Skip to main content

Full text of "The Nautilus"

See other formats






JULY, 1922, to APRIL, 1923 



Curator of the Department of Mollusca, Academy ol Natural Sciences 



Curator of the Boston Society of Natural Histoiy 






Abalone, coUeoting on an 17 

Acmgea patina Esch.., note on 71 

Actinonaias carinata Barnes 100 

Alasmidonta calceola Lea 98 

Alabina Dall = Fenella A. Ads 27 

Amblema costata Raf 48 

Amblema perplicata elliotti Lea 75 

Amnicola judayi Baker n. sp 19 

Amnicola limosa porata Say 20, 25 

Anodon longinus Spix 8 

Anodonta grandis Say 97 

Anodonta grandis grijalvae Morelet 9 

Anodontites, observations on the genera Leila and 7 

Anodontoides birgei Baker, n. sp 123 

Anodontoides ferussacianus Lea 98 

Aperostoma Troschel, Type Cyclostoma mexicanum Mk.. 14 

Aperostomatinse 14 

Arcidens confragosus Say 97 

Argentina, two new bivalves from 58 

Arion hortensis in Maine 105 

Ashmnnella hebardi Pils. & Van., n. sp 119 

Busy con maximum var. tritonis Con 10 

Carychium magnificum Hanna . .' 141 

Carunculina parva Barnes 100 

Chiorsera dalli, a critique on Professor Harold Heath's. . 86 

Cooke, Jeanette M. (obituary) 30 

Crenella faba Miiller on the coast of Maine 104 

Cyclonaias tuberculata Raf 48 

Cypraea ostergaardi Dall 71 

Cypraea pacifica Ostergaard, note on 71 


/ "7 7 ^»f 


Donax variabilis Say 60 

Drillia roseobasis Pils. & Van 132 

Dysnomia (Tnincillopsis) triquetra Raf 102 

Elliptio dilatatus Raf 97 

Epiphra^mophora fidelis Gray destroying creepers 61 

Epiphragmophora fidelis Gray climbing trees 144 

Epiphragmophora fidelis oregonensis Lea 14 

Epiphragmophora mormonum Pfr 12 

Euparypha pisana mut. taylori CklL, n. n 45 

Fasciolaria gigantea var. reevei Jonas 11 

Fenella A. Adams, note on 27 

Ferriss collection injured by fire 104 

Florida, fossil shells from the St. Lucie Canal 10 

Fusconaia iiibiginosa parvula Grier 19 

Fusconaia succissa Lea 73 

Fusconaja ebenus Lea 48 

Gemma gemma purpurea in Florida 32 

Goniobasis edgariana Lea 115 

Haliotis fulgens Phil 18 

Hawaiian marine shells 120 

Helix depressiformis and H. prostrata Pease, the iden- 
tity of 17 

Helix oregonensis Lea, the status of 12 

Hemilastena ambigua Say 98 

Lampsilis anodontoides Lea 54, 101 

Lampsilis gracilis Barnes 99 

Lasmigona (Alasminota) holstonia Lea 83, 129 

Lasmigona complanata Barnes 96 

Leila grayana Frierson n. n. for Anodonta. exotica Gray. . 9 
Leila sowerbyana Frierson n. n. for Anodonta trautwini- 

ana Sowb 9 

Lemniscia calva race vetema Ckll. nov 46 

Leptinaria charlottei n. n. for L. imperforata Baker not 

Strebel 32 

Leptodea leptodon Raf 99 

Ligumia ellipsiformis Con 100 

Liguus near Cape Sable, Florida 109 

Limax flavus L 105 

Lioplax subearinata Say 20 

Localities of N. Calif omian land snails — a correction. ... 32 

Lymnsea (Galba) minnetonkensis Baker, n. sp 23 

Ljrnangea (Galba) winnebagoensis Baker, n. sp 22 

Lymnsea caperata warthini Baker, new subspecies 125 

Macoma (Psammacoma) platensis Dall, n. sp 59 

Margaritana monodonta Say 47 


Margaritana murma Heude 43 

Margaritana, observations on (the genus 42 

Margaritana simpularis Heude 43 

Marine mollusca found about New York City, review of. . 59 

Megalonaias gigant^ea Bar 48 

Megalonaias triumphans Wright 74 

Melibe leonina Gould, with special reference to the use of 

the foot in the nudibranchiate mollusk (Pis. 2-5) .. . 86 

Mollusks dredged from San Diego Bay, Cal 33 

Mya arenaria, an abnormal shell of 28 

Mycetopoda longina Spix 9 

Naiades, A new genus and species of American 1 

Naiad fauna of the Upper Mississippi River, Notes on 

the 46, 96 

Nematurella in Califomian Miocene 140 

Nodalaria cronina Walker, n. sp. (PI. 1, f. 2, 3) 5 

Notes 31, 71, 104 

Nudibranch, a new Cladohepatic 133 

Obliquaria reflexa Raf 99 

Obovaria retusa Lam 99 

Ochthephila (Callina) rotula mut. grisea Ckll. nov 45 

Ochthephila (Discula) attrita mut. nigra Ckll. nov 45 

Ochthephila (Discula) attrita race contracta Ckll. nov.. . 45 

Ochthephila (Tectula) bulverii mut. albescens Ckll. nov.. 45 

Olea hansineensis Agersborg, new genus and species .... 133 

Oxstyla floridensis Pils. near Cape Sable 109 

Pearl mussels, an indication of the value of artificial prop- 
agation of 53 

Pecten (Chlamys) felipponei Dall, n. sp 58 

Pisidia, some notes on minute 39 

Pisidium cruciatum Sterki 40 

Plagiola lineolata Raf. (P. securis Lea) 99 

Planorbis caloderma Pilsbry, new species 143 

Planorbis opercularis Gould (Helix prostrata Pease) ... 17 

Planorbis umbilicatellus Ckll 21 

Plethobasus cyphyus Raf 49 

Pleurobema cordatum Raf 49 

Pleurobema georginum Lea 78 

Pleurobema hagleri Frierson 81 

Pleurobema modicum Lea 82 

Pleurobema pyramidatum Lam 96 

Pleurotoma roseotineta Dall 132 

Pleurotoma testudinis Pils. & Van., new name 132 

Polygyra germana vancouverinsulae Pils. and Cooke, n. 

sub. sp 38 


Polygyra multiliueata algonquinensis Nason 21 

Poteria Gray 14 

Proserpinellidse 84 

Proserpinidse 85 

Proptera alata Say 99 

Pseudoleila, Type anodonta ciconia Gould 8 

Publications received 34, 62, 106, 139 

Quadrula asperata Lea 76 

Quadrula heros Say, a large 25 

Quadrula pustula Lea 47, 54 

Quincuncina burkei Walker, n. sp. (PL I, f. 1 and 4) . . . . 3 

Quincuncina Ortmann, n. gen 1 

Eambles of a midshipman 49 

Simpsoniconcha ambigua Say 98 

Snails destroying creepers and their eggs, notes on 61 

Strophitus conasaugaensis Lea 130 

Strophitus edentulus Say 98 

Symphynota compressa Lea 97 

Tritogonia nobilis Conr 47 

Trochomorpha swainsoni Pf r. (Helix depressiformis Pease) 17 

Types of Ferussac's subgenera of Helix 31 

Unio crassidens Lam 96 

Unio declivis Say 127 

Unio geometricus Lea 127 

Unio haleianus Lea 128 

Unio tetralasmus Say 127 

Unioninge and Anodontinae from the Gulf Drainage, Anat- 
omy and taxonomy of 73 

Vancouver Island, land shells of 37 

Vancouver, B. C, Observations on land shells of Stanley 

Park 106 

Viviparus japonicus from another locality in Boston .... 105 

Viviparus contectoides W. G. Binney 105 

Wheat, Silas C. (obituary) 103 

Wisconsin and Minnesota, ney Lymnaeas from 22 

Wisconsin, new species and varieties of moUusca from 

Lake Winnebago 19 

Zonitoides cookei Pils., n. sp. (fig. 1) 38 

Zonitoides minusculus alachuanus Dall, a scalariform 

specimen of 105 



Baker, Frank C 19, 22, 123, 125 

Baker, Fred 30, 32 

Baker, H. B 14, 84 

Barney, R. L 53 

Berry, S. S 32 

Bowles, J. Hooper 61 

Button, Fred L 71 

Cockerell, T. D. A 44 

Cooke, C. Montage 17, 37 

Ball, W. H 27, 58 

Frierson, L. S 7, 42, 126 

Goodrich, Calvin 115 

Grier, N. M 46, 96 

Hanna, G. Dallas 12, 141 

Jackson, Ralph W 144 

Jacot, Arthur 59 

Johnson, C. W 10, 103, 105 

Kelsey, F. W 17 

Kjerschow-Agersborg, H. P 86, 133 

Lermond, N. W 104 

Mant, C. F 106, 120 

Marshall, W. B 25 

Morse, Edw. S 28 

Mueller, J. F 46, 96 

Orcutt, C. R 33 

Ortmann, A. E 1, 73, 129 

Pilsbry, H. A 17, 31, 37, 71, 119, 132 

Remin^on, Jr., P. S 49 

Simpson, C. T 109 

Sterki, V 39, 62 

Vanatta, E. G 119, 132 

Van Hyning, T 105 

"Walker, Bryant 1 




Fhe Nautilus. 

Vol. XXXV JULY, 1922. No. 1 



The generic diagnosis, and the anatomical work on which it 
is based, was done by Ortmann. The determination of the 
specific distinctness of the form was made by Walker before any 
anatomical work had been done and the specific description has 
been prepared by him. 

QuiNCUNCiNA Ortmann. 

The genus Quincuncina is founded upon the new species Quin- 
cuncina burkei Walker. I have received from the late H. H. 
Smith from the Choctahatchee River, Blue Springs, Barbour 
Count}^ A-la., several shells and the soft parts of seven other, 
five males, one barren and one gravid female, the latter col- 
lected Mav 12, 1915. 

Supraanal opening present, separated from the anal by a 
short mantle-connection. Anal opening about as long as the 
supraanal, its inner edge finely crenulated. Branchial opening 
about as large as the anal with distinct papillae. Palpi sub- 
falciform, their posterior margins connected for about one-half 
of their length. 

Gills of normal Unione shape and structure. Inner lamina 
of inner gill free from abdominal sac except at its anterior end. 
Since the gill is rather short, the connected portion is about 


one- third the length of the abdommal sac. Gill diaphragm of 
the usual type. 

Septa of the gills, in the male, moderately developed, not 
very closely set; in the female, all four gills serve as marsupium^ 
and the septa are strongly developed and stand close together. 
When gravid, the gills do not swell much and the ovisacs 
(water- tubes) are filled with sub cylindrical placentae. 

The gravid female at hand had only embryos in an early 
stage, but no glochidia. The color of the placentae could not 
be ascertained in consequence of the preservation in alcohol, 
in which they appear grayish-white. 

The most characteristic anatomical feature of the present 
species is found in the marsupium, which is formed by the four 
gills, and has sub cylindrical placentsg. In these particulars it re- 
eembles only one genus, Fusconaia, and also the rest of the 
anatomy does not differ from that of this genus. 

However, in shell characters, this species is distinct from all 
known species of Fusconaia. In the latter we never see any 
sculpture on the disk and the beak sculpture is quite poorly de- 
veloped, simple and concentric. In Quincundna we have a 
rather complex zig-zag sculpture on the shell, following the 
subconcentric beak-sculpture. 

Certain species of Quadrula have indications of the sculpture 
(Q. cylindrica, for instance) ; but these species differ from the 
present one by the lanceolate and compressed placentae. How- 
ever, there are two species which have been placed in Quad- 
rula, U. infucatus Conrad and U. kleinianus Lea, which have a 
sculpture much like that of Quincuncina burhei. Of U. kleini- 
anus, Lea (Journ. Acad. Phila., 1863, p, 404, and Obs. 10, 
1863) has described the soft parts and, so far as the description 
goes, it agrees very well with the present species, except that 
the inner lamina of the inner gill is said to be free only half the 
length of the abdominal sac and that the anal opening is de- 
scribed as smooth; these are very insignificant differences, in- 
deed. The most important character mentioned by Lea is that 
all four gills of kleinianus are marsupial. 

H. H. Smith has sent me the soft parts of two males of in- 
fucatus. Also here the anatomy is the same so far as can be 


observed. The inner lamina of the inner gill agrees with Q. 
burkei, while the anal opening is smooth as in U. kleinianus. 

It is more than probable that U. infacatus and kleinianus also 
belong to our new genus Quinciincina, the type of which is Q. 
burkei. It is a very primitive form of the subfamily Unioninx 
and stands, in its anatomy, close to Fusconaia^ from which it 
differs, however, by the very peculiar sculpture of the shell, 
which, indeed, is rather unique among North American Naiades. 

The generic diagnosis of Quincuncina would be as follows: 
Soft parts of the type of the family Unionidae^ subfamily 
Unioninse^ much like those of the genus Fusconaia. All four 
gills marsupial, when charged not much swelled, and with sub- 
cylindrical (not lanceolate and compressed) placentae. 

Shell sculptured. The beak sculpture subconcentric, and 
followed upon the disk by bars of zig-zag type extending to a 
considerable distance and being much broken up so as to offer, 
at least upon parts of the disk, a quincuncial arrangement of 

Quincuncina burkei Walker. Plate I, figs. 1 and 4. 

Shell of moderate size, subrhomboid, very inequilateral, sub- 
solid, somewhat inflated; beaks only slightly elevated above the 
hinge-line, their sculpture consisting of strong, subcircular 
ridges, stronger along the umbonal ridge and curved up sharply 
behind, fading out anteriorly and becoming nearly parallel with 
the growth-lines; anterior end regularly rounded; base line 
curved; posterior end somewhat produced, subtruncate, curving 
down rather abruptly and subangulated as it approaches the 
posterior point, which is below the median of the disk; pos- 
terior ridge strong and angulated by the junction of the surface 
ridges; posterior slope with strong ridges, curving upwards, ex- 
tending from the posterior ridge to the posterior margin, these 
form a sharp angle on the posterior ridge with heavier ridges 
extending downward and forward, which become more or less 
broken and tuberculous toward the margin and much weaker 
on the anterior end where they assume a rather quincuncial 
arrangement; epidermis in mature shells black or sometimes 
dark brown, in young shells brown or occasionally greenish- 


yellow, in which case obscure radial stripes of darker green are 
visible; pseudocardinals double in both valves; in the right 
valve the anterior is low and oblique, the posterior strong and 
erect; in the left valve the anterior is rather long and projects 
obliquely forward, the posterior is larger, erect and more or less 
split up; the laterals, two in the left valve and (usually) one in 
the right are only a little curved, that in the right valve is 
sometimes more or less inclined to be double; beak cavities not 
very deep nor compressed; anterior muscle scars well marked, 
the superior one deep and extending under the base of the an- 
terior pseudocardinal; posterior muscle scars distinct, but not 
deeply impressed; nacre light purplish, deeper in the beak cavi- 
ties and iridescent behind. 

Length 51.4, height 31.5, diam. 18.5 mm. 

Type locality, Sikes' Creek, a tributary of the Choctahatchee 
River, Barbour County, Ala. Also in the Choctahatchee River, 
Blue Springs; Pea River at Elamville, Clio and Flemings' Mill 
and Campbell's Creek near Clio, Barbour County, and Hurri- 
cane Creek, near Hartford, Geneva County, Ala. 

Type, No. 41626, Coll. Walker. Cotypes in the Alabama 
State Museum and the Carnegie Museum. 

This very distinct species was first discovered in the Pea 
River at Elamville, Ala., by Joseph B. Burke and is named 
after him by the request of the late H. H. Smith. 

So far as known it is restricted to the Choctahatchee drainage 

There is some variation in shape and considerable in sculp- 
ture shown in the series from the several localities listed above. 
As shown by the figure the type is quite distinctly biangulated 
at the posterior extremity, but in many specimens the upper 
angle disappears and the dorsal outline curves directly down to 
a sharp posterior point. The surface sculpture is some times 
nearly obsolete. This is quite marked in the shells from Hur- 
ricane Creek and the Pea River at Clio. On the other hand the 
series from Campbell's Creek are larger and have a much coarser 
sculpture than any of the other lots. The largest specimen 
seen is in this lot and measures 67.5 x 38 x 23 mm. 

The species is extremely subject to erosion and for this reason 


the type was selected from the series frora Sikes' Creek, which 
were in much better condition than those from the Choctahat- 
chee, which supphed the alcohoHc material on which the gen- 
eric diagnosis is based. 

The description of the beak sculpture is based on a single 
young shell from the Pea River, which is nearly in perfect con- 

As stated in the generic diagnosis the affinities of this species 
lie clearly with U. infucatus Con. and U. Jcleinianus Lea. It 
differs from both in its more elongated shape and less com- 
pressed beak cavities. But the peculiar surface sculpture is the 
same in all. 

NoDULARiA CRONiNiE u. sp. , Walker. PL I, figs. 2-3. 

Shell of moderate size, oblong, subinflated, rather solid; 
beaks obtuse; situated at about one-third of the length from the 
anterior end, heavily radiately folded; anterior end regularly 
rounded; basal margin curved, fullest in the middle, more 
rapidly anteriorly and less so towards the posterior end; dorsal 
margin nearly straight to the end of ligament where it is ob- 
tusely angulated as it passes into the posterior margin, which is 
oblique, meeting the basal margin in a broadly-rounded point 
below the median line; posterior ridge low, rounded, wider and 
flatter as it approaches the posterior point; the posterior slope 
has a series of strong corrugations, which curve upwards to the 
posterior margin, the upper ones are prolongations of the beak 
sculpture, the lower ones are wider and more or less irregular 
and disappear below the median line; in front of the beaks is a 
series of small ridges curving upwards, the upper ones con- 
nected with the beak sculpture, the lower ones are not and 
gradually disappear before reaching the median line; the beak 
sculpture in the centre extends only a short distance from the in- 
curving of the beaks; entire surface elsewhere smooth with very 
fine lines of growth; color brownish or reddish-yellow, slightly 
tinged with green towards the beaks and in that region with 
fine, radiating lines of a darker green than the general tinge; 
pseudocardinals in the left valve two, triangular, flattened, 
crenate, especially the inner one, on the edge, practically united 



on the ligamental side, but separated below by an oblique 
groove, which receives the inner pseudocardinal of the right 
valve; pseudocardinals in the right valve two, the inner the 
larger and quite heavily crenated, the outer narrow and smooth; 
laterals two in the left valve and one in the right, rather slender 
and nearly straight; beak cavities deep; anterior muscle scars 
separate and impressed; posterior only slightly impressed; nacre 
salmon color, more intense towards the beaks, shading into 
bluish-white below the pallial line and at the ends where it is 
very iridescent. 

Length (type), 42.1, height 28.5, diam. 19.2 mm. 

Length (paratype), 38.3, height 24.3, diam. 17.6 mm. 

Length (type), 100.00, height .677 %, diam. .466 %. 

Length (paratype), 100.00, height .637 %, diam. 4595 %. 

As shown by the comparative measurements the paratype is 
proportionately not quite so high and a little more inflated than 
the type as might well be expected from the fact that it is evi- 
dently a younger shell. The color is a brighter yellow, which 
extends to the basal margin, otherwise it is in all respects sim- 
ilar to the type. 

Type locality, Zambesi River, at Mongu Sealu in the Barotze 
Valley, North Rhodesia. 

Type, No. 59694, Coll. Walker. Paratype in the collection 
of Mrs. Howard of Somerset East, Cape Province. 

Two specimens of this fine species were sent in by Mr. H. C. 
Burnup of Maritzburg, Natal, who received them from Mrs. 
Howard. They were collected by Mrs. Edwina Cronin after 
whom it is named. 

It differs from all of the described African species in the dis- 
tinctive sculpture of the anterior and posterior slopes. 

In order to be sure that the species had not been already de- 
scribed I submitted photographs of the type to Dr. Louis Ger- 
main of the Museum d'Histoire Naturelle, Paris, the well- 
known authority on African moUusca, and he assures me that 
it is quite distinct from all of the described species. 




The edentulous shells of South America, classed by Dr. Lea 
as Anodonta, were placed by Simpson (1900) in the two genera 
Leila and Glabaris, both of Gray. 

The latter genus was subdivided into three sections: Glabaris 
proper, s, s., Styganodon, and Virgula. 

This arrangement was practically retained in Simpson's Cata- 
logue of 1914, but the generic name of Glabaris (with the typi- 
cal section of course) was changed to Anodontites Bruguiere. 

But because of the radical difference between the Anodontites 
crispata Brug., type of the last named genus, and the Anodonta 
exotica Lam., type of the displaced genus Glabaris, the two 
genera can scarcely be considered synonymous, though thus 
treated by Simpson, as shown. 

As Ortmann has recently hinted (in Memoirs of the Carnegie 
Museum, Vol. VIII, 1921) the type of the section Anodontites, 
s. s. , and that of the section Styganodon really belong to the 
same subgeneric group, and in consequence, when the genus 
Anodontites is adopted, the subgenus Styganodon must be 

But as constituted by Simpson, in his two works, but notably 
in his Catalogue, the Anodontites is easily seen to be composed 
of radically diverse elements, and a need of segregating the 
units thereof into groups more closely and naturally allied 
inter se, becomes more and more apparent. This can be done 
expeditiously, and in the writer's opinion, most naturally, by 
the wholesale removal from the genus Anodontites, of the group 
w^hose leading member is, perhaps, the Anodonta trapezialis 
Lamarck, and placed them in the genus Leila. 

This will be the more easily done since it will but in large 
measure restore the status quo ante Simpson; many conchologists 
having so written many, if not all of the species thus indicated. 

The enlarged genus Leila will then embrace all of those South 
American Naiades, whose general outward appearance so closely 
resemble that of the North American Anodonta grandis Say. 


These shells differ from the emended Anodontites in having 
shells of greater size, yet, in proportion, of thinner texture, and 
of greater inflation. Their coloring and polish of epidermis are 
also noticeable differences. Internally, they differ in a more or 
less sinuous post-pallial line. Most of all, probably, they are 
to be differentiated by the greater extension of the pallial line, 
beyond the posterior adductor muscle scar. In some instances 
this extension reaches the ligamental sinus. This extended 
pallial line may be noted in the figure given by Lea of his 
Anodonta forbesiana ; and also in the recent figure given by Ort- 
mann (Memoirs of the Carnegie Museum, Vol. VIII, 1921, 
Plate XLIV, Fig. 2) of the Anodontites riograndensis Ihering. 

It is shown perfectly in a fine example of Leila bahiensis 
Kuster before me. Lastly, it is shown in a large specimen of 
Leila trapezialis Lamarck. It is likely that this feature follows 
from the usual gaping posteriors of the group, thus throwing 
the work of excluding undesirables from the cavity of the gill 
chambers, upon the post-mantle edges; this in turn brings about 
a development of the pallial muscles in that region, and the 
pallial line noted, evidences their presence. 

The genus is naturally divided into two subgeneric groups. 

Leila s. s. Type, Anodonta blainvilliana Lea. 

Pseudoleila. Type, Anodonta ciconia Gould. 

The latter section being proposed by Crosse & Fischer, 1893. 

A study of the species listed in Anodontites leads to some con- 
clusions at variance with those of the Catalogue and Synopsis. 
Some of the more interesting are submitted herewith. 

Anodon longinvs Spix., 1827. 

This species is listed in the Catalogue as an Anodontites (Pg. 
1446), but the writer agrees with Clessin, Sowerby, Dr. Lea 
and Von Ihering, that it is really a Mycetopoda. 

Both Lea and Sowerby place it as a synonym of Mycetopoda 
siliquosa D'Orbigny, but that species is almost square posteri- 
orly, while the present species is roundly pointed. 

It agrees much better with that very poorly named species 
Mycetopus subsinuatus Sowerby, 1868, a species quite often devoid 
of the subsinuate basal margin for which Sowerby named it. 


A shell lies before the writer, collected in Guatemala by A. 
A. Hinkley, which has exactly the shape of Knster's figure of 
longinus, a species recently identified as the M. subsinuata 
Sowerby, by Ortmann, and I think correctly. 

The writer therefore writes the species as follows: 

Mycetopoda longina Spix., 1827. 

Mycetopiis subsinuatus Sowerby, 1868. 

Anodonta grijalvae Morelet, 1884. 

Simpson placed this species in GlabariSj 1900 =^Anodontites, 

A study of the fine figure given by Crosse and Fischer (1893) 
seeming to show the usual small, semi-oval, ligamental sinus, 
characteristic of the North American Anodonta grandis Say, the 
type specimen in the British Museum was critically examined 
for the writer by the late Curator, Mr. Smith, who confirmed 
this impression. 

Specimens of Anodonta grandis Say, from southern Texas, 
having very full, high umbones, and very inequilateral in 
shape, so closely approximate Morelet' s shell that the writer 
places it as one of the myriad phases of that shell. 

Anodonta grandis grijalvae Morelet, 1884. 

Anodonta grijalvae Morelet. 
Glabaris grijalvae Simpson, 1900. 

Leila soioerbyana, new name. 

Anodon trauttviniana Sowerby, Fig. 134. 

This species is of course nothing like that of Lea's as Sowerby 
had it. From its nearest of kin, Anodon rioplatensis Sowerby, 
it differs most remarkably in the extremely short anterior 
margin, as well as in some other less obvious characters. 

Leila grayana, new name. 

Anodonta exotica (Gray) Sowerby, Fig. 57. 

This species differs from Anodonta moricandi Lea (with which 
Simpson doubtfully identifies it) in being considerably larger, 
with higher umbones, and the posterior point is on a line with 
the base, instead of about half-way the altitude, etc. 


Simpson gives for the genus Anodontites a masculine ending, 
but Ortmann observes that since the type was originally written 
Anodontites crispata by its author, the genus should be regarded 
as feminine. 



I recently examined a small but interesting collection of 
shells secured by Mr. Frederick Nelson, an engineer, while at 
work on the dredge that is digging the St. Lucie Canal to Lake 
Okeechobee. This canal is to be a deep water canal with locks. 
About eight miles from the east coast the canal passes through 
a strip of pine woods and it was while excavating there at a 
depth of about 40 feet below the surface that the shells were 

There were six specimens referable to Busycon maximum var. 
tritonis Conr. of the Duplin beds of North Carolina. The 
younger specimens were almost typical of that horizon, but in 
form the older ones resemble small examples of the recent B. 
carica Gmel. They are broad and thick in proportion to their 
size, but lack the very large spines and enlarged canal of the 
body whorl, characteristic of the recent var. eliceans Montf. of 
the Indian River, Florida. In all cases the enamel of the aper- 
ture was well preserved. The four Busycon perversum L. were 
also peculiar, one young specimen was a typical var. contrarius 
Conr. of the Duplin, while a second was a form common in the 
Caloosahatchie Pliocene, called obrapum by Grabau (Amer. 
Nat., Aug., 1903), characterized by a small rounded body 
whorl, with a long straight canal. The others are huge adult 
shells, with broad low spires, the body whorl slightly encroach- 
ing on the preceeding whorl at the suture, the canal short and 
somewhat curved; as a whole they resemble the recent shells of 
the eastern coast of Florida. One was perforated by the boring 
sponge, and the other had the enamel of the aperture well 


preserved. Some grayish sand that was obtained from the in- 
terior of the latter shell contained the following species: 
Crepidula fornicata L (juv. ). Pleuromeris tridentata Say. 
Crepidida aculeata Gmel. Chione cancellata L. 

Eulima sp? (polished) Chione pygmaea Lam. 

Astyris lunata (with color Dosinia discus Rve. (juv.). 

markings). Donax variabilis Say (common). 

Oliva mutica Say. Donax fossor Say ? 

Mangelia cerina K. & S. Malinea lateralis Say. 

Area transversa Say. Corbula sp? 

Glycymeris pectinata Gmel. 

The other large shells were two Fasciolaria gigantea Kien., 
about 20 inches in length. One has small nodes on the shoul- 
ders of all the whorls, the other has the shoulders and nodes 
both wanting, except in a few of the early whorls. If recent, 
the latter would be considered a very large example of the var. 
reevei Jonas. A number of Oliva sayana Rav. ( 0. litterata Lam.) 
were highly polished and some some showed the dark brown 
letter-like markings, a large Crepidula fornicata L., two large 
thick shells of Venus campechensis Gmel. (V. mortoni Con.), a 
large valve of Glycymeris americana Defr., and two modern 
looking oyster shells, constituted the collection. 

With the meager data and material at hand, it is difficult to 
draw any definite conclusions. Mr. Nelson said that shells 
were first obtained at about 35 feet and as deep as 45 feet. Two 
beds may therefore be involved. Dr. Wm. H. Dall in his 
''Tertiary Fauna of Florida" (Trans. Wagner Free Inst. Sci., 
Vol. 9, pt. 6, p. 1594) says: -'The Miocene appears as a soft 
limestone rock in the vicinity of Jacksonville, and has been 
traced by material from artesian wells on the east side of the 
peninsula as far south as Lake Worth." Although many of 
the recent shells listed are found in the Miocene, Busycon maxi- 
mum tritonis and B. perversum contrarius, are the only ones in 
any way characteristic; the form obrapum 1 have only seen from 
the Florida Pliocene. The formation deserves a careful study. 




Lea described Helix oregonensis in 1838 ^ from an immature 
specimen collected by Thomas Nuttal near the junction of the 
Willamette and Columbia Rivers in Oregon. The type is now 
deposited in the U. S. National Museum but through some 
curious error it has catalogued with it an adult shell of typical 
dupetithouarsii such as grows only in the vicinity of Monterey 
Bay, California. How this happened may never be known. 
Certainly if they were collected together Lea would have de- 
scribed the adult shell. Whether the association of these two 
specimens influenced Binney or not may likewise never be 
known; but he placed oregonensis as a synonymy of dupetithou- 
arsii in his writings and most conchologists have followed him. 

Matters stood thus until 1912 when Henry M. Edson* re- 
vived Lea's name as a substitute for the widely known Epiphrag- 
mophora mormonum of central California. Some western con- 
chologists have accepted his reasoning at its face value and have 
proceeded to change the names on their labels as a result. It 
would seem that Edson's article contains too many assumptions 
and misstatements to warrant such acceptance without further 
inquiry. I have attempted such an investigation and have 
arrived at a very different conclusion. 

Edson appears to have relied upon Pfeififer's original descrip- 
tion of mormonum and had no authentic material for compari- 
son. He states that the species has been collected at Klamath 
Falls, Oregon, " which is close to the original locality of oregon- 
ensis.^^ The two places are across the state from each other, 
250 miles apart. Moreover the Klamath Falls record is based 
upon reputed material in the " Washington State Museum, fide 
H[arold] Hannibal." Mr. F. S. Hall, Curator of that Museum 
has advised me (letter dated March 2, 1922) that there is no 
such material in the institution from Klamath Falls. 

1 Observations, Vol. II, p. 100, pi. XXVIII, fig. 9, Trans. Am. Phil. 
Soc., Vol. VI, p. 100, pi. XXIII, fig. 85, 1839. 
» Nautilus, Vol. XXVI, p. 49. 


Through the courtesy of Dr. Paul Bartsch I was permitted to 
make a careful examination of the type specimen oregonensis in 
Washington in January, 1922. It is unquestionably a young 
shell of the fidelis group. This might be suspected since it 
came from the heart of the fidelis country. It seems to belong 
to the small race afterwards called minor by Binney ^ and should 
replace that name. The small subspecies has been reported 
from Seattle and other places and the collection of the Cali- 
fornia Academy of Sciences contains many specimens from 
Portland, Oregon (near the type locality of oregonensis) The 
Dalles, Oregon and elsewhere in that state. 

The name mormonum should therefore remain as it was be- 
fore, applicable to the shells from Mormon Island, Sacramento 
California. It really represents a group of variants similar to 
tudiculata, traskii and californiensis groups and typical mormonum 
seems to be restricted solely to the type locality. Fortunately, 
through the aid of Dr. Emmett Rixford we have considerable 
collections from there for comparison and others from that gen- 
eral region, but it is not yet time to revise all of the various 
elements which may be grouped about mormonum ; some other 
territory must be visited before the work can be done well. 
There is a small race of mormonum which is similar to the small 
race of fidelis and with a sufficient amount of material from in- 
tervening country the two species might be connected with in- 
tergrades. This however may be said of arrosa^ tudiculata, cal- 
iforniensis, etc. 

Lea described H. nuttalliana at the same time as oregonensis; 
and it is generally admitted that with the first he was dealing 
with fidelis, the same having been placed in the synonymy of 
that species for many years. It may seem strange that he did 
not place his oregonensis with his equivalent of fidelis. The two 
however are so different in the extremes that without a large 
series of specimens intergradation would probably not be sus- 
pected. With the same scanty material to-day, any reputable 
conchologist would probably duplicate Lea's action. 

The following summarizes my conclusions: 

^Man. Am. Land Sh,, p. 121, fig. 91, 1885. 



Epiphragmophora fidelis (Gray), Proc. Zool. Soc, London, 
1834, p. 67. H. nuttalliana Lea, Obeervations, Vol. II, p. 88, 
1838. Chiefly found in the Coast Ranges. 

Epiphragmophora fidelis oregonensis (Lea), Observations, Vol. 
II, p. 100, 1838. A. f. minor Binney, Man. Am. Ld. Shells, 
p. 121, fig. 91, 1885. Chiefly found at some distance inland 
from the coast. 

Epiphragmophora mormonum (Pfeiffer), Proc. Zool. Soc, Lon- 
don, 1857, p. 109. So far as known found only at the type 
locality. Subspecies hillebrandi (Newc. ) cala Pilsbry and buttoni 
Pilsbry have been described. 

Epiphragmophora dupetithouarsii (Deshayes), Rev. Zool. 1839, 
p. 360. Confined to the vicinity of Monterey Bay, California. 



As indicated below, three exceedingly unfortunate changes 
from the customary usage are necessary. 

1. Aperostoma becomes the generic title of what is usually 
known as Cyrtotoma mextcanum. 

2. Poteria (genus and subgenus s. s.) replaces both Ptychoco- 
chlis and Plectocy dolus as the name of the West- Indian group 
usually regarded as a subgenus of Neocydotus. 

3. The closely related mainland species forming the subgenus 
Neocydotus {Aperostoma of authors), also take Poteria as their 
generic title. Gray allowed Poteria to remain as a nude name 
for ten years after its proposal, but finally defined it in the 
British Museum Catalogue of the Cyclophoridse (1850). Her- 
mannsen (1852) and Pfeiffer (1852) recognized the name, but 
it appears to have been entirely omitted from later authors. 

List of generic and suhgeneric names 
Megalomastoma Swainson (1840). Type (designated) M, 

hrunnea ''Guilding" Swainson (1840), from St. Vincent. 
Aperostoma Troschel (1847). Type (Hermannsen, 1852) 

Cydostoma mexicanum Menke (1830), from Mexico. 


Farcimen Troschel (1847). Type (Gray, 1847) Turbo tortus 
Wood (1828), from Cuba. 

Poteria Gray (1840-1847, nude; 1850). Type Turbo jamaic- 
ensis (Chemnitz) Wood (1828), from Jamaica. 

Platystoma "Klein" Moerch (1852), not Meigen (1803). 
First used by Moerch as a synonym of Cydotus. 

Oyrtotoma Moerch (1852). Type (monotype) Cyclostoma 
mexicanum Menke. 

Crocidopoma Shuttleworth (1857). Type Cyclostoma floccosum 
Shuttleworth (1857), from Haiti. 

Buckleyia Higgins (1872). Type (monotype) Aperostoma 
montezumi "Hidalgo" Higgins (1872), from Ecuador. 

Tomocyclus Crosse and Fischer (1872). Type T. gealei C. and 
F. (1872), from Mexico. 

Amphicy dolus Crosse and Fischer (1879). Type Oydostoma 
boucardi "Salle" Pfeiffer (1857), from Mexico. 

Habropoma Crosse and Fischer (1880). Type Oydostoma 
mexicanum Menke. 

Neocyclotus Crosse and Fischer (1886). Type Oydostoma 
dysoni Pfr. (1851), from Honduras. 

Ptychocochlis Simpson (1894). Type Turbo jamaicensis 
(Chemnitz) Wood. 

Plectocydotus Kobelt and Moellendorff (1897). Type Turbo 
jamaicensis (Chemnitz) Wood. 

Oeratodiscus Simpson and Henderson (1901). Type C solutus 
S. and H. (Naut., 1901). Compare Pilsbry (Naut., 1914). 

Neopupina Kobelt (1902). Type Megalomastoma flavula 
Swainson (1840), from Porto Rico. 

Key to genera and subdivisions 

A. Shell heliciform to planorbiform. 

B. Operculum corneous { Amphicy clotece). 

0. Shell planorbiform. Ecuador to southern Colom- 
bia. Genus Buckleyia. 
C. Shell heliciform. 

Z). Peristome reflected and thickened. Mexico. 
Genus Aperostoma {-\- Oyrtotoma -{-Habro- 


D' . Peristome simple or thinly reflected. Mexico 
to Lesser Antilles. Genus, Amphicyclotua. 
B' . Operculum calcareous (Neocycloteae). Tropical Amer- 
ica. Genus Poteria. 
E. Periphery of operculum double because of ob- 
liquely raised, spiral, calcareous lamella, which 
overlaps the outer edge of the basal plate. 
Cuba, Jamaica, Haiti. Subgenus Crocidopoma. 
E'. Periphery of operculum simple, or briefly double 
at the termination of the last whorl; spiral, 
calcareous lamella almost vertical along inside 
of whorls. Tropical America. 
F. Spiral lamella of operculum prominent; re- 
mainder of basal plate with oblique, sup- 
porting riblets. Antilles. Subgenus Poteria 
B. B. (-j- Ptychocochlis -{-Pledocydotus). 
F'. Whorls of operculum simply thickened at 
their inner edges; oblique riblets scarcely 
visible. Typically mainland. Subgenus 
B". Operculum unknown; shell discoid and minute (max. 
diam. 5 mm.). Cuba and Haiti. Genus Cerato- 
A.^ Shell pupiform to turrite; apex usually deciduous; operculum 
corneous. (^Megalomastomeae. ) 
B. Shell rimate to perforate; either pupiform or with per- 
istome but slightly reflected. Antilles, Ecuador (??). 
Genus Megalomastmna. 
C. Shell pupiform; peristome reflected and thickened. 

Cuba and Haiti. Section Farcimen. 
C Shell elongate; peristome simple. Porto Rico. 

Section Neopupina. 
C". Shell elongate; peristome thin, slightly reflected 
and often double. Porto Rico and Lesser An- 
tilles. Section Megalomastoma s. s. 
B'. Shell perforate, turritiform, and with broadly reflected 
peristome. Southern Mexico and Guatemala. Genus 




Two of Pease's Helices described ^ from the " Central Pacific " 
have baffled all attempts at identification by other naturalists. 
The present writers, separately and together, had time and 
again gone over the descriptions, finally giving them up, as the 
types could not then be found in the Pease collection. One of 
us (C. M. C. ) recently worked over Pease's shells at Cambridge, 
finding the original specimens of both H. depressiformis and H. 
prostrata, which had been misplaced in the collection. These 
have now been examined by both of us. 

The specimens of H. depressiformis were contained in a vial 
also containing examples of Pterodiscus alatus (Pfr. ). Labels 
of both species in Pease's handwriting were present. Pease's 
species proves to be a very young shell of Trochomorpha swainsoni 
(Pfr.), a Raiatean (Society Island) species. We find that the 
unique type of Flanamastra peaseana Pils. (Man. Conch., XXI, 
130) is a still younger example of the same species. Its local- 
ity "Hawaiian Islands " (from Pease) was clearly erroneous. 

Helix prostrata Pease turns out to be Planorhis opercularis Gld., 
a common West American shell. We were able to examine the 
dentition, as the animal was dried in one of Pease's specimens. 
Pease's description is fairly good, but it is hardly surprising 
that the species was not recognized before; the generic reference 
and locality eSectually disguised it. 



Some of my young friends who collect shells at the seashore 
may be interested in the following method of getting specimens 
for a collection, when better means are not at hand. 

» Proc. Zool. Soc. , London, 1861, p. 670. They were placed with doubt in 
the genus Planamaslra in Manual of Conchology, XXI, pp. 131, 132. 


On May fourteenth of this year I took a boat trip to the Cor- 
onado Islands, in Mexican waters, about twenty miles south- 
west of San Diego. Arriving at the anchorage at high tide, 
shore collecting was out of the question, so I went out with the 
skipper and mate in a glass-bottomed boat to a portion of the 
cove known as the "Marine Gardens". The water is very 
clear and at points where it is from two to three fathoms deep 
the view of the waving kelp, sea moss, grasses, shells and many 
colored fish is exceedingly interesting. 

With a long-handled trident, or spear, the skipper would 
occasionally dislodge an abalone from the rocks, turn it over on 
its back and with a prong of the spear pierce the flesh of the 
mollusk and bring it up to the boat. About a dozen fine speci- 
mens were thus obtained, one being Haliotis corrugata Gray and 
all the remainder Haliotis fulgens Phil. The backs of several 
shells were covered with moss and other growths which I re- 
moved with my pocket knife from the backs of seven shells to 
be brought home for examination. The scrapings were treated 
to an all-night bath in a three-percent solution of formalde- 
hyde, then rinsed and thoroughly dried, when they were shaken 
out and carefully examined for shells. From the material 
scraped from the seven shells I picked ninety -four specimens, 
including the twenty-five species which follow. 

Amphissa versicolor Dall. Orepidula dorsata Brod. 

Assimijiea califomica Cooper. Columbella aurantiaca Dall. 

Cerithiopsis columna Cpr. Columbella gausapata Gld. 

Lasea rubra Mont. Eulithidium substriatum Cpr. 

Lacuna unifasciata Cpr. Acmaea paleacea Gld. 

Lacuna solidula Loven. Acmaea rosacea Cpr. 

Mangilia striosa C. B. Ads. Acmaea asmi Midd. 

Littor ina planaxis ^utt (juv. ). Saxicava rugosa Linn. 

Odostomia americana D. & B. Philobrya setosa Cpr. 

Odostomia tenuisculpta Cpr. Marginella regularis Cpr. 

Phasianella compta pulloides Cpr. Psephis tantilla Gld. (1 valve). 

Fissurella volcano crucifera Dall. Cardita subquadrata Cpr. 
Pecten, sp. (juv.). 




(Concluded from p. 133) 

The lake forms of gibbosus are all referable to Grier's sterkii, 
which is the lake manifestation of this species, though they are 
smaller than the Lake Erie specimens listed. The Winnebago 
shells are like Ortmann's figures (1920, pi. 8, fig. 3). Meas- 
urements of the Winnebago form are given below: 

Length 61, height 33, width 19 mm., per cent 31. 

Length 63, height 32, width 20 mm., per cent 31. 

Length 64, height 34, width 20 mm., per cent 31. 

Fusconaia rubiginosa parvula Grier. Winnebago Lake, gravel 
and boulder bottom, one to ten feet in depth. The Lake Win- 
nebago shells seem referable to the Lake Erie form distinguished 
by Grier. Measurements of the Wisconsin shells are given 

Length 56, height 44, width 32 mm. 

Length 55, height 40, width 25 mm. 

Length 34, height 33, width 24 mm. 

Length 38, height 32, width 19 mm. 

Parvula is an offshoot of rubiginosa rather than of trigona, if 
the Lake Winnebago specimens are referable to the Lake Erie 
variety. Rubiginosa is common in the Fox River and it is from 
this stock that the lake shells have sprung. The parvula here 
considered are wider than the river form, more trigonal and 
strikingly swollen anteriorly. A single specimen from Lake 
Winnebago (number 3 in the measurements above) is markedly 
trigonal and approaches trigona in general shape. The epi- 
dermis is yellowish-brown, becoming darker in old specimens. 

Amnicola judayi n. sp. 

Shell ovate conic, rather wide, widely umbilicated, with 
rather more than 5 very convex whorls separated by deeply im- 
pressed sutures; whitish or corneous, sometimes light brown, 
.shining, lightly striate longitudinally; apex acute; aperture 


roundly ovate, a trifle oblique; peristome continuous, somewhat 
flattened where it is in contact with the preceding whorl. 

Length 5.0, width 3.3; length of aperture 2.0, width 1.5 mm. 

Length 4.4, width 3.1; length of aperture 2.0, width 1.6 mm. 

Ofl Doemel Point, Lake Winnebago, on a sandy mud bottom,. 
in nine feet of water. 

Associated with Amnicola limosa porata is a large form of 
Amnicola which cannot be referred to any described species. It 
resembles cincinnatiensis in general form, but is smaller with 
more rounded whorls and a wider umbilicus. It is larger than 
winkleyi Pilsbry (Naut., Vol. 26, p. 1), with wider whorls and 
more upen umbilicus. It resembles Trj^on's figure of schrokin- 
geri Ffld. (Con. Hald. Mon., pi. 17, fig. 1), but is very much 
larger than that species. It belongs to the group with project- 
ing first whorl and not to the limosa group which is flat on the 
apex. Judayi is one of the most graceful of the Amnicolas, and 
I take great pleasure in dedicating it to Dr. Chancey Juday, of 
the University of Wisconsin. 

lAoplax subcarinata (Say). Lakes Winnebago and Butte des 
Morts, sand and mud bottoms, in water one to 13 feet in depth; 
Omro, Fox River, mud bottom, water 2-3 feet deep. There 
appear to be several forms of Lioplax included under the name 
subcarinata. The Winnebago Lake shells have subcarinate 
whorls, which in a large majority of specimens are rounded 
without a sign of a ridge or carina. Say especially mentions 
the apex which he describes as "truncated and re-entering", 
is a peculiar feature which seems to be characteristic of all the 
material examined from Wisconsin. This is a physiologic 
character, the truncation and subsequent replacing of the spire 
with a rounded plug taking place after the shell has acquired 
five full whorls. All of the young have perfect spires with 
regularly coiled, rounded whorls. Young shells 8 J mm. long 
have five whorls, mature shells 16 mm. long have but 4 J 
whorls; the adult shells, if unmodified, would have 6-7 whorls. 
Binney's figure 118 fairly well represents the true subcarinata^ 
The Winnebago shells measure as follows: 



Length 18, width 11.5; aperture length 8, width 6 mm. 

Length 14, width 10.1; aperture length 7, width 5 mm. 

Subcarinata Hves in shallow water in the river and deep water 
in the lakes. Probably the deeper water of the lake provides 
the same cool temperature and oxygen supply as the shallow 
parts of the flowing river. 

Flanorbis umbilicatdlus Ckll. This little-understood species 
occurred in several places near Lake Winnebago, always in 
swales or quiet pools. These specimens are somewhat larger 
than specimens from Colorado and the west. A few individuals 
have fine, regularly disposed ribs on the base of the shell, where 
the growth lines are somewhat raised. 

Polygyra multilineata algonquinensis Nason. The shells from 
the Winnebago region are all smaller than typical multilineata 
and the spire is more elevated. These seem nearer Nason' s 
variety algonquinensis than any other form (see Nautilus, Vol. 
19, p. 141). Three specimens measured as follows: 

Greatest diameter 21.5; height 15 mm. 

Greatest diameter 22.0; height 15.5 mm. 

Greatest diameter 18.5; height 13.0 mm. 

Literature Cited. 

Anthony, John G. 1865. Descriptions of New Species of 
North American Unionidae. Amer. Jour. Conch., I, pp. 155- 

Grier, N. M. 1918. New Varieties of Naiades from Lake 
Erie. Nautilus, Vol. XIX, pp. 9-12. 

Ortmann, A. E. 1919. A Monograph of the Naiades of 
Pennsylvania. Part TIL Systematic Account of the Genera 
and Species. Mem. Carnegie Mus., Vol. VIII, No. 1. 

Pilsbry, H. A. 1912. A New Species of Amnicola. Nauti- 
lus, Vol. XXVI, p. 1. 

Walker, Bryant. 1911. A Check-list of the Michigan Mol- 
lusca. Mich. Acad. Sci., 13th An. Rep., pp. 121-129. 

Tryon, Geo. W., Jr. 1870. Monograph of the Fresh-wster 
Univalve Mollusca of the United States. Continuation of Hal- 
deman's Monograph. 




Lymnaea (Galba) winnebagoensis n. sp. 

Shell elongated; rather thick and solid; periostracuni very 
light horn color; surface dull, lines of growth crowded, coarse, 
crossed by more or less deeply incised spiral lines; nuclear 
whorls 1 J, small, well rounded, dark wine or light horn colored ; 
whorls 7, flatly rounded, the body whorl more convex; spire 
long, forming a very regular sharp-pointed cone, longer than 
the aperture; sutures impressed; aperture ovate; peristome 
slightly thickened within by an inconspicuous varix edged with 
purple; inner lip rather wide, reflected and appressed tightly to 
the columellar region, leaving a very narrow umbilical chink, 
and forming a wide callous deposit on the parietal wall; colu- 
mella with a heavy, oblique plait, twisting the axis. 

Length 26, width 12.2; aperture length 12, width 6 mm. 

Length 22.5, width 10.4; aperture length 10, width 5 mm. 

Length 19, width 10; aperture length 10, width 5 mm. Par- 

Length 18, width 9.1; aperture length 9.1, width 4.2 mm. 

Length 15.5, width 7.1; aperture length 7.2, width 3.5 mm. 

Length 6.9, width 3.2; aperture length 4, width 1.6 mm. 

Types No. zll826, Museum of Natural History, University 
of Illinois. 

Type locality. Oshkosh, Lake Winnebago, Wisconsin. 

Habitat. When young and immature on vegetation in pro- 
tected places, like coves and bays. When adult in deeper 
water on gravel and sand bottom. 

* Contribution from the Museum of Natural History, Univergity of Illi- 
nois, No. 18. 


This characteristic species evidently belongs to the catascopium 
group of Lymnaeas, having the same texture of shell as the 
lake forms of that species and occupying the same kind of 
habitat. It differs from all varieties of catascopium in its long, 
pointed spire, small aperture, and fiat-sided whorls. It some- 
what resembles some large individuals of Lymnaea catascopium 
adamsi Baker from the St. Clair flats near Detroit, Mich., but 
is much larger and has a differently shaped spire and aperture 
(see Mon. Lym., p. 393, pi. 42, figs. 5-8). It somewhat re- 
sembles Lymnaea nashotahensis Baker, a Pleistocene fossil found 
in Wisconsin, but the whorls of that species are more rounded 
with deeper sutures. Lymnaea danielsi Baker also approaches 
this species in general form, but the whorls are rounder, the 
aperture more elongate with a heavier plait on the columella. 
The aperture is also peculiarly effuse, a character not shared by 
vnnnebagoensis . 

Winnebagoensis is an abundant mollusk in all parts of Lake 
Winnebago, the shore debris often being made up largely of 
this species. A more detailed paper on the ecology of this and 
other species found in this lake is being prepared. 

Lymnaea (Galea) minnetonkensis n. sp. 

Shell elongated, fusiform, rather thin; periostracum light horn 
color; surface dull to shining, sometimes spermaceti-like, lines 
of growth crowded and crossed by deeply incised spiral lines; 
nuclear whorls 1^, small, well rounded, light horn or dark wine 
colored; whorls 6-7, flatly convex, the body whorl often much 
flattened; spire long, pointed, forming a rather wide cone about 
as long as the aperture; sutures well impressed; peristome 
thickened within by a heavy varix edged with dark red or 
purple; inner lip rather wide, reflexed and tightly appressed to 
the columellar region leaving a small umbilical chink; a wide 
callous deposit is formed on the parietal wall; columella with a 
heavy oblique, twisted plait. 

Length 27, width 13; aperture length 14, width 7 mm. Type. 

Length 31, width 15.6; aperture length 16.7, width 8 mm. 

Length 27, width 14.5; aperture length 14.5, width 7 mm. 

Length 22.5, width 12.4; aperture length 12, width 6.1 mm. 


Length 26.5, width 13; aperture length 13.7, width 7 mm. 

Length 22, width 12; aperture length 12, width 6 mm. 

Length 22.6, width 18; aperture length 12.5, width 5.6 mm. 

Length 24, width 12; aperture length 13, width 6 mm. 

Types No. zll827, Museum of Natural History, University 
of Illinois. 

Type locality. Assembly grounds. Lake Minnetonka, Min- 

MinnetonJcensis is also a species of the catascopium group of 
Lymnaeas, in which the spire is lengthened and more acute 
and the body whorl is more elongated and compressed than in 
the typical catascopium as found in Michigan and New York. 
It is also much larger than catascopium. It resembles two 
species of Lymnaeas which occur in lakes; danielsi Baker, which 
has a longer spire with rounded whorls and a peculiarly effuse 
aperture with a marked columellar plait; and winnebagoensis 
(herein described) which has a longer spire, flatly and sharply 
conical, with flat-sided whorls, a narrower shell and a shorter, 
wider aperture (compare the measurements on previous page). 
Winnebagoensis also has a thicker shell. The Minnesota shell 
occurs in countless numbers in Lake Minnetonka, the shore 
debris being composed largely of this species. No living speci- 
mens were found, the time spent at the lake being limited. 

The three species of Lymnaeas mentioned and described 
herein are evidently related and are probably expressions of a 
response to habitat conditions, hence ecological species. The 
lakes of the northern part of the United States and Canada 
abound in such ecological species, to which region most of these 
variations are conflned. 

Several days were spent in southeastern Minnesota during 
the latter part of June, 1920. Lake Minnetonka and the 
vicinity of St. Paul were the principal localities visited. The 
following were collected. 

Beach debris, south side of lake near assembly grounds. Lake 
Minnetonka, Hennepin County. 

Anodonta grandis footiana Lea. Planorbis deflectus Say. 
Lampsilis luteola rosacea (De Planorbis exacuus Say. 
Kay). Planarbis parvus Say. 


Sphaerium sulcatum (Lamarck). Physa sayii Tappan. 

Lymnaea stagnalis appressa Say Physa niagarensis Lea. 

Lymnaea (Galba) minnetonkensis Vulvata tricar inata (Say). 

Baker. Amnicola limosa porata Say. 

Lymnaea (Galba) obrussa de- Amnicola lustrica Pilsbry. 

campi Streng. Succinea retusa Lea. 

Planorbis trivolvis Say. Succinea avara Say. 

Planorbis campanulatus Say. Vitrea hammoiiis (Str5m. ). 
Planorbis antrosus Conrad. 
Planorbis a. unicarinatus Hald. 

Banks of Mississippi River, St. Paul, Hennepin Co. 

Polygyra profunda Say . 

Polygyra profunda pleistocenica Baker. A specimen compar- 
ing in size and shape with the form named pleistocenica (see 
Nautilus, XXXIV, p. 66) occurred with normal profunda. It 
was marked by one wide band of color above the periphery. 

Zonitoides arborea (Say). Helico discus par allelus (Say). 

Vitrea hammonis (Strom.). Strobilops virgo (Pilsbry). 

Pyramidula alternata (Say). 

Small stream flowing through ravine on bank of Mississippi 
River, St. Paul. 

Aplexa hypnorum (Linn.). Lymnaea (Qalba) eaperata Say. 

Physa walkeri Crandall. Succinea ovalis Say. 


Assistant Curator Division of MoUusks, United States National Museum 

The collection of the United States National Museum contains 
the left valve of an unusually large and internally fine specimen 
of Quadrula ( Orenodonta) heros Say. Mr. Ernest Danglade of 
Vevey, Indiana, formerly of the United States Bureau of Fish- 
eries obtained the specimen from a pearl fisherman who had 
crushed the other valve. In transmitting the shell to the Mu- 
seum Mr. Danglade sent the following note: "The shell was 


found in Eagle Creek, near Eagle Station, Kentucky, on October 
10, 1917. This stream flows through a fertile soil on a lime- 
stone formation and of course the water is naturally hard. This 
condition, in connection with an abundance of food, no doubt 
accounts for the unusual size and thickness of the shell, as well 
as the quality of the material. " The locality is in Carroll 
County, Eagle Creek flowing into the Kentucky River a few 
miles above the junction of the latter with the Ohio River. 

This is the largest shell of its kind ever seen by Mr. Danglade, 
who, as an attache of the Bureau of Fisheries, has observed and 
handled thousands of shells of this species. It is much larger 
than any other specimen in the National Museum. 

The following data relating to size should be of interest: 

Length 216 mm (about S^ inches). 

Height 150 mm. (about 6 inches). 

Diameter (if both valves were present would be) 70 mm.^ 
about 2i inches. 

Perimeter 600 mm. (nearly 2 feet\ 

"Circumference", (i. e., around the shell crosswise to the 
length) would be 14 J inches. This is two inches larger than 
the specimen whose measurements were given by W. 8. Strode- 
in the Nautilus, IX, p. 116. 

Weight of this valve about 723 grams (1 pound, 9 J ounces). 

Weight of whole shell must have been about 1446 grams (3 
pounds, 3 ounces). 

Capacity of this valve, 295 c. c, about 18 cubic inches. 

Capacity of whole shell about 590 c. c, about 36 cubic inches. 

Amount of material in this valve 263 c. c, about 16 cubic 

Amount of material in whole shell about 526 c. c, about 32 
cubic inches. 

When gorged with water the specific gravity of the animal 
must have approximated that of water itself, so that it is rea- 
sonable to believe that the contents of the shell when living 
weighed about 590 grams (about 1 po*und, 5 ounces) and that 
the shell, the animal and the water enclosed in the shell had a 
combined weight when collected of about 2036 grams (nearly 4 
pounds, 8 ounces). 


The beak is somewhat eroded but the rest of the exterior of 
the shell is in good condition and most of the periostracum is 
well preserved. Internally the shell is rather fine, the nacre 
being silvery and iridescent. The cardinal and lateral teeth as 
might be expected are massive, the muscular scars and pallial 
line are deeply impressed. 

Doubtless the shell was at about the limit of size attainable to 
this species but there is nothing about the shell itself (other 
than its great size) to indicate that there will be no further 
growth. Apparently the shell-secreting organs of the animal 
were in full vigor and in readiness to perform their function 
should further growth of the animal require enlarged accomoda- 
tions. It seems probable, too, that the secretion of calcareous 
matter was still going on and that if the animal had been per- 
mitted to live there would have been a further thickening. 

The specimen is Cat. No. 346631, U. S. N. M. 



Fenella (originally spelled Finella by a typographical error) 
was described by Adams in 1860 and has suffered many vicissi- 
tudes. The species have been referred to the Rissoidae, Pyra- 
midellidae, Cerithiidae, and Litiopidae. Carpenter made the 
error of identifying West American species with Mesalia^ Styli- 
ferina, and Alvania, and a species of HaUstylus with Fenella, 
which, as well as Adams' typical species, is figured by Tryon in 
his Manual. 

The fortunate discovery in the collection of the National 
Museum of specimens of Adams' typical species received directly 
from him man}?- years ago, has enabled me to positively identify 
Fenella with Alabina described by me in 1902. It has a normal 
protoconch of about three smooth brown turbinate whorls 
which definitely removes it from the Pyramidellidae. The data 
given by Fischer about the animal might apply to a Bittium or 
a Rissoidj but from an examination of dried specimens I have 


been able to determine that the operculum is multispiral and 
circular, which definitely removes it from the Rissoidae. Dried 
Japanese and Hawaiian specimens were tested for the radula 
without success but finally a specimen of Alabina diomedae 
Bartsch from California yielded the desired item, which proved 
to resemble the radular structure of Lampa^iia, as figured by 
Troschel in Das Gebiss der Schnecken. This definitely settles 
the Cerithioid relations of the genus, which may find a place 
near Blttium in the general system, as I placed it in my sum- 
mary of the Marine Mollusks of the Northwest Coast of America. 



The many deformations in the shells of Mollusca have often 
been described and figured and their causes easily explained. 
Some of these deformations have been due to injuries to the 
shell in its early stages, others are due to an arrest of develop- 
ment — atrophy, or an access of growth — hypertrophy, as are the 
usual causes of malformations among the higher animals and 
man. In shells these malformations generally consist in the 
case of gasteropods of the whorls being separated, elongation of 
the spire, extra knobs, spines, ribs or keels or simple monstrosi- 
ties; reversed twirls of the spire in dextral shells, supernumer- 
ary teeth in the aperture. These and other modifications of the 
shell are readily understood. I now present an example of an 
abnormal growth which has so far been inexplicable to me, and 
it is hoped that some reader of the Nautilus will solve the prob- 
lem. Recently I received the right valve of the common clam, 
Mya arenaria, from my friend Major John M. Gould, who re- 
ceived it from Levi C. Carter of Loudville, Maine, who got it at 
Marsh Island, midway between the Kennebec and Penobscot 

On the anterior portion of the shell a conspicuous raised flat- 
tened rib appears which starts near the beak and continually 
widens with the growth of the shell, and at the margin projects 



a considerable distance beyond as shown in the figures. An 
examination of the shell under a lens reveals that by some acci- 
dent at a very early stage the margin of the shell was broken 
and there began to form a shallow raised ridge very narrow at 
first but continually widening as the shell increased in size until 
at the margin of the shell it was not only 20 mm. in width, but 
projected 7 mm. beyond the margin of the shell. This flattened 
rib radiated from the umbone as any rib would radiate in a 
lamellibranchiate shell. The extraordinary character of this rib 
is that it is hollow, the interior is open throughout, as the wire 
A-B in the figure shows, the posterior half is interrupted by col- 
umns of nacreous material which run from the shell to the upper 
portion of the tube, indeed there seems to be a partition sepa- 
rating the tube into halves. The upper part of the ridge is 
broken away for a distance of 25 mm. from the umbone, en- 

Fig. 1. Abnormal Mya arenaria. 

abling one to examine the floor of the ridge, and this shows a 
distinct depression in the shell; on the inside of the shell there 
is a marked swelHng or thickening of the nacre to the extreme 
border. The upper wall of this ridge projects 5 mm. below the 
lower wall, which in itself projects 3 mm. below the margin of 
the shell, thus one is enabled to examine the inner wall of the 
tube and it is nacreous. Dried animal matter was picked out of 
the tube. To build this tube a membrane must have had a 
mantle margin which would secrete layer after layer of shell as 
the strong lines of growth indicate, as well as epidermis, and the 
surface of the membrane must have poured out its nacreous layer 
as the tube is so lined, yet the normal growth of the shell is not 
interrupted in any way. In some manner a portion of the 
mantle must have been displaced at the time of the injury to the 
young shell, if turned back it must have again become reflexed 


to bring the edge of the mantle free again. It is unfortunate 
that the specimen was not preserved alive. The other valve of 
the shell was perfectly normal. 

I cannot recall among the lamellibranch or gasteropod shells, 
either normal or abnormal, a tubular process, indeed the nearest 
approach is seen in the little tubular processes on the periphery 
of Aspergillum. 


Miss Jeannette M. Cooke died at her home on Point Loma in 
the city of San Diego, California, on October 21st, 1920. She 
was widely known among conchologists on account of the valu- 
able material which she had accumulated from Lower Califor- 
nia, which has gone into many of the great museums of the 
world and into a very large number of private collections. 

She was born at Westford, Vermont, on March 10th, 1843, 
but went to Elyria, Ohio, when about nine years old. She 
came to San Diego in 1882 and opened "The World Curio 
Store" in 1886. This she maintained until about 1908 when 
she retired from business and moved to Point Loma. 

Early in the history of the store she sent out a boat in charge 
of Captain George D. Porter and John Johnson for the purpose 
of collecting all sorts of marine life on the coast of Lower Cali- 
fornia. She made several changes in her boats and, about 1895, 
she purchased a small Chinese junk which had been built in 
San Diego, and which they rechristened "The World". In 
this boat these two men went for a more extended cruise into 
the Gulf of California. 

Tiburon Island, the largest island in the Gulf of California, 
is inhabited b}" the notorious Seri Indians, who are the Ishmae- 
lites of that region, their hands having been against all of their 
neighbors from their earliest recorded history. Mies Cooke told 
the writer that Capt. Porter had promised her that under no 
circumstances would they land on Tiburon Island. Neverthe- 
less, about the end of October, 1896, they did land on this large 
island, were ambushed and killed by the Seris, and their boat 


was looted and burned. An investigation made by the Mexican 
Government at the request of our State Department ehcited the 
fact that they had landed from a small boat and gone along the 
beach to collect. A band of Indians ambushed them upon 
their return, killing Johnson at the first fire, but Porter man- 
aged to reach the small boat on the beach and killed five of the 
Indians before they killed him. 

After this Miss Cooke made no attempt to organize further 
collecting along the Lower California Coast, contenting herself 
with the purchase of stock and the turning over of the large ac- 
cumulations of former years. She early became interested in 
the conchological side of her work and started many years ago 
to make a private collection which had reached rather large 
dimensions at the time of her death. She furnished the types 
of a large number of new species and varieties, most or all of 
which were described by the late Dr. R. E. C. Stearns, Dr. W. 
H. Dall and Dr. Paul Bartsch. Probably the most remarkable 
one of these was taken on Guadelupe Island o5 the Lower Cali- 
fornia Coast and was described by Dr. Stearns as Uvanilla regina. 
This shell seems to be a perfect Uvanilla, but specimens taken 
long after the description was written showed the operculum to 
be Trochoid. 

In accordance with Miss Cooke's expressed desire, her private 
collection has become the property of the Theosophical Society 
and Universal Brotherhood, of which she was a member, and 
is held at their International Headquarters on Point Loma. 

Fred Baker. 

Point Loma, Cal. , May 25, 1922. 


Types of Ferussac's Subgenera of Helix. A few of the 
subgenera of Ferussac's Tableau Systematique seem to be still 
without definitely designated types, or at least I have not found 
them. Types are here selected. 

Cochlodina F6r., p. 61. Type Clausilia bidens Draparnaud. 

Cochlohydra F6r. , p. 26. Type Helix putris L. 


Cochlogena Fer., p. 58. Type Bulimus guadaliqyensis Brug. 

These designations have no effect upon current nomenclature 
of the groups concerned. The type of Helicogena F6r. is some- 
what doubtful. Gray (P. Z. S., 1847, p. 171) mentions Helix 
acutangula, but that species is not in F^russac's list. On p. 173 
he mentions H. candidissima, which is one of F6russac's species. 
The name Helicogena has generally been used for the Helix 
jpomatia series, but I have not seen any early designation of one 
of that group as its type. — H. A. Pilsbry. 

Gemma gemma purpurea (Lea) was recently found by Mr. 
Frank J. Keeley in vast numbers in Indian River, near Hawks 
Park, Florida. They occurred in a patch of about a foot di- 
ameter, the layer of living shells about 2 inches deep. It was 
on a mud bar about a foot above low water. Handf ulls of pure 
shells could be scooped up. — H. A. P. 

Note on Leptinaria imperforata Fred Baker. In my re- 
port on the Land and Fresh- Water Mollusks of the Stanford 
Expedition to Brazil, published in the Proceedings of the 
Academy of Natural Sciences of Philadelphia for December, 
1911, I described, at page 646, and figured, a new species as 
Leptinaria imperforata. I have just discovered that this name 
was used by Strebel in 1882, as reported fully in the Manual 
of Conchology, Second Series, Vol. 18, p. 317, pi. 42, fig. 28, 
so that my name becomes a synonj'-m. I suggest that my 
species shall be known as Leptinaria charlottei. — Fred Baker. 

Localities of Northern Californian Land Snails: a cor- 
rection. There is a regrettable error in my paper on "Some 
Land Snails of Shasta County, California," appearing in the 
Nautilus for October, 1921, which should be corrected before 
it is perpetuated. Not having access at the time the paper was 
written to a sufficiently detailed map of California, and being 
ignorant of the point myself, I perforce followed the field label 
which accompanied the specimens reported upon. This read 
''Two miles north of Weed, Shasta County, California." Ac- 
cess to a better map, which I did not gain until too late to 


change the statement on the printed page, has since shown that 
Weed is really in Siskiyou County. To avoid being misleading 
the title of my paper should therefore have read, " Some Land 
Snails of Siskiyou and Shasta Counties, California." 

It may be added that the date '' 1192" on p. 38 of the same 
paper should read " 1920", as correctly appears elsewhere. — 
A. Stillman Berry. 

MoLLusKs Dredged from San Deego Bay. Near the foot of 
State Street, San Diego, California, a long strip of ground 
formerly covered at high tide, has been filled in by dredgings 
from the adjoining portion of San Diego Bay. A large portion 
of these dredgings consist of pure sand, but many tons of shells 
have also been taken from the bay and used in this new-made 
ground. In spots probably more than 10,000 cubic feet of 
broken shells have thus been deposited, and a few notes on 
these dredgings may be of interest. 

Chione contributes the greatest bulk to these shell masses; in 
my boyhood days 0. fluctifraga was the most abundant clam 
collected for food from San Diego Bay. C. undatella and C. 
succinata being comparatively rare in the gatherings for food; 
C. fluctifraga is vastly in the minority, however, in these dredg- 
ings, C. succinata being easily the most abundant content. 
Tagelus californianus is a very prominent constituent in some of 
these beds, but in many places I find Crucibulum spinosum lead- 
ing easily numerically. Among the Macomas, M. nasuta is the 
most abundant; Semele pulchra is not rare though not conspicu- 
ous; Donax is nearly absent — only a few valves of our two com- 
mon species being observed in the acre or more of ground in- 

In my boyhood Cardium elatum was not rare in our bay, but 
I have not heard of a living specimen having been found here 
in the last thirty years; a few fragments were found in these 
shell heaps, while C. substriatum was abundant, and a few frag- 
ments of C. quadragenarium were observed; C. procerum seemed 
to be absent, indicating that the dredge had not touched any of 
the pleistocene deposits surrounding portions of our bay — the 
-ishell sands containing nothing that could be ascribed to a past 


Moerella meropsis and Angulus carpenteri, and a few valves of 
Cooper ella subdiaphana, Metis alta (few), Pecten acquisulcatus, P. 
monotimeriSj fragments of Modiolus capax, many valves of Ostrea 
lurida, a single valve of Leda, another of a Nucula^ and many 
valves of a Glycyrneris, Lucinisca nuitallii^ Heterodonax bimacu- 
latus, Solen rosaceus, Cryptomya californica and a few fragments- 
of Mactridae, and numerous valves of Corbula luteola, conclude 
the census of the bivalves. 

Dentalium neohexagonum in abundance, and occasionally one 
of another species, with numerous specimens of Cadulus nesioteSy 
Bullaria goiddiana, Rictaxis punctocaelata, and thousands of 
Acteocinas were observed. Cerithidea californica, and occasion- 
ally specimens of Melampus olivaceus, one large Olivella biplicata 
and hundreds of 0. hoetica and other forms doubtfully referred 
to 0. pedroana and 0. porteri^ were found. One Marginella 
jewettii, many of M. subtrigona and M. regularis, one Hyalina 
californica^ and several Merovia pyriformis, were among the small 
species. Acmaea depicta and A. paleacea were not rare, but only 
one A. insessa was found. Alectrion fossata, mendicaj cooperij 
perpinguiSj and what we used to call tegula^ were noted, and 
Anachis and Alia were plentiful in spots. One Murex festiva and 
one Tritonalia poidsonii were the sole representatives of these 
genera. Fifty or so specimens of Epitomium and one or two 
Melanella rewarded my search, lurbonilla and Odostomia, Ceri- 
thiopsis and Bittium, Crepidula rugosa, Phasianella compta, one 
Polinices reclusiana, and a few Omphalius ligulatuSy a very few 
Litorina scutulata^ nearly complete the list of species, except for 
three or four forms formerly termed Caecum^ not yet specifically 
determined. — C. R. Orcutt. 


Proceedings of the Malacological Society of London, 
Apr., 1922, Vol. 16, pt. 1:— 

On the Pseudo-genus Pseudomarginella v. Maltzan. By the 
Rev. Dr. A. H. Cooke, pp. 3-5. 

The Radula of the Volutidae. By the Rev. Dr. A. H. Cooke, 
pp. 6-12. 


Note on Reproduction of Turritella. By Lieut. -Col. A. J. 
Peile, p. 13. 

Some Notes on Radulae. By Lieut. -Col. A. J. Peile, pp. 

A List of the species and genera of Recent Mollusca JSrst de- 
scribed in "Le Natualiste." By Hugh C. Fulton, pp. 19-31. 

Note on the British species of Anomia. By R. Winckworth, 
pp. 32-34, pi. 1. 

Note on a Holocene Deposit at Penton Hook. By J. E. 
Cooper, pp. 35-36. 

Note on the genera Neptunea and Syncera. By W. H. Dall, 
p. 36. 

A Reply on the genera Neptunea and Syncera. By T. Ire- 
dale, p. 37. 

The nomination of "Recent" fossil mollusca. By T. Ire- 
dale, pp. 37-38. 

The status of Helicella and Polita. By Dr. H. A. Pilsbry, 
pp. 38-40. 

On the connection between etyle-eac and intestine in Gastro- 
poda and Lamellibranchiata. By Guy C. Robson, pp. 41-46. 

On the genesis of the designation of '* types " among Mala- 
cological writers. By A. S. Kennard and B. B. Woodward, 
pp. 47-51. 

On the Pisidium gassiesianum of Dupuy. By A. W. Stelfox, 
pp. 52-53. 

Report on the Gassies collection of Pisidia in the Musee 
d'histoire Naturelle de Bordeaux. Bj A. W. Stelfox, pp. 

New Pearly Fresh-water Mussels from South America. 
By Wm. B. Marshall (Proc. U. S. Nat. Mue., Vol. 61, pp. 
1-9, pis. 1-3, 1922). Eight new species and one new genus — 
Diplodontites are described and figured. 

The Miocene of Northern Costa Rica. By A. A. Olsson 
(Bull. Anjer. Pal., Vol. 9, pt. 1, pp. 1-168, pis. 1-15, 1922). 
The material on which this monograph is based represents over 
two years of field work by the author in Panama and Costa 
Rica. There is a chapter on the stratigraphy of the region, 


with a general correlation with other beds. Over 100 new 
species and varieties of Gastropods are described. The dearth 
of family names makes the grouping of genera somewhat con- 
fusing. The genus Halia is now placed in the Volutidae. — 
C. W. J. 

Revision of W. M. Gabb's Tertiary Mollusca of Santo 
Domingo. By H. A. Pilsbry (Proc. Acad. Nat. Sci. Phila., 
1921, pt. 2, pp. 305-435, pis. 16-47 and 48 figs, in text). 
This work reviews the more recent papers, and forms a com- 
plete r6sum6 of the subject. Numerous new species and sub- 
species are described. The illustrations are unusually fine and 
the artist, Miss Helen Winchester, deserves great credit in show- 
ing so clearly the beautiful sculpturing of the shells. — C. W. J. 

The Mollusca collected by the University of Michigan- Walker 
Expedition in southern Vera Cruz, Mexico. By H. Burring- 
ton Baker. Occas. Pap. Mus. Zool. U. of M., No. 106, 1922. 
Though handicapped by high water, about a dozen species and 
subspecies were taken in the San Juan River system. The 
value of the groups Leptonaias, Sphenonaios^ Actinonaias and 
their synonyms is considered at some length, and the follow- 
ing are described as new: Elliptio (Sphenonaias) liebmanni cuatoto- 
lapamensis, Actinonaias (Disconaias) walkeri, Lampsilis rovirosai 
sanjuanensis and LampsiUs ruthveni. He considers Lampsilis fim- 
briata Frierson a small-river form of Actinonaias discus (Lea).^ 

Ampullaria patula catemascensis is a new subspecies w^hich ap- 
pears to be quite distinct — an unusual condition among Mexi- 
can Ampullariidse. 

Among the land shells, the synonymy of some perplexing 
Helicinidse is considered, and there is a discussion of the 
Guppya-Euconulus group, with figures of the dentition. Thy- 
sanophora pilsbryi n. sp. is described, and a key to species of the 
region is given. Miraverellia is a new subgenus for Averellia 
sumichrasti (C. &F. ). 

The Unionidse are fullj^llustrated in series showing variation^ 
changes with age, etc. It is by such careful studies as this that 
we may hope to get somew^here near an understanding of these 
perplexing Mexican Unionidse and their tangled nomenclature. 
— H. A. P. 

^ By an error of some sort, this name is spelled disea on p. 22. 

The Nautilus. 

Vol. XXXV OCTOBER, 1922. No. 2 



During part of July and August one of us (C. M. C. ) spent 
some time at Vancouver Island. Land shells were nowhere 
found in abundance, and in many places they seemed entirely 
wanting. Yet not much time was given to the search. 

Vancouver Island, about four miles south of Union, in pine 
forest along road, above a deposit of fossil sea shells. On the 
ground and under bark. 24 & 25/vii/18. 

Epiphragmophora fidelis (Gray). 

Polygyra columbiana (Lea). 

Polygyra germana vancouverinsulse P. & C. 

Haplotrema vancouverensis (Lea). 

Zonitoides arborea (Say). 

Striatura milium pugetensis (Dall). 

Pristiloma stearnsi ( Bland) . 

Euconulus fulvus (Miill). 

Vancouver Island, near lower end of Cameron Lake, in open 
pine forest above hotel. Most of the specimens under dead 
bark on the ground. l-12/viii/18. 

Epiphragmophora fidelis (Gray). 

Polygyra columbiana (Lea). 

Polygyra germana vancouverinsulse P. & C. 

Haplotrema vancouverensis (Lea). 


Haplotrema sportella (Gld.). 
Zonitoides arborea (Say). 
Zonitoides cookei Pils. 
Polita hammonis (Strom). 
Striatura milium pugetensis (Dall). 
Pristiloma stearnsi (Bland). 
Euconulus fulvus (Miill). 
Pmictum pygmseum (Drap.). 
Vertigo columbiana Sterki. 
Cochlicopa lubrica (Miill). 


is more openly umbilicate than typical germana with a decid- 
edly stronger, higher parietal tooth. Hairs of the surface space 
very delicate and more or less fully deciduous in adults. Height 
4.5 diam., 6.8 mm.; 5 J whorls. 

Cameron Lake. Type 44538 A. N. S. P. ; paratype in Bishop 
Museum, Honolulu. Also found about 4 miles south of Union. 



Zonitoides cookei n. sp. Fig. 1. 

The shell is discoidal, the spire very slightly convex, umbil- 
icus regularly diminishing inward, very nearly one-fourth the 

Fig. 1. Zonitoides cookei. 

diameter of the shell; whitish, glossy, smoothish, under the 
microscope showing faint growth lines and on the upper sur- 


face an excessively minute, close and shallow spiral striation 
on the last 2 or 3 whorls. The whorls increase slowly and are 
rather convex, the suture rather deeply impressed, last whorl 
rounded peripherally. The aperture is rather narrow, crescen- 
tic. Height 1.7, diam. 3.6 mm.; 4^ whorls. 

Cameron Lake, Vancouver Island. Type no. 130623 A. N. 
S. P. Specimens also contained in the Bishop Museum. 

This species is distinguished by its very low spire of nar- 
rowly coiled whorls, and especially by the narrow aperture. 
The generic reference is uncertain, as we do not know whether 
it possesses the Vitrea or the Zonitoides type of teeth, and the 
shell characters are not decisive. However, the suture is deeper 
than in our small species of Vitrea or Polita. Named for Dr. 
C. Montague Cooke. 



Recently Mr. A. W. Stelfox kindly presented me with a few 
fine specimens of Pisidium torquatum Stelfox, with a note saying 
that they are what B. B. Woodward ^ has described as parvulam 
Clessin. That species is well established and distinct, to judge 
from Clessin' s' description and figures, though both somewhat 
inadequate, and from authentic specimens. From Woodward's 
description and figures, 1. c. , it is evident that his parvulum is 
an entirely distinct species, which Stelfox has named torquatum. 
Woodward's specimens were from Denmark and he stated that 
the species had not been met with in the British Isles, either 
recent or fossil. That is evidently to be understood of both, 
parvulum Clessin and the one described by him. As stated by 
Stelfox, his specimens, from England, resemble the Nearctic 
P. pundatum, as to size and shape; they are 1.5 mm. long, well 

^ Catalogue of the British Species of Pisidium in the British Museum, 1913, 
p. 105. Pis. II, f. 6, IV, f. 8, XVII, fs. 3-6. 

'Cycladeen, in Kiister and Chemnitz, 1879, p. 17, PL 1, fs. 17-21. 


inflated, mature or very nearly so, and have a slight ridge on 
each beak. But the hinge is quite different, much like that of 
cruciatum St.,^ stout, with the plate broad, the principal laminae 
(''lateral teeth") massive, and a short ligament. The right 
cardinal, c3, is of the same peculiar formation; its posterior 
part curving downward and apparently forward, merging into 
the projecting edge of the plate (an equivalent of the hypothet- 
ical c If), thus forming a well-enclosed groove for the reception 
of c 2, the left anterior cardinal. The latter is much smaller 
than in cruciatum, and so is c 4. The lamina a I, especially, is 
short and considerably projecting inward; a III is wanting, as 
it is in some cruciatum^ and p III is quite small and rather 
proximal. These features are in marked contrast to those 
shown in the figures of ^^parvulum^\ in Woodward's, 1. c, and 
so far as present evidence shows, the two appear to be distinct 
species, even of different groups. 

For over thirty years ' P. cruciatum has held a unique posi- 
tion among the known species and forms, by its peculiar hinge 
formation and the shape of its umbonal ridges, which, by the 
way, are quite constant, unlike those of P. compressum, fallax 
and punctatum, also supinum A. Schmidt and henslowanum Shep- 
pard, which are vestigial or wanting in some forms. Probably 
the species is of an old race, or group, now isolated, and the 
more it is interesting to know of a related form from east of the 

Of other minute Nearctic Pisidia, 1.5 to 2.2 or 2.5 mm. long 
when mature, there are now about a dozen known, w^ell estab- 
lished, most of them distributed over wide areas, and of quite 
different groups. Temple Prime has described three of them, 
in 1851.* Of about half as many somewhat larger ones there 

^ P. cruciatum and punctatum, The Nautilus, VIII, pp. 97-100, PI. II, 
fs. 1-13 (Jan., 1895). 

^ P. cruciatum and punctatum, also fallax, were first found, or noticed, in 
1891, among coarse gravel and sand of the Tuscarawas River, Ohio. 

^ The size given to P. ferrugineum (see Mon. Corbiculadse, p. 71), 4.25 mm. 
long, is a mistake, or error; of thousands of specimens seen, all are quite 


are minute forms and subspecies; and some others have been 
under doubt and scrutiny for years. Large numbers of speci- 
mens have been overlooked or thrown away by collectors sup- 
posing them to be merely young and of no value. In fact, the 
young of all are of interest. 

Critics have not been friendly to these small forms. To cite 
one example: Prof. Richard Ellsworth Call^ says: "The young 
[of Pisidia] are found in older shells in the spring and again in 
the fall, and have recently been described in the ' Nautilus, an 
amateur conchological journal, under a number of names." 
This dictum evidently applies in first order to P. cruciatum and 
punctatum.' From the figures, any amateur beginner, or any 
school boy, could see that the mussels were full grown; the same 
is shown by the hinge. In the second place, their young are 
also figured on the same plate. In the third place, large num- 
bers of specimens at all stages of growth had been collected and 
examined for four years before the descriptions were published. 
Be it added that those two species are as distinct and valid as 
any in the animal kingdom, now known to be widely distrib- 
uted, recent and fossil. If a man wants just to condemn, to 
show his own superiority, he does not want to know facts and 
shuts his eyes to the plainest evidence. 

This, of course, is not a personal matter but one of principle. 
If, after careful revision and comparison, a species is believed 
not to be distinct and valid, it is fair to say so and state the 
reason. But "wholesale" condemning without even an at- 
tempt at considering evidence, means undue discrediting of the 
whole work done on a subject. It is hardly necessary to add 
that the small and minute forms of Pisidium are of as much in- 
terest, at least, as the larger ones, with respect to morphology, 
systematics and distribution. 

^ A Descriptive Illustrated Catalogue of the MoUusca of Indiana, written in 
1898, in Indiana, Department of Geology and Natural Kesources, Twenty- 
fourth Annual Keport, 1900, p. 437 (also 358). 





The type species of this genus, M. margaritifera, does not live 
in waters having any considerable amount of lime in solution, 
which fact has not perhaps been given its due weight in the ex- 
planation of the great gaps in the territory occupied by it, such 
as almost the whole of the central portion of Northern America. 

This unoccupied territory is usually explained upon the 
theory of the glacial age, but it is hard to understand why the 
ice-coyered regions were not repopulated pari passu with the 
melting of the ice sheets. There are two closely akin species 
living in America, separated by the space between Pennsylvania 
and Alabama, and Utah and Louisiana, these being the marga- 
ritifera and hembeli. 

The latter species is generally supposed to live in the waters 
adjacent to New Orleans, since Conrad's original envois came 
from that city, but the collector. Dr. Hale, lived also in Alex- 
andria, near which place the great alluvial deposits of the Red 
and Mississippi rivers join the sandy, pine clad hills of Louisi- 
ana, and from one of the ' ' clear water ' ' creeks flowing out of 
these hills, the writer has obtained numbers of Conrad's shell, 
and it is almost certain that this creek is the type locality. 

From a similar environment Mr. B. H. Wright obtained the 
same species in Alabama, i. e., from the lime free creeks of the 
pine hill section. The Alabama shells are heavily sculptured, 
but these from Louisiana are often quite smooth, and the re- 
semblance to the type is striking. 

Three species occur in Europe, (to which dozens of names 
have been affixed). These are the margaritifera, whose lateral 
teeth are almost obsolete; the crassa, whose laterals are quite 
well developed, and the auricularia, of Spengler, recently re- 
discovered by Dr. Haas in Spain. The latter appears to be the 
analogue of M. hembeli in being sculptured, and like the latter, 
grows in the southern portion of the range. 


In the Chinese territory three or four species exist, of which 
however but two are listed as such in the current Hterature. 

The type species has as usual received several names, but pre- 
serves its identity remarkably well. 

The Margaritana laosensis Lea in having well-developed lat- 
erals, may be said to be the analogue of the crassa. 

In this genus also belongs one, certainly, and possibly three 
or four species which have been placed in other genera, as will 
be shown. 

Margaritana murina (Heude), 1877. 

Unio murinus Heude. 

Ptychobranchus murinum Simpson, 1900. 

Uiiio compressus Simpson (non Heude), 1900. 

That Heude' s Unio murinus is a member of Margaritana is 
shown in its close agreement in shape, in its color, both of epi- 
dermis and nacre; in its obsolete and short lateral teeth, and 
perhaps most strikingly, in the characteristic elongate-elliptical 
posterior adductor scars. Ptychobranchus pfisteri has differently 
colored epidermis and nacre; its laterals are well developed, 
and, as Heude observed (subsequently) its lateral teeth and 
ligament are of equal length, and the posterior adductor is short 
and nearly rolind. Heude states that the beaks of murinus are 
widely and profoundly undulated, whence the species is made 
the type of the subgenus Heudeana. 

Margaritana simpularis (Heude), 1884. 

Unio simpularis Heude. 
Unio modestus Heude, 1877. 
Parreysia simpidaris Simpson, 1900. 
Parreysia modesta Simpson, 1914. 

The dimensions of this species given by Heude would indi- 
cate quite an inflated shell, whence Simpson placed it tenta- 
tively in Parreysia, but no errors are at once so common, so 
difficult of detection, and impossible of correction as those of 
concrete numbers, while on the other hand the character given 
by Heude, ^' compressed ^\ allows no compromise. Heude com- 


pared his species several times later on, and he states that it 
resembles the murinus, ectj and chiefly among other characters, 
in its obsolete laterals. The species appears to be closely allied 
to murinus, and is probably a variety of it. Heude changed his 
first name, since that was preoccupied, and this was followed 
by Simpson in his Synopsis of 1900, but in his Catalogue of 
1914 he uses the name modesta, on the ground that the modestu» 
F6r. not having been described by Ferussac, was a nomen nudum. 
Simpson forgot the Unio modestus Kiister, 1856. 

The decumbens Lea, is usually listed as a member of Margar- 
itana, but Lea's type, which is the single example known, has 
been carefully inspected by the writer, and it is absolutely 
nothing more than a pathological specimen of one of the Unia 
complanatus aggregation, and the name should be dropped from 
lists of valid Naiades. 

Specimens before me bearing the name of Ptychobranchus laevis 
Haas, from Saghalien, are unquestionably Margaritana, but 
since they were obtained from a dealer, and I have seen no fig- 
ure of Haas' species, I hesitate to approximate them, yet they 
agree with his description very well. 



Boog Watson, in 1892 (Journ. Conch., Vol. VII, no. 1), re- 
marked that the many endemic land snails of the Madeiras were 
all distinct. "Between themselves there is no swaying of the 
lines to and fro, they do not bifurcate, they do not pass over 
from one form into another, they give ofiE no spots maturing 
into distinct species." In the presence of a large series of these 
shells it is difficult to see how Watson could have formed such 
an opinion, as there are in fact numerous "critical" forms. 
There is also a considerable amount of "individual" or local 
variation, some examples of which are recorded below. One- 
fact is curious, that no one seems ever to have found a sinistral 


I use the name Ochthephila Beck, as it turns out that the 
genus of Diptera supposed to preoccupy it was called Ochtiphila. 

Ochthejjhila (Tectula) bulverii (Wood) mut. albescens nov. 
Shell greenish-white. Slopes of Pico do Facho, Porto Santo. 
( A.. C. de Naronha. ) 

Ochthephila (Discula) attrita (Lowe) mut. nigra nov. Shell 
reddish-black, very dark, with the umbilical region broadly, 
and the region of the aperture to about 3.5 mm. back of the lip, 
creamy white; spire obscurely flecked with creamy. South 
slope of Pico d'Anna Ferreira, Jan. 21, forming a small local 
colony, but the normal form also present (Cockerell). 

Ochthephila (Discula) attrita race contracta nov. Shell small, 
max. diam. 8.5 to nearly 9 mm.; lip usually very thick, aper- 
ture contracted, a heavy callus usually present on parietal wall. 
I. Baixo, Jan. 22 (Cockerell), and practically the same thing in 
the vicinity of the Pico do Castello on the main island. All the 
shells are dead and white, and apparently the race is extinct. 
It appears to be an ultra-xerophytic form. The character of 
the base readily distinguishes it from papilio Lowe, common on 

Ochthephila (Callina) rotula (Lowe) mut. grlsea nov. Shell 
pale gray, flecked with creamy white; the albino form. Porto 
Santo, main island, 1921 (Cockerell). Two shells were found. 

Euparypha pisana mut. rosea Costa, 1879. Shell pale pink, 
without evident markings. Locally common in one place north 
of Villa Baleira, Porto Santo, Jan., 1921 (Cockerell). 

Euparypha pisana mut. coalita Taylor. Shell black, with 
slender light bands, my specimen somewhat more melanic than 
Taylor's figure. This was found in the same vicinity as rosea, 
together with other varieties, and it is evident that the peculi- 
arities of color cannot be ascribed to climatic conditions. 

Euparypha pisana mut. taylori n. n. (H. pisana s. v. donatii 
Taylor, Monog. L. & F. W. Moll. Brit. Is,, 1912, pi. xxxi, 
f. 20). I have exactly this form, which Taylor figures from 
Portugal, from the south side of the Pico d'Anna Ferreira, Porto 
Santo, Jan. 11, 1921 (Cockerell). Taylor also figures it as var. 
carpiensis, but it is quite different from true donatii or carpiensis. 
Gwyn Jeffreys (Brit. Conchology) reported H. virgata from 


Madeira, where it certainly does not occur. The present variety- 
may have been taken for it. 

Lemniscia calva (Lowe) race veterna nov. Shell 11 mm. max. 
diam., sometimes as small as 9.5 mm. Pleistocene fossil in the 
beds east of Cani9al, Madeira, common. It is not certain that 
calva belongs to Lemniscia. Paiva's galeata is congeneric with 
calva. In the Norman collection at the British Museum, speci- 
mens of calva are labeled galeata. 


II. The Naiades of the Upper Mississippi Drainage, f 


While it was the original intention to limit this list to those 
species actually found in the Mississippi river above its junc- 
tion with the Ohio, the fullest consideration of the topic has led 
us to include all species authentically reported from the entire 
Upper Mississippi Drainage. The larger number of the listed 
species were collected while the writers were engaged in Mussel 
Survey and Appraisal work for U. S. Bureau of Fisheries in 
part of that region during the summer of 1920. The remaining 
species in the list have been obtained by the rechecking of the 
available literature dealing with or bearing upon the Naiades of 
this region as indicated in the accompanying bibliography. 
Species having an apparently doubtful or accidental record have 
been omitted. The nomenclature used is that recently formu- 
lated by Ortmann and Walker (12), but for convenience there 
is also added the equivalents of the different species in the syn- 
onomy of Simpson. (14) 

*Published with permission of the Commissioner of Fisheries, Washington, 
D. C. 

fContribution from U. S, Biological Station, Fairport, Iowa, and Biological 
Laboratory Washington and Jefferson College. 


Family Margaritanidae Ortmann. 

1. Margaritana monodonta Say. 

Simpson — Illinois and E. Iowa. Similarly reported by Baker 
(1), and Call (3), from the same regions. We did not find it 
above this region. 

Family Unionidae (D'Orbigny), Ortmann. 
Sub-Family Unionidae (Swainson), Ortmann. 

2. Quadrula pustulosa (Lea). 

Simpson — entire Mississippi drainage. Common. Wilson 
and Danglade (18), St. Croix drainage. 

3. Quadrula pustulosa prasina (Conrad) =(var. schooler aftensis 

Geiser (5), and Call (3), report this shell from Iowa. We 
did not encounter it north of there. Reported by Lapham (9), 
from Fox River. 

4. Quadrula nodulata (Ra.i.) = Quadrula pustulata (Lea). 
Simpson — Mississippi R. and tributaries from E. Iowa south 

to Louisiana. We did not collect this species. It is found 
abundantly at Fairport, Iowa in the main river. 

5. Quadrula quadrula (^R3ii.) = Quadrida lachrymosa (Lea). 
Simpson — entire Mississippi drainage. St. Croix drainage. 

Casually distributed. 

6. Quadrula fragosa ( Con. ) . 

Specimens are known from Iowa City, Iowa, Cedar River, 
la., and from the Spoon, Kaskaskia, Illinois and Mississippi 
Rivers, Illinois. Closely related to the preceding species. Vide 
Strode (15). 

7. Quadrula verrucosa ('R3ii.) = Tritogonia tuberculata (Barnes). 
Simpson. Mississippi drainage area generally. Red Wing, 

Minn. Reported from S. Minnesota by Lapham (9), and Call 
(3). Not common. 

8. Tritogonia nobilis (Conr.). 

Simpson reports this shell from the Red River of the North 
to Mississippi. We did not collect this shell, although the 
Bureau of Fisheries has it recorded from L. Pepin. 


9. Quadrula metanevra (Raf. ). 

Simpson — Mississippi drainage area except its southern por- 
tion. Southern Minnesota (7). Red Wing. Abundant locally. 

10. Quadrula metanevra var. wardii (Lea). 
Reported by Simpson from Iowa. 

11. Megalonaias gigantes (Bar.) = Quadnda heros (Say). 
Simpson — Mississippi drainage area generally. Rare in L. 

Pepin and more plentiful above than below it. 

12. Amblema costata (Rai.) = Quadrula undidata (Barnes). 
Simpson — Mississippi drainage area generally. Wilson and 

Dan glade (18), St. Croix drainage. Common. Believed by 
H. W. Clark to be another tributary stream species. 

13. Amblema peruviana (ljSim.) = Q. plicata (Say). 
Simpson, Upper Mississippi south to Arkansas, etc. Wilson 

and Danglade (18), St. Croix drainage. 

14. Fusconaja ebenus (Lea.) = Quadrula ebenus (Lea). 
Simpson, Mississippi drainage area generally, except western 

portion. Apparently does not go into N. and C. Minnesota. 
We collected it at Red Wing, Minn. No longer common. 

15. Fusconaja flav a (Raf. ) = Q. rubiginosa (Lea). 

Simpson — entire Mississippi drainage. Wilson add Danglade 
(18), Red River of the North. A tributary stream species. 

16. Fusconaja undata (Barnes). 

Simpson — entire Upper Mississippi drainage. Var. trigona 
(Lea), seemed especially abundant in L. Pepin. Reported 
from N. and C. Minnesota. Common. 

17. Cyclonaias tuberculata (Raf. ) = Q. tuberculata Raf. 
Simpson — Mississippi drainage area generally. This species 

was formerly more abundant in certain areas of the Upper Mis- 
sissippi, but is now clammed out. According to Clark this is 
another headwater, tributary stream species. 

18. Cyclonaias granifera (Lea) = Q. granifera (Lea). 
Simpson — northwest to Iowa. Baker (1), found it at Mc- 
Gregor, Iowa. Clark reports this species from L. Pepin to Fair- 


19. Pleihobasus cyphyus (Rsii. )=^Pleurobema aesopus (Green). 
Reported by Grant (6) and Holzinger (7) from Minnesota. 

We encountered our first specimen of it at the foot of L. Pepin. 
Comparatively rare and more abundant at present in the 

20. Pleurobema cor datum (Raf. ) = Q. obliqua (Lea). 
Reported by Baker (1) from Iowa. Specific localities are de- 
sirable. Probably more southern in distribution. Ortmann 
considers this species as not specifically diSerent from Pleuro- 
bema coccineum (Con.). 

21. Pleurobema catillus (Conr. )==Q. solida (Lea). 

Simpson, Mississippi R. north to Minnesota. Collected above 
Red Wing. According to Wilson and Danglade (18) no 
^'Quadrulae" are found in the Mississippi River proper above 
the falls of St. Anthony, a fact which has a bearing upon the 
distribution of all mussels of the Quadrula type in these regions. 

22. Pleurobema coccineum (Con. ) = Q. coccineum (Con.). 
Simpson — entire Upper Mississippi drainage. Wilson and 

Clark, drainage of Red River of the North. We did not en- 
counter it. It is apparently a small tributary species. 

( To be continued. ) 



After leaving Guantanamo, Cuba, the squadron headed south 
for the Panama Canal. We passed within sight of Jamaica but 
did not stop, much as I should have liked to collect there. 
For several days we drove steadily on, manoeuvring as we went. 
It was a most maddening sight to me after we had made a good 
day's run, to see the Admiral mount the bridge and commence 
sending up signals for manouvres which would turn us about 
and start us back toward Cuba. However, schedules are inflex- 
ible things in the Navy, and we must not arrive ahead of time. 

At length we awoke one morning to see the white-topped 
mountains of Panama coming in view over the horizon, and 



already we could see the indigo-blue so characteristic of the 
Caribbean, beginning to turn gray as we got in closer to shore. 
In a few more hours we were dropping anchor just inside the 
breakwater at Colon, and viewed the low buildings and palm- 
fringed shore with much interest. Alas, before we could go 
through the Canal we must coal ship, a job which everyone, 
from skipper down, cordially hates. Everyone turned out in 
his dirtiest clothes, officers and all, and shoveled down the 
shutes the never-ending piles of coal that the big cranes dropped 
on board. It is remarkable how much coal can be stored in a 
battleship. By noon next day we were through cleaning ship, 
and the first liberty party went up the Canal to Gatun to ex- 
amine the locks and the dam. We were also taken to Coco 
Sola Point and shown the Atlantic defenses of the Canal. Those 
huge disappearing guns seemed mighty formidable to us. 

When word came that we were going through the Big Ditch, 
all was excitement. I have been through the Canal five times 
since, but it still holds as much wonder and interest for me as 
it did the first time, and I should like to go through again. 
The Gatun locks, which raised us from sea level eighty-two feet 
to the level of Gatun Lake, are a marvel of engineering skill. 
It seemed strange to see a whole squadron of battleships steam- 
ing through a lake far inland, with forests and hills on either 
hand and pelicans flying around our boys. There is room for 
several more squadrons of battleships to anchor also in this 
great lake, made by the damming of the Chagres River. 
Culebra Cut, with its sheer walls towering above our fighting 
tops, held our interest no less than the lake had. By late after- 
noon we had completed our voyage from the Atlantic to the 
Pacific, and passed out into the latter to dock at Balboa. 

On my first visit to the Canal Zone in 1919 I did not know, 
unfortunately, that that very efficient collector, Mr. James 
Zetek, was a resident of the Zone. Consequently my attempts 
at collecting were not well rewarded. I was also handicapped 
by the lack of time. We were all taken on an official party to 
Flamenco Island to see the Pacific defenses, and while there I 
strayed off to examine the breakwater for shells. What was 
my delight to find the rocks covered with fine large specimens 


of Chlorostoma pellis-serpentis ! Further search revealed some 
very fine Planaxis planicostata and many large-sized Nerita ornata. 
The rocks were paved with large Chiton stokesii. The number 
of specimens I was able to carry was limited to what I could 
stuff in my pockets, as I had brought no receptacle of any kind 
and we were in an ofiicial party. I managed to bring away a 
very fair representation, however. That matter proved far less 
difficult than the business of cleaning them. I finally gave it 
up, wrapped the shells in paper, and sealed them in tin boxes. 

This was all the collecting I was able to get in on my first 
trip, as we steamed back through the canal the next day, bound 
for Cuba again. 

On my second visit to the Canal Zone the following year, I 
had the forethought to write to my old correspondent, Mr. E. 
P. Chace, of Los Angeles, asking if he knew of any collectors in 
the Canal Zone. At his suggestion I wrote to Mr. James Zetek, 
who kindly assured me of a warm welcome on my arrival. As 
we were to spend several days at Balboa, I felt certain of seeing 
more of the conchological treasures of Panama than I had on 
my first trip. 

My expectations were fully realized. Once more we steamed 
through Gatun Lake and between the narrow sides of Culebra 
Cut, and docked again at the now familiar Balboa. As soon as 
I got shore leave, I called up Mr. Zetek and was told to come 
right up to his laboratory at the Public Health Department of 
the Ancon Hospital. I shall always remember the kindness 
with which he welcomed me and placed the facilities of his lab- 
oratory at my disposal. He set aside his work for the day and 
took me on a collecting trip to Bella Vista, where he has made 
so many rare finds. Not the least enjoyable part of the trip 
was our visit to a mangrove swamp, where we found thousands 
of Cerithidea montagnei and C. pidchra, together with Littorina 
varia and a fine specimen of Linatella wiegmanni. Deep in the 
mud, we could hear the Areas snap their valves. Soon we 
came out on the beach where a wealth of species rewarded our 
search. Here we found three species of Thais, four AnachiSj 
several Cerithium, Turritella, Nerita, Litorina, Natica, Arcularia 
Solen, Paphia, Anomalocardia, and many others. We filled our 


bags till we were weary, and the sun began to get low. Realiz- 
ing that we had several hours work ahead of us to clean our 
catch, we hastened back to the laboratory after supper and 
worked till late. 

A rather humorous incident, which always brings a smile 
when I recall it, took place on my return to the ship. It seems 
that the Officer of the Deck had orders to open all packages 
brought aboard to ascertain that no liquor was being smuggled 
aboard (Panama is as wet as the ocean). Consequently when 
I came over the gangway with my big box of shells, I was stop- 
ped and asked what the package contained. Visions of having 
my box opened to the vulgar gaze of the laity arose before me, 
and I desperately sought for means to ward off such a disaster. 
Finally, I summed up my courage and answered: "Sir, on my 
honor as a Midshipman, I have no liquor in my possession." 
The officer smiled and passed me on! 

The next day I had the pleasure of taking dinner with Mr. 
Zetek and his family and enjoyed a meal cooked Panama style. 
Afterward I spent an enjoyable afternoon inspecting part of Mr. 
Zetek' s collection, and was presented with a large number of 
his duplicates, making together with what I had collected, a 
very fair representation of Panamanian fauna. Mr. Zetek' s re- 
marks on the history and customs of Panama were highly 

It would be a waste of time to give a list of the species col- 
lected at Panama, as Mr. Zetek' s list is more complete on that 
point than mine would be. I refer my readers to that for more 
complete information. 

All too soon we weighed anchor for Honolulu, a sixteen days' 
run, and rapidly left the jungle-clad hills of Pan-ama behind. 
I was comforted, however, in my regret at leaving so congenial 
a country, by the knowledge that we were due to coal again at 
Balboa on our way back to the States, and that I would have at 
least one more try at the wonderful shell fauna of Panama. For 
the present, it was westward ho, and we all settled down to our 
long voyage toward the alluring isles of hula maidens and 
Achatinellas ! 




Director U. S. Fisheries Biological Station, Fairport, Iowa 

In 1913 there was practicalized through the investigations of 
Drs. George Lefevre and Winterton C. Curtis of the University 
of Missouri, an artificial method of propagation of fresh-water 
mussels. The method, based on the peculiar natural history of 
the mussels — especially on the parasitism of fishes by the em- 
bryo mollusks — is artificial only in that it requires the handling 
of the proper host fishes and the embryo mussels. The arti- 
ficial propagative method is, indeed, merely assistance lent the 
natural reproductive processes, but by such assistance the plan 
results in a thousand fold increase over unaided reproduction. 
Complying with the requirements set by the natural propaga- 
tive process of the mussel, the artificial method is simply the 
collection of a large number of fishes of appropriate species, 
their temporary confinement in a large receptacle of water, and 
the introduction into the water of a million or two glochidia 
(embryo mussels) of the mussel to be propagated. These glo- 
chidia are taken directly from the marsupia of a " ripe ' ' gravid 
female shell. Within perhaps five or ten minutes the fishes so 
confined are quite heavily parasitized by the glochidia and, with 
an infection of possible 3,000 or more glochidia, — the amount 
of parasitism depending on the size of the fish, the temperature 
of the water, and other factors, — they are liberated into the 
water of their natural habitat where in due season the fully - 
matured embryos free themselves of their hosts and, dropping 
to the bottom, take up life as independent organisms. 

This method of propagation has been carried on yearly since 
1913 with a view toward repopulating the depleted mussel beds 
of several streams of the Mississippi drainage and, therewith, 
to furnish a continual supply of raw material for button manu- 

During the past fall data have come to hand which suggest, 


within certain limits, the value of this method of mussel pro- 

In 1913 propagating crews operating on the White River, 
Arkansas, under the direction of the U. S. Fisheries Biological 
Laboratory, Fairport, Iowa, liberated in that stream 4,500,000 
embryo yellow sand- shells (Lampsilis anodontoides) on this 
species' hosts, the long- and short-nosed gars (Lepisosteus osseus 
and platostomus) . The following two years there were liberated 
respectively 743,000 and 309,000 embryos of this mussel in the 
parasitic condition. After 1917 the propagation of the yellow 
sand-shell was discontinued because of inability to obtain gravid 
females of this species at the times when the crews operated on 
this river. When this work was done, the primary purpose of 
the propagation was to increase the muckets (Lampsilis liga- 
mentina) of the river. This mussel may be propagated during 
seasons when it is impossible to obtain gravid sand-shells. 

Through the kindness of Mr. F. C. Vetter, President of the 
Hawkeye Pearl Button Company, Muscatine, Iowa, there has 
been obtained shell-test records of 61 carload shipments of com- 
mercial shells from Augusta, Arkansas, on the White River in 
the vicinity of which town the sand-shell has been propagated. 
These tests covered shipments received by the company during 
the period from 1915 to 1821 inclusive. The test records of 
this company were taken on its own initiative and for its own 
purposes. Each record represents a single sample or two 
samples of 100 pounds each of the button shells as they arrived 
at the cutting plant in Muscatine. The samples were made by 
a shell-sorter and were taken as an index of the average assort- 
ment of shells of the different commercial species in the car- 
loads and on the river bottom from which they came. A record 
has been kept of the percentage of yellow sand-shells, nigger- 
head shells (Quadrula ebenus), pimplebacks (Q. pustulosa and 
pustulata), washboards (Q. heros and plicata)^ and of miscel- 
laneous shells, pigtoes (Q. undata), mapleleafs (Q. lachrymosa), 



Artificial Propagation of the Yellow Sand-shell in the White 

KivER, Arkjlnsas, and its Frequency in Commercial 

Shell Shipments from Augusta 




with sand- 
shell glochidia 












Per cent of 
yellow sand- 
shells in 


2 6.1 



Per cent of 
sand-shells in 


8 51.3 

Table I shows the extent of propagation of the yellow sand- 
shell during the period of years considered and the percentage 
of shells of this species and of niggerheads in carload shipments 
from Augusta, Arkansas, to the Hawkeye Pearl Button Com- 
pany, Muscatine, Iowa. These two mussels are the only two 
species considered inasmuch as the others are of minor import- 
ance because of their comparatively much lower frequency and 
because of their smaller commercial value. Test records were 
begun by the button manufacturing company in 1915. Records 
of percentages of shells in shipments previous to this time are 
not available. Figures representing percentages of yellow sand- 
shells and niggerhead mussels are the averages of the test 
records taken during the given years. The 1915 record for 

^ Special shipment of three carloads containing no yellow sand-shells; these 
were sorted out for foreign shipment. 

'Figures based on eight carloads; two of the ten carloads of this year were 
special carloads containing no yellow sand-shells. 
^ Omitting 1915 and 1916 special shipments. 


niggerhead shells covers three shipments of that year of certain 
special carloads of shells sorted by the clammers to give a higher 
count of niggerhead shells and thus a better money return. 
The sand-shells were kept separate for sale to foreign shippers 
and, therefore, none were included in the shipments. The 1916 
record also contained two similar carloads, but these have not 
been included in the computations. 

From table 1 there is noted from 1917 through 1919 a 
marked increase of yellow sand-shells in carloads shipped from 
Augusta. This increase is, at its maximum, 4.4 per cent over 
the percentage of 1916 and 4.3 per cent over the average record 
of yellow sand-shells in 56 carloads. The increase in sand- 
shells cannot be due to special fishing and therefore to propor- 
tionately lowered frequency of the niggerhead mussel (the 
original and still the best pearl-button shell) inasmuch as the 
record for this species shows an increase in frequency of this 
shell during 1918 and 1919 during the years of marked increase 
in frequency of the yellow sand-shell. This increase in sand- 
shells occurred when the niggerhead frequency had been about 
its average frequency, 51.3 per cent. 

The return of the frequency of yellow sand-shells in 1920 and 
1921 to about normal percentage, 7.2 and 6.7 per cent respec- 
tively (the average being 7.0 per cent), would reasonably be 
expected in view of the marked decrease in artificial progaga- 
tion after 1914. If the increase in percentage of yellow sand- 
shells found in 1918 and 1919 were due to artificial propaga- 
tion, it would be fairly expected that when artificial propaga- 
tion was discontinued, there would be, a proper number of 
years hence, a resultant falling-off in frequency of the mussel 
in question. 

The marked yellow sand-shell increase of 1918 and 1919 i& 
significant coming as it does from four to six years after the 
artificial propagation of this species in the vicinity from which 
the shipments here discussed were made. At the average 
growth-rate of the sand -shell, it requires from four to six years 
for a mussel of this species to attain salable size. This rate of 
growth would make an embryo of 1913 a mussel of commercial 
size in from 1917 to 1919. 



•»«I1»A % 




























































































































i-^ CO 

5 5 a 

-J ° Pi 

a m > 


•P rH 



O M O °i 
»^ I •-• 

> l-l 


<J © cj 

^■2 a 

LJv» © i7 
o ^ 3 

• >> 

H O 

H a 

© © -H „ 

^ p B " 

'^ o"^ u 
I © ^ 2 

t3 V, O g 

CQ © -P 

60 fl 

^ cfl © 

O JL, O « 

r-< O U^ 






03 . 

bo OQ 
05 P 
ft fl , 
O o ' 

p. p, • 

•H © 
H ^ > 
00 (Q ^ 

•H ca 

JH ea rH 

■p h 


45 ** 


o o> 


While no data are at hand indicative of the comparative ages 
of the shells of the several years' shipments, it is learned from 
a number of shell buyers on the White River in the vicinity of 
Augusta and from others acquainted with the shipments here 
discussed that those of 1918, 1919 and 1920 contained a notice- 
able increase of shells of relatively young age, the epidermis of 
which is smooth and unscarred, in contradistinction to the old 
shells whose umbones are worn and eroded by the long action 
of the current, soil acids, and moving sand and gravel on the 
river bottom. On the test-record card of one of the carload 
shipments of 1920 was written, '' Lots of good sand-shells." 

It was conversation concerning the quality and age of the 
shells being obtained from the White River that led to the com- 
parison of the records of artificial infection with the test records 
of the shipments. 

The evident correlation existing, then, between time of arti- 
ficial propagation, rate of growth and age of attainment of sala- 
ble size, and noted increase in percentage of the species in ques- 
tion in commercial carload shipments, while not giving con- 
clusive proof of the value of artificial propagation, does suggest 
the possible significance of this method of restocking the mussel 
beds of the streams of the Mississippi drainage. 



In a recent sending from Doctor Felippone of Montevideo, 
the following shells appear not to have been described. Both 
come from Mar de la Plata, Argentina. 

Pecten (Chlamys) felipponei n. sp. 

Shell rounded, the adult slightly oblique, rather compressed, 
polished, scarlet or rosaceus, usually with zigzag irregular streaks 
of white on the left valve; the ears paler; hinge line straight, the 
ears rather large, subequal, in the left valve with only incre- 
mental sculpture, in the right valve the anterior ear has four or 


five radial ridges more or less imbricated, and a ctenolium with 
five short teeth; sculpture of the left valve comprising five ob- 
scure flattened radial ribs with the interspaces obscurely radi- 
ately striate; there is no microscopic reticulation; on the right 
valve the ribbing is obsolete; length of shell 38; of hinge-line 
28; height 40; diameter 8 mm. 

The shell bears some resemblance to Kobelt's figure of P. 
danicus in the Conchylien Cabinet, but is on the whole a re- 
markably distinct species. The material studied comprises a 
well-known left valve (U. S. Nat. Mus. Cat. No. 333374) and 
in Dr. Felippone's collection another (1703) somewhat smaller, 
and a complete young pair (1709). 

Macoma (Psammacoma) platensis n. sp. 

Shell bluish white, slightly inequi valve, nearly equilateral, 
the posterior end strongly twisted to the right; periostracum 
thin, pale, mostly dehiscent; beaks inconspicuous; left valve 
somewhat more inflated than the right; the anterior end evenly 
broadly rounded, the posterior end attenuated, gaping, and with 
a small truncation; the surface except for incremental lines, 
stronger on the posterior slope, is smooth but not polished; 
hinge with small almost obsolete cardinals in each valve; pallial 
sinus deep, rounded, its lower part coincident with the pallial 
line for about half its length; length of shell 25; of the part an- 
terior to the vertical of the beaks 13; height 11; diameter 7 mm. 
U. S. Nat. Mus. Cat. No. 333375. 

The shell has much the outline of Macoma derelicta Bertin, 
but is more delicate and with no color markings. 



Having finished collecting in the vicinity of New York City, 
I find there are several species to add to the lists published in 
the "Nautilus" during 1919 and 1920. Several of these ad- 
ditional species were found in the channel behind or to the 


north of Long Beach (west end) and more careful search should 
bring to light still more. 

Area ponderosa Say. Rarely a somewhat worn valve may be 
picked up on Far Rockaway or Long Beach. 

Lyonsia hyalina (Conrad). This was also found at Seaside 
Beach, S. I. It does not seem to frequent the hard ocean 
beaches and should be procurable on the north shore of Long 
Island on clean sand beaches. 

Venericardia borealis (Conrad). Also at Long Beach. 
Cardium mortoni Conrad. Two valves at Long Beach. 
Petricola dactylus Sowerby. One set of valves between South 
and Midland Beaches. Because of its rarity the habitat rela- 
tion to P. jpholadiformis was not determined. From this latter 
it differs by being much deeper for its length, heavier and 
stouter, lacking the raised, free scales and having a greater 
number of transverse riblets. 

Tellina tenella (Verrill). One valve at Long Beach also. 
Tellina versicolor De Kay. Occasional at Long Beach also. 
Macoma balthica (Linne). One valve at Long Beach in north 
channel. This species prefers to live in mud. 

Macoma tenia (Say). One valve at South Beach, S. I. 
Donax fossor Say. Mostly at Far Rockaway. Fairly com- 
mon at one spot. 

Donax variabilis Say. Found with the preceding and in equal 
abundance. This seems to be near the northern limit of this 
species and the valves are quite small and lack the brilliant 
colors of specimens from the south. The average length of 
shells from this region is 14 mm., the average length of shells 
from North Carolina is 17 mm., and for Florida still longer. 
The differences do not warrant a subspecific designation as in- 
termediate material can be procured at intermediate localities, 
the locality record being sufficiently designatory. D. fossor 
shows less local difference than does D. variabilis. 

Mesodesma ar datum (Conrad). Rare at Far Rockaway and 
Long Beach. 

Corbida contracta Say. Found also at Long Beach. 
Pyramidella fusca (C. B. Adams). Also found at Long Beach. 
Epitonium humfhreysii (Kiener). One specimen in channel 
north of Long Beach. 


Polinices immaciilata (Totien) . Two fossil-looking specimens 
thrown up by dredge in Long Beach channel. 

Alectrion fretensis (Perkins). I have never collected this 
species but have seen specimens collected on the north shore of 
Long Island. It is related to A. vibex but is strikingly different 
being much narrower and less finely sculptured. 

Haminea solitaria (Say). Long Branch channel, one speci- 

The total number of forms found is 98 or 99, so that one may 
say that about a hundred species should be procurable within 
the limits of Greater New York. The most favorable localities 
were found to be the sand flats between South and Midland 
Beaches, S. L, the Prince's Bay Section, S. L, Far Rockaway 
and Long Beaches, including the channels to the north of those 
bars. These localities represent five distinct habitats : protected 
sandy beach, sod bank and marsh, quiet mud flats, ocean sandy 
beach and channel, respectively. Two habitats have been 
omitted: rocky (protected or oceanic) and eel-grass bed. For 
instance Acmaea should be found on the north shore of Long 
Id. from Sea Cliff eastward as well as Chaetopleura apiculata. 

In collecting two factors should be borne in mind, namely, 
that species are very partial to certain factors in their environ- 
ment so that one must collect from as many different kinds of 
surroundings as possible, and second, that the further one goes 
from the cities or centers of human habitation the more com- 
plete and natural will be each habitat. 



In the vicinity of Tacoma, Pierce County, Washington, the 
large land snail ^ is to be found in abundance. So far as I have 
seen they are strictly confined to the mixed fir and oak woods 
of our prairie districts, which are practically free from under- 

^ The snails referred to are Epiphragmophorafidelis Gray, shells of which 
were received from Mr. Kalph W. Jackson. — Editors. 


growth of all kinds. These woods are carpeted with a rather 
long and handsome green moss, making delightful walking for 
both snails and human beings alike. The snails live most of 
the time on the oaks, and I have never seen them on any other 
kind of tree, although there are several other varieties of decid- 
uous trees, besides the innumerable firs. 

The California Creeper ( Certhia familiaris occidentalis) some- 
times unfortunately, often selects the loose rolls of bark on these 
oaks under which to place their nests. The big snails, during 
their wanderings over the trunks of the trees, very naturally 
wander at times into a Creeper nest, but as to this being by 
accident or design it is impossible to say. At all events the re- 
sults are the same, as the big shell is sure to break one or more 
of the eggs, the contents of which it eats. Most often several of 
the five or six eggs that usually make up a set are left unin- 
jured, but, of course, the parent bird in nearly all cases deserts. 
At times, however, there are more serious results, in case the 
bird is incubating. These birds are what oologists term ' ' very 
close sitters " and often have to be removed by force. On such 
occasions the bird is apt to hug her treasures until it is too late 
for her to make her escape, and several times I have found the 
parent dead in the nest with her broken eggs, the abundance of 
slime on her feathers giving indisputable circumstantial evi- 
dence of how she met her violent end. I know of no other 
species of bird that is molested by these snails, but to an ardent 
student of birds' eggs the creepers are more than enough. 


Pupillidae. By Henry A. Pilsbry. Manual of Conchology,, 
Vols. XXIV-XXVI, 1916-1921. As Dr. Pilsbry states (1916), 
''The last general work on the group is over forty years old. 
Meantime the number of genera and species has greatly in- 
creased, and taxonomic ideas have changed so radically that the 
classification and nomenclature . . . bear little resemblance to 
those of former works." A provisional list of the subfamilies 
is given (XXIV, p. X), with a few of the leading genera as ex- 


Gastrocoptinae : Gastrocopta, Hypselostoma^ Ahida. 

Pupillinse : Pupilla, Pupoides. 

Pagodininse : Pagodina, Aspasita. 

Acanthinidinae : Acanthinula. 

Vertigininse : Vertigo^ Nesopupa, Truncatellina. 

Orculinse : Orcula, Lauria. 

Strobilopsinae : Strobilops. 

The first, second and fifth of these subfamihes are worked up 
in the three volumes completed. Considering the above state- 
ment it appears to be in place to give an account of the princi- 
pal groups and genera. 

Gastrocoptin3Sj in Vols. XXIV and XXV, pp. 1-68, with 16 
genera and 277 species, in four main divisions: 

Gastrocopta group: Chasnaxis P. & F. (Arizona), Gibbulina 
Beck (S. America), Gastrocopta Wollaston, Bothriopupa Pilsbrj^. 

Hypselostoma-Boysidia group (Oriental): Hypselostoma Ben- 
son, Anauchen n. g. , Boysidia Ancey, Gyliauchen Pilsbry, n. g. 

Aulacospira-Systenostoma group (Oriental, Philippines). 

Abida group (Palearctic, S. African): Fauxulus Schaufuss, 
Odontocyclas Schlueter, Sandahlia Westerlund, Abida Leach, 
Granopupa Boettger, Chondrina Reichenbach. 

The Gastrocoptinse are probably the most interesting and 
most complex of the subfamilies. Naturally we turn our eyes 
first on Gastrocopta, formerly known as Pupa,^ then as Leuco- 
chilus, and Bifidaria. *' Gastrocopta approaches more nearly a 
world-wide distribution than any other genus of the Pupillidas, 
if we include Europe, where species existed from Oligocene to 
Pliocene times. ..." It is a notable fact that there are no 
recent Gastrocoptas in Europe, while quite a number of species 
of Vertigo and Pupilla are identical or closely related in Europe 
and North America. The many Nearctic species represent 
several markedly different groups, one of which has been sepa- 
rated as genus Chasnaxis. It may be noted, by the way, that 
our G. armifera (Say) is the largest of the genus. The 106 
(-f some additional) species are grouped geographically, ''as 
this is more convenient than strictly systematic sequence "; and 
the same plan has been followed with some other genera. 

* As most of the Pupillidce; see Vol. XXIV, p. 267. 


Related to Gastrocopta are some eastern Asiatic genera, such 
as Boysidia and Hypselostoma, with the spires much lower, and 
somewhat more remotely than those of the fourth group, especi- 
ally differentiated and diversified, the principally European 
Abida^ Oranopupa and Chondrina, with 44, 17, and 43 species 
respectively. Abida was mostly known as Torquilla, and so 
were partly the others, Chondrina also as Modicella. The author 
says (p. 263): ''It had been planned to have Abida and Chon- 
drina monographed by a European conchologist, but this proved 
to be impracticable under existing conditions. ... To really 
write a monograph of them, one should give them some years 
of investigation. ... It can only be expected of me that the 
well-established species be properly defined, and a reliable com- 
pilation made from the published literature of others. . . ." 
And that has been done very well, so far as the reviewer is able 
to judge, having to some extent collected and studied those 
forms in Europe. The figures are excellent, as can best be ap- 
preciated by comparison with those copied (mostly photograph- 
ically) from European authors. 

It is also to be noted that of this whole Palearctic group no 
members are known from Nearctia, either recent or fossil. 

The second subfamily, Vertigininae, in Vols. XXV, p. 68 to 
XXVI, p. 106, contains about 255 species of 17 genera, 5 of 
which are known as fossil only, from the European Tertiaries. 
All are small and minute, and the group is somewhat difficult 
to define, conchologically. So far as known the animals have 
no inferior tentacles. Of the principal genus. Vertigo, 82 recent 
species are described, 33 of which are American, 44 Paleartic, 7 
from Japan and eastern Asia, and quite a number are cited from 
the European Tertiary. A number of the European and Amer- 
ican species are closely related, and at least V. pygmaea Drap. 
is identical in both faunas. The only other genera represented 
in America are Pupisoma Stoliczka, of the tropical regions of the 
old and new continents, and Sterkia with 7 species of southern 
California and Mexico. 

Of Nesopupa Pilsbry there are 60, and Pronesopupa Iredale, 
13 species from the Pacific Islands. Of special interest is Lyro- 
pupa Pilsbry, from the Hawaiian Islands, worked up in collab- 


oration with C. Montague Cooke. The 22 accepted species, recent 
and fossil, have been studied very carefully with respect to] their 
distribution and variation, and we figured on eight plates. 
Truncatellina Lowe, formerly known mostly as Isthmia, contains 
some of the smallest Pupillidae. The 29 described species are 
distributed over the eastern continents and islands, but un- 
known from America. 

The subfamily Pupillince, in the rest of Vol. XXVI, has 
6 genera, two of which are known as fossil only. Of Pupoides 
Pfeiffer, the 27 species have a wide but discontinuous distribu- 
tion; 8 of them are American, among them our common mar- 
ginatus Say, and the much discussed hordaceus Gabb, from New 
Mexico and Arizona. Pupilla Leach is widely distributed, and 
the 34 recent species are arranged geographically. At least one, 
muscorum L. is common to both the Palearctic and Nearctic 
faunas, and is very variable with respect to size and apertural 

The foregoing is a very inadequate sketch of the contents of 
the three volumes, with about 1050 pages and 107 plates, also 
a number of text figures. A total of 41 genera, and over 610 
species, plus some additional not numbered, means a surprise 
even for those who have studied the family to some extent. 
The subject is of exceptional interest with regard to morphology, 
systematics and distribution, recent and geological. The author 
has done great work: the arrangement is lucid, the species are 
generally well defined, there is neither hair-splitting nor lump- 
ing; the figures are above praise and will be a great help and in- 
spiration to the student. For years. Dr. Pilsbry has worked 
out ways of his own in presenting the complex structure of 
the apertural lamellae and folds of the PupillidcB. 

Is there anything to criticize ? By right, a critic ought to 
know more about the subject under consideration than the 
author does, in order to do the right thing. There may be 
differences of opinion on a few minor points, hardly worth 
mentioning, yet of some importance in using the books. 

Vol. XXIV, p. 10 2nd line from bottom, ''86-94" should 
read 86-93. Bottom line, "95-106" should read 94-104. 

Page 365 '' PL 23, figs. 1, 4" should be 1-4. 


Page 370, ''PI. 44, figs. 4-8" should be 4, 8. 

Vol. XXV, p. 82, nth line: ''parietals" should he palatals. 

In numerous places in Vol. XXIV, callus is spelled '' callous ^% 
probably by a printer's effort for uniformity. The noun and 
adjective are properly discriminated in the other volumes. 

It might be said that there should be a key to the species of 
every genus and group. But anyone who knows a thing about 
e. g. Pupilla will know that this is practically impossible, on 
account of the great variation and frequent overlapping of forms. 
Keys are provided for a majority of the genera. It might also 
be said that there should be a general list of literature consulted ; 
but the pertinent literature is cited in a condensed way under 
every head: group, genus, species and form, described. 

In conclusion, it is hoped that especially the generic names 
used in the work will not have to be changed again for a good 
number of years to come. — V. Sterki. 

On Dinocochlea ingens n. gen. et sp. , a gigantic gastropod 
from the Wealden Beds near Hastings. Geological Magazine, 
LIX, p. 242, 1922. By B. B. Woodward. In a road cutting 
the presence of certain huge spiral bodies was noticed. On ex- 
amination were found to be either dextral or sinistral, of many 
(about 23) slowly increasing whorls, somewhat like an ex- 
tremely slender Melanian or Turritellid shell. The casts are 
broken, but indicate a length of about 7 ft. 3 inches, about six 
times the diameter of the body-whorl. The shell was propor- 
tionately very thin. The external moulds in the sandstone 
were not preserved, so that external characters are unknown. 
It is certainly remarkable that so huge a fossil escaped notice 
until now, and that even no probable ancestors or other rela- 
tives have been turned up. — H. A. P. 

The San Francisco Bay Marine Piling Survey, 2nd Annual 
Report. PubHshed by the S. F. Bay Marine Piling Committee, 
San Francisco, Jan., 1922. The present report is mainly occu- 
pied with a consideration of the several piling materials and 
methods of preserving piles and timber. The biological section, 


by Dr. Charles A. Kofoid and Robert C. Miller, deals with 
Teredo in the Bay in 1921, factors limiting distribution and 
specific status. The species is identified as Teredo navalis. The 
larvae were observed to settle from July 20 to Nov. 15, but in 
1919-20 the breeding season began several months earlier. 

The Journal of Conchology, Vol. 16, No. 9, June, 1922. 
Notes on the Nomenclature of Hygromia, Helicella, etc. By 
Hugh Watson, pp. 277-285. 

Acanthinula lamellata var. albida and A. harpa near Sweden. 
By Berthold Sundler, p. 285. 

A peculiar form of Hygromia fusca from near Bristol. By 
D. Bacchus, p, 286. 

The significance of dominant Enadeniate Helices in Africa. 
By J. W. Taylor, pp. 288-290. 

Two Molluscan Associations in North-east Staffs. By W. W. 
Alkins, pp. 291-297. (1. Helix nemoralis and H. horsensis, 2. 
Balea perversa and Clausilia hidentata.) 

The South Devon race of Hygromia limbata. By H. C. 
Huggins, pp. 297-301. 

On Alopia cyclostoma (Bielz), A. canescens (Charp. ) and 
A. deaniana n. sp. By Rev. Dr. A. H. Cooke, pp. 302-306, 
pi. 9. 

Some Upper Cretaceous Shells of the RudistId group 
FROM Tamaulipas, Mexico. By L. W. Stephenson (Proc. U. S. 
Nat. Mus., Vol. 61, pp. 1-28, pis. 1-15, 1922). One new 
genus Tampsia and two new species, two new species of the 
genus Sanvagesia and one new species of the genus Durania are 
described and figured. 

The European Pileworm, A Dangerous Marine Borer in 
Barnegat Bay, New Jersey. By T. C. Nelson (N. J. Agri. 
Exp. Sta., Circular 139, 1922). An interesting and pertinent 
paper on these destructive mollusks. There has been a con- 
stant loss from shipworms along the Atlantic coast for years, 
but apparently no unusual outbreak has occurred before. An 
investigation however is needed to enable us to realize present 

68 THE NAIfriLUS. 

conditions. A smaller pamphlet on '' Destruction of Piling in 
Waterfront Structures: Its Prevention," published by the Com- 
mittee on Marine Piling Investigations of the National Research 
Council, is also a timely paper on the subject. — C. W. J. 

A Monograph of the American Shipworms. By Paul 
Bartsch (U. S. Nat. Mus., Bull. 122, pp. 1-51, pis. 1-37, 

To the conchologists who trusted explicitly the works of 
Gould and Verrill the paper gives something of a jolt, when 
they find that three new species have been based on their so- 
called Teredo navalis. We have no reason to doubt that the 
author is right, for the paper shows a very careful piece of work 
and just as wonderful things have occurred before. In all some 
14 new species are described and figured. The halftone figures 
of the shells do not show the sculpture in most cases, but this 
is described in the text. The "ravages by Gould ship worm at 
Port Tampa," as shown on plates 14 and 15 suggest that pos- 
sibly the "gribble" (Limnoria) might also have aided in the 
destructive work. — C. W. J. 

The Miocene of Northern Costa Rica. By A. A. Olsson 
(Bull. Amer. Paleontology, Vol. 9, pt. 2, Pelecypoda, pp. 171- 
309, pis. 16-32, June, 1922). About 70 new species and var- 
ieties are described and figured, in addition to 75 other species 
which are redescribed and figured. The work is a valuable ad- 
dition to our knowledge of the miocene fauna of that region. — 
C. W. J. 

The Story of Mollusks and of the Shells they live in. 
By Margaret G. Sherman (The Newark Museum Association, 
Newark, N. J., 1919). This is an original and very interesting 
little publication. The story when cut into paragraphs makes 
labels for 180 shells. A second edition, referred to as the "ex- 
panded pamphlet," have the paragraphs interlined in smaller 
type, with special description labels. For arranging a popular 
exhibit in museums and schools, this story would be very use- 
ful.— C. W. J. 


Variation in Fresh-water Mussels. By Gordon H. Ball 
(Ecology, Vol. 3, pp. 93-121, 1922). This very exhaustive 
paper on this interesting subject is based on the large collection 
in the Carnegie Museum. The variations are shown by plotting 
and tables, certain variations depending on various ecological 
conditions. Shells of smaller streams are usually less obese 
than those of the larger, although there are other factors that 
determine the degree of obesity. The development of the 
tubercles as a rule, is also greatest in the larger streams. — 
C. W. J. 

Variation in the Dog Whelk, Thais (Purpura auct.) 
LAPiLLUS. By Harold S. Colton (Ecology, Vol. 3, pp. 146- 
157, 1922). A study of the variation of the Dog Whelk, con- 
stitutes one of the most interesting features of collecting on the 
New England coast. Dr. Colton' s work was confined to Mt. 
Desert Island, Me., and the immediate vicinity. Specimens 
from 106 stations seem to indicate that variation in size and 
shape of the shells is the result of the direct effect of environ- 
ment, while variation in color and sculpture are due to heredi- 
tary factors. More light-colored shells are found on light than 
on dark environments. The imbricated form is generally asso- 
ciated with mud flats on the shores of Blue Hill Bay, while in 
exposed situations they are found only in fissures in the rocks. 
The almost complete absence of imbricata in Somes Sound is at- 
tributed to a change of sea level in recent times. — C. W. J. 

The Auculosae of the Alabama River Drainage. By 
Calvin Goodrich (Univ, Mich. Mus. ZooL, Misc. Pub. No. 7, 
pp. 1-57, pis. 1-3, 1922). This valuable paper is based on 
the collection made by the late Herbert H. Smith, between the 
years 1901 and 1918. After a year's examination of the collec- 
tion the author feels toward Mr. Smith only the greatest respect 
for his industry in the field and the keenness of his observa- 
tions. The Auculosae vary exceedingly, and the author refers 
to them as "an adaptive family that is constantly struggling 
with an altering environment." The introductory remarks on 
the group and its environment, opercula and classification are 


very interesting. Of the 26 species described and figured, 11 
that are new were described by Mr. Smith and one by the 
author.— C. W. J. 

The Mollusca of Dickinson Co., Michigan. By H. B. 
Baker (Univ. Mich. Mus. Zool., Occasional Papers, No. Ill, 
pp. 1-44, 1921). The habitat studies are very complete; all 
are numbered, and referred to by numbers in the list of species. 

Notes on the Internal Lamellae of Carychium. By 
Mina L. Winslow (Univ. Mich. Mus. ZooL, Occasional Papers, 
No. 128, pp. 1-16, pis. 1-5, 1922). An interesting study of 
the lamellae of these small shells, as an aid in determining 
closely related species. 

Experiments in the Culture of Fresh- water Mussels. 
By Arthur D. Howard (Bull. Bureau Fisheries, Vol. 38, pp. 
63-89, 1922), An interesting paper on mussel culture and 

On the Nomenclature of certain North American Naiades. 
By A. E. Ortmann and Bryant Walker (Occas. Papers of the 
Mus. of Zool., Univ. of Michigan, No. 112). Much confusion 
still prevails in the nomenclature of our freshwater mussels. 
Mainly owing to the uncertainty attending many of Rafinesque's 
species and genera. Simpson brought some of them into use 
in his monumental Synopsis of the Naiades; but many more 
he ignored on account of the notorious obscurity of that author's 
writings. Subsequent writers have identified many additional 
Rafinesquian species and genera with varying degrees of cer- 
tainty. The traditional identifications of some of Lamarck's 
species of Unio have been disputed. These and other cases re- 
quiring revision have been fully discussed by Ortmann and 
Walker in this paper of 75 pages. The paper was criticised in 
MS. by Pilsbry, whose decisions in cases not agreed upon w^ere 
accepted. "As now issusd, the paper represents the unan- 
imous opinion of all three of us on questions of nomenclature ". 


In an article so condensed, and dealing with so many points, 
it is quite impossible to give a summary. Those interested 
should obtain copies from the Museum of Zoology, University 
of Michigan. 

The thorough acquaintance of both authors with the subject, 
their fair and comprehensive consideration of each case, with 
due reference to the International Rules of Nomenclature, 
should entitle their conclusions to general acceptance. It is to 
be hoped that this essay will tead to uniformity in matters of 
mere nomenclature, so that the energies of our Unio students 
can be more fully devoted to the many unsolved questions of 
structure, development and distribution of these most interest- 
ing mollusks. 


Note on Acm^a patina Esch. — Eschscholtz in his Zoological 
Atlas described Acmasa scutum end A. patina on the same page 
and figured both, from Sitka. That the two are specifically 
identical was recognized by authors of the Carpenterian period, 
and A. patina was selected as the name to be used for the 
whole. Eschscholtz' s figure of this is smaller that that of his 
A. scutum, though as large as many adults. That it is sub- 
specifically distinct from scutum seeuis highly doubtful; I see no 
evidence whatever for that view. In cases of two names for the 
same species published at the same time, that selected by the 
first reviser has precedence, according to Art. 28 of the Inter- 
national Code. The species should therefore be called Acm^a 
PATINA, A. scutum becoming a synonym. 

The small race A. patina fenestrata (''Nutt." Reeve, 1885) 
has been mentioned as cribraria Gld. MS. by Carpenter, but 
cribraria was never defined, and the name did not appear in 
print until long after Reeve had figured fenestrata. — H. A. 


Note on Cypraea Pacifica Ostergaard.^ — Upon a recent 

^ The name being preoccupied Dr. Dall has called this species C. ostergaardi. 
See Nautilus, Vol. 35, p. 50, 1921. — Editors. 


trip to the Hawaiian Islands it was my pleasure to meet Dr. J. 
M. Ostergaard, eminent local biologist, and to inspect three of 
the type-lot of his Cypraea Pacifica. This species, although 
dredged in Honolulu Harbor in 1915, was not described until 
1920 (Nautilus, XXXIII, p. 92). Only five examples were 
taken and no others have since been obtained. For purposes 
of reference, it should perhaps be known that one of these is in 
the collections of the American Academy of Sciences at Phila- 
delphia, one in the Bishop Museum at Honolulu, one in my 
collection, and the other two in the collection of Dr. 0. 

This species is a distinct and interesting one, being of a uni- 
form creamy- white color, with small brown dorsal spots; and it 
is noteworthy that in a community so long settled and "worked" 
by conchological collectors, both this beautiful novelty and also 
Mr. Melvill's pretty Cyp. Rashleighana should have escaped 
discovery until disclosed by dredging operations of recent years. 
— Fred L. Button. 

Subscribers N. B. — A person once asked one of the editors 
if the Pearly Nautilus made a septum each year, and if it died 
when it ceased making septa. The only ready reply was — you 
will have to watch it and see. If the present volume (septum 
36) of The Nautilus failed to appear, you would certainly say 
it was dead. We do not know the age of a Nautilus pompilius 
L. , or upon what it feeds, but we do know what The Nautilus 
of Philadelphia and Boston requires. During the past few years 
the environment of the latter has greatly changed, and it now 
needs much more of its nutritious food — the "long green", 
than it used to. When the editors were younger, the little 
deficit each year was looked upon as a joke, but now the 
printer's bill reminds us of a huge Tridacna (with real teeth), 
and when it comes rolling in on the spring tides it is enough to 
crush the life out of any Nautilus — shell or paper. All that is 
needed now are a few more subscribers and the prompt payment 
of subscriptions, otherwise some day The Nautilus will cease its 
wanderings over land and sea. Some one else may try again, 
but always remember what Horace Greeley said about starting 
a paper. — H. A. P. and C. W. J. 

The Nautilus. 

Vol. XXXVI JANUARY, 1923. No. 3 



The following notes are based largely upon the examination 
of material of fresh-water mussels, which the Carnegie Museum 
has received in part from G. H. Clapp, in part from the Ala- 
bama Museum of Natural History — it has been collected mostly 
by H. H. Smith and his assistants, but a few forms have been 
taken by myself in northern Georgia and Tennessee. 

1. FuscoNAiA succissA (Lea) (1852). 

See Quadrula succissa, Simpson, Descript. Catal. 1914, p. 867. 
There is no doubt that Unio cacao Lea is a synonym to this. 

Choctawhatchee River, near mouth of Gittey's Mill Creek, 
Geneva Co., Ala. Two specimens (shells only), Victor Hutch- 
inson coll. 

Pea River (trib. to Choctawhatchee), Fleming's Mill, Dade 
Co., Ala. Eight specimens, shells and soft parts (6 males, 2 
females), J. A. Burke coll., Nov., 1915. 

Structure of the normal, primitive Unionine type. Supra- 
anal opening present; it is slightly shorter than the anal, and 
separated from it by a well developed mantle-connection, which 
is shorter than the supraanal; in the largest male, however, the 


connection apparently is torn. Anal opening with the inner 
edge finely crenulated, almost smooth. Branchial opening with 
strong papillae on inner edge. Palpi of the normal, subfalci- 
form shape, their posterior margins connected for one-third to 
one-half of their length. 

Gills normal; inner lamina of the inner gill free from abdom- 
inal sac, except at anterior end. In the female, all four gills 
are marsupial, with the septa more strongly developed and 
standing more closely than in the male. 

Although the shape of the placentae and the glochidia are 
unknown, I have no doubt that this is a species of the genus 
Fusconaia, and not of Quadrula, for the reason that, in shell 
characters, it is extremely close to the F. 6arnmana-group (see 
Naut. 31, 1917, pp. 58-64), and does not at all resemble the 
species of Quadrula, which all are more or less sculptured. F. 
succissa is very much like the headwaters-form of barnesiana 
(var. bigbyensis Lea), it differs, however, in the complete ab- 
sence of rays, and the peculiar color of the nacre, which is 
highly iridescent and more or less purplish, often whitish to- 
ward the cavity of the shell, darker toward the margin. These 
tints are unknown in F. barnesiana. 

The beak-sculpture of F. succissa is unknown, but the fact 
that even in the smallest specimens at hand, with the beaks 
very little eroded, no sculpture is seen, indicates that it must 
have been poorly developed, as is characteristic for Fusconaia. 

In the two largest specimens (males) the gills had that char- 
acteristic blackish tint observed in barnesiana; for the rest, the 
soft parts were discolored by the action of the alcohol. 

This species is known from the Choctawhatchee system in 
southern Alabama and western Florida. F. barnesiana and its 
varieties are from the Tennessee-Cumberland drainage; and the 
third species of this group, F. ozarkensis (Call), is from the 
Ozark Mountains; thus the distribution of the group is markedly 

2. Megalonaias triumphans (Wright) (1898). 

Quadrida triumpha7is Simipson, Descr. Cat., 1914, p. 823. 
Coosa River, Wilsonville, Shelby Co., Ala. Five males, 


eight females (soft parts only) and one shell, H. H. Smith coll., 
June 15, 1914. 

Coosa River, Weduska Shoals, Shelby Co., Ala. Two shells, 
H. H. Smith coll., August, 1913. 

Coosa River, Coosa Valley, St. Clair Co., Ala. One shell, 
H. H. Smith coll. 

M. triumphans is the representative of M. heros Say in the 
Coosa River in Alabama, and it may run into heros in the Ala- 
bama River. At any rate, heros is known from Tombigbee 
River, as reported by Simpson, and confirmed by specimens in 
the Carnegie Museum (from Mcintosh, Washington Co., Ala.). 
The differences between the two forms are very slight. M. heros, 
as a rule, has the posterior wing of the shell less developed and 
less elevated, and thus the shell appears more elongated, and 
the upper and lower margins are more nearly parallel; while M. 
triumphans has a more elevated posterior wing, rendering the 
shell higher and shorter in outline, with the upper and lower 
margins diverging. 

As is to be expected, triumphans also belongs to the genus 
MegalonaiaSj created by Utterback for heros (Amer. Midi. 
Natural. 4, 1916, p. 41). The essential characters, both of 
shell and soft parts (as far as our material permits) are seen. 
Of course, no gravid females being at hand, the charged mar- 
supium and the glochidium is unknown. It deserves special 
mention that connection of the inner lamina of the inner gill 
with the abdominal sac is well developed in all of my speci- 
mens, and mostly complete, only in a few there are short holes 
at the posterior end of the foot. In my barren females all four 
gills are marsupial. In the region of the anal opening all of 
my specimens are badly injured, and I have been unable to as- 
certain the presence of a supraanal opening. 

3. Amblema perplicata elliotti (Lea) (1856). 

Quadrula elliotti, Simpson, 1914, p. 819. 

Othcalooga Creek, Calhoun, Gordon Co., Ga. (type locality). 
Two shells and soft parts of four males and three females, H. 
H. Smith coll., the former in July, 1914, the latter in July, 


Conasauga River, Whitfield Co., Ga. Shells, H. H. Smith. 

Coahulla Creek, Herndon's Mill, Whitfield Co., Ga. Shells, 
H. H. Smith. 

Chattooga River, Cedar Bluff, Cherokee Co., Ala. Shells, 
H. H. Smith. 

The anatomy agrees completely with that of A. perplicata 
(Conrad), as described previously (Ann. Cam. Mus. 8, 1912, 
p. 247, and Naut. 28, 1914, p. 21); of course, the gravid con- 
dition of the female and the glochidium have not been observed. 

Already Simpson is inclined to regard this as a form of per- 
plicata, from which it is said to differ in the more decidedly 
quadrate outline (with the posterior margin almost squarely 
truncate) in the narrower anterior and higher posterior end (due 
to the better development of the posterior wing), and in the 
smaller and less elevated pseudo-cardinals. In my specimens 
of elliotti, I cannot discover any difference whatever in the hinge 
teeth; but the other characters are noticeable. However, such 
specimens are found practically all over the range of perplicata, 
from the Alabama system westward. I have material not only 
from the Coosa-Alabama Rivers, but also from Mississippi, 
Louisiana, Texas, Arkansas, Oklahoma, Kansas, Missouri and 
southern Illinois, and everywhere specimens of the elliotti-type 
may turn up. Simpson gives, for the latter, the range: ''south- 
ern" (apparently misprint for ''northern") "Georgia to 
Texas", but it seems to have a wider distribution, and more- 
over, the two forms insensibly run into each other. This is 
preeminently so in the Coosa River, from which T have a num- 
ber of specimens labeled (by Walker) perplicata, which show all 
possible transitions toward elliotti. The latter form, indeed, 
seems to be, in the upper Coosa system, the prevailing form, 
and for this reason we should let it stand as a variety of perpli- 
cata, although elsewhere it is merely an individual variation of 

4. QuADRULA ASPERATA (Lea) (1861). 

See Quadrula pusiulosa pernodosa (Lea), Simpson, 1914, p. 
851 (in part). 

This is the shell, which represents, in the Alabama system. 


the Q. pustulosa (Lea) of the interior basin. I have quite a 
number of specimens from the headwaters of the Coosa, down 
to Wetumpka, Elmore Co., Ala. In the Cahaba, Black War* 
rior, and Tombigbee drainages, similar, but somewhat different 
forms turn up; but I propose to restrict myself here to the 

Simpson has united this form with Q. pustulosa pernodosa, 
and Walker, who has identified part of the material at hand, 
has labeled it thus. However, the original U. pernodosus Lea 
does not come from the Alabama System, but is from "North 
Carolina ' ' , from rivers tributary to the Tennessee, and is noth- 
ing but an individual phase of the common Q. pustulosa (see 
Proc. Amer. Philosoph. Soc. 57, 1918, p. 540). 

Simpson's diagnosis of pernodosa is entirely insufficient: "sub- 
orbicular, moderately inflated, pustulous; epidermis yellowish 
brown ' ' ; every word of this fits also the typical pustulosa. Ac- 
cording to my observations, the Coosa-form is indeed different 
from the true pustulosa. But its chief characters are not found 
in shape or sculpture, for both are extremely variable, although, 
in the average, the Coosa-form is more rounded, that is to say, 
the posterior upper margin is not elevated, and does not form 
an angle with the posterior margin, but curves down into it 
very gently and gradually. But such specimens are not infre- 
quent in the interior basin among pustulosa. The main differ- 
ence of the two forms is in the color pattern. Typical pustulosa 
has rays, sometimes obliterated, it is true, in old specimens, 
but very generally present in younger and well preserved indi- 
viduals; of these rays, chiefly one in the middle of the disk is 
noticeable, which is strongly developed, broad, often breaking 
up into a few large blotches. I have never seen this color pat- 
tern in the corresponding Coosa-form, but in its place there are 
concentric, narrow bands of blackish, dark green, or sometimes 
brownish color, following the growth rests. Sometimes these 
band are absent, but there are never rays here. 

The name of pernodosa cannot be used for this Coosa-form; 
but there is no doubt that U. asperatus Lea stands for it. It 
originally comes from the Alabama River, Claiborne, Ala., and 
from the Coosa River, Ala. It should be known as Quadrula 


asperata (Lea), and should rank as a species, since there are no 
transitional forms to pustulosa known to me, and since also the 
geographical distribution is different from that of the typical 
Q. pustulosa, 

Q. asperata is very variable in the development of the tuber- 
cles of the disk. In young specimens they are generally absent? 
but begin to appear at a certain stage of the growth. Some- 
times individuals turn up which have none or only few tubercles 
at a comparatively advanced age, and such specimens seem to 
be rather frequent in the headwaters of the Coosa, in northern 
Georgia. Walker has labeled them Q. pustulosa kieneriana 
(Lea). The same name he has given to the soft parts (without 
shells) of three specimens from Etowah River, Cartersville, 
Bartow Co., Ga. (H. H. Smith coll., October 1910). Of these, 
two were barren females, and in their anatomy they were iden- 
tical with Q. pustulosa. 

The question is, whether these specimens are the real kiener- 
iana, which Simpson regards as a variety of pustulosa, with the 
diagnosis: * ' suborbicular, smooth or somewhat nodulous; epi- 
dermis ashy brown or greenish brown", and, according to the 
measurements given, it is smaller than asperata. According to 
this, shells with poorly developed tubercles should be called 
kieneriana, and Walker apparently has acted upon this prin- 
ciple. Yet I think that this is not correct, and that most of 
the specimens without nodules, or with only a few, chiefly 
those from the headwaters of the Coosa, are only individual 
variations of Q. asperata, for there is no other difference, and 
they insensibly pass into each other. 

There is in the Coosa a closely allied form to Q. asperata, 
with the same concentric color-bands, which, however has the 
growth rests standing more closely, and has smaller tubercles. 
This may be the real kieneriana. But I am not in a position 
to affirm this positively, since my material is too meagre. 

5. Pleurobema georgianum (Lea) (1841). 

Plmroheina georgianum (Lea), Simpson, 1914, p. 792. 
Plmrohema favosum (Lea) (1856), Simpson, ibid., p. 798. 
Conasauga River, Conasauga, Polk Co., Tenn. Two males, 


three gravid females with soft parts, A. E. Ortmann coll., May 
24, 1915. 

Conasauga River, Tennga, Murray Co., Ga. Two shells, H, 
H. Smith coll., Sept. 15, 1914. 

Cowan Creek, Cherokee Co., Ala. One shell, H. H. Smith 
coll., Novemb. 1910. 

Shoal Creek, St. Clair Co., Ala. One male and one female, 
soft parts only, H. H. Smith coll., Oct. 1914. 

The three shells from Tennga, Cowan Creek, and the soft 
parts from Shoal Creek, were labeled by Walker PL favosum. 

The type-locality of U. georgiamis is: "Stump Creek, 
Georgia", which undoubtedly stands for Stamp Creek, near 
Cartersville, Bartow Co., Ga., in the drainage of Etowah River. 
No other locality, and only one specimen is known. U. favosus 
is founded upon a number of specimens from Othcalooga Creek, 
Gordon Co., Ga. (trib. to Oostanaula River, near Calhoun), 
and also in this case no additional exact localities are known, 
although Simpson gives: " Alabama system". 

I do not entertain any doubt that U. georgianus and favoms 
are identical. They come from the same general region, and, 
according to the material at hand, this species has its home in 
the headwaters of the Coosa River in northeastern Alabama 
and northern Georgia. V. georgianus is founded upon a rather 
small specimen (L. 41 mm.), of normal shape, with yellowish 
brown epidermis, without rays or spots, while the figure of U. 
favosus represents a larger specimen (L. 52 mm.) of the same, 
regular shape, with the epidermis yellowish green or brownish, 
and with a row of green spots upon the posterior ridge. These 
spots, as far as I can see, are the only difference of the two 
" species", for the rest, they agree completely in color, outline 
and general shape, and also the diameter is about the same: 
39 per cent of the length in georgianus^ 38 per cent of the length 
in favosus. 

My material shows conclusively that the color markings in 
this species are variable: in the set from Conasauga collected 
by myself, the epidermis is yellowish or brownish olive; the 
larger specimens are without spots, the smaller ones have more 
or less distinct spots on the posterior ridge, and in the smallest 


they appear as an interrupted broad ray. In the other speci- 
mens, collected by Smith, the spots are rather distinct. 

The shape of the shell is rather subovate, almost subelliptical 
in outline. In the larger specimens, however, the lower margin 
is not very convex, but in part more nearly straight. Very 
young specimens (from Tennga) are comparatively higher than 
old ones. In my specimens, the diameter varies from 33 per 
of the length to 41 per cent, the average being, in specimens 
from Conasauga, 36 percent, in the others about 39 per cent. 
The maximum size (male from Conasauga) is: L. 61, H. 40, 
D. 20 mm. (this is the most compressed individual, D. 33 per 

As we shall see below, this is a real Pleurobema according to 
the anatomy. It stands very close to the small-creek-form PL 
oviforme argenteum (Lea) of the upper Tennessee region (see: 
Proc. Amer. Philos. Soc. 67, 1918, p. 552), and the fact, that 
this latter form is found in tributaries of the Tennessee not far 
from the Coosa drainage (Chickamauga Creek in Catoosa Co. , 
Ga., and Hiwassee drainage in Tennessee) suggests that there 
actually is genetic relationship between the two forms, and that 
PL georgianum reached the upper Coosa by crossing over the 
divide from the upper Tennessee (by stream piracy). 

PL georgianum differs from PL oviforme argenteum only in the 
regular, suboval, almost subelliptical outline, while in the 
latter, the outline generally is subrhomboidal or subtrapezoidal, 
that is to say, there is a more or less distinct angle between the 
upper and the posterior margins. The compression of the two 
forms is nearly the same. In color pattern, they are also much 
alike, except that the spots, in argenteum, are often accompanied 
by more or less rays upon the disk. However, also in argen- 
teum, rays and spots may be entirely absent. 

The soft parts from Conasauga agree with those from Shoal 
Creek. The females of the former locality were gravid with 
glochidia (May 25). The anatomy is identical with that of PL 
oviforme argenteum (Naut. 34, 1921, p. 85). This concerns 
also color, the soft parts being either whitish or pale orange. 
The color of the marsupium (placentae) is cream or pale orange, 
exactly as in the c^ai;a-group of Pleurobema (to which oviforme 


belongs). Glochidia of the usual shape, subelliptical, L. O. 
13, H. 0. 15 mm., and thus they are slightly smaller than 
those of the clava-grou-p, and also a little higher in proportion 
to length, but in the latter respect, they agree with specimens 
of argenteum from Chickamauga Creek (see: Naut. 1. c. ). 

6. Pleurobema hagleri (Frierson) (1900). 
Simpson, 1914, p. 776. 

North River, Hagler's Mill, Tuscaloosa Co., Ala. Two 
shells, H. H. Smith coll. 

Valley Creek, Toad vine, Jefferson Co., Ala. Soft parts 
(without shells) of one male and one barren female, H. H. 
Smith coll. 

Both localities are in the Black Warrior drainage, the first 
close to the type-locality (Tyner, Tuscaloosa Co.). The speci- 
mens have been identified by B. Walker. 

Although no gravid females were at hand, the anatomy indi- 
cates that this species probably is a Pleurobema. The soft parts 
were discolored by the alcohol. 

The afiinities of this species are still obscure. 

7. Pleurobema patsaligense Bim'pson (1900). 
Simpson, 1914, p. 788. 

Little Patsaliga Creek, Crenshaw Co., Ala. Two shells, 
topotypes, C. Goodrich don. 

Sandy Creek, Evergreen, Conecuh Co. , Ala. twelve shells, 
H. H. Smith coll. 

Choctawatchee River, Blue Springs, Barbour Co., Ala. One 
shell, and soft parts of ten others (six males and four barren 
females), H. H. Smith coll. 

The single shell from the Choctawhatchee is absolutely iden- 
tical with the sets from the other two localities in the Escambia 
drainage, and thus it is shown that this species belongs to both 

Concerning the soft parts, the same is to be said as in the 
case of PL hagleri^ and also its systematic affinities require 
further elucidation. It should be pointed out, that the shells 
of these two species (and of others from Alabama) show certain 


similarities to the genus Elliptio: it is not impossible that we 
have here the intergrading forms between Elliptio and Pleuro- 

8. Pleurobema modicum (Lea) (1857). 

PL striatum (Lea) (1840), PL modicum (Lea) (1857), PL 
amabile (Lea) (1865), see: Simpson, 1914 p. 794, 795. 

All three forms are from the Appalachicola system, the first 
two from the Chattahootchee River, Columbus, Ga. , the last 
from the upper Flint drainage at Butler, Taylor Co., Ga. I 
have the following material : 

Chattahoochee River, Ga. Two shells, Hartman collection 
(labeled striatus). 

Pea River, Fleming's Mill, Dade Co., Ala. Eleven shells, 
ten of these with soft parts (five males, five barren females), J. 
A. Burke coll., Nov., 1915 (marked ''Pea R., no. 2"). 

Choctawhatchee River, Blue Springs, Barbour Co., Ala. Soft 
parts (without shells) of seven males and five barren females, 
H. H. Smith coll., Oct., 1915 (marked " Choct. R., no. 6, same 
as Pea R., no. 2"). 

According to the published descriptions and figures, the dif- 
erences of these supposed three species may be tabulated as 
follows : 

a^ Nacre flesh color to purplish. Posterior point of shell 
near base and lower margin of shell nearly straight. 
1 Shell rather compressed, Dia. 33 to 36 per cent of 
length. striatum. 

bj Shell more swollen. Dia. 42 to 45 per cent of length. 

a 2 Nacre whitish or yellowish. Posterior point of shell more 
elevated above base and lower margin more convex. 
Shell rather swollen. Dia. 41 to 43 per cent of length. 

The position of the posterior point of the shell is very varia- 
ble and unfit to serve as diagnostic character. My two shells 
from Chattahootchee River, labeled striatus, possess the dia. of 
40 and 41 per cent, and thus connect striatum and modicum more 
closely; I think that there is no doubt that these two are actu- 


ally identical. Since Walker has shown (Univ. Mich. Miscell. 
Publ. 6, 1918, p. 183) that U. striatus Lea (1840) is preoccu- 
pied by Unio striatus Goldfuss (1839), U. modicus becomes the 
oldest available name. (PL simpsoni Vanatta, Pr. Acad. Philad. 
1915, p. 559, introduced on account of Obovaria striata Rafin- 
esque [1820] is unnecessary. ) 

My set of shells from the Choctawhatchee drainage (Pea R.) 
agrees in every particular with amabile, except that the shells 
are slightly less swollen (dia. 37 to 43 per cent, average 38 per 
cent), thus approaching the s^rm^?^m-type. Thus there remains 
only one distinguishing character from the Chattahootchee 
shells, color of nacre. But since the whitish color (amabile- 
type) is also originally from the Chattahoochee drainage, it is 
safe to place also amabile in the synonymy of modicum. 

In my specimens from Pea River the epidermis is, in the 
younger ones, tawny or greenish brown, sometimes obscurely 
rayed. In older ones it is darker, brownish, shading to black- 
ish toward the beaks. Nacre whitish, often stained yellowish 
in the beak cavity. 

According to the soft parts, this seems to be a Pleurobema, 
possessing the structure of this genus, as far as we can judge in 
the absence of gravid females. But its position within the 
genus is not yet clear. It is a small species, so far restricted to 
the Appalachicola and Choctawhatchee systems in S. W. 
Georgia, S. E. Alabama and probably also West Florida. 

9. Lasmigona (Alasminota) holstonia (Lea) (1839). 

Alasmidonta holstonia (Lea) and AL georgiana (Lea), Simp- 
son, 1914 pp. 502, 503. 

See also: L. (Sulcidaria) badia (Raf. ), Ortmann, Nautilus 
Proc. Amer. Philos. Soc. 57, 1918 p. 557; L. (Alasminota) 
holstonia, Ortmann, Naut. 28, 1914 p. 43, and 34, 1921 p. 87. 

This species, common in small streams in the upper Tennes- 
see, has also been reported from the headwaters of the Coosa 
River, and undoubtedly is present there. This fact again indi- 
cates a close connection of the upper Coosa drainage with that 
of the upper Tennessee. According to material before me, it is 
widely distributed also in the Coosa drainage, from northern 


Georgia down to Talladega and Shelby Cos. in Alabama, and 
also here it avoids the larger rivers, preferring smaller streams. 
It should be pointed out that the two ranges are in close con- 
tact, since, in the Tennessee drainage, this species is known 
from South Chickamauga Creek in Catoosa Co. , Ga. , and from 
the Hiwassee drainage in Polk Co., Tenn. 

I have examined specimens with soft parts from the follow- 
ing localities in the Coosa drainage. 

Chattooga River, Trion, Chattooga Co., Ga. Three males 
and two females. A. E. Ortman coll., May 19, 1915. 

Little River (trib. to Chattooga), Cherokee Co., Ala. One 
male and one female (without shells). H. H. Smith coll. 

The structure of these is entirely normal, as described pre- 

( To he continued) 



Proserpina Gray (1840). Nude name. 

Odontostoma d'Orbigny (1841), not Turton (1829), etc., etc. 
Type 0. depressa d'Orbigny (1841), Cuba. 

Proser]9ma '' Gray " Sowerby (1842). Type (monotype) P. 
nitida "Gray" Sowerby (1842), Jamaica, Not Proserpinus 
Hiibner (1816), Lepidoptera (Verz. bek. Schmet., p. 132). 

Ceres Gray (1856). Type Carocolla eolina Duclos (1834), 
Vera Cruz, Mexico. 

Proserpinella Bland (1865). Type (monotype) P. berendti 
Bland (1865), Mirador, Mexico. 

Cyane H. Adams (1870). Type (monotype) C. blandiana 
H. Adams (1870), Eastern Peru. 

Linidiella Jousseaume (1889). Type Proserpina swifti Bland 
(1863), Puerto Cabello, Venezuela. 

Despana R. B. Newton (1891). Substitute for Proserpina; 
same type. 



Chersodespcena Sykes (1901). Type Despoena cinnamomea 
Sykes (1901), between Ayabamba and Santa Rosa, Ecuador. 

Staffola Dall (1905). Type Proserpina derbyi Dall (1905), 
subfossil, Rio Chico, Paraguassu, Bahia, Brazil. 

A. Shell large, heavy, carinate; externally with riblets above 
and thickened below. Columellar, parietal and palatal 
lamella (Mexico). Genus Ceres. 
A', Shell smaller, thin, rounded; without definite riblets. 
Genus Proserpina. 
B. With distinct, thin, columellar lamella. Subgenus 
Proserpina s. s. 
C. Palatal, parietal and columellar lamellje (An- 
tilles). Section Proserpina s. s. (-\- Despoena). 
C Parietal and columellar lamellae (Antilles). Sec- 
tion Despanella new name (-{-Odontostoraa). 
C". Columellar lamella only (Venezuela to Ecuador). 
Section Linidiella (-{-Chersodespcena). 
B'. With heavy columellar lamella, appearing as trunca- 
tion of columellar pillar (South America). Sub- 
genus Cyane, 
D. Parietal lamella also present (Brazil). Section 

D'. Columellar truncation only (Peru, Bolivia). 
Section Cyane s. e. 
B". Parietal lamella only (Mexico). Subgenus Proser- 
As will be seen from the above, even if it were decided that 
Proserpinus preoccupied Proserpina (Cf. Newton and also Sykes, 
1. c), Despana (Despoenidse) could not be used as a generic 
term without designation of considerably smaller generic limits 
than here recognized. Regardless of the size of the genera, 
Proserpinellidx would become the only appropriate family name. 






(From the Zoological Laboratory, University of Illinois, with Plates II to V.) 

The remarkable Nudibranch Melibe leonina Gould has recently 
been described by Professor Chas. H. O'Donoghue, from the 
Vancouver Island region, under the nomenclature of Gould 
(1852), the discoverer of the species. Heath (1917) also em- 
ploys Gould's nomenclature for the genus, but he goes farther 
than O'Donoghue by naming for it a new species, Chioraera 
dalli. Heath's species was collected off the coast of British Col- 
umbia. That is, not far from O'Donoghue' s territory, nor, in- 
deed, from that of Gould. The specific description of Heath, 
as far as it goes, coincides perfectly with that of Gould (1852), 
Cooper (1863), Fewkes (1889), Bergh (1904;, O'Donoghue 
(1921) and Agersborg (1916, 1919, 1921, 1921a, 1922). The 
only difference lies in his statements in regard to the salivary 
glands and the tentacles. Microscopic sections of the anterior 
end of the alimentary canal of Heath's species no doubt will 
reveal these glands just as in the case of the type species of 
Gould. These glands, as I have shown before (1922), are very 
small, and are imbedded in the connective and muscular tissues 
of the neck, opening into the alimentary tract by minute crypts 
through the entoderm between the proven triculus and the 
mouth. Heath does not seem to appreciate Gould's description 
neither in the Latin nor in the English. It is, therefore, no 
wonder that Heath makes a new species of Gould's Melibe 

Gould's description rerds: 

* ' Body limaciform, smooth and of a pearly and whitish 
colour, finely reticulate with orange. The head is enormously 
enlarged, with a distinct neck, semiglobose, the oral face flat- 
tened. The oral fissure is longitudinal, the lips large, with the 
true mouth within at the posterior portion; around the edge of 
the oral disc or cowl is a double series of orange-coloured cirrhi. 


each of which has an independent motion. On the top of the 
head are two foliate expansions, destitute of venations, which 
answer to the true tentacles; on their anterior edge is an opaque 
whitish papilla, presenting something of a spiral or lamellar 
structure; they were sometimes wholly retracted within a per- 
manent sheath." P. 310. 

Heath's description reads in part: 

^^ External Features. — The body (PI. XI, fig. 1) comprises 
two distinct divisions, the head and the body proper. The 
head presents the appearance of a low vault or cowl provided 
with two dorsal tentacles, two sets of marginal tentacles and on 
its under surface bears the mouth. Unlike Chiorasra leonina, 
the dorsal tentacles are not retractile, and in preserved material 
are plain, muscular, foliaceous outgrowth. Gould states that 
the tentacles of C leonina bear on their anterior margins ' an 
opaque, whitish papilla, presenting something of a spiral or 
lamellar structure.' Nothing of the kind has been found to 
exist in the present species. 

"The marginal head tentacles form two series, an outer set 
comprising from fifty to seventy-five large, slender processes, 
and an inner fringe formed of much smaller outgrowths of ap- 
proximately double the number. Each of these cirri is pro- 
vided with a nerve (PI. XI, fig. 2) and gives evidence of being 
a tactile organ, though observations along this line were very 

"The mouth presents the appearance of a longitudinal slit 
(PI. XI, fig. 1) placed near the posterior margin of the head, 
and therefore in close proximity to the anterior margin of the 
foot. Its posterior border may be said to be formed by the free 
border of the head, which here forms a deep angle usually de- 
void of the larger type of tentacle." P. 138. 

" Chiorcera dalli new species. 

"Body limaciform, smooth and of a pearly color without 
definite signs of pigmentation. Head enormously developed, 
with the mouth near the posterior margin. Dorsal tentacles 
simple leaf-like expansions without special sheath. Jaws^ 
Radula, and salivary glands wanting. " P. 147. 

From the above, it is seen the two descriptions agree exactly. 
The differences which Heath tries to bring out, are based on 
his failure to understand Gould's description, and also, judg- 
ing from his own statement, he evidently made very superficial 
observations of the living animals. In preserved specimens, 
the whitish papilla is always retracted within a permanent 


sheath; it is very hard to see in preserved specimens. In 
living animals, it seems to be very sensitive, although not so 
sensitive as the oral cirrhi, and, at the least disturbance, it is 
quickly withdrawn within the tentacular sheath, or stalk. 
Heath confuses the tentacular papilla, that is the true tentacle, 
with the foliaceous tentacular stalk. The tentacular stalk is 
never retracted. And, it was neither claimed by Gould. 
When this last named author writes: '' Tentaculae cephalicae 
foliataej retractiles; " he means exactly what he says on the same 
in English: On the top of the head are two foliate expansions, 
. . . ; on their anterior edge is an opaque, whitish papilla, 
presenting something of a spiral or lamellar structure; they 
were sometimes wholly retracted within a permanent sheath. ' ' 
It is clearly indicated by Gould's description that when he 
speaks of tentacles he includes the opaque, whitish, foliate 
papillae (one on each tentacle). That is, his 'tentacle" 
stands for a whole; a part of a whole may be retracted within 
a whole, but the whole may not be retracted within a part of 
itself. The papilla stands for a part of the tentacle; the ten- 
tacle consists of the papilla and the foliate expansion. And, 
as I have stated above, the true, or real sensory organ, as far 
as the tentacle is concerned, is the papilla, which, ipsofactOj is 
the actual tentacle, or the "rhinophore" of many writers, 
(vide: Agersborg, 1922). The rest of the tentacle, that is, the 
foliate expansions, is the tentacular sheath. It is only fair to 
Heath, to state here that the papilla^ at times, may fall off from 
the stalk, since it is quite constricted at its base (Figs. 4, 5), 
but in a large number of specimens as examined by Heath, 
this should not be the general case. If an entire tentacle is 
stained in borax carmine, the papilla — completely retracted 
within the foliate expansion — will stain more deeply than the 
remainder. This is illustrated in PI. IV, figure 6. In speci- 
mens preserved in alcohol or formaldehyde, the papilla may be 
overlooked easily. In point of fact, O'Donoghue (1921) claims 
no " rhinophores," p. 192, for Chiorara leonina. This shows 
that the "papilla" is quite difficult to see. On page 193 he 
writes: "No structures comparable with the rhinophores of 
other nudibranches could be found unless the cephalic appen- 



dages are their modified representative, which hardly seem 
probable." This, of course, is an error, and represents a good 
proof that the living animals, also in this case, were not studied 
carefully. As stated above, the sensory part of the tentacles is 
always retracted when the animal is disturbed, and may only 
be seen when the animal is left at rest in the aquarium. Then, 
it may become quite conspicuous (PI. IV fig. 5a, pa. ). O'Don- 
oghue's statement, therefore, in regard to the absence of *' rhin- 
ophores," indirectly substantiates my claims that Heath is 
wrong. With these things in mind, it is perfectly evident that 
Heath's description, as far as quoted, is a duplicate of Gould's. 
The rest of Heath's paper, as far as accuracy goes, is very sim- 
ilar to the part thus far reviewed. It is not my purpose to go 
into details here. I only wish to point out some of the main 
features. Heath's drawings are exceedingly unreliable as they 
are too diagrammatic (Fig. 6) and do not tally with his text. 
It is much to be regretted that Heath did not consult the liter- 
ature. That would have saved him from creating a new species. 
In this case, there is no new species at all! ( Vide literature on 
Nudibranches in general, and Tethymelibidae in particular: 
Agersborg 1916, 1919, 1921, 1921a, 1922). As regards Heath's 
drawings, it is only necessary to refer to his drawing of the ten- 
tacles which are represented by a mere line ! Since the tentacles 
form one of Heath's basic reasons for creating a new species 
out of Gould's Melibe leonina, they should have been repre- 
sented by very accurate drawings. That Heath's drawings of 
the tentacles are both incomplete and inaccurate, are supported 
by examination of preserved specimens from the vicinity of 
Heath's type locality. The structural features, as pointed out 
by Heath, in which his Chiorara dalli dififers from Gould's 
Melibe leonina, are altogether too trivial, and his drawings too 
poor (Fig. 6), that I do not think anyone who knows Gould's 
species can possibly accept the species of Heath. The status of 
the genus itself is for the first time, to my knowledge, properly 
set forth by myself (Agersborg, 1921a). In this paper, the 
reasons are given why Gould's Chiorsera is a synonym of Melibe 
Rang (1829). Several authors, moreover, although without 
giving a reason, recognize Chiorsera as a synonym of Melibe. 


{Vide: Tryon, Jr. 1883, p. 382; Fischer 1887, pp. 533-534; 
Bergh 1892, pp. 1039-1043; 1904, p. 13; 1907-1908, pp. 95- 
98). O^Donoghue (1921) although he classified Melibe under 
the nomenclature of Gould, states later in a letter to me: **I 
have quite given up Chiorsera as a name. ' ^ This, I am sure, 
will be the conclusion of every student who studies this subject 
seriously. In creating a new species, I think, Heath violated 
good usage among investigators by not familiarizing himself 
with the literature on the subject with which he dealt. 

The species Melibe leonina Gould was quite fully described by 
me in an unpublished Master's thesis (1916), which is in the 
Library of the University of Washington, Seattle. It is not ex- 
pected that Heath should know anything about this, but it goes 
without saying, that students of Zoology, nowadays, must 
consult the literature when they write for publications, lest their 
contributions to the science may be little less than a stumbling 
block for subsequent workers. 

Heath's record of the swimming habit coincides with Gould's, 
also with mine (1916, 1919, 1921, 1921a, 1922, 1922a, 19226). 
His description of the contents of the stomach and intestines 
differ. In my specimens, the alimentary tract contained crus- 
taceans of various kinds, and of different sizes (PI. V, figs. 7, 
8, cr. ). The food of Melibe leonina is crustaceous per se. (vide 
littercUurae supra et infra). Melibe, however, as I have pointed 
out elsewhere (19226), is not such an able swimmer as e. g., 
Dendronotus giganteus O' Donoghue. 

Heath's reference to egg-bodies or nidosomes by the state- 
ment: ** Large numbers of eggs were found attached to 'eel 
grass' and imbedded in gelatinous, spirally-wound folds after 
the fashion of many nudibranchs," does not agree at all with 
the nidosome of the Puget Sound species (PI. II, fig. 2), whose 
egg-body {vide: Agersborg, 1916, 1919, 1921) consists of a 
broad ribbon (not "spirally-wound folds") which folds into a 
funnel-shaped form when supported in the water owing to one 
side of the ribbon being shorter than the other, and the shorter 
side becomes attached to the eel-grass. Heath's "spirally- 
wound folds" fit better to the nidosome of the "Sea-lemon," 
Anisodoris Bergh (Anisodoris nobilis MacFarland), (PI. II, 




Fijr. 1. Nidosotiie of Am.^odoi'is nohilifi deposited on sea-lettuce [Ulvn hie- 
fiic/i). Plioto, by Dr. Sidney R. Johnson. 

F\(r. 2. Nidosonie of Mrliht' leonina deposited on Zoftlrra morinn. Photo, by 
nutlior. , 




Fig. 3. Nidosome of IJmdronotus gifjanteus. Photo, by author. 

Fig. 4. Dorsal tentacle from preserved specimen of Melihe leonhni showing 
contracted papilla {pa) of Gould, stained with borax carmine, mounted in Can- 
ada balsam. Photo, bv author. 




Fie -. a Drawing of .lorsal tentado of M. honina from life, showing tl.o 
papiUa {r«) of «ould. b. The same from j.reserved specimen, seen with the 
unaided eve. 

Fig. 6. Copy of Heath's drawing (pi. 12, f. 6) of the hood of ^^ CInonera 
,jaUV' (= Mrhbe leonina). te, tentacle (dorsal tentacle), i'h, pharynx. 

Fie' q Diagrams illustrating various aspects of the foot of M. homna dur- 
ing ^galloping". ., normal; /., beginning (x) of elongation of the foot; ., 
mLimum elongation, x advanced to x- ; rf, x^ adheres to substrate, large mon- 
otaxic pedal wave passes from anterior to posterior, and posterior end of oot 
is drawn anteriorly producing at the same time a large swelling on the middle 
of the body and foot. ., second elongation, a new wave sets in from anterior 
to posterior, repeating the same phenomenon as in h, x. 



c Cn. 


Fipj 1. Microphotogriiph of a cross-section of the gizzard of .Urfihe Iconino , 
cr, sections of crnstaceans filling the stomach. 

Fig. 8. i\Iicroi)hotogra])h of the cross-section of the intestine, rr., egg- 
ponches with embryos of crustaceans. 


fig. 1). There can be no doubt as to the nature of the nido- 
some of Melibe Iconina, as this species deposited two nidosomes 
in the laboratory during the summer of 1914 {vide : Agersborg, 
1916, 1919, 1921); these were used as a check for those found 
in nature at that time, e. g., on the eel-grass (Zostera marina), 
where Mdibe also were collected. The same kind of nidosomes 
had been found before by members of the Puget Sound Biolog- 
ical Station, but it was not known to what species it belonged 
until Melibe leonina was seen to deposit the same kind in the 
laboratory. Closely related species among the Aeolidia deposit 
nidosomes of great similarity: Aeolidia coronata, Hermissenda 
opaletcens, Coryphella longicaudata, etc. (Fig. 3). The extent of 
the spiral form of a nidosome of this kind depends on two 
things: (1) on the speed of the egg-mucus flow, and (2) on the 
speed with which the nudibranch moves during oviposition 
(Agersborg, 1922c). In the light of these facts, I am compelled 
to doubt, therefore, very much whether Heath's statement in 
regard to the nidosome of his species is any more valid than his 
supposed new species. Of course. Heath's inference is only a 
guess. I have suggested above the only scientific way to iden- 
tify nidosomes. 

O'Donoghue (1921) makes the following statement in regard 
to Melibe leonina : 

''There seems little doubt that this species is mainly pelagic 
for it is found floating freely in the sea during the early months 
of the year and I have seen it at the end of July and the middle 
of August. Towards the middle or end of May, however, it 
<jomes in to spawn and it is then very plentiful. ... At this 
time, the animal is present in hundreds and so constitutes an 
extremely common form at these two points (on the Zostera 
beds at the Station and at Mudge Island). Even then, how- 
ever, it does not creep about on the eel grass but only seems to 
adhere for the purpose of laying its eggs. In the laboratory 
too it does not creep on the sides of the aquaria and only rarely 
clings to them. It has not been observed creeping on anything 
after the manner of other Nudibranchs and if not entirely a 
pelagic form like Phyllirhoe it is beyond doubt very nearly so 
and is a most interesting form." P. 194. 


Inability to use foot for the purpose of locomotion on the 
substratum as suggested by O'Donoghue does not hold. Mel- 
ibe leonina though pelagic at times is quite able, as we will see, 
to use the foot in locomotion by the means of creeping. Pro- 
fessor Trevor Kincaid kindly informs me that in the summer of 
1917 he found one of the bays of Hoods Canal literally filled 
with this species — there were an incredible number — ''millions 
of them." The piles under the docks were covered with them. 

( I am under the impression that Professor Kincaid also stated 
that Melibe was clinging to the piles above low-water mark at 
low tide; if this be the case, it is the first time on record that 
this species has been seen alive on dry land; it will be noted, 
that the body of Melibe leonina is so soft and watery that it 
loses very soon its fluid-contents when left out of water. This 
is at least true when the animal is lifted out of water and exam- 
ined on a glass plate). From the same source, I have the cor- 
roboration on the point in regard to locomotion : Melibe leonina 
is perfectly able to creep on a solid substratum. I am very 
much indebted to Professor Kincaid for this point of informa- 
tion, not only because of the unusual nature, e. g. , as regards 
the occurrence of Melibe on the piles above low-water mark, 
and the great abundance in which it appeared ; but also, for his 
statement in regard to the locomotion of Melibe leonina. 

M. leonina, then, uses its foot for creeping purposes! As 
shown elsewhere, (Agersborg 1919, 1921, 1922, 1922b) the foot 
is highly ciliated, and the ciliated ectoderm is innervated with 
nerve fibres from the nerve-net which is spread throughout the 
foot. During the summer (1921) while working experiment- 
ally on the chemical sense of M. leonina (Agersborg 1922a). I 
had the opportunity to study this species very closely. As 
stated above, its food consists of small crustaceans of various 
kinds: copepods, isopods, amphipods, etc., judging from the 
contents of the alimentary tract (PI. V, figs. 7. 8). In the lab- 
oratory, I fed it on Caprella and Gammarus, about 20 to 15 
mm. , long, respectively. The former, although it fastened its 
claws into the membrane of the mouth of Melibe, was neverthe- 
less pushed down into the oesophagus, proventriculus, gizzard, 
etc. of Melibe. The latter was executed in the same way. I 


also succeeded in feeding it on the muscles of Cummaria japon- 
ica Semper. The muscle, however, passed apparently un- 
changed through the digestive tract and appeared at the anus 
36 hours later. 

During the study of the pedal locomotion, I again observed 
its mode of swimming, (vide: Agersborg 1916, 1919, 1921, 
1922). I have at this time to correct a mistake which appears 
in my paper (1921) relative to the mode of swimming of Melibe 
leonina. In the Summary, paragraph 3, line 1, it should read 
according to the MS. and the proofs: "/i5 swims freely in the 
wate^', back upward, or downward.''^ Instead of: "It swims 
freely in the water, backward, upward or downward." The 
word * ' backward ' ' is wrong. This change ivas not authorized by 
the author! It introduces an idea which is contrary to facts. 
Whether an addendum, pointing out this erratum, will appear 
in the journal in question, I am unable to say. For anyone 
who may be interested in this subject, I have made the cor- 
rections here. Although O'Donoghue thinks Melibe is mainly 
pelagic, it is quite evident, judging from its habitat, that the 
pelagic habit is periodic at the most, i. e., its [recurrence is 
spasmodic, as I have pointed out before (1916, 1919, 19226). 
M. leonina does not only occur as a pelagic form (1922c?), but 
may be found at considerable depths which is perhaps its hab- 
itat the greater part of the year. Gould's specimen, 133 mm. 
long, 17 mm, high, and 32 mm. wide, was dredged atj about 
5|- meters depth; Cooper's (1963) 70 mm. long, and f,17 mm. 
high, at a depth of 38 meters. Presumably, when it^is at the 
bottom, it crawls on the bottom for it has a well developed foot 
not only for clinging on to sea-weeds but also for actual creep- 
ing and, indeed, for "galloping" to use a termf^m ployed by 
previous writers for other forms. 

On one occasion as I was trying to feed Melibe leonina, it 
dropped to the bottom of the aquarium and commenced gliding 
along it. I continued the feeding experiment when to my 
astonishment this nudibranch, Melibe leonina, suddenly elonga- 
ted to nearly twice its normal length, and then shortened to 
less than half its normal length, showing a method of creeping 
similar to that described by Parker (1917) for the seahare, 


Aplysia californica Cooper (PI. IV, fig. 9). When elongating 
the body, the anterior one third of the foot was lifted above the 
substratum and then let down; the posterior one third then 
passed toward the middle of the body which became much 
wider at the base and along the sides, and then the forward 
stretching was repeated. This sort of creeping was accom- 
plished by a large muscular wave which passed from the an- 
terior to the posterior, that is, by direct monotaxic waves. 
In ordinary locomotion (creeping) the cilia of the foot may 
play an important part because the locomotor waves are almost 

This adds one more mollusk to the number recorded by 
Parker (vide: literature, Agersborg, 19226) in which locomo- 
tion is effected by rhythmic pedal waves. 


1. Melibe leonina has been found at depths from about 2 
meters to about 38 meters; it is littoral; it is pelagic. Its 
pelagic habit seems to be periodical; it is not pelagic all the 

2. It swims freely in the water, the back downward or up- 

3. It creeps on the surface film by ciliary action of its highly 
developed foot. 

4. It may remain above low-water mark during low tide (but 
in shaded places) ; in one such instance it was found to cover 
the piles under the dock in one of the bays of Hood's Canal, 
Washington. Literally millions occurred at this time in this 
particular bay. 

5. It may creep, when disturbed, by producing large direct 
monotaxic pedal waves, two in number being on the foot at the 
same time. 

6. The cephalic tentacles of Melibe leonina (s. Chioraera Gould) 
are highly developed organs (vide: Agersborg, 1922, 1922a) j 
the sensitive part is represented by a foliate papilla (.Gould) 
situated at the anterior margin and is readily retracted within 
the tentacular stalks which form a permanent sheath for the 
papillary organ. This papilla has been called the "rhino- 


phore; '' whether it be an organ of olfaction or not, it is highly- 
innervated with nerve fibres throughout {vide: Agersborg, 


1916. Agersborg, H. P. von Wold Kjerschow. A study of 
the Nudibranchiate Mollusk Melibe leonina. A thesis 
submitted for the degree of Master of Science. Uni- 
versity of Washington, Seattle. 

1919. Notes on Melibe leonina Gould. Pub. Puget Sound Biol. 
Sta., 2:269-277. 

1921. Contribution to the knowledge of the Nudibranchiate 
Mollusk, Melibe leonina Gould. Amer. Nat., 52:222- 

1921a. On the status of Chiorasra Gould. Nautilus, 35:50-57. 

1922. The morphology of the Nudibranchiate Mollusk, Melibe 
/gom'na Gould. Jour. Morph. (In press.) 

1922a. Some observations on qualitative physical and chemical 
stimulations in Nudibranchs with special reference to 
the role of the "rhinophores.'^ Jour. Exper. Zool. 
(In press.) 

19226. Notes on the locomotion of the Nudibranchiate Mollusk, 
Dendronotus giganteus O'Donoghue. Biol. Bull. (In 
press. ) 

1922c. Notes on a new Cladohepatic Nudibranch from Friday 
Harbor, Washington. Jour. Morph. (In press. ) 

1922d. Gymnosomatous Pteropoda from Friday Harbor, Wash- 
ington. Jour. Morph. (In press.) 

1892. Bergh, R. System d. nudibranchiaten Gastropoden. 
C. Semper, Reisen im Archipel der Philippinen II, 
wissenschaftliche Resultiite III, malacologische Unter- 
suchungen. Heft. 15-18:1035-1043 (1880-1892). 

1904. Nudibranchiate kladohepatica (Melibe pellucida), on the 
Columbia River, Washington. Ibid., wiss. Resultate 
9, VI. Lief. I. 

1907-1908. The Opisthobranchiata of South Africa. Trans. S. 
Africa Phil. Soc, 17:94-90. 

1868. Cooper, J. G. On new or rare Mollusca inhabiting the 
coast of California, II. Proc. Calif. Acad. Nat. Sci., 
3:60 (1863-1867). 

1889. Fewkes, W. J. New Invertebrata from the coast of 
California, pp. 45-46. Printed for the author: Boston. 

1887. Fischer, P. Manuel de Conchyliologique, pp. 533-534. 


1852. Gould, A. A. Mollusca and Shells. {Chiorasra leonina^ 

syn. Melibe leonina Gould. ) United States Expedition, 

during years 1838, 1839, 1840, 1841, 1842. Under the 

command of Charles Wilkes, U. S. N. Page 310. 

1917. Heath, Harold. The anatomy of an Eolid, Chioraera 

dalli. (^Melibe leonina Gould.) Proc. Acad. Nat. Sci. 

Philad., 69:137-148. 
1921. O'Donoghue, Chas. H. Nudibranchiate Mollusca from 

the Vancouver Island region. Trans. Royal. Canad. 

Inst. Toronto, 13:147-209. 
1917. Parker, G. H. The pedal locomotion of the sea-hare 

Aplysia californica. Jour. Exper. Zool., 24:139-145. 
1829. Rang, Sander. Manuel des Mollusques, pp. 129-130. 

1883. Tryon, Jr., George W. Structural and Systematic 

Conchology, 2:382; PI. 91, fig. 19. 


II. The Naiades of the Upper Mississippi Drainage.! 

(Continued from page 49.) 

23. Pleurobema pyramidatum (Lam.)=Q. pyramidatum (Lam.) 
Simpson — north in the Mississippi to Prairie du Chien, Wis- 
consin. We collected specimens of it in L. Pepin. 

24. Pleurobema clava (Lam.). 

Simpson's records of this species from Minnesota and Iowa 
are considered doubtful (see Ortmann, 1). It may be present 
nearer the Ohio. Probably of a tributary type. 

25. Elliptio crassidens (Lam. )=C/mo crassidens (Lam.). 
Reported by Holzinger (7) from Winona County, Minn. 

*Published with permission of the Commissioner of Fisheries, Washington, 
D. C. 

fContribution from U. S. Biological Station, Fairport, Iowa, and Biological 
Laboratory Washington and Jefferson College. 


We also found this species at Red Wing, nearly 80 miles above 
this point. Absent from L. Pepin; more abundant above that 
point. Not common. 

26. Elliptio dilatatus (Raf.)=^CAi20 gibbosus (Barnes). 
Simpson — entire Mississippi drainage. Apparently clammed 

out in the vicinity of Red Wing, but abundant in L. Pepin, de- 
creasing in numbers descending the river. Not reported from 
N. and C. Minnesota. 

Sub-Family Anodontinae. 

27. Arcidens confragosus (Say). 

Simpson — Mississippi river and states adjoining it. Reported 
from Iowa by Baker (1); S. Minnesota by Grant (6). Col- 
lected by us near Red Wing. Comparatively rare. 

28. Lasmigona compressa {Le3^)= Symphynoia compressa (Lea). 
Simpson — E. Iowa and Wisconsin. Wilson and Danglade, 

Mississippi R. above Bemidji and Bemidgi Lake. We did not 
observe it between Red Wing and La Moille, Minn. 

29. Lasmigona costata (Raf. )=*S. costata (Raf. ) 

Simpson — Upper Mississippi drainage, and St. Lawrence. 
Wilson and Danglade, Red River of the North. Rare. We 
secured specimens of this only above L. Pepin. 

30. Lasmigona complanata (Barne8)=(S. complanata (Barnes). 
Simpson — Upper Mississippi drainage, St. Lawrence. Wil- 
son and Danglade(18), Crow Wing drainage, Minn. Common. 
A var. kaiharinae (Simpson) is found in the Red River of this 
North, it may be later found in the Upper Mississippi, although 
it has not been reported from there as yet. 

31. Anodonta imbecillis (Say). 

Wilson and Danglade (18), L. Minnewaska, Minn. Simpson 
— entire Mississippi drainage area. 

32. Anodonta grandis (Say). 

Simpson — entire Mississippi River system. By some, it is 
believed to be a tributary form rarely found in the river. It is 
often confused with corpulenta, Call insisting they are the same 
species. Var. benedictensis (Lea) reported by Wilson and Dan- 


glade from L. Minnewaska; var. giyantea (Lea) reported by 
Call; var. pepiiiiana (Lea) reported by Wilson and Danglade 
from lakes of Crow Wing drainage, Minn. var. kennicotti (Lea) 
by the latter from L. Osakis are all considered by Ortmann as 
doubtful forms. 

33. Anodonta corpulenta (Cooper). 

Simpson — Upper Mississippi drainage. Wilson and Dan- 
glade, St. Croix drainage. In our experience somewhat more 
abundant than grandis. 

34. Anodonta suborbiculata (Say). 

Simpson — Iowa, Illinois and South. Rare in the main river, 
but somewhat fairly common in the sloughs, especially at Fair- 
port, Iowa. 

35. Anodontoides ferussacianus (Lea). 

Simpson — Upper Mississippi drainage area generally, but as 
Ortmann, (10) points out its range is more northern. The var- 
iety buchanensis (Lea) appears to be an old female of ferussac- 
ianus. It has been reported from the Red River of the North 
and Crow Wing drainage by Wilson and Danglade. A. modes- 
tuSj reported by the latter from the lakes of the Minnesota River 
drainage is thought by Ortmann to be a dwarf form of A. ferus- 

36. Simpsoniconcha ambigua (Ssiy )= Hemilastina ambigua (Say). 
The U. S. Biological Station records this from the Upper 

Mississippi River at Fairport, Iowa. 

37. Alasmidonta calceola (Lea). 

Simpson — Upper Mississippi drainage. Collected by us near 
Fountain City, Wis. Rare. 

38. Alasmidonta marginata (Say). 

Simpson — Upper Mississippi and St. Lawrence drainage. 
Collected by us near Wabasha, Minn. Local in distribution. 

39. Strophitus endentulus (Say). 

Simpson — entire Upper Mississippi drainage. Fairly com- 
mon. Var. pavonius is simply a rayed form of the preceding 
species, observed according to Mr. H. W. Clark where the water 
is clearer, and is not entitled to varietal distinction. 


Sub Family Lampsilinae 

40. Obliquaria reflexa (Rsii.). 

Simpson — Mississippi drainage. Red Wing, Minn, where we 
collected it apparently represents its northernmost distribution 
as Wilson and Danglade do not report it from C. and N. Minn- 
esota. Never abundant. 

41. Plagiola lineolata ( securis (Lea). 
Simpson — Upper Mississippi drainage as far south as the 

Arkansas and Tennessee rivers. Always taken from mussel 
beds and apparently attains a great age. Abundant locally. 

42. Truncilla truncata (Iisii.)= Plagiola elegans (Lea). 
Distribution largely that of the preceding species. 

43. Truncilla donaciformis (hea,) = Plagiola donaciformis (Lea). 
Distribution largely that of the preceding species. 

44. Leptodea leptodon {'Ra.i.)=Lampsilis leptodon (Raf.). 
Simpson — Upper Mississippi drainage south to Tennessee 

River. Found by Baker, (1), and Pratt, (13) in Iowa, but 
possibly more abundant toward the Ohio. Not observed, but 
Mr. Clark reports one dead shell from main river above Fair- 
port, Iowa. 

45. Leptodea fragilis (BsLines) =Lampsilis gracilis (Barnes). 
Simpson — entire Mississippi drainage. In our experience 

more abundant in lower portions of the river. 

46. Proptera alata (Say) =Xampsi7i5 alata (Say). 

Simpson — entire Mississippi drainage as far south as Arkan- 
sas. Common. 

47. Proptera Isevissima (Lea)=X. Idemssima (Lea). 
Distribution largely that of preceding species. Many speci- 
mens were found on sand bars. 

48. Proptera capax (Green) ^Lampsilis capax (Green). 

The type locality of this species is the falls of St. Anthony, 
Minn. Holzinger (7) reports it from Winona, Minn., but the 
consensus of opinion is that it ordinarily does not go much 
north of Davenport, Iowa. 

49. Obovaria retusa (JjSiTn.) 

The evidence indicates that if this species is present in the 


Upper Mississippi drainage, it is restricted to the regions near 
the Ohio. 

50. Obovaria olivaria (B.a.i.)=Obovaria ellipsis (Lea). 
Simpson — Upper Mississippi drainage as far south as the 

Arkansas and Tennessee Rivers. Collected by us near Red 
Wing, Minn. Rare in L. Pepin and as Ortmann (10) indicates, 
it prefers strong steady currents. More abundant further down 
stream. Not reported from N. and C. Minnesota. 

51. Actinonaias carinaia (Barnes) =Lampsilis ligamentina 

Throughout the Upper Mississippi drainage, but rare in L. 
Pepin. Fairly common. Reported from the Crow Wing drain- 
age by Wilson and Danglade. 

52. Carunculina parva {Bannes) = Lampsilis parva CB&rnes). 
Lake Pepin. Reported from S. Minnesota by Call, (3). 

Becomes more common descending the river. Not reported 
from N. and C. Minnesota. 

53. Ligumia ellipsiformis (Con.)=L. ellipsiformis (Conr. ). 
Simpson — Upper Mississippi Valley south to 38° latitude. 

Geiser (5), and Pratt (13), report it from Iowa. We did not 
collect it north of there, nor does it extend into Central and 
Northern Minnesota. 

53a. Ligumia subrostrata (Say)^L. subrostrata (Say). 

Reported by Simpson, (14) as occurring north to latitude 
41°. We collected this species near Fountain City, Wis. 
indicating a more northerly range. Rare. Mr. Clark states it 
to be fairly common along the edges of the sloughs and that it 
is often represented by a large form originally described as Unio 

54. Ligumis recta latissima ('LsiTn.)=Lampsilis recta (Lam.). 
Common. Extending throughout the Mississippi drainage 

into N. and C. Minnesota. The typical recta is the small Great 
Lakes form. The typical Mississippi form is that given. 

55. Ligumia iris (Lea)=Z. iris (Lea). 

Reported by Simpson from the St. Lawrence drainage and 
the Ohio drainage, Illinois and Wisconsin, indicating its pos- 


sible occurrence in the Upper Mississippi. Ortmann states this 
form to probably be the var. nov-eborad. 

56. Lampsilis anodontoides (Lea). 

Not reported from the drainages of N. and C. Minnesota, al- 
though Simpson reports it distributed throughout the entire 
Mississippi drainage. It was found occasionally at points be- 
tween Red Wing and La Moille, Minn., except in L. Pepin, 
where its place is apparently taken by the next named species. 

57. Lampsilis fallaciosa (Smith). 

Occasionally species were found within the limits given for 
the preceding species. More abundant in L. Pepin and quieter 
waters such as those of the sloughs. 

58. Lampsilis siliquoidea ( Barnes) =Z. luteola (Lam.). 
Simpson — entire Mississippi drainage. Abundant in L. 

Pepin, more so than in other parts of the river. As Ortmann 
(13) remarks, it prefers " rather quiet water and sandy, muddy 
bottoms. In these regions it apparently produces a large num- 
ber of pearls. ' ' 

59. Lampsilis fasciola (Raf.)=L. multiradiata (Lea). 
Simpson — entire Ohio River drainage. Ortmann reports it 

from the Illinois River in Illinois. There is thus a fair proba- 
bility of being found in the lower stretches of the Upper Mis- 
sissippi River. 

60. Lampsilis ventricosa (Barnes). 

Abundant. Wilson and Danglade (18) report it from the St. 
Croix, Minn., Crow Wing and Red River of the north drain- 
ages. Simpson — entire Mississippi drainage. In connection 
with this list, it should be remembered that the Crow Wing is 
the modern representative of the headwaters of the Mississippi. 

61. Lampsilis orhiculata (Hildreth). 

Reported by Baker (1) from McGregor, Iowa. This at pres- 
ent seems to be its most northern record. Rare. It probably 
intergrades with the next species. 

62. Lampsilis higginsii (Lea). 

This species was collected at Red Wing, Minn., L. Pepin and 
points near Winona, Wis. Not reported from C. and N. Min- 


nesota. Comparatively rare. The type locality is Muscatine, 
Iowa. The var. grandii does not seem to be clearly distingu- 
ished from its parent species. 

63. Dysnomia {TrunciUopsis') triquetra (^Ra.i.) = Truncilla triquetra 

Reported from Iowa by Pratt (13) and Witter (19). We 
collected two specimens in L. Pepin — an expansion of the Mis- 
sissippi in S. Minnesota. This probably represents the most 
northerly record. Reported from Fairport, Iowa, by Mr. H. 
W. Clark. 

In conclusion, acknowledgment is made to Dr. A. E. Ort- 
mann, Carnegie Museum, Pittsburgh, Pa., Mr. H. W. Clark, 
U. S. Biological Station, Fairport, Iowa, and Dr. Bryant 
Walker, Detroit, Michigan, for criticisms kindly given toward 
the preparation of this manuscript. 


1. Baker, F. C. " Molluscan Fauna of McGregor, Iowa". 

Trans. Acad. Science St. Louis, XVI, No. 8, 1905. 

2. Baker, F. C. "A Catalogue of the Molluscs of Illinois". 

Bull. Illinois State Lab., VII, 1906, pp. 53-135. 

3. Call, R. E. "Geographical Catalogue of the Unionidae of 

the Mississippi Valley". Bull. Des Moines Acad. Sci- 
ences, I, 1885. 

4. Call, R. E. "A Study of the Unionidae of Arkansas with 

Incidental Reference to their Distribution in the Missis- 
sippi River". Trans. Acad. Science., St. Louis, VII, 

5. Geiser, S. W. " Notes on the Naiad Fauna of N. E. Iowa ". 

Amer. Mid. Nat., I, 1910, pp. 229-233. 

6. Grant, U. S. " Conchological Notes", 14th Annual Re- 

port Geological and Natural History Survey of Minne- 
sota, 1885. 

7. Holzinger, J. M. " Mollusca of Winona County, Minne- 

sota", 11th Annual Report Geological and Natural His- 
tory Survey of Minnesota for 1887, p. 481. 

8. Keyes, C. R. " An Annotated Catalogue of the Mollusca 

of Iowa". Bull. Essex Inst., XX, 1888; pp. 61-83. 


9. Lapham, J. A. ''List of Shells of Wisconsin". Proc. 
Acad. Nat. Science, Philadelphia, 1860, p. 154. 

10. Ortmann, A. E. " Monograph of the Naiades of Pennsyl- 

vania" III. Memoirs Carnegie Museum, VII, VIII, 
No. 1. 

11. Ortmann, A. E. ''Najades Upper Tennessee Drainage". 

Proc. American Philosophical Society, 57, 1918. 

12. Ortmann, A. E. and Walker, B. "On the Nomenclature 

of Certain North American Naiades". Occ. Papers 
Mus. Zool. U. of Michigan, No. 112, July, 1922. 

13. Pratt, W. H. "List of Shells at Davenport, Iowa". 

Proc. Daven. Acad. Nat. Science, I, 1876, p. 165. 

14. Simpson, C. T. "A Descriptive Catalogue of the Naiades" . 

B. Walker, Detroit. 

15. Strode, W. S. "Unionidae of Spoon River, Illinois". 

Amer. Nat., 1892, pp. 495-501. 

16. Utterback, W. I. "The Naiades of Missouri". Amer. 

Mid. Nat., IV, 1916. 

17. Walker, B. "Synopsis of Classification, etc." Univ. 

Michigan, Mus. Zool. Misc. Publ., No. 6, 1918. 

18. Wilson, C. B. and Danglade, E. "The Mussel Fauna of 

C. and N. Minnesota". Append. V, Report U. S. Com- 
missioner of Fisheries, 1913. 

19. Witter, F. H. "List of Shells of Iowa". Quart. Journ. 

Conchol., I, 1878, p. 385. 


Silas C. Wheat, well known to many conchologists, died at 
Middlebury, Vt., September 1, 1922. Although nearly 70 
years of age, he apparently was hale and hearty and enjoying a 
summer's vacation when he suffered a stroke, dying almost 

Mr. Wheat was born in Franklin, Delaware Co., N. Y., in 
1853, where he graduated from the Franklin Academy and then 
attended the New York University School of Pedagogy, quali- 
fying as a teacher. He taught in New York City, was principal 


of a school at Madison, N. J. , and since 1893 followed his pro- 
fession in the public schools of Brooklyn, retiring in 1910. 

He was one of the founders and at one time president of the 
Brooklyn Conchological Club, publishing in 1907 the follow- 
ing articles in the Bulletin of the club: "Abnormal Shells;'* 
"Shells in City Gardens and Ponds," and in Science Bulletin, 
Vol. 2, of the Museum of the Brooklyn Institute, he described 
Acmaea fergusoni and Urosalpinx cinerea var. aitkinae. In The 
Nautilus he pubhshed "Land Shells from East Shore of 
Cayuga Lake", "The Genus Elysiella " and a number of 
notes. His "Report on the MoUusks of New Jersey" for the 
State Museum at Trenton and a similar one on the " Mollusks 
of Long Island" for the Brooklyn Institute are still pending 
publication. — C. W. J. 


Ferriss Collection Injured by Fire. We regret to learn 
that the home and part of the collection of Mr. James H. 
Ferriss, of Joliet, 111., was destroyed by fire on November 18. 
Nearly all of his geological specimens, fresh water shells and 
ferns were destroyed, but his valuable collection of land shells 
was saved with little damage. Mr. and Mrs. Ferriss were in 
the desert region of New Mexico at the time, in company with 
the senior editor of The Nautilus. 

Crenella faba Muller on the Coast of Maine. This 
species was determined by Dr. Dall, who says: "This is a 
northern species described from Greenland and found as far 
south as the Straits of Belle Isle, and I think Nova Scotia; 
yours is further south than any previous locality noted." I 
dredged one live specimen in from 8 to 10 fathoms, outside the 
Rockland breakwater, August 19, 1922. — N. W. Lermond. 

A Correction. One of our subscribers has called our atten- 
tion to a discrepancy. The cover pages are all right, Vol. 
XXXVI, on both the July and October numbers, but on pages 
1 and 37 it is Vol. XXXV. Please correct this error. 



UANUS Dall. This interesting example was found among 
numerous normal specimens in a pile of old brick, at Gaines- 
ville, Florida, Jan. 1, 1916. The nucleus and first whorl are 
normal, then it suddenly becomes scalariform. What caused 
the whorls to separate is not possible to determine. The shell 
is 3 mm. in height, while a normal specimen with the same 
diameter, is less than one. — T. Van Hyning. 

Arion hortensis Drap. IN Maine. In June while at Bar 
Harbor, Maine, it was very rainy; the result was that an un- 
usually large number of slugs were seen, varying in color from 
a bright yellow to brown with the lateral stripe obsolete or 
wanting. Some were sent to Dr. Pilsbry who says: "I have 
made colored figures of those sent me, as it is the first time I 
have seen the real Arion hortensis alive. The old records in the 
catalogues are mainly Arion circumscriptiis Johnst." 

In 1920 I found a very large yellow slug at Bar Harbor, that 
I took to be Limax flavus. It died on my way home so that I 
could not positively identify it. Although as I remember the 
specimen it seemed different than the specimens of A. hortensis^ 
still I cannot be certain and the record in The Nautilus, Vol. 
35, page 134, should be questioned. — C. W. J. 


IN Boston. This species which was referred to as V. malleatus 
Reeve in The Nautilus, Vol. 29, p. 35, 1915, but which Dr. 
Bryant Walker considers V. japonicus, (see Miscellaneous Pub- 
lication, No. 6, Mus. of Zool., Univ. Mich., p. 126, 1918) was 
found in Jamaica Pond, by Harold A. Rehder, July 6, 1922. 
He revisited the place on September 7, and saw several speci- 
mens in much deeper water than they were on the previous 
occasion. In Sargent's Pond, Brookline, Mass., he found V. 
contedoides W. G. Binney. This species is still abundant in 
the lake in the Public Garden, Boston, where it was introduced 
in 1916, see The Nautilus, Vol. 30, p. 72.— C. W. J. 

106 the nautilus. 

Observations on Landshells of Stanley Park, Vancouver, 
B. C. Whilst staying in Vancouver this summer for rest and 
change after eight years' hard work in Hawaii, several trips 
were taken to Stanley Park for the purpose of collecting any 
landshells that might be found. 

Results, however, were very disappointing, as only four 
species were found, and these in very small numbers. 

No fresh-water species were to be seen although careful search 
was made. 

The two species of Polygyra were usually found upon the 
leaves of the Skunk Cabbage (Spathyema foetida), whilst the 
Haplotremas were to be found on the ground amongst dead 
leaves, moss, and rubble. Species found. 

Haplotrema vancouverensis (Lea). Polygyra columhiana (Lea). 

Haplotrema sportella (Gld. ). Polygyra germana (Gld. ). — C. 
F. Mant. 


Notes on the Radula of the Helicinidae. By H. B. 
Baker (Proc. Acad. Nat. Sci., Phila., 1G22, pp. 29-67). A 
valuable and interesting study of the radulae of the American 
species. Many changes are made to the classification of A. J. 
Wagner ( 1905, 1907-1911) based solely on operculum characters, 
Wagner also disregarded previous writers and the law of priority; 
of the 36 new groups proposed by him for American Helicinidae, 
only about 16 can be used. The paper is illustrated by five 
plates containing 37 figures of radulae. — C. W. J. 

The Molluscan Fauna of the Big Vermillion River, Illi- 
nois. By Frank C. Baker (111. Biol. Monographs, Vol. 7, No. 
2, pp, 105-224, 15 pis., 1922). A most interesting faunal 
paper. An account of the physical feature is followed by chap- 
ters on general distribution and systematic discussion of the 
mollusca; 65 species are recorded of which 36 belong to the 
Unionidae. The pollution of Salt Fork by sewage is discussed. 
The illustrations are excellent. — C. W. J. 

the nautilus. 307 

Pleistocene mollusca from Northwestern and Central 
Illinois. By Frank C. Baker (Jour, of Geol., Vol. 30, pp. 
43-62, 1922). Some supplementary studies to the author's 
work on " The Life of the Pleistocene." 

History of Lymnaea emarginata Say. By Olof 0. 
Nylander (Maine Naturalist, Vol. 2, pp. 74-77, 2 pis., 1922). 
An account of the rediscovery of this interesting shell. 

The Histological structure of the gills of the Najades 
with special reference to the Histology of the groove 


(Amer. Midland Nat., Vol. 8, pp. 89-104, 1922). A biologi- 
cal paper of interest in the study of Unionidae. 

The Champlain Sea. By Winifred Goldring (N. Y. State 
Mus. Bull., Nos. 239-240, 1920 (1922), pp. 153-187, pis. 
1-3). A paper of special value to a conchologist, as well as a 
geologist. It shows how marine animals can be divided into 
groups according to their ability to live in water of various de- 
grees of salinity. Macoma halthica^ Yoldia arctica and Saxicava 
arctica are found in the pleistocene, as far south as Fort Henry 
and vicinity. At Burlington ten species of marine mollusks are 
found. --C. W. J. 

Journal de Conchyliologie, Vol. 66, No. 4, Oct., 1922. 
Revision des Carditacea vivants du Museum National d'his- 
toire Naturelle de Paris. Par Edouard Lamy, pp. 289-368. 

Note sur un cone fossile senestre. Par A. Loville, pp. 369- 

Fossil Chitons of Western North America. By S. S. 
Berry (Proc. Cal. Acad. Nat. Sci., Vol. XI, 4 Ser., pp. 399- 
526, pis. 1-6, 1922). This is an excellent paper on a much 
neglected group. The author believes that the chitons will 
prove among the best criteria for determining the age and rela- 
tionships of any of the formations in which they can be found 
in any number. One new genus, Oligochiton, two new species 


and a new subspecies are described among a total of some 33 
species. — C. W. J. 

Observations on the Rate of Growth of the Shells of 
Lake-dwelling fresh-water Mussels. By N. M. Grier 
(Amer. Midland Nat., Vol. 8, pp. 129-148, Nov., 1922). The 
age and rate of growth were obtained by counting the lines of 
growth on each specimen and these are tabulated under each 
species. Shells grow most rapidly in the earlier years of their 
lives and none of the shells reported upon had reached an ex- 
treme old age. A useful paper in connection with the propaga- 
tion of these shells. — C. W. J. 

Biology and Economic Value of the Sea Mussel, Mytilus 
EDULis. By Irving A. Field (Bull. Bureau of Fisheries, Vol. 
38, pp. 127-259, 1922.) A very exhaustive treatise on the 
anatomy and physiology of the Sea Mussel. Its embryology 
and growth is fully described and figured. An account of its 
enemies and parasites, is followed by a chapter on its value as 
an article of food. The valuable paper ends with an excellent 
bibliography. — C. W. J. 

The Journal of Conchology, Vol. 16. No. 10, Oct. 1922. 

Some uses of shells in the Belgian Congo. By F. M. Dyke, 
p. 309. 

The Helicoid group Callina, Lowe. Description of a new 
species. By T. D. A. Oockerell, p. 310. 

Three Cephalopods new to Dorset. By T. Edw. Belcher, p. 

On Sunetta hians Reeve. By J. R. Le B. Tomlin, p. 312. 

On the Association and Non-Association of Helix nemoralis 
and Helix hortensis. By W. Cartwright, pp. 313-319. 

Land and freshwater Mollusca of Winoley in North Wilts. 
By Douglas Bacchus, pp. 320-323. 

Paludestrina confusa in the Waveney Valley. By C. Old- 
ham, p. 324. 

Pisidia of Guernsey and Sark. By J. R. Le B. Tomlin, p. 

The Nautilus. 

Vol. XXXVI APRIL, 1923. No. 4 



On the morning of the 23d of last January Dr. Edward 
Mercer, his nephew of the same name, and the writer left 
Miami in the car of the former for a trip to Northwest Cape 
Sable on a snail-collecting expedition. The Doctor and I had 
visited the same general region before, taking in Middle and 
East capes, running with the auto down to Flamingo and on 
back along the prairie to a point in the rear of them, then 
leaving our machine and tramping across a wide, deep swamp 
over an old trail out to the open beach. 

We ran the fifty miles from Miami to the Royal Palm Park 
in a little over an hour over a beautiful oiled road and then 
down the Ingraham Highway across the open Everglades to- 
wards our destination. This road was not so fine as the first 
stretch but we made fairly good time over it and reached Flam- 
ingo on Florida Bay, a matter of perhaps twenty-five miles 
more, in about the same time we made the first run. There 
we were informed that one or more great canals had been cut 
from the back country and that we could only get to the old 
deserted clubhouse on the bay shore, a matter of six miles 
farther. We camped at this building, a ramshackle affair set 
up eight feet on posts and built by a land company, spread- 
ing our beds on the floor of the gallery and making coffee in a 


pail which we picked up. The other two hunted up a couple 
of old tin cans to drink out of while I dug a brand-new tin cup 
out of my bag, and this gave me a sort of social standing not 
enjoyed by the rest. 

In the morning we started afoot along the beach intending to 
visit East Cape, where there is an extensive grove of coconuts 
and a considerable area of hammock. Along the low shore and 
back for a great distance grew a forest of Avicennia or black 
mangrove and everywhere we found its strange "quills", cov- 
ering the ground in places. These usually grow straight and 
sometimes to a height of more than two feet; they may be as 
large as one's little finger, and they act as pneumatophores or 
breathers to pump oxygen from the air to the tree. Often they 
stand so close that they nearly touch, and it is almost impos- 
sible to work one's way through them. On the beach they are 
matted and twisted grotesquely, and thousands of them were 
thrust through the valves of pelecypod mollusks, Areas, Telli- 
nas, Cardiums, Labiosas, Loripes and Pholas, while other thou- 
sands bore aloft such gastropod shells as Strombus, Melongena, 
Polinices, Oliva and the like. Many of the bivalve shells are 
quite thin just below the beaks, and holes are often broken 
through them at this point as they are dashed about in the sea 
and on the shore. These with the univalves had been thrown 
upon beds; the "quills" had pushed their way up and in 
many cases through the holes of the valves, and into the 
apertures of the gastropod shells, lifting them on high as they 
grew up. 

Within half a mile of the cape we came to a newly dug canal, 
thirty feet wide and quite deep, which was carried far out into 
the shallow bay. Its banks were so steep we could not have 
climbed out if once we got in and it would have required a 
long wade in the soft mud to go out around it. The Doctor 
suggested that as I was taller than he and was the chief con- 
chologist it was up to me to lead the way and I countered by 
saying that if I was as young as he was I wouldn't hesitate a 
moment. Then he said "Pshaw, there is only a scrub ham- 
mock at East Cape and we were there not long ago ; it isn't 
worth while bothering our heads about it anyhow ! " So with 


this ' ' Sour grapes ' ' observation we turned back and agreed to 
call it "An Expedition that Failed." 

Leaving the club house we drove back over a wide prairie 
which was skirted by a large number of hammocks. We stop- 
ped at one of these and on entering it a most astonishing sight 
met our eyes. On almost every tree we found a considerable 
number of young Oxystyla floridensis and by standing in a 
single spot I could count more than I ever saw in all my life. 
These snails become completely dormant during the dry season, 
gluing themselves fast to the bark or other smooth surfaces of 
trees in any place where they can be somewhat concealed.* 
They are attached by an epiphragm so solidly that the shell 
will almost always crush without letting go and the only way 
of removing them without injury is to cut under the whole 
carefully with a knife. Every knot and depression in the bark, 
every space between brace roots was covered with these snails. 
In the forks of limbs, between two nearby trunks or any 
surface partly screened they were crowded together. A large 
piece of dead bark had fallen against the trunk of a .Jamaica 
dogwood and on taking it away I saw a space six inches wide 
and two feet long not only covered but having them two rnd 
three deep. A branch a foot or more in diameter had broken 
from a tree a short distance above the ground and had decayed 
so that a smooth-sided cavity perhaps eight inches across re- 
mained. The inside of it was crammed down as far as I could 
see in the semi-darkness. I ran a stick down it in order to find 
any rattlesnakes that might be in it; and hearing no disturbance 
I carefully thrust my arm down it and found the walls occupied 
with the snails nearly to the ground. Counting the number on a 
space six inches square on a nearby tree and making an estimate 
I concluded that there were at least five hundred specimens in 
this hollow limb! A very few of these were adult, probably 
three years old; perhaps five per cent had made a second growth 
and may have been two years of age but the rest had only 
formed one black growth-line and were yearlings. Hitherto I 

*For an illustration of this see my book " In Lower Florida Wilds," pp. 
352, 356. 


had only found this snail in limited numbers; now the woods 
were full of them, the market was glutted; the price at once 
went down and I hardly considered them worth collecting. 

Then I immediately launched a theory. I said that the pre- 
vious summer and fall had been unusually wet, that the rain 
had been well distributed, making conditions wonderfully fit 
for snails, that every Oxystyla egg in the hammock had doubt- 
less hatched and lived. I believed I would find a large number 
of these snails in every one I might visit and to prove that I 
was right I went to the next hammock, which was only a few 
rods away, and found absolutely nothing. Not a dead or broken 
shell, not even a fragment! I visited a third not far away and 
got a very few Oxystyla and several dead Liguus. Then we ran 
a short distance to a fourth and found a different subspecies of 
Liguus and no Oxystylas! Then I threw my theory on the scrap 
heap as I had done with many others. 

Perhaps it may be well to say something about the remark- 
able region which composes the extreme lower part of the 
mainland of Florida and the astonishing distribution of its 
Liguus. I believe that the land and water of this area are as 
complicated as they are in any part of the globe, in fact Mr. W. 
J. Krome who surveyed the whole territory for the Florida 
East Coast Railway informed me that there were thousands of 
acres of surface which were neither the one or the other. My 
experience in exploring a considerable part of it fully agreed 
with what he told me. Probably none of the natural land 
is more than two-and-a-half feet above an ordinary high tide 
and in places it is cut up by channels which vary greatly in 
width, with mudholes, pools, ponds and lakes. Some of these 
are fresh during the rainy season, others are brackish during 
the entire year. Large areas are inundated during the summer 
and fall that dry up and become mud beds in winter and 
spring. Land that is a little higher than this is usually covered 
with mangroves or Avicennias, the latter a large tree, while the 
drier littoral is overgrown with tropical buttonwood. Here and 
there the ground is a few inches higher, the result of the decay 
of rich vegetation, and on such spots hammock growth has 
sprung up. All the conditions are favorable for getting lost 


and I have been with at least three persons long resident in the 
region who became hopelessly confused and for a time were 
not able to tell where to go. It is a fine place for big diamond 
rattlesnakes and water moccasins, and one will do well to watch 
where and how he steps. 

I have said that the distribution of the Liguus in this region 
is astonishing; it is even amazing! At first sight it appears to 
be haphazard; it would seem as though some giant had strode 
over the entire region and from a bag of mixed Liguus had 
sown as a sower would scatter grain. But this is not entirely 
so. There are certain centers from which a given form or 
forms seem to be distributed, but one does not observe this at 
first. The subspecies lossmanicus seems to occupy exclusively 
the island from which it is named and this may be its center of 
distribution. At Northwest Cape I found capensis only; ap- 
parently another center and no Oxystyla were found there. 
At Rogers River lineolatus, roseatus and castaneozonatus occurred 
and what I take to be lossmanicus was brought to me from 
Harney River. There are two hammocks at Middle Cape, sep- 
arated by a narrow mangrove swamp. In the northern and 
smaller one Dr. Mercer and I found lossmanicus, castaneozonatus 
and hybrids between the two, lineolatus and a fine living mar- 
moratus. Across the five-rod swamp in the other hammock are 
all the forms in the north forest and in addition matecumbemis 
and eburneus. East Cape has beautiful roseatus, lineolatus, cin- 
gulatus and eburneus. In and around Flamingo matecumbensis 
and eburneus are abundant, but one hammock may have only 
one and a second another; and this seems to be the metropolis 
of both. Near Mr. Roberts' home I found specimens of a large 
castaneozonatus with a broad revolving band running unbroken 
nearly to the tip of the spire, and this form occurs on the middle 
of Key Largo and at the west end of Madeira Bay, twenty miles 
east of Flamingo. Capensis occurs in isolated spots; on Jo 
Kemp's Key, on a long tongue of land in Florida Bay six miles 
to the eastward, inland four miles northeast of Jo Kemp's Key 
and in an inland hammock back of Middle Cape. In the 
vicinity of Madeira Bay a form occurs that is probably living- 
^toni. I could give other instances of broken and scattered dis- 
tribution in this general region but they are not necessary. 


This remarkable dispersal of Liguus and Oxystyla cannot be 
explained by supposing that the region was once higher than 
at present and was covered by a continuous growth of ham- 
mock, for if this had been the case we would find most of the 
different forms pretty well distributed over the entire area. In 
the Lower Keys which once formed a single forest-covered 
island we find nearly all of the subspecies of Liguus solidus in 
practically every locality. These snails did not crawl from one 
hammock to the other as they do in pine woods. I have 
never seen one of them on wet ground and I feel sure that a 
swamp or any littoral ground is an absolute barrier to their 
passage. The three capes are connected by low, sandy beach 
with a deep morass just back of it and any Liguus or Oxystyla 
which attempted to travel on this sand would become clogged 
in it before going five feet. The other hammocks between the 
prairie and swamp which I have mentioned are as completely 
barred against the passage of tree snails from one to another as 
if the sea was between them. In the dry season they are 
dormant and are not gravid; during the time of the rains the 
ground between the different hammocks is either swampy or 
under water. 

The key to the mystery of distribution consists of one word 
— hurricanes! Hurricanes broke off or washed out the trees on 
which their progenitors grew in Cuba, these trees were swept 
into the sea on the great floods produced by them, they have 
helped to sweep these trees along the Florida Strait and have 
produced unusually high tides on which they were driven out 
over and by which they were deposited on our shores. There 
are a number of forms of Liguus living in Cuba today that are 
the analogues of subspecies inhabiting our state. Most of these 
were landed on our Upper Keys and from there migrated across 
to the mainland of Lower Florida over an old but now de- 
stroyed land -bridge. The castaneozonatus, roseatus, lineolatus, cin- 
gulatus^ matecumbensis and marmoratus of the upper chain are 
identical with forms on our lower mainland, and luteus of these 
islands is found in the hammocks of the southeast coast. Cap- 
ensis is close to vacaensis. 

These Liguus were established in the region I have discussed 


and were dispersed over it by hurricane action. The Bay of 
Florida is shaped something like a blunt cow's horn, its south- 
ern shore being the Florida Keys and the northern one the 
lower edge of the mainland, while its wide base opens to the 
west. Whenever, during one of these great storms the wind 
blows from a westerly direction the water of the sea is driven 
into the bay with great force and it overflows the entire lower 
portion of the mainland, often to a depth of six or seven feet ! 
Trees growing in this region and bearing Liguus or Oxystyla are 
broken off or they may be uprooted and with their living freight 
swept along on the angry flood in any direction, perhaps, some- 
times for several miles. The snails are able to cling to the 
branches on which they live and to stand immersion in water 
for many hours. Finally when the storm ceases and the 
water goes down they are landed in a new place, probably 
.a hammock where it is easy for them to crawl off, climb the 
nearest tree and at once establish a new colony. This will 
account for the fact that one hammock will have one or more 
species, the next another lot and a third nearby no Liguus 
.at all. The hurricanes are hit and miss sowers. 



Caney Fork, Tenn., a branch of the Cumberland river, sup- 
plied Lea with several of his types of Pleuroceridae and An- 
thony with at least two of his. Associated with the early 
collections from the stream are the names of Sellers, Edgar and 
Troost which one comes upon frequently in the literature of 
American freshwater mollusks. A probable fourth visitor to 
Caney Fork was Safford, who appears to have lived at Lebanon, 
not far from this river. Wetherby touched at one spot in the 
drainage in the 1870's. I suspect that I was the next conchol- 
ogist there, collecting between rains and floods in 1920. The 
year following, with a merciless sun to contend with instead of 
high waters, Miss Mina Winslow made an admirable collection. 
Dr. Ortmann did still more work in the stream in 1922. 


Caney Forks drains a section of the western escarpment of 
the Cumberland mountains. One tributary, Calfkiller river, 
follows a broad valley at the base of the highlands. Collins 
river, a second branch of many forks, approaches Walden 
Ridge toward the southeast and issues in the southwest from 
the ridge upon whose further side is the Duck river. 

The characteristic univalve of the drainage is Goniobasis ed- 
gariana Lea, ranging closely to G. laqueata Say and only re- 
motely, it seems to me, to G. nassula Conrad, under which 
Tryon consigned edgariana as a synonym. It is a large shell 
for the genus, typically striate-plicate, with flattened whorls 
and a subangular base in immature specimens. Studies of the 
variations by localities brought out the following facts: 

Calfkiller river, at Calfkiller, Putnam County — This is within 
four or five miles of the beginning of the stream and is appar- 
ently the highest spot reached by shell life. Of 680 specimens 
taken, 85 per cent has the plicate sculpture only. The remain- 
ing 15 per cent are plicate-striate. The sculpture ceases when 
the shell is about half-grown and thereafter consists only of 
nearly microscopic growth-lines. It is convenient to speak 
of that appearance as smooth. Only two shells were found 
with indications of color bands. In respect to color and tex-^ 
ture, the shape of the aperture and the form of the outer lip, 
the shells correspond to typical edgariana. 

Town creek, a branch of Calfkiller river, near Sparta, White 
County — Collections made by Miss Winslow, about 325 shells. 
The typical plicate-striate sculpture is present in 69 per cent. 
As the shells grow the plicae tend to disappear. In the case of 
89 specimens, the last whorl is striate only, in all it is smooth. 
Both adults and young are included in this count and it might 
be explained that the sculpture is persistent in nearly all the 
full-grown examples and wholly absent only in a few. Two 
shells are plicate without having the revolving striae. Dr. Ort- 
mann's collection at this locality did not differ from Miss 
Winslow' s. 

Two shells in my collection labeled simply '' Calfkiller river" 
and a single lot in Dr. Walker's cabinet, similarly designated 
and carrying Wetherby's identification, G. caliginosa Lea, are- 
of this form. 


Barren Fork, branch of Collins river, McMinnville, Warren 
County — Thirteen shells taken by Wetherby. Eleven adult 
and nearly adult specimens are plicate-striate to the last whorl. 
Two retain only the revolving striae upon this whorl. These 
are more nearly like the types, credited to Caney Fork proper, 
than any edgariana from the main stream I have seen outside 
of the Lea collection. Dr. Ortmann's shells from this place 
were so like Wetherby' s that I have not studied them inten- 
sively. An interesting note made by Dr. Ortmann was that the 
young edgariana he found here were in a shallow branch. 

Hickory creek, branch of Barren Fork, two miles south of 
McMinnville — 156 shells, almost all adult. Except three, these 
specimens are plicate-striate from apex to base of last whorl. 
The three are striate, but not plicate, on the ultimate .whorl. 

Caney Fork, Riverhill, White County — 45 shells taken by 
Dr. Ortmann. Thirty-seven shells have plicate-striate apex, 
six are only plicate at the apex; two specimens are so eroded 
that the sculpture cannot be made out. In the case of 21 
examples, the base is more or less distinctly striate; the base in 
24 is smooth. None is plicate to the last whorl as is common 
with the edgariana from Barren Fork and Hickory creek. This 
is a rough, heavy lot, tending apparently to lose the distinctive 
sculpture of the species. 

Caney Fork, below dam at Falls City, Warren County — 270 
shells taken by Miss Winslow. The specimens plicate-striate 
to the last whorl amount to 80 per cent, but not one is adult. 
Even in the instance of the young shells, there is a slight tend- 
ency for the plicae to become obsolete. Fourteen are striate on 
the last whorl, six are smooth. Of the full-grown individuals, 
13 are striate to the base, 22 are smooth upon the last whorl. 
The material of two other lots, collectors unknown, correspond 
to this form. 

Butts creek, DeKalb County — Nineteen shells. Here the 
plicate-striate sculpture is confined entirely to the early whorls 
and in one example the apex is striate only. The last whorls 
of all the shells are smooth. These mollusks seem to be iden- 
tical with Melania columella Lea. 

The species occurs also in Stone's river, Rutherford County, 


Tenn., another tributary of the Cumberland. It has been 
taken there by Wetherby and Ortmann, The shells are more 
convex than the Caney Fork forms, the revolving striae are 
stronger and more persistent, the last whorls of some of the 
young are rounded rather than subangular. Of 26 shells of 
a lot in Dr. Walker's collection, 24 are plicate-striate on all 
whorls. In two specimens, the plicae have disappeared before 
the last whorl is reached. The Stone's river form corresponds 
with Melania corrugata Lea. 

While nearly every colony of edgariana varies from other 
colonies, it does not, as in the case of Jo, vary with reference to 
any particular position in the stream. The most elaborately 
sculptured forms occur in Calfkiller river, presumably after the 
river stage is reached; in a branch of this stream and in 
branches of Collins river. A more simple form lives in the 
headwaters of Calfkiller river and the tendency of the species in 
Caney Fork at Riverhill and at the falls is toward simplifi- 
cation. That environment has an influence in this matter is 
not clear, for Barren Fork, at the time I saw it, was swift and 
rough; Hickory creek, having the same form of edgariana, was 
a slow-moving stream. Conditions in the upper Calfkiller river 
and those at the falls of Caney Fork would correspond only at 
a time of freshet. 

The habitat in upper Calfkiller river was clear, gently-flowing 
water, six to eighteen inches deep. The shells occurred in all 
parts of the stream, upon stones and a small sandbar. In 
Hickory creek, nearly all edgariana were taken from limestone 
rocks exposed by the channel. While Barren Fork, just below, 
was on a rampage. Hickory creek had the current of a prairie 
brook. So I judge it is seldom swift. Dr. Ortmann writes 
that at Riverhill, the shells occurred "in riffles, on rocks; also 
in slowly flowing water along banks, on mud." The habitat 
at McMinnville, he describes as "riffles with coarse gravel; the 
very small ones were found in a shallow branch among fine 
gravel." In Town creek, he found the shells "in quiet pools 
and eddies on mud and sand as well as on ridges of limestone 
crossing the creek." 


The synonymy of this species is: 

Melania edgariana Lea, March, 1841. 

Melania columella Lea, March, 1841. 

Melania caliginosa Lea, March, 1841. 

Melania concinna Lea, March, 184L 

Melania corrugata Lea, March, 1841. 

Melania rug osa hesi, Dec, 1842. 

Melania coricina Anth. , Dec, 1850. 

Melania sellersiana Lea, 1852. 

Goniobasis purpurella Lea, May, 1862. 

Pillsbry * has made M. corrugata and rugosa synonyms of G, 
laqueata Say. As edgariana is a sort of robust stepbrother of 
laqueata the transfer I have suggested in the position of the two 
species is of no great importance. 



In his summer campaign for Orthoptera in company with 
Mr. Rehn, Mr. Morgan Hebard visited the northwestern slope 
of Hacheta Grande. Ascending in a broad canyon, he found 
land shells at about 7600 ft. Holospira crossei Dall and Oreohelix 
hachetana Pils. do not differ from the specimens already known 
from about a thousand feet higher, at the summit of the moun- 
tain, where one of us collected in 1910. The Ashmunella ob- 
tained, while related to A. mearnsi, is rather conspicuously 

Ashmunella hebardi n. sp. Shell of about the size and 
color of A mearnsi, but differing (1) by the presence of an acute 
peripheral keel near the top of the whorl, the upper surface of 
the last 3 whorls nearly flat, the last whorl impressed above the 
keel; the base strongly convex, (2) the straight parietal callus 
is much more strongly raised, (3) the surface is distinctly 

*Proc. Acad. Nat. Sci., Phila., 1896, p. 499. 


though finely striate, the striae partially interrupted forming 
long granules. The teeth are substantially as in A, mearnsi. 

Height 5, diam. 14.7 mm.; 5^ whorls. 

By its acute keel and minutely roughened surface this form 
resembles A. walkeri Ferr. of the Florida range; but that is 
a smaller species with weaker sculpture, an adnate parietal 
callus and a simple parietal lamella. A. kocki Clapp of the 
S. Andraes range is larger, smoother, not acutel}^ carinate, and 
has not a raised parietal callus. 

All of the specimens are dead shells more or less bleached. 
The amount of granulation visible on these "bones" is vari- 
able, especially on the base. Doubtless living shells would 
show it more strongly, and possibly with cuticular scales. The 
surface is dull, not glossy as in living A. mearnsi. In one 
example some fine incised spiral lines can be made out on the 

Type is 131409 A. N. S. P. Paratypes, 6 specimens, No. 


HONOLULU, 1921. 


During several months of last year the Hawaiian Dredging 
Company was engaged in deepening the small harbor at Kewalo 
in order to accommodate the Japanese fishing fleet. 

The dredged material was pumped through large iron pipes, 
and discharged upon a piece of waste ground, thus giving a 
good opportunity for the examination of the molluscan life 
of this part of the bay. 

As often as possible visits were paid to the scene of opera- 
tions, and many thousands of shells, mainly in a "dead" con- 
dition, secured, amongst them species that are rarely if ever 
found by the ordinary means of collecting, and others that 
were new to science. 

It was quite amusing to notice how that, when one appeared 


the men, women, and children busy collecting shells, bits of 
coral, &c. would pass the word around, *' Here comes the shell 
man", and they would crowd up with bucket?, tins, and 
tobacco boxes containing their "finds, " and a selection would 
be made for which a small consideration would be given, both 
parties being quite satisfied. Some of the people were set to 
collecting the many minute shells to be found amongst the 
piles of coral sand, rock, and debris, and in this way a number 
of most interesting species were discovered. 

Over 150 species of mollusca were collected, and Professor 
Dall of the National Museum has most kindl}^ examined and 
named many of them. 

The following is a list of species gathered by the writer, and 
from this a good idea of the molluscan life in a limited area of 
these waters can be obtained. 
Alaeocyma thaanumi Dall. hebraeus. L. 

Alcyna kapiolaniae Pils. lividus Hwass. 

rubra Pse. marmoreus L. 

rubra multicolor Dall. nussatella L. 

Alectrion hirta Kien. omaria Hwass. 

ravida A. Ads. generalis L. 

Atys cornuta Pils. pulicarius Hwass. 

Biforina cingulifera Hds. quercinus Hwass. 

corrugata Hds. striatus L. 

decorata Pse. textile L. 

flammulata Pse. Coralliophila neritoides Lam. 

Bittium boeticum Pils. & Van. Cylichna anagogia Dall. 

boeticumunilineatum Pse. Cymatium pilearis L. 
Cassis vibex L. bracteatus Hds. 

Cerithium obeliscus Brug. obscurus. 

lacteum Kien. tuberosus Lam. 

Columbella (Alia) moleculina Cymatosyrinx mighelsi Dall. 
Duclos. Cypraea caputserpentis L. 

orphia Duclos. carneola L. 

urania Duclos. circicula v. tricornis Jouss. 

varians Sowb. helvola L. 

Conus abbreviatus Nutt. isabella L. 

catus Hwass. madagascariensis Gm. 



peasei Sowb. 

recticulata Mart. 


sulcidentata Gray. 

talpa L. 

tessellata Swain. 
Daphnella sandwichensis Pse. 
Daphnobela manti n. sp. 
Dibaphus edentulus Swain. 
Drupa morus Lam. 

ricinus L. 

tuberculatus Blainv. 
Engina idosia Duclos. 
Erato sandwichensis Pse. 
lopas sertum Brug. 
Liocerithium thaanumi Pils. & 

Liotia ednae Dall. 
Marginella acaria Dall. 
Melanella acicula Gld. 

opaca Sby. 

pusilla Sby. 
Minolia striatula Garrett 
Mitra astrica Rve. 

aurantia Gm. 

auriculoides Rve. 

consanguinea Rve. 

cophina Gld. 

coronata Lam. 

ferruginea Lam. 

flavescens Rve. 

fulva Swain. 



lipara Dall. 

litterata Lam. 

lugubre Swain. 

mitata? Dall. 

ostergaardi n. sp. 

peasei Sby. 

kewaloensis Dall. 

tabanula Lam. 

thaanumi n. sp. 

ticaonica vagans n. sp. 

tuberosa Rve. 

tusa Rve. 
Mitromorpha hawaiiense DalL 
Morula ochrostoma Blainv. 

porphyrostoma Rve. 
Natica marochiensis. 
Niso diomedae Dall. 
Oliva sandwichensis. 
Otopleura diminuta Dall. 
Peristernia chlorostoma Sby. 

cf. newcombi A. Ads. 


xanthostigmata Dall. 
Philbertia luteola Dall. 

laysanensis Dall. 

mighelsi Iredale. 
Planaxis labiosus A. Ads. 
Polynices mamilla L. 
Pupa alveola Souv. 
Pyramidella oahuensis Dall. 

sulcata A? Ads. 
Ranella (Aspella) ancepts Lam. 

pusilla Brod. 
Rhizocheilus madreporarum 

Rissoina ambigua Gld. 

miltozona Tomlin. 

tridentata Mich. 

stearnsi Dall. 
Subulina metcalfei A. Ads. 



Strombus maculatus Nutt. 

maculatus var. 

samar Dillw. 
Terebra albula Mke. 

clappi Pils. 

crenulata L. 

dislocata Say. 

inconstans Hds. 

lanceata oahuensis n. sp. 

langfordi Pils. 

lauta Pse. 

maculata L. 

nodulare Desh. 

pertusa Born. 

straminea Gray. 
Thericium nassoide Sby. 
Trifora (Biforina) cingulifera 

Trochus sandwichensis. 
Turbo intercostalis Mke. 
Turris brevicaudata Rve. 

brevicaudata var. 
Vexilla turben kanaka Pils. 

vexillum Chemn. 



Anodontoides birgei, new species. 

Shell rather solid, elongated, cylindrical, inequilateral, in- 
flated; anterior end broadly rounded, posterior end pointed, 
distinctly biangulate; ventral margin straight or somewhat con- 
cave; dorsal margin straight, forming an angle with the poster- 
ior end; dorsal margin developing a small but well-marked 
wing; beaks raised about the hinge line, swollen; beak sculp- 
ture as in A. f^ussacianus but finer, with the bars close together 
and with a tendency to become double-looped; posterior ridge 
sharply rounded, very distinct, with a postero-dorsal excavated 
area: the shell is greatly inflated anterior to this ridge; epider- 
mis yellowish-horn or olive, the rest periods showing as brown 
concentric bands; surface rayless; hinge edentulous, but rein- 
forced beneath the beaks by swellings representing rudimentary 
pseudocardinal teeth; the shell beneath the ligament is also 
thickened; beak cavity shallow; muscle scars faintly impressed ; 
nacre bluish-white, silvery, tinged with salmon or pinkish. 

* Contribution from the Museum of Natural History, University of Illinois, 
No. 27. 


especially below the beak cavities. Female shell not as much 
incurved ventrally as male shell, otherwise there is little differ- 
ence between the sexes. 

Length, 61; height, 30; width, 26 mm. Type. 

Length, 58; height, 29; width, 23 mm. Paratype. 

Length, 29; height, 17; width, 10 mm. Paratype. 

Length, 82; height, 37; one valve. 

The animal is similar to that of Anodontoides ferussacianus. 
Mantle connection between anal and supra-anal openings much 
shorter than anal; anal opening fringed with fine papillae on the 
inner edge; labial palpi connected at the base as in ferussaci- 
anus) inner gills larger than outer gills, especially anteriorly; 
the inner lamina of the inner gills are free from the abdominal 
sac as in ferussaciamus; outer gills marsupial. Mantle purplish - 
white, openings edged with brown; gills whitish; foot and ab- 
domen creamy-white. Glochidia similar to those of ferussacia- 
nus buchanensisy but a trifle smaller; length and width 0.280 
mm. The breeding season is probably the same as in ferussaci- 
anus ; gravid specimens examined in middle of August. 

Ecology: Shore of a bay exposed to the full force of the 
waves, buried in sandy-clay or clay bottom, at depths of from 
two to six feet. 

Type locality: Sturgeon Bay, Door County, Wisconsin, west 
of bridge. 

Anodontoides birgei is related to A. modesta, having the same 
form of beak sculpture. It differs markedly, however, in the 
shape of the shell, being more cylindrical and more inflated, 
with a well-marked posterior ridge and with the beaks longer. 
The swelling of the beaks extends downward on the side of the 
shell, giving it a greatly swollen appearance when viewed from 
the dorsal margin. Comparisons have been made with modesta 
from Long Lake, near Kalamazoo, Michigan. 

This Anodontoides occurs in great abundance on the shores 
of Sturgeon Bay and has been produced, evidently, by the lake 
environment. There is some variation in the form of the shell 
and in the degree of development of the posterior ridge. All 
have the^cylindrical shape when mature, but young and imma- 
ture individuals are more compressed and have a rounded ridge. 


A small form of Anodontoides occurs in a creek, six miles east 
of Green Bay, which somewhat resembles birgei, but this form 
has the beak sculpture of feriissacianus and buchanensis and is 
referable to the latter race. 

I take great pleasure in dedicating this interesting species to 
Dr. Edward A. Birge, President of the University of Wisconsin 
and Director of the State Geological and Natural History 



Lymnaea caperata warthini, new variety. 

Shell differing from typical caperata in being smaller, more 
globose with a very short, wide spire; aperture rounder, the 
inner lip narrower and less reflexed over the narrow umbilical 
chink; whorls 4-5; sculpture of coarse spiral lines as in the 
type; color dark chestnut. 

Length, 7.0; width, 5.0; aperture length, 4.0; width, 2.3 
mm. Topotype. 

Length, Q.o] width, 4.0; aperture length, 3.5; width, 2.0 
mm. Paratype. 

Length, 5.8; width, 4.8; aperture length, 3.5; width, 2.0 
mm. Paratype. 

This little Lymnaeid differs markedly from the typical form, 
which is also found in Yellowstone Park (Swan Lake, collected 
by Berry), in its more globose form, short spire and narrower 
umbilical region. It was collected by Dr. A. S. Warthin from 
rocks wet with spray at the foot of the Upper Falls, Canyon of 
the Yellowstone, in September, 1922. The specimens were 
submitted to the writer by Mr. S. S. Berry, of Redlands, Cali- 
fornia, who has been an untiring student in extending our 
knowledge of the distribution of western mollusks. It is named 

* Contribution from the Museum of Natural History, Museum of Illinois, 
No. 29. 


in honor of Dr. Alfred S. Warthin, of the University of Michi- 
gan, who collected the specimens. Paratypes are in the collec- 
tion of S S. Berry (No. 5547) and of the Museum of Zoology, 
University of Michigan. Types and Paratypes in the Museum 
of Natural History, University of Illinois. 



Red River having become choked by vast accumulations of 
drift-logs in the vicinity of Shrevesport, Louisiana, carried its 
waters to the Gulf through many side channels, which soon be- 
came possessed of high banks (as had the main river), and the 
lower lands between these channels acquired local names, some 
as 'Makes," others as "bayous". 

The drift however, having been cleaned out by the U. S. 
Government, and the side channels dammed at their heads,, 
most of the lands constituting the Valley of the Red River are 
now in cultivation, even some of the former navigable lakes 
being cultivated. 

When first explored by the writer. Bayou Pierre even at low 
water stage was a fairly large stream, and entitled to the name 
of ' ' river ' ' . 

The bed of this stream was swarming with millions of mussel 
shells, comprising nineteen species. 

The creeks emptying into Bayou Pierre in this vicinity con- 
tained water of very different kind from that of Red River, the 
latter being heavily charged with gypsum, lime, and in low 
water stages even salt could be noticed as one of its flavoring 
materials. But the creek affluents of the river carry quite 
"soft" waters, and this difference, if not the cause, is at least 
correlated with a quite different mussel fauna. Anondonta 
grandis is the single species common to both creek and river. 

When the head of Bayou Pierre was dammed across, there 
ensued of course a tremendous mortality in the naiad population, 
hundreds of acres of hitherto living waters becoming dry lands. 


Gradually the Bayou Pierre has become converted from a 
stream containing the hard water of Red River to one contain- 
ing the soft waters of the local creeks, and in fact is now only 
a large creek, going dry during droughts, except in local pools. 

Between Red River and Bayou Pierre a low valley was for 
long known as Brown Lake, but which now is in rapid process 
of being put into a high state of cultivation. 

A rail road, and a hard surfaced public road now traverse its 
former site. Alongside of the latter a ditch was dug, five feet 
wide and two feet deep and in the lower part of the lake site 
this ditch holds water for some time after rains, during which 
the ditch communicates with Bayou Pierre situated about a 
mile away. 

In such flood times, fish run up these temporary streams, 
seeking pools in which to lay their eggs, and as these are oft- 
times infested with glochidia the bottom of the ditch above- 
mentioned becomes sown with young mussels. 

It has so happened that the past two years have been unusu- 
ally wet, and the rains have been quite equably distributed 
during the year, and hence the ditch in question, in its lower 
portion of about two hundred feet in length, has been continu- 
ously more or less full of water, until the present autumn 

The writer had occasion to walk down this dry ditch and 
somewhat to his astonishment found hundreds of mussel shells 
on the bottom, some of which being collected proved of much 

A single Anodonta grandis was found, almost five inches long, 
showing a quite rapid growth, for it is impossible that this shell 
is more than thirty months old; most likely its age is only eigh- 
teen months. 

The most interesting cases however are of the two following 
shells. The writer, in Nautilus, 1903, showed that Unio tetral- 
asnus Say, with its several synonyms and the Unio dedivis Say 
with its synonym geometricus Lea, were entirely distinct species, 
differing in shape, size, color of nacre and habitats. 

This has been strikingly proven true by the changes in the 
local conditions outlined above. In the dried bed of Brown 


Lake, great numbers of old dead shells of the A. geometricus can 
still be picked up; but in the many years of personal collecting 
done by the writer, no specimen of tetralasmus has ever been 
found in any Red River water. How interesting it was, then 
to find that the bottom of the ditch mentioned is teeming with 
typical tetralasmus^ and not a single geometricus exists, I am 
sure, in this vicinity. 

The latter form is universally held by all writers, including 
Lea himself, to be a local form of Vnio declivis Say. The single 
exception to this reference was Simpson, who in his Catalogue 
of 1914, cites the figure of geometricus given in Nautilus, 1903, 
Plate III, as being camptodon Say! 

The population of this local aquarium however contained 
another surprise. For many years the writer has tried to prove 
by concrete material, what he was convinced to be true, that 
Unio haleianus Lea was merely an individual variant of texasen- 
sis] but no material had ever been obtained which could prove 
this intuition. Along with the tetralasmus in this ditch, the 
writer found hundreds of texasensiSj and to his delight, a speci- 
men of extra large size proved to be typical haleianus ! 

Although the bed of this little pond has been dry for the past 
two months, all of the tetralasmus are still living, and quite a 
number of the texasensis are also alive, but the majority are 
recently dead. 

Notwithstanding that this pool of water was very seldom 
more than one foot deep, it seems to have been an almost ideal 
habitat for the three species mentioned, so long as the rains 

One of the conditions which rendered this pool an almost 
optimum locality is the fact that being situated in an open com- 
mons, there is no shade, not even of weeds, to obstruct the 

It may not be known to every reader that the paucity of 
Naiades in the Tropics is thought by those who have collected 
in those regions to be largely due to the dense shade covering 
all but the larger streams. 

The exploration of this ditch however furnished still another 
item of interest. As the pool dried up, the exposed texasensis 


began to die, and their valves gaping, the exposed contents 
were eaten by birds, and the latter not being content with their 
daily dead, in several cases undertook to expedite the process 
by pecking holes through their valves. With such force was 
this done that, in every case noted, both valves were punctured 
at once. Whether this action of these birds is due to instinct or 
to reason^ the writer being strictly a Naiadologist leaves it to 
other better equipped observers to decide; merely remarking 
that this process has been previously observed, and the pecked 
shells in the writers cabinet now number three, from widely 
separate localities. 


(Continued from page 84.) 

Lea and Simpson distinguished from Lasmigona holstonia a 
species, georgiana (originally described under the preoccupied 
name etowahensis Lea), chiefly on the ground that the beak 
sculpture is said to be not double-looped, but concentric, and 
that the pseudocardinals are single in each valve. This form 
has been reported from Etowah River, Ga., and also from 
Tennessee, but so far only the types of Lea (two, according to 
Simpson) are known. They have badly eroded beaks and 
rudimentary pseudocardinals. According to my experience 
such beaks are often seen in L. holstonia, and the development 
of the pseudocardinals is very variable. The posterior (inter- 
dental) tooth of the left valve often is very poorly developed, 
or even absent, and sometimes also the anterior one is obsolete, 
so that there is only one tooth in each valve, and, in extreme 
cases, even this tooth may become rather small. Such cases of 
reduction of the hinge teeth are seen chiefly in older shells, in 
specimens both from the Coosa and from the Tennessee drain- 
age, but such specimens are always associated with normal 
ones. Thus I do not entertain the slightest doubt that the 


^^ Alasmidonta georgiana (Lea)" is simply a synonym of Las- 
migona holstonia (Lea). 

10. Strophitus conasaugaensis (Lea).^ 

St. connasaugamsis (Lea) (1857), St. alabamensis (Lea) 
(1861), St. gesneri (Lea) (1858), Simpson, 1914 pp. 351-354. 

The first form is from Conasauga Creek, Gilmore Co., Ga. 
(only the very source of the Conasauga, for about a mile, is in 
Gilmore Co. ) ; alabamensis comes from Talladega Creek, Talla- 
dega Co., Ala.; gesneri from " Uphaupee Cr., below Columbus, 
Ga." (surely Uphaupee Creek, Macon Co., Ala., tributary of 
Tallapoosa River (Alabama drainage); it is, however not "be- 
low" Columbus, but to the west of it). 

In 1900, Simpson has united alabamensis with conasaugaensis^ 
but in 1914, he separated them again, expressly stating that the 
three forms are closely connected and hard to distinguish. He 
gives the following distribution: conasaugaensis, Alabama River 
system; for alabamensis the additional locality: Shelby Co., 
Ala.; for gesneri also: Swamp Creek, Ala. (an uncertain local- 
ity, possibly Swamp Cr. , Lowndes Co., Ala., trib. to Alabama 
River; but there is another Swamp Creek, in Escambia Co., 
trib. to Escambia River). 

Thus these forms are found in the Alabama, Tallapoosa, and 
Coosa drainages, from southern central Alabama (Lowndes and 
Macon Cos. ) northward to northern Georgia. From this region 
I have the following material. 

Chatooga River, Trion, Chatooga Co., Ga. A dead, broken 
shell, A. E. Ortmann coll., May 19, 1915. 

Conasauga River, Conasauga, Polk Co., Tenn. Three males, 
two females (with soft parts), A. E. Ortmann coll., May 24, 

Coosa River, Weduska Shoals, Shelby Co., Ala. Three 
shells, H. H. Smith coll. 

All those described shells, and also the specimens at hand, 
resemble the Strophitus edentulus (Say) of the interior basin. 
They differ from it, however, in the somewhat lighter color of 

^ According to the orthography accepted in the U. S. Topogr. Surv. maps 
I change thus the original spelling: connasaugaensis. 


the epidermis, in that of the nacre, which varies from whitish 
to dull salmon or purplish (the latter color never found in eden- 
tidics), and chiefly by the better development of the hinge 
teeth. While the pseudocardinals, in S. edentulus, are entirely 
rudimentary, represented only by gentle swellings or not at all, 
there is, in this Alabama-form, at least one pseudocardinal in 
each valve, which may be small, but is generally, well de- 
veloped, triangular and compressed, or tubercular, knob-like 
and stumpy. The tooth in the left valve corresponds to the 
second tooth of the original Anodontine hinge-teeth, for, in 
rare cases, in front and behind this, traces of a first and third 
tooth are seen, the third corresponding to the interdental tooth. 

M. connasauga'insis Lea, founded upon a single individual, is 
of medium size, and rather elevated in the posterior part; M. 
alabamensis Lea, also founded upon a single specimen, is large, 
and represents the normal condition of this form: it is also 
somewhat thicker than young shells. M. gesneri Lea is founded 
upon five specimens; the figured one also is large, but less elon- 
gated than alabamensis, and a little more convex, with darker 
(brown) epidermis: the nacre is purplish on the margins, and, 
according to Simpson, the left valve has traces of three pseudo- 
cardinals (Lea describes only one). 

These three forms easily fall within the range of variation as 
indicated by my specimens (which surely belong to one species), 
and I only should add, that I have no specimens as large as 
alabamensis and gesneri. My largest, a female from Conasauga, 
measures: L. 67, H. 49, D. 32 mm. Also none of my speci- 
mens has purplish tints in the nacre, but in several of them 
salmon color is seen. 

This species should be known as Strophitus conasaugamsis 
(Lea) (1857), and it is characterized by the presence of at least 
one pseudocardinal in each valve, variable in size and shape, to 
which, in the left valve, sometimes traces of two others (anter- 
ior and posterior) are added; by the yellowish-olive color of the 
epidermis, turning to brown in old shells, and the occasional 
presence of rays upon the posterior slope. 

The same type of shell, as far as it concerns the hinge-teeth, 
is found in the western section of the Alabama system, in Tom- 


bigbee River and its tributaries in western Alabama and eastern 
Mississippi. These shells are larger, thicker, and more swollen 
and have a blackish epidermis (in young ones, however, this is 
lighter, yellowish to greenish olive, but mostly with dark rays 
and dark concentric bands). They go by the names of St. 
spillmani (Lea) (1858) and St. tombigbeensis (Lea) (1858). 
They undoubtedly represent conasaugaensis in this region, but I 
cannot tell whether they intergrade with it or not. iS^. spillmani 
is a longer spell, dark brown, with concentric bands, while S. 
tombigeensis is shorter, with dark epidermis and lighter rays, 
characters which surely are only individual. 



Drillia roseobads, from Tagus Cove, Albemarle, Island, Gala- 
pagos, was defined by us in Proc. Washington Academy of 
Sciences IV, 1902, p. 560, pi. 35, fig. 2. We did not know that 
there was a prior Pleurotoma (^Drillia) roseobam of E. A. Smith.* 
Neither of these species would be a Drillia in the modern sense, 
and as genera are now understood in this family, they would 
probably not be considered congeneric; but Smith's species has 
not been figured and is little known. Dr. W. H. Dall, consid- 
ering the names homonymous, renamed the Galapagos species 
Pleurotoma roseotincta.f Unfortunately, this name cannot be 
used on account of the prior Pleurotoma (Clathurella) roseotincta 
Montrouzier, 1872. J We propose, therefore to rename our 
Galapagos species Pleurotoma testudinis. 

^ Ann. Mag. Nat. Hist. (6), II, 1888, p. 801. Habitat unknown. 

"Y ' ^ Pleurotoma roseotincta new name for roseobasis Pilsbiy, 1902, not of E. 
A. Smith, 1888." Proc. U. S. Nat. Mus. vol. 54, 1919, p. 333. 

J Journ. de Conchyl. XX, 1872, p. 361; XXI, 1873, p. 55, and as ''Pleuro- 
toma roseotincta,' '' t. c pi. iv, fig. 1. 



Department of Zoology, University of Nebraska. 

Olea {genus nov.). 

The body is tmncate amteriorly, elongate, limaciform, taper- 
ing to a point posteriorly. The back is gently arched and 
smooth, and passes imperceptibly into the sides which are 
also gently arched, so that the body with the back and sides 
may be said to arch until they touch the foot from which 
they are set off. The back bears two rows of papillae on each 
side located posteriorly to the middle of the body; those in 
the dorsal row are larger than those in the ventral; the 
papillse of the latter alternate in position with those of the 
former. The position of the papillae (Fig. 1) is remarkable 
from the fact that these organs are clustered into two rows, 
dorso-laterally, on the middle aspect of the body in the posi- 
tion similar to that of the cerata of Doris. The tapering pos- 
terior part of the body extends posterior to the base of the 
last pair of papillae a distance equal to one-half the length of 
that part of the body which is anterior of the first pair of 
papillae. The heart was seen pulsating just below and be- 
tween the first anterior papillae. The anal pore is on the right 
side, in front of the heart, near the mid-dorsal line. The 
genital openings are placed antero-laterally near the end of 
the body. There are two small pigment spots on the dorso- 
lateral part of the neck where the dorsal margin of the less 
pigmented border of the neck merges with the darker area of 
the back. The body is everywhere uniformly ciliated. 

A radula is totally absent. There are neither tongue nor 

Olea hansineensis {sp. nov.). Plate VI. 

Distribution: Puget Sound (Friday Harbor), Washington. 

Dimensions: The length of the largest specimen was 13 
mm. ; the smallest, 7 mm., and the height 2 mm. and 1 mm., 


Color : Olea hansineensis is dark brown in color, very much 
like Hammea Leach, of the Tectihranchiata; bnt the former 
is studded everywhere with lighter spots of various sizes. 
In the lamp-light, however, the color changed to a light yel- 
lowish brown hue. The tips of the papillae, the back between 
the papillae, the sole of the foot and its dorsal posterior part, 
and the sides of the head and neck, are lighter than the rest 
of the body. 

Foot: The foot (Fig. 2) is nearly as wide as the body is 
high. It is convex anteriorly, with papillary prolongations 
of the antero-lateral angles. Posteriorly it tapers lanceolately 
to a point. Its surface is uniformly ciliated. 

Head: The head is set off from the body by a short but 
distinct neck. Dorsal tentacles are absent. The oral ten- 
tacles are lateral prolongations of the hood, one on each side. 
Labial parts consist of a rounded lobe on each side, and one 
median dorsal lobe. The mouth is sub-terminal, vertical ; the 
ventral lip bilobed. 

Habitat: These very interesting animals live on the eel- 
grass (Zostera marina). I never have been able to distinguish 
them from their environments while in their native habitat 
because of their resemblance in color to the vegetative (fila- 
mentous diatomaceous) growth which together with hydroids 
fairly cover the fronds of the Zostera; but they were detected 
when brought accidentally into the laboratory along with 
Hermissenda opalescens Cooper, and Haminea Leach, com- 
monly found among the eel-grass at Brown Island, Friday 
Harbor, Washington, in very large numbers, especially the 
latter. They were dipped up from the eel-grass by means of 
a gravy-strainer with Hermissenda and Haminea. 

Nidosome : A number of nidosomes were laid in the dish in 
the laboratory on the second morning after capture, the ani- 
mals being segregated from other nudibranchs. The nido- 
some is a simple coiled string (Fig. 4) from 20 to 70 mm. long 
and 1 mm. in diameter. Oviposition continued for thre^ 
weeks. The eggs are capsulated, and there is only one q^^ in 
each capsule. Cleavage total and spiral. During oviposition 
the animal crawls in the direction of the arrow (Fig. 4). 


Death-feigning was commonly practiced when the animals 
were disturbed. But they soon resumed active movements on 
the bottom and along the side of the dish and toward the top 
of the water. When the water became stale they invariably 
dropped to the bottom of the dish and lay motionless. This 
habit is contrary to that of the Aeolidia which seek the sur- 
face at such times and remain mostly adhering to the surface 
film. Olea hansine'ensis comes to (the surface when it is feed- 
ing (it is constantly nipping at nearly microscopic organisms 
when at the surface, crawling as it does on the surface film 
with the back dowTiward) or actively crawling; it never rests 
on the surface film as the Aeolidia do : when it rests it is on 
the bottom, and often appears to be dead. Shaking the finger- 
bowl, however, awakens it from its slumber, when it again 
becomes active. 

I am not sure of its exact systematic position until I find 
opportunity to examine its anatomy more carefully. The 
liver extends into the papillae (Fig. 3), and on that account 
it is, of course, a Cladohepatic form. But the hepatic arbor- 
ization is not so extensive as e. g., in Melibe lemiina (Gould), 
Agersborg (1916, 1919, 1921, 1922, 1923, 1923a). The head 
of Olea hansine'ensis resembles that of Lima-pontia nigra John- 
ston, but unlike this species which has no papillae, 0. hansi- 
ne'ensis has two rows of papillae clustered closely 'together pos- 
terior to the middle of the back, anterior and posterior to 
which it is perfectly smooth. The position of the anus and 
other anatomical differences, as e. g., the radula, remove it 
from this type. The gonads are divided into a number of 
acini connected by a branching duct-system as in Boto coro- 
nata Gemlin. Another form to which its head bears resem- 
blance in shape is Acteonia corrugata Aid. & Hanc. I cannot 
find any resemblance in 0. hansine'ensis to any of the numer- 
ous types described by Bergh (1879, 1880, 1894, 1904), Cock- 
erell (1901, 1901a, 1902, 1908, 1915), Cockerell and Eliot 
(1905), Cooper (1862), Eliot (1910), Fewkes (1889), Mac- 
Farland (1905), O'Donoghue (1921), Pease (1872), and 
Stearns (1873). O'Donoghue, to whom I presented a speci- 
men, writes me: " The other one (0. hansine'ensis) is not 


known to me and as far as I can find has not been recorded 
previously from the Pacific Coast of North America." It is 
quite safe to erect for this type a new genus; it may even b€ 
found to deserve family rank. The generic name, which I 
have proposed, is Olea in honor of my sister who for a num- 
ber of years was a constant source of inspiration to me in my 
scientific studies in this country; the specific name is hansi- 
necnsis, in honor of my first, the noblest, and the greatest of 
all my teachers, my mother. 

Only seven specimens in all were collected. The place of 
collection was from Zostera marina in the inner bay of Brown 
Island, opposite the Laboratory of the Puget Sound Biological 
Station at Friday Harbor, Washington. In fixing the ani- 
mals, nearly all the papillae dropped off. Two specimens, 
preserved in 5% formaldehyde, were dissected for the pur- 
pose of studying the radula, but no trace of such an organ 
was detected. Four specimens were fixed in Flemming's 
chromo-osmic-acetic mixture for cytological study. Of these, 
one is designated as the type, and remains in the collection of 
the writer. Dr. Chas. H. O'Donoghue, of the University of 
Manitoba, has one specimen which was preserved in formal- 

Literature Cited. 

Agersborg, H. p. Kjerschow. 

1916. A study of the nudibranchiate mollusk, Melihe leo- 
nina (Gould). A thesis submitted for the degree of 
Master of Science, University of Washington. 120 pp., 
87 figures. 
1919. Notes on Melihe leonina (Gould). Pub. Puget 
Sound Biol. Sta., 2 : 269-277 ; 3 figures. 

1921. Contribution to the knowledge of the nudibranch- 
iate mollusk, Melihe leonina (Gould). Amer. Nat., 55": 
222-253 ; 12 figures. 

1921a. On the status of Chioraera Gould. Nautilus, 35: 

1922. Some observations on qualitative chemical and 
physical stimulations in nudibranchiate mollusks with 
special reference to the role of the ''rhinophores". Jour. 
Exper. Zool., 36:423-444; 2 figures. 


1923. A critique on Professor Harold Heath's Chioraera 
dalli, with special reference to the use of the foot in the 
nudibranchiate mollusk, Melihe lemima (Gould). Nau- 
tHus, 36 : 86-96 ; 9 figures. 

Bergh, Rudolph. 

1879. On the nudibranchiate gasteropod mollusca of the 
North Pacific Ocean, with special reference to those of 
Alaska. Proc. Acad. Nat. Sci. Philad., 31, 3d ser. 9. 

1880. On the nudibranchiate gasteropod Mollusca of the 
North Pacific Ocean, with special reference to those of 
Alaska. Proc. Acad. Nat. Sci. Philad., 32. 

1894. Reports on the dredging operations off the West 
Coast of Mexico, and in the Gulf of California iii charge 
of Alexander Agassiz, carried on by the U. S. Fish Com- 
mission Steamer "Albatros" during 1891. Bull. Mus. 
Comp. Zool. Harvard College, 25, (10). 

1904. Nudibranchiate kladohepatica on the Columbia 
River, Washington. C. Semper, Reisen im Archipel 
Philippinen, wiss. Resultate, 9, (6) Lief 1. 


1901. Three new nudibranchs from California. Jour. 
Malac, 8. 

1901a. Notes on two new California nudibranchs. Jour. 
Malac, 8. 

1902. California nudibranchs. Nautilus, 18 (11). 
1908. Mollusca of La Jolla, California. Nautilus, 21. 
1915. The nudibranch-genus Triopha in California. Po- 
mona Jour. Ent. & Zool., 7, (4). 

1905. Notes on a collection of California nudibranchs. 
Jour. Malac, 12. 

Cooper, J. C. 

1862. Some new genera and species of California Mol- 
lusca. Proc. Cal. Acad. Nat. Sci., 2. 

Eliot, C. N. E. 

1910. A monograph of the British nudibranchiate Mol- 
lusca: with figures of the species. Part 8 (Supplemen- 
tary). The Ray Society. London. 

Fewkes, J. Walter. 

1906. Opisthobranchiate Mollusca from Monterey Bay, 
California and vicinity. Bull. Bureau Fisheries, Wash- 
ington, 25. 


1921. Nudibranchiate Mollusca from the Vancouver Is- 
land region. Trans. Roy. Canadian Inst., 13. 

138 the nautilus. 

Pease, W. Harper. 

1872. Description of new species of nudibranchiate Mol- 
lusca inhabiting Polynesia, II. Amer. Jour. Conch. 7. 

Stearns, R. E. C. 

1873. Description of a new genus and two new species of 
nudibranchiate Mollusks from the coast of California. 
Proc. Calif. Acad. Sci., 5, Pt. 1. 

Explanation of Figures, Plate VI. 

1. Dra\\ing from life of Olea hansmeensis {gen. et sp. 
nov.), dorsal view. L, lateral labial lobe; op, oral tentacles. 
The eye spots are seen just caudad to the oral tentacles ; the 
dorsal labial lobe is seen between the lateral labial lobes. 

2. Drawing from life of 0. liansineensis, ventral view. L, 
lateral labial lobes ; op, oral tentacles. Note the ventral labial 
lobe between the lateral labial lobes just cephalic to the an- 
terior convex border of the foot. 

3. Drawing of a large papilla from a preserved specimen 
to show the hepatic extension into the organ. The outline of 
the papilla is sho^\Ti in the line surrounding the stippled area, 
the hepatic branch. Greatly enlarged. 

4. Nidosome. A, beginning; b, end. The arrows indicate 
the track followed by the animal during oviposition. Enlarged. 


Agent, U. S. Bureau of Fisheries, San Francisco, California. 

An attempt is being made by the Hawaiian Fish and Game 
Commission with the cooperation of the U. S. Bureau of 
Fisheries to introduce two highly-prized shellfish, the Atlantic 
coast oyster, Ostrea elongata, and the soft clam, Mya arenaria, 
into Hawaiian waters. Although serious difficulties have been 
encountered, it is felt that there is ground for hopes of the 
success of this enterprise. 

The first efforts were with the oyster. In May, 1921, five 

* Published by permission of the United States Commissioner of Fish 
and Fisheries. 


barrels of Long Island oysters, which had been replanted in 
Tomales Bay, Cal., were shipped by the U. S. Bureau of Fish- 
eries representative in San Francisco to Mr. H. L. Kelly, 
Executive Officer of the Hawaiian Fish and Game Commis- 
sion, Honolulu, who planted them at a site (selected in 1920 
by Dr. H. F. Moore, U. S. Deputy Commissioner of Fisheries) 
in Pearl Harbor, Oahu. There the oysters gave every indica- 
tion of thriving till they were discovered and destroyed by 
the native "fishermen," who work over every inch of avail- 
able bottom. With the oysters sent in the second shipment, 
May, 1922, therefore, precautions were taken against their 
loss by this means. 

With the clams, as with the oysters, but from an entirely 
different cause, the first effort at introduction failed. In 
May, 1922, a shipment of soft clams accompanied that of the 
oysters and like them was sent in the "chill room" (kept 
just at freezing point). Unfortunately this method, success- 
ful with the oysters, was a complete failure with the soft 
clams, all of which died and spoiled in transit. To avoid this 
sort of loss a second shipment of clams was arranged for 
March 7, 1923, the clams to be frozen and shipped in the 
"ice house," thence to be thawed under water, a method 
said to be applicable to this species. 

The results of these attempts to ship the soft clam and to 
introduce both this shellfish and the Atlantic coast oyster are 
awaited with interest. 


Notes on the Mollusks of the Colorado Desert. By S. 
Stillman Berry. Proc. Acad. Nat. Sci. Phila. 1922, pp. 69-99; 
3 plates. The introduction to this interesting paper deals with 
the geography, topography and other characteristics of the 
desert, the occurrence of land and freshwater shells, and a full 
bibliography. An account of species collected by Messrs. 
George Willett, Allyn G. Smith, J. Stanley Ferguson and the 
author follows: Micrarionta aquge-albae n. sp., M. wolcottiana 


Bch., M. xerophila n. sp., M. indioensis Yates, M. harperi Bryant 
are described or discussed, with several Pupillidse etc. — H. A. P. 

The effect of low Salinity on Teredo navalis. By Harold 
Francis Blum, Univ. of CaL, Pub. in Zoology, vol. 22, No. 4, 
1922. The work was carried on in San Francisco Bay. "The 
animal is normally active in salinities as low as 9 parts per 
1000, and below this point the activity decreases with decrease 
in salinity." " Teredos obtain some protection from water of 
a salinity below the lethal (5 parts in 1000) by stopping the 
mouth of the burrow with the pallets." "A period of 33 days 
below 4 parts per 1000 salinity has destroyed 90 per cent of the 
teredos in piles at Crockett." — H. A. P. 

Variations in the shell of Teredo navalis in San Fran- 
cisco Bay. By Robert Cunningham Miller, Univ. of CaL, Pub. 
Zool. vol. 22, plates 13-17. Teredo navalis in San Francisco 
Bay exhibits an extremely wide range of variation, involving 
practically every feature of the shell. The more salient varia- 
tions have been corrollated with factors of the environment. 
The local varieties, including T. beachi Bartsch, have not been 
found sufficiently differentiated to warrant their being classed as 
subspecies, much less as species. This important study is 
excellently illustrated. — H. A. P. 

Upper Miocene Lacustrine Mollusks from Sonoma County, 
California. By G. Dallas Hanna, Cal. Acad. Sci. (4), vol. 
12, pp. 31-41, pi. 1-3, 1923, New species of Nematurella, 
Sphcerium, Pisidimn, Lymmcea and Planorbis, with various old 
species, are described and figured. Nematurella is an Old- World 
genus new to America; besides N. euzona n. sp., Hanna refers 
Littorina pittsburgensis Clark from San Pablo to this genus. 

Notes on some Land Snails of the Sierra Nevada Moun- 
tains with description of a new species. By G. Dallas Hanna 
and Emmet Rixford. Cal. Acad. Sci. (4), vol. 12. pp. 43-50, 


pi. 4, 1923. Material collected by the authors in two trips in 
Tuolumne, Sacramento and Calaveras Counties, Cal., is here 
described. Epiphragmophora circumcarinata was looked for but 
not found. Ammonitella yateti Coop, was taken at the type 
locality, which is fully described. The shell and genitalia are 
figured, and the relationship with Polygyrella demonstrated. 
Both differ from Polygyra by the long spermathecal duct. 
Polygyra penitens n. sp. is a new species from Mormon Island 
in the Sacramento River, related to P. roperi Pils. — H. A. P. 


C. By G. Dallas Hanna. Same volume, pp. 51-53, fig. 1. 
C. magnijicum n. sp., from Union Bay. It is 0.2 to 0.4 mm. 
larger than one of the type lot of C. occidentals, and appears to 
resemble that in shape and internal lamellae. — H. A. P. 

Fauna from the Eocene of Washington. By Charles E. 
Weaver and Katharine Van Winkle Palmer. University of 
Washington Publications in Geology, Vol. 1, No. 3, pp. 1-56, 
pis. VIII-XII, June, 1922. The paper consists chiefly of 
descriptions of marine mollusks from Eocene deposits of Wash- 
ington but a new genus and five new freshwater species are in- 
cluded; to these last, special reference is here directed. The 
new genus, Phaenomya, is stated to be allied to Corbula and 
Mya; type species, Phaenomya vaderensis, n. sp. from the Eocene 
of Lewis County, Southern Washington. 

Anodonta arnoldi (p. 14) is described without a reference to 
any other described species. The exterior is figured from a 
somewhat crushed specimen and seems to have no characters by 
means of which the reader can distinguish it from well known 
living species. 

Hydrohia pontis (p. 33) is not compared with any other 
species, and although stated to be abundant at the same local- 
ity as the above, a fragment was chosen for figuring. The 
description states that the whorls are angulated medially but 
the figure fails to show it. This, and other discrepancies 
between the discription and figure make the species unrecog- 


Goniobasis hannibali is described (p. 44) as having sculpture 
^' extremely variable. The extreme form in sculpture has been 
taken for the type of the species. Goniobasis olequahensis (Ar- 
nold and Hannibal) represents the smooth type of shell. * * * 
The collection contains specimens which show transition stages 
between the two types of shell." The authors give other 
reasons why the smooth and sculptured shells are the same 
species. ' ' Many shells have oblique plications on the nuclear 
whorls which may be absent on the body whorls." It is not 
understood by what reasoning the new name, G. hannibali was 
justified since only reasons for its union with a described form 
are given. 

On the next page it is stated that Dr. H. A. Pilsbry has 
determined that Ambloxis olequahensis Arnold and Hannibal, 
belongs to the genus Goniobasis. In spite of this the authors 
describe Goniobasis oleqwahensis, new species, immediately be- 
low! No explanation of the remarkable system of nomencla- 
ture is given. 

No type specimens were designated for the 56 new species 
and four new subspecies; (not 64 new species as stated on page 
one). The location of the described and figured specimens is 
not given although this has been generally adopted by most 
museums for many years. The measurements as given in the 
text disagree greatly with the statements of enlargement in the 
explanations of the plates in some cases, as for instance, Lima 
packardi (p. 15). 

Attention is called to this paper because it is an example of 
loose practice which has developed in the study of paleontology 
in the west during the last fifteen years. If permitted to pass 
unnoticed, improvement in methods is not likely to be rapid. 
— G. Dallas Hanna, California Academy of Sciences. 



Separates. — Authors desiring reprints of their papers are 
requested to write the order on the manuscript. When given in 
a separate letter it is likely to be overlooked. 

A bill authorizing acceptance by the Government of the $500, - 
000 marble residence offered by Mrs. John B. Henderson as a 
home for Vice-Presidents was introduced January 26th by Senator 
Warren, Republican, Wyoming. The bill provides the resi- 
dence shall be accepted as a memorial to John B. Henderson, 
once a Senator from Missouri, and his son, John B. Henderson 
2d. Free and unconditional title by the Government is stipu- 
lated. — Phila. Bulletin. 

Dr. Paul Ehrmann has published (S. B. Naturforsch. Ges. 
Leipzig, 1916-17) an appreciative biographic sketch with por- 
trait of the late Heinrich Simroth (b. 1851, d. Aug. 31, 1916). 
While Simroth was chiefly known as an investigator of slugs, a 
field where he held first place, his contributions to Bronn's 
Klassen u. Ordnungen des Tierreichs show wide knowledge of mol- 
luscan morphology. In the field of zoogeography he was the 
chief exponent of the *' Pendulation theory," explaining animal 
and plant distribution and geological climates by the hypothe- 
sis of a wide swing in the earth's axis. A bibliography of his 
scientific writings is given. — H. A. P. 

Joseph D. Mitchell, known to many conchologists for his 
work on Texan shells some years ago, died at his home at Vic- 
toria, Texas, Feb. 27, 1922, 72 years of age. Several species 
of mollusks were named in his honor, such as Scala mitchelli 
Dall and Unio mitchelli Simpson. A short sketch by Vernon 
Bailey with portrait appeared in the Journal of Mammalogy for 
February, 1923. 

Planorbis caloderma n. sp. The shell is small, rather 
solid, with about the shape of Planorbis bicarinatus Say, having 


both sides concave, funnel-shaped, but the cavity of the right 
side is very much narrower than the left, as in that species. 
Whorls nearly three, rapidly enlarging, the last bluntly angu- 
lar around the cavity on the left side, rounded on the right 
side; periphery convex, the greatest convexity near the left 
side. The aperture is ovate-piriform, oblique. The surface is 
finely striate, the striae cut by numerous but much more 
spaced impressed spiral lines. Cuticle buff. 

Height 3.2, Diam. 5 mm., type. 

Height 2.8, Diam. 5.5 mm., paratype. 

Height 2.4, Diam. 5 mm., paratype. 

Esmeralda, Guatemala, A. A. Hinkley, 1917. Type and two 
paratypes No. 45662 A. N. S. P. 

This little snail was mentioned in Mr. Hinkley' s list in 
Nautilus, October, 1920, p. 46. It appears to be a diminutive 
member of the P. bicarinatvs (antrosus) group — H. A. Pilsbry. 

Snail Killed by Weed — A specimen of Polygyra thyroides 
Say was taken at Cambridge (Dailsville), Maryland from the 
spiny seed capsule of a cockle-burr {Xanihium commune) upon 
which the snail had placed its foot and in attempting to with- 
draw into its shell, the hooked spines had pierced and success- 
fully held the mollusk. In this position it died and was found 
by the writer. During rainy weather this species often crawls 
up weeds and small bushes. Their ability to quickly withdraw 
into the shell covering upon sensing danger is remarkable and 
often have I tried to arrest this movement but always with 
negative results. However, the cockle-burr with its sharp, stiff, 
hooked spines had no trouble in holding the venturesome yet 
unfortunate mollusk. — Ralph W. Jackson. 

Epiphragmophora a Tree Climber — A live Epiphraginophora 
Jidelis Gray, was secured by Mr. Alex. Walker from an old nest 
35 ft. up in second growth fir woods at Blaine, Oregon. It was 
taken May 5th, 1922, and is in my collection No. 1254. The 
height that this specimen was found seemed to merit publica- 
tion. —Ralph W. Jackson. 






iiJH 17X^ fl