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VOL. 57 
JULY, 1943 to APRIL, 1944 



Curator of the Department of Mollusks and Marine Invertebrates, 

Academy of Natural Sciences 


Professor of Zoology, University of Pennsylvania 
Philadelphia, Pa. 



Names of new genera and species in italics 

Amphidromus pattinsonae Iredale 16 

Anadenulus cockcrelli Hemphill 114 

Aporostoma Troschel 64 

Apertural Ridgo of Biilimulidae 98 

Aporrhais oecidcntalis mainensis Johnson 29 

Blarina hoarding snails 135 

Bostryx 120 

Bostryx ahancayensis Pilsbry 123 

Bostryx anomphalus Pilsbry 123 

Bostryx derelictus ascendens Pilsbry 123 

Bostryx endoplax Pilsbry 124 

Bostryx huarazensis Pilsbry 121 

Bostryx megotnphalus Pilsbry 122 

Bostryx multivoluis Pilsbry 124 

Bostryx weyrauchi Pilsbry 87, 121 

Biilimulidae 120 

Burchia Bartsch 115 

Busycon carica L 143 

Busycon perversum, albino 143 

Castalia oronocensis Morrison 14 

Cerion cabocruzense Pilsbry & Torre 34 

Cerion crassilabre Shuttleworth 34 

Cerion deani M. Smith 59 

Cerion paxdi M. Smith 60 

Cerion striatellum Guerin 34 

Cerithidea hegewischi Philippi 30 

Chrysodomus saturus Martjii 142 

Cingula eyerdami Willett 142 

Conus, poison 72 

Conus verrucosus vanhyningi Rehder 106 

Conus, West Mexican figured Plate 4 

Cypraeidae, Central Pacific 81 

Cypraeidae of Hawaii 22 

Deroceras agreste Miiller 112 

Deroceras gracile Rafinesque 112 

Diadora jaumei Aguayo & Rehder 32 

Diplodon flucki Morrison 14 

Drymaeus angulohasis Pilsbry 125 

Drymaeus bourgeoisae Rehder 28 

Drymaeus flexuosus megas Pilsbry 127 

Drymaeus inca M. Smith 61 



Drymaeus interpictus diver sipictiis Pilsbry 125 

Dnjmaeus torallyi peruvianus Pilsbry 126 

Drymaeus punctatus Da Costa 126 

Drymaeus productorum Rehder 29 

Ensis jninor megistus Pilsbry & McGinty 33 

Eshnaiir, Mrs. W. H 35 

Epiphragmophora atahualpa Pilsbry 119 

Epiphragm removal 138 

Euamnicola C. & F 68 

Fasciolaria distans Lam 142 

Fasciolaria princeps Sowb Plate 3 

Fossula venezuelensis Pilsbry & Olsson 89 

Fusinus dupetithouarsi Kiener Plate 3 

Guianadesma sinuosum Morrison 49 

Helicostyla subpuella Pilsbrj^ 18 

Helicostyla tukanensis Pfr 17 

Helicost3'-la, Talaud Islands 17 

Helix minima True 132 

Helminthoglypta nickliniana Lea 71 

Hemimiira tangi Chen 19 

Hemphill's Catalogue 108, 144 

Hesperarion hemphilli Binney 114 

Hua Chen, new genus 21 

Julia equatorialis Pilsbry & Olsson 86 

Limax flavus L 110 

Limax marginatus Mliller Ill 

Limax maximus L 109 

Liocyma schefferi Bartsch & Rehder 142 

Littorina litorea L 6 

Lymnaea s. appressa Say, radula of 52 

Lymnaca stagnalis L 8 

Macrochlamys Benson 31 

Maine, Marl deposits 45 

Megalomastoma, Porto Rican 30 

Melania henriettae Gray 21 

Melania telonaria Heude 21 

Mclaniidae, Chinese 19 

Mclongena patula Brod Plate 2 

Mesodon pcnnsylvanicus Green 42 

Mexico, travelling and collecting in. . . . 1 

Micronaias marslialli Morrison .15 

Milax gagatos Drapariiaud .113 

Murcx nigritus Philippi . Plate 4 

Mussel poisoning .70 

Nebraska, land shells of r2S 

Nenia juninensis M. Smith (il 

New York mollusks .31 


A^eopetraeus xceyrauchi Pilsbry . ... .88 

Obelixcus latispira Pilsbry .127 

Olivelhi biplicatii Sowerby .73 

01i\('lla pedroana Conrad 76 

Olivi'Ua pvcna Berry 78 

Oreoholix'of Utah .1 108, 144 

Orinclla vanhyningi Bartsch . . 106 

Otala lactca in Tcxa.s 105 

Otala vcrmiculata in Texas 105 

Papuina gartneriana Pf r 64 

Peruvian land mollusks 61, 87, 118 

Phenacotaxus 124 

Pleurobema Icsleyi Lea 16 

Pleurobema patula Lea 16 

Pomacea, sinistral, 66 

Poteria Gray 62 

Psadara pizarro Pilsbry 119 

Pseudomonotis 90 

Piinctum minutissimum Lea 133 

Quebec, Marl deposits 45 

Rimiila longa Pilsbry 38 

Rimula of Florida 37 

Rimula pycnonema Pilsbry 39 

Sermyla kouioonensis Chen 20 

Smaragdia viridis viridimaris Maury 106 

Solomon Is., collecting in 41 

Spissula solidissima Dilhvyn 100 

Sphaeriidae 93, 116 

Tanychlamys Benson 31 

Taranis Jeffreys 107 

Thais lapillus L 7 

Thaumastus rohertsi satipoensis Pilsbry 121 

Thaumastus iveyrauchi Pilsbry 121 

Typhis fordi Pilsbry 40 

L'nio granadensis Conrad 15 

Unio granadensis Lea = M. marshalli 15 

Tnio patulus Lea 16 

\'enus campechiensis Gm 68 

\'ertigo minuscula Sterki . 127 

\'ertigo parvula Sterki 127 

Vitrinella blakei Rehder 97 

Volutopsius fragilis Dall 142 

Wanga Chen, new genus 20 

Xenophora robusta Verrill 37 


Baily, Joshua L 70 

Baker, Horace Burrington 31 

Bartsch, Paul 30, 68, 106, 107, 115, 116 

Bcquaert, J. C 31 

Bourgeois, M. E 37 

Brooks, Stanley Truman, & Herrington, H. B 93 

Carriker, M. R 52 

Chen, Sui-Fong 19 

Clench, William J 17, 64, 108 

Curtis, Brvan 70 

Dexter Ralph W. D 6, 67 

Emery, D. L 66 

Everdam, Walter J 41, 142 

Gifford, D. S. & E. W 73 

Goodrich, Calvin 141 

Gregg, Wendell 109 

Hackney, Anne Gray 143 

Harris, G. D '. 30 

Herrington, H. B 93 

Ingram, William Marcus 22, 71, 81, 135, 138 

Iredale, Tom 16 

Jackson, Ralph W 105 

Jacobson, Morris K 31, 100, 133 

MacMillan, Gordon K 98, 127, 130, 132 

McGintv, Thomas L 33 

Morrison, J. P. E 14, 46 

Nicol, David 90 

Noland, Lowell E 8 

Nylander, Olof 45 

Olsson, Axel A 86, 89 

Pilsbrv, Henry A 33, 34, 37, 40, 68, 86, 89, 118, 144 

Rehder, Harald A 28, 32, 62, 97, 106 

Reichel, Eleanor 8 

Schwengel, Jeanne S 32, 106 

Smith, ^Iaxwell . . 59 

Sorensen, A 1 

Stewart, Margaret C 29 

Webb, Glenn E 42 


The Nautil 


Vol. 57 

July, 1943 

No. 1 


Now that Mexico lias become one of tlie combatants in this 
the <rreatest of all world contests it is jzoinii' to be more diffienlt 
for other nationals to enter or leave it, because border re<i:ulations 
on both sides are much stricter than formerly. So it may be 
of interest to record some previous trips and tell what was seen 
and what was achieved in the way of collecting- marine life in 
the Gulf of California, 

For some years previous to 1940 the writer had made short 
trips into the northern part of Lower California, known to the 
Mexicans as Baja California. It is that long narrow peninsula 
with its backbone of fairly high mountains that extends south 
from California for more than 750 miles. It is bordered on the 
west by the Pacific Ocean and on the east by the Gulf of Cali- 
fornia. The backbone mentioned is the southward continua- 
tion of North America's mighty Coast Range, which, under 
various names, forms a barrier against the inroads of the Pa- 
cific from Alaska to Cabo San Lucas at the southern tip. 

The roads from San Diego are fairly good to Ensenada, but 
south of that they are "not maintained." There are no culverts 
or bridges across the numerous arroyos and short swift rivers 
flowing into the Pacific, so traveling southward is practit-ally at 
a standstill during the winter. 

In January 1940 a party consisting of Mr. and ]\Irs. II. K. 
Turver and Mr. and Mrs. John Strohbeen, all connected with the 
Santa Cruz, California, Museum of Natural History, and the 
writer from Pacific Grove, California, were desirous of going 
down tlie west coast of Lower California, at least as far as San 
Quentin Bay, but preferably farther. Investigation proved that 
the streams were swollen and the flats were boggy, so we iuid to 
look for another entrance into Mexico. 


2 THE NAUTILUS [Vol. 57 (1) 

From ^lexicali, on the border, a road extends south for about 
135 miles to San Filipe a small fishing village on the Gulf and 
not far south of the mouth of the Colorado Kiver. 

This would be a desirable place to go, for the marine life there 
is the Panamic fauna, while that of the west coast is classified 
with the California Province, which means that you would find 
practically the same mollusks there as at San Diego, about half 
way down the peninsula, though, in the vicinity of Cedros Is- 
land, the Panamic and the California faunas seem to overlap. 
But no matter how desirable a trip to San Filipe might be, still 
it, like the West Coast trip was out of the question, for the road 
was actually impassable at that time of the year. A considerable 
portion is a quagmire in wet weather and a speedway when dry. 

So we had to look still farther east, and learned of a so-called 
good road leading south from Nogales, Arizona, for 265 miles to 
Guaymas on the east side of the Gulf of California. This we 
then decided to explore, and thus it was that we discovered this 
naturalist's fairyland and became so enraptured of its charms 
that we are making it the object of our annual outing. Three 
such trips are behind us, and we are hoping for more as soon as 
war conditions permit. 

Nogales is 498 miles east of San Diego, over such excellent 
roads that this added distance is not much of a handicap. The 
road in Mexico is well laid out and well graded, but it is not 
paved and in many places is poorh^ surfaced and quite rocky. 
The Mexicans take their roads philosophically and use only six 
ply tires on their autos. No four ply tires were for sale in that 
part of Mexico. 

The towns of I\Iagdalena and Santa Ana, some sixty and 
seventj'-five miles below the border, are interesting places with 
their adobe buildings and narrow streets. Considerable mining 
of copper and silver is carried on in this region, and fairly ex- 
tensive farming is found in the lowlands near by. 

Ilermosillo, the state Capital of Sonora, is about another hun- 
dred miles south. 

It is an ancient city with modern improvement. It has paved 
streets and good schools. We found that both here and in Guay- 
mas, English is taught in the high schools and in the upper 
grades of grammar schools. It is noteworthy that most of the 
business people speak English quite well and a number of them 

July. 1943] THE NAUTILUS 3 

take pride in liaviiifr jrotten part of their education in the United 
States. This all bodes well for Mexico and will lielp to make it 
advance rapidly. A feelinjr of friendship for Americans was 
universally shown. 

We went on to Guaymas and put up at the Miramar Beach 
Hotel which is located on a beautiful bay just north of Guaymas. 
Here the accommodations were good and the rates reasonable, 
and the exchange of our dollars into Mexican pesos was also in 
our favor. Don't think for a minute that I am over enthusiastic 
when I say that the climate is ideal, that collecting is unexcelled 
and that sport fishing for marlin and sailfish is hard to beat 
anywhere else. At least such has been our experience from 
January to May of several years. During January of this year 
the thermometer in our brick cottage at Miramar never went 
above 70° P., and at night with the windows wide open it failed 
to get below^ 60 degrees. What do you Eastern people think of 
this for January? Is it any wonder that we could be out from 
morning till night in our shirtsleeves, wading, digging, collect- 
ing, .sailing, or autoing to beaches farther off. 

I have not bragged on the condition of ]\Iexican roads, but in 
fairness will add that this year work is being done on all the 
roads I have referred to and that this summer will see the com- 
pletion of the numerous culverts and concrete bridges now being 
built across the many " vados," or dips, and small rivers between 
Ilermosillo and the border. 

About the people we came in contact with, and they were many 
and of different stations, we all formed favorable opinions. 
They were friendly and alwaj's willing to accommodate and aid 
us and that was a large factor in making our stays so pleasant. 
Among other things we took in a dance given in honor of one of 
the two contestants for queen of the annual fiesta soon to be 
held. It was as nice an affair as could be seen anywhere. The 
young people were jolly and well mannered and absolutely no 
liquor was indulged in. The floor manager told us that liquor 
drinking by dancers was inconceivable, and that anyone break- 
ing this rule would be summarily ejected. The girls wore beau- 
tiful dresses many of which were flowered or spangled or lavishly 
embroidered, and some were said to be heirlooms dating back for 

But now back to business: We didn't go to Mexico so many 

4 THE NAUTILUS [Vol. 57 (1) 

times just to see the country or even to observe the customs of 
the people; we went there primarily to study the marine life 
and to get specimens for our collections. "We worked at that in- 
dustriously, and as a result were able to bring back more than 
three hundred different species of which about three-fourths 
were mollusks. I will not attempt to give a complete list or 
even to mention very many, but will call attention to the four 
plates accompanying this. They show better than I can tell how 
we did our studying. 

Plate 1, Conidae, shows ten rows of Conns, each row a differ- 
ent species and all taken last January within a few miles of 
Guaymas. The species figured on Plate 1 are : 

1. Conus princeps L. 6. C. mahogani Rve. 

2. C. purpurasccns Brod. 7. C. per plexus Sowb. 

3. C. virgatus Rve. 8. C. arch on Brod. 

4. C. regularis Sowb. 9. C. gladiator Brod. 

5. C. comptus Gld. 10. C. mix Brod. 

I think this is a record, for I have never seen or heard that all 
of them had previously been taken so far north. 

Plates 2, 3 and 4 picture growth-series, and show these inter- 
esting gastropods from juveniles up through the developmental 
stages to the adults. 

Melongena patula Broderip, shown in Plate 2, was found in 
numbers in the Miramar Lagoon, the young ones in shallow pools 
and the older ones well buried in the sand. 

Stromhus galeatus Swainson was the most difficult to get. It 
grows to a large size and is very heavy. The Mexicans call it 
"Concha." It stays outside of extreme low tides. 

Fusus dupetithouarsi Kiener, in Plate 3, was found tiiis year 
in outside sand bars, while on other trips it was observed only 
in muddy lagoons. 

Fascioldria princeps Sowerby, Plate 3, fig. 2, generally keep 
themselves in pretty deep water, but this year tliov were found in 
San Carlos Bay feeding on rinjUonotus hicolor, tiie beautiful 
murex whicii is so plentiful there. 

Murex nigriius Pliilippi, plate 4. This series shows that 
the young are nearly white, something that has caused consider- 
able confusion. Fretjuently you find the wliite ones classified 
as Murex princeps, wiiicli is an entirely different animal. 

UK xAiTiLrs: :)7 (\) 




Coiii(l;ir of (iiiax iii:is. 

THE XAl'TILrS: 57 (1) 


1 f f f 


,Mi;i,()N(iKNA I'A'I'I I. A rildd.l i|i 


ri.ATi-: :'. 

Fid. 1, l-iisiniis tiiijK I K idler. 
Fig. 2, FaKciolaria prince ps Sowerliy. 

'PI IK XATTILrS: 57 (1 ) 

FT. ATE 4 




M 1 i;i:\ NKiKl'irs l'liili|i 

liilll. srillc (Jll It'll 

July, 1943] THE NAUTILUS 5 

\\\' wtTo all vtM-y ketMi iiuiitiii^' for tlio Olividae. They live in 
colonies and when you are lucky enou<;h to find such a one, you 
can take many specimens. The larj;e beautiful Oliva incrassata 
Solander is found in outside sandpits at extreme low tides, but 
never in the lajroons. Collectors consider it a prize. San Carlos 
Bay has more Oliva vcnulata Lam. than any other place we 
visited. OlivcUa doma Gray was found outside with Oliva in- 
crassata. Thus the larjjest and the smallest live together. "We 
were also lucky enoufrh to find a few of the rare Agaronia testacea 
Lam. All olives live in the sand and they travel near the sur- 
face raising it like a mole. That makes it easy to locate them — 
if. . . . 

It would not do to close without calling attention to the great 
quantity of bivalves found. They vary in size from almost mi- 
croscopic to such large ones as Spondylus limbatus, Dosinia pon- 
derosa, Cardium datum, Chama mexicana, Antigona multi- 
costata, Area grandis and others. A few of those that are noted 
for beauty are Chione gnidia, Anomia adamas and the Tellinidae. 
Some of our extra welcome discoveries were Simnia quailii 
Lowe (pink), and Simnia aequae Lowe (black). These we 
found on gorgonians in shallow water; something unusual, for 
gorgonians are generally so deep that \o\i have to dredge or dive 
for them. The other rare find was Heliacus radiatus, which 
lives on or among the compound ascidians on rocks exposed only 
at very low tides. It has a peculiarly spirally tipped opercu- 
lum, and is classified with the architeetonicas. 

In a previous article in the Nautilus I mentioned the seasonal 
appearance of some species and the absence of others. This 
goes to show that it requires more than one trip to become fairly 
well acquainted with the fauna of a definite location, and the 
trips should be made at different .seasons of the year to be 

In 1929 to 1931 Mr. Herbert N. Lowe of Los Angeles, col- 
lected extensively along the west coast of Mexico and Central 
America, south to Panama, and the description by Dr. H. A. 
Pilsbry of the many new species found and the table of all the 
species taken is interestingly told in the Proceedings of The 
Academy of Natural Sciences of Philadelphia, Vol. LXXXIV, 
1932, pages 33-144. All students of West Mexican Mollusks 
should read this. 

^ R A O V' 

6 THE NAUTILUS [Vol. 57 (1) 


Kent State University, Kent, Ohio 

In connection with an ecological study of intertidal marine 
communities, preliminary experiments on snail movements were 
conducted during the summer of 1936. The purpose was to de- 
termine the general direction, rate, and range of movements of 
individual snails in their dispersal over the shore in order to 
understand more fully their role in community dynamics. L. 
litorea (L.), the English periwinkle, and T. lapiUus (L.), the 
common rock snail, were chosen for study because they are the 
most significant of the herbivorous and carnivorous snails re- 
spectively of the intertidal hard-surface, communities investi- 
gated. While many studies have been made on these species, 
nothing seems to have been published on their local movements. 

When the tide was low, the snails were marked with a quick- 
drying red enamel paint without removing them from the rocks, 
and their locations were then mapped. During each succeeding 
day for a period of one week, and at irregular intervals there- 
after, the distance travelled by each snail was measured in a 
straight line ^om the previous location, which represents the 
minimum radial distance travelled. After submergence in salt 
water over a period of several days the red paint lost its brilliant 
color, but it retained enough pigmentation to enable one to find 
and identify the marked individuals. In some cases they were 
found with difficulty and occasionally one was lost for a day or 
two. They were selected originally in small groups. Two 
groups of 5 individuals of L. litorea and two groujis of 4 indi- 
viduals of T. lapillus were marked. The groups were clustered 
on separate rocks at about tlie half tide level. The tidal inter- 
val is 11 hours and 14 minutes at the location of the experiment 
along the shores of a tidal inlet at Gloucester, on Cape Ann, 

During exposure the snails of both species were inactive, re- 
maining attached in position with little or no movement. After 
submergence they became active and wandered about in various 

July. 1943] THE NAUTILUS 7 

directions and for varyin": distances. Their movement is very 
pronouncedly rhythmical, being: controlled directly by the tidal 
flow and ebb. and for the most part is concorned with their feed- 
ing: activities. 

The specimens of L. litorca moved a daily average minimum 
distance of 22.2 inches. In recording directions of travel, each 
snail was plotted at the intersection of 4 equal sectors designated 
as upshore, downshore, left, and right quarters, the directions 
being those of the observer facing upshore. Averages are based 
upon the daily records of the first week of observation. The 
marked specimens of L. litorea moved in all directions. Those 
moving upshore averaged 23.3 inches each day. Downshore 
movements averaged 23 inches each day. Those moving to the 
left and right averaged 10.2 and 26.3 inches respectively. Four 
individuals at one time or another did not move at all over a 
period of at least 24 hours. Five days after one set of 5 had 
been marked (July 4), four individuals were 38, 49, 114, and 
142 inches from their original locations. At that time, nine days 
after the other set had been marked, three individuals of the 
second group were 13, 39, and 56 inches away from their orig- 
inal positions. Nine days later (July 13), 4 snails of this set 
were 50, 52, 94, and 151 inches awaj' from the original locations, 
and 17 days still later (July 30) the only individual which 
could be found wa^ at a distance of 124 inches. The periwinkles 
did not follow any pattern, given direction, or uniform rate 
movement. Many reversed their directions at various intervals 
of time, and their movements seemed to be entirely fortuitous. 

At the time of spring tides great quantities of L. litorea, espe- 
cially small specimens, were observed to move upshore and 
literally coat the rocks between the neap and spring high-tide 
lines. Following the spring tides they migrated downshore 

T. lapillus averaged 10.4 inches of total movement per day. 
Upshore movements averaged 19 inches while those moving 
downward averaged 10.5 inches. Snails moving into the right 
sector averaged 7 inches ; none was observed to move into the left 

Five individuals at one time or another remained stationary 
over a period of 24 hours. Eighteen days after one set was 

8 THE NAUTILUS [Vol. 57 (1) 

marked (July 13), two individuals -were 22 and 34 inches away 
from the original location. Sixty days later (September 11), 
or eleven weeks after the beginning of the experiment, one snail 
was 62 inches from its original position. Twenty-six days after 
the other set was marked, (July 30) two individuals were 22 
and 28 inches away. Twenty-five days later (Aug. 24) two were 
10 and 18 inches away; another eighteen days later (Sept. 11), 
or nearlj' eleven weeks after the snails were marked, three were 
only 6, 7 and 30 inches away respectively. 

T. lapillus, which feeds principally on Balanus halanoides 
(L.) and Mytilus edulis L., showed a tendency to remain on bar- 
nacles, in crevices, and under seaweeds for long periods and to 
remain within a restricted locality. In general it did not travel 
as much nor as extensively as L. litorea which feeds chiefly on 
algae, both microscopic and macroscopic. 



University of Wisconsin 

It has been known for some time that pulmonate snails may, 
under certain conditions, become water-breathing. In fact 
Planorhis cristatus is said to have its lung permenently filled 
with water (Willem, 1895; von Buddenbrock, 1924) ; and Plan- 
orhis corneus is reported to have developed accessory gills in its 
lung cavity (von Buddenbrock, 1924). It has been further 
claimed by Precht (1939) that Lxjmnaca stagtiicola assumes 
purely cutaneous, aquatic respiration at a temperature of 5° C. 
or below. According to Cheatum (1934) Jlclisoma campauit- 
latum smithii, U. antrosum pcrcarinatum, Lymnaca cmarginata 
angulata and Physa aayi crassa are probably able to complete 
their life cycles and reproduce normally without coming to the 
surface for air. F'orel and Du Plessis (L'^74) and Brot (1874) 
reported Lymnaca ahyssicola living at depths of 25 to 250 meters 
in Lake Geneva, Switzerland. When collected, their lung cavi- 
ties were filled with water and, living at such depths, they could 

July, 1943] THE NAUTILUS 9 

hardly have made contact with the surface at any time durinpr 
their life history. 

Von Siebold (1875) records having seen, in deep water, col- 
onies of Lymnaea auricitlaria which, durinp: the period of his 
observations, were never observed to visit the surface. Fresh- 
water pulmonates that spend the winter under the ice are prob- 
ably forced to depend to a largre extent, if not exclusively, on 
cutaneous respiration. Willem (1896) showed that Lymnaea 
and Planorhis could be kept subnierjjed for lonf; periods in well- 
aerated water, but died in a few hours when immersed in water 
that had been boiled and protected from contact with air. In 
the land snail Helix, w^th tlie shell removed and the body kept 
submerfred in normal saline, cutaneous respiration has been 
shown to exceed pulmonary respiration (Courtois and Duval, 
1927; Raffy and Fischer, 1931). Cheatum (1934) showed that 
nine species of fresh-water snails can withstand enforced and 
prolong:ed submersion (62 days). The percentage of survival 
was less in warm water (21.6° to 25.6° C.) than in cooler water 
(11° C). Removal of the air from the lung cavity likewise re- 
duced the percentage of survival. 

11. B. Baker (1912) reported six species of pulmonates from 
Douglas Lake, ]\Iichigan, including Lymnaea stagnalis perampla 
AValker, L. emarginata angulata (Sowerby), Physa ancillaria 
parkeri (Currier), P. hicarinatus portagensis Baker, P. h. per- 
carinatus Walker, and Planorhis campanulatus smithii Baker, 
which according to his observations "appear to be all deep w^ater 
forms and have apparently become adapted to breathe water in- 
stead of air." He suggested the possibility that the water- 
breathing habit had even affected the body form of some of the 
species to the extent of modifying the shell type of Lymnaea 
stagnalis appressa toward that of L. s. perampla and the shell 
form of typical Physa ancillaria Say toward that of P. a. parkeri. 
Two years later (Baker 1914) he recorded further observations 
on the water-breathing habits of Douglas Lake snails, in the 
course of which he noted that the adults of Physa ancillaria 
parkeri "were so completely habituated to breathing water that 
when placed in small aquaria, they died soon after exhausting 
the air in the water, without ever attempting to come to the 
surface to breathe; although when once taught to breathe air, 



[Vol. 57 (1) 

by the simple method of exposing them out of water until the 
water in their lungs partially evaporated or was otherwise re- 
placed by air, they could be kept in a small dish for several 
months and would come to the surface regularly like any ordi- 
nary, air-breathing form." 

In the course of other studies on the biology of Lymnaea stag- 
nalis appressa Say, pursued in this laboratory, it occurred to 
us that it would be interesting to find out whether this snail, 
which is normally air-breathing, could be grown through a 
complete life cycle in the laboratory at room temperatures 
without ever being permitted to come to the surface for air. 

|lass plate 

metal tubin6 

^ I ' 

^ jn 


^^^w ....... 

feeding hole 

^u ix^ 


Fig, 1. Diagrams showing containers used to provide the egg masses 
and growing snails with aerated water while at tlic same time preventing 
access to the surface. 

Accordingly several newly deposited egg masses were collected, 
on Feb. 28 and Mar. 1, 1940, and placed in shallow glass con- 
tainers (one member of a Petri dish pair). Three such dishes 
were set up, and each wa.s covered witli coarse-meshed bolting 
cloth, in which there was a small feeding hole plugged with cot- 
ton that could be removed at feeding times. These dishes were 
submersed in water in a large glass container kept at room 
temperature in the laboratory. All air bubbles were carefully 
removed after immersion. The dishes were placed near an air 
releaser which maintained a constant current of aerated water 
past the bolting cloth covers of the dishes, but not so near that 
any bubbles from the air releaser would come in contact with 
the cloth (Fig. 1 A). 

July, 194;^] THE NAUTILUS 11 

The room in which the snails were kept had a thermostatically 
controlled temperature, which was normally near 20° C, except 
in the summer when a somewhat hi<;lier temperature was reached 
(up to 34.4° C. at one time, as will be mentioned later). 

Hatchin<r occurred within a month (Mar. 28 to Apr. 4). The 
younir snails were fed snuUl pieces of tender «;reen lettuce, which 
had been previously immersed in water and freed of all air 
bubbles. A sample of water taken from the inside of the Petri 
dish gave, with the micro-Winkler method (Lund, 1922), a read- 
ing of 1.8 ee. dissolved oxygen per liter, as compared with 2.5 to 
3.1 cc. in the outside water, indicating that the utilization of 
oxygen inside the dish was greater than its replacement by the 
circulation of the water. 

On July 12, about three months after hatching, all the snails 
in one of the dishes died, apparently due to depletion of the 
oxygen supply past the point of toleration. These snails had 
shell lengths of 9.0 to 17.5 mm. at the time of death, approxi- 
mately ten weeks after hatching. In this same period of time, 
normal snails fed on lettuce and allowed access to air ordinarily 
reached a shell length of 20 to 30 mm. under the culture methods 
employed at that time in the laboratory. Evidently, therefore, 
there was a considerable retardation of growth in spite of the 
fact that a small excess of food (lettuce) was regularly provided. 

After the death of the snails in the one dish, those in the re- 
maining two dishes were transferred to more commodious quar- 
ters, a battery jar six inches in diameter and eight inches high, 
equipped, as shown in Fig. 1 B, to provide for better aeration of 
the water but, as before, preventing access to the surface. In 
these and in all other transfers (i.e., when w^ater was changed, 
at intervals of one to two weeks), care was taken to keep the 
snails immersed in water at all times during the transfer, so that 
there would be no possibility of their taking air into their lung 
cavities at this time. In young snails, the shell is sufficiently 
transparent to detect the presence of air in the lung, and the 
snails were regularly checked when the transfers were made to 
see if air was present. Another check was possible because 
snails with no air in the lung are considerably heavier than water 
and sink rapidly when allowed to fall through the water; snails 
with air in the lung either float or sink rather slowly. At no 

12 THE NAUTILUS [Vol. 57 (1) 

time was air observed in the lungs of any of the snails except the 
two that escaped as mentioned below. 

On Dec. 26, 1940, nearly nine months after hatehino:, the first 
egg mass was found in the jar. Normally under our laboratory 
cultural conditions, snails start laying about three or four 
mouths after hatching. Evidently, therefore, submersion had 
more than doubled the time required to reach sexual maturity 
and lay eggs. On Jan. 8, 1941, another egg mass was found, 
and on Jan. 9, four more. Other e^g masses were laid at inter- 
vals up to April 11, when four of the snails were still alive. At 
this time, two of the animals escaped, through an opening caused 
by an undetected bend in the wire barrier, and took air into 
their lung cavities. These were discarded, and the two remain- 
ing ones retained until their death on ]\Iay 31, 1941, at an age 
of approximately 14 months. In our usual laboratory cultures, 
snails of this species commonly live from 12 to 18 months. At 
death, the shell length is usually between 40 and 50 mm., as com- 
pared with 33 and 34 mm. respectively in the two oldest sub- 
mersed snails. During most of their adult life, the submersed 
snails had a dull, leaden-gray color in their exposed fleshy parts, 
as compared with the light brownish or olive shade of normal 

Eggs laid by the submersed snails about Apr. 1, 1941, were 
placed on April 12 in containers made by removing the bottom 
from a small drinking glass and covering both ends with cloth 
netting (organdy for the earlier stages, mosquito netting for 
the older ones). These containers, suspended in a current of 
water maintained by aerators (see Fig. 1 C), provided better 
circulation of aerated water than the Petri dishes used in the 
first experiment. By May 31, at an age of about five weeks, the 
shell lengths of the young snails varied between 3 and 10 mm., 
only slightly less than those of snails of the same age in the 
regular laboratory cultures. In the liot weather of midsummer 
of 1941, when, in the ab.senec of tiie writers the care of the cul- 
tures was entrusted to a laboratory assistant, the culture was 
lost. On July 29, 1941, about the time that the snails in the 
culture died, the temperature of the laboratory air reached 
34.4° C, and the temperature of the cultures in the laboratory 

July, 1943] THK NAUTILUS 13 

went above 30** C. (a reading? at 8 :30 a.m. on that date pave a 
temperature of 30.5" C). Subsequent work by Dr. C. M. 
Vaujrlm (not yet published) has shown that, even in the case of 
snails allowed access to air in well-aerated laboratory cultures, 
temperatures of this majrnitude result in some mortality. 

The observations made in the course of these experiments on 
submersed snails show: (1) that Lymnaea stagnalis appressa can 
be prrown through a complete life cycle in laboratory cultures at 
room temperatures without havinj; access to the air; (2) that the 
growth of the snails under such conditions is somewhat retarded 
as compared with that of normal animals, but that in time they 
can reach maturity, lay viable eggs, and attain a size and life 
span only slightly less than that of normal snails. 


Baker, H. B., 1912, Ann. Kept. Mich. Acad. Sci. 14: 209-211, 1 

, 1914, Ann. Kept. Mich. Acad. Sci. 16 : 18-45, 9 maps, 

4 tables. 
Brot, a., 1874, Bull. Soc. Vaud. Sci. Nat. 13 : 109-114. 
BuDDENBROCK, W. VON, 1924, in "Grundriss der vergleichende 

Phvsiologie" Pt. II, pp. 334-337. 
Cheatum. E. p., 1934, Trans. Am. Micros. Soc. 53 (4) : 348^07, 

2 pi., 9 fig., 18 tables. 
CouRTois, Andree, and Marcel Duval, 1927, Compt. Rend. Soc. 

Biol. 97 : 1695-1697. 
FoREL, F. A., and G. du Plessis, 1874, Bull. Soc. Vaud. Sci. Nat. 

13 : 46-57. 
Lund, E. J., 1922, Proc. Soc. Exp. Biol. Med. 19: 63-64. 
Pauly, a., 1877, Ueber die Wasserathmung der Limnaeiden. 
Precht, H., 1939, Zeit. vergl. Physiol. 26 (5) : 696-739, 6 fig. 
Raffy, a., and P. H. Fischer, 1931, Compt. Rend. Soc. Biol. 

107: 139-141. 

. 1931, Ibid. 107: 141-143. 

Semper, Carl, 1874, Arb. Zool.-Zoot. Inst. Wurzburg 1 : 137-167. 
Siebold, Karl T. E. von, 1875, Sitzber. Math-Phys. Classe Akad. 

Wiss. Munchen 1875 : 39-54. 
Vagiony, H. de. 1894, Jour. Anat. Physiol. 30: 147-188, fig. 
Wiedersheim, R., Zool. Anz. 2 (41) : 572-573. 
Willem, Victor, 1895, Bull. Acad. Rov. Sci. Lett. Beaux-Arts 

Belg. (3) 29: 73-83, 6 fig. 
, 1896, Ibid. (3) 32: 563-577, 2 fig. 

14 THE NAUTILUS [Vol. 57 (1) 





Some time ago the Rev. W. H. Fluck of Newfane, Vermont, 
sent a few Orinoco Unionids to the United States National Mu- 
seum for determination. This material, representing the two 
new species described herewith, serves to accentuate our very 
limited knowledge of the molluscan fauna of the Orinoco basin. 

Castalia orinocensis, new species. Plate 5, figures 1-4. 

Shell subrhomboid, elliptical, slightly inequilateral, moder- 
ately compressed; sculpture of numerous, flat, radiating ridges, 
crossed by narrow, concentric growth ridges; anterior end 
evenly rounded. Posterior dorsal slope obliquely truncate ; pos- 
terior ridge moderate, rounded, ending in a narrowly rounded 
point a little above the base ; dorsal line arched ; ventral margin 
slightly rounded ; epidermis olivaceous ; laterals long, slightly 
curved ; pseudocardinals irregularly radial, proportionately mas- 
sive, not linear ; nacre white, iridescent behind ; anterior adduc- 
tor, protractor, and retractor cicatrices completely confluent. 

The holotype, U.S.N.M. No. 522000, was received from Rev. 
W. H. Fluck, collected on the Orinoco River at Maipures, U. S. 
Colombia, and measures : Length, 36.6 mm. ; height, 24 mm. ; 
diameter, 17.2 mm. 

The greater degree of inflation, completely confluent anterior 
muscle scars, and the subradial (massive) pseudocardinals will 
easily distinguish C. orinocensis from the other members of the 
group of Castalia multisulcata Hupe. 

DiPLODON FLUCKi, new species. Plate 5, figures 5-9. 

Shell of medium size, subsolid, elongate-rhomboid to long el- 
liptical, inflated ; posterior ridge rounded or biangulate, ending 
posteriorly in a biangulate jioint a little above the base line; 
anterior end regularly rounded; dorsal line slightly arched; 
ventral margin slightly curved; the posterior end oblicjuely 
truncate, meeting the base line at the post basal biangulation ; 
epidermis olivaceous. Beaks little inflated, radially sculptured 
with very delicate, pinched up ridges, minute and curved down- 

1 Published by pormiKsion of tlic Secretary of the Smitlisonian Institution. 

Ill': .\ A I ri I. rs: :>■; 1 1 

n.A'i'K :. 







Kiys. 1-4. (il.sliilid orilinri nsi.s, lioldt vpc. Tit;. .*>, Di/ilnilun jlnrli, ii.ii;it.V|M' 
l)i':ik sculpture X .">. Fij;s. •>-!». IHphnloit fiiich't, li(»litf y|.c. 

'I'llK XAl'TIH'S: :)7 (1 


l'"iK. 1, //"" I'li'iiiirin X '•'<■ Kiy- -. Ihnnnnlni liiinii, linldtvpc X •■{- •''iU- 'K 
Siniii/lii LnirhiniK iisis. liuldt.vpc X I!. Ki«. I. liiiiiiKi luinutlur X 1 V,. V\\i. ">, 
J iniilniliniiiiis ixiltiiisoiHi, . Ivpc y •_'. I'i;;. i'>, IhiiiiKKii.s p, nliivlniti in. \y\n'\ figs. 
7 it. iiiiriitypcs. Fij;. ](), IhiniiiKus hiiiir;ii, , l.vpc. I'ij;. 11. Eii.sis iiiiiinr. Fiji. 
12, i;'., litisis minor iiufii.slns, (lutrr ;iii(l iiiiuT \ icws of .iimI tvpc. 

July, 1943] THE NAUTILUS 15 

ward anteriorly, more distant and straifjht medially, and strik- 
ingly divaricate at a 45° an«j:le just above the posterior ridire 
posteriorly; the beak sculpture extends only over the umboruil 
portion of the shell, up to a shell lenjxth of about 15 mm. Sculj)- 
ture finely concentrically striate, with minute traces of radial 
sculpture over the disc. Ilinjie teeth distinctive, the hinjze line 
narrow, pseudocardinals lamellar, compressed, two in each valve, 
the (upper) anterior one in the right valve small, thin, low; the 
posterior long, hijrh, and triaufjular; the anterior one in the left 
valve low, lonjr. triaufrular; the posterior high, triangular, being 
practically a portion of the interdentum. The two high tri- 
angular posterior pseudocardinals fit into depressions in the 
hinge line opposite, so that the ventral aspect of the hinge line 
is zigzag in this part. Nacre white, beautifully iridescent ; the 
cicatrices are moderately deep, the posterior confluent, the an- 
terior deeper, with the anterior retractor a deep, distinct pit on 
the bottom of the pseudocardinal buttress. Dorsal muscle scars 
a plainly marked diagonal row in the middle of the shallow 
cavities of the beaks. 

The holotype, U.S.X.M. No. 521998, was collected from the 
Orinoco River above Munduapo, Venezuela, and measures: 
Length, 52.3 mm. ; height. 28.3 mm. ; diameter, 22.6 mm. One 
of two paratypes, U.S.N.M. No. 521999, exhibits almost perfect 
(uneroded) beak sculpture; it is a young shell only 26 mm. in 

The finely concentrically striate sculpture, with traces of 
radial sculpture, and the peculiarly zigzag hinge line produced 
by the meshing of the two thin, high, triagular pseudocardinals, 
indicates a relation.ship with D. suavidicus (Lea) from the 
Amazon basin. It differs from that species in being more 
elongate, a little more inflated and more pointed behind. The 
beak sculpture of D. flucki (fig. 5) differs from that of D. 
suavidicus in the straightness of the medial ridges, not converg- 
ing ; and the more definitely clean-cut divaricate wrinkles on the 
posterior slope; also the fine anterior riblets are straight in 
suavidicus, regularly curved downward in flucki. 

Unionid Notes 

Some years ago Wm. B. Marshall noted in ^Is. that Utiio 
granadensis Lea (Proc. A.N.S.P. 12: 95, 1868) was a homonym 
of Vnio granadensis Conrad (Proc. A.N.S.P. 7: 256, 1855), but 
did not the fact. In recognition of his discovery of the 
untenable use of Lea's name, the species is hereby designated 
Micronaias marshalli, new name for U. granadensis Lea 1868, 
from Lake Nicaragua. 

16 THE NArTiLrs [Vol. 57 {!) 

The type of Vnio patulus Lea 1S29 (figured in Obs. 1: 55: 
pi. 12, fig. 20) has been found. This specimen. U.S.N.M. Xo. 
S4760. is a very characteristic member of the species usually 
known as Pkurohema leshyi Lea (Proe. A^'.SJ*. 9: 306, 1860). 
In fact it had been included under the name hsUyi, but part of 
the original ink •vrriting. ''patulus,'' still shows on the interior 
of the left valve. The name PUurohema paiula must replace 
P. UsUyi. It must be removed from the synonymy of P. clava 
Lam., as a glance at the non-clavate dorsal outline type figure 
will demonstrate. The uncertainty about this species was im- 
plied by Simpson in questioning the placement under clava. 
The type locality "Ohio"' (T. G. Lea) may be questioned; it 
probably should be read as Ohio Drainage, — i.e. Kentucky', as 
is known for 'Uesleyi." 


Mrs. T. Pattinson. when traveling through Burma, collected a 
very beautiful landsheU on a bush on the side of the road to 
Maymyo. about 40 miles northeast of Mandalay. This shell she 
has presented to the Australian Museum, and as it appears to 
represent an unnamed species it is here described as 

AMPHir«OMrs (SryrDBOMrs) pattixsoxae sp. nov. Plate 6, 
fig. 5. 

Shell sinistral, elongate, imperforate, smooth, glossy. The tip 
is dark purple, succeeding whorls whitish washed with green, 
last whorl yellowish green, umbilical area crimson lake ; banded 
throughout with two or three bands of brownish lake, the bands 
suggesting a series of coalesced blotches. Whorls 5V2' slightly 
convex; suture linear. Columella slightly receding. Aperture 
oval, angulate below, peristome thin, immature. Length 28 mm., 
breadth 12.5 mm. 

The species appears to be allied to A. cru€ntatus Morelet 
(Series Conchyl IV, p. 264, pi. 13. fig. 5, 1875) as figured by 
Pilsbry (Man. Conch. 2 Ser. Vol. XIII, p. 187, pi. 60, figs. 39, 
40, 1900) in its crimson lake umbilical area, but it is much 
narrower and more elegantly shaped and the coloration separates 
it immediatelv. 

1 Bj p«nnis8ion of the Tniate^a of the Australian Musemn, Sydney. 

July, 1943] THE NAUTILUS 17 



The Talaud Islands (Tular and Talauer are various spellings) 
compose a small archipelago that is situated about midway be- 
tween Mindanao Island. Philippines and Halmahera (Gilolo) in 
the Dutch East Indies. They are included in the Molucca 
group of these latter islands and are approximately 120 miles 
X.E. of Halmahera. 

During the winter cruise of the yacht "Cheng Ho" in 1940, 
Dr. and Mrs. David Fairchild collected a large series of three 
species of HtUcostyla at Arangkaa. Karakelong Island, Talaud 

The importance of locating Helicostyla iukanensis Pfr. on this 
island corrects what has been a rather persistant error since the 
original citation of Pfeiffer. 

In 1871. Pfeiffer described in the Malakozoologische Blatter 
18. pp. 119-124. six new land shells, five of which he received 
from J. H. Thomson of Xew Bedford. Mass. Thomson may have 
collected this material as he had been a ships master, or it is 
equally possible that he may have received his specimens from 
some sailor friend who had visited the East Indies. At any rate, 
material was credited to both Tukan Bessi Island (off the south- 
eastern peninsula of Celebes Island) and from Tular Island. 
The former is 750 miles to the south of Tular [Talaud] Islands, 
there appears to have been some question regarding the data of 
certain of these new forms as Pfeiffer had indicated two of them 
with question marks. 

The present collection straightens out a few of these uncertain- 
ties besides correcting an anomaly, the existence of a few species 
well outside the known range of other members of the genus. 

The locality for the four following species is Arangkaa, Kara- 
kelong Island, Talaud Group. Molucca Islands. 

Helicostyla (Calocochlea) tukaxexsis Pfeiffer 

Helix lukanensis Pfr. 1871. Malak. Blatt. 18, p. 122 (Tukan 
Bessi Island) ; ibid., 1872, Xovit. Conch. 4, p. 72, pi. 121, fig. 5-9. 

18 THE NAUTILUS [Vol. 57 (1) 

Cochlostyla (Calocochlea) tukayiensis Pfr. Pilsbry 1891, Man. 
Conch. (2)" 7, p. 132, pi. 29, fig. 7-9, 12. 

Pilsbry (i. c.) gives "Pular Islands" on the authority of 
Horn. This is apparently a mis-spelling or an alternative for 

Helicostyla (Corasia) subpuella Pilsbry. 

Helix lais Pfr. var. 1875, Novit. Conch. 4, p. 114, pi. 126, fig. 
6-7 (Tukan Bessi Island). 

Cochlostyla {Corasia) puella subpuella Pils. 1891, Man. Conch. 
(2) 7, p. 121, pi. 24, fig. 19-21, 24, 26 (Basilan, Philippines; 
Tukan Bessi Island). 

This species was not cited among the new species described 
in the Malak. Blatt., but was figured and given the locality of 
Tukan Bassi in the Novit. Conch. (1. c.) as a variety without 
name, which was later described by Pilsbry. This was another 
one of the Thomson species which was in error as to locality. 
Pilsbry 's record of Basilan Island, Philippines is also open to 

Helicostyla (Corasia) physalis Pfeiffer. 

Helix physalis Pfr. 1871, Malak. Blatt. 18, p. 123 ("Tular 
Island"— Thomson) ; ihicL, 1872, Novit. Conch. 4, p. 73, pi. 121, 
fig. 10-11. 

Cochlostyla {Corasia) physalis Pfr. Pilsbry 1891, Man Conch. 
(2) 7, p. 115, pi. 27, fig. 2-3 (Tular [Talaur?] Island). This is 
the only species properly localized by Thomson. 

Obba marginata Miiller. 

Helix marginata Miiller, 1774, Vonniuin Terr. Fluv. 2, i>. 41. 
—Pfeiffer 1852, Conchy.-Cab. (2) 1. pt. 12. sec. 2. p. 69, pi. 78, 
fig. 7-9 (Philippines). 

This species as well as two of the others listed above, was 
wrongly localized by Thomson. In his paper on the land shells 
of the Celebes (Malak. Bliitt. 20, p. 171, 1873) von Martens 
queries the locality of Tukun (or Tufun?) Besi for the speci- 
mens which he had received from Thomson. Reading between 
the lines, it would appear that Von Martens was having trouble 


July, 1943] THE NAUTILUS 19 

witli Thomson's handwritiiifr. Von Martens assifjns it, with a 
query, to the Sulu firoup of islands in the Philippines. The 
present material, however, fixes the locality (of Thomson's ma- 
terial) as the Talaud Island {rroup. The species appears to be 
widespread in the Philippines and not localized on any one 


Scholar of China Institute at Johns Hopkins University 

In preparinp: an annotated catalogue of the Chinese Me- 
laniidae, two jrenera and two species were found to be unde- 
scribed. Also, two described species were found to be in need 
of valid names. Since publication of this catalogue has been 
delayed for an indefinite time, I think it is best to extract the 
new things and publish them separateh', in order to make them 
available to other workers. 

I wish here to express my appreciation to the authorities of 
the United States National Museum for the opportunity to make 
these studies of their collections, and especially to thank Dr. 
Paul Bartsch for his most kind guidance of my work on this 

Genus Hemimitra Swainson 1840 

Hemimitra tangi, new species, PL 6, Fig. 2. 

Shell small, solid, ovate-conic, dark brown. The interior of 
the aperture is bluish white. Nuclear whorls eroded. Post- 
nuclear whorls inflated, strongly rounded and marked with in- 
cremental lines. The spiral sculpture consists of micro.scopic 
threads. The last whorl which constitutes nearly the whole 
length of the shell, is inflated, with strongly rounded periphery 
and has a narrow dark band at the summit. The suture is mod- 
erately constricted. Base short, well rounded. Ajjerture pyri- 
forni; peri-stome simple, thin; parietal wall covered with a thin 
callus; columella concave and nearly vertical. The operculum 
is thin, corneous having 2.3 turns with a subcentral nucleus. 
The radula has the formula : 3-1-3 : 2-1-5 : 6 : 8. 

20 THE NAUTILUS [Vol. 57 (1) 

The type, U. S. N. M. cat. No. 499701, was collected by Dr. C. 
C. Tang in Kiang-yang, northern Fukien Province, and has the 
following measurements : 2.4 whorls remaining ; length 12.4 mm. ; 
diameter 8.4 mm. ; aperture length 7.5 mm. 

Two additional specimens from the same source yield the fol- 
lowing information : 




Aperture length 












This species resembles Hemimitra terminalis (Heude), but has 
only one narrow spiral brown band at the summit. 

Genus Sermyla H. and A. Adams, 1854 

Sermyla kowloonensis, new species, PI. 6, Fig. 3. 

1887. Melania sculpta Gredler, Mai. Bl. (n.s.), 9: 163 (not M. 
sculpt a Souleyet). 

Shell small, solid conic, olive brown throughout. Nuclear 
whorls eroded. Post-nuclear whorls 4.4, convex, and marked by 
strong protractive axial ribs of which 12 occur on the penulti- 
mate and the last whorls ; the ribs terminate at the periphery of 
the whorl. The spiral sculpture consists of two threads of 
which one occurs on the summit and the other on the periphery 
of the last whorl. Suture well impressed. Periphery well 
rounded. Base short, strongly rounded, and marked by 7 spiral 
threads. Aperture elliptical ; peristome thin ; parietal wall cov- 
ered with a thin callus ; columella concave. 

The type, U. S. N. M. cat. No. 48041, yields the following meas- 
urements: length 8.8 mm.; diameter 4.5 mm.; aperture length 
4.5 mm. Its locality is Kowloon, on the mainland opposite Hong 

This species is very closely related to S. sculpta Souleyet, but 
differs in being broader and possessing fewer, more distinctly 
protractive axial ribs. 

Genus Wanga, new genus 

Shell elongate to subulate, whorls more or less convex or 
slightly flattened. The sculjiture consists of axial riblets and 
spiral cords crossing each other and forming strong nodules, 
which are much stronger than the intervening sculpture. Aper- 

July, 1943] THE NAUTILUS 21 

tiire ovate, somewhat expanded at the base. Genotype: Melania 
hcnriettae Gray 1834. PI. 6, Fij,'. 4. 

The name of this jrenus is derived from the Chinese word for 
fish-net, in description of the sculpture. In addition to the izeno- 
type, this frroup includes: Wotiga didcis (Fulton) 1904; Wanga 
hsiii, new name for Mclauia iurrita Ilsii 1935, not Klein 1846; 
Wanga lauta (Fulton) 1904; Wanga napoctisis (Ilsii) 1935; 
Wonga reticulata (Lea) 1850; Wanga scrupea (Fulton) 1914, 
and the variety scrupea dchilis (Fulton) 1914. 

Genus Hua, new genus 

Shell rather small, elongate-ovate, whorls smooth, somewhat 
flattened or only slightly convex. Aperture ovate, with an acute 
angle above; lip thin. Operculum with a subcentral nucleus. 
Radula rather long, the central tooth broader than high with a 
central cusp and three cusps on each side ; the lateral tooth with 
a rather long, narrow appendage and two or three side cusps on 
each side of the main cusp ; marginals rather long and narrow, 
broadening at the cutting edge which bears 5 to 8 cusps. Geno- 
type : Melania telonaria Heude 1888. PI. 6, Fig. 1. 

The name of this genus is derived from the Chinese Avord for 
smooth, in allusion to the sculpture of the majority of members 
of the group. In addition to the genotype, this genus includes : 
Hua diminuta (Boettger) 1887; Hua friniana (Heude) 1888; 
Hua heudei, new name for Melania oreadarum Heude 1890; not 
Heude 1888; Hua hongkongiensis (Brot) 1874; Hua joretiana 
(Heude) 1890; Hua kwcichowensis (Chen) 1937; Hua leprosa 
(Heude) 1888; Hua oreadarum (Heude) 1888, not Heude 1890, 
with Melania naiadarum Heude 1890 as a synonym; Hua prae- 
notata (Gredler) 1884, and the variety praenotata intermedia 
(Gredler) 1885; Hua protea nura (Bavay and Dautzenberg) 
1910; Hua schmackeri (Boettger) 1886 ; Hua toucheana (Heude) 
1888; and Hua vultuosa (Fulton) 1914. 



22 THE NAUTILUS [Vol. 57 (1) 


Mills College, California 

F. A. Schilder (1933, Bernice P. Bishop Museum. Occ. Pap., 
vol. 10: 3, pp. 3-22) and F. A. Schilder and M. Schilder 's (1939, 
Proceedings of the Malacological Society of London, vol. 23, pt. 
4, pp. 119-231) have included inaccurate data concerninp: Ha- 
waiian Cypraeidae. In order to clarify such erroneous data this 
paper is written.^ 

Schilder and Schilder (1939, op. cit., p. 130) make a statement 
concerning "ecological varieties" of Cypraea semipJota Mighels 
which warrants comment. They agree with the writer (Ingram, 
1936, The Nautilus, vol. 50: 2, pp. 51-52), that Cypraea annae 
Roberts and Cypraea polita Roberts are merely synonyma of 
C. semiplota. Schilder and Schilder (1939, op. cit., p. 130) 
regard the so-called "annae" and "polita" as ecological varie- 
ties. They state, "There are three distinct ecological varieties: 
the small oblong semiplota, . . . the callous dilated annae, . . . 
and the large pellucid polita, . . . with the extremities more 
produced and acutely curved even in broad specimens; inter- 
mediate shells are less frequent; annae and polita seem to have 
not yet been collected in the Leeward Islands." Three eco- 
logical varieties do not exist in the species C. semiplota Mighels. 
The writer has .several times collected the so-called "ecological 
varieties" under similar conditions in areas from 10 to 30 
square feet on tlie Waikiki reef, Honolulu, Hawaii. On the reef 
at Kupikipikio Point, Oahu, tiio writer has collected "annae" 
and "polita" living side by side beneath the same block of 
coral rock. The sliell forms of C. semiplota seem to this writer 
to be merely individual variations. If the three forms, "eco- 
logical varieties," were truly found occupying separate eco- 
logical nitches they could then be considered as ecological 
variants; however they arc not so found. 

I References are repeated in the bibliography with their full titles. 

July, 1943] THE NAUTILUS 23 

Individuals of "annac" and "polita" are in the writers col- 
lection from the Leeward Islands of the Hawaiian Arehipelapro. 

Sehilder and Schilder (1930, op. cit., p. 220) state that the 
Cypraca cruotta of Gray reported by Osterpaard (1928, Bernice 
P. Bishop Museum, Bull., 51, p. 28) and by Ingram (1937, The 
Xautilus, vol. 50: 3, p. 78) seems to be Ctjpraea rnshlcighana 
Melvill. Osterjraard (1928 op. cit.) and In{rram (1937 op. cit.) 
in referrinpr to Hawaiian Cypraeidae did not list a cruenta Gray ; 
their cruenta was that of Gmelin.- In any event C. cruenta 
Gmelin does occur in the Hawaiian Islands, and the above writ- 
ers could not have failed to distinguish cruenta iYovarashleighana 
Melvill. The above papers by Ostergaard and Ingram were 
based on personal collecting and on the collections of men who 
have collected in the Hawaiian Islands for over twenty years, 
namely, Mr. David Thaanum, the late Mr. L. A. Thurston, and 
Mr. Ted Dranga, all of Honolulu. 

F. A, Schilder (1933, op. cit.) lists fourteen species of Cy- 
praeidae from the Hawaiian Islands, one of these being a new 
species, Cypraea waikikiensis (Schilder). In splitting the genus 
Cypraea in this paper Schilder placed his new species in the 
genus Pahnadusia. This species of Schilder 's is probably based 
on two odd specimens of Cypraea fimhriata Gmelin. The holo- 
type drawings are quite uumistakingly those of C. fimhriata. 
Thus the species, waikiensis, should be considered a synonym of 
C. fimhriata Gmelin. 

In the (1933, op. cit.) paper Schilder lists a Palmadusta uni- 
fasciata Mighels, a synonym of Cypraea fimhriata Gmelin. In 
the Prodrome (1939, op. cit.) The Hawaiian C. fimhriata is 
placed as a subspecies, unifasciata Mighels, under C. fimhriata, 
the Schilders finally considering that P. unifasciata is not a dis- 
tinct species from C. fimhriata. 

The probable ancestral type to the endemic Hawaiian Cypraea 
tessellata Swainson and Cypraea sulcidcntata Gray is Cypraea 
arenosa Gray, Ingram (1937, op. cit.) and Ostergaard (1928, op. 
cit.), yet Schilder and Schilder (1939, op. cit.) place Cypraca 
tessellata in a separate genus, Pustularia Swainson, including 
such unrelated forms to C. tcsselata as the closely related cicer- 
cula Linnaeus and ylohulus Linnaeus, etc. They place C. arc- 

2 Illustrated in G. B. Sowerby, Theaaurus Conchyliorum, pi. 23, figs. 185, 
187, 1870. 

24 THE NAUTILUS [Vol. 57 (1) 

nosa and C. sulcidentata as they should, together, in the genus 
Cypraea. Sehilder and Schilder (1939, op. eit., p. 126) state, 
"The Hawaiian tesellata . . . evidently is allied to glohulus, 
though differing much in size and colour." Any one familiar 
with the Cypraeidae would conclude that these forms are as 
distantly related as C. moneta Linneaus and C. aurantium 

In Schilder 's (1933, op. cit.) paper he places Cypraea carneola 
Linnaeus in the genus Lyncina. In this paper he comments on 
the large size of carneola and states that the form is cylindrical. 
In their Prodrome the Schilders (1939 op. cit.) place craneola 
in the genus Cypraea and in the subgenus Lyncina. In the 
Schilders' (1939, op. cit.) Prodrome they consider the large, 
cylindrical carneola as a separate species, leviathan, and list the 
form propinqua Garrett, which is merely an ovate individual 
variant, not mentioned in Schilder 's (1933, op. cit.) paper as the 
subspecies of carneola found in Hawaii. Schilder and Sehilder 
(1939, op. cit.) concerning the large, cylindrical carneola state, 
", . . the large cylindrical ectotype of this race propinqua has 
become a distinct species, leviathan, as the divergence increased 
by development of some additional characters." They give the 
distribution of C. leviathan (Schilder & Schilder) as E. Poly- 
nesia to Gambler Island, Cook Island, Hawaii and French 
Frigate Shoals. The writer has a number of large and small 
specimens of Cypraea carneola Linnaeus from the Islands of 
Maui and Oahu, Hawaiian Islands ; collections of living and dead 
shells of the individual variant, propinqua, have been made on 
Rabbit Island off the shore of Oahu living together with the 
cylindrical individual variant. Under the circumstances it 
seems that C. leviathan (Schilder & Schilder) is merely a sj'no- 
nym of C. carneola Linnaeus. Siiell intergradations from the 
cylindrical to ovate variants in Hawaiian specimens also indicate 
the leviathan is only to be regarded as a synonym of C. carneola. 

Of tlie species listed as occurring in tlie Hawaiian Islands by 
the Schilders (1939, op. cit., p. 197 footnote, p. 220), the Schild- 
ers have only examined fifteen species represented as collections 
made in Hawaii. With sncli incomplete information, and never 
having collected in Hawaii, it hardly seems possible that these 
workers can draw conclusions concerning ectotypes, ecological 
varieties, and question identifications of men who have been 

July, 1043] THE NAUTILUS 25 

established in Hawaii for twenty years, and whose collecting 
ability and scientific collecting procedure is known through con- 
eological circles. 

In the Prodome the Schilders (1939, op. cit., p. 184) list a 
Mauritia maculifera Schilder which is the well-known Cypraea 
reticulata of Martyn. In the Prodrome (1939, op. cit., p. 184) 
they state that it is found at French Frigate Shoals; (1930, op. 
cit.. p. 220) they credit this species to the Hawaiian Islands with 
a distribution from French Frigate Shoals to Midway Islands 
and then from Hawaii to Kauai. They list a Mauritia dcprcssa 
Gray (Gray's Cypraea intermedia), as occurring in the Ha- 
waiian Islands. This species is listed as occurring from Hawaii 
to Kaui. There are no authentic collections of this species from 
the Hawaiian Islands. The Schilders have added confusion to 
authentic records of Hawaiian Cypraeidas; on page 184 of the 
Prodrome they state, "It is rather difficult to state the exact 
frequency of maculifera . . . , as it has mostly been confounded 
with depressa by former writers." The Schilders (1939, op. 
cit., p. 220) say that depressa is found occurring in moderate 
frequency in Hawaii. Apparently they did not examine the 
specimens of this species, but base their "moderate frequency" 
data from unreliable literature. 

Schilder (1933, op. cit., p. 13) makes a rather startling state- 
ment concerning Cypraea Isabella Linnaeus, listed by Schilder 
as Basilifrona isahella Linnaeus, "All shells collected in LA 
[Laysan Island] and FK [French Frigate Shoals] are con- 
troversa [a name applied to isahella by Gray] ; IX [one speci- 
men] from PH [Pearl and Hermes Reef, Southeast Island] and 
2X I two specimens] from PG [Pearl and Hermes Reef, Grass 
Island] also belong to controversa and are rather calcified, 
whereas the typical isahella from PH and PG are more or less 
bleached on the shore, but never calcified: therefore controversa 
evidently lives in different conditions." This statement is rather 
an interesting hj-pothesis for one to make who have never col- 
lected in the Hawaiian Islands, and especially when one con- 
siders that this observation is apparently based on beach shells, 
the statement is not very profound. Schilder goes on to state. 
"The variety controversa is much larger, broader, higher, and 
more callous than the typical isahella . . . , but the number of 
teeth is increased only proportionately to the length of the 

26 THE NAUTILUS [Vol. 57 (1) 

shell." It so happens that the environment for the so-called 
controversa and for Cypraea isahella ss. may be identical in 
the Hawaiian Islands. The writer has collected both larp:e and 
small individuals of C. isahella together on several occasions on 
Oahu. In one instance a larjje individual, " controvei'sa," was 
taken copulating with a small individual, isahella ss., at 
Mokapu Point, Oahu. In the Prodome (1939, op. cit., p. 176) 
the Schilders prefer to call the small Hawaiian individual 
variant of C. isahella Linnaeus by the name Luria isahella antri- 
ceps nov., as listed by Bryan (1915, Natural History of Hawaii). 
In the Prodrome (1939, op. cit., p. 176) the large Hawaiian in- 
dividual variant of Cypraea isahella Linnaeus is considered to 
be a separate species from the small individual variant, and is 
called Luria controversa controversa Gray. The writer has 
several good series of Cypraea isahella Linneaus from Honolulu 
Harbor, Oahu, Midway Island, and Pearl and Hermes Reef, 
Hawaiian Islands which show definitely that the Schilders' above 
two species intergrade one into the other, and are merely size 
variants. Thus Luria controversa controversa Gray and Luria 
isahella atriceps Schilder and Schilder should both be called 
Cypraea isahella Linnaeus instead of being considered as sepa- 
rate species. 

Schilder and Schilder (1939, op. cit., p. 172) state concern- 
ing Cypraea gaskoini Reeve (C. peasei Sowerby is a synonym), 
"We think that gaskoini and peasei are ecological varieties of 
one single species (their relation seems to correspond to that of 
Stapliylaea scniiplota and polita) : peasei is larger than gaskoini, 
more solid though pellucid, with the outer lip more declivous in 
front and externally bordered by a callous carina, which pro- 
jects from the basal level in the anterior third; . . . (size . . , 
type of gaskoini 23 mm., mean of peasei 24 mm.)." The refer- 
ence to peasei and ga.skoini as ecological varieties is without 
foundation, the differences in the shells are merely individual 
variations which one encounters in surveying large series from 
one locality. 

Schilder (1933, op. cit., p. 15) identifies the common Cypraea 
caputscrpcntis Linnaeus of the Hawaiian Islands as Cypraea 
capuianguis Philippi. In llic Prodrome the Schilders (1939, 
op. cit., p. 136) list a caputscrpcntis caputanguis Philippi as 
being from "S.E. Australia: Botany Bay to Queensland, Lord 

July, 194:5] THE NAUTILUS 27 

Howe I.. Norfolk I." and place it on the j^enus Erosarin. In the 
Prodrome the Sehilders (1939, op. cit., p. 136) call the Hawaiian 
Island Cuprora cnpufsi rpoitis Linnaeus **Erosaria caputscr- 
pctitis caputophidii Sehilder." 

Sehilder and Schilder (1939, op. cit., p. 188, p. 220) list a 
Cjiprnca vottricuhis Lamarck as beiiifr found from the Hawaiian 
Islands from Hawaii to Kauai. Tiiey state that it is moderately 
rare. There are no authentic collections of this cowry from 
Hawaii yet reported. 

In the introduction to the Prodrome of the Sehilders (1930, 
op. cit., p. 120) they state, "Our Prodrome chiefly consists in a 
catalofrue of the living: species of Cypraeidae, arranpred in a 
system that we think natural, and divided into geofirraphical 
races." How could this system be a natural one, with the 
Sehilders shufflinp: and reshuffling: species throughout their lon^r 
series of publications? With data based on personal examina- 
tions of so few specimens and species from certain areas, how 
can such data be accepted as reliable? Such jufrgling of the 
taxonomy of a group is certainly no aid to a natural systema- 
tist ; it soon kills the amateur's interest, and creates an unneces- 
sary problem for the professional zoologist with yearly changes 
in the names of shells; especially even when the authorities can 
not make up their minds, and are continually changing their own 
identifications. How can one decide what are and what are not 
geographical races when field collecting has not been done, and 
when races are established on beach shells? 


Bryan, W. A., Natural history of Hawaii, The Hawaiian Gazette 

Co., pp. 1-596, 1915. 
Ingram, W. IM., A reduction of Cypraca annae Roberts and Cy- 

praea polita Roberts to synonomy with Cypraca semiplota 

Mighels, The Nautilus, 50^: 2, pp. '51-52, 1936. 
, The family Cypraeidae in the Hawaiian Islands, The 

Nautilus. 50: 3,'pp.' 77-82, 1937. 
Ostergaard, J. M., Fossil marine mollusks of Oahu, Bernice P. 

Bishop Museum, Bull., 51, pp. 1-32, 1928. 
Schilder, F. A., Cypraeacea from Hawaii, Bernice P, Bishop 

Museum, Occasional Papers, 10 : 3, pp. 3-22, 1933. 
Schilder, F. A. and M. Schilder, Prodrome of a monograph on 

living Cvpraeidae, Proceedings of the Malacological Society, 

London,* 23 : 4, pp. 119-231, 1939. 
SowERBY, G. B., Thesaurus Conchyliorum, parts 26, 27, 28, 

Cypraea, pp. 1-58, 1870. 

28 THE NAUTILUS [Vol. 57 (1) 


Miss Marie Bourgeois recently sent a number of lots of Dry- 
maeus from various localities in Mexico to the U. S. National Mu- 
seum for determination, and amon": them were two new species 
which are here described. Great credit is due to Miss Bourgeois 
for her unflagging energy and zeal in exploring the rich mala- 
eological fauna of Mexico. 

Drymaeus bourgeoisae, new species. Plate 6, Figure 10. 

Shell of medium size, elongately ovate-conic, rather solid, con- 
sisting of from 6 to 6% convex whorls, separated by a well-im- 
pressed suture. The nucleus of 1% whorls has the typical 
drymaeid sculpture, while the following whorls are sculptured 
by low, irregular growth wrinkles, crossed by spiral wavy micro- 
scopic grooves. The ground color is white (rendered yellow in 
fresh specimens by the periostracum) upon which are painted 
broad spiral chestnut bands, of which there are three on the 
penultimate whorl and five on the last. These bands are inter- 
rupted at intervals by irregular white streaks marking the rest- 
ing stages in the growth of the shell; on the apertural side of 
these colorless streaks the spiral bands are axially fused, giving 
the color pattern the appearance of consisting in places of wavy 
axial streaks. In the early whorls the spiral bands are much 
reduced. The aperture is narrowly ovate, the outer lip thin, 
simple; the columellar margin reflected over a narrow umbilicus. 

Height: 23.7 mm.; diameter, 11.4 mm.; height of aperture, 
11.2 mm. 

The type, U.S.N.M. No. 517550, was collected by Miss Marie 
Bourgeois near Paraje Nuevo, near Cordoba, Vera Cruz, Mexico, 
on a mulato tree {Elaphrium simaniha (L.) Rose). 

Two other specimens, U.S.N.M. No. 517551, were collected by 
Dr. Martin del Camp, near Orizaba, Vera Cruz. 

This species probably belongs in the group of Drymaeus emeus 
Say, having, however, a narrower shell, shorter body whorl, and 
slightly more convex whorls. In color pattern it is like Drymaeus 
atfcnuatus varicosus PfeifTer from Costa Rica, differing mark- 
edly from it, however, in tlio sliajic of tlic last whorl and aper- 

1 Published by permission of tlio Secretary of the Sinithsoiiiaii Institution. 

July, 1943] THE NAUTILUS 29 

ture. The coloration likewise resembles that of Drymaeus 
droucti Pfeiffer, which is. however, a shorter wider shell. 

Drymaeus perductorum, new species. Plate 6, Fij^ures 6, 7, 
8, 9. 

Shell of medium size, elongately ovate-conic, rather thin, eon- 
sistinjr of 6 whorls, of which l^j are the nuclear ones with the 
typical drymaeid sculpture. The followin<r whorls show only 
irrejrular «rrowth wrinkles crossed by microscopic spiral frrooves, 
which in the tirst postnuclear whorl are fairly distinct, in the 
later whorls, however, become more or less obscure. The whitish 
•rround color is crossed by slender, tawny-olive to cinnamon 
brown (Ridp:way Color Nomenclature) axial streaks, irrej^ularly 
spaced and interrupted by a rather narrow band-like gap about 
halfway between the suture and the periphery; these streaks are 
of varyinp: strenprth and may become broad chestnut-colored 
streaks. Outer lip thin, inner lip strongly reflexed over the 
narrow umbilicus. 

The type, U.S.N.M. No. 517552. measures: Height, 20.2 mm.; 
diameter, 9.3 mm. ; height of aperture, 9.0 mm. Another speci- 
men measures: Height, 25.2 mm.; diameter, 11.5 mm.; height of 
aperture, 10.7 mm. 

The type and five other specimens were collected by guides 
near Las Grutas de Cacahuamilpa, Guerrero. 

This species is near Drymaeus hegewischi Pfeiffer, differing, 
however, markedly in the color pattern. The variation in the 
color pattern is shown in figures 6-9, figure 6, depicting the holo- 


Date.s of The Nautilus. — Volume 56, no. 1, pp. 1-36, pis. 1-4, 
was mailed July 23, 1942. No. 2, pp. 37-72 -\- i-vii (title page 
and indexes of vol. 55), pis. 5-6, Oct. 14, 1942. No. 3, pp. 73- 
108, pis. 7-11, Feb. 15, 1943. No. 4, pp. 109-144 + i-vii, pis. 
12-15, April 19, 1943.— II. B. B. 

Southern record for Aporrhais occidentalis mainensis John- 
son. — Last Summer while I was in Barnstable,, a fisher- 
man friend of mine gave me a specimen of this shell which he 
had found alive in one of his lobster traps, in deep water off 

30 THE NAUTILUS [Vol. 57 (1) 

Barnstable light. In Johnson's list of New England mollusks 
"off Dnxbury" is the farthest south reported for it. — Margaret 
C. Stewart. 

The Paleontological Research Institution, Ithaca, N. Y., 
has recently received, through the generosity of Mrs. C. S. Bent- 
ley of Plattsburg, N. Y., the collection of Recent Mollusea made 
by her husband, the late Dr. C. S. Bentley, and herself. 
Though consisting largely of West Coast forms, many genotype 
species are represented from various regions. All specimens 
are carefully labelled and catalogued. It is proposed by the 
Institution to use the collection as a nucleus around which to 
build a substantial collection of recent mollusks for use in fu- 
ture investigation of our Recent and Tertiary faunas. — G. D. 

Puerto Rican Megalomastoma. — In reply to Dr. Baker's 
somewhat amusing and facetious note on Megalomastoma cro- 
ceum (Nautilus, vol. 56, pp. 106, 107), I may say that during 
my three expeditions to Puerto Rico I collected mollusks over 
most of the territory and also kept ecologic notes thereon. My 
statements on the species of the subgenus Ncopupina were based 
on large collections which led me to believe that the species rec- 
ognized by previous authors had a cause for their existence, since 
my collecting indicated that they represented different faunal 
areas in the island and did not appear to transgress on their 
neighbor's territory. I somewhat regret that I did not give the 
full list of specimens in our collection, which would probably 
have given pause to Dr. Baker in making the remarks which he 
did. I am still convinced that the species which I recognized 
and which were described by the older authors have cause for 
existence, Dr. Baker's remarks notwithstanding. — Paul Bartsch. 

Ceritiiidea iiEGEWisciiii (Pliilippl), a Pacific Coast Shell. 
— Cerithium hegewischii Philippi (1848) was described merely 
from Mexico, where it was collected by Ilegewisch. There has 
been some difference of opinion as to whether it came from the 
Atlantic or Pacific coast. In tlie Nautilus for July 1!)42 (vol. 
56, p. 24) I sided with Tryon and von Martens in regarding it 
as a Ccrithidca of the Pacific. I have recently come across an 
additional hit of evidence which seems to support this view. Of 
the tiirce localities cited by Piiilippi in 1S46 witii tiie original 

July, 1943] THE NAUTILUS 31 

(lescriptiou i)f Littorina a.'ipcra (Proe. Zool. Soc. London for 
1845. p. 139) one is "from Mexico, found by Hegewisch." As 
this L. aspcra is a characteristic snail of the Pacific coast of Mex- 
ico, IIeg:ewisch did at least some, if not all, of his collecting; there. 
— J. C. Bequaert. 

Tan'yciilamys versus Macrochlamys. — Question has been 
raised in refrard to my use (1928, 1941) of Tanychlamyx Benson 
(1934) and Tanychlamydinae in preference to Macrochlamys 
"Benson" Gray (1847) and Macrochlamydinae. In 1832, Jour. 
Asia. Soc. Benpral 1 : 13, 76, Benson publishes the binomial, 
Macrochlamys indica, without a word of description or defini- 
tion (Art. 25, Internat. Rules Zool. Nomenclature) or any indi- 
cation (Opinion 1), which leaves it completely nude. In 1834, 
Proc. Zool. Soc. London: 89, Benson uses Tanychlamys for an 
unnamed but described species. Thus, Tanychlamys is 13 years 
prior to what is apparently the first valid use of Macrochlamys, 
that of Gray (1847, Proc. Zool. Soc. London: 169). Since, ac- 
cording to Opinion 46, "the first species published in connection 
with the g:enus becomes ipso facto the type," the type of 
Tanyclamys is T. iudica (Godwin-Austen) H. B. B. (1941, Bull. 
Bishop Museum 166: 211). A hearty welcome awaits any sug- 
gestions which might obviate legitimately this unfortunate 
change in a well-known name. — H. B. Baker. 

A supplementary note on the mollusks of New York, by 
Mr. Arthur Jacot (Naut. XXXVI: 2, p. 59-61), which came to 
my notice after my article had appeared in print (Naut. 56: 
4, p. 139-144), requires that certain changes be made in my list. 
The following species should appear in the second part of my 
article {Species appearing on both lists) instead of the first part 
(Species not listed by Mr. Jacot) : Noetia ponderosa Say, Laevi- 
cardium mortoni Conrad, Donax fossor Say and EpHonium 
humphreysii Kiener. And the species listed below should be 
added to the third part {Species appearing only on Mr. Jacot 's 
list) : Macoma tenta Say, Mcsodesma arctatum Conrad (which 
I found extensively at Hither Hills State Park near Montauk 
Point), and Polinices immaculata Totten. As for Haminea 
solitaria Say, I found many specimens in Pelham Bay on Hun- 
ters Island. 

Mr. Jacot also lists Alectrion fretensis Perkins and "Petricola 

32 THE NAUTILUS [Vol. 57 (1) 

dactylus Sowerby" Gould and Binney: Invert, of Mass., p. 92), 
neither of which species appears in C. W, Johnson's List of 
Marine Molluscs, etc. Jacot's Donax variabilis Say is definitely 
out of range and should be referred to D. fossor, as noted by C. 
W. Johnson, Nautilus 43 : 28. — Morris K. Jacobson. 

DiADORA JAUMEi Aguayo & Rehder, was described in 1936 from 
specimens collected near Cuba and from 20 fms. off Miami, 
Florida. Apparently there has been no further appearance of 
this shell until August, 1941, when Thomas L. McGiutj^ col- 
lected several specimens at Ft. Jefferson, Dry Tortugas, Florida. 
These latter shells differ in proportion from the holotype (which 
is stated to measure length 15.4 mm., diam. 10 mm., alt. 9.5 
mm.), in being much more depressed, the typical specimen meas- 
uring, length 15 mm., diam. 9 mm., alt. 4 mm. Our specimens 
have a slightly grey-green border around the anal callus. In 
our opinion this Tortugas shell compares more nearly with 
Diudora microsticta Dall, than with D. listeri Orb. or D. alter- 
nata Say, though it is slightly smaller, less clearly spotted and 
much more depressed than D. microsticta. — Jeanne S. 

Corrections and ecological Notes on some recently de- 
scribed Florida marine shells. — In a recently published paper 
on some new Antillean Mollusks (Proc. U. S. Nat. Mus., vol. 83 
(no. 3161, Jan. 20, 1943) pp. 187-203), two of the species de- 
scribed therein through some unfortunate mix-up in labels, bear 
erroneous localities. Fartulum nehulosum Rehder (p. 190, op. 
cit.) should be recorded from ^Missouri Key. 14 or 15 miles west 
of Bonefish Key. Microdochus floridanus Rehder (p. 193) was 
found at IMissouri Kej% and not Bonefish Key. 

Dr. B. R. Bales has called my attention to these errors and has 
also enclosed descriptions of the hai)itat of some of tiie mollusks 
described in the above paper. He has generously aliowotl me to 
jmblisli these interesting ecological notes. Microdoclnis florida- 
nus Reluler was found usually in crowded colonies under large 
flat rocks imbedded in tough, sticky marl together with Fartulum 
nt hulosuni Rehder, Caecum caifost use Reluler, Caecum sc}(lpfu))i 
de Folin, Phenacvlcpas liamillci Fischer, and Callistochiton shut- 
tleworthianus Pilsbry. This locality on Missouri Key is a rocky 
point partly above high water, but for the most part covered by 

July, 194.{] THE NAUTILUS 33 

the titles. Most of tlie shells mentioned above were eolleeted 
under rocks uncovered at low water. The Callistochiton was 
usually found on clean rocks, thouprh occasionally collected under 
marl-covered rocks. Phniacolcpas hamilU i Fischer lives farther 
inshore, under rocks that are submerged but a short time during 
high tide. Asthcnoihacrus halcsi Rehder was taken from an- 
other part of Missouri Key, having been screened out from sandy 
marl containing many small stones, and sparsely populated with 

The place on Bonefish Key, on the other hand, where Rissoella 
carihaca Rehder was collected, is an artificial fill of rocks in 
clean water, free from marl. Here the little Rissoella lives in 
sparsely populated colonies on the clean rocks, actively moving 
about, its white tentacles contrasting strongly with the black 
body, which is visible through the almost transparent shell. — 
Harald a. Rehder. 

Ensis minor megistus n. subsp., a West Florida razor 
CLAM. — In the course of dredging off Destin, Okaloosa Co., west 
Florida, one of us (T, L. M.) came upon razor clams in about 20 
fathoms, marl bottom, from about 18 to about 20 miles off shore. 

The dredge did not dig deep enough to obtain any living shells 
entire; it cut them off neatly leaving the lower halves in their 
burrows. However, odd dead valves were quite common, two 
being shown in plate 6, figs 12, 13. "While they are as long as 
the ordinary Ensis directus (Conr.), they are far narrower, the 
proportions being about as in Eyisis minor Dall ^ of which one 
from Galveston, Texas, is figured for comparison (fig. 11). 

This large form here figured from off Destin measured 145.5 
mm. long, 17 mm. wide. The greatest width is contained more 
than 8 times in the length — in three measured, 8.27, 8.56 and 
8.7 times in the length. The valves are very thin, with flesh}' 
brown concentric streaks on the posterior ray as in E. minor. 
As Ensis minor seems to run rather uniform in size, in lots seen, 
it may be well to have a name for this large race of deeper water, 
and we are calling it Ensis minor megistus, the type being 
17I»277 AXSP., paratypes in McGinty collection. 

1 Ensis minor was named but not described by Dall, Proc. U. 8. Nat. Mus. 
22: 108, 1899; the range was given but not the type locality. A good de- 
scription and figure may be found under that name in Dr. Perry 's Marine 
Shells of the Southwest Coast of Florida, p. 81. 1940. 

34 THE NAUTILUS [Vol. 57 (1) 

Two bleached and broken valves of this race were found by 
Mr. Clarence B. Moore in 1902, on the gulf beach at St. Andrews 
Sound, Bay Co., a place about 60 or 70 miles east of Destin. 
They had been labelled E. directus in the collection. 

Ensis minor, besides being known from our Atlantic coast, 
occurs on the Gulf coast of Florida at Cedar Keys, Clearwater 
Harbor, Tampa Bay, etc., as well as in Galveston Bay, Texas, 
but the largest seen from these places is 75 mm. long, 9.6 mm. 
wide; another large one 68 X 9.6 mm. It is a shell of sandy 
bars and shallow water. 

We do not know that Ensis directus has been reported from 
any Gulf locality, but there is one valve in the Academy collec- 
tion received with shells from Boca Grande, Gasparilla Bay, col- 
lected by the late T. Charlton Henry in 1926.— H. A. Pilsbry & 
T. L. McGiNTY. 

Note on Cerion striatellum ("Fer." Guerin). — In the lit- 
erature of Cerion this name has been applied by Poey and some 
later authors to a Cuban (Cabo Cruz) species, and by others 
to a Puerto Riean shell. In Manual of Conchology, 14: 278, I 
adopted the former identification, referring the Puerto Rican 
shell to C. crassilabris ("Shuttl." Sowerby). In going over 
eerions which have been "planted" on the Florida Keys I had 
occasion to review the matter, and concluded that the Cabo 
Cruz species is not striatellum. After getting this result inde- 
pendently, I found a note under the trays in the collection to 
the effect that Dr. de la Torre and I reached this same conclu- 
sion many years ago, when going over our series. The Cabo 
Cruz species may be called C. cabocru/.ense Pil.sbry & Torre. 
The description of ''striatellum" in Man. Conrli. 14: 278 defines 
Cdbocruzense, pi. 46, fig. 21, representing the type. Figs. 20. 
22, 23 are other topotypic specimens. It may prove to be con- 
nected with C. basistriatum Pils. & Van., a smooth form from the 
same locality. Cerion longidcns Pils., Man. Conch. 14: 212, is 
a larger and stouter shell, with slightly different parietal arma- 
ture; but thorough collections from the Cabo Cruz region are 
needed to elucidate the relations existing between the allied 
forms, basistriatum, cabocruztnsc and lunyidcns. 

Cerion striatellum (Guerin) is believed to be the Puerto 
Rican species commonly known as (\ crassilabris {"Pupa crassi- 

July, 1943] THE NATTILUS 36 

labris Shuttleworth" of Sowerby, Conch. Icon. IHTf), not I'lijxi 
crassilabris Parreyss in Pfeiffer, Mon. Ilel. Viv. 2: 134, 1848). 
The oolltH'tion name attributed to ShuttkMvorth was never pub- 
lished by him, and in any ease eould not be used. C. striatellum 
is slifjhtly largrer than any cahocruzense seen, the type fifjure 
beinjr 25 mm. lonjr. Other differenees as driven in Man. Conch. 
14: 192. The name Pupa striatella was attributed to Ferussac, 
but was first published in Guerin-Meneville's illustrated Regne 
Animal of Cuvier (j\Ioll. p. 16, pi. 6, fig. 12). This work ap- 
peared at intervals, plate 6 in 1829 or shortly after. Griffith & 
Pidgeon copied the figure (rather badly) in their English edi- 
tion of 1834. It was this species which Dr. Bartsch planted in 
1915 on Loggerhead Key and Garden Key, Tortugas, where it 
still flourishes. — Pilsbry. 

Jeanne S. Schwengel was awarded the honorary degree of 
Sc.D. by the University of Dayton, on April 18, in recognition 
of her work on moUusks. 

Western Shell Collections. — The Minutes of the Concho- 
logical Club of Southern California, No. 24, for June, contains 
records of the principal collections of the West Coast, especially 
those containing type material. 

Richard A. McLean, assistant curator of mollusks at the 
Academy of Natural Sciences of Philadelphia, has been com- 
missioned an ensign in the Navy and is now stationed at Cape 
May, N. J. 

Ln'ternational Directory op IMalacologists (including shell 
collectors). By Maxwell Smith, Lantana, Florida. Third Edi- 
tion, 1943, 50 pp., price $1.75. Chiefly confined to American 
conchologists, but some from Australia, Mauritius and New Zea- 
land are included. It is illustrated with many figures of charac- 
teristic shells from each State and Country. 


There will be widespread regret at the news of the death of 
Mrs. W. H. Eshnaur, which occurred at Bellflower, Calif, on 
April 13th, 1943. Mrs. Eshnaur was the last of the group of 
conchologists who formed the original Couchological Club of 

36 THE NAUTILUS [Vol. 57 (1) 

Southern California and carried on for many years in a way 
which laid foundations for much of the work done later. 

Nannie Milton Mock was born near Rockport, Indiana, on 
April 17th, 1862, but was living in Missouri at the time of her 
marriage to Warren H. Eshnaur which took place at Kansas 
City, Mo., in 1884. She and Mr. Eshnaur were already inter- 
ested in shells before they moved to California in 1898, and after 
they settled at Terminal Island in 1903 they were able to spend 
a great deal of time and enthusiastic effort on collecting grounds 
that have been completely destroyed by the development of 
Los Angeles Harbor. Mrs. Eshnaur was not a charter member 
of the Conchological Club of Southern California but joined at 
a very early date. Because of the poor health which was a life- 
long handicap she was inactive for several years but was always 
interested and very kind in advising younger collectors in the 
best methods and localities for collecting the local shells. 

In 1919 Mr. and Mrs. Eshnaur moved to Bellflower and shortly 
thereafter Mrs. Eshnaur revived her club membership and as the 
club was no longer exclusively feminine Mr. Eshnaur joined the 
club roll. After Mr. Eshnaur 's retirement from active railroad- 
ing the Eshnaurs made several long trips and added a great deal 
to their already large collection. But Mr. Eshnaur passed away 
in 1935 and since that time Mrs. Eshnaur, realizing that none of 
her family were particularly interested in shells, had given in- 
valuable material including the type of Pcriploma sulcata Dall, 
to the U. S. N. M., had sold her main collection and arranged 
for the distribution of many duplicates to a new generation of 

Mrs. Eshnaur is survived by one son, three grandchildren, 
and five great-grandchildren, but the group of friends and 
correspondents who will miss lier is spread over much of the 
world.— E. M. Chace. 

rilK NAUTILUS 57 (2) 


- -1. . _ ^x 

1 Kinu.l:. frcuulMt:,. 2. Wi.nula lo^^;M. :i, IU.huIm pyr„nnr.uM 
:,, (■..'X,.n«.pl...ra n.l.usta. 7, (Viion .Icani. S. (Vn.m ,.aul.. X 

1, 'l'y|iliis lonli- 
Nciiia juiiiiiciisis. 

10, Dryinaciis iiica. 

The Nautilus 

Vol. 57 October, 1943 No. 2 

By M. E. bourgeois 

In one of the papers that I received in 1941 from the California 
Academy of Sciences, there is a description of the shell Xenophora 
robusta Verrill, in which it is said that before the Templeton 
Crocker Expedition in 1932, which dredged eight specimens, 6 
living and 2 dead, this shell was known only from the description 
of the two original specimens taken near La Paz by J. Pedersen 
in March, 1870. 

Imagine my surprise on reading this, when I realized that I had 
in my collection a perfect specimen of this species, found by me 
on Playa Larga ("Long Beach"), Acapulco, December, 1930. 
Before this, I had not appreciated that it was such a rare speci- 
men, and which from the account of the California Academy of 
Sciences, proves to be the third specimen found, and the only 
other specimen known, apart from those dredged by the Temple- 
ton Crocker Expedition. 

My specimen (Plate 7, figs. 5, 6) is a very fresh shell and per- 
fect in detail, as to apex, base and apertural margin. The 
aperture itself is very bright and shiny, as if the animal had just 
been removed. 

The two views of the shell, kindly taken by Prof. Ancona H. of 
the Biological Institute of Mexico City, are excellent; beautifully 
showing the details of the base of the shell and the one perfect 
erratic, a Glycymeris, still fastened to the shell, besides pebbles 
and a fragment of another erratic. The figures are smaller than 
natural size. 


Five species of Rimula are now known from Florida. All are 
rare shells. Two of them, R. larva Dall and R. aeguisculpta Dall, 


38 THE NAUTILUS [Vol. 57 (2) 

have not been figured, and some structural points remain obscure. 
Thus R. larva was described as "long-ovate," but by the dimen- 
sions given it should be the most shortly ovate of our species, the 
width nearly three-fourths of the length. The highest species is 
R. aequisculpta, the height half of the length. In others the 
height is 40 per cent of the length or less. The new species were 
generously given by Mrs. Jeanne S. Schwengel. 

The follo\nng key contrasting the species has been composed. 
The size \\ill of course vary ^^^th age, but the proportions are 
probably rather stable. 

1. Width of shell less than half of its length. Sculpture of radial 
riblets and equally spaced concentric threads. Length 6.5 

\ndth 3, height 1.8 mm. Off Destin, Fla R. longa, n. sp. 

Width decidedly more than half of the length 2 

2. Apex at posterior fourth of length; height half the length. 
Sculpture of 40 equal ribs and close concentric threads. 
Length 5, width 3, height 2.5 mm. Ajax Reef, Fla. 

R. aequisculpta Dall 
Apex nearer the posterior end; height less than half the 
length 3 

3. Sculpture of fine, granulate radiating lines, with lines of 
granules in interspaces; margin entire; slit half as long as the 
shell. Length 3, width 2.3, height 1 mm. Off Fernandina, 

Fla R. larva Dall. 

Sculpture of radial threads or riblets and concentric threads; 
slit shorter; margin crenulate 4 

4. Concentric threads fine and verj' close, much lower than the 
radial riblets; width about 68 per cent of length, length 3.7, 
width 2.5, height 1.5 mm. Off Palm Beach 

R. pycnonema, n. sp. 
(■oncontric threads spaced about like radials and nearly as 
high; width 60-64 per cent of length. Length (5. 25. width 3.75, 
height 2.3 mm. to 1. 5.8, w. 3.7, h. 2 mm. Florida and Keys 

R. frcnulata Dall 

References: — R. frcnulata, "Blake" Cia.stropoda, ii. 406, pi. 
28 fig. 4. R. larva, Proc. V. S. Nat. Mus. 70, art. IS; 113. 
R. aequisculpta, same Proc, art. 19: 9. 

RiMULA LONGA, n. sp. Plate 7, fig. 2. 

Tlic wliite shell is oblou^;, rather narrow, the width slightly less 
than hiilf Iho length, with subpar:ill(>l sides; low, the height con- 
tained about 3.6 times in tlie length. Apex small, laterally 

Oct., 1943] THE NAUTILUS 39 

compressed, nearly terminal above the posterior end, the minute 
glossy nucleus of about one whorl visible on the right side but not 
projecting. Posterior slope very short and concave, anterior 
slope convexly arched. Slit-fasciole shallow, continuous from 
fissure to apex, as wide as the slit and marked with semilunar 
incremental lines. Sculpture of evenly spaced narrow radiating 
riblets from apex to margin, crossed by concentric threads, weak 
over the ribs, and dividing the intercostal intervals into squares. 
The radial riblets are a little stronger over the anterior half and 
near the posterior margin than at the sides. Interior glo.ssy, with 
two faint ridges extending from slit to apex, continued from the 
callus bounding the fissure. The margin shows slight crenula- 
tions from outer sculpture. Length 6.5 mm., breadth 3 mm., 
height 1.8 mm., length of slit 1.5 mm. 

Dredged in 13 fathoms off Destin, northwest Florida, by T. L. 
IMcGinty. Type A.N.S.P. 178632, others in the McGinty col- 

This is the narrowest and relatively lowest of our species, with 
sculpture similar to R. frenulata, which appears nearly related, 
but is higher and wider. 

RiMULuA. PYCNONEMA, n. sp. Plate 7, fig. 3. 

The white shell is oval, the width about 68 per cent of the 
length, height about 40 per cent of the length. Apex elevated, 
recurved nearly to the posterior margin. Anterior slope convex, 
posterior slope short and, except near the apex, straight. Sculp- 
ture of about 34 subequal narrow radiating riblets, spreading 
gracefully from apex to margin, their intervals divided by quite 
small interstitial radii; crossed by fine, close, wavy concentric 
threads, in places near the margin becoming almost lamellar, far 
lower than the primary radial riblets, and somewhat interrupted 
by the inconspicuous secondary radials. Margin crenulated, slit 
about one fifth the length of shell, its posterior end at the middle 
of the length of shell. Interior smooth, showing a slight callus 
around the slit. Length 3.7 mm., breadth 2.5 mm., height 1.5 mm. 

Dredged off Palm Beach, Florida; in about 250 to 300 feet, by 
Thomas L. McGinty. Type A.N.S.P. 178633; also in McGinty 

This species is probably somewhat similar to the unfigured 
R. aequisculpta Dall, but is lower and slightly narrower relatively, 
and the apex is nearer to the posterior end. The concentric 
threads are much slighter and closer than in longa or frenulata. 

40 THE NAUTILUS [Vol. 57 (2) 

RiMULA FRENULATA Dall. Plate 7, fig. 1. 

In this species the apex may project a Kttle be^^ond the posterior 
outline, as in Ball's figure, and specimens from off Palm Beach in 
65-70 fms., or it may fall short of the posterior end, as in those 
from Bonefish Key in shallow water, one of which is drawn in 
Plate 7, fig. 1. 



Among Bahaman mollusks received from the Rev. Paul D. 
Ford, President of the Bahamas Conchological Society, were ex- 
amples of a handsome Typhis, quite unlike any Antillean member 
of the genus, recent or fossil, known to me. 

Typhis fordi, new species. Plate 7, fig. 4. 

The shell is rather small and slender, the diameter less than half 
of the length; cartridge buff; of about six whorls parted by a 
rather deep suture, which is irregular by the presence of small 
denticles rising from its anterior margin, about two or three be- 
tween each varix and the follo^ving tube. Embryonic shell want- 
ing in specimens seen, the first two whorls preserved being plain, 
follo^^^ng whorls having narrow, straight varices, becoming promi- 
nent on the last whorl, where they are flat, broader in the anterior 
part, conspicuously fluted on both sides, there being about 15 
corrugations on the last varix. Spaces between varices having 
spiral cords. Tubes are moderately long, bending u])ward and 
backward a little, and arising a short distance behind each varix, 
with which the base of the tube is connected by a low ridge. 
Aperture oval, with a narrow rim upon the varix; the rather long 
anterior canal is quite narrowly open in front. Length 17.4 mm., 

Type and paratype 179712 ANSP., from 5 miles west of 
Nassau, on the north coast of New Providence. 

This species belongs to the subgenus Pterotyphis Jousseaume, 
which is characteristic of west Mexican shores. It is nearly re- 
lated to T. pinnatus Broderip, the type of that group, and is 
interesting as representing another Pacific (Pananiic) group in 
the West Indies. 

Oct., 1943] THE NAUTILUS 41 


Now that the Solomons are in the news every day and we are all 
vitally interested in what is going on down there, a few notes on 
my shell collecting activities on these islands, when I was collect- 
ing birds as a member of the Whitney South Sea Expedition in 
1929-30, may be of interest. 

When I saw in the newspapers the pictures of the landing made 
by the first contingent of marines on Quadalcanal Island, I recog- 
nized right away the beach near Berandi, where our expedition 
stopped for a day at the plantation of Mr. Robertson, to pick up 
Gordon White, the assistant of Dr. S. M. Lambert, chief of the 
Rockefeller Foundation anti-disease campaign in the South Seas. 
We were bound for Rennell Island, a hitherto unexplored and 
unspoiled paradise or "Lost world" of healthy and beautiful 

The long cobblestone beach at Berandi looked very unpromising 
for shells, since the heavy winds rolled the breakers high and 
washed the round stones to and fro. On sandy stretches, I had 
better luck and collected 54 species of marines in about an hour, 
including a dozen that were new to me. Some of the species of 
cones had remarkably heavy shells, as a protection that nature 
had given against buffeting on the stony beach. 

Jack London wrote "The Cruise of the Snark," which told 
much about the Solomons, especially in places I have since visited 
and collected biological material. Martin Johnson accompanied 
him on the Snark. I did not know that London had WTitten 
another very interesting book about Guadalcanal, until I found 
"Die Insel Berandi" in an old bookstore in Saarbriicken in 1931, 
and read it eagerly. A few days afterwards, I spent three days 
as the guest of Dr. Eugene Paravicini, director of the Museum of 
Ethnography, in Basle, Switzerland, and had time to see most of 
his immense collection of ethnographic and anthopologic material, 
which he collected in the Solomons. 

It seems that London's book "The Island of Berandi" was 
founded on fact. The heroine, an adventurous young American 
girl was shipwTCcked on Guadalcanal in her father's yacht. With 
her American fianc6 and a faithful attendant, a fine big Polynesian 

42 THE NAUTILUS [Vol. 57 (2) 

whom the natives called "one fellow Adam- Adam" and who had 
saved the lives of the two Americans, a plantation was started at 
Berandi. The fianc6 died of fever and the girl married the 
Polynesian. Wild and tough Malaita bushmen were imported as 
indentured laborers and disciplined with the aid of lash and gun. 
Jack London got his story directlj^ from the shipwTecked American 

In 1928, when Dr. Paravicini stopped at that plantation, he 
met a good-looking young woman, armed with a gun and a heavy 
whip, bossing a gang of Malaita men. She invited him to dinner, 
and soon appeared dressed as a lady in up-to-date European 
style. She managed the place alone and handled the crew of 
tough Malaita men, who worked well for her. This girl seems to 
have been the daughter of London's heroine, who \vith the 
Polynesian father had died some years before and left her to 
manage the estate. 

Dr. Paravicini found 2 new subspecies of Papuina and 3 new 
species and 5 new subspecies of Placostylus in the Solomons; these 
were described by Dr. Rensch. I found 2 new species and 2 new 
subspecies of Papuina and 4 new species and 1 subspecies of 
Placostylus, which were described by Wm. J. Clench. 

After the war, if conditions permit, a great deal of work in the 
line of biological explorations in the Solomons awaits accomplish- 
ment. The birds and the butterflies have been quite well studied, 
but the botany and the land snails of the mountainous interior 
are still but little known. 




During approximately six years of casual collecting in eastern 
Marion County (Warren Township), Indiana, it has become evi- 
dent that the land snail Mesodon pennsylvanicus (Green) exhibits 
extreme variations in abundance in this area — it being rare * in 
most localities but abundant at a few. It is the purpose of this 

' One finds less than one pennsylvanicus to 25 specimens of other Polygyrids, 
hence, an estimated abundance-ratio of 1/25. 

Oct., 1943] THE NAUTILUS 43 

paper to commence a catalogue of the previously reported abun- 
dance-areas - of the species, to describe two seemingly new areas, 
and to cite information of possible use in the location of other 
such elsewhere. 

Among the limited number of reports of areas where pennsyl- 
vanjcus occurs in any degree of commonness whatsoever, but two 
indubitable records of abundance-areas are known to me. One 
of these is the Ohio record of Call (1900) who wrote: "Around 
Cincinnati, in favorable localities, it is common, a hundred being 
collected in one spot a few feet square in a single afternoon." 
The other is that discovered at some locality near Monroe, 
Michigan by the late Sister Catherine of the convent near there.^ 

As has been stated, two abundance-areas have been found in 
eastern Marion County, Indiana. Since these areas are both 
located near Indianapolis, they lie within the region where the 
species has been called common by Stein (1881). However, the 
Stein data does not seem to necessitate reporting these areas as 
other than new. 

One of these areas comprises a segment of the former right-of- 
way of the Indianapolis & Cincinnati Traction Company between 
Kitley Avenue and Sears Avenue. The entire segment, however, 
is not populated by the species, for only in certain parts have the 
ecologic forces of the region been allowed to run their course and 
commence reforestation with a stand of saplings. Another of 
the more obvious factors influencing the ecologic development is 
the presence of Lick Creek and its tributary. Little Lick Creek, 
which together meanderingly parallel * the segment as one stream. 

Three snail-collecting localities have been recognized in this 
area: (1) Loc. R, situated just southwest of the cite of the Brook- 
ville Road underpass of the former electric-railway; (2) Loc. RR, 
that part of the right-of-way from the underpass at the Indianapo- 
lis-Rushville section of the P.C.C. & St. L. Railroad * to Broad- 
head Road; and (3) Loc. RR-1, that portion from Broadhead 
Road north to the banks of Little Lick Creek. 

' Defined as: An area with a much denser population of the specie8 than 
other parts of the same region. 

* Phil L. Marsh: Personal communication. 

* At distances varying from to about 200 feet. 

* Also known as the Baltimore & Ohio RR. 

44 THE NAUTILUS [Vol. 57 (2) 

At each of the foregoing locaUties pennsylvanicus occurs in 
considerable abundance and far outnumbers Mesodon thyroidus 
(Say), the only other Mesodon inhabiting the right-of-way to any 
extent.® A preliminary population-count June 28, 1941 and Loc. 
RR-1 revealed 16 pennsylvanicus specimens in an area of about 
78 square feet — a population density of roughly one specimen per 
five square feet. No thyroidus were found in the census plot. 

Mention must now be made of the second abundance-area, Loc. 
2X. This area is located about the Dietrich-Kline Ditch Bridge 
on the Indianapolis-Greenfield section of the P.C.C. & St. L. 
Railroad embankment He of a mile west of Mitthoefer Road. 
From the south side of the embankment the population seems to 
have spread southward into an adjacent woodland — only the 
northern part being inhabited by the species. 

Although it is impossible to offer any explanation as to why 
Mesodon pennsylvanicus should be so abundant in these two areas, 
it is not amiss to emphasize certain of the more obvious conditions 
which may be important factors in the problem. These are: (1) 
the repeated occurence of a graveled road-bed at the localities; 
(2) the presence of a stream nearby; (3) the repeated occurence 
of relatively undisturbed wooded areas adjacent to the abundance- 
areas; and (4) the relative absence of other Mesodon species in 
the populated areas (i.e. the high ratio of the pennsylvanicus 
population to that of any other species of the genus). One possi- 
ble test of the relationship these conditions may have on the 
occurence of pennsijlvanicus abundance-areas would be to attempt 
to locate other such areas, within the range of the species, at 
points where these conditions occur. 


Stein, F., 1881, "Svnopsis of the Molluscous Fauna of Indiana," 

Ind. State Geol. Rep. 1879-1880, p. 88. 
C.\LL, R. E., 1900, "A Discriptive Ilhistratod Catalogue of the 

Mollusca of Indiana," Ind. State Gool. Hop. 1899, p. 391. 
Steuki, v., 1900, "List of the Land and Fresh Water Mollusca 

of Tuscarawas Countv, Ohio," Ohio Acad. Sci., Rep. 8, p. 31. 
Bakeu, F. C, 1902, "the Mollusca of the Chicago Area," 

Chicago Acad. Sci., Bull. 3, pt. 2, p. 101. 
Steuki, Y., 1907, "A Preliminary Catah)gue of the Land and 

' A solitary speciiiuiii of .1/. ckvatus (Say) has been found at Loc. llR-1. 

Oct., 1943] THE NAUTILUS 45 

Fresh- Water Molliisca of Ohio," Proc. Ohio Acad. Sci., V. 4, 

pt. 8, p. 401. 
Cahn, a. H. and Kemp, J. T., 1929, "The Terrestrial 

of Turkey Run State Park, Indiana," Naut., V. 43, pt. 2, 

p. 07. 
Foster. T. I)., 1936. "Size of Shell in Land Snails of the Genus 

Pohnjlira with Particular Reference to Major and Minor 

Varieties," Araer. Midland Nat., V. 17, no. G, pp. 978-982. 



Since the opening of the road from St. Leonards across the 
north of New Brunswick to Bay Chaleur, I have been able to 
make a trip there nearly every summer; sometimes even two. 
My chief object has been to check up on the many pubHcations 
related to the fo.ssils and to collect specimens for my collection, 
and to take photographs of the most important places. 

On October 19th, 1940, we stopped at a place along the road to 
examine a marl deposit that I had noticed in passing by there 
several times before. This %vas on a farm belonging to a Mr. 
Leazari Henrj', in east Bonaventure, north of Bay Chaleur. The 
day was cold and windy, and our time limited, so I could not 
spend the time to give the subject all the attention it should have 
had. The marl deposit is 12 feet thick, (overlaid by two feet of 
peat) which has been worked for 17 years. The marl is sold to 
farmers for 50<i a yard and is used for improving the land. The 
marl is largely deposited by algae with some remains of fresh 
water shells. In the top layer of the marl are many large fresh 
water snails, Lymnaea stagnalis L., in a good state of preservation. 

Fossaria umhilicata, C. B. Adams, rather scarce. 

Helisoma trivolvis Say, 7 specimens. 

Gyraulus parvus Say, common. 

Sphaerium sulcatum Lam, 1 partly preserved. 

Pisidium, 1 large specimen of a species not seen before. 

This deposit is remarkable because L. stagnalis is abimdant in 
the top layer. To my knowledge it has not been found living in 

46 THE NAUTILUS [Vol. 57 (2) 

any body of water in north-eastern America where all the other 
species are of common occurence. 

On August 16, 1933, near the Maine No. 1 highway, on Mr. 
Edward C. Currier's farm in the northern part of Houlton, I 
discovered a peat bog of about 4 feet in thickness. It was under- 
laid by a marl bed about a foot thick, and in this marl deposit is 
a lot of fresh water shells, aU of which are of a large size for their 
species. Lymnaea stagnalis Linn6 is found in the top of the marl 
and must have been in abundance, as several specimens were 
there, all of a good size, but so brittle that only a few good speci- 
mens were secured. 

The following is a list of the 14 species of shells observed: 

Valvata lewisi Currier Gyraulus parvus Say 

Physa heterostropha Say Sphaerium sulcatum Lamarck 

Lymnaea stagnalis Linn^ Sphaerium rhomboideum Say 

Fossaria obrussa decampi Streng Musculum securis Prime 

Helisoma irivolvis Say Pisidium variabile Prime 

Helisoma anceps Menke Pisidium veTitricosum Prime 

Helisoma companulatum Say Pisidium contortum Prime 



The writer was fortunate enough to be a student during the 
1925 summer session at the Kartabo Zoological laboratory of the 
University of Pittsburgh. Each student's work consisted princi- 
pally of ecological observations and collections of animals of the 
group in which he was most interested. My oavti knowledge of 
mollusks was considerably broadened and increased by these first- 
liand studies in Tropical Animal Ecology, made possible largely 
through the efforts of my professors at the University of Chicago, 
Dr. W. C. Alice and Dr. II. C. Cowlcs. 

Kartabo Point, widely publicized by Wm. Beebe in his books 
on the jungle life of British Guiana, proved to be relatively 
barren of Mollusca. Lying as it does in the second-growth jungle 
area of formerly extensive plantation clearings in the Guiana 
lowlands, the environment is much different from that of the 

' Published by permission of the Secretary of the Smitlisonian Institution. 

•Hi; NA 111 I. IS .-)7 (2) 

PLAT]-: 8 

Guianadesma sinuosum. 

Oct., 1943] THE NAUTILUS 47 

virgin jungle. The most product iv(> habitat in the thickly matted 
second-growth forest is under or around fallen logs, where such 
species as Euylarulina siirinamrnsis Wrnhout, Lcptinaria lamel- 
laia concentrica Reeve, Eucomdus cassiqucnsis (Newcomb), Vitrea 
decoloraia (Drouet), Stenopus cayennensis (Pfr.), and Succinea 
recisa Morelet were found sparingly. In the area near the Cuyiini 
River, Hclicina (Scricea) scricea IMorelct was found in the leaf- 
mold and on trunks of the smaller trees, as far as eight feet above 
the ground. 

Even five miles awaj', in the more open but more heavily 
shaded and higher-roofed virgin jungle, relatively fewer moUuscan 
species were found. Auris disiorta sublaevis Pilsbry, Corona 
perversa (Swaiason), and Orthalicus sultana Dillwyn were taken 
from the trunks of certain smooth-barked jungle trees. Dry- 
maeiis cinnamoryieolineatus (Moricand) on the other hand was 
found on the leaves and branches of some smaller trees near 
jungle clearings, as high as five feet from the ground. Apero- 
stoma (Cyclohidalgoa) translucida major H. B. Baker and a slug, 
Vagi nidus sp., were found here on the virgin jungle floor. Al- 
though intensive enough search was not made to disprove their 
presence, no smaller species of moUusks were evident on the 
jungle floor. In the Kartabo area it is never hotter than 89" 
F. in the shade of the jungle, but it might be that temperature 
every day in the year, coupled with almost 100 per cent humidity. 
The jungle environment here seems too monotonous to serve as 
much of a stimulus for the production or survival of a multitude 
of different species. 

Some of the very few species of mollusks actually present at 
Kartabo have been introduced by man's agency since the Dutch 
first settled on Kyk-over-al Island, opposite Kartabo in the 
Mazanmi River, in the year 1626. It is probable, but not cer- 
tainly known that the Spanish were there earlier. This island in 
midstream at the junction of the Cuyuni and Mazaruni Rivers, 
also commands the junction of the Mazaruni and the Essequibo, 
in sight just four miles downstream. A garrison here controlled 
the entire Essequibo district by controlling travel in the Essequibo 
basin. Even now such control is possiljle because all travel to 
and from the Mazaruni and Cuyuni diamond and gold fields is 
still by means of river boats. Among the smaller species of land 

48 THE NAUTILUS [Vol. 57 (2) 

mollusks that were found mostly on Kyk-over-al Island, and that 
in all probability have been accidentally introduced by man 
sometime in the past 300 years are Opeas goodalli (Miller), Subu- 
lina odona (Brug.), Streptaxis glaher (Pfr.), and Luntia insignis 
Smith, Bothriopupa tenuidens (C. B. Ads.), found only in the 
leafmold in the dry season, but dotting the under side of shrub- 
bery leaves four feet off the ground during the wet season, was 
probably brought in from some other place in the Americas, as 
was the little helicinid, Poenia lirata (Pfr.). 

The waters at Kartabo are transitional in character; 45 miles 
inland from the seven mile wide mouth of the Essequibo, the 
water is practically fresh, although tidal influence reaches beyond. 
The fall line, at the first rapids, is about 5 miles upstream in both 
the Mazaruni and the Cuyuni Rivers. There is about six feet 
of tide at Kartabo; in fresh waters this is not conducive to the 
survival of many molluscan species in the region. 

All four species of mollusks of the ordinary freshwater types 
found here were restricted to waters out of the reach of the tide 
or were better developed in such situations. For example: there 
is a species of pill-clam {Pisidium) in the intermittent rain pools 
of the virgin jungle; one freshwater mussel, Diplodon granosus 
(Brug.), was found just 100 yards above the influence of the tide 
in a small tributary of the Cuyuni River at the fall line; the large 
apple snails (Pomacea), and the Black river snails, Doryssa con- 
solidata (Brug.) are found at and above the fall line in abundance. 
Occasionally their shells are washed do^^^l as far as Kartabo in 
the drift, but only the Doryssa has been found living in the river 
near Kartabo, surviving there in small numbers in the reaches of 
tidal freshwater. 

There are only two species of freshwater mollusks that belong 
to the transitional zone of the Cuyuni River, a small brackish 
water type of snail (Liitoridina), and a very distinct type of 
byssifcrous clam. This little clam, prcvioush' unnamed, has been 
more or less of a puzzle since it was first collected by Dr. Wesley 
Newcomb almost a century ago. Now dotoriiiination of its gross 
anatomy by reconstruction from camera lucida drawings of serial 
longitudinal sections of the entire animal has made possible its 
correct taxonomic placement. 

Family LYONSIIDAl-: (Thicle, 3: 93G: 1934). 

Oct., 1943] THE NAUTILUS 49 

GUIANADESMA, new genus. 

Shell small, .'^lightly inetjuivalve, rhomboidal, translucent, 
nacreous-porcollanous within, furnished with a variously WTinkled 
epidermis. Hinge anodont. Ligament short, internal, opistho- 
detic, that is posterior to the beaks, on a narrow ledge; without 
an o.^sicle. Pallial sinus broad, sluillow. Right valve emarginate 
post ero-vent rally. 

Animal by.^^siferous, foot small, cylindrical; mantle largely 
united, with foot and byssal orifice and two short, separate 
siphons, with a briefly continued internal septum. Inner and 
outer branchiae subequal, free below from the abdominal sac and 
from the mantle. 

Genotype: Guianadesma sinuosum, new species. 

This genus differs from all other known members of the family 
in the complete absence of the lithodesma or shelly structure in 
the ligament. It might be placed in a separate family if it were 
not evident that the loss of only one character is of insufficient 
taxonomic value, this loss having also occurred in certain forms 
of the related family Pandoridae. 

The single species known is estuarine, in practically fresh (tidal) 
water in the Essequibo drainage in British Guiana. Guianadesma 
is best regarded as a geographically isolated, aberrant member of 
the Lyonsiidae, which has lost the ligamental ossification, but has 
maintained the other general characters of the group during its 
transition to a freshwater habitat. Its most similar living relative 
seems to be Agriodesma Dall, 1909, from the southern California 

Gui.wADESMA SINUOSUM, HBw specics. Plate 8. 

Shell small, long rhomboidal, regularly slightly sinuous and 
inequi valve, periostracum light straw-colored; nacre ^^^thin hard, 
porcellanous, translucent whitish. Ligament short, opisthodetic, 
internal, without an ossicle, on a narrow ledge behind which is 
the wide shallow beak cavity; hinge anodont. The light straw- 
colored epidermis, becoming slightly darker with age, is wrinkled 
in a characteristic fashion on both valves; the anterior portion is 
WTinkled irregularly concentrically, to give the appearance of 
scaled fish skin; the median portion, in front of and over the 
posterior ridge, is raised into about twelve irregular or doubled 
radial epidermal folds; above the posterior ridge there is usually a 
return to a concentric folding; in some specimens both radial and 
concentric ^\Tinkles are present above the posterior ridge. The 

50 THE NAUTILUS [Vol. 57 (2) 

umbones, one-third from the anterior end, eroded even in the 
smallest specimens seen (4.5 mm. long), are apparently smooth. 
Adductor muscle scars subequal, the posterior the larger, in front 
of which are the large posterior retractor scars (in effect the byssal 
retractor muscle scars); anterior retractor and protractor scars 
small, inconspicuous. The pallial line is distant from the margin; 
the pallial sinus is shallow and wide, extending entirely across 
the posterior end of the shell. The left valve is usually evenly 
rhomboidal, the dorsal line straight to slightly arched below the 
umbones to meet the dorsally truncate anterior slope in a widely 
rounded curve. The anterior end is narrowly rounded at the 
base. The ventral margin is entire, straight to slightly curved; 
the posterior end abruptly truncate, the posterior point at the 
base. Sometimes the left valve is a little cut away post-ventrally, 
corresponding to the emargination of the right valve. The right- 
valve is irregularly rhomboidal, differing in outline by an irregular 
ventral margin, which is broadly emarginate behind the middle, in 
the region of the radial epidermal \M-inkles, and is not so abruptly 
truncate, but a little more evenly rounded behind. The shell is 
hardly sinuous above, but the post-ventral extension and overlap 
of the right valve produces a marked sinuosity below. 

The type (U.S.N.M. No. 536901) was personally collected July 
27, 1925 from rocks in the midstream of the Cuyuni River, oppo- 
site Kartabo Point, near its junction with the IMazaruni River, 
Essequibo District, British Guiana. The type measures: 17.3 
mm. R., 17.4 mm. L., long; Height, 11.1 mm. R., 9.8 mm. L.; 
Diameter, 7.0 mm. There are a number of paratypes in the 
United States National Museum collections, and in those of the 
Carnegie Museum (collected by the writer and Joseph Benkert). 

The animal is byssiferous, with a small cylinclrical foot; the 
byssifcrous gland and jiit immodiatcly behind and as large as the 
foot, extends through the abdominal sac to antl connects with the 
large posterior retractor muscles. The adtluctor muscles are sub- 
equal, the posterior a little larger; the anterior retractor and 
protractor muscles are small and inconspicuous. The mantle 
margins are united except for the michentral foot and byssal 
aperture, and the two short, strong, s(>parato sij)hons, whose 
s('{)aration is conliiuicd int(>rnally as a biicf iioiizoutal sejitum. 
Branchial siphon papillose; (he gills are eulainellihianchiate, and 
free from both the visceral mass and the mantle i)elow. There 
is no branchial septum. The labial palps are moderate in size, 
extending backwards almost to the bjise of the foot. There is a 
large crystalline style in a sac one-fourth as long as, and larger in 

Oct., 1943] THE NAUTILUS 51 

duimetor than the intestine, and apparently smooth. The byssus 
is heavy, short, miicli branched externally, and has the appear- 
ance of being; addetl to only as the animal p;rows, to anchor in one 
spot, not as adventitiously apjilicd as in Mytilus. 

This species was collected in moderate abundance from the 
igneous rocks that jut out of the Cuyuni River opposite Kartabo 
Point, and from similar ones two miles upstream in the Cuyuni. 
They were always fountl attached to the rocks or to smaller frag- 
ments (gravel) by their byssus, and were only present in channels 
that the river current utilizes through or around the rocks. On 
those rocks surrounded by mud bars, there were no clams to be 
found. They were found at or just below the low tide line. In 
both localities, on the rocks opposite and on those two miles up- 
stream from Kartabo, these little clams were collected with a few 
specimens of Doryssa consolidata (Brug.). This freshwater snail, 
so abundant at and above the fall line, does not extend farther 
downstream into tidewater, at least in the Cujoini or Mazaruni 
Rivers; its presence here indicates how completely freshwater 
the habitat of Guianadesma really is. 

The Isaac Lea Collection contains three specimens (U.S.N. M. 
No. 86803) collected by Dr. Wesley Newcomb, and incorrectly 
labelled as Bartldtia stefanensis Moricand (from the Amazon 
River, South America). There may be additional specimens pre- 
served in the Newcomb Collection at Cornell University or in 
collections of correspondents of Dr. Newcomb other than Isaac 
Lea. According to Stearns (Nautilus 5: 123) Dr. Newcomb 
collected in Demerara sometime in 1846-7. During this time he 
collected Doryssa consolidata at the "Falls" (fall line) of the 
Essequibo River (U.S.N. M. No. 98095-6). It is thus evident 
that he collected these specimens of Guianadesma from the Esse- 
quibo. The shells in question are very slightly different in 
appearance from those personally collected in the Cujimi nearby, 
but are not specifically distinct. The individual shells are so 
variable that it would require large series of specimens from each 
locality to demonstrate any possible subspecific distinctions of 
this species as found in the limited tidal freshwater reaches of the 
Essequibo, Mazaruni, and Cuyuni Rivers. 

52 THE NAUTILUS [Vol. 57 (2) 

Explanation of Plate 8 

Fig. 1. Guianadesma sinuosum, diagram of gross anatomy of 
a paratype. AA, anterior adductor muscle. B, byssus. BP, 
byssal pit. CG, cerebral ganglia. CST, crystalline style sac. 
ES, excurrent siphon. F, foot. G, gill. H, heart. IXT, intes- 
tine. IS, incurrent siphon. LN, ligamental notch. LP, labial 
palps. M, mantle. OES, oesophagus. PA, posterior adductor 
muscle. PER, pericardium. R, rectum. RM, posterior re- 
tractor muscle. S, septum. ST, stomach. VG, visceral ganglia. 

Figs. 2-6. Guianadesma sinuosum, holotype. (3/1). 2, Inte- 
rior of left valve. 3, Interior of right valve. 4, Ventral view. 
5, Exterior of right valve. 6, Exterior of left valve. 





Zoological Laboratory, University of Wisconsin 

In the course of other researches on Lymnaea stagnalis appressa 
Say carried out in this laboratory certain points on the morphol- 
ogy and functioning of the radula have come to our attention 
which are worthy of record, because of the importance placed by 
some workers on radular dentition in taxonomy. These points 
concern the marked variation in radular pattern in different indi- 
viduals, the development, wear, loss, and replacement of radular 
denticles throughout the life of the snail, and the elimination of 
the discarded teeth through the alimentary tract. 

Historical. Hoffmann (1932) described the formation of the 
radula in L. stagnalis, reviewed the controversial issues of earlier 
writers, and concluded that, once the odontoblastic cushion is 
built, it is permanent and fixed and each odontoblast produces 
all of the teeth of one longitudinal row in the radular ribbon. He 
observed that the part of the radula which has only recently 
separated from tlio odontoblastic cushion is soon joined firmly 
to the subradular epithelium by the secretion of the subradular 
chitin. He stated also that the radula probably does not pass 
out over the subradular epithelium by an independent movement, 

Oct., 1943] THE NAUTILUS 53 

but rather by a relative displacement of the radiila out of the 
raduhir sac as a consequence of the growth of the entire buccal 
mass. Cawston (1928, 1930, 1940) asserts that lymnaeids add 
new rows of teeth from the nascent posterior border of the radula; 
that the number of tricuspid teeth is increased by coalescence of 
the cusps of the marginal teeth; that older snails have more rows 
of worn anterior teeth and also a greater number of total rows of 
teeth than younger snails; and that shedding of molluscan teeth 
is a less frequent process than is commonly supposed! He 
counted 500 teeth in the radula of Bulinus tropicus at hatching 
time, and in a few weeks the number of teeth increased from 7,000 
to 10,000, a number which he believed remains fairly constant 
throughout the life of the snail. Pruvot-Fol (1926) describes the 
first very small teeth observable on the anterior portion of the 
radula as the teeth of the preradula, which, she \vrites, are the 
first formed set of embryonic cusps and are noted most promi- 
nently in Pulmonata. The radulae of other snails have been 
studied by Bowell (1924) and by Howe (1930, 1938). The latter 
worked on Pleuroceratidae and found a distinct increase in the 
size of the teeth concomitant with the increase in size of the shell. 
He concluded that in this family the radular formulae are not safe 
criteria for specific diagnosis. He maintained that the size of the 
snail should always be stated when the radula is to be used for 
purposes of classification. 

Methods. Fresh radulae were dissected from recently killed 
snails and mounted temporarily in distilled water for study. For 
permanent radular mounts the radulae were removed from the 
buccal mass with a minimum of muscle tissue and digested in 10% 
KOH for one to two days at room temperature. When clean they 
were rinsed and stained in 1% chromic acid for 10 to 15 minutes, 
run up through the alcohols including absolute alcohol, and 
mounted in Seller's alcohol balsam (Lee, 1937). 

By the method of Campbell (1929) the radulae were found to be 
compo.sed of chitin. Further, after heating in 88% alkali at 
160° C. for 15 minutes, and staining, the radulae appeared vLsibly 
unchanged, indicating the high content of chitin. Spek (1921) 
has shown the radulae of Helix and of Arioji to be composed 
mainly of chitin. 

54 THE NAUTILUS [Vol. 57 (2) 

Variation of the Dentitional Pattern. F. C. Baker (1928) gives 
the radular formula of L. s. appressa as follows: 

24 3 19 1 19 3 24 
3-4 3 2 1 2 3 3-4' 

Examination of 20 radulae of L. s. appressa taken from (1) 
approximately the tenth laboratory generation of snails collected 
originally in Fox Lake, Wisconsin, (2) recently collected Fox Lake 
snails, and (3) native snails from Lake Metonga, Wisconsin, has 
disclosed a wide variation in the radular dentition not indicated 
by Baker's formula. These 20 snails varied in shell length from 
33 to 46 mm. The maximum and minimum numbers of lateral, 
intermediate, and marginal teeth, respectively, found in the 
radulae of these snails were as follows: (1) laboratorj^ Fox Lake: 
14-19, 2-5, 21-30; (2) native Fox Lake: 18-25, 3-4, 23-28; and 
(3) native Metonga: 15-25, 1-5, 13-28. F. C. Baker gives the 
following figures for three different subspecies of stagnalis: L. s. 
appressa (1911, 1928): 19, 3, 24; for the same snail in 1902: 13, 4, 
29; L. s. lillianae (1928): 15, 8, 16; and for L. s. sanctaemariae in 
the same year: 18, 4, 24. 

In almost every transverse row of teeth in the radulae examined 
the first lateral tooth was distinctl}^ tricuspid, and occasionally 
some of the other laterals exhibited three cusps. In contrast to 
this Baker (1928) points out that "No tricuspid first laterals have 
been seen in any American specimens of this species" {stagnalis). 
There appeared also considerable variation in the number of longi- 
tudinal rows of lateral teeth on both sides of the same radula: a 
difference of three rows was not uncommon, and a maximum 
difference of seven rows was noted in one case. The average 
number of intermediate teeth was three. The median unicusp 
was constant throughout. The number of marginal teetii was 
usually the same on either side of the same radula. The number 
of transverse rows of teeth varied in the snails from the different 
localities: on the average in the native Fox Lake L. s. appressa 
about 100 rows; in the tenth generation laboratory Fox Lake 
snails, 120; and in the native Lake Metonga snails, 140. The 
milder environmental conditions in the laboratory may reduce 
the of teeth, and po.ssibly accounts for the greater number of rows of teetii of the laboratory snail over the same 
snail in its natural habitat. The number of teeth in each trans- 

Oct., 1943] THK NAUTILUS 55 

verse row was roughly 100, but variod considoral)ly even in snails 
of the same length. No deviation was observed in the parallel 
arrangement of the longitudinal rows of teeth. Evident here 
and there along the longitudinal rows was the gradual transition 
of the marginal teeth to the lateral teeth; marked transition in 
any one radula was not observed, but quite noticeable was the 
fact that the teeth did not pass gradually and imperceptibly from 
one form to the other, but that a vacillation occurred in which 
there appeared a periodic recurrence of the marginal tooth charac- 
ters; towards the nascent end of the row the recurrence displayed 
the recapitulation intensely with each repetition. The di- 
mensions of the radulae varied from 6.0 X 2.5 to 4.0 X 2.0 mm., 
and there was a fair correlation of radular dimensions with the 
number of transverse rows of teeth and the number of teeth in the 
transverse rows. 

These radulae exhibited a series of morphological types in each 
transverse row of teeth. These are listed here beginning with the 
extreme marginals and leading in to the median tooth: (1) the 
relatively small and inconspicuous marginal rounded knobs which 
elongated, becoming quite slender and developed minute cusps; 

(2) the midmarginals in which the cusps reached their maximum 
number and then started to decrease again as the tooth shortened; 

(3) the intermediates w'here the tooth shortened to the length 
maintained by the laterals; (4) and finally the laterals in which all 
of the cusps of the marginals merged (or perhaps became reduced) 
to the average number of two. The first lateral increased the 
number of cusps again to three; the median tooth retained the 
unicuspid condition. Occasionally an entire longitudinal row of 
lateral teeth was met which was completely unicuspid, indicating, 
with what has been described above, the general tendency of the 
teeth to take on the unicuspid shape. 

A glance at the numbers of the different kinds of teeth in vari- 
ous specimens of L. s. appressa, and in the related subspecies 
given by Baker, indicates to some extent the marked variation 
and overlapping of the numerical limits of the different teeth in 
the radulae of the subspecies of Lymnaca represented, and also in 
the individuals of L. s. appressa itself. 

Wear, Loss, and Replacement of Teeth. The first nascent poste- 
rior transverse row of teeth in these radulae appeared as a vague 

56 THE NAUTILUS [Vol. 57 (2) 

transparent image; proceeding forward the teeth became grad- 
ually transformed into the fully hardened chitinous denticles. 
The teeth in the first transverse row on the anterior margin of the 
radula had been reduced to rounded stubs by constant wear. 
Posteriad for approximately 25 transverse rows the teeth dis- 
plaj^ed progressively less wear. The anterior border of the radula 
was rounded and not squared as one might expect from the fact 
that the teeth in each transverse row are produced simultaneously. 
The rounding is effected by the earlier loss of the more weakly 
attached marginal teeth. 

Evidence for the fact that teeth are dropped from the radula 
was found in the examination of fresh radulae and of fecal pellets. 
In fresh radulae the scars of 4 to 5 denticular plates of attachment 
in the radular membrane were evident anterior to each of the last 
attached anterior teeth. 

Microscopic examination of the fecal pellets of a normal 40 mm. 
snail over a period of 23 days showed that a surprisingly large 
number of radular teeth are dislodged daily, swallowed, and 
passed out in the fecal material. This snail was isolated in a two- 
liter glass container containing a half inch mesh paraffined metal 
screen over the bottom which permitted the feces to collect there 
undisturbed by the snail; snails commonly consume their o\mi 
feces. That this snail was a normal one was indicated by the 
fact that it oviposited three egg capsules and added 2 mm. to the 
length of its shell during the experiment. Moreover at the con- 
clusion of the experiment, dissection revealed that the radula was 
normal in all respects. A total of 613 teeth of all types was dis- 
carded in 23 days as follows (da3^s in parenthesis): (1) 1, (2) 1, 
(3) 0, (4) 0, (5) 16, (6) 0, (7) 75, (8) 0, (9) 7, (10) 16, (11) 42, (12) 
42, (13) 25, (14) 4, (15) 60, (16) 59, (17) 24, (18) 33, (19) 95, (20) 
65, (21) 26, (22) 15, (23) 7. Random samplings of the fecal 
pellets of other snails also showed the presence of discarded teeth. 

Further evidence for the theory that the radula is constantly 
growing forward (although no explanation as to how the radula 
passes forward is attempted here) and discarding the old worn 
teeth, and that the teeth in each transverse row undergo a "meta- 
morphosis" from the primary marginal tootii to the laterals, was 
found in a study of the radulae of a series of consecutively older 
and larger laboratory snails. Tiie shell IcMigth of the snails used 

Oct., 1943] 



varied from 5.5 to 41.0 mm. and the ages from 45 to 115 day.s 
(Table I). The tabiihition in Table II .show.s that the median 
tooth remained unicuspid and constant throughout, and that the 

Table I 

Variation of Certain Characters of L. a. appressa with Age 

and with Shell Length 



Number of snail 






Age, days 






Shell length, mm. 






Spire length, mm. 






Aperture length, mm. 






Aperture width, mm. 






No. shell whorls 






Number of transverse 







Length of 1st. lateral, in /a 






Radular dimensions, mm. 






Total no. of teeth per 







Table II 

Variation of the Radular Formula of L. s. appressa with 

Age and with Shell Length 

Tj-pes of Teeth 

Number of Teeth 

Number of snail 























































































* Posterior portion of radula; ** Anterior portion of radula. 

58 THE NAUTILUS [Vol. 57 (2) 

number of intermediate teeth varied onJy \\'ithin the limits of 2 to 
5. With increasing size and age of snails there was a progressive 
increase in the number of lateral and marginal teeth, the length 
of the first lateral (measured from the tip of the cone to the ante- 
rior edge of the plate of attachment), the width and the length of 
the radula, the number of transverse rows of teeth, and the num- 
ber of teeth in any transverse row. Inspection of the form of the 
individual teeth through the series shows vividly the increase in 
the total number of teeth with age, and the "metamorphosis" 
of the marginals to the laterals. In the youngest snail (No. 5) 
no laterals were yet formed, and the radula was consequently 
divisible into two regions only: marginals and intermediates. 
The intermediates were all distinctly tricuspid and in form were 
about midway between the intermediate teeth and lateral teeth. 
In the 10 mm. snail (No. 4) the complete separation into the 
laterals, intermediates, and marginals had already taken place. 
The first lateral on either side of the median tooth persisted 
through all radulae examined as the tricuspid intermediate form. 
The right laterals and intermediates of the radula of the 18 mm. 
snail (No. 3) were so intermixed that the two regions could not 
be delimited. The nascent half of the left side of this same radula 
showed clearly a transition from the marginals to the interme- 
diates in one longitudinal row of teeth; a similar transition was 
shown in the right side of the same radula. In the radula of the 
23.5 mm. snail (No. 2) the nascent left end showed one more 
longitudinal row of laterals than the anterior end, thus indicating 
transition from the intermediate to the lateral form. 

The successive teeth down any longitudinal row in a given 
radula do not vary perceptibly in length. The length of the 
individual teeth of the snail, for cxami)lc of the first lateral, 
increases from 15 /x in a 45 day old snail to GO /x in a 115 day old 
snail. This suggests a sufficient production of and subsequent 
discard of teeth such that the length of the teeth in any longitu- 
dinal row of the radulae of various sized snails remains fairlj' 

Siimmnry. (1) The variation in the radular dentition in the 
subspecies of Lymnaca staynalis mentioned here seems to make 
the use of radular formulae undependable, at least for subspecific 
diagnosis. Because of the change of the denticular pattern with 

Oct., 1943] THE NAUTILUS 69 

the size of the snail, the radiila woiilci be a more reliable tool in 
chissification when used with snails of known dimensions. (2) 
It is suggested that in the youngest snails the radula is probably 
formed by a few rows of marginal-like teeth produced by rela- 
tively few odontoblasts. With increase in age, the odontoblastic 
cushion grows laterad producing an increasing number of longi- 
tudinal rows of teeth. Each portion of the odontoblastic cushion 
which produces each longitudinal row of teeth progressively dif- 
ferentiates to produce successively the series of types of teeth 
found across a transverse row in the adult snail radulae. (3) 
Finally, there is indicated a remarkable turnover of teeth, a rate 
of production and discard far exceeding earlier estimates. 

Literature Cited 

Baker, F. C, 1902, Bull. 3, Nat. Hist. Survey, Chicago Acad. Sci. 

, 1911, Special Publ. 3, Chicago Acad. Sci. 

, 1928, Pt. I, Bull. 70, Wis. Geol. Nat. Hist. Survey. 

BowELL, E. W., 1924, J. Quek. Microsc. CI. (2) 15: 57-64. 
Campbell, F. L., 1929, Ann. Entom. Soc. Amer. 22: 401-426. 
Cawstox, F. G., 1928, Nautilus 41 (4): 141-142. 

, 1930, Trans. Roy. Soc. S. Africa 18: 325-320. 

, 1940, Nature, London 146: (3707): 654. 

Hoffmanx, H., 1932, Jena Z. Naturw. 67: 535-553. 
How^E, S. W., 1930, Nautilus 44 (2): 53-56. 

, 1938, Amer. Midi. Nat. 20 (3): 549-561. 

Lee, Boles, 1937, The microtomists vade-mecum. 10th ed. 

Pruvot-Fol, a., 1926, Arch. Zool. Exp. et. G^n. 65 (5): 209-343. 
Spek, J., 1921, Z. wiss. Zool. 118: 313-363. 

By maxwell SMITH 

Cerion deaxi, new species. Plate 7, figure 7. 

Shell small, subcylindric-ovate, translucent, rimate perforate, 
ground color cream-white, surface shining, ornamented with 
longitudinal chestnut colored flames which are about ecpial in 
area to the light ground. Longitudinal growth lines numerous, 
rather fine, slightly oblique. Spire somewhat swollen as com- 

CO THE NAUTILUS [Vol. 57 (2) 

pared with bodj'-whorl, post-nuclear whorls 6}4, nuclear whorls 2, 
the latter flesh color, the former slightly convex. Suture moder- 
ately impressed, occasionally slightly puckered. Parietal lamella 
strong, deeply placed, light in color, axial lamella indistinct when 
present. Peristome of the cream ground color, the terminals 
somewhat distant from one another, no change of color pattern 
visible upon the parietal wall. Exterior chestnut colored pattern 
visible within the aperture. 

The holotype, together with a good series, were received from 
Paul Dean Ford, of Nassau, Bahamas. They were collected at 
"The Current," south tip of Abaco, Bahamas. The holotype, in 
the collection of the author, measures: Length IG mm.; diameter 
6 mm. 

Cerion deani is closely allied to C. marmoratum (Pfeiffer) from 
Fortune Island where it was collected by John B. Henderson Jr. 
and Charles T. Simpson. The new species is first of all much 
smaller, the post nuclear whorls fewer in number, the aperture not 
so elongate and much more obliquely extended. Furthermore in 
C. marmoratum there is a tendency toward a continuous peristome 
by the presence of a sharp edge of enamel connecting the terminals 
of the lip. In C. deani this character is practically' absent. 

Cerion pauli, new species. Plate 7, figure 8. 

Shell of moderate size, extremely narrow, solid, rimate per- 
forate, ground color whitish or cream, surface with a silk-like 
lustre, ornamented with chestnut colored longitudinal flames 
which cover less than one-half the surface. Sculpture consisting 
of slightly oblique longitudinal growth riblets of varying size, a 
few of which suggest slight varices, becoming more oblique upon 
the body whorl. Spire somewhat swollen near center, post nu- 
clear whorls 10, slightly convex, each whorl keeled anteriorly 
adjacent to the suture and forming an "overhang." Suture deep, 
beyond the first five whorls slightly descending, especially toward 
maturity. Nuclear whorls 3, the second the largtvst, cream color 
with a pearl-like sheen. Parietal lamina strong, slight indica- 
tions of himina upon axial wall. Aperture angulate above, ob- 
li(iuely extended, exterior of extension adjacent to the axis 
characterized by several previous lip formations which stand out 
proiiiincntly. Peristome continuous, outer edge somewhat 

Oct., 1943] THE NAUTILUS Gl 

pointod ntljacent to suture, with in cortiiin individuals a previous 
hibruni outside and which at its termination is bifurcate. 

The holotype, together with other specimens were collected on 
Stewart Manor Hill, Exuma (main island), Bahamas. The holo- 
type, in the collection of the author, measures: Length 23 mm.; 
diameter 4.5 mm. 

Cerion paidi is the most slender Cerion so far discovered. No 
other species seems to approximate it. A study of the anatomy 
may reveal that it should be placed in a new genus or subgenus. 
A few examples of this species lack the chestnut colored flame-like 
markings, being of a uniform light color. 

The two new Cerions are named in honor of Paul Dean Ford 
the well known malacologist of Nassau, Bahamas, President of 
The Bahamas Conchological Societj^, who supplied the specimens. 

Nenia juninensis, new species. Plate 7, figure 9. 

Shell fairly solid, fusiform, sinistral. Early whorls brownish- 
flesh color, later covered with a thin brownish cuticle which ex- 
hibits a faint sheen. Sculpture consisting of numerous longi- 
tudinal wavy interrupted riblets which have the tendency to 
become more plentiful and crowded anteriorly at the suture. 
Spire broadest in the middle, whorls 73/^, slightly convex. Nu- 
cleus whitish and tilted slightly to one side. Suture moderately 

The superior lamella is high, shaped like the bow of a boat when 
viewed from outside, continuous with the spiral lamella, which in 
turn is strongly developed. The lunella is deeply curved, the 
visible portion trowel shaped. The aperture is w^ell extended 
from the body whorl, peristome continuous and well spread out 
adjacent to and below the lamella. Interior of sperture and the 
peristome ivory-white. 

Three examples, including the holotype, are in the collection of 
the author. The holotype measures: Length 30 mm., l)readth 
7 mm. Collected at an elevation of 1100 meters in the Depart- 
ment of Junin, Province of Jaugo, Peru. 

Drymaeus inca, new species. Plate 7, figure 10. 

Shell of moderate size, perforate rimate, rather thin, ground 
color yellowish-white, shining, ornamented with streaks or masses 

62 THE NAUTILUS [Vol. 57 (2) 

of gra\'ish-bro\vn with occasional narrow lighter interspaces. 
Growth Hnes the dominant sculpture, chiefly on the body whorl, 
crossed by more or less distinct fine, incised spiral striation. 
Spire conic, apex flattened. Whorls 5}^, slightly convex, body 
whorl very large. Suture indistinct, its terminal slightly ascend- 
ing behind the lip. Aperture large, well exceeding half the total 
length of the shell, showing the external pattern inside. Peri- 
stome broadly expanded throughout. Columella almost straight 
with axis. Base flattened below the carina. 

The holotype and several examples are in the collection of the 
author. The holotype measures: Length 30 mm., diameter 
18 mm. Collected at an elevation of 1 100 meters in the Depart- 
ment of Junin, Province of Jaugo, Peru. 

Drymaeus inca is allied to Drymaeus expansus (Pfeiffer). The 
spire of the new shell is much shorter than that of D. expansus, 
the posterior termination of the peristome being much more 
removed from the suture than in the latter species. Further the 
color pattern and the shape of the aperture are distinguishing 



Curator, Divisions of Mollusks and Cenozoic Invertebrates 



Associate Curator, Division of Mollusks 

United States National Museum 

Dr. H. Burrington Baker, in a recent number of The Nautilus 
(vol. 56, no. 4, April, 1943, pp. 135-137), has questioned the use of 
Ptychocochlis Simpson as a valid group name in the Cyclophoridae, 
claiming it is a synonym of Potcria Gray, 1850. lie has also dis- 
sented from the concept of Apcrostoma as recently used by 
Bartsch, U. S. National Mu.seum Bulletin 181, 1942, p. 124. 
That our silence may not be regarded as assent, we are stating our 
position as clearly and briefly as po.ssiblc. 

Ptychocochlis was proposed by Simpson (Proc. U. S. Nat. 
Museum, vol. 17, 1894, p. 431 (1895) as a substitute for " Platy- 

Oct., 1943] THE NAUTILUS C3 

stoma Klein applied by Fischer and Crosse . . . several times 
preoccupied." Fischer and Cro.'^.se (Miss. Sci. Mex. Rcch. Zool., 
vol. 2, pp. 149-150, ICl, 1888) applied the name Platystoma Klein 
(already used in 18G0 by Morch for a different group) "ii un 
groupe . . . dont Chemnitz a design^ Ic type sous le nom de 
Turbo jamaicensis'^ {I.e. p. 150) and again "une forme trcs- 
voisine, mais distincte, prise pour type du genre Platystoma de 
Klein, le P. jamaiccnsis Chemnitz" (I.e. p. 161). Before this, 
in 1885, Fischer (Man. de Conch., p. 744) had used Platystoma 
Ivlein as a section of Aperostoma, with the sole species "P. jamai- 
eensis, Chemnitz." 

The type, therefore, of Platystoma Klein of Fischer 1885 and 
Fischer and Crosse 1888, and that of Ptyehoeoehlis Simpson 1895, 
is the Turbo jamaicensis of Chemnitz, whatever their concept of 
that species may have been (see Opinions of the International 
Commission of Zoological Nomenclature, nos. 14 and 65). 

The type of Poteria Gray, 1850, is Turbo jamaieensis Wood 
(Index Test., ed. 2, Suppl., p. 18, pi. 6, Turbo, p. 3). This species 
is quite different from the Chemnitzian form as a comparison of 
the figures will show. Chemnitz mentions, and his figure depicts, 
the "very many ^^Tinkles and fine folds at the suture and near the 
high edge which surrounds the deep funnel-shaped umbilicus like 
a wall." The description of the operculum is too general and his 
figure of it too poor to be of much value. Wood's figure, on the 
other hand, shows no corrugations and only a weakly expressed 
umbilical carina. If Wood's species had been more strongly 
sculptured, the artist would surely have shown this, as he did 
quite adequately the corrugations in the figures of other sculp- 
tured shells in the same work. 

In spite of these evident differences, these two species have been 
confused and synonymized by most later authors. Pilsbry and 
Brown in 1910 (Proc. Acad. Nat. Sci. Philadelphia, 1910, p. 534) 
called attention to the fact that "the species long known as 
'jamaieensis Chemnitz' is certainly not the Chemnitzian form, 
which was really portlandensis of Chitty." 

Considering these facts we believe that the identification of 
these two forms as given by Bartsch (Bull. U. S. Nat. Museum, 
no. 181, 1942, pp. 93, 112) is reasonable and logical. Only an 

64 THE NAUTILUS [Vol. 57 (2) 

examination of the type of Wood's species in the British Museum 
can definitely settle the question. 

Bartschivindex H. B. Baker, 1943, becomes, therefore, in our 
opinion, a synonym of Ptychocochlis Simpson. 

The Type of Aperostoma Troschel 1847 

Troschel in the Zeitschrift fiir Malakozoologie, vol. 4, 1847, p. 
44, proposed the genus Aperostoma, naming as the examples: 
volvulus Lam., mexicanum Menke, and blanchetianum Moricand. 
The type of the genus must of course be one of these three. 

Pfeiffer in the article immediately following states that in his 
opinion "Aperostoma still embraces two heterogeneous elements, 
namely, shells with a heavy calcareous and others with, a thin, 
horny operculum. I would restrict the genus Aperostoma to the 
first i.e. those with a calcareous operculum, and I would revive 
for the others Montfort's name Cyclophorus, whose type in 
Cyclostoma volvulus Miiller." To the two named species left in 
Aperostoma thereby he adds six more species. 

Aperostoma blanchetianum was known to have a calcareous 
operculum, and the operculum of mexicanum was unknown 
(Pfeiffer states this in Zeitschrift fiir Malakozoologie, vol. 4, 
1847, pp. 103, 104), but he placed that species in Aperostoma. 

Since Pfeiffer as first reviewer restricted Aperostoma to cyclo- 
phorid mollusks having a calcareous operculum, and since 
blanchetianum is the only one of the three original species having 
such an operculum, that species should have been selected as the 

To preserve the genus Aperostoma as it was used by the first 
revisor nearly one hundred years ago and as it has rather generally 
been used until quite recently, we propose to present the case to 
the International Commission on Nomenclature, with the request 
that they rule A. blanchetianum Moricand the type of Aperostoma 


There has been considerable confusion concerning this as well 
as allied species from Northern Australia and the East Indies. 
In the same i)apcr Pfeiffer described both Fapidna yartucriana 

Oct., 1913] THE NAUTILUS G5 

and P. poiretiana from the Cuming collection, the former with the 
locality unknown, and the latter as cominp; from Port Essington, 
Northern Territory, Australia. According to J. C. Cox, P. 
garineriana came from Port Essington and P. poiretiana came 
from Night Island off the northeastern Queensland coast. 

It would appear to be exceedingly doubtful if either came from 
Port Essington. The figure of P. garineriana is probably over- 
ilrawn and may well represent a slightly malformed specimen 
which had led Pfeififer astray in his original diagnosis. 

We have specimens originally from J. C. Cox bearing the name 
of poiretiana from Night Island and a specimen labeled gartneriana 
from "Northern Australia," originally from Dohrn who had pur- 
chased Pfeiffer's collection. Both the specimens of Cox and 
Dohrn are indistinguishable. 

Later, Tapparone Canefri had listed gartneriana as a questioned 
synonymn of Papuina blainvillei Le Guillou from the Am Islands 
off the southwest coast of New Guinea. Unfortunately subse- 
quent ^\Titers accepted this relationship without question and the 
error has persisted. Papuina blainvillei and P. gartneriana are 
quite distinct. 

The following account is by John jMacgillivray, Naturalist to 
the Expedition (Narrative of the Voyage of H. M. S. Rattlesnake, 
1852, 1, pp. 115-116) who had originally collected the shells that 
Pfeiffer described through Cuming. 

"On September 8th [1848] we anchored to the westward of the 
North end of Night Island, a mile off shore, and remained there 
for the two succeeding days. This island is two miles in length, 
and a half a mile in breadth, surrounded by a narrow reef of dead 
coral and mud. . . . the place is den.sely covered with mangroves. 
A sandy portion, of about five acres in extent, is thickly covered 
with bushes and small trees. . . . Even this small spot produced 
a fine white Helix, not found elsewhere, — it occurred on the 
branches of the cotton trees." 

An outline of the literature follows: 

Papuina gartneriana Pfeiffer 

Helix gartneriana Pfr. 1851, Proc. Zool. Soc. London, p. 253 
(locality unknown). 

Helix gaertneriana Pfr., Reeve 1851, Conch. Icon. 7, pi. 79, No. 
419 (Night Island, North Australia); Forbes 1852, [in] J. Mac- 

66 THE NAUTILUS [Vol. 57 (2) 

gillivray, Narrative of the Voj'^age of H. M. S. Rattlesnake, 
London, 2, p. 372 (Night Island); Pfeiffer 1854, Conchy.-Cab. 1, 
pt. 12, sec. 3, p. 402, pi. 145, fig. 1-2 locality unkno\\Ti); J. C. Cox 
1868, Mono. Australian Land Shells, Sydney, p. 66, pi. 11, fig. 11 
(after Reeve) (Port Essington). 

Helix poiretiana Pfr. 1851, Proc. Zool. Soc. London, p. 254 
(Port Essington); Reeve 1852, Conch. Icon. 7, pi. 79, No. 418 
(Port Essington); Pfeiffer 1854, Conchy.-Cab. 1, pt. 12, sec. 3, p. 
372, pi. 140, fig. 5-6 (Port Essington); J. C. Cox 1868, Mono. 
Australian Land Shells, Sydney, p. 66, pi. 2, fig. 1 (Night Island, 
N. E. coast of Australia). 

Helix (Papuina) blainvillei Pilsbry 1891, Man. of Conch. (2) 
7, p. 25, pi. 8, fig. 57-58, pi. 9, fig. 75-76 [description and these 
figures] not Helix blainvillei Le Guillou 1842, Revue Zoologique, 
p. 140 (Am Islands). 

Helix (Papuina) poiretiana Pfr., Pilsbry 1891, Man. of Conch. 
(2) 7, p. 27, pi. 8, fig. 46-49 (Night Island, N. E. Australia). 

In addition to Night Island, we possess three specimens of 
gartneriana collected by P. J. Darlington along Lankelly Creek, 
Mcllwraith Ranges, Cape York, Queensland. This mountain 
range parallels the coast a short distance inland opposite Night 
Island. This island is 13 miles north of Cape Sidmouth, Queens- 


Olof O. Nylander. — We are grieved to record the death of 
this veteran Maine naturalist on July 30. An account of his life 
and work will be given later. 

Dr. Merrill Moore is at present serving as a Major in the 
Medical Corps of the Army. He has recently been assigned to 
foreign duty as Chief of the Psychiatric Service of the 39th 
General Hospital (Yale Unit) with the American Expeditionary 
Forces overseas. 

Sinistral Pomacea. — In my rambles a few days ago I found 
in a private pond here, a fine live specimen of Pomacea paludosa 
(Say) which was sinistral. Is this of very rare occurrence or are 
they found occasionally? I never hoard of one l)of()ro, and others 
in Florida say the same. — D. L. Emery, 121 Twentieth Ave. 
So. St. Petersburg, Fla. 

Oct., 1943] THE NAUTILUS 67 

A Source of Misleading Molluscan Records. — During nine 
years of collecting marine molliisks on Cape Ann, Massachusetts, 
the writer found that one of the best locations for finding washed- 
in shells was a sandy shore known as Pavilion Beach on the 
northern shore of Gloucester Harbor. It was at first believed 
that many of these shells would give a good indication of the 
moUuscan fauna of Gloucester Harbor and vicinity. Later, a 
number of species thus suspected were actually collected or 
dredged from the subtidal region of Cape Ann (i.e. Colus stimpsoni 
Morch, Neptuna decemcostatus Say, Buccinum undaium L., 
Modiolus modiolus L., Arctica islandica (L.), Spissula solidissima 
Dillwyn, Venus mercenaria L., Petricola phaladiformis Lam.). 
Others, however, were not, and this led to an investigation which 
showed the possible misleading character of such collecting. 
Large numbers of Ostrea virginica Gmel., Pecten irradians Lam., 
Anomia simplex Orb., and Cepaea hortensis (Miill.) and occasional 
shells of Busycon canaliculatum Say and Pecten grandis Solander 
were found. While Cepaea hortensis is an introduced land form, 
it has been reported as "very abundant on Salt Island, near 
Gloucester" by Gould and Binney,^ and often near the shoreline. 
Cape Ann is within the range of all of the others except Busycon, 
although the writer has not been able to collect live specimens 
from this region. The fact that all the species are edible forms 
gave the clew which was later substantiated. In back of the 
beach is an Italian settlement and the above mollusks were 
popular items of food, the shells being scattered over the beach to 
dispose of them. Even many of the shells of local species have 
found their way to the strand in this manner. It had been taken 
for granted that shells of Mya arenaria L. had thereby reached the 
beach, but the others were not at first suspected. These shells 
were also found buried in the sand to a depth of several inches. 
Hence this beach might be somewhat compared to the well known 
kitchen middens of the American Indians. Should these shells 
become fossilized they might lead to a false record in the distri- 
bution of such species. While the disposition of marine shells of 
food mollusks is common on land and offers no problem, the ac- 
cumulation on the intertidal zone, especially close to the normal 

' Gould, A. A. and W. G. Binney 1870. Report on the Invertebrata of 

68 THE NAUTILUS [Vol. 57 (2) 

range of certain species might easily lead to a misinterpretation. — 
Ralph W. Dexter, Kent State University, Kent, Ohio. 

An Interesting Variant of Venus Campechiensis. — The 
appearance of a new, striking, apparently hereditary, character 
in a molluscan shell is of unusual interest. The matter was 
brought to my attention by Mr. D. L. Emery of St. Petersburg, 
Florida, who transmitted to us five specimens of Venus cam- 
pechiensis Gmelin for determination. These all have, on the 
inside of both valves, an elevated sharp ridge passing from the 
umbo obliquely backward toward the pallial sinus ; in some of the 
specimens it almost reaches this. The fact that this character is 
present in a number of individuals suggests hereditary transmis- 
sion and makes one wonder what its ultimate fate may be. Mr. 
Emery states that some of his friends have additional specimens 
with these characteristics. They were all taken near St. Peters- 
burg, Florida. — Paul Bartsch 

The Type of Euamnicola Crosse and Fischer. — In their 
"Mission Scientifique au Mexique, Moll." vol. 2, p. 254 on, Crosse 
and Fischer included the species now referred to Lyrodcs in Amni- 
cola as a second section. While they give 1840 as the date of 
Amnicola, they quote Haldeman's brief notice on the third cover 
page of the Monograph, pt. 1, and apparently overlooked his 
note on page 3, in the matter under Paludina. They therefore 
take Gould's 1841 work to be the first mentioning any species of 
the genus, and accept A. porata (Say) as the type. A. lustrica 
(Say) is not contained in their list of N. A. species, and is not 
mentioned by them except that incidentally in a footnote they 
state that Haldeman's figure of A. litnosa was reproduced by 
W. G. Binney "under the name of A. lustrica.^' ^ It is obvious 
therefore that "Amnicola Gould and Ilaldeman" of Crosse and 
Fischer applied to the group typified by A. porata Say, and not 
to that based upon "P. lustrica Say." 

On page 2G1 Crosse and Fischer divide Amnicola into two 
sections, the first being " Euatnnicola Crosse and Fischer (ou 

' "A. lustrica" used by W. G. Binnoy under liis (L. and P>.-W. Sh. N. A. Ill) 
fig. 160, \V!is evidently a typographical or pen error for limosa. It is wholly 
unlike Binney's " Pomatiopsis" lustrica on p. 94. 

Oct., 1943] THE NAUTILUS 09 

Amnicola sensu strido)." That is, Amnicola as understood by 
them, with the type poraia. That species, Amnicola porata (Say), 
is therefore designated type of Euamnicula C. & F. Euamnicola 
thus remains exactly equivalent to Amnicola, as Crosse & Fischer 
intended, since Haldeman's first genotype, "P. Zus^nca Say," was, 
as he afterward acknowledged (in synonymy of A. limosa), an 
erroneous determination of A. limosa Say, of which porata Say 
seems to be an obese extreme — in fact, the end term of a contour 
cline. — H. A. Pilsbry, 

Shell Heaps of the Herring Gull — The food habits of the 
herring gull, Larus argentatus smithsonianus Coues, are extremely 
varied. Best known and most important economically are the 
scavenging activities of this bird which does much to keep the 
harbors and shore lines free from excessive organic debris. The 
herring gull also feeds on a great variety of invertebrates, alive 
as well as dead. One of its feeding habits is to collect large 
moUusks, carry them high over rocks on which they are dropped 
to break the shells, and then the bird flies down to feed on the 
soft parts. Certain rocks or groups of rocks are often used 
habitually for this purpose, and in time accumulate large quanti- 
ties of shells. Some of these shell heaps are above high water 
line, and occasionally at a considerable distance from the shore. 
One shell heap investigated during the summer of 1935 on a tidal 
inlet at Gloucester, Massachusetts, was located on an exposed 
ledge near spring high-water line in a salt marsh. The greater 
bulk of shells was made up of Mytilus edulis L., the blue mussel, 
and Modiolus demissus (Dillwyn), the ribbed mussel, both of 
which were very abundant. Somewhat less numerous were shells 
of Mya arenaria L., the soft shell clam, and Littorina litorea (L.), 
the English periwinkle. Several shells of Polinices heros (Say), 
the sand-collar snail, w-ere also found. These represent the most 
numerous, the largest, and the most accessible moUusks in the 
nearby inlet. For a complete list see the Nautilus 5G (2) : 57-01. 
Shells of Mya arenaria would undoubtedly have been more 
numerous if the population of this species had not suffered such 
a drastic decline in the season of 1934. Some of the older shell 
heaps are composed very largely of the shells of Mya arenaria. — 
Ralph W. Dexter, Kent State University, Kent, Ohio. 

70 THE NAUTILUS [Vol. 57 (2) 

Mussel Poisoning on the Pacific Coast. — The source of the 
poison is a microscopic marine organism called Gonyaulax catanella 
which at times occurs in sea water in enormous numbers. The 
mussel ingests this organism, along with the rest of the plankton 
elements which form its food, without suffering harm; but the 
human being who eats the mussel may die, if the numbers of 
Gonyaulax in its digestive tract are suflBciently abundant. The 
chain then is a very simple one: the poisonous Gonyaulax goes 
into the mussel, which it does not harm, and then A\ith the mussel 
into the human being, which it does harm. The mussel is merely 
a vehicle for the transportation of Gonyaulax from the sea water 
into the human. Pismo clams and Washington clams have at 
times been found to contain this organism, but mollusks which 
live in lagoons and situations remote from the open sea are pro- 
tected from contact with it. The abalone does not feed on plank- 
ton, and is therefore free from it. 

There is no way of distinguishing poisonous from sound mussels 
by their appearance, or by their behaviour while cooking. Heat 
does not destroy the poison. Gonyaulax is much more abundant 
along the California coast in the summer months than at other 
times, all recorded poisoning cases having occurred between May 
15th and October 15th. According to Drs. Sommer and Meyer, 
there is one simple, safe rule: "Do not eat the viscera (dark meat) 
of, nor drink the juice from mussels, clams or similar shellfish 
from the open Pacific Coast between the first of May and the first 
of November." — Brian Curtis, in California Fish and Game, 
29: 151). 

Further Remarks about Labels. — The article about the 
human element in writing labels bj'^ Calvin Goodrich in the April 
number of THE NAUTILUS appeals to me and prompts me to 
report a few that have come to my attention. Recently, I came 
into possession of a collection of shells that had been assembled 
by the official in charge of prohibition enforcement in San Diego. 
His official activities were duly entered in a card catalog, and 
after repeal the cards were made to do duty as labels for the shell 
collection. Thus, occasionally one is confronted by a label read- 
ing like this: " Em/ina lineala Reeve, Loyalty Islands. John Doe 
arrested with Richard Roe." This form is occasionally varied, 
and we find: "Corbicula insularis Prime. Taihoku, Formosa. 

Oct., 1943) THE NAUTILUS 71 

John Doe arrested with Mrs. Richard Roe." Sometimes, how- 
ever, John Doe succeeded in evading arrest, with a result like this: 
" JIdicoslyhi virgata Jay. Philippines. John Doe, fugitive in case 
of U. S. vs. Blank." Finally, I may mention: "Adeocina inculta 
Gould. San Diego Bay, Calif. Dodge roadster seized in 
of John Doe and Richard Roe." This is just the way the labels 
occur. The only alteration I have made is to substitute fictitious 
names, for obvious reasons. — Joshua L. Baily, Jr. 

Epiphragm removal and fecal string deposition by Hel- 
MiNTHOGLYPTA NiCKLiNiANA (Lea). — Thcsc observations are 
based on one individual of Helminthoglypta nickliniana (Lea) 
collected in June 1941 at Golden Gate Park, San Francisco. 
The individual was placed in a dry chamber; in three hours when 
it was examined a non-transparent, complete epiphragm had 
been secreted. Twelve hours later the snail was examined again. 
It had removed the first epiphragm and had secreted another. 
The first epiphragm had apparently been pushed aside by the 
foot alone, and was adhering by one point to the shell. Close 
examination showed that the radula had not been employed as a 
tool in the epiphragm removal process. This is contrary to 
observations made on two eastern helices, Triodopsis albolabris 
(Say) and Mesodon thyroidus (Say), at Ithaca, New York and 
on the Edmund Niles Huyck Preserve, Rensselaerville, New York 
where it was found that both the foot and the radula were used 
in cutting the epiphragm away from the aperture. 

The second epiphragm which was secreted over the aperture 
after the first had been pushed aside was transparent, thus the 
observer was enabled to look within the shell. This epiphragm 
was complete. Eighteen hours elapsed before the snail was 
again examined. This examination revealed that the snail had 
punctured the epiphragm, making an irregular opening approxi- 
mately 3 by 4 mm. A black fecal string had been deposited 
through this epiphragm opening. Such cleanliness has not been 
observed by the writer among the many species of helices that 
he has observed aestivating. Among aestivating helices fecal 
strings are usually deposited between the foot and the epiphragm, 
thus such strings are allowed to remain within the shell until the 
aestivating period terminates. 

72 THE NAUTILUS [Vol. 57 (2) 

Forty-eight hours after the fecal string had been deposited a 
ten degree maximum rise in temperature (from 70 to 80 degrees 
Fahrenheit) the snail formed a third complete epiphragm. This 
was of the same non-transparent nature as the first; both were 
parchment-white in color. Apparently the third epiphragm was 
secreted to prevent dessication (with a lowered humidity which 
accompanied the raised temperature) which could have taken 
place through the opening in the second epiphragm. In sum- 
mary: three epiphragms were naturally' secreted in approximately 
81 hours; two of the epiphragms were parchment- white in color 
and were non-transparent, one was transparent; the foot alone 
was used in removing an epiphragm; a fecal string wa^ deposited 
outside of the shell through an opening in the second epiphragm. 
— William Marcus Ingram 


JoHNSONiA, No. 7, pp. 28, Littorina, b.y Joseph C. Bequaert. 
No. 8, pp. 20, Fissurella, Lucapina and Lucapinella, by Isabel 
Perez Farfante. These careful and well illustrated studies of 
genera of common occurrence will be much appreciated by collec- 
tors. In many cases there has been confusion in specific nomen- 
clature, which is here fully discussed. — H.A.P. 

The Poison Cone Shell. By Wm. J. Clench & Yoshio 
Kondo (Amer. Jour. Tropical Medicine 23, No. 1. 1943). The 
authors have brought together from many sources, the various 
accounts of victims of venomous Conus, together with anatomical 
notes and figures of the radula and other details of the poison 
apparatus of Conus striatus. The shells of species known to be 
dangerous are figured: C. textile, C. tulipa, C. marnwreus, C. 
geographus and C. aulicus, all of the western Pacific. A timely 
and useful j^apcr. — H.A.P. 

Abbi{kvl\tions of Author's Namks in Malacology. By 
Leo A. Jachowski & Donald C. Scott. Ann Arbor. Lithoprint, 
pp. 38. Additional to the abbreviations actually in use in con- 
chological works, there arc not a few newly composed by the 
authors, and many for authors practically unknown in mala-- 

The Nautilus 

Vol. 57 January, 1944 No. 3 


By D. S. and E. W. GIFFORD 

The following paper presents further data on Olivella hiplicata, 
a species already considered in our two earlier papers/ and a 
discussion of the variation in Olivella pedroana ~ and Olivella 

Olivella hiplicata 

On August 26, 1942, a large series of young of this species 
was collected at Crescent City, Del Norte County, while we were 
gathering Olivella pycna. The young hiplicata were approxi- 
mately of the same size as the pycna, so we garnered both spe- 
cies, especially since the indication in each case was the same; 
namely a small ridge in exposed sand, a groove in sand in pools. 
The larger ridges we assumed were all made by adult hiplicata. 
This large series of young hiplicata (now in the collection of Mr. 
Allyn G. Smith) suggests that summer is the breeding season for 
this species at Crescent City. 

On May 22, 1943, we visited Santa Cruz, Santa Cruz County, 
and there saw many hundreds of this species. Large numbers 
were seen in tidal pools, while others were exposed by raking the 
sand with our fingers. In all only three very small young ones 
were seen. The adults, however, were apparently breeding, for 
we found many couples in contact. In the large series of adults 
observed we discovered four orange-colored individuals, but these 

1 Color Variation in Olivella hiplicata, The Nautilus, vol. 55, pp. 10-12, 
1941 ; Color Variation in Olivella hiplicata in Various Localities, The 
Nautilus, vol. 56, pp. 43-48, 1942. 

2 We are leaving to the taxonomists the moot question of whether this 
species should be called pedroana or haetica (^boetica), or whether these two 
names stand for two distinct species. All our shells called pedroana ap- 
pear to be but a single species. 


74 THE NAUTILUS [Vol. 57 (3) 

had more or less purple in the canal region, so that none was 
truly comparable to our unique orange shell from Bolinas, which 
lacks all trace of purple. They are, however, similar to a 
second ^ Bolinas orange specimen with purple in the canal region. 

At Monterey, Monterey County, on November 21, 1942, there 
were no small young shells of Olivella hiplicata, but a consider- 
able number of half-grown ones was taken. Since we do not 
know the rate of growth of this species, we are still uncertain as 
to the breeding season at Monterey, but assume that it may be 

Our 1942 paper on color variation in this species lacks ade- 
quate series south of Santa Barbara. Hence, the following are 
of interest. At Anaheim Landing, Orange County, on January 
31* and February 2, 1943, eleven adult shells were taken, one 
albino, the others of normal coloration. These lack any trace of 
orange in the aperture, but (with the exception of the albino) 
have much purple on the inner surface of the body-whorl. A 
series of 267 young shells was collected, ranging from tiny indi- 
viduals with striped ventral surface to others a third grown. 
Out of the total of 278 specimens (adult and young) none shows 
orange in the aperture. Of this total sixteen are albinos, thus 
yielding a frequency of about six per cent. This correlates with 
the five per cent occurrence at Santa Barbara.^ Sixteen dark, 
steel-gray, young and immature shells were taken. The re- 
mainder of the series is "normal" in coloration. The evidence 
seems to point to a winter breeding season at Anaheim Landing, 
as at Santa Barbara. 

From False Bay, San Diego County, we now have a series of 
twenty-five. Twenty-two of these were collected by ]\Iiss Edna 
N. Wilson on January 21, 1943, and three by ourselves on Feb- 
ruary 3, 1943. None of these twenty-five shows any trace of 
orange, nor do four specimens previously recorded from Ense- 
nada, Lower California. Two False Bay specimens are albinos, 
thus yielding a frecpieiicy of eight per cent, which is probably 
much nearer the truth tiian the twenty-five per cent for Enseuada 

3 The Nautilus, vol. 55, pp. 10-12; vol. 56, p. 44. 

* Our thanks to Mr. and Mrs. Joiin Q. lUircli for taking us to this collect- 
ing ground. 

The Nautilus, vol. 56, p. 45. 

Jan.. 1944] toe naftilus 75 

based on one out of four specimens." Eijilit per cent is not far 
from the six per cent freciuency of albinos at Anaheim Landing 
and the five per cent at Santa Barbara. fi^'ures (8, 6, 5) 
probably jrive an approximate idea of the frequency of albinos 
on the soutiiern Californian and northern Lower C'alifornian 

Apparently corroborative of a probable winter breeding sea- 
son at Bolinas " is a considerable number of one-third grown 
shells collected at Bolinas on May 2:5. 1943. We are a.ssuming 
that these may represent winter-hatched shells. However, after 
writing the above statement concerning May 23, we spent June 
18-21, July 18, and August 15, 1943 at Bolinas in search of 
Olivella pycna. In the course of collecting the latter, we han- 
dled many young Olivella hiplicata, which would seem to indi- 
cate a late spring, as well as a winter, breeding season at Bolinas, 
or perhaps the breeding is continuous through several months. 

The late Mr. T. S. Oldroyd has described and figured, on the 
bases of shape and size, a number of "varieties" of Olivella 

The figure (pi. 5, tig. 5) which Oldroyd presents as typical for 
Monterey is a bit too obese to be typical, but it does fall within 
the range of shapes for the locality. His figure indicates the 
breadth as 58 per cent of the length. Our specimens from 
^Monterey range from 50 to 60 per cent in breadth-length index 
(i.e., breadth divided by length). 

Oldroyd 's figure (pi, 5, fig. 4) of his Olivella hiplicata fucana 
yields an index of 51; his measurements (p. 118) yield an index 
of 50. Suggesting these in relative slimness and height of spire 
is our series from Port Orford, Curry County, Oregon : broadest 
with index of 55, narrowest 44. 

Oldroyd 's figure (pi. 5, fig. 6) of his Olivella hiplicata angeUna 
yields an index of 48; his Olivella hiplicata parva (pi. 5, fig. 7) 
an index of 62. His length and breadth figures for the type, p. 
119, however, yield an index of 57, suggesting that the figure in 
the plate has been retouched badly. From Southern and Lower 

« The Nautilus, vol. 56, p. 4.1. 

7 The Nautilus, vol. 56, p. 47. 

8 Some Varieties of Western Olivellas, The Nautilus, vol. 34, pp. 117-119, 
pl. 5, 1921. 

76 THE NAUTILUS [Vol. 57 (3) 

California our series yield the following ranges in breadth-length 
index : ]\Iorro Bay 51-58 ; Santa Barbara 50-60 ; Anaheim Land- 
ing 47-55 ; Mission Beach, False Bay 48-58 ; Ensenada, Lower 
California 49-52. 

At Bolinas, Marin County, the range in breadth-length indexes 
is 48-59 ; at Tomales Bay, I\Iarin County, 49-57 ; at Trinidad 
Head, Humboldt County, 50-62; at Crescent City, Del Norte 
County, 48-57 ; at Santa Cruz, Santa Cruz County, 52-62. 

Scanning large series from various localities, one is impressed 
with the relative obeseness of Monterey, Santa Cruz, and Trini- 
dad shells, the relative slimness of Port Orford, Bolinas, and 
southern Californian shells. The mean figures from south to 
north are as follows : Ensenada 50.5, False Bay 53, Anaheim 
Landing 51, Santa Barbara 55, Morro Bay 54.5, Monterey 55, 
Santa Cruz 56, Bolinas 53.5, Tomales Bay 53, Trinidad 56, 
Crescent City 53.5, Port Orford 49.5. 

The range in shapes represented by the above breadth-length 
indices seems to indicate that Mr. Oldroyd dignified mere indi- 
vidual variations by names, rather than geographic variations. 
Thus, his Monterey "typical" specimen with index 58 could 
have come from False Bay, Santa Barbara, ]\Iorro Bay, Santa 
Cruz, Bolinas, or Trinidad. Ilis fucana type with index 50 or 
51 could have come from Port Orford, Crescent City, Trinidad, 
Tomales Bay, Bolinas, Morro Ba3% Santa Barbara. Anaheim 
Landing, False Bay, or Ensenada. Ilis angcUna with index 48 
in the figured specimen could have come from Ensenada, False 
Bay, Anaheim Landing, Bolinas, Crescent City, or Port Orford. 
Similarly, his parva type with index 62 from his figure, or 57 
from his measurements, could have come from various places 
other than Point Abreojos, Lower California. 

Olivella pedroana 

We are using the name pedroana instead of hoctica or hactica 
on the assumption tliat both names apply to the same species, 
Conrad's name pedroana being the earlier. 

Our personally collected littoral series of pedroana are from 
Anaheim Landing, Orange County (986 specimens), January 31 
and February 2, 1943, and from Mission Beach, False Bay, San 

Jan., 1944] the naitilus 77 

Diejio County (156 specimens), February 3, 1943, Miss Edna 
X. Wilson, our hostess and guide at Mission Beach, contributed 
419 additional specimens from that locality. Our Anaiieim 
Landing series was increased by seven specimens from Mr. and 
Mrs. John Q, Burch, who liad collected them in October, 1940. 

The ^Mission Beach shells are in general larger than those 
from Anaheim Landing. On the whole Olivella pedroana has a 
liigiier and more porcelaneous surface than Olivella pycna. 
The color range is much greater also, being from white (albino) 
to chestnut brown and deep grayish olive. The commonest colors 
are Ridgway's olive lake, smoke gray, and light grayish olive. 
Moreover, examples with pale blue coloration (mostly burn blue) 
were common. No xanthochroistic specimens were seen, unless 
one considers as such a few specimens that match buffy olive, 
cream buff, chamois, and cartridge buff, not all over but in 
patches. The pattern of brown markings in some instances sug- 
gests somewhat that of the vertical wavy lines of Olivella pycna, 
especially in some grayish-olive specimens from Anaheim Land- 
ing. Other shells of this color are virtually without markings. 
In some shells, particularly albinistic or pale bluish ones, the 
markings may take on a partial plaid or checker pattern. 
Dredged shells (from the Burches) are frequently reddish brown 
in general color, a feature noted also for dredged specimens of 
Olivella pycna. The nearest approach we have in a littoral 
specimen is light vinaceous gray. None of our pedroana has the 
reddish brown spot alongside the fold at the base of the colu- 
mella, which is so common in pycna. The colors described above 
are not over the entire shell, but chiefly on the body whorl. 

The color of the inner surface of the body-whorl varies with 
the color of the exterior. Albinos are white, darker shells have 
dark coloration on the inner surface. 

Certain specimens of Olivella pedroana have a lip callus on 
the inner surface of the body whorl. It is in the form of a 
ridge lying roughly parallel to the lip and a millimeter or so 
within, but not extending for the full length of the lip. It is 
usually white, in which case it can be readily seen. But, whether 
white or blending in color with the surrounding surface, it can be 
felt with a pin point moved transversely over the inner surface 
of the shell. It occurs most frequently in False Bay specim< 



78 THE NAUTILUS [Vol. 57 (3) 

45 per cent of them having it, as against a frequency of only six 
per cent in Anaheim Landing specimens. These are the only 
localities from which we have adequate series of specimens (575 
from False Bay, 993 from Anaheim Landing). 

In certain smaller series, which we have received from gener- 
ous friends, the callus occurs. From Newport Bay, Orange 
County, a series of 72 from Mr. Allyn 6. Smith shows a fre- 
quency of 4 per cent. From San Pedro, Los Angeles County, 
10 fathoms depth, a series of 11 specimens from Mr. and IMrs. 
John Q. Burch contains two specimens with the lip callus. Three 
Redondo Beach, Los Angeles County, dredged series from the 
Burches show the following frequencies: 15 fathoms, 17 speci- 
mens, none with callus ; 20 fathoms, 118 specimens, 1 with callus ; 
25 fathoms, 39 specimens, 1 with callus. Five specimens from 
San Diego Bay, also from the Burches, lack the callus. 

Mr. Walter J. Eyerdam has sent us Alaskan specimens, all 
lacking the lip callus: 11 from Hinchinbrook Island; 12 from 
Drier Bay, Knight Island, Prince William Sound. 

To the eye, Olivella pedroana is distinctly slender, Olivella 
pycna obese. Relatively stout specimens of pedroana and rela- 
tively slender specimens of j^ycna suggest the possibility of over- 
lapping, but so far as our series are concerned there is no over- 
lapping. The range of shapes, expressed by the breadth-length 
index, is 36 to 47 for pedroana, 49 to 58 for pycna. The pro- 
portion of lip length to shell length, however, has virtually the 
same range in the two species. For pedroana lip length ranges 
from 51 to 67 per cent of shell length. For pycna tlie range is 
54 to 66 per cent. 

The fold at the base of the columella is usually slightly re- 
flexed in both species. It tends to be tiiick in pedroana, delicate 
by comparison in pycna. On the whole pycna is a tliinnor shell 
than pedroana. 

Olivella pycna 

Described as a hitlierto unrecognized species by Dr. Berry," 
this species seems to be valid, and so far as our series of speci- 
mens are concerned does not intergrade with Olivella pedroana, 

" 8. Stillman Bi-rry, An Undcscribed Californian Olivella, Proc. Malaco- 
logical Society, vol, 21, pp. 262-265, 193.'). 

Jan., 1H44] the nautilus 79 

which is piesimuibly its nearest relative. At least the series of 
more than a thousand pycna which we have collected alive, chiefly 
at Crescent City, Del Xorte County, and at Bolinas, Marin 
County, appears distinct from a series of more than a thousand 
Olivella pedroana which we took at Anaheim Landinj?, Orange 
County, and at ^Mission Beach, False Bay, San Diejro County. 
Apparently Dr. Berry has clarified the Olivella situation in Cali- 
fornia. We have nothing to add to his discussion of the literary 
references, except to remark that the four Olivella hoctica pic- 
tured by T. S. Oldroyd ^° do not appear attributable to pycna, 
but to pedroana, using that name as a prior synonym for hoetica. 

The lip callus frequently present in Olivella pedroana is ab- 
sent in all of the 1149 Olivella pycna in our collection. The 
aperture opening in pycna is larger in proportion to the shell 
than in pedroana which is notably slenderer than pycna. Also 
the lip callus in many pedroana reduces still further the size of 
the aperture. 

In coloration, or better color pattern, Olivella pycna is rela- 
tively uniform. There is no such color range as in Olivella 
hiplicata or Olivella pedroana. A single xanthochroistic pycna 
is the only departure from the normal color range. The color 
brownish buff described by Dr. Berry, as in the paratype which 
he kindly presented to us, appears chiefly in our younger speci- 
mens. Our older specimens have more of a glaucous gray or 
olive gray ground color. 

Under date of August 1, 1943, Dr. Berry writes us: "So far 
as I am aware all of my paratypes, inclusive of yours, are shells 
collected in the living state, or if any of them were dead shells I 
feel sure they were not long dead. I wonder whether the differ- 
ence in coloring noted by you may not be due either to the time 
that my shells have been cabinet or else to the fact that they 
were all dredged or trawled shells." Dr. Berry writes that he 
used Robert Ridgway, Color Standards and Color Xomendature, 
1912, in determining colors. We are using the same work in this 

10 T. S. Oldroyd, Some Varieties of Western Olivellas, The Nautilus, vol. 
34, pp. 117-119, pi. 5, figures 1, la, 2, 3, 1921. 

80 THE NAUTILUS [Vol. 57 (3) 

Our single xanthochroistic specimen is eapucine buff in gen- 
eral color, with the vertical striping obsolete and discernible only 
as a slightly different tone. The interior of the aperture is even 
richer in color than the exterior. 

The brown zigzag lines running longitudinally on the shell 
vary in spacing and in the extent of the zigzag or wave. In 
some cases the lines are veiled by glaucous gray or olive gray 
ground color, which seems most prevalent in the older and 
thicker shells. In the thin young shells the brown lines are most 
conspicuous and equally clear from inside or outside of the shell. 

A color character, not mentioned by Dr. Berry, but occurring 
in 72 per cent of our specimens, is a maroon or reddish brown 
spot, sometimes obsolete or veiled by white, beside the fold at the 
base of the columella. This feature is absent in four dredged 
specimens from Tomales Bay, Marin County, presented to us by 
Mr. Allyn G. Smith ;■ in our single specimen from Port Orford, 
Curry County, Oregon; and in the afore-mentioned paratype. 
It is present in some of the shells from other localities ranging 
from Morro Bay ^^ in the south to Crescent City in the north. 

The following are the dates and places we have collected 
Olivella pycna alive littorally: Port Orford, Curry County, 
Oregon, June 10, 1941, 1 adult specimen; Crescent City, Del 
Norte County, June 9, 1941, 7 adult specimens; August 26, 1942, 
650 specimens, many immature and young as well as adults ; 
Bolinas, Marin County, May 23, 1943, 2 adults; June 18-21, 
1943, 357 adult, immature, and a tew young specimens; July 
18, 1943, 79 adult and half grown specimens; August 15, 1943, 
6 adult and half grown specimens ; Monterey, IMonterey County, 
May 31, 1942, 24 adult and immature specimens (including the 
adult xanthochroistic one already mentioned) ; November 21, 
1942, 6 adult specimens. This gives a time range from I\Iay 23 
to November 21, for littoral occurrence, with the peaks of 
abundance at l^>olinns in laltor June and at Crescent City in 
hitter Auijrust. 

11 We are indebted to Mr. and Mra. Jolin Q. Kurdi for Morro Bay and 
Morro Rock specimens, tlie latter dredged from seven fathoms. 

Jan., 1944] toe nautilus 81 


MUla College, California 

The knowledge of the distribution of the Cypraeidae is here 
supplemented and extended by listing the species of this mollusk 
family occurring on specific tropical central Pacific islands. 
New records for Pacific islands are listed, and cowry faunas are 
revealed for islands from which the Cypraeidae have not yet 
been reported. 

The following islands are included here in separate sections 
with a discussion of the reef waters about each, United States 
Navy Department (1933) : Mortlock Islands, Caroline Island 
Group ; Nassau Island, Pukapuka Island, Jarvis Island, Line 
Island Group ; Baker Island, and Howland Island. The species 
listed here from the above islands are housed in the Bernice P. 
Bishop ]\Iuseum, Honolulu, Hawaii. All were collected by re- 
liable collectors. 

Schilder and Schilder (1939) in the most recent published 
summary of the distribution of the Cypraeidae generally include 
cowries from areas and not from specific islands, i.e., "Marquesas 
Is., Flint I. to Palmyra I. and Johnston I." The writer believes 
that since so many of the published records of the Cypraeidae 
were based on collections where locality data were inadvertently 
mixed, that specific island lists, based on known reliable collec- 
tions, are necessary to clarify the distribution of this well known 
family. Thus the writer's earlier work is continued in an at- 
tempt to clarify the somewhat mixed geographical distribution 
of the Cypraeidae, Ingram (1937) (1937a) (1938) (1939) 
(1939a) (1940). Examples of past and present mixing of 
cowry distributional data are found in Hawaii. The examples 
cited here are only incidental to the many that the writer has 
found in examining collections in the United States. Specimens 
brought into the Hawaiian Islands by the missionary ship, 
Morning Star, from distant islands filtered into local Hawaiian 
collections, when in reality they were found elsewhere in Poly- 
nesia. Published reports on Hawaiian cowries have included 
Morning Star material, thus giving a distorted report of the 

82 THE NAUTILUS [Vol. 57 (3) 

cowries actually found in the Hawaiian Islands (Bryan, 1915), 
(Schilder and Schilder, 1939). In recent years specimens were 
brought to the Hawaiian Islands by the Pan-American colonizers 
from Johnston, Baker, and Rowland Islands. The writer saw a 
number of very fine Cypraeidae for sale from the above islands 
while collecting in Ililo, Hawaii in 1937. No doubt this mate- 
rial will eventually filter into collectors hands as being from 
Hawaii, and once again the cowry fauna of the Hawaiian Islands 
will be distorted. One accurate and complete list of the Ha- 
waiian Cypraeidae was published in 1937 (Ingram, 1937), based 
on personal collecting and on the collections of the following 
scientifically trained men who had collected in the islands for 
twenty years, Mr. W. G. Anderson, Mr. David Thaanum. Mr. 
Ted Dranga, Prof. Jens M. Ostergaard, and the late Mr. L. A. 
Thurston. This list has already been distorted by accepting un- 
reliable data, namely Bryan's 1915 data (Schilder and Schilder, 

Cypraeidae from the ]\Iortlock Islands, Caroline 
Island Group 

The Mortlock Islands, Nomoi Islands, consist of three distinct 
groups of coral islands and reefs known as Lukunor, Satawan, 
and Etal. The Lukunor Islands are situated on a reef approxi- 
mately eighteen miles in circuit, and enclose an oval-shaped 
lagoon lying in a northwest and southwest direction. Satawan 
Reef consists of sixty small islets surrounding an oval-sliapcd 
lagoon, about seventeen miles in length with approximately the 
same trend as the above island group. The Etal Islands lie to 
the north of Satawan, and are about seven miles in circuit. 
They consist of a number of low, thickly wooded islets, connected 
by a reef in whose center there is a lagoon. 

The mollusks from these islands were prc'sented to the Bernice 
P. Bishop Museum by Mr. 'I. S. Kmerson. There are tliirty-two 
species represented in the collection. Based on the number of 

1 Two of the specific mimes used by Iiij;i;iin (1!>;{7, op. cit.) have cor- 
rectly been placed in synoiiomy by Schilder and Schilder (1939, op. cit.) 
i.e., Cypraca "pcasci Sowerby = Cypraca pasknini Rt^eve; Cyprara punrtuhitn 
(imelin was incorrectly used to refer to Cyprara teres Qnielin. 

Jan., 1944 



iiulividuals of any one species in this collection the following are 
the most common: Cypraea carmola Linnaeus, C. tigris L., C. 
arabica L., C. atuiulus L., C. moncia L., C. lynx L., and C. 
poraria L. 

One of the notable specimens in this collection is a large 
Cypraea lynx L. which measures approximately 73 mm. along an 
anterior-posterior axis. Both the white and pink base color va- 
rieties of Cypraea mappa L. are in the collection. The cylindri- 
cal and oval forms of Cypraea carneola L. are represented in the 
cabinet, the latter form being the so-called variety, propinqua 
Garrett. The list follows : 

Cypraea annulata Gray 
Cypraea annulus L. 
Cypraea arahica L. 
Cypraea are)iosa L. 
Cypraea argus L. 
Cypraea asellus L. 
Cypraea caput serpentis L. 
Cypraea carneola L. 
Cypraea caurica L. 
Cypraea clandestina L. 
Cypraea cruenta Gmelin 
Cypraea cumingii Gray ^ 
Cypraea erosa L. 
Cypraea errones L. 
Cypraea felina Gmelin 
Cypraea hclvola L. 

Cypraea intermedia Gray 
Cypraea isahella L. 
Cypraea lynx L. 
Cypraea mappa L. 
Cypraea moneta L. 
Cypraea poraria L. 
Cypraea scurra Chemnitz 
Cypraea stolida L. 
Cypraea teres Gmelin ^ 
Cypraea talpa L. 
Cypraea tigris L. 
Cypraea ventriculus Lam. 
Cypraea vitellus L. 
Nuclearia staphylaea (L.) 
Ipsa childreni (Gray) 
Pustularia cicercula (L.) 

Cypraeidae from Line Islands 

The cowries from Pukapuka Island were collected by Ernest 
Beaglehole; those from Nassau Island were taken by F. L, Mc- 
Fall. The collection from Jarvis Island was gathered by the 
members of the Whippoorwill Expedition from the Beruice P. 
Bishop Museum. 

Pukapuka Island, one of the three Danger Islands, 10° 53' S., 
165° 49' W., is a coral atoll with a maximum height of eighty 
feet above sea level. Fifteen species are in the collection from 

- As illustrated in G. B. Sowerby, Thesaurus Conchylioruni, pi. 3, figs. 
349-350, 1870. 

3 As illustrated in G. B. Sowerby, Thesaurus Conchyliorum, pi. 27, fig. 261, 

84 THE NAUTILUS [Vol. 57 (3) 

this island; of these Cypraea arenosa L., is the most common. 
Two individuals, Cypraea vitelhis L. and Cypraea lynx L., are 
extremely large. The specimen of the former species has an 
anterior-posterior length of 84 mm., the specimen of the latter 
species measures 65 mm. along the anterior-posterior axis. List 

Cypraea annulus L. Cypraea moneta L. 

Cypraea arenosa L. Cypraea talpa L. 

Cypraea fimbriata Gmelin Cypraea testudinaria L. 

Cypraea intermedia Gray Cypraea tigris L. 

Cypraea irrorata Gray Cypraea ventriculus Lam. 

Cypraea isahella L. Cypraea vitellus L. 

Cypraea lynx L. Nuclearia nucleus (L.) 
Cypraea mauritiana L. 

Nassau Island 

Nassau Island, 11° 33' S., 165° 25' W., is approximately forty- 
five miles southeast by south of the Danger Islands. A fringing 
reef surrounds the island. Cypraea ventriculus Lamarck, Cy- 
praea mauritiana L., and Cypraea poraria L. are the most com- 
mon of the species in the collection. 

Cypraea arenosa L. Cypraea isahella L. 

Cypraea caputserpentis L. Cypraea mauritiana L. 

Cypraea helvola L. Cypraea poraria L. 

Cypraea intermedia Gray Cypraea. testudinaria L. 

Cypraea irrorata Gray Cypraea ventriculus Lam. 

Jarvis Island 

Jarvis Island, 0° 23' S., 160° 02' W., is a small coral island of 
one and eight-tenths miles in length. Cypraea caputserpentis L. 
is the common of the nine species in tlie collection. 

Cypraea. arenosa L. Cypraea moneta Ij. 

Cypraea caputserpentis L. Cypraea poraria L. 

Cypraea intermedia Gray <'y})rava scurra Chemnitz 

Cypraea isahella L. Cypraea vitellus L. 
Cypraea lynx L. 

Cypraeidae from Baker and IIowland Islands 

The specimens from those islands were collected by members 
of tiie scientific staff of the Bernice B. Bishop Museum's Whip- 
pqorwill Expedition in 1924 (Edmondson, 1924). 

Jan.. 1044] the nautilus 85 

Baker Island 

Baker Islaiul. 0° 13' N., 17G° XV W., is a coral island of about 
a mile in lenjrtli. It is surrounded by a coral reef from two 
hundred to four hundred feet in breadth. 

Cypraca crihraria L. Cypraca scurra Chemnitz 

Cypraea crosa L. Cypraca talpa L. 

Cypraea isahcUa L. Cypraea tcstudinaria L. 

Cypraea lynx L. Cypraea tigris L. 

Cypraea monefa L. Cypraca vitelhis L. 

Cypraca poraria L. Nuclearia nucleus (L.) 
Cypraea teres Gmelin * 

Rowland Island 

Ilowland Island, 0° 49' N., 176° 43' W., possesses a fringing 
reef and is about two miles long. Seventeen species are in the 
collection, of these Cypraea intermedia Gray, Cypraea caput- 
serpentis L., and Cypraea mauritiana L. are common. 

Cypraea annulus L. Cypraea poraria L. 

Cypraea caput serpent is L. Cypraea teres Gmel. 

Cypraca carneola L. Cypraea reticulata Martyn 

Cypraca hclvola L. Cypraea scurra Chemu. 

Cypraea intermedia Gray Cypraea talpa L. 

Cypraea isahella L. Cypraea tcstudinaria L. 

Cypraca lynx L, Cypraea vitellus L. 

Cypraca mauritiana L. Nuclearia nucleus (L.) 
Cypraca moneta L. 


Bryan, W. A., Natural history of Hawaii, pp. 1-596, 1915. 
Edmondson, C. II., B. p. B. Mus. Bull. 27, pp. i-148, 1925. 
Ingram, W. U., Nautilus, 50: 3, pp. 77-82, 1937. 

., Cypraeidae from Christmas, Palmyra, Washington, 

and Fanning Islands, Nautilus, 51 : 1, pp. 1-3, 1937a, 

., Cypraeidae from Guam, Nautilus, 52: 1, pp. 5-7, 


., Cypraeidae from American Samoa with notes on spe- 

cies from Palmyra Island, Nautilus, 52, pp. 103-105, 1939. 
-., Cypraeidae from Makatea Island, Tuamotu Archi- 

pelago. Occ. Pap., B. P. B. Mus., 14: 18, pp. 323-325, 

* As illustrated in G. B. Sowerby, Thesaurus Conchylioruni, j>l. 27, fig. 261, 

86 THE NAUTILUS [Vol. 57 (3) 

Cypraeidae from Atafu Island, Union Group, Jour. 

of Conch., 21 : 7, pp. 213-214, 1940. 

ScHiLDER, F. A., and M, Schilder, Proc. Malac. Soc. London, 23 : 
4, pp. 119-231, 1939. 

United States Navy Department Hydrograpliic Office, Sailing di- 
rections for the Pacific Islands (Eastern Groups), vol. 2, pp. 
1-560, 1933. 

By H. a. PILSBEY and A. A. OLSSON 

As living mollusks, species of Julia are known in the central 
Pacific (J. exquisita Gould, Hawaii) and Indian Ocean (Re- 
union). Fossil forms have been described from lower to middle 
Miocene of Florida {J. floridana Dall) and the West Indies 
(J. gardncrae Woodring), and Woodring mentions three from 
slightly older, Helvetian and Aquitanian, French beds. 

The Panamie species here described as J. equatorialis is the 
first living American species. It seems to be the smallest of 
these little clams now known. Its rather long and narrow an- 
terior end is most like J. horbonica (Desh.), but that species 
differs by having a straight ventral margin. J. exquisita Gld., 
as figured by Dall, Bartsch and Rehder, differs by the same fea- 
ture. According to Gould it attains a length of 5 mm. 

Julia equatorialis, n. sp. Plate 9, figs. 10, 11. 

Shell small, usually between 2 and 3.8 nun. in leniitli. When 
fresh, the color of the shell is green or greenish yeUow but on 
weatliering it soon becomes white. The valves are moderately 
convex, subcjuadrate in form, the dorsal margin more strongly 
convex than the ventral ; the anterior end is produced to form a 
short to fairly long wing, somewhat pointed at the end. Beaks 
prosogyrate, their position varying somewhat with the length of 
the anterior wing. Hinge edenlnlons. Lnniile is deeply snnken. 
In the left valve its inner edge is strongly thickened so that it 
resembles a large rounded tooth, projecting into the valve cavity. 
Li front of this toothliUe process and below the beak it is exca- 
vated. In the right valve the lunule does not project so far in- 
ward and is not enlarged at the end, but tlie central part is 
raised, toothlike, fitting into the excavation mentioned in the 
lunule of the otiier valve. Texture of valves is somewhat trans- 

Jan., 1944] the nautilus 87 

liuont, the exterior smoothish, but obscurely marked with about 
'JO very sliallow radial lines. Greatest inflation of the valves 
situated just back of and below the beaks. 
Length 3.7 mm., height 2.7 mm. (type). 

Although rare, as far as we may judge from present records, 
the species seems to have a general distribution through the 
southern part of the Panamie province, from southern Panama 
to northern Peru. We have specimens from the following lo- 
calities : 

Panama : Bucaru, at the southern tip of the Los Santos Pen- 
insula, one specimen. 

Colombia: Isla del Gallo, to the north of Tumaco, one specimen. 

Ecuador : Punta Callo, on the coast west of Jipijapa, Prov. of 
Manabi, three or four specimens. 

Peru : Caleto Sal, north of Mancora, Department of Tumbex, 2 
specimens, T>T)e 179845 ANSP. 

The photographic figures might give one the impression that 
the projection of the lunule into the valve cavity stands free 
from the valve below it. This is not the case, as it forms a little 
buttress, with slightly spreading base, lost in shadow in the 
photograph. The type is a left valve, fig. 10, but a paratypic 
right valve is mounted with it in the collection. No entire speci- 
men was found. 


The collections of Dr. W. Weyrauch, of Lima, Peru, sub- 
mitted to me for study, contain many interesting land shells, a 
considerable number being new to science. A paper describing 
these will soon appear; meantime I select two which have been 
named in his honor, for illustration in Nautilus. 

BosTRYX WEYRAUCHI, u. sp. Plate 9, fig. 5. 

Shell having the general appearance of B. crcmothaumn Pils. 
being wider than iiigli, acutely carinate and openly umbilicate; 
opaque, nearly white, with four indistinct spiral bands of pink- 
ish-cinnamon on the base and some faint streaks above. Surface 
matt, with rather fine, uneven sculpture of strongly retractive 

88 THE NAUTILUS [Vol. 57 (3) 

wrinkles on the upper surface, tlie base with some low axial 
ridges and traces of a few impressed spirals. "Whorls 5V2> the 
first two whorls convex, projecting as an apical mucro, smooth 
and white. Following whorls flattened, concave above the pe- 
ripheral keel, which projects above the suture on the penult 
whorl. Lower surface concave below the keel, then sloping to a 
strong keel around the broad, funnel-shaped umbilicus. The 
suture descends rather deeply in front. Aperture semicircular, 
cinnamon colored within, the peristome paler, expanded, some- 
what angular at the termination of the peripheral angle, the 
margins approaching rather closely. Height 17.8 mm., diameter 
20 .mm. 

Ninabamba, near Ayacucho, Peru, at 2000 meters elevation. 
Type 179979 ANSP. 

This is a second member of the subgenus Plaiyhostryx. It is 
larger than B. eremothauma with more elevated spire, narrower 
umbilicus and less angular outer lip. The color markings de- 
scribed are rather faint. Named in honor of Dr. W. Weyrauch. 

Neopetraeus WEYRAUcin, n. sp. Plate 9, fig. 4. 

The shell is acutely and broadly ovate with an umbilicus nar- 
row within but becoming very wide by deviation of the last half 
whorl. Rather solid though not thick. Pale pinkish buff, with 
chestnut-brown markings in form of three spiral series of spots 
on the penult whorl, and on the last a subsutural irreguhir series 
of streaks, a band of small spots at periphery and another in 
middle of upper surface ; immediately below periphery a con- 
tinuous nearly black band, with a narrower one in the middle 
of the base, the space below it streaked with chestnut-brown. 
Whorls 6y^, the apex somewiiat mucronate, with Nc()})ctracu,^ 
sculpture typical in pattern but extremely weak; following 
whorls nearly flat, with rather weak, uneven, wrinkle slriation. 
Suture hardly ini})ressed, ascending to the lip. Ajierture oval. 
j)inkisli vinaceous and showing the bands within. Peristome 
thin, whitish, the outer and basal margins very little expanded, 
columellar margin dilated forward. Lengtli 28.5 mm., diameter 
20 mm., length of aperture 16 mm. 

liuaraz, Santa Vallev, Peru, at :{200 meters. Tvpe 179980 

Near A'. (ihiliiKilixi (I)olii-ii), but if dilTci's l)y luiviug the su- 
ture not at all imi)r('sscil, hciug tilled by the keel of the whorls, 
which continues nearly to the last whorl. The outlines near the 
summit are more concave, becoming convex on the last two 
whorls. A^. fcssrilatus (Shuttl.) has a more straightly conic 

I'llK N A 1 Til. IS .-.7 (:J) 

IM.A'rK !i 

1, 2, J'itrliKlIn hialii. C 

15, (him 11(1 vaiiliiiiiiiii/i. 7 

4, N< tipi Iratiis in )iraiic]ii. H 

."). Biistriir in 1/ ran ell i. i* 

10, 11, Julia I ijiiaturialis Csc 

I'll liii-li, ihis iiirn'ml ji'i I'ilshry. 
Iliili mill IIS il. iiiiuin aims, 
liiiliiiiiiliis il. sfliii ih aims. 
ISiiliiiiiiliis (I. liiiiiahilis. 
ulc lino = 1 mm.)' 



Fussuhi vciu'zucli'iisis. 

Jan., 1!)44] Tin: nautilus 89 

By H. a. PILSBRY and A. A. OLSSON 

Fossula has hitherto been known by several speeies from south 
of the Amazon. The species here described was found in the 
Kio Guarico at Barbacoas, State of Guarico, Venezuela (Olsson, 
March 1941). It is, we believe, the first from northern South 

Fossula venezuelensis, n. sp. Plate 10. 

The shell is oblong, the height 58 percent of the length, moder- 
ately inflated, of medium weight. It gapes slightly from the 
middle of tiie ventral margin to the anterior end, and somewhat 
less along the posterior-dorsal slope. Beaks moderately promi- 
nent, at about the anterior fourth of the length. Dorsal and 
ventral margins but slightly curved, roughly parallel. Anterior 
end narrower, rounded. Posterior end oblique, having a pro- 
jecting point at the end of a low, black ridge running from the 
beaks. Epidermis yellowish olive, much darker towards the ends. 
The interior is silvery and iridescent, with a rather wide dull 
prismatic border, widest (5.3 mm.) near and at the posterior 
end. Cavity of the beaks deep. Anterior muscle impression 
distinct, the posterior ill defined. 

In the right valve there is an erect, elongate anterior cardinal 
tooth (not well shown in the plate, as it did not catch the light, 
and is represented by a dark area anterior to the rim below the 
pit, which shows white in the photograph). The pit below the 
beak is large (light in the photograph), and there is no tooth 
posterior to it. The left valve has an erect, rather long irregular 
tooth below the beak. In place of lateral teeth there is a broad 
convex hinge plate, terminated by a nearly black triangular 

Length 98 mm., height 57.5 mm., diameter 33 mm. 

Type 179759 ANSP. The arrangement of the low "teeth" is 
substantially as in F. fossiculifera, the type of Fossula, but they 
are longer. The pit below the beak in the right valve is longer, 
and it is bounded below by a more prominent callous ridge. The 
prismatic internal border of the valves is not so wide as in 
fossiculifera compared. But the most conspicuous difference 
from the four forms described from south of the Amazon is the 
much lower, oblong or elliptical rather than subtriangular out- 

90 THE NAUTILUS [Vol. 57 (3) 


Stanford University, California 

While the writer was collecting data on the validity of reports 
of Paleozoic Ostreidae, he found that the question of the time of 
origin of shell attachment in pleurothetic pelecypods was impor- 
tant. Especially for this latter problem, it was necessary to 
study the genus Pseudomonotis,^ a member of the Paleozoic 

The writer wishes to express his appreciation to Dr. Norman 
D. Newell of the University of Wisconsin for his interest and 
helpful suggestions on this subject. 

The earliest pelecypods are equivalve free living types. Byssal 
attachment also is found in many ancient pelecypods, but some 
of the other adaptations to various kinds of environment appear 
much later. One of the latter is the oyster-like habit of having 
one valve cemented to the substrate. This adaptation has origi- 
nated independently many times in various pelecypod stocks and 
is common from the Mesozoic to the Recent. Occurrences in the 
Paleozoic are apparently meager. 

There is infrequent mention in the description of Paleozoic 
pelecypods about the occurrence of shell fixation by cementation. 
Jackson (1890, pp. 325, 326) points out that the earliest oyster 
is one described by Barrande (1881, pp. 233, 234) as Praeostrea 
bohemica from the Upper Silurian. In the description of this 
species Barrande does not refer to attachment of either valve or 
to an attachment scar, although fig. 4 of plate 111 may sliow 
either tliat there is an attachment scar or that the umbo of the 
specimen is broken. This is apparently the only reference to a 
Pre-Carboniferous oyster. In a few scattered monographs, most 
of which were written before 1900, a few poorly preserved speci- 
mens have been described as members of the family Ostreidae. 

According to Newell (personal communication) these speci- 
mens of so-called Ostrea from the Pennsylvanian and Permian 

1 Pseudomonotis is here used in the same generic sense as Newell (1938, 
p. 92) applied it, genotype Gryphitcs speluncaritis Schlotheim, by subsequent 

Jan., 1944] the nautilus 91 

can probably all bo allocated to the ^ronus Pseudomonotift. A 
careful check of descriptions and fifrures lias led the writer to the 
same conclusion. Pscudomonotis, unlike the oyster, wa.s attached 
by the right valve and not by the left one. IMorpholoprically the 
genus comprises a large and heterogeneous group which, because 
of its attached habit, showed a reduction of the ears and as- 
sumed the form of an oyster. Some species are gryphaeoid in 
form while others have typically flat valves and show a pro- 
nounced attachment scar. Pseudomonotis hawni, as figured by 
Newell (1938, pi. 17, figs. 8, 11a), clearly shows the scar of 

Newell (personal communication) believes that Pseudomonotis 
may have had a method of attachment like Anomia because in 
many forms the byssal notch seems to have been so overgrown at 
the periphery that it was in effect a perforation. The irregular 
growth of the adult specimens during later life and the fact that 
some Pennsylvanian species show the transfer of surface orna- 
mentation of the host to which the shell was attached has con- 
vinced Newell that Pseudomonotis was fixed by its shell. On the 
other hand specimens of Pseudomonotis speluncaria in the pale- 
ontology collection at Stanford University show no signs of at- 
tachment. Large, flat, oyster-like specimens from the Gamma 
member of the Kaibab formation of Arizona clearly indicate that 
they were attached during the adult stage. 

Pseudomonotis, which has a geologic time range from Pennsyl- 
vanian through Permian, is the only Paleozoic pelecypod defi- 
nitely proved to have acquired shell fixation. From Triassic on- 
ward the occurrence of this adaptive habit appears widespread 
among this of molluscs. 

Why this adaptation was not more common and did not occur 
early in the Paleozoic is not known. Certainly the number of 
genera and species of Paleozoic pelecypods is great. Perhaps 
the best explanation for the scarcity of this modification is given 
by Dacque (1921, p. 296) who states that the brachiopods were 
the dominant group of animals in the same type of environment 
in the Paleozoic that the pelecypods occupied from the Mesozoic 
to the Recent. Many brachiopods during the Paleozoic attached 
themselves to the hard .substrate by shell fixation. With the 
rapid disappearance of numerous brachiopod genera at the end 

92 THE NAUTILUS [Vol. 57 (3) 

of Permian time, and their continued decrease in numbers 
throughout the Mesozoic, the similarly adapted pelecj'pods could 
take over the environmental niches left by the brachiopods. 
Adaptive radiation in the pelecypods has been developed to its 
fullest extent from Mesozoic time onward. 

As a resume the following conclusions can be presented : 

1. ]\Iembers of the family Ostreidae do not appear in the 
Paleozoic Era, and species described in this family belong to the 
genus Pseudomonotis, a member of the superfamily Pectinacea. 

2. Fixation to the hard substrate with the accompanying modi- 
fications of shell morphology have so far definitely been proved 
to occur only in Pseudomonotis which has a geologic time range 
from Pennsylvanian through Permian. Further investigation 
may find other examples of this adaptation and even earlier cases 
of it than are recorded here. However, these additional cases 
will not alter the fact that shell fixation by cementation in 
pelecypods occurs rarely in the Paleozoic Era. 


Barrande, J., 1881, Extraites du Systeme Silurien du centre de 

la Boheme, v. 6, Acephales, ch. 1 (See pp. 233, 234, pi. Ill, 

figs. 1-4). 
Dacque, E., 1921, Vergleichende biologische Formenkunde der 

fossilen niederen Tiere, Borntraeger (See pp. 291-297, 334— 

Haas, F., 1935, Dr. H. G. Bronn's Klassen und Ordnungen des 

Tierreichs, Bd. 3, Abt. 3, T. 1, Leipzig, Akad. Vorlagsge- 

sellsehaft M. B. II. (See pp. 179-186, 561). 
IIiND, W., 1904, A monograph of the British Carboniferous 

Laniellibranehiata, v. II, pt. III. Paleontograpiiical Soc, 

London, v. LVIII (See pp. 125, 126. pi. XXV, fig. 7). 
laBERG, O., 1934, Studien fiber Lamellibranchiaten des Leptaena- 

kalkes in Dalarna, Lund, llikan Ohlssons Buchdruckerei 

(See pp. 402-405). 
Jackson, K. T., 1890, Phylogenv of the Peleevpoda, Mem. Boston 

Soc. Nat. Hist., V. IV, no. VIII (See pp. 325. 326). 
KoNiNCK, L. (i. de, 1885, Faune du Cak-aire Carboiiilerc do la 

Belgi(iue, Ann. tlu Mus. d'llist. Nat. de l>elgi(jue, t. XI, pt. 

5, Lamellibranches (Soc pp. 201, 202, pi. XL, figs. 1-5). 
MuR(;iiisoN, R. 1., E. de Verneuil, and A. do Keyserlincj, 1845, 

The Cioology in Europe and the rral Mountains (See v. I, 

p. 225, v. 2, pt. 3, pp. 330, 331, pi. XXI, tigs. 13a-c). 

Jan., 1944] the nautilus 93 

Newell, N. D., 1938, Late Paleozoic Pelecvpods: Pectinacea, 

Geol. Surv. Kansas, v. 10 (See pp. 10, 92, 9;'), 97-102, pis. 

Xeweli.. N. D., and F. E. Mek(1I.\nt, 1939. Discordant valves in 

Pleurotlietie Pelecvpods, Am. J. ISei., v. 2:}7, no. 3, pp. 175- 

177. 1 pi. 
White, C. A., 1884, A Review of the Fossil Ostreidae of North 

America, U. S. G. S. 4th Ann. Kept. (See pp. 284, 288, pi. 

XXXIV, fifrs. 1,2). 
WiKCHELL, A., 1865, Descriptions of New Species of Fossils, etc., 

Pr. Acad. Nat. Sci. Philadelphia (See p. 124). 


Although Temple Prime, Dr. Victor Sterki and others have 
paid much attention to the taxonomy of the Sphaeriidae, that 
group is in a chaotic state. Identifications are difficult or im- 

Not only have the present students found the Sphaeriidae to 
be an exasperating portion of our fauna but, also, Dr. Sterki has 
long put his complaints into writing. Writing to Chief Justice 
Latchford, Sterki made the following comment, "It is hardly 
necessary to offer you excuse or explanation for doubtfully 
identified forms, as in the list; you certainly understand that 
"species" are not always "clear cases." Some of our Sphae- 
riidae are so perplexingly variable that it is impossible, at pres- 
ent, to outline them, or more practically, to know whether a given 
"form" is inside or outside that limit. One of the most diffi- 
cult is e.g., Sphacrium striatinum, with apparently no end of 
variation, or varieties and local forms; similar cases are those of 
M. securis, rosaceum, truncatum, and a number of Pisidia." 
Nineteen years later (January 10, 1930), writing to the same 
individual as he returns material he has been examining. Dr. 
Sterki writes in the same vein: "Most of the spp. are very 
variable and some are very difficult to define and confine, e.g. 
striatinum, stamineum, even solidulum." And these statements 
can be duplicated many times from Sterki 's notes in the Carnegie 

94 THE NAUTILUS [Vol. 57 (3) 

A comprehensive programme of research should include: 

1 (a) A re-study of all shell characters, especially hinge teeth, 
general shape, the young, etc., of both recent and fossil forms. 

(b) Comparison with the original descriptions. 

2 Preparation of clear descriptions and good figures of each 

3 Anatomical investigations. 

As a first step in this direction these preliminary remarks are 

The authors have been gathering data about the larger eastern 
forms of the family Sphaeriidae (genera Siphaerium, Muscu- 
lium), and have found the following principles involved: 

1. That the myriad forms hitherto placed under the genera 
Sphaerium and Musculium are generalized groups and/or, in 
some cases, species which are even today still undergoing evolu- 
tionary development. The generalized forms are exactly repre- 
sented by the groups Sphaerium sulcatum and Sphaerium stria- 
tinum, both of which form a complex evolutionary structure of 
interrelated (ecological and geographical) units. 

2. That the genus (so called) Musculium is in reality a di- 
vision of the genus Sphaerium, and cannot be separated, on the 
basis of conehological characters, from that genus. In this state- 
ment we are in harmony with older American and European 
opinion. The calyculae of the shells are not a character of 
generic standing. It is noted, however, that in this genus a 
further speciation has taken place than within the genus Sphae- 
rium (in the strict sense). 

3. That the species Sphaerium rhomhoideum, Sphaerium 
walkeri, Sphaerium occidcntale, and Sphaerium corncum form a 
separate group belonging together. Tliese have been included 
by Dr. Victor Sterki in the "corncum group." They impress 
one as a group of true species rather than as a species with varia- 
tions. They are all loosely linked together by the embryonic 
forms, however. 

4. That the sulcatum, complex is distinguished by the uniform 
striae and the shape and large size of the embryonic specimens. 
In all these species (so called) the similarity of the very young 
and unborn shells is a striking feature. One can trace the de- 
velopment of these into the various described kinds, but funda- 

Jan., 1944] 



mentally they form (the embryos) one group. The following 
are forms of sulcatum: 

S. sulcatum Lam. 

" insigyie St. 
" albcscetise St. 

fallax St. 
" dakotense St. 
" ohscurum St. 

S. sulcatum plannium St. 

dccisum St. 

lincaium St. 
" " crassum St. 

ellipticum St. 

scidptum St. 

5. That Sphocrium striatinum (as a group) is distinguishable 
from tiie others by the more widely spaced striae (when striae 
are present, specimens may be smooth or heavily striated), and 
by the shape of the embryos; i.e., although the texture of the 
shell is the same in sulcatum and striatinum, if you take an 
embryo of the same size from each of these the dorsal margin of 
the sulcatum will be straight, that of striatinum will be some- 
what bent downward in front of the beak. This make striatinum 
less equilateral in shape. Even though one can see the first 
steps toward speciation within this group the indefinite limits of 
variation are not sufficiently stable to constitute ascertainable 
species. The following are forms of striatinum: 

S. striatinum Lam. 

" corpulentum St. 

" modestum St. 

hadium St. 
" rugosum St. 

" solidum St. 

" decorum St. 

" novangliae St. 

" tenerum St. 

" attenuatum St. 

" Icvissimum St. 

S. stamincum Conrad 

forbesi St. 
laeve ? 
S. notatum St. 

" gihhosum St. 
" glahrum St. 
S. acuminatum Prime 

" diaphanum St. 

" lacuum St. 

S. cumherlandicum St. 
S. nylandcri St. 
S. emincns St. 

S. lilycashense Baker 

8. wrighti St. 

S. solidulum Prime 

8. canadense St. 

8. bakeri St. 

8. torsum St. 

8. emarginatum Prime 

8. wisconsinense St. 

8. altilc St. 

8. pilsbryanum St. 

8. hendersoni St. 

8. declive St. 

8. obtusum St. 

8. browni St. 

8. concinnum St. 

8. elegans St. 

8. vcrmontanum Prime 

8. ornatum St. 

N. regular c St. 

8. cerinum St. 

8. redense St. 

8. laevigatum St. 

8. ohioense St. 

96 THE NAUTILUS [Vol. 57 (3) 

6. That the Musculia {Musculium) stand close to the corneum 
frroup. The fine texture of the shell is much the same, and very 
unlike that of sulcatum or striatinum which is coarser. Most of 
the Musculia are also markedly more fragile than the Sphaeria. 
But the tougher forms are as rugged as Sphaerium walkeri St. 
When one studies the entire group, neither by means of adult 
characters nor young specimens can one determine where one 
"species" leaves off and another begins (within this "genus"). 
Mr. Herrington has found that by taking the extreme forms of 
Musculia and placing them along with the less extreme that they 
"fit together like the pieces of a puzzle." One might say that 
this group is on the verge of speciation but still retains too many 
of the general characteristics to be divided successfully now. 

The Pittsburgh member of this present survey feels that per- 
haps we have been too greatly overshadowed by the complex in 
our comprehension of the Sphacriidae. Perhaps it is simply a 
case of great simplicity — a few groups widely dispersed and ex- 
tremely variable. At any rate tliis represents our present out- 
look. We are seeing some light — the more light as we see more 
and more relationships within the mass of specimens. Each 
major group is found to have a pattern of distribution and a 
pattern of anatomical features which will undoubtedly lead to 
the proper vision of this vast complex of animal life. 

To assist us in this work we are asking fellow conchologists to 
make an especial effort at collecting both Pleistocene and recent 
material. The Pleistocene picture we liope will be the secret 
door to the apparent present day complexity of the group. 
There, we hope, will our siinplification be more strongly illus- 
trated — the pattern more broadly iiluinlMated. Today, and with 
the specimens of today's evolution we arc laboring under a 
burdensome mass of observation and speculation frciglited with 
misconceptions and fallacies. 

We ask that each collector will please give data — date, eleva- 
tions, flood condition, watershed, lake, or stream, etc., with speci- 
mens sent in. 

It may be interesting to others to know that the Carnegie 
Musenm is keeping the Sterki Collection intact under the names 
Sterki used. Only a small portion has been removed and reno- 
vated for this study. We still need collections from many areas 

Jan., 1944] the nattilus 97 

and especially from the Pleistocene. Wiierever the older (and 
some of tlio present) collei'tors live or iiave lived, that area is 
usually well repi'esented in our (.'abiiiet. The newer students of 
moUusks can greatly extend our ranpfe of material into newer 

Specimens may be sent to Dr. Stanley Truman Brooks, Car- 
negie Museum, Pittsburgh, Pa., or to the Rev. H. B. Herrington, 
Xewburgh, Ont., Canada. 


Associate Curator, Division of Mollusks 
United States National Museum 

Among the numerous mollusks that Dr. S. F. Blake has found 
in his researches on the Pleistocene fauna of Maryland is this 
small Vitrinella that seems to be undescribed, and which I am 
pleased to name for the discoverer. 

Vitrinella blakei, new species. Plate 9, Figures 1, 2, 

Shell very small, depressed-helicoid, with a low spire, opaque 
white. The last whorl is large, strongly convex, and sculptured 
on the upper surface by well-defined, short, axial wrinkles of 
varying length, running down from the suture, and stronger, 
more crowded ones around the deep narrow umbilicus; there are 
likewise numerous fine spiral grooves in the peripheral region. 
Aperture suborbicular, flattened somewhat in the columellar 
portion and bluntly angled at the base thereof. 

The type, r.S.X.:M. No. ;')37834, measures: Height, 0.7 mm.; 
greatest diameter, 1.2 mm. 

It was collected in Bed 1 (lowest bed) of the Talbot formation 
of the Pleistocene at Wailes Bluff, near Cornfield Harbor, at the 
southern tip of St. ]\Iary's County, Maryland. 

The axial wrinkles in the umbilical and sutural region, and 
the narrow umbilicus, will distinguish this species from other 
West Atlantic forms. It will very likely be found to be also 
living along our coast. 

1 Published by permission of the Secretary of the Smithsonian Institution. 

98 THE NAUTILUS [Vol. 57 (3) 



Carnegie Museum 

]\Iany species of the genus Bidiinulus in the southern section 
of the United States are characterized by the presence of a ridge 
on the lower portion of the aperture. This ridge, which I have 
designated as the "apertural ridge," varies greatly in thickness 
and is usually present close to the peristome, about Ys the dis- 
tance within the aperture, or so far back as to be nearly hidden 
by the parietal wall. There are a few specimens in which there 
are two of these ridges very close together, but in the majority 
of the specimens there is present only one ridge. Specimens 
with such ridges are illustrated in Plate 9, figures 7, 8, 9. 

The presence of these "apertural ridges" might indicate a 
resting stage in the life of the snail, much as the varices of some 
of the larger snails of the family Orthalicidae. The thickness of 
the ridge probably indicates a longer or shorter period of estiva- 
tion. In those specimens in which there is an absence of the 
ridge, it might have been absorbed by the animal as it continued 
to grow and enlarge its shell. For some reason, during the subse- 
quent growth of the animal, many of these ridges were not ab- 
sorbed and are thus present on the apertural floor. 

The "apertural ridge" has been observed in the following 
snails : 

Bulimuhis dealhatus dealhatus Buliniulus dcalbatus liquahilis 

(Say) (Reeve). Fig. 9. 

Buliniulus dealhatus ragsdalci Bulimidus dealhatus ozarkensis 

(Pilsbry) Pi is. & Ferr. 

Bidimulus dealhatus patri- Bulimulus alter )iat us mariae 

archus (W.G.B.) (Albers) 

Bulimulus dealhatus schiede- Bulimulus alteniatus altcruatus 

auus (Pfr.). Fig. 8. (Say) 
Bulimulus dealhatus mooreanus 

(W.G.B.) . Fig. 7. 

There are only a few references in molluscan literature which 
mention the existence of the "apertural ridge" in any of the 
species of Bulimulus. W. G. Binney on page 127 in a Supple- 
ment to the Terrestrial Air-Breathing Mollusks of the United 
States and Adjacent Territories of North America, 4, 1859, men- 

Jan.. 1!U41 THE nautilus 99 

tioiis in the description of Bulinutlus dlhrnaius Say tliat the 
"hibniin (in some species) with a tliickened line or rib on the 
inner submarfjin." This is repeated in the Land and Fresh 
Water Shells of North America, part 1, 1869, on pajre 200 and 
in A Manual of American Land Shells, 1885, on pa<;e 396. On 
paj^es 1200 and 397 respectively of the latter two publications are 
the followinsi: remarks concerning this species, "The aperture, 
however, is always dark, and has a white, thickened rim within 
the peristome." and "This species is readily distinpruishable 
from the allied forms by ... its dark-colored aperture, bordered 
within with the white internal margin of the aperture. The 
aperture, however, is always dark, and has a white, thickened 
rim within the peristome." 

The description of B. dcalbatus mooreanus (W.G.B.) in the 
Land and Fresh Water Sliells of North America, part 1, is found 
on page 200. Part of this includes the following notation, 
"peristome .... with an internal delicate white rim." This 
is repeated by Binney in A Manual of North American Land 
Shells on page 400. 

In Biologia Centrali-Americana, Land and Freshwater Mol- 
lusca, 1893, on page 244, Eduard von INIartens, after having ex- 
amined a number of specimens of "B. mariae" from Texas in 
German collections, endorses W. G. Binney 's remarks concerning 
Bulimuhis altcrnatus and quotes part of it as follows, "This spe- 
cies is readily distinguishable from the allied forms by . . . its 
dark-colored aperture, with the white internal margin of the 
peritreme." von Martens also says that "the thickened white 
line or rib on the inner submargin" agrees well witli our species 
of Bulimiilus altcrnatus. 

Dr. PL A. Pilsbry, Manual of Conchology, 11, 1897, 129, men- 
tions that the "peristome acute. ... or with a rib within" of 
Bidimulus (Orthotomium) dealhatus (Say). 

Among the large list of mollusca collected in the southwestern 
States were specimens of Bulimulus dcalbatus liquahilis (Reeve) 
and B. d. ragsdalci (Pilsbry). These are listed in the "]\Iollusca 
of the Southwestern States, II," in the Proceedings of the Acad- 
emy of Natural Sciences of Philadelphia, 58, 1906, 135 & 137. 
Of the former, Pilsbry and Ferriss state that the shells of Lee 
Co., Texas, has a "lip-rib present in adults" and in the l3J"^irm ^"v. 
the "lip-rib strongly developed." /\^ }s^^ 

^ I L U R A R Y 

100 THE NAUTILUS [Vol. 57 (3) 


The species tha-t is the subject of this paper manifests certain 
pronounced variations. Verrill in 1872 noted (Report upon the 
Inv. Animals of Vineyard Sound, p. 358) : ". . . there is great 
variation in the form of the shell, some being oval, others more 
oblong or elliptical, and others nearly triangular ; some are 
swollen, others quite compressed, but all the intermediate grades 
occur." This observation can be made by anyone who examines 
even cursorily a series of mature shells. It might be of interest 
to have these variations mathematically expressed. The chief 
variations may be defined as follows : the degree of ovalness (the 
ratio of height to length) ; the degree of inequilateralness (the 
distance of the umbo from the center) ; the askewness (the angle 
formed by the greater and lesser diameters) ; and the obesity. 
This paper will discuss the first three, leaving the last for a 
subsequent essay. 

This species is easily the most prominent molluscan feature of 
our east coast ocean beaches. Though in actual numbers it may 
be second to Mytilus edulis Linne, the latter is not so noticeable 
because of its much smaller size and definite localization on 
rocks, jetties and posts. Spissula is occasionally thrown upon 
our beaches in incredible numbers. Arthur Jacot (Naut. 34: 
59f) estimated, after a violent winter storm, that no less than 
5,000,000 animals to the mile had been cast up along a beach 
that extends five miles in either direction. Almost every winter, 
when severe storms undercut large reefs, our beaches are literally 
piled high with live bivalves, where, preserved by the natural 
refrigeration of winter, they provide a lasting feast for the gulls. 

The shells represented in this study were collected at random 
on the beach at Rockaway, New York, care being taken however 
to reject valves too badly eroded or broken, and to limit the se- 
lection to shells of medium or large size. The shells studied 
varied in length from 182 mm. to 103.5 mm., the average size 
being 136.1 mm. Although no attempt was made to select right 
or left valves (actually there happened to be 54 left valves and 
46 right), in no case were both valves of the same animal chosen. 

Jan.. 1944] the nautilus 101 

Abnormal shells, shells that had been severely broken and 
quently repaired by the animal, where this repair work altered 
the outlines, or where damagre to the mantle resulted in abnormal 
development of the ventral margin (ef. R. T. Jack.son Phylogcny 
of the Pclccypoda, quoted by Chas. B. Davenport, Am. Nat. 
XXXIV, No. 407, p. 871)— such shells were discarded. How- 
ever it must be understood that few if any of the shells ex- 
amined were perfect, since the {grinding action of wave and sand 
on such an exposed beach as Kockaway resulted in pronounced 
if unimportant imperfections. Thus in almost all cases the 
periostracum was largely or entirely removed, the ventral margin 
more or less severely chipped and the posterior shell structure 
surrounding the siphon — this being the area most frequently ex- 
posed to the action of the elements — was much battered, eroded 
and thickened. In some cases the interior of the shell disclosed 
an encysted mass of sand, which had probablj^ been forcibly 
driven into the area between the mantle and the interior shell 
wall and had there been covered over with shell matter. One 
shell found (not included in this study) had its capacity reduced 
by as much as 20% (estimated) by such a sand cyst. 

The tables given below will indicate mathematically the fact 
and extent of structural variation in the species. In most cases 
the tables need no explanation with the exception perhaps of the 
first. Here the clumsy term "umbo/length ratio" is used. By 
this is meant the ratio between the greater diameter (the length) 
and the distance of the umbo from the center of this line. To 
arrive at this figure the diameter is drawn and to it is dropped a 
perpendicular from the umbo. The distance from the point of 
contact to the center of the diameter is then measured and the 
ratio easily arrived at. If the umbo were perpendicularly above 
the center, the ratio would be zero. Hence a ratio of .163 shows 
a considerable degree of inequilateralness. The smallest ratio 
was found to be .030. The actual measurements of this distance 
varied from 28.5 mm. on a diameter of 182 mm. to 4 mm. on a 
diameter of 132 mm. 

Ecologically the findings are without significance, since habitat 
data of all specimens studied are substantially identical. Nor, 
as table IV shows, is there any correlation between the two ratios 
discussed ; thus a shell with the height/length ratio of .744 might 

102 THE NAUTILUS [Vol. 57 (3) 

have an umbo/length ratio of anywhere between .037 and .157. 
Similarly an umbo/length ratio of .094 might have its corre- 
sponding height/length between .655 and .833. The findings, 
then, as far as the deduction of formulae or rules is concerned, 
are completely negative, and the author leaves in the hands of 
competent biologists and paleontologists the determination of the 
morphological significance of the variations studied. 

The kind interest and advice of Dr. William A. Clench of 
Harvard is acknowledged, and thanks expressed to Mr. Randolph 
Gunthert of John Adams High School, New York and ]Miss 
Frieda Rosenfeld of Hunter College for aid in the mathematical 
and statistical aspects of the paper. 

Table I 

The first column expresses the umbo/length ratios, the second 
the number of shells for each ratio. 

Ratio from 


















































.160-. 164 




.165-. 169 


Total 100 
Tlie moan is .093, the .standard deviation .032. 

Jan.. 1944] 





The first ( 



the hei 

ght/length ratios 




.750-. 754 



















































































The mean is .737, the standard deviation .035. 

Table III 

In this table are represented the variations in the anjrle formed 
by tlie intersection of the greater and lesser diameters, i.e. the 
a.skewness of the shells. 

Degrees Shells 

105-109 23 

110-114 6 

Total 100 











[Vol. 57 (3) 

Table IV 

This table represents the correlation between the ratios of 
Table I and Table 11. 





umbo/length ratios 




























.071, .078, .130 











.053, .083, .094, 




.101, .131, .163 




.058, .075, .083, 






.094, .097, .144 




.077, .097 (2), 






.098, .112 




(2), .087, .092, 





.051, .053, .096, 






.050, .065, .086, 








(2), .099, .105, 





.097, .127 




.066, .076, .098, 






.052, .120, .127, 





.081, .097, .114, 
















.089, .160 








• H/1 ratios, not rcpresontod by corrosponding u/1 ratios, arc omitted. 

Jan.. 1944] the nautilus 105 


The Desert Museum at Palm Sprinp:s, Calif., which was 
closed for the summer on I\Iay 15, was opened on October 16. In 
the absence of the Curator, Professor and ]\Irs. T. D. A. Cockerell 
have taken charge of the museum. 

Dr. Henry van der Sciialte, assistant curator of mollusks at 
the museum of zoology of the University of Michigan, lias been 
awarded the Walker Prize of the Boston Society of Natural His- 
tory. The value of the prize was increased this year from $50 
to $100 in recognition of the excellence of Dr. van der Schalie's 
work on "The Value of Mussel Distribution in the Tracing of 
Stream Confluence." — Science, Dec. 3. 

After fifty years of academic service Dr. Henry E. Crampton 
has retired with the title of emeritus professor of zoology of Co- 
lumbia University. The authorities of the American IMuseum 
of Natural History have provided him with facilities to continue 
his researches on the distribution, variation, evolution and he- 
redity of gasteropod mollusca, especially in Partula and in 
Lymnaea. Dr. Crampton has made several expeditions to the 
South Seas for the collection of series of individuals of the spe- 
cies of Partula, having about 250,000 individuals of that genus. 
Three volumes of the results of his work have appeared, and the 
material for still others is undergoing preparation. — Science, 
Oct. 14, 1943. 

Otala vermiculata Miiller and O. lactea Miiller in Texas — 
Among some land shells collected at Bryan, Brazos County, Texas 
and submitted by j\Irs. Laura Sebesta for determination, I was 
surprised to note the occurrence of Otala vermiculata and 0. 
lactea. Subsequent inquiry elicited the information tiiat this 
colony was started seventeen years ago when an Italian merchant 
bought two bushels of snails from New York for his retail trade. 
After selling a portion, the remainder were dumped behind his 
store, assuming they were dead. Evidently some were alive as a 
colony of both species exists as attested by living examples sub- 
mitted. — Ralph W. Jackson. 

A new Subspecies of Conus verrucosus from Florida ' 

— Some time ago Dr. T. Van Ilyning sent to the National Mu- 

1 Published by permission of the Secretary of the Smithsonian Institution. 

106 THE NAUTILUS [Vol. 57 (3) 

seum some specimens of a Conus from Florida that undoubtedly 
is close to Conus verrucosus, but deserves a distinct subspecific 
designation. In honor of the indefatigable student of Florida 
malacology, to whom we owe this striking form, I am calling it : 

Conus verrucosus vanhyningi, new subspecies. It resembles 
verrucosus but has a ground color of a distinct pinkish tint, with 
the interior of the outer lip similarly colored near the edge, be- 
coming orange-brown deeper within the aperture. In the typical 
form the aperture is white within. The type, U.S.N.M. No. 
537863, measures : Height, 17 mm. ; diameter, 10.4 mm. It and 
four paratypes were collected by W. A. Royce on a beach off 
Pompano, Broward County, Florida. — II. A. Rehder. 

Smaragdia viRiDis viRiDEMARis Maury. — On December 31, 1940, 
Dr. Henry D. Russell published "Some New Neritidae from the 
West Indies," wherein he proposed calling the European green 
nerite, Smaragdia viridis Linne, and giving the West Indian 
form the new subspecific name of S. v. weyssei. In his descrip- 
tion he does not include the white form, and remarks that only 
3 to 15 per cent of the specimens from any one lot have the 
brownish-red broken lines. 

In the recent dredgings of T. L. McGinty in fms. off Palm 
Beach, Florida, were found several Smaragdia, pure white, with 
milky zigzag maculations, these in part outlined witli donble, 
thread-like, dark brown, broken lines. Dr. Henry A. Pilsbry 
states (Proc. Acad. Nat. Sci., 1921, p. 396) that the zigzag 
stripes are quite prevalent on specimens from the Gabb collec- 
tion, Santo Domingo Miocene, giving them more the appearance 
of the European species. 

There being no subspecific name for the recent West Indian 
specimens of Smaragdia with the broken lines, we wouUi jiropose 
to call them S. v. viridemaris Maury (1917), used by AVoodring 
for the Santo Domingo and Jamaican Miocene form, either green 
or white, whidi h;is the zigzag, brownish lines. — Jeanne S. 


OiiiXKLLA VA.Miv.NiNci, ncw spccics. Plate 9, Figure 3. Shell 
minute, cylindro-conic, \)n]o horn colored with irregular axial 
white markings that give to the surface a watered-silk eflVct. 
Nucleus (leei)ly immersed in the first postnudear whorl which 

Jan.. 1044] the nautilus 107 

lends to the shell a truncated aspect. Postnuclear whorls rather 
liiirli between .sununit and suture, marked by irrcfxular incre- 
mental lines \vlii(.'li somewhat simulate axial ribs. Suture very 
ileeply constricted. Periphery well rouiuled. Base somewhat 
inflated, well rounded, narrowly umbilieated. Aperture rather 
larj?e, ovate; outer lip thin, evenly curved; inner lip rendered 
sigmoid by the strong folds at the insertion of the columella. 

The tjT)e, U.S.N.M. No. 346650, was collected by T. Van Ilyn- 
ing in Big Bayou, St. Petersburg, Florida. It has 5 postnuclear 
whorls and measures : Height, 2.3 mm. ; greater diameter, .8. 
U.S.N.M. No. 346651 contains 4 topotypes from the same source, 
and 17 more are in Mr. Van Ilyning's collection. — Paul Bartsch. 

Taraninl — In attempting a supergeneric classification of the 
family Turridae, using soft parts, radula and shell for expressing 
relationship, the disposition of Casey's tribe Taranini (1904. 
Transactions of the Academy of Sciences of St. Louis, volume 14, 
pages 168-169) has come up for consideration. 

The type genus Taranis Jeffreys (1870. Annals and Magazine 
of Natural History, series 4, volume 5, page 447) has for the type 
Taranis mijrchi ]\Ialm. A re-examination of the animal of this 
species enables us to agree with Krause's statement (1887. 
Beitrag zur marinen Fauna des Nordlichen Norwegen, page 20) 
that the operculum and radula are absent and that the siphon is 
moderately long and the single feather-like gill has the fila- 
ments on one side. To this may be added that very small eyes 
are present and situated not on the tentacles as is usually the 
case in Turrids, but slightly on each side of the median line be- 
tween them. There is no pronounced posterior sinus. Casey 
evidently mistook the median keel for it. The nuclear whorls 
bear numerous fine spiral threads and incremental lines which 
give the spaces between them a somewhat pitted appearance. 

In summing up all of these characters, I am led to believe that 
this genus is not Turrid. I am equally undecided where else to 
place it. It seems possible that Casey's tribal name Taranini 
may have to be changed to Taranidae. 

Nuclear characters exclude the West Atlantic species referred 
here by Verrill and Dall. The Raphitoma amocna Sars listed 
as Taranis amoena by subsequent authors, while it resembles 
Taranis, bears no relationship to it. Radula and the rest of the 
characters are Turrid. — Paul Bartsch. 

108 THE NAUTILUS [Vol. 57 (3) 

Hemphill's Catalogue of the Land and Freshwater 
Shells op Utah. — This title appears on a small 16 mo. leaflet 
published in Oakland, California in 1878 by Henry Hemphill. 
This must be a rare publication. It is not quoted at all in the 
bibliography of Chamberlin and Jones — A Descriptive Catalog 
of the Mollusca of Utah (Bull. Univ. of Utah, 19, no. 4, pp. 10 + 
203, 1929). Again, it is not quoted in Pilsbry's Land Mollusca 
of North America (Monographs Acad. Nat. Sci. Philadelphia no. 
3, 1, pt. 1, 1939), where the names are credited to Binney or 
** Hemphill" Binney under the date of 1886. 

Though the title covers the State of Utah, the brief introduc- 
tion states "this remarkable series of land shells, collected by me 
during last summer and fall in the canyons of the Wassatch 
Mts., Utah." The list of 26 species of freshwater shells, how- 
ever, would indicate that these, at least, were obtained in terri- 
tory beyond the limits of the Wahsatch Mountains. [Wassatch 
and Wasatch are alternate spellings.] Hemphill has included 
the Oquirrh range as part of the Wassatch Mountains and Utah 
Lake is in the basin between these two mountain chains. IMany 
of the freshwater shells were obtained from this lake. 

The few descriptive remarks hardly constitute "description" 
of the few names first introduced in this list, all in the genus 
"Patula" [Oreohelix]. However, the terms do cover briefly the 
varieties in question and are certainly equal in value to a host of 
names that have been employed by many of his contemporaries, 
and now accepted as valid. — William J. Clench. 

The Nautilus 

Vol. 57 April, 1944 No. 4 



Though during the past 23 years much coUectinpr of non- 
marine mollusks has been done by the writer in this area, it has 
been only durinfr the past three years that a particular effort 
has been made to study the local land slup^s. Our present 
knowledgre of this group as represented in Los Angeles and 
Orange Counties, California, includes eight species. Of these, 
six species belong to the family Limacidae. Two species, Ana- 
denulus cockerelli (Hemphill) and Hesperarion hemphilli (Bin- 
ney), belong to the Arionidae. We have three indigenous spe- 
cies of slugs. Five species, all belonging to the Limacidae, have 
been introduced. 


Though relatively common in the San Francisco Bay region, 
records from southern California are few. Since it was for- 
merly confused with Limax marginatus, at least some of the 
older records are no doubt referable to that species. The writer 
has never taken it in southern California. A single specimen in 
the Los Angeles Museum collection (No. 104) bears the follow- 
ing data, "Hallenbeck Park, Los Angeles, Calif., Dec. 4, 1923. 
Gordon Grant, collector." Live specimens collected by A. G. 
Smith in Golden Gate Park, San Francisco, Calif., were exhibited 
at the May, 1943 meeting of the Conchological Club of Southern 
California. No member present recalled having ever seen it in 
southern California. Mabel Guernsey ' reported it as common 
at Laguna Beach, Orange County, Calif. Her statement, "LV- 

1 First Annual Report of the Laguna Marine Laboratory, Pomona Col- 
lege, p. 81, May, 1912. 


110 THE NAUTILUS [Vol. 57 (4) 

max maximus is, when fully grown, about two inches long; Li- 
max flavus is somewhat smaller," would indicate that she was 
unfamiliar with the species mentioned and that she was dealing 
with other slugs. In later years both Morris Caruthers and the 
writer have failed to find L. maximus at Laguna Beach. 

It is said by some authors that this species will not eat green 
chlorophyllaceous vegetable matter. Specimens of L. maximus 
which I had in confinement did eat the dark green leaves of 
romaine. In addition to various tender vegetables they also ate 
raw beef and were observed to attack and readily devour live 
specimens of Deroceras agreste and Arion intermedius. 
LiMAX FLAVus Linuacus 

This is the largest of our common slugs in southern California. 
An unusually large specimen (preserved in 4% formaldehyde) 
collected in my yard at 2200 S. Harvard Blvd., Los Angeles, 
measures 4% inches (112 mm.) in length. In a yard in Long 
Beach, I found a colony of about three dozen individuals which 
made their home in a fissure in the earth about eight inches deep. 
At night they would come out and crawl about the yard in 
search of bits of garbage. It is fond of fungus growths and is 
commonly found about rotten wood. I have frequently taken it 
in a cavity in a rotten log. At one time I examined a rotten tree 
trunk immediately after it had blown down and this species and 
Limax marginatus were found in cavities in the wood at least 
12 feet from the bottom of the trunk. There were numerous 
slime trails over the outside of the bark. It is fond of tender 
vegetables and specimens in captivity have readily eaten lettuce, 
romaine, cabbage, carrot, potato and turnip. It was particu- 
larly found of romaine root. 

A single specimen taken in El Monte, Calif., May 1, 1942, and 
which when fully extended to slender proportions measured 25 
mm. long (approximately 30 days old) was placed in confine- 
ment and isolated from other slugs. It was fed principally on 
lettuce. It was approximately 2Vij inches long on December 26, 
1943 (about 634 days or 21 months old). On this date two eggs 
were deposited. Apparently self-fertilization had taken place 
as the eggs hatched 15 days later. On January 23, 1944, three 
more eggs were deposited but these were sterile. The two young 
specimens have since continued to grow. 

April, 1944] the nautilus 111 

I have personally collected Limax flavus from numerous locali- 
ties in Santa Barbara, San Bernardino. Los Anf?eles and Oranp^e 

Limax maroinatus Miiller 

This species is second only to Deroceras agreste in its abun- 
dance and wide distribution in southern California. The writer 
has personally collected Limax marginatus from numerous lo- 
calities in Santa Barbara, San Bernardino, Riverside, Los An- 
greles and Orange Counties. The collection of the California 
Academy of Sciences contains specimens from as far north as 
Kirkwood. Tehama County, California. In spite of its abun- 
dance and wide distribution, there are, to date, but two pub- 
lished records of its occurrence in North America. In 1917, 
Cockerell reported it from a greenhouse in Boulder, Colorado ;- 
and again in 1930, he reported it from Santa Catalina Island.' 
The lack of records of this slug seems due to its confusion with 
certain color forms of Limax maximus. Internally L. margi- 
natus is characterized by a posteriorly directed rectal caecum 
and a digitiform appendicular structure which is attached to 
the penis. Both of these structures are absent in L. maximus. 
Specimens in confinement fed on decayed wood, lettuce, po- 
tato, turnip, cabbage and calla lily flowers. A lady once told 
me that something was ruining her calla lilies and that she sus- 
pected that the damage was being done by slugs. A few days 
later I received from her a small box containing two or three 
calla lily flowers. The slugs (L. marginatus) were there too, 
still eating. 

Another interesting observation on Limax marginatus is the 
tendency to auto-urotomy, or self-amputation of the posterior 
end of the body. I have frequently noticed specimens in my 
yard with a noticeable constriction about three-fourths of the 
di.stance back from the posterior edge of the mantle. A speci- 
men taken from my yard on May 30, 1943, showed this constric- 
tion quite pronounced with the area posterior to it shrunken as 
if from atrophy resulting from restricted circulation. The 
specimen was confined and furnished an abundance of food. 

2 Nautilus, vol. 30, p. 120, February, 1917. 

3 Ibid., vol. 52, p. 136, April, 1939. 

112 THE NAUTILUS [Vol. 57 (4) 

Two weeks later the posterior end was quite filled out but a re- 
maining slight constriction was definitely noticeable. When the 
slug was handled the constriction again became more pro- 
nounced. The only instances observed of complete self- 
amputation of the posterior portion of the body have been in 
specimens while in the drowning jar. I have before me a set of 
eleven specimens of L. marginatus taken in my yard on No- 
vember 15, 1941. After drowning they were preserved in alco- 
hol. Of these eleven, three show no signs of constriction ; four 
show definite evidence of constriction ; two are short with blunt 
posterior extremities, suggesting constriction when very young 
with consequent non-development of their tails; two, with defi- 
nite constriction at time of collecting, accomplished complete 
self-amputation of their tails while in the drowning jar. Though 
this habit in Prophysaoyi has long attracted attention, it has ap- 
parently been overlooked in Limax marginatus. 

Deroceras agreste (Linnaeus) 

In southern California this is by far the most abundant spe- 
cies of slug, both in numbers and in locality records. There are 
numerous color forms which are united by complete intergrada- 
tion. Interbreeding has been observed to take place between 
diverse color forms indiscriminately. Internally the species is 
characterized by a many lobed penial gland and by the presence 
of a rectal caecum. The penial gland varies greatly. There is 
absolutely no relation between the variation in color and the 
variation of the penial gland. Though described as having a 
pointed tail, certain of the fully mature individuals have a some- 
what chisel-shaped tail resembling in this respect Deroceras 
laeve (Miiller). Some of our color forms have been confused 
with D. laeve. The latter may be readily distinguished by the 
absence of a rectal caecum. Deroceras agreste usually exudes 
milky slime when handled roughly while laeve exudes clear 
colorless slime at all times. Though abundant in the San Fran- 
cisco Bay region, I know of no instance of the occurrence of 
Deroceras laeve in southern California. 

Deroceras oracile (Rafines(iue) 

This slug is quite generally distributed over Los Angeles and 
Orange Counties though I have at no place found it abundant. 

April, 1944] the nautilus 113 

This species has been confused with Dcroceras laevc. D. gracile 
is smaller, more slender; has a pointed tail while D. laeve has 
a chisel-shaped tail when viewed in profile. The penis of D. 
gracile is spiral in form while that of D. laeve is hammer-shaped 
with three or four tubular plands. These differences were con- 
stant in all specimens examined in which there were fully devel- 
oped male genitalia. The difficulty in making these determina- 
tions is that most specimens collected are in the female phase. 
In this female phase the female reproductive organs are mature 
and egg production has begun although male reproductive or- 
gans have not yet developed. Many individuals die after a pe- 
riod of active egg production and before the male genitalia have 
developed. Apparently only a small percentage of specimens 
enter the hermaphroditic phase in which the male organs as well 
as the female organs are fully developed. It is believed by some 
that there is an atrophy of the female organs resulting in a 
purely male phase. The numerous specimens which I have ex- 
amined were either female or hermaphrodite. What is said here 
of these sex phases applies equally to both gracile and laeve. 
The truncate or chisel-shaped tail of D. laeve is to be looked for 
only in specimens approaching their maximum size. These large 
specimens with truncate tails have fully developed male geni- 
talia. In my comparative study of these two species, which is 
by no means complete, I have utilized numerous living speci- 
mens of D. laeve from the San Francisco Bay region kindly fur- 
nished by Allyn Smith. 

Specimens of Dcroceras gracile from Los Angeles and Orange 
Counties are generally of a light slate gray with a gelatinous 
appearance although in some colonies the specimens are nearly 
black with the dark pigment diffused over a dark brown 

MiLAX GAGATEs (Drapamaud) 

Fairly common. Specimens have been collected in Santa Bar- 
bara, Lbs Angeles, Orange and San Diego Counties. Most of 
these varied from dark gray to nearly black. The lighter col- 
ored specimens were more heavily pigmented along the longi- 
tudinal grooves. Specimens from Refugio Canyon, Santa Bar- 
bara County, were much lighter than any of the others with a 

114 THE NAUTILUS [Vol. 57 (4) 

decided yellowish east while the slugs were living but less notice- 
able in the preserved specimens. A single large specimen from 
Elysian Park, Los Angeles, had a definite dorsal stripe of the 
keel, suggesting M. sowerhii (Ferussac). It had the character- 
istic globose spermatheca which would identify it as gagates. 

Anadenulus cockerelli (Hemphill) 

When originally described the type locality was given as Cuya- 
maca Mts., San Diego County, Calif. Hemphill's types, now 
in the California Academy of Sciences, are indicated as being 
from "Julian, San Diego County, Calif." For over fifty years 
Anadenulus was known only from the type lot originally col- 
lected by Henry Hemphill. The writer has succeeded in finding 
specimens at the following localities : Upper Millard Canyon, 
San Gabriel Mts., Los Angeles County; Calbaden Canyon, 
Puente Hills, Los Angeles County; Carbon Canyon, Puente 
Hills, Orange County; Limestone Creek above Santiago Reser- 
voir, Orange County. 

This species bears a superficial resemblance to a small speci- 
men of Prophysaon andersoni but the tripartite sole of Ana- 
denulus is sufficient for easy recognition. One specimen, appar- 
ently fully adult, measures 28 mm. long when fully extended. 
The longest preserved specimen in my collection measures 20 
mm. The color varies. Some individuals are nearly black. 
Young specimens are generally darker than adult specimens. 
There are generally two undulating longitudinal yellow stripes 
on the mantle. These may be bordered on either side by black 
stripes. In a specimen from Millard Canyon the outer black 
stripes are conspicuous with the area between the two yellow 
stripes only slightly darker than the yellow stripes themselves. 
The distinct dorsal keel is lighter in color than the rest of the 
back and in some individuals there is a definite dorsal stripe. 
The distinctly tripartite sole is irregularly dotted with black. 
These black dots are more numerous along the longitudinal 
grooves which separate the luedian area of the sole from the 
lateral areas. 

IIesperarion HEMPHILL! (Blnncv) 

Previously known only from Ahimeda and San Mateo Coun- 
ties, the writer has found it to be quite widely distributed in 

April. 1044] the nautilus 11. •) 

the wooded canyons in Los Atij^eles and Oranpe Counties. I 
have taken it in the followinp southern California localities: 
Elysian Park, Los Anpeles; Arroyo Seco Canyon, Millard Can- 
yon and Santa Anita Canyon, San Gabriel Mountains, Los An- 
jreles County; Santa Ana Canyon, Black Star Canyon, Silverado 
Canyon and Trabuco Canyon, Santa Ana Mountains, Oranpe 

Southern California specimens are somewhat darker alonj? the 
dorsal area than specimens I have seen from the San Francisco 
Bay regrion but they have the characteristic markings on the 
sides and the milky white sole. Internally the structures agree 
with descriptions of the northern specimens. 


Thanks to the kind offices of Mr. Thomas A. Burch of Redondo 
Beach, California, I have been able to examine the animal of 
paratypes of the mollusks that he described (Nautilus, vol. 52, 
1938. pp. 21-22) as PseudomeJaioma semiinflata redondoensis, 
dredged by him in 25 fathoms on gravel bottom off Redondo 
Beach. The placing of this mollusk was quite puzzling. In 
shell characters it suggests the African Clionella, w'hose type is 
Buccinum sinuatum Born. The radular structures, however, 
quite remove this from that relationship, for Clionella has a 
rachidian tooth as well as Y-shaped marginals, which places it 
in the subfamily Clavatulinae. Burch 's mollusk, on the other 
hand, shows not a trace of a rachidian tooth, but possesses Y- 
shaped marginals only, a character that places it in the sub- 
family Turrinae. Since there is no genus in this subfamily to 
which redondoensis may be referred, I here propose for it the 
name : 

BuRCHiA, new genus 

Shell large, turrited, covered by a strong periostracum. Nu- 
clear whorls small (badly eroded in all our specimens). Post- 
nuclear whorls with a concave sinal area which extends over the 
posterior third of the turns. The anterior two-thirds are convex 

116 THE NAUTILUS [Vol. 57 (4) 

and crossed by strong, low, broad, retractively slanting axial 
ribs which evanesce on the base. The sinal area shows a few 
incised spiral lines, while the entire rest of the surface bears 
feeble, rather distantly spaced, spiral threads which become in- 
tensified on the base and columella. Suture well impressed. 
Base moderately rounded. Columella short and stout. The 
aperture is ovate. The outer lip with a deep posterior V-shaped 
sinus below the summit ; anterior canal rather broad ; inner lip 
reflected over the columella and parietal wall as a heavy callus 
which may be somewhat thickened at the posterior angle of the 
aperture. Operculum small, oval, with a low ridge on the right 
side and apical nucleus, marked on the outside by concentric lines 
of growth. Radula with Y-shaped marginals only. 

Type: Burchia redondoensis (Bureh) {=Pseudom€latoma 
semiinflata redondoensis Burch). 

Here I am likewise placing Burchia clionella (Dall) (= Leuco- 
syrinx f clionella Dall) described in 1908 in the Bulletin of the 
Museum of Comparative Zoology, volume 43, page 270. The 
type, U.S.N.M. No. 123125, of this species was dredged by the 
U. S. Bureau of Fisheries steamer Albatross at station 3394 in 
the Gulf of Panama in 511 fathoms. An additional series of 
specimens, U.S.N.M, No. 97069, was dredged by the Albatross at 
station 2792 off Manta, Ecuador, in 401 fathoms. These speci- 
mens agree in radular characters as well as shell appearance 
with Burch 's species. 



**The Sphaeriidae, a Preliminary Survey," Brooks and Her- 
rington, Nautilus, vol. 57, pp. 93-97, is most interesting and I 
hope as the title indicates will result in tlieir preparation of a 
summary volume upon this family. 

Shortly after coming to "Washington, almost a half century 
ago, we had a visit from Dr. Sterki, and the two of us in our 
leisure hours combed the streams about the nation's capital for 
fresh-water mollusks. This gave me an excellent opportunity 
of becoming acquainted not only with Sterki as the man (a lov- 
able character) but his wide knowledge as a field naturalist and 
a laboratory worker. His knowledge was not confined to Mol- 

April, 1944] thk nautimis 117 

lusoa but he was equally versed in Protozoa as attested by many 
of his observations published in Bronn, Die Klassen und Ord- 
nunjren des Tierroichs. vol. 1, Protozoa, by 0. Biitschli. 

About a quarter of a century later, when a great deal of the 
niiseellaneous determinations we are called upon to make, fell 
upon my shoulders. I came to realize that our collecttions of 
Sphaeriutn, Pisidium and similar folk were in a chaotic nomen- 
clatorial state and I prevailed upon Dr. Dall to persuade Dr. 
Sterki, who was at that time deemed the only man who really 
knew the subject, to come to Washington and revise our collec- 
tion, which he did. 

A lot of this material he seemed to easily allocate; a lot he 
asked to be sent to him for more detailed study. Some of this 
was returned definitely determined by him, and some with " ?" 

Dr. Sterki possessed unique eyes, eyes that were not confocal 
so that when critical comparison requiring low power magnifica- 
tion was made he would shove his spectacles upon his forehead 
and hold the specimens within a couple of inches of his right 
eye, attaining thereby a considerable magnification — a decided 
advantage over the ordinary mortal. I am mentioning this fact 
which I believe has not before reached print. 

In the years following his revisional visit, we sent him all 
things that stumped me in the groups in question, of which quite 
a bit became type material. This brings me to another phase of 
Sterki : In spite of all my urging to have him designate a type 
and type locality, most of his species were described without 
this, and given a wide zoogeographical range. This distribution 
seemed in many instances almost fantastic. 

Since then, however, a new phase of Ornithology, Bird Band- 
ing, has developed, in which I believe I put forth the first effort 
in America, and this has resulted in the acquisition of an im- 
mense amount of information, covering, among other things, the 
flyways of our waterfowl, ducks, herons and waders, which in 
turn throws a flood of light upon the distribution of those small 
bivalves and other aquatic things carried from place to place 
by these birds. 

I hope when Brooks and Herrington begin plotting the distri- 
bution of the species, subspecies, etc., they may have a flyway 
chart before them and check its bearing upon this distribution 

118 THE NAUTILUS [Vol. 57 (4) 

problem. It is interesting in this connection to note how some 
of our waterfowl still follow the westward course at the foot of 
the glaciers of long ago, when they proceed westward from the 
eastern seaboard. 

Then there is a second problem, probably the much greater, 
namely, the question of hybridization. This, when specifically 
distinct species are able to mate, appears to produce not Men- 
delian features such as we get in intraspecific crossings, but an 
endless number of variants most of which, as far as experiments 
in mollusk breeding show, are evanescent, but some are capable 
of continuing their kind. Some of these mutating complexes 
occupy limited areas and may be the result of a mixing of an 
immigrant waif with a local race. It seems to me what is neces- 
sary in the study of these small bivalves is the gathering of a 
large series of specimens (not a few isolated individuals as usu- 
ally reach the Museum taxonomists) to seew how fixed or vari- 
able the forms from each locality may be. Experimental breed- 
ing also seems indicated. Finally I am mindful that when one 
uses aquaria, in many cases a depauperization occurs in suc- 
ceeding generations due to possibly a change in Ph or food, or 
a combination of other ecologic factors. I can't help but feel 
that immigrants brought into new environments may respond 

The working laboratory taxonomist pondering upon the 
whence and why does not face an easy task in endeavoring the 
fixation of a name that is to hold for all time to come. 

The geologic record, interesting as it may be, will furnish more 
factors but not a complete solution, for the days of yesterday 
presented problems with as many ramifications and interdigita- 
tions as the problems of today. 

By henry a. PILSBRY 

The following snails were selected as new from a long series 
of Peruvian species sent by Dr. W. Weyrauch of Lima. They 
were collected by him during travels in the interior in the course 

April, 1944] the nautilus 119 

of his work on economic entomology. Further species will form 
a third installment of this series. 

PsADARA piZARRO, new species. Plate 11, Figs. 6, 6a 

The very thin shell is narrowly umbilicate, the spire convex, 
periphery well rouiuled. The 4V;( whorls are convex and joined 
by a deeply impressed suture, the last whorl only ver}' slightly 
descending in front. Color very pale brown marked with three 
narrow dark brown bands which are interrupted into hyphen- 
shaped spots, the spots of the upper series connected with the 
suture by short radial brown streaks; the first ly^ whorls whit- 
ish. The surface is dull, the first whorl smooth, next whorl with 
close microscopic radiating striae. Subsequent whorls have low 
uneven wrinkles of growth and low papillae arranged in ob- 
liquely descending order though not very regular; on the base 
the papillae become lower. The aperture is wide, lunate, the 
peristome rather narrowly expanded in its outer and basal mar- 
gins, dilated near the axial insertion, covering a small part of 
the umbilicus. Height 11 mm., diameter 18.7 mm. 

Yanango, near Huacapistana, Peru, at 1800 meters. Type 
180355 ANSP. 

It belongs to the group of P. catenifera (Pfr.), of Colombia, 
and differs from P. incarum (Philippi) and other Peruvian spe- 
cies by the convex spire. 

Epiphragmophora atahualpa, new species. Plate 11, Figs. 4, 
4a, 5 

The shell is umbilicate, the umbilicus rapidly widening in the 
last half turn, contained about 41/4 times in the diameter; de- 
pressed, the height contained 2.4 times in the diameter, the spire 
being but slightly convex, the periphery rounded. Color warm 
white with a chocolate band about 1.6 mm. wide above the 
periphery, bordered by a whitish band of the same width above 
and a wider one below. The peripheral whitish band is fol- 
lowed by a cinnamon-brown band, fading at its lower edge. 
The upper surface has a dull chamois tint above the light band, 
with two rather faint cinnamon-brown bands. The surface is 
glossy, with scupture of fine, unequal growth wrinkles and a 
fine, weak malleation on the last whorl, which also shows some 
scattered traces of weak spiral grooves, the embryonic 1];^ whorls 
being smooth. The rather weakly convex whorls increase slowly 
to the wide last turn. The suture descends rather deeply to the 
aperture. The aperture is strongly oblique, rounded, a little 
wider than high, showing dark and white bands inside. The 

120 THE NAUTILUS [Vol. 57 (4) 

peristome is nearly white, the parietal wall forming less than 
one-fourth. It is narrowly reflected on the outer and basal 
margins, and the upper are, which is less curved, is narrowly 

Height 12.3 mm., diameter 29.5 mm. ; width of aperture with 
peristome, 14.2 mm. ; 4% whorls. 
Andahuaylas, Peru, 3100 meters elevation. Type 180206 


This species resembles "Helix" macasi Higgins ^ in general 
form and coloration. It differs by the smaller aperture, its 
greatest width less than one-half of the diameter of the shell. 
In Higgins' figure of mascasi, as well as in that of Kobelt,- the 
width of aperture exceeds half of the diameter. The width of 
umbilicus is about alike, being contained about 4.25 times in the 
diameter in our shell, and in macasi about 5 times. In Kobelt 's 
figure it is distinctly smaller, contained 7 times in the diameter. 
Both of these authors give the number of whorls as 5, while our 
shell has only 4^/^, 

In view of these differences, and the rather wide separation 
of the localities, a specific status for the Andahuaylas snail seems 

Fig. 5 is a smaller form of the species, from Ninabamba, near 
Ayacucho, Peru, at 1900 meter elevation. The specimen figured 
measured 23.5 mm. diameter, another 27.2 mm. 


When I revised the classification of the Bulimulidae nearly 
fifty years ago the genus Bulimulus ^ was left with rather wide 
limits. The subgenera were grouped in three divisions accord- 
ing to the sculpture of the apical whorls. As genera are some- 
what more narrowly limited now, it seems desirable to allow 
some groups of Bulimuli the generic status. I am therefore 
treating the mainly Peruvian "Division I, Ruliniuli with smooth 
apical whorls"' as genus Bostnjx. The limits of Bosiryx re- 
main as in Man. Conch. 10: 127-193. 

1 Proc. Zool. Soc. 1872, p. 686, pi. 56, figs. 6, 6a. Macaa, Ecuador. 

2 8y8t. Conchylicn-Cabinct, Ilelix, pi. 182, figs. 10-12. 

8 1896, Nautilus 9: 112; Man. Conch. 10: 127; 1902, Man. Conch., Supple- 
ment to vol. 14, p. xxii. 

♦ Nautilus 9: 114; Man. Conch. 14, Suppl, p. ixiii. 

April, 1944] the nautilus 121 

As in some other genera of Bulimulidae, the general shape of 
the shell is widely varied. Our fipr. 19 represents one of the 
most slender species, and fig. 8, Bostryx {Platybostryx) wey- 
rauchiy one of the shortest; but there are many transitions be- 
ween these extremes. 

Thaumastus (Scholvicnia) weyrauch, new species. Plate 11, 
Figs. 2, 2a 

The shell is perforate, turreted, slender, regularly taperi)ig to 
an obtuse apex, moderately solid though rather thin ; nearly 
black with a narrow white band nearly 1 mm. below the suture 
and two about 1.5 mm. apart in the peripheral region, the upper 
peripheral band being visible above the suture on the spire ; 
there is also a small light umbilical area. The apex is turned 
in, the first whorl subangular above with sculpture of thin axial 
riblets, the second rounded and somewhat shouldered, with 
strong axial riblets extending to the middle of the whorl, the 
lower half having fine striae. Later whorls are regularly and 
rather weakly convex. The oval aperture is acutely angular, 
above, broadly rounded at base, showing the bands within. The 
peristome is whitish, rather narrowly expanded, the columellar 
margin reflected. Parietal callus very thin and transparent. 

Length 39.5 mm., diameter 15 mm.; length aperture 15.7 mm.; 
6Vo whorls. Type. 

Length 46.5 mm., diameter 16 mm. 

Carpapata, on the Rio Tarma, near Palca, Peru, 2300 meters. 
Type and paratype 179996 ANSP. 

This is a slender, vividly colored species, with the apical sculp- 
ture strongly developed. 

Thaumastus robertsi satipoensis, new subspecies. Plate 11, 
Fig. 1 

This shell is more slender than T. robertsi Pilsbry, with the 
apical whorls forming a higher, narrower cone. 

Length 74.4 mm., diameter 34 mm. ; length of aperture with 
peristome 39.6 mm. ; 6^/4 whorls. 

Satipo, near Iluancayo, Peru, at 600 meters. Type 179990 

Bostryx huara2IENsis, new species. Plate 11, Fig. 17 

The shell is ovate with short, conic spire and a rather large 
umbilicus; white with interrupted bands of dark brown. In 
the type the last whorl has a series of small spots against the 

122 THE NAUTILUS [Vol. 57 (4) 

suture, and two nearly continuous narrow bands, one in the mid- 
dle of the upper surface (and ascending: the spire), the other 
just below the periphery. The upper band is surmounted by a 
series of oblong spots which are partially connected at their up- 
per ends. There is a double spiral series of dots at the periph- 
ery and another on the base. The whorls are rather strongly 
convex, the first 2^/2 uniform dull buff, smooth; subsequent 
whorls with irregularly spaced and partly rather coarse wrinkles 
of growth. The ovate aperture shows the bands within. Peri- 
stome thin and sharp, the columellar margin dilated above, 

Length 16.5 mm., diameter 11.4 mm.; aperture 8.5 mm. long; 
6 whorls. 

Huarez, Santa Valley, 3100 meters elevation. Type 180000 


Closely similar to B. tumidulus (Pfr.), but it is wider and 
more openly umbilicate. 

BosTRYX MEGOMPHALUS, uew specics. Plate 11, Figs. 15, 16 

The shell is ovate with a nipple-shaped apex and large umbili- 
cus contained about four times (more or less in different ex- 
amples) in the diameter; rather thin but calcareous; white, with 
some small dark dots scattered on the spire. It becomes gray 
towards the lip. Surface matt, the embryonic whorls smooth, 
the later whorls having irregular, low wrinkles of growth. The 
initial IY2 whorls are quite convex, following whorls somewhat 
flattened, with a peripheral angle or low keel which is to a 
greater or less extent covered by the following whorl. Last 
whorl is rounded at periphery and narrowly rounded around 
the umbilicus. The ovate aperture is somewhat oblique, claret 
brown within. Peristome thin and sharp, the terminations ap- 
proaching, outer margin unexpanded, the columellar margin 
running forward, dilated and claret brown. 

Length 19.3 mm., diameter 13 mm. ; length of aperture 10 
mm. ; 6V3 whorls. Type. 

Lengtii 15.8 mm., diameter 11.6 mm. ; length of aperture 8.4 
mm. ; 6 whorls. 

Acobamba (near Tarma), Peru, 3200-3400 meters elevation. 
Type and paratypes 180036 ANSP. 

This species belongs to a little group including B. binghami 
Dall and B. ptyalum Dall (Proc. U. S. Nat. Mus. 38: 180, 181), 
from the Rio Pami)as. Both are larger than B. megomphalus. 
3. ptyalum has a dark interior, like mcganiphalus, but it differs 
by having spiral striation and in various details of shape. 

TIM-: :)7 (4) 

ri.ATi': 11 

17 ^ 18 '^' 19 
Poruviiin Land MolIuskH. 

April, 1!)44] the nautilus 123 

Tlu' mucroiiate apex in />. mKjomphnlua varies in eolor, being 
uniform white in some examples, in otliers bieolorcd, wliite above 
and dark below, or entirely dark. The extent of dusky suffu- 
sion on the latter part of the last whorl varies, and in some ex- 
amples it is wanting or faint. In one shell there is a brown 
band at the lower third of the third whorl. 

BosTRYX DERELICTUS ASCENDENS, new subspecics. Plate 11, Fig. 

The base around the umbilicus is broadly rounded, not com- 
pressed and almost to be called bluntly angular, as it is in 
derelict us. 

Length 26.2 mm., diameter 16 mm. ; length aperture 14 mm. ; 
6V1> whorls. 

Ninabamba, near Ayacucho, Peru, 1900 meters elevation. 
Type 180017 ANSP. 

BosTRYX ABANCAYENSis, ncw specics. Plate 11, Fig. 20 

The ovate shell has a conic spire and rather narrow umbilicus. 
It is white, becoming pale brow-n on the spire and apex. The 
whorls are moderately convex, joined by a well impressed suture. 
The surface is slightly gloss}', marked with ver}" slight growth 
lines, but the last whorl becomes somewhat plicate as it ap- 
proaches tiie aperture. The ovate aperture is white within. 
Peristome sharp, unexpanded, but thickened within. 

Length 0.2 nnn., diameter 5 mm. ; length of aperture 4.2 nnu. ; 
5% whorls. Type. 

Length 11.4 nnn., diameter 5.7 mm.; length of aperture 5.2 
mm. ; G^'a whorls. 

Abancay, near Cuzco, Peru, 2300 meters elevation. Type and 
paratype 180001 ANSP. 

BosTRvx (Peronaeus) anomphalus, new species. Plate 11, Fig. 


The turreted shell has an almost closed umbilical perforation, 
and tapers regularly to the slightly obtuse apex. It is white 
with gray dots quite irregularly scattered. The somewhat 
glossy surface is smooth except for very inconspicuous lines of 
growth. The apex is somewhat obtuse, sometimes with a brown- 
ish tip, but white in other shells. The whorls are moderately 
convex, the last two sometimes a little more convex than those 
preceding. Suture well impressed. The aperture is oblique, 

124 THE NAUTILUS [Vol. 57 (4) 

peristome thin, the columeUa strai^rht, its margin reflected and 
appressed, nearly ek^sinir the perforation. 

Length 18.2 mm., diameter 5.9 mm. ; length of aperture 5.3 
mm. ; 9^4 whorls. Type. 

Length 17.8 mm., diameter 5.7 mm. ; length of aperture 5 mm. ; 
934 whorls. 

Santa Eulalia Valley, near Chosiea. Peru. Type and para- 
types 180002 AXSP. 

It agrees with B. acromela^ (Morelet) in the almost closed 
umbilical fissure and the scattered dots, but it is less slender and 
not cylindroid in the lower part. 

BosTRYX (Geoccras) multivolvis, new species. Plate 11, Fig. 19 

The shell is minutely subperforate. column-shaped, the upper 
third tapering; white, the upper 8 or 10 whorls faintly brown 
tinted with a few indistinct bro\Mi streaks. The surface is 
slightly glossy, with sculpture of very weak lines of growth, the 
first whorl smooth. The shell increases slowly in diameter up 
to about the twelfth whorl, after which it is cylindrie. The 
whorls are rather weakly convex, the last being bluntly angular 
at the periphery, the base very slightly convex. The snuill aper- 
ture is oblique. Peristome thin and unexpanded. the columellar 
margin reflected and appressed except for a very minute crevice. 

Length 27.8 mm., diameter 4.2 mm., at the penult whorl 4 
mm.; length of apertures 3.2 mm.; 22^ 2 "whorls. 

Ninabamba (near Ayacucho), Peru, 2000 meters elevation. 
Type 179994 ANSP. 

This .strange bulimulid shell is related to B. cuspidatus (More- 
let), but of narrower form. It is more slender than any other 
Geoceras known, and has more whorls. 

Bostryx (Phenacotaxus) endoplax, new species. Plate 11, 
Figs. 9, 9a 

The regularly tapering, conic shell is slender, the diameter 
less than half of the length, broadly umbilicate, the umbilicus 
occupying about one-third of the diameter; warm white with a 
few indistinct brownish streaks. Surface matt, the first two 
whorls smooth, the rest evenly sculptureil with close, thread-like 
striae about equal to their intervals. The whorls are nearly flat, 
joined by an impressed suture, the last whorl convex, carinate 
around the umbilicus. The rather narrow aperture is angular 
above and bluntly angular at the base. Peristome thin and 
simple, the margins approaching above. The large columellar 

April, 1!»44| THE nautilus 126 

axis bears a horizontal lamella in the latter half of the penult 
and be^'inninjr of the last whorl. This lamella becomes very 
broad, reaehin*? nearly to the outer wall in the latter part of the 
penult wh(»rl, and its edjre is stron<j'ly thickened there. 

Lenjrth 11.9 mm., diameter 5 mm.; 8% whorls. 

Lentrth 12 mm., diameter 4.7 mm.; 8Vli whorls. 

Xinabamba, near Ayacueho, Peru, at 1900 meters elevation. 
Type and paratype 180006 ANSP. 

It is larfjer and more strongly tapering than B. endoptyx Pils. 
(Xotulae Naturae No. 56), from Huanuco, in the Iluallaga river 
valley, Peru. 

Drymaeus angulobasis, new species. Plate 11, Fi*:. 10 

The fusiform shell is rather openly umbilieate but the cavity 
narrows rapidly to a narrow perforation ; moderately strong ; 
white, with festooned axial stripes of dull plum purple (nearly 
black) speckled with white, and crossed by three narrow, inter- 
rupted spiral bands of the same dark color, a brownish smear 
behind the lip. There are 7 whorls, the first with Drymaeus 
sculpture, the rest weakly convex with low growth wrinkles; 
the last whorl concave above a prominent rounded ridge around 
the umbilicus. The aperture is vertical, oval, angular at both 
ends, being spout-shaped at the base. The peri.stome is white, 
expanded and sharp-edged, thickened w'ithin, with a purple in- 
terior, darkest on the callus within the lip. Columellar margin 
concave, purple within, reflected. The thin parietal callus is 

Length 37 mm., diameter 13.5 mm. ; aperture 16 mm. long. 

Oreja de Capelo, Peru, 1600 meters elevation. Type 180022 

The type of this species was associated with the following 
Drymaeus which I have referred to D. interpictus (Martens), 
as a special "form." D. suhhyhridus (Da Costa) is a decidedly 
wider shell, but apparently near akin. 

Drymaeus interpictus (Martens) form diversipictus, new form, 
Plate 11, Fig. 11 

These shells have broad, irregular axial stripes flecked with 
white dots, and with traces of two or three spiral, interrupted 
bands of almost black color. It differs from inierpicius in 
markings, that species have narrower, straight stripes. The 
rather widely expanded lip is pure white on both sides, hardly 

126 THE NAUTILUS [Vol. 57 (4) 

thickened within. Interior purple, darkest near the white lip. 
There is a small white umbilical area. 

Lennfth 35.4 mm., diameter 12 mm.; aperture 16.4 mm. long; 
6% whorls. 

Orejo de Capelo, Peru, 1600 meters elevation. 180021 ANSP. 

Drymaeus punctatus Da Costa. Plate 11, Fig. 12 

The fusiform shell is subperforate, of colonial buif color, with, 
on the last two whorls narrow brown stripes dotted with white, 
a cinnamon-rufous streak behind the lip. Whorls slightly over 
6, the later ones rather weakly convex, the earlier more strongly 
convex. The aperture is slightly more than half of the length, 
long ovate, broadly rounded at base, lilac within the lip, fading 
to white with dusky stripes farther in. The rather broadly ex- 
panded outer and basal margins of the peristome are white. 
Columellar margin narrow, but triangularly reflected above, re- 
ducing the perforation to a minute crevice. Parietal callus dull 
bluish violet. 

Length 31 mm., diameter 12.7 mm. ; length of aperture 16.3 

Rio Toro, Chanchamayo vallej'-, Peru, 1400 meters elevation. 
179997 ANSP. 

It resembles D. punctatus Da Costa closely, but differs some- 
what in color. 

Drymaeus torallyi peruvianus, new subspecies. Plate 11, Fig. 

The shape and color are much as in 7). torallyi (Orb.), from 
which it differs by the decidedly more open umbilicus and 
stouter, less slender shape. The shell is moderately solid, 
opaque, white with numerous unevenly spaced hazel stripes, with 
carob brown stripes at wider intervals; the apex dusky, interior 
of umbilicus carob brown. 

Length 27.3 mm., diameter 13.5 nun.; length of aperture 12.9 
mm.; 7y2 whorls. 

Iluaraz, Sanla Valley. Peru, 3100 meters. Type 180008 

D. torallyi was described from llie proxinces of La Laguna 
and Valle Grande, Bolivia. A form jHTliaiis identical with our 
peruvianus was reportetl from Jiear Camana, west coast of Peru, 
at 2000 ft. elevation (Dall, 1912, Smiths. Misc. Coll. 59, No. 
14, p. 2). 

April. 1944] the nautilus 127 

Dkymaeus flexuosus megas, new subspecies. Plate 11, Fip. 3 

Spoclmeii I'ollected by A. A. Olsson from near Suesa, in the 
upper !Majrilaleiia valley, Dept. of Iluila, Colombia, are marked 
like D. fUxuosus Pt'r. of Marmato. Colombia, but the shell is 
larp:er ami more solid, with broadly expanded white lip, the 
interior pale bluisli laveiulor and showing the external dark 

Length 50.3 mm., diameter 21 mm.; length of aperture 24.8 

Type 179981 ANSP. 


Obeliscus latispira, new species. Plate 11, Fig. 18 

The shell is imperforate, slender, slowly tapering to the ob- 
tuse apex. Color, rather pale straw yellow. Surface glossy, 
with sculpture of rather weak, arcuate wrinkles of growth. The 
whorls are nearly flat, joined by a moderately impressed and 
quite obliquely descending suture. The summit is rounded. 
Aperture is oblique, narrow with straight outlines in the upper 
half, the broadly rounded. The columella is somewhat 

Length 27.5 mm., diameter 6.2 mm.; length of aperture 6.8 
mm. ; 9 whorls. 

Huacapistana, Peru, at 1800 meters elevation. Type and 

paratype 179987 ANSP. 

By its thick spire this snail stands near 0. paircnsis (Hig- 
gins), of Ecuador, but the Peruvian species is smaller and more 
slender. The type is a faded specimen, so that the color as- 
signed is that of an immature paratype 19.2 mm. long. 


Carnegie Museum 

In 1890 Dr. V. Sterki described a new North American Vcr- 
iigo as V. parvula (Naut., 3, 136). Seven years later, appar- 
ently having forgotten that he had described parvula, Sterki 
redescribed it as Vertigo mimiscula (5th. Ann. Rept. Ohio State 
Acad. Sci., 1897, 29). However, Dr. Sterki first mentioned the 

128 THE NAUTILUS [Vol. 57 (4) 

existence of V. minuscula in the 3rd. Ann. Kept. Ohio State 
Aead. Sci., 1895, 34. 

In "Notes on some Northern Pupidae with Description of a 
New Species," appearing in the number of the Nautilus men- 
tioned above, Dr. Sterki made the following notation : 

Among several hundred Pupidae collected in Northwestern 
Ohio (Summit and Lake Counties) by Mr. A. Pettingell, there 
were two examples of a doubtless new species, which I in the 
same way name V. parvula. It is about the same size, shape, 
and appearance of V. {Angustida) milium Gld. ; but ranges in 
quite another group, having a quite simple palatal wall and mar- 
gin, and only 3 lamellae." 

Dr. H. A. Pilsbry, Manual of Conchology, 25, 1919, 105, gave 
Summit County, Ohio, as the type locality for parvula, and said 
that it was also found by A. G. Wetherby in the Mountains of 
North Carolina according to Dr. Sterki. 

Mitchell County, North Carolina, was the first definite locality 
given for parvula in that section of the country by H. A. Pilsbry 
and E. G. Vanatta in "A Partial Revision of the Pupidae of 
the United States" (Proc. Acad. Nat. Sci. Phila., 52, 1900, 608). 

Dr. Sterki, in "Some Notes on Recent Mollusca of Ohio" (3rd 
Ann. Rept. Ohio State Acad. Sci., 1895, 34), makes the follow- 
ing notation : 

About five years ago, among numerous Pupidae kindly sent 
by Mr. A. Pettingell of Hudson, 0., two specimens of a small 
Vertigo were found, different from all species kno^^^l. They 
were mature and exactly alike ; yet it was considered unsafe to 
establish a new species upon them. This year (1894) a few 
more were seen among material collected in tiie mountains of 
North Carolina by Prof. A. Wetherby, fonnorly of Cincinnati, 
and sent for examination, and thus the validity of this species 
was confirmed. Probably it has its main distribution in the 
North, and extends southward in the Alleghenies, as so many 
other animals and plants do. It is named Yrriicjo minuacula. 

On page 35 of tiic above mentioned i)ul)lii-ati()n Dr. Sterki 
gave Summit County as the locality for minumcula. 

The description of V. minuscula appeared in an article en- 
titled "Analytical Keys for Identifying the Land Mollusca of 

April. 1!)44] the nautilus 129 

Ohio" (5th Ann. Uopt. Ohio State Aead. Sci., 1897, 29). This 
is g:iven bek)W : 

Alt. 1.5. diam. .scarcely 1 mill.; .sh. tliin, horn colored, trans- 
lucent; palatal wall without crest and inside callus, with one 
(the inferior) small fokl; 1 parietal, 1 columellar; peristome 
scarcely everted; alt. 1.4, diam. 0.8 mill. 

For comparison Dr. Pilsbry's description of V. parvula (Man. 
Conch., 25, 1919, 105) is given below. I have italicized the 
words that correspond to Dr. Sterki's description of V. 

The shell is minute, subcyliudric, tapering very little upwards, 
the summit obtuse; thin, suhtransparent, slightly yellowish, 
smooth and glossy, becoming finely striate behind the outer lip. 
The whorls are moderately convex, the last whorl well rounded, 
slightly impressed behind the projection of the outer lip. The 
aperture is somewhat triangular, with three teeth : parietal 
lamella rather short and high; columellar lamella short, steeply 
ascending inwardly ; lower palatal fold rather high in front, rap- 
idly becoming lower as it recedes, penetrating to the dorsal side. 
Peristome very little everted, slightly thickened, and having a 
distinct callus ridge within. The outer lip projects forward and 
is slightly bent inward above the middle. Length 1.55, diam. 
0.85 mm.; barely 5 whorls. 

In one Dr. Sterki's handwritten catalogues of North American 
Pupidae he mentions two sets of V. parvula. The first was col- 
lected by A. Pettingell in northeastern Ohio, "Summit or Lake 
County," the type specimen, which was figured by Dr. Pilsbry 
in the 25th volume of the Manual of Conchology. The second 
set, consisting of two specimens, is from Hollow Poplar Creek, 
Mitchell County, North Carolina, and collected by A. G. Weth- 
erby in 1894. 

Vertigo parvula has precedence over V. minuscula, based on 
a priority in time, and for this rea.son V. minuscula becomes a 
synonym of V. parvula. 

130 THE NAUTILUS [Vol. 57 (4) 


Carnegie Museum 

During: the summer of 1941 the Carnep:ie Museum Expedition 
for Vertebrate Fossils, under the leadership of Dr. J, LeRoy 
Kay, spent a few days in northwestern Nebraska, with the First 
Field Conference of Vertebrate Paleontology, on its return east- 
ward. In the short time spent in this section of Nebraska I had 
the opportunity of collecting some mollusks at two localities, 
northwest of Crawford and at Agate. 

The western section of Nebraska consists of soils which vary 
from those of fine texture to those of rough stony land, with 
frequent rock outeroppings, including broad plateaus, deep and 
steep-walled canyons, bold escarpments, buttes, and here and 
there areas of "bad lands." This area, the plains region, is 
characterized by short-grass communities, dominated by grama 
grass, buffalo-grass, and certain grass-like sedges, and with 
straggling western yellow pines scattered over the canyon sides, 
the buttes, ridges, and the talus slopes. The topography con- 
sists of broad, slightly uneven, grassy plains, streams running in 
canyons which are frequently deep and rock-walled, dry "sand- 
draw" canyons carrying water onlj^ after rains or from melting 
snow, rocky escarpments, ridges and buttes with scattering 
pines, deciduous trees or shrubbery in the bottoms of the can- 
yons, along the streams, or about the ranches, and an increasing 
amount of cultivated land. 

The "bad lands," due to excessive erosion, is a habitat in the 
plains region, and is characterized by their sparse flora and 
fauna, restricted to only those forms which cini withstand the 
severe conditions of this environment. 

About eight miles northwest of Crawford, ajiproximatoly be- 
tween Remington and Orcliii, a small ])raiH'h of Sand Creek, 
itself a tributary of the White Kivor, has cut a wide canyon 
through the bad lands of tiiat section of Dawes County. The 
rains, snows, temperatures, ami winds have iiad their eroding 
effects ill this area, exposing the white siiiuis ;nul tine clays in a 


April. 1944] the nautilus KU 

steep outcrop a few hundred yards from State Hiphway No. 2. 
From the face of this outcrop were collected Succinea pros- 
vcnorii Lea and /8. oregotiensis Lea. It is presumed that these 
amphibious snails were origrinally from this outcrop as they were 
white and devoid of epidermis. In the field above the outcrop 
there were no lakes or other types of water from which it was 
possible for these snails to have originated. 

At the base of a small "sand-draw" the small branch of Sand 
I'rcek had deposited a fine layer of particles of vegetation from 
which were gathered the following species of land snails: 

Gastrocopta pentodon (Say) Hawaiia minuscula (Binney) 
Vallonia costata (Muell.) 

At Agate, in Sioux County, Capt. James H. Cook established 
a cattle ranch extending ten miles on both sides of the Niobrara 
River. The water from this river has been used for irrigation 
purposes, some of the ditches traversing the lawn of the ranch. 
Along these ditches are found growing cottonwoods, willows, 
small bushes and shrubs. A number of small forms of terres- 
trial mollusca were found under the layer of leaves and logs and 
branches close to the edge of the ditches under the willow 
growths or shaded places in the stands of cottonwoods. The 
species are: 

Succinea grosvenorii Lea Vallonia albula Sterki 
Vertigo ovata (Say) Vallonia costata (Muell.) 

Vallonia costata montana Sterki 

The discovery of Vallonia costata montana (teste Pilsbry!) at 
Agate, Neb., extends the distribution of this variety farther east- 
ward than hitherto known. Previous to that time the distribu- 
tion of V. c. montana was confined to an area that included east- 
ern Idaho, northeastern Utah, central and western Colorado, 
Wyoming, and eastern and southwestern Montana. The east- 
ernmost distribution, that closest to Agate, Neb., is Laramie. 
Wyo., which is approximately 120 miles northeast of the latter 

The Niobrara River at Agate has cut a winding course through 
and across the uneven plains of that section of Sioux County, 
exposing steep banks of white sands. These banks are consid- 

132 THE NAUTILUS [Vol. 57 (4) 

ered either of late Pleistocene or early modern times. From 
one of these banks in the bend of the river, about 500 yards from 
Agate, the following terrestrial mollusca were collected : 

Hawaiia minuscula (Binney) Valloniu costata (Muell.) 

Vertigo ovata Say Succinea grosvenorii Lea 

Succinea oregonensis Lea 

Species of Physa, Lymnaea, Helisoma, Gyraulus, and Sphae- 
riidae were also dug from the bank, which contained also the 
jaw of a young Bison about fifty feet from the top of the 


Carnegie Museum 

Joseph True described a new gastropod, which, as far as I can 
ascertain, has not been mentioned in any of the leading works 
on North American conchology or in any of the monographs on 
Helix. This overlooked shell appeared in the Proceedings of 
the Essex Institute, vol. 2, 1857, p. 193, as "Helix minima, True, 
sp. nov.?" and was described as follows: 

An exceeding small species — shell, minute, rounded-conical, 
smooth apex abtuse, epidermis of a uniform reddish horn color; 
whorls four, rounded above, and below, with a well defined su- 
ture. Aperture rounded, lip simple and thin, umbilicus broad 
and deep. Diameter about one-twentieth of an inch. 

Helix minima was collected at Salem, Mass., and was "found 
under loose stones, wood, and decayed leaves, within half a mile 
of Great Swamp-meadow, which is situated in the limits of 
Salem." This species was a.s.sociated with (I modernize the 
nomenclature) : Mcsodon alholahri^ (Say), Anguispira alternata 
(Say), Strohilops labyrinthica (Say), Hawaiia mijutscula (A. 
Binney), Haplotrcma concavum (Say), Discus cronkhitci an- 
thonyi (Pils.), Zonitoidcs arborcus (Say), RciincUa clcctrina 
(Oould), R. indentata (Say), Helicodiscus parallclus (Say), 
Kuconulus chcrsinus (Say), and Vailonia pulchella (Muell.). 

April, 1944] the nautilus 133 

From the above description I am inclined to call Jlelix minima 
a synonym of Punctum minutissimum (Lea). The broad and 
deep umbilicus places it close to Sfriatura milium (Morse) and 
S. ferrea (Morse), but these are much lijrhter in color than Helix 
minima, which is closest in that character to P. minutisaimum. 

This is not Helix minima of E. F. Schlotheim, Mineralopisches 
Taschenbueh, 1818, 340, nor Helix (Hyalina) minima of J. C. 
Cox, Monojrraph of Australian Landshells, in 1868, 10. Louis 
Pfeiffer mentions another Helix minima in his Monographia 
Heliceorum Viventium, vol. 7, 1876, p. 112, but this species was 
described as Macrochlamys minima by H. Adams in the Pro- 
ceedings of the Zoological Society of London in 1867 on page 

W. G. Binney in the Smithsonian Miscellaneous Collections, 
vol. 5, 1863, in the "Bibliography of North American Conchol- 
ogy previous to the year 1860," on page 253, lists Joseph True's 
article "Shells Gathered about Salem, Mass., with particular 
localities designated, and remarks on the species," but does not 
give the complete list of shells. Binney 's list ends with Cre- 
pidula fornicata, which in True's list is at bottom of page 192 
in the Proceedings Essex Institute, at the end of signature 24 
of volume 2. Signature 25 begins on page 193, the part which 
contains the description of Helix minima, which part apparently 
Binney did not see, otherwise he would have mentioned this spe- 
cies in his Manual of American Land Shells and other works. 

From the above evidence Helix minima True can be regarded 
as a synonym of Punctum minutissimum (Lea). 

By morris K. JACOBSON 

Our larger eastern American land molluscs, with some excep- 
tions, are notoriously solitary in habits. Hence reports of any 
large congregations of a pulmonate so persistently solitary as 
Triodopsis tridentata (Say) might prove of some interest, espe- 
cially if such congregations take place in so unfavorable a loca- 
tion as the limeatone-free and granitic region about Peekskill, 
New York. 

134 THE NAUTILUS [Vol. 57 (4) 

On July 30, 1943, I uncovered a "grave" of thirty-one mature 
bleached and eroded but completely identifiable specimens of 
the above named species in a crevice between two soil-covered 
rocks on the eastern slope of a small ravine. The space the 
shells occupied was about three inches deep and two inches 
across and was generously filled with gravelly sand. The mol- 
luscs were packed tightly one against the other, with a thin layer 
of sand between. 

That this congregation was not brought together by a me- 
chanical agent, but rather resulted from the voluntary actions 
of the animals themselves, must be assumed from the following 
facts : 

(1) Since only one species was represented among the speci- 
mens, it is hardly likely that a bird or animal collected them, 
since the existence of so selective a molluscophage has not been 
demonstrated in this section of our country. 

(2) There were no streams or rivulets near the grave site, 
even if it could be assumed that a stream could bring such a 
collection together. 

(3) Had a conchologist collected the molluscs, it is incon- 
ceivable that he would have left so rich a haul in the field. 

It must be assumed then that our unfortunate molluscs gath- 
ered under conditions described as follows by Biuney in 1869 
(Smith. Misc. Coll. 194, Part I, P. 2) : 

In the early days of spring, they (the Geophila) sometimes 
assemble in considerable numbers, in warm and sunny situa- 
tions, where they pass hours of indolent enjoyment of the 
warmth and animating inHuence of the sunsliino. Whether 
these meetings serve any useful purpose in the economy of the 
animal, or are caused by the pleasurable sensation, and renewed 
strength derived from the warmth of the situation after the 
debility of their winter's torpidity is uncertain; it is probable, 
however tluit they precede tlie business of procreation. It is 
certain tliat they last but a short time, and that after early 
spring, the animals are to be found in their usual retreats." 

The answer to the question of what caused the wholesale 
slaughter I uncovered, can perhaps be seen in an uprooted tree, 
.some yards above the grave site. In early March some years 
ago, while our molluscs were thus basking in the warming rays 

April, 1944 J the nautilus 135 

of the sun, a sudden storm uprooted the tree and the ensuing 
rain washed a miniature landslide over our luckless eonpre{?ation 
in the stone crevice. Just below the prave I found seven more 
shells, probably members of the same group. 

Although such an occurrence must be very rare indeed, per- 
haps it can find a place among the list of natural controls of 
the molluscan population. At any rate it shows that the effect 
of storms and rains cannot be entirely excluded. 



Mills College, California 

It is well known that the short-tailed shrew, Blarina brevi- 
cauda (Say), hoards snail and insect food (Merriam 1886), 
(Shull 1907), (Hamilton 1930). Additional information is pre- 
sented here concerning the interesting storage habit of Blarina 
These data were gathered from a small, rock strewn, sycamore 
flood plain in Six Mile Creek near Cornell University, Ithaca, 
New York. The period of observation extended from Septem- 
ber 15. 1940, to January 3, 1941. Shrews were found hoarding 
snail food in both the fall and winter. Previous observations 
made from June 15 to September 1, 1940, on the Edmund Niles 
Huyck Preserve, Rensselaerville, Albany County, New York, 
have shown that Blarina will also hoard food during the summer 
months even though a food supply is abundant. 

One shrew storage chamber opened in September revealed 
living individuals of the following species of mollusks: one 
Anguispira altcrnata (Say), three Stenotrema hirsutum (Say), 
and two Ventridens intertextus (Binney). These snails were 
active and were in no way injured. Five days later the storage 
chamber was reopened; all of the snails but two S. hirsutum had 
been broken open and eaten. The two unaccounted for S. hir- 
sutum were nowhere to be found; no additions had been made 
to the storage chamber in the five day interval. 

136 THE NAUTILUS [Vol. 57 (4) 

On December 24 a flat rock, 6x8 inches, was overturned re- 
vealing a vacated shrew discard shell chamber. Fairly fresh 
shrew scats showed that it had not long been abandoned. 
Twenty-nine empty mollusk shells and two opened chrysalis 
cases were scattered about. The snail species were : Triodopsis 
alholahris (Say), three adult and ten young; Mesodon thyroidus 
(Say), six adult and three young; Triodopsis tridentata (Say), 
five adult; Succinea ovalis Say, one adult; and Haplotrema 
concaviim (Say), one adult. All individuals but the S. ovalis 
and the H. concavum had been opened. The majority had had 
the spires cut away by Blarina in order that the soft bodies 
could be removed by the small mammal. The breaking open of 
large shells by the short-tailed shrew as well as small is contrary 
to Shull (1907) who states, "It seems from these observations 
that in the ease of large shells, breaking is a last resort." Dr. 
William J. Hamilton, Jr., of Cornell University in studying 
Blarina about New York State, has observed, as has the writer, 
that when large shells are found in shrew runs they are usually 
broken. Two of the species of mollusks that Shull (1907) stud- 
ied in Michigan abound in shrew runs in Ithaca; these are T. 
alholahris (Say) and M. thyroidus (Say). 

On January 16 while conducting an invertebrate zoology field 
trip two winter storage piles of Blarina were observed. One of 
these contained twenty-seven individuals representing five spe- 
cies, and the second fifteen individuals representing two species. 
In the first storage chamber all mollusks were stacked in a cavity 
in a sycamore stump. They were resting on the ground ; snow 
had filtered into the cavity and was bauked around the bottom 
layer of shells. The shells were frozen together and formed a 
roundly triangular-shaped mound. When these mollusks were 
carried into the laboratory all were prodded with a ghiss rod but 
none showed signs of life. All were gradually thawed out over 
forty-eight hours, but noue recovered from the freezing to which 
they had been subjected in the shrew storage chamber. The 
fact that the snails were apparently frozen solid would have 
prevented these mollusks from crawling away. Twelve indi- 
viduals had complete ej)ipliragms, three had incomplete ones, 
and twelve had no epiphragms. Five M. thyroidus without 
epiphragms showed that epiphragms had at one time been pres- 

April, 1044] THE NAUTILUS 137 

eiit, for fra<zinents were found adheriu*! to the aj^ertures of the 
shells. These epiphrafrm fraprments possibly indicate that the 
epiphrafrms had been broken by the shrews in their collecting 
efforts; too, the indication may be that in transportin}^ the large 
shells Blarina often carries them by •^[ripping the outer lip. The 
entrance into the shrew run was just behind the pile of mollusks. 
Several shell fragments and scats in the region of the pile indi- 
cated that mollusks in the storage pile were being fed upon 
above the ground. The raollusk species were : M. thyroidus 
(Say), fourteen mature and nine immature, and one adult of 
each of the following species, Ventridens iniertextus (Binney), 
Anguispira alternata (Say), Mesompkix cupreus (Rafinesque), 
and Triodopsis notata (Deshayes). 

The second winter storage chamber was three feet from the 
first, situated between two small sycamore stumps. Snails of 
this group were not piled but were scattered over the ground. 
When they were subjected to the prodding test none showed 
signs of life, nor did any become active during the gradual 
forty-eight hour thawing period. The snail species in the pile 
were eight adults and six young of M, thyroidus (Say) and 
one adult of A. alternata (Say). 

No empty shell were found in either of the above storage piles, 
indicating that shrews probably distinguish empty shells from 
occupied ones by smell or weight and generally do not bother 
to carry empty shells to their storage piles. None of the mol- 
lusks in the storage piles had cracked shells indicating that for 
the Blarina studied, freezing rather than injury is "relied upon" 
to prevent the food supply from wandering off. 


Hamilton, W. J., Jr., 1930, The food of the Soricidae, Journal 

of Mammalogy, vol. 11, no. 1, pp. 26-39. 
Merriam, C. H., 1886, The mammals of the Adirondack region, 

Henry Holt, 316 pp. 
Shull, J. F., 1907, Habits of the short-tailed shrew, BUrina 

hrevicauda (Sav), The American Naturalist, vol. XLI, pp. 


138 THE NAUTILUS [Vol. 57 (4) 


Mills College, California 

The included data show that the land snail, Triodopsis albo- 
labris (Say), will on occasion spend a considerable period re- 
moving foreign material from the surface of its shell. The re- 
moval of the epiphragm terminating aestivation is also described. 
The included information is based on observations of specimens 
collected during the last week in August 1940 on the Edmund 
Niles Huyck Preserve, Rensselaerville, Albany County, New 

Shell Cleaning — The 15 specimens upon which these obser- 
vations are based were transported to Cornell University, and in 
January 1941 were moved to the zoological laboratory of Mills 
College where the shell cleaning occurred. 

The snails were placed in a terrarium supplied with a covering 
of black loam soil planted with Wandering Jew. Soon after the 
snails were transferred to the terrarium it was observed that the 
loam soil often became caked on their shells, and occasionally 
accumulated in such quantity that the suture lines were obscured. 
The initial cleaning action was noted after the snails had been in 
the terrarium 2 months. One snail was first observed greatly 
extended with its anterior foot region curved over the dorsal 
shell surface. On close examination its lips were observed mov- 
ing, and the soil covering the shell could be seen being filed away 
through the action of the radula. The soil was not scraped off 
and dropped by the snail, but was carried into its alimentary 
canal. Continued observation of the 15 snails showed that on 
occasion all were scraping soil from their shells. 

One snail continued cleaning the surface of its shell for 75 
minutes. This individual was especially active in removing soil 
which had become caked in the shell sutures. Its posterior foot 
region, about one-third of the total length of the foot, held the 
animal on one upright wall of the terrarium. The remainder of 
the foot was stretched back over the shell as far as the apex. 
The individual was seen to be moving its head slowly along the 


April, 1944] the nautilus 139 

sutures with its lips coiitiuually in motion. The cleaned shell 
areas stood out in hold contrast to the uneleaned shell portions. 
The preat extensibility of the foot allowed this snail to move its 
head around the apex; considerable time was spent in riddin? 
the apex of the accumulated soil. 

Other snails were observed lying: on the bottom of the ter- 
rarium with the foot held free of the substratum. In such a 
position they would twist and turn their heads about, filing at 
their fouled shells. One area which was continually cleaned 
was the umbilical region. 

The fecal strinfrs of snails which had but recently cleaned their 
shells of accumulated soil were commonly black in color; on oc- 
casion fecal masses were sprinkled with black spots. The dark 
colored soil in the fecal strings was easily distinguishable, for 
due to the snails' lettuce diet green colored scats were produced. 
If shell cleaning does occur in the natural habitat of this species 
the obsers'er would not likely be able to detect the presence of 
soil in the fecal strings without a careful examination, for the 
soil color would blend in with the typical dark green to dark 
brown and greyish-black fecal strings which are characteristically 
deposited by this snail species under natural conditions. 

Such shell cleaning employed by T. albolahris if carried on in 
its natural environment would probably reduce shell corrosion. 
Extensive corrosion of the apical whorls if continuous might 
expose vital parts. Thus soil removal in riding the shell of ac- 
cumulated soil and organic matter possibly enhances the sur- 
vival rate of individuals to some slight degree. Collected data 
indicate that under natural conditions soil probably does not 
accumulate on shells to any great extent. Of 500 shells of living 
snails, T. albolahris, examined only 11 individuals collected dur- 
ing the summer of 1940 on the Huyck preserve had badly fouled 
shells; 8 of the 11 were taken from a flood plain beneath water 
carried debris piles resting on loam soil. All but 3 specimens 
from beech-hemlock, beech-maple, and maple areas had clean 
appearing shells. Under the hunius-log habitat in the above 
forest areas snails are not directly associated with a soil sub- 
stratum ; thus situated, soil would not accumulate to any great 
extent on the shell. 

140 THE NAUTILUS [Vol. 57 (4) 

Two other species of snails, Mesomphix cupreus (Raf.) and 
Helicodiscus parallelus (Say), were kept in the same terrarium 
with T. albolahris. Individuals of these two species were never 
observed cleaning their shells. Five specimens of the former 
species possessed corroded apical whorls after 2 months ; the 
apical whorls were without noticeable corrosion when they were 
placed in the terrarium. The 2 individuals of HeUocodiscus did 
not have corroded shells at the end of the same period. 

Epiphragm Removal — Five individuals form the basis for 
these observations. They were forced into aestivation by re- 
moving all moisture from their container through the medium of 
cotton. They were allowed to remain aestivating for 72 days. 
They were then returned to a moist container with food con- 
sisting of apple, carrot, and carrot leaves. One hour after they 
had been transferred to the more favorable situation they had 
commenced to break through the epiphragm. 

Concerning epiphragm removal by land snails in general after 
hibernation Binney (1885) writes, '*. . . the animal breaks down 
and devours the membraneous partitions [epiphragms] and 
comes forth to participate in the warmth and freshness of the 
season. At first it is weak and inactive, but, recovering in a 
short time its appetite, resumes its former activity." Binney 
does not state in detail how epiphragm removal is accomplished. 
The feat of a snail ridding itself of this resistent membrane 
warrants a complete description of the removal process. 

In the 5 individuals observed pressure by the posterior tip of 
the foot initiated the removal process. The foot tip was brought 
into contact with the epiphragm and by continual pressure was 
finally thrust through it at the columellar region. When the 
foot emerged it carried a portion of the epiphragm with it and 
left an opening through which the remainder of the snail's foot 
and the head could make an exit. The time taken by the foot to 
pierce the membrane after it iiad made (M)ntact varied from 1 
to 2 minutes. 

After the foot had torn a part of the epiphragm away the re- 
mainder was left attached at the lip of the shell around the aper- 
ture. As the anterior body region of the snail continued to 
emerge still more of the adhering epiphragm was carried away. 
As the head appeared it was brought in contact with the epi- 

April, 1944] the nautilus 141 

phrafrm. and soon the mouthparts of the snail were observed 
filing' away at the epiphrafrm remnants. Eaeh of the T) snails 
bopan a systematic cuttinfj away the epiphrajTrm at the lip region 
opposite the columella. As the frap:ments were torn away in 
this re«jion the snail continued its feedinpr around the aperture 
lip until all the membrane had been cleared away. Then 
the snail moved its head into the interior of the body whorl just 
behind the lip and bepan cleaninj; the internal shell surface. 
This done the snail thrust the mantle, which had mitil up to this 
time been held back from the lip, forward into its normal posi- 
tion and bejran to crawl over the substratum. The time taken 
to clean the epiphragm away and to explore body whorl behind 
the lip varied from 5 to 10 minutes in the 5 individuals. 

The weakness which exists in snails just emergino; from hiber- 
nation as reported by Binney ^ (1885) was not noticeable in 
these snails emerging from aestivation. Generally speaking 
hibernating snails go through a dormant period from approxi- 
mately 4 to 7 months, and a weakness can be readily understood. 
However, the five 72 day aestivating snails immediately began 
to feed on the provided food supply. 

In summarizing the mechanics of epiphragm removal both the 
foot and the radula are employed. Evidence indicates that the 
part of the epiphragm that is cut away by the radula is swal- 
lowed bv the snail. 


We have to record the death at the age of 78 of Frank Harvey 
Eno, of Columbus, Ohio, on August 7th of last year. Professor 
Eno's vocation was civil engineering, but as a hobby he was in- 
terested in mollusks. 

Precedence. — Before the idea came to Dr. Merrill Moore, in 
fact just a little short of one hundred years ago, Fredricka 
Bremer, the traveler and writer, wrote home to Sweden from 
Philadelphia: "There is a beautiful museum [here] of stuffed 
birds and other animals, with collections of shells and minerals, 
where the diseased mind may divert itself and derive instruc- 
tion." — Calvin Goodrich. 

1 Manual of American Land Shellfl, Bull. 28, U. 8. Nat. Mus. 

142 THE NAUTILUS [Vol. 57 (4) 

An Autobiography of Norman Wallace Lermond, to be 
published by subscription, has been announced. 

Extended Ranges of Four Alaskan Marine Shells. — In 
checking over part of my rather extensive collection of Alaska 
shells four species were noted that were taken from beyond pre- 
viously reported geographic ranges. All except Chrysodomus 
saturus Martyn were known previously only from the type lo- 
calities. In two issues of The Nautilus, January and April, 
1938, I reported "Extended ranges of seventy-five species of 
north Pacific shells collected by Walter J. Eyerdam and Ingvard 
Norberg. ' ' 

(1) Liocyma schefferi Bartsch & Rehder. Type locality, 
Chuginidak I., Aleutian Is. ; coll. by W. J. Eyerdam, two speci- 
mens. Taken at Atka I., Aleutian Is., 1932. Extended range, 
about 250 miles westward. 

(2) Volutopsius fragilis Dall, 1891. Type locality, Unimak 
I., Aleutian Is. ; coll. by W. J. Eyerdam at Dutch Harbor, Aleu- 
tian Is., one perfect live adult specimen found on a rock at low 
tide mark. It is nearly the exact dimensions of the type speci- 
men. Extended range, about 200 miles westward. 

(3) Cingula eyerdami Willett. Type locality, Evans I., 
Prince William Sound; coll. by W. J. Eyerdam at Shuyak 
Strait, Afognak I. Numerous specimens from the second lo- 
cality were taken from the siftings of nullipores by W. J. E. in 
1924. Extended range, about 200 miles westward. 

(4) Chrysodomus saturus Martyn. Type locality. King 
Georges Sound, Hudson Strait, Labrador. Range, Arctic Ocean 
from Hudson Strait to Bering Strait ; Plover Bay, Siberia, South 
and East to Cape Douglas, Alaska. While studying some of the 
marine shells in the museum of the University of Tomsk, Siberia, 
in 1930 I was given several Arctic Siberian shells collected by 
the Nordenskjold Expedition in 1878, from near the mouth of 
the Yenisei River at the village of Pustoje. One of these shells 
is a near typical example of C. safunis although slightly more 
slender and not quite so heavy. Extended range, about 3000 
miles westward. — Walter J. Eyerdam. 

Note on Fasciolaria Distans Lam. — This past summer 
(1943) after a collecting trip to Bogue Sound, near Beaufort, 
N. C, all of tilt' live specimens were placcil in a large basin of 


April. 1944] the nautilus 143 

sea water for further observation. Amonpr them were several 
Fa^^ciolaria distans Lam. and a number of Urosalpinx cinereus 
Say. One of the Urosalpinx crawled onto the shell of a Fas- 
ciolaria distans and was observed moving its shell from side to 
side, as if starting to bore. Almost immediately, the Fasciolaria 
twisted its foot and jumped no less than a good two inches. It 
continued doing this for several minutes, travelling in a zigzag 
manner which threw the shell violently from side to side, until 
it had succeeded in dislodging the Urosalpinx. 

Fasciolaria is common in this locality and I have been able to 
observe many of them. Prior to this, I had found them to be 
very sluggish, but this animal jumped as much as any Strombus 
pugilis alatus Gmel. that I have ever seen, and I wondered if this 
was a common means of protection against the borers. Later I 
examined the shells of some fifty Fasciolaria which I had col- 
lected at various times and found that not one of them showed 
any visible signs of having been attacked by Urosalpinx. This 
is not to say that the borer is never successful in its attacks, but 
it does seem to indicate that the usually slow-moving Fasciolaria 
probably uses this means of defense to its advantage, and that 
it manages to escape its unwelcome guest more often than many 
of the more active mollusks. — Anne Gray Hackney. 

Note on Busycon Carica (Gmelin). — Busycon carica is a 
common species in the Sound in the vicinity of Beaufort, N. C. 
Occasionally, a specimen is found which has a double row of 
spines ; that is, an extra row between the suture and the periph- 
eral keel, on the body whorl. LTsually, in the specimens that 
the writer has seen, they are noticeable only in this position on 
the shell, but sometimes a definite ridge is apparent in the same 
relative position on the spire. The writer has in her collection 
Busycon carica, from New Jersey, Maryland, Virginia and the 
Gulf of Mexico, but none of these has any indication of this 
supposed abnormality. This aberrant form may be common 
elsewhere, but the writer thought it worthy of mention, as she, 
at least, has not found them in any other locality. — Anne Gray 

Albino Specimen, of Busycon Perversum L. — On one of our 
collecting trips near Beaufort, N. C, my younger son found a 
live specimen of what we supposed was an albino Busycon per- 

144 THE NAUTILUS [Vol. 57 (4) 

versum L. The shell was pure white, both inside and out, but 
the animal was quite as jet black as any other normal B. per- 
versum. A thin yellow periostracum was present and we were 
able to see no difference in the coloring of the operculum from 
any other B. perversum. I have not had the opportunity of 
seeing any other live albino specimens, and I can find very little 
written on the subject. — Anne Gray (Mrs. J. M.) Hackney, 
1333 Cornwall Place, Norfolk 8, Va. 

"Hemphill's Catalogue of the land and freshwater shells of 
Utah," 1878, was noticed in January Nautilus. It is a little 
4-leaf sale catalogue. The following names occur among many 
unnamed varieties listed by number, each followed by a word 
or two noting some peculiarity. 

"Patula Hemphilli var. Utahensis, keeled, smooth. 

" *' var. Oquirrhensis, revolving ribs. 

" Haydeni var. Gabbiana. Ribs nearly obsolete. 

" Idahoensis var. Wassatchensis. " (No definition, 
though this together with 21 other varieties of idahoensis listed 
by numbers, are said to "have more than double the number of 
ribs or plicate striae than the typical form.") ) 

In a prefatory note Hemphill states that the shells in the cata- 
logue were collected "in the canyons of the Wassatch Mts., 
Utah." But his specimens of the first three varieties, according 
to the specimens he sent out, and later publications, were from 
the Oquirrh range, mountains entirely distinct from the Wa- 
satch range. This misstatement of locality, together with the 
brevity of the remarks, in no case diagnostic, and the reference 
of utahensis and oquirrhensis to the Nevadan "Patida" hemp- 
hilli, would leave the forms quite unrecognizable without the aid 
of subsequent literature or specimens. 

The question whether this sale catalogue and other similar 
leaflets sent out by Hemphill to advertise his shells, would be 
considered published, in the sense of the International Rules, 
is also to be decided, and of course opinions may differ. I did 
not consider it a scientific publication ; it was evidently not so 
intended ; and I think that it would be an error to date from it 
the oreohelices subsequently described under similar names. 
The line has to be drawn somewhere! — Pilsbry. 

Vol. 57 JULY, 1943 No. 1 

T H F 




Henry A. Pilsbry, Curator of the Department of Mollusca, 
Academy of Natural Sciences, Philadelphia 

H. Bi-RRiNGTON Baker, Professor of Zoology, 
University of Pennsylvania 


Travelling: and Collecting: in Mexico. By A. Sorenscn .... 1 

Observations on the Local Movements of Littorinn Litorcn 

(L.) and Thais Lapillus (L.). By Ralph W. I). Dexter 6 

Life Cycle of Lymnaea Stag:nalis Completed at Room Tem- 
perature without Access to Air. By Lowell E. Noland 
and Eleanor Reichel 8 

Two New Orinoco Unionids, with Notes on Unio Granadensis 

Lea and U. Patulus Lea. By J. P. E. Morrison 14 

A New Amphidromus from Burma. By Tom Iredale 16 

Ilelicostvla from the Talaud Islands, Molucca Islands, East 

Indies. By William J. Clench 17 

Two New Genera, Two New Species, and Two New Names 

of Chinese Melaniidae. By Sui-Fong Chen 10 

Comments on F. A. Schilder's "Cypraeat-ea from Hawaii," 
and Schilder and Schilder's "Prodonio of a ^lono- 
jrraph on Living: Cypraeidae." By William Marcus 
Ingram 2*2 

Two New Species of Drymaeus from Mexico. By Harald 

A. Rchdcr 28 

Notes and News 29 

Mrs. W. II. Eshnaur. Bv E. M. Chacc 35 

$2.00 per year ($2.15 to Foreign Countries) 50 cents a copy 

HORACE B. BAKER, Bumness Manager 

"University of Pennsylvania, Zoological Laboratory, 

38th and Woodland Avenue, Philadelphia, Pa. 

Entered as Second-Class mattor. October 29. 1932. at the Post Office at 
Philadelphia. Pa., under the Act of March 3, 1879. 



A Quarterly Journal devoted to the study of Mollusks, edited and pub- 
lished by Henry A. Pilsbry and H. Burrington Baker. 

Matter for publication should reach the senior editor by the first of the 
month preceding the month of issue (January, April, July and October). 
Manuscript should be typewritten and double spaced. Proofs will not be 
submitted to authors unless requested. 

Eeprints are furnished at printer's rates. Orders should be written 


4 pp. 8 pp. 16 pp. 

50 copies .$2.50 $4.00 $6.50 

100 copies 3.00 4.75 8.00 

Additional 100s 1.00 1.50 3.00 

Plates (pasted in): $2.00 for 50; additional 1.5c each 
[Postage Extra] 

The Nautilus is the official organ of the American Malacological Union. 
Information regarding membership in the Union may be obtained from Mrs. 
Imogene C. Robertson, Financial Secretary, Buffalo Museum of Science, 
Buffalo, N. Y. 


Wanted: One dollar each will be paid for July, 1938, copies of The 
Nautilus. Also Wanted: Back Volumes and Numbers of The 
Nautilus. Especially vol. 3, nos. 1-4, 6, 7, 9, 10; vol. 4, no. 1; vol. 
6, no. 3; vol. 9, no. 1; vol. 13, no. 4; vol. 17, nos. 5, 6, 8, 10; vol. 18, 
nos. 3, 9, 11, 12; vol. 19, nos. 7-10; vol. 20, nos. 6-8, 12; vol. 21, all 
nos.; vol. 22, nos. 1, 3, 6, 9; vol. 23, no. 5; vol. 24, nos. 7, 11; or any 
of these volumes. Address Horace 13. Baker, Zool. Lab., Univ. Penna. 

For Exchange: Fifteen varieties, Florida tree snails (Liguns) including 
three of the rare L. solidvs, to exchange for Achatinella, Amphidromus, 
Bulimuhis, Cochlostyla, Orthalicus, Porphyrobajiho and Placostylus. 
Send your list to Paul P. McGinty, Boynton, Florida. 

Wanted: Pupillidae preserved in alcohol for dissection. 

Prof. C. M. Steenbero, Univ. of Copenhagen, Norregade 10, Denmark. 

New England Coast Shells for sale or exchange. List sent on request. 
List of foreign shells for sale on request. 

Mrs. F. K. Hadley, Box 33, West Newton, Mass. 

West Coast Shells for exchange. My list sent on request. 

Tom Burch, 1611 S. Elena Ave., Redoudo Beach, Calif. 


For Exchange : My list of duplicate sholls, personally taken in sontliwcHt 
Mexico, contains some rather attractive items. Send list with first 
letter. B. R. Bales, M.D., 149 W. Main St., Circlevillc, Ohio. 

For Exchange: Native material for live land Mollusca, especially Cepaca 
nemoralis, Otala species, and IIcUj aspcrsa. 

Glenn R. Webb, 5348 Ohmer Ave., Indianapolis, Indiana. 

Wanted: Exchange of books and pamphlets on malacology. Send your 
list ; ask for mine. 

Dr. F. Haas, Curator of Lower Invertebrates, Field Museum of 
Natural History, Chicago, Illinois. 


Louise M. Perry 

Chapters on generalia, collection and preparation of specimens; with 
clear, definitive descriptions of species and thirty-nine plates engraved 
from photographs of specimens. 

Copies may be ordered from — 

126 Kelvin Place, Ithaca, N. Y. 

(Paper cover, $3.50; cloth bound, $4.50) 


Now ready 
Illustrations of more than 1600 species, 1900 separate figures, 151 pages, 
special features, map, cloth bound, $4.50 postpaid in United States. Sam- 
ple pages free. 

Lantana, Florida 


123 Years of Research — 


By henry a. PILSBRY 

Since 1817 when Thomas Say's papers appeared in the first 
volume of its "Journal," the Academy has occupied an outstand- 
ing position in increasing the world's knowledge of Mollusks. 
As the years followed, Haldeman, Conrad, Isaac Lea and Tryon 
carried on in Say's steps. 

In 1887 Dr. Henry A. Pilsbry succeeded Tryon as Curator of 
Mollusks, and during the past 52 years has carried forward the 
Academy's traditional position as a center of conchological dis- 
coveries. During these years his researches have so broadened 
our knowledge of the phylogeny and classification of land mol- 
lusks that the Joseph Leidy Medal was conferred upon him in 
recognition of his discoveries. 

Today, the Academy takes pleasure in announcing the publi- 
cation of "Land Mollusca of North America (North of Mexico) " 
by Dr. Henry A. Pilsbry, the first comprehensive treatment of 
this subject in half a century. Here are presented the sum- 
marized conclusions of over fifty years of field and laboratory 
investigations by an outstanding authority on the subject. Pre- 
viously unpublished observations, descriptions of new genera and 
species as well as vitally important original drawings of the soft 
anatomy make the volumes comprising this IMonograph indis- 
pensable to students of land mollusks. 

The two volumes are offered by subscription for $25.00, 
payable proportionately as each section is issued. 

Volume I (divided into two Parts) will treat the helicoid mol- 
lusks while Volume II will cover the remaining terrestrial groups. 

Volume I, Part One (issued Dec. 6, 1939) by subscription, 
$7.50; if purchased separately, $10.00. Volume I, Part Two 
(issued August 1, 1940) by subscription, $7.50; if purchased 
separately, $8.00. Volume II (in preparation) by subscription, 
$10.00; if purchased separately, $12.00. 

For sale by 


19th Street and the Parkway 
Philadelphia, Pa. 

Vol. 57 OCTOBER, 1943 No. 2 

T H F 




Henry A. Pilsbry, Curator of the Department of Mollusoa, 
Academy of Natural Sciences, Philadelphia 

H. BiRRiNGTON Baker, Professor of Zoology, 
University of Pennsylvania 


Anotlior Specimen of Xenophora Kobusta. By M. E. 

Bourgeois 37 

Ploridan Species of Rimula. By H. A. Pilsbry 37 

Typhis Fordi, A New Bahaman Muricid Mollusk. Bv H. A. 

Pilsbry ! 40 

Colleetin<r Shells in the Solomon Islands. By Walter J. 

Eyerdam 41 

Abundance-Areas of Mesodon Pennsylvanicus (Green). Bv 

Glenn R. Webb '. 42 

Marl Deposits in Bonaventure, North of Bay Chaleur, Que- 
bec, Canada, and in Houlton, Maine. By Olof 0. 
Nylander 45 

A New Type of Fresh Water Clam from British Guiana. 

By ./.' P. E. Morrison 46 

Variability, Deyelopmental Changes, and Denticle-Replace- 
ment in the Radula of Lymnaea Stagnalis Appressa Sav. 
By M. R. Carriker .' . 52 

New Species of Cerion, Nenia and Drymaeus. By Maxwell 

Smith 50 

Notes on the Names Poteria, Ptychocochlis, and Aperostoma. 

By Paul Bartsch and Harold A. Rehder 62 

Papuina Gartneriana Pfeiffor. By William J. Clench .... 64 

Notes and News 66 

Publications Receiyed 72 

$2.00 per year ($2.15 to Foreign Countries) 50 cents a copy 

HORACE B. BAKER, Business Manarjer 

University of Pennsylvania, Zoological Laboratory, 

38th and Woodland Avenue, Philadelphia, Pa. 

Entered as Second-Class mattor. October 29. 19.12, at the Post Office at 
Philadelphia, Pa., under the Act of March 3, 1879. 



A Quarterly Journal devoted to the study of Mollusks, edited and pub- 
lished by Henry A. Pilsbry and H. Burrington Baker. 

Matter for publication should reach the senior editor by the first of the 
month preceding the month of issue (January, April, July and October). 
Manuscript should be typewritten and double spaced. Proofs will not be 
submitted to authors unless requested. 

Eeprints are furnished at printer's rates. Orders should be "written 


4 pp. S pp. 16 pp. 

50 copies $2,50 $4.00 $6.50 

100 copies 3.00 4.75 8.00 

Additional 100s 1.00 1.50 3.00 

Plates (pasted in): $2.00 for 50; additional 1.5c each 
[Postage Extra] 

The Nautilus is the official organ of the American Malacological Union. 
Information regarding membership in the Union may be obtained from Mrs. 
Imogene C. Eobertson, Financial Secretary, Buffalo Museum of Science, 
Buffalo, N. Y. 


Wanted: One dollar each will be paid for July, 1938, copies of The 
Nautilus. Also Wanted: Back Volumes and Numbers of The 
Nautilus. Especially vol. 3, nos. 1-4, 6, 7, 9, 10; vol. 4, no. 1; vol. 
6, no. 3; vol. 9, no. 1; vol. 13, no. 4; vol. 17, nos. 5, 6, 8, 10; vol. 18, 
nos. 3, 9, 11, 12; vol. 19, nos. 7-10; vol. 20, nos. 6-8, 12; vol. 21, all 
nos.; vol. 22, nos. 1, 3, 6, 9; vol. 23, no. 5; vol. 24, nos. 7, 11; or any 
of these volumes. Address Horace B. Baker, Zool. Lab., Univ. Penna. 

For Exchange: Fifteen varieties, Florida tree snails (Liguus) including 
three of the rare L. solidus, to exchange for Achatinella, Amphidromus, 
Bulimulus, Cochlostyla, Orthalicus, Porphyrobaphe and Placostylus. 
Send your list to Paul P. McGinty, Boynton, Florida. 

Wanted: Pupillidac preserved in alcohol for dissection. 

Prof. C. M. Steenberq, Univ. of Copenhagen, Norregade 10, Denmark. 

New England Coast Shells for sale or exchange. List sent on request. 
List of foreign shells for sale on request. 

Mrs. F. K. Hadley, Box 33, West Newton, Mass. 

West Coast Shells for exchange. My list sent on request. 

Tom BuRcn, 1611 S. Elena Ave., Redondo Beach, Calif. 



Fob Exchange: My list of duplicate shells, personally taken in southwest 
Mexico, contains some rather attractive items. Send list with first 
letter. H. R. Bales, M.D., 149 W. Main St., Circleville, Ohio. 

For Exchange: Native material for live land Mollusca, especially Cepaea 
nemoralis, Otala species, and IIcUx aspcrsa. 

Glenn R. Webb, 5348 Ohmcr Ave., Indianapolis, Indiana. 

Wanted: Exchange of books and pamphlets on malacology. Send your 
list ; ask for mine. 

Pr. F. Haas, Curator of Lower Invertebrates, Field Museum of 
Natural History, Chicago, Illinois. 

Beschreibung der Nati'ralien-Sammlung der Universitat zu Rostock : — 
Facsimile reprint of H. F. Link's rare book at cost of $4.00. 
J. R. LE B. ToMLiN, 23 Boseobel Road, St. Leonards-on-Sea, England. 

Four green, rough Abalone shells (Haliotis fulgens), very colorful. $1. 

Aldrich-Museum, Balboa, Calif. 



Louise M. Perry 

Chapters on generalia, collection and preparation of specimens; with 
clear, definitive descriptions of species and thirty-nine plates engraved 
from photographs of specimens. 

Copies may be ordered from — 

126 Kelvin Place, Ithaca, N. Y. 

(Paper cover, $3.50; cloth bound, $4.50) 


Now ready 

Illustrations of more than 1600 species, 1900 separate figures, 151 pages, 
special features, map, cloth bound, $4.50 postpaid in United States. Sam- 
ple pages free. 

Lantana, Florida 


123 Years of Research — 


By henry a. PILSBRY 

Since 1817 when Thomas Say's papers appeared in the first 
volume of its "Journal," the Academy has occupied an outstand- 
ing position in increasing the world's knowledge of Mollusks. 
As the years followed, Haldeman, Conrad, Isaac Lea and Tryon 
carried on in Say's steps. 

In 1887 Dr. Henry A. Pilsbry succeeded Tryon as Curator of 
Mollusks, and during the past 52 years has carried forward the 
Academy's traditional position as a center of conchological dis- 
coveries. During these years his researches have so broadened 
our knowledge of the phylogeny and classification of land mol- 
lusks that the Joseph Leidy Medal was conferred upon him in 
recognition of his discoveries. 

Today, the Academy takes pleasure in announcing the publi- 
cation of "Land Mollusca of North America (North of Mexico) " 
by Dr. Henry A. Pilsbry, the first comprehensive treatment of 
this subject in half a century. Here are presented the sum- 
marized conclusions of over fifty years of field and laboratory 
investigations by an outstanding authority on the subject. Pre- 
viously unpublished observations, descriptions of new genera and 
species as well as vitally important original drawings of the soft 
anatomy make the volumes comprising this Monograph indis- 
pensable to students of laud mollusks. 

The two volumes are offered by subscription for $25.00, 
payable proportionately as each section is issued. 

Volume I (divided into two Parts) will treat the helicoid mol- 
lusks while Volume II will cover the remaining terrestrial groups. 

Volume I, Part One (issued Dee. 6, 1939) by subscription, 
$7.50; if purchased separately, $10.00. Volume I, Part Two 
(issued August 1, 1940) by subscription, $7.50; if purchased 
separately, $8.00. Volume II (in preparation) by subscription, 
$10.00 ; if purchased separately, $12.00. 

For sale by 



19tii Street and the Pakkwav 
PiiiEAmcLi'iiiA. Pa. 

Vol. 57 JANUARY, 1944 No. 3 

T H F 




Henry A. Pilsbrt, Curator of the Department of Mollusca, >Vj .'q02^\ 

Acadcmv of Natural Sciences, Philadelphia 3, Pa. / Qj /\P /-^ 

H. BcRRiNGTON Baker, Profcssor of Zoology, uj / 

University of Pennsylvania jr I L I C R A R \ 

CONTENTS \ >^>5t*ii^ 


Californian Olivellas. By D. S. and E. W. Gifford 

Tropical Central Pacific Cypraeidae. By William Marcus 

Ingram 81 

A "West American Julia. By H. A. Pilshry and A. A. Olsson 86 

New Peruvian Land Mollusks. By H. A. Pilshry 87 

A Venezuelan Species of Fossula. By H. A. Pilshry and 

A. A. Olsson 89 

Observations on Pscndomonotis, a Late Paleozoic Pelecypod. 

By David Nicol 90 

The Sphaeriidae, A Preliminary Survey. By Stanley Tru- 
man Brooks and H. B. Herrington 93 

A New Vitrinella from Maryland. By Harold A. Rehdcr 97 

The "Apertural Ridge" in Bulimulus. By Gordon K. 

MacMillan 98 

Variations of Spi^sula Solidissima Dillwyn. By Morris K. 

Jacohson 100 

Notes and News 105 

$2.00 per year ($2.15 to Foreign Countries) 50 cents a copy 

HORACE B. BAKER, Business Manager 

University of Pennsylvania, Zoological Laboratory, 

38th and Woodland Avenue, Philadelphia 4, Pa. 

Entered as Serond-riass matter, October 29, 1932. at the Post OflQce at 
Philadelphia, Pa., under the Act of March 3, 1879. 



A Quarterly Journal devoted to the study of MoUusks, edited and pub- 
lished by Henry A. Pilsbry and H. Burrington Baker. 

Matter for publication should reach the senior editor by the first of the 
month preceding the month of issue (January, April, July and October). 
Manuscript should he typewritten and double spaced. Proofs will not be 
submitted to authors unless requested. 

Eeprints are furnished at printer's rates. Orders should be written 


4 pp. 8 pp. 16 pp. 

50 copies $2.50 $4.00 $6.50 

100 copies 3.00 4.75 8.00 

Additional 100s 1.00 1.50 3.00 

Plates (pasted in): $2.00 for 50; additional 1.5c each 
[Postage Extra] 

The Nautilus is the official organ of the American Malacological TTnion. 
Information regarding membership in the Union may be obtained from Mrs. 
Imogene C. Robertson, Financial Secretary, Buffalo Museum of Science, 
Buffalo, N. Y. 


Wanted: One dollar each will be paid for July, 1938, copies of The 
Nautilus. Also Wanted: Back Volumes and Numbers of The 
Nautilus. Especially vol. 3, nos. 1—4, 6, 7, 9, 10; vol. 4, no. 1; vol. 
6, no. 3; vol. 9, no. 1; vol. 13, no. 4; vol. 17, nos. 5, 6, 8, 10; vol. 18, 
nos. 3, 9, 11, 12; vol. 19, nos. 7-10; vol. 20, nos. 6-8, 12; vol. 21, all 
nos.; vol. 22, nos. 1, 3, 6, 9; vol. 23, no. 5; vol. 24, nos. 7, 11; or any 
of these volumes. Address Horace B. Baker, Zool. Lab., Univ. Penna. 

Foe Exchange: Fifteen varieties, Florida tree snails (Liguus) including 
three of the rare L. solidus, to exchange for Achatinclla, Amphidromus, 
Bulimulus, Cochlostyla, Orthalicus, Porphyrobaphe and Placostylus. 
Send your list to Paul P. McGinty, Boynton, Florida. 

Wanted: Pupillidae preserved in alcohol for dissection. 

Prof. C. M. Steenberg, Univ. of Copenhagen, Norregade 10, Denmark. 

New England Coast Shells for sale or exchange. List sent on request. 
List of foreign shells for sale on request. 

Mrs. F. K. Hadley, Box 33, West Newton, Mass. 

West Coast Shells for exchange. My list sent on request. 

Tom Burch, 1611 S. Elena Ave., Eedondo Beach, Calif. 



Fob Exchange: Mj list of duplicate shells, personallj taken in southwest 
Mexico, contains some rather attractive items. Send list with first 
letter. B. R. Bales, M.D., 149 W. Main St., Circleville, Ohio. 

Fob Exchange: Native material for live land Mollusca, especially Cepaca 
nemoralis, Otala species, and Ilclix aspersa. 

Glenn R. Webb, 5348 Ohmer Ave., Indianapolis, Indiana. 

Wanted: Exchange of books and pamphlets on malacology. Send your 
list; ask for mine. 

Dr. F. Haas, Curator of Lower Invertebrates, Field Museum of 
Natural History, Chicago, Hlinois. 

Beschreibunq dee Naturalien-Sammlunq der Univeesitat zu Rostock: — 
Facsimile reprint of H. F. Link's rare book at cost of $4.00. 
J. R. LE B. ToiiUN, 23 Boscobel Road, St. Leonards-on-Sea, England. 

Four green, rough Abalone shells (Haliotis fulgent), very colorful. $1. 

Aldrich-Museum, Balboa, Calif. 



Louise M. Perry 

Chapters on generalia, collection and preparation of specimens; with 
clear, definitive descriptions of species and thirty-nine plates engraved 
from photographs of specimens. 

Copies may be ordered from — 

126 Kelvin Place, Ithaca, N. Y. 

(Paper cover, $3.50; cloth bound, $4.50) 


Now ready 

Hlustrations of more than 1600 species, 1900 separate figures, 151 pages, 
special features, map, cloth bound, $4.50 postpaid in United States. Sam- 
ple pages free. 

Lantana, Florida 


123 Years of Research — 


By henry a. PILSBRY 

Since 1817 when Thomas Say's papers appeared in the first 
volume of its "Journal," the Academy has occupied an outstand- 
ing position in increasing the world's knowledge of Mollusks. 
As the years followed, Haldeman, Conrad, Isaac Lea and Tryon 
carried on in Say's steps. 

In 1887 Dr. Henry A. Pilsbry succeeded Tryon as Curator of 
Mollusks, and during the past 52 years has carried forward the 
Academy's traditional position as a center of conchological dis- 
coveries. During these years his researches have so broadened 
our knowledge of the phylogeny and classification of land mol- 
lusks that the Joseph Leidy Medal was conferred upon him in 
recognition of his discoveries. 

Today, the Academy takes pleasure in announcing the publi- 
cation of "Land Mollusca of North America (North of Mexico) " 
by Dr. Henry A. Pilsbry, the first comprehensive treatment of 
this subject in half a century. Here are presented the sum- 
marized conclusions of over fifty years of field and laboratory 
investigations by an outstanding authority on the subject. Pre- 
viously unpublished observations, descriptions of new genera and 
species as well as vitally important original drawings of the soft 
anatomy make the volumes comprising this Monograph indis- 
pensable to students of land mollusks. 

The two volumes are offered by subscription for $25.00, 
payable proportionately as each section is issued. 

Volume I (divided into two Parts) will treat the helicoid mol- 
lusks while Volume II will cover the remaining terrestrial groups. 

Volume I, Part One (issued Dec. 6, 1939) by subscription, 
$7.50; if purchased separately, $10.00. Volume I, Part Two 
(issued August 1, 1940) by subscription, $7.50; if purchased 
separately, $8.00. Volume II (in preparation) bj^ subscription, 
$10.00; if purchased separately, $12.00. 

For sale by 


19tii Street and the Parkway 
Philadelphia, Pa. 

Vol. 57 APRIL, 1944 No. 4 

T H F 

N A U T I L U S.„-,,. 




Henry A. Pilsbry, Curator of the Department of Mollfib4rf,i • i ■ ■ a p 
Academy of Natural Sciences, Philadelphia 3 ' ^ I L • • r\ A K 

H. Bl'rrinoton Baker, Professor of Zoology, . ^ 
University of Pennsylvania \ ^ 


Notes on Land Slugs of Los Angeles and Orange Counties, 

California. By IVendell 0. Gregg 109 

Burchia, A New Genus of Turrids. By Paul Bartsch 115 

Taxonomic Headaches. By Paul Bartsch 116 

Peruvian Land Mollusca — II. By Henry A. Pilsbry 118 

Vertigo Parvula Sterki. By Gordon K. MacMillan 127 

A Small Collection of Land Shells from Nebraska. By Gor- 
don K. MacMillan 130 

An Overlooked Description of a North American Gastropod. 

By Gordon K. MacMillan 132 

A Molluscan Mass Grave. By Morri.s K. Jacobson 133 

Snails Hoarded by Blarina at Ithaca, New York. By Wil- 
liam Marcus Ingram 135 

Shell Cleaning and Epiphragm Removal by Triodopsis Albo- 

labris (Say). By William Marcus Ingram 138 

Notes and News 141 

$2.00 per year ($2.15 to Foreign Countries) 50 cents a copy 

HORACE B. BAKER, Business Manager 

University of Pennsylvania, Zoological Laboratory, 

38th and Woodland Avcniif, I'hiladelphia 4, Pa. 

Entered as Second-Class matter, October 29, 1932, at the Post Office at 
Philadelphia, Pa., under the Act of March 3, 1879. 



A Quarterly Journal devoted to the study of MoUuaks, edited and pub- 
lished by Heney a. Pilsbey and H. Bureinoton Bakee. 

Matter for publication should reach the senior editor by the first of the 
month preceding the month of issue (January, April, July and October). 
Manuscript should be typewritten and double spaced. Proofs will not be 
submitted to authors unless requested. 

Reprints are furnished at printer's rates. Oedees should be weitten 


4 pp. 8 pp. 16 pp. 

50 copies $2.50 $4.00 $6.50 

100 copies 3.00 4.75 8.00 

Additional 100s 1.00 1.50 3.00 

Plates (pasted in): $2.00 for 50; additional 1.5c each 
[Postage Extea] 

The Nautilus is the official organ of the American Malacological Union. 
Information regarding membership in the Union may be obtained from Mrs. 
Imogene C. Eobertson, Financial Secretary, Buffalo Museum of Science, 
Buffalo, N. Y. 


Wanted: One dollar each will be paid for July, 1938, copies of The 
Nautilus. Also Wanted: Back "Volumes and Numbers of The 
Nautilus. Especially vol. 3, nos. 1-4, 6, 7, 9, 10; vol. 4, no. 1; voL 
6, no. 3; vol. 9, no. 1; vol. 13, no. 4; vol. 17, nos. 5, 6, 8, 10; vol. 18, 
nos. 3, 9, 11, 12; vol. 19, nos. 7-10; vol. 20, nos. 6-8, 12; vol. 21, all 
nos.; vol. 22, nos. 1, 3, 6, 9; vol. 23, no. 5; vol. 24, nos. 7, 11; or any 
of these volumes. Address Hoeace B. Baker, Zool. Lab., Univ. Penna. 

Foa Exchange: Fifteen varieties, Florida tree snails (Liguus) including 
three of the rare L. solidus, to exchange for Achatinella, Amphidromus, 
Bulimulus, Cochlostyla, Orthalicus, Porphyrobaphe and Placostylus. 
Send your list to Paul P. McGinty, Boynton, Florida. 

Wanted: Pupillidae preserved in alcohol for dissection. 

Peof. C. M. Steenbeeo, Univ. of Copenhagen, Norregade 10, Denmark. 

New England Coast Shells for sale or exchange. List sent on request. 
List of foreign shells for sale on request. 

Mes. F. K. Hadley, Box 33, West Newton, Masa. 

West Coast Shells for exchange. My list sent on request. 

Tom BuacH, 1611 S. Elena Ave., Redondo Beach, Calif. 


For Ezchanoe: Mj list of duplicate shells, personallj taken in southwest 
Mexico, contains some rather attractive items. Send list with first 
letter. B. R. Bales, M.D., 149 W. Main St., Circleville, Ohio. 

Fob Exchauqk: Native material for live land MoUusca, especially Cepaea 
nemoralis, Otala species, and Helix aspersa. 

Glenn R. Webb, 5348 Ohmer Ave., Indianapolis, Indiana. 

Wanted: Exchange of books and pamphlets on malacology. Send your 
list; ask for mine. 

Db. F. Haas, Curator of Lower Invertebrates, Field Museum of 
Natural History, Chicago, Hlinois. 

Beschbeibuno der Natcralien-Sammlung der Univebsitat zu Rostock: — 
Facsimile reprint of H. F. Link's rare book at cost of $4.00. 
J. R. LE B. Tomlin, 23 BoBCobel Boad, St. Leonards-on-Sea, England. 

Four green, rough Abalone shells (Haliotis fulgent), very colorful, $1. 

Aldrich-Museum, Balboa, Calif. 



Louise M. Perry 

Chapters on generalia, collection and preparation of specimens; with 
clear, definitive descriptions of species and thirty-nine plates engraved 
from photographs of specimens. 

Copies may be ordered from — 

126 Kelvin Place, Ithaca, N. Y. 

(Paper cover, $3.50; cloth bound, $4.50) 


Now ready 

Illustrations of more than 1600 species, 1900 separate figures, 151 pages, 
special features, map, cloth bound, $4.50 postpaid in United States. Sam- 
ple pages free. 

Box 65, Winter Park. Florida 


123 Years of Research — 


By henry a. PILSBRY 

Since 1817 when Thomas Say's papers appeared in the first 
volume of its "Journal," the Academy has occupied an outstand- 
ing position in increasing the world's knowledge of Mollusks. 
As the years followed, Haldeman, Conrad, Isaac Lea and Tryon 
carried on in Say's steps. 

In 1888 Dr. Henry A. Pilsbry succeeded Tryon as Curator of 
Mollusks, and during the past 52 years has carried forward the 
Academy's traditional position as a center of conchological dis- 
coveries. During these years his researches have so broadened 
our knowledge of the phylogeny and classification of land mol- 
lusks that the Joseph Leidy Medal was conferred upon him in 
recognition of his discoveries. 

Today, the Academy takes pleasure in announcing the publi- 
cation of "Land Mollusca of North America (North of Mexico) " 
by Dr. Henry A. Pilsbry, the first comprehensive treatment of 
this subject in half a centurj'. Here are presented the sum- 
marized conclusions of over fifty years of field and laboratory 
investigations by an outstanding authority on the subject. Pre- 
viously unpublished observations, descriptions of new genera and 
species as well as vitally important original drawings of the soft 
anatomy make the volumes comprising this Monograph indis- 
pensable to students of land mollusks. 

The two volumes are offered by subscription for $25.00, 
payable proportionately as each section is issued. 

Volume I (divided into two Parts) will treat the helicoid mol- 
lusks while Volume II will cover the remaining terrestrial groups. 

Volume I, Part One (issued Dec. 6, 1939) by subscription, 
$7.50; if purchased separately, $10.00. Volume I, Part Two 
(issued August 1, 1940) by subscription, $7.50; if purchased 
separately, $8.00. Volume II (in preparation) by subscription, 
$10.00 ; if purchased separately, $12.00. 

For sale by 


19th Street and the Pakkway 
Pnii.AnFJ.i'iiiA. Pa. 


UH 17X1 n