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Full text of "The Nautilus"

THE 

NAUTILUS 



THE PILSBRY QUARTERLY 

DEVOTED TO THE INTERESTS 

OF CONCHOLOGISTS 



VOL. 78 
JULY, 1964 to APRIL, 1965 



EDITORS AND PUBLISHERS 

HORACE BURRINGTON BAKER 
Professor Emeritus of Zoology, University of Pennsylvania 

CHARLES B. WURTZ 
La Salle College, Philadelphia, Pa. 19141 

R. TUCKER ABBOTT 
H. A. Pilsbry Chair of Malacology, Academy of Natural Sciences 

MRS. HORACE B. BAKER 

Havertown, Pennsylvania 19083 



PONY PRINTING, UPPER DARBY, PA. 



April, 1965 nautilus iii 

CONTENTS 

Names of new genera, species, etc. in italics 

Achatina fulica 6, 23 

Adelopoma costaricense 68 

Africa 57 

Alabama 28, 69, 106 

Alexania -f Habea 140, 141 

American Malacological Union 62 

Amimopina 52 

Anisorhyncus -|- Ursirivus 105 

Antartica 60, 79 

Apertural lamellae 57 

Argentina 48 

Arkansas 143, 144 

Asiatic clam 28, 29 

Atlantic, east 109 

Atlantic, west 1, 3, 18, 37, 42, 49, 64, 65, 68, 73, 83, 

96, 104, 106, 108, 109, 140, 143 

Australia 52 

Australorbis glabratus 57 

Bahamas, Eleuthera 121 

Baily, Ruth Ingersoll (obituary) 139 

Barnard, Keppel Harcourt (death) 104 

Biological controla of Achatina 21 

Birds, dispersal of snails 135, 136 

Bronson, Albert B 144 

Caribbean marines 1 

Carnivorous habits 143, 144 

Carunculina -|- Corunculina 33 

Cassis madagascariensis spinella 106 

Colorado 66 

Collections deposited 108 

Corbicula fluminea 28, 29 

C. manillensis 106 

Corbula limatula 68, 104 

Corbula cuneata & C. inaequalis 108 

Courtship in Helminthoglypta 30 

Cyamiomactra robusta Nicol 60 



iv NAUTILUS Vol. 78 (Index) 

Dates of Nautilus 27 

Dispersal of aquatic snails 135, 136 

Egeria = Galatea 67 

Elliptio complanata wheatleyi 67 

Elliptio feminine 33 

Elliptio tetralasmus sayana 67 

Eupera singleyi 106 

European Malacological Congress 144 

Florida, land 31, 50, 131, 135 

Florida, marines 49, 73 

Fossils 17, 86, 105, 108 

Foster, Richard Winslow (death) 70 

Freezing 31 

Galatea -|- Egeria 67 

Gastrocopta tappaniana 106 

Glyphyalinia 133 

Greenhouse snails 131 

Growth rates 6 

Habea =: Alexania 140 

Helicodiscus 28 

Helix aspersa 16 

Helmithoglypta 30 

Host penetration 42 

Indiana 30 

Indo-Pacific 101, 117, 140 

Intestinal dispersal by birds 135 

Iowa 27 

Laevicardium mortoni swimming 104 

Latiaxis (Babelomurex) fearnleyi Emerson Sc D'Attilio 101 

Lehmannia poirieri 144 

Litter size in Sphaeriidae 47 

Littorina lineolata k L. ziczac 65 

Log snails 107 

Louisiana 16, 28, 131 

Lymnaea auricularia 66 

Macromphalina floridana Moore 75 

Mesodon clausus 30 

M. indianorum 143 

M. kiowaensis 143 



April, 1965 nautilus v 

M. roemeri, sinistral 143 

Mesodesma arctatum, type 3 

Mesodesma deauratum, type 96 

Mesomphix 1 33, 1 34 

Michigan 47 

Missouri 27 

Monomphalus, type species 141 

Nassarius Trivittatus 49 

Nautilus, increased price 64 

New Jersey 83 

New York 83 

North Carolina 133 

Notes and news 27, 64, 104, 139 

Nudibranchs 37 

Oceanography 63 

Ocean Science and Engineering 144 

Odostomia seminuda, f>enetration by 42 

Ohio 29, 106 

Oklahoma 28, 104, 143 

Orbigny in Sagra, dates 105 

Oxycheilus -\- Synapterpes 67 

Oyster chromatograms 64 

Pacific, land 6, 23, 68 

Pacific, eastern 117 

Pacific, western 101, 140 

Paleozoic 17, 86 

Paravitrea 133 

P. smithi, type locality 60 

Pelecypod spines 109 

Pennsylvania 107 

Permian 86 

Polygyra 31, 81 

Predaceous snails 22, 143 

Proboscis penetration 42 

Publications received 33, 70, 144 

Sinistral Mesodon roemeri 143 

Solariorbis semipiinctus Moore 77 

South Carolina 68 

Sphaeriidae, litter size 47 



vi NAUTILUS Vol. 78 (Index) 

Sphaeriid names 45 

Sphaerium occidentale 46 

Sphaerium simile -|- S. sulcatum 46 

Spines on pelecypods 109 

Stenotrema magnifumosum 70 

Stream dispersal 30 

Strobilops aenena 27 

Synapterpes ^ Oxycheilus 67 

Tellina hybrid 18 

Tennessee 70, 133 

Texas 28, 31, 32, 81, 131, 143, 144 

Thyasira dearhorni Nicol 79 

Typhis (Talityphis) puertoricensis Warmke 1 

Ursirivus = Anisorhyncus 105 

Ventridens 133 

Vermont 106 

Vitrinella texana Moore 76 

West Indies 57 

West Virginia 28 

Wyoming 125 

Zonitidae 133 

Zonitoides 133 

INDEX TO AUTHORS 

Abbott, R. Tucker 65 

Baker, Emmett B 104 

Baker, H. Burrington 27, 33, 33, 45, 66, 67 (4) , 68, 

104, 105, 108, 141 

Beetle, Dorothy E 125 

Bierbaum, Veronica M 64 

Boss, Kenneth J 18 

Boss (Merrill Sc) 42 

Chrosciechowski, P. (Malek &) 54 

Clench, William J 106, 108 

DAttilio, Anthony (Emerson &) 101 

Davis, John D 3, 96 

Dundee, Dee Saunders (Hermann &) 16, 81, 131 

Emerson, William K. & Anthony D'Attilio 101 

Emerson 8c William E. Old, Jr 116 



April, 1965 nautilus vii 

Haas, Fritz (Solem &:) 68 

Habe, Tadashige (Robertson Sc) 140 

Heard, William H 47 

Hermann, Patti Watt Sc Dee Saunders Dundee 16, 81 

Hermann, Bennie C. Strickland & Dee Saunders Dundee 131 

Horning, W. B. & Lowell Keup 29 

Hubricht, Leslie 27, 28, 69, 70, 106, 106, 133 

Jacobson, Morris K 83, 120 

Jones, David T 1 08 

Keup, Lowell (Horning &) 29 

Krauss, N. C. H 21 

Mackenthum, K. I\L (Thomas &) 28 

Malek, Emile A. k P. Chrosciechowski 54 

Malone, Charles R 135, 136 

McCoy, Clarence J., Jr 68 

McMichael, Donald F 52 

Merrill, Arthur S. & Kenneth J. Boss 42 

Moore, Donald R 73 

Moyer, William W 107 

Nicol, David 17, 60, 79, 86, 109 

Old, William E., Jr. (Emerson &) 116 

Porter, Hugh J 106 

Pratt, William Lloyd 31, 32, 143, 142, 143, 144 

Richards, C. S 57 

Robertson, Robert & Tadashige Habe 140 

Ross, Landon T 50 

Russell, Henry D 37 

Scheltema, Rudolf 49 

Solem, Alan Sc Fritz Haas 68 

Strickland, Bennie C. (Heimann Sc) 131 

Teskey, Margaret C 62 

Thomas, N. A. & K. M. Mackenthum 28 

Warmke, Germaine L 1 

Webb, Glenn R 30, 30, 31 



THE NAUTILUS 

Vol. 78 July, 1964 No. 1 

A NEW CARIBBEAN MURICID MOLLUSK, 
TYPHIS PUERTORICENSIS 

Bv GERMAINE L. WARMKE, Institute of Marine Biolog>% 
University of Puerto Rico, Mayagiiez, Puerto Rico 

Recent collections around Puerto Rico have brought to light 
many interesting and rare mollusks. The total for the island is 
now well over the 858 species listed in 1961 (Warmke & Abbott) 
and increases with each dredging expedition. 

Recently, the first specimens of the muricid genus Typhis were 
collected by dredging from 33 to 50 fathoms off the west coast 
of Puerto Rico. These represent a species which is described 
herein as new. 

Family Muricidae, subfamily Typhinae 

Genus Typhis Montfort, 1810, 
subgenus Talityphis Jousseaume, 1882 
Typhis (Talityphis) puertoricensis, new species. 

Plate 1, figs. 1-4 

Shell medium-sized, strong, rosy brown when young; later 
whorls whitish with a brownish-pink cast. Nucleus with two 
smooth and glassy whorls, followed by 5 gradually increasing 
whorls each bearing 4 cylindrical tubes alternating with the 4 
rounded varices. Varices terminating in thin, recurved hooks. 
Tubes placed near the preceeding varix, long and backward- 
pointing before breaking (Plate 1, fig. 2) . Whorls parted by an 
increasing deep suture which is irregularly fluted by upper ends 
of recurved varices and bases of tubes. Surface sculptured with 
weak spiral cords that are more prominent on the varices, 6 
being visible on the outer lip. Aperture small, oval, smooth in- 
ternally; varix at outer lip greatly expanded and of nearly 
uniform width throughout. Suture line between outer lip and 
unsculptured pad above aperture making a 45-degree angle with 
the sculpture of the outer lip (Plate 1, fig. 3). Anterior canal 
long, slender, closed in front; pillar with remnants of three ante- 
cedent canals. Operculum unguiculate, with an apical nucleus. 

Animal small, light-cream colored, with scattered yellow and 

I 



2 NAUTILUS Vol. 78 (1) 

opaque white spots. Foot broad; tentacles long and narrow; eyes 
tiny black specks at the outer upper half of tentacles, which be- 
come thin filaments above the eyes.^ 

Holotype: Stanford University Paleo. Type Coll. no. 9722. 
Adult, length 17.2 mm.; greatest width 10.0 mm.; aperture 4.0 
mm..; longest tube 4.5 mm.; dredged alive in 33 fathoms off Punta 
Cadena, North of Mayaguez, on the west coast of Puerto Rico, 
from the vessel "Shimada", May 10, 1963. 

Paratype: U. S. National Museum No. 635750. Young, length 
13.7 mm.; greatest width 7.0 mm.; aperture 4.0 mm.; longest tube 
2.9 mm.; dredged alive in approximately 50 fathoms off Punta 
Cadena, Puerto Rico, from the vessel "Carite", September 14, 
1963, bottom sandy-mud and dead shells. 

Remarks: Aguayo and Jaume (1947) listed 4 recent species of 
Typhis from the Caribbean. The species and their distributions 
are: Typhis (Pterotyphis) fordi Pilsbry, 1943, Florida to Cuba; 
Typhis (Talityphis) expansus Sowerby, 1874, Santo Domingo; 
Typhis (Siphonochelus) longicornis Dall, 1888, Florida to the 
Antilles (127-410 fathoms) ; Typhis (Tripterotyphis) cancellatus 
Sowerby, 1841, Antilles, T. cancellatus also was listed from the 
Caribbean coast of Panama by Olsson and McGinty (1958) . 

The new species belongs to the subgenus Talityphis (adopted 
from Keen, 1944), which is characterized by the presence of 4 
tubes per whorl, the tubes being free and nearer the preceding 
varix, and the lip of varix of nearly uniform width throughout. 
Of the species previously reported from the Caribbean, only 
Typhis expansus belongs to the subgenus Talityphis. 

Diagnosis: Compared to T. expansus, the new species is pro- 
portionately more slender; the varices are rounded in T. puerto- 
ricensis (fig. 4) , whereas in T. expansus the varices are thin and 
laminar. Another difference is the position of the suture line 
between the outer varix and the unsculptured pad above the 
aperture. In T. expansus this suture lies at right angles to the 
top of the aperture; in T. puertoricensis the suture makes a 45- 
degree angle with the sculpture of the outer lip (fig. 3) ; the 



1 The adult specimen remained alive in an aquarium for several weeks. My 
observations on the morphology of its foot, tentacles and eyes are different 
from those that Baker (1895:181) reported for the genus: ". . . foot long 
and narrow, tentacles thick and broad; eyes situated at their base." Perhaps 
Baker's observations were made from preserved material. 



NAUTILUS 78 (1) 



PLATE 1 




Typhis puertoricensis Warmke. Figs. 1 & 2, para type, length 13.7 mm. 3 & 4, 
holotype. adult. 4. enlarged to show nuclear whorls and shapes of varices. 



NAUTILUS 78 (1) 



PLATE 2 




Mesodesma arctatum (Conrad). Lectorype, A.X.S.P. 51199. A. exterior of 
left valve. B, exterior of right valve. C, interior of left valve. D. interior of 
right valve. 



July, 1964 NAUTILUS 3 

area above the aperture thus seems less flaring. 

I wish to express my gratitude to Dr. John E. Randall, Direc- 
tor of the Institute of Marine Biology, who spared no effort to 
help with this project; to Dr. Myra Keen of Stanford University 
for assistance and advice; to Dr. Axel A. Olsson for the loan of 
the Typhis expansiis specimens which he collected in Santo Do- 
mingo; to Dr. Harald Rehder, U. S. National Museum, for the 
loan of T. longicornis and T. cancellata; to Dr. Robert Robert- 
son, Academy of Natural Sciences of Philadelphia and to Dr. 
Kenneth Boss, then at Harvard, for sending copies of original 
descriptions that were not available to me; and to Dr. Frank G. 
Lowman, of the Puerto Rico Nuclear Center, for use of the 
vessel "Shimada." 

Literature cited 
Aguayo, C. G. and Jaume, M, L. 1947. Catalogo Moluscos de 

Cuba, no. 110, 1 p. (mimeographed). 
Baker, Frank C. 1895. Preliminary outline of a new classification 
of the family Muricidae. Chicago Acad. Sci. Bull. 2 (2) : 169-189. 
Keen, A. Myra. 1944. Catalogue and revision of the gastropK)d 

subfamily Typhinae. Jour, of Paleon. 18 (\) :5\-72. 
Olsson, Axel A. and McGinty, T. L. 1958. Recent marine mol- 
lusks from the Caribbean Coast of Panama with the descrip- 
tion of some new genera and species. Bull. Amer. Paleon. 
5P (177): 1-58. 
Warmke, G. L. and Abbott, R. T. 1961. Caribbean Seashells. 346 
pp., Livingston Publishing Company, Narberth, Pennsylvania. 

LECTOTYPE DESIGNATION FOR 
MESODESMA ARCTATUM^ 

By JOHN D. DAVIS 
Department of Zoology, Smith College 

Mesodesma arctatum (Conrad) is relatively uncommon along 
the Atlantic coast of North America, yet occasionally it occurs 
in great numbers at scattered localities. Largely ignored, this 
bivalve nevertheless presents some interesting questions in tax- 
onomy and distribution. While attempting to clarify and answer 
some of these questions through the study of museum collections, 
I discovered that the specimens used by Conrad in making his 
original description could no longer be found in the Academy of 
Natural Sciences of Philadelphia, their original depository. 



1 Contribution no. 247 from the Smith College Department of Zoology. 



4 NAUTILUS Vol. 78 (1) 

However, records indicated that one group of shells of M. arc- 
tatum in the collection of the Academy had originally come from 
Conrad's collection. Although there was no evidence to indicate 
that any of these specimens were used by Conrad in making his 
original description, it seemed desirable to designate a lectotype 
and paratypes using this group of shells. 

The following synonymy has been established: 

Mesodesma arctatum (Conrad) . Plate 2, figs. A-D 

Mactra arctata Conrad 1831, Jour. Acad. Nat. Sci. Philadelphia 
^:257, pi. 11, fig. 1 (Massachusetts). 

Cerojiia arctata (Conrad) , H. and A. Adams, 1857, The Genera 
of recent Mollusca, London 2:414. 

Using the name Mactra arctata, Conrad originally described 
the species in this manner: 

"I. M. arctata. Plate XI, fig. 1. Shell subovate, solid, compressed, 
anterior side short, truncated and somewhat angular; posterior 
side produced, with the end margin rounded; cartilage pit tri- 
angular and profound; posterior lateral tooth elongated, and 
crossed by regular elevated striae. 

Inhabits Massachusetts. 

Cab. Academy, No. 840. I. Lea, D. B. Smith. 

This shell somew^hat resembles in shape the M. donacia, Lam. 
The specimens in the Academy's collection were obtained on the 
coast of Massachusetts, by Dr. C. Pickering." 

A careful search of the records and collections of the Academy 
of Natural Sciences of Philadelphia has failed to produce evi- 
dence of specimens deposited under the number 840. Presumably, 
therefore, either the original shells have been lost or cannot be 
traced because of the assignment of new numbers. 

One group of valves, designated "Ceronia arctata Conr., Mas- 
sachusetts, Ex. Auct., no. 51199," was found in the collection of 
the Academy. There was no indication whether or not these 
valves were the specimens originally described by Conrad. In any 
case, a lectotype was designated in this group of shells which all 
are considered syntypes or paratypes. There are 7 valves in the 
group, 3 obvious pairs and one single left valve. The pair selected 
as the lectotype most clearly resembles the figure published with 
the original description. The lectotype has retained the original 
number indicated above, but the paratypes have been recata- 
logued under no. 290263 of the Academy of Natural Sciences of 
Philadelphia. 



July, 1964 NAUTILUS 5 

The lectotype of Mesodesma arctatum (Conrad) consists of 
paired right and left valves, length 25.2 mm., height 18.0 mm. 
(Plate 2, figs, A-D) . The beaks or umbones are posterior, lending 
a truncate appearance as the posterior edge plunges sharply from 
the beaks to the ventral margin. (Note Conrad's mistake; he 
described the anterior end as truncate.) 

The valves are triangular or wedge-shaped, the posterior edge 
being the shortest, the dorsal edge somewhat longer and the 
rounded ventral edge the longest. The dorsal and ventral edges 
meet at the rounded anterior end. The concentric lines of growth 
spreading outward from the beaks are visible but not particu- 
larly prominent in this specimen. There is no evidence of the 
external yellow periostracum usually covering shells of this spe- 
cies, indicating this specimen was probably subject to consider- 
able abrasion. This may also account for the relatively smooth 
outer surface of these two valves. Most living specimens are con- 
siderably rougher. 

There is a small piece about 2.2 mm. long missing from the 
dorsal margin of the right valve above the anterior portion of 
the anterior lateral groove. There is also a slight chip in the 
posterior margin of the left valve adjacent to the posterior 
lateral tooth. 

The medial side of each umbo possesses a large cartilage pit 
or chondrophore. The left valve has two lateral teeth. One of 
these, the anterior, extends forward from the chondrophore ad- 
jacent and parallel to the dorsal margin. The posterior lateral 
tooth extends posteriorly from the chondrophore adjacent and 
parallel to the posterior margin. It is shorter than the anterior 
lateral tooth. Each is equipped with many small vertical ridges 
on both sides. The right valve has two deep, similarly ridged, 
lateral grooves in position to receive the lateral teeth of the op- 
posite valve. 

The pallial line is complete and includes a shallow U-shaped 
sinus posteriorly. The anterior adductor muscle scar is shaped 
with an anterior convex side and a posterior concave side. The 
posterior adductor muscle scar is nearly spherical except for a 
small dorsal portion near the margin, set off by an indentation 
on the anterior side of the scar. 

The paratypes in lot A.N.S.P. 290263 can be described briefly: 
One pair of matching left and right valves 36.2 mm. long and 



6 NAUTILUS Vol. 78 (1) 

25.5 mm. high. Concentric growth ridges are pronounced. A thin 
border of periostracum persists along the posterior and ventral 
margins. Small parts of the posterio-ventral margin have been 
chipped away, especially on the left valve. 

One pair of matching left and right valves 29.6 mm. long and 
20.0 mm. high. Concentric ridges are fairly pronounced but less 
than in the preceding pair. The holdfasts of aquatic plants are 
attached at several places on the exterior. This pair of valves is 
considerably less truncate posteriorly than the others in the 
group. 

One left valve 21.5 mm. long and 14.0 mm. high. Concentric 
growth ridges are much reduced and the exterior is rather smooth 
and polished. A crack extends from near the mid-point of the 
dorsal margin to below the middle of the valve. The valve is 
white or chalky without periostracum. 

In the original description, Conrad identified the locality of 
the shells as "the coast of Massachusetts." As noted previously, 
the lectotype and paratypes are described as coming from Massa- 
chusetts. It seems desirable to restrict this broad designation and 
indicate a specific locality known to support an extensive popu- 
lation of M. arctatum. Therefore, Plum Island, near Newbury- 
port, Massachusetts, is designated as the type locality. Supported 
by the Essex Institute and the Boston Society of Natural History, 
much past conchological work has centered in the north shore 
area. Inasmuch as Plum Island is in this area, it probably figured 
prominently in early study of Mesodesma arctatum. For this 
reason, this site was selected. 

Appreciation is expressed to Dr. William J. Clench for reading 
the manuscript and for his helpful suggestions. I also wish to 
thank Drs. R. Tucker Abbott and Robert Robertson for making 
the collections and records of the Academy available to me. 



GROWTH RATES IN ACHATINA FULICA BOWDICH 

By YOSHIO KONDO 
Bishop Museum 

The growth rates involving the measurements of length, width, 
and whorl increase, of 5 Achatina fulica individuals were com- 
piled weekly from infancy to adulthood between March 26, 1956, 
and May 6, 1957. Duration: 1 year, 1 month, 10 days or 406 days. 

The study was undertaken purely for self-interest (for fun) , 



July, 1964 



NAUTILUS 



with no thought at that time about the publication of results. A 
limited review of recent literature discloses that no parallel study 
has been published. 

Lang (1950) gave the measurements of shells raised on Guam 
by Daniel B. Langford as follows: 5 mm., 8, 12, 26, 34, 40, 
63 mm., each figure representing the length of the shell for each 
succeeding week. For 6 of these weeks the increases are: 3 mm., 
4, 14, 8, 6, 23 mm. 

Rees (1950) plotted the growth curves of three broods of 
A. fulica hamillei Petit in scattergrams. The approximate period, 
in days, and the dimensions of the longest specimens are as fol- 
lows: brood 1: 70-26 mm. x 17; brood 2: 29-22 mm. x 16; brood 
3: 16-12 mm. x 9.5. The scattergrams for the first two broods 
show this interesting phenomenon: there are a few fast growers, 
and a few laggards interspersed by a large median cluster. The 
smallest eggs were removed from the third brood and the growth 
of the remainder plotted, giving an artificial picture. 

Data most relevant to this growth study are summarized in 
table 1. 

TABLE 1 





Ghose 


Lang 


Head 


Mohr 


Eggs 

No. /brood 

Average /brood 

Size 

Minimum 

Frequency 

Total lifetime 

Fertility 


27-356 
200 
5.5nun x k 
3.5 X 3^ 
1 brood/yr 


93-184 
139 
5x4 


56-252 
144 
5 X 4 


82-315 
5.4x4.28 

1,000 
80^ 


Incubfttion period 


1 or 2 da 


6-12 


2-15 


1-10 


Egg laying season 


July-Sept 


July-Nov 






Sex maturity 
Smallest 
Average 


59mm x 27 
End Ist yr 


147 da 
2.25"-3.5 
7-7.5 whs 


7-7.5 whs 


80mm 


Growth rate 


67mm x 34 
in 8 mo 


5mm-63 
in 7 wks 






Longevity 






5-6 yrs 




Self fertilization 


Proven 






Observed 


Aestivation 


Nov -June 








Whorls 

25 da 
60 
156 




2.5-4 

5.0 

5.5-6.5 







8 NAUTILUS Vol. 78 (1) 

Summary ot this tabulation, utilizing Ghose as a yardstick, is 
as follows: 

Achatina fiilica lays from 27 to 356 eggs per clutch once a year. 
The first clutch is the smallest; each clutch increases in number 
in the second and third years; the number declines in the 4th and 
5th years. Average per clutch is 200 eggs. Average size of normal 
eggs is 5.5 mm. X 4. Small eggs, constituting an average of 2.5%, 
are 3.5 X 3. Total per lifetime is 1000 and fertility 80% (Mohr) . 
Incubation period is between 1 and 15 days. Egg laying season 
coincides with the wet or rainy season, July to September. 

Sex maturity is reached at the end of the first year. The 
smallest sexually mature specimen was 59 mm. X 27. Lang gives 
three criteiia for sexual maturity: 147 days, 7 to 7.5 whorls, and 
2.25 to 3.5 inches (57 mm. - 88 mm.) ; Mohr, 80 mm. 

Growth rates are not well known. Ghose gives 67 mm. X ^^ ^^ 
8 months; Lang, 58 mm. in 7 weeks. 

Self-fertilization is evidently a proven point; copulation occurs 
but is apparently an unnecessary function in reproduction. Fer- 
tilization probably takes place in the basal ovotestis duct (Ghose, 
1960, p. 92). 

Aestivation occurs between November and June. 

Longevity is another unsettled point. Mead cites 5 to 6 years. 

Whorls in relation to grow^th are given by Lang, 6.5 in 156 
days. 

Material and Method. A clutch of about 50 eggs was hatched 
on or about March 22, 1956. The infants were first seen on 
March 26. Mensuration commenced immediately, discovuiting 
those lost 3 to 4 days. 

Ten infants were individually segregated in vials with a piece 
of lettuce leaf and sealed off with a plug of cotton. These vials 
were kept in the humid cage with the remainder of their siblings. 
Individual segregation was for the purpose of (a) observing self- 
fertilization, if any, and (b) to make simple mensuration of 
length, width, and number of whorls every seven days. 

Two weeks after incarceration, only 5 experimental snails 
remained (#1, 4, 8, 9, 10) ; the other 5 crawled under the cotton 
plug and got lost among their free siblings within the cage. 

Vials were changed for larger jars as the snails grew and when 
they were between 61 and 64 mm. long, the 5 were transferred 
to wooden cages with a glass top, 8" X 9" X 12.5'', containing 



July, 1964 NAUTILUS 9 

moist soil 2" thick. At this time, # 8 and 9 were paired in one 
box while #1, 4, and 10 were isolated individually. The paired 
snails (#S and 9) were to be controls. 

Food and Water. Lettuce leaves were the snails' daily fare, vari- 
egated by an occasional piece of head cabbage, carrot, apple, 
papaya, banana, omelette, a local fungus called pepeiao akua 
(Auricularia polytricha), and Achatina shells for lime. Head cab- 
bage was nibbled and so were carrot and apple. They liked the 
occasional omelette but ignored the fungus. In descending order, 
the food preference seemed to be: lettuce, papaya, banana, ome- 
lette, apple, carrot, head cabbage, fungus. Water was obtained 
from food. It is interesting that, with a nearly monotonous diet 
of chiefly lettuce, the 5 shells became large and heavy. 

Environment. The cages were purposely kept covered ^vith 
heavy glass tops at all times, primarily to keep the humidity 
within at a high level and secondarily to prevent escape. The 
humidity kept the snails in continuous activity during their 
rapid giowth period. The only incidences of premature aestiva- 
tion prior to their final aestivation in maturity were those of 
:^9 and 10 when they were a month old (17 mm.) , for a period 
of three to four days. 

The approximate average room temperatures for the period of 
growth were: March 75° F; April, May, June, 80°; July 85°; 
August 87^; September 85°; October 82°; November 80°; De- 
cember, January, Februai-y, 75°. 

The average room humidity ranges from 55% to 75% through- 
out the year with an occasional 80 to 85% rise after heavy rains 
during southerly weather for a day or two. This probably has 
no relation to the internal environment of a moist cage. 

Sanitation was practiced to this extent: All garbage was re- 
moved regularly and the soil exchanged for new clean soil 
regularly. 

Measurements. When the snails were very small, they were 
measured against a millimeter ruler under a low power dis- 
secting microscope. While they grew longer, a vernier caliper 
and then a cranium caliper were used but were found unsatis- 
factory. A sliding ruler was devised after that. This ruler blocks 
off the extremes of length and diameter in relation to their hori- 
zontal and lateral axes and procures accurate measurements. 

Acknoxuledgement. Miss Setsuko Nakata of the Entomolog)' 



10 



NAUTILUS 



Vol. 78 (I) 



Department carried on the measurements after I left for the 
Philippines on January 7, 1957, thereby deserving half of the 
credit of this study. 

Results 
The results are summarized in the 2 accompanying tables and 
in the 3 graphs. To obviate cluttering the graphs, 3 individuals 
were plotted for length (#1, 4, 8), two for diameter (#1, 4), 
and one for whorl age (#1). Three gratuitous pieces of infor- 
mation are also plotted, namely, (bottom graph) the periods of 
aestivation, (top graph) lateral growth of the lip, and (top 
graph) loss of weight during inactivity followed by aestivation 
(small sample only). 

TABLE 2 







Prom : 






To: 




Spin. No. 


Lgt. 


Diam. 


Whs. 


Lgt. 


Dlam. 


Whs. 


k 


5niin 


^.7 


2.5 


129 


63 


8.5 


1 


6 


5.0 


2.7 


116 


60 


8.5 


9 


5 


^.5 




115 


57 


8.5 


10 


5 


^•5 


2.5 


112 


57 


8.5 


8 


5 


4.7 




110 


56 


8.5 








TART.K 3 


( 







1956 1957 

Har Ap May Je Jl Aug Sep Oct Nor Dec Jan Peb Mar Ap May 



Plots 



26 30 28 25 30 27 2k 29 2? 



Ik 20 18 



No. days 



35 28 28 35 28 28 35 29 



35 



kj 35 29 18 



Spm.No. 
k 
1 
9 
10 
8 



5mm 18 37 63 92 107 115 118 125 

6 18 38 63 9^* 106 110 111 111 

5 17 "M) 64 92 102 107 112 113 

5 16 39 62 91 103 106 107 110 

5 18 37 61 91 101 103 106 108 



128 129 129 129 129 

lU 116 116 116 116 

lU 115 115 115 115 

110 112 112 112 112 

109 110 110 110 110 



July, 1964 NAUTILUS 11 

A summary of the growth picture is shown in table 2. Mensura- 
tion was made every 7 days. The transfer of the data to the graph 
was simplified to a month by month plotting (28, 29, 35 & 43 
days per month) . A tabulation of the monthly data is shown 
in table 3. 

Bottom Graph. In the bottom graph, is pictured the length 
mensurations of specimens :^1, 4, and 8. Aestivation (ae) per- 
iod (s) are plotted by dark horizontal bars. Beside the mm. scale 
to the left is an inverted pyramid which summarizes the data for 
#4 specimen for: (a) giowth in mm. for each one of the 8 peaks 
of growth (internode) , (b) the number of days per inter 
peak (node) , and (c) the quotient derived from the formula 
length -h days — length per day. 

At the left hand bottom corner is a series of 5 numbers which 
may be confusing so we should get them out of the way. Clock- 
wise: Number 1 points to solid line for specimen :^1; number 4 
to a dashed line for specimen :^4; 0.3 is the quotient for the 
pyramid's apex; number 13 means 13 mm., the length of the 
apex of the pyramid; 35 da. means days. 

The dotted line running through the word "length" is the 
weekly plot of specimen #1 which proves that the conspicuous 
infant stage is not an artifact created by the monthly plotting 
of the growth. The weekly dotted plotting is offset to the right 
purposely and does not mean that the growth begins at June 25th. 

LENGTH. Infant groiuth, No. 4. Specimen #4 begins at 
5 mm. on March 26, 1956, and reaches 13 mm. in 35 days. This 
may be called the infant growth. It is characterized by a rela- 
tively slow growth of 0.3 mm. per day for the first 35 days. The 
other specimens (#1 and 8 plotted; 9 and 10 not plotted) 
follow the same lengthening procedure. This period may be 
taken as a normal and expectable pattern of growth in A. fiilica. 
The monthly plot seemed to give a conspicuous upswing at this 
point so a weekly plot was instituted for :^1 to test it for 
artificiality. The dotted partial plot for 17 weeks shows that 
there is a definite upswing at that point, indicating accelerated 
metabolism and collateral speedup in growth. 

Adolescence, ^4. The curve for specimen # 4 takes a steep 
rise (April 30 to May 28) . In a period of 91 days, it grows 74 mm. 
lengthwise, averaging 0.8 mm. per day. At this point, :i^^ is 



12 



NAUTILUS 



Vol. 78 (1) 




I 
ss 



2Mi. 

17 mi*. 



Lai. Grtatk S^mlO 



WHORLS 



142 9 If tUt. 



l3-6|r.*r 0\tftr4t. 



WI.Lmi Sfm-t 



•0- 



13 an 
M * 



DIAMETER 



-i 1- 




92 mm. long. Before the 5 test snails reached the peak of adol- 
escence, numbers 8 and 9 copulated (8 -f- 9 cop.) when they were 
105 days old ( 3 months, IS days), are 77 mm. long, and have 
7.6 whorls. The two (#8 and 9) had been paired since they had 
reached 61 and 64 mm. respectively while the other 3 (#1, 4, 10) 
were caged solo. 

Young Adult, No. 4. After reaching 92 mm., #4's growth rate 
begins to level off in (generally) ever decreasing steps as shown 
by the inverted pyramid: 28 days, 28, 35, 29, 35, and finally 45 
days. The daily average growth begins to drop rapidly from 



July, 1964 NAUTILUS 13 

0.5 mm. to .02 per day in the final stage. 

Maturity. Shell maturity appears to be attained about Febru- 
ary 14, 1957, at the age of 324 days (11 months, 10 days) . 

Sexual maturity was undeterminable in this experiment be- 
cause no viable eggs were laid. Sometime in October, one of the 
isolated specimens laid about 10-15 small white infertile eggs. No 
note was kept of this event, regretfully. 

Any fact-finding regarding self-fertilization was precluded 
when the 5 specimens were allowed to die during aestivation 
(May 6, 1957 and beyond) . 

No. 4 compared with No.'s 1 and 8. Specimen :^1 (solid line) 
began as a 6 mm. infant and ended as a 116 mm. adult. It was 
quickly overtaken by #4 at end of infancy. Thence, #1 lagged 
behind #4 until it (#1) overtook #4 at 77 mm. and passed 
:^4 at end of adolescence at 94 mm. Soon after end of adoles- 
cence, #1 was overtaken by #4 and thereafter leveled off 
quickly while #4 continued climbing steadily but at a decel- 
erated rate. 

No. 1 had 3 periods of aestivation (black bars) : the fii"st 
lasting 8 days, the second 42 days, the third 47 days and beyond 
until death without emergence from aestivation sometime after 
May 6. 

No. 8 began as a 5 mm. infant and completed its maturity at 
110 mm. Its infant and adolescent growth rate (not plotted) 
clung closely to those of #1 and #4 until end of adolescence 
(see table) . Thence, the rate (plotted) diverged and stayed 
below those of :^1 and :^4. 

Onset of #8's aestivation coincided with that of #4. No. 8 
was allowed to die in aestivation. A sample of #8's loss of weight 
is plotted in the top graph. Its weight was taken just before it 
went into aestivation at 142.8 grams. At the end of 83 days, it 
weighed 129.3 grams, a loss of 13.6 grams which averaged out 
to 0.16 grams {>er day loss. This average loss of body weight in 
aestivation is confirmed by the loss of weight in four other 
specimens, namely, A, B, C, and ^9, the data of which will be 
presented at a later date. 

The growth rates of #9 and 10 (unplotted) show similar 
patterns with individual variations after the end of adolescence. 
1 believe the paterns of growth described for #1, 4, and 8 under 



14 NAUTILUS Vol. 78 (1) 

infancy, adolescence, young adult, and maturity, represent a 
characteristic mode for Achatina fidica. 

Diameter. The chart of the diameters of #1 and 4 (middle 
graph) is an instructive one. There is a definite correlation 
between linear and diametric growth in relation to their fovu- 
stages of growth, namely, infancy, adolescence, young adult, and 
maturity. 

No. 1 demonstrates a fairly smooth curve, thereby proving 
itself to be a normal average A. fiilica having a symmetrical helix 
as its shell. On the other hand, :^4 appears to be slightly out 
of rhythm, fluctuating somewhat erratically and unpredictably, 
first broadening beyond :^1 just as their lengths coincide (June 
25) , next narrowing (August 27) wiien its own length is sur- 
passing that of #1. The result is that the shell of :^4 has a less 
symmetrical and a slimmer outline than that of symmetrical #1. 

W}iorls. The top graph shows that the accretion of whorls is 
accomplished in an orderly and regularly manner, the first 8 
whorls being attained quickly (4 months) in concert with 
length and diameter. Thence, the accretion levels off with only 
a small rise from 8.3 to 8.5 at November 2 (#1) . The data for 
snail #4 (not plotted) differs only slightly in that there is a 
0.2 of a whorl more at May 1956. 

Lateral growth. No. 10. Lateral growth of the lip was sampled 
but not continued to the end. In a 14-day period, near the end 
of adolescence (July 2 to 16) the lip of #10 grew 55 mm. or 
.8.9 mm. per day. At the same time the length of the shell grew 
increased 18 mm. (extrapolated from #1). In the next lateral 
measurement, the lip grew 17 mm. in 28 days or 0.6 mm. per 
day (September 17 to October 15). During this lateral growth, 
#\0 grew only 2 mm. longitudinally. 

Each point of the growing lip grows at a rate that is different 
from that of any other point on the same lip. In #10 a point 
10 mm. below the suture was selected arbitrarily for mensuration. 

Aestivation. Aestivation or snail hibernation is a conspicuous 
function in Achatina fulica. The snail becomes lethargic, with- 
draws into the shell, secretes an epiphragm (or hibernaculum) 
which seals the animal from the external environment, and re- 
mains in a state of torpor for days, weeks, and months. 

Aestivation apparently is brought on by tw^o main factors, 



July, 1964 NAUTILUS 15 

namely, a seasonal physiological change and by factors adverse 
to the economy of the snail's living process. Ghose gives Novem- 
ber to June as a seasonal period of aestivation. The February to 
May (#4, 8) and March to May (#1) aestivation periods tend 
to support his findings. Ghose found that the reproductive organs 
prepare for egg-laying during aestivation. 

Among the factors causing aestivation are dryness and heat of 
summer, starvation, low temperature and low humidity. This is 
a subject needing closer study. 

The epiphragm seals the aperture of the shell almost com- 
pletely, leaving a minute slit at the middle of the seal for respira- 
tion. When the snail is ready to aestivate, it withdraws into the 
shell and secretes a kind of mucus that hardens quickly. The 
epiphragm is paper-thin, white, and brittle. If disturbed, the 
snail might push the epiphragm out, protrude slightly, then 
withdraw and form another epiphragm If protrusion is a natural 
one, it might feed on the fragments of the epiphragm, indicating 
that there is a certain amount of lime in this. 

Upon emerging from aestivation, the snail remains lethargic 
for hours and often will not feed immediately indicating that 
long aestivation may not be correlated with hunger in every 
instance. 

References 
Ghose, K. C., 1959. Observations on the mating and oviposition 

of two land pulmonates, Achatina fiilica Bowdich and Macro- 

chlamys indica Godwin-Austen. J. Bombay Nat. Hist. Soc. 

5(5(2): 183-1 87. 

1960. Observations on the gametes, fertilization and go- 
nadal activites of two land pulmonata Achatina fulica Bowdich 
and Macrochlamys indica Godwin-Austen. Proc. Zool. Soc, 

(Calcutta) 13 (2):91-96. 

Lange, W. Harry, Jr., 1950. Life history and feeding habits of 
the giant African snail on Saipan. Pacific Science 4 (4) : 323-335. 

Mead, A. L., 1950. The problem of the giant African snail 
(Achatina fulica) in Micronesia. Pacific Science Board, Na- 
tional Research Council, Mimeograph Report. 

1961. The giant African snail: A problem in economic 

malacology. University of Chicago Press. 

Mohr, J. C. Van Der Meer, 1949. On the reproductive capacity 
of the African or giant snail Achatina fulica (Fer.) . Treubia 
20{\):l-\0. 

Rees, W. J. 1950. The giant African snail. Proc. Zool. Soc. 
London 72^ (3) : 577-598. 



16 NAUTILUS Vol. 78 (1) 

HELIX ASPERSA IN LOUISIANA* 

By PATTI watt HERMANN and DEE SAUNDERS DUNDEE 
Louisiana State Universities in Baton Rouge and in New Orleans 

Helix aspersa Muller has been recorded from three localities 
in Louisiana: Baton Rouge (Featherman, 1871; Binney, 1885; 
Harry, 1948); New Orleans (Tryon, 1866; Viosca, 1928); and 
Shreveport (Branson, 1961). The latter record consisted of 3 
adults from a plant nursery. 

In 1948 Harry collected in New Orleans and did not find this 
species; the present authors have done extensive collecting there 
also without finding it. Therefore, it seems likely that H. aspersa 
is no longer present in New Orleans having last been reported 
there in 1928 by Viosca. 

Baton Rouge, however, still has a colony of H. aspersa. On 
September 28, 1963, 11 live specimens were found in the back 
yard of a residence at 202 East Boulevard. From this same area, 
Harry (1948) reported collecting this snail 15 years ago. 

This residence is reported to be at least 50 years old and 
possibly 100. The ground under the house is barren of vegetation 
and offers little cover for snails. Helix aspersa was found under 
a pile of lumber which was lying adjacent to a small shed. The 
board had been there only two months, having been transported 
from a demolished garage at 165 East Boulevard (a brief check 
along that lot revealed no Helix) . Most of the snails were found 
between the lowest boards and the leaf littered ground or near 
the bottom of the pile thus being in the dampest area. 

Two of the 11 specimens were accidentally crushed, 5 were 
collected and 4 were left under the lumber pile. One was in the 
process of laying eggs and was still doing so 3 hours later in the 
collecting container. 

Other gastropods found under the boards were 19 Limax 
flavus and a few Zonitoides arboreus. Two clutches of Limax 
eggs were seen. Lamellaxis gracilis and Hawaiia minuscula were 
found in other parts of the yard. 

In subsequent trips to this area, shells were found 4 blocks to 
the south and one block to the west of this address. No other 
localities with living Helix have been found, however. 



Supported by Public Health Service Research Grant GM-07194. 



July, 1964 NAUTILUS 17 

The rediscovery of Helix aspersa in Baton Rouge 15 years 
after it was last reported and nearly 100 years after it was first 
reported once again points up the tenacity of some introduced 
species of organisms. Once introduced, they survive despite the 
fact that, in a case such as this, a large city grows around them. 
And, like many introduced forms, they become pests such as 
are these. 

Literature cited 
Binney, W. G. 1885. A manual of American land shells. Bull. 

U.S. Nat'l. Mus. 28. 
Branson, B. A. 1961. Notes on some gastropods from northern 

Louisiana. Proc. La. Acad. Sci. 24: 24-30. 
Dundee, D. S. and Watt, P. A. 1961. Louisiana land snails with 

new records. Naut. 75 (2) : 29-82. 
Fcatherman, A. 1871. Report of a botanical survey of southern 

and central Louisiana, made during the years 1869-1871. Ann. 

Rept. Board of Supervisors, La. State Univ.: 131. 
Harry, H. W. 1948. Notes on foreign land snails of Louisiana. 

Naut. 62(]): 20-24. 
Tryon, G. W., Jr. 1866. Monograph of the teiTestrial Mollusca 

of the United States. Amer. Jour. Conch. 2: 218-277. 
Viosca, P. 1928. European land snails in New Orleans. Naut. 

41 (4): 139-40. 

THE PRESENT NOT ALWAYS KEY TO THE PAST 

By DAVID NICOL 
Dept. of Geology, Southern Illinois University, Carbondalc 

Recently in the Nautilus (1964, 77: 92-93) the writer pointed 
out that shell-attached marine pelecypods like the chamids are 
not found in the arctic and antartic regions today and are also 
rare in cold deep water elsewhere. About 20 years ago and also 
in Nautilus (1944, 57: 90-93), the writer presented the fact that 
shell-attached marine pelecypods were not present in Ordovician, 
Silurian, Devonian, and Mississippian strata and are certainly 
very rare in Pennsylvania and Permian strata. Does this mean 
that the Paleozoic seas were cold? Certainly not. It only means 
that the pelecypods commonly adopted this mode of attachment 
after the Paleozoic. Only after the Paleozoic did the pelecypods 
begin to show their great diversity and greatest amount of adap- 
tive radiation. 

Equally mistaken conclusions might be made by comparing 



18 NAUTILUS Vol. 78 (1) 

living species of other major groups with their Paleozoic con- 
geners. Some historical geology textbooks assert that the climate 
during Pennsylvanian time probably was very warm because 
many of the insects attained a size unsurpassed by any living 
insect; i.e., all living insects of unusually large size live in tropical 
areas, and therefore the large Pennsylvania insects must have 
lived in a very warm climate. However, not all groups of animals 
follow Cope's Rule, and perhaps some of the more primitive 
insects were the largest as merely a stage in their evolutionary 
development. 

One more example of a possible erroneous conclusion can be 
based on the maximum shell size of a mollusk group. The 
nautiloids apparently attained their largest size in the Ordovician 
seas. The largest calcareous-shelled species in many groups of 
invertebrates are found in warm seas today (e.g., the largest 
pelecypods, the large Foraminifera). Does this mean that Ordo- 
vician seas were warmer than those of the Silurian and all later 
geologic periods because the nautiloids attained their maximum 
adult size in the Ordovician? 

The obvious lesson here is to be careful in drawing paleoeco- 
logic conclusions, particularly when one is dealing with Paleozoic 
organisms that are often not closely related to modern ones. 

Literature cited 
Nicol, David, 1944. Observations on Pseudomonotis, a Late Pa- 
leozoic pelecypod: Nautilus 57 (3) : 90-93, 

, 1964. Lack of shell-attached pelecypods in Arctic and Ant- 

artic waters: Nautilus 77 (3) : 92-93. 



NOTES ON A HYBRID TELLINA (TELLINIDAE) 

By KENNETH J. BOSS 
U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service, Washington, D.C. 

The occuiTence of hybridization between species or genera of 
mollusks has been reported infrequently in the literature. A 
general review of possible cases has been given by Pelseneer 
(1920) . Data on natural and experimental hybridization be- 
tween species of the land snail Cerion (Bartsch, 1920 and 1955; 
Mayr and Rosen, 1956) suggest that the phenomenon may occur 
with some frequency. In the Bivalvia, experimental hybridiza- 
tion has been studied and obtained between species of Ostrea 



July, 1964 NAUTILUS 19 

and Crassostrea (Seno and Hori [in] Miyazaki, 1939; Davis, 
1950), Pholas [Zirfaea -f Barnea] (Pelseneer, 1920), Vetiits 
[Mercenaria] (Chestnut, Fahy, and Porter, 1957) and Pinctada 

(Matsui, 1958). In many cases the experimental hybrids are 
subject to high, if not complete, mortality. Some evidence has 
been marshalled to show that certain species or subspecies of 
North American unionids hybridize (Clarke and Berg, 1959) . 
The example given herein records a case of hybridization be- 
t^vcen two closely related species of the genus Tellina. 

The hybrid specimen and the specimens of the parental species 

(Plate 3, figs. 1, 2, 3) were collected in Bermuda by Mr. Russell 
H. Jensen of Bloomfield, New Jersey, in September 1963. He 
kindly sent them to the author for study. The two species in- 
volved, Tellina magna Spengler, 1789 and T. laevigata Linnaeus, 
1758, are largely sympatric and closely related but possess a num- 
ber of qualitative as well as quantitative species characteristics. 
The populations sampled by Mr. Jensen came from Tucker's 
Bay, Harrington Sound. The average depth of water was 6 feet 
and the individuals were living 12 inches below the surface of a 
fine sand substrate. The sample consisted of 2 specimens of 
magna, 7 of laevigata and the unique hybrid. 

Conchologically, magna may be separated from laevigata by its 
elongate-elliptical shape, its lateral compression, its generally 
whitish coloration, which may be suffused centrally with pink, 
orange, and red, and by its obsolete posterior lateral tooth in the 
right valve. In addition, the ligament of magna is somewhat 
sunken and the margins of the valve in this area are sharp; 
whereas in laevigata the ligament is more protuberant and its 
margins are smooth and beveled. The periphery of the shell in 
laevigata is typically orange-yellow. The convexities of the valves 
and the outlines of the shells may be quantified by measurements 
of lengths, widths, heights, and ratios thereof. 

Based on measurements of series of each species, including the 
samples from Bermuda, the mean length-height ratio for magna 
is 1.8 with a range from 1.6 to 2.1, for laevigata 1.3 with a range 
from 1.2 to 1.4; the mean length-width ratio for magna is 5.7 
with a range from 5,4 to 6.3, for laevigata 3.5 with a range from 
2.9 to 3.8. These ratios show that magna is proportionally more 
elongate and more compressed than laevigata. 

The hybrid specimen is intermediate in its qualitative concho- 



20 NAUTILUS Vol. 78 (1) 

logical characteristics. It has an internal suffusion of colors which 
is unlike that of magna but like that of laevigata in as much as 
the suffusion is not concentrated centrally, but peripherally. On 
the other hand, the umbo shows the typical external concentra- 
tion of orange-red coloration which is generally found in speci- 
mens of magna. The right posterior lateral tooth is weakly de- 
veloped but is more definitive than the obsolete tooth in magna 
and less definitive than the strong tooth possessed by laevigata. 
Since the characteristics of the dispensation of coloration alone 
seem to be unsatisfactory criteria upon which to conclude that a 
specimen is a hybrid, the shape of the shell was also considered. 

The measurements of the hybrid are: length 78.7 mm.; height 
51.3 mm.; width 20.5 mm. The length-height ratio is 1.53 and 
the length-width ratio is 3.8. The former lies clearly out of the 
range of these ratios for either parental species and the latter 
coincides with the greatest extreme of laevigata. In any case, the 
ratios of the hybrid are well separated from the means of the 
parental species and the shape of the shell is intermediate in its 
dimensions. 

Consideration of the occurrence of a hybrid between laevigata 
and magna lends credence to their inclusion in the subgenus 
Laciolina Iredale, a procedure followed in the author's forth- 
coming monograph of the Tellininae. It also calls attention to 
some inherent weaknesses in the establishment of subgenera in 
the Tellinidae on lateral dentition alone. As practiced in other 
taxonomic groups, the hybrid may be referred to as Tellina 
magna x laevigata. 

The discovery of an adult hybrid between two closely related 
and relatively abundant western Atlantic tellens not only adds 
another record of hybridization among bivalves, but opens a 
promising avenue for experimental research. The stability of 
magna and laevigata indicates that the hybrid is probably infer- 
tile for there has not been any introgressive merging of popula- 
tions of the parental species. 

The author wishes to acknowledge the suggestions given by 
Drs. J. Rosewater and W. J. Clench, who critically read the 
manuscript. 

Literature cited 
Bartsch, P. 1920. Experiments in the breeding of cerions. Dept. 

Marine Biol., Carnegie Inst., Washington 14 (282) :55, 59 pis. 



July, 1964 NAUTILUS 21 

Bartsch, P. 1955. The pyramidellid mollusks of the Pliocene de- 
posits of North St. Petersburg, Florida. Smithson. Misc. Coll. 
725 (2): 102, 18 pis. 

Chestnut, A. F., Fahy, W. E., and H. J. Porter. 1957. Growth of 
young Venus mercenaria, V. campechiensis and their hybrids. 
Proc. Nat. Shellfish Assn., ^7:50-56, fig. 1, tabs. 1-2. 

Clarke, A. H.. Jr., and C. O. Berg. 1959. The freshwater mussels 
of central New York. Agricultural Experiment Station, Cornell 
University, Mem. 367, 79 pp., 8 pis. 

Davis, H. C. 1950. On interspecific hybridization in Ostrea. Sci- 
ence 5 (2889): 5221. 

Matsui, Y. 1958. Aspects of the environment of pearl-culture 
grounds and the problems of hybridization in the genus Pinc- 
tada. [in] Buzzati-Traverso. Perspectives in Marine Biology, pp. 
519-531. University of California Press. Berkeley and Los An- 
geles. 

Mayr, E., and C. B. Rosen. 1956. Geographic variation and hy- 
bridizations in populations of Bahama snails (Cerion) . Amer. 
Mus. Novitates, no. 1806, 48 pp. 

Miyazaki, I. 1939. Some notes on the cross-fertilization of Japanese 
oysters. Bull. Jap. Soc. Sci. Fish., Tokyo, 7:257-261. 

Pelseneer, P. 1920. Les variations et leur heredite chez les mol- 
lusques. Hayez, Bruxelles, 826 pp. 

INVESTIGATIONS ON BIOLOGICAL CONTROL OF 

GIANT AFRICAN (ACHATINA FULICA) AND 

OTHER LAND SNAILS 

By N. L. H. KRAUSS 
State Department of Agriculture, Honolulu, Hawaii 

This paper briefly records investigations on various predators 
of land snails carried on by the author during several periods 
from 1950 to date. Only the species sent to Hawaii for release 
or study in quarantine are listed. The main purpose of the work 
was to establish in Hawaii predators which would reduce the 
enormous numbers of the giant African snail, Achatina fulica 
Bowdich, which was introduced into the islands from Taiwan 
and Japan in 1936. I also hoped that some of the predators would 
exert control on various small garden snail pests. Five species of 
the predators are known to have become established: the snails 
Gonaxis kihweziensis (E. A. Smith), G. quadrilateralis (Preston), 
Gulella wahlhergi (Krauss) and Euglandina rosea (Ferussac) , 
and the carabid beetle Tefflus zanziharicus alluaudi Sternberg. 

Among the persons who aided me in these investigations, I 



22 NAUTILUS Vol. 78 (1) 

would like to mention especially Joseph C. Bequaert, Harvard 
University; Yoshio Kondo, B. P. Bishop Museum, Honolulu; 
Francis X. Williams, San Diego, California; Martin H. Muma, 
Citrus Experiment Station, Lake Alfred, Florida; C. F. McLauch- 
lan, Sydney, Australia; J. Hope MacPherson, National Museum 
of Victoria, Melbourne; Bernard Verdcourt, East African Herb- 
arium, Nairobi; Maxwell Trench, Diani Beach, Kenya; Keizo 
Yasumatsu, Kyushu University, Fukuoka, Japan; Nobukiyo Taka- 
hashi, Tokyo University Forest, Yamabe, Hokkaido, Japan; Henry 
Fernando, Department of Agriculture, Peradeniya, Ceylon; and 
Hugo de Souza Lopes, Instituto Oswaldo Cruz, Rio de Janeiro. 

The predacious snails and beetles sent to Hawaii were handled, 
propagated, studied, and, in some cases, released by O. C. Chock, 
C. J. Davis, Harry Nakao, Mabel Chong and other members of 
the staff of the Entomology Branch, State Department of Agricul- 
ture (formerly Board of Agriculture and Forestry) , and Yoshio 
Kondo, B. P. Bishop Museum. 

Predacious snails: Streptaxidae 

Gonaxis kibweziensis (E. A. Smith) . In 1947-48 Francis X. 
Williams investigated this snail in Kenya (Williams, 1951) . Some 
were sent to Hawaii for study but they were not released. In the 
period June-December 1951, the writer sent several shipments to 
Honolulu from Diani Beach, Kenya. The first release was made 
in June 1952 at Kaneohe, Oahu. In 1950, R. Tucker Abbott sent 
many of the snails from Diani Beach to Agiguan Island in the 
Mariana group, western Pacific and they were released there. 
C. J. Davis in 1954 brought several hundred of the snails from 
Agiguan to Hawaii and they were released at Kaneohe in August. 
This species is now well established on Oahu and Maui. A few 
Gonaxis sp. from Amani, Tanganyika were sent to Honolulu in 
November and December 1951 but these were not released. 

Gonaxis quadr Hater alis (Preston) , In June 1957, I found large 
numbers of immature and adult snails of this species among seed- 
ling mvule trees in a nursery of the Forest Department and sur- 
rounding forest at Kwale, Kenya (elevation about 1,200 feet). 
Several shipments, totaling 5,476 snails, were sent to Honolulu, 
and liberations were made on Oahu and Maui beginning in June. 
The snails are established on both islands and are considered 
the most important of the predators on Achatina (Davis and 
Butler, 1964) . The shells of the Kwale individuals were rather 



July, 1964 NAUTILUS 23 

fragile and the orange bodies could be seen through them. Acha- 
tifia of various sizes were numerous in the area. 

Gonaxis vulcani Thiele. This species was sent to Honolulu 
from Yangambi, on the Congo River, Republic of the Congo 
(formerly Belgian Congo) in October-November, 1956. It was 
released at Waiahole, Oahu during the same months. 

Gulella zuahlbergii (Krauss) . Large numbers of these snails 
were collected among fallen leaves and humus under a dense 
gro\v'th of trees and shrubs on the Bluff, Durban, South Africa in 
December 1956-February 1957. They were released on Oahu and 
at Haiku, Maui in 1956-57. Recoveries were made in Nuuanu 
Valley, Oahu on September 8, 1960, and February 18, 1964. 

Gulella bicolor (Hutton) . This small species was sent to Hono- 
lulu from Manila, Philippines in October, 1957; from Susupe, 
Saipan, Mariana Is. in February, 1958; and in very large numbers 
from Kuala Lumpur, Malaya in August-September 1958. At Ma- 
nila it was observed feeding on Subulina octona Bruguiere. Some 
were released on Oahu in October-November, 1957, and March 
and August, 1958, but the largest number (600) were liberated 
at Hilo, Hawaii in September 1958. Dr. Kondo has advised me 
that he found one dead specimen of this species on the University 
of Hawaii campus, Honolulu, in 1940 or 1941. 

Gulella sp.; about 15 mm. long, yellow bodies, orange antennae. 
Fifty-eight of these, collected at Port Shepstone, Natal, South 
Africa, were forwarded to Hawaii. 

Gulella sp. This species was collected among dead leaves on 
the ground at Yangambi, Republic of the Congo, in October, 
1956. It was released at Kaneohe, Oahu in November. 

Gulella sp. probably G. planti (Pfeiffer) . Some of these were 
found on the Bluff, Durban, South Africa in November 1956- 
February 1957 and sent to Honolulu. 

Edentulina affinis C. R.. Boettger. Several of these snails were 
collected at Diani Beach, Kenya in August and September 1951 
and in May 1957, and these were sent to Honolulu. One indi- 
vidual was released in the Kaneohe district, Oahu in June 1957. 
The body of this species is orange. A few Edentulina sp. were 
collected in the forest at Amani, Tanganyika in October-Novem- 
ber 1951. 

Edentulina obesa var. bulimiformis (Grandidier). A few indi- 
viduals were collected at Diani Beach in June 1957. Four were 



24 NAUTILUS Vol. 78 (1) 

released at Tantalus, Oahu in August. The pearly shell is about 
an inch long, and the body bright green. 

Ptychotrema walikalense Pilsbry. Collected among dead leaves 
on the ground in the forest at Yangambi, Republic of the Congo 
in October 1956. Released in Kaneohe, Oahu in November. 

Ptychotrema sp. Forwarded to Honolulu from Yangambi, Re- 
public of the Congo in October 1956; not released. 

Streptaxis contusus (Ferussac). The pearly shells are about 22 
mm. in diameter and the bodies are yellowish-orange in color. 
A number of individuals were obtained at Rio de Janeiro in 
April 1961 through the cooperation of Hugo de Souza Lopes of 
the Instituto Oswaldo Cruz. Eighteen were released at Kapaa 
Homesteads, Kauai on May 24. 

Spiraxidae 

Euglandina rosea (Ferussac) . During September-November 
1955 large numbers of this predacious snail were collected near 
Whitney, at Gainesville, Silver Glen Springs, Lakeland and near 
AstoT, Florida and sent to Honolulu. Nearly all these were from 
orange groves near Whitney in Sumter County (near the city of 
Leesburg) . The snails were on the ground or a foot or two up the 
trunks of the trees, sheltering under empty fertilizer bags in the 
crotches of the trees. They were feeding on the citrus tree snails, 
Drymaeus sp. In June and July, 1956, more snails and eggs col- 
lected in the Whitney area were forwarded. Alan Thistle of the 
Hawaii State Department of Agriculture sent further shipments 
in 1957. The first releases were made on Oahu in November 1955. 
The snail was found established in 1957, and is now established 
on the islands of Oahu, Maui, Hawaii and Kauai. It is fond of 
the garden snail Bradyhaena similaris (Ferussac) as well as Acha- 
tina. 

Euglandina singleyana (W. G. Binney) . One live individual 
about li/2 in. long was found on a wall at Goliad, Goliad Co., 
Texas in August 1963. It was sent to Honolulu and readily fed 
on Achatina fulica in the laboratory. 

Salasiella (Laevoleacina) oleacea straminea (Deshayes) . The 
shells are a glossy amber color, and the bodies yellowish-brown. 
These were collected in good numbers in Vinales Valley, Cuba 
in November-December, 1955, and June, 1956. They were re- 
leased at Kualoa, Oahu in January and July, 1956. A further lot 
collected by Alan Thistle in Vinales Valley in 1957 was released 



July, 1964 NAUTILUS 25 

at Hakipuu, Oahu in May of that year. 

Salasiella sp.? This species was collected at Camoa and Caimito, 
Cuba in November-December, 1955, and June, 1956. It was re- 
leased at Kualoa, Oahu in July, 1956, 

Oleacinidae 
Varicella sp. Several individuals were collected at Cobre River 
Gorge, Jamaica, in December, 1955, and forwarded to Honolulu. 

Rhytididae 

Natalina cafjra (Ferussac) . A number of these large snails were 
collected on the Bluff at Durban, Port Shepstone and Scottburgh 
in Natal, South Africa in December 1956-February 1957 and sent 
to Honolulu. In June, 1958, some more were received from G. R. 
McLachlan, Museum and Snake Park, Port Elizabeth, South 
Africa. These were studied in quarantine but not released. 

Rhytida spp. Nine Rhytida inaeqiialis Pfeiffer, collected at 
Sarramea, near La Foa, New Caledonia in July, 1950, and several 
R. ferreziana Crosse found at Montague des Sources, N. C. in 
August were forwarded to Honolulu. They were found under 
logs, etc. in the forest. 

Paiyphanta compacta Cox & Hedley. Forty-five of these snails 
were collected under logs, etc. in a forested area near Forrest, Vic- 
toria, Australia in April 1950 and sent to Honolulu. They did 
not survive long in the laboratory. The shells are about an inch 
in diameter and a glossy blackish in color. 

Strangesta capillaceo (Ferussac). Eight young individuals col- 
lected at Sydney, Australia were sent to Honolulu in April 1950 
but died in quarantine. 

Zonitidae 

Oxy chillis cellarius (Miiller). 206 of these small predacious 
snails from Sydney, Australia were shipped to Honolulu in April 
1950 but all died in quarantine within several months, probably 
due to the heat. 

Haplotrematidae 

Haplotrema Vancouver ense (Lea) . A few of these predacious 
snails found under logs, boards, etc. at Corvallis, Oregon in May, 
1963, were sent to Honolulu. Several more of probably the same 
species from Charleston and Brookings, Oregon were forwarded 
in June. 

Predacious beetles: Carabidae 

Teffliis zanzibaricus alluaudi Sternberg. Good numbers of this 



26 NAUTILUS Vol. 78 (1) 

large black beetle, about 45-50 mm, long, were collected among 
fallen leaves, etc. in the forest at Diani Beach, Kenya in June- 
September 1951 and April-June 1957. The first releases were made 
on Oahu in June 1952. In July 1959 some additional ones were 
received from D. J. McCrae in Kenya. The beetles are established 
in the islands, recoveries having been made in 1958 and 1960. 

Tefflus purpureipennis wituensis Kolbe. This species is smaller 
than the preceding, being about 35 mm. long. Large numbers 
were collected at Diani Beach in September 1951 and April-June 
1957 and sent to Hawaii. Additional adults were sent from Kenya 
by D. J. McCrae in 1959. All releases weie made on Oahu, begin- 
ning in May 1957. 

Tefflus jamesoni Bates and T. tenuicollis (Fairmaire) . These 
predacious beetles were collected in the forest at Yangambi and 
Bengamisa, Republic of the Congo in October-November, 1956, 
and were released in the Kaneohe area of Oahu in the same 
months. Neither species is known to be established. 

Thermophilum hexastictum Gerstaecker. Several of these beet- 
les, which may feed on snails as well as caterpillars, were collected 
at Diani Beach, Kenya in April 1957, and three were released in 
Kaneohe, Oahu in May. 

Damaster blaptoides blaptoides Kollar. Adults and larvae of 
this large predacious beetle were collected under fallen leaves, 
piles of cut grass, debris, etc. and in traps baited with crushed 
snails at Fukuoka, Kyushu, Japan in June-July, 1958. These were 
released on Oahu and Maui in July. In 1959 and 1961 additional 
beetles sent from Fukuoka by Prof. Keizo Yasumatsu were released 
on Oahu, Maui and Kauai. 

Damaster blaptoides rugipennis Motschulsky. These carabids 
Avere collected in tins set as mouse traps in the bottoms of small 
ditches surrounding plantings of forest tree seedlings at Yamabe, 
Hokkaido, Japan in July, 1958. Forty-six were released on Mt. 
Tantalus, Oahu on July 28. 

Scaphinotus sp. Several adults of this snail-eating beetle found 
under boards and logs at Corvallis, Oiegon in May 1963 were 
forwarded to Honolulu. 

Drilidae 
Undetermined species. Two bristly brown larvae about an inch 
long found crawling on walls at Rabat, Morocco in April 1962 
were sent to Hawaii. 



July, 1964 NAUTILUS 27 

Lampyridae 

Lamprophorus tenebrosus (Walker) . The larvae of this giant 
firefly were sent to Honolulu in large numbers from the Kandy 
area of Ceylon by Henry Fernando and Henry A. Bess in 1954 
and 1956. In August, 1957, the writer shipped 8,665 larvae of 
various sizes collected under leaves and debris in cacao planta- 
tions of the Pallekelley group of estates, 6 to 8 miles from Kandy, 
to Honolulu, and in October 1958 another 3,026 larvae were sent 
from the same area. The larvae were released on Oahu during 
the period 1954-58 and on Maui in 1958, but no recoveries have 
been made. 

Colopliotia concolor E. Olivier and Pyrophanes quadrimacii- 
lata var. bimaciilata E. Olivier. Four lots totalling 460 adidts of 
these lampyrids collected at Pasonanea Park, Zamboanga, Min- 
danao, Philippines were sent to Honolulu in Decembei', 1958. 
They were not released. 

References 
Davis, C. J. and G. D. Butler, Jr. 1964. Introduced enemies of 

the giant African snail, Achatina fiilica Bowdich, in Hawaii 

(Pulmonata: Achatinidae) . Proc. Hawaiian Ent. Soc. Vol. 18, 

in press. 
Krauss, N. L. H. 1951-1963. Monthly reports on biological con- 
trol investigations. Hawaii Bd. Agr. and For. and Hawaii Dept. 

Agr. (Dittographed and mimeographed) . 
Mead, Albert R. 1961. The giant African snail: a problem in 

economic malacology. Chicago, University of Chicago Press, 

257 pp. 
^Villiams, F. X. 1951. Life-history studies of East African Achatina 

snails. Bull. Mus. Comp. Zoo., Harvard Coll., 105 (3) : 295-317. 

NOTES AND NEWS 
Dates of Nautilus. — Vol. 77, No. 1, pp, 1 to 36, pis. 1 to 4, 
was mailed July 6, 1963. No. 2, pp. 37 to 72, Oct. 5, 1963. No. 
3, pp. 75 to 108, iii, January 7, 1964. No. 4, pp. 108 to 144, pis. 
5 to 9, April 14, 1964.— H. B. B. 

Strobilops aenea west of the Mississippi River. — The state- 
ment has been made that Strobilops aenea Pilsbry does not occur 
west of the Mississippi River (Branson, B. A. 1961. Proc. Okla. 
Acad. Sci. vol. 41. p. 62.). However, I have a number of collec- 
tions from there. From Iowa I have collected it in Fayette, Clay- 
ton, Jackson, and Muscatine Counties In Missouri it is known 
from St. Louis, Franklin, Jefferson, and Washington Counties. 



28 NAUTILUS Vol. 78 (1) 

In Arkansas 1 have found it in Columbia and Union Counties. 
I have also found it in Caddo Parish, Louisiana, and Tyler 
County, Texas. 

I have also collected it in river drift on the South Canadian 
River, north of Whitefield, Haskell County, Oklahoma, and on 
the Red Rivei, at Fulton, Hempstead County, Arkansas. But as 
there are no fresh shells in either of these lots they may have 
been washed from Pleistocene deposits. — Leslie Hubricht. 

Helicodiscus tridens and h. aldrichiana. — Recently I exam- 
ined specimens of Pilsbryna tridens Morrison and Clappiella 
aldrichiana (Clapp) and believe that both species should be 
placed in the genus Helicodiscus. 

A large series of specimens of Helicodiscus tridens was col- 
lected in drift of the South Canadian River, north of Whitefield, 
Haskell Co., Oklahoma. Most of the specimens appeared to have 
been wished from Pleistocene deposits, but some were quite fresh 
so that this species must be living today in Oklahoma. 

Thirteen specimens of Helicodiscus aldricJiiana were collected 
in fine rubble on a chert hillside, 0.5 mile north of Hammond- 
ville, DeKalb Co., Alabama. One specimen was dissected, but 
luifortunately it was not sexually mature. The animal is yellow 
^vith an orange margin to the mantle, a color pattern found in 
several species of Helicodiscus, — Leslie Hubricht. 

Asiatic clam infestation at Charleston, West Virginia. — 
The Asiatic clam, Corbicula jiuminea (Miiller) , has extended 
its range into the Kanawha River. The clam was collected from 
the Kanawha July 17, 1963, at Chelyan, West Virginia. The 
population was limited to a few live clams in the center of the 
river, but large numbers of open shells were collected from the 
banks of the river. 

During the same period, an inquiry, later followed by samples 
of clam shells, was recieved from Union Carbide Olefins Com- 
pany, 15 miles upstream from Charleston, West Virginia. The 
plant obtains raw water from the Kanawha River. The water 
passes through a traveling screen to a sump. Centrifugal pumps 
then pump the water to an elevated storage tank from which it 
flows by gravity to heat exchangers and thence to the river. 

y\s the result of the infestation during the summer of 1963, 
clam shells lodged in valves on some of the water lines and re- 



July, 1964 NAUTILUS 29 

stricted the flo^v of water. Clams were also noted when heat ex- 
changers were flushed. Since the traveling screen would prevent 
passage of adult clams, assumably the sump and elevated storage 
tank were the nursery areas for the clams found in the water 
lines and heat exchanger. Partial control was accomplished by 
increasing the flow velocities in the water lines, thus removing 
the sediment that formed a substrate for the clams. 

Individual clam sizes up to 27 mm. indicate that a population 
has been established in the Kanawha River since 1961. This is 
based on size "year class" data presented by Keup et al. 1963, 
Keup, L., W. B. Horning and W. M. Ingram. Nautilus 
17 (1): 18-21. — N. A. Thomas and K. M. Mackenthun, Biolo- 
gists; Technical Advisory and Investigations Section, R. A. Taft 
Sanitary Engineering Center, U. S. Department of Health Edu- 
cation and Welfare, Public Health Service, Cincinnati, Ohio. 

Decline of Asiatic clam in Ohio River. — Benthic samples 
taken from the Ohio River near Cincinnati, Ohio, during 1962 
contained large numbers of the Asiatic clam, Corbicula fliiminea 
(Miiller) [Stein, E. B., Ohio Journ. Sci., ^2 (6) : 326-327, 1962; 
and Keup, L., Horning, W. B., and Ingram, W. M., Naut. 
77(1):18-21, 1963]. Quantitative bottom samples collected from 
Cincinnati downstream to Warsaw, Kentucky, showed the Asia- 
tic clam to be the dominant benthic organism in September, 
1962 (Keup, et al., op. cit.) . 

Quantitative benthic samples were collected in September and 
October, 1963, at the same stations that ^vcre sampled in 1962. 
Comparison of the two years' data indicates a near elimination 
of the Asiatic clam from the Cincinnati reach of the Ohio River 
during the interval of a year. At River Mile 461.5, live Asiatic 
clams were reduced from 27 to 1 per square foot of bottom. Four 
other stations sampled had live Asiatic clam populations ranging 
from 20 to 222 per square foot in 1962; in 1963 no live Asiatic 
clams were found at these 4 stations. 

Explanations for the sudden decline of the Asiatic clam popu- 
lation remain open for speculation. A possible explanation lies 
in the severity of the 1962-63 winter. This winter had the cold- 
est (-14°F) recorded air temperature since 1936 (-17°F) ; and 
the Ohio River was frozen over the longest (7 days) since the 
winter of 1947-48 (12 days) (unpublished: U. S. Weather 
Bureau Data) . The clam originates from more temperate cli- 



30 NAUTILUS Vol. 78 (1) 

mates in southeast Asia and the abnormally severe Ohio valley 
winter conditions may have caused a "winter kill" in the clam 
population. — W. B. Horning and Lowell Keup, Biologists; 
Technical Advisory and Investigations Section, R. A. Taft Sani- 
tary Engineering Center, U. S. Department of Healtli, Educa- 
tion, and Welfare, Public Health Service, Cincinnati, Ohio. 

Stream dispersal of Mesodon — On March 15, 1942, on the 
West Fork of White River, Marion County, Decatur Township 
near intersection with W. Thompson Road, Indiana, a water- 
soaked specimen of Mesodon clausus (Say) was found floating 
in the river with the animal inertly extended. Upon being 
harshly stimulated, the snail retracted itself into its shell. There- 
fore, probably if stranded by receding water, this specimen 
might have survived at a new spot in so far as effect of immer- 
sion might be involved. At another place, an adult Mesodon 
thyroidus (Say) was also found floating in a flooded lowland 
near the main channel of the river. The animal also was water- 
soaked and extended. Unfortunately this specimen was lost, so 
my plan to study its survival aborted. — Dr. Glenn R. Webb, 
Kutztown State College, Kutztown, Pa, 

Courtship between two species of Helminthoglypta — On 
November 26, 1941, an animal of Helminthoglypto tndiculata 
(Binney) was found head-on to one of H. nnihilicnta (Pilsbr)') . 
A black, tubular body (penis?) was seen to extend from the 
tudiculata and to be pressed against the dilated genital-pore 
region of the umbilicata. Action ceased after I inverted the 
cage cover-glass. But again on November 29th, this pair was found 
in an oblique head-on position. Both snails had the genitalia 
partly protruded. The organs of the tudiculata were very dark, 
almost black and much darker in color than the pale organs of 
the umbilicata. The dart-organ of the tudiculata was very small, 
but perhaps it was not fully everted. After the foregoing was 
seen, I went to get pen and notebook. When I returned, the 
tudiculata had fallen from the cover-glass and was lying with 
its foot in the air on its spire. Possibly the umbilicata had stabbed 
the tudiculata so vigorously that the later fell in pain from the 
cover-glass. The fallen tudiculata eventually climbed back up 
and rejoined the umbilicata on the cover-glass. Then the um- 
bilicata harassed the tudiculata by a biting attack which caused 



July, 1964 NAUTILUS 31 

the tudicidata to arch itself violently away and to withdraw 
from proximity. The pair again became briefly separated. When 
the specimens again met, the umbilicata employed its dart from 
the tip of the dart-organ against the sole of the foot of the 
tudiculata. The tiidiculata jerked violently and again withdrew. 
The tudiculata made no attempt to reciprocate with its own 
dart-organ. The present two instances suggest that a possible 
sex-organ and mating-behavior barrier exists between these two 
species to preclude any interbreeding. This is a field worthy of 
exploration by observant collectors and malacologists. — Glenn 
R. Webb. 

Freezing versus Polygyra septemvolva Say — On October 31, 
1941, 3 specimens of this species were tested to obtain pilot data 
in regard to whether freezing weather might be an important 
factor in restricting the species in distribution to the Gulf and 
south Atlantic coastal areas. The results were as follows: Three 
aestivating specimens survived nearly 24 hours of 36°F. in the 
refrigerator; only one out of three aestivating specimens sur- 
vived nearly 24 hours of slightly below 32°F. in the refrigerator. 
The surviving specimen seemed normal and continued to survive 
when returned to its cage. The specimens in question were col- 
lected at Port St. Joe, Florida. I am indebted to James T. Close 
of Indianapolis, Indiana, for helping secure the material. — 
Glenn R. Webb. 

Two EASTERN LAND SNAILS NEW TO Texas. — This uote rcports 
on specimens of one species and one subspecies of snails not 
previously reported from Texas. I wish to express my gratitude 
to the membership of the J. K. Strecker Herpetological Society 
for saving the snails they often find while searching for reptiles 
and amphibians. 

Haplotrema concavum (Say) . Shelby County: my 801, a single 
fresh shell, part of epidermis still intact. East Hamilton Scenic 
Area, Sabine National Forest, 9 miles east of Patroon, Texas. 
This represents a range extension of 200 miles from Logan 
County, Arkansas, the nearest locality for live material, and 150 
miles from the loess record at Natchez, Mississippi. The speci- 
men is from the ecotone of the Sabine River bottoms and the 
pine-hardwood forest. Additional collecting will be needed be- 
fore any statement as to the extent of Haplotrema range in Texas 



32 NAUTILUS Vol. 78 (1) 

can be made. It was found in association with Mesodon thyroidus 
and Angiiispira alternata crassa. 

Anguispira alternata crassa Walker. Cass County: my 704, ?> 
iresh shells, 2 February, 1963, bottoms of the Sulphur river 1.7 
miles north and 1.7 miles west of Domino, Texas. Shelby County: 
my 800, one live and two fresh shells, under logs, pine-hardwood 
forest. East Hamilton Scenic Area, Sabine National Forest, 9 
miles east of Patroon, Texas, 28 September, 1963. A. a. crassa has 
been recorded from Caddo and De Soto parishes in Louisiana 
on the Texas border, but not previously from Texas. The range 
of this subspecies in Texas cannot be determined without exten- 
sive collecting. A. a. strongylodes occurs as far north and east 
as Dallas County and they may intergrade on the western edge 
of the pine-hardwood forest. — William Lloyd Pratt, Jr., 4501 
El Campo, Ft. Worth, Texas. 

Some Texas localities for Helicidae. — Pilsbry (Land Mol- 
lusca ^ (1) , 1939) recorded no helicid snails from the state of 
Texas. More recently Grimm (Nautilus 77 (3) : 108-109) reported 
Otala lactea from Port Arthur, Jefferson County, Texas. The 
purpose of this note is to record additional localities for this 
species and to report the presence of two additional species in 
the state. 

Otala lactea (Miiller) . Galveston County: my 182, 16 live 
and fresh shells, garden of Galvez Hotel, Galveston, Texas, 8 
December 1961. Brazos County: Mr. David Christopher has 
found this snail in several localities around College Station, 
Texas. Tarrant County: A single specimen (FWCM. 121) in the 
collection of the Fort Worth Children's Museum. It was found 
crossing the street in front of the museum in the early morning 
during a rain by Mr. Robert Millican, the building engineer, 
during December, 1962. Extensive search in the area has not 
yielded further specimens and this may be a chance import. 

Otala vermiciilata (Miiller) . Galveston County: my 292, two 
adult shells, having the same data as O. lactea reported above. 

Helix aspersa Miiller. Tarrant County: my 804, two live snails 
found in a nursery during December, 1963, by Mr. F. J. Pratt. 
The owner says that they are found annually on freshly arrived 
rose bushes from California. They apparently have not become 
established. Dallas County: I have seen one specimen reportedly 
found on the outside wall of a residence in Dallas, fall, 1962. 



July, 1964 NAUTILUS 33 

1 have no further information nor have I seen additional speci- 
mens. — William Lloyd Pratt, Jr., 4501 El Campo, Ft. Worth, 
Texas. 

Carunculina (Lampsilinae) — Carxinculina "Simpson" F. C. 
Baker, 1898, Chicago Acad. Nat. Sci., Bui. 3, is the legal spelling, 
for the following reasons: 1. The original publication gave 
alternative spellings, Corunculina (p. 109) and Carunculina (in 
the index) . [Incidentally another, nearby heading is an obvious 
misprint; "Euryma" (p. 100) is correctly Euiynia in the index.] 
2. Simpson, 1900, Proc. U. S. Nat. Mus. 22: 563, preferred 
Carunculina and thus determined the correct spelling. Never- 
theless, according to article 51 (c) , the authority for Carun- 
culina is not "Simpson in Baker" but Baker, because Simpson 
contributed nothing to the "validating conditions" in the original 
publication. The only reason it dates from 1898 is due to the 
fact that F. C. Baker included in it one species, Lampsilis parxms 
(Barnes) , which automatically becomes its type. Of course, its 
first description was published by Simpson (1900) who (illegally) 
chose Unio texasensis Lea. — H. B. B. 

Elliptic feminine. — Elliptio Rafinesque, 1819, J. de Phys., 
etc. S8: 426, although usually treated as a masculine noun, 
apparently should be employed as a feminine one. Rafinesque, 
1820, Ann. Gen. Sci. Phys. Bruxelles 5: 291-295, consistently 
used Elliptio as feminine (e.g. E. nigra) , although this may 
have been due to the fact that he erroneously treated Uiiio as 
such. However, unio (onion) was a concrete noun (masculine) 
while Elliptio (elliptic?) has more the form of an abstract com- 
pound (feminine) . — H. B. B. 



PUBLICATIONS RECEIVED 

Powell, A. W. B. 1964. The Family Turridae in the Indo- 
Pacific. Part. The subfamily Turrinae. Indo-Pacific Mollusca 
7(5): 227-346, pis. 172-262 (3 in color) .—35 genera and 177 
species, recent and Tertiary treated, of which 13 are new. The 
editor (not the author) erroneously interchanged the figures 
in plates 248 and 249, and figures 1 and 2 in plate 240. Re- 
placement pages will be sent subscribers. 

Parker, Robert H. 1963. Zoogeography and ecology or some 
macro-invertebrates, particularly mollusks, in the Gulf of 



34 NAUTILUS Vol. 78 (1) 

California and the continental slope off Mexico. Vidensk. 

Medd. fra Dansk naturh. Foren. 126: 1-178, pis. M5. 
Cotton, Bernard C. 1964. South Australian Mollusca — Chitons. 

Handbook of the flora and fauna of South Australia, 151 pp., 

139 figs., 1 color plate. A revision of Cotton and F. K. Godfrey's 

1940 handbook on the chitons. 
Altena, C. O. van Regteren. 1958. De Landmollusken van de 

Sint-Pietersberg. Naturh. Maanbl. 47: 86-98. — Dutch province 

of Limburg. 
Araujo, J. L. de Barros. 1963. Sobre Anostoma (Ringicella) 

ringens (L., 1758) (Gastropoda, Pulmonata, Odontostomi- 

dae) . Mem. Inst. Oswaldo Cruz 61: 149-152, 7 figs. — Anatomy 

and shell. 
Basch, Paul F. 1963. A review of the recent freshwater limpet 

snails of North America. Bui. Mus. Comp. Zoo. 129: 401-461, 

20 figs. — Shells and anatomy. 
1963. Environmentally influenced shell distortion in a 

fresh-water limpet. Ecology 44: 193-194, 1 fig. 
Benthem Jutting, W. S. S. van. 1962. Selection of lectotypes of 

non-marine Mollusca of New Guinea, described by Tapparone 

Canefri, and now preserved in the Museo Civico di Storia 

Naturale 'Giacoma Doria" in Genoa. Ann. Mus. Civ. Sto. 

Nat. Genova 73: 1-8, 10 figs. 
1963. Non-marine Mollusca of west New Guinea. Part 1, 

Mollusca from fresh and brackish waters. Nova Guinea, Zoo. 

20: 409-521, 56 figs. %z pis. 24-25. — New species are included in 

Bellamya, Fluviopupa, Clenchiella, Taheitia, Stenothyra, Gab- 

bia, Tatea, Hemistomia, Assiminea, Acmella, Omphalotropis, 

Melanoides, Physastra, Gyraulus and Anisus. 

1963. Part 2, operculate land shells. Nova Guinea, 2^o. 



23: 653-726, 3 text-figs., pis. 27-30. — New species are added to 
Hydrocena, Sulfiirina, Pleuropoma, Lagochiliis, Ditropis, Pu- 
pinella, Bellardiella, Pupina, Moulinsia, Palaina, Pseudo- 
cyclotus and Dominamaria. 

Blinn, Walter C. 1963. Ecology of the land snails, Mesodon 

thyroidus and Allogona profunda. Ecology 44: 498-505, 2 figs. 

— Seasonal histories and activities. 
Clarke, Arthur H., Jr. 1963. Arctic archibenthal and abyssal 

molluscs dredged from Drifting Station Charlie (Alpha 2) . 

Nat. Mus. Canada Bui. 185: 90-109, incl. 41 figs. & 2 pis.— 



NAUTILUS 78 (1) 



PLATE 3 




External views of the right valves. Fig. 1 Tellina magna Spengler. Fig. 2. 
Hybrid specimen. Fig. 3. T. laevigata Linnaeus. (All about 0.85 x)- 



July, 1964 NAUTILUS 35 

Alvania karlini is proposed. 

& Anne Meachem Rick. 1963. Supplementary records of 



Unionacea from Nova Scotia with a discussion of the identity 

of Anodonta fragilis Lamarck. Nat. Mus. Canada Bull. 199: 

15-27, incl. 1 pi. and a map. 
Clayton, Lee. 1961. Late Wisconsin MoUusca from ice-contact 

deposits in Logan County, North Dakota. Proc. N. D. Acad. 

Sci. 15: 1M8, 2 figs. 
Clench, William J. 1962. New species of land mollusks from the 

Republica Dominicana. Breviora M. C. Z. no. 173: 1-5, 1 pi. — 

New species are added to Helicina, Proserpina, Geomelania 

and Zaphysema. 
1963. Land and freshwater mollusks of the Crooked Island 

group, Bahamas. Bui. Mus. Comp. Zoo. 128: 395-413, 3 pis. New 

species are included in Eutrochatella, Opisthosiphon, Micro- 

ceramus and Plagioptycha. 
Dazo, Bonifacio C. Sc Ricardo G. Moreno. 1962. Studies on the 

food and feeding habits of Oncomelania quadrasi, the snail 

intermediate host of Schistosoma japonicum in the Philippines. 

Trans. Amer. Micr. Soc. 81: 341-347, 2 figs. 
Forcart, Lothar. 1961. Spedizione biologica in Somalia dell' 

Universita die Firenze, 1959. Risultati zoologici, 5, Mollusca. 

Monit. Zoo. Ital. 69: 39-45. — Inland mollusks. 
Getz, Lowell L. 1962. Pomatiopsis cincinnatiensis and P. Ispidaria 

as potential interaiediate hosts of Schistosoma japonicum. J. of 

Parasit. 48: 498-499. 
Ghose, Krishna Chandra. 1962. Origin and development of the 

digestive system of the giant land snail Achatina fulica Bow- 

dich. Proc. Roy. Soc. Edinburgh 68 (pt. 3): 186-207, 19 figs. 
1963. The alimentary system of Achatina fulica. Trans. 

Amer. Micr. Soc. 82: 149-167, incl. 1 fig. & 2 pis. 
1962. Morphogenesis of the nervous system in the giant 



land snail Achatina fulica Bowdich. Zoo. Anz. 169: 467-475, 
16 figs. 

— 1961 & 1962. Morphogensis of the statocyst in the giant 
land snail Achatina fulica. J. Univ. Bombay 30: 77-79, incl. 

pi. 1. 

— 1961 & 1962. Morphogenesis of the eye in the giant land 



snail, Achatina fulica. J. cit.: 73-76, incl. pi. 1. 

— 1962. Morphogenesis of the pedal gland in the giant land 



36 NAUTILUS Vol. 78 (1) 

snail, Achatina fulica Bowdich. Current Sci. 52: 167-168, 4 figs. 
1962. Organs of special senses in Achatina fulica. J. Anim. 



Morph. & Physiol. 9: 131-184, 1 pi. 

— 1963. Reproductive system of the snail Achatina fulica. 
Proc. Zoo. Soc. London 140: 681-695, 1 fig., pis. 1-2. 

— 1963. Embryogenesis and larval organs of the giant land 



snail Achatiiia fulica Bowdich Proc. Roy. Soc. Edinburgh, 
sect. B, 68: 237-260, 25 figs. 

1962, The cleavage, gastrulation and germ layer formation 



in the giant land snail, Achatina fulica. Proc. Zoo. Soc. [Cal- 
cutta] 75: 47-54, pi. 4. 

Habe, Tadashige. 1962. Trichotropidae in Japan (Mollusca) . 
Bui. Nat. Sci. Mus. (Tokyo) 6: 67-77, 5 figs, pi. 1 .—Tricha- 
mathina (n. gen.) and new species of Iphinoe, Turritropis, 
Akibumia ^ Amamiconcha are included. 

Henrard, J. B. Year? A new species of Pseudobha (Mollusca, 
Gastropoda) from western New Guinea. Zoo. Meded. Rijksmus. 
Nat. Hist. Leiden 39: 308-310, 1 fig. 

Hubendick, Bengt. 1962. Aspects on the diversity of the fresh- 
water fauna. Oikos (Copenhagen) 13: 249-261, 3 figs. — Limnic 
& hololimnic. 

Kawaguti, Siro & Noriaki Ikemoto. 1962. Electron microscopy 
on the mantle of a bivalve, Musculus senhousia during re- 
generation of the shell. Biol. J. Okayama Univ. 8: 31-42, 17 
figs. — All 3 layers of the shell are mended. 

Klappenbach, Miguel A. Una nueva especie de Cyclodontina 
del Uruguay (Gastr. Pulm.) . Com. Zoo. Mus. Hist. Nat. Mon- 
tevideo 4 (81): 1-4, pis. 1-2. 

Loosjes, F. E. 1963. Supplement to a monograph of the Indo- 
Australian Clausiliidae. Zoo. Med. Rijksmus. Nat. Hist. Leiden 
39: 153-169, 5 figs, pi. 5 — New species are added to Pseudone- 
nia & Acrophaedusa. 

1963. Clausiliidae collected by the Netherlands Biological 

Expedition to Turkey in 1959. Med. cit.: 242-260, 2 figs., pis. 

18-20. New species are proposed in Euxinastra 6- Acrotoma. 
MacClintock, Copeland. 1963. Reclassification of gastropod 

Proscutum Fischer based on muscle scars and shell structure. 

J. of Paleont. 37: 141-156: 141-156, 31 figs., pi. 20.— Transferred 

to Patellinae. 



THE NAUTILUS 

Vol. 78 October, 1964 No. 2 



NEW ENGLAND NUDIBRANCH NOTES 
By henry D. RUSSELL 

The following notes and table concerning the activities of the 
Nudibranch fauna of the Cape Cod region are the result of the 
author's observations while at the Marine Biological Laboratory 
at Woods Hole, Massachusetts from September 1962 — September 
1963. Certain species e.g. Tergipes despectus (Johnston) were 
abundant and were studied both in laboratory aquaria and in the 
field, while others e.g. Idulia coronata Gmelin or Aeolidia papu- 
losa (Linne) were collected only once or twice. The species were 
discovered at widely different localities in the coastal waters of 
Cape Cod and/or the adjacent islands and at widely spaced in- 
tervals of time. This may help to explain some of the apparent 
inconsistencies of table 1 and indicates the need for further in- 
vestigation. 

Previous studies have shown that there are two chief breeding 
periods for northern New England nudibranch species — one in 
May and one in November. This contrasts with the findings for 
British species which breed chiefly in June, while those for Ire- 
land breed chiefly in August and September. The species of the 
Cape Cod region, however, start slightly ahead of those in 
northern New England in this respect in that breeding and egg- 
laying begins in late March. After egg-laying, many of the species 
appear to be exhausted from the effort and die. 

The species are presented more or less in systematic order 
rather than in accord with their seasonal occurrence and their 
activities are summarized in table 1. 

Elysia chlorotica Gould 
On July 2 and 17 specimens of Elysia chlorotica Gould were 
collected abundantly on Vaucheria sp. upon which they appar- 
ently were feeding. The alga was growing on the mud banks of 
tidal inlets in the Barnstable marshes. E. chlorotica did not seem 
to be breeding and no e^^ masses were found. They were exposed 
by the receding tide to an air temperature of 37.0°C. Specimens 
were placed in running sea-water tanks in the laboratory and 

37 



38 




NAUTILUS 




Vol. 


78 (2) 






Table 1 










Summary 


of Species' 


Actlvlty 






Species 


Period of 
egg laying 


Period of 

vellger 

hatching 


Egg laying 
to hatching 
days 


Dates. 
Adults 


water°C. 


Elysla chlorotlca 




7/29 




7/2-8/9 


+22.0 


Aeolldla papillosa 


— 


— 


— 


October 


— 


Cretena aurantla 


1^/23-6/10 


5/22-6/10 


29 


3/25-7/1 


I4. 0-16.5 


Cratene conclnna 


3/9-5/15 


14/16-5/15 


6 


1/15-5/15 


14.0-114.0 


Embletonle 
fuscata fuscata 


6/- 


6/- 


. 


6/17- 


18. 8 


Terglpes despectus 


3/19-5/26 


3/29-6/- 


lO-lIi 


3/19-6/3 


I4. 0-21.0 


Coryphella pell uc Ida 


5/1-5/10 


5/13-5/22 


13 


14/30-5/214 


6.O-II4.O 


Idulla corona ta 


6/114- 


6/17- 


+3 


5/6-6/II4 


I4.l4-ll4.i4 


Dendronotua 
frondoeus 


— 


— 


.. 


I1/I6- 


10.0 


Onchldorls aspera 


— 


— 


— 


e/9- 


16.5 


Onehldorls fuses 


5/27-6/27+ 


6/3- 


7 


5/27-6/- 


16.0-21.5 



egg coils containing young in the veliger stage were observed 
on July 25. 

Collecting again in the Barnstable marshes on August 9, only 
a few specimens were seen, most of the Vaucheria sp. had disap- 
peared and only a few scattered patches were found. No tgg 
masses were seen. The marshes had been heavily and aerially 
sprayed at least twice, on July 17 and August 9, for greenhead 
flies, Tahanus sp., control with 0.2% malathion. This may or 
may not have influenced the presence or absence of E. chlorotica 
at the time of field observation in August. It is quite possible 
that the life cycle terminates naturally at about this time after 
.oviposition. 

Aeolidia papillosa (Linne) 

One adult specimen of Aeolidia papillosa (Linne) was found 
in the running seawater table of the Laboratory in October. It 
apparently had developed in the salt-water tanks located on the 
roof of the laboratory and had come down through the salt-water 
system. 

Cratena aurantiaca (Alder and Hancock) 

The following sequence of events outlines some of the activities 
of Cratena aurantiaca (Alder and Hancock) from March to July. 
Specimens were found on the hydroid, Parypha crocea, both 
when it was growing just below low tide on wharf pilings or 



Oct., 1964 NAUTILUS 39 

dredged at a depth of 60 feet in Vineyard Sound, southeast of 
Job's Neck, Naushon Island. Alder and Hancock^ report that 
the eggs are laid on the Northumberland coast in June and July. 
The first specimens taken by the author appeared to be carrying 
eggs on March 25 when the water temperature from which the 
8-10 mm. animals were taken was 4.0 °C. Adults were placed in 
jars with running sea-water in the laboratory and preferred to 
remain deep among the stalks of P. crocea where they might 
easily have been overlooked. They spend their time here, lay 
their white, kidney-shaped, 3mm.-long ^g'g masses here and 
emerged only when the water became foul or the hydroid died. 
They apparently feed on the hydroid, though this was not 
observed. 

Egg masses were first recorded on April 23 in the 16-celled 
stage. The young veligers showed signs of motion within the egg 
capsule on May 6, but did not hatch until May 22. The water 
temperature was 14.0°C. The hatching of the veligers continued 
through June 10 and the adults continued to lay eggs. The ob- 
servations were terminated by July 1 as no more egg masses were 
produced. The hydroid P. crocea and the specimens had died. 

Cratena concinna (Alder and Hancock) 
The first few 12-|- mm. specimens were observed on the hy- 
droid, Thuiaria argentea growing on stones under the bridge at 
Sengecontacket Pond, Martha's Vineyard, on January 15. No eggs 
were observed at this time. On April 9, eight 18 mm. specimens 
were dredged in 60 feet of water in Vineyard Sound southeast of 
Job's Neck, Naushon Island. They were laying irregular cream- 
white-pinkish egg coils and in some the veligers were active and 
approaching hatching. Eggs laid in a jar of running seawater at 
a temperature of 10.0°C. on April 16 were seen to be active and 
in the veliger stage two days later and to be hatching by the 22nd. 
Egg laying appears to take place during March and into May 
as the water warms from 4.0°C. — 14.0°C. Development to the 
veliger stage and their hatching takes place during this per- 
iod also. 

Emhletonia jiiscata fuscata Gould 
On June 17 two adult specimens of Embletonia fuscata fuscata 
Gould were observed in Wellfleet Harbor on the hydroid, 



1 Monograph of the British Nudibranchiate Mollusca, Family 3, 1851. 



40 NAUTILUS Vol. 78 (2) 

Obelia commisuralis. The water temperature was 18.8°C and the 
0.5- 1mm. rounded to kidney-shaped Qgg capsules were scattered 
along the stalks and branches of the hydroid. The young ap- 
peared to be in the veliger stage, nearing hatching. Eggs were 
visible through the body wall of the adults also. The observation 
of ova in July was reported in 1870 by A. A. Gould and W. J. 
Binney in Report on the Invertebrata of Massachusetts, p. 252. 

Tergipes despectus (Johnston) 

Adults, deposition of e^g masses and hatching of veligers of 
Tergipes despectus (Johnston) were observed on the hydroid, 
Laomedia loveni (Allman) growing on a wharf in the Eel Pond 
at Woods Hole. The animals 3-10.5 mm. in length were dis- 
covered with kidney-shaped t2,^ masses on March 19. The water 
temperature was 4.0° C and the nudibranchs were feeding on the 
hydroid by rasping a hole at the base of the hydrotheca and 
drawing the hydranth through it into the mouth — tentacles last. 

On March 29, the young laid on March 19 left their disinte- 
grating gelatinous egg capsule and swam freely in the sea-water. 
Egg laying continued from the middle of March until the end 
of May at which time the water temperature was 17.0°C and by 
June 3 only one adult was seen on the wharf and no eggs were 
found. The water temperature was then 21.0°C. 

In the laboratory, egg masses laid on April 18 and 25 hatched 
on May 2 and 6 respectively in a water temperature of about 
10.0°C, while in the Eel Pond ^^^ laying continued as the tem- 
perature changed from 4.0°-17°C over a period of 214 months. 

An examination of the wharf on July 10 showed that the Lao- 
media loveni (Allman) had disappeared, having reproduced 
during June. 

Coryphella pellucida (Alder and Hancock) 
On one of the running salt-water tables in the laboratory, sev- 
eral specimens of Coryphella pellucida (Alder and Hancock) 
were first observed on April 30. They ranged in size from 1.5 — 
15.0 mm., were feeding on the hydroid, Eudendrium sp. and on it 
an irregular, pinkish coil of eggs was laid. The water tempera- 
ture was 4.0°C. The young reached the veliger stage on May 6 
and hatched on May 13 when the water temperature was 6.0 °C. 
in their aquarium. Egg masses were deposited from May 1-10. 
The majority of veligers had hatched by the 15th and were dead 



Oct., 1964 NAUTILUS 41 

by the 24th, probably due to starvation and/or being caught in 
the surface film. 

Idiilia coronata (Gmelin) 

Two adult Idiilia coronata (Gmelin) were found on the hy- 
droid, Obelia commisuralis on May 6 in water of 8.5°C. The hy- 
droid was growing on wharf timbers in the Eel Pond at Woods 
Hole. No Qgg masses were observed at this time. On June 14, 
several adults depositing eggs were found on Obelia sp. growing 
on the south breakwater at the eastern end of the Cape Cod 
Canal. The water temperature was 4.4°C. Three days later a 
young, 1 mm., specimen was located on the hydroids and the 
t^g masses contained active veligers that appeared near the 
hatching stage. 

Dendronotus frondosus (Ascanius) 

A 25 mm. specimen of Dendronotus frondosus (Ascanius) was 
found on a wharf timber in the Eel Pond on April 16 in water 
whose temperature was 10.0°C. No egg masses were observed. 
Onchidoris fusca (Muller) 

An adult Onchidoris fusca (Muller) about 25 mm. long was 
observed feeding on the barnacle, Balanus balanoides, in a labor- 
atory running sea-water table on May 13. A coil of eggs was laid 
on May 27 and active veligers were found on it. By June 3 many 
had hatched into the 16.0°C water and on the following day 
"rafts" of dead and dying veligers were found caught in the sur- 
face film. 

The two largest specimens measuring 37 x 25 mm. and 31 x 18 
mm. had died by June 27, but two smaller ones 25 x 18 mm. and 
18 X 12 mm. were alive and appeared to be breeding in the 
21.5°C water. 

Onchidoris aspera (Alder and Hancock) 

Several specimens were found August 9 on the seaweed, Chon- 
drus crispiis, growing on the south breakwater at the eastern end 
of the Cape Cod Canal. They ranged in length from 2 — 3 mm. 
and were in water at 16.5°C. 

Table 1 contains many blank or incompletely recorded spaces, 
showing the aitical need for further collecting, species study, 
both in the laboratory and its comparison with individuals in 
the field, and the compilation of the resulting data to point the 
way for future research. 

The overlapping dates and variety of water temperatures may 



42 NAUTILUS Vol. 78 (2) 

appear to be troublesome in pin-pointing or comparing species 
activity. This apparent discrepancy may be explained by the 
facts that species were collected or studied in water temperatures 
observed at as widely different localities as the Cape Cod Canal, 
Wellfleet, Woods Hole or Martha's Vineyard and that species 
often already were engaged actively in egg-laying, for example, 
when discoveied in the field. 

Bibliography 

1. Alder, J. and A. Hancock, 1845-51. British nudibranchiate 
Mollusca, pts 1-8 with Supplement by Sir Charles Eliot. 

2. Gould, A. A. and W. G. Binney, 1870. Report of the Inverte- 
brata of Masachusetts, pp. 225-258, text figs. 516-521, pis. 16-22. 

3. Johnson, C. W. 1934. List of the marine Mollusca of the At- 
lantic coast from Labrador to Texas. Proc. Boston Soc. of Nat. 
Hist. 40, No. 1, pp. 1-204. 

REACTIONS OF HOSTS TO PROBOSCIS PENETRATION 
BY ODOSTOMIA SEMINUDA (PYRAMIDELLIDAE) 

By ARTHUR S. MERRILLi and KENNETH J. BOSS2 

Ectoparasitic pyramidellids occur on a wide variety of hosts 
(see Robertson and Orr, 1961, for review of the literature) . Also 
documented is the fact that prolonged parasitization by pyrami- 
dellids may interfere with the normal development and growth 
of the host (Cole and Hancock, 1955; Loosanoff, 1956) . The im- 
mediate reactions of hosts to the stimulus of proboscis penetra- 
tion by ectoparasites are less well known. One of the purposes of 
this paper is to describe and illustrate these reactions. 

The work of Cole and Hancock (1955) indicated that in the 
European oyster, Ostrea edulis Linnaeus, and in the common 
edible mussel, Mytilus edulis Linnaeus, mantle tissues are sub- 
ject to considerable irritation by the penetration of the probos- 
cides of parasitic gastropods. Constant irritation causes the with- 
drawal of the affected portions of the mantle and allows the ecto- 
parasites to enter and live within the shell cavity of the host. 
The host often reacts by depositing a barrier of shell material, 
this resulting in local internal shell malformation. Cole and Han- 
cock suggested that the oysters suffered a varying "loss of condi- 



1 Bureau of Commercial Fisheries Biological Laboratory, Woods Hole, Massa 
chusetts. 

2 Bureau of Commercial Fisheries Ichthyological Laboratory, U. S. National 
Museum, Washington, D. C . 



Oct., 1964 NAUTILUS 43 

tion" and even death, depending upon the severity of attack. In 
general, Loosanoff (1956) reported similar effects in the Ameri- 
can oyster, Crassostrea virginica (Gmelin) . He further noted 
that the oyster soon becomes accustomed to prolonged localized 
parasitization and fails to close its valves even when under severe 
attack by several parasites at the same time. 

Observations of actual proboscis penetration by Odostomia 
impressa (Say) have been made on Crassostrea virginica from 
which one valve had been removed (Allen, 1958; Wells, 1959) . 
We employed this method using the ectoparasite, Odostomia bi- 
suturalis (Say) , in an attempt to observe the reactions of C. 
virginica to penetration. We were able to note clearly the long, 
thin, semi-transparent proboscis of O. bisuturalis extending to 
the somewhat retracted mantle of the oyster and to see the suck- 
ing and pumping action of the proboscis. However, we failed 
to detect any muscular reaction by the bivalve hosts when they 
were pierced. This we attributed to the probability that the oy- 
sters would not react normally after recently sustaining the shock 
of removal of one of their valves. 

In order to make observations on the immediate reaction of 
normal hosts to proboscis penetration, it was necessary to find 
host animals that could be observed uninjured. The sessile gas- 
tropods, Crepidula fornicata (Linnaeus) , C. plana Say, and 
Criicibulum striatum Say were selected because the external mor- 
phological features of the animals could be observed in situ 
without direct or tactile interference by the investigators. The 
host animals were allowed to adhere to glass plates and the 
Odostomia seminiida (C. B. Adams) (Plate 4, fig. 1.) were intro- 
duced among them. The entire procedure was done under water 
in glass aquaria. With the glass plate set on edge, both dorsal 
and ventral views of the host animals were easily obtained. 

Our observations show that in most cases the proboscis of 
Odostomia seminuda penetrated the mantle of the host (Plate 
5, fig. 1) , although infrequently the proboscis would extend be- 
yond to pierce the visceral mass (Plate 4, fig. 2) . In either case 
proboscis penetration elicited from the host an immediate mus- 
cular response. Plate 4, fig. 2 pictures the withdrawal reaction 
exhibited by C. fornicata when it was being parasitized. Figure 
3, in Plate 4 taken 2 two minutes after fig. 2, illustrates the 
gradual subsidence of the withdrawal reaction of the host after 



44 NAUTILUS Vol. 78 (2) 

the removal of the proboscis. 

Cole and Hancock (1955), Allen (1958), and Robertson and 
Orr (1961), reported the gathering of ectoparasites around a 
single host. This was noted often during this study when hosts 
and parasites were placed randomly on glass plates. Plate 5, fig. 1 
shows the dorsal and fig. 2 the ventral view of the same animal, 
Crucihulum striatum Say, with the concentration of Odostomia 
seminiLda at the shell edge. The mantle of the Crucihulum is 
withdrawn in one area where the vague outline of a proboscis 
can be seen penetrating into it. These two species would not be 
found together in the natural environment since they are bathy- 
metrically isolated; Crucihulum striatum is found in deeper wa- 
ter. Those used in this study were dredged during "Albatross IV" 
cruise 63-3, station 52, Great South Channel, near Nantucket 
Shoals, off Massachusetts (N. Lat. 40°37'; W. Long. 69°080 , in 
37 fathoms. On the other hand, O. seminuda were collected in 
shallow water, 2-4 feet deep, near the mouth of the Bass River, 
West Dennis, Cape Cod, Massachusetts. Under laboratory condi- 
tions the two species form this strong association, which is herein 
reported for the first time. 

Odostomia seminuda usually move about rather freely among 
a clump of Crepidula jornicata, but at times they aggregate 
around a single specimen. When observed in the field, most of 
the ectoparasites were near, or at the edge of the host's shell. 
Examination under a dissecting microscope showed the proboscis 
of Odostomia extending underneath C. fornicata in the manner 
described and figured by Robertson (1957) . We often observed 
O. seminuda at the margin of the host but close examination 
showed that they were not always feeding. The peripheral in- 
teriors of sevei'al dozen shells of C. fornicata were inspected 
without finding any indication of shell malformation due to 
excessive parasitization of one area of the mantle. Since C. forni- 
cata clamps its shell against the substrate as a reaction to the 
parasitization and since O. seminuda thereupon instantly with- 
draws its proboscis, there is little opportunity for extensive 
irritation. 

We concur with Robertson (1957) that Odostomia seminuda 
feeds on Crepidula fornicata for only short periods at a time. A 
similar situation prevails in the small gastropods Hydrohia and 
Rissoa which are parasitized by Odostomia scalaris MacGillivray 



NAUTILUS 78 (2) 



PLATE 4 




Fig. 1. Odostoniia seminuda (C. B. Adams) (actual length 3.7 mm). 
Fig. 2. Ventral view of Crepidula foruicata Linnaeus with associated parasites, 
Odostomia seminuda. Proboscis penetration into the visceral mass is evident. 
Note contracted muscles in the area of penetration (length of Cupidula 
30 mm). Fig. 3. Ventral view of Crepidula foruicata (photograph taken 2 
minutes after the one in fig. 2) . Crepidula has clamped tightly to the glass 
plate causing Odostomia to withdraw its proboscis. Muscles are less con- 
tracted, especially in the mantle. 



NAUTILUS 78 (2) 



PLATE 5 




Fig. 2 



Fig. 1. Dorsal view of Crucibulum striatum Say with a concentration of 
Odostomia seminuda C. B. Adams along the shell edge (length of Crucibulum 
35 mm). Fig. 2. Ventral view of same animal of Crucibulum striatum showing 
the withdrawal reaction of the mantle. Note the vague outline of a proboscis 
(arrow) penetrating the mantle at its point of greatest withdrawal. 



Oct., 1964 NAUTILUS 45 

(^ rissoides Hanley) . According to Ankel and Christensen 

(1963) , these hosts seldom allow the parasites to feed for periods 

of more than a few seconds before they retract into their shells. 

The persistence of the parasites enables them to be successful in 

their attacks on Crepidula, Crucihulum, Hydrohia, and Rissoa. 

References cited 

Allen, J. F. 1958. Feeding habits of two species of Odostomia. 
Nautilus 72: 11-15. 

Ankel, F. and A. M. Christensen. 1963. Non-specificity in host 
selection by Odostomia scalaris MacGillivray. Vidensk. Medd. 
fra Dansk naturh. Foren. 12^. 321-325. 

Cole, H. A. 1951. An Odostomia attacking oysters Nature 168: 
953-954. 

Cole, H. A. and D. A. Hancock. 1955. Odostomia as a pest of 
oysters and mussels. J. Mar. biol. Ass. U. K. 34: 25-31. 

Loosanoff, V. L. 1956. Two obscure oyster enemies in New Eng- 
land waters. Science 123: 1119-1120. 

Robertson, R. 1957. Gastropod host of an Odostomia. Nautilus 
70: 96-97. 

Robertson, R. and V. Orr. 1961. Review of pyramidellid hosts, 
with notes on an Odostomia parasitic on a chiton. Nautilus 
74: 85-91. 

Wells, H, W. 1959. Notes on Odostomia impressa (Say) . Nauti- 
lus 72: 140-144. 



NOTES ON SPHAERIID NAMES 

By H. BURRINGTON BAKER 

Recently, using H. B. Herrington's very helpful monograph 
(1962) and the typewritten slips, which I think represent his 
careful identifications, the Sphaeriidae in the Academy of Na- 
tural Sciences of Philadelphia have been rearranged and labeled. 
The following notes on nomenclature may be of interest to 
others. 
Sphaeriidae, 1820. 

Acording to article 40 (b) of the 1961 "code," the generally 
accepted, familial name Sphaeriidae dates from Cyclad-ia Rafin- 
esque (1820). However, Pisidi-adae Gray in Turton (1857) is 
apparently prior to any use of Sphaeriidae as such. [Bourguignat, 
1883, employed Sphaeridae, and Dall, 1895, Sphaeriidae.] For the 
same reason, the superfamily Sphaerioidea also is dated from 
1820, and thus is prior to Corbiculidae, which would go back to 
Cyrenidae Gray, 1840 [Corbicul-adae Gray, 1847]. [Vernaculars 
(outlawed by article 11, b) have not been checked.] 



46 NAUTILUS Vol. 78 (2) 

Sphaerium simile, 1816. 

Herrington (1950) in his discussion of Cyclas sunilis Say 
(1816) seems to have been a bit confused. In bivalves, Say, like 
many of his contemporaries, for example Isaac Lea, used 
"breadth" to mean what we now call length, and employed 
"length" for what we term height. They used diameter much as 
we do. This means that the missing type of similis, as Say meas- 
ured it, was about 10.2 mm. long and 8.9 mm. in height (87% of 
length) .^ However, Say's figure is more elongate; I make it about 
11.4 X 8.4 mm., so that its height appears to be only 74% of its 
length, which brackets the usual proportions of this species, de- 
scribed from the Delaware River. Furthermore, Say indicated 
that one of his shells measured nearly 15.2 mm. in height, which, 
using the same proportion as his dimensions, means at least one 
valve about 17 mm. in length, or, applying the shape of his fig- 
ure, one about 20 mm. long.^ 

Partly for these reasons, I agree with F. C. Baker (1898) that 
Sphaerium simile (Say) is the prior name of what Herrington 
(1962: 28) called S. sulcatum (Lamarck) . Incidentally, 5. simile 
is not a "nomen oblitum." 
Sphaerium occidentale, 1856. 

Following Prime in subsequent works, 5. occidentale usually 
is dated from him (1860) . However, at that place, he also cited 
Cyclas occidenalis "Pr." Lewis (1855 & 1856). Actually in 1855, 
the name was nude, but in 1856, Lewis vested it with the indica- 
tion: "20. C. occidentalis, Prime (ovalis Pr., formerly) ." Since to 
call this well known "Musculium," a "nomen oblitum" would be 
quibbling, it apparently should be cited as Sphaerium occidentale 
(Lewis) or more completely ("Prime" Lewis, 1856). 
Sphaerium fabale, 1851. 

The type specimen of Cyclas edentula Say (1829) is this spe- 
cies, but apparently that prior name, which was considered a 
synonym of S. striatinum, is now a "nomen oblitum." 

References 
Baker, Frank Collins. 1898. The Mollusca of the Chicago area. 
Bui. Chicago Acad. Sci. no. 3: 116. 

1 A shell of these dimensions may not be "juvenile." Foster (1932) proved that 
a Sphaerhun of the same group (Arnesoda Raf.) becomes sexually mature 

before it attains half the maximum size of its sterile senility. Apparently 
growth is continuous until death. 

2 It might have died of old age, and been too eroded for description. 



Oct., 1964 NAUTILUS 47 

Foster, Thuial Dale. 1932. J. of Morphology 53: 490. [On S. soli- 

dulum, identified by Sterki.] 
Herrington, H. B. 1950, Naut. 63: 117-118. 
1962, A revision of the Sphaeriidae of North America (Mol- 

lusca: Pelecypoda) . Misc. Publ. Mus. Zoo. Univ. Mich. no. 118. 
Lewis, James. 1855. Proc. Boston Soc. Nat. Hist. 5: 122. 

1856. Proc. cit, ^; 2. 

Prime, Temple. 1860. Proc. Acad. Nat. Sci. Philadelphia 12: 295. 
Rafinesque, M. C. S. 1820. Ann. Gen. Sci. Phys. Bruxelles 5 (13) : 

318. 
Say, Thomas. 1816. Nicholson's Encyclopedia. American Edition 

(first) 4: pi. 1, fig. 9. [Not paginate; only photostat seen.] 

1829. New Harmony Diss. 2: 356. 

Turton, William, 1857. Manual of the land and fresh-water shells 
of the British Islands. New edition, with additions by John 
Edward Gray. Pages xvi & 263. 

LITTER SIZE IN THE SPHAERIIDAE 

By WILLIAM H. HEARD 

Florida State University, Tallahassee 

Ovoviviparity is a familiar character of sphaeriid clams, and 
the comparative differences in the number of embryos contained 
in a single developing litter have been used in support of Mus- 
culium Link as a valid genus apart from Sphaerium Scopoli. 
Gilmore (1917) found that the majority of gravid Sphaerium 
simile (znS. sulcatum) contained 2 embryos while a few sup- 
ported 4, and Foster (1932) reported 2 to 4 embryos for S. soli- 
dulum (= S. striatinum) . Gilmore (1917) also listed up to 16 
embryos per litter in Musculium truncatum (=M . partumeium) , 
and Van Cleave, Wright and Nixon (1947) reported 8-18 em- 
bryos, and Ihomas (1959) recorded up to 21 for the same 
species. 

While it is generally conceded that Sphaerium. has a smaller 
litter size than Musculium, little information has been available 
concerning the numbers of young produced by species in the 
other sphaeriid genera. 

On June 3, 1962, I made a collection of 144 pisidia from Ore 
Creek at U.S. Hwy. 23 near Hartland Road, Livingston County. 
Michigan, Each individual was isolated in the field in the method 
developed by Dr. F. E. Eggleton of the University of Michigan: 
a single living clam was placed in a 14-ounce screw-capped bottle 
filled with pond water The collection was then left until the 







NO. 


NO. 


NO. 


NO. 


EMBRYOS 


EMBRYOS 


EXAMINED 


GRAVID 


(RANGE) 


(AVERAGE) 


15 


15 


10-66 


25.47 


106 


102 


0-53 


15.00 


23 


23 


11-49 


22.23 



48 NAUTILUS Vol. 78 (2) 

body tissues had decayed, leaving intact the shells of the adult 
and any post-dissoconch embryos present in that individual of 
that species. The data from this collection are summarized below. 



IDENTIFICATION 

Pisidium adamsi 
P. casertanum 
P. co7npressum 

Seven of 8 specimens of P. variahile collected on June 3, 1961, 
from Fleming Creek at Cherry Hill Road, Washtenaw County, 
Michigan, were gravid. Litter size ranged from 12 to 34, and the 
average was 27.8. 

Dried museum specimens (University of Michigan Museum of 
Zoology No. 65282) of Eupera cubensis collected on April 23, 
1935, from the Pasion River at Sayaxche, Dept. Peten, Guata- 
mala, were immersed in a saturated solution of tribasic sodium 
phosphate for several days. This treatment essentially rehydrated 
the dried tissues still adhering to the interior of the valves, al- 
lowing one easily to dissect out any shelled embryos present. 
Litter sizes of 31, 25, and 35 were observed among 7 specimens 
examined. 

A preserved collection (September 8, 1952) of Eupera platen- 
sis Doello-Jurado from Lagunas del Arroyo Malabrigo, 5 km. N. 
of Romang, Sante Fe, Argentina, was recently given to me by 
Dr. J. J. Parodiz of the Carnegie Museum. Gross dissection of 
nine animals revealed litter sizes of 37, 66, 56, 30, 45 and 22 in 
the six individuals that were gravid. 

It is apparent that high rather than low litter sizes are to be 
expected in Pisidium C. Pfeiffer and Eupera Bourguignat as well 
as in Musculium Link. There is unfortunately no information 
at present concerning the reproductive habits of Pseudocorbicula 
Dautzenburg and Byssanodonta Orbigny. The evolutionary sig- 
nificance of different litter sizes and of different numbers of litters 
produced in Pisidium will be the subject of a more detailed 
future report. 

Literature cited 

Foster, T. D. 1932. Observations on the life history of a finger- 
nail shell of the genus Sphaerium. J. Morphol. 55; 473-497. 

Gilmore, R. J. 1917. Notes on reproduction and growth in cer- 
tain viviparous mussels of the family Sphaeriidae. Nautilus 



Oct., 1964 NAUTILUS 49 

31: 16-30. 

Thomas, G. J. 1959. Self- Fertilization and production of young in 
a sphaeriid clam. Nautilus 72: 131-140. 

Van Cleave, H. J., A. G. Wright, and C. W. Nixon. 1947, Pre- 
liminary observations on reproduction in the molluscan genus 
Musculium. Nautilus 61: 6-11. 



REPRODUCTION OF NASSARIUS TRIVITTATUS 
OFF THE COAST OF GEORGIA 

By RUDOLF S. SCHELTEMA* 
Woods Hole Oceanographic Institution, Woods Hole, Massachusetts 

Recently evidence for the reproduction of Nassarins trivittatus 
Say off the southern coast of Georgia was obtained when on 
April 2, 1964, its t^^ capsules were collected on the outer beach 
of Jekyll Island. The specimens were attached to the horny 
axial skeleton of a gorgonian coral. No eggs or embryos wei'e 
contained in the capsules indicating that reproduction off the 
Georgia coast had probably been going on for some time, possi- 
bly since early March. The average length of the egg capsules 
was between 1.5 and 2.0 mm. and hence they probably were laid 
by a small individual. The e^^ capsules of N. trivittatus are to be 
distinguished from those of Nassnrius ohsoletus, the intertidal 
form, by several characters already described in a previous paper 
(Scheltema and Scheltema 1964, in press) . 

The southernmost distribution of the New England basket- 
shell, N. trivittatus is uncertain because of the lack of off-shore 
dredge samples. Abbott (1954) considers the species to extend 
from Nova Scotia to South Carolina whereas Bousfield (1960) 
more recently has indicated a range from Gaspe Bay, Quebec 
and western Newfoundland to Florida. The southernmost speci- 
mens represented in the collection of the Museum of Compara- 
tive Zoology, Harvard University, which appear to have been 
collected alive are those from off the coast of South Carolina, 
although there are several records of shells picked up along the 
shoreline as far south as Key West. The recovery of egg capsules 
in Georgia gives evidence for the occurrence of a reproducing 
population of N. trivittatus at that latitude (ca. 31 °N.) and is 
of especial interest because of the apparent uncertainty of the 
southern limit of this species. 



Contribution No. 1496 Woods Hole Oceanographic Institution. 



50 NAUTILUS Vol. 78 (2) 

References 

Abbott, R. T. 1954. American Seashells. Van Nostrand and Co., 

New York, xiv, 541 pp. 
Bousfield, E. L. 1960. Canadian Atlantic Sea Shells. Nat. Mus. 

Canada (Dept. North. Affairs and Nat. Resources) v, 72 pp. 
Scheltema, R. S. and A. H. Scheltema. 1964. Pelagic larvae of 

New England intertidal gastropods. Ill Nassarius trivittatus. 

Hydrobiologia (in press) . 



THE LAND MOLLUSKS OF SIESTA KEY, 
SARASOTA COUNTY, FLORIDA 

By LANDON T. ROSS 

Department of Geology, Florida State University, Tallahassee 

The land mollusks of Siesta Key are of considerable interest. 
Any survey of the land snails on the mainland in this region will 
reveal a much smaller number of species living there than on ad- 
jacent islands. This is explained by the fact that many of the 
species involved are found living only near shore lines. Most of 
the islands along the west coast of Florida w^ere formed in Qua- 
ternary time by the depression of an earlier shore line or, possi- 
bly, by a rise in sea level and many of the snails then living 
along the shore line were trapped on the newly formed islands. 
Most of these species have not, as yet, succeeded in spreading 
to the mainland. 

Siesta Key is a small island forming the southwestern boundary 
of Sarasota Bay on the west coast of Florida. It is approximately 
7.3 miles long with a maximum width of about 1.4 miles at the 
northern end. The soil is usually white quartz sand, often only a 
few feet thick and overlying unconsolidated coquina rock. There 
are some areas of uncleared vegetation which consist mainly of 
cabbage palm (Sabal palmetto) , saw palmetto (Serenoa repens) , 
and live oak {Quercus virginiana) . The beaches along the Gulf 
of Mexico commonly have a sand ridge behind them with a char- 
acteristic vegetation composed primarily of sea oats {Uniola 
paniculata) . The bay front is usually a mangrove swamp (Rhizo- 
phora) . Numerous brackish water, drainage canals and fresh 
water ponds are present on the island. 

The land snails of Siesta Key may be roughly divided into 3 
groups: those found over the entire island, those restricted to 
areas inhabited by man, and those restricted to the margins of 



Oct., 1964 NAUTILUS 51 

the bay and the brackish water canals. In the accompanying list, 
these groups are indicated by the numbers 1, 2 and 3, respec- 
tively. A few snails are distributed over most of the island but are 
most common along the bay front. These are indicated by the 
number 4. One species (5) was found only in dune vegetation on 
the south tip of the Key. The greatest numbers of individuals 
and of species were found just outside of the most landward ex- 
tensions of the mangrove swamps. Of the 3 species of snails re- 
stricted to inhabited areas, two are introduced and the third, the 
slug Veronicella floridana (Leidy) , seems to prefer a diet of cul- 
tivated plants according to local residents. 

The following list details all the species of land mollusks that 
were found on Siesta Key. The numbers indicate the habitat as 
previously discussed and the letters indicate the relative abun- 
dance of each species (V = very common, C = common, O == 
occasional, and R == rare) . 



1 C Euglandina rosea (Ferussac) 

3 C Gastrocopta contracta form peninsularis Pilsbry 

3 V G. pellucida hordeacella (Pilsbry) 

3 C G. pentodon (Say) 

3 V G. rupicola (Say) 

3 O Guppya gundlachi (Pfeiffer) 

4 C Hawaiia minuscula (Binney) 

3 O Helicina (Oligyra) orbiculata (Say) 

3 R Microceramus fioridanus (Pilsbry) 

2 O Opeas pumilum (Pfeiffer) 

1 V Polygyra cereolus (Miihlfeld) , including form 
carpenteriana (Bland) 

3 C P. pustula (Ferussac) 

1 O P. uvulifera (Shuttleworth) 

1 V P. uvulifera striata (Pilsbry) 
3 R Praticolella jejuna (Say) 

3 O Pupoides modicus (Gould) 

3 O Reiinella dalliana ("Simpson" Pilsbry) 

A O R. indentata paucilirntn (Morelet) 

3 O Strobilops texasiana floridana (Pilsbry) 

2 C Subulina octona (Bruguiere) 

5 O Succinea luteola floridana (Pilsbry) 

3 C Thysanophora plagioptycha (Shuttleworth) 

3 C Truncatella bilabiata (Pfeiffer) 
2 O Veronicella floridana (Leidy) 

4 C Zonitoides arboreus (Say) 



52 NAUTILUS Vol. 78 (2) 

During this study, 20 stations in various localities and habitats 
were examined. Eight of these yielded only the most common 
land snails (symbol V in the list) . At one station, no snails were 
found. With the exception of this single station, Polygyra cere- 
olus was invariably present and apparently is the most common 
snail in this area. 

I would like to thank Dr. William H. Heard of Florida State 
University for his valuable aid in the preparation of manuscript 
of this paper and also Dr. Joseph Vagvolgyi of the Florida State 
Museum for his kind assistance in the identification of several of 
the above species. 

THE GENUS AMIMOPINA IREDALE, 1933 

By DONALD F. McMICHAEL 
Curator of Mollusca, The Australian Museum, Sydney 

In a recent paper, Solem (1964) has given an invaluable ac- 
count of the anatomy of the Australian land snail, Amimopina 
macleayi (Brazier) which clearly demonstrates that it is a mem- 
ber of the family Enidae. 

In dealing with the nomenclature of the species, Solem dis- 
cusses at length the generic name which has been used for it, 
Amimopina, and puts forward the case that, although the name 
was first proposed by Iredale (1933) and has been subsequently 
used in lists by a number of workers, it was not properly intro- 
duced by Iredale in 1933, according to the international code of 
zoological nomenclature, and therefore should be regarded as a 
nomen nudum,. As a consequence of this, Solem introduced the 
genus as new in his paper. 

While I agree with Solem that many Iredalean names are in- 
adequately proposed according to the international code and 
possibly some of them will have to be regarded as nomina nuda, 
and while I deplore the generally vague manner in which many 
of these names were introduced, I feel that it is unfortunate that 
Solem should have chosen the name Amimopina for an example, 
especially as the facts are not quite as set out in his paper. 

Solem states: "After mentioning a referral of Bulimus macleayi 

to Papuina (Camaenidae) that he considered incorrect, Iredale 

(1933, p. 42) states It may be noted that Kobelt (Conch. Cab., 

ed. Kuster (sic), Bd. i, Abth. 13, ante Sept., 1901) refen-ed the 

species macleayi to Bothriemhryon (Bulimulidae) , a worse selec- 



Oct., 1964 NAUTILUS 58 

tion than Papuina, so that the new generic name Amimopina is 
proposed, the Australian B. {ulimus) beddomei Brazier being 
the type.' Iredale did not (i) have 'a statement that purports to 
give characters differentiating the taxon,' (ii) give 'a definite 
bibliographic reference to such a statement,' and (iii) no generic 
name had ever been proposed for Bulimus beddomei, so he was 
not proposing a substitute name." 

However, if reference is made to Iredale (1933, p. 42) we find 
that the full text reads as follows: 

". . . the generic name Rachispeculum is introduced, the type 
being Bulimus bidwilli Cox, that specific name now being re- 
vived. The species bears so little resemblance to typical Papuina 
that it need scarcely be differentiated, but it may be noted that it 
is more elongate, with an entirely different mouth and quite 
rounded whorls. Almost as f>eculiar a reference to Papuina is the 
very thin, unicolor brown shell with rounded whorls like the 
preceding, which was described from Yule Island, New Guinea, 
as Bulimus macleayi by Brazier (Proc. Linn. Soc. N.S.W., i, 
1876, p. 108) who reported it as being found in the dry season in 
crevices of coral rock. According to all other collectors, Papuina 
is essentially a tree-living group, a feature stressed by Hedley in 
connection with P. folicola above noted. Brazier later named an 
Australian shell B. beddomei, (Proc. Linn. Soc. N.S.W., i, 1876, 
p. 127, nom. nud.; iv, 1880, p. 394, May: Torres St.) but soon 
discarded it as equivalent to the New Guinea macleayi. There 
are differences however, and a third form lives near Port Essing- 
ton." Then follows the paragraph quoted by Solem. 

Now the above is very much more than "mention of a referral 
of Bulimus macleayi to Papuina that he considered incorrect." In 
fact the characters of the type species are described in a compara- 
tive manner with those of "typical Papuina" which is previously 
defined by reference to its type species and literature dealing 
with the gioup, and even ecological contrasts are drawn. Iredale 
might well have written: 

Amimopina gen. nov. Type species: Bulimus macleayi Brazier. 
Diagnosis: Differs from typical Papuina Martens, 1860 (type 
species: lituus Lesson) in that the shells are very thin, unicolor 
brown, with rounded whorls (like those of Bulimus bidwilli 
Cox) . The type species, from Yule Island, New Guinea, lives in 
coral rock crevices during the dry season (fide Brazier) and 



54 NAUTILUS Vol. 78 (2) 

therefore differs from Papuina sA. which is arboreal. The genus 
includes two species, B. macleayi, and B. beddomei (from Torres 
Straits) , while a third undescribed species lives at Port Essing- 
ton." Such a presentation no doubt would have been perfectly 
acceptable. The fact that Iredale did not set out the new genus in 
the above manner is beside the point. All the pertinent informa- 
tion is given, and in my opinion, there can be no doubt that the 
new generic name was "accompanied by a statement that pur- 
ports to give characters differentiating the taxon" and thus is 
available and validly introduced. 

I shall, therefore, continue to regard Iredale as the author of 
the genus Amimopina, and of any other names introduced with 
similar detail. 

References 
Iredale, T. 1933. Systematic notes on Australian land snails. Rec. 

Aust. Mus. 19: 37-59. 
Solem, A. 1964. Amimopina, An Australian enid land snail. 

Veliger 6: 115-120. 

LYMNAEA (PSEUDOSUCCINEA) COLUMELLA FROM 

VENEZUELA, AND NOTES ON DISTRIBUTION 

OF PSEUDOSUCCINEA 

By EMILE a. MALEKi and P. CHROSCIECHOWSKI2 

In a study of the lymnaeid snails of the Gulf States and regions 
southward, collections were made in the southern United States, 
and in Venezuela; one collection was received from Costa Rica 
and others had been examined at the Museum of Zoology, Uni- 
versity of Michigan. The lymnaeid collected in Venezuela was 
identified as Lymnaea (Pseudosuccined) columella Say. A species 
of the subgenus Pseudosuccinea has not previously been reported 
from northern South America. The only other lymnaeid previ- 
ously known to occur in Venezuela is the amphibious Lymnaea 
(Fossaria) cubensis Pfeiffer, 1839, whose type locality is Cuba, 
and whose general distribution can be described as the area along 
the Gulf of Mexico, and the Caribbean. 

The snails from Venezuela were half-grown juveniles, living in 



1 Department of Tropical Medicine and Public Health, Tulane Medical 
School, New Orleans. The study was supported by National Institutes of 
Health Grants AI-02898 and 5-K6-AI-18. 

2 Division of Ancylostomiasis and other Helminths, Maracay, Aragua, Vene- 
zuela. 



Oct., 1964 NAUTILUS 65 

an aqueduct near Maracay, State of Aragua, attached to the con- 
crete lining at the water surface and to floating sticks and debris. 
The mantle was heavily pigmented, but in the laboratory most of 
the pigmentation was lost and the progeny were only lightly pig- 
mented. The morphology of the shell and body of these speci- 
mens agree in the main with that of those collected elsewhere in 
North and Central America. 

The shell, with a characteristic short spire and large body 
whorl, is thin, horn color, and shiny on the surface; the axial 
sculpture is coarse and the spiral sculpture fine and microscopic. 
The large, ovate aperture is expanded at its lower portion. The 
vergic sac is narrower than the preputium and about half its 
length. A sarcobelum is present on the preputium. The uterus is 
globular, the vagina short, the prostate cylindrical and narrow. 
In the radula, the central tooth is unicuspid, the laterals, tri- 
cuspid. 

The type locality of Lymnaea {Pseudosuccinea) columella Say, 
1817 is probably near Philadelphia, U.S.A. According to Baker 

(1928) , its general distribution extends over the eastern and mid- 
western states, ranging from Nova Scotia westward to Minnesota, 
Kansas and Texas, and from Manitoba and Quebec southward to 
Texas, Louisiana, Mississippi and Florida. Synonymous species 
described from within this range are Lymnaea columella Say, 
1817; Pseudosuccinea columella Baker, 1911; Limnaea navicula 
Valenciennes, 1833; Lymnaea columellaris C. B. Adams, 1839; 
Lymnaeus macrostomum C. B. Adams, 1842; Lim,naea acuminata 
C. B. Adams, 1870. 

There are also records of this subgenus from Mexico and Cuba 

(Aguayo, 1938) . Apparently the snail has been introduced into 
California (Gregg, 1923), Oregon (Vanatta, 1915) and Europe 

(Hubendick, 1951) . Van der Schalie (1948) believes that it has 
been introduced into Puerto Rico where he recorded it as being 
fairly common in San Anton Creek, about 6 kilometers east of 
Rio Piedras, and abundant in small streams near the University 
campus (at Rio Piedras) . Ferguson and Richards (1963) also 
record it as common in Puerto Rico. 

In South America, information about lymnaeid snails is on the 
whole scanty. Lymnaea peregrina Clessin, 1882, whose type local- 
ity is Taguara del Mundo Novo, Brazil, has been found to have 
shell and body characteristics identical with those of L. (Pseudo- 



56 NAUTILUS Vol. 78 (2) 

succinea) columella Say, 1817 (Meeuse and Hubert, 1949; 
Hubendick, 1951) . Shells of L. peregrina and those of L. (Pseu- 
dosuccinea) columella from Louisiana, Mississippi, and Michi- 
gan were examined in this study and found to be identical, 
taking into consideration the individual variations usually en- 
countered within populations. According to Hubendick (1951), 
the distribution of Lymnaea (Pseudosuccinea) columella (syn. 
L. peregrina) in South America is as follows: Villarica in Para- 
guay, Rio Chico in southern Argentina (identified as L. andeana 
Pilsbry) , and Rio Camaguam in Rio Grande do Sul, Brazil. 
There have been no previous records from Venezuela, or from 
the central and northern parts of Brazil or from the Guianas. 
Shells collected from Moravia de Chirripo Turrialba in Costa 
Rica by Dr. Rodrigo Brenes, University of Costa Rica, were 
identified as L. (Pseudosuccinea) columella Say. This snail has 
also been reported from Honduras (Hubendick, 1951) and 
Nicaragua (Van der Schalie, 1948) . 

On the basis of present information, the general distribution 
of this snail can be described as the area along the Gulf of 
Mexico, the Caribbean, and South America as far south as 
Paraguay. 

References 

Aguayo, C. G. 1938, Los molluscos fluviatiles cubanos. Parte I. 

Generalidades. Parte IL Sistematica. Mem. Soc. Cubana Hist. 

Nat. 12: 203-242; 253-276. 
Baker, F. C. 1928. The freshwater Mollusca of Wisconsin. Part I. 

Gastropoda. Wise. Acad. Sci., Arts 8c Letters, Monograph. 
Ferguson, F. F. and Richards, C. S. 1963. Fresh water molluscs of 

Puerto Rico and the U. S. Virgin Islands. Trans. Amer. Micros. 

Soc. S2: 391-395. 
Gregg, W. O. 1923. Introduced species of Lymnaea in southern 

California. Nautilus 37: 34. 
Hubendick, B. 1951. Recent Lymnaeidae. Their variation, mor- 
phology, taxonomy, nomenclature, and distribution. Kungl. 

Svenska Vetenskapsakademiens Handlingar Fjarde Serien. 

Band 3, No. 1. 
Meeuse, A. D. J. and Hubert, B. 1949. The mollusc fauna of glass 

houses in the Netherlands. Basteria 13: 1. 
Vanatta, E. G. 1915. Lymnaea (Pseudosuccinea) columella Say 

in Oregon. Nautilus 29: 60. 
Van der Schalie, H. 1948. The land and freshwater molluscs of 

Puerto Rico. Misc. Publ. Mus. Zool. Univ. Mich. no. 70, 

128 pp. 



Oct., 1964 NAUTILUS 57 

APERTURAL LAMELLAE AS SUPPORTING STRUCTURES 
IN AUSTRALORBIS GLABRATUS 

By C. S. RICHARDS 

Department of Health, Education, and Welfare, Public Health Service, 

National Institutes of Health, National Institute of Allergy and 

Infectious Diseases, Laboratory of Parasitic Diseases, Bethesda, 

Maryland 20014 

Apertural lamellae occur in several species of planorbid mol- 
lusks including some of the intermediate hosts of Schistosoma 
mansoni. In Australorbis glahratus the presence of lamellae is 
commonly associated with a spontaneous tendency to crawl out 
of the water (Parense, 1957; Richards, 1963) . McCullough 
(1958) found lamellae in appreciable numbers of Biomphalaria 
pfeifferi gaiidi in Ghana, collected mainly during the dry season. 
The possibility that these structures may have survival value to 
the snails under adverse conditions such as drought or mollusci- 
ciding needs evaluation. Richards (1963) has suggested that the 
lamellae function primarily as supporting structures. The follow- 
ing studies were conducted to test this. 

Methods 
Snails tested included: Laboratory colonies of albino A. glahra- 
tus originally from Brazil, Tropicorbis obstriictus from Puerto 
Rico and from Louisiana, U. S., and Tropicorbis albicans from 
Puerto Rico. Each snail was placed on a glass slide on a spring 
scale and the weight noted. By means of a second glass slide pres- 
sure was gradually exerted downward on the snail until it was 
crushed. The force required to crush was recorded to the nearest 
5 gms. up to 100 gms.; to the nearest 10 gms. above 100 gms. Only 
living snails were used, in matched pairs; two snails (one with 
lamellae and one without) taken at the same time, of the same 
diameter, from the same population, from the same jar, reared 
on the same food. One group of A. glahratus (I) was reared in 
gallon jars, fed only Romaine lettuce, and the water changed 
only when it became foul. A second group (II) was reared in a 
different laboratory in larger aquaria, fed both lettuce and pow- 
dered prepared food, the water aerated and periodically recircu- 
lated. The T. ohstuctus and T. albicans tests included specimens 
from both jars and aquaria, but each matched pair tested was 
from a single container. 



58 



NAUTILUS 



Vol. 78 (2) 



Results. In group I a total of 86 A. glabratus (43 matched 
pairs) ranging from 2.5 to 6.5 mm, in diameter was tested; in 
group II, 18 ^. glabratus (9 matched pairs) 3.0 to 6.0 mm. in 
diameter. Results are shown in Table 1 and figure 1. In every 
matched pair of every size category in both groups the lamellate 
snail sustained considerable more force before being crushed 
than did the non-lamellate snail. In group I the average force 
needed to crush the lamellate snails was 175 gms.; the non-lamel- 
late 55 gms.; the mean ratio 3.7:1. In group II the average force 
required to crush the lamellate snails was 470 gms.; the non- 
lamellate 105 gms.; the mean ratio 5.0:1. 

In 54 (27 matched pairs) of the Louisiana strain of T. obstruc- 
tus, 4.0 to 6.0 mm. diameter, the lamellate snails sustained an 
average force of 400 gms.; the non-lamellate 330 gms. The mean 
ratio, lamellate to non-lamellate (1.2:1), was not statistically 
significant, the standard error of the mean difference between the 
members of each matched pair being 0.3. In 26 (13 pairs) of the 
Puerto Rican T. obstructus, 4.5 to 6.0 mm. diameter, the lamel- 
late snails sustained an average force of 355 gms.; the non-lamel- 
late 270 gms. The mean ratio, lamellate to non-lamellate (1.3:1) , 

Table 1. SUMMARY OF CRUSHING EXPERIMENTS TO DETERMINE FORCE SUSTAINED BY 
LAMELLATE AND NON-LAMELLATE PLANOKBID MOLLUSKS 







Number of 






Snail species 


Diameter 


specimens 


Force sustained ratio. 


and source 


in una. 


tested 


lamellate : non- lamellate 




Range 


Mean 


A. glabratus 










Brazil (group l) 


2.5-6.5 


86 


1.4:1-8.5:1 


3.7:1 


Brazil (group II ) 


3.0-6.0 


18 


2.2:1-8.2:1 


5.0:1 


T. obstructus 










Louisiana, U.S. 


4.0-6.0 


54 


0.8:1-2.2:1 


1.2:L 


Puerto Rico 


l+. 5-6.0 


26 


1.0:1-1.7:1 


1.3:1 


T. albicans 










Puerto Rico 


4.0-5.0 


24 


1.2:1-2.0:1 


1.43:1 



Oct., 1964 



NAUTILUS 



59 



FIG. I. AVERAGE WEIGHTS REQUIRED TO CRUSH 



BOOr — 



700 



600- 



m 500 
o 



400 



5 300 
o 



200 



100 



A. GLABRATUS SNAILS OF VARIOUS 
DIAMETERS, WITH AND WITHOUT 
LAMELLAE. 



1,060 



I 



GROUP II 
SNAILS 



LAMELLATE 
NON-LAMELLATE 



GROUP 



SNAILS 




e.S 3.0 3.5 4.0 4.5 5.0 5.5 6.0 6.5 3.0 3.5 4.0 4.5 5.0 5.5 6.0 

DIAMETER IN MILLIMETERS 

was not statistically significant, the standard error of the mean 
difference between the members of each pair being 0.18. In 24 
(12 pairs) of the Puerto Rican T. albicans, 4.0 to 5.0 mm. diam- 
eter, the lamellate snails sustained an average force of 380 gms.; 
the non-lamellate 270 gms. The mean ratio, lamellate to non- 
lamellate (1.43:1), was barely significant statistically, the stand- 
ard error of the mean difference between the members of each 
pair being 0.19 (i/gP is less than 2.5%) . 

Discussion. Although snails of group II A. glabratus were gen- 
erally stronger than those of group I, indicating more favorable 
growth conditions, the relationship between lamellae and resist- 
ance to crushing was comparable in both groups. The ability of 
the non-lamellate snails in the Tropicorbis species to sustain 
more force than in A. glabratus was to be expected, since lamella- 
formation usually occurs at maturity in the tropicorbids studied, 
while in A. glabratus it occurs in the relatively fragile immature 
snails (Richards, 1963) . The results suggest that the lamellae 
have a survival value as supporting structures in A. glabratus 



60 NAUTILUS Vol. 78 (2) 

under certain conditions, but that they are of Httle significance 
as supporting structures in the two Tropicorbis species. 

Summary 
A total of 104 A. glabra tus in matched pairs (lamellate and 
non-lamellate) were subjected to enough force to crush them. 
The lamellate snails sustained an average of approximately 4 
times as much force as the non-lamellate. Tests with T. obstruc- 
tus and T. albicans suggested that lamellae increased only 
slightly the strength of the shells in these species. Lamellae are 
considered to have survival value as supporting structures in 
A. glabratus under certain conditions. 

References 
McCullough, F, S., 1958. The internal lamellae in the shell of 
Biomphalaria pfeifferi gaudi (Ranson) from Ghana, West 
Africa. Jour, de Conchyliologie 97: 171-179. 
Paraense, W. L., 1957. Apertural lamellae in Australorbis gla- 
bratus. Proc. Malacological Soc. London 32: 175-179. 
Richards, C. S., 1963. Apertural lamellae, epiphragms, and aesti- 
vation of planorbid mollusks. Am. J. Trop. Med. and Hvg. 12: 
254-263. 



A NEW SPECIES OF CYAMIOMACTRA (PELECYPODA) 
FROM THE ROSS SEA, ANTARCTICA 

By DAVID NICOL 

Department of Geology, Southern Illinois University, Carbondale 

Cyamiidae, Cyamiomactra Bernard, 1897 
Type species (monotypy) : Cyamiomactra problematica Ber- 
nard, 1897, pp. 310-311. 

Cyamiomactra robusta Nicol, new species. PI. 6, figs. 1-3 

Type repository: Division of Mollusks, U. S. National Museum. 
Holotype cat. no. 653063; paratypes cat. nos. 612811 and 612766. 
Description: Shell thin, porcelaneous, somewhat chalky on the 
umbonal area; periostracum thin, glossy, light brown; ornamen- 
tation consists of fine concentric striae and prominent concentric 
ridges which may represent periodic growth cessation, number 
varying from 5 to 9 and commonly more closely spaced toward 
the ventral margin; a radial keel or rounded carina present on 
posterior quarter of the shell; prodissoconch not preserved; 
equivalve; without a gape; valve outline subrectangular, anterior 
end rounded and somewhat pointed, posterior end subtruncate; 
length always greater than height; largest specimen is 9.7 mm. 
long, 8.7 mm. high, 6.9 mm. in convexity of both valves; smallest 



Oct., 1964 NAUTILUS 61 

specimen (holotype) is 8.8 mm. long, 6.6 mm. high, and 6.2 mm. 
for convexity of both valves; ratio of convexity to height for 
three specimens is 0.83; ratio of length to height for 3 specimens 
is 1.20; beaks small, orthogyrate; interior margins of shell 
smooth; concentric ridges on exterior of the shell correspond to 
concentric grooves on the interior of the shell; pallial line and 
adductor muscle scars not observable on these thin shells; liga- 
ment and hinge teeth typically cyamiid; lateral teeth absent; car- 
dinal teeth 2 in the right valve and 3 in the left valve; central 
tooth 2 in left valve shaped like an inverted V, tooth 4a short 
and narrow and slopes antero-ventrally, tooth 4b is longer, nar- 
row, and slopes postero-ventrally; teeth 3a and 3b in right valve 
are large, triangular, and bifid; ligament completely internal, 
narrow, sloping postero-ventrally, located in a narrow groove on 
the hinge plate behind the cardinal teeth in each valve; hinge 
plate narrow and rather short. 

Comparisons: Cyamiomactra robusta appears to be most closely 
related to C. laminijera (Lamy) , but it differs from the latter 
species by being more convex and by having well-developed con- 
centric ridges on the exterior of the shell. Cyamium exasperatum 
Preston from the Falkland Islands superficially resembles Cyami- 
omactra robusta, but it is a much smaller shell and has only 2 
cardinal teeth in the left valve. 

Habitat: Cyamiomactra robusta was collected at two stations, 
one of which was 321 meters in depth and the other 640 meters 
in depth. The bottom temperature at the deeper station was 
— 1.86° C. The type of bottom described from the shallower col- 
lecting station was coarse glacial marine till. 

Geographic distribution: The holotype and one paratype with 
both valves came from 77° 38' S., 163° 11' W.; Kainan Bay, Ross 
Sea.. One right valve was collected at 77° 26' S., 169° 30' E.; Mc- 
Murdo Sound, Ross Sea. 

Cyamiomactra robusta was collected only by the Deepfreeze I 
Expedition during January and February, 1956. It appears to be 
quite rare and may be endemic to the Ross Sea region. It may 
also be rather restricted in its distribution as to depth and kind 
of substrate upon which it lives. 

Cyamiomactra robusta is one of the largest members of the 
Cyamiidae that the writer has seen. The largest of the 3 speci- 
mens is 9.7 mm. long. The other cyamiid species that attains at 
least this length is Cyamiomactra laminifera (Lamy) which also 
lives in the Antarctic region. Cyamiid species from warmer waters 



62 NAUTILUS Vol. 78 (2) 

in the southern hemisphere commonly attain no more than 5 
mm. in length. This is another example of a family of pelecypods 
that has one or more of its largest species living in the coldest 
water. Two more cases of this phenomenon among species of 
Antarctic pelecypods will help to prove this point. The largest 
living species of limopsid is Limopsis (Felicia) jousseaumi (Ma- 
bille and Rochebrune) from the Antarctic region. However, 
other Antarctic species of limopsids are small. Laternula elliptica 
(King and Broderip) , an Antarctic species, is the largest living 
laternulid with the possible exception of specimens of Offadesma 
angasi (Crosse and Fischer) from Stewart Island which may be as 
large. On the other hand, the largest pelecypods, like Tridacna, 
are confined to warm water. This trend among pelecypods to 
have the largest species of a family or a genus living in the cold- 
est water seems to be so common that it could be considered an 
ecological or geographical rule. 

Mr. W. J. Byas, museum specialist in the Division of Mollusks 
at the U. S. National Museum, skillfully opened and separated 
the 2 valves of the holotype so that the hinge area could be de- 
scribed and then later repaired the left valve of the holotype 
after it was broken by the writer. 

Mr. David H. Massie of the U. S. Geological Survey made the 
photographs of Cyamiomactra rohusta. 

This short paper is a preliminary note on a study of Antarctic 
pelecypods which is being supported by a grant from the Na- 
tional Science Foundation (G-13335) . 

Literature cited 
Bernard, F. 1897. Sur quelques coquilles de Lamellibranches de 

I'ile Stewart. Bull. Mus. Hist. Nat. Paris, no. 7: 309-314. 



AMERICAN MALACOLOGICAL UNION, INC. 

By MARGARET C. TESKEY, Secretary 

The 30th annual meeting of the American Malacological 
Union was held in New Orleans, July 21-24, 1964. One hundred 
registered guests enjoyed a most unusual program, minded the 
heat not at all and with a moonlight boat ride on the mighty 
Mississippi as the final feature, voted the 1964 meeting an un- 
qualified success. 

Dr. Dee Dundee and Dr. Harold Dundee planned and ar- 
ranged for the 4 day convention while John Q. Burch of Los 



Oct., 1964 NAUTILUS 63 

Angeles as A.M.U. President presided over presentation of 26 
scientific papers by as many authors, an instructive and well bal- 
anced program. 

Other highlights were a tour of historic New Orleans and field 
trips which took the land shell collectors on a 100 mile bus tour 
of the bayou country while others dredged in Lake Pontchartrain 
from two boats loaned by the Louisiana Wildlife and Fish Com- 
mission. Another highly enjoyable feature was the annual dinner 
at Arnauds, one of the city's famed French restaurants; the hardy 
relished and the timid sampled "escargot," many for the first 
time. 

These papers made up the scientific program: Freshwater mol- 
lusks of the Hudson Bay watershed, Arthur H. Clarke, Jr. Shell 
deformity of mollusks caused by Hydractinia echinata, Arthur S. 
Merrill. Behavior of unionid glochidia, William H. Heard and 
Sherman S. Hendrix. The foreign freshwater snails now estab- 
lished in Puerto Rico, Harold W. Harry. Who were The Sower- 
bys? Katherine V. W. Palmer. Fresh-water Mollusca from the 
early Tertiary of Patagonia, J. J. Parodiz. Geographic distribu- 
tion of eastern American brackish water mollusks, J. P. E. Morri- 
son. A phenomenon associated with sexual behavior in polygyrid 
snails, Walter C. Blinn. "Indo-Pacific Mollusca," R. Tucker Ab- 
bott. Molluscan magnetism, Lulu B. Siekman. Some highlights in 
the study of mollusks on the United States Gulf Coast, Gordon 
Gunter. Radulae of Ottawa River snails, Maryl Weatherburn. 
Cytotaxonomy of the genus Oncomelania, John B. Burch. The 
Coosa River and its shells, Herbert D. Athearn. Tarebia grani- 
fera and Melanoides tuberculata in Texas, Harold D. Murray. 

Anatomical relationships in the Teredinidae, Ruth D. Turner. 
The evolution of Mesogastropoda, Donald R. Moore. Disc elec- 
trophoresis in the study of molluscan systematics, George M. 
Davis and Gene Lindsay. The chromosome cycle in the land snail 
Catinella vermeta, C. M. Patterson (read by Robert Wakefield) . 
Cytological studies of opisthobranch mollusks, R. Natarajan. 
Notes on the sex of Campeloma, Henry van der Schalie. The 
mussel shoals of the Tennessee River revisited, David H. Stans- 
bery. Cell and tissue culture of mollusks, Catalina Cuadros and 
John B. Burch. Gastropods in scientific research, Albert R. Mead 
(read by title) . Stunting of Oncomelania formosana in culture, 
Henry van der Schalie and George Davis. 



64 NAUTILUS Vol. 78 (2) 

Over the past year new constitutions have been adopted by the 
A.M.U. and by the A.M.U., Pacific Division. The American 
Malacological Union has been incorporated as a scientific, non- 
profit organization. At the recent meeting, the following were 
elected to hold offices in 1964-65: 

President, Juan J. Parodiz. Vice-president, Ralph W. Dexter. 
2nd Vice-president, Edwin C. Allison. Secretary, Margaret C. 
Teskey. Treasurer, Jean M. Gate. Publications Editor, M. Karl 
Jacobson. Councillors-at-Large, William H. Heard, Leo G. Hert- 
lein, Leslie Hubricht, Richard L Johnson. 

The 1965 annual meeting will be held at Wagner Gollege on 
Staten Island, New York, July 20th through the 23rd. 

NOTES AND NEWS 

Increase in price of Nautilus. — Bare costs of printing, exclusive 
of postage, again are exceeding considerably the income from sub- 
scriptions. For this reason, beginning with volume 79 (July, 1965), 
but not including renewals for 1965, domestic subscriptions will be 
raised to ^4.25 a year, and foreign ones to ^4.75. The extra increase 
in foreign subscriptions is due largely to the postage on requested 
separate invoices. 

Oyster chromatogram — Crassostrea virginica (Gm.) col- 
lected from the York River, Va., above the Fleet Weapons Pier 
at Yorktown, June 24, 1964, was used for chromatographic stud- 
ies during an N.ST, program (Grant GE-3798) at La Salle Col- 
lege. The specimen was preserved in the field in FAA. fixative. 

The oyster was macerated and spotted on Whatman's No. 1 
Filter Paper. The chromatographic solvent used was butanol : 
acetic acid : water (4:1:1). The solvent front was permitted to 
migrate 18 cm. The resulting chromatograms were sprayed with 
ninhydrin solution (50 ml. of 0.2% ninhydrin in methyl alcohol, 
plus 10 ml. glacial acetic acid, and 2 ml. 2-4-6 collidine) and sub- 
mitted to a temperature of 110° G. for a period of 30 minutes. 

Twenty-two pure amino-acids were prepared in a buffer of 
pH 3.7 (the pH of the macerated oyster) and the chromato- 
graphic procedure was repeated. 

Rf values for each amino-acid and for each region of colora- 
tion in the oyster material were computed and compared. Tenta- 
tive conclusions indicated the presence of L-cystine (Rf = .094) , 
L-arginine (Rf = ,166), glycine (aminoacetic acid) (Rf = .278), 



NAUTILUS 78 (2) 



PLATE 6 




All figures of holotype of Cyamiomactra robusta Nicol, 5x. U. S. N. M. cat. 
no. 653063. Fig. 1. right valve, exterior. Fig 2. right valve, interior. Fig. 3. 
left valve, interior. 



Oct., 1964 NAUTILUS 65 

and DL-alpha-alanine (Rf = .360) . Comparable Rf values for 
these 4 amino-acids in pure form were: .094, .178, .266, and .361, 
respectively. 

"Analytrol" charts were produced for each chromatogram. The 
tentative conclusions were confirmed by comparison of the loca- 
tion of peaks along the horizontal scale. 

Light coloration throughout the chromatograms and an irregu- 
lar trace recording indicate a strong probability of the presence 
of other amino-acids. — Veronica M. Bierbaum, Bethlehem, Pa. 

LlTTORINA ZIGZAG (GmELIN) AND L, LINEOLATA OrBIGNY 

Since Bequaert's 1943 monograph on "The Genus Littorina in 
the Western Atlantic" (Johnsonia, vol. 1, no. 7, see pp. 14-18), 
most workers have followed the suggestion that sexual dimorph- 
ism accounted for the extreme shell variability in Littorina 
(Melarhaphe) ziczac (Gmelin, 1791) . That two species were in- 
volved was noted by Dr. J. P. E. Morrison (in litt.) on the basis 
of shell characters. Thanks to fresh material obtained in Grenada 
by Mrs. Ruth Ostheimer and Dr. Minerva Buerk, it is now 
known that males and females are present in two forms. The egg 
capsules of "ziczac" illustrated by Lebour (1945) , Abbott (1954) , 
J. B. Lewis (1960), and Marcus and Marcus (1963) strongly 
suggest, because of their differences, that all these authors have 
been working with a mixture of these two species. 

True ziczac Gmelin is illustrated in Bequaert's monograph, pi. 
5, figs. 1-4, and in "American Seashells" by Abbott on pi. 19, 
fig. e. It is characterized by its smoothish surface, by its fairly 
well-rounded whorls, light ash-gray color over which are rather 
distinct, usually evenly-spaced, axial, slanting, narrow flames or 
stripes of weak brown. The surface sculpture consists of numerous, 
microscopic incised spiral scratches, usually about 20 to 30 be- 
tween sutures. The nuclear whorls are seldom eroded away. 

L. lineolata Orbigny is illustrated by Bequaert on his pi. 5, 
figs. 5-10, and in "Caribbean Seashells" by Warmke and Abbott on 
pi. 9, fig. 1. It differs from ziczac in being usually smaller, more 
darkly colored, and in having only 5 to 9 spiral incised lines 
between sutures, in having flat-sided whorls and a keeled base, 
and in sometimes being spirally corded. The apex is usually 
eroded away. 

The ranges of these two species appear to be about the same. 



66 NAUTILUS Vol. 78 (2) 

although in Bermuda lineolata is rare, while in Texas ziczac is 
absent or rare. They live in approximately the same tidal zone, 
but further observations are needed. An examination of Dr. 
Robert Robertson's photographs (in litt.) of the holotype of 
Phasianella lineata Lamarck, 1822 [not Buccinum lineatum 
Gmelin, 1791, which is Littorina scahra (Linne, 1758) ], supports 
Bequaert's statement that Lamarck's species is tessellata Philippi, 
1847. 

Among the obvious synonyms of ziczac Gmelin are dehilis 
Philippi, 1846, d'orbignyana Philippi, 1847, and dispar Mon- 
tagu, 1815. Synonyms of lineolata Orbigny, 1842, are carinata 
Orbigny, 1842 (non Sowerby, 1819), crassior Philippi, 1847, and 
jamaicensis C. B. Adams, 1850, — R. Tucker Abbott. 

On Lymnaea auricularia in Colorado. — Henderson (1912, 
Nautilus 26 :M and 1918, ibid. 52:71) reported the Palearctic 
pond snail Lymnaea auricularia (L.) from Colorado Springs (El 
Paso Co.) and Dotson Reservoir, near Fowler (Otero Co.) , Colo- 
rado. Recent collections have it from Varsity Pond in Boulder 
(Boulder Co.) and City Park Lake in Fort Collins (Larimer 
Co.) , extending the range in Colorado northward along the east 
face of the Rocky Mountains. The location of 3 of the 4 Colorado 
colonies in city park lakes would indicate that each probably re- 
sults from a separate introduction. — Clarence J. McCoy, Jr. 

Glauconome rugosa, 1842. — Both date and author are given 
incorrectly in Sherborn, 1902, Index Animal.: 5676. Glauconome 
rugosus (sic) was figured by Hanley, 1842, [Lamarck's] The 
species of shells: pi. 2, fig. 31, and named in the accompanying 
"List of illustrations" [for pis. 1 to 3]. Apparently this small, 
hand-colored lithograph was copied (as a mirror image) in 
Hanley, "early part of 1843" (Preface: v; probably 1856), 111. k 
desc. cat. rec. bivalve shells (1842-1856) : pi. 10, fig. 24. Inci- 
dentally, bound in the A. N. S. P. copy of the evidently rare Han- 
ley, 1842, are "A list of the species delineated in the supplemen- 
tary plates," etc. (only pages 1 to 8) and (at the end) the "Sys- 
tematic list of the shells figured in this work," etc. (pages 1 to 8) . 
Thus the former (or both?) of these appears to be "their ex- 
planatory text" (1856, loc. cit.) for plates 9 to 13 of Hanley, 1842- 
1856, and the wording seems identical with those bound in the 
A. N. S. P. copy of this last. [Page 9 of the list suppl. pis. is signa- 



Oct., 1964 NAUTILUS 67 

ture-marked "app." etc.] This apparently means that all the 
names o£ species on pis. 9-13 were vested (made valid) at least 
"early" in 1843, and are prior to any bivalve in Reeve's "Con- 
chologia Iconica." Involved names in Corbiila are: C. crassa, 
C. fasciata^ C. nimbosa and C. trigonal (not Roemer, 1836). — 

H. BURRINGTON BaKER. 

Elliptic complanata wheatleyi. — Apparently Unio wheat- 
leyi Lea, 1858, Proc. Acad. Nat. Sci. Philadelphia 9: 85, is neither 
a homonyn or a "nomen oblitum," although Lea, 1862, J. 
A.N.S.P. 5; 54, pi. 1, fig. 209; Obs. 8: 58, substituted U. catawben- 
sis for it. Both names seem to be prior to U. rostrum Lea, 1862, 
Proc. cit. 13: 391, which was used by Simpson, 1914: 660, for a 
species. — H. B. B. 

E. (Uniomerus) tetralasmus sayana. — Is an incomplete de- 
scription, despite the incorrect reference to an unpublished plate, 
enough to validate Unio sayanus Conrad, 1838, Monogr. no. 11: 
102, "pi. 55, fig. 2?" If so, Conrad, 1840, Monogr. no. 12: 103, 
pi. 56, lower 3 figs., was right, when he included, as a junior 
synonym, U. sayi Ward in Tappan, 1839, Amer. J. Sci. i5; 268, pi. 
3, fig. 1. In any case, this is only a question of spelling. — H. B. B. 

Galatea (Donacidae) . — According to article 56 (a) of the 
1961 "code," Galatea Brugiere, 1797, Encycl. Meth. (Tabl. Vers) : 
pi. 250, is not a junior homonym. It originally included only one 
(unnamed) species, Venus paradoxa Born, 1780. However, be- 
cause its emendation, Galathea Lamarck, 1804, Ann. Mus. Hist. 
Nat. Paris 5; 431, is preoccupied, it often has been replaced by 
Egeria Roissy, 1805. Evidently, Galatea must be restored as the 
lawful name for this estuarine group of west Africa. — H. B. B. 

Oxycheilus (Subulininae?). — Also because of a difference of 
one letter, Oxycheilus Albers, 1850, Die Heliceen: 174, is not a 
homonyn of Oxychilus Fitzinger, 1833 (Zonitinae) or Oxy- 
cheila Dejean (1825) . As already has been indicated, 1963, Proc. 
Acad. Nat Sci. Philadelphia 115: 216, Synapterpes Pilsbry, 1896, 
Naut. 10: 46, must be replaced by Oxycheilus, of which O. han- 
leyi (Pfeiffer in Philippi) is the type species, for this Brazilian 

1 According to Lamy, 1941, C. assiniensis Chaper, 1885, is a usable synonym. 



68 NAUTILUS Vol. 78 (2) 

group. Unfortunately, a supposed homonym seldom becomes a 
"nomen oblitum," because it is repeated continuously as a senior 
synonym. — H. B. B, 

CoRBULA LiMATULA, 1846. — Has auyoue subsequently col- 
lected C. limatula Conrad, June, or earlier, 1846, Proc. Acad. 
Nat. Sci. Philadelphia 3: 25, pi. 1, fig. 2, dredged off the west 
coast of Florida? Apparently, if Edouard Lamy, 1941, J. de 
Conch. 84: 228, had not noticed the description, it now would be 
a "nomen oblitum." The type specimen is in the A.N.S.P. (no. 
50909a) ; it is about the size of Conrad's fig. and measures: right 
valve 8.2 x 6.3 mm., left (smoother and still stuck in place) 7.2 x 
4.8; diam. 4.6 mm. Under the present "code," the name should 
continue valid until 2014. — H. B. B. 

Abstract reports on oceanography. — Stepped-up emphasis 
on research in aquatic biology, particularly oceanographic stud- 
ies, is evidenced by a 145% increase in numbers of these papers 
abstracted by Biological Abstracts (BA) since 1959. Abstracts 
cross referenced to Oceanography from numerous other inter- 
related areas of biology add to this total by another 70-100%. 
Both broad and specific coverage of life science papers relating to 
Oceanography is provided in Biological Abstracts. Searches in 
this field are facilitated through use of appropriate index words 
in B.A.S.I.C. and through a check of abstracts listed under 
Oceanography in the Cross Index. — Release. 

Adelopoma costaricense Bartsch and Morrison, 1942, not an 
inhabitant of the United States — Several years ago, Haas (1947, 
Nautilus 61: 33-34) reported that a single specimen, apparently 
ieferable to this species, had been collected alive at a light trap 
in Charleston, South Carolina. During a current review of Adelo- 
poma, the specimen (CNHM 24510) was re-examined and found 
to be misidentified. It is the Mariana Island Palaina taeniolata 
taeniolata Quadras and Moellendorff, 1894, and probably is a 
mislabeled shell. CNHM 24925 contains a long series of P. taen- 
iolata collected by H. S. Dybas in 1945 about 1 mile from Yigo, 
Guam Id., Mariana Islands. The supposed Adelopoma cannot be 
distinguished from members of this set. A Division of Insects 
label reading "Charleston, South Carolina, April 12, 1945, R. L. 
Wenzel collector" is still with the shell. Both Dr. Wenzel and Mr. 



Oct., 1964 NAUTILUS 69 

Dybas (entomologists at Chicago Natural History Museum) had 
recently returned from wartime duties and their collections were 
being sorted by Division of Insect personnel aided by college 
students. The label with the "Adelopoma" can be identified as 
having been written by one of the college students. These facts 
present the strong probability that mislabeling is involved rather 
than an introduction. Of all the diplommatinids, the Micronesian 
Palaina are most closely allied in shell form and sculpture to the 
Neotropical Adelopoma, the former differing only in greater up- 
wards expansion of the parietal-palatal lip. Controversy still 
exists as to whether Adelopoma is native to Central and South 
America, or whether it has been introduced from the Old World. 
Review of all known Adelopoma by one of us (Solem) indicated 
a pattern of variation in Adelopoma that is not exactly duplicated 
by any Old World species group, although no adequate generic 
distinctions from Palaina could be recognized. Confusion of 
Adelopoma and Palaina is quite easy. Alan Solem and Fritz 
Haas, Chicago Natural History Museum, Chicago, Illinois. 

Type locality for Paravitrea smithi — Paravitrea smithi 
(Walker) was described from two specimens collected by Her- 
bert H. Smith from Sand Mountain near Pisgah, Jackson Co., 
Alabama. 

I collected at several localities on Sand Mountain near Pisgah 
without finding it. I then made a list of all the species which 
Walker (1928, Terr. Moll. Ala., Univ. Mich. Mus. Zool. Misc. 
Publ. no. 18.) recorded from near Pisgah. There were 20 species, 
several of which were calciphiles. This indicated that Smith's 
collections were made on the lower side of the mountain, rather 
than on the summit. After examining topographic maps of the 
vicinity, I decided that the most likely place was below Sublett 
Gap, about 4 miles west of Pisgah. Here an old road went dow^n 
the side of the mountain to where at one time there had been 
a ferry on the Tennessee River. I visited this place in early June, 
1964 and collected two specimens of Paravitrea smithi, together 
with most of the species which Walker reported from Pisgah. 
I believe this is the place where Smith collected his specimens. 

One specimen was mature with 5 whorls, the other was an im- 
mature shell of 3 whorls. There were no teeth in either specimen. 
The animals were white. — Leslie Hubricht. 



70 NAUTILUS Vol. 78 (2) 

Stenotrema magnifumosum in the Cumberland Mountains 
— Stenotrema magnifumosum (Pilsbry) was found living in the 
canyon below Fall Creek Falls, Van Buren County, Tennessee. 
During the Pleistocene, species of higher altitudes in the southern 
Appalachians were able to move down to lower elevations and 
extend their ranges. In some favorable localities they were able 
to survive to the present. — Leslie Hubricht. 

Richard Winslow Foster, of the Museum of Comparative 
Zoology at Harvard University, died suddenly September 3, 1964, 
in Rome, Italy, of asthma, after an apparently successful opera- 
tion for appendicitis. He was 44 years of age. "Dick" will be 
missed greatly by all his many friends, and colleagues in the col- 
lection and study of mollusks, and our sympathies are extended 
to his wife. 



PUBLICATIONS RECEIVED 

Mathews, L. Harrison &: Maxwell Knight. 1963. The senses of 
animals. 240 pp., 40 figs. & frontispiece. Philosophical Library, 
15 East 40th St., New York 16, N. Y. |7.50.— Notes on eyes 
and touch-receptors of mollusks are included. 

Nicol, David. 1962. The biotic development of some Niagaran 
reefs — An example of an ecological succession of sere. J. of 
Paleont. 36: 172-176, 1 fig. 

Paraense, W. Lobato. 1963. The nomenclature of Brazilian plan- 
orb ids, 3. ''Australorhis stramineus" (Dunka', 1848) . Rev. 
Brasil. Biol. 23: 1-7. 

& Lygia R. Correa. 1963. Variation in susceptibility of pop- 
ulations of Australorbis glabratus to a strain of Schistosoma 
mansoni. Rev. Inst. Med. trop. Sao Paulo 5; 15-22, 1 fig. 

& do. 1963. Susceptibility of Australorbis teganophilus to 



infection with Schistosoma mansoni. Rev. cit.: 23-29 
& Newton Deslandes. 1962. "Australorbis intermedius" sp. 

n. from Brazil (Pulmonata, Planorbidae) . Rev. Brasil. Biol. 

22: 343-350, 6 figs. 
Pilson, M. E. Q. Sc P. B. Taylor. 1961. Hole drilling by Octopus. 

Science J 34: 1366-1368, 1 fig. 
Rezende, H. E. Barboza k P. D. Lanzieri. 1963.Uma nova especie 

do genero Protoglyptus Pilsbry, 1897, do Brasil. Mem. Inst. 

Oswaldo Cruz 61: 111-126, 38 figs. — Shell and anatomy. 
Riedel, Adolf. 1963. Zwei neue Zonitidae (Gastropoda) von 

Siidostbulgarien. Ann. Zoo. Polska Akad. Nauk 20: 473-485, 

18 figs. — New species are added to Oxychilus & Carpathica. 



Oct., 1964 NAUTILUS 71 

1963. Ein rezenter Hawaiia-Fund aus Afghamistan und ein 



fossiler aus dem Kaukasus (Gastropoda, Zonitidae) . Ann. cit. 
21: 33-41, 14 figs. — 2 new species are added. 

1963. Fossile Zonitidae (Gastropoda) aus dem Kaukasus. 



Ann. cit. 21: 273-287, 18 figs. — New species are proposed in 
Oxychilus, Vitrea ^ Vitrinoxy chillis ("gen. n." but not de- 
scribed) . 

La Rocque, Aurele. 1960. Quantitative methods in the study of 
non-marine Pleistocene Mollusca. Intern. Geol. Cong. 21 (4) : 
134-141, 1 fig. 

Schalie, Henry van der. 1963. People and their snail-borne dis- 
eases. Mich. Quart. Rev. 2: 106-114, 1 fig. & 1 map. 

& Lowell L. Getz. 1962. Reproductive isolation in the 

snails, Pomatiopsis lapidaria and P. Cincinnati ensis. Amer. 
Midi. Nat. 68: 189-191, 1 fig. 

Sc Getz. 1962. Distribution and natural history of the snail 



Pomatiopsis cincinnatiensis (Lea) . Vol. cit.: 203-231, 13 figs. 
— %: Getz. 1962. Morphology and development of the sex or- 
gans in the snail, Potamiopsis cincinnatiensis (Lea) . Trans. 
Amer. Micr. Soc. 81: 332-340, incl. pis. 1-5. 

& Getz. 1963. Comparison of temperature and moisture re 



sponses of the snail genera Pomatiopsis and Oncomelania. 
Ecology H: 73-83, 12 figs. 

& Guy Colwin Robson. 1963. Bivalve. Encycl. Britt.: 8 pp.. 



18 figs. 

Schalie, Henry and Annette van der. 1963. The distribution, ecol- 
ogy, and life history of the mussel, Actinonias ellipsiformis 
(Conrad) in Michigan. Oc. Papers Mus. Zoo. Univ. Mich. no. 
633: 17 pp., incl. 3 pis. 

Sinclair, Ralph M. 1963. Effects of an introduced clam (Corbi- 
cula) on water quality in the Tennessee River valley. 12 pp. & 

1 pi. 

Solem, Alan. 1960. Notes on South American non-marine Mol- 
lusca 1-3. Ann. Mus. Civ. Stor. Nat. Genova 71: 416-432, pis. 24 
& 25. — New species and subspp. are proposed in EudoUchotis, 
Choanopoma & Tudora. 

1959. Notes on Mexican mollusks, 2. Oc. Papers Mus. Zoo. 

Univ. Mich. no. 611: 1-15, incl. pis. 1 8c 2. — A new species is 
added to Polygyra. 

Thompson, Fred G. 1963. Systematic notes on the land snails of 
the genus Tomocychis (Cyclophoridae) . Breviora M. C. Z. no. 
181: 11 pp., incl. 1 fig. & 1 pi. — A new species is added. 

1963. New land snails from El Salvador. Proc. Biol. Soc. 

Washington 76: 19-31, incl. figs. 1-2 & pis. 1-2. — New species 
are proposed in Amphicy dolus, Streptostyla, Eucalodium & 
Lysinoe. 

Turner, Ruth D. 1961. The genus Lignopholas Turner (Phola- 



72 NAUTILUS Vol. 78 (2) 

didae) . Mit. Zoo. Mus. Berlin 57; 287-295, incl. pis. 1-4. 

Tuthill, Samuel J, 1961. A molluscan fauna and late Pleistocene 
climate in southeastern North Dakota. Proc. N. D. Acad. Sci. 
15: 19-26, 3 figs. 

Tweedie, M. W. F. 1961. On certain Mollusca of the Malayan 
limestone hills. Bui. Raffles Mus., Singapore no. 26: 49-65, fig. 
1, pis. 15-16. 

Uminski, Tomasz. 1962. Revision of the Palearctic forms of the 
genus Discus Fitzinger, 1833 (Endodontidae) . Ann. Zoo. Pol- 
ska Akad. Nauk 20: 299-333, incl. 1 fig., 3 maps, 5 tables and 
pis. 3-4, 

1962. Taxonomy of Anguispira (?) 7narmorensis (H. B. 

Baker, 1932) with notes on the tasonomy of the genera Angui- 
spira Morse and Discus Fitzinger (Endodontidae) . Ann. cit. 
21: 81-91, 19 figs. & 1 table. 

Verdcourt, Bernard. 1959. Scorpion shells. E. Afr. Nat. Hist. Soc. 
J- 23: 1 p. . 

1960. East African slugs of the family Urocyclidae, pt. 2. J. 

cit.: 233-240, figs. 5-8. — A species is added to Urocyclus. 

1960. Some further records of Mollusca from N. Kenya, 

Ethiopia, Somaliland and Arabia, mostly from arid areas. Rev. 
Zoo. Bot. Afric. 61: 221-265, 9 figs. — Inland mollusks with 
some anatomy. 

& R. Polhill. 1961. East African slugs of the family Urocy- 
clidae, (parts 3 8c 4) . J. E. Africa Nat. Hist. Soc, special suppl. 
7: 36 pp., 41 figs. — New species and subspp. are added to 
Trichotoxon. 

1961. Notes on the snails of north-east Tanganyika. Coryn- 



don Mem. Mus. Oc. Papers no. 8: 23 pp., 18 figs. — Streptaxi- 
dae, with anatomy. 

— 1961? The cowries of the east African coasts. Supplement 3. 
J. E. Afr. Nat. Hist. Soc. 23: 281-285, &: 3 figs, (as 2 pis.) . 

1962. Report on a collection of East African slugs (Urocy- 



clidae) . J. cit. 24: 29-36, & 14 figs, (as 5 pis.) . 
Zarate Lopez, Adolfo Ortiz de. 1962. Una especie nueva de Heli- 

cella (Hellicella (Xeroplexa) cobosi) . Arch Inst. Aclimata- 

cion (Almeria) 11: 41-43, pi. 1. 
1962. Observaciones anatomicas y posicion sistematica de 

varios helicidos espanoles. 5, Genero Oestophara Hesse, 1907. 

Bol. R. Soc. Esp. Hist. Nat. (B) 60: 81-104, 14 figs. — A new 

species is added. 

Shells. Photographed for "Life" by Nina Leen. 1964. Life 
57 (2) : 46-54, 12 large figs., mainly colored. This contains an in- 
teresting account of the shell-collecting experiences of George 
and Mary Kline, Shunpike Road, Box 271, Madison, N. J., in the 
oceans around Ceylon and the Pacific islands. 



THE NAUTILUS 

Vol. 78 January, 1965 No. 3 

NEW SPECIES OF VITRINELLIDAE FROM 
GULF OF MEXICO AND ADJACENT WATERS^ 

By DONALD R. MOORE 
Institute of Marine Science, University of Miami 

Abstract 

The systematics of the families Vitrinellidae and Tornidae are 
briefly reviewed and reasons given for maintaining the two fami- 
lies as separate entities. Three new species of Vitrinellidae from 
the Gulf of Mexico are described, Macromphalina fioridana, 
Vitrinella texana, and Solariorbis semipunctus. 

tP tp tt tt tt 

The family Vitrinellidae is fairly large with about 220 de- 
scribed recent species from the Western Hemisphere, and wath 
probably as many or more from the Indo-Pacific region. The 
western Atlantic species number over 60, but many are poorly 
known or have not been seen since their description. The writer, 
while working on the vitrinellid fauna of South Florida and the 
Gulf of Mexico, found 3 species that had evidently been missed 
by previous workers on these minute mollusks. They are de- 
scribed below along with a brief discussion of the systematics of 
the family. 

Early workers placed vitrinellids in Rotella, Umbonium, or 
other small trochid genera. Fischer (1857) described several new 
species as Adeorhis-Tornus, while many authors placed species in 
Cyclo'strema. Katherine Bush (1897) was the first to point out 
that Vitrinella and its allies should be placed in a separate family, 
but she, unfortunately, did not have a clear understanding of the 
affinities of the group. She clearly thought that they were related 
to the Trochidae, and included a number of genera which are 
certainly not vitrinellids. It was Pilsbry and McGinty (1945) who 
first showed figures of living vitrinellids, and Pilsbry later (1953) 
placed the family in the Rissoacea. 

Abbott (1950) showed that Cyclostrema is a genus closely 



1 Contribution No. 580 from The Marine Laboratory, Institute of Marine 
Science, University of Miami. 

73 



74 NAUTILUS Vol. 78 (3) 

allied to Lioiia, and placed the genus in the Liotiidae. Thus 
Cyclostrema is shown to be quite different from the vitrinellids, 
and the family name Cyclostrematidae is synonymous with Lioti- 
idae. Many of the species formerly grouped under Cyclostrema- 
tidae should go into Skeneidae, or if mesogastropods, into some 
other family. Malacologists have often equated the Vitrinellidae 
with the Adeorbidae-Tornidae, and the most recent such classifi- 
cation is that of Taylor and Sohl (1962) . They state that the 
name Vitrinellidae should be used in preference to Tornidae on 
the grounds that the former name has been used more often. 
However, nearly everyone has ignored the anatomical work of 
Woodward (1899) on Tornus subcarinatus (Montagu), the type 
species of Tornus, and the work of Fretter (1956) on a vitrinel- 
lid, Circiilus striatus (Philippi). In addition, Pilsbry and Mc- 
Ginty (1945) gave information on the external morphology of 
vitrinellids, including Vitrinella helicoidea C, B. Adams, the 
type species of Vitrinella. Moore (1962) provided a more precise 
illustration and description of the external morphology of the 
vitrinellid, Paruiturboides interruptus (C. B. Adams) . 

When the vitrinellids are compared with Tornus subcarinatus, 
the following important differences are noted: 1.) The vitrinel- 
lids have a circular, multispiral operculum; Tornus has a pau- 
cispiral oval operculum. 2.) The vitrinellids have a penis in the 
male; this organ is lacking in Tornus. 3.) The gill is deep in 
the mantle cavity of vitrinellids; it extends well out of the right 
side of the aperture in Tornus and may even curve around the 
margin of the shell. Fretter (1956) cites further important dif- 
ferences in the internal anatomy. There are similarities in the 
appearance of the shell, in features of the radula, and both 
possess a pair of pallial tentacles on the right side of the mantle. 
However, while relationship is apparent, the differences are too 
great to put Tornus in the same family with the vitrinellids. 

In view of the above observations, the writer feels that attempts 
to equate the Vitrinellidae with the Tornidae are based on 
misconceptions, and that both families should take their place 
in the superfamily Rissoacea. 

Acknowledgments. All the specimens but one were collected 
by various people who turned their material over to the writer. 
Thanks are extended to the following persons for their coopera- 
tion and interest: Mrs. Winnie Rice, Mrs. Edna Marcott, Dan 



January, 1965 nautilus 75 

Steger, and Barry and Buena Valentine. The specimen of Ma- 
cromphalina floridana from Soldier Key was collected as part 
of a qualitative sample in the sea grass Thalassia testudinuni 
under National Science Foundation grant no. G- 14521. The 
study was completed under National Science Foundation grant 
no. GP-2455. 
Macromphalina FLORmANA, sp. nov. PL 7, figs. 1-3 

Description. The shell is depressed, with a tilted, slightly pro- 
jecting protoconch. The umbilicus is widely open, periphery 
strongly carinate, and the aperture strongly oblique. 

The protoconch consists of approximately U/g smooth glassy 
whorls. It terminates with a barely discernible varix, and the 
sculpture of the teleoconch begins immediately after. The teleo- 
conch consists of nearly two whorls in the holotype, and is cov- 
ered, both top and bottom, with sculpture of narrow, recurved 
radial ribs. Betw^een the ribs there is a microsculpture of close 
set spiral threads. The radial ribs above the periphery are opis- 
thocline, while those below are prosocline. They are not contin- 
uous, however, for the ribs are slightly more numerous on the 
upper half of the shelL There were 46 counted on the dorsal half, 
34 on the lower half of the body whorl of the holotype. 

The aperture is oblique, and viewed from below, is broadly 
ovate. The upper part of the peristome overhangs the aperture 
considerably. The peristome is continuous, and in the holotype, 
is slightly separated from the preceding whorl. The peristome is 
closely appressed to the preceding whorl in the paratype from 
Soldier Key, but this specimen is evidently not quite mature. The 
umbilicus is widely open, and the sculpture continues on the 
inner surface up to the preceding whorl. 

Material. Holotype, Madeira Beach at 150 Avenue, St. Peters- 
burg, Florida, collected by Mrs. Edna Marcott during the winter 
of 1959; diameter, 3.1 mm., altitude, 1.5 mm. Deposited in the 
Division of Mollusks, U. S, National Museum, no. 636310. Para- 
types. 1 specimen from the east side of Soldier Key, Biscayne Bay, 
Florida, in a depth of about 1 meter, November 2, 1961, collected 
by D. R. Moore; diameter, 1.9 mm., altitude, 1.0 mm., UMML 
no. 30:2773. 1 specimen from Madeira Beach at 150 Avenue, St. 
Petersburg, Florida, collector, D. Steger; diameter, 1.0 mm., alti- 
tude, 0.5 mm. Academy of Natural Sciences of Philadelphia no. 
295621. This specimen was considerably larger, but most of the 



76 NAUTILUS Vol. 78 (3) 

second adult whorl has been broken away. 

Name derived from Florida, the state where all the material 
was collected. 

Remarks. Macromphalina floridana is strongly carinate; the 
other two West Indian species have a rounded periphery. M. caro 
(Dall) is much more elevated, but M. palmalitoris Pilsbry and 
McGinty is similar to M. floridana in size and shape. There are 
other differences between M. floridana and M. palmalitoris, how- 
ever, for M. floridana has a tilted protoconch and discontinuous 
axial ribs, while M. palmalitoris has an erect protoconch and 
continuous axial ribs. The axial sculpture of M. floridana is also 
much stronger. 

M. dipsycha Pilsbry and Olsson appears to be the Panamic 
analog of M. floridana. M. pilsbryi Olsson and McGinty is Vani- 
koro oxychone Morch (personal communication, Robert Robert- 
son) , and thus is not considered in the discussion of comparative 
characters of the West Indian species. 

VlTRINELLA TEXANA, sp. nov. PI. 7, figS. 4-6 

Description. The shell is depressed, and has a flattened apex. 
The umbilicus is narrow but deep, and is almost flat sided. Sides 
of the shell curve out and down gently so that the periphery 
forms an angle with the base of the shell. The aperture is oblique. 

The protoconch consists of 1% glassy whorls. The teleoconch 
consists of about I14 whorls, and is sculptured on the upper 
side with fine spiral grooves and on the lower side with numer- 
ous short radiating riblets. These riblets are crossed by a few 
weak spiral grooves, and there are several stronger spiral grooves 
in the umbilicus. The ventral side is flattened, and, in the holo- 
type, bears about 36 radiating riblets. The riblets become indis- 
tinct on the last half of the whorl, and become difficult to count. 

The aperture is oblique, and is broadly ovate. The peristome 
is deeply notched at the upper inner angle. The parietal wall is 
rather thick, and is extended a little forward of the aperture. 
The umbilicus is narrow and almost flat sided, but there is no 
angle with the base of the shell. The shell itself is quite thin 
and fragile, and only the holotype and one immature paratype 
are unbroken. One paratype is actually only half of the body 
whorl of a broken shell. 

Material. Holotype. Mustang Island, near Port Aransas, Texas, 
February 14, 1960, collector, Winnie Rice; diameter, 1.72 mm.. 



January, 1965 nautilus 77 

altitude, 0.78 mm. Deposited in the Division of Mollusks, U. S. 
National Museum, no. 636311. Paratypes. All collected by Win- 
nie Rice on Mustang Island, Texas, near Port Aransas. 2 speci- 
mens from Cline's Point, Port Aransas, August 24, 1959; both are 
broken and have lost part of the body whorl. Institute of Marine 
Science, U. of Texas, no. 1015. 1 specimen from drift near the 
ferry landing. Port Aransas, September 2, 1959; this is a fragment 
consisting of about one half of the body whorl. Institute of Ma- 
rine Science, U. of Texas, no. 1016. 1 specimen from Port Aran- 
sas, October 21, 1959; this is worn and broken. UMML no. 
30:2775. 1 specimen from Port Aransas, October 26, 1959; this 
specimen has the upper part of the peristome broken away, and 
a piece is broken out of the body whorl close to the aperture — 
diameter, 1.9 mm., altitude, 0.8 mm. UMML no. 30:2776. 3 speci- 
mens from Mustang Island, February 14, 1960; 2 specimens are 
quite worn and broken, but one is quite fresh. The shell is glassy 
and unbroken except for a few nicks in the peristome. However, 
it is immature, and has the following measurements: diameter, 
1.2 mm., altitude, 0.55 mm. One specimen Academy of Natural 
Sciences of Philadelphia no. 295622; 2 specimens Division of Mol- 
lusks, U. S. National Museum no. 636312. 

Name derived fiom the state of Texas. 

Remarks. The genus Vitrinella is as yet in a confused state, and 
it is not practical to attempt to enumerate all the species of the 
West Indian region at this time. However, no species of Vitri- 
nella have as yet been reported from the Texas coast. Three 
species found in Texas waters are V. helicoidea C. B. Adams, 
V. thomasi (Pilsbry) , and V. floridana Pilsbry and McGinty. 
None of these has the periphery at the base of the shell, nor do 
any have radiating riblets on the ventral side. Thus V. texana is 
quite distinct from other species of Vitrinella found on the coast 
of Texas. 
SoLARioRBis SEMiPUNCTUS, sp. nov. Plate 8, upper figs. 1-3 

Description. The shell is strongly depressed, and has a flattened 
upper surface. The umbilicus is narrow, and partly concealed by 
a thickening of the body whorl around the umbilicus. 

The protoconch apparently consists of I1/2 whorls, but this 
could not be determined with any degree of certainty. There are 
3 whorls in all, covered, in the adult portion, with many spiral 
ridges. Between the ridges are somewhat narrower grooves. These 



78 NAUTILUS Vol. 78 (3) 

grooves are simple on the upper side but become punctate on the 
periphery and on the lower surface. The aperture is oblique, 
ovate, and with a rather heavy parietal callus. There is a notch 
in the upper inner- angle of the aperture. The umbilicus is quite 
narrow, but deep. The thickening of the inner portion of the 
body whorl begins about half a whorl from the aperture. It may 
cover the umbilicus completely, or leave a small opening. 

Material. Holotype. From northwest Campeche Bank, Mexico, 
18 meters, mud bottom, collector, Dan Steger; diameter, 0.93 
mm., altitude, 0.4 mm. Deposited in the Division of Mollusks, 
U. S. National Museum no. 636309. Paratype. 1 specimen from 
beach drift. Bale de Aquin, Haiti, 1956, collectors, Barry and 
Buena Valentine; diameter, 0.9 mm., altitude, 0.38 mm. UMML 
no. 30:2774. 

Name. The name semipunctus is derived from the Latin, semis, 
a half, and punctum^, a small hole, and refers to the series of 
small pits on the lower half of the shell. 

Remarks. There are about 11 recent species of Solariorbis pre- 
viously described from the West Indian region. S. semipunctus is 
smaller than any of the other known species, and is the only one 
with punctate sculpture on the lower half of the shell. S. blakei 
(Rehder) appears to be the most closely related species. It is only 
slightly larger than S. semipunctus, and may, in some specimens, 
also cover the umbilicus with an unusual development of the last 
whorl. S. blakei, however, does not have a flat upper surface, 
nor does it have the sculpture found in S. semipunctus. 

Of the two specimens, the paratype from Haiti appears to be 
the more recently dead. The sculpture is beach worn, however, 
and not nearly so distinct as that found on the holotype. Little 
can be said about the distribution of the species except that the 
distance between the two localities leads one to believe that it 
must be widespread in the West Indies and adjacent continental 
coast. 

References 

Abbott, R. Tucker. 1950. The genus Cyclostrema in the western 
Atlantic. Johnsonia 2(27) : 193-200, pis. 86-88. 

Bush, Katherine J. 1897. Revision of the marine gastropods re- 
ferred to Cyclostrema, Adeorbis, Vitrinella, and related genera. 
Trans. Conn, Acad. Arts. Sci. 10: 97-144, pis. 22, 23. 

2 Actually the adjective punctm, pricked (punctate) . — Ed. 



January, 1965 nautilus 79 

Fischer, Paul. 1857. Etudes sur un groupe de coquilles de la 
famine des Trochidae (Fin) 8. J. Conchyliol. 6: 284-288, pi. 10, 
figs. 10-13. 

Fretter, Vera. 1956. The anatomy of the prosobranch Circulus 
striatus (Philippi) and a review of its systematic position. 
Proc. Zool. Soc. Lond. 126 {?,) : 369-381, figs. 1-5. 

Moore, Donald R. 1962. The systematic position of the family 
Caecidae (Mollusca: Gastropoda) . Bull. Mar. Sci. Gulf & 
Carib. 12 (4) : 695-701, figs. 1-3. 

Pilsbry, Henry A. 1953. Vitrinellidae, Part 3a in Pliocene Mol- 
lusca of southern Florida with special reference to those from 
north Saint Petersburg. Acad. Nat. Sci. Philadelphia monog. 
8: 411-438, pis. 49-56. 

Pilsbry, H. A. and T. L. McGinty. 1945. Cyclostrematidae and 
Vitrinellidae of Florida— 1. Nautilus 59 {}) -. 1-13, pis. 1, 2. 

Taylor, D. W. and N. F. Sohl. 1962. An outline of gastropod 
classification. Malacologia ^ (1) : 7-32, fig. 1. 

Woodward, M. F. 1899. On the anatomy oi Adeorbis subcarinatiis 
Montagu. Proc. malac. Soc. Lond. 3: 140-146, pi. 8. 

A NEW THYASIRA (PELECYPODA) 
FROM THE ROSS SEA, ANTARCTICA 

By DAVID NICOL 
Department of Geology, Southern Illinois University, Carbondale 

Thyasiridae: Thyasira Lamarck, 1818 
Type-species, (monotypy) Tellina flexiiosa Montagu, 1803. 
Thyasira dearborni Nicol, new species. Plate 8, lower figs. 1-2 
Type repository — Division of Mollusks, U. S. National Mu- 
seum. Holotype cat, no. 653099; paratypes cat. nos. 612770 and 
635392. 

Description — Shell thin, small, porcellanous, somewhat chalky; 
color varying from white to pale yellow; periostracum thin, yel- 
low; a ferruginous, buff coating present at the anterior and pos- 
terior ends of the shell; equivalved; without a gape; anterior and 
ventral borders arcuate, postero-ventral area indented in the 
region of the constriction, remainder of posterior border gently 
rounded, dorsal border short and sloping both anteriorly and 
posteriorly; posterior one-eighth of the shell strongly constricted 
or flattened; holotype 4.8 mm. high and long, one paratype 4.9 
mm. high and long, the other paratype 5.0 mm. high and 4.9 mm. 
long; no prodissoconch; beaks prosogyrate, contiguous; surface 
ornamentation consists of numerous concentric lines; interior 
margins of shell smooth; adductor muscle scars and pallial line 
not seen; ligament external, opisthodetic; hinge edentulous and 
hinge plate absent. 



80 NAUTILUS Vol. 78 (3) 

This species is named in honor of Mr. John H. Dearborn of 
Stanford University who collected the holotype and one of the 
two para types. 

Comparisons — Tliyasira dearborn i can be easily distinguished 
from the more common Axinopsida bongraini (Lamy) by the 
prominent constriction on the posterior side of the shell, and this 
morphologic feature also distinguishes Thyasira dearborni from 
Axinopsida magellanica (Dall) because the latter species has 
only a shallow sulcus on the posterior side. Thyasira falklandica 
(E. A. Smith) is a much larger species with a well-developed 
greenish periostracum. 

Habitat — The holotype was collected at a depth of 836 meters 
from a bottom of gravel and pebbles. One paratype was found at 
a depth of 695 m. associated with a sponge-gorgonacean complex. 
The other paratype was found at a depth of 640 m. on a bottom 
of coarse glacial till. 

Geographic distribution — The holotype of Tliyasira dearborni 
vvas discovered by Mr. Dearborn at 73°46.7'S., 169°09'E., off 
Coulman Island in the Ross Sea. One paratype, also found by 
Mr. Dearborn, came from 76°11.6'S., 164°46'E., in the Ross Sea. 
The other paratype was collected by the Deepfreeze I Expedition 
and came from 77='38'S., 163°irW., Kainan Bay, Ross Sea. This 
uncommon species may be endemic to the Ross Sea region, and 
it certainly appears to live only in rather deep water — more than 
600 m. 

Mr, W. J. Byas, museum specialist in the Division of Mollusks 
at the U. S. National Museum, cleaned the holotype so that it 
could be photographed. 

Mr. David H. Massie of the U. S. Geological Survey made the 
photographs of Thyasira dearborni. 

This paper is a preliminary note on a study of antarctic pele- 
cypods which is being supported by a grant from the National 
Science Foundation (G-13335) . 



NAUTILUS 78 (3) 



PLATE 7 







Figs. 1-3, Macromphalina floridana Moore. 1, apertiiral, 2, upper, and 3. 
lower views. Figs. 4-6, Vitrinella texaua Moore. 4, apertural, 5, upper, and 6, 
lower views. 



NAUTILUS 78 (3) 



PLATE 8 







UjDper figs. 1-3, Solariorbis semipunctus Moore. 1, apertural, 2, upper, and 
3, lower views. Lower figs. 1 &: 2, Thyasira dearborni Nicol. 1, left valve, 
interior. 2, right valve, exterior. 



January, 1965 nautilus 81 

MALACOLOGICAL PROBLEMS: 1 

By dee S. DUNDEE and PATTI ^VATT HERMANN 
Louisiana State University in New Orleans and in Baton Rouge 

During a field trip to Texas^, the junior author collected a 

series of snails which we first called Polygra septemvolva febigeri 

(Bland) . Upon checking further (Pilsbry, 1940) , we discovered 

that there were snails in that lot matching the descriptions of 

P. septemvolva, P. s. febigeri, and P. s. volvoxis. 

This confusion prompted us to check our other collections 
from the Gulf Coast area to see what the situation is there. 
Examining lots covering Texas through Florida, we were not 
surprised to find a similar situation in them. In fact, in some we 
discovered the further problem of not being able to distinguish 
the 3 above-mentioned ones from the non-laminate form of 
P. cereolus carpenteriana (Bland). 

The table shows the size ranges in our collections. 





Large; 


3t Individual 


Smallest Individual 


Locality 


Ht. 


Diam. 


Whs. 


Ht. 


Diam. 


Whs. 






mm 






mm 




TEXAS 














Galveston 


Il.OO 


9.00 


6.50 


3.00 


7.00 


6.50 


LOUISIANA 














New Orleans 


3.50 


8.50 


5.50 


3.00 


7.50 


5.50 


New Orleans 


3.^0 


9.00 


6.25 


3.00 


7.50 


5.75 


Ft. Pike 


3.50 


8.50 


6.25 


3.50 


7.50 


6.50 


MISSISSIPPI 














Pass Christian 


3.50 


8.00 


6.00 


3.00 


7.50 


5.75 


Gulfport 


3.25 


8.00 


6.00 


3.00 


7.50 


5.75 


Biloxi 


3.75 


8.50 


6.25 


3.75 


8.00 


5.75 


Pascagoula 


3.50 


9.25 


6.25 


3.00 


8.25 


6.00 


Mobile 


ll.OO 


9.75 


6.25 


3.00 


6.50 


5.50 


Mobile 


U.OO 


9.75 


6.25 


3.50 


7.25 


5.75 


FLORIDA 














Pensacola 


3.75 


9.25 


6.25 


3.75 


7.25 


5.75 


St. Augustine 


3.50 


8.50 


6.50 


3.75 


6.75 


5.75 


Miami 


3.50 


8.50 


5.75 


3.00 


7.50 


6.00 

















1 The collections mentioned here were made simultaneously with others 
which were sponsored by Public Health Service Grant GM-07194 (National 
Institutes of Health). To this agency we are indebted. 



82 NAUTILUS Vol. 78 (3) 

Evidently from the foregoing table, size ranges and measure- 
ments in general are no criteria on which to distinguish among 
these snails. This had already been pointed out by Vanatta 
(1912) when, after comparing measurements of Polygyra cereolus 
Muhl. and P. c. carpenteriana Bland in two collections, he stated, 

"It will be seen that no definite division based on size as is the 
practice can be made. Each of these lots represents a single 
colony. ..." 

Walker (1928) listed 3 of these forms (P. septemvolva, P. s. 
volvoxis, and P. s. febigeri) from Mobile; Pilsbry (1940) said it 
seems doubtful that all these occur in Mobile and that a large 
series should be studied. Again, our findings from Mobile would 
seem to confirm Walker's statement that all 3 exist there. Pilsbry 
(1940) has pointed out the primary distinctions between these 
forms as being the following: 

(1) P. cereolus differs from P. c. carpenteriana in that P. cere- 
olus is larger and has more whorls but does not have the last 
whorl angular in front, sloping inward below the angle but be- 
coming abruptly swollen in its last half or third and the rib striae 
not extending to the base as in P. c. carpenteriana. 

He also points out that "practically all large lots afford com- 
plete series of intergrading sizes and forms, although intermediate 
sizes may form a minority." 

(2) P. cereolus differs from P. septemvolva by having an inter- 
nal lamina (although it may be reduced or occasionally absent 
in P. c. carpenteriana), being less acutely carinate and more cal- 
careous, and in having central cavity of the base less widely 
open. P. cereolus occurs on calcareous soils while P. septemvolva 
is on acid soils. The ranges overlap. 

(3) P. septemvolva differs from P. s. volvoxis by smaller caliber 
of whorls (in same diameter specimens) , greater depression of 
the shell, greater number of whorls. "However, ambiguous speci- 
mens are occasionally found." 

(4) P. septemvolva volvoxis differs from P. s. febigeri by hav- 
ing the area of the whorl below the peripheral angle flattened 
rather than convex as in P. s. febigeri. The central cavity is wider 
in P. s. volvoxis and the parietal callus is raised more than in 
P. c. febigeri. 

Pilsbry earlier (1897) had considered P. febigeri a synonym of 
P. s. volvoxis. 



January, 1965 nautilus 83 

In view of our observations and the conflicting impressions of 
just what each of these really is, apparently the entire Polygyra 
cereolus complex needs attention by a systematist. 

Numerous small problems such as this exist in our own United 
States and could provide excellent short studies for students. The 
current trend is towards seeing an isolated, "untouched" spot in 
the world in which to work since the United States has been so 
well "worked over." From small problems such as this one, ob- 
viously such thinking is not valid. 

Similar problems will be pointed out later. 

Literature cited 

Pilsbry, Henry A. 1897. A classified catalog of American land 

shells, with localities. Naut. 11 (6) : 72. 
1940. Land Mollusca of North America (north of Mexico) , 

Acad. Nat. Sci. Philadelphia, Monogr. 3, v. 1 pt. 2, 575-994. 
Vanatta, E G. 1912. Land shells of Southern Florida. Naut. 

26 {2) \ 16-22. 
Walker, Bryant. 1928. The terrestrial shell-bearing Mollusca of 

Alabama. Misc. Pub. No. 18, Mus. Zool., U. Mich.: 1-180, 



NEW RECORDS FOR NEW YORK AND NEW JERSEY 

Bv MORRIS K. JACOBSON 
American Museum of Natural History 

Triodopsis hopetonensis (Shuttleworth). In April, 1964, Mr. 
G. C. Colantonio of Jersey City found a large and apparently 
well-established colony of this snail in Sayreville, Middlesex 
County, New Jersey. This represents a considerable northw^ard 
extension of this species. According to Pilsbry (p. 812) it ranges 
no further north than North Carolina. A subspecies, T. h. chin- 
coteagensis Pilsbry is found in Virginia, but the New Jersey shells 
do not have the small umbilicus and reduced apertural ornamen- 
tation characteristic of the Virginian form. They seem in all 
respects to be quite typical. Alexander (p. 57) does not cite it 
in his check list of New Jersey land snails. Mr. Colantonio re- 
ports that the colony is about 600 feet from the Raritan River, 
just beyond the railroad tracks. The area is an empty lot, low 
lying, with a few birch and oak trees. The snails are found on 
the ground, under leaves and twigs. The finder estimates that in 
the center of the colony, which is about an acre in extent, there 
were 5 individuals to the square foot. The only other mollusk 



84 NAUTILUS Vol. 78 (3) 

found was Philomycus carolinianus (Bosc) . 

Littorina irrorata (Say) . Last autumn Mr. Colantonio dis- 
covered a sizeable colony of this species at the Manasquan Inlet 
Railroad Bridge in Monmouth County, New Jersey. Subse- 
quently, Mr. Bernard Blum of Rockaway, New York, showed the 
writer one live specimen and one dead specimen of the same 
species that he had taken on June 17, 1964 in Jamaica Bay at 
Beach 65th Street. Both of these records are important because 
they refer to the northern part of the range of the species, where 
Bequaert (p. 7) feels they are dying out. Generally, northern 
records of this species are based upon dead material. 

Valvata bicari7iata Lea. The only Valvata ever recorded from 
the New York City area is V. tricarinata (Say) (Humphreys, p. 
10; Jacobson and Emerson, p. 31, etc.). There are no Long Island 
records. This summer Mr. Harry Fertik of Bayside, Queens found 
V. bicarinata in Oakland Lake, a small body of water at Spring- 
field Boulevard and Northern Boulevard in Queens County, 
New York City. The lake is small, about 4 city blocks long and 
about 2 wide. It is surrounded by a rather steeply rising shore- 
line which is thickly covered with deciduous trees. The snails 
were found in fair numbers in a few localities near shore crawl- 
ing around on the surface of a very fine mud deposit. Where the 
mud was not present, the snails too were absent. The shells were 
quite typical, conforming well to the distinction from V. tricar- 
inata pointed out by Walker (p. 122) . The largest specim.en 
measured 6.3 by 5.0 mm. As far as could be determined, the near- 
est locality from w'hich V. bicarinata has been reported is Phila- 
delphia, Pennsylvania (Walker, p. 125) . The isolated presence 
of this snail in this one pond [none were found in Alley Pond, 
just a short distance away] suggests a recent and probably acci- 
dental introduction. 

Vivipariis contectoides Binney (:= ? V. georgianus Lea) . This 
species, found commonly further up state, appeared in Central 
Park some years ago (Jacobson and Emerson, p. 35) . Mr. Fertik 
found this species associated with Valvata bicarinata in Oakland 
Lake. The specimens were smaller than those from Central Park, 
New York City but far less eroded. This is the first time this 
species was found in Long Island. The absence of the far more 
widespread V. malleatus from the lake is surprising. Seemingly 
there is hardly a permanent body of water in the New York City 



January, 1965 nautilus 85 

area that does not support a sizeable colony of this immigrant 
from the Far East. Oakland Lake is an outstanding exception. 
Other mollusks found living in Oakland Lake are Amnicola 
limosa (Say) , Helisoma anceps (Menke) , H. trivolvis Say, Physa 
heterostropha Say, and Musculium sp. The presence of large 
numbers of fishes indicates the probable presence of some naiads 
which have not yet been found. 

Cir cuius liratus (Verrill) . For several years, isolated specimens 
of this vitrinellid have been found dead in beach drift in Rock- 
away Beach. The only other records of this species are those of 
Verrill ("off Newport, Rhode Island, 8i/4 fathoms," p. 529) and 
C. W. Johnson ("Cape Hatteras, North Carolina, 8 to 43 fath- 
oms," p. 76). The determination of the specimens has been con- 
firmed by Donald R. Moore of the University of Miami who is 
using the record in a study of the Vitrinellidae in which he is at 
present engaged. 

Triodopsis fosteri F. C. Bakei\ Several years ago the writer vis- 
ited Burlington, New Jersey and procured a series of this species 
that had been planted there by W. G. Binney about a century 
ago (Pilsbry, p. 832) . Some were released in the waiter's garden 
in Rockaway Beach where they have flourished amazingly, even 
exceeding the other imported snail Cepaea nemoralis (L.) 
(Jacobson and Smit, p. 2-4) , It lives in a bed of ground ivy to- 
gether with the Cepaea, Discus rotunda tus (Muller) Anguispira 
alternata fergusoni (Bland) and several species of slugs. 

Dr. William K. Emerson kindly read the manuscript. Speci- 
mens of the shells mentioned have been deposited in the collec- 
tion of the American Museum of Natural History. 

Literature cited 

Alexander, Robert C. 1952. Nautilus, 66: 54-59. 

Bequaert, Joseph C. 1943. The genus Littorina in the western 
Atlantic. Johnsonia, no. 7: 1-28, pis. 1-7. 

Humphreys, Edwin H. 1909. Nautilus 23: 10-11. 

Jacobson, Morris K. and William K. Emerson. 1961. Shells of the 
New York City Area. Larchmont, New York, pp. i-xvii plus 
1-142, illustrated. 

Jacobson, Morris K. and Walter Smit, 1946. Nautilus 60: 2-4. 

Johnson, Charles W. 1934. List of Marine Mollusca of the At- 
lantic coast from Labrador to Texas. Proc. Boston Soc. Nat. 
Hist. ^(1) : 1-204. 

Pilsbry, Henry A. 1940. Land Mollusca of North America 1 (2) : 



86 NAUTILUS Vol. 78 (3) 

iii-vi, i-ix [index], plus 575-994, figs. 378-580. 
Verrill, A. E. 1882. Trans. Connecticut Acad. 5.- 447-587, pis. 

42-44, 57, 58. 
Walker, Bryant. 1902. Nautilus 75; 121-125, figs. 1-7. 



AN ECOLOGICAL ANALYSIS OF FOUR PERMIAN 
MOLLUSCAN FAUNAS 

By DAVID NICOL 
Department of Geology, Southern Illinois University, Carbondale 

The reasons for the occurrence of predominantly molluscan 
faunas in some strata of Middle Permian age in the southwestern 
United States have received surprisingly little thought. Perhaps 
one explanation for this is that the reefs of Permian age have 
been considered economically more important and therefore mer- 
ited more study than other Permian marine environments. The 
purpose of this paper is to point out why many typical marine 
organisms are rare or absent from these dominantly molluscan 
faunas. 

Four examples of dominantly molluscan Permian faunas have 
been selected and compared with each other, and these in turn 
are compared with two possibly similar environments and faunas 
from the Recent along the coast of Texas. The 4 Permian faunas 
are found in tlie Fort Apache Limestone Member of the Supai 
Formation in eastern Arizona; the Alpha Member of the Kaibab 
Formation at Flagstaff, Arizona; the Blaine and Dog Creek For- 
mations (which are essentially alike even to the same species) of 
Kansas, Oklahoma, and Texas; and the Whitehorse Sandstone of 
Oklahoma and Texas. These strata range in age from Early 
Leonardian to Middle Guadalupian. The Fort Apache is appar- 
ently Early Leonardian. The Kaibab and Blaine appear to be 
Late Leonardian. The Dog Creek is Early Guadalupian, and the 
Whitehorse is Middle Guadalupian in age.. The Recent faunas 
from Texas are the hypersaline macrofauna from Laguna Madre 
and the brackish-water macrofauna from the Rockport region. 

Two paragraphs in the book by Newell et al, 1953, provide us 
with some explanation of the reason for the unusual zoological 
composition of these faunas. (The writer realizes that these mol- 
luscan faunas were not the main consideration of Newell and his 
colleagues.) The first statement of interest in this problem is 



January, 1965 nautilus 87 

given in the abstract (p. xviii-xix) and is as follows: 

(10) For the most part, the rocks of the shelf province are 
poorly fossiliferous in the lower part and unfossiliferous in the 
upper part of the column. This is only partly a result of dolomiti- 
zation and recrystallization. There are a few gastropods, brachio- 
pods, scaphopods, and pelecypods, several of which also occur in 
the marginal and basin provinces. Evidently these forms were 
tolerant of a broad range of environmental conditions.. Proximity 
to evaporite deposits suggests euryhalinity for the characteristic 
species of the shelf rocks. Groups which characteristically have 
always been stenohaline (corals, bryozoans, echinoderms, and am- 
monoids) are very poorly represented in the shelf faunas. Fusu- 
lines and, in the beds of Capitanian age, dasycladacean algae are 
abundant in the calcarenite zone immediately behind the banks 
and reefs, but they do not extend far from the edge of the Dela- 
ware Basin. 

Essentially the same ideas are presented by Newell et al on 
p. 205 and are, therefore, not quoted here. 

Newell (1940, p. 267) postulates the following type of physical 
environment for the Whitehorse Sandstone fauna, and conditions 
similar to this probably occurred in the Fort Apache, Kaibab, 
and Blaine and Dog Creek faunas. 

The lagunal environment behind the offshore bars of a hyper- 
saline sea might well be more habitable to invertebrates than the 
water on the seaward side of the barriers. Streams draining the 
arid lands bordering the relic sea, although few in number, would 
effectively reduce the salinity of the water along the coast bor- 
dering the stream mouths. Lagunal areas behind offshore bars 
near the streams might well become a haven for such relics of a 
normal marine fauna that could exist under the rather difficult 
conditions of environment. 

On the basis of the evidence gleaned from both the lithology 
and the fossils, it is assumed that these faunas lived in almost 
completely land-locked, very shallow lagoons. On one side of 
each lagoon was an offshore bar; on the other was a low-lying 
arid land with few intermittent streams emptying into the lagoon. 
If this were a desert region, the rainfall would be little, but it 
would most likely come in great cloudbursts which would reduce 
the salinity in the lagoon at infrequent and irregular intervals. 
During most of the time, the salinity would be greater than that 



88 NAUTILUS Vol. 78 (3) 



Table 1. — Number of species in each faiina. 





1* 


2* 


3* 


4* 


5* 


6* 


Pelecypoda 


20 


13 


13 


Ik 


19 


8 


Gastropoda 


29 


7 


2 


12 


20 


6 


Scaphopoda 


1 


1 


1 


1 








Cephalopoda 


2 


3 


lij- 











Amphineura 














1 





Articiilata 


2 


3 


2 


4 








Bryozoa 


1? 


2,** 


2 


1 








Annelida 





1 


1 


1 








Trilobita 


1 


1 














Crustacea 














3 





Echinoderma ta 


2 





1*** 


2 


1 


Anthozoa 


1 


















1* Fort Apache Member, Supai Formation. 2* Alpha Member, Kaibab 
Formation. 3* Blaine and Dog Creek Formations. 4* Whitehorse Sandstone. 
5* Recent, hypersaline, Laguna Madre. 6* Recent, brackish, Rockport. 
1** one bi'yozoan fragment. 1*** one crinoid stem. 



January, 1965 nautilus 89 

of normal sea water, but shortly after a heavy cloudburst the 
lagoon, or most of it, might have a salinity less than that of 
normal sea water (brackish water) . Most of the lagoon might 
have been hypersaline but near the mouth of a large stream or 
river the water may have been brackish. The lagoons during the 
Middle Permian, like those along the south and central Texas 
coast today, were undoubtedly shallow. Maximum depth was 
probably about 10 meters in these lagoons and most of the 
lagunal areas probably had a depth of no more than 5 meters. 
Because the water was shallow with relatively little influx of 
water from the open sea, the seasonal and diurnal fluctuations of 
temperature must have been great. Parker (1959, p. 2108-2109) 
has recorded a yearly range of temperature in Laguna Madre of 
as much as from 5° to 40° C. Probably very similar fluctuations 
of temperatures occurred in the Middle Permian lagunal areas. 
These Permian faunas must have consisted of animals that were 
not only euryhaline but eurythermal as well. The gieatest mor- 
tality of shallow water marine organisms commonly occurs at the 
maximum temperature rather than the minimum temperature 
because most organisms can withstand an extremely low temper- 
ature for a longer period of time than they can an extremely high 
temperature. These Permian organisms must have been able to 
withstand extremely high temperatures for at least short periods 
of time. Modern reef corals thrive when there is a yearly temper- 
ature fluctuation of not more than 5° C. One other limiting 
factor may have played a role in the composition of the Permian 
faunas, and that was type of substrate. Bottom conditions in the 
Permian lagoons were probably similar to those of the modern 
Laguna Madre, which has substrates of shelly sand, silty sand, 
clayey sand, and clay. These substrates would provide a good en- 
vironment for the infauna and the vagrant benthonic organisms, 
but a rather poor environment for the epifauna and organisms 
that needed a hard object for attachment. However, the type of 
bottom in the shallow Permian lagoons was probably not so re- 
strictive that it would completely eliminate all crinoids, corals, 
and bryozoans. Thus, the type of substrate was a less restricting 
factor than was the greatly fluctuating salinities and temperatures 
in these Permian lagoons. 

This rather lengthly exposition on the probable physical con- 
ditions in which these Permian faunas lived is given mainly to 



90 NAUTILUS Vol. 78 (3) 

explain why some of the most abundant and widespread Permian 
invertebrates are absent or rare in the Fort Apache Limestone 
Member of the Supai Formation, the Alpha Member of the 
Kaibab Formation, the Blaine and Dog Creek Formations, and 
the Whitehorse Sandstone. If one assumes that these faunas are 
essentially marine, then their unusual composition shoidd be 
explained, if it is at all possible. This, in essence, is the problem. 
Let me analyze the faunal composition of each of the Permian 
faunas in some detail and compare them with the living ones at 
Laguna Madre and Rockport, Texas. Table 1, which lists the 
number of species in each fauna, can give us only a general idea 
as to the faunal composition in each case, but it clearly indicates 
that the pelecypods are either the most important element or one 
of the two most important elements in each of the six faunas. 
The basic data for these 6 faunas were taken from the followinsr 

o 

sources: Winters, 1963 (Fort Apache Limestone), Nicol, 1944 
(Alpha Member of the Kaibab Formation) , Clifton, 1942 (Blaine 
and Dog Creek Formations), Newell, 1940 (Whitehorse Sand- 
stone), Parker, 1959 (Laguna Madre and Rockport, Texas) . A 
better idea of the faunal composition and possible environment 
could be obtained by taking a sample and counting the specimens 
of the major groups in each fauna, but, unfortunately, such a 
count was made only in the Kaibab study. 

The first fauna to be considered is the Fort Apache Limestone 
Member of the Supai Formation in eastern Arizona. This fauna 
is slightly older and richer than the other 3 Permian faunas and 
is more like the Kaibab fauna than any of the others. 

Pelecypods and gastropods dominate the fauna, both in num- 
bers of species and in numbers of specimens. Winters mentions 
29 species of gastropods and 20 species of pelecypods in the Fort 
Apache Limestone. The most abundant ones (represented by 
60 or more individuals) are six species of pelecypods, including 
one species of Protobranchia, and five species of gastropods. One 
of the two species of echinoids in the fauna is also listed as most 
abundant, but it apparently is represented only by spines and 
one interambulacral plate. The spines are not complete, and their 
condition suggests the possibility that they may have been trans- 
ported into the Fort Apache Limestone after the death of the 
echinoids. Two species of nautiloids are described but neither is 
common. As in the other Permian faunas, one species of scaph- 



January, 1965 nautilus 91 

opod is present. An unusual invertebrate found in the Fort 
Apache Limestone is a species of solitary rugose coral which is 
common at two of the four fossiliferous localities. 

Only two species of articulate brachiopods are present and only 
one of them is abundant. This is certainly a poor representation 
for the brachiopods in a marine environment during the Permian. 
Apparently at least one species of bryozoan is found at one 
locality (p. 21-22), but it is not mentioned by Winters in his 
section on systematic paleontology. One species of trilobite, repre- 
sented by only three fragments of pygidia, is found in the Fort 
Apache Limestone. The Kaibab Formation, also in Arizona, con- 
tains trilobites, too; but the other two Middle Permian faunas 
discussed in this paper have no trilobites, although they were 
ecologically similar and geographically close. This fact again 
substantiates the observations of other writers who have noted 
that, throughout the Permian, relict trilobites exhibit endemic 
geographic distribution. Some kind of unknown selective barrier 
that prevented the trilobites (but not many other organisms) 
from spreading eastward, is also a possible explanation for the 
absence of trilobites in the Blaine and Dog Creek Formations and 
the Whitehorse Sandstone in Kansas, Oklahoma, and Texas. 

Pelecypods and gastropods almost completely dominate the 
fauna of the Alpha Member of the Kaibab Formation, both in 
numbers of species and in numbers of individuals. The number 
of specimens counted was as follows: pelecypods 198, gastropods 
125, scaphopods 50, brachiopods 36, trilobite 7, cephalopods 5, 
annelids 1, bryozoans 1 poorly preserved fragment. The writer 
now doubts that either the few nautiloid cephalopods or the one 
bryozoan fragment were indigenous to the area and believes they 
were probably transported after death into this region; they 
should be eliminated from further consideration in the analysis 
of the Kaibab fauna. Accordingly, the adjusted number of iden- 
tified specimens is 417, including 373 pelecypods, gastropods, and 
scaphopods. Mollusks comprise about 89 per cent of the total 
number of specimens in the fauna. A further breakdown of the 
various components of the Kaibab fauna is as follows: pelecypods 
47 per cent, gastropods 30 per cent, scaphopods 12 per cent, and 
articulate brachiopods 8 per cent. The Kaibab fauna is, thus, a 
predominantly molluscan one dominated, on the basis of number 
of species and individuals, first by the pelecypods and secondarily 



92 NAUTILUS Vol. 78 (3) 

by the gastropods. The articulate brachiopods are a minor 
element on the basis of number of species and number of in- 
dividuals. 

The Blaine and Dog Creek faunas differ from the Fort Apache, 
Kaibab, and Whitehorse faunas in two significant ways. One is 
the abundance and variety of cephalopods and the other is the 
scarcity of gastropods (Clifton, 1944, p. 1027) . The pelecypod 
specimens and species dominate the Blaine and Dog Creek faunas 
because the cephalopods are more restricted in both their strati- 
graphic and geographic distributions. One cannot be certain that 
the cephalopods were not washed into these lagunal deposits 
through inlets in barrier bars after death and are therefore not 
indigenous to these Middle Permian strata. The crinoid stem 
very likely came from outside the barrier bar and was washed 
into these deposits. Two species of articulate brachiopods are 
found at one of the 5 fossiliferous localities in the Dog Creek 
Formation but are completely absent from the Blaine Formation. 
One of the two brachiopod species is represented by one specimen 
and the other is reported as scarce. The uncommonness of gas- 
tropods is a most unusual feature of the Blaine and Dog Creek 
faunas, and the only factor that might have restricted the number 
of gastropods in these faunas was the soft muddy substrate. 

Newell (1940, p. 269) has this to say about the composition 
of the Whitehorse fauna. 

The Whitehorse fauna is predominantly molluscan, 26 out of 
a total of 32 forms being pelecypods and gastropods. Pelecypods 
dominate the fauna in both variety and numbers. Two pelecypod 
species, Dozierella gouldii (Beede) and Pleurophorus albequus 
Beede, make up more than % of all specimens found. There are 
14 kinds of pelecypods and 12 gastropod species. 

Calcareous worm tubes belonging to Spirorbis sp. are fairly 
common, as are specimens of the one bryozoan species Lioclema 
dozierense Moore. Brachiopods are represented by 4 species, none 
of which is abundant. 

It is interesting to note that each of the 4 Permian faunas has 
one species of scaphopod. Scaphopod individuals are fairly abun- 
dant in the Kaibab fauna (50 specimens observed) but only two 
specimens were found in the Whitehorse Sandstone, and they are 
scarce to common in five localities in the Blaine and Dog Creek 
Formations. They are also common at two fossiliferous localities 



January, 1965 nautilus 93 

and rare or very rare at two other fossiliferous localities in the 
Fort Apache Limestone. Except for the Fort Apache, one species of 
annelid worm occurs in each fauna, but they are never more than 
fairly common. Bryozoans apparently are not indigenous to the 
Kaibab Formation, and this may also be true of the Fort Apache 
Limestone. Bryozoans are not common in the Blaine and Dog 
Creek Formations and only fairly common in the Whitehorse 
Sandstone. The brachiopods in all four faunas are articulate 
forms, and one species of productid occurs in each of the four 
faunas except the Whitehorse Sandstone, where only terebratulids 
and athyrids occur. No linguloid brachiopods are present, and 
the reasons for their absence may be either a scarcity of slightly 
brackish water habitats or lack of the proper muddy substrate in 
which these brachiopods prefer to live. 

Brachiopods are not abundant as to numbers of individuals in 
the Kaibab Formation, and they occur only rarely at one locality 
in the Dog Creek Formation. They are not found in the Blaine 
Formation, nor are brachiopods abundant as to individuals in 
the Whitehorse Sandstone, where they have been found in only 
three of the eleven fossiliferous localities examined. Only one of 
the two species of articulate brachiopods from the Fort Apache 
Limestone is abundant. A unique feature of the Fort Apache and 
Kaibab faunas is the presence of trilobite pygidia in these beds. 
Some of the few species of trilobites living during Middle Per- 
mian time might have been able to endure rather euryhaline and 
eurythermal conditions. However, there is again the possibility 
that these pygidia may have been washed into these lagunal de- 
posits from the open sea. A more detailed analysis of the pele- 
cypod faunas of these Permian strata reveals that there are no 
protobranchs in the Whitehorse fauna; only one species is found 
uncommonly at three localities in the Blaine and Dog Creek 
Formations; one species occurs abundantly in the Fort Apache 
Limestone; and two species (32 specimens of undoubted proto- 
branchs) are found in the Kaibab fauna. Only 16 per cent of all 
the individual pelecypods counted in the Kaibab fauna were pro- 
tobranchs. Thus, the nuculids and their allies do occur in most 
of these Permian molluscan faunas, but they are never the domi- 
nant subclass of pelecypods. 

In the Recent hypersaline fauna of Laguna Madre, the pele- 
cypods are commonly the dominant group from the standpoint 



94 NAUTILUS Vol. 78 (3) 

of numbers of individuals because 9 of the 19 species listed by 
Parker are considered by him to be exceedingly abundant. The 
gastropods follow rather closely and 5 of the 20 species are ex- 
ceedingly abundant as to numbers of living individuals. The one 
species of Amphineura listed is rare, and neither species of 
echinoderm is common. One species of Crustacea is considered 
exceedingly abundant by Parker. Only one of the 19 species of 
pelecypods listed is a protobranch, and it is not common in any 
hypersaline environment. Thus, the faunal composition of the 
hypersaline fauna of Laguna Madre is similar to those of the 
Fort Apache, Kaibab, Blaine and Dog Creek, and Whitehorse 
Permian faunas; and the similarity is particularly remarkable 
when one considers that approximately 200 million years in age 
separates the Permian faunas from the one at Laguna Madre. 

The brackish-water fauna in the Rockport, Texas, region is 
a more impoverished one than is the hypersaline one at Laguna 
Madre, and it is more completely dominated by species and 
living individuals of pelecypods. Five of the 8 species of pele- 
cypods are exceedingly abundant according to Parker but only 
two of the six species of gastropods are exceedingly abundant. 
No species of protobranchs taken alive are reported from this 
brackish-water fauna. Strangely enough, the one species of echin- 
oderm is also exceedingly abundant. Perhaps the similarity of 
the Recent Rockport fauna to some of the more impoverished 
Permian faunas, which are commonly dominated by a few species 
of pelecypods, can be attributed to below-average salinity in 
both cases. 

Before concluding, it is interesting to note that those groups 
of invertebrates that are absent or are poorly represented in the 
four Permian molluscan faunas are generally the ones that 
suffered most from the rapid world-wide extinction at the end 
of the Permian. The fusulinids and Paleozoic corals became ex- 
tinct at the end of the Permian, and so did some of the important 
classes and orders of Paleozoic echinoderms. The bryozoans, like- 
wise, suffered much extinction, and the cephalopods also nearly 
became extinct although they recovered rapidly in the Triassic. 
The brachiopods, of course, declined rapidly in numbers of 
species, genera, and families at the end of the Paleozoic. The tril- 
obites cannot be considered in this light because they were nearly 
extinct before the extremely unfavorable conditions in the Per- 



January, 1965 nautilus 95 

mian took place, but this may have hastened their extinction. 
In other words, these molluscan faunas that occur in the Permian 
adumbrate the dominant invertebrate faunal types found in the 
Early Triassic. The Early Triassic marine faunas are dominated 
by abundant and widely distributed pelecypods. 

Gastropods and cephalopods may be abundant in some areas, 
but they generally are not as common as the pelecypods. Corals 
are absent from the Early Triassic. The brachiopods, possibly 
because they were not nearly so commonly euryhaline and eury- 
thermal as the pelecypods, no longer were more varied and 
abundant than the latter group. Thus the molluscan faunas of 
the Permian herald the changes of faunal dominance from Trias- 
sic time onward. 

Literature cited 

Clifton, R. L., 1942, Invertebrate faunas from the Blaine and the 
Dog Creek Formations of the Permian Leonard Series: Jour. 
Paleo. 16 (6) : 685-699. 

, 1944, Paleoecology and environments inferred for some 

marginal Middle Permian marine strata: Am. Assoc. Petr. 
Geol., Bull. 28{1) : 1012-1031. 

Newell, N. D., 1940, Invertebrate fauna of the Late Permian 
Whitehorse Sandstone: Geol. Soc. Am. Bull. 5/ (2) : 261-335. 

Newell, N. D., J. K. Rigby, A. G. Fischer, A. J. Whiteman, 
J. E. Hickox, and J. S. Bradley, 1953, The Permian reef com- 
plex of the Guadalupe Mountains region, Texas and New 
Mexico. A study in paleoecology: W. H. Freeman & Co., San 
Francisco, Calif., 236 pp. 

Nicol, David, 1944, Paleoecology of three faunules in the Permian 
Kaibab Formation at Flagstaff, Arizona: Jour. Paleo. 18(6): 
553-557. 

Parker, R. H., 1959, Macro-invertebrate assemblages of central 
Texas coastal bays and Laguna Madre: Am. Assoc. Petr. Geol., 
Bull. 43(9): 2100-2166. 

Winters, S. S., 1963, Supai Formation (Permian) of eastern Ari- 
zona: Geol. Soc. Am., Memoir 89, 99 p. 



96 NAUTILUS Vol. 78 (3) 

MESODESMA DEAURATUM: SYNONYMY, 
HOLOTYPE AND TYPE LOCALITY^ 

By JOHN D. DAVIS 

Department of Zoolog}', Smith College 

Recently (Davis 1964) a lectotype was designated for Meso- 
desma arctatum, one of the two arctic wedge clams found in the 
western North Atlantic. Attention is now turned to the com- 
panion species, Mesodesrna deauratum. 

The following synonymy has been established: 
Mesodesma deauratum (Turton) Plate 9, fig. A-D 

Mactra deaurata Turton 1822, The Bivalve Shells of the 
British Islands, Exeter, England, p. 71, pi. 5, fig. 8 (Exmouth 
[England]) . 

Mactra denticulata Wood 1828, Index Testaceologicus, 2nd. 
ed. Supplement, p. 4, pi. 1, fig. 9, (no locality given) . 

Mesodesma jauresii De Joannis 1834, Magasin de Zoologie 
(Guerin) , Paris, pi. 54, [no pagination]. 

Mesodesma deaurata Turton. Hanley 1843, Catalogue of Re- 
cent Bivalves, London, p. 39. 

Ceronia deaurata H. and A. Adams 1857, The Genera of Re- 
cent Mollusca, London 2:414. 

Turton's original description follows: 

"MACTRA testa oblonga depressa inaequilaterali, latere pro- 
ducto rotundato altero suhtruncato, umbonihus incurvis. 

"Shell oblong flattish inequilateral, rounded at the elongated 
side and somewhat truncate at the other, with the beaks in- 
curved. Tab. nost. 5, g. 8. 

"Mus. nost. Dredged up in the offing of Exmouth. 

"Shell five-eighths of an inch long, and an inch and a quarter 
broad, opake and strong; one side elongated, sloping from the 
beaks, and rounded; the other shorter and somewhat angular, 
where it is a little open: color dull greyish-white, covered with a 
shining bronzed skin reflecting metallic lustres; coarsely and ir- 
regularly striate transversely, with a few coarser ridges towards 
the hinge: inside glossy greyish white, with the margin plain: 
beaks rather prominent and pointed, a little inclining to the 
longer side. 

"Of this vei-y beautiful shell we know neither description nor 
figure. In the outline it something resembles the Mactra deal- 
bata described in the eighth voL of the Linnean Transactions, 
p. 68, tab. 1, fig. 10, and the Dorset Catalogue, tab. 7, fig. 7. But 



1 Contribution no. 251 from the Smith College Department of Zoology. 



January, 1965 nautilus 97 

that shell is represented as thin and transparent, and somewhat 
angular at the longer side: the teeth also appear to be different." 
In 1834, De Joannis published his description of Mesodesma 
jauresii from the Gulf of St. Lawrence. His description follows: 

"Mesodesme. Mesodesma. Deshayes. M. de Jaures. M. jauresii. 
Joannis. 

"Long. 4 decim.; haut. 27 mill.; epaiss. 17 mill. 

"Coquille assez epaisse epidermee, couverte de rides produites 
par les stries d'accroissement equivalve tres inequilaterale, forte- 
ment tronquee en arriere (a la maniere de quelques Donaces) ; 
la partie inferieure du limbe legerement sinueuse; ligament pos- 
terieur externe se prolongeant a I'interieur, et y occupant le 
fond d'un cuilleron cardinal et ties profond. Deux dents sub- 
cardinales obliques, striees transversalement sur la valve gauche 
et portant a leur pied une fossette oblongue, striee en dedans 
sur la droite. La dent anterieure plus allongee que la posterieure, 
et soutenue en dessous par un epaississement du test. Deux im- 
pressions musculaires, submarginales, reunies par une ligule 
paleale etroite, et portant un petit sinus semi-circulaire en 
arriere. 

"Patrie, I'embouchure du fleuve Saint-Laurent. 

"A I'epoque ou Ton decrit cette coquille, on ne I'avait encore 
que privee de son epiderme, et en partie degradee par Taction 
des eaux. Elles pendaient en grappes a des fucus qui s'etaient 
implantes dessus. Cette agglomeration en grappes n'existe point 
evidemment dans leur etat vivant."^ 

Hanley (1843) first suggested that Mactra deaurata was not a 
member of the jMactridae but of Deshayes' new genus Meso- 
desma. Accordingly, he introduced the name Mesodesma deau- 
rata. However, it remained for Stimpson (1851) to suggest that 
Mactra deaurata, Mesodesma deauratum and Mesodesma jauresii 
w^re all synonyms. The issue was settled two years later when 
Forbes and Hanley (1853) published the following account: 

"Under the name of Mactra deaurata, Dr. Turton has intro- 
duced into our Fauna a species of the genus Mesodesma, stating 
that it was dredged up in the offing of Exmouth. One of our 
most assiduous and scientific collectors, Mr. Clark of Bath, whose 
researches in that neighborhood extended over a period of 
twenty years, during that long space of time never once procured 
a single specimen, a strong, although negative, proof of the in- 
dividual shell described by the doctor being of foreign importa- 
tion, and not of native origin. The species is an inhabitant of the 
Gulf of St. Lawrence, Newfoundland, and does not range to the 
European seas. Inquiries instituted on the Devonshire coast have 

2 Lack of accents graves not author's fault. Ed. 



98 NAUTILUS Vol. 78 (3) 

enabled us to solve the mystery of the discovery of this and other 
transatlantic shells in spots so utterly at variance with their 
known habitats. We find that during many years several vessels 
from those parts were engaged in prosecuting the Newfoundland 
fisheries; so that the accidental appearance of a few specimens of 
northern shells may readily be accounted for, as they frequently 
are mingled with the ballast of ships. A comparison of the 
original type with its delineation in the Conchylia Dithyra, com- 
pels the remark, that it is represented as more narrow and elon- 
gated than nature has shaped it, and enables us to declare its 
perfect identity with examples of the Mesodesma jauresii, re- 
ceived by us from North America." 

Thus the representatives of the Mesodesmatidae in the western 
North Atlantic were reduced to two species, Mesodesma arctatum 
and Mesodesma deauratum. 

At the same time, Gray (1853) divided the Mesodesmatidae 
into two groups based on the existence of a pallial sinus. The 
forms with a "siphonal inflection" included Mesodesma, Taria, 
Donacilla, Paphia, and Ceronia (a new genus created by Gray) . 
The genera without a sinus were Anapa and Davilia. Observing 
that Gray described the lateral teeth of Ceronia as "strongly cross- 
grooved," H. and A. Adams (1857) suggested 4 species, C. arctata 
(Conrad) , C. donacia (Lam.) , C. jauresii (Joannis) and C. 
lanceolata (Deshayes) . Later, Dall (1896) discussed the family 
Mesodesmatidae in detail and concluded that Ceronia and Meso- 
desma were synonyms. Subsequently, the name Ceronia was 
abandoned. 

Mr. S. P. Dance of the British Museum has informed me (per- 
sonal communication) that there are no records of M. deaura- 
tum being found on British shores subsequent to the discovery 
described by Turton in 1822. Thus Mesodesma deauratum is 
probably confined to the waters of the western North Atlantic. 
More specifically, distributional information from museums in 
the United States and Canada indicates that M. deauratum is 
probably restricted to the St. Lawrrence estuary and the Gulf of 
the St. Lawrence. 

M. deauratum can be distinguished from M. arctatum by its 
less truncate posterior end. In other words, the posterior edge of 
M. arctatum usually plunges more sharply to the ventral margin. 
Because of marked variation in the degree of truncation of both 
species, separation of the two species on the basis of this mor- 
phological variation is at best indistinct. 



January, 1965 nautilus 99 

During the study of museum collections a pair of valves was 
found in the United States National Museum with a label indi- 
cating the specimen was originally a part of Turton's collection. 
The label also indicated that the valves had previously been a 
part of the Jeffreys collection. Inasmuch as Jeffreys acquired the 
entire Turton collection, quite possibly this specimen might have 
been the one used by Turton in making his initial description. 

Further investigation confirmed this. Comparison of the ex- 
terior of the left valve with the drawing accompanying the ori- 
ginal description leaves no doubt about the specimen being the 
one used by Turton. The left valve and the drawing coincide 
exactly, both in size and shape, and the pattern of the remaining 
periostracum is very similar on both. Most convincing, however, 
is the appearance of a similar growth aberration on both picture 
and valve. Below and slightly posterior to the umbo, the third 
and fourth growth rings fuse forming a noticeably wider ridge 
and deeper groove. 

Therefore, this specimen (shown in Plate 9, figs. A-D) is des- 
ignated as the original type used by Turton, or as a modern 
lectotype. The museum label accompanying the specimen reads 
as follows: "Mesodesma deaurata Turt. Ex. Mus. Turton. Jeff. 
Coll." USNM. No.. 172665. 

The type specimen consists of paired right and left valves, 
length 27.9 mm., height 17.1 mm. The posterior edge is not 
sharply truncate but rather extended, and does not plunge 
sharply to the ventral margin. The dorsal margin is relatively 
straight and connects with the ventral margin at the rounded 
anterior end. The beak or umbo region is closer to the midpoint 
of the shell than in M. arctatum primarily because of the less 
truncate posterior end of M. deauratum. The concentric lines of 
growth spreading outward from the beaks are quite pronounced 
and easily visible. The previously mentioned fusion of the third 
and fourth growth rings is apparent on both valves. Considerable 
periostracum persists on the periphery of each valve. 

On the inner side of each valve there is a large cartilage pit 
or chondrophore in the beak region. On the left valve are two 
lateral teeth. Each of these consists of a ridge running parallel 
to the margin of the valve and covered with many vertical ridges. 
The anterior lateral tooth is somewhat longer than the posterior 
lateral tooth. The right valve has a posterior and anterior lateral 



100 NAUTILUS Vol. 78 (3) 

groove similarly ridged and positioned to receive the lateral 
teeth of the left valve. A complete pallial line includes a shallow 
U-shaped sinus posteriorly. The anterior adductor muscle scar 
has an anterior convex side and a posterior concave side, whereas 
the posterior adductor muscle scar is almost spherical with a 
small dorsal portion partially set off by an indentation on the 
anterior side of the scar. 

The question of type locality also needs consideration. Tur- 
ton's original specimen was collected off Exmouth, on England's 
south coast. M. deauratum is not believed to live there at the 
present time. Therefore, it seems desirable to note the source of 
the original specimen and then designate as the type locality an 
area known to support a large population of M. deauratum 
today. For this reason. Petite Matane, Province of Quebec, Can- 
ada, is designated as the type locality for Mesodesma deauratum. 
This site, on the south shore of the St. Lawrence estuary, supports 
a massive population of this pelecypod mollusk. 

I wish to thank Dr. William J. Clench for reading the manu- 
script and for his helpful suggestions. Appreciation is expressed 
to Drs. Harald A. Rehder, Curator of the Division of Mollusks, 
United States National Museum, and T. D. Stewart, Director, 
Natural History Division of the Smithsonian Institution, for their 
loan of the type specimen. I also wish to thank Mr. Norman 
Tebble and Mr. S. P. Dance of the British Museum for addi- 
tional information on possible British occurrence of the species. 

References 
Adams, H. and A. Adams. 1857. Sub-family Paphiinae, p. 412- 

415. In: The genera of Recent Mollusca. Vol. 2, Van Voorst, 

London. 
Dall, W. H. 1896. Contributions to the Tertiary fauna of Florida 

(Family Mesodesmatidae). Wagner Free Inst, of Sci., Trans. 

3:907-913. 
Davis, J. D. 1964. Lectotype designation for Mesodesma arctatum. 

Nautilus, 75:3-6. 
Forbes, E. and S. Hanley. 1853. M. deaurata Turton, p. 346-347. 

In: A history of British Mollusca. Vol. I Van Voorst, London. 
Gray, J. E. 1853. Ceronia. In: Ann. Mag. Nat. Hist. (s. 2) 77:44. 
Hanley, S. 1843. An illustrated and descriptive catalogue of 

recent bivalve shells. 6 pts, [Published in separate sections 

from 1842 to 1856]. 
Stimpson, W. 1851. Shells of New England. Phillips, Sampson 

and Co. Boston, vi -|- 58 p. 



NAUTILUS 78 (3) 



PLATE 9 





B 




^''"^> 



D 



Mesodcsma deaitraluin (Turton) . Holotype, U. S. N. M. 172665. A, ex- 
terior of left valve. B, exterior of right valve. C, interior of left valve. D, in- 
terior of right valve. 



NAUTILUS 78 (3) 



PLATE 10 




Latiaxis 



January, 1965 nautilus 101 

A NEW LATIAXIS FROM THE WESTERN PACIFIC 

(MURICIDAE) 

By WILLIAM K. EMERSON and ANTHONY D'ATTILIO 
American Museum of Natural History 

Commercial pearl-shell divers have obtained in recent years 
many specimens of an apparently undescribed species of Latiaxis 
from off the northeast coast of Australia, near Cooktown, Queens- 
land. Specimens of this species, masquerading as "Lataxiena 
lataxiena Jousseaume," are now available to private collectors in 
Australia and the United States. Therefore, it is appropriate at 
this time to describe this long-neglected species. 

According to Dr. D. F. McMichael of the Australian Museum, 
a specimen of this species has been represented in the collection 
of his institution for many years. Charles Hedley (1909: 369) 
cited it from Cooktown under the name of Coralliophila imbri- 
cata (Smith), 1876. Dr. McMichael concurs with our belief that 
this species is not referable to Smith's taxon and he kindly sug- 
gested that we describe it. 

We take pleasure in naming this species for Mr. Jack Fearnley 
of Cooktown, Australia, to whom we are indebted for providing 
most of the specimens used in this study. 
Latiaxis (Babelomurex) fearnleyi, new species. Figs. 1-4, 6 

Coralliophila imhricata Smith, Hedley, 1909, p. 369. 

Not Fusiis imhricatus Smith, 1876, p. 540, pi. 30, fig. 3. 

Shell is large for the genus, robust, high spired, fusiform, with 
8 to 10 highly imbricated and angulated whorls; exterior is grey- 
ish buff white. Protoconch is apparently simple, but is not well 
preserved. A spiney keel is commonly developed at the shoulder 
of the body whorl. Axial sculpture consists of 8 undulating ridges 
spirally crossed by numerous ribs. All major ribs are of nearly 
equal size and are divided by a minor rib. Spiral sculpture con- 
sists of numerous scaly processes which are most strongly devel- 
oped at the intersections formed with the axial ridges. Whorls on 
the spire have 3 major spiral ribs above the shoulder and 3 below; 
on the body whorl there are 3 to 4 spiral ribs above the shoulder 
and 10 below, followed by 3 additional ribs on the siphonal 
canal, the central one being the most prominent. These ribs are 
crowdedly ornamented with large scaly spines, with the spine 
open on one side and with the rounded opposite side set with 



102 NAUTILUS Vol. 78 (3) 

additional numerous vaulted scales. Shoulder-spines, which coin- 
cide with the axial ridges, are relatively large; the spines are tri- 
angularly shaped and are adapically turned. The spines below 
the shoulders of the whorls, gradually diminish in size and be- 
come progressively more depressed on the basal part of the body 
whorl; spines on the siphonal canal increase in size and project at 
right angles from shell. The siphonal canal is moderately open, 
long, recurved. The wide pseudo-umbilical region is roughly 
laminate and is bordered by a flaring fasciole set with close scales 
and the ends of previously formed canals. Aperture is small, 
ovate, angulate posteriorly, being about i/^ the height of shell; the 
outer lip is crenulate and lirate within. The entire aperture and 
inner surface of canal is colored a uniform shade of medium 
violet. No opercula were available for study. 

Measurements: holotype, length 61.9, diameter (below the keel 
of body whorl) 31.2 mm.; largest paratype, length 67.3, diameter 
31.3 mm.; smallest paratype, length 27.2, diameter 14 mm. 

Type locality: in 8 fathoms, on broken coral bottom, 1 mile 
northwest of Dawson's Reef, which is 7 miles southeast of Cook- 
town, Queensland, Australia. 

Specimens examined: Holotype (A.M.N.H. No. 111976) and 
14 paratypes (2 A.M.N.H, 7 A. D'Attilio and 4 B. F. Grunzig col- 
lections) from type locality, ex J. Fearnley 1 paratype (Aust. 
Mus. No. 25110) off Cooktown, Queensland, C. Hedley. 1 para- 
type, 56.3 X 30.2 mm. (A.N.S.P. No. 297260) , 20 fms., off Cook- 
town. 2 paratypes (Aust. Mus. No. 64476) off Cooktown, Queens- 
land, ex P. Colman. 1 specimen, Gloucester Island, Bowen, 
Queensland, N. Buckland collection. 1 specimen, Peel Island, 
Moreton Bay, Queensland, V. Christiansen collection. 

This species, which is the largest known living representative of 
Latiaxis {s. 1.) appears to belong to a group of L. (Babelo- 
miirex) , including L. australis (Laseron), 1955, from southeast 
Australia and L. japonicus (Dunker) , 1882, from Japan. The 
large size, prominent scaly spines, violet aperture, and relatively 
slight development of the shoulder keel, however, serve to charac- 
terize L. fearnley i (figs. 1,2). 

This species is known to range off Queensland, Australia from 
near Cooktown on the north coast to Moreton Bay, near Bris- 
bane, on the south coast. Three specimens of a Latiaxis in the 
junior author's collection from 10 fathoms in Kii Channel re- 
semble the present species, but the Japanese specimens possess 
somewhat less markedly imbricated scales and a paler colored 



January, 1965 nautilus 103 

aperture (figs. 5, 7, 8) . Additional collecting in Japanese waters 
may demonstrate that these are immature examples o£ L. fearn- 
leyi. Another specimen from Japan was figured by Shikama and 
Horikoshi (1964, pi. 62, fig. 13) from off Shinomisahi, Kii Chan- 
nel, Japan and was misidentified as Coralliophila (Latimurex) 
costularis (Lamarck), 1816. Compared to L. jearnleyi, Lamarck's 
species, however, has a much smaller shell, which is a paler white, 
has a bluish purple aperture, whorls that are more rounded, axial 
sculpture that is more prominent, and scaly ornamentation that 
is more weakly developed (figs. 9-12) . 

In addition to Dr. McMichael and Mr. Fearnley, we are in- 
debted to several people for assistance in the completion of this 
study, Dr. R. T. Abbott permitted access to collections of the 
Academy of Natural Sciences of Philadelphia. Mr. Peter Dance 
checked the collection of the British Museum (Natural History) 
for pertinent specimens. Mr. B. F. Grunzig of Avenel, New Jersey, 
Mr. A. Teramachi of Kyoto, Japan, and Mr. S. Kinoshita of 
Shirahama-Onsenjo, Japan, provided specimens. Mr. W. E. Old, 
Jr. of the American Museum of Natural History assisted in vari- 
ous ways. 

Literature cited 
Hedley, Charles. 1909. The marine fauna of Queensland. Rept. 

Austr. Assoc. Bisbane 72:329-371. 
Shikama, Tokio, and Masuoki Horikoshi. 1964. Selected shells 

of the world, illustrated in colours. Tokyo, Japan, 154 pp., 211 

text figs., 102 pis. in color. 
Smith, E. A. 1876. A list of marine shells, chiefly from the Solo- 
mon Islands, with descriptions of several new species. Jour. 

Linn. Soc. London 72:535-562, pi. 30. 

Explanation of Plate 10 

Figs. 1-4, 6, Latiaxis (B.) jearnleyi from off Cooktown, Aus- 
tralia, type locality; figs. 1, 2, holotype; figs. 3, 4, small paratype; 
fig. 6, paratype. 

Figs. 5, 7, 8, L. (B.) cf. L. (B.) jearnleyi, Kii Channel, Tosa 
Bay, Japan, 10 fathoms. 

Figs. 9-12, Latiaxis (Latimurex) costularis (Lamarck); figs. 9, 
10, Kii Channel, Japan, 10 fathoms; figs. 11, 12, Zanzibar, inter- 
tidal. All figures natural size. 



104 NAUTILUS Vol. 78 (3) 

NOTES AND NEWS 

Dr. Keppel Harcourt Barnard died suddenly on Sept. 22, 
1964. He had worked at the South African Museum since 1911, 
and was the Director from 1946 until his retirement in 1956. He 
was engaged actively in his research up to the time of his death. 

An observation of Laevicardium mortoni actually swim- 
ming. — On June 1, 1963, while collecting the ectoparasitic gas- 
tropod, Odostomia bisuturalis (Say, 1821), on its host the com- 
mon oyster, Crassostrea virginica (Gmelin, 1790) , we witnessed 
an unusual phenomenon in the behavior of a pelecypod. This 
happening was so unusual that it might have gone unreported 
for lack of confirmation had only one of us observed the occur- 
rence. We were wading side-by-side in shallow water when we 
observed what appeared to be a 'tadpole' swimming. Leaning 
forward, we saw Laevicardium mortoni (Conrad, 1830), its foot 
extended well beyond the ventral edge of the shell and moving in 
a sculling motion, in this way propelling the shell through the 
water. In a few moments the animal withdrew its foot and fell 
to the bottom where it remained on its side. It was then that we 
identified the species. This observation was made several hundred 
feet in from the mouth of Bass River, a river which separates the 
towns of West Dennis and Yarmouth, Massachusetts, on Cape 
Cod. The tide was ebbing, the water was 3-6 inches deep, clear, 
with no ripples to distort the observation. Edward S. Morse 
(Proc. Bos. Soc. Nat. Hist, i5 (5) : 173, 1919) illustrated the ex- 
tended foot of L. mortoni and remarked that, "The foot is long, 
white and pointed and active in its movements." Morse also 
mentioned that this animal was able to push itself about with 
the aid of its foot but so far as we know ours is the first observa- 
tion of actual swimming movements in this bivalve. — Emmett B. 
Baker, Kingston, Massachusetts, and Arthur S. Merrill, Woods 
Hole, Massachusetts. 

Corbula limatula again. — C. limatula Conrad, between Feb. 
and June, 1846, Proc, Acad. Nat. Sci. Philadelphia 3 (1): 25, pi. 1, 
fig. 2, was discussed briefly in 1964, Naut. 78: 69. It evidently does 
not belong in the same group^ as C. (Caryocorbula) contracta 



1 The prior name for the subgenus (or genus?) is Bothrocorbula Gabb, 1873. 



January, 1965 nautilus 105 

Say, which is more nearly equivalve, both in sculpture and size, 
although the 2 species were associated by Lamy, 1941, J. de 
Conch. 84: 228. It actually appears to belong in Varicorhiila, 
which is uncomfortably close to Corbula s. s., type C. sulcata 
(Lamarck) from west Africa; both are decidedly inequivalve 
in sculpture and usually also in size. C. limatula seems closest to 
C. operculata Philippi, 1848, Zeitschr. Malak. 5; 13. This last 
often has been considered a synonym of C. disparilis Orbigny in 
Sagra, Hist. Cuba, Moll. 2: 283 (322 of Spanish ed.) , pi. 27, figs. 
1-4, the date of which is highly dubious (either text or plate) , 
and may be as late as 1853. 

[In both French and Spanish editions, the headings of plates 
26 to 28 are in larger type than those preceding them. In the 
Spanish text, almost all Orbigny's names are followed by 
" (d'Orb., 1846) " which must be a manuscript date, in signatures 
61 to 93 (pp. 241 to 371) . In the French edition, the same (with- 
out the parentheses) is true of signatures 10 to 23 (pp. 145 to 
368) with the exception of Purpura galea (p. 147, "1846") which 
is in signature 60 (p, 239) of the Spanish one. None of Orbigny's 
Corbula spp. is quoted in C. B. Adams, 1852.] 

Orbigny stated that C. disparilis was inequivalve, but his figs. 
1-3 show valves almost equal in size and relatively higher than in 
C limatula, or operculata, although similarly different in sculp- 
ture, I doubt if disparilis be conspecific with the other 2. How- 
ever, if these 3 names be considered synonyms, C. limatula 
appears to be the prior name for this species of the group Vari- 
corbula. — H. Burrington Baker. 



Anisorhyncus vs. Ursirivus. — Because Anisorhyncus Conrad, 
1874, Proc. Acad.. Nat. Sci. Philadelphia 26: 27, 28, originally 
was used in 3 places (and subsequently quoted by Gabb) , it can 
not be considei'ed an "error" for Anisorhynchus "Conrad" Meek 
in Hayden, 1871 (a homonym) . Also in the same paper (p. 27) , 
Conrad discussed the difference between Pachydon and its emen- 
dation Pachyodon (another homonym) . In fact, he included in 
Anisorhyncus, with certainty, only one species, his Pachydon 
cuneiformis, although he stated "it is closely related to A. pyri- 
formis. Meek." Apparently, Ursirivus Yokes, 1945, Bui. Amer. 
Mus. Nat. Hist. 86: 15, was an unnecessary substitute. — H. B. B. 



106 NAUTILUS Vol. 78 (3) 

CORBICULA MANILLENSIS IN THE ALABAMA RiVER. On Sept. 6, 

1964 two small specimens of Corbicula manillensis Philippi were 
collected in the Alabama River at Claiborne, Monroe County, 
Alabama. — Leslie Hubricht. 

EupERA singleyi ln OKLAHOMA. — On October 20, 1964, Eupera 
singleyi (Pilsbry) was found abundant attached to the under- 
sides of waterlogged wood in Little River, in the rapids below^ 
the US-70 bridge, northeast of Idabel, McCurtain County, Okla- 
homa. This species had not been reported previously from Okla- 
homa. — Leslie Hubricht. 

Cassis madagascariensis spinella off North Carolina coast. 
— Abbott in "American Seashells" (1955, see pp. 194) lists Cassis 
madagascariensis spinella Clench as occurring "Off Beaufort, 
North Carolina (fossil?), and the Florida Keys." On April 15, 
1963 two specimens of this subspecies were taken from a shrimp 
trawler unloading at Morehead City, North Carolina by a Mr. 
Stephen Brown. These specimens had been taken alive off Cape 
Lookout, North Carolina. The smaller of the two, donated to the 
mollusk collection of the University of North Carolina, Institute 
of Fisheries Research, was catalogued as number 1131. Data for 
it is as follows: length, 186 mm.; width, 131; number of whorls, 
9; number of spines on first tubercle row of body whorl, 12; 
number of teeth on inner margin of outer lip, 11; operculum 
length, 48 mm.; and operculum width, 8 mm. These and other 
characteristics fit the description for the subspecies as first de- 
scribed by Clench in "Johnsonia" (1944, i[16]: 15-16). Helmet 
shells are found not uncommonly off the North Carolina coast, 
particularly in the Cape Lookout and Cape Hatteras areas. Sev- 
eral different forms may be present and many of the shells found 
are fossil. The above record provides the first evidence that a liv- 
ing population of the Helmet Shell, C. m. spinella occurs as far 
north as Cape Lookout, North Carolina. — Hugh J. Porter, Uni- 
versity of North Carolina, Institute of Fisheries Research, More- 
head City, North Carolina. 

Note on Gastrocopta tappaniana (C. B. Adams) . — In 1842 
C. B. Adams published this species in Thompson, Z., History of 
Vermont. No locality w^as given and subsequent writers have as- 



January, 1965 nautilus 107 

sumed that it came from Vermont, and this has been considered 
its type locality. In 1942 the Museum of Comparative Zoology 
received the C. B, Adams collection and the original types of 
Adams were contained in it. The type locality on the label is 
Roscoe [Coshocton Co.], Ohio. G. tappaniana appears to be a 
synonym of G. pentodon (Say) ; the lectotype (here selected) is 
nearest to the figure of pentodon given on pi. 3, fig. 7, 1916, Man- 
ual of Conch. (2) 24: 33, and not to fig. 9 which is given as tap- 
paniana. This same plate was republished in Land Mollusca of 
North America, vol. 2, pt. 2, fig. 477, p. 887, Mono. no. 3, Acad. 
Nat. Sci. Philadelphia, 1948. The following is the complete 
reference: 

Pupa tappariianum 'Ward' C. B. Adams 1842 [in] Thompson, 
Z., History of Vermont (no locality) . [Lectotype, here selected, 
Mus. Comp. Zool. no. 186171; para type no. 186172, from Roscoe 
[Coshocton Co.], Ohio]. — William J. Clench. 

Brief census of log-associated snails in Berks County, Penn- 
sylvania. — The present census was done to fulfill the require- 
ments for a research project in the zoology course at Kutztown 
State College during the summer of 1964. The material has been 
identified by Dr. Glenn R. Webb, who also attempted to ex- 
clude all the non-living specimens from the census. A few seem- 
ingly recently-dead and fly-parasitized shells were included with 
the living shells because it was believed probable that they were 
alive a few weeks before being collected. 

The study consisted of collecting all the snails on or under 
part of the logs in a wood-lot on the Lehigh-Berks County line, 
11/2 miles south of Alburtis, Pennsylvania. The 9 logs included 
had a total area of about 3996 square inches (27.6 square feet) . 
The habitable area of a log was calculated roughly by the for- 
mula: Area := length X width (diameter of log) . The areas 
were doubled in the calculations because specimens were secured 
both on the log and in the depression where it had lain before 
being overturned. Less error seemed to result from this formula 
than from using that for the area of a cylinder. Areas so calcu- 
lated are rough approximations only. 

The results were as follows. The calculated 3996 square inches 
of log habitat yielded 384 living, dying, and recently dead speci- 
mens of Ventridens suppressus (Say) ; two immature snails tenta- 



108 NAUTILUS Vol. 78 (3) 

tively identified as Mesodon infiectus (Say) ; one Retinella in- 
dentata (Say) ; and one specimen of Helicodiscus parallelus 
(Say). The average number of V. suppressus was .09 per square 
inch or one per 10.4 square inches of log habitat. — William W. 
Mover, Kutztown State Coll., Kutztown, Pa. 

Collections deposited. — Both the mussel collection of Dr. 
Harold Ray Eggleston of Marietta College, Marietta, Ohio, and 
the snail collection of Dr. David T. Jones, 818 East 5th Street, 
Vinton, Iowa, have been deposited recently in the Ohio State 
Museum, Columbus 10, Ohio, where Dr. David H. Stansbery is 
Curator of Natural History. — David T. Jones. 

Correction. — New Land Mollusks in the Families Camaeni- 
dae and Fruticicolidae from Hispaniola. Museo Argentino de 
Ciencias Naturales "Bernardino Rivadavia" 8: 213-227, Dec. 
1962. Unfortunately, neither galley proofs nor page proofs of this 
paper of mine were ever received for corrections. The two plates 
were interchanged. The caption for plate 1 is for plate 2 and the 
caption for plate 2 is for plate 1. — W. J. Clench 

CoRBULA cuNEATA AND C, iNAEQUALis. — In his descriptions 
of these. Say, 1824, J. Acad. Nat. Sci. Philadelphia 4: 152 & 153, 
pi. 13, figs. 3 8c 2, cited fig. 3 for both species. In his "reprint," 
Harris, 1896, Bui. Amer. Paleont. no. 5: 76, made matters worse 
when he gave fig. 2 for ciineata and fig. 3 for inae quale (sic) . 
Both Say's dimensions ("breadth" = length & "length" ^ 
height) and his descriptions prove that C. cuneata (actually fig. 
3) is more elongate than C. inaequalis (actually fig. 2) . How- 
ever, the citations (& figs.) in Clark, Shattuck k Dall, 1902, Md. 
Geol. Surv., Miocene: 281 k 282, are correct. — H. B. B. 



THE NAUTILUS 

Vol. 78 April, 1965 No. 4 

ECOLOGIC IMPLICATIONS OF LIVING PELECYPODS 
WITH CALCAREOUS SPINES 

By DAVID NICOL 

Department of Geology, Southern Illinois University, Carbondale, Illinois 

This general study is a natural outgrowth of my work on 
antarctic pelecypods and my interest in cold-water pelecypod 
faunas because I noted no living spinose pelecypods from arctic 
(Nicol, 1955, p. 116) and antarctic waters. The main objective 
of this work is to summarize the data on the spinose Pelecypoda 
so that they may be useful to the paleoecologist. 

The greatest difficulty in a study of this kind is to make a clear- 
cut definition of a spine. Commonly a spine is thought to end in 
a sharp point, and many spines of pelecypods do; but some pro- 
jections on pelecypod shells that do not have pointed ends can be 
considered spines in the broad sense. Another problem is what 
is a short spine and what is a long spine. In this case it is im- 
portant to attempt to set some limit of length between short and 
long spines because of the relationship of length of spines to 
water temperature. I am arbitrarily setting the uppermost limit 
in length for short spines as 10 mm., and any spine longer than 
this is considered to be a long spine. 

In discussing the families with spinose representatives, I shall 
follow the systematic sequence in Thiele's Handbuch except that 
I shall discuss the fresh-water pelecypods last. The data are 
taken from an examination of the pelecypods in the general 
systematic collection in the Division of Mollusks at the U. S. Na- 
tional Museum. If a certain family is not mentioned, this means 
that no spinose pelecyjxxls were noted in that group. However, 
in many cases I do state that I found no spinose specimens in 
certain major groups. One of the reasons for doing so is that it 
appears that genetic factors are most surely involved, as well as 
environmental factors, as to whether a major group will have no 
spines, short spines, or long spines on the exterior of the shell. 

Neither the Protobranchia vera nor the solemyacids have any 
spinose representatives. This appears to be the condition, too, 

109 



no NAUTILUS Vol. 78 (4) 

in all the arcaceans, including the glycymeridids and limopsids. 
The mytilids and isognomonids are also non-spinose. 

Some of the pteriids have short spines, but in most cases they 
are outgrowths of periostracum which surround some calcareous 
material. All spinose specimens noted in this family were taken 
from warm water. 

Most of the species of Pinnidae are spinose, but the spines are 
never long and are found mainly on the part of the shell that 
extends above the substrate when the animal is in its normal 
habitat. Most pinnid species are tropical but a few range into 
cooler waters such as South Africa, Tasmania, Patagonia, and 
New Zealand. 

Most species of plicatulids have short spines. The species of 
this family are confined to warm water today. A few species of 
the large family Pectinidae have short spines. Most of these 
species are found in warm water, but a specimen of Chlamys 
pusio from southern England has short spines and the same is 
true for a specimen of Hinnites multirugosus from the Gulf of 
Alaska. Many species of Spondylus have long spines, and this 
family today is confined almost entirely to warm water. Speci- 
mens with the longest slender spines are generally found in the 
warmest waters such as in the Philippines and Borneo. Spines as 
long as 25 mm. are not uncommon on specimens of the Spondyl- 
idae. Some species of limids have short spines. All limid speci- 
mens with spines in the U. S. National Museum collection were 
taken from warm water. Arctic and antarctic species of Limatula 
are not spinose. 

A few specimens of anomiids have short spines. The most spin- 
ose specimen seen was an Anomia peruviana from the Gulf of 
California. In the discussion of Anomia, mention must be made 
of an interesting paper by Merrill (1962) on spinosity in Anomia 
aculeata. Merrill found that some individuals of this species be- 
came spinose while others never developed spines. He points out 
(p. 137) that the variation in surface sculpture might be a gen- 
etic factor rather than an environmental factor. In this case where 
spinose and non-spinose forms were taken from the same buoy, 
the genetic factor must be the decisive one. Living species of ^4?*- 
cinella [Echinochama], a warm-water pelecypod, are always spin- 
ose, but the warm-water Area species are never spinose. Both 
groups live on the bottom and have all the environmental factors 



April, 1965 nautilus 111 

most favorable for the production of spines; and so one must con- 
clude that genetics as well as environment is an important factor 
in determining the presence or absence of spines. It should be 
pointed out that species of pelecypods which have both spinose 
and non-spinose variants are more numerous than those living 
species which have only spinose representatives. 

Merrill alo notes that the small shells are never spinose but 
that spinosity becomes common after a certain size is attained. 
However, some species of pelecypods tend to lose their spines 
when they attain large size, as seen in some individuals of cham- 
ids and spondylids. 

Many species of ostreids are spinose. Short-spined species range 
into cool water, as for example Crassostrea virginica, which 
ranges as far north as the Gulf of St. Lawrence. It should also be 
noted that this species lives in water of reduced salinity. Dr. 
Joseph Rosewater showed me a small oyster (15 mm. in height) 
that he collected off mangrove roots in the Strait of Malacca. It 
has short slender spines on the surface of the upper valve. Long- 
spined ostreid species are all tropical, and species like Ostrea 
frons, in which the spines wrap around the stems or roots of 
trees, are confined to warm water. Species of Arctostrca from the 
Cretaceous are similar to Ostrea frons in tlicir elongate shape 
and type of spinosity. 

Living trigoniids, which are confined to Australian waters, are 
sometimes found to have tiny spines. The astartids and crassatel- 
lids are all non-spinose. A few carditid species having short spines 
were found in tropical waters but one specimen came from South 
Australia. Nearly all of the lucinids are non-spinose, but several 
specimens of Lucina pensylvanica from the Florida Keys have 
short spines. Lucinomn dentifera from the Red Sea also has short 
spines. 

The chamids rival the spondylids for being the most spinose 
family of pelecypods, and most species of chamids have spinose 
representatives. The family is almost completely confined to 
warm water, but a few species straggle into cooler waters. Speci- 
mens of Chama pellucida from Newport Beach, California, and 
San Pedro, California, do have broad flat spines that are 12 mm. 
in a few cases. This species ranges as far north as Oregon. Chama 
macerophylla from Miami, Florida, has long spines, and Chama 



112 NAUTILUS Vol. 78 (4) 

lazariis from the East Indian region commonly has spines of more 
than 20 mm. in length. Arcinella, also known as Echinochama, is 
the most spinose of all living chamids. The genus is confined to 
waim watei' of the western hemisphere and shows a good gradi- 
ent between temperature and spine length. The longest and usu- 
ally most slender spines are found on Arcinella arcinella arcinella 
from the Caribbean region and Arcinella arcinella californica 
from the Panamic Province. Arcinella brasiliana from the south- 
ernmost range of the genus in the western Atlantic has slender 
spines, but they are shorter than those commonly found on 
Arcinella arcinella. Arcinella cornuta, which ranges as far north 
as Cape Hatteias, has shorter and thicker spines than Arcinella 
arcinella. 

Numerous species of the cardiids have short spines. Probably 
the most spinose group is Acanthocardia, and some species of 
this genus are found in cooler waters. Acanthocardia aculeata 
from the south coast of Devon has surprisingly long slender 
spines, but no specimens were observed with spines as long as 
10 mm. Arctic cardiid species lack spines. Hippipus has short 
spines and a color pattern resembling the spines and color pat- 
tern of the cardiids. The remainder of the living tridacnids are 
cither smooth or have broad projecting frills rather than spines. 

The great majority of venerids are not spinose, but a few trop- 
ical species have short spines. One exceptional group. Pilar 
(Hysteroconcha), has one or two rows of long slender spines 
toward the posterior side of the shell; this subgenus is confined 
to the warm waters of the Caribbean region and the Panamic 
Province. The well developed pallial sinus would indicate that 
these forms are reasonably deep burrowers, but it is difficult to 
understand how the spines would be an aid in burrowing. 

The mactrids, donacids, gariids, and semelids are all non- 
spinose. Few species of tellinids have short spines, and they are 
all tropical forms. The solenids are also non-spinose, as well as 
the hiatellids, corbulids, myacids, and gastrochaenids. Most of 
the pholadids have short spines which may aid these animals to 
bore in rock. The families Teredinidae, Lyonsiidae, Pandoridae, 
Chamostreidae, Myochamidae, Laternulidae, and Periplomatidae 
are all without spines. Brechites, a warm-water clavagellid, has 
short spines. 

The Septibranchia are essentially non-spinose, although speci- 



April, 1965 nautilus 113 

mens of Euciroa from Borneo might be considered spiny by some 
observers. The spines on Euciroa are certainly minute. 

Some specimens of Canthyria collina have short spines. Com- 
monly there are only one or two present, and they are located 
just to the posterior of the center of the shell. This sf>ecies is con- 
fined to the James River, Virginia, and the Tar River in North 
Carolina. Another naiad, Canthyria spinosa from the Altamaha 
River, Georgia, has long slender spines. The spines are located 
near the posterior side and are hollow in the center; they com- 
monly attain a length of 20 mm. Some specimens of this species 
have no spines or spines on only one valve. A variety of Schisto- 
desmus lampreyanus from near Shanghai, China, apparently has 
short spines, but there are no specimens of this variety in the 
U. S. National Museum collection. One more naiad should be 
mentioned: Chelidonopsis liirundo from the Congo region has a 
posterior flange on each valve that slightly resembles a spine. The 
Corbiculidae and Sphaeriidae all lack spines. 

The great majority of spinose species of pelecypods are mem- 
bers of the epifauna. Such species are most numerous in warm 
sea water and become much less so in the colder waters. As exam- 
ples of the epifaunal groups, one can list the pteriids, plicatulids, 
pectinids, spondylids, chamids, most if not all the tridacnids, 
limids, anomiids, and ostreids; and 1 would even include the pin- 
nids in this category because, although they do partially bury 
themselves in the bottom, they remain attached by a byssus in a 
fixed position during the adult part of their life. The infauna has 
relatively few spinose representatives, the most startling ones be- 
ing the few species of tropical venerids with long spines and one 
long-spined naiad from the Altamaha River in Georgia. Most 
active burrowers in soft substrate have either small spines or none 
at all. Note, too, that the protobranchs and septibranchs Which 
are mainly burrowers are all non-spinose. Many of the pholadids 
which bore into rock do have short spines, and these may assist 
them in their cutting into the hard substrate. 

No long-spined species are found in brackish water, and short- 
spined forms are less common in an environment of reduced 
salinity than they are in normal water. The fresh-water pele- 
cypods are almost never truly spinose; only three spinose forms 
of living naiades are known to occur in limited geogiaphic re- 



114 NAUTILUS Vol. 78 (4) 

gions. It is true that the naiades are commonly noded or knobby 
exteriorly but not truly spinose. 

The reader has probably already noted that families and gen- 
era which have shells of small maximum size never develop 
calcareous spines. Examples of such groups are My sella, Philo- 
brya, Cyaniium, Cyamiomactra, Montacuta, Crenella, and Dacry- 
dium. The species of these genera rarely attain a maximum size 
of more than 10 mm., and they are commonly smaller than that. 
It is also noted that these genera are most abundantly represented 
in cold sea water or deep sea water. Small species attached by 
their byssuses to other living animals as commensals also do not 
develop spines. 

Arctic and antarctic pelecypods are devoid of spines. The surface 
temperature of the sea water in these polar regions certainly never 
reaches a maximum of more than 5° C. It is possible that short- 
spined pelecypods may live in water that never becomes much 
more than 5° C, but it is more likely that 10° C is the lowest 
maximum temperature where one would find any spinose pelecy- 
pods (e.g., August surface temperature in the Gulf of Alaska) . 
Long-spined forms are not found in areas where the minimum 
water temperature falls below 20° C, and long slender spines are 
found in areas where the minimum water temperature is at least 
25° C (e.g., Arcinella arcinella). Thus, the long-spined pelecy- 
pods are generally limited to about the temperature where one 
would expect to find any reef corals. Finally, oysters that have 
the habit of clasping slender objects such as twigs with their 
spines (e.g., Ostrea frons) also are confined to water that never 
reaches a lower temperature than about 20° C. 

Water depths, temperatures, and other ecologic data are gener- 
ally inadequate concerning the pelecypod material in the U.S. Na- 
tional Museum collections, and so it is not possible to reach precise 
conclusions concerning the occurrences of spinosity in deep-water 

(more than 1,829 meters) pelecypods. Clarke (1962b, p. 295) 
notes that only a few mollusk genera show sculpturing, and he 
names two gastropod genera as those that exhibit this feature. 
Some of the families and genera cited in Clarke's annotated list 

(1962a) of abyssal pelecypods are represented by a large number 
of species in this fauna. Where these same families and genera 
also occur in shallow water, they are mainly non-spinose. The 
deep-water fauna includes an unusually large number of proto- 



April, 1965 nautilus 115 

branchs and septibranchs. If there are any spinose deep-water 
pelecypods, they must all be short-spined forms. 

These data concerning spinosity in living pelecypods can lead 
to inferences concerning the ecology of most Tertiary pelecypod 
faunas, I would think, with a considerable degree of confidence; 
but what of older faunas and other groups of calcareous spined 
organisms? For example, in the Middle Devvonian Misenheimer 
Shale in southern Illinois, a small productoid brachiopod with 
long needle-like spines is found. Is this a good indicator of warm 
water during the deposition of the Misenheimer Shale? 

The writer wishes to acknowledge that this paper was made 
possible by a grant from the National Science Foundation 
(G-13335). 

NOMENCLATURE NOTE ON ARCINELLA 
VERSUS ECHINOCHAMA 

A. Myra Keen (1962, p. 179) pointed out that because the In- 
ternational Commission on Zoological Nomenclature in 1956 
rejected Oken's Lehrbuch der N aturgeschichte , vol. 3 (Zoology) 
the generic names in this work no longer have official status in 
zoological nomenclature unless properly validated after the work 
was published (1815-1816) . Oken proposed the name Arcinella 
for a carditid group in his Lehrbuch. In 1817, Schumacher pro- 
posed the name Arcinella for Chama arcinella Linne, which is 
also the type species of Fischer's genus Echinochama (1887) . Miss 
Keen concludes that Arcinella of Schumacher is now available as 
the generic name for the species Chama arcinella Linne and also 
Echinochama californica Dall. I have no objection to using the 
generic name Arcinella for these species, but I am afraid that 
some malacologists will object sooner or later. These objectors 
will point to the latest International Code of Zoological Nomen- 
clature and say that Arcinella of Schumacher is to be considered 
a forgotten name (nomen oblitum) . Furthermore, they can prob- 
ably win this particular case. For example, I looked for the name 
Arcinella in the Zoological Record for the years 1900-1960 and 
found it listed only 3 times. In no case did I see it used for what 
we heretofore have been calling Echinochama. I do not consider 
this conclusive proof that Arcinella has not been used as a generic 
name in the sense of Echinochama, but some malacologists might 
regard this as enough evidence to consider Arcinella of Schu- 



116 NAUTILUS Vol. 78 (4) 

macher a nomen oblitum. My personal preference is to apply 
strict priority in such a case where the genus is relatively unim- 
portant and has few species. Echinochama has not been men- 
tioned frequently in primary zoological literature within the past 
50 years. I fail to see that a name change in such a small unim- 
portant genus should be upsetting. (On the other hand, I cer- 
tainly would be in favor of invoking the "nomen oblitum" rule 
in the case of Ostrea.) Furthermore, one ruling by the Commis- 
sion so often brings on one or more additional nomenclature 
problems as the direct result of a decision by the International 
Commission. This very case is an example of that. 

If someone has not already done so, it will be only a matter of 
time before some well-meaning person asks the International 
Commission for a ruling in favor of retaining the name Echino- 
chama. However, the writer of this paper has no intention of 
taking such action. 

Literature cited 

Clarke, Arthur H., Jr., 1962a, Annotated list and bibliography 
of the abyssal marine molluscs of the world: Nat. Mus. Canada 
Bull. no. 181, 114 pp. 

, 1962b, On the composition, zoogeography, origin and age 

of the deep-sea mollusk fauna: Deep-sea Res. and Oceanogra- 
phic Abs. 5';291-306, Pergamon Press, London. 

Keen, A. Myra, 1962, Nomenclatural notes on some West Ameri- 
can mollusks, with proposal of a new species name. Veliger 4, 
(4): 178-180. 

Merrill, Arthur S., 1962, Variation and change in Anomia 
aculeata. Nautilus 75(4) :131-138, pi. 14. 

Nicol, David, 1955, An analysis of the Arctic marine pelecypod 
fauna. Nautilus ^<^ (4): 115-122. 

Thiele, J., 1934, Handbuch der Systematischen Weichtieikunde, 
Bd. 2, T. 3, pp. 779-1022, Gustav Fischer, Jena. 



NEW MOLLUSCAN RECORDS 
FOR THE GALAPAGOS ISLANDS 

By WILLIAM K. EMERSON and WILLIAM E. OLD, JR. 
American Museum of Natural History 

During the past three years the American Museum of Natural 
History has accumulated a small collection of marine mollusks, 
largely gastropods, from the Galapagos Islands. Most of the 



April, 1965 nautilus 117 

specimens were purchased from Mr. Carmen Angermeyer and 
Mrs. Jacqueline DeRoy of Academy Bay, Santa Cruz Island. 
Their material was collected in the intertidal zone and by dredg- 
ing from a skiff in depths of 4 to 15 fathoms. 

The 11 species of gastropods prefaced by an asterisk (*) in the 
dicussions that follow appear to be new records for the Gala- 
pagos molluscan fauna, which is composed largely of species of 
the Panamic faunal province, together with small elements of 
Indo-Pacific and endemic species. These records represent eight 
Panamic and three Indo-Pacific species. The distribution of these 
species in the eastern Pacific, including occurrences on the off- 
shore islands: Revillagigedo Islands (Clarion and Socorro) , 
Cocos Island, and the oceanic atoll: Clipperton Island, is cited. 
The literature pertaining to the recent marine mollusks of the 
Galapagos Islands was summarized recently by Hertlein and 
Strong (1955a). 

Architectonicidae: *Heliacus bicanaliculatus (Valenciennes) , 
1832, synonym: H. radiatiis (Menke) , 1851. Mrs. Angermeyer 
reports taking two beach specimens, one of which is in the present 
collection, from Academy Bay, Santa Cruz Island. This Panamic 
species previously was reported to range on the mainland from 
Punta Penasco, Sonora, Mexico (Lowe, 1935), to Bahia Honda, 
Veragua, Panama (Strong and Hertlein, 1939); it is recorded 
from Clarion Island and Socorro Island (Strong and Hanna, 
1930) . 

Cypraeidae: *Cypraea teres Gmelin, 1791. Mrs. Angermeyer 
collected one beach specimen at Puerto Grande, San Salvador 
Island, and she reports that a second beach specimen was taken 
by a neighbor. The only previously known occurrence of this 
Indo-Pacific species in the eastern Pacific was at Clipperton 
Island, where fresh as well as worn specimens are reported from 
the rocky beaches (Hertlein, 1937; Hertlein and Allison, 1960a) . 
Another Indo-Pacific species, Cypraea moneta Linnaceus, 1758 
and 5 of the 7 recent Panamic Cypraea, namely albuginosa Gray, 
1825, isabellamexicana Stearns, 1893, cervinetta Kiener, 1843, 
arabicula Lamarck, 1811, and nigropunctata Gray, 1828, also are 
known from the Galapagos Islands (Ingram, 1948) . Additionally, 
Cypraea darwini Ingram, 1948, was described from "old beach 
deposits" [? Pleistocene] on Baltra del Sur [South Seymour 
Island] and was based on a single specimen, which, judging from 



118 NAUTILUS Vol. 78 (4) 

the description and illustrations appears to be a form of C. albii- 
ginosa. It is interesting to note that only two west American 
species, C. albuginosa and C. isabellamexicana, are known to 
occur at Clipperton Island, where 10 Indo-Pacific species of 
Cypraea are recorded (Hertlein and Allison, 1960a) . Also of 
interest is the presence at Cocos Island of C. albuginosa (Emer- 
son and Old, 1964), C. isabellamexicana, C. moneta, and C. 
rashleighana Melvill, 1888, which is the sole record for this Indo- 
Pacific species in the eastern Pacific (Ingram, 1951) . Only C. 
albuginosa and C. isabellamexicana are reported from the Revil- 
lagigedo Islands (Ingram, 1951). 

Ovulidae [=r Amphiperatidae auct. ]: *Pseudocypraea adam- 
soni (Sowerby) , 1832. Mrs. Angermeyer reports taking four liv- 
ing specimens under rocks at low tide and one beach specimen 
at Academy Bay, Santa Cruz Island. Two of the specimens are in 
the present collection, and these appear to be referable to this 
Indo-Pacific species, which is recorded to range from Madagas- 
car to the Tuamotu Islands (Schilder, 1932). According to 
Schilder (1947) , this species does not occur in the Hawaiian 
Islands; he cites it, however, from several other localities in the 
western Pacific, including Japan (1947), New Britain (1933) 
and Jaluit, Marshall Islands (1944) . 

Cassididae: *Semicassis centiquadrata (Valenciennes), 1832. 
Mrs. Angermeyer obtained one beach specimen from Rabida 
Island. This Panamic species, which is reported to range on the 
mainland from Baja California, Mexico, to Lobitos, Peru (Emer- 
son and Old, 1963) , also is cited from Clarion Island (Strong and 
Hanna, 1930) and Cocos Island (Emerson and Old, 1964) . All 
the living west American representatives of this family, with the 
exception of Casrnaria vibexmexicana (Stearns), 1894, now are 
known to occur in the Galapagos Islands. 

Cymatiidae: *Cy?natium gibbosum (Broderip) , 1833. Mrs. 
Angermeyer reports finding one living specimen and one large 
beach specimen, which is in the American Museum collection, 
from Academy Bay, Santa Cruz Island. This Panamic species 
is known to range on the mainland from the Gulf of California, 
Mexico, to Negritos, Peru (Emerson and Old, 1963). 

Bursidae: * Bursa caelata (Broderip), 1833. Mrs. Angermeyer 
reports taking 3 beach specimens, one of which is in the present 



April, 1965 nautilus 119 

collection, from Academy Bay, Santa Cruz Island. This Panamic 
species is recorded to range on the mainland from Baja Cali- 
fornia, Mexico, to Peru (Hertlein and Strong, 1955b), and is 
cited from Cocos Island (Hertlein, 1963) . 

Muricidae: *Favartia incisa (Broderip) , 1833. Mrs. Anger- 
meyer obtained 3 specimens, one of which is in the present col- 
lection, by dredging in 10 fathoms off Rabida Island. Keen 
(1958) reports this Panamic species to range from Port Guatulco, 
Mexico, to southern Ecuador. *Ocenebra vittata (Broderip), 
1833. One beach specimen was received from Mrs. DeRoy from 
Academy Bay, Santa Cruz Island. Mr. Anthony D'Attilio has ob- 
tained from Mrs. Angermeyer 7 other specimens from the fol- 
lowing localities: Puerto Nunes and Academy Bay, Santa Cruz 
Island; Rabida Island; San Salvador Island; shore to 8 fathoms. 
Keen (1958) reports this Panamic species to range from the Gulf 
of California, to Guayaquil, Ecuador. *Thais biserialis (Blain- 
ville), 1832, synonym: T. haematura (Valenciennes), 1846. Mrs. 
Angermeyer reports taking 3 specimens from Rabida Island. One 
large beach specimen in the present collection is a typical exam- 
ple of this Panamic species, w^hich is reported to range on the 
mainland from Baja California, Mexico, to Valparaiso, Chile 
(Clench, 1947) . It also is cited from Cocos Island (Hertlein, 
1963) and Clipperton Island (Hertlein and Allison, 1960b). 

Coralliophilidae [Magilidae]: *Coralliophila violacea (Kie- 
ner) , 1835, synonym: C. neritoidea (Lamarck), 1822. One live- 
collected specimen from Academy Bay, Santa Cruz Island was 
received from Mrs. DeRoy. This wide-ranging Indo-Pacific species 
was previously known in the eastern Pacific only from Clarion 
Island, Socorro Island (Strong and Hanna, 1930) , and Clipper- 
ton Island (Hertlein and Allison, 1960b). *Latiaxis hindsi (Car- 
penter) , 1857, synonym: L. muricata (Hinds), 1843. One live- 
taken specimen was dredged by Mrs. Angermeyer in 1.5 fathoms 
off Rabida Island. This species was previously cited from the 
Galapagos Islands under the name of Coralliophila oldroydi 
(Oldroyd, 1929) . This Panamic species is reported to range on 
the mainland from Puertecitos, Baja California, Mexico (Du- 
Shane, 1962), to Panama (Carpenter, 1857). 

We are greatly indebted to Dr. Leo George Hertlein for read- 
ing the manuscript and for providing helpful information. 



120 NAUTILUS Vol. 78 (4) 

Literature cited 

Carpenter, P. P. 1857. Rept. Brit. Assoc. Adv. Sci, for 1856, 

pp. 159-368. 
Clench, W. J. 1947. Johnsonia 2(23) :61-91, pis. 33-40. 
DuShane, Helen. 1958. Veliger 5:39-50. 
Emerson, W. K., and W. E. Old, Jr. 1963. Amer. Mus, Novitates, 

no, 2153, 38 pp., 28 figs. 
Emerson, W. K., and W. E. Old, Jr. 1964. Nautilus 77:90-92. 
Hertlein, L. G. 1937. Proc. Amer. Philos. Soc. 7<^:303-312, 

pi. 1. 

, 1963. Proc. Calif. Acad. Sci. (4) 52:219-289, 4 figs. 

, and E. C. Allison, 1960a, Veliger 2:94-95, pi. 22. 

, and E. C. Allison, 1960b, Ibid. i:13-16. 

, and A. M. Strong, 1955a, in Essays in the Natural Sciences 

in Honor of Captain Allan Hancock, Univ. So. Calif. Press, 

Los Angeles, pp. 111-145, pi. A, 
-, and A. M. Strong, 1955b, Bull. Amer. Mus. Nat. Hist. 



7^7:159-318, pis. 1-3. 
Ingram, W. M. 1948. Proc. Calif. Acad. Sci. (4) 2^:135-145. 

pi. 2. 

, 1951. Bull. Amer. Paleont. 55:125-178, pis. 21-24. 

Keen, A. Myra. 1958. Sea shells of tropical west America. Stan- 
ford Univ. Press, viii -[- 624 pp., illus. 
Lowe, H. N., 1935, Trans. San Diego Soc. Nat. Hist. <?:15-34, 

pis. 1-4. 
Oldroyd, Ida S. 1929. Nautilus ^2:98, 99, pi. 5. 
Schilder, F. A. 1932. Cypraeacea, in Quenstedt, W., Fossilium 

Catalogus, 1: Animalia, Berlin, pt. 55, 276 pp. 

, 1933. Zool. Anz. 702:288-303, 12 figs. 

, 1947. Arch. Moll. 7^:169-189. 

, and M. Schilder. 1944. Arkiv for Zoologi, 36 A: 1-32. 

Strong, A. M. and G D. Hanna. 1930. Proc. Calif. Acad, 

Sci., (4) 7^:7-12. 
Strong, A. M. and L. G. Hertlein. 1939. Allan Hancock Pac. 

Exped. 2:177-245, pis. 18-23. 

ON SOME LAND SHELLS OF ELEUTHERA, BAHAMAS 

By morris K. JACOBSON 

Associate, American Museum of Natural History 

This report is based upon a small collection of land shells 
made by Mr. and Mrs. Norman Jensen of the New York Shell 
Club in July, 1964. The shells were all taken dead in under- 
brush near or under calcareous rocks. This collection is of some 
interest because it adds two new localities to those mentioned by 



April, 1965 nautilus 121 

Clench (p. 101-116), who has made the most complete listing 
of Eleuthera shells to date. In addition, Succinea luteola fioridana 
is reported from the island for the first time. Clench (op. cit.) 
gives a synonymy of the various species. 

To the localities mapped by Clench (pi. 16), the following 
should be added: Sweetings Pond, on the west shore, one mile 
north of Hatchet Bay, between stations 12 and 13 of Clench; 
Ten Bay, about 10 miles south of Governor's Harbour on the 
west coast between Palmetto Point (Clench, locality no. 21) and 
Bullards (Clench, locality no. 24). 

Alcadia jallax Wagner. Ten Bay, 2 weathered specimens. 
Clench cites this species from Tarpum Bay in the south and 
James Cistern in the north. Ten Bay lies about midway between 
these two points. 

Opisthosiphon bahamense (Pfeiffer) . Ten Bay, on main road, 
4 specimens; Sweetings Pond, 14 specimens. Clench cites 11 lo- 
calities for this species. There seems to be no reason to reject 
Clench's evaluation of the Bartsch names (p. 102) . 

Melampiis coffeus (Linne) . Ten Bay, two specimens. This is 
the first localized record; Clench cites it only from "Eleuthera." 
One small specimen resembles M. lineatus Say closely. Probably 
a similar one caused Dall to report the species from Egg Island, 
Bahamas (Clench, p. 102) . 

Detracia bulloides (MontagTi) . Ten Bay, 4 specimens. The 
locality closest to the present one mentioned by Clench is Tar- 
pum Bay, far to the south. 

Oleacina solidula (Pfeiffer) . Ten Bay, 1 specimen; Sweetings 
Pond, 1 specimen. Clench cites this from 9 localities, reaching 
from the south to the north of the island. It is apparently well 
distributed everywhere. 

Polygyra plana (Dunker). Ten Bay, 5 specimens. Palmetto 
Point is the locality cited by Clench which is nearest to the 
present one. 

Bulimulus sepulcralis (Poey) . Ten Bay, 1 fresh, mature speci- 
men.. This is the first localized record for Eleuthera. Clench cites 
only "Eleuthera" on the basis of specimens in the Bland Col- 
lection. Pilsbry (1897, p. 50) thinks that the home of this species 
is Yucatan and Central America from where it was introduced 
into Eleuthera probably by commerce some time after the 
Spanish conquest. 



122 NAUTILUS Vol. 78 (4) 

Cerion gla?is Kiister. Sweetings Pond, 3 specimens, one very 
small. The variable shells of Cerion are not always easily deter- 
mined, and intergrades are not uncommon. Clench, with some 
hesitation, cites 13 species from Eleuthera. Determination of 
the present specimens was made by comparison with shells in the 
author's collection determined by Clench. The present shells were 
all collected dead and hence do not necessarily live in the areas 
collected. Dead Cerion shells are quite buoyant and easily trans- 
ported by wave action from beach to beach. Nevertheless, the lo- 
calities for the present specimens are not too far removed from 
the localities cited by Clench. 

Cerion glans coiyi Maynard. Ten Bay, on main road, 1 speci- 
men which is doubtfully assigned to this form. Clench cites it 
from 7 localities, reaching from The Bluff in the north to Ban- 
nermantown in the south. The present locality is about in the 
center of the island. 

Cerion liliorum Clench. Sweetings Pond, 1 specimen. The as- 
signment is doubtful because the present specimen is about one- 
half the size of typical liliorum. Nevertheless, it conforms in 
surface sculpture, color, and apertural characteristics. Clench 
cites it from Long Pond, the locality nearest to the present one. 

Cerion eximeum Maynard. Ten Bay, 2 specimens. The present 
shells have only faint signs of the close surface striation charac- 
teristic of this highly variable species. 

Microceramiis russelli Clench. Sweeting Pond, 1 specimen. 
Clench cites only 3 localities for this species, of which Hatchet 
Bay is the closest to the present one. 

Succinea luteola floridana Pilsbry. Sweetings Pond, 3 speci- 
mens. This is the first Succinea cited from the island. The speci- 
mens conform closely to specimens collected in Key West, Florida 
and elsewhere. It is without doubt a very recent introduction. 
The only other Succinea cited from Bahamas is 5. harhadensis 
Guilding, 1828 (not S. barbadensis Guilding, Reeve, 1872, Con. 
Icon., 18, Succinea, pi. 7, fig. 46) . However, this species, though 
similar in outline to S. luteola floridana is not easily confused 
with it. S. barbadensis is thinner, lacks the yellow color in the 
aperture, and does not have the earthy and opaque texture that 
is characteristic of the subgenus Calcisuccinea Pilsbry, 1948, to 
which the Floridian shell belongs. 



April, 1965 nautilus 123 

Zachrysia provisoria (Pfeiffer) . Ten Bay, 3 mature, 4 imma- 
ture specimens. This species, originally from eastern and central 
Cuba, has been introduced into many West Indian islands as well 
as to the Bahamas and the Florida mainland, Bendall (p. 293) 
reports it from Bahamas as early as 1895, and Bland from New 
Providence in 1861 (p. 351; table II). The present locality is 
far to the north of those cited by Clench, and not near any 
settlement (Ten Bay is still only a projected housing develop- 
ment). However, the Jensens report having seen it "everywhere." 

Zachrysia provisoria is separated from Z. auricoma Ferussac 
on the basis of the sexual apparatus (see Pilsbry, 1928) . In shell 
characters they are very close. Since all the present shells were 
taken dead, it can only be assumed that they are as indicated by 
Clench. In this connection, Pilsbry's statement (1928, p. 583) 
that Z. auricoma, because of its "hard, calcareous epiphragm" 
it is probably better able to withstand dessication than the other 
species, is of interest. One would think it is this species, rather 
than provisoria that would survive in the largely arid, unshel- 
tered areas of the Bahamas. 

Hemitrochiis x'arians (Menke) . Ten Bay, 5 specimens; Sweet- 
ings Pond, 8 specimens. Clench cites this from no fewer than 16 
localities. That it is found in two more should excite no surprise. 

Plagioptycha macrodon iitowana Clench. Ten Bay, 5 speci- 
mens. This species can be easily distinguished from P. gregoriana 
Dall by being generally smooth and shiny, with wavy radial 
raised cords appearing only on a few early post-nuclear whorls. 
Its distribution seems to be confined to the southern half of 
the island. 

Plagioptycha gregoriana (Dall) . Sweetings Pond, 6 specimens. 
As indicated above, the shell is easily determined by the presence 
of rather strong, wavy radial costae covering the entire shell ex- 
cept the nuclear whorls. It is apparently confined to the northern 
half of the island. 

Discussion. A plotting of localities of the species based on the 
data provided by Clench and the Jensens leads to a few inter- 
esting observations. The discrete distribution of the two related 
species of Plagioptycha is striking: P. macrodon utoiuana occurs 
in the southern half of the island, from Governor's Harbour to 
Bannermantown, whereas P. gregoriana occurs in the northern 



124 NAUTILUS Vol. 78 (4) 

half, from Sweetings Pond to Next Point. The latter is also 
found in 4 localities on the satellite islands clustered about the 
northern tip of Eleuthera. 

Polygyra plana seems to be clustered about an area south of 
the mid-point of the island, from Palmetto Point to Rock Sound. 
But the single off-shore island locality (Current Settlement) 
would seem to indicate that more collecting activity will discover 
it in several more situations at least in the northern half. Cerion 
eximeum seems to be confined to the north, but the apparent 
cluster of localities of Microceramus russelli in the north (from 
Sweetings Pond to Long Pond) is probably due to incomplete 
collecting efforts. Certainly this must also be true of Detracia 
hulloides, which can be expected to occur in every favorable 
tidal area. 

As was to be expected, Opisthosiphon bahamense, Oleacina 
solidula and especially Hemitrochus varians have the most gen- 
eral distribution. Possibly many, if not most, of the other species 
mentioned here and by Clench, with the exception of Cerion, 
will also be found to enjoy the same general distribution. How- 
ever, the instance of Plagioptycha demonstrates that some im- 
portant exceptions to this situation will also be found. The 
island, after all, is not small, extending for about 80 miles, and 
though it is generally less than two miles for most of its length, 
it contains 166 square miles of territory (Clench, p. 98) . 

I wish to express my gratitude to Dr. William K. Emerson of 
the American Museum of Natural History who has read the 
manuscript and offered valuable suggestions, and especially to 
Mr. and Mrs. Jensen who gave liberally of their restricted vaca- 
tion time to hunt, at my urgent suggestion, for land shells in 
an area where, as Clench found (p. 98) , "in the main, land 
collecting was poor." 

The shells mentioned in this report have been deposited in the 
collection of the American Museum of Natural History, New 
York. 

Literature cited 

Bendall, Wilfred. 1895, Proc. Mai. Soc. London, 7:292-295. 
Bland, Thomas. 1861, Ann. Lye. Nat. Hist. New York, 7:335-361. 
Clench, William J. 1952, Rev. Soc. Mai.. Carlos de la Torre, 

^.-97-116, pis. 14-16. 
Pilsbry, Henry A. 1889, Man, Conch., ser. 2, 5:1-339, pis. 1-64. 



April, 1965 nautilus 125 

, 1897, Man. Conch., ser. 2, i7;l-339, pis. 1-51. 

-, 1928, Proc. Acad. Nat. Sci. Philadelphia, 80:bSl-606, pis. 



28-30, text figs. 1-19. 



MOLLUSCAN FAUNA OF SOME SMALL PONDS 
IN GRAND TETON NATIONAL PARK 

By DOROTHY E. BEETLE 

Curator of Education, Charlotte Children's Nature Museum, Inc., 

Charlotte, North Carolina 

In a previous study of the mollusca of Grand Teton National 
Park I collections were obtained from many small ponds that 
dot the area. Considerable variation was found in fauna and 
flora even between adjacent ponds. Ten ponds in the vicinity of 
Jackson Lake dam were selected for investigation of molluscan 
variations and for population analysis of the most abundant 
gastropod in each. 

Ecology. Each of the ponds lies in the lodgepole pine forest 
that has developed upon the moraines dumped by the Pleistocene 
glaciers. I assumed, therefore, that their origins and ages are 
similar. They occur at an approximate elevation of 6700 feet. 
The annual precipitation in the vicinity of Jackson Lake is about 
20 inches, three-fourths of which falls as snow. Summer showers 
during June, July and August are brief and scarcely replenish 
the ponds, which are subject to greatly fluctuating water levels. 
Snow and ice may lie late into May, but the ponds can be open 
from May through September and evaporation rapidly shrinks 
their volume. The monthly mean temperature in the region 
varies from 13.6 to 61.3 degrees Fahrenheit. However, the shallow 
water of the ponds is warm during the short summer, varying 
between approximately 60 to 82 degrees F. along the margins. 
The shallowness of the water bodies precludes any thermal 
stratification. 

The largest of the ponds measures 300 by 100 yards. The 
smallest is scarcely 100 yards long. Maximum depth of the water 
varies between one and four feet and accumulates mainly by 
snow melt. Ponds that dry in summer are without water until the 
following spring and have a snow rather than an ice cover during 
the winter. The outlines of abandoned channels and partially 
submerged beaver lodges in three ponds. Moose, Signal Moun- 



126 



NAUTILUS 



Vol. 78 (4) 



tain, and Pacific Creek No. 2 attest to more stable water condi- 
tions formerly. Pond bottoms are covered with a layer of mud 
overlying glaciated stones and gravel. 

Pacific Creek Pond 2, Arizona Pond No. 2, Pond No. 4 and 
No. 10 are small ephemeral bodies of water usually dry by mid- 
August. Colter Bay Pond dries completely in years of deficient 
precipitation. Moose, Signal Mountan, Pacific Creek No. 1 and 
Arizona Pond No. 1 receive some underground water and usually 
retain a few inches of water at their centers. Pond No. 7 is fed 
by adequate springs and varies least in water level. 

To varying degrees the ponds are ringed by or show scattered 
remnants of aspen stands. Interior to the aspen are willows. 
Sedges, grasses, forbs and moss grow along the edges of the ponds. 
By mid-summer the water in most of the ponds is so covered 
with rooted aquatic plants as to give the appearance of a 
meadow. Conium maculatum, Sagittaria cuneata, Ranunculus 
cymbolaria, Mentha arvensis and species of Carex and Juncus 
are amphibious plants commonly found in the ponds. Nuphar 
polysepalum, the yellow pond lily, was found only in ponds that 
retained some water if but an inch or two. 



THE MOU-l'SCAM FAINA CF !»ME PONDS IN GRAND lEION NATIONAL PARK 



TABLE I. 


MOOSB 


SIGNAL 
KT. 


COLTBR 


POMD »4 


PACIFIC 
CREEK* 1 


p«:iPic 

CREEK #2 


POND «7 


ARIZONA ADIZONA 
*1 »2 




/^ ^ 


X 


X 


X 


X 


X 




1 














>< 




X 














V 














"X 






y 


X 






^ 
















X 






P nkfu<^a}tr roku<ita 




X 












v 














y 


y 




V 










y 














C 1 - 








V 




X 




y 






X 






























y 


















X 












yL 








y 


V 1 






Arm'io^r rri^-^a 










X 










11 ,. -^ 5ubc^*F..■^um 










Y 


y 




X 






X 






X 


X 


X 


















y. 


y 




y 






X 




X 
















X 




y 










V 






X 










X 




X 














X 


X 





























Methods. The molluscan fauna of each pond was collected 
and identified. The temperature was taken one foot below the 
surface at each visit, several feet offshore and also along the 
shore. Four ponds were then selected for population analysis 



April, 1965 



NAUTILUS 



127 



and at intervals during the three summer months of June, July 
and August a random sample of approximately 100 individuals 
of the most abundant species was sized. The four ponds are 
Moose, Colter Bay, and Pacific Creek No. 1 and No. 2. See Table 
1 for the faunal composition of the various ponds. 

Discussion. In early June the pond at Colter Bay, Sec. 35, 
T46N, R115W, extends shallowly into the aspen around its 
shoreline. Not more than three feet in depth it rapidly shrinks 
by evaporation. By mid-August the remaining water lies in a 
small depression along the north boundary. As the water recedes 
the lavender bloom of Mentha arvensis covers the dry pond bed. 
This pond dried completely in September of 1960 and 1961. 

A large population of Stagnicola jacksonensis and Sphaerium 
lacustre rykholti frequent Colter Bay pond. In two seasons of 
study only one live Promenetus umbilicatellus and five Physa 



PACIFIC CREEK No. 2 




H». 3 10 15 20 IS 

COLTER BAY 



10 19 20 25 



k 



^ 



t^ 



,5 10 IS 20 25 



10 l5 20 25 




10 IS 20 25 



Li 



5 10 15 20 25 



SO 



f\ 



'■'■ • 5 10 IS 20 25 



10 IS 20 25 



fk 



10 15 20 25 



PACIFIC CREEK POND # 2 

HORIZONTAL SCALE ■■= DIAMETER 
IN MM. HELISOMA SUBCREiJATUll 
DISJECTUM 
VERTICAL SCALE =N0. OF SHELLS 
IS SIZE CATAGORY 

COLTER BAY 

HORIZONTAL SCALE = HEIGHT 
IN MM. STAGNICOLA JACK- 
SONENSIS 

VERTICAL SCALE = NO. OF 
SHELLS IN SIZE CATAGORY 



HISTCGRAKS OF POPtlLATION SIZE CLASSES IN 2 PONDS 
DURING 1960-1951. 



128 NAUTILUS Vol. 78 (4) 

gyrina were collected. In addition to the mollusks the pond sup- 
ports an abundant fauna of crustaceans, insects, tiger sala- 
manders, frogs, leeches and fresh water sponges. 

Selected histograms of population sizes can be seen in Figure 
1. Large numbers of young hatch out in early June. Of those that 
survive, growth is most rapid before midsummer, but continues 
all during the growing season. Many animals die in situ when 
the water recedes, but others are still active in late August, 
crawling upon the mud and burrowing into it. The wide range 
of shell sizes present during the short giowing season argues for 
the successful aestivation of individuals in all stages of growth. 

Pacific Creek No. 2, Sec. 6, T45N, R113W, is an ephemeral 
pond which dries by mid-August. Meadow plants, predominantly 
Conium. maculatum, sedges and grasses, grow up through the 
water to clothe it deceptively as a field. Once the w^ater has 
evaporated, only the presence of dead shells and the stains of 
high water marks prove that water lay in the area. The vege- 
tation protects all of the substrate except for a few bare patches 
of mud in the center. 

This pond supports insects, crustaceans such as conchostracans, 
tiger salamanders and frogs. Waterfowl nest in the reed clumps. 
Twelve species of mollusca are found in Pacific Creek No. 2. 
Helisoma subcrenatum disjectum is the most abundant and a 
fairly large number of Stagnicola palustris is present. The other 
species formed a minor portion of the fauna. Only one indi- 
vidual of the clam, Sphaerium striatinum, was found. 

Aestivating mollusks are mainly found in the central patches 
of bare mud. Although the mud became deeply cracked in late 
August of both years, it remained slightly damp three inches and 
more below the surface crust. Figure 1 shows details of popula- 
tion composition for Helisoma subcrenatum. Here again indi- 
viduals of all sizes could be found throughout the summer. 

Pacific Creek pond No. 1, same locality, lies over the ridge 
from No. 2. It is the only pond with a tan colloidal muck bot- 
tom. The pond surface is completely covered with marsh trefoil. 
Menyanthes trifoliata, so that it appears as a lush green meadow. 
The bulbous plant roots with their filamentous rootlets and the 
decaying vegetation create a fibrous mat interspersed through 
the ooze. A pole can be forced down more than 3 feet through 
the root matting to firmer bottom. To walk in the pond is im- 



April, 1965 nautilus 129 

possible until the surface water evaporates. 

When the pond dries, the mollusks retreat to the moisture 
below. There was no surface water in evidence by August 4, 1960, 
and the bottom had dried firmly enough to support the weight 
of an adult. The following year surface water disappeared by 
August 10 after an early and wet spring. Helisoma suhcrenatum 
disjectum, the dominant species, can be found aestivating 6 
inches and more below the surface. The other snails and clams 
are largely found around the perimeter of the pond in the thick 
giowth of sphagnum moss. As the water recedes, land snails as 
Vertigo ovata, V. gouldi coloradoensis, Pupilla hehes, Vitrina 
alaskana and Catinella wandae invade the damp moss and mingle 
with the freshwater forms. 

Since the population size analysis of Helisoma from this pond 
is similar to that reported from Pacific Creek No. 2, it is not 
shown. A small population of 11 other species of freshwater 
mollusks is present in this pond, as may be seen from Table 1. 

Moose Pond, Sec. 19, T45N, R114W, holds a large population 
of Stagnicola palustris wyomingensis and Sphaerium lacustre 
rykholti. Five other species in the pond occur in fair numbers. 
The largest individuals of Stagnicola, and these with badly 
eroded shells, congregate in deep water along the east shore. The 
other animals are rather evenly scattered along the shore of the 
pond. Fewer animals, and these only adult forms, scavenge more 
widely in mid-pond. Population sizing of Stagnicola over two 
seasons showed that all sizes of individuals are present at all 
times in the pond. 

Pond No. 4, Sec. 15, T45N, R114W, is a shallow depression in 
an aspen grove. A small population of Sphaerium lacustre ryk- 
holti, Stagnicola palustris and Planorhula christyi remain active 
until the water evaporates the latter part of July. 

Pond No. 7, Sec. 23, T46N, R115W, a perennial water body, 
contained only Pisidium compressum. Taylor has indicated that 
this species is restricted to permanent waters. A thin crust of salt 
has been deposited over the thick muck and heavy algal growth 
around the pond's perimeter. 

Pond No. 10, Sec. 23, T46N, R115W, fits into the general pat- 
tern of the ponds with its ring of aspen, some willows and sedges. 
It is shallow except for 3 holes in the center that are two feet 
below the general level. It dries completely during July, and al- 



130 NAUTILUS Vol. 78 (4) 

though it supports a few frogs and water insects, it has no 
mollusks. 

Gros Ventre Pond, Sec. 2, T42N, R114W, near Slide Lake, was 
seen but once and is included in this report only as an example of 
the build-up of a population under severly limiting ecological fac- 
tors. It is a small pond, one of a chain, that lies along the flood 
plain of the Gros Ventre River rather than in the pine forest. 
The water is highly alkaline, with a pH reading of 7.8, and has 
deposited a crust of salts around the perimeter of the pond. Huge 
numbers of the tiger salamander, Amblystoma tigeris and Stag- 
nicola palustris live in the pond. The snails crawl over the alkali 
flats in such numbers that the movements of the pneumostomes 
result in an easily audible clicking. Other than 5 individuals of 
Physa skinneri found during seining operations, this was the only 
mollusk present. 

Conclusions 

A total of 21 molluscan species are found in the 10 ponds. 
Field notes of the author indicate that these species habitually 
occur in ephemeral pools, sloughs, marshes and quiet perennial 
water. This agrees with the findings of Taylor who has listed the 
ecological requirements of these species as varying from tem- 
porary ponds to quiet stagnant ^vater (perennial) . The presence 
of Valvata lewisi in Pacific Creek No. 2, a temporary pond, was 
unexpected. This species is supposedly restricted to perennial 
waters. 

In a study of the population of Sphaerium partumeium in an 
ephemeral pool near Ann Arbor, Michigan, Thomas found that 
it was primarily carried from year to year by young individuals. 
Very few sub-adults were able to survive the rigors of a severe 
habitat over winter. In these ponds around Jackson Lake it ap- 
pears that individuals of all growth stages must overwinter to 
account for the wide range of shell sizes present during the 
glowing season. 

Bibliography 

Beetle, D. E., 1957. Nautilus 71 (1) : 12-22. 

Reed, J. F., 1952. Amer. Mid. Naturalist 48 {^) : 700-729. 

Taylor, D. W., 1960. Geological Survey Professional Paper 337, 

Late Cenozoic Molluscan Faunas from the High Plains. 
Thomas, G. J., 1963. Nautilus 77 (2) : 37-43. 
Tuthill, S. J., and Laird, W. M., Nautilus 77 (3): 81-90. 



April, 1965 nautilus 131 

BATON ROUGE GREENHOUSE GASTROPODS 

By pat W. HERMANN, BENNIE C. STRICKLAND, 
DEE SAUNDERS DUNDEE 

In our continuing attempt to determine the distribution of in- 
troduced mollusks in the Gulf Coastal area, a survey of Baton 
Rouge greenhouses was made during May and June, 1964. It 
revealed the presence of 22 species of gastropods of which 3 
species are introduced forms. Dundee and Watt (1962) collected 
21 species of snails and slugs from New Orleans greenhouses in- 
cluding 6 species of introduced mollusks. 

Three introduced species, Lamellaxis gracilis, Gulella bicolor, 
and Vaginulus sp. were found in both New Orleans and Baton 
Rouge greenhouses while Subulina octona, Bradybaena similaris, 
and Veronicella fioridana were only in those of New Orleans. Al- 
though Bradybaena similaris was not found in Baton Rouge 
greenhouses, it is present in this city. 

In order to determine if there was a correlation between the 
presence of introduced forms in a greenhouse and the source of 
their plant material, some of the greenhouse owners or managers 
were asked if they had received any plants from out of Louisiana. 
With reference to Table 1, greenhouse B received plants from 
Florida and Texas, C from Florida, California, Mississippi, and 
Alabama, D from Miami, Florida and The Netherlands and M 
receives cacti from our southwestern states. A, G, I, L dealt only 
within Louisiana. Those not mentioned were not asked about 
their plant sources. 

It is of interest to note that Vaginulus sp. was found in green- 
houses B and D both of which receive material from Florida. 
Gulella bicolor and Lamellaxis gracilis were also found at D 
giving a possible Florida link but L. gracilis was found at A 
which does not receive out of state material. 

The owner of greenhouse C said that he thinks he has seen 
snails on plants coming from California but added that plants 
are dipped upon arrival. 

Most of the owners or managers said that they had little or no 
trouble with snails and slugs damaging their plants. At green- 
house A, Vaginulus sp., Mesodon thyroidus and Limax margi- 
natiis were in fair abundance but appeared to be confined to the 
ground under the raised benches. This area was littered with 
boards, pots, cardboard and supported sufficient plant growth to 



132 



NAUTILUS 



Vol. 78 (4) 



Table 1 
Baton Rouge Greenhouse Gastropods 



T G — fi — I 3 7. E — FT 



Greenhouse : 



B 



D 



Helicina orbiculata CSay; 



Polyjyra septemvolva 
febiReri (Bland) 




X X 






Polyf^ra aurifomis (Bland) 


X 




X 




PolypjTS. cereolus (Muhlfeld) 










Polypyra texasiana (Moricand) 








X 


Mesodon thyroidus (Say) 


X 






X 


Mesodon perigraptus Pilsbry 


X 


X 






Lamellaxis gracilis (Hutton) 


X 


X 




X 


Euglandina rosea (Ferussac) 


X 


X 


X 




Retinella indentata (Say) 


X 


X 


X 


X 


Hawaiia niniscula (Binney) 


X 






X 


Zonitoides arboreus (Say) 


X 


X X 


X 


X 


Deroceras laeve (Muller) 


X 


X X 




X 


Ventridens ligera (Say) 






X 




Limax marginatus Muller 




X 






Helicodiscus parallelus (Say) 






X 


Succinea sp. 




X X 






Succinea grosvenori Lea 










Succinea ovalis Say 










Vaginulus sp. 




X X 






Gulella bicolor (Hutton) 




X 






Helisoraa sp. (imm.) 


X 








Physa sp. 






X 





X X 

X X 

X X 



provide an excellent habitat in which these animals were thriv- 
ing. Perhaps this is why they were not bothering the commercial 
plant material kept on the benches. 

A few owners seemed to have a little problem with gastropods 
and those at greenhouses B and M said that snails were particu- 
larly destructive to petunia plants. Succinea sp. were found crawl- 
ing on petunias at B. 

Although the consensus of opinions of the greenhouse oper- 
ators is that snails and slugs generally don't cause much damage, 
most of these operators do use control measures. Among those 
mentioned were the commercial baits, Sluggit, Bug-Geta, Mala- 



April, 1965 nautilus 133 

thion, Metaldehyde, Cygon, and Dieldrin. Karlin and Naegele 
(1958) state that Dieldrin and Endrin has been reported to kill 
slugs but experiments tend to give conflicting results and more 
tests must be made to determine their actual effectiveness. 

All the greenhouses visited are sprayed regularly with Hepta- 
chlor, an insecticide. Whether this is useful in mollusk control 
also was not determined. 

Literature cited 
Dundee, D. S. and P. Watt. New Orleans Greenhouse Gastropods 

with a List of Some Other Southern Snails. Proc. La. Acad. 

Sci. 25: 47-49, 1962. 
Karlin, E. J. and John A. Naegele. Slugs and Snails in New York 

Greenhouses. Cornell Ext. Bull. 1004: N. Y. Coll. Agric, 

1958. 



NOTES ON ZONITIDAE 

By LESLIE HUBRICHT 

Glphyalinia roanensis (H. B. Baker) 

Retinella (Glyphyalis) cumberlandiana roanensis H. B. Baker, 
1930, Proc. Acad. Nat. Sci. Philadelphia 82: 203, pi. 9, figs. 7-9. 

I have seen no intergradation between G. roanensis and G. 
cumberlandiana either in the shells or in the genitalia; they 
should, therefore, be considered distinct species. G. roanensis is 
found within the range of G. cumberlandiana but I have not 
found them together. It ranges as far south as Grundy and Mon- 
roe Counties, Tennessee, and Graham and Macon Counties, 
North Carolina. 

Glyphyalinia indentata (Say) 

Retinella (Glyphyalinia) indentata paucilirata (Morelet) 
H. B. Baker, 1930, Proc. Acad. Nat. Sci. Philadelphia, 82: 210, 
pi. 11, figs. 6-8. 

Having dissected over 100 specimens from many localities, I 
find that there is no correlation between anatomical differences 
and shell differences. Animals like paucilirata may be found in 
shells like indentata, and vice versa. Most animals are inter- 
mediate. The two anatomies figured by Baker are those of two 
lots and are not characteristic of either shell form. Because of 
the absence of any real pattern to the variation, in either the 
shells or the animals, I do not believe that recognition of the 
subspecies Glyphyalinia indentata paucilirata is worth while. 



134 NAUTILUS Vol. 78 (4) 

Glyphyalinia solida (H. B. Baker) 

Retinella (Glyphyalinia) ajptomphala solida H. B. Baker, 
1930, Proc. Acad. Nat. Sci. Philadelphia, 82: 213, pi. 13, figs. 1-8. 

Anatomical and shell differences are constant with no inter- 
gradation in the large amount of material examined, and G. 
solida should be considered a distinct species from G. ayptom- 
p/iala. G. cryptomphala occurs within the range of the wide- 
spread G. solida but I have not found them together. 
Glyphyalinia sculptilis (Bland) 

Retinella (Glyphyo gnomon) sculptilis snbdola H. B. Baker, 
1930, Proc. Acad. Nat. Sci. Philadelphia 82: 217, pi. 12, figs. 5-9. 

Glyphyalinia sculptilis often becomes sexually mature when the 
shell has reached a size of about 5 whorls. At this time the flagel- 
lum on the penis is very small or wanting. As the shell and animal 
grow the flagellum grows until in shells with 6 to 7 whorls the 
flagellum becomes well developed. The subspecies snbdola is 
based upon shells which have just reached sexual maturity. 
Mesomphix capnodes (W. G. Binney) 

MesompJiix cupreus ozarkensis (Pilsbry k Ferriss) , 1946, Acad. 
Nat. Sci. Philadelphia, Monogr. 3, 2: 337-338, figs. 173g, 175. 

Mesomphix cupreus miktus Pilsbry, 1946, Acad. Nat. Sci, Phil- 
adelphia Monogr. 3, 2: 339, fig. 173f. 

The papillose spirals on the shell of M. capnodes are sometimes 
deciduous. The papillae are found only on very new shell. In a 
lot of miktus from Campbell Co., Tennessee, one specimen had 
had the shell broken. It had healed with a small piece of shell 
set below the general surface. There were papillose spirals on 
this small protected piece, but not anywhere else on any of the 
shells in the large lot collected. 

The species of the subgenus Omphalina do not have the con- 
spicuous differences in the genitalia which are found in section 
Mesomphix s. s. In both M. capnodes and M. cupreus the epi- 
phallus is inserted near the end of the penis but emerges from 
the penial sheath near the middle of the penis. In specimens in 
which the penial sheath is tight, the epiphallus looks as if it were 
inserted in the middle of the penis. 
Paravitrea tridens Pilsbry 

Paravitrea capsella tridens Pilsbry, 1946, Acad. Nat. Sci. Phila- 
delphia Monogr. no. 3, 2: 375-376, fig. 195c-d. 

Paravitrea tridens is anatomically distinct from P. capsella 



April, 1965 nautilus 135 

(Gould). It is probably more closely related to P. reesei Mor- 
rison. 
Ventoidens eutropis Pilsbry 

Ventridens intertextus eutropis Pilsbry, 1946, Acad. Nat. Sci. 
Philadelphia Monogr. no, 3, 2: 470, fig. 255. 

Ventridens eutropis is anatomically distinct from V. intertextus 
(Binney) and I have seen no intergradation in shell characters. 

Pilsbry gave the type locality as "Cherry Valley," east of Water- 
town, Tennessee. But Cherry Valley is west of Watertown. It is 
known from Cheatham, DeKalb, Macon, and Wilson Counties, 
Tennessee. 
VENTRmENs voLUsiAE (Pilsbry) 

Ventridens intertextus volusiae (Pilsbry), Acad. Nat. Sci. Phil- 
adelphia Monogr. no. 3, 2: 471. 

Ventridens volusiae has not been dissected; however, the shell 
differences are constant. It is a species of the St. Johns River 
Valley of northeastern Florida. It is known from Duval, Lake, 
St. Johns, Seminole, and Volusia Counties, Florida. 



DISPERSAL OF AQUATIC GASTROPODS VIA THE 
INTESTINAL TRACT OF WATER BIRDS 

By CHARLES R. MALONE 
Department of Biology, Texas Technological College, Lubbock 

The occurrence of gastropods in isolated bodies of water has 
interested biologists for many years. Most authors (e.g. Kew, 
1893, Boycott, 1936 and Baker, 1945) agree that birds are pri- 
marily responsible for transporting snails overland. The usual 
assumption is that snails become attached to the external sur- 
faces of resting or feeding water birds and can remain attached 
and viable for sufficient lengths of time to effect dispersal. Malone 
(1965) showed that this is possible and that water birds do pro- 
vide an effective and readily available means of dispersal for 
fresh-water snails. 

Seldom has the possibility of viable snails being carried in the 
intestinal tract of birds been considered. Pascal (1891) suggested 
that the egg masses of Lymnaea auricularia might pass through 
the tract of swans but apparently he did not actually recover 
eggs from the feces of the birds. Kobelt (1871) thought that 
snails might pass unharmed through birds. His suggestion was 



136 NAUTILUS Vol. 78 (4) 

tried by Bondesen and Kaiser (1949) with Hydrobia jenkinsi. 
They found that no snails passed unbroken through ducks. 

My research was undertaken to determine if juveniles and 
adults or egg masses of Physa anatina and Helisoma trivolvis 
could be dispersed via the intestinal tract of birds. Both species 
commonly occur in isolated bodies of water in west Texas. 
Mallard ducks {Anas platyrhynchos) and killdeer (Charadriiis 
vociferus) were considered as examples of agents transport. 

This research was supported by National Institutes of Health 
Grant GM 11 394-01 Al. I am grateful to Vernon W. Proctor for 
giving helpful suggestions and to E. P. Cheatum for aiding in 
identification of the snails. 

Methods and Results. Ducks were placed in wire cages and fed 
aquatic vegetation containing large numbers of snails and egg 
masses. Each bird ingested about 75 to 100 e^g masses per meal. 
Estimates of the number of snails eaten per trial ranged from 
50 to 200. After feeding, the birds and cages were inspected for 
adhering eg^ masses and snails. Brown wrapping paper was 
placed beneath the cages and the first several droppings passed 
by each bird were collected. 

Feces were inspected with a dissecting microscope. Any egg 
masses or embryos found were placed in small dishes of water 
and Chlamydomonas sp. for observation. To provide for unde- 
tected snails, the feces were placed in jars of soil and water with 
Elodea. All cultures were placed in a 27 °C light room. Controls 
treated similarily hatched within 5 or 6 days. 

Five ducks were used for 47 trials with Physa. Only 2 intact 
egg masses were recovered from the feces. The first of these con- 
tained 17 embryos, none of which developed further. Seven eggs 
were contained in the second; 4 developed normally and hatched 
on the fourth day following recovery. Five juveniles were found 
in a gallon jar which had received feces 14 days earlier. These 
probably developed from an tg'g mass. Juvenile and adult snails 
were never found in the feces. Shell fragments were frequently 
seen indicating that most if not all had been crushed. Apparently 
the Qgg masses wTre usually broken and the embryos scattered 
during passage through the tract. Twenty-eight individual Physa 
embryos in various stages of development were recovered from 
feces. An attempt was made to culture these but none were viable. 

Eight trials were made with ducks and Helisoma. Neither em- 



April, 1965 nautilus 137 

bryos nor juveniles and adults were recovered from the feces. 
However, one snail was found in a culture of feces 23 days after 
passage. No other Helisoma were recovered from birds, suggest- 
ing that this individual was probably a contaminator. 

Post mortem inspection of the intestinal tract of 10 ducks indi- 
cated where the snails w^ere being killed during passage. The 
birds were fed vegetation with Physa each 15 minutes for one 
hour. Fifteen minutes after the last meal, they were killed. Ma- 
terial found in all portions of the tract was removed, inspected, 
and cultured. 

Neither juvenile and adult snails nor ^^'g masses were found 
past the gizzard. Portions of 4 ^gg masses containing 31 embryos 
were taken from the gizzard. None developed further. Only one 
snail was recovered from the gizzard. It was found just inside the 
entrance. The snail's peristome was damaged but the snail was 
living when recovered. However, it died within the following 
hour. Only shell fragments were found in the lower portion of 
the gizzard where grit is contained. 

The only viable snails recovered from the dead ducks were 
found in the crop. Four juveniles and 9 egg masses containing 
153 embryos were recovered. All the juveniles lived and 136 of 
the embryos hatched within 5 days. 

Egg masses were mixed with zooplankton and fed to killdeer. 
Individual birds were placed in a cage consisting of two com- 
partments. Each was fed in one compartment then moved into 
the next where feces were collected. Ten killdeer were used for 
56 trials with Physa and 20 with Helisoma. Each bird ate 10 to 
20 Qgg masses per meal. No juvenile and adult snails were fed 
nor were post mortem studies conducted with killdeer. 

Feces collected from killdeer were placed immediately in well 
oxygenated water. This procedure was not possible with the bulky 
duck feces but did not hamper inspection of killdeer feces. Egg 
masses wre quickly separated from the feces by gentle agitation, 
removed, and cultured in the same manner as those taken from 
ducks. 

A total of 45 Physa egg masses were recovered from the feces 
of killdeer. Only 3 of these contained viable embryos. 17 of 26 
embryos contained in the 3 tgg masses hatched. Embryos con- 
tained in the remaining 42 ^gg masses were killed during passage. 
One hundred and thirty-two individual embryos from broken egg 



138 NAUTILUS Vol. 78 (4) 

masses were recovered, but as with ducks, none was viable. 

Only 8 Helisoma ^^'g masses were recovered from the feces of 
killdeer. None of the embryos contained in these developed. 
Thirty-seven individual embryos were found in the feces; none 
survived passage. 

Discussion 

It seems unlikely that dispersal of P. anatina and H. trivolvis 
via the intestinal tract of birds is of much significance, particu- 
larly with the latter. Apparently the only important aspect of 
internal transport is the possibility of snails and Q^g masses being 
carried in a bird's crop. Ingested food is not exposed to signifi- 
cant digestion before it enters the gizzard. Thus, if snails and tg'g 
masses contained in the crop were vomited, they would be viable. 
Bondesen and Kaiser (1949) did not consider this possibility in 
their study of Hydrobia jenkinsi. 

Although internal transport of snails by birds seems possible, 
external transport as demonstrated by Malone (1965) , is a much 
more effective mechanism of dispersal. The passage of viable 
snails through birds is probably a matter of chance and appears 
to be a rare occurrence. On the other hand, snails frequently be- 
come attached to the surfaces of birds and the opportunities for 
dispersal are probably numerous. 

The distance snails can be carried internally is limited by the 
time required for food to pass through the intestinal tract and 
also by the period that snails can survive within the tract. In this 
study, the last of an entire meal seldom required over 2 hours 
to be passed by either ducks or killdeer. Viable embryos recov- 
ered from feces had always passed within 30 to 45 minutes follow- 
ing ingestion. Thus, it is unlikely that embryos could survive a 
maximum passage of 2 hours. 

Dispersal via the crop probably has significance only involving 
short distances. Unfortunately, the rate of passage of food from 
the crop of ducks is not known. However, only 3 of the 10 ducks 
killed had food in their crops 15 minutes after eating. 

Snails adhering to the surfaces of birds are likely to be carried 
great distances. Sufficiently small snails can remain attached to 
birds indefinitely and the period that snails can survive out of 
water far exceeds their period of survival within the intestinal 
tract. 

Fresh-water gastropods apparently have not acquired resistant 



April, 1965 nautilus 139 

eggs to enable them to be dispersed via the avian intestinal tract. 
For aquatic organisms that are easily desiccated, this has proven 
to be a highly effective mechanism of dispersal. For example, 
Proctor (1964) found that the eggs of many crustaceans are suf- 
ficiently resistant to withstand passage through the intestinal 
tract of ducks. Apparently no selective advantage has been placed 
upon resistant eggs for snails since juveniles and adults can usu- 
ally resist the amount of desiccation encountered during an over- 
land journey. 

Literature cited 

Baker, F. C, 1945. The molluscan family Planorbidae. The Uni- 
versity of Illinois Press, Urbana. 233 p. 
Bondesen, Poul and E W. Kaiser, 1949. Hydrobia (Potamopyrgus) 

jenkinsi Smith in Denmark illustrated by its ecology. Oikos 

1: 252-281. 
Boycott, A. E., 1936. The habitats of fresh-water Mollusca in 

Britain. Jour. Anim. Ecol. 5; 116-186. 
Kew, H. W., 1893. The dispersal of shells. Kegan Paul, French, 

Trubner, and Company Ltd. London. 291 p. 
Kobelt, W., 1871. Fauna der nassauischen Mollusken. Jahrb. d. 

nassau. V. f. Nat., Wiesbaden: XXV-XXVL 274 p. 
Malone, Charles R., 1965. Killdeer as a means of dispersal for 

aquatic gastropods. Ecology 46: (in press) . 
Proctor, Vernon W., 1964. Viability of crustacean eggs recovered 

from ducks. Ecology 45: 656-658. 



NOTES AND NEWS 



Ruth Ingersoll Baily died suddenly January 11, 1965. She 
was born in Montrose, Colorado, but at an early age, her mother 
took her to San Diego, California, where she lived much of her 
life. She was an alumna of Mills College. She met Joshua L. 
Baily, Jr., on the beach at La Jolla, where they both were collect- 
ing shells. They were married in San Diego, Feb. 19, 1917. Mrs. 
Baily was a member of the Society of Natural History of San 
Diego, the Historical Society of San Diego, many other San Diego 
organizations, the Mills College Club, the Academy of Natural 
Sciences of Philadelphia, the American Malacological Union, etc. 
As joint author with Dr. Baily, she published several papers on 
mollusks. All who knew Ruth will miss her keenly, and she still 
lives in our memories. — Editors. 



140 NAUTILUS Vol. 78 (4) 

Alexania replaces Habea (Epitoniidae) — A genus was dis- 
covered at three widely separated localities, and each time was 
newly described and named and placed in a different one of the 
three subclasses of Gastropoda. Robertson & Oyama [1958, Nau- 
tilus 72(2) . -68-69] reported that Stenacme Pilsbry, 1945 [Nauti- 
lus 5<5 (4) : 112-116, pi. 5], type-species S. fioridana Pilsbry (south- 
east Florida), is a synonym of Habea Kuroda, 1943 [Japanese 
Journ. Malac. (Venus) ii (1-4) : 11-14, fig. 1], type-species H, 
inazawai Kuroda (southern Japan) . Pilsbry wrongly placed Sten- 
acme in a new family Stenacmidae, placing this next to Amphib- 
olidae (subclass Pulmonata) . Kuroda [1943], and also Habe 
[1943, Japanese Journ. Malac. (Venus) 13 (1-4) : 65-67, figs. 1-6], 
correctly placed Habea in Epitoniidae (subclass Prosobranchi- 
ata) . Subsequently, Habe [1961, Venus 21 (4) : 417, 423] has des- 
cribed a third species, H. callizona (southern Japan) . 

One of us (T.H.) has discoveied an older name for the genus 
than Habea Kuroda [1943]: Alexandria Tomlin, 1926 [Ann. 
Natal Mus. 5(3): 287-288, pi. 16, figs. 1-2], type-species (mono- 
typy) A. natalensis Tomlin (12 mi. S.W. of Durban, South 
Africa) . The description and figures of the shell and radular teeth 
of Alexandria agree in every respect with our observations of 
Habea. Unfortunately, Alexandria Tomlin [1926] is a homonym 

(non Pfeffer, 1881 [Echinoidea]) . Embrik Strand, who studied 
homonymy to the neglect of synonymy, renamed Alexandria 
Tomlin twice, first as Alexania [1928 ("1926"), Arch. Natur- 
gesch. 92 A (8) : 63], seemingly the correct name for the genus, 
then as Tomlinula [1932, Folia Zool. Hydrobiol., Riga, 4(2)'. 
193], an objective synonym [Pilsbry, 1933, Nautilus 47 {\) : 35- 
36], Tomlin tentatively placed Alexandria {^Alexania Strand) 
in Acteonidae (subclass Opisthobranchiata), where it was re- 
tained by Thiele [1931, Handb. syst. Weichtierkunde 1 (2) : 380] 
and Zilch [1959, Handb. Palaozool. 6 Gastropoda 2 — Euthyneura 

(1) : 10, fig. 21 {Stenacme Pilsbry p. 80, fig. 260) ]. 

While a participant in the International Indian Ocean Expedi- 
tion (U. S. Program in Biology) , one of us (R.R.) studied an 
Alexania at Mandapam Camp, on the coast of the Gulf of Man- 
nar, southeast India, Shells of all species in the genus are less 
than 10 mm. long, elongate-ovate to globose, with inflated whorls, 
an impressed (slightly channeled) suture, a fairly thin periostra- 
cum, and a fragile, styliform protoconch. The thin shells are dark 



April, 1965 nautilus 141 

brown to pale brownish yellow or have variable brown bands 
on white; the surfaces are smooth except for axial growth lines, 
and (commonly indistinct) low axial blades on spire reminiscent 
of Epitonium. Thus, the shell is not particularly distinctive, and 
resembles those in some widely unrelated genera — such as Vivi- 
pariis, Lacuna, Problitora and Algamorda (both Littorinidae?) , 
various Assimineidae, Halotapada (Fossaridae?) , Salinator (Am- 
phibolidae) , and various Lymnaeidae. 

The ecology and anatomy of Alexania are, however, distinc- 
tive, and show that the genus does belong in Epitoniidae. All 
the known species occur on subtropical and tropical continental 
shores. They probably all live intertidally on sand-scoured rocks 
with sea anemones (Actiniaria) , on w^hich they feed (compare 
other Epitoniidae [Robertson, 1963, Proc. Malac. Soc. London 
i5 (2-3) : 51-63, pis. 5-7]) . Their appearance is seasonal, and small 
to dwarf males occur with the females. Pairs commonly are found 
with masses of Epitonium-like, sand-agglutinated egg capsules. 
Pelagic veligers hatch from these. The hypobranchial gland se- 
cretes purple. Epipodium-like flaps extend from the foot on both 
sides and partly cover the shell. Even though not used to close 
the aperture, the horny, paucispiral operculum is large. The pro- 
boscis is thick, fairly short, and acrembolic, and the radula is 
ptenoglossate. 

The Epitoniidae and Janthinidae are closely related. Shells of 
Alexania (Epitoniidae) and Recluzia (Janthinidae) are remark- 
ably similar. However, Recluzia is larger, makes a bubble float, 
and seemingly is holopelagic. 

The above information is recorded now, in advance of a mono- 
graph planned by one of us (R.R.) with the belief that Alexania 
can be found on shores between Florida, South Africa, India, and 
Japan. More comparative material is needed for study. Possibly, 
one of several variable, circumglobal species are involved (com- 
pare Janthina and Recluzia [Laursen, 1953, Dana-Report (5(38) : 
1-40, figs. 1-41, pi. 1; Abbott, 1963, Nautilus 76(4): 151]).— 
Robert Robertson & Tadashige Habe. 



Monomphalus (PuNcrmAE) — According to article 69 (a) 
(iv) of the 1961 "code," the type species of Monomphalus Ancey, 
1882, is Helix heckeliana Crosse, 1872, of New Caledonia. Actu- 
ally, Pilsbry, 1893, Man. Conch. (2)9: 19, selected F [lammidina] 



142 NAUTILUS Vol. 78 (4) 

rossiteriana (Crosse, 1871) but (p. 20) synonymized it and hecke- 
liana (a substitute) "at the same time." Solem, 1961, Fieldiana: 
Zoology 41: 464, subsequently designated Helix bavayi Crosse 
and Marie, 1868. — H. B. B. 



Notes on land snail distribution in texas — This note re- 
ports new county records lor land Pulmonata in Texas. Only the 
county is given for common, widespread forms. Catalogue num- 
bers are those of the author. 

Philomycus carolinianus flexuolaris Raf. Four specimens (265) 
were collected in the bottoms of the Sabine River just down- 
stream of Lake Taw^akoni, Rains County. One specimen (909) 
was collected in the Sam Houston National Forest, in southern 
San Jacinto County. Anguispira alternata crassa Walker. Seven 
specimens (910) were collected in the Sam Houston National 
Forest in Southern San Jacinto County. Limax flavus Linnaeus. 
Tarrant County (702) . Mesomphix friabilis (W. G. Binney) . 
Cass County (705) . Rumina decollata (Linnaeus) . Menard, 
Menard County around ruins of Mission San Saba (955) . 

Euglandijia texasiana (Pfr.) . The only published Texas rec- 
ords are from "Brownsville." During August, 1962, and January, 
1964, specimens were collected in Southmost Palm Grove (558, 
814, 818) and Rabbs Palm Grove (563) southeast of Browns- 
ville; in the Arroyo Colorado (living material, not drift) at 
Harlingen (571) ; west of Bayview (565) ; and at Highland 
School 5i/9 miles east and 4i/^ miles north of Los Indios (821) 
all in Cameron County. In Hidalgo County specimens were found 
at Santa Ana National Wildlife Refuge (557) and at the Las 
Palomas Wildlife Management Area south of Madero (824) . 

Bulimulus dealbatus ragsdalei Pilsbry. Western Travis County 
(486); McCulloch County, collected by G. V. Oliver (747) ; Hood 
County, collected by R. L. Lardie (WLP 782) ; Palo Pinto Coun- 
ty (894, 943, 1005) ; Wise County (WLP 974) ; Erath County 
(984) . Intergrades with B.d. mooreaniis were collected in north- 
western Tarrant County (837) ; and in Parker County, collected 
by R. L. Lardie (872, 873, 874) . 

B. alternatiis mariae (Albers). Kenedy County, eleven miles 
south of Sarita (811) . B. schideanus pecosensis Pilsbry 8c Ferriss. 
Kimble County, twenty miles west of Junction, collected by G. V. 
Oliver (1049) . Triodopsis vultuosa copei (Weatherby) . Mont- 



April, 1965 nautilus 143 

gomery County (WLP 186, 900); San Jacinto County (913). 
Stenotrema leai aliciae (Pilsbry) . Montgomery County (187, 
898); Liberty County (904) ; San Jacinto County (911) ; Gonzales 
County (WLP 494, 500) ; \Vise County, collected by B. E. Dial 
and J. Glidewell (975) . S. leai subsp. Hemphill County at Lake 
Marvin on the North bank of the Canadian River eleven miles 
east of Canadian. In a relict area of deciduous forest (279) . 
Polygyra auriformis (Bland) . Hays County, near Wimberly 

(532) ; Gonzales County at Palmetto State Park (501) . P. t. tex- 
asiana (Moricand). Hunt County (263) ; Hopkins County (343) ; 
Palo Pinto County (942) ; Taylor County, non-fossil material, 
collected by G. V. Oliver (749) . P. dorfuelUana Lea. Hood 
County (53) ; Palo Pinto County (944, 993) ; Parker County 

(251), — W. L. Pratt, Jr., 4501 El Campo, Ft. Worth, Texas 
76107. 

Carnivorous habits in Mesodon indianorum (Pilsbry) — On 
9 March 1963, I collected a number of M. indianorum (Pilsbry) 
[=r M. binneyanus] at Beaver Bend State Park, McCurtain 
County, Oklahoma. Three of these ^vere maintained alive in a 
terrarium along with Triodopsis albilabris and Anguispira alter- 
nata. On 14 May 1963 at about 8:00 P.AL, a specimen of Buli- 
muliis dealbatus was added to the terrarium. At 10:00 P.M. the 
largest Mesodon was found to have consumed the foot and part 
of the mantle of the Bulimuhis which was completely consumed 
by 11:30 P.M. A literature search has yielded no previous records 
of carnivorous habits in the family Poligyridae. The Mesodon is 
No. 732-a in my collection. — W. L. Pratt, Jr., 4501 El Campo, 
Ft. Worth, Texas 76107. 

Additional locality for Mesodon kiowaensis — Branson 
(Proc, Okla. Acad. Sci. 42: 60-80) mentions that about 20 speci- 
mens of M. kioxvaensis (Simpson) are known. On 8 July 1962, 
I collected 2 adult and 5 immature shells in all growth stages 
from under a single log 4 miles northwest of Mount Ida, Mont- 
gomery County, Arkansas. The specimens are No. 317 in my col- 
lection. — W. L. Pratt, Jr. 

Sinistral Mesodon roemeri — On 31 October 1964, a sinistral 
adult shell of M. roemeri (Pfr.) was collected in Possum King- 



144 NAUTILUS Vol. 78 (4) 

dom State Park, Palo Pinto County, Texas. This is apparently the 
first record of a reversed shell of this species. The shell is No. 992 
in my collection. — W. L. Pratt, Jr. 

An introduced slug new to Texas — On 1 January 1965, 1 

collected 10 adult specimens (No. 1041) of Lehmannia poirieri 

(Mabille) in the Botanic Gardens of Fort Worth, Texas. There 

does not appear to be a previous record of this European slug 

in Texas. — W. L. Pratt, Jr. 

The 2nd European Malacological Congress and Symposium 
on Malacology and Parasitology will be held in Copenhagen, 
Denmark, August 10 to 14, 1965. Those who wish to attend 
should notify them at Universitetsparken 15, Copenhagen o Den- 
mark, not latei- than May 1, 1965. 

Ocean Science and Ocean Engineering Conference will be 
held at the new Washington Hilton Hotel, June 14-17, 1965, in 
Washington, D.C., sponsored by the Marine Technology Society 
and the American Society of Limnology and Oceanogiaphy. Capt. 
Jacques-Yves Cousteau, famed undersea explorer, will speak at 
the banquet meeting, June 15, at 7:30 P. M. 

Albert B. Bronson, well-known collector and shell dealer on 
Guam Island, died of a heart attack at the age of 55, while walk- 
ing on a beach near his home, on February 10, 1965. He was 
buried at sea on February 14. 



PUBLICATIONS RECEIVED 

Altena, C. O. van Regteren. 1964. Notes sur les limaces. 9 
Description d'une nouvelle espece de Deroceras des environs 
de Grenade. Zoo. Mededeling. Rijksmus. Nat. Hist. Leiden 
39: AbAl, pi. 8. — D. hilhrandi from Spain. 

Baker, H. Burrington. 1963. Type land snails in the Academy of 
Natural Sciences of Philadelphia. Part 2. Land Pulmonata, 
exclusive of North America north of Mexico. Proc. Acad. Nat. 
Sci. Philadelphia 115: 191-259. 1964. Part 3. Limnophile and 
thalassophile Pulmonata. Part 4. Land and fresh-water Proso- 
branchia. Proc. cit. 116: 149-193. 



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