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MAY. 1909, to APRIL, 1910. 

H A. PiLSBRY, Curator of the Dernrtment of MoUusca, Academy of Natural Scicncci, 


C. W. Johnson, Curator of the Boston Society of Natural HistoiT, 


^ ^4 





Aeolidiella pupillosa 36 

Aldabra, the land mollusca of 69 

Alvania bakeri Bartsch, n. sp 137 

Amnicola crosseana Pils., n. sp. (PI. 9, fig. 6) 98 

Amnicolidae of the Panuco River system, Mexico 97 

Anodonta dakota Frierson, n. sp. (PI. 10) 113 

Astarte newtonensis Aldr., n. sp. (PI. 11, fig. 2, 3) 121 

Auriculella 122 

Bela blaneyi Bush, n. sp. fig. 1) 61 

Bela ineisula Verrill 62 

Bergh, Ludwig Rudolph Sophus (Obituary) 72 

Bermuda, a new land shell from 63 

Bermuda, a new Rissoa from. 65 

Bifidaria armifera Say, and its varieties 52 

Bifidaria armifera var. abbreviata Sterki, n. v 53 

Bifidaria armifera var. affinis Sterki, n. v 53 

Bifidaria armifera var. interpres Sterki, n. v 53 

Bifidaria armifera var. similis Sterki, n. v 53 

Binney, William G 60 

Britts, Dr. John H 120 

Bronx Borough, New York, fresh water fossils of 10 

California, Mollusca of San Bernardino County 73 

Carinifex sanctaeclarse Hannibal, n. sp. (fossil) 40 



Cepolis alauda cymatia Henderson, n. subsp. (PI. 4, fig. 4) 51 

Chondropoma hendersoni Torre, n. sp. (PI. 4, fig. 6) 49 

Coehliopa compaeta Pils., n. sp. (PI. 9, figs. 4, 5) 99 

Cochliopa picta Pils., n. sp. (PL 9, figs. 1, 2) 100 

Coehliopa riograndensis Pils. & Ferr 99 

Conchological museum for Japan 124 

Coryphella rufibranchiatus chocolata Balch, n. var 33 

Coryphella rufibranchiatus mananensis 35, 37 

Cratena veronieae Verrill 36 

Cuban land-shells, description of new 49, 50 

Cypraea tigris, deformed (Pis. 7, 8) 85 

Dohrn, Prof. Anton 84 

Elasmias Pils, n. gen 122 

Eramericiella Pils., n. subg 45 

Emmericia (Emmericiella) longa Pils., n. sp. (PI. 5, figs. 

11,12) 46 

Emmericia (Emmericiella) novimundi Pils., n. sp. (PI. 5, 

figs. 9, 10) 46 

Essex County notes, [Mass.] 86 

Ferguson, Collection 44s 

Ford, John (obituary and portrait) 126 

Frenchman's Bay, Maine, list of shells from 62 

Grand Canyon of the Colorado 109 

Helicina orbiculata clappi Pils., n. subsp 90 

Helicina torrei Henderson, n. sp. (PI. 4, figs. 1-3 50 

Holospira bartschi, an internal septum in 32 

Homalogyra atomus in Rhode Island 83 

Kaliella aldabraensis 69 

Kaliella turbinata Gulick 64 

Kansas, mollusks from 91 

Kansas, the mollusca of Douglas County 81, 94 

Lamellidea Pils., n. sect 123 

Lamellovum Pils., n. sect 123 

Lartetia Bgt 47 

Leptogyra alaskana Bartsch, n. sp 136 

Linter, Miss J. E 84 

Lymnaea cubensis aspirans Pils., n. subsp 120 

Lymnaea nashotahensis Baker, n. sp. (fossil) 19 


Lymnaea stagnalis lillianae Baker, n. var 112, 125 

Lymnaea umbilicata, range of 80 

Maeroeeramus hendersoni Torre, n. sp. (PI. 4, fig. 5) . . . 49 

Mexico, Mollusks from northeastern 45 

Mitra (Chrysame) waltonensis Aldr. n. sp. (PI. 11, fig. 1) 121 

Mitsukuri, Dr. Kakichi 120 

Musculium parvum Sterki, n. sp 67 

Museulium, observations and notes on 17 

Musculium winkleyi Sterki, n. sp 66 

Nudibranchs, notes on New England 33 

Nudibranchs, rectification of the nomenclature 100 

Odostomia (Evalea), cookeana Bartsch, n. sp 138 

Odostomia (Evalina) katherinae Winkley, n. sp. (Fig.). 88 

Odostomia sulcosa 62 

Oklahoma, mollusks from 91 

Olivella porteri Dall, n. sp 133 

Onoba asser Bartsch, n. sp 138 

Pachypoma lithophorum Dall, n. sp 135 

Paehypoma magdalena Dall, n. sp 135 

Paladilhia Bgt 47 

Paludestrina protea Gould 78 

Parreysia, Systematic position of 139 

Pisidium marci Sterki, n. sp 42 

Planorbis bicarinatus Say. (PI. 1, fig, 3) 21 

Planorbis bicarinatus var. augistomus Hald. (PI. 1, figs. 

4, 5) 4 

Planorbis bicarinatus var. aroostookensis Pils. (PI. 1, 

figs. 1, 2) 7 

Planorbis bicarinatus var. corrugatus Currier, (PI. 1, 

fig. 10) 5 

Planorbis bicarinatus var. percarinatus Walk., n. n. (PI. 

1, fig. 12) 6 

Planorbis bicarinatus var. portagensis Baker, (PI. 1, 

fig. 9) 8 

Planorbis bicarinatus var. royalensis Walk., n. v. (PI. 1, 

fig. 11) 9 

Planorbis bicarinatus var. striatus Baker 7 


Planorbis bicarinatus var. unicarinatus Hald., (PI. 1, 

figs. 6, 8) 3 

Poniaulax turbanicus Dall, n. sp 134 

Planorbis binneyi Tryon, note on 41 

Pterides Pils., n. gen 47 

Pterides bisinulabris Pils., n. sp. (PI. 5, figs. 7, 8) 48 

Pterides pterostoma Pils., n. sp. (PI. 5, figs. 1, 2, 5, 6) . . . 48 

Pterides rhabdus Pils., n. sp. (PI. 5, figs. 3, 4) 48 

Pyramidellidae, New England 39 

Pyramidellidge, more notes of the family 54 

Pyramidella (Sulcorinella) bartschi Winkley, n. sp. (fig.) 39 

Ptissoa (Nodulus) stewardsoni Van., n. sp. (Fig. 1) 65 

Siphonaria lineolata Sowb 132 

Siphonaria naufragum Stearns 132 

Somatogyrus mexicanus Pils., n. sp. (PI. 9, fig. 3) 98 

Sphaerium lineatum Sterki, n. sp 142 

Stearns, Dr. R. E. C. (Obituary and portrait) 70 

Strobilops floridana Pils., n. sp 90 

Squid, suckers from the big (figs. 1-4) 43, 83 

Tornatellinidas, classification of 122 

Tornatellides Pils., n. gen 123 

Tornatellaria Pils., n. sect 123 

Unionidae, a new system of the 114 

Unionidae from an Indian garbage heap 11 

Unionidae from Arkansas and Louisiana 102 

Variation 15 

Valvatida3 of Western North America 104 

Valvata calli Hannibal, n. sp 107 

Valvata whitei Hannibal, n. sp 107 

Valvata humeralis Say 105 

Valvata virens Tryon 106 

Veronicella nilotica Cockerell, n. sp 108 

Viviparus contectus in Philadelphia 60 

Whiteaves, Joseph F. (Obituary) 84 

Zonitoides hermudensis Pils. & Van., (Fig. 1) 63 



Aldrieh, T. H 121 

Baily, Jr., J. D 60 

Baker, F. C 19, 41, 80, 91, 112, 125 

Balch, F. N 33, 100 

Bartsch, Paul 54, 136 

Berry, S. S 73, 129 

Blake, J. H 43, 83 

Blaney, Dwight 62 

Bush, Katharine J 61 

Cockerell, T. D. A 108 

Ball, AV. H 70, 133, 144 

Ferriss, J. H 109 

Frierson, L. S 113 

Gwyer, C. Da3d;on 44 

Hand, E. E 120 

Hanna, G. D 81, 94 

Hannibal, Harold 40, 104 

Henderson, Jr., J. B 50 

Hirase, Y 124 

Humphreys, E. W 10 

Morse, E. S 83 

Ortmann, A. E 11, 114, 139 

Pilsbry, H. A 32, 45, 63, 85, 89, 97, 120, 122, 126, 132 

Smith, Maxwell 69, 108 

Sterki, V 17, 42, 52, 66, 142 

Torre, Carlos de la 49 

Vanatta, E. G ^ 63, 102 

Walker, Bryant 1, 21 

Winkley, H. W 12, 39, 68, 86 




11 12 


The Nautilus. 

Vol. XXIII. MAY, 1909. No. 1. 



Planoebis BICARINATUS Say. PI. I, fig. 3. 

1817. Planorbis bicarinatus Say, Nich. Encyc, pi. i, f. 4. 

1822. Helix angulata Rackett, Lin. Tr. xiii, p. 42, pi. v, f. 1. 

1834. Planorbis engonatus Conrad, N. F. W. Shells, sup. p. 8, 
pi. ix, f. 8. 

1834. ? Planorbis antrosus Conrad, Am. J. Sc. (1) xxv, p. 343. 

1861.? Planorbis lautus H. Adams, Proc. Zool. Soc, Lond. 1861, 
p. 145. 

This common and well-known species is one of the characteristic 
species of the fresh-water pulmonate fauna of eastern North America. 
It stands quite by itself, having, with the exception of the recently 
described P. eucosmius Bartsch from North Carolina, no closely 
related species in our fauna. It is the type of the subgenus HeUsoma 

The shape of the shell is so well marked and distinctive that the 
synonymy is, as shown above, comparatively small. The Helix 
angulata of Rackett was, in all probability, described in entire igno- 
rance of Say's previous description. 

The type of Conrad's P. engonatus seems to have disappeared. 
According to Haldenian, who saw the " single original specimen," 
then in the collection of a Mr. Mason, it was a monstrosity. Con- 
rad's figures are poor, but Haldeman's (Mon., pi. i, figs. 5 and 6), 
which are apparently excellent, confirm his opinion. It was found 


at Albany, N. Y. Jay (Catalogue, 4th Ed., 1852, 10267) lists P. 
bicarinatus var. engonatus from Georgia. Through the courtesy of 
Mr. L. P. Gratacap, of the American Museum of Natural History, 
I have been able to examine tliese shells. Of the eight specimens 
in the set, one is a P. campanulatus Say, nearly but not quite mature ; 
the remainder do not differ from the usual form of bicarinatus, except 
that the mature ones have a more or less expanded lip, and might 
well be referred to the form described by Haldeman as var. angi- 
stomus. None of them exhibit the peculiar flattening of the body 
whorl characteristic of engonatus. It seems probable that these 
specimens were referred to Conrad's species on account of the cam- 
panulate aperture. 

What the P. lautus of H. Adams really is, is a matter of conjec- 
ture, which can be only definitely settled by reference to the type, 
if it is still in existence. In the meantime Tryon's supposition that 
it was a young specimen of his species seems probable enough to 
warrant its reference to bicarinatus, and thus eliminate it from the 
list of unknown American species. 

Conrad's P. antrosus is no doubt a form of Say's species, and is 
quite probably the carapanulate variety described by Haldeman as 
var, angistomus, under which it will be further discussed. 

Say does not give the locality of the typical form in connection 
with his original description, but in describing the next species, P. 
parvus, mentions that both inhabited the Delaware, so that there is 
practically no doubt but that the types came from that river. The 
Delaware River form (pi. I, fig. 3) is the common manifestation of 
the species as it is usually found throughout the United States, 
Say's description, though brief, is excellent, and leaves little to be 
desired. An apparent typographical error occurs in the reprint 
from the 3d Ed. of Nicholson's Encyc, and probably in the original, 
as it is followed by Binney in his edition of Say's writings. The 
description as printed reads: "Shell subcarinate above, and beneath 
translucent." If the comma was placed after " beneath " instead of 
after '' above," the sentence would be in better accord with (he facts 
and in all probability with the intention of the author. 

The name adopted by Say in his new s{)ecies is almost a mis- 
nomer, as the typical form is really not carinated at all, either above 
or beneath. In both places it is rather a more or less acute angula- 
tion, and is never raised into a carina as, for instance, in Valvata 
tricarinata Say. 


It is to be noted that Say, witli liis usual nice observation, de- 
scribes the minute, revolving lines wliich are still cliaracteristic of 
the Delaware River torui, and which are not uncommon in specimens 
from other localities. In many instances, however, they are entirely 
lacking. Say described his species as sinistral. Without going into 
the question as to whether the shell is really sinistral or ultra-dextral, 
it may be said that with the exception of Say's original figures, and 
those of Call (Rep. Dept. Geol. Ind., 1899, p. 411, pi. viii, fig. 10), 
all the published illustrations known to the writer treat it as dextral, 
and in accordance with this practically universal custom the figures 
for the present paper have been drawn in that position. Those who 
prefer to consider the shell as sinistral have only to reverse the 

Considering the enormous extent of territory which it inhabits, 
and the diverse conditions of local environment to which it is sub- 
jected in different parts of its range, P. hicarinatus is, for a fresh- 
water pulmonate, remarkably uniform in its development, and com- 
paratively few varietal forms have been described, and most of these 
have been distinguished within the last few years. Taking them in 
the order of their appearance, they are as follows: 
I. Var. UNICARINATUS Hald., pi. I, figs. 6, 7 and 8. 
Planorbis bicarinatus v. unicarinatiis Haldeman, Monograph, p. 7 

" Whorls of the right (upper) side rounded ; the carina on the left 
side revolves closely, so as to form a very narrow umbilicus, and the 
aperture is much extended towards the left." (Haldeman.) 

Haldeman did not figure this form, but fortunately his type has 
been preserved in the collection of the Philadelphia Academy, and 
the figures here given have been drawn from it. It is very doubtful 
whether this form is entitled to varietal rank in the proper accepta- 
tion of the term. It will be observed from the figure that the inner 
whorls on the upper side are distinctly angulated, and that the angle 
does not wholly disappear until just before the aperture is reached. 
Such specimens are not uncommon in almost any large series, and all 
gradations from the bicarinate to the unicarinate form can be found 
in the same colony. It would seem, therefore, to be an individual 
rather than a racial characteristic. The form, however, is of inter- 
est as exhibiting the first step toward the purely ecarinate form 
described by Filsbry as var. aroostookemis. The type came from 
the Schuylkill River. 


II. Var. ANGISTOMUS Hald,, pi. I, figs. 4 and 5. 

Planorhis hicarinatus var. angistoma Haldeman, Mon., p. 7 

" Shell small, aperture campanulate, with the throat narrowed." 

Haldeman did not figure this " variet}'," and his brief diagnosis 
copied above gives neither the dimensions of his type nor the locality 
from which it came. The type is not to be found in the collection 
of the Philadelphia Academy, and is apparently lost. 

The claims of this form for varietal recognition are but little, if 
any, stronger than those of var. unicarinatus. In nearly all mature 
shells of hicarinatus there is a tendency, more or less developed, for 
the lip to become everted, and there is no difficulty in selecting a 
series showing all degrees of variation in this particular from the 
same locality. It is only occasionally that all the specimens in the 
colony are affected at the same time and to approximately the same 
degree. But sometimes this feature is very persistent; thus in the 
set from which the figure was selected not only are all the specimens 
(38) decidedly campanulate, but all previous lips were also campanu- 
late, many of the specimens having two and some even three, the 
result being that the outline of the shell is in several instances greatly 
distorted. All the specimens from this locality were unusually flat, 
being very wide in proportion to their height. Similar specimens in 
all respects were collected in Bawbeeae Lake, Hillsdale Co., Michi- 
gan, one of which, having a diameter of 16.5 mm., is only 4 mm. in 
height immediately in front of the aperture, the latter being 8 mm. 
in height. Some of these also are greatly distorted, showing appar- 
ently the effects of an unfavorable environment. Shells from Pine 
Island Lake, Kent Co., and Four Mile Lake, Chelsea, Mich., are 
somewhat similar, but the peculiar form is less strongly developed. 

In many cases, no doubt, the sudden expansion of the lip is to be 
accounted for by unusually favorable food conditions at the time 
Avhen the animal had really completed its normal growth; the con- 
sequent suddenly-acquired corpulency of the animal necessitating a 
special, rapid and expansive growth of the shell to accommodate its 
increased size. This seems to have been the case with the colony 
from which Figure 1 was taken. Up to maturity the shell was a 
typical aroostookensis, when suddenly the enormously expanded lip 
•was developed. In this case, too, the whole colony was apparently 


affected, at least the ten specimens wbicli are now in my possession 
were all more or less, and that, too, without regard to size. 

It seems quite probable that Conrad's P. antrosiis from Randon's 
Creek, near Claiborne, Ala., is identical with this form. If so, and 
the form is worthy of varietal recognition, it would have priority 
over Haldeman's name. 

Conrad never figured his species, and unfortunately gave no dimen- 
sions in his description. His specimens seem to have disappeared, 
and according to Tryon, in 1870, Conrad himself had forgotten all 
about it. 

It is possible, however, that some of the original lot found their 
way to Europe, as the species was catalogued by Beck in 1837 as 
being in the collection of Prince Christian Frederick (Index Moll., 
p. 118, 1837). Whether these specimens are still in existence I do 
not know. 

III. Var. CORRUGATUS Currier, pi. I, fig. 10. 
Planorbis hicarinatus var. corrugata Currier, List of the Shell- 
bearing Mollusca of Michigan, p. 8, 1868. 

This form was never described by Currier, who simply gives the 
locality as Perch Lake, Kent Co., Mich. 

The figure is drawn from an authentic specimen (No. 3993, Coll. 
Walker), received from the late Dr. De Camp, who, in his Michigan 
Catalogue, described and figured several of Currier's species, but 
unfortunately neglected this one. 

I have never seen but the single specimen from this locality, and 
do not know whether any more like it were found or not. 

The form is peculiar in the strong, transverse plications, which 
extend entirely around the whorl, and are scarcely interrupted by 
the well-developed, superior and basal carinations; towards the aper- 
ture, however, they become less distinct. The revolving, incised 
lines are also deeply cut, and in this feature the form is similar to 
the var. striatus of Baker. It is altogether the most heavily sculp- 
tured form that I have seen. The specimen figured is rather small, 
measuring 9 mm. in diameter and 5 in height. The body whorl 
immediately in front of the aperture is 3 mm. in height. Individual 
specimens of var. striatus Baker from Long Lake, Grand Traverse 
Co.; Dead River, Ives' Lake, Mountain Lake, Little Lake and 
Howe Lake, Marquette Co. ; Orchard Lake, Oakland Co., and Mud 
Lake, Montcalm Co., Michigan, and Gelot's Lake, New Sweden, 


Me., exhibit a greater or less tendency to develop the transverse pli- 
cations of this form, but none of them witli anything like the strength 
or regularity of the specimen figured. 

Similar specimens occur in the marl deposits at Bad Axe and 
other localities in Tuscola Co., Mich. 

It is doubtful whether this form is entitled to rank as a variety. 
It is evidently an extreme development of the var. striatus, in which 
the transverse plication has been added to the revolving sculpture. 
If the name had not already appeared in the literature without 
description, and required explanation, 1 should hesitate to describe 
it as varietally distinct from striatus, 

IV. Var. PERCARiNATUS n. n., pi. I, fig. 12. 

Planorbis hicarinatus major Walker, Naut. VI, p. 136 (1893); 
non var. major of various species of various authors. 

Shell very large for the species, thick and solid, dark horn- 
color tinged with purple ; superior and basal carinas elevated into a 
distinct keel, which is white; lip thickened, edged with brown, 
behind which externally is a broad, yellowish-white band, within 
banded by deep reddish-brown; lines of growth distinct, stronger 
and "puckered" around the carinse; revolving lines very faint, not 
discernible except with a lens; aperture more or less expanded, 
sometimes distinctly campanulate, auriculate and distinctly modified 
by the extension of the carinse to the lip. 

The specimen figured measures 18.5 mm. in diameter and 10 mm. 
in height; height of body whorl in front of aperture 7.25 mm.; height 
of aperture 10.5 mm. A larger specimen, with a campanulate aper- 
ture, measures 19.75 mm. in diameter and 10.5 mm. in height. 

Types (Nos. 3419 and 20074, Coll. Walker) from Crystal Lake, 
Benzie Co., Mich. Also from Pine Lake, Charlevoix Co., Mich, 
(Walker), and Rideau and Ottawa Rivers; Sparrow Lake, Simcoe 
Dist., Ontario, and Detroit Lake, Minn. (Pils.). 

The original specimens, collected by the late Dr. M. L. Leach, 
were all dead shells, more or less bleached. The above description 
has been prepared from fresh specimens from the same locality col- 
lected by Dr. R. J. Kirkland, of Grand Rapids. Not in deference, 
for I think the rule an absurd one, but under the compulsion of the 
" International Code," I am forced to change the name of this very 
distinct variety and add another unnecessary synonym to the burden 
of systematic conchology. 


V. Var. AROOSTOOKENSis Pilsbry, pi. I, figs. 1 and 2. 
Planorbis hicarinatus aroostookensis Pilsbry, Naut. VIII, p. 115, 

Shell having the spire and umbilicus very deep, the latter funnel- 
shaped, as in typical hicarinatus, but both upper and lower keels 
entirely obsolete or rounded off on the last whorl, which has the 
aspect of P. trivolvis. Surface minutely striated spirally, as in P. 
hicarinatus. Aperture less angular and less produced below than in 
hicarinatus, in consequence of the rounding of the whorls. Diameter 
15 mm., alt. at aperture 7.5 mm. (Pilsbry). 

Type locality, East Branch of Salmon Brook, Woodland, Aroos- 
took Co., Maine (Pils.). Also Collins' Pond, Caribou River, Cari- 
bou, Aroostook Co., Me.; Charlevoix; Perch Lake, Kent Co.; Bes- 
semer, Gogebec Co.; Fallams, Menominee Co., and Ispheraing, Mich. 

Figure 2 represents the typical form of this variety, and is drawn 
from a topotype collected by Mr. 0. O. Nylander. Figure 1 is the 
campanulate form, already referred to, which bears the same relation 
to typical aroostookensis that angistonms does to typical hicarinatus. 

The Michigan specimens, especially those from the Upper Penin- 
sula, are much smaller than the typical form, and in some examples 
there is a tendency to angulation on the whorls, but the large 
majority of the specimens are quite characteristic in the rounded, 
ecarinate form of the last whorl. 
VI. Var. STRIATUS Baker. 

Planorbis hicarinatus striatvs Baker, Naut. XV, p. 120 (1902); 
Planorbis hicarinatus striatus Baker, Trans. Acad. Sci., St. Louis, 
xvi, p. 9, pi. i, fig. 11 (1906). 

In this form the microscopic, revolving sculpture commonly but 
not invariably present in the typical form is greatly intensified, and 
in the typical expression of the variety is quits conspicuous to the 
naked eye. 

In the original description this sculpture is stated to consis' of 
"raised spiral lines," while in the second paper quoted above it is 
said that " in some specimens the spiral lines are deeply incised." 
This incongruity is an apparent one only, and depends on whether 
the elevated or the depressed portions of the surface are wider or 
more conspicuous. Starting with the typical form, in which the 
revolving sculpture is either entirely wanting or very minute, it is 


clear that the lines, when present, are incised. As the sculpture 
increases in strength, the intervals between the incised lines dimin- 
ish, and when they become equal, the surface becomes typically 
striate and the revolving sculpture consists of incised or elevated 
lines, as the observer chooses to designate it. 

Very rarely the surface is distinctly malleated, in which case there 
is a series of irregular, raised, revolving lines, which are quite differ- 
ent from the regular sculpture of var. striatus. The intensification 
of the spiral sculpture characteristic of this form seems to be peculiar 
to the northern states, as it has not been noticed from south of Mason 
and Dixon's Line. The most characteristic specimens come from 
the northern tier of states from Maine to Michigan. 

The types were pleistocene fossils from Milwaukee, Wisconsin. 
It is a common form in Michigan, varying in size and proportion 
like typical bicarinatus. Specimens are also before me from the 
following localities: Square Lake; Rockville, Me.; Profile Lake, 
N. H.; Cedar Lake, N. Y.; Port Oram, N. J.; Gore's Bay, Mani- 
tolin, Id., Lake Huron, Algoma; Georgian Bay, Ontario. 

VII. Var. PORTAGENSis Baker, pi. I, fig. 9. 

Planorhii bicarinatus portagensis Baker, Naut. XXII, p. 45 (1 908). 

This recently described and very striking form is characterized by 
its closely coiled whorls, deeply funicular upper and lower surfaces 
and acute carination; the umbilicus is comparatively narrow and 
deeply excavated; the aperture is large, auriculate, higher than wide, 
and acutely angled above and before; the lip is sharp and but slightly 

Type locality. Portage Lake, Aroostook Co., Maine. Also Square 
Lake, Cross Lake and Second Lake, Aroostook Co., Me. (Walker); 
Meaches Lake, Hull, Quebec (Pils.). 

The figure is drawn from a cotype kindly furnished by Mr. F. C. 
Baker. Specimens from Carp Lake, Emmet Co., and Betsey Lake, 
Benzie Co., Michigan, though not typical, may fairly be referred to 
this form. Immature examples, especially those from Betsey Lake, 
are almost identical with tlie immature Maine specimens, the whorls, 
perhaps, being more regularly rounded and lacking the decided flat- 
tening towards the base of the typical form. But the mature shells, 
though retaining the sharp carination above and below, are more 
inflated, and the aperture is wider and does not extend so far above 
and below the body whorl as in the typical form, being in shape and 


position more like that of var. percarinatus (fig. 12). Two addi- 
tional specimens from the original locality, submitted by Mr. 
Nylander, agree very exactly with the Michigan form. 

Mr. Nylander writes in regard to the habits of this form : 
"I think the variety portagensis lives in comparatively deep 
water, say 25 feet or so as only a few good specimens have been 
collected and these have always been " dead " shells. The speci- 
mens from Cross Lake were dredged in 25 feet of water. 

This raises a question as to whether the inflated form of this 
variety is not correlated with its habitat in deep water as sug- 
gested by Pilsbry in regard to the Physa and PlanorUs from 
Lake Patzcuaro, Mexico (Proc. P. A. N. S., 1891, p. 324). 

A parallel case is found in Lymnsea mighelsi W. G. Binn, 
which in Michigan, at least, lives in deep water a large part of 
the year (See Naut., XIV, p. 8). In fifteen years' collecting at 
Pine Lake, Marquette Co., Mich., I have found this species only 
twice in shallow water and then in considerable numbers, but 
only for a few days. It seems likely that the peculiar form of 
Physa lordi Bd. is to be accounted for in the same way as in 
Michigan; at least, it is found only in the larger inland lakes. 
Planorbis muUivolvis Case is also apparently a deep-water species 
(Naut., XXI, p. 61). 

VIII. Var. ROYALENSis n. v., pi. I, fig. 11. 

Shell thin, light greenish horn-color; superior carination promi- 
nent, rounded, not acute; basal carina very strong, not acute, but 
forming a heavy, rounded cord around the deep, funicular umbilicus; 
upper surface concave, but more or less flattened and not as deep as 
the umbilicus; sides flattened and narrowed towards the base and 
contracted just above the basal carina; lines of growth strong and 
distinct, the sides being longitudinally coarsely and irregularly stri- 
ated; revolving sculpture strong and distinct; aperture triangular, the 
upper side very nearly straight and almost flat, meeting the lip at 
nearly a right angle; acutely angled below; lip thin, sharp, not ex- 
panded. Alt. 10, diam. 15; height of body whorl in front of aperture 
5 mm. 

Types (No. 29163, Coll. Walker) from Siskowit Lake, Isle Royale, 
Lake Superior, Michigan. Cotypes in the collection of the Pliila- 
delphia Academy. 

About twenty specimens of this strongly characterized form were 


collected by tlie University of Michigan expedition in 1905, and are 
very uniform in the peculiar features above described. P. hicarinatus 
was collected in 1904 and 1905 in a number of different localities in 
various parts of the island, but all such were quite typical in form. 

The longitudinal sculpture of this form is unusually strong for the 
species, and reminds one ot the heavy sculpture of P. corpulentus 
Say, but differs in being less regular and lacking the acute ridges of 
that species. Royalensis is nearer to portagensis than to any other 
form of hicarinatus, but differs in being wider and in the develop- 
ment and position of the superior carina, wider umbilicus, stronger 
basal carina and shape of the aperture. 

(To be continued.) 



The shells here mentioned were found at what is now 171 St. and 
Morris Ave., Borough of the Bronx, New York City. The swamp 
which is situated at this point lies in a long, narrow, anticlinal valley 
which has been eroded in the Inwood Limestone. "When the street, 
now known as Morris Ave., was filled in across the swamp, the peaty 
deposit, which had accumulated here, was forced up to heights 
of several feet on either side of it. This caused the peat to crack in 
all directions and revealed numerous pockets which were full of small 
shells. The shells were extremely abundant ; so thickly were they 
heaped together that they could easily be scooped up with a garden 
trowel. From the manner in which they were found it would seem 
as if they had been gathered together by currents or eddies in the 
waters of the swamp. All of the shells were bleached to a chalky 
whiteness and were very fragile. The following species were found. 

Amnicola Umosa (Say) Hald. Shells of this species, though com- 
mon, were not very abundant and were usually more or less injured. 

Valvata tricarinata Say. These were exceedingly numerous, hun- 
dreds of them being heaped together in a single pocket. They were of 
all sizes, some being so small that they were lodged in the apertures 
of the larger ones. Evidently they represented individuals of all ages. 

Physa heterostropha Say. This species was rather scarce. 

Planorbis hicarinatus Say. This form was also uncommon. 


Planorhis parvus Say. These raried in size as much as did the 
shells of Valvata tricarinata Say, and wei'e about as abundant. 

Pisidium variable Prime. This species was very rare. Usually 
the valves were separated, only occasionally were they found united. 

Whether or not these forms still inhabit this place I am not pre- 
pared to say. Though I have not been able to find any living indi- 
viduals, further search may yet reveal them. 

I desire to acknowledge the assistance of Mr. L. P. Gratacap and 
Mr. Bryant Walker in the identification of some of the species. 



On the western banks of the Monongahela River in southwestern 
Pennsylvania, upon the flood plain at the Point Marion Ferry, in 
Greene Co., opposite the point where the Monongahela and Cheat 
rivers unite, the writer found on July 9, 1908, a heap of Vmonida 
shells, buried about one to two feet in the soil on the side of a road. 
The soil consists of the characteristic river-silt of this region. Since 
Indian " relics " have frequently been found at this place, in fact, 
since it is known as the site of an old Indian settlement, it seems 
beyond question that this pile (about 2 feet high) represents an old 
Indian garbage heap of shells which had been used for food. 

When first found, the shells were rather brittle and soft, and many 
of them crumbled to pieces. But enough were secured, which re- 
mained whole, and subsequently they have hardened. They look 
like fossil shells in so far as in most of them the epidermis, and with 
it the color, is gone (only in a few Quadrulas fragments of the epi- 
dermis remain). In species, where the nacre originally is colored 
(Unto gihhosus and crassidens), the color has entirely faded away, or 
only very slight traces of it are discernible. 

It is hard to say how long ago this pile M'as formed : it may be 
less than a hundred years old. But this does not matter. The 
interesting fact about it is that this shell heap has furnished a small 
collection of TJnionidce, which contributes considerably to our knowl- 
edge of the C/m*om(/<s-fauna of the Monongahela River drainage. 

At the present time, on account of the pollution of the water, this 
fauna has completely disappeared in the Monongahela proper : there 


is not a single living mussel in this river from Pittsburgh to the West 
Virginia state line (which is within a mile and a half to the south of 
our locality). Only a few of the tributaries contain mussels, and the 
most important one is the Cheat River, in which (in Pennsylvania), 
a rich fauna is yet present within two miles of our locality. The 
writer has collected repeatedly in the Cheat, in Fayette Co., from a 
point about a mile above Point Marion up to Cheat Haven, close to 
the State line. Another locality for Unionida is about three miles 
to the north, in Dunkard Creek, Greene Co., where the writer also 
collected a number of species. It is interesting to compare these 
faunas with that of the Indian garbage heap at Point Marion Ferry, 
which either comes from the Monongahela proper, or from the Cheat. 
I give first here a list of the latter. 

1. Truncilla perplexa cincinnatiensis (hit^.). 3 double, 11 isolated 
valves, all males of medium and small size. This is not the typical 
cincinnatiensis , but a form int(;rmediate between this and the typical 
perplexa (Lea); the nodes upon the disc are rather small and more 

numerous than in the typical perplexa, but they are less numerous 
than in cincinnatiensis. 

Tuberculate forms of Truncilla perplexa have never been found 
recently in western Pennsylvania; all specimens of perplexa of this 
region belong to the next variety. 

2. Truncilla -perplexa rangiana (Lea). 6 double, 7 isolated 
valves, all males of medium and small size. 

Not found at present in the Monongahela drainage, but rather 
abundant in the Allegheny River from Armstrong County upward. 
Also in the Shenango River in Lawrence County; the nearest locali- 
ties at present are about 80 to 100 miles away from Point Marion. 

3. Lampsilis ventricosa (Bar.). Fragment of one left valve; 
young specimen. 

At present near Point Marion, both in the Cheat River and 
Dunkard Creek. Widely distributed in western Pennsylvania. 

4. Lampsilis ventricosa ovata (Say). Fragment of one left valve 
(beak portion); young specimen. 

Not found at present in the Monongahela drainage. It used to be 
in the Ohio in Allegheny County, and is yet found in the Ohio in 
Beaver County and in the Allegheny in Armstrong County and 
farther up. 

5. Lampsilis multiradiata (Lea). 2 double, 1 single valve; me- 


dium size. Although the characteristic color of the epidermis is 
gone, these specimens agree completely with this species in the shape 
of the shell and of the hinge teeth. 

This species is found in the Cheat River and elsewhere in western 
Pennsylvania, preferring smaller streams. 

6. Lampsilis ligamentina (Lam.). 4 isolated valves; one young, 
the others of medium size. 

At present in the Cheat River, but not abundant. It is the most 
abundant species in the large rivers of western Pennsylvania. 

7. Obovaria circuhis (Lea). 1 left valve; small. Not typical, 
inclining toward 0. lens (Lea) in shape; probably a female. 

This species (including the form lens) is found scattered over the 
Ohio drainage in western Pennsylvania. From the Monongahela it 
is known only from a single locality at Charleroi, Washington 
County, about 35 miles north of Point Marion 

8. Gyprogenia irrorata (Lea). 2 double, 4 isolated valves, of 
medium size. 

Not in the Monongahela drainage, and altogether rare in western 
Pennsylvania; known from the Ohio below Pittsburg and from the 
Allegheny River in Allegheny and southei-n Armstrong County. 
No live specimens have been found recently. 

9. Ptychobranchus phaseolus (Hildr.). 1 double, 3 isolated valves, 
of medium size. 

Abundant in Cheat River; also in Dunkard Creek. Widely dis- 
tributed in the Ohio drainage in western Pennsylvania, with excep- 
tion of the large rivers. 

10. Unio gibbosus Barn. 4 double, 7 single valves, medium and 
small size. 

Abundant in Cheat River; also in Dunkard Creek. Everywhere 
in western Pennsylvania. 

11. Unio crasstdens Lam. 7"double, 4 single valves; one above 
medium size, the others medium and small. 

Only in the large rivers; abundant in the Ohio and lower Alle- 
gheny. Known from the Monongahela at Charleroi, Washington 
County, but not farther up. No trace of it in the Cheat. 

12. Pleurobema clava (Lam.). 2 single valves, medium size. 
Present in Cheat River. A rare species in western Pennsylvania, 

preferring smaller streams. 

13. Quadrula subrotunda (Lea). 1 double, 5 single valves; me- 
dium and small size. 


In the Cheat River at present. Also in the Monongahela at 
Charleroi, Washington County, and in the Ohio and Allegheny 
Rivers from Beaver to Armstrong Counties. A species of the 
larger rivers. 

We see, that of these thirteen forms one ( Truncilla perplexa cin- 
chinatiensis) is not present any moi*e in western Pennsylvania, and 
five {Truncilla perplexa rangiana, Lampsllis ventricosa ovata, Obo- 
varia circulus, Cyprogenia irrorata, Unio erassidens) are not found 
any more in the vicinity of Point Marion (in Cheat River or Dunkard 
Creek). Of the latter, Lampsilis ventricosa ovata, Cyprogenia ir- 
rorata, and Unio erassidens, are typical inhabitants of the large 
rivers, and, near Point Marion, possibly once existed only in the 
Monongahela River, the fauna of which is now destroyed. Truncilla 
perplexa and Obovaria circulus may yet turn up in the Cheat River, 
but, if present at all, must be very i-are at the present time. This is 
the more remarkable, since the two forms of Truncilla perplexa were 
represented, in the garbage heap, by a comj-aratively great number 
of individuals. 

The small size of all specimens shows that the Indians selected 
for food only such small specimens, rejecting the big ones. 

The chief interest of this little collection lies in the fact that it 
gives us an idea of what damage has been done to our Unionida- 
fauna in recent times. For comparison, I submit here the lists of 
the species collected by myself in Cheat River and Dunkard Creek. 

Cheat River (collections made on Sept. 6, 1904, Sept. 16, 1907, 
July 10, 1908). 

1. Lampsilis ventricosa (Bar.). 8. Symphynota eostata {'RsS.'). 

2. Lampsilis multiradiata (Lea). 9. Alasmidonta marginata {Say). 

3. Lampsilis ligamentina (hum.). 10. Unio gibbosus (Hnrn.). 

4. Lampsilis recta (Lam.). 11. Pleurobenia clava (Lam.). 

5. Lampsilis iris (Lea). 12. Quadrula undulata (Barn.). 

6. Ptychobranchus ph as eolus 13. Quadrula pustulosa (Lea). 
(Hildr. ). 14. Quadrula subrotunda (Lea). 

7. Strophitus undulatus (Say). 15. Quadrula tuherculata (Raf.). 
The leading species is Unio gibbosus (30 per cent.); then follow : 

Lampsilis recta (20 per cent.) and Ptychobranchus phaseolus (20 {)er 
cent.). The rest (12 species) makes up the remaining 30 per cent. 
The scarcity of Lampsilis ligamentina is remarkable, since this species 
usually is the leading species in our rivers. Probably, this locality 


is near the limit of the range of this species, and tlie latter does not 
go much farther up stream. All of the species are rather small, 
which is most striking in Lampsilis recta, which actually is repre- 
sented by a dwarf race. 

All the species have been found alive, except Quadrula undulata. 

DuNKARD Creek (collections made on July 8 and 9, 1908). 

1. Lampsilis ventricosa (Barn.). 8. Slrophifus undulatus (Say). 

2. Lampsilis luteola (Lam.). 9. Anodonta grandis (Say). 

3. Lampsilis recta (Lam.j. 10. Symphynota costata (Rat.). 

4. Lampsilis iris (Lea). 11. Unio gibhosus (Barn.). 

5. Proptera alata (Say). 12. Quadrula riibiginosa (Lea). 

6. Tritogoniatuberculata(Ba.rn.'). 13. Quadrula tuberculata (VLaiS). 
1 . Ptythobranchus phaseolus 


Of these, only Lampsilis luteola and Anodonta grandis were found 
alive : the condition of the creek was not favorable for collecting 
(first and second day after a heavy thundershovver). It is probable, 
that the fauna is not complete, and I cannot say anything about the 
frequency of the single species. 


First, nature never makes two individuals exactly alike ; 
secondly environment. One hundred shells of the same species 
from a given locality will show individuality. Compared with 
a group of the same species from another region there is another 
difference. Like the difference between races of the human 
family, this is undoubtedly due to environment. At Eastport, 
Maine, where the Bay of Fundy tides create strong currents, 
chitons, limpets and other forms are in profusion and attain un- 
usually large size. These ma}' be called sedentary forms and 
depend on food being brought to them. A few feet away Bucci- 
num is abundant but small. The same is true of Lunatia heros 
found in neighboring waters. These are carnivorous forms and 
are much larger at Casco Bay and its neighborhood. 

Haminea solitai'ia is a white shell. A small colony from the 


Branford River has every individual a deep brown. I wonder 
if this is due to the presence of a large iron foundry a short dis- 
tance away. Erosion is not a characteristic, yet it does result 
frona environment. This is conspicuous where unios are taken 
from waters where there is decaying vegetation. The reason is 
well known ; acid from decaying leaves acts on the lime of the 
shell. The same effect ma}' be seen in marine shells taken from 
waters where a, river meets the sea. An interesting effect of air 
may be seen in the author's cabinet. Shells of Fusus decern- 
costatus taken below low tide are well preserved even to the 
apex ; others from a few yards away, exposed to the air at low 
tide, are much eroded. 

Pure white sets of Gemma gemma may be found at Woods 
Hole and Branford, Conn. At Provincetown they are a very 
dark purple, some specimens showing hardly a trace of white. 
At Revere Beach the type is white with perhaps a third of the 
shell faintly tinted purple. Reasons for this variation I cannot 
give. Nor can I explain why sets found a dozen years ago at 
Revere Beach should vary from specimens obtained at the same 
spot a yesiT ago. 

Litorinella minuta is abundant in pot holes in the marshes. 
Environment there is good for it. A dwarfed variety is found 
in the Branford River, and the same form occurs on dead eel 
grass under the wharves at Provincetown. Evidently this form 
flourishes lietter in still water. Temperature has its influence. 
Planorbis trivolvis occurs throughout New England. It is 
small in the Connecticut River at Springfield, the same at Bran- 
ford and eastern Massachusetts. In northern Maine large, and 
the largest and finest set in the author's cabinet was obtained at 
Dalton, Mass., in the Berkshire hills. This last region is well 
known as having northern insects, undoubtedly the other species 
of shells would show aflflnity with the forms in northern New 
England. Climate alone explains this variation. The forms 
from the Connecticut River certainly have water enough, but 
they are small. Other sets are from small bodies of water ; only 
in colder regions does this giant thrive. 

Environment drives out some species and retains others. 
These few examples are variations in the same species which 
shows the effects of different surroundings. 






The Nautilus. 

Vol. XXIII. JUNE, 1909. No. 2. 



Most or all of our species of Musculium Link ( CalycuUna Clessin) 
are very variable. E. g., of M. securis Pr. there are almost endless 
forms, some of them so different from others that they appear to be 
distinct species, even of different groups. They readily respond to 
the nature of their habitats, and almost every place has its own pecu- 
liar forms. It may be added that most of them are inhabitants of 
quiet waters: small lakes, ponds, pools, marshes, ditches, slow 
streams ; but M. transversum Say is also found in rivers with strong 
current, with stony and rocky bottoms. 

Years ago Clessin stated his belief that they are comparatively 
short-lived and of cyclical development, annuals. The first part of 
his statement is probably correct, the latter probably not, or not for 
all species; specimens at all stages of growth, from newly hatched to 
full-grown, can be found at any time of the year. Yet under certain 
conditions their development appears to be uniform; e. g., where 
pools dry up in fall, only the young mussels appear to survive, to 
grow to maturity and propagate during spring and summer. 

These mussels are described as having their beaks calyculate, or 
" capped," and the genus has been established mainly on that fea- 
ture.^ But in most and probably in all species, specimens and forms 
are found with slightly or non-calyculate beaks, and such are the rule 

1 Yet even without that supposed but mistaken character the genus appears 
to be well founded, as will be shown elsewhere. 


rather than the exception in M. transversum Say. By the way, it 
may be said that calyculate beaks are found occasionally in specimens 
of Pisidium and Sphcerium. 

The nepionic (embryonic) mussel when discharged from the parent 
is generally well inflated (except in il/. transversum), and then the 
postembryonal part of each valve is marked off from it by a constric- 
tion more or less deep. This seems to be especially well marked 
when the embryos have been retained by the parent for a long time, 
e. g., over winter, and are overgrown, as it were.^ Under favorable 
conditions the embryos are probably discharged as soon as sufficiently 
developed, moderately inflated, and then postembryonal growth goes 
on in the same direction without or with a slight demarcation line. 

There are in my collection a number of lots of a MuscuUum, dif- 
ferent from all other species described and known, from Rhode 
Island, Virginia, Ohio, Michigan, and remarkably alike. The mus- 
sels are somewhat like medium-sized M. securis Pr., but more elon- 
gate, moderately and evenly inflated; the anterior and posterior parts 
are less disproportionate, the latter is less high, less and more ob- 
liquely truncate, the beaks are not calyculate, rounded, comparatively 
broad and not very prominent; even under the microscope, no de- 
marcation line between the embryonal and postembryonal parts can 
be seen; the surface is markedly regular, without or with slight lines 
of growth, with very fine strise and a slight silky gloss; the color is 
dark horn, not yellowish, somewhat lighter along the margins, but 
there are no sharply defined zones, as common in securis. Isolated, 
this Musculium would appear to represent a distinct species; but 
younger specimens, evidently of the same form, have more the out- 
lines of ilf. securis, and in every lot there are some specimens of the 
same, with the beaks calyculate, and generally there are intermedi- 
ate ones, as to outlines and general appearance. Several of the lots 
were collected in fall, from September to November, and others 
probably so. It appears probable that this is a summer form of 
M. securis, of fast and steady growth under favorable conditions, 
consequently not a variety. Corresponding forms of other species 
have also been seen. If verified by future observations, this is a 
remarkable and very interesting fact. 

Also the varieties and local forms of all species, and the conditions 

> Under the microscope such specimens show several concentric zones along 
the margins of the valves, marked by lines of growth. 


under which they grow, should be carefully studied. In order to do 
this much more good material is needed from all over the continent. It 
is very desirable to collect repeatedly, throughout the year, at favorable 
places, wherever there is an opportunity for doing so; it is essential to 
have the date of collecting with every lot, notes on the nature of the 
habitat, and last but not least, to have good numbers of specimens, 
not only the large ones, but also the half- grown and young. Any 
material, from anywhere, will mean a contribution to our knowledf e. 

It may be added that the simplest and best means for collecting 
small fresh-water mollusca, Sphoeriidae and gastropods, is a sack net 
of good burlap on a frame of strong wire (i-| inch), the ring of 
about 6-8 inches diam., tied to a handle of suitable length, e. g., a 
broomstick. In this net mud and other material, scooped up from 
the surface of the bottom, is washed, the coarser things gradually 
removed; the remainder is taken home and dried well, but not in too 
great heat. Then, a small sieve, e. g., a strainer, or several of dif- 
ferent mesh measures, are very serviceable for separating finer and 
coarser material, and it will be much easier to pick out the speci- 
menSf of which the smallest should not be overlooked; some Pisidium 
are not larger than 1 to 2 mm. when mature. Specimens to be sent 
for examination are best left mixed up, or separated only for con- 
siderable differences of size. The washings and specimens must be 
handled carefully, especially Musculium^ since most of them are very 
fragile. The whole " stuff," dirt and all, fresh or dried, may be sent 
for examination, after the coarser materials are removed. 

For deep water a drag-net or small dredge of burlap will do good 
service, especially if protected by an outer sack of strong canvas with 
the bottom left open. It is very desirable that collecting be done in 
lakes and deep rivers. 



Lymn^a nashotahensis n. sp. 

Shell elongated, somewhat pyramidal; surface dull, growth-lines 
conspicuous, crossed by fine, impressed spiral lines; whorls 6-6^, 
rather rapidly increasing in diameter, flatly rounded, the body whorl 
very large and quite convex or even gibbous; spire broadly pyramidal 
or conic, longer than the aperture ; sutures well marked ; aperture 


long, ovate, much narrowed above, generally wide and flaring below; 
outer lip with variceal thickening; inner lip rather broad, reflected 
over the umbilical region, forming a conspicuous expansion and leav- 
ing a well-marked umbilical chink; parietal callus wide and rather 
thick, in some specimens rendering the aperture continuous; axis 
twisted; the columella is plicate in the immature shell, but in adult 
or old specimens the inner lip is raised over the umbilicus, somewhat 
as in emarginata. 

Length 33.50, breadth 13.00; aperture length 14.00, breadth 
7.00 mm. 

Length 29.00, breadth 13.00; aperture length 15.00, breadth 
6.75 mm. 

Length 28.75, breadth 13.50; aperture length 15.75, breadth 
7.00 mm. 

Length 25.00, breadth 12.00; aperture length 14.00, breadth 

7.25 mm. 

Length 21.00, breadth 10.00; aperture length 12.00, breadth 

6.00 mm. 

Length 24.00, breadth 10.00; aperture length 11.00, breadth 

5.00 mm. 

Length 18.25, breadth 8.25; aperture length 10.00, breadth 

4.25 mm. 

Types: The Chicago Academy of Sciences, 9 specimens, No. 
24539; cotypes. Academy of Natural Sciences, Philadelphia, No. 
98521, 6 specimens. 

Type locality: Marl beds, Nashotah, Waukeshaw County, Wis- 

Remarks: L. nashotahensis was at first thought to be a form of 
Lymncea danielsi ; it differs markedly from that species, however, in 
several particulars — the spire is broader and not so acute, the body 
whorl is larger and inclined to be gibbous, there is a conspicuous 
umbilical chink (danielsi is usually imperforate), and the columella 
is not noticeably plicate. In nashotahensis the aperture is elongate 
ovate, narrowed above and broadened below, where it is often patu- 
lous. The upper whorls are strongly suggestive of Lymnaa rejlexa, 
the penultimate whorl having the swollen appearance so characteristic 
of reflexa. 

Young specimens somewhat resemble Lymnaa catascopium, diflFer- 
ing in being narrower, with a more elongate aperture, longer and less 


rounded whorls and a less distinctly plicate columella. There is also 
an umbilical chink, which is usually absent in catascopium. 

Like Walker's Lymvaa haheri from Michigan, nashotahensis is 
apparently an extinct species peculiar to marl deposits. The speci- 
mens were secured by Mr. F. M. Woodruff. 



(Concluded from May Number.) 

IX. Miscellaneous. 

In Beck's Index Moll. (1837), p. 118, the following synonymy of 
this species is given : 

'■'■ Planorhis hicarinatus Say. Am. Septr. C. C. 

a. major. S. g. iv, 4. W. S. vii, 12. Fl. Schuylkill. 

PI. angidatus Wood. 

b. minor. 

an P. ehurneus Ch. ix, 1123? New Jersey." 
P. angidatus Wood, Index Testaceologicus, edit. II, 1828, Suppl., 
pi. 7, f. 12, is a typical P. bicarinatus. The figures in Sowerby's 
Genera, referred to by Beck (as " S. g.") are the same species. 

Beck defined his minor only by a queried reference to Chemnitz's 
figures of a West Indian species, really entirely different. 

The recorded distribution of Planorbis bicarinatus is shown with 
approximate exactness upon the accompanying map (pi. III). These 
data are primarily based upon the collection of the Philadelphia 
Academy, the complete list of which has been kindly furnished by 
Dr. Pilsbry. To these have been added such additional information 
as was afforded by my own collection. The localities thus vouched 
for are indicated on the map by the black dots. These data have 
been supplemented by such specific localities as a careful search of 
the literature at my command afforded. These citations are repre- 
sented by the outlined dots. Duplicate citations and those giving 
simply the " State " have been omitted. A detailed list of all locali- 
ties and the authorities for the same is given below. The map does 


not extend far enough north to allow the localities in Keewatin, 
Canada, to be plotted. 

While the exhibit as a whole afifords what is probably a fairly 
accurate view of the actual distribution, yet it also shows how 
lamentably small our knowledge really is of the range of one of our 
most common species, and how much still remains to be done before 
any generalization can be other than tentative. Still the chart is 
of interest as showing what we do know, and serves to indicate the 
regions to which attention of American collectors should be particu- 
larly directed. Thus the apparent absence of the species from the 
entire littoral Atlantic region (with the exception of a single record 
from Wilmington, N. C.) from the Potomac to Florida, and along 
the coastal region of the Gulf from Florida to Texas is very striking 
and worthy of investigation. So, too, the exact range towards the 
west is important and of considerable scientific interest. No doubt 
many of the deficiencies of the present map can be supplied from 
material already accumulated in the many private collections of the 
country, aud it is hoped that this review ot the subject will induce 
the publication of all such information for the benefit of those inter- 
ested in the geographical distribution of the American fauna. For 
it is only by the accumulation of detailed information, such as is 
afforded by the publication of carefully authenticated local lists, 
accompanied by exact localities, that any substantial advance can be 

Taking the chart, such as it is, certain facts can be deduced with 
a great degree of certainty, while others must still remain more or 
less tinged with uncertainty until more exact knowledge shall either 
prove or disprove them. On the north it seems reasonably certain 
that hicarinatus extends through British America from Anticosti, 
New Brunswick and Nova Scotia west to at least Lake Winnipeg 
and Manitoba and north to Keewatin. In all probability it may be 
found to range west through Saskatchewan and Assiniboia well 
toward the Rocky Mountains. 

The data already accumulated shows a distribution through the 
northern United States from Maine to Oregon. The northwestern 
data, though scant, tend to show that the invasion of the valley of 
the Columbia was through transfer from the headwaters of the Mis- 
souri or its tributaries to the Snake, Pend Oreille or other tributaries 
of the Columbia. 


The accuracy of that veteran collector, Henry Hemphill, as to its 
occurrence at Antioch, California, quoted by Stearns (1881), is not 
to be questioned. But the fact that there is no other record of its 
occurrence in California certainly tends to show that the Antioch 
find was a sporadic colony, accidentally introduced, and which never 
succeeded in effecting a permanent foothold. 

The citation of this species from the Yaqui River, Guaymas, 
Mexico, on the Gulf of California, by Stearns (1889), where it is 
said to have been collected by Palmer, is open to more doubt. It 
appears that Polygyra Mrsuta was also alleged to have been collected 
at the same time and place. The nearest authentic locality for this 
species is southwestern Missouri. There is no evidence that bicari- 
natus has ever been discovered anywhere in the Colorado basin. The 
occurrence of two common eastern species at the same time in a 
locality so remote from the known range of either is certainly very 
remarkable, and would naturally raise a question as to whether there 
had not been an accidental mixing of specimens, Bicarinatus is not 
quoted from Mexico at all by Crosse and Fischer, and its occurrence 
at Guaymas is very improbable. 

Leaving these two doubtful citations out of the question, the only 
authentic occurrence of bicarinatus on the Pacific coast is along the 
Columbia in Oregon; south of that the Rocky Mountains, no doubtj 
mark the western range of the species. 

In the Potomac River at and below Washington, D. C, bicari- 
natus is an abundant species. South of that, with the exception of 
Wilmington, N, C, so far as the records show, it is absent from the 
entire coastal Atlantic region. In western North Carolina and 
northwestern Georgia it is found in streams belonging to the western 
drainage. We have no records from South Carolina and Florida. 
The large amount of collecting that has been done in various parts 
of the latter state goes to show that it does not occur there. South 
Carolina is practically unknown conchologically. It was not found 
by Henderson at Yemasee, Beaufort Co. (Naut. XXI, p. 7). Mr. 
Wm. G. Mazyck, of Charleston, S. C, informs me that he has 
never known of its occurrence in that state, and that it is not quoted 
in either of Ravenel's Catalogues of 1834 or 1874. In Alabama, 
though not abundant, it occurs in the northern part of the state, and 
extends in the Alabama drainage as far south at least as Pinehill, 
Wilcox Co. There are no records for either Mississippi or Louisiana, 


In Texas it is an abundant species, at times, in the central eastern 
part of the state, and no doubt ranges north from there. But there 
are no records from the valley of the Eio Grande and, as stated be- 
fore, none from Mexico. This river would therefore seem beyond 
the southwestern range of the species. 

So far as the records show, it is apparently absent from the entire 
coastal region on the Gulf. 

Since the above was written and the map (Plate III) was pre- 
pared, Mr. H. H. Smith has collected typical hicarinatus in 
Beaver Creek, Conecuh Co., Ala. This " find " not only carries 
the species further south than previously recorded, but brings 
it into the western extension of the Atlantic fauna area along 
the Gulf Coast. Beaver Creek is a tributary of Murder Creek, 
which forms part of the Escambia River drainage system. 

West of the Appalachian Mountains, hicarinatus is, in suitable 
localities, a common species in all the states as far west as Kansas 
and Colorado, and there is no great doubt but that it ranges, in suit- 
able environment, west to the mountains. But the data at hand are 
too few and too scattering to give any exact information as to the 
limits of the western range. They are indicated on the map and 
given in detail in the following list : 

Distributional Data. 
United States. 

Alabama: Big Willis Creek, Atalla; Coosa River, Minnesota 
Bend; Black Warrior River, Jefferson Co.; Cub Creek, Pinehill; 
Princeton (Walker); Beech Creek, Selma; Cahawba River (Lewis); 
Coosa River, Farmer (Hinkley). 

Arizona : None. 

Colorado : Boulder (Pils.); Lodge Pole Creek, Logan Co.; Owens 
Lake, Boulder; Weld Co.; Greely (Henderson). 

Connecticut : West Granby, Hartford Co. (Pils.). 

Arkansas : White River, Carroll; Big Creek, Sebastian; Ouachita 
River, Hot Spring (Sampson). 

Delaware : Brandywine River, between Dupont's and Rockland 

District of Columbia : Washington (Pils.). 

Florida : None. 

Georgia : East Rome (Pils.); Silver Creek, East Rome; Armuchee 
Creek, Rome; Dalton (Walker). 


Idaho : Old Mission (Pi)s.); Blue Creek, Cceur d'Alene Moun- 
tains; Cedar Creek, Priest Lake (Walker). 

Illinois: Athens; Rock Island (Pils.); Joliet (Ferriss MSS.); 
Cook Co.; LaSalle Co.; Des Plaines River; Kappa, Panala, Wood- 
ford Co.; Crystal and Silver Lakes and Algonquin, McHenry Co.; 
Mercer Co.; Elgin, Kane Co.; Illinois River and Dogfish, Quiver 
and Matanzas Lakes, Havana, Mason Co.; Fourth, Sand, Cedar, 
Fox, Pistakee, Clear, Long and Slough Lakes, Lake Co.; Pope Co.; 
Johnson Co.; Thompson's I^ake, Fulton Co.; Milan, Rock Island 
Co.; Pekin, Tazewell Co. (Baker). 

Indian Territory : Tushkahama (Ferriss, MSS.). 

Indiana: Randolph Co. (Pils.); Cedar Lake; Bass Lake, Stark 
Co. (Baker); Connorsville, Danville (Walker); Richmond, Wayne 
Co. (Plummer); Indianapolis, Whitewater Basin, West White- 
water Basin, Maumee Basin, St. Joseph Basin, Lake Michigan 
Basin (Call), Franklin Co. (Moore and Butler); Lake Michigan, 
Michigan City; Lake James, Steuben Co.; Clear Lake, LaPorte Co. 

Iowa : Iowa City; DeWitt; Clear Lake; Davenport (Pils.), Mus- 
catine, Des Moines, Ruthven (Walker); Spirit Lake (Keyes). 

Kansas: Walnut Creek (Pils.); Topeka; Ellis; Soldier Creek, 
Silver Lake Twp., Shawnee Co.; Northern Wabaunsee Co.; Brown 
Co.; Cedar Creek, Mt. Ida; Barber Co.; McDowell Creek, Riley 
Co.; Kansas River, Wyandotte; Neosho Co. (Call). 

Kentucky : Bowling Green (Pils.). 

Louisiana : None. 

Maine: Caribou, Aroostook Co.; Rockland, Knox Co. (Pils.); 
Orono, Fort Kent, St. John's River; Gelot's Lake, New Sweden; 
Second Lake, Fish River; Salmon Brook, Aroostook River; Wood- 
land, Collins' Mill Pond, Portage Lake, Square Lake, Aroostook 
Co.; E Warren; Rockville (Walker); Cross Lake Inlet; Cross Lake; 
Moose River, Somerset Co. (Nylander); Moosehead Lake (Johnson); 
Portland (Pickering). 

Maryland : Cumberland; Hancock; Chestertown, Kent Co.; Flint- 
stone, Allegheny Co.; Conecocheque River at National Road (Pils.); 
Potomac River, Fort Washington (Walker). 

Massachusetts: Pontoosuc Lake, W. Mass. (Pils.); Cambridge; 
Amherst (Walker); Fresh Pond (Adams); Swampscot, Lynn and 
vicinity (Tufts); Stockbridge (Ferriss, MSS.); Bristol Co. (Taylor 
and Shiverick). 


Michigan : The writer has records from 52 of the 83 counties of 
the state, indicating a general distribution throughout the state. 
The counties represented are shown by the map (plate II). 

Minnesota : Lake Albert Lea; Fergus Falls (Pils.); Stearns Co.; 
Lake Minnetonka ; Cannon Lake, Rice Co.; Shackleton Lake 
(Walker); Minneapolis; Lake Minnewaska, Pope Co.; Vermilion 
Lake, Winona, Lake Co.; St. Louis Co. (Grant); Clearwater, 
Wright Co. (Sargent); Harriet Lake, Hennipen Co. (Daniels); 
Heron Lake, Jackson Co.; Eagle Lake, Sherburne Co. (Stearns). 

Mississippi : None. 

Missouri : Pettis Co.; Lamar, Barton Co. (Sampson). 

Montana : Mingusville, now Wibaux (Squjer). 

Nebraska : Sidney (Walker); streams of eastern Neb. (Aughey); 
Omaha (Tryon). 

Nevada : None. 

New Hampshire : Profile Lake (Walker); Keene (Walker and 

New Jersey : Greenwood Lake, Passaic Co.; Raritan River; 
Cedar Lake, White Pond, Warren Co.; Swartzwood Lake, Sussex 
Co.; Center Twp., Camden Co.; Delaware Water Gap; Princeton, 
Mercer Co.; Lake Hopatcong, Budd's Lake, Morris Co.; Hacken- 
sack Valley; Closter, Bergen Co.; Trenton; Gloucester Co. (Pils.). 

New Mexico : Las Vegas; South Spring River, Roseville; Tre- 
mentina; Santa Fe; Arroyo Pecos, Las Vegas (Pils.). 

New York : Cazenovia; Skaneatales Lake; Long Island; Niagara; 
Hudson River, Fort Warren, Ridgewood; Racquette Lake, Hamil- 
ton Co.; Queens Co.; Squaw Island, Niagara River; Troy (Pils.); 
Gannagagee Creek. Erie Co.; Alfred; Watertown; Canandarago 
Lake, Otsego Co.; Cedar Lake, Herkimer Co.; Old Forge (Walker); 
Sunset Creek, Otsego Co. (Smith); Chatauqua Lake (Maury); 
Schuyler's Lake, Otsego Co.; Mohawk River, Little Lakes and Erie 
Canal and Litchfield, Herkimer Co. (Lewis); Onondaga Co. (Beau- 
champ); Rochester (Walton); Huntington, Centerport, Long Island 
(Smith & Prime); Cayuga Lake (Ferriss MSS). 

North Carolina : Asheville ; Greenfield Pond, Wilmington 

North Dakota ; Hankinson (Pils.); Fort Stevenson (Stearns). 

Ohio: Columbus; Geanga Co. (Pils.); Hudson (Walker); Cincin 
nati (Harper and Wetherby); Tuscawaras Co. (Sterki); " The Re- 
serve " (Naturalist). 



Oklahoma: Oklahoma City (Ferriss); Cimmaron River (Call). 
Oregon: Willamette River; ISalem; Portland (Pils.). 
Pennsylvania: Delaware River (type locality), Say; Allegheny 
River; Round Island, Clinton Co.; Port Allegheny, McLean Co.; 
Youghiougheny River, (!onnellsville, Fayette Co.; Juniata River, 
Hollidaysburg, Blair Co.; Susquehanna River, Muncy; Cushclishia 
Creek, Indiana Co.; Emporium, Cameron Co.; Amity Twp., Berks 
Co.; Beaver River, Waupum, Montgomery Co.; Germantown and 
various localities, Philadelphia Co.; Nockamixon, Bucks Co.; 
Schanksville, Somerset Co.; Glenolden, Delaware Co.; Gettysburg; 
Ligonier, Westmoreland Co., York Furnace, York Co. (Pils.); Alle- 
gheny Co. (Stupakoff); Ohio River, Coraopolis (Rhoads); Chester 
Co. (Hartman & Michener); Lancaster Co. (Haldeman); Columbia; 
Susquehanna River, Wilkesbarre (Walker). 

Rhode Island : Providence and Worcester Canal; Cunliff's Pond 

South Carolina: None. 

South Dakota : Mouth of Big Sioux River (Lea). 
Tennessee : Emory River and Harriman (Pils.); Chilhowee Mts.. 
Blount Co.; Franklin Co. (Walker); Tellico River, Blount Co. 
(Lewis); Little River (Ferriss MSS). 

Texas: New Braunfels (Pils.); San Antonio (Walker); Peder- 
nales River, Gillespie Co.; Brushy Creek, Williamson Co.; Colorado 
River and tributaries, Comal Co.; San Marcus River, Hayes Co.; 
Colorado River and tributaries, Travis Co.; Burton, Washington 
Co. (Singley); Hog Creek, McLennan Co. (Strecker). 
Utah : None. 

Vermont: Connecticut River, Hartland (Pils.); Middlebury 
(A ms) 

Virginia: Luray (Pils.); Orange (Walker); Harper's Ferry 

Washington: Cascades, Skamania Co. (Pils.). 
Wisconsin: Milwaukee (Pils.); Menominee River; Wauwatosa ; 
Honey Creek, Layton Park; Kinnickinnic River, Milwaukee; 
Golden Lake, Waukesha Co.; Little Cedar Lake, Washington Co.; 
Lake Winnebago, Calumet Co.; Kenosha (Chadwick). 

West Virginia : Four miles from Romney; Kanawha River, forty 
miles south of Ohio River, Wirt Co.; North River, Sedan, Hamp- 
shire Co.; Warm Spring Creek, Morgan Co.; Salt Sulphur Spring, 


Monroe Co.; Patterson's Creek, Mineral Co.; Potomac River, 
Cherry Run (Pils.); Potomac River, Harper's Ferry (Walker). 

Wyoming : Yellowstone National Park (Stearns). 

Dominion of Canada — Quebec : Meaches Lake, Hull; Chaudiere 
River; Chelsea (Pils.); Caprouge (Walker); Anticosti (Latchford); 
Brome Lake, Knowlton (Whiteaves MSS). 

Ontario : Sparrow Lake, Simcoe District; Puzzle Lake, 40 miles 
north of Napanee; Rideau River; Ottawa River (Pils); Little River, 
Walkerville (Walker); Lake Simcoe (Stearns). 

Algoma: Dog River, north shore Lake Superior; Gores Bay, 
Manitoulin Island, Lake Huron (Walker); Moose Factory, Hudson 
Bay (Dall). 

Manitoba : Lake Winnipeg; Lake Manitoba (Christy). 

Nova Scotia : Dartmouth Lakes (Jones). 

Keewatin : Lake St. Joseph; Kawinogans River, Albany River. 
Knee Lake (Whiteaves); Saskatchewan River, Grand Rapids (Dall.); 

New Brunswick : Kennebecasis River and elsewhere (Matthew 
and Stead). 

Mexico : Yaqui River, Guaymas, W. Mexico (Stearns). See p. 


The following list includes all papers cited as authority for distri- 
bution in the preceding part of this paper. It is no doubt imperfect, 
as it embraces only such literature as has been accessible to the 
writer. For the sake of brevity many other papers examined, which 
afforded only duplicate records or simply a general " State " record 
are omitted : 

Adams, C. B Shells of Fresh Pond. (Am. J. Sci. and Arts, 

O. S. XXXVI, p. 392, 1839.) 

Adams, C. B. — Catalogue of the Mollusca of Middlebury, Ver- 
mont, and vicinity. (Am. J. Sci. and Arts, O. S. XI, p. 269, 184L) 

Aughey, Samuel Catalogue of the Land and Fresh-water Shells 

of Nebraska. (Bull. U. S. Geol. Survey III, p. 701, 1877.) 

Baker, F. C. — The Mollusks of Cedar Lake, Indiana. (Naut. 
XVII, p. 113, 1904.) 

Baker, F. C. — A Catalogue of the Mollusca of Illinois. (Bull. 
111. St. Lab. Nat. Hist. VII, p. 106, 1906). 

Beauchamp, W. M Land and Fresh-water Shells of Onondaga 

County and State of New York (1886). 


Call, R. E. — A Contribution to a Knowledge of Indiana Mollusca. 
(Proc. Ind. Acad. Sci. Ill, p. 150, 1894.) 

Call, R. E. — The Hydrographic Basins of Indiana and their 
Molluscan Fauna. (Proc. Ind. Acad. Sci., 1896, p. 250.) 

Call, R. E. — Contributions to a Knowledge of the Fresh-water 
Mollusca of Kansas. No. II, p. 54; No. IV, p. 123; No. V, p. 184;, 
No. VI, p. 16. 

Carpenter, H. F. — The Shell-bearing Mollusca of Rhode Island. 
(Random Notes on Nat. Hist. II, p. 96, 1886.) 

Chadwick, G. H. — Notes on Wisconsin Mollusca. (Bull. AVis.. 
Nat. Hist. Soc. IV, p. 83, 1906.) 

Chickering, J. W., Jr. — List of Marine, Fresh-water and Land 
Shells found in the vicinity of Portland, Maine (1855 or 6 ?.) 

Christy, R. M. — Notes on the Land and Fresh-water Mollusks of 
Manitoba. (J. of Con. IV, p. 248, 1885.) 

Dall, W. H — Land and Fresh-water Mollusks of Alaska. (Rep. 
Har. Alaska Exp. XIII, p. 87, 1905.) 

Daniels, L. E. — A check list of Indiana Mollusca. (Rep. Dept. 
Geol. & Nat. Resources, Ind. 1902, p. 637.) 

Daniels, L. E — Records of Minnesota Mollusks. (Naut. XXII, 
,p. 119, 1909.) 

Ferriss, J. H. — Mollusks of Oklahoma. (Naut. XX, p. 17, 

Grant, U. S. — Conchological Notes. (14th Ann. Rep. Geol. & 
Nat. Hist. Survey of Minn., p. 122, 1885.) 

Grant, U. S — Notes on the Molluscan Fauna of Minnesota. 
(16th Ann. Rep. Geol. & Nat. Hist. Survey of Minn., p. 484, 1887.) 

Haldeman, S. S. — Mollusca. (Rupp's Hist. Lancaster Co., Pa., 
p. 481, 1844.) 

Harper, G. W., & Wetherby, A. G Catalogue of the Land and 

Fresh-water Mollusca found in the immediate vicinity of Cincinnati, 
Ohio, 1876. 

Hartmann, W. D., & Michener, E. — Conchologia Cestrica, p. 70,. 

Henderson, Julius. — The Mollusca of Colorado. (University of 
Colo. Studies IV, p. 181, 1907.) 

Hinkley, A. A. — List of Alabama Shells collected in October and 
November, 1903. (Naut. XVIII, p. 54, 1904.) 

Johnson, C. W Shells of the Lake Region of Maine. (Naut- 

XXI, p. 106, 1908.) 


Jones, J. M — List of the Mollusca of Nova Scotia, 1877. 

Keyes, C R. — An Annotated Catalogue of the Mollusca of Iowa. 
(Bull. Essex Inst. XX, p. 13, 1889.) 

Latchford, F. R.— Shells of Anticosti. (Am. Nat. XVIII, p. 
1052, 1884.) 

Lea, Isaac. — Report on Mollusca. (Explorations in Nebraska, 
Executive Doc. II, p. 72, 1859.) 

Lewis, James. — Shells of Herkimer and adjacent counties in the 
State of New York. Proc. A. N. S., Phila., 1872, pp. 97-107. 

Lewis, James. — Shells of Tennessee, No. 2. (Proc. P. A. N. S., 
1872, p. 108.) 

Lewis, James. — Fresh-water and Land Shells of Alabama, 1876. 

Linsley, J. H. — Catalogue of the Shells of Connecticut. (Am. J. 
Sci. & Arts O. S. XLVIII, p. 281, 1845.) 

Matthew, W. D., & Stead, G Land and Fresh-water Shells col- 
lected near St. John, N. B. (Proc. Miramichi Nat. Hist. Ass., 
No. Ill, p. 49.) 

Maury, C. J. — Chatauqua Lake Shells. (Element. Nat. Hist. 
Series, No. I, p. 26, 1898.) 

Moore, D. R., & Butler, A. W — Land and Fresh-water Mollusca 
observed in Franklin County, Indiana. (Bull. Brookville Soc. Nat. 
Hist., No. I, p. 43, 1885.) 

Naturalist. — Miscellaneous Observations, etc. (Am. J. Sci, & 
Arts O. S. XXXI, p. 36, 1837.) 

Nylander, O. O — Fresh-water Shells in the northeast of Maine. 
(Naut. XI, pp. 9-12, 1897.) 

Plummer, J. T. — Scraps in Natural History. (Am. J. Sci. & 
Arts 0. S. XLVIII, p. 95, 1844.) 

Rhoads, S. N. — On a Recent Collection of Pennsylvania MoUusks 
from the Ohio River System below Pittsburg. (Naut. XII, p. 138, 

Rhoads, S. N — A Glimpse at the Shell Fauna of Delaware. 
(Naut. XVIII, p. 66, 1904.) 

Sampson, F. A. — Notes on the Distribution of Shells. (Kansas 
City Rec. of Sci. VI, p. 22.) 

Sampson, F. A. — The Shells of Pettis County, Missouri, (Bull. 
No. 1, Sedalia Nat. Hist. Soc, p. 10, 1885.) 

Sampson, F. A — A Preliminary List of the Mollusca of Arkansas. 
(Ann. Rep. Geol. Sur. of Ark. II, p. 186, 1893.) 


Sargent, H. E Annotated List of the Mollusca found in the 

vicinity of Clearwater, Wright Co., Minn, (Naut. IX, p. 127, 

Say, Thomas.— Nich. Encyc, 1st Ed., 1817. 
Singley, J. A.— Texas Mollusca. (4th Ann. Rep. Geol. Survey 
of Texas, p. 314, 1892.) 

Smith, Maxwell Shells of Richfield Springs, N. Y., and vicinity. 

(Naut. XX, p. 91, 1906.) 

Smith, S., & Prime, T. — Report on the Mollusca of Long Island, 
N. Y., and its dependencies. (Ann. N. Y. Lye. Nat. Hist. IX, p. 
402, 1870.) 

Squyer, Homer List of Shells from the vicinity of Mingusville, 

Montana. (Naut. VIII, p. 64, 1894.) 

Stearns, R. E. C Observations on Planorhis. (Proc. P. A. 

N. S., 1881, p. 101.) 

Stearns, R. E. C Notes and Comments on the Distribution of 

Planorhis {Helisosnia) hicarinatus. (West. Am. Scientist, 1889, 
p. 110.) 

Stearns, R. E. C List of Shells collected by Vernon Bailey in 

Heron and Eagle Lakes, Minn. (Proc. U. S. Nat. Mus. XXII, pp. 

Sterki, V List of the Land and Fresh-water Mollusca of Tus- 

cawarus County, Ohio. (18th Ann. Rep. Ohio St. Acad. Sci., p. 6.) 

Strecker, J. K., Jr The Mollusca of McLennan County, Texas. 

(Naut. XXII, p. 65, 1908.) 

Stupakoff, S. H. — Land and Fresh-water Shells of Allegheny 
County, Pa. (Naut. VII, p. 135, 1894.) 

Taylor and Shiverick. — Catalogue of Shells found in and near the 
County of Bristol, Mass., 1840?. 

Tryon, G. W., Jr Notes on Mollusca collected by Dr. F. V. 

Hayden in Nebraska. (Am. J, of Con. IV, p. 151, 1868.) 

Tufts, Samuel, Jr. — A List of Shells collected at Swampscot, 
Lynn and vicinity. (Proc. Essex Inst. I, p. 30, 1856.) 

Walton, John. — The Mollusca of Monroe County, N. Y. (Proc. 
Rochester Acad. Sci. II, p. 13, 1892.) 

Walker, R. D., & Coolidge, W. H., Jr Mollusca of Keene, New 

Hampshire. (Naut. XXII, p. 32, 1908.) 

Whiteaves, J. F. — List of Land and Fresh-water Shells from the 
District of Keewatin. (Rep, Geol. Surv. of Canada, 1905, p. 6.) 


Whiteaves, J. F. — List of some Fresh-water Shells from North- 
western Ontario and Keewatin. (Ottawa Nat. XX, pp. 31-2, 1906.) 

Explanation op Plate I. 

All the figures are x 2, except Fig. 10, which is x 3. 

Fig. 1. P. bicarinatus aroostookensis Fils. Collins' Mill Pond, 

Fig. 2. P. bicarinatus aroostookensis (topotype). Salmon 
Brook, Me. 

Fig. 3. P. bicarinatus Say (typical). Delaware River, Phil- 
lipsburg, N. J. 

Figs. 4 and 5. P. bicarinatus angistomus Hald. Independence 
Lake, Washtenaw Co., Mich. 

Figs. 6-8. P. bicarinatus unicarinatus Hald (type). Schuyl- 
kill River, Pa. 

Fig. 9. P. bicarinatus portagensis Baker (cotype). Portage 
Lake, Me. 

Fig. 10. P. bicarinatus corrugatus Currier (type). Perch 
Lake, Kent Co., Mich. 

Fig. 11. P. bicarinatus royalensis Walker (type). Siskowit 
Lake, Isle Royale, Mich. 

Fig. 12. P. bicarinatus percarinatus Walker (type). Crystal 
Lake, Benzie Co., Mich. 


An internal septum in Holospira bartschi. — In a specimen 
of this snail cut open there is a vertical septum across the cavity at 
about the middle of the eighth whorl. It is concave on the lower 
side, as in many Urocoptidce. To abandon the early whorls is very 
common in Antillean and the larger Mexican forms but has not be- 
fore been noticed in Holospira. The internal column in H. bartschi 
is very nearly one-third the diameter of the shell at the widest part, 
but it decreases to about one-fourth in the penultimate whorl. — 


The Nautilus. 

Vol.. XXIII. JULY, 1909. No. 8. 


Notes on Hew England NudibrancliB II. 


In a recent number of the "Nautilus"' I recorded two occur- 
rences of nudibranchs at Cobasset, Mass., indicating marked local 
condensation of the partly grown Eolid population during the time 
of a supposed autumn migration of the year's brood to deeper water?. 

The condensation of adults at the breeding season is of quite a 
different order and much more familiar. The supposition is that 
the year's adults migrate from deep water to the shore, there to 
spend a brief mating season, spawn, and (for the most part) die. It is 
well known that early spring is the breeding season for most of the 
species, while others appear to select late autumn or winter — facts 
which go far to explain our woeful ignorance of this group in this 
country. At times, in other countries, these mating forms have been 
found abundant and gregarious to such an extent as to justify the 
expression " swarming " for the habit.' 

iVol. xxii, No. 2, June, 1908, pp. 13-16. "Two interesting New England 
Nudibranch Records." The subtitle " Notes on New England Nudibranchs. I." 
was accidentally omitted by the printer. P. 15, top line, after word "and" 
insert "T." For other errata see Nautilus, xxii. No. 6, Oct., 1908, p. 60. 

'I use the term "swarming" in this paper to indicate a distinct gathering 
together, in relatively great abundance, for breeding. 

Eliot ("On some Nudibranchs from East Africa and Zanzibar." Pt. V.; P. Z. S., 
1904, ii, p. 87) furnishes a description of such a "swarming" of Trevelyana crocea, 


From April 26 to 30, 1908, I was able to devote a short vacation 
exclusively to a minute examination, as exhaustive as time permit- 
ted, of the nudibranch life on two short stretches of coast suitable 
for breeding Eolid nudibranchs. The first was a stretch of granite 
ledges and piles of broken boulders at Rocky Neck, in Gloucester 
Harbor; the second a stretch of granite ledges at Brace's Cove, on 
the outer (eastern) side of Eastern Point, Gloucester, Mass. The 
localities were quite unlike in biological character, though resembling 
each other as shore formations. The Rocky Neck locality was 
bathed by the comparatively warm and still waters of the harbor, 
thick with larvae, eggs, spores and organic debris of all kinds. In- 
numerable small and rather deep pools among the broken boulders, 
thickly hung and often completely choked with fuci, sheltered 
abundant animal life, including Metridium and hydroids. The 
Brace's Cove locality was pounded by the eternal surf of the open 
Atlantic, and the water was noticeably colder and crystal-clear. 
The pools on the massive ledges were much larger, shallower and 
more open. Corralines were abundant, hydroids and Metridium 
much fewer. 

a Polycerid from Zanzibar, as follows: "* * * this form provided a most strik- 
ing case of the migration of molluscs in flocks to shallow water for the deposi- 
tion of spawn. But a few specimens were collected before a certain period of 
a few days' duration, when the sand of Chuaka Bay just below low-tide mark 
was occupied by astonishing numbers * * *. These were not washed up by 
accident, but were all actively ciawling on the sand among the weeds, etc. 
Many were in coitu, and when placed in basins of sea-water most of the speci- 
mens were soon engaged in copulation or the deposition of yellow egg-ribbons. 
By-and-by the swarm disappeared to some unknown permanent habitat. If 
this were in the deeper channels of the bay (1 to 2 fathoms deep at low tide) 
they must have been found there by dredging. As this was not the case 
it seems most probable that the migrations of these tiny animals extend to and 
from the deep sea three or more miles away." 

One may be permitted to guess that the "unknown permanent habitat" 
to which "the swarm disappeared" was that bourne from which no traveler 
returns ! Quite jjrobably the form may be found to be strictly annual with little 
or no overlap of generations, as I believe is the case with various of our own 
forms. Either the young escape observation till just about the breeding 
season (possibly making a very sudden and rapid growth at that time which 
may be marked by a change in food supply) or else, and more probably, the 
young straggle back to deep water as they grow stronger, but while still small, 
and, there attaining their growth, make a sudden descent (or ascent!) upon the 
shore en masse at the next call of the breeding impulse. 


No temperatures were taken, for on the face of it the temperature 
was uot tlie controlling factor at that time and place, the same forms 
and spawn occurring indifferently in shallow, sun-warmed pools 
pleasant to the hands, and in deep, unsunned crevices at extreme 
low tide when one's breath condensed in clouds over the numbing 
water. This is not to say that temperature may not be the control- 
ling factor in the initiation of the migration impulse or even in the 
actual deposition of spawn, which latter may perhaps always take 
place at high water when the temperature conditions of the pools 
would be equalized. 

The section worked at Rocky Neck did not exceed 300 yards in 
length, and at Brace's Cove about 200. Three days were given to 
the former and one to the latter. Every day-light tide was worked 
industriously, and attention was wholly concentrated on nudibranchs. 

The " census" was as follows: 

Coryphella rufibranckialis manavensis (Stimps.),^ typical, 43 speci- 
mens collected and about 30 more seen — total, say 75. All but 6 at 
Rocky Neck. All well-grown, if not fully adult, except three or 
four apparently about half-gi-own. 

Coryphella riijibranchialis chocolata var. nov. Externally not 
separable by me from the foregoing except by the color of the cores 
of the cerata and of the body, which is a true chocolate-brown, dark 
for the cerata, light for the body, as contrasted with the varied reds 
(varying from pink to ginger, salmon and scarlet) of the typical form. 
The dentition and internal anatomy have not yet been examined, 
but as there is undoubtedly intergrading in the color, no very dis- 
tinctive character should be anticipated. I have seen this form 
before, but never more than one or two specimens at a time. As a 
mere color variety (and for all we actually know, a mere physiological 
phase) it may be thought not worth a name. At the same time the 
intergrades are few and the series incomplete; and the chocolate 
forms, in life, occurred markedly segregated from the others. It is 
at least possible to point out a tangible character by which it differs 
from typical mananensis, which no one has yet done for the differen- 
tiation of mananetisis from rvfibrancMalis. Should mavanensis prove 

' So called by me for the present in the provisional belief that Stimpson's 
form — if separable at all, which I doubt— is only a variety of the European 
form. Our knowledge, and consequently the nomenclature, of the group of 
red-gilled Eolids on this coast is in deplorable condition. 


a complete synonym (as Gould thought it), or a variety (as I con- 
sider it), then chocolata should be written as above; but if mananensis 
is a valid species (as Professor Verrill holds), then chocolata may be 
written as its variety pending further knowledge. Ten specimens 
collected, all at Rocky Neck. 

Aeolidiella papillosa (L.). It is a question whether our American 
form may not be as well worth a varietal name as our form of Cory- 
phella rufihranchialis. Both species are, in European waters, noted 
for their variability, and have enormous synonymies. I think it 
much the same sort of question as that whether it is worth while to 
distinoruish our form of Purpura lapillus — doubtless it is extremely 
close to the European form, and no one has yet pointed out a con- 
stant diagnostic difference, yet an American lot could hardly be 
confused with a European lot. Our form of the present species, in 
my experience, runs shorter, stouter, pinker and less variegated than 
the European form, as shown by the numerous and excellent figures 
accessible. No diagnostic character has been found in the dentition. 
Eight specimens collected, of which four at each locality ; one a 
giant of 9 cm., one of an ordinary full adult size of about 6 cm., 
three smaller adults of 4-5 cm., and one young of about 1 cm. 

Cratena veronica Verrill. One specimen about 1.8 cm. long, 
taken at Rocky Neck among a thick growth of undetermined hydroids, 
agreed very closely with Verrill's description of this rare and un- 
figured species. It was kept alive four days during which colored 
drawings were made, and then preserved for dissection. 

Galvina picta (A. &c H.), one specimen, adult. Rocky Neck, on 

Doto coronata (Gmel.), one specimen, adult. Rocky Neck, on 

Dendronotus frondosus (Ascanius), three specimens, one large 
adult of about 6 cm., two about half that size; the latter at Rocky 
Neck, the former at Brace's Cove. 

Acanthodoris pilosa (Miiller), one specimen of about 1 cra.> 
at Brace's Cove. 

LamelUdoris aspera (A. & H.),' eighteen specimens, 5 mm. to 12 
mm. long, all but three or four at Brace's Cove, on Corallines. 

iQur knowledge of the difficult and critical group of species centering 
around L. aspera and including a number of quite ineufificiently characterized 
American forms has not reached a point where identifications can be looked 
on as reliable. 


Ancula crittata sulplwrea (Stimps.), one young specimen of about 
8 mm., at Brace's Cove. It seems best to prestrve Stimpson's name 
at any rate in a varietal sense though Bergh has united it with 
cristata. The differential character of the lower origin of the ante- 
rior appendages of the rhinophores is fully confirmed by my observa- 
tion and seems pretty constant. 

Total about 119 individuals, falling into 9 genera and 10 species 

or varieties. 

_».. . 

The picture of local nudibranch life obtained from this bit of 
intensive collecting is tolerably clear. 

Goryphella rufibranchialis mananensis appears to have been "swarm- 
ing," not in the sense that it was enormously numerous — for the total 
figures are not impressive — but in the sense that adults were locally 
gathered together in far greater numbers than normal and with 
a distinctly gregarious habit, e. g., six or eight in one pool, none in 
the next, rarely alone. The specimens ran remarkably uniform in 
size and lent support to the view that the species is an annual. 
None were seen in coitu either in the pools or in three days of cap- 
tivity, but spawn was abundant and probably mating was about over 
for the year. Alder and Hancock say of the British form: ''met 
with * * * in April, May and June, when it has attained its full 
size and is spawning. * ♦ * In August and September the young 
are found considerably advanced." I believe our form will be found 
to have a more concentrated breeding season. 

What has been said applies equally to the chocolate variety. 
Aeolidia papillosa gave some slight indication of "swarming" in 
that it was considerably more numerous than normal, and gregarious 
in habit. But this was not nearly as marked as in the foregoing 
and the sizes were so conspicuously not uniform as to look against its 
being an annual. What I have seen in this and other years would 
fit well with its being a bi- or tri-annual with a "swarming" habit 
slightly later than that of C. mananensis and not so well marked. 
The spawn was fairly abundant and all of a deep rose color whereas 
Alder and Hancock say of the spawn of the British form that it is 
" occasionally white, but generally has a pinkish tinge, and is some- 
times distinctly rose-colored." They give the breeding season as 
" spring and summer months." 

The other forms taken present no indication of a sexual " i-warm- 


in'T." It is true LamelHdoris aspera occurred in some numbers but 
the individuals varied much in size, were not markedly gregarious, 
and no spawn or coition was seen. The species seems to be a fairly- 
common one at most times and according to Alder and Hancock 
breeds in May, June and July, — if indeed our species be identical. 

None of the species taken are rarities except the var. chocolata 
(which, however, I have several times seen before) and Cratena 
veronica, which has not before been publicly reported since its origi- 
nal description, but has been taken a few times by Verrill in com- 
paratively deep water. The present specimen is about three-quarters 
the size given by Verrill. One may hazard a guess that it will be 
found to have a shore breeding season sometime in the winter. 

The other species are those we have often with us on the shore in 
very small numbers. While such of them as are hydroid feeders are 
almost necessarily to some extent gregarious, I know of no account 
of anything like a " swarming " of any of them except Ancula 

There is a certain fascination about the mysterious appearances 
and disappearances of these beautiful wanderers, and the first student 
fully to master a nudibranch (or at any rate an Eolid) life-history 
will have an interesting story to tell. 

A collecting trip like this gives endless opportunity for alleged 
" observations " on " protective " and "warning," coloration and the 
like, which would be worth recording if fishes or other enemies looked 
with human eyes, from air into water, in full daylight, and from on 
top. Any true advance in this direction must be along the lines of 
work like Herdman and Clubb's most interesting experiments.'* 

52 Eliot St., Jamaica Plain, Fehmary, 1909. 

1 Herdman and Clubb. Third Report upon the Nudibranchiata of the L. M. 
B. C. District, Proc. and Trans. Liverpool Biol. Soc, iv, 1890, p. 134. "This 
species {A. cristata) was found * * * in April, 1890, and we took it in extra- 
ordinary profusion * * * in March, 1890. On one reef of rocks especially, a 
little way above low-water mark, there must have been many thousands of 
specimens present. For yards it was impossible to walk without treading on 
them, and handfuls were readily collected by scraping the specimens together 
from the mud-covered rocks." It should be remembered that for some reason 
the British coast supports nudibranch life in a vastly greater abundance of 
individuals, as well as of species, than ours does. 

^ Loc. cii., ante, pp. 150-163. 





A very excellent work on the New England Pyramidellidce by 
Mr. Paul Bartsch has just been published by the Boston Society of 
Natural History. Specimens from the writer's cabinet were used in 
compiling this work. Unfortunately there are some omissions. I 
can blame no one but myself. My excuse is that my specimens were 
packed and stored, and a few collected later had not been worked 
up. Hence this supplement. 

Turbonilla {Ptycheulimelld) polita Verrill. Four specimens (de- 
termined by Verrill) are in the author's cabinet. The tw-o best ones 
have ten whorls, and measure 7.5 mm. They are from Eastport, 

Five specimens of Odostomia, collected at Provincetown, have the 
many lines of trifida hedequensis. They are about the size and 
shape of the P. E. I. specimens, and probably of that variety. 

Odostomia {Odostomia) modesta ^UTa\>^o-a. Two excellent speci- 
mens of this species were found at Provincetown. They are slightly 
larger than the specimen used to illustrate Bartsch's article. 

Odostomia bisuturalis. An interesting variety lacking the revolv- 
ing line, occurs at Provincetown. Mention may be made of three 
pathological specimens of this species found at the same place. Deep 
sutures and everted lip, they are one of nature's jokes. 

Pyramidella (Sulcorinella) bartschi n. sp. Fig. 

Shell broadly conic, semi-transparent, vitreous. Nuclear whorls 
small, deeply obliquely immersed in the first of the succeeding turns, 


above which only the tilted edge of the last volution projects. Post- 
nuclear whorls well rounded, moderately contracted at the sutures and 
appressed at the summit, which falls in the middle of the peripheral 
sulcus. Periphery of the last whorl somewhat inflated, marked by a 
moderately deep sulcus, which is bounded on each side by a slender 
raised thread. Base short, well rounded, with a moderately broad 
umbilicus. Entire surface of spire and base marked by strong lines 
of growth and numerous fine spiral striations. Aperture large, 
rhomboidal ; posterior angle obtuse; outer lip thin; columella slender, 
curved and revolute, provided with a strong fold at its insertion. 

The type is in the Winkley collection, and comes from Woods 
Holl, Mass. It has seven post-nuclear whorls and measures, length 
3.2 mm., diameter 1.6 mm. 

I take pleasure in naming this for Mr. Paul Bartsch, of the Smith- 
sonian Institution, and wish to express my thanks to him and Dr. 
Dall for their help on this and other species. 

Mr. Bartsch writes concerning the above: "The single specimen 
is a most interesting one; it represents a group (^SnJcoriveUa) not 
heretofore reported living." 




Carinifex SANCT^CLAR^ n. sp. 

Shell small (for the genus), heavy, subglobular; spire depressed ; 
whorls three, inflated, subcarinate at outer margin above, from which 
the shell slopes concavely upward to a raised ridge bordering a nar- 
row, rather deep sutural groove. Umbilicus narrow, marked off by 
a sharp carina; lip complete, semilunar, full, reflexed below. Shell 
marked by moderate, diagonal growth-lines, occasionally raised into 
coarse ridges. Alt. 5 mm., lat. 8 mm. 

Type locality: Near Los Gatos Limestone Quarry, Los Gatos, 
Santa Cruz Mts., Cal. 

This species is easily recognized by the concave upper surface of 
the whorls. It varies somewhat in size, some specimens being twice 
as large as the type, which is probably just mature. 

It and Amnicola yatesiana J. G. C. are the two characteristic 


species of the Santa Clara Lake beds. Cooper' listed it as Gari- 
nifex newberryi var. minor, which he had described previously, from 
Clear Lake (living). The two have nothing specific in common 
except their size. 

Associated with these two species at various points about the val- 
ley are the following species still living in northern California : 

Anodonta cygiiea nuttalliana Lea. 

Anodonta angulata Lea. 

Pompholyx effusa Lea. 

Valvata virens Tryon. 

In addition there are several indeterminate forms, an excellent 
flora, and fragments of mammalian bones. 

The figure, which will appear in a later issue, represents the type, 
X 2, from a photograph by John Howard Paine, of Stanford Uni- 

Stanford University, Cal. 



Mr. Winkley's note on " Variation " in the last Nautilus is very 
interesting, and most of the examples given are characteristic. On 
page 16, however, there is a reference to Planorhis which shows that 
several species have been confused. The Dalton shells are hinneyt 
and not trivolvit, as I have ascertained recently from an examination 
of specimens in the Boston Society of Natural History, received 
from Mr. Winkley. 

This large Planorbi$, surpassed only by the magnijicus of Pilsbry, 
has often been confused with trivolvis, most authors overlooking 
Tryon's reference to this species in his review of Binney's work in 
the American Journal of Conchology. 

P. binneyi is a northern form, in many localities replacing trivolvit. 
I have collected it in Tomahawk Lake, Wisconsin, and in the St» 
Lawrence River at Thousand Island Park. It may be known by its- 
large size, very wide whorls and pronounced longitudinal sculpture^ 
Specimens of the same size are much wider than trivolvis and more 

'Cooper, J. Q., Proc. Cal. Acad. Sci. (2), iv, p. 1T2, 1894. 


corpulent. It has been identified as corpulentus Say, but this is a 
totally different species, the characters of which have been very fully 
described by Mr. Bryant Walker in a previous volume of the 

It would be interesting to know the exact range of binneyi, and I 
would suggest that conchologists generally examine their collections 
for this species, sending the information to either Mr. Walker, of 
Detroit, or to me (or to both of us). 

A large amount of exact data is needed to accurately determine 
the range of the various species of fresh-water pulmonates, and a few 
notes on this magnificent Planorhis will aid materially in this direction. 



Mussel rather small, well inflated, high, slightly inequipartite and 
oblique, with outlines well rounded; superior margin short, nearly 
sti'aight, with a rounded angle at its posterior end and a very slightly 
marked one at the anterior; posterior and inferior margins forming 
one regular, nearly circular curve, supero-anterior slope slightly 
marked ; beaks little posterior, large, somewhat flattened, well promi- 
nent; surface shining, with medium fine, irregular striae and several 
distinct lines of growth, the upper one marking off the nepionic 
mussel (as in MuscuUum); color straw to yellowish-horn,^ with 
slightly marked lighter and darker zones; hinge short, rather slight, 
but well formed, with a short ligament, plate narrow; cardinal teeth 
somewhat curved ; the right one moderately long, its posterior part 
thicker and grooved; left anterior very short, " high," abrupt, thin, 
the posterior almost longitudinal, twice as long as the anterior, less 
" high," slightly thicker and grooved in its posterior part; lateral 
cusps short, pointed, the outer ones of the right valve smaller but 
distinct, not pointed. 

Long. 3.5, alt. 3.4, diam. 2.5 mm. 

Habitat: Mt. Leidy, Utah, at 10,000 feet, in a stagnant pond, 
collected by Mr. Marcus H. l)all (son of Dr. Wm. H. Dall), in whose 
honor the species is named, on September 18, 1905. 

This Pisidium appears not to be closely related to any of our 

' Most specimens appear brownish from the dried soft parts. 


described species, and cannot be referred to one, even taking into 
account the high altitude and the nature of the locality. It some- 
what resembles some high forms of P. scutellatum St., but is less 
oblique, has broader beaks, and the surface strife are coarser. The 
short, pointed inner lateral cusps of the right valve are notable. The 
nine specimens in the lot are remarkably uniform, two of them 
somewhat over half grown, the others apparently mature. The one 
opened for examining the hinge contained no visible embryos. The 
types are in the U. S. Nat. Mus., No. 187491. 


A Giant Squid. — I received a letter to-day (April 2, 1909) from 
Provincetown which contains an item I think should go on record. 
It is as follows: 

" The schooner ' Annie Perry ' found a giant squid off Highland 
Light, Truro, Mass., last week and tried to hoist it on board the 
vessel, but the rope cut the body in half. It was perfectly fresh, and 
the crew took some of it for bait and caught quite a number of fish. 
I saw one of the tentacles which they brought ashore, and it was per- 
fectly fresh then. It was seven feet six inches long, and the suckers 
were as large as a silver quarter. A piece of the body was, I should 
think, four inches in thickness and the tentacles must have been four 
inches in diameter at the larger end." 

The above must be the first record of the giant squid on our coast^ 
although they must exist off shore in deeper water. I have written 
to see if I can secure the beaks or any part to aid in its identification. 

(April 16, 1909.) I have received a little more information in 
regard to the giant squid taken off Highland Light, Truro. A letter 
to-day says: 

" The captain of the vessel who took the squid says it was a very 
little larger than their dory, w-hich is 16 or 17 feet in length. The 
tentacle which they brought ashore was 1^ feet long and had ' sucker 
cups ' the whole length of it." [This would show it was one of the 
shorter tentacles.] " The whole animal was shaped like the common 
squid, that is, the body was not globular like the cuttlefish, but had 
fins or flippers on the tail just like the common squid. The piece 
which I wrote about was cut out of the side, and about four inches 
thick, and the whole body was about as large around (circumference) 


as a fish-barrel. The tentacle was 7^ feet long, four inches thick at 
the big end, and tapering away to a point." 

The above is what was written to me, but my correspondent could 
not get any of the suckers, as the tentacle was thrown away before 
he received my letter J. Henry Blake. 

18 Prentiss St., Cambridge, Mass. 

Dk. Victor Sterki, of New Philadelphia, Ohio, known for his 
work on North American Sphaeriida and Pupillida, has been ap- 
pointed an assistant in conchology in Carnegie Museum, Pittsburg. 
Dr. Sterki's collection became the property of the Museum some 
years ago. 

Ferguson Collection It will no doubt be a matter of in- 
terest to the readers of The Nautilus to know that the large and 
important collection of the late David Wilson Ferguson has been 
presented to Columbia University by his sons, W. C. Ferguson, Esq., 
and Professor George A. Ferguson, of Columbia. A room has been 
assigned for the exhibition of the collection in its entirety. — C. 
Dayton Gwyer. 

The Conchological Magazine. — "With the April number 
(Vol. iii, No. 4), Mr. Y. Hirase has decided to suspend the publica- 
tion of his journal until about May, 1910, when "No. 5, Vol. iii, 
will be sent to you in a finer and larger form." It is to be hoped 
that conchologists will support more generally this valuable publica- 
tion, the plates alone being worth more than its subscription price. 
In the later numbers many new species have been described. 

The August number of The Nautilus will again be omitted, 
owing to the absence of the editors during the greater part of July 
and August. The usual number of pages will be given by increased 
size of other months. 

The latest test when he comes home at 2 a. m. is to make him 
try to sing the chorus of the song : 

She eells eeaBhellB oo the seashore, 
The shells she sells are seashells, I'm sure, 
For if she sells seashells on the seashore, 
Then I'm enre she sells seashore shells. 

If he can, he's all right. 





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The Nautilus. 




These shells were collected by Mr. A. A. Hinkley during the past 
winter, in the state of San Luis Potosi, Mexico. The Panuco river 
system has proved to be unexpectedly rich in fresh-water mollusks, 
having a fine group of Umomdce, a remarkable lot of Pachychili, a 
new genus of PleuroceratidcB, a Gundlachia, and various interesting 
Amnieolida. Among the latter there are several genera unlike any 
known American forms, and related to genera of the Old World. 
I have elsewhere called attention to a little snail found by Mr. 
Hinkley last year, Coilostele tampicoensis, which is closely allied to 
species of Spain, Syria and Arabia, but of a genus not before known 
in the western world. The two genera following, Emmericia and 
Pterides, seem to be similarly allied to European groups, and are 
certainly quite unlike any other American Amnieolida yet known. 


This genus was established by the late Professor Spiridion Brusina, 
of Agram, for a group of fresh -water snails resembling Bithynia in 
shape, but having a paucispiral operculum and a thickened, ex- 
panded lip, behind which there is a rounded ridge or wave. The 
species inhabit Dalmatia and the adjacent region around the head of 
the Adriatic Sea. The commonest and typical species is E. patula 

Several species found in the state of San Luis Potosi by Mr. 
Hinkley are so close to Emmericia in conchological characters that 
I do not feel justified in separating them generically from that group, 


though when the soft parts and operculum come to hand it is quite 
possible that the Mexican snails may prove to be generically distinct 
from the Dalmatian. They differ chiefly by wanting a swelling be- 
hind the expanded lip, and for this reason I erect for them the sub- 
genus Emmericiella, type E. novimundi. 

The Oriental group Tricula Benson, with a few Indian and 
Philippine species, resembles Emmericiella, but the inner lip is 
straightened, making the aperture narrow and piriform. 

Emmericia (Emmericiella) novimundi n. sp. PI. 5, figs. 9, 10. 

The shell is imperforate but openly rimate, rather solid, ovate- 
conic, smooth and glossy. The spire is straightly conic, apex obtuse, 
the tip being depressed. Whorls 4^, convex, separated by rather 
deep sutures ; last whorl well rounded, ascending to the aperture. 
The aperture is oblong, vertical, or has the basal lip a little ad- 
vanced. Peristome continuous, well expanded, thickened on the 
face and within ; the outer lip is just peroeptibly retracted near the 
upper insertion ; basal margin well rounded ; columella concave, 
thick. Parietal callus heavy, adnate, but with distinct edge in fully 
adult shells, spreading forward in front of the aperture. Length 3.1, 
diam. 1.9 mm.; longest axis of aperture, including peristome 1.65 
mm. (fig. 10). 

Bank of Choy River near the cave, State of San Luis Potosi. 

The specimens are bleached ; color in life unknown. These are 
two perfect examples of the same size. With these are associated 
several decidedly larger shells, in which the apex is broken, prob- 
ably one whorl being lost. One of these — figured in profile, fig. 9 — 
measures, length 3.5, aperture 1.9 mm., 4 whorls remaining. 

Emmericia (Emmericiella) longa n. sp. PI. 5, figs. 11, 12. 

The shell resembles E. novimundi but is more shortly rimate, of a 
turrited shape, with 5^ more convex whorls. Aperture is more 
produced forward below, and the parietal callus spreads forward less. 
The outer and basal margins are well expanded. Length 4,1, diam. 
2, longest axis of aperture including lip 1.6 mm. 

Two complete and one broken specimen, found with the preceding 

The new subgenus Emmericiella is proposed for American 
Emmericiae, in which there is no wave or ridge behind the lip-ex- 
pansion, and the columellar margin of the aperture is built forward 



11 12 



more tlian in European forms, forming a conspicuously rimate um- 
bilical region. Type E. novimundi. 

Pterides, n. gen. 

The shell is minute, rimate, long and narrow, composed of many 
convex whorls, (7 to 10 in known species); apex obtuse, the first 
whorl large. Aperture small, diagonal, elliptical, the peristome 
thin, continuous, expanded throughout or at the ends, where it is re- 
tracted to form shallow spout-like sinuses. Operculum and soft parts 
unknown. Type P. pterostoma. 

These remarkable little snails are without relatives among known 
American genera. They may be compared only with a genus found 
about forty years ago in the flood-debris of the rivers of southern 
France and Spain, and described by Bourguignat under the generic 
name Paladilhia,^ and with another group, Laktktia^ described 
from quaternary fossils found around Paris, but now known to inhabit 
subterranean waters and springs of central Europe, where most of the 
German species have been described as Vitrella Clessin. 

Both Pahidilhia and Lartetia are small, slender shells with the 
aperture ovate, the outer lip bending forward below, retracted near 
the upper insertion. In Paladilhia there is a rather narrow, Pleuro- 
tomoid notch above, leaving a sort of indistinct sinus-band; in 
Lartetia there is only a broad, rounded sinus. In my opinion the 
two groups are not generically distinct, Lartetia being at most a 
subgenus ol Paladilhia.^ 

These forms, and especially the Lartetia, are apparently the 
nearest allies of the Mexican Pterides, which differs from them 
chiefly by the diagonal, oblong aperture with broadly expanding lip. 

^Paladilhia Bourguignat, Monographic du Genre Palad., 1865. The type, 
P. pleurotorna Bgt., is a snail measuring 4x2 mm., found in the drift debris of 
the Lez, a little river near Montpellier, dept. de I'H^rault, and believed to in- 
habit subterranean watercourses. 

^Lartetia Bourguignat, Catalogue des Mollusques terrestres et fiuviatiles des 
environs de Paris a I'^poque Quaternaire (in E. Belgrand : Le Seine — 1, Le 
Bassin Parisien aux ages Ant^historiques), pp. 15, 17 (1869). Type L. bel- 
grandi Bgt. 

* The normal forms of the genus are those called Lartetia, Paladilhia being 
an extreme development in one or two species only ; but the latter name has 
priority for the genus, having been described in 1865, while Lartetia dates 
from 1869. 


Pterides pterostoma n. sp. PI. 5, figs. 1, 2, 5, 6. 

The shell is rimate, long and slender, composed of numerous 
slowly increasing, strongly convex whorls. Apex obtuse. Aperture 
diagonal, obliquely oval. Peristome thin, continuous, very broadly 
expanded, retracted and more broadly spreading at the two ends, 
where it is somewhat spout-like. Color unknown, the specimens 
being bleached. 

Length 2.25, diam. of last whorl above aperture .75 mm.; longest 
axis of aperture 1.1 mm.; whorls 7 (figs. 5, 6). 

Length 2.75, diam. above aperture .8, longest axis of aperture 1.2 
mm.; whorls 8| (figs. 1, 2). 

Eight specimens examined. There is considerable variation in 
length and number of whorls. Figs. 5, 6 represent the type. 

Pterides rhabdus n. sp. PI. 5, figs. 3, 4. 

The shell is very slender, slowly tapering to the rather large sum- 
mit, composed of nearly 10 very convex whorls separated by a deep 
suture ; last whorl very convex. Aperture small, elliptical, diag- 
onal, rounded at both ends. Peristome thin, continuous, somewhat 
expanded, deeply sinused above, the parietal margin adnate for a 
short distance. Length 3, diam. above aperture .75, longest axis of 
aperture .7 mm. 

Choy River near the cave, San Luis Potosi, Mexico. 

This species is much narrower than P. pterostoma, with more 
whorls and a smaller aperture. The outer lip may perhaps become 
more expanded with further growth ; if so it would apparently be like 
that of P. pterostoma. Described from a single specimen. While it 
may possibly prove to be an extreme form of P. pterostoma, I do not 
feel justified in uniting such unlike forms without evidence of inter- 

Pterides bisinulabris n. sp. PI. 5, figs. 7, 8. 

The shell is rery slender, slowly tapering from the very obtuse 
apex, composed of 8 smooth, strongly convex whorls, the last half of 
the last whorl free from the preceding. Aperture diagonal, ellipti- 
cal, the peristome continuous, free, thin, hardly expanding except at 
the two ends, where it is retracted, slightly produced and flaring. 
The outer margin is arched a little more than the inner. Length 
2.5, diam. above aperture .7, longest axis of the aperture .65 mm. 





Gannina River, three miles S.-W. of San Dieguito, State of San 
Luis Potosi. A single specimen taken. 

Smaller than P. pterostoma with the last whorl free, the aperture 
sinused at both ends, and the lip hardly expanded. 



Macroceramus hendersoni n. sp. PI. 4, fig. 5. 

The shell is perforate, conic-turrited, thin, the last 5 whorls 
corneous-brown, profusely and finely mottled with opaque white, 
with a series of irregular, lengthened brown spots at the periphery, 
showing abovt the suture on the spire ; first 2^ whorls blackish- 
brown, the next two dark, broadly maculate with white. Surface 
glossy, the first 4 whorls smooth, the rest closely and finely striate, 
the striae low, as wide as their intervals, and very oblique. The 
spire is straightly conic, apex rather acute. Whorls 11, slightly 
convex, separated by a smooth suture, the last whorl well rounded 
peripherally and beneath. Aperture very oblique, ovate, marked 
with brown inside. Peristome expanded and reflexed, yellow or 
pale red. Columella brown, short, dilated, and having a rather 
strong but short fold above. Parietal callus transparent. The in- 
ternal axis is slender and distinctly twisted spirally. 

Length 19, diam. 9.5, length of aperture 8 mm. 

Length 20, diam. 9.8, length of aperture 8 mm. 

Length 18, diam. 9.5, length of aperture 8 mm. 

Sierra de Cubitas, Camaguey, Cuba. 

This species is very distinct from all others now known, differing 
from the canimarensis group by the total absence of a basal carina, 
and from the forms prevalent in Eastern Cuba by its thin texture, 
sculpture and coloration. It is one of the largest and finest of the 
Cuban species. 

The coloration is very well shown in the figure. Besides the 
profuse and fine mottling with white there are occasional longitudinal 
white flames, bordered on the left side with dark, unmarked spaces. 

Chondropoma hendersoni n. sp. PI. 4, fig. 6. 

The shell is umbilicate, conic-turrite, narrowly truncate, rather 
solid. Last four whorls rather closely and subregularly marked 


with slightly oblique stripes of red-brown, ochre, blue aiul white, the 
base red with white radial streaks ; when whorls above the last four 
are retained they are scarlet with some white streaks. 

The surface is glossy, with traces of fine, nearly effaced growth- 
striae, and under close inspection some widely spaced lines may be 
seen, indicating periodicity in growth. Spiral sculpture consists of 
fine, distinct but low spiral threads, larger ones at intervals : 4, 5, or 
6 smaller striae between the larger ; around the umbilicus the striae 
are coarser, alternately larger, and latticed by tlie growth-striae. 
Above the penultimate whorl the spirals are subequal. The spire is 
straightly conic, with 4 whorls below the tongue-shaped apical sep- 
tum ; but an empty whorl or more persists above the septum. The 
whorls are strongly convex, separated by a smooth, simple and deep 
suture, which close to the aperture descends a little more rapidly, the 
last whorl becoming free there for a short distance. The aperture is 
vertical, slightly longer than wide ; the outer side more convex than 
the inner; reddish-brown inside. Peristome thin, the inner half 
nearly white, outer half brown-tinted ; broadly reflexed throughout, 
a little retracted above and below, slightly produced in a short lobe 
above. Operculum unknown. 

Length 25, diam. 15.5 mm.; aperture with perist. 12 mm. long.; 
4 whorls remaining. 

Length 27, diam. 15 mm.; aperture with perist. 12 mm. long., 5 
wliorls remaining. 

Sierra del Anc6n, northwest of Vinales, prov. Pinar del Rio, Cuba. 

This magnificent species is related to C hamlini var. major Crosse 
(Jour, de Conchyl., 1890, p. 300, pi. v, f. 6 a, b). but that is a far 
smaller shell, length about 17 mm., with chestnut-brown streaks ex- 
tending upon the base. The figure in black and white gives a poor 
idea of the beautiful coloring of this shell, which is named in honor 
of my friend, John B. Henderson, Jr. 



Helicina torrei n. sp. PI. 4, figs. 1, 2, 3. 

The shell is depressed, very solid, the last whorl cream-white, 
gradually changing on the penultimate to sulphur-yellow, the color 



of the spire. The surface is lusterless, with sculpture of strongly 
raised, rough spiral ridges parted by much wider concave intervals. 
On the last whorl there are 18 such ridges, stronger and more 
widely separated in the peripheral region. The intervals are 
obliquely roughly striate, and the wider ones above the periphery 
have also a few spiral threads. Six spiral ridges show on the pen- 
ultimate whorl. They gradually become weaker on the spire. The 
embryonic whorl is rather large (2 mm. diam ), and smooth except 
for faint radial stria?. Whorls 4, rapidly widening, almost flat, the 
last whorl descends shortly to tlie aperture, and is convex beneath. 
Aperture large, flaring, strongly oblique, white with a trace of yel- 
low within. The peristome is well expanded, thickened within 
some distance from the edge. There is a transverse tubercle at the 
junction of columella and basal lip. The axial callus is pure white, 
not very thick, spreading within nearly to the outer termination of 
the lip. Edge of parietal callus is very thin. 

Alt. 15.5, diam. 26.5 mm. 

Operculum calcareous, shining, bluish-white with iridescent 
lights, reddish on margins and densely covered with minute granules 
separated by species of about equal width. 

Collected by T. Wayland Vaughan at Los Negros, 25 miles 
southeast of Bayamo in the province of Oriente, Cuba, in woods on 
low limestone hills. 

This superb species I take pleasure in naming after Dr. Carlos 
de la Torre of Havana. 

Cepolis alauda cymatia n. subsp. PI. 4, fig. 4. 

The shell closely resembles C. alauda avellanea (F^r.) in texture 
and coloration, but differs by its more elevated, more conic spire, 
and by having a strong oblique crest behind the lip. Alt. 24, diam. 
28 mm.; whorls 5^. 

Cuba ; exact locality of the type unknown. 

This well-marked variety, not uncommon in collections, appears 
hitherto to have escaped observation. I have no doubt that in a 
critical revision ot the Coryda group this form will be given spe- 
cific rank. 




It has long been known that B. armifera is variable with respect 
to some of its features, but it seems that no attempt has been made 
to ascertain whether there are any real, tangible varieties. Careful 
examination of about 2,000 specimens from many places,* during the 
last few months, has proved that, after eliminating B. clappi as a 
distinct species, there are several vrell-marked varieties, with features 
which are of interest also in a general way. 

B. armifera (Say) typical.* Shell more or less fusiform, decid- 
edly short to rather elongate and slender, vitreous, colorless to very 
pale horn, or slightly milky-white; surface shining, with compara- 
tively coarse, irregular striae; whorls 6|^-8, the average being about 
7, the last somewhat rounded, keel-like, at the base, somewhat flat- 
tened over the palate, usually with a distinct, linear scar over the 
lower palatal plica; aperture rather large, rounded, peristome well 
everted, continuous, or its ends approximate, often with a connecting 
callus; inside the palate a rather strong, white callus into which the 
palatal plicae merge; parieto-angular lamellae rather large and long, 
distinctly complex, the angular connecting with the peristome, the 
spur * of the parietal small but distinct; columellar massive, encircling 
the column, with an annex downward and inward ; inferior col- 
umellar variable as to size, shape and position, sometimes a mere 
callus, often wanting ; lower palatal plica regular, rather long, stout, 
upper palatal much shorter and smaller; suprapalatal distinct or slight 
or wanting ; an interpalatal is not infrequent. 

Alt. 3.5-5, average 4-4.5, diam. 2.2-2.5 mm. 

Distributed over the whole area covered by the species. 

B. a. interpres, n. var. Near the typical form, generally some- 
what slender; inferior columellar lam. rather high up, the base is 
narrow inside and more keel-like outside; the aperture is narrowly 
rounded at the base, and from this feature specimens are easily rec- 
ognized. More than any other form this shows clearly that the 
so-called " basal " is really an inferior columellar. 

'There are 160 entries in my collection of B. armifera and varieties, and 
many others were received for examination. 

' Dr. Pilsbry had the kindness to look up Say's original specimens in the 
collection of the Phila. Acad., and wrote me that they are of this form. 

» See The Nautilub, XXII, p. 108, foot-note. 


Distribution: Southern, especially southwestern; it appears to be 
the prevalent form in Kansas, Arkansas, Oklahoma, and thus repre- 
sents a geographical variety. 

B. a. iimilis, n. var. Averaging somewhat smaller; more cylin- 
drical, often more or less conical; whorls less convex; surface striae 
slighter; shell generally more milky-whitish, as noticed especially 
when a number of each, armifera and similis, are placed side by side; 
peristome never continuous, somewhat less everted; the columellar 
lam. is slighter, generally more protracted downward, the lower 
palatal is shorter, sometimes quite short; the spur of the parietal is 

Distribution; Northern New York to Iowa, Minnesota, Ontario. 

£. a. affinis, n. var. Somewhat small and slight; near similis, but 
less cylindrical, rather somewhat oblong; whorls 6-6^, somewhat 
more convex than in similis., the last rounded at the base and little 
flattened over the palate, with none or a slight scar over the lower 
palatal plica; aperture somewhat rounded, peristome never continu- 
ous; parieto-angular lam. well connected with the peristome, spur of 
the parietal larger than in typical armifera; columellar nearly axial, 
a broad lamella, reaching down to the base, with distinct lines of 
growth, visible from the outside through the (fresh) shell below the 
umbilicus, as in B. contracta ; inferior columellar wanting or smalll 
lower palatal quite short, or even a transverse, short, abrupt lamella. 

Alt. 3.5-4, diam. 2.2-3 mm. 

Distribution: Northern Ohio, Michigan, Indiana to Minnesota 
and Kansas; seems rather scarce in the first-named States, common 
in Kansas. Found, e. g., on sandy dunes on Lake Erie in Ohio. 

It is notable and significant that both the columellar and the lower 
palatal in this form are of the same shape as in B. contracta, while 
in typical armifera they are quite different, yet the latter shows a 
tendency to having the peristome continuous, while in affinis its ends 
are always apart. 

B. a. abbreviata, n. var. Averaging rather small, slight, some- 
what fusiform to ovate or cylindro-conical; apex low, conical or 
rounded; whorls only 5^-6 (rarely 6^), little convex, with the penul- 
timate comparatively broader than in the other forms, the last 
rounded at the base, slightly flattened over the palate; color some- 
what milky-whitish; surface with a dullish gloss, striae fine and slight; 
aperture somewhat small; peristome moderately everted, its ends (in 


mo8t forms) comparatively far apart ; lamellae and plicae : parieto- 
angular not or slightly connecting with the peristome, spur small; 
columellar rather as in typical armifera, but smaller, slighter; infe- 
rior columellar tooth-like, placed obliquely, more constant than in 
other forms as to size, shape and position; lower palatal regular but 
slight, often rather short; suprapalatal rather constant. 

Alt. 3.3—3.8, rarely 4-4.2, diam. 1.9-2.2 mm.; some specimens are 
low, almost globular, e. g., alt. 3.2, diam. 2.1 mm. 

Numerous specimens seen from Bismarck, N. D.; Eastport, la. 
(Missouri River drift); Lincoln, Neb.; Nickerson, Kans. 

As B. a. ruidosensis, Prof. T. D. A. Cockerell ^ has denoted a 
form from New Mexico: "Shell only 4 mm. long, with the two 
outer teeth a considerable distance within the aperture." The de- 
scription is somewhat meagre, but the variety may stand on its 
merits. There are, however, specimens from various places of New 
Mexico with the lower palatal plica rather short and rather remote 
from the margin, the columellar rather simple and comparatively 
small; alt. 3.8-4.2 mm.; they may be of ruidogensit. 

The interrelations of these forms will be discussed elsewhere, and 
figures given. 

B. armifera appeared to be rather well known, being the largest 
of the genus, fairly common over a wide territory, and probably the 
one best represented in collections. Yet a closer study of its forms 
has shown some interesting facts with respect to morphology, phy- 
logeny and distribution. As Mr. Clapp expressed it, with a view to 
this variation and the externally similar B. clappi : " We can no 
longer say that a Bifidaria is simply armifera because it is big and 



In the " American Journal of Science " for June, 1909, pp. 475- 
484, Dr. K. J. Bush reviews my paper on the "PyramidellidaB of 
New England and the Adjacent Region," and discusses in a general 

1 The Nadtilus, XIII, p. 36. The specimen referred to is not at hand, and 
I cannot remember exactly what it was. The type is in coll. Acad. Nat. 



way a number of other papers upon the same group published by 
Dr. Dall and myself, as well as some of her own and of Prof. Ver- 
rill's works upon the family. 

In this contribution quite a number of facts are presented, which 
are at variance with the data at my disposal. I am forced to pub- 
lish the following notes in order that there may be no misunderstand- 


It is a great pity that Dr. Bush did not publish the manuscript 
she prepared in 1896. As it is, the MS. names have no standing 
and cannot enter into the discussion of the present work. 

I was not aware that Dr. Bush was working upon this group at 
the time 1 prepared my manuscript, her last publication upon it hav- 
ing appeared nine years ago, nor was I aware that Dr. Bush had seen 
Mr. Winkley's material, which was incorporated in my report, as 
was implied in her review. I wish likewise to disclaim any intended 
discourtesy in not acknowledging Dr. Bush's work in my intro- 
duction, for I considered both of her papers as extralimital. The 
one dealt with Carolinian, Floridian, West Indian and South Amer- 
ican species (with a reference to Turhonilla interrupta Totten); the 
other with Bermudan forms. 

The matter of classification is so fully discussed in the monograph 
on the West American Pyramidellidae by Dr. Dall and myself now 
going through the press, that I shall not refer to any of the state- 
ments concerning it here, but will refer any one interested in the 
subject to the forthcoming volume. I will say, however, that 
Pyrgostelis (which has no standing) was never used by us, Dr. Bush 
notwithstanding, and that Triptychus and Peristichia are Pyramidel- 
lid ; they have a sinistral nucleus and columellar folds, the family 
characters of the group. Here also I may say that Dr. Bush is in 
error when she states that Dr. Dall and myself furnished the text on 
the mollusks in Dr. Arnold's paper on the Paleontology and Strati- 
graphy of the marine Pliocene alid Pleistocene of California : Mem. 
Cala. Acad., Ill, 1903. We contributed only that part which deals 
with the Pyramidellidge. 

I believe that all of the present differences of opinion could have 
been avoided if Dr. Verrill had yielded to my request and had sent 
me specimens of what he considered typical representatives of 
some of the older species as well as some of those described by him- 
self. All of the early collections of northeastern American marine 


invertebrates were placed in Professor Verrill's charge by the U. S. 
Bureau of Fisheries for report, and have been in his care until very 
recently, when most of them were returned to the custody of the 
U. S. National Museum. It would seem only natural that I should 
have had specimens for comparison ; first, because they represented 
government material reported upon, and, secondly, because when 
Miss Bush was at work upon her southern report, Dr. Dall furn- 
ished her with cotypes and authentic material as requested, and as 
duly acknowledged in her report. 

I neither had nor have any desire to enter into a controversy with 
any one concerning these old species, the original descriptions of 
which in some instances are so poor that it is scarcely possible to re- 
fer them to the proper subgenus, and which in most cases might be 
applied to almost any member of a subgenus. No types are extant, 
some having been burned in the Chicago and Portland fires and 
others lost. 

There is only one of two ways open in dealing with such names, 
viz., to place them as " sedes incertae," or to fix them to some known 
species. The latter method was adopted by Prof. Verrill, and I 
attempted as far as it was in my power to follow his diclum, the only 
logical method under the circumstances. 

The subgenus Eulimella will have to be dropped from our New 
England list, now that Dr. Bush has been able to show that the two 
specimens identified by Prof. Verrill as Eulimella ventricosa Forbes, 
are TurboniUa (Ptycheulimella) polita (Verrill) and AcUs tenuis 
Verrill. I have seen no specimens of Eulimella from New England, 
and quoted it on Dr. Verrill's authority as stated. 

Pyramidella [Syriiold) smithii Verrill has only a single fold on the 
columella, hence is a Syrnola ; not a Eulimella, which has two folds. 

I have seen C. B. Adams' types at Amherst College, and feel no 
need of changing my statement regarding Pyramidella (Syrnola) 
fusca and producta. I agree with Dr. Bush that they are not typi- 
cal Syrnolas ; that is why I placed the ? after Syrnola. It is quite 
probable that these two species and /S".? winkleyi may belong to a new 
group, but I have refrained from giving it a name until some knowl- 
edge of the animal might be obtained.' These are by no means 
Odostomias, but are nearest to if not exactly congeneric with Syrnola. 

My TurboniUa (TurboniUa) nivea Stimpson, was an acceptance of 
Professor Verrill's interpretation of that species. The specimen listed 


as cat. no. 45481 U. S. N. M., from station 949, off Martha's Vin- 
yard, 1881, was determined by him, and the others which I listed, 
were carefully compared with it and was found absolutely conspecific. 

As to Turhonilla (Turbonilla) striata Verrill, I must again say that 
I followed Prof. Verrill's dictum ; the 15 specimens listed as cat. no. 
62340 U. S. N. M., from Naushon gutters, 1883, were determined 
by him, like the 11 entered under cat. no. 203815 U. S. N. M., from 
Naushon, 1883, the two last being part of the material recently re- 
turned, and the other two lots listed are absolutely conspecific with 
these, I am therefore at a loss to understand how I could possibly 
have erred in the interpretation of the species. 

I have no additional data concerning Turhonilla (Chemnitzia) 
aqualis Say. 

Turhonilla (^Strioturbonilla) hushiana Verrill, will have to remain in 
this subgenus. It falls well within Sacco's definition : " Testa sicut 
in Turhonilla (stricto sensu), sed transversim striolae parvillimae 
(sub lente vix visibiles) plerumque tantum in spatiis intercostalibus, 
interdum etiam supra costas decurrentes saepe suboblitae. Costae lon- 
gitudinales basim versus gradatim evanescentes. Costicilla circum- 
basalis nulla. Testae basis subrotunda." 

Page 481. I shall reserve my judgment regarding Turhonilla 
{Pyrgiscus) areolata Verrill, until I have had the opportunity to 
make comparisons with the type. I may say, however, that the 
afiinity of our specimens are not with Turhonilla {Pyrgiscus) vina, 
as suggested by Dr. Bush, but with Turhonilla (Pyrgiscus) elegans 

The most interesting part of the whole review comes under the 
head " Turhonilla interrupta (Totten) Bush, 1899, pp. 148-151." 

Of this species Dr. Bush gives her own interpretation, and empha- 
sises her opinion with a figure of what she considers the true " in- 
terrupta Totten " — stating that " the specimen described (p. 87), 
and figured by Bartsch, unfortunately does not agree with this, 
therefore I would distinguish it as Turhonilla pseudointerrupta, new 

There is only one fault with Dr. Bush's deductions, namely, that 
our figure and description were based upon the same individual which 
has served for her figure of typical interrupta. The figured speci- 
men from Sta. 770, Narragansett Bay, in 8 fms., dredged in 1880, 
is now entered under cat. no. 202889 U. S. N. M. It came to us in 


1907, when a large part of the Bureau of Fisheries collection in 
Dr. Verrill's charge was turned over to the U. S. National Museum, 
and bears the legend, " Sta. 770, Figured, T. interrupta Totten," in 
Dr. Bush's handwriting. The name Turhonilla pseudointerrupta 
Bush, is therefore superfluous. 

Dr. Bush states that Odostomia bushiana Bartsch, is preoccupied 
by Odostomia bushiana Jeffreys, 1884. 1 have been unable to find 
any such name. The only reference to bushiana by Jeffries in 1884, 
that I know, is to Turbonilla bushiana Verrill. 

I am not in position to give any opinion upon what Dr. Bush's 
young shell from Woods Holl may be, but I do know that our shell is 
an Odostomia belonging to the subgenus lolcea. lolcea, like Menes- 
tho, from which it is distinguished by having an umbilicus, is quite 
variable in its strength of sculpture. Odostomia (lolcBa) hendersoyii 
Bartsch, is neither the type species nor the norm, of lolcea, but comes 
well within its definition. It does not belong to the same family to 
which Aclis belongs. 

A single specimen of Phasianella sulcosa Mighels, was found by 
Mighels in Casco Bay. It was described in 1843, Bost. Journ. Nat. 
Hist., IV, p. 358, PI. XVI, f. 4, and later doubtfully referred to 
Rissoella by Stimpson. It is quite probable that it really belongs to 
Menestho, the subgenus of Odostomia, which it resembles in sculp- 
ture, but no plication is shown or mentioned on the columella, and 
nothing is said of the nucleus. The lack of positive data concerning 
these characters kept me from referring it to the Pyramidellidfe. 

I would be pleased to know upon what grounds Dr. Bush bases 
her contention of ihe synonymy of Phasianella sulcosa Mighels, and 
Odostomia {Menestho) sulcata Verrill ; for Mighels' description and 
figure are entirely different from Professor Verrill's description, and 
Dr. Bush's figure of Odostomia (Menestho) sulcata Verrill. 

Phasianella sulcosa Mighels, is represented much more inflated 
than Odotto7nia (Menestho) sulcataYerr'iW. P. sulcosa Mighels, has 
three incised spiral grooves between the sutures on each whorl, and 
three or four on the base, while Odostomia (Menestho) sulcata Ver- 
rill is represented as having five spiral grooves between the sutures 
and nine upon the base. A glance at the two figures alone is enough 
to convince one that they are not at all specifically related, and this 
deduction is verified by the description. I do not believe that the 
author of the latter species would agree to have his species put under 


the synonymy of Mighels' Phasianella. sulcosa. Under these circum- 
stances, Odostomia (Menestho) morseana will have to do duty as stated 
in my text, p. 104, 

I object emphatically to the lumping of Odostomia bisuturalis Say 
and 0. trifida Totten, In the 1700 and more specimens that I have 
seen, I have no difficulty whatever in distinguishing them. It is true 
that trifida sometimes has the three suprasutural grooves poorly de- 
veloped, but I have never seen them completely absent, as is the case 
with bisuturalis. 

I also deny that there is any special relationship between Odos- 
tomia (^Menestho) bedequensis and Odostomia (Menestho) impress a Say. 
The relationship of Odostomia (Menestho) trifida and Odostomia 
(Menestho) trifida bedequensis I believe is parallel to that between 
O. (M.) bisuturalis and 0. (M.) bisuturalis ovilensis. 

Dr. Bush questions whether I intended to use the word " spiral " 
in the fourth line of my description of Odostomia (Menestho) impressa 
Say. I did. " Spiral" is correct. 

The specimen described and figured by me as Odostomia ( Odosto- 
mia) modesta Stimpson, will have to be cited as Odostomia (^Odosto- 
mia) gibbosa Bush. 

Dr. Bush states (p. 482, last paragraph), " that the shell which 
is referred to Odostomia (Odostomia) dealbata Stimpson," is not the 
same as fig. 595, given in Binney-Gould, p. 327;" of the latter she 
says : " This, as indicated in a marginal note, represents a much 
larger and different species, which may be called 0. gotddii, new 
name." Unfortunately, the name Odostomia gouldii was used by 
Dr. Carpenter in 1865, Ann. Mag. Nat. Hist., 3rd ser., XV., p. 
30, for a West American species, and can therefore not serve in the 
present instance. 

Summing up Dr. Bush's review I must say that nearly all the 
questions raised in it could have been settled better by correspond- 
ence than by discussion in print. It is somewhat unfortunate that 
Dr. Bush should not have published her paper written thirteen 
years ago, but I cannot see how this can now be helped. I have given 
all my spare time to this group since 1897, and hope, now that the 
West Coast is cleared up, to consider the Atlantic side of America. 

The field is much larger than any one, who has given it less atten- 
tion, would imagine. My card catalogue of described forms contains 
somewhere between "2,500 and 3,000 names, including recent and 
fossil species. 



ViviPARUS IN Philadelphia — A find which may be of interest 
to readers of the Nautilus was made by the undersigned a few 
weeks ago near Horticultural Hall in Fairmount Park. The species 
was Viviparus contectus (Mill.). It has not before been reported 
from Philadelphia, and as far as I know not from the State. The 
females were larger than the males and outnumbered them. Most 
of the adult females were pregnant. The sex was determined in 14 
males and 39 females. In 18 specimens it could not be determined 
readily. The specimens are in my own collection and that of the 
Academy of Natural Sciences. The lily pond in which they were 
collected had just been restocked with plants, and Mr. Pilsbry, to 
whom I owe the identification, suggested that the snails had been 
introduced on the plants. Two years ago they were unknown in 
the same pond. — Joshua T. Baily, Jr. 

We have to announce the death, July 28th, at Los Angeles, Cal., 
of Dr. R. E. C. Stearns, in his 82d year. Also, of Mr. William G. 
Binney, on July 25th, at his home, 222 East Union St., Burling- 
ton, N. J. 


A Preliminary List of the Unionid^ of Western Penn- 
sylvania, with New Localities for Species from Eastern 
Pennsylvania. By Dr. A. E. Ortmann (Annals of the Carnegie 
Museum, Vol. V, pp. 178-210, 1909). An interesting review on 
the geographical distribution of the Unionida in Pennsylvania. 
Some 46 species are recorded from the Ohio River drainage, 17 
from the Lake Erie drainage, and 14 from the Atlantic drainage. 

The Destruction of the Fresh-water Fauna in Western 
Pennsylvania. By Dr. A. E. Ortmann (Proc. Amer. Phil. 
Soc, Vol. 48, pp. 90-110, 1909). A paper of general interest to 
all zoologists, showing clearly with the aid of a map the great 
changes which have taken place in comparatively few years. Situ- 
ated in the great oil and coal region, this section has suffered more 
than areas where the streams are only polluted by the sewage of the 
large towns and cities. 

Shells of Maine, a Catalogue of the Land, Fresh-water 
AND Marine Shells of Maine. By Norman Wallace Ler- 
MOND. An up-to-date list of the shells of Maine, containing 403 
species and 38 varieties, with the principal synonymy and their dis- 
tribution. The introduction contains a review of the work done by 
previous authors and others. Privately printed by the author at 
Thomaston, Maine. 

The Nautilus. 

Vor>. XXIII. OCTOBER, 1909. No. 6 



Bela blaneyi, sp. nov. Fig. 1. 

Type locality — South of Egg Rock buoy in about 30 fathoms 
mud and gravel, Frenchman's Bay, Maine. 

Two dead specimens dredged by Mr. Blaney were recently sent 
me for identification. They are of especial interest as they prove to 
be unlike any species hitherto known from the American waters. 
The only one which they at all resemble is the Bela incisula Verrill 
(Transactions of the Connecticut Academy of Arts and Sci3nces, 
vol. V, p. 461, pi. xliii, fig. 12 and pi. Ivii, fig. 14, 1882). 

Fig. 1. Bela blaneyi. 

They differ from that species in having more elongated whorls and 
therefore appear more slender. 'I'he ribs are very little raised and 
are indicated rather by the deepened interspaces than by being raised 
above the general surface level along the shoulder which is roundly 
angulated; on some portions of the whorls these ribs blend entirely 


with the sinuous lines of growth. The smaller specimen of four (4) 
whorls is destitute of spiral lines, either raised or incised, but the 
larger one of five (5) whorls has about fifteen (15) very faint incised 
spiral lines on the body whorl commencing well below the shoulder 
and are so shallow as to scarcely interrupt the otherwise smooth 
surface; there are also occasional faint indications of one or two 
spirals just above the suture on the preceding whorl. The one and 
one-half (1.5) nuclear whorls are well rounded and apparently 
smooth (this may be due to erosion) and regularly coiled. The- 
epidermal layer has a delicate yellow tint. 

The larger specimen measures 7 mm. in length by 3.5 mm. in 
width. The smaller, 5.5 mm. in length by 3 mm. in width. 

I take much pleasure in naming the species in the honor of Mr. 
and Mrs. Dwight Blaney, of Boston, Mass., and Ironbound Island, 
Maine who have long been enthusiastic collectors and students of 
New England mollusks and have added much to our knowledge 
of the fauna. 

Tale University, September, 1909. 



The following list of additions to the shell-bearing Mollusks of 
Frenchman's Bay, is supplementary to the lists published in 1904 
and 1906. (Proc. Bost. Soc. Nat. Hist., Vol. 32, No. 2, pp. 28-4U 
and Nautilus, Vol. XIX, No. 10, p. 110). The writer is in- 
debted to Dr. K. J. Bush and Mr. C. W. Johnson for the identifi- 
cation of the various species. 

Leda caudata, Loven. One fine specimen. 

Odostomia sulcosa (Mighels):= O. sulcata Verrill. (See K. J. 
Bush, Am. Journal Sci., Vol. XXVII, p. 475, 1909.) 

"We have dredged 20 specimens of this interesting species, the 
largest being 4 mm. long. Some with the distinct upturned nucleus 
most perfect. 

Odostomia dealbata (Stimp.) Six specimens. 

Beh, decussnta var. pusilla Verrill. (Trans. Conn. Acad. Vol. 
V, 1882, p. 481). A fine series dredged off Egg Rock. 

Note. — Among our large series of B. incisula V., we have found 



considerable variation in the longitudinal sculpture, and have been 
able to arrange good series of a form without any longitudinal ribs, 
which seems worthy of being a good variety ; we have also arranged 
a good series of an intermediate form showing numerous ribs which 
grade into the typical form as described and figured by Prof. Verrill. 
(Trans. Conn. Acad., Vol. V, p. 461, pi. xliii, fig. 12.) We have 
good examples of the very young of all three forms, showing the sub- 
nucular whorls forming the characteristic sculpture. 

Bela hlaneyi Bush. Two specimens, one immature and one 
adult, (see previous article). 

Philine lima (Brown) = P. lineolata Stimp. Two specimens 
dredged off Egg Rock, one alive. 

Retusa obtusa Montg. var. turrita Moller. Six specimens. 

Note We have been able this season to dredge fine specimens, 

both valves, of Pecten islandicus (Miiller.), Serripes granlandicvs 
-(Gmelin), Panomya norregica (Spengler), Cyrtodaria siliqua 
(Chem.), and Gochlodesma leanum (Conrad). Of all of which we 
had previously dredged only single valves. 



ZONITOIDES BERMUDENSIS n. sp. Fig. la, b, C, d. 

The shell is broadly umbilicate, much depressed, with low convex 
spire and rounded periphery, glossy, yellow. First 1^ whorls corn- 
eous, smooth, the rest distinctly, rather irregularly striate, the base 
a little smoother. Under thi^ compound microscope very faint traces 
of minute spiral striae may be seen, chiefly on the uppei* surface. 
Whorls 5^, convex, slowly increasing, the last less convex below 
than in the peripheral region ; the umbilicus perspective, broadly 
open, one-third the total diameter of the shell. Aperture lunate, 
wider than high, but not much wider than the umbilicus. 

Alt. 2.3, diam. 5.7 mm.; width of umbilicus 1.8, aperture 2 mm. 

Church Cave, near Tuckers' Town, Bermuda. Types no, 91,1.)2, 
A. N, S, P., collected by Mr, Stewardson Brown, 1905 and 1909. 

This species has more whorls and a smaller apex than Z. excavata 
(Bean), it is more depressed, the last whorl is less convex beneath, 
and the umbilicus is larger. Z. arhorea (Say) has invariably a 



much smaller umbilicus tlian the Bermudian species, which is more 
depressed than Z.^itida, with a more open and perspective umbilicus. 
This shell is abundant a,t the place mentioned, where it is asso- 
ciated with numerous other land shells, most of them native species. 
We have been unable to find any foreign species to which this may 
be referred. It seems to be indigenous. The generic reference ha& 
been verified by examination of the dentition, which has teeth of the 
type usual in Zonitoides. There are 6 lateral and about 17 marginal 
teeth (fig. \d). The jaw is smooth, with a low median projection 
(fig. Ic). We found no dart in the two dried specimens examined^ 
but this may have been due to their condition. 

Fig. 1. Zonitoides bermudensis. 
Kaliella turbinata (Gulick). 

Euconulus turhinatus Gulick, Proe. A. N. S. Phila., 1904, p. 
420, pi. 36, figs. 8, 9, 10. 

This species is abundant at Church Cave. An examination of the 
radula shows it to be a typical Kaliella. It resembles the Indian 
K. fastigiata (Hutton), but is distinct from that and all other known 
Indian species, according to Lieut. -Col. Godwin Austen, who kindly 
compared specimens with his great series of oriental species. 

K. turbinata was described from sub-fossil examples from the 
lime-rock quarries. It is therefore not a recent importation; yet 
the presence of this oriental genus in Bermuda can hardly be 
accounted for except by the supposition of introduction with plants 
during the period of human occupation. 





The shell is very minute, slightly rimate, thin, pale yellowish 
corneous, smooth, slender, regularly tapering from the last whorl to 
the very obtuse summit. Whorls 4^, moderately convex. Aper- 
ture semi-rotund, subvertical, the peristome continuous, inner margin 
nearly straight, the outer regularly curved. Length 1.5, diam. 6.5, 
length aperture .55 mm. 

Types No. 99041, A. N. S. P., from Fairyland, near Hamilton, 
Bermuda, near the shore, collected by Mr. Stewardson Brown, asso- 
ciated with Melampus coffea and Jlavus, Leuconia occidentalis Ptr., 
Blauneria, Alexia, Detracia, Pedipes, Oarychium, CcBcilioides, Biji- 
daria, Thysanophora, Polygyra microdonta, and many other land 

Fig. 1. 

Fig. 2. 

This tiny snail has the appearance of the terrestrial genus Acme. 
It is apparently a shore shell, as it was not found with any typically 
marine forms. It seems to be most closely related to the Medi- 
teranean and Adriatic R. epidaurica Brusina, from which it differs 
by the more slender contour, more tapering spire and more convex 
whorls." R. epidaurica is decidedly more' cylindrical. For com- 
parison a figure is given (fig. 2) of a specimen of R. epidaurica re- 
ceived from Professor Brusina, from Ragusa, Dalmatia (No. 59,- 
898 A. N. S. P.) R. glahrata Muhlf. is more conical than 
stewardsoni, with the aperture more rounded. 





Mussel slightly inequipartite, high, well and regularly inflated, 
outlines along the valve edges well rounded to subcircular; posterior 
part higher and somewhat larger than the anterior, often subtruncate 
and with a slight postero-inferior angle; beaks little anterior, rather 
narrow, calyculate or plain, prominent; somewhat inclined towards 
the anterior; surface distinctly rugulose, dullish or somewhat shining, 
with comparatively coarse, sharp, subregular, crowded concentric 
striae and some faint, shallow, irregular radial striae; color horn to 
grayish or reddish, with one to a few narrow, darker zones along the 
lin'is of growth, straw to light yellowish in the young, and in mar- 
ginal zones becoming obsolete in old specimens; sliell thin, sul)trans- 
lucent to opaque, hinge well curved, slight, cardinal teeth small, thin, 
laterals with short cusps; ligament rather short, covered; scutum and 
scutellum slightly but distinctly marked, rather long. 

Long. 8.5, alt. 7.8, diam. 5.4 mm. 

Soft parts not examined. 

Habitat: Old Orchard, Me.; vicinity of Danvers, Mass. 

M. winkleyi is not a variety or local form of some other species, 
but markedly different and decidedly distinct. It has some resem- 
blance to forms of M. securis Pr., but is higher, with more rounded 
outlines, the hinge margin is more curved, tiie difference of size and 
shape between the anterior and posterior parts is less marked; in 
securis the posterior part is more truncate and less obliqut'ly so to 
the dorso-ventral line. All these differences are especially well 
marked in half-grown specimens. 

It is somewhat variable: some specimens seen (years ago) from 
Old Orchard were 10 and 10.5 mm. long; those seen from Uanvers 
are somewhat smaller and slighter, with slighter surface strias, some 
of them of a little more angular outlines posteriorly. 

The type lot is No. 1396 of my collection of SphcBriidce,'^ from Old 
Orchard, Me.,^ collected and sent in 1896 by the Rev. H. W. Wink- 

* Now of the Carnegie Museum. 

" There is no doubt that specimens from the same place are in various other 
collections as M. securis cardissum or as " ?." 



ley, in whose honor the species is named, and who has collected 
specimens of ail stages of growth at various places in the vicinity of 
Danvers (Nos. 5343, 5355, 5356). 


Siiell small, inequipartite, oblique, medium inflated ; margins gen- 
erally rounded, or with a slightly marked angle at the junction of 
the superior margin with the obliquely subtruncate posterior ; anter- 
ior part of the mussel much smaller than the posterior ; beak some- 
what anterior, little prominent, broad, calyculate or plain (form 
aestivalis) ; surface shining, with slight, irregular striae; shell very 
thin and fragile, transparent to translucent, colorless to pale corn- 
eous ; hinge very slight, cardinal teeth nearly straight longitudinally, 
the left posterior above the anterior, which is strongly curved up. 

Soft parts colorless (except for the tan of the liver), also the 
siphons and mantle edges ; siphons short, very shortly connected 
when extended, the branchial wide ; foot strongly folded at the sole, 
when emerging.' 

Long. 4.7, alt. 4, diam. 2.8 mill, (average). 

Habitat : Ohio ; a swamp near Uhrichsville ; also in Stark and 
Summit Counties, collected by the writer, 1906-'09. Types no. 
5408 of my collection of Sphieriidae. 

The first specimens were doubtfully ranged under M. securis Pr.; 
but with the latest ones, and their soft parts, it became evident that 
they are distinct ; they are smaller, the superior margin is less 
curved, the posterior is more rounded and more oblique, the surface 
shining, the shell colorless, while in securh it is generally yellow ; 
the siphons are mucli shorter and very shortly connected, colorless; 
in securis they are yellow to orange or salmon or reddish. — M. sphar- 
icum Anth., so far as known,'^ is larger, the beaks are narrow and 
much more prominent. 

^This may not be a specific feature. 

2 The two specimens (four loose valves, the third in the lot is a young 
Spkserium occidentale Pr.), in the T. Prime collection, No. 10 (conf. 1895 cata- 
logue) and ranged under securis, are hardly suflficient for establishing a species ; 
the one in the National Museum, No. 11612, is rather difiFerent ; in the Anthony 
collection no specimens were found. 




" I wish I had my life to live over again " is a frequent expression. 
The writer has no such desire, but I could have done better work 
formerly if I had had the experience, and I wish I could give my 
experience to others. 

Dr. Sterki has in a recent article in the Nautilus, mentioned 
some methods of work. A visit from that veteran worker a few 
months ago was of great help to me. As a result I have collected 
more materials this year than I have in any half-dozen years 
formerly. My outfit is simple. Rubber boots, a net of scrim, frame 
of steel wire so made that there is one foot straight as a scaping sur- 
face, a bamboo pole in two joints. A large sieve of fine grain, small 
bags of kakki and one or two jars. All can be carried on a bicycle. 
With this outfit I have gone from my home on trips lasting from one to 
two hours, and returned with from one to two thousand specimens of 
Pisidium, Planorbis, Amnicola, etc. The same outfit serves for much 
of the marine work. The importance of "when you're gittin, git" 
is realized when one returns with one or two thousand specimens and 
finds two or three very rare forms among them. Mud is my delight 
in fresh or salt water. It is swarming with life. Eel grass is 
another rich field. Dip and sift dry and examine with a lens; the 
tiny chaps are easily overlooked. 

Our work is a labor of love, many of our best collectors have 
limited means, often limited time. Though the writer has at times 
employed a sail boat for dredging, and results have been excellent, 
all the new species turned up in New England during the last twenty 
years, have been obtained either by trips on foot or from a row boat. 
It requires hard work to dredge from a row boat, but it can be done. 
Rare species of Pyramidellidae have all been obtained in that way,, 
but don't be afraid of mud. A list of Prince Edwards Island species, 
some new — others not before known in Canadian waters has proved 
a valuable contribution. I never was anywhere near that island. 
The materials all came from mud washed from the oyster shells, 
miles away from their home. At present the writer is busy with 
marine mud in a sheltered bay. Reports will come later, but rare 
forms with one species that may prove new, are already before me» 
New England needs more workers, and it is full of surprises, espe- 



cially when one considers how much can be found with a simple 
outfit, and a few ounces of energy. No doubt the same is true of 
the whole country. A person once said to the writer "your hobby 
is the most fascinating I know. Every one admires shells." Per- 
fectly true, but far too many are afraid of mud. I don't know of 
any success without a bit of the disagreeable work. 



Mr. E. Dupont, who is now residing at Hell Bourg, Reunion, has 
been fortunate in obtaining specimens and information of this group. 
The Aldabra Islands are situated in the Indian Ocean to the north 
of Madagascar and between the Conoro and Mascarene groups. Not 
many years ago the land moUusca of Aldabra were unknown, in fact 
not a single species had been recorded from the islands. Mr. Dupont 
writes me as follows. Aldabra was visited by an American, Dr. W. 
L. Abbott, in 1892, who published an account of the birds in the 
Proceedings of the U. S. National Museum for 1895. 

The island was visited by a German, Dr. Vodtykon in 1895, ac- 
counts of which were published. I do not think that these mention 
land shells. In September, 1906 my cousin, Mr. R. Dupont, Cura- 
tor of the Botanical Station at Victoria, Mahe, Seychelles, investi- 
gated these islands on behalf of the Seychelles government. He 
collected the shells which I now send to you. 

At last, quite recently an English naturalist, Mr. Fryers, has 
been staying there during several months; to complete the geological 
observations made by Prof. Sardina, on the separation of the islands 
in the Indian Ocean. 

So now the natural productions of this island, which was for long 
a terra incognita, will now be fairly known. Judging from the shells, 
it has more affinities with the Comoro Islands than with the Mas- 

The shells known are as follows: 

Ennea sp. Grande Terre. The Picard. lies Vertes. Closely 
allied to the common E. dentiens. May prove to be new. 

Kaliella aldabraensis, n. sp. To be described by Col. Godwin 


Rachis aldabrce Mart, A beautiful shell of the Comoro type. 
The most common of all the species from Aldabra. Mostly found 
on Picard Island. 200 metres from the sea. 

Succinea mascarensi's? Nevill. Larger and more strongly striated 
than the Mascarene specimens. 

Assiminea sp. Perhaps A, hidnlgoi Gass.^ granum Morelet. 
Grande Terre. The Picard. lies Vertes. 

Cyclostoma sp. Plain e Cubi. A Liga fella or Otopoma. It seems 
to be a new species, but too much worn for description. Better 
specimens came in Sardina's collection. 

TruncatellavalidaVir. Grande Terre. The Picard. lies Vertes, 

Isidora sp. Perhaps /. forskali Chr. = Pliysa cernica Morelet. 
from Mauritius. The presence of this fresh-water shell at Aldabra is 
very curious, the only spot provided with fresh water being a spring 
at Tata maca. 


Dr. Robert Edwards Carter Stearns died at Los Angeles, 
Cal., July 27, in his eighty-third year. He was a native of Boston, 
Mass., a son of Charles Stearns, and was born February 1, 1827. 
He was educated in the schools of his native city, followed by a 
K-ourse of mercantile training, and from his earliest years evinced a 
deep love of nature, fostered by his father, with whom similar tastes 
led to a degree of comradeship in rambles and hunting expeditions 
which he always remembered with appreciation. The boy had an 
unusual artistic ability, and though his early avocations were services 
in a bank and on a farm, when only twenty-two years of age he 
painted a panorama of the Hudson River from the mouth of the 
Mohawk to Fort William, which he exhibited with much success. 
He turned his attention to mining, explored the coal fields of southern 
Indiana, and in 18o4 was appointed resident agent of several co[)per 
mines in northern Michigan on Lake Superior. In 1858 he went 
to California, where he became a partner in the large printing estab- 
lishment of a brother-in-law of his wife, in San Francisco. This 
firm published the Pacific Methodist, a weekly religious paper, and 
in the troubled times preceding the Civil War the reverend editor 
of this journal was obliged to visit the East. Stearns was requested 
to fill this place during his absence. The fate of California hung in 
the balance ; many of the immigrants from the Southern States urged 



independence for that territory when hostilities broke out. Stearns 
took the responsibility of making his paper an enthusiastic advocate 
of the Union cause, and to this call and the eloquence of Thomas 
Starr King, old Californians believed, the decision of the people to 
stand by the Union in that struggle was due in no small degree. 
Through the influence of Justice Field, Stearns was appointed 
deputy clerk of the Supreme Court of California in 1862, a post 
which he resigned in the following year to accept the secretaryship 
of the State Board of Harbor Commissioners, which he was obliged 
to resign some years later on account of ill health. Coming to the 
East, he made one of a party, comprising beside himself the late Dr. 
William Stimpson and Col. Ezekiel Jewett, for the exploration of 
the invertebrate fauna of southwestern Florida, during which large 
collections were made for the Smithsonian Institution. He returned 
to California, and in 1874 was elected secretary to the University of 
California, being the business executive of that institution under the 
presidency of the late Dr. Daniel C. Gilman. He served in this 
capacity for eight years with great approval, and when ill health 
again obliged him to retire from service, the University, as expressive 
of their sense of his services to the cause of education in California 
and in recognition of his scientific attainments, conferred upon him 
the degree of Doctor of Philosophy. Returning to the East aftisr 
the death of Mrs. Stearns, he was engaged in researches for the U. S.- 
Fish Commission in 1882, was appointed paleontologist to the U. S. 
Geological Survey by Major Powell in 1884, and assistant curator 
of moUusks in the National Museum by Professor Baird. His col- 
lection of mollusca was acquired by the Museum. Age and infirmity 
obliged him to return to the more genial climate of California in 
1892, where he settled in Los Angeles, continuing, as his strength 
permitted, his researches into the malacology of the Pacific coast. 
He married, March 28, 1850, Mary Anne Libby, daughter of Oliver 
Libby of Boston, and is survived by a daughter. 

Dr. Stearns was an earnest student of mollusks from boyhood; his 
early experience led him to interest himself in horticulture and land- 
scape gardening, and his ability in this line is attested by the beauty 
of the University grounds at Berkeley, which were developed under 
his superintendence. His knowledge of the Pacific coast mollusca 
was profound, and a long list of papers on this topic and on the 
shells of Florida was the result. He also contributed many papers- 


on various branches of horticulture and gardening to the California 
periodicals devoted to this subject. He was an enthusiastic supporter 
of the California Academy of Sciences in its early days, and after 
the earthquake of 1868, when disaster threatened the Society, he, 
with Professor J. D. Whitney and a few other friends, stood between 
it and dissolution. He was a member of numerous scientific societies 
at home and abroad, and of the Sons of the Revolution. 

Dr. Stearns was a man of sanguine temperament, with a lively 
sense of humor and high moral character. His reading was wide, 
his learning never obtrusive, his interest in art, literature and all 
good causes intense. He was a staunch friend and. for a righteous 
object, ever ready to sacrifice his own material interests. His ser- 
vices to Californian science will keep his memory green. 

Wm. H. DauL. 


Dr. Bergh was born in Copenhagen, October 15, 1824, and died 
in the same city July 20, 1909. Dr. Bergh for many years stood at 
the head of the small group of malacological anatomists, devoting 
himself especially to the Opisthobranchiata and particularly to the 
Nudibranchiata. His published works on these animals form a small 
library and a mine of detailed information. The chief results of this 
unremitting labor are summed up in a large quarto in which he 
gives a complete systematic arrangement for these animals. Besides 
this contribution to the knowledge of molluscan anatomy he published 
several valuable memoirs on other groups of mollusks, an especially 
notable instance being a fine memoir on the anatomy of the genus 
Conus. He was largely concerned with the publication of the great 
posthumous series of quartos detailing the results of the researches 
in eastern seas by Carl Semper, who was his intimate friend. In 
medicine also his publications, based on the treatment of thousands 
of hospital patients, took a high rank. 

Personally, Dr. Bergh was most genial and agreeable in manner, 
ever ready to help younger students, or serve as cicerone to foreign 
colleagues visiting his beloved Copenhagen. Hospitable and un- 
pretentious, a staunch friend and untiring student, his death leaves 
a gap in the ranks of the veterans which we may hardly hope to see 
filled, and a memory which those who knew him will cherish long. 

1 Abridged from the obituary notice by Dr. Wm. H. Ball (Science, XXX, 
p. 304, Sept. 3, 1909). 




The Nautilus. 

Vol. XXIII. NOVEMBER, 1909. No. 6 



In li,2;ht of the fact that accurate data bearing on the geographical 
distribution of Californian land and fresh-water mollusca are still few 
and far l)etween, it seems best to publish such items as may be 
accumulated from time to time, and in this connection the following 
notes (the result of several years desultory observation) may be of 

The district under present consideration comprises one of the 
largest, if not the largest, counties in the United States, being more 
than equal in area to any one of a number of our smaller States. By 
far the greater portion of its area is swallowed up by the vast Mojave 
and Colorado Deserts, and even at this late date is still almost an 
absolute terra incognita so far as the mollusca are concerned. Of 
necessity, therefore, the present paper treats almost exclusively of 
the extreme southwestern corner of the county alone, namely, the 
so-called San Bernardino Valley, with the adjacent San Gabriel and 
San Bernardino Ranges of mountains which confine it on the north 
and shut it off from the desert and the remainder of the county. 
Even for this circumscribed distric^t, the present list makes no pre- 
tensions to completeness, but is offered merely as a resume of our 
present knowledge, with the hope that it may lead to further investi- 
gation. Doubtless more than one interesting form still awaits its 
discovery by some diligent collector, especially in the mountain reg- 
ions (see Nautilus XXI, p. 121, and below). 

It is interesting to note that the above-mentioned valley is practi- 


cally the only portion ot the entire county which drains directly into 
the Pacific, and that, thanks to the fertile character of its soil and 
the water available for its irrigation from the neighboring mountains, 
almost the whole population of the county is concentrated here, 
notably in the cities of Redlands, San Bernardino, Ontario, Chine, 
and Colton. All are garden spots, and by the unwitting agency of 
man most of them have come to possess a fairly extensive molluscan 
fauna, many species of alien origin being now far more numerous 
than any of the native forms. 

There have been few previous records for any of the localities of 
the region. Binney ['85] gives one or two species as being found in 
the county, but at least one of his records is without doubt erroneous. 
Stearns ['93] is the next author to report on specimens from our area, 
and his records are about all we have from the great desert region. 
The few records since that time are listed at the end of this paper. 

My thanks are due to Dr. R. H. Tremper, of Ontario, who has 
generously supplied me with numerous specimens and data regarding 
the fauna of his immediate neighborhood. Practically all of his 
records are new and very interesting. I am also under obligations 
to Miss Nina G. Spaulding, of Redlands, whose enthusiastic eflForts 
have aided not a little in increasing our knowledge. Data supplied 
through her or through Dr. Tremper are so noted by the use of 
their initials. I am also indebted to Mr. oanford B. Dole, of River- 
side, for the use of the accompanying photograph. 

List of Species. 

Helix aspersa Mtiller. Occasional around greenhouses at Red- 
lands, but evidently not yet thoroughly at home. 

Epiphragmophora traski (Newcomb). " Under dry leaves in 
small foothill canon near Ontario " [R. H. T.] ; also in San Antonio 
Canon, two miles from mouth, elevation 2500 feet [R. H. T., April 
4, 1908] ; under leaves, Stoddard's Canon, elevation 2500 feet 
[R. H. T., 1909]. 

This coast species apparently just enters the county as I have not 
encountered it even in the upper end of the San Bernardino Valley. 

Epiphragmophora tudiculata (W. G. Binney). Men tone, under 
hedges ; Highland, by the roadside after a rain ; Arrowhead, Hot 
Springs ; San Bernardino and vicinity ; greenhouse in same city 
[R. H. T.] ; Ontario, under stones and woodpiles [R. H. T., 1908- 


1909] ; also southeast of Ontario, some seven miles from tlie foot- 
hills [R. H. T., March, 1909] ; Frankish Canon, under stones, alti- 
tude 2500 feet [R. H. T., April 1, 1908] ; at mouth of Stoddard's 
Canon, at same elevation, under stones [R. H. T., 1909], 

Specimens found by Dr. Tremper in January, 1908, in an orange 
grove at Ontario are particularly beautiful examples of the species, 
some showing a curious tendency toward albinism. 

Vallonia pulchella (Miiller). Redlands, common in greenhouses 
[S. S. B., 1903, '04, '06, '08J. 

Vertigo occidentalis Sterki. Bluff" Lake, altitude 7,550 feet, 

1907 (one specimen only) [S. S. B.] ; in 1908 quite common in 
spots in the big Bluff Lake cienaga, in the cienaga just north, and 
along the " New England Trail," altitude 7,500 feet ; also a few 
specimens in a cienaga west of Green Valley, altitude 6,900 feet 
[S, S. B.]. Many more specimens were sent from Bluff Lake dur- 
ing the present summer by Miss N. G. Spaulding. 

Evidently an abundant species in the more Alpine regions of the 
San Bernardino Mountains, and I suspect that this or a closely 
allied form will also turn up in similar localities in the neighboring 
San Gabriel and San Jacinto Ranges. 

Vertigo sp. Another form occurs with V. occidentalis in the 
neighborhood of Bluffs Lake [S. S. B., Aug., 1908 ; N. G. S., Aug., 

Vertigo rowelli (Newcomb). San Bernardino [Binney, '85, p. 
156]. At best a doubtful record. 

Vitrina alaskana Dall. San Bernardino Mountains — a common 
species at Bluff Lake and vicinity [S. S. B., Aug., 1907, Aug., 

1908 ; N. G. S., Aug., 1909] ; cienaga west of Green Valley [S. S. 
B., July, 1908]. Especially abundant under willow trees at the 
edges of a meadow. 

Vitrea cellaria (Miiller). In greenhouses, Redlands [S. S. B., 

Euconulus fulvus (Miiller). Cienaga west of Green Valley [one 
specimen, S. S. B., July, 1908]. Altitude 6,900 feet. Bluflf Lake 
Meadow (altitude 7,550 feet) and the neighboring cienages [S. S. 
B., Aug., 1907, Aug., 1908 (abundant); N. G. S., Aug., 1909 
(abundant)]. Near mouth of Mill Creek Canon [one specimen in 
drift, S. S. B., July, 1908]. Forest Home, altitude 5,200 feet, a 
colony of about 20 live individuals found by the writer under sticks 
on the bank of Mill Creek, June 12, 1909. 


"San Gorgonio Pass" [Binney, '85, p. 68]. The exact locality 
of Binney 's specimens is doubtful, but not of great importance as 
this is evidently a commorj mountain species, occurring throughout 
the San Bernardino Range. I have as yet seen no specimens from 
the San Gabriels. 

Zonitoides orea (Say). Mouth of Stoddard's Canon, near 

Ontario, under leaves [U. H. T., 1909]. Redlands, in greenhouses 
[S. S. B., 1904-1908]. Bluff Lake [S. S. B., 1907] ; Bluff Lake 
and cienaga just north [S. S. B., Aug., 1908 — ten specimens] ; 
several specimens, same locality [N. G. S., Aug., 1909]. 

Zonitoides milium (Morse). Greenhouse, Redlands, one specimen 
[S. S. B., 1904]. 

Zonitoides minuscula (Binney). Greenhouse, Redlands [S. S. 
B., 1904]. 

Limax maximus Linnaeus. Redlands, in greenhouses in 1904 
[S. S. B.] ; now abundant about houses and in yards everywhere. 
Reported from same locality by Bartsch ['04, p. 12]. 

Ontario [R. H. T., 1908, 1909]. The last specimens sent me by 
Dr. Tremper were the most light-colored of the species I have seen 
in California. 

Limax Jlavus Linnaeus. Redlands, with L. maximus [S. S. B., 

Fyramidula cronkhitei C^t^w comb). Cienaga, north of Bluff Lake 
Meadow, San Bernardino Mountains, altitude 7,500 feet [S. S. B., 
16 specimens, Aug., 1908 ; N. G. S., Aug., 1909, abundant]. 

Punctum ccdifornicum Pilsbry. Occasional in Bluff Lake Meadow 
under sticks [S. S. B., Aug., 1908] ; Cienaga, north of Bluff 
Lake, altitude 7,500 feet, not rare [8. S. B., Aug., 1908 ; N. 
G. S., Aug., 1909]. Being in doubt as to whether these specimens 
were correctly referred to this species, examples were sent to Mr. 
Bryant Walker, who confirmed the identification. 

Punctum conspectum (Bland). Near Green Valley, San Ber- 
nardino Mountains, altitude 6,900 feet, 3 specimens [S. S. B., July, 
1908] ; Bluff Lake, one specimen [S. S. B., Aug., 1908]. 

Succinea oregonensis Lea. Lower end of the big Cienaga at 
Bluff Lake along the "New England Trail," 18 specimens [S. S. 
B., Aug., 1908] 13 specimens [N. G. S., Aug., 1909]. 

Lymncea palustris (Miiller). Bear Lake, altitude 6,700 feet, San 
Bernardino Mountains, abundant [S. S. B., 1907, 1908]. 


Lymncta palusiris nuttalliana (Lea). Creek and swamp at Bluff 
Lake, altitude 7,000 feet, abundant [R. D. Williams, 1905 ; S. S. 
B., 1907, 1908 ; N. G. S., 1909]. These specimens very uniform 
in appearance. Bear Lake, intergrading with typical (?) palustris, 
common [R. H. T., Aug., 1902 ; S. S. B., Aug., 1907, 1908]. 

Lymnaa humilis modicella (Say). On flower pots in greenhouses, 
Redlands, abundant [S. S. B., 1904-'08]. 

Lymnaa caperata Say. A single very juvenile specimen col- 
lected by Dr. Tremper in a pool in San Antonio Creek, 2 miles from 
mouth [April 4, 1908], was identified as this species by Mr. F. C. 

Lymnaa hulimoides Lea. Mojave River, near Daggett [Stearns, 

Physa gyrina (Say) ? Redlands, in irrigating ditches; Garlick 
Springs [Stearns, '93] ; Daggett [Stearns, '93]. 

I suspect that most if not all the Southern California records of 
P. gyrina need re-examination, and the above will more than likely 
prove to be varieties of P. virginea Gould. 

Physa lordi Baird. Artificial pond, Ontario, the water of which 
comes from Hermosa Canon [R, H. T.]. Specimens of this fine 
large species were sent to Mr. F. C. Baker, who agrees with me in 
referring them to P. lordi. 

Physa virginea Gould. Ditches and reservoirs in Redlands, 
common [S. S. B., 1907, 1908]. 

Physa virginea traski Lea. Main irrigating ditch of Ontario, 
near mouth of San Antonio Canon, altitude 2,200 feet [R. H. T.]. 

Physa cooperi Tryon. Watering trough in City Creek Canon, 
San Bernardino Mountains [S. S. B., Aug., 1907, July, 1908]; 
Bear Lake, altitude 6,700 feet [S. S. B., Aug., 1907-'08]. 

Physa politissima Tryon. Bear Lake, altitude 6,700 feet, not 
uncommon [S. S. B., 1907, 1908]. 

Dr. Pilsbry, to whom I sent "specimens of this and the preceding 
species, and to whom I owe their determinations, wrote as follows : 
"It should be said that the synonymy of West Coast Physas has never 
been worked up, and the ultimate names which will be used cannot 
now be decided, but your specimens correspond closely to the type 
lots ot the forms mentioned, whether these be species or varieties." 

Planorhis trivolvis Say. England's Park, Redlands ; swamp 
and creek at Bluff Lake [S. S. B., 1907, 1908; R. D. Williams, 


1905] ; Bear Lake [R. H. T., 1902 ; S. S. B., 1907, 1908] ; Dag- 
gett [Stearns, '93]. 

Planorhis parvus Say. Mojave River, near Daggett [Stearns, 
'93]; Swamp at Bluff Lake [S. S. B., 1907, 1908]; Bear Lake 
[S. S. B., 1907, 1908]. 

The specimens from Bear Lake were identified by Dr. Dall as P. 
vermiciilaris Gould, They certainly have a slightly different aspect 
from the Bluff Lake specimens, but I doubt if they are distinct. 

Paludestrina stearnsiana Pilsbry. Rill near mouth of Mill 
Creek Canon, San Bernardino Mountains, very abundant in July, 
1908 [S, S. B,], but a rather hasty search in the same locality one 
year later did not yield a specimen. 

Mountain Home Creek, San Bernardino Mountains, altitude 
3,600 feet [S, S. B., July 11, 1909]. 

[^Paludestrina protea Gould. In numerous collections I have seen 
large series of this species in a subfossil condition which were dis- 
tributed some years ago by an unknown collector as from the " Mo- 
jave Desert," They are probably from San Bernardino County, so I 
record them here, although " Colorado Desert" may have been what 
the label meant. As the species is known to exist in Inyo and 
Riverside Counties, it may reasonably be expected to turn up in the 
living condition in this county as well.] 

[ Valvata lewisii Currier. San Bernardino Mountains, Cal. 
[fide Dall, '05, p. 123 ; also see Walker, '06, p. 26]. 

I have not seen any of Dall's specimens, but I have no doubt 
whatever that they really represent not V. lewisii, but the following 
form :] 

Valvata humeralis californica Pilsbry. Swamp at Bluff Lake, 
altitude 7,550 feet [S. S. B., Aug., 1907, 1908; N. G. S., Aug., 
1909 — not very abundant]. 

Bear Lake, altitude 6,700 feet, the type locality [S. S. B,, Aug., 
1907, 1908]. 

For this form beside the references given above under V. lewisii, 
see Berry, '08, p. 122, and Pilsbry, '08, p. 82. 

Anodonta californiensis (Lea) var. Chino Creek. S. of Ontario 
[R. H, T„ 1908], 

Musculium raymondi (J. G. Cooper). Swamp and creek at Bluff 
Lake, large and abundant in 1905 [R. D. Williams] ; very common 
but small in 1907 [S. S. B.] ; more rare in 1908 [S. S. B.] and 
1909 [N. G. S.] ; apparently being replaced by the following species. 


Pisidium californicum (Newcomb ?). Swamp and creek at Bluff 
Lake, common in 1907 [S. S. B.], abunrlant in 1908 [S. S. B.], and 
1909 [N. G. S.]. 

Pisidium ashmuni Sterki. Swamp at Bluff Lake [S. 8. B., 
1907]. Identified by Dr. Sterki. 

Specimens of Pisidia have also been found in Kid Creek, San 
Bernardino Mountains [N. G. S., Aug., 1909], and in Mill Creek at 
Forest Home, altitude 5,200 feet [S. S. B., July, 1908], but have 
not as yet been determined by Dr. Sterki. 


Bartsch, Paul. Limax maximus L. in California. Nautilus, 
XVIII, p. 12, May, 1904. 

Berry, S. S. Molluscan Fauna of the San Bernardino Moun- 
tains, California. Nautilus, XXI, p. 121, March, 1908. 

BiNNEY, W. G. A Manual of American Land Shells. Bull. 
U. S. N. M., No. 28, 1885. 

Dall, W. H. Alaska — Land and Fresh Water Mollusks. Harr. 
Alaska Exp., Vol. XIII, N. Y., 1905. 

Grinnell, Joseph. Biota of the San Bernardino Mountains. 
Univ. Cal., 1909. 

PiLSBRY, H. A. Notes on Plate XI. Nautilus, XXI, p. 133, 
April, 1908. Valvata humeralis californica, n. subsp. Nautilus, 
XXII, p. 82, Dec, 1908. 

Stearns, R. E. C. S. Report on the Land and Fresh-Water 
Shells Collected in California and Nevada by the Death Valley Ex- 
pedition, Including a Few Additional Species Obtained by Dr. C. 
Hart Merriam and Assistants in Parts of the Southwestern United 
States. N. Amer. Fauna, No. 7 (U. S. Dept. Agric), May, 1893. 

Sterki, Victor. A New Californian Vertigo. Nautilus, 
XXI, p. 90, Dec, 1907. 

Walker, Bryant. Notes on Valvata. Nautilus, XX, p. 25, 
July, 1906. 




This recently recognized and very distinct species has been re- 
ported from a number of rather widely separated localities. Its 
range would seem to be from Ontario and Northern Maine west to 
southeastern Michigan and soutii to New Jersey. It has doubtless 
been identified as humilis and will be found in many collections 
under this all embracing name. L. umbilicata is not a race of L. 
cubensis, as suggested by Mr. Walker, but a distinct species, the 
radula having tricuspid laterals where those of cubensis are bicuspid.' 

The known records are as follows : 

United States. 

Connecticut: Small stream emptying into Farniington River, 
Unionville, Hartford Co. (Baker). 

Maine: Buckfield, Oxford Co. (J. A. Allen); Woodland, Aroos- 
took Co. (Nylander) ; Fox Island, Penobscot River, Knox Co. 

Massachusetts: New Bedford, Bristol Co. (Adams); Brook near 
Caboi's Park, Newton ; Charles River above Watertown, Middle- 
sex Co. (Baker) ; Swampscott, near Lynn, Essex Co. (Tufts) ; 
Southborough, Worcester Co. (Bos. See, N. H.); Salem, Essex Co. 
(True); Essex Co. (Russell); Westfield. Hampden Co. (Smith. 

Michigan: Otter Lake, Lapeer Co. (Walker). 

New Jersey: Drainage ditches east of Burlington, Burlington 
Co. (Baker ; Pilsbry). 

Neio York: Maplewood Park, Rochester, Monroe Co.; South end 
Cayuga Lake, near Ithaca, Tompkins Co. (Baker); Charlotte Lake, 
Columbia Co. Lea). 

Rhode Island: The Fountain, Pawtucket, Providence Co. (H. 
F. Carpenter); Rhode Island (Walker). 

British America. 
Ontario: Ottawa, Carleton Dist. (Heron); Carleton Co. (Walker). 

' See Mr. Walker's excellent article in Ottawa Nat., XXII, page 89, for the 
distinguishing characteristics of L. umbilicata. 




As one travels westward from the Mississippi River, the gradual 
diminution of the forest growths is very apparent. Tracts of tim- 
ber get smaller and smaller and the trees become more stunted in 
growth until when the middle of Kansas is reached there are only a 
few cottonwoods, confined to a narrow belt along the banks of 
streams. Eastern Kansas is then a transition zone, where the tim- 
bered regions of the east fade gradually into the vast semi-arid 
plains of the southwest. 

A botanical condition such as this is bound to have a very great 
influence upon a group of animals as closely associated with vegeta- 
ble growths as the land moUusks are. We find some species — as 
the majority of the Polygyras for instance — extending only as far 
west as the trees go. Moisture and shade are requisites to their 
existence, and we find them becoming rarer in direct proportion to 
the decrease in vegetation. They have migrated westward just as 
fast but no faster than the trees. 

And on the other hand there are some species of the plains area 
which do not extend appreciably into the timbered regions. On the 
border-line then, as we would expect, we find an intermingling of 
the two faunas. 

Douglas County is a typical border county. Trees exist in little 
patches here and there but are mostly confined to the near vicinity 
of streams. MoUusks are not plentiful and generally distributed, 
but are addicted to living in colonies in the patches of trees. 

Among the most important tracts of timber conchologically is 
Blue Mound, situated six miles southeast of Lawrence. This little 
hill wliich rises two hundred and fifty feet above the river flood 
plain, supports an excellent growth of small trees. Under the dead 
leaves and loose stones the small snails are to be found more abund- 
ant than any place else in the county. 

The outcropping limestone ledges furnish several species which 
belong in general to the southwestern plains fauna. Bulimulus 
dealbatus, Vallonia parvula, Bifidaria procera and Zonitoides 
singleyana, are abundant in some such localities where there are no 
trees for miles. 

Localities i'avorable for fresh-water snails are rare. The only 


bodies of standing water in the county are small, and with one or 
two exceptions are artificial ponds. Horseshoe Lake and Lake 
View are natural basins but both are small and contain but few 
moUusks. The small streams emptying into the Kansas River con- 
tain a few shells very locally distributed. The River is too sandy 
for these animals. 

The family Ancylidce seems not to have a representative in these 

Very little collecting previous to 1908 has ever been done in 
Douglas County. Polygyra m. chadwicki, a dentate variety of 
Polygyra multilineata was described by Ferriss in the Nautilus for 
August, 1907, from specimens collected along the Kansas River at 
Lawrence. Aside from this one reference I have never found the 
shells of this county alluded to. Therefore I append the following 
list, based upon two years' collecting in which the entire county has 
been thoroughly searched. Probably not many more species will be 
collected. Four or five are withheld from this list because of un- 
certain identification. 

Dr. V. Sterki has examined the Piipidce, and Mr. F. C. Baker, 
the Lymneas, to both of whom I am very grateful. 

Polygyra profunda Say. 

Polygyra albolabris alleni Wetherby. 

Polygyra multilineata Say. 

Polygyra multilineata chadwicki Ferriss. 

Polygyra divesta Gould. A single specimen found in drift along 
the Kansas River at Lawrence. 

Polygyra clausa Say. With the exception of P. profunda and P. 
albolabris alleni, which range into Shawnee County on the west, 
Douglas County marks the extreme western range of the Mesodons. 
All the species are rare in this locality, and are found on the north- 
ern shaded slopes of hillsides which have limestone outcropping. 

Polygyra dorfeuilliana Lea. Dead shells were found under condi- 
tions such that the species must be living here. 

Polygyra monodon Rackett. This form lives on Blue Mound. 

Polygyra fraterna Say. The common Polygyra of Kansas. 
Found everywhere. 

Polygyra fraterna aliciee Pilsbry. Occasionally found with P. 


{To be continued.) 




Suckers from the Big Squid. — On visiting Provincetown in 
August I made inquiries regarding the Giant Squid taken the last 
of March, 1909, off Highland, Truro, Mass., and mentioned in The 
Nautilus for July, 1909. I was unfortunate in not securing the 
beaks which had been thrown away, but I saw the 7^ foot tentacle, 
which was preserved in dry salt. I obtained the cartilage of one of 
the suckers, and, with permission from the owner, cut off one of the 
suckers about mid way on the tentacle. As this is the only speci- 
men taken in Massachusetts I have thought it might be of sufficient 
interest to the readers of The Nautilus for me to give sketches to 
show the shape of this cartilage and the curious arrangement of the 
serration of the margin. 

Figs. 1, 2, 3, 4 are different views of the cartilage of one speci- 
men, while Figs. 5 and 6 are the views of a sucker cut from the 
middle of the tentacle. All figures are magnified twice. 

The tentacle is now in the possession of a gentleman in Province- 
town, Mass J. Henry Blake. 

HoMALOGTRA ATOMUS IN Rhode Island In a recent number 

of the Nautilus I mentioned the discovery of Homalogyra atomus 
on the New England coast at Hampton, N. H. It was first disco vs 
ered by Philippi in Sicily; since then it has been found in other 
parts of the Mediterranean, Norway, England and France, but this 
is the first time it has been recorded on this side of the Atlantic. 
Miss M. W. Brooks has lately found this species in shell sand, from 


Newport, R. 1. Its occurrence north and south of Cape Cod in- 
dicates a somewhat wide distribution of the species — Edwakd S. 

Joseph F. Whiteaves.' — Dr. Joseph Frederick Whiteaves, the 
distinguished Palaeontologist of the Canadian Geological Survey, 
died on the 8th of August, 1909, after an illness of several months. 

Dr. "Whiteaves was born in Oxford, England, in 1835, and first 
came to this country in 1861 on a short visit, returning the following 
year to make his residence in Montreal, Canada, where for twelve 
years he was officially connected with the Montreal Natural History 
Society. In 1876 he was appointed Palaeontologist of the Geologi- 
cal Survey to succeed the late Mr. E. Billings. 

His works on the palaeozoic and mesozoic fossils of Canada are 
monumental, and the broad scope of his work both in palaeontology 
and zoology can only lie appreciated by a perusal of his numerous 
papers which number nearly 150, in which over 450 new genera, 
species and varieties are described. 

Dr. Whiteaves was of a generous and kindly disposition, always 
ready to aid and impart information. He was an ideal type of a 
man imbued with the professional spirit, striving for the Ijest results, 
not satisfied with half measure, and ever urged on by the love of his 

Miss J. E. LiNTER We regret to announce the death of Miss 

J. E. Linter which occurred on August 30, 1909, at Twick(^nham, 
England. Her valuable collection of shells will be offered (as a 
legacy, on condition that it is accessible to the [tublic) to the Exeter 

We learn with regret of the death, September 26th, of Professor 
Anton Dohrn, the founder and director of the Zoological Station at 

Messrs. Ferriss and Daniels are exploring the Kaibab and 
Kanab plateaus for shells and ferns. In this little-known country 
north of the Grand Canyon of the Colorado, they report beautiful 
scenery, a superb climate, and plenty of shells. 

Errata In the last number the following errors should be 

noted : P. 67, line 13 from bottom, last word, should be "■more " in 
place of " less ;" line 4 from bottom should be " No. 10. /" in place 
of " 10." 

'Taken in part, from The Ottawa Naturalist, September, 1909. 







The Nautilus. 

Vol. XXIII. DECEMBER, 1909. No. 7 



Many years ago the conchologists of Europe were astonished to 
receive from New Caledonia certain cowries which had the aspect 
of such well-known species as C. moneta, lynx and mappa, yet dif- 
fered by the produced and calloused ends, attended with more or 
less thickening of the enamel and a degree of melanism, or clouding 
of the coloi'-pattern. Several of these shells were named as distinct 
species by Crosse, Marie, Montrouzier and others. British writers 
generally did not admit their validity, considering them pathologic 
forms, due to some diseased condition of the mantle, a view ridiculed 
by Crosse in his witty review of G. B. Sowerby's monograph of 
Cyprsea in the Thesaurus Conchyliorum. Mr. S. Raymond Roberts 
in his monograph' treats them as varieties. M. Ph. Dautzenberg has 
recently discussed these forms, figuring several of them.'' The cause 
of the rostration and hypertrophic deposit of calcareous material has 
never been really settled, so far as I know, by observations on the 
living animals. The occurrence of so many forms modified in the 
same manner, in one locality, points to the action of me specific 
cause which might perhaps be recognized by an observer on the spot. 
It seems, however, that the modifications do not have racial signifi- 
cance. A somewhat similar formation characterizes some un- 
doubtedly " good " species elsewhere, such as C. scottii and G. 

^ Manual of Oonchology, Vol. "VII. 

2 Journal de Conchyliologie, 1906, p. 263. plate ix. 


Mr. A. DaCosta Gomez has called our attention to several New 
Caledonian examples of Cyprcea tigris L. in his collection which 
show a rostration like the New Caledonian forms mentioned above, 
together .with others diversely modified ; and as such forms have not, 
to our knowledge, been noticed in this species, we have figured four 
of them oji plates vii and viii, the two plates representing different 
views of the same specimens. 

I. The upper left hand figures show a shell having a broad chest- 
nut dorsal streak, the rest of the back being clouded with chestnut, 
light blue and dull pale brown. On the margins may be seen the 
characteristic dappled coloring of tigris. The base is normally col- 
ored. At the anterior end there are large callous lumps. The 
posterior end is also a little produced. Length 83 mm. 

II. Upper right figures. This shell is broad and very heavy 
(weighing 7^ ounces). The dorsal streak is interrupted, chestnut, 
partially overlaid with bluish callus. Elsewhere it is a soiled cream- 
white, obscurely and irregularly mottled. The base is stained with 
yellow around the mouth. The sides are very heavily calloused and 
lumpy. Length 90 mm. 

III. Lower left figures. This shell is heavily calloused and pro- 
duced at the ends and on the right margin. The spotted tigris 
pattern appears on the other side, but is covered by a dark enamel 
in the middle of the back. Base white, with some yellowish suf- 
fusion in places. Length 98 mm. This shell is characteristically 
New Caledonian in appearance. 

IV. Lower right figures. A broad form, heavily calloused at the 
sides. The dorsal streak is dark purplish-brown; remainder of the 
back bluish-white, irregularly mottled and spotted with orange-brown 
and purple-brown, ends blackish. The base and teeth are brownish- 
yellow except for a pure white area on the inner lip. Length 85 mm. 



My last article was an urgent invitation to fellow-laborers to 
inspect mud. AVe may now view some results of the inspection. 

Just south of Cape Ann, Mass., is a bay with many branches, form- 
ing harbors for Marblehead, Salem, Beverly and Danvers. The 


inner waters, ^. e., at Dan vers, seemed to be favorable for a colony 
of the forms which are common south of Cape Cod, but local and in 
sheltered places north of that cape. Only a partial examination has 
been made, but results are interesting. One mud flat of small area, 
and uncovered at low tide, was swarming with life. Literally I ob- 
tained quarts of Gemma gemma. With these were other species more 
or less abundant. Columbella, Ilyanassa, PoUnices and such forms are 
expected and were found as usual. Odostomia revealed trifida, hisu- 
turalis, winkleyi and a new species described below. I was able to 
secure here a living specimen of the disputed fusca, and observe the 
animal. Unlike some of this group, that are said to be timid in 
captivity, fusca was very active. Bulletin 37 of the U. S. Natl. 
Mus., plate xxvi, figs. 1 and 2, are labeled animal of Turhonilla 
interrupta. Slight changes would make the drawing ^ov fusca. The 
plate gives the front of the foot in four lobes; for fusca it should be 
a continuous curve. From the plate one would infer that the men- 
turn was of two flaps, one overlapping the other. In fusca this would 
not be correct, but a deep groove runs along the median line. The 
front of the mentum is a double curve, and its end is held close to 
the surface ahead of the foot in crawling, as if it was feeling the way. 
Eye spots are easily seen at the bases of the tentacles. The animal 
is semi-transparent, with parts a deep maroon. The tentacles are 
slender and held close to the mentum. 

The above-named species were found at the headwaters, but no 
evidence of Turbonilla, as I had hoped. Rowing down river I smelt 
them, and came back for my dredge. A dozen specimens of T. 
winkleyi were found, good size, but badly eroded. In other parts of 
the Danvers River Venus mercenaria, Astarte nucula and some other 
forms occur, but I postpone exact lists until more work can be done. 
One unusual find was a solitary specimen of Bela hicarinata var. 
violacea on a mud flat between tides. 

Later work was done at Salem. The inner harbor revealed the 
last-named species, with beautiful violet coloring, especially when wet. 
Salem harbor is practically all mud botlom. PoUnices, Nucula, 
Yoldia, Grenella, Periploma, Lyonsia, Tellina, Nassa, Bela, Retusa, 
etc., are obtained at moderate depths. Shore collecting revealed the 
usual species, with some things worth noting. AcmcBa testudinalis is 
very small and alveus scarce. At one small cove at low tide, with 
eel grass, I found another colony of Turhonilla winkleyi. 


Passing to the outer harbor there is a slight change. More species 
of Bela, for example. Here I met a surprise in finding a third 
colony of Turhonilla. As the outer harbor is practically open sea, 
the occurrence is unusual. In fact the only locality known to me 
north of Cape Cod where that form occurs save in inner waters. 
So much ground remains to be examined that this report must be 
imperfect, yet the area covered showed Astarte very scarce. Thya- 
sira lacking, and some other forms expected did not appear. I am 
told that there are small beds of them in places not yet dredged. 

A few years ago the writer was stationed near New Haven. At 
that time I received much help from Dr. Bush, and together we 
examined many specimens of Turbonilla, Odostomia, Bela and other 
genera. It is my desire to recognize my high appreciation for her 
kind help by naming the following species for her. I am confronted 
with the fact that one Odostomia already bears her name. Not to be 
defeated in my purpose, I will use her first name, and am sure she 
will pardon me this time. 

Odostomia (^Evalina^ katherina, new species. 

Shell much smaller than 0. (E.) xoinUeyi, bluish-white, semi- 
translucent. Nuclear whorls deeply obliquely immersed in the first 
of the succeeding turns, above which the tilted edge of the last volu- 
tion only projects. Post-nuclear whorls well rounded, with a very 
strong beveled shoulder, marked by many very slender axial threads 
and a number of fine. spiral lirations, of which one is at the angle of 
the shoulder, one on the shoulder a little nearer the suture than the 
angle; one forms the weak peripheral angle, and six others divide the 
space between the peripheral angle and the angle at the shoulder 
into subequal spaces. Sutures strongly constricted. Base short, 
well rounded, marked by spiral threads, of which the second one 
below the periphery is as strong as the peripheral one, the other four 
being of equal strength; the two basal ones dividing the space be- 



tween the umbilical area and the stronger thread into three equal 
parts. Aperture very broadly oval, posterior angle very obtuse; 
outer lip thin, showing the external sculpture within; columella very 
slender, slightly twisted and very slightly revolute, provided with a 
very weak fold, wliich is scarcely discernible in the aperture, but 
becomes apparent when the pillar is exposed by grinding ; parietal 
wall glazed with a light callus. 

Specimens were found in the Danvers River, on a mud flat be- 
tween tides, most of which are in the Winkley collection, and seven 
in the U. S. National Museum, cat. No. 208U67. The one figured 
has 5i whorls and measures, length 2.15 mm., diameter 0.8 mm. 



Several years ago Mr. G. H. Clapp called my attention to a form 
of Helicina differing in several respects from H. orhiculata Say, the 
specimens having been received from Mr. C. T. Simpson, who col- 
lected them at Lemon City, Florida. At about the same time Mr. 
Vanatta encountered the form in material from Lee Co., Fla., col- 
lected by Mr. C. B. Moore. He subsequently published a list of 
these shells (Nautilus for January, 1908, pp. 99-104), mentioning 
the form in question as Helicina orhiculata var. clappi Pils. MSS. 
No description has been published. 

Helicina orhiculata was described from the mouth of the St. 
John's River. The types, four specimens, are still preserved with 
Say's label. They are globose, very pale greenish-white, and meas- 
ure from alt. 6, diam. 6.8 mm., to alt. 6.3, diam. 7.7 mm. There is 
a distinct tooth at the junction of the columellar and basal lips. The 
periphery is well rounded. 

In the St. John's River valley, away from the coast, and where 
calcareous material is almost wanting in the soil, there is a small 
race of orhiculata, measuring, alt. 5.5, diam. 6.8 mm., to alt. 4.5, 
diam. 5.1 mm. 

H. orhiculata extends from Florida and Georgia west to Tennessee 
and western Louisiana. West and southwest of this it is entirely 
replaced by H. orhiculata tropica ' Jan.' Pfr., distinguished by its 
heavier shell and very thick lip. 


Helicina orbiculata clappi, n. subsp. 

The shell is less globose than orbiculata, tending to a more trochi- 
form shape, the last whorl being very obtusely subangular at the 
periphery. The outer lip is more broadly expanded, thin, and there 
is only a weak angle or none at the junction of columella and basal 
lip. The color is white, very pale citrine, white with two red bands, 
or uniform red, the lip and apex pale. 

Alt. 8, diam. 9 mm. 

Alt. 7, diam. 8 mm. 

Alt. 6.1, diam. 7.3 mm. 

Distribution: Southern Florida, Dade, Lee and Monroe counties; 
types from Miami, Dade Co., collected by S. N. Rhoads and H. A. 
Pilsbry, 1899. On the east coast H. o. clappi extends as far north 
as Palm Beach (Pilsbry, 1899); on the west coast to Evans' Planta- 
tion on the Manatee River (C. T. Simpson). 

Key to Subspecies of H. orbiculata. 
a. Last whorl globose, periphery well rounded; a distinct tooth or 
angle at base of the columella. 

b. Lip thin or not much thickened, H. orbiculata. 
bb. Lip much thickened, II. o. tropica. 
an. Last whorl very obtusely subangular, the shape approaching 
trochiform; no distinct tooth at base of the columella, H. o. 

Strobilops floridanus, n. sp. 

The shell is conic with convex outlines, almost dome-shaped; the 
periphery only weakly angular, the base convex; rather solid; brown, 
the summit whitish-corneous. Whorls 5^, the first two smooth, the rest 
sculptured with narrow, rather widely separated ribs (about 30 on 
the last whorl). These ribs continue on the base, which is radially 
ribbed. Aperture semilunar, the peristome thick, narrowly reflexed, 
brown or whitish; parietal callus rather thick at the edge. Parietal 
lamella emerging to the edge of the callus, fully a whorl long. 
Infraparietal lamella scarcely emerging, penetrating as far inward as 
the parietal lamella. The inner half of this lamella and the parietal 
is nodose, the nodes minutely asperate. Interparietal lamella very 
low, about a half whorl long, nodose, penetrating as deeply as the 
parietal lamella. There is one axial lamella and four basal plicae, 


the outer one peripheral in position; a single palatal plica is generally 
developed. These plica3 form a curved, very obliquely radial series, 
the inner end near the aperture. The two inner basal lamellae are 
much stouter and higher than the others, the second from the axis 
(or third, counting the axial) being the longest and highest of the 

Alt. 1.8, diam. 2.5 mm. 

Florida: Type No. 77044 A. N. S. P., from Miami, collected by 
S. N. Rhoads, 1899. Also widely distributed over the State. Tal- 
lahassee (C. W. Johnson, 1900), St. John's valley, Volusia and 
Marion counties (Johnson and Pilsbry, 1894) and many other 

This species resembles S. virgo Pils. in shape and peristome, but 
it differs in the more widely spaced ribs, continued over the base. 
It differs from all known North American species by the much more 
deeply entering parietal lamellce, the inner ends of which pass under 
the parietal callus of the aperture. In other species these lamellae 
are only about a half whorl long. The inner basal plicae are also 
placed more deeply within than in other species. S. texasiajia Pils. 
and Ferr. resembles ^S*. jloridana in shape and in having a ribbed 
base, but the sculpture is much closer and the lamellae do not extend 
so far inward. 

S. floridanus is a common and widely distributed species in Florida. 
A depressed and angular form of S. labyrinthicus resembling S. I. 
strebeli occurs in some places, and S. hubbardi (A. D. Brown) also 
has a wide distribution on the peninsula and keys. 

Several other races of Strobilops will be defined in a future paper. 
The shells have to be opened carefully to demonstrate the internal 
structure, but fresh specimens can usually be determined without 
opening. Information is especially desired by the writer on the 
forms of New York State, and will be duly credited in a monograph 
of that fauna now in preparation. 



During the past year Mr. F. B. Isely, Professor of Biology in the 
Oklahoma University Preparatory School, Tonkawa, Oklahoma, has 
sent to the Chicago Academy of Sciences several interesting lots of 


shells from Kansas and Oklahoma. As this region is not well 
known conchologically, it has been thought that a list of the species 
would be of value as a contribution to the subject of geographic dis- 
tribution. The region includes Grant and Kay counties, Oklahoma, 
and Sumner, Harper and Kingman counties, Kansas. The collection 
is now deposited in the Chicago Academy of Sciences. My thanks 
are due to Mr. Bryant Walker and Dr. V. Sterki for assistance in 
determining critical material. 


Lampsilis anodontoides (Lea). Chikaskia River, Tonkawa, 

Lampsilis subrostrata (Say). Spring Creek, Grant county, 

Lampsilis parva (Barnes). Bluff Creek, Grant Co., Oklahoma. 

Lampsilis purpurata (Lamarck), Chikaskia River, Tonkawa, 

Lampsilis gracile (Barnes). Shoofiy Creek, Williston, Oklahojpa. 

Plagiola donaciformis (Lea). Chikaskia River, Hunnewell, 

Tritogonia tuberculata (Barnes). Chikaskia River, Tonkawa, 

Anodonta grandis Say. Chikaskia River, Tonkawa, Oklahoma; 
Chikaskia River, Williston, Oklahoma. 

Anodonta corpulenta Cooper. Duck Creek, near Tonkawa, 

Anodonta imhecilis Say. Shoofiy Creek, Williston, Oklahoma. 

Symphynota complanata (Barnes). Chikaskia River, Tonkawa, 
Oklahoma; Chikaskia River, Williston, Oklahoma. 

Unio tetralasmus camptodon Say. Spring Creek, Anthony, Kansas. 

Unio tetralasmus sayi Ward. Spring Creek, Grant Co., Oklahoma. 

Quadrula undulata (Barnes). Chikaskia River, Tonkawa, Okla- 
homa; Chikaskia River, Drury, Kansas; Shoofiy Creek, Williston, 

Quadrula undulata lateeostata (Lea). Shoofiy Creek, Williston^ 

Quadrula lachrymosa (Lea). Chikaskia River, Tonkawa, Okla- 
homa; Chikaskia River, Drury, Kansas. 

Quadrula pustidosa (Lea). Chikaskia River, Tonkawa, Okla- 
homa; Chikaskia River, Drury, Kansas. 


Quadrula pustulosa var. Chikaskia River, Drury, Kansas. 

A peculiar shell is associated with pustulosa at this locality. It is 
compressed, quite elongated, and the surface is ornamented with 
many olive-green rays, radiating from the umbones. It is smooth, 
like schoolcraftensis, but is much more elongated than that variety, 
to which the Oklahoma pustulosa might quite appropriately be re- 
ferred. No specimens of the typical pustulosa have been seen from 
the region in question. Additional material may show this to be a 
recognizable race of pustulosa. 

Quadrula rubiginosa (Lea). Chikaskia River, Drury, Kansas. 

Quadrula coecinea (Conrad). Chikaskia River, Drury, Kansas; 
Chikaskia River, Tonkawa, Oklahoma. 

Sphcerium simile Say, variety. Tonkawa, Oklahoma; Wild Horse 
Creek, Spivey, Kansas. 

A much elongated and very cylindrical shell, which may prove to 
be a race of simile. 

Spharium striatinum Lamarck. Sand Creek, Argonia, Kansas. 

Muscidium transversum (Say). Shoofly Creek, Williston, Okla- 

MuscuKum elevatum (Haldeman). Tonkawa, Oklahoma; Meridian 
Creek, South Ifeven, Kansas. 

Not quite typical, the shell being more elongate ovate in outline 
than in typical elevatum. 


Physa crondalli Baker. Wild Horse Creek, Spivey, Kansas; 
Sand Creek, Argonia, Kansas; Meridian Creek, South Haven, Kan- 
sas; Spring Creek, Anthony, Kansas; Shoofly Creek, Williston, 
Oklahoma; Spring Creek, Grant Co., Oklahoma. 

Physa ancillaria Say. Spring Creek, Grant Co., Oklahoma; 
Wild Horse Creek, Spivey, Kansas; Tonkawa, Oklahoma; Shoofly 
Creek, Williston, Oklahoma. ' 

The specimens are exactly comparable with typical ancillaria from 

Physa anatina Lea. Tonkawa, Oklahoma. 

Ancyhis rividaris Say. Shoofly Creek, Williston, Oklahoma. 

Planorbis trivolvis Say. Wild Horse Creek, Spivey, Kansas; 
Spring Creek, Grant Co., Oklahoma. 

Planorbis deflectus Say. Spring Creek, Anthony, Kansas. 


Lymnoea obrussa Say. Wild Horse Creek, Spivey, Kansas; Sand 
Creek, Argonia, Kansas. 

LymncBa parva Lea. Tonkawa, Oklahoma. 
Lymncea techella Hald. Tonkawa, Oklahoma. 
Succinea avara Say. Spring Creek, Anthony, Kansas. 
Succinea luleola Gould. Tonkawa, Oklahoma. 
AgrioUmax campestris Binney. Tonkawa, Oklahoma. 
Polygyra fraterna Say. Tonkawa, Oklahoma. 



(^Concluded from p. SS.") 

Polygyra fraterna friersoni Pilsbry. Very rare ; a few specimens 
identical with specimens of this variety from southern Kansas have 
been found in this county. 

Bulimulus dealhatus Say. This is evidently the form liquahilis 
Reeve, but I have not seen specimens of the subspecies to make 
comparison. It is found rather commonly on open rocky hillsides. 

Pupilla muscorum Linnaeus. From river drift at Lawrence. 

Pupilla blandi Morse. A few drift specimens have been picked up. 

Pupilla hehes Ancey. Two specimens found in drift, one at 
Tecumseh and the other at Lawrence. 

Pupoides marginatus Say. Common everywhere. 

Bifidaria procera Say. Common in open places favorable for 

Bifidaria procera eristata P. &, V. Rare this far east. 

Bifidaria hordeacella Pilsbry. One specimen found in river 
debris at Lawrence. 

Bifidaria holzingeri Sterki. Very rare ; it gives way to the form 
Bifidaria holzingeri fordiana Sterki. Found in the woods of Blue 
Mound and elsewhere. 

Bifidaria contracta Say. Common in timber lands. 

Bifidaria armifera Say. Abundant. 

Bifidaria pentodon Say. Found sparingly in the woods. 

Bifidaria tappaniana C. B. Adams. Common on Blue Mound. 

Bifidaria agna P. & V. Very rare ; two specimens from drift 
debris of the Kansas river at Lawrence. 


Vertigo ovata Say. Apparently rare. 

Vertigo milium Gould. A few specimens came from Blue Mound. 

Vertigo tridentata Wolf. Our commonest Vertigo; found on 
Blue Mound and in river drift at various places. 

Strohilops apnis Pilsbry. Common in woody places. 

Vullonia parvula Sterki. Very common where there is no shade. 

Vallonia costata Miiller. Drift specimens only have so far been 

Cochlicopa luhrica Miiller. Common on Blue Mound. 

AgrioUmax campestris Say. Not common. 

Agriolimax agrestis Linnaeus. This is the common slug of Kansas. 

Vitrea rhoadsi Pilsbry. This form is rather common in the woods. 

Vitrea indentata umhilicata Cockerell. Abundant everywhere. 

Vitrea milium Morse. This species is associated with Z. minuscula, 
but is less common in most places. 

Zonitoides arhorea Say. Abundant in all woods. 

Zonitoides nitida Miiller. Apparently a rare species and locally 
distributed. I have found it only near Lake View. 

Zonitoides minuscula Binney. This species is common in open 

Zonitoides minuscula alachuana Dall. Found associated with the 
typical form but less common. 

Zonitoides singleynna Pilsbry. A species of the open plains. 

Zonitoides nummus Vanatta. Found at Lake View and at Blue 
Mound, in the woods on each occasion. 

Euconulus chersinus trochidus Reinhardt. Found in the wood- 
lands with Z. nummus. 

Philomycus carolinensis Bosc. Rather common on Blue Mound. 
A number of specimens have been taken. 

Pyramidula alternata Say. Abundant in wooded and rocky places. 

Pyraniidula asteriscus Morse. A few specimens have come from 
Blue Mound and more from fiver debris at various places in the 

Helieodiscus parallelus Say. This species lives in colonies around 
the limestone bluflfs altogether. 

Helieodiscus eigenmanni Pilsbry. One specimen was picked out of, 
drift from Lecompton; it probably washed there from farther west. 

Punctum pygmaeum Draparnaud. Apparently rare, as it has only 
been found once, and then in river drift from Lawrence. 


Succinea avara Say. Not common. 

Succinea grosvenori Lea. Found in colonies in wet places. 

Succinea rusticana Gould. Generally distributed, but it has not 
been found common. • 

Succinea stretchiana Bland. This is our common Succinea. 

Carychium exile Lea. A colony of this species was found near 
the top of Blue Mound. 

Helicina occulta Say. Drift specimens have been found at Law- 
rence in a situation that would lead one to suspect that it is a 

Lymnea techella Haldeman. Abundant in a drainage ditch south 
of Lawrence. 

Lymnea columella chalyhea Gould. Found in the Whitcomb 
greenhouse at Lawrence on the sides of flower-pots. 

Lymnea dalli Baker. Found in the greenhouse with L. columella 
chalybea and also in river drift. 

Lymnea elodes Say. One drift specimen is from Lawrence. 

Lymnea obrussa Say. Rather common in a watercress spring 
west of Lawrence. 

Lymnea parva Lea. Only a few specimens from river debris have 
been found. 

Lymnea reflexa Say. This form used to be very common in Lake 
View, but the flood of 1903 swept almost all away. 

Lymnea reflexa crystalensis Baker. Not common in this county. 

Planorhis bicarinatus Say. Lake View and Rock Creek. 

Planorbis trivolvis Say. Abundant in all ponds. 

Planorbis dejleclus Say. Lake View. 

Planorbis parvus Say. A few specimens were found along the 
Kansas River. 

Physa anatina Lea. 

Physa oleacea Tryon. These two species were identified by 
Mr. Bryant Walker. All the specimens of this county seem refer- 
able to them. 

Amnicola cincinnatiensis Lea. Found in mud creek commonly. 

Amnicola limosa Say. A single dead shell from the Kansas 

Campeloma decisum Say. 

Campeloma subsolidum Anthony. These two forms live abund- 
antly in the Wakarusa Creek, but are easily distinguishable. 



6 5 


The Nautilus. 

Vol.. XXIII. JANUARY, 1910. No. 8 



In the course of Mr. A. A. Hiiiklt-y's expedition to the Panuoo 
river region in 1907 he found Potamopyrgiis coroimtus (Pfr.), Paludes- 
trina tampicoensis Pils., Gochliopa riograndensis Pils. & Ferr., and 
an Ajnnicola identified as A. guatemalensis C. & F., but which on 
further study turns out to be a new species. Several more forms 
are now added by the expedition of 1909, among th^'m a south- 
western representative of Somatogyrus and some very handsome 
though small species of Cochliopa. 

In the works of Crosse and Fischer and of von Martens, the 
American spinose Aranicoloids are referred to the genus Amnicola, 
in the belief that Potamopyrgus does not occur in America. This 
idea is in my opinion wholly erroneous. The American P. coronatus 
(Pfr.) has the dentition and the viviparous reproduction of the New 
Zealand type of Potamopyrgus. In New Zealand, as in America, 
both spinose and smooth forms occur. There is no conchological 
difference. No Amnicola is viviparous, and there is a perceptible if 
small difference in the shells, which are more compact and more 
solid in Amnicola. 

The genus Potamopyrgus occurs also in the Antilles, South 
America, West Africa and Tasmania. Perhaps the British Hy- 
drobia jenkinsi belongs to this genus. If viviparous it certainly 
does; but I have not investigated the species. Like Planorbis, 
Viviparus, Lymrtcea and some other fresh-water genera, it seems 
that Potamopyrgus has a very wide geographic distribution. Jn 
female Potamopyrgus one finds the young shells as in the genus 


Vivtparus. This character serves to differentiate it from Paludes- 
trina, which the smooth phase resembles in shell structure. 

Amnicola crosseana n. sp, PI. ix, fig. 6. 

The shell is perforate, ovate-conic, corneous, smooth, the growth- 
lines being scarcely visible. Whorls 5, the first very minute, the 
rest not very convex; suture but slightly impressed, having a gray 
border (by transparence) below. Umbilical region defined by an 
angle. Aperture ovate, slightly oblique. Peristome thin, narrowly 
olive-edged, represented by an adnate transparent callus on the 
parietal wall, which is rather long. 

Length 3.1, diam. 2, length of aperture 1.6, width 1.1 mm. 

Found only in ponds at La Barra, near Tampico. 

This species was taken in considerable numbers. It has some 
resemblance to A. guatemalensis Crosse & Fischer {Faludtiia hyuHna 
Morelet, not Anton), but on comparing a specimen received from 
Morelet it is noticed that guatemalensis has much more convex 
whorls and a shorter more rotund aperture. A guatemalensis is very 
closely related to A. panamerisis Tryon. I doubt whether the two 
forms are specifically distinct. 

A. crosseana, named for M. Hippolyte Crosse, is distinct from 
species of the Texan region by its lengthened shape, rather pointed 
apex, the weak convexity of the whorls, the long adnate parietal 
callus and the angulation around the umbilical region. With the 
milky corneous examples there are many of a brown or russet tint, 
probably owing to a thin ferrous incrustation. 

Amnicola comalensis Pils. & Ferr. from Texas described in the 
Proc. Acad. Nat. Sci., Phila., 1906, p. 171, fig. 37, is a much 
stouter shell than A. crosseana. In the description the length was 
given by error as 3.9 mm. It should have been 2.9 mm. 

Somatogtrus mexicanus n. sp. PI. ix, fig. 3. 

The shell is perforate, globose, higher than wide, corneous, 
smooth, solid but rather thin. Whorls 4^, strongly convex, parted 
by a deep suture, rather slowly increasing at first, but at the last 
whorl very rapidly enlarging. The last whorl is very convex, and 
descends more rapidly near the aperture. The aperture is ovate, 
subangular above. The outer lip is a little curved forward in the 
middle, or in other words, retracted above, thin-edged. The inner 


lip is arcuate below, straightened above, heavily calloused in adults, 
especially above, and in contact with the preceding whorl only for a 
very short distance. There is a somewhat flattened umbilical area 
below the perforation, closely marked with growth-striae, and 
bounded by an angle, which is sometimes not very distinct. 

Length 5.3, diam. 4.5, aperture 3.1 mm. 

Length 5, diam. 4.5, aperture 3.1 mm. 

Coy river, on the road to Tampamolon; State of San Luis Potosi. 
Types no. 99023 A. N. S. P. 

This is the first Somatogyrus from west or southwest of the Mis- 
sissippi river system. 

CoCHLiorA COMPACTA n. sp. PI. ix, figs. 4, 5. 

The shell is depressed, solid, rimate, pale greenish olive, encircled 
with few or many dark olive or blackish lines and narrow bands, 
and sometimes a few cream-white bands. Spire convex, very nar- 
row when viewed from above. Whorls Z^ to nearly 4, the early 
ones smooth, the last very wide, rounded, sculptured with lov^r spiral 
threads or nearly smooth, descending to the aperture. The aperture 
is rotund-ovate, angular above, the outer lip slightly thickened, 
columellar and parietal margins thick. The umbilical area behind 
the columellar lip in fully adult shells is white and wide, the basal 
rimation either long or rather short. 

Alt. 2, diam. 3.9 mm. 

Choy river at the cave, south of Las Palmas, State of San Luis 
Potosi, Mexico. 

This species is closely related to C. picta, differing by the larger 
aperture, compressed and generally closed umbilical region, and the 
peculiar area behind the columellar lip of adult shells. It was taken 
in considerable quantity. 

The figures represent one of the most common color-forms. Other 
examples have lines and bands oyer the base also; and in some these 
markings are reduced to a few wide bands. 


Valles river at Valles and Willis's ranch; Ganina river near 
Rascon. It is an abundant and variable species. In some examples 
the last whorl becomes free at the aperture, reminding one of the 
small shell described as Valvata micra. That species may prove to 
be a Gochliopa. 


COCHLIOPA PICTA n. sp. PI. ix, figs. 1, 2. 

The shell is depressed, solid, narrowly umbilicate, there being a 
minute perforation and a curved, semicircular rimation where it 
enlarges at the last whorl; inner whorls pale olivaceous corneous, 
the last encircled with many dark olive spiral lines and bands, which 
are almost imperceptibly raised. The spire is convex, and narrow 
viewed from above, the last whorl being very wide. Whorls 3^, the 
last rounded, indistinctly plicate radially around the umbilicus. The 
aperture is rounded-ovate, angular above; outer lip thin; columellar 
lip rather heavily calloused; parietal wall short, calloused. Alt. 
2.1, diam. 3.7 mm. 

Coy river, near the ford on road to Tampamolon, State of San 
Luis Potosi, Mexico. A few smaller specimens were taken in the 
Ganina river near Rascon. 

This species differs from C. riograndensis by its much smaller 
umbilicus, opening out only at the last half whorl. The spire is also 
more depressed. Many specimens were taken. 



A meritorious attempt by Norman "Wallace Lermond to list the 
mollusca of Maine has recently appeared under the title indicated 
above, and has been noticed in a recent number of the Nautilus. 

Considering the confused state of our knowledge (or rather ignor- 
ance, for knowledge we have little) of the Nudibranchs, it is scarcely 
a reflection on Mr. Lermond that his list of this most interesting but 
neglected group reflects the state of knowledge of nearly forty years 
ago. It is a painful admission that the additions to our knowledge 
since that time have been few and scattering, but such as they are 
they should be recognized; and Mr. Lermond's list, otherwise of 
considerable use as almost the only recent list of Nudibranchs from 
the northeast coast, might do mischief if allowed to stand uncor- 
rected in this particular — hence the following remarks. 

Aeolis purpurea Stimps. in all probability is Cratena pustulata 
(A. & H.), as Bergh believed, and should be written accordingly, 
though with a query. 


Aeolis stellata Stimps. is a Coryphella only very doubtfully dis- 
tinct from the same author's mananensis, which in turn is either a 
synonym or a variety of Johnston's rufibranchialis — see a recent 
article by me in the Nautilus, 

Eolis {Cavolina) salmonacea Couth, (now universally but perhaps 
erroneously treated as a Coryphella) although omitted from this list, 
has been reported by Verrill from Eastport. But what Verrill 
understood that species to be no one can say except that it certainly 
was not the same as what European authors understand. But then, 
what European authors understand is just as certainly not what 
Couthouy meant! The fact is the true salmonacea is entirely enig- 
matical. However it should appear in the list, 

Dendronotus arborescens Miiller should be D. frondosus (Ascanius) 
— this change has been universally adopted. 

Cadllna repanda (A. & H.) should be G. obvelata ( Miiller )_same 
remark as last. 

Issa lacera should be credited to (Abildgaard) instead of (Miiller). 

Doris bifida Verrill (entered twice in the list, once as a variety 
of Acanihodoris pilosa and once as a variety of A. stellata), Doris 
stellata Gmelin and Acanihodoris citrina Verrill, are all synonyms 
of Acanthodoris pilosa (Abildgaard); while D. ornata Verrill is at 
most a variety. 

It is extremely doubtful whether Lamellidoris diaphana (A. & 
H.) really occurs on our coast. The common Maine form I believe 
to be L. aspera, mentioned below. However it correctly appears in 
this check list. 

Probably nothing can be done with Lamellidoris tenella and L. 
grisea but to retain them as Mr. Lermond has done, though they are 
practically nomina nuda. 

Ancula sulphurea Stimps. is a variety of A. cristata (Alder). 

With regard to Idaliella pallida (Ag.) Gould, several errors ap- 
pear to have crept in. No Idaliella occurs in Maine so far as I am 
aware. The only eastern American members of the sub-genus 
known, I think, are pulchella A. & H., found at Salem, Mass., in 
1879, by Emerton, and modesta Verrill from Vineyard Sound and 
vicinity. There is, however, a Lamellidoris pallida of Ag. the dis- 
tribution of which is such as Mr. Lermond's list gives, and of which 
Proctaporia fusca Stimps. is a synonym as given. The citation in 
synonymy of Amoeroecium pallidum Verrill 1873, is, of course, in- 



advertence. Amoeroecium is a genus of compound Ascidians. Ver- 
rill, in his Rep. on Invert, of Vin. Sound, 1873. notices (on dififerent 
pages) both Amoeroecium pallidum and Onchidoris pallida which 
latter is of course what Mr. Lermond intended to cite. 

Pallida is, however, a synonym of Lamellidoris aspera (A. & H.). 
The entry, therefore, should stand as Lamellidoris aspera (A. & H.) 
with Proctaporia fusca Stimps. 1860, Doris pallida Ag. 1849, and 
Onchidoris pallida " Verrill," Verrill 1870 and 1873, in synonymy. 

Lamellidoris muricatus should be written muricata. 

Palio lessoni should be written lessonii. 



Mr. Clarence B. Moore collected the following species of Unionida 
while on an archaeological expedition during the winter of 1908-09. 

Quadrula ebena Lea was everywhere the most abundant species. 
Dr. Pilsbry agrees with me in considering Uiiio domheyana Val. in 
Humboldt et Bonpland, Rec. Obs. Zool,, 1833, Vol. 2. p. 227, pi. 
53, f. 1, a valid variety of Quadrula heros Say, instead of a synonym 
of Q. trapezoides Lea. 

The originally varietal name ohesa Simps, is used instead of 
Tritogonia tuberculata Bar. as the name tuherculata is preoccupied in 
Quadrula. Unio tuherculatus Barnes was grouped with U. apiculatus 
(now referred to the genus Quadrula) by Pilsbry in 1891 (Nau- 
tilus V, p. 76) ; a position confirmed by Dr. H. von Ihering in 
1901 (Nautilus XV, p. 39), and by Dr. Arnold Ortmann this 
year. (Ann. Carnegie Mus., 1909, Vol. 5, p. 193.) 

All the specimens of Quadrula trapezoides, pyramidata, ehena, 
obesa and Plagiola securis were smaller than the usual size. 

I. Pyles Landing, Ouachita River, Calhoun Co., Arkansas. 
Obovaria castanea Lea and Anodo7ita opaca Lea. 

IL Near Pigeon Hill, Ouachita River, Union Co., Arkansas. 
Obovaria castanea Lea. Quadrula plicata Say. 

Plagiola securis Lea. " heros dumbeyana Val. 

" elegans Lea. " metanevra Raf. 

Strophitus edenlulus Lea. " asperrima Lea. 

Unio subgibbosus Lea. " obesa Simps. 



Quadrula sphanca Lea. Quadrula pyramidata Lea. 

" nodifera Conr. *• ehenus Lea. 

" trigona Lea. 

III. Caryville Landing, Ouachita River, Union Co., Arkansas. 
Lampsilis hydianus Lea. Quadrula perpUcata Conr. 

" ligamentinus gibbus " heros dombeyana Val. 

Simps. " metanevra Raf. 

" fallaciosus (Sm.) " asperrima Lea. 

Simps. " nodifera Conr. 

Obovaria castanea Lea. " trigona Lea. 

Plagiola securis Lea. •* pyramidata Lea. 

U7iio gibbosus Bar. " eJerta Lea. 

" subgibbosus Lea. 

IV. Seven Pine Landing, Bayou Bartholomew, Morehouse Par- 
ish, Louisiana. Quadrula trapezoides Lea. 

V. Alabama Landing, Ouachita River near the mouth of Basche 
La Pierre Creek, Union Parish, Louisiana, 12 miles in a straight 
line above Ouachita, Louisiana. 

Lampsilis ventricosus satur Lea. Quadrula perpUcata Conr. 

" ligamentinus gibbus " heros dombeyana Val. 

Simps. " trapezoides Lea. 

" fallaciosus (Sm.) " cylindrica Say. 

Simps. " obesa Simps. 

" purpuratus Lam. " sphcerica Lea. 

Plagiola securis Lea. " pyramidata Lea. 

Unio gibbosus Bar. " ebena Lea. 

VI. 15 miles below Monroe, Ouachita River, Ouachita Parish, 

Lampsilis ventricosus satur Lea. Quadrida asperrima Lea. 
Obovaria castanea Lea. " spharica Lea. 

Quadrula perpUcata Conr. '♦ nodifera Conr. 

" heros dombeyajia Val.. " trigona Lea. 

«♦ trapezoides Lea. " pyramidata Lea. 

" metanevra Raf. " eJena Lea. 

VII. White Oak Landing, Boeuf River, Franklin Parish, Louisiana. 
Lampsilis hydianus Lea. Quadrula trapezoides Lea. 

" anodontoides Lea. " asperrima Lea. 

Quadrula heros dombeyana Val. 

VIII. Ouachita River, Catahoula Parish, Louisiana. 
Quadrula heros dombeyana Val. Quadrula ebena Lea. 

" asperrima Lea. 



IX. Black River, Catahoula Parish, Louisiana. 
Lampsilis fallaciosus (Sm.) Quadrula heros domheyana Val. 

Simps. " trapezoides Lea. 

Ohliquaria reflexa Raf. 



"While preparing a paper on the tertiary fresh-water fossils of 
Western North America it became necessary to go over the litera- 
ture and examine all the Valvatidae available. This included speci- 
mens from the type localities of V. utahensis and F. virens and part 
of the original lot from which V. humeralis californica was described. 
There is therefore no doubt as to the authenticity of the determinations. 

Two new fossil species have turned up in the Upper Lahontan 
(Quartenary) of Nevada and Southern Oregon, descriptions of 
which are given here. In a paper on fresh-water fossils now in 
progress, all the species will be figured together for comparison. 

On account of the complex and unsatisfactory nature of a key the 
following table has been devised : 



V. whitei. 

V. humeralis. 

F. ealli. 

V. virens. 

V. utahensis. 

Spire barely 
raised above 
body whorl. 

Rather low. 

Very low to 
very high. 





Smooth, carinate, 
or marked by 
spiral striae. 

Fine growth 


Whorls rounded 


Rounded or 




or brown. 


Light to 
dark green. 



V. lewisii Currier and V- sincera Say have been reported from 
T^est of the Rocky Mountains, but it is probable that all the speci- 
mens will prove to be V. humeralis. This is a somewhat variable 
and badly misunderstood species. It is apparently widely dis- 
tributed over all the Pacific slope. 

With the exception of V. humeralis all the species are abundant 
wherever they occur, but they are sporadic. This species is also 
sporadic but seldom occurs in large numbers. 

Valvata humeralis Say. 

Valvata humeralis Say. New Harm. Diss., II, 1829, p. 244. 

Valvata humeralis californica Pilsbry. Naut., XXII, 1908, p. 
82. Bear Lake, Cal. 

Small, smooth, brown or blue-green, spire variable but always low, 
umbilicus moderately broad, sutures slightly impressed. Character- 
ized by a noticeable flattening about the umbilicus. 

The barely matured specimens from Bear Lake do not show this 
character as noticeably as others in the writer's collection. This 
species has been identified by west coast conchologists as V. virens, 
V. lewisii, and V. sincera. The latter two can be easily eliminated 
but the specimens from several of the localities given with a question 
mark under V. virens may on re-examination prove to be V. humeralis. 
Not known as fossil. 



* Bear Lake, San Bernardino Mts. (Berry). 

* Bluff Lake, San Bernardino Mts. (Berry). 

* Soap Lake, San Benito Valley (Hannibal). 

* Pond, Likely, South Pitt Valley (Hannibal). 
Slough, De Witte, Honey Lake Valley (Hannibal), 


* Upper Klamath Lake (Hannibal). 

Lake Washington, Seattle (Randolph). 

'* Seen by writer. 
? Identification doubted. ^ 


Near Franklin (Hemphill). 

Near Salt Lake City (Yarrow and Hemphill). 

Valvata virens Tryon. 

Valvata virens Tryon, Proc. Acad. Nat. Sci., Phila., 1863, p. 
148, pi. 1, fig. 11. 

Spire moderately elevated, whorls rounded, umbilicus rather nar- 
row, sutures moderately deep, shell marked by fine transverse striae, 
light green to deep green color. 

It has been the custom to refer any western American Valvata of 
a green color or with an elevated spire to V. virens. The writer 
does not know of its authentic occurrence north of Clear Lake. 
Call's Great Basin specimens are V. calli. References to living 
specimens from northeastern California and southeastern Oregon are 
probably V. humeralis. 


* Clear Lake (Tryon, Cooper, Hemphill). 
Alameda Co. (Cooper). 

Antioch (Carlton). 

* Pond near Watsonville (Laws, Hannibal). 
? Willow Creek, Lassen Co. (McGregor). 

? Grant's Lake (Cooper). 

British Columbia. 

? Nanaimo, Vancouver Is. (Dall). 

? Lake Laggan, Rocky Mts. (Taylor). 

Fossil : Santa Clara Beds (Pliocene). 

Gelrich's coal mine, Santa Cruz Mts., Cal. (Cooper). 

* Galabazos Canon, Santa Cruz Mts. (Hannibal). 

Kettleman Beds : 10 miles east of Tulare Lake, west border of 
Kettleman Plains (Watts). 

Valvata utahensis Call. 
Valvata sincera var. utahensis Call, Bull. 11, U. S. Geol. Sur., 
1884, p. 44, pi. vi, fig. 1-3. 



Characterized by its tabulated whorls, well elevated spire, and 
very narrow umbilicus, sutures moderately deep; lip slightly diag- 
onal, usually angular below. Shell smooth, pellucid. 

This species is known only from near the type locality. It re- 
minds one of V. piscinalis of Europe. 


* Lehi, Utah Lake, near head of Jordan River (Call). 

Fossil : Semifossil, Bonneville Basin, Utah (Call.) 

Valvata calli n. sp. 

Valvata virens Call, Bull. 11, U. S. Geol. Sur., 1884, p. 21 (in 

Shell varying from a high spire as in V. virens to a very low spire 
as in V.lewisii; sculpture, smooth, carinate tricarinate or marked 
by numerous spiral striae. Umbilicus rather narrow; whorls rounded 
in smooth or striate forms angular in carinate forms. Sutures deeply 
impressed in high forms, slightly in low. Type tricarinate with 
moderately elevated spire. 

Measurements : Type, alt. 4.5 mm., diam. 5.5 mm., diam. of 
aperture 2 mux.; flnttened specimen, alt. 4 mm., diam. 6 mm., diam. 
of aperture 2 mm., Marl, Upper Lahontan Quarternary, near Sum- 
mer Lake, Ore. (F. M. Anderson). 

Also from " Central Nevada, near R. R.," named in honor of the 
late Robert Ellsworth Call. 

Valvata avhitei n. sp. 

Spire depressed, barely raised above outer whorl, broadly umbili- 
cate two whorls visible beneath; shell rather thick, smooth, marked 
by very faint growth lines; sutures very slightly impressed, whorls 

Measurements: Alt. 2.5 mm. ,^ diam. 6 mm., diam. of aperture 2.5 
mm.. Marl., Upper Lahontan, Quarternary, near Summer Lake, 
Oregon (F. M. Anderson). 

This species resembles a very large specimen of V. humeralis, but 
the umbilicus is much broader in specimens of a corresponding size. 
The species also has a much thicker shell. 

Named in honor of the late Dr. C. A. White. 

Stanford University, Cal. 




The slug here described was kindly placed in my hands for deter- 
mination by Professor H. M. Gwatkin, of Cambridge, England. 

Veronicella mlotica, n. sp. 

Length 43 mm., breadth 11^; unusually narrow and parallel- 
sided ; sole narrow, its width about 4 mm., with 16 transverse 
grooves (not counting the lesser ones between each pair of strong 
ones) in 5 mm. of length ; female generative orifice 1^ mm. from 
sole and 2-| from lateral margin, its distance from head about 27^ 
mm. Upper surface finely and densely tuberculate, some of the 
tubercles a little larger and more prominent than the others ; hy- 
ponotum finely and more obscurely tuberculate. Color above (in 
alcohol) pale ochreous densely mottled with dark grey, the two colors 
about equal in amount ; there is a faintly indicated pale dorsal band, 
on each side of whiQh the dark mottling is heaviest ; on each side at 
about 2 mm. from the margin, there is a very faint suggestion of a 
dusky stripe. The underside is pallid, with a dusky suflfusion toward 
the sides of the hyponotum. Upper tentacles dark blue-grey. Stomach 
not covered by the liver, but rather broadly exposed ; course and 
form of the intestine quite normal, the last loop traversing a little 
less than a semicircle ; filiform glands extremely long (20 mm.), 
twisted right round the gut, the fully developed ones only five in 
number, but several other short ones at the base of the bundle. 

The sole does not project beyond the end of the body. An appar- 
ently distinct species, best known by its narrow form and very long 
filiform glands. It extends the distribution of the genus about fifteen 
degrees north in Eastern Africa. 

Collected by the Nile, above Khartoum, by Mr. Harold H. King, 
of the Wellcome Research Laboratories, Khartoum. 


Errata. — " Land MoUusca of Aldabra," in the October number. 
Line 4, " Conoro " is a typographical error for " Comoro." Quota- 
tion marks should be placed at the beginning of the sentence of line 
7, also of each succeeding paragraph and the finish of article. — 
Maxwell Smith. 


The Nautilus 

Vol. XXIII. FEBRUARY, 1910. No. 9 



In August last Messrs. J. H. Ferriss and L. E. Daniels set out to 
extend the work begun by Ferriss and Pilsbry in 1906. From 
Bass' Camp they crossed the Grand Canyon of the Colorado ; scaled 
the northern rim, explored and collected in the Kaibab and Kanab 
plateaux, finally reaching Kanab, in southwestern Utah. Beyond 
the Grand Canyon, where we had worked in 1906, this was all a 
virgin field conchologically. An account of their journey is here 
extracted from a letter received from Mr. Ferriss. 

Friend Pilsbry : 

The Arizona expedition of 1909 is in the offing, to use a nautical 
term. We felt worried until your letter was found at the end of the 
trip. There was some danger of getting lost in the desert in an 
eflFort to find us. A settler with a team from Mt. Trumbull a day 
ahead of us was three days without water and just about all in when 
he reached the Pipe Springs. We supposed you would come the 
back-door route by Salt Lake so that in coming or going you would 
pick up the Oreohelix found by Hemphill. 

Unexpectedly we made the trip to Mt. Trumbull via Fredonia, 
Arizona and Kanab, Utah, and thus found the guide we had picked 
out watching for you. On a side trip I went up to the lakes in the 
mouth of caves along the Kanab Wash north of these villages, and 
from what I saw and heard it will be an interesting conchological 
trip along the mountains all the way to Salt Lake. It was at these 
cave lakes that I found Succitiea hawkinsi of British Columbia. 
We heard of Oreohelix with a Ions; nose but did not find them. 


There must be a difference in the ajialomy of different lots of Suc- 
cinea avara sent in. We found it plentiful on llie ant hills in the 
Antelope valley, a desert as dry as the St. Simon valley. Again 
on the hottest and dryest of mountain rock at the Hurricane Fault. 
Still again we found it virith Oreohelix at the Big Springs in the 
Kaibab Mountains living in as moist a situation as we find Poiygyra 
multifineata. These were of a different color, larger and more cor- 

After this I hope to go into strange countries with U. S. Geologi- 
cal folios in addition to the contour maps, for the whole Mt. Trum- 
bull country was of lava formation, barren of shells except the small 
truck. We need limestone and shelter in our business. The Hurri- 
cane Fault had lime but no shelter and was equally as barren. This 
Trumbull side-trip took half of our time and cost a lot of money, but 
we enjoyed it. We love the Mormons, at least their cooking, and I 
am now physically perfect until next August. 

I will send you a map marking our collecting stations. There 
were 113 of these. Oreohelix was found at perhaps 100 stations and 
80 of these are unlike any other colony in color, size or architecture, 
while each colony is reasonably uniform individually. We had a 
theory when we left the Two Springs canyon that the shells were 
small and dark in the higher altitudes and that they grew larger in 
a regular ratio as we passed to the lower levels, but in the Warm 
Springs Canyon the shells were largest at the upper stations and 
smaller at the lower. In the Snake Gulch they were smallest at the 
midway stations, and in Quaking Asp canyon it was a skip about 
between large and small. At Castle Springs, heavily shaded and in 
elderberry bushes, we found the largest. At Big Springs, facing 
the sun, moisture abundant, they were small with many albinos. 
Thus as to elevation, shade, moisture, soil or food we have no theory 
except like old- time chickens they may just happen to be large, 
small and middling, ring-banded, streaked or speckled. Our largest 
measured 30 mm. diam. and our smallest 8 mm. In the Huachucas 
the colonies of Oreohelix are of mixed forms, but the Kaibab shells 
are of one kind in each colony, with occasional albinos. Some of 
the colonies apparently divided their rock slide territory into families, 
designated by size or color. In one instance passing around the 
point of a rock, less than one hundred feet, and good traveling for 
snails, the colony on one side was as large again in size as those upon 


the opposite side. Our prettiest shells are pure white with a green, 
transparent band, like Clapp's Maine find of Helix hortensis. 

Tiie Sonorellas were in small colonies and hard to dig. We did 
not find any after leaving the north rim of tlie Grand Canyon and 
the Kaibab-Powell Saddle. Powell and Kaibab plateaus are fairly 
level and I have never seen anything more beautiful in timber land- 
scapes. Powell is covered with a heavy growth of large yellow pine. 
, In the Kaibab plateau or mountains, better known in Arizona as 
Buckskin Mountains, blue spruce and quaking aspen with the pine 
lend variety to the scenery. No landscape artist in Fairmount Park 
could manage the grouping better than we saw it in a day and a half 
j6urn(!y by donkey, down the Snake Gulch (known as Shinamo 
Canyon on the U. S. maps.) 

We camped with E. W. Nelson and C. Birdsi of the biological 
survey of the U. S. Agricultural Department at Mt. Trumbull. Here 
we learned that the tufted-eared squirrel of the Kaibabs was 
Sciurus alberti var. kaihahensis. It is the largest American squirrel, 
black as silk with a white tail. A chattering chickaree is black 
throughout, and there are four chipmunks and a blue grouse. Deer 
were about as common as cattle, and as tame, for the Kaibabs are in 
a game preserve. The plains about Trumbull are populated with 
wild horses and these are common game, to be had for the catching. 

Again I visited the Grotto [on White Creek, a branch of the 
Grand Canyon] and took more of the maidenhair fern. It seems to 
be a new species, and it so happens I am working at that group. 
The Grotto and creek have been filling up with gravel since you and 
I were there togethei-. They are quite changed since our visit three 
years ago. From the Grotto, Wiiite creek keeps to the north and 
Muav to the west ; heading in the saddle between Kaibab and Powell 
plateaus. So when you and I slept by the fire and found the colony 
of Sonorellas we were in the Muav Wash and more than half way 
to the north rim of the Grand Canyon. About a mile above our 
sleeping place, there is a fine trout stream (without fish) and cliffs 
a thousand feet high, with Sonorellas. 

There were no mice this time at our old thousand-mouse camp on 
Shinamo creek.* We saw but two on the whole trip. Thus John 
had a fine orchard with leaves on the trees this time, also melons, 
sweet potatoes and common things in plenty. Their asbestos mine 

^ On the north side of the Grand Canyon, near the river. 


is very promising but it is a long road to consumption for the copper. 
We found a lialf million dollar copper smelter in the Kaibabs and a 
saw mill, but only two men in the mountains besides the foresters, 
and these were at the saw mill. They had a wagon road to Fredonia. 
In fact you can wagon from the top of the Kaibab saddle to Fredonia 
or most any other place in that region. An auto was driven 
through from Salt Lake while we were there to Bright Angel, on 
the north side of the canyon across from the hotel. But from Bass 
Station to Trumbull, 125 miles, there will be no inhabitants through 
the winter, except Bass and John working out assessments on new 

Yours Truly, '^ 

Jas. H. Ferriss. 




Lymnaa stagnalis var., Daniels, Nautilus XXII, p. 120 

LymvcBa stagnalis var.. Walker, Ann. Rep. Mich. Geol. Surv., 
1908, 289, figure 63, No. 1 (1909). 

Shell elongate-ovate, with short spire and elongated, narrow aper- 
ture, which is typically longer than the spire ; whorls flattened, 
elongated, very flat-sided and sloping, especially the body whftrl 
which is cylindrical; spire sharply acuminated; whorls 5^ to 6 ; 
body whorl elongated, flattened, roundly shouldered ; aperture long 
and narrow, slightly expanded ; axis strongly gyrate ; umbilical 
region with a very minute, narrow chink ; sculpture and nuclear 
whorls as in stagnalis appressa. 

Length, 42.00; width, 22.00; aperture length, 26.00; width, 
13.00 mill. 

Length, 40.00; width, 19.50; aperture length, 23.50 ; width, 
11.75 mill. 

Length, 30.00; width, 20.00; aperture length, 24.50; width, 
11.00 mill. 

Length, 37.50; width, 19.60; aperture length, 23.75; width, 
12.00 mill. 

Length, 40.00; width, 19.00; aperture length, 23.25; width, 
11.50 mill. 





Length, 28.00; width, 13.00; aperture length, 17.50; width 
8.50 mill. 

Types: Chicago Academy of Sciences, five specimens, No. 24554. 

Type Locality: Tomahawk Lake, Oneida County, Wisconsin. 

Range : Michigan and Wisconsin north of the 45th parallel of 
north latitude. 

Records. — Michigan : Isle Royale ; various localities. (Adams ; 
Gleason ; Walker). 

Wisconsin: Quynoch Point, Eagle Bay, and other portions of 
Tomahawk Lake, Oneida County (Baker). 

Ecology : L. s. lilliancs is typically an inhabitant of sandy shores, 
in shallow water, where it is subjected to heavy wave action, only 
once was a specimen found in a still-water habitat, and this instance 
was undoubtedly caused by drifting from its normal habitat. When 
any number of specimens were found, the habitat was invariably an 
exposed beach. Associated with Ulliana were Galba emarginata 
and Flanorbis hinneyi. Individuals were observed crawling over 
the sandy beach or attached to water-soaked logs or other shore 

The animal of this race exhibits two color phases, one bright yel- 
low and the other black or giayish-black. No cause for this color 
dimorphism was apparent. It is not protective as both forms occupy 
the same area of white sandy beach. 

( To be continued.) 



AnODONTA DAKOTA, n. sp. Plate X. 

Shell elliptically rounded before (slightly cut away below) dorsal 
line nearly straight, base slightly curved. Posterior nearly straight, 
making the shell ti-apezoidal in outline. Epidermis straw yellow, 
with dark bands marking the rest periods. 

Umbonal ridge angular, beaks not high, with double loop sculp- 
ture, as in Ano. grandis, Say. 

Umbos inflated, greatest diameter of shell about ^ from beak to 


Length, 3; height, 1.8; diameter 1.6 (inches). 

Length 76, height 51, diameter 40 mm. 

Found by Mr. W. H. Over, at Ulvers Point, Clear Lake, Deuel 
Co., South Dakota, July 1, 1909. 

To launch a new Anodonta is a perilous undertaking, but in this 
instance the novelty of the form is unmistakable. The beaks ally 
the shell, of course, to Anodonta grandis, Say. It is nearest to 
that form called by Mr. Antliony A. snbgibbosa (and especially to 
the figure of this species shown in the Conchologia Iconica, which is 
much more characteristic than the figure in the American Journal 
of Conchology). From any form of Ano. grandis it differs in being 
more cylindrical, i. e., in lacking the swelling " amidship " so often 
shown by A. grandis; in being rayless (so far as known), but especi- 
ally by having its posterior point not elevated above the basal line, 
and by the marked truncation posteriorly, which truncation is as 
marked as in Morgaritana morginata Say, and the straight posterior, 
and the resulting quadrilateral aspect of the shell. It is more 
quadrate than Anodonta doliaris, Lea. The lack of any ohh'quity is 
remarkable. Mr. Over also sent me from the same lake examples 
of Anodonta grandis, Say, and the facies of our species was strik- 
ingly dissimilar. 



Since October, '09 the present writer has been engaged in the 
study of the anatomy of the soft parts of the Unionidob of Pennsyl- 
vania, collected during the last four years. The material at hand 
being very rich, it was possible to make out the structure of most of 
our species, and the results obtained are rather satisfactory, and are 
apt to furnish new principles for the systematic arrangement of the 

Simpson (Pr. U. S. Nat. Mus. 22, '00). in his system, has indi- 
cated some of the essential principles of classification, in fact, the first 
pointed out the most important feature, the shape of the marsiipium, 
Yet this system must be changed considerably, if it is to represent 
the natural atHnities. This is due chiefly to the fact, that Simpson. 
on the one hand, had ratiier insufficient material, and on the other, 
that he did not go into microscopic detail. 


Some corrections of Simpson's system have been advocated by 
Sterki (Amer. Naturalist 37, '03 p. 103 ff.), and, generally, I find 
that these are well supported. Yet there are other differentiations 
in structure, which have been overlooked hitherto, and which are of 
prime systematic value. 

The most important (and gratifying) result of my investigations is, 
that the gills or parts of gills, which serve as marsupium during the 
breeding season, are permanently differentiated in their anatomical 
structure from those gills (or parts of gills'), which never serve as mar- 
supium. Thus it is possible to recognize the type of marsupium of 
any species, if only sterile females are at hand. 

My investigation will be published in full in the "Memoirs of the 
Carnegie Museum," amply illustrated by figures of the structures 
discussed. Although I am not quite done yet, and although I hope 
to secure additional material next summer, I think it advisable to 
publish my preliminary results as soon as possible, in order to direct 
the attention of the collectors to those genera, which 1 have not 
been able to investigate. It would be desirable for anybody, who 
intends to collect Unionidce next summer, to make up his mind from 
the beginning, that shells without the soft parts are not the thing 
that is wanted, but that the soft parts, at least of some specimens, 
should always be preserved in alcohol. 

The family Unionidce,, in Simpson's sense (1. c, p. 514, 515, 516), 
is accepted. Simpson divides it into two subfamilies, of which one, 
Hyriincz (= Hyriamz Swains., Simpson, pp. 515 and 806), is extra- 
limital, and which cannot be discussed at present. The other is the 
JJnionincE Swains. All our North American forms belong to the 
latter. But I think they should be divided into four groups, which 
I would designate as subfamilies. Thus, disregarding the Hyriina, 
the Unionidce are divided into four subfamilies, as shown below. 

In the following I shall give a systematic arrangement of the 
Pennsylvanian species. Of the characters, I have given the most 
important ones of the soft parts for the subfamilies, and for the 
genera where necessary. It is not my intention to go into any de- 
tail, since further investigations may possibly necessitate minor 
changes in the arrangement of the genera. Some notes are ap- 
pended at the end, in order to explain the most striking changes 
introduced here. 


1. Subfamily : Margaritanin^e. 

Gills without well-defined water tubes; connections of the two 
laminas by irregularly scattered prominences, but not by septa. 
(This is a most remarkable character, in which Margimtana differs 
from all other genera.) Supra-anal opening not separated from' the 
anal opening. Diapliragm (posterior part of gills, separating anal 
and branchial openings) of peculiar shape : the oxiier loniina of the 
outer gill is free from the mantle for a considerable distance. Inner 
lamina of inner gills free from the abdominal sac. No papillae on 
edge of mantle in front of branchial opening. (Marsupium and glo- 
chidia unknown to the writer.) 

Genus and species : Margaritana margaritifera (L.). 

2. Subfamily : Unionin^e. 

Gills with rather well-defined water tubes, the latter formed by 
septa, which run the whole width of the gill, parallel to the gill- 
filaments. Supra-anal opening not separated or (generally) separ- 
ated from the anal, the closed part rather short. Diaphragm normal 
(i. e., outer lamina of outer gills connected with the mantle to their 
posterior end). Inner lamina of inner gills always free from abdom- 
inal sac. No papillas on mantle edge in front of branchial opening. 
Marsupium formed by both gills or only by the outer gill; edge of mar- 
supium always sharp (not distending). Water tubes not divided in 
the gravid female. Glochidia semioval or semicircular, without 


1. Genus: Qi<flc?rM/a (Eaf.) Ag. (rest r.). Both gills (inner and 

outer) serving as marsupium. 
Species : subrotunda (Lea) [and var. kirtlandiana (Lea)] — 
rubiginosa (Lea) [and var, trigona (Lea)] — pus- 
tulosa (Lea) — metanevra (Raf.) — cylivdrica (Say) 
— tritogonia (Ortm)' — undulata (Barn.). 

2. Genus: Rotundaria Raf. (as subgenus). Outer gills only serv- 

ing as marsupium. Supra-anal opening not sep- 
arated from the anal. Also with peculiar shell 

' Quadrula tritogonia Ortm. = Tritogonia (uberailata (Barn.) of Simpson. 
The nomenclature of this species remains to be settled. Since Qu. tuberculata 
(Raf.) is now removed from the genus Quadrula, the specific name tuberculata 
might become available. Qu. lachrymosa (Lea) probably is also a true 


Species : tuherculata Raf. 

3. Genus : Pleurohema (Raf.) Ag. (enlarged). Outer gills serv- 

ing as marsupium. Supra-anal separated i'rom the 

Species: cooperiana (Lea)* — cBSojo«<s (Green). 

ohliqua (Lam.) [including the form pyramidata 

(Lea) and the var. coccinea (Conr.).'' 
clava (Lam.). 

4. Genus : Unio Retz.* 

Species: crassidens (Lum.^—gibbosvs (Barn.) — cowplanatus 
{J)\\\v{.)—productus (Conr.) (Fulton Co., Pa.). 

3. Subfamily : Anodontin^, 

Water-tubes similar to those of the Uniomnce, only less regular at 
base of gills, chiefly so in the male. Supra-anal opening well sep- 
arated from the anal ; sometimes the connection of tlie mantle mar- 
gins is very long. Diaphragm normal. Inner lamina of inner gills 
generally free from the abdominal sac, sometimes with the tendency 
to become connected with it, or entirely connected. No papilla; on 
mantle edge in front of branchial opening. Marsupium formed by 
the outer gills; edge of marsuphim, when charged, distending, the 
thickened tissue forming the edge stretching out in a direction trans- 
versal to the gills, but not bulging out beyond the edge of the gill (or 
only slightly so). Water-tubes in the gravid female divided longi- 
tudinally into three tubes, one lying toward each face of the gill, the 
third in the middle ; only the latter contains eggs or embryos, and 
is much larger than the outer tubes. This division into three parts 
is not present in the sterile female. Glochidia subtriangular, with 
one spine at the tip. 

1. Genus: Alasmidonta Say.* 

^Pleurohema cooperiana (Lea) (= Qu. cooperiana of Simpson) surely groups 
with PI. xsopus. 

^ PL obliqua, pyramidata [and also joZfna (Lea)] form a natural group by 
themselves, and probably are one and the same species. P. pyraviidata is only 
an extreme variation of P. ohliqua., with which it occurs, while coccinea is a 
good ecological variety, which, however, runs into ohliqua at certain localities. 

3 The characters of the soft parts of Unio are practically identical with those 
of Pleurohema. A distinction is possible only by shell characters. 

*The genera of the Anodontinx are distinguished chiefly by shell characters, 
but it seems as if Alasmidonta and Slrophilus are more closely allied to each 
other, and then again Symphy7ioia, Anodontoides and Anodonia. 


Species: heterodon (Lea) — marginata (^Sa.y) [and var. varicosa 
(Lam.)] — undulata (Say),' 

2. Genus: Strophitas 'R-aL^ 

Species: undidatus (Say) [^^ edentulus (Say)]. 

3. Genus : Symphynota Lea. 

Species: compressa (Lea) — viridis (Conr.).* 
costata (Rat.) — complanata (Barn.). 

4. Genus: Anodontoides Simps. 

Species : ferussacianus (Lea) (and var. subcylindraceus (Lea). 

5. Genus : Anodonta Brug. 

Species : cataracta Say. — grandis Say (with several varieties) 
imbecitlis (Say.)* 
4. Subfamily: Lampsilin^. 

"Water tubes similar totboseof the Unionina. Supra-anal opening 
separated from the anal, rarely entirely closed. Diaphragm normal. 
Inner lamina of inner gills rarely more or less free from abdominal 
sac, generally entirely connected with it. Mantle edge in front of 
branchial opening crenulated, papillose, or with a peculiar flap. 
Marsupium formed by the outer gill, or {mostly) by the posterior part 
of the outer gill (sometimes only a section of the latter is used for 
the marsupium). Edge of marsupium, when charged, rounded^ 
distended and bulging out beyond the ends of the branchial filaments. 
Water tubes in the gravid female simple. Glochidia generally of the 
type of the Unionina, rarely diflFerent, and rectangular with two spines. 

1. Genus : Ptychobranchus Simps. * 
Species : phaseolus (Hildr.) 

^ Alasmid. heterodon stands by itself, while marginata and undulata are more 
closely related. 

*The marsupium of Strophitiis is very peculiar and complex, and cannot be 
explained in a few words and without figures. The discbarge of the "pla- 
centae" ("ovisacs" of Simpson) is not through the walls of the gills, as Simp- 
son indicates (1. c, p. 616). 

^Symphynota compressa and viridis are hermaphrodites ! 

* As already Sterki has shown, Anodonta imbecillis is a hermaphrodite^ which 
I am able to confirm. I know another species of Anodonta, from Texas, which 
is also hermaphroditic ; it groups with imbecillis, and belongs possibly under 
A. henry ana Lea (or may be a new species). 

*The peculiar character ot the marsupium of Flychobranchus is well 
known ; this form reveals what is essential in the Lampsilis-type of marsupium. 
The genus Cyprogenia Ag., which I had no chance to investigate, very likely 
should follow after Ptychobranchus. 



2. Genera: Ohliquaria (Raf.) Simps — Plagiola (Raf.) Ag.— 

Obovaria (Raf.)^ 
Species : Ohliquaria rejlexa Raf. 

Plagiola securis (Lea) — elegans (Lea). 

Obovaria retusa (Lam.) — circulus (Lea) — ellipsis 

Obovaria ligamentina (Lam.)' 

3. Genus : Proptera Raf. ' 

Species : gracilis (Barn.) — alala (Say. 

4. Genus: Caz-Mwctf/iwa Simps, (subgen.) 
Species: parva (Barn.)* 

5. Genus : Micromya (Ag.) Simps. 
Species : fabalis (Lea.) * 

6. Genus . Lampsilis Raf. (restr.)* 

Species : iris (Lea) — nasuta (San) — recta (Lam.)' 

luteola (Lam.) — radiata(Ginel) — orbiculata (Hildr.)' 

' These three genera are practically identical with regard to their anatomy, 
only Ohliquaria is distinguished by the marsupium consisting only of a few 
ovisacs. They may be distinguished by shell characters, which, however, are 
hard to define. All the species enumerated here are characterized by the 
absence of papillce or flaps on the mantle edge in front of the branchial opening. 
A final arrangement of the genera must be left for the future. 

» Obovaria ligamentina = Lampsilis ligamentina. This species undoubtedly 
belongs into this group, and not with the true Lampsilis. 

'^Proptera, as defined by Sterki. F. alata is distinguished by its peculiar 
glochidia (rectangular, with two spines). But P. gracilis, which agrees in all 
other respects, has different glochidia; they are of the normal Lampsilis-shape, 
but much smaller. 

* Car. parva has the inner lamina of the inner gills not connected with the 
abdominal sac, and the supra-anal opening is entirely closed ; for the rest it 
resembles the tm-type of Lampsilis. 

^Micromya fabalis agrees well with the tVw-type of Lampsilis, but the inner 
lamella of the inner gill is partly free from the abdominal sac. Both Caruncu- 
Una and Micromya form a transition from the more primitive forms to the 
typical Lampsilis. Further study possibly will throw more light upon these 

^Lampsilis is characterized by the development of peculiar structures on 
the mantle edge. The first group has papillae, the second a flap. 

' Also Lampsilis vibex nigrina (Lea) from Florida and L. anodontoides (Lea) 
from Texas have been investigated, and prove to belong to this group. 

8 L. orbiculata is not at all related to L. ligamentina, as Simpson thinks, but 
it belongs to the ventricosa group of Lampsilis, for it has a well-developed flap 
on the mantle edge. 


car{osa(Say) — multiradiata{heii)—vetitricossa(Ba.Tn.) 
and var. ovata (Say). 
7. Genus : Truncilla Raf.' 

Species: triquelra Raf". — perplexa rangiana (Lea). 


The Wendell Phillips Higli School, Chicago, in its regular 
Zoology work is doing things unique with the mollusca. Each 
pupil is required to make a " cigar box " collection of shells. These 
are fixed up nicely and covered witli glass. The specimens are 
named on inside of lid and an exhibition takes place to which parents 
and friends are invited. This year over 200 boxes and 8000 speci- 
mens were exhibited. 

The students under the direction of Mr. E, E. Hand, the teacher 
are urged to make a thorough study of their own region and in co- 
operation with the Agassiz Association are arranging for exchanges 
with high schools and individual collectors all over the world. Any- 
one interested is invited to correspond. — E. E. Hand. 

It is with sorrow we record the death of Mr. John Ford, at his 
home in Pliiladelphia, on January 10, 1910. An obituary will ap- 
pear in March number. 

Wr also regret to announce the death of Dr. John H. Britts of 
Clinton, Missouri, which occurred November 14, 1909. 

Lymnaa cuhensis aspirans, n. subsp. The shell differs from L. 
cuhensis by its much longer spire of very convex whorls. Length 
12, diam. 6, length of aperture 6 mm.; whorls 6. Barbadoes. Types 
No. 85455 A. N. S. P. This is not Limncea harbadensis Sowerby, 
Conch. Icon., xviii, pj. 14, f. 100, I have seen no Antillean species 
resembling that figure. — H. A. Pilsbry. 

We learn with regret of the death of Dr. Kakichi Mitsukuri, the 
eminent Japanese zoologist, on September 16. 

• Shell characters peculiar, and also mantle edge, and in some respects also 
the marsupium. The two species differ considerably, and the two subgenera 
of Simpson {Truncilla and Pilea) should perhaps be elevated to the rank 
of genera. 




The Nautilus. 

Vol. XXIII. MARCH, 1910. No. 10 




MiTRA (Chrysame) WALTONENSIS, n. sp. PI. XI, fig. 1. 

Shell rather solid, thick ; apex scarcely pointed. Whorls six, 
three smooth, balance cancellated and shouldered, suture deep ; 
varices near the aperture predominating over the spirals and ap- 
pressed to the suture. Aperture with strong outer lip which is ser- 
rated on its outer edge and showing seven or eight strong lirations 
within ; inner lip curved and covered with a strong enamel which 
spreads over part of the body whorl, two strong quadrangular folds 
on the lower central part and a pointed tooth near tlie posterior part 
of the aperture, base rounded, shell slightly umbilicMted. 

Height, 16 mm.; breadth, 9 mm.; length of aperture, 9 mm. 

Locality: Shoal River bed. West Florida. Oligocene of Dall. 

Remarks. — This is another Pacific Ocean form that adds to the 
evidence of a channel between the two oceans during the Tertiary 

AsTARTE NEWTONENSIS, n. Sp. PI. XI, figS. 2, 3. 

Shell small, rounded, nearly equilateral; beaks small, lunule 
rather long, the concentric ribs dying down at the edge, but the 
lines of growth run over to the hinge line and do the same on the 
escutcheon also. Valves moderately convex, sculptured with nu- 
merous small subequal ribs, inner margins crenulate, hinge as in 
the figure. 

Height, 6 mm.; length, 7^ mm. 


Locality: From tlje »' Burrstone," near Beulah P. 0., Newton 
County, Miss. 

Remaiks. — This little species is striliingly similai- to tlie species 
named Astarte opulentora Dall, but tliat is from the Pliocene 
of Mexico. 



The Tornatellinidce are a group of small or minute land snails 
found on the islands in and around the Paoific. An illustrated 
monograph has heen prepared for the " Manual of Conchology," but 
as its publication will be delayed until the appearance of iha Achati- 
nellidce, a brief sketch of the classification is here published in 

These shells have some resemblance to AchatinellidcB and Par- 
tulidcB in shape, but differ from both families by having an entering 
parietal lamella. In at least two species this is absent through de- 
generation in the adult stage, and in some others it is much reduced. 
Some species of the section Lamellina undergo remarkable changes 
from youth to maturity, the adult stage being secondarily simplified. 
Young individuals should always be collected with adults, when 

Key to Genera and Minor Divisions. 
I. Shell rather solid, glossy, bright or dark colored or variegated ; 
axis imperforate, but usually superfically riniate in the adult 
stage. Genus Auricui.ella Pfr. 

II. Shell thin, light brown or corneous, not polished. 

a. Axis imperforate, slender, the columella more or less 

b. Shell globose-ovate ; columella armed with an angular 
or bilobed vertical callus or plate, truncate or exca- 
vated below the prominence. 

Genus Elasmias n. gen. 

c. Spire of few (3 to 4^) whorls; columellar callus 

in form of a vertical, angular or bilobed plate. 

Section Elasmia$. 


cc. Spire of 6 to 7 close whorls ; columellar callus 
bilamellate, 'lamellae long; palatal plicae devel- 
oped. Section Lamellovum n. sect. 
bh. Shell oblong-conic or turrite, very thin ; columella 
sigmoid or nearly straight, sometimes calloused or 
bearing lamellae, not truncate or excavated at base. 


c. Shell oblong-conic ; whorls 5 to 7. 

d. Aperture having a columellar and a pari- 
etal lamella and two palatal folds. 

Section Tornatellina. 
(id. Aperture having columellar and a parietal 
lamella and more or less serrate, vertical, 
palatal ribs, at least in the neanic stage. 

Section Lamelliiia Pse. 
ddd. No palatal armature at any stage ; colu- 
mella more or less sinuous, sometimes 
lamellate, whorls 5 to 6. 

Section Lamellidea, n. sect. 
cc. Shell long-turrite, whorls 9 to 10. 

Section Elasmatina Petit. 
aa. Axis umbilicate or perforate throughout ; columella not 
sinuous or truncate. Genus Tornatei.lides n. gen. 

b. Columella unarmed at all stages of growth. 

Section Tornatellides. 
bb. Columella bilamellate, at least in the young. 

Section ToriKitellaria, n. sect. 

Types of the Genera and Minor Groups. 

Frickella Pfr. 1855, type Achatinella amoena Pfr. 

Auriculella Pfr. 1855, type A. auricida (Fer.). 

Elasmias Pils. 1910, type Tofnatellina aperta Pease. 

Lamellovum Pils. 1910, type Tornatellina glohosa (Petit). 

Tornatellina Pfr. 1842, type Tornatellina clausa-=.bilamellata (An- 

Lamellina Pease 1860, type Lamellina serratn Pease. 

Lamellidea Pils. 1910. type Tornatellina peponum (Gld.). 

Elasmatina Petit 1843, type E. subulata Pet. = T. turrita (An- 


Tornatellides ^ Pils. 1910, type T. simplex Pse. 

Tornatellaria Pils. 1910, type T. newcombi Pfr. 

Anriculella and Tornatellaria &.ve restricted to the Hawaiian Islands. 
Lamellovum and Elasmatina to Rapa. The other groups have a 
wider range. Lamellidea and TornatelUdes range from the Bonin, 
Luchu and Hawaiian Islands to New Zealand ; Elasmias from the 
Japanese Oceanic Islands to Australia, while Lamellina does not go 
south farther than Micronesia and Polynesia. Tliere are some New 
Caledonian species of Tornatellina, hni the absence of records of Tor- 
natellinidce from the Solomons, New Hebrides and other Melanesian 
islands is remarkable, and must be due to these minute shells being 
overlooked. The family is represented by a solitary species in the 



As I stated in the late issue of my paper I am going to establish a 
conchological museum in the near future and I hope I shall be able 
to contribute a little to this branch of study. Hon. S. Omori, Gov- 
ernor of Kyoto-Prefecture, Dr. H. Kinoshita, Ex-President of the 
Kyoto Imperial University, Dr. Y. Tanaka, a member of the 
House of Peers and two or three others of eminence promised to 
render assistance, if need be, and are in deep symjiathy with my 
undertaking. I am well convinced that I shall be able to carry out 
my plan and attain ray object, the establishment of a conchological 

For the building expenses of the museum, I rely for $5,000 upon 
the generosity of persons interested in science in foreign countries. 
It is not intended to ask contributions, but to issue sets of Japanese 
shells, the proceeds to be applied to the museum. 

Each lot or set contains 500 species of Japanese shells, valued at 
$100. Many sets are prepared and can be sent as soon as I receive 
orders. As to the 500 species in each set, they shall be subject to 
selection. Let me hear the names of the species desired. 

As already said, I do not wish for cash contributions to the museum. 

•The term TornatelUdes differs suflBciently in spelling and etymology from 
Tomatelloides Pfr. 


Yet such donations as specimens of shells, shell fancy-work, books, 
papers and pamphlets which have descriptions or pictures of shells, 
etc, will heartily be welcomed. They shall be arranged in cases in 
the museum, carefully preserved and duly credited to the donors. 
Kyoto, Japan. 



{^Concluded from page 113). 

Remarks : Lymnsea slagnalis lUliance may be known by its short 
spire, long and narrow aperture, and compressed body-whorl. It was 
at first thought to be a form of sanctaemariae, but a comparison with 
that species shows it to be uniformly narrower with compressed body- 
whorl, and more acute spire. In sanctaemariae the body-whorl is 
always very rotund ; the aperture is also roundly ovate, while in 
lillianae it is elongate-ovate. The musculature of the male organ is 
also quite different from sanctaemariae, and similar to that of ap- 
pressa. Lillianse differs from appressa in its short spire, flattened 
and compressed body-whorl and elongated aperture. It appears to 
be a distinguishable race of L. stagnalis. 

No true appressa were found associated witli this race in Toma- 
hawk Lake. There were a few specimens with spires and aperture 
of equal length, showing clearly that the race is a modification of the 
appressa type, caused, doubtless, by a change of environment. 

At Isle Royale, in Lake Superior, a form of stagnalis occurs 
which at first sight appears quite distinct. A number of individuals, 
however, approach very closely to var. lilUana and they may be re- 
ferred provisionally to this race. Judging from the material at hand, 
this is a transition form between appressa and lilliancB, representing, 
perhaps, one of the stages in the evolution of the race. The Isle 
Royale form " is characteristic of the quieter waters of the long, 
narrow harbors which are such a remarkable feature of the Island." 
(Walker). Typical lilliance lives on a wave-beaten shore, and this 
precarious environment has caused the aperture to become enlarged 
to provide for the larger foot to enable it to retain its hold on sub- 
merged objects. The Isle Royale form, living in quieter water, has 
not developed the large aperture of the Tomahawk Lake shell. 


The Tomahawk Lake shells vary to some extent, those inhabiting 
the quieter bays having a longer spire and a smaller aperture. 
These shells closely resemble the Isle Royale specimens and also 
clearly indicate relationship with appressa. Specimens referable to 
appressa were collected at one station in Tomahawk Lake, the 
habitat being marshy in character. Some pathologic lorms occur in 
the Wisconsin shells, the abnormalities being confined principally to 
the last whorl and aperture. .Specimens from Lake Harriet, Min- 
nesota, collected by Mr. L. E. Daniels, are also relerable to this 

In the course of time this race will probably assume specific char- 
acteristics. Its remarkabk iniformity points to this. 

The race is dedicated to my wife, who assisted in the discovery of 
the type specimens. 


John Ford was born in Chester, Pa., November IT), 1H27, and 
died in Philadelphia, January 10, 1010, He was the son of Lewis 
H. and Esther (Ogden) Ford, His father died when he was about 
ten, and he was then practically compelled to shift for himself. He 
lived for about three years with a farmer in Delaware county, Pa., 
and then returned to Chester and entered a store. By untiring 
efibrts the boy acquired a substantial education. His great love 
of nature and of music was a powerful incentive to self-cultivation. 

On September 6th, 1847, Mr. Ford married Phoebe T. Flavill, 
of Chester, Pa. After living for a time in Paterson, N. J., and 
Shipman, 111., he returned to Philadelphia in 1861, shortly after 
entering the Corn Exchange National Bank, where he was contin- 
uously employed until July, 1903, when, owing to a severe illness, 
he was compelled to retire from active business. 

Mr. Ford was afflicted for many years by an ever-increasing deaf- 
ness, which caused him to avoid social gatherings, and in his later 
years even scientific and musical meetings. Yet his warm and gen- 
erous nature found pleasure in the company of a few intimate friends 
who shared his tastes. 

Mr. Ford was an accomplished musician, many of his compositions 
having much merit. He especially excelled in melody. Many of his 
songs written over thirty years ago are still in favor. His first pub- 




lished song, " Will You Love Me when I'm Old ?" had a tremendous 
and immediate success, and was by far the most popular of his com- 
positions, though a number of those appearing later were deemed 
more worthy of consideration by his musical friends. Among tliese 
were "Watching and Waiting," "Daisy and I," "Away Down 
South," " Sweet Rosalie," and, best of all, " My Ships are Coming 
Back lo Me " — a piece of deep poetic feeling. 

As a young man, Ford was deeply interested in geology and min- 
eralogy. A warm friend of Conrad, together they collected cre- 
taceous fossils from the marl beds of New Jersey. With the late 
Theodore D. Rand he collected the minerals of Delaware and Chester 
counties. In the early sixties Ford met the Rev. Dr. E. R. Beadle. 
This acquaintance ripened into a warm friendship, and turned his 
attention from mineralogy to conchology. He often said — " It was 
Dr. Beadle who started me in the study of conchology, and who took 
all my minerals in exchange for shells." George W. Try on, Jr., 
was also his warm friend, and their bond of friendship was strength- 
ened by their love of music. Another true and life-long friend who 
survives him is Mr. Charles Morris, of Philadel|)hia. 

Mr. Ford was elected a member ct the Academy of Natural 
Sciences in 18G6 and from that time until his illness in 1903, took 
an active interest in the Academy's magnificent collection of mol- 
lusks. He was especially interested in the local species and those of 
the New Jersey coast, making a special exhibition collection of both, 
for the Academy and also for the Wagner Free Institute of Science. 
Aside from the local shells he was also especially interested in the 
OUvidce. His long suites selected to show specific variation are un- 
equaled in this country. 

He also brought together a very fine collection of Cyprceida, which 
although containing none of the great rarities, is notable for its 
large series illustrative of variation. His entire collection is re- 
markable for the perfection of the specimens tind the great number 
of representive genera and species of all the principal faunal regions. 
He had little interest in fresh-water shells, aside from local species, 
or for the small or minute land snails, though he possessed a very fine 
series of exotic Helices andBulimi, numbering many forms now very 
rare. The marine pelecypods such as Veneridce, CardiidiB, Pectens, 
etc., of his collection are especially fine. 

Mr. Ford published 29 articles on conchological subjects, besides 


a number of sliort notes, and a lew articles dealing with paleonto- 
logical and archaeological topics. His influence was largely personal. 
At the time ot his greatest activity in conchology — 1870 to 1895 — 
he maintained a large correspondence, and was always ready to as- 
sist students with information from the rich library of the Academy. 
He was particularly helpful in naming specimens for conchologists 
who had no access to large collections or libraries, much of his leisure 
beinw given to this generous propaganda. Several species were named 
in his honor, among them Donax fordi Conrad, Cerion fordi P. & V., 
DrymoEus fordi Pils. Pleurodonte fordiana Pils., Phasianella for- 
diana Pils., and others. 

The portrait accompanying this sketch, is from his last photograph, 
taken when Mr. Ford was about sixty years of age. 

He is survived by two sons William Henry and Albert W. Ford 
and two daughters Parthenia Ford and Mrs. Charles W. Johnson. 

List of the Conchological Writings of John Ford. 

1. Remarks on the Argouauta. Amer. Journ. of Conch., IV, 
276, 18G8. 

2. Embryology of Fulgur, etc. Proc. Acad. Nat. Sci. Phila., 
1884, p. 292. 

3. A Day among the MoUusks. Conch. Exch., I, 21, 1886. 

4. Helices in Fairmount Park, Philadelphia. Conch. Exch,, II, 
7, 1887. 

5. Succinea obliqua Say in Fairmount Park, Philadelphia, with 
some Remarks regarding the Relationship of Succinea totteniana 
Lea. Conch. Exch., II, 23, 1887. 

6. The Fresh-Water Mollusks of Fairmount Park. Conch. 
Exch., II, 39, 1887. 

7. Some Remarks on the Migration of Mollusks. Conch. Exch., 
II, 71, 1887. 

8. Description of a New Ocinebra. Proc. Acad. Nat. Sci. Phila., 
1888, p. 188, fig. 

9. Description of Helix (Trachia) dentoni. Nautilus, III, 17, 

10. List of Shells of the New Jersey Coast South of Brigantine 
Island. Naut., Ill, 27, 1889. 

11. Scalaria angulata in New Jersey. Naut., Ill, o2, 1889. 

1*2. Remarks on Oliva inflata, O. irisans, and Other Species 
of Shells. Proc. Acad. Nat. Sci. Phila., 1889, p. 137. 


13. Notes on Crepidula. Proc. Acad. Nat. Sci. Phila., 1889, p. 346. 

14. On Crepidula glauca. Naut., Ill, 90, 1889. 

15. A Few Last Words on Crepidula. Naut., Ill, 128, 1890. 

16. A Glance at the Academy of Natural Sciencps of Philadel- 
phia. Naut., IV, 75, 1890. 

17. Description of a New Anctus. Naut., IV, 81, 1890, 

18. Some American Cannibals. Naut., IV, 85, 1890. 

19. Description of a New Species of Helix [H. deaniana]. Proc. 
Acad. Nat. Sci. Phila., 1890, p. 188. 

20. Description of New Species of Anctus and Oliva. Proc. 
Acad. Nat. Sci. Phila., 1891, p. 97, figs. 1, 3 and 4. 

21. Some Remarks on New Jersey Coast Shells. Naut., VI, 
25, 1892. 

22. Description of a New Form of Cypraea. Naut., VI, 112, pi. 
2, figs. 4, 5, 1893 ; VII, 39, 1893. 

23. Remarks on a New Species of Cypraea. Proc. Acad. Nat. 
Sci. Phila., 1893. p. 310, fig. 

24. Some Remarks Relative to Cypraea greegori. Naut., VII, 
78, 1893. 

25. A New Variety of Olivella. Naut., VIII, 103, pi. 2, fig. 14, 

26. Notes on the Reported Extinction of the Genus Achatinella, 
and Marvelous Development of a Florida Fasciolaria. Naut., VIII, 
123, 1895. 

27. Some References to the Genus Oliva. Naut., X, 3, 1896. 

28. Cypraea lynx deformed by Disease. Proc. Acad. Nat. Sci. 
Phila., 1897, p. 328, figs. 1-3. 

29. Description of a New Species of Olivella. Naut., XII, 66, 

H. A. P. 


Some New South American Land Shells (Smiths. Misc. Coll., 
vol. 52, p. 361-364, 1909). By Wm. H. Dall. Phurodonte tenacu- 
lum and Helicina heighwayana are described from the Atrato River, 
Sierra Darien. The former seems closely related to P. uncigera 
Petit, having a remarkable hook within the basal lip, like that species. 
The altitude of the shell assigned (6.0 mm.) must be a typographical 
error. Odontostomus hranneri is a new form from the province of 
Bahia, Brazil. 

130 the nautilus. 

Repokt on a collection of shells fkom Peru, with a 
Summary of the Littoral marine Mollusca of the Peru- 
vian Zoological Province. 15y William Healey Dall : 
Proc. U. S. N. M. 37, p. 147-294, Pis. 20-28, 1909 — Dealt with 
in his usual masterly way, this paper of Dr. Dall is one of the most 
notable contributions to the fauna ot Western South America which 
has appeared for some years. Ostensibly l)ut a report on the rela- 
tively small collection of shells collected by Dr. R. E. Coker, the 
scope of the paper has been widened, first by the addition of a valu- 
able bibliography, and in laler pages by the inclusion of a " List of 
Species Composing the Fauna," prefaced by several pages of the 
acute generalizations which we have now come to expect in nearly 
all the larger works of this author. The list of synonyms at the 
back is also a most useful feature. 

As seems inevitable in a work of this scope a lew minor errors 
and inconsistences hav.? cre[)t in, some ol which it may be well to 
call to notice, as well as some of tiie more important clian;:es in 
nomenclature which Dr. Dall has found it necessary to undertake. 

The inaccuracies are as usual connected chiefly with the li^^t ot 
Cephalopods, which has apparently been compiled from the literature 
without any attempt at revision or the elimination of synonyms. 

By the rules ot nomenclature the family name Philonexidoe 
(used on p. 193) can have no standing and the creatures grouped 
under it must either be referred to the ArgonuufidcB, as most jiuthors 
now maintain ; or if segregated the name Tremoctopodidce sliould 
probably be used. At any rate the only species here given under 
this group, Tremoctopus miw'mvs Orb., is a synonym of Argonauta 
hians Sol. 

On p. 194, BoUtaena '-'• microtyla" is a misprint for B. "- imcrnco- 
tyla" and Polypus '\fontaineanus " for P. '■'■ fontfniiamis."' On . p. 
195 Ommastrephus gigas d'Orb. is now held the type of a distinct 
genus Dosidicus Steenstrup, 1857. Also Steenstriipiola chilensis 
Pfefifer is regarded by even its author as but the young sia^e of 
Telcoteuthis plcttyptera (d'Orb.) which is also listed on the following 
page. Onychoteuthis hracliyptera Pfeflfer may also be a synonym of 
this. Taonius schneeliageni Pfeflfer (listed on p. 196) is a synonym 
of Zygocranchia zygaena (Verany) Hoyle, according to Pfeflfer, but 
further specimens may indicate differently. 

It is a pity that original figures of Polypus fnntanianus and Loligo 



gahi were not given instead of copies of the unsatisfactory drawings 
of d'Orbigny. (Plates 20-21). 

The new species described are Modiolus arciformis, AUgena 
cokeri, Dtplodonta {Felaniella) artemidis, Xylotrya dryas (an inter- 
esting form found burrowing in the living mangroves), Bulimulus 
eokerianus, and Megatehennus cokeri. Acmaea orbignyi Dall is a new 
name for A. scutum Orb. 1841 (not Esch (1833), and the commonly 
used terms Anomia lampe Gray, Concholepas peruvianus Lam., and 
Crepidula unguiformis Lam. must give way to A. peruviana Orb., 
C. concholepas Brug. and C. crepidula Linn. res):)ectively. 

The nomenclature of the faunal list presents the usual divergencies 
from that in common use which are already familiar to those who 
have read Dr. Ball's " Albatross " Report ' or his notable memoir 
on the Oregon Miocene, 2 but there are still one or two points which 
seem difficult to understand, namely the retention of the family 
'' AplysiidcB" ahtr the rejection of Aphjsia for Tethys : the adop- 
tion of the family name Turritidce^ but not Epitoniidoe,; of BullariidoB 
and AlectrionidoR but not Architectonicidce. 

Murex elenensis Dall is a new name for M. plicatus Sowerby 1840 
(non Gmelin 1791), Thais peruensis Dall replaces Purpura peru- 
viana Eydoux and Souleyet 1852 (not Blainville, 1832), Architec- 
tonica (= Solarium) nanum (Koch) Philippi, 18o3 (not Grateloup, 
1838) becomes A. koehii Dall, Fissurella aspera Sowerby 1834 (not 
Eschscholtz, 1833) becomes Fissuridea asperior Dall, and Chiton 
bipunctatus Sowerby 1832 (not Fisher, 1808) is changed to Tonicella 
(Mopaliello) stigmata Dall. Among the Pelecypoda, Fectuvculus 
minor Orhigny 184G (not Lea 1833) becomes Glycrjmeris chemnitzii 
Dall, and Donax aricana Dall replaces D. radiatus Valenciennes, 
1833 (not Gmelin 1791). 

Another interesting point which may be observed in this connec- 
tion with some propriety is that most writers on the mollusca of our 
Southeastern and Gulf States seem to have overlooked the fact that 
the Siphonaria lineolata of Orbigny, 1853 is preoccupied by Sowerby 
1835. That name should therefore be restricted to the Chilian 

1 Bull. Mus. Comp. Zool. xliii, No. 6, Oct., 1908. 
» U. S. Geol. Surv. Prof. Pap., No. 59, 1909. 

'The correct spelling is Turridae as H. & A. Adams have shown. (Gen. 
Rec. Moll. II, p. 614, 1858). 


species, while the Floridian form will then be known as S. naU' 
fragum Stearns. The chief synonymy of the two species is as fol- 
lows : 


1835 Siphonaria lineolata Sowerby, Proc. Zool. Soc, p. 6. 
1856 Siphonaria lineolata Reeve, Conch. Icon., v. 9, Siphonaria, 
PI. 3, fig. 11. 

1909 Siphonaria lineolata Dall, Proc. U. S. N. M., v. 37, p. 205. 

Siphonaria naufragum Stearns. 
1853 Siphonaria lineolata Orbigny {non Sowerby), Moll. Cuba, I, 
p. 232, PI. XVII, fig. 13-15. 

1872 Siphonaria naufragum Stearns, Proc. Bost. Soc. Nat. Hist., 
XV, p. 23. 

1902 Siphonaria lineolata Dall; Proc. U. S. N. M. XXIV, p. 
501, PI. xxvii, fig. U) and 13. 

S. S. Berry, Harvard University, Massachusetts. 

The Opisthobranchiate Moli.usca of the Branner-Agas- 
siz Expedition to Brazil, by Frank Mace MacFarland (Leland 
Stanford Junior University Publications No. 2, 1999) — The follow- 
ing species are described: Tethys dactylomela (Rang), T. cervina Dall 
and Simpson, Pleurohranchus agassizi, Discodoris hranneri^ D. voni- 
heringi, Peltodoris greeleyi and Spurilla braziliana nov. spp. The 
internal anatomy of all the species is fully described and illustrated 
with excellent figures. Professor MacFarland's excellent work on 
Opisthobranchs is making amends for the neglect of the group by 
American zoologists — H. A. P. 


Albino Oliva angulata — We have recently received for 
examination a large and perfect specimen of Oliva angulata which 
is snow-white except for a small fleshy-brown stain on the callus at 
the posterior angle of the aperture and a rusty yellow stain in front 
of the callus. This albino, which may be called form nivea, is the 
first to be reported of this species, so far as we know. It seems to 
be an extremely infrequent variation. The specimen measures 83 
mm. long, 42.5 wide. It is the property of the A. L. Hettrich Com- 
pany, of San Francisco — H. A. Pilsbry. 

The Nautilus. 

Vol. XXIII. APRIL, 1910. No. 11 



Several new shells have turned up lately in material received from 
the Pacific Coast, of which descriptions follow. 

Olivella (anazora Duel. var. ?) porteri Dall. 

Shell of about the form and size of the east American O.jaspidea, 
with very variable coloration; whorls about seven, spire acute with 
a very deep and narrow channeled suture not obscured by callus ; 
surface of the whorls brilliantly polished, smooth, except for micro- 
scopic spiral close striation which is present on all, but more uniform 
on particular individuals ; color pale olive, yellow, or whitish, with 
sharp angular axial brown lines superposed between the suture and 
the basal fasciole, sometimes forming a tent-like pattern and some- 
times reduced to fine, close, more or less cloudy zigzags ; a pale band 
in front of the suture, usually with vivid brown zigzag pointed for- 
ward, but sometimes plain, the brown lines when present broader and 
stronger than elsewhere ; basal fasciole short, with a marginal and 
an adjacent narrow fold or plait anteriorly, lighter than the body, 
yellow or rich bluish purple ; aperture narrow, simple, with a deep 
sutural sinus and a moderate parietal callus when mature. Height 
of shell 15 ; of aperture 9 ; max. diara. 6 mm. 

From sandbars near the entrance to San Diego Harbor, and at 
Scammon Lagoon, Lower California, Miss J. M. Cooke. U. S. 
Nat. Mus. 209677. Named in honor of Captain George Porter who 
collected largely in the Gulf of California, and is supposed to have 
lost his life at Tiburon Island while on a collecting expedition. 


The Scammon Lagoon specimens are more grayish than those from 
San Diejro. 

The nearest ally to this species is the shell figured by Marrat in 
the Thesaurus, plate 350, figure 419, under the name of anazora 
Duclos. This, judging by the figure, is a much smaller and some- 
what stouter shell, with less distinct marliings. The shell repre- 
sented by figure 411 on the same plate is that identified by Dr. Car- 
penter and H. Cuming for the Smithsonian collection as 0. anazora 
Duclos, though it is named 0. pidla by Marrat. The heavy white 
callus on the body extending beyond the suture amply distinguishes 
it from 0. porleri. 1 have not access to Duclos' original paper and 
hence cannot resolve the doubt as to which is Duclos' anazora. 

The previously known Calil'ornian OlivcHae were none of them of 
remarkable beauty, though some of the Gulf species are very attrac- 
tive, but the present form is one of the prettiest shells of the coast. 
It may be that its range extends further north. 


Shell moderately large, rather thin, brilliantly pearly inside, 
covered with a reddish brown periostracum which becomes oliva- 
ceous on the base ; form rather depressed, with turgid whorls, about 
six in all, the nucleus white, blunt, imperfect ; base flattened, 
bordered by a s|)arsely nodulous carina; sculpture on the spire of 
slightly protractive, rounded, short, rather elevated rihlets reaching 
about half way forward on the whorl from the suture (17 on the last 
whorl), ending in or barely separated from the same number of stout 
nodules at the periphery, with a marked sulcus separating them from 
a similar row of nodules on the margin of the base ; base with four 
somewhat undulated spiral ridges separated by subequal interspaces, 
excf^pt the inner pair which are smaller and closer to each other; 
base imperforate, swollen at the base of the pillar ; ajjerture ample;, 
surface of the body erased, leaving visible pearly and white sub- 
stance ; the pillar arcuate, pearly ; with no anterior prominence or 
tooth ; outer lip and base simple, sharp ; operculum white, rounded,, 
shelly, with three partly gyrate, very prominent, granose, narrow 
ribs, the spaces between theni excavated and smooth. Height of 
shell 37.') ; of last whorl 30.0 ; of aperture (vertical) 21.5 ; max. 
diameter 41.0 mm. 

U. S. Fish Commission station 21189, in 3G fathoms, coral, off 
Magdalena Bay, Lower California. U. S. Nat. Mus. 111242. 



This is remarkably distinct from any of the previously known 
West American species. 


Shell conic, the sides of the spire flattened, the base flattened and 
somewhat concave, the basal margin compressed with a rounded and 
undulate edge; whorls about seven ; the nucleus white, worn, sides 
covered by a scarlet periostracum which becomes darker on tlie 
base; sculpture of about thirty-four subequal protractive low riblets 
which are cut into elongate nodules by four spiral sulci, the peri- 
pheral nodules being longer and most prominent, giving the effect of 
a pre-sutural band ; on the base are four subequal and subequally 
spaced spiral riblets, which in the young are sometimes nodulous or 
undulate ; pillar pearly, space about it white or pearly, as is the in- 
terior of the aperture ; the suture laid on the peripheral carina is un- 
dulate and in the young the base has a stellate appearance ; the per- 
iostracum is strongly striate in the direction of growth. Heigiit of 
shell 38 ; of last whorl 32 ; of aperture (vertical) 5 ; max. diameter 
38 mm. 

Station 2989, U. S. Fish Conunission, with the preceding, U. S. 
Nat. Mus. 111239. 

This is of the same general !\ pe as P. ivcsquale Marty n, but more 
delicate, smaller and more elegantly sculptured. The operculum is 
essentially like that of P. incequale, which is not authentically re- 
ported south of the Santa Barbara Islands. 

With these shells were taken two young specimens of Uvanilla 
regina Stearns, (unfortunately not containing the soft parts) thus 
adding another station to the known range of this excessively rare 
and beautiful species. 


Shell small, turbinate-conic, w-ith about six moderately convex 
whorls, the basal margin being either bluntly rounded or undulately 
carinate ; suture appressed, whorls covered with a reddish periostra- 
cum striated in harmony with the incremental lines ; sculpture 
between the suture and periphery of nine closely and prominently 
beaded, alternately stronger and weaker spiral cords, with only linear 
interspaces; periphery in the type specimen with three finer threads; 
the base flattish, with six subequal, more or less undulate or beaded 


cords with narrower interspaces ; umbilical area imperforate, smooth, 
slightly excavated, white ; pillar arcuate ; smooth ; aperture very 
oblique simple, pearly white within ; operculum ? Heiglit of shell 
32.5 ; of last whorl 20.5 ; of aperture (vertical) 11.5 ; max. diameter 
36.5 mm. 

U. S. Fish Commission station 2983, oiF Cerros Island, Lower 
California, in 58 fathoms, sand. U. S. Nat. Mus. 111241. 

Of three dead specimens dredged, one had the periphery com- 
pressed and roundly keeled, and on the spire were some feeble indi- 
cations of axial ribbing. 


Assistant Curator, U. S. National Museum. 

In a collection of molhisks submitted to the U. S. National 
Museum for critical examination, by Dr. Fred. Baker of San Diego, 
California, collected by him on the Northwest Coast, are several 
new forms which are here described. 

The types of these species have been kindly donated to the 
National Museum by Dr. Baker. 

Leptogyra alaskana new species. PI. XI, figs. 4, 5, 6. 

Shell minute, depressed helicoid. Nuclear whorls one and one- 
half, light yellow horn color, marked by faint incremental lines. A 
single post-nuclear turn follows which is bluish white, rather bread 
and gently, almost evenly curved from the well-impressed suture to 
the periphery. This whorl is marked by about twelve, fine, incised 
spiral lines between the suture and the periphery which are stronger 
toward the periphery than at the suture. Periphery of the last 
whorl rounded. Base broadly and deeply umbilicated, strongly 
arched, with a slender cord at the junction of the basal and parietal 
wall, surface of the base marked by incised lines which are equal in 
strength and number to those occuring upon the upper surface. 
Wall of the umbilicus almost flat, marked by faint spiral lines. 

* Published by permission of the Secretary of the Smithsonian Institution, 


Aperture very large, subcircu'ar, posterior angle obtuse ; outer lip 
thin ; columella curved, somewhat expandful and thickened basally ; 
parietal wall covered with a thin callus. Operculum thin, horny. 

Twelve specimens of this species were collected by Dr. Fred. 
Baker at Port Graham, Alaska, four of which are in the U. S. 
National Museum, cat. no. 208433. One of these, the type, meas- 
ures ; greater diameter 0.85 mm., lesser diameter 0.7 mm., altitude 
0.4 mm. The remaining eight specimens are in Dr. Baker's collec- 

Alvania bakeri, new species. PI. XI, fig. 8. 

Shell minute, bluish white. Nuclear whorls one and one-third, 
forming a moderately elevated spire. Upper half of the well-rounded 
nuclear whorls marked by about ten very fine closely spaced spiral 
striations, lower half marked by numerous closely spaced depressed 
elongate granules, each of which has the long axis decidedly protrac- 
tively slanted ; which lends to this part of the turn a finely blistered 
appearance. Post-nuclear whorls a little more than two, well 
rounded, separated by a strongly constricted suture marked by three 
strong rounded spiral keels of which the strongest is a little anterior 
to the posterior third between the sutures, while the anterior of the 
other two, which are of equal strength, is at the periphery and the 
third halfway between them. In addition to these keels the whorls 
are marked by fine incised spiral lines between the keels which are 
best developed on the well-rounded shoulder between the summit of 
the w^horls and the strong keel below it. Base of the last whorl 
slightly protracted, well rounded, marked by two broad depressed 
spiral cords of which the basal one which is a little anterior to the 
middle is the broader. In addition to these are numerous exceed- 
ingly fine spiral striations. The axial sculpture of the entire spire 
and base consists of very fine incremental lines only. Aperture very 
broadly ovate, almost circular, peritreme continuous, outer lip thick 
within, beveled at the margin to form a sharp edge which is rend- 
ered slightly sinuous by the external spiral sculpture ; columella 
strong and strongly curved, parietal wall of the aperture appressed 
to the preceding whorl. 

The type, cat. no. 208445 U. S. N. M., was collected by Dr. 
Fred Baker at Port Graham, Alaska. It measures ; length 1.4 mm., 
diameter 1.2 mm. 


Onoba asser, new species. PI. XI, fig. 9. 

Shell elongate conic, bluish white, semitranslucent. Nuclear 
whorls one and one-tenth, smooth, a little less elevated than the suc- 
ceeding turns. Post-nuclear whorls very iiigh between the sutures, 
orerhanging, moderately rounded, appressed at the summit. The 
preceding wliorl shines through tlie summit of the succeeding turn 
and gives this the appearance of having a double suture. Sutures 
well impressed. Periphery of the last whorl well rounded. Base 
moderately prolonged, well rounded. Entire surface of spire and 
base marked by closely placed exceedingly fine microscopic spiral 
striations. Aperture very broadly ovate, posterior angle obtuse, 
outer lip thin ; peritreme complete. 

The type, cat. no. 208434 U. S. N. M., was collected by Dr. 
Fred 15aker at Fort Graliam, Alaska. It has four and a half whorls 
and measures : length 2.2 mm., diameter .9 mm. This species is 
nearest related to Onoha cerineUa Dall, from which it is distinguished 
by its lesser size and more delicate structure. 

Odostomia (evalea) cookeana, new species. PI. XI, fig. 7. 

Shell elongate ovate, very narrowly umbilicated, yellowish white. 
Nuclear whorls very obliquely immersed in the first of tlie succeed- 
ing turns. Post-nuclear whorls very high between the sutures where 
they are very moderately rounded and marked by ratlier strong in- 
cremental lines and very numerous fine spiral striations. Periphery 
and base of the last whorl somewhat inflated, the latter strongly 
rounded and marked like the spire. Aperture large, oval ; posterior 
angle acute; outer lip thin; columella decidedly oblique, quite 
strongly curved in the middle and somewhat reflected, provided with 
an oblique fold at its insertion which is strong within and tapers to a 
vanishing point at the free edge of the columella ; parietal wall glazed 
with a thin callus. 

Two specimens of this species were collected by Dr. Baker at 
Ellamar, Alaska. One of these, an immature specimen, furnished 
our description of the nucleus, the other, cut. no. 208427 U. S. N. 
M., gave the adult characters. The adult specimen has its nucleus 
badly eroded. The four remaining whorls measure : length 3.2 mm., 
diameter 2.0 mm. The young individual which is in Dr. Baker's 
collection has ?\ whorls and measures : length 2.3 mm., diameter 
1.4 mm. 

Named for Miss J. M. Cooke of San Diego at the request of Dr. 




In Nautilus, vol. 22, Feb. '09 p. 107, Frierson reports that in 
Parreysia ?A\four gills serve as marsupium in the gravid female, a 
character wliich does not agree with Simpson's definition of the sub- 
family Hyriwce (Hyi-iavce). He concludes tiiat, in this instance, we 
should not pay attention to the marsupial character, but should rely 
upon the radial sculpture of the beaks of the shell. 

Recently I received a number of these Parreysias through the 
courtesy of Mr. Frierson, and I am much obliged to him for giving 
me the opportunity to examine them. I should call the species 
Parreysia wynegungaensis (Lea) altliough a number among them 
distinctly incline toward P. corrugata (Muell.) There are 30 of 
them, 13 males, 11 sterile, and 6 gravid females; none of the latter 
had glochidia, but only eggs in various stages of development. There 
was no sex differentiation whatever in the shells. 

An examination of the soft parts revealed the fact, tliat not only 
all four gills are marsupial in the female, but that the ivliole structure 
of the soft parts is absolutely like the JS'orth American Quadrula (see : 
Ortmann, in : Nautilus, 23, Feb. '10 p. 116). The only, and un- 
important, differences are, tliat the svpraanal opening is rather 
widely separated from the anal, and that the inner lamina of the 
inner gill \s entirely connected with the abdominal sac. For the 
rest, all other characters are like Quadrula, and the most prominent 
features are the following. 

The inner edge of the anal opening is finely crenulated ; that of 
the branchial opening is papillose, and rather well defined anteriorly; 
in front of the latter, there are fine crenulations on the inner mantle- 
edge for a short distance, but no special structures, such as papillae 
or flaps. The gills are unequal, the outer considerably smaller than 
the inner. The diaphragm is normal, and the outer lamella of the 
outer gill is connected with the mantle to the posterior end. In the 
male, there are well developed water tubes in the gills, but they are 
rather wide, and the septa separating them are far apart. In both, 
the male and female, the edge of the inner gill possesses a longitu- 
dinal furrow, which is absent in the outer gill. In the female, all 
four gills serve as marsupium^ and possess the structure of marsupial 
gills ; the water tubes are narrow, and the septa are close together 


(in the outer gill closer than in the inner). Tiie septa show, in the 
sterile female, in both gills the characteristic folded epithelium. 
When gravid, all four gills swell but only moderately, and the edges 
always remain sharp, and do not possess the faculty of distending. 
The water tubes (ovisacs) remain simple, and in each of them the 
eggs form a subcylindrical, only slightly compressed, mass, a 
placenta, which, however, is not very solid, the mutual adliesion of 
the eggs being rather slight. 

With the exception of the two features mentioned above, Parreysia 
is thus identical, in its anatomy, with Quadrula. If we add to these 
two differences the radial sculpture of the beaks, we would have 
good generic cliaracters. But the genus, at any rate the species 
wyneyungaensis which stands close to the type species of the genus, 
corrugata, should be removed from the subfamily HyriincB, and 
placed into the subfamily Unionince (Nautilus, 23, '10 p. llG),by 
the side of, and close to Quadrula. The definition of the TJidonince 
should be slightly modified with regard to the supraanal opening and 
the inner lamina of the inner gills, so as to include Parreysia, but 
these modifications are irrelevant. 

This, of course, means that I do not attribute any significance to 
the beak sculpture, but I think I am fully justified in this. If we 
make radial beak sculpture the prime character of the Hyriince, we 
would be compelled not only to unite the Afro-Asiatic forms, like 
Parreysia, vi\i\\ the South American Hyriince, which, I believe, is a 
great mistake, but we would also have to unite with the Hyriince a 
number of living North American shells. For we must not forget 
(and this is a fact generally overlooked) that we have radial (zig- 
zag) leak sculpture in a number of species of Qiiadrida. I name the 
following : Quodrula (^Rotundarid^ tuhercidata (Raf.), Qu. infucata 
(Conr.) and kleiniana (Lea), Qu. lachrymosa (Lea), forsheyi (Lea), 
speciosa (Lea), apiculata (Say). Also in Qu. cylindrica (Say) 
traces may be seen. This zig-zag radial sculpture is best developed 
in the species first named ; in the others it goes generally as 
" double-looped," but, in my opinion, the so-called " double-looped " 
sculpture is but the last remnant of the zig-zag sculpture. 

Furthermore, radial beak sculpture is a quite frequent feature in 
North American fossil Unionidce from the Mesozoic era. If we look 
at the beak sculpture of Unio holmesianns White (see : 3 Ann. Rep. 
U. S. Geol. Surv. '83, pi. 16, fig. 2-6) from the Laramie of southera 


Wyoming ; or at the beak sculpture of a number of species described 
by Wliitiield from tlie Laramie of Montana (see : Bull. Amer. Mus., 
N. H. 19, '03 p. 483 and 23, '07 p. 623), we cannot deny, tliat we 
have here a beak sculpture corresponding very closely to the " radial " 
sculpture of certain Asiatic types. This is especially true in : U. 
retusuides Whitf. ('03, pi. 38, fig. 6), U. hrowni Whitf. {ibid. pi. 38, 
fig. 3), U. percorrv gains Whitf. {ibid. pi. 40, figs. 3, 4), and U. 
pyramidatoides Whitf. ('07, pi. 41, fig. 1), U. letsoni Whitf. {ibid. 
pi. 42, figs. 1-3). I have, fortunately, a number of specimens be- 
fore me, coming from the same general region as Whitfield's ma- 
terial ; they were collected for the Carnegie Museum at Hell Creek, 
Dawson Co., Montana, and show the beak sculpture beautifully in 
U. retusoides, browni, pyranddatoides, lefsoni, and in addition it is 
distinctly seen in specimens of TJ. verrucosiformis Whitf. ('07, pi. 
42, fig. .'';). Some of these fossil forms undoubtedly are the ances- 
tors of modern species, as is sometimes expi'essed in their names (but 
not always correctly ; pyramidal oides has nothing to do with Qu. 
pyramidata, but belongs clearly to the f7'igona-i\]w). Thus it is evi- 
dent that many North American Unionidse once had radial beak 
sculpture, and some have preserved fraces of it vp to the present time. 
This character probably once was more generally distributed, and 
remains rather well preserved in many old v.'orld forms (and also in 
South American groups), but in North America it has become more 
and more obliterated. Such a character, of course, although fit to 
indicate genetic relationship, is unfit to be used as a principle for 

The structure of the soft parts, which indicates close relationship 
between Quadrula and Parrcysia, is much more reliable, in fact ac- 
cording to my experience, is absolutely reliable. In this connection 
it should be mentioned that in one of our gravid Porreysias only the 
outer gills were filled with eggs ; but microscopical investigation 
showed that also the inner gills had the typical structure of the 
female marsupial gill, and that, in this instance, the specimen was 
just in the beginning of the period of gravidity, and the inner gills 
were not yet charged. Similar cases might sometimes lead to mis- 
takes, if investigated only superficially. 

Of course, we now stand before the task of redefining the sub- 
family Hyriince according to the South American typical iepresei;<a- 
tives, and to investigate additional so-called Hyri'ncs from Asia and 


Africa. I hope to be able to contribute to the solution of the first 
question in the future, since the Carnegie Mrseum recently has re- 
ceived a good deal of alcoholic material of South American Unionid^^ 
which is waiting for identification and examination. 



Sphcerium lineatum, n. sp. 

Mussel somewhat elongate, inequipartite, well inflated ; beaks 
somewhat anterior, rather large, full, rounded, projecting over the 
hinge margin ; superior and inferior margins moderately and regu- 
larly curved, anterior and posterior subtruncate-rounded, oblique; 
scutum and scutellum distinctly marked, nairow ; surface dullish 
with a slight silky glass, with the concentric striae (sulci) fine, sharp, 
crowded, regular, and several (3 or 4 to 7) strongly marked, dark 
lines of growth ; color grayish-horn to reddish, the latter prevalent 
on the beaks and upper part of older specimens ; shell rather thin, 
hinge slight, long, plate narrow ; cardinal teeth small; slight, short, 
the right curved or angular, emarginate, its posterior part bifid, the 
left anterior rudimentary or wanting in some specimens;* ligament 
long, slight covered. 

Long. 15.5, alt. 11.5, diam. 8. mill. (Turkey Lake). 

Long. 14, alt. 10.5, diam. 8. 5 mill. (Wetherby). 

Soft parts not seen. 

Hab.: Turkey Lake, Kosciusko Co., Indiana, collected by Mr. L. 
E. Daniels, of the Indiana Geological Survey, in 1902. 

A Sph. from Mountain Lake, Marquette Co., Michigan (Upper 
Peninsula), collected by Mr. Bryant Walker, in 1898, and sent for 
examination then, appeared to be of the same species. The mussel 
is somewhat smaller, with the beaks slightly more anterior, the in- 
ferior margin less curved and the infero-posterior angle somewhat 
more marked. These Spliajria, although well reitresented by good 
specimens of various stages of growth, and regarded as distinct, were 
shelved for years, in the hope of getting additional material. Lately 
Mr. Bryant Walker kindly sent me a lot of the Wetherby collection, 
which unfortunately has no label. Although such specimens should 

*A3 occasionally found also in other specie?. 


be considered worthless, the present ones were so manifestly of tliis 
same species that they may be regarded as a confirmation of it. 
They are rather like the Mountain Lake mussels in shape, but some- 
Avhat larger, and somewhat more inflated than the Turkey Lake 
form. It appears that tlie comparatively numerous, strong, mostly 
dark lines of growth and the fine (hs compared with those of other 
species), sharp, crowded striae are characteristic and, combined with 
surface appearance and color, let specimens be recognized at a glance. 
Specimens of the tyi^e lot are in the Museum of the Geo!. Survey 
of Lidiana and in the Carnegie Museum, Pittsburgli (No. 5465 of 
my collection of Sphceriidce), in the collection of Mr. Bryant Walker 
and the Mus, Acad. N, Sc. Phila. 


Kky to the Genera of Gastropoda of Michigan. By H. 
BuRRiNGTON Baker. (Reprint from the llih Rept. Mich. Acad. 
Sci., 1900, pp. 134-140.) 

Descriptions of Nine Species of Ennea and Five Heli- 
coius FROM South Africa. By James Cosmo Melvill and 
John Henry Ponsonby. (Ann. Mag. Nat. Hist., vol. 4, ser. 8, 
pp. 485-492, pi. 7, 1909.) 

Report on the Marine Moi.lusca Obtained by Mr. J. 
Stanley Gardner, F. R. S., Among the Islands of the 
Indian Ocean in 1905. By James Cosmo Melvill. (Trans. 
Linn. Soc. London, XIII, pp. 65-138, pi. 5, 1909.) About 170 
species are recorded of which 15 are new to science. 


By C. Hedley. (Proc. Linn. Soc. N. S. Wales, 1909, vol. 34, pp. 
4*20-466, pis. 36-44.) An interesting paper treating of a rich and 
varied fauna. The Hope Islands are situated near Cooktown, just 
inside the Endeavor Reef. Tlie writer states that moi'e tl;an 700 
species were secured; 100 species are discussed in tliis paper, half of 
which are new to science. The figures are unusually fine in detail 
and sculpture. 

Dkscriptions OF New and Notes on Other Australian 
PoLYPLACOPHORA. By C. Hedlky and A. F. Basset Hull. 


(Records Australian Mus., vol. 7, pp. 260-266, pis. 73 and 74, 
1909.) Four species are descnl)ed as new. 

A Revised census of the Tekkestuial Mollusca of Tas- 
mania. By W. F. Petteud and C. Hedley. (Records Aus- 
tralian Museum, vol. 7, pp. 283-304, pis. S2-87, 1909.) A com- 
plete revision of the species, vk'itli illustrations of all Tasmanian land 
shells hitherto unfigured. Cystopelta bicolor is described. 

The list of San Bernardino County mollusks in the November 
number of The Nautilus (Vol. XXIll, pp. 73-79) does not in- 
clude Lymncea buUinoides techella Hald. I found this sjjecies in con- 
sideral)le numbers during the summer of 1909, in Sec. 33, Tp. 2 S., 
R. 7 W., very near the county line, but the owner assures me that 
his property is in San Bernardino County. They were in a pond 
surrounding an artesian well. Dr. Frank C. Baker identified the 
specimens Junius Henderson, Boulder, Colo. 

Note on the Summary of the Mollu&ca of the Peruvian 

Province There are some points in Mr. Berry's review of this 

paper which show that even those things which are obvious, or seem 
to be so, should not be omitted. In preparing this list it was not 
my intention to review the whole molluscan classification or nomen- 
clature, which would have taken as many years as the list I prepared 
look months. In those groups which are not familiar to me, I fell 
back on the only modern classified lists of the Cephalopods and 
Nudil>ranclis, namely those of Hoyle and Bergh, as indicated in my 
bibliography ; the experience and reputation of these authors being 
such as to require no apology for accepting their results. In the 
case of the BoHlsena I followed the spelling of the name as given in 
the work referred to, the Bulletin of the Museum of Comparative 
Zoology. Polypus fontaineanus was named after N. Fontaine, and 
though it happened to be misprinted fonlanianus in the first fasci- 
culus of Orbigny's work, and this misprint was copied on the plate 
by the engraver, the error was corrected in the index of the book 
somewhat later. Under these circumstances we are authorized by 
the rules to accept the correction, as Mr. Berry proposes to do in 
the case of Turridse. However in the latter case since the deriva- 
tives of Turn's in Latin {turritus) English (turrited) and so far as I 
know all other languages, accept the euphonic " t " in derivatives of 
Turris, I kept the earlier form which is more in harmonj with 
TurrilellidcB and similar accepted locutions. The illustrations of the 
work were intended for those interested in the identification of the 
economic shellfish and not for anatomists, and for this purpose 
Orbigny's plates are quite satisfactory. As Whewell remarked "We 
are none of us infallible, not even the youngest of us." — Wtn. H.