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s o o 

JULY, 1925, to APRIL, 1926 



Curator of the Department of Mollusca, Academy ol Natural Sciences 


Curator of the Boston Society of Natural History 

6 /£/ 






Acanthochites 75 

Acanthodorididae of the California Coast 49, 94 

Acanthodoris Gray 50 

Acanthodoris brunnea MacFarland (PI. 2, fig. 7) . . . 53 

Acanthodoris columbina MacFarland (Pis. 2 ,& 3) ... 94 

Acanthodoris hudsoni MacFarland (PL 2, fig. 1) ... 51 

Acanthodoris lutea MacFarland (Pis. 2 & 3) 60 

Acanthodoris rhodoceras Cockerell & Eliot (Pis. 2 & 3) . 55 

Acteocina from British Columbia, a new 25 

Acteocina oldroydi Dall 25 

Agriolimax agrestris in Peru 103 

Amazon River, Brazil, Malacological from the .... 1 

Amblema costata Ruf 88 

Amicula, the status of 47, 75 

Amnicola (Alocimna) annandalei Walker (PL 1, fig. 4) . 7 

Amnicola winkleyi mozley Walker (PL 1, figs. 2, 3) . . 6 

Ampullarius olivaceus Spix 2 

Ancilla muscae, new name for A. elongata Gray .... 104 

Ancylastrum, note on . 105 

Ancylastrum Bourguignat, the type of 44 

Ancylastrum Bourguignat, the last word on 114 

Ancylus cumingianus Bgt 115 

Anodonta grandis gigantea 91 

Anodontites trapesialis Lam 3 

Aporrhais occiden talis var. mainensis Johns 133 

Basiliochiton 105 




Beauchamp, William Martin 140 

Borus lorentzianus Doering (PI. 4, f. 4) 77 

Brachypodella ravenii Crosse 42 

Brazilian mollusks collected by Dr. Jos. Bequaert ... 78 

Bulimulus, a new Texan 24 

Bulimulus pilsbryi Ferriss, n. sp 25 

Bulimulus tenuissimus Orb 2, 4 

Caecum in the Miocene of Maryland, protoconch of . . . 66 

Caecum patuxentium Mart. (Fig. 1) 66 

Calyptraea, notes on West Coast 9 

Carunculina parva Barnes 92 

Cerion uva L 42 

Chiton amiculatus Auct 48, 75 

Chitonellus 75 

Cingula bryanti Johns 132 

Cistulops raveni Crosse 43 

Clarke, Dr. John Mason 28 

Cryptochiton stelleri Midd 48, 75 

Curacao, isolation and 40 

Emendation of scientific names 27 

Ferrissia oregonensis Clessin, station of 71 

Fusconaia flava Raf 88 

Gulella bicolor Hutton 1 

Hargraves, W. H. (Obituary) 67 

Helix nemoralis in Lynchburg, Va 73 

Hirase, Yoichiro (Obituary) 67 

Hemphillia malonei Van 143 

Kentucky, collecting in 71 

Labrador, Newfoundland and Nova Scotia, Mollusks of . 128 

Lampsilis anodontoides fallaciosa Smith 93 

Lampsilis ovata satura Lea 93 

Lampsilis ventricosa (Bar. ), mantle flaps of Ill 

Land shells of Breathitt Co., Ky 80 

Lanistes pilsbryi Walker, n. sp. (PI. 1, f. 1) 5 

Lasmigona complanata Barnes 90 

Leptinaria bequaerti Pilsbry (PI. 4, f. 1) 79 

Leptinaria lamellata P. & M 2 



Leptinaria mamoreensis Fred. Baker 144 

Leptinaria parana Pilsbry (PI. 4, f. 2) 79 

Leptinaria perforata Baker 144 

Leptodea fragilis R,af 91 

Ligumia subrostrata Say 92 

Lophochiton, a note on the name 105 

Loricates 35 

Lymnsea auricularia, additional records for 71 

Lymnsea peregra, reversed 21 

Lymnsea, the effects of ultra-violet light on 34 

May, W. L 000 

Manitoba-Ontario boundary Mollusks 121 

Marine Mollusks from Yucatan Peninsula, Mexico, note on 81 

Micromyia lienosa Conrad 92 

Milax gagates 103 

Mollusca in a museum, the exhibition of 37 

Mollusca of the Arequipa Valley, Peru 103 

Mollusks from Southeastern Texas 11 

Morse, Edward Sylvester (Obituary) 138 

Murdoch, R. (Obituary) 69 

Mycetopoda falcata Higgins 114 

Nahant Beach shells 29 

Naiades of Upper Mississippi Drainage Ill 

New species of fresh-water operculates 5 

Notes and News 27, 70, 103, 143 

Opeas gracilis Hutton 2, 42 

Orthaulax japonicus Nagao 29 

Oyster larvae, the attachment of 30 

Paludestrina bottimeri Walker, n. sp. (PI. 1, f. 5) . . . 8 

Partula in Guam 14 

Physa cubensis Pfr. 43 

Planorbis trivolvis winslowi F. C. Baker 116 

Planorbis trivolvis pilsbryi F. C. Baker 117 

Ploiochiton, new name for Lophochiton Berry .... 105 

Polita cellaria in Peru 103 

Polygyra (Triodopsis) loricata, new forms of 31 

Polygyra loricata lowei Pils., n. var 31 



Polygyra loricata querceti Pils., n. var 31 

Proptera purpurata Lam 92 

Publications Received 31, 72, 106, 142 

Pupoides marginatus nitidulus Pfr 42 

Pupoidopsis hawaiensis on Christmas Island 144 

Quadrula pustulosa mortoni Conr 88 

Quadrula quadrula Raf. var 89 

Radiodiscus orizabensis Pils 28 

Reversed snails and reversed human beings 104 

Scalez petrolia 109 

Snails eaten by Shrews 28 

Spirula spirula Linn6 141 

Stagnicola walkeriana F. C. Baker 119 

Standen, Robert {Obituary) 29 

Streptaxis glaber Pfr 1 

Striatura milium meridionalis (Pils. & Ferriss) .... 28 

Subulina octona Brug 2 

Subulina parana Pils 144 

Succinea barbadensis Gldg. and S. gyrata Gibb 43 

Succinea manaosensis Pils., n. sp. (PI. 4, f. 3) . . . . 79 

Tasmancylus Iredale 115 

Tornatellides, etymology of 104 

Truncilla truncata Raf 91 

Tudora fossor H. B. Baker 43 

Tudora megacheilos P. and M 43 

Turbonilla favilla D. & B 144 

Turbonilla hypocurta D. & B 144 

Unionidae from the Reefoot Lake region in Western Ten- 
nessee 87 

Vaginulidae 13 

Veronicella laevis Blainv 16 

Veronicellidae, nomenclature of 13 

Viviparus Ill 

Yucatan Peninsula, Mexico, notes on marine Mollusks from 81 

Zalophancylus, a fish vertebra 18 

Zonitoides arboreus in Mammouth Cave, Ky 70 

Zonitoides arboreus deleterious to cane 70 




Baker, Frank C 116 

Baker, Fred 144 

Baker, H. Burrington 13, 40, 44 

Bequaert, J 1 

Berry, E. Willard 66 

Berry, S. Stillman 105 

Bishop, Sherman C 70 

Clark, H. Walton 71 

Clench, William J 11,28,34,71 

Cockerell, T. D. A 19, 21, 29, 77, 104 

Dall, Wm. H 25, 75, 105 

Eyerdam, Walter J. . ' 71 

Ferriss, James H 24 

Grier, N. M Ill 

Hanna, G. Dallas 18, 71 

Hanham, A. W 143 

Henderson, Junius 104 

Ihering, H. von 116 

Iredale, Tom 47, 69, 114 

Johnson, C. W 27, 37, 138 

Lowe, H. N 26 

MacFarland, F. M 49, 94 

Mozley, Alan 121 

Nelson, Thurlow C 30 

Ortmann, A. E 73, 87 

Pilsbry, H. A 31, 32, 35, 78, 104, 106, 144 

Strong, A. M 9 

Smith, Burnett 140 

Vanatta, E. G 80 

Walker, Bryant 5 

Weisbord, Norman E 81 

Woodring, Wendell P 109 



The Nautilus. 

Vol. XXXIX JULY, 1925. No. 1 


Department of Tropical Medicine, Harvard Medical School 

The mollusks listed below were obtained during a recent trip 
to the Amazon country (July to September, 1924) as a member 
of the Third Hamilton Rice Expedition, in conjunction with 
the Department of Tropical Medicine of Harvard Medical 
School. The specimens were all identified by Dr. H. A. Pils- 
bry, whom I wish to thank most heartily for his help. 

Only the lowland country was visited. Among the localities 
mentioned, Belem, Para and Manaos are well known. The 
others are mostly in the State of Amazonas: San Francisco is 
on the left bank of the lower Rio Negro, in about 2° S. and 61° 
W. ; Carvoeiro and San Alberto are on the same river, but near 
the confluence of the Rio Branco, in approximately 1° 30' S. 
and 62° W., the former on the right bank and the latter on the 
left bank; Santa Maria is on the left bank of the lower Rio 
Branco, in about 0° 45' S. and 62° W. 

Streptazis glaber Pfeiffer. Santa Maria, many dead specimens 
of normal size. Carvoeiro, one live specimen of a much smaller 
form. Manaos, very many living specimens of the small form, 
only about half the size of those of Santa Maria. 

Gulella bicolor (Hutton). A few dead specimens were found 


at Manaos. This species, originally described from the Sey- 
chelles, was evidently introduced by man into Brazil. 

Bulimulus tenuissimus (d'Orbigny). This was found in abun- 
dance at Belem, Para, on low herbs and grass in the central 
square of the town; young, living specimens were also taken at 
Carvoeiro. Fred Baker has listed it previously from Para and 
Itacoatiara in the Amazon Basin. 

Subulina octona (Bruguiere). Manaos, many living speci- 
mens. Carvoeiro, abundant. Santa Maria, many dead speci- 
mens. This species, though apparently indigenous to tropical 
America and Africa, has been widely spread by man. 

Opeas gracile (Hutton). Manaos, many specimens, some of 
them alive. Carvoeiro, many, but all dead. Though this 
species has been scattered by man throughout the tropics, it has 
as yet been recorded from two African localities only. 

Opeas beckianum (Pfeiffer). Manaos, a few specimens, some 
of them alive. 

Opeas pumilum (Pfeiffer). Carvoeiro, a number of dead 

Leptinaria lamellata (Potiez and Michaud). Manaos, one 
dead specimen. Carvoeiro, abundant and alive. San Alberto, 
living specimens under rotting leaves of bananas in an aban- 
doned plantation. 

Leptinaria lamellata concentrica (Reeve). Santa Maria, one 
dead specimen. 

Leptinaria n. sp. Carvoeiro, several living specimens. 

Succinea manaosensis Pilsbry. This was found in abundance 
in a garden at Manaos, but no living examples were seen. 

Ampullarius olivaceus (Spix), variety. One large, adult speci- 
men was found dead at San Francisco in a low, swampy patch 
of forest near the shore of the Rio Negro. 

Ampullarius sp. (near metcalfei Reeve). Numerous immature 
specimens from Manaos, where they are abundant in flooded 
excavations of the unfinished harbor works. No full-grown 
examples were seen. 

Hyria corrugata Lamarck. Several examples were bought in 
the market at Belem, Para, and were said to have been taken 
from one of the branches of the Para River. 


Prisodon syrmatophorus (Meuschen). This was bought in the 
market at Belem, Para, with the foregoing and probably came 
from one of the rivers in the vicinity 

Anodontites trapesialis (Lamarck), var. Two examples were 
given to me by Mr. P. Le Cointe, who obtained them on the 
shores of the Terra Santa Lake, near the right bank of the 
Amazon River, east of Faro, in about 2° 10' S. 56° 45' W. 

The malacologist who visits the tropics for the first time ex- 
pects to be overloaded with material, but if he must restrict his 
researches to the lowlands he is usually quite disappointed. In 
the moist forests there are but few large and showy forms, the 
remainder being never numerous in individuals and quite well 
hidden. In the open savanna country the rank and dense 
grass renders researches still more tedious in the wet season, 
while during the drought most species are aestivating deep in 
the ground or in crevices of rocks or trees. Ecological condi- 
tions are evidently quite uniform in the tropical lowlands over 
large areas; furthermore, certain factors, such as the extensive 
flooding of the forest near the banks of the rivers and the scar- 
city of lime in the soil, are decidedly adverse to terrestrial snail 
life. I have found in Africa that the mountains are malacol- 
ogically much richer, especially where they are covered with 
dense forests; not only are the rocks more varied, but altitude 
produces a series of life zones, while the exposure of the slopes 
further modifies environmental conditions. Thus in the Belgian 
Congo a quite narrow mountainous strip along the eastern 
border has yielded more species of land mollusks than the re- 
mainder of the territory. I suspect that the same rule might 
hold true for South America, although I have had no occasion 
to visit the mountains of that continent. 

Only on two occasions during my trip to Brazil did I find 
mollusks in fair abundance of species and individuals. The 
seven land shells listed above from Manaos, including the Suc- 
cinea, were obtained from a small garden adjoining Dr. H. W. 
Thomas' Medical Laboratory, where they were aestivating be- 
tween stony d6bris and in the crevices of the walls. Many 
specimens of Veronicella were found with them. The spot was 
very dry, as we had but a few, short rain showers during the 


three weeks of our stay at Manaos (end of July and beginning 
of August). In the same garden I found a number of living, 
small, bulimulid snails, which can not be identified as the 
specimens have been mislaid; they were solidly fixed with the 
aperture to the under side of the leaves or more rarely to the 
thin twigs of a guava tree and covered all over with a coating of 
dirt (perhaps excremental matter of the snail) . On the journey 
up the Rio Negro rains were frequent so that conditions were 
more favorable for snail life. At Carvoeiro eight species of 
snails and a Veronicella were taken in large numbers crawling 
over rubbish in waste places within the town. They included 
not only a new species of Leptlnaria, but also a minute pupillid 
not listed here, which was especially abundant on decaying 
bones. Balimulus tenuissimus (d'Orbigny) may further be men- 
tioned as the host of a parasitic fly of the family Sarcophagidae 
(Malacophagula neotropica J. Bequaert), the maggot of which 
appears to attack the live and healthy snail, as the European 
Melinda cognata (Meigen) is know to do with certain Helicidae. 
Fresh-water mollusks were surprisingly scarce. Only imma- 
ture specimens of Ampullarius were seen at Para and Manaos. 
No Planorbidae nor Physidae were found, although special 
search was made for these snails which are of considerable sani- 
tary importance as intermediary hosts of parasitic worms. In 
this connection I may call attention to a paper by Dr. A. da 
Matta, a copy of which I owe to the generosity of the author. 1 
No species of Planorbis was found by him at Manaos. So far 
as I can discover, the only planorbid known with certainty from 
the forested lowlands of the Amazon is P. anatinus d'Orbigny 
which was taken by F. Baker (with Physa rivalis) in an artificial 
lake in the park in front of the Cathedral of Para. Planorbidae, 
however, are common in many parts of the drier, savanna coun- 
try, in Venezuela, as well as in southern and eastern Brazil. I 
have made analogous observations in Africa, where the Plan- 
orbidae and Lymnaeidae are quite abundant in the savanna 

1 A. da Matta. Malacologia medica. Notas sobre a geographia sul-amer- 
icana do molusco Planorbis e provavel disseminacao da Scbistosomose hepato- 
intestinal. Amazonas Medico (2), II, No. 8, 1919, pp. 179-184. 


country, but generally avoid the forest belt of the lowlands. In 
the rain forest they are, with very few exceptions, only met with 
in ponds and ditches near human settlements. 

The two unionids (Hyria and Prisodon) were obtained in the 
market at Para, where they were offered for sale as a local 
remedy against eye sore; the pearly inside of the mussel being 
scraped off and mixed with water. 



Lanistes pilsbryi n. sp. PI. 1, fig. 1. 

Shell large, thin, globose-conic, umbilicate; whorls about six, 
the last greatly inflated, flattened and obtusely shouldered 
above, rounded below and without any angulation around the 
umbilicus; spire conic, obtuse and with a sharp carina on the 
shoulder of the two apical whorls; yellow with many spiral 
bands of greenish-brown, wider and more numerous on the up- 
per part of the whorl, apical whorls dark brown; surface smooth 
with fine, regular lines of growth and covered with a minute, 
close, somewhat irregular spiral sculpture, scarcely visible to 
the naked eye, which as it cuts the lines of growth gives a gran- 
ular appearance to the surface when examined under a glass; 
aperture large, a little oblique, suboval, wider below, interior 
white showing the color bands; lip sharp, quite regularly 
rounded on the outer margin, drawn back and only slightly 
curved on the inner. Operculum unknown. 

Type (apex eroded) alt. 62, major diam. 64.4, minor diam. 
50.3; aperture alt. 49, diam. 35.1 mm. An immature shell 
with five whorls and a perfect apex measures, alt. 43.2, major 
diam. 38.4, minor diam. 35.3 mm. 

Type locality, So River, Ebolowa, Cameroon. 

Types No. 73451, Coll. Walker. Paratype in the collection 
of the Philadelphia Academy. 


This fine species is more nearly related to L. intortus Lam. 
which also occurs at Ebolowa than to any other, but differs in 
being nearly twice as large and in the greater development of 
the spiral sculpture. 

As shown by the figure the upper whorls of the type are 
entirely eroded, the description of the apical whorls is drawn 
from the smaller specimen indicated above, the description is 
therefore a composite one. 

I take pleasure in naming it after Dr. H. A. Pilsbry, who has 
kindly compared the cotypes with the other species of Ldnistes 
in the collection of the Academy. 

I am also indebted to Miss Mina L. Winslow of the Museum 
of Zoology, University of Michigan, for the admirable drawing 
of the type. 


Amnicola winkleyi mozleyi n. v. PI. 1, figs. 2-3. 

Shell ovate-conic, umbilicate; whorls five, very convex, the 
penultimate roundly shouldered; suture deep; bleached white; 
growth lines scarcely visible; apex small, acute and projecting; 
aperture broad ovate; peristome continuous, shortly appressed 
to the parietal wall. 

Length (fig. 2, male) 4.6, diam. 3.5, length of aperture 
2.25 mm. 

Length (fig. 3, female) 4.25, diam. 3.5, length of aperture 
2.25 mm. 

Type locality. A clay bank, Winnipeg, Manitoba. 

Types No. 81978 Coll. Walker. Paratypes in the collections 
of Alan Mozley, The Philadelphia Academy and the University 
of Illinois. 

This form is closely related to A. winkleyi Pils. , but differs in 
being a little longer and much more inflated, the roundly 
shouldered penultimate whorl is characteristic, the umbilicus is 
larger and the apex more acute. 

It is quite different from A. winkleyi leightoni Baker, which 
has the last whorl more depressed, a wider umbilicus and lacks 
entirely the shouldered penultimate whorl. 


Whether it should be considered a distinct species, closely re- 
lated to winkleyi or attached to it as a variety is largely a matter 
of individual opinion, but on the whole the conservative view 
seems more advisable. 

As usual in the Amnicolidse there is a considerable difference 
in the amount of inflation, as shown by the figures, which is 
probably sexual. 

Named after the collector, Mr. Alan Mozley. 

I am indebted to both Dr. Pilsbry and Mr. F. C. Baker for 
assistance in determining its systematic position. 



Shell ovate-conic, rimate; whorls 4.5, strongly convex; suture 
deeply impressed; greenish corneous, darker above and becoming 
nearly white in the umbilical region; surface smooth, polished 
and with very delicate lines of growth; apex rather acute; aper- 
ture ovate, rounded above and nearly vertical; peristome con- 
tinuous, slightly thickened throughout, the outer margin some- 
what doubled, the inner layer forming a ledge for the reception 
of the operculum, which can not be withdrawn into the aper- 
ture, the inner closely appressed to the body-whorl its entire 
length; columella a little incurved. Operculum ovate, semi- 
transparent, broadly rounded below and bluntly pointed above, 
concentric, with a small, spiral, subcentral nucleus, which is 
nearer to the inner than to the outer margin. 

Length 4.5, width 3 mm. Operculum length 2.25, width 
1.5 mm. 

Type locality, Taichu Province, Formosa. 

Type No. 80026 Coll. Walker. Paratype in the Indian 
Museum, Calcutta. 

A few specimens of this species were found in a sending o 
Blanfordia formosana P. & H. Not being able to approximate 
it to any of the described species, a specimen was sent to the 
late Dr. N. Annandale of the Indian Museum, Calcutta, who 
pronounced it to be undescribed, and I take great pleasure in 
associating his name with it. 


The subgenus Alocinma was established by Annandale and 
Prashad in 1919 (Rec. Ind. Mus., XVIII, p. 25) for the re- 
ception of a small group of Indian species, which in the char- 
acters of the shell and radula are similar to Amnicola, s.s., but 
differ in having a thick, calcareous, subhyaline operculum with 
a small, spiral nucleus . 

The present species is more elevated than its congeners and 
in general shape resembles the A. winkleyi Pils., of New 

As usual in the Amnicolidse, some of the specimens are more 
obese than the type (a male?) and probably represent the 
female phase. 


Paludesteina bottimeki n. sp. PI. 1, fig. 5. 

Shell minute, oblong-conic, perforate; whorls four, not much 
inflated, body- whorl large, equalling f of the length, its sides 
somewhat flattened, nearly parallel; suture impressed; green- 
ish horn-color; surface smooth, lines of growth scarcely visible; 
apex obtuse, the apical whorl scarcely projecting above the 
second; aperture oval, rounded below and angled above; peri- 
stome sharp, continuous, the upper part appressed to the pari- 
etal wall. 

Length 2, diam. 1.25 mm.; aperture length 1, diam. 75 mm. 

Type locality, Glen Echo, Montgomery Co., Md. 

Type No. 82099 Coll. Walker. Paratypes in the collections 
of W. J. Clench and L. J. Bottimer. 

This little species, one of the smallest of the Eastern Ameri- 
can Paludestrinae, differs from the recently described P. truncata 
Van. in its smaller size, more inflated shape and obtuse, entire 

I am indebted to Mr. Clench for the opportunity of describ- 
ing the species and at his request have named it after the dis- 
coverer, Mr. Bottimer. 



Recent lists and papers on West Coast shells include many 
changes in names from the generally accepted usage. It is to 
be presumed that the authors have had good reasons for these 
changes though in but few cases has the reason been given. 
Without some statement of the name under which the shell has 
ordinarily gone or reference to the authority for the new name 
the collector who wishes to keep his records up to date is forced 
to do a good deal of research work. These changes result in 
different sets of the same shell being found in collections from 
different localities under different names. A case in point is 
the Calyptraeas of the West Coast. Specimens of the three 
northern forms are to be found in the collections variously 
labeled C. mamillaris Brod. , C. fastigiata Gld. , 0. contorta Cpr. , 
and under such combinations as C. fastigiata var. mamillaris 
Brod., and C. mamillaris var. contorta Cpr. 

Keep's West Coast Shells gives only C. mamillaris Brod. and 
states the range as Puget Sound to Central America. William- 
son's List of Shells from San Pedro in Proc. U. S. Nat. Mus., 
vol. 15, lists C. mamillaris Brod. and states " = Calyptraea fas- 
tigiata Gld. , (?) = Galerus contortus Cpr. ' ' The same statement 
appears in Arnold's Paleontology of San Pedro. Try on' s Man- 
ual of Conchology describes C. mamillaris Brod. and lists the fol- 
lowing names in the synonymy: C. regularis C. B. Adams, 
aspersa C. B. Adams, lamarckii Mke., lorica Brod., lichen Brod., 
unguis Brod., fastigiata Gld., solida Rve., poculum Rve., clype- 
olum Rve., fusca Cpr., and magellanica Gray. The range is 
given as Puget Sound to South America. The only mention of 
C. contorta Cpr. in Tryon is in the list of shells which have not 
been seen. 

Dr. Dall in his Peruvian Fauna, Proc. U. S. Nat. Mus., vol. 
37, gives C. mamillaris Brod. and C. lichen Brod. as the two 
species of the Peruvian Province, and states that C. unguis Brod. 
is a young Trochita. In Bulletin 112 he gives C. fastigiata 
Gld. as ranging from Alaska to Puget Sound and C. contorta 


Cpr. as ranging from Catalina Islands to the Gulf of California. 
No mention is made of C. mamillaris Brod. occurring from San 
Diego northward. Mrs. Oldroyd's recent list of Puget Sound 
Shells gives C. fastigiata Gld. as found, while Olsson in Nauti- 
lus, vol. 38, p. 125, lists C. mamillaris Brod. from Salinas, 
Ecuador. These later uses of the name would seem to be in 
part at least a return to Carpenter's separations. 

In Mazatlan Catalogue, No. 333, Carpenter treats quite ex- 
tensively of Galerus mamillaris Brod. and gives in the synonymy 
" + regularis C. B. Adams, = lamarckii Mke." He states "the 
form G. lichen is probably only a flattened variety of this 
species; but may be distinct. The C. mamillaris of d'Orb. (the 
South American shell) is the C. unguis of Brod. and appears to 
be a distinct species of which G. sordida of Brod. is probably a 
variety." Later in his Supplemental Report, 1863, he recog- 
nizes G. fastigiata Gld. from Puget Sound as distinct but "like 
mamillaris ' ' , and gives us a new species C. contortus, Monterey 
to San Diego. The latter was fully deseribed in the Proc. Cal. 
Acad. Sci., vol. 3, p. 215. 

Carpenter based his distinctions between the three North 
American forms mainly on the character of the apex. Of C. 
mamillaris Brod. he says, "The vertex is about .02 across, gen- 
erally rather separated from the shell, and of an elegant dis- 
coidal shape like Planorbis, displaying the whorls and sunken 
apex." As to color and size he says, "The color is often of a 
rich brown within and near the vertex; otherwise of a dingy 
white. Epidermis very thin. An extraordinarily large one 
measures, long. 1.26, lat. 1.23, alt. 0.56." Gould's descrip- 
tion of C. fastigiata calls for a shell with " apex central, acute, 
the spire composed of three flattened whorls — covered with a 
thin pale-yellow epidermis, interior white. Diameter |, alt. 
f inches". Carpenter says of the species, "nucleus large, im- 
mersed". C. contorta is described by Carpenter as a white 
shell with " whorls twisted, nucleus minute, prominent." It 
is also much smaller, "long. 0.26, lat. 0.24, alt. 0.15." 

Several hundred specimens have been examined which were 
recently dredged off the coast of Los Angeles County. All are 
white, with a shining white interior, and a minute prominent 


elevated apex. The largest is only 7 mm. in diameter and they 
answer in every way to Carpenter's description of C. contorta. 
A number of specimens from Magdalena Bay have been ex- 
amined. They were received as (J. contorta Cpr. but have 
brown interiors and are over an inch in diameter. The apex is 
too worn to be sure of its characteristics but they would seem to 
answer to Carpenter's description of C. mamillaris Brod. and are 
identical with specimens so labeled from the Gulf of California. 
Arnold's specimen from the Pleistocene of San Pedro, diam. 
33, alt. 7 mm. would seem to be the same. However a num- 
ber of specimens from the Pleistocene of the Santa Monica Hills 
all have the small size and minute elevated apex of C. contorta 

Any attempt to fix range limits for these three species will 
have to wait for further data. C. fastigiata Gld. is the species 
of the Puget Sound District, C. contorta Cpr. of the Santa Bar- 
bara Channel. There may be some question as to the proper 
application of C. mamillaris Brod. to both the Gulf of California 
and South American forms. With the exception of C. lichen 
Brod. the southern species formerly placed in the genus are 
now referred to the genus Cheilea. 


University of Michigan 

The following list is based upon a small collection of mol- 
lusks sent to me by L. J. Bottimer of Liberty, Texas. I am 
indebted to Dr. Bryant Walker for many of the determinations : 

Helicina orbiculala tropica Pfr. Lake Charlotte, Chambers 
Co. , Texas. ' ' Under drift along lake. ' ' Victoria, Victoria 
Co. , Texas. ' ' On trees, fences, weeds, etc. ' ' 

Praticolella berlandieriana (Moric. ). Victoria, Texas. A 
little heavier than usually, and faintly banded. 


Polygyra espiloca Bid. Liberty, Liberty Co,, Texas. "Un- 
der logs on damp soil at edge of swamp." 

Polygyra thyroides Say. Beaumont, Jefferson Co., Texas. 
Victoria, Texas. ' ' On trash at base of trees near Guadalupe 
River." Considerable variation in the extent of lip folding 
over the umbilical orifice. 

Polygyra monodon friersoni Pils. Lake Charlotte, Texas. 
" Under drift along shore of lake." Liberty, Texas. " Under 
logs in brushy woods." 

Bulimulus dealbatus mooreanus W. G. Binn. Victoria, Texas. 
"Dead on ground." 

Slrobilops labryinthica texasiana P. & F. Dayton, Liberty Co. , 
Texas. "In decaying vegetation." 

Gastrocopta contracta Say. Dayton, Liberty Co., Texas. " In 
decaying vegetation in axis of leaves of cabbage palmetto." 

Euglandina singleyana W. G. Binn. Victoria, Texas. ' ' Un- 
der logs and drift along Guadalupe River." 

Carychium exiguum (Say). Dayton, Texas. "In decaying 

Planorbis lentus Say. Moss Bluff, Liberty Co., Texas. 
1 ' Edge of marsh. ' ' 

Segmentina obstructa (Morelet). Moss Bluff, Texas. "Un- 
der logs along old canal. ' ' 

Physa anatina Lea. Liberty, Texas. "On mud and vege- 
tation of small pond." Cleveland, Liberty Co., Texas. Lib- 
erty, Texas. ' ' Small pond formed by sulphur well. ' ' 

Physa halei Lea. Moss Bluff, Texas. "Along old canal.' 
Lake Charlotte, Texas. "On mud along edge of lake." 

A mnicola emarginata (Kust.). Lake Charlotte, Texas. 

Amnicola peracuta P. & W. Liberty, Texas. "Edge of 
small pond in woods." 

Rangia cuneata Gray. Lake Charlotte, Texas. "In mud, 
1-2 feet of water. ' ' Two unusually large specimens. 

Garunculina texaseiisis (Lea). Devers, Liberty Co., Texas. 
" In mud in shallow ditch." 

Musculium transversum Say. Lake Charlotte, Texas. ' ' Screen- 
ing mud at edge of lake." 




During an attempt to identify certain Venezuelan species, the 
writer became interested in the classification of this family. 
Through the generosity of Dr. Pilsbry, he has been given per- 
mission to examine the specimens from North America in the 
Academy of Natural Sciences of Philadelphia, and hopes to pre- 
sent the results in a future paper. 

While engaged in this work, a series of papers by Drs. Grimpe 
and Hoffmann (1924, 1925) added considerably to our knowl- 
edge of the morphology of this group. Unfortunately, these 
helpful monographs are marred by a haphazard disregard for 
the Law of Priority and by a propensity to consider genus and 
species as almost equivalent terms. 

As a matter of fact, the following group-names have been 
proposed in the Veronicellidae: 

VeroniceUa Blainville (1817, Jour. Phys. LXXXV, 440, figs. 
II-4), monotype V. laevis Blainv. (1. c. ), habitat unknown to 
its author but actually Jamaica. 

Veronicellus Ferussac (1819, Hist. II, 51, 83), substitute for 
VeroniceUa, same type. 

Vaginulus Fer. (1821, Tabl. Syst., 13), electotype of Gray 
(1847, P. Z. S. XV, 178) Umax nudus Sloane (1725, Hist. 
Jam. II, 190, fig. ccxxxiii-2, 3) = Onchidium sloanii Cuvier 
(1816, Reg. An. II, 411), l from Jamaica. Electotype of Stol- 
iczka (1873, Jour. As. Soc. Bengal XLII, pt. II, 35) V. tau- 
naysi= Vaginulus taunaisii Fer. (1821, 13), from Brazil. 

Vaginula Blainv. (1828, Diet. Sci. Nat, LVI, 428), substi- 
tute for Vaginulus, same type. Not Vaginula Sowerby (1833, 
Gen. Shells, fasc. 39, fig. 5). J 

Imerinia Cockerell (1891, P. Z. S., 219), defined without 

•Attention is called to fact that Cuvier actually cited figs, cclxxiii-1, 2 of 
Sloane ; these represent species of lizardi. 

* Hoffmann (1925, Jena. Zeitschr. LVI, 172) gives 1820 as the date and then 
disregards th« name. 


species; Ckll. and Collinge (1893, The Conch. II, 195), mono- 
type Vaginula grandidieri Crosse and Fischer (1871, J. de C. 
XIX, 331), from Morondava, Madagascar. Not Imerina Rago- 
not (1890) nor Imerinus Gahan (1890). 

Vaginina Simroth (1897, S. B. Nat. Ges. Leipzig, 1895-6, 
154), defined without species. Type now chosen Vaginina con- 
radti Simr. (1913, Voeltzkow, Reis. Ostafrika, III-III, 193), 
from Bismarckburg, Togo, West Africa. 

Pseudoveronicella Germain (1908, Bull. Mus. Hist. Nat. Paris 
XIV, 59), monotype Veronicella gravieri Germain (1908, 55), 
from San Thome\ 

Vaginulopsis Simroth (1912, Bronn. Klas. Ord. Thier. III-3, 
513), no species; substitute for Vaginina, same type. 

Pleuroprocta Simroth (1913, 130, 191), type by absolute taut- 
onymy Vaginula pleuroprocta Martens (1877, Monatsb. K. Pr. 
Ak. Wiss. Berlin 1876, 268), from Aburi, west Africa. Used 
on p. 202 as a group larger than a genus. 

FUicaulis Simroth (1913, 131), type now chosen Vaginula 
seychellensis Fischer (1871, Nouv. Arch. Mus. Hist. Nat. Paris 
VII, 155), from Mahe. Seychelles. 

Drepanocaidis Simroth (1913, 140), type now chosen Vaginula 
braueri Simroth (1. c. ), from Silhouette, Seychelles. 

Laevicaulis Simroth (1913, 147), electotype of Pilsbry (1919, 
Bull. Amer. Mus. Nat. Hist. XL, 316), Vaginula comorensis 
Fischer (1883, J. de C. XXXI, 55), from Mayotte, Comores. 

Prismatocaulis Simroth (1913, 150), type now chosen Vag- 
inula voeltzkoivi Simroth (1. a), from Gross-Comoro. 

Spirocaidis Simroth (1913, 153), type now chosen Vaginula 
lactea Simroth (1. a), from Moheli, Comores. 

Flagellicaulis Simroth (1913, 155), type now chosen Vaginula 
grossa Heynemann (1885, Jahr. D. Mai. Ges. XII, 9), from 
Anjouan, Comores. 

Curiicaulis Simroth (1913, 159), monotype Vaginula sub- 
aspera Fischer (1883, 55), from Nossi-Comba, near Madagascar. 

Rhopalocaulis Simroth (1913, 164), type now chosen Vaginula 
grandidieri (C. and F.). 

Annulicaulis Simroth (1913, 187), electotype of Pilsbry (1919, 
317), Vaginula htotoensis Simroth (1. c), from Kwa-Kitoto, east 


Drepanoprocta Simroth (1913, 202), Pleuroprocta s. s., same 

Cycloprocta Simroth (1913, 202), defined without species; type 
now chosen Veronicella gravieri Germain. 

Mesoprocta Simroth (1913, 202); group larger than a genus. 

Desmocaulis Simroth (1913, 202), type now chosen Vaginula 
subaspera Fischer. 

Eleutherrocaulis Simroth (1913, 202), type indicated by Pilsbry 
(1919, 316), Vaginula comorensis Fischer. 

Flagellocaulis Simroth (1913, 203), misspelling of Flagelli- 
caulis, same type. 

Vaginopsis "Simroth" Colosi (1922, An. Mus. Nac. Hist. 
Nat. Buenos Aires XXXI, 482), misspelling of Vagimdopsis, 
same type. 

Latipes Colosi (1922, 486), type now chosen Vaginula ptero- 
caulis Simroth (1913, Mem. Soc. Neuchat. Sci. Nat. V, 316), 
from Merida, Venezuela. 

Phyllocaulis, Phillocaulis Colosi (1922, 486), type now chosen 
Vaginula borelliana Colosi (1921, Atti. Soc. It. Sc. Nat. LX, 
156), from Tucuman, Argentine. 

Monocaulis Colosi (1922, 486), type now chosen Vaginula 
pterocaulis Simroth. Not Monocaulos Allman (1864). 

Angustipes Colosi (1922, 486), type by absolute tautonymy 
Vaginula angustipes Heynemann (1885, 276), from Taguara, 
Brazil. As Colosi did not definitely include this species, I now 
choose as type Vaginula difficilis Colosi (1921, 158), from Tucu- 
man, Argentine. 

Meisenheimeria Grimpe and Hoffmann (1924, Zool. Anz. 
LVIII, 177), authors' type Vaginula fraitenfeldi Semper (1885, 
Reis. Arch. Phil. II-III, 324), from Madras, India. 

Semperula G. and H. (1924, 177), authors' type Vaginula 
idae Semper (1885, 321), from Borneo. 

Sarasinula G. and H. (1924, 177), authors' type S. plebeja = 
Vaginulus plebeius Fischer (1868, J. de C. XVI, 145), from 
New Caledonia. 

Vanigula G. and H. (1924, Nova Caledonia III, 387), au- 
thors' type Veronicella bleekerii Keferstein (1865, Zeit. Wise. 
Zool. XV, 118), from Java. 


Cylindrocaulus Hoffmann (1925, Jena. Zeitschr. LXI, 141). 
Not Cylindrocaulus Fairmaire (1880, Le Nat. II, 164). 

Phyllocaulus Hoffmann (1925, 163), type now chosen V. 
borelliana Colosi. 

Belocaulus Hoffmann (1925, 198), type now chosen Vaginula 
angustipes Heynemann. 

Despite Blainville's error (later corrected) in regard to the 
presence of a shell, Veronicella laevis is fully as well character- 
ized as are most of the older species. Also, Cockerell's descrip- 
tion (1893, 218) of the type in the British Museum certainly 
agrees very well, in size, extrusion of penis and presence of an 
abnormal (anal?) opening, with Blainville's original figure and 
definition. In addition, as Cockerell is the only recent author- 
ity who has studied the Jamaican species in the field, there 
seems every reason to accept his identification of V. laevis. For 
these reasons Veronicella should remain as a valid genus, with 
Cylindrocaulus as a preoccupied synonj'm. 

Dr. Cockerell has kindly sent me some of his Jamaican mate- 
rial of this species, and I hope to present additional details of 
the anatomy in the near future. At present, it will be sufficient 
to state that V. laevis (== sloanii) combines a rather long, quite 
simply acrocaul, cylindrical " penis" (or better verge) with 
Hoffmann's (Text fig. 19-a) first type of bursa. It is evident 
that the latter author had no specimens of this species, but I 
cannot understand why he disregarded Leidy's and Simroth's 
correct figures of somewhat similar arrangements in V. Jioridana 
and V. moreleti. * - - - 

On the other hand, the identification of Blainville's species 
with Sloane's figure, on which Onchidium sloanii Cuvier was 
founded, presents a more difficult question. Ferussac (1819, 
84) first suggested this identity, which was ratified by Gray 
(1847, 178) and upheld by Cockerell. In favor of this hy- 
pothesis are the facts that the type of V. laevis is one of Sloane's 
specimens and apparently represents the most common Jamai- 
can species. 

However, the exceedingly vague figure in the Hist. Jam. 
scarcely does seem to represent the individual slug described by 
Blainville and Cockerell. Semper (1885, 296) and Hoffmann, 


on the basis of the larger size (3£ inches) and the more lateral (?) 
position of the anus, identify Sloane's figure as an apparently 
distinct species, Veronicella jamaicensis Cockerell (1892, Jour. 
Inst. Jamaica I, 55), which was founded on Vaginula kraussii 
Semper (1885, 314) . This species has a similar bursa to the pre- 
ceding form (laevis), but is said to develop lateral wings on the 
verge; it is Belocaulus sloanei (pars) of Hoffmann (1925, 249). 
In this connection, it must be remembered that Sloane described 
the living animal and probably gave its extended dimensions; 
such a specimen (89 mm. long) would certainly contract to the 
length given by Cockerell (50 mm. ) if dropped into alcohol. 
Personally, I am inclined to follow Cockerell' s determination of 
V. sloanii (+ laevis) and V. jamaicensis, but, in any case, the 
validity of Veronicella is not affected in the least by the status 
or application of Onchidium sloanii. 

Neither of these quite closely related forms have any connec- 
tion with a third Jamaican species, which Hoffmann confused 
with the true sloanii (-+- laevis) under a name (jamaicensis ; 1925; 
152, 233) which does not belong to either one of them! This 
third species is actually the Vaginula nesiotis of Simroth (1913, 
297), and has Hoffmann's (Text fig. 19-c) third type of bursa. 

The second genus in the family is Vaginulus F6r., with Vag- 
inula as an exact synonym. Gray's choice of Sloane's species 
as the genotype cannot be accepted, because this form was re- 
garded by Ferussac (1821, 7, 14) as a doubtful member of his 
genus. Stoliczka's designation of the first species, V. taunaisii, 
is a valid selection of type and should stand; this choice was 
repeated by Cockerell (1891, 218). 

If Hoffmann's 9th genus (1925, 250) is accepted, the name 
should be Imerinia Cockerell. Those who believe this is pre- 
occupied by Imerina or Imerinus can use Curticaulis ; Rhopalo- 
caulis, Desmocaulls and Sarasinula would be synonyms of either 

Continuing to follow tentatively Hoffmann's classification, 
Vaginina becomes the fourth applicable name, and is correctly 
used for his 5th genus (1925, 239); Vaginulopsis and Vaginopsis 
are exact synonyms. However, Pseudoveronicella would be the 
prior name for his 1st genus (1925, 220), with Pleuroprocta, 


Drepanoprocta and Cycloprocta as tentative synonyms. Also, 
Filicaulis must be used for his 3rd genus (1925, 228), with 
Drepanocaulis, Prismatocavlis, Spirocaulis, Flagellicaulis, Flagello- 
caulis and Vanigula as synonyms. Similarly, Laevicaulis be- 
comes the name of his 2nd genus (1925, 223), with Annulicaulis, 
Eleutherocaulis and Meisenheimeria as synonyms. In addition, 
Phyllocaulis Colosi is prior to Phyllocaulus and is the correct 
name for Hoffmann's 7th genus (1925, 241), while Angustipes 
( + Latipes + Monocaulis -\- Belocaulus) must be used for his 
8th genus (1925, 245). Finally, Semperula stands as the name 
of his 10th genus (1925, 254), and seems quite free from in- 



The genus Zalophancylus was established in 1912 (Hannibal, 
Proc. Mai. Soc. Lond., Vol. 10, 1912, p. 152, pi. 6, fig. 15) 
for a single species named morani. The figure of the species 
shows a conical object with centrally located apex, certainly 
lacking in very distinctive characters as Dr. Pilsbry has recently 
pointed out (Nautilus, Vol. 38, p. 75, 1925). 

On March 3, 1922, Mr. Hannibal told me that he had dis- 
covered, subsequent to publication of the description, that this 
organism was the mold of the cup-shaped depression in the end 
of a vertebra of a fish. In view of the active studies being 
made in the family Lancida it seems desirable to publish this 

The type specimen has been found in the paleontological col- 
lection at Stanford University and is there numbered 2. There 
are some minute fragments of shelly substance adhering to the 
cast and these show a delicate but decided radial sculpture. If 
the object were the inside mold of a Lanx it is not probable that 
such sculpture would show at all. 

Also, around the margin there are some irregular ridges of 
shelly substance. Similar structure has been seen around the 


margins of vertebra of fishes but not in the family of mollusks, 

The specimen is preserved in a portion of a small concretion, 
very similar in many respects to concretions found near the 
mouth of the Columbia River as at Knapton, Washington and 
Astoria, Oregon. 

It seems altogether probable that a mistaken locality label 
may have led Hannibal to make his original determination and 
the name Zalophancylus should be transferred to the Class Pisces. 
The locality given with the description was Pliocene lake beds 
in the Badland Hills one mile east of Sand Hollow, eastern 



After an extensive study of Partula in the Society Islands, 
where the genus is most abundantly represented, Dr. Crampton 
thought it well to examine the Mariana Islands, over 4000 miles 
distant, at the extreme northwestern end of the range of these 
snails. He found there only four species, one of them new, 
but the observations made amply justified the expedition. The 
results are set forth with the minuteness of detail, lucidity of 
exposition, and abundance of beautiful figures which we have 
come to expect in Dr. Crampton' s reports. The one new species 
discovered, P. salifana, was found only in a single locality on 
Mount Salifan in Guam. It is very distinct, and in several re- 
spects approaches the Society Island type of Partula rather than 
the section hitherto known from Guam. It seems likely that it 
is not a recently evolved species, developed from the Partula 
population of the surrounding country; but rather an old form, 
probably once much more widespread, and now limited to a 
small region, where it is nearly extinct. Merrill (1914) ex- 

1 H. E. Crampton. Studies on the Variation, Distribution and Evolution 
of the Genus Partula. The species of the Mariana Islands, Guam and Saipan. 
Carnegie Institution, 1925. Pp. 116, 14 plates. 


pressed the opinion that prior to the advent of man, Guam was 
undoubtedly covered by a continuous forest. Crampton shows 
that there now exist large open areas, quite unsuited to Partula, 
and there can be no doubt that the snails have been extermi- 
nated in many places where they once existed. The question 
is discussed, whether the Mariana Islands represent the peaks 
of a much larger, submerged, area, or have developed by uplift 
from the ocean bed. The geological evidence appears to sup- 
port the latter view, but Crampton regards the biological facts 
as favoring subsidence. He points out that as a matter of fact, 
these snails do not appear to be transported from island to 
island, even when the islands are not very far apart. His ob- 
servations do not favor the hypothesis of oversea transport, 
although he recognizes that Partula hyalina is found in Tahiti 
as well as in the Cook and Austral groups. Merrill, comment- 
ing on the poor flora of Guam (225 indigenous species, 27 per 
cent endemic), remarks that Guam is undoubtedly recent from 
a geological standpoint, and sees in this supposed fact an ex- 
planation of the condition of the flora. There is not a single 
endemic genus of plants, though one genus is only known from 
Guam and Yap. I venture to think that Merrill does not make 
sufficient allowance for the extermination of the flora since 
man's arrival. It can hardly be doubted that what we now see 
is but a fragment of what once existed, and my own observa- 
tion (e. g. in the Madeira Islands) is that the plants of insular 
areas disappear with human occupation much more quickly 
than the snails. Introduced woody plants compete with the 
native ones even in the forests, but the snails survive so long as 
they have cover, and are less dependent on precise types of en- 
vironment than the insects. In my study of bees from the 
islands of the Pacific, I have found that those of Guam closely 
resemble in type those of Samoa and other parts of Polynesia, 
but all these differ strongly from the bee fauna of the Hawaiian 
Islands. Considering the ocean depths to the south and east 
of Guam, it appears almost inconceivable that there was ever a 
land connection with the groups of islands south of the equator, 
which are now occupied by Partula. But the whole fauna of 
the islands from Guam to Tahiti certainly shows a singular 


congruity, indicating past migrations over the area. The time 
involved is probably very great, and it does not seem necessary 
to postulate continuity of land at any particular period from 
one end of the Polynesian group to the other. 1 

In dealing with the color-variations, Crampton proposes 
special names, "not of taxonomic significance." Hence he 
gives the name strigata to a particular form of P. radiolata, 
although it was earlier named rushii by Pilsbry. The names of 
the color types are similar to those employed elsewhere, especi- 
ally in Europe, for what are called varieties. It does not ap- 
pear possible to regard them as outside taxonomy, and there is 
no warrant, under the present rules, for disregarding priority. 
At the same time, it might be possible and desirable to eventu- 
ally establish a sort of code of names for such variations, re- 
quiring the same designation to be employed for parallel varia- 
tions of different species. Even so, the names should be form- 
ally proposed and type specimens preserved, or uncertainty will 



Jules Verne, who knew well how to dramatize natural his- 
tory, was well aware of the wonder and interest excited by 
reversed coiling in shells. In his Twenty Thousand Leagues 

1 Dr. P. Marshall, in his address before the Australasian Association for the 
Advancement of Science, published in 1912, concludes that bathymetrical, 
structural and petrographical characteristics support the idea that the real 
boundary of the southwest Pacific passes through New Zealand, Kermadec, 
Tonga, Fiji, New Hebrides, Solomons, and on to the Admiralty Islands. He 
thinks that the land connection or approximation took place in the late Meso- 
zoic or in the Pleistocene, probably both. The eastern Pacific islands are 
different in structure, nature and origin, and have derived their fauna and 
flora by chance migrants from the region just indicated. The headquarters of 
Partula are then in a permanently oceanic group. 

*The Inheritance of Inverse Symmetry in Limnaea peregra. By Cyril 
Diver, assisted by A. E. Boycott and Sylvia Garstang. Journal of Genetics. 
March, 1925. Vol. 15, pp. 115-200. 


Under the Sea, he represented the naturalist as picking up a re- 
versed shell on a tropical shore, when just as he was gloating 
over his find, a stone thrown by a savage smashed it in his 
hand. In all my years of collecting, I have never met with an 
abnormally reversed specimen, but my brother S. C. Cockerell 
was fortunate in finding a pond in Surrey, where sinistral 
Lymnaea peregra were not uncommon. On one occasion, after 
we had been discussing the phenomenon, he plucked up cour- 
age to write to Professor Huxley, who replied kindly, but could 
give no explanation. In the forty years since that time, biol- 
ogy has been largely transformed, and if we do not yet know 
the ' ' explanation ' ' of reversed coiling, we at least know a good 
deal more about the subject and its genetic significance. Cap- 
tain Cyril Diver, in the elaborate paper cited in the footnote, 
gives a full account of recent experiments with L. peregra, ac- 
companiel by a discussion of the theoretical bearing of the 

Beginning with a general account of dextral and sinistral 
gastropods, he goes on to record the known cases of sinistral L. 
peregra. It is perfectly clear that the reversed coifing is not 
due to the external environment, but is controlled by germinal 
factors. In several cases particular ponds have produced 
numerous sinistral shells, though dextral ones were always far 
more numerous. Extensive breeding experiments with sin- 
istral L. peregra were started and carried through with the co- 
operation of several workers, residing in different parts of Eng- 
land and Wales. It was found that fertile eggs were readily 
obtained from single, isolated individuals. The question arises 
whether such cases represent parthenogenesis, or self-fertiliza- 
tion. The character of the inheritance shown by the offspring 
indicates the latter. The cross-breeding of individuals of oppo- 
site coiling was not practicable, but sinistrals could be crossed 
with sinistrals, dextrals with dextrals. In general, isolated 
snails gave either all dextral or all sinistral offspring, and when 
a pair gave half and half, it was found that the dextrals were 
from one parent, the sinistrals from the other. However, iso- 
lated individuals would give sinistrals with few odd dextrals, or 
the reverse. It is indicated, but not yet proved, that certain 
crosses of heterozygous individuals give a 3 to 1 ratio. 


It is shown that the direction of the spiral is determined at 
the very beginning of development. In fact, it appears to be a 
property derived from the cytoplasm of the egg cell, the " cyto- 
plasmic prelocalization " described by E. B. Wilson. This 
does not mean that there is no control by nuclear determiners; 
such control exists as it does for other characters, only the prop- 
erties of the egg-cytoplasm are those due to the chromosomal 
complex of the egg-producer, regardless of the sperm introduced 
at fertilization. Thus a dextral snail may produce all sinistral 
offspring, the character of the latter being determined by its 
chromosomes, while its own character was determined by the 
chromosomes of its parent. This seems very extraordinary at 
first sight, but is quite intelligible, and appears to be fully sup- 
ported by the evidence. 

How comes it, then, that some broods are not uniform, and 
what is the meaning of the occurrence of strange monstrosities 
such as are figured on plate V ? It is set forth that the dextral 
condition is not to be regarded as dominant to sinistral, in the 
usual Mendelian fashion. They are rather to be thought of as 
approximately equal but opposing forces, in heterozygous indi- 
viduals. Were they exactly equal, a bilaterally symmetrical 
animal should result, but this does not happen. One or the 
other type predominates, but exceptions occur, and the mon- 
strosities may be related to the internal struggle. However, 
the author develops a supplementary hypothesis of "sup- 
pressed" inheritance, and after assembling the evidence con- 
cludes that broods mostly sinistral with a few dextrals are 
' ' suppressed ' ' dextrals, and those mostly dextral with a few 
sinistrals are "suppressed" sinistrals. He further supposes 
that the inherited germinal constitution may acquire a power of 
resistance to the nuclear factors, as a result of "selective breed- 
ing, isolation and time"; in other words that the cytoplasmic 
properties of the egg-cell may not be due simply to the parental 
germ-plasm, but to the accumulated effects of past generations. 
In all this, we pass into a region of speculation, where many 
will hesitate to follow. It would perhaps be possible to add 
another hypothesis, namely that whereas the character of the 
sperm did not ordinarily affect the coiling of the zygote pro- 


duced at fertilization, the " prelocalization" might at times be 
insufficient or its effects delayed, so as to allow the sperm to 
play its part. At all events, the experiments are proceeding, 
and it is quite certain that Captain Diver and his associates 
have opened up a quarry rich in possibilities for discovery; one 
which has already given us at least one important contribution 
to the theory of heredity. The principle of deferred inherit- 
ance, or dominance by the parental cytoplasm, is fully recog- 
nized and elucidated by Wilson (The Cell, Third Edition, 
1925), who further remarks, "it is evident that every character 
is produced during development by an activity in which the 
cytoplasm, and what we call the ' organism as a whole ' plays 
a most important part." Wilson, following Sturtevant, gives a 
very clear statement of the Lymnaea case (t. c, p. 1109), re- 
marking that "these curious relations, at first sight so mysteri- 
ous, at once become perfectly plain when we perceive that the 
effect of the sperm-chromosomes is delayed for one genera- 
tion." ' Nevertheless, there are other complexities which at 
present do not " become perfectly plain," and it is through the 
intensive study of these that further important theoretical ad- 
vances may be expected. 

It is difficult to understand why Gwyn Jeffreys is throughout 
called "Jeffries," and on p. 198 Conklin is called Conklyn." 



In 1924, passing through Sanderson, a place on the South- 
ern Pacific route west of the Pecos River, I found numerous 
specimens of a Bulimulus which was at once recognized as new 
to me. By a curious accident, the shells went astray, only a 
broken one, noticed in Nautilus, vol. 38, p. 41, was to be 
found when I got home. This year more were taken. 

1 In a similar manner, the color of silkworm eggs appears to be controlled 
by maternal influences regardless of the sperm. (Kettew, 1925.) 


Bulimus pilsbryi, new species. 

The shell hag a narrow, compressed umbilicus, and is slen- 
der, the diameter less than half of the length ; the outlines of 
the spire are somewhat convex, the whorls moderately so. 
The surface is nearly smooth, rather glossy ; most of the first 
whorl irregularly rugose, the second having straight, regular 
axial riblets; subsequent whorls with weak growth-strise. 
The color is light pinkish-cinnamon profusely streaked with 
opaque white, the streaks somewhat ragged (or in some speci- 
mens smooth and blending into the ground-color). The aper- 
ture is small, oblique, the outer lip thin, narrowly expanded, 
the columellar lip broadly expanded; the ends of the lip 
approach more than usual and are joined by a thin, trans- 
parent film. 

Length 27.8, diam. 12, length of aperture 12.5 mm.; 6V3 
whorls (type, A. N. S. P. coll.). 

Length 27.5, diam. 12.3 mm. (paratype, Ferriss coll.). 

Length 28, diam. 12.7 mm. 

By its slender figure and narrow aperture this species re- 
calls some of the Mexican and Lower Californian forms, such 
as B. inscendens (W. G. B.). It is strikingly unlike other 
Texan species. It seems very strange that a species so distinct 
has occurred at Sanderson only, other Texan Bulimuli being 
rather widely distributed. 

The shell and anatomy will be illustrated in a paper on 
the shells of western Texas now in preparation by Dr. Pilsbry 
and myself. 



Acteocina oldroydi, new species. 

Shell small, solid, subcylindric, white, with three and a half 
whorls; suture narrow, channelled; spire short and rather 
blunt; the specimen has the entire surface decorticated, so 


that the surface characters cannot be definitely described, but 
the indications are that the incremental lines are rather rude 
and irregular ; the base is rounded, with a deep chink, almost 
an umbilicus, behind the anterior portion of the inner lip ; the 
shell is very slightly constricted medially; the aperture is 
narrow behind, the posterior commissure rounded, falling 
short of reaching the suture; the anterior part of the aper- 
ture is wide, rounded evenly into the pillar lip which shows 
no plait; the entire lip is thin and sharp, with a thin layer 
of enamel on the body. Length of shell, 8.5 ; of aperture, 6.5 ; 
maximum diameter, 4.5 mm. 

Dredged in Departure Bay, British Columbia; T. S. Old- 
royd. U. S. Nat. Mus. Cat. No. 333664. 

While the surface characters of this species are obscure, its 
size and proportions definitely separate it from the species 
hitherto known from the region. 



Today is Good Friday, and Naples had the best display of 
fish of the year. I took a long walk through the old part of 
the city. The street stalls were piled high with all manner of 
fish and mollusks; great piles of squid and octopi of several 
species, buckets of clams, several kinds, and bushel baskets 
filled with snails which were continually crawling out into the 
street. There were long strings of black Mytilus. These mus- 
sels are raised attached to ropes of palm fiber, and appear to be 
sold by the yard. Yesterday morning, while waiting at the 
Santa Lucia dock for the Capri steamer, I saw fishermen bring- 
ing in boat loads of Mytilus, all in these long strings, about 
eight inches in diameter, growing on fiber ropes. 

On the same dock were long ropes to which earthen jars were 
attached at intervals of about two yards, which I found were 
intended as homes for unsuspecting octopi. 


The Zoological Station has a wonderful display of marine 
life, though the fish are not as gorgeous as those at Honolulu. 

Clausilia seems to be almost everywhere here, from the rocks 
of Capri to the Pompeian theatre. 

On the hills back of Palermo I found about a dozen species 
of Helices and Clausiliae. At Girgenti they had even climbed 
to the top of the temple of Concordia. I enjoyed an interesting 
day collecting them around the Greek temples and rock tombs. 

At Isola Bella, below Taormina, small marine shells were 
plentiful. About thirty-five species rewarded my exertions. 

While in Palermo Mr. Beltrani kindly showed me his collec- 
tion of mollusks and slides of radulae. He took me to see the 
famous collection of the Marquis of Monterosato, probably the 
richest in the world in Mediterranean mollusks, and containing 
a large number of types. It was a great privilege and treat to 
see this magnificent collection. 

Taokmina, April 10. 


The Emendation of Scientific Names. — There is a ten- 
dency among some scientific writers to change the original 
form of a word to suit their own ideas as to its proper con- 
struction. This leads to no end of confusion and only adds 
to the synonymy. The rules of nomenclature clearly state 
that a name cannot be changed unless there is an obvious 
typographical error. Mr. J. R. le B. Tomlin, in the Journal 
of Conchology, vol. 17, p. 136, says: ''There is at present 
among some Continental authors a deplorable tendency to 
tamper with the terminations of both geographical and per- 
sonal specific names, apparently in a pedantic attempt to 
bring them into conformity with classical usage. In a recent 
and otherwise admirable work entitled 'Faune Malacologique 
. . . des lies Mascareignes', Dr. Germain has thus arbitrarily 
altered no less than 25 such names, the net and only result 
being the creation of 25 unnecessary synonyms. No protest 


can be too vigorous against this unjustifiable practice. "- 
C. W. J. 

Dr. John Mason Clarke, New York State geologist and 
paleontologist, Director of the New York State Museum and 
of the science division of the Department of Education, emer- 
itus professor of geology at the Rensselaer Polytechnic Insti- 
tute, died at Albany on May 30, at the age of sixty-eight years. 

Snails Eaten by Shrews. — The following shells were 
turned over to me for identification by C. M. Davis. These 
he collected in the runways of the short-tailed shrew (Blarina 
brevicauda talpoides). All of these specimens had at least 
the first two whorls missing. Apparently this shrew is one of 
the worst enemies of land mollusks in this particular section 
(Ann Arbor, Michigan) as quantities of gnawed shells are to 
be met with on all sides while collecting in the wooded sec- 
tions. The shells have been identified as follows : Pyramidula 
alternata Say, Omphalina cuprea Raf., Polygyra albolabris 
Say, P. zaleta Binn., and P. thyroides Say. — W. J. Clench. 

The collection of Helicoid land shells of the late G. K. Gude 
of London, England, is for sale. It is a large and valuable 
collection containing about 4500 accurately determined species 
and varieties. Also well-bound copies of the monographs of 
Helix and Bulimus from the Conchologia Iconica. For further 
particulars apply to Bryant Walker, 1306 Dime Bank Build- 
ing, Detroit, Mich. 

R. [adiodiscus] orizabensis Pils., mentioned in Nautilus 
XXV, p. 49, was never described. It turns out to be identical 
with Striatum milium meridionalis (Pils. & Ferr.), described 
from Arizona, and now first recorded from Mexico (near Ori- 

The genus Orthaulax Gabb, hitherto known only from the 


American Oligocene and Miocene (Florida, West Indies), has 
been turned up in southern Japan, the species Orthaulax 
japonieus being described by Takumi Nagao (Japanese Jour- 
nal of Geol. and Geogr. Ill, No. 1, 1924) from the provinces 
Hizen and Higo, in beds considered Eocene — thus earlier than 
the appearance of the genua in America. 

Nahant Beach Shells. — In thei Nautilus, Vol. 34, No. 4, 
1921, p. 100, Mrs. L. D. Thompson published a short list of 
the mollusks occurring at Nahant Beach, Massachusetts. The 
following additions might be of interest for local records: 
Alectrian obsoleta Say, Crepidula plana Say (in dead Poli- 
nices heros), Aporrhais occidentalis (Beck.), Mya arenaria 
Linn., Petricola pholadiformis Lam., Callocardia morrhuana 
(Lins.), Thracia conradi Couth. — "William J. Clench. 

Robert Standen, M.Sc. — ' ' The old friends of Robert Stan- 
den in the B.N.F.C. will be sorry to hear of his passing. He 
was an all-round naturalist, and frequently joined in field ex- 
cursions in Northern Ireland, while in the same district he 
made many surveys of limited areas — Ballycastle, Rathlin 
Island, Whitepark Bay, Murlough, and Glenshesk — his subse- 
quent notes on these being of the utmost interest and value. 
He was an Ex-president of the Conchological Society of Great 
Britain and Ireland and either author or joint author of the 
names of hundreds of species of shells new to science. In- 
deed, Mr. Standen was one of the best known conchologists in 
the world, and his knowledge of marine zoology and botany 
generally was only second to that of the Mollusca. He also 
took a keen interest in the ethnology of native races, and it 
was he who arranged the fine ethnographic collections in the 
Manchester Museum. His arrangement of eases and cabinets 
of Mollusca in the same institution have long been noted as 
the best of their sort in the British Isles or elsewhere. Mr. 
Standen was 71 years of age, and passed away last week in 
Manchester. He had only lately received the Hon. Degree of 
M.Sc. from Manchester University, and honored by his old 
friends and colleagues with a token of their esteem. — R. J. W." 


The Attachment of Oyster Larv;e. — The 1923 report of 
the New Jersey Department of Biology, issued in 1925, con- 
tains the following observations by Dr. Thurlow C. Nelson: 

" It is a pleasure to report that at last, after years of search 
by the late biologist and by his successor, the attachment of 
oyster larvae has actually been observed under semi-natural 
conditions. Finding large numbers of oyster larvae of mature 
size about the houseboat on the evening of July 22, we low- 
ered a glass plate, 3x4 inches, vertically from the deck at 8 
p. m., and raised it half an hour later. 

"The plate was suspended horizontally in a dish of creek 
water and observed under the binocular. Six oyster larvae 
were found moving about on the surface of the glass, holding 
on by the foot. By extending the foot and then contracting 
it sharply the larvae described circles of ever-decreasing diam- 
eter, the first larvae coming to rest finally at 8:46 p. m. 
Holding fast to the glass by its very adhesive foot, the larva 
placed itself in position, left valve downward, and inclined 
to the surface of the glass at an angle of about thirty degrees. 
The margin of the mantle was extended in contact with the 
glass for two minutes and then was withdrawn. The foot, its 
cilia beating feebly, was slowly drawn up between the valves, 
and eleven minutes after the larva stopped moving over the 
glass, fixation was accomplished. 

"Most investigators, including the writer, believed that 
fixation was effected through the secreting border of the 
mantle cementing the larva fast. Stafford, however, found 
that the space between the left valve of the spat and the sub- 
stratum was nearly filled with the cementing substance, and 
he concluded that the byssus gland must pour out the sub- 
stance in liquid form, which subsequently hardened and held 
the spat fast. That such is the case we are now able to con- 
firm from direct observation. ' ' 

The Monograph of New York Mollusks, long in prepara- 
tion by Dr. Pilsbry, has now been completed, and it is expected 
will be published as soon as practicable by the State Museum, 


Department of Education, Albany. As most of the species of 
Canada, New England and the Middle States occur in New 
York, and many forms of wider range are discussed incident- 
ally, the work should have some interest beyond the boundaries 
of the State. As the size of the edition will probably depend 
somewhat on the demand, those desiring copies should so notify 
the Secretary of the Museum. 

New Forms of Polygyra (Triodopsis) loricata. — Polygyra 
loricata querceti. The shell is smaller than typical loricata, with 
the three teeth relatively much larger, the parietal tooth long 
and strong. Cuticular processes are moderately well devel- 
oped. The whorls are closely coiled. Height 3.8, diam. 6 
mm., 5^ whorls (type); height 3.4, diam. 5.2 mm., 4f whorls. 
Oakland, California. Type and paratypes No. 11147 ANSP. 
This form has been called Var. minor Hemphill, but that name 
had been used previously in the genus. 

Polygyra loricata lowei. The surface is smooth, lacking cutic- 
ular scales or threads, somewhat glossy. Teeth are very small, 
the parietal tooth inconspicuous. Height 3.5, diam. 6.4 mm., 
4^ whorls. Taken 24 miles east of Placerville, California, near 
a roadside spring, by Herbert N. Lowe, 1916. In older speci- 
mens the teeth may perhaps become larger, but the smooth 
surface is characteristic. — H. A. Pilsbry. 


On some South African Gulellje, with descriptions of 
new species and varieties. By Henry Clifden Burnup (An- 
nals Natal Mus. V, part 2, 1925). Gulella is one of the largest 
genera of South African land snails, intricate and difficult by 
reason of the numerous closely related species. Besides the 
critical notes, descriptions and figures given in this paper, 
Burnup has found that in some species the young have vari- 
ously arranged apertural teeth, a character not observed 
hitherto in this genus, though known in the related Ptycho- 
trema. — H. A. P. 

32 the nautilus. 

Fauna and Stratigraphic Relations of the Tejon Eocene 
at the Type Locality in Kern Co., California. By Frank 
M. Anderson and G. Dallas Hanna (Occas. Papers Cal. Acad. 
Sci., March, 1925). A useful study of this fauna, about which 
there has been so much controversy and uncertainty. 

Notes on Some Arctic Mollusca from Greenland. By 
Dr. L. Soos and Hans Schlesch (Ann. Mus. Nat. Hung., XXI, 
pp. 94-104, 1924). The authors state that present land and 
freshwater molluscan fauna of Greenland consists of ten spe- 
cies. The anatomy of Ph&nacolimax angelica Moll., Succinea 
graenlandica Moll, and Limncea vahlii Moll, are described 
and figured. — C. W. J. 

Notes on Some Mactrid/E. By J. R. le B. Tomlin (Jour. 
Conch., vol. 17, pp. 134-136, 1924). The exact dates of pub- 
lications of Reeves' and Deshayes' species are given. 

Notes on South American Ancylule, I. By Bryant Wal- 
ker (Occasional Papers, No. 157, Mus. Zool., Univ. Mich., pp. 
1-7, pi. 1, Apr. 4, 1925). Four species are described and 
figured, one, Gundlachia lutzi is new. 

Studies in Ampullaria. By E. G. Alderson, M.A. 1 The 
author states that his intention originally was to accomplish 
a complete monograph of the Ampullarias, the existing mono- 
graphs being more than sixty years old; but this plan was 
relinquished, and only shells in his own possession are de- 
scribed and figured. "The more one studies this genus," he 
writes, ' ' the more evident does it become that casual acquaint- 
ances therein are of no profit. ... To understand the Ampul- 
larias one must handle them almost daily, and have the whole 
of one's material ready for comparison and discrimination." 
Among the American species treated, several have been 

1 Small quarto, xx -f- 102 pp., 19 plates. W. Heffer & Sons, Ltd., Cam- 
bridge, England. 


"storm centers" in the literature of the group; Mr. Ander- 
son's views will be interesting to those who have worked over 
them. The section on Asiatic forms contains some useful 
rectifications, such as the deletion of A. dolioides Reeve, and 
a full discussion of A. ampullacea L., type of the genus. 
Thirteen African species are figured. The generic name Am- 
pullaria is used for both American and Old World species, 
though the use of Pila for the latter is mentioned. The 164 
natural-size figures by the author are characteristic Ampul- 
laria portraits, evidently drawn with great fidelity and well 
reproduced. It is to be hoped that Mr. Alderson's collection 
will continue to grow and that he will be encouraged to con- 
tinue his Studies in Ampullaria. — H. A. P. 

On the Radula of Coxia. By Lieut.-Col. A. J. Peile (Proc. 
Malac. Soc. London XVI, p. 194, April, 1925). The radula 
obtained from a dried animal shows that this peculiar genus 
belongs in the neighborhood of Trochomorpha, not to the 
Rhytididae or Streptaxidse as hitherto supposed. 

Microscopic Sculpture op Pearly Fresh Water Mussel 
Shells. By Wm. B. Marshall (Proc. U. S. Nat. Mus., vol. 67, 
1925, pp. 1-14) . Under the compound microscope most Mute- 
lidse examined show minute and remarkably regular radial 
stria?. They are present in Spatha, Mutela, Mcmocondyloea, 
Anodotitites, Diplodontites, etc., but not in Chelidonopsis or 
Diplodon. This structure is apparently of value in determin- 
ing relationships of genera. 

Quaternary and Recent Molluscan Faunas of the West 
Coast of Lower California. By Eric Knight Jordan (Bull. 
Southern Cal. Acad. Sci. XXIII, 1924, pp. 145-156). Notes 
on three marine deposits of Quaternary age, Magdalena Bay, 
San Ignacio Lagoon and Scammon 's Lagoon, with lists of the 
mollusks and their range in the Recent fauna. The indica- 
tions of these faunas bearing on Quaternary climates are con- 
sidered. — H. A. P. Xy. 

34 the nautilus. 

The Mollusca Collected by the University of Michigan 
— "Williamson Expedition in Venezuela. By H. Burrington 
Baker (Occas. Papers, No. 156, Mus. Zool., Univ. Mich., pp. 
1-44, pis. 6-11, Apr. 4, 1925). This paper is part III, cover- 
ing the Pupillidae to Oleacinidse. A new section Pseudo- 
guppya is proposed, with Helix cassiquiensis Pfr. as the type. 
In the Streptaxidge the following new genera and subgenera 
are proposed: Rectartemon, Tamayoa, Miradiscops, Puncto- 
discops, Systrophiella, and Happiella. Nine new species and 
subspecies are described. — C. W. J. 

Miocene Mollusks from Bowden, Jamaica: Pelecypods 
and Scaphopods. By Wendell P. Woodring. Published by 
the Carnegie Institution of Washington. 222 pp., 28 plates. 
The beautifully preserved fossils of the Bowden formation have 
been noticed occasionally in palaeontological literature for over 
fifty years. Numerous authors have referred to or described 
particular species, but in some cases the descriptions and illus- 
trations left much to be desired, and were a source of perplexity 
to those working on allied faunas. The Bowden fauna is a very 
rich one, and a full report was much needed by all concerned 
with tropical American Tertiary faunas. The memoir now 
completed for the bivalves and tooth-shells is done in the thor- 
ough manner of all of Woodring' s work, and will be found 
highly interesting. The treatment of such difficult groups as 
the arks and pectens is commendably clear. A few unexpected 
forms turned up, such as a new species of the rare genus 
Neseromya, and a species of the Pacific family Juliidse, appro- 
priately named Julia gardnerae for an industrious worker on the 

Woodring concludes that " the Bowden formation is of 
middle Miocene (Helvetian) age. It is approximately the 
equivalent of the Gurabo formation of the Dominican Republic 
and the Gatun formation of Panama and Costa Rica." — H. A. P. 

The Effects of Ultraviolet Light on Pond Snails (Lin- 
naeus). By C. W. M. Poynter and Alan Moritz. 'Journal of 


Experimental Zoology, Vol. 37, No. 1, January, 1923.) This 
paper deals primarily with the effect of ultra-violet light rays 
on the pond snails, Lymnaea. Experiments with both ultra- 
violet light rays and heat were made to determine time and 
type of coagulation of the protoplasm. 

Attention is called to the authors' apparent lack of interest in 
specifying what particular species was used. In the conclusion 
set forth by the authors, " Snail embryos present a wide range 
of individual resistance to the action of ultra-violet rays. Re- 
sistance increases with advance in age." It would be interest- 
ing to know whether or not more than one species was used in 
the experiment. From the viewpoint of the experimental 
zoologist the work may be satisfactory, but many students in 
other branches of biology depend upon such experimental work 
to explain and solve problems in their own fields, the latter find 
that the lack of exact determination of the species involved 
often makes the contribution practically valueless to them. 
Indefinite data, when definite data can be obtained, does not 
add materially to the subject. The spelling in the title of the 
generic name, if copied directly by bibliographers, will cause 
considerable confusion, even though the mistake is partly recti- 
fied in an abstract printed in Spanish accompanying the 
authors' separate, in which the snail appears as Lymnaeus. — 
W. J. Clench. 

A Monograph of the Australian Loricates. By Tom Ire- 
dale and A. F. Basset-Hull. (The Australian Zoologist, Vol. 
Ill, parts 5-8, 1923-5. ) While many of the chitons of Aus- 
tralia were described about a century ago, the descriptions were 
so inadequate that they remained practically unknown. It is 
only in the last 25 or thirty years that critical and exact meth- 
ods have been applied in either collecting or studying them. 
By the work of Bednall, Hedley, Edwin Ashby, Basset-Hull, 
Iredale and others, a great number of new species have been 
turned up, type-localities of the old authors have been collected 
over; with the new material, and re-examination of old types, 
many of the species of Blainville have been recognized, and 
those of Reeve redefined or discarded. 


In the monograph now in progress, the whole subject is 
brought up to date by two of the naturalists who have been 
most active in the work. Only a few features of their treat- 
ment need be noticed here, as all interested in chitons should 
possess the monograph. As usually happens, the old genera 
are further divided. Thus, in what was formerly included in 
Ischnochiton, the following genera are recognized: Ischnochiton, 
Autochiton (n. g. ), Heterozona, Strigichiton, Haploplax, Steno- 
chiton, Anisoradsia, Ischnoradsia, Subterenochiton (n. g.). The 
old name longicymba Blv. replaces Stenochiton juloides. 

The Lepidopleuridee are viewed as degenerates from an Isch- 
nochitonoid source. All of the Austral genera are considered 
different from the northern. Lorica, Loricella and Kopionella 
are segregated in a family Loricidse. 

In general, the girdle armature is given more weight in clas- 
sification than formerly. 

All of the species are illustrated. The beautifully drawn 
figures are a very attractive and valuable feature, since no 
chiton can be considered fully defined until it is really well 
figured. Photographs, unless of a high degree of excellence, do 
not come up to the requirements. 

Having had the privilege of collecting chitons with both 
authors, and of going over part of the collection of the senior 
author, the writer feels a good deal of confidence in the work 
under consideration, and has a great respect for the prowess of 
the authors as chiton collectors. 

If any fault is to be found with this monograph, it is in the 
changing of the name Polyplacophora to " Loricata." The rule 
of priority, if strictly enforced, would leave few Class or Order 
names. Thus Pelecypoda would become Bivalvia L., Gastro- 
poda would be Univalvia L. But names of Orders have never 
been considered as subject to priority rules as genera and 
species are, and there appears to be no advantage in the change 
proposed. As to the use of ' ' loricate " as a common name to 
replace "chiton," that too seems of doubtful advantage. 
Everybody concerned calls these animals chitons, without any 
confusion with the restricted genus Chiton that I ever heard of. 
Why try to juggle with the name as if it were a Russian capital 
city ?— H. A. P. 

The Nautilus. 

Vol. XXXIX OCTOBER, 1925. No. 2 



A museum should make its molluscau exhibit as attractive 
and educational as possible. A purely systematic collection 
with few shells and long printed labels, with the nomenclature 
changing daily, will do little to create an interest in the Mol- 
lusca. Shells are only equivalent to the skeletons of verte- 
brates, and convey little or no idea to the public of how they 
grow or of the animals that constructed them. They would 
probably appeal to many visitors as a great hall of skeletons in 
a museum in Paris, did to a friend, who sent me a picture of 
the hall on which he had written " Some valley of dry bones." 

How can we show in a clear and attractive way the creatures 
that build the shells? The best preserved specimens in alcohol 
or formaline usually look more dead than their shells. Un- 
doubtedly the most attractive way to show Mollusca, both 
those with and without shells, is by glass models such as the 
Blaschkas used to make before they devoted all their time to 
making glass flowers for the Harvard museum. Glass models 
are not now obtainable and few museums can afford skilled 
artisans such as the American Museum of Natural History em- 
ploys to make their beautiful and instructive groups of marine 
invertebrates. The Boston Society of Natural History is quite 
fortunate in having over 200 Blaschka glass models of mollusca, 


but most of these represent foreign species and are available 
only for the synoptic collection. 

Next to the glass models the best way to show the Mollusca 
of a local or given area, and a way available to all museums, is 
by the use of colored drawings from life, made by a skilful and 
careful artist. People are accustomed to looking at pictures 
and are not so apt to be misled by an enlarged drawing as by 
an enlarged model. Also with enlarged drawings the details of 
very small species can be worked out with greater accuracy than 
in the models. To add to the attractiveness of the New Eng- 
land collection and make it more instructive, the Boston Society 
of Natural History is placing with its exhibition of shells, 
beautiful colored drawings of the animals, made by the well- 
known scientific artist Mr. J. Henry Blake. More than 100 
drawings are now in the collection, also some 30 Blaschka 
models and numerous maps to show the distribution of the 
more interesting species. 

Among other interesting objects at the seashore are the egg- 
capsules of the various gasteropods which should always ac- 
company the species. The egg-capsules of Buccinum undatum 
and Chrysodomus decemcostatus were figured in The Nautilus, 
Vol. 31, pi. 1. Mr. Owen Bryant some years ago gave the 
Society a tube containing 1700 embryonic shells taken from one 
string of capsules of Busycon carica, but the number of capsules 
was not mentioned. One cannot always find a string of cap- 
sules in which the embryonic shells are well developed and the 
small holes through which they escape are all closed. A part 
of a string, containing 18 capsules intact, was found in the col- 
lection, these containing from 11 to 27 shells each, an average 
of about 20. Complete strings contain between 80 and 90 cap- 
sules, not counting the smaller ones that serve as an anchor for 
the string. 

The sand-collars are conspicuous objects of a sandy beach, 
but it is surprising how few really know that these are the nidus 
or nest of the sea snail. The nidus of the Northern Sand-collar 
Snail (Polinices heros) has a plain edge, while the Southern 
Sand-collar Snail (P. duplicata) has the edge wavy. The little 
collar of P. triseriata is not often found as the snail frequents 


deeper waters. Although sand-collars are common in the shoal 
waters in June, they are comparatively scarce in August, when 
they contain the embryonic shells. Mr. A. B. Fuller obtained 
one of P. heros on the Georges Bank in 45 fathoms, with the 
young shells ready to leave the collar. 

To show variation and some of the conditions that govern the 
various forms, sculpture and color of shells, is another interest- 
ing feature. The species of Slipper shells (Crepidula) are ad- 
mirable for showing variation and mutation due to their habit 
of growing on objects of various form and color. Q. glauca 
becomes the variety convexa when living on a very convex sur- 
face. When found on Alectrion (Ilyanassa) obsoleta they are a 
uniform dark biown, but on A. (Tritia) irivittata they are light 
colored with brown spots. C. fornicata is usually darker when 
growing on a horse-shoe crab than when growing on a large 
Busy con. When attached to scallops (Pecten irradians) they 
adopt its ribbed sculpture. The forms assumed by ft plana 
are marvelous. Crucibidum striatum growing on the almost 
smooth Pecten grandis have the sculpture obsolete or wanting. 
The jingle shells (Anomia simplex) also shows wonderful adapta- 
tion to its surroundings; very convex and often with a free edge 
when attached to pebbles, they are ribbed on Pecten irradians 
and sometimes so crowded on an oyster shell that they become 
angular. The little A. aculeata often lacks its scaly sculpture 
when growing on a smooth surface. 

The rock or dog whelk (Thais lapillus) shows a wide range in 
size and color. Form is usually considered to be the result of 
environment, but color is largely hereditary. Shells from an 
exposed situation are smaller than those from more sheltered 
places, while the variety imbricata usually frequents muddy 
situations. On rocks covered with white barnacles (Balanus 
balanoides) or where the rocks are light-colored, the shells of 
the whelks are white, while on mussel and algae covered rocks 
the shells vary in color from blackish brown to light brown, 
orange and yellow, with but a small percentage white. An 
interesting paper on "Variation in the Dog Whelk," by Harold 
Sellers Colton, appeared in "Ecology," Vol. 3, pp. 146-157, 
Apr., 1922. Littorina rudis is another shell that shows remark- 


able variation. Although many forms are recorded in Europe, 
only tenebrosa has been recognized here. Environment seems 
to be the governing factor, tenebrosa usually frequenting the 
marshes and the other forms the rocks, often far above the high 
water mark. They vary in color to a great extent according to 
the color of the rocks they frequent. At Bass Rocks, Glou- 
cester, Mass., in algae at about half tide is a colony scarlet in 

Where conditions are as diversified as in New England maps 
showing the distribution of certain species will be found very 
useful and instructive. 



Those of us who were initiated into the mysteries and delights 
of conchology through our interest in a local fauna of eastern 
or central United States, or of any continental land mass where 
the barriers are few and far between, find it difficult, at first, to 
realize the necessity for exact localities. Although we may find 
a certain species in a woodlot but absent from the adjacent 
cedar swamp, we soon recognize that this restriction is purely 
edaphic and ecological. Under similar conditions, the same 
forms usually turn up over and over again, even if we travel 
miles away from the region of our first acquaintance with our 
sluggish and secretive favorites. Once in a long time, we may 
come across such exceedingly exclusive eremites as Hendersonia 
occulta (Helicinidae), which, for example, occurs abundantly 
in the deep limestone gorge at the base of the Virginian Natural 
Bridge, but is quite absent from the rich forests of the sur- 
rounding hills, just as it is from most parts of its remarkably 
discontinuous range. However, such cases are exceptional, 
and usually the notation of exact localities does seem almost a 
waste of time and space. 

As a result, we are apt to be totally unprepared for the amaz- 
ing segregation that occurs in regions where the barriers are 
numerous and relatively impassable. Even if we have followed 


the intensive explorations of Pilsbry and Ferriss in southwest- 
ern United States, or have read accounts of such a concholo- 
gist's paradise as the Hawaiian Islands, we scarcely are in a 
position to visualize the almost complete change of fauna that 
may occur in a few miles, or even in a few yards. At least, I 
must confess that the actuality of isolation came almost as a 
distinct shock, when I sauntered out of Willemstad, Curacao, 
in 1920, and found a molluscan fauna that was almost totally 
distinct from that which I had been studying in Venezuela, 
only forty-odd miles away. And, even then, I was unable to 
prognosticate what I observed in 1922, the extremely limited 
distribution of some of the forms from these Dutch West 

As has been described in a previous paper (1924, Occ. P. 
Mus. Zool. Univ. Mich., no. 152), each of these islands con- 
sists of a core of older igneous and metamorphosed strata sur- 
rounded by an irregular zone of coral rock. Many of the shells, 
especially those of the genus Tudora, are more or less limited to 
the limestone rim; as this is broken in many places, especially 
on Curacao, by narrow arms of the sea, we get a series of col- 
onies with relatively impassable barriers between them. In 
addition, the semidesert climate of the islands is only relieved 
by comparatively brief periods of rainfall, so that the snails are 
forced to spend most of their lives in a quiescent state. Both 
of these factors tend to discourage migration, and, coincident 
with this, we find rapid changes in the facies of the shells 
within surprizingly short distances; in fact, colonies of Tudora 
which are separated by two or three of the more decided breaks 
in the shore line show scarcely an intergradient individual. 
Even more striking is the case of Tudora pilsbryi, which is prac- 
tically limited to the talus below the escarpments of a single 
monadnock, where it completely replaces the more widespread 
T. megacheilos. 

Such a region can only be studied by a conchologist in the 
field, and even he will have difficulty, as I did, until be realizes 
the absolute necessity for the careful segregation of the lots from 
each limited locality. Anyone not especially interested in 
snails will fail to recognize the need of such intensive analysis, 


and a random collection will show only a part of the actual iso- 
lation of divergent colonies. Besides, as already indicated, 
even a conchologist who is not familiar with this type of distri- 
bution is slow to comprehend the verity of its occurrence. 

In his useful paper " On a Collection of Non-Marine Mollusca 
from Curacao" (1925, Bijd. Dierk. Kon. Zool. Gen. Amster- 
dam, Afl. XXIV, 25-32), Tera van Benthem Jutting labors 
under the load of both these impediments. The limited col- 
lection that he describes was picked up in central Curacao by 
scientists who were not especially concerned about the mollusks 
alone. Besides, I venture to suspect van Benthem Jutting 
himself is more familiar with the widespread fauna of western 
Europe than with the localized ones of the arid tropics. As a 
result, his paper contains certain records which I am quite sure 
are based on misconceptions, and a brief discussion of some of 
these citations may not be out of order. 

Cerion uva (L.). Although a random lot would indicate that 
C. u. diablensis and C. u. hatoensis "only denote the extreme 
limits of variation " , it is also true that the mean diameter of 
specimens from the type locality of the former falls outside the 
total range of variation in individuals from the typical colony 
of the latter (see table XII of my paper). 

Brachypodella raveni (Crosse). ' ' Tafelberg " is often used by 
the inhabitants of Curacao to denote vaguely the southeastern 
end of the island; as will be shown later, I feel sure that van 
Benthem Jutting has no shells from the bases of the escarp- 
ments of the Tafelberg of Santa Barbara itself. On this ac- 
count, it is no wonder that he is unable to recognize my sub- 
species sanctaebarbarae ; all of his specimens came from locali- 
ties where only typical raveni would be expected. 

Microceramus bonairensis curacoanus H. B. B. The subspecific 
name is not ' ' cura^aoana. ' ' 

Opeas gracile (Hutton). Doubtlessly an introduced species 
on cultivated ground. 

Pupoides marginatus nitidulus (Pfr.). Cited as " Pupa (Pu- 
poides) manginala (Say) ". Of course, Pupa cannot be used for 
any Pupillid; if Roeding's "Museum Boltenianum " is re- 
jected, as it certainly should be, Pupa will replace Cerion. 


Succinea barbadensis Gldg. and S. gyrata Gibbons. Although 
I recognized two forms in my poor material, collected during 
the dry season, I am still skeptical as to their specific separa- 
tion. Van Benthem Jutting' s excellent figures will be of great 
assistance to that very courageous individual who may attempt, 
some time in the future, the anatomical studies that will be 
necessary before we can make any definite statements about the 
West Indian members of this genus. 

Physa cubensis Pfr. An interesting addition to the fauna. 
However, I would not be inclined to use any freshwater pul- 
monate that can withstand the dessication of semidesert condi- 
tions as an indicator of zoogeographical affinities; Planorbis 
pallidus, at least, certainly enjoys extraordinary means of dis- 
persal, as I found it in a raised cement tank which received its 
water from a closed well, through the agency of a windmill. 
Perhaps both of these shells should be classed as "occasional 
migrants", along with the birds that probably transport them. 

Tudora rupis H. B. B. Either a mistaken identification or an 
error in locality; this species does not occur anywhere in the 
vicinity of Hato. 

Tudora megacheilos (P. & M.). From the localities, most of 
the specimens would belong to the typical subspecies, although 
I would expect kabrietensis from the vicinity of the Tafelberg. 
If any of van Benthem Jutting' s shells had come from the 
escarpments of the Tafelberg of Santa Barbara itself, they would 
have certainly included T. pilsbryi, a very distinct and conspic- 
uous species. 

Tudora fossor H. B. B. Van Benthem Jutting cites 21 speci- 
mens of Tudora s. S. from Hato; 10 of these are included under 
T. megacheilos, 11 under T. fossor. The latter occurs nowhere 
in the vicinity of this locality, where the shells are intermediate 
between typical megacheilos and the subspecies rondeklipensis, 
which does somewhat approach the distinct species from north- 
ern Curagao. 

Cistulops raveni (Crosse)! The citation of this species from 
" Tafelberg " furnishes additional proof that the lots so labeled 
did not come from the escarpments of the Tafelberg of Santa 
Barbara. Attention is called to the presence of another " Tafel- 


berg", that of Sint Hyronirrms, in the northern region of Cur- 
acao; in fact, most of the coral-capped monadnocks of the 
southwestern coast are small "table-mountains". 

In conclusion, I may be excused if I diverge considerably 
from the field of conchology to mention another interesting 
effect of past isolation on Curacao. The prevailing language of 
this island, Bonaire and Aruba is Papiamento, which is only 
spoken by the natives of this group. The name itself may be 
roughly translated as "Much talk" or " Art of talking"; it is 
also called "Spaansch", because many of its users truly be- 
lieve that it is the original Spanish. Actually, it probably 
started as a simplified slave-dialect of Portuguese, but it has 
acquired words from all of the tongues spoken in the West 
Indies and is characterized by a lack of conjugations, tenses and 
abstract terms, which makes it strikingly different from the 
Romance languages. Another peculiarity, which it possesses 
in common with some primitive languages, is the introduction 
of each verb by a syllable, pronounced "ta", which simply 
indicates that the next word will be this part of speech. How- 
ever, the prospective collectors in Curacao need not be deterred 
by any question of a common language, as English is widely 
spoken and understood in the islands; in fact, the natives, 
starting with the limited Papiamento, seem to have a propensity 
to acquire smatterings of several languages, without the ability 
to express a complicated idea in any of them. 



Kennard and Woodward (1925, Naut. XXXVII, p. 83) 
have recently re-opened the question of the type of Ancylastrum 
Bgt. (Feb. 15, 1853, J. de C. IV, 60, 63) and the validity of 
Pseudancylus Walker (1921, Naut. XXXV. 58). They come 
to the conclusion that the type of the former is Ancylus fluviatilis 
Muller, while Walker (1921, 5-9) had decided that it was 
Ancylus cumingiamis Bgt, (either May 1, 1853, J. de C. IV, 170; 
or July 25, 1854, P. Z. S., 91). 


The differences between the viewpoint of Kennard and Wood- 
ward and that of Walker seem to be divisible into three rather 
separate questions: 

1. What species are included in the original Ancylastrum 

(1. c.)? 

2. Was Ancylastrum proposed as a substitute for Ancylus 

3. What subsequent choice of type is valid ? 

The divergences of the two arguments may be tabulated for 
each as follows: 

Kennard and Woodward Walker 

1. It cannot include species 1. As no species names were 
described in subsequent mentioned in the original pub - 
papers. lication, it includes all species 

that satisfy its definition, re- 
gardless of their date of de- 

2. Yes. 2. No. 

3. Subsequent choice in- 3. The first choice was by 
operative and could not be A. Bgt. in a subsequent paper 
cumingianus in any case. (1. c. ), where the type, A. 

cumingianus Bgt. was also de- 

As regards the first bone of contention, I must personally 
agree with Kennard and Woodward that any genus should in- 
clude only those species known at the date of its description. 
However, as pointed out by Walker (1921, 7), the Inter- 
national Commission on Zoological Nomenclature has definitely 
ruled otherwise in its Opinion 46^ where, in a similar case, it 
has decided that Aclastus rufipes Ashmead (1902) is the type of 
Aclastus Foerster (1868). For this reason, Walker's decision is 
certainly the correct one; Ancylastrum Bgt. (Feb. 15, 1853) 
does include Ancylus cumingianus Bgt. (either May 1, 1853; or 
July 25, 1854). 

The second question is more difficult, but must, I believe, be 
answered in the negative. In the first place, there is not and 
never was any such "generic name" as Ancylus Gray; Ancylus 


Miiller (1774), type Patella lacustris Linne (chosen by Children, 
1823-4) is the only legitimate Ancylus s. s. In 1840, Gray 
(Turton's Manual, new ed., 249) did list A. fluviatilis as the 
only species of Ancylus s. s. , but if this is the description of a 
monotypic genus or division then the mention of only one 
species for a genus or subgenus in any local list does exactly 
the same thing. This is not a case similar to that outlined in 
Opinion 6 of the International Commission, because Velletia 
itself was certainly not proposed as a monotypic group as Gray 
(footnote, p. 250) also included Guilding's "two West Indian 
species" by page reference. However, it is true that Gray did 
in 1847 (P. Z. S., 181) incorrectly designate the type of Ancylus 
(although Bourguignat does not cite this publication). 

In the second place, even if Ancylus Gray (1847) be regarded 
as a preoccupied genus or subgenus, Bourguignat did not defi- 
nitely propose his Ancylastrum as a substitute. Bourguignat 
first reviewed Beck's division of Ancylus and decided "qu'il 
devient impossible d'y attach er la moindre importance." Then 
he discussed Gra}f's 1840 paper, designated the type of Velletia, 
but mentioned no other species. He also mentioned the sim- 
ilar grouping of l'abbaye Dupuy but was again careful to omit 
all reference to any species but A. lacustris. Finally, he wrote: 
" Quant a nous, nous adoptons la division du genre en deux 
coupes, auxquelles nous trouvons des caracteres distincts, tir6s 
de la conformation du test, et surtout de celle de V animal: caractere 
que nous formulons comme il suit: — ," and proceeded to define 
his groups Ancylastrum and Velletia. Again, following the de- 
scriptions (p. 63), he admitted "la nature typique qu'il faut 
reconnaitre aux especes (note plural) que nous pretendons 
classer dans cette section" (Ancylastrum), definitely adopted 
Velletia Gray (1840) for his second group, but was still careful 
to omit any recognition of Gray's other group. 

As Bourguignat commonly did use the word type in quite 
the sense of the Code (although he apparently regarded the first 
species as the automatic type), my own surmise, which appears 
quite as valid as that of Kennard and Woodward, is that 
Bourguignat already had A. cumingianus in mind as the geno- 
type of his new section. It may be claimed that he incorrectly 


believed Ancylastrum to be Ancylus s. s. , but there is no reason 
to consider it as a substitute for Ancylus Gray (1840 or 1847). 
Finally to take up the third question, as no type was desig- 
nated or indicated in the original description of Ancylastrum, 
the first subsequent choice of type is operative. The species 
later chosen by the author himself, A. cumingianus (either date) 
is included in the original description, according to Opinion 46 
of the International Commission, and must be the true type of 
the genus. Ancylastrum does apply to the Tasmanian group 
and Pseudancylus is the correct generic name for Ancylus fluvi- 
atilis Muller. 


Loricate nomenclature is still unsettled, as Pilsbry's memor- 
able basic work must be reviewed in the light of the thirty 
years' intensive research initiated by its publication. In the 
Bulletin of the U. S. National Museum No. 112, 1921, pp. 197- 
198, Dall included a Family Cryptochitonidae with three genera, 
Cryptochiton Gray 1847, for stelleri Middendorff, Chlamydochiton 
Dall 1878, for amiculatus Pallas, and Symmetrogephyrus (Mid- 
dendorff 1848) Chenu 1859, for pallasii Middendorff and vestitus 
Broderip and Sowerby. As I am partly responsible for this 
nomination it is incumbent to record some apparently neces- 
sary rectifications. In the Proc. Malac. Soc. Lond., Vol. xi, 
June, 1914, pp. 128-129, I showed that Amicula in 1840 was 
indeterminable exactly, and that in 1843 it fell as a synonym 
of Cryptoconchus. Apparently this conclusion was accepted 
without careful criticism but it Was not infallible. Twice in 
the year 1842 Amicula had been noted — admittedly in an in- 
direct manner — in an acceptable place, and as these introduc- 
tions agree there can be no argument as to the recognition of 
the genus. However it is regrettable that through this observa- 
tion Amicula must replace Cryptochiton as used by Dall, and the 
family name be cited as Amiculidae. Thus, Sowerby in the 

* By permission of the Trustees of the Australian Museum, Sydney. 


second edition of the Conchological Manual, p. 61, included 
Amicula with the definition "A genus formed for the reception 
of Chiton amiculatus, Auct. , the valves of which are covered by 
an integument; so as to be completely hidden externally." 
Then a good figure is given, No. 507, and in the explanation to 
the plate on p. 311, Amicula is again cited. The figure is that 
of the shell known as Cryptochiton stelleri Middendorff. The 
second edition was published in 1842, and a reprint with the 
wording "third edition" appeared in 1846. Either of these 
may be referred to. Simultaneously Lovell Reeve issued his 
Conchologica Systematica, and in Vol. ii, p. 9, wrote "In one 
species of the Chiton amiculatus (Plates CXXXII & CXXXIII, 
Fig. 80), the mantle is expanded entirely over the shell, and it 
has on this account been separated by Gray for the formation 
of a new genus, Amicula", and on p. 11 Amicula is given as 
the generic name for the shell figured as Chiton amiculatus, and 
this is again the Cryptochiton stelleri of MiddendorfT. This intro- 
duction is discussed by Middendorff himself (Mem. sci. nat. 
Acad. Imp. Sci. St. Petersb., Vol. vi, 1847, p. 96, Feb., 1848) 
who proposes Amiculum as the correct spelling, while rejecting 
the name. 

When Middendorff proposed Cryptochiton he divided the genus 
Chiton into two subgenera Cryptochiton and Phaenachiton. The 
latter he again divided into two sections Dichachiton and Hama- 
chiton, and then of the former introduced two subsections Syvi- 
metrogephyrus and Ametrogephyrus. The last named has been 
cited as a synonym of Cryptoplax, its correct location, but the 
preceding one Dall has made use of as typified by Chenu. 
Dall many years ago concluded " Middendorff adopted a singu- 
lar nomenclature, in which the genus was divided into a great 
number of sections, subsections, &c, so that his work can 
hardly be classed as binomial in the Linnean sense". This is 
not accepted today, as Middendorff proves a strictly binomial 
writer, and his subsections automatically become of higher 
value and all legitimate. The type of a less group would be 
available for a higher grouping, but as no type designations 
seem to have been made except that of Symmetrogephyrus it will 
save trouble and discussion to name as type of Phaenochiton 


and Dichachiton as well as of Ametrogephyrus, Chiton larvaeformis 
Blainville. Thus these names will encumber the synonymy of 
Qryptoplax, but otherwise make no confusion. 



The genus Acanthodoris was founded by J. E. Gray in 1850 
for the reception of the Doris pilosa of O. F. Miiller, described 
originally from the Norwegian coast, but of very wide distribu- 
tion, having been taken generally in northern European waters 
and in the Mediterranean, on the coasts of Iceland, Greenland, 
New England, Alaska and the western coast of British America, 
while two very doubtful varieties have even been recorded from 
Tasmania and New Zealand. 

The genus diagnosis as extended by Gray ('57) was based 
upon the careful anatomical and systematic studies of Alder 
and Hancock ('51, '55), and has been amended somewhat by 
later writers, especially by Bergh ('79, '80). The type species 
of the genus is recorded as occurring generally in the northern 
circumpolar waters, but it is not improbable that a closer study 
of a larger series of individuals may establish varietal and even 
specific differences between the Alaskan and the European 
forms. Specific distinction is much more probable in the case 
of the two South Pacific varieties of A. pilosa (0. F. M.) de- 
scribed by Bergh ('05). One of these has been provisionally 
identified by Eliot ('07) as being identical with Ac. rnollicella 
Abraham. But two valid species seem to be found in European 
waters, Ac. pilosa (O. F. M) and Ac. subquadrata A. & H., 
while Verrill has recorded the genotype and three other species, 
two of which are undoubtedly varieties only, from the New 
England coast. The genus seems to reach much greater diver- 
sity in Pacific waters as the following list indicates. 

1. Ac. pilosa (O. F. M.). Kyska Harbor, Popoff Strait; 
Yukon Harbor (Shumagin Island), Alaska. Bergh ('80). 

2. Ac. pilosa var. albescens Bergh. Kyska Harbor, Alaska. 


Bergh ('80); Vancouver region, British Columbia. O'Don- 
oghue ('21). 

3. Ac. pilosa var. purpurea Bergh. Unalaska, Alaska. 
Bergh ('80). 

4. Ac. coerulescens Bergh. Nunivak Island, Alaska. Bergh 

5. Ac. hudsoni MacFarland. Monterey Bay, California. 
MacFarland ('05). 

6. Ac. brunnea MacFarland. Monterey Bay, California. 
MacFarland ('05). 

7. Ac. rhodoceras C. & E. San Pedro, California. Cockerell 
and Eliot ('05). 

8. Ac. nanaimoensis O'Donoghue. Vancouver region, B. C. 
O'Donoghue ('21). 

To the above list are to be added two new species described 
in the present paper, Ac. lutea and Ac. columbina, to which are 
appended further details of structure exhibited by the other 
three California species, Ac. hudsoni, Ac. brunnea and Ac. 

Acanthodoris, Gray. 1850. 

Acanthodoris Gray, J. E., Figs. Moll. Animals, IV, 1850, p. 
103; Guide Moll. British Mus., 1857, p. 207; Alder and Han- 
cock, Monog. British Nudibr. Moll., VII, 1855, p. 43, Appen- 
dix p. xvii; Adams, H. & A., Genera Recent Moll. II, 1858, 
p. 56; Sars, G. O., Moll. Reg. Arct. Norvegiae, 1878, p. 308; 
Bergh, Gattungen nord. Doriden, Arch. Naturgesch. XLV, 
1879, 1, p. 356; Nudibr. Moll. North Pacific, II, Proc. Acad. 
Nat. Sci. Philadelphia, 1880, p. 88; Monog. d. Polyceraden, 
III, Verh. k. k. zool-bot. Ges. Wien, XXXIII, 1883, p. 170; 
System Nudibr. Gasteropoden, 1892, p. 158; Eliot, C, Monog. 
British Nudibr. Moll. (Alder and Hancock) VIII, 1910, p. 155; 
MacFarland, F. M., Proc. Biol. Soc. Washington XVIII, 1905, 
p. 51; Bull. Bureau Fisheries, Washington, XXV, 1906. p. 
144; O'Donoghue, C. H., Trans. Roy. Canadian Inst. Toronto, 
XIII, 1921, 1, p. 168. 

Body soft, sub-depressed; notaeum thickly covered with short 
villi; margin of rhinophore aperture lobed; branchial plumes 


few, tripinnate, arranged in a circle; head wide, veliform, ex- 
panded into tentacular lobes at the sides. 

Armature of labial disk of minute hooks, below with project- 
ing thickenings of the cuticle. Radula rather narrow, rhachis 
naked, first pleural tooth very large, hamate, external pleurae 
few (4-8), smaller. Buccal crop connate with pharyngeal bulb. 

Glans penis usually armed, vagina usually very long. 

Acanthodoris hudsoni MacFarland. Plate II, Figure 1. 

Acanthodoris hudsoni MacFarland, F. M., Proc. Biol. Soc. 
Washington, XVIII, 1905, p. 51; Bull. Bureau of Fisheries, 
Washington, XXV, 1906, p. 144; O'Donoghue, C. H., Trans. 
Roy. Canadian Inst., Toronto, XIII, 1921, p. 170; Ibid, XIV, 
1922, p. 164. 

The body is plump and highly arched, the dorsum is covered 
everywhere with soft, closely-set, slender papillae. The ground 
color is a clear, translucent, yellowish white or pinkish white, 
the papillae, the branchiae, and the clavus of the rhinophores 
being tipped with lemon yellow, the mantle edged with the 
same color. The rhinophores are perfoliate with ca. 24 leaves, 
and are retractile within low sheaths bearing numerous short 
papillae which are similar to those of the dorsum. 

The branchial plumes are five in number, wide-spreading, 
bipinnate, non-retractile within a sheath, arranged in a circle 
surrounding the low anal papilla, and including numerous 
papillae similar to those of the general dorsum. 

The labial armature is light yellow, composed of minute 
hooks in a triangular area on either side of the lower portion of 
the mouth opening. The ventral plate between these areas is 
broad, slightly concave, pointed behind and forked in front, the 
anterior tips projecting freely into the mouth opening. The 
formula of the narrow radula is 27 (5-6. 1. 0. 1. 5-6). The 
rhachis is naked, the first pleural tooth (PI. II, Fig. 1) is strong 
and compressed, with a quadrangular, basal portion, much 
thickened below and along its anterior margin, which is pro- 
longed upward in a strong, slightly curved, blunt hook. The 
posterior portion of the base forms a thinner, plate-like expan- 
sion, overlapping externally the first pleural tooth of the sue- 


ceeding row. The total height of the tooth averages ca. 0.375 
mm., the hook alone measuring 0.135 mm., the ratio of the 
height of the hook to that of the whole element being nearly 
as 1 : 2.8, a proportion which holds good in any part of the 
radula, with but slight variation. No great difference in size is 
to be found between the younger and older teeth of the same 
radula in any of the Acanthodorids with which I am familiar, 
and the proportionate height of the hook in comparison to the 
total height of the whole first lateral in unworn teeth seems to 
be a characteristic for each species. The inner margin of the 
hook bears four to seven well developed denticles midway of its 
length. In some cases four or five, additional, much smaller 
denticles may appear below the larger ones, but they are incon- 
stant, and scarcely more than vestiges. 

The remaining pleurae, five or six in number, are small and 
nearly of the same size, 0.090 mm. to 0.105 mm. in length, and 
somewhat resemble the first pleurae in form, the anterior and 
dorsal portions being thickened, and prolonged backward to a 
point, a thin keel-like expansion extending to the tip below and 
uniting it to the basal part. The outer laterals of Ac. hudsoni 
are larger and better developed than those of the other Cali- 
fornian Acanthodorids, as may be readily seen by comparing 
Fig. 1 of Plate II with Figs. 4, 7, 8, 9 and 10, which are drawn 
to the same scale of magnification from corresponding regions 
of the radulae of the other species. 

The vas deferens is ca. 8.5 mm. long, the proximal 3.5 mm. 
segment of which is thicker and glandular, the remainder more 
slender and muscular, and passes over into the cylindro -conical 
preputium, 1.0 mm. in length by 0.4 mm. in diameter, which 
incloses at its base the short, bluntly conical glans, armed with 
minute hooks. The uterine duct is very slender and short, 
passing directly from the anterior, inner margin of the gland 
complex to the spermatotheca, receiving the duct of the pyri- 
form spermatocyst just before entering the former. The sper- 
matocyst is ca. 0.5 mm. in length, the more spherical sperma- 
totheca 1.0 mm. in diameter. From the latter the vaginal 
duct, ca. 7.0 mm. in total length, decribes an S-shaped loop, 
thickens suddenly into a well-marked glandular segment ca. 


1.2 mm. in length, with four longitudinal grooves upon its sur- 
face, the intervening ridges thus formed being transversely lob- 
ulated at intervals. From this portion the vaginal duct passes 
directly outward, dilating gradually into the vagina. 

This apparently rare species was originally taken in shore 
collecting at Point Pinos, near Pacific Grove, California. It has 
also been recorded by O'Donoghue ('21, '22) as occurring at 
Jesse Island, False Narrows and Cardale Point, all in the Van- 
couver Island region, British Columbia. I have taken an occa- 
sional specimen in shore collecting at various places in the near 
vicinity of Point Pinos, but never in any considerable number. 

Acanthodoris brunnea MacFarland. Plate II, Figure 7. 

Acanthodoris brunnea MacFarland, F. M. , Proc. Biol. Soc. 
Washington, XVIII, 1905, p. 52; Bulletin Bureau of Fisheries, 
Washington, XXV, 1906, p. 146; O'Donoghue, C. H., Trans. 
Roy. Canadian Inst. Toronto, XIII, 1921, p. 171. 

The body outline is oval, broadest in front, the mantle is 
firm and covered with thickly-set, conical tubercles. The gen- 
eral ground color of the dorsum is brown, flecked with irregular 
blotches of deep brown or black in varying amount. Scattered 
spots of light lemon yellow occur between the tubercles, and the 
mantle is edged more or less completely with the same color. 
The stalks of the branchial plumes are yellowish-brown, marked 
on the inner side with two narrow longitudinal lines of dark 
brown, the tips lemon yellow. The rhinophores are a deep 
blue-black, tipped with yellowish-white. The under surface of 
the animal is in general yellow or whitish, the ventral surface 
of the mantle, the head, the tentacles and sides of the body 
being sprinkled with fine dark brown or black dots. 

The head is large, being continued laterally into broad, veli- 
form tentacles. The foot is nearly quadrangular, tapering 
slightly behind into the short tail. The rhinophores are long, 
the clavus tapering, perfoliate with 20-28 leaves, each edged 
with a narrow line of white or pale yellow, and retractile within 
low sheaths with tuberculate margins. The branchial plumes 
are seven in number, wide-spreading, bipinnate, arranged in an 
incomplete circle surrounding the anal papilla and about ten 


other papillae similar to the dorsal tubercles. The anal papilla 
is low and its margin is edged with light yellow. 

The cuticle of the labial disk is light brown, the labial arma- 
ture is composed of minute, mosaic-like hooks, arranged in a 
triangular area on the lower part of either side of the mouth 
tube entrance, incomplete below, being separated by a single, 
median cuticular plate, slightly concave longitudinally, its 
blunt anterior end projecting freely into the mouth opening. 
The radula formula is 24-28 (6-7. 1. 0. 1. 6-7), its rhachis is 
very narrow and naked, the first pleural tooth (Plate II, Fig. 7) 
is large and compressed, its quadrangular base is strongly thick- 
ened below and in front, but much thinner behind, the pos- 
terior lamina being prolonged upward as a squarish, slightly 
thickened shoulder. The strong, slightly curved hook, extend- 
ing upward as a prolongation of the anterior portion of the base, 
is strengthened on its inner margin by a thickened ridge, which 
joins the base below in a conspicuous rounded prominence. 
The inner margin of the hook bears 14-19, well developed 
denticles along nearly its whole length. The outer pleurae are 
six to seven in number, similar in general form to the first 
pleural tooth but much simplified, the anterior basal end and 
the dorsal margin being slightly thickened, tapering away be- 
hind the prolongation, being united below to the base by a thin, 
keel-like expansion. The total average height of the first 
pleural tooth is 0.375 mm., the hook alone averaging 0.157 mm., 
the ratio of hook length to total height being as 1: 2.4 nearly. 
The outer pleurae range in length from 0. 180 mm. to 0. 150 mm., 
the outermost one being the shortest. 

The vas deferens is long, attaining 18 mm. in length, the 
proximal one-half of which is glandular, and closely attached 
to the anterior genital complex, being set off from the free, 
distal, muscular portion by a distinct constriction. The pre- 
putium is cylindro-conical, 3.0 mm. long by 1.0 mm. in aver- 
age diameter, the short contained gland is armed with minute 
hooks. The vaginal duct and vagina are very short, scarcely 
reaching 6.0 mm. in total length and giving no external evi- 
dence of any glandular differentiation such as is found in Ac. 




1 1 i* 

3D ' "^ 




o. H. MaeFarland, del 

5. 9, 10, 11, A. COLUMBINA. 7, A. BRUNNEA. 



l. MacFarland, del. 



Habitat: Dredged off hard bottom in 5 to 10 fathoms depth 
off Cabrillo Point (Point Alones) and off the entrance to Mon- 
terey Harbor, and from various similar localities near by in 
Monterey Bay, California. Dredged by O'Donoghue ('21) in 
about 15 fathoms in Nanoose Bay, and also taken at False 
Narrows and Mudge Island, Vancouver Island region, British 

Acanthodoris RHODOUERAs Cockerell & Eliot. Plate II, Figures 
3, 4; Plate III, Figure 4. 

Acanthodoris rhodoceras Cockerell & Eliot, Notes on a Collec- 
tion of Californian Nudibranchs. Journal of Malacology, XII, 
1905, 3, p. 38-39, PI. VII, Figs. 3, 4. 

This species was based upon a single specimen taken at San 
Pedro. California, and no further study has been published 
upon it. To the kindness of Dr. Myrtle E. Johnson, of 
National City, California, I am indebted for two specimens of 
this form, collected at San Diego, and I have also examined a 
colored sketch of the living animal made by her. 

The animals were soft, flattened oval in outline, and some- 
what contracted by the preservative. The largest of the two 
measured 10 mm. in length, 6.7 mm. in width, and 4.0 mm. in 
height, being slightly smaller than the one studied by Cockerell 
and Eliot (12 mm. by 10 mm. by 5 mm.). The pale, yellow 
ish-grey dorsum is everywhere thickly set with conical papillae, 
the majority of which are tipped with black. Larger and 
smaller papillae are intermingled, though toward the margins 
the smaller-sized ones predominate. Near the mantle margin 
is a nearly continuous, narrow, black line, with scattered indi- 
cations of a narrow, yellowish edging at intervals beyond it. 
The rhinophores are almost completely retracted within dis- 
tinct, low sheaths, which bear four or five short, conical pro- 
cesses of different lengths, some of which are tipped with black. 
The clavus is perfoliate with thirteen leaves. The branchial 
plumes are five in number, bi- and tripinnate, flat and spread- 
ing, the most anterior one situated in the median line, the 
others forming with it a star-shaped group. Each of the pos- 
terior plumes has a strong, hinder branch, nearly equaling the 


size of an independent plume. Several scattered, low papillae, 
similar to those of the general dorsum, are included within the 
branchial circlet. No trace of an encircling rim, formed by the 
union of the surrounding papillae, such as is described by 
Cockerell and Eliot can be recognized in either specimen. 

As indicated by these writers the mantle contains but few 
spicules, mainly arranged near the margin and the branchial 
area. In consequence the mantle is decidedly softer to the 
touch than that of the other Californian species. 

The labial disc, oval in outline, bears two, strongly developed, 
triangular, lateral areas, the labial armature. These are widest 
below, and narrow somewhat upward, extending nearly to the 
top of the tube, and are separated below by a narrow area, 
occupied by the ventral, forked, blade-like process of the cuti- 
cle. The labial elements are strongly developed, each consist- 
ing of a thickened, squarish base prolonged obliquely upward 
into a stout process, triangular in side view, and roughty quad- 
rangular as seen from above. The free margin is cleft into a 
variable number of unequal lobes, as many as ten such being 
found in the widest elements. The smaller, less developed ele- 
ments near the posterior border of the armature (PI. II, 
Fig. 3, c) are reduced to little more than narrow strips, repre- 
senting the upper, irregular margin of the larger ones (6). On 
the upper, sloping surface of these latter are a variable number 
of small prominences, not readily distinguishable from the 
longitudinally striated texture of the element. The labial ele- 
ments vary in width at the free margin from 0.008 mm., in the 
anterior border of the armature, to 0.013 mm. in the middle 
region, and to 0.011 mm. at the posterior border. Typical ele- 
ments from these three regions are shown in figure 3, a, b and c 
of Plate II. That the irregular cusp margin is not due to wear 
is evident, since it appears in the youngest elements of the pos- 
terior region as well as in the older ones in front. The vertical 
height of a typical larger element is 0.137 mm. The ventral 
space between the lateral armature areas is occupied by a 
median plate of cuticle projecting freely in front of the arma- 
ture into the oral opening with its blunt, bifid end. It is 0.336 
mm. long and 0.108 mm. in maximum width. The anterior 


cleft extends back 0.084 mm. from the blunted tips, the re- 
maining portion forming a single plate. The structure is faintly 
striated longitudinally. 

The narrow radula of the smaller specimen contained 36 
transverse rows of teeth, that of the larger but 32; in each the 
last four or five were incompletely formed, the first eight or ten 
being free from the sheath and functional. The radula formula 
is 32-36 (5-6. 1. 0. 1. 5-6). The rhachis is narrow and naked, 
the first lateral is of the form characteristic of the genus (PI. II, 
Fig. 4). It is much flattened laterally, and consists of a some- 
what rectangular base, thickened in front, the posterior half 
being thin and wing-like. The lower, anterior angle of the 
base is thick and rounded, and tapers upward gradually into 
the anterior margin of the short, curved, blunt hook. The 
hook bears from three to six distinct denticles upon its inner 
margin, about midway of its length, while below these a vari- 
able number (two to four) of vestigial ones may occur. The 
total height of the first lateral in the smaller specimen ranges 
from 0.228 mm. to 0.249 mm., of which the hook alone makes 
up 0.084 mm. to 0.093 mm. In the larger the first lateral 
ranges from 0.278 mm. to 0.339 mm., in total height, the hook 
alone varying from 0.104 mm. to 0.132 mm., the proportion of 
height of the hook to total height of the tooth thus being close 
to the ratio of 1 to 2.6 throughout. The remaining laterals are 
five to six in number, project obliquely upward and backward, 
and in general outline resemble the form of the first lateral. 
They decrease in size outward in the row, and range in length 
from 0.022 mm. to 0.055 mm. The dorso-anterior margin is 
somewhat thickened, and tapers to a point above, which is sup- 
ported ventrally throughout its whole length by a thin expan- 
sion of the base. A slight, angular projection, about midway 
of its length on the inner face, is the only interruption of the 
smooth outline of this thickened, anterior ridge. The figure of 
the radula given by Cockerell and Eliot ('05, PI. VII, fig. 4) 
does not represent the whole of the base of the first lateral, nor 
do the contours of the hook, the denticles, nor the remaining 
laterals agree with my findings. Since the magnification of 
their figure is not given, size comparisons cannot be drawn. 


To the brief notes on the internal anatomy given by Cockerell 
and Eliot may be added the following observations, measure- 
ments, where given, being taken from the 10 mm. specimen. 
The pseudo-peritoneum is everywhere colorless, the blood gland 
covers the central nervous system and the posterior curvature 
of the ingluvies buccalis. The intestine, curving widely to the 
right, presents the usual small, pear-shaped sack on its right 
side, close to its origin from the stomach. The liver, ovotestis, 
and the anterior genital complex are of a uniform greyish color. 
The hermaphroditic duct passes directly to the right from the 
anterior end of the hermaphroditic gland to its dilated ampulla, 
lying in a nearly closed, C-shaped loop upon the inner surface 
of the complex. Its distal end disappears at the upper, an- 
terior margin beneath the loops of the glandular segment of the 
vas deferens, which branches off from it just as it enters the 
nidamental gland. This glandular, or prostatic portion of the 
vas deferens is deep brown in color, is 6 mm. long and 0.21 mm. 
in diameter, and rests in a deep groove in the anterior and 
upper surface of the nidamental gland; its upper loop passing 
below and in contact with the spermatotheca. It describes two 
main loops nearly at right angles with each other, a proximal, 
ventral one, directed downward and forward, and a distal one, 
upward and backward. Beyond this glandular segment the 
vas deferens contracts into a more slender, muscular portion, 
which forms a free loop toward the median plane around the 
projecting end of the radula sack, below the oesophagus, thence 
returning outward and upward to dilate into the preputium. 
The muscular segment is 4 mm. in length and 0.1 mm. in 
diameter, is thick-walled, and free from pigment, and is marked 
off from the glandular segment by a slight constriction, in addi- 
tion to the change in total diameter. The preputium is 3.4 mm. 
long, cylindrical, and tapers gradually into the vas deferens 
proximally. Its lining is thrown into numerous longitudinal 
folds. The inclosed glans penis, at the fundus of the prepu- 
tium, is short and bluntty conical, 0. 12 mm. in length and in 
basal diameter. No armature whatever can be made out, 
either upon the glans itself, or lining the preputium, or extend- 
ing into the vas deferens, nor do serial sections reveal the pres- 


ence of small, transparent, hooks as described by Cockerell and 
Eliot, though the irregular elevations caused by folds in the 
lining mucosa may simulate such appearances, when seen in a 
transparent preparation. The epithelium lining the muscular 
segment of the vas deferens is made up of low, ciliated cells, 
resting upon a very distinct basement membrane, and sur- 
rounded by muscle fibers in two longitudinal layers, with a 
broader layer of circular muscle fibers between them. In the 
proximal portion of the muscular segment, just before the 
glandular division is reached, the epithelial cells are arranged 
in groups of different heights, varying from 0.014 mm. to 
0.035 mm. in height, the corresponding cilia measuring from 
0.014 mm. to 0.016 mm. in length. The intervening lumen is 
thus rendered irregular in outline, being bounded by these 
varying elevations and depressions. As many as five such may 
be found in a single cross section, the lumen between them 
taking on a corresponding stellate outline. When seen through 
the thick muscular walls these irregularities might be taken for 
an armature, but none in fact is present. 

The vagina and vaginal duct (PI. Ill, fig. 4, vag.), are excep- 
tionally short, passing straight inward to the upper margin of 
the anterior genital complex, and measuring but 2.2 mm. from 
the external opening to the insertion of the retractor muscle. 
Here the duct bends sharply downward, describes a small wide 
loop backward, and dilates into a small, vesicle (y) in contact 
with the inner, anterior face of the spermatotheca. This vesicle 
is almost spherical in form, 0.6 mm. in diameter, and has 
moderately thick, glandular walls. From its proximal end the 
vaginal duct (vag. d.) continues in a loop upward and back- 
ward for ca. 1.5 mm. and opens into the spherical spermato- 
theca (spth.) 1.5 mm. in diameter, upon its upper surface. 
Close to its entrance emerges the uterine duct {a. d. ), 1.4 mm. 
in length, which passes diagonally downward and outward 
across the anterior face of the spermatotheca, and enters the 
nidamental gland close to the entrance of the oviduct. It re- 
ceives the duct of the pyriform spermatocyst (spc. ) immediately 
beyond its own emergence from the spermatotheca, and meas- 
ures 0.7 mm. in length by 0.4 mm. in diameter, its slender 


duct being 0.7 mm. in length. The total length of the female 
channel from the external opening to the spermatotheca is 
5.1 mm., and, including the uterine duct from the latter organ 
to its disappearance in the nidamental gland, is but 6. 1 mm. in 
all. A comparison of figure 4 of Plate III with figures 1 and 6 
of the same plate will show the great dissimilarity between the 
vaginal ducts of Ac. rhodoceras and those of Ac. columbina and 
Ac. lutea. In this species it is reduced to almost a minimum 
in length, while in all other species of the genus so far described, 
with the exception of Ac. brunnea and Ac. hudsoni, it is ex- 
tremely long, its great length being hitherto considered as an 
important generic character. The presence of a penis armature 
is another generic character here lacking, though it is perfectly 
obvious otherwise that this species is an Acanthodoris. In 
those forms of Acanthodoris taken in the Southern Hemisphere 
the penis armature seems to be also lacking (Ac. pilosa var. 
Novae Zealandiae Bergh ('05), ?=Ac. mollicella Abraham, Eliot 
('07); Ac. pitosa var. pallida Bergh ('05); and Ac. metulifera 
Bergh ('05)?=^Lc. globosa Abraham). It is in accordance with 
these facts that I have modified the genus diagnosis on p. 3 of 
this paper to cover these exceptions. 

Acanthodoeis lutea, sp. nov. Plate II, Figures 2, 6, 8; Plate 
III, Figures 3, 6. 

To Dr. Myrtle E. Johnson I am also indebted for a living 
Acanthodorid, collected by her at Cayucos, San Luis Obispo 
County, California, Feb. 9, 1921, and for a colored sketch of 
the living animal. On July 26, 1922, a similar individual was 
found by me in tide pools of Colorado Reef, off Moss Beach, 
south of Montara Point, San Mateo County, California. A 
detailed study of these two specimens has shown that they are 
undoubtedly distinct from any hitherto described species. 

The body is highly arched, nearly equally rounded in front 
and behind, and of a bluntly oval outline, being slightly 
broader in the region of the rhinophores than elsewhere. The 
dorsum is thickly set everywhere with low, conical papillae, the 
longest reaching 1.5 mm. in length and 0.7 mm. in diameter, 
near the mid-dorsum, and becoming shorter and more slender 



toward the margins. Between the larger papillae numerous 
smaller ones are scattered. The general ground color of the 
mantle is orange red, and the papillae are of a deeper shade of 
the same color. Between the papillae everywhere the surface 
is sprinkled with minute dots of lemon yellow, the same sprink- 
lings extending up the stalks of the rhinophores, the clavus of 
which shades into a deep red tip, the leaves being edged with 
the same color. The ventral surfaces of the foot and mantle 
are orange yellow. The branchial plumes are greyish-white. 
The color of the animal is strikingly conspicuous in the tide 
pool, and at a distance quite resembles a bit of orange peel. 

The rhinophores are erect, slightly divergent, the stalk inclin- 
ing forward, the conical clavus and tip curving backward. The 
clavus is perfoliate with 26 leaves, united in front by a longi- 
tudinal ridge, the whole being retractile within low sheaths 
bearing a small number of papillae of varying size, similar to 
those of the dorsum. The branchial plumes are nine in num- 
ber, low, spreading, non-retractile within sheaths, arranged in 
a nearly complete circle around the prominent anal papilla, and 
inclosing likewise some 10-12 papillae, similar to those of the 
dorsum. The head is broad and veliform, with a broad, shal- 
low, median notch in front, the outer angles being produced 
into short triangular tentacles, and the whole head margin is 
edged with the same deep red color as found on the dorsal 
papillae. The moderately wide mantle margin extends beyond 
the edge of the foot, except at the tip of the short, blunt tail. 
The anterior margin of the foot is bilabiate, with a slight, 
median notch. 

The dimensions of the largest Cayucos specimen were: length 
22.5 mm., maximum width 14.8 mm., length of foot 18.4 mm., 
width of foot 11.5 mm., the greatest height of body 6.6 mm. 
The Moss Beach specimen was somewhat smaller, measuring 
17.5 mm. in length, and 9 mm. in greatest width. 

The mantle is thick and densely spiculate throughout its 
whole extent. All the spicules are simple (PI. Ill, fig. 3), with 
no indications of tubercles or branches of any kind such as 
Meyer and Moebius ('65) figure for Ac. pilosa. All are slightly 
curved, and some of the shorter ones may even assume a hook- 


like form. The largest spicule measured reached a length of 
1.6 mm., with a maximum diameter of 0.15 mm., another, a 
more unusual form, was 1.025 mm. in length and 0.025 mm. in 

The pseudo-peritoneum is relatively colorless, a few, minute, 
pink granules alone being visible in the anterior region. The 
single, thick, white blood gland overlies the central nervous 
system and the greater portion of the pharyngeal bulb. The 
latter organ has the characteristic sessile, muscular crop, or in- 
gluvies upon its anterior portion, composed of two symmetrical 
halves, separated by a longitudinal depression, the crop reach- 
ing a height of 1.0 mm., a length of 2.0 mm. and a width of 
1.3 mm. Just beyond the pharyngeal bulb the oesophagus is 
dilated into a sack-like enlargement. The salivary glands are 
strap-shaped, the duct being very short, the proximal portion 
somewhat expanded and lobulate, the distal portion extending 
through the nerve collar along the oesophagus, and terminat- 
ing near the anterior end of the stomach. 

The cuticle of the labial disk is thin and colorless, the labial 
armature, occupying the lower sides of the mouth tube at its 
opening, is colorless and very thin, being much less developed 
than in other Acanthodorids. It is made up of minute ele- 
ments (PI. II, fig. 2) arranged in longitudinal rows, each one 
somewhat triangular in form when seen in side view, a squarish 
hook-like process being directed upward and forward from an 
irregular base. The free edge of the hook is but slightly irreg- 
ular. The median, ventral, cuticular plate is represented by 
two slender, diverging, almost thread-like structures (PI. II, 
fig. 6), united posteriorly but widely separated at their free, 
anterior ends. In the degree of development of the whole 
labial armature this species shows a decidedly rudimentary 
condition, so much so that the whole structure, and especially 
the median plate, might be readily overlooked by one not 
familiar with its presence and appearance in other species. 

The radula is colorless or nearly so, the posterior part except 
the last few rows, taking on a yellow color in the Moss Beach 
specimen, the Cayucos one being nearly colorless throughout. 
The smaller individual has 34, the larger 39 transverse rows of 


teeth, the dental formula being 34-39 (5-6. 1. 0. 1. 5-6). No 
median tooth is present on the narrow rhachis. The first lat- 
eral (PI. II, fig. 9) is erect and compressed, the approximately 
quadrangular base is thickened below and in front, the strong, 
slightly curved hook is strengthened on its inner border by a 
strong, thin-edged ridge bearing two to four well developed 
denticles midway of its length, below which an irregularly ser- 
rate margin continues for a short distance, becoming smoother 
and more thickened below. The total height of the first lateral 
varies in the smaller specimen from 0.246 mm. in the fifth row, 
to 0.255 mm. in the 15th, and to 0.264 mm. in the 26th row, 
the corresponding height of the hook being 0.099 mm., 0.105 
mm. and 0.120 mm. respectively, the proportion of hook height 
to total height being as 1 : 2.48, 1 : 2.42, and 1 : 2.2. In the 
larger specimen the total height of the first lateral in the corre- 
sponding rows is 0.290 mm., 0.300 mm., and 0.277 mm., the 
respective heights of the hook being 0.120 mm., 0.127 mm. 
and 0.120 mm., and the relative proportions being as 1 : 2.4, 
1 : 2.36, and 1 : 2.3. The average proportions of hook length 
to total length of the first lateral in the two individuals is as 
1 : 2.36 and 1 : 2.35, a rather striking agreement. The outer, 
lateral teeth vary from five to six in number, and have in a 
general way the shape of the first lateral. The second lateral 
is reduced to a thin plate with a slight basal thickening which 
extends along the dorsal, anterior margin, the ventral, thin 
lamina extending out to its tip. The remaining laterals de- 
crease in size outwards, and show a more pronounced basal and 
dorso -anterior thickening, their general form being roughly tri- 
angular. The heights of the six outer laterals in a typical row 
are 0.027 mm., 0.030 mm., 0.024 mm., 0.019 mm., 0.013 mm. 
and 0.012 mm. for the series from the second to the seventh 

The following description of the essential characters of the 
reproductive system is based upon the dissection of the larger 
specimen, the smaller one agreeing with it in all particulars. 
Figure 6 of Plate III represents the anterior genital cumplex of 
Ac. lutea at a magnification of fourteen times, as seen obliquely 
from above and within. But slight shifting of the relative 


position of the parts has been made, and the nervous and vas- 
cular supply and all connective tissue have been omitted. The 
preputium (p) has been displaced forward slightly, the loop of 
the vaginal duct (vag. ) at the lower right-hand side of the draw- 
ing normally lies transversely above the preputium, being 
directed forward. It has here been displaced backward and 
hooked under the tip of the spermatocyst (sp. c. ), while its free 
loop at the left has been swung around at right angles to its 
normal position. The slender hermaphroditic duct curves 
downward and backward from its origin in the anterior lobes 
of the ovotestis, joins the anterior genital complex, and dilates 
into the hermaphroditic ampulla, a whitish, curved tube 7 mm. 
in length by 1 mm. in diameter. It forms a simple loop down- 
ward (Plate III, fig. 6 h. a.), curves upward and narrowing 
again, immediately divides into the oviduct (ov.) and the vas 
deferens (v. d.). The former at once enters the fertilization 
chamber in the nidamental gland, the latter makes a series of 
loops upon the upper, anterior margin of the nidamental gland, 
resting in a slight depression in its surface, and being closely 
bound down to it by connective tissue. In this portion (pr. ), 
10 mm. in length, the vas deferens is characterized by a thick 
wall, largely made up of tall, glandular epithelium, and may 
be termed the prostatic segment of the duct. At the point in- 
dicated by the letter x in the figure the duct becomes free from 
its attachments to the nidamental gland, narrows considerably, 
the muscular layers of its wall increase in thickness, while the 
prostatic, glandular epithelium becomes replaced by a layer of 
low, ciliated cells. This muscular segment of the vas deferens, 
15 mm. in length, forms several free loops in front of the nida- 
mental gland, one of which passes beneath the oesophagus to 
the left side of the body, where it curves upward and becomes 
visible from above, immediately in front of the left border of 
the liver. Returning to the right side the vas deferens dilates 
into the preputium (p.), 4 mm. long with a diameter of ap- 
proximately 1.0 mm., a hollow muscular sack, at the bottom 
of which lies the conical glans (g. ), 0.55 mm. long, and entirely 
destitute of an armature, nor is any to be found either on the 
preputium lining, or in the vas deferens. The total length of 


the male channel is 29 mm., 10 mm. forming the prostatic 
segment, 15 mm. the muscular segment and 4 mm. the pre- 

Close to the entrance of the oviduct into the fertilization 
chamber emerges the slender, uterine duct (u. d.), 2 mm. in 
length. It passes upward over the anterior curvature of the 
spermatotheca, receives the very short duct of the spermatocyst 
(spc. ) and opens into the spermatotheca (spth.) at the entrance 
of the vaginal duct into the latter. The large spermatocyst, in 
the figure displaced to the right, is 2.1 mm. in length by 1.2 
mm. in greatest diameter, and lies transversely upon the upper 
face of the nidamental gland complex, its distal rounded end 
being directed obliquely forward and to the left. Below and 
behind it is the dark, spherical spermatotheca, 1.7 mm. in 
diameter, overlapped in front by the thick, U-shaped, proximal 
loop of the vaginal duct, which emerges from the spermatotheca 
at the same point at which the vaginal duct enters it. This 
glandular loop (g. I.) is represented in the figure as rotated so 
that its ventral surface is uppermost, the loop at the right hand 
being normally directed forward and overlying the spermato- 
cyst. The proximal limb of the loop reaches a length of 1.0 
mm., its distal one, 1.5 mm. in length, bends to the left, nar- 
rows abruptly and is continued backward for a distance of 2.0 
mm. as a slender tube, recurves sharply upon itself, passes for- 
ward to above the anterior border of the spermatotheca, thence 
running obliquely outward and forward above the preputium 
for a distance of 7.0 mm., recurving backward and outward 
and, dilating gradually to ca. 0.6 mm., it becomes the vagina 
(vag. ) and opens externally immediately behind the preputium. 
The retractor muscle is attached to the posterior loop of the 
vaginal duct, 11 mm. from its external opening, and 2.0 mm. 
from its dilatation into the glandular portion. The total 
length of the female channel is ca. 17.5 mm., which may be 
divided into vagina, 4.0 mm., thin segment of the vaginal duct 
9.0 mm., glandular portion of the vaginal duct 2.5 mm., and 
uterine duct 2.0 mm. 

(To be concluded.) 




In examining some material from the Miocene of Jones 
Wharf, Maryland, for micro-fossils, several tiny specimens of 
shells with an initial planospiral and a nearly straight annu- 
lated cone were found which obviously represented the proto- 
conch and nepionic stage of some species of Caecum. I identify 
these as Caecum patuxentium, the mature shell of which was de- 
scribed by Martin ' from this locality and horizon in 1904, be- 
cause of the similarity of the annulations to those on the small 
end of the mature shell, and because this is the only species of 
this genus known from Jones Wharf, although a second and 
somewhat similar species is recorded from the Choptank forma- 
tion at Greensboro, Maryland. The latter is rare, whereas the 
former is common at Jones Wharf and at numerous other out- 
crops of the Choptank formation in Maryland. 

Fig. 1. Early stages of Caecum patuxentium. 

Caecum patuxentium is said by Martin to bear a strong super- 
ficial resemblance to Caecum floridanum Stimpson, 2 differing 
from the latter in lacking longitudinal markings. 

A systematic search would probably disclose protoconchs of 
Caecum at many Tertiary horizons but so far as I know the only 
one figured is a poor drawing of Caecum pulchellum Brown fig- 
ured by George W. Try on, Jr., 3 in his Conchology, and referred 

'Martin, G. C., Md. Geol. Survey Miocene, p. 231, pi. 55, figs. 11, 12, 1904' 
8 Stimpson, W., Proc. Bost. Soc. Nat. Hist., IV, p. 112, 1851. 
*Tryon, G. W. , Jr., Structural and Systematic Conchology, Vol. IV, p. 
228, pi. 67, fig. 82, 1883. 


to the Eocene, the exact horizon and locality not being given. 
For this reason the following comments seem to be worth plac- 
ing on record. 

The protoconch of Caecum -patuxentium is entirely smooth and 
makes three planospiral turns expanding rapidly in diameter to 
a maximum width of 0.17 and a height of 0.32 millimeters. 
After the third whorl is completed the smooth protoconch con- 
tinues for a short distance as a free cone which represents the 
original apertural region of this stage. Beyond this smooth 
portion the free and nearly straight cone continues as a strongly 
annulated portion probably representing the nepionic stage. It 
bears ten or more strong, regular, close-set annulations similar 
to those of the mature shell. 

The genus Caecum appears in the Tertiary and contains over 
100 existing and about 25 extinct species, being widely distrib- 
uted and most abundant in the later Tertiary and Recent. 


A short time ago we received word from Mr. Shintaro Hiras6, 
son of Mr. Y. Hiras6, of his father's death, which occurred 
May 25, 1925. 

Few men, and certainly no one in Japan, have done more to 
advance the study of Mollusca than Mr. Hirase. His enthusi- 
asm, perseverance and sacrifice for the science of conchology is 
best described in the following paragraph, taken from a leaflet 
asking for aid and support for his Conchological Museum : 

"At first I used to go myself collecting in different parts of 
the empire, but finding it very difficult because of a weak con- 
stitution, to adapt myself to circumstances, I decided to employ 
and educate two or three assistants, in spite of limited means, 
and send them not only to all parts of Japan, but also to many 
far away groups of islands, such as the Bonins, Loochoos, the 
Kuriles and Formosa; also to Korea and China, with the view 
of collecting material for study. The expenses of these explor- 
ations amounted to a considerable sum. As I pursued my 
studies I needed books and magazines which cost a great deal. 
On the other hand I tried to publish a conchological magazine 


and a few other books in order to announce to the public the 
results of my investigations and to disseminate information of 
newly discovered facts. In all of this work I spent one-half of 
my property." 

In the Nautilus, Vol. 27, June, 1913, was published an ac- 
count of the opening of The Hirase" Conchological Museum, 
with a picture of the building. It certainly required great en- 
thusiasm and optimism to establish a purely conchological 
museum, — the only one of the kind ever attempted. 

From 1907 to 1909 Hirase published the "Conchological 
Magazine," Vols. I and II and four numbers of Vol. Ill ap- 
pearing. It contains many fine illustrations. In 1914 he 
started a unique and interesting publication in Japanese 
style, " Illustrations of a Thousand Shells." Three volumes 
were published, containing 300 beautiful colored figures. The 
"Album of the Hirase Conchological Museum" and the 
" Terebridae of Japan " are some of his publications. 

Through his publications, correspondence and the distribu- 
tion of shells Hirase became known to conchologists all over 
the world. His investigations resulted in a great increase in 
the scientific knowledge of the Japanese fauna. Many species 
of mollusks have been named in his honor, and a peculiar 
genus of land snails, Hirasea, perpetuates his name. 


This name was more familiar to the conchologists of the past 
generation than to those of the present age, so the decease of 
this past-time collector needs a little remark. Angas inaugurated 
conchological study in the Australian colonies about seventy years 
ago, first in South Australia and then in New South Wales. 
His record of the fauna of the latter colony incited the closer 
attention of a little band of workers of whom Cox, Hargraves 
and Brazier were the most noted. These submitted their finds 
to Angas, who recorded them, but later Cox and Brazier de- 
scribed many novelties themselves. After getting together a 
magnificent collection, Hargraves was stricken with illness, and 


to secure health sold his treasures on condition they were de- 
posited in a colonial museum. The choice fell on the Austral- 
ian Museum, Sydney, the name of the donor being Mr. Thomas 
Walker, a generous benefactor of science in our early days. 
This happened as long ago as 1877, but Hargraves in 1907 was 
elected a trustee of the Museum, and always, when he attended 
the trustees' meetings, used to look over the shells still on view 
with the labeling "Hargraves Collection." Born as long ago 
as 1839, Hargraves attended a trustees' meeting on Feb. 6 this 
year, and was delightfully normal until he passed away on 
April 9; the week before his death sending farewell messages to 
the staff of the Museum. 

Many novelties were described from his collecting; the genus 
Hargravesia, Voluta hargravesi Angas and Placostylus hargravesi 
Cox being named in his honor. — Tom Iredale. 


Some thirty years ago there arose in New Zealand a malacol- 
ogist whose earliest papers stamped him as an accession whose 
name would be enrolled among the few great workers in our 
branch. Fine anatomical work was supplemented by excellent 
descriptive ability, while clear judgment was associated with 
splendid draughtsmanship. Obviously peerless in Neozelanic 
conchological circles, business duties necessitated strict attention 
to mundane affairs, and science perforce was sacrificed, while 
loss of his collection by fire probably disheartened him. After 
some years his interest was revived and attention to fossil forms 
was given in conjunction with Dr. Marshall. Now just as we 
were hoping to receive the best of news, his death was reported, 
and through his previous silence has been overlooked as it took 
place as long ago as November, 1923. 

His communications were to the Proceedings of the Malaco- 
logical Society of London and the Transactions of the New 
Zealand Institute. He was one of the earliest members of the 
former body, having joined in the first year of its existence. 

The genus Murdochia was named by Ancey, and several 
species were named in his honor by Hedley and Suter. Mur- 


doch demands attention from even the purely American con- 
chologist, as he dissected and described the anatomy of the 
American genus Ashmunella, in the Journ. Malacology, Vol. 
VIII, pp. 73-85, 1901, accompanying a paper by Ancey in that 
connection. — Tom Iredale. 


Zonitoides arboreus (Say) in Mammoth Cave, Kentucky. 
— During a recent collecting trip in Kentucky, the greater part 
of one day was spent in Mammoth Cave collecting insects, 
arachnids and other small cave animals. In one of the lower 
levels of the cave, and fully a mile from the main entrance, a 
few snails were found beneath pieces of rotting wood on the 
floor of the cave. Dr. H. A. Pilsbry has identified these snails 
as Zonitoides arboreus (Say), a common species of the open. 
The cave specimens appear to differ in no respect from those 
found outside and it is probable that they have been recently 
and accidently introduced. — Sherman C. Bishop, Albany, N. Y. 

Zonitoides arboreus Deleterious to Cane. — Discovery that 
a small snail causes the root-rot disease, which has almost 
wrecked the sugar-growing industry of Louisiana, is announced 
by Dr. E. W. Brandes, plant pathologist of the U. S. Depart- 
ment of Agriculture. Hitherto the mollusks, to which order 
the snails belong, have remained unconvicted as crop criminals. 
Dr. R. D. Rands, of the Office of Sugar Plant Investigation, 
however, found that Zonitoides arboreus, a snail so tiny that it 
easily travels through the tunnels made by earthworms, attacks 
the cane roots. As many as 150 of these little snails have been 
counted about the roots of a single plant. In their attack they 
leave minute cavities which are invaded by microorganisms 
from the soil. These latter complete the injury and often kill 
the plant. It is estimated that there is a reduction in crop ton- 
nage of at least twenty per cent, directly traceable to the sub- 
terranean attack made by these snails whose sweet tooth is 
literally cutting off the Louisiana cane industry at the roots. — 
Science Service, in Science, Sept. 25. 


Station of Ferrissia oregonensis (Clessin). — This ancylid 
I found to be quite common in Yakima River, Yakima, Wash- 
ington. It occurred on almost every large stone in running 
water, whether deep or shallow, in swift current or slow. I 
picked over a hundred from one stone. They were found also 
on submerged wood, twigs and leaves, and on living water 

I found Planorbis callioglyptus, Pisidium randolphi and a few 
Physa nidtalli living in tiny pools, filled with leaves and with 
only very little water, in the woods near the river. The Plan- 
orbis was abundant. Specimens of the Ferrissia collected today 
(March 15) are sent. — Walter J. Eyerdam. 

Additional Records for Lymn^ea auricularia. Dr. Wen- 
dell 0. Gregg, of Montrose, California, and Prof. Junius Hen- 
derson, of Boulder, Colorado, have called our attention to three 
additional records of this species in the United States, all of 
which were omitted from our article in the April, 1925, number 
of the Nautilus. They are as follows: 

Long, Nautilus, Vol. 26, 1912, pp. 27-29; Pennsylvania. 

Clapp, Nautilus, Vol. 26, 1913, pp. 116-117; Massachusetts. 

Gregg, Nautilus, Vol. 37, 1923, p. 34; California. 

— G. Dallas Hanna and H. Walton Clark. 

Collecting in Kentucky. — We take the liberty of printing a 
recent letter dated Munfordville, Ky., Sept. 20, 1925: 

Dear Dr. Pilsbry : Yours of the 10th sent to me here. We 
are spending a day or so at this place (Rio) to get a more com- 
plete set of mollusks for a paper that I hope to get to The 
Nautilus some time this winter. Yesterday I collected over 
100 lbs. of Unionidee and had to carry them over a mile through 
the woods, up hill, and across the Green River four times. 

I have had wonderful collecting so far. All of the streams 
are very low. Even the Cumberland was so low that I waded 
across in two feet of water! It is lower than ever known before. 
It is a crime to leave tons of Unionidee. I found a bed of live 
shells yesterday over 300 feet long and 50 feet wide; they were 
so thick that I could have filled a freight car. In the Cumber- 


land the pearl hunters had piled up the open shells four and 
five feet high — all perfect shells. I thought last year that the 
Clinch River was good collecting, but it was nothing to the 
Cumberland, though of course the Clinch was richer in species. 

I am getting enough Pleuroceridse, for all hands, and in due 
season I will send on a set of each. 

There is nothing in the line of land shells. There'has been 
no rain in this section since June; every thing has burned up; 
many of the trees have lost all of their leaves, especially on the 
knobs where the soil is thin. But the Pleuroceridse and Unionidas 
are here for the taking! 

Please pardon this hasty letter. I will drop you a line later 
letting you know how we came out. — William J. Clench. 


Note on the Atlantic Coast species of Plicatula and Note 
on the Species of Petricolaria of the Eastern Coast of the 
United States. By W. H. Dall. (Proc. Biol. Soc. Wash., 
Vol. 38, p. 90, 1925). For the Petricola dactylus of authors not 
Sowerby the author proposes Petricolaria pholadiformis var. lata. 
The true dactylus is native of the West Coast of South America. 
Petricolaria is only a subgenus of Petricola. — C. W. J. 

Notes on the Genus Physa w t ith descriptions of three 
new subspecies. By Wm. J. Clench. (Occas. Papers Mus. 
Zool., Univ. Mich., no. 161, pp. 1-10, 1, pi. May, 1925). 

A new species of mollusk (Dentalium hannai) from 
Lower California, with notes on other forms. By Fred. 
Baker. (Proc. Calif. Acad. Sci., 4 ser. Vol. 14, pp. 83-87, pi. 
10, 1925). 

The Pliocene mollusca of Great Britain. By F. W. 
Harmer. (Palaeontographical Society, Vol. 2, pi. 4, pp. 857- 
900, and pi. 65 with a systematic and general index to the en- 
tire volume). This completes this valuable work, being sup- 
plementary to S. V. Wood's Monograph of the Crag Mollusca. 




2 - 




The Nautilus. 

Vol. XXXIX JANUARY, 1926. No. 3 



Collecting last summer on the Piedmont Plateau in Virginia, 
I spent several days in Lynchburg, Campbell Co., and discov- 
ered there, on Sept. 2, '25, a flourishing colony of the European 
Helix nemoralis. One of the known localities for this species is 
at Lexington, Rockbridge Co., Va., about 50 miles (by rail) 
farther up the James and North River valley. I collected it 
here myself on June 7, '12, in gardens and along the road that 
leads down to North River. 

I have not been able to find any report concerning this 
Lynchburg colony, although Mr. S. C. Crawford, of the Zoology 
department of the University of Pittsburgh, who has been teach- 
ing at Lynchburg College, informed me that he collected this 
snail there about 1922. I publish this note chiefly with the 
view of possibly obtaining further information about this case: 
it may be a separate introduction; it may be a transplantation 
from Lexington (as it has been transplanted from Lexington to 
Knoxville, Tenn.); or we may have here a natural dispersal 
from Lexington down the river-valley. But probably this 
latter case is out of the question. 

Mr. Crawford found his specimens on the campus of the Col- 
lege (valley of Blackwater Creek), northwest of the town. My 


locality is in the valley of Ivy Creek, falling into James River 
in Lynchburg, and forming a deep ravine, which is spanned by 
a bridge connecting Main St. and Rivermont Ave. In the 
ravine are the tracks of the Norfolk and Western R. R. running 
close to steep, in part vertical, bluffs of gneiss, facing the north. 
The bluffs are largely covered with a vegetation of various trees, 
and, at the base, with tall weeds. They are more or less damp 
on account of a number of springs, the water trickling down at 
many places. 

Helix nemoralia lives here, right under the bridge, and some 
distance up and down along the railroad, among the weeds, and 
preferably in crevices and nooks of the damp rocks. Many 
dead shells are found in the narrow ditch along the railroad 
tracks. When on the rocks, the snails are rather conspicuous 
on account of their bright colors. I have seen over a hundred 
living specimens, but unfortunately comparatively few were 
mature: I secured about half a dozen with the peristome fully 
formed. The seven pecimens at hand have the following band- 
ing formulas: 4 specimens: 12345; and one each with: 123(45), 
(12)3(45), 10345. They all have pale yellow ground-color 
and very dark-brown, almost black, bands. As a whole, they 
are strongly contrasted with my specimens from Lexington, 
which have lighter brown bands, and have more frequently one 
or more bands suppressed. The Lynchburg specimens are all 
of good size, but rather thin-shelled. On account of this, and 
to my dismay, a number of those collected (about two dozen) 
had been crushed when they arrived in Pittsburgh. 

There was a number of native Gastropods associated with 
these snails. I collected the following: Polygyra tridentata 
juxtidens Pils. rare; P. albolabris (Say), scarce; P. appressa 
(Say), abundant; P. thyroides (Say), rare; P. thyroides buc- 
culenta (Gld. ), fairly abundant; Gastrodontn ligera (Say), very 




In the Nautilus (No. 2, p. 47) Tom Iredale has a commun- 
ication on the status of Amicula. His conclusions, on a careful 
review of the literature, seem open to doubt, as will presently 
appear. Gray's original remark in relation to this genus in the 
Synopsis of the British Museum (Ed. 42 A, p. 127, 1840) is as 

" Acanthochites is peculiar for having a bundle of bristles 
placed on each side of the valves; and Chitonellus and Amicula 
differ only in having the valves nearly hidden in the mantle of 
the animals. ' ' 

I agree with Iredale in considering this remark as insufficient 
to establish a genus, but it shows clearly that Gray's idea was 
that of a chiton-like vesitus or amiculatus of Pallas, and not one 
in which the valves are entirely covered by the mantle as in C. 

Now in the second edition of Sowerby's Conchological Man- 
ual, 1842, we find: 

" Amicula. A genus formed for the reception of Chiton ami- 
culatus Auct. the valves of which are covered by an integument, 
so as to be completely hidden externally. Page 311, fig. 507. 
Chiton amiculatus. Amicula Gray." 

Then follows (p. 128): 

" Cryptoconchus Blainville. A genus composed of species of 
Chiton the valves of which are covered by the integument, as 
Chiton porosus of Burrows. Ch. amiculatus of Pallas. Page 311, 
fig. 507. Chiton amiculatus. Amicula Gray." 

Now neither in C. amiculatus Pallas, nor in C. porosus Bur- 
rows, are the valves completely hidden by the integument, in 
spite of Sowerby's statement. Furthermore, figure 507, which 
Iredale assumes to represent C. stelleri, is a crude drawing of a 
dry shell which is represented with nine valves and, except for 
the fact that the draughtsman has overlooked the minute, ex- 
posed apices of the valves, at once recalls C. vestitus. In the 
preface to the fourth edition of the work the auther states that 
"many synonyms have been rectified, some dates have been 


given, a few doubtful or unnecessary definitions have been 
altered or expunged," etc. 

On page 62, we find: 

" Amicula Gray, 1842. A genus formed for the reception of 
Chiton vestitus, the valves of which are covered by an integu- 
ment so as to be almost hidden externally. Plate XXIV, fig. 

On page 334, the reference to Plate XXIV, fig. 507 (which 
has not been altered) reads " Chiton amiculatus. Amiculu Gray." 

Gray, in his article on the Genera of the Family Chitonidae 
(Proc. Zool. Soc. London, 1846, p. 66), defines Amicula thus: 
"Exposed part of valves small, subcordate, as broad as long; 
mantle bristly." On page 69, to "Amicula Gray, Syn. 1840" 
he adds " Amicula vestita. Chiton vestitus Sby. , Zool. Journ. 
IV, p. 368, 1829." 

In 1847 (Proc. Zool. Soc. London, 1847, p. 169), Gray again 
links C. vestitus with Amicula as the sole cited example. 

In H. & A. Adams' Genera of Recent Mollusca, 1854, C. 
amiculatus Pallas, emersonii Conthony, pallasii Middendorflf, and 
vestitus Sowerby are the species ranked under Amicula Gray. 

In short, there is no question but that Gray's genus was in- 
tended to cover species with apically exposed valves, and the 
illustration of it by an inaccurate figure can hardly be taken as 
sufficient to overthrow the obvious intention, however we may 
be addicted to extreme technicalities. 

In conclusion one may smile at the identification asa" strictly 
binomial writer ' ' of one who names a new species Chiton Phae- 
nochiton Dichachiton Symmetrogephyrus pallasii. The early con- 
fusion between C. amiculatus and C. stelleri was not remarkable 
when we consider that the former was known only by the woik 
of Pallas, while the latter was not rare, and few authors con- 
sulted Pallas' s work but were content to copy the figures and 
blunders of earlier writers. 




In the Santa Barbara hills, in the Province of Jujuy, Argen- 
tina, we found the tropical biota present in a dilute form, but 
still with magnificent trees and quantities of green parrots, talk- 
ing a language we did not understand. We were much dis- 
appointed not to see any monkeys. In all the forested country 
near our camp at Sunchal, Bonis shells were scattered about in 
considerable abundance. Here and there we saw Epiphragmo- 
phora tucumanensis Doring and two species of Bulimulus. 

It was winter in that country, and much of the time we were 
in a cold mist, condensing on the tree above our tent and pro- 
ducing a monotonous drip, drip, drip, all night. Not a single 
Borus was seen alive, but some of the shells were fresh enough 
to show all the essential characters. At the museum in Buenos 
Aires, I had ascertained that this Borus was B. lorentzianus 
Doring, of which Pilsbry states in the Manual of Conchology, 
Vol. 10, 1895, that he could obtain neither specimens nor de- 
scription. Subsequently in Vol. 14, 1901, p. 125, he gave a 
translation of Doring' s description from Periodico Zoologio, II, 
1877, 255. No figure appeared until 1924, when illustrations 
were published by Joaquin Frenguelli in an article on Borus 
shells in kitchen-middens of the Rio San Roque indigenes. 1 
These illustrations of the weathered and corroded shells of the 
mounds show the shape but not the characteristic sculpture, 
and are thus inadequate for conchological requirements. I saw 
specimens from as far south as Tucuman. In the Buenos Aires 
Museum, the shells are labeled B. oblongus var. lorentzianus, but 
on comparison with veritable B. oblongus (Muller) from Trini- 
dad (F. W. Rohwer), they appear to represent a distinct species, 
which may be diagnosed as follows: 

1 Frenguelli' s article appeared in Boletin Acad. Nacional de Ciencias en 
Cordoba (Rep. Argentina;, XXVI, pp. 404,418; Borus "oblongus var. lor- 
entzianus" on pp. 409-416, figs. 3, 4, 8, 9. I owe the reference to this 
article to Dr. Pilsbry. 


Borus lorentzianus Doring. PI. IV, figs. 4, 4a. 

Shell ovate, solid, the conical spire very obtuse at apex, after 
the fashion of B. capillaceus (Pfr. ); upper whorls regularly and 
closely ribbed, as in B. oblongus, with a delicately wavy surface, 
and faint indications of spiral lines; whorls 5^-6, last whorl 
without the wavy or granulated surface; peristome and parietal 
callus bright rose-color; outer lip reflexed. Alt. 68-75 mm., 
diam. about 38 to 43 mm. ; length of aperture about 38 mm. 

The general characters, especially the obtuse spire, are quite 
uniform, and the closest alliance seems to be with B. capillaceus 
from the Upper Amazon, which von Martens considered a vari- 
ety of B. oblongus. There is no particular affinity with B. 
intertextus (Pilsbry) from Corumba; the latter locality is much 
nearer, about 500 miles northeast, though in quite a different 
sort of country. Both capillaceus and intertextus have very much 
finer riblets on the upper whorls than are seen in lorentzianus. 



The records following are supplemental to the list given by 
Dr. Bequaert in pp. 4 and 5 of this volume. 

Gastrocopta senilis (Gld.) Carvoeiro. This is the minute 
pupillid mentioned (in Nautilus for July, p. 4) as abundant 
on decaying bones. In the Manual of Conchology two named 
forms of G. servilis are described as G. servilis oblonga (Pfr.) and 
G. s. riisei (Pfr.), both characterized by small or partly deficient 
teeth. The Carvoeiro form varies from practically typical ser- 
vilis to forms with smaller teeth, the basal and the upper- 
palatal folds either present, minute or wanting. The same 
forms occur in a set from Lake Jiloa, Nicaragua. It appears 
that the two forms riisei and oblonga are so intimately connected 
with servilis in some lots that their discrimination seems hardly 
worth while. 

Pupisoma dioscoricola insigne Pils. On leaves, Manaos. 


Succinea manaosensis n. sp. PI. IV, fig. 3. 

The shell is rather short, of 2^ very strongly convex whorls, 
warm buff colored. The surface is dull, the penult and first 
part of the last whorl weakly striate, but dorsally on the last 
whorl it becomes coarsely, irregularly plicate. The aperture is 
symmetrically ovate, acute above. 

Length 8.75 mm. ; diam. 5.2 mm, ; length of aperture 6.3 mm. 

Manaos. Type and four paratypes No. 135042 A. N. S. P. 

Leptinaria bequaerti n. sp. PI. IV, fig. 1. 

The shell is imperforate, oblong-turrited, pale, subtranspar- 
ent gray, somewhat whitish towards the summit. Surface very 
glossy, weakly marked with growth lines. The spire has nearly 
straight outlines, the apex rather obtuse; whorls are strongly 
convex. The columella is straight, with a low, subvertically 
spiral lamella below. Outer and basal margins of the peri- 
stome thin. Outer lip arching forward slightly. 

Length 6 mm.; diam. 2.8 mm.; length of aperture 2.5 mm.; 
5^ whorls. 

Carvoeiro, Brazil, at the confluence of the Rio Negro and the 
Rio Branco collected by Dr. Jos. Bequaert. Type 185055 
A. N. S. P. 

This species was found in some abundance. It is larger than 
L. charlottei F. Baker, and decidedly broader in figure. It 
differs from L. parana by having the columella straight above 
the spiral lamella. 

Leptinaria parana n. sp. PI. IV, fig. 2. 

The shell is imperforate, shaped much like L. bequaerti but 
differing by the following features: The peristome is bordered 
within with a callous band. The outer lip arches strongly for- 
ward. The columella is shorter, thicker, and in an oblique 
view in the mouth it is much more strongly sigmoid. 

Length 5. 1 mm. ; diam. 2.5 mm. ; length of aperture 2.2 mm. ; 
5J whorls. 

Wtinga, a suburb of Para, Brazil, coll. by Prof. William 
Beebe. Type 112596 A. N. S. P. 


Leptinaria charlottei Fred Baker, from Camp 39 of the Madeira- 
Mamore Railroad in Matto Grosso, is a more slender shell with 
less arched outer lip and less strongly twisted columella. 



Following is a list of mollusks collected by students in the 
neighborhood of Quicksand, Breathitt Co., for Professor W. D. 
Funkhouser, and sent to Dr. Pilsbry for study. 

A single specimen taken by Professor C. R. Crosby of Cornell 
University is similar to Polygyra hirsuta except that it shows a 
distinct tooth at the junction of basal and outer margins of the 
lip, unlike any other Stenotrema. The good series of P. hirsuta 
sent by Prof. Funkhouser from the same place shows only the 
normal form, so that in all probability the toothed shell is 
merely a pathologic individual. 

The specimens of Polygyra tridentata are about equally divided 
between those with normal teeth and others with the teeth very 
small. Probably two stations are represented. 

Part of the Gastrodonta gularis are almost imperforate. 
Polygyra andrewsx Binn. Mesomphix inornata Say 

Polygyra sayana Pils. Polita indentata Say 

Polygyra albolabris Say Vitrea capsella Gld. 

Polygyra thyroidus Say Vitrea midtidentata Binn. 

Polygyra appressa linguifera Lam. Euconulus cher sinus Say 
Polygyra tridentata Say Zonitoides arborea Say 

Polygyra inflecta Say Gastrodonta intertexta Binn. 

Polygyra stenotrema Fer. Gastrodonta ligera Say 

Polygyra hirsuta Say Gastrodonta gidaris Say 

Polygyra fraterna Say Gastrodonta interna Say 

Haplotrema concava Say Gonyodiscus patida Desh. 

Omphalina cuprea Raf. Lymnsea humilis Say 

Mesomphix laevigata Pfr. 






The Yucatan peninsula, jutting out as it does, into the warm 
waters of the Gulf of Mexico and the Caribbean sea, affords an 
admirable site for the accumulation of a profuse molluscan life, 
and what with the stormy and heavy surf during the months of 
October to February (caused by the prevailing north winds or 
nortes as they are called) piling the shells on shore, the beaches 
are literally and " littorally " covered with marine Mollusca; 
the fauna, however, is more abundant than diverse. The sands 
along the entire coast are composed of the fragments of broken 
and disintregated shells and hence is nearly pure lime with but 
little silica or other minerals present. The fauna is typical of 
that found in the southern Gulf regions and appertains nearly 
exclusively to the Caribbean province although a few forms are 
known to be also Panamic in distribution. Nearly all of the 
species occur in the West Indies, while many are common to 
Florida and northern South America. 

Opportunity for collection was afforded during the course of 
geologic reconnaissance of the peninsula. Following are the 
localities from which the specimens were obtained: 

Progreso, Yucatan. 

Campeche, Campeche. 

San Lorenzo, Campeche. 

Seibaplaya, Campeche. 

Chenkan, Campeche. 

Between Chenkan and Sabancuy, Campeche. 

Very Cruz, Vera Cruz. 
With the exception of that at Campeche, which is rather 
rocky and covered with weeds, the beaches are all uniformly 
sandy. Throughout, the character of the fauna is fairly con- 
stant, though a number of species are more abundant in some 
localities than in others. Thus at Progreso Chione cancellata 
Linne is found by the thousands, but a short distance from it or 


more to the west and south, the form is superseded by other 
more prominent ones. Strombus pugilis Linne is rare at Pro- 
greso but very abundant at San Lorenzo and to the southwest 
of Seibaplaya. The great majority of Cerithea were found at 
Campeche where they abound amongst the rocks which are 
shallowly covered with water. Labiosa (Raeta) eanaliculata Say 
occurs south of Chenkan but I have seen it north of there but 
rarely. This alternate sporadic and profuse occurrence of cer- 
tain forms is due to local variations in habitat. 

The ancient Mayas, whose remnants of a superior civilization 
are still extant, used some of these shells as offerings to their 
gods. In dredgings from the sacred well at Chichen-Itza I 
found several fragments of Marginella together with the jade, 
copper and golden trinkets which were thrown in with the sac- 
rificed virgins. Legend tells us that before casting these vari- 
ous tokens into the water they were slightly chipped or broken 
so as not to rival the perfection of the virgins. 

For determinations I have drawn freely on the works of Dall, 
Try on, Baker and Maury, the latter having recently revised the 
nomenclature of the Gulf species. 

The following forms have been collected: 

Area occidentalis Philippi. Progreso, San Lorenzo, Chenkan, 
near Sabancuy. 

Area unibonata Lamarck. Fairly common along the entire 
coast but locally more abundant at Progreso, Chenkan 
and Sabancuy. 

Area (Barbatia) adamsi (Shuttle worth) Smith. Rare, Pro- 
greso, San Lorenzo, Chenkan. 

Area (Noetia) ponderosa Say. Not uncommon along the coast. 

Area (Scapharca) secticostata Reeve. Rare, Progreso, Chen- 
kan, Sabancuy. 

Area (Scapharca) auriculata Lamarck. Progreso, Sabancuy. 

Area (Scapharca) transversa Say. Abundant. The larger 
forms are more quadrate than the smaller ones. 

Area (Argina) campechensis Gmelin. One specimen from 

Glycimeris pectinata Gmelin. Chenkan, Sabancuy. 


Ostrea cristata Bora. Campeche. 

Pecten (Plagioctenium) gibbus Linne. Not a common shell as 
in other localities, Chenkan. 

Pecten (Chlamys) ornatus Lamarck. A single specimen from 
near Sabancuy. 

Plicatula gibbosa Lamarck. Common. 

Anomia simplex D'Orbigny. Progreso, Chenkan. 

Mytilus (Hormomya) exustus Linne. Several immature speci- 
mens, Campeche, San Lorenzo. 

Cardita (Carditamera) floridana Conrad. Very abundant and 

Chama macerophylla Gmelin. Progreso, Chenkan, near Saban- 

Echinochama arcinella Linne. Abundant at Chenkan. 

Lucina chrysostoma (Meuschen) Philippi. Between Chenkan 
and Sabancuy. 

Codakia orbicularis Linne. Several very large specimens, 
Progreso, Sabancuy. 

Codakia (Jagonia) orbiculata Montagu. A single shell from 
San Lorenzo. 

Phacoides pectinatus Gmelin. Commonly known as Lucina 
jamaicensis. Campeche, Sabancuy. 

Phacoides (Lucinisca) nassula Conrad. Rare, Progreso. 

Cardium (Tr achy cardium) isocardia Linne. Progreso, Cam- 
peche, Chenkan, Sabancuy. 

Cardium (Cerastoderma) robustum Solander. Progreso. 

Cardium (Fragum) medium Linne. One specimen from 

Cardium (Laevicardium) serratum Linne. Some of the forms 
are very highly colored, Campeche, Chenkan, Sabancuy. 

Cardium (Laevicardium) serratum var. laevigatum Lamarck. 
More quadrate than typical serratum. Campeche, Chen- 

Dosinia (Dosinidia) elegans Conrad. Chenkan, Sabancuy. 

Macrocallista maculata Linne. Very variable in size and color- 
ation. Progreso, Chenkan, Sabancuy. 

Antigona listeri Gray. Rare, Chenkan. 


Chione cancellata Linne. Extremely abundant along the 

Anomalocardia brasiliana Gmelin. Progreso, Campeche (com- 
mon), Sabancuy. Usually labeled A. flexuosa Born. 
Variable in the amount of posterior attenuation and char- 
acter of ribbing. 

Venus campechiensis Gmelin. Progreso, Chenkan, near 

Petricola (Rupellaria) typica Jonas. A single imperfect 
specimen from San Lorenzo. 

Tellina lineata Turton. Campeche (rare), Chenkan, between 
Chenkan and Sabancuy. Colored either white or dark 

Macoma (Cydippina) brevifrons Say. Rare, Chenkan. 

Semele proficua Pulteney. Scarce, near Sabancuy. 

Semele purpurascens. Scarce, near Sabancuy. Character- 
ized by its oblique incisions. 

Donax variabilis Say. Uncommon, Chenkan. 

Mulinia lateralis Say. Fairly abundant toward the south of 
the peninsula, Chenkan to Sabancuy. Somewhat thinner 
shelled and more elongated than the more northerly shells. 

Labiosa (Baeta) canaliculata Say. Near Sabancuy. 

Bullaria occidentalis Adams. Progreso, Campeche, Chenkan, 

Bullaria- striata Bruguiere. Differs from B. occidentalis 
Adams in having a more widely open umbilicus and with 
both ends of the shell concentrically striated. 

Mclampus coffeus Linne. Rare, Campeche, San Lorenzo. 

Terebra (Hastula) cinerealiorn. Two worn specimens, Chen- 

Conns floridanus Gabb. Progreso, Chenkan, Sabancuy. 

Conns proteus Hwass. Progreso, Chenkan, Sabancuy, south 
of Seibaplaya. 

Conns verrucosus? Hwass. Several immature and imperfect 
specimens in the collection may be referrable to this 

Drillia {Crassispira) harfordiana Reeve. Chenkan. Also 
more widely known from Panama. I cannot distinguish 


any differences between the Yucatan shell from that of 
Panama with perhaps the exception of a slight variance 
in coloration. Not unlike D. albinodata and others of the 
D. zebra group but much larger. 

Cancellaria reticulata Linne. Chenkan, near Sabancuy. 

Cancellaria {T rig ono stoma) tenera Dall. Rare, Chenkan. 

Oliva litterata Lamarck. Campeche, Chenkan, Sabancuy. 
Considered as synonymous with 0. circinata Lamarck by 

Olivella nivea Gmelin. Eare, Chenkan, Sabancuy. 

Marginella apicina Menke. Progreso, Campeche, Chenkan, 
near Sabancuy. 

Marginella guttata Dillwyn. Common, Progreso, Campeche, 
Chenkan, between Chenkan and Sabancuy. 

Marginella labiata Valenciennes. Abundant all along the 

Marginella dblonga Swainson. Scarce, Progreso, Chenkan. 

Marginella (Volvaria) avena Valenciennes. Rare, Chenkan. 

Turbinella scolymus Gmelin. Young forms from Progreso, 
Chenkan and Sabancuy. 

Mitra (Pusia) gemmata Sowerby. Campeche. A rare and 
prettily colored shell. 

Fasciolaria tulipa Linne. Progreso, Chenkan, near Sabancuy. 

Leucozonia cingulifera Lamarck. Chenkan, Sabancuy. Var- 
iable in attenuation of spire and nodulation. 

Busy con pyrum Dillwyn. Progreso, Chenkan, Sabancuy. 

Busycon perversus Linne. Progreso, Campeche, Chenkan, be- 
tween Chenkan and Sabancuy. 

Melongena corona Gmelin. Campeche. 

Cantharus tinctus Conrad. Chenkan. 

Alectrion vibex Say. Chenkan. 

Alectrion ambigua? Montagu. One worn shell, Campeche. 

Columbella avara Say. Rare, Progreso. 

Columbella mercatoria Lamarck. Abundant along the coast. 

Murex (Phyllonotus) pomum Gmelin. Progreso, Chenkan, 

Murex (Chicoreus) salleanus Adams. A single shell from 


Muricidea floridana Conrad. Campeche. Maury considers 
this synonymous with M. ostrearum Conrad. 

Trivia suffusa Gray. Progreso. 

Pyrula papyratia Say. Rare, Chenkan. 

Strombus pugilis Linne. Campeche, Chenkan, south of 
Seiboplaya (abundant and very highly colored), San 
Lorenzo, near Sabancuy. Not as prominently spinose as 
the northern varieties. 

Strombus gigas Linne. Progreso. 

Cerithium algicola Adams. Campeche. 

Cerithium atratum Born. Progreso, Chenkan, near Sabancuy. 

Cerithium ferruginem Say. Campeche, Chenkan. 

Cerithium minimum septemstriatum Say. Campeche. 

Cerithium minimum nigrescens Menke. Campeche. 

Cerithium minimum Gmelin. Campeche. 

Cerithium variabile Adams. Campeche, Chenkan, between 
Chenkan and Sabancuy. 

Modulus modulus Linne. Campeche. 

Vermicidaria- spirata Philippi. Chenkan, near Sabancuy. 

Crepidida fornicata Linne. Progreso, Chenkan, Sabancuy. 

Crepidula alculeata Gmelin. Progreso, Chenkan, San Lorenzo. 

Crepidida plana Say. Rare, Progreso. 

Crucibulum verrucosumf Reeve. This form is found abun- 
dantly along the coast but am not assured of its identity 
with the above. 

Natica canrena (Linne) Morch. Chenkan, Sabancuy. 

Polynices (Neverita) duplicata Say. Chenkan, between Chen- 
kan and Sabancuy. 

Sinum perspectivum Say. Scarce, Chenkan. 

Turbo castaneus Gmelin. Rare, Progreso, Chenkan. 

Astralium cubanum Philippi. Near Sabancuy. Closely allied 
to A. olfersi and A. americanum. 

Astralium longispinum Lamarck. Progreso, Chenkan. 

Nerita tessellata Gmelin. Very abundant especially around 
Lerma where it is collected by fishmongers and used as 

Chlorostoma (Omphalius) fasciatum Born. Campeche, Chen- 


Lucapinella limatula Reeve. Uncommon, Chenkan. 

Fissuridea alternata Say. Progreso, Chenkan, near Sabancuy. 

Fissuridea alternata Say var. dys&ni Reeve. Chenkan, Saban- 

Subemarginula octoradiata (Gmelin) Adams. Scarce, Cam- 
peche, San Lorenzo. 



The following report is founded primarily upon the collec- 
tions made by the writer during the " Geo. H. Clapp Expedi- 
tion to Reelfoot Lake" of the Carnegie Museum in August, 
1924. It includes localities in Reelfoot Lake proper; 1 further 

'Blue Basin, Lake Co. (N. W. shore); Bluebank, Lake Co. (South end); 
and Samburg, Cbion Co. (East shore). 

in the Bayou de Chien, Walnut Log, Obion Co. (tributary en- 
tering the lake near its northern end; and North Fork Obion 
River, Union City, Obion Co. (a tributary of the Mississippi 
receiving the waters of Reelfoot Lake). 

This material was supplemented by specimens collected in 
July, 1925, in the lake (near Samburg) by Mr. Steven B. 
Crossley, who acted as guide during the expedition of 1924. 
The latter specimens arrived in part alive. 

From this region we possess only one previous list of mussels, 
collected by S. N. Rhoads in 1895, and published by H. A. 
Pilsbry and S. N. Rhoads (P. & R.) (Proc. Acad. Philadelphia 
48, 1896, pp. 500-506). The Reelfoot Lake shells of this list 
are from Samburg, Obion Co. ; but there are a few also from 
Wolf River, Raleigh, Shelby Co. (near Memphis), a locality 
probably with ecological conditions similar to those of Obion 
River. Most of the species of this list have been found by my- 
self, and several have been added. The following enumeration 
includes all forms known from these western parts of Tennessee 
(Mississippi Embayment and Mississippi Bottoms). 


1. Fusconaia flava (Rafinesque). — Union City, one gravid 
female, with the diameter of 47% of the length. This is a typi- 
cal representation of the species (See Ortmann, Proc. Americ. 
Philos. Soc. 59, 1920, p. 282), and has also a reddish-brown 
epidermis and reddish nacre. 

A species belonging generally to small streams, found pre- 
eminently in the Ohio drainage (and that of the Great Lakes). 
Present in small streams tributary to the Cumberland; entirely 
absent in the Tennessee drainage. 

2. Fusconaia flava trigona (Lea). — Union City, one male and 
one female, with the dia. of 58 and 57%. Thus these speci- 
mens are distinctl} r more swollen than the specimen of flava, 
and fall under the var. trigona, as denned by me. Since their 
obesity is not very great, and since the beaks are not remark- 
ably elevated, they could not be called var. undata (Barnes). 

This form represents F. flava farther downstream in the Ohio 
system. It is also represented west of the Mississippi, but these 
forms require further study. 

3. Megalonaias gigantea (Barnes). — Union City, abundant. 
A species of the larger rivers of the Interior Basin. 

4. Plectomerus trapezoides (Lea). — Union City, one female. 
Reported by P. & R. from Samburg. 

A southern species, which seems to have its metropolis in 
the tributaries of the Mississippi in the Mississippi Embayment. 

5. Amblema costata Rafinesque. — Union City, not rare. The 
specimens at hand have the diam. of 44 and 45%, which thus 
is below the maximum obesity (47%) given for this form by 
Ball (Ecology 3, 1922, p. 134). As I have pointed out (Amer. 
Midland Natural. 9, 1925, p. 333), this should better be 
changed to a higher figure. 

Widely distributed in the Interior Basin, preferring the 
smaller streams. 

6. Amblema peruviana (Lamarck). — Not found by myself, 
but reported by P. & R. (as U. plicatus Lea.) from Samburg. 

This is a form of very large rivers and quiet water, possibly 
passing into the A. costata of the smaller rivers. Its presence 
in Reelfoot Lake should be expected. 

7. Quadrula pustulosa mortoni (Conrad). — Union City, abund- 


ant. Reported from Wolf River, Raleigh, Shelby Co., by P. 
& R. (as U. turgidus Lea). 

This form differs from typical pustulosa of the Ohio, Cumber- 
land and Tennessee drainages in the subquadrate outline, the 
well developed posterior ridge, and — in its typical phase, as 
found, for instance, in Louisiana — in the color of the epidermis, 
which is ashy-greenish-brown, without the broad green ray of 
pustulosa (in which the epidermis is more or less tawny). Yet 
no sharp line can be drawn between the two forms. From 
northern Arkansas (White River and St. Francis River) I have 
intergrades, chiefly in the color of the epidermis, which fre- 
quently show the broad green ray of pustulosa, and also approach 
it in shape (more rounded, with indistinct posterior ridge). 
The specimens from Obion River are much like those from 
northern Arkansas: their shape is that of mortoni, but the color 
is more tawny and has, at least in younger specimens, the 
broad ray. 

This seems to be a southern representative of Qu. pustulosa in 
the Mississippi Embayment. It is very variable, and not yet 
fully understood. U. nodiferus Conr. (Jackson, La.) apparently 
is an absolute synonym. Qu. sphczrica (Lea) and refulgent s 
(Lea) seem to be local phases of this, belonging to the Amite, 
Pearl and Chickasawhay (Pascagoula) drainages in Louisiana 
and Mississippi. 

Quadrula pustulosa (Lea) has been reported by P. & R. from 
Samburg. I have not seen specimens from Reelfoot Lake, and 
do not think that the true pustulosa is found in the lake; prob- 
ably it is mortoni. 

8. Quadrula quadrida (Rafinesque) var. — Bluebank, Lake 
Co. I have seen dead shells at Samburg, and S. B. Crossley 
has sent four splendid specimens (alive, males) from the lake. 
P. & R. report this, as U. asperrimus Lea, from Samburg. 

The dia. of the six specimens at hand is between 55 and 
60%, and thus they are considerably more obese than normal 
quadrida (Dia. under 52%, see: Ortmann, Amer. Midi. Natural. 
9, 1925, p. 331). In height they agree fairly well with the 
latter (77 to 86%), and also in the moderate development of 
the tubercles, as well as in color (brownish, with greenish tints, 


when younger). They are by no means the southern Qu. aspera 
(Lea), as might be suspected from the locality, for the latter 
has smaller, more numerous and more crowded tubercles, and 
is generally less swollen. Qu. quadrula fragosa, which is rather 
swollen, has stronger tubercles, and is more elevated. 

My specimens resemble the form cantraryensis Utterback 
(Lake Contrary, St. Joseph, Mo., see: Amer. Midi. Natural. 4, 
1916), but the latter has much weaker sculpture. I should 
call attention to the fact that the figure of the smaller specimen 
of U. nobilis Conrad (Journ. Acad. Philad. 2, 1854, pi. 27, f. 2) 
closely resembles my two younger specimens. This figure has 
been declared by Simpson (1914, p. 323) to represent U. apicu- 
latus Say, but I believe that the two figures given by Conrad 
(figs. 2 and 3) might very well belong to the same form, fig. 3 
probably representing an old, somewhat deformed specimen 
(possibly a female ?) . The forms grouping around Qu. quadrula 
(quadrula, fragosa, aspera, nobilis, and also apiculata) and their 
interrelations require revision. 

Qu. quadrula is abundant in larger rivers of the Interior 
Basin, passing southward into aspera. It seems to develop 
several local or ecological modifications. 

9. Quadrula verrucosa (Rafinesque). — Union City, abundant. 
Reported by P. & R. from Wolf R., Raleigh, Shelby Co. 

A species of immense distribution in nearly all of the Mis- 
sissippi drainage, and also in streams running to the Gulf, from 
Alabama to Texas. I found several specimens with purplish 
nacre, a color seen chiefly in the southern part of the range. 

10. Arcidens confragosus (Say). — Union City, two males. 
Reported from the lake at Samburg by P. & R. 

A species centering in its distribution in the Mississippi Em- 
bayment, and thence advancing into the lower, sluggish parts 
of the larger rivers, frequently found in ponds and lakes. 

11. Lasmigona complanata (Barnes). — Union City, one male. 
The center of the area occupied by this species lies in the 

middle of the Interior Basin, in the quieter waters of the largest 
rivers, and also in ponds, lakes and canals. Under favorable 
conditions, the range extends well towards the headwaters, 
chiefly in a northerly direction, where it has crossed over into 


the St. Lawrence drainage, and is said to extend even into the 
Mackenzie Basin. It also goes down the Mississippi Embay- 
ment to the Gulf Coastal Plain in the Alabama drainage. 

12. Anodonta imbecillis Say. — Bayou de Chien, Walnut Log, 
not rare. Two specimens from the lake have been sent by S. B. 
Crossley. Reported from the lake at Samburg by P. & R. 

Of tremendous distribution from Texas to the Great Lakes 
region, and over the Gulf Coastal Plain to the southern parts of 
the Atlantic Coastal Plain. Chiefly in quiet waters. 

13. Anodonta grandis gigantea (Lea). — Lake at Bluebank and 
Samburg; Bayou de Chien at Walnut Log. Reported from 
Samburg by P. & R. (as grandis Say). S. B. Crossley has sent 
about twenty immature specimens. 

The specimens collected correspond most closely to the var. 
gigantea, which is merely an ecological form, belonging to ponds 
and lakes with muddy bottom. It is close to, possibly identi- 
cal with, A. corpulenta Cooper, and A. stewartiana Lea (chiefly 
the young ones to the latter). 

The range of A. grandis is enormous, corresponding largely 
to that of A. imbecillis, also preferring mostly quiet waters. It 
is extremely variable, and has developed a great number of 
local and ecological races, which are not yet fully understood. 

14. Anodonta suborbicidata Say. — I found only one young 
specimen in the Blue Basin of the lake, but S. B. Crossley has 
sent several larger ones. Reported from Samburg (P. & R.). 

Apparently a typical lake-form, centering in the middle of 
the Interior Basin, where the three large rivers unite, and ex- 
tending down the Mississippi Embayment to Louisiana. 

15. Truncilla truncata (Rafinesque). — Not found by myself, 
but reported by P. & R. from Samburg (as U. elegans Lea). 

Widely distributed over the Gulf Plain, through the Missis- 
sippi Embayment and the Interior and Great Lakes Basins, 
found under very diverse conditions, in swiftly running water 
as well as in ponds and lakes. It is to be expected in Reelfoot 

16. Leptodea fragilis (Rafinesque). — Union City, one female. 
Also in Wolf R., Raleigh, Shelby Co. (P. & R., as U. gracilis 


On the Gulf 1 lain from Alabama to Texas, up the Mississippi 
Embayment into the Interior Basin and that of the Great 
Lakes. Also this species is found in both running water and 
in lakes. 

17. Proptera purpurata (Lamarck). — Not found by myself, 
but reported from Wolf R., Raleigh, Shelby Co. (P. & R.). 

Represents the P. alata (Say) of the Interior Basin in the 
South, on the Coastal Plain from Alabama to eastern Texas. 
In the northern parts of the Mississippi Embayment (in Mis- 
souri), it seems to pass into P. alata. It is common in the 
state of Mississippi, just south of the locality in western Ten- 

18. Carunculina parva (Barnes). — Lake at Bluebank, one 
gravid female. Reported from Samburg (P. & R.). 

My specimen is typical, and sharply distinct from those of 
the next species. 

Most abundant in the central parts of the Interior Basin, 
crossing over to the Great Lakes. Known also from southern 
localities as far as Texas. There are related forms in Alabama, 
Georgia and northern Florida, which may be simply local races 
of this. The species prefers quiet waters. 

19. Carunculina texasensis (Lea). — Lake at Bluebank and 
Samburg, not rare. Reported from Samburg by P. & R. 

Generally supposed to represent C. parva in the South, from 
Texas and Alabama up to the Mississippi Embayment to south- 
ern Illinois and Indiana. It may intergrade with C. parva, but 
in Reelfoot Lake the two are perfectly distinct. A species of 
quiet waters. 

20. Micromya lienosa (Conrad). — Union City, two males. 
Distribution very similar to that of Car. texasensis, chiefly in 

its northward extension. In Alabama, however, it goes con- 
siderably more eastward (to Georgia and S. Carolina), although 
in a somewhat different form (concestator Lea). Also in its 
main range it varies a good deal; my specimens agree very well 
with others from Mississippi and Arkansas; they are of good 
size, have the epidermis blackish, and the nacre whitish or with 
purplish tint. 

21. Ligumia subroslrata (Say). — Lake at Bluebank and Sam- 


burg, not rare, a number sent by S. B. Crossley. Reported 
from Sam burg by P. & R. 

From the Coastal Plain (Texas to Alabama) up the Missis- 
sippi Embayment into the central parts of the Interior Basin, 
restricted to quiet water of large rivers, ponds and lakes. 

22. Lampsilis anodontoides fallaciosa (Smith). — Union City, 
very abundant. Probably the record for Wolf R., Raleigh, 
Shelby Co., given by P. & R. (as U. anodontoides Lea) refers 
also to this variety. 

All my specimens represent the typical fallaciosa. At the 
time, when Pilsbry and Rhoads published their list, this had 
not been separated from the main species. The latter and the 
variety are almost co-extensive in their range, which covers the 
central parts of the Interior Basin, the Mississippi Embayment 
and the Coastal Plain from Texas to Florida. However, in the 
latter region, the form fallaciosa seems to be absent, while other 
local forms turn up. Elsewhere, fallaciosa seems to be the form 
of quiet water and sandy-muddy bottom, while anodontoides is 
found in stronger current and gravel. Thus my specimens are 
from the sandy-muddy bottom of Obion River, with slowly, but 
steadily flowing water. 

23. Lampsilis ovata satura (Lea). — Union City, one male. 
This form, which is not a direct descendant of L. ovata, but 

rather of L. ovata ventricosa of the Interior Basin, seems to be 
characteristic of the Mississippi Embayment, south to Louisiana 
and eastern Texas, and intergrades in northern Arkansas with 
ventricosa. On the other hand, in the state of Mississippi, it 
gradually changes into L. excavata (Lea), typical for the Ala- 
bama River drainage. The present locality is the most northern 
record for satura east of the Mississippi. 

If we add to the above list the record of Strophitus rugosus 
(Swainson) from "Horn Lake Creek, Shelby Co., Tenn.", 
given by Lea 1 (as Anodonta shxjferiana) , we have here a com- 
plete list of all Naiades ever reported from the direct drainage 
of the Mississippi River in western Tennessee. The contrast 

1 There is a station "Horn Lake" on the 111. Centr. R. R. just across the 
state line, south of Memphis, in De Soto Co., Miss. 


with the fauna of other parts of the state of Tennessee is re- 
markable. The number of forms is surprisingly small, and yet 
there is a high percentage of shells, which are peculiar to the 
Mississippi Embayment. This fact should be kept in mind, 
for it is important in the study of the development of the 
Naiad faunas of North America. 



(Concluded from page 65) 
Acanthodoris columbina sp. nov. Plate II, Figures 5, 9, 10, 
11; Plate III, Figures 1, 2, 5. 

Six individuals of this form were collected at low tide in reef 
pools at Moss Beach, near Montara Point, San Mateo County, 
California, on July 26, 1922. A second collecting trip to the 
same locality on May 3, 1923, failed in securing any more of 
this interesting new species. 

The animal has the plump, nearly oval outline characteristic 
of the Acanthodorids. The foot is completely covered by the 
wide, thick border of the mantle, save for the tip of the tail. 
The dorsum is covered everywhere with closely-set, slender, 
tapering papillae, reaching 1.5 to 2.0 mm. in length, and giv- 
ing it a soft, velvety appearance. This is rather deceptive, 
however, for the body is firm to the touch, the mantle being 
everywhere filled with slightly curved calcareous spicules (PI. 
Ill, fig. 2) interlacing in various directions. Each papilla is 
reinforced by a group of spicules, mainly lengthwise in arrange- 
ment, and nearly filling it. These extend well down into the 
dorsum, and are strengthened by others added at lower levels, 
so that each papilla contains a firm, skeletal framework, pre- 
cluding anything more than slight movement of its apical half. 
The margins of the rhinophore openings are similarly reinforced. 

The ground color of the dorsum is a dusky, brownish mauve. 
The papillae are tipped with lemon yellow, and each one is 
more or less deeply shaded with brown, and none of them are 


white. The stalks of the rhinophores are brownish sprinkled 
with small, lemon-yellow spots, similar ones being also found 
between and on the plates of the clavus, which is otherwise of a 
deep, vinous-red color, as are also the tips of the branchiae. 
The upper margins of the main stalks of the plumes and the 
beginnings of their main branches bear a row of small, dead 
white, rounded nodules. A narrow, continuous band of lemon 
yellow edges the ventral margin of the mantle in all six speci- 
mens. The ventral surface is much paler, everywhere tending 
toward a yellowish grey. In alcohol the yellowish marginal 
line disappears, but the other colors, though lighter, are pre- 
served for some time. 

The largest specimen measured, while living and crawling 
freely, 32 mm. in length, 15 mm. in width, and 9.0 mm. in 
height, the others being but slightly smaller. 

The head is of the usual shape, wide and expanded in a 
veliform manner, and produced at the lateral angles into widely 
triangular, or even squarish tentacles, directed backward. The 
foot margin is single in front, and bluntly tapering behind, ex- 
tending but slightly beyond the mantle when crawling. 

The rhinophores are directed outward and forward, are per- 
foliate with from 22 to 26 leaves, and are surrounded by low, 
thin-edged sheaths into which they are incompletely retractile. 
The sheath margins bear a small, variable number (six to ten) 
of longer and shorter processes, resembling those of the general 

The branchial plumes are nine in number, low, spreading, 
and bipinnate, and are arranged in a circle surrounding the anal 
papilla, the area bearing numerous low papillae, similar in 
form and color to those of the general dorsal surface. The spic- 
ules (PI. Ill, fig. 2) are slender structures, pointed at both 
ends and slightly bent as a rule. The largest measured 0.9 
mm. in length, though the average length is considerably less. 
No traces of branching were found. 

The pseudo- peritoneum is sparingly sprinkled with minute 
black dots, mainly in the anterior region. The thick-walled 
muscular ingluvies is borne upon the anterior, upper face of the 
pharyngeal bulb as a low, hemispherical projection, 1.5 mm. 


in length. 1 mm. in height, and 1.75 mm. wide. Its median 
line is sharply marked by a longitudinal band of muscle, form- 
ing the bottom of a shallow groove between the two symmetrical 
halves. Behind the radula sack projects freely for a distance 
of 1.2 mm. Immediately behind the ingluvies the oesophagus 
issues, surrounded by the nerve collar, bearing just in front of 
the latter a well marked, dilated sack-like portion, ca. 2.0 mm. 
in diameter. The salivary glands open into the bulb at either 
side of the exit of the oesophagus. They are long, strap-like 
organs (PI. Ill, fig. 5), the short, slender duct (d) being fol- 
lowed by a thickened, somewhat lobulate portion, which is in 
turn followed by a more slender division, terminating near the 
entrance of the oesophagus into the stomach. Their total 
length is ca. 5.8 mm., and the greatest diameter at the widest 
portion is 0.4 mm. 

The labial disk, surrounding the slit-like mouth opening, 
bears an armature of minute, cuticular plates, interrupted be- 
low, and extending laterally nearly to the upper side of the 
opening, the area so covered being triangular in form, with the 
base ventro-posterior and the apex dorso-anterior. The ele- 
ments of the armature (PI. II, fig. 5) are blunt hooks, triangu- 
lar in side view, ca. 0.009 mm. high, the length of the base 
being 0.012 mm. From above each hook is broadly rectangu- 
lar in outline, the squarish cusp directed forward, 0.068 mm. 
in width, the margin being irregularly denticulate, or in some 
cases with a single median notch. The elements of each lateral 
area are arranged in from 30 to 35 rows, parallel to the long 
axis of the mouth tube; the longest rows in the widest part of 
the armature contain some 26 elements, the number decreasing 
toward the top of the tube, the lowermost rows, next to the 
median plate also having few and rudimentary hooks. The 
labial armature is interrupted below by a median, ventral cuti- 
cular plate, projecting freely beyond the opening of the oral 
disk. This structure (PI. II, fig. 11) is 0.36 mm. long and 
0.097 mm. wide at its broadest, posterior part. It is slightly 
concave on its upper surface, and is finely striated longitudi- 
nally, the striae gently diverging anteriorly. The anterior free 
end is bifurcated by a narrow notch or cleft, extending back in 


the median line 0.09 mm., the two tips thus formed being 
irregularly blunted and worn. 

The radula is of the typical, narrow, deeply folded form 
characteristic of the genus. The radula formula is 40-43 (5. 1. 
0. 1. 5), the anterior teeth are colorless, the more posterior 
ones toward the tip of the radula sack, but not the youngest 
ones, take on a yellowish tint. The median tooth is absent, 
the rhachis being very narrow and naked, but the first lateral 
tooth (PI. II, fig. 10) is quite large and strong. The large, com- 
pressed, basal portion is roughly quadrangular in lateral out- 
line, its anterior and ventral margin being strongly thickened, 
the posterior part is prolonged backward as a thin lamina, 
which overlaps the anterior portion of the succeeding first 
pleural tooth of the next row. The upper posterior border is 
rounded. From the anterior, thickened portion of this base 
arises a stout hook, slightly curved backward. Its tip is blunt, 
the posterior margin is thin, while the anterior edge is thick- 
ened and is strengthened by a strong ridge on its inner face 
which dies away toward the tip, and bears a series of six to 
eight small, but well marked denticles, merging below into 
slight irregularities of the ridge margin. Figure 10 of Plate II 
represents the first laterals of one-half of the seventh and eighth 
rows as seen from the median side, and fig. 9 of the same plate 
shows the first laterals of the 28th and 29th rows as seen in 
front view. A comparison of these figures with similar ones on 
the same plate of the other species discussed in this paper, all 
drawn at the same magnification, will render evident many 
differences of detail, proportion, and relative size, which are 
here omitted for the sake of brevity. The total height of an 
average first lateral is 0.324 mm., the height of its hook being 
0.096 mm., the proportion of height of hook to total height 
being nearly as 1 to 3.4, this proportion holding true within 
small limits throughout the whole radula. The remaining 
laterals, five in number (Plate II, fig. 10), are much compressed, 
and lie at about the level of the base of the hook of the first 
lateral in the functioning part of the radula. Each is a flattened 
plate, somewhat approximating the outline of the first. The 
second is especially thin, and is faintly seen behind the first 


lateral, the remaining four have their antero-dorsal margins 
thickened, and prolonged upward and backward into a hook- 
like process, which, however, does not project freely, as in the 
first lateral, but is continuous ventrally and posteriorly with 
the thin, upward expansion of its base, the whole tooth being 
somewhat triangular in form. 

The reproductive system is composed of the ovotestis, closely 
covering the most of the surface of the liver, the anterior genital 
complex, consisting of the large, white, nidamental gland, 
nearly inclosing the much smaller, yellowish, albumen gland, 
and of the various ducts of the system. Since the relations of 
these parts are of decided significance from a systematic as well 
as from a morphological standpoint, I give in Fig. 1 of Plate III 
an accurate camera drawing of the anterior complex as seen 
obliquely from above and within. No displacement of the 
ducts has been made other than is necessary to bring out their 
relationships, but connective tissue, nerves and blood vessels 
have been dissected away for the sake of clearness. The short 
and slender hermaphroditic duct (h. d.), coming from the 
ovotestis, dilates into the hermaphroditic ampulla (h. a.), a 
whitish tube, 0.8 mm. in diameter, forming a simple loop 
nearly 7.7 mm. long, resting in a shallow groove upon the 
inner anterior face of the albumen {alb. g.) and the nidamental 
(n. g.) glands. At its anterior end it narrows again and divides 
into the vas deferens (pr. ) and the oviduct (ov. ), the latter 
opening at once into the fertilization chamber, concealed in the 
gland complex at the border of the albumen gland. 

The vas deferens is divisible into two distinct portions, a 
proximal segment (pr.), with glandular walls, 12.5 mm. in 
length, attached closely to the anterior and superior surfaces of 
the nidamental gland, and a slightly more slender, distal, mus- 
cular portion, 17.5 mm. in length, the loops of which are free 
from the glandular mass, extending in front and to the left of it 
beneath the oesophagus. In figure 1 of Plate III, the proximal, 
glandular, or prostatic portion (pr.) extends to the point indi- 
cated by x, and is here represented as partly straightened out, 
after having been freed from its close attachments to the an- 
terior and upper faces of the gland complex, the loops between 


pr. and x normally lying above the bifurcation of the hermaph- 
roditic duct. The distal end of the vas deferens dilates into the 
preputium (p.) some 4.5 mm. in length, by 1.0 mm. in diam- 
eter, an eversible, muscular sack with longitudinally folded, 
inner lining of ciliated epithelium. At the bottom of this sack 
is found the very short and blunt glans penis, scarcely more 
than a rounded eminence. It appears to be entirely destitute 
of the armature of small hooks usually held to be characteristic 
of Acanthodorids in general, nor are any such hooks to be 
found lining the vas deferens. Throughout the muscular seg- 
ment of the tube it is lined with ciliated epithelium, resting 
upon a strong basement membrane, in certain regions folded 
longitudinally. The total length of the male channel is 34.5 

Close to the entrance of the short oviduct (ov. ) into the gland 
complex the slender, uterine duct (u. d.) emerges. After a 
short course of ca. two mm., it receives the slender duct of the 
spermatocyst (sp. c. ), and almost immediately opens into the 
spherical spermatotheca (spth.). The spermatocyst is of an 
elongated, pyriform shape, 2.0 mm. in length by 1.0 mm. in 
greatest diameter, and lies obliquely upon the dorsal surface of 
the complex. The thin-walled spermatotheca, 2.0 mm. in 
diameter, lies midway of the dorsal border of the anterior geni- 
tal complex, partly concealed by the spermatocyst and the 
loops of the overlying vaginal duct. The latter duct (vag. d.) 
arises from the spermatotheca very close to the entrance of the 
uterine duct, in fact appearing to be continuous with the latter. 
It rapidly increases in diameter, its walls becoming very gland- 
ular and longitudinally folded, and forms a complicated series 
of loops upon the upper, inner and anterior faces of the sper- 
matotheca, and then passes outward, dilating into the vagina 
{vag.), which opens externally immediately behind the pre- 
putium in the genital sinus. From the left turn of its most 
distal loop a rather strong retractor muscle extends diagonally 
inward and backward. The glandular and plicated walls of the 
tube are limited to the more closely coiled, proximal loops, the 
remainder and the vagina proper possessing muscular walls. 
The total length of the vaginal duct averages nearly 16 mm., 
the vagina itself is 4 mm. long, with a diameter of 0.6 mm. 



In general ground color this species resembles Ac. nanaimo- 
ensis O'Donoghue, of the Vancouver region. Through the 
kindness of Professor O'Donoghue I have had the privilege of 
studying a fine specimen of the Vancouver form, and find that 
the two are clearly distinct species. While both agree in the 
general mauve color of the mantle, and in the port-wine shade 
of the branchial tips, the dorsal papillae are white or yellowish 
in Ac. nanaimoensis, while in Ac. columbina they are brownish, 
and tipped with lemon yellow. The Californian species also 
has the lower mantle margin edged with a narrow line of lemon 
yellow, and the rhinophores are sprinkled with small flecks of 
the same color. The following tabulatiou summarizes a num- 
ber of other distinctive characteristics: 



nanaimoensis O'D. 


Rhinophore leaves 



Labial elements 

In 70-80 rows 

In 30-35 rows 

Median plate of 

0.66 mm. long by 

0.36 mm. long by 

labial armature 

0.225 mm. wide 

0.097 mm. wide 

Radula formula 



Average height first lat. 0.525 mm. 

0.324 mm. 

Average height hook 

first lateral 

0.226 mm. 

0.096 mm. 

Proportion of height 

hook to total height 

1 : 2.3 

1 :3.4 

Denticles 1st lateral 



The further dissection showed numerous specific differences, 
especially in the details of the reproductive system, but the 
above summary will suffice alone to confirm their non-identity. 

My grateful acknowledgements are due to Dr. Myrtle E. 
Johnson and Professor C. H. O'Donoghue for their kind co- 
operation, and especially to my wife for her unfailing skill and 
enthusiasm in the preparation of the figures, which illustrate 
this paper. 

the nautilus. 101 

Explanation of Plates 

Plate II 

Fig. 1. Acanthodoris hudsoni MacF. Inner face first lateral 
teeth of 7th and 8th half rows of radula. In the 
8th row the five outer laterals are also shown, x 128 

Fig. 2. Individual elements of labial armature of Ac. lutea sp. 
nov., from side and behind, x 371 

Fig. 3. Elements of labial armature of Ac. rhodoceras Cockerell 
and Eliot; a, from anterior margin in side view; b, 
from middle region from above; c, from posterior 
margin from above, x 371 

Fig. 4. Inner face of first lateral teeth of 7th and 8th half rows 
of radula of Ac. rhodoceras Cockerell & Eliot. In 
the 7th row the six outer laterals are also seen, x 

Fig. 5. Labial armature of Ac. columbina sp. nov., the two 
upper elements from above, the two lower ones from 
behind and in side view respectively, x 371 

Fig. 6. Ventral median plate of labial armature of Ac. lutea 
sp. nov. x 83 

Fig. 7. Inner face of first lateral teeth of 7th and 8th half rows 
of radula of Ac. brunnea MacF. In the eighth row 
the outer laterals are also seen, x 128 

Fig. 8. Inner face of first lateral teeth of 7th and 8th half rows 
of radula of Ac. lutea sp. nov. In the eighth row 
the outer laterals are also seen, x 128 

Fig. 9. Front view of first lateral teeth of 28th and 29th half 
rows of radula of Ac. columbina sp. nov. x 128 

Fig. 10. Inner face of first lateral teeth of 7th and 8th half rows 
of radula of Ac. columbina sp. nov. In the eighth 
row the five outer laterals are also seen, x 128 

Fig. 11. Ventral median plate of labial armature of Ac. colum- 
bina sp. nov. x 128 


Plate III 

Fig. 1. Anterior genital complex of Acanthodoris columbina 
sp. nov., as seen from above. The various parts 
are displaced only enough to show their relations. 
The glandular loops, pr. to x, of the vas deferens, v. 
d., have been freed from their attachments to the 
upper, anterior face of the complex, and are rotated 
to the left and forward; the loops of the vaginal 
duct have been similarly displaced to the right from 
their normal position above the spermatotheca and 
its ducts, x 10 

h. d., hermaphroditic duct; h. a., hermaphroditic 
ampulla; pr., prostatic portion of vas deferens, v. d., 
extending to the point x; p., the preputium; ov., the 
short oviduct, entering the fertilization chamber in 
the gland mass below; vag., the vagina, tapering 
into the vaginal duct, the last, crescentic loop, vag. 
d., of which is thickened and glandular; spth., the 
spermatotheca; u. d., the uterine duct, connecting 
the spermatotheca with the fertilization chamber; 
spc, the spermatocyst; alb. g., the small albumen 
gland, surrounded by the nidamental gland, n. g., 
the duct of which, leading to the exterior, is con- 
cealed by the preputium and vagina. 

Fig. 2. Typical spicules from mantle of Ac. columbina sp. nov. 

Fig. 3. Typical spicules from mantle of Ac. lutea sp. nov. x 

Fig. 4. Female channel of Ac. rhodoceras Cockerell & Eliot. 
vag., the vagina; v., the spherical, glandular vesicle; 
vag. d., the vaginal duct; spc, the spermatocyst; 
spth., the spermatotheca; u. d., the uterine duct, 
leading to the fertilization chamber, x 12 

Fig. 5. Salivary gland of Ac. columbina sp. nov., d., its duct, 
x 10 

Fig. 6. Anterior genital complex of Ac. lutea sp. nov., as seen 
from above, the various parts being displaced as 


little as possible. The attached loops of the vas 
deferens, v. d., have been freed from their close 
union to the complex and spread apart toward the 
left, the loop x normally lying against the anterior 
face of the mass. The loop of the vaginal duct be- 
]owvag., is reflected backward from its normal posi- 
tion across the distal part of the preputium, p. , and 
its proximal thin loop at the left is normally directed 
straight backward, the thicker, glandular loop gl 
overlying and concealing the ducts of the sperma- 
totheca and spermatocyst. x 8 

h. d., hermaphroditic duct; h. a., hermaphroditic 
ampulla; pr., prostatic portion of vas deferens, ex- 
tending to the point x, and closely bound down to 
the antero-dorsal surface of the complex by con- 
nective tissue; v. d., the free, muscular loops of the 
vas deferens, extending below the oesophagus; p., 
the preputium, the glans penis, (/., being represented 
as if seen through its muscular wall; vag. 7 the 
vagina, tapering insensibly into the vaginal duct, 
which dilates into a short glandular segment, gl., 
before entering the spermatotheca, spth. ; spc. , the 
spermatocyst; u. d., the uterine duct, entering the 
fertilization chamber near the entrance of the ovi- 
duct, ov. ; n. g., nidamental-albumen gland com- 
plex, its broad duct leading to the exterior below 
the preputium and vagina. 


Mollusca of the Arequipa Valley, Peru. — The Arequipa 
Valley, outside of the irrigated areas, is excessively arid, and I 
was not able to find any native mollusca. I could not even 
find ants in the desert. In a damp place by the railway at 
Tingo, where the common dandelion was growing, I found 
Agriolimax agrestis and an immature brownish Milax gagates. 
Dr. E. Escomel gave me specimens of Polita cellaria which he 


had found in Arequipa. They are unusually flat, approaching 
the variety complanata Jeffreys. Taylor, in his detailed account 
of the exotic distribution of these three species, fails to mention 
Peru, so they are probably now first recorded from that country. 


Reversed Snails and Reversed Human Beings. — Pseudo- 
science is not confined to the newspapers. Occasionally it 
appears in reputable scientific journals. Science News Supple- 
ment of Science for October 9, 1925, has the following amazing 
statement concerning snails: 

"A given species will twist to the right or to the left, never 
both; for a 'left-shelled' snail to occur in a 'right-shelled' 
species is as unheard of as a man with his head on backwards." 

Who has seen a man with his head on backwards ? Prob- 
ably every conchologist has seen and most of them have col- 
lected reversed snails and a considerable literature of the subject 
has grown up, including much on experimentation with re- 
versed snails. — Junius Henderson, University of Colorado. 

Ancilla musce, new name for Ancillaria elongata Gray, 1847 
(Narrative of the Surveying Voyage of H. M. S. Fly, II, Ap- 
pendix, p. 357); not Ancillaria elongata Deshayes, 1830 (Ency- 
clopedie Methodique II, p. 45). My attention having been 
called to the above duplication of names, a substitute is here 
proposed. — H. A. Pilsbry. 

Etymology of Tornatellides. — The name of this Hawaiian 
genus of Tornatellinidse was formed of the generic name Torna- 
tella and the Greek 1877s, a patronymic suffix, the same word 
that is used in the plural to form family names in -idse. It is 
not, as a friend has suggested, identical with the prior generic 
term Tornatelloides, for the latter is from Tornatella and o-etSot, 
meaning form or resemblance, likeness to. — Pilsbry. 

Mr. R. B. Stewart, of the University of California, is study- 
ing the W. M. Gabb types of California!! Eocene mollusks in 


the Academy of Natural Sciences of Philadelphia. An illus- 
trated account of them is to be published. 

Note on Ancylastrum. — I have not seen in the discussion of 
this name any reference to Bourguignat's idea of distinguishing 
the typical section of a genus subdivided into sections, by add- 
ing the suffix astrum. Thus in calling typical Ancylus (accord- 
ing to his view) Ancylastrum he did not intend to name a new 
genus but only to specify the typical section of those into which 
he divided the genus Ancylus. The suffix was applicable to the 
typical section of any subdivided genus. — W. H. Dall. 

A Note on the Name Lophochiton. — In the Proceedings of 
the Academy of Natural Sciences of Philadelphia, vol. 77, 1925, 
p. 26, the writer proposed Lophochiton as a new subgenus of the 
peculiar group Basiliochiton to contain the aberrant B. lobium 
Berry, 1925. 

Mr. Edwin Ashby has now very courteously called my atten- 
tion to the fact that in the Transactions of the Royal Society of 
South Australia, vol 47, 1923, p. 233, he had already used the 
name Lophochiton for a quite unrelated Australian group. As 
this necessitates the renaming of my subgenus, the new name 
Ploiochiton derived from the boat-shaped outline of the shell, is 
here proposed to that end. — S. S. Berry. 

Mr. Walter F. Webb informs us that he is now building up 
a private collection of shells that contains already some 15,000 
species. Mr. Webb who has bought several large private col- 
lections including that of the late Mrs. Williams has thus been 
able to secure many rare species. 

Professor Edward S. Morse. — As this issue goes to press 
we learn with sorrow of the death of Professor Morse on De- 
cember 20. 



Land and Freshwater Molluscs of the Dutch Leeward 
Islands (Occas. Papers Mus. Zool. Univ. of Michigan). By 
H. Burrington Baker. The collection discussed was made in 
the summer of 1922 in Curacao, Aruba, Bonaire and Klein 
Bonaire. After an interesting discussion of the geologic, mete- 
orologic and other environmental features, the location and 
special characteristics of each collecting station are described 
and illustrated in seven plates. In the treatment of species 
special attention is given to variation, local and in the individ- 
ual colonies, the chief forms of each species being figured. The 
discussion of Cerion uva is especially full. In this species as 
well as many others there has been a remarkable amount of 
local differentiation for areas so small. 

The salient characteristics of the fauna are thus summarized: 
" (1) There is a very high percentage of endemism [all but five 
of the 26 terrestrial species, with many subspecies being special 
to the islands]. (2) Sublittoral, limestone-loving species pre- 
ponderate. (3) Typically South American groups are com- 
pletely absent. (4) Several Antillean groups form conspicuous 
components of the total population. (2) Nevertheless, the 
closest affinities shown by any of the individual species are with 
forms from northern South America." "Two genera, Stoasto- 
mops and Cistulops, three subgenera, Bonairea, Neosubulina s. s. 
and Cerion s. s. , and a section, Tudora s. s. , are, as far as 
known, endemic to the Dutch Leeward Islands." 

While the land operculates (Pornatiasidag) and the cerions 
are the most conspicuous members of the land-snail fauna, the 
accounts of some smaller forms, such as the little-known Neo- 
subulina and Microceramus of these islands, and the new genus 
Stoastomops are welcome, being accompanied by figures of both 
shells and teeth. Numerous new species and subspecies are 
described. — H. A. P. 

The Marine Shells of the West Coast of North America. 
By Ida Shepard Oldroyd. (Stanford Univ. Publications, Geol. 
Sciences, Vol. I, 248 pp., 57 pis.). This volume covers the 


Pelecypoda with a chapter on the Brachiopoda. The plan of 
the work is to give the original description of each species, its 
range and type locality, with the location of type specimens. 
While thus mainly a compilation, the collections of the author 
have been drawn on to extend some of the distributional data, 
and have supplied specimens of many species for figuring. 
Probably to save space, the bionomic relations of species are 
not considered, though the wide field experience of the author 
would no doubt supply abundant data. Nearly 500 species and 
subspecies are described and about 275 of them illustrated. 

The genus Marcia, page 232, is evidently out of place and 
should be transferred back to page 155. The new species of 
coral figured on plate 49 might possibly cause some trouble in 
nomenclature, as the authority to be cited for the name is some- 
what questionable. 

West Coast conchologists will find this work indispensable. 
Its great merit is in making the descriptions of all the species 
accessible to the younger students, whilst heretofore a large 
library was requisite. It should be a great stimulus to West 
Coast conchology. — H. A. P. and C. W. J, 

The Fresh-water Mussel Fauna of Eastern Oklohoma. 
By F. B. Isely (Univ. of Oklohoma Bull., U. Ser., No. 322, 
1925, pp. 43-118). An exhaustive study of the distribution 
and ecology of the Unionidse of this region. 

Shell-mounds and changes in the shells composing them. 
By Edward S. Morse. The Scientific Monthly, October, 1925. 
Important evidence for evolution is afforded by these compari- 
sons of living shells with those found in the aboriginal refuse 
heaps, both in New England and Japan. " The changes in the 
shape of the shells are an important illustration of the fact that 
when you have a unit of time sufficiently long, species.change." 

Recent Mollusca, a Catalogue of the Land Shells. By 
Hugh C. Fulton, Oct., 1925, 63'pp. An up-to-date catalogue, 
according to the latest authorities and useful in arranging col- 


The arthropod parasites of mollusks, with description of 
a new dipterous parasite from Brazil. By J. Bequaeart (Jour- 
nal of Parasitology, June, 1925). The various forms which 
have been found parasitic on mollusks are reviewed, and a new 
fly which apparently in the larval stage feeds upon Bulimulas 
tenuissimus and then pupates in the shell is described. Collec- 
tors of land shells should be on the watch for their external 
parasites, as very little seems to be known of the forms of this 

Growth and age and maturity of the Pacific Razor Clam, 
Siliqua patula (Dixon). By F. W. Weymouth, H. C. Mc- 
Millin and H. B. Holmes. (Bull. Bureau of Fish, Vol. 41, pp. 
201-236, Doc. 984, 1925). An important biological paper on 
this interesting bivalve. To most conchologists it is a surprise 
to learn the economic importance of this mollusk. The can- 
nery at Cordova, Alaska, was started in 1916. In 1917 and 
1918 the output was approximately 50,000 cases; in 1924 it 
was about 43,000 cases. 

A New Species of Micromya. By Bryant Walker (Occas. 
Papers Mus. Zool., Univ. Mich., no. 163, pp. 1-6, pi. 1, 1925). 
The type locality for the species (M. ortmanni) is Green River, 
Mammoth Cave, Ky. 

Description of a New Species of Physa from the Pleisto- 
cene of Florida. By Wm. J. Clench (Occas. Papers Mus. 
Zool., Univ. Mich., no. 164, pp. 1-4, pi. 1, 1925). The species 
P. barberi is from the canal embankment, West Palm Beach, 

Illustrations of Unfigured Types of Shells in the Col- 
lection of the United States National Museum. By Wm. 
H. Dall (Proc. U. S. Nat. Mus., Vol. 66, art. 17, pp. 1-41, pis. 
1-36, 1925). Some 200 species are beautifully illustrated and 
seventeen new species described. 


The Nautilus. 

Vol. XXXIX APRIL, 1926. No. 4 



In 1924 Hanna and Gaylord 2 described as Scalez petrolia gas- 
tropod opercula that are confined to a thin layer in nonmarine 
beds lying between marine beds in the Etchegoin formation, of 
Pliocene age, penetrated by wells in the Elk Hills oil field and 
the adjoining Sunset-Midway field, at the south end of the San 
Joaquin Valley of California. These fossils, which are used to 
great advantage as guide fossils by the oil operators, will be 
described and figured in a report on the Elk Hills field now in 
preparation by the United States Geological Survey, but it 
seems desirable to put on record certain conclusions with regard 
to their generic relations. At the time when they were de- 
scribed no shells that were large enough for opercula of this size 
had been found, and Hanna and Gaylord suggested that they 
represent a chitinous-shelled or shell-less gastropod, probably of 
the family Amnicolidae, subfamily Bithyninae. 

These opercula have a " length," measured along the longest 
diameter, of 6.2 to 8.7 millimeters and a "width" of 4.5 to 7 

1 Published with the permission of the Director of the United States Geolog- 
ical Survey. 

2 Hanna, G. D., and Gaylord, E. G., Description of a new genus and species 
of freshwater mollusks (Scalez petrolia) from the Etchegoin Pliocene of Cali- 
fornia : California Acad. Sci. Proc. , ser. 4, vol. 13, pp. 147-149, 2 figs., 1924. 


millimeters. They are composed of very thin calcareous lam- 
inae that are very fragile and peel off. The exterior surface is 
concave and the interior surface is convex. The nucleus lies 
close to the columellar side and concentric lines encircle it. On 
the interior surface a narrow thickened ridge lies between the 
columellar edge and the area where the foot was attached. 

Fresh-water fossils, consisting principally of Amnicola and 
fresh-water ostracods, are the only fossils in the beds carrying 
the thin layer containing Scalez petrolia. Therefore it can be 
assumed that these opercula represent gastropods that lived in 
streams or lakes. It is apparent that the fossils are very sim- 
ilar to Viviparus opercula, despite the fact that all living species 
of Viviparus have horny opercula. The nucleus of the fossils 
lies closer to the columellar edge and the fossils are a little less 
than half as large as opercula of adult specimens of Viviparus 
living in eastern United States. No native species of Viviparus 
are now living west of the Rocky Mountains. An Eocene 
species has been described from Washington and a Miocene 
species from Nevada, but apparently the genus has not been 
discovered in late Tertiary deposits on the Pacific coast. Sev- 
eral species have been described from the late Cretaceous and 
early Tertiary deposits of the Rocky Mountain region. The 
opercula of these fossil species are not known. Scalez petrolia 
also resembles opercula of the genus Ampullaria, especially of 
the exotic species that have calcareous opercula, but the fossils 
are much smaller, thinner, and less elongate and fail to show 
the deep groove along the outer edge of the area where the foot 
was attached. The geographic distribution of Ampullaria also 
affords evidence that Scalez is not an Ampullaria-\ike mollusk, 
as it is not probable that a characteristically tropical genus lived 
in central California during Pliocene time. 

After these fossils were described Doctor Hanna discovered a 
few broken shells that seem to represent the shell of the animal, 
and I am indebted to him for a core containing several broken, 
crushed shells. They are very thin and imperforate, and are 
marked by fine, but conspicuous, growth lines. At the aper- 
ture the body whorl has a height of 8.5 to 11 millimeters, but 
all the shells are flattened and the height is a little exaggerated. 


So far as these crushed pieces go, they are very much like 
shells of a relatively small Viviparus. 

The opercula and the less satisfactory crushed shells indicate 
that these fossils, to which the rather unfortunate generic name 
Scalez was given, represent an extinct group of Viviparidae that 
had calcareous opercula, although all living representatives of 
the family have horny opercula, and no other fossil Viviparidae 
having calcareous opercula have been found. Other families, 
such as the Naticidae, Ampullariidae and Amnicolidae, em- 
brace genera with horny opercula and also genera with calcar- 
eous opercula. 

So far these opercula have been found only in cores of cut- 
tings, but it is safe to predict that they will eventually be found 
at the outcrop of nonmarine beds of Etchegoin age. Their re- 
markably limited stratigraphic range, on which their value to 
the oil operator depends, is more probably due to the absence 
of other nonmarine beds in the upper part of the Etchegoin for- 
mation in the Sunset-Midway and Elk Hills fields than to their 
actual sudden appearance and disappearance. It would not be 
surprising to find them in other wedges of nonmarine Etchegoin 


III. On the Relation of Temperature to the Rhythmical Contractions 
of the "Mantle Flaps" in Lampsilis ventricosa (Barnes) 


Ortmann (Mem. Carnegie Museum 4: 319, 1911) first de- 
scribed the rhythmical wave-like contractions of the lamellae 
and flaps of the mantle in the gravid female of Lampsilis ventri- 
cosa. His account includes a description of the position of the 
shell during the process. The animal orientates itself so that 
its anterior end is against the current, while the shell is so tilted 
that the animal almost "stands upon its head ". The "mantle 
flaps ", which are ribbon-like prolongations of the lamellar por- 
tions of the mantle, are slowly protruded as the creature opens 


its shell, and floating freely, commence to contract as described. 
Coker, Shira, Clark and Howard (Bull. Bur. Fisheries 37: 77- 
181, 1921) point out the resemblance of these mantle flaps to 
small fish, and their motion in the current further enhances this 
resemblance. Since the enlarged marsupia are situated nearby, 
they suggest that a fish darting at this tempting bait may cause 
the extrusion of the glochidia and possibly the infection of a 
host fish. Following the removal of an aquarium specimen 
from the water, the mantle flaps were immediately drawn into 
the shell, but when replaced on its side in an aquarium whose 
bottom was soft mud, I have observed that the animal turned 
over on its umbones and resumed the rhythmical contrac- 
tions within half an hour. At first the rate is quite slow as if 
the creature were "warming up" but rapid acceleration occurs 
to a maximum rate which seems to be influenced by the tem- 
perature. Apparently the animal may continue these contrac- 
tions for hours at a time, if not disturbed in any way. 

As noted by Ortmann (loc. cit. ), other members of this genus 
possess these mantle flaps, but of these species, the contractions 
of the mantle flaps seem to have been studied only in Lampsilis 
siliquoidea (Barnes) by Howard and Anson (Journ. Parasitology 
9: 70, 1922-23). These observers believe with Coker, Shira, 
Clark and Howard that these undulations are an aid to respira- 
tion as well as an attraction to predatory fish. They suggest 
that this rhythmic action may be related to the fact that these 
two species are inhabitants of lakes or lacustrine portions of 
streams where dissemination of the glochidia by current action 
would be slight. They also believe that the predaceous fish 
which are the hosts of these mussels may be attracted by the 
undulations of the mantle flaps. 

In this case, the behavior of L. siliquoidea was observed in 
running water at a temperature of 73° F. (22.8 C. ) in a cement 
aquarium. They noted "regular undulations of two rapidly 
succeeding waves lasting two seconds, each taking approxi- 
mately a second to pass from the outer ventral lobes to the eye- 
spots." This would indicate a contraction rate of from 16-20 
waves per minute, since the intervals between the undulations 
averaged 4-5 seconds. The marsupium withdrew following 


disturbance of the water and invariably before the mantle lobes 
made any response. Ortmann merely states for L. ventricosa 
that the contractions follow one another in quick succession — 
perhaps 2-3 in a second, remarking that a lively current of 
water must be produced over the protruded marsupia. 

My own observations have principally to do with the effect of 
temperature on the rate of these rhythmical contractions in L. 
ventricosa as shown in the following table. The specimen ob- 
served was kept in an cement aquarium and there was little if 
any disturbance of the water. 

Average Number of Contractions 

Temperature per Minute 

14.5° C. 63 

19° C. 108 

20.5° C. 112 

21° C. 121 

22.5° C. 128 

In the first observation, a slight disturbance of the water re- 
duced the number of contractions to 52 per minute. It was 
noted also that the marsupia did not fully protrude until a con- 
traction rate of 121 per minute was reached, an observation 
which checks that of Ortmann. No resting interval was noted 
between the contractions as was pointed out for L. siliquoidea. 

If we accept as most probable the suggestion of the observers 
cited that this device serves to attract the predatory fish which 
distribute the glochidia, we may conclude that a temperature 
which lowers or raises the rate of contractions also tends to in- 
crease or diminish the reaction time of these fish which are also 
of the same temperature as the environment. Thus the two 
kinds of animals may be kept in the relationship indicated. 
On the other hand the device, while easily conceivable as serv- 
ing such a purpose, undoubtedly also contributes to the more 
complete aeration of the crowded marsupia, the demands of the 
glochidia for oxygen rising with the temperature, hence the 
greater rate of contraction. At any rate the apparatus described 
is worthy of a fuller study from the histological and physiolog- 


ical standpoint. I am indebted to Messrs. Joseph Berwick and 
Irving Fountain for aid in making these observations. 
Dartmouth College, Hanover, N. H. 




Burrington Baker's conclusion (Nautilus, Vol. XXXIX, 
1925, 47) that " Ancylastrum does apply to the Tasmanian 
group " may be refuted by extracts from the literature without 
entry into disputatious matters as to whether the previous ex- 
ponent erred or otherwise. 

Bourguignat published in the Journ. de Conch., Vol. IV., 
1853, a paper entitled "Notice sur le genre Ancylus." This 
paper appeared in the part dated Feb. 15, 1853, beginning on 
p. 55. At p. 60 he gave a "Description du genre" in which 
the diagnosis stated "presentant un sommet mousse, obtus, ou 
aigu, plus ou moins incline a droite (ancylastrum) ou a gauche 

Thus the two sections, Ancylastrum and Velletia comprise one 
genus Ancylus. 

Then followed a "Division du genre Ancyle" and first 
Beck's division into Ancylus and Acroloxus is quoted. The 
composition of the second part is demurred to and as there was 
no definition the name was rejected. 

Gray's division into two genera is then considered and " Vel- 
letia, dont le type serait 1' Ancylus lacustris de Miiller," is re- 
marked upon thus: " Cette division est bonne . . . mais nous 
ne pensons pas que ce caractere isole soit suffisant pour auto riser 
la creation d'un genre, et nous ne conserverons 1' appellation 
Velletia qu' a titre de simple division du genre Ancylus." 

The other division was Ancylus of Gray and Beck with A. 
fluviatilis as type. 

Then the whole matter is simply explained thus: " Quant & 
nous, nous adoptons la division du genre en deux coupes. 

J By permission of the Trustees of the Australian Museum. 


l re section. S. G. Ancylastrum. 

2 e section. S. G. Velletia. 

Nous employons le mot Ancylastrum, d' accord en cela avec 
M. Moquin-Tandon, pour designer notre premier groupe, parce 
qu'il ne nous a pas paru logique de conserver le nom meme du 
genre pour en designer seulement une division: d'un autre cote, 
la nature ty pique qu'il faut reconnaitre aux especes que nous 
pretendons classer dans cette section, exigeait que le nom du 
groupe rappelat en quelque sorte 1' appellation generique. Nous 
avons done agi comme le font souvent les botanistes en pareil 
cas, et nous avons use du secours de leur terminologie, en em- 
ploy ant la desinence astrum, dont ils se servent lorsqu'ils etab- 
lissent dans un genre une subdivision dont la denomination 
doit indiquer l'origine. 

Quant a notre seconde section, nous adopt ons pour elle le 
nom propose en 1840 par M. Gray. 

It may be as well to recapitulate the above in plain English 
so that no further misunderstanding can arise. Bourguignat 
never proposed a genus Ancylastrum : he introduced the name 
for the typical section of Ancylus as understood by him, and 
typified by Ancylus fluviatilis merely to avoid using the generic 
name Ancylus for a subgenus. 

It may be added that Fischer in the Manuel de Conch., p. 
504, 1883, has displayed the facts as I have above written, thus: 

Genus Ancylus Geoffroy, 1767. Example A. fluviatilis Miiller. 

S. g. Ancylastrum Moquin-Tandon, 1853. Ex. A. fluviatilis 

S. g. Velletia Gray. Ex. A. lacustris Mull. 

Consequently Ancylastrum can not be used for the Tasman- 
ian A. cumingianus Bourguignat, and for this group I here pro- 
vide the new generic name lasmancylus, naming that species as 
type, and will more fully discuss the details in an account I am 
now preparing. 




Mr. William B. Marshall has been led by his study on the 
microscopic sculpture of the pearly fresh-water shells (Proceed- 
ings U. S. National Museum, vol. 67, art. 15, pi. 10, 1925) to 
the conclusion that the Mycetopoda falcata which Simpson erron- 
eously has considered a Solenaia, must belong to Mycetopoda, or 
an allied genus. This has been my opinion also for some time, 
for the reason given below. 

Mendranath published a paper on the anatomy of certain In- 
dian Unionidae (Rec. Indian Museum XIV, pp. 109-122, plate 
16, 1918) in which according to the Archiv f. Molluskenkunde, 
p. 48, 1922, he says that Solenaia soleniformis Benson, is allied 
to Physunio, and belongs to the letragense. Solenaia therefore 
has nothing to do with the family Mutelidx. 

The first exact data on the habitat of Mycetopoda falcata we 
owe to Dr. Fritz Haas of the Senckenburg Museum in his pub- 
lication ' ' Trabajos del Mus. Nacional de Ciencias Naturales, 
Madrid Zool. Series, No. 25, p. 57, f. 2, 1916. He there de- 
scribes Mycetopoda bolivari, n. sp., which is evidently identical 
with Mycetopoda falcata Higgins. The specimen of M. falcata 
described by Haas as M. bolivari comes from the Rio Unuyacu, 
an affluent of the Rio Napo, in Ecuador. 



Planorbis trivolvis winslowi n. var. 

Shell ultra-sinistrial, discoidal, carinate above and below; 
color brownish or greenish horn; surface dull, sculpture coarse, 
the lines of growth forming distinct, wide-spaced riblets; no 

Contribution from the Museum of Natural History, University of Illinois, 
No. 36. 


spiral sculpture; whorls about 4, high, closely wound, the body 
whorl flatly rounded; spire with the first 2£ whorls flat, the 
body whorl being concave and raised above these whorls; super- 
ior angulation very distinct and often sharp; umbilicus round 
and deep, very small, exhibiting 2J whorls, the base of the 
body whorl sharply angulated and roundly sloping into the 
umbilical region; the vertical striation cuts sharply across the 
angulated base; aperture ovate, narrowed above where it forms 
an acute angle raised above the body whorl; broadly rounded 
below and extending below the body whorl; outer lip sharp, 
with internal brown-edged callus, reflected and slightly flaring 
in some fully adult specimens; inner lip forming a thin, spread- 
ing, white callus over the parietal wall. 

Length, 13.5; diameter, 22.5, aperture length, 12.2; diameter, 
8.0 mm. Holotype. 

Length, 12.1; diameter, 21.2; aperture length, 12.2; diameter, 
7.6 mm. Paratype. 

Type locality: Little Arbor Vitae Lake, Vilas Co., Wisconsin. 

Types in Mus. Univ. Mich.; paratypes Mus. Univ. 111., 

Remarks: Winslowi is apparently a very distinct variety of 
trivolvis. It resembles pilsbryi in some respects, but is smaller, 
only about half the size of adult individuals of that variety, 
and the body whorl is sharply angulated and more flat-sided. 
It was at first thought to represent a distinct species, but the 
presence of individuals varying toward trivolvis in the type lot, 
as well as in nearby waters, indicate a relationship to this large 
planorbid. Specimens from Big Arbor Vitae Lake and from 
the Manitowish River are of this intermediate character. It 
was collected by the Michigan fish collectors Messrs. Metzelaar 
and Langlois. It is named in honor of Miss Mina L. Winslow, 
the able curator of Mollusca of the University of Michigan 
Museum, who first brought the novelty to the attention of the 

Planoebis tkivolis pilsbeyi n. var. 

Planorbis binneyi Baker, Nautilus, XXIII, p. 41, 1909; 
Trans. Wis. Acad. Sci. Arts., XVII, p. 237, 1911; Tech. Pub. 


N. Y. State Coll. For., 4, p. 277, fig. 46, nos. 17, 18, 1916; 
Op. Cit., 9, p. 175, 1918. 

Shell ultrasinistral, very high as compared with its diameter; 
whorls 4|, rather tightly coiled, the body whorl with a rather 
distinct carina above; spire flat and depressed below the level 
of the body whorl; umbilical region deep, three full turns of 
the shell visible, the umbilicus small and deep; sutures varying 
from barely marked to deeply impressed, forming a v-shaped 
trough; sculpture more regular than in typical trivolvis, the rib- 
lets more widely spaced; aperture very high, forming a sharp 
triangle above, widely expanded below, somewhat flaring, but 
not turned over as in typical trivolvis. 

Length, 15.0; diameter, 27.5; aperture length, 14.5; diameter, 
9.0 mm. Holotype. 

Length, 16.0; diameter, 26.0; aperture length, 15.5; diameter, 
9.5 mm. Paratype. 

Length, 14.0; diameter, 26.0; aperture length, 13.0; diameter, 
8.0 mm. Paratype. 

Type locality: Tomahawk Lake, Oneida Co., Wisconsin. 
Types in coll. Baker, 846; paratypes in A. N. S. Phila. 140269. 
Remarks: Mature pilsbyri differs from trivolvis in having higher 
whorls as compared with their diameter, a deeper and more 
funnel-shaped umbilicus, a longer and narrower aperture which 
is more angular above, the upper side of the body whorl (spire) 
is more sharply carinated, the spire whorls flatter and more 
regularly and deeply immersed in the coil of the body whorl, 
and the lines of growth are evenly spaced and heavier, often 
forming incipient costae. There is some variation in form, this 
being toward the trivolvis form, a variation especially noted in 
specimens from Moose Ear Creek, Barron Co., Wis. The types 
from Tomahawk Lake are very distinct and without the inter- 
mediate forms of other places would be considered a good 

The writer previously considered this large corpulent Plan- 
orbis as referable to Tryon's binneyi. A critical comparison of 
specimens of binneyi from Oregon, the t}'pe state, with the large 
Wisconsin Planorbis shows that this approximation is not cor- 
rect and that the true binneyi is a different species, having a 


heavier shell, more heavily carinated body whorl, and especi- 
ally quite different sculpture, which is coarser than in pilsbryi. 
Binneyi occupies a totally different drainage system and prob- 
ably is related rather to Planorbis amnion than to ti'ivolvis. Pils- 
bryi is distributed well over the northern part of the United 
States (and probably southern Canada) from Wisconsin to New 
York. It seems eminently fitting that this finest Planorbis in 
the northern states should be dedicated to Dr. Henry A. Pilsbry. 

Stagnicola walkeriana n. sp. 

Shell ovately globose, inflated, rather thin; periostracum pale 
horn, darker in many specimens, sometimes tinged with purple; 
surface dull to shining, lines of growth coarse and close-set, 
spiral striation well marked: apex wine-colored; whorls 5, 
rapidly increasing in diameter, inflated, tumid, body whorl 
rather bulbous; spire short, broadly conic, rather wide; nuclear 
whorls 1J in number, flattened, especially the first whorl which 
is very flat, sunken in the volution of the second whorl in the 
adult shell, and separated by a deep sutural channel; sutures 
impressed; aperture ovate or elliptical, sometimes rounded, 
occupying more than half the length of the shell, with brownish 
interior; outer lip convex, thin or thickened by a slight brown- 
edged varix; inner lip flattened, reflected over the parietal wall 
to form a rather thin callus and raised above the umbilicus 
forming a broad, flat projection partly hiding the otherwise dis- 
tinct umbilical chink; axis not much twisted, but the columella 
is slightly thickened and in many specimens the inner lip is 
appressed so as to form a rather well-marked plait, the umbil- 
ical chink varies greatly in size, the surface of the shell is often 

Length, 17.0; diameter, 11.0; aperture length, 10.5; diameter, 
6.2 mm. Holotype. 

Length, 16.5; diameter, 11.0; aperture length, 11.1; diameter, 
6.0 mm. Paratype. 

Length, 16.2; diameter, 10.0; aperture length, 10.0; diameter, 
6.7 mm. Paratype. 

Type locality: Madeline Island, near Bayfield, Bayfield Co., 
Wisconsin. Types in Mus. Univ. Wis.. No. 4695; paratypes, 
Mns. Univ. 111., No. 19437, Phil. Acad. Sci. No. 140268. 


Remarks: Walkeriana resembles both catascopium and ernar- 
ginata angulata. It is comparatively wider than catascopium, is 
(usually) umbilicated, has a shorter, broader spire and more 
tumid whorls. The columella is quite different, being broader, 
erect, and lacking the plait and twist of that species. It may 
be known from angulata by its more regularly ovate shell, more 
pointed spire, more ovate and less rounded aperture, and less 
rotund body whorl. Angulata is also larger and heavier than 
ivalkeriana. It more closely resembles emarginata ontariensis, 
which, however, has a thicker shell of a different color and 
texture, a longer, more pointed spire with flat-sided whorls, a 
more compressed body whorl, and a differently shaped inner 

A restudy of binneyi, apicina, and solida leads the writer to 
change completely the opinion given in the Monograph of the 
Lymnaeidse concerning these species. Binneyi is a river species, 
its type locality being the Hell Gate River, Montana, which is 
a tributary of the Columbia River, hence the Pacific drainage. 
All authors have confused several species with the true binneyi, 
which should be restricted to river forms conforming to the 
diagnosis and figure of Tryon in the Journ. of Conch., p. 229, 
pi. 23, fig. 3. This is different from the lake shells under con- 
sideration, which all have a short spire and a differently shaped 
aperture. The two type specimens of binneyi in the Philadel- 
phia Academy (No. 58506) are like Tryon' s description and 
are different from the shell of the Great Lakes. 

The reference of certain Michigan lake shells to apicina by 
the writer in the Lymnaea monograph is also erroneous. They 
have only a superficial resemblance to the types of the western 
form and it is now believed that solida and apicina as a synonym, 
should be restricted to the region west of the Rocky Mountains, 
the Pacific drainage. This is a river species and obviously 
would be different from a typical Great Lake species. 

The lake forms previously referred to binneyi and apicina, for 
both forms referred to these species are variants of the same 
thing, should apparently be separated from all other species of 
the lake region and they are accordingly recognized under the 
name of one of America's distinguished students of the Mol- 


lusca, Dr. Bryant Walker. The reference of these lake shells 
to another species removes an apparent anomaly in the distri- 
bution of the west coast forms to which they have been referred 
and brings them more in accord with our present knowledge 
concerning the ecological distribution of species in lakes and 


University of Manitoba 

The species noted below were collected during the years 
1923-25 in the vicinity of the boundary between the southern 
portions of the provinces of Manitoba and Ontario, Canada. 
This district is near the western border of the Canadian Zone in 
southern Manitoba, and outcrops of Pre-Cambrian rocks form 
the most striking geological feature. The area is treed prin- 
cipally by conifers. Due to irregularities of relief thousands of 
small lakes have formed. As has been pointed out by Bensley 
(2) many of the lakes of this Archean area have a high content 
of organic detritus, and often have their waters discolored by 
vegetable extracts till they resemble weak tea. The area in 
which the collecting was done lies wholly within the Hudson 
Bay drainage system. The Winnipeg River with its connecting 
waters, including the English River, the Lake of the Woods, 
and Shoal Lake, forms, when its fauna is considered, a distinct 
section of the Nelson River portion of this northern drainage. 
Very few molluscs have been collected in this district, the only 
previous records being those of Binney (3 & 4), Dall (5), Han- 
ham (6) and Mozley (8). The records of Adamstone (1), 
Robertson (10), and Whiteaves (12-15) while from closely sim- 
ilar habitats do not relate to the same drainage system. This 
list includes thirty-three species of which only four have been 
previously recorded from this area. In addition there are three 
species the precise identity of which has not been ascertained, 
but which are distinct from the others mentioned. A collection 


was made in a backwater of the Winnipeg River a short distance 
west of Minaki station, this is referred to simply as Minaki, 
Winnipeg River. The list of references is believed to contain 
all the papers pertaining to this district which have appeared 
since Dall's volume was published. Drs. Victor Sterki, Bryant 
Walker, and F. C. Baker very kindly identified many of the 
species and confirmed certain others. I am also indebted to 
Dr. C. H. O'Donoghue, and Messrs. L. B. Ciark and A. B. 
Gresham for collecting certain shells. 

Family Unionidae. 
Lasmigona complanata Barnes. 

Ontario: Minaki, Winnipeg River. Rare. The shells col- 
lected were small, dark-colored, and much eroded. Typical 
measurements are: Length, 81 mm.; height, 60mm.; depth, 
24.5 mm.; thickness, 1 mm. (maximum at periphery and 
center). It is of interest to note the extreme thinness of the 
shell in this Pre-Cambrian country where there is little avail- 
able lime. Ortmann (9, p. 136) states that this species occurs 
in the " Lake of the Woods, belonging to the upper lakes drain- 
age." The Lake of the Woods is in the Hudson Bay drainage. 

Anodonta grandis footiana Lea. 

Ont. : Minaki, Winnipeg River; Otter Lake, near Cygnet 
Rapids a few miles east of Malachi. 

Strophitus edentulus Say. 

Manitoba: Whitemouth River, near its junction with the 
Winnipeg River. 

Lampsilis superiorensis Marsh. * 

Ont. : Minaki, Winnipeg River; Pistol Lake, near Minaki; 
Fox Lake, near Wade. This species is abundant at Minaki. 

1 Dall (5, p. 125) records this species from "Hill River, Keewatin." I 
have been unable to locate this river, although there is a Hill or Hilly Lake 
with a river flowing from it, south-west of Jackpine, Ont. (C. P. E. main 
line), which was in the old District of Keewatin. 


Typical measurements from this habitat are: Length, 68 mm.; 
height, 42mm.; depth, 27 mm.; thickness (at center), 1.1 mm. 
Length, 72 mm.; height, 41 mm.; depth, 29.5 mm.; thickness 
(at center), 1.5 mm. Length, 68 mm. ; height, 41 mm. ; depth, 
26.5 mm.; thickness (at center), 1 mm. 

Family Sphaeriidae. 

Sphaerium sulcatum Lam. 

Man. : Indian Bay Station (Waugh), Falcon Bay (Shoal 

Ont. : Rainy Lake, one mile east of Wade. This lake should 
not be confused with the Rainy Lake on the International 

Sphaerium crassum Sterki. 

Man. : Indian Bay Station, Falcon Bay. 

Ont.: Minaki, Winnipeg River. Some of the specimens 
from Falcon Bay had the hinges reversed. This species has 
not been previously reported from Manitoba. Adamstone (1.) 
found it in Lake Nipigon, Ont., in the Great Lakes drainage. 

Sphaerium solidulum Prime. 

Man. : Whitemouth River, near its junction with the Winni- 
peg River. 

Sphaerium striatinum Lam. 

Man. : Whitemouth River, near its junction with the Winni- 
peg River. Sterki (11, p. 435) apparently thinks the previous 
Manitoba records for this species are not sufficiently authenti- 
cated to consider. 

Sphaerium occidentale Prime. 

Man. : Mile 69, G. W. W. D. Ry. , near the settlement known 
as Birch River. Shallow railway ditch. 

Sphaerium truncatum Lindsay. 

Ont. : Skunk Lake, one mile west of Minaki. This species 
has not been previously reported from this part of the country. 


Musculium securis Prime. 

Ont. : Alice Lake, between Minaki and Wade. 

Pisidium tenuissimum Sterki. 

Ont. : Skunk Lake, near Minaki. This species has not been 
previously reported from the Hudson Bay drainage. 

Family Pupillidae. 

Acanthinula harpa Say. 

Ont. Poplar- Birch- Jack Pine habitat, 1^ miles east of Mal- 
achi; Otter Lake, near Cygnet Rapids, between Malachi and 
Wade, pure stand of young birch. 
Strobilops affinis Pils. 

Ont. : 1J miles east of Malachi, as above; near Cygnet Rapids, 
as above. 

Family Zonitidae. 
Euconulus chersinus polygyratus Pils. 

Ont. : 1^ miles east of Malachi, as above. This species has 
not been previously recorded from Western Canada. 

Zonitoides exigua Stimpson. 

Ont. : 1\ miles east of Malachi, as above; near Cygnet Rapids, 
as above. This species has not been previously reported from 
Western Canada. 

Zonitoides arborea Say. 

Ont. : 1^ miles east of Malachi, as above. 

Polita hammonis Strom. 

Ont. : 1 J miles east of Malachi, as above; near Cygnet Rapids, 
as above. 

Family Endodontidae. 
Pyramidula cronkkitei anthonyi Pils. 

Ont. : 1^ miles east of Malachi, as above. 


Family Succineidae. 
Succinea ovalis Say. 

Man. : Mile 76|, G. W. W. D. Ry., near the settlement known 
as East Braintree. 

Ont. : Near Cygnet Rapids, as above. 

Succinea sp. 
Ont. : Near Cygnet Rapids, as above. 

Family Lymnaeidae. 
Lymnaea stagnalis appressa Say. 
Ont. : Minaki, Winnipeg River. 

Lymnaea stagnalis sanctsemarise Walker. 

Man. : Lake Brereton. This variety has not been previously 
reported from the Hudson Bay drainage. 

Lymnaea emarginata canadensis Sow. 
Ont. : Minaki, Winnipeg River, 

Lymnaea emarginata angulata Sow. 

Man. : Winnipeg River, near its junction with the White- 
mouth River. This variety is new to Manitoba. 

Lymnaea vahlii Moll.? 

Man.: Mile 69, G. W. W. D. Ry., shallow railway ditch. 

Lymnaea obrussa exigua Lea. 

Man. : Mile 69, G. W. W. D. Ry., as above. 

Lymnaea apicina Lea ? 

Ont. : English River, not far from its junction with the Win- 
nipeg River; Lost Lake, near Minaki. 

Lymnaea megasoma Say. 

Man. : Indian Bay Station, Falcon Bay. 


Family Planorbidae. 
Planorbis corpulentus Say. 

Ont. : Minaki, Winnipeg River; Sand Lake (Winnipeg River); 
White Dog, Winnipeg River; Sword Lake, near Minaki; Fox 
Lake, near Wade. Binney (4, p. 114) states that this species 
is found in the " Winnipeck River," possibly meaning the 
Winnipeg River. 

Planorbis trivolvis Say. 

Man. : Indian Bay Station, Falcon Bay. 

Planorbis campanulatus var. 

Man. : Indian Bay Station, Falcon Bay. 

Ont. : Minaka, Winnipeg River; White Dog, Winnipeg 
River; Star Lake, near Reddit; Alice and Onion Lakes, near 
Minaki; English River, near its junction with the Winnipeg 
River. These shells belong to a new variety, shortly to be de- 
scribed by Miss M. L. Winslow of the Museum of Zoology Uni- 
versity of Michigan. 

Planorbis exacuous Say. 

Ont. : Minaki, Winnipeg River. The single shell upon which 
this record is based does not appear to belong to the variety 
megas Dall. 

Planorbis parvus Say. 

Ont.: Minaki, Winnipeg River; Alice and Lost Lakes, near 
Minaki; Malachi Lake, Malachi. 

Family Physidae. 
Physa integra Hald. 

Man.: Mile 77, G. W. W. D. Ry., just below a small rapids 
on the Birch River. 

Ont. : Lost and Sword Lakes, near Minaki; Star Lake, near 

Physa gyrina Say. 

Ont. : Minaki, Winnipeg River; Sand and Onion Lakes, near 


Minaki; English River, forty miles north of Minaki; Fox Lake, 
near Wade; Otter Lake, near Malachi. 

List of References. 

1. Adamstone, F. B. 

The Distribution and Economic Importance of Molluscs 

in Lake Nipigon. 
University of Toronto Studies, No. 14, 1923. 

2. Bensley, B. A. 

The Fishes of Georgian Bay. 

Contrib. Can. Biol., 1911-4. Supplement to 47th Rept. 
Dept. Marine & Fisheries, Canada, 1915, pp. 1-51. 

3. Binney, W. G. 

Catalogue of the Land and Freshwater Univalve Mol- 
lusca. Collected in British North America by Messrs. 
Ross, Kennicott, and Drexler, and deposited in the 
Smithsonian Institution. 

Proc Acad. Sci., Phil., 1861, p. 330. 

4. Binney, W. G. 

Land and Fresh Water Shells of North America. Pt. II. 
Smithsonian Misc. Coll., No. 143, 1865. 

5. Dall, W. H. 

Land and Fresh Water Molluscs. 
Harriman Alaska Exped., Vol. XIII, 1905. 

6. Hanham, A. W. 

A List of the Land and Fresh Water Shells of Manitoba. 
Nautilus, Vol. XIII, 1899, pp. 1-6. 

7. Latchford, F. R. 

Conchological Notes. 

Ottawa Nat., XXIX, 1915, pp. 51-52. 

8. Mozley, Alan. 

Segmentina crassilabris Walker in Manitoba. 
Can. Field Nat., Vol. XXXIX, 1925, p. 85. 

9. Ortmann, A. E. 

A Monograph of the Naiades of Pennsylvania. 
Mem. Carnegie Mus., Vol. VIII, No. 1, 1919. 

10. Robertson, A. D. 

The Mollusca of Georgian Bay. 

Contrib. Can. Biol., 1911-4. Supplement to 47th Rept. 
Dept. Marine and Fisheries, Canada, 1915, pp. 95-111. 

11. Sterki, Victor. 

A Preliminary Catalogue of the North American Sphae- 

Annals Carnegie Mus., Vol. X, Nos. 3 & 4, 1916. 


12. Whiteaves, J. F. 

Notes on some Fresh-water Shells from the Yukon Ter- 
Ottawa Nat., Vol. XIX, 1905, pp. 63-65. 
Certain records from Keewatin are also given. 

13. Whiteaves, J. F. 

Some new localities for Canadian Land and Fresh Water 

Ottawa Nat., Vol. XIX, 1905, pp. 169-171. 

14. Whiteaves, J. F. 

List of Land and Fresh Water Shells from the District 

of Keewatin. 
Rept. Geol. Survey Canada, 1905, p. 6. 

15. Whiteaves, J. F. 

List of some Fresh Water Shells from Northwestern On- 
tario and Keewatin. 
Ottawa Nat., Vol. XX, 1906, pp. 31-32. 



In the summer of 1908 the schooner Lorna Doone belonging 
to Dr. Wilfred T. Grenfell was chartered by a party including 
Mr. Owen Bryant and his brothers Dr. John Bryant and Mr. 
Edward S. Bryant. The vessel went as far north as the south- 
ern end of Cape Chidley Island. The most northern points at 
which Mr. Bryant collected were Mettek Island near Eclipse 
Harbor and Kowaktorvik Bay, north of Nachvak. In regard 
to collecting Mr. Bryant says: "I started out with the idea of 
collecting on land and had no intention of doing any dredging. 
On the way to St. John's the vessel happened to be drifting 
over part of the Grand Banks in about 50 fathoms of water, I 
collected a number of pelagic animals by using a butterfly net 
as a tow net. This gave me the idea of making use of any 
future opportunities by dredging. At St. Johns I had a black- 
smith make me a dredge frame, had some netting sewed together 
to form a bag and bought 200 fathoms of rope, about one-half 
inch in diameter. The dredge often came in very hard, but we 


had lots of man power on board; occasionally there were as 
many as fourteen men pulling on the rope, and by swaying we 
could get in only about four inches at a time, so you see we 
had plenty of exercise. Sometimes the vessel was being carried 
south by the Labrador current although we were sailing north 
in a very light breeze, and we had to pull the vessel ahead in 
order to get to the dredge. The dredge was practically always 
filled, and all the sand was washed through a sieve and every 
specimen I could see was saved from each haul." 

I have added to this list the species collected by Mr. Bryant 
in Newfoundland in 1905 and 1906, part of this time being 
spent with Dr. Grenfell at St. Anthony. The following list of 
localities and stations where collecting was done, was given in 
full, as they are somewhat abbreviated in the list of species. 
Mr. Bryant presented the collection to the Boston Society of 
Natural History. 

The bibliography bearing on the fauna of this region is quite 
extensive and that pertaining to the Mollusca is given by J. F. 
Whiteaves: Catalogue of the Marine Invertebrata of Eastern Can- 
ada, in Geol. Survey of Canada, 1901. Packard's The Labrador 
Coast, 1891, also contains an extensive bibliography and a list 
of the mollusks. Labrador, The Country and the People, by Wil- 
fred T. Grenfell and others, contains a short article bearing on 
the mollusks collected by Mr. Bryant, which are here treated 
in detail. 

List of localities: Labrador 

Mettek Island, near Eclipse Harbor, Sept. 5. 

Kowaktorvik Bay, north of Nachvak, 5 fathoms, rocky, 
Aug. 28. 

Outside of Hebron, 60 fathoms, gravel, Aug. 25. 

Of! Hebron, 60 fathoms, mud and sand, Aug. 25. 

Off Hebron, 100 fathoms, mud, Aug. 25. 

Off Fish Island, Hebron, 75 fathoms, Aug. 25. 

Outside of Fish Island, Hebron, 80 fathoms, gravel, Aug. 25. 

Halfway between Cape Mugford and Hebron, 60 fathoms, 
mud and sand, Aug. 23. 

Port Manvers, 30 fathoms, sticky mud, Aug. 

Twenty miles N. E. of Nain, Aug. 20. 

Nain, 7 fathoms, mud, Aug. 18. 



Shoal Tickle, 20 miles S. E. of Nain, 25 fathoms, Aug. 15. 

Off Beachy Island, 80 fathoms, soft mud, Aug. 22. 

Egg Harbor, 7 fathoms, mud, Aug. 6. 

Off Egg Harbor, 20 fathoms, mud, Aug. 10. 

Indian Harbor, Aug. 12. 

Gready Harbor, 12-15 fathoms, rocky, Aug. 8. 

"Cock Capelin," Gready Harbor, Aug. 8. 

Bateau, Aug. 1. 

One mile N. of Battle Harbor, 50 fathoms, fine sand, Sept. 14. 

Off Cape Harrison, tow net, Aug. 13. 


Cape Norman, May 1, 1906. 

Brehat Bay. 

St. Anthony, 2 fathoms, May 4, 14 and June 1, 1906. 

Hare Bay, Jan. 20, 1906. 

Conche, tide pools, Apr. 20 and May 17, 1906. 

Pilley's Island, Dec. 11, 1905. 

Port Saunders and Hawks Bay, July 12 and Aug. 1, 1906. 

Seldom Come Bay, Fogo Island, July 28, and 29, 1908. 

Funk Island, July 2, 1906. 

Mouth of Serpentine River, July 1, 1905. 

Off St. Lawrence Harbor, Placentia Bay, 59 and 53 fathoms, 
rocky, Sept. 29. 

S. by E. of Burin, Placentia Bay, 100 to 110 fathoms, rocky, 
Sept. 28. 

Off Cape Race, 30 fathoms, Sept, 26, 1908. 

St. Pierre 
St. Pierre Harbor, 5 fathoms, rocky, Oct. 1, 1908. 
St. Pierre Bank, 30 fathoms, rocky, Oct. 2, 1908. 
Off Crew Point, 17 fathoms, rocky, Sept. 29, 1908. 

Nova Scotia 

75 miles W. N. W. of Sable Island, 75 fathoms, fine sand, 
Oct. 5, 1908. 

Roseway Bank, E. of Cape Sable, 45 fathoms, gravel, Oct. 6. 

75 miles E. of Cape Sable, 105 fathoms, mud, Oct. 6. 

55 miles E. of Cape Sable, 85 fathoms, mud, Oct. 6. 

14 miles S. of Cape Sable, 45 fathoms, rocky, Oct. 7. 

20 miles E. S. E. of Cape Sable, 70 fathoms, fine sand, Oct. 7. 

About 40 miles W. by S. of Cape Sable, 76 fathoms, black 
gravel, Oct. 8. 

About 49 miles W. by S. of Cape Sable, 110 fathoms, gravel, 
Oct. 8. 

Browns Bank off Cape Sable. 40 fathoms, rocky, Oct. 8. 



Dentalium entails stimpsoni Henderson. U. S. — S. of C. Sable, 
76 f.; 43 miles W. by S. of C. Sable, 110 1; Browns Bk., 40 f. 

D. agile M. Sars. U. S.— 55 miles E. of C. Sable, 85 f.; 75 
miles E. of C. Sable, 105 f. 


Acmasa testudinalis (Mull.). Lab. — Egg Hbr., 7 f . ; Gready 
Hbr., 12 f. ; Buteau. N. F.— St. Anthony, 2 f. on Pecten 
grandis ; Seldome Come Bay; Serpentine R. 

A. rubella (Fab.). Lab. — Gready Hbr., 12 f. 

Lepeta cseca (Mull). Lab. — Off Hebron, 60 1; off Fish I., 
801; between C. Mugford and Hebron, 60 f. ; off Egg Hbr., 
20 f. Large Hemithyris psittacea Gmel. were taken at the latter 
Sta. N. F. — Off C. Race, 30 f. H. psittacea were also dredged 
at this Sta.; S. by E. of Burin, 110 f. N. S.— Browns Bk., 
40 1 

Pvncturella princeps (Migh. & Ads.). Lab. — Egg Hbr., 7 1; 
Shoal Tickle. St. Pierre, 5 1 ; N. S.— S. W. of C. Sable, 40 1 

Margarites helicina (Phipps). Lab. — Komaktorvik Bay, 5 f. ; 
20 miles N. E. of Nain; Gready Hbr., 14 1 N. F.— Conche. 

M. umbilicalis var. spiralis Baker. Lab. — Komaktorvik Bay, 
5 1; off Fish I., 75 1 

M. olivacea Brown. Lab. — Between C. Mugford and Hebron, 
60 f. Specimens vary in size from 4 to 9 mm. approaching the 
var. gigantea Leche; off Beachy I., 80 f . ; Egg Hbr., 7 f . ; 
Gready Hbr., 12 1 

M. groenlandica Gmel. Lab. — Nain, 7 1; Egg Hbr., 7 1; 
Gready Hbr., 12 1 N. F. — St. Anthony, 2 1 on Pecten grandis 

M. groenlandica var. incarnata Couth. N. S. — Browns Bk. 
40 1 S. W. of C. Sable, 40 1 

M. cinerea Couth. Lab. — Off Hebron, 60 1; between C. 
Mugford and Hebron, 60 1; Nain, 7 1; Shoal Tickle; Egg 
Hbr., 7 to 20 1; Gready Hbr., 12 1 N. F.— St. Lawrence 
Hbr., 50 1 

M. cinerea var. maxima. Lab. — Off Fish I., 75 1 

Solariella varicosa Migh. & Ads. Lab. — Between C. Mugford 
and Hebron, 60 1; Shoal Tickle; off Egg Hbr., 7 to 20 1; 
Gready Hbr., 15 1 N. of Battle Hbr. 50 1 N. F.— Off St. 
Lawrence Hbr., 50 1 N. S.— 20 miles E. S. E. of C. Sable, 
70 1 

S. varicosa var. bella Verk. N. S. — 20 miles E. S. E. of C. 
Sable, 70 1 

Calliostoma occidentalis Beck. N. S. — 40 miles W. by S. of 
C. Sable, 76 1 


Couthouyella striatula (Couth). N. S. — 43 miles W. by S. of 
C. Sable, 110 f. 

Odostomia (Amaura) Candida (Moll). Lab. — Between C. 
Mugford and Hebron, 60 f . ; Egg Hbr., 7 f. 

Epitonium greenlandicum (Perry), N. S. — 14 miles S. of C. 
Sable, 45 f. ; S. W. of C. Sable, 40 f. ; 43 miles W. by S. of C. 
Sable, 110 f.; Browns Bk., 40 f. 

Natica clausa B. & S. Lab. — Port Manvers, 30 f. ; off Beachy 
I., 80 f. N. F.— Off St. Lawrence Hbr., 50 f. N. S.— Browns 
Bk., 40 1; 20 miles E. S. E. of C. Sable, 76 f . ; 14 miles S. of 
C. Sable, 45 f. Terebratulina septentrionalis were abundant at 
this station, many being of a bright pink color. 

Polinices heros (Say). N. F.— S. by E. of Burin, 100 f. 

P. groenlandica Moll. N. S.— 20 miles E. S. E. of C. Sable, 
70 f. ; 55 miles E. of C. Sable, 85 f. 

P. immaculata Totten. N. S. — 43 miles W. by S. of C. Sable, 
110 f. 

Amauropsis islandica Gmel. jur. Lab. — Off Beachy I., 80 f. 

Vehitina laevigata (Linne). Lab. — Shoal Tickle. N. S. — 14 
miles S. of C. Sable, 45 f. ; 40 miles W. by S. of C. Sable, 76 f. ; 
Browns Bk., 40 f. 

V. undata Brown. Lab. — Between C. Mugford and Hebron, 
60 f. 

Marsenina glabra (Couth). Lab. — Shoal Tickle. N. S. — 14 
miles S. of C. Sable, 45 f. ; S. W. of C. Sable, 40 f. ; Browns 
Bk., 40 f. 

Qlngula areolata Stimp. N. S. — Browns Bk., 40 f. 

C. carinata Migh. & Ads. N. S. — 75 miles E. of C. Sable, 
105 f. 

C. castanea Moll. Lab. — 20 miles N. E. of Nain; Shoal 
Tickle, 25 f. N. S.— Browns Bk., 40 f. 

0. jan-mayeni Friele. N. S. — 20 miles E. S. E. of C. Sable, 
70 f. 

Cingula bryanti, n. sp. nov. Shell dark reddish brown, nar- 
rowly umbilicated, whorls about five, apical and following whorl 
smooth, the others with two prominent spiral ridges, crossed by 
less prominent longitudinal costae, that form slight nodes at 
their junction with the revolving ridges, body whorl with three 
smaller spiral ridges below the two prominent peripheral ridges. 
The longitudinal costae conspicuous above the peripheral ridges, 
between them obsolete, but both ridges slightly nodose. Height 
2.5, width 1.5 mm. 

Two specimens, 15 fms. off St. Lawrence Harbor, Newfound- 
land, and one specimen 25 fms. Shoal Tickle, 20 miles S. E. of 
Nain, Labrador. 


This species resembles in form the figure of Alvania zetlandica, 
Sars "Moll. Regionis Arcticae Norvegiae," Tab. 10, fig. 7, but 
with less prominent longitudinal costae. It also resembbs C. 
jan-mayeni, but that is a larger and broader species, with only 
two sculptered whorls. 

Onoba aculeus Gould. St. Pierre, 5 f. 

Litorina littorea (Linne). N. F. — C. Narman, very large, 
some measuring 40 mm. ; Hawkes Bay; Serpentine R. ; Conche, 
tide pools; Seldome Come Bay; Pilley's I. 

L. pallatia Say. N. F. — C. Norman; Seldome Come Bay; 
Pilley I. 

L. rudis. Lab. — Nain, tide water; Indian Hbr. N. F. — 
Port Saunders; Funk I.; Pilley's I.: Conche, tide pools. 

Lacuna vincta (Montg. ). Lab. — Komatorvik Bay, 5 f. ; Egg 
Hbr. 7 f. ; Bateau. N. F. — Conche; Seldome Come Bay. St. 
Pierre. — 5 f. ; off Crew Point, 17 f. 

Tachyrhynchus reticularis (Migh. & Ads.). Lab. — Off Fish 
I., 80 1; Shoal Tickle, 25 f. ; Gready Hbr. 12 f . ; off Hebron 
60 f. N. F.— Off C. Race, 30 1; S. by E. of Burin, 110 f. 
St. Pierre.— 5 f. N. S.— Browna Bk. 40 f.; 14 miles S. of C. 
Sable, 45 f. 

T. erosa Couth. Lab. — Komaktorvik Bav, 5 f. ; off Hebron, 
100 f.; off Fish I., 75 1; between C. Mugford and Hebron, 60 
f.; Port Manvers, 30 f . ; Shoal Tickle, 25 f . ; Egg Hbr., 7 f.; off 
Beachy I., 80 f . ; 1 mile N. of Battle Hbr., 50 f. N. S.— 20 
miles E. S. E. of C. Sable, 70 f . ; 43 miles W. by S. of C. Sable, 
110 f.; 40 miles W. by S. of C. Sable, 75 f . ; 55 miles E. of C. 
Sable, 85 f. ; 75 miles E. of C. Sable, 105 f. 

Turritellopsis acicula Stimp. Lab. — Egg Hbr., 7 f. N. S. — 
S. W. of C. Sable, 40 f. ; 43 miles W. by S. of C. Sable, 110 f.; 
Browns Bk., 40 f. 

Trichotropis borealis B. & S. Lab. — Between C. Mugford and 
Hebron, 60 f . ; Shoal Tickle, 25 f. ; off Egg Hbr., 7 and 20 f. 
N. S.— S. W. of C. Sable, 40 f. 

Aporrhais occidentals Beck. Lab. — Off Hebron, 60 f. ; Egg 
Hbr., 7 and 20 f.; "Cock capelin," Gready Hbr. N. F.— Off 
St. Lawrence Hbr., 50 and 53 f. ; S. by E. of Burin, 110 f. 

Aporrhais occidentalis mainensis, n. var. 

The specimens from the Gulf of Maine and Bay of Fundy 
differ from the typical form from the Gulf of St. Lawrence 
northward, in having fewer and more elevated longitudinal 
costae. The type calls for 25 costae, while those from the Gulf 
of Maine have only 14 on the penultimate whorl, the number 
being quite constant, while those from Labrador have from 22 
to 25 costae. In the Gulf of Maine specimen the costae in the 
young end abruptly at the periphery and the peripheral line is 


noticable on the entire body whorl to the tip of the wing-like 
lip, there is also a slight sub-peripheral line; both of these are 
obsolete or wanting in the more northern specimens. The 
variety is based chiefly on a large series dredged by Dr. C. W. 
Townsend in from 5 to 6 fms. near the Gillpatrick Ledge off 
Northeast Harbor, Maine. The figure by Gould represents this 
variety. It was found by Mr. Bryant 20 miles E. S. E. of Cape 
Sable, N. S., in 70 fms. 

Trophon clathratus (Linne). Lab. — Shoal Tickle, 25 f. ; off 
Egg Hbr., 7 f. N. F.— S. by E. of Burin, 100 f. N. S.— 55 
miles E. of C. Sable, 85 f. 

T. clathratus var. gunneri Loven). N. S. — Browns Bk. , 40 f. 

T. scalartformis Gould. Lab. — Shoal Tickle, 25 f . ; off 
Beachy I., 80 f. Confused with T. clathratus but distinguished 
by its sharp elevated ribs with fine spiral lines in the interstices. 

T. truncatus (Strom). Lab. — Shoal Tickle. 25 f . ; Gready L, 
12 f. N. S.— S. W. of C. Sable, 40 f. 

Thais lapillus (Linne). N. F. — C. Norman, in earth above 
high water; Seldome Come Bay; mouth of Serpentine R. 

Astyris rosacea (Gould). N. S. — Browns Bk., 40 f. ; S. W. of 
C. Sable, 40 f . ; 14 miles S. of C. Sable, 45 f. 

A. holbollii (Moll.). Lab.— Shoal Tickle, 25 f. Distin- 
guished from A. rosacea by its narrower form and prominent 
transverse ribs. 

Alectrion (Tritia) trivittata (Say). St. Pieere. — 5 f. 
Buccinum cyaneum Brug. Lab. — Indian Hbr. N. F. — St. 
Anthony; Conche, tide pools. 

B. donovani Gray. Lab. — Off Hebron, 60 f . ; between C. 
Mugford and Hebron, 60 1; Nain, 7 f . ; Shoal Tickle, 25 ft.; 
Egg Hbr., 7 ft.; off Egg Hbr., 20ft.; Gready Hbr., 12 f. N. 
F.— S. by E. of Burin, 110 f. 

B. groenlandicum Morch. Lab. — Batween C. Mugford and 
Hebron, 60 f. 

B. humphreysianuvi Bennett. Lab. — Between C. Mugford 
and Hebron, 60 f. 

B. tenue Gray. N. S.— 20 miles E. S. E. of C. Sable, 70 f. 

B. tottenis Stimp. Lab. — Between C. Mugford and Hebron, 
60 f. N. F.— Off St. Lawrence, 50 f. ; S. by E. of Burin, 100 f. 

B. undatum Linne. Lab. — Mettek I.; off Hebron, 60 f . ; be- 
tween C. Mugford and Hebron, 60 f. ; Nain, 7 ft. ; Egg Harbor, 
20 f. ; off Beach L, 80 f. ; Bateau, Gready Hbr., 12 f. N. F.— 
C. Norman, St. Anthony. Conche. St. Pierre — 5 f. (scal- 
ariform). N. S.— 14 miles S. of C. Sable, 45, and 45 W. by 
S. of Cape Sable, 110 f. 

B. undatum var. striatum Penn. Lab. — Off Hebron, 60 f . ; off 
Fish I., 80 f.; Indian Hbr. 


Plicifusus kroyeri (Moll.) (Buccinum cretaceum Reeve). Lab. 
—Off Egg Hbr., 20 f. 

Beringius largillierti Petit. N. F.— Off St. Lawrence Hbr., 
50 f. 

Chrysodomus despectus var. tornatus (Gld.). Lab. — Off Fish 
I., 80 f.; between C. Mugford and Hebron, 60 f. N. F.— Off 
St. Lawrence Hbr. , 50 f . 

C. decemcostatus (Say). N. S. — Browns Bk., 40 f. ; 20 miles 
E. S. E. of C. Sable, 70 f. 

Colus islandicus (Linne). Lab.— Off Fish I., 75 1; off 
Beachy L, 80 f. 

C. stimpsonii (Morch). N. S.— Browns Bk., 40 f. 
( To be continued. ) 


In the death of Professor Edward S. Morse, which occurred 
December 20, 1925, the world has lost a great naturalist. He 
was born in Portland, Maine, June 18. 1838, and from child- 
hood was a close observer of nature. At the age of 13 he had 
made a noteworthy collection of shells, and in 1857, at the age 
of 19, he published his first paper, "Description of a new 
species of Helix" [asteriscus] , Proc. Boston Soc. Nat. Hist., 
vol. 6, p. 138. In 1859, in the same publication, he described 
H. milium. In 1859 he became one of Professor Louis Agas- 
siz's special students at the Museum of Comparative Zoology, 
where he continued his studies until 1862. In 1864 he pub- 
lished his "Observations on the Terrestrial Pulmonifera of 
Maine" (Jour. Portland Soc. Nat. Hist., vol. 1). Professor 
Morse made the remark one day that what induced him to 
make a study of the small land shells was a frequent statement 
of Prof. Agassiz: that you will not find a very small and a large 
species in the same genus. In this memorable paper careful 
anatomical studies of these minute mollusks proved this to be 
true, and led him to propose seven new genera for species pre- 
viously referred to the genus Helix. His remarkable ability as 
an artist, which was early exhibited, enabled him to show the 
radulse, jaws and other features illustrating these genera in a 
clear and most instructive manner. 


In 1865 Professor Morse described several new species of 
Pupidae (Ann. Lye. Nat. Nist., N. Y., vol. 3, pp. 1-6) and in 
1868 he became interested in founding the "American Natural- 
ist," in vol. 1 of which appeared an interesting illustrated paper 
by him on the "Land Shells of New England." About this 
time he made the beautiful drawings that illustrated the Binney 
edition of Gould's " Invertebrata of Massachusetts." 

Aside from Mollusca, Professor Morse was greatly interested 
in the Brachiopoda and was one of the first to prove that they 
were not Mollusca but belonged to the class Vermes. In his 
papers, " Early stages of Terebratulina septentrionalis " (1871), 
"Embryology of Terebratulina" (1873) and " Observations on 
Living Brachiopoda" (1902), the plates show some of his 
wonderful work as an artist. Ambidextrous, he could use 
either hand with equal skill, and could also draw with both 
hands simultaneously. In lecturing, his skill with a piece of 
chalk was marvelous. From memory, in an instant, with a few 
lines, he could draw the shell or object of which he was speak- 
ing, frequently drawing both sides at the same time, and occa- 
sionally, to the delight of his audience, he drew an animal by 
starting at the head with one hand and at the tail with the 

In 1871 he became professor of comparative anatomy and 
zoology at Bowdoin College, remaining until 1874; he also gave 
a series of lectures at Harvard. 

In 1875 appeared a most admirable text book for beginners, 
"First Book of Zoology," which the present-day teachers in 
"nature study" would do well to pattern after. In 1876 Pro- 
fessor Morse was elected a member of the National Academy of 
Sciences and the following year received the appointment of 
professor of zoology at the University of Tokyo, which he filled 
with great success, returning to America in 1880. While in 
Japan Professor Morse became greatly interested in the people, 
and in 1886 published "Japanese Homes and their Surround- 
ings." His diary, kept at the time he was there, and published 
under the title " Day by Day in Japan," is a most interesting 
work and greatly appreciated by the Japanese themselves as 
showing the changes that have taken place in the country since 


that time. Professor Morse also became intensely interested in 
the pottery of Japan and made a remarkable collection which 
he described and figured in a beautiful folio catalogue. The 
collection is now in the Boston Museum of Fine Arts. In 1898 
the Emperor of Japan conferred on him the Order of the Rising- 
Sun, he being the first American to receive that honor. 

After his return from Japan Professor Morse became director 
of the Peabody Museum, Salem, Mass., building up a very in- 
teresting and attractive museum, with a most artistic and in- 
structive oriental exhibit. He was elected president of the 
American Association for the Advancement of Science in 1886, 
American Association of Museums in 1911 and Boston Society 
of Natural History, 1915-1919. 

In the later years of his life he wrote many papers bearing on 
New England Mollusca which were mostly published in the 
Proceedings of the Boston Society of Natural History and The 
Nautilus. His last paper — "Shell-mounds and changes in the 
shells composing them," appeared in Scientific Monthly, vol. 
31, p. 429-440, Oct., 1925. In all, Professor Morse published 
about 40 papers pertaining to Mollusca and 10 on the Brach- 

On March 14, 1910, the Boston Malacological Club was or- 
ganized and Professor Morse was chosen its first president. He 
always took a great interest and pride in the little club and for 
years attended quite regularly, giving at least one paper a year, 
his last paper in the fall of 1924. 

Professor Morse leaves a son, Mr. John C. Morse, a daughter, 
Mrs. Russel Robb and four grandchildren. 

In closing I cannot do better than quote a paragraph taken 
from an article by Dr. Wm. H. Dall in Science, Feb. 5, 1926, 
which expresses so well Professor Morse's personality: "The 
salient characteristic of Professor Morse, apart from his devo- 
tion to science and love of the beautiful in art, was his boyish 
enthusiasm which captivated all who knew him. The versatil- 
ity of his interests was unbounded, his love of fun overflowed 
at every opportunity; to meet him was to find a welcome. The 
world was brighter for his presence." — C. W. Johnson. 



William Martin Beauchamp was born at Coldenham, Orange 
County, New York, on March 25, 1830, the son of William 
Millett Beauchamp and Mary Jay Beauchamp. He died on 
December 13, 1925. The Beauchamp' s came to this country 
from Somerset, England, in 1829. Their name of French origin 
had long been verbally anglicized — as its pronunciation " Bee- 
cham " bears witness. 

The family moved to Skaneateles, New York, in 1831, when 
the younger William was slightly more than a year old. The 
father founded a local paper, the " Democrat," and maintained 
a circulating library as a private enterprise. It is not unlikely 
that easy access to many books as well as early contact with the 
printing business helped to shape the literary bent of the son. 
On the other hand, a stimulating environment, dominated by 
one of the most beautiful of the Finger Lakes, may well have 
contributed in no small degree to his love of nature. 

William Beauchamp, as he was known to his contemporaries, 
received his early education at the Skaneateles Academy which 
he attended up to 1847. One may suspect, however, that those 
qualities which later bore fruit in scientific attainment were 
nurtured by lake, field and wood rather than by the formal 
secondary instruction of that period. For a number of years 
the young man was associated with his father in the publication 
of the "Democrat," but later he decided upon the ministry as 
a career, studying in the Delancey Divinity School at Hobart 
College. Made a deacon in 1862, he was ordained a priest of 
the Protestant Episcopal Church in 1863. From the rectorship 
of Calvary Church, Northville, New York, he went in 1865 to 
Grace Church at Baldwins ville, New York, remaining there 
until 1900. From 1900 he made his home in Syracuse. The 
greater part of his long life was therefore spent in Onondaga 
County of his native State. 

Two institutions in central New York have signally recognized 
Doctor Beauchamp' s activities. In 1886 Hobart conferred upon 
him the degree of S. T. D., while Syracuse University made 


him an LL. D. in 1920. If one will consult the 1921 edition 
of "American Men of Science," these activities will be found 
to range from American history and local Colonial history 
through Iroquois language and folk-lore to archeology and 
the natural sciences! 

Doctor Beauchamp has long been recognized, nationally and 
internationally, as an authority on the language, history and 
culture of the Iroquois. To readers of Nautilus he is perhaps 
best known for his "Land and Fresh Water Shells of Onon- 
daga County, with a Supplemental List of New York Species." 
His interest in zoology, however, was not limited to work 
which reached the publication stage. His daughter, Grace 
Beauchamp Lodder (Mrs. J. S. Lodder), states that he has left 
manuscript notes on mollusks and on fishes. 

Doctor Beauchamp reached a wide circle by his writings and 
his position as author and scientist is secure. To those who 
knew him personally, it is probably safe to say that Beauchamp 
the man made the strongest impress. 

Short and wiry, with keen eyes and white beard, Beauchamp 
in clerical dress was a familiar figure at many scientific gather- 
ings and natural history field excursions. With a wealth of 
anecdote, interesting or amusing, Beauchamp never lacked for 
hearers on such occasions. He seldom talked for long without 
a smile and a contagious geniality attracted men of the most 
diverse temperaments. 

But Beauchamp' s remarkable qualities were not confined to 
those of the heart and mind. He retained astounding physical 
activity in a ripe old age. The writer well remembers seeing 
Doctor Beauchamp at 75 climb a mean talus slope with the 
utmost agility. Behind him stumbled and puffed a group of 
undergraduates from one of our famous New England universi- 

Beauchamp made the most of his environment. While 
others went far afield he stayed with his county's rocks, plants 
and shells. The written record of its white men was of interest, 
but probably the strongest incentive to research came from its 
aborigines. His investigations covered a wide range in history 
and in science and were largely carried on during a period when 


he filled a responsible position as minister of the gospel. In 
old age a genial enthusiasm kept him young mentally and 
physically well into his 96th year. — Burnett Smith. 


One by one the older wiseheads pass away and we of the 
younger school, while we miss their valued advice, must realize 
we are growing older, and must take their place without their 

Tasmanian conchology without W. L. May appears incom- 
prehensible, as for the last thirty years he has been sole arbiter. 
Gifted with clear judgment, a great collector, well read and me- 
thodical, his advice was ever sound ; in addition he was a clever 
draughtsman and his "Illustrated Index" is a monument of 
real value. 

Twenty-five years ago a ' ' Revised Census of Tasmanian 
Shells" was issued under the names of Tate and May. The 
latter provided the majority of the material and the illustra- 
tions, while the former prepared the more technical matter. 
While this was passing through the press, Tate died, and since 
then May has continued the work alone. He was fortunately 
spared to complete his task, and in 1921 appeared the "Check 
List of the Shells of Tasmania," and in 1923 followed the 
"Illustrated Index," figuring every Tasmanian shell, the 
whole of the figures, over 1000 in number, being drawn by 
himself. This is the only complete illustrated account of the 
Mollusca of any State of Australia, and is being utilized daily 
in all the southern parts of Australia. 

May was only sixty-four years of age and was taken seriously 
ill in the beginning of 1925 but recovered sufficiently to take a 
sea voyage through the islands. Passing through Sydney we 
proposed to monograph the Australian Marginellids, a group 
May was especially interested in. However the sea voyage 
came too late, and May only arrived back in Sydney on his 
death bed, passing away in this city on Aug. 30, 1925. 

A member of the Society of Friends, May was very quiet, 
but never allowed his judgment to be influenced by anything 


but facts, and consequently never made any enemies in any 
sense, being literally esteemed by every one who met him. — 
Tom Iredale, Australian Museum, Sydney. 


The following lines were suggested by a paper read by Mr. J. 
Henry Blake at the meeting of the Boston Malacological Club, 
October 6, 1925. They may possibly aid in calling the atten- 
tion of many to the habits of this most interesting mollusk as 
described by Dr. Jobs. Schmidt (Nature, vol. 110, p. 788, 
Dec. 9, 1922). Offered with apologies to the Dana Expedition. 

The chambered shells of the Spirilla, 

As they float upon the sea, 
Are cast on a thousand beaches 

For any one to see; 
But the animal that made this shell 

Was long a mystery. 

Linne" called it Nautili spirula 

Which was not a very bad guess. 
Lamarck called it Spirula peroni 

(Though he'd first named it fragilis); 
And thus quite early was started 

A nomenclatorial mess. 

Some said with that disk-like sucker 

Attached it must surely grow, 
While the rudimentary fins would prove 

As a swimmer it must have been slow; 
Then the chromatophores would indicate 

That it lived in the mud, you know. 

'T was the Dana Expedition 

That discovered Spirula' s home 
Far above the oozy bottom 

And below the great waves' comb; 
For bathypelagic is the Spirula 

And there's where it loves to roam. 

It only lives in the warmer seas, 

At more than a thousand feet, 
Suspended head down in the water 

A position hard to beat — 
Though doubtless it is its chambered shell 

That aids it in this feat. 


And now they say that the " sucking disk" 

Is really a lamp instead, 
And perhaps its lighter color is due 

To its standing on its head; 
But, alas! poor little Spirula 

Can't rest in the ocean's bed. 

— C. W. Johnson. 


Tertiary Fossils Dredged off the Northeastern Coast of 
North America. By Win. H. Dall (Amer. Journ. Sci., vol. 
10, pp. 213-218, Sept., 1925). The fossils referred to were 
obtained from small masses of rock taken by trawls on the 
fishing banks. These prove with little doubt that late Cretace- 
ous and Tertiary deposits originally existed along the north- 
eastern coast from Newfoundland southward. Gay Head, 
Marthas Vineyard, Mass., is the most northeastern locality 
where Tertiary fossils in undisturbed position are found. — 
C. W. J. 

Anatomy of Hendersonia: a Primitive Helicinid Mollusk. 
By H. B. Baker (Proc. Acad. Nat. Sci. Phila., vol. 77, pp. 
273-353, 1925). Based on its paucispiral operculum and its 
radula, Hendersonia occulta rubella is considered by the author 
to be the most primitive living example of the family, except, 
perhaps, the well-known genus Bourciera from Ecuador. The 
anatomy is shown on four plates. 

The Mollusca Collected by the University of Michigan — Wil- 
liamson Expedition in Venezuela. By H. B. Baker (Occas. 
papers Mus. Zool., Univ. Mich., No. 167, 49 pp. Feb., 1926). 
This is the third paper on the Mollusks of this region. It treats 
chiefly of the families Helicidae, Acavidae and Bulimulidae. 
The anatomy and radula of the species are shown on four plates. 

Materials for a revision of the Recent Indian Limn^id^;. 
By the late N. Annandale and H. S. Rao (Rec. Indian Museum, 
vol. 27, part 3, 1925). This paper is provided with a key for 


the determination of species, figures of the shells, teeth and 
genitalia, and apparently will be very useful for all interested 
in the group. The species are grouped under the four sub- 
genera: Limnsea, 1 Radix, Galba and Pseudosuccinea. The last is 
used for the group of L. acuminata, we are inclined to think in- 
correctly. The treatment of species seems to be commendably 
conservative; the wide range of variation being provided for in 
numerous named "forms" which are defined in comparative 
terms and figured. The authors failed to find characters more 
important than specific in the genitalia, teeth and jaws. — 
H. A. P. 


Hemphillia malonei Van. In correspondence lately with 
Mr. Walter J. Eyerdam, of Seattle, Wash., I mentioned a black 
Hemphillia which I had taken and asked him if he had heard 
of one. He states that it is evidently the above species, which 
was described from specimens taken on Mt. Hood. 

On July 2, 1916, I took a pair under a log on the border of 
a good-sized lake, on Mt. Brenton, Vancouver Island, at an 
elevation of between 3500 and 4000 ft. They were entirely 
black in color, and much larger than any H. glandidosa I have 
met with; the shelly plate is also twice the size. 

At the elevation where found the ground was still covered 
with snow and the lake still largely icebound, and the only 
place where the snow had gone was a small area by the outlet. 
But for these conditions more specimens might have been taken. 
When I arrived home late on the following day, very little of 
either slug remained except the shelly plate. The species would 
appear to be an Alpine one. 

It is a number of years since I took any H. glandulosa ; they 
were found during the winter among dead leaves in small thick- 
ets along the banks of the Cowichan River, long since washed 
away during freshets. The late Rev. G. W. Taylor wrote me 
in 1909 that he had found the species on fronds of Aspidium 

1 The spelling Limncea is preferred as " the best known form." 


munitum in the autumn, near the Nanaimo River on the island. 
As it was not on his first list, I do not think that he took it 
elsewhere. — A. W. Hanham, Duncan, Vancouver Island. 

Turbonilla hypocukta. In proposing a new name, Turbo- 
nilla (Babella) caelatior (Proc. U. S. Nat. Mus., vol. 30, 1906, 
p. 347) for Parthenia cselata A. Adams, 1863, not Turbonilla 
cselata Gould, 1861, nor Chemnitzia cselata Carpenter, 1865; the 
authors, Dall & Bartsch, add, referring to Carpenter's species, 
" which may be called kypocurta." 

In 1909 the same authors (Bull. U. S. Nat. Mus., No. 68, 
p. 78) again propose a new name, Turbonilla (Pyrgiscus) favilla, 
for Chemnitzia cselata Carpenter. Of course the latter name, 
under the rules of nomenclature, will have to pass into syn- 
onymy, and this shell must be known by the first name, Tur- 
bonilla (Pyrgiscus) hypocurta Dall & Bartsch. — Fred Baker. 

Leptinaria. — Dr. Pilsbry has just called my attention to the 
fact that my name, Leptinaria perforata (Proc. Acad. Nat. Sci. , 
Philadelphia, Dec, 1913, p. 645), is preoccupied by Pfeiffer, 
as noted in the Manual of Conchology, Ser. 2, Vol. 18, p. 302, 
with full references and synonymy. I therefore propose that 
the species be known as Leptinaria mamoreensis, as the only 
specimens of the species were taken by me on the Brazilian side 
of the Mamore River in the State of Matto Grosso. — Fred. 
Baker, Point Loma, Cal. 

Subulina Parana Pils., described from Para, was taken by 
Professor Cockerell at Rio de Janeiro during his stop there in 
1925. It is easily distinguished from the common S. octona by 
the fine striation. Leptinaria lamellala P. & M, also was taken 
there. The variety concentrica Reeve was already known from 
southern Brazil. — H. A. P. 

Pupoidopsis hawaiensis on Christmas Island. — In the An- 
nual Report of the Director of the B. P. B. Museum, Honolulu, 
for 1924, p. 12, Dr. C. Montague Cooke records the finding of 
this species in large numbers by Mr. Dranga. It has been 
known only from Oahu, Molokai and Maui hitherto. 

We are deeply grieved to record the death of James H. Fer- 
riss on March 17, at his home in Joliet, Illinois. 


WH 17Xb A