Prof. T. G. Bonney, 

F.R.S 55 

Scarlet Fever and Cow Disease 55 

Skeleton of Phenacodus. {Illustrated.) 57 

The Iron and Steel Institute 58 

Robert Stilling Newall, F.R.S 59 

Notes 60 

Our Astronomical Column : — 

The Residuals of Mercury 63 

Right Ascensions of North Circumpolar Stars .... 63 

Two Remarkable Solar Eruptions 64 

Comet 1889 ^(Barnard, March 31) 64 

Astronomical i'denomena for the Week 1889 

May 19-25 64 

Geographical Notes 64 

The Royal Society Conversazione 65 

Scientific Serials. ^7 

Societies and Academies 6:{ 

Books, Pamphlets, and Serials Received ^z 



NA TURE 



Vo 



THURSDAY, MAY 23, li 



THE NEW TECHNICAL EDUCATION BILL. 

A FTER the storms which have wrecked so many 
^^ previous attempts to deal with the question of 
technical education, it is no less surprising than gratifying 
to find that on Wednesday, May 8, Sir Henry Roscoe's 
Bill, representing the views of the National Association 
for the Promotion of Technical Education, slipped through 
the second reading stage in less than a minute, with no 
opposition and amid general cheers. If would be too 
much to expect that the same easy course lies before the 
Bill in Committee, but at least it may be said that we are 
much nearer the settlement of this vexed question than we 
seemed to be a month ago. 

The Bill itself, which we reprint elsewhere, does 
not differ materially from its predecessor of last year 
— we mean the Bill introduced last year by Sir Henry 
Roscoe, not the hapless measure drafted by the Govern- 
ment, There is, indeed, an alteration in the definition of 
technical education, which now includes, besides instruc- 
tion in the branches of science and art named in the 
Science and Art Directory, the working of wood, clay, 
metal, &c., commercial subjects, and " any other subject 
applicable to the purposes of agriculture, trade, or com- 
mercial life and practice, which may be sanctioned by a 
minute of the Department of Science and Art made on 
the representation of a School Board or local authority 
that such a form of instruction is suited to the needs of 
its district." This is an improvement on last year's 
definition, which gave the initiative in this matter to the 
central Department instead of the local authorities. The 
more freedom that is given to localities to adapt their 
scheme of technical instruction to the diverse needs of 
their own industries the better. 

But the Bill is essentially unaltered, and it ought to 
meet with the same approbation from friends of education 
as greeted its predecessor. It is, like all the measures 
that have been drafted, an enabling Bill ; that is to say, 
it gives powers to localities to provide technical instruction 
if they think fit. The Bill deals with the case both of 
elementary and secondary schools. Technical instruction | 
given in the former will be provided by the School Board, i 
and a school will not cease to be a public elementary 
school by reason of technical instruction given therein. 
If, however, a School Board fails to do its duty in the 
matter, the local authority {i.e. the County, District, or | 
Borough Council, or the Urban Sanitary Authority, as the ' 
case may be) may step in and make the requisite pro- j 
vision themselves. In the case of higher technical in- 
struction, provision may be made either by the School 
Board or, except in the case of London, by the local 
authority. Provision is made for the payment of fees of 
deserving students, the establishment of scholarships, 
grants for laboratories, apparatus, museums, libraries, 
&c. Grants may be made to the higher technical schools 
by the Science and Art Department, and to elementary 
schools giving technical instruction by the Science and 
Art Department, or the Education Department, or both. 

The Bill was allowed to pass the second reading 
unchallenged only on the understanding that certam 
alterations should be made in Committee. Until 
Vol. XL.— No. 102 i. 



the Government amendments are put on paper, it is 
hard to give an opinion as to the future chances of the 
measure. It would of course be out of the question to try 
to revive the clause of the last Government Bill compelling 
School Boards either to abstain from providing technical 
instruction altogether, or to make the same provision for 
voluntary schools as for schools under their own manage- 
ment. It ought not, however, to be difficult to arrange a 
satisfactory compromise, and so remove what is undoubt- 
edly a defect in the present measure as it stands, viz. the 
absence of any provision for the large majority of children 
who are educated in denominational schools. 

It would, indeed, be pitiable if the settlement of the 
question were again postponed owing to the endless 
difficulty of the relation between Board and voluntary 
schools. After all, it should be remembered that by far 
the most important part of technical instruction neces- 
sarily falls within the realm of secondary, not of ele- 
mentary education. The ground may be prepared in the 
primary school, but that is nearly all. In our opinion, 
therefore, the most important clauses of the Bill are those 
dealing with non -elementary schools, and at all costs 
these must be preserved, and, if possible, extended ; for, 
as we read the Bill,it is doubtful whether they give the local 
authority the requisite powers to build new technical 
schools. This, however, is a matter which can easily be 
set straight in Committee. 

We do not wish to undervalue the part of the Bill 
dealing with elementary schools. It is most undesirable 
that a School Board that wishes to build a workshop, 
or provide tools for manual training, should continue to 
run the risk of surcharge by the auditors, and it is right 
that the work of the so-called higher elementary schools 
should be formally recognized, and established on a satis- 
factory basis. But if there are any who expect, as a 
result of the measure, that a system of distinctively tech- 
nical instruction will be introduced wholesale into our 
elementary schools, they are destined, in our opinion, to 
be disappointed. 

We note with pleasure that the present Bill is not 
hedged round by the cumbrous and harassing restrictions 
which disfigured the Government Bill of last year. There 
is no requirement of a poll, no restriction in the amount 
of the rate ; and, above all, no clause restricting tech- 
nical instruction in elementary schools to children in the 
sixth and seventh standards. Of all alterations that may 
be proposed, an amendment embodying the last-named 
restriction would, in our opinion, be the most disastrous. 
It would at once cripple the work of the higher element- 
ary school, and destroy science as a class subject and (in the 
fifth standard) as a specific subject throughout our ele- 
mentary school system. The representatives of the 
Technical Education Association will doubtless be on the 
watch to see that no sinister alteration of this kind is 
introduced, for it would virtually convert the Bill into a 
measure for prohibiting the provision of technical instruc- 
tion throughout the greater part of the elementary school 
course. 

There are one or two criticisms which we may 
offer on the measure as it stands. In the first 
place, it does nothing for girls — for instruction bear- 
ing on domestic economy can hardly be brought under 
any of the heads enumerated in Clause 11. This 



74 



NATURE 



[A/ay 23, 1889 



objection might be met by slightly extending that clause so 
as to include cookery, laundry work, &c. Another Haw is 
the omission to provide expressly for Imperial grants other 
than payments on results of individual examination. It is 
true that the Bill leaves the mode in which such grants shall 
be made to the discretion of the Science and Art Depart- 
ment, but something more definite than this is required. 
It would be a great mistake if payments for technical 
instruction were made on results, like the present Science 
and Art grants ; they ought rather to bear a certain pro- 
portion to local contributions, and a clause to this effect 
should, if possible, be embodied in the Bill. Lastly, why 
should School Boards and local authorities be required 
to confine any entrance examination which they may 
institute, to reading, writing, and arithmetic ? 

In spite of these minor defects in matters of detail, 
the Bill as a whole ought to meet with the hearty approval 
of the public, and we trust no stone wi 1 be left unturned 
to secure that it shall be passed into law this session. 
Another year's delay would be most disastrous, as it would 
have the effect of paralyzing local activity, especially in 
those centres which have already prepared schemes and 
collected funds for technical schools, but are waiting year 
after year to see what form legislation on this subject will 
take. 



A TEXT-BOOK OF HUMAN PHYSIOLOGY. 
A Text-book of Human Physiology. By Dr. Austin 
FHnt. Fourth Edition. (London : Lewis, 1888.) 

^''HE present edition of Dr. Flint's " Human Physio- 
logy " is a capital manual of the subject. The book 
has been re-written from the third edition, which was 
published nine years ago. As might have been expected 
from the author of the previous work, the style of the 
text is always clear and eminently readable. Upon the 
whole the selection of the matter is good, and the illustra- 
tions are almost without exception excellent. Detailed 
description of apparatus and of methods of experiment 
has been excluded as unsuited to the character of the 
book. In the same way digression into the laws of 
physical and chemical science has been avoided as far 
as possible, on the ground that such knowledge is already 
within the possession of the student of physiology, or that 
to obtain it he can turn with advantage to special treatises. 
Amid much that is praiseworthy in the work, one may 
single out some points for especial commendation. The 
brief historical introductions to certain chapters are 
of marked excellence, and notably the sketch relating 
the progress in our knowledge concerning the functions 
of the heart and blood-vessels. The discussions of 
the terms hunger and thirst, and of the value of the 
various constituents of the urine as indices of the general 
metabolism of the body, are exceedingly full and satis- 
factory. Very interestingly given, too, is the account of 
the uses of water and inorganic chemical substances which 
pass through the organism ; and the probability of the 
formation of a considerable amount of water within the 
organism during severe muscular exercise is related with 
striking vigour and force of argument. As its title 
implies, the volume is devoted particularly to the physio- 
logy of man, and the portion dealing with the special 
mechanisms for voice and speech is exhaustive. The 
chapters upon the cranial nerves, upon sight, and upon 



hearing, are perhaps, upon the. whole, the best in the 
entire volume. The illustrations to these chapters are 
particularly deserving of praise. 

In a science developing with such rapidity as of late 
years physiology has done, peculiar difficulties stand in 
the way of furnishing a text-book that shall pretend to 
some degree of co.npletencis, and shall at the same time 
avoid statement of all that is not absolutely worthy of 
credence. Dr. Flint has to a great degree succeeded in 
accomplishing this difficult task. But he has done so 
somewhat at the expense of matter that might, we think,. 
have been introduced into his text-book with advantage. 
One finds no dafinite mention in his work of rhythmic 
contractility as a function of the fibres of the cardiac 
muscle per se, apart from nervous connections they 
possess. There is no adequate discussion in this 
manual, consisting of nearly 900 pages, of the pheno- 
menon of inhibition as an exhibition of temporary 
diversion of cell-activity into channels of anabolism. 
When treating of uric acid the writer is silent as to the 
synthesis from urea and glycocoU, although that fact 
throws a flood of light upon the origin of the acid in the 
animal body. A long paragraph is devoted to the pineal 
gland, and finally the remark is made that in structure 
it resembles the ductless glands ; surely such a sugges- 
tion is worse than worthless, in view of the discovery of 
its relation to the dorsal median eye of Sphenodon. 

On the other hand, when writing of the superficial and 
deep reflexes, no hint is given of any doubt as to the 
truly reflex nature of the latter. The balance of evidence 
is decidedly in favour of the patellar jerk being really of 
the nature of a reflex, yet an unqualified statement on so 
important a subject is scarcely fair to the student. 

In so excellent a chapter as that on sight, it is dis- 
appointing to find hardly one word of mention of the 
phenomena of colour-sensations. The Young- Helmholtz 
theory is not alluded to, much less any rival hypothesis 
such as that of Hering. One hears nothing of three 
primary sensations of colour, or that colour-blindness i- 
most frequently a defect for the rays of the longer wave- 
lengths. In a physiological work treating especially of 
man, this ought not to be the case. We are not so 
poverty-stricken in our knowledge of the functions of the 
semicircular canals as Dr. Flint would let his reader 
imagine. No adequate description is given of the 
symptoms which appear when they are separately 
injured No adequate representation is made of the 
views of the long series of more recent workers on the 
subject. In the statement of the motor-paths by which 
nervous impulses arrive at the urinary bladder, no refer- 
ence is made to the sacral spinal nerves, although the 
contraction brought about through sympathetic channels 
is incomparably weaker than that effected along the 
former route. One must add here, however, that the 
diagram, from Kiiss, exhibiting the various forms and 
positions assumed by the organ in question when dis- 
tended in various degree, is remarkably useful an 
well-chosen. 

Dr. Flint alludes to, rather than describes, the way in 
which, by partial superposition and fusion of simple coj 
tractions, the tetanic contraction of muscle is obtain* 
He is far too brief upon the matter, especially as he gi\ 
it no pictorial illustration in aid of his text. The stude 
whose grains of knowledge on this head had been gleanl 



May 23, 1889] 



NATURE 



75 



only in the five-lines field that Dr. Flint here allows him, 
would, one must think, find his garner too e;iipty to satisfy 
the pillaging of the College examiner. And one sin- 
■cerely hopes he would. On the other hand, upon the 
very next page, the significance of the so-called vibration 
of voluntary muscular contraction is treated in a tho- 
roughly satisfactory way, and in view of extremely recent 
experiments 

One might have expected, in a text-book of human 
physiology, to find some description of experiments in 
hypnotism, or at least some mention of the matter. It 
is a subject that more and more demands attention from 
the physiologist and from the physician, and a subject 
to which the student of medicine can have no better in- 
troduction than from the objective, non-metaphysical side 
from which the physiologist makes his inquiries. One has 
failed to discover any reference to the subject in this work. 

A few instances of curious, and one may say unjust, 
omission of certain authorities demand mention in a 
notice of the book. On p. 53 it is related that following 
ligature of the coronary arteries the heart ceased to 
beat after a mean interval of twenty-three and a half 
minutes in six experiments by Erichsen. One would 
have thought the laborious and all- important research 
on this subject by Cohnheim and his pupil. Von 
Schulthen-Rechberg, not to speak of previous work by 
Panum, and by Samuelson, and Von Bezold, was at least 
worthy of some comment in the connection, and the more 
so that the results obtained were so infinitely more sig- 
nificant and valuable than those of the experiments here 
quoted by Dr. Flint. In describing the endings of nerve- 
fibres in the fibres of striated muscle, Doyfere and Rouget 
are mentioned, and very properly so ; but the name of 
Kiihne does not appear, and nothing is said of the nucle- 
ated " sole." The description, too, is illustrated by two 
figures from Rouget, more than a quarter of a century 
old. On p. 262 occurs the following : — " It is possible, 
however, that future researches may show that micro- 
organisms play an important part in actual digestion, as 
is foreshadowed in a recent article by Pasteur (August 
1887). Pasteur has isolated seventeen different micro- 
organisms of the mouth. Some of these dissolved albu- 
men, gluten, and caseine, and some transformed starch 
into glucose." " These observations are very suggestive, 
and they seem to open a new field of inquiry as regards 
certain of the processes of digestion." To most readers, 
these lines would certainly infer that observations of this 
kind had first been recognized in their full bearing by 
Pasteur, or that, indeed, the observations of Pasteur were 
the earliest or the most important of the kind. To do 
this is to do signal injustice to a large number of investi- 
gators, who, possessed of the idea, have obtained ex- 
perimental evidence of its truth, much more complete 
than, and several years in advance of, that published by 
Pasteur. One need only mention the names of Du- 
claux, Marcano, Hueppe, Miller, Wortmann, Escherich, 
Bourquelot, Brieger, Wolff ; and there are many others. 

A minor point on which one is inclined to join issue 
with Dr. Flint is the terminology he employs. He does 
not employ the word metabolism, but the notion is 
expressed by employment of " assimilation," and " dis- 
assirailation." The latter has a peculiarly uncouth ring. 
The words " anabolism " and " katabolism " one does 



not find. To speak of serum albumin as serine ; of para- 
globulin as metalbumen, and of this last as " dissolved 
fibrin" is likely to render more confused subjects that 
are sufficiently so already. It is not usual to spell the 
name lecithin indiscriminately lecithene and lecethine. 
Gustation and olfaction are not pretty words. 

In the matter of illustrations the volume is thoroughly 
and artistically equipped. Fig. 64 and one or two more 
of the same kind are, however, severe blemishes. How, 
one asks, can the drawing of a dog with a fistulous wound 
in the body benefit the student ? What good purpose 
can it subserve? The figure is a useless, gratuitous 
exhibition of what must to every mind be the unfortunate 
and repulsive accompaniment of physiological research. 
Intellectual and material boons conferred upon society 
justify to the full a pursuit of the science in despite of 
every difficulty of this kind, because those boons can be 
obtained for it by no other course of action. They do not, 
however, justify for such a book as Dr. Flint's one single 
picture such as those referred to. 

As was to be expected, the question of the elimination 
of nitrogen from the body is treated with that pleasant 
decision and competence that can be assumed only by 
an author who has himself carried on research in the 
field of which he is writing. The observations of Dr. 
Flint upon Weston the pedestrian are seemingly at 
variance, as he remarks, with those of Parkes, and of Fick 
and Wislicenus, made upon other persons. The sugges- 
tion is valuable that the difference may be explained by 
the much more strenuous character of the exertion under- 
gone by Weston than by Parkes's soldiers, or by the 
physiologists who walked up the Faulhorn. Dr. Flint 
found that the excretion of urea was increased by a walk 
of 100 kilometres a day for five consecutive days, the 
walker being upon the same generous diet during as well 
as before and after the exertion. Fick and Wislicenus 
during their ascent and for a short time beforehand 
abstained from all nitrogenous food. They found an 
actual decrease in the amount of urea excreted in the 
period of exertion. But in the main result the researches 
are in accord. They all alike fail to yield evidence of 
increased degradation of proteids sufficient to account for 
the increased quantity of energy set free. 

In conclusion one has to add one word in praise of the 
form and typography of the book. It is evident that, as 
the author says in his preface, " the publishers have 
spared nothing in the mechanical execution of the 
work." C. S. S. 



GEOGRAPHY IN GERMANY. 
Beitriige zur Geophysik : Abhandlungen aus dem geo- 

graphischen Seminar der Universitdt Strassbiirg. 

Herausgegeben von Prof. Dr. Georg Gerland. I. 

Band. (Stuttgart: Koch, 1887.) 
Bericht iiber die Eniwi eke lung der Methodik und des 

Studiums der Erdkunde. Von Prof Dr. Hermann 

Wagner. Im Geographisches Jahrbuch, 1888. (Gotha : 

Perthes.) 

IN 1886-87 there was much discussion among English 
geographers about the limits and methods of their 
subject. The whole matter had been gone into by the 
Germans a few years before. It is curious to note that 



76 



NATURE 



{May 23, 1889 



just when we had relapsed into something like silence on 
the point, and had agreed to put our views to the test of 
practice, the debate was vigorously revived in the Father- 
land. In part this was the effect of the sympathy and 
of the supply of material for criticism which came across 
the water, but in the main it was due to Dr. Gerland's 
striking introduction to the first volume of the Strassburg 
" Contributions to Geophysics." In the last Geographisches 
Jahrbuch Dr. Wagner sums up both the English and the 
German discussions, and, though he differs radically from 
Dr. Gerland's fundamental positions, he gives to his essay 
the place of honour. The clearness and richness of its style, 
the closeness of its argument, the extreme and unhesitating 
views it enunciates, and its author's great experience 
command attention, and must be the excuse for once 
more bringing an almost threadbare subject before 
English readers. 

The three propositions which Dr. Gerland aims chiefly 
at establishing are that geography has to deal not merely 
with the earth's surface, or even the earth's crust, but 
with the earth as a whole ; that the human element 
should be shut out entirely from the view of the geo- 
grapher, and that geography must be a single science 
characterized by a single method of investigation, the 
" mathematical-physical " to the exclusion of the " bio- 
logical-historical." He defines the task of geography as 
the study of the " interaction between the earth's interior 
and the earth's surface," of the " interaction of the forces 
connected with the earth's matter, and the arranging 
and rearranging — the development — of the earth's matter 
as a result of these forces ; " in a word of " the earth as 
a whole," the surface being but the expression of the in- 
terior. He enumerates five "geographical disciplines" — 
mathematical geography, geophysics, Ldnderkunde , geo- 
graphy of organisms, history of geography— and of these 
geophysics is the most important. He regards mathe- 
matics, physics, and geology, as the sciences auxiliary to 
geography, but mathematics as the least dispensable. He 
agrees with the views expressed in England in 1887, in 
laying down the difference between geology and geography 
as consisting not in the objects studied, which are to 
a certain extent the same, but in the point of view from 
which they are studied. After comparing the definitions 
and programmes of geology according to Naumann, 
Lapparent, Lyell, and Credner, he terms geography the 
science of the forces of the earth as a whole {Krdfie 
der Gesammterde) ; geology, that of the structure of the 
earth's crust {Striictur der Erdrinde). It should be noted 
that his Ldnderkunde is purely physical, the " special 
part of geophysics " ; and that his geography of organ- 
isms refuses to touch the organism man. He excludes 
the human element, or, to use Ratzel's term, Anthropo- 
geographie, from geography, on the grounds that, while 
geography is a science auxiliary to history, the converse 
is not true ; that geography would have two methods— 
the " mathematical-physical-exact " and the " biological- 
historical-conclusive " ; that mastery of the two methods 
exceeds the power of one man, and that, as an educa- 
tional discipline, geography loses force and logical co- 
hesion owing to the mixture of the two methods. He 
assigns anthropogeography to the historian, whose point 
of view is that of the microcosm, man. 

Dr. Gerland claims for geography, as defined by him, 



that it is a single science, dealing with a homogeneous 
mass of facts, with one method and a logical unity, 
making it a true field for the investigator, and of value 
to the teacher. His essay of fifty-four pages contains a 
wealth of examples and of neat formulae which compel 
admiration ; but it is questionable whether he does much 
good with his chief positions. With Dr. Wagner, we are 
disposed to think that he exaggerates the importance of 
his point that the earth as a whole is the subject of 
geography. He keenly combats the view that the sur- 
face of the earth, the topographical, is the specific cha- 
racteristic of geography. Yet surely the burden of what 
has been recently said, on the part even of those who 
hold this view, has been that you must not stop short at 
the defining of relative position, but inquire into causes, 
and those causes lie largely within the earth. But Dr. 
Gerland's second position, his uncompromising exclusion 
of the human element, has more substance. Bold though 
he is, he has not dared to exclude the geography of (non- 
human) organisms. Does not his inconsistency here 
invalidate his programme? All through his essay one 
fancies there is a certain undertone of contempt for the 
merely probable results of anthropogeography. But are 
the results of the investigation of the distribution of 
animals at best more than highly probable ? Are they not 
attained by the biological-historical-conclusive method? 
Are they capable of mathematical expression or certainty ? 
Again, is it fatal to geography that it is too much for one 
man? Is any man equally master of all the methods of 
any science ? Dr. Gerland is hardly fair to anthropogeo- 
graphy. He says, "river and town are heterogeneous 
conceptions which geography can never bind logically 
together." Surely a river may be viewed under two 
aspects — physical and human. It is part of a great circu- 
lation beginning and ending in the ocean, and it is an 
obstacle or an advantage, according to circumstances, to 
human communication. Lines of human communication 
and points of human settlement are not heterogeneous 
conceptions. 

But the real seriousness of Dr. Gerland's contention lies 
in its results in education ; indeed here only is it important. 
You cannot hedge in the original investigator ; you cannot 
forbid him to cultivate the march-lands which sever the 
different fields of knowledge. You are only entitled to 
define what you expect of a geographical teacher and 
text-book. To exclude the human element would be 
fatal to the early or general learning of geography. None 
but mathematical specialists have the preliminary know- 
ledge needed for Dr. Gerland's geography. It would be 
equally bad to have two geographies, one for the school- 
master, another for the professor, for it is just because 
the Universities have neglected this subject that the * 
school teaching has been so ineffectual. Logically,| 
mathematical geography should no doubt come first, but 
a teacher rarely does well to begin his teaching with the 
first principles of his subject. H. J. Mackinder. 

OUR BOOK SHELF. 
Gleanings from Japan. By W. G. Dickson. (Edinburgh] 

and London : W. Blackwood and Sons, 1889.) 
After an interval of twenty years, Mr. Dickson revisitedj 
Japan in 1883-84, and in the present volume he gives an] 
account of what he saw. The book contains no very novelj 



May 23, 1889] 



NATURE 



77 



information ; so many travellers have lately recorded their 
impressions of Japan that it would now be hard for a 
writer to present any part of the subject from a wholly 
new point of view. Nevertheless, Mr. Dickson's book is one 
of exceptional interest, for, having already been in Japan, 
and having carefully studied its history, he knew exactly, 
on his return, the kind of phenomena which it would be 
best for him to study. Accordingly, we find in his narra- 
tive that he fastens attention chiefly on what is really 
characteristic of Japanese life, and that he understands 
how to connect particular facts with the general ten- 
dencies of Japanese society. Mr. Dickson was, of course, 
greatly struck by the enormous changes which had taken 
place from the time when he had formerly visited Japan, 
and he adds largely to the value of his observations by 
steadily comparing and contrasting the conditions which 
came under his notice four or five years ago with those he 
had noted twenty years before. About Japanese customs 
and institutions, so far as they are of native origin, he 
writes in a kindly and appreciative spirit ; and he also 
finds something to admire in the effort of the educated 
classes " to advance in Western learning and the acqui- 
sition of scientific information." He declines, however, to 
commit himself to any very decided opinion as to the 
future of Japan. That she may have serious troubles in 
store for her he does not dispute ; but, if they come, they 
will, he thinks, spring altogether from internal causes, and 
he has sufficient respect for her rulers to suggest that 
they " may have wisdom to avert a crash." 

Statics for Beginners. By John Greaves, M.A. (London : 
Macmillan and Co., 1889.) 

To simplify the subject of statics, and to make it attractive 
at the sam'? time, is by no means an eisy task, but the 
author of this little book has gone far towards succeeding 
in doing this. With the approval of several experienced 
teachers, the principle of the transmissibility of force has 
been discarded in favour of the ordinary method. The 
parallelogram of forces is deduced from the laws of 
motion, Duchayla's proof being given as an alternative. 
The definitions are admirable, and the various proofs are 
as simple as they well can be. 

The examples are progressive and very numerous, 
typical ones being fully wor!;ed out. 

The book is admirably adapted to serve as a stepping- 
stone to the larger treatises. 



LETTERS TO THE EDITOR. 

[ Th4 Editor does not hold himself responsible for opitiions ex- 
pressed by his correspondents . Neither can he undertake 
to return, or to correspond with the ivriters of, rejected 
manuscripts intended for this or any other part of NATURE. 
No notice is taken of anonymous communications.'\ 

The Structure and Distribution of Coral Reefs. 

As I have had no personal experience of coral-reefs, I do not 
wish to touch more than the literary side of the controversy, 
but, in regard to this, Mr. Guppy's letter in the last number of 
Nature (p. 53) obliges me to call attention to the fact that 
the "90-fathom reef" which he mentions is not at Socotra, but 
at Rodriguez. Also that, apart from Mr. Guppy, I found little 
evidence of "ignorance of the depths in which coral-reefs may 
form." On the contrary, there appeared to be a remarkable 
concurrence of testimony on the part of observers that, though 
occasionally a reef-building species may be found alive at depths 
greater than about 25 fathoms, this bathymetric limit for the 
growth of reefs, assigned by the earlier observers, is sufficiently 
accurate for all practical purposes. 

It seems, then, to me that, with the evidence before us, the 
onus probandi of the supposition that a reef may commence at 
any depth which the exigencies of a particular case require, 
rests on Mr. Guppy (this done, no theory of coral-reef forma- 
tion is needed — they may grow anywhere). But, till he can 
establish this hypothetical but fundamental proposition, Masa- 
marhu Island is a fact for Darwin. T. G. BoNNEY. 



The Turtle-headed Ro;k Cod. 



A RARE specimen of the turtle-headed rock cod {Glyptauchen 
panduratus) has just come into the hands of Mr. J. Douglas 
Ogilby, of the Ichthyological Department of the Australian 
Museum at Sydney. This extraordinary fish belongs to the 
family of the red rock cods. Not many years ago these fishes 
(the red rock cod and its allies) formed a part of a most miscel- 
laneous c:>nection of species, which, under the general title of 
Triglidce, included the true gurnards {Tngla and I.epidotrigla), 
the flying gurnards {Dactylopterus), Siwi the flat- heads {Platy- 
cephalus). In i860, however, Dr. Giinther wisely separated 
these fishes from the Triglidic, which family he broke up into 
four distinct groups. The first of these, named by him Scorpce- 
nidiE, is that to which the specimen just captured at .Sydney 
belongs. All the Scorp,cnidiC are carnivorous marine fishes, most 
of which live at the bottom of the sea, and are generally provided 
with a powerful armature of the head and fin spines ; while many 
possess skinny appendages on the head and body variously de- 
veloped, which, owing to their resemblance to the fronds of sea- 
weeds, serve the double purpose of enabling them the more easily 
to obtain their food, and the more effectually to conceal them- 
selves from their enemies. As they are mostly of a small size, 
this latter point is evidently of no slight value, because, being 
slow, lazy fishes, they would, without some such means of pro- 
tection, be unable to cope with their swifter antagonists. Nature 
has additionally protected this family by enabling it to vary its 
coloration according to any change of locality which it may be 
necessary to make, so as, chameleon-like, to fit itself for adapta- 
tion to the various phases of life under which it maybe called on 
to exist. The genus Glyplawhen, of which the species just 
received by Mr. Ogilhy is the sole representative, was separated 
in i860 by Dr. A. Giinther from the Cuvierian genus Apistus, 
for the reception of a fish from King George's Sound, Western 
Australia, described many years ago by Sir John Richardson 
under the name o^ A. panduratus. It has since been recorded 
from Port Jackson (Sydney), and the present specimen comes 
from Manly Beach, a few miles to the north of Port Jackson. 

T. 

Atmospheric Electricity. 

Your correspondent, Mr. C. A. C. Bowlker, will, probably, 
be interested to learn that an electrical discharge, exactly similar 
to that which he recently experienced on the Glydyr Fawr 
(? " Elidyr") was described by the late Dr. Mann, and by Mr. 
F. G. Smith, in the Quarterly Journal of the Meteorological 
Society for October 1875. 

Mr. Smith was engaged in August 1865 in a cending the Lin- 
guard Mountain from Pontresina, when his party was overtaken 
by bad weather. They reached the summit, however, and found, 
at one end of the ridge of which it consists, a fl ig-staff tipped 
with an iron point, and, at the other, a flat metal disk, serving 
to indicate bearings. Snow was falling, and nothing was visible 
except mist, but the "otherwise death-like stillness of the spot 
was broken by a strange, intermittent noise, resembling the 
rattling of hailstones against the panes of a window. A careful 
investigation of the cause of this noise soon made it apparent 
that it proceeded from the flag staff, and was due to the passage 
of a continuous electrical discharge from the cloud in which the 
summit was wrapped." 

After a time, the party, although, by Mr. Smith's own 
admission, "alarmed," held their alpenstocks, points up- 
ward, in the air, and, at once, each became conscious of 
an "electrical discharge passing through him, and causing a 
throbbing in the temples and a tingling in the linger-ends. The 
noise was still vigorously proceeding when, after three-quarters 
of an hour's stay, Mr. Smith and his party left the summit." 

I called attention to a somewhat similar phenomenon ("An 
Engineer's Holiday," vol. i. p. 204), which I experience;! on 
crossing the divide separating Central City from Idaho 
Springs, Colorado, the height of the ridge being 10,000 feet 
above sea-level. 

There was thunder, and "it was raining, but without 
lightning, as we neared the divide, when 1 felt a tickling 
sensation on the backs of my hands. Presuming that a dis- 
charge was taking place between our bodies and the cloud, I 
tried to increase its intensity by holding my wet umbrella, point 
upwards, above the waggon. This, at once, produced distinct 
sensations in the hand and arm, the driver reirarking, ' (Jh ! 
that's common enough here, though many don't know what it is, 



7^ 



NATURE 



{May 23, 1889 



and others don't notice it.' This man was very nervous about 
crossing the divide at all while it was thundering, and plainly 
said if there was lightning he must wait for fair weather." 

Possibly, sound might have accompanied this discharge, but' 
the noise of our wheels would have drowned it. 

Holmwood, Putney Hill, May 19. Dan. Pidgeon. 



Rain-Clcuds, 

The rain-cloud which Mr. Abercromby sketches in Nature 
of May 2 (p. 12) is often seen in Upper Austria in summer. 
I have given a rough sketch of these thunder-clouds in the 
Austrian Mdeorojo^cal Journal, vol. viii., 1873, p. 104. 

Vienna, Hohe Warte 38. juuus Hann. 



THE MUYBRIDGE PHOTOGRAPHS^ 
TWrR. MUYBRIDGE is of English birth, a citizen of 
-'■*■»- the Great Republic, and a professional photo- 
grapher. Long before he applied his knowledge and 
skill to the subject of instantaneous photography of 
moving animals and human beings, he had obtained 
recognition by his work in producing valuable views of 
Cahfornian scenery, of Panama and the West Indies. 
In 1872 he made the first lateral photograph of a horse 
trotting at full speed, for the purpose of setting a con- 
troversy among horsemen as to " whether all the feet of a 
horse while trotting were entirely clear of the ground " at 
at any one instant of time. It was not until 1877, how- 
ever, that he conceived the idea that animal locomotion, 
which was then attracting considerable attention through 
the experiments of Prof. Marey,of the College de France, 
might be investigated by means of instantaneous photo- 
graphy, wiih results of value both to the artist and to the 
naturalist. 

Marey's investigations were made by means of elastic 
cushions, or tambours, which were placed on the feet 
of the moving animal, and connected by flexible tubes to 
pencils writing on a chronograph. A record of the im- 
pact of each foot on the ground was thus obtained, and 
important information was deduced from these records 
as to the succession of footfalls and the time-intervals 
separating them in the various "gaits" of the horse. 

Mr. Muybridge proposed to settle this and similar 
problems once for all by a complete and demonstrative 
graphic method. He arranged a number of cameras 
side by side, parallel to the track along which a horse was 
to be ridden. Each camera was provided with a specially 
contrived " exposer " (the word suggested by Mr. Muy- 
bridge in place of " shutter"), which could be let go by 
the pulling of a string. The strings connected with the 
" exposers " were placed across the path of the horse, so 
that they must be broken by him successively in his pas- 
sage. At the instant of the breaking of the string, the 
exposer was brought into play in the corresponding 
camera, and thus the horse was photographed in a suc- 
cession of intervals of about 14 inches, representing, 
according to the rate of progression of the horse, a time- 
interval of more or less than one-twentieth of a second. 

In this way, in 1878, with the wet plates then in use a 
few sets of horses moving with various gaits were taken by 
Mr. Muybridge. The results were astonishing and con- 
clusive. They were published at the expense of Mr. 
Leland Standford, under the title of "The Horse in 
Motion," and were exhibited in Europe in 1882 by Mr. 
Muybridge, together with other photographs taken in 
1879. The reception which Mr. Muybridge met with on 
his visit to Paris and London was a great encouragement 
to him to proceed with his work. Meissonier, the great 
French painter, was enthusiastic in his admission of the 
value of the photographs as a guide to the observation 
required for all true artistic work, and the story goes that 

' "Animal Locomotion : an Electro-photographic Investigation of Con- 
secutive Phases of Animal M vements." By Eadweard Muyb'idge. 
(Published under the auspices of the L niversity of Pennsylvania, i88S.) 



a particular attitude of the horse presented by him in 
one of his best known pictures which had been objected 
to by the critics as unnatural, was demonstrated by the 
Muybridge photographs to be perfectly correct. The 
series of little black silhouettes, which were at that time 
the form in which Mr. Muybridge obtained his pictures, 
were so contradictory of all preconceived notions as to 
what were the actual phases of attitude passed through 
by a trotting or a galloping horse, and so difficult to re- 
concile with the conventional representations of what is 
of course a totally different thing, viz. what we see when 
a trotting or galloping horse crosses our field of vision, 
that Mr. Muybridge determined on his return to America 
in 1883 to pursue the subject, and to apply improved 
methods of photography to the study of the rapid move- 
ments of a variety of animals and of man. The new 
dry plates now made it possible to obtain in exposures of 
I/5COO of a second and less an amount of detail which was 
previously impossible. New automatic methods of regis- 
tration and exposure were to be employed, larger pictures 
obtained, and the selected series printed without re-touch- 
ing by a permanent photogravure process. The funds 
necessary to carry out this scheme were beyond Mr. 
Muybridge's own resources, and he for some time failed 
to obtain the necessary aid from any publisher or scientific 
institution. A Committee of the University of Pennsyl- 
vania thereupon came forward and placed /6000 at Mr. 
Muybridge's disposal, solely on condition that the first pro- 
ceeds of the sale of the photographs when ready for publica- 
tion should be assigned to the reimbursement of this sum. 
Thevyords of Dr. William Pepper, the Provost of the Univer- 
sity, in recording this most worthy action, are remarkable, 
and ably state that conception of the part of the University 
in the life of the State whicli we have so often advocated 
in these pages. " The function of a University," says 
Dr. Pepper, " is not limited to the mere instruction of 
students. Researches and original investigations, con- 
ducted by the mature scholars composing its Faculties,, 
are an important part of its work ; and in a larger concep- 
tion of its duty should be included the aid which it can 
extend to investigators engaged in researches too costly 
or elaborate to be accomplished by private means. When 
ample provision is made in these several directions, we 
shall have the University adequately equipped and pre- 
pared to exert fully her great function as a discoverer 
and teacher of truth." 

As a result of the action of the University of Pennsyl- 
vania in providing Mr. Muybridge with the means to 
carry out his experiments, we have a really marvellous 
set of plates — 781 in number — each containing a series 
of from twelve to thirty pictures representing successive 
instantaneous phases of movement. About 500 of the 
plates represent men, women, and children, nude and 
semi-nude, in successive phases of walking,running, jump- 
ing, dancing, bathing, fencing, wrestling, boxing, and other 
such exercises. The rest of the plates give similar studies 
of the various gaits of horses, asses, mules, oxen, deer, 
elephants, camels, raccoons, apes, sloths, and other quad- 
rupeds, as well as of the flight of birds. Many of these 
photographs have been, this spring, exhibited in London 
by Mr. Muybridge, projected on the screen by electric 
light — at the Royal Society, the Royal Institution, the 
Royal Academy, and the South Kensington Art School. 
The whole series can now be obtained by those who 
desire to possess them, and to assist the University of 
of Pennsylvania by bearing a portion of the expense of 
their production. Series of not less than one hundred 
plates are also to be disposed of, and may be seen on 
application to Mr. Muybridge, who is at present in London. 

The interest which these photographs present from thej 
scientific point of view is threefold : — I 

(A) They, first of all, are important as examples of a| 
very nearly perfect method of investigation by photo- 
graphic and electrical appliances. 



May 23, 1889] 



NATURE 



n 



(B) They have also a great value on account of the actual 

:ts of natural history and physiology which they record. 

(C) They have, thirdly, a quite distinct and perhaps 
their most definite interest in their relation to psychology. 

It seems, indeed, that the most interesting problems 
which are brought before us in the Muybridge photographs 
of the galloping horse are not so much those of animal 
locomotion itself as these, viz. how is it that this (which 
is demonstrated by the photograph to be the actual series 
of attitudes assumed by the galloping horse) has given 
rise through the human eye and brain to the conventional 
representation with outstretched fore and hind legs 1 Can 
the conventional representation be justified? If it can- 
not, what do we really see as opposed to what really is ? 
What is the objective fact — the brain-picture — as opposed 
to the objective fact — the sun-picture ? for it is the former 
which the painter struggles to reproduce. Here, in fact, 
science and art are absolutely united in one common 
search after truth.^ On this subject I hope to say more 
in a subsequent article. 

With regard to the method and apparatus employed by 
Mr. Muybridge in the present series of photographs, it is 
to be noted that they are different from those employed 
in 1878-79. As in his earlier photographs, so in the 
later series, Mr. Muybridge's object was to obtain suc- 
cessive clear and separate pictures. In this respect his 
method differs altogether from the simpler and much 
cheaper one used by Marey since the publication of 
Muybridge's first results. Marey's method is, no doubt, 
•efficient, and in a certain sense sufficient, for the purpose 
of determining some of the main facts as to the phases 
of the limbs in locomotion. The object to be studied 
moves in sunlight before a dark background. A photo- 
graphic camera faces it. A large disk with one or more 
openings in it is rapidly revolved in front of the lens. 
Whilst the opening is passing the lens, the moving object 
is photographed ; then there is darkness in the camera 
until an opening again passes the lens. The moving 
object has now a new position, and is photographed anew 
on the same plate : and so on, again and again, as often as 
required, or until the object has moved beyond the range 
of the plate. Thus on the same plate are developed a 
series of images, readily compared and faithfully depict- 
ing phases of the movement studied at definite intervals 
of time. The advantage of this method consists in the 
simplicity of the apparatus required ; its defect is that 
with rapidly moving objects the amount of light neces- 
sary is not easily obtained together with a sufficiently 
dark background. 

Mr, Muybridge's perfected apparatus consists of three 
batteries, each of twelve (or more) cameras. One battery 
is parallel to the track, a second looks up it from behind 
the moving object, a third faces the moving object. Each 
camera is provided with a specially contrived "exposer" 
or shutter (so called) which is "let off" by means of an 
electric current. The exposure thus given is as small as 
the 1/5000 of a second. The electric connection is such 
that in each of the batteries A, B, C, a camera, Ar, is 
exposed absolutely synchronously with cameras Bi and 
Ci. So, too, with regard to cameras A2 B2, and C2, and 
with the rest up to A12, B12, and C12. Each exposure 
thus gives a group of three synchronous pictures record- 
ing lateral, fore, and hind views of the moving object. 
The intervals between the exposures of the successive 
trios of cameras, ABCi, ABC2, ABC3, &c., is determined 
by the rotation of a wheel carrying a metallic brush in 
front of a circular plate, on the circumference of which 
are placed equidistant metal studs, one connected with 
the wires going to each trio. The circuit is completed by 

• Mr. Francis Gallon, in Nature, vol. xxv!. p. 228, has made a valuable 
suggestion on this subject — which is repeated by Mr. George Snell in the 
Century \n \%'i,-y—\.o \\xi effect that the brain-picture consists of a blending 
of the extreme positions of extensi )n of the hind Kmbs and the fore limbs, 
which, although not actually coincident in time, are Lngest in duration of 
all the phases passed through. 



the contact of the metal studs with the moving metallic 
brush. The wheel can, by a special mechanism, be 
rotated so that a revolution is effected in one second Or 
in any fraction of a second. During one revolution the 
twelve studs make contact at equal intervals of time, and 
twelve groups of three photographs each, exposed for the 
1/5000 of a second and separated from one another by 
one-twelfth of the time occupied by a revolution, are 
taken. Usually, Mr. Muybridge found it convenient to 
set the wheel so that it should rotate at such a rate as to 
give 1/30 of a second between the contact of the twelve 
studs, but longer intervals were also employed. Behind 
the track along which the object was made to move was 
a black screen divided by white threads into squares of 
about 2 inches to the side. The bright sunlight of the 
open space was the illuminating agent, no artificial light 
being sufficiently powerful. A full account of the appa- 
ratus will be found by those specially interested in the 
subject in a book published by Lippincott Company of 
Philadelphia in 1888, entitled " The Muybridge Work at 
the University of Pennsylvania — the Method and the 
Result." Enough has been said here to give an idea of 
the perfection attained in the apparatus. 

With regard to the results, in the form of facts recorded 
of interest to the naturalist and physiologist, it is not 
easy to speak in the brief space at my disposal. The 
branch of inquiry opened out by this method of instan- 
taneous photography is in its infancy, and generalizations 
of any consequence can hardly be looked for at present. 
The questions to be answered — the hypotheses which it 
will be necessary to test— have not yet been formulated. 
What we have in Mr. Muybridge's published plates is a 
number of individual studies. By far the most comple^e 
investigation is that of the various gaits of the horse, 
which may be considered as very nearly exhaustive. An 
interesting generalization which perhaps might have been 
arrived at without the aid of the camera —but could not 
have been clearly demonstrated without it — is that the 
walking gait of all Mammalia is the same, including the 
quadrupedal crawl of the infant man, and the progression 
of the sloth as it hangs from a horizontal pole. An 
apparent exception to this rule is found in the baboon, 
which instead of extending one pair of "diagonals"^ 
simultaneously and then bringing them together beneath 
the body whilst the other pair is extended, exhibits the 
simultaneous extension of a lateral pair followed by their 
approximation whilst the opposite lateral pair are ex- 
tended. The analysis of various gaits involves many 
points besides the mere swing of the limbs, the 'most 
obvious and important of which are the succession of the 
footfalls, the weight of impact, and its exact period (which 
need not coincide with visible contact of foot and ground), 
the exact mechanical value of the complex stroke given 
by the limb, and the exact period at which it is applied 
(which need not altogether coincide with that part of it given 
by the foot as it leaves the ground). Another factor to be 
studied is the rotation of the various segments of the limb. 

Information and suggestion on these points are fur- 
nished by the photographs, but it is by no means to be 
supposed that it is possible that once for all these prob- 
lems can be settled by any set of photographs, however 
elaborate. The turning of the quill-feathers of the bird's 
wing during the upward movement or recovery of the 
wing, so that they cut the air instead of pressing it with a 
broad surface, is one of the prettiest demonstrations 
which Mr. Muybridge has obtained. That such a move- 
ment takes place seems to have been observed by the 
ordinary man in the remote past, for the word " feather- 
ing,'' applied to the similar movement of an oar in rowing, 
implies a knowledge of the setting of the feathers in the 
upward movement of the bird's wing. 

' The "diagcnals" are the right fore hmband the left hind limb, and the 
left fore limb and the righ t hind Umb ; the "' laterals " are the right fore and 
hind limbs and the left Lre and hind limbs. 



8o 



NATURE 



[May 23, 1889 



Whilst the photographs furnish abundant material for 
the further study and consideration of the normal move- 
ments of a variety of animals and of man, there are some 
in the series which are especially suggestive of new lines 
of research. Amongst these are the series illustrating 
locomotion in man in diseased conditions, such as loco- 
motor ataxia, and lateral sclerosis. A distinct line of 
scientific inquiry is suggested by those photographs which 
represent men, women, or children, in the course of 
movement which is associated with emotion. A new 
chapter in Mr. Darwin's "Expression of the Emotions" 
couldbewrittenby theaidof some of these series, and a most 
interesting line of investigation, to be followed up by new 
photographic analysis, is indicated. Not only is the play 
of facial muscles connected with the series of emotions of 
the base-ball player recorded in half a dozen pictures 
taken between the moment of raising the bat and striking 
the ball, but in other photographs we have unconscious 
expression of mental condition exhibited by rapidly 
transient movements of the whole body. These are 
especially noticeable in the series of a na':ed child ap- 
proaching a stranger in order to offer to her a bunch of 
flowers, and in the three or four phases of movement of 
the young woman springing from her bath after she has 
been unexpectedly " douched ' from head to foot with a 
bucket of ice-cold water. 

It is clear enough that the correlation of movements of 
facial and limb muscles in the expression of emotion can 
be best studied by such instantaneous photographic 
series as the Muybridge publication contains ; and, as 
Darwin, with his marvellous insight, showed, such study 
of emotional states furnishes some of the most important 
evidence with regard to the relationship of man and 
animals. 

It is no doubt true that the immediate result of Mr. 
Muybridge's work, from the scientific point of view, is the 
desire which they evoke to apply this method systematic- 
ally and experimentally to a variety of subjects of investi- 
gation. The present pictures have great value, and many of 
them great — indeed astonishing— beauty {e.j^. the wrestling 
boys). They should be purchased by those who can afford 
them for the purpose of bearing a share in the expense of 
so important an experiment as that set agoing by the 
University of Philadelphia. But we should like to see 
the batteries turned on again, and a number of new sub- 
jects investigated. Terrestrial locomotion has been 
gradually developed through an amphibious transition 
from aquatic locomotion. The movements of fishes, of 
tadpoles, salamanders, turtles, and crocodiles should be 
included in the scope of any study of vertebrate limb- 
play. But even more necessary is it that in future the 
scientific method, of theory, test hypothesis, and experi- 
ment, should be followed in the application of the photo- 
graphic batteries, so that each set of photographs may 
definitely prove some particular point or points in the 
orderly development of a general doctrine. 

For my own part, I should greatly like to apply Mr. 
Muybridge's cameras, or a similar set of batteries, to the in- 
vestigation of a phenomenon more puzzling even than that 
of " the galloping horse." I allude to the problem of " the 
running centipede." I have a series of drawings made from 
large West Indian specimens which I kept alive for some 
time in my laboratory at University College. At the same 
time I made drawings and recorded as well as I could the 
movements of the legs of Peripatus cafiensis, which was 
also (through Mr. Sedgwick's kindness) living in my 
laboratory. I am anxious to compare with these move- 
ments the rapid rhythmical actions of the parapodia of 
such Chastopods as Phyllodoce and Nephthys on the one 
hand, and the curious "gait" of the Hexapod insects, of 
which Prof Lloyd Morgan has already written a few 
words in Nature. Passing on to scorpions and spiders, 
and then to shrimps, lobsters, and crabs, we should 
eventually possess the outlines of an investigation of 



Arthropod locomotion. There is no doubt that the Muy- 
bridge battery would be the one effective means of study in 
the case of the centipede and marine worms, although in 
some cases a good deal may be done by intent observation 
and hand-drawn records. The difficulty of this investigation, 
and the disastrous results in the way of perplexity which 
follow from too close an api)lication to it ■without the aid 
of Mr, Muybridge, is set forth in certain lines, the author- 
ship of which is unknown to me or to the friend who 
kindly sent them to me on hearing that I was studying 
the limb-play of centipedes. May I be pardoned for 
quoting them, and associating in this way fancy with fact, 
whilst expressing the hope that Mr. Muybridge will take 
steps to prevent any such catastrophe in the future as 
these lines record ! 

A centipede was happy— quite ! 

Until a toad in fun 

Said, " Pray which leg moves after which ? " 

This raised her doubts to such a pitch, 

She fell exhausted in the ditch, 

Not knowing how to run. 

E. Ray Lankester. 

ON THE DETERMINATION OF MASSES IN 

ASTRONOMY. 
T N the An7iuaire du Bureau des Longitudes for 1889 
■*■ occurs an interesting article by M. Tisserand on the 
methods employed in the measurement of the masses of 
the heavenly bodies. The writer begins with an explanation 
of the elementary principles leading to the law of Newton 
that all bodies attract one another with a force which is pro- 
portional to their masses and inversely as the square of the 
distance between them. He proves, in a popular manner, 
that this force is equal to the product of mass into 
acceleration ; and therefore, speaking theoretically, to 
compare the masses of two bodies it is only necessary to 
apply directly to each of them the same force and to 
measure the acceleration produced ; or, if a body be 
placed in succession at the same distance from the sun 
and the earth it will be attracted towards each with a 
force which is proportional to their masses. Hence, 
since the space traversed by a body is directly pro- 
portional to the acceleration, if during the first second 
the body fell 330 metres towards the sun, and i milli- 
metre towards the earth, it would be obvious that the 
sun had a mass 330,000 times greater than the earth. 
Similarly, by applying the law of inverse squares, 
the relative masses of the sun and earth might be 
found when the distance of the body from each was 
not the same. We find that the earth falls towards the 
sun io-6o metres in a minute, and that our moon falls 
towards the earth 4*90 metres in the same time. But the 
earth is 386 times nearer the moon than it is to the sun, 

so correcting for difference of distance we get -\^,., = 

o"oooo328 metre as the fall of the moon towards the earth in 
a minute. Therefore the sun's mass is to the earth's mass 
as io'6 is to 00000328— that is, 1/323,000. This method 
is, however, dependent on our knowledge of the distance 
of the sun and moon. The same calculation may be 
employed, without modification, to find the mass of a 
planet having a satellite. Kepler's third law is used for 
expressing the mass ?n of a planet in terms of the sun's 
mass M. The formula being : — 

m _ (a' Y /T 

M ~ \a:) \V' 

where a is the semi-major axis of the planet's orbit 
and T the time of revolution round the sun ; a' and T' 
representing similar teims for the satellite. 

In the case of Jupiter-, observations of the four satellites 
may be made and the mean result taken. A recent de- 
termination by M. Schur gives the value 1/1047232 as. 
compared with the sun. 



A 



May 23, 1889] 



NATURE 



81 



Saturn's mass has been obtained from observations of 
its two largest satellites, Titan and Japetus. Bessel's re- 
searches made it 1/3502, whilst Struve found a value 
1/3498. This gives roughly the fraction 1/3500 as the 
planet's mass. 

Newcomb deduced, from observations of the four 
satellites of Uranus, a mass 1/22,600, and by observa- 
tions of N^eptune's one satellite found a value 1/19,380 
as the planet's mass. 

Before the discovery of the Martian satellites by Hall, 
the mass of the planet was a matter of great uncertainty. 
The discoverer's observations of the satellites led him to 
assign i 3,100,000 as the mass of Mars, a result probably 
not far from the truth. 

The Masses of Planets without Satellites. 
For the determination of the masses of Mercury and 
Venus a different and much less exact method of proce- 
dure is used. If the masses of Venus and the earth were 
known, the perturbations they would give to the motion 
of Mercury could be easily calculated. Let the orbit be cal- 
culated which Mercury would have if it existed alone with 
the sun, and then let its true path be found. By compar- 
ing the two paths the disturbing effect of Venus and the 
earth may be also found. In a similar manner the cal- 
culated and true paths of Venus may be compared ; the 
disturbing masses being Mercury and the earth. In this 
way a series of equations is obtained from which the 
masses of Mercury and Venus may be isolated. The 
result in the case of Mercury is 1/5,000,000. 

The Mass of Jupiter. 
M. Tisserand gives a full discussion of the methods 
of determining Jupiter's mass, which, being so consider- 
able, shows itself in its effects upon many bodies of our 
system. 

Beginning with comets, he quotes the comet of Lexell 
as a typical case. In 1769 this comet approached very 
near to Jupiter, and by the planet's action was brought 
within our range of vision and given a period of 5| years. 
Its return in 1776 could not be observed, and before 
another revolution could be completed, viz. in 1779, the 
comet was shown by Lexell to have again approached 
very near to Jupiter, nearer than the fourth satellite. 
The probable result was that the elliptic orbit was trans- 
formed into a parabolic one by the predominance of 
the planet's attraction over that of the sun, and the comet 
left our system, never to return. 

From observations of the perturbations of Winnecke's 
comet, M, de Haertl found Jupiter's mass to be 1/1047-175, 
whilst Faye's comet gave the value 1/1047788. 

Some of the asteroids approach very near to Jupiter, 
amongst these are (^ Themis, Q Pales, and (^ Hilda, 
and from observations of the motion of Themis the planet's 
mass has been found 1/1047-538. Estimations have also 
been made by observations of the perturbations of Saturn, 
but, since the necessary series should cover a cycle of 900 
years, and only 120 years are available, the method is not 
yet very exact. This accounts for the anomalous result 
1/1070-5 found by Bouvard in 1821. 

It is also mentioned that Airy, from 1832 to 1836, ob- 
served the motion of the fourth satellite and found for 
Jupiter a mass 1/1047-64, whilst Bessel in 1841 found 
1/1047-905. 

The following are the masses of the planets given by 
M. Tisserand, with the earth as unit : — 

Mercury VV Jupiter ... 

Venus % Saturn ... 

The Earth ... i Uranus ... 

Mars ^V Neptune ... 

Cavendish's method for determining the mean density 
of the earth is next explained, and it is shown that, know- 
ing the relative masses of the planets as given in the 
above table, we may express their weights in pounds. 



310 
93 
14 
17 



Determination of the Masses of Asteroids. 

Some pages are devoted to a discussion of these small 
bodies. It has been found that the effect of each asteroid 
is to give a motion to the line of apsides of Mars's orbit. 
The sum of these effects is the same as would be pro- 
duced by taking a mean orbit of all the asteroids and 
distributing them uniformly in it. Leverrier made a cal- 
culation on the assumption that the total mass of the 
asteroids was equal to that of the earth, and he found 
that, if they had a mass only equal to one-fourth that of 
the earth. Mars would be disturbed by an amount 
clearly perceptible to us. M. Swedstrup has found the 
assumption too high, and has calculated that the 
sum of all the asteroids known up to August 1880 
is only about 1/4000 of the earth's mass, or about 1/50 
that of the moon. Three comparatively large asteroids 
have had their diameters measured. Sir W. Herschel 
found the apparent diameter of Ceres and Pallas to be 
o"-35 and o"-24 respectively ; the equivalent in kilometres 
being 250 and 170 For Vesta, Miidler found an ap- 
parent diameter o"-65, or 470 kilometres. If these bodies 
be supposed to have the same density as the earth, their 
proportional masses will be found — Ceres, i 130,000; 
Pallas, 1/420,000 ; Vesta, 1/20,000. By photometric 
means, the diameters of these asteroids have been deter- 
mined by Prof Pickering, and also of some much smaller, 
such as Eve, with a diameter of 23 kilometres, and 
Menippe, whose diameter is only 20 kilometres, being 
no larger than the meteorites met by the earth daily. 

Determi7iatio7i of the Masses of Satellites. 

The method of determining the mass of our satellite 
based upon the fact that it is the common centre of 
gravity of the earth and moon, and not the earth itself, 
which moves in an elliptic orbit round the sun, is fully 
explained by the writer. By means of it, the mass of 
the moon has been found 1/81 that of the earth. Ob- 
servations of the proportion of lunar to solar precession, 
as well as lunar and solar tides, also furnish a means of 
determining the moon's mass. 

Masses of fupiter's Satellites. 

These bodies, so proportionally small, the greatest 
being only 1/10,000 of the planet's mass, cannot have 
their masses accurately determined by the measurement 
of the angle subtended by the linejoining the planet to the 
common centre of gravity ; for, since the line joining the 
planet to its satellite is divided into parts inversely pro- 
portional to their masses in order to find this point, the 
line in question is very small. Hence the best method of 
determining the measures of the satellites in this case is, 
according to M. Tisserand, by measurement of the dis- 
turbances upon each other. This method was propounded 
and worked out by Laplace with the following results, in 
terms of Jupiter's mass : — 



1st satellite 
2nd ,, 



1/59,000 
1/43,000 



3rd satellite 
4th ,, 



1/11,000 
1/23,000 



This proportion would give the third satellite a mass 
about double that of our moon. 

The Satellites of Saturn. 

Titan, as its name suggests, is the largest of the family, 
and consequently exercises a considerable influence over 
the others. Prof. Hall found that under its action the 
major axis of Hyperion's orbit made a complete revolu- 
tion in about eighteen years. Newcomb, Tisserand, 
Stone, and Hill have each investigated the matter, but it 
is mainly due to the two latter observers that Titan's 
mass has been found 1/4700 that of Saturn. Prof 
Pickering has compared the diameters of the other satel- 
lites with that of Titan by photometric means, and, if 



82 



NATURE 



[May 2 2,, 1889 



they all have the same density, the following numbers 
•represent their masses, Saturn's mass being unity : — 

: Mimas 1/500,000 I Rhea 1/32,000 

^Enceladus ... 1/270,000 | Hyperion ... i/i,8oo,coo 

Tethys 1/75,000 Japetus ... 1/110,000 

Dione 1/85,000 | 

The mass of Saturn's rings has been found 1/620 that of 
the planet by observations of the rotational movement 
which it imparts to the major axes or line of apsides of 
the satellites. 

The masses of the satellites of Uranus and Neptune are 
not known to any degree of accuracy. The two satellites 
of Mars have had their masses deduced from photometric 
measures, but they are so small— about 10 kilometres in 
diameter, being no larger than the smallest known 
asteroids — that the numbers found cannot be very exact. 

Masses of some Stars. 

M. Tisserand rightly gives a dissertation, full and clear 
withal, of this subject. Sir William Herschel was the 
discoverer of the relative motions of binary stars in 1802. 
The obvious conclusion from such a discovery was that 
the laws of gravitation were universal. Truly, it was 
not logical to make such an assumption, and some 
objections have been raised, but the 07tus probafidi rests 
with those who doubt it. In considering the motions of 
the components of a binary star system, it must be re- 
membered that they revolve round a common centre of 
gravity. It is usual, however, to consider the principal 
stars as fixed, but augmented by the mass of its satellite, 
the latter having an orbit which is the mean of the two. 
Knowing the fall of the satellite to its primary in one 
second, we may calculate what it would be if at the same 
distance from it that the earth is from the sun. But we 
know by how much the satellite would fall towards the 
sun, since it would fall as the earth. Hence the considera- 
tion of the two falls will give the sum of the masses of the 
stars in terms of the sun's mass. 

The following is the formula employed : — ■ 

771 + til' 

m and in' are the masses of the two stars ; M that of the 
sun ; a is the angle, expressed in seconds, which is sub- 
tended at the earth by the semi-major axis of the satellites 
orbit ; p is the "annual parallax" of the binary group 
expressed in seconds ; whilst T is the time in years of one 
revolution of the satellite. These are the numbers that 
have been obtained for four groups, the distances of which 
from the earth are known : — 

Star. Paralla.x. Magnitude. Mas"^es! 

a Centauri ... o" 8d ... i ... 18 

7J Ca'^siopeias ... o"i5 ... 4 ... 8'3 

70 p Ophiuchi ... o"i/ ... 45 ... 2'5 

<7'^ Eradini ... o"22 ... 45 ... i"o 

Sirius aftd its Companion. 

The article concludes with a complete history of the 
work which suggested the existence of a companion to 
Sirius. Bessei had determined the proper motion of 
thirty-six stars by observations of their right ascensions 
and comparing with Bradley's, but he found that in the 
case of Sirius the hypothesis of a uniform variation was 
irreconcilable with them, and suggested that the irregu- 
larities might be produced by the action of some obscure 
body. As a proof that obscure bodies exist in the heavens, 
the case of Tycho Brahe's Nova is quoted, this being a 
star which suddenly appeared in Cassiopeia in 1572, and 
then gradually disappeared without change of place. After 
Bessel's death Peters found that it was possible to account 
for the irregularities by the supposition that Sirius de- 
scribed an orbit in fifty years whose eccentricity was 
about o"8. Safford, in 1861, from a discussion of the 
declinations of Sirius, came to the same conclusion as 



HJj.T.; 



Peters ; whilst Auwers, in 1862, after investigating about 
7000 right ascensions and 4000 declinations, found the 
time of revolution to be forty-nine years, and the eccen- 
tricity o-6oi. At the same time as Auwers was engaged 
with his calculations, Alvan Ciark discovered a small 
star only about 10" from Sirius, which appeared to be the 
companion. Future considerations supported the surmise, 
and proved that this body was precisely what was re- 
quired to account for the orbit of Sirius round the 
common centre of gravity. 

If Gill's measure of the parallax of Sirius be taken as 
correct, viz. o"-38, the sum ot the masses of the two stars is 
equal to 4-4 that of the sun. Sirius has about twice the 
mass of its companion, and they are separated by a dis- 
tance a little more than twice the distance of Jranus 
from the sun. 

From a discussion of similar little irregularities in the 
proper motion of /? Cassiopeias, Struve found its mass 
to be 6-6 compared with the sun, whilst its companion 
was 17 times as great. 

A reflection on the inability of astronomers before 
Copernicus to make such measurements as those pre- 
ceding, concludes this retrospect. 

R. A. Gregory. 



A NEW FORM OFREGENERA TIVE GAS-LAMP. 

T7ROM the time when Mr. Frederick Siemens first 
-»- introduced regenerative gas-burners, now ten years 
ago, down to the present day, this method of burning gas 
for illuminating purposes has been adopted all over the 
world, and has come to the assistance of the gas com- 
panies by illustrating the fact that, with proper appliances, 
gas can produce the same brilliant effects as are ordinarily 
produced by means of electricity, at much less expense 
both as regards first cost and working. We would explain 
that in regenerative lamps the heat which is usually 
wasted in ordinary burners is to a great extent returned 
to the flame. The manner in which this result is brought 
about is by intercepting, by means of a regenerator, the heat 
passing away with the products of combustion, and apply- 
ing the heat thus saved to raise the temperature of the 
air which feeds the flame, thus increasing the temperature 
of the latter, and its illuminating power ; for it may be 
admitted that the higher the temperature of a body ren- 
dered incandescent by heat, the greater is the proportion 
of light rays emitted out of the total amount of energy 
radiated. 1 his being the case, the amount of heat carried 
from such a source of illumination to the surrounding 
atmosphere by conduction and convection must be less 
than in the case of a burner consuming the same 
quantity of gas burning at a lower temperature, which 
circumstance, combined with the well-known economy 
resulting from the use of these burners, accounts to a 
great extent for the popularity which regenerative lamps 
have attained. 

Mr. Frederick Siemens has lately introduced a new 
form of regenerative gas-lamp, vhich we understand is 
highly efficient, and is in consequence being largely 
adopted ; its construction is shown m the accompanying 
diagram. It is known as the Siemens inverted type, and 
is produced in various ornamental designs, which have 
been much admired. Alter passing through the governor 
A, and the tap b, the gas enters an annular casing ; in 
the lower portion of this, a number of small tubes are 
fixed, forming the burner, Jrom which tubes the gas passes 
out in separate streams. By this means, combustion of a 
very perfect character takes place, as the air is directed 
round each separate stream of gas, and thus enabled to 
combine most intimately with it. Within the circle of 
small tubes is a trumpet-shaped porcelain tube, d, and 
around the outside and inside of this the gas burns, 
downwards and slightly upwards, as indicated by arrows. 



I 



May 23, 1889] 



NATURE 



83 



thus producing a steady powerful flame of beautiful 

appearance. This porcelain tube forms the lower portion 
of the chimney, around which is placed the regenerator. 
The products of combustion, in passing away, heat the 
regenerator by conduction, through the metal of the 
same ; and the air, passing upwards and downwards 
between its metallic surfaces, as also indicated by arrows 
in the diagram, carries the heat back to the llame. The 
lamp is closed below by a glass globe, which, however, 
need not be removed for lighting, as a flash-light is 
provided for that purpose. 

These lamps are made of different sizes, with a con- 
sumption varying from 10 to 40 cubic feet of gas per 




hour ; with London gas they give a light of from ten to 
twelve candles per cubic foot consumed per hour, which 
is from four to five times as much as is obtained with 
ordinary burners. It would have been easy to arrange 
the lamp we have just described so as to produce a much 
higher result than that given above ; but, to produce this 
effect, the air supplying the burner would have to be 
passed through small channels, which would be liable to 
be partly closed up by oxidation, and thus, by reducing 
the air-supply, cause the lamp to smoke, whereas the 
Siemens lamp has been specially designed to provide 
against this unpleasantness, to which regenerative gas- 
lamps are more or less liable. 

H EI N RICH GUSTAV REICHENBACH. 

(~\^ the 6th inst., there died at Hamburg, in the sixty- 
^-^ seventh year of his age, a botanist long and fami- 
liarly known to his English colleagues, and one whose 
name will be preserved in the annals of botany. 

Heinrich Gustav Reichenbach had been Professor 



of Botany and Director of the Botanic .Garden at Ham- 
burg since 1862. He was born in Leipzig, his father 
having been also a well-known botanist and Professor in 
Dresden from 1820 till his death in 1879. Much of the 
younger Reichenbach's work was done in association with 
his father, with whom he co-operated in the production of 
the later volumes of the carefully elaborated hones Flora 
Gerinanica ct HclveHccc. But work of this character, 
carefully and critically executed though it was, was cast 
into the shade by the magnitude of his labours among the 
Orchidacea.\ Reichenbach the younger devoted more 
than forty years of his life, almost (though, as we have 
seen, not quite) exclusively to the study of orchids. 

At the commencement of his career, Lindley was still 
in the plenitude of his powers, but when, some quarter of 
a century since, the great English botanist failed in health, 
and subsequently died, there was no one to question the 
supremacy of Reichenbach so far as orchids were con- 
cerned. 

From that time to the present the Hamburg Professor 
has reigned with undisputed sway. His reign corresponds 
in its progress with the development of that passion for 
the cultivation of orchids which has attained such large 
proportions in this country. This is a fashion which at 
present shows no sign of waning here, whilst it is spreading 
widely in other countries. It has proved of signal service to 
orchidology in its systematic aspect, and to a less degree 
to morphology and biology, as witnesses, to cite only one 
illustration, the work of Darwin on the " Fertilization of 
Orchids." A hundred years ago about three hundred 
species were catalogued in the later editions of Linnasus's 
" Species Plantarum," and those three hundred were very 
imperfectly known or illustrated. About sixty years have 
elapsed since Lindley began his first systematic enumera- 
tion of the genera and species, a work in which he was 
at first greatly aided by the previous labours of Brown 
and by the splendid drawings of Bauer. In 1840, at 
the conclusion of the "Genera and Species," Lindley men- 
tions that the total number of species included iVi that 
work amounted to 1980, of which the author himself had 
analyzed three-fourths. Later estimates in the " Vegetable 
Kingdom " bring the numbers up to 394 genera and 3000 
species. Bentham, in 1883, calculated the known species 
as between 4500 and 5000 ; while Pfitzer, the most recent 
census-maker, gives the extreme number of species as 
10,000. Granting that this latter figure is excessive, it at 
least suffices to illustrate the enormous increase in our 
knowledge of orchids. This advance has been, as we 
have said, chiefly due to the orchidomania which origi- 
nated as a consequence of the exhibition of a few remark- 
able forms at the early meetings of the Horticultural 
Society, and which has been growing ever since. We 
never heard of any material good arising from the tulipo- 
mania ; but the passion for orchids, involving, as it has 
done, the exploration of the countries where they grow, 
and the collection and transmission of countless thou- 
sands of specimens, live and dead, not only of orchids 
but of plants of other orders also, has most undoubt- 
edly been of great service to botany, and it has served 
also to illustrate the great, but often unappreciated, 
value of gardens as instruments of scientific research. 
Dried specimens of orchids afford a sorry spectacle at 
best, and the characters upon which the distinction of 
genera and species depend are readily obliterated or lost 
in the drying process. But in gardens the material is 
often ample, and in the best condition for examination. 

Reichenbach, as we have seen, was able to avail himself 
to a much larger extent than any of his predecessors of 
the facilities offered by gardens. He became the acknow- 
ledged referee on all questions of nomenclature, and to 
him were constantly submitted fresh specimens for ex- 
amination. Of late years, also, hybridization has been 
practised to a large extent among orchids, and the resul- 
tant hybrids found their way to Hamburg, there to be 



84 



NATURE 



[May 23, 1889 



compared with the parental forms from which they had 
emanated. The result of this correspondence with 
orchid-growers of all classes in all countries, as well as 
with collectors and botanists, was that the Hamburg Pro- 
fessor became the depositary of the greatest amount of 
orchid-lore yet accumulated, and the possessor of the 
largest stores of materials relating to the order. Un- 
happily his synthetic faculty was by no means so strong 
as his acquisitive tendencies were great and as his 
analytical powers were developed ; so that much is left 
for his successors to accomplish in collating and expound- 
ing his work. In no place in the world can this be done 
so readily as at Kew, so that on all accounts it is earnestly 
to be hoped that the late Professor's herbarium and 
notes may find their way to that establishment, where 
Lindley's collections are already enshrined. 

Reichenbach was almost exclusively a systematise He 
had little to say on morphological questions, and less on 
the biological points which lend such great interest to 
the study of the order. Speculations were made the sub- 
ject of sarcasm by him, and to the last it may be doubted 
whether he had any great amount of sympathy with 
those researches which have furnished the clue to the 
explanation of the extraordinary and highly diversified 
structure of orchid-flowers, and illustrated alike its genetic 
and its physiological significance. Nevertheless, as in 
his lifetime he was constantly and disinterestedly at the 
service alike of his brother naturalists and of the orchid- 
growing community, shrinking from no labour or trouble 
where an orchid was concerned, so in that future recon- 
struction of the order on morphological and physiological 
principles which is inevitable, the botanist, be he who 
he may, will find himself as much indebted to the labours 
of Reichenbach, as unable to proceed without constant 
reference to them, as are the students of the present day. 
His title to our gratitude is indefeasible ; it will be even 
more so to our successors. 



NOTES. 

The Croonian Lecture, " Les Inoculations Preventives," will 
be delivered at the Royal Society to-day, by Dr. Roux, of the 
Pasteur Institute, Paris. 

The ship Hvidjlimen arrived at Copenhagen on May 21 from 
Greenland, having on board Dr. Fridtjof Nansen and his com- 
panions, who succeeded in crossing Greenland from east lowest 
on snow shoes. The members of the expedition received an 
enthusiastic welcome from a large crowd. 

The anniversary meeting of the Royal Geographical Society, 
for the election of President, Council, &c., will be held in the 
hall of the University of London, Burlington Gardens, on Mon- 
day, May 27, at 2.30 p.m., General R. Strachey, F.R. S., 
C.S.I., President, in the chair. After the presentation of the 
Royal medals for the encouragement of geographical science and 
discovery, the annual address on the progress of geography during 
the year will be delivered by the President. 

An International Congress of Chronometry will be opened 
at the National Observatory, Paris, on September 7. An in- 
fluential organizing Coinmittee has been formed, of which Vice- 
Admiral de Fauque de Jonquieres has accepted the presidency. 
Those who wish to become members should communicate with 
the secretary, M. E. Caspari. 

Congregation has approved of the nomination of Dr. 
William Huggins, F.R. S., as a visitor of the Oxford University 
Observatory, in place of the late Dr. Warren de la Rue. 

According to the Rome Correspondent of the Daily News, 
the Pope has decreed, owing to the wishes expressed by Padre 
Denza more than a year ago, that the works for the Astronomical 



Observatory, to be erected in the Vatican, are to be begun at once. 
The site selected is the tower over the rooms occupied by the 
Master of the Sacred College, it being the most elevated building 
of the Vatican Palace. The cost is estimated at a .million of 
francs. 

Mr. W. p. Johnston, Government Electrician, Calcutta, 
died on April 23, at Darjeeling. According to Allen^s Indian 
Mail, Mr. Johnston had served for over twenty years in the 
Indian Telegraphs, and had specially distinguished himself in 
the scientific branch of the Department, his researches in con- 
nection with duplex telegraphy, the working of river cables 
and long stretches of land lines, having been unusually productive 
of good results. He was also one of the first to improve the 
telephone after its introduction into India. 

It is reported in the Chinese Press that the Marquis Tseng, so 
well known in Europe as the Ambassador of China to this 
country, has been appointed to the control of the Foreign 
Science College in Pekin. 

Prof. Milne, of the University of Tokio, whose work in 
connection with the investigation of earthquake phenomena is 
well known to all readers of this journal, is in England for a 
short time on leave of absence. 

Dr. John Gibson, who has for some time been engaged in 
superintending the physical work of the Fishery Board for Scot- 
land, has recently completed a series of investigations which are 
likely to throw considerable light on the problems connected with 
ocean currents. The detailed results will appear in the next 
Annual Report of the Fishery Board ; but from a preliminary 
note communicated to the Royal Society of Edinburgh it appears 
that two chemically distinct kinds of sea water are present in the 
North Sea. The difference between these two waters is rendered 
perfectly distinct by sufficiently accurate determinations of the 
relation between chlorine and density, and is not due to river 
water flowing into the North Sea. Water in which the relative 
proportion of chlorine is high reaches the North Sea from the 
surface of the Atlantic, round the north of Scotland and also 
through the English Channel, while water in which the relative 
proportion of chlorine is low flows into the North Sea from the 
north, and has been found on the surface as far north as 79° 
N. lat. Ttie determinations of chlorine and density in the 
samples of ocean water collected during the Challenger Expedi- 
tion, as published in the Challenger Reports, seem to show that 
similar differences of composition exist in ocean waters. To 
judge from these determinations, the mass of ocean water, 
especially in southern latitudes, approximates in chemical com- 
position to that flowing as above mentioned into the North Sea 
from the surface of the Atlantic. The water in which the r'jla- 
tive proportion of chlorine is less appears to have been met with 
chiefly to the north of the equator and to the south-west rf the 
principal outlets from the Arctic Ocean. This, as well as its 
chemical composition, seems to point to an Arctic origin. 

A severe earthquake occurred at Plevlje, in Bosnia, at 
3.43 a.m., on May 8. It lasted three seconds, the direction of 
the shocks being from west to east. 

Several shocks of earthquake occurred on April 26 in 
Schwyz, and at Schaffhausen and Wilchingen. 

On May 20 a waterspout burst over the district of Crimmitz- 
schau, in Saxony. Two persons were drowned at the town of 
that name, and a third at the neighbouring village of Lauterbach. 

The British Consul at San Jose, in Costa Rica, in his latest 
report says that a Meteorological Institute has been established 
at San Jose, and several useful observations have been taken, 
especially of recent earthquakes. He adds that the year 
1888 did not have a very propitious closing, for just two days 



1 



May 23, 1889] 



NATURE 



85 



before the end of the year, the capital and surrounding districts 
were visited v/ith several severe shocks of earthquake. The first 
shock took place on December 29 at 8 p.m. This was followed 
by another at 11 p.m., and on Sunday, December 30, at 
4.21 a.m., by the most severe of all, lasting 25 seconds, and 
of such force as to cause considerable damage to the principal 
buildings in San Jose, and to nearly all the churches, besides 
private houses, few of which escaped damage. The morning was 
pitch dark, and hundreds of people, in all kinds of costumes, 
hurried into the Central Park looking for their friends, not 
knowing what might happen or whether any portion of their 
houses would be left to them. Several houses have been con- 
demned by the authorities, and have had to be pulled down, whilst 
energetic measures are being taken to repair the damage done 
to the principal buildings, and the Government have erected 
temporary shelters for the poor who have been rendered home- 
less. The total damage is estimated at half a million sterling. 

The half-yearly meeting of the Council of the Italian Meteor- 
ological Society was held on April 28. Padre Denza referred 
to the activity of the Society during the previous six months, 
during which time several observing stations had been 
added in Italy and at Malta and Punta Arenas (South 
America) ; and to the working of the hygienic stations estab- 
lished at Florence and several other important cities. He also 
referred to the various Conferences which are being held in ac- 
cordance with the decisions of the general meeting at Venice 
last year, for the purpose of popularizing meteorological science 
in Italy. Special investigations are being carried out with the 
view of determining the amount of carbonic acid gas in the air, 
and with regard to the system of the winds in the South Atlantic. 
The questions of sunshine and phenological observations were 
also discussed, and the importance of issuing general instructions 
for these subjects, and for the regular geodynamical observations 
at the Society's stations. 

At the meeting of the Scientific Committee of the Royal 
Horticultural Society on May 14, Mr. Wilson made some re- 
marks on the question of the protection of fruit-trees againht 
winter moths. He observed that the plan recommended in the 
Agricultural Gazelle of October 15, 1888, of making a ring of 
cart grease and Stockholm tar round the bases of fruit-trees, 
though very effectual in catching large quantities of wingless 
females, had not prevented them from attacking the trees 
altogether, as the leaves on certain trees thus treated (as 
described at the Scientific Committee on January 15, 1889) were 
all going at the present date. At the same meeting Dr. Masters 
exhibited several photographs of plants from Madeira, including 
one of Phylolacca dioica as a large tree with a massive base of 
confluent roots, the usual form of this plant in Europe being 
a herb. 

At the last meeting of the Chemical Society of Gottingen, 
Dr. Buchka announced the re.-ults of his investigations upon the 
'composition of bromide of sulphur. Balard long ago showed 
that sulphur readily dissolves in bromine with formation of a ruby- 
red liquid ; this liquid, as more recently shown by Mr. Pattison 
Muir, may be freed from excess of bromine by means of a current 
oi dry carbon dioxide. On attempting, however, to subject it 
to distillation, it is found to boil at about 200° C, but with de- 
composition. Indeed it is possible, by repeated distillation, to 
completely dissociate it int t sulphur and bromine. Hence it has 
never hitherto been possible to analyze a sample of the redistilled 
liquid, and so there has been a certain amount of doubt as to its 
composition. Most of the analyses hitherto published have 
pointed to the formula SoBr^, but Guyot ascribes to it the formula 
SBrj. Hence Dr. Buchka has attempted the distillation of the 
crude product under diminished pressure, and finds that the ex- 
periment entirely succeeds at the low pressure of 20 mm. of 



mercury, the red liquid passing over withoat the least sign of 
decomposition at a temperature of 1 11°- 113°. Analyses of this 
redistilled liquid confirm the formula S.2Br2. Hence bromide 
of sulphur resembles the monochloride, SgCU, the most stable 
of all the chlorides of sulphur : it differs from the chloride, 
however, in being more unstable, and only volatilizable without 
decomposition at a pressure not much exceeding 20 mm. of 
mercury. 

Formaldehyde, CHjjO or H . COH, the first member of the 
important series of aldehydes, has been synthesized by Prof. 
Jahn, of Cronstadt, Hungary, in a most instructive manner. 
During the course of Dr. Jahn's well-known researches upon the 
volumetric estimation of hydrogen by means of palladium, it was 
noticed that the presence of carbon monoxide always considerably 
disturbed the occlusion of the hydrogen by the palladium. As 
there was a possibility that some of the hydrogen had bodily 
united with the carbonic oxide with formation of formaldehyde, 
it was determined to repeat the experiment upon a larger scale 
and in a more suitable form of apparatus. A mixture of carbon 
monoxide and hydrogen was therefore led over a layer of spongy 
palladium, and the products passed through a series of bulbs con- 
taining water. On detaching the bulbs the odour of aldehyde 
was readily perceived, and the contents at once reduced an 
ammoniacal silver nitrate solution with formation of the silver 
mirror characteristic of aldehydes. Hence it was quite evident 
that the carbon monoxide and hydrogen had partially united in 
the pores of the palladium with production of formaldehyde. 
Two litres of the mixed gases were found quite sufficient to give 
a good silver mirror. This reaction is all the more interesting 
in view of Dr. Loew's recent synthesis of formose, CgHjaOg, an 
artificial member of the glucoses, by condensation of formalde- 
hyde with calcium hydroxide ; for as carbon monoxide is readily 
prepared by passing oxygen over excess of heated carbon, it may 
be said that glucose has been built up directly from its elements 
— carbon, hydrogen, and oxygen. 

The officials of the Australian Museum, Sydney, are now 
engaged in working at the Percoid Fishes, and the trustees 
announce that they will be glad to make exchanges in this group 
with the authorities of other museums. 

The Paris Correspondent of the Daily News says the Zoological 
Society of France has warned the French Government that a 
great ornithological calamity is impending. The Department 
of the Bouches du Rhone has hitherto been one of the chief 
landing-places for swallows coming from Africa. Engines for 
killing them, formed of wires connected with electrical batteries, 
have been laid in hundreds along the coast. When fatigued by 
their over-sea flight, the birds perch on the wires and are struck 
dead. The bodies are then prepared for the milliner, and crates 
containing thousands of them are sent on to Paris. This has 
been going on for some years, and it has been noticed this spring 
that swallows have not landed on the low-lying coast, but have 
gone farther west or east, and that they go in larger numbers 
than formerly to other parts of Europe. There are places, says 
the Zoological Society in its petition, where they used to be 
very numerous, but which they have now deserted, although there 
has been no falling-off in the gnats and other flying insects on 
which they live. 

Miss E. C. Jelly, F.R. M.S., proposes to issue shortly a 
catalogue of the published species of recent Polyzoa, with a full 
synonymy. The main lines followed are those of Hincks and 
Waters. Only a limited number of copies will be printed, and 
application for them must be made to the authoress. 

The State University of Iowa has begun to issue what 
promises to be an excellent series of Bulletins from its 
laboratories of natural history. No systematic biological survey 
of the State has yet been attempted, and the editors of the new 



86 



NA TURE 



[May 23, 1889 



Bulletin do not suppose that it will be in their power to provide 
such a survey. They propose, however, to bring before their 
readers some idea of the natural' history of Iowa, and of the 
manner in which it may be studied ; hoping in this way to 
stimulate an interest in such things sufficient to lead to greater 
results in the future. 

An interesting note, by Mr. Arthur A. Rambaut, on sone 
Japanese clocks lately purchased for the Dublin Science and Art 
Museum, has been reprinted from the Proceedings of the Royal 
Dublin Society. These clocks, though differing in other re- 
spects, agree in this particular, that the time is recorded, not by 
a hand rotating about an axis, but by a pointer attached to the 
weight, which projects through a slit in the front of the clock- 
case. This pointer travels down a scale attached to the front of 
the clock, and thus points out the hour. Mr. Rambaut has con- 
sulted several persons who have been resident for some time in 
Japan, but none of them has ever seen clocks of like construction 
in actual use. A young Japanese gentleman to whom the 
specimens have been shown, says that he has heard of such 
clocks being used in rural parts of Japan about twenty or thirty 
years ago, but that they have been almost completely superseded 
by clocks made on the European plan. 

The fact of intermittence in the intensity of some sensations 
is known to physiologists. Thus, the tick of a watch withdrawn 
gradually from the ear begins to be heard, by turns, distinctly 
and indistinctly, then times of silence alternate with the sound. 
M. Couetoux, in the Rcvtie Scicntifiqtte, calls attention to an 
analogous experience he has had in the case of vision. Looking 
at a distant windmill, with four vanes, he could not make up his 
mind whether it was in slow motion (like a nearer one) ; for, of 
the three vanes projected against the sky, he saw now one, now 
another ; but the intermittent degradation of the sensorial im- 
pression prevented his observing two successive positions. These 
sensorial fluctuations seem to deserve careful study. 

At a recent meeting of the Manchester Section of Chemical 
Industry, Mr. William Thompson read a paper on the heat- 
producing powers of twelve samples of coal, determined by 
burning in oxygen (in the apparatus devised by him), compared 
with their theoretical values as calculated from their chem.ical 
composition. The coal which he found to give the highest 
results as regards heat-producing was anthracite, which gave 
8340 Centigrade units of heat. Next came Pendleton coal, 
with 7736 units ; then Wigan coal, 7552 ; and the lowest ot 
the twelve came from near Atherton, with 6448 units. The 
results obtained by experiment were higher in two coals than 
the calculated results obtained by determining by heat units 
given by the combustion of the carbon, hydrogen, and sulphur 
found by analysis, but deducting the hydrogen, which appears 
always to be in combination with the oxygen present, so that 
its hydrogen does not produce heat on burning. In two coals 
the heat found by calculation and that found by experiment were 
the same, and in seven coals the heat found by calculation 
was greater than that found by experiment. A short discussion 
followed the reading of the paper. 

The additions to the Zoological Society's Gardens during the 
past week include a Rough Fox {Cards rudis f, ) from Demerara, 
presented by Mr. James Coombe ; a Derbian Wallaby {Halma- 
turus derbiamcs i) from Australia, presented by Mr. Buckland, 
s.s. Britannia; two Great Eagle Owls {Bubj iiiaxirmis), European, 
presented by the Executors of the late Mr. W. J. Cookson ; two 
Red-legged Partridges {Caccabis rufa) from the Canary Islands, 
presented by Captain Augustus Kent, s.s. Fez ; six Barbary 
Turtle Doves (Turtur risoritis) from North Africa, presented by 
Major T. Erskine Baylis, F.Z. S. ; a Black-bellied Sand Grouse 
{Plerocles arenirius i ) from InJia, presented by Mrs. Ayrton 



PuUan ; a • ■ Falcon {Falco sp. inc.) from 'Australia, pre- 
sented by Baron F. von Mueller, C.M.Z. S. ; a Tuberculated 
Iguana {Iguana tttbemilata) from Spanish Honduras, presented 
by Mr. J. B. Johnson, s.s. Antilles ; a Grey- breasted Parrakeet 
{Bolborhynclms nionachus) from Monte Video, presented by Mrs. 
Macnab ; ten Common Vipers ( Vipera berus) from Surrey, pre- 
sented by Mr. C. F. McNiven ; two Common Vipers ( Vipera 
berus) from Gloucestershire, presented by Mr. Barry Burge ; 
a Chimpanzee {Arithropopithecus troglodytes i ) from West 
Africa, two Cormorants {Phalacrocorax carbo), British, de- 
posited ; a Mountain Ka-ka {Nestor notabilis) from New Zea- 
land, a Green-headed Tanager {Calliste tricolor) from South- 
East Brazil, purchased ; five North African Jackals (Canis 
anthus), a Japanese Deer {Ccrviis sika ? ) a Collared Fruit 
Bat (Cynonycteris collaris), a Great Kangaroo {Macropui 
giganteus i ), born in the Gardens. 



ASTRONOMICAL PHENOMENA FOR THE 
WEEK 1889 MA Y 26— JUNE i. 

/T7OR the reckoning of time the civil day, commencing at 
^ ■*■ Greenwich mean midnight, counting the hours on to 24, 
is here employed.) 

At Greenwich on May 26 

Sun rises. 3h. 56m. ; souths, ilh. 56m. 48 8s. ; daily increase of 
southing, 6"5s. ; sets, igh. 58m. : right asc. on meridian, 
4h. I3"8m. ; decl. 21° 13' N, Sidereal Time at Sunset, 
I2h. 1 6m. 
■Moon (New on May 29, I7h.) rises, 3h. 2m.; souths, 
9h. 36m. ; sets, i6h. 24m. : right asc. on meridian, 
decl. 6" 16' N. 

Right asc. and declinatioD 
on meridian, 
h. m. o / 



ih. 52 8m. 

Planet. Rises. 

h. m. 

Mercury.. 5 4 

Venus 2 41 

Mars 4 12 

Jupiter..., 22 18* 
Saturn.... 9 16 
Uranus ... 15 20 
Neptune.. 3 58 



Souths, 
h. m. 

13 34 
9 47 

12 23 
2 14 

16 53 

20 50 

II 45 



Sets, 
h. m. 
22 4 .. 

16 53 •■ 

20 34 ,. 

6 ID .. 

o 30*.. 

2 20*.. 
19 32 .. 



5 51 '4 

2 3-9 

4 39 '9 
18 29'6 

9 ii"i 
13 8-3 

4 i-S 



25 12 N. 
II 55 N. 

22 41 N. 

23 3 S^ 
17 27 N, 

6 34 S. 
19 2 N. 



* Indicates that the rising is that of the preceding evening and the 
settirg that of the following morning. 



May. 
26 



h. 
16 



16 



Venus in conjunction with and 4° 30' north 

of the Moon. 
Mercury in conjunction with and l° 53' north 

of the Moon. 



Variable Stars, 



Star. 
U Cephei .. 

I R Crateris .. 
i W Virginis .. 
! 5 Librae 

U Coronae .. 

U Ophiuchi.. 

S Lyrse 

U Aquilae .. 
S Vulpeculae 
S Sagittse .. 

5 Cephei 



R.A. 
h. m. 

o 52-5 

10 55-1 ... 

13 20-3 ... 

14 55-1 •• 

15 137 - 

17 io'9 ... 

18 46'o .., 

19 23-4 •• 
19 43'8 .. 
19 510 ••• 



Decl. 



..8i 17 N. 

.. 17 44 S. 
.. 2 48 s, 

... 85 s. 

.. 32 3 N. 
.. I 20 N. 



7 16 S. 
27 I N. 
16 20 N. 



22 25-1 ... 57 51 N. 



May 26, 

„ 31. 
., 27, 
June I, 
May 27, 
June I, 
May 27, 
and at intervals of 
33 14 N. ... May 27, 

., 3i> 
June I, 
May 28, 

,, 29, 
June I, 
May 31, 



h. 
o 
o 9 w 



M 
o M 

35 »* 
o m 



42 m 
8 



I 

20 

20 30 M 

2 o in 

3 oM 

M 

2 o m 

2 o M 

2X o M 



M signifies maximum ; m minimum. 



Meteor-Showers. 
R.A. Decl. 



From Vulpecula 

,, Lacerta... 

Near ( Pegasi... 



290 

305 
330 
335 



60 N. 
25 N. 
48 N. 
27 N. 



May 30. Short, slow 
Swift. 
Very swift. 
Swift, streaks, 



■ 



May 23, 1889] 



NATURE 



87 



BEACON LIGHTS AND FOG SIGNALS} 
I. 

TT is stated by Samviel Smiles in his " Lives of Engineers " 
■*• that, "with Winstanley's structure on the Eddystone in 
1696, may be said to have commenced the modern engineering 
efforts in directing the great sources of power in Nature for 
the use and convenience of man," efforts which', followed up by 
Rudyerd, Smeaton, and others, have been so successful in con- 
verting hidden dangers into sources of safety, and insuring the 
beneficent guidance of the mariner in his trackless path. 

The famous structure of Smeaton, which had withstood the 
storms of more than half a century with incalculable advantage 
to mankind, became in course of time a matter of anxiety and 
watchful care to the Corporation of Trinity House, owing to the 
great tremor of the building with each wave stroke, during heavy 
westerly storms. The joints of the masonry frequently yielded to 
the heavy strains, and the sea-water was driven through them to 
the interior of the building. The upper part of the structure was 
strengthened wiih internal ironwork in 1839, and again in 1865. 
On the last occasion it was found that the chief mischief was 
caused by the upward stroke of the heavy seas against the pro- 
jecting cornice of the lantern gallery, thus lifting this portion of 
the masonry, together with the lantern above it. Unfortunately, 
the portion of the gneiss rock on which the lighthouse was 
founded had become seriously shaken by the heavy sea strokes 
on the tower, and the rock had thus been seriously undermined 
at its base. The waves rose during storms considerably above 
the summit of the lantern, thus frequently eclipsing the light, 
and altering its distinctive character from a fixed light to an 
occulting. This matter of distinctive character in a beacon light 
was one of little importance'at the date of the erection of Smea- 
ton's lighthouse, when coal fires were the only illuminating 
agents along the coasts ; but with the rapid development of our 
commerce, and the great increase in the number of coast lights, 
it has become an absolute necessity that each light maintain a 
clearly distinctive character. It was therefore determined by the 
Trinity House, in 1877, to erect a new lighthouse at a distance 
of 120 feet from Smeaton's tower, where a safe and permanent 
foundation was found, but at a much lower level, which 
necessitated the laying of a large portion of the foundation 
masonry below low water. The foundation-stone of this work 
was laid on August 19, 1879, ^y H-R-H. the Duke of Edinburgh, 
Master of the Trinity House ; assisted by H. R. H. the Prince of 
Wales, an honorary Elder Brother of the Corporation. 

On June i, 1881, H.R.H. the Master, when passing up 
the Channel in H.M.S. Lively, landed at the rock and laid 
the last stone of the tower ; and on May 18 of the following 
year H.R.H. lighted the lamps, and formally opened the light- 
house. The edifice was thus completed within four years from 
its commencement, at a cost of ;if59,255. The work was 
executed under the immediate direc'ion of the Trinity House and 
their Engineer, and with a saving of ;^24,ooo on the lowest sum 
at which it had been found that it could be executed by contract. 
Every block of granite in the structure is dovetailed together 
both vertically and horizontally, on a system devised by my 
father, and first adopted at the Hanois Rock Lighthouse off the 
west coast of Guernsey. The illuminating apparatus consists of 
two superposed oil lamps, each of six concentric wicks, and of 
two drums of lenses of 920 millimetres focal distance, twelve 
lenses in each drum. The optical apparatus is specially designed 
on the system of Dr. John Hopkinson, F. R.S., for a double 
flashing light, and shows two flashes in quick succession, at 
intervals ol half a minute. Attention has of late been directed 
to the subject of superposed lights in lighthouses, which became 
a necessity when several small luminaries had to be substituted 
for the large coal or wood fire of our early lighthouses. The 
credit of first superposing lighthouse luminaries is doubtless due 
to Smeaton, who lighted his lantern, in 1759, with twenty-four 
large tallow candles in two tiers. The idea was followed in 
1790 with the first revolving light, established at the St. Agnes 
Lighthouse, Scilly Islands, which consisted of fifteen oil lamps 
and reflectors, arran^^ed in three groups, and in three tiers. The 
number of the lamps and reflectors at this and other first class 
lights was afterwards extended to thirty, and in four tiers. In 
1859, Mr. J. W. D. Brown, of Lewisham, proposed superposed 
lenses for signal and lighthouse lanterns, with a separate light for 
each tier of lenses. In 1872, Mr. John Wigham, of Dublin, pro- 

' Friday evening discourse delivered at the -Royal Institution by Sir 
James N. Douglass, F.R.S., on March 15. We are indebted to the Editor 
of the Engineer (or the use of the woodcuti illustrating this discourse. 



posed superposed lenses for lighthouses, in conjunction with his 
large gas flames, and the firtt application of these was made in 
1877 at the Galley Head Lighthouse, County Cork. In 1876 
Messrs. Lepaute and Sons, the eminent lighth)use optical, 
engineers of Paris, made successful experiments with superposed 
lenses and mineral oil flames, and one of their apparatus was 
exhibited at the Paris International Exhibition of 1878. The 
results of these experiments were given by M. Henry Lepaute, 
in a paper contributed to the Congress at Havre in 1877, of the 
French Association for the Advancement of Science. The Eddy- 
stone represents the first practical application of superposed 
lenses of the first order, with oil as the illuminant. 

The apparatus at the Eddystone is provided with two six- 
wick burners of the Trinity House improved type, and has a 
minimum intensity for clear weather of about 38,000 candle 
units, and a maximum intensity of about 160,000 candle units 
for atmosphere impaired for the transmission of light. The 
chandelier light in Smeaton's lantern was unaided by optical 
apparatus, 1 have found by experiment that the aggregate 
intensity of the beam from the twenty-four candles was 67 candl^ 
units nearly. The maximum intensity of the flashes now sent to 
the mariner is about 2380 times that of the candle beam, while the 
annual cost for the mineral oil illuminant is about 82 per cent. less. 

The sound signal for foggy weather consists of two bells of 
40 cwt. each, mounted on the lantern gallery, and rung by 
machinery. If any wind occurs with the fog, the windward 
bell is sounded. The distinctive character of the signal is two 
sounds of the bell in quick succession every half-minute, thus 
corresponding with the character of the light signal. 

The tendency of the curvilinear outline near the base of 
Smeaton's and of other 'similar sea towers that have followed 
it, to elevate the centre of force of heavy waves on 
the structure, induced me to adopt a cylindrical base 
for the new lighthouse, which is found to retard 
the rise of waves on the structure, while it affords a con- 
venient platform for the lijjhtkeepers, and adds very consider- 
ably to their opportunities for landing and relief. The Town 
Council and inhabitants of Plymouth having expressed a desire 
that Smeaton's lighthouse should be re-erected on Plymouth 
Hoe, in lieu of the Trinity House sea mark thereat, the Trinity 
House, who, as custodians of public money, had no funds avail- 
able for such a purpose, undertook to deliver to the authorities 
at Plymouth, at actual cost for labour, the lantern, and the four 
rooms of the tower. These have been re-erected by public sub- 
scription on a frustrum of granite, corresponding nearly with 
the lower portion of Smeaton's to.ver, and it is to be hoped that 
it will be preserved by the town of Plymouth as a monument to 
the genius of Smeaton, and in commemoration of one of the 
most successful and beneficent works in civil engineering. 

It is extremely difficult to estimate, with a fair degree of 
accuracy, the maxijaum force of the waves with which some of 
the most exposed of these sea structures may occasionally have 
to contend. The late eminent lighthouse engineer, Mr. Thomas 
Stevenson, F.R. S.E., carried out a long series of experiments 
with a self-re.:jistering instrument he devised for determining 
the force of sea-waves on exposed structures. He found at the 
Skerry vore Kock Lighthouse the Atlantic waves there gave 
an average force for five of the summer months in 1843-44 
of 611 pounds per square foot. The average result for the 
six winter months of the same year was 2086 pounds per 
square foot, or three times as great as in the summer months. 
The greatest force registered was on March 29, 1845, during a 
westerly gale, when a pressure of 6083 pounds, or 2j tons nearly, 
per square foot was recorded. After Smeaton had carefully con- 
sidered the great defect of the building of Rudyerd at the 
Eddystone, viz. want of weight, he replied that, " if the light- 
hou e was to be so contrived as not to give way to the sea, it 
must be made so strong as that the sea must be compelled to 
give way to the building." Smeaton also had regard to durability 
as an important element in the structure, for he adds : "In con- 
templating the use and benefit of such a structure as this, my 
ideas of what its duration and continued existence ought to be 
were not confined within the boundary of one nge or two, but 
extended themselves to look towards a possible perpetuity." 
Thus Smeaton soon arrived at the firm conviction that his light- 
house must be built of granite, and of this material nearly all 
lighthouses on exposed tidal rocks have since been constructed, 
while those on submerged sandbanks are open structures of iron, 
erected on screw piles or iron cylinders. The screw pile was the 
invention of the late Mr. Alexander Mitchell, of Belfast. 

We have here a molel of the first lighthouse, erected in 1838, 



NATURE 



{May 23, 1889 



on these screw piles, at the Maplin Sand, on the north side of 
the estuary of the Thames, under the direction of the late James 
Walker, F.R.S., then Engineer-in-Chief to the Trinity House. 
A lighthouse on the principle of minimum surface exposed 
to the force of the waves, of which we have here a model, 
was erected on the chief rock of the dangerous group of 
the Smalls, situated about \%\ miles off Milfoid Haven, by 
Mr. John Phillips, a merchant and shipowner of Liverpool. 
The work was designed, and erected under great difficulties, 
by Mr. Henry Whiteside, a native of Liverpool, and a man of 
great mechanical skill and undaunted courage. Added to his 
mechanical ability, Whiteside possessed a great love and know- 
ledge of music, and had, previous to the erection of his light- 
house, excelled in the construction of violins, spinnettes, and 
upright harpsicords. The lighthouse, commenced in 1772, was 
intended to be erected on eight cast-iron pillars, sunk deep into 
the rock ; this material was, however, soon abandoned for 
English oak, as being more elastic and trustworthy. The 
work was completed and lighted in 1776 with eight lamps 
and glass faceted reflectors, similar to the one before us. 
In 181 7 sixteen improved lamps and silvered paraboloidal 
reflectors were substituted for these ; and the lighthouse, al- 
though sorely tried by winter storms, was (with the aid of yearly 
repairs and strengthening) enabled to send forth its beneficent 
beam until the year 1856, when the Trinity House commenced 
the erection of a lighthouse of granite, as shown by this model. 
The vibrations of the old wooden structure must have been very 
considerable with heavy storms, for the lightkeepers occasionally 
found it sufficient to cause a bucket of water, placed in the 
living-room, to spill just half its contents. It was in this light- 
house that the painful circumstance occurred in the year 1802 
of the death of one of the lightkeepers. In those days only 
two men inhabited the lighthouse at a time ; one of them was 
taken ill, and the means employed by his companion for obtain- 
ing relief proved ineffectual ; he hoisted a signal of distress, but 
owing to stormy weather no landing could be effected, and after 
many days of extreme suffering, the poor fellow, named Thomas 
Griffiths, breathed his last, when the survivor, Thomas Howell, 
fully realized the awful responsibilities of his position ; decom- 
position would quickly follow, and the atmosphere of the small 
apartment would be vitiated. The body could not be committed 
to the sea, as suspicion of murder would probably follow. Howell 
was a cooper by trade, and he was thus enabled to make a 
coffin for his dead companion out of boards obtained from a par- 
tition in the apartment. After very great exertion the body was 
carried to the outer gallery, and there securely lashed to the 
railing. For three long weeks it occupied this position 
before the weather moderated, yet night after night Howell 
faithfully kept his lights brightly burning. When a landing 
was at la-t effected, his attenuated form demonstrated the 
sufferings, both mental and physical, he had undergone ; indeed, 
several of his friends failed to recognize him on his return to his 
home. Since this sad occurrence the Trinity House have always 
maintained three lightkeepers at their isolated rock stations. 
The present lighthouse was designed by the late Engineer-in 
Chief of the Trinity House, Mr. James Walker, F. R.S., and I 
had the honour of executing the work as resident engineer. The 
foundation-stone was laid on June 26, 1857, and the light was 
exhibited on August 7, 1861. The work was completed by the 
Trinity House, at a cost of ;^5o, 125, being about 24 per cent, 
under the lowest amount at which it had been ascertained that 
it could have been executed by contract. 

Probably the most exposed rock lighthouse is that on the 
Bishop (the westernmost of the rocks of Scilly), shown in 
Fig. I. Its position is doubtless one of the most important 
to mariners, warning them, as it does, of the terrible dangers 
where, on October 22, 1707, Sir Cloudesley Shovel, with the 
Association, Eagle, and Romney, were lost, with about 2000 men. 
The Bishop is also the guiding light f )r the entrances to the 
English and Bristol Channels. The rock, composed of a very 
hard, pink-coloured granite, is about 153 feet long by 52 feet 
wide at the level of low water of spring tides. It stands in 
over 20 fathoms water, is steep to, all round, and is exposed to 
the full fury of the Atlantic. It was at first feared that the width 
of the rock was not sufficient for the base of a stone tower of 
adequate dimensions to withstand the heavy wave-shocks it 
would have to resist, and an open structure of wrought and cast 
iron [shown on the diay;ram] was determined on. The work was 
jointly designed by the late Engineer-in-Chief to the Trinity 
House and my father, the superintending engineer, who after- 



wards erected the structure, at which I had the honour of acting 
as assistant engineer. 



senvioE ROOM 



BNCINE ROOtt 




''%„„'/; .-: :://:. M/MMLW/M''/'-^''//////'-'/^''^'^ 



The work was commenced in 1847, and at the end of the 
working season of 1850 the lighthouse was so far completed as 



1 



May 23, 1889] 



NATURE 



89 



to be in readiness for receiving the lantern and the illuminating 
apparatus, and it was left with confidence to resist the storms of 
the approaching winter. But during a very violent storm, between 
11 p.m. of the 5th and 3 a.m. on the 6th of the following 
February, the lighthouse was completely destroyed, and swept 
from the rock. On further consideration of the matter, the 
Trinity Ifouse determined, on the recommendation of their 
engineers, to proceed with a stone structure, and my father was 
appointed to build the lighthouse, I acting as before as assistant 
engineer. The work was proceeded with in the spring of 185 1. 
In order to obtain the greatest possible diameter of base for the 
tower that the rock would admit of, it was found necessary to 
lay a portion of the foundation on the most exposed side of the 
rock, at the level of I foot below low water of spring tides ; and, 
although every possible human effort was made by the leader 
and his devoted band of workers, the foundations were not com- 
pleted until the end of the season of 1852. Soon after this, my 
brother, Mr. William Douglass, now Engineer- in- Chief to the 
Commissioners of Irish Lights, succeeded me as assistant 
engineer at the work. The lighthouse was completed in 1858, 
and its dioptric fixed oil light of the first order was first exhibited 
on September i of that year. Soon afterwards, its exposure to 
heavy seas during storms was fully realized. On one occasion 
the fog bell was torn from its bracket at the lantern gallery at 
ICX3 feet above high water, and the flag-staff, with a ladder, 
which were lashed outside the lantern, were washed away. 
The tremor of the tower on these occasions was such as to 
throw articles off shelves, and several of the large glass prisms 
of the dioptric apparatus were fractured. After some time it 
was found that several of the external blocks of granite situated 
a few feet above high water were fractured by the excessive 
strains on the building. In 1874 the tower was strengthened 
from top to bottom by heavy iron ties, boiled to the internal 
surface of the walls ; but, after a violent storm in the winter 
of 1881, there was evidence of further excessive straining at the 
face of the lower external blocks of masonry, when the Trinity 
House, on the advice of their engineer, determined on the re- 
erection of the lighthouse. This was accomplished (as 
shown in Fig. i) by incasing the existing tower with carefully 
dovetailed granite masonry, each alternate block of the new 
granite being dovetailed to the old. The work 
was one of considerable difficulty, owing to the 
necessity for maintaining the light throughout the 
progress ; and the risk to the workmen was great, 
especially at the upper part of the old tower, owing 
to the narrow ledge on which the work had to be 
executed. I am, however, thankful to state that 
the new lighthouse has been successfully completed 
by my son, Mr. W. T. Douglass, who was also my 
assistant engineer at the Eddystone ; and with the 
same complete immunity from loss of life or limb 
to any person employed, as with the two previous 
stnictures on this rock. The optical apparatus con- 
sists of two superposed tiers of lenses of the type 
adopted at the Eddystone, but of larger dimensions, 
as suggested by the late Mr. Thomas Stevenson, 
for obtaining greater efficiency with the larger- 
flame luminaries recently adopted. The apparatus 
is provided with two Trinity House improved 
mineral oil burners, and has a minimum intensity 
for clear weather of about 80,000 candle units, and 
a maximum intensity for thick weather of about 
513,000 candle units. The character of the light is 
double- flashing, showing two flashes, each of four 
seconds' duration, in quick succession, at periods of 
one minute. The flashes of this light, and those 
of a light lately corhpleted at about 8 nautical 
miles from it, on Round Island, are the most 
intense yet attained with oil flames for beacon lights ; and 
it may be stated that, with no other illuminant at present 
known to science could these results be carried out within the 
space available at the Bishop Rock, and under the circumstances 
attending that work. The fog signal recently adopted at this 
station, in lieu of the bell, is by the electrical explosion of 
4-ounce charges of gun-cotton, at intervals of 5 minutes. The 
apparatus provided for this form of fog signal is shown in 
Fig. I. It consists of a wrought- iron crane (attached to the 
lantern) which is raised and lowered by a worm-wheel and 
pinion. When the crane is lowered, its end reaches near the 
gallery, where the lightkeeper suspends the charge of gun- 



cotton, with its detonator attached, to the electric cable, which 
is carried along the crane and through the roof of the lantern to 
a dynamo-electric firing machine. After suspending the charge^ 
the jib of the crane is raised to its upper position, when the 
charge is fired nearly vertically over the glazing of the 
lantern, and thus without causing damage to it. The 
large and heavy optical apparatus is rotated automatically 
by compressed air, which is stored in two vertical steel reser- 
voirs, fixed at the centre of the tower. The air is compressed 
by a small Davey safety motor. A Vi'inch, worked by the 
compressed air, is fixed on the lantern gallery for landing the 
lightkeepers, stores, &c. Fig. 2 is a sketch, from actual obser- 



FJC.2 






vation, of the height and form of waves on the tower during a . 
storm. 

The numerous outlying shoals surrounding the shores of this 
country, particularly off the east coast, were an early cause of 
anxiety to those responsible for the guidance of mariners. And 
in addition to buoys as sea-marks by day, floating lights, as 
guides by night, were found to be a necessity. The first light- 
vessel was moored at the Nore Sand in 1732, and another near 
the Dudgeon Shoal in 1736. We have here a model of the 
latter vessel, from which we may judge of the pluck and hardi- 
hood of the crews who manned them, especially when we 
remember that there were no chain cables in those days, the 



Foff.3 




vessel having to be moored with a cable of hemp, which, owing 
to the constant chafing, occasionally parted during winter 
storms, when, to save their lives, the crew had to put out 
another anchor if possible, or set such storm canvas as they 
could to keep her off a lee-shore, and endeavour to reach a place 
of safety. The illuminating apparatus of these vessels consisted, 
of a sujall lantern and flat-wick oil lamps, fixed at a yardarm, 
and here appears to have occurred the first application of a 
distinctive character to beacon lights, for the Dudgeon was fitted 
with two lights, one being placed at each arm of the yard (Fig. 3). 
The next light- vessel was placed at the Newarp Shoal in 1 790, and 
in 1795 one was placed at the north end of the Goodwin Sands.. 



go 



NA TURE 



\^May 23, 1 339 



The two latter vessels were provided with three fixed lights, and 
the lanterns were larger, and surrounded each mast-head, as 
shown by the model before us. An improvement was also 
•effected in these lights by providing each lamp with a silvered 
reflector. 

In 1807 the late Mr. Robert Stevenson, the engineer of the 
Bell Rock Lighthouse, to whom and his successors are due 
much valuable engineering and optical work connected with 

• coast-lighting, designed a larger lantern to surround the mast, 
and capable of being lowered to the deck for properly trimming the 
lamps (Fig. 4). Soon after the adoption of the system of catoptric 
illumination in lighthouses, it was extended to floating lights ; 
each lamp and reflector was hung in gimbals, to insure hori- 
zontal direction of the beams of light during the pitching and 
rolling of the vessel. We have here one of these apparatus. 

"The intensity of the beam sent from it was 500 candle units, 

.:nearly. 



On January i, 1837, the Trinity House installed the first 
revolving floating light, at the Swin Middle, and later in the 
same year another, on board the Gull light-vessel. The lamps 
and reflectors were carried on a roller frame surrounding the 
mast, and rotated through light shaftings by clockwork placed 
between decks. There were nine lamps and reflectors arranged 
in three groups, of three each, and thus the collective intensity 
of each flash was equal to that of three fixed lights, or 1500 
candle units, nearly. In 1872 the Trinity House further 
increased the dimensions of the lanterns and reflectors of their 
floating lights — the lanterns from 6 to 8 feet in diameter, with 
cylindrical instead of polygonal glazing, and the reflectors from 
12 inches to 21 inches diameter at the aperture. These im- 
provements, together with the adoption of improved burners, 
have effected a considerable increase in the intensity of these 
lights ; and during the last two years a further improvement has 
been obtained by the adoption of concentric wick burners with 




xnore condensed flames, and of higher illuminating power, by 
•which the intensity of the beam from each reflector has been 
raised to 5000 candle units, being just ten times the intensity of 
~*he smaller apparatus ; while, by the adoption of mineral oil in 
lieu of colza, the annual cost for the illuminant has been reduced 
50 per cent. 

Dioptric apparatus was proposed for light-vessels by M. 
Letourneau in 1851, several small fixed-light apparatus being 
intended to be employed in each lantern, and arranged nearly 
in the same way as the reflectors. This arrangement has been 
adopted in some instances by Messrs. D. and T. Stevenson, 
Engineers to the Commissioners of Northern Lighthouses, and 
by the engineers of the French Lighthouse Service ; but, for 
■efficiency and adaptability to meet the rough duty to which 
floating lights are occasionally subjected in stormy weather and 
-collisions, this system has been found to be inferior for this 
service to the catoptric. 

An intere ting experiment was recently made by the Mersey 
Docks and Harbour Board with the electric arc light, on board 



one of their light-vessels, at the entrance of the Mersey ; but 
unfortunately it did not prove successful. The present difficulties 
experienced afloat with this powerful illuminant will doubtless be 
overcome, and it will be found to be, as in lighthouses, by far the 
most efficient illuminant for some special stations, where a higher 
intensity than can be obtained with flame luminaries is demanded. 
Experiments have been in progress during the past two years 
at the Sunk light- vessel, off the coast of Essex, for maintaining 
electrical telegraphic communication with the shore for reporting 
wrecks and casualties in the locality. This vessel is connected 
with the post office at Walton-on-Naze, through nine miles of 
cable. The instruments adopted are the Wheatstone ABC 
Morse, and the Gower Bell telephone, the telephone for the 
first time for this purpose on board a vessel at sea, and its effi- 
ciency has been found to be so perfect that it is preferred by the 
operators to the telegraphic instruments. Many difficulties have 
been experienced in maintaining trustworthy communication 
during stormy weather, owing to consequent wear and tear of the 
connections with the vessel, but the system, which was designed 



I 



May 23, 1889] 



NATURE 



9r 



and carried out by the Telegraph Construction and Maintenance 
Company, is now working satisfactorily. Unfortunately, how- 
ever, it is found ;o be too costly for adoption except in very 
special cases. 

( To be continued. ) 



A BILL TO PROVIDE TECHNICAL EDU- 
CA TION IN ENGLAND AND WALES. 

'X'HE following Bill, introduced into the House of Commons 
■*■ by Sir Henry Roscoe on behalf of the National Asso- 
ciation for the Promotion of Technical Education, was read a 
second time without opposition on Wednesday, May 8 : — 

Whereas it is expedient that due provision should be made for 
technical education in public elementary schools and elsewhere : 

Be it therefore enacted by the Queen's most Excellent 
Majesty, by and with the advice and consent of the Lords 
Spiritual and Temporal, and Commons, in this present Parlia- 
ment assembled, and by the authority of the same, as follows : 

I. This Act may be cited as the Technical Education Act, 
1889, 

?• (i) After the passing of this Act any school board may 
make provision for giving technical education in any school 
under their management, and either by day or evening classes, 
or both, as may seem fit, having regard to the daily occupations 
of the persons to be benefited thereby. 

(2) If no such provision is made, or if it is insufficient, and 
if the local authority by special resolution determine that 
provision or further provision ought to be made, they may them- 
selves make such provision. 

3. Where technical education is given in any school, not being 
a public elementary school (including for the purposes of this 
section any college), which is not under the management of a 
school board or local r.ulhority, and is either within their 
district or accessible to the inhabitants thereof, the school board 
or local authority may contribute or they may join together with 
other school boards or local authorities in contributing from their 
respective funds tow ards — ■ 

{a) the maintenance or improvement of that school or of its 
provisions for technical education ; or 

{h) the payment of the fees at that school of deserving 
students who before proceeding to such school have been 
resident in the district of the contributing board or authority ; 

(c) the establishment of scholarships for deserving students. 

The mode in which and the terms upon which contributory 
school boards and local authorities shall be represented upon the 
governing bodies of schools receiving such contributions, so far 
as technical instruction is concerned, shall be such as may be 
agreed upon between the school boards, local authorities, and 
governing bodies respectively in each case. 

Plvery such contribution shall be deemed to be expenses of 
such school board or local authority incurred for the purposes of 
this Act. 

4. (i) Where any school imvhich technical education is given in 
pursttan e of this Act is also a public elementary school, a parlia- 
mentary grant may he made to such school by the Education 
Department and by the Science and Art Department, or by either 
of such Departments. 

(2) The conditions required to be fulfilled by such school in 
oraer to obtain an annual parliamentary grant shall be those 
contained in minutes isiued by the Committee of Council on 
Eaucation. 

(3) Any minute made in pursuance of this section shall not 
cotne into force until it has Iain on the table of both Houses of 
Parliament for one month. 

5. (i) Where any school in which technical education is given 
in pursuance of this Act is not a public elementary school, a 
parliamentary grant may be made to such school by the Science 
and Art Department, subject to such conditions as that Department 
may prescribe. 

(2) Any minute made by the Science and Art Department in 
pursuance of this section shall not come into force until it has 
lain on the table of both Houses of Parliament for one month. 

6. (i) All the provisions of the Elementary Education Acts 
rekiting to the powers of school boards with respect to sufficient 
accommodation, fees, the combination of school boards, and the 
acquisition of land, shall apply to school boards in whose 
schools technical education is given, or to be given, under this 
Act ; and a school shall not cease to be a public elementary 



school within the meaning of the Elementary Education Acts by 
reason of technical education being given therein. 

(2) A school which is under the management of a schoot 
board, and in which technical education is given under this Act,, 
shall be conducted in accordance with the same regulations as ai> 
elementary public school under the Elementary Education Acts ,- 
Provided, however, that every such school shall be open to the 
inspection of any inspector appointed by the Department of 
Science and Art, as well as of Her Majesty's inspectors as- 
defined in the Elementary Education Acts. 

7. The expenses incurred by any school board in carrying this 
Act into effect, including any contributions made by the school' 
board in aid of technical education in schools not under their 
management, shall be deemed to be expenses of the said schoot 
board within the meaning of the Elementary Education Acts^ 
and payable accordingly. ' 

A school board shall have the same powers of borrowing for 
the like purposes, but subject to the same consent and other 
conditions, as they have under the Elementary Education 
Acts. 

8. The expenses incurred by a local authority in giving effect 
to this Act, including any such contributions as are above 
mentioned, shall be payable out of the local rate. The local 
authority shall have the like powers of borrowing for the 
purposes of this Act, but subject to the same conditions, as for- 
other purposes. 

9. The provisions of this Act with respect to a local authority 
shall not apply to the Metropolis. 

10. It shall be competent for any school board or local 
authority, should they think fit, to institute an entrance examin- 
ation in reading, writing, and arithmetic for persons desirous of 
attending technical schools or classes under their management, or 
to which they contribute. 

11. For the purposes of this Act the expression "technical 
education " means instruction in — 

(i.) Any of the branches of Science and Art with respect to 
which grants are for the time being made by the Department of 
Science and Art. 

(ii.) The working of wood, clay, metal, or other material for 
the purposes of art or handicraft. 

(iii.) Commercial arithmetic : commercial geography ; modern 
languages ; book-keeping, and shorthand, 

(iv. ) Any other subject applicable to the purposes of agriculture, 
trade, or commercial life and practice, which may be sanctioned 
"by a minute of the Department of Science and Art made on the 
representation of a school board or local authority that such a 
form of instruction is suited to the needs of its district. 

12. The provision to be made for technical education under 
this Act may include the providing of school laboratories, 
apparatus for teaching and experiment, museums and their 
contents, libraries, books, workrooms, schools or schoolrooms, 
or the improvement of existing provisions of any of these kinds, 
and the maintaining of the same in such manner as may be 
necessary to give effect to this Act. 

13. (i) Save as otherwise provided by this Act the ex- 
pressions "school board," "public elementary school,"' 
"managers," "parliamentary grant," and " Education Depait- 
men'," respectively, have the same meaning in this Act as in 
the Elementary Education Acts. 

(2) The expression " local authority" means in any borough 
the council of that borough, and elsewhere the district coimcil if 
district councils are established under any Act of the present 
session of Parliament, but if not then the urban sanitary 
authority or where there is no urban sanitary authority the 
county council. 

The expression " local rate " means in a borough the school' 
fund or borough fund or borough rate, and elsewhere the general 
district rate or other rate corresponding thereto. 

14. This Act shall not apply to Scotland or Ireland. 



SCIENTIFIC SERIALS. 

Bulletins de la Socii!t^ d^Anthrojologie, tome onzieme, se'rie 
iii., fasc. 4 (Paris, 188S). — Conclusion of M. Variot's paper on the 
removal of marks of tattooing ; and on an instrument for tattoo- 
ing, by the same writer. — On the sacrum of a chimpanzee, by 
M. Chudzinski. In this case the sacrum was composed of seven 
vertebra, the normal number in the Anthropoids being only five, 
or at most six. — A process for mounting histological specimens- 



92 



NATURE 



{May 23. 1889 



treated under paraffin, by M. Mahoudeau. — A description of 
the cranium and brain in two assassins, by MM. Fallot and 
Alezais. This communication gives a minute analysis of the 
convolutions and other parts of the hemispheres, while it supplies 
numerous and special measurements of the various parts of the 
skull together with the respective cerebral and cranial indices. — 
On the cranial alterations observable in rachitic conditions, by 
M. Regnault — On the first temporal convolution in the right and 
left hemispheres, in the case of a person who was known to 
have suffered from deafness of the left ear, by M. Manouvrier. 
— A communication regarding the truth of the reports made by 
various travellers that cannibalism exists among the Fuegians, by 
M, Hyades. According to this writer there is absolutely no 
ground for this charge.— On a Peruvian bell, by M. Verneau. 
— On the antiquity of Egypt, and the evidences of its con- 
dition in prehistoric times, by M. Beauregard. In this 
very exhaustive article the author passes in review the material 
evidence remaining of the ages of cut and polished stone 
and of bronze. He believes that Egypt at the time of the 
Pharaohs exhibited the mixed condition of combining the 
use of flint implements with the simultaneous acquaintance 
with the means of extracting copper, and blending it with 
other metals, including tin, although no distinct hieroglyphic 
for the latter has been recognized in the older language 
of Egypt. It remains undetermined where and when first 
the ancient Egyptians obtained the tin which enters into 
the bronze fabricated in the valley of the Nile as far back 
as the seventeenth century before our era. — On the birth rate in 
France, by M. Chervin. This paper contributes the most 
elaborate and detailed series of statistical tables, for the separate 
departments, of the births, marriages, and deaths registered, as 
well as of the numbers of children born in a definite number of 
households. The means obtained from these lists show that 8 
per cent, of all the marriages in France are sterile, and that while 
25 per cent, yield only one child, 100 families supply a mean of 
only 259 children. Many curious points of interest are suggested 
by this complex report, but it does not do much to explain the 
causes of the want of increase in the papulation of P'rance, as 
compared with that of other ciuntries. — On the hinged and 
cantoned crosi in Cyprian decorative art, by M. Max Richter. 
The remains of ancient art in Cyprus strongly resemble those of 
Hissarlik, excepting that there is no trace of the swastika, or 
hinged cross on the decorated red jars of the Bronze Age, while 
its later appearance and disappearance in Cyprian art appears to 
-coincide with the predominance and decline of Phoenician in- 
fluence. — On the survival in Brittany of some of the usages and 
privileges of clanship, by M. Sebillot. — On a semi-pagan pro- 
cession on St. John's day, in th: Basses Alpes, by M. Arnaud. 
From time immemorial the peasants of Lauzet have proceeded 
after the benediction of the neighbouring lake to throw stones 
into its waters amid loud and angry cries of vengeance against 
the evil spirits who bring rain and hail storms. In this strange 
•ceremony the local curd is constrained by popular will to take 
part. — On phallotomy among the Egyptians, by M. Letourneau. 
— On the centre of creation, and the first appearance of the 
human race, by M. Lombard. The writer supports Signor 
Saporta's view that vegetable forms, which now cover our con- 
tinents, have spread slowly and continuously from north to south, 
recent species forcing back or obliterating those of more ancient 
origin. The laws which Signor Saporta endeavours to establish 
for the diffusion of vegetable forms, M. I^ombard thinks may 
be extended to the animal kingdom, including man, whose 
cradle he would seek in circumpolar regions. — Report of sixth 
Conference on Transformism, under the presidency of M. Duval, 
by M. Bordier. — Report of fifih Broca-Conference, by M. 
Topinard, a member of the commission for awarding the prize 
instituted by Madame Broca in memory of her husband. The 
memoirs presented between 1885 and 1888 are not numerous, 
but great value attaches to two among these works, viz. the 
general ethnography of Tunis, by Dr. Rene Collignon, to whom 
the Broca Prize for 1888 has been unanimously awarded ; and 
ethnological researches in regard to the human remains dis- 
covered at Spy, by M. Fraipont, wh > received a silver medal in 
recognition of the great merit of his work. — On the longevity 
of the Berber races, by M. Letourneau. — On a Palaeolithic 
station on Mont Roty, and on a novel flint implement, by the 
Abbe Blanquet. — On an ancient cemetery at Biskra, Algeria, by 
M. de Mortillet. — On a sepulchral dolmen, discovered at 
Nanteuil-le-Houdouiu (Oise), by MM. Collin and Lair. — A 
•prehistoric station at Frileuse (Seine-et-Oise), by M. Vauville. 



The numbers of the Botanical Gazette (Crawfordsville, 
Indiana) for March and April contain a careful study of the 
histology of the leaves of Taxodiitm by Mr. Stanley Coulter, 
and a description of a number of new North American mosses, 
with illustrations, by Messrs. Renauld and Cardot. It is an 
evidence of the attention paid in the United States to micro- 
scopical technique, that this magazine frequently contains (as do 
both the numbers now before us) valuable hints as to the pre- 
paration of sections of tissues for the microscope, the use of stain- 
ing reagents, or objects specially well calculated to demanstrate 
difficult points of structure. 

In the Journal of Botany for April and May, Messrs. Murray 
and Boodle complete their account of the genus Avrainvillea of 
Siphonocladacese, — Students of conifers will read with very great 
interest Dr. M. T. Masters's attempt to distinguish the North 
American pines, Abies lasiocarpa, A. bifolia, and A. siibalpina, 
with their varieties or subspecies. The paper is illustrated by a 
series of excellent woodcuts. — Most of the other papers in these 
numbers are of special interest to students of British plants. 

The Nuovo Giornale Botaniio Italiano for April, a large por- 
tion of which is devoted to a report of the proceedings of the 
Italian Botanical Society, contains several articles of general 
interest besides those devoted to the Phanerogamic and Crypto- 
gamic botany of Italy. — Dr. H. Ross has an interesting article 
on the assimilating tissue and development of the periderm in the 
branches of plants with few or no leaves. — In pursuance of his 
careful examination of the Nymphasaceas, Prof. G. Arcangeli 
now contributes a paper on the seeds of Victoria regia. — Signor 
U. Martelli adds a species to the few hitherto known of the genus 
Riccia—R. atromarg'mata from Sicily. — Signor C. Lumia gives 
the result of an examination of the composition of the gas found 
within the inflorescence of the common fig in an unripe condition, 
which contains more than 5 per cent, of carbon dioxide, showing 
that an active process of respiration must go on within the recep- 
tacle. — Signor G. Cuboni gives an account of experiments carried 
on with a view to check the plague of grasshoppers by infecting 
them with a parasitic fungus, Entomophthora Grylli, which 
had, however, only negative results. 

Rciidiconti del Reale Istituto Loinbardo, April. — Palcconto- 
logical notes on the Lower Lias of the Lombard fore-Alps, by 
Dr. C. F. Parona. These notes are communicated pending the 
publication of the author's exhaustive treatise on the fauna of 
Saltrio. They deal especially with the palaeontological features 
of the Bergamo and Como districts in connection with the 
various faunas that flourished in the Lombard Sea during the 
Lower Lias epoch. The results of this summary survey agree 
generally with the conclusions arrived at by Prof. De Stefani in 
his comparative study of the various Lower Lias formations 
throughout Italy. — New measurement of the curvature of sur- 
faces, by Prof. Felice Casorati. A new solution is presented of 
this problem, that of Gauss being shown to be defective and 
inadequate, although he laid the first solid foundation for the 
study of the subject in his classical work, " Disquisitiones 
generales circa superficies Curvas." — Prof. Giovanni Zoja con- 
tributes some historical notes on the cabinet of human anatomy 
in the University of Pav'a, dealing more particularly with the 
period from 1815 to 1864 under the able adminis'ration of 
Bartolomeo Panizza. 



SOCIETIES AND ACADEMIES. 
London. 

Royal Society, May 9. — "Zirconium and its Atomic 
Weight." By G. H. Bailey, D.Sc, Ph.D., the Owens College, 
Manchester. 

Before proceeding with any final estimation, those salts of 
zirconium which were at all likely to be of service in the 
determination were exhaustively examined with special regard 
to their stability in presence of reagents and under the action 
of heat. 

It was found that in consequence of their instability and 
tendency to form numerous oxychlorides, neither the chloride 
nor the oxychloride could be relied upon, and that the sulphate 
was the most suitable salt to work with. Even this salt when 
heated above 400° C. undergoes gradual decomposition with the 
production of basic salts, though it is quite stable up to this 
temperature A special method (applicable in a number of 



May 23, 1889] 



NATURE 



93 



other atomic weights) was devised by which the normal salt 
could be obtained free from acid on the one hand, and from 
basic salt on the other. In order to have a sufficient check on 
the results, the carefully purified zirconia was further treated 
by four perfectly independent methods, 

(a) The sulphate was prepared and its solution precipitated 
by means of hydrogen peroxide. 

[b) The tetrachloride was prepared and its solution pre- 
cipitated by ammonia. 

(f) The sulphate was re crystallized several times from con- 
centrated sulphuric acid and precipitated by ammonia. 

(d) The oxychloride was prepared and recrystallized and 
precipitated by ammonia. 

The average values obtained from the sulphate prepared 
from the specimens of zirconia so treated by determining the 
relation Zr(S04).2 : ZrO,, were : — 



is the same as that in (2), the impulse given to the charged 
body by destroying the induction will be — 



(a) 90*402 
{b) 90-390 
{c) 90-471 
{d) 90-30 



mean 90 "401. 



In addition to the investigation of the salts which have been 
used in the estimation of the atomic weight, observations on 
the peroxides of zirconium discovered by Cleve and the author 
are embodied, as well as an examination of the so-called 
metallic zirconium. 

" Determining the Strength of Liquids by means of the 
Voltaic Balance." By Dr. G. Gore, F.R.S. 

This method is based upon the circumstance that the greater 
the degree of concentration of a solution the larger is the amount 
of dilution required to reduce its voltaic energy to a given magni- 
tude. The method of measuring the energy is described in 
Royal Society Proceedings, vol. xlv. p. 268, 

In the present research a known volume of solution was taken, 
and the proportion of dissolved substance in it was found by 
ordinary chemical analysis. A second portion was taken, its 
specific gravity ascertained, and its degree of strength found by 
aid of the ordinary published tables of specific gravities. A 
third portion of known volume was then taken, its average 
amount of voltaic energy measured, and its degree of concen- 
tration ascertained by the amount of dilution required to reduce 
its voltaic energy to the same magnitude ; the less dilute it was 
at starting the greater the amount of dilution required. The 
following are the results : — 

By HCI. H0SO4. HNO3. NaCl. NaaCOs- K3N. 

Chemical analysis ... 1-85 ... 5 60 ... 2-97 ... 9-13 ... 721 ... 1-05 
Specific gravity ... 1-70 ... 5-44 ... 280 ... 8*74 ... 7-63 ... 1-03 
Voltaic balance ... 1-65 ... 5-70 ... 2-90 ... 8-71 ... 7-57 ... i-o6 

A much less quantity of the substance is usually required by 
the voltaic balance method than by either of the other ones, and 
the operation is very quickly performed. 

Physical Society, May ir.— Prof. Reinold, President, in 
the chair. — The following communications were read : — On an 
electrostatic field produced by varying magnetic induction, by 
Dr. O. J. Lodge, F.R.S. This paper describes a research 
made with the object of finding some connection between static 
electricity and magnetism. Several methods of attacking the 
problem, such as rotating or varying the strength of magnets in 
the neighbourhood of delicately suspended charged bodies, are 
indicated, and the one selected was based on an idea of Mr. A. 
P. Chattock, who conceived that a charged body in the vicinity 
of a closed magnetic circuit would be affected by varying the 
magnetic induction. From the theory of the effect it is shown 
that the magnitude of the quantity sought is exceedingly small, 
for the expression involves the inverse squr.re of the velocity of 
light. The E.M.F. induced in any closed curve round the 
magnetic circuit or solenoid by varving the induction, I, is given 
by— 

dl 
'^Ift (') 

If an E.M.F., e, act on 'a charge, Q, at distance r from the 
axis of the solenoid, the work done in one revolution will be 
«Q, and 

fQ = F . 27r^- (2) 

where F is the mechanical force. Now if the E.M.F. in (i) 






Ydt^n 

Z-irr 



(3) 

Since I = "^"""^^^ = /xC times a length, and Q = jV = KV 
times a length, 
.-. d> = KmCVA /iength)2 and K/* = --,, ,; , -. (^ oc _1_ 



The magnetic circuit actually used was a wire Gramme ring of 
trapezoidal section, wound with copper over only a part of its 
periphery. The indicating apparatus was a suspended needle, 
consisting of two oppositely charged bodies carried on a small 
shellac arm, to which a mirror or pointer was attached, and 
was suspended vertically in the plane of the ring. Great dif- 
ficulty was experienced from Foucault's currents when metallic 
films were used for the needle, and the magnetic properties and 
other semi-conductors tried further complicated the matter. 
Eventually, the charged bodies were made of paper, in the form 
of cylinders one- eighth of an inch diameter and three-eighths 
of an inch long. Considerable trouble was caused by the elec- 
trostatic action between the needle and exciting coils, and various 
methods of screening were tried and abandoned, and subse- 
quently the wire was replaced by a single spiral of copper rib- 
bon, the outer turn of which was put to earth. Observation was 
rendered difficult, owing to the wandering of the zero when the 
needle was charged, but this was minimized by suitably shaping 
the contour of the needle's surroundings. Heat also created 
considerable disturbance, and the convection currents were cut off 
by a series of concentric cylinders of tin plate. The method of 
observation was to charge the two insulated parts of the needle, 
and then reverse the magnetizing current in synchronism with 
the period of the needle, noting whether the amplitude of any 
residual swing could be increased or diminished according as 
the impulse assisted or opposed the motion. In this way, slight 
indications have been observed, and the effects reverse when the 
charges of the cylinders are reversed. In explaining the theory 
of the experiment, the author made use of a simple transformer, 
consisting of an ordinary hank of iron wire wound over with 
insulated copper and provided with several secondary coils ; and 
by it he demonstrated that the primary current increases on 
closing the secondary, due, as was shown, to the decrease of 
self-induction of the primary caused thereby. Prof. Fitzgerald, 
in answer to a question from Dr. Lodge as to the influence of 
screens, said he had not fully considered the matter in this par- 
ticular case, and, as the general effect of screens depended on 
the square of "z',"the subject required careful treatment. As 
a means of checking the results obtained by Dr. Lodge, he sug- 
gested calculating the impulse, and seeing whether its magnitude 
approximately corresponds with that observed. Commenting 
on an idea for carrying out a similar experiment attributed to 
him in the paper, in which a charged gold leaf is placed between 
the poles of a magnet, Prof, Fitzgerald said he had been mis- 
understood, for he had conceived a disk parallel to the faces of 
the magnets, which, when excited, should cause the disk to turn 
in its own plane. Referring to the equations for mechanical 
force given in Maxwell, §619, he pointed out that the coefficieat 
of e in the equation — 

, (/(// da 

- inv - c~r- - m j- 

dx dx 



X 



ought to be P, where- 



d¥ 



r> . ,. av 

^ = cy-bz- -^ - 



d^ 
dx' 



and considered it very important that the existence of the 
term e - should be tested experimentally. Prof. S. P. 

Thompson mentioned some experiments on which he was 
engaged by which he hoped to show electric displacement in 
continuous dielectric circuits, such as a link of gutta-percha. 
Up to the present the experiments had not been successful^ 
owing to his inability to place the two Gramme ring coils used 
into such relative positions as to give silence in the telephone 
connected with the coil used as secondary, when currents were 
sent through the primary. Prof. Ayrton suggested that Dr. 
Thompson's difficulty may arise from the fact that such rings do 
produce considerable external field, even when carefully wound. 



94 



NA rURE 



[May 23, 1889 



Prof. Fitzgerald requested Dr. Thompson to investigate the 
effects of displacement-currents and of changing vector potential, 
and pointed out that in a single medium the former can produce 
no magnetic effect. As regards fields containing different 
media, he said the calculations would be complicated by the 
spurious charges on the separating surfaces. Dr. Lodge, in 
reply, said he had calculated the momentum to be expected in 
one arrangement of his experiment in which a suspended alu- 
minium cylinder surrounds one limb of a rectangular magnetic 
circuit which formed the core of an induction coil ; one end of 
the secondary was put to the core and the other to the cylinder, 
thus forming a condenser. The result came out about 10"" dyne 
second, but he could not say whether such a small quantity was 
-observable. — On the concentration of electric radiati)n by lenses, 
by Prof. O. J. Lodge, F.R.S., and Dr. James L. Howard. The 
authors' first attempts at concentration were made with mirrors 
■on a comparatively small scale, and, owing to the difificulties 
■experienced, it was considered advisable to try lenses. Two 
'large cylindrical ones of piano-hyperbolic section were cast of 
mineral pitch in zinc moulds, the plane faces being nearly a metre 
square, the thickness at vertex 21 centimetres, and each lens 
weighed about 3 cwt. The eccentricity of. the hyperbola was made 
I "7, to approximate to the index of refraction of the substance. 
The lenses were mounted about 6 feet apart, with their plane 
faces parallel, and towards each other on a table in the College 
corridor, and an oscillator was placed about the principal f ical 
line of one of them at a distance of 51 centimetres from the 
vertex. The field wa5 expljred by a linear receiver made out of 
two pieces of copper wire mounted in line on a piece of wood, 
and the air-gap fietweei their inner ends was adjustable by a 
screw. When the oscillator worked satisfactorily, the receiver 
would respond at about 120 centimetres, and with the lenses the 
distance was 45c. The receiver responded anywhere be- 
tween the lenses, and within the wedge between the second 
lens and its focal line, the boundaries being clearly defined, 
but no special concentration was noticed about the focus. 
Interference experiments were carried out by placing a sheet of 
metal against the flat face of the second lens, and determining 
the positions of minimu n intensity between the lenses. The 
distance between these points was 50 '5 centimetres, correspond- 
ing with a wave-length of loi centimetres, whereas the calculated 
wave-length of the oscillator was 100 centimetres. Prof Fitz- 
gerald congratulated the authors on their success, and also 
pointed out that although large oscillators give good results at 
distances within a few wave-lengths, yet at greater distances 
small ones were decidedly superior, owing to the energy of 
radiation varying as the fourth power of th-i rapidity. He had 
recently made experiments on electric radiations analogous to 
Newton's rings, and had successfully observed the central dark 
spot and the first dark band. Referring to Dr. Lodge's experi- 
ments, he inquired whether any traces of diffraciion were 
observed near the boundary of the bundle of rays between 
the lenses. Speaking of polarization experiments, Prof. Fitz- 
gerald said waves reflected from films of water exhibited no 
polarization, whereas those reflected from non-conductors were 
completely polarized. In reply, Dr. Lodge said no diffraction- 
effects had been observed, but in the interference-experiments to 
determine wave-length, the positions of minimum effect were 
very decided. — The President, in proposing that the thanks of 
the meeting be given to the authors of the papers, congratulated 
the Society on the presence of both Dr. Lodge and Prof. Fitz- 
gerald on the present occasion, when subjects with which they 
were so well acquainted were brought before the meeting. 

Chemical Society, May 2.— Dr. W. J. Russell, F.R.S , 
President, in the chair. — The following papers were read : — 
Thiophosphoryl fluoride, by Prof. T. E. Thorpe, F.R.S., and 
Mr. W. J. Rodger. Thiophosphoryl fluoride, PSF3, may be 
prepared by the action of arsenic trifluoride on thiophosphoryl 
chloride, or by heating a mixture of bismuth trifluoride or lead 
fluoride with phosphorus pentasulphide in a leaden vessel at a 
temperature not exceeding 250°. It is a transparent colourless 
gas, which under a pressure of ten to eleven atmospheres at 
ordinary temperatures condenses to a colourless, mobile liquid. 
It is slowly decomposed by water into sulphuretted hydrogen, 
phosphoric acid, and hydrogen fluoride, but does not attack 
mercury, and can be stored in a glass gas-holder. In air it is 
spontaneously inflammable, burning with a greyish-green flame 
forming phosphorus pentafluoride, phosphorus pentoxide, and 
sulphur dioxide, and it spontaneously explodes with oxygen. 
When heated, or subjected to electric sparks, it is decomposed 



with separation of sulphur and phosphorus, and formation of 
phosphorus trifluoride, and eventually phosphorus pentafluoride, 
whilst if the heating be effected in a glass tube at a sufficiently 
high temperature the gas is ultimately converted into silicon 
tetrafluoride. Thiophosphoryl fluoride combines with ammonia 
forming a solid product P(NH2)2SF, and when shaken with a 
moderately strong solution of alkali it is absorbed with the for- 
mation of a thiophosphate and a fluoride. — The boiling-point of 
sodium and potassium, by Mr. E. P. Perman. Sodium and 
potassium were boiled in a hollow iron ball which was heated by 
means of a blowpipe ; the temperature was found in each case by 
means of an air thermometer consisting of a glass bulb with a 
capillary stem which was lowered into the vapour, sealed and 
broken open underwater. The mean result for sodium was 742^, 
and for potassium 667°, — Note on the heat of neutralization of 
sulphuric acid, by Mr. S. U. Pickering. Calculating the value 
of the heat of neutralization of sulphuric acid in infinity of water 
from the results of a series of experiments on the dilution of the 
acid, the author finds that it becomes reduced to 28,197 cal., a 
value within experimental error, the same as that of two mole- 
cules of hydrogen chloride. — a-codiacetylpentaneand a tw-diben- 
zoylpentane, by Dr. F. S. Kipping and Prof. W. H. Perkin. 
— Acetopropyl- and acetobutyl-alcohol, by Dr. H. G. Colman 
and Prof. W. H. Perkin. 

Royal Meteorological Society, May 15. — Dr. W. Marcet, 
F.R.S., President, in the chair. — The following papers were 
read : — Account (if some experiments made to investigate the 
connection between the pressure and velocity of the wind, by 
Mr. W. H. Dines. These experiments were made for the pur- 
pose of determining the relation between the velocity of the 
wind and the pressure it exerts upon obstacles of various kinds 
exposed to it. The pressure-plates were placed at the end of 
the long arm of a whirling machine which was rotated by steam 
power. The author gives the results of experiments with about 
twenty-five different kinds of pressure- plates. The pressure 
upon a plane area of fairly compact form is about i^ pounds per 
square foot, at a velocity of twenty- one miles per hour; or, in 
other words, a pressure of i pound per square foot is caused by 
a wind of a little more than seventeen miles per hour. The 
pressure upon the same area i^ increased by increasing the peri- 
meter. The pressure upon a ^-foot plate is proportionally less 
than that upon a plate either half or double its size. The pressure 
upon any surface is but slightly altered by a cone or rim project- 
ing at the back, a cone seeming to cause a slight increase, but a 
rim having apparently no effect. — On an improved method of 
preparing ozone paper, and other forms of the test, with starch 
and potassium iodide, by Dr. C. H. Blackley. Some years ago 
the author made some experiments with the ordinary ozone test- 
papers, but found that the papers did not always give the same 
result when two or more were exposed under precisely the same 
conditions. He subsequently tried what reaction would take 
place between unboiled starch and potassium iodide when exposed 
to the influence of ozone ; but the difficulty of getting this spread 
evenly upon paper by hand so as to insure a perfectly even tint 
after being acted upon by ozone led him to devise a new method of 
accomplishing this. Briefly described, it may be said to be a method 
by which the starch is deposited on the surface of the paper by pre- 
cipitation, and for delicacy and precision in regulating the 
quantity on any given surface leaves very little to be desired. — 
Notes on the climate of Akassa, Niger Territory, by Mr. F. 
Russell. This paper gives the results of observations made from 
February 1887 to October 1888 at Akassa, which is the seaport 
and principal depot of the Royal Niger Company, and is situated 
at the mouth of the River Nun in the Niger Delta. — Wind 
storm at Sydney, New South Wales, on January 27, 1889, by 
Mr. H. C. Russell, F.R.S. 

Geological Society, May 8.— W. T. Blanford, F.R.S., 
President, in the chair. — The following communications were 
read : — The rocks of Alderney and the Casquets, by the Rev. 
Edwin Hill. The author in this paper described Alderney, 
Burhou, with its surrounding reefs, and the remoter cluster of 
the Casquets, all included within an area about ten miles long. 
Thereadingof thepaperwasfollowed bya discussion, in which the 
President, Prof. Bonney, Dr. Woodward, Dr. Hicks, and others 
took part, — On the Ashprington volcanic series of South Devon, 
by the late Arthur Champernowne. Communicated by Dr. A. 
Geikie, F. R. S. The author described the general characters of 
the volcanic rocks that occupy a considerable area of the country 
around Ashprington, near Totnes. They comprise tuffs and 



May 23, 1889] 



NATURE 



95 



lavas, the latter being sometimes amygdaloidal and sometimes 
flaggy and aphanitic. The aphanilic rocks approach in character 
the porphyiiic " schalsteins " of Nassau. Some of the rocks 
are much altered ; the felspars are blurred, as if changing to 
saussurite, like the felspars in the Lizard gabbros. In other 
cases greenish aphanitic rocks have, by the decomposition of 
magnetite or ilmenite, become raddled and earthy in appearance, 
so as to resemble tuffs. The beds are clearly interca'ated in the 
Devonian group of rocks, and the term Ashprington Series is 
applied to them by the author. Alrhough this series probably 
contains some detrital beds, there are no true grits in it. Strati- 
graphically the series appears to come between the Great Devon 
Limestone and the Cockington Beds, the evidence being dis- 
cussed by the author, however, not so fully as he had intended, as 
the paptr was not completed. The President said that the 
thanks of the Society were especially due to Dr. Geikie for 
having rescued this paper from oblivion. Dr. Geikie, after 
alluding to the melancholy interest attaching to the paper, said 
that he had himself urged the author to formulate his ideas 
upon the structure of the country. The present communication, 
however, was all that was found among his papers in a condition 
for publication. But it is imperfect, and no materials remained 
from which it could be completed ; still it was too valuable a 
piece of work to leave unpublished. There were two principal 
points in this last work of Mr. Champernowne : (i) the non- 
intrusive character of the beds in question ; (2) their geological 
horizon, regarding which, though, owing to the faulted nature of 
the country, it is rather obscure, Mr. Champernowne's surmises 
may turn out to be correct. There was no allusion in the paper 
to the compression and shearing the rocks had undergone, to 
which he (Dr. Geikie) attributed much of the schistose structure 
both of the sedimentary and igneous rocks of the region. The 
flaky beds of which the author speaks can be traced into the 
more massive rocks. The flattening out of the amygdaloids was 
a striking proof of this mechanical deformation. Some remarks 
on the paper were also offered by Mr. Rutley, Dr. Hatch, Mr. 
Worth, and Mr. W. W. Beaumont. 

Zoological Society, May 7. — Prof. Flower, F.R.S., Presi- 
dent, in the chair. — The Secretary read a rep irt on the additions 
that had been made to the Society's Menagerie during the month 
of April 1889, and called attention to a young male Sinaitic 
Ibex {Capra sinaitica), from Mount Sinai, presented by Sir 
James Anderson ; and to a young male of the Lesser Koodoo 
[Strepsiaros iniberbis), from East Africa, presented by George 
S. Mackenzie. — Mr. Sclater exhibited and made remarks on a 
living specimen of an albino variety of the Cape Mole {Geoiyc/ms 
capensts), lately presented to the Menagerie by the Rev. George 
H. R. Fisk, C.M.Z.S. — The Secretary read a letter addressed 
to him by Dr. E. C. Stirling, of Adelaide, containing a copy of 
his description of a nevv Australian burrowing Mammal, lately 
published in the Tran.-actions of the Royal Society of South 
Australia, and promising to send to the Zoological Society a 
more complete account of the same animal. — Mr. Seebohm ex- 
hibited and made remarks on the skin of a male example of 
Fhasianus chrysomelas, which had been transmitted in a frozen 
state from the Trans-Caspian Provinces of Russia. — A com- 
munication was read from Colonel C. Swinhoe, containing 
descriptions of seventy-five new species of Lidian Lej idoptera, 
chiefly Heterocera. — A communication was read from Rev. O. P. 
Cambridge, containing the description of a new Tree Trap-door 
Spider fro.n Brazil, proposed to be called Dend>icon rostratriim. 
— Mr. F. E. Beddard read some notes on the anatomy of an 
American Tapir [Tapirus terrcsti is), based on a specimen lately 
living in the Society's Collection. — A communication was read 
from Prof. Bardeleben, of Jena, on the pra'pollex and prsehallux 
of the Mammalian skeleton. '1 he author recorded the presence 
of a two-segmented nail-clad prsepollex in Pedetes, and that of a 
two-segmented pisiform (post-minimus) in Bathyergns. He also 
stated that he had discovered vestiges of the pr^ehallux and prce- 
pollex in certain keptilia. He then passed to the consideration of 
the Mesozoic Theriodesmus of Seeley, and denied the existence 
of the scapho-ltmare of that author, while he produced good 
reason for believing the same observer's second csntrale to consist 
of two elements, and his prseaxial ceniraleio be the basal element 
of a praehallux. — Mr. Oldfield Thomas read the description of a 
new genus and species of Muridse from Queensland, allied to 
Hydromys, which he proposed to call Xeromys myoides. 

Mathematical Society, May 9.— J. J. Walker, F.R.S., 
President, in the chair. — The following communications were 



made : — On the solution in integers of equations of the forn[> 
X* -»-y* -J- As* = o, by S. Roberts, F. R.S. — On the concomitants- 
of Kary quantics, by W. J. C. Sharp. — Note on the G function 
in an elliptic transformation annihilator, by J. Griffiths. — On the 
complete elliptic integrals K, E, G, I, by Dr. J. Kleib.r, Prival- 
docent of the University of St. Petersburg. — On the motion of 
an elastic solid strained by extraneous forces, by Signer Betti 
("by symmetrical algebraic analysis, the author obtains an expres- 
sion, in terms of the rotations of the element, for the unbalanced 
couples acting on each element of a solid when strained by given 
forces ; and he points out that the result is in accordance with 
a form of the elastic equations given by Sir W. Thomson "). — On 
cyclotomic functions, § iii. the cyclotomics belonging to the 
/-nomial periods of the /th roots of unity, where / is a prime 
number, by Prof. Lloyd Tanner. 

Edinburgh. 

Royal Society, April i. — Sir W. Thomson, President, ir> 
the chair. — Prof. Tait communicated some of the results obtained 
from a series. of experiments on impact of various bodies. — Sir 
W. Thomson exhibited and described new forms of magneto- 
static current- and volt-meters, and an electro-static voltmeter 
with a multiple voltaic pile to facilitate graduation. — Mr. A. 
Crichton Mitchell gave an account of the properties of manganese 
steel. — Dr. W. Peddie described an improved method of measur- 
ing small rotations of the plane of polarization by ordinary 
apparatus. — Prof. Tait read a paper on the relations between 
line-, surface-, and volume-integrals. He showed that the well- 
known relation between line- and surface-integrals can be deduced 
directly fro^n a particular case of the equally well-known relation 
between surface- and volume-integrals. 

April 15. — Prof Sir Douglas Maclagan, Vice-President, in the 
chair. — The Keith Prize for 1885-87 was awarded to Mr. J. Y. 
Buchanan for a series of communications on subjects connected 
with ocean circulation, compressibility of glass, &c. — The Mak- 
dougall-Brisbane Prize for 1884-86 was awarded to Dr. John^ 
Murray for his papers on the drainage areas of continents, and 
ocean deposits, the rainfall of the globe, and discharge of rivers,, 
the height of the land and depth of the ocean, and the distribution 
of temperature in the Scottish lochs as affected by the wind. — The 
Makdougall-Brisbane Prize for 1886-88 was awarded to Dr. 
Archibald Geikie for numerous communications, especially that on> 
the history of volcanic action during the Tertiary period in the 
British Isles.— Prof. Swan read an obituary notice of the late Mr, 
R. M. Smith. — Dr. E. Sang read a paper on the resistance of the 
air to the motion of an oscillating body with special reference to 
its effect on time-keepers. — Mr. A. Johnstone communicated a 
paper on a new and easy method for the rapid and sure de- 
tection of mercury. 

Paris. 

Academy of Sciences, May 13. — M. Des Cloizeaux, 
President, in the chair. — The thionic series, by M. Berthelot. 
In this paper the author studies the action of the acids on- 
the thiosulphates, which throws quite a new light on the 
constitution of the salts of the thionic series, by deter- 
mining the limits of the heat of neutralization of thio- 
sulphuric acid. The liberated sulphur reacts with the thio- 
sulphuric acid before it decomposes, forming complex thionic 
acids. — On mesocamphoric acid, by M. C. Friedel. — 
The author has prepared this substance by a process differei t 
f.om that of Wreden, by whom it was first described, and some 
of whose statements are here rectified. Instead of being an 
inactive, non-decomposable acid, it is found to be decomposable 
by simple crystallization. — On the photographic spectrum of the 
great nebula of Orion, by Dr. W. Huggins. In 1882 the author 
obtained a photograph of the spectrum of this nebula, revealirg 
a new luminous ray with wave-length about A3730. Two recert 
photographs taken in 1888 and 1889 enable him to determine 
more accurately this wave-length, as well as to describe a certain 
number of other luminous lays which occur in the ultra-violet 
region of the spectrum of the same nebula. These photograpl s 
are figured in a drawing which accompanies the present note. 
The wave-length of the bright ray discovered in 1882 is heie 
determined at A3724. Dr. Huggins considers it probable thrt 
nebulae yielding a spectrum, of luminous rays, with a very fail t 
continuous spectrum, which is probably formed in part by 
luminous rays in close proximity, are at or near the beginning 
of the cycle of their celestial evolution, while those resembling 
the large nebula in Andromeda have already reached a more 



96 



NATURE 



\_May 23, 1889 



advanced phase of their development. The photograph of this 
nebula taken by Mr. Roberts reveals a planetary system, in 
which some planets are already formed, and their central mass 
-condensed. — On the surgical treatment of the foot in cases of 
suppurated osteo-arthritis, by M. Oilier. Hitherto amputation 
has generally been considered the only remedy ; but the author's 
-experiments show that, by removal of the ankle with abrasion or 
resection of the limiting articulations, the foot may be preserved 
almost in its normal state and with little detriment to its loco- 
motive functions. — On the linear expansion of solid bodies at 
high temperatures, by M. Pionchon. These researches show that 
by means of the simple process here described M. Fizeau's well- 
4cnown experiments may be repeated with the greatest ease. 
M. Pionchon now proposes to apply the process to the study of 
the linear expansion of amorphous and crystallized solid bodies 
;it high temperatures. — On the direct measurement of the 
retardation produced by the reflection of luminous waves, by M. 
A. Potier. These experiments, which are applicable to a large 
number of substances, constitute a method by means of which 
the retai-dation may be directly measured, which is caused by the 
reflection of the luminous waves on their surface. — On the 
influence of terrestrial magnetism on atmospheric polarization, 
by M. Henri Becquerel. In a previous memoir {Annales de 
Chimie et de Physique, xix., 1880) the author showed that in a 
cloudless sky the plane of polarization is not generally coincident 
with the theoretic plane (plane of the sun), and further that the 
two should coincide when the latter is vertical, but that, in a 
region near the horizon and the magnetic meridian, the plane of 
■polarization then deviates by a small angle in the direction 
corresponding to the rotation of the plane of polarization of a 
luminous ray traversing a column of air, subject to the magnetic 
influence of the earth. In the present paper he determines both 
the direction and the extent of the rotation, and also shows how 
this display of terrestrial magnetism is associated with some of 
the most interesting questions connected with the physics of the 
globe. — A study of the electric conductivity of saline solutions, 
as applied to chemical mechanics — the acid salts, by M. P. 
Chroustchofif. The author has applied M. Bouty's extremely 
sensitive electrometric method of measuring the electric con- 
ductivity of liquids to the study of several problems in 
ohem.ical statics. In the present paper he tabulates the 
chief measurements of the electric conductivity of aqueous 
solutions containing one salt only. — Action of the atmo- 
sphere on manganese carbonate, by M. A. Gorgeu. In this 
paper the author discusses the question whether this action 
can give rise to any of the natural dioxides, as assumed by 
MM. Boussingault and Dieulafait. — Papers were contributed 
by M. L. Pigeon, on platinic chloride ; by M. Aug. Lambert, 
•on the action of borax on the polyhydric phenols and alcohols ; 
and by M. H. Prouho, on the structure and metamorphosis of 
Flustrella hispida. — -A c^py of M. Seligmann-Lui's translation 
■of Clerk Maxwell's classical treatise on " Electricity and Mag- 
netism " was presented to the Academy by M. Sarrau. 

Berlin. 

Physical Society, April 26.— Prof. Kundt, President, in 
the chair. — Prof. Kundt gave a short account of recent re- 
searches on electro-magnetic rotatory polarization, and developed 
the more general point of view froai which they had been 
respectively undertaken. Since the time when Faraday disco- 
vered the fundamental phenomena and later physicists had 
accumulated a mass of material on which ob ervations could 
be made, two facts had chiefly presented difficulties in con- 
nection with the established theory : of these one was the 
varying direction of rotation produced by different substances, 
some producing a positive rotation (in the direction of the Am- 
perian current), others a negative rotation ; the other fact was 
the absence of magnetic rotation in doubly-refractive crystals. 
Starting from some theoretical considerations, the speaker was 
led to surmise that rotation is not wanting in these crystals, but 
is only obscured by some opposing phenomenon, a view which 
has been fully confirmed by experiments carried out at his sug- 
gestion by Drs. Wedding, Wiener, and du Buis. When a piece 
of glass was made doubly refractive by pressure, its magnetic 
rotatory polarization diminished, becoming nil when the differ- 
ence in path of the two rays was ^X ; when the difference was 
^A, then the rotation took place in the opposite direction. When 
the difference was A., the rotation was again nil, and it varied 
»hus in a wave-like manner, with increasingly small amplitudes 



until it ceased entirely. Prof. Kundt concluded from this that 
the power of electro-magnetic rotatory polarization is common to 
a// substances, whether crystalline or isotropous. As regards 
the varying direction of rotation, his own experiments had shown 
that simple substances produce a positive rotation, and com- 
pound bodies a negative rotation ; this last result may be ex- 
plained by the fact that the Amperian currents inside compound 
bodies run in a direction different from that in the magnetic 
field. The proportionality of rotation to the strength of mag- 
netization is also a property common to all substances ; its rela- 
tionship to ' refraction is being made the subject of further 
researches. Dr. Koenig (from Leipzig) pointed out many 
ana'ogies which exist between the electrical rays discovered by 
Prof. Hertz and rays of light, more particularly the polarization 
of the electrical rays by means of the wire grating and the phe- 
nomena w hich may be observed in the immediate neighbour- 
hood of the rays as they are advancing in straight lines, pheno- 
mena which are in exact accord with those described by Stokes 
in the case of light. 

Stockholm. 

Royal Academy of Sciences, April 9. — Researches on the 
deviations of the plumb line in Sweden, by Prof. Rosen. — 
Resume preliminaire d'une recherche experimentale sur I'ab- 
sorption _^de la chaleur rayonnartte par les gaz atmospheriques, 
by Dr. Angstrom. — Newly found specimens of Anser bracliy- 
rhynchus, Baill., in Sweden, by Dr. A. Stuxberg. — On a singular 
Tetrarhynchid larva, by Herr E. Lonnberg. 



BOOKS, PAMPHLETS, and SERIALS RECEIVED. 

Eclectic Physical Geography : R. Hinman (Low). — A Treatise on the 
Principles of Chemistry, 2nd edition: M. M. P. Muir (Cambridge Univer- 
.sitv Press). — Teutonic Mythology : V. Rydberg, tran-Iaied by R. B. 
Anderson (Sonnenschein). — Die E'ltstehung der Artendurch Raumliche Son- 
derung : M. Wagner (Basel, B. Schwabe). — Examination of Water for 
Sanitary and Technical PuiTioses: H. Leffmann and VV. Beam (Philadelphia, 
HIakiston). — Hourly Readings, 1886, Part 3. July to September (Eyre and 
Spottiswoode). — The Uses ot Plants : G. S. Bou'ger (Roper and Drowley). 
— Journal of the Institution of Electrical Engineers, No. 79, vo'. xviii. (Spon). 
— Quarterly Journal of the Geological Society, No. 178 (Longman.s). — 
Ergebnisse der Meteorologischen Beobachtungen, Jahrg. x. (Hamburg). 



CONTENTS. PAGE 

The New Technical Education Bill 73 

A Text-Book of Human Physiology 74 

Geography in Germany. By H. J. Mackinder ... 75 
Our Book Shelf.— 

Dickson: " Gleanings from Japan " ........ 76 

Greaves : " Statics for Beginners " 77 

Letters to the Editor-. — 

The Structure and Distribution of Coral Reefs. — Prof. 

T. G. Bonney, F.R.S 77 

The Turtle-headed Rock Cod.— T 77 

Atmospheric Electricity. — Dan. Pidgecn 77 

Rain-Clouds. — Dr. Julius Hann 78 

The Muybridge Photographs. By Prof. E. Ray Lan- 

kester, F.R.S 78 

On the Determination of Masses in Astronomy. By 

R. A. Gregory • 80 

A New Form of Regenerative Gas-Lamp. (Illus- 
trated.) 82 

Heinrich Gustav Reichenbach 83 

Notes 84 

Astronomical Phenomena for the Week i38g 

May 26 — ^June i 86 

Beacon Lights and Fog Signals. I. {Illustrated.) 

By Sir James N. Douglass, F.R.S 87 

A Bill to Provide Technical Education in England 

and Wales 91 

Scientific Serials 91 

Societies and Academies 92 

Books, Pamphlets, and Serials Received 96 



NA TURE 



97 



THURSDAY, MAY 30, i! 



INTERMEDIATE EDUCATION IN WALES. 

IT does not often happen, in these days of slow ParHa- 
mentary progress, that two educational measures, 
having an important bearing on the industrial and the 
intellectual welfare of the country, are read a second time 
within a week of each other. In our last issue we gave 
some account of Sir Henry Roscoe's Bill for the provision 
of technical education, and expressed our strong hope 
that it would pass through the remaining stages this 
session. No less heartily do we wish success to Mr. 
Stuart Rendel's Bill for providing intermediate and 
technical education in Wales, which was read a second 
time on May 15, after a debate which practically resolved 
itself into a chorus of approbation. It is, indeed, high 
time that something should be done. Secondary educa- 
tion, both in England and Wales, stands sadly in need of 
organization, but the claims of the Principality (to which 
the present measure is confined) are far stronger than 
those of England, so far as the necessity of immediate 
action is concerned. 

The main grounds on which the special treatment of 
Wales in this matter is based are to be found stated in 
the Report of Lord Aberdare's Committee on Intermediate 
and Higher Education in Wales, which was published in 
1 88 1. It is there pointed out that the aggregate income 
of the educational endowments of Wales and Monmouth 
amounted to little over ^14,000, against a total of more 
than ;^6oo,ooo for England (excluding Monmouth). Nearly 
a third of these scanty endowments were to be found 
in Monmouth. In the matter of these endowments 
Wales is no better off now than it was then. Since i88i, 
it is true, the educational resources of Wales have been 
increased by the grant of ^12,000 a year to the three 
University Colleges of Aberystwith, Bangor, and Cardiff. 
But even including this sum, which is really intended for 
higher education, the educational income of Wales is 
not nearly so great in proportion to the population as in 
the case of England, and what there is is so unequally 
distributed as not to be available where the need is 
greatest. 

The result is that in many counties of Wales inter- 
mediate education can hardly be said to exist. The 
Schools Inquiry Commission estimated that about sixteen 
boys in every thousand ought to be receiving intermed ate 
or higher education. The following quotation from the 
Report to which we have referred will show the destitution 
which existed in Wales in 1881, and which unfortunately 
still exists to a great extent to-day : — " Taking the popula- 
tion of Wales and Monmouthshire to be about 1,570,000, 
and reducing the estimate in consideration of the excep- 
tional conditions of Wales from sixteen to ten per 1000, 
intermediate school accommodation should be provided for 
15,700 boys, and that number ought to be in attendance. 
In contrast to this, our returns show accommodation in 
the public schools for less than 3000, and that accommoda- 
tion to a great extent unsatisfactory. They also show an 
attendance of less than 1600." 

This estimate only applies to boys, and the state of the 
Vol. XL.— No. 1022. 



case as regards girls' education is still worse. Only from 
two to three hundred girls were in 1881 in schools under 
any kind of public supervision, and the Committee 
naturally found great difficulty in devising recommenda- 
tions which should adequately meet a case where, as they 
say, " the unsatisfied requirements are so great and the 
available resources apparently so meagre." Probably, on 
the whole, intermediate school accommodation ought to 
be provided for at least fifteen children per 1000 of the 
population, making a total of 23,500 school places. Less 
than a fifth of this number were provided in 1881 in 
schools under any kind of public supervision or control. 

So much for the state of the case. Lord Aberdare's 
Committee reported in favour of aid being given to Welsh 
intermediate education both from rates and Imperial 
grants. Progress, however, in these matters is so slow in 
England that nothing has hitherto been done to carry 
out these recommendations except the drafting of a Bill 
by Mr. Gladstone's Government in 1885. This meafure 
was essentially the same as Mr. Stuart Rendel's Bill which 
is now before the public. 

The Bill embodies most of the recommendations of 
Lord Aberdare's Committee. It proposes to create a 
Board of Education for Wales, consisting of represen- 
tatives of County Councils. To this Board schemes 
are to be submitted by the Council of each county, to 
meet the educational needs of that district. The plans 
may include the establishment of new schools, the re- 
organization of endowments, and the provision of scholar- 
ships. The Board may approve or alter the plans, and 
the funds required to carry them into effect are to be raised 
by a rate not exceeding one halfpenny in the pound — 
a sum, by the way, which will produce about ^14,000 a year 
for the whole of Wales. This sum may be met by a 
Parliamentary grant not greater than the amount raised 
from the rates, subject to favourable reports upon in- 
spection. Powers are given to reorganize and utilize 
existing endowments, and there may no doubt be some 
difference of opinion as to the extent and nature of the 
powers in relation to this matter which the Bill proposes 
to give to the new Board of Education. 

There are a few criticisms which may be made on 
points of detail. The Board of Education ought un- 
doubtedly to include not only representatives of the 
County Councils, but a certain number of educational 
experts. The County Councils should likewise be em- 
powered to co-opt men of special knowledge to help in 
the preparation of their schemes. But on such points 
the representatives of Wales — a country where, as all who 
know it well will admit, there is a sincere zeal for educa- 
tional progress — will not be likely to offer unreasonable 
opposition. 

On the whole, the Bill is a most important step in 
advance, leading, as we may hope, ultimately to the or- 
ganization and supervision of secondary schools through- 
out the Kingdom, All interested in the advance of 
scientific and technical teaching know how higher 
institutions are crippled by want of better teaching in 
secondary schools. The teachers in technical schools and 
higher colleges in England constantly complain of the 
want of preparation of those who come to their institutions 
from private schools. In Wales much of the work which 
the University Colleges are now compelled to do ought to 

... F 



98 



NATURE 



{May ^o, 1889 



be done in intermediate schools. We hail the fact that 
the Bill was read a second time as a sign that the public 
are waking- up to the very great importance of this side of 
the educational problem. 



FLORA ORIENTALIS. 
Flora Orientalis, sive Enumeratio Plmitarum in Oriente 
a Grcecia et AUgypto ad Indicz Fines hucusque Obser- 
vatartim. Auctore Edmond Boissier. Supplementum, 
editore R. Buser. (Geneva; et Basileas apud H. Georg, 
Bibliopolam, 1888) 
A BRIEF notice of the eminent author of the monu- 
F\- mental work which the present volume brings to a 
close appeared in Nature (vol. xxxii. p. 540), a day 
or two after his decease, and it is there mentioned that 
he had for some time been engaged on a supplement to 
his " Flora Orientalis/' the body of which was com- 
pleted in 1 881. That supplement is now fortunately in 
the hands of botanists, and an opportunity is offered for 
a more comprehensive notice of the author and his work, 
as a whole, than has hitherto been published in this 
country. Apart from the value of the work to the 
systematist and phytogeographer, it possesses an interest 
for a wide circle, inasmuch as it deals with the vegeta- 
tion of those countries of the greatest historical attrac- 
tions. As the title indicates, the eastern limit of the area 
of the "Flora Orientalis" is India, and now there are 
other works actually in progress, which, although they 
will not by any means exhaust the flora of the rest of 
Asia, will add vastly to what is known. Sir Joseph 
Hooker's " Flora of British India" has reached the sixth 
volume, and the indefatigable author is now engaged on 
the Orchidese (the largest order in the British Indian 
flora, represented by upwards of 1000 species) ; and 
we may reasonably hope, now that he is free from 
official duties, that he will finish it in the course of four 
or five years. But the energy and perseverance required 
to get through such an amount of descriptive botany as 
that accomplished by such men as Bentham, Boissier, 
and Hooker, can be estimated by few except those 
similarly engaged. 

Kegel and Maximowicz's elaboration of the collec- 
tions of Russian travellers in Central and Eastern Asia, 
Franchet's " Plantae DavidiancE " and " Planta; Yunnan- 
enses," and Forbes and Hemsley's "Index Florae 
Sinensis," are jointly bringing together the materials for 
a flora of Central Asia and China, so that it will soon be 
possible to survey and analyze the composition of the 
vegetation in its various aspects from the Atlantic across 
Europe and Asia to the Pacific. 

The " Flora Orientalis " consists of five octavo volumes, 
with an aggregate of 5387 pages, independently of the 
present supplement of 499 pages, making a total of 5886 
pages ; and, on the authority of Dr. H. Christ, the 
author of a notice of the life and works of Boissier 
appended to the supplement, the number of species 
described amounts to 11,876 ! To these descriptions are 
added the localities of the plants within the limits of the 
" Flora," and the geographical area of each species. In 
giving the former, the author takes the countries in the fol- 
I owing order : Greece, Macedonia and Thrace, Asia Minor 
and Armenia, Egypt and Arabia, Palestine, Syria, and 



Mesopotamia, Crimea and Caucasus, Persia, Turkestan, 
Afghanistan and Baluchistan. 

Before proceeding to a further examination of the 
nature and quality of Boissier's " Flora Orientalis," I will ex- 
tract some particulars of his life from Dr. Christ's memoir,, 
more especially such as relate to his botanical career. 

Pierre Edmond Boissier, a descendant of a Huguenot 
family, was born at Geneva in 18 10, and early developed 
a love for botanical pursuits. This inclination was stimu- 
lated and cultivated by the eminent Augustine Pyramus 
De Candolle, whose admirable teaching resulted in 
Boissier's life-long devotion to botanical research. 
Boissier was a man of great mental attainments, of a 
most amiable disposition, and at the same time of noble 
stature and fine physique. 

Botanizing in the field, which is undoubtedly the best 
of all training, was his great delight, and his home 
excursions subsequently extended into distant travels. 
He was a good walker and a good mountaineer, and 
retained his great physical power until quite late in life. 
On his first visit to the Maritime Alps in 1832, he walked 
the whole distance, some forty miles, from Nice ta 
Tenda in a single journey, and as lately as 1871 he 
accomplished in one day on foot the longer and much 
more difficult journey from La Madone delle Finestre ta 
Tenda. The distance is estimated at about forty-five 
miles, and entails an ascent from 1900 to 2336 metres,, 
then a descent to 1500 metres, upwards again to 2600, 
and finally down to 750 metres. And this exertion was 
undertaken to rediscover the rare and singular Saxifraga 
florulenta, originally discovered by an English tourist. 
This, Boissier's fourth excursion for this object, proved 
successful. 

After finishing his studies at Geneva, Boissier went to 
Paris, where he met with our countryman Philip Barker 
Webb, who had botanized extensively in Spain, chiefly in 
the Kingdom of Granada, though he had published almost 
nothing thereon. It is supposed that Webb influenced 
Boissier in his determination to make Spain the field of 
his next botanical work, and it is certain that he gave hiri> 
the whole of the materials he had collected, having him- 
self made the Canary Islands the scene of his future 
labours. Boissier went on his first voyage to Spain in 
1836, and continued his investigations for several years, 
aided more or less by several persons, and greatly by his 
friend Renter. Following several preliminary contribu- 
tions to the botany of Spain, the first part of Boissier's 
" Voyage botanique dans le midi de I'Espagne " ap- 
peared in 1839 ; and this admirable publication was 
completed in 1845. It is a botanical work of the first 
rank, and an enduring monument of the industry and muni- 
ficence of the author. It consists of two quarto volumes 
containing a most interesting narrative of his travels ; an 
essay on the geographical distribution of the plants of the 
region under consideration ; descriptions of all the plants, 
and last, though by no means least, upwards of 200 
beautifully drawn, hand-coloured plates by Heyland, one 
of the most accomplished botanical artists of his time. 

Previous to the appearance of this work, the flora of 
no country of Europe was so little known as that of 
Spain. The enumeration numbers nearly 2000 species, 
about one-eighth of which were previously unknown. 
Since its appearance the flora of the whole of Spain has 



I 



May 30, 1889] 



NATURE 



99 



been elaborated by Willkomm and Lange — by foreigners 
again, and not by Spaniards ! As a noteworthy exception 
to the botanical lethargy of the Spaniards, the learned 
and valuable works on the botany and botanists of the 
Iberian Peninsula by Don Miguel Colnieiro deserve spe- 
cial mention in this connection. Boissier himself, although 
he soon afterwards became engaged upon a work of much 
greater magnitude, never lost interest in the flora of 
Spain, and he revisited the country many times. Even 
before the completion of his " Voyage en Espagne," he 
commenced travelling and collecting in South-Easlern 
Europe, subsequently visiting Egypt, Palestine, and 
Arabia, and other countries ; the results of these journeys 
culminating in his magnum opus, the " Flora Orientalis." 
Preliminary to this work he published a vast number of 
new species in fascicles, from time to time, between 1842 
and 1859, under the title of " Diagnoses Plantarum 
Orientalium Novarum." Another important contribution 
to systematic botany was his " Icones Euphorbiarum," 
a large quarto, containing figures and descriptive letter- 
press of 120 species of Euphorbia. This was published 
in 1866, and in the same year the author furnished de- 
scriptions of the seven hundred species of this genus for 
De Candolle's " Prodromus." 

Apart from its size, the " Flora Orientalis" is incontest- 
ably one of the most masterly pieces of descriptive 
botany ever executed, and although many botanists will 
not agree with the illustrious author in his limitation of 
species, all will recognize the excellence of the de- 
scriptions, and admit that by their aid a botanist can 
actually " determine " his plants. On this point I can 
speak from successful personal experience. The analy- 
tical keys to the species of some of the larger genera are 
admirably constructed, and display a marvellously acute 
knowledge, as well as great power of discrimination 
Take such genera as CatnpaJiula (125 species), Cousinia 
(136 species), Centaurea (183 species), Silene (204 spe- 
cies), and Astragalus (757 spiecies), as examples of the work, 
and it will be admitted that few approach it in quality. 

With regard to his conception of species, Boissier 
rejected the Darwinian theory altogether, believing that 
species were not arbitrary congeries of individuals, but 
direct creations of God at different periods. And al- 
though he by no means carried subdivision to the absurd 
extent that some modern botanists have done, yet he went 
much farther in this direction than most authors who have 
dealt with the vegetation of so wide an area as that of the 
■" Flora Orientalis." 

The supplement, issued towards the end of last year, is 
brought down to a very recent date, and contains all Dr. 
Aitchison's additions to the Afghan flora, except those in 
his last paper, of course, which was not published till 
the spring of last year. It also includes an index to all 
the collectors' numbers cited throughout the work, which 
will be very useful to persons possessing these numbered 
collections. A portrait of the author late in life forms 
the frontispiece to this volume, and there are several 
views of the new building erected on the bank of the 
lake, not far from Geneva, to contain the fine herbarium 
amassed by Boissier. 

Thus Geneva now possesses the remarkably rich 
herbaria of De Candolle, De Lessert, and Boissier. 

W. BOTTING HeMSLEY. 



A TREATISE ON MANURES. 



A Treatise on Manures. By A. B. Griffiths, Ph.D. 
(London: Whittaker and Co., 1889.) 

IN this substantial little volume of nearly 400 pages 
the author treats of natural and artificial fertilizers, 
with a decided leaning towards the latter. The work is 
intended to be useful to manure manufacturers as well as 
to farmers and students of agriculture, and must be 
regarded as a useful addition to our information. The 
subject is introduced by two chapters upon the soil and 
the plant, after which all the leading and the suggested , 
fertilizers are reviewed, and analyses are furnished. It is 
convenient to have at hand a book written up to date in 
which the newest sources of phosphatic materials, guanos 
and alkalies, are brought under notice. The chief interest 
of Dr. Griffiths's book centres in his chapter upon the 
use of iron sulphate as a manure. It is well known that 
Dr. Grifliths first pointed out that the iron sulphate, used 
in small quantities of about half a hundredweight per 
acre, exerts a beneficial effect on many crops ; and this fact 
is distinctly brought before the reader in the book before 
us. The value of sulphate of iron lies in the fact that 
many soils do not contain a sufficiency of iron in a form 
to be readily taken up by plants, and Dr. Griffiths con- 
siders that when added to such soils it tends to increase 
the amount of chlorophyll in the leaf, and that this is 
followed by increased vigour in the elaboration of starch, 
woody fibre, fats, carboliydrates, and albuminoids. The 
amounts of increase of crop in the cases cited are re- 
markable, and the greater percentage of iron in the ashes 
of plants top-dressed with this substance is decided. It 
would be unjust to Dr. Griffiths to detract from the value 
of this observation, which, as he tells us, has been the 
cause of hundreds of letters on the subject from all parts 
of the world. The results are indeed open to the criticism 
that they are almost too satisfactory, for an increase of 
19,313 pounds per acre of mangel owing to the use of half a 
hundredweight of sulphate of iron seems almost too good 
to be true. Nine tons of mangel are worth something like 
£(i sterling to the farmer as food for stock, a sum which 
would effectually turn an unprofitable into a profitable 
crop. The season is still young, and it would be well if 
agriculturists would put Dr. Griffiths's results to the test 
of a simple experiment during the coming summer, upon 
root crops. 

Dr. Griffiths is no great partisan of farmyard manure, 
and he is scarcely fair in his argument when he touches 
upon this important subject. We cannot agree with him 
that farmyard manure is "far from being a perfect 
manure," or that " the farmer who uses nothing but farm- 
yard manure exhausts his land," or that " farmyard 
manure does not return to the soil all the nitrogen which 
was originally extracted from it by growing crops." In 
pursuing this argument he asks, " Whence comes the 
fertilizing matter contained in the dung of animals.'' An 
ox or a sheep cannot create nitrogen, phosphorus, or 
potash. All of these substances, which are to be found 
in its liquid and solid excrements, have been derived from 
its food. That food has been grown upon the farm." 

This is doubtless true if the farm actually does pro- 
duce all the food of the animals it supports ; but every 
farmer knows that this is not the case. The believers in 



lOO 



NATURE 



[May 30, 1889 



the value of farmyard manure know perfectly well that 
the sale of lambs, of young stock, and of dairy produce, 
as well as of beef, mutton, and wool, exhausts land ; but, in 
order to counteract this tendency, they invariably (we 
speak of good farmers) purchase oil-cake, hay, and corn 
in large quantities, sometimes to the extent of from ^i 
to £2 per acre over the entire farm, and it is this fact 
which is ignored by Dr. Griffiths. As to whether farm- 
yard manure is a cheap manure or the reverse depends 
greatly upon the skill of the farmer, but we may be sure 
that when it is produced by well-bred animals, of high 
value, or when purchases of stock are made judiciously, 
farmyard manure may be properly regarded as a by- 
product. 

It is questionable teaching on the part of an agricul- 
tural chemist to run counter to the experience of 
practical men, and we fear that Dr. Griffiths will not 
carry his agricultural readers with him in his 
opinions regarding the exhausting nature and ex- 
pensive character of farmyard dung. Warming with 
his subject. Dr. Griffiths asks, " Why will the farmer still 
go sinking in the Slough of Despond, while faithful and 
willing hands are continually being s'retched out in every 
direction to help him ? Let him take a word of warning. 
Be up and doing, and — whatever you (sic) do — be up to the 
times. Do not let German, French, Belgian, or American 
agriculturists, simply by dint of superior scientific know- 
ledge and methods, outstrip you in that great competition 
which is now going on amongst the nations of the world." 
As in the previous quotation given, we see once more the 
learned Doctor arguing upon wrong premises. In what 
respects do German, French, Belgian, or American agricul- 
turists outstrip the English farmer ? The average yields 
of corn and the average results of stock-feeding obtained 
by British farmers are far superior to those obtained by 
German, French, and American farmers. The manner 
in which our farmers have stood the shock of rapidly 
falling grain prices is extraordinary. Farming has not 
ceased to be a profitable occupation, but times have 
recently been very difficult, partly on account of the fall 
in the value of corn, and partly because the seasons have 
been remarkably unfavourable for the last fifteen years. 

Dr. Griffiths proceeds to point out that in 1884 Germany 
boasted 158 colleges and schools of agriculture, attended 
by 17,844 students, and contrasts this fact with the very 
few colleges and the 240 students of agriculture in 
England. "If, says he, "Old England is to hold her 
own, we must have these necessities. It may be said, Is 
not England already taxed enough ? where is the money 
to come from to support the colleges, schools, and experi- 
mental farms ? We all admit that England is the rzc/tes^ 
country in the world. Very well, then, if ^oor Germany 
can support at least 158 agricultural colleges, and give 
instruction to 17,844 students, surely England need not 
grumble or be so mean." Does not Dr. Griffiths know 
that the farmers, as a rule, in Germany and France, 
do not care about the agricultural colleges? that there 
is the greatest possible difficulty in inducing them 
to send their sons to them ? that it is only by offering 
exemption from the galling military service exacted from 
all men in those countries, and by conferring upon students 
the rank necessary for serving as officers in the army, 
that the colleges and schools are filled at all ? Does he 



not know that the colleges and schools are chiefly useful 
as a means of training the great army of professors and 
teachers in those countries ? Does he not know that a 
certificate of proficiency gained at a college is, in those 
countries, absolutely necessary before a man can give 
evidence in a court of justice on an agricultural ques- 
tion .'' Does he wish to introduce artificial restrictions 
such as this into England, and to substitute a patriarchal 
system for that free enterprise which is the true reason of 
the wealth and the excellence of England ? 

A very short time ago ^5000 was put aside by the 
Government for grants on account of agricultural educa- 
tion. No sooner was this offered than a struggle ensued 
for participation in this small sum. Share lists have been 
opened, in which one source of profit put before the in- 
vesting public is a share of this same ^5000 as a means 
of increasing the dividends of the promoters ! It is more 
than likely that this same ^5000 will do more harm than 
good, by encouraging bogus schemes and paralyzing the 
natural enterprise which is the life-blood of English 
supremacy. 

Dr. Griffiths has issued his book, and farmers are free 
to read, mark, learn, and inwardly digest it. The agri- 
cultural press is open, and there is that great body of 
good practical farmers who are more fully alive to the 
situation than Dr. Griffiths imagines, who, if not 
" scientific " in their instincts, are shrewd men of busi- 
ness, and the possessors of a knowledge of rural matters 
which comes not from books, but through contact and 
experience. 

Dr. Griffiths is a disciple of Ville, and the main object 
of his work is to substitute a system of artificial fertilizers 
for manuring through live stock. Farmyard manure, he 
says, is imperfect, full of seeds of weeds and germs of 
disease ; it is expensive to produce and to apply ; it 
exhausts the land ; it is inferior to artificial manures ; and 
its good properties, such as they are, are not easily re- 
coverable. Such is Dr. Griffiths's indictment, which is 
calculated to make farmers rub their eyes, and, having 
made sure they had read aright, lay the book down. If 
experience is of any value at all in regulating practice, it 
teaches us that in our climate, and with our natural and 
acquired advantages in races of cattle, the strength of our 
position is our live stock ; that the fertility of the soil is 
not only kept up but rapidly and durably increased by the 
importation of purchased foods ; and that it is better for 
the farmer to pay a " cake " bill than a manure bill. 



OUH BOOK SHELF. 

Elementary and Synthetic Geometry of the Poi?it, Line, and 
Circle in the Plane. By N. F. Dupuis, M.A. (London : 
Macmillan, 1889.) 

This is a work which we have read with considerable 
interest. As the author states, " it is not an edition of 
Euclid's * Elements,' in fact it has little relation to that 
celebrated ancient work except in the subject matter." 
Its alliances are with such treatises as Casey's " Sequel 
to Euclid" and McDowell's "Exercises on Euclid and in 
Modern Geometry," but it appears to us to be better 
adapted in some respects than either of these works to 
the use of junior students. These are too condensed for 
some readers, whereas the book before us, without being 
too diffuse, enters into greater detail, and leads the pupil 
up, by a course of sound teaching, so as to enable him 



I 



May 30, 1889] 



NATURE 



01 



to attack with success the subject of modern analytical 
geometry. Mr. Dupuis looks at a triangle not as "the 
three-cornered portion of the plane inclosed within its 
sides, but the combination of the three points and three 
lines forming what are usually termed its vertices and 
its sides and sides produced." His object is to lead up 
to the idea of a figure as a locus, with a view to preparing 
the way for the study of Cartesian geometry. Here the 
necessity for a careful distinction between congruence and 
equality arises. He introduces freely the principle of 
motion in the transformation of geometric figures, and 
devotes some space to the principle of continuity. Further, 
he connects geometry with algebraic forms and symbols, 
" (i) by an elementary study of the modes of representing 
geometric ideas in the symbols of algebra, and (2) by 
determining the consequent geometric interpretation which 
is to be given to each interpretable algebraic form." The 
subject of proportion is treated on the method of measures, 
and the term tensor is freely used. The first part (pp. 
1-90) traverses the point, line, parallels, the triangle 
and circle. The second part (pp. 91-146) considers the 
measurement of lengths and areas : each part closes with 
a section devoted to illustrative matter drawn from 
constructive geometry. The third part (pp. 147-177) 
consists of two sections— the first on proportion amongst 
line-segments, and the second on functions of angles and 
their applications in geometry. Some instruments are 
described, as the proportional compasses, the sector, the 
pantagraph, and the diagonal scale. In the fourth part 
(pp. 178-251) there are seven sections, which are taken 
up with such matters as the centre of mean position, 
inversion and inverse figures, pole and polar, radical 
axis, and centres and axes of perspective. The closing 
part (pp. 252-290) introduces the student to harmonic and 
anharmonic properties, polar reciprocals and reciprocation, 
and to homography and involution. The author discusses 
all these points in a lucid style, and illustrates them with 
full store of carefully selected solutions : in addition there 
are a great number of unworked exercises in all the 
subjects. These good results are the otitcome of many 
years' teaching of geometry to the junior classes in the 
University of (2ueen's College, Kingston, Canada. Tiie 
book is closed with a full index, and clearly drawn figures 
accompany the te.xt. 

A Vertebrate Faung. of the Outer Hebrides. By J. A. 
Harvie-Brown, F.R.S.E., F.Z.S., and T. E. Bucklev, 
B.A., F.Z.S. (Edinburgh: David Douglas, 1889). 

This is a sister volume to " A Fauna of Sutherland, 
Caithness, and West Cromarty," which was published by 
the same authors in 1887, and reviewed in Nature at 
that time. It may be remembered that in the preface to 
this work, the authors expressed their intention of follow- 
ing it up with others, dealing in a similarly exhaustive 
manner with the vertebrate faunas of other parts of Great 
Britain. We are glad to receive at so early a date so 
substantial a fulfilment of this intention ; for we cannot 
give higher praise to " A Fauna of the Outer Hebrides " 
than by saying that it is in all respects worthy of its 
predecessor. Moreover, when we have regard to the 
immense amount of labour which the production of these 
volumes must have involved, we cannot refrain from con- 
gratulating the authors on the rapidity with which their 
works have followed one another. This second member of 
the series runs to over 250 pages, and, like the first member, 
is embellished by a few beautifully executed drawings of 
landscape scenery. Like the first member, also, it gives 
an exhaustive account of all the Vertebrata which occur 
within the area specified, together with several introductory 
chapters dealing with the topography of the district, and 
the relation (palaeontological and otherwise) of its fauna 
to that of the rest of Great Britain. As the value of such 
a work consists mainly in the number and the accuracy 
of its details, Uttle need be said of it in a review, save in 



general terms. And, as we have already indicated, the 
painstaking labour which has been bestowed upon this 
Fauna appears to us to leave nothing that can be desired 
in the way either of addition or subtraction. We heartily 
recommend both these Faunas to all systematic 
zoologists, and sincerely hope that their authors may be 
able to continue their researches through other areas ot 
Great Britain. G. J. R. 

Dictionary of Photography. By E. J. Wall. (London : 
Hazell, Watson, and Viney, Limited, 1889.) 

This work is practically a complete encyclopaedia o 
photography, and will form a very useful addition to 
photographic literature. It is written throughout in 
plain and straightforward language, each heading being 
thoroughly treated. The subject-matter under the head- 
ing of "Lens "is accompanied by excellent illustrations 
of the various forms of lenses, showing by shaded lines 
the dififerent combinations of crown and flint glass. 
Developing, printing, &c., receive their full share in the 
work, and under" toning "no less than twenty-nine differ- 
ent baths are discussed. At the end there is a collection 
of miscellaneous tables that have not been inserted in the 
dictionary part of the book, such as sizes of French and 
Italian dry plates, a list of dry plates and sensitometer 
numbers, solubilities, freezing mixtures, &c. 

For photographers in general this work ought to prove 
most useful. It will make it unnecessary for them to 
refer to other works for a hint or remedy, or anything 
else that may be wanted at a moment's notice. 



LETTERS TO THE EDITOR. 

[ The Editor does not hold himself responsible for opinions ex- 
pressed by his correspondents . Neither can he umlertake 
to return, or to correspond with the writers of, rejected 
manuscripts intended for this or any other part of NATURE, 
No notice is taken of anonymous communications.^ 



Upper Wind Curren's over the Equator in 
Atlantic Ocean. 



the 



1 ^J January last I addressed you a letter from the Straits of 
Magellan, with an account of the upper wind currents observed 
over the equator during a voyage to South America in the 
month of December. Then I described how the northeast and 
south-east trades both turned into a common light surface 
easterly current along the line of the doldrums ; how low clouds 
from south-east drove over the north-east trade up to 15" N. ; 
how the highest clouds moved from south-west, north of the 
equator ; and how, from 300 miles south of the line, a very high 
current from north-west prevailed over the south-east trade. 
No high observations were obtained in that l-elt of 300 miles, 
nor were any middle-level, clouds seen over the south-east 
trade. 

Now, I have just crossed the same route in the month of May, 
under a somewhat different wind system. The north-east trade 
turned to north as it approached the doldrums, instead of 
towards the east, as in the previous voyage. In the calm belt, 
it met a light easterly current, without much conflict in the way 
of rain ; while further south the regular south-east trade was 
experienced as far as 8" S. , when the north-east monjoon of the 
Brazilian coast prevailed nearly down to Rio Janeiro. 

No signs of south-east wind could be discovered at any level 
over the north-east trade, which wind, on the other side, blew 
at low or middle levels over the south-east trade, till surface, 
low, and middle currents combined to form the Brazilian 
monsoon. 

Very few observatiois were obtained of the highest clouds, 
but in 6" S. a high north- west prevailed ; from 2° S. to the 
equator, both the middle and highest clouds came from the 
east ; and nothing more could be determined till a high south- 
west current was found over the north-east trade, in 7^ N. 
latitude. 

These results confirm in a most striking manner the discovery 
which I have announced from time to lime in your columns, 
apfi which was most conclusively proved by the labours of the 



102 



NATURE 



[May 30, 1889 



Meteorological Section of the Krakatab Committee of the 
Royal Society — " that the highest air-current over the equatorial 
doldrums is from the eastward, lying between the south-west 
current which flows on one side over the north-east trade, and 
the north-west current which flows on the other side over the 
south-east trade." RALPH Abercromby. 

21 Chapel Street, London, May 27. 



The Structure and Distribution of Coral Reefs. 

I HAVE to thank Prof. Bonney for pointing out my error in 
assigning the " 90-fathom reef" to Socotra instead of to Rod- 
riguez. It arose from my having been accustomed to associate 
Prof. Balfour's researches with the former island. 

With regard to the depths in which coral reefs can form, there 
has been without a doubt some little concurrence of testimony 
as far as the evidence goes. But I contend that all the observers 
were misled by supposing that the sand and reef debris, that 
nearly always prevent and repress the growth of corals in depths 
of 20 to 30 fathoms, necessarily represented the lower limit of 
reef-formation. We know little of the depths beyond this belt 
of sand and reef debris, inasmuch as the observers in question 
rarely extended their search beyond. The difficulties in 
examining these depths are much greater, and systematic 
soundings are greatly needed, being in fact only practicable in 
the case of a surveying-vessel. 

Since writing my letter I have received, through the courtesy 
of Captain Wharton, a copy of a report of the examination, in 
1888, by Commander Moore and Dr. Bassett-Smilh, of H. M.S. 
Rambler, of the slopes and zoological condition of the Tizard 
and Macclesfield Banks. This report is, I believe, to be further 
extended by Dr. Bassett-Smilh, so I will only quote here the 
suggestive remark of Commander Moore, respecting the 
Macclesfield Bank : "Coral was found living as far down the 
slope as 44 fathoms ; it may extend further, but darkness put an 
end to the work." I should also add that a living specimen of 
an astraean coral was brought up from a depth of 45 fathoms in 
the lagoon of Tizard Reef. 

Through the agency of the officers of Her Majesty's surveying- 
ships, Captain Wharton will have soon at his disposal a large 
amount of new material throwing considerable light on the origin 
of coral reefs. H. B. GUPPY. 



Atmospheric Electricity. 

In Nature of May 16 (p. 55), Mr. Bowlker describes 
some "curious" and, as he believes, "rare electrical pheno- 
mena " which occurred to him and a friend oa the Welsh 
mountains. Such phenomena are rare only because competent 
observers are so. The effects described are by no means un- 
common, and they may be classed under the brush discharge 
and the glow, the one being an interrupted, and the other a 
continuous, discharge to the air. 

H. de Saussure gives the results of his observations in 
America, Switzerland, and other places. He remarks that the 
lighting-up of the rocks at ni^ht is analogous to the curious fact 
of electricity moving over the prairies. It is compared to a kind 
of miniature lightning discharge, resulting from the electrified 
cloud brushing over the earth, and discharging itself in thousands 
of sparks coursing over the meadows. In Mexico he noticed 
the crepitation of the stones due to electrical discharges, and in 
Switzerland he describes certain pricking and burning sensations, 
and sounds like that of simmering water, emitted from sticks laid 
against the rocks, and from the tops of the alpenstocks. This 
humming of the mountains is by no means rare, and it seems to 
indicate a flow of electricity from the ground into the air. 

When Prof James Forbes was at work on the glaciers of 
Switzerland, he noticed on one occasion, near Mont Cervin, a 
curious sound proceeding from his alpenstock. The guide 
referred it to a worm eating the wood ; he reversed the stick, 
and the worm was already at the other end. He raised his 
hand above his head, and the fingers yielded a fizzing sound, 
while the angular stones all round were hissing like points near 
an electrical machine. There was hail at the time, and a 
thunderstorm soon set in. 

M. Trecul relates in the Comptes rendus the following curious 
case : — While writing at an open window in August 1876, 
between 7 and 8 a.m., he noticed a number of small luminous 
columns descend obliquely on his paper, each about 2 metres 
long, and half a decimetre broad at the widest part, obtuse at the 



farther end, but gradually thinning towards the table. They 
had mostly a reddish-yellow tint, but near the paper the tints 
were more intense and varied. In disappearing they left the 
paper, with a slight noise, like that produced by pouring a little 
water on a hot plate. Loud thunder was heard at the time of 
the observation. 

In June 1880, at Clarens, near the Lake of Geneva, a cherry- 
tree was struck by lightning, and a little girl who was about 
thirty paces from the tree appeared to be wrapped in a sheet of 
fire, while six persons, in three groups, none of them within 
250 paces of the cherry-tree, were enveloped in a luminous 
cloud. They said they felt as if they were being struck in the 
face with hailstones or fine gravel, and when they touched each 
other, sparks passed from their fingers' ends. At the same time 
a luminous column was seen to descend in the direction of 
Chatelard, and it is stated that the electricity could be distinctly 
heard as it ran from point to point of the railing of the 
cemetery. 

Mr. Jabez Brown, while ascending one of the sharp hills near 
Bo-castle, in November, at 9 p.m., was suddenly surrounded by 
a bright and powerful light, which passed him a little quicker 
than the ordinary pace of a man's walking, leaving it as dark as 
before. The light was seen by the sailors in the harbour, coming 
in from the sea, and passing up the valley in a low cloud. A 
similar one occurred in Scotland last year. 

Highgate, N. C. Tomlinson. ?| 



The electrical phenomenon described by Mr. Bowlker in 
Nature of May 16 was doubtless an instance of St. El no's 
Fire ; and if it had been dark at the time it was noticed, the post, 
walking-stick, and other objects affected by it would have been 
seen to be capped with a glow resembling somewhat the brtish- 
discharge of an electrical machine. It has been observed about 
fifteen times on the summit of Ben Nevis during the last five 
years, and these cases are described, and the accompanying weather 
discussed, in a paper by Mr. Rankin, of the Ben Nevis Obser- 
vatory, published in the last number of the Journal of the 
Scottish Meteorological Society. When it occurs, all elevated 
points, whether metallic or not, glow ; the light in the more in- 
tense cases being several inches in length. It is almost always 
accompanied by a heavy fall of conical-shaped snow-flakes about 
a quarter of an inch long, resembling hailstones in shape, but 
not hard or icy. At all times when it has been seen the baro- 
metric pressure has been high over the south or south-west of 
Europe, and low to the north of Scotland, thus giving steep 
gradients for westerly winds ; and in most cases the temperature 
on Ben Nevis has been falling, while the barometer after falling 
considerably has begun to rise again, and the wind to veer from 
south-west towards north-west. ' R. T. O.MON'D. 

Ben Nevis Observatory, May 24. 



Sailing Flight of the Albatross, 

My attention has been drawn to some correspondence in 
Nature, May 2 and 9, on the "Sailing Flight of the 
Albatross," in which reference is made to my father's letter to 
Sir William Thomson on the subject. At Sir William 
Thomson's suggestion, I am now about to condense the rest of 
my father's correspondence on the subject into a form convenient 
for publication. In the meantime I will only say that while 
Mr. Baines's very interesting letter, and his explanation of the 
phenomenon of "soaring," appear to me perfectly sound in 
principle (and indeed we have Lord Raylei;^h's authority for this 
view), my father's statements seem to prove that his own solution 
is also the true explanation of the soaring under the (different) 
circumstances in which he observed it. It appears to me only 
reasonable to suppose that the birds instinctively learn to avail 
themselves of all the different natural conditions which under 
different circumstances may serve them to maintain their flight 
with the smallest exertion. R. E. Froude. 

Gosport, May 25. 



The Science and Art Examination in Physics. 

The paper set on May 17, in Sound, Light, and Heat, presents 
several features that must have created dissatisfaction alike among 
students and teachers. 

First, the official Syllabus explicitly states that the paper 
" will be so arranged that a candidate can secure a first class in 



May 30, 1889] 



NATURE 



103 



•either stage by taking up two only of the subjects." This has 
been so for some years past, and there have always been Jive 
•questions in each subject. As the maximum number of questions 
a candidate may attempt is eight, this gave a choice in each 
subject of four questions out of five. But thi^ year, without any 
previous notice, the number of questions in each subject is 
reduced \.o four, so that a student who only take^; up two of the 
subjects has absolutely no choice. He may be well prepared, 
yet if he happen to have overlooked one of the points dealt 
with in the questions, his chance of a first class is seriously 
diminished. 

In making this unlooked-for change, the Department practic- 
ally takes away with one hand what it gives with the other. 

Secondly, in the advanced paper, the second question in 
Sound runs thus : "If a string 24 inches long weighs half an 
ounce, and is stretched with a weight of 81 pounds find its rate 
of vibration when bowed or struck." 

Now this is a problem not on comparative measurements, which 
are fairly within the grasp of an advanced student, but on abso- 
lute measuremen's. To solve this question requires a knowledge 
not merely of the principles of sound, but also of theoretical 
mechanics and of numerous mathematical details, besides con- 
siderable dexterity in manipulating units, which is about the 
most perplexing thing a student ever encounters, and has hitherto 
never been called for except in the honours stage. 

To set such a question as one oi four, and offer no choice, is 
in effect to condemn the students at the outset, and must have a 
most depressing effect upon the classes in future years. At any 
rate, if the Department intended to introduce absolute measure- 
ments into the advanced stage, it is only fair that they should 
have i^iven notice. 

Thirdly, the last question in Heat (advanced) asks the student 
to " sketch an apparatus for determining the coefficient of 
expansion of a gas at constant volume." Perhaps the examiners 
will kindly inform us how a gas can expand, its volume at the 
■same time remaining constant. I'ossibly the word " expansion " 
is a misprint for "increase of elasticity," in which case Balfour 
Stewart's apparatus should be sketched ; or, possibly the word 
'* volume " is a misprint for " pressure," in which case Gay- 
Lussac's apparatus is required ; or, possibly there is an in- 
tentional confusion of phraseology in order to perplex the 
candidates. 

Misprints occur in one or more papers nearly every year. 
Last year there was an error in Mathematics, S'.age 3, when 
a certain equation was printed with the figure 4 instead of 
I, thus causing candidates to waste time and become flurried, 
and here again we have the same kind of thing. 

A Science Tkacher of Seve.x Years' Standing. 
May 21. 



DR. HANSEN'S JOURNEY ACROSS GREEN- 
LAND. 

"pROM a communication sent us by Dr. Nansen, we are 
-*■ able to give some details of the remarkable journey 
across Greenland which he accomplished last summer. 
We need only briefly recall the most important attempts 
which had previously been made to cross a country which 
is exactly in the condition of our own islands during the 
Glacial period. The first serious attempt was made in 
1878 by Jensen and Steenstrup, who, from the west coast 
in lat. 62° 30' N., managed to get some 40 miles into the 
interior, after many difficulties and dangers, ascending a 
mountain to a height of 5000 feet, from which they saw 
the inland ice rising gradually towards the interior. Then 
came the famous expedition of Baron Nordenskiold in 
1883. He, with a comparatively large party, started much 
further north than the previous expedition, a short distance 
south of Disco Island. The party succeeded in pene- 
trating some 90 miles eastwards, to an altitude of 
5000 feet. The Laplanders, however, who accompanied 
Nordenskiold went in their snow-shoes 140 miles further, 
travelling over a continual snow desert to a height of 
7000 feet. The next serious attempt was made by an 
American, Mr. R. E. Peary, in the summer of 1886. Mr. 
Peary started much further to the north than Norden- 
skiold, and his course was due east. He reached 100 miles 



from the edge of the ice-blink, or inland ice, his highest 
elevation being 7525 feet. 

Dr. Nansen felt sure that the only way to cross the ice 
was by means of ski (a special kind of long snow-shoe) 
and sledges. He had many applications to be allowed tc 
accompany him ; but he selected only five companions — a 
lieutenant in the army, a shipmaster, a Norwegian peasant, 
and two Lapps. The expenses of the expedition were gener- 
ously supplied