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^tbrarg of lljc P^usntm 



jj'ounlicli 1)2? pribatc subscription, fit 1861. 

No. i^jfXj^ 

i:,^o ?. //fcrq- JihS /"^q^^ 






MAY, 1893, to APRIL, 1894, 

Published by H. A. PILSBRY and C. W. JOHNSON. 





Acanthochitidfe, (notes on) with description of new species 

Acanthochites exquisitus Pilsbiy, n. sp. 

Acanthochites rliodeus Pilsbry, n. sp. 

Acanthochites (Notoplax) Hemphilli Pilsbry, n. sp 

Acanthochites (Meturoplax) retrojectus Pilsbry, n, sp 

Acanthochites granostriatus Pilsbry, n. sp. 

Acanthochites Coxi Pilsbry, n. sp. 

Acanthochites Matthewsi Bednall & Pilsbry 

Actseon (Rictaxis) punctocaelatus Cpr. 

Agrioliinax agrestis in Jamaica 

Alcyna ocellata A. Ad. .... 

American Association of Conchologists 
Amnicola olivacea 

Ancylus Woodsi Johnston 
Angasia Cpr. 
Aplodon Spix. . 

Argonanta argo found alive at Palm Beach, Fla. 
Astyris gouldiana, remarks on . 
Beach shell collecting in connection with a study of 
phenomena, ...... 

Bulimulus proteus Broderip, and its distribution 
Bulimulus (Scutalus) Montezuma Dall 
Bulimulus (Naesiotus) duncanus Dall, n. sp. 
Bulimulus (Nsesiotus) amastroides Ancey var. Ancey 
Bulimulus (Naesiotus) jacobi var. vermiculatus Dall 

Bulimulus olla Dall 

Bulimulus (Nsesiotus) tortuganus Dall, n. sp. . 




















Bulimulus (Nsesiotus) Bauri Dall, n. sp. 
"Castalia ...... 

€erithium Pilsbryi Whitfield, n. sp. (PI. II, fig. 3) 
Cerithium serratoides Aldrich, n. sp. (PI. IV} 
Cessare Maria Tapparone-Canefri (Obituary) 
Charopa sylvia Hutton .... 

Chitons, new 31, 

Chiton Coxi Pilsbry, (n. sp.) 


Chrysodomus (Sipho) Stonei Pilsbry, n. sp. (PI. Ill, figs. 1 

2,3) . . . • 
Collecting trip to Monterey Bay 
Collecting trip to Departure Bay, Vancouver Isl 
Collecting shells in Jamaica 
Conchologists, to 

Cyprsea Greegori Ford, n. sp. 
Cyprsea Greegori, note on 

Cyprsea Greegori some responsive remarks relative to 
Cyprsea Greegori, a reply to some responsive remarks rela 

tive to 

Cyprsea Greegori, some final remarks relative to 

Cyprsea Squyeri Campbell, n. sp. (PI. II, figs. 1, 2) 

Cyprsea Dalli Aldrich, n. sp. (PI. IV) 

Ball's Tertiary Mollusks of Florida . 

Edible Mollusks of Southern California 

Eucalodium compactum Pilsbry. (PI. Ill, fig. 4) 

Endodonta (Flammulina) infundibulum, note on 



Flammulina infundibulum 


Fuller, Chas. B. (Obituary) 

General notes, 47, 

Gerontia ..... 
Gundlachia petterdi . 
Hseckel's Plank tonic studies 
Helices, a new hand book of the 
Helix aspersa .... 
Hyaliuia chathamensis Dall, n. sp 







107, 119 























108, 120 




Iheringella, n. g. 30 

Illustrations of new shells 1 

Illustrations of new Cretaceous shells .... 51 

Illustrations of Mexican Melanians .... 61 

-Japanese Moll usks, notices of new ..... 143 

Land mollusca observed in the Gaspe region ... 65 

Land and fresh-water shells of Allegheny County, Pa. . 135 

Land and fresh-water shells of the Rocky Mts. ... 85 

Laoma ......... 78, 88, 92 

Latirus indistinctus Aldrich, n. sp. (PI. IV) ... 99 

Leptothyra, a synonym of ...... . 84 

List of Brachiopoda, Pelecypoda, Pteropoda, and Nudi- 

branchiata of Jamaica recent and fossil . . 103,113 

Mactra, new species of 136 

Mactra catilliformis Conr. ...... 137 

Mactra dolabriformis Conr. 138 

Mactra Hemphilli Dall, n. sp . 137 

Malacological Society of London, 11 

Mesodon wetherby ........ 6 

Meturoplax Pilsbry, n. subg 107 

Microplax Ad. & Ang 139 

Mitra lintoidea Aldrich, n. sp. (PI. IV) .... 97 

Mollusca of Arkansas ....... 33 

Monocondylsea 18 

Murex (Pteronotus) Burnsii Aldrich, n. sp. (PI. IV) . 98 

MutelidiB 20 

Nassa brunneostoma Stearns, n. sp. . . . . . 10 

New Cretaceous fossils from the Lower Green Marl of N. J. 37 

New postal ruling ........ 58 

New publications 96, 181 

New Tertiary fossils from Red Bluff, Miss. ... 97 

New Zealand land and fresh-water mollusk, notes on some . 122 
Notes and news . . . . 11, 24, 35, 59, 84, 93, 130 

Nuttallina, Californian species of the genus . . . 133 

Olfactory organs of Helix ...... 60 

Pachychilus glaphyrus Morelet ...... 62 

Pachychilus glaphyrus var. between polygonatus and immanis. 

(PI. Ill, figs. 5, 6) 63 

Pachychilus glaphyrus Rovirosai Pils. (PL I, figs. 9, 10) . 62 

Pachychilus glaphyrus potamarchus. (PI. Ill, fig. 7) . 63 






III, figs. 8 


Papuina, notes on 

Papuina cerea Hedley, n. sp. 

Patella hermadecensis Pilsbry, n 

Patella kerinadecensis, note on 

Petropoma Gabb. 

Phacellozona Pilsbry, n. g. 

Plagiodon .... 

Pleurotoma Clarkeana Aldrich, n. sp 

Polygyra subpalliata Pilsbry, n. sp. 

Polygyra, descriptive notes on certain forms of 

Polygyra appressa Say 

Polygyra appressa perigrapta Pils. n. var. 

Polygyra tridentata edentilabrisPils. n. var 

Polygyra hirsuta altlspira Pils. n. var. 


Polypi acognath a .... 

Potomanax Pilsbry, nov. subg. . 
Potomanax Rovirosai Pilsbry, n. sp. (PI 
Rare old book ..... 
Reply to Professor Wheeler 
Review of von Ihering's classification of 

Mutelidse ..... 

Rhenea ...... 

San Pedro as a collecting ground 
Sepia Hercules Pilsbry, n. sp. 
Sheepscote River .... 

Shells of Henry Co., Ind. . 

Shell collecting in Northern Alabama 

Shells of the Saginaw Valley, Michigan 

Small grey slug in Jamaica 

South American notes 

Spixoconcha, n. g. . 

Strobilops, preliminary note on the species 

Strobilops Hubbardi, variations of 

Strobilops Hubbardi ... 

Succinea, notes on North American species 

Succinea stretchiana ... 

Succinea corbis Dall, n. sp. 

Tasmanian Land Mollusca, Contribution towards a revision 

of the ......... 



Unionidse and 









5, 7 































VI 1 

Tasmanian land shells, Preliminary notes on 
Tetraplodou Spix ..... 

Tulotoma in the Tennessee drainage 

Unio Pilsbryi Marsh. (PI. I, figs. 7, 8) . 

Unio muddle ...... 

IJnionidae ...... 

TJnionidae and Mutllidse, notes on the genera of 
Vallonia americana Ancey 
Vitrina limpida in Pennsylvania 
Volutoderma Woolmani Whitf. n. sp. (PI. II, 
Walton, Robert. (In memoriam) 
Yoldia montereyensis Dall, n. sp. 
Zonitidse, some notes on ... . 

Zonites suppressus ..... 

figs. 4 


/ 1 








47, 94 







Aldrich, T. H 


Campbell, John H 


Clapp, Geo. H. . . . . 

. 74,94 

Cockerell, T. D. A 


Dall, Wm. PI 

26,29,52,80, 136 

Ford, John 

. 39, 78, 130 

Gardner, A. H 


Hanham, A. W 


Hedley, Chas 

. 35, 73, 136 

Johnson, C. W 

. 51,90 

Monks, Sarah P. . . . 


Pilsbry, H. A. . . 5, 30, 56, 

61,67,107,109,119, 138, 143 

Pleas, E 


Raymond, W. J. . . . . 


Rush, Dr. Wm. H. . 


Sampson, F. A. ... 


Sargent, H. E 


Simpson, Chas. T. . . . 

. 17,22,110 

Smith, p]dgar A. 

. 64, 102 

Stearns, Robt. E. C. . 


Sterki,Dr. V 

. . . . 4,13 

Stupakoff, S. H 


Suter, Henry .... 

. 77,87,122 

Taylor, Rev. Geo. W. . 

. 85, 100, 142 

Walker, Bryant 

. '' . . 125 

Webster, G. W. ... 


Wheeler, Chas. LeRoy 


Whitfield, Prof. R. P. 


Williamson, Mrs. M. Burton 


Winkley, Rev. Henry W. 


Wood, VVilliard M. . . . 



THE Nautilus, 1893. 

PL. I. 


JUN 8 1893 

$1.00 per Year. ($1.12 to Foreign Countries.) lOcts. a copy. 






H. A. PiLSBRT, Conservator Conchological Section, Academy of Natural Sciences, Philadelphia. 

C. W. Johnson, Curator of the Wagner Free Institute of Science. 

Vol. VII. /£j^ ^//y^ MAY, 1893. No. 1. 



Illustrations of New Shells 1 

South American Notes. Dr. Wm. H. Rush, U. S. N 2 

CoNULUS FULVUS MuLL. Var. dentatus, n. V. Dr. V. Sterki .... 4 


Dall's Tertiary Mollusks of Florida 7 

Cesare Maria Tapparone Canefri 8 

The Unio Muddle. Prof. Chas. Le Roy Wheeler 9 

Notes and News 10 

Published by 

H. A. PILSBRY, Editor, Academy of Nat. Sciences, Philadelphia. 

C. W. JOHNSON, Manager, Wagner Free Institute of Science, Philad'a. 

Entered at Philadelphia Post-OflBce as second-class matter. 



We can furnish only the following Vols, complete, Price $1.00 each. 

Vol. IV. May, 1890 to April, 1891. 
Vol. V. May, 1891 to April, 1892. 
Vol. VI. May, 1892 to April, 1893. 

Volume III (Numbers 2 and 12 wanting) $1.00. 20 cents per 
copy will be paid for Nos. 2 and 12. Vols. I and II were known as 
the " Conchologisfs Exchange." We cannot furnish these, but a 
liberal price Avill be paid for the first seven numbers of Vol. I. 

Advertisements will be inserted at the rate of $1.00 per 
inch for each insertion in advance. Smaller space in propor- 
tion. A discount of 25 per cent, will be made on insertions of 
six months or longer. 

Address, C. W. JOHNSON, 

Wagner Free Institute, 

Philadelphia, Pa. 

Je§|e Jonel & Go., 








E. Smith 

;-i|V^^ // ' Opisthostoma 
^'/■^ < pulchellutn. 

G. Austen. 

Helix Fultoni, Godwin-Austen. 



A Large Stock of Choice and Rare Specimens. 


HUGH FULTON (Conchologist), 

The Nautilus. 

Vol. VII. MAY, 1893. No. 1 


TJnio Pilsbryi Marsh, Plate I, figs, 7, 8. 

This species is a member of the plicate group of Uniones. It is 
a decidedly compressed, oblong shell, black in color, having very 
distinctly marked lines of growth, which are spaced over the greater 
part of the disk, but become crowded on the lower margin. It has 
numerous oblique waves, which generally bifurcate indistinctly 
toward the posterior-lower end. The waves are more or less cut by 
short impressed furrows, as in JJ. unduhius, etc. The nacre is white 
and very thick anteriorly, but in the cavity of the valves and pos- 
teriorly it is thin and stained with blue and olive-green. The lat- 
eral teeth are also olive-green. 

It was collected by Mr. Elwood Pleas in the Little Red River, 
Arkansas, and the original description, by Mr. Wm. A. Marsh, will 
be found in the Nautilus, V, p. 1. 

TJnio Pilshryi is not closely allied to any other American species. 
It has a striking resemblance to Unio Leai Gray of China. 

Specimens, including the individual figured, are in the special 
exhibit of United States shells, formed by the American Association 
of Conchologists, in the Museum of the Academy of Natural 
Sciences of Philadelphia. 

^The accompanying plate is reprinted by permission from the Proc. Acad. 
Nat. Sci. of Philadelphia. 


The Melanian illustrated (figs. 9, 10) will be noticed in a later 


BY DR. W'M. H. RUSH, U. S. N. 

I have been adding lately to my collections many specimens,, 
nearly all the work having been done near Maldonado, but few spe- 
cies being added, and they include the Unios Rhuacoica and 
Charmana, a fine, large Anodonta, Azara labiata, Solecurtus Pla- 
tensis ; and some fine, large, clean specimens of Mytilus Platensis,^ 
taken from the flukes and shank of an old anchor grappled here. 
This old anchor proved to be quite a blessing in disguise, for on it 
were some fine specimens of Chiton Tehuelchus and C. Isabellei, and 
a few large Ostrea Puelchana. In my dredgings since, I have found 
a few more Chitons, but always on rocky bottoms and attached to 
stones, so that while adding only a few of these, I have been adding 
nothing to ray stock of the mud-lovers, such as Corbula, etc. 

Mr. Burnett, the British Vice-Consul here, while visiting the ship^ 
told me that he had occasionally found in his garden a large black 
slug. The day following proving pleasant found me on my way to 
hunt the monster, but anxious as I was for the little game of hide 
and seek, I found time on the way to loiter in a small patch of 
native trees to hunt for my old friends, the Helix costellata d'Orb., 
to add to the number of my accumulating exchanges. Finally I 
found Mr. Burnett and we started for the old ruins of a house. I 
did not anticipate much success when we entered the enclosure, for 
the ruins were in the center of the town of Maldonado, whose popu- 
lation is about twelve hundred, and the surroundings were 
extremely dry, there having been no rain for months. However, 
with willing hands we started in and after turning over many large 
masses of brick, my companion said, after the exertion of moving 
an extra heavy one allowed him to recover enough breath to speak, 
" There is one of those large mail-coated insects I was speaking of," 
I promptly said, " Hold on ! " and proceeded to turn out with my 

^The following extracts are from a letter received from our esteemed corre- 
spondent, Dr. Wm. H. Rush, dated U. S. S. Yantic, Maldonado Bay, Uruguay, 
March 7th, 1893. 


forceps what seemed to be the veritable monster in all his glory of 
sestivation, the Vagiuulus solea d'Orbigny, or more correctly 
according to Tryon, Veronicella, One more specimen was found 
with its egg-nest. Both specimens were curled, and the tentacles 
were not visible, in fact, it looked like a lifeless mass of very dark 
grayish-brown opaque glue, with lighter gray spots : about the size 
of that warred-upon Bland dollar, Avith a notch in one side and a 
crack extending nearly to the center. Turning it over it pi-esented 
the well known under surface as shown in d'Orbigny's figure. Soon 
two tentacles came forth, which stuck up in the air, and each had a 
bright black eye visible in the exact center of its free end ; then 
two more were observed, which projected downward and were 
broader and stouter than the others, and appeared bifurcated ; these 
latter were constantly in motion, apparently acting as feelers, and 
later when the animal was moving along on a glass plate seemed 
to act as suckers. Finally he slowly straightened out until he was 
ten centimeters long and a little over two wide. I next took a look 
at the nest, of which I had found several in the woods, only never 
very large, usually containing about ten or fifteen eggs, but in this 
one I counted seventy-five, although, much to my discouragement as 
an amateur artist, in my sketch of it I can only account for forty- 
five — it was about the size of a silver half dollar and hemispherical, 
the eggs being regularly arranged around the circumference and 
held together by a heavy mucous-like rope. The eggs were oval in 
shape, some perfectly clear and transparent, others yellowish and 
more or less opaque, and all were covered by the stercoraceous 
deposit of some insect, I judged. Unfortunately, it broke to pieces 
before I reached the ship on account of the rough handling of curi- 
osity. One specimen of the solea was much darker in color than 
the other, and the lighter seemed to fade before I had my water 
color sketch finished ; subsequent finds may show considerable varia- 
tion in coloration. I killed the first specimen in a solution of 
bichloride of mercury, 1 to 500, and then dropped it into glycerin 
hoping thus to preserve its colors, but it has contracted and become 
very dark : the second I killed in the same solution, in which it still 
remains. In dying it threw out much mucus, most rapidly and in 
greatest quantity from the extreme end so that I suspect there may 
be a mucous pore there ; it also seemed to come from its whole sur- 
face enveloping it quickly in a cloud, completely hiding it, and in 
sufiicient quantity to render the fluid as nearly opaque as milk. 


The mantle retracted from the head, which thus exposed is one cm» 
long — the jaw was easily seen, by the unaided eye, as a brown cres- 
centic band in the superior lip, and with an ordinary magnifying 
glass the ridges were easily seen. The whole animal is faded and 
contracted, but still pliable. The next I obtain will be killed 
in accordance with your directions in water, and will be kept for 

Associated with the solea, and in damp places, I found some num- 
bers of the slug which is given in d'Orbigny as Limax unguis Fer., 
but they are not as large as represented in the plate. I found this 
latter species very plentiful in the Prado at Montevideo and always 
several individuals together. This latter is in contrast with Veroni- 
cella, which were alone and widely separated. 

I had a few Chitons of both species mentioned in the first part of 
this letter, alive in my aquarium bottle, for a few days in my room, 
with a long strip of glass upon which I coaxed them to crawl for 
the purpose of sketching for water-color work, and was surprised at 
the rapidity with which they travel, and it was rendered all the 
more decided when I compared it with the movements of the Ver- 
onicella which I had in another bottle alongside. 



Among a number of Con. fiilvus from Jackson Co., Alabama,, 
kindly sent by Mr. H. E. Sargent, last year, there were a few speci- 
mens with distinct " teeth " in the base of the last whorl. Since 
then, Mr. Sargent has paid attention to the matter, and a few day& 
ago sent me some more specimens in two lots, one from the valley and 
another from the hills. The latter were most small, young and half 
grown, and most of them showed 1-2-3 small, white, testaceous 
deposits in the base of the last whorl, at somewhat irregular inter- 
vals, roundish or elongate in a radial direction. They are not high, 
tooth-like, but quite distinct, whether seen through the shell, or if 
near enough, from the aperture inside, and recall the same feature 

*The species was first described by Miiller, not by Draparnand. It may 
be said again, that Conuhts is a genus founded on anatomic characters. 


in the smaller Gastrodontas, although I have never seen more than 
one tooth on the same radius. But, as said, in some they are in the 
form of radial bars, and when two or three are present they are 
always of the same character, either round or transverse. Two 
examples, mature or nearly so, but weathered and opaque, have at 
least one distinct round deposit each, about i volution above the 
aperture. In the specimens from the valley, about a dozen in 
number, varying from young to large, and by the way a few of 
them with very high spire, there is not a trace of teeth to be seen. 

This is certainly a very interesting fact, and the character 
described could mean a different species, and for the Nouvelle Ecole 
would be sufficient to establish a new genus. But as the shell is, in 
all other regards, formed like that of typical C. fulvus, we have to 
regard it as a variety of that species, the more so since in the lot 
there are a few examples without teeth and differing in no way from 
the type. This, and the variation in number, shape and size, show 
it to be a newly acquired character, which some time may be that of 
a distinct species. 

It remains to know whether the form be found also in other 
places of our country — which is quite probable — and to ascertain 
also the nature of the localities where it lives. Another question is 
whether it also inhabits the Old Continent. 

It may be mentioned here also that there are two different forms 
of the common C. fulvus, one more pale horn, the other deep wine 
or amber colored, and there are also differences in surface sculpture. 
It would be of interest to know how far these forms are constant 
and in correspondence with the nature of their habitats. I have 
seen them in both Europe and North America, 

New Philadelphia, 0., March 21, '93. 



Some time ago the writer received from Prof A. G. AVetherby, a 
suite of the land snails found at his home, " Roandale Farm,"" Mag- 
netic City, North Carolina ; and with them a letter giving the col- 
lector's impressions and conclusions in regard to some, and queries 


respecting other forms. A number of " Zonites " were included, 
among them specimens of Z. carolinensis Ckll., and of two new spe- 
cies, one of about the same size as suppressus, the other larger. Of 
these an account will be given later. Among the Helices, one of 
the most interesting forms was labelled " H. ivetlierhyi Bid. var. Don't 
believe it ! " Upon glancing at the specimens I was compelled to 
join Wetherby in his scepticism, for the shells are certainly unlike 
H. tvetherbyi, and belong to quite a different group of species. The 
first notice of these so-called wetherbyi appeared in a paper written 
by Mr, Wetherby on the shells of Roan Mountain, and published in 
the Journal of the Cincinnati Society of Natural History, vol. iv, 
as long ago as 1881. The paragraph is as follows: 

" Mesodon wetherbyi Bland. — Shells which have been referred to 
this species occur somewhat sparingly at this locality. Like the 
specimens from the original station, the shells are covered with a 
thick coating of dirt, imbedded in the hirsute covering of the epi- 
dermis, which being carefully washed away leaves the shell of a 
pale greenish white color. These shells have a lamellar projection 
on the inferior surface of the peristome much like that of some 
varieties of T. appressa, and which is a character very distinct from 
that of the same region in the type. A very careful examination 
of the genitalia shows them to be much more like those of Triodop- 
sis. Indeed, looking over the whole field, it seems not improbable 
that here we have another case of the union of characters of Meso- 
don with other groups, like that of Stenotrema, mentioned in my 
notes, No. 1. Mr. Binney says, Terr. Moll., vol. v, p. 301, " Trio- 
dopsis does not differ from Mesodon or Polygyra in the character of 
its jaw." Again, p. 306, he says that the genitalia of T. appressa, 
resemble, in certain features, those of Mesodon sayii=3L diodonta. 
This shell certainly presents as many features that would ally it 
to Triodopsis through appressa, as to Mesodon through dentijera. 
In fact, I am inclined to the belief that the shell is not Mesodon 
wetherbyi at all, but a distinct species, probably a Triodopsis, and 
having the closest analogy to M. dentijera Binney, which certainly 
has some very strong claims to relationship to Triodopsis through 
T. apjyressa. The station of this species is always in the dirt under 
and beside rotting logs. It is very sluggish and timid, and very 

It will be seen that Wetherby recognized the Ti-iodopsoid affini- 
ties of the snail ; but in the writer's opinion it is more nearly allied 


to the palliata than the appressa. The species may be diagnosed as 
follows : 

Pohjgyra (Triodopsis) suhpalliata n. sp. Shell depressed, thin, 
pale green or bufT-green, somewhat translucent. Surface shining, 
minutely roughened by narrow granules elongated in the direction 
of growth-lines. Spire convex, composed of slightly over 5 convex 
whorls, the last rounded at the periphery, deflexed in front, and 
very deeply constricted behind the lip. Aperture oblique ; outer 
lip flatly reflexed, white, wide, the arcuate basal lip bearing a long 
plate-like callus, as in H. palliata; parietal wall bearing a large, 
high, curved tooth, like that of H. palliata. Alt. 9?, diam. 15 mill, 
(largest specimen). Alt. 7, diam. 13 mill, (smallest specimen). 


This second volume of Dr. W. H. Ball's great work upon the 
Tertiary Mollusks of Florida is much wider in scope than the pre- 
vious part, including much matter upon other East American 
faunas of the same epoch, notably the Pliocene of the Caroliuas. 
The introductory chapter graphically describes the series of changes 
of shore line and elevation of our southeast coast, from the close of 
the Eocene to the present time ; and this has been noticed and 
quoted from in a previous number of the Nautilus. 

The systematic enumeration and description of species occupies 
the greater portion of the work, the subject being completed down 
to the Pelecypods, which will form the third part of the work. 

The new genera and subgenera proposed are as follows : Ghjpto- 
styla (type G.panamensis Dall), a peculiar form like Pijrula outside 
but ponderous and with the plaits of Latirus. Trachyodon, new 
subgenus of Chiton for C. eocenen-sis Conr. 

The generic synonymy of Vivipara is worked out in full, the 
author concluding that Vivipara (Martini) Lamarck, has priority 
over the very bad masculine form, Viviparus Montf., which has 
lately been adopted by English authorities. Incidentally the his- 
tory of the name Bulimus is discussed, and shown to be totally 
inapplicable to the genus of laud snails generally known by that 
name. Clava, of Martyn, is used as a generic name to supercede 

^Transactions of the Wagner Free Institute of Science of Philadelphia, vol. 
3, pt. ii. Issued January, 1893. 


Vertagus. The genus Natica as used by most writers is definitely- 
divided into two genera, Natica, in which the operculum is shelly,, 
and Polynices Montfort (1810), in which the operculum is thin, 
flexible, corneous. The last group contains, of course, the familiar 
duplicata and heros of our east coast, and the similar western spe- 
cies. This is a division heartily to be commended, and it is surjoris- 
ing that it has not been placed upon a firm basis long ago. 

A very large number of new species are described. The illus- 
trations are excellent, having the merit of great clearness of detail. 
The appearance of the volume is highly creditable to the Wagner 
Institute, the officers of which have, with an enlightened apprecia- 
tion of the importance of the work, spared no pains or expense in 
its production. Especially are the thanks of both Palaeontologist 
and Conchologist due to Messrs Joseph Willcox and Charles W. 
Johnson, who collected much of the material, as well as to Dr.. 
Dall who has so ably worked it up. 


On the 6th of August, 1891, Cesare Tapparone Canefri 
expired after a long illness. Professor Cesare Tapparonk 
Canefri was born at Alexandria on the 5th of February, 1838, 
being descended from a noble Piedmontese family. His father was 
for many years Mayor, and destined his son for an official career- 
Tapparone, therefore, at the age of 20, entered the University of 
Turin as a law student; but he had already become interested in 
the natural sciences, especially botany. At Turin he formed a 
friendship with LuiGi Bellardi and Vittore Ghiliani ; and in 
the elevating atmosphere of that fellowship he developed the 
enthusiasm and love for science which pervaded his whole after life. 

A few years after his graduation, Tapparone was employed in the 
civil service of Spezzia ; and there he was attracted by the rich 
shell fauna of the Gulf, which had already been studied by Jef- 
freys and Capellini. Many species not known to these students 
were found by the young enthusiast, who, in 1865, embodied the 
results of his research in a " Catalogue of the Mollusca of Spezzia," 
his first conchological paper. Henceforth, the greater part of his 
time was given to the study of mollusks. He shortly became an 
assistant to Professor Lessona, in the Chair of Zoology and Com- 


parative Anatomy, in the Koyal University of Turin ; while here 
he worked up the molhisks collected by de Filippe during the cir- 
cumnavigation of the Royal Frigate, ' Magenta.' In 1873, 
Tapparoue began the series of articles upon Oriental land mollusks 
collected by O. Beccari and L. M. D'Albertis in New Guinea 
and adjacent regions; and it is to this series of papers that his 
reputation is chiefly due. 

After a residence of eight years in Turin, Prof. Tapparone went 
abroad for the purpose of studying the mollusks of foreign 
museums. He visited the British Museum, the Zoological Museum 
of Berlin, etc., and finally spent some time in study under Semper 
at Wiirzburg. Returning to Italy, he went to Genoa, where he 
devoted himself to the mollusk collection of the Civic Museum. 
Shortly after, a disease of the circulation and nerves manifested 
itself, and despite the tenderest care of wife and friends, it proved 

His collection and library have been given to the Civic Museum 
of Genoa, by his wife. 

All students of land shells will regret the death of so conscien- 
tious and able a malacologist ; and particularly will his loss be felt 
by those who have profited by his " Fauna Malacolorjica della Nuova 
Guinea," and the other essays upon allied faunas. 

A bibliography and full biographical sketch by Isbel, with por- 
trait will be found in the Annali del Museo Civico di Storia Nat- 
urale di Genova. 1892. 



Under the above heading appears an article in the February 
Nautilus from the pen of Mr. Berlin H. Wright. In a recent 
number, also, appeared an article from Mr. John H. Campbell sug- 
gesting that the Uniologists connected with the American Associa- 
tion of Conchologists meet at Chicago this summer and settle dis- 
puted points as to priority of description, nomenclature, and syn- 
onymy. Certainly it would be "just too nice for anything" if the 
aforesaid Uniologists could have a little pic-nic at Chicago, pass 
a few resolutions forever settling all disputed points, pat each other 


on the back, shake hands, adjourn, go home, and sleep more soundly 
then ever before ; but, unfortunately, the ghosts of Dr. Lea, Mr. 
Conrad, Mr. Say, and others might aj^pear upon the scene, and 
Mr. Ego might appear in the flesh, armed with carpet-bag, micro- 
scope, and manuscript ; in which case the big show would not last 
half long enough to enable the quarrelsome scientists to finish throw- 
ing mussel shells at one another. 

Seriously, however, this " muddle " ought to be unmuddled ; but 
how is it to be done ? Who is there upon whom all concerned will 
be willing to rest the responsibility of deciding contested points ? 
Can three or five men be found upon whose judgment all will con- 
sent to rest? If so, who shall they be? 

By the time the " Unio Muddle " shall have been fairly settled 
the indications are that there will be three or four other first class 
muddles ripe. Would it not be well for the American Association 
of Conchologists to do in regard to American mollusks as the Amer- 
ican Ornithological Union has done in regard to the American 
Birds, and settle not only the " Unio Muddle," but all contested 
points in American Conchology? 

Why is it that the reputation of a conchologist should rest upon 
the naming of new species rather than upon a knowledge of Con- 
chology? and, honestly, may not the making of new species some- 
times be attributed more to conceited self-assertion than to a desire 
to help the science? Suppose we have a committee of the American 
Association whose duty it shall be to decide upon the merits of 
so-called new species, and that a name be regarded as only provi- 
sional until it be accepted or rejected by such committee. So mote 
it be. 




Shell small, elongated, ovate, of seven to eight whorls, with an 
acutely elevated spire, ornamented with generally three sj^iral ser- 
ies of granules ; occasionally four series are exhibited on the penul- 
timate whorl, and six to seven on the basal. These granules also 
correspond to a longitudinal arrangement. In some examples the 
sutural series is a little more prominent and followed by a slight 


parallel sulcation. Otherwise sculptured with revolving lirse on the 
lower half of the basal whorl. Suture more or less distinct, aper- 
ture small, ovate, about one-third the length of the shell. Outer lip 
externally rimmed and internally thickened, crenulated and dentic- 
ulate on the inner side ; pillar and face of basal whorl heavily cal- 
loused, with a single plication or fold on the base and four or five 
obtuse wrinkles above. Aperture notched above with the usual 
attendant callosity ; pillar roundly arcuated, and the whole sur- 
face of the parietal region and edge of the lip showing a warm 
shining brown glaze, light in some examples and quite dark in 
others ; some specimens are much more robust than others and 
vary also in the elevation of the spire. 

Dimensions of largest, altitude 16 mm., breadth 9 mm. 

An intermediate example measures, altitude 15 mm., breadth 8 

The majority of the specimens are much smaller than the least of 
the above. 

The nearest ally of N. hrunneostoma is Nassa coinplanata Powis, 
and these two species, together with X. tegula of Reeve, form a lit- 
tle group possessing similar general characters. 

N. hrunneostoma is readily separated from its congeners by the 
highly glazed and solid brown callus that surrounds the aperture. 

Habitat. — Gulf of California, near the mouth of the Colorado 
River ; also at Guaymas, on the easterly shore, where numerous 
examples were collected by Dr. Edward Palmer (Mus. Nos. 23721, 
37239, 55951). 

Washington, D. C, May 2, 1893. 


The Malacological Society of London. — At a meeting held 
on the 27th February, at 67 Chancery Lane, London, England, 
W. H. Hudleston, F. R. S., in the chair, the following resolutions 
were passed : 

1. That a Society be formed in London for the purpose of fur- 
thering the study of the MoUusca and Brachiopoda in all their 

2. That the Society be called the " Malacological Society of 
London," and that the Annual Subscription be 10s. 6d. 


3. That those who have signified to Mr. Sykes their willingness 
to join the Society shall constitute the original members: to wit 
(list of 70 names). 

4. That the original Members, and those who join the Society dur- 
ing the year 1893, be exempt from entrance fee. 

5. That the election of Members, subsequent to this the inaugural 
meeting, be by ballot, under regulations to be drawn up by the 

6. That there be an Entrance Fee, and that it be 10s. 6d. 

7. That the following constitute the first Council : 
President: Dr. H. Woodward, F. R. S. 

Vice-Fresidents : Lt.-Col. H. H. God win- Austen, F. R. S., etc. ; 
W. H. Hudlestou, F. R. S., etc. ; J. Cosmo Melvill, F. L. S. ; E. A. 
Smith, F. Z. S. 

Treasurer : G. F. Harris, F. G. S. 

Secretary : E. R. Sykes, F. Z. S. 

Other Members of Council: H. W. Burrows; G. C. Crick, F. G. 
S. ; W. Crouch, F. Z. S. ; Rev. Canon Norman, D. C. L., F. R. S. ; 
J. H. Ponsonby, F. Z. S. ; G. B. Sowerby, F. L. S. ; B. B. Wood- 
ward, F. G. S. 

8. That the Council be instructed to draw up the rules, and sub- 
mit them at the next Meeting of the Society. 

9. That the Meetings be held on the second Friday in each 
month, commencing in April, 1893. 

10. That the Resolutions passed at this Meeting be printed and 
circulated amongst the Members. 

Votes of thanks were passed to the Chairman for presiding, and 
to Mr. G. F. Harris for the use of the room. 

The next meeting will therefore take place on Friday, April 14th, 
at 8.00 p. m., and succeeding Meetings on the second Fridays in 
May and June, after which there will be no Meeting till November. 
Until further notice, the Meetings will be held, by the kind j^er- 
mission of Mr. Harris, at 67 Chancery Lane (second floor). 

Mr. Charles W. Johnson is spending a few weeks in Washing- 
ton, D. C. 

The death of the veteran botanist, Alphonse de Candolle, 
April 9, 1893, is announced. 

Mr. John Ritchie, Jr., of Boston, paid a flying visit to his 
Philadelphia and Washington friends recently, being in the latter 
city attending the meeting of the National Academy of Sciences. 

.lUN ^0 1693 

$1.00 per Year. ($1.12 to Foreign Countries.) lOcts. a copy. 





H. A. PiLSBRT, Conservator Conchological Section, Academy of Natural Sciences, Philadelphi*^ 

C. W. Johnson, Curator of the Wagner Free Institute of Science. 

Vol. VII. /Zf, JL/ ^. JUNE, 1893. No. 2. 



Some Notes on Zonitidae. Dr. V. Sterki 13 

A Review of von Ihering's Classification of the Unionid.^ and 

MuTELiD.B. Chas. T. Simpson 17 

The Small Grey Slug in Jamaica. T. D. A. Cockerell 21 

A Reply to Professor Wheeler 22 

American Association of Conchologists 23 

Notes and News 24 

Published by 
H. A. PILSBRY, Editor, Academy of Nat, Sciences, Philadelphia. 
C. W. JOHNSON, Manager, Wagner Free Institute of Science, Philad'a. 
^Entered at Philadelphia Post-OflBce as second-class matter. • 



We can furnish only the following Vols, complete, Price $1.00 each. 

Vol. IV. May, 1890 to April, 1891. 
Vol. V. May, 1891 to April, 1892. 
Vol. VI. May, 1892 to April, 1893. 

Volume III (Numbers 2 and 12 wanting) $1.00. 20 cents per 
copy will be paid for Nos. 2 and 12. Vols. I and II were known as 
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Advertisements ■will be inserted at the rate of $1.00 per 
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Address, C. W. JOHNSON, 

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Je^^e Jone| k Go., 








E. Smith 

G. Austen. 

Helix Fultoni, Godwin- Austen. 


A Large Stock of Choice and Rare Specimens. 


HUGH FULTON (Conchologist), 

The Nautilus. 

Vol. VII. JUNE, 1893. No. 2 


1. The generic name Zonites Montf., has, by European malacolo- 
gists, long ago been restricted to a group of circu in-Mediterranean 
forms, such as algirus, vertlcillus, gemonensis, etc., none of them 
being represented in the recent North American fauna ; and as it 
seems to be a well-defined genus, we will do well to recognize this 
restriction of the group. The old genus Zonites, or Hyalinia, is 
being disintegrated, just as the old genus Helix has been. For 
nitidus Miiller, the genus Zonitoides has been established on charac- 
ters chiefly anatomic, the presence of a dart sac and dart, and, as it 
seems, peculiarities of the radula. As the same dart sac and dart is 
present in a number of North American species, such as elliotti, 
Ugerus, demissus, intertextus, gularis, suppressiis, internus, etc., and, 
as has been supposed, and I can positively confirm, arboreus — they 
would range under Zonitoides, especially if their anatomy prove to 
agree with nitida, also otherwise. Dr. v. Ihering makes the propo- 
sition to unite all Vitrino-zonitidae having a dart^ in a family, as 
xiphogone forms — "Zon." (or Hyal.) fulvus Miill., gimdlachi Pfr., 
sterkii Dall., belong to the genus Conulus Fitz., well characterized 
anatomically. Hy. crystaUina MiilL, dicvphana Studer., etc., of the 
old continent, have their peculiar anatomy also, and range under 

1 Which, however, is not homologous with the dart of the Helicidae, and there- 
fore named pttgio, by v. Ihering. 


the genus Vitrea Fitz. On the other hand, as well known, our 
Mesomphix (s. str.) are hardly to be separated generically from Hija- 
linia {Euhyalinia), as glabra, draparnaldi, cellaria, etc., and forms 
like our tvheatleyi, petrophila from pura, etc., not to speak of radia- 
tida which is equally distributed on the old and new continents. 
We may, for all these, use the generic name Hyalinia, the more 
since such authorities as W. G. Binney, Tryon and others have done 
so before, and no embarrassing of the synonymy will result. Yet all 
these forms still need careful examination as to their anatomy. 

2. Some Zon. suppressus Say, show not a trace of internal teeth or 
rather lamellse, when adult ; W. G. Binney (1. c. p. 226) also says 
that the tooth is sometimes " so little prominent as to be hardly 
visible." I have in possession specimens from Ohio and Virginia 
(Petersburgh, collected by myself) of 7-8 mill. diam. and 7-7^ 
whorls, with the last whorl and aperture well-rounded, without any 
" teeth," and only a thin callus inside. As to size and shape, they 
differ essentially from W. G. Binney's description and figure." With 
these, there were examples of all ages and sizes, inseparately con- 
nected' with the former, having two strong lamellae upon a heavy 
callus. Also in gularis and other forms of the group, the lamellse 
considerably decrease in size and number with advancing age, and 
at maturity sometimes are quite short and thin. 

3. Mrs. Geo. Andrews, to whom we owe so many valuable finds 
among land mollusca, sent me, in 1891, a number of " Zonites gularis 
small var." Then I was satisfied that they were not gidaris ; and 
now, after repeated comparison and examination also of the soft 
parts on specimens recently obtained, this is beyond a doubt, and as 
well, that it is a distinct species, not yet described. Here only so 
much of the description will be given as to serve our purpose. The 
shell is of the general appearance of a small Z. ligeriLS, of only 9 
mill, greater diameter, finely perforated, with a high spire, well- 
rounded at the apex. Inside there is a rather long fold correspond- 
ing to the same (outer) in Z. gularis, etc., and a lower one near the 
columella. In a part of the specimens there is another (outer) long 
fold, about 2-1 volution above the aperture, sometimes connected 
by a fine marking with the one in front ; evidently this is the one 
previously formed and not resorbed, the same thing as in Z. internus, 

4. A few examples of Zonites, I| think a form of demissus, from 

^ Manual, p. 225 ; fig. 241, looks like drawn from an immature specimen. 


Nashville, Tennessee, and Jackson Co., Alabama, the latter collected 
by Mr. Sargent, have a strong, thick, white, testaceous deposit 
inside the base of the last whorl, with some nodules, apparently 
irregular, but equal in the specimens from either locality, which 
correspond to teeth or folds. These testaceous deposits in different 
species are often smaller and thinner in mature shells than in ado- 
lescent, and sometimes entirely resorbed ; they evidently are the 
same morphological element as the deposits and folds in Gastro- 

5. I believe the fact must impress itself upon anyone that Zon. 
^ujoj)ress»5, especially the form noted above; gularis, ^\%o more in 
some forms, much resemble Z. ligerus, demissus, etc., and are nearly 
related to them, much more so than the latter are to the Mesomphix 
between which they are inserted in systematic works. This feeling 
found its expression also in W. G. Binuey's " L. & F. W. Shells," 
where ligera, demissa, intertexta are ranged under the genus Hya- 
linia, the Mesomphix under Zonites. To this now comes the species 
announced under 3 above, resembling ligera as to the general con- 
figuration of the shell, and " Gastrodonta " in the lamellae, which 
are of a somewhat peculiar type at that, approaching it to signifi- 
cans Bid. Some light on the significance of presence or absence of 
internal teeth is given also by Conulus fulvus, in which, as we have 
seen, such may be found or wanting in the same form from the 
same locality. And a character common to the two groups, valu- 
able even of higher order, seems to be the presence of a dart, in the 
genital organs, which would range them together in the genus Zoni- 
toides. It may be communicated here, previously, that I have 
found, in the upper part of the penis in Z. ligerus, suppressus, the 
forms mentioned under 3 above, and in arboreus a peculiar papilla 
(Reizkorper of German authors) in which a part is hard, sharp, 
projecting and (in the 3 former species) impregnated with carbonate 
of lime. 

6. Quite lately, Mrs. Andrews has sent me specimens of a Zonites, 
collected at Cranberry, Mitchell Co., North Carolina. They can 
be referred to none of the described species, and may prove to be a 
new one.' The shell, of about 7 m. in diam., has two very small 
lamellae or teeth near the aperture, corresponding to the same Z. 

^ The n. sp., however, may be "hanged in the smoke till cured," or left in 
suspense till fully confirmed; \\.\s, as such, of little consequence, but of great 
importance as a form. 


gukms, and thus proves to be a Gastrodoiita. The shell is thin, 
transparent, somewhat greenish deep horn colored, of the same 
appearance as Z. nitidus MiilL, which species it surprisingly resem- 
bles below, while above it appears different by the greater number of 
whorls. It seems that here we have a " missing " or connecting link 
between the so-called type of Zonitoides, and its more characteristic 
North American members. 

7. Mrs. Andrews has, of late, again sent me numerous small 
Zonitidae, collected in the mountains of Tennessee and North Caro- 
lina. From these I learned, beside other things, that Zon. andrewsi 
W. G. B., when adult, has very often (or always ?) no internal teeth 
at all. Moreover, the shell attains quite a different configuration : 
the last whorl is placed considerably deeper on the penultimate, or 
gradually descends, thus causing the spire to be much more ele- 
vated ; it becomes also deeper and at last somewhat truncate in the 
periphery (perpendicular section) and subangular below, compara- 
tively large, just as we find it in some ligerus, gularis, svppressus. 
At the same time, the base is no more equally rounded, but becomes 
sloping inward, somewhat infundibuliform, the umbilicus is rather 
large, and the striation becomes more crowded and coarse, even so 
that the strife appear to be raised (t. e. the intervals) in place of 
impressed, as they are on the inner whorls. The whole shell then has 
quite a different appearance from that commonly known as Z. 
andrewsi, much resembling the description and figure oi Zon. placen- 
tuhis Shuttl. (in W. G. Binney's Manual, p. 222). The whorls are 
fully 9 or more, the diameter 7-7'5 mill. It was somewhat difficult 
to state these relations, as I had, though, a good number of speci- 
mens, no complete series from one locality at disposition. There is 
no doubt, to say no more, that many such examples have been 
taken for Zon. placentuhis. And, as a striking proof of this, I have 
in my collection four specimens from the mountains of North Caro- 
lina I'eceived as Zon. placenhilu?, years ago, from a conchologist who 
studied those land shells ; they show more or less the characteristic 
features noted above, and one of them has a distinct row of denti- 
cles denoting it unmistakably as Zon. andrewsi. 

8. As with the preceding, it is with Zon. dgnificans Bid. Only the 
younger examples, i. e., those commonly found in collections under 
this name, have the teeth, two series of two, as a rule. In older 
specimens, of 5-6 mill, diam., they are no more formed, or only 
occasionally one or another, and then the shells have the characters 


of capsella Gld., and doubtless have been and will be taken for such. 
A lot of fine examples, received from the same author, collected in 
eastern Tennessee, and named capsella, are, to all probability, 
nothing else but adult significans, in which the last whorl becomes 
comparatively more voluminous and commonly more descending. 
The spire is variable from almost flat to rather elevated, and also 
the umbilicus shows some differences. Among lots, which to all 
appearance, were Zon. capsellus, there were examples with a single, 
sometimes barely perceptible, tooth. 

9. With all this, I do not feel positive, at present, that Zon. 
andreu'si W. G. B., and significans Bid., are only the juvenile 
forms of Zon. placentulus Shuttl. and capsellus Gld. But so much is 
sure, that they must be desperately similar, respectively, and that 
they need careful revision, also as to anatomy. The words of W. 
G. Binney that the latter form " a puzzling group," become of an 
increased meaning now. 

10. For faunistics, it may be of interest that there were a few 
specimens of Hyal. ferrea Mse., from eastern North Carolina, 
among the materials sent by Mrs. Andrews. In my collection 
there is one from Randolph Co., West Virginia. Also from differ- 
ent places in eastern Ohio it is known. 

New Philadelphia, Ohio, May, 1893. 



Since the theory of evolution has been generally accepted, a com- 
plete revolution has taken place in the methods of study and classi- 
fication among biologists. All artificial systems, or those based 
upon a single character, have either been relegated to the past or 
are hopelessly doomed. Students who are progressive and keep 
abreast of the times, realize that in the study of organic life it is 
necessary to seize on to every fact which can possibly aid them in 
classifying: embryology, anatomy, the study of its development in 
the past as taught by palaeontology, geographical distribution and 

Dr. H. von Ihering, of Rio Grande do Sul, Brazil, has recently 


published in Archiv f iir Naturgeschichte/ a lengthy article on the 
Najidae of San Paulo, Brazil, and a proposed system of classifica- 
tion in which some startling discoveries are brought to light, and 
which ranks as one of the ablest papers ever written on the subject. 
This classification, while working a complete revolution in our pre- 
conceived ideas of the relationships of the different members of this 
group, is so clear and philosophical, it so thoroughly takes cogni- 
zance of all the known facts, that it is certainly worthy of the most 
thoughtful consideration. In a brief review like this I can only 
allude to the more prominent points, and those who are interested 
should read the paper itself. 

H. and A. Adams, in the Genera of Recent Mollusca, divide the 
Naiades into two families, Uniotiidce and 31utelidce,'^ separated by cer- 
tain minor characters of the shells and animals. Ihering uses the 
same family names in a somewhat different sense from the Messrs 
Adams, and unites the whole into a larger group or super-family, 
which he calls the Najidcv. He finds in all the genera which he 
places in the Unionidce, the larval state is a glochidhim, that is, a 
stage or condition in which the animal is completely enclosed in a 
porous bivalve shell. 

On the other hand, the species which he places in Mutelidce, pass 
through a state after hatching which he calls a lasidium, in which 
the animal is divided into three parts, of which only the middle 
bears the small, single shell. He finds, on examination, that those 
South American forms that have hitherto been placed with Anodon, 
pass through the lasidium stage, hence they must be separated 
from that genus whose larval state is a glochidium, and he retains 
for this group the name suggested by Gray — Glabaris. He believes 
that A])lodo7i, having a few South American species, hitherto placed 
in Monocondyloea, and the so-called African Anodons belong to the 
same family, and that the latter should be placed in Glabaris. 

D'Orbigny established the genus Monocondylwa for certain species 
of South American Naiadae whose shells possess a single cardinal, 
and no lateral teeth. Several of these will fall into other natural 
groups. Ihering does not mention the Asiatic species which Lea 

^ Najaden von S. Paulo und die geographische Verbreitung der Siisswasser 
Faunen von Sudamerika, von H. von Jhering. Jahrg 59, 1 Bd., 1 Heft. 

' Fischer, Manuel de Conchyliologie, p. 997, divides Unionidce into two sub- 
families ; Uiiiouina including Unio, Monoctvidylcea, Pseudodon, Anodonta, 
Solenaia and Mycetopus ; 2d Muielina, with Miitela, Ilyria, Caslalia and Leila. 


and others have placed in this genus, but I believe they have no 
close relationship to these South American forms, and that they are 
merely depauperate Unios, which have a close affinity to species of 
that genus found with them. 

The Uaionichv of Europe, North and Central America, and prob- 
ably of the whole Northern Hemisphere, develop eggs in the outer 
gills alone as far as is known, with the exception of Uniomultiplica- 
tus and one or two others, which contain embryos in all four leaves 
of the branchiae. Ihering states that in all the Najidae hitherto 
examined from South America, the eggs are borne in the inner 
gills. I may remark in passing that the shells of the Australian, 
New Zealand, and many South African Unios bear an astonish- 
ing resemblance to those of South America in form, texture, smooth 
epidermis and concentric, sometimes slightly granulated sculpture, 
and especially in the peculiarly compressed, parallel cardinal teeth, 
and Suter states'^ that the embryos of N. menziezl are borne in the 
inner gills. Ihering calls attention to the fact that all South Ameri- 
can Unionidce have a radial beak sculpture, and suggests that prob- 
ably the same character may be found in the New Zealand species. 

I have carefully examined extensive series of Uiiio menziczi and 
lutulentus, and on the latter find that the umbos are radiately 
ribbed where the shells are not too badly eroded, and there are 
traces of such ridges on the former and on some Australian species. 
He believes that we shall find the beak sculpture one of the best 
characters for determining the minor divisions of the Unionidce. 
Notwithstanding the opinion of this eminent conchologist, and the 
fact that Mr. Wm. A. Marshall, of the New York State Museum, 
who has also given this subject some very careful study, believes that 
the beak sculpture is quite constant and may be used in determining 
species, my own experience in handling great quantities of material 
from all over the world leads me to consider this a somewhat varia- 
ble character, and although it will no doubt prove very useful in 
studying species and the smaller groups, yet I am sure it cannot by 
any means be always relied on. 

It is only in Europe that the post-embryonic larvse of the Union- 
idce have been observed actually attached to fishes, though the 
North Ameiican species are known to possess hooks and bristles 
during this stage, and they no doubt make use of the same means to 
assist in their distribution, as do their Old World relations. 

3 N. Z. Jl. of Science, No. 6, Vol. I (new issue), p. 250. 


Ihering fails to find them oi] any of the South American Union- 
idce he has examined, but he has probably overlooked the statement 
of Lea^ that the glochidium of Unio firmus of Brazil is provided 
with both of these appendages. 

Castalia was placed in the Mutelidcz by the Messrs Adams, 
but Ihering shows that it is very closely and curiously related to 
Unio. In the latter the short branchial siphon is open ; in the 
former it is closed ; in Unio the lateral teeth are either smooth or 
obliquely striated;'' in Castalia they are vertically ridged. He has 
applied the name Castilina to a few species which stand between the 
two genera, and has given it generic rank. But he shows that 
there is a complete intergradation and connection from one end of 
the chain to the other. In certain Castalias there is a typical ani- 
mal, in others it is that of Unio, and in Castalina there is an almost 
complete blending and crossing of characters. I have noticed on 
examining large series of these shells that in some Castalias the 
peculiar tooth sculpture is nearly wanting. 

Von Ihering finds that U7iio multistriatus of Brazil is very closely 
related to N. senega/ ensis of Africa., and to certain Indian forms. 
He has, in his collection, a specimen of Unio radula of India that is 
identical with N. coriacetis from Rio Janeiro, and believes this fact 
to be a proof of the long duration of the species of this family and 
probably evidence in favor of the existence of the lost Atlantis. 

His arrangement of the families and genera stands as follows : 

Mutelidce v. Ih. (nee Adams). Unionidce v. Ih. (nee Ad.). 

Leila Gray. Hyria Lam. 

Glabaris (Gray) v. Ihering. Castalia Lam. 

Aplodon Spix. 

Plagiodon Lea. 

Fossula Lea. 

Mycetopus Orb. 

Solenaia Con. 

Mutela Scop. 

Iridina Lara. 

Pleiodon Con. 

Spatha Lea. 

Castalina v. Ih. 
Unio Retz. 
Margaritana Schum. 
Cristaria Gld. 
Anodonta Lam. 

^ Observations on the Genus Unio. 

^ In Onio torluostts Lea, a remarkable inequivalve species from China, the 
laterals have perpendicular slrije, and Lea remarks that if this is found in all the 
individuals of the species, it would have to be placed in Castalia. It has much 
the appearance of Liiio ellipsis Lea. 


This classification is, to a certain extent, provisional ; and may 
have to be somewhat modified when we have a fuller knowledge of 
the anatomy. Whatever else may be said of it, the principle 
adopted is the right one, and the only one which modern science 
can recognize. The arrangement of the Adams brothers is largely 
artificial, both as to genera and subgenera, as well as the system 
adopted by Lica, as they bring together side by side, species and 
groups from every country which have no close relationship what- 
ever, and by such methods anatomical and conchological characters, 
the facts of geographical distribution, habits and palaeontology, are 



Some days ago Mr. W. Harris sent me from Cinchona some 
strawberry plants, together with a beetle larva which was injuring 
them. Of this larva there will be more to say hei-eafter, but the 
object of the present note is to record that among the plants I found 
three specimens of the small, grey slug of Europe, Agriolhnax agrestis. 
This slug, well-known as a garden pest in England, has never before 
been noticed in the West Indies, and there can be no doubt that it 
has been introduced with plants. It is, I suppose, almost impossi- 
ble to import living plants without sooner or later introducing for- 
eign slugs. They and their eggs come in the earth about the roots, 
and, in many cases, it must be practically impossible to detect them 
on arrival. It might be advisable in some cases to isolate newly- 
arrived plants by water, and search for slugs on them at intervals; 
or we might import the carnivorous slug, Test ace lla ; or introduce 
some of our native carnivorous snails, Oleacina, into the locality 
where the plants were being propagated. It has been recorded that 
in twenty-four hours, 25 specimens of Testacella devoured 25 earth- 
worms and 25 Agriolimax axjredis. 

The small, grey slug, although now first detected here, has 
spread to many distant localities by human means. I have seen 
specimens from various parts of the United States, west to the 
Pacific coast and east to New Jersey, from St. Helena, the Canary 
Islands, Tristan d'Acunha, New Zealand, etc., and no doubt in time 
it will inhabit every part of the earth in which the climate is suit- 


able to it. In Jamaica it will probably remain confined to the 
higher altitudes. 

Institute of Jamaica, April 13, 1893. 


I think that quite enough has been said on the subject of the 
Unio muddle in the columns of the Nautilus, and I do not Avant to 
revive the subject. But there are one or two suggestive points in 
Professor Wheeler's note in the May number that I want to call 
attention to. 

While a Congress of American conchologists might be able to 
settle certain contested points in nomenclature, if their work did not 
come into too glaring opposition to certain established laws recog- 
nized by scientific societies in general, yet I believe it is impossible 
for any such body to straighten out the muddle of specific limits, or 
perhaps, in all cases, the relations of one species to another. I 
believe that an expert, a specialist who has devoted years to the 
loving study of a family or genus, is better qualified to judge on 
these points than any body of students, no matter how capable they 
may be otherwise, but who probably have only a mere smattering of 
the matter in question. 

C. B. Adams and Dr. Gould ranked easily among the ablest 
conchologists in the world, but who can doubt that Mr. Lea, or 
James Lewis were better qualified to judge on the nice distinctions 
of the Unionidae, or that Dr. Newcomb was more competent to 
arrange the Achatinellas, or that Dr. Dall has a better knowledge 
of deej) sea Mollusks than did either of these? Because these men 
have made life studies of these subjects, while the others were not 
specially interested in them. 

A specialist who works on a difficult or puzzling group, goes over 
his work again and again, putting it aside when he tires of it, and 
taking it up when the mind is rested. He patiently and lovingly 
labors over the most minute and obscure points that to most students 
would be of little or no interest, because his heart is in the work and 
he is thoroughly determined to master the whole subject. As a rule, 
his collecting is largely done in the direction of his hobby, and he 
therefore has more material to work on than one slightly inter- 
ested. He eagerly reads all literature relating to his work, and in 
time, if his judgment is well balanced, he becomes an authority. 


Now I do not pretend to say that any such person can ever 
arrive at a point where he never makes mistakes, or where his 
authority should be taken as absolute, but I do say that he knows 
at sight and has constantly on his tongue's end much that the ordi- 
nary student cannot possibly know or have. 

And even when such a specialist publishes the results of his stud- 
ies they must stand the test of criticism, merciless and searching; 
they must be subject to all the modifications that will be caused by 
future discoveries and enlarged knowledge, for it is the naked truth 
alone that will stand, and not the assertions of any specialist or 
body of scientists. But I believe that the man who spends years of 
loving, conscientious labor and study on a subject is better qualified 
to act as an authority than any body of outsiders. 

Chas. T. Simpson. 


Since the article in the October Nautilus, the following have 
been admitted as members of the Association : 

T. S. Oldroyd, 142 N. Los Angelos St., Los Angelo, Cal. Sub- 
ject — (not chosen yet). 

Wm. H. Myles, 53 Arkledun Ave., Hamilton, Ontario, Canada. 
Subject — Helicidae and Pupidae of Ontario. 

A. H. Gardner, P. 0. Box 84, Fort Hamilton, Long Island, N. 
Y. Subject — Land Shells and Fresh-water Univalves of the United 

Miss S. P. Monks, 305 Bunkerhill Ave., Los Angelos, Cal. Sub- 
ject — (not chosen yet). 

A. G. Wetherby, Magnetic City, Mitchell Co., N. C. Subject— 
(not chosen yet). 

Chas. S. Hodgson, Albion, 111. Subject — Helicidae. 

W. H. Conrad, 11 Bank St., Philadelphia, Pa. Subject— Terti- 
ary Shells. 

M. J. Elrod, Wesleyan University, Bloomington, 111. Subject — 
(not chosen yet), 

Geo. H. Clapp, 116 Water St., Pittsburgh, Pa. Subject— Heli- 

Members will please note the following changes of addresses since 
the publication of the list of members: 


John Ford, Holmes Station (B. & 0. R. R.), Delaware Co., Pa. 
Mrs. E. P. Gaylord, 167 E. Congress St., Detroit, Mich. 
L'abbe P. A. Begin, Seminare St., Charles Borromee, Sherbrooke, 
Quebec, Canada. 

Frank J. Ford, 314 Wabash Ave., Wichita, Kan. 

R. T. Shepherd, 110 N. Market St., Troy, Ohio. 

Dr. W. S. Strode, Lewistou, 111. 

T. Wayland Vaughan, 6 Brewster St., Cambridge, Mass. 

John Watson, 6 Garson St., Rochester, N. Y. 

Jas. H. Lemon, Avonmore P. O., Ontario, Canada. 

Mrs. S. H. Young, 423 Second St., Cedar Falls, Iowa. 

Chas. Le Roy Wheeler, Damascus, Wayne Co., Pa. 

Robt, Walton, Houghton St., Lower Roxborough, Phila., Pa. 

E. H. White, 1202 Thomas St„ Rockford 111. 

Dr. C. F. Newcombe, 70 Dallas Road, Victoria, B. C. 

Rev. A. Dean, Fort Lee, K. J. 

R. C. Barnard, 21 Park Row, New York City. 

Berlin H. Wright, Penn Yan, N. Y. 

A. Schlehenried, 16 N. William St., New York City. 

John H. Campbell, 1009 Walnut St., Phila., Pa. 

Robt. T. Jackson, 33 Gloucester St., Boston, Mass. 


Mr. Hugh Fulton, of London, passed through Philadelphia, 
recently, en route for Chicago. His stay, though short, was most 

Note. — Owing to the expected absence from Philadelphia of the 
Editors and Manager, the July issue of the Nautilus will probably 
be delayed .beyond the usual time. 

Last week a coyote was found at Punta Banda, San Diego county, 
trapped by an abalone shell \_Haliotis cracker odii']. The coyote had 
evidently been hunting for a fish breakfast, and finding the abalone 
only partially clinging to the rock had inserted his muzzle under- 
neath to detach him, but the abalone closed down on him and kept 
him a prisoner. — Weekly Bulletiv, San Francisco, May 17. 

$1.00 per Year. ($1.12 to Foreign Countries.) lOcts. a copy. 

Jl,l/if THE 





H. A. PiLSBRY, Conservator Conchological Section, Academy of Natural Sciences, Philadelphia. 

C. W. Johnson, Curator of the Wagner Free Institute of Science. 

Vol. VII. JULY, 1893. No. 3. 



BuLiMULUs PROTEUS Broderip and its Distribution. W. H. Dall. ... 26 
Edible Mollusks of Southern California. Mrs. M. Burton Williamson, 

University, Los Angeles Co., Cal 27 

On A New Species of Yoldia from California. W. H. Dall 29 

Notes on the Genera of Unionid.^ and Mutelid^. H. A. Pilsbry. . 30 
Notes on the Acanthochitid,^ with Descriptions of New American 

Species. Henry A. Pilsbry 31 

MoLLUscA of Arkansas. F. A. Sampson, Sedalia, Mo 33 

Notes and News 35 

Exchanges 36 

Published by 

H. A. PILSBRY, Editor, Academy of Nat. Sciences, Philadelphia. 

C. W. JOHNSON, Manager, Wagner Free Institute of Science, Philad'a. 

Entered at Philadelphia Post-OfSce as second-class matter. 



We can furnish only the following Vols, complete, Price $1.00 each. 

Vol. IV. May, 1890 to April, 1891. 
Vol. V. May, 1891 to April, 1892. 
Vol. VI. May, 1892 to April, 1893. 

Volume III (Numbers 2 and 12 wanting) $1.00. 20 cents per 
copy will be paid for Nos. 2 and 12. Vols. I and II were known as 
the " Conchologist's Exchange." We cannot furnish these, but a 
liberal jjrice will be paid for the first seven numbers of Vol. I. 

Advertisements will be inserted at the rate of $1.00 per 
inch for each insertion in advance. Smaller space in propor- 
tion. A discount of 25 per cent, will be made on insertions of 
six months or longer. 

Address, C. W. JOHNSON, 

Wagner Free Institute, 

Philadelphia, Pa. 



TpAAp Jnnpd )^ pn I'APEIl BOK MAKERS, 

je§§e joiie§ a bo., g^^ commerce street, 



121 Fulham Road, London, S. W. 

Has always on hand a fine stock of Recent Shells from which 
selections may be made on the premises or specimens sent for 

Collections. — Illustrative of Generic and sub-generic forms and 
species from £ 1 to £ 500. 

Collections Purchased.— Specimens Bought or Exchanged. 
— Correspondence invited with Residents in or visitors to places 
where shells and other objects are obtainable. 

" Thesaurus Conchyliorum " by G. B. Sowerby, F. L. S., in 
44 parts 25s. each part, (less for the whole work) any Part or 
Monograph may be had separately. 

" Illustrated Index of British Shells," by G. B. Sowerby, 
F. L. S., new edition (1887) with 26 colored jilates 750 figures. 
Imperial 8vo. cloth 35s. 

" Marine Shells of South Africa" — A catalogue of all the 
known species (1892) with references to figures in various works, 
descriptions of new species and figures of such as are new, little 
known, or hitherto unfigured. Imperial 8vo. cloth 12s. nett. 

The Nautilus. 

Vol. VII. JULY, 1893. No. 3 


The Editors of the Nautilus would like to impress upon Ameri- 
can Conchologists that they are not conducting this paper for their 
personal aggrandizement, as some persons seem to believe. The 
work done has been purely a labor of love, for the promotion of 
interest in cunchology ; and the Editors have not only put much 
work into the enterprise, but, from first to last, a considerable num- 
ber of large and shining Dollars, and this without expectation of 
pecuniary return. 

We have looked forward to the unanimous support and encour- 
agement of American Conchologists, for it is only by such support 
that a paper of this character can be sustained. We know that 
there are enough persons in the States interested in Conchology to 
give this support, and to enable us to increase the size, the number 
of illustrations and the interest of the articles as well. 

We depend upon you to aid us in bearing the expenses of publi- 
cation. We depend upon you to send us notes and matter to 
increase the interest and usefulness of the numbers from month to 
month. The time we put on this work is time stolen from scientific 
work of vastly greater magnitude, and it is only by the liberality of 
the Academy of Natural Sciences and the Wagner Institute that 
we are enabled to give the attention necessary to conduct a monthly 

We write thus because we know that we are not having the sup- 


port we deserve from American Conchologists. Scores of subscrip- 
tions remain unpaid, and requests by letter to "square up" are 
calmly ignored. 

We would ask our subscribers in all seriousness, Do you need 
this paper? If so, why not support it. We depend upon the Con- 
chologists of America to help and encourage us in making our 
Nautilus a journal worthy of American Science. 

H. A. P. & C. W. J. 



Bulimi{s 2)roteus was described by Broderip from Peru in 1832. 
It was referred by Deshayes to B. sordidus of Lesson, an opinion 
not generally adopted, and which he afterward relinquished. In 
1860, Mr. J. Xantus, collecting for the Smithsonian Institution at 
Cape St. Lucas, obtained one adult and two young specimens of a 
large Bulimulus, which were referred to Broderip's species by Bin- 
ney ; an opinion which was justified b}' the close resemblance and 
small amount of material for comparison. The singularity of dis- 
tribution has been commented on by every one from Binney to 
Crosse and Fischer in their magnificent work on the Mexican land 
shells, and Dr. Cooper in recent papers on Lower Californiau land 
shells. By a recent expedition of the California Academy of Scien- 
ces to Lower California, nearly 100 specimens of the shell in ques- 
tion were obtained, which I examined while in California in 1892, 
and which are described by Dr. Cooper (Proc. Cal. Acad., 2d Ser. 
Ill, p. 211, 1892), thus for the first time giving an opportunity for 
careful comparison of our Californian species with that from Peru. 
A series kindly sent by Dr. Cooper on behalf of the Academy, 
together with the original specimens of Xantus and a series of four- 
teen specimens of the Peruvian B. proteus, have been critically 
compared, leaving no doubt, in spite of the close similarity, that the 
Mexican shell is distinct and must receive a name, as the synonyms 
are all strictly referable to the Peruvian form. 
Bulimulus (Scutalus) montezuma Dall. 

B. (S.) proteus Binney, L. & F. W. Shells N. Am., 1, p. 207, 
fig. 358, 1869; not of Broderip, P. Z. S., 1832, p. 107. 

Habitat, Lower California, mostly from the mountainous region 
(3500 ft. alt.), Eisen, Belding and Xantus. 


As Dr. Cooper observed, this species is not as " protean " as some 
others. It exhibits no such variations in form or color as B. proteus ; 
the latter assumes almost every mutation of form, but taken on the 
average is less acute and has the last whorl less patulously drawn 
out, axially, than the B. montezuma. The color of B. proteus is 
variably distributed, but tends in the most strongly colored exam- 
ples to be laid on in 4-6 broad, spiral bands of brown, with indis- 
tinct boundaries, separated by paler zones. In B. moniezuma the 
color is seldom present, but, when it is, it is laid on in narrow, 
obscure zones, parallel with the incremental lines and never spirally 
disposed. The granulation in the Californian shell is less coarse 
and intense than in the Peruvian species when most developed, and 
the umbilicus averages much smaller in the former. All these char- 
acters are of degree rather than kind, but two features may be men- 
tioned which appear constant and s«pecific. In the Mexican shell 
the angle which the outer lip makes with the body whorl, or axial 
perpendicular, at its junction is invariably more acute than in B. 
proteus, which latter has the lip bent suddenly down at this point. 
Secondly, the larval shell or nucleus of B. proteus is beautifully 
shagreened with minute jjunctations or short, almost vermicular, 
indentations, visible plainly under a glass, and only absent when 
worn off by abrasion. Traces of this sculpture may always be found. 
In B. montezuma the nucleus is delicately ribbed in harmony with 
the incremental lines, and does not show the peculiar shagreeniug 
alluded to, a character which alone is sufficient to establish its dis- 
tinctness, but the constancy of which could not be predicated from 
the three specimens examined by Mr. Binney. 

The distribution of the species now determined by Messrs Eisen 
and Belding is sufficient to disprove the hypothesis of introduction 
by artificial means, and it is satisfactory to have our largest North 
American species placed upon a permanent footing. 




In an interesting article upon the " Edible MoUusks of Rhode 
Island," by Mr. Horace F. Carpenter, published in the Nautilus 
some time ago, he compares the number of marine edible mollusks 
of Rhode Island with those reported from San Francisco by Profes- 
sor Keep. 


Without wishing to leave the impression that California can 
compete with Rhode Island in the number of species found in the 
"fish markets," yet the number recently reported from this State 
can be greatly increased. The number of shells offered for sale here 
is always limited, and the famous "clam-bake" of the eastern shore 
is never duplicated. In the Los Angeles fish markets, Donax and 
Chione are the most abundant. 

Donax californicus Conr. is the favorite clam for soup. This tiny 
bivalve might seem to an observer " all shell," yet it proves a very 
good substitute for the oyster in soup. The shells are carefully 
washed, allowed to remain in fresh water some hours, boiled, then 
drained. The liquid drained ofi" is, with plenty of milk added, con- 
verted into a very palatable soup, especially when one is on the 
beach, and has just returned to the tent after a good bath in the 

Chione simillima Sby. is often offered for sale at five cents a pound. 
Chione fluctifraga Sby. and Chione succinda Val. are occasionally 
found with the former, as they are collected from the same mud 
flats. Soup made from this shell-fish is not finely flavored and the 
meat is tough. 

Tivela crassatelloides Conr., large shells are sometimes sold in the 
markets, usually at five cents each. Tapes staminea Com., Odrea 
lurida Cpr., Ostrea virginica Gmel. (the latter brought here from 
San Francisco), Mytilua californiamis Conr., Mytilus edulis Linn., 
and Peden aequisulcatus Cpr., are also occasionally offered for sale, 
but in limited quantities. Haliotis cracherodii Leach may some- 
times be seen in the market, although I have not seen one this win- 
ter. Occasionally a small Haliotis fulgens Phil, has been seen with 
the former species. The Mexicans seem to be fond of this shell-fish, 
as I have seen three and four dozen Halioti dried and strung on a 
cord, the same as they string red-peppers. When dried, the Aba- 
lones, as they are named by the Mexicans, look like oblong pieces of 
very thick leather, more than anything else that I can describe. 

The number. of species found in Los Angeles city markets, and 
not reported from San Francisco, would, I believe, add six more to 
the Californian region. Professor Keep says the Mytilus calij'orni- 
anus is found outside of San Francisco Bay, but does not mention it 
as sold in the city. Amiantis callosa Conr. is occasionally eaten 
when collected in San Pedro Bay, although I have been told it was 
" not a very tempting dish." As it does not live near the shore, 


collectors do not often find more than single valves on the beach. 

In the "Catalogue of Economic Mollusks," written by Lieutenant 
Francis Winslow, upon the exhibition of the U. S. Nat. Museum, at 
the "International Fisheries Exhibition," at London, in 1883, he 
says of Macoma nasuta Conr,, " It is abundant in San Francisco 
Bay, and it was evidently eaten largely by aborigines, as the shell- 
mounds in the vicinity of the bay are largely composed of shells of 
this species." I have not heard of this shell-fish being eaten here, nor 
the much larger Macoma seda Conr., but Lieutenant Winslow says the 
former is " eaten on the Pacific coast by all classes." The same 
writer mentions Platijodon cancellatus Conr. as existing in " great 
abundance in Bolinas Bay and Santa Barbara. Its habits are 
essentially those of the ' soft clam,' and it forms one of the staple 
food shell-fish of the Pacific coast," although Mr. C. R. Orcutt, in 
his " Notes on the Mollusks of San Diego," says this shell has 
been collected for food at La Playa, " but the animal is bitter." I 
fear I am digressing, as Professor Keep's article was intended by 
him as the first of a series of articles reporting "food mollusks 
Avhich may be bought in the markets of our country," each writer 
"reporting for his (or her?) own locality." 

Notwithstanding the number of species we can report from Cali- 
fornia, I am compelled to admit that, in quality and number of 
individuals, California cannot boast of her edible mollusks. 



Yoldia montereyensis n. s. 

Shell large, stout, inflated, with a polished, dark greenish olive 
epidermis ; beaks eroded in all the specimens, situated in the anter- 
ior part of the middle third of the shell, not prominent ; valves full 
and rounded, anterior end evenly rounded into the upper and 
basal margins; posterior end narrower, rounded, the extreme end 
nearer the cardinal margin Avith which it almost forms an angle, 
below sloping obliquely toward the basal margin, with a very 
obscure broad ray impressed in a radiating manner from the 
beaks toward the oblique slope, the profile of which it does not per- 
ceptibly indent ; surface sculptured only by feeble incremental lines; 
epidermis polished with one or two darker concentric color zones 
and a microscopic, irregular, radially disposed wrinkling, most con- 


spicuous at the margins of the impressed ray; posterior cardinal 
margin nearly straight, anterior ditto evenly rounded ; interior por- 
cellanous white, the pallial sinus not reaching the middle vertical 
line of the shell, broad and rather rounded; ligamental fosset large, 
cuplike; anterior teeth V-shaped, about 22 in number, strong and 
prominent; posterior teeth similar, and forming an equally long line 
but only 18 in number, the posterior cardinar margin showing a 
long narrow impressed area very feebly marked ; length of shell 
32; beak from anterior end 12; vertical from beak to base 17; 
max. diameter 13 mm. 

Habitat U. S. Fish Com. Station, 3202, in 382 fathoms green 
mud, Monterey Bay, California, bottom temperature, 41° Fahren- 

This fine shell recalls Y. tliracuejormis, but is smaller, without the 
angularity of that species and proportionately more solid. It was 
dredged by the U. S. Steamer Albatross, several years ago. It is 
probably a deep water species exclusively at least in the latitude of 
California. The types are in the U. S. Nat. Museum, 106,972. 



In the June number, p. 20, a list of the genera of Unionidce and 
Mutelidce recognized by Dr. v. Ihering is given. It should be noted 
that by inadvertence Pleiodon Conr. is given as a genus, but Iher- 
ing considers it a synonym of Irklina. The genus Pseudodon Gld. 
was omitted after Cristaria Schum.^ 

Attention should also be directed to the fact that the name Cas- 
talia Lam., 1819, is preoccupied in Vermes by Savigny, 1817 (Sys- 
teme des Annelides). Probably Tetraplodon Spix, 1827 can be 
used in this case as a substitute. 

For Aplodon Spix (preoc. by Rafinesque in Pulmonata), may be 
substituted Spixoconcha, 

Lea's name Plagiodon (1856) seems also to be preoccupied (by 
Dumeril in Reptilia, 1853), and the group may therefore be called 
Iheringella, Lea's species isoeardioides being the type. 

^ The Editor fears that these errors may have been due to his own hasty proof- 
reading, rather than to defects in the original MS. 




The family Acanthochitidse includes Chitons having the exposed 
surface of the valves, when present, divided into a narrow dorsal 
smooth or striated band, sometimes obsolete, with a granular area on 
each side, formed by the union of the lateral areas and the plural tracts 
of the central areas. The Cryptoplacidce also share this peculiar plan 
of valve-sculpture, but they are vermiform in shape and not nearly 
covered above by the valves, whilst the Aeanthochitidce have well- 
developed valves covering the upper surface, even in those genera 
like Amicula and Cryptochiton which have the girdle-skiu extend- 
ing over the larger part or the whole of the dorsal armor. There 
are many other differences, but still the Cryptoplacidce give unmis- 
takable evidence of their descent from Aeanthochitidce. On the 
other hand, all other Chitons difier in having the valves divided into 
triangular lateral, and wide central areas, and in other equally 
important if less obvious features. 

The following genera belong to Acanthochitidse : Sjwngiochiton, 
Leptopla.v, Acanthochites, Katharina, Amicida, Cryptochiton. All 
but the first two are found upon the United States coasts. It will 
be noticed that the association of Acanthochites with 3Iopalia, insti- 
tuted by Dr. Philip Carpenter, is not retained. 

Some naturalists may find it difficult to believe that complex 
structures so very similar to each other as are the posterior valves in 
Mopalia and Acanthochites could have arisen independently ; but 
that this is the fact I feel entirely assured. In the two cases, this 
peculiar form of two-slit and sinused posterior insertion-plate, arose 
from a perfectly regular, even, and many-slit plate ; the two phyla 
travelling along parallel roads. The Mopaloids reach their culmi- 
nation in Plaxiphora, which has lost its two posterior slits, and is in 
this respect quite analogous to an old individual of Cryptochiton 

The genus Acanthochites, which has given its name to the family, 
is readily recognized by the series of tufts of fine bristles, like spun- 
glass, along each side. These tufts may be accounted for by the 
theory that they are the result of over-nutrition caused by the fre- 
quent flexure of the girdle at the sutures ; this flexure naturally 
bringing a greater share of nutriment to the stimulated point than 


to the comparatively motionless portion at the sides of each valve, 
resulting in a more exuberant growth of girdle spicules there. 

Within the Acanthochites stock the progressive diminution of the 
tegmentum or outer layer of shell, has proceeded along two lines : 
in one series of forms the girdle has encroached at the sutures, pro- 
ducing a heart-shaped exposed area, seen in such species as the Noto- 
places, and this system has also produced the Amiculas. In the others, 
the teudeucy has been to encroach along the sides of the valves, leav- 
ing a narrow or linear tract, resulting in forms like Acanthochites 
exquisitus, and culminating in Cryptoconchus (C. monticularis Q., 
and floridanus Dall.) 

Acanthochites is divisible into four sections : Acanthochites typi- 
cal, having a wide caudal sinus and two slits in the tail valve, and 
well-developed sutural tufts ; Notoplax, having several slits in the 
tail-valve behind, and the girdle encroaching at the sutures ; Cryp- 
toconchus, having a similar tail-valve, but the girdle encroaches at 
the sides, leaving only a linear dorsal area exposed ; and finally, 
Lohoplax (sect, nov.), with a many-slit tail-valve, the head valve 
strongly 5-lobed and ribbed, girdle nearly naked — type A. violaceus 
Quoy. The following two species belong to the typical section : 

A. exquisitus n. sp. Visible portions of the valves extremely narrow, 
generally less than one-fourth the entire width of the dried animal. 
Valves dark olive, interior blue ; the girdle light green, tufts very 
large, either green, pink or bronze ; fleshy covered with a green 
pubescence. Length 30, breadth 18 mill. La Paz (Lockington). 

The valves are more covered than in any other form, the tegmen- 
tum being far less in area than one of the sutural laminae. 

A. rhodeus n. sp. Exposed portion of valves subtriangular, about 
one-third the entire width, the valves depressed, obtusely cariuated, 
brown, almost separated by the encroachment of the girdle at the 
sutures. Median area smooth, not striated. Interior deep rose 
colored. Length 28, breadth 15 mill. Panama (MacNeil). 

A. {Notoplax) hemphilli n. sp. Valves heart-shaped, about one- 
third the total width ; red, more or less maculated with white ; 
girdle rust-brown ; dorsal area having some longitudinal striae. 
Interior light green at the sides, deep rose-red in the middle. Girdle 
wide, sparsely clothed with microscopic hyaline spicules, having a 
marginal row of longer spicules and 18 small white tufts. Length 
24, breadth 11 mill. Key West, Florida (Hemphill). 




A report ou the shells of Arkansas, made to the State Geologist 
of that State, will soon be published, and in this paper I will give 
the list of species, not including the Unionidse. I have collected in 
twenty-five counties, but not equally in all — in some having made 
search in many different places and at different times, and in others 
in only one place or at one time. 

The type specimens of those species marked * were from Arkan- 

Selenites con cava Say. 
Limax campestris Binn. 
Zonites friabilis W. G. B. 
Z. Irevigatus Pfeif. (Binney's 

Z. demissus Binn. 
Z. brittsi Pils.* 
Z. ligerus Say. 
Z. arboreus Say. 
Z. viridulus Mke. 
Z. indentatus Say. 
Z. minusculus Binn. 
Z. placentulus Shuttl. (Binney's 

Z. fulvus Drap. 
Z. undetermined. 
Z. undetermined. 
Z. gularis Say. 

Patula solitaria Say. 
P. alternata Say. 
P. perspectiva Say. 
Helicodiscus liueatus Say. 
Strobila labyrinthica Say. 
Polygyra texasiana Mor. 
P- triodontoides Bland. 
P. jacksoni Bland. 
P. dorfeuilliana Lea. 
P. dorfeuilliana sampsoni Weth.* 

M. divestus Gld. 

M. elevatus Say. 

M. exoletus Binn. 

M. exoletus minor. 

M. thyroides Say. 

M. thyroides bucculentus Gld. 

M. clausus Say. 

M. kiowaensis arkansensis Pils.* 

Dorcasia berlandieriana Mor. 
(Binney's Manual). 

Bulimulus dealbatus Say. 

Pupa fallax Say. 

P. arraifera Say. 

P. contracta Say. 

P. proceraGld. 

Succinea ovalis Gld. 

S. ovara Say. 

S. obliqua Say (Binney's Man- 

Helicina orbiculata Say. 

Limntea hu mills Say. 

L. columella Say. 

L. catascopium Say. 

Physa gyrina Say. 

P. heterostrophe Say. 

Planorbis trivolvis Say. 

P. bicarinatus Say. 

Ancylus tardus Say. 

Vivipara contectoides W. G. B. 


P. leporina Gld. V. subpurpurea Say. 

Stenotreraa labrosum Bland. Campeloma subsolidum Anth. 
S. edgarianum Lea (Binney's C. poiiderosum Say. 

Manual.) Pomatiopsis lapidaria Say. 

S. stenotremum Fer. Pleiirocera subulare Lea. 

S. monodon fraterna Say. P. canaliculatum Say. 

S. leaii Ward. Goniobasis lawrencei Lea.* 

Triodopsis obstricta Say. G. plebeius Anth. 

T. appressa Say. G. cubicoides Anth. 

T. inflecta Say. G. crandalli Pils. 

T. edentata Sampson.* Sphjerium sulcatum Lam. 

T. fallax minor Weth.* S. striatinum Lam. 

T. vultuosa Gld. S. stamineura Conr. (Prime). 

Mesodon albolabris Say. S. transversum Say (Prime). 

M. albolabris minor. Pisidium abditum Hald. 

M. albolabris alleni Weth.* P. virginicum Bourg. 

One unnamed Zonites bears considerable resemblance to Z. lima- 
tulus, but is of only three mm. diameter, more depressed, sutures 
less impressed and outer whorl more rounded, and having four 

The other unnamed one has the general size and appearance of 
Z. arboreus, but has six whorls. These were both found on the 
Boston Mountains. Zonites brittsi was described in the Nautilus 
of last January. The type specimens were collected by Mr. R. A. 
Blair, of Sedalia, in Garland County near Hot Springs. They are 
very close to Z. demissus. 

Patulu solitaria has not before been recorded from as far south. 
Very few specimens of Pohjgyra texasiana were found in the State, 
but they were very abundant in the Indian Territory across the 
river from Fort Smith. In no county except Garland were both 
dorfeuilliana and its variety sampsoni found. The latter was 
most abundant in Carroll County, fifteen or twenty being frequently 
under one stone. P. jaeksoni Avas much larger than typical size on 
the bluflTs at Van Buren. But one T. obstricta was found, and that 
a dead one, near Batesville. T. edentata were collected on the Bos- 
ton Mountains in Franklin County. They are larger than inflecta 
and almost or entirely without teeth on the peristome. T. fallax, 
from the northwest corner of the State, were quite small, and many 
of them albinos. 


The Mesodon albolabris, from Eureka Springs, are pronounced by 
Wetherby to be a very distinct variety. He has, also described the 
two other varieties from the same place, and the exoletus minor 
from there are said by Mr. Binney to be " very curious." 

The kioivaensis variety, arkansensis, lately described in the Nau- 
tilus, were collected by Mr. R. A. Blair, near Hot Springs. 

The Goiiiobases were generally very plenty where found at all, 
and in other streams near by there were none. I have them from 
many streams. The G. crandalli was collected at Mammoth 
Spring, and described in the Proceedings of the Philadelphia Acad- 
emy of Sciences. 



In the " Reference List of the Land and Fresh-water Mollusca of 
New Zealand " by Mr. H. Suter and myself, the species named above 
was placed under Flavimulina erebrifiammis Pfr. as a synonym. 
Tryon and Pfeiffer, whom we followed in this course, were certainly 
wrong in connecting inj'undibxduin with crebriflammis (Mon. Hel. 
Viv. iii, p. 148, etc.). H. infundibulum was described from Vavas, 
Tonga Is., and appears to be a small variety of Gradata Gould. It 
was omitted from Mousson's Tong-an list. 


Rev. Dr. A. Dean has removed from Muncy, Pa., to Fort Lee, 
N. J., on the Hudson, above New York City. The best wishes of 
many brother Conchologists go with him to his new home on the 

An interesting paper on the shells collected by the Death Valley 
Expedition, by Dr. R. E. C. Stearns, has appeared in the " North 
American Fauna " series, published by the U. S. Dept. of Agricul- 
ture. Some pages are given to the discussion of the Tryonias, which 
were collected alive by Dr. Merriam in a hot spring in Pahranagat 
Valley, Nevada. The "■Tryonia " j^t'otea is shown to intergrade per- 
fectly with the smooth form which Frauenfeld called Hydrobia see- 
maiii. It is a species of Bythinella. Stearns retains Tryonia dath- 
rata distinct, as he has seen no examples connecting with protea. 
Several species of Amnicolidee are described and figured, and valu- 


able data on the south-eastward distribution of Arionta are pre- 

Dr. H. von Ihering has been appointed Director of the Zoolog- 
ical Department of the Museum at San Paulo, Brazil. 

In electing officers of the American Association of Conchologists 
for the ensuing year, John H. Campbell was elected President ; 
John Ford, Vice-President ; Chas. W. Johnson, Secretary. 

The death of the well-known Zoologist, Carl Semper, of Wiirtz- 
burg, Germany, on the 29th of May, has been announced. 

WiLLARD M. Wood, of San Francisco, intends very soon to make 
an eastern trip, visiting Chicago, New York, Philadelphia and 

Mr. H. E. Sargent, formerly of Woodville, Alabama, is in Phila- 
delphia, where he proposes to spend some time in biological work. 

A " Reference List of the Land and Fresh Water Mollusca 
of New Zealand " has been published by Messrs Chas. Hedley of. 
Sydney, N. S. Wales, and H. Suter of Christchurch, New Zealand. 
It forms an extremely useful index to that fauna, and is indispen- 
sable to those who desire to understand the peculiar genera of Aus- 


Wanted, about 25 specimens of any one species of Dentalium ; 
also live specimen of Zonites elliotti, demissiis, intertextus, gularis, 
internus and nitidus. Offered, British L. and Fr. W. and North 
American L. and Fr. W. shells, also dart of Zonites ligerus Say. — 
Robert Walton, Houghton street, Lower Roxborough, Philadelphia, 

M. M. ScHEPMAN, Rhoon, near Rotterdam, Holland, has, to 
exchange, many East Indian sea shells. Send list and receive mine. 

For exchange, 200 species of land and fresh water shells, from 
British India, Burmah and Ceylon ; also large collection of marine 
shells from various parts. Offers solicited in land and fresh water 
shells. — Miss J. E. Linter, Arragon Close, Twickenham, England. 

$1.00 per Year. ($1.12 to Foreign Countries.) lOcts. a copy. 





H. A. PiLSBRY, Conservator Conchological Section, Academy of Natural Sciences, Philadelphia, 

C. W. Johnson, Curator of the Wagner Free Institute of Science. 

Vol. VII. /^I't/if- AUGUST, 1893. No. 4. 



Notice of New Cretaceous Fossils from the Lower Green Marls 

OF New Jersey. R. P. Whitfield 37 

Description of a New Species of Cypr.^a. John Ford. . . .39 

Beach Shell Collecting in Connection with a Study of Oceanic 

Phenomena. Mrs. M. Burton Williamson. 41 

Notes on the North American Species of Succinea. T. D. A. Cockerell. 43 

General Notes 47 

Exchanges 48 

Published by 

H. A. PILSBRY, Editor, Academy of Nat. Sciences, Philadelphia. 

C. W. JOHNSON, Manager, Wagner Free Institute of Science, Philad'a. 

Entered at Philadelphia Post-OflBce as second-class matter. 



We can furnish only the following Vols, complete, Price $1.00 each. 

Vol. IV. May, 1890 to April, 1891. 
Vol. V. May, 1891 to April, 1892. 
Vol. VI. May, 1892 to April, 1893. 

Volume III (Numbers 2 and 12 wanting) $1.00. 20 cents per 
copy will be paid for Nos. 2 and 12. Vols. I and II were known as 
the " Conchologisfs Exchange." We cannot furnish these, but a 
liberal price will be paid for the first seven numbers of Vol. I. 


Advertisements ■will be inserted at the rate of $1.00 per 
inch for each insertion in advance. Smaller space in propor- 
tion. A discount of 25 per cent, will be made on insertions of 
six months or longer. 

Address, C. W. JOHNSON, 

Wagner Free Institute, 

Philadelphia, Pa. 




je§§e joiie§ a uo., g^^ commerce street, 



121 Fulhara Road, London, S. W. 

Has always on hand a fine stock of Recent Shells from which 
selections may be made on the premises or specimens sent for 

Collections. — Illustrative of Generic and sub-generic forms and 
species from £ 1 to £ 500. 

Collections Purchased.— Specimens Bought or Exchanged. 
— Correspondence invited with Residents in or visitors to places 
where shells and other objects are obtainable. 

" Thesaurus Conchyliorum " by G. B. Sowerby, F. L. S., in 
44 parts 25s. each part, (less for the whole work) any Part or 
Monograph may be had separately. 

" Illustrated Index op British Shells," by G. B. Sowerby, 
F. L. S., new edition (1887) with 26 colored plates 750 figures. 
Imperial 8vo. cloth 35s. 

" Marine Shells of South Africa" — A catalogue of all the 
known species (1892) with references to figures in various works, 
descriptions of new species and figures of such as are new, little 
known, or hitherto unfigured. Imperial 8vo. cloth 12s. nett. 

The Nautilus. 

Vol. VII. AUGUST, 1893. No. 4 



Mr. Pilsbry recently sent me a few New Jersey fossils for identi- 
fication ; among them were the following new species which he wished 
me to describe for the Nautilus. 
Volutoderma Woolmani n. sp. 

Shell, as shown by the internal cast, somewhat more than an 
inch in length, and having a diameter of the body volution of seven- 
sixteenth of an inch in the cast, being more slender than any species 
yet described. Volutions largest just below the suture and attenuate 
below, forming a moderately long beak ; marked in the upper part 
by eight comparatively strong vertical plications, which are obsolete 
below. Columella marked by three very distinct folds or ridges, the 
lowest of which is the strongest. These are well marked on the 
inside of the upper volutions. 

This species like most of those from the New Jersey Green Marls 
is known only from an internal cast. It retains only two volutions 
and is imperfect at the base of the beak. It is very distinct, how- 
1 Illustrations of the following species will be given next month. 


ever from any species previously noticed, being much smaller and 
of more slender habit. The external markings are unknown. The 
specimen is from the Lower Green Marls at Lenola Station on the 
Long Branch Division, Pennsylvania Railroad in Burlington Co., 
New Jersey. The type is in the collection of the Academy of 
Natural Sciences of Philadelphia. Collected by Mr. Lewis Woolman 
of Philadelphia for whom it is named. 
Cerithium Pilsbryi n. sp. 

Shell elongated and slender; volutions numerous, number not 
determined, very gradually expanding with additional growth ; 
apex and aperture unknown. Volutions slightly convex between 
sutures, and ornamented by a band of small oblique nodes immedi- 
ately below the suture ; also by a series of larger vertical folds which 
extend across the exposed part of the volution, below the upper band 
of nodes, and numbering something more than one half as many to 
the volution as the nodes above. There are also very fine spiral 
striae almost too fine be seen without magnifying. The lines of 
growth are fine but distinct, and take a broad sweeping backward 
curve between sutures. Apical angle fifteen to eighteen degrees. 

This species is a new type for the New Jersey cretaceous, and I 
know of none of the same type in the rocks of this age in North 
America ; while in the Cretaceous of Palestine there are several 
species already described. The one most nearly like this being that 
described in the Bulletin Am. Mus. Nat. Hist, for December, 1891, 
figured on PL IX of Vol. Ill, figs. 11 and 12, under the name 
Cerithiam Conradi ; the point of diflerence between them being the 
exact reversal of the lines of nodes, the upper one here being small 
while on that one it is the largest. These specimens consist of concre- 
tionary matrices, in what appear to have been Coprolitic bodies, in 
one of which there are fragments of several species of molluscs repre- 
sented. They are also from the Lower Green Marls at Lenola, N. J. 
Collected by Mr. Lewis Woolman, and are deposited in the collec- 
tion of the Academy of Natural Sciences, Philadelphia. 

Another Cerithium-like shell occurs with the above, but is too 
imperfect for specific description. It presents characters which 
would most likely ally it to Cerithiopsis. There are imprints of por- 
tions of six volutions remaining in the matrix showing three lines of 
nodes on each volution, increasing in size from above downward. 
This also is an undescribed species. There is also an internal cast 
of a species of Anchura or liostellaria, which diflfers from any 



described form, but too imperfect for characterization. Mr. Wool- 
man writes me that the locality from which these specimens were 
obtained has yielded upward of sixty species of Molluscan remains, 
which is rather more than that obtained from any one locality 
within the State, from this bed, so far as I know. 



In the description of Cyprcea cruenta Grael. var, Greegori Ford, 
published in the Nautilus for Feb., 1893, it was suggested that most 
conchological students would probaby have made Greegori a species 
instead of a variety. It may at once be said that the writer of that 
description is now fully convinced of the specific distinction of the 
latter, and has therefore decided to alter the name from C. cruenta 
CrreegoriFord to C. Greegori Ford. Under the circumstances such a 

change will doubtless meet with some opposition. Nevertheless, I 
have no hesitation in making it, inasmuch as my conclusions are 
chiefly based upon the careful study of some fifty specimens secured 
by me since the description referred to was written. 

These are of various sizes and stages of growth, yet all of them 
can be readily separated from any other species belonging to the 
genus, though in exceptional instances the heavy callus on the sides 
and ends is creamy white and the typical blotches scarcely discern- 
able. The larger portion of my former description may be profit- 
ably retained, but as it is desirable to make a few additions it is 
reproduced here with these included. 


Cypraea Greegori Ford, n. sp. 

Shell depressed, orbicular oval in form, callus on the sides and 
ends remarkably thickened. That on the sides light salmon in color, 
with irregular purple-brown spots, having a blotchy appearance. 
Dorsal surface similar to that of cruenta, but lacking the whitish 
spots typically present in that species. Base semi-translucent, spot- 
less, dark buff or salmon colored, darkest in the interstices. Teeth 
on outer lip very strong, long and whitish ; on inner lip finer, with 
exception of the anterior fold and one or two adjacent teeth, the first 
of these latter being very prominent and notably transverse. Space 
between the anterior fold and the following tooth wide and bright- 
ened ; posterior teeth of inner lip prolonged outward upon the base. 
Dimensions of average specimen: length \\, breadth i inch. 

That C. Greegori is more nearly related to C. cruenta than to any 
other species, I have no doubt. But it is equally true that the 
former possesses several characters altogether distinct from those 
belonging to the latter. For instance, C. greegori is more translu- 
cent, more rugged, much smaller and rounder in form, different in 
general color, and in the peculiar variations of the teeth, also in the 
remarkable thickness and brilliancy of the callus with which it is 

With the probable exception of one poor specimen, this shell was 
unknown to the late Mr. Tryon, and for the same reason, perhaps, 
it was not noticed in Mr. Robert's catalogue of the species. Never- 
theless, an excellent figure of it was published by Kiener^ who merely 
referred to it as a variety of C. cruenta (variolaria). A figure, 
possibly intended for the same shell, was also published by Sowerby* 
who seems to have considered it a variety of C. caurica. More 
recently, Sowerby's figures were alluded to by Mr. J. C. MelvilP, as 
the var. coloba, but whether this variety was referable to C. cruenta 
or C. caurica, seems to have been a question that he was either unable 
or unwilling to decide. At least, in one sentence he apparently 
makes C. cruenta responsible for its parentage, while in another 
sentence the same honor is given to C. caurica. Verily it seems that 
even the babes in " Pinafore" could not have been more hopelessly 
mixed than were these poor little waifs. 

1 Iconographie Coquilles Vivantes, Page 67, pi. 27, fig. 3. 
2 Thesaurus Conchyliorum. Plate 23, fig. 190. 

3 1st Vol. 4th series of Memoirs and Proc. of the Manchester, (Engd.) Lit. 
and Phil. Society, 1887--8. 


So far as I am aware, no description of the shell, previous to my 
own, has been published ; and unless proof of such publication is 
shown I shall claim priority both for the name and description. 
This claim has especial reference to a criticism of the name applied 
to the shell in my former article. 

It might be well to add that the incipient tooth in the interstice 
next to the anterior fold, as shown in the figure published in The 
Nautilus for April, 1893 — is not typical, since it is discernable in 
less than five per cent of the specimens, and very slightly in them. 
In a hurried selection of the specimen for drawing purposes, this 
very minute protuberance was unobserved by me. Otherwise it 
would not have been drawn. This error has been corrected in the 
figure accompanying this article. 



It has often occurred to me that a shell collector who is something 
of a physicist, having a love for historical facts, could furnish 
interesting data in regard to shore collecting under certain physical 
conditions of the ocean. Few amateur collectors note the historical, 
or rather chronological appearance of genera and species collected 
by them, they are usually satisfied with obtaining a " good find," 
but time and seasons are hardly observed, certainly not studied as 
furnishing data for future reference. A storm is hailed as a precur- 
sor of" rare finds," but a study of the storm with notes in regard to 
it, accompanied with a list of shells found after such a storm are too 
frequently neglected by collectors. Mollusks are collected too often 
as a miser collects his money, as a mania, not as a medium for an 
intelligent study of Nature. It seems to me, that a study of 
mollusks thrown upon the shore from other areas, in connection with 
a study of the physical condition of the ocean at such times, would 
be very helpful to the collector, although of no value to science. It 
may be urged that shells cast up by the sea are merely " happen- 


ingrs " and no data can be gathered in reference to -what seems a work 
of chance. When a heavy gale ploughs up the home of mollusks 
and huge breakers land them, by the incoming tide, on the shore, no 
collector can fore-tell when such a ])lienomenon may occur, nor 
what conchological rarities may follow in the wake of such a storm. 
Rare shells are sometimes washed ashore, then years may elapse 
before they again make their appearance. Sometimes shells con- 
sidered as belonging to the fauna of a different latitude are found 
among the drift in such small numbers as to raise a question as to 
their introduction by artificial means. During a violent storm 
mollusks travel great distances before they are cast upon the shore. 
This is especially noticeable in pelagic organisms which are often 
cast upon the beach when some ocean current buoys them inward 
toward the shore. All these facts combine to make it impossible 
to collect working data, but one cannot doubt that a study of collec- 
tions as the result of unusual conditions of Neptune might be con- 
ducted witli some satisfactory results. A diary of the atmosphere, 
tides, dailv physical conditions of the ocean with lists of shells found 
during the same period, if followed any length of time, might be 
resultant in adding a few facts that would be interesting, even 
though not very valuable. High and low tides would influence 
"finds" at any time, but some "low tides" are much richer in 
molluscan forms than others. 

As a rule each region has its own fauna ; when this fauna is dis- 
turbed and carried outside the range of its own normal environment 
it must be due to unusual conditions in the surrounding water ; 
shells from the laminarian and inner corallines zones found strewn 
upon the l)each arc the effect of some cause. To a physicist, a study 
of the storm that stranded rare forms upon the beach, would surely 
be as interesting and important as the shells found in the drift! 
The study of oceanic phenomena in connection with conchological 
ac(|ui.sitions might be valuable to the collector in many ways ; 
although of no value to the scientific world in these days of applied 
science, with hydrographers collecting data, and with all the modern 
appliances furnished to ships sent out on scientific ex{)lorations. 

We narrow our horizon by failing to observe and study that which 
is near at hand. There are environments that afford more than 
ordinary facilities for study, but only a few are so favored, and only 
a small proportion of these utilize their oi)portunities. 




\_Concluded from Vol. F/, ja. 31.] 

(18.) S. luteola Gould. Mr. Singley sent me this from Manatee Co., 
Florida, and at the same time specimens marked texasiana 
Pfr., from Derby, Frio Co., Texas. I made notes on these 
shells as follows : 

(a.) S. texasiana. Belongs perhaps to patris group, but very 
^ different from it, and forming a new subsection. Shell 

shaped, but for moutli, like some varieties of Lhnncva 
palustris. Length 16 2 mill. Transversely irregularly 
striate-ribbed. Young example semitransparent pale 
horn, adults ojmque yellowish-white. 

(b.) S. luteola. No doubt the same species as texasiana, but the 
specimens are horn-color and smaller ; some little ones are 
more like j^utr is — 7^ mill, long, shiny, striate, horn-color, 
more globose, spire short. 

Sect. III. Lucence. 

=Lucena Oken. 

(19.) S. avara Say. This species varies in color a good deal, and 
also in shape. The following are the varieties described or 
known to me. 

(a.) forma alba nov. Shell greenish-white. Horseshoe Bend 
Gulch, Custer Co., Colorado, at about 10,000 ft. alt. Mr- 
H. Prime has an albino of S. avara from Arizona, and 
there is a specimen in the Binney and Bland collection 
from New York State (Dr. Lewis.) 

(b.) forma wardiana Lea. Shell yellow. 

(c.) var. vermeta Say. Yellowish, thin, suture deep. I have 
seen a clear red-brown form of this from Toronto, Can- 
ada (D. B. Cockerell). An amber-colored form was sent 
to me by Mr. Binney, collected by Mr. W. S. Teator at 
Barrytown, Duchess Co., N. Y. — this may also fall 
under vermeta. « 


(d.) \ ar. comjxicta CkW. J. of Conch., 1892, p. 39. Colorado. 

(e.) forma viajor W. G. Binney, Ac. Nat. Sci. Phila., Nov., 
1858, sine descr. A large variety, about 13* mill, long, 
in the Binney and Bland collection, is from Utica, N. 
Y. It is marked var. major, apparently in Mr. Binney's 

(20.) S. aurea Lea. I formerly supposed this might be 
closely allied to pfeifferi ; having received a close relative 
or variety of that species from St. Thomas, Ontario, Can- 
ada (D. B. Cockerell), which seemed to agree with aurea. 
This view, however, was probably erroneous, as a speci- 
men marked aurea in the Binney and Bland collection 
seems to belong to the avara section. 

(21.) S. mooresiana Lea. I have found shells in a dry locality 
on Round Mountain, Custer Co., Colo., which, although 
no doubt referable to a variety of avara, appear to be 
Lea's mooresiayia. A specimen of mooresiana in the 
Binney and Bland collection, from the Platte River, also 
seems to belong to S. avara. 

(22.) S. oregonensis Lea. Mr. Singley sent me this from Dal- 
les, Oregon, (E. H. White). I noted that they were of 
the avara group, but in shape approaching the pfeifferi 
group, pale reddish-horn, striate, dull. One in the Bin- 
ney and Bland collection looks like a member of the 
pfeifferi group, but another, marked with a query, is 
larger and seems to belong to the avara section. 

(23.) S. rusticana Gould. Mr. Singley sent me some shells 
labelled oregonensis from Plumas Co., California (G. W. 
Michael), of which I noted : avara group, larger than 
oregonensis from The Dalles, greenish-horn, more shiny, 
whorls more convex. These specimens seemed to agree 
better with rusticana than oregonensis. Later, Mr. Bin- 
ney has sent me a shell, apparently rusticana, found by 
Mr. Hemphill at Julian City, San Diego Co., California. 
This shell is 10| mill, long, form of rusticana, but aper- 
ture more oblique, color reddish-horn, rather shiny ; soft 
parts (in alcohol) black. It is impossible to tell whether 


these shells should be separated from rusticana without 
examining a larger series showing the variation. 

(24.) ;S. verrilli Bid. Apparently belongs to sect. Lucence, but 
I have not seen specimens. 

(25.) S. grcenlandica Beck. Specimens in the Binney and 
Bland collection from Kuksuk, Greenland, almost cer- 
tainly belong to this group ; although the species seems 
to have leaning toward the Campestres, with which it 
allies itself through S. chrysis and S. annexa. 

Section IV. Campestres. 

(26.) S. campestris Say. Mr. Singley sent me specimens of this 
from Long Key, Florida ; they seemed to me nearly identi- 
cal with S. liiieata from Kremmling, Colo. A variety of 
campestris was named inflata by Lea. 

(27.) S. lineata W. G. Binney. Found in rejectamenta at Kremm- 
ling, Colo., together with a form elongata, Ckll., J. of Conch., 
1892, p. 39. 

(28.) S. greerii Tryon. This is considered a synonym of aS. o&/?5'wa, 
but a dead shell in the Binney and Bland collection from 
Vicksburg, Miss. (Tryon), appeared to resemble campestris. 

(29.) S. chrysis Westerl. 

(30.) S. annexa Westerl. This and the last appear to belong here, 
but are probably related somewhat to grcenlandica. The 
presence of whitish streaks on the arctic species is note- 
worthy. Dr. von Martens (Conch. Mittheilungen, 1885) 
has described a var. aurelia of S. chrysis from Alaska. 

(31.) S. unicolor Tryon. A specimen so named is in the Binney 
and Bland collection from New Orleans, La. It is a peculiar 
shell, apparently of sect. Campestres, very globose, spire short 
and blunt. 

(32.) S. turgida Westerl. This species is unknown to me ; it is 
recorded in Land- och Sotv. Moll. Vega-Exped. 1885. 

(33.) S. deeampii Tyron. Belongs to Amphihince, and was acci- 
dently omitted in the proper place. It is considered a form 
of ovalis, but a specimen from Michigan (Tryon), in the 


Binney and Bland collection seemed hardly quite like 
ovalis ; small, shiny, thin, rather greenish. 

Of these 33 nominal species of Succinea, possibly not more than 
about half will prove valid, but it is impossible to arrive at any 
exact results without further research into the variation, anatomy 
and distribution of the several forms. 

The distribution, so far as known, present some features of 
interest. The species of the eastern and northern states are more 
like those of Europe than the southern or western. The southern 
and northwestern distribution of the campestres is noteworthy. It 
appears that in glacial times, owing to a warm current, the coast of 
Alaska was free from ice, while that of British Columbia was 
glaciated down to the sea^ ; hence a contingent of the cavipestres may 
have survived to the north, while their representatives in some of 
the middle regions were exterminated. 

While on the subject of Succinea, it may be worth Avhile to call 
attention to fig. 13 of pi. II, Bull, U. S. Geol. Survey, No. 34, 
(1886). The fossil there figured is referred by Dr. C. A. White 
with doubt to Limnoea, but is it not a Succinea of the section 
Lucence f 

Regarding the Calif. Succ. stretchiana (Kaut. VI, p. 72), I fear 
the specimens were in a box which unfortunately got lost in the 
post on its way back to Mr. Singley. They seemed to represent a 
distinct form, but it is possible that they were not true stretchiana. 
Bland's type was from Washoe Co., Nevada ; and no doubt the 
specimen from that locality in the Binney and Bland collection 
belonged to the original lot, the actual type being in U. S. N. M. 
(see Man. Amer. Land Shells, p. 497). The Washoe Co. specimen 
examined by me was in some respects like avara, and by no means 
altogether like the Californian examples ; but considering the 
variation seen in species of Succinea, I did not feel able to decide 
without better material, whether they should be held distinct, and 
so accepted the indication of the labels. There is a Colorado Succi- 
nea which was formerly thought to be stretchiana, but it is certainly 
either a var. of avara or a species very closely allied. Is anyone 
prepared to say exactly what distinguishes stretchiana from other 
species? If the San Francisco specimens were not stretchiana, I am 
rather puzzled to know what are the true characters of the species. 
Perhaps the anatomy would settle the question. 

igee Prestwich, Geology (1888) Vol. II, p. 464. 



ViTRiNA LiMPiDA in'Pennsylvania. — In April of this year I 
found about a dozen dead shells of Vitrina limpida Gould on the 
bank of the Ohio River about 14 miles below Pittsburg, I have 
since visited the place and found about 20 additional shells all dead 
and most of them broken. There were many more too badly broken 
to be worth taking. A careful search both times failed to bring 
any live shells to light, and as many of the shells found were young 
I think the colony must have become extinct last year. They were 
found among " drift, " so 7)iay have come from the head-waters of 
the Allegheny River in New York State. 

I intend visiting the place again soon and will report results. — 
Geo. H. Clapp, Pittsburg, Pa. 

Aegonauta found Alive. — A living specimen of the Paper Nau- 
tilus, Argonauta argo, was found at Palm Beach, Dade Co., Fla., in 
April by Mrs. C. Rowland of Philadelphia. This handsome shell 
is over six inches in diameter. It is rare that living examples of 
this are found on our coast. 

The West American Scientist for July contains a biographical 
sketch of the late Henry Chandler Orcutt, of San Diego, Cal. 

A Rare Old Book. — An auction sale of old and rare books took 
place here a few days ago. This collection was consigned to 
a prominent auctioneer direct from Great Britain (around the 
Horn). I was lucky enough to have a catalogue sent me. In look- 
ing same over, I found only one book on Conchology. It was 
numbered 324 and described as " Collection de difFerentes especes 
de Coquillage, par George Wolffgang Knorr. Both parts, plates 
giving hundreds of beautifully colored figures of rare shells, 4to " 

I attended the sale and when no. 324 was put up the bid started 
at 50 cents ; I went one better, 55, then two prominent bookdealers 
began bidding with me, until one of them struck the dollar limit 
and ceased. I went one better, bidding $1.10 ; and as they saw that 
I was determined to get it, they stopped ; and the book Avas knocked 
down to me for the above ridiculously small amount. 

Upon reaching home I found it to be published in French, and 
during the reign of King Louis XV — 1765, although George 


Wolffgang Knorr, the author, states he wrote it during Nov. 1756 
at Nuremberg. The priut is in the old style ; very large. 

The book contains 100 pages, has 47 plates containing 248 exqui- 
sitely water-colored (by hand) figures of shells. 

Think of the time it must have taken to color these ! How I 
would like to have a glimpse of the person who colored them, 129 
years ago! Some of the tints, especially the pearly ones used in 
Haliotis striata, Haliotis marmorata and Trochus niloticus, are 
something wonderfully clever. 

On the inside of the cover, was a piece of paper glued. On it 
was engraved a crest of some person, with the words " Navitir et 
Solerter, " and underneath it was engraved the following : — "Daniel 
Cresswell, S. T. P. Coll : S. S. Trin : apud Cant : Soc. " The crest 
was composed of a large ostrich with a nail in its mouth. Beneath 
this was a shield, within same were three squirrels sitting on their 
hind legs, eating acorns or something of that sort. Upon close 
investigation, I discovered this crest was pasted over another. 
With a great deal of trouble I succeeded in separating the two. 
The lower one was an egg-shaped circle, within was a shield with 
three holes in the upper portion. On top of the shield rested some 
kind of a royal head-gear. Upon this head-gear lay a mummy 
and upon the mummy an eagle had just alighted, and was in the act 
of tearing out the eyes of the mummy. Under the crest was the sig- 
nature of " JOHN LATHAM, M. D., Winchester. " 

Who can tell me anything about the persons above named? 
Also if there are many of these books in existence. I should judge 
they were quite rare. How I do wish that many other British col- 
lections of old books might be brought here and sold at pub- 
lic auction. Many rare books published during 1567-1656-1780 
and 1800 were sold at the above sale, all the way from 25 cents to 
%bm—Williard M. Wood, San Francisco, CaL, March 15, 1893. 


Land and Fr.-water Shells of Eastern Pennsylvania to 
exchange for Land, Fresh-water or Marine shells from other local- 
ities. — Walter Black, 541 James Ave., Roxborough, Phila., Pa. 

$1.00 per Year. ($1.12 to Foreign Countries.) lOcts. a copy. 

' ^ THE 





H. A. PiLSBRY, Conservator Conchological Section, Academy of Natural Sciences, Philadelphia » 

C. W. Johnson, Curator of the Wagner Free Institute of Science. 

Vol. VII. SEPTEMBER, 1893. No. 5. 



Illustrations of New Cretaceous Shells 51 

Description of a New Fossil Cypr.ea. John H. Campbell. . . .52 
Preliminary Notice of New Species of Land-Shells from the 

Galapagos Islands, Collected hy Dr. G. Baur. Wm. H. Dall. . 52 

Preliminary Note on the Species of Strobilops. H. A. Pilsbry. . 56 

Charles B. Fuller. Rev. Henry W. Winkley 58 

The New Postal Ruling. 58 

Notes and News 59 

Published by 

H. A. PILSBRY, Editor, Academy of Nat. Sciences, Philadelphia. 

C. W. JOHN.SON, Manager, Wagner Free Institute of Science, Philad'a. 

Entered at Philadelphia Post-Office as second-class matter. 



We can furnish only the following Vols, complete, Price $1.00 each. 

Vol. IV. May, 1890 to April, 1891. 
Vol. V. May, 1891 to April, 1892. 
Vol. VI. May, 1892 to April, 1893. 

Volume III (Numbers 2 and 12 wanting) $1.00. 20 cents per 
copy will be paid for Nos. 2 and 12. Vols. I and II were known as 
the " Conchologisfs Exchange." We cannot furnish these, but a 
liberal price will be paid for the first seven numbers of Vol. I. 


Advertisements will be inserted at the rate of $1.00 per 
inch for each insertion in advance. Smaller space in propor- 
tion. A discount of 25 per cent, will be made on insertions of 
six months or longer. 

Address, C. W. JOHNSON, 

Wagner Free Institute, 

Philadelphia, Pa. 



T 5$ Tnno$ ^ Pn PAPER BOX MAKERS, 

je§§e jone§ oc bo., g^^ commerce street, 



121 Fulham Koad, London, S. W. 

Has always on band a fine stock of Recent Shells from which 
selections may be made on the premises or specimens sent for 

Collections. — Illustrative of Generic and sub-generic forms and 
species from £ 1 to £ 500. 

Collections Purchased.— Specimens Bought or Exchanged. 
— Correspondence invited with Residents in or visitors to places 
where shells and other objects are obtainable. 

" Thesaurus Conchyliorum " by G. B. Sowerby, F. L. S., in 
44 parts 25s. each part, (less for the whole work) any Part or 
Monograph may be had separately. 

" Illustrated Index op British Shells," by G. B. Sowerby, 
F, L. S., new edition (1887) with 26 colored plates 750 figures. 
Imperial 8vo. cloth 35s. 

" Marine Shells of South Africa" — A catalogue of all the 
known species (1892) with references to figures in various works, 
descriptions of new species and figures of such as are new, little 
known, or hitherto unfigured. Imperial Svo. cloth 12s. nett. 


PL. II. 


The Nautilus. 

Vol. VII. 


No. 5 


Volutoderma Woolmani Whitf. Plate II, figs. 4, 5. 

Described in the Nautilus (August) Vol. VII, p. 37. Lenola, 
Burlington Co., N. J. 

Cerithium Pilsbryi Whitf. Plate II, fig. 3. 

Described in the Nautilus (August) Vol. VII, p. 38. Lenola, 
Burlington Co., N. J. Drawn from a guttapercha squeeze of the 
natural cast. 

Since the publication of Mr. Woolman's article on the cretaceous 
fossils found at Lenola, near Moorestown, Burlington Co., N. J., in 
the Proc. of the Acad. Nat. Sci. of Phila., 1893, page 219, the 
following additional species have been found by Messrs Morris 
Schick, Robt. Hancock, John G. Johnson and Chas. L. Thackeray, 


Cyprimeria densata Conr. Vol. I, p. 157, pi. XXII, figs. 19-21. 

Lucina Smockana Whitf. Vol. I, p. 130, pi. XVIII, figs. 21, 22. 

Area quindecimradiata Gabb. Vol. I, p. 208, pi. XXVII, figs. 

Grassatella conradi Whitf Vol. I, p. 209, pi. XXVIII, figs. 1- 

1 The references after specific names are to Whitfield's Paleontology of N. J. 


Modiola (Lithodomas ?) wflata Wbitf. Vol. I, p. 197, pi. XXVI, 
figs. 13, 14. 

Inoceramus sagensis Owen. Vol. I, p. 76, pis. XIV, XV, figs. 
15, 1, 2. 

Inoceramus sagensis var. quadrans Whitf. Vol. I, p. 79, pi. XV, 
fig. 16. ^ 

Cardiiim sp. 



Cypraea Squyeri n. s. Plate II, figs. 1, 2. 

Shell ovate-oblong, attenuated at the extremities. Spire promi- 
nent, showing four whorls ; outer lip thickened and having on the 
inner edge thirteen or fourteen teeth. Anterior half of the aper- 
ture wide, but contracted at the extremity, posterior end contracted 
and projecting slightly beyond the spire. Under the magnifying 
glass the shell shows strong revolving raised lines and strife. 
Length 20 mm., width 11 mm., height 9 mm. 

A notice of the finding of this shell by Mr. Homer Squyer of 
Mingusville, Mont., in the cretaceous formation (Fox Hills Group) 
of eastern Montana, and the above proposed name, were published 
in the Nautilus Vol. VI, p. 50. This shell resembles in outline 
the recent Cypnea stolida, but its very prominent spire would sepa- 
rate it from this group. Shell structure is wanting on most of its dor- 
sal surface and the inner lip obscured by the hard matrix, which it 
would be inadvisable to remove. In a recent letter from Mr. 
Squyer he says " This summer while looking for fossils I found the 
outer lip of the imperfect specimen, found at the time I obtained 
the type. This specimen I have sent to the U. S. National 
Museum. " The type has been placed in the collection of the 
American Association of Concholoojists. 



Bulimulus (Naesiotus) duncanus n. s. 

Shell short, stout, inflated, thin, with wrinkled and slightly gran- 


ulose surface and six and a half whorls ; apex rather pointed, 
whorls rapidly enlarging, the suture behind the last whorl deeper 
thau the rest, aperture relatively small, rather oblique ; the lip sim- 
ple, not reflected, a single tubercle on the body whorl well within 
the aperture and about equidistant from either lip ; umbilicus per- 
forate, narrow. Alt. of shell 18 ; of last whorl 12"5 ; diam. of shell 
11 mm. 

Duncan Island, Baur ; no living ones seen. 

Bulimulus (Naesiotus) amastroides Ancey var. Anceyi Dall. 

Shell resembling B. amastroides Ancey but with more plicate sur- 
face, ruder aspect, smaller mouth and more angular periphery. 
Lon. 9, lat. 4*5 mm. 

Chatham Island, 1600 feet; Baur. 

This may prove merely a depauperate variety of B. amastroides, 
but at first sight it looks very different. 

Bulimulus jacobi var, vermiculatus Dall. 

Shell with five and a half sharply granulated, wrinkled whorls; 
suture deep, aperture small, simple, thin-edged ; umbilicus perforate, 
rather large but not funicular. Lon. 8, lat 5'5, alt. of last whorl 6*0 

James Island at James Bay, Baur. 

Resembles a dwarf B. jacobi with very sharp, beaded, alternate 
granulations in spiral rows ; transverse wrinkles small but distinct ; 
the spire pointed but the apex rather blunt. 

Bulimulus olla Dall. (B. jacobi Reeve, Icon,, not of Sby., Conch. Illustr.) 

Duncan, Indefatigable, and Barrington Islands, Dr. Baur. 

This shell is closely related to B. jacobi and was figured by 
Reeve under the name of jacobi. The original jacobi was sent by 
Cuming to Dr. Lea and subsequently a specimen of Reeve's form 
was added by Mr. Cuming. These are now in the Nat. Museum. 

The true jaco6i is smaller, and is sharply spirally sculptured Avith 
fine lines of beaded granules alternating in size, every fifth or sixth 
row being larger. It has six inflated whorls and a pale peripheral 
baud. B. olla has a nearly smooth almost polished surface, only 
marked with incremental faint lines, seven whorls and a very bul- 
bous pillar. It is a larger shell than the original jacobi. The lat- 
ter comes from James, Albemarle, Charles and Chatham Islands, in 
the wooded zone, while B. olla inhabits the grassy upper zone. 


Bulimulus (Nsesiotus) tortuganus n. s. 

Shell small, solid, moderately elongated with six and a half 
Avhorls ; the earlier whorls subtranslucent madder brown with a pale 
peripheral stripe, more or less silky and sculptured with very fine 
spiral lines ; sutures very distinct ; later whorls malleated, wrinkled 
or pecked ; rude, fleshy white, with a variably large perforate 
umbilicus ; aperture small, with a lump on the pillar and another 
within the middle of the outer lip ; lips thickened, white, slightly 
reflected, the throat brownish, body with a thin, transparent callus. 
Lou. of shell 12, of aperture 5*5 ; max. diam. of shell 7 mm. 

La Tortuga, grassy zone, South Albermale, Baur. 

This shell which is very characteristic seems to be abundant 
where found by Dr. Baur. It seems nearest to B. simrothi Reibisch. 
of the described species. It is remarkable for the illustrations it 
gives of the varied influence of the environment on different individ- 
uals. The sculpture of the last whorl recalls that of B. rugiferus. 
The young is hispid and colored like that of unifaseiatus, but is 
narrower ; the pale peripheral band is almost wholly obscured in 
the adult and the hairs are soon lost. 

Bulimulus (Nsesiotus) Bauri n. s. 

Shell small, short, stout, with a dark rapidly attenuated spire, 
distinct suture, and opaque yellow-brown last whorl ; whorls about 
seven, the earlier ones dark livid purple with straw colored streaks, 
paler at the suture, rude and malleated ; last whorl inflated, more 
or less transversely wrinkled, somewhat polished ; umbilicus closed 
or- a mere chink ; aperture subquadrate, angulated behind and at 
the base of the pillar ; pillar short, oblique ; lips simple, thick, 
especially across the body where the callus has a raised edge ; throat 
white. Lon. of shell 10, of aperture 45 ; max. lat. of shell 6'5 

Hibernating on the under side of leaves of plants at the Southwest 
end of Chatham Island, 1600 ft. above the sea. Dr. Baur. 

This'is one of the most distinctive species of the whole group. 

Hyalinia chathamensis n. s. 

Shell small, thin, straw colored, depressed, with four rounded 
polished whorls ; suture distinct ; sculpture of numerous radiating, 
slightly flexuous, indented lines; umbilicus deep, exhibiting all the 
volutions, but rather narrow. Max. diam. 3, min. diam. 2'2o mm. 

Alt. of shell 1-30 mm. 


Chatham Island, 1600 feet, 1 specimen. Dr. Baur. 

This shell recalls H. arborea Say, but is much smaller and has a 
different umbilicus. In the characters of the aperture, etc., not 
mentioned above, it duplicates arborea. 

Conulus galapaganus n. s. 

Shell close to C. fiilvus, but has five whorls to four in a specimen 
of fill V us of the same diameter; it has a very well marked suture 
and the whorls between the sutures are more rounded than in 
fiilvus. The height of C galapaganus is greater in proportion to 
the number of whorls. Alt. of shell 3'25 ; max. diam. of shell 2-5 

Chatham Island, 1600 ft., Dr. Baur. 

This shell appears to differ from all the forms like falvus, selenkai, 
ccecocides, etc., by its smaller size, very brilliant surface, inflated 
whorls and number of turns. It wants entirely the spiral striation 
of Zonites bauri which is a much larger and more depressed shell. 
In fact it seems like an elevated, dwarfed and inflated C. fiilvus. 

There are probably other Helices on the islands which have not 
yet been collected. 

Succinea corbis n. s. 

Shell small, of two and a half whorls, to which a black mould 
adheres with tenacity. The first whorl and a half are salmon pink 
in the adult but the young of the same size are pale amber. In the 
adult the last Avhorl is of a pale straw color. The shell resembles 
S. wolji in form but is smaller and has a more contracted aperture ; 
it is instantly recognized, when examined with a good lens, by its 
surface which is minutely shagreened all over with an excessively 
fine network of closely recticulated incised lines. Alt. of shell 4., 
max. diam. 4 ; extreme length of aperture 4 mm. 

S. Albemarle Island on dry bones of turtles, Dr. Baur. 

The remarkable sculpture is not visible to the naked eye except 
as a sort of hoary bloom on the surface. Under a compound 
microscope it looks like closely woven basket work. I have exam- 
ined a great many Succineas without finding any other species pos- 
sessing this character. The sparse dichotomous impressed sculpture 
which appears on Succineas from Samoa and other oceanic islands 
and is occasionally visible on S. beftii is an entirely different 
thin ST. 


I may add that the /6^, bettii var. brevior of Smith, is in my opinion 
distinct from S. bettii and should be raised as S. brevoir to specific 
rank. I have examined a large number of both forms. S. bettii is 
a species of the wooded zone, S. brevior of the dry zone. It is prob- 
able that S. wolfi Reibisch may be only a variety of S. bettii. 

The final report on Dr. Baur's collections will not long be delayed. 
The species will be figured and their anatomical characters dis- 
cussed. The most important fact thus far determined is the close 
alliance of all the Nesiotes, Rhaphielhis and Pleuropyrgus to the 
American Bidimuli of the type of B. serperastriis. The diflTerent 
forms of the shell are dynamic not genetic differences, and there is 
no doubt as to the exclusively American type of the whole fauua, 
when the groups represented are not of world wide distribution. 



The United States species of this genus have generally been 
believed to be but two in number, the "Helix'' labyrinthica of Say, 
and Hubbardi of A. D. Brown ; the types of both being in the 
museum of the Academy of Natural Sciences of Philadelphia. 

The writer some months ago, gave the varietal name virgo to 
specimens sent him for determination by Rev. H. W. Winkley,^ and 
later the name affinii to another form. 

Recently, with the assistance of Mr. H. E. Sargent, the various 
species and varieties have been re-examined and compared, with the 
result of finding that, in- what has hitherto passed as " H. labyrin- 
thica, " there seem to be at least three well marked species. These 
species agree in general form and sculpturing, but differ in size, 
color, degree of depression, and especially in the internal lamelke of 

^Strobilops Pilsbry, Proc. Acad. Nat. Sci. Phila., 1892, p. ^0^,Serobila Morse 
1866, not Strobila Sars, 1833, nor Strobilns Anton, 1839- 
sProc. Acad. N. S. Phila., 1892, p. 404, (no description). 


basal and outer walls of the body whorl. In this they are compara- 
ble to theClausilias, Endodontas, etc. 
The species may be tabulated thus : 
a. Internal lamellae on floor of body whorl 2 or 3, short ; color dark 
brown ; one parietal fold conspicuously emerging from aperture. 
h. Form elevated conoidal . . . S. labyrinthica Say. 
bb. Form much depressed . . S. labyrinthica strebeli Pfr. 
aa. Internal lamellfe on floor and adjacent side wall of body whorl 
6 or more. 

b. 6 long lamellse ; 2 parietal folds emerging; color white or 
pale brownish ; form elevated, . . S. virgo Pils. 
bb. About 8 short lamellae arranged in a curved radial series; 
color dark brown ; form elevated . . . . S. affinis Pils. 
The figures of Morse and Binney represent S. labyriyithica ^ay. 
The S. labyrinthica strebeli Pfr. was described from Mirador, 
Mexico, the specimens before me being from that locality. It was 
well figured by Pfeiflfer in the Malakozoologischer Blatter viii, pi. 1, 
figs. 5-8 ; but Crosse and Fischer's figures (Moll. Mex.) do not 
represent it. They were probably drawn from a specimen of >S'. 
virgo, but certainly not from strebeli. Mr. Sargent has found a 
form closely resembling the Mexican strebeli, at Woodville, Ala. 

The original examples of S. virgo are greenish-white in color. 
They were collected by Rev. H. W. Winkley near Sebec Lake, 
Piscataquis Co., Maine. Mr. Sargent has found a form of the same 
species at Woodville, Ala., where they are of a light brownish 

S. affinis is a large form, very abundant at many localities in 
New York, Ohio, etc. Its prominent feature is the armature of 
numerous short laraella,,extending in a forwardly curved series from 
the axis across the base and up the side wall. 

The writer wishes to prepare an illustrated paper upon these 
forms, and will be glad to receive specimens from as many localities 
as possible, and especially western and southern localities. Anyone 
sending specimens will receive in return (if they wish it) a copy of 
the pamphlet " Preliminary Classification of the Helices, " and, 
when it is issued, a copy of the projected paper on Strobilops. 





The death of Mr. Charles B. Fuller, which occurred in April 
last, removes from our midst a man who had been a most enthusi- 
astic worker in the Natural History of the State of Maine. Since 
1858 he had been Curator of the museum of the Natural History 
Society of Portland, and the results of his labor have greatly 
enriched that museum. His interest in Conchology was great, and 
though he never published his results, the rooms of the society show 
what his labor was. I had several times suggested that he allow 
me to send his name for membership in the Association but his reply 
was " I am too old now and cannot help them. " He has however 
helped many, and some of our younger members will recall him as 
ever ready to assist. Though quiet an<l retiring, he soon became a 
warm friend to one Avho loved Nature. His work and influence 
must live for a long time, though he is no longer present. 


It has always been recognized that scientific research is greatly 
furthered by the exchange of the various objects with which that 
research is concerned. For the transmission of objects of natural 
history from one country to another, the mails have oflTered a cheap 
and speedy means. Heretofore, through the laxity with which the 
regulations have been enforced, it has been possible to enter such 
objects in the mails of the Universal Postal Union as " saniples of 
merchandise," and under the rates of postage therefor. From 
official information lately received from the United States Post 
Office Department, it appears that such a rating is entirely unauthor- 
ized by existing provisions, and that objects of natural history may 
only be mailed by the rates required for letters. The United 
States Post Office Department also stated that it had recently sub- 
mitted a proposition to the countries comprised in the Postal Union, 


to modify the regulations so that such specimens may be entered in 
the mails as " samples of merchandise ; " but that a sufficient num- 
ber of countries had voted against the proposition to defeat it. 
Those countries voting negatively were Austria, Bolivia, British 
India, Canada, Germany, Great Britain, Guatemala, Hungary, 
Japan. Norway, Portugal, Russia, Spain, Sweden, Tunis, Uraguay 
and Venezuela. 

The Academy of Natural Sciences of Philadelphia has appointed, 
through its President, a Committee (Chairman, Mr. P. P. Calvert) 
to address the various scientific bodies with which it is in communi- 
cation in those countries, and to request them to memorialize their 
respective Governments in favor of the proposed modification. The 
letter rate for postage in the Postal Union is ten times that required 
for samples of merchandise, so that the former is virtually prohib- 

In view of the fiict that the subject is one which concerns all 
Zoologists, the Nautilus would urge its readers to use such influ- 
ence as they may be able in favor of the proposed change. Foreign 
Conchologists living in the countries named above, will, it is hoped, 
exert their influence toward the modification desired. 


Mr. E. W. Roper of Revere, Mass., returning from Chicago, 
visited the Conchological fraternity of Washington and Phila- 
delphia recently. 

Dr. B. ShaEtP of the Academy of Natural Sciences of Phila- 
delphia has departed on a scientific mission to the Sandwich Islands. 
He expects to return in December. 

A VALUABLE MONOGRAPH upou the " Pleistoccne History of 
Northeastern Iowa," by W. J. M'Gee appears in the Eleventh 
Annual Report of the U. S. Geological Survey, just issued. 

The senior Editor of the Nautilus is engaged upon a guide of 
the Heliciform land snails. All of the genera and subgenera will 
be thoroughly defined, both as to shells and anatomy ; a number of 
species of every subdivision will be figured, the anatomy will be 
figured, and the species of each group will be enumerated. An 


immense amount of new information, not to be found in any of the 
conchological manuals, will be offered. The work, it is believed, 
will form a complete text book of the subject, and will be indis- 
pensable to the student of land snails. 

Prof. Ralph Tate describes a number of interesting new 
Australian gastropoda in the Tr. Roy. Soc. S. Au&tr. June, 1893. 
Among them are the following Turhinidce and Trochidce ; AstraUmn 
rutidoloma, Clanculiis consobrlnus, euchelioides, Thalotia negleda, 
Cal/iostoma spinulosum, Euclielus fenestratus, pumilio, vixumhilicatus, 
annectans, and E. (Hybochelus) ampuUus. He states that Euchelus 
tasmanicus Tenison- Woods is the same as E. scabriusculus (Angas) 
Fischer, the type of Pilsbry's subgenus Herpetopoma. A supple- 
mental list of S. Australian mollusca is also given. 

Olfactory organs of Helix. Dr. A. B. Griffiths (Proc. Roy. 
Soc. Edinb. 1892,) contends that Sochaczewer's experiments, by 
which he showed that the tentacula of Helix pomatia are not 
olfactory organs, were untrustworthy from his use of turpentine, 
which gives off a vapor that is irritating to the sensitive tissues 
generally. If snails are placed on flat slabs, the edges of which 
have been smeared with eau de cologne, methyl or ethyl acetate, 
liquids the vapors of which are not irritants, such as have the 
tentacula removed gradually approach the edges of the slabs, while 
those whose tentacles are uninjured turn away from the edges. He 
concludes, therefore, that the tentacles are the seat of the olfactory 
organs in Helix. 

The Mid- August number of the Zoologischer Anzeiger contains an 
excellent portrait of J. Victor Cams, in commemoration of his 
seventieth birthday. 

Mr. A. Belt, in writing of the moUusks of Dorset, (England) 
gives the following interesting notes. It is well known that thrushes 
in seasons of scarcity hunt for snails, and to extract the animal 
break the shell by beating it against a stone. Stones that have 
been used for this purpose, with the broken shells lying around 
them are frequently noticed but I had never before found them in 
such profusion as on the present occasion. A very large proportion 
of the 576 specimens of Helix nemoralis and H. Iiortensis found 
consist of these fragments. In fact, the birds had so thoroughly 
worked the district that until a heavy fall of rain induced the snails 
to come forth from inmost hiding-places, I did not find more than a 
dozen live shells of these species. On one occasion I found 42 
H. asjyer'sa, H. hortensis and H. nemoralis round one stone. 




$1.00 per Year. ($1.12 to Foreign Countries.) lOcts. a copy. 






H. A. PiLSBRY, Conservator Conchological Section, Academy of Natural Sciences, Philadelphia. 

C. W. Johnson, Curator of the Wagner Free Institute of Science. 

Vol. VII. 

OCTOBER, 1893. 

No. 6. 


Illustrations of Mexican Melantans. H. A. Pilsbry. 

Notes on Cypr/EA Greegori Ford. Edgar A. Smith. 

Land Mollusca Observed in the Gaspe Region. . 

A New Gastropod From New Jersey. H. A. Pilsbry. . 

Shells of Henry Co., Indiana. E. Pleas. 

On a Collecting Trip to Monterey Bay. Williard M. Wood 



Published by 

H. A. PILSBRY, Editor, Academy of Nat. Sciences, Philadelphia. 

C. W. JOHNSON, Manager, Wagner Free Institute of Science, Philad'a. 

Entered at Philadelphia Post-OfiBce as second-class matter. 



We can furnish only the following Vols, complete, Price $1.00 each. 

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The Nautilus. 

Vol. VII. OCTOBER, 1893. No. 6 



The distribution of the Melanians and of land operculates in the 
Americas forms a most interesting chapter in zoogeography. As is 
well known, the family Pleurocericke comprises all of the Melanians 
found living in North America above the Rio Grande ; and more- 
over no members of this family or subfamily are known to exist out- 
side of this area. South of the Texas boundary there are few mela- 
nians or none throughout northern Mexico ; but as we approach the 
isthmusof Tehauntepec the characteristic neotropical genera Pachy- 
chilus and Hemisinus appear, and are represented by a considerable 
number of species and innumerable local races. The richness of 
this fauna in varietal forms rivals the prolific streams of Tennessee 
and northern Alabama. Every spring and stream has its peculiar 
variations, often so distinct typically, that the naturalist is tempted 
into extravagance in naming them as species. The illustrations here 
with given represent some of the forms of Pachychilus glaphyrtis 
from the State of Tabasco, sent to the Academy of Sciences by 
Professor Rovirosa, a zealous and enlightened naturalist of that 

1 Reprinted by permission from the Pioc. Aead. Nat. Sci., Phila. 


PachycMlus glaphyrus Morelet. 

This species is an exceedingly variable one, more so perhaps than 
any other Mexican Melanian. The American student, however, 
will readily call to mind cases of equal variability among the species i 
of oui' Southern States. The material sent by Prof. Rovirosa com- 
prises a number of varietal forms not before made known. 
P. glaphyrus Rovirosai Pils. (PI. I, figs. 9, Id.) 

Shell large and heavy, elevated conical, the lateral outlines 
straight above, modified by the slight convexity of the whorls below. 
Spire more or less truncated at tip, half-grown specimens, (PI. I, fig. 
9,) possessing 8 remaining whorls ; adults, (PI. I, fig. 10,) having one 
or two whorls less. 

Surface most minutely spirally striated the striae visible only 
under a lens. Young and half-grown specimens are otherwise 
smooth, except for very slight spiral lirse toward the base. When 
a little more than half-grown, there appear coarse, oblique, curved 
wave-like folds on the body-whorl, extending to the periphery but 
not below it. Simultaneously with these undulations, begin spiral 
spaced lirae crossing them, which are slightly more prominent on 
the crests of the waves. This sculpture continues upon all subse- 
quent volutions. The last volution of an adult specimen is slightly 
compressed below the suture, then quite convex. It has ten waves, 
and about nine spiral lirae, but the number of these last is quite 
variable on different specimens. 

The color is olive in young, blackish in old examples : interior of 
the mouth white, maculated with brown at the position of the 
periphery and folds. This marking is also seen on the eroded spire 
in some specimens. 

Aperture ovate, acute above, slightly exceeding one-third the 
total length of the shell. Columella white, regularly arcuate, 
spreading in a brown-tinted callus. 

Dimensions. An adult specimen measures: Alt. 78, diam. 28 
mm. Aperture, alt. 25, width 18 mm. A younger specimen 
measures ; Alt. 56, diam. 20 mm. Aperture, alt. 20, diam. 12? mm. 

Collected from a spring which gushes from the western brow of 
the little ridge of the Limon, State of Tabasco, Mexico. 

This form is allied to P. glajihyrus typical, and to, the var. scam- 
nata, but it is distinct from both. The form is notable for its stout, 
straight-sided sjiire, non-impressed sutures, and the unsculptured 


P. glaphyrus var. between polygonatus and immanis. (PI. Ill, figs. 5, 6.) 

The two specimens figured are of the same size but differ in sculpt- 
ure. One (fig. 6) is smooth above and below, having a strong sub- 
spinous keel at the periphery, and a smooth, acute keel below it. 
Upon the earlier whorls of the spire there are longitudinal waves, 
and two spiral cords above the peripheral keel, Avhich diminishes 
in size. The base has no spirals. The other specimen has the 
entire body-whorl spirally lirate (lirre on body-whorl 9, on penulti- 
mate whorl 3) and strongly plicate. 

P. glaphyrus potamarchus. (PI. Ill, tig. 7.) 

This is one of the largest forms of Pachychilus known, and it is 
the most aberrant of the glaphyrus stock. The shell is rather 
slender and acutely conical, the outline of the spire beiug straight. 
The aperture is ovate, narrowed above, and one-third the length of 
the shell. Whorls 10-11 remaining, several of the earlier being 
lost by erosion. The microscopic sculpture is the same as in var. 
Rovirosai. There are no traces whatever of the waves or folds so 
prominently shown by the other varieties of glaphyrus, and the 
spiral cords are also completely obsolete, or indicated by the faintest 
traces on the base. The color is olive-green or olive-brown. 

Alt. 99, diam. 33 mill. 

Alt. 87, diam. 29 mill. 

Tabasco, Mexico. 

This variety differs from the pyrainidalis of Morelet in being 
larger and smoother, lacking altogether the chestnut colored spirals 
of that form. 

Potamanax subgen. nov. 

Shell solid, oval with short conic sjiire, spirally sculptured or 
banded. Aperture ovate, acute above, broadly rounded below ; 
outer lip not sinuous; inner lip more or less heavily calloused, not 
notched at the base. Operculum few-whorled, with basal nucleus. 
Type P. Rovirosai Pils. 

This group has the sculpture of Hemisinus but differs from that 
genus in the entire, un-notched basal lip. The columella callus is 
much like some species of Pachychilus but the operculum is very 
different from that genus. From both of these groups it differs in 
the short, ovate contour of the shell. The description of the oper- 
culum is taken from Melania brevis d'Orbigny of Cuba, which I 
consider congeneric. 

The relationship of Potamanax to Hemisinus in sculpture and 
operculum is obvious, and has caused ifle to regard it as an subgenus 


rather than a distinct genus; but the total lack of a basal notch or 
truncation is a character usually considered of generic importance. 

P. Eovirosai n. sp. (PI. Ill, figs. 8, 9.) 

Shell oblong-conic, very solid, whitish, encircled by numerous nar- 
row smooth spiral lirse of a dark brown color, and somewhat 
alternating in size. Spire conical, ai:)ical whorl eroded ; whorls 5 
remaining, slightly convex, the last whorl large, regularly convex. 
Aperture a little less than half the length of the shell, ovate, angular 
above; outer lip regularly acute; inner lip strongly calloused. 

Alt. 20, diam, 12 mill, (old specimen.) 

Alt. 16J, diam. 9f mill, (young specimen.) 

Two specimens are before me, collected by Prof Rovirosa at the 
mountains of Poana, State of Tabasco. The older individual (PI. 
Ill, fig. 8) is considerably worn ; the other is perfect but not 
wholly adult, and neither contains the operculum. The species is 
allied, apparently, to the Cuban Melania brevis Orb., but is 
decidedly longer, and the lira^ are much stronger. 

Explanation of Plate III. 

Figs. 1, 2, 3, Chrysodomus (Sij)ho) Stonei Pils. 
Fig. 4, Eucalodium compactum Pils. 
Fig. 5, 6, Pachychilus glaphyrus var. 
Fig. 7, P. glaphyrus var. potamarchus Pils. 
Figs. 8, 9, Potamanax Bovirosai Pils. 



I sincerely trust that Mr. Ford^ wrongly estimates the critical acu- 
men of modern conchological students. He says that most of them 
would probably have made C. Greegori a species instead of a variety. 

There is no doubt that the new French School of Conchologists 
would agree with Mr. Ford in considering the shell in question spe- 
cifically distinct from C. cruenta, but I am glad to say that in Eng- 
land (and I hope in America also) the ideas are not so advanced (?). 
Although examples of this shell have been in the National collect- 
ion for more than 50 years, no British author has ever suggested 
that they belonged to a distinct species. 

1 Nautilus, Vol. vi, p. 112, Vol. vii, p. 39. 


I fully admit that the differences pointed out by the author are 
fairly constant, and that examples are pretty easily separable from 
the typical form of cruenta. But admitting this does not prove that 
they ought to be held specifically distinct, and I venture to suggest 
that they only constitute a recognisable race or variety of an already 
known species. 

The chief object of this note, however, is to make complaint 
respecting the name which Mr. Ford has imposed upon his so-called 

AVhen he published Greegori as a varietal name, it was already 
five years previously preceded by Mr. Melvill's varietal name coloba,^ 
and therefore there is no question I think, which name should be 
employed if this variety be regarded 'as a distinct species. Right 
and justice {and even cou7'tesy) at once direct us in the present case. 

Mr. Ford is under the impression that Mr. Melvill was in a state 
of uncertainty whether the form in question was a variety of cruenta 
or cauriea. I find no such impression conveyed by Mr. Melvill's 
sentences which are criticised by Mr. Ford. Moreover, in the cata- 
logue of species (1. c, p. 248), Mr. Melvill ranges the var. coloha 
under cruenta and in addition gives a representation of the ventral 
side of the shell (PI. I, fig. 7). 



About the middle of May last I left Quebec for Gasjie Basin, by 
the way of Port Dalhousie, N. B. and the steamer "Admiral." 
It was my intention to spend a week or more in this district collect- 
ing shells and insects. 

Unfortunately I found the season very backward up there, the 
weather too was wet or cold during my stay ; owing to this but little 
collecting could be done, and I was more than disgusted having 
journeyed so far for so little purpose. 

The following specimens were taken or seen at Barachois, near 
Mai Bale ; this village is at the inner end of a deep bay, and is 
distant from Gaspe Basin some 25 miles, and from Perce about 10 

With a few exceptions the land shells collected were found living 
in the grass on a sandy hillside close to the beach. The open coun- 

1 Mem. and Proc. Manchester Lit. and Philos. Soc, 18S7-S. Ser. 4. Vol. I, 
pp. 218 and 243. 


try was too wet and the woods were too full of suow to be worked at 
all, in fact it was only in places on the hill side that the snow had 

A broad sandy bar, some 5 or 6 miles long, cuts off the ends of 
the bay at Barachois, leaving a narrow channel at one end : on this 
bar I was surprised to find Pujxi mnscormn and Vcdlonia costata in 
the sand under pieces of wood. Z. radiatuhis, P. striatella, A. harpa 
and F. subcylindrica occurred here rarely, as well as a Vertigo, of 
which two specimens only were taken. 

Helix hortensis was very common on the hillside, generally buried 
in the sand ; several varieties were taken ; the plain form seemed to 
be the least abundant. At the entrance to some burrows I found 
quite an accumulation of empty shells, and nearly all being entire, 
many were in very fair condition. 

A. little collecting under more favorable circumstances would no 
doubt materially increase this list, from which several of the North- 
ern or universally distributed species are absent. 

At Gaspe Basin, Limnea palustris, catascopium, desidiosa, and 
one Physa, most likely heterostropha, were found in drift. Some 
marine species were also taken, but are not yet identified. 

Limax campestris Binn. A few. 

Vitrina limpida Gld. Frequent. All dead. 

Zonites arboreus Say. A few. 

" radiatulus Alder. Common. 
" fulvus Drap. Two specimens. 

Patula alternata Say. Frequent. 
" striatella Anth. Common. 

Helicodiscus lineatus Say. Rare. 

Acanthinula harpa Say. Common. 

Tachea hortensis Miill. Abundant. 

Vallonia costata Miill. ? A few. Mostly dead. 

Pupa muscorum Linn. Frequent. 

Vertigo. Two specimens (perhaps two species). 

Ferussacia subcylindrica Linn. Common. 

Succinea obliqua Say. " 

" avara Say. A few. 

Carychium exiguum Say. Rare. 

1 Reprinted by permission from the Proceedings of the Academy of Natural 
Sciences of Philadelphia, 1892, p. 328. 




At the regular weekly meeting of the Academy of Natural Scien- 
ces of Philadelphia, October 18, 1892, Mr. H. A. Pilsbry exhibited 
a series of specimens of a large species of Chrysodomus, belonging 
to the subgenus Slpho, which he liad received from Messrs Witmer 
Stone, Chas. LeRoy Wheeler and John Ford. He stated that the 
sj^ecimens were cast upon the shore during severe gales from the 
south east, and were evidently derived from a submarine stratum 
which was disturbed and broken up at those times. Associated with 
the Chrysodomus were examples of Buccinum imdatum, Urosalpinx 
cinereus of extraordinary dimensions, and Chrysodomus (Sipho) 
Stimpsonii, the latter being well developed and typical in sculpture- 
The age of the deposit cannot be definitely settled at present, but 
the evidence at hand indicates that it is post-pliocene. 

The following description of the new species was offered : 

Chrysodomus (Sipho) Stonei (PI. Ill, figs. 1, 2, 3,). Shell 
obese-fusiform, rather thick and solid, with strongly convex whorls 
separated by deep sutures. Sculpture consisting of strong spiral 
cords, equal on young specimens and on the spires of adults, but 
which alternate with smaller intermediate cords on the body-whorl 
in full grown specimens. A young shell therefore has about 20, an 
adult 40 spirals upon the body-whorl. The aperture is oval : the 
canal is strongly curved to the left and backward. 

Length 72, greatest diam. 45 mm.; length of aperture and canal 
51 mm. The largest individual measures, length 100, breadth 64, 
length of aperture 73 mm. Both of these, as well as all specimens 
seen, have lost several of the earlier whorls ; so the length of a 
perfect individual would be proportionately greater. 

The more prominent features of this species are the swollen form, 
deep sutures, the strong spiral sculpture, and the strongly recurved 

The localities whence specimens have been obtained are as 
follows: Point Pleasant, N. J. (Witmer Stone) ; Sea Isle City, N. 
J. (John Ford, Oct., 1892) ; Cape May, N. J. (C. LeRoy Wheeler, 

Prof. A. E. Verrill of Yale College very kindly compared spec- 
imens of this species with the collection under his charge (a collec- 
tion vastly richer than any other in mollusks of the north-west 
Atlantic.) He writes as follows : 

" I have made a careful comparison of the Sijjho sent by you with 
our series. 


" It differs notably from any thing we have, and is probably, as you 
suppose, an uudescribed species, unless described as a fossil. We 
have specimens of the ventricose varieties of S. Sti7n2)soni, which 
equal this in stoutness, and nearly equal it in curvature of the col- 
umella, but the whorls are less ventricose, the shoulder less swollen, 
the sutural region less deep, and the sculjiture is very much finer." 

Comparisons have also been made by myself with the Atlantic 
Siphos in the U. S. National Museum, and of course with the recent 
and fossil series in the collection of the Academy. 



To judge from such works on the Mollusca as I have had access to, 
Indiana has not been regarded as having a Molluscan fauna worthy 
of the attention of the Conchologist. It is not often mentioned in 
giving localities. W. G. Binney in his very valuable Manual of 
Am. Land Shells, prints a list of his large collection as jDresented to 
the Smithsonian Institute ; some 312 species and varieties, only men- 
tions a beggarly 4 : Zonites Juliginos\is, Pcdula solitaria, Triodopsis 
ajipressa and T. wflecta as hailing from the Hoosier State. 

I have been a student and collector of Mollusca for several years 
and have made it a point to secure our home shells first, and am able 
to present the following list collected within 5 miles of my residence 
near Dunreith, Indiana, 
Mesodon albolabris Say. striatella Anth. 

elevatus Say. Polygyra leporina, Gould. 

thyroides Say. Stenotrema stenotremum Fer. 

" var bucculenta. monodon Rack. 

Mesoden exoletus Binn. " var. leaii. 

profundus Say. " var. fraternum. 

multiliueatus Say. hirsutum Say. 

Sayii Binn. maxillata? Gould. 

clausus Say. Triodopsis fallax Say. 

pennsylvanicus Green. tridental a " 

Patula alternata Say. palliata " 

" var. carinata. inflecta " 

perspecliva Say. appressa " 

solitaria " Zonites ligerus Say. 



fiiliginosus GrifF. 

intertextiis Binu. 

exiguus Stimp. 

arboreus Say. 

indentatus Say. 

liniatulus Ward. 

nitidus Miill. 

viriduliis Say. 

fulvus Drap. 

minusculus Binn. 

petrophilus Bland ? 
Strobila labyrinthica Say. 
Helicodiscus lineatus " 
Valloiiia pulchella Miill. 
Punctum pygmaeum Drap. 
Pupa contracta Say. 

pentodon " 

corticaria " 


armifera " 

curvidens Gld. 
Vertigo ovata Say. 

milium Gld. 

tridentata Wolf. 

bollesiana Morse. 

gouldii Binn. 
Carychium exiguum Say. 
Valvata sincera Say. 

tricarinata " 

Amuicola porata Say. 

cincinnatiensis Anth. 

Sayan a " 

Pomatiopsis lapidaria Say. 
Bythinella attenuata Hald. 
Melantho Integra Say. 
Bulimus dealbatus Say. 
Ancylus rivularis Say. 
Limnaea reflexa Say. 

palustris Mull. 

desidiosa Say. 

humilis " 

catascopium Say. 

caperata " 

Physa gyriua Say. 

heterostropha Say. 
Bulinus hypnorum L. 
Planorl)is trivolvis Say. 
" var. fallax. 

bicarinatus Say. 

companulatus Say. 

parvus " 

vSegmentina armigera Say. 
Succinea obliqua Say. 

ovalis Gould. 

avara Say. 

" var. vermeta. 
Sphaerium sulcatum Lam. 

solidulum Prime. 

occidentale " 

striatinum Lam. 

truncatum Lins. 
Pisidium abditum Hald. 
Unio rubiginosus Lea. 

occidens " 

luteolus Lam. 

subovatus Lea. 

gibbosus Bar. 

pressus Lea. 

gi-acillis Barr. 

phaseolus Hild. 

glans Lea. 

radiatus Lam. 

cocineuus Hild. 

spatula tus Lea. 

nigerrimus " 

ligamentinus Lam. 

plicatus Les. 

uudulatus Bar. 

nov-eboraci Lea. 
Margaratana marginata Say. 

calceola Lea. 
, deltoidea " 


M. rugosa Bar. shaefferiana? Lea. 

Anodonta grandis Say. salmonea " 

plana Lea. ferusacciana " 

decora " ferruginea Lea. 

inibecillis Say. stewartiana Lea. 

ovata Lea. subcylindrica Lea. 

edentula Say. 



The editors of the Nautilus have asked me to write a short arti- 
cle for the Nautilus, while I am here, on my trip to this once 
famous collecting ground. 

Now that I am about to leave for San Francisco, I feel sorry to 
think that I have not devoted more time to the collection of speci- 
mens. Of course, there have been many long drives to be taken, a 
dip in the surf once in a day, huckle-berry expeditions with friends, 
and a thousand and one things to be done, while stopping at a sum- 
mer watering place. 

Between these " sports," if I may be permitted to call them such, 
I have managed to find time to do some collecting. 

The hotel at which I am stopj^ing is situated within five hundred 
yards of the beach. To the north, runs a very smooth beach, 
devoid of rocks of any character for some fourteen miles. To the 
south, and extending for many miles, is a very rocky stretch. To 
this rocky portion, almost all of my collecting trips were confined. 

Monterey is no longer the famous collecting ground it used to be. 
The increasing population at and around Pacific Grove is driving 
away all the land shells. The deadly sewerage flowing from the 
various towns into Monterey Bay is killing the marine shells. 
However, new and very interesting species are occasionally brought 
up from deep water by the dredge. 

Early in the morning, on the 28th of June, I started by steamer 
from San Francisco with my shell collecting outfit, consisting of glass 
pill bottles for small shells, paper boxes, cigar boxes, cloth bags, 
long, thin pieces of wood with i-ubber bands attached for the Chi- 
tons, alcohol stove and pan for the killing of bodies of the shells, 


cotton batting, long rubber boots, an immense sun bat, a cbisel to 
detach Haliotis shells from the rocks, etc. 

I arrived here at seven in the evening and although the trip doAvn 
was rough, and our little "tub "rocked dreadfully, causing me to 
be sea-sick, it nevertheless did not prevent me from starting right in 
and collecting as soon as my feet rested on terra firma. On that 
evening, I began collecting at seven o'clock and as it was very light 
at that hour, I continued to collect along the beach until eight. I 
am very glad I did so, as it netted me some beach-washed species 
which I have not come across since. 

I selected a week when the early morning small low tides 
occurred. Thus, one morning I devoted to the collection of Hali- 
otis cracherodii, another morning I went in search of Littorina 
planaxis, another for Chlorostoma costatum, Acmrea scabra, Nassa 
mendica, etc. 

During this second week, when no morning low tides have 
occurred, I have gone among the rocks, gathering any and every 
species which was so unfortunate, nay, I should say, fortunate, as to 
be placed within my reach. 

Priene Oregonensis Redf will be noted as having been collected 
here. I do not as yet understand how this large and beautiful 
northern shell should be found so far south. It could not have 
drifted into the bay, as it was a fresh, perfect-lipped specimen. 

I may also mention that in a letter recently received from Mrs. 
M. Burton Williamson, of University P. O., Cal., that lady informed 
me that Psammobia rubro-radiata Nutt., fe not found north of San 
Pedro Bay. As will be noted, I found one specimen, alive and per- 
fect. It is truly a beautiful shell. The inside of both valves 
resembling delicate porcelain. 

I am exceedingly sorry to think that I have no dredge here with 
me, as I feel positive I could gather at least five times as many 
specimens as I have already collected. 

In the following list, the number of specimens taken is given 
after each name, and will serve to show the relative abundance of 
the species. 

Arionta californiensis Lea, 51 ; dupetithouarsi, Desh., 4 ; nicklin" 
iniana, Lea, 1. Acm?ea asmi Midd., 33; mitra Esch., 11 ; patina 
Esch., 5 ; pelta Esch., 2 ; persona Esch., 2 ; scabra Nutt., 2 ; spec- 
trum Nutt., 6. Amphissa corrugata Rve., 64. Astyris gausipata 
G-ld., 12. Bittium filosum Gld., 24 ; filosum Gld. var. esuriens 


Cpr., 2. Calliostonia annulatum Mart., 17 ; caualiculatum ^lart., 
32 ; costatum Mart., 80. Chlorostoma brunneum Phil., 23 ; pulligo 
Mart., 3 ; fiinebrale A. Ad., 2. Cerostoma foliatum Gniel., 1. Cru- 
cibulum spinosum Sby., 9. Crepidula edunca Shy., 21 ; rugosa 
Nutt., 2; navicelloides Nutt., r2. Conns californicus Hds., 4- 
Cryptomya californica Conr., 1. Chsetopleura bartwegii Cpr., 11. 
Chama spinosum Sby. (?), valves only, 4. Columbella carinata 
Hds., 24. Drillia torosa Cpr., 5. Erato columbella jNIke., 6; vitel- 
lina Hds., 6. Fusus luteopictus Dall, 1. Fissurella volcano Rve., 
47. Gadinia reticulata Sby,, 8. Glyj^his aspera Esch., 3. Hali- 
otis cracherodii Leach, 72 ; fulgens Phil., 1 ; rufescens Swains., 2. 
Hipponyx tumens Cpr., 57. Lyon.sia californica Conr., valves only, 
1. Lottia gigantea Gray, 44. Luciua californica Conr., valves 
only, 11. Liicapina crenulata Sby., 4. Lunatia lewisii Gld., 2- 
Lamellaria stearnsiana Dall, 1. Leptothyra carjjenteri Pilsbry, 28. 
Litorina planaxis Gray, 83 ; scutulata Gld., 2. Lazaria subquad- 
rata Cpr., 5. Mitromorpha aspera Cpr., 2. Modiola fornicata 
Cpr., 2. Mangilia variegata Cpr., 3. Mitra maura Swains., 1. 
Marginella jewettii Cpr., 25. Monoceros engonatum Conr., 2; lap- 
illoides Conr., 75. Mopalia lignosa Gld., 3 ; ciliata Sby., 2. Mac- 
oma inquinata, 1 ; secta Conr., valves, 2. Mytilus californi- 
cus Com*., 2. jS^assa californiana Conr., 1 ; fossata Gld., 13 ; men- 
dica Gld., 58. Nacella incessa Hds., 19 ; sp. undet., 2. Nuttallina 
scabra Rve., 29. Olivella biplicata Sby., 14. Ocinebra circum- 
texta Stearns, 7 ; interfossa Cpr., 7. Priene oregonensis Redf , 1. 
Psammobia rubra-radiatg. Nutt., 1. Pedicularia californica Newc, 
12. Purpura saxicola Val., very large, 16 ; saxicola Val., var. 
emarginata Desh., 80. Pachypoma inpequalis Chem., 1. Phasia- 
uella compta Gld., 9. Pecten hastatus Sby., valves only, 4. Pho- 
ladidea penita Conr., 1. Placunanomia macrochisma, Desh. 
(valves), 2. Petricola carditoides Conr., 2. Rupellaria lamellifera 
Conr., 3. Saxicava arctica Linn, (valve only), 1. Scala indian- 
orum Cpr., var. tincta Cpr., 10. Surcula carpenteriana Gabb., 3. 
Septifer bifurcatus Rve., 11. Standella falcata Gmel. (?) (valves 
only), 2. Schizoth?erus nuttallii Conr. (valves), 2. Tapes staminea 
Conr. (?), 3. Trivia californica Gray, 20. Tellina bodegensis 
Hds. (valves only), 2. 

N'OV 28 1893 

$1.00 per Year. ($1.12 to Foreign Countries.) lOcts. a copy 
/ ^1 Z/f-f T^ TT "p 




H. A. PiLSERY, Conservator Conchological Section, Academy of Natural Sciences, Philadelphia. 

C. W. JoHKSON, Curator of the Wagner Free Institute of Science. 

Vol. VII. NOVEMBER, 1893. No. 7. 



Notes on Papuina. Charles Hedley 73 

San Pedro as a Collecting Ground. Sarah P. Monks. . . .74 

Preliminary Notes on Tasmanian Land Shells. Henry Suter. . . 77 
Some (Responsive) Remarks Relative to Cypr^a Greegori Ford. 

John Ford. . . . • 78 

The Sheepscote River. Rev. Henry W. Winkley. . . . .81 
American Association of Concho logists. (Communicated.) . . 83 
Notes and Notices. 84 

Published by 

H. A. PILSBRY, Editor, Academy of Nat. Sciences, Philadelphia. 

C. W. JOHNSON, Manager, Wagner Free Institute of Science, Philad'a. 

Entered at Philadelphia Post-Office as second-class matter. 



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The Nautilus. 

Vol. VII. NOVEMBER, 1893. No. 7 



All Papuma^ are arboreal; this habit is as "good" a generic 
character as any anatomical feature could be. Parenthetically, I 
may remark, that my friend Mr. Brazier, who has probably gath- 
ered more living Pajyuina than any other naturalist, agrees with 
me that the|account (Ann. Mag. N. H, (4) xx, p. 242) of a Papuina 
clinging half way up a reed in a brackish swamp is quite incredi- 
ble. The usual position of Papuina is upon the trunks or limbs of 
trees where an unpracticed eye might take it for a rough bit of 
bark. In southern Europe the Macularia perch just so on precipi- 
tous rocks ; indeed, I recollect there capturing an H. niciensis on an 
olive tree in exactly the manner affected by the Papuina in New 

A small group of Queensland snails, viz, eonscendens Cox, fucata 
Pfeiffer, and bidwilH Cox, seem to differ from the main body of the 
genus in their habits. Not the stem or branches, but the leaves of 
trees are chosen by these for their favorite abode. To suit the sit- 
uation the shell has been modified until the contour would suggest 
Partula rather than Papuina. The more conical shape has proba- 

^This name is now generally used for the conical Helices characteristic of the 
Papuan and Solomon Island faunas, formerly called Gcoti-ochus. 


bly been adopted for greater safety ia the exposed tree tops ; to the 
same end every superfluous atom of weight has been abandoned, 
the shell reduced to the thinnest, and the reflected lip dispensed 
with. Under the lens the apex is seen to be of one and a half 
whorls, black or darker than the adult shell, smooth and subglobose. 
Oblique growth lines are the predominant features of the adult 
sculpture ; by flashing the shell in the sunshine under a lens, an 
extremely minutely shagreen surface is perceptible in the gleam, and 
here and there broken lengths are decipherable of engraved spiral 
lines. Viewing the shells of these three species by transmitted light 
the color markings are seen as translucent spaces in the opaque 
shell. I should interpret these signs as indicating a descent from 
an ancestor like naso and macgilUvrayi through a form very close to 
hidwilli Pfeiffer. 

The minute almost imperceptible shagreen surface may represent 
the coarse sculpture of 7iaso ; the evanescent spiral lines are tracea- 
ble from the clear cut lines of macgiUvrayi through the fainter 
sculpture of hidwilli Pfr., to their vanishing representative in hid- 
willi. Cox. But the minute subglobose apex and especially the 
translucent spiral color bands ally this group unmistakably with 
Papidna. Admitting this, in default of anatomical examination, it 
will be necessary to rename the shell hitherto known as Bulimus 
hidivilli Cox, lest it should clash with that other Papuina described 
by Pfeifler as Helix hidivilli. I therefore propose that in allusion to 
its peculiar habits, it be henceforth called Papuina folicola. 

Between these leaf-dwelling Papuina of Queensland and Bulimus 
mageni Gassies, of New Caledonia, I note a strong resemblance in 
color, form and sculpture, but especially in their translucent color 
bands. Until further research settles authoritively the position of 
this species I would j^rovisionally class it with the foregoing. 


San Pedro, California, is remarkable for the number and variety 
of recent and fossil mollusks. 

New forms and an unusual abundance of known species are con- 
stantly being found. 

This is due in a great measure to the extension of the Government 
breakwater, which has made changes in the sea currents near the 


shore, and caused the tide water of the harbor to scour out the chan- 
nel and drift large quantities of sand over the shallows. 

By this means new homes are made for wanderers, and old inhab- 
itants are washed from their moorings and swept by the tide within 
reach of eager Conchologists. 

It is surprising, however, how seldom the year's abundance of any 
species repeat themselves. 

At one time Nassa fossata Gld., at another Periploma discus 
Stearns ; at another Lima orientalis Cpr. ; or Scalatella striata Cpr., 
are found by the dozen, or score, or hundred in San Pedro Bay or 
vicinity, and then for years after only a few are found at a time. 

The sea conditions are unsettled. This keeps local collectors 

Within a few months I have found a specimen of Tritonium 
gibbosiim which is new to California, and one of Cyliclina cylindracea 
var. attonsa Cpr., Avhich is new to San Pedro. Both shells are beach 

This summer I spent July at San Pedro and added a number of 
new specimens to my collection besides learning many interesting 
facts about habits and habitat of molluscs. 

A student only gets a half knowledge who cannot collect speci- 
mens and study the living animals in their native haunts. 

July seems to be a favorite month for many species to lay their 

Mltra maura (Idee), fastens her capsules to the underside of stones; 
the Naticidte place their "sand collars" in the damp sand ; Bulla 
nehulosa Gld. coils up her yellow strings on the grassy flats, and 
Haminea virescens Sby. chooses the same place and time, but has a 
different shade of yellow for her egg- strings. 

I was much interested in the eggs of Adceou (Rictaxis) j^undo- 
ccelatus Cpr. 

This mollusk has been rare, and I am inclined to think it only 
comes inshore in numbers during the breeding season and after that 
burrows in sand in deeper Avater for the rest of the year. In July 
Ave found them by the hundred. 

The eggs are laid in a Avhite string three or four inches long that 
coils so as to form a loose spiral. 

The spirals are anchored, by some means, so firmly that the wash- 
ing of rough surf does not SAveep them aAvay. 


They so closely resemble the spiral pattern on the adult shell 
that the collector, looking down through the water, not unfrequently 
stoops to pick up what he thinks is one of these little gasteropods 
and finds a string of eggs in his fingers. 

I visited Portuguese Bend and learned that Purpura emarginata 
Desh., which I found in quantity more than a year ago, is a resident 
or a comer and a goer, for more than a dozen were collected this 
summer. Its habitat is limited to a small mussel bed. 

Other localities so much like this mussel bed, that one would 
consider them suitable dwelling places do not boast of a single Pur- 
pura ; so that something besides collectors must disturb this usually 
common species. 

I collected at San Pedro an abundance of Acvicea paleacea Gld- 
on the eel grass. 

These close dingers love the grass on the outside of the island 
that is swept by heavy swells and where the water scarcely leaves 
them even in very low tides. 

Their more peaceful cousins Acincea, depida Gld. will j^robably be 
found swaying with the grass in the stiller waters of the bay, for 
dead shells have been frequently found in the drift. 

In the quiet bay quantities of drift material are washed up with 
alg?e and eel grass during medium tides. 

This is rich in minute forms. It consists largely of broken shells 
of molluscs and crustaceans, but there is a sufiicient quantity of 
Pedipes, Siphodentalium, Tornatina, Ccecum, Truncatella, Mitromor- 
pha, Turhonilla, Cerithiopsis, Triforis, Diala, Mumiola and other wee 
bodies to amply repay any one for carrying away a few pounds of 
the drift to be dried and sorted at home. 

The sifting and the sorting with a microscope takes so much time 
and patience, that the new and rare species hidden in my bags of 
drift must wait a more convenient season. 

The yearly extension of sand flats at San Pedro, must make 
happy all sand loving species such as Bulla, Sigaretus, Natica, Oli- 
vella and scores of bivalves. 

Besides these sandy stretches there are mud flats, rocky points, 
brackish water, fresh water, smooth or rocky beaches enough to 
make San Pedro an ideal collecting ground. 

Although nearly all the localities are easy of access for the Con- 
chologist, or the collector who " makes shell flowers, " there are 
changes enough taking place to insure a good supply of shells. 


A storm that stirs up the depths makes a grand holiday, but 
nearly every visit, in storm or calm, repays the student by some 
glimpse of the life history of some soft — hard dweller of the sea. 

Sarah P. Monks. 



Since I became acquainted with the New Zealand and Tasmanian 
laud and fresh water molluscan fauna, some four to five years ago. 
I came to the conclusion that both are very nearly related, though 
this opinion is not shared by Conchologists generally. On several 
occasions I expressed my views, especially when describing Charopa 
subantialla and Ch. miitabilis. It is well known that no attempt 
has been made to classify the Tasmanian land shells ; all the Heli- 
cidse have been simply placed in that " olla potida " genus Helix, 
Mr, Charles Hedley of Sydney, was first to publish structural details 
of the animals of some Tasmanian land shells (Proc. Linn. Soc, N. 
S. W. (2) VI, p. 19). Descriptions and very good figures of the 
animals and the dentition were there given of Btdivius dufresiii, B. 
tasmanicus, Anoglypta launcestonensis, Rhytida lampra, Helicarion 
verreauxi and Cystopelta petterdi. 

I have not been successful in procuring land shells with their 
animals from Tasmania, and I therefore decided to sacrifice part of 
my collection. There were some specimens with the animal dried 
in them and these I used for preparing the jaws and radulie. I 
have just finished the microscopic slides and have not yet had time 
to study them carefully. However, I ascertained a few facts, which, 
I feel sure, may prove of great interest to Conchologists, though 
my communication is only provisional. 

Conchologists of course know that the genera Endodonta, Charopa 
and Rhytida are common to New Zealand and Tasmania. The 
new facts I ascertained of genera or sections of genera found in New 
Zealand as well as in Tasmania, and part of Australia in some cases, 
are the following : 

Genus Gerontia. 

Section Flamtmdina, thought to be confined to New Zealand 
only. I think that H. Jnngermanniix, Petterd, belongs to this sec- 
tion, though I am not yet quite positive. 


Section Thalasso helix, hitherto not recorded from beyond New 
Zealand. There is no douht that H. fordei Brazier, (^=petterdi Cox 
=^2)osltara Cox) must be classed under this section, and very likely 
also H. austrmus Cox, H. allporti Cox, H. Jielice Cox, H. medianus 
Cox, H. mixta Cox, H. tabescens Cox, H. tranquilla Cox, U. trajec- 
tura Cox, which are said to be varieties of H. fordei. This species 
is found also in A.ustralia. 

Genus Laoma. 

Section Phrixgnathus, a genus which was thought to be peculiar 
to New Zealand " par excellence. " Now I am quite sure that the 
following Tasmanian mollusks belong to this section : 

H. coes'us Cox (and var. occultus Cox ?) H. henryana Petterd, and 
H. pictilis Tate ; the latter being found also in Australia. 

Genus Rhenea.^ 

This genus of which two species are known from New Zealand, is 
in Tasmania represented by Hyalina nelsoneiisis Brazier {=fidge- 
trum Cox, and very likely H. dyeri Petterd, though the dentition 
of the latter is unknown to me). 

I am confident that on examining my slides there will be some 
other sections of Gerontia to be placed on record in my next com- 
munication on Tasmanian snails. 

In future we may no doubt be able to distinguish in New Zealand 
and Tasmania two different immigrations of land moUusca, one 
having spread from north southward, and another, the antarctic, 
migrating from south to north. 

Springfield Eoad, Christ Church, New Zealand, Sept. 6, 1893. 




In the note on Cypra^a Greegori Ford, published in the October 
number of the Nautilus, the writer, Mr. Edgar A. Smith, of Lon- 
don, rather forcibly remarks that " the new French School of Con- 
chologists would probably agree with Mr. Ford in considering the 
shell in question specifically distinct from C. cruenta, " but, " he 

lA genus of carnivorous, javvless snails allied to Rhytida and Paryphanta, for- 
merly called Elaa Hutt. (preoc.) — Ed. 


was glad to say that in England (and, he hoped, in America also), 
the ideas were not so far advanced (?). " In support of the last 
proposition, he says : " Although examples of this shell have been 
in the National (British) collection for more than fifty years, no 
British author has ever suggested that they belonged to a distinct 
species." This statement is apparently correct, but he might have 
added quite as truly, that nearly all of these years were required 
for "British authors" to find them worthy even of varietal distinc- 

In view of this " state of things, " it is not at all surprising that 
Mr. Smith should consider it a " bit of presumption " for an 
American student, having less than one year's knowledge of the 
shells, to attempt to lift them above the plane of varietal contro- 

It matters not that this student has examined hundreds of speci- 
mens, all showing the same distinctive specific characters. His 
" ideas " do not agree with English formulas, therefore they must 
necessarily be too far advanced. 

Nevertheless, the new species, C. (rre^^foj-i, has doubtless come to 
stay, since it has been endorsed already by quite a number of emi- 
nent (American) Conchologists, whose opinions, were it necessary to 
mention names, would at once be accepted as weighty. In 
regard to Mr. Smith's admission, " that examj^les are pretty easily 
separated from the typical form of cruenta,'' it may be said that I 
have seen no specimens whatever that could not be separated on 
sight from any form of C. cruerda. Just here, it may also be said, 
that I do not hesitate to claim (as in my former article) priority 
both for the name and description of the shell ; and this claim is 
made in face of the fact that British authors, as a rule, command 
my highest respect and esteem. But while according this, I do not 
expect them to throttle, without ample reason, even the humblest 
seeker after knowledge. 

It is only just to myself to say that not until my first description 
was in type, did I learn that Mr. Melvill had ever referred to the 
shells, nor, so far as I could ascertain, was this reference known to 
any of my Conchological friends. Indeed, the gentleman who 
finally gave me the information has, from the first, regarded them as 
C. caurica var. As Mr. Smith suggests, I was then, and still am, 
under the impression that Mr. Melvill's sentences left the reader in 
a state of uncertainty as to whether he considered the shells a 


variety of cruenta or of cau,rica. That his purpose is more plainly 
shown in the list of figures given is apparent, but as the volume 
examined by me was an uncut one, this list was not at the time dis- 

Since many readers of the Nautilus may lack the opportunity 
of seeing Mr. Melvill's statement, and judging for themselves as to 
its clearness, it is given here verbatim, as follows : " C. cruenta 
(Gmel.) is very nearly allied to the preceding," [i. e. caurica] " and 
the variety coloba (fig. 7), so-called from the stunted appearance, is 
also figured in Sowb. Thes. f. 190, as caurica var. ; it would appear 
nearer this species : the base is always brighter coloured, and teeth 
interstices bright red. I possess stunted caurica with which this var. 
cannot be mistaken." 

Now if any reader of the Nautilus can show by these sentences 
to which of the two species Mr. Melvill assigned the variety, it will 
be a pleasure for me to acknowledge my error in questioning his 
meaning. But whether the language refers to one variety or 
another is really of very little moment at this time, since it can in 
no way affect the present status of the shells. Be it agreeable to 
Mr. Smith or not, the fact remains that Mr. Melvill's so-called 
description is simply meaningless and void, embracing as it does, 
just three words, viz, "base brighter colored," meaning, of course, 
brighter colored than the type shells he had in mind. 

But how brighter or how colored? They are certainly not 
brighter than both cruenta and caurica usually are; and there is not 
a hint as to whether the color is green, blue, yellow or any one of a 
dozen hues, yet with such a description at hand, the student was 
expected to distinguish the shells from all others. It is true that 
there are other words besides the thi'ee quoted, viz, " teeth inter- 
stices bright red." Unfortunately, however, the same sentence 
is used in the description of the type C. cr\ienta, (to which species 
Mr. Smith assures us the variety coloba relates) and is therefore 
entirely worthless as a distinctive varietal character. 

For these reasons, I claim that the name coloba is absolutely 
devoid of collateral support, since nothing can be plainer than the 
fact that without an accompanying description intelligible enough 
for comprehension, the suggested name or title of a shell is of no 
scientific value whatever. 

But then, as Mr. Smith intimates, there is the figure! and surely 
that counts for something. 


Perhaps it does. But not for anything of special importance in 
this connection, for Kieuer, many years before, gave us a pair of 
figures quite as good ; not to mention that made by Sowerby some 
years later. 

It should be understood that these references are not made in 
defence of the present specific standing of the shells, but mainly in 
deference to those readers who may have missed seeing my former 
articles relating to them. The species, i. e., C. Greegori, is doubtless 
already sufficiently fortified to prevent successful assaults from any 

In conclusion, it might be Avell to add, that Mr. Smith's rather 
emphatic "reminder" of my lack of courtesy, is wholly gratuitous, 
and therefore does not call for comment. 

In the interest of peace, however, it is accepted "with thanks," 
and filed for future courteous consideration. 

Philadelphia, October, 1893. 



The fauna of the eastern coast of New England, aside from the 
species which characterize it as a whole, has a number of small areas 
where the oyster, quahog and other southern forms exist. The most 
conspicuous of these areas is Northumberland Straits, where the 
oyster is abundant enough to be of commercial value. Other 
points, where the Virginian fauna occurs, are a few sheltered spots 
on the east coast of Nova Scotia, in Minas Basin, Casco Bay and 
Massachusetts Bay, with a few outliers of less importance. 

These spots on the coast are widely separated from each other, 
and have in the near neighborhood animals which are adapted to 
the colder waters. Some few years ago the present writer published 
a list of thirty species found in Northumberland Straits.^ The 
present summer was spent in Wiscasset, Maine; this and a visit to 
that place three years ago enabled me to dredge in many places in 
the Sheepscote River. 

Wiscasset is ten or twelve miles from the sea and the river is 
practically a salt water bay or fjord. Its depth is ten fathoms in 

^Bulletin VII — Nat. Hist. Soc. of New Brunswick. 



places, and at no point is it shallow. The width, on the other 
hand, is but a few hundred yards except at Wiscasset, where it is 
three quarters of a mile wide. The river is famous for its scallops, 
Peden magellanicus Gmelin, these occur for the most part in the 
lower part of the river. 

It was frequently reported to me that oysters were to be found 
" up river " four or five miles. I am sorry to say I had but one day 
" up river; " that trip, however, revealed the fact that a very nar- 
row spot known as the Falls, separated an upper basin from the 
main part of the river. Here in the warmer waters oysters do 
occur, but very few and far between. With the oysters I found a 
few of the old companions noticed in Northumberland Straits, and 
abounding south of Cape Cod. 

As a whole this river is rich in specimens, and the cold and warm 
water species are by no means distant neighbors. Some forms are 
dwarfed, some like Bullinella alba, are colored probably by 
iron to a darker shade than tlie normal. I believe that more spe- 
cies may be added to the list by a more careful search above the 
place dredged, I give the list of those found by me in the ai'ea 
extending four or five miles each way from AViscassett. 

Mya arenaria Linn, 
Pandora gouldiana Dall. 
Lyonsia hyalina Conrad. 
Saxicava rugosa Lam. 
Macoma balticavar. fusca Say. 
Cryptodon gouldii Stimp. 
Astarte undata Gld. 
Gemma gemma var. totteni 

Cardium pinnulatum Conrad. 
Venericardia borealis Conrad. 
Nucula proxima Say. 
Nucula dolphinodonta Migh, 
Yoldia sapotilla Gld, 
Mytilus edulis Linn. 
Modiola modiolus Linn. 
Modiola plicatula Lam. 
Modiolaria nigra Gray, 

" discors Linn. 

Crenella glandula Stiuip. 

Pecten magellanicus Gmelin. 
Ostrea virginiana Gmel, 
Anomia simplex Orbigny ? 

" aculeata Gmel, 
Diaphana debilis Gld. 
Utriculus gouldii Stimp. 
Bullinella alba Brown. 
Chiton marmoreus O. Fab. 
Chiton albus Mont, 
Acmtea testudinalis Mull. 
Puncturella noachina Linn. 
Skenea planorbis Fabr. 
Cingula minuta Totten. 
Onoba aculeus Gld. 
Lacuna vincta Mont, 
Litorina tenebrosa ]Mont, 

" litorea Linn. 

" palliata Say. 
Odontostomia bisuturalis Say. 
Odontostomia trifida Totten, 


Yelutina haliotoidea Stimp. Purpura lapillus Linn. 

" zonata Gld. Ilyauassa obsoleta Say. 

Polyuices heros Say. Nassa trivittata Say. 

" triseriata Say. Buccinum undatum Linn. 

Bela incisula Verr. Chrysodomus stimpsoni Morcb. 

" harpularia Couth. Chrysodomus pygraseus Gld. 

" cancelhita Migh. & Ad. Trichotropis borealis Sby. 
" decussata Couth. 


The President of the Association regrets that he has been com- 
pelled through stress of business engagements and other matters, to 
temporarily suspend his correspondence upon Conchological mat- 
ters, but would be glad now to hear from any of the members, 
especially those whose letters have not be attended to promptly. 

The Association has recently not been so active as formerly, but 
everything looks fair for a go-ahead, prosperous season. Nearly 
200 members are enrolled in the Association, and any proposals of 
new members will be acted upon promptly by the officers. Such 
proposals should be made to the Secretary, Mr. Chas. W. Johnson, 
Wagner Institute, Philadelphia. 

Members desiring to forward fine specimens of shells to the 
" American Collection, " will kindly communicate with the Presi- 
dent, Mr. John H. Campbell, 1009 Walnut Street, Philadelphia, 
sending him lists of such species as they wish to forward. Due 
acknowledgment of shells received will be made in the pages of the 
" Nautilus. " 

The most recent addition to the collection has been a fine series 
of fossil species from the Miocene and Pliocene of Maryland, Vir- 
ginia, North Carolina and Florida by Mr. Joseph Willcox of Phil- 
adelphia. The collection, already, is one of the finest "special col- 
lections " in America, and bids fair to surpass all others. Each 
species is carefully examined, named, mounted and placed in the 
cases set apart by the Academy of Natural Sciences and the collec- 
tion as a whole, is kept separate from the general collection of that 


institution. The name and address of each donor with date of 
reception, are neatly written on the cards, upon which the shells 
are mounted and the officers of the Association give the collection 
their personal supervision. 

Changes of address of members should be promptly noted to the 


Mr. F. H. Lattin, whose Natural History establishment at Albion, 
N. Y., has long been well known to many of us, has recently 
founded a " branch " in Chicago, where we lately had the pleasure 
of looking through his large mass of material. Mr. Lattin has now 
a considerable stock of shells in addition to his departments of orni- 
thology and oology, and it is with pleasure that we announce this 
first commercial enterprise in the Conchological line in the West. 
F. H. Lattin & Co. now occupy a handsome and well filled build- 
ing at 3571 Cottage Grove Avenue. 

A VIGOROUS EDITORIAL from the pen of Mr. J. Ritchie, Jr., deal- 
ing with the recent postal ruling against natural history specimens, 
appeared in the Commomvealth (Boston), Saturday, September 23. 

Variations of Strobilops hubbaedi. — In looking over our 
collection of this species I find that over half of them have three 
teeth, but about a third have four, and I found one with five. We 
have collected them from several diflerent localities, but all in Flor- 
ida, and nearly all in this county, some near the coast and some 16 
to 18 miles inland. — G. W. Webster, Lake Helen, Florida. 

A synonym of Leftothyra. — It seems to have escaped notice 
hitherto that Gabb's genus Petropoma (Journ. Acad. Nat. Sci., 
Phila. viii, p. 281) is founded upon a species exhibiting all the 
essential features of Leptothyra . The operculum and shell are very 
like in structure to the granulose species of the central Pacific. 
Gabb, in his description, mistakes the inside for the outside of the 
operculum. Being later in date than Leptothyra, the name Petro- 
poma becomes a synonym. — H. A. P. 


DEC i^ 

$1.00 per Year. ($1.12 to Foreign Countries.) lOcts. a copy. 





H. A. PiLSBRY, Conservator Conchological Section, Academy of Natural Sciences, Philadelphia. 

C. W. Johnson, Curator of the Wagner Free Institute of Science. 

aV/ __ 

Vol. YII- DECEMBER, 1893. No. 8. 



L.\ND AND Fresh Water Shells in i he Rocky Mount.\in3. By Geo. 

W. Taylor, Victoria, B. C. . . . s.'i 

H.kckel's Planktonic Studies. . . Sd 


By H. Suter S7 

In Memoriam — Robert Walton. ....... 90 

A New Hand-Book of the Helices. ...... 91 

Notes and News. 9;] 

New Publications. 96 

Publi.-'lied by 

H. A. PILSBRY, Editor, Academy of Nat. Sciences, Philadelpliia. 

C. W. JOHNSON, Manager, Wagner Free Institute of Science, Philad'a. 

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The Nautilus. 

Vol. VII. DECEMBER, 1893. No. 8 



In the October ISTautilus there is a sliort paper by my friend 
Mr. Hanham upon the shells found by himself during a trij) in that 
rather out of the way Canadian locality, the Gaspe region. 

It may be interesting to have a record of a small collection made 
by me a few weeks ago in another little-known locality at the oppo- 
site end of the Dominion viz. : Laggan near the summit of the Rocky 

I had received earlier in the year from Mr. T. R. Bean of Lag- 
gan, a nice little collection of shells which included specimens of 
what Dr. Sterki considers to be the true Papa hoppli of Moller, 
and this tempted me to stay over for a couple of days Avhen passing 
through Laggan last September on my way to Toronto. 

Dr. Bean most kindly showed me all the best localities known 
to him, and our united exertions were rewarded by the discovery of 
several species that he had not previously recognized, including one 
which I believe had not before been found in Canada. 

In the rivers, the Bow and the Pipestone, we could not find any 
shells at all, the waters'being cold and the stream rapid in each case, 
but in all the little creeks and .-wamps Linncea palustris abounded 
and Planor bis parvus occurred in less numbers. In a small lake 
not more tlian a mile from Laggan Ave found, in addition to the 


species above nauierl, 3 others — Plaitorbis trivolvis Say, common, 
FlsidUtm abdifain Hald., rare, and a Valv(da, which I suppose to be 
virens Tryon, 6 specimens only. 

No Phijsa of any kind were observed, nor has Dr. Bean as yet 
found any species of Unio, A)iodonta, or Sphcrrinm. 

The land shells enumerated below were all found under logs or 
under pieces of board in the neighborhood of the settlement and 
along the banks of the rivers. Vltriiia Umpida Gould, Hyalina 
arhorea Say, Hyalina radiatula Alder, Coitulns fulvus Drap., Patula 
strlatella Anth., Vallonia costata Miill. (form grac'dk-oda Reinh., 
teste Sterki), Ferussacia saheylindrica Linn., Succinea avara Say, 
and a species of Vertigo closely resembling gouldli, were all com- 

Papa hoppii MoUer, was not very common in the spots I searched 
and I only secured 8 specimens. Still less frequent was Pupa alti- 
cola Ingersoll, which I had here the pleasure of finding for the first 

Dr. Baan has in his collection, besides the above, specimens of 
Pupa pentodou Say, which he took a few miles to the west of Lag- 
gan ; and a second species of Succinea perhaps S. ovalis Gould. 
Lastly some slugs which were probably Lima.v hyperhoreus West., 
were observed by us but not collected. 

The altitude of Laggan is about 5,200 feet above sea level and the 
locality is interesting, as being nearly at the summit of the Rocky 
Mountain range, which seems to form, in Canada, a hard and fast 
line of demarcation between the eastern and western species of Mol- 


All interested in the life of the open and deep sea, the so-called 
pelagic or Plankton fauna, will be interested to read the translation 
of Prof E. Hseckel's paper of 1890, which is printed in the Report 
of the U. S. Fish Commission for 1889-91, pp. 565-641. 

Some of the German polemics are omitted, though a sufficient 
amount remains to spice the article in a lively manner. There is 
much reason to believe that Hieckel, who has had no exi:)erience in 
deep sea work, has overestimated the evidence in favor of zonary 
distribution of life in the deep sea. Certainly the observations of 


Agassiz and Tanner are superior by reason of their better apparatus 
to any heretofore made, and they seem to show that with the excep- 
tion of a superficial zone of a few hundred fathoms and a thin zone 
immediately over the bottom, the animal kingdom is represented in 
the intervening region by the dead bodies of sinking animals only, 
and has no peculiar fauna of its own and but little life. There is 
no obvious reason why this must be so, but the most carefully 
checked observations yet made indicate that it is so. Apart from 
this one point, the paper of H^ckel gives a most interesting, accu- 
rate and vivid idea of the pelagic life of the sea, and one which 
every one may read with profit. The vast experience in surface and 
•coast collecting which the Jena Professor has had, enables him to 
speak from experience in this direction, and the material obtained 
by others, on the Challenger and elsewhere, which he has worked 
up, has given him great familiaritv with the Plankton fauna. 

W. H. D. 




Since I wrote the " Preliminary Notes on Tasmanian Land Shells," 
I have sacrificed many more specimens of my collection for the 
study of the dentition, and, as I have just finished the work, I wish 
to give here the result of my investigations. 

Before giving the results of my study, it will be necessary to say 
a. few words on the classification of the New Zealand Helicidse. 
Mr. H. A. Pilsbry proposed (Nautilus, VI, 1892, No. 5, pp. 54-57) 
a. new classification of N. Z. Helicidoe, the main feature of it being 
the forming of one genus, Gerontia, of these former genera consti- 
tuting my family Phenacohelicidce. Later on he published (Proc. 
Acad. Nat. Sci. Philada., 1892, pp. 387, etc.) a " Preliminary Out- 
line of a New Classification of the Helices," in which he included 
under the one genus Endodonta, the following groups : Endodonta 
s. str., Ptt/chodon {=Maorianci), Charopa, and his genus Gerontia. 
I can not agree with this latter classification, as the author was 
under the impression that Endodonta, Charopa, etc., possess a nmc- 


ous tail gland, which is not the case. Moreover, the jaw in Endo- 
donta and Charopa is only striated, whilst stegognath in Gerontia, 
and the radula in the latter is more or less distinctly pseudozon- 
itoid. I am of opinion that the separation of Gerontia from Endo- 
donta is fully justified ; the patuloid shells being inchided in Endo- 
donta, whilst the more zonitoid forms are embraced in Gerordia. 

Mr. Charles Hedley and the writer substituted von Martens' 
Flammulina for Amphidoxa of N. Z. authors, and as the genus of 
von Martens dates from 1<S73, it must be used as the generic name 
instead of Gerontia (1883). 

The classification of the New Zealand Helicidc^e I propose, follow- 
ing chiefly Mr. H. A. Pilsbry, is the following : 

Group Haplogona Pilsbry. 
1. Genus Flammulina (von Martens) Suter. 

Sections: (1) Flammulina v. Mart. s. str. ; (2) Gerontia Hutt. ; 
(3) Phacussa Hutt. ; (4) Therasia Hutt. ; (5) Pyrrha Hutt. ; (6) 
Phenacohelix Sut. ; (7) Allodiscus Pils. ; (8) Suter ia Pils. ; (9) 
Thalassohelix Pils. 

2. Genus Endodonta (Albers) Pilsbry. 

Sections: (1) Endodonta Albers," s. str.; subsect. Ptychodon 
Ancey ; (2) C'Aaro;:»« Albers ; subsections, a. re.sse?'a7-ia Bottger ; b. 
Aeschrodomvs Pils. 

Group PoLYPLACOGNATiiA Pilsbry. 

Genus Laama (Gray) Pilsbry. 
Sections : (1) L'toma Gray, s. str. ; (2) Phrixgnathus Hiitton. 

Giving now the classification of the Tasmanian land shells ex- 
amined, I wish to point out that it is based on the dentition as well 
as on the shell characters ; their number, is thirty-two. 

Genus Flummtdina (von Mart.) Suter. 

Sect. Flamviuliaa von Marten.*, s. str. 

■ (1) F. jungermanniae Petterd. (3) F. luckmani Brazier. 
(2) F. sitiens Cox. 


Sect. Geroxtia Hutton. 

(1) G. albauensis Cox. (7) G. tasmaniae Cox. 

(2) G. stanleyensis Petterd. (8) G. subrugosa Brazier. 

(3) G. legraudi Cox. (9) G. mathiuna; Petterd. 

(4) G. niarcbiannae Cox. (10) G. inacdonaldi Cox. 

(5) G. diemenensis Cox. (11) G. bassi Brazier. 

(6) G. gadensis Cox. (12) G. taraarensis Petterd. 

Sect. Phacnssa HuttoD. 

(1) Pb. savesi Petterd. (8) Pb. Hamiltoni Cox. 

(2) Pb. stepbensi Cox. 

Sect. Allodkru^ Pilsbry. 
(1) A. limula Cox. 

Sect. Thalassohelix Pilsbry. 
(1) Tb. fordei Brazier. 

Genus Enclodonta (Albers) Pilsbry. 
Sect. Charopa Albers. 
(1) Cb. antialba Beddorae. 

Genus Laoma (Gray) Pilsbry. 
Sect. Phyixgnathus Hutton. 

(1) Pb. weldii Tenison-Wood. (5) Pb. pictilis Tate. 

(2) Ph. caesus Cox. (6) Pb. pipsensis Petterd. 

(3) Ph. benryana Petterd. (7) Ph. balli Cox. 

(4) Pb. furneauxensis Petterd. (8) Pb. hobarti Cox. 

Genus Rhijtlda Albers. 
(1) R. sinclairi Pfeiffer. (2) E. ruga Cox. 

Genus Rheiiea Hutton. 

(1) R. nelsonensis Brazier. 

It is a most astonishing fact how close the relation between tbe 
Tasmanian and New Zealand molluscan fauna really is, more so 
than I ever expected it to be. Of nine sections of tbe genus Flam- 


mulina occurring in New Zealand, five are represented in Tas- 
mania. Most remarkable is the preponderance of Gerontia, a sec- 
tion represented in New Zealand by two species only, and of Phrix- 
(jnaikus, which is also well represented in New Zealand. A very 
striking feature is the almost total absence of Endodonta, there 
being one species of Endodonta s. str. {E. dispar Braz.) and one of 
Charopa known from Tasmania. Rhytida is more abundant in 
Tasmania, whilst Rhenea is represented by two species in each 

There can be no doubt about the great antiquity of these forms, 
as they must date at least from the Cretaceous period. 

New Zealand, Christchurch, October 4, 1893. 


It is with sad hearts that we record the death of our young friend 
Robert Walton. While out collecting on Saturday, November 11, 
along the steep bank at West Conshohocken, he slipped and fell as a 
freight train was passing below, receiving a terrible gash on the 
head and having one of his legs crushed beneath the wheels, from 
which he died at 8 p. m., the accident occurring about noon. He 
was born in Halifax, England, July 17, 1875, and came to this 
country in the summer of 1889. He was a collector from boyhood, 
studying nature with that enthusiasm which only a born naturalist 
can. He was not content with a collection of shells alone ; his was a 
collection of the mollusca. He studied their anatomy, working out 
their jaws and dentition, the darts from the Zonites, and the testa- 
ceous shell-plates, from the Lhnaces. He was a close observer, and 
by his zealous collecting he found many forms not before recorded 
from this section. Among his rarities were reversed specimens of 
Zonites cellarm-s and Zonites ligerux, and I remember his saying, 
when we met only a few days before his sad accident, that he found 
the reversed Zonites cellar at West Conshohocken. He was to be 
appointed as a Jessup student at the Academy of Natural Sciences, 
and was looking forward, as only a young heart can, to the day 
when he would be studying and working there among the objects 
he so dearly loved. Mr. Pilsbry was looking forward with a great 
deal of pleasure to the time when he would have such a valuable 


assistant. We shall miss bim with his bright and happy face and 
liis pocket full of shells, and all tender our heartfelt sympathy to his 
parents and brothers. 

The appended lines are by his friend, ^Nlr. John Ford. 

a W. J. 

Toll, toll the bell I his young heart beats no more ; 

His eyes are dimmed, his life's short cycle run. 
No more may Science yield him, as before, 

The charming favors he so fairly won. 

Alas, that in the East his sun should set, 

And 'neath the shadows hide the hopes he knew ! 

Bright hopes, recalled to mind with keen regret 
By all who felt his power to wnll and do. 

Though now in sorrow we must say " Farewell ! " 
Sweet memories of him our hearts will hold ; 

While through the years that Time for us may tell 
His friendship shall be cherished as of old. 


This new work, of which the first one of the four parts has now 
i\ppeared, aims to present a complete introduction, key and index 
to the genera, subgenera and species, of the Helices of the world. 
Each grou]), whether generic, subgeneric or sectional, is defined, and 
its species enumerated ; the type and usually a number of prominent 
species of each is figured, and the anatomy is described and figured. 

The first genus included in the " part " just issued, is Trochomor- 
pha, an important Asiatic and Polynesian group, many specimens 
of which are in most collections. Although it has generally been 
associated with the Helicidte, Trochomorpha really belongs to the 
Zonitidte ; and it is admitted to this work only because the species 
have been generally known as " Helix. ^' 

' By H. A. Pilsbry ; being Vol. IX of the Manual of Conchology. Published by 
the Conchological Section of tlie Academy of Natural Sciences of Ptiiladelphia. 
8 vo. Issued in parts, price $3.00 per part, plain edition ; or S.'i.OO j^er part col- 
ored edition. Any volume comjilcte in itself, and sold separately. 


The following geuera belong to the Helicoid group Haplogona.- 
They have a shell with simple, nou-reflexed lip, more or less similar 
to our " Patula " alternata, etc. The genital system lacks all appen- 
dages. The foot has on each side a border above the margin bounded 
by a groove (easily seen in alternata, solitaria, etc.). This last char- 
acter is shared with the family Zonitidce. The jaw exhibits consid- 
erable variety in the several genera. It is either (1) composed of 
separate squai'ish plates, overlapping or imbricating, and only con- 
nected by a common membrane (Punctum, Laovia'), or (2) the plates 
are soldered together, the outer edge of each being free (FlammuUna, 
Charopa), or (3) the plates are completely soldered together, their 
edges appearing only as vertical strise (Pyramidula--=^" Patula"). 
The first type has been called Goniognathous, but falsely, as it has no 
near relationship to the jaw of Orthalicns, etc.; the second type has 
been called Stegognathous or " plaited " ; and the third Aulacogna- 
thous or " striated. " The three are really only stages of develop- 
ment, and between the last two all intermediate forms occur. 

The principal peculiarity of the generative system, besides its 
simplicity, is the very low insertion of the spermatheca duct. The 
teeth show no very characteristic features, except that in many 
cases the inner cusp is retained on the laterals, as in the Pupidce. 

The genera of Hajjlogona may be briefly tabulated thus: 
a. Jaw composed of separate plates, Punctum, Laomo. 

aa. Plates of jaw more or less soldered together, 

b. Tail having a mucous pore, Flammnlina. 

bb. No mucous pore 

c. Australo-Polynesian forms, Endodonta. 

cc. S. American forms, Amphidoxa. 

cce. S. African forms, Phasis. 

cccc. North temperate forms, Pijramidnla. 

The five last named geuera include a great number Df subgenera 
and "sections," all of Avhich are defined and fully. illustrated both 
as to shells and anatomy, with lists of the species of each. 

The group Haplogona as a whole may be regarded as an ancient 
and unspecialized type, formerly w^orld wide in distribution. At 
present a vast majority of the species retain their footing only on the 
southern extremes of the three gieat land masses of the globe, and 

-The genus Polygyra, fonneily included in the Haplogona, does not belong there. 
It has a solid, ribbed jaw a"d no ^r jives above the fcot nirrgin. 


on the Pacific Islands, where they are free from the competition <jf 
highly organized types of Helix, which have driven them fi'om the 
Tropics and North Temperate regions. In the north the species 
are comparatively few in numbers, and live mainly in the colder 
latitudes, where more recent types of Helix do not flourish, or in 
"some cases they have become reduced in size as in the sections 
Helicocliscus, Pyramidala s. str., Planogyra, Patalastra, etc., acquir- 
ing the habits of the Pupa; with which they compete, and in many 
cases the Papa type of dentition also. 

The name Pyramidula Fitz. 1833, has been preferred to that of 
Patula Held. 1837, for the Eur-American group to which H. roiun- 
data and alternata belong, on the ground of prior publication, and 
because two other names for the group were proposed in 1837, either 
of which has as much claim to be accepted as Patula. There are 
moreover, still two more names antedating Patula, besides the ear- 
liest name, Pyramidula. This change is therefore inevitable. 

The figures were mostly drawn by the author. They illustrate 
prominent typical species of all the subgenera and sections; so that 
it is comparatively easy for a person unacquainted with the intrica- 
cies of Helix classification to refer any specimen to its appropriate 
group, whether it be a living or fossil form. 


In a recent letter from Miss Ida ]M. Shepard, she says : " We 
have formed wdiat we call the Los Angeles Conchological 
Club, for the study of our local shells, and hope to take up the 
west coast species generally later. We have eleven members, and 
meet once or twice a month." We heartily endorse this new organ- 
ization for the study of the molluscn, and wish the club a success- 
ful future.— C. W.J. 

Species Determined. — From M. M. Schepman, Rhon near 
Rotterdam, Holland, 1. Sistruvi nodutomm C. B. Ads.; 2. Blttium 
sp. ; 3. Carditamera gracilis Shuttl. ; 4, 5. Acmaea cubensis Reeve ; 
6. Acmaea leucopleiira Gmel. ; 7. Donax fossor Say; 8. Heterodonox 
himaculatus, L. ; 9. Litiopa bombyx Kien. ; 10, 11. Mytibis fxv.^tiis 
Linn.— C. W. J. 


Vallonea ameeicana Aiicey m.?. — The description of this has 
been published by Dr. Sterki in Proc. Acad. Nat. Sci. Phila., 1893, 
p. 266. The locality of Ancey's types, however, is not stated, so it 
seems desirable to record that they were from Davenport, Iowa, col- 
lected by Professor D, S. Sheldon. V. parvula, it will be noticed, 
is recorded by Sterki from the same locality. It may be added that 
I saw Ancey's MS. description in May, 1890.— T. D. A. Cocherell. 

Strobila hubbardi. — Noting your comments on S. lahyrlntliica 
and vars., suggested to me the idea of comparing them with S. hub- 

There is evidently a close affinity between the two species, and 
the same tendency to variation in the number of teeth. I find in' 
the Hubbardi three constant teeth, but in nearly one-half of our 
collection of several hundred there is an extra tooth between the 
second and third tooth counting from the umbilicus, and in some 
cases a fifth tooth beyond the third. The variety S. Hrebeli found 
here in our locality is also an approach to S. hubbardi in its de- 
pressed spire and dark color. They are also found in similar sta- 
tions often together under the bark of old logs or on palmetto trees, 
hidden in dirt or old rubbish. Hubbardi is a very shy snail, and I 
have spent many days looking for them. At first I thought three 
or four a good day's find. — G. W. Wfbster. 

VlTRiXA LIMPIDA IX PENNSYLVANIA. — In my note on Vitrina 
limpida Gld. in Pennsylvania which you published in the August 
Nautilus, I promised to report the results of future visits to the 
place where the shells were found. I went down yesterday after- 
noon and found 24 living shells, and as I could only go over a very 
small portion of the hollow, owing to a very heavy growth of nettles, 
brambles and other noxious weeds, I think the shells must be very 
plenty — in fact, I do not think I " worked " ov»i- two or three 
square yards at the most. ■■'■ * * '■" 

In continuation of my letter of October 2 : On the 8th inst. I 
again visited the place where I found the Vitrina limpida Gld., and 
got 38 living specimens in about one and one-half hours, and went 
•over exactly the same ground as in my former visit, though 
this time the space worked over was less than on October 1. The 
colony appears to be in a very flourishing condition, although dead 
shells are very plenty. * * * -•' 


Since writing you last, I have collected 208 living Vitrina Ihn- 
pida Gld. The last time I was out. a friend and myself collected 
70 in an hour, and only took the large-^t specimens. 

— Geo. H. Clapp, Pittsburg, Pa. 

Ox Land and Fresh Water Mollusca of Lower Califor- 
nia, by Dr. J. G. Cooper (Calif 'a Acad. Sci. III). In this paper 
several very interesting species are described and figured. Among 
them are two species referred to Cohnnna, a Melani ell a, two Planorhis 
allied to P. eultratus Orh., and a sub-species oi Helicodiscvs lineatus. 

The Isaac Lea Cpiapter of the Agassiz Association is becom- 
ing an important factor in the revival of interest in American 
conchology. The President is now- Prof. Josiah Keep ; the General 
Secretary Mrs. ]M. Burton Williamson (University, Los Angeles 
Co., Cal.). Interesting reports of their work are published by the 
Secretary in Popular Science Xeu's from month to month. 

A valuable paper on the anatomy of Bulimxs acutii.?, by 
Messr.=. W. Moss and F. Paulden, appears in the Trans. Manchester 
.Micros. Soc. for 1892. 

The First Meeting of the Winter Session of the Perthshire 
(Scotland) Society of I^atural Science was held at Perth, Nov. 
9, Mr. Henry Coates, President, in the chair. In his opening 
address the President gave his impressions of the principal Scientific 
Museums of America, which he had visited during the Summer. 
The criticisms seem for the most part appreciative and just, and are 
of interest to us as showing how our work appears in the eyes of a 
cultured observer familiar with English museum methods. 

Dr. Wm. H. Dall has left Washington to investigate geological 
problems in South Georgia and Florida. 

Messrs. Henderson and Simpson, of Washington, have de- 
parted on a winter tour in the West Indies, especially Jamaica. 
They will no doubt return with a rich store of conchological 
])lunder from this paradise of molhisks. 

AcANTHOCHiTEs EX(^)UisiTUS Pilsbry. — The locality given in a 
former number of the Nautilus for this species is incori-ect. I am 
informed by Dr. R. E. C. Stearns that Mr. Lockington procured his 


specimens of tbis and other Lower California mollusks from Dr. AV. 
J. Fislier, who fitted out a vessel at his own expense. He collected 
this species at Los Animas Bay. — H. A. P. 


Natural Hlstory Notes from North Carolina, by A. G. 
Wetberby. From the Jour. Cincinnati Soc. Nat. Hist. An interest- 
ing article strongly criticizing the present mania for species-making 
with notes on the Mesodon of Eoan Mountain and vicinity. 

—a W.J. 

Report on the Mollusk-Fauna of the Galafagos Islands, 
by R. E. C. Stearns, Ph. D., from the Proc. U. S. Nat. Mus., Vol. 
XVI. The geographical and physical characteristics of the Islands 
are thoroughly discussed, and with the amount of material at his 
command. Dr. Stearns finds that the many so-called species of 
Balimulus are only forms of i). mix "for this is one of those protean 
forms, like, for instance, Puiula strigosa, cooperi.^ etc., that can not 
be properly exemplified or understood by a few examples, nor even 
by a hundred specimens." — C. W. J. 

An able article by Mr. Chas. T. Simpson, On some Fossil L^nios 
and other Freshwater Shells from the drift at Toronto, Can- 
ada, with a review of the distribution of the Jjnionidcc of north- 
eastern North America, appears in the Proc. U. S. Nat. Mus., 

Vol. XVI.— e w. J. 

Observations on Vallonia, by Dr. V. Sterki from the Proc. 
Acad. Nat. Sci., Phila., 1893. In this article Dr. Sterki has, with 
his accustomed acumen, revised the species and varieties of this 
genus of minute Helices, illustrating the shells, dentition and jaws 
of the species. The group has been much neglected heretofore ; 
and while some Conchologists may not be prepared to accejit so 
many species as Dr. Sterki distinguishes, it must be everywhere 
admitted that in pointing out the distinctive features of the forms, a 
very valuable service has been rendered, and a substantial addition 
made to concholoo:ical literature. — H. P. 


PI. IV. 






aAN 9 1894 

$1.00 per Year. ($1.12 to Foreign Countries.) 10 cts. a copy. 






H. A. PiLSBRY, Conservator Conchological Section, Academy of Natural Sciences, Philadelphia. 

C. W. Johnson, Curator of the Wagner Free Institute of Science. 

Vol. VII. t 0. h f JANUARY, 1894. No. 9. 

y^ 0,ljr JANUARY, 1894 



New Tertiary Fossils From Red Bluff, Mississippi. By T. IT. 

Aldrich, 97 

Notes of a Collecting Trip to Departure Bay, Vancouver 

Island. By George W. Taylor 100 

A Reply' to "Some (Responsive) Remarks Relative to Cyprjsa 

Greegori, Ford." By Edgar A. Smitli, 102 

A List of the Brachiopoda, Pelecypoda, Pteropoda, and Nudi- 

BRANCiiiTA OF JAMAICA, LiviNG AND FossiL. Compiled by T. 

D. A. Cockerell, 103 

Notices of New Chitons, I. By H. A. Pilsbry, 107 

General Notes, 108 

Published by - 

H. A. PILSBRV, Editor, Academy of Nat. Sciences, Philadelphia. 

C. W.JOHNSON, Manager, Wagner Free Institute of Science, Philadelphia. 

Entered at Philadelphia Post-Office as second-class matter. 



We can furnish only the following Vols, complete, Price, $1.00 each. 

Vol. IV. May, 1890, to April, 1891. 
Vol. V. May, 1891, to April, 1892. 
Vol. VI. May, 1892, to April, 1893. 

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dAN 9 tR94 

The Nautilus. 

Vol. VII. JANUARY, 1894. No. 9. 



The fossil-bearing stratum designated by Dr. E. W. Hilgard as 
the " Red Bluff group," occurs in Wayne County, Mississippi, near 
Red Bluff station, and is exposed on the banks of the Chickasawharg 
River. The fossiliferous stratum is four feet thick and contains 
beautifully preserved specimens imbedded in a greenish clay. 
Through the kindness of Prof. W. H. Dall I have had an oppor- 
tunity to examine the collections of the National Museum, which 
were obtained here by Mr. F. Burns and others and with a series 
in my own cabinet have been enabled to list 135 species from this 
bed. Of these 26 are peculiar ; 25 are found also in the beds at 
Jackson, Miss. ; 54 occur also at Vicksburg, and 30 are also com- 
mon to Jackson and Vicksburg. This bed, therefore, should be 
classed with the Vicksburg series. The following are described as 
Mitra lintoidea n. sp. PI. 4, fig. 1. 

Shell fusiform, whorls nine, somewhat turrited, densely but 
coarsely longitudinally ribbed, a transverse impressed line behind 
the suture gives the upper whorls the appearance of being beaded ; 
aperture narrow, elongate; outer lip sharp, slightly incurved, 
striated within, labium four plaited ; canal open, rather short 
curved, a number of impressed lines showing upon the lower part 
of body whorl. Alt. 27 mm. ; diam. 8 mm. 

This species differs from Fusimitra cellulifera Con. by its lack of 


impressed revolving punctures and by being broader and much 

The ribs are almost obsolete in young specimens. Type is in 
my collection. Examples in National Museum. 

Cypraea Dalli n. sp. PI. 4, fig. 2. 2 a. 

Shell ovate, moderately elevated, surface highly polished, 
crossed above by a number of lines not closely set, dividing the sur- 
face into a series of facets, base veutricose ; labrum very much 
thickened, profoundly striated but the striations do not extend up 
over the whole surface. Teeth on outer lip alternate. The smaller 
ones half the length of the others ; aperture narrowed in some speci- 
mens in the centre, in others regular and strongly denticulated. 
Length 15 mm. ; width 12 mm. ; alt. 9 mm. 

This shell is also found at Jackson, Miss. It resembles C. lintea 
Con., and has been considered as that species. It is however larger, 
with a more thickened labrum on which the striations do not reach 
the body of the shell as in Conrad's species, but stop half way; the 
surface of this shell is very different. In C. lintea the surface is 
completely covered with close-set, very fine lines, while this species- 
has but few, and they are not impressed, some specimens being 
smooth. The type retains some color, showing the shell to be choco- 
late brown above with the lip white ; C. lintea Con. is figured in my 
Preliminary Rejyort, PI. V, fig. 2, p. 32, 1886. 

Conrad's original description contains a misprint which seems to 
have been perpetuated in later publications. It should read " with 
fine approximate equal impressed lines," instead of "four . . 
lines." Type in National Museum ; examples in my collection. 
Pleurotoma Clarkeana n. sp. PL 4, fig. 3. 

Shell rather solid, fusiform, whorls about nine, spire smooth (?), 
whorls with about eleven strongly raised and rounded ribs crossed 
by coarse revolving lines ; somewhat alternate. The finer lines be- 
tween often being double, especially upon the body whorl. Suture 
appressed, bordered by a corded thread, and this in turn by a con- 
cave space. Aperture obloug-oval. Canal short. Sinus semi- 
circular, and well up in the aperture. Length 31 mm. ; breadth 
11 mm. 
Murex (Pteronotus) Burnsii n. sp. PI. 4, fig. 4, 4a. 

Shell large, with three foliated varices, whorls nine. Nucleus 
pointed, smooth ; whorls convex, appressed at suture, whorls fol- 


lowing the nucleus have two ribs on centre, each rib bearing a node 
which is equidistant from the foliations ; three continuous fin-like 
varices continued from apex, which revolve in descending, edges of 
varices dentate. Body whorl with about thirteen distant spiral raised 
ribs, the two on the peripheiy bearing a node each between the folia- 
tions. Aperture elongate-oval. Outer lip having internally seven 
plications, inner lip smooth ; canal rather long, almost closed pos- 
teriorly, widening anteriorly, and bent upwards. Canal of preced- 
ing aperture persistent. Alt. 65 mm. ; diara. 33 mm. 

This elegant Pteronotus is described from the unique example be- 
longing to the National Museum. Named in honor of its discoverer, 
Mr. F. Burns, of the U. S. National Museum. 

Cerithium serratoides n, sp. PI. 4, fig. 5. 

Shell elongate; suture linear; whorls ornamented with transverse 
ribs, which are moderate near the suture, but suddenly become 
enlarged and spinous at the intersection of a spiral near the middle 
of each whorl ; a couple of fine spiral lines occur between the spines 
and preceding whorl ; also a single spiral line just below the suture. 
Whorls slightly shouldered. 

Specimen figured has lost its apex and aperture, but is so evi- 
dently a serrate Cerithium that I have concluded to describe it. 

Length of part figured is 36 mm. 

Type in National Museum. Example in my cabinet. 

Latirus indistinctus n. sp. PI. 4, fig. (i. 

Shell fusiform, whorls nine, rounded ; apical whorl smooth, the 
remaining ones transversely ribbed, crossed by raised lines that on 
the body whorl are alternately coarse and fine ; suture distinct, whorls 
appressed to it anteriorly. Canal long, twisted strongly to the right 
and then to the left. Striations continue to the end of canal. Ap- 
erture oblong-oval, toothed posteriorly and shouldered anteriorly. 
Outer lip striated internally; inner lip covered with a thin callus, 
definitely delineated and running to end of canal. No teeth on the 
inner lip, but some of the striations show through the callus. Alt. 
42 mm. ; diam. 14 mm. 

This handsome species is strongly Fusoid in appearance, and does 
not possess plications on the inner lip like most of the genus, but it 
evidently belongs there from its other characters. 

Type in the National Museum, One example in my collection. 




The account given by Mr, Wood in the October number of The 
Nautilus of his collecting trip to Monterey Bay tempts me to put 
on record an experience of my own which goes to prove that our 
Northern waters are quite as rich in molluscau life as those of the 
sunnier South. 

Departure Bay is a small bay on the east coast of Vancouver 
Island, about 75 miles north of Victoria. It is shut in by its own 
shores on the north, west, and south, and is protected from the open 
sea on the east by a series of small islands. Consequently, the 
water, at most seasons of the year, is smooth, and as the depth 
ranges from 10 to 50 fathoms, and the bottom is varied, being sandy 
in some places and rocky in others, the bay is a capital place for a 
dredging expedition. 

In August, 1888, through the kindness of Mr, S. M. Robins, the 
managing director of the New Vancouver Coal Company, I waa 
able to spend four days in dredging from a small steam launch be- 
longing to the Colliery Company, Mucb time was wasted on this 
occasion in searching for suitable ground, but the result of the four 
days' work was by no means disappointing, as I took home with me 
more than five thousand (5,000) specimens of one hundred and ten 
different species. One of them, since named in manuscript by Mr. 
Whiteaves as Peden Vancoucerensis, was new to science, and several 
others were additions to our Vancouver lists. 

In July of the present year, I spent three and one-half days in 
the same locality in company with Professor Macown, the well- 
known Canadian botanist and naturalist. We were determined, if 
possible, to beat the previous record, and therefore worked very in- 
dustriously. We spent two and one-half days collecting on shore 
between tide marks, and one day was devoted to dredging over the 
ground prospected in 1888. 

In the shore collecting my own captures amounted to nearly 
2,500 shells of 61 species. In the dredging expedition our joint bag 
reached the grand total of over seven thousand (7,000) specimens of 
88 species. This very satisfactory result was obtained from an ordi- 


nary open sailing boat, with a crew of three men and a single home- 
made dredge. I should mention that 13 species were taken both 
between tides and by dredging, so that the actual number of differ- 
ent species taken in the three and one-half days was 136. 

In shore collecting, no attempt was made to collect the very com- 
mon shells in quantity, or the numbers might have been swelled 
indefinitely. In fact, I was looking more especially for Chitons, of 
which I took seven species (183 specimens), and the smaller shells, 
such as Volutella pyriformis Cpr. (40 specimens), and species of 
Odostomia, which occurs commonly under rocks at low water. I 
took also on this occasion a very fine series of Terebratdla trans- 
versa Sby., which was found literally in thousands attached to the 
rocks on the south side of the bay. 

Fine series of several Maeomas were dug in the sand, and a few 
specimens of the curious Lepton rude Whiteaves were found attached 
(as is their habit) to the central segments of specimens of Gebia 
pugetensis, which we dug out of the muddy shores. 

When dredging, everything that came up w'as preserved, and the 
fioer sand and mud boxed, and afterward dried and examined at 

Of the Pelecypoda dredged, by far the commonest specimen was 
Acila LyalU, of which at least a couple of thousand specimens were 
taken. Another common bivalve was CrypLodon sericatus Cpr., 
about 300 specimens. Venericardla boreaUs Conrad, Nucala tenuis 
Motit., and Lucina tenuiscidpta Cpr., came next in order, about 
100 of each being taken. 

Of rarer shells may be mentioned, Pede/i Vancouverensis Whiteaves 
and hastatus Sby., Aviusiuvi caurinum Gould, Modiolaria kevigata 
Gray and nigra Gray, Grenella decussata Mont., Cardium blandum 
Gould, Fidvia modesta Ad. and Rue., Cryptodon fiexiiosus Mont., 
Astarte Esqnimalti Baird, and nndata Gould, Psep)his Lordi Baird, 
dementia subdiaphana Cpr ., Venus Kemierleyi Reeve, il/aco?u« yoldi- 
j'onais Cpr., Cuspidaria pectinata Cpr., Kennerlia filosa Cpr., etc. 

Of the Gasteropoda the most abundant were, Nassa mendica Gould, 
NitidellaGoaldiiGpr.,OlivellabaeticaCpr., Mesalia reticidcda Mlgheh, 
and the deep-water variety of Margarita papilla Gould, of each of 
which more than one hundred' specimens were obtained. 

Of rarer shells the following is a partial list: Drillia incisa Cpr., 
and cancellata Cpr., MangiUa seidpturata Dall, Cancellaria circum- 
cincta Dall, Velutina laevigata Linn., Tarhonilla torquata Gould, 


cliocolata Cpr., and Lordi Smith, Scala indianorum Cpr., Solariella 
peramabilis Cpr., and varicosa Mighels, Pancturella galeata Gould, 
cucuUata Gould, and Cooperi Cpr. (all living), Cryptohranchia con- 
ceutrica Midd., Iscluiochiton. interstinctas Gou\d, -dnd cancellatus Sby., 
Placipliorella slnuata Cpr., Utriculus incultus Gould, and Rlctaxis 
punctocaiata Cpr., this last being new to our Vancouver list. 

I have not attempted to give a complete list, as such wcjuld take 
up too much of The Nautilus's valuable space, and would, more- 
over, be of little interest ; but I think I have written enough to show 
how very abundant the Mollusca are in our seas, and how much may 
be accomplished in even a single day's collecting if one knows ex- 
actly how and where to look. 



It is flattering to see that my remarks on Mr. Ford's so-called 
species of Cyprcm have been deemed worthy of such lengthy con- 
sideration. It were easy to take Mr. Ford's paragraphs seriatim, 
to make sharp replies, and to confute them, but I value the pages of 
The Nautilus too highly to occupy them with matter of that de- 
scription, I will merely observe, then, that I have carefully recon- 
sidered the subject, and I still am of opinion that Mr. Melvill's 
meaning is quite evident. It is to be regretted that Mr. Ford did 
not cut the leaves of the work he was consulting and carefully ex- 
amine it, for, had he done so, he could not possibly have failed to see 
to which species Mr. Melvill assigned the var. coloba, and jio-sibly he 
would have adopted that name. When I suggested that even 
courtesy directed us to employ Mr. Mekill's name, it occurred to 
me that possibly some persons might be ignorant of or disregard the 
friendly custom of adopting as a specific name one already used in 
a varietal sense by another, and the readers of The Nautilus are 
now in a position to judge whether my supposition was well-founded. 

In conclusion I would point out that it is hardly fair for a writer 
who is criticising the work of another, unnecessarily to put in in- 
verted commas phrases and words which the general reader might 
estimate as quotations. The words " state of things," "reminded," 
" with thanks," do not occur among my observations, and the "bit 
of presumption " also emanates from Mr. Ford. 




No list of the bivalve Mollusca of Jamaica- has ever been pub- 
lished, and many of the commonest species are unrecorded from the 
island. The present compilalion was prepared during the time I was 
Curator of the Jamaica Museum, and is, I think, almo.«t as complete 
as the present state of knowledge will permit. But for the kindness 
of Mr. H. Vendryes in permittii g me the free use of his collections 
and MSS. the list could never have been prepared, and it is, in the 
main, a monument of his industry, extending over a great number 
of years. Mr. Vendryes informed me that the specimens recorded 
by him might be regarded as correctly identified, as not only has he 
given them careful study himself, but they were submitted to and 
verified by Messrs. Swift and Carj)enter. 

All records are given as I found them, in alphabetical order 
under each group; synonymy being indicated by cross references. 

The solitary nudibranch at the end may serve to lemind students 
that there is a rich but nnknoivn, nudibranch fauna in the seas 
around Jamaica. 

[Since writing the above, I have submitted the list to Mr. E. A. 
Smith, who has most kindly indicated some rectifications in the 
generic nomenclature, and searched some works inaccessible to me, 
with the result of discovering several additional records. Mr. 
Smith thinks that a thorough search through the different mono- 
graphic works, and the older books, would reveal nuny other 
records. I regret I have neither time nor opportunity to make this 
search, but I do not think many reliable records would be found. 
Mr. Smith has discovered seven records (indicated in the list 
within brackets) which are certainly erroneous, and in the case of 
easily-recognized species attributed by older authors to Jamaica, but 
not found there since, I think we may well express some doubt. 
Specimens of various kinds were fre(piently brought to me at the 
Jamaica Museum, which I might easily have supposed Jamaican, 
without careful inquiry ; such sj)ecimens would be from Colon prin- 
cipally, but in former days, when Jamaica was on the highway to 
the Pacific and antipodes, they might have come from more distant 


points. Undoubtedly, the marine shells of Jamaica are imperfectly 
known, but the additions will be made by dredging and such means, 
and will not be found in such collections as were probably examined 
by the earlier writers.] 

I. Brachiopoda. 

Cistella harvettiana, Dav. : Davidson, Zool. Challenger, 1, p. 22; 

Zool. Rec, 1866, p. 212. 
ivoodwardiana, Dav. : Davidson, Zool. Challenger, 1, j). 22 ; 

Zool. Rec. 1866, p. 212. 
Dlscina striata, Lam. : VendryesColl,, ^? antillarum, d'Orb., teste 

E. A. Smith. 
Terebratula sp. undet. : Barrett, Proc, Geol. Soc, 1866, p. 282. 

Terebratulina caputserpentis, L. : Davidson, Zool. Challenger, 1, p. 

T/iecldlum barrettl, Woodw. : Davidson, Zool. Challenger, 1, p. 25 

(foss. and viv.). 
mediterraiieum, Risso : Davidson, Zool. Challenge)", 1, p. 25. 

II. Pelecypoda. 

Anomla ephippiimif L. : Bowden, Veudryes MS. (tbss.)=simplex ? 

simplex, d'Orb. : Vendryes Coll. 
Area adamsi, Shuttl. : E. A. Smith, Jr. Linn. Soc, 1890, p. 499. 

\_antiqnata, L. : Dillw. Cat. Rec. Shells, but not truly Jamai- 
can, teste E. A. Smith.] 

Candida, Chem. : Vendryes Coll. 

carinifera, Adams: Jay, Cat. Shells, Ed. 1850, teste E. A. 

chemnitzii, Phil. : Vendryes Coll.=? inoequivalvis. 

consohrina, Sby. : Guppy, Geol. Mag., 1874 ; Ether, in Saw- 
kins, p. 386 (foss.). 

deshayesi, Hanley : Vendryes Coll. 

domingensis. Lam. : Vendryes Coll. 

d'orbignyi, Reeve: Vendryes Coll. 

imbricata, Brug. : Dillw. Cat. Rec. Shells; Jay Cat. Shells, 
Ed. 1850, teste E. A. Smith. 

inequilateralis, Guppy : Guppy, Geol. Mag., 1874 (foss.). 

jamaicensis, Gm. : Turt. Linn., iv, p. 555. =candida. 


listeri, Phil. : Vendryes Coll (viv.), Bowden, id. (foss.). 
noae, L. : Ether, in Sawk., p. 386 (foss.); Vendryes Coll. 

occidenfalis, Phil. : Guppy, Geol. Mag., 1874 (foss.) ; Ven- 
dryes Coll. (viv.). 
pexata, Say ; Vendryes Coll. 
rhomhea, Born : Hunt's Bay, Vendryes Coll. 
\_senilis, Dillw. : Dillw. Cat. Rec. Shells, but recorded in 

error, teste E. A. Smith.] 
tenera, C. B. Ad. : Vendryes MS. Cat. 
umbonata, Lam. : Lamk., vi, p. 38. 
AsapMs coecinea, Mart. : Vendryes Coll. 
Aoicula jamaicensis, Dunker : Dunker's orig. descr., teste E. A. 

Smith (viv. and foss.). 
macroptera, Lam. : A'^endryes Coll. * 

radiata, Leach : Vendryes Coll. 
Barrettia monilifera, S. P. Woodw. : Ether, in Sawkins, p. 308-310 

(foss. ):=Hippu rites. 
Caprina sp. Ether, in Sawkius, [>. 308 (foss.). 
Caprinella sp. Ether, in Sawkins, p. 308 (foss.). 
Cardita ovata, C, B. Ad. : Vendryes MS. Cat. 

scabricostata, Guppy : Guppy, Geol. Mag., 1874 (foss.). 
Cardium antillarum, d'Orb.: d'Orbigny's orig. descr., teste E. A- 

[apertuvi, Chem. : Jay. Cat. Shells, Ed. 1850, but record 

erroneous, teste E. A. Smith.] 
{Fidvia) bidiatum, L. : Vendryes Coll. 

? citrimim, Chera.: Bowden, VendryesMS.=serratum (foss.). 
domlnyensis, d'Orb.: Vendryes Coll. 
? dominieensis, Gabb : Bowden, Vendryes MS. (foss.). 
elongatum, Brug. : Vendryes Coll. 
graniferum, Brod. and Sow. : Vendryes Coll. 
haitense, Sby. : Guppy, Geol. Mag., 1874 (foss.). 
ineonspicuum, Guppy: Guppy, Geol. Mag., 1874 (foss.). 
(Traehicardiwn) isocardia, L. : North Side, Vendryes Coll. 
(Loevleardlum) Irevigatam, L. : Kingston Harbor, Morant 

Bay, Vendryes Coll. 
lingua-leonis, Guppy : Guppy Geol. Mag., 1874 (fos3.)=sub- 

medium, L. : Vendryes Coll. 


muricatimi, L. : Kingston Harbor, Vend ryes Coll. (viv.), 

Bowden, id. (fo^s.). 
riisticum, Jj. : (Lister) Lamk., vi, p. 12. 
serrat'um L. : Vendryes Coll.^cevicardiuni, teste E. A. 

sjmiosum, Meuschn. : Vendryes Coll. 
subelongatum, Sby. : Vendryes Coll. 
Chama arcinella, Linn.: Gappy, Geol. Mag., 1874 (foss.) ; Ven- 
dryes Coll. (viv.). 
gryphoides, Linn.: (see Turt. Linn., iv, p. 247). 
involuta, Guppy : Guppy, Geol. Mag., 1874 (foss.). 
\_lazarus, L. : Dillw. C'at. Rec. Shells, but record erroneous, 

teste E. A. Smith.] ' 

lobata, Brod. : Vendryes Coll. 

maerophylla, Chem. : Morch. Mai. BUitt., 1877, p. 119. 
ruderalis, Lam. : Bowden, Vendryes MS. (foss.). 
Circe minima, : Bowden, Vendryes MS. (foss.) ? Kingston Har- 
bor, id. (viv.). 
cerina,C. B. Ads.: Kingston Harbor, Vendryes Coll. 
? Coralliophaga sp. Ether, in Sawkins, p. 328 (foss.). 
Corhula barrattiana, C. B. Ad. : Contr. Conch., p. 237. 
blandiana, C. B. Ad.: Contr. Conch., p. 234. 
chittyana, C. B Ad. : Contr. Conch., p. 238. 
contracta, Say : Dall., Bull. 37, U. S. N. M., p. 70. 
cnbaniana, d'Orb : Dall, Bull. 37, U. S. N. M., p. 70 (viv. ; 

and ? f.>ss.). 
dietziana, C. B. Ad. : Contr. Conch., p. 235^tahitensis. 
disparilis, d'Orb. : Kingston Harbor, Vendryes Coll. 
kjceriana, C. B. Ad.: (^jntr. Conch., p. 237=caribea, d Orb. 
knoxiana, C. B. Ad. : Contr. Conch., p. 238z=cubaniana. 
krebsiana, C. B. Ad. : Contr. Conch., p. 234. 
lavalleana, d'Orb.: Kingston Harbor, Vendryes Coll. 
operculata, Phil.: Kingston Harbor, Vendryes Coll. 
swiftiana, C. B. Ad. : Contr. Coch., p. 236:=:caribea. 
tahitennis, Lam.: Kingston Harbor, Vendryes Coll. 
vieta, Guppy : Guppy, Geol. Mag., 1874 (foss.)=disparilis. 
viminea, Guppy : Guppy, Geol. Mag., 1874 (fuss.):=Bothro- 
Crassatella Marylandlcaf Conrad : Vendryes MS. (foss ). 
Crasmiellaf viartiuicensis, d'Orb.: Bowden, Vendryes MS.=Gouldia 


Cuspldaria cleryann, d'Orb. (Sphena) : ori'g. descr., teste E. A. Smith. 

Gostellata, Desh. : Guppy, Proc. Geol. Soc, 1866, p. 575 (foss.) 
=? ornatissiina d'Orb. 
Cytherea carbasea, Guppy: Guppy, Geol. Mag., 1874 (foss.). 

plaiilvleta, Guppy : Guppy, Geol. Mag., 1874 (foss.). 

trigonella, Lam. : Vendryes MS. Cat. 

afflnis, Gmel.: Vendryes Coll. 
Dione, Gray=Cytherea, subg. 

albida, Gmel. : Desh., Cat. Conch. B. Mus., 1 (1853), p. 69. 

convexa, Say : Bowdeu, Vendryes MS. (foss.). 

maculata, L. : Vendryes Coll. 
Diplodonta candeana ? d'Orb : Bowden, Vendryes MS. (foss.). 

janeirensis, Rve. : Hunt's Bay, Vendryes Coll. 

soror, C. B. Ad. : Dall., Bull. 37, U. S. N. Mus,, p. 52. 

[_To be concluded in next number.l 



Meturoplax n. subg. of AcanthocMtes. 

Subg. char. : — valves i to vii as in Acanthochites, but dorsal 
(jugular) areas indistinctly differentiated ; valve viii having the mu- 
cro posterior, the insertion plate strongly directed forward, with one 
slit on each side, and no sinus behind. Girdle as in Acanthochites. 
Type, A. retrojecius. 

This group holds the same relation to Acanthochites that Pallo- 
chiton holds to Choitoplenra. It is a variation distinctly in the direc- 
tion of the Cryptoplacidw, recalling Choneplax, and clearly showing 
the Acanthochitoid genesis of that family. 
A. retrojectus n. sp. 

Shell small, narrow and elongated, convex, not carinated ; black 
or black-brown, with a whitish " v " or three white stripes on each 
valve, sometimes broadly maculated with whitish at the sides. 

Intermediate valves moderately beaked (except valve ii, the pos- 
terior margin of which is straight), sculptured with comparatively 
coarse, rounded, scattered pustules, which become smaller and more 
crowded toward the middle, and are lower and less distinct on the 
ridge, no areas being distinctly differentiated on the valves. End 


valves similarly sculptured. Posterior valve small, having the 
mucro obtuse and posterior, the posterior slope short, vertical. 

Interior green, marked with black in the cavity. Head valve 
having the insertion plate about one-third as long as the front slope 
of the tegmentum, with 5 small slits. Intermediate valves having 
very oblique plates with 1-1 minute posterior slits. Posterior valve 
having the insertion plate short and strongly directed forward, with 
a small slit on each side. Sutural laminte rather long and narrow, 
projecting far forward. Sinus wide, deep, and square. 

Girdle microscopically chaffy, with a series of hyaline spicules at 
the edge, and 18 small and compact silvery tufts. 

Length 9 2 ; width 85 mill, (dry specimen). 

Port Jackson, near Sydney. Abundant. Collected by Dr. J. C. 


Alcyna. — Specimens of the rare Alcyna ocellata A. Ad. are in- 
cluded in Mr. F. Stearns' last collection of Japanese mollusks. It 
proves to have a corneous operculum, and therefore belongs to the 
Trochidce instead of the Fhasianellldip,, where it has hitherto been 
placed.— IT. A. P. 

S. Australian Mollusc a. — "A Hand List of the Aquatic 
Mollusca Inhabiting S. Australia" has been issued by D.J. Ad- 
cock, Adelaide, S. Australia. It will prove very useful to those in- 
terested in this fauna. 

Contributions to the Natural History of Texas. — I. 
Texas Mollusca. — By J. A. Singley (Geol. Survey of Texas). 
A complete list of species known from the State, with useful notes. 
Mr. Singley's personal researches have covered a large part of the 
State, but he has supplemented them with citations of Texan locali- 
ties by other authors, especially Binney and Dall. The paper forms 
a very useful basis for further operations in the field of Texas conch- 

Report on the Artesian Wells of the Gulf Coastal Re- 
gion (of Texas). By J. A. Singley (Geol. Survey of Texas, 4th 
Annual Report). This paper is evidently the result of much care- 
ful investigation, and will be especially valuable to those interested 
in Tertiary and Quaternary Geology of the Gulf region. 

$1.00 per Year. ($1.12 to Foreign Countries.) lOcts. a copy, 

i2j.i.i^ THE 




H. A. PiLSBRY, Conservator Conchological Section, Academy of Natural Sciences, Philadelphia. 

C. W. Johnson, Curator of the Wagner Free Institute of Science. 

Vol. VII. FEBRUARY, 1804. No. 10. 



A New Species of Patella. By H. A. Pilsbry 106 

Notes on Collecting Shells in Jamaica. By Chas. T. Simpson. . . 110 

A List of the Brachiopoda, Pelecypoda, Pteropoda, and Nudibranchiata 

OF Jamaica, Living and Fossil. By T. D. A. Cockerell. (Continued.) 113 

Notices of New Chitons, II. By H. A. Pilsbry 119 

General Notes , 120 

Published by 

H. A. PILSBRY, Editor, Academy of Nat. Sciences, Philadelphia. 

C. W. JOHNSON, Manager, Wagner Free Institute of Science, Philad'a.. 

Entered at Philadelphia Post-OflBce as second-class matter. 



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The Nautilus. 

Vol. VII. FEBRUARY, 1894. No. 10 



Patella kermadecensis n. sp. 

Shell large and massive, conical, the apex subcentral ; slopes of 
cone nearly straight ; outline short ovate, slightly narrower in front. 
Exterior whitish, apparently strongly ribbed when perfect, but the 
specimens described are everywhere deeply eroded. Border lightly 
scalloped by the ribbing, and finely puckered at the edge. Muscle- 
scar roughened, strongly marked, and either white or bright orange ; 
rest of the interior white, stained in places with livid-brown or 

Length 135, breadth 115, alt. 48 mm. 

Length 111, breadth 102, alt. 45 mm. 

Habitat, Kermadec Is. 

The two specimens above described, of this large species of the 
subgenus Scutellastra, were sent to me by Mr. E. W. Roper, of 
Revere, Mass., who obtained them from the original collector. The 
species can be compared only with P. patriarcha Pils. from the Cape 
of Good Hope, and P. mexicana Brod. & Sowb. from West Mexico. 
The former of these is a wider, more angular species ; the latter is 
more oblong, and has more obvious primary ribs. Figures will be 
published later. 




About the first of December, Mr. John B. Henderson, Jr., of 
Washington, and the writer visited the island of Jamaica for the 
purpose, principally, of collecting land, fresh- water and marine mol- 
lusks. We called on Mr. Henry Vindryes, a veteran collector and 
conchologist in Kingston, inspecting his magnificent set of Jamaica 
Shells, and receiving from him every possible courtesy and many 
useful notes as to localities. 

As our stay was to be limited to some three weeks, we were anx- 
ious to begin work at once, to actually put our hands on some 
of the land snails in their homes. We hired a cab with a good 
natured darkey for a driver, and a miserable, little, bony horse, of 
uncertain color, and started for the suburbs, in the direction of 
Rockport with our eyes strained to catch sight of the splendid 
Odhalicus undatus, which we were told we might find on our way. 
The poor little horse, which wobbled about first from one side of the 
road to the other as if in search of snails, but probably from sheer 
exhaustion, was suddenly brought to a standstill without much 
exertion by the driver, who exclaimed as he pointed his whip to 
some low trees on the south of the road " Da de snail you want 
massa. " I think we had all observed them at the same moment, and 
with a shout like boys we were out of the cab and racing across 
the road, through a terrible hedge of wild pinguin in less time than it 
takes to write it. There they were, great beautiful fellows, varie- 
gated with ash color and glossy black, one, a half dozen, fifty, a 
hundred, in fact without limit! They clung to all kinds of trees 
and shrubs in the low tangled scrub, and in great numbers to the 
tall cylindrical Spring Cereus ; in almost every case glued by an 
epiphragmso solid that it was well nigh impossible to dislodge them, 
and invariably with the spire pointing downward. 

When we came out of the woods an hour afterward we were as 
wet with perspiration as though we had been dipped in water, and 
covered with every description of sticking burrs ; our flesh was 
lacerated, and our hands dirty and bleeding, for everything in the 
scrub bears villainous thorns. On the debtor side we had ruined 
two suits of clothes, and to our credit could be placed over five 
hundred superb living Orthalicus. We had learned a lesson, too, 


worth remembering, viz, never wear anything decent when collect- 
ing in the tropics. 

During our stay we drove around the entire island, visiting every 
parish. Owing to the worthlessness of our team, the illness of the 
driver, and the almost incessant rains we encountered on the north 
side, our opportunities for collecting were greatly diminished. 

It was only when we stopped over a day or so at the towns that 
we were able to get any great amount of material. Strangely 
enough we found almost no marine species whatever. Occasionally 
on the rocky beaches we obtained Neritina virginea, a few Littorinas, 
Tectarius and Ner'dbias, but for miles, in fact along whole parishes, 
though the road ran near to the sea, and we watched closely, not 
even a valve was seen. 

The lack of marine forms was made up in the abundance of the 
land snails, and in some cases the fresh water species. In a branch 
of the delta of Roaring River, under a great breadfruit tree, H. 
picked up a dead Hemislnus lineolutus. Then I looked on the rocky 
and sandy bottom and found it alive by handfulls, and we met with 
it in quantities elsewhere. 

We kept an eager watch for the great white Helix aspera. My 
friend picked up a single dead specimen on the road near Falmouth, 
and this fairly turned our heads. We inquired of every darkey 
from that on, hearing of it often like the Ignis fatuus, just a little 
way out of reach. Near Montego Bay we got a few more dead 
ones, and again as it was growing dark we discovered a dozen or so 
on the bushes and vines when we were nearing Savanna la Mar. 
The next day I started out early for a walk, resolved to find this 
snail if thorough search would do it. I tramped the whole forenoon 
and got only a few Ampullarias, and two o'olock found me tired, 
hungry, and thoroughly disgusted, seven miles from our hotel, and 
uncertain whether to push on to some low hills a mile ahead, or to 
give it up and go back. My resolve determined me and I went on. 
The first rounded knoll looked well at a little distance — one learns 
in a short time to distinguish good from poor localities a long way 
off. The elevation did not occupy more than half an acre ; red clay 
with decomposed limestone. It was originally a dwarf scrub which 
had been partly cleaved a couple of weeks before. The first thing 
I saw was a fine dead Helix aspera on the ground, then others, there 
they lay thickly all around me, bright and fresh, with the animals 
nicely cleared out by tropic showers, the sun, and swarming insects. 


I hardly dared move for fear of stepping on them, and to calm my 
excitement, and assure myself that it was not all a wild concbolo- 
gist's dream, I stood still and tried to count a hundred, but when I 
bad got to twenty I saw half a dozen live ones clinging like a string 
of enormous white beads to a little shrub right beside me, and I 
quit counting and gathered them in. Then I sat down and without 
moving I picked up thirty fresh, cabinet specimens. About that 
time it just began to dawn on me that the great Lucerna acuta was 
as abundant as the aspera, and in no time I had my hands full of 
the line, big, brown fellows. Afterward I got me eyes focussed down 
to seeing Sagdas, Helix sinuata, three or four Cylindrellas and as 
many Tudoras, and that under the leaves, and among rubbish there 
were quantities of small Gland bias, Zonites and Ilicrophysas, that 
the ground when closely examined was literally bespangled with 
lovely little Proserpinas, that shone in the sun like polished opals. 

To my dying day I never expect again to see such collecting 
unless I revisit Jamaica. Hunger, fatigue, headache, the flight of 
time were forgotten, and I was only warned that I must return by 
the fact that the sun was nearly down before I knew it, and that I 
had an eight mile walk and darkness before me. On a little spot 
no larger than a city lot, I had taken in a few hours over thirty 
species of land shells. As I reluctantly tore myself away I took 
fifteen asperas from a small Mango, and on the border of the clear- 
ing where some one had bent together a couple of young logwood 
trees, not as large as my Avrist, I picked twenty-five more fully adult 
and one young one. 

Shall I tell how in a narrow limestone gorge of the Rio Cobre near 
Bogwalk in the talus under a ledge some two rods long we found 
no less than forty-five species, all living, and nearly every specimen 
in perfect condition ; or how at Mandeville the honey-combed rocks 
were crowded with lovely Choanopomas, rough as chestnut burrs,^ 
now H. wild with excitement and regardless of bats, centipedes, 
scorpions, and poisonous vines wedged himself into a dark cave 
whose mouth was at least two sizes too small for his body ; how he 
stuck fast, and alone and far from help, could neither get forward 
or backward for awhile, how he pushed on to be rewarded by find- 
ing quantities of Helix peracutissima and the great purple H.jamai- 
censis, the latter clinging to each other on the roof like so many 
stalactites, a snail which, by the way, we had repeatedly been told 
was extinct ! I fear it may be now. 


It is enough to say that for the brief time and limited opportuni- 
ties we had, our trip was a success, and we left with many regrets 
that we could not spend the rest of the winter on the island, and 
thoroughly explore it, and collect its inexhaustible treasures. 



{^Continued from p. 107.] 

Donax denticnlata, L. : Milk River Beach, Pt. Morant, VeBdryee 
Coll. (viv. and foss.). 
[rostratus, Ad&ms : Jay, Cat. Shells, Ed. 1850, but record 
erroneous, teste E. A. Smith.] 
Dosinia concentrica, Lam.: Vendryes Coll. (viv. and foss,). 

incerta, Verkruzen (MS. ?): Paetel, Cat. Conch. Samml., 1890, 
teste E. A. Smith. 
Ervilia nitens, Montagu : Vendryes Coll. 
Erycina sp. Bowden, Vendryes MS. (foss.). 
Gastrochcena chemnitziana, d'Orb. : Vendryes Coll. (viv. and foss.). 

cuneiformis, Spengler : Vendryes Coll. 
Eriphyla lumdata, Conr. : Kingston Harbor, Vendryes Coll. 

var. parva C. B. Ads. Vendryes MS. Cat. 
Inoceramus sp. Ether, in Sawkins, p. 308 (foss.). 
Leda acuta, Conr.: Bowden, Vendryes MS, (foss.). 

bisulcata, Guppy : Guppy, Geol. Mag., 1874 (foss.). 
clara, Guppy : Guppy, Geol. Mag., 1874 (foss.). 
corpulenta, Dall : Dall, Bull. 37, U. S. Nat. Mus., p. 44. 
illecta, Guppy : Bowden, Vendryes MS. (foss.). 
jamaicensis, dJOvh.: Vendryes Coll. 
vitrea, d'Orb. : orig. descr., teste E. A, Smith. 
Lima carribea, D'Orh. : Vendryes Coll.^ ? squamosa. 

scabra, Born : Vendryes Coll, 
Limopsis aurita, Brocchi, var. paucidentata, Dall : Dall, Bull. 37, 

U, S, Nat, Mus., p. 42. 
lAthophagus bisnlcahis, D'Orb. : teste E. A. Smith. 

caudiger, Lamk. : Rockfort, Vendryes Coll. (as Modi- 


Lithophagus cinnamovieus, Chemn. : teste E. A. Smith. 
gossei, Rve. : orig. descr., teste E. A. Smith. 
\_lithophagi(s, L, : Dillw. Cat. Rec. Shells, but record 

erroneous, teste E. A. Smith.] 
caudigera, Lam. : Rockfort, Kingston, Vendryes Coll. 
forficatus, Ravenel : Dall, Bull. 37, U. S. Nat. Mus., p. 
Loripes anatelloides, Rve. : Paetel, Cat. Conch. Samml. 1890, teste 

E. A. Smith. 
Lucina americana, C. B. Ad. : Ad., Contr. Conch., p. 24S^=quadri- 
sulcata d'Orb., teste E. A. Smith. 
antillarum, Reeve : Ad., Contr. Conch., p. 243. (=ornata, 

C. B. Ad. non Rve.) (viv. and foss.). 
candeana, d'Orb. : Vendryes Coll. 
costata, d'Orb. : orig. descr., teste E. A. Smith. 
crenulata, Say : Bowden, Vendryes Coll. 
dentata. Wood : Vendryes Coll. (Subgen. Divaricella). 
[digitalis, Lam. : Jay, Cat. Shells, Ed. 1850, but the record 

erroneous, teste E. A. Smith.] 
divaricata, L. : Bowden, Vendryes MS. :=^dentata, Wood. 

(viv. and foss.). 
edentula, L. : Lam., V, p. 540. (C. B. Ad. also). =Loripes. 
granulosa, C. B. Ad. : Ad., Contr. Conch., p. 245. 
imbrieata, C. B. Ad. : Ad., Contr. Conch., p. 245, (=pecten 

imhricatula, C. B. Ad. : Vendryes Coll. 
jamaicensis, Chem.: Ad., Contr. Conch., ^, 245. 
janeirensis, Reeve : Ad., Contr. Conch., p. 245. (=8uhglo- 

hosa, C. B. Ad.). 
muricata, Chem.: fide d'Orb., teste E. A. Smith. 
nasuta f Conr. : Bowden, Vendryes MS. (foss.). 
occidentalis, Reeve: Kingston Harbor, Vendryes Coll. = 

imbrieata. Ad. 
peden, Reeve (? Lam.) : Bowden, A^endryes MS. ^imbrieata? 

pectinata, C. B. Ad.: Ad., Contr. Conch., p. 245-6. (viv. and 

pectirella, C. B. Ad. : Ad., Contr. Conch., p. 2-^6. 
pennsylvanica, L. : Ad., Contr. Conch., p. 246 (viv.) ; Guppy 
Geol. Mag., 1874 (foss.). 


Lucina pnlcliella, C. B. Ad. : Vendryes MS. Cat. 

seabra, Reeve (? Lara.) : Ad., Contr. Conch., p. 247. 

soror, C. B. Ad. : Ad., Contr. Conch., p. 247. 

subglobosa, Adams (MS. ?) : Jay, Cat. Shells, Ed. 1850, teste 

E. A. Smith. 
(Codakia) tigerina, L. : Ad., Contr. Conch., p. 247. 
virgo f Reeve : Ad., Contr. Conch., p. 247. 
Macoma cerina, C. B. Ad. : Dall, Bull. 37, U. S. N. M., p. 60. 
Macira alata, Spg. : Morant Bay, Vendryes Coll. -^carinata, Lam. 
(viv. et. foss.). 
(Spisula) bilineata, C. B. Ad. : A'endryes MS. Cat. 
braziliana, Lam. : Vendryes Coll. 
{Spisula) subimbricata f Mont. : Vendryes MS. Cat. 
elegans, Sowb. : Vendryes Coll. 
Modiola americana, Leach: Vendryes Coll. (Mr. Smith adds a?) 
barbata, C. B. A.d. : orig. descr., teste E. A. Smith. 
demissa, Dillw. : Vendryes Coll. (=plicatula, Lamk.,) teste 
E. A. Smith. 
Myonera lameUifera, Dall : Dall, Bull. 37, U. S. N. M., p. 68. 
Mytilus canalis, Lam. : Lam., VI, p. 123. (Mr. Smith adds a ?) 

eziistus, L. : Bowden (foss.). Dry Harbor (viv.), Vendryes 
Coll. (viv. et foss.). 
Nuculocardia divaricata, d'Orb. : orig. descr., teste E. A. Smith. 
Ostrea carinata, : Cat. Sawkins Coll., No. 133. (foss.). 
folium. L. : Dillw. Cat. Rec. Shells, teste E, A. Smith. 
parasitica, Gmel. : Bluefieid Point, Vendryes Coll. 
plicatula, Gmel. : Vendryes Coll. 
Pecten exasperatus, Sow. : Port Antonio, Vendryes Coll. 

exasperatus (nee Sow.): Guppy, Geol. Mag., 1894. (foss.). = 

incequal is, Sow.: Guppy, Geol. Mag,, 1874. (foss.). 
nucleus, Born : Vendryes Coll. (viv. et foss.) 
ornatus, Lam.: Port Antonio, Vendryes Coll. 
oxygonus, Sow. : Bowden, Vendryes MS. (foss.) 
thetidis, Sow. (var.) : Bowden, Vendryes Coll. (foss.). 
zigzag, Chem. : Vendryes Coll. (viv. et foss.). 
var. alba, : shell white, Vendryes Coll. 

gibba, L. (Turt, Lim. IV, p. 267). 
Pectunculus aciUicostatus, Sow. : Guppy, Geol. Mag., 1874. (foss.). 
angidatus, Lam.: Vendryes Coll. 


Pectunculus angulosus, Gmel. : Dillw., Cat. Rec. Shells, teste E. A, 
castanetts, Lam. : Port Antonio, Vendryes Coll. 
decussatus, L. : Guppy, Geol. Mag., 1874. (foss.). 
pedlnatus, Gmeliu : Vendryes Coll. 
pemiaceus, Lam. : Ether, in Sawkins, p. 337. (foss.). = 

undatus, L. : Dillw., Cat. Rec. Shells, teste E. A. Smith. 
Perna hicolor, C. B. Ad. : Kingston Harbor, Vendryes Coll. 
ephippium, Linn. : Dall, Bull. 37, U. S. N. Mus., p. 36. 
obliqua, Lam. : Vendryes Coll. 
rigida, Dillw. : Vendryes MS. Cat. 
Pholas clavata, Lam. : (see Lam., V, p. 446). =pusillus, L. 

corticaria, Sow. : C. B. Ad„ Contr. Conch., p. 75. (^=Mar-^ 

tesia) teste E. A. Smith. 
pusillus, L. : (see Turt. Linn., IV, p. 173). =striata. 
striata, L. : Rockfort, Vendryes Coll. (=^Martesia) teste E. 
A. Smith, 
Pinna muricata, L. : Vendryes Coll. 
Placuna sinuosa,^ : Ether, iu Sawkins, p. 336. (foss.). 
Placunanomia echinata, Brod. : Kingston Harbor, Vendryes Coll. 
Plicatula eristata, Lara.: Paetel, Cat. Conch. Samml., 1890, teste E. 
A. Smith. 
plicata, Chem. : Kingston Harbor, Vendryes Coll. 
reniformis, Lam.: Lam., VI, p. 185. =^barbadensis,Feti- 

vexilluta, Guppy : Guppy, Geol. Mag., 1874. 
Psammohia affinis, C. B. Ad. : Vendryes MS. Cat. 

biradiata, C. B. Ad. : Vendryes MS. Cat. 
cerina. C. B. Ad.: Vendryes MS. Cat. 
purpureo-jnaculata, C. B. Ad. . Vendyres MS. Cat. 
Radiolites, sp. Ether, in Sawkins, p. 308. (foss.). 
Sanguinolaria rosea, Chem.: Lam., V, p. 511. =^sanguinolentua, 

Gm., Vendryes Coll. 
Semele jayanum, C. B. Ad. : Vendryes Coll. =cordiformis, Chem. 
prozima, C. B. Ad. : Vendryes Coll. == ? elliptica, Sby. 
retindaris, L. : Vendryes Coll. 
variegata, Lara. : Vendryes Coll. 
Tagelus bidens, Chem. : Kingston Harbor, Vendryes Coll. 

caribceiis. Lam. : fide d'Orb,, teste E. A. Smith. =gibbus, 


Solen amhiguus, Lam. : Vendrjes Coll. (viv. et foss.). 
Spondylus bostryehites, Guppy : Guppy, Geol. Mag., 1874. (foss.). 
Strigilla caryiaria, L. : Morant Bay ; Port Antonio, Vendryes Coll. 
carnaria, var. miocenica, : Bowden, Vendryes MS. 

flexuosay Say : Bowden, Vendryes MS. (foss.). Morant Bay, 

Port Antonio, Vendryes Coll. 
joroc^Mc^a, Tryon : Zool. Rec, 1870, p. 172. Morant Bay, 

Vendryes Coll. 
pisiformis, L. : Morant Bay, Vendryes Coll. 
Tellina antonii, Phil. : Kingston Harbor, Vendryes Coll. 
arcuata, Sow. : Vendryes MS. Cat. 
(Arcopagia) bimaculata, L. : Kingston Harbor, Vendryes 

{Peronceoderma) biradiata, Schum. : Vendryes Coll. 
carribcea, d'Orb. : Vendryes Coll. 
(^Angulus) constrida, Phil. : Vendryes Coll. 
(Afigjilus) cuneatus, d'Orb.: Hunt's Bay, Kingston Harbor, 

Vendryes Coll. 
decussatula, C. B. Ad. : Vendryes MS. Cat. 
(Arcopagia) fausta, Sol.- Vendryes Coll. 
(Angulus) guadaloupensis: D'Orb.: Kingston Harbor, Ven- 
dryes Coll. 
jamaicensis, : Turt. Linn., IV, p. 193. 

lineata, Turton : Vendryes Coll. 

lintea, Conrad : Dall, Bull. 37, U. S. Nat. Mus., p. 60. 
(Angulus) martinicensis, d'Orb. : Hunt's Bay, Kingston 

Harbor, Vendryes Coll. 
nitens, Adams: orig. descr., teste E. A. Smith. 
punicea, Born : Vendryes Coll. 

radiata, L. : Vendryes Coll. (viv.) Bowden, Vendryes MS. 
(foss.) (viv. etfoss.). 
var. imimaculata, Lam. : Vendryes Coll. 
striata, Chem. : Vendryes Coll. 
subradiata, Schum.: Hunt's Bay, Vendryes Coll. 
tximida, Sow. : Vendryes MS. Cat. 
Teredo fistula, Ijea. : Bowden, Vendryes MS. (foss.). 

navalis,J-i: Vendryes Coll. 
Trigomdina ornata, d'Orb. : Vendryes MS. Cat. (ex Chenu.) 
Venue antillarum, d'Orb. , orig. descr., teste E. A. Smith. 


Venus blandiana, Guppy : Guppy, Geol. Mag., 1874. (foss.). 

braziliana, Gm. : Plumb Point L. Ho., Milk River Mouth, 

Vendryea Coll. 
cancellata, L. : Pt. Morant, Vendryes Coll. (viv.), Bowden, 

id. (foss.). 
cardioides, Lam. : Lam., V, p. 590. 
flexuosa, Lam. : Port Antonio, Vendryes Coll. 
granulosa, Gmel. : Pt. Morant, Kingston Harbor, Vendryes 

listeri, Hanley : Port Antonio, Vendryes Coll. 
maculata, L. : orig. descr., teste E. A. Smith. 
macrodon, Lam. : Vendryes Coll, 
paphia, L. : Guppy, Geol. Mag., 1874 (foss.) ; Vendryes 

Coll. (viv.). 
reticulata, Lam. : Vendryes Coll, 

rubra, Gm. : Turt. Linn., IV, p. 236. =? Cytherea circinata. 
rugosa, Gm., Cheni. : Guppy, Geol. Mag., 1874. (foss.), Ven- 
dryes Coll. (viv.). 
subrostrata, Lam. : Vendryes Coll. 
subrugosa, Sowb. : Port Antonio, Vendryes Coll. 
tvaUi,Gu\)py: Bowden, Vendryes MS. (foss.). 
woodwardi, Guppy : Guppy, Geol. Mag., 1874. (foss.). 
zigzag, L. : Pt. Morant, Vendryes Coll. 
Pisidium pygmceum, C. B. Ad. : (Cyclas) Contr. Couch., Vendryes 
List, p. 487. (^amaicense. Prime) =^adamsi, Desh. : 
Desh., 11, p. 184. 
Sphcerium veatleyi, C. B. Ad.: (Cyclas) Contr. Conch., Vendryes 
List, p. 487. Desh., 11, p. 288. 


Cleodora sp. Ether, in Sawkins, p. 319. (foss.). 

pyramidata, L. : (See Turt. Linn., IV, p. 17). 

retusa, . (see Turt. Linn., IV, p. 117) 

Creseis sp. Ether, in Sawkins, p. 319. (foss.). 
Cuvieria sp. Ether, in Sawkins, p. 319. (foss.). 
Hyalcea (Diacria) vendryesiana, Guppy: Guppy, Geol. Mag., 1874. 


Glaucus atlanticus, Foster: R. Bergh, Chall. Rep., Zool., X, p. 11. 




Chiton Coxi, n. sp. 

Shell oblong, much elevated, carinated ; delicate bluish mottled 
or blotched with olive-brown, yellow and white ; girdle delicate 
blue-green, with narrow white bars. Sculpture as in Ch. jugosus 
Gld., but gi'ooves of the pleura shorter, straighter, narrower, and 
more spaced. Girdle-scales convex, shining, microscopically and 
superficially striated, each measuriug about .30 mm. wide. Length 
13, breadth 7? mm.; divergence, 90 to 110°. 

Port Jackson (Dr. J. C. Cox !) 

This is probably the Lophyrus jugosus of Augas' Port Jackson 
Catalogue, P. Z. S. 1867. It differs from Goulds' species in the 
totally diverse color-pattern, etc. 

Acanthochites granostriatus n. sp. 

Elongated, the tegmentum occupying about one third the total 
width in dry specimens. Valves obtusely keeled, the dorsal ridge 
indisticntly clouded with whitish, orange and blackish ; side mot- 
tled in varied patterns with olive and white. Girdle olive, the 18 
tufts silvery stained with blue or dirty olive. 

Valves distinctly imbricating ; the dorsal areas rather wide, con- 
vex, distinct but not raised at the edges, having numerous rather 
weak longitudinal strise. Side areas having elevated pustules 
arranged radially and connected by opaque lines giving the aspect 
of radial strice. Tegmentum of post. v. subcircular, the mucro 
rather acute and elevated, at the posterior third. Length 9, breadth 
3i mm. Port Jackson and Port Hacking, N. S. Wales (Dr. J. C. 

Acanthochites Coxi, n. sp. 

Valves grayish, somewhat mottled with olive and fleshy, the dor- 
sal areas dark red or marked with olivaceous. Girdle olivaceous. 
Valves nearly disconnected by spiculose bridges of girdle tissue at 
the sutures. Dorsal areas longitudinally striate ; sides sculptured 
with convex pustules elongated radially. Tegmentum of posterior 
valve subcircular, slightly wider than long, the rather elevated, 
acute mucro slightly behind the middle. Interior rose colored. 


Girdle densely clothed with short, hyaline spicules, the tufts repre- 
sented by inconspicuous clumps of slightly longer spines. Length 
23, breadth 13 mm. 

Port Jackson, N. S. Wales, (Dr. J. C. Cox !) 

Acanthochites Matthewsi Bednall & Pilsbry. 

Much elongated, keeled, flesh-tinted with several olivaceous for- 
ward-converging zigzag bands on each valve. Posterior margins of 
valves i-vii concave, beaks small. Dorsal areas narrow, rounded, 
with very fine, indistinct stride ; side areas having an indistinct diag- 
onal riblet ; pleura longitudinally ribbed, lateral areas obliquely 
ribbed, the ribs more or less cut into granules. Tegmentum of 
post. V. short-ovate, slightly longer than wide, its front half ribbed, 
posterior half granulated. Macro between the posterior third and 
fourth of the length of tegmentum, strongly hooked backward, the 
slope behind it very concave. Girdle narrow, tufts inconspicuous. 
Length, 26, breadth, 8 mm. 

South Australia. Collected by Mr. E. H. Matthews. The sculp- 
ture is totally unlike that of any other known Acanthochites. 

Illustrations of the above species will be given later. 


The death of Dr. Paul Fischer of Paris has been announced. 

Mr. C. W. Johnson will spend the latter part of January in 
Cambridge, studying types of Diptera and Mollusca in the Museum 
of Comparative Zoology. 

Mr. E. W. Roper of Revere, Mass., has sailed for Jamaica where 
he purposes spending some time. 

Mr. a. W. Hanham, formerly of Quebec, is now permanently 
located at Winnepeg. His address is " The Bank of British North 
America, Winnepeg, Manitoba, Canada." 

$1.00 per Year. ($1.12 to Foreign Countries.) lOcts. a copy. 

/^/2/y THE 




H. A. PiLSERT, Conservator Conchological Section, Academy of Natural Sciences, Philadelphia. 

C. W. Johnson, Curator of the Wagner Free Institute of Science. 

Vol. VII. MARCH, 1894. No. 11. 



Shell Collecting In Northern Alabama. By H. E. Sargent. . . 121 
Notes on some New Zealand Land and Fresh Water Mollusks. By 

Henry Suter 122 

Shells of the Saginaw Valley, Michigan. By Bryant Walker. . . 125 

Notes and News 130 

Notes on New Publications 131 

Published by 

H. A. PILSBRY, Editor, Academy of Nat. Sciences, Philadelphia. 

C. W. JOHNSON, Manager, Wagner Free Institute of Science, Philad'a. 

Entered at Philadelphia Post-OflBce as second-class matter. 



We can furnish only the following Vols, complete, Price $1.00 each. 

Vol. IV. May, 1890 to April, 1891. 
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Volume III (Numbers 2 and 12 wanting) $1.00. 20 cents per 
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" Thesaurus Conchyliorum " by G. B. Sowerby, F. L. S., in 
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The Nautilus. 

Vol. VII. MARCH, 1894. No. 11 



Huntsville, Alabama., the county seat of Madison County, is a 
somewhat exceptional southern city in that it has an abundant supply 
of pure spring water bursting forth from its very foundations. This 
spring of sparkling lime water, beside supplying the city mains, 
affords a constant stream several feet in Avidth and several 
inches in depth to go to \va.ste. In this stream and also in the reser- 
voir I have, upon several occasion.s, taken large numbers of Gonio- 
basis nassula Con., var. perstrlata Lea. A recent visit, however, 
disclosed the fact that although still plentiful in the reservoir, this 
interesting species has almost disappeared from the sti'eam. A flock 
of geese near byoifered a possible solution of the mystery. 

Upon this occasion, a more careful search was made than upon 
former visits, with very satisfactory results. The upper surfaces of 
the rocks were found to be covered with a species of Ammicola 
which the Editor refers to a form previously had from Florida, and. 
for which he proposes the name of Ammicola olivacea Pils. In more 
secluded spots, several specimens of P/etwocera brumbyi Lea were 
also taken. These specimens were much larger than those found in 
other streams in this vicinity. A hand-dredge brought from the 
oozy bottom numerous beautiful clear specimens of Pisidium sp. 
Physa halei Lea and Limnaea desidiosa Say were found in consider- 
able numbers. A single young specimen of Planorbh trivolvis Say, 
and a single valve of Sphaerium indicated their presence, although 
no good specimens were taken. Several dead specimens of Cam- 
peloma coarctatmn Lea also came to light. 


A two-hour hunt for Helix caroliuensis, made December 1, upon 
the timbered flats of the Paint Rock River, resulted as follows r 
Helix obstrieta Say, var. 4. Binn = H. caroliuensis Lea, 59. H. 
infleda Say, 22. H. thyroides Say, 13. H. stenotrema Fer., 3. 
Zonites laevigahis Pfr., 1, Z. acerrus Lewis 2. Patula alternata 
Say., var. mordnx Shutt, 4. Selenites concava Say, 1 Limacidae, 8. 
A little later in the season, these flats will be inundated most of the 
time for several months. A visit to the same station a little earlier 
than this last year, yielded about the same results. 



1. Ancylns woodsi Johnston. About one year ago, I discovered a 
small Ancylus in the River Avon, near Christchurch, which I 
recognized as being identical with A. ivoodsi from Tasmania. This 
was, to my knowledge, the first Ancylus ever found in New Zealand, 
and I mentioned the fact in Crosse's Journ. de Conch., vol. 32, p. 
248. I can not recognize Ancylus dohrnianus Clessin as a New 
Zealand species, as long as Clessin can not give the exact locality 
where his species has been fomul, and thus enable us to verify its 
occurrence in this colony. There is no such Ancylus known to New 
Zealand conchologists, and it therefore will only help to swell the 
already large list of shells erroneously ascribed to New Zealand. 

Only a few weeks ago, I collected a good number of J., woodsi, 
and this time alive. To my great astonishment I found several 
specimens with a septum more or less in process of formation, so 
that there could be no doubt but that this mollusk is not an Ancylus 
at all, but a Gwidlachia. This was further confirmed by examin- 
ing the radula, which perfectly corresponds with the radula of a 
Gundlachia collected and kindly sent to me by my friend. Dr. V. 
Sterki, of New Philadelphia, Ohio. Having come into possession of 
some literature on Tasmanian mollusks, I now find that Johnston, in 
his description of A. woodsi (Proc. Roy. Soc. Tasm., 1878, page 25) 
says: "Animal and teeth almost similar to Gundlachia petterdi." 
And in the description of G.petterdi (1. c. page 23) he writes: " In 
the young state the shell is simple, and resembles the common Ancy- 
lus." I really do not understand why Johnston established the n. sp. 
A. ivoodsi, when he must have been fully aware of the fact that it 


■was a young Gundlachia ! In his list of Tasmanian mollusca, 1890, 
he simply drops his A. woodsi without mentioning that it is a 
young Gundlachia. I have not yet found full-grown specimens of 
our Gundlachia, but I hope to succeed later on, and it is to be ex- 
pected to be a similar form to G. peiterdi Johnston. 

Prof. Hutton suggested to me that this Gundlachia might, per- 
haps, have been introduced from Tasmania on aquatic plants, which 
were used in packing trout ova, and as our fish-hatching ponds are 
in communication with the river Avon, there is all possibility of 
this being really the case. However, there is one objection. Up to 
the present day I found our G andlachia only on aquatic plants in 
the lower parts of the river, from the outflow of Horseshoe Lake to 
New Brighton, but not upward between this outflow and the fish- 
hatchiug ponds. This makes it very likely that Gundlachia occurs 
in the swampy Horseshoe Lake, difficult of access, and was washed 
down in the river Avon when the canal was cleared from Anacharis 
weeds. If this mollusk is really indigenous, it will, no doubt, be 
found in localities where the introduction from Tasmania is out of 
question, but as long as this is not the case, we must remain doubt- 
ful on this point. 

In the "Reference List" I published vvith my friend Mr. Ch. 
Hedley, of Sydney (Proc. Linn. Soc. N. S. W., vol". VII (2) p. 624), 
he put down Ancylus tasmanicus Tenison- Woods, as being synonymous 
with A. ivoodsi. This is wrong, as the former is quite different, and 
I believe it to be really an Ancrjlus. A. audralicus Tate and A. 
smithi Cox are very likely also young forms of Gundlachia. A. 
asslmilis Pett. and A. oblonga Pett. I have not seen. It would be of 
highest interest to examine the dentition of the Caledonian A. reti- 
culatus Gassies and A. noumeensis Crosse, which Mr. Hedley thinks 
to be nearly allied to the so-called A. woodsi. 

2. Rkytida meesoni Suter (Reference List, 1. c. page 631) is no 
Rhytida, but a Paryphanta, as the animal lays calcareous eggs, 
whilst the genus Rhytida is considered to be viviparous. The genera 
Paryphanta and Rhytida are in the shells, the exterior of the ani- 
mals and the radula so nearly allied, that it is not always easy to 
separate them. Very likely the genital organs will show generic 
differences, and it is my intention to study the anatomy of these 
genera as soon as opportunity offers and time permits. 

3. Thalassohelix ziczuc Gould. There was always some doubt 
whether this shell was really a New Zealand species or not, and at 


the request of Mr. Hedley, when we worked out our " Reference 
List," I tried to solve the question. I came to the conclusion that 
Th. portia Gray must be the same species, and therefore they appear 
as synonyms in our list. I then selected two perfectly similar speci- 
mens, and sent one to Mr. Edg. A. Smith of the Brit. Museum for 
comparing it with Gray's type of H. portia, the other to Dr. Dall, 
Washington, to compare it with Gould's type of H. ziczac. Both 
gentlemen very kindly acceded to my request, and I herewith wish 
to express my gratitude to them. 

Mr. Edg. A. Smith writes : "Helix portia Gray. Right, but I 
doubt if Gould's ziczac is the same species." And Dr. Dall reports : 
"There is no doubt wliatever of the identity of your shell with 
Gould's type. He, in his preliminary report (Otia Conch., p. 17), 
refers it to New South Wales, but in his final report (Moll. U. S. 
Expl. Exp., p. 41), he says that it was collected by Dr. Pickering 
in a crater at Taiamea, New Zealand. His type was a little faded, 
hence the prominence of the dark variable lines and the straw color 
of the shell." These reports set all doubts at rest. 

4. Thalassohelix zelandice Gray. In a letter to me, Mr. H. A. 
Pilsbry expressed his opinion that the shell Prof. Hutton and I con- 
sidered to be Gray's Hel. zelandice might, perhaps, be another spe- 
cies. I therefore forwarded a specimen to Mr. Edg. A. Smith, and 
he kindly compared it with Gray's types. His opinion is as fol- 
lows : " The shell under this name is, I think, a form of that species. 
It is larger than any of our typical examples and more brightly 
variegated, and the whorls are perhaps, a trifle flatter, still I think 
it is only a variety." To this I would remark that most species of 
Thalassohelix are subject to great variation, and I am confident that 
we identify the right shell as Th. zelandice Gray. 

5. Endodonta varicoscc Pfeifler, I considered to be synonymous 
with E. timandra Hutton (Reference List, 1. c, p. 651). Mr. H. A. 
Pilsbry, however, denies their identity (Man. Conch. (2) VIII, p. 
84), and I therefore also sent specimens of J5. ti7nandra to Mr. Edg. 
A. Smith for comparing them with varicosa Pfr. He kindly sent me 
the following information : " E. timandra Hutt. This is distinct 
from varicosa Pf. It is smaller, more openly umbilicated, has more 
riblets, and the armature of the mouth is different. There are three 
teeth in timandra and one (overlooked by PfeiflTer and Reeve) in 
varicosa, situated on the body-whorl. It is a very slender lamella, 
and might easily be overlooked." After receiving this report, I 


looked all specimens of E. timandra in my collection carefully 
through, and had the great satisfaction to find a few specimens of £". 
varicosa Pf. The two species differ in the characters mentioned by 
Edg. A. Smith ; however, I have one specimen of E. varicosa with 
two lamellae in the body-whorl. If not very carefully examined, 
the two species may very easily be confounded. It seems that E. 
timandra occurs only on the North Island, while E. varicosa seems 
to be limited to South Island. 

6. Charopa sylvia Hutton. I thought this species to be identical 
"with Cli. tau Pfeiffer (Ref. List., 1. c, p. 657), but felt always more 
or less doubtful. I therefore sent specimens with the others to Mr. 
Edg. A. Smith, and he very kindly wrote to me : " Ch. sylvia Hutt. 
You question this being the same as Hel. tau. Pfr. We have not yet 
the latter in the Museum, but Pfeiffer's description of the sculpture 
' subdistantum costato-plicata ' scarcely applies to your specimens. 
They are undoubtedly identical with Pieiffer's Hel. gamma. 1 have 
compared them with the types, and they agree in every respect, ex- 
cepting that yours are fresher." Therefore : 

Charopa buccinella Reeve, sp., 1852 (=gamma Pfeiffer, 1852 
(? 1853) = sylvia Hutton, 1883). 

Now it remains to identify Gh. tan Pfr. It may be that my 
Charopa vndabilis is this species ; I have sent a specimen to Vienna 
to have it compared with Pfeiffer's type, and am awaiting a report. 

New Zealand, Christchurch, Sept. 6, 1893. 



Some twenty-five years ago the late Dr. George A. Lathrop, 
while residing at East Saginaw in this State, made a considerable 
collection of the shells, which he found in that vicinity. 

After lying packed away for many years, the collection has recently 
come into my possession, and as it contains some material of consider- 
able interest, and no local catalogue from that part of the State has 
ever been published, the following list of the species represented 
has been deemed worthy of a permanent record. 

I am indebted to Dr. V. Sterki for the determination of the Pupi- 
dse and to Mr. A. A. Hinkley for the identification of Goniobasis 


seniicarinata Say and depygis Say. Unless otherwise specified the 
locality is in all cases East Saginaw. 
Selenites concavus Say. 

Zonites nitidus Mull. Zonites indentatus Say. 

Zonites arboreiis Say. Zonites minusculus Binn, 

Zonites radiatulus Alder. Zonites fiilvus Dr. 

Zonites multidentatus Say. Heretofore cited only from the western 
part of the State. 
Patula alternata Say. 
Patula perspectiva Say. 
Patula sLriatella Anth. 
Patula lineata Say. 

Punctuiu pygmjeum minutissimum Lea. 
Helix niultilineata Say. 
Helix thyroides Say. 

Helix albolabris Say. Above the average in size and one example 
an almost perfect albino. 
Helix albolabris dentata. 
Helix exoleta Binn. 

Helix sayii Binn. Port Austin. A new locality for this (in Mich- 
igan) rare species. 
Helix mondon fraterna Say. 
Helix leaii Ward. 
Helix tridentata Say. 
Helix palliata Say. 

Helix virgata Da Costa. A single well marked example of this 
species, apparently of the variety called ''alba" by Taylor, occurs 
in the collection with the following label: "From Dr. Clark of 
Flint, Michigan, where he says it was found." Dr. Clark was a 
well known physician of Flint in times past ; but as both he and 
Dr. Lathrop are dead, it is not probable that any further informa- 
tion in regard to the circumstances under which this shell was 
found can be had. The specimen though mature, is not quite fresh, 
and as the body whorl was filled with hard packed fine sand it 
seems very probable that it was imported in the earth about some 
foreign plants. 

Vallonia pulchella Mull. Determined by Dr Sterki. 
Strobilops labyrinthica Say. 

Pupa corticaria Say. These are the first specimens seen from the 
eastern part of the State. 


Pupa armifera Say. 

Pupa coiitracta Say. 

Vertigo ovata Say. 

Vertigo gouldii Binn. Quite abundant apparently, and exhibiting 

some considerable variation in size. A single albino example is 

included, of which Dr. Sterki writes "This is a very interesting 

and valuable specimen ; the only true albino among many thousand 

specimens of our Vertigos I have seen. " 

Vertigo ventricosa elatior Sterki. Not heretofore known from 


Vertigo pentodon Say. Vertigo curvidens Gld. 

Ferussacia subcylindrica L. 

Succinea oblivua Say. Succinea peoriensis Wolf. 

Succinea avara Say. Succinea sp. 

Succinea ovalis Gld. Succinea sp. 

There are four forms of Succinea in the collection, which group 
around S. ovalis Gld. as a type. The first is the form usually called 
ovalis characterized by the short; rather blunt spire, elongated body 
whorl and effuse aperture. The second is the peoriensis of Wolf, a 
very widely extended form in Michigan and easily separated from 
the "ovalis" by reason of the shorter body whorl and more nearly 
oval aperture, which though somewhat narrowed posteriorly lacks 
the patulous expansion anteriorly so characteristic of the former. 
The third resembles ovalis in the shape of the aperture, but is a 
more slender shell and has the spire more elongated than either the 
preceeding forms. It appears to range generally over the State and 
is the same form noticed as "S. higginsi Bid." in my catalogue of 
Michigan shells (Naut. VI, p. 19). 

The fourth form is quite remarkable. Having the general shape, 
characteristic of the group, it far exceeds them all in dimensions, 
equalling in length a good sized S. obliqua Say. These shells were 
labeled by Dr. Lathrop as " S. sillimani Bid.?" They agree sub- 
stantially in form and size with figures of that species given by 
Biuney. Some individuals, however, have the spire more produced, 
resembling in that respect the figures of S. hawkinsi Bd. ; but the 
suture is not impressed to the extent represented in that species. 
None of them have the blunt apex, which seems to be characteristic 
of S. Imydeni W. G. Binn., though fully equalling that species in 
size. Cockerell (Naut. VI, pp. 23 and 29) refers all these forms to 
the S. elegans Risso of Europe. It is possible that these specimens 


are similar to the Canadian examples, which he refers to that spe- 

Carychium exiguum Say. 
Limnoea stagnalis L. 
Limnfea catascopium Say. 

Two forms of this species are represented in the collection. One 
from the Saginaw River is of the usual form, but of unusual size, 
one example being nearly one and one-fourth inches in length. 

The other form from Saginaw Bay is characterized by its greatly 
inflated body whorl and very short, rapidly acuminating spire. A 
single specimen from Lake Huron represents the form usually found 
in the Great Lakes. 

Limnsea reflexa Say. Bayou, East Sagiuaw and Saginaw Bay. 
The latter somewhat smaller and more slender than the former. 
Limnsea reflexa scalaris. Intermediate between the type and the 

Limnaea palustris Mull. Larger than the average in size. The 
striped variety corresponding to form of L. reflexa known as zebra 
Tryon, is also represented. 
Limnaa cubensis Pfr. 
Physa ancillaria Say. Saginaw Bay. 
Physa sayii Tapp. 
Physa gyrina hildrethiana Lea. 
A])lexa hypnorum L. 
Planorbis trivolvis Say. 
Planorbis bicarinatus Say. 
Planorbis campanulatus Say. 
Planorbis albus Mull. 
Planorbis exacutus Say. 

Planorbis parvus Say. Among a number of the usual form of this 
species occurs one of the curiously distorted examples, in which the 
whorls almost from the apex are entirely detached from each other 
and coiled obliquely like a ram's horn. 
Segnientina armigera Say. 
Ancylus fuscus Ad. Saginaw River. 

Ancylus parallelus Hald. Saginaw River. Much narrower and 
with the sides more flattened and hence more nearly parallel than 
in specimens from other localities. 

Lyogyrus pupoidea Gld. Heretofore this species has been cited 
only from the western part of the State. 


Campeloma decisa Say. Cass River. 

Amnicola porata Say. 

Bythiuella obtusa Lea. 

Gouiobasis livescens Mke. Saginaw Bay. 

Goniobasis semicarinata Say. Saginaw River. 

This is the first time this species has been cited from this State. 
Goniobasis depygis Say. Saginaw River. 

This species, although cited in the earlier lists of Sagerand Miles, 
has not been found by any of the more recent collectors. 
Goniobasis milesii Lea. Cass River. 

Two specimens "from Dr. Miles," which seem to justify Tryon's 
doubt as to whether the species is more than a globose form of G. 
livescens Mke. 

Unio alatus Say. Saginaw River. 

Unio asperiraus Lea. Saginaw River. This is the first recorded 
occurrance of this species in the eastern part of the State. It may 
be of interest to add that Dr. W. H. DeCamp of Grand Rapids 
informs us that the species has also been recently found in the Grand 
River, so that the doubt formerly cast upon its occurrence in Michi- 
gan must be considered as entirely removed. 

Unio cornutus Bar. Another addition to the fauna of the eastern 
part of the State. One example, probably a female, is unusually 

Unio ellipsis Lea. This and all the following species are from Sag- 
inaw River. 

Unio gibbosus Bar. Anodonta benedictii Lea. 

gracilis Bar. footiana Lea. 

ligamentinus Lam. imbecilis Say. 

luteolus Lam. Sphierium striatinum Lam. 

nasutus Say. rhomboideum Say. 

novi-eboraci Lea. occidentale Pme. 

phaseolus Hild. parturaeium Say. 

rectus Lam. truucatum Lam. 

rubiginosus Lea. Pisidum virginicum Lam. 

schoolcraftii Lea. ' abditum Hald. 

ventricosus Bar. compressum Pme. 

Margaritina deltoidea Lea. variabile Pme. 



Mr. John Ritchie, Jr. of Boston paid a short visit to his con- 
ohological friends in Philadelphia Feb. 3d and 4th, being the guest 
of Mr. Ford. 

River is a tributary of the Tennessee and hence in the Ohio drain- 
age, it may be of interest to note that a fossil specimen of Tulotoma 
magnifiea Con. was recently found about 20 miles from its mouth. 
T. rnagaifica is a living species of the lower Coosa. — H. E. Sargent, 
Woodville, Ala. 

Rev. Samuel Lockwood, Ph. D., well known in New Jersey as 
an enthusiastic student of the Natural History of the State, died at 
his residence in Freehold, N. J., on Jan. 10th. 

Some Final Remarks Relative to Cypr.t:a Greegori, Ford. 
— Since Mr. Smith has, in the January number of the Nautilus, 
deemed it expedient to make a purely scientific subject, the vehicle 
of remarks chiefly personal in character, it is just possible that com- 
ment is uncalled for from me. It might be prudent, however, to 
notice one or two of the gentleman's statements, especially that 
touching the ease with which he could take Mr. Ford's paragraphs 
seriaiuni, and confute them, etc. In respect to this show of confi- 
dence, I have nothing to suggest beyond referring liim to the follow- 
ing not very classic, but rather trite saying, viz. : "The man who is 
always sure that he could have managed things better had be been 
there, is usually the one who never gets there." 

Regarding the quoted phrases so pathetically alluded to by the 
gentleman, I cannot believe that any reader save himself ever sup- 
posed they were presented as parts of his communication. 

Certainly such a thought never occurred to me. The " inverted 
commas " were added to them simjaly as evidence of their general 
use. Was this fact apparent to Mr. Smith ? Perhaps not, and yet 
— Perhaps. 

As my reasons for claiming priority for the name C. Greegori were 
fully explained in the Nautilus for Nov., 1893 — and as the justice 
of this claim has been heartily conceded by very many of our ablest 
conchologists, I do not propose inflicting the reader with any further 


remarks on the subject, now or hereafter. — John Ford, Philadelphia, 
Jan., 1894. 

The collection of Dr. Wm. D. Hartman of West Chester, Pa., 
is offered for sale. It is one of the richest in America in Melanians, 
Partula, Achatinella, Bulivius, etc., and comprises the types of Dr. 
Hartman's new species, as well as duplicate types from Lea, Anth- 
ony, Wheatley, and many other conchologists. It will prove a very 
valuable collection to whoever may purchase it. 


Preliminary Report on the Molluscan Species collected by 
the U. S. Scientific Expedition to West Africa in 1889-90, pp. 32. 

On Rare or Little Known Mollusks from the west coast of 
North and South America ivith descriptions of new species, pp. 11 and 

Report on the Mollusk-Fauna of the Galapagos Islands, 
with descriptions of new species etc., 97 pp., plate and map. 

The foregoing are the titles of recent papers on Mollusca by Dr. 
Stearns published in the proceedings of the U. S. National Museum, 
in Volume XVI, which includes the various articles for the year 
1893. The first of the above, is an annotated catalogue of the shells 
collected by the Eclipse Expedition so-called, that went to the west 
coast of Africa for the purpose of observing the total eclipse of the 
sun, that occurred on the 22nd of December 1889. The Natural 
History work was of course incidental; it includes also the forms 
collected at the Azores, where the Pensacola touched on her way. 
The total number of molluscan species collected foots up 120, the 
greater jwrtion, over one hundred, at various African points, Ascen- 
sion Island and Cape de Verde, etc. Several ol' the species are 
shown to have a wide distribution, from the Gulf of Mexico and the 
Caribbean waters to the African region ; and Trochatella radians "not 
before reported outside of Peru and Chili, " was detected, a single 
example, at Cape de Verde ; many other forms have nearly as wide 
a range. 

The second paper embraces several forms, some of which were 
preliminarily described in "The Nautilus" in May, 1893. Many 


species of a decided Polynesian aspect are reported from the Gulf of 
California region ; among these are Chicoretis palmarosce mexicana, 
Ranella cruentata, Purpura hippocastanum, Casmarla vlbex and 
Luponia Isabella mexieana. This paper includes also revised de- 
scriptions of species previously described by the author, notably, 
Dolabella californica, Onchiclella bivueyi= 0. carpenteri Stearns not 
Binney, etc. A new species of Teetarius, T. atyphus, the first of this 
group detected on the West Coast is described ; it occurs at Manta 
on the coast of Ecuador. Other species are referred to and com- 
mented upon. 

The last of the foregoing titles relates to a paper hitherto briefly 
noticed in "The Nautilus, " (December, 1893). This includes a 
list of Galapagos shells, compiled from the collections made by the 
Albatross, Dr. Habel, Dr. Wolf, the Petrel, Dr. W. H. Jones and 
the papers and publications of Carpenter, Albers, E. A. Smith, 
Wimraer, Ancey, Reibisch, Dall, etc., etc. The Albatross collectors 
obtained 109 species and several varieties; of these 59 were not 
before reported as occurring at the Galapagos. A few new species 
were detected and are described by the author. The total as yhown 
in the summarized list is 288 species and 30 varieties. 

The land shells are of a distinctly West American type, compar- 
able with Chilean and Peruvian forms, and with the exception of 
half a dozen local species, the marine forms are West American — 
with a slight color of Caribbean or Autillean types. 

Notes on Recent Collections of N. A. Mollusks, etc., by 
E. E. C. Stearns (Proc. U. S. Nat. Mus. 1893). Dr. Stearns records 
numerous new localities for various land and fresh-water shells, dis- 
cussing particularly the range of Patula strigosa Hemphilli, and its 
occurrence in Arizona at Coon Mountain, that problematic crater. 
Triodopjsis Levettei is reported from Fort Huachuca and Tucson 
Arizona (a large form). Ft. Huachuca is so near the Mexican 
boundary that Stearns believes both P. heinphUli and 2\ Levettei 
will eventually be found in the Mexican state Sonorai Helicina 
orbicul'ita was collected by Mr. V. Bailey near Marble Cave, Stone 
Co., Mo., probably near its northern limit. Attention is called to 
the discontinuous distribution of the section Mesodon, which is repre- 
sented by several western species, among them townsendiana and 
ptyclwphora ; records of North Dakota and eastern Montana locali- 
ties for Mesodon are still lacking. In this tract vndtilineata and 
thyroides are to be expected, we think, but suitable stations are not 
very numerous west of Minnesota and Iowa. 

$1.00 per Year. ($1.12 to Foreign Countries.) lOcts. a copy. 





H. A. PiLSBRY, Conservator Conchological Section, Academy of Natural Sciences, Philadelphia. 

C. W. Johnson, Curator of the Wagner Free Institute of Science. 

Vol. VII. I 2j,J^I^ APRIL, 1894. No. 12. 



The Californian Species of the Genus Nuttallina. 

By W. J. Raymond. 133 
Land and Fresh-Water Shells of Allegheny County, Pa. . . 135 

A New Papuina. By Charles Hedley 136 

On the Species of Mactra from California. By Wm. H. Dall. . . 136 
Notices of New Chitons, III. By H. A. Pilsbry. .... 138 

Descriptive Notes on Certain Forms of Polygyra. By H. A. Pilsbry. 139 

Remarks on Astyris Gouldiana. By A. H. Gardner 141 

Note on Patella Kermadecensis, Pilsbry. By'Geo. W. Taylor. . . 142 
Notices of New Japanese Mollusks, I. By H. A. Pilsbry. • . . 143- 
Notes and News. 144 

Published by 

H. A. PILSBRY, Editor, Academy of Nat. Sciences, Philadelphia. 

C. W. JOHNSON, Manager, Wagner Free Institute of Science, Philad'a. 

Entered at Philadelphia Post-OflBce as second-class matter. 



We can furnish only the following Vols, complete, Price $1.00 each. 

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The Nautilus. 

Vol. VII. APRIL, 1894. No. 12 



In the Manual of Conchology, Vol. 14, p. 280, after directing 
attention to the differences existing between Nuttallina californica 
Nutt. and N. scabra Rve., Mr. Pilsbry remarks that data are desir- 
able concerning the areas of distribution of the two species along 
the Californian coast, especially between San Diego and Point Piedras 
Blancas, near San Simeon. Having collected numerous specimens 
of this genus at various points between Bolinas and Santa Barbara, 
I can offer the following notes. 

A glance at a map of the AVest Coast will recall certain geograph- 
ical features bearing upon the distribution of marine life. Going 
southward from San Francisco, the coast line which has followed a 
general southeasterly direction, bends abruptly to the east at Point 
Concepcion. As a result of this, the great ocean current from the 
north which has held to a course near the coast and parallel with it, 
all the way from Alaska, leaves it for the first time and flowing 
southward, is still further deflexed by the chain of the Santa 
Barbara islands. From Point Concepcion eastward, the ocean is 
warmer and the other conditions surrounding marine life are such 
as to warrant the expectation of an assemblage of species, different 
from those found north of the cape. While many species of mollusks 
are common to our whole Californian coast, Terebra simplex, Drillia 
hemphilli, Marginella varia, Cypraea spadicea, Trivia solandri, Tur- 
ritella coojjeri, Norrisia norrisii, Trophon belcheri, T. iriangulatus, 
Periploma planiiiscula and Barbatia gradata are species of a more 
southern fauna, found in Santa Barbara county, which do not as far 


as we know pass Point Concepcion, Many other examples might 
be noted. 

This is not the place to enter into a discussion of the West Coast 
marine faunal provinces. But it is interesting to note that as far as 
the material at hand gives evidence, the two AVest Coast species of 
Nuttallina are sharply divided by this natural boundary. At Carpin- 
teria, ten miles east of Santa Barbara and at points west of that town, 
to Santa Anita, within ten miles of Point Concepcion, the specimens 
are uniformly N. scabra, as are also the more southernexa mples of 
the genus. Specimens collected at Point Sal, thirty-five miles north- 
ward from Point Concepcion, together with those collected at San 
Simeon, at Monterey, at Purissima and at points near San Fran- 
cisco are uniformly N. californica. No intregrading forms were 
observed. While the external appearance is not always a sure 
guide to specific position, disarticulation of the plates has, in all 
cases examined, revealed the species with certainty. 

A study of numerous specimens from the localities mentioned, 
shows the following differential characteristics, in addition to those 
cited by Mr. Pilsbry. Whether they would hold good in sj)ecimens 
from other localities or not, I do not know. In color N. scabra is 
externally more varied than N. californica. Specimens of the former 
from Santa Barbara are clouded and mottled with greenish upon a 
buff ground-tint, on the second, third, fifth and sixth valves. The 
remaining valves are much darker and less variegated. In single 
valves of 5ca6ra, viewed from above, the broad curving outline of 
the tegmentum on each side is bordered by a small spot of brown, 
placed centrally on the light blue surface of the sutural plates. This 
feature is constant in all of the specimens examined. In N. cali- 
fornica the spots are wholly absent, or in some cases replaced by in- 
distinct clouds of a color darker than the surface of the sutural 
plates. Of course no one would se])arate the species because of these 
slight color differences, but taken in conjunction with the weightier 
points of difference furnished by the shape of the plates, sculpture 
and character of the gii'dle, they are interesting as showing how far 
these geographical races have become differentiated from the parent 



FROM JAN., 1890 TO DEC, 1893.^ 

Mesodon albolabris Say. 
Mesodon var. dentata Binn. 
Mesodon dentifera Binn. 
Mesodon profunda Say. 
Mesodon pennsylvanica Green. 
Mesodon thyroides Say. 
Mesodon exoleta Binn. 
Triodopsis tridentata Say. 
Triodopsis palliata Say, 
Triodopsis fallax Say. 
Stenotrema monodon Rack. 
Stenotrema var. fraterna Say. 
Stenotrema hirsuta Say. 
Helicodiscus lineata Say. 
Vallonia pulchella Mull. 
Vallonia excentrica Sterki. 
Patula alternata Say. 
Patula solitaria Say. 
Patula perspectiva Say. 
Patula striatella Anthony. 
Punctual pygmseum minutissi- 

mum Lea. 
Selenites concavus Say. 
Mesomphix fulginosus Griff. 
Mesomphix ligerus Say. 
Mesomphix iiitertextus Binn. 
Mesomphix inornatus Say. 
Hyalina arborea Say. 
Hyalina indentata Say. 
Hyalina niinuscula Binn. 
Hyalina milium Morse. 
Hyalina radiatula Alder. 

Hyalina wheatleyi Bid. 
Conulus fulvus Drap. 
Gastrodonta raultidentata Binn. 
Ferussacia subcylindrica Linn. 
Leucocheila contracta Say. 
Leucocheila armifera Say. 
Vertigo ovata Say. 
Vertigo pentodon Say. 
Vertigo milium Gld. 
Succinea avara Say. 
Limniea columella Say. 
Limnsea humilis Say. 
Limn?ea palustris Miill. 
Limnsea desidiosa Say. 
Planorbis bicarinatus Say. 
Carychium exile Lea. 
Carychiura exiguum Say. 
Helicina occulta Say. 
Physa heterostropha Say. 
Ancylus fuscus Adams. 
Sphserium striatiuum Lam. 
Pisidium ? 

Goniobasis ? 
Margaritana rugosa Barnes. 
Unio ligamentinus Lam. 
Unio gibbosus Barnes. 
Unio ellipsis Lea. 
Unio cariosus Say. 
Unio pyramidatus Lea. 
Unio trigonus Lea. 
Unio alatus Lea. 

' The present list is the first essay toward a knowledge of the snail fauna of 
western Pennsylvania. The region is an interesting one, combining the features 
of the Atlantic slope and the Ohio valley; and it is desirable to have a complete 
and accurate catalogue of the fauna. The fresh-water fauna will prove especially 
interesting, as we know little of the range of the Ohio River types of Unionidae 
and Strepomatidse in the headwaters of that river system. — Ed. Nautilus. 


In addition to the above the following species were collected by- 
Mr. Geo. H. Clapp ; these complete to the present date all the 
species found in Allegheny County, Pennsylvania. 

Strobila labyrinthica Say. 
Mesodon clausa Say. 
Mesomphix l?evigatus Pfr. 
Gastrodonta suppressa Say. 

Vitrina limpida Gld. 
Vertigo bollesiana Mse. 
Pupa corticaria Say. 



Papuina cerea Hedley. 

Shell thin, translucent; contour trochoidal, color waxen white^ 
becoming yellowish on the 3rd and 4th whorls, encircled below 
the suture by an opaque white thread, nowhere are translucent lines 

or spaces visible. Sculpture : surface of 
a waxen polish ; transverse growth 
lines can be detected by the unaided 
eye, and spiral grooves, almost effaced 
above but plainer on the base, may be 
deciphered with a lens. Whorls Sl^, flattened, regularly increasing, 
the last constituting five-eighths of the shell's height, angled at the 
periphery, descending considerably and abruptly at the aperture, 
gibbous at the point of flexure. Suture impressed. Aperture very 
oblique, anterior margin waved ; columella oblique, wide, extending 
nearly to the angle of the aperture, subtruncate below. A thin, trans- 
lucent, shining callus extends over the imperforate axis to the inser- 
tion of the anterior margin of the lip. 

Height 135, major, diam. 16, min. diam. 14 mm. 
Hab. Bloomfield River, North Queensland. 



In revising the Tertiary Mactracea of the southeastern United 
States, it became necessary to examine the recent species and work 


Dall — Californian Mactridae, 


up their synonymy. The species of the Pacific coast especially have 
long been known to be in a very bad state as regards nomenclature, 
etc. Several long known forms appear, on investigation, to be 
really nameless, the titles belonging to other less conspicuous spe- 
cies having been applied to them, while some of the earliest named 
forms have been lost sight of. I hope to furnish the Nautilus, 
shortly, with synonymic lists of the east and west coast Mactras, 
pending the completion of which the following descriptions are 
Mactra catilliformis Conrad. PI. V, fig. 3. 

Shell large, thin, whitish or straw color, irregularly concentric- 
ally striated, with a gray, wrinkled epidermis, inflated short-oval 
subequilateral valves and closely adjacent inconspicuous beaks ; 
anterior end of shell evenly rounded in front, a little shorter than 
the posterior end ; lunule narrow, impressed, escutcheon narrow, 
longer, rather obscure; posterior end of valves rounded, slightly 
compressed and with a narrow gape when closed ; hinge resembling 
that of M. polynyma Stm., but more concentrated, cartilage pit 
large, rather produced ; posterior muscular impression larger, pall- 
ial sinus rather large, rounded in front. There is a faint posterior 
flexure of the valves and a feebly marked area above it, on which 
the epidermis is more conspicuous. Lon. 108"0, alt. 87'0, diameter 
45*0 mm., in a moderately sized pair, but the adult reaches 140*0 
mm. in length. 

Distribution: Neeah Bay to San Diego, Cala. 

This is Standella californica Carpenter, but not of Conrad or 
Deshayes. It was imperfectly described without a figure by Conrad 
in the Am. Journ. Conch, vol. iii, p. 193, 1867, and erroneously 
stated to come from Panama. M. lenticularis, Gabb, 18(36, from the 
Miocene of California is closely related. 
Mactra Hemphillii n. s. PI. V, fig. 2. 

Shell large, thin, inflated, subequilateral, creamy white with a yel- 
low thin epidermis, which over the body of the shell in young shells 
is beautifully evenly concentrically striated and on the posterior 
dorsal area is irregularly wrinkled, with an elevated raphe of epider- 
mis at the margin of the area; beaks rather prominent, the ante- 
rior end of the valves longer than the posterior ; posterior dorsal 
slope excavated ; lunule obscure, escutcheon marked by prominent 
elevated radial lines of epidermis ; the dorsal margin pouting in 
front of the ligament, the posterior slope convex, the posterior flexure 


faint, but marked by a recession of the ventral border of the valves, 
Avhich gape but very little and not at all in front ; anterior end 
rounded, but smaller than the posterior ; ventral border arcuate ; 
hinge and pallial sinus much as in the last species, except that the 
sinus is somewhat smaller and less depressed. Lon. 120, alt. 93, 
diam. 50 mm. 

Distribution : San Diego, Hemphill and Cooper. 

This fine and perfectly distinct species appears rare and I have 
seen but two specimens, both from San Diego. 

The preceding species belong to the subgenus Standella as 
adopted by H. and A. Adams, but the following is a true Mactra, 
■with the ligament separated from the cartilage pit by a shelly plate. 
Mactra dolabriformis Conrad, 1S67. PI. V. fig. 1. 

Shell much compressed, polished white under a dull brown epi- 
dermis, subequilateral with inconspicuous beaks. It closely resem- 
bles M.Jalcata Gould (from type) but has higher beaks more cen- 
trally set, the anterior end more attenuated and less truncate, the 
left anterior lateral tooth single and distally more prominent; the 
left cardinal larger and wider ; the posterior adductor scar horizon- 
tally elongate and smaller. Lon. 90, alt. 63, diam. 26 mm. 

Distribution : San Diego, Cala. to Guaymas, Mexico ; " Panama" 

This remarkably handsome shell has not unnaturally long been 
•confounded with M.faleata, from which the hinge separates it sub- 

The true M. califoruica of Conrad is a Mactrmula and can at 
once be recognized by its sulcate beaks. It reaches 36 mm. in 
length. The M. planulata is also a small species, resembling M. 
pobjnyma in miniature. The northern form generally referred to 
M.Jalcata is a barely separable variety of 31. poly ny ma which may 
take the name of Alaskana. 



Certain rectifications of the previously accepted nomenclature 
have become necessary, and may be made here. 


Genus Phacellozona Pilsbry (new name). 

Synonymy: Angasia Cpr., Table Reg. Chitons, 1873. Dall, 
Proe. U. S. Nat. Mus., 1881, pp, 283, 286, 289, 290. Pilsbry, 
Manual of Conchology, XIV, p. 286. 

Not Angasia White, Proc. Zool. Soc. Lond., 1863, p. 498 (Crus- 

The type of the genus will, of course, reniain Angasia tetrica Cpr. 

Genus Choriplax Pilsbry (new name). 

Synonymy : Microplax Ad. & Ang., Proc. Zool. Soc. Lond., 1864, 
p. 194. Pilsbry, Manual of Conch.. XIV, p. 21. 

Not Microplax Fieber, Europ. Hem., p. 53, 1861 (Hemiptera). 

Type Microplax grayi Ad. & Ang. This is an extremely peculiar 
and isolated genus, and forms, !• am disposed to believe, a distinct 
family of the Eoplacophora or slitless Chitons — that is, if the slits 
really prove to be completely absent, for the unique type has not 
been disarticulated. In some features it recalls the Acanthochitidce. 
The single species was described and illustrated from the unique 
type in the British Museum, in the Manual of Conchology, vol. XIV. 



The genus Polygyra is one of the most numerous and characteris- 
tic groups of North American land snails. It ranges over the whole 
of the Eastern United States, from Canada to Florida, and from 
Manitoba to Yucatan, with species in Idaho and on the Pacific slope. 
A few stragglers have reached Cuba, the Bahamas and Bermuda. 

Many of the species exhibit a great amount of variation, and in 
some cases the variations of several allied species form chains of 
mutations almost or quite connecting very unlike species. This is 
the case in the group of Polygyra appressa. Typical P. appressa is 
a snail having the aperture three-toothed, but the upper lip tooth is 
often small or wanting. It varies toward F. obstricta var. carolin- 
ensis, which is close to P. obstricta, and less so to P. palliata. In 
another direction P. appressa is allied to P. sargentiana. In fact, 
ap2)ressa is not far from the ancestral form from which all the spe- 


cies mentioned above have been differentiated. This diagram ex- 
presses roughly the relationships of the species and varieties: 





sargentiana appressa — perigrapta 

dentifera. , 

Polygyra appressa Say. 

Surface striate, but having no spiral incised microscopic lines ; 
outer lip frequently having an upper tooth, or the indication of it ; 
parietal tooth generally long, curving downward and nearly joining 
the columellar lip. 

This species was collected by Say on Long's Expedition. It is 
abundant in Illinois, Arkansas, Missouri, etc. Say's types are lost, 
but his description unmistakably indicates this form. 

Polygyra appressa perigrapta Pils. 

Surface striate and having crowded microscopic spiral incised 
lines, especially beneath ; outer lip with no upper tooth ; parietal 
tooth short, not connecting with columella. 

Distribution mainly southern ; Woodville, Ala. ; Cherokee Co., N. 
C. ; Columbus, Ga. ; etc. The types are Woodville specimens. 

Polygyra fallax Say. 

This is, as the writer has elsewhere shown, the H. introjerens of 
Bland. It is not i\iQ fallax of all modern writers and collectors. 

Polygyra fallax obsoleta Pils. 

General features as in the type, but all teeth of the aperture much 
reduced in size, the upper lip tooth nearly or wholly obsolete. New- 
bern, N. C. 

Polygyra tridentata edentilabris Pils. 

General characters as in the type, but lip teeth wanting in per- 
fectly mature examples. 


Polygyra hirsuta altispira Pils. 

Size large; spire high and conical; notch of the basal lip very 
large. Alt. 7, diam. 9 mm. 

Specimens are before me from near Magnetic City (Wetherby) and 
from the Bluck Mountains, N. C. (Hemphill). 



In a careful examination of the Columbellidpe dredged by me 
last summer in Long Island Sound, I find amongst specimens of 
Astyris lunata, taken from a muddy bottom with eel grass, in 2 to 
3 fathoms of water in Lloyd's Harbor, 3 shells which are typical 
examples of Astyris gouldiana Agassiz in litt. {fide Stimpson) and 
again recorded from this same locality by Mr. Sanderson Smith in 
" The Mollusca of Long Island and its dependencies," Smith & 
Prime. The species seems to have been considered as of doubtful 
validity by Prof. Verrill, as in " The Invertebrate of Vineyard 
Sound," he includes it in the synonomy of Astyris lunata, referring 
to it as a color variety identical with the Wheatleyi of Dekay, but 
I think the characteristics of the shell entitle it to rank as a good 

The shells measure in length 4 to 4J mill., and have 8 whorls. 
A. lunata rarely exceeds 8 mill, and has from 6 to 62 whorls ; in 
Astyris gouldiana these whorls are more convex and inflated. 

The apical termination of the shell resembles that of Belemnitella 
americana, whilst in the general outline of its whorls it is very much 
like the well known land mollusk, Ferussacia subcylindrica. The 
rostrum is not only much produced but is curved to such an extent 
in two of the specimens as to give the aperture a decidedly auriform 
appearance. The thick loosely appressed callus on the pillar lip of 
A. lunata is represented in this shell only by a very fine glaze. 
The specimens all exhibit clear zigzag markings of a brownish red, 
which are more pronounced than those found on any examples of 
A. lunata in my collection. 

The division line between the two species seems to me to be quite 
sharp, both as regards size and form. I have seen no shells which 


might be classed as intermediate, which would seem to confirm my 



More than a year ago a little parcel of limpets from Kermadec 
Islands was sent to me by a correspondent in New Zealand. They 
were sent by way of England and were there delayed so that they 
did not reach me until about a month ago. 

I at once perceived that they belonged to an unknown species and 
I promptly sat down and wrote a note, with a diagnosis of the spe- 
cies for the Nautilus, but on a second thought decided not to be 
too hasty, and so instead of sending my note, I sent a specimen (a 
young one) of the shell itself to the Associate Editor asking him 
kindly to compare it with the series in the Philadelphia Museum 
and let me have his opinion. 

I did this because I thought and still think it possible that the 
young shell may have been already described. 

This morning I received the February Nautilus, and I find that 
some one else has a correspondent in Kermadec Island and that Mr. 
Pilsbry has been beforehand with me and named the new shell most 
appropriately. Patella kermadecensis. 

However, as Dr. Pilsbry has only 2 specimens and I have 14, I 
venture to write a line or two to supplement his description. 

I may say that in my opinion, the shell is very nearly related to 
pica Reeve which by the way is a South Pacific species according to 
the original descriptions, although Mr. Pilsbry in his " Manual " has 
transferred it to the Mauritius. 

My suite of kermadecensis consists of 2 full grown shells and a 
series of 12 others ranging from 75 mm. down to 6 mm. in length. 
The large ones are respectively 130 mm. x 109 mm. x 41 mm. and 

^This remarkable limpet seems to have been received by Mr. Taylor and 
Dr. W. H. Dall at about the same time. Dr. Dall sent to the Nautilus a des- 
cription of the species under the name P. Kertnadecensis, but after the Editors' 
description was already in print. Dall's description of the young and adult shells, 
with figures, will shortly be published in the Proc. Acad. N. S. Phila. — Ed. 


130x109x34 mm., being both considerably flatter than the speci- 
mens described by Mr. Pilsbry. 

All my specimens are distinctly narrowed in front, and in this 
particular the species differs essentially from P. patriarcha, which is 
very round in outline. I have a specimen of patriarcha exactly the 
same width as the two shells above mentioned, namely, 109 mm., 
but its length is only 119 mm. Our species is further distinguished 
by its sculpture from hoih patriarcha and mexicana — the ribs being 
narrower and much more numerous than in patriarcha and decidedly 
heavier than in mexicana. Every 5th or 6th rib in the adult shell 
seems to be more prominent. 

Although my shells are not badly eroded there is but little color 
observable outside, except in spots where smaller limpets have had 
their stations. In such places the peculiar burnt red color so char- 
acteristic of P. argenvillei is seen, and the same color, with an occa- 
sional spot of black, edges the interior of the shell and in a paler 
and browner shade blotches the spatula, which in the youug shells 
is sometimes entirely brown. It would seem that the color of the 
interior becomes lighter with age, as is the case in many other spe- 

The muscle scar is, as Mr. Pilsbry remarks, strongly marked and 
callous in the adult shell, but in the youug, it is not at all noticeable. 
This is the case also with the 2 species with which kermadecensis is 

On the whole this is the very finest of the many fine species of lim- 
pets that Mr. Pilsbry has made known to science during the last few 
years. It has no rival in size save P. mexicana, except it be the at 
present unrecognized P. gigantea of Lesson from the Society Islands, 
which may be found to be nearly allied or perhaps identical with 
the present shell. 



The species described below were collected by Mr. Frederick 
Stearns of Detroit, Michigan, during his second visit to Japan, in 
1892. They will be illustrated in his Catalogue of Japanese shells, 
now in preparation. 


Sepia Hercules n. sp. 

Shell having the general form of that of S. esculenta Hoyle but 
more convex ventrally ; chitinous margin narrow ; dorsal surface 
tuberculate-rugose as in escxdenta, but more coarsely so, the posterior 
part having the tubercles very deeply separated, flat-topped, and 
leaning posteriorly ; dorsal surface evenly rounded, with no trace of 
a median longitudinal rib. Ventral surface as in esculenta, but the 
striation is much closer although the shell is triple the size. Last loc- 
ulus has an index of 22. Inner cone well developed, its limbs aris- 
ing about one-third the length of the shell from the posterior end, 
gradually rising along the sides, posteriorly reflexed and appressed 
on the outer cone, leaving below a narrow small cavity. The ante- 
rior edge of the inner cone does not form a shelf across the posterior 
€nd of the outer cone as is the case in esculenta, and the cavity is 
much smaller, shallower and narrower than in a specimen of esculenta 
155 mill, in length. Spine very stout, conical, its root excavated 

Length 425 mill.; greatest breadth 160 mill. ; length of spine 19 

This species is the giantof the genus, tbeshell being about 16iinches 
long. It is allied to S. esculenta Hoyle, but difiers as above indicated. 
The dorsal slope does not descend abruptly to the spine as in that spe- 
cies. Of S. esculenta a good many specimens are before me collected 
by Mr. Stearns. They agree well with the " Challenger " specimens. 
The size of esculenta is moderately constant, those seen by Hoyle, 
Appelloff and myself being from 155 to 163 mill, long (about 6i 
inches). In color, S. Hercules is white in the middle, faint pink 
at the sides ; whitish beneath. 

A second specimen from the Loo Choo Is. exhibits the same char- 
acters throughout. 


The Rev. Geo. W. Taylor reports the appearance of Paludina 
Japonica Mart, in the Chinese Market at Victoria, B. C. These 
Mollusks are accounted dainties by the Chinese and are retailed to 
them at 25 cents a pound. The occurrence of this species in the San 
Francisco markets was noted by Mr. W. M. Wood in the Nautilus, 
Vol. V, p. 114. 

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